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Full text of "Reports"

Purchased for the 
University of Toronto Library 
from funds donated by 
Hannah Institute 
for the History of Medicine 



/ 



GUY'S HOSPITAL 

REPORTS 

(War memorial number) 

EDITED BY ^. 

F. J. STEWAKD, ^v 

AND 

HERBERT FRENCH, C.B.E., M.D. 



VOL. LXX. 

BEING 

VOL. LV. OF THE THIRD SERIES. 




LONDON: 

J. & A. CHURCHILL, GREAT MARLBOROUGH STREET. 

MDCCCCXXII. 



COMMITTEE OF REFERENCE 



J. W. H. Eyre, Esq., M.D., M.S. 
P. P. Laidlaw, Esq., M.A., B.C. 



Prof. T. Martin Lowry, D.Sc. 

M. S. Pembrey, Esq., M.A., M.D., 
B.Ch. 



PRINTED BY ASH AND CO., LIMITED SOUTH WARK, S.E. 



Guy*s Hospital War Memorial. 




PREFACE TO VOLUME LXX. 



rpHE fiL'st volume of the Guy's Hospital Reports 
-■- was published in 1836. With the issue of this 
— the seventieth — volume, annual publication ceases. A 
new series is already being published quarterly under the 
Editorship of Dr. A. F. Hurst, assisted by a representative 
Editorial Committee. 

The present volume is devoted to a special purpose. 
It is a part of the Guv's War Memorial, and it places on 
record the part played by Guy's men and women in the 
Great War of 1914—1918. 

It opens with an account of the War Memorial Fund ; 
of the Memorial Arch, and of its unveiling by H.R.H. The 
Duke of York in July, 1921. The rest of the volume is 
sub-divided into three Parts. 

Part I. is devoted to notices, with portraits, where 
available, of each of the hundred and thirty Guy's men 
and five Guy's women who lost their lives in the service 
of their country. 

Part II. is a record of war services and honours, and 
Part III. contains papers dealing with some of the ways 
in which the War affected Guy's, and records some of the 
special experiences of, and work done by, Guy's men and 
women during the War. 

Parts I. and II. have been compiled by Professor 
M. S. Pembrey, the Hon. Secretary of tiie Guy's Hospital 
War Memorial Fund, assisted by Mi*. J. H. t!i. Winston 
and by Miss Margaret Hogg, C.B.E., the Matron of 
Guy's Hospital, who have spared themselves no trouble 
in order to make the records as complete as possible 

The Editors. 
Januarij, 1922. 



CONTENTS. 



■uy's Hospital War Memorial Fund 
Guy's Hospital War Memorial ... 
The Unveiling of the War Memorial, July loth, 1921 



PAGE 

1 
6 
8 



Part I. 



Obituary 



17 



Part II. 

Decorations and Honours ... ... ... ... ... 107 

Foreign Decorations ... ... ... ... ... 128 

Honours for Guy's Hosgital Nurses ... ... ... 130 

War Services ... ... ... ... ... ... 135 

War Services of the Administrative Stafi ... ... 200 

Guy's Nurses and the European War, 1914 to 1919 ... 202 



Part III. 

1. Guy's Hospital during the War. By E. P. Poul- 
ton, M.D., F.R.C.P 

EI. Chemical Research and Munition Work at Guy's 
Hospital Medical School. By T. Martin Lowry, 
C.B.E., Hon. M.A. (Cantab.), D.Sc. (Lond.), 
F.R.S., F.C.G.I. 

HE. Offioers' Section, Guy's Hospital. By J. Fawcett. 

IV. Queen Mary's Royal Naval Hospital, Southend-on- 
Sea. By Sir William Hale-White, K.B.E. ... 



11 
21 

25 



viii. Contents. 

V. Some Observations on the Sick and Wounded 
from the Gallipoli Campaign. By Charters J. 
Symonds, K.B.E., C.B. 27 

VI. War Work of the B.R.C.S. Nursing Service. By 

Dame Sarah Swift, G.B.E., R.R.C 4.*J 

VII. Ophthalmic Practice in ,the Mediterranean and 
Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915 — 1918. 
By H. L. Eason, C.B., C.M.G., M.D., M.S. ... (Ki 

VIII. The Development of Casualty Clearing Stations. 

By Owen Richards, C.M.G., D.S.0 115 

IX. The War Neuroses and the Neuroses of Civil Life. 

By Arthur F. Hurst 125 

X. Some Experiences of the Work of General Hos- 
pitals in "France. By Philip Turner, M.S., 
■ F.R.C.S 158 

XI. Mesopotamia, 1916—1919. By R. Davies-Colley, 

C.M.G., M.Ch. 18;] 

XII. Dental Surgery and the War. By Montagu F. 

Hopson. ... ... ... ... ... ... 197 

XIII. The Committee of Reference. By Sir William 

Hale-White, K.B.E 213 

XIV. The Late Symptoms of Gas Poisoning. By G. 

H. Hunt, M.D., F.R.C.P 221 

XV. Experiences of a Civilian among the Naval Medi- 
cal Service in War. By Sir Alfred D. Fripp, 
E.C.V.O., C.B., MS., F.R.C.S 229 

XVI. Mobile Laboratories. By Major A. C. H. Gray, 

O.B.E., R.A.M.C 257 



Contents. ix. 

\\i\. Some Impressions of a Divisional Sanitary Officer 
in France. By C. D. Edwards, M.C., M.D. 
Camb., D.P.H 273 

X\ ill. Reminiscences of a Prisoner-of-War in Turkey. 

By C. E. M. Jones, Captain 'K. A. M.C.(T.) ... 291 

XiX. A Prisoners -of -War Library. By Major Luxmoore 

Newcombe and Lieut. John H. E. Winston. ... 3Uo 

XX. The War and Guy's Nursing' Service. By Miss 

F. A. Sheldon 317 

XXI. Tlie 2nd London General Hospital. By F. J. 

Steward, M.S., F.E.C.S ... 323 

XXII. Work in the Bacteriological Department, 1914 — 

1919. By John W. H. Eyre 327 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATES. 

Tilt! Memorial Arch as seen from the Park 

The Memorial Arch as seen from the College ... 

The Arrival of the Duke of York 

The Unveiling- Ceremony ... 

The Duke of York speaking at Unveiling Ceremony 

The Duke of York speaking at Unveiling Ceremony 



TO 1<"ACE 
TAGE 

Preface > 

1 I 

8 \ 

10- ' 

10 j 
12 



Part III. 
Dr. Arthur F. Hurst — 

Illustrating his Paper on the War Neuroses and the 

Neuroses of Civil Life ... 133, 136, 137, 139, 141, 142 



POETRAITS. 








Part I. 


PAGE 


Allen, N., Capt 


18 


Atkinson, N. M. H., Lieut. 






19 


Ball, M. E., Lieut 






20 


Bond, A. B 






23 


Bouic, A., Lieut. 






24 


Brogden, I. R. R., Lieut. ... 






25 


Cole, A 






28 


Davies, G., Capt 






29 


Dennett, T. F. P. T., Lieut 






30 


Dingley, W., 2nd Lieut 






31 


Dix, C. B., Lieut 






32 


Edmond, J. A., Capt. 






33 


Gardinner, I. J., Lieut 






35 


Gardner, A. L., Capt. 






35 



List of Illustrations. 



' 






PAGE 


Cioen, C. L., 2nd Lieut 39 


Harris, W. A 






41 


Harrison, 8. S. B., Major... 






41 


Hajnes, C. G., Capt 






42 


Hennessey, P. W. H., Corp. 






45 


Hogben, H. F. T., Lieut 






45 


Hollands, W. G 






46 


Hopkins, H. L., Lieut. 






47 


Hno-h-.Tones, K. H., Capt.... 






50 


James, J. S. H., Lieut. 






51 


Kennedy. R. S., Major 






52 


King, P., 2nd Lieut. 






53 


Knio-ht, R. v., Flight Sub-Lieut... 






54 


Kyna^ton, A. E. F., Surg. R.N.... 






iyi) 


Laoey, W. S., Lieut. 






50 


Lansdale, W. M., Capt 






56 


Leckie, M., Capt. ... 






57 


Lowe, F. A., Lieut 






60 


Ma.sh, 0. N., Lieut 






01 


Maxwell, J. E., Sub -Lieut. 






62 


Miller, G. S., Capt.... 






63 


Monk, G. B., 2nd Lieut 






64 


Moorc, L. W., Capt 






65 


Neely, H. B., 2nd Lieut 






66 


Gates, J. L 






68 


Parry-Jones, 0. G., Capt 






69 


Peattield, S .J., 2nd Lieut 






71 


Pern, M., Lieut. ... 






72 


Pryn, W. R., Lieut 






73 


Reckitt, C. E., Surg. R.N. 






74 


Robertson, J. C, 2nd Lieut. 






76 


Sandoe, M. W. A., Lieut. 






78 


Saw, N. H. W., Capt. i 






79 


Seabrooke, A. S., Capt 






80 


Sj^ong. R. W., Lieut 






83 



Xll. 



TJM of Illustrations. 








i'\<.i; 


Staoey, .1. B., 2nd Lieut 


85| 


Stainer, C. H., Lieut 


86^ 


Stanwell, W. A., Lieut 


87? 


Start, S., Lance Corp 


88 


Tilbury, A., Capt 


89 


Traill, A. A., Capt 


91^ 


Traill, K. R., Lieut 


92 


Waghorn, L. P., 2nd Lieut. 


93 


Weimberg', A. 


95 


Weller, C, Capt 


96 


Whitworth, H. P., Capt 


97 


Gladstone, Miss Elsie M 


99 


Hopkins, Miss Evelyn 


100 


Morrell, Miss Marv L. 


101 



WOODCUTS AND DIAGRAMS. 



Part III. 



Mr. H. L. Eason — 



Illustrating his Paper on Ophthalmic Practice in the | 

Mediterranean and Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, ', 

1915—1916 87, 100, 102, 103! 

Major LuxMOORE Newcombe and Lieut. John H. E. Winston — j 
Illustrating their Paper on a Prisoners-of-War Ijibrary 308 j 



Gulfs llospildl Win' MeinorUd. 





GUY'S HOSPITAL WAR MEMORIAL 
FUND. 



The widespread desire amongst all connected with Guy's 
Hospital that a permanent Memorial should be established in 
memory of those from Guy's who lost thieir lives in the war was 
recognised at the School Meeting of November, 1917, when an 
Appeal Committee was appointed. The first meetings of this 
Committee, under the chairmanship of Mr. Cosmo Bonsor, the 
President of the Hospital, were concerned with the scope of 
the appeal and the constitution of the War Memorial Com- 
mittee. The proposals which received most consideration were 
the following : — 

(a) A Memorial recording the names of Guy's Medical 
and Dental men wdio have fallen in the War to be placed 
within the precincts of the Hospital. 

(b) A Fund to enable the sons of Guy's men, who 
have fallen, or suffered by the War, to receive free or 
assisted education at Guy's Hospital Medical or Dental 
Schools. 

(c) A Fund to enable the daughters or widows of 
Guy's men, who have fallen, or suffered by the War, to 
receive free or assisted education as Nurses or Pupils in 
the Special Departments (such as the Massage and Light 
Departments) of the Hospital which are open to Women. 

(d) An Endowment Fund for Entrance Scholarships to 
be open, in the first place, to the sons of old Guy's men. 



Guj/s Hospital War Memorial Fund. 



TliG Wai- Memorial Coinmii 



('(' was c 



constituted as follows: 



A. — Governors' Rkpresentatives. 
President of the Hospital (H. Cosmo 0. Bonsor, Esq.) 
Treasurer of the Hospital (The Rt. Hon. Viscount Goschen). 
Chairman of the House Committee (F. P. Whitbread, Esq.). 



Sir W. Cameron Gull, Bart, 
Colonel F. A. Lucas. 
R. E. Johnston, Esq. 
A. C. Cole, Esq. 



J. RoBARTS, Esq. 
H. a. Trotteh, Esq. 
Major Oswald Magniac. 



B. — Representatives of the Hospital and School Staff. 



Sir W. Hale-White, K.B.E. 

Mr. GOLDING-BlRD. 

Sir Charters Symoncs, C.B., K.B.E. 
Sir Arbuthnot Lane, Bart., C.B. 

Mr. HiGGENS. 

Mr. Maggs. 

The Senior Physician 

(Dr. Shaw). 
The Senior Surgeon 

(Sir Alfred Fripp). 



Mr. HopsoN. 
Mr. Rowlands. 
Dr. Cameron. 
Mr. Bromley. 
Dr. Eyre. 
Dr. Laidlaw. 
Mr. Ryffel. 
The Hon. Dean 

(Sir Cooper Perry), 
The Sub-Dean (Dr. Pembrey). 



C. — Representative Guy's 



Mr. E. D. Bascombe. 
Mr, W. A. Bulleid. 
Mr. L. S. Debenham. 
Dr. Wheelioit Hind. 
Dr. E. R. Mansell. 
Dr. R. C. Mullins. 
Sir Shirley Murphy. 
Dr. C. D. MusPRATT. 
Dr. C. J. Pinching. 
Mr. A. E. D. Prideaux. 



Men (Past and Present). 

Dr. R. J. Ryle. 
Sir George Savage. 
Mr. J. E. Spiller. 
Dr. H. J. Spon. 
Mr. Chas. Spurrell. 
Mr. W. E. Wood. 
*The President op ehe 

Residents. 
*The Editor of " Guy's 

Hospital Gazette. 
Ex-officio. 



The Joint Treasurers appointed were ^Ir. Cosmo Bonsor, 
Mr. Maggs, Dr. Shaw, and Sir Alfred Fripp; and Dr. Pembrey 
was made Honorary Secretary. 






Guy's Hospital War Memorial Fund. 3 

An appeal asking for subscriptions, suggestions, and expres- 
)ns of opinions on the four proposals was issued in November, 
l'Jl8. The question of the issue of a Special War Memorial 
Number of "Guy's Hospital Gazette" was referred to the 
i^ditor of the " Gaze.tte," assisted by a Sub -Committee, com- 
posed of Dr. Shaw, Sir Alfred Fripp, Mr. Hopson, and the 
ifonorary Secretary. The result was the publication of . the 
^^'ar Memorial Double Number of the "Gazette" on December 
th, 1918. 

At the meeting of the Committee on June 12th, 1919, it 
\\as announced that about 390 subscriptions had been received, 
]jut only 183 subscribers had returned the voting papers re- 
lating to the proposals (a), (b), (c), and (d) given above. It 
was thought well, in view of some objections to these proposals, 
issue a furtlier appeal in which the following additional 

Ingestions were made : — 

1. A portion of the fund to be devoted to the new 
" Clijiical " Ward shortly to be built, which should be 
called the "War Memorial Clinical Ward," and have in- 
subscribed upon its walls the names of the Guy's men 
who have lost their lives owing to the war. 

2. The adornment of the Dining Hall of the College, 
including memorial panels bearing the names of the Guy's 
men who have lost their lives in the war. 

3. A portion of the fund to be allocated to form the 
imeleus for endowment of a Dental Research Scholarship. 

Vt the same meeting it was decided that the Fund should be 
sed on September 30th, 1919, and a general meeting of sub- 
ibers called in October, 1919, to decide upon the form or 
ms which the Memorial should take. 

rhe Committee held its final meeting on October 28th, 1919» 
wlien, after considering a statement of accounts and the results 
of the analysis of the preferences for the proposals set forth 



4 Guy's Hospital War Memorial Fund. 

in the first and second appeals, it decided to place before the 
General Meeting of the subscribers the following recommenda- .] 
tions : — 

(i.) To allocate the sum of £5,300 as follows : — 

(«) £2,000 for the erection of a permanent memorial 
in the " Park." 

(6) £1,000 for the assistance, if necessary, of the 
dependents of Guy's men, fallen in the war. 

(c) £2,000 for the endowment of Scholarships, pre- 
ferably for the sons of old Guy's men. 

{d) £300 for the memorial adornment of the College 
Dining Hall. 



(ii.) To appoint an Executive Committee to carry out 
the scheme. 



The General Meeting of Subscribers held on the same day 
approved these recommendations and appointed the Executive 
Committee, constituted as follows : — Mr. Cosmo Bonsor, Sir 
William Hale-White, Mr. Maggs, Dr. Fawcett, Sir Alfred | 
Fripp, Mr. Spurrell, The Dean, the President of the Residents, i 
the Editor of " Guy's Hospital Gazette," and Dr. Pembrey > i 
(Honorary Secretary). Later on Mr. Eason and Mr. Walford ! 
were co-opted. H 

M 

The Executive Committee held several meetings to consider , | 
the typo of the Memorial and finally selected the plans of the : 
Memorial Arch designed by Mr. Walford. There was much \ \ 
difficulty in making a list of the names to be inscribed upon i 
the Arch, for there was no exact guide for the selection of the J 
names ; every case was considered as far as possible on its ; 
merits, and room was left for the inscription of new names, if;j 
it should be necessary. 



At the request of the Committee and the School, the 
Governors of the Hospital accepted in trust the sum of| 



il 



Guy's Hospital War Memorial Fund. 5 

.ijOOO, and allocated to the Guys War Memorial Trust Fund 

.3,519 Is. 3d. 5 per cent. War Stock 1929/47. In this way 
provision has been made for the assistance, if necessary, of 
1 lie dependents of Guy's men, fallen in the war, and the en- 

iijwment of Scholarships, preferably for the sons of old Guy's 

len. 

The School accepted the suggestions of the Executive Com- 
litteo that of the two War Memorial Scholarships tenable at 
viuy's, one should be for Medical and one for Dental students, 
and further agreed 'that a War Memorial Scholarship for Senior 
Medical Students should be included, the School to bear the 
charge^ as a contribution to the War Memorial Fund. 

The Memorial Decoration of the Dining Hall of the College 
has been postponed pending possible extensions of the Club. 

The subscriptions to the Fund have been acknowledged from 
time to time in the " Gazette," and this will be done in future, 
for it was arranged at the time of the first appeal that subscrip- 
tions could be spread over a period of five years. It is pro- 
posed to publish the audits of the accounts in the same way. 



Guy*s Hospital War Memorial. 



GUY'S HOSPITAL WAR MEMORIAL. 



The Arch and Columnar Screen are the design of Mr. William 
J. Walford, F.R.I.B.A., the Hospital Architect, and have been 
carried out in solid stone from the Island, of Portland. The 
old columns taken down from the Museum Building, -which 
used to stand in the Park, have by consent of the Governors 
been incorporated in the design. The Memorial is 66 feet in 
width and the central Arch measures 21 feet 3 inches from the 
ground to the top of ih.^ cornice. Upon the central Arch are 
inscribed the names of the men who lost their lives, with the 
motto across the Arch ''THEIR NAME LIVETH FOR EVER- 
MORE." Across the outside of the Arch is the inscription, 
"ERECTED BY THE FRIENDS OF THE GUY'S MEN 
WHO GAVE THEIR LIVES IN THE GREAT WAR, 1914— 
1919," and the Hospital Crest has been carved upon the Arch. 

It was thought that the Archway might form the actual 
entrance gateway from Great Maze Pond, but lack of funds 
has prevented the requisite new wrought iron gates and 
enclosure. 

The work has been executed by the Hospital Works 
Department. 

The following are the names inscribed upon the Central 
Arch. 



Guy's Hospital \Yar Memorial. 



Ackroydt Harold 
Allen, N. 
Atkinson, N. M. H. 

Ball, M. E. 
Beale-Browne, T« R. 
Bearblock, W. J. 
Berfy, Percy Haycroft 
Blacklaws, A. S. 
Bond, Alexander B, 
Bouic, Andre 
Box, T. H« 
Brogden, I. R. R. 
Browne, W. Denis 

Card, L. O. 
Chaning-Pearcc, W. T. 
Clifford, A. C. 
Cocks, J. Stanley 
Cole, A* 
Collins, R. T. 

Davies, Gcraint 
Dennett, T. F. P. T. 
Dinan, G- A. 
Dingley, William 
Dix, Cyril Bernard 

Eccles, Horace Dorset 
Edmond, John A. 
Evans, John Eric Rhys 

Faulks, Edgar 
Fitzmatirice, A. L. 
Fraser, Eldred Leslie 

Gardinner, Ivan J. 
Gardner, Alfred Linton 
Gatley, Charles A. R. 
German, H* B. 
Gibson, H. G. 
Glaisby, Kenneth 
Godsill, Stanley 
Gough, B. B. 
Green, C. L. 

Hamilton. E. T. E. 
Harris, W. A. 
Harrison, Stanley S* B. 
Hartnell. E. B. 



IN MEMORIAM. 

Haynes, Charles G. 
Hayward, Milward C. 
Henderson* T. E. 
Hennessey, P. W. H. 
Hogben, H. F. T. 
Hollands, Wilfrid G. 
Hopkins, Herbert L. 
Horton, J» H* 
Howard, Charles R. 
Hugh-Jones, K. H, 

James, John S. H. 
Jones, Evan Lawrence 

Kelsey, A. E. 
Kennedy, Ronald S. 
King, Percy 
Knaggs, F. H. 
Knight, R. V. 
Kynaston, Albert E. F. 

Lacey* "William Stocks 
Lansdale, William M. 
Leckie, M. 
Liebson, Stephen A. 
Llarena, E. F. 
Logan, F. T. B. 
Lowe, Frank Augustus 

Marshall, Bernard G, 
Marshall, Herbert M. 
Martin, A. 
Mash, Oswald N. 
Maxwell, John Earle 
Miller, G. S. 
Monk, G. B. 
Moore, L. W. 
Morrish, D. B. 

Neely, H. B. 
Nicholls, W. H. 

Gates, J. L. 

Palmer, A. H. 
Palmer, H. J. 
Palmer, John Stanley 
Parry-Jones, O. G. 
Peacock, R. 
Pearce, D. G. 
Peatfield, S. J. 



Pern, Montague 
Pryn, W. R. 

Reckitt, Charles E. 
Rees, M. J. 
Richards, Ernest H. R 
Robertson, E. G. 
Robertson, John C. 
Robinson, William B. 
Ross, John Hampden 

Sandoe, M. W. A. 
Saw, NoeX H. W. 
Scott-Pillow, H. M. 
Seabrooke, A. S. 
Shepherd-Turneham, 

N. P. 
Shorland, George 
Small, F. D. 
Smith, D. W. 
Snell, Herbert 
Snell, Norris. 
Snow, C. F. 
Sowerby, Victor H. 
Spong, R. W. 
Stacey, J. B. 
Stainer, C. H. 
Stanwell, William A. 
Start, S. 

Stephen, L. H. Y. 
Stcyn, S. S. L. 

Tilbury, A. 
Tolhurst, St. J. A. M. 
Townsend, T. A. 
Traill, A. A. 
Traill, Kenneth R. 

Waghorn, Leonard P. 
Watson, C. F. W. 
Watt, N. L. 
Wearing, D. G. 
Webster, Edward M. 
Weinberg, Albert 
Weller, Charles 
Whitworth, H. P. 
Williamson, Gerald C. 
Wyand, E. H. 



The Unveiling of the War Memorial. 

The Unveiling of the War Memorial 
July 15th 1921. 



The Prince of Wales, President of the Hospital, had arranged 
to unveil the Memorial on July 15th, but owmg to his indis- 
position the ceremony was performed by the Duke of York. 
His Eoval Highness was received in the Court Room by the 
Treasurer, Viscount Goschen, supported by the Governors of 
the Hospital and the Staff of the Hospital and Medical School, 
and, after certain presentations had been made, was conducted 
to a platform near the Memorial Arch and the stand reserved 
for the relatives of the Guy's men who had lost their lives 
during the War. Mr. H. CoSmo Bonsor, the Chairman of the 
Memorial Committee, opened the proceedings with the following- 
speech : 

"As Chairman of Guy's Hospital War Memorial Committee I 
have been instructed to open our proceedings. 

We regret the cause that prevents His Royal Higlmess our 
President being with \m to-day, and we express the hope that 
rest and care will soon restore his health and energy. We 
welcome your Royal Highnes.s as a Governor of our Corporation, 
and are very grateful to you for coming at so short a notice to 
unveil the Memorial which has been erected by the friends of 
those belonging to Guy's Hospital and Medical School who lost 
theii" lives in the Great War. 

Our Hospital and our Medical School are open to the whole 
world; we have no religious test. A large number of our students 
come from His Majesty's subjects in India and the Dominions; 
we had to be careful in our endeavours to please, not to give 
toffence, and we could have no religious dedication. 



Unveiling of the War Memorial. 




The Artiivat. of thr Dukf. of York. 



[Photo by General Press 
Organisation. | 



The UnveUing of the War Memorial. 9 

Our Committee consulted our sul^scribers avS to how their 
nations of upwards of £.5.000 should be spent. 

They decided that, three -fifths of the amount should be 
-ted in trustees, to provide assistance, if necessary, to the 
pendents of Guy's men who had fallen in the War. and to 
vm a permanent War Memorial Scholarship for the relations 
those who had lost their lives or been disabled in the War, 
who should have preferential claims in the examination to 
tain it. 

That the balance should be applied in electing a Memorial 
in the Hospital Grounds. 

Our Committee have handed to Trustees £2,000 for the pur- 
poses of the Scholarship, and the first vStudent has been elected. 

When it came to the choice of a fitting Memorial we had 
many meetings. We consulted an eminent architect and in- 
spected many desigiis: we Avere in a difficulty, and it was our 
Hospital Architect, Mr. Walford. who suggested that an arch 
should be erected through which all our St^iidents both now 
and hereafter would pass. 

Mr. Walford's proposal met with unanimous approval. 

We are here to-day to express our grat^-tude to all those who 
came forward to join His Majest}- s forces at the great crisis 
in the history of our Country: we appreciate their unselfishness 
and devotion in breaking off their medical studies, interrupting 
and probably damaging their future prospects for our safety 
and for their King and Country's Cause. 

We tender to them our heartfelt thanks. 

We are here also to honour and i-emember those who gave 
their lives for us. 

Yoiu- Royal Highness, it is impossible for us who stayed at 
home, to put our feelings into words. 



10 The VnveJUng of ^i/r War Mcmiirkil. 

We have eiecied tliis aichway with their names attached in 
order that theii' memory -Iwill jihviiyv be with us reminding us 
of their devotion and sacrifice and inspiring us to follow their 
example of putting their Country's good before personal 
ambitions." 

Dr. Fawcett then spoke as follows: — 

■' In consequence of holding tlie position of Senior Physictian 
I am accorded the privilege of adding a few words to those 
offered to you, Sir, by Mr. Cosmo Bonsor. 

Not only is there this Memorial Arch, under which Students 
and Staff will pass in their frequent '^comings and goings" 
from Hospital to Colleg*e, but also from our funds we have 
been enabled to allocato three other sums of money in accord- 
dance with the wishes of the majority of the subscribers, viz: — 

(1) £1,000 for the assistance, if necessary, of the dependents 
of Gu3^'s men who fell in the Avar. 

(2 J £2,000 for the endowment of Scholarships, with pre- 
ference to the sons of Guy"s men. 

(3) £300 for a 'memorial" adornment of the College Din- 
ing Hall. 

You, Sir, will, I am sure, approve of our distribution of the 
funds, and in unveiling this memorial to-day, you add yet one, 
more favour to those already conferred by your Koyal House, 
His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales, our President, and 
your beloved Father and Grandfather, upon this great foun- 
dation, of w^hich its sons are so proud. 

All over this Empire of ours, Guy's men, their parents and 
sons, will thank you for the kindly thought and gracious act by 
which you to-day record in publio yibur sympathy with us at 
Guy's in the loss of the men whose names are engTaved on these 
columns, and who, giving up their lives "for King and 
Country," have exemplified in full the meaning of our motto 



Unveiling of the War Memorial. 




The Unveiling Ceremony, 



IPhoto by General Press 
Organisation.] 




1 Photo by Mr. lin/ffle.] 

The Duke of York speaking at 
Unveiling Ceremony. 



The Unveiling of the War Memorial. 11 

f "Dare quam accipere." May we, who' pass under this 

arch in future, never forget what we owe to them, land play 

iir small part in life the better for the way they played theirs. 

On behalf of the Staff and the Students niJaiyl I lask you, Sir, 
) express to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales our great 

gret at the cause which prevents him being present to-day, 
and our sincere wish that he ma(7 speedily be restored to that 
measure of health, vigour, and the power to enjoy life which 
we invariably associate with him, and by means of Avhich he 
lias already done such incalculable good in maintaining and 
j>romoting the spirit of peace and goodwill among men, with- 
out which our land cannot prosper." 

Sir Alfred Fripp made the following speech: — 

' Your Eoyal Highness, My Lord, Ladies and Gentlemen, — 

It is characteristio of the kindness and oonsideration to Avhich 

11 of us whO' serve under the Governors have become accus- 

ined, that their spokesman should wish on this memorable 

casi'on to be associated with representatives of the Schools 

hich are so intimately connected with the work of the Hospital. 

The Senior Physician and the Senior Surgeon have therefore 

J lie honour toi offer to you, Sii^, the thanks of iall our colleagues 

jV)r your kindness in coming to-day. 

Professor Pembrey is really the man upon whom fell the 
i>nmt of the work of carrying through this Memorial. As Act- 
ing-Dean during the War he took up the Secretaryship of the 
Memorial Committee, and has discharged the difficult and deli- 
ite duties with great tact and ability. We are verj^ grateful 
' him and congratulate him upon the success attained. 

Well, Sir, this solemn occasion is also a very proud one, and 
indeed represents one of the milestones in the successful de- 

•lopment of the foundation of Thomas Guy. As we have 
111 ready been reminded it is exactly 25 years since that other 
"(currence— epoch making in the history of Guy's — when His 



V2 The Unveiling of the War Memorial. 

iatu Majesty, King Edward, ciiiiio to the rescue of our Hospital, 
and becoming our first Royal President, initiated a policy of 
rcccHisliiicI i ;)!i and re -endowment wliidi lnr been completed 
under the Presidencies of bis Son, King George, and bis Grand- 
son, the Prince of Wales. 

Under these three successive Royal Pi ; .-i :l;'iils the Governors 
of the Hospital, represented with rare tact, judgment, and enter- 
prise by Mr. Cosmo Bonsor, who at the same time — 25 years 
ago — took up the Treasurership, and by Viscount Goschen, who 
followed him, and served whole-heartedly by that great master 
and pioneer in hospital administration. Sir Cooper Perry, have 
succeeded in maintaining the Hospital and Schools, in the fore- 
front of medical, surgical, and dental education and practice. 

This quarter of a century has l)een an eventful period, not 
only in the history of the world, but also in the amazing [j 
rapidity of development of our profession and the sciences upon 
which it is founded. Great and rapid as have been the changes 
that have marked this dramatic era, they are nowhere greater 
than in the field of our bwn profession, and we are thankful 
that our Governors have proved themselves to be of the kind 
that they know the importance of changing with the times. It 
is to their prevision and understanding that we owe the healthi- 
ness and the happiness to-day of all the large family whose 
destinies are in their hands, and alsio the fact that when the war 
broke out Guy's was found ready to act its proper part. 

We who have lived through are proud of the part played 
by the sons and daughters of Guy's. You, Sir, are about to 
unveil the list of those who made the great sacrifice in the ^^ 
War, and while we all to-day mourn with their relatives, we 
believe that the honour and love they felt for their Alma Mater, 
were no less than the honoiu" and love the}^ felt for their 
Country. 

These names — upwards of a hundred — ^i^epiesent the flower 
of the generations of students which matured during the event- 
ful quartei- of a century to which I have alluded. The in- 



Unveiling of the War Metnorial. 




The Duke of York speaking at 
Unveiling Ceremony. 



[Photo by General Presg 
Orfianisatioii.] 



The Unveiling of the War Memorial. 13 

timacy and confidence, and the mutual oonsideration and for- 
bearance which have marked the relationship of the various 
estates of our family, have resulted in that high degree of 
happiness and esprit de corps, which is at once our most 
treasured possession and our strongest bond. Perhaps the 
world-wide kinship of Guy's is knit all the closer by the loss 
of those whom to-day we are assembled in our old home to 
honour — for families are wont to knit closer by grievous loss. 

We are proud of our memories of them as well as of the 
other splendid achievement of Guy's men since our foundation 
two centuries ago. We are happy both in the work and in the 
sports of our healthy, vigorous, and successfiul present, and 
happy in the confidence that our future will be no less success- 
ful under Governors no less enlightened, and happy also in the 
knowledge that whenever occasion demands we shall he helped 
and encouraged by one of the members of your Royial House, 
who have so often honoured us as you, Sir, have to-day, when 
you so kindly came among us, and took up yoiur membership 
of the Guy's family, and filled the plaoe left vacant by the 
much -regretted indisposition of our President, the Prince of 
Wales." 

The Duke of York then left the dais, stood in front of the 
Archway, and by drawing the ropes of two large Union Jacks 
unveiled the Arch inscribed with the names of the fallen. 
The Duke of York said: "My brother, the Prince of Wales, 
wishes me to say how very deeply li£ regrets that his temporary 
indisposition has prevented him from being here this afternoon 
to perform this important ceremony. In ihis' unavoidable absence 
it has been my great privilege to unveil this Memorial to com- 
memorate the gallant men of Guy's Hospital, who gave their 
lives during the Great War, and I would like to take this 
opportunity of expressing my sincere sympathy with the rela- 
tives and friends of those whose names figure in your long 
Roll of Honour." 



Pabt I. 



Obitiuirtj. 17 



OBITUARY. 



ACKROYD, HAROLD, Capt., V.C., M.C., M.D. Son of 
Mr. Edward Ackroyd, of Southport. Educated at Shrewsbury, 
Cambridge, and Guy's Hospital. He took Cambridge B.A. in 
1899, and subsequently proceeded to his M.A., B.Ch., M.D., 
and other medical degrees. For some years he was engaged in 
research work at Cambridge, while holding a British Medical 
Association Scholarship. In February, 1915, he joined the 
R.A.M.C. as a Temp. Lieut., and was subsequently promoted 
(Captain. He went to France in August, 1915, and gained the 
M.C. for conspicuous gallantry as a Battalion Doctor. He 
was slightly wounded July 31st, 1917, but, remaining on duty, 
was killed in action August 11th, 1917. After his death he 
was awarded the V.C., which, together with his M.C, was 
presented to his widow^ and small son at Buckingham Palace. 

Captain Harold Ackroyd, V.C, M.C, M.D., late R.A.M.C. (at- 
tached R. Berks Regt.), was the son [of Mr. Edward Ackroyd, for many 
years chairman of the Southport and Cheshire Lines Extension Rail- 
way Company. He received his education at Mr. Clough's School, 
Mintholme College, Park Crescent, Southport, and then proceeded to 
Shrewsbury, and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, where lie 
took his B.A. in 1899, and subsequently proceeded to his M.A., 
B.C., M.D., and other medical degrees. He was never in private 
practice. For some time he was at Guy's Hospital, London, and 
later was the House-Surgeon at Queen's Hospital, Birmingham. Then 
for a period he was at the 'David Lewis Northern Hospital. Liverpool. 
After this he secured a British ^Medical Association Scholarship, and 
for some years was engaged in reiseaxch work at Cambridge. In 
February, 1915, he was commissioned as a Temporary Lieutenant in the 
R.A.M.C., being afterlwards promoted Capt^iin. He went to France 
in Ai^ust; 1915, and was invalided home in August, 19K), and went 
out again about November. In the meantime he received the notifi- 
cation that he had been awarded the Milit;u'y Cross for conspicuous 
bravery as a battalion doctor. Captain Ackroyd w.ts iriruricd in 1908. 
and up to that time ho resided in Southport. -iin < uIkmi ho ha,s 
resided at Royston, in Hertfordshire. - 

After his death Capt. Ackroyd was awarded the V.C, and at a 
recent investiture at Buckingham. Palace his widow and small son 



18 



Obituary. 



received both it .'iiid the Military Cross. The London " Gazette "' 
describes the actions for which he was granted the V.C. as follows: — 

" Utterly regardless of danger he worked continuously for many 
hours up and down \imd in front of the line tending the wounded and 
saving the lives of officers and men. In so doing he had to move 
across the open under heavy machine gun, rifle, and shell fire. He 
cai-ried a wounded officer to a place of safety under very heavy fire. 
On another occasion he went some way in front of our advanced J in' 
and brought in a wounded man under continuous sniping and macfin 
guji tire. His hei'oism was the means of saving many lives, and ]no- 
vided a magnificent example of courage, cheerfulness, and determina- 
tion to the fighting men in whose midst he was carrying out his 
splendid work. This gallant officer has since been killed in action." 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette. October 20th, 1917.] 




ALLEN NORMAN, Capt., Royal Warwickshire Reg-iment. 
Entered Guy's as a Dental Student in May, 1913, and had only 
completed his 1st Professional Exam, when he joined up in 
September, 19 U. Killed in action, April 14th, 1918. 



Ohitiuiry. 19 

Xorman Allen entered Guy's as a Deptal Student in May, 1913. He 
passed liis first examinations shortly after the outbreak of war. In 
Sepcember, 1914, he etalisted in the Artists' Rifles and proceeded to 
FrMJice a few months later. In May, 1915, he obtained a Commission 
in the 2nd batt. Royal Warwick Regt., land was wounded in tUe Battle 
of Loos on September 28th. He was in England until the following 
September when he was again ordered to France, being at this time 
attached to the 14th batt. 

H(3 was promoted Captain in July, 1917. The 14th batt. was 
ordered to Italy in November, 1917, and ireimained there until Maich, 
1918, when it was again sent to France to assist in stemming thj© 
German offensive of that period. 

Capt. Allen fell while "gallantly rallying his men in an attack upon 
a German outpost " on April 14th, 1918. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Bosyital Gazette, July 26th, 1919.] 




ATKINSON, N. M. H., Lieut., younger sou of Dr. T. R. 
Atkinson, an old Guy's man, was for a time a student at 
Guy's Hospital. On the outbreak of war he enlisted. He sub- 
sequently obtained a commission, and was attached to the Royal 
Flying Corps. He was accidentally killed at the Aerodrome, 
near Cirencester, December 27th, 1916. 

Second Lt. Noel Mitford Hanson Atkinson, younger son of Dr. 
T. R. Atkinson. He was educated at Cliigweil School, and obtained his 
colours for cricket and football; he won many swimming prizes, and 
was a colour-sergeant in the School O.T.C. 



20 Obituary, 

lie passed the London Matriculation, and eintered Guy's. After a 
year at the Hospital he decidepi on a business career and obtained 
a clerkship in the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank. 

On the outbreak of war he enlisted in the U.^P.S. Battalion Royal 
Fusiliers, where he was soon after joined by his elder . brother who 
came over from British Columbia to enlist. 

In November, 1915, they were sent out to France, and spent the 
winter in the trenches. He becarale a sergeant. Early in 1916 they 
were sent home for commissions, wdre at Balliol College, Oxford, and 
finally poste^d to the East Lanes. Regt. The elder, Guy, was sent 
to France again in October, 1916, was wounded at the battle of th^^ 
Ancre, and died of gas gangrene on October 30th. The younger, Noel, 
had become attached to the R.F.C., and whilst training, having passed 
his examinations flor a pilot, was accidentally killed at the aerodrome 
near Cirencester on December 27th, 1916. 

[Reprinted from The Ghiy's Hospital Gazette, February 22nd, 1919.] 




BALL, M. E., Lt., R.A.M.C. Qualified M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 
in 1908, continuing a year later to M.B., B.S. (London). Acted 
in capacity of Editor of the Gazette. Commissioned in R.A.M.C. 
September, 1915. Served in Gallipoli and Mesopotamia. Later 
on the Tigris Front; lie was severely wounded on April 9th, 
1916, and died next day at the 16th C.C.S., Orah, Mesopotamia. 
He leaves a widow and two children. 

Lieutenant Malcolm Edward Ball, R.A.M.C, was the fourth son of 
Edward BaU, J.P., and Mrs. Ball, of Lewisham Hill, London, S.E. 



Ohitiuiry. 21 

^•:ducated at the Koan School and New College Margate, he entered 
fruy's Hospital as a student, and qualified M.B.C.S., L.R.C.P. in 
1908, continuing a year later to M.B., B.S. London. 

Only last year in response to the urgent appeals of the British 
Medical Association he offered his sesrvices to the Royal Army Medical 
11'orps and was given a commission ijn September. At Suvla Bay he 
contracted dysentery and was invalided to Malta. On recovery he 
Nvas attached to the Worcester Regiment and proceeded to the Tigris 
fiont, where, on April 9th, 1916, he was severely wounded and died 
next day. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Oazette, June 3rd, 191(5. ] 

BEALE-BROWNE, T. R., West African Medical Staff. Lost 

at sea, 1918. i 

After leaving Dean Close School, Cheltenham, Thomas Richard Beale- 
lirowne entered Guy's in 1895 and qualiflejd in 1901. He was always 
vBen on sports of all kindsi, and while at Guy's took several prizes. 

He afterwards distinguished himself in rifle-shooting both at home 
and in Nigeria. After a few yetans spent in lunacy work at Taunton 
and the County Asylum of Northamptcai, he entered the West African 
Medical Service, and on his first tour, 1907 — 08, accompanied the 
Anglo-German Boundary Commission and afterwards did good work 
as medical officer in various districts of West Africa. He was 
always greatly interested in microscopical work, and while stationed 
at Yaba, near Lagos, made some interesting investigations with his 
friend Dr. Counal, Director of the ReseN^xch Institute. His chief 
work there, however, was in connection with leprosy when, after 
months of special treatment, he had the satisfaction of noting improve- 
ment iu several cases, and in one case an apparent cure which at least 
lasted for two years, but unfortunately he lost sight of this patiept 
after that time. 

Since January, 1917, he was stationed at [Victoria in the Camei'oons, 
and after a prolonged and strenuous tour was on his way home for 
leave, but wi^in a few hours of landing his boat, the s.s. " Burutu," 
owing to storm and the war condition of no lights under which they 
were sailing, came in collision with the s.s. "City of Calcutta," and 
he with many other passengers was drowned. 

He was tihe eldest son of Colonel )and Mrs. Beale-Browne, Doodes- 
wcU House, Gloucestershii-el, and in 1910 married Helen Heron Hay, 
daughter of the late Donald MacDonald, Edinburgh, and is survived 
'by her. His untimely death entails a s^^eiry great loss to the W.A.M.S. 
and to his many relatives and friends. . 

[Reprinted from The Gui/s Hospital Gazette, December 14th, 1918.] 

BEARBLOCK, WALTER JAMES, Surgeon-Commander, 
R.X. Entered Guy's in October, 1883, and obtained the Con- 
joint Diploma in 1887. For a short time he was Assistant 
Hoiise-Surgeon at the Royal Albert Hospital, Devonport. 

During the war he served on H.M.S. Invincible and was 
awarded the medal for the Falkland Islands Battle. 



22 Ohitiuiry. 

BEKRY, PERCY HAYOEOFT, Lieut. He entered 191U, 

qualified L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., 1913, M.B. (Cantab.), 19K3. 

Held appointment as A.H.S., 1914. S3rved with the R.A.M.C. 

and Western Frontier Fierce, Egypt. Drowned in attempting 

to save another man. 

Dear Sir,^ — I have received numerous letters of inquiry from his 
friends as to how P. H. Berry met his death. The following are a few 
pajticulars about the latter part of his career which I feel very many 
of his contemporaries are anxious to know: — 

Percy Berry left general practice to join the K.A.M.C. on May Ist^ 
1915, and shortly afterwards left Aldershot for Alexandria with a draft. 
He was appointed to the hospital ship "Assaye," and was engaged in 
transporting the wounded from Gallipoli through the summer and autumn. 
Subsequently he was attached as M.O. to the Berkshire Yeomanry, and 
with them joined the Western Frontier Force of Egypt in the campaigxa 
against the Senussi. In this he was completely happy, and declared 
that he had at last found the ideal form of warfare. 

The official account of his death states: "On 10th March, at Berrani, 
seeing man drowning, plunged off rock into heavy surf with all clothes 
on to rescue. Immediately big wave broke over him, and he disappeared. 
Body found five hours later with large wounds, head, apparently ante- 
mortem. Buried 11th March, at Berrani, with military honours." 

All who knew him well will remember how typical the end was of the 
man. 

Berry was too well known to require any attempt at description in a 
hospital paper. — Yours faithfully, 

1, Mildred Avenue, V. GLENDINING. 

Watford, Herts. 

24th March, 1916. 

[Reprinted from The Gxtifs Hospital Gazette, April 8th, 1916.] 



BLACKLAWS, ALEC. STUART, son of Mr. David Blaek- 
laws, City Councillor of Kimberley, South Africa, entered Gruy's 
Hospital in May, 1914, as a third year Dental Student. 

During his studentship at Hospital he showed himself an 
enthusiast in all branches of sport and was very conspicuous 
as a member of the Hospital football eleven. 

He qualified for the L.D.S. in May, 1916. He immediately 
joined the Officers' Training Corps, and was appointed 2nd 
Lieutenant to the Royal Field Artillery on 12th March, 1917. 
For gallantry and distinguished service in the field he was 
awarded the Military Cross. 

He was killed in action in France on the 7th January, 1918. 



i 



Ohittiary. 



23 




BOND, ALEXANDER BECKETT, Capt., R.A.M.C. Edii- 
;ited at Bradfield College and Guy's. He entered Guy's as a 
Medical Student in 1910, gaining the Guy's Arts Scholarship'. 
He was concussed while playing football in 1913, and was 
obliged *n consequence to give up Medicine. In 1915 he sailed 
for Australia, where he took' up k post as Schoolmaster. To 
the surprise and admiration of his friends, he returned to 
England in January, 1917, with an Australian Contingent. 
IFe succumbed November 5th, 1917, while a prisoner of war 
in Germany, to wounds received in France during April of 
that year. 

IIo combined with his knowledge of the classics a true appreciation 
r good music and painting. He was the possessoi- of a very pleiasant 
i)ice, and although his shyness prevented him from performing at 
nspital concerts, he overcame this whem his more intimate friends 
i-itod him at his home. 

Another name has been laddefd to Guy's Roll of Honour, and we feel 
-lire that all those who knew him will join us in expressing our deepest 
-ympathy with his family in their great loss. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, September 21st, 1918.] 



24 



Obituary. 




BOUIC, ANDRE, Lieut. Entered Guy's as a Medical Stu- 
dent in 1914. Having passed the 2nd Conjoint in the early part 
of 1916, he joined the forces. He was killed in a flying accident 
while holding the rank of Lieut, in the Royal Flying Corps. 

All those who have known him must feel deeply grieved at the 
death of Lieut. Andre Bouic in the Eoyal Flying Corps. He passed 
his Second Conjoint at the beginning of last year, and though he was 
perfectly justified in staying on at the hc^pital, he felt it his absolute 
duty to join the forces. He did so, leaving behind great affections, 
above all his fiancee, to whom he Piad only a few days previously be- 
come engaged. His sense of duty and uprightness was so great that 
once he had made up his mind jhe nejver hesitated. No one who knew 
him could fail to appreciate his most charming and attractive per- 
sonality. His brilliant intellect, combined with his devotion to his 
friends made him a great favourite whefrever he happened to be. 

He died gloriously, serving his country and in a manner becoming 
his generous nature. We tan only wish he could see how his memory 
is dear to all he left. 

[Eeprinfced from TheGuif^ Ho^vpital Gaze^tte, April 21st, 1917.] 



BOX, T. H. Formerly Junior Clerk in the Counting House. 
Served in the Northumberland Fusiliers as a Lance -Corp oral 
and was kilbd in action, May 4th, 1917. 



Ohituary. 25 




BROGDEN, I. E. R., Lieut., R.A.M.C. Was educated at 
Marlborough, Cambridg-e, and Guy's. He entered the Wards in 
1914, and after qualifying held appointments as Out-Patient 
Officer and H.S. to Mr. Dunn. On completing the latter ap- 
pointment he joined the R.A.M.C, and shortly afterwards, 
while proceeding abroad to Egypt, was drowned on the Arcadian 
on April 15th, 1917. 

It was witli great regret that all his friends heard that Lieut. 
I. K. R. Brogden was reported by the War Office as " missing, believed 
drowned," on April 15th. He had been in the R.A.M.C. for some 
?i.K weeks only and was on his iway to Egypt. 

Lieut. Brogden was 24 years of age and was educated at Marl- 
borough, Clare College, Cambridge, and Guy's. He tentered the wards 
here in January, 1914, land, after doing the usual ward appointmejnts, 
was appointed Out-Patient Officer and later House-Surgeon to Mr. 
Dunn. On completing the latter appointment he lentered the R.A.M.C. 
and as Pbie was passed fit for garrison service abroad was being sent 
to Egypt when he met his death. No deltails have up to the present 
been heard, bu|b it is thought that he was probably lost On ihei Arcadian. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, May 19th, 1917.] 

BROWNE, W. DENIS, Lieut., Royal Naval Division. Edu- 
cated at Rugby and Clare College, Cambridge, he came to Guy's 
in January, 1913, and succeeded Clive Carey as organist to the 
hospital and conductor of the musical society. He took part in 
tlie Antwerp Expedition. Killed in action at the Dardanelles on 
June 7th, 1915. 



26 Obituary. 

Me was educated at Rugby school and Clare College, Cambridge, 
where he heJid' a cla.ssical and two musical scholarships, and was already 
marked as a musician of exceptional promise. 

His compositions includjed a short baJLeifc and a few admirable songs, 
and some Latin clmrch music which has been performed at Westminster 
Cathedral. 

He joined the Royal Naval Division in Septdmber, 1914, with his 
friend Rupert Brooke, and took part in the Antwerp Expedition. He 
was slightly wounded at the Dardanelles on May 8th, 1915, and had 
only just rejoined his battalion when he Was killed. 

His singular charm of character had gained Jiim many friends, and 
he will be long rcmembe(red by all who met him at Guy's. 

[Reprinted fi'om The Guy's Hospital Gazette, July 17th, 191.5.] 



CARD, LEWIS OSWALD. Entered Guy's in 1897, but 
left before taking any professional examiujation to join the 
Regular Army. He served through the Boer War between 
1899 — 1903, with the Border Horse and the Imperial Light 
Horse, and obtained two medals with seven clasps. In 1906 he 
served with the Transvaal Mounted Rifles in the Zululand Re- 
bellion, where he obtained the medal and clasps. Between 
1906 and 1914 he was a member of the H.Q. Squad of the 
Northern Mounted Rifles — was a first class shot and was a 
member of the Loyd-Londry team of the H.Q. Squadron. 
'During the war he was promoted to the rank of Corporal and 
would have taken his commission, but died from Avounds whilst 
serving with the R.A.S.C. 

CHANING-PEARCE, WILFRID THOMAS, Temp. Capt.. 
M.C. and Bar, R.A.M.C. Was educated at Rugby, Cambridge, 
and Guy's. He qualified early in 1911. Soon after commence- 
ment of hostilities he joined the R.A.M.C, and was serving in 
France until the time of his death. He received the Military 
Cross in 1917. He met his death on October 1st, 1917, being 
shot by a German at close range while nobly carrying out liis 
duty. 

It is with very deep regrejt that we have to announce in the 
casualty list the name of Temp. Capt. Wilfrid Chaning-Pearce, M.C. 
R.A.M.C; the third son of Dr. and the late Mrs. Chaning-Pearce. of 
Montague House, Ramsgate. He was educated at " Lindenthorp," 



I 



i 



Obititary. 27 

Broadstaii's, and Rugby, and later entered Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, where he took his Scieoice Tripos land commenced his medical 
studies. Continuing at Guy's in 1908 he held numerous appointments 
and was held in very great esteem Iby all with whom he was associated 
in any way during that time, until his departure on qualifying early 
in 1911. 

Soon after the commencemept of hostilities he joined the R.A.M.C, 
and had been serving in France practically since that time. 

No mention of how the Military Cross was gained has been received 
by the family, except in the bare official announcement that it had 
been bestowed early in September, 1917. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, November 3rd, 1917.] 



CLIFFORD, A. C, 2nd Lieut., 3rd Dragoon Guards. Edu- 
cated at Marlborough and Emmanuel College j Cambridge. Quali- 
fied M.B., B.C. (Cantab.); M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. Was President 
of the Residents. Killed in action at Ypres, June 1st, 1915. 

COCKS,, J. STANLEY, Capt., R.A.M.C. Died from typhus, 
at Beyrut, 1919. 

To many Guy's men the news of the deiath of J. S. Cocks at Beyrut 
following typhus will be a source of profound regret. Those who knew 
him intimately will mourn one of those rare and lovable characters 
whom it is a privilege and a pleasure ito know. Those who knew him 
more casually will miss the merry, quaintly humorous, yet withal seorious, 
figure of their hospital days. 

He was decidedly a shy and sensitive man. On first acquaintance 
he often passed as a quiet, retiring fellow of no very remarkable parts. 
What a tremendous misconception ! He had force and determination 
the casual observer would never dream he possessed. If Jack Cocks 
made up his mind to do a thing nothing would deter him, provided he 
thought it the right -and proper thing to do. He wouldn't argue about 
it or explain, but simply did it. 

[Reprinted from The Gwj's Hospital Gazette, March 8th, 1919. J 



28 Obituary. 




I 



COLE A., Pte. Employed in the Works Department. Joined 
the 8th Eoyal Berks. Regt., and died on service, May 22nd, 
1918. 



COLLINS, R. T., Lieut.-Col. D.S.O., R.A.M.C. Qualified 
at Guy's in 1902. Entered R.A.M.C. in 1903, became a Capt. 
in 1907, ^Major in 1915, and Temp. Lieut.-Col in 1916. Received 
D.S.O. in 1918, and also gained the Croix de Guerre. Killed 
in action on September 18th, 1918. 

Lieut.-Col. Keginald Thomas Collins, D.S.O., E.A.M.C., was kiUed 
in action on September I8th, aged 38. H© was born on December 
22nd, 1879, the only son of Dr. JWolfenden Collins, late of Sydelnham, 
and was educated at Guy's Hospital, taking the diplomas of M.K.C.S. 
and L.R.C.P.Lond. in 1902. He entered the R.A.MC. as lieutenant 
•on August 31st, 1903, became captain on .'T'ebruaj-y 28th, 1907, major 
•on February 28th, 1915, and . temporary lieut.-col. on September 11th, 
1916. He received the D.S.O. on January '1st, 1918, and also had 
gained the Croix de Guerre. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, November ,'30th, 1918. 



Obitu^rp. 29 



[ 




DA VIES, GERAINT, Capt., 9th Northumberland Fusiliers. 
Elder son of Dr. Morgan Davies, M.D., F. E.G. S., Goring Street, 
St. Mary Axe, was mortally wounded, gallantly leading his men 
in a counter attack near Neuve Eglise at dawn, Sunday morn- 
ing, the 14th April, 1918. 

Piissing the Matriculation in January, 1914, li6 ientered Guy's Hospital 
for the M.B. course the foUowing October, and' passed in " First 
Medical " in July, 1915. Relinquishing the profession for which 
he had so many aptitudes he joined (the .Artists' Rifles O.T.C., Novembei', 
1915. On the 15th of July, 1916, he was gazetted Second Lieutenaat 
to the 4th (Res.) Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers, and on October 
14th, 1916, he passed over to France, where he was attached to the 
9th Northumberland Fusiliers, in which battalion he remained until 
the end. The story thence onwardjs is the story of being continually 
engaged holding various points along the fighting front — at Les Boeufs. 
Le Transloy, Sailly-Saillisel, St. Leger, Monchy-le-Preux, Gavrclli. 
Hargicourt, Poel Capelle, Wancourt, Hcvin, Armenti6rs, and Bailleul. 
From Second Lieutenant he was gazetted full Captain on December 
27th, 1917 — ample testimony of his capacity and sagacity as an officer. 



30 



Obituary. 




DENNETT, T. F. P. T., Lieut., Queen's Royal West Swrey 
Regt. (attached R.E.C.). He was educated at Whitgift School 
and Guy's. At the outbreak of war he joined the Surrey Yeo- 
manry, and went out to Egypt and the Dardanelles in the 29th 
Division. In March, 1916, he left for France, where he served 
for some time. In December, 1916, he obtained a commission in 
the Royal West Surrey Regt. He was again sent to France, ati- 
tached to the Royal Flying Corps. On August 4th, 1917, he 
died of wounds received during a flight over the German lines. 



Lieut. T. F. P. T. Dennett was educated at the Whitgift School. 
Croydon, and Guy's Hospital. On the outbreak lof war he joined the 
Surrey Yeomanry and went out to Egypt ^d . the Dardanelles with 
the 29th Division. In March, 1916, he left for France, where he 
served for some time. In August, 1916, he returned to England to 
obtain a commission, and on December 19th, 1916, was gazetted to 
the Eoyal West Surrey RegimCint. He was lagain sent to France, and 
was soon attached to the Flying' Corps. On August 4:th, 1917, he died 
of wounds received during a flight over the German lines. His 
squadron commander thouglht vexj highly of him, and he was ex- 
tremely popular among all with whom he came in contact. In his 
work he was absolutely fearless. Thougfh not |at Guy's for very long, 
he was much liked by his contemporaries, to whom his death will 
be a source of great sorrow. 

[Reprinted from The Ghiy's Hos^yitM Gazette, September 8th, 1917. J 



Obituary. ai 

DIN AN, G. A., 2nd Lieut., Royal Dublin Fusiliers. Edu- 
cated at University College, Cork, and Guy's. He was well- 
knoAvn in cricket circles. Commissioned in January, 1916, to 
Royal Dublin Fusiliers. Killed, September 9th, 1916. 

Second Lieutenant Greorge Albert Dinan, Royal Dublin Fusiliers, 
killed on September 9th, was the fourth ison of Mr. John Dinan, of 
Knockeven, Rushbrooke, Queeoistown, Ireland. Born in April, 1891. 
he was educated at the Beaiedictine College, Ramsgate, and was sub- 
sequently a student of University CoHqge, Cork, and of. Guy's Hos- 
pital. London. He was well known in cricket circles. He received his 
commissioiR in January of this year and was gazetted to the Royal 
Dublin Fusiliers. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gnzette, October 7th, 1916.] 




DINGLEY, WILLIAM, 2nd Lieut. Born at Barnet, Sep- 
tember, 18C5, youngest son of Mr. W. Dingley, Tufnell Park. 
Joined the U.P.S. in September, 1914, went with the Brigade 
to France, November, 1915, was gazetted to the 7th Suffolks, 
July, 1916. After fighting on the Somme, .Avas killed near 
Arras gallantly leading his platoon, April 29th, 1917. 



Obituart/. 




DIX, CYRIL BERNARD, Lieut. Entered Hospital 2nd Octo- 
ber, 1914. Voluntarily enlisted in the Artists' Rifles, Novem- 
ber 22nd, 1915, and gained commissioned rank as 2nd Lieut. 
8th East Surreys, in May, 1917. Killed in action while leading- 
his platoon to attack at Zillebeke (Belgium), August 10th, 1917. 
Age 20. 

ECCLES, HORACE DORSET, Capt., R.A.M.C. Entered 
Guy's in 1888 and qualified in 1893. After qualifying, he prac- 
tised in South Africa for about three years, subsequently migrat- 
ing to New Zealand where he established himself in a practice 
in North Island. He served in the Boer War with the 8th New 
Zealand Contingent as Surgeon -Captain. At the outbreak of 
the present war he offered his services to the Home Government 
in either a combatant or medical capacity, and was granted a 
Captaincy in the R.A.M.C. He was attached as Medical Officer 
to the 13th Royal Irish Rifles, with whom he remained until his 
death, late in 1917. He was mentioned in despatches a few 
weeks before his death. 

Eccles was dS, a most kind and lovable nature and will long be re- 
membered with affection by his many flriends in the Old Country and in 
the Colony. He was an all-round sportsman, a good shot, and a keen 
fly fisherman. While in the Medical School he won the three-mile 
race on one occasion. Like most sportsmen he was very fond of 
animals. 

[Reprinted from The Gtnfs Bosfiial Gazette, December 1st, 1917.] 



Obituary. . 33 




EDMOND, JOHN ADAMSON, Capt., R.A.M.C. Entered 
Guy's, 1905. Qualified, 1910. Later held appointments as 
A.H.S. to Mr. Turner, then Out-Patient Officer and later H.S. 
to Sir Alfred Fripp. Appointed anaesthetist to the Hospital in 
1913. Joined R.A.M.C. in May, 1916. Killed in France in 
December, 1917, while attending to wounded under heavy shell 
fire at an advanced Dressing Station. 

To the already long Koll of Honour pf Guy's men one has reluctantly 
to add another well-known and familiar name, that of John Adamson 
Edmond. Born on May 20th, 1887, he "Was the younger son of J. A. 
Edmond. Esq., late of the Civil Service. 

Ho was educated at a preparatory school and the City of London 
School, and entered Guy's in October, 1905, passing his Second M.B. 
in January, 1908. In 191B he obtained his M.B., B.S., and was ap- 
4)ointed Anaesthetist to the Hospital in January, 191G, liaving previously 
been Resident Meiiical Officer in Bright. 

In 1915 he entered into partnership with Robert and the late 
Arthur Tilbury, R.A.M.C. He had only a short period of private 
practice, but he was fast making liimsalf a favourite on account of 
his personality and his "powers as a general practitioner. 

In May, 1916, he was given a commission in the R.A.M.C, and 
served first on an ambulance train in France. He was then transferred 
to a Field Ambulance with which he remained until the time of his 
death. 

We offer our heartfelt sympathy to his wife (Sister Tilbury, late 
Sister Cornelius) and his small daughter on the great loss they have 
sustained. 

[Reprinted from The Gmfs Hospital Gazette, January 12th, 1918.] 

I'ART I. O 



84 Obituary. 

EVANS, JOHN ERIC RHYS. Entered Guy's 1908. Quali- 
fied L.D.S. 1912. Killed ia action, Dardanelles. 

FAULKS, EDGAR, Lieut., R.A.M.C. Entered in 1897, 
qualified L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., 1902. Held House Appointments 
as A.H.S. and H.S. in 1903. Died of wounds in France, 
September 27tli, 1915, while attached to the 95th Brigade, 
R.F.A. 

FITZMAURICE, A. L., Colonial Medical Service. Died on 

service, 1915. 

"We regret to announce the death of A. L. Fitzmaurice, which took 
place in Somaliland. 

Born on April ISth, 1SS5, he was educated at Belvedere School, Ilay- 
ward's Heath, and matriculated into London University in June, 1903. 
He entered Guy's in October of the same year and passed the Final 
Conjoint in 1909. He held various house appointments, being A.H.S. 
to Mr. Fagge from January to June, 1910, and H.P. to Dr. Shaw from 
July to December. As a resident he gained much appreciation as an 
anaesthetist, and his popularity with his colleagues was such that he 
became Vice-President of the Residents. 

In February, 1911, he went to the Bagthorpe Infirmary, Nottingham,, 
where he remained for about eighteen months. He next held an ap- 
pointment at the South Eastern Hospital, New Cross, from August, 1912,. 
till early in 1914. He took the M.B., B.S. degree in May, 1913. After 
a course at the London Tropical School of Medicine he joined the- 
Colonial Medical Service, and left England for Berbera, British Somali- 
land, on April 30th last. The date and circumstances of his death are 
not yet known; the last letter received was written from Burao, whero- 
he had been attending to Indian troops wounded in the recent fighting 
in the interior of the Somaliland Protectorate. He was then in the 
best of health and spirits. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, January 30Lh, 1915.] 



FRASER, ELDRED LESLIE, 2nd Lieut., Tank Corps. En- 
tered 1909, qualifiad L.D.S., 1912. Killed in action, 20th 
November. 1917. 



Obituary. 



35 




GARDIXNER, IVAN JEPHSON, Lxut. (21 years). Younger 
twin son of Dr. Gardinner, King's Lynn. Served in Egypt, 
1916, with l/oth Norfolks. Trained for R.F.C. in Egypt, acted 
as Observer in Palestine, 1917, and was Lecturer in No. 3, 
S.M.A., Cairo, 1917 — 18. Invalided home. Lost at sea through 
the torpedoing of the Leasowe Castle, May 28th, 1918. 



I 




GARDNER, ALFRED LINTON, Capt., 
1901, qualified L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., 1912. 
1918. 



R.A.M.C. Entered 
Killed in action, 



,}() Ohitiuiry. 

Born at llfracombe in 1882, t!ie saii of the late John T. Gardner. .1 
practitioner of that town, he foll;>wed his father and two uncles n- ;i 
student at Guy'is Hospital, entering in the year 1901. He was dresM 1 
for Sir Arbuthnot Lane and Mr. Dimn, and, after qualifying, becaino 
Assistant Medical Officer ut th3 Sick Asylum, Bromley-by-Bow, where 
ho stayed for about one year, and tlwm, having married, settled in tlie 
family practice at llfracombe. 

He was a musician of no mean merit; a brilliant pianist and a com- 
poser of quite good music. In addition to composing the music for 
the Guy's theatricals for thrac years in suceassion, lie brought out a 
quintet for strings and a fugue, Iwhich w^ere performed in a west-end 
concert hall, and he was assistant lorg'a.nist at Christ Church, Chelsea. 
In spite of his great talent ias a musician, however, he was always; 
ready to indulge his audience in lany miusio to their taste, and, ais the 
present writer knows from experience wasi a most inspiriting accom- 
panist. 

In January, 1917, he joined the R.A.M.C., and immediately was 
sent to France, and While on temporary duty with the 4th North 
Staffs. Rogt., was killed on the 10th of April while reposing in a 
cellar which served as the regimental aid post of his battalion. 

He leaves a 'widow to mourn his loss, and one little son. 

[Reprinted from Th& Guy's Hmjntal Gazette, May 18th, 1918.] 



GATLEY, CHARLES ALEXANDER ROBERTSON, Capt., 
R.A.M.C. Entered 1907, qualified L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. 1912. 
Held House appointments as A.H.S., 1912, H.S. 1913. O.P.O. 
1913. M.O., Hall Walker's Hospital for Officers, 1914—15. 
55tli F.A. and 7th Buffs., B.E.F., 1916—17. Died from the 
after-effects of wounds. 

GERMAN, H. B., Major, M.C., R.A.M.C. Entered 1898, 
qualified L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., 1904. While a student, gained 
his Soccer blue on several occasions, and was the finest squash 
racket player in his time at Guy's. Joined Naval Medical Ser- 
vice May, 1904. Killed in action September 17th, 1918. 

Yet another Guy's man has made the supreme sacrifice. The letter 
which follows bears witness to the high esteem in which Major 
German was held, both by his colleagues at the Front and by his old 
friends at Guy's, who will join with us in expressing our deep sympathy 
with his widow and family in their sorrow. 

Mrs. German has received the following letter and we are indebted 
to her for kindness in allowing us to publish it: — 

It is with the deepest sympathy that I write to tell you of the 
death in action of your husband, Major German, M.C. Major German 
and myself established an advanced Dreissing Station on the night 
of 17th September, and during the following day were suddenly 



Obituary. 37 

heavily .shelled. Several men were hit including the Senior Roman 
Catholic Chaplain of the Division, and it was while going to the 
assistance of the latter that your husband met his death. I knew 
Major G-erman for over two years, and he and myself were close friends. 
He was held in the deejpest esteem and respect by all ranks and was 
fearless and untiring in his efforts for the woundeld. 

In deepest sympathy with you in your great loss, believe me to 
remain. Yours faithfully, 

F. H. L. HOLLAND, 

Major, R.A.M.C.. 
[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, November 30th, 1918.] 



GIBSON, HOWARD GRAEME, Major, R.A.M.C, Men- 
tioned for War Services. Entered Guy's in January, 1902, 
and qualified M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. in January, 1907. He joined' 
the R.A.M.C. soon after taking his diploma, and served with 
that Corps throughout the war. Died, December 2nd, 1919. 

• 
GLAISBY, KENNETH, Lieut., R.F.xi. Younger son of Mr. 
Walter Glaisby of York. Educated at Aysgarth and Uppingham, 
where he was a member of the Shooting Eight. He received a 
commission in August, 1915, at the age of 19, after one term at 
Guy's Hospital. He went to the Front in February, 1917, and 
Mas killed in action on November 1st of the same year. 

Lieut. Kenneth Glaisby, K.F.A. (killed in action on November 1st), 
was twenty-one years of age and younger son of Mr. Walter Glaisby» 
of 4, St. Leonards, York. Educated at Aysgarth and Uppingham, he 
was in the running and shooting eight at Uppingham, and shot for the 
School at Bisley in 1913. He received his commission in August, 1915, 
at the age of nineteen, after one term at Guy's Hospital as a raedicaj 
student, where he passed his first professional examination. He went 
to the front in February of this year and was gazetted lieutenant in 
July. His Commanding Officers have written to his parents as follows: — 
" ;^Iay we say that, although he had only been a short time in the 
battery, his loss has come as a great blow to us, both for personal 
reasons, as he had a charming disposition, and also for military reasons, 
as he was a most capable officer, and willing to do more than his ow\n 
share of work. We were much struck by his soldier -like qualities, 
keenness and sound commonsense. We feel that we liavc lost a good 
officer, and we can ill-afTord to lose such." 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital G^izette, November 17th, 1917.] 



GODSILL, STANLEY, Lieut., London Irish Regt. Entered 
Guy's in April, 1914. After 18 months at Hospital, he joined 



38 Obituary. 

tho London Univorsity O.T.C, and was granted a commission 
in the London Irish Regiment. After seeing active service in 
France, Egypt and Salonika, he Avas sent to Palestine in 1917. 
Took part in capture of Jerusalem. Killed in action on De- 
cember 2ard, 19^7, aged 21. 

We regret to announce the death of Stanley Godsill, wlio was killed 
In action in Palestine on the 23rd December, 1917. 

Stanley Godsill was educated at B<?rkhamsted School, where he was 
a good athlete and a keen Imember of the School O.T.C. 

On leaving School in April, 1914, he entered Guy's Hospital as a 
Medical and Dental Student. Aftt^r completing eighteen months at 
the Hospital, he joined the London University O.T.C. and was im- 
mediately granted a commissiGn in the London Irish Eegiment. After 
seeing active service in France, Salonika, and Egypt, he was finally 
gent to Palestine in 1917. Here he saw severe fighting, taking part 
in the engagements that led to the capture of Jerusalem, and was 
with the troops who subsequently entered. 

He was killed in action on 23rd December at the age of 21. Ifi 
the words of his General, " He was a very fine young officer of the 
very best type, who died leading his men with unflinching" gallaintry 
and devotion." ' 

[Keprinted from The Gui/'s Hospit(;l Gazette, March 23rd, 1918.] 



GOUGLI, B. B., Lieut., R.A.M.C. Entered Guy's as a stu- 
dent in 1892. Qualified 1897. Was in general practice in So- 
merset until June, 1915, when he obtained a commission in the 
R.A.M.C. After being at the Front little more than a week, 
he was killed while attending wounded in a dug-out, February, 
19H). He was at the time Medical Officer to the 8th Battalion 
South Staffordshire Regiment. 

Lieut. Bernard Bradly Gou^h was born at Stockwell on September 
14th, 1873, and was educated at Reigate Grammar School and at St. 
Andrew's, Caterham. He entered Guy's Hospital as a student in 1892, 
and was admitted M.R.C.S. and L.R.C.P. in 1897. He held hospital 
appointments at Burton-on-Trent, Wolverhampton, and Great Grimsby. 
After practising for a short time at Capsl and Oakamoor, StafFordshire, 
ho acquired a general practice at Compton Martin, Somerset, in 1902, 
where he resided until 1915. 

Col. Julian sends the following lotter to the relatives of: Lieut. 
Gough : — 

" I deeply regret to inform you that on the evening of the loth 
inst., whilst Lieut. B. B. Gough, R.A.M.C., was attending wounded 
in a dug-out near the trenches, a Ger:man shell fell into the dug-out^ 
and burst, instantaneously killing him and nine wounded, one of whom 
was an officer. He died doin^ his duty tx> his utmost in the sefrvicn 
of his King and country, and we, his comrades, lament his loss, and 



Obituary. 39 

offer you our sincerest sympathy in your sad bereavement. He was 
at the time with the 8fch Batt. South Staffordshire Eegiment as their 
medical officer, to which battalion he had g^one a few days before 
from the 51st Field Ambulance, in relief lof a medical officer wlio ha(? 
had to be sent to hospital ill. When found he had still a drejssingi 
and pair of scissors in his hands. His letters and effects' hare been 
taken over by the battalion, from whom you will doubtless hear in a 
few days. I enclose a lettejr and "j^ost card which have been delivered 
at my office." 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, March 11th, 191G.] 




GREEN, C. L., Second-Lieut., Essex Regfc., attached E.F.C., 
the elder son of Dr. and Mrs. Green, Woodside, S.E., was born 
on December 5th, 1894. He was educated at Durlston Court, 
Swanage, and afterwards at St. Bees School (S.H. 1908—11). 
After passing the London Matriculation he entered Guy's as a 
Medical Student, and later went to Edinburgh University. 
When the war broke out he joined the Edinburgli O.T.C. 
Having passed his examinations, he then joined the Ist Sports- 
man Battalion as a private. Shortly after he was made a 
corporal. In December, 1914, he was given a Conunission in 
the 11th Essex. In October, 1915, he went to Franco and was 
in the trenches till August, 1916. He was wounded in the 
hand by a bomb, but quickly recovered. He returned to 



40 Obituary. 

England and was transferred to tlie R.F.C. Whilst flying on 
January 7th he had a crash near Southend, Bromley, for 
want of petrol, and he was taken up unconscious. He re- 
covered, however, and rejoined at Hounslow on March 16th 
and soon got his wings. On June 6th, 1917, lie left for France, 
and was killed in action on June 9th. 



HAMILTON, E. T. E., Temp. Major, E.A.M.C. Served in 

German South West African Campaign, 1914 — 15. Mentioned 

for Avar services. Died on service. 

We regret to announce the deatli of Dr. Hamilton which took place 
on March 8th at his residence in Johannesburg, South Africa. The 
son of a Naval Surgeon, he was (born at Eathgar, near Dublin, in 1807. 
Entering Guy's in 1886 he became a distinguished student, taking 
honours in Physiology at the B.Sc. Examination in 1889. He took 
the Conjoint Qualification in 1891. At London University he took the 
M.B., B.S. (Honours in Medicine and Forensic Medicine) in 1892; M.D. 
in 1893 and M.S. in 1895; and F.E.C.S. in 1893. 

After serving an appointment as House-Surgeon to Sir H. G. Howse, 
he became Demonstrator of Anatomy .at Guy's, a post he held for four 
or five years. 

In 1898 Dr. Hamilton went out to South Africa and started 
practice on the Rand. During the Boer War he was medical officer on 
one of the hospital ships and in various hospitals ashore. After serving 
with the rank of Mla^jior in the field during the recent rebellion, Dr. 
Hamilton became principal Medical Officer at Swakopmund, the chief 
post of German South West Africa, now in British occupation, where 
he developed an intestinal complaint, and, being much run down from 
pressure of work, he was ordered to Johannesburg to recuperate. 
There he became subject to attacks of mental depression, and it is 
supposed that in one of these fits he terminated his life, as he was 
found with a fatal bullet wound in his head. 

Much sympathy is felt for his widow, an old Guy's nurse. His 
funeral took place with military honours. 

[Eeprinted from The Guifs Hospital Gazette, April 24:th, 1915.] 



Obiiuari/. 



41 



I 




HARRIS, W. A. Was the son of Mr. W. Harris, Grounds- 
man of the Guy's Hospital Athletic Ground. Was employed in 
the Dental School. Joined the 6th London Regt. soon after 
war broke out and was killed in action at Loos, Sept., 1918. 




HARRISON, STANLEY S. B., Major, M.C., R.A.M.C. He 
qualified at Guy's in November, 1914. Joined R.A.M.C. soon 



42 Obituary. 

ai'tor and Avas sent to France. Mi'. 1917. Gassed by a high 
explosive shell and died from k, suiting bronelio-pneumonia on 
October 10th, 1918. 

It is with deep rogret we have to record the death of Major Stanley 
Sextus Barrymore Harrison, who died on tho Weistein Front on the 
10th of October, 1918, from the effects of gas poisoning. He was 
educated at Guy's, and took the Conjoint Diplomas in October and No- 
vember, 1914. He was soon after in training, and went out to France, 
where he spent his whole service, ffc; and his party were gassed by a 
H.E. and mustard gas shell of large calibre, which landed in the 
doorway of his dug-out. He recovered at ,the time, but died a few 
days later from broncho-pneumonia. He won the Military Grose for 
conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty (se3ond supplement to the 
London Gazette, Friday, 11th May, 1917, p. 4591). His many |riends 
at Guy's will wish to convey to his relatives their sincetrc sympatJiy 
with them in their great loss. 

[Eeprinted from The Guifs TIoiipHal Gazette, November 30th, 1918.] 

HARTNELL, EDWARD BUSH, Temp. Capt., R.A.M.C., 
London Mounted Brigade. Entered Guy's in March, 1892, 
after having been to Bristol and Dublin. He passed the Final 
Conjoint in 1893, and prior to the war was in practice at 
Bridgwater, Somerset. Died on service in Egypt on April 
24th, 1916. 




HAYNES, CHARLES GRAHAM, Capt., 4th King's Royal 
Rifles, attached R.A.F. M.C. 1916, Bar 1917. Was educated 



Obituary. 43 

at Mill Hill School, and after passing* the London Mati-ic, 
■entered Guy's in May, 1912, at the ag-e of 17. He passed the 
1st M.B. in 1913, and the Organic Chemistry of the 2nd 
•exam, in July, 1914. He joined up in October, 1914. ' Reported 
Missing, 1918. 

Sir, — I have never seen any mention of C. G. Haynes in your 
^' Honours " or " Casualty " columns. 

The many pre-war people now back at the hospital will hear with 
fjreat regret that Graham Haynes was reported " missing " on October 
:23rd, 191S, on a reconaisance flight, and that nothing up till now has 
been heard of him. 

He joined the Artists' Kifles at the outbreak of war and landed in 
Prance with them in October, 1914. He was commissioned in France 
in April, 1915, to the ith Battalion King's Eoyal Rifle Corps, and was 
•wounded in May at the second battle of Ypres. He returned to the 
front to the 17th Battalion K.R.R.C. in September, 1916, and won the 
M.C. at the Schwaben Redoubt 

In the fighting in Shrewsbury Forest, Ypres Sector, he won a bar to 
the M.O 

In November, 1917, he was seconded to the R.F.C., and was at home 
training as observer and then as pilot until August, 191S, when he 
again went to France. He became a Flight Commander and regained 
his acting captaincy, and saw heavy air fighting in September and 
October. 

I hope you will be able to find space for this belated account, or 
part of it, in your next number. I fear after all these months his 
chance is small. It is only to be hoped that he may turn up all right, 
and we shall have the luck to see him again playing " rugger " for the 
hospital. — Yours sincerely, 

R. J. HODGKINSON. 

[Reprinted from The Gwfs Hospital Gazette, Maxch 22nd, 1919.] 



HAYWARD, MILWARD CECIL, Capt., R.A.M.C., T.F. 
He was educated at Epsom, Cambridge, and Guy's. Graduated 
M.B., B.C. in 1903. At the time of the Boer War he was ap- 
])ointed Civil Doctor to the Guards at Windsor. Volunteered at 
tlie beginning of the present war. Severely wounded at Ypres, 
and died from wounds, May 23rd, 1916. 

Captain M. C. Hayward, who died from acute septic pneumonia at 
Brighton on August 23rd, was the second eon of the late Henry Hay- 
ward, of Queen Anne Street, London, by Jiis second marriage. He was 
educated at Epsom, Cambridge, and Guy's Hospital. He graduated 
B.A. in 1893, M.A. in 1898, and M.B. and B.C. in 1903. He also 
took the English double qualification in 1898. He filled the post of 
Clinical Clerk at the Samaritan Hospital for "Women, House Surgeon 



44 Ohiliiiini. 



and iJuii-r i'li\ -ici.-iii ;il raddiugloij 'ir-ii < 'IhMi (;ii".s Hospital, and 
Kesident .Mr,lir';il oiliccr at the ' Nort li-\\'( -i l.onrlou Jlospital, after- 
wards se(tiii'_! ii|i ill inactice in Ab!n.2:di)H m I'Jdl'. At tha time of the 
Boer Will he \\.i- ,i|>pi)inbed Civil Doctor to the Guards at Windsor. 
and hi', vohinic rcil :it, the beginning of the present war with a good 
deal of official experience. He joined the 3rd Home Counties Field 
Ambulance on December 3rd, 1914:, and after recovering from severe 
concussion was sen! to Fran^^c. Here shortly afterwards he was 
dangerousl}^ wounded, u <h;'ll hitting him in the back, and causing 
concussion of th:; spine, while a bullet pierced his lung. After being 
on sick leave till .March Isb of this year he was iseint to a .military" 
hospital, but while; on duty there he succumbed to pneumonia. 

[Reprinted from Tlw Giufs Ho^spital Gazette, October 7th, 1916.] 



HENDERSON, T. E., Lieut., South Staffs. Eegt. Was edu- 
cated at University Colleg-3 School, passing the London Matric. 
with First Class Honours in June, 1893. Entered Guy's as a 
Dental Student in May, 1910, and qualified in May, 1913. 
At Guy's he took the First Year's Dental Prize in 1911 and the 
Second Year's Prize in 1912. He was Assistant Demonstrator in 
Dental Metallurgy from June to July, 1911, and Assistant 
Dental House Surgeon from January to March, 1912. He was 
in practice until September, 1914, when at the age of 38 years 
he joined the Public Schools Battalion, and in July, 1915, re- 
ceived a commission. A year later he went to France and was 
killed while defending an advanced post at the corner of Del- 
ville Wood on August 31st, 1916. 

Second Lieuteuant Henderson, killed in France, was educated at 
University College School, from which school he matriculated with 
First Class Honours in June, 1893. He did not enter Guy's as a dental 
student until May, 1910, but from that time until qualification in May, 
1913, he endeared himself to all with whom he came in contact. He 
took the First Year's Dental Prize in 1911, and the Second Year's 
Prize in 1912. He was Assistant Demonstrator of Dental Metallurgy 
from May-July, 1911, and Assistant Dental House-Surgeon from January- 
March, 1912. After qualifying in 1913 he acted as" an assistant until 
September, 1914, when, at the age of 38 years, he joined the Public 
Schools Battalion, and in July, 1915, received a commission. A year 
later he went to France, and in defending an advanced post at the 
corner of Delville Wood was reported "missing' on August 31st 1916. 
The War Office now reports that evidence has been received that he 
was killed in that action. 

[Keprinted from The Gui/s Hospital Gazette, November 17th, 1917.] 



Obituary. 



45 



I 




HENNESSEY, P. W. H., Corp. Employed in the Works 
Department. Joined the Queen's Eegt., was mentioned in des- 
patches. Killed in action, July 31st, 1917. 




HOGBEN, H. F. T., Lieut., 2nd Norfolk Eegt. Came to 
Guy\s in October, 1909, witli the London Univel•^<ity Open Scho- 
larsliip from Bedford Grammar School, ^^1lil© with tlio Artists* 



46 . Obituari/. 

Rillt's he acliievod many successes as a marksman at Bisley. 
Represented tlie Hospital as a " heavy-weight " and in other 
sports. Killed in action in Mesopotamia, November 23rd, 1915. 

Harry Hogbeu received his early education at Bedford Grammar 
School, and entered Gny's in October, 1909, winning the London Uni- 
versity Open Scholarship. He passed his first M.B. examination in July, 
1910, and entered the wards in October, 1912. Amongst his appoint- 
ments he was ^Icdical Ward Clerk to Sir Cooper Perry, and Dresser /o 
Mr. Steward. 

At the outbreak of war he was working for his final examination, 
but as he already held a commission in the 10th Middlesex, he had to 
forego his studies and answer to the Mobilisation Order. 

After training in England for two months, his regiment was ordered 
out to India in October, 1911, in which country he remained till August 
of this year. He was then selected to take a draft from the lOth Mid- 
dlesex to the Persian Gulf, where he became attached to the 2nd 
Norfolk Regiment. He fell in an action in which his regiment was 
engaged between the days of November 22nd and 24th. 

During his life at Guy's, Harry Hogben was a member of the Artists* 
Rifles, was a keen Territorial, whilst his skill as a marksman was 
envied bj^ all his pals. At Bisley he achieved many successes, and was 
in the King's Hundred in the years 1913 and 1914. Amongst other 
sports he represented the Hospital as a " heavy-weight," and was 
always a regular man to turn out for a game of " Rugger." 

And so the Alma Mater has to mourn the loss of another of her sons 
one who, on the point of qualifying, gave up all — and right willingly too 
— for his King and Country. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, January 1st, 1916.] 




HOLLANDS, WILFRID GEORGE, 2nd Lieut., aged 23, 
killed at Serre, nftar Bapaume, October 12th, 1916, was the eldor 



Obituary. 47 

son of 'Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Cliristy Hollands, of 73, Wyatt 
Park Road, Streatham Hill, S.\Y. He left Guy's to join Public 
Schools Battn., 16tli Middlesex Regt., September, 1914, received 
his commission in 7th Royal Fusiliers, May, 1915, went to the 
front April, 1916, and was attached to the 4th Royal Fusiliers 
as the battalion Bombing Officer. He was buried at Colincamps, 
near Albert, France. 




I 



HOPKINS, HERBERT LESLIE, Lieut., R.A.M.C. En- 
tered Guj^'s October, 1905, taking the Open Scholarship in Arts, 
Junior Proficiency Prize in 1908. Secretary of Guy's Physiolo- 
gical Society. Qualified M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., and M.B., B.S. 
(Lond.) in 1911. Killed in action October, 1914. 

H. L. Hopkins, who was just 28 years old at the time of 'his death, 
entered Guy's iii September, 1905, with an Open Scholarship in Arts. 
He obtained the ^I.B,, B.S. Lond., in October, 1911, having also 
passed the Conjoint and the Primary F.R.C.S. In addition to the cur- 
riculum, he had tilled thc5 positions of Assistant Demonstrator in Ana- 
tomy and Physiology, Pathological Assistant to the Surgical Registrar, 
and had filled diesserships in all the special departments. 



48 Obituary. 

Ou quulitying, he deUu-iiiinod not to go for the house appointments 
that would have fallen his way, but became House-Physician at Derby 
Infirmary. He filled this position for twelve months, during which 
time he came into contact with several old Guy's men. He then de- 
termined that Public Health was his sphere of action, and spent six 
months at the City of London Chest Hospital. 

In August, 1913, he became Assistant M.O.H. and Assistant Inspector 
of Children to West Suffolk, and Clinical Tuberculosis Officer to the 
West Suffolk Insurance Committee. He was prevented .from sitting 
for his D.P.H. Oxoh. in May, 1914, but successfully obtained the M.D. 
Lond. (in State Medicine) in July, 1914. 

A few days later, on the outbreak of war, he pbtained a temporary 
commission in the K.A.M.p., and was at once appointed Sanitaxy 
Officer to Devonport Barracks. A few days later he was despatched 
to the front as Sanitary Officer to No. 11 Base Hospital, in which 
position his friends did not fesl any great anxiety about him. Since his 
death the writer's family have received a letttier in which lie states that 
he has beon attached to the 1st Devon regiment. Further details are 
at present impossible to gather. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hoa^ntal Gazette, October 10th, 1914.] 



HORTON, J. H., Lieut. -CuL, D.S.O., I.M.S. Was the son 
of Major J. Horton, of Woolwich, and was educated at Guy's 
Hospital, where he gainod the Arthur Durham Prize in 1891, 
and took the Diplomas of M.R.C.S. and M.R.C.P. TLond.) in 
1895. He was H.P. at Guy's and at the Royal Bethlem Hos- 
pital. In 1902 he became a Liout. in the I.M.S. , Captain in 
1905, Major in 1913, and Brevet Lieut. -Col. on December 21st, 
1916. He served in East Africa in 1902. Was mentioned in 
Despatches in 1904, and gained the Medal with two clasps and 
the D.S.O. on the N.W. Frontier of India. In operations in the 
Mohmand Country in 1908, the Medal ^^ith clasp; and as Sur- 
geon to the British Red Cross Society in the Balkan War of 
1912, the Medal Avith clasps. He also had the 4th Class of 
the Order of St. George and St. Vladimir of Russia. On March 
17th, 1908, he was Medical Officer of the 14th Bengal Cavalry. 
At the beginning of the present war he was appointed to the 
command of the 126th Indian Field Ambulance. Reported as 
having died on Active Service in the Casualty List published on 
August 2nd, 1917. 

Lieut. -Col. James Henry Horton, D.S.O., I.M.S., was reported as 
having died on active service, in the casualty list published on August 
2nd. He was born on December 27t'i, 1871." After filling the post Jof 



ObitiMffj. 49 

iouse -physician at Guy's and at the RoyaJ Bethlem Hospital successively, 
he went to India as a. special- plagaie inedical officer. He was on© of the 
four plague officers who accepted commissions in the I3I.S. as lieutenant 
from January 29th, 1902, and while at Xetley gained the Marshall 
"Webb medal and prize. He became captain on January 29th. 1905, 
major on July 29th, 1913, and was specially promoted brevet Lieut. - 
colonel on December 21st, 1916. He served in East Africa in 1902, 
in the operations in Somalilnnd, was present in the action at Jidballi ; 
on the North- West Frontier of India,; in the operations in the ^lohmand 
country in 1908, medal and clasp; and as surgeon to the British Red> 
Cross Society in the Balkan War of 1912, medal and clasp. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, August 25th, 1917.1 



HOWARD, CHARLES REGINALD, Capt., R.A.M.C. Edu- 
cated at Guy's and Cambridge, -where he graduated B.A. with 
Hons. M.B., B.C. (Cantab.) 1902, qualified L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. 
in 1902, (and M.D. in 1907. Acted. as A.H.S. and H.S. at Guy's 
and later Avent to East Africa as Bacteriologist to the Govern- 
ment of Zanzibar. Joined R.A.M.C. in 191G. Promoted Cap- 
tain in 1917. Killed in action in East Africa on September 
26th, 1918. 

Capt. Charles Kegiuald Howard, E.A.M.C, attached King's African 
Rifles, was killed in action in East Africa on Sept. 6th. He was the 
youngest son of Robert Luke Howard of Tynemouth, formetrlj'- of St. 
Albans, and was educated at Guy's Hospital, and at Cambridge, 
where he gTaduated B.A. with honours, M.B. and B.C. in 1904, and 
M.D. in 1907, also taking the diplomas M.R.C.S. and L.R.O.P.Lond. 
in 1902. After acting as assistant house-surgeon and house-surgeon at 
Ouy's, he went to East Africa as bacteriologist to the Government of 
Zanzibar. On his return to England he (settled in practice at Garston, 
Frome, Somersetshire, where he wajs honorary surgeon to the Victoria 
Hospital, Frome, medical officer of health to the Frome Rural District 
Council, and assistant school medical officer to the Somerseitshire 
Education Committee. He took a temporary commission as lieutenant 
in the R.A.^E.C. on March 1st, 1916, and was promoted to captain 
on the completion of a years service. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hosjntal Gazette, November 30th, 1918.] 



PART 1. 



50 



Obituarfj. 




HUGH- JONES, KENNETH HERBERT, Capt., 5th, attached 
12th, Rifle Brigade,. Entered 1915, Arts Scholar. Killed in 
action September 20th, 1917. 

Kenneth Herbert Hugh-Jones was the fourth son of Mr. mid Mrs. 
Llewelyn Hugh-Jones, of Chevet Hey, Wrexham, Denbighshire, anc.! 
was born on the 4th December, 1896. H© received his early education 
at Colet House School, Rhyl, and from there gained in 1910 a classical 
foundation scholarship at Bradfield College. During the whole of 
his time there (except his first term) ilie was a member of the O.T.C. 
and latterly a platoon sergeant. He w^as also chapel prefect. 

On leaving Bradfield in 1915 he gained an Open Scholarship in Arts 
at Guy's Hospital, and went into residence in October, but on Decem- 
ber 11th he enlisted in the Artists' Rifles, and passing through 
the Cadet School, received a commission in fthe Special Reserve in the 
Rifle Brigade. Second Lieut. Hugh-Jones went to France on the 25tb 
October, 1916, and was attached to the 12th Battalion of the Rifle 
Brigade. He was gazetted Captain as from 2ith August, 1917, and 
was killed on 20th September, 1917, close to Langemarck, Flanders, 
while leading his men to the attack. 

His Colonel wrote: "It is a very grqat blow to the battalion, as he 
was one of the best officers we have ever had. He had long since 
proved his value, and was in command of his company in an attack 
20th September. He was extremely popular with liis men and with 
all the officers. I am sure he died as he would have wished, at the 
head of his compan}^" 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, February 23rd, 1918.] 



Obituary. 51 




JAMES, JOHN STEPHEN HARVEY, Lieut., King's Royal 

Rifles. Entered Guy's as a Medical Student 1912. Joined the 

Forces 1914 (Artists' Rifles). Killed in action, Rue de Bois 

Richebourg I'Avone, May 16tli, 1915. 

J. S. Harve}- James — the only child of Mr. and Mis. Quintus S. H- 
.lames, of Coneyboro', Shanklin (late of Mill Hill) — was educated at Colet 
Court and St. Paul's School. He entered Guy's Hospital Medical School 
in 1913, after matriculation. He had passed his first ]\LB. when wai- 
broke out. Some months before, he had joined the Artists' Eifles, and 
was mobilised with many other Guy's men in that regiment immediately. 
He left for France with the 1st Batt. Artists' Kifles !in October, 1914. 
There he passed in his turn through the Artists' Rifles Officers' School 
at Bailleul, and in March, 1915, was gazetted to the 1st Batt. of tne 
King's Royal Rifle Corps (2nd Division). He joined them direct from 
the School, and was with his battalion until liis death on the night, 
May 15th — IGth, 1915. He was killed at Rue de Bois Richebourg 
I'Avone, in a Rutcessful night attack. Ho fell with many of his riflemen 
in the final assault on the parapet of the German trenches. 

By his stout heart and modest cheerfulness under all conditions he 
had earned universal popularity. 

His many friends in the Artists' and at Guy's will always remember 
"Jimmy." thf cvor cheerful, with the never failing sense of humour. 

JONES, EVAN LAWRENCE, Capt., R.A.M.C., attached 
Highland Light Lifantry. Entered 1907, qualified L.S.A. 1913. 
Killed in action, 1918. 

KELSEV, A. E., Temp. Capt., R.A.M.C. Drowned in H.M. 
Hospital Ship Glenart Castle, torpedoed February 26th, 1918, 



52 



Obituary. 




KENNEDY, RONALD SINCLAIR, Major, M.C., M.D., 
R.A.M.C. Born July 14tli, 1887, the only son of Dr. and Mrs. 
Kennedy, of Wallahra, and Sydney, N.S.W. Educated at Ton- 
bridge School, Christ's College, Cambridge, and Guy's. At Cam- 
bridge he got his blue for Rugby Football, and was one of the 
best forwards at Guy's in his time. He took the Diplomas of 
M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. (Lond.) in April, and M.B., B.C. (Can- 
tab.) in June, 1912, having taken Cambridgo B.A. Honours in 
1909. He left Guy's early in 1913 to join the Egyptian [Medical 
Service. He gained the M.D. (Cantab.) in 1917. He was 
" lent " for service at the Front by the Egyptian Government, 
and was originally attached to the Artillery, but subsequently 
exchanged into the Infantry, where he saw much hard fighting 
and gained the M.C. during the Somme offensive. He was 
killed in action on April 17th, 1918. After his death he was 
awarded a Bar to his M.C. 



Ohitiiarij. 53 




KING, PERCY, 2nd Lifeut., 7th East Surrey Regt.. Educated 
at Portsmouth Grammar School, Kings College, London, and 
Guy's. Entered Guy's as a Dental Student in October, 1911. 
L.D.S. March, 1915. Joined London University O.T.C., and 
received a Commission in the East Surrey Regiment, May, 1915. 
Sent to Egypt on detached service November, 1915, where he 
was slightly wounded whilst carrying despatches. Sent home 
November, 1916, to join the R.A.F. Served in France as 
Balloon Officer from January to June, 1917, when after a nasty 
spill, ho joined his regiment near Arras, where he M^as wounded 
in the trenches August 4th, 1917, and died next day. 



KNAGGS, F. H., Temp. Capt., R.A.M.C. M.O. Hudders- 
field War Hospital. Died June 24th, 1917. 

Mr. F. IT. Kna^gs, who died oix June 24th from pneumonia after 
a brief illness afc the ago of 56 yefars, was the third son of the late 
Dr. Samuel Knaggs, who practised for many years in Huddersfield. 
He was educated at the Hudde(rsfiold CoUegle and at Rossall, taking 
his medical course at Guy's Hospital, whore he held appointments 
in the Eye and Ear Departments, being later Clinical Assistant at the 
(Moorfields) Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital. 



54 



Obituary. 



After ii term of two y(>nrs as Iloueo Surgeon at the Gloucester Gcneinl 
Intirniiiry and Eye Jnstitution h!e commenced gettieral practice in 
1881) witli his father and steadily gained in reputation as m spelcialist 
in eye and oar atfections. For sejveral years he assisted his brother, 
Mr. R. Lawford Knaggs, in the Ophthalmic and Aural Department 
of the Leeds Public Disi:)ensary, and in 1905 became Honorary Sur- 
geon to the recently created Ophthalmic and Aural Department at 
the Huddersfield Royal Infirmary, to which his father w^as for many 
years Senior Honorary Surgeon. His death thus breaks a connection 
with that institution which had existed sines its first establi^hmeait. 
From the date of its opening in October, 1915, Mr. Knaggs had been 
a Civilian Medical Officer at ths Huddersfiald War Hospital, and in 
January' last received a commission as Temporary Captain in the 
Royal Army Medical Corps. He leaves a widow and one daughter 
and a wide circle of friends to mourn their loss. ^Ir. Knaggs was 
formerly honorary secretary of the Huddersfield Medical Society, where 
he read a number of practical papers bn ophthalmic subjects, some of 
which were published in our columns. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, July I4th, 1917.] 




■KNIGHT, E. v., Flight Sub-Lieut. Educated at Bedford 
Grammar School, where he was captain of the school Rugby 
XV. and while still at school played for the East Midlands. 



Obituaiy. 



55 



While in his teens he ^vas reserve three-quarter for England. 
He entered Guy's as a Dental Student in May, 1914. On the 
outbreak of war he joined up and was granted a conmiission in 
the London Rifle Brigade, serving in France for over a year. 
He subsequently joined the R.N.A.S. He was killed in a flying 
accident on March 12th, 1917. 

The late Lieut. E. V. Knight, E.X.A.S., who was killed in England 
on March 12th tlirough his machine coming 'down in a spinning nose 
dive, was formerly captain of Bedford School. While there he played 
threequarter in the County Championship for the East Midlands, and 
later on in the same competition for (his home county of Somerset. 

He joined Gu3''s as a Dental student in May, 1914, but joined the 
University of London O.T.C. at the outbreak of war, and from there 
obtained a commission in the London Eifle Brigade serving in France 
for over a year. Afterwards he transferred tO' the Cyclist Corps, 
and finally joined the Navy. 

He leaves a widow tand daughter, and lis the second captain of Bed- 
ford School Eugby of recent years to lose his life this year in a flying 
accident in England. 

His genial and generous disposition was such that he not only never 
did a mean action, but could not bear to entertain an unkind thought 
of anyone. He seemed to know practically everybody in the sporting 
world and will be greatly missed. 

[Ecprinted from The Oin/s Hospital Gazette, April ^Ist, 1917.] 




KYNASTON, ALBERT EVELYN FAIRFAX, Surg., R.N., 
H.M.S. Devonshire. Entered 1898, qualified L.R.C.P., 

M.R.C.S., 1904. Died of enteric. 



56 



Obituary. 



In the first week of the tvvar he joined the Koyal Nav;d Reserve, and 
was sent to II. M.S. Devonshire. His end was like his life, he was 
taken ill, pooh-podhed it, and went on till the fourth week of an attack 
of enteric; pneumonia compelled him to go into hospital and he died, 
aged 33, on the 13tli October, ^t Dimstaith, on Cromarty Firth, wher<e 
he was buried on Wednesday, October llth, at the Dunstaith Naval 
Cemetery. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Jlo.spital Gazette, October 24th, 1914.] 




LACEY, WILLIAM STOCKS, Lieut., R.A.M.C, 140th Field 
Ambulance. Entered Guy's 1906, qualified L.D.S. 1908, and 
L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. 1912. Died of wounds. 




LANSDALE, WILLIAM MORRIS, Capt., R.A.M.C. (S.R.). 
Entered Guy's in 1909, having won the Entrance Scholarship 



Obituary. 57 

in Arts. He qualified in 1915 Avitli the M.B., B.S.(Lond.). His 

career at Guy's ^vas a brilliant one; he won both the Junior 

Proficiency Prize and the Wooldridge Memorial Prize in phy- 

siolog'v; in 1914 he was prize essayist of the Physical Society^ 

and in the same year won the Eeaney Prize for pathology. He 

joined up immediately upon qualifying, and was attached to 

the 5th Royal Berkshire Reg-t. He remained with his Battalion » 

for whom he did magnificent Avork, until he was killed by a 

shell on August 26th, 1918, while tending the wounded. 

Entering Guy's, in 1909, he won the Entrance Scholarship in Arts, and 
very easil}^ passing his examinations, qualified M.B., B.S.London in the 
minimum time possible. At the end of hLs studieis pin anatomy and phy- 
siology he won both the Junior Proficiency Prize and the Wooldridge 
Memorial Prize in Physiology. In 1911 he was prize essayist of the 
Physical Society, with a very brilliant contribution on the para -syphilitic 
lesions, and in the same year won the Beaney Prize for Pathology. 
Had Lansdale proceeded to house-appointments, there is no doubt that 
he would have secured a very brilliant academic career at Guy'fe. As 
a man, Lansdale was quiet and reserved, but under that reserve there- 
lay a warm, affectionate disposition, and the restless enthusiasm of 
genius. Lansdale was the son of a distinguished old Guy's man, with 
whom all Guy's men will condole in his bereavement.. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, October 5th, 1918.] 




LECKIE, M., Capt., D.S.O., R.A.M.C. Entered Guy's in 
1899 and the R.A.M.C. in 1908. He had a distinguished career 
in Egypt, and on the outbreak of war went to the Front with 



58 Ohituary. 

tlie Expoditionaiy Force, hoiiig attached to the Northiiiiiborlaiid 
Fusiliers. D.S.O. at Mons. Killed August 28th, 1914. 

Captain Malcolm Leckie, formerly of Guy's Hospital, went to the 
front with the Expeditionary Army, being attached to the Northum- 
berland Fusiliers. Before that period his short career in the service 
had been almost entirely parsed in Efe^ypt, where he left a high reputa- 
tion for personal amiability, professional capacity, and devotion to 
duty. This latter quality he displayed in its highest form at the 
Battle of Mons. 

Malcolm Leckie entered Guy's in 1899, passed the Second Conjoint 
in January, 1903, and the Final in April, 1907; he thein read for the 
R.A.M.C., which he entered in January, 1908. At Guy's he dressed to 
Mr. Golding-Bird, and was Clinical to Dr. Hale White and Dr. 
Pitt in the last three months of 1907. 

During some three j^ears in the Dissecting Room I got to know 
him well, and chiefly remember his kecuness for everything he under- 
took; he was one of the first to take up hockey ^at Guy's and' to 
establish it as a regular Hospital game. 

He was typical of that fortunately common stamp of Conjoint 
man who makes public opinion among his fellows, and is respected and 
liked for himself and his manlinetss; I should say that Leckie spent 
himself for his friends, and recently talking over with one of his 
chums our recollections of him, we agresd that he was happiest when 
taking immense pains to do some small kindncsis to others often for 
those who had but slight claim on his friendship. To those who knew 
him well he \\1as always the same kind, generous, unselfish person,, 
with rather a thoughtful manner and slow to express his own views; 
one can well imagine that his place in his Mess '^''ill remain unfilled, 
and many a sick or wounded soldier will know he has lost a (friend. 

C. H. F. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Boxiiltdl Gaxette, January 2nd, 1915.] 



LIEBSON, STEPHEN ABRAHAM, Capt., R.A.M.C. Went 
to German South West Africa at the outbreak of war, as M.O. 
of the Rand Lig-ht Infantry. After this campaign was .over, he 
became M.O. in the 3rd South African Infantry and, after a 
period of training in England, proceeded first to Egypt and 
then to France. 

He was in the Delville Wood fight and received the Military 
Cross for attending^ wounded for five days in an open trench, 
although twice wounded himself — over 1,400 casualties passed 
through his hands. 

He was finally transferred to a Scotch Regt. and was killed 
in action at Hendicourt on March 22nd, 1918. 



Obituary. 59 

LLARENA, E. F., 2nd Lieut., 2nd Suffolk Reg-t. From 
Duhvich College he came to Guy's in October, 1910, and at 
once made his reputation as an enthusiastic "Rugger" placer. 
A member of the Water Polo Team in 1911, he captained the 
1914 team which wrested the cup from the London Hospital. 
In August, 1914, he joined the Artists' Rifles, and while in 
France obtained a commission in the Suffolk Regt. Killed in 
action while attacking a wood near Ypres on June 20th, 1915.. 

" Larry," as he was known to all (his old friends up iait the Hospital, 

received his early education at Dulwich College, where he was an 

cnthusiatic " Rugger "' player and a Sergdant in the Officers' Training 
Corps. 

He entered the Medical and Dental Schools in October, 1910, and 
passed his First Professional and First Conjoint Examinations in 1912. 

When the War began he was working for his Second Conjoint Ex- 
amination, and he joined the ^\j'tists' Rifles in August, 1914. He 
obtained his commission while in Francs and became Second Lieutenant 
in the 2nd Battalion of the Suffolk Regiment. 

Ahyays to the fore in any sport, he g'ained his " Rugger Blue " in 
the 1912 — 1913 season, and played for the 1st X^. regularly afterwards. 

As a wat^r-polo player he also excelled and was a member of the 
water-polo team in 1911 and onwards, and in 1914 captained the team 
which wrested the . cup again from the London Hospital. He also 
figured as a meriaber of the Inter-Hospital Swimming Four, 

By the death of E. F. Llarena tthe hospital has lost one of her best 
athletes who answered the call to arm^ during the first week of 'war 
and now must be added to the Roll of Honour of Cruy's men, who 
have met that glorious end on the battlefield. 

[Reprinted from The Guy' a Hospital Gazette, July 17th, 1915.] 



LOGAN, F. T. B., Hon. Surg. Foye House Red Cross Hos- 
pital. Died. 



60 



Obituary. 




LOWE, FRANK AUGUSTUS, Lieut., R.N.V.R., CoUiug- 
wood Battalion. Entered Guy's 1906 as Dental Student, quali- 
fied L.D.S. 1910. Killed in Gallipoli, 1915. 



MARSHALL, BERNARD GOLDSMITH, 2nd Lieut., 3rd 
Northants Regt. Entered Guy's 1913, as a Medical Student. 
Killed in action at Loos. 

MARSHALL, HERBERT MYERS, Dent. Commandant, Royal 
Naval Medical Service, H.M.H.S. China. Came to Guy's as la 
Dental Student in October, 1915, and qualified L.D.S. Eng-. in 
November, 1917. He joined the Royal Navy soon after and 
was killed the following year. 



MARTIN, ALBERT, Major, N.Z.M.C. Entered Guy's in 
October, 1878 and had a brilliant career whilst at this -Hospital. 
As a student he took 1st Prize at the 1st, 2nd, and 4th Year 
Student exams — the Michael Harris Prize in 1881, and the 
Beaney Prize in 1883. He obtained Honours in Anatomy lat 
the 2nd M.B., B.S., and was awarded the Gold Medal in 
Medicine for the M.D. London in 1885. He eventually prac- 
tised in Wellino-ton, New Zealand. Died of wounds. 



Ohitu€iry. 



61 




MASH, OSWALD N., Lieut., M.C., R.F.A. Entered Guj's 
as a Dental Student in 1910, but was obliged to leave in 1912 
on account of ill-health. Eeturnevd in 1914 and joined the Legion 
of Frontiersmen at the outbreak of war. Transferred to Queen's 
Own Oxfordshire Hussars. Finally granted a connnission in the 
R.F.A. He went to Franco early in 1915, took part in the 
Battle of the Sonuiio. He gained the M.C. duiinu- the wintei* 
of 1917. Killed in action June 1st, 1918. 

It is with great regrot that we announce the death of Lieut. 
Oswald Nelson Mash, M.C, R.F.A., who was killed in action on the 
morning of June 1st, 1918. He was ith3 youngest son of the late Mr. 
J. S. Mash, of Ipswich, and of Mrs. ]\Iash, Reed Hall, llolbrook. 

He entered Guy's Hospital as a Dental Student in 1910, where he 
remained two years, during which period he gained the Royal Life 
Saving Society's Bronze Modal. In 1912 he was obliged to leave 
Guy's on account of ill-health. After about a year spent in South 



62 



Obituary. 



Africa he returned fit ;ind well Jiaid lecomineucod dental work. He 
wiis about to take the finril L.0.8. fat the titne when war broke out. 
At the first call for men he joined tiie Le<.don of Frontiersmen, and was 
for sonic time at the Remount J3cpot lat Southampton. From there he 
was transferred to the Queeni's Own Oxfordshire Hussars. Having 
passed the necessary tests, he entered the Machine Gun Corps, and 
from there he was grantod a oommission ^n the E.F.A. 

Just three j^ears ago he wqnt out ,to France, and was at Ypres and 
at the Ba,ttle of the Somme. Afte(r (being' out ten months he wa>s 
invalided home with shell shock. As soon as he was fit enough ho 
applied to be sent to the line lagain, and aftelr a ftim© rejoined his old 
Division, the Siith. At thi? time he Igainod the M.C., but having shell 
shock and being badly gassed was sent (home shortly afterwards as per- 
manently unfit for the firing line. After three weeks' leave he again 
applied to be sent out to Franoei a WQok before Christmas, 1917. He 
remained for the reist of the winter on the Staff at Havre. As the 
fresh German offensive drew near he applied to rejoin his comrades 
in the line, and this request bqing granted, he was once again back 
with his old Division. On June 1st he was killed. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette. July 27th, 1918.] 




MAXWELL, JOHN EARLE, Sub-Lieut., E.N.A.S. Elder 
son oi Mr. John A. Maxwell. Was educated at Haileybury and 
left in 1911. After studying- Law for two years, he came to 
Guy's in 1913. In January, 1916, he obtained a commission in 
the R.N.V.R., and was attached to the E.N.A.S. In Novem- 
ber, 1916, he proceeded to the Eastern Mediterranean as an 
Observer in the R.N.A.S. Reported missing on March 30th, 
1917, having failed to return from a long" distance reconnaissance 
over enemy territory (Bulgaria). 



Obituary. 



63 



Lieut. Maxwell was' the elder son of ;Mr. John A. Maxwell, solicitor^ 
of 52, Bishopsgate, and was born on June 24th, 1892. He was edu- 
cated at Haileybury, and left in 1911. After studying law for two 
years he came to Guy's as a first year studeait in /January, 1913. Ip 
Januarj-. 1916, he was given a commission in the E.N.V.E. and was 
attached to the E.N.A.S. 

After serving at various air stations in England, he was ordered to 
the Eastern Mediterranean in November, 1916. On March 30th of the 
present year he went np for a long-distance reconnaissance over enemy 
territory, but failed to return. He was accordingly reported missing 
as from this date, though the authorities held out considerable hopes 
of his safety owing to the failure of the enemy to report such ap. 
unusual occurrence as the bringing do\vln of a British aeroplane. But 
unhappily, after ten weeks of uncertaintj^, definite reports were re- 
ceived . to the effect that the machine had been shot down on March 
30th, and that both Lieut. Maxwell and ithc pilot had been killed. 

News of Lieut. Maxwell's death was received with very genera] 
regret at Guy's, as he was a contemporary^ of the majority of men now 
in the wards. He was for some time secretary of the Physiological 
Society and took a ver^^ active part 'in the discussions at the meetings- 
He was one of the youngest Fellows of the Ro3'al Astronomical Society, 
having been elected at the age of 22. Some time beifore his death he 
was made Armament and Intelligence Officer of his squadron. He had 
just those qualities which make for success in an airman — absolute fear- 
lessness and great keenness on his work. We offer our most sincere isym- 
pathy to his parents in their bereavement. 

[Reprinted from The Gvi/'.s- Hosj>ifal Gazette. July 14th, 1917.] 




MILLER, G. S., Capt., R.A.M.C. Entered Guy's in Octo- 
ber, 1907; Avon the Junior Proficiency Prize and the Sands-Cox 
Scholarship in Physiology. After he liad passed the Final Fel- 
lowship he took a conunission in the R.A.M.C. in April, 1915. 



<J4 Obituary. 

For a short time attached to the Cambridge Hospital, Aldershot. 

Lat(H' he went to France and wliih; serving \vith No. 1 Field 

Andjulance he met his death at High Wood on Septemljer 8th, 

1916. 

George Scfton Miller eintcred Guy's in October, 1907, from the 
Colfe Grammar School, having passed the Senior Cambridge Local in 
December, 1906. In 1910 he passed the 2nd M.B.Lond. and the 1st 
F.|R.C.S., and in the same year gained the Junior Proficiency Prize 
and the Sands-Cox Scholarship in Physiology. Entering the wards, 
he dressed to Mr. Steward and Mr. Dunn, was Clinical to Dr. Hale 
White and Dr. Pitt, Assistant IIou-;g- Surgeon to Mr. Rowlands, and, 
finally, liousc-Surgeon to Sir Arbuthnot Lane from August, 1913, to 
January., 1914. After this he acted as Resident Medical Officer at 
Lambeth Infirmary for 15 months and attended Guy's weekly as 
Chief Clinical Assistant in the Throat Department, and during thi.? 
time worked for and passed the Final F.R.C.S. (December, 1914); as 
he was then only in his 24th year he could not ge/*: this Diploimaj 
which was granted him as recently as May, 1916. 

On joining the R.A.M.C. he was for a short time attached to the Cam- 
bridge Hospital, Aldershot, and then, after acting temporarily as a regi- 
mental M.O., was detailed to No. 1 Field Ambulance and remained 
with it till his death, which occurred at High Wood; he was buried 
near Mametz. 

He was brilliantly successful in his work, a splendid officer and a 
charming friend. 

[Reprinted from TIlo Guy's Hospital Gazette, October 7th, 1910.] 




MONK,, G. B., 2nd Lieut., Rojal Warwickshire Eegt. En- 
tered Guy's in October, 1913, as Medical and 2nd Year Dental 



Ohituary. 



.65 



Student. Joined the Artists' Rifles early in 1914, and went to 
Fiance in October of tliat year. Specially chosen with the first 
batch of 80 Artists to lead the remnants of the 7th Division. 
Killed December, 1914, while leading an attack. 




MOORE, L. W., Capt., Gloucester Regt. Studied at Guy's 
for 3 J years, and on the outbreak of war he enlisted as ^ private 
in the Gloucestershire Regt. Was quickly promoted to a second 
lieutenancy. Went to the Front in March, 1915, and served with 
his regiment until the time of his death, August 29th, 1918. 

Lieut. Moore, \vho was acting Captain of his company, was only 23 
years of age last November. He was educated at Tewkesbury Gram- 
mar School and King's School, Worcester. Upon the completion of 
his school career he took up his Istudies for the medical profession, and 
was for 3?r years at Guy's Hospital before the outbreak of war, when 
he at once sought liis country's service. For four years he was a 
member of the local company of Territorials, and whilst in London 
he joined the medical unit of the London University O.T.C. The 
CoiuiiKniding Officer of the latter recommsnded him for immediate 
connnissioned rank, but he enlisted as a private in his county's 
regiment, and wa.s quickly promoted to a second lieutenancy. lie 
wont to the Front in March, 1915, and had served with his regiment 
until the time of his dcMth. As a youth he was assistant scoutmaster 
of the 1st Tewkc>bury Troop of the' B.P. Scouts. 

[Reprinted from The Gin/s Hospital Gazette, September 23rd, 191G.] 



PART I, 



GIJ Obituary. 

MORRISH, D. B., 2nd Lieut., King's Own Yorkshire Light 
Lii'antry. Qualified L.D.S. (Eng.) from Guy's Hospital jin 1913. 
Was in practice at Cambridge. While acting as Trench Mortar 
Officer to his Battalion, he ^vas killed in France, August 18th, 
1916. 

Wo regret to record that another young member of the Dental 
Association, 2nd Lieutenant Donald Bernard Morii^h, King's Own York- 
shire Light Infantry (Trench Mortar Officer), has fallen in action. 
He was killed in France on August 18th, 1916. Lieutenant D. 13. 
Morrish was the younger son of Mr. and Mrs. John Morrish, of 40, 
Carson Koad, Dulwich, and was 25 years of age. He qualified as 
L.D.S. Eng. from Guy's Hospital in 1913, and had been in practice 
at Cambridge. He joined the British Dental Association in 1913. 
At hospital Morrish was a quiet, efficient worker; popular among his 
fellow students and all with whom he came in contact. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, September 9th, 1916.] 




NEELY, H. B., 2nd Lieut., 3rd Suffolk Kegt. Was a Dental 
Student at Guy's in October, 1908, and qualified in November. 
1912. Won his full Hospital and United Hospital colours for 
football. He commenced private practice at Southampton, but 
on the outbreak of war at once rejoined his old regiment " The 
Artists." Later received a commission in 3rd Suff'olks. Killed 
in action at Ypres 25th April, 1915. 



Ohiiuary. 67 

From his earliest days lat Guy's, when ho came a5 a pupil in Dental 
Mechanics in October, 1908, to the time ho qualified in November, 1912, 
he ^va3 a tower of strength to the Dental side, mentally and physically. 
In addition to his ordinary hospital appointment-s, he was Assistant 
Demonstrator of Dental Metallurgy from January to March, 1911, and 
Assistant Dental House Surgeon from July to September, 1912. 

At sports he was in his element, and won his full Hospital and United 
Hospital colours for football. 

After taking " his degree he passed into private practice, filling two 
or three posts as lasi^i-stant, for a short time, and then, setting up at 
Southampton. Here he was very successful until war broke out, when 
he immediately closed his practice, like the sportsman he was, and 
rejoined his old volunteer regiment, "The iirtists." Later he received 
his commission as Second Lieutenant in the 3rd Battalion of the 
Suffolk Kegimenfc, and was sent on active service to France. 

In the heavy fighting which took place around Yprcs about the end 
of April, he was one of the many officers who fell in action — brave men 
who gave their lives cheerfully and willingly for their country. We 
men of Guys can realise what a lo5S he must have been to !his men, 
for he was always a man who thought for others before himself. 

[Reprinted from Tho Guy's Hospital Gazette, May 8th, 1915.] 



NICHOLLS, W. H., Capt., R.A.M.C. Educated at Bradfield 
College and Guy's Hospital. On the outbreak of war he passed 
the Conjoint Examination and immediately entered the R.A.M.C. 
In January, 1916, he quickly learned to fly and Avas granted a 
pilot's certificate. Served in India, where he was killed by an 
accidental gunshot wound February 22nd, 1916. 

Captain W. H. Nicholls, who was killed by an accidental gunshot 
wound at Jhansi, Central Provinces, India, on February 22nd, 1916. 
at the age of 24 years, was the only son of Mr. H. H. J. Kicholls 
M.Ii.C.S., oc Worthing, who was for many years in practice at East- 
bourne. He was educated at Bradfield College and Guy's Hospital. 
Though near his qualifying degree at the London University, on the 
oulbreak of war he passed the conjoint examination and immediately 
entered the R.A.M.C, in which he was gazetted Captain in 1915. 
He was a boxer and all-round athlete, find sharenl in the men's games, 
and was very popular with them. Whilst in medical charge of tho 
Norwich Flying Corps he utilised his knowledge of mechanics and 
natural interest in machinery to learn to fly himself, and he was granted! 
a pilot's certificate in January, 191G, an unusual distinction in the 
R.A.M.C. Soon after this he was ordered iabroad and met his death 
not long after reaching India. In private life ho was a keen sportsman 
and a timall yacht owner, and there will be sorrow in many a Worthingj^ 
fisherman's home for the loss of a liberal friend. 

[Reprinted from TJw Guy's Hospital Gazette, March 25th, 1916.] 



(58 Obituary. 




GATES, JOSHUA LAURENCE. Was educated at Gra- 
hamstown, South Africa and after passing- the Cape Matric, 
entered Guy's as a Dental Student in May, 1911. He obtained 
the Pupils' Scholarship in Dental Mechanics in 1913, and joined 
the Public Schools Battalion of the Eoyal Naval Division early 
in 1915. He was killed in Franco in 1918. 



PALMEE, A. H., Major, R. A.M. C. Eldest son of Dr. 
Palmer, of Barton-under-Neeclwood, Burton-on-Trent, and was 
educated at the Birmingham Medical School and at Guy's Hos- 
pital. After qualifying in 1895, he practised at Barton-under- 
Needwood, where he held the posts ofi Medical Officer and Public 
Vaccinator of Barton District and Surgeon to the Barton Cottage 
Hospital. He joined the Staffordshire Yeomanry in 1904. Died 
at Cairo on May 2nd, 1917, of wounds received on April 17th, 
1917. 

Surgeon-Major Ambrose Henry Palmer, E.A.M.C. (T.F.), died at". 
Cairo on May 2nd of wounds reseived on April 17th, aged 47. He 
was the eldest son of Dr. Palmer, fof Barton-und^r-Needvvood, Burton- 
on-Trent, and was educated at the Birmingham Mefdical School and 
at Guy's Hospital. After taking ths diplomas of M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 
Lond., and L.S.A. in 1895 he went into practice at Barton-undcr- 
Needwood, where he was Medical Officer and Public Vaccinator of 



Obituary. 



69 



f 



Barton District, Surgeon to tha Bart'>n Cottage Hospital, and Surgeon 
to the Post Office. He joined the Staffordshire Yeomanry on Decembcn- 
24th, 1904, became Surgeon-Captain on June 24th, 1908, and was pr-j- 
moted to Surgeon-Major last year. 

[Reprinted from Tho Guys Hospital Gazette, May 19th 1017.] 



PALMER, HENRY JOHN, Lieut., Duke of Coinwairs Light 
Infantry. Was educated at the Plymouth Technical Institute, 
and after passing- the London Matric. in 1912, entered Guy's 
in May of the following year. Hei passed the 1st M.B. Lond. 
in July, 1915, but went on active sorviee in December of the 
same year. Killed in action near St. Quentin, March 29th, 
1918. 



PALMER, JOHN STANLEY, Lieut., Durham Light Infantry. 
Entered Guy's 1910 as a Dental Student, qualified L.D.S. 1913. 
Died of wounds October 18th, 1916. 




PARRY-JONES, O. G., Capt., R.A.M.C. Educated at Sher- 
borne, Magdalen College, O.xford, and Guy's. Prominent mem- 



70 Obituary. 

bor of Rugby XV. In the early part of the war he served as 
a 2n(l Lieut. Avith tlie Lancashire Fasiliers. Later he qualified 
and Mas at once gazetted to the R.A.M.C. In France -was 
Medical Officer to the 8th Suffolks. Died of wounds Septem- 
ber, 1916. 

We regret to record that Capt. Owen Parry- Jones, Il.A.M.C, elder 
son of Dr. and 'Mrs. Parry-Jones, Full Street, Derby, has died in 
France, from wounds rcceiv^ed in the recent fighting. 

Owen Guy Parry-Jones was born at Pinxton, Derbyshire, in June^ 
1887. He was educated first at a Preparatory School at Bournemouth, 
and then at Sherborne School, where he reached the Sixth Form 
and was School Prefect, but was, perhaps, more distinguished for his 
musical gifts and athletics. He was a prominent member of the 
Rugby XV., won the Stealplechase, and was a Sergeant in the O.T.C. 
He went up to :Oxford with a iChoral Scholarship at Magdalen College, 
became captain of the College XV., and 'played many times for the 
University. After taking his ;B.A. degree he entered Guy's Hospital. 
He was Very specially a Guy's m:an, his father was here from 1878 
to 1885, and his toother wa<s for* a ^hort time Sister Cornelius. Known 
to all liis friends 'as P. J., he was beloved by everyone who met him. 
In the Rugby XV. he excelled as a forward, physically strong and. 
powerful, he was one of the mainstay(s of a teiim that for some years 
remained undefeated in the Final Cup Ties. He also played for Kent, 
and was a member of two teams that went to France and Austria 
respectively. Possessed of a very fine baritone voice, his services for 
" Ward Concerts " at Christmas time was always most eagerly sought 
after. 

In 1913 he accepted a Commission in (the Special Reserve of Officers 
and was called up when war broke but, when he was just on the eve 
of qualifying las a medical man, and was sent to the Lancashire Fusi- 
liers as Second Lieutenant. He served with them at their depot and 
at Hull for five months, and then in view of the ishortage of doctors 
he was given a month's leave to try and qualify. This he did. 
and became M.R.C.S. and L.R.C.P. in January, 1915, and was at 
once gazetted Lieutenant in the R.A.M.C and joined a training camp 
at Eastbourne. Promoted Captain in May, 1915, he went out to 
France in July, 1915, with the 56th Field ximbulance in the 18th 
Division. For the last few weeks he had been attached to the 8th 
SuflPolks, and whilst with them he met his death. On September 
28th he was standing outside the Advanced Aid Post when he received 
severe wounds from fragments bf a shdU. ' He died the following day, 
and we 'are told that he remaineti bright and cheerful to the end. 
Thus P. J., in laying down his life feo voluntarily for his Country, 
reflects Honour and Glory on the name he bore, which will ever be 
remembered by his Hospital — Guy's. 

[Reprinted from Ths Guy's Bosjyital Gazette^ November 4th, 1916.1 



PEACOCK, RUDOLPH. Entered Gay's as a dental student 
in 1897, and obtained the L.D.S. diploma in 1899. Killed in 
aetion, October 8th, 1916. 



Obituary. 



71 



PEARCE, D. G., Ca.pt., 1st East Kent Regt. Came to Guy's 
from Dulwich College. Was to have taken his final in Novem- 
ber, 1914, but on August 4th he enlisted as a private in the 
H.A.C. and served witli tlie 1st Battalion of that regiment till 
he was invalided home Avith frostbite. Later he gained a com- 
mission in the East Kent Regt. Killed in action, September 
3rd, 1916. 

Captain Dudley George Pearce, of The Buffs, aged 25, was the 
son of the late George Pe^irce, of Bournemouth. He was educated at. 
Dulwich College, where in 1910 he took Jiis colours for football. He' 
became a inedical student at Guy's Hospital, fcind was to have taken his 
final examination in November, 1914. On the day of the outbreak 
of war, however, he enlisted as a private in the H.A.C, and left for 
France with the 1st Battalion of that regiment in Sdptember, 1914. 
He was invalided home at the end of the same year Avith frostbite, 
having taken part in isome of the iheaviast fighting of the war up to 
that period. On his recovery he received a commission as second 
lieutenant in the East Keiit Reigiment, and left again for the Front 
with his battalion. After much fighting and personal distinction, he 
was on February 23rd of this year promoted on the field from second 
lieutenant to captain, and gazetted as such 'as from November, 1915. 

[Reprinted from The Guifs Bov^yital Gazette, October 7th, 1916.] 



I 




PEATFIELD, S. J., 2nd Lieut., 9th Royal Berkshire Regt. 
(attached Machine Gun Corps), was the youngest son of Mr. H. 



72 Obituary. 

Peatfield, Dental Surgeon, oi Biig-liton. He joined the London 
University O.T.C. in October, 1914, and obtained his commission 
in June, 1915. He was sent to France in March, 191G, and was 
severely wounded at Ypres on July 1st of the same year and 
died tho following dav. Ho was 22 vear.s of as"e. 




PERN, MONTAGUE, Lieut. Entered Guy's as a Medical 
Student in 1907, qualified L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. 1912. Killed 
in action, March 9th, 1915. 



Ohiiiiary. 73 




PEVX, W. R., Lieut., R.A.M.C. Entered Guy's in January, 
1909, and took his Final Conjoint Examination in January, 
1914. He took an active interest in the O.T.C., and for one 
season organised the "Guy's Nomads" Rugger XV. At the 
outbreak of Avar he joined as a Civil Surgeon and worked at 
a base hospital in Rouen. Later he was attached to the 2nd 
Lincolns and finally met his death while serving with the 9th 
Field Ambulance in Belgium, 1915. 

W. ]\. Pryn, son of Deputy Surgeon-General Pryn, came up to 
Guy's from Kelly's in January, 1909. As 'a hard and conscientious 
worker, examinations held no terrors for him and he had little difficulty 
in qualifying in the shortest possible time. He dressed to Mr. Duniv 
and Mr. Turner, and was Modisal Ward Clerk to Dr. Hale White and 
Sir Cooper Perry, and Clinical Clerk to 'Dr. Shaw. He took his Final 
Conjoint Examination in January, 1914. 

During his five 3^ears up at Guy's lis took an active interest in the 
Officers' Training Corps, of which he was a. member for three years, and 
for one season he organised the " Guy's Nomads " Rugger XV. 

On leaving, he took up the post of Housc-Surgepn at the Guildford 
County Hospital. At the outbreak of war he joined the army as a 
Civil Surgeon, and worked for three montlis at a Base Hospital in 
Rouen. From there he became attached to the 2nd Lincolnshire Re- 
giment and finally met his death while serving with the 9th Field 
Ambulance. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, July 31st, 1915.] 



74 



Obituary. 




RECKITT, CHARLES EDWARD, Surg-., R.N. Was the 
son of Lieut. -Col. J. D. T. Reckitt, R.A.M.C, and was edu- 
cated at Bedford Grammar School and Berkhamstead School, 
entering Guy's Hospital in October, 1905, qualifying in 1913. 
He was A. U.S. at Guy's and subsequently Ophthalmic House 
Surgeon at the Hull Royal Infirmary. He joined the Navy in 
April, 1915, and Avas Senior Medical Officer in H.M.S. Shannon. 
Li December, 1916, he developed cellulitis of the forehead and 
died in Haslar Hospital following an operation. 

Surgeon Charles E. Eeckitt, who died on. January 20th as a result 
of illness contracted on active service, was 30 years of age. He 
qualified in 3913, and was Assistant House- Surgeon at Guy's, and 
subsequently he held the post of Ophthalmic House-Surgeon at the 
Hull Eoyal Infirmary. 

In April, 1915, he joined the navy and was senior surgeon on 
H.M.S. Shannon. In December, 1916, he developed cellulitis of the 
forehead. After several operations, osteomyelitis of the frontal bonf^ 
was followed by a subdural abs3es3, of which he died in Haslar 
Hospital. 

[Reprinted from The Gutfs HospiUd Gazette, February 21th, 1917.] 



Obituary. 75 

EEES, M. J., Caipt.,R.A.M.C. Qualified M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

(Lond.) in 1902 and M.D. in State Medicine in 1906. Died on 
October 30th, 1916, of wounds received while attending to the 
wounded. 

Captain Morgan James Rees, R.A.M.C., died on October 30th, aged 
■Al, of wcunds received on October 22nd while attending to the wounded 
under fire. He was the younger son |of the late John Rees, of Stepney^ 
and was educated at 4}he City of London School, at the Univea'sitjr 
College of Wales, Aberystwyth, and at Guy's Hospital. He took the 
diplomas of M.R.C.S. and L.R.C.P.Lond. in 1902, and D.P.H. of the 
London Colleges in 1904, the degrees of Bl.B.Lond. in 1902, and M.D. 
in State Medicine in 1906. After filling the posts of Assistant Medical 
Officer of the lirook Hospital of the ^Metropolitan xVsylums Broad, and 
Assistant ]\ledical Officer of Health to the County Borough of Reading, 
ho became JNIedical Officer of Health and Superintendent of the Isola- 
tion Hospital for Aberdaxe Urban Distri3t in 1906, and in 1911 was 
appointed one of the Medical Inspe!3tors of the Local Government 
Board. He was a Fellow bf the Society (of Meidical Officers of Health, 
and of the Royal Society of Medicine, and a Me/mber of the Royal 
Sanitary Institute. 

He took a temporary commission in tha R.A.^M.C. a little over a 
year ago. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette. December 2nd, 3916.] 

EICHARDS, ERNEST HARRY RICHARD, 2nd Lieut., 
21st Manchesters. Entered Guy's 1914 as a Dental Student. 
Joined Artists' Rifles, November, 1915. Killed in action at 
Croisilles, April 2nd, 1917. 

ROBERTSON, E. G., Capt., (attached R.A.M.C). En- 
tered Guy's Dental School in 1905. Played for the Hospital 
as full back in 1906 — 07. Obtained a Dental Commission at 
outbreak of war and served two years in France. In August, 
1917, he was transferred to the Queen's Hospital at Frognal, 
Sidcup, and died October 28th, 1918, from influenza, aged 33. 

We regret to announce the death, at » the Queen's Hospital, Frognal. 
on the 28th October, of Ernest Guy Robertson, L.D.S., Captain, att. 
R.A.M.C. 

Son of the late Dr. F. F. L. Robertson, of Aberdeen nud Bart.'^, 
E. G. Robertson entered this hosp^al from \Portsmouth Grammar School 
in 1905 to graduate in dentistry. He repre*9ented the Hospital as a 
full-back in the football XI. which won the Intcr-Hospital Cup in 
1906 and 1907, and in the latter year was elected to tlie Clubs' Union. 

In 1909 the deceased gentleman stai-ted to practise at Southampton, 
where he became Honorary Dental Surgeon to the Southampton and 



7(i Ohiiuiry. 

SoiUh Uiiiits liifiniiary and to the Fro3 Eye IIo>pil;il. Soutlinmpt i 
and Doiital Surgeon to Mr, C. B. Fry's traiiiiiij,' ship Msrruri/ in tin- 
Ilanibh^ ]Uver. On the outbreak of war he apjdied for and obtained 
one of the first dental comniissioas, and in Decombor, 1914, he left 
for Salisbury Plain. In the following' summer he was drafted k- 
Franco, and for two j^ears served at a casualty claaring station. lb- 
was then recalled to England and appointed to the newly-organised 
department for jaw work at the Cambridge Hospital, Aldcirshot. In 
August. 1917, he was transferred to the I'liefw Queen's Hospital at Frog- 
nal, Sideup. 

[ Reprint ed from The Guy's Hospital Gazptte, November '3011k lOlS.j 




ROBERTSON, JOHN C, 2nd Lieut., Caiueion Highlanders. 
Entered Giiy.s in 1912 as a Medical and Dental Student. Hav- 
ing passed his 1st Professional Examination in September, 1914, 
he joined tlie Cameron Highlanders as a private. He was about 
to take a commission in Februar}', 1915, but taking advan- 
tage of an opportunity of getting to the front uith the Camerons, 
destroyed his papers. He Avent through Neuve Chapelle un- 
scathed, but at Festubert, on the morning of May 17th, 19 lo, 
fell Mounded, and from .that day nothing has been heard of 
him . 

John C. Robertson was born in Selkirk (Scotland). He came to 
London with his family when he was labout 5 years of age. His first 



Obituary. 77 

-chool was a ladies' one, and after lattending that for about six months 
ho went to Balham High School fay- a few years. From there he went 
to Dunhcved College, Launce^ton, was there for four and a half to 
live years, finishing there, and in 1912 he went straiglit to Guys 
llcspital as dental and medical student (joint course). 

He had just finished his two years in the Dental ^lechanical De- 
jjartment and had passed his First Professional Examination in Sep- 
tember, 1914. The day after he knew the result, he, along with 
.thors, joined as private the 4th Camdron Highlanders about the end 
'if September, 1914, at Bedford, where he was trained. 

Ho remained at Bedford until February, 1915, 'and although he had 
his papers ready for a commission, he, lalong with several of his 
friends, when they got the order to go to the Front, destroyed his' 
I'ommission papers, preferring to go out as ian ordinary private. They 
landed in France, and within seven days were in the trenches. He 
\vcnt through the battle of Xeuve Chapelle unscathed, but at the 
battle of Festubert, on the morning of the 17th May, 1915, he fell 
wounded, and from that day to thLs nothing has beon heard of him. 

»He has disappeared absolutely and entirely, and thus a young and 
promising life, of hijh character, was ended. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, January 11th, 1919.] 



ROBINSON, WILLIAM BERESFORD. Entered 1907, quali- 
fied L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., 1912, M.B., B.S. (Lond.) 1913. Held 
House Appointments as A.H.S. 1913, H.P. 1914, O.P.O. 1913. 

William Bercsford Robinson, M.B., B.S.Lond. M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P.; 
died May 12th, 191S; born at Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1888, he 
matriculated in New Zealand, and came to England by way of India 
in 1907. In October of that year he entered at Guy's and passed thei 
Primary Fellowship in 1910, giving promise of a brilliant career. 

In 1911 he was laid up for three months with an attack of acute 
rheumatoid arthritis, from which his recovery was slow, but lie, never- 
theless, qualified with his contemporaries in 1912, and pas-sed the M.B., 
B.S., in May, 1913. Ho held the appointments of Clinical Assis- 
tant, A. U.S., O.P.O. , and H.P. to Sir Cooper Perry. He was a member 
of the hospital shooting eight, and during his last three ninths at 
hospital was President of the Residents. Subsequent to this he went 
into private practice in Sutton until the beginning of 1910, when, 
feeling that he would sooner be doing something more directly con- 
nected with the war, he joined the staff of the 2nd London General 
Hospital at Chelsea, where he worked until he contracted septicaemia 
in January, 1918. 

There is no doul)t that by his death a career of brilliant promise 
has been cut short. Respected and liked, his unselfishness and willing- 
ness to help contributed largely to the comfort and well-being of those 
around him, and he persisted in continuing his work until forced to 
give up on account of his ill-health. He leaves a widow and one child. 

H. C. B. 

[Reprinicd from The Giu/s Hospital Gazette, Jmn' It. 19 IS.] 



^8 



Obituari/. 



ROSS, JOHN HAMPDEN, Private, 4tli Devon Regt., T.F. 
Entered Guy's 1909, (lualifiecl L.D.S. 1911. Died of wounds in 
Mesopotamia, Juno 5tli, 191(5. 




SANDOE, M. W. A., Lieut., Dovonsliiie Reg-t. Eldest son 
of Dr. and Mr.s. Sandoe, of Broad Cljst, Devonshire. He was 
educated at Allliallows, Honiton, Guv's Hospital, and Durham 
University. Killed in action on May 7th, 1917, aged 21. 

Lieut. M. W. A. Sandoe was the eldest son of Dr. and Mrs. Sandoe, 

of Broad Clyst, Devonshire. He was 21 years of age and was killed in 

action on May 7th of this year. He was educated at Allhallow's, 

Honiton, Guy's Hospital, and Durham University. His Colonel writes 

of him to his parents : — " Your son was a most excellent officer in 

every way; the men thought a great deal of him. I had a very high 

o^iinion of him, and he is a great loss to me." 

[Reprinted from Th? Gtiy's Hospital Gazette, June 2nd, 1917.] 



Ohitivary. 79 



I 




SAW, NOEL HUMPHREY WYKEHAM, Capt., M.C., 
R.A.M.C., attached 4th Worcester Regt. Entered Guy's 1909 
as la Medical Student, qualified L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., 1915. 
Killed in action, October 9th, 1917. 

Capt. Noel Humphrey Wykeham Saw, M.C., R.A.M.C, att. Worcestea? 
Regiment, who was killed in action on the 9th OctobcJr, 1917, aged 25, 
was the younger son of Mr. and Mrs. Saw, junior, of 11, Vanbrugh 
Park Road, Blackheath. 

Ho was educated at Strathedon House School a.nd Cheltenham Col- 
lege (Xewick House), and belonged to the College O.T.C. On leaving 
Cheltenham he became a student at Guy's Hospital, and joined the 
Artists' 'Rifles, o£ which he remaino'4 a meinbor for four years, resign- 
ing early in 1911 to dev^ote him-:elf entirely to his last year of 
medical study. He played football for Guy's and Blackheath, and 
was a good runner in the mile and half-mile. 

On the outbreak of war he applied to rqjoin the Artists, but was 
advised to complete his medical course in October if possible. He 
became full}' qualified as physician and surgeon in February, 1915, and 
at once joined the R.A.M.C. (Special Re);crve), and in July was sent in 
charge of troops to Mudros. Becoming attached to the Wore ejitexsh ire 
Regiment (29th Division) he went to the Gallipoli Peninsula and re- 
mained there until the end, taking part in both evacuations at Suvla 
Bay and Cape Helles. After some montlis in Egypt and at Suez the 
Battalion came to France, and Capt. Saw! was present at the Battle 
of the Somme, where, in rcl3ognition of hi^ gallantry during the first 
five days of July, he was awarded the Military Cross. He saw much 
service in France and Flanders, and met Avitli hi> death on the battle- 
field whilst tending the wounded on tho 9th of October, 1917. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, March 8th, 1919.1 



80 



Obituary. 



SCOTT-PILLOW, H. M., i>nd Lieut., R.F.C. Entered Guy's 
as a Dental Student in May, 1914. Shortly after the outbreak 
of the Avar ho joined tlie Public Schools Corps, and was granted 
a commission later in the Middlesex Regiment, from which he 
was transferred to the E.F.C. He went to France in July, 
1917, and Avas killed on August 8th of the same year. 

Mr. II. M. Scott-Pillow entered Guy's as a Dental Student in Mny, 
1914. Shortly after the outbreak of war he joined the Public SchooJ^j 
Corps, and was later given a commission in the Middlesex Regiment 
from which he transferred to the Koyal Flying Corps. He went to 
France in July of this year, and was killed in action on August Sth. 
The officer commanding the 7th Squadron Royal Flying Corps, to which 
he was attached, writes of him to his mother, " your son had shown 
himself a very promising and capable pilot, who always did his work 
well, and he endeared himself to all with whom he came in contact." 

[Reprinted from ^'A(9 Gui/h Hospital Gazette, jS'ovcmbcr 17th, 1017.] 




SEABPtOOKE, A. S., Capt., R.A.M.C. Educated at Ton- 
bridge and Christ's College, Cambridge, he came to Guy's in 
1908, where he had an unusually successful career. In March, 
1915, he joined the R.A.M.C, and was attached to the Rawal 
Pindi Hospital, Boulogne. This was presently transferred to 
Mesopotamia, where, as the result of overwork and unsanitary 
conditions, he met his death on July 1st, 1916. 

Captain A. S. Seabrooke, who died on July 1st, 1916, in Mesopotamia, 
at the age of 31, was the se3ond son of Mr. (and Mrs. Jonathan Sela- 



Obituart/. 81 

l.rooke. of Grays, Essex. He was born on October 26th, 1881, at Marsh 
House, Grays, and, when nine years -old, went to Maze Hill School, 
St. Leonard's. In 1898 he went to Tonbridge School, where he became 
head of his house. 

Alec Seabrooke was a keen sportnian. His father taught him to use 
gun when he was only ten years old, and he became a very igood 
-:iOt. There could be no more congenial companion for a walk with 
a gun. He was an untiring sportsman after partridges in Septeinber* 
and, owing to his walking powers, was generally found as outside gun, 
right or left. He was no cricketer, nor did he achieve success as an 
oarsman, but Guy's men can tell you of his prowess at football. He 
played golf, and on one occasion woln a cup at the Gray's Golf Club. 
He was a powerful swimmer, and was quite at home on horseback. 

In 1903, Alec Seabrooke proceeded to Christ's College, Cambridge, 
where he entcjred heartily into the life and spirit of the University, 
and was a member of the Mounted Infantry Corps. 

Entering Guy's Hospital in 1908, Alec Seabrooke had an unusually 
successful career, not merely from academic brilliance, but because he 
was recognised as a man of exceptional character, who gained the 
confidence of every one with whom he canue in contact. He was 
President of the Guy's Resid^ts, and held House Appointments for 
two years, including House-Surgeon and Easidejnt Obstetric Physician. 
In ]\rarch, 1915, he gave up the fpast of Eesideint Obstetric and joined 
the Royal Army Medical Corps. After a short period of training lat 
Aldershot he proceedeld to France, where he was attached to the Eawal 
Pindi Hosiiital. 

[Reprinted from The Gui/s Hospital Gazette, July 29th, 191G.] 



SHEPHERD-TURNEHAM, NORMAN PERCY, Capt., York- 
shire Reg-t. Entered Guy's as a Dental Student in October, 
1897, and qualified L.D.S. in May, 1901. He eventually .'•ettled 
in practice at Maidenhead. Killed in action, Sept. 28th, 1916. 

SHORLAND, GEORGE, Temp. Surg., R.N. Entered Guy's 
in October, 1894, and passed the Final Conjoint in 1901. Prior 
to the war he was in practio3 at Mill Hill, and in addition 
held the appointments of M.O., Railway Clearing House, 
Euston, and Hon. Surg, to the Railway Benevolent Institute. 
Killed in action on H.M.S. Invincible in Battle of Jutland. 

SMALL, FRANCIS DUDLEY, Capt., R.A.M.C, attached 
15th Cheshire Regiment. ^Vas educated at King's College, 
Canterbury, and entered Guy's as a Dental Stuident in October, 

PART I. F 



82 Obituary. 

11)11. He passed Part I. ot* tho P'inal L.D.S. in November, 
1914, and joined the army very 60on after. Wounded and miss- 
ing, 1918. 

SMITH, DOUGLAS WILBERFORCE, Capt., R.A.M.C., at- 
tached 6th Manchester Regt. Entered Guy's in September, 1898, 
passed the Final Conjoint in 1901, and tho Final M.B., B.S. in 
the same year. He was A.H.S. to Sir Charters Symonds in 
1901, and passed his Final F.R.C.S. in 1911. Killed in action, 
Fricourt, July, 1916. 

SNELL, HERBERT, 2nd Lieut., Lancashire Fusiliers. En- 
tered Guy's April, 1903, Scholar in Dental Mechanics. Took 
Final L.D.S. May, 1905. Killed in action April 9th, 1917. 

SNELL, NORRIS, Capt., 8th Battalion East Yorks Regiment. 
Entered Guy's a^ a Dental Student in 1893 and qualified L.D.S. 
in 1896. Killed in action July 14th, 1916. 

SNOW, C. F., 2nd Lieut., R.F.A. Entered Guy's Hospital 

Dental School, May, 1908, and qualified L.D.S. in May, 1910. 

Went to South Africa the following year. Went through the 

German West African Campaign with the S.A.M.C. Coming 

home in October, ho was given a commission in the artillery. 

Killed in action, June 30th, 1916. 

Second Lieutenant Charles F. Snow, the elder son of Mr. W. H. 
Snow, Compton House, Peterborough, has been killed in action. Twenty- 
eight years of age, he was eiucated at the Cathedral School, Peter- 
borough, and the Barton School, Wisbech. He entered Guy's Hospital 
Dental School, May, 1908, and qualified L.D.S. in May, 1910. He 
went to South Africa five years ago, and at the outbreak of war was 
attached, as senior lieutenant, to the Kimberley Eegiment. Afterwards 
he was transferred as captain to the South African Medical Corps, 
going through the German West Africa campaign. 

[Reprinted from Th^ Guy's Hospital Gazette, July 15th, 1916.] 

SOWERBY, VICTOR HOLGATE, Lieut., Lincolnshire Regt. 
Was educated at Old Clee Grammar School where he won a 



Obituary. 83 

liolarship. Was head of the school and Captain of the Cricket 
and Football Teams. He became a Student at Guy's Hospital 
in October, 1915, but enlisted in the London Regt. in the fol- 
lowing month. He proceeded to France early in 1916 and was 
appointed 2nd Lieut, in the Lincolnshire Regt. in June, 1917. 
He received a wound in the chest and died on his way to the 
Dressing Station on August 1st, 1917. 

Second Lieut. V. H. Sowerby was educated at Old Clee Grammar 
School, where he won a scholarship, was head of the school, and cap- 
tain of the cricket and football teams. He became a student at 
Guy's Hospital in October, 1915, but enlisted in the London Eegiment 
the following month, and volunteered to proceed to France early in 
1916, although then only 18 years old. He was selelcted with a few 
others to act as domestic indoor guard ^o the King, when his Majesty 
spent a week in France. This was an interesting experience, and 
resulted in the gifit of a Koyal \']pipe as a souvenir. ^He remained in 
Franco and Flanders witlhout any leave until appointed Second Lieu- 
tenant in the Lincolnshire Eegimeint, June, 1917, when he was granted 
a few days' leave. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette, September 8th, 1917.] 




SPONG, R. W., Lieut., R.A.F. Entered Guy's Dental School 
in 1911. Died at Shorncliffe October 30th, 1918. Gained Hos- 
pital Blue 1911—12 for Association Football. Joined Middle- 



84 Ohituary. 

sex Yeoiuuiiry at outbreak of war, and was attached later to the 
Machine Gun Corps Cavah'y in Ireland. Later on went to 
Franco, but returned to the Ho^^pital in 1917 to complete his 
Dental course. Obtained a Dental Connnission in Royal Air 
Force, Avith Avhich he was serving at the time of his death. 

By the death on October 31st of Lieut. R. W. Spong, E.A.F.^ 
another Guy's man has made the great sacrifice while serving in His 
Majesty's Forces. 

Entering Guy's in 1911, on the Dental side, it was not long before 
R. W. Spong proved himself a keen , sportsman as well as a keen 
student, and gained a well-deserved popularity amongst all — both 
medical and dental. Playing for the Hospital at Association Football 
he proved himself a fast and sound forward, and his weight served 
him well. He gained his Blue in the Session 1911 — 12, playingj 
several times for the Unitqd Hospitals, after .which he forsook Associa- 
tion for the Rugby Code, and when war broke out was fast becoming 
an adept at the game. He was .pilso a good long-distance swimmer and 
100 yards sprinter. 

When war broke out he had passed the .first half of his Final Dental, 
but immediately joined the Middlek^ex Yeomanry, soon earning corporal's 
stripes and a commission. He then took a machine gun course at 
Grantham, and was attached to M.G. Corps Cavalry in Ireland, and 
was with them through the Irish trouble in Dublin. He then went 
to France, where he served for some time before coming home in 1917 
to take the second half of his 'Dental Final. He then returned to a 
Home Station, but owing to illness he nvas' demobilised in October, 
1917. For a while he carried on his dental work, but feeling he was 
fit enough he obtained a Dental Commission in the Royal Air Force, 
with which Force he was serving up -to the time of ihis death. In ?all 
his actions — in work and sport — ^lie was a typical Guy's man, and will 
be generally missed by all who knew him. 

[Reprinted from TJie Guy's Hospital Gazette, December 14th, 1918.] 



Obituary. 



85 




STAGEY, JOHN BREWEE, 2nd Lieut., 8th East Surrey 
Regt. Third son of M ;. H. Stacey, Firle, near .Lewis, Sussex, 
was killed in action between November 18th and 20th, 1916, dur- 
ing- an attack on Grandcourt, France. He was only 20 years of 
age and was educated at Eastbourne College. He entered Guy's 
Hos])ital as student in September, 1913, joined the London 
O.T.C. in 1914, was given a commission in the East Surrey 
lOtli Reserve, December, 1915. Trained at Chelmsford and 
Fermoy, Ireland. Went to France, July 13th, 1916, was re- 
j)orted slightly wounded and missing after an attack near 
Grandcourt on November 18tli, and his body Avas found by a 
wounded officer of the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, on 
November 20th. 



80 



Obituary. 




STAINER, C. H., Lieut., Loyal North Lanes. Regt. Edu- 
cated at Guy's Hospital, qualifying as L.D.S. (Eng.) in 1913, 
and was in practice in South Africa on the outbreak of war. 
He joined the Loyal North Lancashire Regt. as a combatant, 
and was killed in action on November 15th, 1916, while at- 
tacking a German trench. 

We regret to hear that Lieutenant C. H. Stainer, of the Loyal 
North Lancashire Regiment, was killed in action on November 15th 
1916, while attacking a German trench. He qualified as L.D.S. Eng. 
in 1913, and was in practice in 'South Africa on the outbreak of war. 
He was very popular while a student lat Guy's, and his death has 
occasioned sincere regret among his brother officers and friends. 



[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospital Gazette. January 27th. 1917.] 



Ohihiary. "67 




STANWELL, WILLIAM ALEXANDER, Lieut., 3rd Lan- 
cashire Fusiliers. Entered Guy's 1913 as a Medical Student. 
Killed in action July 9tli, 1915. 

The late Second-Lieutenant W, A. Stanwell was the only son of Dr. 
and Mrs. Stanwell, of Rochdale. He received his early education at 
Blundell's School, and entered Guy's in October, 1913, having pajssed 
the London Matriculation Examination in the previous July. At the 
outbreak of war he was working for his First M.B. (London) Exa- 
mination. 

Lieutenant Stanwell was attached to the 2nd Lancashire Fusiliers. 
He was only 21 years of age. At the time the war broke out he \vasi 
studying for his father's profession of medicine at Guy's Hospital, 
London. He had then already had some military training, had been 
for five years in his school cadet corps in Devonshire, and had after- 
wards become a private in the Artists' Rifles in London. With the 
Artists' Rifles he went to the front in France in October, 1911; he was 
later awarded a commission and transferred to the 2nd Battalion the 
Lancashire Fusiliers. 

He was killed in action on July 9th, and so the Hospital has lost 
another of her younger sons who gave up everything to go out and 
fight for his country. We otter our sincere sympathies to all his rela- 
tives and friends. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hospitrd Gazette, July 31st, 1915.] 



88 



Obitiuiry. 




START, S., Lance -Corporal. Emx^loyed in Works Dept. 
Joined the Machine Gun Corps and was awarded the Military 
Medal for gallantry in France. Died of wounds, 1917. 

STEPHEN, LIONEL HENRY YORKE, Capt., R.A.M.C. 
Entered Guy's in April, 1893, and passed the Final Conjoint 
in 1897. During- the South African War he served as Civil 
Surgeon to the Field Fiorces, and after as R.M.O. to the Royal 
Isle of Wight Hospital. Died on service, 1918. 



STEYN, S. S. L., Lieut., lloth Brigade R.F.A. Educated 
at the Diocesan College, Rondebosch, Cape Town. Went to Ox- 
ford with Rhodes Scholarship in 1910. Gained his Blue at Ox- 
ford for Rugby Football and International Cap for Scotland. 
Entered Guy's 1913. Joined King Edward's Horse at outbreak 
of war as a private. Granted a commission in R.F.A., Novem- 
ber, 1914. Killed in action, December 12th, 1917. 



Obituary. 89 




TILBURY, A., Capt., R.A.M.C. Was educated at Aiidover 
Grammar School and Guy's Hospital. Qualified in 1913. He 
then Avas Clinical Assistant in the Genito -Urinary Department. 
At the outbreak of war he received a commission in the 
R.A.M.C. In December, 1915, he was promoted to Captain, 
and was sent to Egypt with the M.E.F. He returned to Eng- 
land in March, 1917. While on the transport Trans tjliYmia the 
ship was torpedoed on May 4th, 1917, and Capt. Tilbury was 
rei)orted among those drowned. 

Captain A. Tilbury, son of John Tilbury, Sheardown House, Oakley, 
Hants, aged 29, was educated at Andover Grammar School and, as a 
private i)upil, by Rev. J. Atkins, M.A. He entered Guy's in October, 
190G. He played Association Football for the Hospital for one season, 
but while doing the appointment of Extern his health broke down 
and he developed a small tuberculous focus in his right apex, and 
had to leave the Hospital for a year, during which time under Dr. 
Fawcett's kindly supervision and care he recovered and took the 
Conjoint Diploma in January, 1913. He then did Clinical Assistant in 
the Throat Department and in the Genito-Urinary Department, at the 
same time joining his brother, Mr. R. Tilbury, in partnership at Queen's 
Road, Pcckham. When war broke out he was called up as a reservist 
in the London University O.T.C., and was at once given a commission 
an the R.A.M.C. He was sent to Canterbury Barracks under Col. W. 
W. Pope, where he remained for one year. In Septeml)er, 1915, on 
obtaining his Captaincy he was sent to P^gypt with ihc Mediterranean 



90 OMtuar?/. 



Expeditionary Force, and was stationed at Boulac for over a year and 
then moved to Kantara. In March of this year he came home on 
.special duty. In May he proceeded overland to a French port with 
troops and sailed on May 3rd on the transport Transylvania. She 
was torpedoed and sunk on Maj' 4th in the Mediterranean, Captain 
Tilburv has been reported " missing, believed drowned " by the War 
Office/ 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hmpital Qazette, June 2nd, 1917.] 



TOLHURST, St. JOHN ALEXANDER MOLESWORTH, 
Capt., N.Z.M.C, T.F. Came to Guy's from Wellington Col- 
lege, New Zealand ,in October, 1901. Qualified Conjoint in 
January, 1907, and passed his Final M.B., B.S. Lond. in 
1909. Whilst at Guy's he held the appointments of Clinical, 
A.H.S., O.P.O. and H.P. Just prior to the war he Avas in 
practice at Wellington, New Zealand. Killed in action May 
I2th, 1918. 



TOWNSEND, THOMAS AINSWORTH, Capt., M.C., 
R.A.M.C, T.F., 24th London Regiment. Was educated at New 
College, Oxford, and entered Guy's in October, 1909. He passed 
the Final Conjoint in 1914 and held the appointment of Oph- 
thalmic House Surgeon till Janu^^ry, 1915. He afterwards left 
for service in Serbia, and subsequently went to France. He 
was awarded the M.C. in 1916. Bar to M.C., 1918. Order 
of St. Sava (Serbia). Wounded, 1917. Killed in action at 
RocqungTiy, March 24th, 1918. 



Obituary. 



91 



ft 




TRAILL, A. A., Capt., R.A.M.C. Was educated at Charter- 
house and New College, Oxford, where he became President of 
the University Lawn Tennis Club and won the Challenge Cup. 
After passing the 1st M.B. he came to Guy's. On qualifying 
he held the appointment of A.H.S. to Mr. Rowlands and on 
the termination of his appointment joined the R.A.M.C. In 
the spring of 1917 he was sent to France. While at Oxford he 
had a severe attack of haemorrhage from a duodenal ulcer, and 
a recurrence of this trouble when with his regiment at the front 
was the cause of his death at the age of 27. 

Captain Anthony Traill was the second son of Mr. and Mrs. E. B. 
Traill, of Felmarsh, Essex. He was born near Dublin on July 1st, 
1890, and was educated at Charterhouse and New College, Oxford. At 
the latter place he became President of the Oxford University Lawn 
Tennis Club, and won the Challenge Cup. While at Oxford he began 
his medical studies, and after passing the first M.B. examination, came 
up to Guy's Hospital. After qualification he held the appointment of 
Assistant House-Surgeon to Mr. Rowlands, and quickly made his namo 
as a most promising operator. On the termination of his appointment 
he joined the R.A.M.C, and was for .some months employed in training 
recruits at R.A.M.C. depots at Aldershot and Blackpool. In the spring 
of 1917 he was sent out to France. While at Oxford he had a severe 
attack of hasmorrhagc caused by a duodenal ulcer, and a recurrence of 
this trouble when with his regiment at the front was the cause of his 
death at tho age of 27. 

His life was one of great promise, and all who knew iiim looked for 
him to excel in his profession. Both at Oxford and at tho Hospital 



92 Obituary. 

Captain Tiuill was extremely popular. He was intensely interested in 
his i)n)i'es.sional work and an extremely quick and able operator. Though 
he (lid not serve for very long in France, he did a great deal of 
valuahlc work in training depots in this country at a time when the 
training of recruits was a more urgent necessity than the provision of 
medical othcers for service at the front. 

I Heprinled from Th" Gui/'.^ Hospital G/izette, September 22nd 1917.] 




TRAILL, KENNETH ROBERT, Lieut., Royal Berks Regt. 
Son of Dr. C. G. Traill, was born January 9tli, 1894. He was 
educated at Sunningxlale School and Bradfiekl College. He 
matriculated at London University and entered Guy's Hospital 
in 191 L He passed 2nd London and 1st Conjoint Examinations 
in 1914. Joined the Inns of Court O.T.C. in August, 1914, and 
received a commission in the 6th Battalion Royal Berkshire Re- 
giment, went to France in June, 1915. He was wounded in 
February and rejoined in March, 1916. Killed on July 1st, 
1916, at the Battle of the Somme. 



Obituary. 



93 




WAG HORN, LEONARD PENGELLY, 2nd Lieut., Royal 

Berks Regt. Entered Guy's 1909. Joined the Forces August, 

1914. Killed in action November, 1914. 

We hear with groat sorrow that Second Lieutenant L. P. Waghorn 
was killed in action on Xovember the Gth. Lionel Pengelly Waghorn. 
aged 24, was educated at Marlborough. He matriculated into Loudon 
University in June, 1909, and entered Guj^'s in the following October. 
He passed the 1st M.B. in July, 1911, and the Second Conjoint Exa- 
mination in October, 1913. 

Second Lieutenant L. P. Waghorn belonged to the Inns of Coirrt 
Officers' Training Squadron, and on the outbreak of the war, at his 
fourth year of medical training at Guy's Hospital, he volunteered for 
service at the front. He was gazetted to the Royal West Kent Ecrjfi- 
mcnt, and from there attached to the Royal Berkshire Regiment. Ho 
had only joined this regim.Qn.t a (few daj^s when he Avas killed in action 
on Xovember Gth. Ho was the second son of Engineer-Captain W. 
Waghorn, R.N., formerly Professor of Phj-sics at the Royal Xaval 
College, Greenwich. — The Tivies, November 17th. 

[Reprinted from The Guy's Hosyital Gazette, November 21st, 1914.] 



Dr. J. W. Waghorn writes: — 

Let me, in the first} place, thank you for yQwx letter and your kind 
and sympathetic appreciation of Leonard's friendship with ,vour.sclf 
and his other hospital friends. As regards any facts of his life : he 
was in his 24th year; he was cducat^l at Morton and Vickcrs' private 
school at Englefield Green. (Morton was the well-known 'Varsity 
bowler and was much attached to Leonard). From there he went to 
Marlborough. His entry and work at Guy's you know better than I 
do probably. 

He was in the Inns of Court Officers' Training Squadron, and had 
been promoted to Lance-Corporal. At the outbreak of war he volun- 
teered for service at the front, but was nnxi'MK. if po-:^ible, to get into 



94 Obituary. 

the R.A.M.C., and consequently did not avail himself of the oppor- 
tunities he had of l^eing appointed to some Yeomanry Corps, and per- 
haps on tliat account was appointed, to his surprise, to an infantry 
regiment, the 3rd Battalion (Reserve) of the Royal West Kent Rejgi- 
mont (Quean's Own). Although he was unacquainted with infantry 
drill and duties, he soon made himself an efficient officer at Chatham, 
and earned the esteem of his Commanding Officer. 

He was attached to the Royal Berk^hires at the commencement of 
October, left for France on October the 3rd, was employed on some 
work neai" the fighting line in which he had frequent occasion to use 
his medical training, but where and what the work was he never told 
us. 

On the 3rd of November he joined the Berkshire^ in the fighting line, 
and was killed outside his " dugout " instantaneoiusly by a splinter of a 
shell on November 6th. 

[Reprinted from The Gwfs Hosjjital Gazette, December 19th, 1914.] 



WATSON, CECIL FEANCIS W., West African M.S. Entered 
Guy's in January, 1892, passed the Final Conjoint in 1899. 
He obtained the Diploma of Tropical Medicine in 1906, and 
the Diploma of Public Health, Ireland, in 1909. He afterwards 
left to take over the part lof Senior M.O. (of the West African 
Medical Staff in Northern Nigeria. Lost at Sea. 

WATT, NORMAN LINDLEY, 2nd Lieut., King Edward's 
Horse and R.F.C. Was educated at Natal and Pembroke 
College, Oxford, and after passing the 1st M.B. Oxon. in 1913, 
entered Guy's in October, 1914. He was in the midst of his 
first clinical appointment when ho joined up, in November of 
the same year. Died of wounds, July 27th, 1917. 

WEARING, DOUGLAS GEORGE, L.D.S. Entered Guy's 
as a Dental Student in April, 1933, qualified L.D.S. Eng. in 
May, 1905; and was Assistant Demonstrator of Metallurgy the 
same year. He settled in practice at Sidcup and wks Consulting 
Dental Surgeon to the Sidcup Cottage Hospital. Died of pneu^ 
monia in Ireland whilst serving with troops as Dental Surgeon. 

WEBSTER, EDWARD MACKAY, 2nd Lieut., Royal Berks 
Regt. Entered Guy's in 1911 as a Medical Student. Killed 
in action August 1st, 1917. 



Obituary. 



95 




WEENBERCt, ALBEKT. Entered 1913. Dental. Joined 
S. A.M.C., 1916 ; went to France, 1917. Killed in action, 1918. 

Born in Brussels on- February lith, 1<S92, the deceased came out to 
South Africa with his parents in November of the same year. Subse- 
quently he laid the foundations of a bright career in the city, and took 
his intermediate examination at the Christian Brothers' College. Later 
he pursued his studies at the Rhodes College, Grahamstown, where he 
was successful in gaining his B.A. degree. Having decided to practice 
dentistry, he first studied at Bloemfontein. In 1913 he proceeded to 
London to pursue his dental course at Guy's Hospital, and he showed 
signs of making his mark in the profession he had selected. In August, 
1910, when he was within nine months of qualifying in dentistry, he 
.■sacrificed this in order to" participate in th3 war: this, despite the fact 
that had he but waited the further short period in order to qualify, 
he could have secured his commission. At the outset he joined the South 
African Medical Corps, but in the early part of 1917 he was drafted 
to the South. African Field Ambulance in France. He participated in 
all the hard fighting with the South African Brigade, and on account 
of his knowledge of dentistry his services were frequently requisitioned 
at the base when opportunity offered. He cheerfully braved all the 
hardships of campaigning, and his letters to his parents were written 
in optimistic strain. He has nobly oflered his young life, as so many 
others have done, on the altar of sacrifice for the cause of righteousness 
and freedom. 

Private Albert Weinberg had a promising career. Amongst his many 
accomplishments he was a brilliant violinist, and whilst in Kimbcrley 
he was a member of the Kimberley Musical Association, and frequently 
gave his services as a solo violinist at various charitable efforts. 

[Reprinted from Th-^ Diamond Fields Advertisir, Kimberley, Wednes- 
day, October 30th, 1918.] 



90 Obituary. 




WELLER, CHARLES, Capt., R.A.M.C., 3rd Cavalry Divi- 
sion. Entered Guy's 1903, qualified L.D.S. .1905 and L.R.C.P., 
M.R.C.S. 1910. Killed in action, 1917. 

Capt. Charles Weller, R.A.M.C, 2/3rd London Field Ambulanct.. 
Married. Only child of Mr. Charles Weller, Clarendon House, Eedhill, 
Surrey. Killed in the trenches at Ypres, August 16th, 1917. 

Volunteered for servicei at the outbreak of war. Joined the R.A.M.C. 
as a lieutenant, November 4th, 1911, and sent to France to No. 1 
Clearing Hospital. Promoted Captain after one year's service, and 
was M.O. with the 3rd Cavalry Field ximbulancs for another year. He 
took four months' leave to attend to [his own practice and returned to 
France, March 24th, 1917, and was M.O. 'at No. 11 General Hospital 
until May when it w^as given over to the Americans. He then joined 
the 2/3rd London Field Ambulance, and at (the time of his death had 
been lent as M.O. to the 1st London Regiment. 

Cop3^ of letter sent me from Franc©: — 

" On August 16th the division w^ere in (action and the 1st Londons, 
to which the late Captain was attached, w^ere in the trenches, word 
came down to the Regimental Aid Post that the Batt. Headquarters 
had been shelled and that officers were buried. 

Capt. Weller decided to igo forward and took with him two squads 
of stretcher bearers. When he reached the communication trench the 
enemy began their counter-attack and the late Captain decided it was 
unsafe to prcfDead, at least for a time. Several wounded men were 
lying near and he visited most of them, and thein took jshelter in the 
trench. 



I 



Ohittiary. 97 



After he had been tlielrc a few fiiioments, he lurned and said ' I am 
hit.' He was bleeding from the uppeir 'part of his forearm, and whilst 
I was trying to Btay the flow of blood his head fell over mj lirni. I 
removed his steel helmet and found his brains protruding from his 
forehead, and he expiiet-d in a few [moments. He met his death nobly 
carrying oiit his duty in this diabolical War." 

This was written by a corporal who was with him by orders of 
Colonel Ducat. Colonel Ducat 'adds he was greatly liked and respected 
by all, and both myself and the rest of my officers feel his loss deeply, 
hnviiie lo=;t n ir-'iU'int officer and a friend. 




WHITWORTH, HENRY PAEKS, Capt., M.C., R.A.M.C., 
att. Scottish Borderers. Son of Dr. Win. Whit worth, St. 
Agnes, Scorrier, Cornwall. Entered Guy's October, 1908, hav- 
ing* x)assed the London Matriculation in the preceding July. 
He passed the M.B., B.S. Lond. in July, 1911, and the Final 
Conjoint in March, 1914. Held all the Ward appointments 
and in addition Clinical and O.P.O. in 1914. He was severely 
wounded in the summer of 1916, and subsequently was on 
Home Service for some time, but returned to France in 1918. 
Died of wounds, October 29fch, 1918. 

WILLIAMSON, GERALD COUTTS, 2nd Lieut., Esse.x Regt. 
Was educated at Bishop's Stortford College, and came to Guy's 

PAKT I. G 



98 Ohittiary. 

as a Third Year Dental Student in May, 191.3. He passed the 
Preliminary Science Exam, prior to entering the Hospital, and 
the First Professional in November, 1913. He went on active 
service soon after war broke out, l)ut Mias killed in Flanders on 
October 9th, 1917. 

WYAND, EDWARD HERBERT. Son of S. I. Wyand, 
Esq., of Lexham Gardens, W. Entered Guy's as a Dental 
Student in October, 1899, and qualified L.D.S. in November, 
1901. During the South African War he was Civil Dental 
Surgeon to the South African Field Forces, and later. Avas 
Dental Surgeon to the Troops at Aldershot. 



Obitmry. 99 

DEAN, Miss CONSTANCE W. Entered Guy's Hospital iu 
July, 1912, and left on completion of three years' training- to 
take her C.M.B. Certificate, after which she held the post of 
Staff Nurse at the Cottage Hospital, Beckenliani for a short 
time. She then took an appointment under the British Red 
Cross Society, and died of pneumonia following- influenza at 
Woburn Abbey Hospital on Decamber -Ith, 1918. 





GLADSTONE, Miss ELSIE M. Entered Guy's Hospital 
as a Probationer in June 1912, and on completion of her 
training- in July, 1915, joined the Civil Hosj)ital Reserve, and 
served on a hospital ship before going to France. She ct>u- 
tracted influenza which was followed by pneumonia while work- 
ing- at the 48th Casualty Clearing Station in France, and died 
on January 24th, 1919. She wa.s awarded the Royal Red 
Cross 2nd Class, but did nofc live to i-ecoive it. She was buriod 
in France with military honours. 



100 



Obituary. 




HOPKINS, Miss EVELYN. Entered Guy's Hospital as a 
Probationer in December, 1912, and on completion of her train- 
ing joined the Private Staff of the Guy's Trained Nurses' Insti- 
tution, leaving- in April, 1917, to take up work in a Military 
Hospital. She was appointed a Sister lat the Endsleigh Palace 
Hospital and during her service there, contracted influenza and 
died of pneumonia on November 5th, 1918. 



Ohiluury 



101 




MORRELL, Miss Mary L. Entered Guy's Hospital a,s a Pro- 
bationer in September, 1913, and on completion of her training- 
in October, 1916, joined the staff of the Guy's Trained Nurses' 
Institution. Early in 1917, she joined the Q.A.I.M.N.S.R., 
and in December, 1918, she was invalided home from Salonika. 
She returnad to her home in Ireland but did not recover, tmd 
died on Augfust 18th, 1919, after a long illness. Her funeral 
was conducted with military honours, and attended by a largo 
contingent of local ex-soldiers. 



102 ObUuary. 

VVOODUEAD, Mrs. Agno.s (uco Walkor). Entoiod Guyb 
Hospital as a Probationer in Au<^ust, 189G, but was obliged to 
loavo on account of ill health in November, 1897, without com- 
pleting' her training. She regained her health later and was 
able to take appointments as Stall: Nurse and Sister in Provin- 
cial Hospitals. On the outbreak of war slie took a[)pointmonts 
under the British Red Cross Society, and in December, 11)17, 
was appointed Night Superintendent at King Edward Vll. 
Hospital, Windsor, and died there on May Gth, 1919, from the 
after effects of an operation. 



Paet II 



Honours. i07 



Decorations and Honours. 



Victoria Cross (V.C.) 

ACKKOYD. Capt. H., M.C., M.D., late K.A.M.C. (attached Royal Berks. 
Regiment). 
For most conspicuous bravery. During recent operations Capt. 
Ackroyd displayed the greatest gallantxy and devotion to duty. 
Utterly regardless of danger, he worked continuously for many 
hours up and down and in fi'ont of the line, tending- thie 
wounded and saving the lives of officers and men. In so doing 
he had to move across the open under heavy machine-gun, rifle 
and shell fire. 

Distinguished Service Order 
Companions 'with Bar (D.S.O.) / 

Dear, Lt.-Col. H. J., D.S.O., London Regt., 1918. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. During an action 
he commanded his battalion in the most gallant and determined 
manner, rushed the crossing of a stream, and captured many 
prisoners. It was largely due to his personality and gallantry 
that this operation proved a success. 

OSBURN, Major A. C, D.S.O., R.jA.M.C, 1918, 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. On seeing the enemy 
approaching close to his dressing ^ptation, he carried out the evacu- 
ation of the wounded under heavy shell fire in the coolest and 
most gallant manner. Having cleared away all the cases by 
ambulance train and cars, he re-established his dressing station 
further in the rear. As officer commanding bearer divisions he 
constantly inspected his line of bearer posts and forward dressing 
station under heavy fire. The successful evacuation of the 
wounded from the divisional front was due to his careful organi- 
sation and fearless supervision under the most trying conditions. 
He was an example of gallantry, courage and resource worthy 
of the highest praise. 

Pye-Smith. Lt.-Ck>l. C. D., D.S.O., M.C., R.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty when in commanfl 
of the three field ambulances of the division during txjn days' 
operations. Though the weather conditions were abnormally bad. 
and a large number of the wounded of another division had not 
been evacuated; owing to his •prcf^ence, conduct and influeoice, all 
the wounded were got away promptly and without assistance from 
the infantry. 

Companions (D.S.O.) 

FUgshawe, Brevet Lt.-Col. H.V., R.A.M..C,, 19 in. 
Barron, Brevet Lt.-Col. R. M., I. M.S., 1918. 
Barrow, Lt.-Col. H. P. W., R.A.M.C, 1918. 



108 Honours. 

Bird, Lieut. -Col. Johu Wilfred, R.A.M.C. (T.F.), 6th London Field 
Ambuhmce. 
For conspicuous devotion to duty, during operations at Maxoc and 
Loo«, between Septcinibcr 25th and HOth, 1915, in dealing 
with casualties. On one occasion he worked for 23 hours with- 
out any cessation in dressing* and tending the wounded. He act 
a fine example, which liad far-reaching results. 

Beown, Lt.-Col. R. T., R.A.M.C. 

Brown, Major T. F., R.A.M.C. 

Browne, Lt.-Col. G. B., R.F.A., 1917. 

Butler, Lt.-Col. A. G., R.A.M.C, 1917. 

Collins, Lt.-Col. R. T., R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Cooper, Staff Surg. H., R.N. 

COPLANS, Lt.-Col. M;, A.D.M.S., R.A.M.C. 

Crawford, Lt.-Col. V. J., R.A.M.C. 

Davies, Lt.-Col. W. T. F. 

Dear, Lt.-Col H. J., R.A.M.C attached London Regt. 

DowsETT, Lt.-Col. E. B., R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Dymott, Major G. Lang, 281st Battery, R.F.A. 

Evans, Brevet Col. C R., R.A.M.C. 

Evans, Lt.-Col. J., R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Falwasser. Lt.-Col. A. T., R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Farrington. Capt. W. B., Notts and Derby Regt., attached R.F.C., 
1918. 

Gbiffin, Capt. E. H. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He established 
his dressing station well forward during an attack, and went up 
to the front line through a storm of artillery and machine-gun 
fire utterly regardless of personal safety. He moved about in the 
open for 36 hours without food or rest attending to the wounded, 
often leading parties of bearers through heavy barrages unt 1 every 
wounded man had been carried back. He remained behind aftei' 
the battalion was relieved, sfll searching for wounded under heavy 
fire, though several times badly shaken by the explosion of the 
shells. He stet a most inspiring example of courage and devotion 
to duty. 

HORTON, Brevet Lt.-Col. J. H., I.M.S. 

Lauder, Major J. F. L., R.A.M.C. 

Layton, Lt.-Col. T. B., R.A.M.C, T.F., 1918. 

Leckie, Capt. Malcolm, R.A.M.C, 1914. 

For gallant conduct and exceptional devotion to duty in attend- 
ing wounded at Frameries, where he wa^ himself wounded. 

Lewis, Lt.-Col. R. P., R.A.M.C, S.R., 1918. 
Littlejohns, Major A. S., R.A.M.C, 1917. 
Minns, Capt. A. N., R.A.M.C 
MoFFATT. Lt.-Col. H. A., S.A.M.C, 1917. 
Murray, Lt.-Col. C M., S.A.M.C, 1918. 
OsBORN, Major A. C, R.A.M.C. 



Hxmoivrs. 109 

Pallant, Capt. H. A., M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. Hearing that a 
number of men belonging to* another battalion were on the enemy 
bank of a river and unable to cross it owing to the bridge being 
destroyed, and to their being apparently unable to swim, he 
hurri^ to the scene, swam the river fully clothed, and induced 
the men to enter the water and cross with the aid of a ropti. 
The most exhausted one he personally conveyed across. During the 
time the enemy were continually shelling both the river and the 
banks. He set a splendid example of energy and devotion to 
duty. 

Pallant, Brevet Lt.-Col. S. L.. R.A.M.C., 1917. ' 

PiLCHER, Lt.-Col. E. M., R.A.M.C. 

Pollock, Lt.-Col. C. E., A.M.S., Headquarters Staff. 

Powell, Lt.-Col. J. E., R.A.M.C, 1917. 

PURDOK, Lt.-Col. W. B., R.A.M.C. 

Pye-Smith, Lt.-Col. C. D., M.C, R.A.M.C 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. When in charge 
of an advanced dressing station his serg-eant-major and the whole 
of his staff were killed. He reorganised the work with the assis- 
tance of a lance-corporal, and in consequence of his energy 
and presence lof mind the work was not delayed. He led his 
fjearers continually into tlie front line, rescuing wounded under 
heavy shell fire, and working with great heroism for 60 hours, 
setting a splendid example to all. 

Reynolds, Lt.-Col. L. L. C, Oxford and Bucks L.T., 1910. 

Richards. Capt. J. F. G., R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Richards, Capt. Owen, R.A.M.C 

Richardson, Col. H., R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Stewart. Capt. J. L., M.C 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. Although hip 
aid-poet was in the open, a few yards behind the front line. 
he remained there caring for the wounded, and through his 
efforts they were all dressed and evacuated. He was the only 
medical officer of the brigade left. 

Stout, Major T. D. M., N.Z.M.C, 1917. 

Stuart, Lt.-Col. H. D., R.A.M.C, 9th Linc^. R^t., 1917. 

Walkrr, Brevet Major A., R.A.M.C, 1918. 

HJe established forward dressing stations and continued to work 
in them until forced to move by the immediate proximity of the 
enemy. He was repeatedly working in the open under heavy 
fire, no protection being available. lie undoubtedly saved many 
lives which would have been lost but for his initiative. 

WAtsoN. Major D, R, ^l.A.M.C, 48th Field Ambulance, 1918. 

Willan, Lt.-Col. G. T., R.A.M.C (T.F.), 1917. 

Wright, Lt.-Col. T. J., R.A.M..C,, 1917. 

Young, Major J., R.A.M.C, East Lanes. F.A., 1918. 



110 Honours. 

Distinguished Service Cross (D.S.C.) 

llELSHAM. Surg.-Lioiit. ChrLstopher T., R.N., II.M.S. Broke. 

The King has been j^aciously pleased to give an order for the 
award of the Distin^ai ished Service Cross to Surg.-Prob. 
Christopher T. Helsham, E.N.V.R., H.M.S. Broke, who worke<i 
with great energy and ability in attending the wounded in thf 
i-ecent action with Grerman destroyers in the Channel. 

OSMAN, Prob. Sub. -Lieut. A. A., R.N., 1918. 

2nd Bar to Military Cross (M.C.) 

Hancock, Temp. Capt. (Act. jVIajor) Allen Coulter, M.C, R.A.M.C. 
(attached II.L.I.), 1917. 
He established his A.D.S. in the village, although it was under 
veiy heavy shell fire. He attended and evacuated a very large 
number of wounded, working all night, finally going out him- 
self along the front to see if there wore any left. 

Bar to Military Cross (M.C.) 

BiDDLE, Major E., M.C, R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Chaning-Pearce, Capt. Wilfred Thomas, M.C, R.A.M.C, 1917. 

Davies, Major J. Edgar, R.A.M.C, attached South Wales Borderers. 

German, Capt. H. B., M.C, R.A.M.C. 

While in charge of fetretcher bearers he supervised the <'vacuation 
of the wounded from the front line to the advanced dressing 
station, often under heavy shell fire. He also continuously dressed 
wounded in a dressing station unprotected from shell fire. 

Griffin, Capt. E. H., M.C, R.A.M.C. 

Hancock, Temp. Capt. (Act. Major) Allen Coulter. M.C, R.A.M.C 
(attached H.L.I.), 1917. 
For conspicuous good work in (advanced dressing stations, notably 
when he successfully conducted evacuation of wounded under 
heavy shell fire and adverse circmnstances. Again, when the CO. 
was wounded, Capt. Hancock took command and by his initiative, 
personal courage, and devotion to duty was responsible for the 
able carrying out of "wounded thro!u|gfh a barrage of shell ficre for 
six days. He was then severely gassed, but persisted in attempt- 
ing duty until physically incapable. 

Haynes, Capt. C G., M.C, 4th King's Royal Rifles, 1917. 

In the fighting in Shrewsbury Forest, Ypres Sector, 1917, he 
successfully led attacks on three strong points, and later, aided 
by one man, he captured a dug-out iind took two officers and 
four other ranks prisoners. 

Jones, Capt. J. P., M.C, R.A.M.C 

Kennedy, Majoi- R. S., M.C, R.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. When in charge 
of advanced bearers he collected and led forward reinforcing 
bearer squads in a Imoist gallant mannea* through a hejnvy barrage 
and through lines of retiring infantry, until he gained touch 
with the regimental aid-post. He cleared many wounded who 
would otherwise have been left to the enemy. A splendid example 
of persevering gallantry and fearlessness. 



Honours. Ill 

Lauder, Major J. F. L., M.C., R.A.M.C., 1918. 

Messenger, Capt. H. L., M.C., R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Shearwood, Major- A. L., M.C., R.A.M.C. (S.R.), 1918. 

Stephenson, Major John, M.C., R.A.M.C, 1917. 

Stewart, Capt. James Lennox, M.C., R.A.M.C. aUacht'd to the Gordon 
Highlanders. 
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He behaved 
with the utmost gallantry in removing the wounded under shell 
fire. He continued to work in the open, exposed to severe shell 
and machine-gun fire until every wounded man had be-'n brought 
in. 

TowNSEND, Capt. T. A., M.C., R.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. .Vlthuugh twice 
wounded, he refused to have his wounds attended to, and con- 
tinued to dress the wounded under a continuous and heaVy con- 
centration of high explosives and gas shells. Not only did he 
attend the wounded and gassed of his own unit, but rendered 
aid under conditions of great difficulty to wounded of neighboui- 
ing battalions whose medical officers had become casualties. His 
complete disregard of personal danger and splendid devotion weie 
a magnificent example to all. 

Wood, Capt. C. A., M.C., I.M.S., attached 1/1 Gurkhas, 1917. 



Military Cross (M.C.) 

AcKiiovD, Capt. Harold, R.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty during operations, 
i te tended the wounded under heavy fire, and finally when he had 
seen that all our wounded men from behind the lines had been 
got in, he went out beyond the front line, and brought in both 
our own and enemy wounded, although continually sniped at. 

Andrews. Lieut. -Col. J. A. 

Annesley, Capt. F. D., R.A.M.C, 1918. 

When a report was brouglit to lu^adquarters of a brigade that 
the cook-house of the battery had been struck, and that there 
were many killed and wounded men inside, he immediately left 
his aid-post and went forward to see what assistance he could 
give. Whilst going up a shell struck the remaining portion of 
the cof)k-house, partially bmying occupants. lie personally as- 
sisted in extricating the*men, drcs<el thiwr wounds on the spot, 
under heavy shell fire, and got th(!m sal'cly to tht* dressing 
station. His promptness rmd courage were undoirbtedly the meanp 
of saving many lives. 

Ballard, Major R. P., R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Baxter. Capt. C W. W., I.M.S., 1917. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. Wiuii uud<r 
hejivy shell and riilc fire lie dispLiyod gnat gallantly and devotion 
to duty in attending to and ev.Kuiatiiui th<' wouiidfl. flis ser- 
vices proved of inestimable value. 

Bexstead. Capt. H. J.. R.A.:S[.r., 191S. 



112 Honours. 

Bevib, 2iid Lt. Sidney William, R.F.A. 

For conspicuoas gallantry and devotion to duty. When tdephonie 
and visual communication was impossible and his orderUes were 
absent on duty, he thrice carried messages from the front line 
under intensely heavy shell fire. • 

BiDDLE, Major E., R.A.M.C, 1917. 

For conspicuous galhmtry and devotion. He showed great gal- 
lantry in supervising the r<imov;il of the wounded from a heavily 
shelled area. By his untiring energy and disregard of poTsonMl 
danger he saved many lives. 

BoswELL, Oapt. P. R., 1918. 

Browne, Major E. Gardner, E.G. A. (T.F.). 

Chaning-Pearce, Capt. Wilfred Thos., R.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in attending tiu; 
woimded men belonging to nine different battalions under 
heavy and continuous shell fire. His aid post was the only one 
in the vicinity in such a forward position, and he worked con- 
tinuously and without rest until all the wounded had been at- 
tend^id to, displaying splendid devotion to duty. 

Clark, Capt. A. J., A. M.S., 1917. 

Connolly, Capt. B. G., 1918. 

Conybeare, Capt. J. J., R.A.M.C, late INlajor 4t.h Oxford and Bucks 
Light Infantry, 1915. 

Cook. Capt. John, R.A.M.C, 1917. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He went out 
under heavy shell fire, attended to the wounded, carrying them 
to cover, and setting a fine example of fearlessness and devotion. 

Crawford, H. G. 

Crosse, Capt. S. Spencer, R.A.M.C, 18th Bait. King's Royal Riiies, 1918. 
Thanks to his untiring efforts in tending wounded under heavy 
fire no wounded were left in the enemy hands. 

Darke, Capt. S. J., R.A.M.C. (attached West Surrey Regt.). 

For conspicuous and gallant conduct in the field. Aithou'jfh 
badly wounded he worked for five-and-half hours under heavy 
shell fire, tending the 'wounded without letting anyone know he 
was wounded himself. His gallantry throughout the operation 
was very fiine. 

Davies, Major J. Edgar, R.A.M.C, attached South Wales BordewM-s. 

Davis, Capt. H. H., R.A.M.C. (attached York, and Lanes. Regt), 
1918. 

Dean, Capt. C, R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Denver, Act.-Col. C H., R.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty when in com- 
mand of divisional bearers. It was due to his fearless and 
capable handling of his party that the evacuation of the woundcKl 
was carried out with rapidity and success. 

Douglas, Lt.-Col. Claude Gordon. 

Dresing, Capt. H. G., R.A.M.C, 1917. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. After being 
shelled out of his dressing station he took up another position 
and continued throughout the day, and performed operations 
under heavy shell fire, which was causing continual casual tiu^ 
around him. 



Honours. 113 

Duckworth, Capt. J.B.H., 7th Worcesters. 

Dunning, Hon. Capt. J. B., R.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous and gallant conduct in the field. He went into 
the open under heavy Bhell fixe and tended the wounded until he 
was severely wounded himself. 

Socles, Capt. G. D., R.A.M.C. 

While evacuating wounded from the fixing line, although obliged 
to retire on four separate occasions, he, with great skill and 
resourcefulness, cleared all his wounded safely. His complete 
disr^ard to danger was entirely responsible for a completely 
successful evacuation under circumstances of considerable difficulty. 

Edwards. Capt. C. D., R.A.M.C. 

Elliot, Capt. H. H., R.A.M.C. 

During several days' operations he was out under heavy fire, 
finding wounded men, attending to them, and helping them back 
to the aid-post; and though wounded, continued at duty. When 
his aid-post received several direct hits, he succeeded in evacu- 
ating all the wound e<l to a safer position. Ho set .n fine exanip3e 
to his stretcher bearers. 

Elltston, Capt. G. S.. R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Evans, Capt. Ed., R.A.M.C. 

Evans, Capt. H. W., R.A.M.C. (Special Reserve), 1917. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He showed the 
utmost bravery and zeal when commanding a stretcher bearer 
division. He directed the bearers and tended the wounded in the 
open. By his exertion he secured the efficient clearing of the 
wounded over a very big dist^nnce. 

Evans, Capt. J. A., R.F.A., 1917. 

Evans. Capt. L. W., R.A.M.C. (attached 9th Ea.st Laucs. Regt.), 1918. 

Far KINGTON, 2nd Lt. R. G., R.F.A. (Special Reserve). 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty when his battery 
was subjected tQ( a very heavy hostile fire in an exposed position. 
He rallied his men and set them a fine example of his coolness 
and determination, personally unloading ammimition under heavy 
shell fire, and reorganising the teams as they suflFered loss. 
During two da3rs' heavy fighting he set a splendid example of 
gallantry and disregard of danger. 

Fklton, Major R., R.A.M.C, 1916. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty during operations. 
He tended the wounded during an intense bombardment, svnd a 
few days later, when a shell blew* in the orderly room killing 
three men and burying the remainder, he rescued (he? latter under 
most dangerous conditions. But for his pluck iuid devotion to 
duty many more lives would have been lost. 

Fry, Capt. W. Kolsey. 

FoLLBE, Capt. F. H., R.A.M.C. 

Furlong, D. W. 

Qalbraith, Capt. D. H. A.. R.A.M.C, 1917. 

George, Capt. W., R.A.M.C. 1917. 



114 Honours. 

German, Capt. 11. B., K.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. When his 
dressing station was heavily shelled he organised th.(i removal of 
38 stretcher cases. He also rescued several wounded of anothei- 
division under heavy shell fire. He established dressing stations 
without delay at various stages in an advance of four or five 
miles, and so enabled the wounded to be rapidly evacuated. 

GODDrNG, Capt. H. C, K.A.M.G. 

Goldstein, Capt. H. M., R.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in establishing a 
forward aid-post in our advanced lines over a mile in front of 
Ills regimental aid-post. By his courageous decision to reiuuiu 
there, in spite of heavy shelling, and his great gallantry and de- 
votion in attending to the wounded, all the casualtie^s were 
evacuated before the battalion was relieved. 

GkekxVE, Capt. J. A. C, E.A.M.C, 1917. 

When an advanced dressing station was shelled with «-inch shells, 
he at once went to the spot and began to dig out men that were 
buried. Though the shelling continued, he did not desist until 
satisfied that the men were dead. He then assisted in clearing 
the entrance to the dressing station and attended to the wounded 
within. He showed a total disregiard to personal snfoty in his 
efforts to save life. 

Griffin, Capt. E. H., E.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in action. With- 
out food or sleep he worked incessantly, tending the woimdod 
of his own and other units under heavy fire. He showed an 
absolute disregard of danger. On other occasions he has done 
similar gallant work. 

Hampton, Lieut. F. A., R.A.M.C. 

Hancock, Temp. Captain (Act. Major), Allen Coulter, E.A.M.C. (at- 
tached H.L.I.), 1916. 
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He led a rescue 
piixty in the open under heavy fire, and rescued 28 wounded 
men. He displayed great courage and determination throughout 
tlie operation. 

Hardy. Capt. G. F., E.A.M.C, 1917. 

Harris, Major L. Price, E.A.M.C, 1918. 

Harrison, Major S. S. B., 1917. 

Havxes, Capt. C G., 4th King's Eoyal Eifles, 1916. 

At the Schwaben Eedoubt, " He led bombing attacks with great 
courage and determination, and finally after bombing for one 
and a half hoiuxs, was able to capture two officers and fifty ineii. 

Henderson, Lt. H. J., E.A.M.C, attached Essex Regt., 1917. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He established 
his aid-post within 300 yards of the enemy's position, and dressed 
and evacuated cases in the open. It was due to his splendid 
example, cheerfulness and courage that a great number of lives 
were saved. ' 

Henhy, Lt. C J., E.F.A., S.R. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty when Liaison 
Officer with an infantry battalion. When communications with 
the artillery were cut he and his two telephonists made every 



I 



Honours. 115 

effort to re-establish communication until it became impossible. 
He was of the greatest assistance in helping to get men from 
battalion headquarters, and a tunnelling! company out of a txmnel. 
and by his coolness and cheerfulness under extremely heavy fia« 
he set a splendid example to all ranks. 

Hodgson, Capt. Stewart, K.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty during recent 
operations. For a whole day, often under direct rifle and 
machine-gun fire, he attended the wounded and directed their 
evacuation. Althoug^h wounded he continued his duties with 
exceptional coolness and skill until the advancing enemy com- 
pelled withdrawal. 

Hudson. 2nd Lt. E. P., R.F.A. (Special Reserve). 

When the battery was heavily shelled lq a forward position, he 
set a splendid example of coolness and courage ^to his men. Later 
in the day he took command of the battery in a most diflBcult 
situation and conducted a withdrawal under heavy fire. It was 
largely owing to his determined efforts that the operation was 
successfully carried out. 

Jackson, Major R. W. P., R.A.M.C.. 1918. 

Johnson, Major William, R.A.M.C, 1916. 

Jones, Capt. J. Gaymer, R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Jones, Capt. J. P., R.A.M.C. 

Jones. Capt. J. T., R.A.M.C, 1917. 

Jones. Major R.O.H., R.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. For many 
hours he had to occupy a most exposed position under heavy 
fire, where he dressed and attended the wounded at gre;ir per- 
sonal risk. 

Kelsey, Lt. W., R.A.M.C. 

Kennedy, Major R. S., R.A.M.C, 1917. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in dressing and 
attending to wounded men 'under extremely heavy shell fire. At 
great risk of his life he made several journeys to (he front line 
and personally brought in wounded men who othciwisc must hive 
ber;n killed by the intense hostile barrage. 

Lauder. Major J. F. L., 1916. 

Ltebson. Capt. A. Stephen, S.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty when tending 
the wounded during operations. Though himself wounded and 
with nothing bu(t a small! trench to work in, he carried on during 
several days under heavy shell and sniping fire with the gro;ite6t 
courage, t 

Lindsay, Lt. G. P., 2nd Border Regt., 1917. 

Litchfield, Capt. P. C, 1918. 

Lloyd. Capt. V. E., R.A.M.C, 1918. 

While in charge of stretcher bi'ai-eis he worke<i for hours under 
shell fire evacuating wounded, and in an advanced dressing stjition 
exposed to shell fire heJ dressed and evacuated a kiTge number of 
wounded . 

Lucas. Major R. H., A. M.S., 1918. 



11^ Honours. 

Mankibld, Major G. H. H., R.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in action. He 
worked day and night tending the wounded in our advanced 
positions under iieavy fire, and carried many of them down the 
trench after all his bearers had been wounded. 

Marsh. 2nd Lt. H. E., R.F.A. (T.), 1917. 

For bravery in the field during the Messines-Ypres offensive. 

Marshall, Capt. B. S., A.M.S., 1918. 

MA8H. Lt. 0. N.. R.F.A., 1917. 

During a il)fOinb;u:dment of his babteiy position a dump of howitzer 
charges was set on fire by a shell. The dangei- of the situation 
was greatly added to by, some, gas shells which had been scattered 
amongst the burning charges, but this officer, with the greafxist 
coolness and courage, rushed to the fire and extinguished it, by 
his prompt and gallant action preventing an explosion which 
would undoubtedly have had serious and far-reaching results. 

Messenger, Capt. H. L., R.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty while an excep- 
tionally heavy shoot was being carried out by a battery. He 
crossed 400 yards in the open under heavy baiTage to attend to a 
wounded man. On his way he was knocked down by an ex- 
ploding sheU, but in Ispite of this he proceeded with his duties. 
He showed great grit and determination. 

Milton, Capt. Leonard, R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Minns, Capt. A. N. 

MULLALLY, Major G. T., R.A.M.C. (S.R.), 1917. 

Nelson, Capt. K. M., R.A.M.C, 1917. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in attending to 
the wounded with the utmost fearlessness under heavy shell and 
machine-gun fire. He constantly went out to our most ad\anced 
positions in aid of the wounded, and his careful search <if the 
battlefield resulted in most of the serious cases being found and 
brought back to the Idi-essing station. His unselfish devotion was 
directly the cautse of bo [many lives being saved. 

Newland, Capt. W. D., R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Pali.ant, Capt. H. A., R.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty when attending 
to the wounded imder heavy fire. Later he voluntarily acted a« 
stretcher bearer, and helped to Carry off nearly forty wounded 
under heavy shell and machine-gun fire. 

Paetridge, Capt. W. L., R.A.M.C. 

Passey, Capt. R. D., 1918. 

Petley, Act. Major C E., R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Phillips, Lt.-Col. E., R.A.M.C, 1918. 

PoPHAM, Rev. A. E. ^ ^ 

PXJBDOM, Lt.-Col. W. B. 

PUEKiss, Capt. K. N., R.A.M.C, 1919. 

Pye-Smith, Lt.-Col. C D., R.A.M.C. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He tended 
and dressed the wounded under intense fire throughout the 
operations with great courage and determination. He haa on 
many previous occasions done very fine work. 



Honours. J 17 

Beinhold, Lt.-Col. C. H., I.M.S. 

Reynolds, Capt. W. J^. E., ll.A.M.C, 1917. 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in working con- 
tinuously for twenty-four houi-s amongst the wounded. In ad- 
dition to his work at the regimental aid-post he went to tlie 
front frequently by day and night attending the wounded under 
heavy fire. 

Roche, Capt. E. H., K.G.A., 1916. 

Saw, Capt. N. H. W., R.A.M.C, M.O. i/c 4th Batt. Worcester Reet., 
1916. 

Searle, Major Chas. F., R.A.M.C, 1/4 Northampton R^t., 1917. 

Sharp, Lieut. N. A. D., R.A.M.C, attached Nigerian Regt. 

Shaw, Lieut. G. D., R.F.A., 1917. 

Shearwood, Major A. L., R.A.M.C (S.R.), 34th Field Ambulance. 

Smart, Major H. D., R.A.M.C, attached Lanes. Regt. 

Smith, Capt. H. Joste, R.A.M.C (T.F.), East Anglian F.A., 1917 
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He followed 
his battalion in the attack, and attended to the wounded nil day 
and night under very heavy fire of every description. It wa8 
due to his courage and spl(;ndid devotion that so many of the 
wounded were brought in. 

Smith, Capt. Philip, R.A.M.C. 

Starlixg, Capt. E. C VV., R.A.M.C. (Special Reserve). 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He remained 
day and night at his post under continuous shell fire, and was 
untiring in his work on behalf of the wounded, to whom his 
unremitting care and umuflied calmness was the greatest com- 
fort and assistance. He set a splendid example of courage and 
self-sacrifice. 

Stkphenson, Major John, R.A.M.C 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty when in charge 
of stretcher bearers. He remained in charge ot his se'.'Lor 13 
days, refusing to be relieved, although his bearers had to be rein- 
forced and the aid-post had constantly to change position owing 
to heavy shell fire. His personal example and gallant Jeadej.ship 
were largely responsible for the way in which bearers stuck to 
their dutj;. 

Stewart, Capt. J. L., attached lx) the Gordon Highlanders. 

TowNSEND, Capt. T. A., R.A.M.C 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He displayiid 
great courage and determination in rescuing several men who had 
bean buried under heavy fire. On three previous occasions he 
has done very fine work. 

ViDOT, Capt. 8., R.A.M.C 

He carried on his work continually imder heavy shell fire 
throughout the operations, and stayed In^hiud afttir the battalion 
was relieved to attend to the wounded. He had previously 
entered a dugout which was full of fuine> imd rescued a wounded 
officer. 

Walker. Act. Major ^o.•^h\h, R.A.M.C, 1918. 

In carrying out his work at an aid-|>ost station which was c^- 
tinually being shelUvl, his organisation and arrangements for 



118 Honours. 

the work \v(!rc admirable; 120 woandod passed through his hands, 
all congestion was avoid<'-d, and the dispatch with which they 
were collecbed and evacuated probably saved many lives. 

TYatkin, Capt. P. J., K.A.M..C,, tittiu-Aied to the Bedfordshire Itegt. 
For two days he drassed tfie wounded undcu- licavy shell fire, 
and when the captured trenches had been cleaiei he commenced 
to search the shell Iholets in " No Man's Land " in spite of heavy 
sniping fire, until ordered, to desist. 

Wood, Capt. C. A., I.M.S., attached 1/4 Gurkhas, 1917. 

Air Force Cross (A.F.C.) 

Wright, Capt. J. A. Snarey, 1918. 

Military Medal (M.M.) 

Hawkins, Lieut. C. F., 1917. 
Lloyd, Pte. 0. 0., Artists' Eifles. 
Start, Lance-Corporal S., M.G.C. 

Order of the Bath. 
Companion (C.B.) 
Browne, Major-General E. G. 
BuRGHARD, Colonel F. F. (Civil). 
Connolly, Col. B. B. 
Davy, Col. Sir H., 1917. 
E.\S0N, Lieut.-Col. H. L., 1919. 
Lane, Col. Sir W. A., Bt., 1917. 
Luce, Major-General Sir E. H., 1916. 
PiLCHER, Lieut.-Col. E. M., 1918. 

Pryn, Surgeon Eeax Admiral Sir W. W., 1917 (Civil). 
Eawnsley, Lieut.-Col. G. T., 1918. 
Symonds, Col. Sir Charters J., 1916. 
Tubby, Col. A. H., 1917. 

Order of St. Michael and St. George. 
Knight Commander (K.C.M.G.) 

Atkins, Col. Six John, 1919. 

Luce, Major-G«neral Sir E. H., 1919. 

Companion (C-M.G.) 

Atkins, Col. Sir John, 1916. 

Barrow, Lieut.-Col. li. P. W., 1917. 

Brown, Lieut.-Col. E. T., 1918. 

Browne, Major-General E. G. 

Davies-Colley, Col. E., 1918. 

Benyer, Capt. S. E. i 

-Douglas, Lieut.-Col. C. G., 1919. 



Honours. 119 

Bason. Lieut.-Col. H. L., 1917. 
GWYN, Lieut.-Gol. W. P., ]919. 
Humphrey, Brevet Colonel L., 191(5. 
Luce, Major-General Sir R. H., 19 IS. 
Marshall, Lieut.-Col. W. L. W.. !9i;. 
Ogilvie, Col. W. H. 
Rawnsley, Lieut.-Col. G. T., 1916. 
Starling. Lieut.-Col. E. H. 
Statham, Col. J. C. B., 1919. 
Sutton, C^l. Alfred. 
Tubby, Col. A. H., 1916. 
Wenyon. Lieut.-Col. C. M., 1918. 

Royal Victorian Order. 
Commander (C.V.O.) 

Bankart. Fie ;t-Surgeon A. R. 

Member (M.V.O.) 
Bardswell. Major Noel. 
Bett, Deputy Surg-Genenil W. 

Order of the British Empire. 
Knight Commander (K B.E.) 

Davy, Colonel Sir II., 1919. 

GOADBY, Sir Kenneth W., 1918. 

Murphy, Lieut.-Col. Sir Shirley, 1919. 

Pryn, Surgeon Rear Admiral Sir W. W., 1919 (Military). 

Symonds, Col. Sir Charters J., 1919. / 

White, Brevet Colonel Sir W. Hale, 1919. 

Companion (C.B.E.) 

Bagshawe. Brevet Lieut.-Col. II. V., 1919. 

Beyts, Col. W. G., 1919. 

Brereton, Brevet Lieut.-Col. F. S., 1919. 

Craig, Lieut.-Col. Sir Maurice, 1919 (Milit;ixy). 

French, Lieut.-Col. Herbert, 1919 (Mil tar v). 

Gold IE, Capt. E. G. 

(ioODALL, Lieut.-Col. Edwin, 1919. 

Mollison, W. M., 1920. 

Okmond, Brevet Major A. W., 1919 (Alilitury). 

Pilcher, Lieut.-Col. E. M., 1919. 

Pollock, Lieut.-Col. C. E., 1919. 

Sheen, Col. A. W., 1918. 

Statham, Col. J. C. B., 1919. 

Stephens, Lockhart, 1919. 



1 20 Honours. 

Officer (O.B.E,) 

Barker, Major F. A.. 1919. 

Barrow, Lieut. -Ck)l. H. P. W., 1919. 

Briggs, Major J. J. E., 1919. 

Broster, Major L. E., 1919. 

Browne, Surgeon Capt. Robley H. J., 1919 (Militaj-y). 

Brownfield, H. M. 

Campbell, Capt. J. M. II., 1919 (Militaijj. 

COPLANS, Lieut.-Col. M., 1919. 

CORIN, Major H. J., 1919 (Militaxy). 

Delmege, Capt. J. A., 1919. 

DOBSON, Major M. E., 1919. 

Fisher, Major H. W., 1919. 

FrEiMANTLE, Li6at.-Col. F. E., 1919. 

Furlong, D. W., 1919. 

Genqe- Andrews, Capt. G. E., 1919, 

Glover, Capt. J. A., 1919. 

Good ALL, Lt.-Col. E. W., 1919. 

Gray, Lieut.-Col. A. C. H., 1919. 

Greenwood, E. C, 1919. 

Hanafy, J. Z., 1919. 

Harvey, J. H., 1919. 

Herbert, Lieut.-Col. A. S. 

Hodgson, J. W., 1918. 

Hughes, Capt. E. C, 1919. 

Key, B. W. M. Aston, 1919. 

Mann, Surgeon Lieut. H. C, 1919. 

Marriott, Fleet Surgeon H. B. 

Marshall, Major GeoflPrey. 

Moore, Major J. Yorke, 1919. 

MUMFORD, Capt. W. G., 1919. 

NuNN, Surgeon Commander G., R.N., 1919. 

O'Meara, Lieut.-Col. E. J., 1919. 

Payne, J. Lewin, 1919. 

Percival, Surgeon Lieut. H. F., 1919. 

Pitt, Major G. Newton, 1919. 

Eankine, Surgeon E. A., 1919. 

Eayner, Major A. E., 1919. 

Eowlands, Capt. E. P., 1919. 

Scott, Capt. D. C, 1919. 

Scott, Surg. E. D. 

Slesinger, Surgeon Lieut. E. G., 1919^ 



Honours. 121 

Smith, Capt. G. Warwick, 1919. 

Stott, Major H., 1919. 

SwAX, Major E. II. J., 1918 (Military). 

Taylor, Major Sir E. Stuart, 1919. 

THO:\rAS, Surgeon Conunander, A. R., 1919. 

TiCEiiuRST, X. F.. 1919. 

Wexyox, Lieut. -Col. C. M., 1919. 

Wills, Surgeon Commander W. K., 1919. i 

Wood, Capt F. T. H., 1919. 

Member (M iB.£.) 

AUDLAXD, W. E. 

Harris, Capt. W. J., 1919. 

LlXDSAY, W. J. 
LOAVE, Capt. E. C. 

The Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem 
in England. 

Esquire. 

IIaxxafy, J. Z. 

Nixxis, Surgeon R. P., E.N. 

Mentioned in Dispatches. 

Alcock, Capt. Frank. 

Aldis, Capt. C, 1917. 

Allex, Capt. T. S. 

AxDERSOX, Major E. G. 

AxDREWS. Major J. A. (3 times). 

AxNis, Major E. G. 

Atkins, Col. Sir John (3 times), 19 IG. 

Attwood. Capt. R. D., 1917. 

Baqshawe, Brevet Lieut.-Col. H. V. (twice). 

Ballard, Major R. P. (3 times), 1917. 

Barnes, Capt. J. E. 

Barron, Breve't Lt.-Col. R. M. (twice), 1917 and 1918. 

Baruow, Lieut.-Col. II. P. W. (twice). 

Bird, Lieut.-Col. J. W., 1917. 

Bowle, Major S. C. 

Bradbury, J. C. O. 

Bro<!ter, Mtijor L. R., 1918. 

Brown, Lieut.-Col. R. T. (3 times). 

Brown, Lt.-Col. T. F. 

PART II. B 



122 Honours. 

Browne, Major-Gen. E. G. 

Browne, Lieut.-Col. G. B. (3 times). 

BuRGHARD, Colonel F. F. 

BuRNEY, Major W. H. S. » 

Butler, Lieut.-Col. A. U., 1917. 

Campbell, Capt. J. M. H. (twice). 

Campion, Capt. K. B. (twice), 391G. 

Cardin, Capt. H. 

Carter, Capt. 11. H., 1918. 

Carter-Braine, Capt. J. F. (twice), 1918. 

Chapman, Staff S erg. -Major E. .W. P. 

Clark, Capt. A. J., 1917. 

Clarke, Major 11. M., 1917. 

Clewer, Capt. D., 1918. 

Cock, Lieut. Stanley, 1918. 

Cogan, Col. L. D. B., 1918. 

Collins, Lt.-Col. K. T., 1917. 

Coplans, Lieut.-Col. M. (4 times). 

CORIN, Major H. J., 1918. 

Costabadie, Lt. H. P. 

Covell, Major G. C. 

Cross, Capt. F. G., 1919. 

Davies-Colley, Col. E. (twice), 1917 and 1918. 

Davis, Capt. H. H. 

Delmege, Capt. J. A., 1918. 

DiGBY, Capt. W. E. S. 

Douglas, Lieut.-Col. Claude G. (twice), 1918. 

Dowsett, Lieut.-Col. E. B. (5 times). 

Dunbar, Lieut. C. G. 

Eason, Lieut.-Col. H. L., 191C. 

Eastes, Capt. G. L. 

EcCLES, Capt. G. D., 1918. 

Eccles, Capt. H. D., 1917. 

Edmund, Capt. J. Adamson, 1918. 

Evans, Brevet Col. C. R.,' 1917. • 

Evans, Capt. H. W., 1918. 

Evans, Lieut.-Col. J., R.A.M.C, (twice), 1917 and 1918. 

Evans, Major J., 1917. 

Evans, Capt. L. W., 1917. 

Falwasser, Lieut.-Col. A. T., 1917. 

Eraser, Capt. A., 1917. 

Eraser, Capt. F. C. 



Honours. 123 



» 



Fre:\iaxtle, Lieat.-Col. F. E., 1918. 

Feexch, Lieut. -Col. Herbert, 191S. 

Fulton, Lieat.-Col. H.. 1917. 

Galloway, Sui-g. -Lieut. W. D. 

Garland, Capt. J. 0., 1917. 

Geoege, Capt. A. L., 1917. 

German, Capt. H. B., 1917. 

GiBB, Major C. de W., 1919. 

Glover, Capt. E. N., 1918. 

GoLDiE, Capt. E. G., 1918. 

Gray, Lieut. -Col. A. C. H. 

Geeene, Capt. C. W. 

Griffin, Capt. E. H. (twice). 

Griffin, Capt. T. H., 1917.. 

GwYNN, Lieut.-Col. W. P., 1918. 

Hall, Col. A. W. 

Hamilton, Surgeon George. 

Hanafy, J. Z., 1919. 

Hancock, Major A. C, 1916.; 

Hanson, Gunner J. F. 

Hardy, Capt. G. F., 1917. 

Hennesey, Corp. P. W. H. 

Hewetson, Lieut.-Col. H. (twice), 1917 and 1918. 

Hildred-Carllll, Surg. -Lieut. 

Hinde, Major E. B. 

Hodgson, Capt. C. E., 1920. 

HORTON, Brevet Lieut.-Col., J. H. 

Howard, Capt. C. P., 1917 and 1918 (twice). 

Hull, Col. A. J. (twice). 

Humphrey, Brevet Col. L. (twice). 

Hunt, Brevet Major G. H., 1915. 
John, Capt. D. W. (twice), 1917. 
Jones, Capt. J. T., 1917. 
Kendall, Major X. E., 1918. 
Kennedy, Major K. S., 1918. 
Lauder, Major J. F. L., 1917. 
Layton, Lieut.-Col. T. B. (twice), 1918. 
Leckie, Capt. Malcolm, 1914. 
Leigh, Major H. V., 1917. 
Lewis, Lieut.-Col. R. P. (twice). 
Lidderdale, Capt. J. F., 1917. 
Litchfield, Capt. E. M. 



124 Honours. 

LiTCiii'iKLD, Capt. p. C, 1919. 

Little JOHNS, Major A. S., 19 J 7. 

LocKYER, Capt. G. E., 1919. 

Lucas, Major R. IL, 1918. 

Luce, Major-Gen. Sir R. H., 1917. 

Maesiiall, Capt. E. S. (twice). 

Marshall. ]Major Geoffrey. 

Maesilu/l, Capt. R. P., 1919. 

Marshall, Lieut. -Col. W. L. W. (twice). 

jMattiieavs, Lt.-Col. .J., 1917. 

Messenger, Capt. H. L. 

Miller, 3Iajor A. A. 

MiLLETT, Surgeon II., 1915. 

Mills, Major P. S., 1917. 

MiNETT, Major E. P. (twice). 

Minns, Capt. A. X. (twice). 

Montgomery, Capt. R. 

Moore, Major J. Yorke. 

Moore, Capt. P. W., 1918. 

Morrell, Capt. F. II., 1918. 

Mullally, Major G. T., 1916. 

MuMFORD, Capt. W. G. (twice). 

Murray, Lieut. -Col. C. M. (twice, 1917 and 1918). 

Nelson, Capt. K. M., 1917. 

Nicholson. Lieut.-Col. C. R., R.A.M.C, 1918. 

Ogilvje, Col. W. II., 1918. 

Osburn, Lieut.-Col. A. C. (twice). 

OzANNE, Brevet Major R. C. 

Pallant, Capt. H. A., 1917. 

Pallant, Brevet Lieut.-Col. S. L. (twice). 

Parry- Jones, Capt. 0. G. 

Phillips, Lieut.-Col. E. (twice). 

PiLCiiER, Lieut.-Col. E. M., 1918. 

Plumptre, Capt. C. M., 1918. 

Pollock, Lieut.-Col. C. E. (three times), 1917. 

PoPHAM, Rev. A. E. 

Powell, Lieut.-Col. J. E., 1917. 

Prall, Lieut.-Col. S. E., 1917. 

Price, Major P. S., 1918. 

Pritchard. Major G. B. 

PYE-SiriTii. Lieat.-Col. C. D. (twice), 1917 and 1918. 

Rahman. IJrevct Major M. A. (twice). 



Honours. 125 



Rawxslev, Lieut.-Col. G. T. (three times), 1916—1918. 

Kayner, Major A. E., 1917. 

Reixhold, Lieut.-Col. C. H. (twice). 

Richards, Capt. J. F. G.y 1917. 

Richards, Capt. Owen. 

Richardson, Col. H. (twice). 

Rivers, Surgeon Lieut. -Commander A. T. 

Roberts, Capt. C. S. Lane. 

Robertson, Lieut.-Col. J., 1917. 

Robertson, Capt. J. F. 

Rogers, Major F. E. W., 1918. 

RowELL, Lieut.-Col. H. Ellis. 

Saunders, Capt. S. McK., 1917. 

Searle, Capt. Chas. F. (twice). 

Seymour-Price. Major P. (twice), 1918 and 1919. 

Shaw, Lieut. G. D., 1917. 

Siiearwood, Major A. L., 1918. 

Sheen, Col. A. W., 1918. 

SiiELTON, Capt. H. L. C, 1917. 

Slesinger, Surgeon Lieut. E. G. 

Smart, Major H. D. (twice). 

Smith, Capt. E. G., 1917. 

S-AEiTH, Capt. G. Warwick (twice), 1917 and 1918. 

Smith, Capt. Philip (twice). 

SooTHJLL, Major Victor F., 1917. 

Spicer, Capt. A. H., 1917. 

Sprague, Surgeon Lieut. -Commander C. G., 1917. 

Stansfield, Capt. T., 1917. 

Starling, Lieut.-Col. E. H., 1917. 

Stephenson, Major Jolin, 1917 (twice). 

Stewart, Lieut.-Col. II. (twice), 1917. 

Stewart, Capt. J. L. (twice), 1918. 

Stott, Major H., 

Stout, Major T. D. M. 

Stuart, Lieut.-Col. H. D. (twice). 

Swan, Major R. H. J., 1916. 

Symonds. Col. Sir Charters J., 

Taylor, Capt. Sir E. Stuarti (twice). 

Thomas, Major A., 1918. 

TiMPSON, Capt. G. G., 1917. 

Tubby, Col. A. H. (twice). 

TrnvER. Mnjor IT. ]\r. S. 



]!>() Hmiours. 

Turner, Major Philip, 1917. 

Walker, Brevet Major A., 1918. 

Walker, Major H., 1917. 

Walkek, Major Josiali, 1917 (twice). 

Wallis, Major M. J, T., 1917. 

Watson. C. E. S. 

Webber, Oapt. A. M., 1917. 

Wedd, Capt. Beomard H. 

Wenyon, Lieut.-Col. C. M. (twice), 1918. 

Wilcocks, Lieut.-Col. A. J.. 1917. 

Willax,' Lieut.-Col. G. T., 1916. 

Willlams, Lieut.-Col. A. D. J. B. (twice), 1917 and I9IS. 

'Wilson, Hon. Capt. W., 1918. 

Wood, Capt. F. T. H., 1918. 

Wright, Major C. S. E. (twice), 1917. 

Wright, Lieut. -GoL T. J. (twice). 

Young, Major J., 1918. 

Mentioned for War Service. 

Caetee, Lieut.-Col. A. H., 1917. 

Connolly, Col. B. B. 

Crook, Surgeon-Lieut. A. H., 1919. 

Denver, Capt. S. E., 1917. 

Endean, Surgeon-Lieut. P. C, 1919. 

Forty, Capt. A. A., 1917. 

Fothergill, Major E. Kowland. 

Gibson, Major H. G., 1917. 

Goodall, Lieut.-Col. E. W., 1917. 

Goodhaet, Capt. G. W., 1917. 

Greenwood, E. C, 1918 and' 1919. 

Hamilton, Major E. T. E., 1914 and 1915. 

Hind, Lieut.-Col. W., 1917. 

Knapp, Lieut.-Col. G. H., 1914 and 1916. 

Leipoldt, Capt. C. F. L., 1914 aaid 1915. 

Magrath, Lieut.-Col. C. W. S. 

Marshall, Lieut.-Col. W. L. W. (twice). 

Maynard, Lieut.-Col. E. F. 

MoiTATT, Lieut.-Col. H. A. 

MuLLiNS, Capt. K. C, 1914 and 191.5. 

Murphy, Lieut.-Col. Sir Shirley. 

Neavman, Surgeon-Lieut. F. C, K.N., 1919. 

KoEMAN, Surgeon-Lieut. T., E.X., 1919. 



Honours. 127 



Petley, Act. Major, C. E., 1917. 
Phillips, Major W. A. (twice). 
PiLCHEE, Lieut. -Col. E. M. 
KOBEETSON', Lieut.-Col. J., 1917, 
Rook, Major H. C, 1917. 
RouTH, Lieut.-Col. C. F., 1917. 
Salvage, Lieut.-Col. J. V. 
Samut, Lieut.-Col. E. P. 
Shaep, K. a. Dyce. 
SiCHEL, Major G. T. S., 1917. 
Stephen, Capt. L. H. Y. 
Stone, Capt. E. W., 1917. 
Tayloe, Major J. G., 1917. 
TiCEHUEST, i5". E., 1919. 
Wenyon, Lieut.-Col. C. M., 1917. 
Wilson, Lieut.-CoL A. E., 1917. 
WiNTEE, Lieut.-CoL T. B. 
Weight, Lieut.-Col. G. A., 1917. 

Territorial Decoration <T.D.) 

Beeey, Major II. Poole, E.A.M.C. (T.). 

Black, Major George, E.A.M.C. (T.). 

Dowsett, Lieut.-Col. E. B. 

Geiffiths, Lieut.-Col. Charles T. 

Hind, Lieut.-CoL W., 1917. 

Paget, Lieut.-Col. Peter, 1917. 

ElGBY, Major J. A. 

Eowell, Lieut.-Col. H. Ellis, 191G. 

Thomas, Major A. 

Wallace, Major J. 



1 28 Honours. 



FOREIGN DECORATIONS. 



BELGIAN. 
Croix de Guerre. 

Annesley, Capt. F. D., 1918. 
CoPLANS, Lieut.-Col. M., 1918. 
MuNDEN, Lieat. M. M. 

Ordre de TOfficier. 

Barrow, Lieut.-Col. H. P. W., 1917. 

Chevalier de I'Ordre de Leopold. 

CoPLANS, Lieut.-Col. M., 1917. 

Chevalier de I'Ordre de la Couronne. 

CORIN, Major H. J., 1919. 
Pedley, Surgeon C. F., 1916. 

EGYPTIAN. 

Order of the Nile (Third Class). 

Anderson, Major E. G. 
Ogilvie, CoL W. H. 

FRENCH. 

Officier Legion d'Honneur. 

Browne, Major-General E. G. 

Croix de Guerre avec Palme. 

Ballard, Major K. P., 1918. 
Slesinger, Surgeon-Lieut. E. G., 1915. 

Croix de Guerre. 

Collins, Lieut.-Col. K. T., 1918. 
Cooper, Staff-Surgeon II., 1918. 
Jackson, Major K. W. P., 1917. 
Phillips, Lieut.-Col. E., 1919. 
Ward, Major F., 1918. 

I 
Medaille Militaire. 

Symonds, Capt. C. P. (asi a combatant at Mons). 



Honours. 129 

Medaille des Epidemics. 

Taylor, Major Sir E. Stuart. 

ITALIAN. 

Order of Crown of Italy. 

Hewetson, Lieut.-Col. H., 1918. 

Croix de Guerre. 

COPLANS, Lieut.-Col. M. 

Silver Medal with Palm — Italian Red Cross. 

Erskine-Collins, Capt. J. E., R.A.M.C. 

PORTUGUESE. 
Military Order of Avis-Commander. 

Beereton, Brevet Licut.-Col. F. S. 

RUSSIAN. 
Order of St. Anne. 

Hewetson, Lieut.-Col. H. (2iid Class with Swords). 
Spicek, Capt. A. H. (3rd Class). 

Order of St. Stanislas. 

Turner, Surgeon Probationer W. A. (3rd Class), 1917. 

SERBIAN. 

Order of St. Sabe. 

Drew, 2nd Lieut. V. 

Greenwood, Capt. A. A. 

Nicholson, Lieut.-Col. C. R. (5th. Class). 

Townsend, Capt. T. A., 1917. 

Walker, Major H. 

Croix de Guerre. 

Greenwood, Capt. A. A., 1919. 

Silver Medal— Serbian Red Cross. 

Drew, 2nd Lieut. V. 



130 



Honours. 



HONOURS FOR GUY'S NURSES. 



The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire. 



Grand Cross 

Covvmander 

Officer 



Member 



Dame Sarah A. Swift, E.R.C. 
Miss Maegaret Hogg. 

Miss M. C. CORBISHLEY, E.R.C. 
Miss M. A. NuTT, R.R.C. 
Mrs. H. B. Turner. 
Mrs. Katharine Cook. 
Miss N. Barker. 
Miss E. Lorraine. 



Lady of Grace of St. John of Jerusalem. 

Dame Sarah A. Swift, G.B.E., R.R.C. 



Bar to the Royal Red Cross. 



Miss G. M. Allen, R.R.C. 



Miss Mary C. Fisher, R.R.C. 



Royal Red Cross 1st Class. 



Miss G. 


M. Allen. 


Miss V. 


X. Kiddle. 


Miss E. 


F. Beloe. 


Miss G. 


Lulham. 


Miss E. 


C. Cheethaim. 


Miss M. 


J. L. Lyons. 


Miss M. 


A. Chittock. 


Miss C. 


A. Tait McKay. 


Miss M. 


C. Corbishlky. 


Mrs. M. 


Morrison (nee Willes) 


Miss G. 


COEDER. 


Miss E. 


M. Newton./ 


Miss M. 


Cruickshank. 


Miss A. 


B. XUNN. 


Miss B. 


H. Daniels. 


Miss M. 


O'Neill. 


Miss P. 


EXSHAW. 


:Miss M. 


L. Potter. 


Miss K. 


E. Finnemoee. 


Miss H. 


SUART, 


Miss L. 


V. Haughtox. 


Dame S 


. A. Swift, G.B.E. 


Miss M. 


E. HOBHOUSE. 


Miss C. 


E. Todd. 


Miss A* 


E. Hulbert. 


Miss A. 


Willes. 


Mrs. W 


. Jones. 


Miss L. 


Wood. 


Miss M. 


E. Jones. 







Hon ours. 



131 



Royal Red Cross 2nd Class. 



Miss L. 


M. Axso>f. 


Miss W 


M. Jones. 


Miss E. 


F. Beloe. 


Miss A. 


M. Lithgow. 


Miss S. 


Bevan. 


Miss A. 


E. I. Lowe. 


Miss E. 


K. Blayney. 


Miss C. 


E. LusTic. 


Miss M. 


Blenkarn. 


Miss M. 


J. L. Lyons. 


Miss Edith E. Bott. 


Miss K. 


Mackenzie. 


Miss C. 


BOTTOMLEY. 


Miss F. 


Malkin. 


Miss C. 


Beitton. 


Miss L. 


G. Mannell. 


Miss E. 


Broome. 


Miss M. 


M. Mansfield. 


:\[iss F. 


E. Brown. 


Mrs. D. 


Marshall (nee Wilson) 


Miss M. 


A. Brown. 


Miss M. 


E. Marsh, 


Mrs. A 


. M. Chisolm. 


Miss B. 


Martin. 


Mrs. M 


A. Clarke. 


Miss K. 


MacMorland. 


Miss M. 


E. A. Colston. 


Miss K. 


M. Moore. 


Miss M. 


E. Cook. 


Mrs. M 


Morrison (nee Willes) 


Miss N. 


Connolly. 


Miss M. 


A. MUMFORD. 


Miss A. 


I. Coward. 


Miss N. 


Nawn. 


Miss G. 


E. CUSTANCE. 


Miss M 


O'Neill. 


Miss A. 


E. Davidson. 


Miss C. 


Pearce. 


Miss E. 


J. Densham. 


Miss A. 


M. Phillips. 


Miss L. 


Denton. 


Miss E. 


H. Porter. 


Miss M. 


L. Dixon. 


Miss E. 


E. QUILTER. 


Mrs. J. 


L. Edwards. 


Miss H. 


K. Rainbow. 


Mrs. A. 


W. Ekins (nee Blott) 


MiRs E. 


Raven. 


Miss G. 


Field. 


Miss A. 


M. Richardson. 


Miss F. 


M. A. FiNNis. 


Miss K. 


I. Richardson. 


ATiss A. 


FOTHERGILL. 


Miss K. 


M. ROOKE. 


Miss L. 


Fox. 


Miss S. 


A. Selby. 


Miss G. 


A. Fuller. 


Miss L. 


G. Sheild. 


Miss C. 


Gerraed. 


Miss F. 


A. Spedding. 


Miss E. 


M. Gladstone. 


Miss E. 


Stedman. 


Miss E. 


A. V. Grant. 


Miss C. 


E. Strange. 


Miss E. 


M. H. Gooderham. 


Miss B. 


Sullivan. 


Mrs. E. 


Goss. 


Miss K. 


E. G. Taylor. 


Miss C. 


M. Hancock. 


Miss A. 


M. Timbrell. 


Miss F. 


M. Hepburn. 


Miss K. 


M. Vine. 


Miss M. 


A. Hilliard. 


Miss M. 


Vivian. 


Miss M. 


E. Hobhouse. 


Mrs. E. 


F. Watkins. 


Miss B. 


A. Hope. 


Mrs. E. 


M. Weller. 


Miss S. 


A. Hyland. 


Miss G. 


M. White. 


Miss K. 


F. Irwin. 


Miss M. 


E. WlNDEMER. 


Miss L. 


M. Jenkins. 


Miss N. 


WiNDEMER. 


Miss L. 


E. Jolley. 


Miss D. 


Woollett. 


Miss E. 


S. Johnson. 


Miss E. 


Wood. 



132 Honours. 

Military Medal. 

Miss F. Broome. A.K.R.C. Miss C. Todd, R.R.C. 

Miss M. A. Chittock, R.R.C. iNIrs. E. Watkins, A.R.R.C. 

Miss E. S. JoiiN.sox. A.R.R.C. 

The Albert Medal. 

:\riss G. L. White, A.R.R.C. 

Special Service Cross. 

:\Ir3. A. M. Chisolm. 

Florence Nightingale Medal. 

Miss Gladys L. White, A.R.R.C. 

FRENCH. 
La Medaille d^honneur des epidemics. 

Miss Geace Corder, R.R.C. First Class. 

Miss M. C. CoEBiSHLEY, R.R.C. Second' Class. 

Miss C. du Sautoy. Second Class. 

Silver Palms. 

Miss C. du Sautoy. 

The Croix De Guerre with Golden Star. 

3Iiss Florexce Tubes. 

The Enseigne with Gold Palms. 

Miss Florexce Tubes. 

/ 
Medaille de La Reconnaissance. 

Miss Alice M. Fletcher. 

BELGIAN. 

Medaille de La Reine Elisabeth. 

Miss C. E. Druce. Miss F. H. Feeshney. 

Miss F. A. MoRGAX. Miss F. A. Spedding. 

Greek Military Medal of Merit. 

Miss M. I. Hudd. 3Iis3 M. A. Shepherd. 



Honours. 



133 



Serbian Samaritan Cross. 

Miss K. C. Crisford. 

Italian Special War Medal. 

Miss A. E. Farrar. 

Russian Military Medal. Order of St. George. 

:Mis> A. E. Farrar. Mjss E. M. Fox. 

Russian Military MedaK St. Anne's. 

Miss A. E. Farrar.. 



:\riss 


G. 


Miss E. 


Miss 


M. 


Miss C. 


^riss 


E. 


:mi-5. 


V. 


:\iiss X. 


^riss 


G. 


Miss 


:\r 


Miss 


A. 


Miss G. 


.Miss 


E. 


]\Iiss E. 


iSEiss 


P. 


Miss E. 


:\ti3s 


E. 


Miss 


F. 


Miss 


S. 


^r.iss 


F. 


Miss 


K 


-Miss 


\V. 


-Afiss 


L. 


:\riss 


M. 


Miss 


V 


Miss 


A. 


Miss 


A. 



Mentioned 

M. Allex, R.E.C. 
C. Baker. 

F. Beaedshaav (twice). 
M. Bottomley, A.R.R.C. 
Cheetham, R.R.C. 
R. Coxes (nee T^'ler-Cove). 
Connolly, A.R.R.C. 
Corder R.R.C. (twice). 

, C. CORBISHLEY, R.R.C. 

I. Coward, A.R.R.C. 

E. CUSTANCE, A.R.R.C. 
J. Densham, A.R.R.C. 

F. Druce. 

ExsHAV, R.R.C. (twice). 
M. Fox. 

G. Fraser. 
H. Fresiiney. 

J. Gibson. 

M. Hepburn, A.R.R.C, 
, B. Harris. 
M. Jones, A.R.R.C. 

E. JOLLEY, A.R.R.C. 

Jordan. 
, X. Kiddle, R.R.C. 
M. LiTiioow, A.R.R.C. 
R. I. Lowe, A.R.R.C. 



in Despatches, 

Miss E. V. LuLHAM. 

Miss C. E. LusTic, A.R.R.C. 

Miss M. J. L. Lyons, R.R.C. 

Miss E. E. P. MacManus. 

Miss M. Maddison. 

Miss L. G. Mannell, A.R.R.C. 

Miss B. Martin, A.R.R.C. 

Miss K. M. Moore, A.R.R.C. 

Mrs. M. Morrison, (nee Willes). 
R.R.C. (twice). 

Miss M. I. Nelson. 

Miss A. B. XuNN, R.R.C. 

Miss M. L. Potter. 

Miss M. X. K. Rae. 

Miss E. Raven. 

Miss E. Ray. 

Miss A. M. RiciiARDSON, A.R.R.C. 

Miss C. L. Shann. 

Mis? H. M. Sharwood. 

Miss A. Sheldon. 

Miss F. E. SOUTHCOTT. 

Miss ir. SUART, R.R.C. (3 tunes i. 
Miss C. E. Todd, R.R.C, M.M. 
:^rrs. W.vtkins, A.R.R.C, M.M. 
Miss G. L. White, A.R.R.C. 
Miss E. Wood, A.R.R.C. 
:Miss L. Wood, R.R.C. 



134 



Honours. 



The names of the following- liave been brought to the notice 
of the Secretary of State for War, for valuable services rendered 
in connection with the War in Home Hospitals : — 



Miss L. 


F. Anson. 


Mrs. E 


M. Goss, A.R.R.C. 


Miss M. 


Appleton. 


Miss E. 


R. Groom. 


Miss F. 


M. Baker. 


Mrs. Hart-Synnott (nee Drowcr) 


Miss M. 


E. Ballance. 


Miss A. 


M. Hooper. 


Mis. G. 


A. ^EVINGTON (nee Jordan). 


Miss C. 


E. Hulbert, R.R.C. 


Miss E. 


K. Blayney, A.R.K.C. 


Miss W. 


Moleswoeth. 


Miss M. 


A. Blenkakn. 


Miss M. 


O'Reilly. 


Miss C. 


Beitton, A.R.RX!. 


Miss E. 


Randles. 


Miss F 


R. Browne. 


Miss D. 


M. Shepiieed. 


Miss C. 


E. Canty. 


Miss M 


L. Simpson. 


Mrs. M 


A. Clarke, A.R.R.C. 


Mrs. R. 


C. Stewaet. 


Miss G. 


Cornell. 


Miss E. 


M. Studdeet. 


Miss A. 


E. Dean. 


Miss H. 


SUAET, R.R.C. 


Miss C. 


Densham. 


Miss G. 


V. Wallis. 


Mrs. M 


. L. Elliott. 


Mrs. C. 


T. Ward. 


Miss M. 


J. Ferdinand. 


Mrs. E. 


M. Wellee, A.R.R.C. 


Miss M. 


Fooed-Kelcey. 


Miss J. 


E. Whittam (twice). 


Miss E. 


M. Fox. 


Miss M. 


E. WiNDEMER, A.R.R.C. 


Miss E. 


Goodeeham, A.R.R.C. 


Miss E. 


M. Yates (twice). 



Boll of ^Yar Service. 



135 



WAR SERVICES 



AGKEOYD; H. ... 

Adams, D. W. S. 
Adams, F. S. 

Adams, M. M. 
Adams, K. K. 
Ahmad, A. M. 
Alcock, Frank 

Alcock, J. A. :m. 
Aldis, C. 



Alexandee, S. K. 
Allan, A. P. 



Allan, D. 



Allan, W. J. McBain 
Allen, G. W. 
Allen, Norman 

Allen, R. W. 

Allen, T. S. 



Allpoet, a. 

Alston, W. Evelyn. 
Andeeson, R. G. . 



ANDERTON, J. E. 

Andeew, G. W. 
Andeew, E. G. 



Temp. Capt. 

Pte. ... 

Temp. Capt. 

Capt. ... 



R.A.M.C. Y.C., 1917. M.C, 1916. 

Killed in action. B.E.F. France. 
S.A. General Hospital. 
R.A.M.C. South "Wales Borderers. 

Wounded, 1918. 
S.A.M.C. 



Temp. Dent. Surg. R.N.V.R. H.M.S. Thunderer. 
Lieut. ... ... I.M.S. Resigned. 

Capt R.A.M.C, T.F. Mentioned in des- 
patches. Egyptian E.F. 
Temp. Surg. ... R.N. H.M.S. Agadir. 

Capt R.A.M.C. (20th F.A.). No. 10 

Stationary Hospital. Ment. in 
despatches, 1917. 
Div. Surg. ... V.A.D. Hospital, Faversham. 

M.O I/c Wallacefield Convalescent Home 

for Wounded Soldiers. 

Lieut R.A.M.C. M.E.F., 1915—16, 

Senior Medical OflScer, Furness 
Officers' Hospital. Harrosrate, 
1917—19. 
Sub-Lieut., R.N. 

Artists' Rifles. 

Royal Warwickshire Regt. KiUed 

in action, April 14th, 1918. 
Frangaise, Special service at Hop. 
Militaire, V.R. No. 76. 
R.A.M.C. Surgical Specialist No. 
12 General Hospital, B.E.F., 
1914 — 17, Team Surgeon 2nd 
Army, 1917. Lahore Indian 
General Hospital, 1917- 19. 
Royal Herbert Hospital. Wool- 
wich, 1919—20. IMcnt. in desp. 
R.A.M.C. (Vol.) Military Hos- 
pital, Rochester Row, S.AV. 
R.A.M.C, T.F. 

R.A.M.C. Att. Egyptian Army. 
Mentioned in desj)atohes. Order 
of the Nile, 3rd Class, by H.H. 
the Sultan of Egypt. 

M.O New Mills V.A.D. Red Cross 

Hospital. 

Capt R.A.M.C, T.F. 

Capt R.A.M.C, T.F. (Connvnll R.n.A.) 



Sui-g. 
Pter ... 
Capt 

Croix Rouge 

Temp. Capt. 



Major 

Major 
!Major 



];JG 



Roll of War Service. 



Andhews, J. A. .. 
Andeews, R. C. 

Annesley, F. D. .. 
Annis, E. G. 



Anthony, A. L. 
Anthony, M. 
Apergis, H. D. 

Armer, a 

Aemsteong, C. W. W. 

ASHBY, E 

ASHWELL, H. G. 

ASHWIN, R. H. 
ASPINA1.L, R. Stivala 
Atkins, F. R. L. ... 
Atkins, Sir John ... 



Atkinson, C. H. 
Atkinson, J. L. 
Atkinson, N. M. H. 



ATT WATER, G. L. 



Att water, H. L. 

AtT WATER, W. F. 



Att wood, R. D. 
Aubrey, F. L. 
Aubrey, H. P. 

AUDLAND, W. E 



Aylen, G. H. 
Ayling, A. C. 



Act. Lt.-Col. 
Lieut. ... 



Capt. ... 
Act. Major 



Capt. ... 
Temp. Lieut 
Capt. ... 
Temp. Lieut 
Temp, Surg-. 
Temp. Capt. 



mentioned in 

Wounded. 
-16. Artists' 
Scots Guards, 

Croix do 



R.A.M.C. Thrice 
despatches. M.C. 

Scots Guards, 1915 
Rifles, 1917—19. 
B.E.F. 

R.A.M.C. M.C, 1918 
Guerre (Belgian) 1918. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. oth London Field 
Ambulance, 1914. 2/5 London 
Field Ambulance, 1915. ^0/c 7th 
Prov. Field Ambulance, 1915. 
0/c 226 Field Ambulance, 191G 
17. President, No. 9 -Travelling 
Board, 191.S. Ment. in de-p. 

R.A.M.C, S.R. 

R.A.M.C 

R.A.M.C, S.R. 

R.A.M.C 

R.N. Chatham 

R.A.M.C. 



Hospital. 



Temp. Lieut. -Col., R.A.M.C 



Temp. Capt. 
Capt. ... 
Temp. Lieut 
Col. ... 



Act. Major 
Temp. Lieut 
2nd Lieut. 



Surrr. Lieut. 



S.R. 



R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 

A.M.S. Three times mentioned in 
despatches. C.M.G., 1916. 

K.C.M.G., 1919. 

R.F.A. 

R.A.M.C. 

East Lanes. Rcgt., attached R.F.C 
Late R. Fus. Cadet at Oxford 
await'ng Commission. Acciden- 
tally killed at Aerodrome near 
Cirencester, December 27th, 1916. 

R.N. R.N. Hospital, Haslar, 1916. 
H.M.S. Chatham (North Sea), 
1916—18. R.N. Barracks, Ports- 
mouth, 1918. R.N.. M.T.O., 
East Coast of England, 1918 — 
19. R.N., M.T.O. South Coast, 
1919. 

R.A.M.C 

. R.N.V.R. IIM.S. Neoro,l^^G, 
11. M.S. Crescent, additional for 
Medical Transport Duties in 
Scotland, 1916. 

R.A.M.C. Ment. 
1917. 

R.A.M.C 
Surgeon. 

R.A.M.C. 
Artillery. 
Johns Military Hospital, Welling- 
borough, 1915—19. Assistant 
County Director, V.A.D., Nor- 
thants T.F. Assoc. M.B.E. 
CiA'il Dental Surgeon to Troops, Portsmouth. 
2nd Lieut. ... R.G.A. 



Temp. Capt. ... 
Suro". Sub. -Lieut 



Temp. Capt. 
Capt. ... 
Temp. Capt. 

I/c 



(Dental), 



in despatches. 
Army Dental 



42nd Group Heavy 



M.O. 



St. 



Roll of War Service. 



137 



Badcock, J. H. 
Bagshaave, H. V. 



Bailey, E. R. 
Bainbridge, F. a. ... 
Baker, A. de Winter 
Baker, L. T. 

Baker, W. L. 

Ball, M. B 



Ball, W. C. ... 
Ballard, R. P. 



Bamber, H. E. 



Bankart, a. R. 
Barber, Hugh 



Barber, H. W. 



Bardswell, Nod 



Dental Surgeon to Red Cross Hospital for Facial 
Injuries. 

Brevet Lt.-Col. R.A.M.C. A.D.M.S., Egyptian E. 
Force. D.S.O. C.B.E., 1919. 
Twice mentioned in despatches. 

Surg. ... R.N. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 

Resident Anaesthetist, London ,'War Hospital, Epsom. 

Capt M.O., 10th Light Horse Regiment, 

Australian Forces. 
R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C, attached 9th Worcesters^ 
13th Division. Served in Galli- 
poli and Mesopotamia. Died of 
wounds, April 10th, 1916, at the 
16th CCS.', Wadi Camp, Orah, 
Mesopotamia. 
General List, Anti-Gas Dcpt. 
R.A.M.C. 46th Field Ambulance, 
1915—19. Red Cross, Calais, 
1914. Mentioned in despatches 
three times. M.C., 1918. 

Croix de Guerre, Avec Palme 
(French), 1918. 
R.A.M.C. (S.R.) Prisoner of Waj 
Camp, Bramley, Hants., 1918. 
M.O. 86th General Hospital. 82 
C.C.S., Onega River Front, 11th 
and 13th Yorks, Russia, 1918— 
19. Kitcheners Hospital, Brigh- 
ton. 1919. 

Surgeon Commander, R.N. C.V.O. 



Lt.-Col. 
Lieut. .. 



Major ... 
Act. Major 



Capt. 



Capt. 



Capt. 



]Major 



Barge, II. F. 
Barker, F. A. 


. Pte. ... 
Act. Major 


Barker, H. T. 
Barlow, N. A. H. .. 


. 2nd Lieut. 
. Surg. Lieut. 


Barnes, F 


.. Temp. Capt. 


PART II, 





R.A.M.C. Physician, 81st General 
Hospital, France, 1917. Path- 
ological Specialist, 39th General 
Hospital, France, 1918—19. 

R.A.M.C. Rochester Row Hospital, 
1915 — 16: India, Mesopotamia, 
Arabia and German East Africa, 
1917. 25th General Hospital, 
France, and 101st Field Ambu- 
lance, 33rd Division, 1918. 

R.A.M.C. Netley Hospital; Malta 
(M.E.F.); Sicily, O.C. Hospital 
(Major, R.A.M.C), 1915. M.O. 
Hospital Ship BritamiiCj No. 2 
General Hospital B.E.F. France, 
Major 0. I/c. Officer's Division, 

1916. :^i.v.o. 

London Scottij-h. 

I.M.S. 100th Indian F.leld Am- 
bulance. O.B.E., 1919. 

Devon Regiment. 

R.N. H.M.S. Murray. Harwich 
Force, 1914—15. R.N. Hosp., 
Plymouth, 1917. H.M.S. Tube- 
raxn, Mediterranean, 1918. 

R.A.M.C. 



108 



Boll of Wdr Service. 



Babnes, J. E. 
Barnes, J. Millard 
Barnett, E. p. 
Barrand, H. J. 



Barrett, A. ... 
Barron, R. M. 



Barrox, R. D. 
Barrow, H. P. W.... 



Barrow-Clough, W. J. 
Barrs, a. Gr. 
Bartlett, C. E. 

Bastard, H, R. 
Batchelor, F. C. ... 
Bates, K. L. 
Batsford, J. F. 



Baxter, C. W. W. ... 
Baylis, H. p. 
Beadel, a, J. 

Bead NELL, C. M. ... 

Beadnell, H. 0. M. 

Beale-Browne, T. R. 

Bearblock, W. J. ... 



Beley, G. 
Bell, A. 

Bennett. C. C. 
Bennett, J. 

Bennett, T. I. 
Benstead, H. J. 
Bensted, L. ... 
Bensted, M. W. 

Bent, P. C. W. 
Bent. S. C. H. 
Bent, V. T. C. 



Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. Ment. in despatches. 

Capt R.A.M.C, Dental. 

Dental Surgeon to Red Cross Hospital, Cheltenham. 



Lieut. 



Temp. Caj>t. ... 
Brevet Lt.-Col. 



Capt. .. 
Lt.-CoL 



Surg. Lieut. 
Lt.-Col. 
Temp. Capt. 

Surg. Lieut. 
Lt.-Col. 
Capt. ... 
Lieut. ... 



Capt 

Lieut. ... 
Act. Major .. 
Surg. Capt. .. 
Major 

West African 
Fleet Surg. . 



Temp. 
Hon. 

Surg. 
Capt. 



Capt. . 
Dental 

Sub -Lieut 



Act. Major 
Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Lieut. 

Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 
Capt 



1st G.B. Manchester Regt., India, 
Singapore and Hong-Kong, 1916 
— 19. 9th Leicester Regiment, 
Home, 1914—15. 8th Cheshiies, 
Egypt and Mesopotamia, 1916. 
Wounded, Mesopotamia, 1916. 
R.A.M.C. 

I.M.S. 113th Indian Field Am- 
bulance. Ment. in despatches 
twice, 1917—18. D.S.O., 1918. 
. N.Z.M.C, France. 
. R.A.M.C. Deputy Assistant Di- 
rector General A.M.S. Twice 
mentioned in despatches. C.M.G. 
1917. D.S.O., 1918. O.B.E., 
1919. Ordre de I'Officier (Bel- 
gian), 1917. 
. R.N. 

. R.A.M.C, T.F. 
. R.A.M.C. Attached 52nd Heavy 

Artillery Group. 
. R.N. H.M.S. Otway. 
. N.Z.C.C 

. R.A.M.C. 1st Base M.T. Depot. 
. l/4th R. Batt. Essex Regt., T. 
Suvla Bay (Gallipoli). Wounded, 
August, 1915. 
. I.M.S. M.C, 1917. 
. R.N.V.R. Wounded in Gallipoli. 
. R.A.M.C. 

. R.N. H.M.S. Vernon. 
. R.A.M.C. 

Medical Staff. Lost at 6ea, 1918. 
. R.N. Medal for Falkland Islands 
Battle. Killed in action. H.M.S. 
Invincible. 
. R.A.M.C 

Surgeon to Queen Mary's Auxiliary 
Hospital, Roehampton. 
, R.N. 
R.A.M.C, S.R. Y.T.C Musketry 

Instructor, Minoliead. 
R.A.M.C 

R.A.M.C. M.C, 1918. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C No. 30 Stationary Hos- 

pitaL B.E.F. 
R.A.M.C 
R.A.M.C 

R.A.M.C M.O., R.A.M.C Train- 
ing Centre (Blackpool), 1916. 
M.O., 8th Stationary Hospital. 
Wimereux. 1917. M.O., 74th 
Field Amb.. 1917. M.O., Dover 



Boll of War Service. 



139 



Bentley, E. J. 

Benton, N 

Beegh, V. E. D. ... 

Berncastle, H. F. G. Lieut. 

Berey, a. W. 
Berey, F. S. D. 
Berry, H. Poole 



Berry, J. Allan 
Beery, J. B. 



Berry, P. H. 

Bett, W 

Bevan, a. H. 

Be van-Beg WN, F. V. 

Beven, Octavius 
Bevers, E. C. 

Bevis, D. a. 
Be VIS, S. W. 
Beyts, W. G. 

BiCKERTON, J. M. ,. 
BiDDLE, E 

BroDLE, F. J. 

BmwELL, L 

Biggs, J. J. E. 
Billing, E. 

Birch, G 

Bird, J. W. 



Bird, T. 

Bird WOOD, G. T. 



F.A. 

F.A. 

Batt. 
I/c 



Milifcary Hoepital, 1918—19. 
Wounded at Zilibeke, June, 
1917. 

Temp. Lieut. ... K.A.M.C. 

Temp. Surg. ... R.N. H.M.S. Tuberose. 

Capt R.A.M.C. (Dental). Asst. Dent. 

Surg., Aldershot Command. 
... 3rd Bedfordshire Regiment. Sig- 
nalling Officer. Died October, 
1918. 

Act. Major ... R.A.M.C. 2/3rd E. Lanes. 
Wounded, 1918. 

Temp. Capt. ... S.A.M.C. 3rd South African 
German East Africa. 

Major R.A.M.C. Regt. M.O., 4th 

Lines., B.E.F., 1911. M.O 
Grantham V.A.D. Hospital, and 
O.O., R.A.M.C, Lincolnshire Vo- 
lunteers, 1916. Territorial De- 
coration. 

Capt N.Z.M.C. No. 3 N.Z. Convalescent 

Hospital, ' Hornchurch, Essex. 
Wounded Messines, June, 1917. 

Lt.-Col. ... R.A.M.C, T.F. M.O. Royal Field 

Artillery, 1914—16. O.C 330th 
. Field Amb. at Margate, 1916 — 
18. Electro-Therapeutic Special- 
ist, Military Hospital, Fort Pitt, 
Chatham and President, Medical 
Board, Volunteer Decoration. 

Lieut R.A.M.C. Western Frontier Force, 

Egypt. Drowned in attempting 
to save another man. 

Surg. Rear Admiral, Various Depots and Hospitals. 
Plymouth Hospital. M.V.O. 

2nd Lieut ... E. Kent Regt. (The Buffs), late 
R.A.M.C. 23rd F.A. 

Capt R.A.M.C. Wounded. 

M.O. ... ... 3rd H.A.C. 

Major R.A.M.C, T.F., Southern General 

Hospital. 

2nd Lieut. ... Hants R.E., T.F. 

Temp. 2nd Lieut., R.F.A., M.C 

Col A.M.S. C.B.E., 1919. 

Surg. Lieut. ... H.M.S. Royal Oak, late R.A.M.C. 

Act. Major ... R.A.M.C. 91st Field Ambulance. 
M.C, 1917. Bar to M.C, 1918. 

2nd Lieut. ... 1st Welsh Regiment. 

Fleet Surg. ... R.K. H.M.S. Marmora. 

Temp. Major... R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. No. 
^Mesopotamia 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 

Lt.-Col. ... R.A.M.C 5th London Field Amb 

Egyptian E.F. Ment. in des 
I>atches, 1917. D.S.O., 1915. 

Anaesthetist, County of London War Hospital. 

Lt.-Col. ... I. M.S. 



1 General HospitaL 
1917—19. 



140 



BiEKS, A. H. 
Bishop, C. A. D. 

Black, George 



Black, J. 
Black, K. 



Roll of War Service. 



Blacklaws, a. S. 
Blackler, H. J. 
Blackwood, B. 
Blake, E. W. 



Blake, G. A. 
Blachford, J. V 



Bligh, W. 



Bloom, G. F. H. 



Body, T. H. 

Bolakd, E. E. 
Bolus, H. B. 
Bolus, P. R. 

Bond, A. B. 

Bookless, J. S. 

Booth, E. H. 
Boswell, p. R. 

BouTC, J. A. 

BOWELL, E. W. 



Temp. Capt. 
Capt 

Major, ... 



Surg. Sub. 
Major ... 



'Lieut. ... 

Capt 

Temp. Lieut. 
Capt 



.... R.A.M.C. No. 37 C.C.S., B.E.F. 
... West African Frontier Force. 

Sierra Leone. 
... R.A.M.C, T.F. M.O., attached 1/4 
Royal Sussex Regiment, 1914 — 
15. Egypt, 1915. Khartoinn 
Military Hospital, 1916—17 ;iim1 
48th. Stationary Hospital, Alex- 
andria and Gaza, 1917 — 1918. 
Territorial Decoration. 

Lieut., R.N.V.R. 
... R.A.M.C. Surgeon, Cambridge 
Hospital, Aldershot. Specialist 
in Advanced Operative Surgery, 
Bombay Brigade. S.M.O., H.M. 
Troopship Caronia. Surg, Spe- 
cialist 82nd CCS. Surg. Vo- 
logda and Dvina Forces, North 
Russia. 

Killed in action. 



R.F.A. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C Cambridge Hospital, Al- 
dershot, 1915x 18th CCS., Brit. 
E.F., 1915—19. Surgical Spe- 
cialist, No. 43 and 58th CCS., 



Capt. 
Temp. 

Capt. 



Lt.-Col. 



B.E.F. , 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 

Bristol. 
R.A.M.C 



1919. 



Beaufort War Hospital, 



Royal Herbert Hospital, 
Woolwich, 1915. No. 9 General 
Hospital, Rouen, 1916. Surgical 
Specialist and O.C Nos. 29, 5J. 
CCS., Italy, 1918—19. Surgi- 
cal Specialist, No. 2 CCS., 
Flensburg, Sleswig Holstein, 1920 

Lieut ... Dental Surgeon, R.A.F. Dental 

Officer I/c Yarmouth and Dis- 
trict Air Stations, 1918—19. D.O. 
I/c Bircham New^ton, Sedgeford, 
etc., Aerodromes, 1919 — 20. 
Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 4th Group Heavy Ar- 
tillery. 
2nd Lieut. ... L.R.B. Wounded. 
Asst. Quartermaster, V.A.D. Kent Hospital, No. 41. 
Capt. (Act. Major), R.A.M.C. 25th F.A., 8th Divi- 
sion. Wounded. 
Capt A.A.M.C Died of v^^ounds in Ger- 
many, November, 1917. 

Capt R.A.M.C. Ophthalmic Specialist, 

Havre. 
Physician, Red Cross Hospital, Hove. 

Capt R.A.M.C. 149th Brigade, R.F.A. 

17th CCS., B.E.F. M.C, 1918. 
2nd Lieut. ... R.A.F. Accidentally killed. 

Capt R.A.M.C. S.R. Pathologist lat 

Basra, Peschawar and Landi 
Kotar. 



Roll of War Service. 



141 



Bo WEN, 0. ... 
Bo WEN, W. H. 

Bowes, E. S. 

BOWLE. S. C. 
Box, W. F. ... 

Boycott, A. E. 
Beadbuey, J. C. 0. 



Beadxack, G, a. 
buadxam, c. h. 
Beailey, a. E. 
BeaileYj W. H. 

Bbaithwaite, J. 
Beereton, F. S. 



Beett, W. G. 
Beewee, C. H. 
Beidgee, J. D. 



IBEIDGEii, R. D. 

Beiggs, J. J. E. u 
Beockwell, J. B. C. 
Beodeick, C. C. . 
Beogdex, I. R. R. . 

Beo:mley, L. 



Beook, S. S. 
Beoome, F. 0. 
Beostee, L. R. 



Beowx, C. M. 

Beowx, G. M. 

Beoavx, it. M. 

Beoavx, H. S. 

Beowx, R. T. 



Beowx, T. F. 

Beowx. W. Mark 
Beowxe, E. G. 



Temp. Capt. ... 
Hon. Assistant 

Temp. SuTg. ... 

Major 

Act. Major ... 

Temp. Capt. ,., 
Snro- 



M.O 

Lieut. 



R.A.M.C. 

Surgeon to Research Officers' Hos- 
pital, Cambridge. 

R.N. H.M.S. CornwaU. 

R.A.M.C. Mentioned in desp. 

R.A.M.C. 4th Canadian Hospital, 
Salonika. 

R.A.M.C. 

Military Hospital, ShornclifFe, Be- 
van Hospital, Sandgate, No. 1 
Rest Camp, Folkestone. 

0/c Helena Hospital, Shorncliffe. 

R.A.M.C, Dental. 



Surg. Commander, R.N., Ilaslar. 
Major... 

Temp. Capt. .. 
Brevet Lt.-Col. 



Hosp. 



Temp. Capt. 

Capt 

Capt 



Temp. Capt. 
Act. Major 
Temp. Capt. 
Surg. ... 
Temp. Capt. 

Temp. Capt. 



Temp. Capt. 
Surg. ... 
Major ... 



Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 
Lieut. ... 
Temp. Capt. 
Lt.-Col. 



Lt.-Col. 



Regiment. 
Drowned 



Surg. Sub-Lieut., 
Maj.-Gcn. 



Beowxe, E. Gardner Major 



Com. Ophth. Surgeon, Gen. 

for Indian Troops. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. C.B.E., 1919. Portuguese 

Military Order of Avis-Com- 
mander. 
R.A.M.C. Officers' Hosp., Tid worth 
Bedford Regt. Twice wounded. 
R.A.F.M.S. Senior M.O., Tees 

Garrison, Middlesborough, 1917. 

M.O. I/c No., 2 Fighting School, 

Marske-by-Sea, Yorks., 1918. 

M.O. I/c R.A.F., South Shields 

and Seaton Carew, Durham, 

1918—19. 
R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. O.B.E., 1919. 
R.A.M.C 
Warwick 
R.A.M.C 

1917. 
R.A.M.C. 39th CCS 

and Civil Surgeon, 

Military Hospital. 
R.A.M.C. 

R.N. R.N. Barracks, Portsmouth. 
R.A.M.C. 34th F.A. Mentioned 

in despatches, 1918. .B.E., 

1919. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 

1st Devon Regiment. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. East African Force. 

Mentioned in despatches three 

times. C.M.G., 1918. D.S.O. 

A.M.C Mem. in despatches. 

D.S.O. 

R.N.V 
A.M.S. 

Staff. 

C.B. 

d'Honneur. 
R.G.A., T.F. 1st 

Batterv. M.O. 



15th April, 

, Salonika, 
Southwaxk 



R 



R. 

Temp. Surg. Gen. H.Q. 
Mentioned in despatches. 
C.M.G. Officier Leg-ion 



London Heavy 



142 



Roll of War Service. 



Browne, G. B. 
Browne, Robley H. J. 

Browne, W. Denis ... 

Browne-Caethew, R. 
Brownfield, H. M.... 

Browning, S. II. ... 
Bruce, H. W. 

Brumwell, G. W. .. 
Bryan, C. A. D. ... 
Bryant, C. H. 

Bryant, E. H. 
Brydone, J. M. 

Buchanan, A. 
Buchanan, A. G. .. 
Buck, A. D 

Buckeridge, G. L... 
BUEE, W. B. 
Bulleid, Arthur 



BULLPITT, C. M. 

Burgess, E. A" 
Burgess, W. F. E... 

burghard, f. f. .. 



Lt.-Col. 



Sui-g. Capt. 



Lieut. ... 

H., Physician ... 
Lt.-Col. 

Temp. Capt. ... 
Temp. Lt.-CoL 

Surg. CoL 
Temp. Lieut. .., 
Temp. Capt. ... 

Capt 

M.O 

Temp'. Capt, .., 

Capt 

Temp, Civil 



II. A. F. Three times mentioned in 
desp. D.S.O., 1917. Wounded, 
1917. Died, 1919. 
R.N. H.M.S. Hyacmth, P.M.O., 
Cape Squadron, 1914—16. 

II.M.S. Lion, P.M.O. Battle 
Cruiser Force, 1916—19, O.B.E. 
(Military), 1919. 
R.N.V.R. Killed in action. 7th 

June, 1915. 
Brook War Hospital. 
T.F. 1/2 
East Liss, 



Red Cross 
Petcrsfield. 



Burner, L. H, 
BURNEY, W, H. S. 

Burnside, B. 

burridge, w. 
Burton, A. H. G. 
Bush, W. H. 
BUSTEED, J. H. 



R.A.M.C, 

Hospital 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 

Hospital 
V.D. 

R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 

Cross Hospital. 
N.Z.M.C. No. 3 F.A., N.Z. 
Watney Hospital, and R.F.C. 

pital, Eaton Square, S.W, 
R,A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C, T.F., and Lowland 



I/c South wark Military 



Surgeon to Hove Red 



Div. 
Hos- 



F.A. 



Royal 



Staff Surg. 

Capt 

Capt 



Pte. 



Temp. Col. 



Dental Surgeon, R.N.V.R. 

Marine Infirmary. 
. R.N. 

. R.A.M.C, S.R. 

. R,A.M.C, S.R. B.E.F., France 
(Artists' Rifles), 1914—16. 
Salonika and Constantinople, 
1918 — 21. Act. Major I/c Base 
Laboratory, Constantinople. 
. Artists' Rifles. 
Temp. Civil Medical Olficer. 3/8th Lancashire Fus. 
Temp. Civil Surgeon, Military Hospital, Preston, 
Brighton. 
A.M.S., T.F. Consulting Surgeon 
B.E.F., Chairman Surg. Advisory 
Committee of Wax Ofiice. Surg. 
Central R.A.F., Hospital, Surgi- 
cal Advisor to Medical Advisory 
Board, R.A.F., Consulting Sur- 
geon, Queen Alexandra's Hos- 
pital, Millbank. Mentioned in 
desp., 1914—16. CB. (Civil) - 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. Mentioned in despatches! 

Wounded, 1918. 
R.N. H.M.S. Vindictive, and R.N. 

Hospital, Chatham. 
R.A.M.C Attached Malta. 
R.A.M.C 
R.A.M.C 
I/c Troops, All Hallows Hospital Ditching- 
ham, 1915 — 19. Bungay and 
Flixton, 1917—19. - 



Temp. Capt. 
Act. Major 

Temp. Surg. 

Lieut. ... 

Capt 

Temp. Capt. 
M.O., " 



Boll of War Service. 



143 



butlee, a. g. 
Butler, H. R. C. 



Lt.-Col. ... A.A.M.C. Mentioned in despatches. 

1917. D.S.O., 1917. 
Dent. SuTg. ... V.A.D. Hospital, Tiverton. 



Cade, C. R 

Caldecott, r. 
Cameeon, J. 

Camp, A. F. 
Campbell, H. J. 
Campbell, J. M. H. 



Campian, J. H. 

Campion, 0. St. L. 
Campion, R. B. 



Campkin, p. S. 

Camps, P. W. L. ... 
Canning, H. G. R. 



Caede, L. 0.... 
Cardin, H. 

Cabling, W. 

Carr, T. E. a. 



Carter, A. H. 

Carter, A. J. 
Carter, H. H. 
Cabter-Braine, J. F. 



CABTRIDriE, A. A. M. 

Cattell, G. T. 

Chadwick. G. R. ... 
Chadwicic, ^NforU'v ... 



Temp. Surg. 
Capt 

Temp. Lieut. 
CivU M.O. 
Capt 



Temp. Capt. 



Capt. 
Capt. 



Temp. Capt. 
Capt. ... 



Surg. Lieut. ... R.N. R.N. Hospital, Plymouth, and 
H.M.S. Cottesmore. 
. R.N. H.M.S. Sapphire. 
. R.A.M.C. Temp. Surg. Haslar 

Hospital. 
. R.A.M.C, DentaL 

Bradford War Hospital. 
. R.A.M.C. Twice ment. in desp. 
Mesopotamia, 1918. O.B.E., 
1919. 
.R.A.M.C. Attached Wiltshire Regt. 

Wounded, 1918. 
. R.A.M.C. 

. R.A.M.C, S.R. O.C. Dental An- 
nexe, Alexandria, Egypt. Twice 
mentioned in despatches, 1916. 
Hon. Dental Surgeon to Lord Knutsford's' Hospital 
for Officers. 
R.A.M.C. 51st CCS. 
]/6 Hampshire Regt. India, 1914 
— 17. Mesopotamia, 1917—18. 
Egypt, 1918. 

CorpI R.A.S.C Died of wounds. 

Temp. Capt. ... A.M.S. Mentioned in despatches, 

E.E.F. 1918. 
Capt. ...J ... R.A.M.C, T.F. 5th Southern 

General Hospital. 
Act. Major ... R.A.M.C, T.F. 2/1 N. Midland 
Field Amb., attached 2/7 Sher- 
wood Foresters, B.E.F. M.O. 
.3rd South Staffs. Regt., 1914. 
M.O. 2/4 Somerset L.I., India, 
1915. Prisoner in Germany, 1918. 
Hon. Physician, Wolverhampton General Hospital. 
Physician I/c Private Convales- 
cent Home for Wounded Officers, 
Peuu, Wolverhampton. Meiit. 
for War Services, 1917. 
Commandant... M.O., 0/c Auxiliary Military 
Hospital. 

Capt R.A.M.C Ment. in despatches, 

1918. 

Capt R.A.M.C, S.R. 2nd Londcm 

General Hospital. 1914. 2nd 
London CCS., 1915. 300th (Ni- 
gerian) Field Ambulance, East 
Africa, 1917 — 19. Connaught 

Hospital, Aldershot, 1919. Twice 
mentioned in despatches, 1918. 
... Sutton Red Cross Hospital. 
Lt.-Col. ~. Commandant, Prisoners of War, 

Rouen. 
Surgeon and Agent, Admiralty. 
Lieut R.A.M.C 



144 



Roll of War Service. 



Chamukus, \.{. S. ... 
Chanino-Pearce, W. T. 



CiiArMAN, C. L. G 
Chapman, V. D. H 
Chapple, H. 

ClIARLES, G. F. 

Chaeles, S. W. 
Chase, K. G. 
Cheesman, a. E. 
Chevreau, p. R. 
Child, Stanley 

Childe, L. F. 
Chisholm, R. a. 

Chubb, W. L. 
Churchill, G. B. 
Clark, A. E. 

Clark, A. J. 

Clark, J. B. 
Clark, J. K. 

Clark, R. F. 
Clark, W. F. 
Clarke, A. E. 
Clarke, A. V. 
Clarke, G. 
Clarke, H. M. 

Clarke, K. B. 
Clatavorthy, J. H 

Cleveland, A. J. 
Clewee, D. ... 



Clifford, A. C. 

Clough, a. H. 
Clowes, E. F- 



Clowes, N. B. 

Cock, F. W. 
Cock, Stanley 



2ncl Lieut. 
Capt 



Capt 

Capt 

Capt 

Temp. Capt. ... 
Temp. Capt. ... 
Temp. Lieut. ... 
Surg, Lt.-Com. 
Temp. Lieut. ... 
Capt 

Lt.-CoL 
Hon. Lieut. 

M.O. to Hants 

Major 

Capt 

Capt 

Capt 

Capt 



R.F.A. 9Gth Army Bde., B.E.F. 
R.A.M.C. 9Gth Field Ambulance, 

B.E.F. Killed in action, let 

October, 1917. M.C. and Bar to 

M.C., 1917. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 

Surgeon 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C, 
R.A.M.C, 

R.N. H.M.S 
R.A.M.C 
R.A.M.C, 

Mounted 
I.M.S. 
R.A.M.C. 



5th CCS., B.E.F. 
R.A.F. Hospital. 
Dental. 
Dental. Ea,st Africa. 
Base Hospital, Calais. 
Ceres. 



T.F. 
Brigade 



South 
F.A. 



Wales 



No. 
Hospital. 



British Red 



Fleet Surg. 
Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 
Col. ... 
Act. Major . 
Temp. Major 

Hon. Capt 
Temp. Lieut. 

Major... 
Temp. Capt. 



Jnd Lieut. 



Cross 
V.A.D. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. Hampshire Medical 

Volunteer Corps. 
A.M.S., H.Q. Staff. Mentioned 

in despatches, 1917. M.C, 1917. 
R.A.M.C. 
Australian Infantry. Wounded 

twice, 1916 and 1917. 
R.N. H.M.S. Vivid. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
A.M.S. (T.F.). 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C Ment. in despatches, 

1917. Wounded, 1917. 
R.A.M.C Invalided out. 
R.A.M.C 4th London General 

Military Hospital. 
R.A.M.C. Norfolk War Hospital. 
R.A.M.C Senior Dental Officer, 

Seaford Garrison, and No. 5 

Hospital, Army of the Rhine. 

Mentioned in despatches, 1918. 
3rd Dragoon Guards. Killed in 



Temp. 
Capt. 



Caut. 



Capt. . 



Anaesthetist, 
Lieut. ... 



action, 
R.A.M.C 
R.A.M.C 

B.E.F. 

1916. 

Hospital 
.. R.A.M.C, 

General 
King George 
.. R.A.S.C 

London 

Blackheath 

Officer, 1917 



Ypres, 1915. 



50th 
1916. 
Officer 
1915 
T.F. 



Field Ambulance, 
Somme Offensive. 
I/c Reading War 
—16. 1917—18. 
3rd Southern 



Hospital. 

Hospital. 

Late Pte., R.A.M.C. 1st 

CCS. Staff Officer, 

Depot M.T. Gias 
-18. Mentioned in 



despatches. 
1918. 



Avesues Les Aubert, 



Holl of War Service. 



145 



COCKCROFT, G. 

Cocking, A. W. 

COCKREM, G. B. 



Cocks, J. Stanley 



Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Surg. ... E.X. 

Surg. Lt. -Commander, E.X. H.M.S. Blick Prince, 
Mediterranean and Xortli Sea, 
1514—15, H.M.S. Bctha, Grand 
Fleet, 1915—16. H.M.S. Tamur, 
China, 1916. 

Capl R.A.M.C. Died at Beyiut from 

Typhus, 1919. 



COE, W. E 


Temp. Lieut. .. 


. R.A.M.C, Dental. 


Coffin, S. W. 


Temp. Lieut. .. 


. R.A.M.C. India. 


COGAN, L. D. B. ... 


Act. Col. 


. R.A.M.C. A.D.M.S. I/c 88th Field 
Ambulance. Ment. in despatches, 
1918. Wounded, 1917. 


Cohen, L. C. 


Lieut 


. R.A.M.C, D. 


Cole, P. P. 


Temp. Capt. .. 


. R.A.M.C. 1st Southern Geueral 
Hospital. 


Cole, P. P. 


Hon. Surg. 


. King George Hospital. Ophthal- 
mic Surgeon, Brook War Hosp. 


Cole, T.' P. 


Temp. Capt ... 


R.A.M.C. Wounded. 


Coleman, E. 


Capt 


. R.A.M.C 


Coleman, J. G. H. 


Temp. Lieut. .. 


. R.A.M.C. 


Collar, F 


Capt 


. East African M.S. Invalided home. 


Collier, H. N. 


Capt 


. R.A.M.C Welsh Field Ambul. 
Wounded, 1917. 


Collins, H. Abdy ... 


Commandant ,. 


. 6th Suffolk Volunteer Regiment. 


Collins, J. E. E. ... 


Temp. Lieut. .. 


. R.A.M.C 


Collins, M. Abdy ... 


Lt.-Col. 


R.A.M.C Evvell War Hospital. 


Collins, R. T. 


Lt.-Col. 


R.A.M.C I/c F. A. Mentioned 
in desp.. 1917. D.S.O., 1918. 
Croix de Guerre. Killed in 
action, September, 1918. 


COLLIS. A. J 


Lt.-Col. 


Xorthern Cyclist Battalion. 


CONNOLI.V. B. B. ... 


Col. (rtd.) .. 


R.A.M.C. Mentioned for war ser- 
vices. C.B. 


Connolly, B. G. ... 


Capt 


. R.A.M.C. M.C., 1918. 


Constant, C. F. ... 


Temp. Capt. .. 


. R.A.M.C. 


Conway-Jones, P. N. C 


Cadet ... 


. 10th Battalion London Regiment. 


CONYUEARi:, J. J. 


Capt 


. R.A.M.C, S.R. Late Temp. Major 
4th Oxford and Bucks L.I. 
M.C. 1915. 


Cook, A. X. 


Surg 


R.X. 


Cook, Frank 


Act. Major .. 


. R.A.M.C, S.R. B.E.F. and Meso- 
potamia Exp. Force. 1914—19. 
Surgical Specialist, 1916—19. 


Cook, J 


Capt 


. R.A.M.C. 268th Brigade, R.F.A. 
M.C, 1917. 


Cooke, E. J. 


Surg. Lieut.; .. 


R.N. R.N. Hospital, Haelar, 1916 
—17. H.M.S. AlsatioH. 1916—17 


Cooke, 0. H. 


2nd Lieut. 


. King's Own Yorkshire L.l. 


COOKES, R. V. 


Capt 


. 10th Staffordshire Regiment. 1914. 
Sherwood Foresters. 1915 — 19. 
Served in Gallipoli. Egypt, 
France. 


COOMBES, C. G. 


Lieut 


R.A.M.C, S.R. 


Cooper, C. M. 


Lieut 


R.A.M.C. North Midland F.A. 


Cooper. H. 


Staflf Suit:. .. 


. R.N. D.S.O. Croix de Guonc.- 



146 

Cooper, J. Sephton, 



Cooper, T. P. 

COPLANS, M. 



COPLANS, S. H. 

Copley, S. 
CORFE, E. W. 

COEIN, H. J. 



Boll of War Service. 



Capt. 



Dent. SuTg. 
Lt.-Col. 



Cadet 



Capt. 
Hon. 

Major 



Dent. 



COSTABADEE, H. P. ... 
COSTOBADIE, V. A. P. 

COTTO^^, H. 

COUACAUD, p. 
COUNSELL, H. E. ... 

Cousins, B. P. 

COVELL, G. C. 



Coventry, C. 
Cowley, K. L. 

COWPER, C. M. 
Cox, a. Neville 



Cox, A. R. 
Cox, J. R. 
CoxoN, A. C. M. 



Temp. Lieut. ... 
Hon. Capt. 

Capt 

Surg. Sub. -Lieut 
Major ... 

Lieut. ... 

Major 



Temp. Capt. 
Lieut. ... 
Capt. ... 

Capt. ... 



2nd Lieut. 

Capt 

Capt. . . . 



Craig, Sir Maurice... Lt.-Col. 



. R.A.M.C. 1/1 East Lanes. Field 
Ambulance. Egypt and Sinai 
Peninsular, 1916—17. B.E.F., 
France, 1917. 
. R.N.V.R. 

, R.A.iNl.C., T.F. A.D.M.S. Four 
limes mentioned in despatches. 
D.S.O., 1917. O.B.E., 1919. 

Chevalier de I'Ordre de Leopold. 
Croix dc Guerre (Belgian) and 
Croix de Guerre (Italian). 
.. Artists' Rifles, and 2/13 London 

Regiment. Wounded. 
. S.A.M.C. 
Surgeon to V.A.D. Hospital, East 

Finchley. 
. R.A.F. Dental Surgeon, Dunker- 
que, 1914. Dental Surgeon, 
Dunkerque and Belgian Coast, 
1915—18. Consulting Dental 

Surgeon, Belgian Field Hospital, 
Furnes, 1914. Hon. Consulting 
Dental Surgeon to Naval Units. 
1915 — 18, Ment. in despatches, 
1918. O.B.E. (Military), 1919. 
Chevalier de I'Ordre de la Cou- 
ronne, 1919. 
. R.A.M.C. Ment. in despatches. 
.. R.A.M.C, T.F. 
. R.A.M.C. 

, R.N.V.R. H.M.S. Unciine. 
R.A.M.C, T.F. Base Hospital, 

Oxford. 
7th Duke of Cornwall's Light In- 
fantry. Wounded. 
I.M.S. 139tliI.F.A. (East Africa). 
Served in Egypt and Salonika. 
Mentioned in despatches, East 
Africa. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C, DentaL 
R.A.M.C. 2nd North Midland 

Field Ambulance. 
R.A.M.C 7th General Hospital, 
103rd Field Ambulance, B.E.F. 
49th CCS., B.E.F., 1916—18. 
63rd (R.N.) Machine Gun Batt. 
R.A.M.C, S.R. 
5th Norfolks, T.F. Wounded and 

prisoner, Dardanelles, 1915. 
R.A.M.C. Assistant to Consulting 
Physician (Neurological) for 
Home Forces, 1918. Neurologi- 
cal Specialist, H.Q. Medical 
Board, War Office, 1918. B.E.F. 
(Special Neurological Work) Co!n- 
sulting Physician, Lord Knuts- 
ford's Special Hospital for 
Officers. C.B.E. (Military), 1919. 



Roll of War Seiviee. 



147 



Ceaig, R. N 
Crapper, H. S. 
Crawford, B. 
Crawford, H. 
Crawford, V. J. 
Creasy, R. ... 
Creasy, R., Junr. 
Cresswell, F. p. 
Crew, F. D. 
Crocker, C. J. 
Crofts, A. D. 

Croneex, 
Crook, A. H. 

Crook, E. A. 
Crook, F. W. 
Cross, F. G. 



Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Lieut 
Lieut. ... 

Capt 

Lt.-Col. 
Surg. ... 
Surg. ... 
Ophthalmic 
Temp. Lieut 
Temp. Lieut 
Hon. Lieut. 

Fleet Surg. 
Surg. Lieut. 

Temp. Surg. 
2n(i Lieut. 
Capt 



R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 



136th Field 
Dental. 

M.C. 



Ambulance. 



Cross, L. H. 
Crosse, S. S. 


. Temp. Lieut 
. Capt 


Croucher, H. V. 
Crowe, A. A. R. . 
Crump, C. H. 
Curle, R. ... 


. Pfce. ... 

. Capt 

.. Capt 


Currie, J. A. 


. 2nd Lieut. 



Currie, 0. J. 



CURSQN, G. C. W. 
Curtis, F. ... 
Gushing, R. J. W. 



Cutler, F. J. 



Cutler, H. A. 
OUTTS, G. L. 



Lt.-Col. 



Surg. Sub- 
Surg. ... 
Capt 



Capt. ... 



Temp. Capt 
Surg. Sub. 



S.R. 
D.S.O. 

... British Red Cross Unit, Italy. 
... R.N. H.M.S. lioyal Oak. 
Surgeon, Welsh War Hospital. 
. ... R.A.M.C. 
. ... R.A.M.C. 
... R.A.M.C. M.C. 4th Res. Battalion 

Coldstream Guards. 
... R.N. 

... R.N.V.R. H.M.S. Victory. Men- 
tioned for War Services, 1919, 
... R.N. H.M.S. Excellent. 
• ... 2nd King's Royal Rifles. 
... R.A.M.C. Specialist in Gynaeco- 
logy and Advanced Operative 
Surgery, Mediterranean E. Force, 
1915. Egypt, 1915—16. Ba- 
luchistan, 1916. India, 1916— 
19. Ment, in despatches, 1919. 
. ... R.A.M.C.. Dental. 
... R.A.M.C. 18th Batt. King's Roy. 

Rifles. M.C, 1918. 
... Artists- Rifles O.T.C., 1917, 

... N.Z.M.C. 

... R.A.M.C. No. 2 General Hospital, 
Le Havre and British Salonica 
Force. 

... R.F.A. "Z^' Battery, C.G.A., 
German South West Africa. 
1915. c/50 Brigade, R.F.A., 
9th Division, B.E.F., France, 
1917—18. 

... S.A.M.C. German S.W. Africa, 
1915. A.D.M.S. Nos. 1 and 
14 Military Districts. South 
Africa, 1916. East Africa, 1917 
—18. 
Lieut., R.N. H.M.S. Lychnis. 

... Abbot's Hospital and Reigate Hos. 

...R.A.M.C, T. 2nd London General 
Hospital. I/c Military Hosp., 
'Chepstow. Senior M.O., Chep- 
stow and Beachey Camp. 

... R.A.M.C. Surgeon Military Hos- 
pital. Pembroke Dock, 1914—17. 
B.E.F., France, 1917—18. M.C. 
I/c N.F.F. 23 (Mustard Gas 
Filling Factory). 
. ... R.A.M.C 

Lieut., R.N.V.R. 1915. (Late Pte, 
H.A.C., Infantry.) 



Dakin, W. R. 
D'Albon, M. 



Temp. Medecin-Major, French Army. 
Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 



148 

Daldy, a. M. 



Daldy, M. 

D 'Alton, Mark 

Danby, a. B. 



JioJl of War Service. 



Daeke, S. J. 
Davidson, A. 



Davidson, G. G. 
Davies, A. H. 
Davies, a. W. a. 

Davies, D, A. 
Davies, F. D. S. 

Davies, G. 

Davies, H. A. B. 
Davies, J. C. 

Davies, J. Edgar 

Davies, J. W. 

Davies, K. J. H. 
Davies, L. G. 
Davies, W. L. G. 

Davies, W. T. F. 

Davies-Colley, H. 
Davies-Colley, R. 



Capt. 



Temp Capt, 
rte. ... 

Surg. Lieut. 



Temp. Capt. 



Il.A.M.C, T.F. 0. I/c Ophthal- 
mic Centre, 2nd Eastern District 
also 2nd Eastern Gen. Hospital. 
R.A.M.C. 

L.V. Rifles, Motor Battalion. 
R.X. R.N. Hospital, Plymouth, 
1915. H.M. Monitor XVIII., 
1915 — 17. (Dardanelles and Sa- 
lonika, Macedonia and Bulgaria.) 
R.N. Barracks, Devonport, 1917. 
H.M. Hospital Ship Classic, 
1918, Grand. Fleet, 1919. 
R.A.M.C. (Attached West Surrey 
Regt.) M.C. Wounded. Prisonei- 
1918. 

Temporary 
(Attached 
Wounded. 



Captain 
London 



in Germany 
Surg. Commander, R.N.M.S. 

R.A.M.C. 

Regiment.) 

Civil Surgeon, Military Hospital Queen's Gate. 
Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 
Capt R.A.M.C, S.R.. Wounded. May, 

1918. 
Civil Surgeon, 3rd London General Hospital. 
M.O Glamorgan and Monmouth Hos- 
pital for French wounded. 
Capt ... Northumberland Fusiliers. Killed 

in action. 
Temp. Capt. ... N.Z.M.C. 
Act. Col. (Temp. Major), R.A.M.C. Attached 34th 

Division, R.E. 
Major R.A.M.C. S. Wales Borderers and 

F.A. 1916—19. M.C. and Bar. 
Lt.-Col. ... R.A.M.C. 1st Welsh Field Ambu- 



Surg. Sub. -Lieut 



lance. 
R.N.V 



Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 

Lt.-Col. 



Temp. Capt. 
Col. ... 



Davis, H. H. 


Temp. Capt 


Davy, Sir H. 


... CoL ... 


DwK, H. 
Da^v, S. W. 


Temp Capt 
... Capt 



R. H.M.S. Saracen. 

R.A.M.C. M.O. 33rd Batt. R.F. 

R.A.M.C. Attached 3rd King's- 
Liverpool Regiment. 

S.A.M.C. D.S.O. Wounded, Ger- 
man South-West Africa. 

R.A.M.C. 

A.M.S. Surgeon Specialist, No. 
14 Stationary Hospital, and 
Rawal Pindi British Gen. Hosp., 
1914 — ^15. Mesopotamia, 1916 — 
19. Consulting Surgeon to Me- 
sopotamia Ex. Force, 1917 — 19. 
Tv^ice mentioned in despatches, 
1917 and 1918. C.M.G., 1918, 

R.A.M.C. York and Lanes. Regt. 
Mentioned in Despatches. 
1918. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. Consulting 
cian Southern Command. 
1917. K.B.E., 1919. 

R.A.M.C Wounded, 1918. 

R.A.M.C. I/c Orthopedic Depart- 
ment, Northern Command. 



M.C 



Phvsi 

c!;b. 



Boll of War Service. 



149 



DAWE, C. H. 

Dawson, E. A. 
Day, F. W. 



Day, W. L. M. 
Day-Leavis, a. K. 

Deacox, E. F. 
Deax„ a. C. 



Dean, C. 

Dean, L. T. 
Dear, H. J. 

Deeks, Geoffrey 



Delmege, J. A. 

Dexman, R. 
Dennett, P. 
Dennett, T. F. P. T. 



Denning, A. F. W. 
Denny, H. R. H. 
Densham, a. 
Densham, a. T. 
Denyer, C. H. 
Denyer, S. E. 



Depree, H. T. 

De Robillard, J. E. E. 

Deverall, E. p. 

Dick, F. A 

Dickey, W. C. M.... 
Dickson, A. C. 
DiGBY, W. E. S. .., 

DiMOCK, E. C. 
DiNAN, G. A. 

Ding LEY, W 



DiSMORR, C. J. S. 
Dix, C. B. 

Dixon, J. 

DOBSON, M. R. 



Surg. Commander, R.X. II.M.S. Sirius. 



2mi Lieut. 
Temp. Lieut. 



Somerset Light Infantry. 

19th Royal Fusiliers and R.F.C., 



B.E.F., France, 1915—16. 

Squadron, R.F.C., 1916, (t 

tiUery Observer . ) 

Lieut R.A.M.C. 

Capt 9th West Yorks. Regiment. 

Division, B.E.F. 
Temp. Surg. -Lieut., R.X., Chatham Hospital. 



2nd 
Ar- 



11th 



Temp. Lieut. 



Temp. Capt. 

Temp. Capt. 
Act. Lt.-Col. 

Lieut. .. 



Temp. Capt. 

Temp. Capt. 
Tioc per 
Lieut. ... 



R.A.M.C. Dental. 35th General 
Hospital, B.E.F., and 18th Field 
Ambulance. 



R.A.M.C 
B.E.F. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 
D.S.O. 



35th 
M.C. 



General 
1918. 



Hospital, 



1918. Bar to 



Temp. Lieut, 
Fleet Surg. 
Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Lieut 
Act. Col. 
Temp. Capt. 



D.S.O., 
1918. 

9th London Regiment. Attached 
M.G.C., 47th Division, B.E.F., 
and 2Cth Division, M.E.F. 

R.A.M.C. Ment. in despatches, 
1918. O.B.E., 1919. 

R.A.M.C. 

Surrey Yeomanry, 29th Division. 

Queen's Royal West Surrey Regt. 
Attached R.A.F. Killed in ac- 
tion, August, 1917. 

R.A.M.C. 



Temp. 
Capt. . 



R.N.V.R. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
Garrison 
services, 
Surg. -Lieut., R.N. 
R.A.M.C. 



M.C, 1917. 

H.Q. Staff, 

Mentioned 



Ilumber 
for wax 



1917. C.M.G. 



Lieut. ... 

Temp. Lieut. 
Hon. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 
Capt 

Temp. Capt. 
2nd Lieut. 

2nd Lieut. 



Temp. Capt. 
Lieut. ... 

Temp. Capt. 
Major ... 



Att. West Yorks 
ment. Wounded, 1917. 
R.A.M.C, Dental. 1914, 
Rifles. 
2nd London C 



Regi- 
Pte. 



CS. 



Ment. in despatches. 



Artists' 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C 
R.A.M.C. 
W.A.M.fS. 

Gameroons. 
R.A.M.C, Dental. 
Royal Dublin Fusiliers. KlUed 

in action, September, 1916. 
7th Suffolk Regiment and Public 

Schools Battalion. Killed in 

action, 1917. 
R.A.M.C. 
Eiist Surrey Regiment. Killed in 

action, 1917. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.F. (Medical Service). O.B.E., 

1919. 



150 



Roll of War Service. 



DoDD, H. G. 



DODD, W. H. 
DOHERTY, J. N. 

Doll, H. W. 
domville, e. j. 

DONN, K. L. 

donnell, j. h. 
dorwaed, c. d. m. 
doubleday, f. n. . 
Douglas, C. G. 



Capt E.A.M.C., T.F. 1st Northern Gen. 

Hospital, 19] 5— 16. 315th Bde. 
R.F.A., B.E.F. France, 1916— 
It). 5th Duke of Wellington's 
Ecgt., 1919. Kitchener Military 
Hospital, Brighton, 1919 — 20. 

Recruiting Medical Officer for Wimborne District. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.G., Dental. 

Hon. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 17th General Hospital, 
Alexandria. 

Temp. Lieut. -Col., R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C, Dental. Army Dental 
Surgeon. 

Act. Major. ... R.A.M.C, T.F. 

Lieut 2nd Royal Sussex Regiment. 

Dental Surgeon to King George Military Hospital. 



Lt.-Col. 



Douse, J. F. 


... Temp. Capt. 


DOWLING, G. B. 


... Pte. ... 


DOAVSETT, E. B. 


... Lt.-CoL 



DOYLE, A. R. 

Drake, G. H. 
Drake, G. H. 
Dredge, W. A. 
Dresing, H. G. 



Temp. Surg. 
Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Lieut. 
Capt 



Drew, H. W. 
Drew, V. 



Drixg, W. E. 



Druitt, D. C 

Dryland, G. W. 

Du Boulay, H. H. ... 

Duckworth, J. E. H. 
Duff, K. M. K. 
Duke, B 

Duke, E 

Duke, Joshua 
Duke, Lyndhurst 



Temp. Capt. 
2nd Lieut. 



M.O. 



Temp. Capt. ... 
Temp. Lieut, ... 
Civil Surgeon, 

Capt 

Lt.-Col. 

Temp. Capt. .. 
Lt.-Col. 



. A.M.S. Twice mentioned in des- 
patches, 1918. M.C C.M.G., 
1919. 

.. R.A.M.C. 

.. King Edward's Horse. 

. R.A.M.C, A.D.M.S. 60th Division. 
D.D.M.S. XX. Corps. B.E.F., 
France, Egypt, Palestine, 

Macedonia. Five times ment. in 
despatches. D.S.O., 1918. Ter- 
ritorial Decoration, 1919. 

Lieut., R.N. H.M.S. Aiolon. 

.. R.A.M.C, Dental, and R.G.A. 

.. Canadian A.M.S. 

.. R.A.M.C, DentaL 

.. R.A.M.C. M.O. i/c 3rd Bridging 
Team, B.E.F., 1915—16. M.O. 
i/c 1st Battalion The Queens 
(R.W.S.) Regt., 1916—17. M.O. 
i/c various Regiments, B.E.F,, 
1918. M.C, 1917, during at- 
tack on Fontaine-le-Croiselles 
(Battle of Arras). 

.. R.A.M.C 

.. Attached G.H.Q.I., Salonika Force 
as Officer Interpreter. Silver 
Medal Serbian Red Cross, Order 
of St. Sava. 

... I/c 7th Devons. 1914—15 M.O. 
No. 20 Kent V.A.D. Hospital. 
1914—18. 

.. R.A.M.C. 

.. R.A.M.C. 

i/c Military Patients, Royal Hos- 

T>i t ft 1 . Wpvm ou th . 191 4 — 1 8 . 
7th Wore esters. M.C. 

latli Battalion C of London Volun- 
teer Regiment. 

R.A.M.C. 

I.M.S. 
R.A.M.C. 



Boll of War Service. 



151 



dumayxe, h. g. 
dunbae, c. g. 
Duncan, G. E. 
duxdeedale, g. 



Dunning, J. B. 

DUNSTAN, R. ... 
DtJEHAM, E. H. 
DUTTON, T. ... 

Dyke, V. R. 
Dymott, G. L. 
Dymott, G. V. 



Lieut R.A.M.C, 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 
Surg. Commander, R.N. 



Dental. 

Ment. in despatches. 

H.M.S. Vivid. 



Lieut R.A.F.M.S. Civil M.O., East 

African Medical Service. Civil 
Surgeon, Queen Alexandra's Hos- 
pital, Millbank (during leave), 
and Temp. Lieut., R.A.F. 
R.A.M.C. 13th Royal Sussex Regt. 
B.E.F. M.C. Wounded, 
to Troops Paignton. 



Hon. Capt 

M.O. 

Hon. Lieut. 
Civil Surgeon, 
Temp. Capt. .. 

M»jor 

Lieut 



R.A.M.C. Welsh Hosp., Netley. 
Hammersmith Battalion. 

R.A.M.C. 
, 281st Battery, R.F.A. D.S.O., 1918 

R.A.M.C, Dental. Army Dental 

Surgeon. 



Eagee, R. 
Eagleton, a. J. 
Eason, H. L. 



Capt 

Temp. Capt. 
Lt.-Col. 



Easter, W. A. 
Eastes, G. L. 


... Lieut, ... 
... Capt 


Easton, W. a. 


... Temp. Capt 


Eaton, 0. 
Eccles, G. D. 


... Temp. Capt 
... Temp. Capt. 


ECCLES, H. D. 


... Capt 


Eccles, H. N. 


... Capt .... 



Eddison, H. W. 


... Temp. Surg 


Edey,, F. H. 


... Capt 


Edey, G. R. 


Lieut. ... 


Edey, T. H. 


... Temp Capt. 


Edqae, N. 


... Hon. Dental 



... R.A.M.C. Wessex R.A. 

... R.A.M.C. 

... R.A.M.C. Consulting Ophthalmic 
Surgeon to Forces in the i\Iedi- 
terranean, Egypt, Palestine and 
Syria, 1915—19. Pres. Standing 
Medical Board, Alexandria, 1917 
— 18. President Special Medical 
Board, R.A.F. , Middle East, 
1917 — 18. Mentioned in desp., 
M.E.F., 1916. C.M.G., 1917. 
C.B., 1919. 

... R.A.M.C. 68th Field Ambulance. 

... R.A.M.C. 2nd London Sanitary 
Corps. Ment. in despatches. 

... R.A.M.C. 68th Field Ambulance, 
Salonica. 

... R.A.M.C. 

... R.A.M.C. TVIent. in despatches. 
1918. M.C, 1918. Wounded, 
1917. 

... R.A.M.C. M.O., 13th Royal Irish 
Rifles. Mentioned in despatches, 
1917. Killed in action, August, 
1917. 

... R.A.M.C. Victoria War Hospital, 
Bombay, 1916—18. India Troop 
War Hospital, Amballa Punjab, 
1918—19. Cambridge Hospital, 
Aldershot, 1919. X-ray Specialist 
Bombay Brigade, 1916—18. X- 
ray Specialist Lahore Division, 
1918—19. X-ray Specialist Al- 
dershot Command, 1919. 

-Lieut., R.N. H.M.S. Thesevs. 

... A.S.C In Mesopotamia. 

... R.A.M.C. 

... R.A.M.C. 
Surgeon, V.A.D. Hospital, Enfield. 



152 



Roll of War Service. 



Edmond, J. A. 



Edney, C. H. 



Edridge, Eay 
Edwards, C... 
Edwards, C. D. 
Edwards, C. H. 
Edwards, F. 
Eglington, D. C. 

Ehrlich, H. a. 

Elkington, G. 
Elkington, G. W. 

Elliott, E. L. 



Elliott, H. G. 
Elliott, H, H. 

Elliott, S. G. 
Ellis, G. 
Ellis, G. G. 
Ellis, J. S. 
Elliston, G. S. 
Elavood, HerbieiTti^ 



Elwood, W. a. 
Endean, F. C. 

Enice, J. W. 
Ensoe, C. a. 
Ensor, J. 
Erskine-Collins, J. 



Esceitt, F, Iv. 

ESKELL, p. R. 

Etches, W. R. 



Capt. .. 



2nd Lieut. 



Capt .».. 

Temp. Lieut. ... 
Temp. Capt. ... 
Temp. Capt. ... 
M.O. to V.T.C: 
2nd Lieut. 



Capt. .. 

Temp. 
Lieut. 

Temp. 



Capt. 



Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 

Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 
R.JV..O.... 

Capt 

Capt 



Capt. 
Surg. 



Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 



... R.A.M.C. 11th General Hospital, 
B.E.F. Attached Ambulance 
Train and 60th F.A., 20th Div. 
Killed at Villiers Plouich in 
Battle of Cambrai, Nov. 30th, 
19 J 7. Mentioned in despatches, 
1918. 
Suffolk Regt., 1915. Pte., II.A.C, 
B.E.F., 1916. Ambulance Unit 
attached 3rd Italian Army. In- 
valided out, April, 1919. 
.«.. R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. • M.C. 

R.A.M.C. War Hosp., Norbury. 
South London Regiment. 
Black Watch, 1911. Artists' Rifles, 

1915. R.F.C. 
R.A.M.C. Attached 2nd Ilamp- 

shires. 
R.A.M.C. 

... 3rd Devonshire Regt. Attached 
84th M.G. Coy. 
Surg. -Lieut., R.N. Shotley Sick Quarters, 
1914—15. R.N. Hospital Ships 
Somali and Karapfira^ 1915 — 17, 
Mediterranean. R. N. Hospital, 
Plymouth, 1917—19. 
R.A.M.C, Dental. 
R.A.M.C. Sth Welsh Pioneers. 

M.C, 1917. Twice wounded. 
R.A.M.C, Dental. 
R.A.M.C 

R.A.M.C, Dental. 
Essex County Hospital, Colchester. 
R.A.M.C, T.F. M.C, 1918. 
R.A.M.C, Dental. Dental Surgeon, 
L'llopital de I'Alliance, Yvetot, 
1915. Dent. Surgeon 36ien Corps 
Armee Francais, 1916. Dental 
Surgeon 12th Batt. Royal Innis- 
killinjT Fusiliers, 1917. O.C, 
No. . "2 IMobile Dental Unit, 
B.E.F., 1918. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.N. H.M.S. Vivid. Mentioned 

for War Services, 1919. 
R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. Poena, India. 

Golders' Green Auxiliary Hospital. 

R.A.M.C. Att, Howitzer Batteries 

Italy, 1917. B.E.F. . Italy, 

1917—19. Silver Medal Italian 

Red Cross with Palms. 

R.A.M.C M.O. i/c 62nd Laboui 

Group, 4th Army. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C 



Lieut. 



Temp. Lieut, 

Capt 

Temp. Surg. 
Capt 



Temp. Lieut. . 



Boll of War Service. 



153 



Evans, C. K. 

Evans, Ed. ... 
EvAXS, Evan 

Evans, E. A. 
Evans, E. G. 
Evans, Herbert L. 



EvAXS, H. W. 



Evans, J. 



Evans, J. 

Evans, J. A. 

Evans, J. E. R. 

Evans, L. W. 



Evans, R 

Evans, T. Garfield... 

Evans, T. G. 

E very-Clayton, L. E. 

EWEN, H. W. 

EwiNG, A. W. ... 



Brevet Colonel, R.A.M.C. D.S.O. :\reiitiunfcd in 
despatches, 1917. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. M.C. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. M.O. 1st Batt. Car- 
marthenshire Volunteers. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. Glamorgan Vol. Corps. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 

M-0 Battle House Auxiliary Hospital, 

and The Guards' Auxiliary Hos- 
pital, Reading. 

Capt R.A.M.C, S.R. 48th Field Am., 

Limerick, 1914. France, 1915 — 
17. Egyptian Exp. Force, 1918 
—19. O.C. Medical Division, 
1919. Mentioned in despatches, 
1918. M.C, 1917. 

Lt.-Col. ... R.A.M.C I/c Welsh Field Am- 

bulance. Twice Ment. in des- 
patches, 1917, and 1918. D.S.O., 
1918. 

Major R.A.M.C Mentioned in despatches. 

1917. 

Capt R.F.A. M.C, 1917. 

... Killed in action at the Dardanelles. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. Attached 9th E. Lanes. 
Mentioned in despatches, .1917. 
M.C, 1918. Mesopotamia. 

I/c, Red Cross Hospital Croxley Green. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 34th Welsh General 
Hospital. 

Capt CA.M.C 

v., Temp. Captain, R.A.M.C. B.E.F. 

X-ray and Electrical Therapeutist at Isle of Wight 
War Hospitals. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C 



Fagge, C H. 
Fagge, R. H. 

Fai-wasser, a. T. 



Farrant, E. 
Parrington, R. G. 
Faruingtov, W. B. 

Fasken, N. E. 
Faulks, Edgar 

Fawcett, F. W. 
Fawcett, J. 
Fwvcfs D. A. 



Temp. Lt.-Col. R.A.M.C. (Major A.M.S,) Hamp- 
stead Military Hospital. 

Capt R.A.M.C.T.F. oth Northern Hos- 
pital, 1914—17. 59th General 
Hospital, B.E.F., 1917. 

Temp. Lt.-Col. R.A.M.C., T.F. Commanding 2/1 
Home Counties Field Ambulance. 
Mentioned in despatches, 1917. 
D.S.O. , 1918. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C, Dental. 

2nd Lieut. ... R.F.A., S.R. M.C, 1918. 

Capt Notts and Derby Regiment. At- 
tached R.F.C D.8.O., 1918. 

Lieut R.M.A. 

Lieut R.A.M.C. Killed in action in 

France, 27th September, 1915. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 

Brevet Major... R.A.M.C 2nd London Gen. Ho8p. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R..A.:M.r. 37th r.r<. 



PART II. 



154 



Roll of War Service. 



Fawssett, p. W. 



i'EATHERSTONi:, F. R. 
FEATHERSTONE, J. W. 

Felce, G. E. W.... 

Fell, R 

Felton, Richard 



FINNEMORE, H. 



FiSHBURN, J. B. ... 

Fisher, H. W. 

Fitzgerald, A. H.... 
Fitzgerald, G. H.... 

fitzmaueice, a. l.... 

Flanders, F. G. P.... 

Flower, N. 



Floyd, W 

Flynn, W. a. 
Forrest, A. G. 
Fortesoue-Brickdale, 



Temp. Lieut. 
2nd Lkut. 
Surg. Sub. -Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 
Act. Major 



Capt. 



Forty, A. A. 



Foster, R. H. 



Capt ll.A.M.C. No. 10 General Hos- 
pital, 1915—17. l/5th Loyal 
North Lanes, 1917. Prisoner of 
war in Germany, 1917. Trans- 
ferred home, 1918. No. 54 Gen. 
Hospital, li.E.F., 1918—19. 
R.A.M.C. Late Surgeon R.N. 
Worcestershire Yeomany. 

R.N.V.R. H.M.S. Rob Hoy. 
R.A.M.C. M.O. H.M.H.S. J^gypt. 
R.A.M.C. M.O. 17th Middlesex, 
33rd Division. B.E.F., 1915— 
16. Kinmel Park Hospital, 1915 
— 17. No. 40 Stationary Hospi- 
tal, B.E.F., 1917—19. M.C.. 
1916. Wounded, 1916. 
General List. Anti-Gas Departmt. 
R.A.M.C. CoUege. 2nd Lieut. 
Inns of Court O.T.C., October. 
1915— August, 1916. Captain 
Chemical Adviser to Northern 
Conmiand, August, 1916 — May. 
1917. 
Surg. Sub.-Lieut., R.N.V.R. H.M.S. Brisk. 

Major R.A.M.C. Indian Exp. Force. 

O.B.E., 1919. 
Temp. Lieut. ... R.N.V.R. 

Temp. Surg. -Lieut., R.N., H.M.S. Agememnon and 
KiTiross. 

M.O Colonial Medical Service. Died 

on Seivice. 
Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C, Dental. Guards Depot, 
Caterham. 

Capt R.A.M.C. Surgical Specialist and 

0. i/c Surgical Division, Malta 
Command, 1917. M.O. i/c Yeovil 
Red Cross Hospital, and M.O. 
i/c Compton Red Cross Hospital, 
1914—18. 
. S.A.M.C, DentaL In East Africa 

with General Smuts' Force. 
. R.A.M.C. 
. R.A.M.C, Dental. 
R.A.M.C, T.F. 2nd Southern Gen. 
Hospital, 1914. 0. i/c Medical 
Division, 23rd General Hospital, 
B.E.F., 1915. Isolation Hospi- 
tal, B.E.F., 1915—16. 0. i/c 
Medical Division, 13th Station- 
ary Hospital, B.E.F., 1916—17. 
2nd Southern General Hospital, 
1917—19. 
Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 2nd Northern General 
Hospital, Leeds. Attached Nor- 
thern Command, 1915 — 18. Men- 
tioned for wax services, 1917. 
Resident Surgeon, 2nd Birmingham War Hospital. 



Capt 

Temp. Lieut. 

Temp. Capt. 

J. M., Capt., 



Roll of War Service. 



155 



Fostee-Smith, G. T. 

FOTHEEGILL, C. T. 
FOTHEEGILL, E. K. 
FOULSTON, B. 
FOUEAKEE, L. F. 

Fox, F. L. H. 
Fox, H. E. C. 

Fox, H. W. 

Fox, W. E. 

T^EAV'TS. C. ... 



Feench, Herbert 



Feipp, Sir A. 
Fry, L. B. . 
Fey, W. K. 

Fryee, E. . 



Capt. 



Temp. Lieut. ... 
Temp. Major... 



R.A.M.C. 19th General Hospital, 
Alexandria. No. 3 Egyptian Sta- 
tionary Hosp., Kantara, E.E.F. 

R.A.M.C. M.E.F. 

R.A.M.C. Ment. for war eervicee. 



Feaxcis, R. 


c. 


H. . 


. Temp. Capt. 


Feanklin, 
Feasee, A. 


R. 




. Temp. Capt. 
. Temp. Capt. 


Feasee, E. 
Fbaser, F. 


L. 
C. 




. 2nd Lfsut. 
. Capt 


Feasee, J. 


H. 




. M.O. ... 


Feazer, a. 
Feazee, E. 


e! 




. Temp. Capt. 
. Capt 


Feazer, F. 


M. 




. Temp. Capt. 


Feemantle, 


F. 


e. . 


.. Lt.-Col. 



... R.G.A. 
Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C, attached East Lanes. 
Field Ambulance. 

Capt R.A.M.C. M.E.F. H.M.H.S. 

Delta. 
Surg. -Lieut. ... R.N. H.M.S. Laurentic, Ganget 
and Resolution, and R.N. Hob- 
pital, Chatham. 

Capt R.A.M.C, T.F. Surgeon Specialist 

Ear, Nose and Throat, Army of 
Rhine. 
R.A.M.C. 20th General Hospital, 

France. 
R.A.M.C 
R.A.M.C. Ment. in despatches, 

1917. 
Tank Corps. Killed in action, 1917. 
I. M.S. Mentioned in despatches. 

Mesopotamia. 
3/2 East AngUan R.F.A. M.O. 
i/c Military Auxiliary Hospital, 
Eastern Command. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. M.E.F., 1915—17. i/c 

X-ray at Citadel, Cairo. 
R.A.M.C X-ray Expert, Cairo 

Military Hospital. 
R.A.M.C, S.R. Mentioned in des- 
patches, Mesopotamia, 1918. 
O.B.E., 1919. 
Lt.-Col. ... R.A.M.C. Consulting Physician, 

Aldershot Command, 1916—19. 
Consulting Physician to the 
Trench Fever wards, Hampstead 
Military Hoep., 1917—19. Mem- 
ber of War Oflace Trench Fever 
Committee, 1917—19. Belgium 
(Ypres Salient), 1917. Member 
of the Council of Consultants, 
War Office. Joint author of the 
following Official War Office Ar- 
ticles " Purulent Bronchi tLs " ;md 
"Influenza" (both for Official 
Medical History of the War.) 
Mentioned in despatches, 1918. 
C.B.E. (Military Division), 1919 
Consulting Surgeon to the Admiralty. 
Temp. Surg.-Lieut., R.N. H.M.S. Victory. 

Capt R.A.M.C Att. Ist Batt. Royal 

Welsh Fusiliers. M.C 
Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 



156 

Fuller, F. H. 

Fulton, H. ... 



Roll of War Service. 



Oapt. ... 



Lt.-Col. 



K.A.M.C. M.O. to Special Brigade 
E.E.'s. M.O. No. 2, General 
Haspital and 86th H.A.C, 14tli 
Corps, Yprcs, B.E.F.. 1917. 
Home Service, 1917—19. M.C. 
Wounded, Sept. 2l8t, 1917. 

K.A.M.C, T. O.C. 12th (Jnd 
London) F.A. Mentioned in 
despatches, 1917. Wounded. 



Gabell, a. H. 
Gaffney, E. J. 



Galbraith, D. H. a. Capt. ... 



Galloway, W. D. ... Surg. Lieut. 



Gaedinee, Ivan J. .. 
Gardnee, a. Linton.. 
Garland, J. 0. 

Garrard, N. 
Gaskell, D. K. 
Gater, a. W. 
Gater, H. J. 

Gathergood, L. S. . 
Gatley, C. a. E. . 



2nd Lieut. ... 340th Brigade, K.F.A. 

Capt K.A.M.C. Dental Officer, Ports- 
mouth Garrison. 
K.A.M.C. Served in India, Se- 
cunderabad Division, 1916 — 17. 
110 Combined F.A., 1/1 Gurkhas 
2/124 Baluchistaji Infantry, Me- 
sopotamian Expeditionary Force, 
1917—18. 112 Combined F.A., 
3rd Lahore Div. Train, Egyptian 
Expeditionary Force, 191 <S — 20. 
M.C, 1917. Wounded, 1917. 
H.M.g. CamwalUs. Commended 
for service in action at Gallipoli. 

Lieut Killed in action, 1917. 

Temp. Capt. ... K.A.M.C. Killed in action. 1918. 

Capt K.A.M.C Ment. in despatches, 

1917, British East African Force. 
K.A.M.C 



Capt. 

Temp. 
Temp. 



Lieut.-CoL, K.A.M.C 



Capt. 



M.O. 29th Heavy Bgde 



Gavin, L. P. W. ... 

Genge- Andrews, G. E. 
George, A. L. 

George, J. D. 

George, W 

George, W. S. 
German, H. B. 



GiBB, C De Wet 



Capt 

Temp. Capt. 



Surgeon to 

Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 

Temp. Lieut. 

Capt 

Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 



Major 



S.K. 
M.O., HaU Walker's 

for Officers, 1914 — 15. 
F.A.. and 7th Buffs., 
, 1916—17. Wounded. 



... K.A.M.C 

K.G.A. 
... K.A.M.C. 
... K.A.M.C 

Hospital 

55th 

B.E.F. 
. 1917. 
King George Hospital, and five other 

Military and Naval Hospitals. 
... K.A.M.C. O.B.E., 1919. 
... K.A.M.C. Mesopotamia. Ment. in 

despatches, 1917. 
... K.A.F., MedicaL 
... K.A.M.C. M.C, 1917. 
... K.A.M.C. 
... K.A.M.C Leicester Kegt. 

K.F.A. Late Surgeon 

Mentioned in despatches, 

M.C, 1918. Bar to M.C, 



Att. 
K.N., 
1917. 
1918. 



Wounded. Killed in action, 
1918. 
K.A.M.C. 54th F.A., 1914—15. 
15th F.A., B.E.F., 1915—17. 
18th Casualty Clearing Station. 
1917—18. D.A.D.M.S. 20th 

Div., B.E.F. , 1918—19. Ment. 
in despatches, 1919. 



Moll of War Service. 



157 



Gibbons, H. V. 
Gibson, C. C. G. ... 

Gibson, F. G. 
Gibson. H. G. 

GiE. J. C 

Gilbert, L. H. 
GiLKES. M. DO. ... 

Gill, L 

Gill-Carey, C. 

Glaisby, K 

Glanville, L. S. N. 



Glendining, V. 

Glover, C , 

Glover. E. ]Sr. 

Glover, J. A. 
GOADBY, Sir Kenneth 

Goble, E. W. 
Goble, E. G. 
Godding, H. C. ... 
GODSiLL, Stanley 

Go])SON, F. A. 
GOLDIE, E. G. 



Goldstein, H. M. 
OOODALL, Edwin 

GOODALL, E. W. 

Goodhaet, G. W. 



Goodwin, E. S. 
Ooss, J. 

•iOUDGE, A. N. 
OUGH, B. B. 

< rOULD. C. H. 
<rOVER, W. ... 

Graham, L. A. J. 
Graham. S. G. 
Granger, E. 
Gray, A. C. H. 



Gray. E. E. D. 
Gray, H. M. 



Temp. Lieut. ... E.A.M.C. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. Prisoner of War in 
Germany, 1918. 

Major N.Z.M.C. H.M.H.S. Maheno. 

Major ... ... R.A.M.C. Mentioned for war ser- 
vices, 1917. Died, 1919. 

Temp. Surg. Lieut., R.X. Chatham HospitaL 



Hon. Surgeon Auxiliary Military Hospital, Ludlow. 

Capt ~ ~ 

Lieut. ... 
Lieut. ... 
Temp. Capt. 



Capt. ... 
Surg. Dent. 
Temp. Capt. 



R.A.M.C. 
N.Z.M.C. 
R.F.A. Ki 
R.A.M.C. 

Rifles. 

1918. 
R.A.M.C. 
H.M.H.S. 
R.A.M.C. 



S.R. 

lied ia action, Nov. ,1917 
Attached Royal Irish. 
Prisoner in Germany, 



Temp. Capt. 
Member of 

Temp. Ca,pt. 
Surgeon 

Capt 

Lieut. ... 

Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 



Capt. ... 
Lt.-Col. 



Lt.-Col. 



Temp. Capt. 



Plassy. 
Ment. in despatches, 
Mesopotamia, 1918. 
... R.A.M.C. O.B.E., 1919. 
War Office Committee for study of 

Tetanus. K.B.E., 1918. 
... R.A.M.C. 
Commander, R.N. H.M.S. Gloucester. 
... R.A.M.C. M.C. 
... London Regt. KiUed in action, 
23rd December, 1917. 
R.A.M.C. 

A.M.S. 127th Indian Combined 
Field Ambulance., E.E.F. Ment. 
in despatches, 1918. C.B.E. 
R.A.M.C. 2nd N.Z. Field Ambu- 
lance. M.C, 1917. 
R.A.M.C. O.C, Welsh Metropoli- 
tan War Hospital, Whitchurch, 
near Cardiff, 1915—19. C.B.E. , 
1919. 
R.A.M.C. Grove Military Hospital, 
Tooting. Mentioned for war ser- 
vices, 1917. O.B.E., 1919. 
R.A.M.CT.F. St Marks (No. 2 
Gen. Hospital). . Mentioned for 
war services, 1917. 



Tciup. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 
Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.F. 

Lieut R.A.M.C. 8th South Staflfs. Killed 

in action, Belgium, 1916. 
R.N. H.M.S. Dartmouth. 
R.N. H.M.S. Fearless. 
R.A.M.C. E.E.F. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.N. 
R.A.M.C 
1918. 
C.B.E 
Surg. Sub.-Lieut., R.N.V.R. H.M.S. Martm 
Capt Canadian A. M.C. 



Temp. Surg. 
Temp. Surg. 
Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 
Surg. Lieut. 
Lt.-Col. 



Prisoner in Germany. 
Mentioned in despatchee. 
1919. 



158 


Boll of ^ 


Gbay, St. G. B. D. 


Surg. Sub.-] 


Greaves, H. N. 
Green, Arthur 
Green, C. L. 


Capt 

Lieut. ... 
2nd Lieut. 


Greene, C. W. 


Capt 


Greene, J. A. C. .. 


Temp. Capt. . 


Greene, W. K. 
Greenfield, D. G. ... 
Greenwood, A. A. ... 


Temp. Major 
Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. . 



Greenwood, E. C. 



Gregor, J. B. 
Grellet, H. K. 

Greves, E. H. 

Grice, J. W. H. 
Griffin, E. H. 



Griffin, T. H. 
Griffiths, Chas. T.... 



Griffiths, H. L. S. 
Gripper, G. D. 
Grobbelaar, p. E. ... 



Grombie. J. M. P. 
Groves, H. S. 
Growsb. W. ... 

GmNNESS, A. F. G. 
gwatkin, a. j. 
Gwyn-Davies, W. 

GWYN, W. p. 



M.O. 



Surg. 
Act. Major 

Consulting 

Capt 

Temp. Capt. 



Capt 

Temp. Lieut 



Temp. Capt. 

Capt 

Capt 



Capt. . 
Capt. . 
Senior 



Temp. Lieut 
Temp. Capt. 

Capt 

Lt.-CoL 



b., K.N.V.K. H.M.S. Pelorus. 

Awarded Koyal Humane Society 
Medal for Saving Life from 
Drowning. 
Canadian A.M.C. 

E.A.M.C. 2nd East Angliau F.A. 
Essex Regt. Killed in action, 9th 

June, 1917. 
R. A.M.C. Mentioned in despatches, 

Salonika. 
R.A.M.C. Attached Weet Yorke. 
Regt. M.C., 1917. Wounded. 
R.A.M.C, Dental. 
R.A.M.C, Dental. 
R.A.M.C. 37th General Hospital, 
Salonika. Order of St. Sava 
(Serbian) and Croix de Guerre. 
1919. 

I/c Acheson Hospital for Officers, 

1916—18. Anaesthetist, St. John 
and St. Elizabeth Hospital, 1914 
— 18. Commander Special Con- 
stabulary, 1914—20. Ment. for 
w r services, 1918-19. O.B.E., 
1919. 
Sub.-Lieut., R.N.V.R. 

... R.A.M.C. Yorks. and JLancs. Regt. 

Wounded, 1917. 
Physician to Red Cross Hospital, 

Bournemouth. 
... R.A.M.C, S.R. 
... R.A.M.C Att. 
land Fusiliers, 
in despatches, 
1917, D.S.O... 
1917; wounded & 
... R.A.M.C, Dental, 
despatches, 1917. 
.-Col., R.A.M.C, T.F. Territorial de- 
coration, Hon. Associate of 
Order of St. John of Jerusalem. 
... R.A.M.C. 1st CCS. 
... R.A.M.C German East Africa. 
... R.A.M.C, T.F. 1st Scottish Gene- 
ral Hospital, 0. i/c Centre for 
Treatment for Jaw Injuries, 
C i/c Aberdeen ]Military Dental 
Centre, 1914—19. 
... R.A.M.C, T. 

... R.A.M.C 72nd Field Ambulance. 
V.A.D. Red Cross Hospital 
Kenil worth. 
R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C, Dental. 
3rd Batt. The King's Regiment. 
A.M.S. Egypt. Mentioned in 
despatches, 1918. CM.G., 1919. 



12th Nortbumber- 

Twice mentioned 

M.C and Bar 

1917. Wounded, 

prisoner, 1918. 

Mentioned in 



Surgeon 



Roll of War Service. 



159 



Haine, C. F. 
Halden, K. J. G. 
Hall, A. W. 

Hall, E. S. 
Hall, Maxwell 



Hall, K. W. B. .. 
Hallet, L. K. J. .. 
Halstead, D. V. .. 

Ham, B. B 

Hamlton, E. T. E... 



Hamilton, G^o. 
Hammond, J. A* B. 



2iid Lieut. 

Col. ... 

Temp. Capt. 
Pte. ... 



Staff-Surg. .. 

Capt 

Temp. Capt. .. 
Temp. Major .. 



Temp. Surg. 
Capt 



Hammond-Williaisis, 
Hampton, F. A. 
Hanafy, J. Z. 



Hant'Ock. a. C. 



C. W., Capt., 1/5 
Lieut. ... 
R.M.O., British 



Major 



Hancock, E. D. 


Temp Major 


Handson, L. S. 0.... 


Temp. Lieut. 


Handley, W. Sampson 


Capt 


Harden, E. 


Lieut. ... 


Habdenbkrg, E. J. ;F. 


Lieut. ... 


Hardy, E 


Pte. ... 


Hardy, G. F. 


Temp. Capt. 



14th Royal Fusiliers. 

Artists' Rifles O.T.C. 

A.M.S. Egypt. Mentioned in 
despatches. 

R.A.M.C. M.E.F. 

Artists' Rifles (28th London), In- 
fantry, France, 1916—17. R.F.A. 
1917—18. 

R.^. H.M.S. Dolphin. 

5th Royal Sussex Regt. 

R.A.M.C, S.R. 

R.A.M.C. 

S.A.M.C. Mentioned for war ser- 
vices German South-West Africa, 
1914 — 15. Died on service. 

R.N. Ment. in despatches. 

R.A.M.C. 24th General Hospital, 
B.E.F. Neurological E.M.O. 

King George Hospital, 1915 — IG. 
1/3 West Riding F.A., B.E.F., 
1916. Anaesthetist and M.O. i/c 
Chest Wards, No. 24 General 
Hospital, B.E.F., 1916—18. M.O. 
i/c Medical Division, Tooting 
Neurological Hospital, 1918—19. 
Batt. Border Regt. Wounded, 1917. 

R.A.M.C. M.C. 

Red Cross Society, Order of St. 
John of Jerusalem. R.M.O., 
King George Military Hospital, 
1915 — 19. Mentioned in des- 
patches, 1919. O.B.E., 1919. 

R.A.M.C. Att. H.L.I. 9t]i Scot- 
tish Division, Aldeivhot, an)d 
B.E.F., 1914—19. M.O. lOth 
Highland Light Infantry. Bearer 
Officer, 27th Field Ambulance. 
Mentioned in despatches, 1916. 
M.C, 1916, Bar- to M.C, 1917. 
2nd Bar to M.C, 1917. 

R.A.M.C. Clandon Red Cross 
Hospital. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C, T. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. Millbank Hospital 

R.A.M.C 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C M.O. 23rd Brigade, 
17. M.O. No. 5 Reserve Brigade. 
R.F.A., Catt<'rick, and No. 1 
Infantry Command Depot, 1917. 
M.O. lith W.'st Yorkshire Regt. 
and No. 38 Stationary Hospital, 
Genoa, Italy, 1918. M.O. i/c 
Troops, Remount Depot, Roumey, 
and Repatriation Camp, Win- 
chester, 1919. Mentioned in 
despatches, 1917. M.C, 1917. 
Wonnded, 1917. 



160 



Roll of War Service. 



Hahdy, H. M. 

Hare. E. C... 
Hakkness, a. H. 
Harland, G. B. 
Harper, J. .„ 
Hakper, R. S. 
Harrington, F. J. 
Harris, H. 0. W. 



Harris, L. Prioe 



Harris, W. J. 
Harrison, E. W. ., 
Harrison, Harold . . 

Harrison. S. S. B... 



Hart. E. R. 
Hart, J. A.... 
Hartnell, E. B. 



Harvey, C. P. 
'Harvey, J. H. 

Ha WES, W. A. 
Hawkesworth. H. .. 
Hawkins, C. F. 

Haycraft, G. F. .. 

Haynes, C. G. 



Hayxes, F. 
Hayward, M. C. 



Hearn, R. J. 
Hearndex. W. C. 
Heasman. H. W. 
Heath, F. R. H. 
Heath, T. L. 



Temp. Lieut. 



Col. 
Surg. 
Capt. 
Temp. 



Lieut. ... 



Temp. Capt. 



R.A.M.C. 27th General Hospital, 

Mudros and Cairo. 
R.A.M.C. 

R.N. H.M.S. Emperor of India. 
I.M.S. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 



Hon. Dental Surgeon to Red Cross Hospital, Hin- 
ton St. George. Private, 3rd 
Batt. Somerset Volunteer Regt. 

Major R.A.M.C. D.A.D.M.S. 2/4 London 

Fid Am., 1915—17. D.A.D.M.S. 
60th Division France, 1916. Sa- 
lonika, 1916—17. Egypt and 
Palestine, 1917—19. M.C., 1918 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. M.B.E., 1919. 

Temp. Surg. ... R.N. H.M.S. Pembroke. 



Dental Surgeon 



Hospital, 



Major 



Temp. Capt. 
2nd Lieut. 
Temp. Capt 



Haetnell-Bbavis, J. Lieut, 



to Anglo-Russian 

Petrograd. 
R.A.M.C. South Staffs. Regiment. 

M.C., 1917. Died from gas 

poisoning on service, 1918. 
R.A.M.C. 

2nd East Surreys. Wounded, 1915. 
R.A.M.C. London Mounted Bri- 
gade. Died at Cairo, 25th April, 

1916. 
R.A.M.C. Private Hospital work, 

Antwerp, France and Serbia. 
Civil Med. Pract. A.S.C. 
Civil Med. Pract., 3rd Dorset Regiment. O.B.E.. 

1919. 
R.A.M.C, S.R. 

I/c Devon & Cornwall Territorials. 
R.A.M.C, Dental. M.M., 1917. 

Wounded, 1917. 
R.A.M.C, T. No. 4 Stationary 

Hospital. 
Artists' Rifles, B.E.F. 1914. 4th 

King's Royal Rifles, 1916—17. 



Lieut. 

M.O. 

Lieut. 

Capt. . 

Capt. . 



Flight 
1917. 
1917. 
action. 

Dental Surgeon V.A.D. 

Capt R.A.M.C, T. 

died from 
1916. 
... R.A.M.C. 
Auxiliary War 



Commander, R.A.F., 
M.C, 1916. Bar to M.C 
Missing, 1918. Killed in 



Hospital, Rugby. 

Wounded at Ypres, 
wounds, Aug. 23rd, 



Capt 

On Staff 
Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Lieut. 
Capt 



R.A.M.C 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 

Hospital 



Attached R.A.F. 
Hospital, Leather head. 



No. 40 British General 
and No. 40 Combined 
F.A. Mesopotamia, 1917 — 19. 
Attached 2nd Somerset L.I., Af- 
ghanistan and N. W. Frontier, 
India, 1919. 



Roll of War Service. 



161 



Heatherley, F. 



Heaton, T. 13. 
Heckels. G. W. 
Hedden, R. ... 
Helsham. C. T. 



Henderson, H. 


J. ... 


Temp. Lieut 


Henderson, T. 


E. ... 


2nd Lieut. 


Henderson, W. 
Hendren, E. S 
Henry, A. M. 
Henby, C. J. 


... 


Temp. Capt. 
A.B. ... 

Surg. ... 
Lieut. ... 


Herbert. A. S. 




Lt.-CoL 


Hewetson. H. 




Lt.-Col. 



Hibberd. C. E. 
Hibbert, W. L. 
Hickes, Chas. 

Hickman, G. H. 
Hiogens, Chas. 

Hildred-Carljll 



Hilliard, M. a. 
Hillier. H. X. 
Hills, \V. E. 
Hillstead. H. T. 
Hilton. C. T. 
Hilton, n. J. 

Hind, (i. R. 
Hind, W. 



Capt R.A.M.C. Examiner & Chairman 

Recruiting Med. Board. M.O. 
158th Howitzer Brigade. 20th 
D.L.I. 29th Northumberland 

Fusiliers. 8th and 9th K.L.R. 
M.O. i/c P.O.W. Camp, Leigh. 

Capt R.A.M.C, S.R. 

Capt R.A.M.C, S.R. Mesopotamia. 

M.O. to troops, Honiton. 

Temp. Surg. Lieut., R.N. Private, R.A.M.C. T., 
1914. Temp. Surg, and Sub.- 
Lieut., R.N.V.R., 1914. H.M.S. 
Crusader, 1914—16. H.M.S. 

Broke, 1916—17. H.M.S. 

Cmwda, 1919. R.N. Hospital, 
Haslar. D.S.C, 1917. 
R.A.M.C. Attached Essex Regt. 

M.C, 1917. Wounded, 1917. 
South Staffs. Killed in action, 

Aug. 31st, 1916. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.N.V.R. 

R.N. H.M.S. President. 
R.F.A., S.R. 1st D.A.C, B.E.F. 

M.C, 1918. 
N.Z.M.C. M.O. Military Ortlio- 
pedic Hospital, Rotor ua, N.Z., 
1915—18. O.B.E. 
R.A.M.C Twice mentioned in des- 
patches, 1917 and 1918. D.S.O. 
Order of St. Anne, 2nd Class, 
with Swords (Russian). Order 
of Crown of Italy, 1918. 
R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. 47th CCS., B.E.F. 
A.S.C, Motor Transport. 

Expeditionary Force. 
R.A.M.C, Dental. 
Senior Ophthalmic Surgeon County of London War 
Hospital, 1915—19. 

R.N. H.M.S. New Zealand, 
Battle Cruiser Fleet, 1914 — 16. 
Neurologist and Psychiatrist, 
R.N. Hospital HaslaT, 1916—19. 
Mentioned in despatches. 

Lieut R.A.M.C. No. 22 General Hosp. 

Lieut R.A.F., DentaL 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. Egypt. B.F. 
Civil M.O. ... Rough Riders. 
Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 

Capt R.A.M.C. 30th Stationary lloa- 

pital, Salonika. 

Surg Stoke-on-Trent Wax Hoepitnl. 

Lt.-Col. ... R.A.M.C. O.C. North Midland 

Heavy Battery. R.G.A., T.F., 
1916. Transferred to R.A.M.C 
Ment. for war services. 1017. 
Territorial Decoration, 1917. 



Temp. Capt. 

Capt 

Pte. . . . 

Temp. Lieut. 



Temp. Surg. Lieut. 



162 



Roll of War Service. 



HiNDE, ]•:. B. 

HiNTON, J . il. 
HiRSOH, V. R. 

HiTCHINOS. D. B. 



hodgkinson, r. j. 
Hodgson, C. R. 



Hodgson, F. 

Hodgson, H. 
Hodgson, J, W. 

Hodgson, Stanley 

Hodgson, Stewart 
Hodgson, V. J. 

Hodgson, W. A. 
hodson, j. e. 
Hogarth, B. W. 

HOGBEN, H. F. T. 
HOLBORN, F. M. 



Hole, K. H. 
Hollands, W. G. ... 

hollington, j. j. l. 

HOLLIST, G. W. C. ... 

HOLLOWAY, G. W. B. 

HOLLOWAY, S. F. 
HOLMAN, CO. 

HOLMAN, H. E. 

HOLMAN, R. C. 

Holmes, Thas. 

Holmes, T. F. 
Hopkins, F. G. 
Hopkins, H. L. 

HOPSON, M. F. 

HopsoN, M. F. J. .. 
HoPSON, M. G. S. .. 



Temp. Major 

Capt 

Capt 

Lieut. ... 



2nd Lieut. 
Capt 



Capt 

M.O. ... 

Commandant, 



R.A.M.C, T.F. Meat, in deep. 
Isl North Midland Bde., R.A.F. 
R.A.M.C. India and Mesopotamia, 

1916—19. 
lOtJi Batt. South Wales Borderers. 
Late Private, Artiste' Rifles, 1914 
—16. 10th S.W.B., B.E.F., 
1915—17. 3rd S.W.B., and 53rd 
S.W.B., England, 1917—19. Li- 
valided Home, Trench Feet. 1917. 
. 41h K.R.R. Wounded, 1915. 
. Australian A.M.C. 1st AnstraJian 
Light Horse F.A. No. 14 A.G.H. 
Cairo. Egypt, Palestine and 
Syria, 1917 — 19. Mentioned in 
despatches, 1920. 
. R.A.M.C. East Lanes. Field Am- 

o bulance. 
. Hants. Carbineers Yeomanry. 
M.O. Exmouth Auxiliary Hospital. 

O.B.E., 1918. 
.R.A.M.C, T.F. 2/1 East Lance 

Field Ambulance. 
. R.A.M.C. M.O. 
. Queen Mary's Naval Hospital, 
South end-on- Sea. 
Civil Dental Surgeon 3/6th London R.F.A. 
Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. M.O. to 1st Div. 
Bomb. School. 

Regt. Killed in Mesopo- 
23rd November, 1915. 
of London Volunteers. 
Dental Surgeon, Tooting 



Capt. 

Capt. 

Surg. 



Major 
Lieut. 



2nd Lieut. 



. Norfolk 
tamia, 
. County 
Civil 
Military Hospital 
Surgeon Commander, R.N. H.M.S 
2nd Lieut. 



Thames. 



KUled 



Lieut. ... 
Act. Major . 

Surg 

Surg. Lieut. , 
Temp. Lieut. 

M.O. ... 



7th Batt. Royal Fusiliers. 

in action, 1916. 
R.F.A. Wounded, Messines, 1918. 
R.A.M.C, T.F. Home Counties 

Field Ambnlance. 
R.N. H.M.S. Impregnable. 
R.A.M.C 
R.A.M.C. 40th General Hospital, 

B.E.F. 
Attached Fairfield Court Red Cross 
Hospital, Eastbourne. 
Medical Examiner of Recruits, Midhurst. 

Capt R.A.M.C. 5th Southern General 

Hospital. 
Temp. Major... R.A.M.C 
Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 

Lieut. ... ... R.A.M.C Ment. in despatches. 

Killed in action, Oct. 1914. 
Hon. Cons. Dent. Surg, to War Hospitals in 

London also R.N.V.R. 
Surg. Lieut. ... R.N.V.R. 

Lieut A.S.C Horse Transport. 



Roll of War Service. 



163 



HORSLEY, L. 
HORTON, J. H. 



HOUSDEN, C. H. 

Howard, C. Keginald 



Temp. Surg. 
Brevet Lieut. 



Hon. Dental 
Temp. Capt. .. 



Howard, J. A. 


.. Kadiographer, 


Howe, A. F. A. 


.. Capt 


Howe, G. H. 


.. Lieut. ... 


Howe, J. 0. 0. 


.. Capt 



Howell, J. B. 
Howell, J. N. 0. 
howells, j. «.• 
Hubbard, G. K. 
Hudson, E. P. 
Hughes, E. C. 
Hughes, E. P. L 
Hughes, Sidney 
Hugh- Jones, K. H 



Hull, A. J. 

Humpheey, L. 

Humphbeys, F. R. .. 

HuNOT, F. G. 
Hunt, G. H. 



Hunt, G. W. 
Hunter, P. D. 
Huntley, Edgar 

Hurst, A. F. 



Husbands, F. A. 
Hutchinson, F. E. 



Hylton, D. Y. 



,. R.N. 

Col., I.M.S., D.A.D.M.S., 12th Indian 
Division. Ment. in despatches, 
Mesopotamia. D.S.O. Died on 
service, 1917. 
Surgeon to Thorncombe Military 
Hospital. 
R.A.M.C. Attached King's Afri- 
can Rifles, East Afirican E.F. 
Twice ment. in despatches, 1917 
and 1918. Killed 6th September, 
1918. 
Croydon Militai-y Hospital. 
R.A.M.C, Dental. 
London Rifle Brigade. 
R.A.M.C. 68th Field Ambulance, 
22nd Divisional Train, R.A.S.C. 
' 100th Bde., R.F.A., Salonika, 

1917 — 19. 21st Stationary Hos- 
pital, Batoum, 1919. 
Temp. Major ... R.A.M.C. 
Consulting Surgeon, Cheltenham Red Cross, Hosp. 



Temp. Capt. 

Capt 

2nd Lieut. 

Capt 

Surg. ... 

Capt 

Capt 



Temp. Col. ... 

Brevet Colonel, 

Major ... 

Surg 

Brevet Major . . . 



Capt 

Temp. Capt. ... 
Temp. Lieut. ... 

Act. Lt.-Col.... 



Temp. Lieut. 
Major ... 



Dental Surgeon, 



R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. ,S.R. 

R.F.A., S.R. M.C., 1918. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. O.B.E., 1919. 

R.N. H.M.S. Crescent. 

R.A.M.C. 3rd H.C. Field Amb. 

6th, Attached 12th Rifle Brgade. 
Killed in action, 20th Sept., 
1917. 

R.A.M.C. Twice mentioned in 
despatches. 

R.A.M.C. CM.G., 1916. Twice 
mentioned in despatches, 1918. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. O.C. 3/2 London 
Field Ambulance. 

R.N. Royal Naval Hospital, Cape. 

R.A.M.C. 1/2 London C.C.S., 
1914. No. 25 General Hospital, 
B.E.F., 1916. Royal Military 
Hospital, Devonport, 1916—17. 
Royal Victoria Hospital. Netley, 
1917. R.E. Experimental Sta- 
tion, Porton, 1917 — 19. Ment. 
in despatches, 1915. 

R.A.M.CT.F. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C Military Hospital, Fo- 
vant, Wilts. 

R.A.M.C i/c Sealo.-Hayne Mili- 
tary Hospital. Wax Office Re- 
presentative at Congress of 
American Neurological Society. 

Northants Mediwil Volunteei- Corp*. 

Australian A.M.C. 8th Field Am- 
bulance. Egypt. 1916. B.E.F., 
France, 1916 — 18. 
Bath War Hospital. 



1G4 



Roll of War Service. 



Ibbotson, E. u. B. 

IDE, II. L. 

Infield, S. ... 
Ingram, P. C. L'. 



INSTONE, N. ... 
Iredell, A. W. 

Irvine, L. C. D. 



Temp. Capt. ... 
Dispatch Kider, 
Temp. Capt. ... 
Act. Major 



Temp. Lieut. 
Surg. 



K.A.M.C. 

County of London Yeomany. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. M.O. 1st Mon- 
mouth Regt., 1914. 3rd Welsh 
Field Ambulance. 53rd Welsh 
Division. Gallipoli, 1915. M.O. 
i/c Medical Div., Gren. Hoep., 
Western and Irish Command 
Venereal Hospitals, 1916. 

R.A.M.C. 
Lieut. -Commander, R.N. H.M.S. Victory. 
Lt.-CoL, R.A.F. 
Surg. Lieut. ... R.N.V.R. H.M.S. Hague. H.M.S. 
CornwaUis. 



Jackson, F. D. S.... 
Jackson, R. W. P. 

Jacob, E. D. 
Jalland, M. T. 

James, B. E. 
James. J. S. H. 



James, W. Culver 
Jarvie, J. M. 
Jenkins, H. H. 
Jephcott, C. 
Jepson, A. C. 
Jerwood, B. E. 



Temp. Major .. 
Act. Major .. 



Temp. Lieut. 



Lieut. 



Hon. Surg-. Col. 
Temp. Lieut. ... 
Temp. Capt. ... 

Capt 

Temp. Capt. ... 
Capt 



R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. Croix de Guerre, 1917. 

M.C., 1918. 
Temp. Major... R.G.A., T.F. 
Hon. Consulting Surgeon to Military Hoepital, 

York. 
R.A.M.C, Dental, late Lance-Cor- 

poral 23rd Fusiliers (Sports- 
man's Battalion). 
K.R.R., late Artists' Riflc«. KiUed 

in action, Rue de Bois. 16th 

May, 1915. 
, H.A.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C, T.F. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C, S.R. 

Anglo-French 

port, 1915. 



Jessop, p. E. 
John, D. W. 



Johnson, A. P. L. 
Johnson, E. C 

JoHNfJON, William 



Johnston, W. R. 

Johnstone, J. L. 
Jones, B. 
Jones, C C 



Temp. Capt. 
Capt 



Capt 

Temp. Capt. 
Major ... 



Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 
Capt 



Lady Murray's 
Hospital, Le Tre- 
Mesopotamia and 
No. 133 British General Hosp., 
Kut-el-Amara, 1917—20. 

2/5 Battalion Loyal N. Lanes. 

R.A.M.C, S.R. 8tli North Staffs. 
Twice mentioned in despatches, 
1917. 

R.A.M.C, Dental 

R.A.M.C, Dental. 

R.A.M.C. 58th Field Ambuhince. 
B.E.F., France, 1915—17. Phy- 
sician and Neurologist, (i2iid 

. CCS., B.E.F., 1917—19. Joint 
Author, " Nervous Disorders," 
Official Medical History of the 
War. M.C, 1916. 

In charge of Ambulance Arrange- 
ments for Air Raids, Hull. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. Prisoner in Germany, 
1918. 



Uoll of War Service. 



165 



Jones, C. E. M. 



Jones, D. R. 



Jones, E. Price 

Jones, Evan L. 

Jones, E. Shelton 

Jones, G. B. H. 

Jones, G. H. 

Jones, G. M. 

Jones, H. B. 

Jones, Hugh E. 



Jones, H. S. 
Jones, H. W. 
Jones, J. Gaymer 



Jones, J. H. 
Jones, J. H. 



lONES, J. P. 

Jones, J. T. 

. I ONES, L. 

Jones, M. P. 

Jones, R. L. 

Jones, R. 0. H. 

Jones, R. T. 

Jones, R, W. 

Jones, Sidney 

Jones, T. Lewis 

Jones. W. H. T. 
JOSLEM, H. ... 

lOYNT, H. F. 

• lOYNT, M. C. 



Capt. 



Capt. 



Temp. Lieut. 
Capt 

Temp. Capt. 

Capt 

Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 



R.A.M.C, T.F. Att. 1/4 Hamp- 
shire Regt. India, 1914 — 16. 
Mesopotamia, 1915 — 16. Siege 
of Kut, 1916. Prisoner of war 
in Turkey, 1916—18. 

R.A.M.C. Western Comnd Depot 
Chester, attached 54th R.F.A., 
1915. Salonika, 1915—17. 85th 
F.A., 1917—18. 1st Suffolk 
Regt. Sei'ved in Servia, Struma 
Valley and Tm-key. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. Attached Highland L.I. 
Killed in action, 1918. 

R.A.M.C. 11th Royal Welsh Fue. 

R.A.M.C. 4th Hants. Regiment. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 



Member of Wax OflBce 

Trav. Medical Board. 
6th Batt. Welsh Regt. Wounded, 

November, 1917. 
Hon. Consulting Surgeon to Military Hospitals, 

Liverpool, for Diseases of Eai-, 

Nose and Throat. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. Lond. Elect. Engineers, 

1914. 4th Bde., R.F.A. India, 
1916. Mesopotamia, 1916 — 18. 
Egyptian Ex. Force, 1918 — 20. 
Ear, Nose and Throat Specialist 
Cairo, 1919—20. M.C., 1918. 

Canadian A.M.C. Wounded, 1917. 

R.A.M.C. Late Staff Surg., R.N. 

H.M. Hospital Ships, Newhaven, 

1915. St. David, 1915—16. Ne- 
vara, 191.6—17. Attached 51st 
Stationary Hospital, Genoa and 
Salonika, 1918. No. 49th Sta- 
tionary Hospital. 

R.A.M.C. M.C. and Bar. 

A.A.M.C. Ment. in desp., 1917. 
M.C, 1917. 

Major R.A.M.C. 

Fleet Surg. ... R.N. H.M.S. Vivid. 

Temp. Surg. ... R.N. 

Act. Major ... R.A.M.C. M.C., 1917. 



Lieut. 



Temp. Capt. 
Hon. Capt. 
Capt 



Temp. Major 
Capt 



Capt. 
Capt. 



Capt 

Dent. Surg. 
Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 

Temp. Capt. 

Capt 

Act. Major 
Capt 



R.A.M.C. 

1917. 
R.A.M.C. 
Mile End 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 

East. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 



Wounded, 



Western Gen. Hospital. 
^Military Hospital. 
Mesopotamia. 
Wel«h Hospital in tbe 

Indian Service. 
Canadian A.M.C. 



166 



Roll of War Service. 



Kearney. S. J. 
Keats, H. C. 
Keer, J. C. 
Keer, K. J. T. 
Keith. T. Skene 
KELBii, W. E. 

Kelsey, a. B. 



Kelsey, W. ... 
Kemp, J. Wallace 
Kendall, J. 
Kendall, N. E. 

Kennealey, W. J.... 

Kennedy, Konald S. 



Ker, W. P 

Kield, W. S. T. ... 
Key, B. W. M. Aston 

KiDD, W. S. 
Kidman, G-. E. 
Kid nee, C. H. 
Killard-Leavey, F. J. 



King, Geoffrey 
King, L. A. B. 



King, P. 



King, K. M. 

KiNSEY-MOBGAN, A. . . 
KURKLAND, G. B. ,. 



KiRKMAN, A. H. B. 
KNAGGS, F. H. 
KNAGGS, E. L. 

Knapp, G. H. 



Knight, H. R. 
Knight, R. V. 



Lieut. ... 
Major ... 
M.O. ... 
Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 
Major ... 
Temp. Capt. 



Lieut. ... 
Major ... 
Surg. Sub. 
Act. Major 

Trooper 

Major ... 



Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Lieut 
M.O. ... 

Temp. Surg-. 

Capt 

Pte. ... 
Capt 



Surg. ... 
Temp. Capt. 

2nd Lieut 



Capt 

Lieut. ... 
2iid Lieut. 



Temp. Lieut 
Temp. Capt. 
Major ... 
Lt.-CoL 



Temp. Capt. 
FHght Sub.- 



Knights-Rayson, H. Capt 



... R.A.M.C, T.F. 

... I.M.S. 

... Rendlesham Park Camp. 

... l/6th Suffolk Regiment. 

... R.A.M.C. 

... 6th S.A.F.A. 

... R.A.M.C. Drowned in H.M. Hob- 
pital Ship Glenart Castle, . tor- 
pedoed 26th February, 1918. 

... R.A.M.C. M.C. Wounded. 

... R.A.M.C, T.F. 1st London CCS. 

•Lieut., R.N.V.R. H.M.S. Tuberose. 

... R.A.M.C. Mentioned in despatches, 
1918. 

... Vanderventers Horse, South African 
Forces. 

... I.M.S. Mentioned in despatches, 
1918. M.C, 1917. Bar to M.C, 
1918. KiUed in action, 17th 
April, 1918. 

... R.A.M.C 

... R.A.M.C 

... I/c Reception Hospital, Porte- 
mouth, 1914—19. O.B.E., 1919. 

... R.N. Wounded, 1917. 

... R.A.M.C, T.F. 

... Artists' Rifles. Wounded, 1917. 

... R.A.M.C. O.C Addington Park 
Military Hospital. M.O. Enteric 
Depot, Croydon. M.O. Shoebury 
Garrison. 

... R.N. 

... R.A.M.C, Dent. Dent. Surg, to 
Jaw Wounds, Hospital, Aldershot 

... East Surrey Regiment. Balloon 
Officer, R.A.F. KiUed in action 
B.E.F., Aug. 8th, 1917. 

... R.A.M.C, Dental. Army Dental 
Surgeon. Alexandia, Egypt. 

... R.A.M.C. 

... Royal West Kents. L'Hopital 
Anglo-Frangaise, Le Treport, 
1916—18. 

... RJ^.M.C No. 11 General Hospital 
and No. 12 CCS., France. 

... R.A.M.C M.O. Huddersfield War 
Hospital. Died 24th June, 1917. 

... R.A.M.C. 2nd Northern General 
Hospital, Leeds. 

... S.A.M.C Mentioned for war ser- 
vices, German S.W. Africa, 1914 
—15. 

... R.A.M.C. 

Lieut., R.N. 
March, 

... S.A.M.C 



Accidentally killed, 12th 

1917. 

1st Military Greneral 
Hospital, Wynberg, South Africa, 
1916—19. 



Boll of War Service. 



16: 



Knott, F. A. 
Knowles, G. F. .. 
Knox-Davies, E. a. C. 

Kyle, J 

Kynaston, a. E. F... 



Temp. Surg. ... R.N. H.M.S. Achilles. 
Dentist to four Red Cross Hospitals. 

Capt S.A.M.C. 

Lieut R.A.F.M.S. and Artists' Rifles. 

Surg. ... ... R.N. H.M.S. Devonshire. Died of 

enteric. 



Laborda, F. E. R. 
Lacey, B. W. 
Lacey, G. E. W. 
Lacey, T. W. 

Lacey, W. S. 

Lamb, C. J. 
Lancaster, H. F. 



Landon, E. E. B. ... 
Lane, Sir W. A., Bt. 
Langdale, H. M. ... 
Langdon, W. M. ... 

Lansdale, W. M. ... 



Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Surg. ... R.N. H.M.S. Victory. 

Temp. Major... R.A.M.C. R.M. Academy, Wool- 
wich. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 140th Field Ambulance. 
Died of wounds. 

Dental Surgeon, Fortre^ Hospital, Devonport. 

Capt R.A.M.C, T.F. 2nd London Gen. 

Hospital, 1915 — 19. Hampstead 
New End Military Hospital, 1919 
—20. 

T.F. 
C.B., 1917. 



Capt 

Temp. Colonel, 
Staff Surg. ... 
Capt 

Capt 



Lansdown, R. G. p. Major 



Larkin, R 

Lauder, J. F. L. ... 



Laver, B. L. 



Laver, C. H. 



Lavers, Norman 

Lawrence, W. F. 
Lawson, F. W. 
LawsoN) G. L. L. 
Lawson, S. ... 
Layton, T. B. 



Temp. Lieut 
Major ... 



Lieut, and 



Surg. Lieut. 



Temp. Lieut. ... 

Temp. Capt. ... 
Temp. Surg. ... 

Major 

Temp. Lieut. ... 
Act. Lieut. -Col. 



R.A.M.C, 
R.A.M.C. 

. R.N. 

. R.A.M.C, T.F. London Field Am- 
bulance. 

. R.A.M.C, S.R. Attached Royal 
Berkshire Regiment. Killed in 
action, 1918. 

. R.A.M.C, T.F. 2nd Southern Gen. 
Hospital. Royal Humane Medal. 

. R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. Ment. in despatches. 
1917. D.S.O. M.C, 1916. Bar 
to M.C, 1918. Prisoner of wai-. 

Adjutant, R.F.A. Artisfc' Rifles, 
B.E.F., 1914—16. 37th Divi- 
sional Artillery, 1916 — 17. Ad- 
jutant, 124th Brigade R.F.A., 
1916—17. 

. R.N. late Lance-Corporal Artists' 
Rifles. B.E.F., France, 1914— 
15. Lieut., R.F.A., B.E.F.. 
France, 1915 — 16. 

,. R.A.M.C Physician to Bath War 
Hospital. 

. R.A.M.C. 

.. R.N. 

. R.A.M.C, T.F. 

.. R.A.M.C, Dental. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. O.C 2/4 London 
F.A., Oct., 1914— July, 1918. 
B.E.F., 1916. B.S.F., 191&— 17. 
E.E.F., 1917—19. 27th General 
Hospital, Cairo, 1918. Officer 
i/c Surgical Division, 87th Gea. 
Hospital, Alexandria, 1918 — 19. 
Twice mentioned in despatches, 
1918. D.S.O., 1918. 



\ 



168 



Boll of War Service. 



Lean, F. C. 


Capt 


. K.A.M.C, Dental, late Gunner, 
Cornwall R.G.A, 


Lean, J. L. 


Bombardier . 


. R.G.A. , 479 Siege Battery, B.E.F., 
1917—18. Gassed, 1918. 


Lbblano, F. K. 


Capt 


. R.A.M.C. Bacteriologist at Bag- 
dad. Pathologist, No. 1 Slation- 
ary Hosp., Rouen. 1919. 


Leckie, Mnlcolm ... 


Capt 


. R.A.M.C. Mentioned in despatches, 
1914. D.S.O. Killed August 
28th, 1914. 


Le Clezio, G. H. L. 


Capt 


. R.A.F.M.S. 


Ledgeii, a. V. 


Temp. Capt. . 


. R.A.M.C. 


Lee, F. W 


Temp. Lieut. . 


. R.A.M.C. Canadian A.M.C. 


Lee, Harry 


Capt 


. R.A.M.C, T.F. 1st West Riding 
F.A., 1914—15. B.E.F., France 
and Belgium, 1915—16. Opii- 
thalmic Specialist, 6.3rd General 
Hospital, B.E.F., 1917. Oph- 
thalmic Specialist, 2nd London 
Hospital. 


Leeming, a. 


Act. Major .. 


R.A.M.C, T.F. 


Lf,kming, a. N. 


Temp. Lieut. .. 


. R.A.M.C 10th CCS. 


Leigh, H. V 


Major . . 


. R.A.M.C. l/5th Welsh Regiment, 



Leipoldt, C. F. L. 



Capt. 



Le Sage, C. F. 
Leviseue. E. A. 
Leviseue. H. J. 
Levy, A. G. 
Lewin, G. ... 


. M.O. ... 

. Capt 

Temp. Surg 
Lieut. ... 

. Capt 


Lewis, C. G. 


. Temp. Capt 


Lewis, J. L. D. .. 
Lewis. R. P. 


Temp. Capt 
. Lt.-Col. 


Liddeedale, J. F... 


Temp. Capt 


Liebson, a. S. 


Capt 



T.F., Milford Haven and Firth 
of Forth Defences, 1914—1915. 
Transferred R.A.M.C, No. 22 
General Hospital, B.E.F., 1915. 
Section Commander 42nd Field 
Ambulance, 42nd Divn., B.E.F., 
1915. M.O. i/c 8th K.R.R. 
14th Division, B.E.F., 1915. Re- 
gistrar 31st General Hospital, 
E.E.F., 1915— 17. Registrar 27th 
General Hospital, E.E.F., 1917. 
Registrar and 0. i/c Medical 
Division 71st General Hospital. 
E.E.F. Mentioned in despatches, 
1917. 

S. A.M.C. Mentioned for war ser- 
vices, German S.W. Africa, 1914 
—15. 

Norfolk War Hospital. 

S.A.M.C. 

R.N. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 
R.A.F. 

R.A.M.C. 
B.E.F. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C, S.R. Twice ment. in des- 
patches, 1917 and 1918. D.S.O., 
1918. Wounded, 1917.. 

R.A.M.C. Ment. in despatches, 
1917. 

S.A.M.C M.O., 3rd S. African 
Infantry. M.C Killed in action. 



Mesopotamia, 1916 — 17. 
Medical Service, 1918. 
No. 10 Field Ambulance. 



Moll of War Service. 



169 



Lindsay. G. P. 



Lindsay, W. J. 



Lister T. D. 
Litchfield, E. M. 



Litchfield, P. C. 



Lieut. 



Civil Suro^eon 



Physician 
Capt .... 



Capt. 



Littlejohns, a. S. 


Temp. Major 


Llaeena, E. F. 


2nd Lieut. 


Lloyd C. E. 


... Capt 


Lloyd, E. T. 


Surg. Sub.-" 


Lloyd, F. G. 


... Temp. Surg. 


Lloyd, 0. 0. 
Lloyd, V. E. 


... Pte. ... 
Temp. Capt. 


Lloyd, W. G. 
LOBB, E. L. M. 


... Capt 

... Capt 



Lockyer, G. E. 



Logan, F. T. B. 

Long, G. B. S. 
Long, H. 0. 



LONO, P. S. C. 
Longhurst, S. H. 

LONGSON, F. M. 
Loud. Fnink 



Capt. 



Hon. Surg. 

Temp. Surg. 
Surg. -Lieut. 



Surg. ... 
Temp. Capt. 

Temp. Capt. 
Major ... 



2nd Border Regiment. Served with 
Artists' Rifles, 1914—15. B.E.F., 
France, 1915—17. M.C., 1917. 
Three times wounded, 1915, 1916 
and 1917. 
attached R.A.M.C. Ophth. Surg. 
Ith London General Hospital, 
1915—20. M.B.E. 

... Price of Wales Hosp. for Officers. 

... R.A.M.C. and N.Z.M.C. Attached 
2nd Manchester Regiment. Men- 
tioned in despatches. 

... R.A.M.C. M.O., 4th Queen's, 1914 
. —15. 94th F.A., 1915. 0. i/c. 
15th Motor Ambulance Convoy. 
B.E.F., France, 1915—18. Men- 
tioned in despatches, 1919. M.C. 
1918. 
... R.A.M.C. Ment. in despatches. 
D.S.O., 1917. 

... Suffolk Regiment. Killed at Ypres, 
20th June, 1915. 

... R.W.F. Attached Nos. 38 and 60 
General Hospitals, Salonika 1916 
—19. 

Lieut., R.N.V.R., H.M.S. AfrUe. 6th 
Flotilla. 

... R.N. H.M.S. Victory. Attached 
R.M.A. Anti- Aircraft Brigade. 

... Artists' Rifles. M.M. 

... R.A.M.C. Attached 1st Leicester 
Regiment. M.C, 1918. 

... R.A.M.C, Dental. 

... R.A.M.C. Surgical Specialist No.. 
&Q General Hospital, Salonika, 
1917. Surgical Specialist Nos. 
66, 51, 29 Stationary Hospitals, 
and Mos. 9, 39, and 24 CCS., 
Italy, 1917—18. 

... R.A.M.C. M.O. i/c 1st Wilts and 
12th Hants, 1915. Special work 
H.Q., Southern Command, 1917. 
Member Medical Board, A.S.C. 
Discharge Centre, Winchester, 
1917—18. M.O., Rec. Dis. Bttn. 
Mentioned in despatches, 1919. 

... Foye House Red Cross HospitaL 
Died. 

... R.N. 

... R.N. H.M.S. Cleopatra, 1918—19. 
H.M.S. Awora, 1918. R.N. Hos- 
pital, Ilaslar. H.M.S. Pem- 
broke, Chatham Barracks, 1919. 

... R.N. 

... R.A.M.C. Inspecting Dent. OflBcer, 
Western Command. 

... R.A.M.C. 

... R.A.M.C, and Susse.\ R.G.A.,T.F. 



PART II. 



170 



LOVEDAY, W. 
LOVELUCK, C. 

Lowe, E. C. 


D. . 
A. . 


.. M.O. ... 
.. Capt 


Lowe, F. A. 




.. Lieut. ... 


Lower. N. Y 




.. M.O. ... 


Lucas, C. K. 
Lucas, R. H. 




Hon. Lieut. 
.. Act. Major 


Lucas, T. C. 
Luce, Sir R. 


H. '. 


Major ... 
Major-Gen. 



Lucey, H. C. 
lumley, f. d. 



Lund, H. ., 

Lynn, E. 
Lyon, H. J. 



Roll of War Service. 



I/c Red Cross Hospital, Wantage. 

N.Z.M.C. Pathologist to No. 2 
N.Z. Gen. Hospital, 1917—19. 
M.B.E. 

R.N.V.R. Collingwood Battalion. 
Killed Gallipoli, 1915. 

V.A.D. Hospital, Gorton, Radnor- 
shire. 

R.A.M.C. 

A. M.S. Mentioned in despatches, 
Italy, 1918. M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 62nd Division. 

R.A.M.C. A.D.M.S,, 2nd M,T, 
Division, Egypt and Gallipolli, 
1914 — 16. Western Front. Force, 
Egypt, 1916. Imperial Mnted. 
Division, Palestine, 1917—18. 
D.D.M.S. East Force, and 20th 
Corps. D.M.S., E.E.F., Pales- 
tine. Mentioned in despatches. 

1917. K.C.M.G., 1919. C.M.G. 

1918. C.B., 1916. 
R.A.M.C. 

Commander, R.N. Surgeon and Agent to 
Royal Naval Torpedo Factory, 
Greenock. 
R.A.M.C, T.F. 2nd Western Gen. 

Hospital. 
Auxiliary Hospital, Woolwich. 



Temp Capt 
Surg. 



Capt. . 
M.O. 



MacAlister, G. H. K. Temp. Capt. 



McAlpin, K. F. 
McDermott, B. 
Macdonald, W. D.... 
McDougall, J. T. M. 

McGregor, G. 

McKay, W. K. M. ... 



Mackenzie, Murdo 
McKenzie, Alan 
McManus, D. M. 
McLachlan, a. R. 
McNair, a. J. 



Maelzer, N. H. S.. 
Maggs, W. a. 



I.M.S. Bacteriologist, Mesopo- 
tamian Expeditionary Force. 

Machine Gun Corps. 

R.A.M.C. 

Army Dental Surgeon. 

R.A.M.C. 29th Stationary Hos- 
pital, Salonika. 
Civil Medical Pract., Alexandria Military Hospital, 
Cosham. 

Royal North West Mounted Police, 
1914 — 16, and 1st King Edward's 
Horse, 1916—17. British Exp. 
Force, France. 

3/1 Surrey Yeomanry. 
Sub. -Lieut., H.M.S. Gentioan. 
R.A.M.C. and Inns of Court O.T.C. 



Major ... 
Temp. Capt. 
2nd Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 



Trooper 



2nd Lieut. 
Surg. 

Capt 

Lieut. ... 
Temp, Capt. 



Lieut. 
Dent, i 



urg. 



R.A.M.C. Late Surg., R.N, (Home 
Waters), 1914—16. R.A.M.C, 
T.C., 1916—19. Surgical Spec- 
ialist, No. 2 General Hospital, 
Mesopotamia, and No. 9 C.C.S., 
N.W.F. Force, India, 1919. 

R.A.M.C, S.R. 

King George Hospital. 



Boll of War Service. 



171 



3iag0avax, p. d. 
Magrath, C. W. S. 



Mahox, E. 31. 



Maile. W. C. D. 
Male, H. C. 
Malleson, H. C. 

Mandel, L. ... 



Ma AFIELD, G. H. H. 


Ace. Major 


Manx, H. Corry ... 


Surg. -Lieut. 


Manning, G. E. 
Manning, T. D. 
Manser, F. B. 


Capt 

Temp. Capt. 
Major... 


Margolies, Ivor 
Marriott, H. B. ... 


Sergt. ... 
Fleet Surg. 


Marriott, Oswald ... 


Lieut. ... 


Marsh, A. P. 


Temp. Capt. 


Marsh, H. E. 
Marsh, H. E. 
Marshall, B. G. ... 


2nd Lieut. 
Temp. Lieut. 
2nd Lieut. 



Marshall. Claude H. Capt. .. 
Marshall, E. S. ... 
Marshall, Geoffrey... 



Temp. Capt. ... E.A.M.C. Belfast War Hospital. 
Lt.-Col. ... R.A.M.C. O.C. troops, Hospital, 

Ships Newhaven and Tag us, 
President Standing Medical Brd., 
Portsmouth. Mentioned for war 
services. 

Capt R.A.M.C. Surgeon Croix Rouge 

Francais Anglo-French Branch, 
France, 1914. R.M.O. i/c Euds- 
leigh Palace Hospital for Officers, 
1915 — 17. Served in Egypt and 
Palestine, 1917—19. 
Hon. Capt. ... R.A.M.C, T.F. Wounded, 1917. 
Civil Med. Pract., Croydon War Hospital. 
Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. Hon. Consulting Dental 
Surg, to London War Hospitals. 
Surg. -Lieut. ... R.N. H.M.S. Vwid, 191i. H.M.S. 
Donegal, Grand Fleet, 1914—16. 
H.M.S. CresceTht, 1916—18. 
H.M.S. Europa, -Egean 

Squadron, 1918 — 19 Served at 
Cuxhaven and Jutland. 
R.A.M.C. 2nd North Midland 

Field Ambulance. M.C., 1916. 
R.N. H.M.S. Racer. O.B.E., 

1919. 
R.A.M.C. 

Dorset Medical Volunteer Corps. 

R.A.M.C. Connaught Military 

Hospital, Aldershot, 1915—1916. 

43rd Casualty Clearing Station, 

B.E.F., France, 1916—19. 

13th Yorks. 

R.N. H.M.S. Egmont. H.M.S. 

Resolution. O.B.E. 
R.A.M.C. B.E.F. 1918—19, and 
Prisoners of War Camp. Bramley 
R.A.M.C, Dental. Civil Dentist 
to Troops at Seaford. Rye, and 
Lydd. 
R.F.A. T.F. M.C.. 1917. 
R.A.M.C. 
3rd Northants Regiment. Killed 

in action at Loos. 
Uganda Field Ambulance. O.C. 
Medical (British) att. Belgian 
Troops, Uganda. 
Temp. Capt. ... A. M.S. H.Q. StaflF. Twice men- 
tioned in despatches. M.C. 
1918. 
Act. Major ... R.A.M.C, S.R. B.EF., 1914—19. 
No. 13 Stationary Hoepit.nl, 

1914. 2nd Ambulance Flotilla, 

1915. 17th C.C.S., 1915—18. 
No. 10 C.C.S., 1918—19. Ad- 
viser in Anaesthetics, 2nd Army. 
B.E.F., France. Author of 
"Anoesthetics," in Official Manual 
on Diseases and, In juries of War. 
Ment. in despatches. O.B.E. 



172 

Marshai.l, G. 
Marshall, Herbert M. 

Marshall, K. P. ... 



Boll of War Service. 



Capt. 



Marshall, W. L. W. Lt.-Col 



Marston, a. D. 
MARTiisr, A. 
Martin, J. Birch 



Martin, J. N. 
Mash, 0. N. 

Mason, J. B. 
Masters, J. A. 
Mather, Horace 



Matson, E. C. 
Matthews, G. 
Matthews, J. 
Matthews, T. 
Maurice, H. 

Maxted, G. .. 



Maxwell, E. J. 

Maxwell, J. E. 

Maxwell, K. 

May, p. M. 
May, K. E. G. 

May, W. N 

Maybury, a. V. .. 

Mayer, E. G. 
Maynard, E. F. .. 
Mayston, J, H. 
Meade-King, W. T. P. 



Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.MX'. 

Dental Commandant, E.N. M.S. KDled accident- 
ally. H.M.H.S. China. 
... E.A.M.C. Eoyal Herbert Hosp., 
Woolwich, 1915 and 1917. M.O. 
35th Heavy Artillery Group, 
B.E.F. and Egypt, 1916—17. 
No. 53 General Hospital, Wi- 
mereux, 1917. M.O., Labour 
Camp, Blargies, France, 1917 — 
19. Ment. in despatches, 1919. 
... E.A.M.C. CO. and Surgical Spe- 
cialist War Hospital, Hudders- 
field, 1915—19. Twice ment. 
for war services. C.M.G., 1917. 
Surg.-Lieut., E.N. 



Temp. 
Major 
Capt. . 



2nd Lieut. 
LieuJ. ... 

Temp. Capt. 
Hon. Col. 
Capt 



Capt 

Temp. Lieut. 
Lt.-Col. 
Temp. Capt. 
Dent. Surg. 



N.Z.A.M.C. Died of wounds. 

E.A.M.C. Mesopotamia Exp. Force 
1916—18. Eoyal Victoria Hos- 
pital, Netley, 1918—20. 

A.S.C. 

E.F.A. M.C., 1917. Killed in 
action, 1st June, 1918. 

E.A.M.C. 

E.A.M.C, T.F. 

E.A.M.C Sling Camp, Salisbury, 

1915, Tidworth Military Hosp., 

1916. No. 41 



Capt. 



pital, 

19. 
E.A.M.C. 
E.A.M.C. 
E.A.M.C 
E.A.M.C 
Eed Cross 

Brighton. 
E.A.M.C 

Salonika 

No. 

and 



B.E.F., 



Stationary Hos- 
France, 1917 — 



Ment. in despaitches. 
Auxiliary Hospital, 



50th General Hospital,^ 

Ex. Force, 1917—18. 

2 London General Hospital 

0. i/c Ophthalmic Centre, 



Ipswich 
Temp. Capt. ... E.A.M.C. 29th General Hospital, 

Salonika. 
Sub.-Lieut. ... E.N.Y.E. Att. E.N.A.S. Killed 

in Bulgaria, March 30th, 1917. 
Wireless Telegraph Operator, E.N.E. H.M. Yacht 

lolaire. 
Commander, E.N. H.M.S. Pembroke. 



Surg. 
Hon. M.O. 

Temp. Capt. 

Capt 



Lt.-Col. 
Temp. Capt. .. 
Temp. Major .. 



Fairlawn Military Hospital, Honor 

Oak, S.E. 
E.A.M.C Civil Surgeon, Military 

Hospital, Eeading. 
E.A.M.C, T.F. 26th Field Amb., 

B.E.F. 



E.A.M.C 
E.A.M.C. 
E.A.M.C 

lance. 
1918. 



Ment. for war services. 

Attached Border Eegt. 

Wessex Field Ambu- 

Prisoner in Germanv,. 



Boll of War Service. 



173 



3ieaees, a. l. d... 

Medlock, C. H. . 
Messenger, H. L. ., 



Messext, E. J. 
Metcalfe, B. B. 
Mew, G. M. 
Meyrick-Jones, H. M. 



MiCHELL, E. ... 
3IICKLEM, T. E. 

Miller, A. 
Miller, A. A. 

Miller, A. H. 
Miller, E. A. 
Miller, F. C. 

Miller, G. S. 

Miller, W. H. 
Millett, H. ... 



MiLLIGAN, E. A. 

Mills, C. H. 
Mills, P. S. 

Mills, T. I. 

Milne, J. B. 
MiLNEE, A. E. 
Milton, E. F. 

Milton, Leonard 
Milton, W. T. 

MiLWARD, J. K. 

]\[inett, E. p. 



Temp. Capt. 
Capt 



Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 
2nd Lieut. 
Capt 



Government Dist. Examiner of Ee- 
cruits, Sydney, N.S.W. 

E.A.M.C. 

E.A.M.C. No. 28 General Hosp. 
67th Field Amb, 191G— 18. M.O. 
i/c 12th Cheshires. 31.0. i/c 
22nd Divisional Train. Ment. 
in despatches, British Salonika 
Force, 1916—19. M.C., 1918, 
Bar to M.C., 1918. 

Sussex E.G.A., T.F. 

E.A.M.C. 

1st Eo3^al Irish Eifles. 

E.A.M.C. X-ray Specialist, Xo. 
15 General Hospital, M.E.F., 
1916. Codford Military Hospital 
l916. No. 30 General Hospital, 
B.E.F., 1916—17. S.M.O. The 
Priory Eed Cross Hospital, Chel- 
tenham, 1917 — 19. 

E.A.M.C, T.F. 

E.A.M.C, S.E. 121 Field Amb., 
Damascus, Mesopotamia. 

I.M.S. 

E.A.M.C. 24th CCS. Ment. in 
despat-ches, Italv, 1918. 
Temp. Hon. Lieut., E.A.M.C. 
Temp. Capt. ...* E.A.M.C 

... Universities and Public Schools 
Battalion. 

Capt E.A.M.C No, 1 Field Ambidance. 

Killed in Action, Sept. 8th, 1916 
Surg. Sub.-Lieut., E.N. H.M.S. Fervent. 

E.N., late Lieut. Eoyal Maiinee, 
E.N.D. Ment. in despatches, 
Dardanelles, 1915. 

E.A.M.C, T.F., 1914—15. 1st 
Eastern Hosp., Cambridge. 

E.A.M.C 

I.M.S. D.A.D.M.S., M.E.F. Men- 
tioned in despatches, 1917. 

E.A.M.C, T.F. 2/1 West Eiding 
Field Ambulance. 

E.A.M.C. Attached E.F.A. 



Capt. 
Temp. 



Capt. 



Lt.-Col. 
Act. Major 



Temp. Surg. 



Major ... 

Temp. Capt. 
Major ... 

Capt 



Capt. . 
Major 
Temp. 

Capt. . 
Temp. 
Surgeon 

Major ... 



Lieut. 



Lieut. 



E.A.M.C. 
E.A.M.C 

B.E.F. 
E.A.M.C. 
E.A.M.C 
Sub.-Lieut., E.N 

Crimea, 



89tli Field Ambulance, 



M.C, 1918. 



Sea and 



V.E. Black 

1918—19. 
E.A.M.C, T.F. Water Officei', Oth 
London Field Amb., 1914—16. 
60th London Division, B.E.F., 
1916—16. 60th Division, Salo- 
nika, 1917. Officer i/c Water 
Supplies, 60th Div., Palestine, 
1917. M.O.H. Jerusalem and 



174 



Roll of War Service. 



Mi NEXT, P. r. 
Minns, A. G. 
Minns, A. N. 



Mitchell, D. A. 
Mitchell, H. E. H. 
Mitchell, H. V. ... 

MOBEllLY, A. V. 

Moffatt, H. a. ... 



Monaghan, p. J. ... 

Monk, G. B. 

Montgomery, K. 
Moon, K. 0. 
Moore, A. G. H. ... 
Moore, J. 
Moore, J. Y. 

Moore, L. W. 

Moore, P. W. 

Moore, R. A. 

Morgan, E 

Morgan, E. C. deM. 
Morgan, M. J. 
Morgan, 0. G. 

Morgan, W 

Morley, T. S. 
Morrell, F. H. 

MORRES, E 

Morris, Arnold 

Morris, G. H. 
Morris, H. W. G. ... 

Morris, LI. A. 
Morris, 0. Gwyn ., 

Morris, \y. E. 
MoRRisn, D. B. 



Morrison, J. H. L. 
Morrison, J. T. J. 



P.M.O., Haifa District, Pales- 
tine, 1917—18. M.O., No. 6 
Military La,boratory, Egypt, ^918 
— 19. Twice in/erit. in d€sp. 

Surg. Lieut. -Commander, R.X. 

Civil Practitioner, I/c Troops 69th (E.A.) Division. 

Capt R.A.M.C. 13th and 39th E.A. 

Twice mentioned in despatches 
(Mesopotamia and Gallipoli) . 
D.S.O. M.C. 

Surg. Commander, R.K. H.M.S. Diamond. 



Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Lieut. 
Lt.-Col. 



Capt 

2ad Lieut. 

Capt 

Major... 

Capt 

Temp. Lieut. 
Act. Major . 

Act. Capt. *. 

Capt 

Lieut. ... 
Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Surg. 
M.O. ... 
Temp. Capt. 



R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. Resigned. 

R.A.M.C. 

S.A.M.C. Mentioned for services, 
German South West Africa (sur- 
gical Specialist.) D.S.O., 1917. 

S.A.M.C. 1st Field Amb. South 
African Expeditionary Force. 

2nd Battalion Royal Warwicks. 
Killed in action, 1914. 

R.A.M.C, S.R. Mentioned in desp. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.F. Medical Board. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. Ment. in despatches, 
GaUipoli. O.B.E., 1919, France. 

Gloucester Regiment. Killed in 
action, August 29th, 1916. 

R.A.M.C. Ment. in despatches 
(Egypt), 1918. 

r.g.a"! 

R.A.M.C. 

R.X. H.M.S. Victory. 
Aberystwith Red Cross Hospital. 
R.A.M.C. Noj. 9 British Red Cross 



Hospital. 
Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C, 

Mounted 
Admiralty Surgeon 
Temp. Capt. 



T.F. Welch 
Brigade Field 



Border 
Amb. 



R.A.M.C. Mentioned in despatches 

(Salonika), 1918. 
R.A.M.C 
R.A.M.C, T.F. Royal Warwick 

Regiment. Wounded, 1917. 
R.A.M.C 
Civilian Dentist to Royal Engineer Camp, Houghton 

Regis. 
Attached R.A.M.C. 
Royal Welsh Fusiliers. Late 6th 

Welsh Regt., 1916, and Artists' 

Rifles, 1915—16. Wounded, 1918. 
R.A.M.C. 
King's Own Yorks. L.I. Killed in 

action in France, August 18th, 

1916. 
R.A.M.C, T.F. 
R.A.M.C. 1st Southern General 

Hospital. 



Temp. Capt. 
Capt 

Temp. Capt. 



Dent. Surg 
Lieut. ... 



Temp. Lieut. 
2nd Lieut. 



Lt.-Col. 
Major .. 



Boll of War Service. 



175 



Mossoi', C. H. 

MOTHEESOLE, K. D. 

MOTIRAM, G. N. 
MOTTKAM, M. 
MOYLE, H. H. 



mugford, j. l. 
Muir-Smith, E. a. 
Mum-SMiTH, H. 
Muir-Smith, L. 



MULLALLY, G. T. 



MULLINS. H. R. 
MULLINS, R. C. 



MUMFOED, W. G. 



MUNDAY, R. B. 
MUXDEN, M. M. 



MuNRO, D. T. 

MUNRO, H. ... 

Murphy, Sir Shirley 

Murray, C. M. 

Murray, H. S. 
Murray, R. W. 

musgrove, e. !!• . 

Myott, E. C. 



Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Lieut. 

Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 
Lieut. ... 



Lieut. ... 
Capt 

Lieut. ... 
Act. Major 



25th General 
31 CCS. 



Hospital 



India. 

143rd Field Ambulance, 
Salonika Force, 



Major 



Temp. Major 
Temp. Capt. 



Temp. Capt. 



Prob. Flight 
Lieut. ... 



R.A.M.C. 
. R.A.M.C 

and No. 
R.A.M.C 
R.A.M.C 
R.A.M.C 

28th Division, 

1917. 
R.A.M.C (D.) 
R.F.A. 

1/7 Middlesex and M.G.C 
R.A.M.C. 25th CCS. and 32nd 

Field Ambulance, Salonika, 1916 

—19. Caucasia (Baku), 1919. 
R.A.M.C, S.R. Surgical Specialist 

No. 8 CCS., B.E.F., France, 



] 911—18. Mentioned in 
patches, 1916. M.C, 1917 

S. African M. Corps. 

S.A.M.C. No. 1 S. African 
Hospital. Mentioned for 



des- 



Gen, 
war 



MUNDEN, W. P. H. Capt... 



services 
1915. 

... R.A.M.C 
tioned 
1919. 

Sub. -Lieut. 

... R.A.M.C. 
1917. 
—18. 

... R.A.M.C 



German S.W. Africa, 

Surg. Spec. Twice men- 
in desp., 1918. O.B.E., 



Temp. Surg. 
Temp. Capt. 
Lt.-Col. 

Act. Lt.-Col. 



Major ... 

Capt 

Temp. Capt. 



89th Field Ambulance, 
2nd Royal Fusiliers, 1917 
Belgian Croix de Guerre. 
Attached 16th Sherwood 
Foresters. B.E.F., France, 1916. 
M.O. i/c Reserve Cavalry Alder- 
shot, 1917. 
R.N. 

R.A.F 
R.A.M.C Mentioned for war ser- 
vices. K.B.E., 1919. 
S.A.M.C. Twice mentioned in des- 
patches, 1917—18. D.S.O., 1918. 
R.F.A. 
R.A.M.C. Resident Surgeon, Fa- 

zakerley Hospital, 
R.A.M.C. South Wales Borderers. 

Aden, Arabia, India. 
R.A.M.C. 



Nash, L. G. 
Neal, F. D. 
Neely, H. B. 

Neely, W. G. S. 
Nelson, K. M. 



NllWLAND, W. D. 



Lieut. ... 

2nd Lieut. 

Temp. Capt, 
Temp. Capt. 

Temp. Capt. 



R.A'.M.C 



3rd Batt, Suffolk Regt, Killed in 
action, Ypres, April 25th, 1915. 
143rd Field Ambulance. 
Mentioned in despatches, 
M.C, 1917, Wounded, 



R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 

1917. 

1917. 
R.A.M.C 



92nd Field Ambulance. 



M.C, 1918. 



176 



Uoll of War Service. 



Newlaxd-Pedley, F. 
Newman, F. C. 



NiCUOLLS. E. C. 


.. Lieut 


NicnoLLS, F. J. 
Nichols, W. If. 


.. Anaesthetic ... 
.. Capt 


Nicholson, C. R. . 


.. Major (Act. Lt 



Nicholson, J. W. 
NicoL, Burton 

NiNNIS, R. P. 



NOEBUBN, A. E. 

NoEMAN, Albert 

NOEMAN, T. ... 

NORTHCOTT, J. F. 

NUNN, G. ... 
NUTMAN, B. K. 



Dental Surgeon, No. 2 Red Cross Hospital, Rouen. 
Temp. Surg. -Lieut., R.N. H.M.S. Commcm/u:ealih. 
Mentioned for war services, 1919 
Royal Berkshires. Wounded; in- 
valided out. 
Kempston Red Cross Hospital. 
R.A.M.C. Accidentally killed in 
India, February 22nd, 1916. 
Col.), R.A.M.C. C/o St. Ignatius 
Hospital, Malta. Served with 
British Hospital attached to Ser- 
bian Army. Mentioned in des- 
patches, 1918. Order of St. 
Sabe, 6th Class, by King of 
Serbia. 
R.A.M.C. No. 1 General Hospital. 
S. African M. Corps. German E. 

and S.W. Africa. 
R.N. H.M.S. Neptune, Esquire 
of Order of St. John of Jeru- 
salem. 
Bath War Hospital. 
Hon. Staff of King George Hospital. 
Surg. Lieut, ... R.N. H.M.S. Comus. Mentioned 

for war services, 1919. 
Surg H.M.T. Mahoa, 1917—19. Em- 
ployed in Mediterranean. 
Surg. Commander, R.N. Wounded. O.B.E., 1919. 
Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 



Lt.-Col. 
Temp. Major 

Temp. Surg. 



Surg. 



Gates, J. L. 



O'Callaghan, T. T. 
Odgers, N. B. 
Ogilvir W. H. 



Ogilvte, W. H. 

Olivee, C. H. 

Olivee, N. ... 

Ollis, M. S.... 
O'Meaea, E. J. 

O'Meaea, D. J. 
Oeam, R. G.... 
Oechaed, H. p. 
Oed, a. G.... 
Oedish, F. J. 
Oemond. a. W. 



... Universities and Public Schools 
Battalion, Naval Division. Killed 
in action, 1918. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. Karachi, India. 

Temp. Major ... R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Col. ... I. M.S. Mentioned in despatches, 
E.E.F., 1918. C.M.G. Order 
of the Nile (3rd Class), by Sul- 
tan of Egypt, 1919. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. No. 5 General Hospital, 
France. 

Temp. Lieut. ... 14th York and Lancaster, Machine 
Gun Officer. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. I/c No. 4 Hospital for 
Officers, Ham Common. 

Civil Dental Surgeon. H.M.S. Irnpregnable. 

Lt.-Col. ... I. M.S. Principal, Medical School, 

Agra. O.B.E., 1919. 

Surg. Sub. Lieut. R.N.V.R. 

Act. Major ... R.A.M.C. 

Capt Territorial Force. 

Surg. Sub.-Lieut., R.N.V.R. H.M.S. Forester. 

Lieut Essex Regiment. 

Brevet Major ... R.A.M.C, T. Ophthalmic Spec, 
to London District. 0/c Ophth. 
Dept. 2nd London General Hos- 
pital, 1914 — 19. Ophth. Surg. 
Sir John Ellerman's Hospital. 



Uoll of War Service. 



177 



Oe:moxd, S. J. 
OSBORX, A, G. 



OSBORX. r. A. 
OsBrEX, A. C. 

OSMAN, A. A. 

OwEX, J. H... 
OwEX, J. M... 
Owsley, G. C, 

OZAXXE, R. C. 



Ophtli. Surgeon St. Dunstan'e 
Hostel for Blinded Soldiers, 1914 
—19. C.B.E., Military Division, 
1919. 
R.A.M.C. Hospital at Alexandria. 
R.A.M.C., T. M.O., 4th Battalion 
Coldstream Guajds. 2 4 Queen's 
(Royal West Surrey Regiment.) 
Gallipoli (Suvla Bay), Egypt, 
and Palestine, 1915—17. H.M. 
Hospital Ship Dxinluce Castle. 
East Africa, 1917—18. 
R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. C/o Field Ambulance. 
Twice mentioned in despatches, 
1917—18. D.S.O. and Bar, 1918 

Prob. Sub. -Lieut., R.N. Destroyers of Grand Eleet 
Flotilla. D.S.C., 1918. 

Capt R.A.M.C, S.R. Wounded, 1914. 

Civil Surgeon to Admiralty, Fishguard. 

Visiting Ansesthetist Brook War Hospital. 

Brevet Major ... R.A.M.C. 22nd CCS. B.E.F. 
Mentioned in despatches. 



Capt. 
Capt. 



Temp. Capt. ... 
Temp Lt.-Col. 



Packer, H. D. 
Packham, G. 
Paget, P. ... 

Paees. a. E. H. 
P.4KES, W. C C. 

Pallaxt, H. a. 



Pall ANT, S. L. 

Palmer, A. H. 

Palmer, A. S. M. 

Palmer, B. H. 
Palmer, F. W. M. 



Lt.-Col. 

Capt 

Lt.-Col. 

Temp. Capt. ... 
Capt. and Adjt., 

Temp. Capt. ... 



Major ... 

Temp. Capt. 

Temp. Capt. 
Capt 



Palmer, 


H. J. 


.. 2nd Lieut. 


Palmer, 


H. T. 


.. Temp. Capt. 


Palmer, 


J. S. 


,. 2nd Lieut. 


Paxtin, 
Paxtix, 
Parfitt, 


C. S. 
W. L. 
F. W. 


.. Temp. Capt. 

.. Capt 

.. Pte. ... 



R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. India. Territorial De- 
coration, 1917. 

S. African Union Defence Force. 

S.A.M.C 4th F.A. German East 
Africa. 

R.A.M.C. 1st Loyal N. Lanes. 
Mentioned in despatches, 1917. 
D.S.O. , 1917. M.C. Wounded. 
Brevet Lieut.-Col., R.A.M.C. Twice mentioned in 
despatches. D.S.O., 1917. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. Died of wounds 
at Cairo, May 2nd, 1917. 

R.A.M.C Commandant, Red Cross 
Hospital, Worthing, 

R.A.M.C. 1st Royal Lanes. Regt. 

R.A.M.C Cliff Hospital, Felix- 
stowe, 1916. Nos. IG and 47. 
General Hospitals, France, 1916 
—17. 35th F.A., 1917. Medi- 
cal Specialist, Xo. 1 CCS., 
1917—19. 

D. C.L.I. Killed in action near St. 
Quentin, March 29th, 1918. 

West African Medical Staff. Ca- 
meroon Exp. Force. 

2nd Durham L.I. Died of wounds, 
1st October, 1916. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 

A.S.C 



178 

Parker, W. G. 



Parkes, H. p. 
Parmiter, B R. 



Roll of War Service. 



Capt. 



2nd Lieut. 
Capt 



Parry. J. H. 

Parry, L. A. 
Parry, R. 

Parry-Jones, 0. G. 

Parry-Price, H. 
Parsons. J. E. H. 
Partridge, A. H. 
Parieidge, W. L. 

Passey, R. D. 



Lieut. ... 

Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Lieut. 



Capt. 

Surg, 
M.O. 
Red 



Lieut. 



R.A.M:.C. Nos. 24 and 20 Sta- 
tionary Hospitals, Egyptian Ex. 
Force, 1916—18. Nt>. 8 P.O.W. 
Hosp., Belbeis, Egypt, 1918—10. 

R.A.M.C. Connaught Hospital, 
Aldershot; No. 15 General Hos- / 
pital, Egypt; attached Ctli 
R.I.F., Salonica, 1915. 32nd 
Field Ambulance, Salonika^ 
Egypt and Palestine, 1916 — 17. 
No-. 15 General Hospital, Egj'^pt, 
Nos. 4.S and 67 General Hos- 
pitals, Salonika. Attached 3rd 
K.R.R.C. and Sth O.B.L. I., Con- 
stantinople, 1919. 

I.M.S. Hospital Ship Glengorm 
Castle. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. M.O. I/c Auxiliary Hos- 
pital, Carnarvon. 

R.A.M.C, S.R. Mentioned in des- 
patches. Died of wounds. 

R.N. H.M.S. Lion. 

261st Coy. R.D.C. 



Cross Hospital, Sutton. 

R.A.M.C. 

M.C. 



Capt 
Temp. Capt 



14th Gloucester Regt. 



R.A.M.C. 
—15. 

Gordon 



Paul. F. T.... 



Paul, F. W. 
Payne. J. Lewiu 



Payne, 0. V. 

Payne, W. ^Y. 
Peacock, R. ... 
Peall, G. H. 
Peall, p. a. 

Pearce, D. G. 

Pearce, F. J. 



Pearson. G. B. 



Dent 
Hon. 



B.E.F., France, 1914 
Late 2nd Lieut., 3rd 
Highlanders, B.E.F. 
(combatant commission), 1915 — 
17. B.E.F., & Italy, 1917—19. 
M.O., 18th K.R.R., "& Bacteriol. 
66th General Hospital, 1917 — 
19. M.C, 1918. Wounded, 1916. 

Major R.A.M.C, T.F. Surgeon, No. 1 

Western General Hosp., 1915— 
"18. Consulting Surgeon, Western 
Command till 1919. 
Surg. ... H.M. Hospital Ship Garth Castle. 
Consulting Dental Surgeon to Richmond Mili- 
tary Hospital and Belmont Mili- 
tary HospitaL O.B.E., 1919. 
Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C 49th Stationary Hos- 
pital, Salonika. 
Surg. Sub. -Lieut., R.N.V.R. 

Killed in action. October, 1916. 
East African M.S. 
R.A.M.C. City of London War 
Hospital. 
... 1st East Kent Regiment. Killed 
in action, September 3rd, 1916. 
Dental Surg, to .Military Hospitals of 
London, attached 1st London 
General Hospital. Dental Sur- 
geon, American Red Cross Hosp. 

Capt R.A.M.C. Royal Berks. Hussars. 

Wounded at GaUipoli. Egypt. 



Capt 

Temp. Major 

Capt 

Hon. Cons. 



^oll of War Service. 



179 



Pearsox, J. D. 
Peaeson, M. ... 
Peatfield, S. J. 

Peaty, A. E. 
Pedley, C. F. 

Pendlebuky, J. P. 

Pedrick, p. Y. G, 
Penfold, W. D. 

Penny, C. H. G. 
Penny, E. A. 

Peeceval, J. L. 

Percival, H. F. 

Peeegrine, H. L. P 



Perkins D. S. 
Perkins, H. E. 
Pern, L. 
Peen, Montague 
Petee, G. F. 
Petees, E. a. 
Petley, C. E. 



Capt. 
Temp. 



R.A.M.C. 

Surg. -Lieut., R.X. 



2ad Lieut. 

Temp. Lieut. ... 
Surg 

Senior IMedical 

Hon. Lieut. ... 



Capt 

Temp. Major 



Capt. 

Temp. 

Surg. 



Surg. 



Temp. 

Surg. 

Temp. 

Temp. 

Temp. 

Temp. 

Act. Major 



Lieut. 
Lieut. 
Capt. 
Lieut. 
Lieut. 
Capt. 



Roval Berkshire Regiment. Att. 
M.G.C. Died of wounds, 1916. 
R.A.F., Dental. 
Belgian Field Hospital. Chev. de 

rOrdre de la Couronne, 1916. 
Officer, Ormskirk Auxiliary Military 
Hospital. 
.. R.A.M.C. 
.. Universities and Public Schools 

Battalion. 
.. R.A.M.C, later I.M.S. 
.. I.M.S. M.O. 14th Lancers, Indian 

Army. Mesopotamia. 
.. R.A.M.C, S.R. 132nd Field Am- 
bulance, B.E.F. 
Lieut., R.N. H.M.S. Africa. O.B.E., 

1919. 
.. R.K". Haslar Hospital, 19J5. H.M. 
Hospital Ship China, 1915—18. 
att^ehed Grand Fleet. H.M.S. 
Orescent, Rosyth, 1918, for oph- 
thalmic duties. 

H.M.H.S. Goorkhfi. 
R.N. H.M.S. Pembroke. 



.. R.A.M.C 
Commander. 
.. R.A.M.C 
.. R.A.M.C 
.. R.A.M.C. 
.. R.A.M.C 
.. R.A.M.C. 
Rcgrular 



Killed in action, 1915. 



Piiillipps, W. a. 



Phillips, E. 



Act. Major 



Act. Lt.-Col. 



Phillips, E. S. 


Temp. Lieut. 


Phillips, F. B. W.... 


Temp. Capt. 


Phillips, G. R. 
Phillips, R. E. G. ... 
Phillips, W. J. 
Phipps, J. H. 
Pickett, L. R. 
Picton-Phillips, W. E. 


Temp. Capt. 

Capt 

Capt 

Lt.-Col. 
Temp. Capt. 
Capt 



(T.F.), transferred to 
Force after Armistice. 
2/4" London F.A., B.E.F., 1916. 
B.S.F., 1916—17. E.E.F., 1917 
onwards. No. 121 Combnd India 
F.A. Sanitary Officer Cairo- 
Dist. (D.A.D.M.S., Cairo Bde.) 
Mentioned for war services, 
1917. M.C, 1918. 

R.A.M.C. Attached East Kent 
Regt., 1915. I/c Medical Divn. 
Fort Pitt Military Hospital, 
Chatham, until July, 1918. Twice 
mentioned for war services. 

R.A.M.C. Twice mentioned in des- 
patches, 1918. M.C, 1918. 
Croix de Guerre, 1919. 

R.A.M.C Prisoner in Germany,. 
1918. 

R.A.M.C 1st Bedford Volunteer 
Rog-iment. 

R.A.M.C. Wounded, 1918. 

R.A.M.C 

A A M C 

A.'m.c! ' O.C 5th Australian F.A. 

17th King's Royal Rifle Corps.. 

R.A.M.C. M.O. 1st Batt. Welsh 
Guards. 



180 



Roll of War Service. 



Pierce, 0. E. 
Pigeon, H. W. 

PiGGOT, A. p. 

Pike, D. R. ... 

PiLBEAM, E. L. 

Pilbeam, L. S. 

PiLCHER, E. M. 



Pitman, K. C. 
Pitt, G. N. ... 



Platt, D. H.... 

Platt, H. 

Plumley, a. G. G. 
Plummer, W. E. 
Plumptre, C. M. 

POCOCK, T. C. 
Pollard, C. A. 
Pollard, G. S. 



Pollock, C. E. 



:POLLOCK, R. G. 

Pomeroy, J. M. 
Ponder, C. \V. 



Ponder. R. R. B.... 

POOCE, G 

Poole, S. K. 

Poole, T. B. 

-portway, r. l. 
Powell. J. E. 

Powell-Smith, C. ... 
poyser, r. c. 
Prall, S. E. 



Prentice, Z. 
;Prentis, J. E. 
-Pretoeius, W. J. ... 
Price (son of J. Dodds 
Price, C. E. 
Price, E. S. 

Price, H. P. 



Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 
Lieut. ... 
Lt.-Col. 



lion. Lieut. 
Major ... 



Capt 

Capt 

Temp. Capt. 
Lieut. ... 
Capt 

Capt 

Major ... 
Lt.-CoL 



Lt.-Col. 



M.O. ... 
Temp. Capt. 
Capt 



R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C, 
R.A.M.C, 



Attached R.A.F. 



B.E.F. 



Dental. 
Dental. 
R.A.M.C. Mentioned in despatches. 

191S. Ment. for war services. 

CB. 1918. CB.E. 1919. D.S.O. 
R.A.M.C 
R.A.M.C, T.F. 2nd London 

General Hospital and King 

George Hospital. O.B.E., 1919. 
R.A.M.C, T.F. City of London 



Field Ambulance. 
R.A.M.C, T. 2nd 
Hospital. 



Western Gea. 



R.A.M.C, 
R.A.M.C 
I.M.S. 
1918. 
R.A.M.C 
R.F.A. 
R.A.M.C. 



M.E.F 



iMentioned in 
^Mesopotamia. 



despatches, 



Wounded. 

Lt.-Col. 4th Somerset 
Light Infantry, 1914. Recruiting 
Officer, 1914—16. Taunton Mili- 
tary Hosp., 1914 — 15. Medical 
Board, 1916—19. V.D. 
A.M.S., H.Q. Stafe, B.E.F. Three 
times mentioned in despatches. 
CB.E., 1919. D.S.O. 
Warlingham Camp. 
R.A.M.C, Dental. 
R.A.M.C. Research in cerebro- 
spinal meningitis for Local 
Government Board. 



Civilian Dentist. 
Dent. Surg. ... 
Surg 



Royal Naval Division. 

Duchess of Portland War Hospital. 

Chesterfield. 
M.O I/c OverclifP Red Cross Hospital, 

Westcliff-on-Sea. 
Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C 
Temp. Lt.-Col. R.A.M.C. Mentioned in despatches 

D.S.O., 1917. 
2nd Lieut. ... Durham Light Infantry. 
Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 
Lt.-Col. ... I.M.S. H.M. Hospital Ship Glm- 

(jorm Oastle. Mentioned in 

despatches, 1917. 

M.O No. 70 Kent V.A.D. Hospital. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C Alexandria. 

Trooper ... King Edward's Horse. 

Price), Lieut., King's Royal Rifles. France. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 

Capt R.A.M.C. 0/c 3/6 London Field 

Ambulance. 
Temp. Surg. ... R.N. North Sea, Gallipoli, and 

Atlantic Patrol. 



Roll of War Service. 



181 



Peice, J. A. P. 

Prideaux, a. E. D. 

Peixce, p. C. 
Pritchaed, G. B. 



PUGK, H. S. 

Punch, A. L. 
PuEDo:jr, H. N. 

purdom, w. b. 
puekiss, k. n. 

Pye-Smith, C. D. 



Ma J 01 



Temp. Capt. 
Act. Major 



R.A.M.C, T.F. I/c Surgery Sec- 
tion, Reading War Hospital. 

Dorset Volunteer Regiment. Trans- 
port Department. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. 2/dt London Field. 
Ambulance. B.E.F., 1916. 

B.S.F., 1916—17. E.E.F., 

1917—19. 121st Combined In- 
dian F.A. Mentioned in des- 
patches. 



Wounded, 1918. 
Died in Belgium, 1915. 
Deputy Surg. -General 
. Hospital, Gibraltar^ 
1914—16. Deputy Surg. -General 
R.N. Hospital, Plymouth, 1916. 
Surg. General and Surg. Rear- 
Admiral I/c R.N. Hospital, Ply- 
mouth, 1917—19. C.B., Civil, 
1918. K.B.E., (Military), 1919. 

Capt R.A.M.C, Dental. 1st CCS 

Temp. Surg. ... R.N. H.M.S. Pembroke. 
Civil Dental Surgeon to Troops, Red Cross Hospital, 
Clevedon. 
R.A.M.C. D.S.O. M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 20th Combined Field 
Ambulance I.E.F. M.C, 1919. 
R.A.M.C. 69th F.A. M.C, 1916. 
D.S.O. and Bar, 1917. Twice 
mentioned in despatches, 1917 — 
18. 



Pritgiiett, H. N. . 


. Capt. 


R.A.M.C. 


Peobert, C M. 


. Surg. 


Sub.-Lieut., R.N. 


Pryx, R. H. C 


.. Capt. 


R.A.M.C. 


Pryx, W. R. 


. Lieut. 


R.A.M.C 


Pryx, Sir W. W. . 


.. Surg. 


Rear-Admiral, R.N 
I/c R 



Act. Lieut. -Col. 
Capt 

Lt.-Col. 



Rahm.\x, M. a. 



Raii'max, W. R. 
Ralph, C D. H. D. 
Raxd, T. a. 
Randall, C N. 
Raxdell, R. M. H. 

Raxkixe, J. L. 
Rankine, R. a. 

Ransford, a. C. 
RAXsroRD, J. E. 
Ransford, L. V. ... 



Brevet Major ... I.M.S. No. 12 Meerut Indian 
Gen. Hosp., I.E.F. Franc6, 1914 
— ^^15. Senior M.O. Sistan Field 
Force, 1915—17. D.A.D.M.S., 
Eastern Persian Codon Field 
Force, 1918. D.A.D.M.S., L.ofC., 
East Persia Field Force, 1918— 
19. Twice ment. in despatches. 

Lieut 1st Battalion 10th Gurkha Rifles. 

Senior M.O. ... Colonial Med. Service. 

Lieut 2nd Wessex R.F.A. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C, T.F. V.A.D. Hospital, 
Kent. 

Major R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Surg. ... R.N. H.MS. Latona. O.B.E,, 
1919. 

Capt R.A.M.C. 

Capt R.A.M.C, T.F. 2/7 Lanes. Fus. 

Capt R.A.M.C, T.F. 



182 

RA^•SFOIlD, W. R. 



Rashleigh, H. G. 
Rattray, M. G. 
Rawnsley, G. T. 



Ray, E. R. ... 
Raynek, a. E. 

Raywood, J. R. I. 

Read-W.lson, a. 

Reader, N. C. M. 
Reader, S. ... 
Reckitt, Chas. E. 

Reed, J. C. G. 
Rees, G. ]I. 
Rees, M. J. 



Reeve, E. F. 
Reeve, H. M. 
Reeve, W. 

Reeves, Albert 



Reid, a. 

Reid, Edgar 
Reinhold, C. II. 

Remington. W. 
Rexdall, R. M. 
Reynell, W. R. 
Reynolds, A. J. 
Reynolds, L. G. 
Reynolds, L. L. G. 

Reynolds, RusseU J. 

Reynolds, W. 



Roll of War Service. 



Act. Major ... l/U Gurkha Rifles. 2nd Lieut.. 
Indian Army Reserve of Officers, 
1915. 10th Gurkha Rifles, Bur- 
ma and India, 1915 — 17. Served 
as Company Commander, Meso- 
potamia, with 5th Gurkha Rifles 
(Frontier Force), 1917—18. 
N.W. Frontier and Afghanistan, 
1919. Medal and Clasp, Afgan- 
istan, 1919. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Lt.-Col. R.A.M.C. I/c Field Ambulance. 

Lt.-Col. ... A. M.S. Three times ment. in des- 

patches, 1916—17—18. Salonika. 
C.M.G., 1916. C.B, 1918. 

Surg County of London War Hospital. 

Act. Major ... R.A.M.C, T.F. Mentioned in des- 
patches, 1917. O.B.E., 1919. 

Col A.M.S. A.D.M.S., Midland Divi- 
sion. 48th Div. T.F. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. Served in Ireland, Bel- 
gium and France, 1914 — 15. 

Capt R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Surg. ... R.N. Died at Haslar Hospital, 
1917. 

Fleet Surg. ... R.N. H.M.S. Thunderer. 

Major R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. Wounded October 22nd 
while attending wounded under 
Fire. Died of wounds, October 
1916. 

Capt R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 

Capt F.A. Section, National Reserve of 

New Zealand. 

Capt R.A.M.C. M.T. Reserve Depot, 

A.S.C., Grove Park and Upper 
Norwood, 1916 — 19. 

Capt R.A.M.C, T.F. 1st London Sani- 
tary Company, 1915. O.C 57tli 
Sanitary Sect., 1916. Specialist 
Sanitary Officer, 1917. 

Major R.A.M.C. 3rd Western General 

Hospital, Cardiff. 

Temp. Lieut.-Col., I.M.g. lUth Indian Field 
Amb. E.E.F. Twice ment. in 
despatches. M.C 

Pte Artists' Rifles. 

Lieut R.A.M.C. 

Capt R.A.M.C. The Coulter Hospital, 

Dental Surgeon to troops, Yarmouth. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 

Lt.-Col. ... I/c 1st Battalion Oxford & Bucks 

L.I. D.S.O. Wounded. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. Radiologist to Tooting 
and Streatham War Hospital. 

Capt R.A.M.C. Canadian A.M.C. 



Roll of War Service. 



183 



Keyxolds, W. L. E. Capt. .. 



Rice, H. G. ... 

ElCHAEDS, D. 0. 



Richards, E. H. 

KiCHARDS, E. H. R. 

Richards. J. F. G. 

Richards, J. G. 

Richards, L. P. 
Richards, N. L. 
Richards, Owen 

Richardson, I. K. 
Richardson, H. 



Richardson, P. L. 
Richardson, W. S. 



Riches, L. V. H. 

RiDDIOUGH, S. 
RiGBY, J. A. ... 

Riley, C. Meadows 
Ring, C. A. E. 

RiPMAN, C. H. 
RiSDON, T. 0. 
Rivers, A. T. 



Capt. 
Capt. 



Ordinaxy Seaman 
2nd Lieut. 
Capt 



2nd Lieut. 

Temp. Lieut. 
Fleet SuTg. 
Temp. Capt. 

Stafif Surg. 
Temp. CoL 



Surg. Sub. 
Capt 



Temp. Lieut. 
Lieut. ... 
Temp. Major 
Surg. Lieut. 
Lieut. ... 
Temp. Lieut. 



R.A.M.C. o6th Field Ambulance, 
1915—16. M.O. i/c 7th Batt. 
Royal West Kent Regt., 1916— 
18. loth Convalescent Depot, 
1918. 2nd Cavalry Div., B.E.F. 
and Germany, looth Field Am- 
bulance, North Russian Relief 
Force, 1919. M.C., 1917. 
R.A.M.C. Attached Durham Light 

Infantry. Salonika. Wounded. 
R.A.M.C. 29th General Hospital. 
68th Field Ambulance. M.O. i/c 
9th K.O.R.L. Regt., Salonika, 
1916—17. River Sick Convoy 
Unit, M.O. i/c Paddle Ambu- 
lance, No. 2, Mesopotamia, 1918 
—19. 

R.N.D., Crystal Palace. In- 
valided, May, 1916. 
21st Manchesters. Killed in action 

at Croisilles, April 2nd, 1917. 
R.A.M.C. loth F.A. Ment. in 

despatches. D.S.O., 1918. 
66th East Lanes. Divisional Cyclist 

Company. T.F. 
R.A.M.C, Dental. 
... R.N. 
... R.A.M.C. 
D.S.O. 
... R.N. 
... R.A.M.C. 

Twice mentioned 
Egyptian E.F. 
Lieut., R.N.V.R. 
... R.A.M.C, T.F. Sui'g. Specialist, 
No. 29 CCS. Served in Bel- 
gium, France and with Army of 
Occupation in Germany. 
R.A.M.C, DentaL 
S.R. 
T.D. 



Ment. in despatches. 



D.S.O. 



1918. A.D.M.S. 
in despatches. 



R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C 

R.N. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 



Salonika. 



Roberts, Astley C... Col 



Surg. Lieut. Commander, R.N. Mentioned in des- 
patches. Radiographer, Chatham 
Hospital. 
O.C 2nd Home Counties Brigade 
~ India. 

B.E.F. Ment. 











R.F.A. 


Roberts, 


C 


S. Lane 


Temp. Capt. ... 


R.A.M.C 


Roberts, 


D. 


W. 0. 


Lieut 


R.A.M.C 


Roberts, 


E. 


C 


Temp. Capt. ... 


R.A.M.C. 


Roberts, 


H. 


Jones ... 


Lt.-Col. 


R.A.M.C. 


Roberts, 


H. 


W. 


Surgeon Colonel 


, National 


Roberts, 


R. 




Temp. Capt. ... 


R.A.M.C 


Roberts, 


R. 


J. '.'.'. 


CM.P. 


CO. Aux 



Reserve. V.D. 



Y Hospital, 
and M.O. i/c Troops, 
District. 



in desp. 



Ventnor, 
Ventnor 



184 



Boll of War Service. 



KOBERTS, R. T. F. D., 
Roberts, T. E. 



RouERTS, T. H. F. . 
Roberts, W. 0. 
ROBERT,><ON, E. Guy. 
Robertson, G. S. . 
Robertson. J. 



Robertson, J. C. 

Robertson. J. F. 
Robinson, F. C. 
Robinson, G. C. 
Robinson, J. F. 



Robinson, J. 11. 

Robinson, W. 
Robinson, W. B. 
Robinson, W. E. 
Robinson, W. H. 

ROBSON, T. S. 
Robson, W. M. 
Roche, E. H. 
rodgers, x. p. 

Rogers, F. E. W 

rogerson, f. 
Rook. A. F. ... 
Rook. H. C. 



RooKE. E. M. 
RooME, A. M. 

ROONEY, J. J. F. 



Roper, R. S. 
Rose, Percy ... 
Rosenberg, I. 
Ross, J. Hampden 



Temp. 
Capt. 



Burg- Lieut., R.N. 
Haslar 



Teinp. Capt. 
Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 
Lt.-CoL 



2nd Lieut. 



Capt 
Surg 

Capt 

Temp. Capt. 



action, 

R.A.M.C, 

Commander, R.N. 
R.A.M.C 



H.M.S. 8.ydney and 
Hospital. 
R.A.M.C. T.F. No. 62 Field Aiiib. 
B.E.F., 1915—18. No. 5 and 
53 C.C.S., 1918. No. 39 Sta- 
tionary Hospital, Lille, 1919. 
Wounded. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. Mentioned in despatche;, 
1917. Mentioned for war ser- 
vices, 1917. 
Cameron Highlanders, Killed in 
1917. 

Ment. in despatches. 
H.M.S. Forward. 



Died 28tli Oct., 1918. 



Lt.-Col. 

Temp. Major 
R.M.O. 

Anaesthetist . 
Lieut. ... 
Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Major 

Capt 

Hon 



Act. Major 



R.A.M.C. 2/2nd South Midland 
Field Amb., and 3rd Southern 
General Hospital. 

R.A.M.C. DA.D.M.S. 2nd Ravval 
Pindi Division. 

R.A.M.C. Sunderland War Hosp. 

Chelsea Military Haspital. Died. 
King George Hospital. 

R.A.M.C. Mesopotamia, 1916—17. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.G.A. M.C., 1916. 
Dental Surgeon to Auxiliary Military Hosp.^ 
SouthaU. 

R.A:.M.C., T.F. Ment. in des- 
patches, 1918. 



Temp. Lieut. , 
Temp. Capt. , 
Brevet Major 



R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 



Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 

Lieut. ... 



Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 

Pte. ... 



Attached R.A.F. 
S.R. No. 4 Cavalry 
Field Ambulance, 1914, B.E.F. 
11th Gloucester Regt., 1915. Ca- 
meroon Exp. Force, 1915 — 16. 
Ophthalmic Resident, 2nd Lon- 
don General Hospital. Chelsea, 
1917—18. D.A.D.M.S. Allied 
Forces, Archangel, North Russia. 
1918 — 19. Ment. for services 
rendered in England, 1917. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M,,C. Attached 1/7 Highland 
Light InfantX}'. 

4th Lancashire Fusiliers. Attached 
to 1st and 10th Batt., B.E.F., 
1915 — 18. Twice wounded. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C 

4th Devon T.F. Died of wounds 
in Mesopotamia, 5th June, 1916. 



Boll of War Service. 



185 



RouTii, Chas. F. 



Rouw, R. Wynne 
ROAVELL, G. ... 
ROWELL, H. Ellis 



Rowland, E. W. S. 
Rowland, F. W. 

Rowlands.. R. P. 

Rowlett, a. E. 

liuCK, C. F. L. 
RuDD, F. E. 

RU.^SELL, G. H. 

Russell,. J. W. 

Rust, A. B. WiUs 

Ryan, T. F. 

Rycroft, E. C. 
Ryffel, J. H. 
Ryle, J. A. ... 



Ryley, C. M. 



Lt.-Col. ... R.A.M.C. M.O. i/c Med. Section, 

5th Southern General Hospital, 
Portsmouth. Mentioned for war 
services-. 

Hon. Con. Dent. Surg-., attached London Hospitals. 

Anaesthetist ... King George Hospital. Died. 

Lt.-Col. ... 0/c 2/5 :N'orfolk Regt. Territorial 

Decoration. Ment. in despatches, 
July, 1916. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 3rd Southern General 
Hospital and i/c Reading Wax 
Hospital, No. 2. 

Capt R.A.M.C. Military Hospitals at 

Colchester and Woodstock Park, 
Epsom, 1915—17. H.M.H.S. 
Kalyan, 1917—18, and Arch- 
angel, Russia, 1918 — 19. 

Capt R.A.M.C, T.F. Surgeon to 2nd 

London Hospital. O.B.E., 1919. 

Hon. Consulting Dentist to 5th Northern General 
Hospital. 

Lieut R.A.M.C, T. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C . Dental. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C.' 

Major R.A.M.C. T.F. 1st Southern Gen. 

Hospital. 



Temp 

Temp, 

Temp, 
Capt. 
Capt. 



Temp. 



Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 

Malta. 
Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 

of war 
Lieut.... R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C 

(Act. Major), R.A.M.C, S.R. 

Details, 1914—15 



CO. Dental work at 



Missing, 1917. Prisoner 
transferred home, 1918. 
Dental. 
T.F. 

M.O. i/c Base 
No. 7 Gen. 



Hospital, St. Omer, 1915—16. 
Medical Specialist, No. 10 
CCS.. 1916—18. 91th F.A., 
1918. 
Surg. Lieut., R.N. 



Salt, H. 0. 
Salvage, J. V. 
Sampson, B. 
Sampson, W. 

Samuels, Isidor. 
Samut, R. P. 



Sam ways, D. W. 

Sandfoed, H. A. 
Sandison, a. 



Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.F., Dental. 

Lt.-Col. ... R.A.M.C Ment. for war services. 

Temp. Surg. ... R.N. Haslar Hospital. 

Capt R.A.M.C 3rd Loudon General 

Hospital, 
^ledecin Dentiste, Croi.x Rouge Francaise. 
Temp. Lieut. -Colonel, R.A.^l.C Kings Own jMalta 

Regiment of Militia. Mentioned 

for war services. 
M.O No. 5 War Hospital Exeter. 

1915—19. 

Lieut R.A.M.C. 

Capt. (T.C)., R.A.M.C Royal ll.-rhert llo<i)ital. 

1916. No. 17 G<'n. Hosp., E^ypl 

191 6— 17. I?.E F. Fr:inro. 1917 



PART II. 



IM 



Boll of War Service. 



Sandoe, M. W. a. 



Saner, F. D. 

Saner, J. G. 
Sanford, D. 
Saul, E. R. 

Saunpers. S. J. 
Saunders, S. McK. 

Savage, P. 
Savatard, L.... 

Saw, N. H. W. 



Saward, a. H. M. 

Sawday. a. E. 
schofield, g. 
Scott, A. 
Scott, B. C... 
Scott, D. C. 



2iid Lieut. 



Temp. Capt. 



Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Lieut. 

Temp. Lieut. 
Capt 

Lieut. ... 
M.O. ... 

Capt 



Temp. Capt. 

Pte. ... 
Temp. Major 
Act. Major 
Temp. Capt. 
Capt 



Scott, E. D. 




Temp. Surg 


Scott, G 
Scott, M. .. 
Scott, P. D.. 
Scott-Pillow, 


H. M. 


AnaBsthetist 

Capt 

Temp. Capt. 
2nd Lieut. 


Seabeooke, a 




Capt 


Searle, Chas. 


F. ... 


Major ... 


Seccombe, S. 
Secret AN, W. 
Sells, H. T. 
Sells, R. 


H. ... 
B. ... 


Major ... 

Capt 

M.O. ... 

Surg. ... 



— 19. Acting Assifttiiui JiLspector 
of Draft-< and President Stand- 
ing Medical Board, Boulogne, 
and Senior Medical Officer Rest 
Camp^, Boulogne. 

9th Devons. Served in France and 
Belgium, Killed in action May 
7th, 1917. 

R.A.M.C. Surgeon No. 9 Red 
Cross Hospital, B.E.F. 

R.A.M.C. 

Australian Transport Service. 

R.A.M.C. Advisory Dental Officer 
Bedford District. 

R.A.M.C, Dental. 

R.A.M.C. Ment. in despatches, 
1917. Sedan. 

I.M.S. 

I/c Heyesleigh Auxiliary Military 
Hospital. 

R.A.M.C. M.O. i/c 4th Battalion 
Worcester Regt. M.C., 1916. 
Killed in action, Oct. 9th, 1917. 

R.A.M.C. Hon. Surgeon Richmond 
Red Cross Hospital. 

Inns of Court O.T.C. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C, Dental. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C 
1914. 



Ambulance, 
1915. let 



36th Field 
Dardanelles, 
West Riding Field iA^mb. B.E.F.. 
France, 1916. 1/4 West Riding 
Regt., 1917. 10th Field Amb., 
attached 1st Rifle Brigade and 
1st Somerset L.I. D.A.D.M.S. 
22nd Corps, attd. D.M.S. Office, 
G.H.Q. Rhine Army. Gassed. 
1917. O.B.E. 
R.N. R.M.O. Queen Mary's R.N. 

Hospital, Southend. O.B.E. 
Tooting Military Hospital. 
R.A.M.C. M.O. 1st Norfolks. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.F.C Killed in action, August 

8th, 1917. 
R.A.M.C Died, 1916, in Meso- 
potamia. 
R.A.M.C l/4th Northamptons. 
Tvrice mentioned in despatches. 
M.C, 1917. Wounded. 
Australian A. M.C. 
R.A.M.C, T.F. 

I/c Roeherville V.A.D. Hospital. 
R.N. Queen Mary's Royal Naval 
Hospital, Southend. 



Roll of War Service. 



187 



vmour-Peice, p. ... Major 



Shacklook, G. a. S. 
Shaheen, Kersan 

Shannon, S. S. H. 

SUAEP, H. ... 
SHAEr, N. A. D. .. 



Sharpe, H. 
Shaepe. S a. 
Sharpley, T. S. 
jJhaw, Gc. D. 



Shaw, T. A. 
Sheap, E. W. 
Shear-wood, A. L. 



Shken, a. W. 



Sheldon, T. M. .. 

Sheldon, T. S. 
Shels^ell. a. H. .. 
Shknton, E. W. H. 
Shepherd, C. 
Shelton, H. L. C... 

Siiepherd-TurnehaM; 
Suerris. C ... 
Shipway, F. E. 



Shohland, E. T. 
S BORLAND, George 

SiCHEL, G. T. S. 
■SlDEBOTHAM, F. N. 

Stlk, J. F. W. 



•SlWMINS, A. G. 



Temp. Surg. 
Surg. ... 

Staff Surg. 
Hon. Surg. 
Temp. Lieut. 



Brevet Major 
2nd Lieut. 
Temp. Lieut. 
Lieut ... 



2nd Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 
Act. Major 



Col. 



Capt 

M.O 

Sub.-Lieut. 
Radiographer, 

Capt 

Temp. Capt. . 

N. P., Capt. 
Capt 



. R.A.M.C, T.F. Home, 1914. 

Adjutant, 6th London F.A., 
O.C. 3/6 F.A., 1915—17. Brit. 
Salonika Force, O.C. E.A.M.C. 
Base Depot, 1917 — 18. Registrar, 
Nos. 28 and 36 General Hos- 
pitals, 1918. O.C, Nos. 2 and 
8 Convalescent Depots. 

D.A.D.M.S., G.H.Q. Staff, 
1919. Twice mentioned in des- 
patches, 1918 and 1919. 

,. R.N. H.M.S. CoUingwood. 

. I/c Ear and Throat Department, 
Kasr-el-Ainy Hospital, Cairo. 

. R.N. 

. Royal Naval Auxiliary Hospital. 

.. R.A.M.C. Att. Nigerian Regiment. 
Received thanks of H.M. Go- 
vernment. M.C. 

.. R.A.M.C. 

. R.F.C. 

,. R.A.M.C. 

. R.F.A., B.E.F., France & Italy. 
Ment. in despatches, 1917. M.C. 

1917. Wounded, 1917. 
. R.F.A. 

. R.A.M.C. 

. R.A.M.C, S.R. 34th Field Amb. 
Wounded at Suvla and ment. 
in despatches, 1918. M.C, and 
bar, 1918. 

. R.A.M.C. I/c 34th (Welsh) Gen. 
Hospital. Late Consulting Sur- 
geon, Bombay. Ment. in desp., 

1918. CB.E., 1918. 

. R.A.M.C. 139th Field Ambulance. 

B.E.F. 
. I/c Park Hall Camp, Oswestry. 
. R.N.V.R. 

Harapstead Military Hospital. 
. Australian A. M.C. 
. R.A.M.C. Royal FiLsiliers (Labour 

Bat.) Ment in deep., 1917. 
Yorkshire Reg. Killed in action. 
. R.A.M.C 65th Wing, R.A.F. 



Hon. Anassthetist, King George Hospital, Fish- 
monger's Hall Hospital, Coulter 
Hospital, and others. 

Haywood Subsidiary Hospital. 

R.N. Died in action on H.M.S. 
Invincible, Jutland Battle. 

R.A.M.C Mentioned for war ser- 
vices, 1917. 

R.A.M.C, S.R. 

R.A.M.C. Consulting Anaesthetist, 
Malta, 1915 — 16. Home Com- 
mands, 1916—1919. 

R.N. H.M.S. Bdl^rophon. 



M.O. ... 
Temp. Surg. 

Temp. Major 

Capt .... 
Lt.-Col. 



Surg. 



188 



Roll of War Service. 



SlMMONDS, G. W. . 

SIMMS, Harold 
Simons, G. E. L. . 
Simpson, G. S. 

Simson, H. 
Skelton, W. Bevill. 
Slater, W. A. 
Slesinger, E, G. . 



Small, D. F. 

Smart, H. D. 

Smedley. K. D. 
Smith, A. Ayre 

Smith, A. H. 

Smith, A. Henry 

Smith, C. K.... 

Smith, D. W. 



Smith, E 

Smith, E. Bellingham 
Smith, E. G. 
Smith, F. J. 



Smith, F. M. V. . 
Smith, G. Warwick. 

Smith, H. Joste 

Smith, H. L. 
Smith, Philip 

Smith, W. H. M. . 
Smyth, W. J. D. . 

Smythe, W 

Snell, Herbert 

Snell, Norris... 

Snow, Chas. F. 
Solomon, E. E. 
soothill, v. f. 



Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. B.E.F. 

Civil Dent. Surg., 2nd General Western Hospital. 

Capt R.A.M.C, S.R. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C, T.F. Northern General 
Hospital. 

Acting Colonel, R.A.M.C. 

M.O I/c Fort Gomer, Gosport. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Surg.-Lieut., R.N. Gallipoli and France 
Meut. in despatches. O.B.E., 
1919. Croix de Guerre, 1915. 

Capt R.A.M.C. Attached 15th Cheshire 

Regiment. Wounded and miss- 
ing, 1918. 

Major R.A.M.C. Attached Lanes. Regt. 

Twice mentioned in despatches. 
M.C. Wounded, 1917. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Lieut.-Colonel, R.A.M.C,, T.F. A^istant Di- 
rector of Dental Service. 

Capt R.A.M.C. Wounded, 1917. 

Civil Dent. Surg., 3/4 Welsh Brigade R.F.A. 



Capt. 
Capt. 



Temp. Capt. 

Capt 

Capt 

2nd Lieut. 



Surg. 
Capt. 



Capt 

Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 

Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 
Lieut. ... 
2nd Lieut. 

Capt 

2nd Lieut. 

Capt 

Major ... 



R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. Att. 6th Manchester 
Regt. Killed in action, Fri- 
court, July, 1916. 

R.A.M.C, Dental. 

R.A.M.C". Egypt and Serbia. 

S.A.M.C. Ment. in desp., 1917. 

1/4 King's Own Royal ■ Lanes. 

Regt., late 4/2 City of London 

R.F., and 8th O.C.B. Twice 

wounded at Ypres. 

Lieut. Commander, R.N. H.M.S. Chaguinola. 

Retired, 1918. 
A.M.S. HQ. Staff. Twice men- 
tioned in despatches, 1917 and 
1918. O.B.E., 1919. 

R.A.M.C , T.F. East Anglian F.A. 

M.C, '1917. 

R.A.M.C 

R.A.M.C. Twice ment. in desp. 
M.C. Wounded, 1915. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C 

Lanes. Fusiliers. Killed in action, 
9th April, 1917. 

8th East Yorks. Regt. Killed in 
action, 14th July, 1916. 

R.F.A. Killed in action. 

R.F.A. Hampshire R.G.A., T.F. 

R.A.M.C. 11th Field Ambulance, 
4th Division R.E. No. 7 Con- 
valescent Depot. 1st Somerset 
L.I. 12th and 10th Field Am- 
bulance. British Exp. Force, 
Belgium and France, 1914 — 19. 
Mentioned in despatches. 



Roll of War Service. 



189 



SOPER, A. W. 

soper, g. b. s. 

southgate, h. w. ... 
southwell, c. s. ... 
soweeby, v. h. 

Spalding, F. L. 
Spexcee-Payne, a. L. 
Spicer, a. H. 



S FILLER, J. E. 

Spox, H. J. 
Spoxg, E. W. 

SPEAGUE, C. G. 



Temp. Capt. 
Lieut. ... 

Surg. Sub. 
Lieut. ... 
2nd Lieut. 

Temp. Lieut 
Temp. Surg. 
Temp. Capt. 



Civ. Dent. 
M.O. ... 

Lieut. ... 

Surg. Lieut. 



Spriggs. N. I. ... Capt. 

Spureell, W. Koworth Lieut. 



Stagey, J. E. B. 
Staixer, Claude H. 


2nd Lieut. 
Lieut. ... 


Staley, R. C. W. ... 


Temp. Surg. 


Stallman, J. F. H. 


Temp. Capt. 



Stamford, R. B. 
Stamm, L. E. 

Stamp, L. D. 
Staxsfield, T. 



Staxavell. W. a. ... 
Starlixg, E. C. W. 

Starlixg, E. K 
Staeung, H. J. 



Temp. Capt. 
Lieut. ... 

Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 



Lieut. 



Capt. 



Lt.-CoL 



Capt. 



E.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. Hospital Ship Ebani, 
East Africa. 
Lieut., R.X.V.R. 
... R.A.M.C, Dental. 
... Lines. Regiment. Killed in actioin^, 

August 1st, 1917. 
... R.A.M.C. 

... R.N. H.M.S. Roxburgh. 
... R.A.^M.C. Mentioned in despatcheg! 
1917. Order of St. Anne (Rus-* 
si an) 3rd Class. 
Surg., Queen Mary's Hospital. 
... Private Hospital for Officers. 
... R.A.F., Dental. Died on servioe. 
Shomcliffe, Oct. 30th, 1918. 
Commander, R.N. H.M.S. Thistle. 
Mentioned in despatches, 1917. 
North Sea, 1914—15. E. Africa. 
1916—18. North Russia, 1919. 

R.A.M.C. 1/5 Northern Base Hos- 
pital. 

R.F.A. Artists' Rifles, B.E.F., 
1915—16. R.A. Cadet School, 
Exeter, 1916—17. D/170 Bde. 
R.F.A. B.E.F., France, 1917 — 
18. Wounded, 1917, at Vimy 
Ridge. 

Killed in action. 

Loyal North Lanes. Killed 15tb 
November, 1916. 

R.N. 19th Royal Fusiliers, 1914 
—15. H.M.S. Marjoram. 1918, 
42nd Division, B.E.F., France. 
1918. 

R.A.M.C. Mesopotamian E. Force. 
1917 — 18. Surgical Specialist, 
8th Indian General Hospital Ta* 
noomah-Basra, 1917-18. Venereal 
Specialist 21st Indian Gen. Hos- 
pital, Amarah, 1918. No. E 
British General Hospital Refugee 
Camp, Bakuba, 1918—19. 

R.A.M.C. South Africa. 

R.A.F. M.O., Home Stations, 
chiefly Northolt Aerodrome. 

R.A.M.C. M.O. i/c 3rd E. Lanes. 

R.A.M.C. Att. Manchester Regt. 
Mentioned in despatches, 1917. 
Wounded 1917. 

3rd Lancashire Fusiliers. KiDed 
in action, July 9th 1915. 

R.A.M.C, S.R. 9th King's Own 
Yorkshire L.I., B.E.F. M.C., 
1917. Wounded, 1918. 
R.A.M.C. Mentioned in despatches, 
1917. C.M.G. 

R.A.M.C. 



190 

Statham, J. C. B. 



Stkad, C. C. 
Stebbing, G. F. 
Steel, R. ... 
Steele, R ... 

Steele, W. K. 
Steele-Perkins, D. 
Steele-Perkins, J. S. 
Steinbach, H. 
Stenhouse, J. R. .. 

Stephen, L. H. Y. .. 

Stephens, H. F. .. 
Stephens, Lockhart 



Stephenson, John 

Sterne-Howitt, H. 

Stevens, John 

Stevens, T. G. 
Stevenson, C. M. 

Steward, F. J. 

Stewart, H. 
Stewart, J. L. 

Steyn, S. S. L. 

Stiven, F. W. 
Stohr, F. 0. 
Stoker, G. M. 

Stokes, D. L. 
Stone, C. H. 
Stone, E. R. 
Stone, F. D. S. 
Stone, F. W. 

Signer, P. B. 
Stott, H. ... 

Stott, M. ... 
Stout, R. 
Stout, T. D. M. 



Roll of War Service. 



Col. 



M.O. ... 
M.O. ... 
Temp. Lieut. 
M.O. ... 

Lt.-Col. 
Temp. Capt. 
Act. Major 
Lieut. ... 
Capt 

Temp. Capt. 

Temp. Capt. 
M.O ... 



Act, Major 



Capt. 
Capt. 



Temp. Capt. .. 
Capt 

Temp. Lt.-CoL 



Temp. Lt.-CoL 
Temp. Capt. .. 

Lieut. ... 



Temp. Capt. 
Lieut. ... 

2nd Lieut. 
2nd Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 
Hon. Capt. 

Capt 

Major ... 

Temp. Capt. 
Capt .... 
Temp. Major 



R.A.M.C. A.D.M.S. Lines of Com- 
munication, Sal<jnica. C.M.G. 
C.B.E., 1919. 

V.A.D. Hospital, Haukhurst. 

Royal Marine Depot, Quceustovvn 

R.A.M.C. 

Auxiliary Military Ifosp., Hainji- 
stead. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. T.F. R.M.O. 2nd East. 
General Hospital. 

R.A.M.C. Mentioned for war ser- 
vices. ]3icd on service, 1918. 

R.A.M.C. 

Northlands Auxiliary Hospital, 
County Director for Herts of 
British Red Cross. C.B.E. 

R.A.M.C. B.K.F.. France, 1916 
— 18. Twice mentioned in des- 
patches, 1917. M.C. and Bar, 
1917. 

S.A.M.C. S.A.M. Hospital, Rich- 
mond, Surrey. 

R.A.M.C. Aldershot and London 
Commands, 1916 — 19. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. Trooping, America and 
West Indies, 1917. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. 2nd London Gen. 
Hospital, 1914—19. 53rd Gen. 
Hospital. B.E.F., France, 1917 

R.A.M.C. Twice mentioned in des- 
patches, 1917. 

R.A.M.C Gordon Highlanders. 

Twice mentioned in despatches. 
1918. M.C, Bax to M.C, 
D.S.O. Wounded. 

116th Brigade, R.F.A. Killed in 
action, 1915. 

Royal Fusiliers. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.F.A. 458 Armv Bde.. B.E.F.. 

1917—18. 
Royal West Kents. 

L.R.B. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C 

R.A.M.C. Mentioned for war ser- 
vices, 1917. 

A.S.C Salonika. 

I. M.S. Mentioned in despatches. 
O.B.E.. 1918. 

R.A.M.C. 

N. Z. Medical Corps. 

N.Z.M.C Ment. in despatches. 
D.S.O., 1917. 



Holl of War Service. 



191 



Stkanack, W. S. . 
Steaxge. E. W. 
Stki>'(.eb, L. B. 
Strovkr, H. C. 
Stuart, H. D. 

Stuart, J. A. W. . 
Stuart, W. L. 
summerskill, w. h 

Sl/TTGN, A 

Swan, R. H. J. 



Temp. Lieut. ... 
Temp. Capt. ... 

Capt 

M.O 

Lt.-Col. 

Lieut. ... 
Temp. Lieut. ... 
Surg. Sub-Lieut 
Col 



Queen Victoria Rifles. Wounded 

at Gommecourt, 1916. 
R.A.M.C, T.F. 1/3 North Mid- 
land F.A. 
R.A.F. (Medical), late Surgeon, 

R.N., H.M.S. Victory. 
I/c V.A.D. Hospital, 1916—19 I/c 
P.O.W. Camp, 1916—19. 

8tli Lines. Regt. Twice 
in despatches. D.S.O.;. 



Dental. Salonika; 



Major ... 



SWAYNE, W. C. 



S\MNS, J. L. M. 
Symonds, Sir Charter 



Major 



C.npt 

J., Temp 



Col 



R.A.M.C. 
ment. 
1917. 

R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 

., R.N.V.R. 

A.A.M.C. 2nd Australian Divsn. 
A.D.M.S. C.M.G. 

R.A.M.C. Senior Surg, to Royal 
Herbert Hospital. Consulting 

Surgeon, Woolwich District, Eas- 
tern Command, 1914 — 19. Var- 
ious Casualty Clearing Stations, 
B.E.F., France; Surg., Queen 
Mary's Royal Naval Hospital. 
Southend; Royal Air Force Has- 
pital, 1917. Ment. in desp., 
1917. O.B.E. (Military), 1918. 

R.F.A., T.F. V.D. Bristol Uni- 
versity O.T.C., 1914. O.C. 
N.Z. (Reserve) F.A., 1916. 
Attached 2nd Southern General 
Hospital, and Standing Medical 
Board No. 2 Area S.C, 1917. 

R.A.M.C. 88th Field Ambulance. 
, R.A.M.C. Consulting Surgeon. 
Royal Victoria Hospital. Netley. 
Ment. in despatches, Salonika. 
C.B., 1916. C.M.G. K.B.E., 
1919. 



Symonds. C. P. 


("apt. 




. R.A.M.C. Medaille Militaire as 
Combatant at Mons. 


-VMS, G. F. 


Surg. 




. R.N. 


syms. J. L 


Lieut 




. R.A.M.C, T.F. 


Tait, E. S 


Lieut. 




. R.A.M.C. Egypt 


Tanner. W. E. 


Capt. 




. R.A.M.C. Surg. Derby War iiu>- 
pital, Warrington, 1917—8. Sur- 
gical Specialist, Military Hosp.. 
Gibraltar, 19J8— 19. 


Taylor, A. D. Vernon 


Capt. 




. R.A.M.C. 


Taylor, A. S. 


Capt. 




. 2nd Surrey Vol. Corps. Visiting 
Surgeon King.^ton and District 
Rod Cross Hospital, 1915—19. 
Surgeon Oakenshaw Aux. Hosp., 
1914— 18. 


T.vylor, a. S. 


Temp. 


Capt. . 


. R.A.M.C. 


Taylor, C. D. L. ... 


Temp. 


Lieut. . 


. R.A.M.C, Dental. 



lyii 



Eoll of War Service. 



Taylor M. Bramley Lieut. 



Ta\ia)11, Sir E. Stuart, Act. Major, R.A.M.C, T.F. Adviser in Anaesthe- 
tics, 5th Army. B.E.F., France, 
1916 — 19. Twice mentioned in 
despatches. O.B.E. (Military), 
M6daille des Epidemics (French) 

Tayloe, J. G. ... Temp. Major ... R.A.M.C. Mentioned for war ser- 

vices, 1917. 
R.A.M.C. Wounded, 1917, at 
Langsmarees. M.O. attached 
53rd Field Ambulance. M.O. 
i/c 7fch Eaet Yorks. Reg., B.E.F. 
France and Belgium, 1917. 

B. ... M.O Red Cross Society. 

P. ... Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C. 2nd Northern General 
Hospital. 
R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. O.C. 266th Bde. 
R.F.A. Mentioned in despatches, 
E.E.F., 1918. Territorial de- 
coration. 

Thomas. A. R. ... Surg. Commander, R.N. H.M.S. Talbot, 1914—15. 

Served at Gallipoli (both land- 
ings). R.N. Hospital, Malta. 
1915—19. North Rrtssian E.F., 
1919. O.B.E. , 1919. 



Taylor, 
Taylor, 

Telling, 

Te:mple. 
Thomas. 



W 
W. 
W. 

P. 
A. 



H. M 



M.O. ... 
Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Lieut. -Col. 

Lieut. ... 
Major ... 



Thomas, C. E. 


. . 2nd Lieut. 


5th East Kent (Buffs). Mesopo- 
tamia. 


Thomas, F. G. 


.. Capt 


R.A.M.C , T.F. Ophthalmic Sur- 
geon, 8rd Western Gen. Hosp. 


Thomas, F. L. 


Temp. Lieut. ... 


R.A.M.C. Mesopotamia. 21st In- 
dian General Hospital. 


Thomas, T. M. 


.. Major 


R.A.M.C, T.F. 


Thomas, T. P. 


.. Capt 


R.A.M.C , T.F. O.C. MiHtary Hos- 
pital, Brecon. 


Thomas, W. M. 


.. Temp. Lieut. ... 


R.A.M.C. 


Thompson, A. R. 


.. Capt 


Artists' Rifles. Consulting Surg., 
Grove Military Hosp., Tooting, 
S.W. 


Thompsox, F. C. L 


Lieut 


R.A.M.C. Salonika 


Thompson. G. G. 


.. Capt 


R.A.M.C. 


Thoaipson. H. Q. " 


P. 


Anglo-Russian Hosp., Petrograxl. 


Thoaipson, I. M. 


.. Capt 


R.A.F., Dental. 


Thoaipson. Robert 


.. Temp. Major ... 


Australian M.C. 


Thomson. C. B. 


.. M.o: ... .. 


V.A.D. Hospital, Wimborne 


Thomson, D. A. 


.. Temp. Lieut. ... 


R.A.M.C 


Thomson, G. 


.. Capt 


R.A.M.C, T.F. Wounded. 1917. 


Thomson, G. Y. 


.. Capt 


R.A.M.C*. I.M.S. 10 General Hos- 
pital. Mesopotamia. 


Thoaison, J. M. 


.. Surg. Sub-Lieut., R.N. H.M.S. Strongbow. 






Wounded, 1917. 


Thorn, H. L. 


.. Temp. Capt. ... 


R.A.F. 


TiCEHURST, C. B. 


.. Tetap. Capt. ... 


R.A.M.C 


Ticehurst, G. a. 


.. Capt 


R.A.M.C. 33rd Field Ambulance. 
France, 1916—17. Served at 
Gibraltar, 1918—19. 



Holl of War Service. 



193 



TiCE HURST. N. h\ 



TiLBUEY. A. 



Tilbury, K. 
Tmpsox. G. G. 



Tipper. E. H. 
Tipper. F. J. 



Tipping, H. . 
ToDi.. A. H. 



E.M.O. 



Capt. 



O.B.E., 

believed 
Tramyl- 



Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 



Senior M.O. 
Major ... 



Temp. Capt. 
Major ... 



Toi.nuRST, St. J. A. M. Capt 



ToxnuE, E. J. 
ToxKiN, B. M. 
TonxH, F. 

TOTTOX, J. ... 
TOAVXROW, V. 

TowxsEXT), T. A. 



Surg. Lieut. . 
Surg. Sub.-I 

Capt 

Lieut. ... 
Temp. Capt. , 
Capt 



ioul 



Tracey, H. E. 


H... 


. Temp. Capt 


Trail, D. H. 


•• 


Temp. Capt. 


Traill, A. ... 




Temp. Capt 


Traill, K. R. 


.. 


Lieut. ... 


Traill, R. R. 


.. 


Capt. ... 


Tressider, M. E 
Trethowan. W. 
TporxcE. T. R. 


\l.\'. 


. Temp. Capt. 
Capt 


Tubby, A. H. 




Col. ... 



I/c Auxiliary Military Hospital, 

Normanhurst, 1915 — 19. Ment. 

War Office List, 1919 

1919. 
E.A.M.C. Missing, 

drowned on transport 

vania, May 4th, 1917. 
R.A.M.C. 

E.A.M.C. No. 6 Casualty Clear- 
ing Station, B.E.F. Mentioned 

in desp., 1917. Wounded, 1918. 
Colonial Medical Service, Nigeria. 
R.A.M.C, Dental. Dental Officer, 

Royal Herbert Hosp., Woolwich, 

1914. Advisory Dent. Officer, 

Woolwich District, 1915 — 16. In- 
specting Dent. Officer, Eastern 

Command, 1916 — 19. 
R.A.M.C. T.F. M.O. 1st Batt. 

Middlesex Vol. Regt. 
R.A.M.C. O.C. R.A.F. Hospital, 

Blandford. Surg. King George 

Hospital and Lewisham Militaiy 

Hospital. 
N.Z.M.C. H.M.N.Z. Hospital Ship 

Mahins. KiUed in action. May, 

1918. 
R.N. H.M.S. Egmont. 
.. R.N.V.R. H.M.S. Hydra. 
R.A.M.C, T.F. 

London Brigade R.F.A., T.F. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C . T.F. 24th London Reg. 

M.C., 1916. Bar to M.C., 1918. 

Order of St. Sava (Serbia). 

Wounded, 1917. ^ Missing. 1918. 

Reported killed in action at 

Rocqunghy, 24th March, 1918. 
R.A.M.C. Oral Dept. No. 6 Gen. 

Hospital, B.E.F. 
R.A.M.C. Civil Surgeon. Military 

Hospital. Falmouth. 
R.A.M.C. 2/2 W. Riding F.A. 

Died on service, 1917. 
Royal Berkv«5. R^t. Killed in 

action. July 1st, 1916. 
R.A.M.C, S.R. I.E.F. 

tamia. 
Wax Office Secret Service. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C 26th Casualty 

Station, Suvla Bay. 

Units. B.E.F., France 

19. Wounded. 1918. 
A.M.S. Cons. Surg, to British 

Mediterranean E.F. in Egypt. 

Twice mentioned in despatches. 

CM.G., 1916. CB . 1917. 



Mesopo- 



Clearing 
Various 
1916 — 



194 



Roll of War Service. 



Tuck, E. S. 
tuckee, p. a. 
Turner, A. H. 
Turner, A. Scott 
TUHNER, Fulham 
Turner, H. M. Sta 



TURNE15, J. S. 
Turner, Philip 



Turner, S. C. 
Turner, Thos. 
Tui;ner, W. a. 



Turner, W. A. 

TUIiNEE, W. H. 

Tweed, M. B. M, 
Tyson. Wilsor. 



Tyson, W. J. 



Temp. Major 



Temp. Lieut. 
Siirg-. 



Fleet Surg. ... H.N. ll.M.S. Natal. 

Lieut '2nd Loudon KegL 

Capt R.A.M.C. 

Temp. (":ii)t. ... K.A.M.C. 5th East Surrey. 

Capt ... K.A.M.C. Adjutant Fargo Hosp. 

nley, Major, K.A.M.C. Major F;ilkland Islands Vo- 
lunteer Force. Member of Com- 
mission's IJoard, R.F.C. Coia- 
numded J^'ulldand Ishinds De- 
fence Force. Served in Fran(;e 
;is Specialist in Dl-ea.se- of Ear, 
Nose and Throat. Special Army 
Council Medical Board. Men- 
tioned in despatches. 
... Military R('])r('sentative Pengc Tri- 
bunal. 
K.A.M.C. 0. i/c Surgical Div., 
Nos. 3 and 22 General Hospitals, 
B.E.F. .Ment. in desi)., 1917. 
R.A.F., Dental, 
R.N.V.R. 

Capt R.A.M.C. T.F. Lst Eastern Gen. 

Hospital. Surgical Specialist to 
the Millicent Sutherland Hi.s- 
pital. B.E.F.. 1915. Surgical 
Specialist No. 55 Gen. Hospital, 
B.E.F., France. 

Surg. Sub. -Lieut., R.N. Order of St. Stanislas 
(3rd Class). 

Lieut R.F.A. 

Capt N.Z.M.C. No. 3 Field Amb. 

Capt R.A.M.C, T.F. Surgical Speclst. 

to the Millicent Sutherland Hos- 
pital, B.E.F., France, 1915. 
Surgical Si)ecialist No. 55 Gen. 
Hospital. B.E.F., France. 

Pliysician Royal Victoria Hosp., Folkestone. M.O. 
to Sussex Cyclist Batt.. 1917. 
M.O. Kent (Buffs) Cyclist Batt.. 
1918. Examined the doctors of 
Kent, Surrey and Sussex for 
Military service. 1918. Lecturer 
for the Government in Coloene. 
1919. 



Uhteoff, J. 
Underhill. 



Underwood, 
Underwood. 



C 
S. W. F. 



B. G. 
M.... 



M.O. 

Temp. 



Surg. 
Ptc. 



... Brighton Red Cross Hospital. 
Surg.-Lieut., R.N. H.M.S. Mold^fivia. North 
" Atlantic Patrol, 1917. and Con- 

voy Work in Atlantic, 1917 — 18. 
H.M.S. Boadicp^i, Nore Reserve 
Fleet. 1919. 

R.N. 

O.T.C 



Vallance. H. 
Vance, W. J. 



Bacteriologist Militaiy Hospital, Colcliester, 
Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 



Roll of War Service. 



195 



Vaxdkemin, H. F... 
Van-I'EE-Spuy, W. C. 
Vea].i:, R. McKenzie 
Vexables, J. F. 

Vexugopal, S. V. .. 
Vetctue, H. St. H... 
Vicars. F. G. 
Vicary, W. R. 

ViDOT, S. 

ViSiCK, Hnbort C. .., 

VisiCK, Ifedley 



Lieut R.A.M.C. 

Pte Artists' Rifles. 

Temp. Lieut. ... A. M.S., DentaL Scotch Command. 
Cnpt R.A.M.C. M.O., Military Hosp., 

Swanage. 

Lieut I. M.S. 

Cupt R.A.M.C, S.R. 

Capt R.A.M.C. 322nd Welsh Field Am. 

Temp. Surg. ... R.N. H.M.S. VwU. 

Capt R.A.M.C, (S.R.). Attached 0th 

K.O. Y.L.I. M.C, 1917. 
Hon. Dentist, Fairfield Court Red Cross Hospital, 

Eastbourne. 
Dental Officer, attached R.A.M.C. 



Wacher, G.... 
Wachei^ H.... 
W.achek, H. S. 
Waghorn, L. p. 

Waight, H. G. 
Wain, D. ... 

W/-I.KER, A. ... 



Walker, H. ... 
Walker, H. F. B. 



Walker, J. ... 
Walker, James 
Walker, Josiah 



Walker, T. M. 
Wallace, F. H. 



Wallace, J. ... 

Wallace, J. H. 
Walley, Thos. B. 
Wallis. A. E. W. 
Wallfs, F. R. 



Wallis, Herbert 

Wallis, M. E. A. 
Wallis. M. J. T. 

Wallis, T. R. 
Wallis, V. M. 



Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Capt. 
2nd Lieut. 



Temp. Capt. 
Brevet Major 



Temp. Major 
Capt 



Temp. Lieut. 
Major ... 
Act. Major 



Lieut. 
Capt. 



Major ... 

M.O. ... 
Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Lieut. 
Capt 



Lieut. ... 

Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Major 

Temp. Capt. 
Lieut ... 



R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 
I.M.S. 

Royal Berks. 
action. 



Regiment. Killed in 



R.A.M.C. No. 3 CCS. 
R.A.M.C, T.F. 88th Provisional 
Batt. Mentioned in despatches, 
1918. D.S.O., 1918. 
R.A.M.C Ment. in desp., 1917. 

Order of St. Sava (Serbian). 
S.A.M.C 21st M.B.F.A. in Ger- 
man South- West Africa, 1914 — 
15. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C, S.R. A.M.S. Staff. 
Twice mentioned in despatches, 
1917 and 1918. M.C, 1918. 
Wounded, 1917. 
R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C,. Special List. Army 
Dental Surgeon. Att. Devon- 
port Hospital. 
R.A.M.C, T.F. Territorial Deco- 
ration. 
Hopital du Casino, Fecamp. 
Australian M.C. 
R.A.M.C. 

Gei\eral List. Dental Smgeon. 
Military Hospital, Tid worth, and 
3rd Southern General Hospital. 
Oxford, 1916—16. 49th CCS., 
France, 1916 — 18. 
R.A.M.C Dental Surgeon R.N. 

Division, Blandford Camp. 
R.A.M.C. 
R.A.M.C 91st Field Amb. Ment. 

in despatches, 1917. 
R.A.M.C 

R.A.M.C, T.F. Eastern Mounted 
Brigade Field Ambulance. 



196 



Roll of War Service. 



WALL18, W 

WALLI8, W. E. 


.. Temp. Capt. . 
.. Temp. Capt. . 


Walters, W. J. . 
Wabd, F 


.. Capt 

.. Temp. Major . 


Ward, L. W. 
Ward. P. H. 
Warlow, F 


.. Temp. Lieut. . 
. . 2nd Lieut. 
.. Civil Dentist, 


Warner. C 


.. Temp. Surg. . 


Warrick, R. W. . 


. . Dresser 


Watkin, J. P. 
Watkin, p. J. 


.. M.O 

.. Capt 


Watney, H. a. 
Watson, C. E. S. . 


.. Temp. Capt. . 
.. M.O 


Watson, C. T. 
Watson, D. P. 


.. Lieut 

.. Major 


Watson, J. N. 


.. Temp. Surg. . 


Watson, L. K. 
Watson, M. G. 


.. 2nd Lieut. 

.. Dent. Surg. .. 



Watson, W. E. 



Watson, W. H. 

Watt, N. L. 

Watts, H. 
Way, M. 

Wearing, D. G. 
Webb. A. E. 
Webb. H. 



Capt 



Capt 

2nd Lieut. 

Capt 

Capt 

Temp. Capt. 
Temp. Lieut. 
Temp. Capt. 



Webb. H. J. ... 


.. Lieut. ... 


Webb, S. J. F. 


.. Capt 


Webb, W. L. 


... Temp. Capt. 


Webber, A. M. 


.. Temp. Capt. 



. R.A.M.C. 

. R.A.M.C. Wounded. British Exp. 

Force, France. 
. R.A.M.C. 
. R.A.M.C, TF. Croix de Guerre 

(French), 1918. 
. R.A.M.C,, Dental. 
. North Rhodesian Vol. Force. 
Weesex R.E. Hon. Dentist to Red 

Cross Hospital, Christchurch. 
. R.N. Royal Naval Barracks, 

Portsmouth. 
. L'Hopital Anglo-Frangaise, Le 

Treport. 
. I/c 9th Australian A.S.C. 
. R.A.M.C. Att. Bedfordshire Regt. 

M.C., 1917. 
. R.A.M.C. 9th Cavalry Field Amb. 
. West African M.S. Mentioned in 

despatches. Cameroons. Lost at 

Sea, 1918. 
, Sherwood Foresteors. 
. R.A.M.C. O.C. 48th Field Amb. 

D.S.O., 1918. 
. R.N. H.M.S. Dunoan. Grand 

Fleet. 
. Northumberland Fusiliers. 
, No. 1 General Auxiliary Hospital, 

Brondesbury. 
. R.A.M.C, Dental. Dental Surg. 

to troops, Bedford District, 1914 

— 16. Attached R.A.M.C to 

2nd Thames and Medway Bdes., 

1916. Brigade Dental Officer, 

32nd Casualty Clearing Hospital, 

Egyptian Exp. Force, 1918—19. 
. S.A.M.C S.A. General Hospital, 

Muttuga, British East Africa. 
. King Edward's Horse. Killed in 

action. 



I.M.S. 
R.A.M.C 

pital, 
R.A.M.C 
R.A.M.C 
R.A.M.C 

and 



29th Stationary Hos- 
Salonika. 
, Dental. 
, Dental. 

". 84:th Field Ambulance, 
attached 1st Suflfolks, 
B.E.F., France, 1915. 2nd East 
Kent Regt., 1916. 37th Army 
Troop, R.E., 1917—18. Salonika, 
1916—18. 60th S.A. Brigade 
R.G.A., France, 1918—19. 
R.N.V.R. 

R.A.M.C , Dental. Egypt. 
Uganda Medical Service. 
R.A.^NL.C Ment. in despatches, 
1917. 27th General Hospital, 
Cairo. 



Roll of War Service. 



197 



Webber, H. W. 
Webster, E. M. 

Webster, V. T. 

Wedd, B. H. 

Weinberg, A.... 
Weller, C. ... 

Wells, L. K. A. 
Welton, F. E. 
Wermig, M. H. 
Wexyon, C. M. 



Wernet, a. J. 
Westlake, B. B. 

Westman, C... 



Wetherell, E. C. 



Wetherell, M. C. 
Whatley, J. L. 
Wheeler, E. J. 



Wheldon, G. W. ... 
Whelpton, L. G. ... 
Whitcombe, D. M. p. 
White, E 

White, K. W. 
White, Sir W. Hale 



Whitten, M. G. 

Whitty, C. J. 
Whitafore. S. C. .. 

WlTTTWOT^TH, H. P. .. 



WicKENDKX, Stanley ^Majoi 



Wji.iocks. a. J. 



Brevet Colonel, A. M.S. 

2nd Lieut. ... Eoyal Berks E^iment. Killed in 

action. 
Temp. Capt. ... K.A.M.C. Hon. Surg. Bed Cross 
Hospital, Aberdare. 

Capt K.A.M.C. M.O. Royal Engineers. 

Mentioned in despatches. 

Pte S.A.M.C. Killed in action, 1918. 

Temp. Capt. ... K.A.M.C. 3rd Cavalry Division. 

Killed in action, 1917. 
Surg. Sub-Lieut., R.N.V.R. 
Temp. Capt. ... K.A.M.C, Dental. 
Captain, Dental Surgeon, attached K.A.M.C. 
Temp. Lieut.-Col., K.A.M.C. Salonika and Egypt. 
Twice mentioned in despatches. 
O.B.E. C.M.G., 1919. 
Fleet Surg. ... K.N. H.M.S. Canopus. 
Ttmp. Capt. ... K.A.M.C. St. Patrick's Hospital, 

Malta. 
K.M.O. ... Swedish War Hoep. for Wounded 

Officers, 1916—19. I/c Dept. for 
Massage and Electro Therapy, 
Viscountess Ridley's Hospital for 
Officers. 
K.A.M.C. M.O. i/c Belgian 

' wounded soldiers, 1914. M.O. 
Various Hospitals, Ipswich. M.O. 
att. Somerset Yeomanry, li>s- 
wich, 1916. 
K.A.M.C. 

K.A.M.C. Attached R.A.F. 
R.A.M.C. M.O. 2nd Batt. Hamp- 
shire Kegt., 29th Divn., Darda- 
nelles, 1915. Served in evacua- 
tion at HeUes and Suvla Bay. 
Also served in Egypt and France 
5th Royal Fusiliers. 
2/4 Royal Berks. Regt. 
R.N. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. 2/3 West Riding 

Field Ambulance. 
Surgeon, R.N. 

Colonel, A. M.S. Chairman and Consulting 
Physician, Queen Mary Royal 
Naval Hospital, Southend. 
K.B.E., 1919. 
R.F.A., T. W^ounded, 1916. Trans- 
ferred to R.A.M.C. Dental, 1918. 
Hon. Physician, Bath War Hospital. 

Major R.A.M.C. Wessex F.A. 

Capt R.A.M.C. Att. Scottish Borderers. 

M.C., 1918. Died of wounds, 
1918. 
R.A.M.C. S.R. 48th Field Amb., 
B.E.F., 1914—15. 90th F.A., 
and 45th CCS. B.E.F. Bel- 
gium and France, 1915 — 18. 
Lt.-Col. ... I. M.S. Mentioned in despatches. 

1917. 



Capt. 



Lt.-Col. 
Temp. Capt. 
Capt 



2nd Lieut. 
Lieut. ... 
Temp. Surg. 
Capt 



Dental 
Brevet 



Lieut. 



198 



Roll of War Service. 



WlLKliS, J. H. 
Wjlkinsox, H. B. 



Wilkinson, 

WiLKS, J. 
WiLLAN, G. 



J. Cooper 
H. 
T. 



Saddler Sergt... Hon. Artillery Coy. 

Capt R.A.M.C. attached to 2nd G.B. 

The King's Begt. Overseas, 1910 
Served with North Western 
(Egyptian) Frontier Force. M.O- 
i/c Troops at Imbros, Salonika 
Aimy, 228 Bdc., Struma Front. 
M.O. i/c Troops, Army of Black 
Sea, 1916—19. 

Resident Anaesthetist, Horton War Hospital, Epsom. 



Temp. Lieut. . 
Act. Lt.-Col... 



WiLLAN, 
WiLLAN, 



R. 

Richard 



Williams, A. D. J. 



... Capt 

... StaflfSurg. 
B., Lt.-Col. 



Williams, A. E. ... Capt. 
Williams, C. Hammond, Capt., 



R.A.M.C. 



Williams, G. 

Williams, G. 
Williams, J. 
Williams, W. 
Williams, W. 

Williamson 



Dent. Surg. 



R.A.M.C. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. 2nd Home Comi- 
ties Field Amb., British Bx- 
Force, France and Belgium, 19] 4 
—15. O.C. 82nd Field Ambu- 
lance, Salonika Forces, 1915- - 
18. O.C, 302 Field Ambulance. 
England, 1918—19. Mentioned 
in desp. b}^ Gen. Milne, 191C. 
D.S.O., 1917. 

R.A.M.C Welsh Field AmbulanceL 

R.N. H.M.S. Phaeton. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. Twice ment. in 
despatches, 1917 and 1918. 

R.A.M.C, T.F. 
1/5 Border Rogt. Wounded, 1918. 
Bangor Red 



T. 
H. 
A. 
R. 
G. 



Counties 
■ Rifles. 



F.A. 



H. 
E. 
C... 



Wounded and 



Willis. G 
Wills, A. 

Wills, W. 

WiLSHERE, 

Wilson, A 



P. W. 



K. 
G. 
R. 



France. 



Hos- 



Wilson, 
Wilson, 



Wilson, 
Wilson, 



F. 
R. 



F. 



WlNCKWORTH, H. C. 

Winter, T. B. 
Withers, S. A. 



Military llo.spital, 
Cross Ilosioital. 

Temp. Lt.-Col. R.A.M.C. Home 

Army Dental Surgeon, late Artists 

Temp. Lieut. ... A.S.C B.E.F. 

Major R.A.M.C 

2nd Lieut. ... Essex Regiment, 
missing, 1917. 

Pioneer, Chemistry Section, R.E. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. British Red Cross 
pital, Netley. 

Surg. Commander, R.N.V.R. O.B.E., 1919. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C, Dental. Mesopotamia. 

Temp. Lieut. ... R.A.M.C. Ment. for war services. 
Wounded. 

R.N.V.R. H.M.S. Ursvla. 
.A.M.C Colchester Military 

Hospital, 1914. 10th Field Am- 
bulance, and M.O., 1st East 
Lanes. Regt., B.E.F., 1915. 7th 
Norfolk Regt., B.E.F., 37th 
Field Amb., 1915—16. 

Temp. Capt. ... R.A.M.C. 

Temp. Hon. Capt., R.A.M.C. Mentioned in desp., 
1918. Wounded, 1918. 

Major R.A.M.C. 

Lt.-Col. ... R.A.M.C. Mentioned for war ser- 



Surg. Sub-Lieut., 
Major R. 



Capt. 



vices. 
R.A.M.C, S.R. 22nd Indian 
General Hospital, M.E.F. 
2nd Lieut. 3rd Lance. 



Late 





Roll of War Service. 199 


Witts, C. J. 


Temp. Capt. . 


.. R.A.M.C. Mesopotamia. 


Wood, C. A. 


Capl 


.. I.M.S. 1/4 Gurkhas. M.C. and 
Bar, 1917. 


Wood, C. D. 


Army Dental 


Surgeon. 


Wood, F. T. H. ... 


Capt..... 


.. R.A.M.C, T.F. Home Counties 

Division. San. Sect. Mentioned 

in despatches, 1918. O.B.E. 1919. 


Wood, G. E. 


Temp. Dent. 


Surg., R.N.V.R. 


Wood. J. A. 


Temp. Capt. . 


.. R.A.M.C. 


Wood, W. R. 


Capt 


.. R.A.M.C, T.F. 


Woodroffe, B. C. ... 






Woodruff, K. M. ... 


Temp. Lieut. . 


.. I.M.S. M.O., I/c Detention Hos- 
pital, R.A.F. 


W00D"WAB,D. W. A. ... 


Cadet ... 


... R.A.F. 


Wormald, W. J. ... 


Temp. Capt. . 


.. R.A.M.C. 


Worster-Drought, C. 


Lieut 


.. R.A.M.C 


WORTHIXGTON, S. ... 


Temp, Surg. . 


.. R.N. H.M.S. Pembroke and 
Im flexible. 


WOTTOX, W. H. ... 


Temp. Capt. . 


.. R.A.M.C, Dental. 


We.\gu, E 


Temp. Lieut. . 


.. R.A.M.C 


Wrench, G. T. 


Capt 


.. R.A.M.C. 


Wright, C. S. E. ... 


Act Major ... 


R.A.M.C. Twice mentioned in des- 
patches, 1917. 


Wright, G. A. 


Lt.-CoL 


. R.A.M.C Mentioned for war ser- 
vices, 1917. 


WKIfillT, J. A. S. ... 


Capt 


.. R.A.F. French Red Cross, in 
France, 1914—15. R.N.A.S. 
(Flight Lieut., R.N.), 1916. 
R.A.F., 1918. A.F.C, 1918. 


Wright, L. D. 


Temp. Capt. . 


.. R.A.M.C. Mesopotamia. 


Wright, T. J. • ... 


Major ... 


. R.A.M.C. Twice ment in deep. 
Mesopotamia. D.S.O., 1917. 


VVyand, E. H. 






Wy./vtt, H. D. 


Capt 


.. R.A.M.C. 13th Yorkshire Regt. 
B.E.F. 


Wylie, a 


Temp. Capt. . 


.. R.A.M.C. 


W^YLIE, D. T. 


M,0 


.. 1st Military Hospital, Cowley, 
Oxon. 


Vereury. E. 0. 


Pte 


.. Artists' Rifles. 


Young, F 


Surg. Sub-Lieut., R.N. 


Young, J 


Temp. CoL .. 


. R.A.M.C, T.F. A.D.M.S. 


Young, J 


Temp. Major . 


.. R.A.M.C., T.F. East Lanes. Field 
Amb. Mentioned in despatches, 
1918. D.S.O., 1918. 


Young, J 


Temp. Capt. . 


. R.A.M.C Attached Durham L.I. 
Wounded, 1917. 


Young, J. F. 


Temp. Capt. . 


. R.A.M.C. 


Young, W. A. 


Temp. Capt. . 


. R.A.M.C. M.O., 3rd Surrey Regt. 



1914 — 15. Pathologist, No. 14 
Stationary Hosp., B.E.F., 1915 
—16. 0. i/c No. 16 Mobile 
Bacteriological Laboratory, Brit. 
Ex. Force, 1916—17. M.O. i/c 
18th Hussars, 1918. Pathologist, 
Royal Herbert Hospital Wool- 
wich, 1919—20. 



200 



Roll of War Service. 



ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF. 



Addinoton, J. A. 

Andrews, W. 

Baker, A. 
Baker, Tom 

Barritt, W. 
Baterip, T. A. 
Bishop, H. C. 
Bonest, J. 
Box, T. H. ... 

Bush, W. T. 

Chapman, E. W. 



Child, B. 
Clark, W. 
Cole, A. 

COOTE, J. 

CowiE, Wl. 



Farmer, A. .. 

FiNNEMORE, H. 



Franks, H. D. 
Furlong, D. W. 



Pte. 



Pte. 



R.A.M.C. 77th Casually Cleaiing 
Station. liase Depot Egyptian 
Expeditionary Force. 

Royal Engineers. 



Hospital, B.E.F. 
Royal Engineers, 



Pte 5th Veterinary 

Pte Special Corps, 

B.E.F. , France. 

Corp R.F.C. 

Pte 8th Devon Regiment. 

2nd Air Mechanic, R.F.C. 

Pte Royal Fusiliers. Wounded. 

Lance-Corp. ... Northumberland Fusiliers. Killed 

in. action, May 4th, 1917. 
Rifleman ... 6th City of London Rifles. 

StalY Sergt.-Major, R.A.S.C. (Canteen Service). 

B:i8ra, Euypt and Mesopotamia. 

Mentioned in dcspatche-:. 

Pte R.A.M.C. 

Pte 26th Labour Co., A.S.C. 

Pte 8th Royal Berks Begt. Died on 

Service, May 22nd, 1918. 

Sgt 24th Queens Regt. 

Pte 1st London R.F. Wounded 1916 

and 1918. 



Corp. 
Capt. 



Corp. ... 
Staff Capt. 



1st Army Headquarters. 

Greneral List. 2nd Lieut.. Inns 

of Court O.T.C., 1915—16. 

Chemical Adviser, Northern Com- 

maaid, 1916—17. Anti-Gas Dpt. 

R.A.M.C. CoUege, 1918—19. 
A.S.C. 
Adjutant 1st Royal Berks Regt.. 

later attached H. Q. Staff, 2n<j 

Division. Later attached H.Q. 

Staff 4th Army. O.B.E., 1919. 

M.C. 



George, A. J. 
Greenwood, F. W. . 


. Corp 
. Pte. 


Hanson, J. F. 


. Gunn 


Harris, H 

Harris, W. A. 


. Pte. 
. Pte. 



Hennessey, P. W. H. Corp 



Herbert, E. 
Herbert, H. 

ilOLTHAM, F. J. 



... 8th Royal Fusiliers. 

... Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry 

... 112 Heavy Battery, R.G.A. Men- 
tioned in despatches. 
... 24th Queen's Regt. 
... 6th London Regt. Killed in ac- 
tion at Loos, Sept., 1915. 
... Queen's Regt. Mentioned in des- 
patches. Killed in action. July 
31st, 1917. 
2nd Class Stoker, H.M.S. Pevibroke, Chatham. 

Pte Royal Engineers. Wounded. 

Pte London Rifle Brigade. 



Roll of War Service. 



201 



Jones, F. W. ... Pte Middlesex Regt. 

Kent, F. J. ... Rifleman ... 18th London Rifle Brigade. 

Laker, A. A. ... Lance-Corp. ... Military Foot Police. 

Lane, E. B. ... Lance-Corp. ... 29th Middlesex Regt. 

Lane, W. P. ... Pte 1st East Surrey Regt.^ attached 

No. 64 C.C.S!, B.E.F. 

Law, S. H. ... Pte Gth Somerset Light Infantry. 

Law, W. D. ... Sapper ... Royal Engineers. 

LOWDER, E. H. ... Pte R.A.M.C. 



Mankelow, H. 
Matthews, E . 
Moore, T. E. 
Morris, W. D. 

Mum, F. H. 

Nash, 0. A\. 
Neal, E. C. 

Noble, J. 

Ockmore, a. 



Pte. . . . 

Pte. ... 
Lance-Corp. 

Corp. ... 

Pte. ... 

Pte. ... 

Pte. ... 

Pte. ... 

Pte. ... 



1st CJrenadier Guaids. Wounded. 
24th Queens Regt. 
7th K.R.R. Wounded. 
R.A.M.C. 83rd Stationary Hosp., 

M.E.F. 
Machine Gun Corps. 

25th Training Reserve. 

Grenadier Guards. Wounded, 1916 

Prifioner in (xei'maiiy, 1918.' 
Labour Corps, B.E.F. 



London 
1917. 



Rifle Brigade. Wounded. 



POPHAM, Rev. A. E. Capt 



4th Class Chaplain, B.E.F. Men- 
tioned in despatches. M.C. 



Reeves, H. C. 
RUDMAN, G. F. 

Stanton, O. 
Start, S. 

Steele, V. 

Stockton, R. 
Strkvens, R. p. 
Stuckbury, H. 
Sutton, R. B. 



Thompson, A. W. 
Thoenton, H. J. 

TlLEY, S. 



Flight Sub. -Lieut., R.N.A.S. 

Sgt R.A.M.C. British Ea.st Africa. 

Pte K.R.R. 

Lance-Corp. ... M.G.C. M.1\L Wounded. J)ied 

of wounds. 1917. 
Lieut R.E. (Special Brigade), late 

Hampshire Regt. Wounded. 

Sgt R.A.M.C. 

Chief Yeoman of Signals. H.M.S. Dhedkilus. 

Corp A.V.C. 

Pte R.A.M.C. Pathological Assistant 

2nd London General Hospital. 

Pte A.S.O., M.T. B.E.F., France. 

Pte R.F.A. 

Gunner ... R.F.A., B.E.F. 



Unwin, H. 
Whitbread, J. H. 
Winston, J. H. E. 



Pte 29th Middlesex Regt. 

Sgt Anti-Aircraft Gun. R.F.A.. late 

29th Div. , GallipuJi. Wounded. 

Lieut. (Act. Capt.), 5th Yorkshire Regt. LondMJ 
University O.T.C., 1914—16. 
P.T. and B.F. Officer. 3rd Line 
Northmnbrinn Div., 1916. B.E.F. 
France, 1916—18. Pji^oner in 
Germany, 1918. Wounded, 1917. 



FART II. 



202 



Roll of War Service. 



Guy's Nurses and The European War. 
1914 to 1919. 



The following list of war services has been compiled from par- 
ticulars sent in by Members of the Guy's Hospital Past and 
Present Nurses' League. 



Queen's Alexandra's 

Allen, Gertrude M. 

Cheetham, Edith C. 
CORBISHLEY, Mary C. 

Davidson, Mary E 

Davis, Mabel 

Greg, B. Mary 

Haughtox, Louisa V. 

Morrison, Maud 

O'Neill, Mary E. ... 

Potter, Maxy L. 

EOOKE, Rosa M. 

Sheldon, Alice 
Suart. Hannah 



WiLLES, Amy 



Imperial Military Nursing Service. 

. France. 

. France. 

. France and England. 

. France. 

.. France and England. 

.. England and the Ehine. 

. England. 

. England and Egypt. 

. England. 

. Hospital Ship and Egypt. 

. England and France. 

. East Africa and Hospital Ship. 

. England and France. 

. France and England. 



Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service 

Reserve. 

Barton, Gladys M Egypt. 

Batley, Eva A Gibraltar and Malta. 

Baylor, Florence J. ... Malta. 

Beesley, Ada M France. 



Boll of War Service. 



203 



Bell, Maj^axet H. ... 
Beloe, Ethel F. ... 
Bennett, Mabel C... 
Blewitt, Clara 
BODEXHAM, Emily M. 
Boniface, Norah 
BOTT, Edith Elton... 
Bottomley, Charlotte M. 
BOUEDILLON, Mary ... 
Beeithaupt, Alice ... 
Briggs, Josephine ... 
Browne, Annie M. ... 

L'AiiPBELL, Mary W.... 
Cannell, Gertrude E. 
Carey, Margaret 
Carroll, Violet M.... 
Carter, Ethel M. ... 
Cherry, Ethel 
Clarke, Marie 
Clifton, Alice 
Collins, Ellen 
Colston, Mary A. E. 
Connolly, Norah . . . 
Corder, Grace 
Cornwell. Lucy 
Cox, Edith M. 
CmsFORD, Reenie ... 
Custance, Gertrude E. 



England and Hospital Ship. 

England and France. 

East Africa. 

Hospital Ship and England. 

England, France and Cologne. 

France. 

England, Hospital Ship and Malta. 

M^opotamia. 

France. 

Malta and Mesopotamia. 

Egypt. 

England and France. 

Belgium and France. 

England. 

England and Hospital Ship. 

France. 

France, Egypt, Salonica and England. 

France. 

England. 

England. 

Home Hospital, Mesopotamia and India. 

France. 

France. 

Malta and France. 

England. 

France and Italy. 

Salonika and England. 

France. 



Dale, Catherine 
Daniels, Ada M. ... 
Daniels, Bessie H.... 
Dart, Phyllis, M. ... 
Dixon, Margaret L.... 



France. 

France. 

France. 

East Africa and England. 

England and Salonika. 



Evans, Elizabeth G. 



Salonika. 



Farah, Aseely 
Fare, Ada W. 
FiGG, Edith 
FiNNis, Florence M. 
Ford, Florence E. ... 



India. 

France. 

England. 

Prance. 

Syria and England and Egypt^ 



204 



Boll of War Service. 



Fox. Louisa 
Fbaser, Maggie M.... 
Freeman, Kate R. ... 
French. Ettie M. ... 
Fuller, Gertrude A. 



Egypt. 

India. 

England. 

England and France. 

East Africa. 



Gerard, Caroline ... 
Grant, Ella A. 
Gray, Marion L. ... 
Gregg, B. Mary 

Harris, Kathleen B. 
Hepburn, Florence M. 
HiCKLiNG, May 

Hills, Jane 

HOBHOUSE, Mabel E. 
HOGAN, Bridget 
Howes, Janet H. ... 
HuDD, Mabel 
HuLBERT, Annie E.... 
HUTCHINS, Gertrude M. 

Jackson, MoUie 
Jeistkins, Lily M. ... 
Johnson, Mabel 
Johnson, Mildred ... 
JOLLEY, Lucy E. 
Jones, Jessie B. 
Jones, Marie A. 
Jones, Winifred M.... 
Jordan, Mina 

Keeble, Ida 



France. 

Hospital Ship and England. 

England. 

India. 

England and France. 

France. 

France. 

France. 

England. 

England. 

England. 

Salonika and Turkey. 

England. 

England. 

Hospital Ship, England and Turkey. 

France. 

France. 

France. 

France. 

France, Salonika and England. 

England. 

Salonika, Malta and Mesopotamia. 

England. Salonika and Constantinople. 

France. 



Layton, Honoria M. 
Lear, Edith M. 
Leggoe, Euth 
Lend, Minnie 

Levy, Polly 

LougHNAn, Marjorie... 
Lulham, Evelyn V. 
LusTio, Constance E. 
Lyons, Margaret J. L. 



France. 

France. 

Egypt. Persian Gulf and England. 

Egypt, 

France. 

England and Hospital Ship. 

Egypt, Mesopotamia and India. 

England. 

France. 



Itoll of War Service. 



205 



I 



Macfarlane, Violet K. 


.. Salonika. 




Macdonald, Flora ... 


.. Egypt. 




Mackenzie, Katherine 


.. France. 




Mallandaine, Lucy M. . 


. . France. 




Mann, Margaret C 


.. England and France. 


Mansfield, Margaret M. . 


.. England. 




Marshall, Annie H. 


.. England. 




Marshall, Helen 0. 


.. Salonika and Italy. 


Martyn, Gwendoline 


,. Ireland. 




Masters, Roea M 


.. France. 




May, Florence B 


.. France. 




McLaren, Margaret J. . 


.. France and 


England. 


MoMorland, Rose ... 


.. France and 


Salonika. 


Medley, Beatrice C. 


.. Egypt and 


India. 


Miller, EUin M 


.. France. 




Mitchell, Mary 


.. France. 




Morgan, Florence A. 


.. France and 


Belgium. 


MOREELL, Mary L 


.. France. 




MuDGE, Georgetta ... 


.. England. 




MULLAN, Margaret M. 


.. India and 


Mesopotamia. 


MUTFORD, Ada S 


.. France. 




Nawn, Josephine ... 


.. India and Egypt. 


Neale, Winifred 


.. France. 




Nixon, Cicely 


.. Italy and E 


ugland. 


Noethey, PoUie W 


,. England. . 




Opie, Dorothy A 


.. England. 




Orchaed, Emma C. P. . 


.. France. 




O'RoRKE, Elsa M 


.. Ireland. 




Paton, Gladys A 


.. England. 




Pearson, Cecilia 


.. Egypt. 




Phillips, Agnes M 


.. Fraface. 




Pilkington, Alice B. 


.. France. 




PiSANi, Phyllis I 


.. France. 




Plant, AUce 


.. Malta. 




Porter, Edith H 


.. England. 




Preston, Ellen E 


.. England. 




Priestley, Millicent C. . 


.. Hospital Ship and England 


Peobeet, Florence M. 


.. England. 




QuiLTEE, Elsie B 


.. France. 





206 



Boll of War Service. 



Rebs, Gladys M. ... 
Rbnnib, Ellen B. ... 
Rice, Mary G. 
RiSDON, Emma J. .« 
Robinson, Louisa A. 
ROGEESON, Kathleen M. 
ROUSSTANO, Angelica... 
Russell, Winifred ... 

Sawyer, Margaret D. 
Selby, Dorothy M. ... 
Shann, Claxa L. ... 
Sharwood, H. M. ... 
Shephebd. Marjory ... 
Sherrin, Mary 
Shorter, Kathleen ... 

Slade, Dora 

Somerville, Lilian C. 
SouTHCOTT, Frances E. 
Southwell, Catherine 
Spouncer, Elsie M.... 
Strange, Constance E. 
Stedman, Eliza 
Taylor, Hannah 
Thaczray, Gladys M. 
Tuenbull, Lilian ... 
TuENER, Emmeline ... 



Vivian, 



Wade, Florence ..* 
Wadlow, Jessie R.... 
Warner, Hilda J. ... 
Waterman, Agnes W. 
Waters, Gertrude F. 
Watkins, Ethel F. ... 
Webster, Mary A.... 
Weller, Elizabeth M. 
Williams, Beatrice M. 
Williams, Ethel 
Wood, Marion 
WooLLETT, Dorothy M, 
Wright, Lilian 



England. 

Salonika and Italy. 

Ireland. 

England. 

Finland. 

England. 

Salonika and Constantinople. 

East Africa. 

France and the Rhine. 

Italy. 

Egypt and France. 

France. 

Salonika. 

England. 

Egypt. 

England. 

Hospital Ship and England. 

The Rhine. 

France. 

France. 

France. 

England. 

England. 

England and Salonika. 

England and Egypt. 

England and Fiance. 

India. 

England. 

Egypt and Constantinople. 

Malta, Italy and England. 

England. 

France. 

France. 

Salonika and England. 

England and Hospital Ship. 

Salonika. 

France and Flanders. 

England. 

England and the Rhine. 

England, Egypt and Palestine. 



Roll of War Service. 



307 



Civil Hospital Reserve. 



Abraham, Maigaxet K. ... 


France. 


Adams, Ethel E 


France. 


Ames, Isabel 


Salonika and Italy. 


Baker, Edith 


Salonika and England. 


Banbury, Hilda M 


France. 


Barker, Constance E. 


France. 


Beardshaw, Mary F. 


France and England. 


Bishop, Katherine 


Hospital Ship and England 


BOWDLER. Emily F 


France. 


Brennand, Florence G. H. 


France. 


Become, Florence 


France. 


Browx, Mildred 


France. 


Bullock, Edith 


France. 


Cones, Violet R 


France. 


Cooke, Margaret 


France. 


COBNWELL, Lucy 


France. 


Davis, Florence L 


France. 


DODDS, Frances 


Mesopotamia and India. 


Druce, Constance E. 


France. 



Evans, Winifred 



France. 



Faulkner, Mabel I. 




. . France. 




Fennell, Winifred A. 




.. France. 




FiNLOW, Ada B. ... 




.. Russia, Malta and Turkey 


Frank, Georgina M. 




.. Malta. 




Fraser, Elsie G. ... 




.. France. 




Gibson, Sarah J. ... 




. . France. 




Gladstone, Ethel M. 


S. . 


.. France. 




Glbgg, Marcia E. ... 




.. France. 




GOODCHTLD, Marianne 


E. 


.. France. 




GowER, Delia W. ... 




.. France. 




Grego, B. Majy ... 




.. England. 




Grundy, Dora 




.. France and 


England. 


Hanmer, Maxy 




.. England. 




Hayne, Kathleen F. 




. . France. 





208 



Roll of War Service. 



Hayter, Alice A. ... 
HiLBS, Sarah N. B.... 
HiLLiARD, Miirgaret A. 
HOCKIN, Gladys M.... 



Mesopotamia and India. 

France. 

France. 

England and Mesopotamia. 



Johnson, S. Evelyn... 



France. 



Kiddle, Violet N. . 
King, Dorothy 

LiTHGOW, Agnes M.. 
Long, Ada V. 



France, Salonika and India. 
France and England. 

France. 
Salonika. 



Mackenzie, Katherine 
MacManus, Emily E. P. 
Maddison, Maud ... 
Mannell, Louisa Gr. 
Marshall, D orothy . . . 
Martin, Bertha 
McAra, Amelia M.... 
McKiNNEY, Margaret 
MoORE, Nona 
MORiARTY, Evelyn ... 



France. 

France. 

France. 

Salonika. 

Hospital Ship and France. 

France and Salonika. 

France. 

France. 

Salonika. 

France. 



Nelson. Martha I. 



France. 



Owen, Margaret R. 
Owens, Martha J. . 



France. 
France. 



Parsons, Margaret 
Paterson, Jentie 
Pearse, Cassandra 
Prince, Amelia E. 



France. 

France and Hospital Ship. 
Malta and England. 
France and England. 



Rae, Mary N. K 

Raven, Emily 

Richardson, Gladys I. M. 
Richardson, Kate L. 

Ripley, Margaret 

Robinson, Louisa A. 

RoussiANO, Marie 

ROYCE, Katharine L. 



Alexandria, Salonika and England. 

France. 

France. 

France. 

France. 

France. 

France. 

France. 



Roll of War Service. 



209 



Sadleir, Angela M. 
Savage, Maxgaxet D. 
Sawyer, Margaret D. 
Self, Mary E. 
Shackleton, Eleanor H. 
Shaewood, Hilda M. . 
SouTHCOTT, Frances E 
Spedding, Frances A. 
Squire, Edith E. ... 
Stone, E. Gladys ... 
Steutt, Vivienne M. 
Suetees, Sybil E. M. 
Symoxs, Mary Langham 

Todd, Winifred A. ... 
TwosE, Blanche A. ... 

Vine, Hilda M. 
Vine, Kathleen M. ... 

Wade, Frances H. ... 
Wolfe, Elsie M. ... 



France and Italy. 

France. 

France. 

France. 

France and Salonika. 

France. 

France. 

France. 

France. 

France. 

France. 

France. 

Mesopotamia and India. 

France. 

France. 

Hospital Ship and England. 
Hospital Ship and England. 

India and Mesopotamia. 
France. 



The Territorial Force Nursing Service. 

Aboher, Jessie A. E. 

Ballance, Elaine M. 
Brown, Mary A. 

Carey, Dorothea 
Coward, Amy I. ... 

Dickson, Martha McB . 

Gill, Eva E. 



Halfacre, Mabel F.... 
Harden, Gertrude F. 
HORTON, Emily 

Jefferson, Daisy ... 

LuLHAM, G-ertrude ... 

Macreath, Agnes G. 
Marsh, Margaret E. 
McKay, Christina A. 
Moles, Florence M. 



England. 

England. 
England. 

England. 

England and France. 

England. 

England. 

England. 
England. 
England and Salonika. 

England. 

England and France. 

England. 
England. 
England. 
England. 



210 



Roll of War Service. 



Newton, Enid M.... 
Peaeson, Winifred M. 

Ray, Emily 

Shepherd, Dorothea M. 
Slack, Florence 
Staines, Florence ... 

Taylor, Kate B. G.... 
Turner, Lucy 

Whittam, Elizabeth 
Wood, Edith 



England and Egypt. 
England. 

England and Italy. 

England and Malta. 
England and Salonika. 
England and Salonika. 

England. 

England and France. 

England and France. 
France. 



The Royal Air Force Nursing Service. 



Browne, Florence R. ... England. 

Campbell, Mary W. ... England. 

CORNWELL, Lucy England. 

Cruickshank, Margaret ... England. 

Dickson, Martau McB. McI. England. 

DOIG, Margaret S England. 

Fox, Emily M England. 

JOLLEY, Lucy E England. 

MOLESWORTH, Winifred ... England. 

New, Kate E England. 

Petrie, Adeline E England. 

Sautoy, Adeline du England. 

Scott, Eva England. 

Urquhart, G-eraldine L. M. England. 

Wellsted, Amy England. 

Yates, Ethelreda England. 



I 



Boll of War Service. 



211 



Queen Alexandra's Military Nursing Service for India. 



Cones, Violet R. ... 
CORFiELD, Eliza R.... 

Davidson, Lilian M. 

Evans, Winifred 
ExsHAW, Phoebe 

GOUCHEE, Alice 

Haet, Alice M. 

Iles, Helen L. 

Lowe, Alice R. 

Macfarlane, Violet 

NoRTHEY, PoUie W. 

EABBroGE, Mary D. ... 

Stebbing, Flora A.... 

TiPPETis, Melanie ... 

Veech, Annie G. 



Mesopotamia. 
Mesopotamia. 

India. 

India. 

France and Mesopotamia. 

India. 

India and Mesopotamia. 

India. 

India and Mesopotamia. 

India. 

India. 

India. 

India. 

India and Mesopotamia. 

India 



South African Military Nursing Service. 



Brown, Annie M. 


... 


Africa. 


Edwardes, Florence T. 


M. 


Africa. 


Feeshney, Frances H. 


... 


South Africa and Frajice. 


Ledlie, Eva 


... 


South West Africa. 


NOTT, Grace 




Africa. 


NuTT, Maxy A. M. .«• 




Africa. 


Ritchie, Ruby S. .., 


... 


East Africa. 



Nevi^ Zealand Military Nursing Service. 



Bates, Jessie M. ... 
Gilkes, Maxy R. ... 
MORLEY, Sarah E.... 
ROBBINS, Annie 
Shuker, Margaret E. 



New Zealand. 

France. 

Egypt and England, and New Zealand. 

New Zealand and France and Hospital Ship 

New Zealand and Franc©. 



212 



Roll of War Service. 



American Military Nursing Service. 

Collins, Jessie H France. 



Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service and 



Fbeshney, Mildred D 

Mebhan, Eleanor A 
Messenger, Chrlstiiie 
MiDDLETON, Muriel A 

Noble, Maxy A. 

Shewell, Dora 0. .. 



Reserve. 

England. 

England and Eastern Waters. 

England. 

England. 

England. 

England and Gibraltar. 



British Red Cross Society. 

Matron-in-Chief, Trained Nurses' Department. 
Dame Sarah A. Swift, G.B.E. R.R.C. 



Allen, Laura 


.. England. 


Allcock, Annie 


.. England. 


Anson, Lucy P. ... 


.. England. 


Austin, Bessie M 


., England. 


Baker, Frances M 


.. England. 


Barber, Ethel M 


.. England. 


Barker, Mary 


.. England. 


Bartlett, Muriel E. 


.. France. 


Baylor, Florence ... 


.. England. 


Bbvington, Gladys ... 


.. England. 


Bishop, Elizabeth ... 


.. England. 


Blenkarn, Edith M. 


.. England. 


Blenkarn, Mauldi ... 


. . England. 


Blenkarn, Katharine 


.. England. 


BouviER, Marie 


.. England. 


Bowdlee, Emily ... 


.. France. 


Boys, Agnes F 


. . France. 


Brakspear, Dorothy M. . 


.. France and England 


Bbbreton. Florence... 


.. England. 



Roll of War Service. 



213 



Bridges, Annie 
Bbierley, Alice 
Britton, Clara 
Broome, Florence ... 
Brown, Frances E..„- 
Browx, Kathleen ... 
Browne, Florence R. 
Bryan, Noelle R. ... 
Burdett, Mary I. ... 
Burton, Fiances M. 
Byrne, Josephine 



England. 

England and France. 

England. 

France. 

France and England. 

England. 

England. 

England. 

England. 

England. 

Egypt. 



Cadell, Katherine J. 
Caldwell, Jessie L.... 
Canty, Constance ... 
Carpenter, Alice M. 
Carpenter, Margaret 
CmsHOLM, Alice 
Chtttocz, Mabel A. 
Clutton, Katie E. ... 
Cochrane, Marjory H. 
CocKiN, Edith J. ... 
COLECLOUGH, Annie M. 
Collie, Isabel 
Collins, Hilda M. ... 
Cook, Katharine 
Cook, Marion E. ... 
Coombs, Elizabeth J. 
CORFIELD, Eliza Eyman 
Cornforth, Emma ... 
Cronin, Anna M. ... 
CUTHBERT, Anna M. 

Dale, Catherine 
Davidson, Jessr E.... 
Da VIES, Kathleen 
Davis, Florence K. ... 
Dean, Amy E. 
Dbnney, Henrietta ... 
Densham, Constance 
Densham, Evelyn ... 
Denton, Louisa 



France and England. 
^ England. 

England. 

England. 

England. 

England. 

France. 

England. 

England. 
, England. 
. England. 
. England. 
. England. 
. Uganda. 
. England. 
. England. 

. England and Egypt. 
. England. 
. England. 
. England. 

. France. 
. England. 
. England. 

England. 
. England. 

England and France. 

England. 

France and England. 

England. 



214 



Roll of War Service. 



DiOKBNSON. Blizubeth 


... England. 


DiKGLE, Janet .w 


... England. 


Ddcon, Janet E. ... 


... England. 


DOTTRiDOE, Sophie C. 


... France and England. 


BlQLB, Maxy J. 


... England. 


Edwards, Jnnet 


... England. 


Fabnham, Dorothy ... 


... England. 


Farrar, Ada E. ... 


... Italy and Russia. 


Ferguson, Florence 


... England. 


Field, Grace 


... England. 


Fricker, Ada 


.. England. 


Fox, Emily M. 


. . Russia. 


Fox, Louisa 


.. England. * 


Fuller, Vera 


., England. 


Fuller, Ester A. ... 


.. Belgium and England 


GooDOHiLD, Marianne 


.. England. 


Good, Augusta 0. ... 


.. England. 


Goss, Edith M. ... 


.. England. 


Gossage, Kate 


.. England. 


Groom, Effie R. ... 


.. England. 


Gwilliam, Margaxet L. 


.. France. 



Hart-Synnott. Violet F. 



England. 



Ha WARD, Gwendoline M. . 


.. England. 


Hawkins, Mary 


... 


.. England. 


Healy, Mary ... 


... 


.. South Africa 


Hodgson, Lucy 


... 


. . England. 


HoLMAN, Blanche 


A. 


.. England. 


J0H>7S0N, Mildred 


... 


. . France. 


Jones, Jessie 




. . England. 


Joyner, Winifred 


M. 


.. England. 


Kelly, Mai C. 


... 


.. England. 


Kew, Edith 


... 


. . France. 


Lane, Ella M. 


... 


.. England. 


Layng, Alice 


..■i 


.. England. 


Leng, Minnie 


... 


.. France. 


Lucas, Cecilia A. 


... 


. . Canada. 



Boll of War Service. 



215 



Marler, Amy E. ... 


... England. 




Masters, Roea M. ... • 


... France. 




Mayes, Mary 


. . . England 


and Italy. 


McLaren, Margaret 


... France. 




McRae, Margaret ... 


. . . England 


and France. 


Middleton, Muriel A, 


... England. 




Mulqueen, Agnes M.. 


... France. 




MiLLiDGE Elizabeth... 


... England, 


Fr;ince and 


Moles worth, Wnifrcd 


... France. 




Morris, Lily 


.. England. 




Moore, Katie 


... Serbia. 




Morgan, Mabel T. ... 


.. England. 




MORRALL. Katt' L. ... 


. . England. 





Xurse, Elizabeth A. 



England. 



Patterson, Marion G. 


... France. 






Pettifer. Wilh(>min:i 


... England. 






Phillips, Alice M. ... 


. . . England 


and 


France. 


Plant, Frances M. ... 


... England. 






Power, Margaxet M. 


. . . England 


and 


Holland 


Priestley, Rosa A. 


... England. 






Prickett, Sarah A. 


... England. 






Pryke, Gertrude M. 


... England. 






Ray, Kate L. 


. . . Belgium 


and 


France. 


Randles, Ethel M. 


... France. 






Richardson, Alice M. 


... England. 






Rose, Constance L. ... 


... England 


and 


France. 


Sheldon, Francos A. 


... England. 




• 


Sleap, Beatrice 


... England. 






Simpson, Mabel L. ... 


... England. 






Smith, Violet 


... England. 






Southey, Edith M. ... 


... England. 






Stallman, Mary B.... 


... England. 






Stephens, Cecilia C. 


... Boulogne. 






Sullivan, Hilda M.... 


... England. 






Todd, Const mce E.... 


. . . France. 






Towler, Hilda 


... England. 






Turner, Emmrlinc M. 


... England. 






Turner, Helen B. ... 


... England. 







21G 



Boll of War Service. 



Ward, Augusta M. 
Weston, Kate B. . 
White, Gladys L. . 
WILK8, Esmeralda V. 
Wilson, Lizzie H. . 
Wilson, Olive M. . 
Wood, Lorna B. 

Yell, Minnie L. 



. . . India. 

.. England. 

,.. England and France. 

... England. 

... England. 

... England. 

... Egypt. 

... England. 



Foreign Red Cross Hospitals and Other Units. 

Dbnsham, Evelyn J. 

Fletcher, Mice M.... 
Fletchbb, Gladys H. 



Fiance. 

Belgium and France. 

France. 



Hill, Ina F. 


. France. 


IZAT,, Jessie 


.. Belgium. 


Jones, Gladys M. ... 


.. France. 


La VELA YE. Maxie B. de . 


.. Belgium and Fiance 


Lear, Edith M 


.. France. 


LuDERS, Valborg ..j 


.. Serbia. 


Lyndon, Charlotte .«. 


.. Italy. 


Moles-worth, Winifred 


.. France. 


Kees, Gladys A. R. : 


.. France. 


Ripley, Margaret .« 


.. France. 


Rowlands, Eunice ... 


.. France. 



Sautoy, Cathin du ... 
Spencer-Payne, Ivy S. 

Todd, Winifred A. ... 
TowLER, Hilda 
Tubes, Ellen F. 



France and Belgium. 
France. 

France. 
Poland. 
France. 



Van Weddingen, Madeleine Belgium. 
Whittincham, Sarah T. ... France. 



Bx)ll of War Service. 



217 



Auxiliary Hospitals. 



\ 



Appleton, Margaret 


.. England. 


Barker, Nellie 


.. Basrah. 


Barker, Amy H 


.. England. 


Beard, Ada M 


.. England. 


Blayney, Edith K. ... 


.. England. 


Brereton, Florence M. 


.. England. 


Britton, Clara 


.. England. 


Brooks, Freda 


.. England. 


Bryan, Marion 


.. England. 


BURNSIDE, Grace 


. . England. 


Chisholm, Alice 


.. England. 


CoLLiKS, Ellen 


.. Serbia. 


Cornell, Grace S 


.. England. 


Davidson, Amy E 


.. England. 


Da vies, Enid A 


.. Serbia. 


Dean, Constance 


. . England. 


Ekins, Alice M 


.. England. 


Ellis, Sarah 


.. England. 


Elphick, Mabel 


.. England. 


Faull, Mary E 


.. England. 


Ferdinand, Margaret 


.. England. 


Fenn, Alice P 


.. England. 


Finnemore, Kate E. 


.. England. 


Fletcher, Alice M. 


Belgium and France 


Fletcher, Gladys H. 


. France. 


Flude, Susanna J. H. 


. England. 


Ford, Eleanor E 


. England. 


Eraser, Maggie 


. England. 


Gallagher, Agnes ... 


. England. 


Gane, Grace 


. England. 


(iARNBTT, Mabel 


. England. 


(iuoDEUHAM, Edith M. a. . 


.. England. 


Gr.vham, Elizabeth ... 


. England. 


JlALi'ACEE, Mabel F. 


. Enghuid. 


Harding, Aguf^s 


. England. 



PAKT 11. 



218 



Roll of War Service. 



Harmeu, lleloua M. 


. England. 




HaRRADINE, Beatrice M. . 


. England. 




HaET-SyNNOTT. Violet F. . 


. England. 




Haynes, Edith 13 


. England. 




Haynes, May B 


. England. 




Hills, Jane 


. England. 




Hirst, Nellie M\. L. 


. England. 




Hooper, Alic'e M. ... 


. England. 




Hopkins, Evelyn ... 


. England. 




Hop::, Bertha A 


. England. 




Hope, Edith 


. England. 




HOPSON, Dorothy F. 


. England. 




Howis, Gladys J. M. 


. England, 




Humphrey, Ellen ... 


, England. 




HuRLBATT, Evelyn ... 


. "England. 




Hyland, Sarah A 


. England. 




Illingworth, Marion 


. Dinard. 




Jenkins, Gertrude ... 


. England. 




Johns, Josephine ... 


. England and Ireland. 


Johnstone Evelyn M. 


. England. 




Jones, Amy M 


.. Wales. 




Jones, Gladys M 


.. England. 




Jones, Mary E. 


.. England. 




Jones, Winifred 


.. England. 




Keeblb, Ida 


. . England. 




Kennedy, Annie 


.. England. 




Kew, Edith 


.. England. 




Killpack, Annie 


.. England. 




Krauth, Catherine ... 


.. England. 




Lane, Ella M. 


.. England. 




Langley, Marian ... 


.. England. 




Latham, Ethel M 


.. England. 




Lavelaye, Marie E. de 


. . Belgium 


and France 


Lawson, Ellen de V. 


.. England. 




Leach, Gertrude 


.. England. 




Lee, Florence M. ... 


.. Belgium. 




Leedham, Eunice ... 


.. England. 




Lewin, Jessie H. ... 


.. England. 





Lorraine, Ellen 
Lyndon, Charlotte 



England. 



Roll of War Service. 



219 



Malkin, Florence ... 


. England. 


Martin, Bertha 


. England. 


Maycock, iUice H. F. . 


. England. 


^Eeehax, Elennor A. 


. England. 


Messenger, Lily 


. England. 


MiDDLETON, A. Muriel 


. England. 


Miller, Annie M 


. England. 


MORRALL, Kate L. ... 


. England. 


Morrison, Bertha 


. England. 


Mullett, Alice M. ... 


. England. 


Mumford, Maria A, 


. England. 


MuTFORD, Ada S 


. England. 


Murray, Jean 


. England. 


Kaylor, Lily 


. England. 


Xeville-Cox, Wiaifred A.. 


. England. 


Nurse, Elizabeth A. 


. England. 


ODonnell, Emma 


. England. 


O'Eeilly, May M 


. England. 


Pace, Elizabeth S 


. England. 


Paterson, Jentie B. N. . 


. England. 


Patterson, Marion fr. 


. England. 


Peake, Christina 


. England. 


Pollard, Sevilla F 


. England. 


Press, Ellen 


. England. 


Pryke, Gertrude M. 


. England. 


Handles, Ethel 


, England. 


RiTCHTE, Ruby 


. England. 


Ross, Mairi E 


. England. 


RowE, Alison 


. England. 


Ryan, Florence E. M. 


England. 


Salter, Rose E 


. England. 


Sautoy, Adeline dii 


. England. 


Selby, Sarah A 


. England. 


Self, Mary E 


England. 


SiLVERWOOU. Sarah A. 


. England. 


Sinclair, Margaret J. 


England. 


Skeet, Gladys M 


England. 


Skinner. Elizabeth E. 


England. 



220 



Jxoll of War Service. 



Speller, Marguerite 
Spence, Jessie M. ... 
Stewart, Rcbocca ... 
Stone, Emilic A. ... 
Stone, Gladys 
Studdert, Emma M. 
Sutherland, Lilian E. 

Taylor, Kathleen ... 
Taylor, Olive M. ... 
Ttmbrell, Annie 
Todd, Constance 
TuBBS, Ellen F. ... 

Vallancy, Lney 
Vanes, Mary E. 
Vivian, Gladys M. ... 
* Vivian, Mabel 

Wallis, Gertrude V. 
Ward, Callierine F.... 
Ward, FJorenee M. 
Watson, Agnes E. 
Wetghill, Emma W. 
Whittingham, Theresa 
Widdowson, Annis ... 
WiNDEMER, Evelyn M . 
Windemer, Nellie ... 
WooDHEAD, Agnes S. 
Wright, Alice 
Yates, Ethelreda M. 
Yell, Minnie L. 



M. 



England. 

England. 

England. 

England. 

England. 

Ireland. 

England. 

England. 
England. 
England. 
England. 
England. 

England. 
England. 
England. 
England. 

England. 
England. 
England. 
England. 
England. 
.I^iiigland. 
England. 
England. 
England. 
England. 
England. 
England. 
Enerland. 



American Women's Hospitals. 

Birch, Irene M. ... ... London. 

EccLES, Lilian ... ... Paignton. 

Hughes, Margaret H. ... London. 

Illingworth, Marion ... London. 

Kilbride, Hester ... ... London. 

Kilbride, Kathleen ... ... London. 

Lloyd, Alice ... ... London. 

WiNDLEY, Dorothy M. ... London. 



Ttoll of War Service. 



221 



Miscellaneous War Work. 



Bell, Ellen M. 
Bower, FloTonoc C. Nott 
Breheton, Katherine B. 
BroAVK, Emily Seaman 
Burrows, Margnrot. . . 
Davies, Enid A. 
Ellts, Cntlierine I\r. 
CrORDON, Adeline 
Ha WES, Alice M. ... • 
Joseph, Flora C. 
Kayes, Elizabeth M. 
Kerr, Daisy E. 
Rees, Gladys 
Sadleig, Angela M. 
Todd, Winifred 
OxEORD, Mary N. ... 



Eltham Hostels Hospital. 

Munition Hovstels, Greojiock. 

Food Committee and Militajy Tribnnal. 

Munition Works. 

Munition Workers' Haspital. 

Munition Workers' Ha=!pital. 

Board of Agriculture. 

Recreation Rooms. 

Munition Works. 

Women's Patrol. 

Censor's Officer. 

Canteen. America. 

Gas Mask Works. 

Mimitions Depot. 

Women's Legion. 

Author of " Nursinp: in War Time." 



Masseuses. 



HANrooK, Charlotte IM. 
Hirst, Nellie. 
Hyde, Gertrude. 
Park, Alice M. 
Rawson, Emily M. 
Roberts, Marjorie. 



Rowan. Anita F. 
Spreckley, Mildred. 
Walford, Edith O. 
Waterma>% Bessie M. 
WORTHINGTON, Jane F. 
Yewdall. Louisa. 



I 



h 



I 



I 



» 



Paet III 



GUY S HOSPITAL DURING THE WAR. 



By 
E. P. POULTOK M.D., F.R.C.P. 



The history of Guy's Hospital during- the war was a slow 
adaptation to "a gradually diminishing number of students, resi- 
dents and staff. 

At the very beginning a certain number of men at the 
Hospital left to take up posts in the combatant and medical 
services, and one or two of these tmen fell in the retreat from 
Mons. By the time the school year liad begun in October, 
1914, still more members of the Junior Staff had left. Senior 
members of the Staff", who had taken up their duties as a la 
s^ite ofiioers of military hospitals, were naturally oblig-ed to 
attend to their hospital duties in uniform, and this added a new 
feature to Guy's, wdiich everyone soon became accustomed to 
seeing. 

Within the first week or two of the beginning of the- war^ 
the Governors had to decide whether they would follow the 
example cf all the other large teaching hospitals in putting: 
imiany of their beds at the disposal of the War Office for 
wounded soldiers. They felt, however, that the needs of the 
civilian population were too great to permit them to do this» 
and instead they * offered to erect huts in the Park and to 
provide the staff for the extra beds if the War Office wished. 
This offer was not utilised. There can be no doubt tlia;t the 
Governors acted rightly, because as events showed, it was 
months before all the accommodation that the War Office had 
at their disposal was utilised. They at once filled up their beds 

PART III. A 



2 Guys Hospital diwing fhe War. 

ill the teacliing hoispitals -with soldiers, Avliile their other hos- 
pitals remained emx>ty. The lack of civilian accommodation 
showed itself at once in the gxjneral congestion of the beds 
at Guy's. However, there can be no doubt that the feeling- 
provoked some criticism among Guy's men in general, who 
felt that their Hospital was not doing work directly connected, 
with the war. Consequently there was general satisfaction when 
through Sir Alfred Fripp it was arranged that Guy's should 
receive some wounded officers. Within 48 hours the Works 
Department had erected cubicles in Stephen Ward, and this 
became the Officers' Section in 1914. Each, full Surg^eon was 
put in charge of one division of the ward, and« Dr. Faweett 
and Dr. Beddard were called in when a Physician was re- 
quired. In. order to provido more beds for the corresponding 
medical firms, Miriam and John were h.anded over to them, 
and in January, 1915, these wards were used for teaching 
ward clerks, so that tlie old established Clinical Wards witli 
their traditions ceased to exist. However, the post of Clinical 
was continued for the time being\ IThe clinicals were given 
beds in the medical wards, and were attached to each of the 
four physicians. 

Just at this time there was* considerable discussion in the 
School as to whether students should be advised to finish their 
tojedical education and become qualified, or enter the Army 
immediately as combatants. Fortunately the first of tliese 
courses was adopted, and the length, of the war wdtli the need 
for more and more' doctors abundantly justified it. Stipulations 
were made that all men should enter the Officers Training 
Corps. This was at first under the command of Mr. Lay ton, 
but when he left Mr. Eyffel itook over th§ duties. Drilling 
used to take place in the park, much, to the delectation t)f 
patients and visitors to the Hospital. 

In January, 1915, a scheme was prepared by which the 
number of residents could be reduced from 21 to 14. There 
were to be two House Physicians, four House Surgeons, four 



Giu/s Hospital during the War. 3 

Out-patient Officers, and two Obstetric Residents, one Ophthal- 
mic House Surgeon, one Surgical Out-patient Officer to look 
after Patience and Samaritan and Surgical Out-patients. The 
night work in the Surgery was to be divided among all the 
officers except the Out-patient Officers. Owing to a variety of 
circumstances it was not necessary to make such a drastic 
reduction in posts for some time. 

In October, 1915, the tlu-ee Laboratories on the Medical Stair- 
case, built specially for research, were ready. It it needless; 
to say that in war time tliey were not used for this purpose. 
One of them became the Ward Clerks' Clinical Laboratory when 
Miss Grimdy's office had absorbed the old laboratory, and 
remains so at present. Another one was used as a sitting 
room by massage students, and is now the ClinicaJs* room. 
The third one was used as a work room for Physicians and 
Assistant Physicians. In the same month for the first time 
unqualified Assistant House Sm-g-eons were appointed: ^Ir. 
Bates and Mr. Hirsch. 

In December, 1915, Dr. Mutch was left sole Medical Regis- 
trar till the end of the war. 

In March, 1916, Medical Out-patients on Thursdays and 
Saturdays were suspended, and in April the Physicians agreed 
when necessary to be responsible for their own night work 
at the Hospital for five days a week, the two remaining Assis- 
tant Physicians being responsible for the week-ends alternately. 

At this time the difficulty of staffing the Hospital was becom- 
ing considerable. In a letter to the Marylebone Medical War 
Committee in January, 1916, it had been laid down that it was 
necessary to retain the services of 22 members of the Staff, 
all of whom were of military age. This number included phy- 
sicians, surgeons, specialists, pathologists and anaesthetists. Tliis 
seems a large niunber. However, it must be remembered 
that many of them were also acting as a la> suite officers at 
military hospitals, so that tliey had less time than usual for 
their Hospital work. Further, any considerable reduction would 



4 Guy's Hospital during the War. 

have serioiiisly impaired tlie clinical teaching-, Isinco every thi^e 
months men ^vere entering- the wards from the Anatomical and 
Physiological Departments with the intention of getting quali- 
fied in the shortest time iiossible. What made things particu- 
larly difficult was that members of the junior staff who did 
a igreat deal of the teaching and emergency work wem at 
times called up for service, and several modifications were made 
from time to time to meet ithis state of affairs. The difficulty 
was felt more on the surgical Ithan on the medical side since 
surgeons w^ere in much greater demand ithan i)hysicians at the 
War Office. It will be of interest to i^oord the actual arrange- 
ments made when Mr. Tanner, the Kesident Surgical Officer^ 
was called up about the beginning of 1917. Four Surgeons 
in Ichajge of special departments volunteered to sleep week 
by week at the Hospital and %o do the w^ork of Resident Sur- 
gical Officer — Mr. Mollison, Mr. Thompson, Mr. Chappie and 
Mr. Trethowan. Mr. Todd, Surgical Eegistrar, acted as deputy 
Resident Surgical Officer. At this time there was no Resident 
Medical Officer in Bright Ward, and ih.^ Hoiise Officers under- 
took these duties. 

In January, 1917, the number of iHouse Officers was reduced 
to 11, viz., two House Physicians, four House Surgeons, two 
Obstetric Resident Surgeons, two Out-patient Officers, and a 
fifth House Surgeon, who also acted as Resident Anaesthetist- 
At one -time there were no qualified Out-patient Officers at all. 
It was obviously impossible to carry on the Hospital with the 
reduced number of men — the Out-patient Department in par- 
ticular. Eight new unqualified posts were ttlierefore created — 
four Assistant Casualt}^ Officers ,and four Assistant House Phy- 
sicians. The Casualty Officers worked in the Front and Back 
(Surgery in the da}^ time. The night work was carried on 
by the residents, according- to a rota. [Each House Physician 
was now responsible to two Physicians, but each Physician 
had also an Assistant House Physician, who ^\Qllt round with 
him and personally looked after half the bed^, so that the 



Guy's Hospital during the War. 5 

Hoiiisa Pliyciciaii had actually no more beds liimself than 
formerly, although he of course supervised the Assistant House 
Phj^sicians. In addition, the Assistant House Phj-sicians car- 
ried out all the Out-patient Officer's nsual duties at Medical 
Out-patients. While filling these imquaUfied appointments, the 
men were, of course, working up for their finals. 

The plan adopted by the War Office was to allow a man on 
qualification a thi^e months' resident appointment, after which 
he was called up automatically to join the Army, or, occasion- 
ally, the Navy. 

It was soon found necessary to have some rather senior man 
on the surgical side i-esident in the Hospital to help the neces-. 
earily inexperienced House Officers in special cases. It was 
possible to arrange this with the authorities on the plea tliHiti 
it was essential to have some experienced resident surgeon to 
look after the wounded oncers in the Officers' Section. Mr. 
MaKton Avas given a commission in the Navy, and was secon- 
ded for this work. He was made Resident Modical Officer in 
the Office i-s' Section, and with his other work wa^ probably, 
by far the hardest worked man in the Hospital. In fact, it 
transpired later on that for about 18 months he had been 
unable to leave the Hospital even for a week-end. Although 
the Officers' Section took a good deal of his time, his cliief 
iwork was in the Obstetric and Gyneocological Departments. 
As Obstetric Registrar he had to teach and do Out-patients and 
icarry put the emergency surgery, and he also did aU Mr. 
Chappie's work when he joined tlie Army. He was also called 
upon to advise the House Officers in ease of difficultios in Brig-ht 
Ward, and he also acted as Warden of the College. 

The Children's Department was carried on three days a week 
by Dr. Cameron, who undertook to see all the childi-en whom! 
the Out-patient Officei-s had previously treated at " Baby Out- 
patients." As may be imagined, the department was filled 
to overflowing, and it \whs only jXHssible to get through the work 
owing to the kindness of a number of volunteers, among whom 



6 Guif-'^ Hoftpital during the War. 

the lato Colonel Eoberts, Dr. King- Brown, Mi^. Stewart Robert- 
son and Miss Ii'edell may be mentioned. 

When Dr. Hurst left, the Neurological Department was put 
under the care of Dr. Pitt, then of Dr. Crai^, and later on, 
when he left, of Dr. Fothergill. 

At the beginning of 1918 the arrangements for carrying on 
the (emergency surgery wore altered again. Mr. Todd was 
appointed Resident Surgical Officer to act every other week. 
Mr. Zamora undertook to do one ;week in four, and Mr. Marston 
was also called upon to take yet (another burden on his shoulders 
by doing Resident Surgical Officer one rvveek in four. However, 
in order to enable him to g-^et away for an occasional holiday, 
Mr. Victory, who was House Surgeon, 'was asked to act as his. 
deputy. When Mr. Victory had finished his appointment as 
House Surgeon he was appointed Resident Surgical Officer and 
also acted as a Registrar. 

Some relief was experienced at this time by the policy of 
the Colonial Governments, who allowed their men to remain at 
hospital for one year after qualification provided they were 
engaged in work of national importance. By such means the 
Hospital succeeded in retaining the services of Mr. Joffe towards 
the end of the war, and later on he acted as Surgical Regis- 
trar and also carried on Surgical Out-patients. Mr. Debenham 
also idid Surgical Out-patients one day a week for a long period, 
and he also acted as Medical Radiognapher when Dr. Lindsay 
Locke was called up. Help at Surgical Out-patients w-as also 
obtained from practitioners outside the Hospital. At one time 
Mr. Gardiner was called in for this. Mr. Zamora carried on 
Mr. Layton's work in the wards and at Throat Out-patients, 
and [when he left Mr. Beevor, 'ixom University College, did 
the Out-patient work for a time. 

The final "combing out'" of the Staff took place in May, 
1918, and a few^ more of its members left. After this, as far 
as Surgeons were concerned, the Hospital had reached the limits 



Guy's Hospital during the War. 7 

and any further depletion would have made it neoessarj?] 
seriously to curtail the activities of the Hospital. It would 
have been possible to curtail the personnel on the medical side 
further, but at this stage of Ithe war physicians were not much 
in a^equest, so that the Staff remained much the same from 
now till the Armistioe. 

The Hospital was much helj^ed during !the war by certain 
members of the Staff, who voluntarily remained at their work 
although tliey had reached tlie retiring age of 60. These mem- 
bers were Sir "William Hale-White, Sir Cooper Perry and Sir 
Arbuthnot Lane. The Hospital had to deploi^e the sad loss of 
^Ir. Dunn, who died in the middle of his work as Senior 
Surgeon to the Hospital. 

Within a week of the Armistioe a list had been prepared 
of men who were urgently required. Most of them were re- 
leased by the War Office with commendable promptitude, and 
early in the New Year the tension at Guy's had been to a 
great extent relieved. 

As has already been mentioned, early in tlie war advice was 
given to all men doing intermediate subjects to continue their 
work and become qualified as soon as possible. Later on, when 
Conscription came in, the War Office adopted the same plan. 
No one was to be called up who woidd witliin a short time 
be sitting for his intermediate examination. Consequently, the 
Medical School was by no means lempty, and its numbers were 
increased by wounded and disabled men, by boys from school 
who began their medical studies before being called up for 
servi9e, and by combatants who were bent back to finish their 
clinical work. 

Later on in the war a new form of service was started, viz., 
surgeon probationer in the Navy. Men who had passed their 
Intermediate were sent away for six months to act as Medical 
Officers on destroyers. This was counted as part of their 
medical training. While still doing anatomy and physiology, 



g Guy's Hospital during the War. 

the men were given short courses in minor ' surg-ery and 
ansesthetics and venereal diseases, and the Matron g-ave them 
8ome instruction in nursing. It was igenerally agreed that the 
men did extremely well in the Navy. 

In spite of taking this aj)pointment qualification was not 
delayed, because the examining bodies shortened the curriculum 
by allowing men to sit for their finals immediately after 
completing their compulsory appointments. The examinations 
were also easier. Not only were ithe questions asked directly 
concerned with the work that the candidates would have to do 
when they were in the Koyal Army Medical Corps, but there 
was a tendency for leniency to be exercised by the examiners, 
considering the special need of the Country for more doctors. 
Many men took the L.S.A. to ^t through more quickly, and 
this lexamination had a sudden outburst of po]3ularity. In 
fact, some candidates are at present in course of finishing their 
M.B. courses begun during- the war. 

Teachers in the earlier subjects were much diminished in 
numbers, but thej were helped by 'the appointment of student 
jdemonstrators and by the examining bodies dispensing- with 
icompulsory lectures for intermediate and advanced tsubjects. 
Mr. Evans had Mr. Reed to assist him in the Biological De- 
partment. Dr. Fison did his work without a demonstrator. 
Professor jLowry, who was much engaged in w^ork for the 
Ministry of Munitions, also carried on the Chemical Depart- 
ment with the help of one part-time demonstrator. Mr. Zamora 
was head of the Anatomical Department with Mr. Reed to help 
him. Dr. Pembrey was alone in the Physiological Department, 
and ^Iso acted as " Sub -Dean." Sir Cooper Perry became 
Honorary Dean when Mr. Bromley left. Dr. Laidlaw carried 
on the Pharmacology Department as well as his own. Con- 
siderable credit is due to the Medical School for succeeding ;in 
meeting all its expenses during the war, without help from 
other sources. 



Gmfs Hospital during the TFar. 9 

As far as tho Nursing Staff Avere concerned, there was no 
shortage of nnrses in the Hospital during the war. Short 
coui-ses of training were axraijged for V.A.D.s to enable them 
to do useful work in military hospitals. 

This account cannot be closed without mentioning the various 
Zeppelin and aeroplane raids. The Hospital was in a district, 
rather favoured by the enemy on these occasions, and many 
casualties were admitted. In the early days Guy's was sought 
by the neighbourhood as a convenient place of refuge. On 
one occasion the Out-patient Hall and the underground passage 
were crowded, and it was rumoured that a gramophone had 
been produced and dancing had taken place. Subsequently it 
was announced that the Hospital would be closed during raids 
so that its proper functions should mot be interfered with. 
When the famous daylight raid of aeroplanes took place a bomb 
was dropped in Newcomen Street, and £25 worth of glass was 
broken in the Chemical and Physiological Departments. 

Guy's Jloepital and Medical School could only have been kept 
up during the war as a going iconcern by its members remain- 
ing loyal, by their willingness to do extra work, and by the 
avoidance of slackness. Fortunately these qualities were shown 
by students and teachers and everyone telse connected with the 
Hospital. 



CHEMICAL RESEARCH AND MUNITION 
WORK AT GUY'S HOSPITAL MEDICAL 

SCHOOL. 



By 

T. MAKTIN LOWEY, C.B.E., Hon. M.A. (Cantab.), 

D.Sc. (Lond.), F.R.S., F.C.G.I. 
Professor of Pliysical Chemistry in the University of 
Cambridge . 
Late Professor of Chemistry at Guys Hospital Medical School. 



The story of munition work at Guy's during the war is so 
largely a personal one that it is difficult to describe it in any 
other form than as a personal record for which the indulgence 
of the readers of the Guy's Hospital Reports must be asked. 
The first contribution to national requirements of tlie Chemical 
Department at Guy's took the form of work on the produc- 
tion of anaesthetics under a scheme arranged by the Royal 
Society's War Committee to provide supplies which were 
urgently needed but which wei-e no longer available from com- 
mercial sources. This work was carried out mainly under the 
direction of Mr. Harold Rogerson, one of the demonstrators 
in the Chemical Department, and war service badges were 
issued by the Ministry of Munitions to him as well as to Mr. 
R. G. Early and to Mr. W. Haines, who also took part in this 
work. The two products manufactured in the laboratories at 
Guy's were chlorhydrin (an intermediate product in the pre- 
paration of jiovooaine) and beta-eucaine. The quantities handed 
over to the Royal Society War Committee were as followTs: — 

Glycol (for preparation of novocaine) ... 4j-lb. 

[3-Eucaine hydrochloride ... ... ... 6 Jib. 



12 Chemical RcsearcJi and Munition Work at 

Dr. R. AV. Merriman, demonstrator of chemistry, left tlie 
Department early in 1915 in order to assist in the management 
of a new plant for the manufacture of oleum or fuming sul- 
phuric acid, of which very lar^ quantities were required for 
the manufacture of explosives. Mr. Rog-erson, who then carried 
on the work of both demonstrators in addition to his work on 
the preparation of anaesthetics , also left in the summer of 1916, 
to take up a technical post connected with the use of indigo 
dyes, an important appointment although not connected directly 
with the manufacture of munitions of war. In the summer of 
1915 Mr. Victor Steele, my lecture assistant, left to join an 
Officers Training Corps. He was commissioned as a Lieutenant 
in the Special Battalion Royal Engineers, and rendered im- 
portant services in connection with Gas Warfare until he v^as 
recalled from France at my request by the Ministry of Muni- 
tions for technical work in one of the National Filling Factories. 

In September, 1915, when it had become evident that the 
programme of high explosive shells could not be filled by the 
use of j)icric acid and T.N.T. and must be supplemented by 
very large dilution Avith ammonium nitrate, I was called in to 
advise the Department of Explosives Supply in connection 
with the unexpected qualities which this salt had developed 
when manufactured and handled on a large scale. In order 
to secure the fullest possible knowdedge of this difficult material, 
arrangements were made with the anonymous donor of the 
Dental Research Scholarship whereby the joint holders, Mr. R. 
O. Early, B.Sc, and Mr. J. N. Vowler, were allowed to devote 
themselves to experimental work on ammonium nitrate. As a 
result of this work the technical laboratory at Guy's soon estab- 
lished itself as the recognised centre from which information 
might be derived as to the properties of this most important 
salt. 

The scheme for the use of ammonium nitrate as the back -bone 
of the British programme of high explosives was developed 
at the Research Department, Woolwich, where the earliest 
experiments were made on the dilution of T.IST.T. with am- 



I 



Guy's Hospital Medical School. IS 

monium nitrate. These mixtures, whicli were described under 
the general name of " Amatol," were of various compositions, 
but the most effective w^as one in which the limited supplies of 
T.N.T. were diluted wdth four times their weight of ammonium 
nitrate and converted into 80/20 amatol, thereby increasing 
the weight of explosive five-fold and at the same time giving 
a more powerful explosive than the undiluted T.N.T. Too 
much credit cannot be given to Lord Moulton, to whom my 
first reports -were presented, for having recognised at a very 
early stage the fact that this mixture must be the backbone 
of our programme in a pi-olonged Mar calling for the largest 
possible output of munitions. 

Shortly after the Ordnance Board had been reconstituted in 
an enlarged form as the Ordnance Committee, I was appointed 
as an Associate Member with special reference to the i^roduc- 
tion and use of amatol as a high explosive, an appointment 
■which I still retain. 80/20 amatol had the property of being 
extremely insensitive. It was, therefore, very difficult to 
detonate, and unless very great care and skill were employed 
a shell filled with amatol was liable to detonate partially, 
much of the explosive being scattered about unburnt after the 
detonation of the shell. For this reason, when 80/20 amatol 
first came into supply its efficienc}^, as judged b^' the weekly 
proof of filled shell at Shoeburyness, was distinctly below that 
of picric acid, and it was therefore necessary to continue to 
manufacture the latter on the larg^est scale that circumstances 
would permit. Gradually, however, as the result of incessant 
experiments on methods of manufacture and filling, for which 
every facility was provided by the responsible officers both 
of the Design and of the Supply De[)artments, the conditions 
required for successful detonation became clearl>' known, and 
steps were taken to ensure that these conditions were main- 
tained in supply. 

After having been called in, in February, 1916, to assist the 
Ordnance Committee in connection with the use of amatol in 
shells, I took part, at Lord Moulton's request, during tJie 



14 Chemical Research and Munition Work at 

spring and summer of that yeai', in two series of investigutions 
on the manufacture of ammonium nitrate explosives, one in 
connection with alternative methods of manufacturing 80/20 
amatol and the otlier in connection with a modification of the 
well-known blasting explosive "ammonal" in order to reduce 
if possible the quantity of aluminimn used in filling this ex- 
plosive ;into trencli mortar bombs as well as for R.E. land mines. 
In connection with tJiis extension of the work I secured tJie 
assistance of Dr. E. P. Perman, of University College, Cardiff, 
and was fortunate in being able to retain him in the Guy's 
laboratories until the close of the Avar and the winding-up of 
munition work at Guy's. 

The result of the experiments described in the above para- 
graph w^as tlie adoption of 80/20 amatol for trench warfare 
purposes as well ais for shell filling. On the establishment of a 
separate Trench Warfa*re Committee, therefore, I was appointed 
in April, 1917, as an Advisory Member of thie Committee with 
special reference to the use of amatol in trench warfare and 
in aerial bombs. 

My direct association with the shell-filling factories began in 
the spring of 1916. At that time tlie Chihvell factory had 
already reached a very advanced stage, and w^as producing 
a substantial output of filled shells. It had, however, become 
necessary to provide additional capacity in a series of new 
National Filling Factories, and at this juncture Lord Moulton, 
who was extremely anxious that the use of 80/20 amatol should 
not be prejudiced by incomplete knowledg^e of its properties, 
put me into touch witli Sir Eric Geddes, to whom I acted as 
technica'l adviser until he was transferred to France to re- 
organise the railway transport. From July, 1916, to September, 
1917, I acted as outside adviser not only to the Department 
of Explosives Supply and to the Ordnance and Trench Warfare 
Committees, but also to General Mihnan, the newdy-appointed 
Controller of Gun Ammunition Filling, on whom rested the 
mair responsibility for the efficiency of the ammunition sent 
out for service in the field. In order to obtain the maximum 



Guy's Hospital Medical School. 15 

efficiency of output by the scientific control of manufacture, 
General Milnian, at my request, secured from the authorities 
of the Medical School the use of certain of the laboratories 
in the chemical aiid physiological departments, and provided me 
T\-ith a staff of chemists to assist me in this work. These 
chemists were all sent to Guy's to acquire some knowledge of 
the technique of amatol before taking up appointments in the 
factories, and in this way something like 20 Amatol-chemists 
must have passed through tlie laboratories at Guy's during tlie 
period of the war. The facilities thus afforded by the School 
were full}^ appreciated by the authorities, and on terminating 
the agreement the following letter was sent to the Dean by 
the Controller of Gun Ammunition Filling. 

CCOPY.) 

2hrd, January, 1919. 
To the Dean of the Medical School, 

G,uy's Hospital, London, S.E. 
Dear Sir, 

In view of the winding np of the Experimental Work of this 
Department and the dispersal of, the Experimental Stafif, it is proposed 
to vacate after Easter ttlie Laboratories at Guy's which are now 
occupied on behalf of the Ministry of Munitions. I therefore beg" 
to give notice to terminate the present agreement on April 30th, 1919. 
lu doing so I wish, to express my appreciation of the services which 
you have rendered to this Department by allowing us to make use 
of the accommodation of thd School at a time when the provision of 
fresh laboratory accommodation has proved extremely difficult. I shall 
be glad if yoai will also convey to your colleagues my thanks for 
their concurrence in the aTrangements that have been made for carry- 
ing on our work in the School. — Yours faithfully, 

L. C. P. MILMAN, Brig. Gen., 

Controller! of Gtui Ammunition Filling. 

At the beginning of tliis period of advisory work under 
General Milman, Dr. A. F. Joseph, Professor of Chemistry 
in the Medical School at Colombo, joined me as a voluntary 
worker, and remained with me until after the termination of 
hostilities. The period was one of very active work, including 
the starting up of five big National Filling Factories and most 
of the pioneer work whereby the success of their output of 80/20 



16 Chemical 'Research and Munition Work at 

amatol was fully aud fiually established. During this period 
laboratories were erected ia the new Filling Factories, and 
chemists were appointed at my request in order that the know- 
ledge gained by experiment and research might be applied 
effectively in the day b}- day routine of the factories. 

In September, 1917, General Milman pressed me to undertake 
an executive post in his department, and appointed me as 
Director of Shell Filling, a post which I occupied until the 
conclusion of the war. This appointment involved the technical 
control of the mannfacture and liandling of some thousands 
of tons of expletive per week for use in shells, and it was not 
long before the filling- of naval mines, of trench warfare bombs^ 
and hand grenades was also transferred to ihe department^ 
which thus became resj)onsible for using practically the whole 
output of high explosives in the country. On transferring my 
principal office to tlie Ministry of Munitions, I arranged for 
Dr. Perman to act as Director of the Ministry of Munitions 
laboratories at Guy's. 

On the entry of America into the .war an urgent demand 
was received for information as to the metliods of shell filling 
whicli had proved so successful in England. At General 
Milman's request, accompanied by Major Armstrong-, I visited 
the United States in October, 1917, in order to communicate 
to the Officers of the Ordnance Department the methods of 
manufacture which had rendered British ammunition equal and 
in some respects even superior to that supplied to any of the 
other armies in the field. For this purpose I was able to re- 
commend to the United States Ordnance Department methods 
both of manufacture and of filling 80/20 amatol which had only 
recently been developed in Great Britain, but in which I had 
sufficient faith to make them the basis of the whole of the 
American shell-filling programme. My i-ecommendations on 
this subject were accepted immediately, and within a week ap- 
proval had been given to adox3t amatol as the standard Ameri- 
can explosive, and to erect a series of five very large filling- 
factories to handle this work, in addition to providing factories 



I 



Guy's Hospital Medical School. 17 

for the manufacture of the requisite ammonimn nitrate, one of 
which, erected at a cost of 14 million dollars, had already reached 
at the conclusion of the war an output of 200 tons per day. At 
tlie conclusion of this visit, after filling the first amatol shells 
produced in the States, and seeing- tliem fired at Sandy Hook, I 
brought back to England an American mission, composed of 
eight technical men under an Ordnance Officer, to study English 
methods, and from this time onwards a very complete liaison 
was maintained between the two services. It is of interest to 
note that whereas amatol in England was costing perhaps 8d. 
per lb., our French allies, who maintained to the end of the 
war their faith in picric acid or " melinite " as the best military 
explosive, were purchasing this material in America at a 
cost of something like a dollar per pound. The saving to the 
United States Government resulting from the adoption of amatol 
in place of the explosives recommended by the French experts 
must therefore have been very substantial. 

At a very late stage in the war a complete liaison was finally 
established between the English and French shell-filling depart- 
ments. Dming 1918 I had the pleasui-e of receiving two French 
missions to England, and of leading two English missions to 
the French shell-filling factories. As a result of these visits 
amatol w^as adopted in France as an alternative to picric 
acid, after trials which proved it to be completely satisfactory, 
although manufacture had not yet been imdertaken on a very 
large scale at the time when hostilities ceased. 

In connection with my technical work on shell-filling, I 
also paid a visit to Italy in the spring of 1918 as a member 
of Greneral Savile's mission. During this visit again a complete 
liaison was established with ihe technical officers of the Italian 
Ministry, and during the ooui'se of tlie year I was able to 
welcome two Italian missions to England, one to study tlie 
English methods of filling shells with high explosives and the 
other in connection with the manufacture and use of mustard 
gas. As a sequel to these visits I was appointed an Officer 
of the Italian Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus. 

PART III. B 



18 Chemical Research and Munition Work at 

A very important development during the last months of 
the war was the transfer to the shell-filling department of tlie 
very urgent work of supplying to the armies in the field shelb 
charged with mustard gas, a weapon which had become almost 
a decisive factor in the final stages of the struggle. The 
manufacture and handling of this material were attended with 
very grave danger, in addition to the imminent risk of serious 
illness arising from exposure to the vapour. In France, indeed, 
where the charging of shells with mustard gas had led to 
over a thousand casualties in one factory alone, this was re- 
garded as a military operation calling for qualities of endurance 
and coiu-age comparable with those required in service in tlie 
field. Profiting to some extent by French experience the con- 
ditions in England were perhaps less painful, although in tlie 
early stages of manufacture one worker was obliged to report 
sick for every nine rounds that were supplied to the Army. 
In connection with this new work I arranged a technical 
mission to France in June, 1918, Avhich had the effect of chang- 
ing completely the methods used here in charging this gas into 
shells, and revolutionised in the most favourable way the con- 
ditions prevaiKng in the English gas-charging factories. In 
the autumn of the same year I accompanied deneral Milman 
on a visit to all the factories in France which were engaged 
in this work, and heard from the Director of one of these fac- 
tories the choicest compHment I have ever received when he 
remarked at the conclusion of the visit " il y avait un de ces 
Anglais qui oonnait rudement ses affaires." Shortly after my 
return to England my work on mustard gas was recognised 
by an appointment as an Additional Member of the Chemical 
Warfare Conunittee. 

In connection with the educational work that was required 
in order to secure and maintain the highest possible quality 
in ammunition filled with amatol, a series of four conferences 
on amatol w^as held in the Medical School at Guy's in April 
and September, 1917 and 1918. These conferences were very 
largely attended, and indeed assumed an international charax3ter 



r 



Guy's Hospital Medical School. • 19 

owing to the presence at tliem of technical officers fix)m France, 
Italy and the United States. For the purpose of these con- 
ferences the Committee Boom of the Medical School was placed 
at my disposal, whilst the residents in the College very 
generously allowed me to entertain our guests at lunch in tlieir 
library. 

The laboratory at Guy's also became an active oentre of 
publication, a long series of technical reports on ammonium 
nitrate and on amatol being issued from Guy's and circulated 
in the British filling factories and technical departments, and 
also in the Colonies and among-st the Allies. In this way 
research work carried out at Guy's dming the war has secured 
a permanent place in the confidential literature dealing with 
the manufacture of 'munitions. Scientific results obtained in 
the course of these investigations will, it is hoped, be issued 
in due course in the form of communications to the scientific 
societies most directly concerned. 

In conclusion, I cannot omit to express my appreciation of 
the generosity of my colleagues, which allowed me to carry on 
so much work of national importance whilst still retaining* my 
lectureship at Guy's. In this matter I am specially indebted 
to Dr. J. H. Ryffel for undertaking the lectures in Chemistry 
during my absences in America and Italy, and to Mr. A. 
Greeves for his efficient control of the laboratory work when 
most of my time and attention had to be given to urgent 
matters connected directly with the war. 



OFFICERS' SECTIOiN. GUY'S HOSPITAL, 

November 2nd, 1914— December 31st, 1918. 



By 
J. FAWCETT. 



The Officers' Section in Stephen Waxd took shape as a sequence 
of the magnificent defence of our old '* Contemptibles " at die 
first battle of Ypres, whereby the Empii-e -was saved yet again 
at one of the most critical periods in the early stages of tlie 
Great War. 

The oni'ush of the Him had just been held, but at such a 
cost that our accommodation for wounded officer was sadly 
insufiicient. One Monday morning, 'November 2nd, 1914, Sir 
Alfred Fripp visited the Sux3erintendent to inform him of the 
state of affairs. The Treasurer and Sir Cooper Perry at once 
decided, as a matter of m'g-ency, that Stephen Ward should be 
converted into a ward for feick and wounded officers. This 
ward had been renovated recently and a " tile " india-rubber 
floor laid down, the gift of the Rubber Growers' Association. 
Between 11 a.m. on November 2nd, 1914, and 4 p.m. on the 
following day partitions were erected dividing the floor space 
into separate cubicles. The Worlds' Department, in addition, 
completed the necessary adjustments for jDi'op^r electric light- 
ing of the cubicles and for lavatory accommodation. Nurses 
were provided straightway, and the patients originally in the 
ward housed elsewhei'e. That very night two dozen petienta 
were admitted. 

It was a triimiph of willing hands, hard work, pnd .good plan- 
ning, and everyone, from the Superintendent downwards, who 



22 Officers' Section, Guy's Hospital. 

had given a hand oonld not but feel thoroughly satisfied with 
the result. The cost of conversion of the ward was £28 19s., 
of whidi £13 15s. was for labour^ and £15 4s. for material. 
The wooden partitions Avere those originally Uised in the wardi 
maids' dormitories before these inaids moved to Tabard House. 
The ward remained open in full working order from November 
2nd, 1914, to December 31st, 1918. 

The four divisions of the ward were allocated to the four 
surgeons to the hospital : Sir Arbuthnot Lane, Mr. L. A. 
Dunn, Sir Alfred Fripp, and Mr. F. J. Steward, and after 
Mr. Dunn's deatli Mr. H. P. Rowlands filled his place for a 
time, and later Mr. C. H. Fagge. 

Dr. J. Fawoett and Dr. A. P. Beddard acted as physicians, 
each to the half of the ward under their control in peace time. 

In addition, there were taany others who did sterling world 
there, including those of the Assistant Physicians and Assistant 
Surgeons who were kept at the hospital; also Mr. Mollison and 
Mr. Ormond, Dr. Shipway, Dr. Eyre, and Dr. Iredell, among 
others; Mr. Marston, who acted for a time as Medical Officer of 
the ward, and all the house officers who, in their turn, loyally 
did their best in carrying on the continuous work of the section. 

Sister Stephen, Miss Sheild, was placed in charge, and re- 
mained so throughout, and to her and to the Nursing Staff 
who worked so admirably under what were at times trying con- 
ditions the success of the ''section" was largely due. Miss 
Sheild was awarded the K.R.C. 

The facilities afforded by ihd resources of a general hospital 
led to many severe cases being sent to us ; 1,199 officers were 
admitted and treated, with 12 deaths only. The amount of 
work carried out was great and often arduous, and it was some 
compensation tx> have so many old Guy's men, when attacked 
by ill fortune in the way of sickness or wounds applying for 
admission. 

There being no hospital accommodation in London for Naval 
casualties, and the numbers of officers and men detained in the 



Officers' Section, Guy's Hospital. 23 

London area in connection with the Admiralty and the Air 
Defence of the Metropolis being- largely increased, the Naval 
Authorities were glad to avail themselves of the offer made 
to keep a certain number of beds always ready for emergencies. 

The Hospital bore the whole cost of maintenance of the ward. 

This short history of the ward may iittingly be ended by the 
following letter from the D.D.M.S. of the London District 
conveying the thanks of the G.O.C. in command to the Presi- 
dent of the Hospital when it had been decided to close the 
Officers' Section : — 

Headquarters, London District, 
Horse Guards Annexe, 

12, Carlton House Terrace, 
London, S.W.I. 
17th December, 1918. 

To the Chairman, Guy's Hospital. 

Dear Sir, 

It has been intimated that you are desirous of closing the Officers' 
Section, Guy's Hospital, on 31st December, 1918. 

The Officer i/c Queen Alexandra's Military Hospital has been in- 
istructed to evacuate the patients before that time (i.e. 30/12/18). 

On behalf of Major-General G. P. T. Feilding, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., 
General Officer Commanding, London District, I wish to ofifer my sincere 
thanks and appreciation for the excellent work that has been carried 
out there during the past four years, and I should be greatly obliged 
if you would be so good' as to convey to the Medical and Surgical 
Stai, and the Nursing and Subordinate Staff, our sincere thanks and 
admiration for their devoted and excellent work in connection with 
the treatment, comfort, and general welfare of the sick and wounded 
patients that have been accommodated during this long period. 

Yours very faithfully, 

(Signed) S. MACDONALD, 

Major-General, 
D.D.M.S., London District. 



H.M. QUEEN MARY'S ROYAL NAVAL 

HOSPITAL. SOUTHEND-ON-SEA, 

1914-1919. 



By 

SIR WILLIAM HALE-WHITE, K.B.E. 



Directly after the declaration of war on August 4tii, 1914, 
Mr. R. A. Corbet brought to the •notice of one or 'two peoplo 
the Palace Hotel, Southend-on-Sea, as a suitable building for 
a hospital. Fleet-Surgeon Mundy inspected it on August 8tli 
and expressed the opinion that it Avas suitable for a naval war 
hospital. Twelve people were got together to form a Com- 
mittee, and Her Majesty the Queen consented to become Presi- 
dent of the Hosj)ital. The Committee met for the first time on 
August 10th, 1914. Dr. "W. Hale-White was elected Chairman, 
and occupied this position until the closure of the Hospital five 
years later. Mr. R .A. Corbet was elected secretary, a post 
he held until January 2nd, 1915, after which date he was liot 
•associated with the Hospital, Mr. E. R. P. Homfray being 
secretary from January, 1915, until the end of 1919. The 
Committee at once proceeded to collect subsciriptions, and 
raised £34,822. The total cost for administration and mainte- 
nance of the Hospital was £111,000, of which the War Office 
and Admiralty provided £82,544, and thei-e were other receipts 
from interest and sale of equipment, bringing up the total 
i-eceipts to £119,000. Messrs. Tolhurat, the owners, lent the 
building rent free, but the Committee paid all rates, taxes and 
insurance, and at the end of tlieir tenancy in July, 1919, paid; 
Messrs. Tolhurst £6,000 for reparation. 



2G TI.M. Queen Manfs lioyal Naval Hospital, Southend. 

Tho Coimiiitteo after tlieir first meeting' Tbegan the prepara- 
tion of the Hospital, and on October 16th, 1914, received 1G7 
wounded Belgian soldiers. As in the early part of the Avar 
the Hospital was not required for Bailors, soldiers were received 
and on October 30th, 1914, 101 British wounded soldiers were 
admitted. The Hospital then contained 270 beds. Oa April 
10th, 1915, the beds were increased to 300, and in December, 
1916, to 350, at which number it remained until the last 
patients left in May, 1919. For the first two years soldiers.' 
were received; after then only sailors. The Hospital was al- 
most always full, and the total (number of patients treated was 
close upon 10,000. The number of operations performed was 
2,500, and the deaths were 55. 

In the first week of October, 1914, Miss Kate Finnemore, 
jformerly of Guy's, was appointed Matron, a post which, she 
held until July, 1919. Nearly all the sisters and nurses also 
came from Guy's. On October 12th, 1914, R. A. Chisolm, of 
Guy's, Avas appointed Eesident Medical Officer, and on May 
8th, 1915, Evelyn Scott was appointed junior Resident Medical 
Officer. He became senior when Chisolm left in October, 1915, 
and Roland Sells became junior to Evelyn Scott. These two re- 
mained in office till the last patients left in May, 1919. All 
these three were Guy's men. 

The following members of the Guy's Staff acted as Honorary 
Consultants, and paid hundi-eds of visits to the Hospital: — - 
E. C. Hughes, H. L. Eason, A. W. Ormond, C. E. Iredell, 
J. W. Eyre, W. Hale -White. The following old Guy's men 
also at one time or another acted as Consultants: — R. Jocelyn 
Swan, R. A. Greeves, H. Tod Reeve, C. M. Ryley, R. W. P. 
Jackson. Dr. A. F. Hurst jgenerously lent /the X-ray apparatus, 
and Mr. Schofield, who was trained at Guy's, was the Resident 
Masseuse. The Guy's Hospital Minstrels came down at Christ- 
mas to give entertainments. The following doctors resident in 
Southend acted as visiting physicians atnd surgeons: — S. Bridger, 
H. Cleveland Smith, C. Forsyth, A. G. Hiiiks, V. J. Hodgson, 
Maxwell W. H. Morgan, J. C. SmelHe. 



i 



SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE SICK 

AND WOUNDED FKOM THE GALLIPOLI 

CAMPAIGN. 

By 
CHARTERS J. SYMONDS, K.B.E., C.B., 

Late Consulting- Surgeon to the Mediterranean Expeditionary 

Foroe. 



Ix responding to the request of the Editors of these Reports 
for some account of the sick and wounded fix)ra the campaign 
in Grallipoli, it is only possible for me to give a general review. 
This I admit is not the type of communication suitable for a 
volume which should contain matter for reference only. Though 
figures cannot be given, nor any account of the many investi- 
gations that went on, the sketch may be of interest as giving 
a general impression of the conditions prevailing* in Malta. 
I arrived early in July, 1915. The weather was hot, the 
hospitals filled with sick and wounded. Colonel Bal lance — 
now Sir Charles — had gone out in May, and had borne the 
brunt of the rush from the early battles. The g-lare and heat 
were very trying, and the hotel noisy. It became a question 
of shutting the windows to get some sleep, or being conistantly 
disturbed by gossiping people, goats, children, and a horse 
stabled on the other side of the very narrow street at the side 
of the hotel on to which my window opened. Colonel Ballance 
had succeeded by an appeal to the Bishop in stopping the 
bell-ringing in the early hours, a concession denied to Napoleon. 
The church bells began about 3 a.m., and in Valletta, crowded 
as it is with churches, sleep to those unaccustomed to this 



28 Soitie Observations on the Sick and Wounded 

form of "slumber song," LeLaine impossible. The hospitals were 
not so very far apart in a direct line, but as the roads ran by 
the sea many miles were added owing to the irregularity of 
the coast line. As the transport was unable to supply me with 
a car at once, I had to get to and fro by steam launch and 
carozzi. This added enormously to the fatigue and exposure 
to the sun, and on one occasion caused an attack of momentary 
giddiness Avhile walking in the open by a sun-beaten wall. 
One dodged into every bit of shade. A car removed all these 
troubles, and enabled one to get through double the amount 
of necessary work. 

When in August the Suvla Bay attack began, the w^ounded 
arrived in large numbers. Ab they gathered under the few 
trees in the sun-baked Floriana barrack yaixi, eag-er were the 
questions asked as to how far we had got. Hopes rose and fell. 
Acha baba was ours one day, on another we had made no 
progress. Stories of awful hardship, of long periods without 
water, of the plague of flies, piled up the miseries of this mis- 
taken campaign. 

Among the wounded were many Australians, and one got to 
appreciate their sturdy manhood, hopeful outlook, and readiness 
to return to the line. It was well to see these fine fellows "re- 
joicing in their strength," swinging along the front at Slima 
with the glorious vitality of youth and splendid physique. 
Officers and men were alike in the determination to g-^et back 
to the front. " I must be there with the boys " was the refrain 
of these men. If these Australians were wanting in discipline 
when quartered in Egypt, it must be i-emembei'ed that the 
read}'^ access to Cairo exposed men unaccustomed to the life 
of a city to great temptation. And of all places in the whole 
world it would be difficult to find more depraved surroundings. 
Months of inactivity made them restless, and the troops were 
allowed to frequent districts in the city which ought to have 
been out of bounds. Appeals from those working for the moral 
Avelfare of the men were too often disregarded. Once in the 
battle line with an outlet for their energy, they proved them- 



From the GallipoU Campaign. 29 

selves in many a field splendid men, brave soldiers and good 
comrades. Impetuous and carried away with tlie lust of fig-ht- 
ing, they at times, as in the first landing, broke away from 
command. Still, it has been said by some observers, who saw 
the effect of tlieir onslaught, tliat could the attack have been 
backed up by the support of anotlier division, Gallipoli would 
have been won. 

The contingent operating in the peninsular was composed of 
the pick of the manhood of Australia — ^all volunteers. In the 
ranks men of education and wealth were mingled with all sorts. 
A solicitor from Sydney, who came in with a wound of the 
thorax, related the following incident. On patrol at night, he 
lost his bearings amidst the gullies, and stumbled upon the 
enemy trenches. Escaping, he found a friendly outpost, com- 
posed of tlie son of a leading barrister, a theological student,, 
the son of a physician, and the last an expert burglar, also 
from Sydney. Association raised this last man's outlook, and 
coming later on to my patient, tlie solicitor, asked to be taught 
to read. He had, he said, been broug-ht up to steal, and to- 
look upon anything he could take from otliers as fair game. 
But here he had seen men shai*e everything, not only helping 
but dying for one another and bear witliout murmur unheard 
of sufferings, and he had determined to strive to emulate tlieir 
example. Let us forget in tlieii' splendid sacrifice the few 
and at times pardonable lapses of some of the unruly spirits. 

The Maoris were fine, broad shouldered men, and bore the 
X>ain of their wounds with great fortitude. The Indian 6oldiei*s^ 
especially the Gourkas, many of whom were badly wounded, 
proved excellent patients. One's inability to tallv to them made 
association difficult, for the native interpreter failed to convey 
any sympathy. Unfortunately, many of these Indian soldiers 
had been wounded by the fire from our ships. They had taken 
the summit of tlie liill so quickly tliat tliey were mistaken for 
the enemy, and our guns continued to fire. It was a very sad 
pair of their English officers, both slightly wounded, who ac- 
companied a particular batcli of tliese Indians, for the losses 



30 Some Ohseri'at'Kxm on the Sick and Wounded 

had been terrible in botli offioers and men. The devotion of 
these offioers to their men touched one deeply; they accom- 
panied them to- a liospital most inconveniently eitimted, declin- 
ing* other much more pleasant quarters. 

The sick and wounded from Gallipoli were carried to Alex- 
andria and Malta, the fastest hospital ship completing the 
journey to Malta in 36 hours, others in 48, usually the men 
had been wounded four to seven days before arrival. The 
urg'ent operations were conducted on the voyage, \X\e majority 
of cases, however, requiring operative treatment on arrival. 
The accommodation was provided first in tlie one Military 
Hospital at Cottenara, which was expanded to receive treble 
its usual complement. The barracks, housing in peace time a 
garrison of five thousand, were next requisitioned, as all troops 
had been sent to the war areas. The small rooms, holding about 
10 patients each, were inconvenient for nursing, and rendered 
supervision difficult. They were well situated on high ground, 
and proved most valuable for the sick and for prolonged 
septic cases. St. George's, St. Andrew's and Tigne were close 
to the sea, while Imtarfa was inland on high ground close to 
the old city, and seven miles from Valletta. Floriana, just out- 
side Valletta, though less well situated was airy and convenient. 
The old hospital of the Knights of Malta was in constant use 
from the first. This medieval building is close to the harbour, 
the main ward is 130 feet long, 30 feet wide, and of the same 
height. The windows are small and do not reach to within 
10 feet of the floor, and are on one side of the building only. 
Thus efficient ventilation is impossible, owing to the dead air 
below the windows and the absence of cross ventilation. As 
soon as possible severely wounded cases were removed from 
this unsuitable building. 

Further accommodation w-as provided in huts, tents, modern 
school buildings, and colleges. One Auberge made a satisfac- 
tory hospital, and later the isolation hospital on Manoel Island 
w^as handed over. Officers were accommodated in tlie roomy 
buildings of the officers' quarters attached to the barracks, also 



From the GalUpoli Campaign. 31 

in a technical school building- and in the Hospital of the 
Blue Sisters. Altog-etlier some 20,000 beds were provided. 
The organisation of this gi-eat undertaking \va8 due to the 
foresight and energy of the Governor, Field Marshal Lord 
Alethuen, assisted by Colonel Sleeman, of the 1st London Field 
Ambulance, as Principal Medical Officer. To these two men 
belongs the credit of an organisation that met every demand. 
When the beds were full on one occasion a cable arrived asking 
if a shipload of wounded could be received. The Governor 
replied in the affirmative, for, as he told me, better lay these 
men on the floor than leave them in a ship. Never did he 
refuse a call. Several officers of the Field Ambulance wei-e 
appointed as Officers Commanding Hospitals, and thoroughly well 
they ruled. Most conspicuous was the hospital at Imtarfa, of 
1,000, for enteric, dysentery, and all infectious diseases. 
Major Andrew Elliot made this a model hospital, and so well 
•were the arrangements for the disinfection of dysenteric and 
typhoid stools laid down and carried out tliat during* his 
time no member of the nursing staff became infected. The 
accommodation was improved and extended on the arrival of 
Surgeon-General H. R. Whitehead (now Sir H. R.). 

There were special conditions which rendered the Gallipoli 
•campaign injurious to the health of the troops. Few men re- 
mained throughout the occupation. The majority lasted on an 
average four months. 

At Hellas there was a fair amount of spaoe. At Anzac, 
as one man said, if you stepped back from your trench you 
were over the cliff. Exercise, therefore, was almost impossible, 
not only from this cause but also from the shell fire. Next, 
the heat in July and August was intense, and the flies bewared 
description. These two causes operated chiefly in determining 
rapid septic changes in the wounds. Water was another difficulty. 
Every drop had to be breught from Lemnos, and often — as 
at Suvla Bay — when an advance \vas made the men were 
without water for two or even three days. The physique of 
the troops natui-ally deteriorated under these conditions, and 



32 Some Observations on the Sich and Wounded 

Ihey became more siLsceptible ta dysentery- and para -typhoid. 
These two maladies were always present, and^ as will be appre- 
ciated, added immensely to the evil effects of wounds. 

Some observations made by Colonel (now Sir) Purvos Stewart 
upon men in tlie trenches showed a large percentage to be 
suffering from rapidity of the heart and anaemia. Again this 
explains the more severe effects of wounds than in those fight- 
ing in France. Men have told me that at first tliey could carry 
a bucket of water up the cliff with ease, but later had ta rest 
more than onoe. And yet these were the men who took their 
turn with the rifle in the trenches. 

In consequence of these adverse conditions the death rate 
was high, and the nimiber of life-saving amputations required 
much larger than in other battle areas. A man suffering from 
dysentery with a smashed femur stood a poor chance. Efforts 
to save such limbs frequently failed on account of the exhaust- 
ing effects of this complication. I rennember such a combination 
in an Irish lad. The bloiod flowed from the rectum on the table, 
and it was a question of immediate^ amputation. As the fracture 
could be easily controlled w^e took the risk, and for a time 
this' was jujstified, but the recurrence of the dysentery, to- 
gether with infection of the knee, compelled us to amputate 
later. 

Gas gangrene was not frequently seen among these wounded^ 
but there occurred a fairly large number of cases presenting 
all the symptoms of poisoning from the bacillus coli. There 
was no obvious g^as in these wounds. The patient became cold, 
the hands blue, the pulse rapid and weak, while consciousness 
was retained up to the last. Terminal vomiting was common, 
just as one used to see in unrelieved strangulated hernia. 
Probably some of these men might have been saved had the 
routine excision of wounds been carried out as was later adopted 
in France. Infection was, however, widespread by the time 
Malta was reached, and the best period for carrying out this 
method had passed. Every stump without exception was covered 
with grey slough, those tliat had been sutured were full of pus. 



From the GalUpoli Campaign. 33 

We pointed out the evil of closing- amputation to the surgeons 
of the hospital ships, and advocated the simple circular or light 
gauze packing- when flaps were made. 

Compound fractures of the femur, of which there was a 
largo number, were treated by Hodgen's suspension splint. 
Coming from Guy's, where the first Hodgen was put up in this 
country, and having always employed the method and found 
it fiiatisfaotory, I ihad a large Jiumber constructed. 

In July, 1915, I remember going to the Ordnance Depart- 
ihent and asking for one hundi-ed Balkan supports to be made 
for these cases. It oould not be believed that more than five 
and twenty could be required. We, however, got all we wanted 
the moment the chief of the department understood the position. 
That was where the consultants facilitated the distribution and 
manufacture of apparatus. Colonel Clark of the Ordnance had 
400 men in constant employ making hospital furniture, splints, 
etc. One had only to explain the position and in the shortest 
time one had the splints. Ag-ain, where instruments were needed, 
one went to the stores, obtained and carried them in the car 
to the hospital 

. The Thomas splint was also used for thigh cases. I think 
we were fairly early (July, 1915), in establishing for the treat- 
ment of fractured thighs extension by weight on a Hodgen or 
Thomas's splint with slinging from a Balkan frame. The con- 
tinuous irrigation of saline was then in vogue. One of our 
most scientific and accurate surgeons, and, I am glad to say, 
a Guy's man, then Capt. Camps, now of Teddington, observed 
under this method that the wounds did not do so well as might 
be expected. He therefore adopted intermittent irrigation and 
was, I believe, one of the first to practise the method. Again, 
he found it advisable to change the re-agent, using perman- 
ganate chiefly. 

To Capt. Percy Camps we were indebted for many improve- 
ments in apparatus and methods. These were tlie outcome of 
close personal attention, and nothing of importance was left 
to others. At all times of the day the seriously wounded need 

PAilT III. c 



^4 Some OhHervallons on the Sick and Wounded 

attention, and the apparatus frequent adjusting. One lias only 
to maxk the difference in tlie comfoi't of the j)^tient and the 
rate of recovery, where this constant supervision is given with 
progressive outlook, and the perfunctory morning and evening 
visits, everything nearly being laft to the nurses. Camps intro- 
duced an efficient method of draining deep pockets and sinuses. 
A piece of silver wire was passed, through the tube which was 
now doubled on itself at its mid point, where an o])ening was 
cut. Irrigation could thus be carried to the deepest part AvithouC 
removing the tube. • 

Wounds of the knee-joint arriving profoundly infected did 
badly. One soon noticed that whenever a large opening existed 
in a joint allowing a free escape of secretion there was a fair 
prospect of recovery. When the olecranon was blown away the 
elbow did well; when the knee-joint was exposed from the loss 
of covering skin and capsule we could generally do something; 
even in the hip a large posterior wound through which the 
head of the femur oould be seen rotating was capable of re- 
covery. I have seen such a casie recover with some movement. 
We therefore impressed upon the ship surgeons to be content 
in all kneo cases with free lateral incisions placed well back. 
Wliere this was adopted early sepsis did not spread up the thigK 
during the voyage. I had the opportunity — long waited for — of 
excising an acutely septic knee-joint. Private H., a Welshman, 
was very ill, he had wasted, was in great pain, ran a hig-h tem- 
perature, and had suppuration of the knee-joint with oedema of 
the leg. He did not want to lose his leg, and, taking tlie risk, 
I excised, removing the minimum amount of femur. The limb 
was put up in a malleable iron and plaster of Paris splint, 
sufficient extension was applied to separate the surfaces, and he 
was slung in a Balkan. I had tlie satisfaction of seeing him 
go home with a good useful limb. Another excision, made 
after some weeks of suppuration, did so well that the patient — 
a big Australian — was taking weight on the foot in four months. 
Col. Ballanoe (now Sir Charles) went further and pegged the 
bones with steel pins. I have done a dozen such cases now, 
using steel pins, and with most gratifying success. 



From the GallipoU Campaign. 35 

Head cases were .numerous, for the steel helmet had not been 
introduoed into our army, though employed by the French, and 
they did badly except when the dura mater was intact. It was 
pitiable to watch these cases, some of them remaining sensible, 
and taking interest in things, while the hemisphere was slowly 
melting away, I came to the conclusion that it was better in 
tliese badly -infected cases to expose fully by the crucial method 
and dress as an open wound. 

A soldier takes his chance of a wound and of death from 
enemy fire, but to be maimed and suffer or to die from other 
causes seems a greater tragedy. Such was the effect of the awful 
blizzard that swept the peninsula and produced 4,000 casualties. 
Cold rain fell in torrents, swept down ravines which sheltered 
our men, and carried away everything', men and animals were 
drowned, food, equipment, transport, everything went. Then 
came a freezing drizzle, followed by snow. It was night, the 
enemy trenches Avere near, our men had in some units lost rifle 
and ammunition. It was impossible to ascertain how much' 
the enemy had suffered, and so Ave had to keep on the alert. 
Men stood out that night covered Avitli snow, and it was this 
alone that saved them from the fire of the enemy — they were 
invisible. Men froze to death during that terrible night, and 
hundreds lost their feet from frostbite. Where the flood had 
not descended and the cold alone had to be encountered, the 
evil effects could be mitigated. The officers and men of Lovat's 
Scouts sent coffee to th(»e in advance, and the gillies, accus- 
tomed to the cold of the Highlands, took off 'their boots and 
rubbed their feet. I saAv no cases from this regiment. I asked 
a young captain how he got through the night, and he replied 
that he kept his men hard at work digging trenches he did not 
Avant. NoAv comes the i-esult of this disaster into Malta, and 
Avords fail utterly to describe the sufferings of these poor 
felloAvs, or to give any adequate idea of the destruction of life 
and limb. Many died soon after arrival from general septi- 
caemia; immediate amputation through the thigh was neces- 
sary when the gangrene or the tense bluish red area had 



36 Some Observation'^ on the Sick and Wounded 

reached the upper third of the leg. In the hope that free 
ineisioiiiS into this teiLse area miglit check destruction, mc adopted 
this method in the case of a man, both of whose feet were black, 
and so high had the redness and swelling* extended that i-emoval 
tlirough the thigh Avould alone carrj^ one above the area. We 
took the risk. Captain Camps amputated through one thigh, 
and at my suggestion made vertical incisions into the other leg 
in the hope that a below-knee amj^utation Avould suffice later. 
The plan succeeded. This man had septicaemia at the time', 
and W'O did not like to take the risk of leaving both limbs. 
The result, however, raises the question whether it would not 
be a sound plan to make an early guillotine amputation, as 
low down as possible, in severe frostbite, or to relieve tension 
by early incisions. I cannot give the number of amputations 
for frostbite. Some idea may be obtained when I say that 
one morning in a single lios]3ital I saw six cases inquiring 
double amputation. I operated on one leg, demonstrating the 
method carefully, assisted the surgeon with the other, and left 
him to deal with the remaining cases. In one ward in another 
hospital there was only one sound foot among-st eight men. 
The problem how ' best to deal with cases of partial ganigrejue 
of the foot has given as much trouble in those arising from 
so-called "trench foot" in France as it did with our cases directly 
due to exposure to intense cold. The trench foot is, so far as 
I can judge, due to a slower but similar precess with a like 
result if sufficiently i^rolonged. The loss has been generally 
limited to the toes, though tlie circulatory effects have reached 
higher. I have not seen a whole foot become gangrenous in 
any of the French cases. 

The desire to save part of a foot lias led to prolonged 
invalidism and much suffering, and in a fair number ampu-^ 
tation has had to be performed after a year's treatment. It 
is not alone the loss of the part of the foot, but the conditiion 
of the skin and muscles, which liave only just escaped destruc- 
tion, that causes the disability. The skin is thin, dry and shin},, 
and ver}' tender; the muscles of the sole of the foot are hard 



F)t)m the GallipoU Campaign. 37 

from fibrous myositis, the scar is constantly bi^aking down. 
One lias seen a good many such cases after months of treatment 
still cri^Dpled. Amputation at this stage gave the only chance 
of a useful limb. Better had the foot been removed early. 
I meaji that where in addition to the obvious gang-rene of 
part of the foot there is evidence of permanent injury to the 
vessels, nerves and other tissues, early amputation is the 
soundest practice . 

The only surgical complication arising from dysentery was 
effusion into the joints. This would occur in men well enough 
to be about. The knee was mostly affected, and there were 
not many eases. The joint filled up quickly, was fairly tense, 
and only slightly painful. In one case I directed the fluid to 
be removed by aspiration, and if found opaque the joint was 
to be injected A^dth ether. The fluid, I afterwards learned, was 
clear, nevertheless the surgeon injected ether wdthout any evil 
result. The patient, indeed, felt little or no pain during the 
next few days, and recovered completely. Ether has proved 
valuable in mild septic synovitis, and can be injected without 
an anaesthetic . My usual plan after drawing off the fluid 
by a Record's syringe is to inject 10 c.c. and prevent the escape 
through the needle until the ether vapourising distends the 
joint, when the vapour is allowed to escape. Then another like 
quantity is injected, and retained. In a case of recurrent syno- 
vitis of septic origin due to secondary infection from a wound 
of the lung the fluid wais opaque, and the deposit contained pus 
cells. Considerable improvement followed the injection of ether, 
and some months after this officer was using his joint freely 
while on light duty. 

Paraty]3hoid of both varieties was fairly common, and gave 
rise to many consultations at Imtarfa as to whether a perfora- 
tion had or had not occurred. In some cases where thei-e had 
been sudden pain and distension even with collapse, we wei'e 
able to distinguish between ulcei-ation of the colon without 
extravasation and complete perforation with escape of contents. 
''Amongst 1,200 cases avo have had about 50 deaths and there 



iW So7ne Observations on the Sick and:* Wounded 

were nine cases of perforation with eight deaths. Paratyphoid 
B. accounted for five, B. Typhosus for three, and Para A. 
for the one that recovered. This gives a mortality of 4 per 
cent, with an average of less than 10 per cent, of perfora- 
tion occurring- in the whole series. Of the nine cases, two 
were admitted with perforation, three perforated the next day 
and one on the second day after admission. So that there is 
not much doubt but that a considerable number had perforated' 
before reaching- Malta. A journey that necessitated transport 
from the trendies to the field ambulance, from There to the 
clearing station, embarkation, a sea voyage of about four days 
with often a rough passage, and finally a motor drive of seven 
miles in the case of Imtarfa, must be conducive to a typhoid 
ulcer perforating." I quote the above from a j)aper contributed 
to the Medical Society in Malta by Captain Rose Clarke. 

The case that recovered was operated upon by myself, and 
a few particulars may be interesting. Albert W., 29, a stoker, 
went sick on December 4th, 1915, with headache and abdominal 
pain. Records begin on the 7th with a temperature of 103-4°, 
pulse 84. The temperature varied from 101-2° to 104-4° for 
the next nine days; pulse 80-86. On December 17th he had 
a rigor at 3 p.m., the temperature rising to 106° and pulse 
140. At 10 p.m. the temperature had fallen to 99° and pulse 
to 68. This was the fourteenth day of recorded illness and 
probably later in the disease. 

On the 18th, having had a comfortable morning, he was 
seized with abdominal pain at 12 noon and vomited twice; 
the temperature rose to 103°, pulse to 108, and there was 
sweating. At 2 p.m., temperature 102°, pulse 70, pain in 
spasms, ^o vomiting, comfortable generally. At 6 p.m., tem- 
perature 103°, pulse 104, pain more severe, spasmodic, abdo- 
men more rigid. At 8.30 abdomen opened in median line 
below umbilicus, and a large quantity of thin sticky greenish 
fluid poured out, the colour growing darker as the fluid came 
away from the deeper portion of the pelvis, and was finally an 
olive green. No gas and no odour. The presenting loop of 



From the GallipoU Campaign. - 39 

intestine showed lymph, and below this the great omentum 
was adherent to the bowel. On raising the omentum a perfora- 
tion about a quarter of an inch in diameter was exposed. It 
appeared to have been closed by the omental adhesion. The 
aperture was closed by a fine silk suture and the omentum 
attached to and folded round the bowel. A rubber drain was 
inserted into the pelvis. Twelve hours after operation, tem- 
perature 98°, pulse 78. By the 27tli the tempeiuture was 
normal, the pulse on the 20th was 70 and varied between 64 
and 78. 

That success followed this operation is due to the early 
recognition of the perforation by Captain (later Lieut. -Col.) 
Price, and the Commanding Officer of Imtarfa, Major Elliot. 
Lieut. Garrow, who gave the anaesthetic, stated the time occu- 
pied from the commencement of tlie administration as twenty 
minutes. 

Other cases were operated upon, but too late or the patient 
w'as toe ill from toxaemia for recovery. Early operation is more 
•important in these cases than even in perforating duodenal 
ulcer, ■ for the blow falls on a man already weakened by 
disease, and the extra vasated material is highly infective. The 
risks are small if everything be prepared; the perforation will 
usually be found in the loop of the bowel first exposed through 
a median incision below the umbilicus. In the case recorded 
here the perforation was witJiin a foot of the caecum, in others 
9 inches and 6 inches. In one it was 2 feet and another 4 feet 
from the ilio-caecal valve. In two cases the caecum was per- 
forated. 

One man died in another hospital through the Medical Officer 
mistaking the "period of repose " which follows perforation for 
improvement. He had all the signs of perforation during the 
night of December ll-12th, 1915. When seen next morning by 
the Medical Officer— a Maltese and a careful man— the pulse was 
88-90, and there was no complaint of pain. Unfortunately, no fur- 
ther visit was mode till 6 p.m., and the rise in pulse rate at noon 
to 112, two hours later to 120, and temperature 103-2° were not 



40 Some Observations on the Sick and Wounded 

reported. At 6 p.m. the pulse was 140 and temperature 103°, 
and thei-e was frequent vomiting of green fluid. At 8 p.m. the 
perforation was quickly found and closed, and the pelvis 
drained. He died on the 13th at 2 p.m. At the autopsy the 
peritonitis was limited to the pelvis, the perforation securely 
closed >vas nine inches from the csecum. The lower lobe of one 
lung was solid from broncho-pneumonia. The missed opportunity 
was due in the first place to the report of the night being 
taken from the patient, and secondly to the misinterpretation 
of the "period of repose." Also and most important in the 
rise in pulse not having- been reported. 

In a brief sketch like the present it would be out of place 
to pursue this subject. I would only emphasise the importanc-e 
of the following points: — 

1. That the occurrence of any sudden change in the course 
of the illness should raise the alarm. In the first case here 
referi^d to there was a rigor twenty-one hours before the 
perforation, in the second a sudden fall in temperature to 97° 
about twenty-four hours before the onset of abdominal pain. 

2. That a period of repose almost invariably follows. In 
the first case this was manifest in two hours, in the second 
completely deceived the observer some eight hours after perfora- 
tion. Close observation in this period will often detect slight 
signs of progressive peritoneal irritation. There is usually some 
pain, if careful enquiry be made, though so slight when com- 
pared with that of the onset that the patient makes light of it. 
The pain will be spasmodic and slight, will occur after taking 
any tiling by the mouth, and sickness Avill be induced by food. 
When in doubt my practice has always been to give food in 
this period in all cases of suspected perforation from whatever 
cause. If vomiting follows in one or two hours tlie existence 
of spreading infection is demonstrated. Over and over again 
in acute appendicitis I have employed this test, and never with- 
out finding abundant proof of the necessity for operation. 

3. Seeing that the perforation is in the majority of cases 
within two feet of the ilio-ceeeal valve, and can be reached 



From the Gallipoli Campaign. 41 

through a median incision below the umbilicus, with a mini- 
mimi of disturbance, the added danger of an operation is 
slight, provided always it be brief and the angesthetic so selected 
and given as to be followed by quick recovery. I like my 
patient to respond to a question before leaving the table or 
within 15 minutes. 

4. Time being in these septic conditions of the greatest 
moment, the anaesthetic should not be started until the o^x^rator 
stands ready with the scalpel in his hand. In these cases also 
the frequently associated pulmonary lesions have an important 
bearing upon the choice or dui-ation of the anaesthetic (see the 
second case). Gas and oxygen given with the modern apparatus 
is no doubt the best anaesthetic, as it is followed by a quick 
recovery. I have on several occasions been obliged to be con- 
tent with chloroform in operating for perforative appendicitis. 
Ready to incise the moment the conjunctival reflex was 
abolished, even though there was movement of the limbs, I 
have been able to complete removal and drainag-e in fifteen 
minutes, and I believe in this way determined i^ecovery. There 
must be no prolonged post-operative depression; if tliere is to be 
success. I once successfully resected two feet of small intestine 
in a lady over 80 without any anaesthetic beyond ethyl chloride 
localty. 

Tetanus, though it occurred, caimot be said to have been a 
frequent complication. Several cases arose amongst the Indian 
troops; all •were fatal. One English soldier recovered from a 
long and severe attack only to die of g-eneral caseous tuber- 
culosis. 

Though there occuned many cases of acute hepatitis, abscesti 
of the live¥ was uncommon. Hepatitis called for not in- 
frequent consultations at Imtorfa and other hospitals. The 
liver became enlarged and tender; there was some pyrexia, and 
the question of abscess or cholecystitis arose. Emetine solved 
the difficulty in many cases. It was extraoixiinary how rapidly 
the liver subsided in a few da}^. It is unnecessary to dwell 
upon the value of this remedy even when an abscess has 



42 Some Observatiom on the Sick and Wounded 

From the Gallipoli Campaign. 

occuri*cd. A very notable instance was that of a yoiin^ soldier 
in whom an abscess was suspected, and which it was thought 
had burst into the pericardium. He was tx>o ill at the moment 
for any operation, though I was prepared to open the peri- 
cardium as the lesser of the two risks and the more likely 
to give immediate relief. Colonel Archibald Grarrod (now Sir 
Archibald) did not press for immediate interference though the 
heart was rapid in action and there was a friction rub, and 
the temperature was uf). In a few hours this delay was justi- 
fied, the cardiac condition improving to one of safety. The 
diagnosis of hepatic abscess remained, though the exact posi- 
tion could not be defined. Emetine had been administered, and 
it was decided to rest content with aspiration as a first measure. 
One of the medical officers had some successful cases in China. 
Over a dozen punctures into the right lobe yielding- negative 
results, and not inclined to explore the left in this way, I 
opened the abdomen in the middle line and at once exposed 
a large abscess in the left lobe adherent to the diaphragm. 
The pus was evacuated by an aspirator, and a large 
drain inserted down to the site in case further drainage should 
be necessary. The patient recovered without any recurrence 
of pus, under the continued use of emetine. The pericarditis 
had been due to extension, not perforation. I was asked to see 
an abscess in the Royal Naval Hospital, Netley, so large that 
the skin was bulging and fluctuation easily obtained. Though 
he had been prepared for operation, I suggested emetine and 
aspiration, drainage later witb. injection of emetine into the 
cavity should the pus re-collect. Even this man recovered with- 
out further interference. It is truly remarkable to watch the 
subsidence of the enlarged livers under the use of emetine, 
and still more satisfactory that its use enables - us to dispense 
with drainage in hepatic abscess, except, of course, where a 
secondary infection has occurred.. 



THE WAR WORK OF THE B.R.C.S, 
NURSING SERVICE. 



By ■ 

DAME SARAH SWIFT, G.B.E., R.R.C., 

Matron-ill -Chief, British Red Cross Society and Order of St. 
John; formerly Mati'on of Guy's Hospital. 



The story of the work of the trained nurses of the British 
Red Cross Society, of which I have personally seen much on 
my tours of inspection, is one of arduous labour, unselfish de- 
votion and indomitable courage in many theatres of war. 

In August, 1914, not a moment was lost by the British Red 
Cross Society and the Order of St. John in org-anising- the 
trained nursing service that was at once recognised to be a 
need. At St. John's Gate several well-known matrons and 
others Avorked with me in forming- a band of trained nurses, 
and shortly afterwards the nursing department was co-ordi- 
nated under the Joint War Committee of both Societies at 83, 
Pall Mall, w^here I have had the honour of w^orking as Mati^on- 
in-Chief for five years. 

The first step taken was to form a register of nurses with 
full hospital training, and send them where tlie need was most 
urgent. Later, other registers were compiled of staff nurses 
with two years' general training and of others holding Fever 
Hospital Certificates. Only three years' general trained nurses 
were sent to work abroad, with the exception of tliose to do 
infectious work. At this time the staff numbered 2,500. 

The whole story of the nurses' work will never be told, but 
the following short sketch will give some idea of the extent of 
tlieir labours, and of the conditions under which they nursed 



44 Tht' W'iir Work of the B.R.C.S. Aiirsing Service. 

on the various fronts, as well as in Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Italy, Egypt, Salonika, Serbia, Eussia, Roumania, 
and Bulgaria, and later on in Holland, their work being done 
in hospitals, casualty clearing stations, surg-eries, rest stations, 
ti'ains, ships, barges, factories, and in hostels attached to the 
various camps employing personnel. 

At first it was very difficult to cope with the work, but in 
August, 1914, the first units Avere sent to Brussels and Antwerp 
and were at once busy nursing' Belgians, Fi^nch, British and 
German soldiers. The bombardment Avas severe, and the nurses 
had not only to do their duty calmly, but to reassure their 
patients. When the Germans entered, some nurses had to dis- 
guise themselves as refugees and make their escape by Charleroi 
and Denmark. The stories of the nui-ses' bravery Avere thril- 
ling; to give but one example, a slightly -built woman was 
seen to lift three disabled men on to a cart Avhen the shed 
they were in was being bombed. 

The conditions under which our nurses have worked were 
both varied and unprecedented; for nurses have had to perform 
duties which hitherto have been considered outside their pro- 
vince; thus, at casualty clearing stations many of the nurses 
gave the anaesthetics and thus gained valuable experience. 

In France and Belgimn old barns, engine sheds and empty 
buildings were utilised as hospitals ; they had, of course only the 
most primitive sanitary arrangements or none at all, no water 
supply, no lighting, exoe]Dt lamps and candles, and very poor 
heating and cooking arrangements, if any. Not only comforts, 
but even medical necessaries, were absent, and thousands of 
w^ounded were pouring in continually. The hospitals had no 
anti-tetanus serum, little chloroform, and owing to the diffi- 
culty of transport scarcely any dressings, clothing or bed 
linen. Moreover, in these conditions the nurses had to tackle 
not only fearful surgical cases, but entirely new illnesses, such 
a^ gas poisoning, gas gangrene, tetanus, trench feet, facial in- 
juries, the varied diseases of the eye, as well as epidemics of 
enteric and paratyphoid, and later, in the East, typhus, small- 
pox, diphtheria, trench fever, and Bilharzia. 



The War Worh of the B.R.C.S. Nursing Service. 4.5 

Belgium. 

The first British Red Cross Society unit to go abroad con- 
sisted of a party of 14, organised b^'the Order of St. John, which 
left London on August 19th and got into Brussels by the last 
train to enter, just as the Germans took the city. Within thi^e 
days they were quietly doing the work in hand, nursing Ger- 
mans, British, French, and Belgians for about a month, until 
they were told that they might leave. Their journey home 
through Belgium, Aix la Chapelle, Cologne, Hamburg, Denmark 
and Norway was a memorable one. They slept on a cargo of 
potatoes crossing to Aberdeen. 

As much help as possible was given to Belgium, wliich was 
overwhelmed by the sudden catastTophe, and had no proper 
hospital accommodation or nursing service. At La Panne, a 
little coast town which was swept constantly l:>y enemy shells, 
a unit of 10 sisters worked from •November, 1914, at the 
Hospital de I'Oc^an for several years, imtil, after some of the 
staff had been wounded and killed, they were ordered out of 
tliat too dangerous zone. The aj)pi*eciation of their work is 
shown by the fact that at a time when it was feared tliey 
might be recalled for service with British troops, the Queen 
of the Belgians specially requested tliat they might remain, 
and the unit was increased to 30. This uiiit wa^ the last one to 
work in an Allied hospital. It was under the Belgian Red 
Cross, and its 1,600 beds were used entii-ely for Belgians up 
to July, 1916, when it was partly taken over; for the British. 
In September, 1917, it ^^-as found necessary to evacuate, owing 
to the heavy shelling irom tlie German lines only five miles off, 
and it was then used as a di-essing station, and the Red 
Cross iSisters were recalled. 

It was to help the Belgian refugees, too, tliat 82 Red Cross 
sisters worked at Malasisse, St. Omer, during an epidemic of 
enteric, giving the inceswsant care necessary from (February 
to June, 1915, so tliat a serious danger was i-edueed to a. 
minimum. 



46 The War Work of the B.U.C.S. JSursing Service. 

Wliat made the work in the early days so remarkable wa^, 
as I have stated, the way in which the nurses met the situa- 
tion, treating a huge number of most serious cases in the 
most primitive conditions with a lack of all appliances con- 
sidered necessary in hospital work. The wounded were wait- 
ing — there was no time to organise anything, but just to set 
to work. Here is one picture: "One recalls a building, a 
former school, with no lighting or heating arrangements, ex- 
cept in one room where there was a gas jet and a miserable 
stove, the only means of obtaining hot water. Here urgent 
operations had to be performed under anything but aseptic 
conditions, and case after case would be brought in and placed 
on the floor, watching and waiting to take their turn on the 
improvised operating table. The other rooms were full of 
wounded lying close together on straw, and it was anxious work 
by the light of a feeble candle, going from one to the other 
watching for hsemorrhage or collapse. The food question was 
also a difficulty, even milk being hard to get. The sanitary 
arrangements were practically nil, tJie only pretence being an 
open gutter in front of the building." 

" Another school taken over had been so long unused that 
it needed w^eeks of cleaning. Meantime the wounded were 
pouring in night land day, to be washed, fed, and have their 
w^ounds dressed before being sent to England. The wounds 
were appalling, the odour from gas g'angrene cases unbearable, 
and the mental condition of the patients added to the strain 
of nursing. Sometimes the whole building would be plunged 
into darkness or the water supply cut off. Therei was no gus 
and very little methylated spirit or alcohol, but the will to do 
work overcame all difficulties and in an incredibly short time 
many well-organised hospitals were ready." 

Another centre of wonderful work was a raihvay engine 
shed in Calais fitted with 200 beds where Eed' Cross Sisters 
worked during tlie winter of 1914, while in the same: town 
another party tended numerous Belgian typhoid cases in a small 
house with narrow staircases and no proper drainage. Yet 



The War Work of the B.R.C.S. Cursing Service. 47 

another hospital for Belgians in Calais was the Baltic and Corn 
Exchange Hospital with an enteric annexe. Another hospital 
was ithe British Farmers, in huts, on a plot of ground given 
by the French; the Matron and 27 sisters composed the nursing 
staff. It is interesting* to note that although many different 
infections -vvere nursed in only two wards, there were only 
two cases of cross infection. The work was carried! on Iduiing 
severe air raids, one of which lasted over five hours. The 
Hopital Jeanne d'Arc, Calais, was also staffed by the British 
Bed Cross Society sisters and did excellent work for many 
months. The Isle of Wight Field Barge Hospital w^as another. 
Four of the sisters also worked on the Belgian^' Hospital Ships 
to and from England. 

France. 

France -was, of course, the field of most o£ ith© workers, and 
France in the early days of the war meant difficulty and dis- 
comfort, bitter winter weather, no fires, no facilities for cook- 
ing or bathing. ' 

At Dunliirk three St. John sisters were sent to help in the 
station sheds, which had been converted into a sort of clearing 
hospital. Dunkirk, being only five minutes by aeroplane from 
Ostend where the German stores were, was subject to bombard- 
ments from the air, and unless there was a British! warship (in 
the harbour it was also bombarded from the sea. The enemy 
went back two or three times in the night to Ostend to replenish 
their bombs. The last time I was in Dunkirk there was scarcely 
a ^^indow left in any building. 

One can imagine the scene, the long gaunt shedy the floor 
packed with stretchers on which lay French, Turoos, Senegalese 
in their picturesque turbans, some on tlie straw down on the 
rails, the long French or Belgian trains diuwing up to the 
siding-s with the sad freights, the patient and almost terrify- 
ing composure of the piou-pious, the picturesque mixture of 
races. One sees, too, the kind, busy French Medical Officer, with 
his "Mon Brave" and "Mon Petit," always cheery and' hopeful, 



48 The War Worl: of the B.R.C.S. Nursing Service. 

and courteouis to the group of English doctors, and nui^es wait- 
ing the order to start dressings before the reloading^ of the 
trains. One of the nurses writes : " Nowhere on earth^ could 
one lliave been more privilegied to work, or been more closely 
brought into touch with all the stern realities of war. To 
realise oneself in dii^ct contact with tlie men straight' out of 
the trenches, and to see their wonderful stoicism undei' such ap- 
palling conditions covered with mud, bruised, bleeding, maimed, 
and dying, and yet expiring joyfully ' pour la patrie ' was to 
know that in the end the barbarians were doomed to loosen 
their hold on tlie fair laud of France no matter what it cost 
their children in blood and tears. To leave the shores of this 
island land to work and talk among men audi women who had 
seen the deadly peril at their doors and the ' sales bosohes ' 
at their house -wrecking- \\x>rk would determine the least ooura- 
geous of us never to turn back an inch until the Hun liad been 
absolutely crushed and rendered too weak to attempt to destroy 
the world's peace by such horrible and dastardly crimes ag-ainst 
mankind. 'Better still, to feel the welcome given to the^ In.- 
firmieres iAnglaises, and the appreciation of the *help given 
by our doctors and nurses to the wounded of! our Allies, is 'to 
have had a real sliare in trying to do something, however small, 
for our brave AlHes." 

Sisters !from 'the early units worked in French HospitalSi for 
the (first ten montlis of war, until, owing to ^the shortage, they, 
were Recalled 'to our own hospitals in France. They liad hard 
work land by no means an easy time. Tliey were to bo found 
in hospitals at Tournai, Aix-les-Bains, St. Malo, Dieppe (nurs- 
ing German prisoners), Compiegne, St. Lunaire, Dinard, Tre- 
guier, Nevers, Malo -les- Bains, Fort Mahon, La Conte par Hu- 
dain (only ten miles behind the front), Gretz, Caen, Cherbourg,- 
Paris. In fact, up to the end of 1914, '582 sisters had re- 
ported for duty in France and Belgium. 

At St. 'Malo, at the Friends' Hospital, our nurses at first 
nursed enteric cases for the French, later the hospital took 
g-eneral cases. Here oeciuTed one of the manv instances of 



The War Work of the B.R.C.S. Nursing Service. 49 

bravery. A report by the Principal Mati-oii says : " Nothing 
could (have been finer tlian the cahn way the patients were 
dealt with during- lan air raid. It gave me great insight into 
what fthe staff went through nigiit after night, yet cheerily 
doing ttheir work during* the day as usual. I consider that it 
was tlie influence of tlie matron and some of the staff that 
tliis calmness was maintained throughout." 

Help was given to the French, even as late as December,. 
1918, when a unit was sent to Mauberge to nurse French, 
civilians from the recaptured districts. Four small hospitals 
wei-e established and served 366 patients from about twenty-- 
five villages. 

Work for the British in France. 

The British B/ed Cross nunses, tjiough ihey gave so geneix)usly 
to our Allies, had also tlie privilegie of caring for our own 
men. 

As early as September 29th, 1914, No. 1 Bed Ci-oss Hos- 
i:)ital opened in the Hotel Astoria, Paris. Excellent work was 
done for five months, until the hospital was taken over for 
the French. 

At Bouen No. 2 Hospital was transferred to the Bed Cross 
in September, and shortly afterTV'ards it was reorganised as 
an ioffioers' hospital, and was greatly appreciated by the 26,000- 
officers A\'ho passed through it. 

Other sisters worked in tlie Bed Cross Hospital at Abbe- 
ville and four at an Aid Post at Bouen; later, also, at Bou 
Seoours where there was a 1,600 bed Belgian Hospital. 

The bulk of the work done was at Boulogne. The wounded 
■wTei-e Ipouiiugi in; cliaos reigned, and six "pioneer" *Eted Cix)ss 
sisters wei-e gladly welcomed by the army authorities and set 
to work at the famous " Sugur Shed Hospital " on; tlie wliarf 
— No. 13 Stationary; and for some montlis fifty Bed Cross 
sisters were hard at work tJiere. The Principal Matron A\Trites : 
*' I can remember the sister's sending over to me for food for 
their patients. I was only able to iget bread,, butter, and milk 

PART III. D 



50 Tin' War Worl' of the B.R.C.S. ?iurslng Service. 

in the town, but that at least tided them! over a little. The 
spirit in Avliich this unit worked cannot be forgotten by any- 
one who was associated with the work at the time." The 
army lauthorities were more than g-lad to use thef nursing- help 
pixDvided by the British [Red Cross Society. Eleven werei com- 
mandeered by the Matron-in-Chief, B.E.F., for army hospitals 
in Boulogne. Another worker served in the X-ray and Elec- 
trical Department of No. 7 Stationary all through the war. 

In November, No. 4 Red Cross Hospital, with 100 beds, 
was opened at Wimereux with a matron and 19 sisters, many 
of whom won w^ell-deserved honours. This hospital admitted 
the severely w^ounded from the Aisne and the Marne and 
worked to the end of 1915. 

In December there was opened at Wimereux No. 5 Red 
Cross Hospital staffed by 22 of our sisters; its record is over 
14,000 patients. 

Meantime our sisters had been staffing the fine hospital iat 
Le Touquet, which treated at first all ranks, but later was 
reserved for officers and did splendid work for nearly four 
years. 

The year 1915 saw the establishment of many new Red Cross 
Hospitals. That at St. Malo already mentioned, was then used 
for British patients and had two wards for naval men; its 
record is 2,325 'French and other nationalities and 9,261 British, 
besides 202 civilians. 

In April the Liverpool Merchants' ^Hospital (No. 6 Red Cross 
Hospital) was opened at Paris Plag-e, and moved later tO' its 
own huts at Etaples, and in 1918 to Trouville. It had a 
matron and a staff of 42 nurses. 

In July, No. 7 Red Cross Hospital was opened at Etaples. 
In August, at the same place, the largest of all the voluntary 
hospitals, the St. John Brigade, "was opened. This hospital 
was bombed in May, 1918, with considerable loss of life; the 
matron and five of her staff being awarded the Military Medal 
for bravery. ,Several hut wards were completely destroyed and 
all the glass of the operating and surgical theatres was smashed. 



The \yar TFo/7v of the B.R.C.S. JS'ursing Service. 51 

One sister -vvas killed instantaneously, and six sisters were 
-either injiured or suffered from shell-shock, or both. 

In September the Baltic and Corn Exchange Hospital, which 
had been Avorking- for the Belgians, opened for British soldiers 
at Paris Plage (No. 8 Red Cross), and worked for two: years, 
treating over 12,000. It continued its work later at Boulogne. 

The end of the year saw the establishment at Calais of 
No. 9 Red Cix)ss Hospital. It did excellent work, lived through 
many air raids, and had an adventurous career, having tliree 
moves jand being forced to trek during the German advance 
of 1918. Two of the staff received the Albert Medal. This 
hospital had a fine dug-out, sixty feet deep, in case of need 
for patients and staff. 

In 1916, No. 10 Red Cross Hospital w^as opened for British 
officers hi Le Treport, and did g*ood work for over two years. 

In 1917, the hospital at La Pamie, already referred to, was 
transferred to the British on the taking over of tliat part of 
the line. 'Three of the British IRed Cross staff were asked to 
go to a Field Ambulance and Main Dressing Station, the 
Director-General giving his permission, although it was out 
of order for women to be at such an advanced post. The 
matron with three sisters remained there for six weeks doing 
most excellent work. They Avere highly recommended by the 
Officer Commanding for the valuable services rendered to g^as 
eases. There was an arrangement in tliis Clearing Station 
Avhere fifty gassed cases could be placed in an enclosure at a 
time and treated by inhalation. One tlioueand cases could' be 
taken in, and in case of bombardment the building- could be 
cleared in less than three-quarters of an hour. Owing" to 
these gOB cases having immediate nunsing- treatment many lives 
Avere saved. The Dressing Station Avas prettily situated in the 
grounds of a farmhouse near Coxyde, Belgium, and Avas shelled 
in September and quickly evacuated. 

In April, 1918, the Anglo-French Committee of the British 
Red Cross Society transferred its personnel to the Fi-enoli Rod 
Cross, and those working for the Belgians came under the oon- 



52 The War Worl- of /he /,'.///'. S'. Nvr.shir/ Servifp. 

ti-ol of tho Joint War Committee. Tiie year was trying ais well 
as Iheavv; worlr M^as diKorg-anised by the retreat. la June the 
hospitals weixi bombed, and there were evacuations; our advance 
followed quickly, and the hospitals still intact had a very heavy 
time. October wa8 tlie lieaAiest time of all, as' in addition to- 
heavy convoys, there were epidemics of influienza and pneumonia. 
With the armistice the hospitals Avere closed down, and in. 
April, 1919, the Joint War Committee staff Avere demobilised. 

Trains. 

Another sphere of activity was in the Ambulance Trains. 
One of ithe fiiist began its career in April, 1915, and took its 
first load of wounded from Hazebrouck to a basfe. Here is the 
sister's description : ''Poor thing's! Some of them were in an 
awful condition, some dying, some haemorrhaging', and others 
soaked in blood and stuck tightly to the sti*etcher by their 
clothes. We 'turned to and did as much as. ever we could for 
the men on our downward joiirney, cutting- off clothing, i-e- 
clothing, and doing dressings, feeding the men, and, if pos- 
sible, washing tiieir faces and hands. I had ninety under my 
care in three w^ards of thirty beds each. In! three weeks tlie 
train carried 8,000 wounded." *No wonder the sister says : 
" It was this train that carried some of thei first awful load jof 
gassed tmen." Here is an account of a day's work : " During 
the loading of the train the sisters make a note of each patient,, 
diet them, and fix them up comfortably. This enables them, 
directly the loading is finished, to give a list of the diets to 
the head orderh" of each ward, (and he takes the diet sheets* 
to the stores sergeant, wdio issues the food accordingly for each 
meal. The sisters receive a list of treatment from the Imedioal 
officers, and if the load is a heavy one they are kept busy lall 
the journey with dressings, irrigating Carrel tubes, taking off 
wet and dirty clothing, re-clothing and nursing serious cases. 
The sister in charge of the sitting- cases has a. busy time, as 
her patients come up in relays to the treatment room to be ii*e- 
dressed, and this mav mean as manv as two, or three hundred 



The War Worlv of the B.R.C.S. yiirsing Service. 53 

dressing's ^vheii there is a pusJi on. Journejs take any lime 
from isix hours to thirty houi-s, according* to which! part of the 
line the train is running- from and to which baise it is evacuat- 
ing. Also tlm time varies very much according- to whether there 
is much pi-essure of traffic on the line. We have brought down 
patients from most of the big- n3attles — Ypres, Hill 60, Loo«s, 
the Somme — in July, 1916, and all the autumn of 1916; Arras, 
1917; and from Ypres and the Jiorthem section in July, August 
and October, 1917. We did not get much rest either, as there 
was the train to be cleaned, blankets to be shaken, beds to be 
made and dressings to be prepared. If we helped, it en- 
couraged the orderlies, who were not used' to day and^ night 
^\x)rk and were most of them raw recruits." 

Another train was equip2)ed with four Red Cross sisters in 
December, 1914. It had an excellent record and came out 
second for merit of the B.E.F. Ambulance Trains. 

Another was the train presented by the United Millers of 
Great Britain in 1915, M-hich had the honour of being first for 
merit of the B.E.F. trains; and still another was No. 16, 
built by the G.W.R. Company in tlie same 3^ear. This train 
was bombed in March, 1918, on its way down from Amiens, 
with 700 severely wounded patients and 30 sisters as passen- 
gers. Two orderlies were injured and the train was damaged. 
For five hours the sisters worked Avith electric torclies, and 
the fitful light of a blazing shed, cheery and to all appearances 
unconcerned, while 'plane after 'plane unloaded its bombs amid 
the crack of " Archies " and the manias clatter of machine 
guns. The officer in charge submitted the names of the sistem 
for the Military Medal. From that time gas masks and helmets 
were kept in readiness for the almost nightly excursions^ to the 
nearest dug-out. On May 31st, 1918, the train was again 
bombed at lEtaples and set on fire; at the oitier of the officer in 
charge the sisters sheltered in a ditch. During Mai'shal Foch's 
great offensive on the Marne this train was at Criel; later it 
carried repatriated prisoners from Germany. After the German 
retreat of 1917 the nursing staff were the first women to 



54 The War Work of ike B.R.C.S. Nursing Service. 

enter Miraumont and Beaumont Hamel, where they had an 
entliusiastic welcome from the troops. 

No. 11 train was bombed. A sister wrote : "A bomb got 
us fair; it was terrific, and we all thought we were done for, 
windows smashing' all round. At once tlie train was inflames. 
The O.C. said we must g-et out. This wei did, and among the 
falling slirapnel and bombs we saw a bank which we scaled 
and lay flat on the ground. This was surely a merciful Pro- 
vide noe watching over us." 

Embarkation. 

The 'British. [Red Cross Society was, it is believed, the first 
of the women's corps in France k> have an. embarkation and 
transport representative. It was a jxjsition entailing much 
work and worry. 

Other Work. 

In addition to all the work already described, our nurses- 
staffed various Convalescent Homes for Officers and men as well 
as fthe Convalescent Home for Army and Red Cross Sisters at 
Hardelot; later this was transferred to Cannes and later still to 
Boulogne . 

The Principal Matron visited all the hospitals under the- 
Joint War Committee and looked after the housing and general 
welfare of the sisters. At first those who fell sick were treated 
in their billets, a very difficult arrangement; afterwards a 
Sick Bay w^as attached to the headquarters at the Hotel Christol 
and later at the Chateau Maurician, Wimereux. 

Italy. 

The activities of the Bed Cross nurses were not confined to 
England and France. Among the mountains of Italy, where 
warfare was carried on at incredible heights, they were to be 
found at their work of " mending the men." 

In May, 1915, a unit was sent out and a hosi^ital was opened 
at 'Villa Trento, on the Trentino VaUey, about 12 miles from 



The War Worh of the B.B.C.S. Aurshig Service. 55 

the firing- lines. It contained 100 beds and was a First Line 
hospital for the Italian wounded. There was a motor unit 
attaclied to this hospital and it carried all the wounded from 
the firing* lines to dressing- stations or hospitals. There were 
hostels at Cosmo ns and along tlie Corse. The work' was medi- 
cal and sm-gical, and the metliods of the English nurses wei-e 
much appreciated by the patients, who even in sickness are 
forced to lead hard lives, and are unaccustomed to luxuiies or 
even the necessaries. i 

The Italian hospitals had no women, except in a few where 
there were V.A.D.'s or whei-e Eng'lish nurses had been sent 
to help from 'Home, and tliere were no niu-ses on the trains. 

The patients were g-iven bread and cofifee as they came jdown 
wounded from the battlefields, and the British Eed Cross 
Society liad kitchens and personnel at different stations for the 
purpose of distributing this bread, coffee, cigarettes, chocolates, 
etc., to the men. The hospital was evacuated in 1918 at the 
great retreat. 

The 'British Red Cross Society had a convoy of ambulances 
fitted with the newest X-ray apparatus, and there were* expert 
operators and nurses who went along! the Front for' the pur- 
pose of examining the wounded and localising the bullets. 
These operators were so hard pressed that they had' not time 
to take any photographs. The Italian surgeons simply operated 
immediately on the diagnosis. This method of localising saved 
many thousands of lives, and was much appreciated by the 
Italian surgeons. There wei-e also installations placed at various 
receiving liospitals, and here the operators attended for the 
sake of localisation. 

Egypt and the Soudan. 

At the time of tlie GallipoU Campaign units were sent out 
to Alexandria and Caiix). A Red Cross Hospital was opened — 
the Sai'dia Schools, Giza, being commandeered for the purpose. 
Tliere were also hospitals for officers, recreation hostels for the 
nurses and other personnel, and after a time the Sultan lent 



56 The War Work of the B.R.C.S. Nursing Service. 

the beautiful Montaza Palaoe at Alexandria to the British 
Red Cross to be used as a Convalescent Home. There were 
2,000 beds. 

During the fighting the cases ^vere chiefly surgical witli com- 
plications of every description, aggravated by fever and other 
medical ailments. A good number of the native cases; suffer- 
ing from (Bilharzia were treated successfully with tartaremetic. 
With this treatment, careful nui-sing and observation were re- 
quired. 

The Giza Red Cross Hospital closed in 1918, and the Mon- 
taza Convalescent Home in 1919. 

Serbia. 

In May, 1915, at the request of the Serbian Government, a 
large unit was sent out and a building in Vrorjatch Ka, Baija, 
was commandeered for the purpose of a hospital. Tliisi unit Avas 
completely British, and the patients treated were Serbs. 

The staff had to work very hard, as dj^entery and' fever 
was very prevalent amongst tlie surgical patients. The unit 
eontinued to work for the Serbs, who were most gTateful and 
thankful, until the entry of the enemy in February, 1916. 
The mayor of the place and most of the' residents made tlieir 
escape, but the unit stood by the hospital and the j)atients. 
The matron, who could speak German, French, and Serbian 
fluently, went out to meet the enemy and informed them that 
they w^ere British people and tJiat the' Orderlies — who were 
Auistrians — intended to stand by tliem. This had' its result, 
as the Germans allowed them to escape, minus tlieir belongings 
and hospital equipment, and they arrived in England in March, 
1916. 

Other units were also sent out to Serbia. 

[Russia. 
In Russia a very larg^e proportion of the work done omder 
the auspices of the Ruissian Red Cross Society w'as organised 
by the County Associations. The Union of Zemstvos was/ re- 



The War Work of the B.R.C.S. Nursing Service. 57 

sponsible for providing* enormous funds for the upkeep of 
the Red Cross Hospitals at the Front and in the Interior, 
dressing stations, flying anibulance columns, bath trains, hos- 
pital trains, canteens and feeding stations, refug-ee collecting 
stations, military fever hospitals, isolation points and vaticina- 
tion stations, depots for clothing, dressing, instruments and 
medical comforts of all kinds. The medical and nursingi staff 
for these various activities were chosen by the Red Cross So- 
ciety. 

The Russian Red Cross sisters are trained at various. " obs- 
chenas," or communities, each community having its special 
dress, customs and rules. The term of training varies fix)m 
2 J to 4 years, and this always includes a course in the dispen- 
sary. Most of their time is taken up in learning, surgical work; 
indeed, some of the training schools in Petix)grad take no medical 
caises at all. The result is, of course, that the bandaging and 
dressing is most exquisitely done, while the art of nursing, 
as we have it in England, is — apart from the woimd — almost 
unknown. At the end of her hospital training there is aji 
examination and the sister receives a certificate. 

It wa;s in 1915 that we w^ere first allowed to assist the work 
of the Russian Red Cix);ss. Several of our sisters; worked in a 
hospital in Warsaw before it fell. One of the sisters says : 
''The orderlies slept on stretchers in the hall, putting their 
beds down every njight and heaping them up in a great pile 
every morning. At first the hospital was small, but it was 
eventually built to accommodate over 1,000 patients. Some 
large beds were lent to the hospital, and these were put in 
rows down the corridors, and two patients were put into each 
bed. Two severely wounded patients in one bed are not very 
easy to nurse well, as may be imagined, but the men helped 
by being charming to eacJi otlier, and they always lay face 
to face, never back to back. Dying cases were put alone a»s 
far as possible, but one of the men wx>ke up one night and 
found his comrade cold. He had died more than an hour 
befoi'e without a sound or a groan. 



58 The War WorJc of the B.R.C.S. Nursing Service. 

The rapid inci'ease of patients wais not accompanied by tin 
increase of staff, and the sisters had to work very hard. The 
hospital was fortunate in having for a matron a sister who 
had been through tlie Russo-Japanese war and who was 
quite accustomed to coping- with any emergency. Even the 
arrival of a convoy of three or four hundred badly wounded 
men in the middle of the night did not perturb her in the 
least. Everj'one Avas called and was in their appointed! place- 
and everything Avent like clock-work. 

The nurses' had to get up each morning at 6.30, breakfast 
was at 7.15, and consisted of coffee and bread and butter, and 
they went on dutj- immediately after. Nominally the work was 
supposed to be finished by 3 o'clock, when the bell rang for 
dinner, but actually the dinner was often postponed till 4, or 
even 5p.m. when they were busy. The long interval between 
breakfast land dinner was very trying at first imtil the nurses- 
got accustomed to it. Dinner consisted of soup, followed by 
meat, except on Friday when fish or vegetables took its place^ 
and cheese or an apple, followed by several glasses of de- 
licious tea. There was a break until 5 p.m., and then the 
dressings began again, and after supper at 8 p.m. prepara- 
tions were made for the next day. 

From 1916 to 1'918 we had for a hospital onef of the Royal 
Palaces at Petrograd. It was evacuated at the timei of the 
Revolution in Petrograd, and the hardships at this time were 
great. Any of the staff coming down country could have a 
bed, but there was no bread available; if they brought their 
bread they were welcome guests. 

The patients were extremely well looked after and were very 
grateful for all that was done for them. 

ROUMANIA. 

To be sent to Roumania meant a long journey by sea to 
Archangel, then across 'Russia to Odessa and thence to Halatz. 
Here a hospital was established in a school and was named 
after the little Prince Mercia of Roumania who was poisoned 



The War Work of the B.BC.S. Nursing Service. 59 

through eating sweets dropped by an aeroplane into the Palace 
grounds where he was playing-. The work was very heavy 
as *the wounded arrived by slow transport and had^ not been 
attended Ito for days. A sister wrote : " Many of our patients 
reached us from distances by means of very slow trains or by 
boats and barges into which they had been hastily loaded from 
places near the firing line, and often they had been days mth- 
out attention before coming to our care, arrivin<>- in a condition 
of filth that is indescribable. As we had cases of gas gangrene 
among 'them it will be readily understood that the atmosphere 
of the wards from the evil-smelling cesspools outside became 
very foul and almost unendurable; and it was not altogether la 
matter for sm-prise that many members of tlie staff suffered 
from diarrhoea and bowel troubles during our ten weeks' stay. 
The benefit of our paratyphoid inoculation manifested itself 
thus early on our journey." 

After iten weeks, retreat was necessary, and the party joined 
the poor starving refugees on the quay, waiting for hours in 
rain and cold wind. Thence by barge to Reni and by train 
back to Odessa, weary, travel -stained, and more than half 
frozen. In February, 1917, half the unit was detailed to Is- 
mail '(Bessarabia) and half to a field hospital just behind the 
Front in Moldavia. There was accommodation for 220 patients 
in ^nts and three officers in the house. Thei tents were full, 
and the staff worked at high pressure for four months. In 
the summer, work w^as rendered more difficult owing to the 
plague of ffiee. A nurse wrote: "With such swarms of 
carriers we were anxious always about the spread of infection, 
for did we but loosen a bandage a batch would be all round 
the fwound in a moment, and we lived in fear of the spread of 
er^'sipelas by the pests. However, it is a matter for congratu- 
lation that no epidemic attacked us or our patients." The 
following graphic description is from the same pen: " In an 
English newspaper I read tlie words * On the Sfereth' there has 
been artillery action.' A plain simple statement, but" what 
tragedies are hidden behind that small curtain of words! A 



'♦;o The War Wor/,' <ff the B.H.C.S. Nursing Service. 

g^roat Eeapei' l»u>y at his fell task, gatJiering liis harvest of 
jX)or 'l)roken bodies, cut down in the full vigour- of young and 
histv manhood, and a full quantum of ghastly wounds, eyes 
blinded, limbs bloAvn off or rendered useless, heads smashed 
like eggshells, abdomens ripped and torn by shell splinters, 
horrible mutilations, bodies drilled through by bullets from 
rifle land machine gun. The brave silent work of the stTetcher 
bearers, i-isking life and limb in their efforts to recover and 
succour the wounded soldiers; the hurried work at the dressing- 
stations; the quick scrutiny of the seriously wounded and 
maimed; ^he prompt inoculation for preventive purposes with 
tetanus serum; the labelling* of the patients; the loading of 
ambulances; and then the speedy rush of the convoy across 
iJie country to the first field hospital situated a few kilometres 
behind the fighting line where membens of the unit were 
ready at all hours of the day and night to receive them and 
give of their very best in skill and attention in their endea- 
vour to alleviate the sufferings of these poor maimed creatures. 
Such is the portion of the picture conjured up' in the minds 
of those whose duty and privilege it was for four months to 
serve in the British Red Cross Society Field Hospital esta- 
blished at Tecuci, Houmania, and attached to the Russian 4th 
Army." 

In August the hospital had to be evacuated and eight sisters 
returned to England. 

The members of the. units going to the East were provided 
with one-piece overalls from head to feet, to protect them fi'om 
lice, which were the chief means of carrying the infection 
of typhus. 

Holland. 

In 1917 it was decided that a Trained Nurse should accom- 
pany each boat sailing between the Hague and London bring- 
ing convo5^s of released prisoners of every nationality, taken 
over from the German lines. The nurse who filled this post had 
to be able to speak Fi-ench and German fluently, undertake 46 
hours' duty at a stretch, and manage lunatics. This work "Was 



I 



The War Worl^ of the B.R.C.S. Nursing Service. 61 

suc<5essfully carried on till the Armistice was signed, when 
the nurse became head of a Receiving Hospital in London. 

After the Armistice it was found that the convoys were much 
larger and that tlie prisoners handed over were in such a 
desperate condition, mentally and phj^sically, tliat a hospital 
was opened at Clingx3ndaal for Officers. Later when our own 
trains were able to go into Germany for the men, there was 
a 1,000-bed hospital opened at Rotterdam for those who were 
unable to embark direct for England. Here they were fed, re- 
clothed, and made in a fit condition to return to their own 
countr3^ 

* 
Great Britain. 

In this country the conditions were, of course, better, but 
owing- to the scarcity of medical men the niirses had great 
responsibilities. Many of their achievements have been brilliant, 
and all liave given devoted, patient and helpful work. Shell- 
shock patients, for instance, require sxvecial care, and the nurses 
have had to help their patients mentally and physically bj 
taking part in their recreations and their re-:education. More- 
over, owing to the continued demands of the authorities for pro- 
bationers, nurses have had the additional burden of training 
V.A.D. members during the whole war. One example; of the 
value of their work is the fact that owing to the success of 
the beautiful hospital at Brockenhurst for Indians, the India 
Office has given permission for the first time for native hos- 
pitals to be staffed with ti-ained women nurses. 

A general in France said the other da}^ that the war could 
not have been won without the help and moral influence of 
the women; the knowledgie of this fact will, I know, be suffi- 
cient praise or reward for the women of Great Britain — laity, 
trained nui-ses and V.A.D. members. 

In this country no fewer tiian 2,050 hospitals were estab- 
lished under the Joint War Committee, employing one trained 
niu-se to every twenty patients. Their record is to be foujid 
in our i-eports, and certain it is that without them it would have 
been impossible to caix) for the Avounded in this country. They 



62 The War Work of the B.li.C.S. Nursing Service. 

ranged from a large hospital like the King George V. in Stam- 
ford Street, Avitli its 2,000 beds, to large and small honsea 
generously given up by their owners all over the four king- 
doms, schools, public buildings supplemented by huts and tents, 
where space, water supply and drainage Avould allow. 

I hjave spaoe only to speak of one or two doing special work. 
At St. Duns tan's Hostel for the Blind, nurses- are in charge of 
the Suj'gery, doing dressing-is and irrigutioms, giving electric 
treatment in certain cases, syringing noses and ears, and dress- 
ing wounds. Then there are fits to treat as well as influenza 
and minor troubles. There are three trained nurses at each 
house. , 

Another special class of hospitals is the Maxillo- facial for 
jaw cases — these are slow cases requiring continual dressing 
and syringing. " No one who lias not nursed these cases," 
says a sister employed there, " can. rea,lise how much has to 
be done. Many patients arrived with terrible wounds, and septic 
mouths, and the nurse quickly got satisfactory results from 
frequent irrigation, often every two hours day and' night. All 
food had to be specially prepared, solids being "finely minced 
and served very liquid. Many wonderful plastic operations were 
performed: the jaw restored by bone -grafting, or lipi or chin 
replaced by a skin graft. Massage and electric treatment also 
did much to loosen scars and restore function." 

Finally let me mention one other special work — that of the 
factory nurse. Taking Chilwell as an example, the little hos- 
pital was situated right in the dang-er zone of the factory. A 
matron and tliree or four sisters had to be prepared to deal 
with accidents at all hours of the day; and night. There were 
about 10,000 workers, and the cases included toxic jaundice, 
dermatitis, burns, accidents, etc. In July, 1918, a tremendous 
explosion took place: many were killed and several hundreds 
wounded. The staff of nurses had to render first aid in the 
open before the injured were removed. They are justly proud 
of itheir share of war work in a factory which turned out more 
than ;50 per (cent. of the output of heavy shell in this country 
during the war. 



OPHTHALMIC PRACTICE IN 

THE MEDITERRANEAN AND EGYPTIAN 

EXPEDITIONARY FORCES. 1915-1918. * 



By 

H. L. EASON, C.B., C.M.G., M.D., M.S., 

Late Lieut. -Colonel, Royal Army Medical Corps, and Consulting 

Ophtlialniic Surgeon, M.E.F. and E.E.F. 



''The thing that hath been, if is that which shall he; and 
that whicJi is do tie, is that which shall he done; and there is 
no new thing under the sun. Is there anything ivhereof it niay 
he said, 'See, this is new.''' 



Egypt, Palestine and Syria have been the cradles of many 
civilizations, the battle grounds of some of the world's great 
conquerors and the graves of many armies. The palimpsest of 
history is there for everyone to read. This recent war has given 
added point to the wisdom of the old and weary Jewish King, 
for the world's battles in 1914 to 1918 have been fought in 
places which have been battlefields since the beginning of 
history. And as with battlefields, so with disease. Although 
knowledge may advance and methods of treatment alter, disease 
in various countries remains little changed fix)m century to 

♦Portions of this paper have aheady been published in the British 
Journal of Ophthalmology, August, 1917, and in the Transactions of 
the Ophthaimological Society of Greati Britain, Vol. XXXVIII., 1918. 



64 Ophthalmic Practice hi the Mediterranean and 

oeiitury; and the campaig-iis of nearly all tho oouquerors iit 
the East have been gi-eatly influenced by disease, as is evident 
fix)m all historical records. 

The fate of Sennaclierib's army, when besieging" Jerusalem^ 
is graphically described in the Book of King-s: " And it came 
to pass that night, that the Angel of the Lord went out, and 
smote in the camp of the Assyrians mi hundred and fourscore 
and five thousand,: and ivhen they arose early in the morning, 
behold they were all dead eorp&es. So Sennacherib, King of 
Assyria, departed and went and returned, and dwelt at 
Nineveh.'" 

Eiohard Cceur-de-Lion got as far as a distant view of Jeru- 
salem, but failed to reach the city as his army was stricken 
with fever; Louis XI. landed in Egypt but lost a great portion 
of his host from dysenteiy and scurvy; and in recent times 
Napoleon, in one of the swiftest campaigns, marched across 
Sinai and besieged Acre; but plague, fever and ophthalmia. 
beset him, and he returned defeated, as did Sennacherib. 

In September, 1918, the British Army left the areas in which 
it had remained in front of Jerusalem for months, protected 
by every modern mietliod of sanitation. In the conquering rush 
that ended in the capture of Damascuis and Aleppo it passed 
through the plains of Sharon and Esdraelon, down the deadly 
valle}^ of Jezreel to the plague-stricken depths of the Jordan. 
Within a month hundreds were dead of malignant malaria and 
thousands were sick. If the advance had not been so swift 
and so crushing, AUenby wouM have met the fate of Richard 
CcBur-de-Lion. 

All this is by way of preamble, and is not really in m.j_ 
j)rovinco as an ophtlialmic surgeon; but history is fascinatingv 
especiall}^ in the East, only in so many cases the records are so 
tantalizingly incomplete. One would give anything to know 
definitely what plague defeated Sennacherib, or the details of 
the fever that crippled Richard ICoeur-de-Lion. Luckilj^ for us 
■^^'e do know more of Napoleon, for of all the armies that hav'? 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915—1918. 65 

entered Egypt, none has left a more complete record of its work 
than, his, and the memoii*s of his famous Surgeon-in-Chief, 
Larrey, are a model to all medical historians. 

But to come to my own subject. Egypt is the home of the blind, 
the squinting and the one-eyed. Little childi-en lie in their 
mother's arms with their disdiarging eyelids ringed with flies, 
and hardly a grown man or woman has two clear sightly eyes. 
Ophthalmia has been the curse of the oountrv^ since history 
began to be written, and it remains so to this day; and as it 
was in the time of Napoleon, so it is now. My object in 
writing this article is to put on record some account of the 
injuries and diseases of the eye among the British Army in 
Egypt in the recent campaign, and, in the matter of ophtlialmia, 
to contrast my experience with Larrey *s just over a hundred 
years ago . 

I propose, therefore, to give a short general account of oph- 
tliahnic surgery in Egypt for the four years 1915-1918, dealing 
almost exclusively with our own experiences and without refer- 
ence to eye work in the other theatres of war, giving tlie most 
attention to the affections which were the most important from 
the military point of view. 

Orgaxisatiox. 

I arrived in Egypt in September, 1915, and after a short 
preliminary tour of inspection among tlie hospitals in Egypt 
discussed with the Director of Medical Services, Force in Egypt, 
and the Principal Director of Medical Services, Forces in the 
Mediterranean, the general Hnes of policy upon which I should 
act. 

There were two main alternatives: (a) that a special oph- 
thahnio hospital should be established in Cairo, which should 
be under Imy general control, and to which all cases of gun shot 
injury should be &ent, and (b) that I should act strictly as a 
consultant and, not being attached to any one hospital, should 
be available for advice or assistance in any area or institution 
as occasion arose. 

PART III. ^ 



66 Ophthalmic Practice In the Mediierranean and 

After oonsideration of the various arguments I advised in 
favour oT t!lie latter alternative on the following grounds: (a) 
that under existing conditions it was almost impossible to collect 
all the operative eye work at one hospital without much delay 
and trouble,^ (b) that as far as my experience of twelve montlis' 
war work at home showed, ophtlialmic injuries Ave re but a small 
percentage of the total cases, and that the main duty of a mili- 
tary ophthahnio surg-eon wajs the comparatively dull, though 
very essential, work of testing defects of vision and errors- 
of refraction, (c) that to collect all the cream of the work for 
myself at one institution and to leave all the routine work to 
others seemed to me hardly fair, and at the same time not 
conducive to the establishment of an efficient or keen ophthalmic 
medical service. 

It seemed to me tliat every effort should be made to ensure 
that all ophthalmic specialists were competent and that they 
should then be encouraged to take the responsibility for all 
the work that chance brought their way, my services being 
available for advice or assistance if necessary. 

It soon also became quite apparent to me that the great problem 
of the campaign would be the standardisation, as far as possible, 
of all opinion and treatment, so that invaliding and classifica- 
tion should be uniform in every area. This end could not be 
achieved by regulations or instructions, as it was a matter of 
varying professional opinion, but only by a general interchange 
of views and personjal influence. This would necessitate my 
travelling continually, seeing the ophthalmic specialists at 
their work, and talking over matters with them informally. 

The Director of Medical Services, Force in Egypt, and the 
Principal Director of Medical Services, Forces in the Mediter- 
ranean, agreed with these views, and it was arranged that 
I should act purely as a consultant, visiting hospitals at regular 
intervals to see cases on Avhich my opinion might be asked, 
and advising the Directors of Medical Services on matters of 
g-eneral principle. It was also arranged that, as far as possible, 



Egyptian Expedithnarf/ Forces, 1915—1918. 67 

no officer or man should be invalided liome from Egypt for 
any affection of the eye Avithoiit my having seen the case and 
written a report for the Invaliding Medical Boards, which 
heretofore had often come to widely diffei-ent decisions on iden- 
tical or similar cases. 

This principle of unity of standard was later on extended 
much more Avidely by the general Standing Medical Boards 
in Cairo, Alexandria and Palestine, but am- account of those 
is outside the scope of this a,rticle. 

During the Gallipoli campaign considerable anxiety was felt 
hj the medical authorities in Egj-pt and in Mudros as to the 
ti-eatment of ophthalmic injuries, both as to Avhetlier cases of 
gunshot; wounds of the eye were being treated sufficiently early 
after the injmy, and also whether any risk of sympatlie^i^ 
ophthalmia was being inctu'red owing* to undue delay in the 
removal of damaged eyes. For this reason I ^vas, shortly, 
after my arrival in Egypt, instructed to proceed to Mudros 
and i*eport on ophthahnic arrangements there. On arrival at 
Mudros I found tliat owing to the prevailing naval and mili- 
tary difficulties it was purely a matter of chance where |[i 
soldier wounded on tlie Peninsula eventually ai-rived at a lios- 
j)ital. He was x^ut on a hospital ship and might be put off at 
IMudros or be carried on, without disembarking, either to 
Alexandria or Malta, in Avhich case he might not arrive at a 
hospital where he could see an eye specialist until a week or 
ten days had elapsed after the injury. As success in the 
treatment of injuries of tlie eye depends almost entirely on the 
rapidity with which the treatment is commenced after the injury, 
it seemed to me essential that all cases of ocular injury should 
be put ashore at Mudros, and not brought down to Egypt 
or Malta. There was at Mudros, in the 3rd Australian General 
Hospital, a most efficient ophthalmic dei^artment, under the eaiva 
of Major Lockhart Gibson, a Avell-known ophthalmic surgeon 
of Brisbane. The department Avas equipj)^d with a Haab's 
magnet, and an extensive outfit of instruments, and there was a 



68 Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 

skiagraphio department adjacent. It was apparent, therefore^ 
that the ideal aiTangement would be for all eye injuries from 
the Peninsula to be put ashore at Mudros and sent to the 3rd 
Australian General Hospital, where tliey would quickly receive 
skilled treatment under the best auspioes. On my making 
repiesentations to tliis effect to the Principal Director of Medical 
Services, Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, instructions were 
at onco issued that this should be done, and, until the evacua- 
tion of the Peninsula, every case of injury to the eye was, as 
far as military and naval exigencies permitted, disembarked at 
Mudros. 

Ophthalmic Work at Mudros. 

The following* extracts from Major Lockhart Gibson's report^ 

written just after the evacuation of the Peninsula, give some 

idea of the work done at Mudros in the last three months of 

the Gallipoli campaign: — 

The records of 126 eve cases (in-patients) have beea preserved., 
I am of opinion that a good many have gone astray. 

These cases may he classified into two large groups, viz., (1) Cg-ses 
neither directly nor indirectly attributable to explosive weapons, and 
(2) those attributable to shrapnel, bombs, 'and bullets, or to the 
indirect injuries (excoriations of the conjunctiva and cornea) from 
parapet sand and gravel, and the impaction of fragments of such sand 
and gravel in the cornea. Both groups are approximately equal, 
about 60 cases occurring in*^ each. 

Classifiea more particularly into anatomical groups (with an addi- 
tional group for foreign bodies in the eye and another for enu- 
cleations), it is found that no case of much importance falls outside 
one or other of these heads. As many eyes were injured in more 
than one part, ,such grouping brings the number of caseis up to 200 
or more. They weire as follows:— Conjunctiva 44, cornea 51, iris 
11, lens 13, vitreous and fundus 13, Bclerotic 7, lids 8, orbit 5, 
anterior chamber 4, foreign bodies 30, enucleations 14. 

There were 16 intra-oculax foreign* bodies, if we include two which 
were within the ©clerotic coat, but perhaps not witjiiu the choroid/ 
Of these, six (6) were removed. Three from' the anterior chamber, 
one through the sclerotic wound and from the vitreous chamber close 
to it: this one, a piece of steel, was not from an explosive weapon. 
Two removed were within the sclerotic, but probably not within the 
choroid. Six foreign bodies were left in situ. 



Egyptian Expeditionary/ Forces, 1915 — 1918. 69 

Of the six cases from which intra-ocular foreign bodies were re- 
moved, four saw as well as before, one saw 0/18 only, because other 
small erosions on the cornea had interfered with its transparency.. 
One had a traumatic cataract and required further discission. 

Of the six eyes retaininj^ their foreign bodie?, two had useful sight, 
viz., 6/12 and 6/18. One might regain sight after the lens had finished 
being absorbed, subsequent to further discission. One had no sight. 
One had no sight and would probably have, to come out. One, a 
Greek, Tefused to have the eye removed, although warned of the possible 
danger to the other eye. The eye contained two foreign bodies, had a 
partial traumatic cataract, and showed ciliory irritation at t/imes. He 
could count figures only. The Haab magnet failed to attract the 
foreign bodies. 

The remainder of th© 30 cases of eyes containing foreign bodies, 
included foreign bodies in the cornea and under the sclerotic and con- 
junctiva. Several of the eyes had iseveral foreign bodies. Many ocular 
foreign bodies were removed from out-patients who continued to be 
treated, if necessary, as out-patients. A peculiarity of the foreign 
bodies in the cornea was their depth. Many had practically reached 
Descemet's membrane, and it was with the greatest difficulty that 
they were removed. A spud in many cases was not sufficient, the 
point of a Graefe's knife being necessary. Another peculiarity was 
their minute size. Their size and Vilepth demonstrated the great force 
with which they had been projected, in contrast to the experience of 
civil practice, where small fragments do (not come with sufficient force 
to be embedded deeply in' the Cornea. Thej were composed of steely 
lead, nickel, and sand or gxavel. ihe eyes all did well, but the deep 
foreign bodies left permanent opaque scars. 

Two fair sized foreign bodies were found in the orbit. One, a piece 
of steel, had entered at the inner end of the eyebrow and was detected 
by X rays under thei roof of the orbit and fairly far back. The giant 
magnet pulled it forward under the conjunctiva of the upper fornix 
and then, the lid being everted, pulled it, without an incision being 
necessary, across an inch of space. The other foreign body had grooved 
the edge of conjunctival surface of the lower lid. The scar had 
healed, but there was discomfort in turning the eye up. An X ray 
detected the foreign body above the floor of the orbit and fairly far 
back. The giant magnet failed to icause any feelings of discomfort and 
failed to attract the foreign body. The discomfort gradually subsided, 
and the man rejoined his unit retaining the foreign body, his sight 
unaffected. 

The fourteen enucleations were all cases of eyes injured by pro- 
jectiles. They all did weU, although several had other injuries in 
addition to the eye injury. 

In no case had I to remove both eyes, but in one case the remain- 
ing eye was badly injured, and its retina became detached. It was 
blind, but might be kept and was not disfigured. 



"ii* Ophthalmic Pracfifc tn the Mecliterraneait amt 

In another, the second eye, like ,the one removed, also contained 
pieces of wood, 'and certainly required 'to .be excised, although the 
pieces of wood were removed. 

All the Pterygia (8) were large ones, and all in members of the 
A.I.F. Except in one case, where the growth was entirely removed, 
the lower half only was Temoved 'and tthe upper half detached, turned 
dowIl^vards and fixed tin the wound so left. This metliod was intro- 
duced, I believe, by Thos. Evans, of ,Sydnejy, and has been followed 
by me for many years when the pterygium is a large one. It en- 
sures against return, and should be the operation of choice. 

A severe case of isymblepharon had been operated on in England by 
transplantation of skin. The result was bad. A graft of lip mucous 
membrane, transplanted after removing the scar and the bunched up 
skin, held and the result was good. 

The cases of corneal ulceration were due to injury, to phlyctaenular 
inflammation, and to the results of acute conjunctivitis of a catarrhal 
nature. No cases of Gonorrhoeal Ophthalmia were seen. 

Three due to injury proved to be .severe infective ulcers, spreading 
and accompanied by hypop\''o,n and cjieniosis. One I failed to arrest 
even with the electro-tcautery. The eye had to be removed. ^ One, 
a Greek's, where the ulcer occupied fully 2/3rds of the cornea, with 
hypopyon and chemosis, was arrested by the electro-cautery, and a 
subsequent optical iridectomy gave the eye useful sight. 

The third case, in wliioli the ulcer was smaller but the chemosis 
extreme, and the hypopyon very marked, responded very quickly 
to the electro-cautery, and regained excellent sight. 

Injuries to the lens were accompanied by other injuries to the eyes. 
Amongst out-patients there were some peculiar lens opacities which 
may not have been congenital but due to shell concussion. There 
were also a good many cases of ordinary congenital lamellar cataract 
amongst the English troops. 

Under the head of Irisi were several icases with other injuries also. 
Tiie five most interesting were two operative and three iritis cases. 
Of the two operative cases, one was the Greek's eye above mentioned,, 
the other an eye in a young officer suffering from intermittent attacks 
of glaucoma. It was due to a penetrating injury to the upper cornea- 
scleral margin "during child birth." The pupil was occluded- and 
drawn up. A Very fine pin point slit at the edge of the occlude 
pupil allowed imperfect intraocular circulation, but at times became 
blocked, resulting in an attack of glaucoma with a shallow anterior 
chamber and bulging iris. These attacks had been vtry frequent 
latterly, and were becoming more Isevere. When comfortable the eye 
had minus tension. During the attack the tension was plus 1. 

An iridectomy not onh* relieved Mm from 'attacks and gave the eye 
a normal tension, but also, srave some isiglit to an eve which had never 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915 — 1918. 71 

seen more than bare light. It counted fingers at several yards, and 
might improve further. The patient was able to re-join his regiment 
without fear of other attacks. 

One lad who had been invalided back from Gallipoli had a central 
scotoma due to a subhyaloid hgemorrhage at the macula. He was 
admitted, and after a few days mild attacks of tertian malaria de- 
veloped and were confirmed by Miajor C. J. Martin's examination of 
a blood specimen. Be responded lat once to quinine. The subhyaloid 
haemorrhage may have been nothing more than a coincidence. The 
prognosis, judging from othea- cases of isubhyaloid haemorrliage in my 
experience, is hopeful regarding sight. Another case of haemonhage 
in the fundus occurred in an O.C., aged 51 years, of another unit. 
He had several haemorrliages into each retina and into one disc. No 
cause could be discovered. His urine was normal in every respect. 
It was surmised that the antiscorbutic or waii-beri-beri constituents of 
his diet may have been insuflBcicnt. He was treated accordingly, and. 
of course, invalided home. 

The conjimctival cases were catarrhal, phlyctaenular, traumatic and 
pterygial. Only one specimen of catarrhal secretion was sent to the 
pathologist, and was negative. The cases were often severe, and were 
frequent amongst the Greek population of the island, both adults and 
children. Some corneal ulceration wasf present in some of the Greeks 
and also in some of fthe troops when they were under observation. 
A lotion containing sulphate of zinc grains iii and boracic acid grains 
xii to the ounce of water acted practically as a specific. It caused 
improvement at once, and when the cases were not of long standing 
rapid cure resulted. Many catarrhal cases suffered, also, from phlyc- 
taenular conjunctivitis, and required yellow oxide of mercury in addi- 
tion. 

1 met with no case of Trachoma occurring in Lemnos. The lew 
cases seen had come from! Egypt, or were cases of recrudescence :ji 
Australians who had previously suffered. 

Although I can only say that two foreign bodies were removed 
by the giant magnet (one from the interior of the eye, and one ftom 
the orbit), which would have been diflScult or impossible to remove 
without so strong a magnet as llaab's, the knowledge and help given 
by it in other cases were so great that I should have been imperfectly 
equipped without it. Until it arrived I had only a Hirchberg's hand 
electric magnet (8 volt dry cells), and that enabled me to rescue 
one piece of steel from; an anterior chamber. But at least two cases 
might have been benefited had t(he giant magnet arrived sooner. That 
X rays also were not available during the first few weeks was a con- 
siderable handicap. 

The failure of hospital ships wliile in harbour to get tran.^porfc 
to land casualties diminished the numbjer of cases of injured eyes whioh 
should according to orders have come to mo from Gallipoli, 



72 Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 

Two things militated against the greater usefulness of the giant 
magnet, viz., the timje which' always elapsed before the cases arrived 
at Lemnos, and the minute size of the foreign bodies. In the case 
of small bodies the force with which the magnet attracted them was 
slight, and consequently any plastic lymph anchoring them in the 
eye was able to hold them. This was clearly demonstrated in the 
cases of a minutei pieces of steel lying between the lens and iris and 
attached to each by lymph. The magnet failed to bring it into the 
pupil's area. The lymph stretched, but did not relinquish its hold 
on the foreign bodyj. Itl was picked out of the anterior chamber by 
forceps after a" small iridictory. 

The only two eyes removed after failing to attract the contained 
foreign body by the giant magnet contained respectively a piece of 
lead and a jxiece of copper. 

The out-patients who came froni lother units and hospitals on the 
island and from] the ships in the bay averaged about 20 per day 
from 10th Septembier' to the first week in January. Notes of 1,004 
new ophthalmic out-patients were taken during that time. A large 
number of these were casesi of refraction, many of whom I found to 
be so benefited by glasses as to (be made efficient, whereas before they 
could not have been so. Most of fthem stated that no attempt had 
been made in England toi test their vision. I find that 254: prescrip- 
tions for glasses were given. I found after a time that many of these 
were not made use of, (and refrained from giving prescriptions unless 
the C.O.s said those given would be feent to an optician. Latterly 
the prescribing of spectacles was put on a very, satisfactory basis; 
partly, I think,, ;as a result of pay representations to General Bab tie. 
He ultinaately prevailed on the (War Office to supply the men with 
cylindrical as well as spherical glasses. 

The routine proposed by Greneral Babtie after consultation with 
Lieut. -Colonel Eason, whjo had also discussed the question with me, 
and adopted during my last few weeks in Lemnos, met all objections, 
and was as follows: — Prescriptions were sent to the Base Medical 
Depot at Alexandria, and were also entered in the last page of the 
man's pay book together with a statement of the amount of his vision 
without and with coTrection. Two 'pairs of spectacles were sent to 
the man's O.C. Breakages or loss were replaced by the man himself 
and without his return to the base. 

Major Herschell Harris gave me most valuable help by taking X 
ray pictures of eyes and foreign bodies or possible foreign bodies. 

Owing to the generosity of the Queensland Bed Cross Society, who 
cabled me ^200 to London for the purpose of equipping mj depart- 
ment, I was able to get all the instruments I required, including 
a Haab's magnet. 



Egyptian lExpeditionary Forces, 1915 — 1918. 73 

Egypt and Palestine. 

In Egypt the problem was, as I Iiave mentioned above, more 
one of man power, standardisation and invaliding than of active 
surgical treatment, and during the three and a-half years that 
I was attached to the Egyptian Expeditionary Force my efforts 
were directed to passing forward to the front line as many 
men as possible who, by tlie provision of suitable glasses for 
errori^ of refraction, might be made fit, and to preventing the 
passage down to the base of those complaining only of trivial 
injuries or defects. 

Owing to the location in Egypt of the big base general 
hospitals and of the base depots, the greater part of the eye 
work was done in Cairo and Alexandria; but as the campaign 
developed, and the Egyptian Expeditionary. Force advanced 
through Sinai into Palestine, an ophthalmic surg-eon was kept as 
near railhead as possible both to prevent cases of trivial or exag- 
gerated defects from g-etting down the line and to afford speedy 
treatment to ophthalmic casualties. 

At the time of the pause before the last advance from the 
neighbourhood of Jerusalem to Damascus the position of the 
ophthalmic specialists Avas so marked in the map (p. 74). The 
advance on Aleppo was followed so rapidly by the armistice 
and the cessation of hostilities that the map may be taken 
as showing the final stages in the organisation for dealing with 
ocular casualties and for the treatment of disea;8es of the eye. 

Statistics. 

Chart (1) shows oondensed statistics of nearly 33,000 eye cases 
seen during part of 1916 and the whole of 1917 and 1918. 
They are by no means exhaustive, as owing to the movement 
of units and changes in personnel any complete record was 
impossible to obtain. Such as they are, however, they illustrate 
very well the nature of the ophthalmic practice in Egypt and 
Palestine, and the proportion of the various cleusses of case 



74 Ophihabnic Practice in the Mediterranean and 





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Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915—1918. 75 

seen was so striking-lj constant at the various hospitals that the 
statistics may be fairly taken as accurately representative of 
the whole number of cases. 

Chart 1 . 




r 

t 



Mm 




^*- 5* 
'^^ ^ r: 



:* -. 



-fei^fe^l^^^^^^^^^^^^^^fe^ ••' 



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My observations on tliesC statistics will hi' ^^Mieral only and 
individual cases will not be quoted; for it is to be borne ia 
mind that I personally only acted as a consultant. While I 



76 Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 

liad a general and extensive survey, the aotual work was done 
hj others, and I leave to them the publication of any detailed 
clinical information with reference to the ca^es under their care. 

Errors of Refraction. 

It will be seen at once tliat cases of error of refraction and 
cases in which visual defects were oomplained of, but found on 
examination to be trivial or negligible (" nO' appreciable disease " 
or "N.A.D.") number 18,008 or 54-6 per cent. As in civil 
life, the foundation of the military ophthalmic surgeon's work 
is the estimation and correction of errors of refraction; but it 
is particularly with reference to refraction work that the medical 
officer accustomed solely to civilian practioe finds it difficult 
at first to look at the situation from a military point of view, 
for the following reasons: — When a patient presents himself 
for examination in civil Ufe, it is usually because he has some 
visual defect which he wishes corrected, either to gain an ap- 
pointment or to pass an examination, or because he suffers from 
some secondary affection, such as headache, which he wishes 
relieved. Under tbe circumstances he tries to see as well 'as 
possible with his glasses, he is anxious to be improved, and 
his frame of mind is one of active assistance to the surgeon. 
The converse is usually the case with the soldier. The visual 
defect from which he is suffering is often used by him as a 
possible means of avoiding active service, or if not actually 
of avoiding all service, of getting some lighter duty at the base 
or on the lines of communication. He therefore makes the 
most of his defect, instead of the least, and is not actively 
oonoerned with getting it improved with glasses. 

It was a source of great concern to some ophthalmic medical 
officers, on first taking up military work, to find such a sur- 
prisingly low average of visual acuity among-st the soldiers, 
especially when it was associated with a striking absence of 
high errors of refraction, or of organic disease. Experience 
soon showed that this low visual acuity was not to be con- 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915 — 1918. 77 

sidered seriously, and that if one found no great error af re- 
fraction, or organic disease, the strong presumption was that a 
man's vision was normal or tliereabouts, whatever he might 
say to the contrary. 

In this connection it may be remarked that the great diffi- 
culty of military ophthalmic practice is that in the majority of 
cases one is dealing with symptoms and statements only; defec- 
tive vision, headache, night blindness, intolerance of light, shell 
bHndness, all the common military ocular complaints, are diseases 
in which, one finds symptoms only with practically no physical 
signs. 

In cases of defective vision, not total bKndness, there jis 
no means of telling how much, a man sees, except from his own 
statements, and if he does not mean to see test types on a 
wall nothing will make him do so, and a proof that he doe^ 
see with any definite degree of visual acuity is almost im- 
possible. On general considerations, and by various dodges, 
one can form a very fair opinion of a man's hona fides, but 
there is seldom any proof which could be demonstrated to a 
third person. The decision is always one between what the 
ophthalmic surgeon thinks the soldier ought to see and what 
the soldier will confess to seeing, and between these two con- 
flicting opinions there may be no demonstrable judgment. 
Fortimately, in the estimation of ewom of refraction, retino- 
soopy affords a rapid and purely objective means of estimating 
the approximate extent of the soldier's visual defect, an(i if his 
statements as to his vision do not bear some relation to the 
nature and amount of his error he may in most oases be classi- 
fied a& a malingerer. 

The same considerations apply to nearly all the other con- 
ditions mentioned above. There is in every case the assertion 
of the patient as to what he can or cannot see, and a total 
absence of physical signs. Any decision as to the real facts 
of the case merely depends upon the credibility of the witness 
and the credulity of the observer. , 



IS Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 

For 1113' owji pill i, my experience during my Service foiu* yeai« 
(certainly an experience limited to a special class of ca-ses) 
has been to convince me of the profound truth, in another sense, 
of tlie old leg-al aphorism that " what the soldier said is not 
evidence"; the ophthalmic sui'geon who believes all that he 
is told by soldiers and writes papers on war diseases which 
consist solely of symptoms is merely writing romance. 

Spectacles. 

Our experience in Egypt was in general that obtained by 
the ophthalmio surgeons in France. 

Unless a soldier gets an obvious improvement in vision by 
the use of spectacles he will probably nqt trouble to wear tbem. 
Myopes of moderate degree are most benefited by spectacles, 
and are the most grateful for them. Hypermetropia and astig- 
matism up to about two dioptreis make very little difference 
to the visual acuity, and even with high degrees of mixed 
astigmatism vision without glasses may be as good as 6/12, 
as anyone may ascertain . from actual experiment with the 
appropriate lenses. 

Men witli low degrees of myopia and myopic astigmatism 
saAv well in the brilliant light of Egypt and did not complain 
of glare, but soldiem with hypermetropia and hypermetropic 
astigmatism did suffer to a considerable extent from the sun 
and from reflection from the sand. 

In my opinion the standards of vision for A class men as 
laid down in tlie pre-war regulations and in subsequent Army 
Council Instructions were much too stringent in view of tlie 
demand for men, and on my advice the Director of Medical 
Services, Egyptian Expeditionary Force, in 1916 agreed that 
for serving soldiers the standard of vision in Egypt for A class 
men sliould be as follows: — 

// a man, in the opinion of the medioal officer, can see 
6/24 with or withoiU glasses in the right eye and can count 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915 — 1918, 79 

figures at 3 feet or niore wUh the left eye and there is •}ii7 
organic disease of the eye, he shall be considered fit for 
Class A. 

This was issued, with other informatiou, in a pamphlet en- 
titled " Regulations with reference to the Prescription of Spec-, 
tacles in the Eg^^ptian Expeditionary Force," and was in force 
for over two years, with the result that many men hitherto 
classified B were re-classified A, and serTed satisfactorily in 
front line units. 

In December, 1917, in response to an enquiry from the War 
OflSce as to why so many spectacles were being supplied to 
soldiers in Egypt, I drafted a memorandum, in which I in- 
formed the Director of Medical Services that there wei-e three 
factors which affected or controlled the demand for spectacles 
in the Army in Egypt: — 

1 . The necessity for man-power, or for making every possible 
man fit for Class A. 

2. The quality of the drafts from England and the thorough- 
ness with which their visual defects had been corrected in 
England. • 

3. The necessity for as much economy as possible in the 
prescription of spectacles, both in view of the difficulty of 
obtaining supplies from England, and of the cost to the public. 

The first factor was, in my opinion, of paramount importance. 
The great demand for the supply of spectacles was due, in 
the experience of both Colonel Barrett and myself, acting as 
Presidents of Classification Boards, to the widespread and 
thorough overhauling of all imits in Eg;>^pt as the result of the 
Man Power Report. 

At the Classification Boards there came before both of us 
larg-^e numbers of men who had hitherto been classified, nearly 
always in England, B Class for defective vision, with no entiy 
in their paybooks as to the amoimt of the defect. These were 
all referred at once to the ophthalmic surgeons, and if any 



80 Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 

serious defects of vision were found, spectacles were ordered, 
either to make them fit, witli specitacles, for Class A, or in 
Class B for guard duties either day or night. If this were not 
done, many men drifted automatically into Class B(3), where 
they were practically Uiseless as soldiers. 

The drafts from England arriving in the later years of the 
war were not up to the former physical standard in any respecti, 
and the percentage of visual defects among them was higher. 
This entailed an increased supply of spectacles for the purpose 
of remedying the visual defects which should have been cor- 
rected in England before^ the men were sent overseas. If 
recruits had been examined in England and their visual defects 
corrected there, the demand for spectacles in Egypt would have 
been very greatly diminished. I also made the following 
Criticisms on the visual standards then in force for A class 
men: — 

The latest standard of vision for A Class men is that laid 
down in Army Council Instruction No. 211 dated 4th February, 
1917, viz: that if a man's vision is 6/24 in one eye, without 
glasses, and his right eye can be brought up to 6/12 with' 
glasses, he will be considered fit for Category A. 

The standard of vision mentioned above is, in my opinion, 
much too stringent, and is still in the nature of a timid com- 
promise between the old pre-war standard of 6/24 in each eye 
without glasses, and modern conditions where glasses are per- 
mitted and are supplied at Grovemment expense. 

If spectacles are permitted, the vision of a soldier without 
glasses is immaterial, for his vision with glasses is the only 
thing which matters. Probably some standard of vision with- 
out glasses is still clung to, owing to the fear that if a soldier 
loses his glasses he will lose himself or become utterly helpless. 
This fear is entirely groundless, for there is practically no error 
of refraction, excluding ocular disease, which will be sufficient 
to stop a soldier finding his way about until a new pair can 
be obtained for him, and even supposing he were incapEicitated' 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915—1918. 81 

for th.o time being, he is no woise off than a soldier with a 
sprained ankle, or other trivial injury which prevents hini getting 
about. My oontention is that the degi-ee of error of refraction 
and the vision without glasses are immaterial, and that so long 
as a soldier has good vision with glasses, and has no organic 
ocular disease, he is fit for A Class duty. Moreover, tlie 
standard of vision 6/24 in one eye without glasses is inconsis- 
tent with the regulations as to the limits of spectacles per- 
missible. For example, to quote my own individual case, 
which illustrates the difficulty very well. I hav^ -75 Dsph with 
•75 Dcyl of myopic astigmatism, and witli this my unaided 
vision is just about 6/24. According to the War Office regula- 
tions, I could not be ordered tlie necessary spectacles to bring 
my vision up to Q/Q, as spectacles of this strength are not 
allowed by para c (1), Ai-my Council Instruction No. 1371 
Qf 6th September, 1917.* With any higher amount of myopia, 
or myopic astigmatism, I should be permitted to have spectacles 
at Government expense, but owing to the fact that my visual 
acuity would in that case not reach 6/24 in either eye without 
glasses, I should not be considered fit for duty, Class A. 

Hence it is evident that no myopes for whom glasses can 
be ordered under War Office regulations can be Class A, 

♦Limits of spectaxiles to be supplied to soldiers at the public expense. 

(a) No simple spherical lens will be supplied of a less strength 
than 1-00 dioptre, or of 'a gT€ia;t©r strength than 18-00 dioptres. 

(b) No simple cylindrical lens will be supplied of a less strength 
than 1-00 dioptre, (or of a greater strength than 6-00 dioptres. 

(c) No sphero-cylindrical lens wiU be supplied having before or 
after transposition: — 

(1) One of its component parts less than OoO dioptre, and 
the other component part less ifchan 1*00 dioptre; 

(2) A combined strength greater than 18-00 dioptres; or 

(3) A cylindrical strength greater than 6-00 dioptres. 

(d} No sphero-cylindrical lens will be supplied with a concave 
spherical surface and a convex cylindrical surface. 

(e) No quarter-dioptre lenses will be suppUed above 300 dioptres, 
and no half-dioptre lenses above 6-00 dioptres. 

CA.C.l. No. 1371 dated 6/9/17). ' , 

PART III. F 



82 OphflHthi/ir Prncfice in the Mediterranean and 

though thoy, of all classes of men sufferino- from visual defecte, 
are the most henefited by spectacles, and are the most useful. 
A myope can, at any rate, read easily without glasses, while 
a man with a mixed astigmatism or h} permetropia not only 
does not see well at a distance, but cannot read well. 

Hence, in view of the urgency of obtaining all the available 
men for Class A under the Man Power Report, the medical 
authorities in Egypt have agreed, on my advice, to modify the 
stringent Class A standard laid down in Army Council Instruc- 
tion No. 211 dated 4tli February, 1917, and have ignored the 
soldier's vision witbout glasses, paying a.ttention solely to his 
vision when properly corrected. If the Army Council Instruction 
in question had been rigidly observed in Egypt, hundreds of 
soldiers Avho are serving quite efficiently in Class A would have 
been automatically graded as Class B. 

As 6/24 was sufiicient vision in the old days before the war, 
when the Army could pick and choose its men, why limit Class 
A to men -vVhose vision is not less than 6/12 with glasses? 
I entirely agree Avith. tlie remarks of the Director General of 
Army Medical Services* with reference to glasses and consider 
that in modern warfare a man with vision of 6/24 witli glasses 
has quite sufficient sight for Clasis A. 

♦Extract from War • Office Letter No. 24/Gen. No./4906/(A.M.D.3.) 
dated 15/5/1916. 

"1. With reference to the Scheme for the issue of spectacles to 
troops, I am directed to inform you that in many cases it would appear 
that soldiers are ordered glasses quite unnecessarily. I am accord- 
ingly to submit the following remarks for the guidance of all con- 
cerned, and to point out that the conclusions arrived at are the result 
of the experience gained by ophthalmic surgeons at the front in France, 
after the examination of many thousands of men sent down from the 
firing line complaining of defective visioin. 

2. As far as infantry are concerned, this is at present chiefly a 
war of ' bombs ' and hand and rifle ' grenades,' and a high standard 
of marksmanship in every individual infantryman is not essential; some 
good marksmen are required as snipers, but the company officer has 
always a sufficient nuni'tj.er of men under his. command for that puxpose^ 
It should also toe borne in mind that battalions are, as a rule, only 
9 or 10 days in the trenches, and are tihen 6 or 6 days back beihiad 
the firing line ' resting. ' As regards artillery, and the requirements of 
vision of gunners, shooting is dcme by map and telephone." 



t^gUptian Expeditionary Forces, 19] 5 -1918. 83 

Finally, and by no means the least important question, it 
mii^t be remembered that a man's vision a/s determined by test 
types is no more and no less than what a man chooses to 
admit; and too much stress should not be laid on apparently 
poor visual acuity, especially when a man is being tested for 
classification purposes. Much more importance- should be 
attached to the Medical Officer's opinion as to tlie presence 
or absence of any great error of i-efraction, or of organic disea-se 
as determined by objective examination; the presumption being 
that in the absence of disease a man with a properly corrected 
error of refraction should see enough for Army purposes. 

In August, 1917, another Director of Medical Services, not- 
withstanding the fact that hundreds of officei^ were at tliati 
time serving satisfactorily as " A " Class wearing spectacles 
and with vision below that of the old pre-war standard, directed 
me that " The standard of vision for candidates for Commissions 
is as laid down in the regulations for the Royal Army Medical 
Service, and must not be departed from," (i.e., the old pre-war 
standard). • 

In May, 1918, a subsequent Director of Medical Services in- 
structed me that the regulations with regard to vision for " A " 
Class men Avhich had hitherto been in force in Egj^pt must b© 
abandoned, and that the Army Council Instructions must be 
strictly adhered to. In reply to this Jettiar I wrote that I deeply 
regi-etted this decision, for, b}'^ a stroke of the pen, \he policy 
of the last two and a-half years in Egypt would be abandoned. 

England had been at war for nearly four years, and was 
fighting, to a certain extent, with its back to the \vall, and 
depending above all thing-s on man-iK)wer, or the necessity of 
obtaining for the fighting line every man Avho was fit for that 
pui'pose. It was from this point of view, and this point of 
view alone, that I had e\^r since I arrived in Egypt looked at 
the problem of soldiers' vision, and it was for this reason that 
I deplored a decision that would have the result not only of 
removing thousands of men from front line units in Egypt to 



84 Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 

Garrison Battalions and i-earward formajtions, but also of pre- 
venting hundreds of men in Egyi>t and thousands of men in 
England from being justlj raised from a lower categorj^ to 
Class A. 

I informed him that in 1917 over 6,000 soldiers were tested 
in Egypt for defective vision, and were in the great majority 
of oases ordered spectacles either at their own or at the 
Government expense. For reasons which I have mentioned 
above practically all soldiers suffering from myopia or myopic 
astigmatism would be affected by the decision. Over 2,200 
myopes were examined during 1917, and in the great majority of 
cases raised to Class A by the provision of glasses. A fair pro- 
portion of the remainder, who would now be B, were also 
made into " A " Class men, so that it was probable that the 
number of men in the Egyptian Expeditionary Force then " A " 
Class, and, as far as my experience went, serving in thali 
capacity satisfactorily and well, was over 3,000, and all these 
would, if his instructions were carried out, be turned into " B" 
Class men forthwith. These figures, relating to a comparatively 
small theatre of war, were^ to me sufficiently serious to justify 
my asking him to request the War Office seriously to re -consider 
the question of revising the standards of vision for " A " Class 
men, to make them accord at any rate to some extent, with 
existing needs and oonditionjs, and with reasonable views of 
how defective vision due to errors of refraction really affect 
a soldier's efficiency. 

I also said that I viewed with dismay the attitude of the 
War Office in persisting in a standard of vision which, in these 
days of necessity, was far too stringent and entirely out of 
date; a standard which, as far as I knew, was not 
adhered to in any other .Continental Army. My experience with 
German prisoners was that the Germans, wise in their genera- 
tion, had accepted the logical position which I had always 
urged, that provided a soldier saw sufficiently with glasses 
and had eyes that were free from disease, his vision without 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915—1918. 85 

glasses did not matter in the least. In view of the existing 
necessity for man-power, urgent in England and at lea^t as 
urgent in Egypt, I did not wish as Consulting Ophthalmic 
Surgeon to the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, to have any 
responsibility in, or let pass without emphatic protest, a regula- 
tion which, in my professional opinion, was depriving the fight- 
ing forces of the Army in Egj-pt and Palestine o'f thousands 
of entirely efficient soldiers. 

Fortunately for the Army in Egypt, a new Army Council 
Instruction (No. 421 dated April 21st, 1918) arrived almost 
immediately, and Avent a long way towards meeting my objec- 
tions. 

In particular the last paragraph entirely justified my attitude. 
It was as follows: — 

" In re-testing the vision of serving soldiers the standard 
will be the same as for recruits, hut men who Tiav^ heem 
found capable \of carrying out their duties efficiently need not 
necessarily be placed in a lower category on account of their 
eyesight "iwt being equal to the standard laid down for the 
category in which they are serving.'' 

Thus in one short sentence it was admitted that soldiers with' 
vision belov.- the standards laid down could be efficient soldiers, 
and the result of the paragraph was virtually to negative the 
standards to which it referred. 

Thus matters stood at the time of Uie Armistice, and in my, 
opinion it is a matter of the utmost importance that, in view 
of the' information gained in this war some new regulations 
should be drafted with reference to soldiers' vision which should 
be in accord with modern conditions of warfare. 

Ophthalmia. 

Ophthalmia in Egypt. — Traclioma is endemic in Egypt and 
is practically universal. According to the reports of the Public 
Health Department of Egypt approximately 80 per cent, of 



86 Ophthalmic. Prarfirp in the Mediterranean (iiid 

population sutior, or liavo isuft'ered, from traclioiua, and 20 per 
cent, are consid-ered to be infectious. In the fourth annual 
report of the Ophthalmic Section of the Department of Public 
Health (1916), by Dr. A. F. MacCallan, Director of Ophthalmic 
Hospit-als, it is stated that the percentage incidence of trachoma 
in primary schools inspected by him varied from 80 per cent. 
at Assiut to 100 \yeY cent, at Shebin-el-Kom. Of 68, .'304 ]>ati9nts 
treated at the Public Health Department Ophthahnic Hosjiitals 
during- 1916, 63,051 were found to be sufferino- from trachoma. 

Acuto non-trachomatous ophtlialmia in Eg-y])t is due to the 
Koch-Weeks bacillus, the diploooocus of Morax Axenfeld, or to 
the g^nococcus. Of 7,804 bacteriological examinatioiiis of cases 
of ophthahiiia in the Public Health Department Ophthalmia 
Hospitals in 1916, 3,648 or 46 per cent, were found to be due 
to the gonococcus, and 1,842 or 23 per cent, to the Koch-Weeks 
bacillus The Morax- Axenfeld diplobacillus was found in 801 
cases, or 12 per cent. 

The gonococcus is rarely met with in the winter months, 
January, February, March and April; its activity becomes 
awakened in May, and this increases in June, July and August, 
reaching a maximum in September. Afterwards a fall occurs, 
which persists until the end of the year. A comparison of the 
ciu?ves of temperature and of gonococcal incidence shows tliat 
the change in temperature precedes by two montlis the chang-es 
in gonococcal activity (Chart 2). 

No relation can be made out between gonococcal activity 
and the relative humidity or the level of the Nile, though the 
rise of tlie Nile is approximately coincident with seasonal 
increase in ophthalmia. 

The activities of the Koch-Weeks bacillus and the Morax- 
Axenfeld bacillus, Avhile showing sieasonal variations, do not 
show coincidence with the variations in temperature. 

The acute non -trachomatous ophthalmia of Egypt is very 
destructive, and leads to a high percentage of blindness, owing 
tjo corneal ulcer and perforation, leucoma adherens and subse- 
quent glaucoma. 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915—1918. 



Chart 2. 



OPHTHALMIA. IN ECVPT 

Curves showing Variations of TemperaUire and Gonococcal Conjunctivitis 

(MacCallan) 



! P<r ccnt*cttcs 
i Tolil 47*1 


m. 


FEI 


HtR. 


AM. 


MIT 


JUKI 


1 
juir luc 


${fl •- 


K1 


NOT 


0(C 


Temp 
. C 


1 30 
























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30 


29 


























29 


' 28 


























2« 


27 
















^ 










27 


26 












r 


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28 


25 












/ 






\ 








2S 


9A 








1 

1 


/ 






\ 








24. 1 


23 












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) 


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23 


22 










J 

1 








\ 






2? 


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\ 






21 


20 








/^ 


s/ 










\ 




20 


\9 








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t8 


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o 


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-• 


















— 1 























__ 









Temperalure in degrets centigrade, 1917 

Per cent of cases in each month o( total 4791. 1917. 



88 Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 

According to Dr. MacCallan's figureiS for 1916, of his 68,304 
ophthalmic cases there were 3,699 cases of simple ulcer of the 
cornea, 303 of hypopyon ulcer, 1,330 of perforation of the 
cornea, 28,568 with simple leucoma, 4,982 with adherent leu- 
coma, 2,462 with total opacity of the cornea, and 1,257* case^ 
of staphyloma. There were 129 cases of panophthalmitis. 

Ophthalmia among Napoleon's Troops^ 1799-1801. — It is a 
matter of common belief that tlie epidemic of ophthalmia, which 
affected so disastrously Napoleon's troops in his Egyptian cam- 
paign, was trachomatous in character. 

In his well-known text book on ophthalmology, Fuchs says: 

It was at the commencement of the last century that Trachoma 
began, to attract the attention of physicians to any great degree* 
It was then that thei disease first ishowed itself as an epidemic among 
the European Armies (Ophthalmia Militaris). People were of the 
opinion that it had been introduced into Europe from Egypt (hence 
Ophthalmia Aegyptiaca) by Napoleon I. For wlien the latter, in 
July, 1798, landed in Egypt with an army of thirty-two thousand men, 
most of the soldiers were very soon attacked by a very violent Oph- 
thalmia, and these were supposed to have brought with them in their 
return to Europe the disease which was formerly confined to Egypt. 
Subsequent historical researche;s, however, have ehofvvn that the disease 
had already been endemic in Europe since iantiquity. It is mentioned 
in the Ebers papyrus and in a pseudo-Hippocratic manuscript. Celsus 
gives a good description of the roughness fof the lids and the purulent 
discharge that it occasions. Eor treatment, the ancients employed 
scarification of the conjunctiva, which is still to-day made use of by 
some, and which wag accomplished both by means of various instru- 
ments and also by friction with fig leaves. 

From time immemorial, then, trachoma has existed in Europe as 
an endemic disease. But when by reason of the Napoleonic wars the 
armies came so repeatedly in contact with each other and with the 
civil population, the disease became inore widely disseminated and 
occurred in epidemics. In some countries it became frightfully pre- 
valent. In the English Army, during the year 1818, there were; 
more than 5,000 on the invalid list, who had been rendered blind 
as a consequence of trachoma. In the Prussian Army from 1813 to 
1817, 20,000 to 30,000 men were attacked' with it; in the Eussian 
Army, from 1816 to 1839, 76,811 men were subjects of the disease. 
In Belgium in 1840, onei out of fevery five soldiers was affected with 
trachoma. The French Army, which was supposed to form the starting 
poiat of the disease, wasi just one that relatively speaking was least 
attacked. The armies disseminated trachoma among the civil popula- 



Egyptmn Expeditionary Forces, 1915 — 1918. 89 

tion througli the discliarge of soldiers affected with eye disease^, 
through the quartering of troops, etc. Wjhen they had so many tra- 
chomatous soldiers in the Belgian Army that they did not know what 
to do, the Government applied to Jungken, who was at that time a 
celebrat-ed ophthalmologist in Berlin. He recommended them to dismiss 
the trachomatous soldiers to their homes. By means of this fatal 
measure, trachoma soon became diffused in Belgium to an extent that 
has been observed in no other European state. 

With reference to the epidemic of Ophthalmia which affected 
Napoleon's troops in , Egypt a little over 100 years ago, I have 
consulted the original accounts. These are given in ^reat detail, 
and in picturesque language by his famous Surgeon-in-Chief, 
D. J. Larrey, afterwards made a Baron of the First Empire 
and Senior Surgeon to the Old Guard. 

A copj; of Larrey 's work, " Memoires de Chirurgie Militaii-e 
et Campagnes " (Paris 1812), is in the Library of the Kasr- 
el-Aini Medical School at Cairo, with a dedication in his own 
handwriting, " Offert au premier medicin de S.A. le pacha 
d'Egypte, hommage de I'auteur D. J. Larrey." 

Larrey was appointed Surgeon-in-Chief to Napoleon's Egyp- 
tian Expeditionary Force in 1798. He says that, realising 
the importance of being made Surgeon-in-Chief to an expe- 
ditionary force of 30,000 soldiers, his first step was to collect 
a medical staff, which he did hj writing to the schools of 
medicine of Montpellier and Toulouse. By this means he col- 
lected 108 medical officers. 

Before leaving Marseilles he gave them a preliminary course 
of instruction, and collected, as far as he • was able, a full 
equipment of medical stores and instruments. The expedition 
left Marseilles on the 13th May, 1798, and arrived at Toulon 
on the 19th May. From Toulon it took 21 days to reach Malta, 
where the army disembarked on the 10th June. They left 
Malta on the 18th June, and arrived 12, days later before 
Alexandria, which was stormed and taken next day. In this 
action General Kleber was wounded, and he was subsequently 
left behind in command of the garrison which remained at 



90 ()it/i/h(f/inic I'ntcHrc in the Med'tlerranean and 

Ak'xundiiii. On tli« Gtli July Napoloon, and with liini Laiiey,. 

started out for Cairo. To use Larrej's own words: — 

The army sot out without provisions and without water, into the 
arid deserts which border Lybia and only arrived with greatest diffi- 
culty, on the fifth day of the march to the first place in the interior 
of Egypt offering any resource-!, Damanhour. Never has an army had' 
to endure such privations or undergo such dangers. Stricken by the 
rays of a burning sun, marching on foot on sands still more burning, 
crossing immense and dusty plains, where there were to be found onh* 
a few ditches of muddy water, almost isolid, the hardiest soldiers, con- 
sumed by thirst and heat, succumbed under the weight of their equip- 
ment. • ' ' 

Napoleon i-eached the Nile at Rahmaneah, and proceeding 
by tJie left bank of the Nile reached Chebreissa on the 13th 
July. A further march, then the battle of the Pyramids near 
Embabeh, a suburb of Cairo, and on the 25th July Napoleon 
toolv posiseission of Cairo and of the Citadel. Larrey went 
off to the Sharkieh Province with Napoleon in pursuit 0f 
Ibrahim Bej^, and on liis return to Cairo, a few weeks later,, 
heard the news of the Battle of the Nile at Aboukir, and 
of its disastrous results to the French Fleet. On his return 
to Cairo he organised the Surgical Service, and formed in the- 
principal hospital a school of practical surgery for the young 
siu'g^eons in the Army. In his own words, writing in 1812:— 

I supervised with care the 'trea,tment of the wounded and of those 
affected by diseases oif tjiiei eyie, for ophthalmia had already appeared' 
and commenced to spread (it was the time of the overflow of the 
Nile). Desaix's Division, which remained a long while embarked on 
this river in Upper Egypt, furnished the greater numbetr of cases of 
ophthalmia. The physicians land Isurgeons who had to treat this disease- 
were not in agreement as to the causes which produced it or the means 
it was necessary to employ to deal with it. The quacks, who prac- 
ticed in the country, pretending that they alone understood an affec- 
tion due to their climate, imposed on the credulity of many soldiers 
who were attacked, and this caused many of them to lose their sight. 
These considerations led me to publish, on the subject of this malady, 
a memoir which I addressed to my colleagues, the Senior Surgeons,, 
to define the treatment by which it was necessary to deal with the 
disease, and this I communicated to the Institute of Cairo. I am now 
offering the contents of the memoir with some additions I have had 
occasion to add /subsequently. The principles which it embodies were- 
put into practice after publication, with so Inuch success that these- 
diseases became in consequence, even in the hands of junior medical' 
oflScers, most simple and easy to treat. 



Egyptian Expeditionar?/ Forces, 191 o -1918. 91 

After some prolong^ed stay in Cairo, Napoleon started for 
Syria on tlie 9tli February, 1799, and marched fii-st into the- 
Sliarkieh Province. After the battle of Salhieh, on the eastern 
edge of tlie Delta, Larrey went with a company- of Camel Coq^s 
to El Arish to join the advance g*iiard and to look after some- 
casualties which had; occurred in the attack on El Arish itself. 
On the 28th Februarj, Napoleon arrived at El Arish and started 
for Syria, passing through places whose names are familiar 
to all who have fought their way across Sinai into Palestine 
in the present campaign. He passed through Rafa, Khan 
Yunus and Gaza, and, by way of Esdud and Ramleh, arrived 
at Jaffa, on the 5th March. On the lotli March he left for 
Acre, Larrey having- accompanied him the whole way from El 
Arish. There is no room in this short article to give any 
account of the siege of Acre, which ended so disastrously for 
Nai^oleon's Syrian campaign, of the harassing waHare to which 
he was subjected by the Arabs, or of the outbreak of plague 
which so seriously affected his troops. It is only interesting* 
to note that Larrey relates that all the wounded were evacuated 
during this period, as they have been in this camfpaign, to 
Egypt, and that by the timfe the Army eventually evacuated 
Syria 800 had been &ent across the desert of Sinai by cam(el 
convoy, and 1,200 had been sent by sea, the miajority being 
embarked at Jaffa. On the 21st and 22nd May, Napoleon's 
army finally left Syria for Egypt, passing on its way through 
Caesarea, Jaffa, Gaza, El Arish, Katia, Salhieh, and Bilbois. 
Napoleon returned to Cairo, and tlien, on hearing that an army 
of 20,000 Turks had descended on Aboukir, left for Alexandria. 
The land battle of Aboukir was fought, and subsequently on 
the 22nd August Napoleon, on the pretext of making an in- 
s]>ection of the northern coast of Egy[)t, embarked and left 
surreptitiously for France. Larrey remained in Egypt with 
Kleber, and he relates that in the month of Juno, 1801, the 
troops outside Alexandria Avere once more severely attacked by 
ophthalmia. Ajs he says: — 

The occurrence of a north-north-west wind, and the overflow of 
Lake Ma'dvch. who^o wntors innnflMt<vl onr o:im|>. rnn^od fi ].r<.Mnnnccd 



92 Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 

outbreak of ophthalmia, and morei than 3,000 individuals passed suc- 
cessively through the hospital. This outbreak was treated promptly, 
and with great success, but was foUowod by an outbreak of scurvy. 

H© notes that tliis piajcticular outbreak of ophthalmia \va« 
followed in many cases by the formation of pterygia. 

In August, 1801, the English and Turks attacked Alexandria 
and on the Slst August Alexandria capitulated and an armistice 
■was signed. Larrey took this opportunity pf visiting the English 
Camp, and obtained from Dr. McGregor an interesting report 
as to the losses of the European and Indian troops during their 
stay at Rosetta and Alexandria. It appears that of 7,886 men 
who composed the English Expeditionary Force, 158 had been 
sent home to England either blind or crippled. On October 
17th Larrey left Egypt with the Army for France, tuid 
Napoleon's Egyptian campaign was over. 

Throughout his description of the expedition, Larrey em- 
phasises the fact that ophthalmia was one of the most serious 
affections ta which the Army was subject, and, in his subse- 
quent memoir, he discusses the symptoms in great detail. 

To quote his actual words: — 

The eyes, having been struck isuddenly by the blazing light of the 
sun, either direct or refl.ected from the glaring white soil of Egypt!, 
have immediately felt the effects of the stoppage of the cutaneous 
perspiration during the cold nights, land the result has been an obstinate 
ophthalmia, and, with a fair number of persons, complete blindness.) 
1 will enumerate the symptoms which arose. Swelling of the lids and 
of the conjunctiva, and sometimes of the coats of the eye; extreme 
local pain, attributed by the patjient to the presence of grains of 
sand (these are dilated vessels); diminution of vision and inability 
to stand a bright light. To these first symptoms soon succeeded 
violent headaches, giddiness and insomnia. The few tears which are 
secreted are bitter and irritate the lids and puncta lachrymalia. All 
these symptoms are aggraved and lare frequently followed by fever, 
sometimes even by delirium. The disease reaches its crisis on the third 
or fourth day, sooner with some individuals, later with others. The 
termination varies. When it is inflammatory and is left solely to the 
resources of nature, there form ordinaa-ily towards the sixth or seventh 
day points of suppuration on the edges of the lids, on the external 
surface and at the angles. The ulcers spread by degrees on to the 
conjunctiva, attack the cornea and often perforate it. Sometimes the 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915 — 1918. 93 

cornea gives way suddenly, without Tilceration ; I have seen several 
such cases. The rupture occurred within the first 21 hours, when the 
conjunctiva was hardly red, and it is difficult to understand the cause 
of this rapid and spontaneous trupture. We content ourselves with ob- 
sei'ving the phenomena which hav€| occurred in Egypt, and the effects 
which have been produced. The opening which resulted is round and 
of a diameter almost the sajne vi all the patients who have been at- 
tacked. It allows the passage of a portion of Descemet's membrane 
or of the iris, and forms a hernia, known by the name of staphyloma. 
The swelling formed by Descemet's membrane is a dull grey {gris 
terne), that of the iris of a darker colour. This swelling is painful 
to the lightest toluch of outside objects, and to %h.Q rubbing of tho 
lids. The vision during the early days is more or less diminished, 
according as the pupU is partly or entirely obscured; but generally 
the staphyloma shrinks by degrees, goes back into the anterior cham- 
ber, and the membranes resume their previous positions. Sometimes 
there remains a small portion outside, ,which is strangled by the closing 
of the aperture, loses its sensiitiveiaess, and acquires a certain tough- 
ness, or else it Swellsf aad divides into several globules and takes on 
a, carcinomatous character, especially if there is any complication of 
venereal disease. 

Larrey proceeds to reoount that the perforation was often 
followed by the loss of the lens and the viti-eous, and that 
the eye subsequently shrinks. 

Hyopyon was rarely present. Leucomata were frequent, 
often complete, and followed by total blindness. The tarsal 
cartilages mere rarely affected* In general, the ophthalmia 
weakened the sight, and predis]30sed to catai-act, lachrj^mal 
fistula and glaucoma, and was often followed by night-blindness 
and " gutta serena." (In tlie cases of night-blindness and 
glaucoma, they employed with success a moxa on the principal 
branches of the lesser sympathetic nerve (nerf fascial) ). 

Larrey attributes the ophthalmia to tlie burning heat of the- 
day, the reflection of the rays of the sun from the eartih, 
immoderate consumption of alcohol and venereal excess, the 
dust in the air, and the checking of the cutaneous perepiration 
by the cold night air. He notes that blonde men were more 
frequently attacked than brunettes, and that the right eye was- 
affected more than the left. Xeai-ly all who lost tlie sight of 

♦The italics are mine. — ^H.L.E. 



•94 (}ph/h(ih/ii( Pidc/icc III IIh' Mcditcinnirdn. and 

Olio ayQ lost. tliJ si<?ht of the lig-lit. He attributes this in part 
to the fact that, as most paople sleep on tha right side, tliat part 
is most affected by the humidity of the earth. 

()j>litlialinia was also most prevalent during the overfiijw 
of the Nile. It was also remarked that suppression of gonorr- 
hoea frequently produced ophthalmia, and that the best way to 
establish a cure was to re-establisli the urethral discharge. The 
ti-eatment advocated included bieading, leaches on the temples, 
hot footbaths, a lotion of a strong deooction of linseed, poppy- 
heads and saffron, also compi-esses of tow soaked in white of 
^^^^ and rosewater and some grains of sulphate of alum and' 
camphor, applied every evening. In the later stag^es, lotions 
of acetate of lead, mercuric chloride, sulphate of copper, or 
sulphate of zinc were used. 

Ulcers of the lids were treated with an ointment for which 
he gives the following prescription: — * 

Cerate of wax and almond oil, oz.i. 

Red oxide of mercury, gr.iv. 

Oxide of zinc, gr.xvi. 

Camphor dissolved in the yolli of an Qg^, gr.iv. 

Cochineal paste, gr.viii. 

Oriental saffron, gr.vi. 

Lari-ey says that ophthalmia hardly spared anyone in 1798, 
■ and nearly all cases were inflammatory. In 1800 a few soldiers 
w^ere affected, and the cases were less severe and more 
easily treated. The severe outbreak Avhich occurred again in 
1801 near Alexandria has already been mentioned. It was 
jioted that the malady presented various characteristics, but 
in general it was inflammatory, with symptoms less intense 
than those of the outbreak of 1798. 

The English on their arrival in Egypt were not exempt from 
the disease. After some time they followed the French practice 
as laid down by Larrey, Avhich they found in a memorandum 
left at Rosetta, and from that moment they saved the sight 
•of the greater number of their patients. 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915 — 1918. 95 

Larrey also notes that many Frencli soldiers avIio escaped 
-ophthalmia were struck ahnost immediately on returning to 
France with a more or less complete blindnoss, which " appeared 
to be due to paralysis of the visual org-an, consequent on the 
sudden passage fix)m the tropical climate of Egypt to that of 
France in the winter season." 

Ophthalmia in the British Army, 1915-1918. — Ophthalmia or 
conjunctivitis caused about 12 per cent, of the total eye cases, 
and this proportion was practically constant at every hospital 
and in every year. Trachoma caused 342 cases, or about 1 
per cent. The incidence of ophthalmia compared Avith the 
total number of troops was very low. The maximum number 
of troops in Egypt and Palestine at any one time (excluding 
labour corps, native orderlies and substitutes, etc.) was approxi- 
mately 250,000. Taking the yearly average at 200,000 and 
the yearly average of cases of conjunctivitis and trachoma as 
1,300 and 114, the percentage incidence of these diseases works^ 
out at approximately -5 and -05 respectively. 

In the British Army the conjunctivitis was seldom severe, 
and there Avas never anything approaching a generaf or even 
local epidemic. During the j>eriod under review only five eyes 
were lost from perforation, staphyloma or panophthalmitis. 

Owing* to the presisure of work on the bacteriological labora- 
tories for more urgent military needs, not many bacteriological 
«xaminatioas were made, but of 178 cases which were examined 
76 were due to the Koch-Weeks bacilhis, 87 t6 the Morax- 
Axenfeld diploooccus, 7 to staphylococci and streptoeocci, 5 to 
the pneumoooocus, and 3 to the gonococcus. 

Clinically, gonorrhoea! ophthalmia was very rare, only eight 
cases being reported. 

The opbthahnia generally was of the simple catarrhal type, 
in the more serious cases resembling the acute mucopurulent 
conjunctivitis of the Koch- Weeks type, clearing up rapidly 
under treatment. No special remedy calk for any comment, 
all having been used Avith about equal suooess; but the ex- 



96 Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 

perienco of both Egyptiau oculists and of the R.A.M.C. officers 
working in Egypt was that zinc sulphate, except for the very- 
acute oases, was of all ophthalmic antiseptics by far the most 
efficacious for the conditions prevailing in Egypt. This was 
the independent experience of Major Lockliart Gibson in 
Mudros. 

In view of the commonly accepted account of the cause of 
tlie spread of trachoma in Europe, and of tlie prevalence of 
trachoma among the civil population in Egypt, every precaution 
was taken to prevent an epidemic among the British troops. 

Shortly after my arrival in Egypt the following regulations 
were issued: — 

1. Trachoma is an acute infectious disease, and must in- 
variably be treated as such. 

2. All cases must be isolated in a separate room, or tent, 
or on board ship in a separate cabin or ward. Infectious 
patients must not associate with their comrades, even during 
recreation or exercise. 

3. Special attendants must be detailed to look after cases 
of trachoma, and must be warned to pay particular attention 
to personal cleanliness, always washing their hands after dress- 
ing a case. For this jpurpose a basin of disinfectant Inust 
always be kept in the ward. 

4. The instructions given to attendants on cases of typhoid 
or any other infectious complaint are generally applicable in 
the case of trachoma. 

5. Separate specially marked feeding utensils must be 
supplied. 

6. A separate latrine and urinal must be set apart for 
trachoma cases. If these are few in number a night stool for 
their use will suffice. 

7. All dressings used m^lBt be placed in disinfectant and 
burnt at the earliest possible opportunity. If eyeshades are 
used they must be burnt when discarded. 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915 — 1918. 97 

8. Dark glasses must be sterilised by boiling. 

9. Pieces of linen and cotton rag should be issued instead 
of handkerchiefs, and when discarded treated in the same way 
as dressings. 

10. Hospital clothing and bedding must be disinfected before 
being sent to the wash. 

11. Officers conmaanding' Hospital Ships carrying cases of 
trachoma must notify the same to the disembarking Medical 
Officer. 

Fortunately the experiencie of the first year showed that 
trachoma was not infectious in an Armj^ with British standards 
of personal cleanliness and with the protection of modern mili- 
tary sanitation. Of the 342 cases of trachoma reported only 
68 were reported as recent; 203 were cases of old trachoma 
acquired before coming to Egypt, and 72 were unspecified 
as te whether they were recent or old. Of tlie recent cases 
a high proportion was found among Australian soldiers, for 
trachoma is commoner in Australia than in Eng-land. 

On consideration of these figures and of th& fact that for 
three years the British army had been living in a country' 
where trachoma is ahnost universal, that it had been working 
side by side with the Egyptian Labour Corps, almost all in- 
fected with trachoma, that native servants had been employed 
in messes and as pei'sonal servants, and that hospitals had 
been largely staffed by native orderlies, one is forced to tlie 
conclusion that with modern standaxds of sanitation and clean- 
linesLS trachoma is no long^er to be dreaded as a military epi- 
demic. 

In May, 1917, when tlie Egyptian Labour- Corps was being 
sent to France, the War Office expressed some alarm at the 
prevalence of trachoma in it, and cabled that, of the Egv^tian 
Labour Corps personnel sent to France, 5 per cent, had been 
found to be suffering from acute trachoma and 15 per cent, 
from subacute trachoma. 

PART III. Ot 



98 Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 

The AVar Office instracted that more stringent examination 
\vas necessary at the time of recruitment, and that men with 
definite granulations or with any acute oonjunctivitis should 
not be enlisted or embarked, and that inspection at the port 
of embarkation should be carried out by an ophthalmic specialist 
who had experience of the disease. 

As a result of this cable the Director of Medical Services 
instructed me to take the necessary steps for the examination 
of all Egyptian Labour Corps drafts leaving Egypt for 
France. This I did, both at Alexandria and at Kantara. After 
one inspection at Kantarai I informeld the Director of Medical 
Services that I had examined there 3,704 Egyptian Labourers, 
who were under orders to embark. I reminded him that 
trachoma was endemic and nearly universal in Egypt, and that, 
as noted above, according to information supplied by the Public 
Health Department approximately 80 per cent, of the population 
suffered or had suffered from trachoma, and 20 per cent, were 
considered to be infectious. 

In view of these facts I assumed that it was not desired to 
reject every Egyptian labourer w^ho showed evidence of 
trachoma, as this would have resulted in such a high percentage 
of rejections that it would have been impossible to raise 
Egyptian Labour Corps drafts for France. In examining these 
labourers I had acted, therefore, on the definite instructions of 
the War Office as contained in the telegram, and had only, 
rejected, those suffering from obvious trachoma granulationis 
or conjunctival discharge. 

On these grounds I rejected 814 men or approximately 22 
per cent., a figure which agreed very closely with the percen- 
tage given by the Public Health Department as infectious, 
and with the percentage of Egyptian labourers found to be 
unsuitable on examination in France. I passed as fit those 
men who, though affording evidence of old trachoma in the 
shape of scar tissue or thickened lids, showed no conjunctival 
discharge or definite granulations. In my opinion, in the 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915 — 1918. 99 

absence of sucJi granulations or discharge, there was little risk 
of infection. 

I understaud that the Chinese Labour Corps in France was 
also seriously affected with trachoma, but whether the presence 
of these trachomatous drafts of labourers infected either the 
armies in France or the civil population is at present uifknown 
to me. 

Ophthalmia among Turkish Prisoners. — Though, as has been 
seen, the British Army suffered practically not at all, eithejl 
from trachoma or from severe ophthalmia, the case was un- 
fortunately far different with the Turkish prisonens captured 
during the conquest of Palestine and Syria. Before the Avar 
ophthalmia was, next to malaria, the most prevalent disease in 
Palestine. From conversations I have had with Turkish and 
Syrian doctors who werer attached to the Turkish army, it 
appears that ophthalmia did not occur until the troops reached 
the neighbourhood of Jerusalem and Gaza, where the climatic 
conditions and the habits and customs of the natives more nearly 
approach those of Egypt than do those of the population of 
the more mountainous country further north. I am told that 
there were numerous outbreaks of purulent ophthalmia among 
the Turkish troops in these districts, and they were severe in 
character. We had evidence of these conditions when Jerusalem 
was occupied, for of the 78 Turkish prisoners suffering from 
«ye disease who were received into a Prisoners' of Wai* Hospital 
in Cairo from a Turkish Hospital in Jerusalem where they 
had been left behind, there were 29 cases of corneal ulcer. 
Of these 15 had perforated the cornea and 14 had not. In 
addition 30 cases were blind in one or both eyes. 

The Turkish oculists also found that gonococci occurred in a 
large percentage of oases, though the ophthalmia was not quite 
of the same clinical type we are accustomed to see in associa- 
tion with urethral discharge in England and other European 
countries. The swelling of the lids was not so pronounced, 
though the tendency to perforation of the cornea was quite 



100 Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 



as marked. This is also the experience in Egypt, as may be 
fieen from Dr. MacCallan's reports. 

Chart 3. 

1918 
N93. Prisoners of na/ar hospital, Kantara 
N9 OF Ophtmalm'a cases admitted monthly 



,4if JfARJ^lHAV 



1 ^ • 



1 

i 

21 


1^ 












1 








W 




Hi 


1 








1 




H: 


1 








i 




~\-A 


ffl 






S 


ifl 




W:'\ 


P 








a 


w. 


~B'. \ 


§ 








1 




m 


i 








ffi 




8^''' 


1 








1 




pfc* 


1 








1 




1 


P 




^ 


•^;;^ 


tSuJl: 


t^c ■ 


pic 




;:::!••„•: 


■:vS\\:\: 




ss 


i-: 


liiiisi 


m^ 


M^^ ■ 


1 








m 


m 








^m-\ 


m 








^r^'- \ 


1 








ffiiiir^' 








^^' 


1 








1; ...^^ 






.JB 



HI 



iinii 



■ 



lii 



Among- the Turkish prisoners in Egypt there was no serious 
outbreak of ophthahnia until August, 1918, when an epidemic 
of purulent ophthalmia started at Kantara. Chart (3) in ite 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915 — 1918. 101 

upward curve is almost exactly a replica of that showing the 
Beasonal incidence of g-onorrhoeal ophthalmia in Egypt (pub- 
lished in Dr. AlacCallan's report for 1916), but it is exag- 
gerated for the later months of the year owing to the fact 
that during the five weeks from September 19th to the end 
of October the British advance from the neighbourhood of 
Jerusalem to Damascus, Homs and Aleppo resulted in the 
capture of about 87,000 additional prisoners, many suffering 
from acute oplithalmia. In 1918 the number of prisoners with 
oplithahnia admitted monthly to hospital at Kantara rose from 
practically none in the early months of the year ' to '400 m 
September, 1,000 in October, and 2,000 in November. By 
December the epidemic had begun to abate, only 200 cases 
being admitted. 

At the Prisoners of War Hospital, HeUopolis, the epidemic 
followed much the same course, the average nmnbers under daily 
treatment rising from about 100 in July to 400 in August, 500 
in September, 1,000 in October, and 1,200 in November. By 
December the average number had dropped to 500, and by 
the end of the year the cases were comparatively few (Chart 4). 

The prisoners on arrival were underfed, exhausted, in a 
pitiable condition, dying from pellagra, enteritis, dysentery, 
broncho -pneumonia, influenza and tubercle, and they had very 
little resistance to the ophthalmia. 

The type of ophthalmia, clinically, was that of the acute 
Koch- Weeks type, there being little of the brawny swelling 
of the lids so characteristic of gonococcal ophthalmia, but, as 
in Egypt and in the Turkish Army, bacteriological examina- 
tion showed a high percentage of cases in which gonococci 
was fomid. The characteristic of the epidemic we^ the rapidity 
with which the cornea was affected, and the high proportion, 
of corneal ulcers, perforation and panophthalmitis. In general 
Larrey's description of the results of the condition remains ac- 
curate to this day, and panophthalmitis and staphyloma caused 



102 Ophthalmic rracticc in the Mediterranean and 

the total destruction of a gi-eat many eyes. For examploj at 
tlie Prisoners of "War Hospital, Heliopolis, where most of the 

Chart 4. 



1918 
Prisoners of war Camp heliopolis. 
average number of ophthalmia under treatment 



i;HiHJHHtniP;l;h;i::d;i-t::::li:.:t- 



:ltiid!:;ili;;it-iil 





jjiiiiais^agifeggM^^ 



patients eventually arrived, the number of eyes removed monthly 
in 1918 was as follows: — 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915 — 1918. 



103 



January, 1; February, 3; March, 2; April, nil; May, 1; 
June, 30; July, 39; August, 34; September, 17; October, 39; 
November, 218; December, 29 (Chart 5). 

Chart 5, 

1918 
N?2. Prisoners of War hospital. Heliopolis 
H° OF Eyes removed monthlv 




i 



It is inij)0S8ible to arrive at the exact number of prisoners 
affected, as owing to the progressive transfer of batches of 



104 Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 

prisoners down the line the same cases were undoubtedly 
counted twice or three times over in any statistical figures that 
I have, so that I have contented myself with giving* representa- 
tive figures from two important Prisoners of War Hospitals. 

There appears little doubt that in Egypt and among tJie 
Turks the gonocoocus can live in the conjunctiva and be 
transmitted from eye to eye over and over again, without 
the CO -existence of venereal disease, and that in these altered 
conditions it loses some of its characteristics and is not identical 
in its action with the gonococcal infections directly transmitted 
from the urethra. There Tvere two small outbreaks of typical 
gonorrhoeal ophthalmia, in two Prisoners of War Camps in Egypt 
early in December, but these w^ere directly traced to prisoners 
with urethral discharge, and with segregation and treatment 
of the venereal disease the epidemics were rapidly got under. 

As to treatment, there is little to write. Experiments w^ere 
tried with all the well-known antiseptics, but there was no 
evidence that any one was more efiicacious than another. The 
whole value of any treatment of purulent ophthalmia depends 
more upon efficient and frequent irrigation than upon the actual 
nature of the antiseptic. 

Bandages were entirely forbidden, as there was a tendency 
among many Turkish, Syrian and Egyptian doctors to tie 
their cases up, with or without fomentations, with disastrous 
results. Silver nitrate, especially in the early stages, or in 
patients with little recuperative power, seemed rather to destroy 
the conjunctiva and lead to further infection and sloughing 
of tissues, and was only used in selected cases, and not allowed 
as a routine treatment; cauterisation with pure carbolic acid 
for corneal ulcers was equally useless in many cases. 

In camps where outbreaks of ophthalmia occurred, regular 
prophylactic daily treatment of every prisoner, whether suffer- 
ing from conjimotivitis or not, with zinc sulphate and boracic 
acid drops was carried out with great success, and the epi- 
demics had almost en'tirely died down 'by the end of 1918. 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915 — 1918. 105 

As evidence of the bad state of nutrition of tlie Turkish 
prisoners, it may be mentioned that in the ophthalmic compound 
of one Prisoners of War Camp there were at one time 172 
cases of xerosis of the conjunctiva with night-blindness, associa- 
ted Avith pellagra and all forms of intestinal malnutrition. 
These cases were put on a more generous an.ti-pellagra diet, 
and the xerosis rapidly cleared up. 

In evidence that the ophthalmia was almost entirely due to 
the personal habits of the prisoners, it may be mentioned that 
there was no epidemic of ophthalmia at all in contiguous camps 
among German or Austrian prisoners, or among interned civilians, 
though unfortunately a German orderly lost the sight of one 
eye from gonorrhoeal ophthalmia contracted during the per- 
formance of his duty among Turkish prisoners. 

I can hardly leave the subject of ophthalmia in Egypt 
without making a few remarks upon the oontrovei'sy which 
has raged for over a hundred years as to the identity of the 
ophthalmia which ravaged Napoleon's troops in Egypt and as 
to the source of the great epidemic of trachoma which spread 
among tlie armies and peoples of Europe in the early years 
of the Nineteenth Century. 

I have quoted from Larrey at some length, for I feel that 
justice has not quite been done to his desoription of the 
epidemic in Egypt. Boldt* says of Larrey 's account, " These 
accounts, derived from French Physicians, were received by 
contemporaries in other countries with, some suspicion. Many 
like Eble and Jager, inclined to the opinion that the principal 
reason why the French army surgeons had not diagnosed the 
disease correctly was due to the decline of ophtlialmology in 
France at that time. On the other hand, we must accept it as 
a fact, quite authenticated, though as yet inadequately ex- 
plained, that the French army which returned from Egypt 
suffered relatively little from trachoma in the following years 

♦Boldt. Trachoma, translated by J. Herbert Parsons and Thomas 
Snowball, London, 1914. 



lOG Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 

during- wliicli the war laisted. If the disease had been even 
approximately as oontagdoiis as it wats subsequently in the- 
armies of Eng-land, Italy, Prussia, and other nations, it musft. 
necessarily have been noticed." Boldt also says, "From the 
description of the disease given by the authors during- the 
first decade of the last century, there can be no doubt that 
Egyptian ophthalmia included not only the trachoma of the 
present time, but several quite different diseases, such as simple 
catarrh, follicular swelling and follicular catarrh, blennorrhoea." 
It is freely acknowledged that the French army, which should 
have been the most seriously affected remained comparative^ 
immune. That Larrey was not unmindful of trachoma is showni 
by the statement that I have italicized on page 93 that the 
tarsal cartilag^es were not affected. Trachoma also did not break 
out in the European armies till several years after the return 
of the armies from Egypt. It appeared in the British Army 
in 1804, in the Prussian army in 1813, in the Austrian army 
in 1813-1820, in the Russian army in 1818, in the Dutch and 
Belgian armies in 1815, in the Swedish army in 1813-1815, 
and in the Danish army not until 1848. There is no doubt 
that the British Army was severely attacked by trachoma and 
purulent ophthalmia in 1803-1806, and Vetch's account leaves 
no iincerfcainty that a large proportion of the cases were tracho- 
matous; but it also appears from a letter from Dr. Fergusson 
at Portsmouth to the Inspector G^eneral in 1809,* that there was 
a great deal of factitious ophthalmia in the army, principall}^ 
among new Irish recruits who had never been in Egj-pt, but 
who w^ere under orders for enibarkation for foreign service. 
Boldt tsums the matter up very fairly in the following passage: 
" Although, therefore, trachoma was well know^n in Europe 
before Napoleon's time, yet its extraordinary dissemination in 
the French, English and Italian armies must undoubtedly be 
attributed in great measure to their infection in Egypt. On 
the other hand, there is no doubt that the armies of other 

*Kindly brought to my notice by my colleague, Mr. A. W. Ormond. 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915—1918, 107 

European nations remained almost entirely free from Egyptian 
opthlialmia, in spite of tlieir frequent intercourse with the 
French troops. Good examples were found in the Austrian 
army, which was often engaged with the French from 1799 to 
1890, land in the Prussian army up to 1813, which fought witli 
a Russian against the French in 1806-7. These incontestable 
facts refute the view which finds wide acceptance even at tlie 
present day, that the transmission of trachoma into every army 
and ioountry in Europe was entirely the result of infection from 
the French ai-my in Eg3'pt. The latter, on the contrary, as has 
been remarked, did not suffer to any si^preciable extent after 
its return from Egypt, and within the next ten years it marched 
through almost the whole of Europe wij^hout producing demon- 
strable epidemics of trachoma anywhere." My own conclusions 
are, that whether trachoma was or was not introduced into 
Europe by Napoleon's army on its return from Egjpt, there 
is no doubt whatever that thQ epidemic of ophthalmia which 
so disastrously aSected the army of Egypt in 1799-1801 was a 
mixed gonococcal and Koch-Weeks infection. The French army 
arrived in Egypt in the middle of the season in which, accord- 
ing to McCallan's reports, gonococcal ophthalmia is most pre- 
valent, and Larrey's account of the epidemic describes quite 
accurately the symptoms of the ophthalmia which ran through 
the Turkish prisoners in Egypt in 1918. That the epidemic! 
in 1799 w^as not trachomatous but gonococcal is tlie view, 
not only of Dr. McCallan but of all the ophtlialmic surgeons 
who have served in Egypt in the recent campaign. 

Finally, I think it may be accepted that trachoma will not 
be re-introduoed into England by the troops returning from 
Egypt in this war. With modern standards of cleanHnes® 
and feanitation trachoma has lost its terrors. A large Eui-opean 
population lives permanently in Egypt and does not contiuct 
a disease which is practically universal among the native popu- 
lation, and the British Army, Mhich has for four years been 
intimately associated with Egyptian Labour Corps personnel, 



108 Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 

hospital orderlies, native servants and drivers, has been affec- 
ted only to an infinitesimal extent. But that ophthalmia is 
still a sotiroe of real danger among a population with eastern 
habits, the severe epidemic among the Turkish prisoners very 
forcibly reminded us. 

Corneal Ulcers. 

Corneal lilcers were common, especially among troops camped 
on the desert. They were probably caused in the first instance 
by abrasion of the cornea with particles of sand, the abraded 
surface subsequently becoming infected by some of the con- 
junctival lorganisms. The ordinary corneal ulcers reacted quite 
well to treatment, and were very seldom complicated by 
hyopyon. 

There were, however, an unusually largie number of dendritic 
ulcers of the cornea, associated with corneal anaesthesia. These 
were very intractable and prone to relapse, lasting sometimes 
for months and reacting to no treatment. All the ordinary re- 
medies, such as the usual antiseptic ointments, pure carbolic 
acid, tincture of iodine or absolute alcohol, were tried, but in 
the majority of cases the progress was extremely slow. The 
corneal epithelium grew over a shallow superficial mass of par- 
tially necrotic tissue forming a very weak scar, and even when 
the ulcer did heal, it often broke down almost immediately if 
the patient was discharged to duty. 

Generally it was found that the cornea did not heal satisfac- 
torily in the sandy atmosphere of Egypt, and men were invalided 
home in the hope that the sea voyage and treatment in England 
might result in a more rapid cure. 

The causation of these dendritic ulcers was obscure. Bysom© 
observers it was held that they were associated in some way with 
malaria, by others it was supposed that they were due to the^ 
large doses of quinine given to cure the malaria. No evidence 
produced ever seemed to me sufficient to justify these statementis, 
and I pe-rsonally attributed them to the climatic conditions of 
heat, sand and wind. 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915 — 1918. 109 

Lt.-Col. Sir J. W. Barrett, R.A.M.C., a well-known oculist 
of Melbourne, told me that dendritic ulcei-s were, in his own 
experience, common in those parts of Australia where the oc- 
currence of sand, wind and heat produced a climate resembling- 
that of Egypt. He also told me that malaria does not occur in 
Australia. In view^ of these facts I remain sceptical as to anv 
association of dendritic ulcers with malaria and I am also in- 
clined to doubt the truth of the assumption that tliese ulcers are 
due to some affection of the fifth nerve; apart from the anaes- 
thesia of the cornea there is never any evidence of involvement 
of other branches of the fifth nerve, such as is found in true- 
ocular herpes, and my own opinion tends to the view that den- 
dritic ulcers are due to a local external infection. 

Gunshot Wounds . 

Gunshot wounds of the eye and its neighbourhood numbered 
564, or approximately 1 in every 600 eye cases. 

These cases may be classified as follows : — 

Gunshot wounds of the globe, excised ... ... 129 

Gunshot wounds of the globe, not excised ... 163 

Other injuries, principally traumatic cataract ... 148 

Injuries to the lids and orbit ... ... ... 124 

I have very little to say about these oases which has not been 
better said by those who have had a much larger experience in 
France. In Palestine and Syria fighting was never so continue ils 
or intense as on the Western Front, and injuries due to small 
fragments of metal, stone or sand in the eye due to high ex- 
X:)losive or bombs were certainly not so c-ommon. The majorit}-; 
of the cases were injuries due to rifle bid^ets, in which the whole 
eye was hopelessly destr03^Ted, or in which, the eye, though not 
actually hit by the bullet was so injui-ed by the concussion of 
the impact in the neighbourhood tliat all sight was desti'oyed. 
We became familiar in Egypt with the clinical picture, practi- 
cally unknown before the war, of tlie I'esidts of the impact of a 
rifle bullet in the neighbourhood of the eye. The ruptures of 



110 0/)]ithalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 

choroid and retiim, the numerous larg^e retinal hsemorrlia^es 
scattered all over the fundus, the greyish rodema of tlie retina 
and the subsequent absorption of the blood and the develop- 
ment of pigmentary degeneration were the same as on the 
Western Front, as were also the cases of profuse intra-ocular 
hsemorrhage followed by the formation of fibrous tissue and 
^'retinitis proliferans." 

Injuries of the eye due to the impact of particles of sand 
upon the cornea were numerous; and in some cases the number 
of grains of dust embedded in the cornea was extraordinary, 
and they penetrated to a great depth. A large number of cases 
•of traumatic cataract were due to this cause. 

During the first two years a Haab's mag-net was available 
either in Mudros or in Cairo, but the number of. cases for which 
it was required was very small. When the 3rd Australian 
Oeneral Hospital left 'Egypt they took the Haab's magnet with 
them. After their departure it was practically not required, 
^s hardly a single eye with a metallic foreign bodj^ in it was 
seen in a condition in which it could have been saved. 

In the period under review there was, as far as I am aware, 
only one case of sympathetic ophthahnia. 

Certainly, as far as the campaign in Egypt was concerned, 
our experience of gunshot and bomb wounds of the eye was 
negligible compared with that of ophthalmic surgeons on the 
Western Front. 

Plaistic surgery of the face was also very uncommon, as most 
•cases were invalided home to England as soon as possible owing- 
to the urgent demand for beds. 

Night Blindness. 

There is no doubt that night blindness occure in all armies 
after prolonged fatigue, especially if the soldiers have been on 
restricted rations. That it is a common symptom of malnutri- 
tion is shown by its occurrence in Russia after prolonged fasts. 
But it is also one of the many complaints of the malingerer. 



Egypttan Expeditioimry Forces, 1915 — 1918. Ill 

In the early iiiontlis of the Avar in Egypt many soldiers, botli 
British and Indian, complained of night blindness. Careful 
examination was always made, but very little actual disease 
has "been found. A few cases of genuine retinitis pigmentosa 
wei-e seen, but no cases of conjunctival xerosis among the British 
troops, and in the great majority of cases no ocular disease was 
found, and the men appeared to be in good condition and well 
fed. 

In two very interesting cases, both offioei-s, the night blind- 
ness was only transitory, the failure of vision coming on at 
twiUght and lasting for about two hours. At the end of that 
time the retina had adapted itself to the diminished illumination 
and vision wa.s as good under the circumstances as that of nor- 
mal persons. 

In both cases the condition was congenital, the fundus showed 
a widespread pigmentary changie, not the typical spider cells of 
retinitis pigmentosa, but more Irnnpy and aggregated, with 
numerous small peripheral white patches, resembling retinitis 
punctata albescens. 

This delayed adaptation of the retina to the dark was also 
observed in some cases of high myopia, in which there was a 
thin choroid and a deficiency of retinal and choroidal pig-ment, 
and no doubt the intensity of the sunUght and of tlie glai-e from 
the sand in desert stations was the cause of tliis unusual and 
exaggerated retinal fatigue. 

In the great majority of cases nothing abnormal was found, 
and careful observation led to the conclusion that the night 
blindness was either grossly exaggerated or a fiction. The men 
alleg-ed to be so afflicted managed never to injure themselves 
in the dark, and on being told they would not be invalided for 
the condition, nothing more was heard of it. 

In this connection I may remark that I attach no importance 
to the restricted field of vision so often observed, not only in 
association with night blindness, but also with shell shock. 



112 Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 

To chart a field of vision accurately, even in a definite lesion 
of the field, requires considerable intellig-ence and attention on 
the part of the patient, and at the best of times tlie chart is 
merely approximate, while in functional cases, such as shell 
shock, a chart of vision is of no value whatever. 

I have often delmonstrated that a patient, whose field of yision 
as charted was much constricted, could thread his way among- 
chairs and avoid obstacles in a darkened room, in a way that 
would be impossible for a man with a field of vision so con- 
stricted from an organic lesion. And I have, the refold, relied 
more on the patient's general power of moving about without 
accident than on a perimeter chart. 

Among the Turkish prisoners night blindness was much more 
common and was undoubtedly caused by malnutrition. As I 
have mentioned before (page 105) there w^ere at one time in 
the Prisoners of War Camp at Heliopolis 172 cases of pronounced 
xerosis of the conjimctiva with night blindness, associated with 
pellagra and other forms of intestinal disease. These cases all 
cleared up with rest and a generous diet. 

Shell Shock. 

As will be feeen from the statistics, shell blindness was neg- 
ligible in the army in Eg^pt. There were a fair number of 
cases from the Gallipoli Peninsula before the period covered 
by these statistics, but in the later years of the war it practi- 
cally did not occur. I always held the view that shell blindness 
was a subject, not for the oculist, but for the neurologist or the 
psycho -therapist, it being only one of tlie protean forms of 
traumatic neurasthenia in a pronounced form. 

As to the various merits of isolation, suggestion, psycho- 
therapy, or of the comparatively frequent miracles reported in 
the daily press, I feel incompetent to speak. 

" 'Tis an awkward thing to play with souls. 
And matter .enough to save one's own." 



Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915—1918, 113 

My lexperience had been small, and as I Mas not trained in the 
understanding' of the normal or abnormal -workings of the mind, 
I did not feel justified in attempting the cure of others. 

Malaria. . 

One fact I tliiiik should be put on i^ecord in this connection. 
Malaria, Inalignant and benign, was almost a j)estilence in both 
the British and Turkish armies in Palestine. Larg^ doses of 
quinine -were given, both in intensive methods of treatment and 
spread over long periods. I made inquiries everywhere, but I 
was not able to find a record of a single case of quinine am- 
blyopia. 

Other Eye Diseases. 

Of the remaining eye diseases there is nothing to say. They, 
were the ordinary affections such as would be met with in civil 
practice, and in much the same proportion, among a body of 
men in the healthiest period of life. ' 

CONCLUSIOX. 

As will have been g*athered from the foregoing account, the 
principal duty of the oj^hthalmic surgeons in Egypt was tlie 
investig-ation of errors of i-efraction and the treatment of oph- 
thalmia. If I have dilated upon these subjects at excessive 
length it is merely because they were, in actual practice, our 
chief preoccupation. And I have no doubt that in any futiu*e 
campaign in the Xear East they will still hold a predominant! 
position. 

I have attempted in this short paper to give some general 
account of military ophthalmology in Eg^'pt, as we saw it in 
1915 — 1918 in tlie hope that it may be of interest or assistance 
in similar circumstances in the future. I am convinced that a 
hundred j-ears hence conditions in the imchanging East will be 
much \he same as they ai-e now. To quote my text once more, 
" The thing that hath been, it is that which shall be." 

PART III. H 



114 Ophthalmic Practice in the Mediterranean and 
Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, 1915 — 1918. 

Ill ooncliision I sliould like to express my gratitude to Dr. 
H. P. Keatinge, C.M.G., late Dii^ctor of the Cairo School of 
Medicine, for access to the Kasr-el-Airii Library and to Larrey's 
works; to Dr. E. C. Fischer, Professor of Ophthalmology in the 
Cairo School of Medicine, for much valuable information con- 
cerning diseases of the eye in Egypt; to Dr. A. C. MacCallan, 
Dii-ector of Travelling Ophthalmic Hospitals, D.P.H., Eg;ypt, 
for his invaluable statistics and iznrivalled information on oph- 
thalmia; and last, but not least, to the ophthahnic speciaHsts in 
the various hospitals, who, unmentioned and un honoured (such 
is the Army way), did all the laborious and valuable work which 
I have so roughly reviewed. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF CASUALTY 
CLEARING STATIONS. 



By 

OWEX RICHARDS, C.M.G., D.S.O., 

Late ConsultiDg' Siirg-eon, B.E.F. ; Director, Egyptian 

Government School of Medicine. 



Apart from the genei-al advance of surgery, three measures in 
the war have probably done more than anything eke to save 
life and diminish suffering. One wais the substitution of motor 
ambulances for the traditional "retui^ning* empty supply wagons" 
and horse transport; another was the routine early applica- 
ition of Thomas' splint; and the third Avas the development ^of 
the Casualty Clearing Station from a Avaiting room for wounded 
into a fully-equipped hospital, where any operation whatever 
could be performed within a few hours of the man being 
"Avounded. 

In the so-called " collecting zone " from the trench to the 
Eield Ambulance, all Avas done from the beginning of the Avar 
that pluck and hard Avork could accomplish. And at tlie Base 
the best of treatment and accommodation Avas always I'ead}-. 
But in the ai-ea betAveen tliese tAAO the greatest development 
took place, for from being a mere " distributing zone " it be- 
came ultimately the chief centi-e of surgical AAOrk. 

When I joined a Casualty Clearing Station in January, 19 lo, 

Ave had two or three hundi-ed sti-etchei's, a few beds collected 

locally, and four sisters Avho had recently been added as an 

.experiment. The outfit of instruments consisted chie% of 



116 The Development of Camalty Cletirlnfi Sfaflfn/s. 

catheters. One table in a back kitchen, witli just luom to 
move round it, i-epi-esented the theatre. A small spirit steri- 
liser served for knife and forc-eps, largier instruments and all 
dressing's had to be boiled in dixies on the fire. 

The operation record for the last five months showed eighteen 
operations, several of them amputations of the finger. The 
Casualty Clearing Station had, in fact, acted solely as a place 
where casualties could be fed and tended pending- the arrival of 
an ambulance train, and nothing- more had been expected of it. 
The same Casualty Clearing Station three years later had hos- 
pital beds for 100 cases, and could accommodate up to 800 if 
necessary. There was a matron and stafi^^ of sisters, a full and 
good Buro-ical equipment, an X-ray outfit, a pathological labora- 
tory, and 12 operating tablefe arranged in pairs in a roomy 
theatre. There was a receiving room to take 200, and a re- 
suscitation ward with a six)cial team for this work. Instead of 
the five or six harassed medical officei's who struggled with the 
rush of wounded at the time of Xauve Chapelle, a dozen or 
more extra officers coidd be drafted in as re -inf or cements 
before any g-eneral engagement, so that work could be carried 
on in shifts day and night. 

The same chang-es had, of counse, taken x>lace in otlier units . 
As the surgical work, done at first under the diflSculties de- 
scribed above, began to show i-esults, equipment was gradually 
forthcoming. At the beginning of the war all very bad cases... 
such as chests and abdomens, used to be kept on a regime of 
morphia and sips of Avater for days in the Field Ambulance. 
This was the South African tradition, and operation was con- 
sidered hopeless. In the early simimer of 1915 a localised effort 
was made to get these cases down a.s quickly as possible for 
operation. When it was seen that this change resulted in an 
obvious saving of life it was extended and became general in. 
the autumn, an^d later the worst cases pi every kind were usually 
sent direct from the advanced dressing stations to the Casualty, 
Clearing Station without going through the Field Ambulance 
at all. 



The Development of Casualty Cleartnr/ Stations. 117 

Surgical specialists wore first appointed to Casualt}- Clearing 
Stations in the spring- of 1915, but it was not till some three 
years later that tlieir position was recognised by the grant of 
field rank. They had meanwhile improved much in quality, as 
the Avork in this zone began to appeal to the keener sm-geons^ 
and by the end of the war man}- of the best operators in the 
Army were holding these posts. 

Tl^e team system was also gTadually developed. As time went 
on it became increasing!}- evident that it was wasteful to keep 
good men idle in a f^uiet part of the line while their opposita 
number's in a busy sector were getting no sleep. The supply of 
sui'geons had to be mobilised and set to flow in the direction of 
the gTeatest x)ressure at the moment. At first this was confined 
to the occasional loan — usually after the need was over— of 
three or four medical officers not specially selected. Then the 
practioo was instituted of sending a certain number of " teams " 
to help the Casualty Clearing Stations who expected a rush, and 
their usefulness was increased by sending them before they were 
needed instead of after. Each team consisted of a surgeon, 
an anaesthetist, -a sister, and a couple of theatre orderlies, all used 
to working together. As men got scarcer the anaesthetistsi were 
commonly women, and very good they wei-e. As manj^ as 
80 teams w'ere sent on one occasion to helpl an army heavily 
engaged, but this was only possible if the fighting was localised. 
The t^ams wei-e draw-n hxtm other Casualty Clearing Stations 
in quiet sectors, or irom the base, and they took their place as 
shifts in the Casualty Ck^aring Station they wei-e attached to, 
taking charge of one table and the beds occupied by the cases 
they had operated on. 

The question of the most economical shifts Avas at one time 
much debated. Eight-hour shifts — eight lioui-s on and four 
hours sleep — enabled thix30 teams to keep two tables running 
night and day — ^and this could be kept up for about a week, 
but hardly longer. The general result of exjierience was in 
favour of twelve-hour shifts Avith a short rest in the middle of 
the day or night, after the chief meal. 



118 The Devdopinent of ('a.maliy ('learbnj Sf at ions. 

Another development of interest was the establishment of 
advanced operating centres. It was found impossible to ope- 
rate usefully, except for certain emergencies, in a Field Am- 
bulance with the ordinary staff and equipment. But mem ajid 
equipment were sometimes attached to Field Ambulances for 
this special purpose, and special units were formed and put 
in convenient places near the line to deal with abdominal 
and other urgent cases. The idea was an attractive one, 
especially to the surgeon, but it had certain disadvantages. 
For example, such a unit had to be well and fully staffed, 
or it was soon swamped with work, except in quiet times. 
This happened to me when I was attached for this pur- 
pose to a Field Ambulance at the Battle of Loos, with ;no 
other surgeon. And if many men, and those the best men, are 
detached for this purpose it weakens the Casualty Clearing 
Stations very much, while there is always a loss of economy in 
splitting up personnel. Moreover, the wounded have n^ot only to 
be operated on, but kept for a week or so, and it is not sound 
or humane to keep wounded men imder any but the most occa- 
sional shell-fire. So that the place had to be' free from shel- 
ling, and if this was so it was usually possible to put a Casualty, 
Clearing Station there. In any case the time occupied in going 
in a oar from such a Icentre to the nearest Casualty Clearing 
Station was usually not great, a small fraction of the time 
which had already been spent in getting them down; froni tjli,e 
line by hand carriage along a communication trench. So that 
although under certain conditions these imits did very good 
work, and although they were very intei-esting professionally, 
they were not, as a rule, economical. i 

The distanoe of the Casualty Clearing Station from thel line 
depended partly on the position of rail-head, and partly om tlie 
kind of fighting in progress. In. stationary warfare they were 
pushed up to a few miles from *thle line, ini any place that was 
not Hkely to be shelled. At the cost of a few hurried retreats 
this worked well; the more advanced units got their cases 
early, and got the pick of tliem, and did ver}^ well. But in 



The Development of Casualty Clearing Stations. 119 

the Gnerman advance of 1918 it was impossible ix> get all the 
nwre axivanoed ones away, for a Casualty Clearing' Station fully 
equipped requires anything- over 30 lorries to move it. So in 
some of the later fighting* a more cautious policy was^ adopted, 
•and Casualty Clearing- Stations found themselves as much as 
20 jmiles behind our line. They then advanced io,' turn, travel- 
ling OS light as possible, and shedding in hastei much of the 
material they had accumulated at leisure. But even so they 
never reverted to their original state, but remained hospitals 
to the end. • i 

The greatest change which took place in their internal ar- 
rangement (occurred when they went imder canvas. In all the 
early part of the war they were installed by preference in 
buildings, chiefly schools and monasteries. To fit them in 
required la good deal of ing-enuity, and no general system] was 
possible. Later, in some armies earlier than others, they were 
driven to plant themselves in the open. This was a blessing" 
in disguise (in winter a very complete disguise), for it enabled 
them to be planned and laid out for the work they had to do. 
It was difficult without huts to ma*ke a good theatre, and for 
wards the British tents left mudli to be desired. But in com- 
pensation there was freedom of desigto, and out of the many 
possible arrangements a type was gradually evolved. Many 
men (claimed to have originated it, really it was: the result of 
combiaed experience, and was adopted with slight variations 
by 'nearly all units. 

The (method adopted in busy times was usually as follows — 
Two Qarge compound tents were provided for reception work, 
holding up to 200 each, one for walking cases and the other 
for stretchers. In these the clerks took down the partioulara 
and the men got hot drinks and food. At tlie far end of them 
junior medical officers under the supervision of some one 
senior man examined each case thoroughly on trestles in a 
good light, and decided their disposal. Those that required 
no interference were dressed anjd sent straight to tlie evacua- 
tion wards, which were cleared en masse whenever there was 



120 The Development of Casualty Clearing Stations. 

a train. Of the othens, some were marked by tickete or any 
other device to "'remain," some for "operation," and some 
for "resuscitation." The latter went to the resuscitation ward, 
where a special team took chargie of them, and passed them o{q 
to the theatre when they wene fit for it. The operation cases 
went to the general ** pre-operation ward," were dealt with in 
turn by the teams on duty in the theatre, and wei-e then sent 
either to the evacuation ward or to the ward; of the surg-eon 
who had operated on them. The cases marked " i-emain " wei-e 
cleared out from time to time to the evacuation; wards as tliey 
became fit to travel. To work this system required' a number 
of tents so arrang-ed as to facilitate this sorting, and a body 
of men used to, working rapidly and methodically. Given these, 
it was found that an enormous nimiber of wounded could he 
properly dealt wdth without any fuss or confusion. 

The most important duty was undoubtedly the original sort- 
ing, on which the man's fate largely depended. The realisa- 
tion of this led many of the best surgeons to leave the actual 
operating to the visiting teams, and to devote themselves to 
the less spectacular but more important work of sortingj and 
supervision of the pre-operation wards. In the theatm the 
teams were fed in rotation from the cases awaiting operation. 

If the greatest difficulty arose in sorting-, the greatest delay 
was undoubtedly in the theati-e. Of course, a few surgeons 
were incompetent, and some men would always keep urgent 
cases waiting while they toiled for houi's over hojTeless abdo- 
mens. But the vast majority of siu-g-eons were sensible, and 
developed a good rate of speed. This work, like everything 
else, became gystematised, and an experienced' surgieon Awrking 
on Avell-selected cases with his own team, and " twin " tables, 
eo that the next case was always cleaned up' and 'anaesthetised 
before the first was finished, could g-et through an astonishing 
amount of work. Gas and oxygen saved both time' and shock, 
and by the end of the war loss of time in the tJieatre wa.«j 
reduced to a minimimi. 



The Development of Casualty Clearing Stations. 121 

A g'ood clearing- station working under pressure was as 
good an example as one oould find of organised^ team work. 

The X-ray equipment was one of the developments which 
took some time to establish. The first effort ia' this direction 
was the provision of one mobile X-raj- unit for each army. 
Units had to apply for its services to the Army Headquarterts . 
"This was almost useless, for in nine cases out of ten the pa- 
tient had to be operated on or evacuated long' before tlie 
X-rays could be got to him. Accordingly an effort was made to 
provide each Casualty Clearing Station, or at any rate each 
group, with an outfit of its own. The fii^t hospital outfit of 
tliis kind that I saw was towards the end of the Somme fight- 
ing in 1916. These outfits were so useful, especially in sci-een- 
ing "cases for the immediate removal of i^tained rnissiles, that 
towards the end of the war they were considered indispensable. 

The pathological laboratories were in the same way pro- 
vided to serve a number of hospitals, and to some extent shared 
fthe disadvantages of the army X-ray outfits. 

But one of the many advantages of getting the Casiuilty 
•Clearing Stations out in the open was tliat it was then pos- 
sible to gi'oup two or three of them in the same place. And 
(under these circumstances they could all have the same labora- 
tory available at all times. But quite apart from this minor 
advantage the grouping of the Casualty Clearing Stations, 
Avhen it was possible, led to gi^at saving of confusion in recep- 
tion iand evacuation, and to a good deal of healthy rivalry and 
■exchange of views, which was less easy when the units were 
some miles apart. 

Two developments which inci^eased the Mork of the Cas^ualty 
"Clearing Stations in the latter part of the war were the scientific 
treatment of shock, and the thoroug-li cleaning and immediate 
<3losure of wounds. Both were well worth doing, but consumed 
a great deal of time. Much good work was done on shock, of 
which Cowell's is, perhaps, the best known, and a very sensible 
«ystem was established at the Field Ambulances which led to 
the wounded coming down in much better condition. Blood 



122 The Develftprnenf of dnmnlty Clearinr/ Staflons. 

transfusion was worked out and systematked with excellent 
results. 

Experience also showed tliat while the nature of the dressing 
applied to the outside of a wound made very little difference 
to its fate, it was possible by a thorough cleaning in the theatre 
to obtain primary healing' and closure in a number of cases. 
Special Casualty Clearing Stations were at first devoted to this 
work, and a good deal of it was done in others. But it took a 
good deal of time, commonly about three-quarters of an hour, 
to clean a wound of any size scrupulously, and for military 
reasons the plan had to be adopted of sending most of the 
lighter oases directly to tlie base. Here, even after an interval 
of a day or more the same methods proved unexpectedly suc- 
cessful. Of the first 500 eases of this kind arriving at one ba«e 
about one-quarter were considered suitable for this treatment. 
The rest were either too slight or too grave, or were very 
often only technically '' wounded." But of this quarter, 80 per 
cent, were closed and healed by first intention. In this way 
the Casualty Clearing Stations were relieved of a qiiantity of 
work and could devote themselves to the more urgent cases. 

The Thomas' splint organisation deserves a special notice. 
This splint was introduced in 1915, I believe chiefly by Wal- 
lace, and proved a great advance on the official splint, the 
Long Liston. It was soon realised that the only satisfactory 
way to treat a fractured femur, or for that matter most other 
fractures, was to apply a splint of this type as soon as the 
man was picked up, and to keep it on till he reached the base. 
Once this was gTasped, the method of application was taught 
systematically by lectures to all ranks of the forward units, 
and teams even competed in applying it rapidly by numbers, 
as a sort of drill. The splints were issued to all Advanced 
Dressing Stations, Aid Posts, and Motor Convoys, and anyone 
who failed to use them properly vras asked the reason why. 
This simple measure saved a vast amount of life, limbs and 
suffering, .and was a good example of what can be done by; 
standardising, instruction, and team work. 



The Development of Casualty Clearing Stations. 123- 

But the Avliole history of Casualty Clearing Station work Ss 
an inetance of how much oan be done by pooling experience, 
and -then standardising the results. Most of our progress was^ 
due to the combined experience of a number of men who cheer- 
fully put into the conmion stock what they could, without mak- 
ing any fuss about their personal credit or priority. And the 
actual work was done by teams working together, each doiag 
wliat others thought he could do best instead of what he him- 
self preferred to do. The result was amazingly good ; it remains- 
to be seen how much of this spirit will survive in civil life. 



THE WAR NEUROSES AND THE 
NEUROSES OF CIVIL LIFE. 



By 
ARTHUR F. HURST. 



I . — Introduction . 

At an eai-lj stag-© in the Great Wai^ functional nervous dis- 
orders became so common that it was clear that some special 
organisation -was required to deal with them. AHi first sections 
of general hospitals and later whole hospitals were devoted 
to the care and treatment of soldiei-s sufferingf from these con- 
ditions. After my return from Salonica in August, 1916, I 
was in charge of the Neurological Section at Oxford, and from 
Deoemberof the same vear tlielarg-er Section at Netley. Finally 
I was in charge of the Scale Hayne Military Hospital near 
Newton Abbot from the date of its opening inl April, 1918,. 
until it was closed in June, 1919, witli Major J. L. M. 
Symns, and subsequently Major J. F. Venables, as second in 
command. In this hospital we had about 350 beds, all of which 
were reserved for soldiers suffering from war neuroses. 

I was always fortunate in being associated with medical 
officers who were keenly interested in tlie subject. The ma- 
jority of these were Guy's men — ^R. Gainsborough, who assisted, 
me at Oxford, Major J. L. M. Symns, who was witK me at 
Netley and in Devonshire, and Major J. F. Venables, Captain 
W. R. Reynell, Captain C. H. Ripman, and Captain G. 
McGregor, who were with me at the Scale Hayne Military, 
Hospital. The Scale Hayne Neurologicul Studies, which were 



126 The War Neuroses and the Neuroses of Civil Life, 

published in 1918 and 1919, contained original articles by each: 
of tthese officers. 'My earliest observations on hysterical blind- 
ness were made in 1915 with Major A. W. Ormond, and on; 
fcyisterioal deafness in 1917 mth Captjain E. A. Peters. 

Several other Guy's men have done important work in; con- 
nection with the vrar neuroses. Major W. Johnson, M.C., was 
in command of a special Casualty Clearing- Station in France 
for ithe war neuroses, where they were successfully ibreated in 
their earliest stages. Surgeon H. Carlill, R.X., was in diarge 
•of the Neurological Wards at Haslar, where he did valuable 
work on syphilis of the nervous system as well as on the 
neuroses. Captain Wonster-Draught at Woolwich, Captain C. 
P. Symonds at Aldershot, and Laughton Scott, at a pensioners' 
clinic in London, added their contidbutions to the subject. 
Finally, Lt.-Col. Maurice Craig was largely responsible for 
•organising the hospitals for war psychoses. 

II. — The Causes axd Nature of the War Neuroses. 

The two conditions which, led to the g-reat frequency of 
neuroses in soldiers oompared Avith their comparative rarity 
in men under peace conditions were exliaustion and emotional 
strain. The exhaustion caused by long days of forced marching 
or strenuous fighting followed by nights with little or no sleep, 
combined in some cases with insufficient food, and in eastern 
campaigns with a great variety of infections and exposure to 
extreme heat, naturally led to a more profound neurasthenia 
than is commonly seen iu civil life. In spite of this the in- 
tervals of rest and opportunities of i-elaxation, which became 
increasingly common as the war progressed, tog'ether with the 
admirable supply of food in most cases and the freedom from 
epidemic infections on a large scale owing to the excellence of 
the sanitary arrangements, except at Grallipoli and ini the earHer 
part of the Mesopotamian campaign, prevented it from being as 
widespread or as severe as might have been expected. Moi^ 
important perhaps than the actual production of neurasthenia 
were the increased liability to the development of psychoneu- 



The War Neuroses and the Neuroses of Civil Life. 127 

roses, such as livsteria and psychastheiiia, and the ag-gravation. 
of incipient organic diseases, such as general paralysis and 
tabes, which resulted from exhaustion. 

A few lucky individuals are born with a temperament which 
does not allow them to know what fear means. " Hunger and 
thirst could not depress them," ^\ToiG the Student in Arms, 
"rain could not damp them; cold could not chill them. Every 
hardship became a joke. They did not endure hardship, they 
derided it. . . As for death, it was, in a way> the greatest 
joke of all." The y^^t majority of men, however, including 
many of the bravest, Avere terrified when first exposed to the 
Jiorrers of a bombardment. The majority became accustomed 
to it in time, but sooner or later the exhaustion of active ser- 
vice often resulted in a gradual failui-e of this adaptation, so 
tliat not only the constitutionally timid — the martial misfits — 
but some of those who for anonths or even j^ears had faced the 
life cheerfully and even with enjoj^ment ultimately broke down 
from the long-continued emotional strain. 

The emotion of fear acts in thi-ee ways. In the martial misfit, 
who is by nature very suggestible, it gives rise at once to 
severe physical symptoms, which often become perpetuated by 
auto-sugg-estion a^ hysterical tremor, mutism and paraplegia; 
in other cases it gradually leads to the development of psy- 
chasthenia; and finally it may result in such a disturbance of 
the suprarenal and th^'roid glands that the condition I have 
called functional hyperadrenalism-h3perthyroidism results. 

Apart from the fear which is caused by tlie general condi- 
tions of a f>i'olonged bombardment, the more acute emotion 
caused by a single exceptionally terrifying experience leads 
to such a chang-e in the individual's nervous system that he 
becomes for a short time extremely liable to develop hysterical 
symptoms by suggestion. This is particularly true if tJie ex- 
X^erience has led to actual physical i-esults; however evanescent 
these may be, they are likely to be unconsciously perpetuated 
and even exaggerated by the patient under such conditions. 
Thus a man who is gassed may develop hysterical blepharo- 



128 The \\'<u- \et.(ro.se.s and the Neuroses of Civil Life. 

Bj)iasm, ptosis, and blindness after the initial conjunctivitis lias 
dieappoai'ed, Jiysterical aphonia after the disappearance of the 
laryngitis, and Insterieal vomiting after the disappearance of 
the gastritis. If la man is blown up or buried, the amnesia, 
headache, hemiplegia, convuLsionis, and deafness which may 
I'esult fix)m the concussion of tiie brain, and tlie paraplegia aad 
incontinence of urine, which may develop as a result of the 
concussion of the spinal corpd, may be peri)etuated as hysterical 
Bymptoms after the actual changes in the nervous^ system have 
so gi'eatly diminished in degi'ee and extent that the symptoms 
should have oompletely or almost oompletety disappeared. 

Ill . — Neurasthenia . 

Neurasthenia is a functional disorder, resulting- from ex- 
haustion of the nervous system anicl j)robably of certain endo- 
crine glands, especially the suprarenal, whieli nxanifests itself 
by abnormal mental and physical fatiguabiHty, and irritability 
of the nervous system. 

The conditions which ga^e rise to it duringj the war produce 
actual exhaustion changes in the cells of the brain and the 
suprarenal gland. The importance of the changes in the latter 
has onty become fully realised I'ecently; physical exhaustion and 
infections, such as paratyphoid fever, bacillary dysentery- and 
malaria, cause profound degeneration in the suprarenal gland, 
and the similar effect of severe and prolonged emotions is 
described in a later section. Thus neurasthenia has an organic 
basis land is not strictly a fimctional disorder, though' the struc- 
tural clianges are evanescent, regeneration of the cells occur- 
ring with rest and removal of any toxaemia which may have 
been present. i , (. ; 

The symptoms of neurastlienia observed in soldiers during 
the war were the same as occur in civilians, the chief being 
abnormal fatigaiability combined witli an irritable state of the^ 
nervous system, which ^manifested itself in the appearanoe of 
a variety of abnormal visceral sensations and reactions, the- 
most important of which were circulatory. 



The War Aeuroses and the Neuroses of Civil Life. 129 

"With the exception of a comparatively small proportion of 
cases, -which depended upon over-action of the sympathetic ner- 
vous system with functional hyperadrenalism-hyperthyroidism, 
as described in a later section, so-called disordered action of 
the heart, — the D.A.H. which was one of tlie chief medical 
causes of disability in soldiers, was really due to neuras^- 
thenia, though a moderate degree of cardio -muscular inefficiency 
caused by the same toxins as those which affected the nervous 
sysi3em was often added to the group of symptoms -j)roduced by 
nervous exhaustion. General muscular fatiguability was always 
present in addition to the circulatory symptoms. The latter 
were partly the result of weakness of the vasomotor centre and! 
partly of the abnormal irritability of the nervous' system, which 
led to very slight derangements of cardiac activity, which a 
normal tman would ignoi^, being felt with sucB.^ great clearness 
that the individual was often led to fear (that his heart was 
seriously diseased, a fear w^hich was generally aggravated by 
the unfortimate diagnosis of D.A.H. 

Insomnia was constantly present, and was often accompanied 
by nightmares, which will be more fully discussed' under tlie 
head of psychastlienia. This naturally aggravated the symp- 
toms of exhaustion and complete recovery was impossible until 
it had been overcome. An uncomfortable, heavy sensation in 
the head, which rai^ly amounted to actual pain, was often 
present. Tlie patient became incapable of sustained mental 
activity, and was disinclined for either mental or physical work. 
The excessive physical fatiguability resulted in acliing of the 
limbs and still moi-e frequently of the back, which was often 
increased by his inability to relax his muscles icompletely, even 
though lying in bed. A fine tremor of the hands was often 
present when tliey wei« outstretched; this was secondar^^ to 
the rigidity, and disapi>eai'ed as soon as tlieT patient learned to 
relax his muscles. Anorexia was g^enerally present, whicli was 
increased by the unappetising food and by tlie still more un- 
appetising* way in which it was served. 

PART III. I 



1.30 The Mdr ScnrascK and the Sck roses of Cir'il L'ii(>. 

The exliaiistioii of active service not infi^equently lod to tem- 
porary; iiMj)otenoe. The disco very of this Mheii on leave after 
a long" period of abistinence often came as a consideral)le shock 
to Imen who had expected that their sexual functions ^\ullld be 
unusually active. Rest and a further period of abstinence, to- 
gether with i-e-assuring- explanations of the i>hysiological cause 
of the trouble and, in some cases, sug*gestion under liy]^- 
jiosis invariably resulted in a rapid cure. 

Uncomplieat/ed aieurasthenia in soldiers required no treatment 
beyond a period of i-est away from the sights and sounds of 
the front. It was soon found that a week or ten days in bed 
was amply sufficient, and that this must be followed at once by 
a period of Iphysical training in the open, air. Men who were 
eent Ito convalescent homes, and particularly to luxurious V.x4..D. 
hospitals run by over-sympathetic women, invariably did badly, 
and often became permanently unfitted for further military 
service. Drugs were never required, except perhaps a small 
dose of bromide at niglit, and in severer cases of insomnia 
medinal and aspirin. But the more experience we had' the 
less we used drugs for insomnia, as we found that psychothera- 
peutic conversations, cou]3led in some cases with direct sug- 
gestion under hypnosis, generally led to the return of natural 
sleep in a few days. 

IV. — Hysteria. 

Hysteria is a condition in which symptoms are pi*esent, which 
have been produced by suggestion and are durable by psycho- 
therapy. This definition is novel in not recognising aai hys- 
terical condition apart from the presence of definite hysterical 
symptoms. Charcot believed tliat hysteria manifested itself in 
two ways : by the symptoms that were obviousi to the patient 
and about whicli he complained, and by physical and mental 
stigmata which were present before the obvious symptoms ap- 
peared and which, persisted after their removal. 

Investigations carried out with Major J. L. M. Sj-mns have 
confirmed the teaching of Babinski that the so-called physical 



The TTV/;- \euroses and the Xeurose.s of Civil Life. 131 

stijTiiiata of liysteria are always produeed by tho imeoiiseious •sug- 
gestion of the observer. The mental stigma, which is regarded 
as most characteristic of hysteria by the majority of writers and 
which is the only one accepted by Babinski, is abnormal sugges- 
tibility. But our investigations have proved conclusively that 
although labnormal suggestibility renders a man unusually j^i-one 
itb develop hysterical symptoms, there is no one who is so 
devoid of sugg-estibility tliat he may not develop them if the 
suggestive influence is suihciently pOAverful. Whether a person 
w ill develop hysterical symptoms under given conditions depends 
on the degi^ee of his susceptibility and the streng-th of the 
fiiiggestiou. It is clear therefore that abnormal sug-g'estibility 
is simply a predisposing fa-ctor and is no more a part of hys- 
teria than a tuberculous family history is of phthisis. Many 
cases of gross hysterical symptoms occurred' in soldiers who 
Ihad no family or personal history of neuroses, and who were 
perfectly fit until the moment that one of the exceptionally 
powerful exciting causes, such as occur comparatively rarely 
apart from Avar, suggested some hysterical S3anptom ; and after 
its disappearance as a result of jisychotherapy the man was 
once more perfectly fit, and' his subsequent history show^ed that 
he remained no more liable than any of his companions to 
■develop new symptoms. 

As soon as it is recognised that although certain mental 
fitigmata predispose to the development of hysteria they are 
not themselves a part of hysteria, it becomes obvious that 
many cases of hysteria will be missed if it is only looked foi* 
in so-called hysterical persons. AVhen, on the other liand, it 
is remembered that there is nobody who may not develop h3rs- 
teria if tthe provocation is sufficiently great, it tmust follow that 
hysteria is infinitely more widespread tlian has genemlly been 
supposed . 

Hysterical symptotns following the emotion of fear. — In the 
majority of cases very little difficulty is exiwrienoed in dis- 
covering the nature of the 8ugg>estion which gives rise to hys- 
terical symptoms. In the first place there are the symptoms 



132 The TfV/r Neuroses and the Neuroses of Civil Life. 

which follow the einotion of fear. Extreme terror gives vise 
to certain familiar symptoms : the individual becomOvS shaky, 
"paralysed with fear," and unable to speak — "his tongue 
cleaves to the roof of his mouth." Under ordinary conditions 
the cause of fear is momentary and the physical results disappear 
in a few seconds. But during a heavy bombardment a man 
often remained terrified for hours. If the tremor, inability to 
move the leg-s and speechleissness persisted all this time, it was 
natural that these physical expressions of fear, which Mere 
not sin any way hysterical, should make such an impression on 
the individual's mind that when the original emotion had dis- 
appeiared the tremor, paraplegia and mutism persisted as hys- 
terical symptoms. 

In the first two years of the war eases of this kind were^ 
given the unfortunate name of "shell-shock," in the belief that 
they were organic in origin and due to the actual concussion 
caused by the explosion of powerful shells. Consequently no 
attempt w^as made to cure them by psychotherapy, and the 
treatment by rest and sympathy helped to j)erpetuate them; this 
unsatisfactory result was inci^ased by the use of the word 
"shell-shock," w]iich gave the patient the idea that he was 
suffering from some new and terrible disease. "When at last 
the true nature of the condition was recognised, it was found 
that psychotherapy not only resulted in the immediate dis- 
appearance of the symptoms, when they were treated in the 
special ladvanced hospitals o^^ened for the j)urj)ose by the Britislii 
and French, such as the Casualty Clearing Station of which! 
Major W. Johnson was in charge, but cases of two, three and 
even foui* years' standing were also fi'equently cured at a single 
sitting in hospitals in England'. Although this form' of hys- 
teria was most common in neiux)tic individuals, a large pro- 
portion of the patients treated within the fii-st forty -eight houna 
recovered so completely that they were able to return to the 
firing line and showed no tendency to i-elapse. A few of the 
patients, whose condition had pei-sisted for many montlis before 
coming under treatment, could not return to France, but even 



The War Netimse^^ and Ihc Neurosm of CwU TAje. 



Fifi. 1, 



Hysterical ptosis of Jeft eyo w^th spread of paralysis to whole of 
left side of face, hysterical spasm of right eye with spread of spasm 
to whole of right side of face, and hysterical amblyopia: a sequel of 
gassing, and cured by psychotherapy in a single day. 





rig 1 (a). — Position at rest, Fig 1 (b). — Same as (a) with 

showing double ptosis, right-sided left eyelid raised so as to see; 

facial spasm and left-sided facial this could not be done with the 

paralysis. right eye owing to spasm. 




Fig. 1 (c). — Voluntary effort to open eyes, resulting in over-action 
of left frontalis, though left side of face is paralysed, and spasm of 
right side of face including platysma. 



The ^yar Neuroses and the Neuroses of Civil Life. 133 

such men Avere ahvays able to go back to their old civil occu- 
pation and often had no undertying- mental condition requiring 
further treatment, althoug'h in some cases the hysteria was as- 
sociated with neurastlienia or psychasthenia or both. Indeed 
many patients at once lost such sym]3toms as headache, de- 
pression, insomnia and nightmares, which had troubled them 
for months or even years, directly the obvious pln^sical symp- 
toms, such as mutism or stammering, tremor and paraplegia, 
were removed by explanation, persuasion and re-education. 

We now believe that stammering in civilians as well as sol- 
diers is h^^sterieal and should be curable by psychotherapy 
with far greater rapidity than we formerly believed' to "be 
possible. Most of our cases during the last nine months of the 
war wei-e cured at a single sitting-, and recently Major J. F. 
Venables taught two soldiers, each of Avhom had been almost 
inarticulate from stammering since early childhood, to talk 
fluently in less than half an hour. 

Hysterical symptofns which followed gassing. — The second great 
group of hysterical symptoms in soldiers resultecl from' gassing. 
The irritation of the eyes, throat and stomach caused conjunc- 
tivitis, laryngitis and gastritis, the latter being due to the 
swallowing of saliva in which the gas Avas dissolved. The 
pain caused by the conjunctivitis induced the patient to refrain 
from opening his eyes Avith his levator palpebrae superioris; if, 
however, he tried to open them, his attempt Kvas frustrated by 
a reflex pi-otective spasm of his orbicularis palpebrarum. Under 
ordinary conditions the conjunctivitis had improved sufficiently 
at the end of three weeks for tlie eyes to be opened without 
difficulty, but if the patient was led to fear for his vision on 
account of previous weakness of the eyes, the previous lotss of 
one eye, as in two of our cases, or too prolonged ti^atment with 
local applications, bandages, dark spectacles or eye-shades, the 
voluntary inhibition of the levator might be perpetuated as 
hj^terical ptosis and the reflex spasm of the orbicularis as hys- 
terical blepharospasm (Fig. 1). As the uneducated layman 
associates the idea of blindness with inability to open the eyes; 



|.">l T Ik War Xcuro.sr.s (nhI I he \rtu()srs of Crttl IJjc\ 

imijiy of these patients thouj^lit they were blind. Consequently 
when they were taug:ht to o^^en their eyeis, it was found that 
they could only see indistinctly, as they had liysterical paralysi* 
of acoonnnodatiou. or tess frequently they could not see at all, 
as they Imd become so convinced that they were blind that 
tliey had ceased to look, and, not looking, they could not see. 
Simple explanation followed by i-e -education in looking- resulted 
in (permanent recovery. 

In the same ^\ay the whisi)ering in cases of laryngitis, which 
was originally in part voluntary in order to avoid pain and in 
part due to a protective reflex, was frequently perpetuated' as 
hysterical aphonia. This aitbjs most commonly the ease when 
an expert laryngoscopic lexamination had revealed the presence 
of some abnormal congestion which led to intra laryngeal medi- 
cation, as both tJie diagnosis and treatment afforded the neces- 
sary suggestion to perpetua^te the idea in the patient's mind 
that his voice was permanently lost. 

When these patients were taken away from their unfavour- 
able surroundihgs and treated by explanation, persuasion and 
re-education, without any recourse to suggestion by elec- 
tricity, anaesthetics or other means, they invariably re- 
covered. Each one of a series of 100 patients treated at the 
Scale Hayne Hospital was cured at a single sitting, although 
the average duration of the aphonia before admission was 205 
days. 'About one third of these cases were not caused by gas- 
sing, but by ordinary laryngitis, or they followed mutism, which 
had disappeared either spontaneously or after treatment which 
had been discontinued too soon. The 101st case was recognised 
to be organic by the timbre of the voice, a view which was 
confirmed when one coixi was found to be paralysed and an 
aneurysm of the aorta was discovered. We believe that the 
liability to relapse is greatly reduced by our simple method of 
treatment and the avoidance of suggestion. 

In la much smaller number of eases other hysterical affections 
of respiration, such as tachypnoea, hiccup, and spasms of the 
diaphragm resulted from gassing. . 



The War yeuroses and the Neuroses of Civil Life. 135 

• 

The gastritis caused by gassing- resulted in vomiting, a pro- 
tective reflex Avhich fulfilled its object by removing! the irritant 
from the stomach. The actual g-astritis rapidly disappeared, 
and -whenever the vomiting persisted for more thani three or 
four -weeks it -was always hysterical. A ivery large number of 
soldiers wei-e invalided from the service for so-called gastritis, 
the lonl}' symptom of -which -was vomiting. We' (found that cases 
of this sort could be cured by a sing-le (Conversation, if this 
■was "Continued until tJie patient was obviously quitef convinced 
that he was not longer suffering from gastritis, and that he 
could eat an^-tliing witliout fear of vomiting, even' if he had 
vomited after every !meal for tmany tmonths and' bad' been kept 
on a strictly flilid diet. Captain W. R. Reynell published an 
account of a number of caises of this kind in the Seale Hatpie 
Neurchgkal Studies. 

Hysterical vomiting is mucli (more common in civil' life than 
is jgenerally suj^posed. The vomiting* in chronic appendioitis, 
wliich may continue even after the removal of the appendix, 
and that of phthisis, are often in gi-eat part hysterical. We 
saw several examples of these conditions in soldiers, and' also of 
hysterical vomiting, following the vomiting caused by various 
infections, sucli as influenza and bacillary dysentery. 

Hysterical symptoms following tiPwidl wamids of limbs. — 
Perhaps tlie most common of the hysterical conditions) in sol- 
diers were the i)aralysis and oontractures which followed com- 
paratively trivial wounds of the limbs. A great many dif- 
ferent forms were observed, and in Imajiy cases' the paralysis 
and oontracture were associated with marked vasomotor dis- 
turbances, including* cyanosis or pallor, a pulse of small am- 
plitude, oedema, and trophic changes in the skin, nails ajid 
bones. At the same time the muscles showed amodeiute degree 
of atrox)hy, accompanied by an increased irritability to me- 
chanical stimulation and certain chang^es in electrical reactions, 
which id id not, however, amount to the reaction! of degeneration. 
These changes were often most easily observed under' a genci'al 
anoDsthetic, which did not residt in complete relaxation' of the 



136 The War Neuroses and the 2^ mioses of Chnl TAfe. 

» 
epasm until a stage of anaesthesia -was reached beyond that in 
•which oonsciousness is first lost. Babinski and Froment expe- 
rienced considerable difficulty in producing any improvement 
in the paralysis and contracture b}^ x)sychotherai)y. Impressed 
by this and by the fact that the associated vasomotor and tro- 
phic conditions oould not possibly by hysterical, as they Avere 
obviously neither capable of being- produced by sug-gestionf nor 
cured by psychotherapy, they concluded that the paralysis, and 
oontracture were ailso not hysterical. They revived the old 
theory of reflex nervous disorders, with which Vulpian and 
Charcot had sought to explain the muscular atrophy and spa.sm 
that often accompany diseaises of joints. They ascribed' both 
the muscular symptoms and tlie associated vasomotor and tro- 
phic disturbances to some obscure form of reflex action. 

Our experience has led us to believe that there is no founda- 
tion for this theory of IBabinski and Fromentj and that all the 
cases they described as reflex are really hysterical. The immo- 
bility" and spajsm [may arise as a voluntary or reflex response 
to pain, or [they may be due to localised tetanus, or to the ap- 
lication of splints or bandag-es; the abnormal posture and the 
immobility and spasm are perpetuated by auto -sugg-estion after 
ihe primary cause has disappeared, and to this is very often 
added the he tero -suggestion involved in treatment hj electricity 
and inassage. The hysterical paralysis and contracture which 
result (could invariably have been prevented by persuasion and 
re-education directly the condition of the wound made active 
movement permissible. 

The hysterical nature of the paralysis and contracture is 
proved by their rapid cure with psychotlierapy (Figs. 2 toi 5). 
In a Bieries of 100 consecutive cases treated ati the Seale Hayne 
Hospital, the majority, if not all, of which might have been 
diagnosed las reflex, as each one of the cases shown in the illus- 
trations of Babinski and Froment's book was i^epresented in our 
series, ninety-six were cured at a single sitting of an averag-e 
duration of fifty-four Iminutes, and the remainder were' cured 
in four days (two leases), two weeks and four weeks respectively 



The War, Neuroses and ihc Neuroses of Civil Life. 




Fig 2 (a). — Hysterical contracture of liand persisting thirty-five 
months after wound near elbow. 




Fig. 2 (b). — Same hand as Fig. 2 (a) after half an hour's treatment, 
showing depressions formed in palm by pressure of Jiails (Captain C. H, 
Kipman). 



The War Neuroses and the Neuroses of Civil Life. 




Fig. 3 (a). — Ilystorical coiiti;ietu:c of six years' duiatiou foilowing 
amputation of a fiager. 




Fig. 3 (b). — Recovery after one hour's treatment (Major J. J<. M. 
Symns). 



The War Neuroses and the Neuroses of Civil TJfc. 




V'v.r. I (a). — Ilysbarical caiitractur 
duration. 



e of foot of fourteen inunlhs' 




Fig. 4 (b).— Half an hour later, after psychotherapy. 



i.^V^i -^j^-- 



Thf War Neuroses and fhe Neuroses of Civil Life. 




Fig. 5 (a). — Hysterical contracture of toes assocjated with hainmcr-toe. 




Fig. 5 (b). — Same case as Fig. u (a) cured after halt* :m hour 
treatment 



The ]Viir Ncumsc.s (iiul ihi* Neuroses of Civil Life. 





Fig. 6. — Atrophy of index finger of left hand, compared with normal 
finger of right hand, resulting from hysterical contracture of fingers 
of eighteen months' duration, drawn after recovery from the contracture. 



i 




Fig. 7. — Skiagram of right and left hands, showing increased trans- 
parency of the bones of tlie left hand, taken immediately after recovery 
fioin hysterical paralysis of sixteen months' duration. 



i 



The War Neuroses and the Xeuroses of Civil Life. 137 

altlioiigli the average iduration of ti^eatment before admission 
was eleven months. In April, 1919, Major J. F. Venables cured 
a man with a completely useless hand, dating from a wound 
received in October, 1914, in just over five minutes. It is clear, 
therefore, that the ]3aralysis and contracture are hysterical, as 
they are caused by suggestion and cured by psychotherapy. 

Disuse of a limb, whether caused by organic disease' or hys- 
teria, leads to deficient circulation. This by itself is enough 
to explain the cold, blue and sometimes oedematous extremities, 
as they are most marked in cold weatlier and in individuals 
who have always had a feeble peripheral circulation. They 
disappear temporarily, as Babinski and Froment showed, by 
artificially increasing the circulation by the application of,' heat, 
and permanently, as we have repeatedly observed, by restoring 
the power of toovement by means of psychotherapy. 

Deficient circulation gives rise to deficient nutrition, so that 
the skin and subcutaneous tissues become, atrophied (Fig. 6), 
the bones decalcified as shown by the X-rays! (Fig. 7), and the 
nails thin and brittle. In a striking case, in which some tro- 
phic fclianges had developed as a result of hysterical paralysis 
and contracture of over a year's duration, and in which the 
power of movement was restored at a sing:le sitting, the nails 
subsequently showed a very definite horizontal Hne separating 
the opaque, vertically ridged, thin and brittle parti wliich grew 
during the period of disuse, from the pink, smooth and other- 
wise normal part, which began to grow immediately recovery 
took place (Fig. 8, opposite page 139). 

The (changes in mechanical and electrical reactions and in 
the deep i-eflexes were also shown by Babinski' and' Froment to 
disappear Avhen the circulation was tempomrily improved by 
immersion in hot water, and we found that immediate and per- 
manent restoration followed recovery from the paralysis and 
spasm as a result of psychotherapy. These chang>es, tliere- 
fore, are nothing more than the functional effects of deficient 
circulation on muscular tissue. 



l',\H The \\<ir Xciirosc.s and the Neufo.se.s of ('id/ Life. 

Ill th<3 sajuo ^vay tJio rigidity of the fiiigor joints, observed 
both in cases of organic nerve injury and in hysterical paralysis 
and oontracture, which persists under deep anrosthesia, has 
always been regarded a.s due to adhesions or fibrous contrac- 
tures, wliich only give w^ay under forcible manipulation witJt 
sounds of tearing- and i^sultant effusion. Tliis condition k 
really the resxilt of some <3oagulative process in the fibrou>^ 
tissue caused by the aecumulation of products of metabolisni, 
which are normally removed by tJie blood when the circula- 
tion is efficient. It is well known that a slight increase of 
mobility of such joints follows tiie application of warmth to 
improve the circulation, and we have found that complete and 
immediate restoration of mobility followed the return of tho 
natural circulation as a result of the rapid curei of the para- 
lysis and contracture. This must have been due to the removal 
of waste pix)ducts permitting the temporarily coagulated fibrous 
tissue to return ot its normal fluid consistence. 

It 5s thus falear that the so-called reflex nervous disorders of 
Babinski land Froment are really hj^sterical, and that the as- 
sociated vasomotor and toxjpliic disorders are caused by the 
resulting idisuse. 

A C B D 



Diagram 1, 



D 



Diagram 2. 

We have often noticed that when a mian is- rapidly cui'ed of 
a bontracture by psj^chotherapy, he continues to keep his limb 
in the same abnormal position as before, although he is capable 
of tooving it without any difiiculty in every direction. I be- 
lieve that tills is due to the developmieniti to a new " postural' 
length." If AB in DiagTam 1 represents the normal length of 
a muscle when at rest, it can shorten to AC on active contrac- 



Till W'lif Neuroses imil Ihc XcuroscH of Civil FAfe. 




V'\'j:. <S.- I iiipiovt'd mil rilioii of nail, drawn six weeks after sudden 
riH'overy willi p ;ycliol!i(Ma|iy f,o:u hysterical i)araly.-i-:, whicli had lasted 
over a vear. 




Fig 9 (a).— Ai)ii()rinal jxvaure persisting after complete recovery 
at a siiigh', sitting from hysterical contraction and paralysis of sixteen 
iir-nths" duration. 




Fig. I) (b).^ — Same as Fig. iJ (a). Keturii of normal posture after 
th-ec day,r re-education of postural tone. 



The Mar Xeuro.ses' and the yeuro><es of (icif Life. lo9» 

tion land leng-tJien to AD on active relaxation, relaxation being 
just as active a proeess as (conti-action . All muscles adopt an 
intermediate leng*tli of this kind, the exact lengfth dei>ending: 
upon the habitual ^xxsture of the limb. Thus! the fingers are- 
slig-htly flexed ^vhen at rest, both during oonsciou^ness aaid 
during sleep and anseistheisia. In order to extend theni tlie 
extensors c^Iiorten and the flexors [lengthen, and in order to flex 
them the flexons shorten and the extensoi-B lengthen. If as a 
result of the continued oontra^ction of one group of muscles,, 
whether as a result of organic disease or hysteria,; a new pos- 
ture is assumed for a long period, their anatomical structure 
becomes altei-ed, so tiiat the postural lengtli of tlie contracted 
muscles is abnormally short (e.g., AE 'in Diagi'am; 2) and that 
of "the O]>posing muscles is abnormally long*. AVhen recovery 
takes place, even if this occuns almost instantaneously in an. 
hysterical 'case, the muscle AE cun contract to AC and relax to 
AD, but it always returns to AE when at rest. Consequently 
the abnormal posture remains during sleep and under anaes- 
thesia to the same extent as when the patient is awake. It is 
in lio sense hysterical, but is organic, although' the structural 
condition lipon which it depends ought never to be permanent. 
As isoon as complete mobility is i*estored, the patient should be 
taught to keep his limb an the normal jnos-ture by an effort 
of will tlii*ougliout the day and he should walk up and dbwai 
in front of a looking glass to see that^ he maintains it. In the 
coui-so of two or three days this training results in a return 
to the normal iKJstural length, and the patient' tlien no longer 
requires to pay any attention to his posture. (Fig. 9). 

Orthoi^sx'dic surgeons have long known the importance of 
using si^lints to maintain a g-ood ^x^tui-e after nerve injurj-. 
It has generally been thought that this hasf tlie object of pre- 
^•enting tlie paralysed nniscles being overetretched, as their 
contractility might otherwise become impaired. In all iii'oba- 
l)ility, however, the splint really acts by maintaining^ the nor- 
mal postural length of both the paralysed and opposing 
muscles. That this is the auorc likely explanation is shown. 



140 The War Neuroses and the J^euroses of Civil Life. 

hy the improved i-esults obtained (reoently in cases: of droppe<[ 
wrist due to musculo -spiral paralysis, the extreme hyper-- 
•extension [formerly used having been replaced by modei-ate 
"extension which keeps the postural length of the muscles 
■normal instead of increasing that of the flexors and reducing 
i;hat of the extensors. The abnormal postures ondf gaits, which 
are often adopted after a painful wound hiajs completely healed, 
are probably also due to the development of abnormal postural 
lengths of muscles whilst the position of g-reatest comfort was 
maintained before the wound had healed. The condition is 
-often described as hysterical, but it is not( ^produced by sugges- 
tion, land is really organic, tthough easily curable by re- 
education. 

Hysterical sympfoms following injury or disease of the 
nervous system. — This group of cases is, I think, the most 
important, because it is one which is very common both in 
soldiers and civilians, though its truei nature is comparatively 
rarely recognised. It consists of conditions, which are primarily 
x)rganic and due ito an injury or diseasei of the nervous system, 
but which are eventually in part or completely hysterical. 
When the structural changes produced by an injury: or acute 
disease of the nervoujs system gradually diminish in extent 
owing to the disappearance of the vascular and other tempo- 
rary changes, which surround the comparatively small area of 
"total destruction, if indeed such an area is present at all, 
the symptoms caused by the throwing' out of action of the 
parts controlled by [the nervous tissues primarily involved should 
disappear pari passu. Just as the physical signs in slowly 
progressive diseases, such as tabes and disseminated sclerosis 
often precede the onset of symptoms, so in tbese cases the 
physical signs are generally still present when the functional 
capacity has returned to normal, and if the( lesion does not dis- 
appear completely they may remain as permanent evidence of 
a past organic lesion. 

In many cases, however, a man does not realise that his func- 
tional capacity is improving. If he has been hemiplegie, he 



I 



The War Nenrofies and the Is^enroaes of Cwil Life. 

1^10. 10. 
Hysterical hemiplegia of two years' duration following organic hcmi- 
plogia caused by nephritis, with persistence of organic physical signs. 




Fig 10 (a)- — Before treatment. 




Fig. 10 (b). — After two and a-hnlf hours' treatment 




Fig. 10 (c). — After six months' treatment (Major J. L. M. Symns). 



The War Neuroses and the Neuroses of Civil Life. 141 

has ill the early days made repeated efforts to move liis para- 
lysed limbs, hut without success, and he finally gives up the 
attempt and reconciles himself to the idea of permanent Ihemi- 
plegia. If his physician is too much concerned' witli the pos- 
sible dang-ers of early piovement, he will exaggerate the pa- 
tient's own fears of permanent disability, with th«^ result that 
the organic hemiplegia is gradually replaced by hysterical 
hemiplegia, instead of slowly disappearing as the org-anio lesion 
becomes more and more reduced in extent. A time may even- 
tually arrive when tlie hemiplegia is entirely hysterical, but, as 
already pointed out,, the physical signs of organic disease,, 
such as extensor plantar reflex, ankle-clonus, exagg^erated deep 
i-eflexes and lost abdominal reflex, may still be present on the 
affected side (Fig. 10). 

A number of additional signs have been described, particu- 
larly by Babinski, Avhich depend on the^ fact that the behaviour 
of the paral^Tsed muscles in organic hemiplegia differs in various 
i^sx>ects from what an average layman would expect, so tliat 
a tman with hysterical hemiplegia, the exact nature of which 
must depend on his own conception of howl "his muscles would 
behave if they wei*e paralysed, fails to show these signs. But 
if [the hysterical hemiplegia was suggested by an organic hemi- 
plegia, these signs would be present, as the patient would be 
trained by his own organic symptomis to maintain them in an 
imaltered forai when they were no longer organic. Thus while 
the upper part of the face is unaffected, the lower, including 
the platysma ( Babinski 's platysma sign, Fig. 11, opposite pag« 
142), would be paralysed, and Babinski's pronation sign and the 
combined flexion of the thigh and pelvis (Babinski's "second 
sign") would be present. In the (same way tlie characteristic pos- 
ture of the arm and leg in organic hemiplegia would be perpetua- 
ted. "W'e should thus be face to face widi a case following an injiuy 
c»r idisease which is known to result in organic hemiplegia, and 
in which incontestible physical signs of organic disease, such 
as the extensor plantar reflex, as well as the characterestic pos- 



J 42 Tin \V<(i Xi'it roses (uid I he Scuroses of Civil IJje. 

tui'O and the mx^assory sigiiis der^ciiljed hy Babinski and otliers, 
are j) resent, altliou^h the lieniii)Je<>ia is entirely hysterical. 

Such oases can only be diagnosed by experimental psycho- 
therapy. If, as occurred in numerous cases under our care, 
more or less recovery takes plaoa — ^although, of course, the 
permanent physical signs of organic hemiplegia persist — it is 
clear that the paralysis is almost entirely hysterical, although 
g-rafted on an organic basis. 

The old method of diagnosing bet^^een organic and hysterical 
paralysis Ithus breaks down, as tlie physical signs of organic 
disease (do not, as is too often assumed, indicate that the para- 
lysis is entirely organic, but simj:>h' that thei^ is an organic 
•element in the case, which may be quite insignificant in pro- 
portion to the hysterical. Moreover, it is nO' help in such cases 
to consider whether the patient is or is not neurotic, as the 
large Inajority have no personal or family history of neuroses, 
and are in every way normal except for the particular symp- 
tom from wdiich they are suffering. No more powerful sug- 
gestion of hysterical paralysis could be imagined^ than orgianie 
paralysis, and no abnormal degree of sugg-estibili ty is necessary 
for its development. 

We have seen cases of homon3'mous hemianoi)ia. persistent 
headache, amnesia, aiid epileptiform convulsions develop after 
head injiuues; paraplegia and persistent incontinence of urine, 
after spinal injuries ; paralysis and anaesthesia after nerve 
injuries in the exact distribution of the peripheral nerves, the 
ana3sthesia even resulting in accidental bums (Fig. 12); all of 
which were primarily organic and showed the characteristic 
features of symptoms caused by an organic lesion, although the 
recovery with psychotherapy proved that they Avere hysterical. 
In many cases, of course, recovery Avas incomplete, the pi'Opor- 
tion of hysterical to organic incapacity depending on the extent 
of permanent damage done to the nervous tissue. 

In /the same, way we have found that the well-recognised as- 
sociation (of hysteria with disseminated sclerosis is even more 
<!ommon than is generally supposed, that an; hysterical element 



The War Neuroses arid ilie y^K roses of Civil Life. 





Fig. 11 (a).— Same case as Fig. 11 (b).— After forty-five 

Fig. 10. Upper neurone type of miuutei;" treatment for face, 
facial paralysis before treatment. 
showing paralysis of platysma. 




i 



Fig. 12. — Hysterical anaisthe^sia in median nerve distribution, with 
uiif(>lt accidentnl burn. (Roprocbicod by permission from the BrUi:li 
J our mil of Surgery). 



The M'<u- yeufoses and the yeuroses of Civil Life. 14.3 

is frequent in tabes and may occur in such a disease as Fried- 
reich's ataxia. A soldier suffering- fix)m the. latter disease, who 
had been unable to walk or stand without assistance and had 
been unable to feed himself or write for several months, im- 
proved to such an extent as a i-esult of a Aveek's psychotherapy 
that he Avas able* to Avalk steadily and use his hands for all 
ordinarA' purposes, although, of couree, the physical signs re- 
niainod unaltered and the ultimate prog-nosis Avas as hopeless as 
before. 

I believe that the same" principle should be applied to all 
organic diseease, A\hatever part of the body is affected, and 
the possibility of an hysterical and thei-efore removable ele- 
ment should be considered, hoAA-ever normal the mentality of 
the patient may ajppear to be. Our (experience further sIioavs 
that the ideal method of treatment in sucJi cases is a rapid 
one— by explanation in languag-e suited to the intelligence o£ 
the individual, combined, Avhen necessarj^, with persua^sion and 
re-education. 

Hysterical deafness. — In order to hear, it is necessary to 
listen, listening being' as active a process as moving. Perhaps 
the dendrites of the nerve cells are tliix)AA'n out at each cell 
station in the auditory tract Avhen an individual listens and ai'e 
AvithdraAA-n Avhen he is inattentive. If a man has become tem- 
porarily deaf OAving 'to a loud explosion or continuous gunfire, 
lie anay become so convinced that he Avill never hear again that 
Jio ceases 'to listen. This is the origin of hysterical deafness. 
It is consequently a true nerve deafness; the patient's voice 
alters like that of a deaf man, he may spontaneously learn lip- 
reading, and in seA^ere cases the auditory-motor i-eflex, in which 
ilie tpupils dilate and eyelids bHnk in response to loud noises, 
iiiay idisappear OAving to the blocking produced at ihe lower as 
Avell as the higher auditory centres by the withdrawal of the 
<Iontrites Avhen inattention is extreme. The only signs of 
organic deafness of any value ai-e those Avhich indicate vesti- 
l)ular disorder, as this never occurs in hysteria, and an organic 
l^^sion Avhich is sufficiently severe to cause complete deafness must 



144 The War Neuroses and the Neuroses of Civil Life. 

always involve the vestibule or vestibular nerve or nucleus as 
well as tlie coclilea or cochlear nerve or nucleas.. All cases of 
concussion deafness, even if the drums are ruptured, are at 
any rate partly hysterical, and recovery occurs as soon as tlie 
patient is taught to listen onoe more, tlie auditory-motor re- 
flexes reappearing at the same time. ' 

I believe that the question of attention is of very great im- 
portance, and many patients with partial deafness from oto- 
sclerosis or other causes can be greatly benefited' by being 
taught to listen and to nse whatever power of hearing they 
still possess to the greatest advantage. 

Hysterioal hemianopia. — It has generally been taught that ho- 
monymous defects of vision, such as hemianoj)ia, is always 
organic. But we have observed such defects resulting from 
wounds of the occipital region, which were due to the hysterical 
perpetuation of a condition which was originally organic. The 
loss of function having been largely due to concussion and: 
other transient changes, vision returned spontaneously, but the 
individual having become temporarily blind in one or more 
homonymous quadrants of his fields of vision had ceased to 
look in the corresponding directions and re-education was re- 
quired to teach him to do so, the rapid recovery wliich followed 
this metliod of treatment x^roving that the condition was realb' 
hysterical. 

Hysterical headache. — Persistent headache due to concussion,, 
whetlier caused by direct injury or a shell explosion, is often 
if not always of the same nature, as it disappeai-s with psycho- 
therapy when all other forms of treatment have proved useless. 
Major J. F. Venables cured each of two cases of constant 
vomiting following concussion by a single psychotherapeutic 
conversation, neither patient vomiting again, altliough they 
were given a full diet after heaving been tunable to keep down 
the whole of a single meal, even of peptonized milk, for over 
a year. 

Hysterioal fits. — Hysterical fits are, I believe, much more 
common than is g*enerally believed, and they may very closely 



The War Neuroses and the Neuroses of Civil Life. 145 

feimulate epilepsy. Such symptoms as passing urinei and biting 
the tongue may occur, especially in a man -who has at one time 
suffered from true epilepsy, as nothing is more likely to suggest 
the occurrence of fits in an emotional individual during times 
of stress than the memory of true fits in the past. The fits 
resemble the early ones in those features which the patient 
remembers or with which he is familiar from what liis relatives 
have told him. 

I have seen a small number of cases of Jacksonian epilepsy 
following head injuries which were perpetuated as hysterical 
fits; they resembled the original attacks in every detail, but 
persisted when the primary cause was no longer operative, 
and, being hysterical, they were cured by psychotherapy. 

Hysterical inGontinence of urine. — Incontinence of urine was 
very common in soldiers; it was almost always hysterical, and 
rapidly responded to psychotherapy. I believe that the enuresis 
of children must be hysterical, as many of these cases were simply 
relapses under the strain of active service of a condition which 
had been present in childhood, and in a few cases the inconti- 
nence had never ceased, but was none the less cured by explana- 
tion, persuasion and re-education, even if it was diurnal as well 
as nocturnal. 

The incontinence which follows spinal wounds and spinal 
concussion has always been regarded as organic, but we have 
had several cases which were cured by psychotherapy after last- 
ing many months or even a year or two. These were generally 
associated with paraplegia, which was similarly due to the 
hysterical perpetuation of a condition originally organic. 

V . — PSYCHASTHENI A . 

Psychasthenia is a functional nervous disorder, characterised 
by inability to oo -ordinate the mental processes, which I'esults 
in inability to regulate the ideas and actions in a logical 
manner, together with difficulty in concentration and, in more 
severe cases, in obsessions and emotional crises. It is a pure 
psycho-neurosis, and has no organic basis of any kind. It is 

PART III. K 



I-|(> 'ihc War .\<'urns(\s (ntd f/w Xcuroscs of Clri/ Lije. 

the i-esult ol' keeping- painful iiieiiiuriL's and eonHieting- instinctr! 
ill the subliminal consciousness by more or Jesi^ \'(jluntary 
repi'esaion . 

Psychasthenia is jiiost ooinmon in individuals Avitli a neuio- 
pathio inheritance and generally shows itself in a mild form 
from childhood. It is most frequent among the educated classes, 
and is often associated Avith the so-called artistic temj)orament. 
Psychasthenia was thus most common among the martial niis- 
Hts, individuals who were canstitutionally unsuited to the life 
of a soldier. Definite psychasthenic symptoms are likely to 
develop when a predisposed individual is exposed to emotional 
strain; as the former was g^enerally greater in officers than in 
men owing to their responsibility, psychasthenia was most com- 
mon in officei*s. Mental and physical overwork do not of them- 
selves cause psychasthenia, but the neurasthenia to which they 
often gave rise under war conditions made men abnormally 
liable to develop psyoliasthenia. 

An officer becoming psychasthenic found it difficult to adapt 
himself to changing conditions. He hesitated when called upon 
to decide between two possible lines of action^ and A\hen at last 
he had adopted one he was full of doubts as to whether he had 
not made a mistake. His power of concentration became defi- 
cient, and an abnormal effort Avas inquired to recall past events. 
Without fully realising it, his mental energy was largely taken 
up in repressing- painful thoughts and conflicts, kept in the 
background of his mind in order to avoid distress. As a i-esult 
of this he showed a want of confidence in all his doings, and 
was often fearful that he would be unable to perform his duties 
when an emergency arose. Thits his sense of duty urg-ed him 
to keep at his work, and was in acute conflict with his instinct 
of self-preservation, which urged him to get awaj^ from his 
hateful surroundings. When in the day-time his mind Avas not 
fully occupied, an emotional crisis might ariiste, in Avhich he Ava.s 
overwhelmed Avith an apparently causeless emotion, such as 
dread, horror or terror, associated Avith their physical accom- 
paniments of tremor, j)alpitation, sAveating, and even diarrhoea, 



The IIV//- }\enr<).se!f and the yeioo.se.s of Civil Life. 147 

and ut* laughter or Aveeping, poj)iilarly culled '"hysterics." 
Owing- to the need of active thought lo kin^j) tJie disti'essing 
memories and mental conflicts buried, he often found it difficult 
to fall asle'Cj), and Avhen at last he slej)t, the controlling influence 
over his thoughts Avas i-elaxed and they came into conscious- 
juvss in a distorted form of nightmai'es, Avith a i-esult that he 
Avould Avake in a cx)ndition of terror, though often unaAval^3 
<jf its cause. The disturbed nights lovd to exhaustion and 
so(!ondary neurasthenia, Avith headache and tendency to mental 
and Ijodil}- fatigue. It ^\as then often impossible to disentangle 
the neurasthenic and psychasthenic elements of the composite 
clinical pictui'e Avhicli the Avar-Avorn soldier presented. In 
sevei"© cases obsessions develoi)ed, an obsession being an in- 

idequate idea or unsubstantial fear — commonl}^ called a phobia 
- -which intrudes itself into the consciousness in an irresistible 
manner Avithout completel}- Ailing or dominating it. 

The prognosis depended u]3on the durati:)ii of ihe symptoms 
and especially upon Avhether the individual wss otherAvise normal 
Avhen the circumstances arose Avhich gave rise to his psychas- 
thenia. When, as Avas frequently the case, he had always been 
of a nervous disposition, the outlook Avas less good, as although 
the symptoms might be gi-eatly relieved there often remained a 
tendency to i-elapse Avith a return of mental strain. 

Except for the associated neurasthenic; symptoms the treat- 
iuent of psychasthenia should be entirelv mental, and the old- 
fashioned rest cure and the administration of drug-s are useless. 
The flrst essential is to gain the patient's complete confidence, 

o that he becomes Avilling to speak about his most intimate 
thoughts and to discuss affairs Avhich he has kept hidden from 
everybody. It Avas quite impo,ssible to treat such patients during 
ail ordinary Avard visit, and good results could only l)e obtained 
when the conversation betAveen the patient and liis medical 
(itiioer tcx)k place Avithout Avitnesses in a private room. The man 
is encouraged to search his memory for the real origin of his 

ym])toms and to face bravely the memories and conflicts ho 
lias been repressing. An investigation into liis thoughts Avhon 



148 The War Aei(rof<e-^ (ind llic Xcuros,'.-^ of Civil Life. 

he lies awake at nig-Iits and into the subjects of his dream* 
was often of gi-eat vahie. He is helped to solve his difficulties 
and he is made to realise that a free discussion of the thoughts 
he has been attempting to repress, however painful they mav 
be, will cause his nightmares to disappear and his condition 
during the daj- to improve. It is remarkable how rapidly 
persistent nightmares, long-standing phobias, hitherto inexplic- 
able emotional crises, and other psychasthenic symptoms dis- 
appeared directly the patient thoroughly understood the mental 
processes which had given rise to them. 

The analysis of his mental state mig-ht appropriately have 
been called psycho-analysis, were it not for the fact that the 
term has unfortunately become attached to the special teaching- 
of Freud, who believes the suppressed psj'chical origin of the 
condition to be invariably sexual. Although sexual phobias were 
occasionally present in soldiers, in the vast majority of cases there 
was absolutely no sexual element at all. Perhaps the term 'psycho- 
logical analysis might be employed. When the cause of the 
symptoms has been removed, the patient should be given mental 
exercises in order to restore Ms memory and powers of con- 
centration. These quickly return, as he can now avail himself 
of the mental energy previously used up in futile efforts con- 
nected with his worries. 

VI. — FuNCTioxAL Hyperadrexalism-Hyperthyroidism. 

The emotions of fear and anger manifest themselves in 
physical phenomena which respectively j)repare the individual 
to fly and to fight — ^the natural sequels of these emotions. Most 
of these physical phenomena are the direct result of the stimula- 
tion of the sympathetic nervous system by the emotions. Thus 
the blood pressure rises and the pulse is accelerated, the blood 
supply to the muscles being thereby increased. The coronary 
and cerebral arteries do not take part in the vasoconstriction,^ 
and consequently the heart and brain also receive the additional 
supply of blood they will require. The bronchioles dilate in 



The War yeuroses and the JSeuroses of Civil Life. 149 

order that respiration should be unimpeded. The secretory; 
and motor activity of the stomach and intestines is inhibited 
and the sphincters contract, and digestion consequently ceases; 
the blood supply of the alimentary canal can therefore be cut 
down by the general vasoconstriction for the benefit of the 
skeletal muscles, which would be undesirable if digestive activity 
continued. 

The experimental work of Cannon, Elliot and Crile has shown 
that one of the most important results of the sympatihietio 
activity caused by fear and anger is the secretion of the supra- 
renal glands Avhich it calls forth. Adrenalin has the effect of 
stimulating all structures supplied by the sympatlietic nervous 
system, but not those supplied by the cranial and pelvic auto- 
nomic nerves. Consequently the stimulating effect of the 
emotions on the sympathetic nerves is enhanced by the 
adrenalin. But adrenalin has other properties, which are 
of great value for an individual preparing to fly or fight. It 
increases the output of sugar by the liver and so provides the 
muscles with, an additional supply of the chief source of their 
energy, and it destroys the fatig'ue substances produced by 
muscular activity, so that the muscles can continue to work for 
a longer period than Avould otherwise be possible. 

At the same time the cervical sympathetic, which as part 
of the general sympathetic nervous system is stimulated both 
directly by the emotions and indirectly by the adrenalin, causes 
increased thyroid activity, as Crile w-as the fii-st to suggest 
and as Cannon has recently proved by experiment. This results 
in a general stimulation of metabolism and a further re-inforce- 
ment of the activity of the cervical sympathetic, which is the 
only part of the sympathetic system activated by the thyroid. 
The pulse is further accelerated, but apart from this the value 
of the results to the individual is not much moi-e obvious than 
is the increased metabolism. Possibly the dilatation of tlie pupils 
widening of the palpebral fissures and proptosis, together with 
the erection of the hair, which province a typical picture of 
terror, have in turn the object of inducing terror in the heart 



{.'»{) I'hc \\((r Xcintj.scs and I he XfH/'osc-s of Cirif Lift'. 

of tlio ciicniy; but, useful as this may bo to eats, it has louo 
lost any iiiiportaiioo it may once have had in irian. 

The physical i-esuUs of fear are uever of any vahie to tin 
soldier, who may not run away; the physical i-esults of angler 
help him if lie is attacking-, for 

'' When the burning- moment bi-eak.s, 
And all things elwe are out of jnind, 
And only Joy of Battle takes 
Him by the throat and makes him blijid," 

he may be able to perform prodigies of «trongth and endur- 
ance, of which under ordinary conditions he would be totally 
incapable. 

The j)hy.sical results of fear, if prolonged for a sufficient 
period, result in exhaustion of the nervous system, including the 
vaso-motor centre, and ultimately the heart and skeletal muscles. 
This was an important faotor in the production of neurasthenia 
and one form of so-called disordered action of the heart in 
soldiers; it is discussed in the section on neurasthenia. 

If the i-esj^onse of the sympathetic nervous system to feai 
w as so excessive as to incapacitate the individual, "who was 
unable to respond in the natural Avay — by flight — to his emotion, 
the over-activity generally disappeared after a few hours' rest, 
directly he Avas i-emoved from the source of fear, the front line. 
But occasionally his fears were still aroused in nightmares, 
and in severe ca,ses the ]3atient also pictured to himself all 
through the day the terrors which he had recently experienced. 
In such cases the physical results of the emotion became per- 
petuated, and the patient presented a picture of combined 
hyper adrenal ism and hyperthyroidism, which has been de- 
scribed by most writers as simply hyperthyroidism, as the sym]^- 
toms of the hyperadrenalism, which is the more important and 
in the absence of which the thyroid activity would be much less 
marked, ai*e at first sight less obvious. The i^icture differs in 
certain important i-espects from that of Graves' disease, which 
depends upon over-activity of the thyroid g-land caused by 



The Mar Xeinoses and the yeiiroses of Civil Life. 151 

structiu-al eliaiig-es in its secretory tissues and is not, like the 
functional hypemdrenalism-hyperthyroidisni of soldiers, simply 
one of the results of general sympathetic over-activity. Thus 
^veil-marked hy]^)ertropliy of the gland is never present in the 
latter cases, though there is occasionally a slight enlargement, 
l)robably due to vasodilatation, Avhich disappears with the other 
evidence of sympathetic over-activity when recovery takes place. 
The eyes are often slightly prominent, but there is never the 
extreme degree of exophthalmos often seen in Graves' disease. 
The prominence of the eyes varies greatly from day to day and 
even from hour to hour. It may be exceedingly obvious for a 
few minutes if the patient is exoited, although immediately 
before and again shortly afterwards it is hardly recognisable. 
This is due to the fact that the symptoms depend entirely upon 
the emotional state of the patient, which contrels the sympa- 
thetic activity and through this tlie suprarenal and thyreid 
secretions. The blood-pressure is normal in Graves' disease, 
but in this condition it is always high at the onset, when it 
may even be as much as 200 m.m. Hg. in a man of twenty, 
but it quickly falls to normal as improvement takes place, 
though it remains liable to sudden elevation with emotional upset, 
just as is the case ^ith the exophthabuos ; the high blood- 
pressure is partly due to direct sympathetic action, but is mainly 
the result of the secondary hyperadrenalism . The difference 
is explained by the fact that although thyroid extract acceler- 
ates the puLse it does not raise tlie blood pressure, Avhereas 
the rise in pressure is the most striking effect of adrenalin. 
A few experiments on the effect of hypnosis in these cases, 
some of which were carried out with Captain G. H. Hunt, 
showed that the blood-pressure and pulse rate fell rapidly 
to normal when the patient lost consciousness, and the general 
asi)ect of hyi^rthyreidism disap])eared, pro\ing that there is no 
constant over-activity of the tliyroid gland as iu Graves' disease, 
but that the whole condition is maintained by emotional activity. 
There is always marke<:l vasomotor and pilomotor instability;' 
the latter i< shown by the frequency with which the hair stands 



152 The War Neuroses and the Neuroses of Civil Life, 

constantly on end, as first observed by Major John Fawcett, 
and by the brisk cutaneous pilomotor reflex. 

The functional hyperadrenalism-hyperthyroidism responds 
Batisfaotorily to rest, combined with psychotherapy directed to 
the relief of the nig-htmares and disturbing" day-dreams, as 
described in the section on psychasthenia. As the condition is 
not due to structural changes in the thyroid gland, treatment 
with X-rays or by operation would obviously be useless. As it 
generally occurred in men who were of a nervous temperament, 
it was seldom possible for them to return to duty at the front. 
'But the majority recovered sufficiently for home service, whilst 
the remainder were eventually discharged from the Army, but 
not before they were fit enough to return to their civil occu- 
pation. 

Functional hyperadrenalism-hyperthyroidism has not hitherto 
been clearly recognised in civil Ufe. But many of the so-called 
iormes frustes of Graves' disease, emotional patients with tachy- 
cardia, vasomotor instability, excessive sweating and tremor, but 
without any marked enlargement of the thyroid or exophthalmos, 
and some cases of so-called idiopathic hypertension in nervous 
individuals, are probably of this nature, and an investigation 
into the origin of their emotional instability followed by appro- 
priate psychotherapy would doubtless be much more effective 
■than simple medical treatment with rest and drugs, whilst 
X-rays and thyroidectomy are clearly contra-indicated. 

VII. — Organic Disease of the Nervous System. 

There has in the past been much controversy as to whetlier 
physical exhaustion and emotional strain ever resulted in the 
development of organic nervous diseases. In recent years it 
has been generally agreed that tliis does not occur, but both 
factors have been regarded as important in hastening the 
development of diseases already present in a latent or early 
stage, and possibly as the deciding factor in causing such a 
disease to appear in a man predisposed by the essential in- 
herited or acquired factors, whatever these may be. The ex- 



The War Neuroses and the Neuroses of Civil Life. 153 

haustion and emotional strain caused by tlie war has given an 
opportunity, such as has never been known before, to investigate 
these problems. 

Paralysis agitatis and disseminated sclerosis are the two 
diseases of unknown origin, in which the influence of mental 
strain seemed most probable. About five cases were sent to us 
with the former diagnosis and twenty with the latter. In spite 
of the fact that in many instances the resemblance was very strik- 
ing, all of these cases except two of disseminated sclerosis proved 
to be hysterical, as they recovered wdth psychotherapy, and any 
organic physical signs which persisted proved to be due to 
slight organic change caused by concussion of the spinal cord 
in cases which had followed burial. We saw only one case of 
very early paralysis agitans in a soldier in spite of the larg-e 
numbers of middle-aged men who were on active service, 
especially in labour battalions, and onty about half a dozen 
eases of disseminated sclerosis. All of these were early cases, 
and in every instance the first symptoms either preceded tlie 
w^ar, when active service did not seem to have had any effect 
in accelerating the development of the condition, or if it had 
appeared after enlistment the patient had never been exposed 
to great physical or mental strain. Major J. F. Venables sub- 
sequently observed a ca^e of true paralysis agitans, which 
appeared to have developed as a direct result of being blown 
lip by a shell, and Captain C. Worster-Drought described two 
or three oases in which the development of disseminated sclerosis 
appeared to have been accelerated by war service. It is clear, 
how^ever, that mental and physical strain must be an almost 
negligible factor in the causation of paralysis agitans and 
disseminated sclerosis. 

A soldier, 25 years old, whose brotlier \vas completely in- 
capacitated with Friedreich's ataxy, had been unsteady when 
walking in the dark for two years. He rapidly beccume very 
ataxic whilst on active service, and when admitted he was 
unable to stand or walk Avithout assistance and could not write. 
Captain \V. R. Reynell treated him so successfully with psycho- 



].'}{ I'hr \\((r XcNrfjsrs (otil ihc Xenroscs of Civil lAfe. 

therapy that in twxMity-fuur hours ho could wtcind and walk 
without assistance, aiul at the end of a ^\eok lie Mas only very 
slightly ataxic, tlic condition ot* his hands having also greatly 
improved. As all the physical signs of the disease were still 
piNjisent tlieix) could be no doubt about the diagnosis, and it 
is clear that what Mas i-emoved was a superadded hysterical 
element. This is a point of the utmost importance in civil 
life, as it would have been quite impossible M'ithout trying the 
effect of psychotherapy to have recognised that there was any 
hysterical element pi^esent, as the patient was not in the least 
neurotic and presented a cpiite characteristic picture of Fried- 
reich's ataxy. I believe that a mild degree of ataxy or paresis 
caused by organic disease is very likely to become greatly 
exaggerated by auto-suggestion, and this posisibility, with the 
corollary that considerable improvement Avill result from psycho- 
therapy, should be remembered and the effect of psychotherapy 
tried in all cases of such apparently hopeless organic diseases 
as disseminated sclerosis and Friedreich's ataxy. 

There is no doubt that the mental and physical strain of 
war had a marked influence on tabes and general imralysif. 
Many patients, whose symptoms were so slight that the true 
nature of their condition had not previously been recognised,, 
rapidly became incapacitated on active service. In other cases 
there did not appear to have been any sign of the disease before- 
the war, though it is obvious that the spirocha^tes must have 
been lying dormant in the central nervous system. That the- 
strain accelerated the onset of the disease in these cases, in 
some of w^hich it might perhai)s never have become manifest 
undei' favourable conditions, Avas shown by the interval between 
the primary infection and the first symptoms of tabes or general 
paralysis being on an average definitely shorter than that 
observed in civil life. The concussion caused by the explosion 
of a big shell was sometimes the exciting cause of the onset 
or sudden aggravation of symptoms. In one case a shrapnel 
wound of the head led to the immediate development of oph- 
thalmoplegia and symptoms of general paralysis, the diagnosis^ 



The War yeuro-ses (utd the Xeuro.se.s of Civil Life. \'^'^ 

being- toiifirnied hy ihQ positive Wassermann reaction and excess- 
of lymx>hoc'ytes in tlie eerebro-spinal fluid, although the patient 
^vas fit in eveiy wa^- until the moment he was wounded. 

The severity of the symptoms observed in these oases of 
tabes and g-eiieral paralysis does not give an acciu^ate indication. 
of the severity oi tlie pathological process, as tliei*e was an even 
greater tendency' than in civil life for slight symptoms to 
suggest severer ones, so that a large hysterical element waa 
often })reseiit. Rapid improvement up to a certain point con-^ 
sequently occurred Avith psychotherapy in spite of physical signs 
and changes in the eerebro-spinal 'fluid which could leave no 
doubt as to the accuracy of the diagnosis. It was hoped that 
prolonged .treatment with intravenous injections of salvarsan 
until the AVassermann inaction disappeared might arrest the 
progress of the disease itself, as owing to the conditions under 
which the symptoms appeai-ed a diagnosis was often made at 
an earlier stag-e than is generally posisible in civil life. 

It might be ex])ected that active service Avould increase the- 
frequency and severity of fits in epilepsy, Avould lead to i^lai>^e- 
in apparently cui-ed cases, and might even produce the disease 
in individuals Avho wei*e predisposed by heredity. Among the- 
enormous number of men sent home diag-nosed as epilepsy 
it soon became clear that almost all of tliose avIio had no per- 
sonal or family history of the disease Avere really suffering fronii 
hysteria. Later investigations showed that even Avith a strong- 
family history or a history of epilepsy in childhood the fits 
Avere ahnost invariably hysterical, though i^ossibly in a very 
small number of cases severe Avar strain led to the development 
of true epileptic fits. Finally Ave discovered that even in men 
Avho had had regular fits up to the time they enlisted the in- 
creased frequency which often resulted from active service Avas 
to a great extent only apparent, as true epileptic fits Avere little 
or no more common than before but Avere noAv often associated 
Avith very frequent hysterical fits. The mode of origin, diagnosis 
and treatment of hysterical fits in these cases is deacribed in 
the section on hysteria. 



SOME EXPEEIENCES OF THE WOKK OF 
GENEEAL HOSPITALS IN FKANCE. 



By 
PHILIP TURNER, M.S., F.R.C.S. 



I HAVE been asked to give some account of the General Hoe- 
pitals of the Expeditionary Force in France, and of the work 
done in them. Since the subject is a very large one, and the 
spaoe at my disposal is limited, I shall give a short account 
of the organisation and working of hospitals, of which I had 
personal experience, and then, if space permits, give a brief, 
outline of the surgical work we were called upon to perform. 

In 1914 the War Establishment of a General Hospital -was 
520 beds. This number ^vas found to be too small and was 
soon increased, so that hospitals moving abroad in the spring 
and summer of 1915 were provided with accommodation for 
1,040 patients by the simple process of doubling the entire equip- 
ment of the original establislmcient. Later on, the nmnber 
of beds was still further increased as the site of the particular 
hospital permitted. Thus at No. 3 General Hospital thei-e were, 
in the autumn of 1915, 750 beds, which were subsequently^ 
increased to 1,000, and eventually, with emergency accommoda- 
tion, to 1,350. Other hospitals with larger sites were enabled 
to increase to 1,800, and some of the later hospitals were pro- 
vided with 2,000 beds or over. " Emergency " beds as the name 
implies were designed to meet the. requirements of sudden 
rushes of ^wounded men, but thei-e was always a tendency for 
emergency accommodation to be i-egarded eventually as part 



158 Some Kjperlnfce.s of the }\'ork of 

of the normal aoeoiiiniodation of tlio hospital. Tliest) oimn- 
geiicy b«d« weiie obtained in the following: ways: (1) By puttinj^- 
lip additional hos])ital marquees on any vacant <ii()nnd (2) by 
addinj^- additional beds to exiistin<>' wards an^l huts ; thim <n\v 
lints orig-inally fontained 30 bed« but this A\as pormanenTly 
increased to 84 and on occasion« to .'J(> and o8: (o) when a 
permanent bnildin<y tsuch as an hotel or casino fonnod j^art of 
the hospital, exti'a beds were put in Avards, and rooms used for 
•other purposes, and also in corridors; (4) church huts, Y.M.C.A. 
and other i^ecreation huts, canteens, cinemas, c^'c, were tem- 
porarily fitted up as waixls. Needless to say emerg-ency beds of ten 
•consisted of mattresses and blankets on trestles or stretchers, 
or even on the floor; hence as far as possible light cases only 
^\'ere sent to these beds, and it was astonishing- how comfortable 
i;he men. made themselves. 

Stationary hospitals originally provided only 200 beds, but, 
in the later years of the war, many of these became indis- 
tinguishable from g-eneral hos]3itals botli as regards size, equip- 
ment and the amount and the character of the work they were 
called upon to perform. 

In the first year of the war general hospitals were compara- 
tively mobile, and though some were lodged in permanent 
buildings, such as hotels, casinos or schools, many were en- 
tirely under canvas, and so were easily able to move if required. 
As it became certain that the position of the armies would 
not alter to any great extent for some time, canvas w^as re- 
placed by huts, and the hospitals became comparatively fixed 
and permanent institutions. As an example of the movement; 
which might be required in the early days. No. 3 General 
Hospital in August, 1914, was sent to Rouen. When this town 
was evacuated during the German advance it was hurriedly 
moved to St. Nazaire ; being subsequently transferred again 
to Rouen after the German retreat aiid then, after an interval, 
to Treport. After the Armistice was sig*ned this hospital was 
attached to the Army of the Rhine and sfatibnod near Cologne. 
As also preparations were made for moving during the German 



General Hospitals In F/;ance. 159 

advance on Amiens in March , 1918, I t^uppuse that this hospital 
Jiad as mnch ex^ieiienee of moving as any with tlie Expedition- 
ary Force in France. The early history of No. 3 General 
Hospital is of considerable intemst, and was described by 
C'ol. S. F. Clarke, A. M.S., who Avas then in command, in the 
R.A.M.C. Journal* 

The first liospital to which I was attached, No. 22 General, 
left Southampton for Camiers at !the end of May, 1915. Though 
this district afterwards became such a large and importautJ 
centre, the hospital camp was then only beginning to be laid 
ont, and there Avas no sign of the extensive railway sidings 
and other camps which were subsecjuently formed in this 
district. Several other Guy's men were attached to this hospital^ 
and I daresay they will recall our feelings when, after a long 
and trying journe}^ we were shown a cabbage field as our 
'site." However, we set to work, and in a fortnight a hospital 
of 1,000 beds had arisen and was ready to receive patients. 
Our first admission was one of our own orderlies w'ho was 
knocked down by a passing train and got a depi-essed fracture 
■of the skull, but a few days later we took a share of a convoy 
<jf wounded. In those days there wa^ no siding at Camiers; the 
trains had to be unloaded at Etaples, four miles away, and the 
patients brought to us by motor convoy. The camp at Camiers 
was situated on gently rising ground boimded on the west by 
the main Boulogne -Paris railwa}- and on the east by a steep 
line of chalk hills. Beyond the railway across some two miles 
of sand dunes is tliespa. The soil of the camp was very saiidy, 
which i-endei-ed it difficult to fix tent pegs securely with the 
result that even in summer time during bad weather tents 
and marquees were constantly collapsing. I believe that ill 
the winter of 1915 the camp was practically evacuated. There 
Avas also difficulty with the water supply, but during the next 

*The :N[obilisation and Early Careoi- of No. 3 General Hospital, 
15.E.F., R.A.M.C. Journal, 19K3, vol. 2, p.ol2. 

Also A General Hospital Changing Base, R.A.M.C. Journal, January, 
1920. • , 



IGO Some Ikcperlences of the M'oric of 

year this was overcome, huts were erected in place of marquees ^ 
and, as is well known, a great amount of excellent work was- 
done here until the end of the war. 

At first we were provided with two operation tents, which 
were too small and not very convenient; artificial light was- 
given by acetylene biu-ners which attracted moths and other 
insects in enormous numbers. Earwigs in particular were a 
dreadful nuisance, and made their way everywhere, even into 
the sterilised dressings. After a few weeks an operation hut 
was provided containing two 0]3eration rooms, X-ray rooms, a 
pathological laboratory, and a small ward. It was not a well- 
designed hut, and I believe this particular type was soon 
given up. On© of the chief defects was that it was onlr 
possible to enter the pathological laboratory by g'oing through 
the X-ray room, which led to a wordy warfare between the 
officers in charge of these departments. Eventually the patho- 
logist, with the help of old boxes and packing cases, con- 
structed a staircase which provided an additional entry to the 
laboratory via the window. 

At the lend of July No. 22 Gneneral was handed over to an 
American unit from HCarvard. This was not, however, the first 
British hospital to be staffed by American medical officers for 
a few weeks before a g'eneral hospital at Etaples was handed 
over to a unit from Chicago. The Harvard Unit was composed 
of a number of well-known physicians and surgeons from 
Boston, who came provided with an elaborate outfit and equip- 
ment with which tiiey did extremely good work. Of course, this 
was long before the United States were at war witJi Grermany, 
and hence the officers were unable to wear the American, 
uniform, and, as they did not hold commissions in tlie 
British Army, could not wear the British uniform. They 
were provided with a uniform closely resembling our own, 
but without rank badges and with, a very much modified 
R.A.M.C. badge. Apparently the French authorities were not 
informed of this, with the result tliat shortly after their arrival 
in Boulogne thirteen were arrested on suspicion by the French 



General Hospitals i7i France. 161 

police, and another was afterwards detained by a British mili- 
tary policeman at Etaples. Fortunately, like the good fellows 
they were, they regarded this as an excellent joke, and ,one 
rather timid member of the party who would not leave the 
camp diuing- sultry days in July and Aug-ust unless he was 
wearing ia mackintosh to conceal his tell-tale tunic was a source 
of much merriment to the rest. 

After a sliort stay with the Harvard Unit I was transferred 
to No. 3 General Hospital at Treport. This hospital had 
been at work since the beginning of the war, and had been 
established on the position it then occupied for some montlis. 
It occupied a large and imposing hotel, providing* accommo- 
dation for about 500 'patients and a number of marquees with 
beds for about 250 patients. In addition there were a number 
of huts under construction providing another 160 beds and 
barrack accommodation for the R.A.M.C. x^ersonnel. Ad- 
joining wei*e two other g^eneral hospitals, one Canadian, and 
one British, and a convalescent depot. In 1916 a foiu'th 
general hospital was added, and also a Red Cross Hospital 
of about 60 beds for officers. There were thus about 6,000 
beds in all, with a convalescent depot capable of accom- 
modating about 2,000 convalescents. The whole formed a 
compact and well defined camj) Avith, even when emergency 
beds were in demand, plenty of space for gurdens and re« 
ci-eation giounds. The site was on a cliff about 350 feet high^ 
some half a mile from the town, on area about to be developed 
for building purposes and known as " Les Tierrasses." Only 
two or three small villas had been erected, and these were used 
as offices by the R.E. and the A.D.M.S. One advantage of 
the site was that a few roads had been ix)ughly laid out, which 
formed a good basis for communications between the various 
parts of the camp. The site in simamer, and in fine weathea*, 
was ideal, but as it extended along the cliff edge and was 
exposed in all directions without shelter except perhaps to 
the south it will be seen that in the winter and in stormy 
weather it had serious disadvantages. In a gale from the west 

PART III. L 



162 Some Experiences of the ^yorlc of 

or north-west the force of the wind was terrific, and tlie 
probability was that many marquees and tents would be des- 
troyed. In No. 3 alone from 12 to 20 hospital marquees were 
on several occasions destroyed in a sing-le night. The ropes 
and pegs could be made to hold, but Avhen the canvas had 
been exposed to the weather for some time it tore into ribbons 
and the poles were frequently broken by the force of the wind. 
In the worst gale we experienced in November, 1915, practically 
all the marquees of all the hospitals were blown down or 
destroyed, but fortunately the huts were then practically com- 
pleted, so that the work was but little interfered with. The 
severe cold in January and February, 1917, was very trying 
in such an exposed place. For six weeks the temperature did 
not rise above freezing point, and on five occasions in the 
open air in the convalescent depot zero Fahrenheit was re- 
corded. Owing to the non-arrival of coal ships there was a 
great shortage of coal, very little being available for heating 
purposes. In addition the electric light failed completely for 
three weeks, and the Avater supply was very pi^ecarious owing 
to the freezing of pipes, so that, since the hospitals were full, 
chiefly with sick, the general discomfort fend inconvenience can 
be imagined. 

One of the first considerations in discussing the suitability 
of a site for a hospital camp is its relation to railways and 
the presence of suitable sidings for ambulance trains. Though 
it should be conveniently situated with regard to the railway 
it should not adjoin it, since railways and sidings are legitimate 
objects of attack from the air. The Treport camp was situated 
about half a mile in a direct line from the station, but, a» 
the latter was at the sea le^el, the approach was by a road 
about two miles in length which rose steadily with some sharp 
turns, but without any ideally very severe gradient. 

The railway Iconnections wei^ g'ood, lines running direct to 
Dieppe, Beauvais, and Abbeville, the latter joining with the 
main Boulogne-Paris line. At first all were single tracks, but 
these were doubled during 1916. This was fortunate for, after 



General Hospitals In France. 163 

the German advance in March, 1918, for about four months, 
these lines formed the only railway communication between the 
Boulogue district and Paris and the south. From Abbeville a line 
ran to St. Pol, Arras, Bethune, Avith connections to all the raiUieads 
•:ai the northern X3art of the front. W^e were thus in connection 
with^ and received convoys from, the Avhole of the British line. 
A striking example of this was seen after the first German 
"mustard gas" attack in the smnmer of 1917, which took 
place On the Belgian coast, but the majority of the gassed cases 
were sent to Treport. Another important point in the selection 
of a hospital site, and one which, perhaps, was not fully 
realised in the earlier days of the wax, is that it should noti 
too closely adjoin railway sidings, dumps, aerodromes, base 
depots, or other legitimate objects of attack from the air: the 
camp at Treport Avas on the whole satisfactory in this respect. 
There was at one time a French coast defence battery between 
one of the hospitals and the cliff edge, but on representations 
being made this was removed to a short distance beyond the 
boundary of the camp; also toAvards the end of the war pre- 
parations Avere made for erecting a larg*e aerodrome only a 
few hundred yards aAvay. OtherAvise the nearest camps Avere 
a large tank reinforcement camp and an aerodrome each 
about tAvo miles aAvay, Avliile a small tOAvn about the same 
distance Avas used as a divisional headQ^uartera. 

A igood supply of pure Avater Avas obtained from an artesian 
Avell at the foot of the cliff, the AA-ater being pumped up into 
tanks, from Avhich it Avas distributed to the Avhole camp. 
Though the supply Avas ample the pumps were not of suffi- 
cient strength, and hence economy ahvays had to be observed, 
while occasionally the pumps failed for a longer or shorter 
period, causing a good deal of incon\-enience, and, on one or 
tAvo occasions, rendering it necessary for Avater to be brought 
up by motor Avater tanks. Though the AA-ater from the well 
Avas pure, there Avere several sources of conTamiuation possible 
Ivefore it arrived in the camp, and, as these could not be Avith 
certainty eliminated, the Avater had to be chlorinated 



164 Some Experiences of the Work of 

Electric light ^vas supplied by the local company, but their 
plant was unequal to the extra demand upon it, with the 
i-esult that the light was very uncertain. This was a great 
annoyance in the operating rooms, the only alternative being 
acetylene burners, but eventually the Koyal Engineers started 
an installation which supplied current sufficient for essential 
lights, such as those in the operating rooms, when the main 
current failed. 

Laundry work w^as carried out by contract by a French 
laundry at Dieppe, all articles being taken there and returned 
by A.S.C. motor lorries. Looking back one cannot help think- 
ing that it would have been better both as re^rds economy 
and efficiency if, from the first, a laundry and independent 
electric lighting installation bad been started for the camp 
together with a more powerful pump for distributing water 
to the various hospitals. As it was, efficient pumping engines 
arrived in October, 1918, and w^ere being fitted at the time of 
signing the Armistice. I suppose that in the earlier days there 
was some uncertainty about the permanence of the camp, and 
'that later it was 'hoped that a speedy termination of the war 
might render these undertakings unnecessary. 

One may, perhaps, say something here as to the relative 
merits of marquees, huts, and permanent buildings such as 
hotels and casinos for hospital purposes. iBefoi-e having any 
practical experience of either I should have been strongly in 
favour of the permanent building, but, having* worked in all, 
I can say — and I think that every one who Las 'had oppor- 
tunities of icomparing them will agree — tliat for comfort, con- 
venience and simplicity of administration the hutted hospital 
comes easily first. Marquees are very satisfactory and com- 
fortable, even for serious cases, in the summer time and during 
fine wea'ther, but in 'flie winter or during bad weather, es- 
pecially in exposed situations, difficulties in lighting, heating, 
and ventilation, quite apart from the liability of damage, render 
them far from satisfactory. 



General Hospitals in France. 165 

The following' are the chief disadvantag-es of buildings, and 
should be considei^d before taking- over any building for thia 
purx^ose: — 1. Drainage. The drainag-e of most hotels on the 
continent, even of the most modern and up-to-date description, 
is often very primitive. A large x^roportion of the beds of 
No. 3 General Hospital were contained in a large modern 
hotel completed only two years before the war, and though so 
near the sea the only drainage was into a cesspool. Though 
doubtless sufficient when used for perhaps 200 visitors, for 
three months in the summer it was wholly insufficient when 
the building was used as a hospital for 500 patients all the 
year round. In the autumn of 1915 a state of affairs arose 
which rendered the construction of several new pits imperative, 
and after this there was no further trouble. 2. While the 
public rooms provided three or four really imposing and 
spacious wards there were a great number — about 160 — of small 
rooms used for patients. These mostly communicated with, 
one another by double doors with the idea I suppose of pro- 
viding suites of rooms, and also ox^ened into a corridor, the 
result being a regular labyrinth. The rooms were provided 
with from one to six beds according to size, and each wing 
on each floor formed a ward of about 110 beds. This corres- 
ponded roughly to three huts, but any medical officer would 
prefer to look after six huts than one of these wards. Though 
light cases were as far as possible put into these rooms, it 
was often necessary to send quite bed cases to them, and the 
difficulties in nursing can be imagined. Alany of the doons, 
too, would not take stretchers. Another drawback was tliat 
the labyrinth offered great opx:)ort unities to men who wished 
to dodge the Medical Officer, and also supplied these ehisive 
patients with an excuse when they were finally found. 3. 
Danger of fire. The French building laws as i>egards pro- 
tection from fire must be very different from those gf this 
country. This large building with three stories and over 200 
rooms was provided with only one staircase and a smaller stair- 
case for servants adjoining this. There Avere two lifts, one 



166 . Some ExperiemeH of the Worl: of 

for passengiei's and one for luggage (but neither able to take 
a stretcher), also situated at the side of the stairs. Thero ^^•el■^ 
no outside staircases and no means of descent from the u^iper 
stories except by the ways already mentioned, and which in 
the oase of a serious fire might have been easily i*endered im- 
passable. To remedy this Ave had sent over one of the old 
pattern fire escapes as used by the L.C.C., and canvas chutes 
for the upper floors. Fire drills were held weekly, as well as 
many surprise alarmis. The importance of these was shown on 
one occasion when, in a hose about 50 yards long, a hole 
gnawed by rats through which one could put a fist was found 
about a yard from the standpipe. Danger from lig'htning also 
had to be considered. There was no lightning- conductor, but 
the buildins" was of reinforced concrete,, and I suppose, owi^ig* 
to the framework of girders, the w^hole structure was practi- 
cally a lightning conductor. At any rate, though the building 
was observed on several occasions to be struck no damage was 
done either to the structure or any of the inmates. 4. Heating, 
again, was a difficult problem. There was a system of central 
heating, but as the brilding* was intended for use only during 
the summer months the radiators were few in number and not 
very efficient. As the same boilers provided the hot water 
supply it was often found that in realty cold weather the 
radiators refused to work or were only jiLst warm. This 
difficulty was to a certain extent overcome by using a number 
of closed stoves in the larger wards and in the corridors and 
a few of the smaller rooms. 5. There was a good deal of 
difficulty over repairs and renewals, since many parts and 
materials were naturally required which were difficult or im- 
possible to obtain during the war. On the other hand, I believe 
that the rent paid compared very favourably with the cost of 
erecting a hutted hospital. 

At first the whole camp was under the administration of 
the Senior Commanding Officer, but later the district was en- 
larged and put under the control of an A.D.M.S. The latter 
was a much more satisfactory arrang-ement. for though we were 



General Hospitals in France. 167 

certainly very fortunate in oui^ Senior Medical Officers, yet it 
is difficult, when the administmtor is in command of one of the 
hospitals, for him to avoid unduly favouring his own unit, and 
so to cau^e a certain amount of friction. 

The natui-e and objects of the work of a general hospital may 
be summed up as follows : — 

(1) 'To ti^at all severe and serious cases, and to get them in a 
fit tondition for transfer to home hospitals as quickly as possi- 
ble; (2) to treat all slighter cases, and to get them fit as soon 
as possible for retm'u to base depots for duty, or for return 
to duty after a stay at the convalescent depot; (3) to co-ordinate 
the hospital accommodation with the demands likely to be 
made upon it; (4) to carry out clinical and pathological inves- 
tigations, especially in all new or imusual injuries and diseases; 
to try, and to investigate, all new forms of treatment; to devise 
new means of dealing with unusual conditions ; and generally 
to endeavour to advance and improve both the practical and 
scientific aspects of military medicine and sm*g-ery. 

The importance of the fii-st of these is easily miderstood, 
but, as regards the second, its great importance was only fully 
apx^reciated in the later days of the war, w^hen the cost and 
difficulty of transport became so marked, and when the vital 
importance of "man power" was more fully appi-eciated. If 
lig-htly wounded men had to be transferred to home hospitals 
it was usually many weeks or even months before they were 
retui'ned for foreign service, whereas if they could be kept in 
France, either in hospitals or in convalescent depots, they could 
be returned to duty in a very much shorter time. Of course, 
when large nimibers of womided were arriving at the hos- 
pitals these lighter cases had to be sent away, and if they 
could not be accommodated in convalescent camps or in other 
hospitals they had to be sent to hospitals at home. Though 
this fact is obvious, it did not api>ear to be alwaj-s recognised! 
by the administrative authorities in England. 

The co-ordination between the accommodation and the 
demands likely to be made upon it was naturally of the gi-eateslr 



168 Some Experiences of the Work of 

importance. In times of severe pressure the work of a general 
hospital closely approximated to that of a Casualty Clearing- 
Station. During such times, under favourable circumstances, 
perhaps 10 per cent, of all cases of wounded were operated 
upon at the Casualty Clearing .Station, but during the German 
advance in 'March, 1918, the proportion was considerably less. 
The remainder were treated and operated upon in general 
hospitals when this was urgently required, and these cases 
as soon as they were fit to travel were evacuated to home 
hospitals. During these times of severe pressure many cases 
where operation was desirable but not urgently required had, 
owing to the necessity of at once making beds for further cases, 
to be transferred for this purpose to other hospitals eitlier in 
France or at home. There was every stage between thesei 
strenuous times and comparatively slack periods when no active 
military operations were in progress, and it was possible to keep 
patients in for a long time and render a large proportion fit for 
return to duty without evacuation to home hospitals. It will be 
seen that the essential means of effecting this co-ordination was 
by regulating the duration of the stay in hospital, and by vary- 
ing the type of cases to be selected for evacuation. 

What may be termed the scientific aspect of the work was 
of very great interest since so many of the injuries and diseases 
were rare or not met witJi in civil practice, so that newi 
mechanical and other methods of treatment had to be improvised 
to deal with them. The great drawback to this work was that 
during times of pressure, when the opportunities most fre- 
•quentty occurred, the amount of work, and especially of routine 
work, rendered it difficult for investigations to be carried out. 
This was to a considerable extent overcome by making notes 
and observations at the time and working these out when there 
was more leisure. This work was gTeatly helped by the forma- 
tion of a Medical and Surgical Society on similar lines ,to 
those at other large centres. The meetings were held in the 
winter months w^hen, generally speaking, the pressure of work 
was less. Cases of unuisual interest were shewn and papers 



General Hospitals in France. 169 

were read, many of the latter being afterwards published in 
the various medical journals. 

We were fortunate in having in Major G. Richardson, R.A.M.C., 
and Captain H. Noel, R.A.M.C., two pathologists who were 
very keen on pathological preparations and specimens, with 
the result that a large number of the specimens in the Royal 
College of Surgeons collection came from No. 3 General Hos- 
pital; many of these were sent long before any official interest 
was taken in the matter. Hospitals were not allowed to form 
pathological collections, but as specimens were sent off at 
intervals when a number had accimaulated we generally had 
a small collection, which was of great interest to any visitors 
who liappened to be interested in this work. As an example 
of Buch a, series I may mention a collection of 17 preparations 
of injiu'y to the spine, each with the corresponding spinal 
cord showing the injury to that structure and the membranes 
as well as the fractured vertebrae. These were mainly from 
C-rerman prisoners, of whom we had a large number with wounds 
of the spine in the summer of 1918. 

Major Richardson, in addition to providing on all desired 
occasions wet specimens for immediate investigation and demon- 
stration, elaborated a method of rapid preparation of dry speci- 
mens of injuries to bones and joints. By this method it was 
possible in 48 hours to have the bones not only separated 
from soft parts and dry, but bleached, with fat extracted, witli 
fractured fragments joined b}' g*lue and lines of fracture marked 
out, the joints articulated by wii-es, and mounted as a finished 
inuseum specimen. Many specimens thus prepared are at 
present in the collection of the Royal College of Surgieons. 
The educational value of this Avas very great, for, suppose one 
liad to amputate a limb for some injury to bone or joint, 
it was possible two or three days after the operation, while 
linical and operative details were fresh in one's mind and 
he patient still under close observation, to see tlie exact nature 
and extent of the injury. I cannot help thinking that this 
-ystem might be adopted with advantage in civil hospitals 



170 Some Experiences of the Worlc of 

where such specimens ai-e often stored and do not appear on 
museum shelves until years have elapsed from the time of 
injury or operation. 

The X-ray Department, under the charge of Capt. M. H. 
Watney, iR.A.M.C, got through a vast, amount of work, but 
during- very busy times in this, as in other departments, th,e 
amount of Avork was really more than could be dealt Avith. 
Gi'eat attention was paid to stereoscopic radiography, and large 
numbers of really excellent stei^oscopic plates of fractures, in- 
juries of the joints, and especially of the skull and chest were 
prepared. When patients were transferred to home hospitals 
prints of any plates were sent ^vith the index card and notes, 
unless the result of the examination was negative, when a reijort 
to this effect was sent. 

These prints rarely did justice to the excellence of the nega- 
tives, and in many caises can have conveyed little or no 
information. At various times I made a large number of 
tracing's of X-ray plates of interesting fractures, and in this 
way a permanent record is quickly and easily obtained. As 
this is much quicker and far more economical than printing, 
I suggiested that these tracings might larg-ely replace prints 
but the suggiestion was not adopted. The objection, of coiu^se, 
13 that the tracing instead of being a piece of impartial evi- 
dence naturally conveys and emphasises the interpretation of 
the person who makes the tracing:, but I am not sure tliat 
this is not reallj an advantage. 

The iaccommodation of a general hospital is divided into a 
medical and a surgical division, but the line of demarcation 
between the two could not be sharply defined. While sevei^ 
fighting' was in progress, g-enerally during the spring, summer 
and early autumn, the surgical division expanded while the 
medical division shrank, sometimes almost to vanishing point. 
On tlie other hand, g-enerally in tlie winter, when no. active 
military oj^erations were in progress, or during an influenza 
epidemic, or when there were a large number of gassed cases, 
the medical division increased at the expense of the surg-ical. 



General Ho.sijitaI-'< h/ Fr mce. 171 

Most general hospitals had to provide aeeommodation for thfe 
whole oi' certain special gi-oiips o£ patients or classes of casen 
who were sent to theii- particular district. Thus Xo. 3 Goneral 
was tlie special hospital for the folloAvino-: — 

1. Up till the smnmer of 1916 all sick and wounded officers 
were accommodated. From then until the end of the war officers 
were also sent to No. 10 Red Cross (Lady Murray's) Hospital, 
as far as possible from alternate convo^^s. Xo. 3 provided 
beds for 100 officers, afterwards inci*eased to 150. The largest 
niunber of wounded officei-s we had to deal with at one time 
was 279. Capt. D. Wood, R.A.M.C., and Capt. C. M. Dickin- 
son, R.A.M.C, each had a long period in charge of the Officers' 
Ward. 

2. All eye cases. The number of beds set apart for these 
varied according- to necessity, but the averag-e was about 15. In 
addition thei-e was a ver}^ considerable out-patient dex>artment. 
From 1916—18 Capt. G. Viner, R.A.M.C, was ophthalmic 
surgeon. 

3. All mental cases. These were treated by a mental expert,. 
Capt. A. L. Taylor, R.A.M.C, in a si>ecially constructed hut 
providing accommodation both for officers and men. 

4. All "shell shock" cases who were also in charge of the 
mental expert and treated as far as possible in a special wai'd. 

o. All Sisters, membei-s of the Q.M.A.A.C, and other 
women's organisations. 

6 . All officers and men of the allied armies, except Americans . 
From time to time we had a nmnber of French, Belgians, Por- 
tuguese, natives of India, and Chinese. THie natives of India were 
transferred as soon as possible to the Indian hospital at Rouen., 
and the Chinese to the Chinese hospital at Xoyelles. One Rus- 
sian, who was a prisoner with tlie Germans and was at work 
in tlieir advanced trenches and was wounded while escaping into 
our lines, was also admitted. On one occasion about 100 Portu- 
guese sick and wounded were admitted, and as none of tliem 
spoke EngUsh or French, and, of cpui^e, no one at the hospital 
spoke Portuguese, considerable difficulty was experienced in deal- 



172 Some Experiences of the Work of 

ing vrith. them until a Portuguese medical oflScer who spoke 
French was sent to us to act as interpreter. 

7. All Grerman prisoners. The number of these varied con- 
siderably. In the early days they were something of a curio- 
sity, but in 1918 there was accommodation for about 400 in 
marquees in a barbed wire enclosure as well as a ward for 
the more severe cases. This accommodation was most severely 
taxed in spite of rapid evacuation. The largest number undsr 
treatment at one time was 550. At the end of March, 1918, 
when the German threat to Amiens was most serious, (six 
prisoners evaded the sentries and broke through the wire and 
were not recaptured for two days. After this the barbed wire 
cage was greatly strengthened and the guard and sentries in- 
creased, with the result that there were no further attempts at 
escape. 

In addition to the above the following cases were taken for 
a time only. 

8. All cases of hernia, varicocele, and similar cases requiring 
operative treatment. These were only taken in the -winter 
months and when the hospital accommodation was not required 
for wounded men. The number of these was considerable, and 
in the winter 1916 — 17 I operated on over 150 cases of hernia 
alone. Later these operations were performed at all hospitals, 
and in 1918 large numbers of them were sent to the hospitals 
at Trouville. . 

9. For a short time in 1916 all cases of fracture of the fieanur. 
This Avas before the days of sj^ecial hospitals for these fractures, 
and the order was soon rescinded. 

The number of officers on the establishment of a g*eneral 
hospital, of course, varied with the size of the hospital. The 
number allotted to a hospital the size of 'No. 3 was 25, but 
this was never reached except, perhaps, during the summer of 
1915. The number really necessary for the efficient running of 
the hospital was 15. If the strength was below this it became 
difficult to get all branches of the work efficiently carried out, 
while if it rose much above, the division of work soon became 



General Hospitals in France. 173^ 

artificial, so that whereas some Avei^ overworked others had 
but little to do. The arrangement of work is, of course, muohl 
easier in a uniform hutted hospital. The busier the hospital was, 
the fewer were the medical ofiicers available. This was owing 
to the fact that g-eneral hospitals were continually called upon 
to furnish i-einforoements for front line units. The lowest num- 
ber ever i-eached was eight during the first battle of tlie iSomme. 
As this number included pathologist, radiographer, ophthalmic 
surgeon, i-egistrar, and mental expert, it is obvious that, with! 
convoys aniving daily, it was impossible to carry out the work 
satisfactorily. From that time until ih.Q signing of the armistice- 
there wei-e not sufiicient R.A.M.C. ofiicers available for the 
efficient t<taffing of the hospitals, the deficiency being lessened 
by officers supplied by American and Canadian units which, as 
a rule, were provided M'ith larger staffs than the British. From 
the summer of 1916 I suppose about one-third of the officers 
attached to No. 3 belong-ed to the C.A.M.C. or the U.S.A.. 
Medical Corps. Xeedless to say, during times of pressure, the 
pathologist, mental specialist, ophthalmic surgeon and radio- 
grapher had to take cliarg-e of surgical wards in addition to 
their own special work. A quite false idea of the number of 
officei-s was sometimes given owing to the fact that medical officers 
admitted to hospital as patients wei-e, on discharge, attached 
to the strength of the hospital before returning to their units. 
The^o officers remained, perliaps, for a day, or perhaps for so 
long as ii week, but as it naturally takes some little time for 
anyone to beeome acquainted witli their duties, especially when, 
as was g-enerally the cajse, these wei*e regimental medical officers 
who had liad no exi>erience of the work of general hospitals, it 
will be seen that it was not much good putting them in charge 
of wards. Many of them, however, did admii-able work as an- 
nesthetists. As a matter of fact, the continual rearrangement of 
work which was necessary during strenuous times was very 
trying. It is no exaggieration to say that eveiy other day some 
change was required which was very trying to the officers and 
not conducive to the interests of the patients or tlie work of tlie 



174 Some Experiences of the Work of 

hospital. Similar, and even more frequent clianges took place 
among- the sisters and jmrses. 

Of course, a certain amount of changing- and transferring of 
medical officers and sisters Avas absolutely necessary, but one 
camitjt help thinking that these might have been less fi-equent. 
It must be remembered that quite apart from strictly speaking 
medical and surgical work, there Avas a great deal of routine 
duty for ward medical officers. The days for duty as Orderly 
^Medical Officer and Garrison Field Officer soon came i-ound, and, 
in addition, there was a gi-eat deal of clerical work in\olved in 
tilling up field medical cards, index cards, diet sheets, case 
sheets, ship's labels, and very probably other returns, not to 
mention the routine giving of anti-tetanic sermn and days for 
anaesthetic Iduty. In busA^ times it was no unusual thing- for a 
^Medical Officer to have as many as 100 patients pass through 
his hands in addition t;0 operations and dressings, so that the 
extent of these duties can be understood, as AAell as the diffi- 
culty of keeping the routine work of a Avard up to date AA-hen the 
Medical Officer had to be changed eA-ery feAv days. 

The number of ambulance ti-ains arriving A^aried very con- 
siderably. When little or no fighting AA^as in progress there 
might bfe only one or tAAO per AAeek, Avhile during 'times o^ 
pressure there might be four or five or more in a day. The 
trains accommodated from 400 to 550 or more patients. There 
Avere four hospitals in the camp, and each train AA^as, as far as 
possible, divided betAveen tAAO of them, so that each took from 
alternate 'convoys. This, of course, did not apply to tlie special 
eases, these being sent from CA^ery train to the appropriate 
hospital. Thus, as a rule, there Avould arriA-e from one train a 
large number of men, say about 250, and from the next a small 
number of cases belonging to the groups mentioned above, say 
'SO or 40. When, hoAAever, the hospitals Avere-A^ery full it was 
often necessary to make use of Avhatever accommodation Avas 
available at all the hospitals. 

A couA'Oy consisted of "cot" cases and "sitting" cases. As 
a general rule the former Avere the moi^ severe, but not alwaA's 



General Hospitals in France. 175 

to. Occasionally lig-lit cases Avere conveyed as " cot " cases in 
order to make use of the whole of the accommodation on the 
train. Not infrequently, too, unexpectedly severe wounds were 
found among the sitting oases. As an example of this we 
received one motor convoy of 500 sitting cases from Albert 
during the first battle of the Somme among which were no 
less than 20 cases of depressed fracture or penetrating womids 
uf the head. 

The details of the admission of a convoy naturally varied to 
a certain extent in different hospitals. At No. 3 the arrange- 
ment was that large convoys should be admitted by the Officers - 
in-charge of the medical and surgical divisions, while the small 
convoys from alternate trains should be admitted by the Orderly 
Medical Officer. As convoys generally arrived between the 
hours of midnight and 5 a.m., this was often rather trying, 
especially when trains were arriving nightly or at more fre- 
quent intervals, for an undisturbed night in bed was then an 
unusual luxury. There were, however, many advantages iu 
this plan which more than compensated for the inconvenience. 
For instance, one knew from one's own observation the g-eneral 
character of the convo}-; whetlier composed chiefly of "sick" 
-^•r wounded; whether the latter were septic or in a satisfactory 
condition; the proportion of severe cases, and the probable 
luunber which Mould require operation. Also one knew tlie 
wards to which the severe ca.ses Avere sent and also could arrange 
that any particular cases were seiit under the cai'e of medical 
officei's who were specially interested in them. In this way a 
considerable lamount of work was saved on the following day 
which could be devoted to operating and seeing the serious 
cases. 

All particulates of the patients were taken by the clerks in 
the reception hall, and the average time for tlie admissiou of a 
'•onvoy was about two houl^s, even when the number admitted 
was four or five hundred. 

Before having any experience of the arrival of a convoy of 
wounded men one would have expected that immediately after 



176 Some Experiences of the Work of 

admission Ithere would have been a larg^e number who would 
have required operation at once. As a matter of fact, how- 
ever, one found that what most of the men required after their 
experiences was a rest in bed, and hence, except for changing 
soiled dressings, re-adjusting splints, and giving hot drinks,, 
and otherwise attending to their comfort, they were given a 
few hours' rest befoi'e investigating* the wounds and commenc- 
ing treatment on the following morning. The only cases ope- 
rated upon at once were those w^here there was haemorrliage or 
some other really urgent condition. 

As feoon as a convoy had been received and the patients had 
been examined, the probable dispasal of the ea^es had to be 
considered, for the cry, especially during times of j)ressure,. 
was always for beds — more beds. Generally speaking, slightly 
wounded anen, w^ho after a short period of treatment would be 
fit for return to duty or for transfer to the convalescent depot, 
were kept and treated; severe cases and those requiring ope- 
ration were kept and treated until they were fit to travel and 
then 'marked up for evacuation; other cases who would not 
soon be rendered fit for return to duty and who were fit to 
travel were put on the " England roll " at once. The correct 
and rapid disposal of patients "was of the g-reatest importia,nce, 
and 'unless carefully attended to resulted in the accommodation 
of the hospital not being j)ut to its best use. It naturally took 
a Medical Officer unacquainted with the work of a general hos- 
pital some little time to fully grasp the importance of this, and 
it also required some experience to know the correct method of 
dealing- with the great variety of wounds and diseases under 
his icare. This was one of the reasons why frequent change 
of toiedical oflSoers was so trying, especially when the pressure- 
on the hospital accommodation was severe. In order to meet 
this difficulty, at ihe sugg'estion of Lieut. -Col. S. H. Fairrie, 
K.A.M.C., the Commanding Officer, we drew up a series of 
" Instructions to be followed in the selection of cases for Eva- 
cuation," founded upon the various general and local orders in 
force. A copy of these instructions, which were first issued in 



General Hospitals in France. 177 

1915 and subsequently revised on .several occasions to bring- it 
up to date, was given to every Medical Officier on first joining 
the Unit in order that he might at once make himself familiar 
with the system. The following extract from these instructions 
will give some idea of the method adopted and of the safe- 
guards to prevent severe cases being* transferred before they 
wei-e fit to travel, and to eiisiu^ that whenever possible slight 
cases should be sent back to duty without midue delay : — 

No. 3 General Hospital. Procedure in the Selection or Cases 

FOR Evacuation. 

The following instructions are to be regarded as a general guide to 
the disposal of patients on. 'discharge from this hospital. Modifications 
or alterations may be introduced from time to time depending upon 
the pressure on the hospital accommodation and the military situation; 
such alterations will cancel or inodlfy any of the instructions given 
below. 

Selection of Cases for Evacuation to England." — Under ordinary con- 
ditions cases wiU be proposed for evacuation to England if they are 
not likely to be convalescent in, say, three weeks. During active 
operations in the field and pressure on the hospital accommodation 
this period may have tpf be shortened or the cases otherwise disposed 
of. On the other hand, when the pressure is less, the period may be 
extended. However, in any case, slight cases should not be proposed 
for evacuation, but sho:uld be accommodiated in tents, or transferred 
to the convalescent depot, whenei, during times of pressure, the treat- 
ment of mild cases may !>€ undertaken. Cases for evacuation are 
divided into the following groups, which should be indicated by writ- 
ing the appropriate abbreviation on the index card of the patient 
when fit to travel. 

" Eng. xi." Mesa who reqfuire special attention and accommodation 
during the journey. Only the most serious cases, such as wounds of 
the spine, serious heaid wounds, compofund fractures of the thigh or 
leg, and those recovering from! serious illnesses should be so marked. 

" Eng. B." Men who are doing well and do not require special 
attention but who require to be transported lying down. Men, how- 
ever, in this class should not be absolutely helpless, but in case of an 
emergency on the hospital ship ishoiuljd be able to walk upstairs or 
to a boat with assistance. 

"Eng. B. Helpless." Similar cases to the above, but who would be 
unable to help themselives in an emergency. Cases of severe wounds 
of the leg, especially those wearing splints, and cases of fracture 
of the arm with the limb abducted, will be included in this group. 

PART III. M 



178 Siome Experiences of fhe Worh of 

•• Eng. C." Men who can walk tolerably well, but for whom it is 
desirable that lying down accommodation should be provided during 
transit. 

"Eng. D." Men who are able to walk, and who require only sitting 
accommodation on hospital tra;ins and ships. 

Doubtful cases should not be marked for England until the Officer 
in charge of the Division has been consulted. Cases dangerously ill 
must not be proposed for evacuation, but cases on the serously ill ilist 
may be proposed and transferred as such. Kecent cases of gun shot 
wounds of the skull or brain, wounds of the chest involving the intra- 
thoracic organs, or of penetrating wounds of the abdomen should 
not be proposed. Cases of acutely septic wounds, or those with in- 
sufficient drainage or those thought liable to secondary haemorrhage 
should on no account be proposed. Metal fragments should, as a 
rule, be removed before evacuation is proposed, but when, on account 
of small size, inaccessibility, or for any other reason, this has not 
been done the fact should be recorded both on the index caxd and 
the field medical card. Cases of compound fracture should be kept 
until the condition of the wound is satisfactory, pyrexia has subsided, 
and the danger of secondary haemorrhage has passed. 

Cases of acute illness, those showing serious pyrexia, cases suffer- 
ing from complications which have not cleared up, cases in which 
there is any suspicion of infectious disease, \will on no account {be 
proposed for evacuation. 

The index cards of patients proposed for evacuation to Englami, 
together with the field medical cards, will be submitted to the Officer 
in charge of the division for his initial and approval. All cases able 
to walk attend first at the office of the division and afterwards at 
the C.O.'s office for inspection and final approval before being included 
on the England roll. All " Eng. C " cases who are up and (about 
should attend at th^ Divisional and the C.O.'s offices. Personal ex- 
planations should always be made when asking sanction for the 
evacuation of special or doubtful cases. 

In the event of any relapse or of any complication arising after 
evacuation has been sanctioned, such proposal must be cancelled and 
notice sent to the C.O.'s office in order that the name may b© 
lemoved from the England roll. 

Before evacuation the M.O. in charge of the case must see that 
the ship's label and any special ones requiired are duly fiUed up, 
signed, and attached to the patient. 

Disposal of cases in France. — The attention of Officers is directed 
to the important fact that slight cases of sickness or of wounds 
should not be evacuated to England. Every effort should be made 
to render these men fit and to discharge them either to the conva- 
lescent depot, or to their Base Depot for duty. Cases who will not 
be benefited by a period at the convalescent depot, and, though not 



General Hospitals hi France. 179 

fit for duty at the front, are able to carry out duties on the, Lmes 
of Communication ar at the base, may be sent to the Base for a. 
medical board with a view to their being given Base duties either 
temporarily or permanently. Cards of patients for Base or Conva- 
lescent Depot must be completed and signed, and the men parade 
at the Divisional and the C.O.'s offices as in the case of men fjfxc. 
evacuation. 

For the Convalescent Camp (marked " C.C."). — Only cases which 
ai-e expected to improve fairly rapidly and become fit for duty in 
a month or less should be sent to the convalescent camp. Men thus 
disposed of must be able to wear boots and to walk tolerably well, 
and to take ordinary diet. Helpless cases must not be sent, and ^tihe 
men must be able to dress and to attend to themselves. Men who 
are wearing splints (except finger splints), those who require fomen- 
tations or who have deep or septic wounds, or where removable metal 
fragments are still present, are not suitable. Dight dressings are 
undertaken at the convalescent camp, but the wounds should be such 
as may be expected to heal quickly. Perforating 'wounds of the leg 
should not be sent until healed on account of the liability of these 
to become septic raid for inguinal adenitis to develop. 

Local admissions, when fit, should be marked " Duty," and are re- 
turned direct to their units. 

Men other than Local Admissions who are fit to return to duty are 
to be marked " Base A." Such must require neither dressings or 

treatment. 

Men who, owing to age or to some chronic disability not amenable 
to treatment, are not fit for duty at the front are to be marked 
" Base for Med. Board." Many cases of varicose veins, chronic knee 
troubles, and deformities of the feet which interfere with matching are 
examples of this type of case. 

The clLsposal of officers Avas on exacth' similar lines. The 
disposal of German prisoners varied from time to time, but 
generally speaking' slightly wounded men Avei-e treated imtil 
they could be sent to the Prisoners of War Base Depot, whence 
they were transferred to Prisouei-s of War working companies. 
Severely wounded cases were transferred as soon as fit to travel 
to hospitals in England. 

The method of disposal of soldiei-s of the various Allied armies, 
and of special cases, such as mental ca.ses, eases of self-inflicted 
wounds, infectious diseases, and venereal disease were also 
iriven . 



180 SonH' Experiences of the Wor/r of 

It was also felt desirable to include in these instruotioas some 
indication of tlio lines on Avliich certain very common diseases, 
such as licrniu, varicose \'eins, varicocele, ap[)endicitis, syno- 
vitis of the knee, piles, boils, " I.C.T.," etc., should be treated 
as well as their subsequent disposal. 

It lias already been pointed out (that when tliere was a 
continued, presising, and iirg^ent demand for beds the only way 
of providing" the required accommodation was to shorten the 
dumtion of the stay of patients in hospital by transferring^ 
serious cases to home hospitals as soon as fit to travel and by 
sending the slighter cases either to convalescent camps, to other 
hospitals in France, or by evacuating them to England. We 
have also seen that an important function of a general hospital 
was to return as many men as possible directly to duty witli 
their units. It v^i\l readily be understood that this latter func- 
tion was of less importance in times of severe i)i^'6ssure thatn 
the adequate supply of beds. With a view to co-ordinating tlie 
accommodation of the hospital with the demands likely to be 
made upon it, I drew up a series of " Scales of Evacuation." 
These were four in number, and Avere as follows : — 

Scale A. — Keep hospital as clear as possible. Severe cases requir- 
ing operatioh to be operated upon, and to be proposed for evacua- 
tion as soon as possible. Other severe casas, if fit to travel, to ba 
marked for evacuation at once.* Only cases not fit to travel to be kept 
and treated, and these to be evacuated as soon a& fit. Light cases to 
be transferred to Convalescent Camp in, say, three or four days otr 
less. If likely to be quickly fit for duty these cases may be perhaps 
kept for a few days longer, but it may be necessaiy to transfer at 
short notice all light cases to the United Kingdom, or, if the arrange- 

*In times of pressure it was often imperative to evacuate many 
serious cases. Every care was taken to avoid transferring those who 
might be adversely- affected by the jarring and jolting inseparable from 
transport on motor ambulances, trains and ships. As full notes as 
possible were provided for the information of Medical Officers in 
charge of these patients en route. Of course, a certain additional 
amount of risk was unavoidable, but the rarity with which one heard 
of any harm happening to these men speaks volumes for the care 
and attention they received on hospital trains and ships. It was often 
mucli safer to transfer recently wounded men at an early stage, say 
after two-four days than after ten-fourteen days when, for instance,, 
secondary htemorrbage was more likelv to occur. 



General Hospitals in France. 181 

ments can be made, to hospitals in other areas in Frauce. No opera- 
tions to be performed on hernias or other " sick " cases unless urgently 
lequired. These cases should be proposed at once for transfer to 
the Convalescent Depot, or to other hospitals, or for home hospitalsi 

Scale B. — Severe cases iiro to be disposed of as in Scale " A," but 
a slightly longer stay in hospital is allowed, especially for cases who 
have been operated upon in this hospital or wlio have had a seveite 
operation at a Casualty Clearing Station. Light cases may be kept 
and treated up to ten days if they will then be fit for convaleiscent: 
depot or for duty. If not considered likely to be fit in this time they 
should at once be proposed for evacuation. Every effort is to be miade 
to keep really light cases in France, and if possible arrangements will 
be made for transfer of light cases to hospitals in less congested areas. 
•' Sick " cases will not be operated upon except for urgent symp- 
toms, but should be disposed of as in Scale " A." 

Scale C. — Severe cases, whether requiring operation or not, to be 
kept until sepsis has subsided, the danger of secondary lij^morrhage 
has passed, and the general and local conditions are satisfattory- 
Light cases who will be fit for duty or for convalescent depot in,, 
say, three weeks to be kept and treated here. Light cases which will 
require a longer period of treatment and convalescence to be proposed 
for evacuation to the United Kingdom as soon as it is certain that 
they will not be fit for duty or convalescent depot in this time, but 
every effort is to be made to kesp light cases in France. Suitable cases 
of hernia, varicocele, and other " sick " cases, who will be fit for duty 
after about three weeks in hospital and three weeks in convalescent 
depot, may be operated upon. Such cases requiring a longer period 
of treatment and convalescence should be proposed for transfer to 
special hospitals or to the United Kingdom. 

Scale D. — As few cases as possible of any description to be evacua- 
ted. Only those who will be permanent invalids, or who will require 
a long period of convalescence to be proposed for evacuation to the 
United Kingdom. All light cases to be kept and treated until fit for 
duty or the convalescent depot. " Sicfc " cases fi-eqiiiring opei-atiou 
to be kept and treated here provided that in a reasonable . time they 
will be " Class A " men or will be better able to carry out the duties 
upon which they were formerly employed. 

Of these " Scales," Scale " C " may he taken as the one in 
general use and was fully explained in the " Procedure in the 
Selection of VCases for Evacuation." In the t^piing, summer, and 
autiunn Scales " A " and '' B " wei-e frequently neoes-sary. 
Scale " D " ^vas seldom required, hut was occa**ionally in force 
in the winter time as well as on two or three occasions after 
ci'oss-channel hospital ships had heen attacked or sunk. 



182 Some Experiences of the Work of 

General Hospitals in France. 

The chief difficulty was that often, OAving to inexpKcit or 
contradictory instructions, one was uncertain as to which scale 
should be put in force. In order to remedy this I made a sug-- 
gestion, which was not adopted, but which, as I think it would 
have tmado this important part of our Avork much simpler and 
easier, I repeat here. It was that these, or similar "scales" 
should be officially recognised so that, when the occasion de- 
manded, insti'uctions should be definitely issued to the various 
hospitals as to the scale of evacuation necessary to meet the 
situation. During periods of severe fighting one often found 
that whereas the hospitals in one area might be extremely 
congested, those in another area might have but little to do. 
Under these circumstances the hospitals in the first area might 
have instructions to evacuate according to Scale " A " while 
in the second area they might be ordered to evacuate according 
to S<3ale " C." At the end of the period of pressure the first 
area bnight have definite instructions to revert to Scale " C " 
while, if pressure was anticipated in the second area, they might 
be 'warned to change their Scale to "A" or " B." As it was 
the termination of a period of pressure often had to be deduced 
by the arrival of a letter complaining that cases of too slight 
a kind were being sent to England, or that cases of too severe 
a kind were being transferred to the convalescent depot. 

I had hoped that it might be possible to have given sojme 
account of the clinical work of the hospital, the kind of cases 
which had to be treated, the means of dealing with them, and 
the results of treatment, but even a brief account would take 
a great deal of space which is not at my disposal. I hope, 
however, that the outline I have given of the work of a 
general hospital in France will give some idea of the nature of 
the work as -w-ell as the methods of dealing with some of the 
problems of militarv suro^erv. 



MESOPOTAMIA, 1916-1919, 



By 



E. DAVIES-COLLEY, C.M.G., M.Ch. 



The Editors of the "Guy's Hospital Reports" have insisted 
that theii- War Memorial Nuimber cannot be complete without 
a history' of the surgical work of the Mesopotamian Campaign, 
and that is my only excuse for attempting to compress into the 
following" short account the cliief impressions, w^hich a three 
years' sojourn with the army on the banks of the Tigris'- have 
left with. me. If I have been able to set dowm little or nothing' 
that can be called an addition to our knowledge of surgery, it 
i^ because we were, sui-gically at least, a very healthy force, 
and the available material, except in one or two directions, 
was scanty; or perhaps it may be that the lethargy of tlie East 
prevented us from making the best use of the opportunities 
that were given to us for the study of djisease. It is certainly 
true that much of our time was passed in idleness, but that is 
one of the necessary evils of service in a war ai'ea, and I fail 
to see how it can ever be overcome. 

I have said little about tJie surgery of wounds, because so 
many excellent papers, dealing with every type of wound in. 
France and elsewhei*e, have been pubUshedy that it seemed to 
me superfluous to swell their number with conclusions based 
on the relatively small nimiber of cases which we dealt with 
in this campaign. So I have confined myself to a few pointe 
ill which the wounds in Mesopotamia differed more or less 
strilcingly from those in Europe. 

The dreary monotony of the ti*ench warfare in France throug-h- 
out 1915 induced many besides myself to jump at the oppor- 



184 Mesopotamia, ] 916— 1910. 

tunity of joining: the Indian divisions, wJiich were transferred 
to the East at the end of that year. I sailed from Marseilles 
with the fag end of the Lahore division early in December, 
and we wei'e dodging submarines in the ^lediterranean when 
the first news of the retreat from Ctesiphon reached us; feo 
that any hopes, with which we may liave started, of a victorioui-^ 
entry into Baghdad were dispelled long before we landed in 
Basra on January I9th, 1916. I doubt if any of us, however, 
expected things to be as bad as we actually found them. Every- 
thing was at its worst. The casualties from the miserabl<3 
efforts to relieve the force locked up in Kut were heavy, and 
the medical arrang-ements for dealing Avith them were hope- 
lessly inadequate. I was in France diu-ing the first battle of 
Ypres, and had seen something of the effects of an ill-equipped 
medical service, short of supplies and jDersonnel ; but tlie 
knowledge which had been gained during- the first year's 
fighting in France had apparentfy not reached the lofty mind 
of Simla. The Government of India., I have heard it said, 
is capable of thinking only in terms of gTains of rice, and 
any action is, or was before the war, determined by prece- 
dent. No precedent existed for the enormous casualties of 
this war, so no j) reparations could be made for them. It was 
quite simple. And the answer to the incessant demands of 
the army struggling in the Tigris mud was, " Not available; 
carry on." 

It was fortunate that the gas gangrene and tetanus, which 
pla3-ed such havoc with the Avounds in Europe, were practically 
unknown here. If they had been added to the horrors of the 
campaign at this stage the mortality of our wounded would 
have been colossal. It was quite a common thing for a man 
to arrive in Basra in these days with sup23urating- wouaids 
covered by the first field dressing, wMeh had been applied 
sometimes as much as a fortnight or even three weeks before. 
Even if there had been an adequate supply of dressings on 
the river boats, it would have been quite impossible for the 



Mesopotamia, 1916—1919. 185 

medical officer in charge to attend pro])erly to tlie dressingis 
of his patients. How oould he, with his meagre staff of or- 
derlies? He was usually busy from morning to night doling 
out food supplies, which Ave re short like everything- else. A' 
very large proportion of the patients, too, had dysentery, which! 
enormously increased his work. 

It would be difficult to conceive of anything more uncomfbrt- 
able than the river transports, which plied between Basra and 
Sheikh Saad at the beginning of 1916. There wei'e no beds, 
and the sick and womided were laid in rows upon thei decks 
with, as a rule, nothing but a blanket or a thin quilt to s.eparate 
tliem from the boards, and so crowded tog-ether that it was 
almost impossible to pick one's way between them. Soaked 
by the frequent storms of rain, from which the deck awning-s 
afforded only a very scanty protection, and chilled to the marrow 
loy the bitter winds, which blew continuously from the snows 
of the Caucasus and Pusht-i-kuh, it was a constant source of 
wonder to me that the men did not all develop pneimio-nia. 
As a matter of fact, I hardly saw a case of it among the 
Avounded. all the time I was in the country. 

The 'hospitals were only a little better than tlie boats. About 
half the patients were housed in solid brick buildings; the i-est 
were in tents and huts, which Avere draughty to the last degree 
and by no means rain-proof, and the patients in them lay ou 
sti^etchers or bed-boards, which raised tliera only a few inches 
from the Avet ground. T^e supply of bedding Avas miserable^ 
and the staffs of medical offic-ers and orderlies Avere less than 
half strength. As for the equipment of tlie operating theati-es, 
those Avho have liad to opemte Avith tlie flimsy tooN ])ixivided 
in the regulation surgical instrument cases knoAv the difficulty 
of the task; and feAv of the hospitals had anything else. Splints 
Avere almost unobtainable in the forwaixl ai*ea, Avheix) eA'eiy 
available piece of Avood Avas needed for firing, and fractui>e8 used 
to be sent doAvn with scarcely any support. Even in Amara 
and Basra imagination did not soar above a long Liston fioT 



186 Mesopotamia, 1916—1919. 

a fractured fomur, and I believe tliat some Tiliomas's knee 
splints, which I had made for me in the Bazaar at Amara, 
were the first to be used in the country, though they had been 
in routine use in France for more than a year. 

Such Mas the state of affairs at the beginning of 1916, and 
so it remained, with but little improvement, until the fall of 
Kut in A23ril put an end to the fighting. The surgery during 
these months was necessarily of a rough and ready description^ 
but the cases did not do badly on the whole. Tlie vast ma- 
jority were fortunately bullet or shrapnel wounds, and their 
most striking feature was their comparative freedom from in- 
fection. I have said tJiat gas gangrene and tetanas were 
almost unknown. With the arrival of divisions from France 
at the end of 1915 and the beginning of 1916 a few^ cases of 
gas g-angrene began to appear, and I think that the victims 
must have brought the infection with them in their clothes,, 
for I never heard of a case occurring in a man who had come 
straight to Mesopotamia from India, and I do not believe the 
organisms are endemic in the country. They are scarcely likely 
to be in one where cultivation is so scanty and the soil is never 
treated Avitli manure. A few cases of tetanus occurred later on, 
chiefly among the Turkish prisoners, but routine injections of 
anti-tetanic serum were never really needed. 

Tihe arrival of nursing sisters was the first step towards com- 
fort and better management in the hospitals, and I should' 
nke here to pay a tribute to those brave pioneers of the ISTurs^ 
ing Service, who did so much by their untiring energy^ to alle- 
viate the sufferings of the sick and wounded at a time when 
tilings were going so badly Tiheir mere presence in the wards 
gave a sense of comfort, which only a man, who has not seen 
a white woman's faoe for many months, can appreciate, and 
their constant supervision of the orderlies' work made a dif- 
ference, Avhich was obvious from the moment that they took 
charg-e of the wards. 



Mempoiamia, 191(J— 1019. 187 

Witli tlio fall of Kilt and tlie advent of the hot weather 
siu'g-ery came practically to an end, and gave place to dysen- 
tery, para-typhoid and cholera, which filled the hospitals to 
overfloAving- throug'hoiit the summer montlis. T(his was the iaos>t 
depressing- period of the campaig-n, and we were reaping* witlil 
a vengeance the fruits of the mismanagement of the previous 
year, I can only speak with personal knowledge of Amara 
at this time, but conditions at Basra were much the same, and 
those at Sheikh Saad were infinitely woi-se. In the winter we 
lacked the means of keeping warm, and now^ in the summer we 
had nothing wherewith to oombat the heat; and the high rateof 
mortality in the epidemic of para- typhoid, which raged througii 
the four hot months, was directly due to this fact. There was 
an old native ice -factory in Amara, which was capable, when in 
working order, of turning out about 700 pounds of ice a day, 
but 700 pounds of ice do not go far among 6,000 patientef, 
and the supply was usually exhausted Avell before the hottest 
part of the day. There were no fans, and anyone with a high 
temperature ran a grave risk of heat-stroke. It is i-emarkable 
tliat among the (thousands of cases of typhoid and para-typhoid 
that passed through our hands during those months there was, 
as far as I can remember, only one case of perforation. The 
explanation is that the severe cases, who would have been the 
most likely to perforate, usually succumbed to the effects of 
heat within the first week or ten da.^^ of tthe disease, before per- 
foration Qould be expected to occur. Sir Victor Horsley's death 
was an example of the tragic termination of pai*at\"phoid, so 
common at this time. He came into hospital on July loth, 
having had for two days a slight p^^rexia, which had not pre- 
vented him fixwn leading his usual energetic Hfe. It so hap- 
pened that that night was the hottest of the year, tlie tliermo- 
meter on the ihospital balcony standing at 105° at midnight, and 
by the following morning Sir Victor liad all the symptoms of 
heat-stroke, from which he died towards the end of the day. 

But depressing though the conditions were in the summer of 
1916, there was now at last some hope of better things. The 



188 Mempoiamia, ]i)](>— 1})]9. 

War Ottice had .superseded Simla in the inanag-ement of tlio 
campaign, and a new Medical Headquarter's Staff, who had 
had experience of the fighting in France, had arrived upon the 
scene, and were re -organising the medical service in the country; 
drafts of medical offi eel's were pouring in, and the parcimonioiLs 
policy to which we had become so used was now giving place 
to extravagant expenditure. 

At the end of July I was invalided to India with pava-* 
typhoid, and when I returned to Mesopotamia in January, 
1917, exactly a year after my first landing there, the transition 
stage had been completed. Tfhe development of a new country 
is a fascinating studj^, full of surprises, and I could not have 
believed it passible that the few months of my absence could 
have brought about so complete a transformation. Basra had 
now all the appearance of a busy, up-to-date port, with several 
miles of solidly constructed wharves along the river bank, on 
which swarm.s of coolies were at work, and the broad reach of 
the Shatt-el-Arab was as full as the Pool of London ^vith a 
heterog-eneous collection of shipping, which included tyj)es rang- 
ing from Sinbad's Mahailah to the most modern liner. River 
steamers from almost every navigable stream in the world 
seemed to have found their way there, and even the penny 
steamers from the Tliames had been pressed into the service, 
and in their new coats of Navy grey looked as much at home 
in the muddy waters of the Tigris as they ever did off the Old 
Swan Pier. Amara had become a busy hospital centre with 
some 6,500 beds, besides tAvo large convalescent depots;, and 
all were housed in good buildings. Ttlie hospital staffs and 
equipment were sufficient, and the medical stores depots were 
well stocked with dressings, splints and surgical instruments. 
Above all, electric light had been installed, and the buildings 
were all supplied with fans. The whole atmosphere was 
diffei'ent; the dejection of the previous year had vanished, 
altog-ether, and the spirits of the men were rising wdth the 
rapidly developing success of the new oft'ensiv^e at Kut. 



Mesopotamia, J 916— 1919. 18» 

From February 1st, when I first took up inv duties las- 
Consultin<^ Surgeon. Juntil the (end of May, when the hot ^veather 
again put an end to the fighting, we were kept constantly occu- 
pied, and it woukl be well to consider here wliat were the lessons^ 
that our experience of- the treatment of wounds taught us. 
It must be remembered that Amara was situated some 150 miles 
from the figliting* zone in tlie early stages of the offensive,, 
and a great deal moi-e as the army advanced, so tliat it was 
exceptional for us to see cases within less than four or five 
days after the wounds liad occurred, and we had no opportunities 
for earl}' excision, as practised so widely in the latter part 
of the war in Europe. Bj- tJie time we saAv them our cases; 
were usually either already in a healing state or suppurating* 
freely. 

The two chief problems ^\hicli Me had to face were tJie- 
treatment of sepsis and of fractures, especially from ih^ point 
of view of transport. I have already mentioned the compai'a- 
tive freedom from infection of the wounds in the earlier fight- 
ing round Kut; but in the new offensive, which began in the 
autumn of 1916 and ended ^\ith the capture of Samarra in 
May, 1917, there was a CK)nsideral)le increase in the proportion 
of infected wounds, though they never became the rule. Tfliis 
increase was due to several reasons, of which the two most 
important were the relatively higher percentage of shell and 
l)omb wounds, and the larger proportion of ground under cul- 
tivation as the fighting drew nearer to Baghdad. 

The one essential in the treatment of sepsis was, of course,, 
as it always will be, the provision of adequate drainag-e, and the 
skill of a suigical specialist could be measured fairly accu- 
rately by the number of secondary h£emoiThag>es in his A\ards. 
I have often heard men recounting cases of secondary hivmorr- 
hage as tliough they were a question of luck. They are not 
a question of luck, but simply one of bad surgery, and they 
do not occiu' if no pockets of pus are left uudrained around 
the larsre vessels. 



aOO Mesopofawht. HMO— ID] 9. 

The most satisfactory antiseptic for all purposes wa« un- 
doubtedly eusol, and various modifications of the Carrel-Dakin 
method of flushino- the wounds Avith it were used with excellent 
i-esults. It haiS the disadvantage that bleaching- powder will 
not keep in a hot climate, and supplies must be constantly 
renewed or the eusol solution tends to become too weak for 
efficient action. I also found bismuth and iodoform paste a 
most useful dressing-, especially for badly comminuted fractures, 
where it saved the patients from much painful manipulation of 
the wounds. It is particularly usieful when the eases have to 
be transported for long- distances and anything which simplifies 
the dressings is of the greatest value. I never saw a case of 
bismuth or iodoform poisoning follow its use. 

Lack of space forbids me to i-efer to fractures in any but 
the briefest terms. For the treatment of fractured femurs I 
have yet to see any form of splint to equal a Hodgen. In my 
experience it is more comfortable and more easy for nursing- 
than a slung Tiliomas, and its one disadvantage is that it must 
be changed for a T!liomas when the patient is moved to another 
hospital. The many elaborate and highly ingenious contri- 
vances for slinging- limbs which I saw in France in the early 
days of the War were, to my mind, quite unnecessary aaid 
merely a waste of time and labour. In any case they were an 
impossibility in a country like Mesopotamia, where w^ood was 
60 scarce. Our experience of fractures of the other large bones 
was much the same as in other theatres of the War, and needs 
no special mention. The diflSculty of their transport was, as 
I have said, our main problem, and it Avas a very real difficulty 
in the case of Indians. Indians seem to have a diaboHcal 
knack of wriggling out of their splints, and in the case of 
fractured forearms, for instance, if one finger Avere left free you 
could be perfectly certain that, before an hour was out, tlio 
splint would liaA^e slid out of place. 

Wounds of the knee-joint Avere A^ery rarely septic, owing 
probably to the fact that the men fought ahnost alAA^ays in shorts, 



Mesopotamia, 1916—1919. 191 

and there was little likelihood of pieces of clothing*, etc., being- 
carried in by the missile. It is impossible to form any very 
definite opinion on the few oases of suppiu*a,ting- joints that wei^ 
ti-eated in the Amara hospitals, except that, as it was found 
elsewhere, the insertion of drainag-e tubes into the cavities of 
joints gave the woi^t possible I'esidts. THie main difficulty, I 
think, was to decide when the condition of the joint was so 
hopeless that the limb must be sacrificed, and I am quite certain 
that in most eases amputation was ^xnt off longer tlian it should 
have been. * ! 

Abdomen, thorax, and head wounds came very little our way 
in their early stages. T(lie shifting nature of the fighting made 
abdominal surg-ery practically hopeless, and only a very few 
cases survived to reach Amara. At one time we considered the 
advisability of providing special units for their treatment close 
to the Fix)nt, but came to the conclusion that it was useless to 
make the attempt, and I do not tliink that with a rapidly ad- 
vancing force it would ever be practicable. In the early days, 
when the fighting w^as stationary round Kut, the medical ar- 
rang-ements were in too chaotic a condition even to think of it. 

The Mesopotamian Campaign was unique in having water 
as its only means of transport — at least it was the onl}'^ means 
tmtil railways were laid between Basra and Amara and between 
Kut and Baghdad, and, as far as the sick and wounded were 

uncerned, it was always the principal means — and we had ample 
opportunity of judging what was the best type of vessel for 
ilie purpose. I have no hesitation in saying that the elaborately 
titted hospital ships, which made their appearance on die Tigris 
in 1917 and 1918 were simply a waste of money, except in ko 

ar as tliey may have served to allay the misgivings 'of tlie 
public at home. Tliey were certainly not the most comfortablo 
type of vessel for a sick man to travel in, and some of them 
were so hopelessly incompetent to deal with the swift current 
of the river that they were never even used. Tllie large paddle 
steamer of the type tliat ^va3 built for the Tigris in 1916 — 



192 Mesopotamia, 191G— 1919. 

the P.-S. 50-cIa«a, in Mesopotamian terminology — Avas far tlie 
best. On the wide upi^er decks of these boats tliere was ac- 
commodation for an enormous nimiber of patients who could be 
made perfectly oomfoi-table either on trestle-beds or on mat-^ 
tresses laid on the decks. They oould also be used for tJie 
transport of troops uj) the river, and so were fully employed on 
both journeys. Fixed cots occupy so much room that much space 
is bound to be wasted, and the cots of the upper tier are sc^ 
near the deck awning-, that the heat is apt to be well-nigh in- 
tolerable in the hot weather. The loading and unloading, too, 
especially of fracture cases, is always an awkward basiness, and 
sometimes dangerous. 

The actions of May, 1917, proved to be tlie last iseriou^ 
fighting of the campaigii, and for the remaining two years 
of my stay in the oountiy the surgery was almost entirely] of 
a non-military character. T^o diseases stand out as being 
particularly worthy of mention, because, tliough not peculiar 
to Mesopotamia, they are diseases of tropical countries, and 
they formed between them a very large percentage of the total 
admissions to hospital: I mean Baghdad Boil and Dysentery. 

Baghdad Boil, or Oriental 3ore, is produced by the inoculation 
of Leishmania Orientalis, and the bites of various insects have 
been held responsible for the infection. I see no reason to- 
doubt that, at any rate in/a large number of cases, tan insect bite 
is the active agent, tliough whetJier any particular insect is the 
guilty one has yet to be discovered. But an insect bite is not 
the only cause. I can I'emember two cases in w^hich typical 
ulcers containing the protozoa followed euts on the fingers, and 
I think it is quite Hkeh^ that many 'are (caused by scratches from 
thorns, etc. The well-known liability to infection of exposed 
parts of the body would fit in just as well with this theory. I 
think also that the cases of multiple sores on the trunk, whiclt 
one occasionally sees, may be the result of inoctilation of patchei* 
of "prickly heat" from the clothes. 



Mesopotamia, 1916—1919. 193 

The troatment of Baghdad boil was tlie subject of manv a 
heated discussion, and tlie methods in use were almost as 
numerous as the hospitals in tlie countr}'. Intravenous injection 
of tartar emetic had a- great vogue at one time, but it had 
little effect except in the dry, non- ulcerating fype of case. 
When there was an open sore it was useless. Tlie best residts 
that I saw Avere obtained by the local application of an ointment 
containing o per cent, of antimonium tartrate for four days 
followed by boracic fomentations. In a series of thirty cases 
treated in this Avay at one hospital cure was complete in an 
average period of "thirteen days, which was very much less than 
T\'a> achieved by any other method that I saw used. 

The surgical aspect of dysentery was confined mosth* to tbe 
ti-eatment of amoebic abscess of the liver. I have little to add 
to the text-book descriptions of this disease, but one or two 
impi-essions that I formed may be worth recording. One was 
the gTeat value of X-rays in the diagnosis of abscess. Of all 
the cases Mhich I saw examined by X-rays, not one, in which 
pus was afterwards found, failed to show limitation of move- 
ment or complete fixation of the right cux)ola of the diaphragm, 
and when, unconvinced by the X-ray demonstration of a freely- 
moving right cupola, I needled the liver for. pas, I never once 
found any. In this connection I might mention that in several 
instances, in which thorouo:h needling: of the liver failed to 
show pus, the symptoms of liei)atitis rajjidly subsided after the 
operation, and apparently as the result of it, so that my efforts 
to find an abscess were not altogether wasted. In the treatment 
of hepatic abscess, open drainage appeared to give the best 
results. Aspiration in my hands was disappointing, and almost 
always liad to be followed by the open operation. Perhaps 
the acute type of abscess, with whicli we were confronted, is 
less amenable to aspiiution tlian are the more chronic forms, 
ft certainly seems reasonable to expect that a chronic abscess, 
in the walls of which the amoebee ihave long ceased to be active, 
^ill be likely to i-espond more readily to simple evacuation of 

PART III. N 



194 Mesopoiiimki, It) 10 — J'JIO. 

its contents than an acutely sp leading- one bounded by semi- 
necrotic liver tissue. 

Few disea,se8 react more quickly tlian dysentery t» appro- 
priate medical treatment, when it is caug-ht in its early stages, 
and surgical interference should never be necessary for the 
intestinal ulceration. Now and then, however, either because 
the patient does not report early enotig-h or because the disease 
is not taken in hand with sufficient energy, the ulceration gets 
into a chronic and most intractable state, and surgery may 
do some good. In the cases on which I operated I found that 
coecostomy either had no effect or produced only a transienfj 
improvement, and latterly I gave it up in favour of complete 
section of the lower part of the ileum wdth the formation of 
an artificial anus. By these means tJie large gut obtained com- 
plete rest, and in two of the three cases, in which I used the 
method, the immediate improvement which followed the opera- 
tion was most noticeable. Both patients lost tlieir pyrexia 
within a day or two of the operation, and began rapidly to put 
on weight, and I was able at the end of two months to re-unite 
their intestines ; and complete cures resulted. Tlie thii^d case 
was moribund w-hen I did the operation, and only survived for 
two days. Not much can be argued from these three cases, 
but at least I think the method is deserving- of a more ex- 
tended trial. 

The remaining surg-ery was of the type usually seen in. tlie 
hospitals at home, herniae, apj)endicesi, loose cartilages, ete., 
and there is little to he said about it, except that a remarkably; 
larg-e number of men, who had recently undergone operationis 
for hernia, in England, presented themselves soon after their 
arrival in Mesopotamia Avith their hernial sacs still intact. 

I was also struck by the frequency of bad results from ope- 
rations on varicoceles. Men often reported with chronic oedema 
or atrophy of the testis or (cysts of the epididymis from this cause, 
and thoug'h these were probably the result of faulty technique, 
it is surely time that the Public Services ceased to insist oil 



Mesopotamia, 191 fJ— 1919. 195 

their recruits imdergoiug- operations wJiieli 80 fi'eqiiently do 
more harm than good, and wliich ai'e, as a matter of fact, 
only very rarely needed. 

A point which interested me a good deal, and which crops 
up frequently in the writings on sui^gerj^ in India and othen 
hot counti'ies, was the effect of the climate upon operations. 
I have operated many times in theati-es in which the tempe- 
rature was well over 100° F., and sometimes as much as 120° 
F., but the only ill effect to the patient that I have seen was 
post-anaesthetic bronchitis. Tlie high rate of incidence of 
bronchitis after operation, especially after laparotomies, was 
so striking that I took to giving prophylactic doses of tincture 
of belladonna after all abdominal opei^ations during the hot 
weather. It was not due to ether, which was very seldom used 
OAving to its volatility, and I came to the conclusion tliat it Avas 
probably caused by the draught set uji by the overhead fansi 
with which all the wards wei-e fitted. 

Another anticipated source of danger was the dust. If 
ever there was a dusty place, it was Mesopotamia, and when- 
ever there was a wind the air was full of it: and even the most 
iaborate precautions could not keej) it out of the buildings j 
But I never saw any wound infected b}^ it, and I doubt if au}^ 
pyog-enic bacteria can i*emain for long- in a flourishing state, 
when exposed to the blaze of a tropical sun. 

And now one Avord more, and I shall have finished. It was 
most noticeable wherever one AA-ent dui'ing tiie Avar, that seai'cely. 
in one single instance was the post of surgical specialist to a 
hospital held by an officer of the regular R.A.M.C. The i-easou 
^'f course is that hardly any members of the Corps had, befoi-e 
Tlie war, any exj^erienee of surg-ery. It is the fault of rlie 
-vstem, and the i-esult, Avlieii, as in the earlier stages of the 
Mesopotamian campaign, the officei's of tlie regular R.A.M.C. 
re called upon to operate, is bound to be disastrous. Some 
t the things I saw done in the name of surgery, Avhen I 
iirst arrived in Mesopotamia, were i-eally appalling. I am not 



196 Mempofamta, 1910—1919. 

criticisino- the Indian niiits. Tlie I. M.S. sur^'oii.s ha\t' at lea.st 
an opportunity in peac^ time of practising their craft, tliough 
they may not always keep exactly up-to-date in tlieir metliod> 
But the R.A.M.C. officers have no chance of keeping in 
touch with surgery unless they happen to hold one of the very 
few surgical posts in the military hospitals at home. There 
is not enough siu'gerv" in the Army in peace time to go round, 
and if the Army is e^-er to i)assess exx)ert operators material 
other than military must be found for them to practise on. 

I have ofteii wondered Avliether the enormous mass of 
material in the Poor Law Infirmaries coidd not l)e utilised 
for the purpose. I see no grave reason why R.A.M.C. office i^ 
should not be seconded for service u]>on the Infirmary staffs. 
and the added inducement of practical surgery and medicine 
would probably attract better men to the Service. 

The Sanitary- and Administrative Departments of the Corps 
are both excellent, and it seems to me tJie greatest pity that 
simply from lack of opportunity the departanents of practical 
medicine and surgery should lag sc» far behind them. 



DENTAL SURGERY AND THE WAR. 



By 
MONTAGU F. HOPSON. 



Ix Avritiug, however briefly, of Dental Surgery and the Waj\ 
it is unfortunately necessary, at the outset, to comment on .the 
official attitude of the War Office towards a dentaJ service. 

' Orthodoxy has ever been the Bourbon of the world of 
thought. It learns not, neither can it forget." The orthodox 
Director General of Medical Services has never recognised the 
value and importance of Dental Surgery, 5ior the obvious 
relation which exists between oral and dental disease and 
geneml affections of the body; facts which have been a oommon- 
place of informed medical science for many years past. 

Just as the Dii-ector General in the Crimea, when Florence 
Nightingale was endeavouring to teach the elements of pre- 
ventive medicine, scoffingl}^ asked what a soldier needed with 
a toothbrush, so the Director General at the outbi'eak of the 
war, having leai*ned nothing from the experience of the South 
African campaign, but remembering the dictum of his pre- 
locessor, Sir Robert Hall, in 1855, stubbornh' refused assist- 
ance from the British Dental Association to establish an efficient 
Dental Service, and at the end of 1915 informed the Recruiting 
Department of the War Office that, in his opinion, dentists aa 
1. class should not be excused from combatant militai-y service, 
and that the system of Local Tribunals was sufficient to meet 
the case. 

In the naii((iiiil emerg"ency whieli Jial arisen the role of the 
skilled Dental Surgeon Avas: — 

1. To render recruits dentally fit for service. 



198 



iJental Surr/en/ and the War. 



2. To iiiaiiitaiii dental fitness in the field. 

3. To co-operate with the surgeon in the treatment of 

wounds of the face and ja\^s. 

4. To meet the needs of the civil j)opulation. 

To cope with this task there were available about 4,500 dental 
surgiej)ns in the whole of the United Kingdom. If ever there 
were a time calling for thorough, careful and efficient organi- 
sation it was then. Yet all offers of help from those possessing; 
special knowledge, and from bodies having facilities for effect- 
ing organisation were declined. For three whole years the 
Government remained indifferent to the value and importance 
of the dental surgeon as a national asset, and no provision! 
was made to utilise his services in 'his professional capacity;, 
like any untrained individual he was subject to the caprice ofl 
ignorant tribunals; the dental schools were depleted of their 
students, with the exception of those who were within twelve 
months of qualification, so that, in 1917, thei^ were only 153 
male students as against 1,000 in 1914. 

Despite the large nimiber of applications, only 20 dental 
officers, ranking as temporary Lieutenants on the General List, 
were appointed during 1914. Hoav pressing w-as the need is 
shown in the following official table relating to the condition 
of the teeth, of recruits in the Northern Command: — 





Age Group. 


• 


18 and 
under. 


19-24 


25-29 


30 and 
over. 1 


Per cent, of men examined with all 

teeth sound 
Per cent, of men examined with 

decayed teeth 
Average No. of decayed teeth per man 


19-8 
64-0 

4-5 


4-9 

84-0 

7-3 


4-1 

83-2 

6-S 


3-2 

80-7 

6-5 



From the point of \iew of Public Health, most of the men 
examined would require dental treatment. The percentages of 
tliose who could be considei-ed as "dentally fit" from the 
Public Health standpoint, compared Avith those who, under the 



Dental Surgery and the War. 



199 



present Army standard (under which only the minimum of 
|ti*eatment which will enable a man to masticate, and under 
which of necessit}^ many teeth Avhich are savable are allowed 
tc< become unsavable), were actually passed as " dentally fit," 
are shown in the following table: — 



Dentally fit. 


16 and 

under. 


19-24 


25-29 


30 and 
over. 


Public Health Standard 

Army Standard 


Per cent. 
330 

57-0 


Per cent. 
10-3 

490 


Percent. 
13-0 

520 


Per cent. 
140 

54-0 



At the i"equest of the Air Ministry the writer, with a 
collea^ie, inspected the members of the Officers Cadet Unit at 
Hastings, numbering some 5,000 men, with the following result: 







RATIO PER CADET. 




A 

E.Ktractions. 


B 

Fillings. 


C 

Fillings with 

Root 
Treatment. 


D 

Scalings with 

simple 

Gingivitis. 


E 

Pyorrhoea or 

severe 

Gingivitis. 


F 

Required 
Artificial 
Dentures. 


1-74 


3-14 


•28 


•69 


•04 


•13 



In connection with the above, it must be borne in mind' that 
the men came from the upper and middle classes, and that 
most of them had been in the habit of receiving i-egular dental 
treatment. 

In peace time the Army Regulation was " The acceptance 
or rejection of a recruit on account of loss or decay of teeth 
will depend on the consideration of the relative position of 
sound teeth, and the physical condition of the recruit; tlius tlie 
l'>ss of many teeth in a man of indiffei^nt oonstitution would 
point to rejection, whilst a robust recruit who has lost an 
equal number might be accepted. Too much attention cannot 
be paid to this latter point." Civilian dental surgeons were 
occasionally employed at a fixed rate of remuneration to nmk© 
a likelv i-ecruit dentallv fit. - 



200 Dental Surgery and the War. 

At the ontbi-eak of the war dental practitioners banded them- 
selves together and arranged for the gratuitous treatment of 
recruits otherwise suitable, who might be rejected on account 
of defective teeth. Majiy thouxsands wei'O thiLS rendered fit 
for service. Dental Hosj^itals and Institutions also rendered 
very valuable and extensive voluntary service in this way. In 
aid of this work the i trustees of the late Sir William Duam 
(The Commercial Union Assurance Company) made a g'enerous 
contribution to Guy's, | enabling' that Institution to treat a very 
large number of service men; over a thousand artificial dentures 
were jmade free of charge. The carrying out of tliis work 
was only rendered possible by a call upon old Guy's dental 
men to come and work in the Department of their old School, 
a call which was nobly responded to. 'Mention must also be 
made of the great work done under the auspices of the Ivory 
Cross Fund. 

Later on a system was adopted for the treatment of soldier.f 
by civilian dentists at a fixed scale of remuneration paid by 
the Government. It was found, however, that a civilian scheme 
was too costly; it lacked in efficiency owing to the want of 
central organisation coupled with inspection. 

Still the War Office hesitated and procrastinated in tlie matter 
of granting Dental Commissions. At the end of 1915 the nimi- 
ber of officers was only 179, and even these were working- 
not under the direction and supervision of senior dental officers 
but under junior medical officers who did not pretend to possesisi 
any special dental knowledge. 

The fine example set by the Dominion Governments in estab- 
lishing thoroughly equipped and well org-anised Dental Corps, 
to render their troops dentally fit during training and to accom- 
pany them and maintain that fitness whilst on active service- 
was ignored by the Home Government, which, however, did 
not hesitate to employ the Dental Surgeons attached to Dominion 
troops to ti-eat English soldiers in France until i\\<i Dominion 
Dental Officers protested. 



Dental Surgenj and the War. 201 

The following wa,s the proportion of Dental Surg-eonS' to 
men ^mong-st the Dominion Forces: — Canadian, 1 per 1,000 
men; Xew Zealand, 1 i^er 2,500 men: AiLstralian, 1 per 2,600 
m^n. The United States Army also had a proportion of one 
Dental Surgeon to each thousand troops. 

With the ever increasing demand for troops men of a lower 
idegi'ee of general and dental fitness were enrolled. This 
brought into prominence the very difficult question of the supply 
of artificial dentiues, which Avas ultimately, satisfactorily and 
economically solved by the establishment of Army Dental 
Laboratories in the various home commands and at certain 
bases on the different fronts, dental mechanics serving as 
combatants being transferred to the E.A.M.C. for this purpose. 

Still with a shortage of Dental Officers, and with, none of 
senior rank with power and authority to org-anise and direct, 
the dental service, such as it was, muddled along. The ti-eat- 
ment of troops, instead of being commenced immediately on 
enlistment, was necessarily delayed until near the end of theiij 
training, with the result that large numbers left for tlie fronti 
either untreated or with Avork unfinished, to swell the number 
of men in a similar condition. This led to troops on active 
service being rapidly incapacitated, and consequent congestion 
at the bases where the few overworked Dental Officers Avere 
stationed. Hence a large and unne(*essary Avastage of man 
power. There never Avas a Senior Dental Officer in charge in 
France. At the end of 1915 a feAv Dental Officers Aveie ap- 
pointed Ins]i>ecting Dental Officers, both at home and abroad, 
but Avith no executive ])owers. Some of these I'eceived the I'ank 
of Major in 1917. 

In the middle of 1917 the President of the Local Government 
Board (established a Dental Service Committee, composed of 
dentists and ie))re.sentative8 of certain inteiested Governmenti 
departments, Avith limited powers over dentists of lio years 
of age and upAvards, and those lunder that age Avho were unfit 
for general service. At the time of the establishment of that 



202 Denidl Sunjern and the War. 

Conuiiittcc thei-e were ap])roximately 1,000 dentists .serving' 
in the Forces. The number of Arniy Dental Surg-eons was 
530 (as compared with 250 in the Canadian Army Dental Corps 
alone); 160 were acting- a.s Medical Officers in the R.A.M.C.;. 
100 wei'e serving- in the Navy, chiefl}'^ as dentists, surgeons^ 
Biid surgeon ]^i*o^>^tioners, etc., whilst 250 ^vere serving a»5^ 
combatants. 

In November, 1917, a Parliamentary Committee of 13 mem- 
bers, presided over by Mr. D. F. Pennefather, investigated the 
position, and after hearing evidence published a report and 
made the following- recommendations: — 

COMMITTEE'S EECOMMENDATIONS. 

After careful consideration we have come to the conclusion that the 
efficient man-power of our Army would be increased and preventable 
sickness and suffering to our soldiers reduced: — 

(1) By much greater attention being paid to the teeth of soldiers 
while training in this country prior to being sent abroad, particularly 
in regard to " conservative " treatment, t.e., treatment calculated to 
prevent unnecessary extractions. 

(2) B}^ increasing the number of qualified Dental Surgeons at base 
camps and casualty clearing stations, and also by the use of travelling 
dental lorries or ambulances. 

(3) By detailing a larger number of specially skilled Dental Sur- 
geons, to co-openate with Army medical officers in the . treatment of 
jaw wounds. 

(4) By , withdrawing from combatant and other non-dental services 
(other than medical and surgical services) all qualified Dental Surgeons 
who are now in the Army or may come up for recruitment, detailing 
them to dental work in order to carary out the dutiifes mentioned ini 
the preceding paragraphs, and providing the necessary numbers of 
dental mechanics. 

(5) By placing the organisaition of the Military Dental Service 
under the general direction of one or more experienced Dental Sur- 
■geans with special authority over Army dental officers of all ranks 
and an advisory position in regard to dental supplies and equipment; 
such Dental Director or Directors and Officers to be under the orders 
of the P.M.O. of the E.A.M.C. 

Signed on behalf of the Committee, 

D. F. PENNEFATHER, Chmrman. 
House of Commons. 

December 12th. 1917. 



Dental Surgert/ and the IT 



203 



In March, 1918, an Advisory Dental Offic-er, with the rank 
of Lieut. -Colonel, was appointed on the «taff of the new Dii-ee- 
tor General at the War Office. Although this officer pos-sessed 
no real executive powers a very marked i^iiprovement in dental 
organisation Avas effected. As late as October 26th, 1918, an 
Army Council Instruction (No. 1187) on Dental Treatment was 
issued, the first paragraph of Avhich reads: '* In order to pro- 
vide adequate dental treatment for troops required for service 
oveiiseas and to ensui-e uniformity, the following instructions 
have been drawn up, and will come into operation forthwith. 
Dental Officers will be appointed as may he necessary.'' 

A confession and a promise — a justification of professional 
claims, four years too late. AVithin a fortnight the enemy was 
suing for peace. 

Three months previously a Dental Tribunal had been ap- 
pointed, to which all dental surgeons of service age were 
made amenable. This tribunal was an enlarged Dental Service 
Committee, and possessed pOAvens Avhich enabled it to enforce 
the national professional service, military or civil, of any dental 
surgeon who came Avithin the provisions of the National Ser- 
vice Act. Further, such dental surgeons as A\ere serving as 
combatants in the ranks Avere offered Dental Commissions. The 
tribimal Avas actiAely engaged upon its duties Avhen the Armis- 
tice came. 

Thei-e are no available figures as to the amount of routine 
dental Avork done by English Dental Officers, but the folloAving 
table of that accomplished by the Canadian Army Dental Coi'ps 
alone gives some idea of the gigantic nature of the task set 
them. 

CANADIAN ARMY DENTAL CORPS. 
July 15th, 1915— June 30th, 1919. 



Fillings. 


Treatments. 


Dentures. '. Prophylaxis. 


Extractions. 


Teeth 
Devitalizad. 


1,007,257 


393.720 


173,179 ; 225,105 

1 


545,220 


99,948 



.204 Dental Surgerf/ and the War. 

At tlie oessation of hostilities about 1,300 dental 8urg-eoii.s 
were serving in H.M. Forces; 831 as Army Dental Surgeons, 
83 as Naval Dental Surgeons (R.N.V.R.), and 61 as Dental 
Siu'geons, Royal Air Foroe. About 120 -were still serving as 
combatant officei-s, and the remainder were serving as Medical 
'Officei-s in Navy and Army. 

In many inspects the most important services rendered l>y 
-dental surg-eons wei-e in co-operation with the general surgeon 
;in the treatment of gunshot wounds fof the jaws and face. 
Hei-e ag-aiii it has to be recorded that the War Office showed 
culpable negligence in rejecting the oft repeated warnings 
and offers of help tendered by those best qualified tO' advise.; 
It is true that in 1914 a number of Dental Surg-eons attached 
to teaching institutions were asked to 6>ct in an honorary con- 
•Bulting capacity in these cases. But, as not infrequently 
happens Avith other consultants, they were hardly ever consulted. 
No provision was made for the early dental treatment of jaw 
oases ,on the various fronts. The patients were distributed 
haphazard in large and small hospitals throug-hout the country 
where pkiUed attention was unobtainable. In Gallipoli the 
-conditions were appalling. The result was that a large num- 
ber of cases came into the hands of the Dental Surgeon when 
the opportunity of rendering any efficient service had long 
passed. 

In August, 1915, the writer with two of his hospital colleagues 
-visited a number of French hospitals in the Paris area which 
'had been set aside for the special treatment of jaw injuries. 
On their return they reported fully to the War Office the results 
•of the experience afforded by their visit, and urged once again 
the necessity of segregating this type of injury, and the insti-^ 
tution of special jaw centres at home and abroad. This was 
feventually done, but only after prolonged opposition on the 
part of the Army Medical Service, and when the matter had 
become one of the minor scandals of the war. The chief jaw 
xaentres were situated at Sidcup, Croydon, Millbank, 1st and 



Dental Surijery cmd the War. 205- 

old Territorial General Hospitals. London, at King George 
Hospital, the Maxillo -Facial (Red Cross) Hospital, Camberwell, 
and in the provinces at Birmingham, iManehester, Liverpool, 
Leeds, Edinburgh, and in Ireland. In the main, the dental 
staffs were composed of visiting civilian consultants, together 
with resident Army Dental Officers. There were also centres 
at three bases in France, and in Egypt and India. 

It is a pleaisure to add that in the end the provision, for 
the treatment of wounds of the jaws and face reached a stage 
of [perfection iinsuiT^assed amongst the Allies. 

No reference hais been made in tliis short article to special 
cases or to treatment. A bibliography of the more important 
contributions on " Dental Surg-ery and the War/' culled from: 
English journals, is appended. 



REFERENCES TO WAR INJURIES OF JAWS 
AND FACE, etc., 1914 to June, 1920. 



Aymard, J. L. Some principles of plastic surgery. — Lancet, 1917,. 
II., 847. 

Badcock, J. H. Early splinting in gunshot wounds of the inaudible. 
— British Medical Jounml, 1917, II., &o. 

Baldwin, Sir H., and Payne, J. L. Discussion on war injuries of 
the jaw and face. — Proc. Rot/. Soc. Med., 1915-lG, IX., Odont. 
Sect., 63. 

Bennett, N. G. Orthodontic methods in the treatment of fractures 
of the jaws. — Dental Record, 1910, xxxvi., 660. 
Idem. War injuries of the jaws. — Practitioner, t^ll, xcix., 201 
(4 plates). 

Billingtox, W., Parrott, a. H., and Eound, H. Bone-grafting- in 
gmishot fractui-es of the jaw. — Proc. Roy, Sao. Med., 1918-19, 
xii., Odont. Sect., oo; also Briti-ih Medical Jourruil, 1918, II., 
679. 

Bock, J. Simple appliance-s for distending jaw muscles and ligameurs 
in cases of trismus. — Britsih Dental Jouriwl, War Supplement, 
1916. 

Bowman, F. B. Ulcero-membranous stomatitis among the troops.. 
— British Dental Journnl. 1917. 



20*i Denial Surf/crt/ (fud the War. 

Bbyan, W. a. Plastic surgeiy of the face. — British Dental Journal, 
War Supplement, 1916. 

BrBB, C. H. Some technical details in the treatment of jaw injuries. 
— British Dental Journal, War Supplement, 1910. Deformities 
ijf the jaws resulting from operation or injury. — British Dental 
Journal, War Supplement, 1916. Some principles involved in 
the treatment of mandibular fractures. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 
1917-18, xi., Odont. Sect., 27. 

Campion, K. B. Some notes on seventy-two cases of gunshot wounds 
of the face with fracture of maxillas. — Jour. Royal Army Medical 
Corps, 1916, xxvii., 106. 

Gavalie, — . A method of procedure in the treatment of fractures 
of the mandible. — Dental Record, 1916, xxxvi,, 205. 

Chexet, H. The use of continuous elastic traction in one jaw only 
in the treatment of mandibular fracture. — Dental Record, 1918, 
xxxviii., 69. 

Chubb. G. Case illustrating the need for conservative treatment of 
bone fragments in compound fractures of the mandible. — Proc. 
Roy. Soc. Med., 1919-20, xiii., Odont. Sect., 59. 

Clewer, D. a contribution to the study of fuso-spirillary marginal 
gingivitis. — British Dental Jourwtl, 1919. 

Cocker,. A. B. Treatment of acute septid gingivitis. — British Dental 
Journal, 1919. 

Cole, P, P. Deformities of the jaws resulting from operation or 

injur}-. — Brituh Dental Jouriml, W^ar Supplement, 1916. 
Idem. Non-union of war fractures of the mandible. — Lancet, 1918, 

• I., 459. 
Idem. Plastic repair in war injuries to the jaw and face. — Dental 

Ree&rd, 1917, xxxvii., 281; also Lancet, 1917, I., 415. 
Idem,. The operative treatment of ununited fractures of the mandible. 

— Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 1917-18, xi., Odont. Sect., HS. 
Idem. Scalp flaps and depilation in plastic surgery of the face. 

—Practitioner, 1918, C, 461. 
Idem. Treatment of wounds involving the mucous membrane of 

the mouth' and nose. — Lancet, 1918, I., 11. 
Idem. Ununited fractures of the mandible; their incidence, causation 

and treatment. — British Journal of Surgery, 1918-19, vi., 57. 
Idem and BuBB, C. H. Bone-grafting in ununited fractures of the 

mandible, with special reference to the pedicle graft. — Proc. 

Roy. Soc. Med., 1918-19, xii., Odont. Sect. 13; also British 

Medical Journal, 1919, I., 67. 

Colyer, Sir F. A note on the treatment of gunshot injuries of the 
mandible. — British Medical Journal, 1917, II., 1. 
Idem. The treatment of guhshot injuries of the jaws, — Jour. Royal 
Army Medical Carps, 1916, xxvi., 597 (8 plates). 



Dental Surgery and the War. 207 

Idem. Fractures of the mandible: methods and treatment and 
results. — British Dental Journal, War Supplement ,1917. 

Idem. Injuries of the mandible. — British Dental Journal^ War 
Supplement, 1917. 

€OMTE, E. Six weeks' study at the Val-de-Grace Military Hospital, 
Paris. — Dental Becord, 1917, xxxvii., 424, 492. 

Daehler, 31. W. A case of union of fracture of the mandible after 
30 months' treatment. — Dental Becord, 1918, xxxviii., 170. 

Dalton, F. J. A. Sodium hypochlorite in the treatment of septic 
wounds. — British Dental Journal, War Supplement, 1916. 

Davenport, W. S. Multiple fracture of mandible"; lost structure re- 
stored by bone graft. — British Dental Journal, War Supplements. 
1916. 

DoLAMORE. W. H. Gunshot injuries of the jaws and face. — Medical 

Annual, 1918, pp. 274-294; ibid.. 1919, pp. 215-224 (plates). 
Idem. The ' prevention of deformity following fracture or resection 

of the jaw. — Brituh Journal of Surgery, 1915-10, III., 520. 
Idem.. The treatment in Germany of gunshot injuries of the face 

and jaws. — British Dental Journal, War Supplement, 1916. 
Idem. Metal cap splints for fractured jaws. — Brituh Dental Journal, 

1915. 
Idem. Further experiments with the use of bone grafts. — British 

Dental Journal, War Supplement, 1917. 
Idem. Treatment of the face and jaws at Diisseldorf Hospital. — 

Brituh Dental Jourrutl, War Supplement, 1917. 
Idem.. War injuries of the jaws. — Medical Anniud, 1917, pp. 299- 

317 (plates). 

DouBLEDAY, F. N. Case of gunshot wound of the mandible with ex- 
tensive loss of tissue treated by the Colyer method. — Proc. 
Roy. Soc. Med., 1918-19, xii., Odont. Sect., 101. 
Idem. Cases of gunshot injury of the face and jaw, with special 
reference to treatment. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 1916-17, x., 
Odont. Sect., 51. 

EccLES. H. A. War injuries of the jaws. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Med.., 
1916-17, X., Elect. -Ther. Sect., 2. 

Edwards. D. S. P. Treatment of fractured jaws in military practice. 
— British Dental Journal War Supplement, 1917. 

EvE, Sir F. Some surgical procedures in gunshot fractures of the 
mandible. — Practitioner, 1916, xcvi., 447 (plate). 

Fisher, A. R. Chloramine treatment of wounds of the mouth and 
jaws. — British Dental Journal, 1916. 

FREYi. F. Restorative prosthesis in mutilation of the face. — British 
Dental Journal, War Supplem^it, 1916. 



208 Dental ^urgenj and the War. 

Fry, W. K. a fe^^' iiote.s oa the treatment of gunshot wounds of 

the mandible and maxilla. — Dental Record, 1918, xxxviii,, 73^ 

also Lancet, 1917, II., 852. 
• Idem. The restoration of the function of the mandible. — British 

Dental Journal, War Supplement, 1918. 
Idem. Prosthetic treatment of old injuries of the raaxillx'. — Proc. 

Roy. Soc. Med., 1918-19, xii., Odont. Sect., 73. 

Gernez, — . and Lemiere, . — On the conservation and use of cica- 
tricial bands in the treatment of fractures of the j'aws, with 
. extensive loss of tissue.- — Dental Record, 1918, xxxviii., 326. 

Gillies, H. D. Two cases illustrating plastic and dental treatment. 
— Dental Record, 1918, xxxviii., 39. 
Idem and Kixg, L. A. B. Mechanical supports in plastic sui'gery. 
— Lancet, 1917, I., 412. 

GljLMOUE, W. H. Xptes on visit to military hospitals at the base in 
France and some hospitals in Paris. — British Dental Journal, 
1916. 

Grandison, W. B. Treatment of jaw injuries at Southern General 
Hospital, Birmingham. — British Dental Journal, War Supplement, 
1918. 

Graxt, J. D. Facial plastic surgery, laryngology and stomatology, in 
French military hospitals. — Lancet, 1915, I., 926. 

IGreen, K. J. Two cases of gunshot fractures of the mandible witli 
loss of substance. — Lancet, 1917, II., 422, 

Hern, W. Wax injuries of the jaws and their treatment contrasted 
with those of civil practice. — British Defital Jouriud, War Sup- 
plement, 1916. 

Hett, G. S. Methods of repair of wounds of the nose and nasal 
accessory sinuses. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 1918-19, xii., Larvn. 
Sect., 136. 

Harrison, H. Wire splints. — British Dental Jowrnal, War Supple- 
ment, 1917. 

HtLTON, — . Multiple wounds of the face from a trench mortar bomb. 
— British Journal of Surgery, 1916, IV., S9. 

Holt, H. M. Diets in use at Croydon War Hospital. — British Dental. 
Journal, War Supplement, 1916. 

HopsoN, M. F. Treatment of jaw injuries.— ^owr. R.A.M.C, 1915. 

Idem. War injuries of the jaws and face: appliances and splints - 
— British Dental Journal, War Supplement ,1916. 

Idem. Presidential address — British Dental Association. — British Den- 
tal Journal, 1919. 

Johnson, E. Ulcero-membranous stomatitis occurring among the troops. 
— British Dental Journal, 1919. 



Dental Surgery and the War. 209 

Johnston, H. M. The value of skiagraphy in the surgery of facial 
injuries. — Lancet, 1918, I., 10 (plate). 

Jones, R. Transplantation of bone and uses of the bone-graft. — British 
Dental Journal, War Supplement, 1916. 

Kazanjtan, V. H. The department of oral surgery of the Harvard 

Surgical Unit. — British Medical JourTial, 1917, II,, 3. 
Idem. Immediate treatment of gunshot fractures of the jaws. — Brituh 

Dental Journal, War Supplement, 1916. 
Idem. Splints combined with sutures through the bone for the 

immobilisation of extensive fractui-es of the lower jaw. — Proc. 

Roy. Soc. Med., 1917-18, xi., Odont. Sect., 67. 
. Idem and Buerows, H. The treatment of giinshot wounds of the 

face accompanied by extensive destruction of the -lower lip and 

mandible. — British Journal of Surgery, 1918-19, vi., 74. 
Idem. Treatment for maxillary fractures. — British Dental Journal, 

Wai- Supplement, 1916. 
'. Idem and Burrows, H. The treatment of hasmorrhage caused by 

gunshot wounds of the face and jaws. — British Journal of 

Surgery, 1917-18, V., 126. 
Idem. Some problems of prosthesis as a result of destruction of 

the superior maxilla. — British Dental Journal, War Supplement, 

1918. 

Keith, A. and Hall, jNI. E. Specimens of gunshot injuries of the face 
and spine. — British Journal of Surgery, 1919-20, vii., 55. 

Mackaness, C. L. Diseases of the gums affecting troops in France. 
— British Dental Jouriwl, War Supplement, 1916. 

^SIakins, Sir G. H. Bomb wound of the face. — British Journal of 
Surgery, 1915-16, iii., 502. 
Idem. Bullet wound in the face, with explosive effect at the 
aperture of exit. — British Journal of Surgery, 1915-16, iii., 505. 

^Iaurel, G. Anatomical peculiarities of caUus in war fractures of 
the symphysis of the mandible. — Dental Record, 1917, xxxvii.,. 
635. 

]Mendleson, B. Treatment of gunshot wounds of maxillae at a CCS. 
— British Dental Journal, 1916. 

Military Centre for jaw cases at Lyons. — British Medical Journal, 

1916, II., 535. 
^luMMERY, S. P. Successful case of bone-grafting (severe shell wound 
of face). — Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 1919-20, xiii., Odont. Sect., 
78. 
Idem. The treatment of jaw injuries. — Practitioner, 1916, xcvi., 73, 

(two plates). 
Idem. The treatment of jaw injuiies. — Jour. R.A.M.C., 1915. 

:Munby, W. M., Forty, A. A. and Shffford. A. D. Notes on the 
principles and results of treatment in 200 cases of injuries to 
the face and jaws. — British Journal of Surgery, 1918-19, vi., 86. 

PART III. O 



210 Denial Surrjcf// iiud thr Wdr. 

NORTHCEOFT, G. A shoit aooouut. of a year's work at one of the 
Jaw Injuries Centres of the London Commaud. — Proc. Roy. 
Soc. Med., 1917-18, xi., Odont. Sect., 6. 
Idem. A short review of another year's work at a Jaw Injuries 
Gentxe.—Ibid, 1918-19, xii., Odont. Sect., 7. 

Oliver, M. W. B. Gunshot wound of face; loss of left eye. — Proc. 
Roy. Soc. Med., 1919-20, xiii., Ophthal. Sect., 34. 

Parrott, a. H. Jaw injuries at Southern General Hospital, Birming- 
ham. — Britvth Dental Jonnuil, War Supplement, 1918. 
Idem. Fracture of the maxilla (complete) with or without fractnre 
of mandible. — Brituh Deyital Jonrnal, 1919. 

Payne, J. L. The treatment of jaw injuries. — Jour. R.A.M.C., 1915. 
Idem. Fractures of the jaws. — Britkh Dental Journal, 1915. 
Idem. War injuries of the face and jaws. — Brituh Dental Jourwd, 
War Supplement, 1916. 

Pearce, F. J. The treatment of jaw injuries. — Jour. R.A.M.C., 1915. 

Peglee, L. H. Shrapnel wound of nose and cheek. — Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Med^, 1915-16, ix., Laryn. Sect., 21. 

Pickeeill, H. p. Arthroplasty of tempero-mandibular joint for anky- 
losis. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 1917-18, xi., Odont. Sect., 87. 

Idem. Methods of control of fragments in gunshot wounds of 
the jaws. — Deyital Record, 1918, xxxviii., 435; also Lancet, 19IS, 
II., 313. 

Idem. Treatment of fractured mandible accompanying wounds. — 
Brituh Medical Journal, 1916, II., 105. 

PiPERXO, A. Modern methods of treating fractures of the jaws. — 
British Dental Journal, War Supplement, 1916. 

Platt, H., Campiox, G. G. and JIod-vvay, B. J. On bone-grafting in 
gunshot injuries of the mandible. — Lancet, 1918, I., 461 (plate). 

POLLITT, G. P. Comminuted fracture of the mandible. — Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Med., 1916-17, x., Odont. Sect., 41. 

Pont, A. Note on bone grafting in cases of loss of tissue of thei 
mandible. — Dental Record, 1918, xxxviii., 401. 

Ide7n. Alae and Lobule Ehinoplasty. — British Dental Journal, War 
Supplement, 1916. 

Idem. Cheiloplasty and nasal prosthesis. — British Denial Journal, 
War Supplement, 1916. 

Idem. Reports on cases treated at the Lyons Stomatological Centre. 
'—British Dental Journal, War Supplement, 1916. 

Idem. Oculo-facial prosthesis. — British Dental Journal, War Supple- 
ment, 1916. 

Pope, W. H. Retaining apparatus in cases of fractured mandible. — 
Brituh Dental Jourmil, War Supplement, 1917. 



Dental Surcjenj and the TTV/>-. 211 

EoDAVAY, B. J. The treatment of gunshot wounds of the face nnd 
jaws. — Dental Record, 1915, xxxv., 717. 

Roy, M. and Martixiee, P. The treatment of war injuries of the 
maxillary -facial region: some methods of technique used by the 
Committee for treating soldiers wounded in the jaws and face. 
— Dental Record, 1916, xxxvi., pp. 323, 435, 477, 550, 610, 672. 

-EBILEAU, P. The healing of fractures of the mandible due to war 
injuries. — Dental Record, 1917, xxxvii., 128, 178, 233. 

EMPLE, Sir D., Price-Joxes, C. and Digby, L. Report of Inquiry 
into gingivitis and Vincent's angina occurring iu the Army. — 
Jour. R.A.M.C., 1919. 

^HEFFORD, A. D. E. General observations on gunshot injuries of face 
and jaws. — British Dental Journal, 1919. 
Idem. Results of bone grafting operations in treatment of ununited 
fracture of mandible. — British Dent-al Journal, 1919. 

^FILLER, J. E. The restoration of lost parts by prosthetic appliances. 
— British Dental Journal, War Supplement, 1916. 

STEPHENS. B. M. Report on treatment of a case of shrapnel wound 
of the mandible, in which bony union was re-established after 
great loss of substance. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 1916-17, x., 
Odont. Sect., 46. 

-TL'ART-Low, W. BuUet wounds of face and neck. — Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Med., 1915-16, ix., Laryng. Sect., 18. 

Trotter, W. Suggestions towards a systematic operative treatment of 

gunshot wounds of the mandible. — British Medical Journal, 1918, 

I., 49. 
Turner, H. W. Surgical prosthesis of the jaws. — British Dental 

Journal, 1915. 
\'aladiee. Sir A. C. A few suggestions for the treatment of fractured 

jaws. — British Journal of Surgery, 1916-17, iv., 64. 
Idem and Whale, H. L. A report on oral and plastic surgery and 

on prosthetic appliances. — Brituh Journal of Surgery, 1917-18, 

v., 151. 
Villain, G. Post-elevator mandibular fractures. — Dental Record, 1918, 

xxxviii., 122, 218, 274. 
Whale, H. L. Case of injury principally to lower face and mandible. 

— Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 1914-15, viii., Laryng. Sect., 131. 
Wood, F. D. Masks for facial wounds. — Dental Record, 1917, x.xxvii., 

396; also Lancet, 1917, I., 949 (plate). 
Vylie, a. Bullet wound of the face. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 1915-16, 

ix., Laryng. Sect., 21. 



THE COMMITTEE OF REFERENCE. 



By 
SIR WILLIAM HALE-WHITE, K.B.E. 



( 
The Hon. Secretary of the Committee of Reference was Mr. 
F. G. HaUett, who was indefatigable in the work he did for it, 
and it is to him that its success is largely due. When I men- 
tioned to him that the Editors of the Guy's Hospital Reports 
had asked for an account of its work, he kindly supplied me 
with the following extract. 



In March, 1916, at the request of H.M. Government, thi'ough 
Lord Sydenham, Chairman of the Central Tribunal, the Royal 
Colleges of Physicians aaid Suigeons appointed a Joint Com- 
mittee consisting of the President and four members of each 
College " to advise the Government Depai-tment concerned 
therein, through the Central Medical War Committee, on any 
case affecting the .seveiul Medical Schools sand Hospitals during 
the war in respect of medical men on their staffs (including! 
residential ajod teaching staffe) ^vith regard to whom the ques- 
tion arises as to whether a particular individual is indispen- 
sable or would suffer excessive personal hardship if requii'ed 
to enter Militaiy Service, and further similarly to advise on 
the case of any other medical !man in England or Wales in 
respect of whom the Central Tribunal iunder the Military Ser- 
vice Act of 1916 or the Central Medical Wai- Committee thinks 
it desirable that the Advisory Committee should be consulted." 

The Conomittee originally consisted of Dr. Fi-ederick Taylor, 
President, Dr. William Pasteui-, Dr. Sidney Martin, F.R.S., ajid 
Dr. James Galloway, repi^senting the Royal College of Physi- 



214 I'hc ('onnnittee of Beierence. 

ciaas; Sir Watson Cheyiie, Pi-esident (or, in his absence, Sir 
Rickmau Godlee), Mr. W. F. Haslam, (Mr. D'Arcy Power, and 
Mr. Charles Ryall, repi^senting tlie Royal College of Surgeons. 

Later on this Committee became known las the Committee of 
Reference. 

The tprimary duty of the Committee was to decide which 
members of the staffs of the Metropolitan Hospitals and Medical 
Schools ishoiild be required to enter H.M. Forces and which 
should be retained for the j)i^i'po*® 'of safeguarding' the interests, 
from a health point of view, of the Civil Community. 

In June, 1916, the Committee became a Statutory Committee 
under the Military Service Act, Session 2, 1916. 

Various questions arose from time to time which, although 
not officially within the reference of the Committee were felt 
to be of such importance as to wiarrant investigation and in 
order that the Committee might have (power to deal with such 
questions, they requested the Ro3'al Colleges of Phj^icians and 
Surgeons to extend the terms of appointment so as to enable 
the Committee " to consider either independently or in con- 
junction with other Bodies urgent medical questions arisino: 
out of the war, such as ithe treatment of Disabled Soldiers and 
if neoes&ary to advise the Grovernment thereon." 

The Committee, having received the additional powers, dealt 
with the foUoAving subjects: — 

1. The calling up of Members of Staffis of Hospitals and 
Medical Schools. 

2. Appeals from such members. 

3. Matters relating to the calling up of Members of the 
Profession of joint interest to the Committee and the Central 
Medical War Committee. 

4. The Treatment of Discharged Disabled Soldiers, 
o. The Treatment of Dischargeable Disabled Soldiers. 

6. The Grouping of Hosintals. 

7. Board of Assessors under the Local Government Board. 



The Committee of Reference. 215 

8. Food Control. 

9. Demobilisation. 

On the 1st November, 1916, Dr. Hale-White became a repre- 
sentative of the Royal College of 'Plnsicians on the Committee 
in place of Dr. William Pasteur, who had been appointed Con- 
sulting Physician to the Forces in France, whilst Dr. Tiimey 
and. Dr. F. W. 'Mott also joined the Committee as i-epresentingf 
the Eoyal College of Pliysician.s. Mr. (F. F. Bm-ghard, C.B., 
became a meml>er of the Committee in January, 1917, whilst 
in July, 1917, and April, 1918, Sir George Makins, President 
of the Royal Colleg'e of Surgeons, land Sir Norman Moore, 
'Bart., President of the Royal CoUeg^e lof Physicians, became 
"ex officio" Members of the Committee. 

The Committee from time to time obtained returns of the 
staffs of all the hospitals and schools in London and considered 
the Cionditions of each Imstitution as to the nimiber of staff 
required to maintain a reasonable service imder the conditions 
of war, and at the same time decided which members of the 
staff ought to be spared for service in H.M. Forces. 

A Sub -Committee was ajopointed to go through the lists of 
members of the staffs of the hospitals and to determine whidli 
of these men should be called upon to serve, and lists were 
piierpared for consideration by the Committee of Reference. 
The Committee, having considered these lists, calling up notices 
were sent, and each man had the right of submitting a per- 
sonal statement to the Committee of Reference. The Committee 
then yjonsidered such statements both as they bore on the 
reqiuiements of the hospital in regai-d to its staff and on the 
private circumstances of tlie applicant. In several cases Gov- 
ernors of Hospitals attended before the Couunitbee and ex- 
plained why a member of the Staff should not be spared. 

The work of the Sub-Committee in going thixjugli and weigh- 
ing the claims of the hospitals and individuals wafi extremely 
onerous, and for a long period the Sub-Committee met once 
and sometimes twice a week. Altogether some 560 cases were 



216 The Committee of Reference. 

investigated by the Committee after a still larger number had 
been considered by the Sub -Committee. 

Arrangements were oome to with the War Office by which no 
one attached to the staff of a London Hospital was to be 
called up without the sanction of tbe Committee. This arrange- 
ment was made in order that the Committee might be in ^ 
position to decide whether or not the work of the hospital could 
be icarried on with the remaining staff, and was referred to 
in correspondence between Guy's Hospital and the Loeal Gov- 
ernment Board in May and June, 1917, when the hospital called 
attention to the danger of the calling up of all doctors of 
ImiUtary ^ge. Lord Rhondda in his reply to £he Hospital 
pointed out that the Committee of Reference had been set 
up to deal with members of the staffis of hospitals with a view 
to meeting this express difficulty. 

In January, 1917, as the pres-sure b}' the War Office for 
additional Medical Officers continued to be acute, the Committee 
^commenced the consideration of a scheme for grouping the 
London Hospitals into areas with a view to economy of mail 
power. In order to make use of the whole profession in the 
best interests of the State, it was suggested that tlie Hospitals 
should, if necessary, be grouped, and to each, group a minimum 
Cnumber of Physicians, Surgeons and Specialists should be 
allotted, that some hospitals should be temporarily closed or 
attached to other hospitals, and that part-time doctors should 
be employed as full-time men. /Various sections of the Royal 
Society of Medicine were consulted by the Committee as to tbe 
tnumber of Specialists in various subjects who would be re- 
quired to staff the several groups of hospitals and valuable 
advice was received from that Society. 

As the war proceeded the question of the arrangements for 
treating sick and wounded officers in small Sectional or Aux- 
iliary Hospitals came under consideration in regard to the 
iwastage of nmn-power involved in this arrangement. 

Later on, in April, 1918, the approval of the Ministry of 
National Service was asked for the grouping of hospitals and 



The Committee of Reference. 217 

the sclieine was being- worked out in detail wlien the Armistice 
rendered further procedure unnecessary. 

Amongst the matters dealt with the Conmdttee, in November, 
1916, presented a report to the Prime Minister and other 
Members of the Government, putting forward a scheme for 
-dealing with Discharged Disabled Soldiers. 

In December of that year the Committee adopted a report 
of the Sub -Committee of Joint Ropresentatives of tlie Committee 
of Reference and the Central Medical War Committee on the 
treatment of Dischargeable Disabled Soldiers, and this was sent 
to the Prime Minister and the Secretary of State for "War. 

Towards the end of 1917 the Local Government Board pro- 
posed to set up eleven Appeal Tribunals throughout the oountr\- 
and the Board i-equested the Committee of Reference to nomi- 
nate eight Assessors, four Physicians and four Surgeons, to 
the Appeal Tribunal in London. 

Amongst the Physicians so nominated was Dr. Hale-Wliite. 

Later on further Assessors were nominated and ultimately 
the rota- of Assessors was established and the administration 
of the Board of Assessors was undertaken by the Committee. 

The work of the Boards of A^sessoi-s became so onerous that 
a Special Sub-Committee was appointed to deal with tlie Boai-ds, 
consisting of Dr. Sidney Martin, as Chairman, Dr. W. Hale- 
White, and Mr. Charles Ryall, 

The work of the Assessors continued incessantly until the 
date of the Armistice. 

In March, 1918, on the resignation of Sir Fi-ederick Taylor, 
Bart., Dr. Sidney Martin was elected Chairman of the Com- 
mittee of Reference. 

The question of tlie seconding of newly qualified doctoi-s to 
assist the hospitals for three months after qualification Avas 
taken up by the Committee with two objects: (1) to facilitate 
the working of the hospitals in the interests of the civil com- 
m,unity, and (2) to increase the value of the newly qualified 



218 TliL' Committee of Reference. 

doctor oil CMiteriiig the Army by 'giving- liim three months hos- 
pital exi)erienoe. The Committee succeeded in obtaining this- 
concession from the War Office. 

In . September, 1917, the Committee called the .serious atten- 
tion of the Government to the 'shortage of doctors, and they 
ji'eeommended (1) that medical ^tudents now serving in the 
Army as officers or privates who have already passed the 
examination in Anatomy and Physiology for a Medical Quali- 
fication should be demobilised and returned to their ^Medical 
Schools to complete their studies, (2) that medical students now 
serving in the Army whether as officers or privates who have 
not passed the examination in Anatomy and Physiology should 
be seconded to their Medical Schools 'for a i^easonable period 
to enable them to pass that examination, and that, if succ-essful,. 
they should be demobilised to complete their studies. The con- 
dition's under which medical students could be allowed to return 
to their Medical Schools to complete their studies were subse- 
quently adopted by the War Office. 

The establishment of the Ministry of National Service in 
1917, with Sir James Galloway as Chief Commissioner for 
Medical .Service, brought * about considerable change in the 
procediu'c of the Committee, inasmuch as all questions dealing* 
with the calling up of doctors was settled through the Minis - 
.try, and the most harmonious working between the Ministry, 
and the Committee of Reference continued imtil the termina- 
tion of the war. 

As the resiilt of an interview between the Chairman (Sir 
Frederick Taylor) and Lord Hhondda in Janiiar}^, 1918, a joint 
Sub -Committee of the Committee of Refei-ence and the Central 
Medical War Committee was formed to advise the Food Con- 
troller on doubtful points of Medical interest, consisting of Dr. 
Hale-White (Chairman), Mr. D'Arcy Power, Dr. F. W. Mott,. 
and Dr. Charles Buttar, to which were co-opted Professor E. 
A. Starling and Dr. Robert Hutchison. 



The Committee of Iteierence. 219' 

This Siib- Committee considered, various matters referred to 
them by the Food Controller, and [^resented sevei-al report* to 
the DeiDartment in reference to (a) extra rations in ease of 
patients suffering from certain di^ases, (b) the advice to be 
given to doctors in issiiing cortificates for extra rations, (c) 
priority supply of dried, condensed or c>weetened milk for 
children, (d) tlie supply of gluten flour, etc. 

At the conclusion of the Armistice the Committee was re- 
quested by the Ministry of National Service to deal with the 
question of Demobilisation so far as it related to members lof 
staffs of tlie hospitals. The Committee thereupon applied to 
the hospitals to forward lists of the membei-s of the staff 
whom thej^ desii-ed to be demobilised at the earliest date. Lists 
were compiled by the Committee showing- the order of urgency 
specified against the various cases for demobilisation and for- 
waixied to the Minister of National Service. Generally speaking 
these lists were dealt with in a satisfactory manner except 
where officers were serving in Salonika, Egypt, Mesopotamia 
and India, where considerable delay occui'red, iand some cases 
of hardship \^^re brought to the notice of the Committee on 
account of the difficulty of supplying- vacancies in the Medical 
Staffs. In the same way delay took place in regard to the 
Medical Officers in the Army of Occupation, and tlie Committee 
did wliat was possible to facilitate the i-eturn of members of the 
Staffs asked for. 

At the conclusion of the business of the Committee a letter 
from Sir Auckland Geddes, Minister of National Service, was 
received by the Chairman expi^ssing his high appreciation of 
the services that the Committee had rendei^ in association 
with his Medical Department, and conveying his personal thanks 
and tlic tlianks of the Government to H\e Member's o\ iflie Com- 
mittee of Refeiience for the important national work which thej 
had done. 



THE LATE SYMPTOMS OF GAS 
POISONING. 



By 

G. H. HUNT, M.D., F.R.C.P. 



In the early days of the war two of the most potent causes- 
of prolonged invalidism were trench fever and trench feeit, 
two diseases which, because of their novelty, had never been 
considered. Towards the end of 1915 a third cause was added 
to these, and this forms the subject of the present paper. 
Poisoning by asphyxiating g&js was responsible for a con- 
siderable number of deaths, but it also (diminished the fighting 
strength of the Allies by incapacitating men for a considerable 
period after they had passed the dangerous stage of their ill- 
ness, and were thought fit for discharge to a convalescent camp. 
It was, in fact, at the convalescent camps that it was finst i-e- 
cognised that the effects of gas-poisoning might cause a man 
to be quite unfit for duty long after the acute pulmonary symp- 
toms were over; the medical officeiis attached to these camj^s^ 
kept on finding that men, who were on ordinary clinical exa- 
mination apparently perfectly soimd, often complained of being 
unable to march more than a short distance, and that if they 
were put to an actual test their statements -were perfectly cor- 
i*ect. They found, in fact, that in many men slight physical 
exertion caused very genuine distress, often sufficient to make 
any continuance of work impossible. In the summer of 1916- 
a large number of " gassed " men were sent to the hospital, 
to whicli I was attached, to find out the pix)portion of men 
who were suffering in this way, the signs showing that the 
supposed incapacity was genuine and the best way of treating it. 



222 The L<ifr Sf/nipfonis of Gas Poisoning. 

In a few patients tliei'e was evidence of jiersistent bronchitis^ 
but the real difficuhy arose in patients who looked perfectly 
well, and in Avhom physical examination revealed nothing ab- 
normal. In the^^e I found that the only way to demonsti-ate 
any disability Avas by tosting their response to exercise. In 
some a walk of a hundiW yards caused obvious exhaustion, 
djTspnoea and tach}- cardia ; others onl}- showed these signs after 
walking half a mile or more. Those who exhibited these signs 
complained that exercise brought on palpitation, pains in the chest, 
dizziness and headache. The clinical picture was, in fact, iden- 
tical with that met Avitli in cases of effort syndrome, a condition 
which was at that time being investigated at the military heart 
hospital by Lewis. In addition, however, a certain number 
■of patients suffered from attacks of acute dyspnoea at night, 
the cause of which was very obscure. Tlie patient would be 
awakened by a feeling of suffocation, and would sit up- in bed 
to get i-elief; when seen during an attack, the patient looked 
anxious rather than acutely ill: his breathing was rapid and 
shallow^ but not difficult; his pulse was sometimes slow and full, 
sometimes rapid and almost impalj)able; it was rare to find 
any rales or rhonchi in the chest, and the dyspnoea resembled 
that seen in cases of ui'femia much more than that in cases of 
bronchial asthma. (All these patients had been gassed by 
chlorine or phosgene; in subsequent cases suffering- from mus- 
tard gas poisoning true bronchial asthma AA^as often seen.) 
The cause of these attacks was very puzzling, but a partial 
•explanation of the j)atho logical condition underlying them wae 
eugg-ested by the condition of the blood; I was very fortunate 
in having the help of an old Guy's man. Dr. C. Price Jonesy 
who had a wide experience of blood examination, and he in- 
vestigated a large number of my j)atients. He found that those 
who suffered from dyspnoea at night nearly ah^-ays had a raised 
haemoglobin percentage with a corresponding increase in the 
red cell count, the haemoglobin sometimes being over 120 per 
cent. Patients who simply suffered from effort s^-ndrome and 
whose sleep was undisturbed, on the other hand, had a normal 



The Late Si/inptunis of Gas Poisoning. 223 

blood count. The discoveiT of this poheythfemia invited a 
comparison between " gassed " patients and dwellers at high 
altitudes; in both we find the following features, dj^spnoea and 
tachj'cardia on exertion, disturbed sleep, ijohcvthsemia and 
some alteration in the mental condition; the last is well known 
among the dwellers at high altitudes, and a striking feature in 
many " gassed V men Avas mental depression; acidosis, too, 
is found in both. The s^-mptoms of mountain sickness hava 
l>een definitely shown to be due to an insufficient suppty of 
oxygen to the tissues, and disappear completely on a I'eturn 
to the sea-level, Avhei-e the oxygen tension in the alveolar adr 
is greater. Mr. J. Bai'croft accordingly sugested that the 

■ gassed " ])atients were suffering from anoxaemia, and that they 
might be benefitted by continuous inhalation of an atmosphei-e 
licli in oxygen. AVe investigated this later on at Cambridge, 
but before describing the results a rather moi^ detailed de- 
scription must be given of some of the commoner features of 
chronic gas-poisoning. 

By chronic gas poisoning is meant these late effects of gas 
poisoning which are present after the acute symptoms of lung 
irritation are over. Two classes of gas were used b}' the enemy, 
the suffocative gasses, of wliich chlorine, chloropicrin and phos- 
gene weix) the most frequent, and the vesicant gas, dichlorethyl- 
sulphide or ' mustard gas." Both grouj^s act on the lungs, but 
the former acts primarih' on the alveoli producing oedema of 
the lungs and capillary thrombosis Avith but little bronchitis, 
whereas the latter primarily attacks the bronchi, causing bron- 
chitis and in sei^ere eases bronchopneumonia. In both cases 
the patient passes through a j^eriod during which he isuffeiis fi*om 
deficient aeration of his blood with consequent anoxtemia, and 
it is believed by some physicians that the late effects of gas 
poisoning are due to the changes in the tis^^ues that this anox- 
comia produces. Although the pathological process in the two 
groups is somewhat different, the late effects, from the clinical 

ispect, are very similar. The chief symptoms complained of are 
as follows : — • 



224 The Late Symptoms of Gas Poisoning. 

1. Dyspticea. — In severe cases this may be obvioiLs, even when 
the patient is at rest, but, as a rule, patients only complain of 
it on exertion, and then it varies very much in degree; some 
patients are short of breath when walking quite slowly along 
the level ; others can walk slowly on the level, but become 
short of breath when they quicken their pace or walk uphill. 
Associated with this dyopno3a there is tachycardia, and the 
effect of exercise on the pulse rate is so important in esti- 
mating the severity of the case, that it requires a detailed de- 
scription. If a healthy, well-trained man takes exercise, hm 
pulse rate rises, and when he stops the pulse I'eturns after an 
interval tcj the pre-exercise rate. After a walk of a mile iii 
15 minutes, for example, a healthy man's pulse returns to its. 
original rate within a minute after the walk is over. In the case 
of the " gassed " man the pulse remains quickened for a longer 
period after the walk, and may take two, three or several 
minutes to return to its original rate. In general it may be 
said that the longer this period and the gi-eater the dyspnoea 
produced by the walk, the g-reater the patient's disabilit^v. 
Having in this way some standard of the patient's incapacity, 
the physician is in a position to estimate the effect of his treat- 
ment; if he gives the patient the same exercise as a test before 
and after treatment, and finds that after treatment the exercises 
causes less dyspnoea and the pulse returns to its original rat© 
more quickly, he has evidence that the patient has improved- 
The dyspnoea at night has already been described. 

2. P€iin. — Patients frequently complain of pain in tlie chest; 
sometimes it is situated behind the sternum and on both sides 
of it, and is aggravated by coughing or taking a deep breatli;' 
in other cases it is pi-ecordial, and is brought on by exercise;: 
it is occasionally so intense that it simulatas angina pectoris. 

3. Cough. — This may be due to chix)nic bronchitis, a condi- 
tion more often the result of poisoning by mustard gas than 
by gasses of the suffocative class. Some patients get a varying 
amount of haemoptysis, and in such cases the diagnosis is often 



The Late Symptoms of Gas Poisoning. 225 

a matter of difficulty; the blood may come from ulcers of the 
bronchi, such as are occasionally cauised by mustard gas poison- 
ing; on the other hand, it is quite certain that gas poisoning 
may light up a quiescent patch of tubercle. In some patients, 
however, there is no evidence of bronchitis; in these cases the 
cough is of a dry ringing charaoter, and is due to irritability, 
of the upper air passages. 

4. JSWvom Symptoms. — Many " gassed " patients are neurotic, 
and this is shown in various ways. Some patients are mentally 
depressed, and have a fixed idea that they are never going to 
recover completely ; this idea of permanent incapacity often 
makes tlie treatment of such patients very difficult. Headache 
and dizziness are very common symptoms, and in many cases 
it is impossible to find any organic cause. Photophobia is 
always present with the conjunctivitis of the acute stage, and 
may persist long after all inflammation has ceased. Functional 
aphonia may follow the laryngitis caused by mustard gas. 
Vomiting very often starts soon after the patient is " gassed," 
and may continue for months without there being any evidenoe 
of alteration in the gastric secretion or motility; after being 
absent for some time vomiting may recur as the I'esult of some 
mental shock. 

So much, then, for the symptoms. The pathology of the 
condition is very obscure. Attention has already been called 
to the presence of polycythsemia. Barcroft and others have 
shown that this is sometimes associated with acidosis, but we 
are still in the dark as to the morbid anatomy underlying both 
conditions. In some cases chronic bronchitis is the outstanding 
clinical feature, and here the pathology is similar to that of 
chronic bronchitis from other causes. The number of autopsies 
on patients dying- more than two months after gas poisoning 
is insufficient for any general conclusion to be drawn, but in 
some cases fibrosis of tlie lung and emphysema has been found. 
Radiographers have described appearances diuring life sug- 
gestive of fibrosis of the lung, but here again the evidence 

PART III. P 



226 7//r Ijtir Sf/iH/)f(j///s of Gas /'(/isointifj. 

is not very conclusive. Tlie majority of patients liave no 
physical signs of disease, but closely resemble men suffering 
from "effort syndrome." Unfortimately the resemblance does 
not solve our problem, since we know nothing of the essential 
pathology of "effort sj-ndrome." 

Treatment. — The symptoms calling for treatment can be 
divided into three groups : (1) Inability to stand exertion, or 
symptoms of "effort syndrome" ; (2) Chronic bronchitis; and 
(3) Functional disturbances. 

(1) InabiKty to stand exertion. — There are onl}- two metJiods 
of treating this: (a) graduated exercises, and (b) continuous 
inhalation of oxygen. The best results are obtained by a com- 
bination of the two methods. 

(a) Graduated exercises on the lines practised at the militafyj 
heart hospitals have been extensively used, and at first tJiis 
was the only method of treatment available ; many patients, 
however, recover completely Avith tliis treatment alone. It 
consists of "training" patients by gradually increasing the 
amount of exercise they take, and this may be done by making 
them march for increasing distances, by giving them a gradu- 
ated system of physical drill, or by making them play games, 
at first games which involve little muscular exertion, and later 
ooaore vigorous games. It is important that all patients so 
treated should be kept under strict medical supervision, other- 
wise harm may be done by increasing the amount of exercise 
too rapidly. 

(b) Continuous inhalation of oxyg^en. 

The i^asons suggesting* that benefit might be derived from 
treatment wdth oxygen have already been given. It was first 
carried out in the physiological laboratory at Cambridge, and 
an account of tlie first patient ti'eated illustrates very well the 
results obtained. He was a man aged 47 who was " gassed "" 
in a munition factory about a year before he came to Cam- 
bridge. He recovered from his acute symptoms after a few 



The Late Symptoms of Gas Poisoning. 



'I'll 



days, but since that time had suffei-ed from shortness of bi-eathi 
on exertion and attacks of djspnoea at night; these ocom-redi 
every night, and .sometimes lasted thi-ee houi-s, with the result 
that he had not had an undisturbed night's sleep for twelve 
months. iN'otbing- abnormal was found on ordinary clinieaJ! 
examination, but his i^d cell count was 6-1 millions; after doing 
a test exercise up and down stairs he became very short of 
breath, and his pulse did not return to its original rate for 
52 minutes. He was kept in an air-tight chamber made of 
glass and iron of about 800 cubic feet capacit}^ for the greater 
part of four days and nights. The chamber contained an at- 
mosphei^e of about 45 per cent, oxygen, and the carbon dioxide 
and water vapour were removed by passing the air over soda- 
lime and calciimi chloride. The effect of treatment was excellent. 
He slept on an avemge eight hours every nig-ht, and did not 
have a single attack of dyspnoea. His response to exercise im- 
proved considerably; he was given the same test exercise after 
treatment, and said he found it much less exhausting. His 
statement was born out by objective signs, for his dyspnoea 
was obviously much less, and his pulse i-etui'ned to its original 
rate six minutes after the exercise, whereas before treatment 
it did not return for 32 minutes. His red cell count fell to 
0-2 millions. 

About thirty patients were treated in ilus way, and 90 per 
cent, showed improvement; in most of the patients Avho were 
traced this improvement persisted, but in some there was a 
disappointing relapse. 

(2) Chronic Bronchitis. — The treatment of this condition does 
not differ from that of chronic brenchitis due to otiier causes. 

(3) Fimctional disturbances. — It is most important to convince 
the patient that he is going to be completely cured, for the 
chronic depression from which many of them suffer is a serious 
obstacle to their recovery. Patients with functional photophobia 
should be discom-aged from using darkened glasses. Functional 
aphonia mu>st be treated by persuasion and breatliing exercises. 



228 The Late Symptoms of Gas Poisoning. 

or by the applioation of a strong faradic current to the larynx. 
Functional vomiting is very difficult to treat; suggestion and 
washing out the stomach will sometimes effect a cure. 

It has only been possible in this short sketch to outline 
briefly the main features of the late effects of gas poisoning. 
It must be admitted that the true pathology of the condition 
is but little understood. Some progress, however, has been 
made in estimating the degree of disability from which these 
patients suffer, a very important matter when the question of 
a pension is under review. The results of treatment, too, are 
on the whole very satisfactory, for by sidtable measures relief 
can be given in every case, and in many a complete cure effected. 



EXPERIENCES OF A CIVILIAN AMONG 
THE NAVAL MEDICAL SERVICE IN WAR. 



By 
Sir ALFRED D. FRIPP, K.C.V.O., C.B., M.S., F.R.C.S. 



Jack Tar's bed continues to be referred to as a "cot" and 
his Medical Board as a "survey," but there is little difference 
between the method of handling the naval and military casualty 
from the moment he arrives at the hospital train or the base. 
Before that haven is reached a variety of considerations special 
to the demands of a sea service have influenced those responsible 
for his welfare. The object of this article is to record the im- 
pressions upon a civilian working during war with the Naval 
Medical Service afloat. 

Before the war broke out, the Medical Director General had 
been given leave by the Board of Admiralty to engage the ser- 
vices of seven Consultants. Sir Humphry Rolleston was the 
only physician among- them, and he was kept very busy 
travelling, here there and everywhere, to the various ba^es 
used by the Fleet, as well as to the large naval hospitals.- 
Sir Watson Cheyne, Sir William McEwen, Sir George Turner, 
Sir Lenthal Cheatle, Mr. G. Edmunds and I were the six 
Consulting Surgeons. To each of these five colleagues waa 
allotted either a large naval hospital or an ai'ea on the coast;, 
while I was appointed to the Hospital Ships serving die 
Grand Fleet and given for my headquarters tlie Hospital 
Yacht Sheelah, stationed just above the Forth Bridge. The 
yacht was fitted up for ten officer casualties, Avith an excellent 
opei-atLng theatre and X-ray apparatus, and a staff consisting of 
a House Surgeon (a post held successively by three Guy's men 
— Mr. A. J. McNair, Mr. L. B. Stringer, and Mr. G. L. 



jj;jO /'^.r p<'ri<'//f rs oj <i C/rl/itnf ntnnntj the 

Preston), two civilian nurses and an X-ray operator. Lyin^ 
close by in the harbour there ^\a's always at least one Hospital 
Ship. There was also tlie Naval Hospital at South Queenft- 
ferry (early enlarged to upwards of 200 cots), and the railway 
sidingy for accommodating- the Xaval Ambulance Trains. 

The Medical Director General at the outbi'eak of war was 
Sir Arthur May, and he quickly brought his fleet of hospital 
ships up to 12. Half of these were not so fully equipped and 
staffed, and were given the less dignified title of Hospital 
Carriers, and disappeared one by one as more perfectly equipped' 
vessels became available. Each Hospital Ship had two or three 
hundred cots, and a little later extra equipment was added, so 
that upon emergency double that number could be acicommodated 
and some smaller vessels were added, and were reserved for 
isolation cases. 

It is easy for a Hospital Ship to carry emergency equipment 
for emergency oases, but not so easy to arrange for the adequate 
service of a surplus of casualties. The staff is limited and 
cannot be suddenly augmented. (Similarly upoji a fighting &hip 
it is not possible to make good any dej)letion of tlie medical 
staff which may occur during action. At Jutland, for example, 
44 per oent. of the medical staff of the Lion were hoi-s de 
combat.) This fleet of Hospital Ships were distributed by the 
Medical Director General among the seveml sea forces, and 
the Commajider-in-Chief of each force (the Grand Fleet was, 
of course, many times largier than any other) disposed through 
his Principal Medical Oflicer of the Hospital Ships allotted to 
him. Sir Robert Hill, the present Medical Director General, 
^as Principal Medical OflScer to the Commander-in-Chief of 
the Grand Fleet tliroughout the war, and therefore ordered the 
going and coming of those Hospital Ships with which I was 
conoerned. The general idea was always to have available for 
the use of each section of the fleet at least one Hospital Ship 
in each harbour, ready and capable of taking a considerable 
number of casualties on the retm-n of the fleet after its long 
or short absence in the North Sea. By tlie time one Hospital 



Kaval Medical Service in War. 231 

Ship was full, another, empty, would go into the harbour, and 
the full one would carry its load to one of the large naval 
base hospitals, Chatham, Haslar, or Plymoutli, or to one of the 
smaller ones, e.g., South Queensferry or Invergordon, or Deal 
or Queen Mary's at Southend (for tlie inception, organisation' 
and staffing of which men and women trained at Guy's were 
so largely responsible), or to a dock, where a naval ambulance 
train wa;s in waiting to receive the sick and woimded, and to 
complete their journey by land. The Hospital Ship thus evacu- 
ated was immediately refitted and cleaned during its return 
journey, and was thus ready for anotlier relay of casualties. 
Any inteDtion thei-e may originally lliave been to ship the 
wounded or sick direct to the base was abandoned, however, 
as soon as mines and submarines became a menace. 

Every service vessel, from the smallest motor launch with 
its two or three hands to the biggest battle cruiser with its 
possible thirteen hundred liands — besides the hundreds, nay 
thousands, of auxiliary craft engaged in this war upon supply, 
munitioning, and other services of tlie fighting ships — was liable, 
of course, to medical as well as surgical casualties, and had 
to be covered by the Medical Service of the Navy. 

Now any and every ship belongs to one or other of the basea 
to aaid from which it is constantly working, and the fii-st duty 
of the responsible medical officer upon its return to harbom- is 
to evacuate any sick men, either to a Hospital Ship or to one 
of the numerous smaller naval hospitals distributed around the 
coast. 

Anybody who wishes to know the details of the fitting up, 
administration and activities (governed by tlie International 
Red Cross Convention) of the Hospital Ships cannot do better 
than consult the excellent little book which was written by; 
Surgeon Captain Edward Sutton after he had been in command 
of the Drina and the Flassy during three and a quai-ter yearn 
of war. Tliis book is entitled ** The Fitting Out and Adminis- 
tration of a Naval Hospital Ship," and is published by Messrs. 
Simpkin, Marshall, 1918. 



232 Experiences of a Civilian among the 

Having Bignalled her requirements in advance, the two things 
a -warship does before anything- else on return to harbour are 
to re-fuel, and to evacuate the sick and wounded, so as to 
be fit for action again at once. As a matter of fact, it was 
no uncommon thing after each of the three big battles for 
the Hospital Drifter and the collier to be alongside the return- 
ing warship before she had completed her mooring, and the 
Medical Officer was on de<^k with the talty of his oases, and they 
were all conveyed on to the Hospital Ship and snugly housed in 
a wonderfully short space of time. 

Each cot case, secured in a " carrying-cot," is hoisted into 
the hold of a Drifter, a small, open, barge-like vessel, w^hich, 
when full, proceeds from the side of the warship to that of 
the Hospital Ship, and then each carrying-cot is hoisted up, 
swung on board, and lowered through wide hatchways, often 
fitted with lifts, to the wards on the different decks. This 
transference of the wounded is carried out with the exemplary 
gentleness and despatch which we all associate with the handy- 
man at his best. 

But after a modern battle the wounded who survive to reach 
the harbour are stirprisingly few; even such an action as 
Jutland, in which 6,014 perished outright (5,550 of them 
drowned), only provided 674 wounded, and many of them, of 
course, quite slight cases. 

Casualties. 

Sir Eobert Hill, in his address at the inaugural meeting of 
the new War Section of the Royal Society of Medicine in 
November, 1919, gave an interesting retrospect of naval medical 
conditions, and he authoritatively presented for the first time 
the oaBualties at the Battle of Jutland. He said: 

"During the period 1795 — 1849 the Medical Service of ihe 
Royal Navy does not appear to have been a popular one, and 
difficulty must have been experienced in obtaining an adequate 
number of medical men, except for the ships cruising in home 
waters. In the days of the old sea battles the Medical Service 



Naval Medical Service in War. 233 

laboured under manifold disadvantages as compared witli the 
profession on shore, for sick berth attendants do not appear 
to have been employed until 35 years after Trafalgar, separate 
messes for the sick on board seagoing ships did not come inta 
existence until 1804, and probably "vvere not universal untdi 
after Trafalgar, the sick being messed in their sleeping-places 
before then, and the earliest mention of first-aid instruction 
was in 1855. 

It is remarkable how few have made any record of the pre- 
parations for reception and treatment of the wounded at sea. 
The duties of the surgeon, during and after an action, must 
have been very arduous. He had to imdertake all operative 
work on board his ship, and would consider himself fortunate 
if an early opportunity presented of sending his patients on 
shore for further treatment. 

Ix THE '"Lion." 

MacLean and Stephens, Medical Officers in ihQ Lion at Jut- 
land, -svrite: — 'Nearly all tJie casualties occurred within the 
first half -hour. A few cases found their way to the foremost 
station, but the great majority remained on tlie mess deck. 
During the first lull, the medical officers emerged from their 
stations to make a tour of inspection. The scenes that 
greeted us beggar description. Most of the woimded had 
already been dressed temporarily. Tourniquets had been ap- 
plied in one or two instances, but we were able to remove 
these later. Haemorrhage, on the whole, wajs less than we 
anticipated. . . . The battle was thrice renewed during tiie 
evening, but in the lulls all the wounded were carried to tiae 
mess deck. ... At 7.30 a.m. on June let we were informed 
that it would be safe to bring the wounded up fromi below. 
The Vice-Admiral's and Captain's cabins were cleaned, dried 
and thoroughly ventilated. The Captain's bath-room was rigged 
as an operating theatre and by 8.45 we began. . . In all 
51 cases were dealt with, and a general anaesthetic, chloro- 
form and ether in equal parts, was administered to 28. . . . 



234 



Experiences of a Civilian amonfj the 



Only urgent operations were attempted. Oui' work wa*!i severely 
Iiandioapped by having- 44 per cent, of casualties among" the 
medical officers and sick bei'th staff.' The Lion had 95 killed 
and 31 wounded, representing- 11-87 per cent, of complement. 

Tables of the casualties at the Battles of Camperdown, the 
Kile, and Trafalg^ar are of intei^est when compared with a 
table showing the casualties at the Battle of Jutland : — 

Battle of Camperdown. 











Total 


Ships. 


Comple- 
ments. 


Killed. 


Wounded. 


casualties 
per cent, 
of comple- 










ment. 


Russel 


584 





7 


1-19 


Director 


485 





7 


1-44 


Montagu 


584 


3 


5 


1-36. 


Veteran 


485 


4 


21 


515 


Monarch 


593 


36 


100 


22-93 


Powerful 


584 


10 


78 


15-06 


Monmouth 


485 


5 


22 


5-56 


Triumph 


634 


29 


55 


13-24 


Venerable 


587 


15 


62 


13-11 


Ardent 


485 


41 


107 


30-51 


Bedford ; 


584 


30 


41 


12-15 


Lancaster 


485 


3 


18 


4-32 


Boldgueux 


485 


25 


78 


21-23 


I3is 


338 


2 


21 


6-80 


Totals 





203 


622 






Total force at Camperdown, 8,221. 
Total casualties per cent, of force, 10-03. 



Battle of the Nile. 



Goliath 




584 


21 


41 


10-61 


Zollous 




584 


1 


7 


1-36 


Orion 




584 


13 


29 


7-19 


Audacious 




584 


1 


35 


6-16 


Theseus 




584 


5 


30 


5-99 


Vanguard 




589 


30 


76 


17-99 


Minotaur 




634 


23 


64 


13-72 


Defence 




584 


4 


11 


2-56 


Bellerophon 




584 


49 


148 


33-73 


Majestic 




584 


50 


143 


33-04 


Swiftsure 




584 


7 


22 


4-96 


Alexander 




584 


14 


58 


12-22 


Leander 


. 


338 





14 


4-14 


Totals 


■• 


— 


218 


678 


— 



Total force at the Nile, 7,985. 

Total casualties per cent, of force, 11-22. 



Naval Medical Service in War. 



23S 



Battle of Tiiafalgar. 



Ships. 


Comple- 
ments on 
October 21, 

1805 


Killed. 


Wounded. 


Total 
casualties 
per cent, 
of comple- 
ment. 


Victory 


815 


57 


102 


19-50 


Royal Sovereign 


811 


47 


94 


17-38 


Britannia 


786 


10 


42 


6-61 


T^meraire 


711 


47 


76 


17-29 


Prince 


679 


— 


— 


— 


Neptune 


595 


10 


34 


7-39 


Dreadnought 


703 


7 


26 


4-69 


Tonnant ... ' 


664 


26 


50 


11-44 


Belleisle ... 


556 


33 


93 


22-66 


Revenge 


610 


28 


51 


12-95 


Mars 


621 


29 


69 


15-78 


Spartiate ... 


599 


3 


20 


3-83 


Defiance 


582 


17 


53 


12-02 


Conqueror 


622 


3 


9 


1-92 


Defence 


568 


7 


29 


6-33 


Colossus • 


617 


40 


160 


32-41 


Leviathan 


592 


4 


22 


4-39 


Achille 


605 


13 


59 


11-90 


Bellerophon 


569 


27 


123 


2G-36 


Minotaur 


586 


3 


22 


4-26 


Orion 


543 


1 


23 


4-41 


Swiftsure 


557 


9 


8 


3-05 


Ajax 


668 


2 


9 


164 


Thunderer 


556 


4 


12 


2-87 


Polyphemus 


461 


2 


4 


1-30 


Africa 


475 


18 


44 


1305 


Agamemnon 


475 


2 


8 


2-10 


Euryalus 


273 


— 


— 


— 


Naiad 


•275 


— 


— 


— 


Phoebe 


294 


— 


— 


— 


Sirius 


258 


— 


— 


— 


Pickle 


31 


— 


— 


— 


Entreprenante 


35 


— 


— 


"" 


Totals 


— 


449 


1,242 


— 



Total force at Trafalgar, 17,772. 

Total casualties per cent, of force, 9'51 



236 



Experiences of a Civilian among the 
Battle of Jutland. 





Killed 




Total 
casual- 


Complements 


Total 


Names and Class 


outright 


Total 


on 


casualties 


of Ships. 


or 


wounded 


May 31, 


per cent, of 




drowned 




ties 


1916 


complement 


Battleships : 












Barham 


22 


46 


68 


1,124 


6-04 


Colossus 





9 


9 


884 


1-01 


Marlborough 


2 


2 


4 


1,119 


0-35 


Malaya 


33 


68 


101 


1,032 


9-78 


Valiant 


— 


1 


1 


1.063 


0-09 


War spite 


9 


32 


41 


1,048 


3-91 


Battle Cruisers ; 












Lion 


95 


51 


146 


1,229 


11-87 


Princess Royal 


19 


81 


100 


1.202 


8-31 


Tiger 


20 


46 


66 


1,281 


515 


Queen Mary ... 


1,258 


6 


1,264 


Ship sunk 


— 


Invincible 


1,026 


1 


1,027 


> • > » 


— 


Indefatigable 


1,017 





1,017 


)> t > 


— 


Cruisers : 












Defence 


902 





902 


> 1 ! ) 





Warrior 


65 


36 


101 


832 


1213 


Black Prince 


856 




856 


Ship sunk 


— 


Light Cruisers ; 












Calliope 


7 


29 


36 


363 


9-91 


Caroline 


2 





2 


338 


0-59 


Castor 


12 


26 


38 


356 


10-67 


Chester 


29 


49 


78 


424 


18-39 


Dublin 


3 


27 


30 


460 


652 


Southampton... 


29 


60 


89 


498 


17-87 


Flotilla Leaders : 












Broke 


47 


36 


83 


200 


41-50 


Tipperary 


184 


4 


188 


Ship sunk 


— 


Destroyers : 












Acasta 


6 


1 


7 








Ardent 


78 


1 


79 


Ship sunk 


— 


Defender 


1 


2 


3 


— 


— 


Fortune 


67 


2 


69 


Ship sunk 





Moorsom 


— 


1 


1 


— 


— 


Nessus 


7 


7 


14 








Nestor 


6 


8 


14 








Nomad 


8 


4 


12 


— 


— 


Obdurate 


1 


1 


2 








Onslaught 


5 


3 


8 


— 


— 


Onslow 


2 


3 


5 


. — 


— 


Petard 


9 


6 


15 








Sparrowhawk 


6 


— 


6 


— • 


— 


Spitfire 


5 


20 


25 


— 


— 


Shark 


85 


3 


88 


Ship sunk 


— 


Porpoise 


2 


2 


4 








Turbulent 


89 


— 


89 


Ship sunk 


— 



Totals ... 6,014 | 674 | 6,688 | - 

Total force, Grand Fleet, about 60,000. 
Total casualties per cent, of force, 11*14." 



Naval Medical Service in War. 237 

Sir Robert's fignres stow that the easiialties in the British. 
Fleet at Jutland were 11-14 per cent, in a total force of 60,000, 
and that this percentagie is almost identical with the casualties 
in three other great naval battles: — 

Trafalgar, 9-51 per cent, out of 17,500 personnel (about). 

Nile, 11-22 per oent. out of 8,000 personnel (about). 

Camperdown, 10 per oent. out of 8,000 personnel (about). 
But though the big naval actions with which the publio be- 
came familiar in the Great War T\^re few and far between, 
and the wounded survivors fewer than had been anticipated, 
there was a constant and large volume of other work for the 
hospital ships to do. Day by day every squadron provided 
accidents, bums, crushes, and fractures, as well as medical 
cases; and no casualty must be kept upon a fighting ship 
longer than is absolutely essential for his welfare; he is a 
nuisance and a handicap, and must be got rid of. Epidemics 
also at times throw stress upon ih^ Hospital Ships, cropping 
up especially on those ships which are fresh from dockyard 
hands, and spreading like wildfire omng to the close quarters 
of the mess deck and the impossibility of effective isolation. 
Acute abdomens, too, were sometimes so numerous as to make 
one wonder whether there must not be some relation between 
the nerve strain of modern naval warfare and the incidence of 
such affections ais perforating gastric and duodenal ulcers. 

I have some memoranda written just after the three iNorth Sea 
battles which convey a good impi-ession of the nature of the 
surgical work entailed by a naval action, of the difficulties 
under wliich it is done, and of the considerations which are 
prominent in the minds of the medical staff. These considera- 
tions vary considerably from tliose which dictate the organisa- 
tion for surgery during and after a land battle. 

Memo A. 

"1. The Drifters for conveyance of tlie wounded were along- 
side as soon as the returning sliips had moored; in fact, they^ 



238 Experiences of a Civilian among the 

like the colliers, were lying in -wait close to the berth each ship 
was to take up. 

2. The (actual transference of the wounded from the war- 
ships to the Drifters was accomplished w-ith great speed and 
little or no inconvenience, the cots being most considerately 
and adroitly handled. On arrival alongside the Hospital Ship 
Plussy the cots were swung in smoothly, and, as all io\vc 
hoists Avei'e working simultaneously, this part of the work and 
lowering them through the hatches to the various Ward Decks 
was accomplished rapidly. 

3. 192 serious cases were thus handled without any detri- 
ment, and without any undue stress upon the staff, but their 
efficient tending entailed very hard work for tlie next few 
days." 

When in harbour every warship is at a definite " time- 
notice " — " half -hour notice " in times of liveliness — which 
means, of course, that full pressure in the boilers must be 
available within that time, and all landing parties must 
be within easy recall by signal. 

It had been hoped before the war that Hospital Shii3s 
would be able to attend the fleet in action, but experience soon 
showed that this w^s impracticable. We had to wait what 
seemed an interminable time for tJie first action in the Bight 
-of Heligoland. At last it came, on the 28th August, 1914; 
but 400 miles from the base, and it was foug-ht at such a high 
speed that nothing in the nature of a Hospital Ship, even 
had one happened to be about, could hope to keep in touch 
with the fighting line, nor could it, even hovering- miles away, 
be anything but an anxiety to the Commander-in-Chief. Each 
sliip had, on this occasion, to carry its own ^-ounded back io 
port, and it was obvious that this would be the rule in future 
actions, and that Hospital Ships would really function as '' Base 
Hospital Ships." If occasionallj- it proved possible to dispatch 
the casualties in one of the lighter and faster of the fighting 
ci-aft (i.e., a light cruiser or destroyer), the transhipment of 



Saral Medical Sercice hi War. 239 

t]ie casualties in the open sea is, under the best possible con- 
ditions tedious, and dangerous from the risk of enemy attack 
by submarine, and in a heavj- sea it is impossible. Fui'ther, 
the decks of the small and swift ships are cramped and cum- 
bered, and it is ver}- difficult to get wounded to or from the 
cabins, there being no large companions. It therefore came 
about that such transliipment was hardty ever undertaken unless 
a ship was sinking, and that Hospital Ships alwa}^ received 
the wounded in the calm waters of the harbours, and iherefoi*e 
for them it was not necessary to maintain "Short notice" after 
the early days; "Six hours' notice" was substituted. The 
^ledical Department owed it to the fine work of the Naval 
Intelligence Department, under Admiral Sir Reginald Hall, that 
there was always ample warning of any probable action, and 
extra beds were arranged in case of overfloAv — e.g., in Edin- 
burgh Infirmary and many other large civilian hospitals. 

With regard to first-aid upon the hundreds of destroyers it 
early became apparent that some steps must be devised to 
supply each with more skilled attention than is represented by 
a seaman or two with a smattering* of experience of the sick- 
bay. Until after the " Battle of the Bight " such a first-aider 
was the only individual on board these craft (which carry about 
i hundred men, and are in the thick of every fight) who had had 
any experience whatever of tending a casualty, so that the 
wounded, however serious, got, in that battle, no trained atten- 
tion for upwards of 24 hours. It is imjiossible for either of 
the two Medical Officers carried by the two flotilla " Leaders '* 
to leave his ship for casualties occurring u,pon one of the 14 
to 16 destroyers which make up tlie flotilla. The shortage of 
qualified men was so great that one could not be spared' for 
each destroyer, so the Medical Dej^artment acted upon what 
proved to be a very happy thought, and appointed sufficient senior 
but unqualified students as siu-geon-pi-obationers. Great credit 
should be given to the M.D.G. for having* recognised so early, 
that theie was scope for such officei-s, and incidentally to the 
authorities at Guy's for having taken a leading part in supply- 



240 Experiences of a Civilian among the 

ing them. The plan was a gi-eat success; these surgeon- 
probationers proved efficient and i^sourceful, and well earned 
the praise which has been forthcoming from their seniors. 
In the later stages of ih^ war the class of " almost-qualified " 
men was exhausted, and reliance had to be placed rather 
prematurely upon the " just-entered-the-wards " class, hastily 
put through an intensive course of training at a Naval Base 
Hospital. 

The desirability of vocational selection in order to minimise 
misfits in industry is coming to the fore nowadays as one of 
the methods of increasing the efficiency of the population, and 
along this line of thought it is a matter for serious considera- 
tion, in arriving at plans for the mobilisation of our profession 
in any future emergencies, whether greater use should not be 
made both of the unqualified medical and dental student and 
also of the large class of civilians who in peace time are trained 
and experienced in hospital management. 

That there was no bar to the commissioning of unqualified 
men in the R.A.M.C. is proved by the fact that two at least 
who* had never had any connection whatever with tlie medical 
profession were given commissions on the recommendation of 
the D.G. in the persons of Major Brand, who presided for 
years over the allocation of wounded officers arriving in London 
to the various hospitals, and Captain Jeff Cohn, who served 
on the Staff of the D.G. in France. 

Such measures would go far to conserve medical man-power 
and to prevent that shortage of doctors of which we heard 
so much during the war. 

And now that the smoke has cleared away and the visibility 
is returning to normal, we shall probably realise that it will 
be more economical if the transport of sick and wounded is 
committed in the future to the care of that Service which has 
to do with ships, viz., to the Navy rather than to the Army 
{vide Second Report of Dardanelles Commission). 

Then, as regards the Medical Staff apportioned to the fight-^ 
ing units, each battleship, or battle -cruiser, carried three qiiali- 



Naval Medical Service in War. 241 

fied medical offioers, eacli cruiser two or one according to com- 
plement, each destroyer " leader " one. It was suggested during 
the acute shortage of doctors that no ship should have so many 
as three, it being urgied that for ten to thirteen hundred men 
in the prime of life and liealth one doctor is suflficient, especially 
as he has the opportunity almost daily of evacuating on to a 
hospital ship any of his ships company who chance to go sick. 
Undoubtedly there was great difficultv' in " putting in your 
time," and medical officers on tlie fighting ships got " fed up " 
with " doing nothing " month after month, and wei-e glad of any 
job — even that of censoring the correspondence of the met3s 
deck. But the Medical Department, with Sir William Norman 
now at its head, rightly continued to provide personnel upon 
the assumption that these great engines of war had to be 
kept constantly ready for instant action, also that the doiotor 
may himself go sick, and that it may be manj* houns befoi'e 
his substitute can arrive on board. One has only to refer again 
to the memoranda to realise that the M.D.G. was entireJy 
justified in refusing to countenance any diminution in the 
medical staff carried by the fighting imits of tlie Fleet. 

Memo. B. 

" The j)atients received by the Plassy after Jutland came 
chiefly from four ships: the Lion, the Princess Royal, tJie 
Tiger, and the Southampton, each of which had borne a 
prominent jrnrt in the cngag^ement, and had suffered sevei-e 
iisualties. They provided, therefore, a good test of what it 
IS possible for surgery to achieve under c-onditions of extreme 
difficulty. 

The first really instTUctive action at sea was tlic Dogger 
Bank fight of January, 191u, when British and German "alU 
big-gun" ships came into contact for the fii"st tiii^e. Fire wa.s 
opened at more than 20,000 yards (about llj miles), and the 
BlUcher had her engines disabled by British shells fired at 
18,0U0 yards. This result was an eye-opener to all concerned. 
It meant that tlic "decisive rangxj " — at which a capital ship 

PART III. Q 



242 Experiences of a Civilian among the 

could use lier guns with deadly effect — was nearly twice as 
great as the pre-war estimate, and, consequently, that prevail- 
ing tactical ideas bajsed on the 10,000 yaixi limit had to he 
i-ead justed. Another i-evelation of this encounter was that 
two or three hits by high -explosive shell might prove fatal 
to the largest and strongest man-of-war. The Blilcher was 
put out of action by two projectiles plunging almost vertically 
through the deck and exploding among the boilers. On the 
British side, H.M.S. Lion w^as forced to leave the line after 
receiving one hit below the armour belt. 

In the interval between tlie Dogger Bank fight and the Battle 
of Jutland each navy paid marked attention to the development 
of long-range gunnery, with the i-esult that a great improve- 
ment w^as notic-eable in the firing on both sides when the fleets 
met for the last time on May 31st, 1916. The battle -cruiser* 
part of this action was fought at ranges varying from 17,000 
to 24,000 yards (13f miles), and, in spite of the great distance, 
a large percentage of the shells reached their mark. Paradoxical 
as it may seem, a naval cannonade at long range is liable to be 
far more dangerous than one at medium range, assiuming 
accurate aim in both cases. For whereas at medium range 
the trajectory of ih& projectile is almost horizontal, and a 
liit, if one is registered, will be against the side of the ship, 
where the armour is thickest, at very long* range the projectilei 
descends at a steep angle, and is therefore liable to strike the 
deck, where armour is thin, and penetrate to the vitals of the^ 
ship, exploding in the machinery or the magazines. Although 
the precise circumstances wdll never be knoA^-n, it is generally 
agreed that the three battle -cruisers, Quezon Mury, IndefaUguble, 
and Invincible, were destroyed in each oaise by shells striking 
the thinly -armoured roof of a barbette, bursting inside, and 
sending a stream of fire into tlie magazines below. The German 
ships were beitter armoured than ours, and had so many water- 
tight compartments as to be practically unsinkable; but thisi 
immunity was purchased by a sacrifice of speed and: gun- 
power. It is now know^n that the German battle -cruisers re- 



yaval Medical Service in ^^ar. 243 

eived more hits than tliej inflicted, and their thick armour 

ind minute sub-division, though it kept most of them afloa4i, 

iftoixled little protection to the crews. In the Luetzow, which 

ank during- the iiig-ht, thei-e were 620 casualties out of a total 

omplement of 980. The Seydlitz, which was battered out of 

recognition and had to be beached near Wilhelmshaven, had 

500 killed and wounded. Other German ships suffered almost 

as severely." 

A German officer rescued from the Litetzow, which was sunk, 
admitted after the armistice that the British shooting at Jut- 
land Avas magnificent. " The Luetzow;' he stated, " was hit 
twenty-eight times in one hour, all by shells of the larg'esi^ 
calibre. Our armour and multiple bulkheads kept us afloati 
till nightfall, but the havoc among the men was awful. Fires 
were blazing everywhere, and no sooner had we got the flames 
subdued in one place than afresh shell started them in anodier. 
When we were not actually hit, the salvos fell so close along- 
side that torrents of Avater descended on the ship, sometimes 
extingaiishing fires which we were unable to conquer by other 
means. At times every tiling reund about us was blotted out 
by columns of water and the smoke and flame of bursting shell. 
Other missiles roared overhead, and the air seemed to be full 
of flying splinters of steel. Though the sea was calm we were 
rolling heavily, which I atti'ibuted partly to the concussion of 
our own guns, but still more to the hits we were receiving. 
Once as we lurched over towards the enemy a whole bunch of 
pix)jectiles struck the deck, pas^sed tlirough it, and exploded 
down below. After this we had to steam with only one set 
of engines. None but those witli nerves of ii-on C€ui endm*a 
the ordeal of a modern sea-fight. It is too appalling' for 
Mords. ..." 

Nearly all the officers and men are behind armour, which 
means that they see nothing of the action, though they enduro 
an appalling din, and nearly all of them work by artificial 
light. 



244 K.I I'-i' " ( irU'iiiu iiition'J fill' 

After an actioTi thn sin'<>-ooiis ou \\[i\>\\i[).> liav<.' to work under 
great diffieiiltk's. Ir hoiim- <j(iilo iiijj)<AS.sibl8 to operate during 
action, tlie euc^^edino- lioiins are strenuous in the extreme. 
With very limited ajsisistanoe (no female numes, of ooui-se),, 
great deficiencT of such essentials as . light, hot water, and 
adequate space, oftein the sick bay or operating I'oom, or both, 
cleared out by a shell-burst, the Medical Staff has to impro- 
vise. The best plaoe one surgeon oovM find as a. substitute for 
his destroyed quarters w-as the stokers' bathroom! Another 
hjad the water so deep upon the floor that it was over his high 
boots! And another found that some of the row of "swunded 
had to be shifted because a list in the ship brought the -v^ater 
a foot deep where they were lying! Yet in spite of all this, 
and much more, excellent oonservative surgery was achieved,, 
and the greatest credit is due to the Naval Surgeons, not only 
for wliat they did, but also for the discretion they showed in 
not doing too much. 

Memo C. 

" The work of the Medical Staff on the Lion and Tiger was 
evidently extremely well done under cii-cumstanoes of extra- 
ordinary difficult^'. 

In both ships tliere was a failure of tlie electric light, and 
in one ship a failure of the water supply. Emergency lamps- 
and tins of water had been provided, vet the medical ofRcei's- 
A\ere reduced to the use of candles for some of tlie operations,, 
tlie emergency lamps having been requisitioned for the dark- 
ened j)assages, wliich, becoming obstructed by displaced metal 
of various sorts, provided very difficult ' going ' for the wounded 
and those who were acting as carriers. 

There were many cases of asphyxiation, but tliose that re- 
covered did so quickly. The burns, which for the most part 
were only extensive in the sense that each patient had multiple 
lesions {e.g., face and both \^^6 and both forearms;, seldom 
went deep. 



Savid Medical Serclce in War. 245 

(As a result of the experience of tlie burns received in the 
Jutland Battle there was a g-eneral issue of helmets, gauntlets 
And seaboots for protection in any future fi<^hting.) 

There were very few eases of hreniorrhage among the survivors, 
but enougli to demonstrate that operation for its arrest is almost 
impossible under the conditions which prevail during an action, 
iand that tourniquet must be relied upon until tlie severe jolt- 
ing of the ship from its own heav}' gnii>, and the impact of 
i;he enemy's shells had ceased. 

The Neil Robertson stretcher Mas found ver}- useful in the 
transport of woimded through hatches and narrow passages, 
along which the bearers had to grope throug-ih darkness, smoke 
and manifold obstructions. One of tlie Dressing Stations had 
the misfortune to become the popular urinal for the ship's 
company, when they found their usual latrine shut off by the 
'(^losing of a water-tight door. 

Experience jiroves that on a shij) of war the dead are liable 
to be brought to the Dressing Station tog^ether Avith the living 
casualties. This is probably due in part to the darkness and 
in part to the ignorance of the untrained bearers. It is some- 
what embarrassing to the Medical Staff. 

The hircliing of the ship was enoug-h to lead to tJie immereion 
■of one of the wounded after he hsui been dressed." 

The Hospital Ship is in for as bus}' a time as any CCS. for 
s. gieat many hours after an action, and as she only carriets 
four nursing sisters, and pmcticalty all cases, owing to the 
burns, are going to need frequent dressing, and many of them 
Hie very severely shocked, considerable cai'e has to be taken 
in the selection of the most urg-ent work. For instance, thougli 
the giving of aperients may rank as a minor matter, under 
Nuch circumstances it is quite easy to over- work your staff 
if two or thi-ee hundred (Xjt cases are given castor oil on the 
same evening after forty-eight hours or more of neglect during 
tlie homeward voyage of their' ships. 

The length of stay of each patient in the Hosj>ital Ship will 
vary according to the severity of his wound, anrl the orders re- 



b 



*2\(i Experiencefi of a Civilian among the 

oeived by its medicel officer, but the oou trolling idea is, as on 
land, to evacuate as soon as possible to the base, and, of course, 
in a few days man^^ will have become walking cases. The 
graver cajses would reside for long in one of the three largo 
Base Hospitals (Haslar, Chatham, or Plymouth), or if officers, 
.they frequently went to one of the niunerous smaller Officers' 
Hospitals ; we, at Guy's, for instance, kept a proportion of 
the beds in our " Officers' Section " at the disposal of the Naval 
Medical Department, and received a hearty letter of thanks from 
the Lords of the Admiralty for the work done there. 

Memo. D, by the S.M.O. of the Tiger. 
"General Medical Arrangements. 

(a) Forward Distributing Station. 

(b) After Distributing Station. 

(c) Two ratings trained in First Aid, with a Neil Eoberteon 
stretcher, in each turret. 

(d) One or two of each of the 5inch gun's crew trained in 
First Aid, with a Neil -Robertson stretcher placed at each end 
of the 5inch batteries, on both sides. Each turret was sup- 
plied with a First Aid bag, and also a hypodermic syringe, 
Wildey's pattern, attached to left side of breast of responsiblei 
officer with a solution of morphia (in a " Jena bottle " also 
attached to breiast near to the syring-e), which, when the syringe 
was filled, gave a dose of Jgr. One of the Fii'st Aid ratingis 
was taught how to give a hypodermic injection, but was only 
allowed to administer it on the orders of the officer of the 
turret. 

Tl}e First Aid ratings at the 5inch guns were similarly 
supplied. (Other Medical Officers only allowed sublingual 
morphia unless an M.O. was present.) 

Forward Distributing Station is situated almost immediately 
below " B " turret. The ship's armour at the side is Ginches 
thick at least, varying- with the class of ship, and tliere is a 
3inch casing round the Station itself with an armoured door. 



^aval Medical Service in TTVir. 247 

Except for its unpleasant proximity to the 13-o inch magazine 
it is probably the safest place on the ship. 

It is properly fitted witli hot and cold water, electric and 
emergency light, medical store-room and cupboards, opeiarfing' 
table, instrument chest, etc. 

Prior to the action tlie whole Station had been sterilized, 
and painted out, and the corticine on the floor covered with 
shellac varnish. The Station would be better with the addi- 
tion of a sink, but to supply this would entail cutting through 
the armour. 

Personnel attached: — Staff surg-eon, surg^eon, fleet paymaster, 
chaplain, one sick berth steward, two sick berth attendants^j 
two writers, one cook, one officer's steward. 

After 'Distributing Station. This is on the main deck almost 
under "X" turret, and is simply an open athwartship spaoe. 
It is protected by the 6inch armour of the ship's side, and 
is surrounded b}^ officers' cabins, in which the wounded could 
be laid. 

It is fitted with a No. 1 medicine chest, dressing cupboard, 
hot and cold water, operating table, instrument table, and! 
lotion stand. 

Personnel attached: — Surgeon, sick berth steward, two sick 
berth attendants, two cooks, two officers' stewards, one writer. 

Action of the Dogger Bank. 

The ship went to action stations at 7.15 |a.m., and the Stations 
were fully 'rigged, everything that could be foreseen being- 
provided for. About 8 a.m. the ratings were allowed to stand 
easy. At 9.3 a.m. the first shot waiS fired, whereupon we all 
went to Stations and remained there until some time after the 
action, which lasted three hours, was over. 

I had first intended to do each patient tliat waa brougihfi 
down thoroughly, placing the case on the operating table and 
going methodically over it and doing what was requisite as 
one would do it in hospital, but I very soon recognised that 



248 Experiences of a Civilian among the 

the violent, oonciission from " B ' turret would make any, 
operative ti'eatment impossible, and accordingly arranged for 
First Aid ti-eatment only until the action was over. 

The wounded commenced to arrive in the Distributing Station 
within ten minutes of the first casualty, and thereafter there 
was a steady flow. 

About 9.30 a.m. I had considerable difficulty with a dockyard 
workman who was brought down to me in a fainting con- 
dition from fright. He recovered from the faint, but rolled 
about the deck in an agony of fear, shouting and sci-eaming. 
. As this was threatening the morale of my own staff and 
the ratings employed on the deck round about, I dealt with 
him by tying him up in a Neil Robertson stretcher, giving 
him a hypodermic injection, and concealing him in the medical 
store room. 

At 10.50 a.m. I got a telephone message from 'Q' turret 
asking for a Medical Officer and an ambulance party. I had 
already decided with the Gunnery Lieutenant that any man 
who could not help himself must remain in the turrets until 
the end of the action, as it wais impossible to handle men in 
stretchers through the working chambers, and going upon deck 
was not to be thought of. An 11-2 shell, exploding in ' Q ' 
turret, had blown tMO men' to bits, and the wounded readily 
found their way to the dressing stations themselves. 

About 11.30 a.m. another 11-2 shell entered the Distributing 
Office on the upper deck where the bridge messengers, canteen 
staff, and some stokers (who ought to have been below) were 
collected. This shell was very destructive, as it blew up the 
trap hatch in the roof of the Distributing Office which com- 
municated Avith the gun control tower, killed Captain , 

who^ was standing on the hatch, seriously wounded Sub- 
Lieutenant , and severely scorched the face of Lieutenant 

, and injured Midshipman — . It also killed six 

men, and wounded five, and in the port 6inch gun conffcrol 
killed Boy , and injured two boys. 



JSaval Medical Service in War. 349 

An urg-ent telephone message uas received from the gxin 
ontrol tower, and an ambulance party was sent off in charge 
jf Siu'g-eon to see Avhat could be done. 

This party had considerable difficulties, ^s the lights had all 
j:one, and the alley was wrecked, and the escape up past tlie 
Distributing Office, Avhich was the only possible route, was 
'jlown to bits and threatened by fire from the IntelligieBK^: 
Office, which was immediately below the Distributing Office, 
rhanks to tlie heroism and bravery displayed by the Sick Berth. 
Attendant , Boys and , all the cases men- 
tioned, except , who was discovered after the action. 

was over, were brought down to the Forw^axd Distributing 
Station. 

When they arrived seven were dead, or expired as they) 
were laid on the floor. Their injuries were frightful, heads,, 
chests and limbs being pulped or incinerated. The dead werei 
laid on one side as decently and quickly as possible, covered 
with a flag, and the wounded attended to. First Aid dressing-s 
Avere applied with the utmost despatch. By the time this was, 
done it was 1.15 p.m., and the action had been over for au 
hour and a quarter. 

I went to the forebridge and asked the captain's permission 
to open up the sick bay, but lie informed me tliat that would 
be impossible until we were out of the danger area. So the 
wounded were made as comfortable as possible, and the dead 
Avere separated out and taken to the upper deck. 

In the case of the killed the injuries were all of such a 
jVightful nature that death was practically instantaneous. 

All cases were suffering severely from shock, which was 
<'ombated by giving them all Jgr. morphia, hot drinks such 
IS bovril and ooooa, hot bottles, and plenty of blankets. After 
i. little time most of them became quite comfortable and went 
to sleep. There was a complete absence of moaaiing or com- 
plaints. 

About 4 p.m. I got permission to ojKjn the sick bay, and 
on my arrival tliere found absolutf^ly l^f^ damage to tJie bay, 



250 Experiences of a Civilian among the 

although there was considerable damage to breakable stores 
from the oonoussion of the guns. 

The operating theatre was cleaned and rigged, and we got 
to work, the cases being brought one by one, placed in the 
theatre, thoroughly overhauled, dressed and cleaned, and put 
to bed. 

The explosion of the T.N.T. in the shells caused a black, 
oily, sooty deposit on the skin of nearly all tbese patients.; 
This was readily removed with turpentine, but nothing else 
seemed to have any effect. Soap and water and spirit were 
useless. 

The ' Neil Bobertson ' modification of the ' Japanese ' 
stretchers were of great service, and it would have been 
almost impossible to remove the injured men witliout them 
from the more inaccessible parts of the ship." 

I cannot recall any bullet wound among the wounded, and have 
never heard any evidence of poison gas having been used in the 
shells. Many of the most grievous injuries were inflicted by 
some fragment of shell or of the ship, or by the patient} 
being blown violently against the walls, or against some promi- 
nent machinery. Practically all the wounded were burnt aa 
well, especially, as said before, on the face, back of hands, 
and front of legB, in addition to their other injuries. Thei 
momentary heat of the initial " flash " is probably the most 
intense; it is equally disabling in the open, and caused many 
casualties on the lig^ht cruisers, and it is reported to have 
even travelled down a voice tube and burned anyone in the 
vicinit}' of the other end of such a tube. The following 
" flame " persists for seconds, and is due to ignition of cOrdite. 
The casing of the electric cables in the passages was often 
melted throughout a radius of several yards from a shell burst. 
Often the ship is thrown into darkness by the failure of cur- 
rent. At all tinies the parts behind armour depend upon arti- 
ficial light, and the emergency oil lamps and candles cannot 
possibly be adequate. One notes, too, that the thud caused 



A' aval Medical Service in War. 25 i 

by enem}- shells stopped by the armour was almost as detri- 
mental to delicate manipulations as the tremor caused by the 
ship's own big g-uns, though these were severe enough to 
break up the porcelain fittings of the lavatories in a big ship 
which was not struck at all. The water also may fail, so that 
an emerg'ency supply of metal vessels was filled before action, 
but these are liable to be upset and smashed. 

The Lion had such a list after the Dogger Bank action in 
January, 1915, that the getting of her home at all is alwaya 
said to rank as a great feat of seamanship: she came some 
300 miles, and under speed so greatly reduced tliat she was an 
excellent target for the German submarines which were in 
chase. What would they not have given to have sunk the 
flagship of our indomitable Battle -Cruiser Squadron? They 
were only kept off by a large number of our destroyers racing 
round her in circles at top speed w^hile she slowly made her 
way home. 

All the wounded after the big actions of August, 1914, and 
January, 1915, and half of the wounded in the Tmttle of Jutland 
were brought into the Firth of Forth. In its calm home waters 
the great ships, more or less limping from their battle in- 
juries towards the great Naval Dockyard at Ros^i:!!, made 
signal in confirmation of their wireless, and the appropriat» 
Hospital Drifters were alongside, and the transference of 
wounded, already collected on deck, began even before their 
engines were stopped. 

In .the early days of tlie war this great estuarj' was 
undefended except by shore batteries, quite ineffective 
against submarines. Later a series of obstacles was of 
course contrived. It was a never-to-be-forgotten hoiu* when 
the wounded and listed Lion threaded her way through gates, 
which could be tempoiurily opened in these obstacles, and 
slowly passed her more fortunate portnei-s in tlie fight of 
yesterday already lying snugly at their moorings. Sir David 
Beatty and his staff were on the topmast bridge. It waa 
early on a fine winter's morning, the haze almost shut out 



J252 KjLperiences of a Civilian among the 

the high laud on the north and south bankw, but the sun wa« 
Btniggling* througli Avitli obvioiLs succeiss, and as the flagship 
kboiu-ed slowly to her berth, each ehip in the harbour Avas 
manned and gave thi'ee ringing cheers, and band after band 
placed "Rule Britannia." 

The Medical Department of tJie Admiralty has to its ei-edit 
many an advance in methods of treatment during the war; to 
mention one only, we owe to it the popularisation of the so- 
called "Ambrine," or "paraffin treatment," of burns since intro- 
duced and largely employed at Guy's and other civilian liosi)itals; 
and while thus keeping an eye upon the Avheat, the successive 
M.D.G.'s had the sense to leave the chaff and not to get 
obsessed with any of the speculations such as the " Simpson 
Rays " which found their op])ortunity in tlie turmoil of war, 
nor were they taken in by that incomparable farce known as 
the '' Share Rays, ' so prematurely boomed in the lay press. 

The " Surveys " were efficiently arranged, reasonably carried 
out, and not too frequently repeated, so that they earned no bad 
re})ute. In short, there was a striking exhibition all round of 
that (plasticity and adaptability to altered circumstances wliicli is 
not too commonly found in Government Departments. The re- 
sult was a very large measure of confidence in the justice of the 
authorities, and of contentment with their lot on the part of the 
temporary medical officers, in spite of the long period of mono- 
tonous life on board ship Avith, perforce, too little to do, and no 
hope of change in the deadly dull routine of their Avaiting duty. 

Before closing- this short account of the points which most 
impressed a civilian with previous war experience in South Africa, 
I should like to bear testimony to the consideration shown by 
the Medical Department of the Navy for the civilians who were 
temporarily serving under it. Not only were the professional 
interests of the medical officers consulted, e.g., their natural 
ambition to present themselves for their final University, 
examinations was facilitated to the utmost, even though it 
entailed consideiable trouble upon Sir Daniel McNabb and the 
other officials of the personnel branch, but great pains were 



Saved Medical Service in Mar. 253: 

taken to allocate to each avS far at? possible a suitable job, so 
that after the early weeks of rush and hurry one seldom, if 
ever, heard of a square peg in a round hole. In matters in 
which their civilian colleagues could be of use advice was wel- 
comed, without suspicion, and that advice was acted upon, not 
shelved; the civilian profession was given credit for some of that 
altruism for which it is famous, and for a willingness to help. 
the State without self-seeking, and was never subjected to any 
make-belief or "eye-wash" treatment. 

The lessons of the pa.st were taken to heart, for instance, 
that dentists and unqualified medical students could be used 
with good efi'ect had been demonstrated in the South African 
War. The importance of an efficient dental service was i«e- 
cognised and pro\4ded for in the Navy from the first, and, as 
we have seen, the most appropriate work was allocated to stu- 
dents. And the lessons of this war were quickly assimilated, so 
that it A\as early realised that the painting of a Red Cross on 
the side of a Hosjntal ship would not confer immunity from 
submarine attack any more than, it would from minefield. 

In peace time each Naval Medical Officer si>end8 such a largo 
part of his time afloat, and aw^aj from professional relations 
or oi>]i<»rtunities of any sort, that it is very difficult to till and 
to oiganise an efficient service. During the war the Naval 
Medical Service may not have been perfect, but at least it 
evolved leaders who could and did steer it clear of adverse 
criticism. 

Sir Robert Hill, the 'present M.D.Ct. of tlio Navy^ 
expiusis-ed the hope in his inaugural addiesvS at the Royal Society 
of Medicine tliat for the futuie the new *' War Section " would 
form a liaison between his Service and fclie civilian professsiou . 

Xuw the Army Medical Service had already in existence <when 
war brt)kC' out a very effective liaison. It was known us " Tlia 
A h isory Board for Army Medical Services," and it \\as ci*eated 
1 Parliament in 1901 as a i-esult of the Report of the Com- 
mittee appointed by Mr. Brodrick, then Secretary of State for 
"' :> consider tlie reoriranisati^n of tlio Army Mcdif-Ml Sf-r- 



254 Experiences of a Civilian among the 

vices. This Board was in active operation for several years, and it 
has never disappeared from the "Army List," but neither of the 
D.G.'s considered it desirable to call it together during the war, 
which was the occasion when it would have been of the greatest' 
value. 

It is interesting to observe with what regularity the necessity 
for a liaison between the service and the civilian branches of 
-our profession, such as the Advisory Board presented, is re- 
discovered by any Committee that investigates the difficulty of 
providing adequate medical services for the forces (vide Sir 
James Barrett in "A Vision of the Possible," page 165). 

The present D.G. has recognised this necessity, and has re- 
viyed the function of the Advisory Board for Army Medical 
Service so that it is again in being, and there must be plenty 
for it to do. It does not seem too much to say that it is the 
duty of all who desire the welfare of the fighting forces to work 
for the perpetuation and strengthening of the revived Board. 

Let those who would essay to scheme an extensive State Ser- 
vice for the civilian population remember ere it is too late that 
the days are past when our profession was content to bow the 
knee to "authority." These are progressive times, and our 
profession is rightly rebellious against established routine, and 
is seeking and finding new methods of treatment where the old 
ones failed. There is no room for bureaucracy, for it tends to 
the prevention of progress, nor for obsequiousness and deference 

The report of Mr. Brodrick's Committee re-organised the E.A.M.C. 
and brought it under an Advisory Board Nvith. tihe D.G., A. M.S., in 
the chair, the D.D.G. in thei Vice-Chair, two civilian surgeons and 
two civilian physicians, specialists from the E.A.M.C. for Sanitation 
and Tropical Diseases, the Matron-in-Chief, Q.A.I.M.N.S., and repre- 
sentatives of the War Office and the India Office. Tm-ther, it brought 
the Army ]\Iedical School up from Netley to Millbank, and so put it 
into touch with the Civilian Schools lin the Mettropolis, it gave the 
School a new Army Hospital at Millbank, it instituted improved 
scales of pay, promotion for meritl, and study-leave, and removed 
other disabilities with the result that there was a most encouraging 
influx of officers of greatly improved clasis. It also amalgamated the 
Army Nursing Service and the Indian Nursi,ng Service into the 
Q. A.I. M.N. S., which worked so splendidly in the Great War. That 
the credit for all this is often given elsewhere is no disparagetnent 
to the lasting value of the work of the first Advisory Board A. M.S. 



]^aval Medical Service in War. 255 

to rank in the present-day order of scientific advance, and any 
>ystem attempting to erect a medical service in which promotion 
and success will depend upon the vote and selection of the 
-eniors will either fail, or will put back medical and surgical 
jjrogress for many years. 

With rank recognised and paid for by the State there will 
always go a perpetuation of that anti-scientific practice known 
as " heel-clicking." a sort of mental and moral goose-step, 
utterl}' repugnant to the spirit of any progressive profession. 
It tends — and must always tend — to the deterioration of the 
■scientific sipirt in the commander and the commanded. It is 
stunting to any individualism and paralysing to any spirit of 
progress. 

Thus the- Times, in a leader upon " The ' Health ' Bill Re- 
jected," comments upon the ^' Muddle " which results from 
" clumsy amateur legislators ! " and " meddlesome subordinates " 
and calls the throwing out of the Bill, ^'A warning to autocratic 
and domineering Ministers and their departmental heads." 
" Tricks have been played," it says, and so on. (The Times, 
December 15th, 1920.) 

Truth is very often troublesome, but neither the world nor 
tlie individual can get on without it. Surely, with the world 
as it is, truth is more than ever essential to-day to the re- 
instatement of our nation. Given truth, education, freedom, and 
health, our Empire will lead the world, but we shall not attain 
the maximum health of the race by means of a medical service 
based upon rank and authority and a pension-earning wage. 
Backed by propaganda and legends and stimuli to "keep on 
smiling," these may carry us through a few years, but it is 
not by such methods that we shall ever succeed in " winning 
the peace." 



MOBILE LABORATORIES. 



By 
Major A. C. H. GRAY, O.B.E., R.A.M.C. 



It is interesting to see "vvliat countries, other than our own, 
had done before the Great War to afford mobile laboratory 
equipment for their field armies as a protection against epi- 
demic disease. 

In the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) the Japanese had no 
Field Laboratory units, as unite, but in one of the Divisions 
of the Japanese Army at any rate tliei^ was considerable bac- 
teriological equipment. Major-General Sir William Macpherson 
in his Medical and Sanitary Reports on .the Russo-Japanese 
War says "all the Field Hospitals of the 4th Division ai"e 
supplied, from Divisional funds, with a Leitz microscope and 
a special bacteriological cabinet." " Early in the campaign 
the Medical Officer in charge of No. 1 Field Hospital of the 
5 th Division had improvised a bacteriologicial equipment for 
himself: and no doubt tliere were many other instances of suck 
pecial equipment in the field." In an appendix to Report No. 
Ii2 are given the details of this equipment. The microscoi)» 
and reagents were packed in one case, the i-est of tlie bacterio- 
logical equipment in another; neither of them weighed md'e- 
than twenty pounds. General Maci)hei'son draws special atten- 
tion to the completeness, compactness and mobility of all the 
equipment of the mobile Field Hospital units. 

Tiio RiLssians ^eem to have gone even fui-ther tlian the 
Japanese, because, as General Macpherson ix)inted out to me, 
tiiey had Mobile Laboratories as indei)en<lent units. In a rex)ort 
by Major J. M. Home, of the 2nd P.0.\\'. Giukhas ou Russian 

I'ABT lie, R 



2o8 Mobile Lnhoraiories. 

Medical Administration in the Field, \\g learn tliat five special 
Sanitary detachments were formed. Each detachment was to 
consist of four bacteriological 8])ecialists and to be furnished 
with a laboratory in Avhich the most minute bacteriological 
investigations could be carried out. These detachments owed 
their origin to the initiative of the Commander-in-Chief, their 
object being to prevent epidemic diseaises. They were all to 
be stationed on the railway, south of Haxbin. In the event 
of any doubtful case of epidemic disease occurring, the nearest 
sanitary detachment Mould proceed to the spot and carry out 
the necessary bacteriological investigations. No description of 
the actual equipment of these sanitary detachments is given, 
nor is it stated how the equipment Avas packed or carried. 

In the German campaign in South West Africa (1904-06), 
mobile laboratory outfits do not seem to have been iLsed. Bac- 
teriological and chemical laboratories Avere provided at each 
base. A mobile pack-up laboratory equipment was, however, 
part of the medical equipment of th% German Army at this 
time. 

The Turkish Army Medical Service wa8 re-org-anised in 1910, 
by Dr. Vollbrecht Bey, Lieut. -Colonel in the Pnissian Army 
Medical Service. In his scheme the Sanitary Officers at Army 
Headquarters were to be provided with a microscope, a bac- 
teriological case, and a box of chemical reag-ents, just as in 
the German Army. 

In March, 1911, shortly after mobilisation for manoeuvres 
at Sail Antonio, Texas, the Chief Surgeon of the United State.? 
Army gave orders for the formation of a Mobile Bacteriological 
unit. Lieutenant G. B. Poster, Medical Corps, United State?* 
Army, was in charge, and got tog-ether the equipment.* Lieu- 
tenant Foster claims that his laboratory was the first of its 
kind to be operated by the Medical Department of any Army 
under conditions approximating those of war, but says tbat the 

*Militari/, Surgeon, Vol. 31, page 408. 



Mobile lMbonitorie.s. '2o^J 

Japanese Avere eoiKliioting a similar Jaboiutory at Tieutsiii about 
the same time. The entire equipment packed into five chests. 
The wliole weio-hed 550 pounds, and filled one-third of a wagon. 
Two tables, four iron buckets, and four hospital tents completed 
"the load. The equipment was subjected to severe tests, and 
-was transported over fifty miles of i*ough road. The wagoai 
liad no springes. The only breakagie ineuri*ed was one flask. 
The entire equipment Avas unpacked and assembled in a ho«- 
})ital tent by two i>ei'sons within three hours of its aiTival 
in camp. One thousand and forty examinations were made 
•during the four months that this " Manoeuvre Division Labom- 
tory " was in oi)eration. In his conclusions Lieutenant Fostei^ 
lays stress on the necessity of tin containers for gla^^s-stopperedl 
•bottles and of special chests for the eqiupment which should 
be streng, iren bound, with hinged lids and hasj>s and uniform 
in size. He considered the field laboi-atory not only practicable 
but in this era of scientific sanitary endeavour a necessity. 

The Austrians had Mobile Field Laboratories equipped by 
the Austrian Red Cross Society. Sixteen of such units with 
a s]>ecially trained staff were available in 1913.* In August, 
1915, twenty -one mobile laboratories were said to l)e in the 
service of the entire Austrian Army.f It seeins, however, that 
the equipment of tJieir earlier units Avas not very satisfactory 
OAviiig to excessive weight. A neAv tyi>e Avas intiwhu'ed in 1914, 
designed by Stabsarzt Pjofessor Dr. R. i^oerr and Dr. Josef 
Winter Avhich Avas easily tmnspor ted on two pack animals. There 
as a good account of it by Colonel J. V. Fori-est, A. M.S., in 
the Ji.A.M.C. Journul.X Each laWratory consisted of foiu^ 
chests all of the same size. The Aveight of each caise Avas no 
inore than 45 kilos, and they Avere made so tliat chest A and B, 
€ and D balanced ea<*h other. Their construction Avas very in- 

*l)a» Rote Kreuz, No. 8, 1913, page 169. 

t" Sanitary Service of the Anslro-lfuiiirarian Army in r:iijipai>rii. ' 
by Major J. H. Ford, Mififan/ iSun/i*on, Vol. 10. page 650. 

tH.A.M.C. Journal, Vol. 2H, page 651. 



2G0 Mobile Laboratories. 

g«nious. The outfits on tiie two pack animals were independent 
of each other. Chests C and D contained all that was neoessaiy 
for mioi-<jso(»i)ic and sero-diagnostie investigations and for pre- 
paring saline infusions and would accompany the investigating 
Medical Otfioor in the first place. The other pack would onlv 
be taken if a more prolonged investigation were anticipated. 
The equipment included 64 Petri dishes, flasks, pipettes, 
200 agglutination tubes, a large sterilizer, disinfecting bath, 
a case of instruments for operating or animal post-mortems,, 
etc., a large stock of Doerr's dried media, diagnostic sera, 
special tubes of bile for blood culture, etc., and a small in- 
cubator—in fact, a remarkably complete and easily transport- 
able laboratory equipment. 

Even from the above short and incomplete account it is 
evident that other eountTies have considered some sort of easily 
transportable Field Laboratory Equipment a necessity. The 
most recent pattern introduced by the Austrian Eed Crosis 
Society seems to me to be particularly good. 

Let us now see Avhat has been done in our own Empire. 

One must go a long way back into Army Medical history 
to find the first " Mobile Laboratory Equipment " made for 
the British Army. I am indebted to my friend, Lieut. -Colonel 
A. Bruce, of the Army Medical Department of the War Office, 
for information on the matter. The "Chemical Cabinet" was- 
made for the Army b}- Messrs. Savory & Moore, and wim 
probably first taken into use about 1875. Colonel Bruce i-e- 
members it well. He tells me he passed an examination ou 
its contentvs in 1879. It was intended for water analysis, and 
was beautifully made. Each bottle and piece of apparatii* 
fitted exactly into its partition lined with green baize. It. 
was made of polished teak, bound with metal, and fitted into 
an outer case for transport. It was very heavy, but could be 
lifted, by two men. A neAv pattern of cabinet was introducedi 
in 1807 of tlie same general character and dimensions as tlie 
old one, the contents, however, were altered and improved. 



Mobile Laboratories. 261 

Tliese cabinets were used both at home and abroad. Thejr 
went to Egypt with tlie Army in 1882, and to South Africa in 
1899. They wei-e sent out to Fmnce in 1914, but I doi not 
tlnii^ tliey were used in the Great War. General Hospitals are 
mobile units in the British Army, and laboratory equipment was 
prepared for them when our medical equipment was overhauled 
after the South African War. Dming the South African War 
Base Hospitals wei-e provided with microsc-opes and with labo- 
ratory equipment Mhen demanded, but there was no standard 
equipment. Smaller and more portable 'Water Analj^is Cases"* 
were made for use in the field. 

The first real mobile laborator}- appeared in the Southern 
Sudan, but had no connection with the Army. 

In 190G, Dr. Andrew Balfour, Dii-ector of the Wellcome Re- 
search Laboratories, Khartoum, conceived the {idea. At his insti- 
g-ation a two-decked barg-e Avas built by the Sudan Govern- 
ment and was fitted out by Mr. Wellcome, with every possible 
requirement and convenience. Early in 1907, this floating 
laboratory was ready for use. A full account of it is given in 
the " Third Report of the ^^'ellcome Research Laboratories 
1908," by Dr. C. M. AVenyon. In Jiis i-eport he says " The 
large laboratory, with its two long benches, water taps and 
sinks, with water supply from a carbon filter on the upper 
deck, ample cupboard room for bottles and glass wore, the 
incubators and ovens, the balances and centrifuge and all 
otlier equipment, reminded one more of a laboratory at liome 
than the accommodation one would expect to find on one of 
the upper tributaries of tlie Xile in somfe remote corner of 
the Sudan. The advantages of such a laboratory with every- 
thing at hand, with solid benches on which to stand one's 
microscope, with a good supply of clean water, will be suffi- 
ciently evident to anyone who has tried to work in a dusty- 
tent, with apparatus stowed away in bo.xes, with the micro- 
scope on a rickety table, and with a limite^l supply of AAtiter. 



2G2 * Mobih' LahoraforieH 

The floating labomtoiy is, aiS far as I know, the first of its- 
kind. Tliough further experience may introduce improvements ,. 
those who originated tlie scheme and those wlio were far 
sighted enoug-h to carry it into effect, are to be congratulated 
as being the finst to introduce this mode of sciieutific investiga- 
tion." To compare this, the first floating mobile laboratory, 
with the type of motor mobile laboratory Avhich Ave used in 
France, Salonica and Egypt is perhapts hardly fair; the latter 
had to be strictly limited in size and weight and had to cope with. 
roads of the roughest description, whereas the former could 
be of generous Bimensionis and travelled over the C'ompai'atively 
smooth waters of the Nile; yet this the first laboratory of its 
kind designed fourteen years ago is still in constant use, aud 
has not been surpasised since or perhaps even equalled. No- 
other laboratory has yet been designed which could and did 
function while actually on the move. Incubators and sterilisers 
can hardly be kept going- Avith safety in any type of motor 
laboratory, when travelling- over even moderately good roads. 

The first sugg-estion that I can find with regard to field 
bacteriological equipment for the British Army is in a pa]>er 
by Lieut. -Colonel U. H. Firth (now Colonel Sir Eobert Firth) 
written in 1909 on "Sanitary Companies- — Tierritorial Force.*'* 
In discussing the details of these Sanitary Companies, which 
are Army Ttoops, Colonel Firth says that a microscoj)e and a 
limited bacteriological outfit must foiin part of their equipment. 

The first suggestion of a fitted motor mobile laboratory for 
use with the British Army in the field was made by Major 
S. L. Cummins (now Colonel S. L. Cumminjs), R.A.M.C., in 
his Parkes Memorial Prize Essay written in 1912. f He says "The 
early diagnosis of typhoid fever is a matter of blood culture. 
This requires skill, care and deliberation, but not an elaborater 
outfit of bacteriological appliances. Our idea is that a mobile 
laboratory consisting of a closed motor vehicle, containing the 

*B.A.M.C. Journal, Vol. IH. page 548. 

^B.A.M.C. Journal, Vol. 20, page 635, and Vol. 21, page IVJ. 



Mobile Laboratories. 265 

appamtiis for pi-eparing- media, incubating cultures, and for the 
neoeeeary microscopic Avork and other work of isolating bac- 
teria', should be atta<?hed to each Division and accompany this 
formation as a part of the Divisional Headquarters. A Specially, 
trained, offic-er Avith two trained oixierlies (one as batman) and 
a driver (A.S.C.) should constitute the staff. Regimental 
^ledical Officers and Officers Commanding Field Ambulancea 
siiould be directed to co-operate with this officer by sending 
to hiir. all suspicious cases for blood culture and such other 
work as may be necessarj-. At present his work is allocated 
to the laboratory at the Advanced Base or Railhead (vide 
R.A.M.C. Training, Para. 147, iii). Our plea is for a Mobile 
Laboratory marching- and working with the Divisions." 

It was soon evident to our Headquarter Medical Staff in 
the field that a Mobile Laboratory was a necessity. The Great 
War was not much more than a month old when a telegrami 
was sent to the War Office asking tliat such a unit should be 
sent out. The matter w-as referred to Sir William Leishman, 
Adviser in Pathology to the War Office, who asked the Director 
of the Lister Institute, Dr. C. J. Martin, to staff and equip 
a Motor Laboratory as quickly as ix)ssible. The work was 
soon done. The late Major S. R. Rowland, of the Lister Insti- 
tute Staff, was appointed to take charge of the laboratory, and 
it was he who chose the all important vehicle. He had seen 
a cai- of the type he wanted at the Motor Show of 1914^ 
It was probably the only vehicle in existence which could have 
served his purpose, and after an exciting hunt it was found. 
It was a huge car of enormous AA-eight and power. The body; 
was a luxuriously fitted cai*avan, with water tank and water 
closet complete, the roof carried any amount of extra luggage. 
It originally belonged to Mr. Dii Cros. The chassis was, I 
believe, specially built in the Austin works. The internal 
dimensioiLS of the body of the van Avere as follows:— Height 
6ft. 7in., length 12ft. 6in., Avidth 6ft. 9in. The car was taken 
to the Lister Institute Serum Dei>artnient at Elstree and Avas 
there fitted out. Di'. Martin, .Dr. Lodingham an.1 "Mi^-^ TT ri)i<k 



264 'Mobile Laboratories. 

&11 helped Major Eowland in the choice of his equipmient. 
Work bench, autoclew^e, Koch's steamer, incubators and sterilisers 
■were screwed into their places; the experimental animals in 
their cages were hoisted on to the roof, and the unit set out 
for France on Odober 9th, 1914. 

The next Motor Bacteriological Laboratory to go to the 
front was given to the War Office by an anonymous donor. 
The car was known as the " Princess Christian Motor Labora- 
tory." I had the privilege of taking it to France. It con- 
sisted of a large van shaped body, divided into two eompai't- 
ments, on a 20-30 h. p. Clement Talbot chassis. The internal 
construction, fittings and equipment were devised and carried 
out by Messrs. Baird & Tatlock. The work room was 6ft. 6in. 
by 6ft. The smallier compartment, 6ft. by 2ft. lOin., shut 
off by sliding doors, housed the incubators and sterilisers^ 
etc. There was an electable fan to aid in ventilation, and^ a 
powerful lighting outfit. A good illustrated account of it 
appeared in the Lancet of January 23rd, 1915. The weight 
with its driver was 3 tons 8 cw^t. I think the chassis was 
-carrying more than 30 cwt.; it was a surprise to me how^ 
well it went. There was an overhang at the back of four 
and a-half feet. The weighty contents had to be carefully 
arranged to get the heavy things w-ell forward and between 
the wheels. The water tank was emptied before a journey. 
The generous donor, at my request, added a powerful motor 
bicycle and box side car to the unit, which much increased its 
usefulness. The absolute necessity for a light " tender " for 
Mobile Laboratories was recognised later on, and all were 
provided with 10 h. p. Singer cars. 

A similar laboratory was taken to France by Major J. W. 
McNee — he started a few daj^s before I did but had only gx)t 
as far as Havre when the springs of his "bus" flattened out 
and ho had to come back. His unit was subsequently known 
as No. 3 Mobile Laboratory. 

It was soon evident that these last two were over-Mcig^hted; 
such a load spread over such a large area of floor space was 



Mobile Laboratories. 265 

too big for any car that had not been specially made, so, after 
these first three, all motor laboratories used by us were lorries 
and not cars. This was an improvement, but the fact that 
these laboratories were now on solid instead of heavy twin 
pneumatic tyres made it necessary to pack th^ contents moi-e 
securely than before. The late Major Rowland knew a gt)od 
deal about motor cars, and I i^member that he considered a 
good chassis for a motor laboratory should be long-, with as 
little overhang as possible; tha-t the driver should be seated 
over the engine to give extra body length, a point which has 
been adopted in the latest type of motor omnibus; that the 
width of the body should be increased by building it to over- 
hang 'the wheels. In his opinion large twin pneumatic tyres 
were a necessity. With regard to the fittings inside, he con- 
sidered there should be a definite place for everything, but 
all apparatus should be capable of eas}^ removal so that if 
thought desirable it could all be quickly taken out and put 
into a room, and as quickly put back again; in fact, his plan 
was to use the van as a large packing' case on wheels, but 
to leave as much free space in it as possible, so 'that it could 
be used as a work room when necessary. Major Rowland 
had got the one motor caravan whicli fulfilled all the conditions 
and it had been specially made. To have built otliers would 
have probably meant a great delay. The two-ton Daimler 
lorry chassis was adopted, and proved satisfactory. 

By the end of January, 1915, there were then three Mobile 
Bacteriological and one Hygiene Laboratory in France, this 
last in charge of Captain M. Coplans, an old Guy's man. 
I think in the opinion of General Headquarters they were of 
real value, because in May, 1915, the scale was increased to 
two Mobile Bacteriological Laboratories per Army, and later 
on thei'e were even more. 

Xo. 1 Laboratory started work at St. Omer. No. 2 waa 
ordered to Bethune, but soon back to Lillers as BeUiune was 
rather heavily shelled on January 23rd. No. 3 opened out at 



266 Mobile Laboratories. 

Bailleul, and sooji ^pmad into a convenient building-. No. 
4, tJie Hygiene Ijaboratory, wa«, I think, at Bailleul too. 

How ^\v\[ I i-eraember tliase early days at Lillei"s. tt Ava« 
Army Headquarters then and <'orretspondingly .important. Major 
D. L. Haixiing- was in command of the C.C.8. which ^ave me 
welcome, and it wa^s he who guided me aright along- the un- 
familiar paths of War. It was tliere I first met Captain Adrian 
Stokes. At the time of the Battle of the Aisne, Captain Stokes 
had been sent to Paris to buy what bacteriological equipment 
he could find, and had broug-ht it back to the line in a motor 
cycle and sidecar — neither of them new. Without any special 
name to his laboratory, and with very little equipment, Captain 
Stokes had been doing the work of "mobile bacteriologist" 
to the whole Expeditionary Force for weeks before even Major 
Rowland ar*rived on the scene, and had been doing it thoroughly 
well. When I arrived he g^ave up his room ix) me, and in obedi- 
ence to oi-dei-s joined No. 1 Mobile Laboratory at General Head- 
quarters. It was a first floor room in a little side street just 
opposite the school Avhich formed part of No. 4 CCS. It 
made a g-ood laboratory. My "bus" was in the street below,, 
supplied me with electric light, and was used by my Staif- 
Serg-eant for the preparation of media, etc. At first I used 
the bus as a laboratory. The body was " jacked up " on to 
wooden blocks which gave the necessary rigidity for microscopic 
work, but the position of tlie vehicle up against the side of a 
wiall did not allow of much daylight getting in. Any otlien 
I)osition would have blocked the street. Again, when my 
Staff -Serg-eant was using the sterilisers tlie steam condensed on 
tlie lenses of the microscope — also he had to move about to- 
do his work, and that meant vibration. 

Major Rowland used his car as his " microscope room " for 
some while; all his sterilising and media preparation was done 
elsewhere. 

Captain R. L. Thornley, who came out later in charg^e of 
No. 20 Mobile Laboratory, always used the " bus " as his 



Mobile Labomtor'iefs. 267" 

laboratory, and preferred it to a hut. No. 21 Mobile Labom- 
tory, in cliarg^e of Captain Emryis Roberts, came out early in 
1916, and was at Bethune. His laboratory was, I think, tlie 
most magnificent in France. It wa^ given to the Army by 
Dr. Lynn Thomas (no^^ Sir John Lyim Thomas), and was 
very much larg-er than an}- of the others. It was a caravan 
mounted on a large lorry. 

We had plenty of Avork to do in France; quite half the dviy, 
and sometimes half tlie night was spent in the ojien air 
journeying between the Field Ambulances and Clearing Stations^ 
collecting specimens from "suspected" cases. Messrs. Baird 
& Tatlock made me a most convenient case containing* all the 
necessary implements for blood eultm-e, etc., with special com- 
partments for sterilised syringes, large tubes of extra thick 
glass containing the solution of peptone and bile salt, metal 
spirit lamp, sterile swa]|)s, etc. It was always kept ready, and 
was in daily use . For making blood cultures in the field I found 
that large very thick glass test tubes plugged with a sterile- 
rubber bung were the best; no amount of shaking could harm 
the contents. As soon as I got home to the laboratory the 
rubber bungs were changed for woollen plugs, and the tube* 
placed in the incubator. I always carried at least half a dozen 
all gla^j syringes of 2 c.c. and 5 c.c. capacit}', ready fitted 
with their needles, each syringe in a large thick test tube well 
plugged with wool. These were sterilised in the autoclave 
just as they were, and it was very i^arely tliat one got broken 
in the process. My Staff-Sergeant's first liit\ when I f^me 
back from the daih^ round was to clean the syringes, re- 
sterilise them, and fit up my travelling case with fresh tubes 
of media, etc.* It was then i-eady for any urgent call. • The 
day's work began with an examination of the prerious day'ei 
culturee, the reading of the results, and the 'despatching of 
mmierous telegi'ams; each positive case of typhoid fever oa* 
otlier serious infectious disease had to be notified by telegi-am 
to the O.C. of the Field Ambulance or CCS. in which he had 
been seen, to the A.D.M.S. of tlu^ mun'> Division, to the 



268 Mobile Laboratories. 

D.M.S. of the Aiiny, and finally to General Headquarters. In- 
fectious disease notification forms (A.F. W.3110) had also 
to be completed in duplicate, and then all details entered in 
one's own laboratory note -books. 

By eleven o'clock a good number of telephone messages 
and telegrams would have arrived demanding one's presence 
at various units. The bicycle and sidecar was got out, and 
the round staxted. I wonder what the columns of marching 
men one passed in the narrow roads thought of the little box 
which went bouncing past attached to the motor bicycle with, 
its anxious looking dusty driver. I think I was |generally 
looked on as a new sort of postman or else was given the credit 
of burying stray corpses. I. found it much better to go to 
the case myself than to ask for " swabs " or samples to be 
sent. By the time the "sAvab" had reached the laboratory 
it was cold and uninviting, and, with the exception of those 
fi'om diphtheria suspects, generally quite useless. 

I arrived in France just at the beginning of the ''cerebro- 
spinal " scare, and the examination of " contacts " soon b8can:ie 
a serious business. I did not mind how many individuals 
arrived to be examined or how many I went to see; these 
1 could deal with, but bundles of "swabs" taken the day 
before, or even earlier, came in by post and by motor-cyclist. 
They went? generally relegated to the lysol bowl. 

I think it was "sAA^bs" from "doubtful ladies" taken by, 
civil practitioners w^hich recj^uired the greatest mental effort. 
I never returned them with sarcastic comments partly because 
my French was not good enough and also because I was so 
afraid of being asked to go and see the case myself. I always 
hunted through the slides, perhaps with a mental bias towards 
the positive. In my opinion the "mobile bacteriologist" is 
best serving his country when journeying' about seeing every 
case and every " contact " himself — if he once begins to sit 
in his laboratory and merely examine samples taken by others 
his work wdll deteriorate and his opinion lose its value. 

We all of us, I think, fitted up some sort of apparatus which 
kept Petri dishes warm on our journeys. Swabs were then 



Mobile Laboratories. 269 

taken on the spot — tlie platets wei-e spi>ea(i and put back into 
their ''hot box." It was not necessary to examine all the 
(3ontacts of a ease of cerebro -spinal meningitis, we had per- 
mission from Headquarters to make our own selection. The 
actual oases of disease presented fai- less difficulty; these we 
could lumbar puncture, blood culture or otherwise deal with, 
and one was sure of getting a clear cut result. 

Mere records of the number of cases of each disease exeunined 
are of little interest. We were all very* busy. I think the 
hunting out of a paratyphoid oai-rier in the 2nd Royal Sussex 
Eegiment, when in rest at Noeux-les -Mines, gave me tha 
hardest work. The thing had to be done quickly as the regi- 
ment was due back in the line. The regiment was well inocai- 
kited against typhoid, but luckily, from my point of riew^ 
paratyphoid inoculation had not yet been started. The out- 
break was definitely Paratyphoid B. I had seen all eleven cases 
myself, and had got positive blood cultuies from many of tliem. 
In all the infecting organism presented identical characters in 
the various sugar media, and with the stock laboratory anti- 
sera gave the 8am.e results. There was not time to take a 
blood sample from every soldier in the i-egiment, so I contented 
myself with examining all the recent arrivals and all those wha 
had h»een to hospital sick. There were about ninetj^ of them. 
A bumple of blood was taken from each and carefully labelled. 
There was not time to put up more than one dilution of each 
serum against the infecting organism. I chose a dilution of 
one in a hundred as likely to show something definite, and it 
did. One mans serum of the ninety examined gave a marked 
result. I wiied to the A.D.M.S. of the Division that lught 
to isokite him and send him to a Field Ambulance. The mans 
eto<:)ls were plated, and at the second attempt, after a generous 
doc^e of physic, the Paratyphoid organism was found, identical 
iti e\-ery respect with that found in the actual coses. Of course, 
there may ha^e been anotlier carrier amongst those I did not 
oxamine, but after the removal of tliis man tliere were no more 
c^ses in that rejjriment. 



:270 Moh'tle Lahoraforles. 

Oil)' work ill <Iio field was co-ordinated hy Colonel (now 
Major-Oeneral) Sir ^^'illialn LeiNliinan, who visited us at i-e- 
o-ular intervaJs. To liim we ])ouied out our troubles, and he 
always o^ave us a Hynipathetio Jieariiig. I am sure that my con? 
fi-ercs will agree /with me in saying tliat any isucoesis we achieved 
was chiefly due to his inspimtion and advice. 

Onr Consulting Physician too, Colonel (now Major-General) 
Sir Wihnot Herringhani, Avas deeply interested in us. He often 
<^ame to my laborator3^ just as he did to the others, and his 
ripe ex})erience Avas always at our disj)osal and his suggestions 
were invaluable. 

Best of all, l)ecause we Mere daily at their beck and call, 
our Directors of Medical Service shoA\ed they relied on us by 
giving us plenty to do. 

When big things -were happening, such as the battles of 
Neuve Chapelle and Loos, we "doMiied tools " and guve a hand 
to the nearest C.C.S. Everyone Avho could put on a dressing 
■or give an anaesthetic was A\-anted then, and the "sick" were 
simply not to be found. Soldiem did not go sick at times 
like these, but preferred to stick it out however bad they felt. 

What of our patients? Were we popular witli them? No, 
that I am afraid could scarcely be expected. The man who 
sticks a needle into his suffering bix)ther cannot look for popu- 
larity, but ])erhaps later, when convalesce nee gave life a rosier 
look, Ave got credit for doing our best. 

My personal experiences with a Mobile Laboratory only lasted 
until July, 1916. It Avas then a case of the biter bit, for I 
contracted Paratyphoid A fever and had to retire to bed. I 
had been Avell inoculated against typhoid and also againsti 
Paratyphoid B, but not against the third variety. When I at 
last arose from a bed of sickness, I Avas, at my OAvn request, 
gi\'en the command of another unit. No. 2 Mobile Laboratory 
Avas rather unfortunate in the Avay of illness. Captain A. L. 
TJrquhart, Avho joined me early in 1915, first Avent down witli 
measles of the most Airulent description, and then, after braveh 



Mobile Lahoratones. 271 

(}xperimentiiig- on his own Ixxly Avitli lit^^ from fever patients, 
liot Tl^ncli Fever. Captain UrqiiJiai't has not yet had the <!Tedit 
he deserved for this, the first experiment. After his recovery 
lie took a ^'lobile Laboratory to Salojiioa. Thei-e Avei-e otliei-s, 
liowever, wlio gave all they liad. Major Rowland died of 
i-ei-ebro -spinal meningitis eaug-lit fi-om tlie ver}- patients he was 
Tryingvto help. Cax^tain T'. Strain, of Noi. 6 Hygiene Labora- 
1 ory, died from an accident when working w ith dangerous gases 
at Lillers. • 

The ti*a veiling laboratory has, I think, come to stay. In 
..some form or other it was used by all Armies in the Gi-eat 
War, and it might be used to advantage by Civil Authoritieri 
ixx>. , 

When epidemic disease breaks out ajid " contacts " have to 
be examined in large numbers, such examination can only be 
effectively done at a laboratory. If the expense is not pro- 
hibitive, it is surely better to take the laboratory to the " oon- 
tiicts " rather than to move numbei's of possibly infected i>eople 
.about the (X)iintry, and one travelling- laboratory mig^ht take 
the place of several permanent ones. 

The type of motor laboratory that Ave used in t-lie Great War 
<eems to me to have been too cumbersome and too heavily 
<'quip]>ed. Something after the French Colonial Model which 
was designed by Dr. Tilmont and' fitted out by Messi-s. Bairdi 
& Tatlo(^k, would, I think, be more generally nseful. Tliis 
type was fitted to a Ford chassis. 

If all media were prepared in some central labomtoiy and 
distributed to the various field units, most of the heavy equip- 
ment in the latter could be dispensed witJi. 

For use in countries where a Ford car could not go, the mobile 
laboratory would have to he ])ackofl for animal trans j)ort or 
even in fifty i)ound loads if it had to be ciU'ried by natives, 
but it seems to me tliat large armies could not opei-ato in such 
countries, and there would be no neod to have many of thiH 
latter type. 



SOME IMPRESSIONS OF A DIVISIONAL 
SANITARY OFFICER IN FRANCE. 



By 

C. D. EDWARDS, M.C., M.D.Camb., D.P.H. 



That all life is arrested by accumulation of its own waste pro- 
ducts is one of the fundamental laws of existence. It applies 
to all living" orgunisms equally, from the lowest to the highest!, 
from bacteria to man. In the case of the former, vigorous 
growth only proceeds at the circumference of a colony, while 
among" men healthy development ceases in the overcrowded 
slimis of our great cities. The efforts of sanitarians have, during 
recent years been specially directed to the solution of this diffi- 
culty, and costly schemes have been launched with much ex- 
penditure of public money, with the result that the health of 
our large towns has greatly improved, and compares favourably 
^sith that of less crowded areas. 

That the importance of these measui^es was recognised by the 
lower animals for countless ages before it impressed itself on 
man is somewhat disturbing to our assumption of superiority, 
but it is none the less true. 

Study of the life and conditions of bees in a hive has showa 
that an average number of 10,000 of these insects can maintain 
their Ihealth and vigour in an exceedingly confined space, and 
that during the five coldest months of the year they only om 
\'ery rare occasions leave tlie hive. It has been shown tliat tho 
interior of the hive is at all times kept scrupulously clean, and 
that (even after many weeks of close confinement there is com- 

PART III. 8 



274 Some Impremons of n Divisional Sanitary Officer in France. 

plete labsence of faecal matter, and that healthy bees never de- 
fcecate in or in the immediate neighbourhood of their hives. 
The presence of faeces in the hive or on the alig-hting board is 
a sure indication that serious disease lias already overtaken the 
inmates. In the same way it lias been demonstrated that 
beaveiTS, during the long winter and its necessar}'^ confinement, 
keep the interior of their limited quarters in a thoroughly sani- 
tary condition. 

" It's a foolish bird that fouls its own nest,"^ is an old pro- 
verb that indirectly reflects honour on tlie scavenging instinct 
of the parent birds, who manage in the few short intervals they 
snatch from the labour of ministering to their offsprings' vora- 
cious appetites to remove the natural results of such a generous 
dietary. Instances of the superiority of the lower animals over 
man in matters of sanitation might be multiplied indefinitely, 
and lead one to the somewhat mournful reflection that the 
human race is probably more deficient in natural sanitary in- 
stinct than any other members of the animal kingdom. 

This is borne out by the fact that one of the earliest records 
we have of an effective sanitary measure, contained in the 
Mosaic law, w^as a direct adaptation of the manner in which 
dogs and cats had disposed of their excreta for countless gene- 
rations. With the natural increase of the world's population, 
and [the Iconsequent overcrowding in the most favourable por- 
tions, it is obvious that those races that are most sanitary, are 
the races that are going to survive. This is well illustrated in 
the history of the Jews, who, in spite of their numerical inferiority 
and icon&tant persecution, are still a power to be reckoned with, 
and [have the proud distinction of being the first people with a 
simple but effective code of sanitary laws. One is struck by 
the wisdom displayed in the framing of these simple laws for 
the disposal of faeces, washing of hands before feeding*, and 
abstention from pig-meat, for it is by their very simplicity, 
which should always be the aim of the sanitarian, that they 
have retained their hold over the Jewish race for nearly 4,000 
years. 



jtne Impressions oi a Divisloiml Sanitanj Ofjicer in France. 2lo 

The effect of civilisation with its elaborate systems of conser- 

incy has merely served, in the ca«e of the average citizen, 
- dull the natural sanitary instinct and produce a state pf 
rrophy through disuse. This attitude is well described by 
Lelean in " Sanitation in War," as limiting the acquaintance 
of an ordinary household with conservancy methods to the daily 
pulling of a handle, and the weekly listening to the opinion 
of the dustman i-egarding tlio dryness of his job. In warfare 
there is a sudden revulsion to primitive conditions, and the very 
perfection of the sanitary measures enjoyed by a community 
becomes a snare and a delusion when its citizens have suddenly 
to dispose of their own waste products, and to evolve such other 
methods for the preservation of health as their altered ciroum- 
fitanoes admit. It is, thei-efoi^e, no matter for surprise that in 
previous wars the mortality from disease, and what we now 
consider to be preventible disease, has far exceeded that fix)m 
wounds. 

In the American Civil War, 1861—1866, of 431,237 men 
engag-ed, there were 75,368 cases of typhoid (175 per 1,000), 
and 27,056 deaths (57-78 per 1,000). In the Franco- Grerman 
War of 1870 the German army of 815,000 liad 73,396 cases of 
typhoid and 6,965 deaths, and 35,652 cases of dysentery with 
2,380 deaths. 

In the war with Spain the Americans had 192 cases of ty- 
phoid per 1,000, and in the German expedition against the 
Herreras (1905-1907) out of a force of 18,116 there were 3,146 
cajses of typhoid. In the Boer War we had 57,000 cases of ty- 
phoid with over 8,000 deaths, and 38,000 cases of dysentery 
with 1,342 deaths in an army of an average strength of about 
250,000. The deaths fix)m disease wei-e 22,450 and the number 
•of those killed by the enemy was 8,590. 

In our wars of the last thirty years the deaths fmm disease 
liave been nearly five times as many as those from wounds, and 
for every man killed by the enemy there were forty admissions 
to hospital for disease. In the Boer War disease alone accounted 
for a loss of 86,000 in dead and invalids. 



276 Some Impressions of a Divisional Sanitary Officer in France. 

If to the death roll due to the inci-eased deadliness of lejiial 
^v©apons employed in iXie latest Great War had been added 
the previous mortality due to disease, the havoc produced would 
have been too horrible to contemplate. 

To tlie Japanese in their war with Russia is credit due for 
the first really successful attempts to reduce the scourge of 
disease in warfaix). For some years our ixdlitary authorities had 
recognised the gravity of the problem, and much excellent work 
had been done among troops on a peace footing. It was, how- 
ever, evident that the conditions during peace and war were so 
diverse that the best laid schemes wei« liable to break down. 
When tin 1914 the Great War was upon u.s, a ^\ar that was i-e- 
c-ognised to be a life and death struggle, and one in which we^ 
should Inquire all our strength of manhood, it was early seen 
that the previous arrangements for tlie preservation of a satis- 
factory sanitary condition in warfare ^\Qm inadequate. Some- 
thing Analogous to the provisions made in civil life, and whicJij 
had so greatly reduced the death rate of oiu* larg-e cities, wa.> 
obviously required. It was Mith tliis idea in viaw that Divi- 
sional Sanitary Sections were inaugurated and a training centre 
established in Chelsea by the London Territorial Forces. 

The first intention was apparently tliat the Commanding 
Officers of Sanitary Sections should be medical men with a^ 
special qualification ir Public Health, but tJie supply was foujid 
to be unequal to the demand, and a large proportion of these- 
officers were chosen from the ranks of sanitar;y- engineers, ar- 
chitects, surveyors, etc. It is with no wish to depreciate the- 
very valuable work that has been done by Commanding Officers 
of iSanitary Sections without a previous medical training, th^t 
I here record my opinion tJiat these officers should al"w^ys be- 
medical men with the D.P.H. The matters with which they 
have to deal are so essentially medical, the problems, especially 
with TOgard to infectious disease, so technical, and the demand 
for instruction in the preservation of health to the troops under 
their care so insistent, that I am unable to believe that anyone- 
without a previous and very thorough training in these sub- 
jects can fail to be at a serious disadvantage. 



Some Impressions of a Divisional Sanitarfj Officer in France. 277 

The Sanitary Section consists of four N.C.O.'s and twenty- 
one men. These are clraAvn from Sanitary Inspectors, men en- 
gaged in any sanitary work, carpenters, tinsmiths, plumbers, 
clerks, etc. Their duties are theoretically merely inspectional 
and instructional, and they are not supposed to perform any 
constructional work outside their own unit; in practice I believe 
that every Sanitary Section, worthy of the name, has done much 
constructional work for units that were unable to do it for 
themselves, and especially for those in the* trenches and for- 
ward areas. One soon, however, recognised that certain imits 
expected too much of the Sanitary Section, and were too ready 
to shift the duties of their own sanitary squads on to their 
shoulders. This tendency had to be strongly resisted, as it 
would have seriously interfered with the main object of Sani- 
tary Sections, namely. Inspection. For the same reason I felt 
it necessary to protest very forcibly ag-ainst employing the 
members of my Section in Divisional baths. The supply of 
Divisional baths is the duty of the Quartermaster Staff, and has 
nothing to do with the R.A.M.C. I was always ready to advise 
and help in the eonstTuction and running of the baths, ajid 
planned and supervised the erection of a large number in 
various parts of Fi^noe, but I am glad to say that my obstinaty 
was successful in rescuing my section from the fate of more 
than one Sanitary Section, and of becoming merely a Divisional 
Bathing Section. In the early days of the Somme ofifensive in 
July, 1916, in which my Division did such great things and 
Buffered so severely, when there was little work possible for a 
Sanitary Section except to lend a hand, I am proud to say that 
my Section erected excellent baths in Albert, and for sevei*al 
days worked from 5 o'clock in the morning till 10 o'clock at 
night bathing the worn-out troops as they were relieved, hoiir 
ironing their clothes, supplying them with a fresh change of 
underclothes and disinfecting their verminous garments. On 
one day alone they dealt with close on 3,000 men. These duties 
w^re carried on for several weeks after the Division had re- 
tired to its hard-earned rest, and it was only when conditions 



278 Some Impressions of a Divisional Sanitary Officer in France, 

had ireturned to a more normal state, and I found tl]ie work of 
inspection kieteriorating, that it became necessary to protest. 

Having- in view the small numerical strength of a Sanitary. 
Section and the important duties it had to perform, namely, in^ 
spection of the whole of a Divisional area, varying from a few 
square miles to as much as a hundred square miles, and troop&> 
varying in numbens from 20,000 to 40,000 or more, it soon be- 
came evident that strict economy of the resources at one's dis- 
posal must be exertjised to obtain the full value. It should be^ 
recognised tliat the various duties concerned in the running of 
a section, such as cooking, sanitation, clerical work, offioer*s ser- 
vant, workshop, etc., absorbed a large part of the strength, and 
it was generally found that there were at the most sixteen left 
for the purpose of inspection. I therefore found it necessary 
to divide the area occupied by the Division into ten or twelve 
parts, making one of the members of the Section responsible 
for leach sub -division. Each man was provided with a map of 
the 'portion he was responsible for, and had to send in a daily 
report of the condition of all units visited by him. In this way 
I 'was able to keep an eye on the work done by the N.C.O.'a 
and men under my command, and to become at once acquainted 
with any unsatisfactory conditions in the Divisional area, that 
required a personal visit. Moreover, by frequently paying sur- 
prise visits to the different units one was able to test lihe accu- 
racy of the reports handed in, and soon learned to know the 
men, who were reliable or the reverse. 

Sanitary Sections, as previously mentioned, were an entirely 
new liepoiture, and like all new brooms raised a considerable 
amoimt of dust. It was one's duty, as a very junior officer, and 
the duty of one's N.C.O.'s and men to visit and inspect, at any 
time, the hallowed precincts occupied by the various units, and 
if necessary to criticise the sanitary arrangements and other 
matters that concerned the health of the troops. To every Eng- 
lishman, and from experience I am inclined to think equally so 
to every Scotchman, " his home is his castle," and for the time 
being the billet, or camp, or trench, occupied by a unit was its 



Some Impressions of a Divisional Sanitary Officer in France. 279 

home, and until he recognised the necessity and usefuhiess of 
inspectional visits, the O.C. of that unit looked on them as an 
unpardonable intrusion. I well remember numerous battles- 
royal with a peppery old Scotch Colonel in command of a 
battalion of his countrymen, which afterwards earned immortal 
fame on the Somme and on many other battlefields. To put 
it mildly his ideas and those of his adjutant on sanitary matters 
differed very widely from my own, and both in England before 
embarkation, and in the early days of 1916 after arriving in 
France, led to a hurricane of winged words on more than one 
occasion, which made me as a junior officer, who was unable 
to reply with adequate force, recognise the invariable wisdom 
of my old hospital motto. 'Knowing that my objections were 
backed up by Routine and Divisional Orders, I remained ada- 
mant, and when my suggestions met with a flat refusal, or were 
merely ignored, I had the unpleasant duty on several occasions 
to report adversely to Divisional Headquarters as a last but 
never-failing resort. To his honour be it noted that he never 
bore me any ill-will, and this very gallant officer afterwards be- 
came one of my best friends. 

Of all the qualities necessary for the equipment of a Sanitary 
Officer the most desirable is that of Taotfulness. He may be 
XX«sessed of zeal capable of removing mountains, but without 
tact he will be "as a sparrow on the house-tops," and "his 
enemies will reproach him all the day " long. The first tiling 
that one has to recognise is that every CO. is responsible for 
the sanitary condition of the area occupied by his unit, and 
that every good CO., and most of them are good, has fixed 
ideas of his own on this matter. 

These views may be different from your own and may be 
obviously wrong, and in this case it is up to you to gain his 
confidence, and direct his energies in the right way. Nevei*, 
except in very rare cases, that cannot otherwise be dealt with, 
condemn w ithout a hearing, or without first offering advice. The 
vast majority of CO.'s know the importance of preserving the 
health of their units and ai^ only too ready to give assistance 



280 Some Impressions of a Divisional Sanitary Officer in France. 

if they see that your efforts are to help and not merely criticise. 
It is necessary to appreciate the difficulties of preserving a 
satisfactory sanitary condition during warfare, especially in 
forward areas, and to remember that a CO. sometimes has 
other things than sanitation to worry about. 

After nearly two and a half years' experience as a Divisional 
Sanitary Officer I can look back with extreme pleasure to the 
practically invariable courtesy of the officers of all ranks with 
whom I came in contact. It was a very rare occasion for me 
to be in my own mess for lunch, as the distances one had to 
traverse were too great, and the time wasted in retracing one's 
steps too precious, but one was always sure of a welcome at 
Battalion or Company Headquarters, whether in billets or 
trenches, and I regard the insight gained on those many very 
merry meetings as invaluable. It was then that one obtained 
the intimate knowledge of the officer of the Division that made 
one's work so easy and such a delight. 

I believe that this feeling of esprit de corps is of extreme 
value in the work that falls to the lot of a Sanitary Officer, 
and that my misgivings were shared by a large number of 
Divisional Sanitary Officers when in February, 1917, Sanitary 
Sections were torn from their Divisions, were allotted to areas, 
and placed under Corps Administration. My experience of this 
regime was short, and distinctly unpleasant, and it was with a 
feeling of great relief when in April, 1917, I was enabled to 
return to my old Division, and was again appointed Divisional 
Sanitary Officer with power to form a new Section from such 
material as could be spared. That Sanitary Officers of areas 
under Corps Administration are desirable I do not question, but 
that they can replace Divisional Sanitary Officers or hope to 
fulfil their duties efficiently, I fail to understand. After all, 
the health of the Division is of primary importance, and I 
maintain that no Sanitary Officer can adequately perform his 
Inspectional duties, who is not intimately acquainted with the 
units he has to supervise. 



Some Impressions of a Divisional Sanitary Officer in France. 281 

In the ease of an attack on the enemy, and a subsequent ad- 
vance , I believe that a Divisional Sanitary Offioer with a Divi- 
sional Sanitary Section is especially necessary. The troops 
have been subjected to a severe strain, possibly for days; they 
are exhausted and particularly liable to disease; sanitarj^ re- 
quirements must perforce take a secondary position in their 
minds; water supplies are of uncertain value and may have 
been ttampei-ed with by the enemy; the dead, both of men and 
horses, require satisfactory burial, and the condition of insani- 
tary chaos, such as no one, wha has not witnessed the effects 
of a modern intensive bombardment, can appreciate, quickly 
bringing into one of at least comparative order. Some regi- 
mental M.O.'s may be trusted to initiate measures for the pro- 
tection of their units under the most difficult cii-cumstances, 
•others, through inexperience, or lack of energy, or simply fi'om 
overwork and strain imposed on them by care of the wounded, 
■often in very exposed positions, seem unable to turn their atten- 
tion to these matters. It is at such a time that a Sanitary 
Offioer, who thoroughly knows his Division, and the capabilities 
of the M.O.'s of the various units can be of especial value to 
render advice Avhen asked, help when i-equii^ed, and pressure 
where necessary. He moves with his Division, and at once 
tests water supplies, marking those that are fit for drinking 
purposes with their degi-ee of purity, and condemning those that 
are unsatisfactory, and i*eports to Divisional Headquarters on 
particularly insanitary conditions, suggesting- the amount of 
labour and material required to remedy them. The prevention 
of the spread of disease at such a time depends on the taking 
of measures that are simple, effective, and immediate; delay 
from the inertia of organisation, or the complexity of elaborate 
sanitary contrivances must entail a considerable amount of spo- 
radic disease, which at any time may become epidemic. 

I believe that both these causes of delay ai-e inherent in the 
system of Sanitary Officers of Areas, for it is difficult for such 
a Sanitary Officer to suddenly shift his area and l)ecome mobile, 
and it is equally difficult for him to nbandon the more ambitious 



282 Some Impressions of a Divisional Sanitary Officer in France. 

devices, that are both ix^ssible and advisable in j^ermaneiit 
areas, for those that ai-e neeeLSisarily makesliifts and whose oliieiB 
merits consist in speed of execution, and simplicity combined 
with efficiency. In addition to these disadvantag-es, and I regard 
this as of paramount importance, tlie Sanitary Officer of an Area 
is unlikely to be acquainted with the units, with which he has 
to deal, and at a time when they are overworked, and in a 
frame of mind least tolerant of interference from a strang-er. 
Where Sanitary Officers of Areas would appear to be particularly 
required is at important points on the lines of communication, 
and in those localities behind the firing line called "rest are&s," 
whither tired Divisions repair at very infrequent intervals to 
recuperate and prepare themselves for anotlier long- spell in the 
forward zone. The special requirements of rest areas are com- 
fortable, clean, and healthy billets, good sanitary provision, 
pure and ample water supplies, and well-equipped and easily 
accessible baths capable of dealing- with all the troops and 
gi^dng them a reasonable opportunity of being deloused in the 
short time at tlieir disposal. My experience of these so-called 
" rest areas " has been tbat they rarely fulfil any of tliese re- 
quirements, and that the weary troops have to turn to and set 
their house in order. Billets are often dirty and uncared for, 
sanitary appliances are insufficient, water supplies are ill-pro- 
tected, and baths are badly arranged and defective. The con- 
sequence of this want of preparation is that time is wasted, and 
much of the benefit that would have been derived is lost, espe- 
cially when, as has so frequently occurred, Divisions have been 
brought back for two or three weeks well-earned rest and have 
had to be sent back to the firing line in as many days. An 
efficiv'int Area Sanitary Officer would make it his business to 
see that these rest areas were in reality places where the war- 
worn troops could be recreated with as little labour as possible 
to themselves. 

The ordinary sanitary duties and chlorination of drinking 
water for a unit are carried out by the Sanitary Squads ana 
water duty men of that unit, the numbers in each ease being 



Some Impressions of a Divisional Sanitary Officer in France. 283 

laid down by army regulations in accordance with the full 
strength. It would appear to be quite obvious that the sanitary 
duties and the purification of drinking water should be kex)t 
quite separate; it was, however, frequently my experience, es- 
pecially in the smaller units and those of recent formation, to 
find tlie same N.C.O.'s and men discharging both duties. An- 
other cause of trouble was the practice of chooising the K.C.O.'s 
and men for these very important duties from the ranks of 
those, who were physically or mentally, and often both physi- 
cally and mentally unfit for responsible work of any kind. Soon 
after joining my Division, and while still in England, I re- 
ceived orders from the A.D.M.S. to give a course of instruc- 
tion to sanitary squads and water duty men, and afterward? 
to examine them and report on tlieir proficiency. In this way 
one early came into touch -with the various sanitary squads and 
water duty men, and was able to weed out the incapables, and 
insist on the full complement. Whenever the Division was in 
an area for a sufficient length of time a sanitary school was 
organised and sanitary squads and water duty men were given 
a course of lectures and instruction in practical work. It was 
always my aim to impress on them the supreme importance of 
the duties they were engaged in, and to rouse their enthusiasm. 
The Sanitary man is often looked upon somewhat askance by 
his fellows, especially as he is excused certain parades and- 
obligations that would interfere with his work, but j)robably 
more particularly because he receives an extra 4d. per day for 
his unsavoury duties. This attitude is well expressed in the 
experience of the zealous sanitary man, who while removing, 
buckets from the latrines to a suitable spot for burial of their 
contents was met by a squad of his comrades; one of the latter 
raising the cry, "What did you do in the Great War, Daddy?" 
was echoed by a ribald chorus of "Carried ." I weU re- 
member in my early days a;s Divisional Sanitary Officer how 
often, when one visited a unit and introduced oneself to the 
Adjutant, he would in his cheery, helpful way, say, "Oh, y^,. 
you have come to see Uie latrines! Here they are! ! ! " and tliis 



284 Somr I iHinrss'ioiis oi n I >'i rtsional Sanliarf/ Officer in France. 

"vvith such an air of finality as to impress one with the opinion 
that he considered one's jurisdiction be^n and ended in these 
temples of Hygeia. I Avais, therefore, very soon able to sym- 
pathise with the feelings of the unfortunate sanitary man men- 
tioned above, and to appreciate the necessity of arousing in all 
engaged in these duties a feeling of pride and emulation. By | 
frequently meeting these men in classes, and listening to their 
tix)ubles, one was able to gain their confidence, and often to 
adjust unfair conditions that lessened the value of their work. 
Labours of sanitary and water duty men are too important, and, 
if carried out properly, too onerous to admit of the attendance 
at all the ordinary parades, while the carrying of the full equip- 
ment of an infantry man when engaged in their duties is an 
impossibility. Moreover, the "going over the top" during raids, 
•or at any time except on occasions of dire neoessity, leads to thei 
loss of men, who have been carefull}^ trained in special duties, 
ai-e necessary for preserving the health of the unit, and cannotj 
be rej^laeed at a moment's notice. All of the above disabilities 
are provided for by special regulations, which are not, how- 
ever, always complied with. One fully recognises the troubles 
of a Commanding Ofiicer M'hose unit is I'educed to half strength 
or even lower, and who is at his wits end to know where to 
turn for men to perform the various combatant duties allotted 
to him, and it is not always easy to persuade him that th& 
work of the sanitary and Avater duty men is unusually im- 
portant at such a time of stress. Difficulties of this descrip- 
tion rarely occurred M'ith officers of experience, but when 
owing to the heavy casualties, and the constant call for more 
officers for our rapidly increasing armies, mere boys were 
often placed in positions of great responsibility, it was not 
surprising that the demands of sanitation were occasionally 
sacrificed in the endeavour to maintain the combatant strength. 
After the Somme offensive, when the Division was in course 
of reconstruction, and numbers of young officers were coming 
over to fill the places of those who had fallen, I received in- 
structions to give lectures on sanitation to all hevvly-arrived 



Some Impressions' of a Divisional Sanitary Officer in France. 285- 

Company Officers and Non-commissioned Officers. Later I had 
the privilege of giving a course of lectures at the Corps School 
to the Medical Officers of my own Division, and of one Aus- 
tralian and one New Zealand Division. It was witli some 
trepidation that I faced members of my own profession iu> 
discourse on matters of which they probably had preconceived 
ideas, but with them, as witli the company officers, I always 
found a most attentive audience, and learned much from dis- 
cussing their difficulties with them. Classes of this description 
would appear to be invaluable as a means of spreading the 
general interest in sanitary aims and methods, and bringing- 
the Sanitary Officers into touch witli those who are responsible 
for the health of their units. 

The brilHant results achieved in tlie prevention of disease 
during the Great War are without doubt mainly attributable 
to the diffusion of sanitary knowledge combined with a system 
of organised inspection. Immense as are the effects of anti- 
typhoid inoculation in affording protection from the chief 
scourge of modern warfare, it must be recognised that that 
protection is only relative, and that without efficient sanitary 
provision the incidence of diseases of the typhoid group would 
unquestionably have been serious. 

The prevalence of diseases of this description among the 
uninoculated was nearly six times as great as among the 
inoculated ; while the admissions i>er tliousand for these disease* 
in the Boer War were 87 times as great, and in the German 
army in the Franco- Prussian War over 53 times as great as 
in the British Expeditionary Foiye in France and Belgium. 
After giving full credit to the restraining influence of anti- 
typhoid inoculation in the prevention of epidemics and the 
consequent reduction of the amount of infective material to 
which the susceptible were exj)osed, it is difficult to believo 
that such a marked reduction could have occurred tJirough 
this agency alone, and a very large balance of the credit must 
stand to the account of the general sanitary measures. 



286 >n,,n Iii//>ir.ssh))/.s nf n Dirisinnal Sanitary Officer in France, 

To form a true estimate of the value of improved sanitation 
•in the reduction of disease it is necessary to examine the 
statistics regarding bacillary dysentery, which in recent wars 
has shared a numerical importance only slightly inferior to 
that of the typhoid group. For this disease no protection was 
provided except that embraced in the maintenance of a pure 
water supply and careful sanitary precautions, yet the results 
achieved were almost as striking as in the case of typhoid. 
In the Boer War the admissions for dysentery per 1,000 were 
forty times as great as in the British Expeditionary Force in 
France and Belgium, and in the Franco- Prussian War ;the 
admissions were twenty-five times as great. The statistics 
of the incidence of dysentery in the British Expeditionary Force 
in France and Belgium for the different years are exceedingly 
suggestive, and are as follows: — 

1914 0-05 per 1,000. strength. 

1915 003 

1916 4-09 „ „ 

1917 3-76 

1918 0-79 

It will be observed that during 1915 when our armies were 
practically stationary and efficient sanitary supervision \\q.s 
possible the admission rate for dysentery became almost negli- 
g'ible, but that during 1916 and 1917, when our armies were 
engaged in active operations, followed by local advances and 
insecure tenure of occupied territory when effective sanitary 
measures were almost impossible, the admission rate for dysen- 
tery suddenly increased more than a hundredfold. In gauging 
the importance of the great reduction of cases of dysentery 
in the British Expeditionary Force ais compared with previous 
wars it is necessary to remember that the presence of this 
disease in any appreciable amount is invariably accompanied 
by a far higlier percentage of cases of diarrhoea, A^ich though 
insufficiently severe to be classified as dysentery considerably 
reduces the strength of the units attacked, and is therefore 
a factor of supreme importance in warfare. 



Some Impressions of a Divismml Sanitary Officer in France. :287 

On more than one occasion I have heard it suggested that it 
it unfair to draw conclusions regarding the prevalence of disease 
durins" the Boer War, as the conditions were so different from 
those obtaining in Fi^noe and Belgium. Personally I am of 
the opinion that had careful sanitary provision not been made 
the results would have been far more serious than they wei'e 
in South Africa. In the first fifteen months of the war the 
French armies had 95,809 oases of typhoid with 11,680 c^eatlis, 
and it was only by adopting a more thorough system of inocu- 
lation and improving their methods of water supply and general 
sanitation that disaster was averted. 

It should be remembered that our new armies were 'drawn 
frOm a population that for years had been guarded by an 
almost perfect sanitary system, that they lacked the protection 
afforded by the discipline of regular troops, and the immunity 
from intestinal diseases acquired by those living under less 
perfect sanitary conditions. They were suddenly dumped into 
a country where sanitary provision was conspicuous by its ab- 
sence, where intestinal diseases were very prevalent, and 
carriers abundant. In Havre, where so many of them first set 
foot in France, the recorded annual mortality from typhoid 
was 115 per 100,000, and this would probably be considerably 
higher were notification compulsory. The fact that we were 
fighting in a friendly country naturally led to a much freer 
intercourse with the inhabitants, and greatly increased the 
danger of contact with carriers, especially among the children. 
My experience of water supplies is that they all gave evidence 
of fsecal contamination, and anyone who has enjoyed the shelter 
of an ordinary billet in France or Belgium w'ill agree with me 
that this was apparently the object aimed at in the faulty 
construction of well and privy and their mutual proximity. 

I call to mind one well in which the loose masonry that 
eurroimded it was all that sepamted it from the badly con- 
structed privy, and numberless others where a few feet of soil 
of moro than questionable purity formed the only protection 
from the same danger. A sanitary officer in search of a 



288 Some Impressions of a Divisional Sanitary Officer in France. 

domestic privy soou learned that he wais on a hot scent when 
he had found the well. Another apparently inevitable law in 
the construction of welLs in the farmhouses of France and 
Belgium, which were the usual billets selected, was that they 
should be sunk not more than 10 or 15 feet from the midden^ 
which occupied the greater part of the central courtyard and 
received all the manure, slops, and houisehold refuse for at 
least 12 months before being* removed to fertilize the land. 
These middens served the double purpose of giving a distinctive 
flavour to the water supply, and forming an excellent breeding 
ground and nursery for myriads of that chummy little house- 
hold pet — the domestic fly. 

The country generally had for j-ears been under intensive 
cultivation, which in other words meant that the land liad 
been treated with organic matter to ^-ery nearly the full extent 
of its nitrifying capacity, and required very Little additional 
fouling to produce overstrain. Moreover, the practice of 
spreading the contents of privies and cesspits over the gardenSj. 
often in the immediate vicinit}- of ill-protected wells, was 
a constant source of danger, especially as the subsoil water: 
in the north of France and Belgium, from which the drinking 
supplies were usually drawn, was rarely more than two or three- 
feet below the surface. 

In a country of the above description it was necessary to 
concentrate our armies to such an extent that overcrowding 
habitually occurred to at least five times the amount per- 
missible in the worst quartere of our great towns. Over and 
above " this, the troops were frequently exposed to wet and 
cold under conditions that made it impossible to provide any 
remedy, while fatigue and the harrowing effect of constant 
shell fire in muddy trenches, only reKeved by short spells of 
rest in ill-lighted, damp, and airless dug-outs, and the irrita,- 
tion and sleeplessness produced by vermin were sufficient tO' 
reduce the resisting power of the hardiest to the inroads of 



Some Impressions' of a Divisional Sanitary Officer in France. 289 

Such lioonsiderations, I Iniaintain, were calculated to produce a 
nightmare of the worst description for any responsible sani- 
tai'ian, and the results achieved under conditions so unpromising 
reflect the greatest credit both on the system and on all those 
officers, non-commissioned officers and men who early reoognised 
the supi-eme importance of efficient sanitation, and by loyal 
co-operation, often in circumstances of extreme difficulty, made 
such results possible. 



PART III. 



REMINISCENCES OF A PRISONER OF 
WAR IN TURKEY, 



By 
C. E. M. JO:n'ES, Captain R.A.M.C.(T.). 



On April 29tli, 1916, the garrison of Kut-el-Amara, at the end 
of a siege whioh began on Decemher 5th, 1915, surrendered to 
the Turks. It had been obvious for some' time that the food 
supply would not hold out beyond a certain date,, and the daily 
ration, which had been gradually diminishing, during the last 
three weeks of tlie sieg-e, had consisted of four ounces of bread 
and twelve ounces of horse or mule. When the last of the 
grain Avas finished, the end came. At the end of the siege 
about 30 taien per day were dying of! starvation, and the gar- 
rison were weakened from lack of food and diseases such as 
dysentery, malaria, and scurvy. We moved up-stream to- Sham- 
rau, where the main Turkish camp was situated, and on the 
journey up, a Turkish medical officer, a Pasha, I'equested our 
Regimental M.O.'s to select those men who were specially 
weak or ill in order that extra food should be given them. We 
found, however, on ariiving at our destination in the evening 
that no food of any sort had been provided for anyone. The 
next morning, after lu'gent representations had been made, 
three Tiu'kish army biscuits were issued per man. These 
biscuits are fearfully and wonderfully made; they are circular 
in shape, about three inches in diameter, and lialf an inch 
thick; as hard as rock, and about ns palatable, and required 
^0 be stamped on, or hit Avith a hammer, to be broken. Never- 



292 Jleminl^< I'll' ■■■ of a Prisoner of War in Tiirl'eij. 

theless, tlioy were easerh- devoured by ili • tioup.s, who wei*e 
ravenous. The eaiinu- of these biscuits was followed by very 
unpleasant results: when soaked in "\\ater they swell to about 
twioe theii* size ; this fact, and the fact that they were mostly 
mouldy, caused most men ^vlio ate them to develop a trouble- 
some enteritis. About this time, also, we had several deaths 
from what very closely resembled cholera, if it was not actually. 
Men would be seized with labdominal pain, diarrhoea, and mus- 
cular cramp, and would be dead in a few hours. The Turks^ 
being absolutely unable to feed us, guve permission for our 
people down stream to send a boat up with' food, etc., for us: 
and canteen and mess stores, tinned milk, etc., arrived. In 
the j<)y of lonce again eating a really satisfying- meal we tem- 
porarily forgot our sorrows. The result of i-eturning' suddenly 
to ordinary diet was, as had been foretold, that a good many 
men developed jaundice, but everyone agreed that it was worth 
it! After a few days A\-e were told that the officers would be 
separated from the men and would proceed by boat to Bagdad, 
whereas the men would march. Representations having been 
made to the Turkish Commandant that the men w^ere weak 
from lack of fooid, and from disease, and were consequently 
quite unfit to undertake a long march in tropical heat, an order 
was given for Ilegimental M.O.'s to select any cases that they 
considered unfit to march in order that they might be examined 
by a Turkish doctor. The sick were paraded, and a sorry sight 
they were! The inspection by the Turkish doctor was charac- 
teristic of Ottoman methods; he selected a very small number 
for Itransportatian by boat, and said tliat the remainder would 
march. On being l-emonstrated witli, and being told that the 
men were weak and quite unfit to undertake the march, he 
replied that starvation is not a pathological condition, and 
scores of men weakened by lack of food, and debilitated by 
malaria and dysentery, and even men with legs swollen from 
Beri-Beri, w^ere compelled to start on a march which, for such,, 
could have but one ending. As to who was responsible for 
ordering the men to start on this march, I don't know, but this^ 



Reminiscences of a Prisoner of War in Turkey. 293 

he miist have known, that such men Avei-ei being- made to mai*oh 
about oOO miles, in tropical heat, through country where water 
was often scant and brackish, and where the most primitive 
arrangements only were possible for feeding- them. Such a 
march imder these conditions Avould have tried thd fittest troops, 
and in the cas-e of the Kut garrison it was simply sending* 
scores of men to certain death. Shortly after the men had 
started on their march, the oflBicers and their servants left for 
Bagdad by boat in two parties, each consisting of about 100 
officers and an equal number of servants. On; board our boat 
we found about half a dozen Germans, junior officers, and war- 
rant officers, and one could not help remarking that the Ger- 
man and Tiu-kish officers held aloof from eachj other. I found 
this to be the case wherever I happened to be ; the Germans 
and Turks hated each other so cordially that I often mar- 
velled that they held together as long as they did. 

On reaching Bagdad we disembarked at what was formerly 
the British Consulate, and used at that thne, as a Turkish Hos- 
pital. The offioere w-ere here f alien-in in order of seniority, 
and then marched through the sti^ets to the Cavalry Barracks. 
The most noticeable thing in connection with our mai-ch through 
Bagdad was, that altliough the streets w'ei-e throng-ed with 
spectators, they remained absolutely silent, and made no- hos- 
tile demonstration Avhatever. This may have been due possibly 
to an oi-der from the Turkish authorities, but more probably 
owing to the fact that a very larg-e section' of the inhabitants 
were anglophile. 

We remained two days in the Cavalry Barracks; at Bagdad. 
We Avere inforjned tliat we should be limited to 45 lbs. of kit 
each, so we proceeded to try and sell any superfluous clothing, 
etc., to the various Jews and Armenians who came into the 
barracks. These gentry were out for something for nothing, 
and it wofl amusing, even if somewhat undignified,i the way in 
B "which we haggled over the prices. We had, however, practi- 
H oally no money, and a long trek ahead of us, so could not affoitl 



294 liemimffcences of a Prisoner of War in Tiulx'ey. 

not then realised tliat practically every Turkish officer is also 
a merchant, if opportunity offers, and always on the look- 
out to buy and sell at a profit. A Turkish lieutenant came 
in and asked to be introduced to a British cavalry officer ; 
when one was produced the Turk informed him that he had 
been anxious for a long time to meet a British cavalryman, 
and lasked him^ if he would sell him his spurs for sixpence, 
he was quite disappointed when the offer was refused. 

We /were eventually given some money by thei Turkish autho- 
rities, the amount varying according to rank. A captain was 
given 10 lira, four in gold and six: in paper. A lira is 100 
plasties, land is worth 16s. 8d., theoretically. One adds the 
word theoretically because the paper lira was only worth one- 
fifth of the gold lira, as we found to our cost, and the Arabs 
would not usually accept paper money at all. 

On leaving Bagdad we proceeded by rail to Samara, which 
was then the railhead, distant about 80 miles from Bagdad. 
Here we remained for another two days before starting on our 
trek of about 350 miles across the desert. Each officer was 
given a mule or donkey, and we 'had no! other transport, and 
our Servants were given no transport. We worked' in pairs; 
one donkey carried the kits of two officers and their servants, 
and the other was ridden. The trek took us about three weeks. 
After [the lapse of three years much of the detail remains only 
as (a confused memory, but the heat, the lack of water, and its 
often lindifferent quality when obtainable, the difficulty in buy- 
ing food, and the fact that one had not recovered from; the 
effects of the siege and was not fit, all contributed to make 
this Itrek one of the most unpleasant " stunts " I have ever 
been on, and if those days were unpleasant for us, what Imust 
have been the lot of the ranlv and' file, who were unprovided 
with transport and marched every yard of th^ distance; who 
were, to all intents and purposes, penniless, and' for whom no 
adequate amangements for food had been made; and' who 
were often subjected to barbarous treatment -by their guards. 
The icondition of tlie survivons at the end of the march on their 



Beminiscenc'es of a Prisoner of War in Turkey. 295 

arrival at Ras-el-Ain gavie one some Binall idea of what thej 
liad Tjeen through. 

After about ten days we reached Mosul, where we remained 
two days in the barracks. We were allowed to go out for our 
meals to two restaurants. At our first meal we went straight 
through the " a la carte " menu, and drank coloured mineral 
waters but of real tumblers. At Mosul we were each given a 
post card and (told we might write home. We eagerly availed 
ourselves of this privilege, though we felt doubtful as to 
whether our cards would ever reach England; as a matter of 
fact they did, and these cards, received in England on July 
14th, were the ^rst communications which our friends had re- 
oeived from; us since the previous December. 

We made the journey !from Mosul to Ras-el-Ain in nine da3n5, 
a distance of about 150 mliles, and the whole trek had occupied 
us about three weeks. Everyone was thankful that we liad 
onoe more reached the railway. At !Ras-el-Ain we met three 
or four Germian officers, and learned from them; of the death 
of Lord Kitohener, and the battle of the Skagerrak. That 
afternoon a message came from the Turkish Commandant at 
Eas-el-Ain saying that he wished to see all the imedical officers. 
Ten of us in all went to his quarters, and to our horror learned 
that we were to be kept there for the purpose of looking 
after about 3,000 Indian troops who were coming to work on 
the trailway. Oilr feelings, on hearing that we were to remain 
in this loathsome spot, can be imagined! However, nothing 
could be done, and the next morning we saw the rest of our 
party go off by train; it was a big wrench saying good-bye to 
many good friends, and we left the station feeHng* thoroughly 
miserable. 'Eas-el-Ain was little more than a large Arab vil- 
lage, the houses being made of mud; it had one main sti'eet, 
which was almost nine inches deep in dust; ite sole redeeming 
feature was its water supply, which came from two or three 
springs, and there was a really delightful pool in which we 
bathed every morning and evening. 



296 Reminiscences of a Prisoner of War in Turkey'. 

"Wo were at first quartered in a dilapidated marquee, but we 
complained to the Commandant that we could not stand the 
heat, w^hich was very great, and we -were promised a house. 
After some days' delay we were given new quarters. Four of 
us fend our servants were given two roomsi in a house occupied 
by an old man and his wdfe and children. The house was built 
of mud, and consisted of three rooms built along one of the 
walls of a compound about twenty yards squai^. The man 
and his family objected strongly to our presence when we 
appeared on the scene, but, finding* that we were there by the 
Commandant's orders, he quieted down, and eventually became 
quite friendly. Our room was about 15 feet by 8 feet and 
about 8 feet liigh, and was totally devoid of anything in the 
shape of furniture. The four of us occupied this room, ajid 
the second room was utilised as a kitchen and for our servants. 
In Ithis salubrious spot we spent four of the most awful months 
-of our lives; w^e had nothing to do, practically nothing to read, 
^nd (nothing to look forward to except our next meal and our 
bathing. Food was not easy to obtain always aad the heat w'as 
Tory trying; the Commandajit was a perfect beast, half a 
Turk and half a Kurd; altogether not a very desirable spot. 
Portunately we w^ere able to buy tobacco. 

We could do nothing in the way of treating the sick Indian 
troops, as the building which was euphemistically called the 
Turkish hospital boasted practically no drugs. One morning 
there w^ere 60 men suffering from diarrhoea, and the total drugs 
available for the whole 60 consisted of 15 grains of Bismuth, 
J gr. per man, and when that was finishedi there would be no 
more. To add to our joys w^e all got ill with sand-fly fever, 
and we had all been troubled with a sort of chronic enteritis 
for months. 

A little temporary excitement was occasionally provided, when 
all ten of us were sent for to go to the Commandant's office; 
this happened several times, and it usually meant that we were 
required to go and examine someone who was- sick. This was 
often some Turkish official who was doing his best to plead 



Reminiscences of a Prisoner of War in Turkey. 297 

sickness as an excuse to be sient away from Has-el-Ain. We 
pointed out that it was hardly necessary for ten of us to see 
the patient, but to no effect. One day, however, we were all 
sent for, and on our arrival at the office we found the tempo- 
rary Commandant cutting* up ten small squares of paper; he 
marked three of these squares, and folded all the squares of 
paper, and held them in his hand. Wei each, drew a piece of 
paper, and I and tw^o others drew the three marked squares. 
We were then informed that we three were to go to the Amanuis 
mountains to look after the British prisoners of war who had 
had a lot of sickness. We knew nothing of the Amanue moun- 
tains, but were convinced that they could not be worse than 
Ras-el-Ain, and we were delighted to be off. We left the 
next day. After travelling for three days we arrived at 
Bagt<jhe, in the Amanus district, the latter part' of the journey 
being on the small-gauge railway. Just before reaching Bag- 
tche we passed through the tunnel which was. bored throug*h 
the mountain at Airan. This tunnel is about 2,500 metres long 
but it took us four hours to get through it, as work was still 
going on and blasting was in progress. Our train consisted 
of smaU open trucks, and the brakesmen on the waggons carried 
acetyline lamps. When the blasting took place we felt pres- 
sure on the drums of our ears, and' all the lamps were blown 
out by the explosion. 

At Bagtohe we found some Englishmen still left, but the 
majority had recently been sent away, owing to the great 
amount of sickness. I should explain that Bagtche was one 
of several stations of the Bagdad Railway Construction Com- 
pany. This company was a German civilian undertaking; when 
-w^ar broke out the railway extended from Constantinople as far 
south as Bozanti, where the Taurus Mountains stopped' it. In 
the Taurus and Amanus districts there Avas no' line, which re- 
commenoed at Islahie, a few hours* run from Aleppo, and ran 
as far as Bas-el-Ain. Tunnelling operations in the Taurus and 
Amanus had commenced about two years before the war, and 
the work continued whilst the Avar was in progress, and prisoners 



298 lieminiscences of a 'Prisoner of War in Turkey. 

of ivar were sent to work on the line. Both the Taurus and 
Amanus districts are very malarial in the summer, and at 
Bagtche the men had suffered a great deal from malaria and 
dysentery, and in the course of three months about 200 had 
died, I was told. 

At Bagtche we remained two days, and tlien I continued my 
journey, having been told I was to go to Belemedik, in the 
Taurus; my two oompanions remained at Bagtche. After 
about (thjpee days' travelKng by rail and motor lorry, the latter 
over about 30 miles of vile roads, I reach Belemedik on the 
29th October, 1916; here I found Major P., of the I.M.S., 
whom I had last seen as lie passed through' Ilas-el-Ain. There 
were also a number of British prisoners of war from Gallipoli 
and Mesopotamia. (Belemedik was the Headquarter Section of 
this locality, and was the most civilised spot I had seen for la 
long' time. The building-s were practically all of the wood 
bungalow type and of European design. I was quite- courte- 
ously received by the Turkish Commandant, a colonel, and by 
the second engineer of the company. The next morning I was 
taken by the Commandant to the hospital and presented to 
the Cerman doctor in cliarge; hjer© I was given the first cigar 
I had smoked for months ! It was decided that I should be 
sent to Hadjkiri, the out-lying section of thei division of which 
Belemedik was the headquarters, and I was instructed to re- 
port myself to the engineer and the Armenian doctor, on my 
arrival, the next day. Major P., who lived in the hospital, 
took me down to the quarters occupied by the British, where I 
made the acquaintance of the senior non-commissioned officer 
of the camp, who was a naval petty -officer, and' some others 
who happened to.be in at the time. My clothing at this time 
was neither plentiful nor in good repair, and I took the oppor- 
timity of purchasing a shirt at the company store. Petty -officer 
S. also presented me with some woollen underclothing which 
had been sent out in some parcels of Haval comforts, and this 
w^as most acceptable. The next day I started o£^ on my jour- 
ney to Hadjkiri, distant about nine miles, over the mountains. 



Reminiscefrces of a Prisoner of War in Turlcey. 299 

I rode a small ponv, my valise was carried by another, and 
my escort, a gendarme, ixxie a mule, The road across tlie 
mountains was uneven and stony, but the scenery was very 
picturesque and a pleasant contrast to the dead level plain at 
EaiS-el-Ain; but I was destined to become very sick of these 
mountains! I passed through two of the sections, and met 
some more British, and finally reached Hadjkiri, where I was 
fated to spend the next two years and two months of my 
existence. It struck me as being a thoroughly dreary spot, 
and my hopes, which had risen somewhat on. seeing Belemedik, 
fell. My guide took me to the engineer's house, and we ulti- 
mately discovered him near by; he was dressed^ in blue over- 
alls aiid a German peaked cap — ^rather a contrast to the more 
elegantly attired individual I had seen at Belemedik. I was 
taken to my room, which proved to be in the same bungalow 
as the Commandant, and on my arrival there the Commandant 
was still in possession, and was lying on his bed. He was a 
lieutenant, probably an ex-ranker, but quite civil. He re- 
moved his furniture and I was left in an empty room with my 
vaUse. It Avas about 4 p.m. (and I had eaten nothing since 
bi-ecikfast, so I proceeded to glo out in search of the hospital 
and a possible tea. I met a woman who addressed me in Eng- 
lish, and asked me if I was the English' doctor, and informed 
me that she was the Armenian doctor's cousin. I was taken to 
the hospital, a somewhat fearsome structure, and was given 
some tea, during the consumption of which I was introduced 
to various Armenian hospital oflficials, such as pharmacist, ward 
orderlies, secretary, etc. All these greeted me cordially, but 
I afterwards found them, for the most part, very undesirable 
gentry. Whilst I was interviewing these creatures the Armenian 
doctor arrived, and expressed himself as delighted to see me. 
He was a youngish man, quite good -mannered, but like most 
Armenians I have met, I found him very two-faoed. He had 
a Ifiair knowledge of medicine, but was utterly ignorant of sur- 
gery. The news of my arrival had been noised abroad, and a 
naval chief petty -officer, who was the Senior N.C.O. of tlie 



•300 Ji( liui/i^m/rcM of a Prlsoi/rr of War in Turkey. 

British at Hadjkiri, came to see me. I went with him to the 
barracks, and saw the men, about 50 in number, and nearly all 
looking weak and ill from analaria; the majority; of them had 
■done practically no work for about three months. A servant 
wms found for me, a New Zealander, Private G.; he was one of 
the best fellows in the world, and his kindness to me I shall 
always remember. The hospital at this time was a small 
building- containing about 14 beds; this number was quite in- 
adequate, and there were also two wooden buildings, stables, 
which were converted into an extension of the hospital. In 
the hospital proper two patients slept in one bed, and they 
slept in their ordinary, day -clothes; the feeding might have 
been worse, but it might also have been better, and by com- 
plaining' to the Armenian doctor we got it much improved. 

The Armenian pharmacist was also in charge of the feeding 
arrangements; he Avas paid 9 piastres per head per day for 
the patients' food. This money was paid by the company; he 
spent about 3 or 4 piastres per head per day, and kept the 
rest for himself. He and tlie Armenian doctor also sold a 
certain amount of drugs, which were sent out by the head- 
quarter hospital at Belemedik. I found that onO' reason why 
the British weye so sick with malaria was that often no qui- 
nine Avas obtainable at ,the hospital, and a man who ^\aB feeling 
rotten with an attack of malaria did not feel very inclined to 
walk half a mile to the hospital only to find that there was no 
quinine. The quinine pills which the Pharmacist made were 
also probably at least 50 per cent, flour. I therefore obtained 
a kilogram of quinine from Belemedik, and gave it out to 
Chief Petty-Officer A., telling him to issue it out morning and 
-evening to any sick man. This plan, together with the issuing 
of some tonic in the same way, produced a marked improve- 
ment at the end of a fortnight As C.P.-O. A. put it : " The 
men are a lot better, sir; a fortnight ag'O tlie barrack was as 
silent as the grave in the evening, nobody wanting to talk, 
w^hereas last night I actually heard two men arguing ! " About 
a fortnight after my arrival, all the men, with the exception of 



Reminiscences of a Prisoner of War in Turkey. 301 

hjalf-a-dozen, were sent away to a prisoned of war camp at 
Afion--Kara-Hissar, being considered unfit for work with the 
company. 

In the spring of 1917 a new hospital was built, and a nurs- 
ing sister, recently arrived from Grermany, came out to take 
charg-e of it. There was an immediate improvement in every 
way directly the control was taken out of the hands of the 
Armenian doctor and pharmacist; the sick were cleaner, better 
fed, and obtained an adequate amount of drug®;' and the cap- 
able administration of this sister undoubtedly saved many lives. 
The Company managed to obtain a good supply of drugs etc... 
from Germany, which wa^s fortunate for us, as the Turks had 
practically none. Some ^months later we began to receive con- 
signments of certain medicines and medical comforts, which 
were despatched by a committee of ladies working at Hove. 
These medical comforts, consisting of condensed milk, Glaxo,. 
Ovaltine, Bovril, Oxo, Brand's Essence, etc., were of very great 
value to the sick, who greatly appi'eciated the kindness of those 
who had worked so well on their behalf. Tlie number of 
workmen in Hadjkiri section was about 3,000, and there wei-e 
about 70 beds in the liospital, which were usually full, exoej^t 
in the months of April land May, which wei-e the healthiest 
months of the year. July, August, and September produced 
many sick, this being the malarial season; and there was also 
a good deal of dysentery. When tlie weather became colder, 
in November and December, and tlie Greek, Armenian, and 
Turkish workmen consequently gave up washing themselves and 
became covered with lioe, then typhus would begin and last 
more or lees until the weatJier again becamei warmer in March 
or April. "We had about 30 cases of typhus my first winter 
there, with a mortality of about 20 per oent., and at the head- 
quarter section the number of cases was mucli' greater. The 
following winter the usual epidemic was almost avoided omng 
to all the workmen being compelled to go tlirough a bath once 
a Meek, and their clothing and bedding was stoved at the same 
time. Undoubtedly malai-ia was the greatest scourge, and 



302 Reminiscences of a Prisoner of War in Turkey. 

many cases Ave re of the analignant type. I found that the in- 
travenous injection of 7 grains of quinine gave the best re- 
sults; many of the malarial cases developed nephritis, but 
this usually cleared up Avith quinine and suitable diet. 

Fourteen languages were spoken in Hadjkiri, so it was not 
always easy to converse with tlie patients, but we most of 'us 
knew a little Turkish, so mana^d somehow. One's chief 
trouble Avas the appalling monotony of one's existence. My 
work occupied about two hours per day and the remainder of 
the time had to be be passed somehow. During practically the 
W'hole of my time at Hadjkiri there were only six British there. 
The Senior N.C.O., a sergeant in tlie Australian Light Horse, 
and incidentally a gentleman, AA^as a charming felloAv, but un- 
fortunately he was Avorking all day in the blacksmith's shop 
at the works near the mouth of the itunnel. However, in the 
eA^enings he would sometimes come to my room, with my ser- 
vant, and we would smoke land drink tea, and I would trans- 
late the Turkish paper, printed in Frendh. We' were, of course, 
alloAA'ed no neAvspapers from England, and had to rely on the 
Turkish and German papers. These Avere, naturally, hopelessly 
inaccurate, but one' oould glean some sort of general informa- 
tion from them. At other times I would goi down to the men's 
barrack, Avhere a kindly welcome was always given me. About 
once a month I Avould' go and visit Major P. at Belemedik, 
and we usually spent the eA^enin^ chatting Avith' a fcAv of the 
Senior N.C.O.'s, discussing the latest war neAvs, and wondering 
Avhen we AA^ere going to get out of Turkey. Occasionally one 
or two captured British officers from the Palestine Front would 
pass (through, and we sometimes had an opportunity of chatting 
Avith them and learning tlie latest news that they could give us. 

And teo the months rolled on. In September, 1918, we were 
following AUenby's advance in Palestine with intense interest, 
and we also managed to get neAvs of our great advance in 
France. Our hopes rose daily, and when Grermany aad her 
satellites asked for an armistice we felt thaii the end of our 
troubles was in sight. During October we saw every day trains 



Reminiscences of a Prisoner of War in Turkey. 303 

pass through loaded with Germans and Turks from Palestinej 
and early in iNovember, when we heard that, Turkey had signed 
the (armistice, we felt we were free men again and the British^ 
French, Italian, Russian, and Serbian flags were hoisted over 
their respective barracks. The time between the signing of 
the armistice and our departure on December 7th' seemed to us 
terribly long, but everything is said to come to him who waits, 
and when we eventually received orders to leave, Ave departed 
in high spirits and Union Jacks flj'ing from* every waggon on' 
the train. We travelled by rail to Mersina, where a boat 
awaited us, and we embarked, thankful once more to set foot 
on iBritish soil. We were landed at Port Said, and after wait- 
ing for ten days in a Rest Camp we sailed from Port Said on 
December 2Gth for Taranto, travelled up through Italy and 
France to Calais, and landed at Dover on January 9th, 1919. 

So ended our captivity in Turkey! 



I 



A PRISONERS-OF-WAR LIBRARY 

Being the 

HISTORY OF THE BRITISH OFFICERS' LIBRARY, 
STRALSUND, GERMANY. 



By 

MAJOR LUXMOORE NEWCOMBE, < 
Sub-Librarian, University Collegie, London, 

AND 

LIEUT. JOHN H. E. WINSTOX, 
Late Wills Librarian, Guv's Hospital. 



It may be of interest to Librarians who have not had tlie 
privilege of being guests of the Ex- Emperor of Germany at 
one of his Homes of Rest for British Offioei's to have a few 
details of the foundation and development of a Library in a 
Prisoners-of-War Camp. 

It is very difficult to con\'ey to the mind of anyone who lias 
not lived in a Prisonei-s-of-War Camp any idea of the numerous 
difficulties with which one had to contend in orgunising a 
library or any otlier bmnch of Camp life. For the firet thi-ee 
montlLS of our captivity, befoi-e we' i-eoeived oui- food parcels 
from England, we wei-e practically starved, and everyone was 
so cxti'aoi'dinarily weak that \'ery often the walk of some 
three hundi-ed yards from oui* Barrack to the Libi-ary was 
sufficient to incapacitate us for the rest of the day. We found 
that two hours' work daily was as mucii as we could do. 
This in itself made progress very slow. 

PART III. U 



306 A Pris<)}i('rs-()j-\V<ir Lihrarj/. 

Botli llio writei's ol* this sxrticle Avere captured on the Chemin 
des Dames on May 27th, 1918. A fortniglit later we reached a 
temporary camp at Rastatt, whore there Avere some four hun- 
dred British and several hundred French officers. 

Apart from eating the very small quantity o:^ excessively 
unappetising food which we were given by the German Govern- 
ment, there Avas very little to be done all day. We had n