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Full text of "Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits .."

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X 



EEPORTS 

OF THE 

CAMBRIDGE ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION 

TO 

TORRES STRAITS. 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, 

C. F. CLAY, Manager. 

ILonSon: FETTER LANE, E.G. 

ffilasgoto: 50, WELLINGTON STREET. 




ILonJon: H. K. LEWIS, 136, GOWER STREET, W.C. 

atipjig: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 

i%cto gotk: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS. 

ISombag anli Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd. 



[All Rights reserved.] 



EEPORTS 



OF THE 



CAMBRIDGE ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION 



TO 



TOEEES STEAITS. 



VOLUME III. 
LINGUISTICS 

BY 

SIDNEY H. RAY. 



CAMBRIDGE : 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 

1907 



PRINTED BY JOHX CLAY, M.A. 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



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PEEFACE. 

TOURING my first Expedition to Tones Straits I collected a large number of native 
"^'^ words of the Eastern and Western languages, as well as some from the neighbouring 
coast of British New Guinea. The Rev. A. E. Hunt, then resident Missionary on Murray 
Island, kindly permitted me to copy the English-Miriam Vocabulary he had compiled, 
and the Rev. E. B. Savage similarly allowed me to copy his Vocabulary of Miriam, Mabuiag 
and Daudai, in which the English equivalents were not given. I also had access to the 
Rev. Dr S. MacFarlane's Vocabulary of English-Mabuiag and Miriam, and finally Mr Robert 
Bruce permitted me to transcribe his copy of a valuable Vocabulary of Saibai-English 
compiled by James Sharon, who for a short time was the schoolmaster appointed by the 
Queensland Government to teach English to the natives of Saibai. The late Hon. John 
Douglas, C.M.G., the Government Resident, gave me permission to make what use I 
pleased of the Sharon MS. In addition to these manuscripts I obtained various printed 
books, such as translations of Gospels and service books. 

On my return home I offered all iny material to the Rev. Dr Codrington, whose name 
is so well known to all tho.se who interest themselves in Melanesia, in the hope that this 
distinguished scholar would undertake its elucidation and publication. This he was unable 
to do, but he suggested my applying to Mr Sidney H. Ray, whom he reconuneuded 
as a careful and diligent student of the languages of Oceania. I immediately followed 
Dr Codrington's advice and Mr Ray kindly consented to work through my material as well 
as that which was previously available in books. In due course we conjointly elaborated 
" A Study of the Languages of Torres Straits, with Vocabularies and Grammatical Notes," 
which was published by the Royal Irish Academy. I would like to take this opportunity 
of thanking that illustrious body for printing so large a memoir on a subject which was 
certainly remote from the ordinary interests of the members. I would also like to assure 
the Membei's of the Academy that if that memoir had not been printed it is extremely 
probable the present volume would never have been published ; at all events it greatly 
reduced the labour which would subsequently have been entailed and it certainly led to 
a more clear conception of the languages with which it was concerned. 

When I determined upon a second Expedition, my first thought was to endeavour to 
secure the co-operation of Mr Ray. At considerable sacrifice to himself he consented to 



2'^2tmr) 



VI PREFACE. 

join the Expedition, and tho thorough study of the languages of Tones Straits published 
in this volume demonstrates the excellent use he made of his opportunities. 

Mr Ray acknowledges the help given him by various colleagues, and thanks especially 
Mr John Bruce, of Murray Island, for assistance in many directions. 

An account of the gesture language of the Western Islanders by Dr C. G. Seligmann 
and Mr A. Wilkin, and one of that of the Eastern Islanders by myself are given at the 
end of Part I. Dr Seligmann and I also contributed notes on fire signals. Dr Seligmann 
and Mr G. Pimm supplied the Otati Vocabulary in Part II. With these exceptions 
Mr Ray is responsible for the whole of the present volume. 

Thanks are due to various friends who have helped me in the identification of plants 
and animals. Especially would I mention the great assistance rendered by the authorities 
at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew ; many of the plants we collected were in a very 
fragmentary condition, so any uncertainty there may be in identification is due solely to 
the imperfection of the material. 

I would like to take this first opportunity to record my regret and that of my colleagues 
at the death of the Hon. John Douglas, C.M.G., Government Resident at Thursday Island. 
He passed away on July 22, 1904, in the seventy-seventh year of his age, to the sorrow 
alike of Europeans and natives. For nearly twenty years he administered his archipelago 
with consideration and conciliation. He treated the natives with fatherly benevolence, 
never needlessly interfering with them, but always endeavouring to train them to govern 
themselves, and he strove to give efficacy and dignity to the rule of the Mamooses. The 
Expedition owes a considerable debt to him for hospitality and for various facilities, and 
it was through his good offices that the Queensland Government made a special grant of 
£100 towards the expenses of the Expedition. He has been succeeded by Hugh Milman, Esq., 
who was Acting Re.sident at the time of my rir.st Expedition, and to whom I, personally, 
am much indebted for assistance and hospitality. 

A. C. HADDON. 
Maij, 1907. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME III. 



PART I. 

THE LANGUAGES OF TORRES STRAITS. 



res Straits 



Introduction .......... 

A (Traininar of the Language spoken by the Western Islanders of Torres Straits 

A Grammar of the Miriam Language spoken by the Eastern Islanders of Torres Straits 

A Vocabulary of the Language of Mabuiag ...... 

A Vocabulary of the iMiriam Language spoken in the Eastern Islands of T 
A List of Introduced and Adapted Words .... 

An English Index to the Mabuiag and Miriam Vocabularies . 
The Litei-ature of the Western Islanders of Torres Straits 
The Literature of the Eastern Islanders of Torres Straits 
The Jargon English of Torres Straits ..... 

The Gesture Language of the Western Islanders. By C. G. Seligmasx and A. Wilkin 
The Gesture Language of the Eastern Islanders. By A. C. Haddon 
Fire Signals in Torres Straits. By C. G. Seligmann and A. C. Haddon 



PAGE 

1 

6 
49 
88 
131 
1(56 
170 
187 
226 
251 
2.^5 
201 
263 



PART II. 

THE LANGUAGES OF CAPE YORK PENINSULA, NORTH QUEENSLAND. 

Introduction ............... 264 

Structure of the Languages ............' 267 

The Yaraikana Language of Cape York .......... 271 

Vocabulary of the Otati Language spoken at Cape Grenville. By C. G. Seligmann 

and G. Pimm 277 

A Short Comparative Vocabulary of the Languages of Cape York Peninsula . . 281 



PART III. 

THE LANGUAGES OF i'.KITJSH NEW GUINEA. 

Introduction ............... 284 

Classification ............... 287 

Geographical Distribution of the Papuan and Melanesian Languages of P.ritish New (Juinea 290 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



Papuan Languages West of the Fly Rivei- ........ 

A Orainiiiar of the Kiwai Language with notes on the Wawata dialect 

The Languages of the Papuan Gulf .......... 

Grammar Notes on tlie Namau Language spoken in the Purari Delta 

A Grammar of the Toaripi Language spoken at the Eastern end of the Gulf of Papua 

Papuan Languages of Central British New Guinea ....... 

A Grannnar of the Koita Language spoken in the Central District, British New Guinea 
Papuan Languages of the North Eastern Coast ....... 

Grammar Notes on the Binandele Language spoken in the North East of British New 
Guinea .............. 

Papuan Languages of the South Eastern Coast and Louisiade Archipelago 
A Comparative Vocabulary of the Papuan Languages of British New Guinea 
The Melanesian Languages of British New Guinea ....... 

Phonology of the Melanesian Languages of British New Guinea .... 

A Comparative Grammar of the Melanesian Languages of British New Guinea 
Numeration and Numerals in the Melanesian Languages of British New Guinea . 
Comparative Vocabulary of the Melanesian Languages of British New Guinea 



291 
302 
320 
325 
333 
347 
355 
362 

365 
375 

387 
413 
417 
426 
463 
479 



PART IV. 

THE LINGUISTIC POSITION OF THE LANGUAGES OF TORRES STRAITS, 
AUSTRALIA, AND BRITISH NEW GUINEA. 



Introduction ........ 

Linguistic Position of the Languages of Torres Straits 

Linguistic Position of the Australian Languages 

Linguistic Position of the Papuan Languages . 

Linguistic Position of the Melanesian Languages of British New Guinea 

General Linguistic Sunuuary ........ 



504 
509 
512 
517 
526 
528 



MAPS. 



Sketch Map of Torres Straits 

Language Map of Cape York Peninsula and Torres Straits 
Language Map of the Western part of British New Guinea 
Language Map of the Eastern part of British New Guinea 



to face 



X 

264 

288 
288 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 

Page 3. Line 10 for 'Kauralay' read 'Kauralaig.' 

„ 8. ,, 6 from bottom, for 'both' read 'all.' 

,, 9. „ 1.5 from top, for 'tanamunngu' read ' tanamunungu'; for tanemunngii' read ' taiiamimuii|.'U.' 

,, 10. ,, y for 'imi' read ^ imai.' 

,, 17. ,, 16 from bottom, for ' bitriid ' read ' biinlo.' 

„ 31. „ ly from top, for 'make fire' read 'blaze.' 

,, 32. ,, 23 for 'present' read 'prevent.' 

,, 32. ,, y from bottom, for 'iitiiiii' read ' uluini.' 

,, 33. ,, 8 ,, ,, for 'aimiii' read 'aimdin.' 

,, 3-5. ,, 8 ,, ,, for 'two' read 'things.' 

,, 38. ,, 22 ,, top, for ' iiiiileuman' read ' iitiileuiiiaka.' 

,, 79. ,, t; ,, bottom, for ' baido' read 'htiiilon.' 

,, '.1.5. ,, 20 ,, ,, for 'dimiden' read ' dimidem.' 

,, 108. ,, 17 ,, ., for 'kiiiii' read '<iiiiii.' 

,, 113. After ' na ' add ' na, roiij. if.' 

,, 114. ,, ' kulku-nidai ' add ' sib-nidai, r. comfort.' 

,, 111. ,, ' nukunuku-ia-muli ' add • nungai, v. grope.' 

,, 11(5. ,, ' pai ' add ' pai, pwai M. demoiix (Gr. p. 11).' 

,, 1'22. ,, 'sual' add ' suasu. '/. barren, suasu-asi-gig, ii. a barren woman.' 

,, 12.5. ,, ' tortai ' add ' tota, n. a prong.' 

,, 127. ,, ' tabaia-uradi ' add 'urai, a. wet, damp.' 

,, 139. ,, 'doakri' add • dobdob, «. thick.' 

,, 14(). ,, 'kaigob' add ' kaimeg, ». a companion.' 

„ 189. Lines 8, 9. The Lifu word keiiithe means 'to pull down,' the oi^posite of xupe, 'to build.' 

,, 190. Bottom line, for 'out of read 'to.' 

,, 200. Line 24, under ' iaro ' read 'throat': under 'kapul' read 'good.' 

,, 200. Bottom line, after 'my' add 'throat is good.' 

,, 211. Line 17, under 'iaro' read ' throat ' \ under 'kapul' read 'good.' 

211. ,, .5 from bottom, for 'good ' read 'throat is good.' 

,, 216. ,, 6 ,, ,, for 'goes' read 'went.' 

,, 217. „ 3 ,, ,, for 'it' read 'the neck.' 

,, 222. „ ^* „ ,, for 'always' read 'only.' 

,, 2'22. ,, 4 ,, ,, for 'her' read 'his.' 

„ 274. „ 3 ,, „ for ' -276 ' read ' 277.' 

,, 28.5. ,, 10 for 'appeared' read 'been published in .several New Guinea Languages.' 

,, 28.5. ,, 10 from bottom, for ' Koitapu ' read ' Koita.' ' 

,, 286. ,, 5 ,, ,, after ' gliie' add '1' (cf. p. 418)'; after 'the' add ' d' as nth in "in lliix.'" 

,, "286. ,, 3 ,, „ after 'quite' add ' ly as nine in "inkwell." ' 

,, 320. „ 7 ,, ,, for ' Lakekumu ' read ' Lakekamu.' 

,, 3.55. ,, 12 ,, ,, add 'A final a in composition often becomes (,'.' 

,, 3.59. Lines 7, 8 from bottom, for 'shell' read 'coco-nut.' 

i, 414. Line 6 from bottom, for '1890-1' read '1889-90.' 

,, 416. After No. 33, add 'Nissan, Sir Charles Hardy Island, North East of Solomon Islands.' 

,, 416. After No. 37, add ' Ponape, Ascension Island, Caroline Islands.' 

,, 4'23. Line 21, add 'In Waima syllables are often inverted: knimatu'a or ta'akaima, sweet potato ; anevaka 

or anekapa, old. The village of Waima is called Maiva by the Motu people.' 

,, 442. „ 2 of Note 2, for 'case' read 'cure.' 

,, 4-58. ,, 3, for 'dhaka ' read 'd'aka.' 

174. ,, 15 from bottom, for 'reciprocal' read 'instrumental.' 

474. ,, 14 ,, ,, after 'in' add 'Motu i-hn-rnii-na, i-ha-toi-na.' 

., 474. ,, 13 ,, ,, for 'made' read 'that which makes,' and delete 'to something.' 

,, 474. ,, 12 ,, ,, delete 'Motu rua-tia or toi-iui." 

183. „ 12 „ ,, for ' Motu ' read ' Mota.' 

486. Bottom line, delete the comparisons with Mota .loloa. 







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MAP OF 

TORRES STRAITS 

Statute Miles 



30 *a so 



PAET I. 
THE LANGUAGES OF TORRES STRAITS. 

INTRODUCTION. 

THE PROGRESS OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE LANGUAGES. 

Neither Captain Cook, who passed through Endeavour Straits in 1770, and saw 
natives at Possession Island, nor Captain Edwards, who discovered " Murray's Islands " 
in the 'Pandora,' and was wrecked there on the reef on August 29th, 1791, left accounts 
of the natives or their languages'. The first to describe them was Matthew Flinders, 
who served under Captains Bligh and Portlock in the ships ' Providence ' and ' Assistance ' 
in 1792. These discovered Darnley and Nepean, and most of the Western Islands of 
Torres Straits. At the Nepean Islands they were visited by canoes from Darnley. 
Flinders states that " The Indians clapped upon their heads, and exclaimed Whou ! 
whou ! whoo ! repeatedly with much vehemence ; at the same time, they held out arrows 
and other weapons, and asked for toore-tooree ! by which they meant iron'^" Bampton 
and Alt, who visited the islands in the ' Hormuzeer and Chesterfield' in 1793 only 
recorded the one word Wavivax as the native name of Darnley Island''. When Flinders 
revisited the Murray Islands on October 29th, 1802, between forty and fifty 'Indians' 
came off in three canoes, " holding up cocoanuts, joints of bamboo filled with water, 
plantain.s, bows and arrows, and vociferating tooree ! tooree ! and mainmoosee !*" In 
July, 1822, the ship ' Richmond ' anchored for some days off the Murray Islands, and 
the crew had considerable intercourse with the natives. The Surgeon, Mr T. B. Wilson, 
took some interest in the language and compiled a vocabulary, but on a second visit 
to Torres Straits in the 'Governor Ready' in 1829, the ship was wrecked on the reef 
near Half-way Island, and his vocabulary was lost. Writing with regard to it he says, 
" I obtained a pretty large vocabulary, comprehending the various parts of the body, 
and also all other objects within sight. I presented them with one copj% with their 
own language in one column, and the English in the other, which I told them to 
show to any other strangers who might hereafter pay them a visit. The other copy, 
as already mentioned, was unfortunately lost, and I can only call to mind the following 

' Cf. Hawkesworth, Voyages, London, 177.S, iii. p. 61.5, quoted by Flinders, op. cit. infra, i. p. xv, and 
Geo. Hamilton, A Voyage round the World in H.M. Frigate Pandora, Berwick, 1793. 

- Matthew Flinders. A ^'oyage to Terra Austraiis, London, 1814, i. p. xxii. These woi-ds as now spelled are 
toao, yes, and turik, iron. 

^ Flinders, op. cit. i. p. xxxvii. The native name of Darnley Is. is Knib. I am ignorant of the meaning of 
Wamvax. Lewis (op. cit. infra) says it was not known to the natives. 

* Flinders, op. cit. ii. p. 109. Mammoosee is the word {mammus) now applied to a head man, and means 
' red hair.' It suggests that one of the voyagers was red-haired. Capt. King, however, states {op. cit. infra, 
p. 3) the word mammoosee or jnobably mahoasee means a 'mess of yams.' At Darnley Lewis found two men 
named Mam-moose and Ag-ghe. 

H. Vol. III. I 



2 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

few wdi-ds: — wareha, or warega, 'peace' or 'welcome'; mahouse, 'come to us'; puta, puta — 
I could not satisfactorily make out the signification of this word, but imagined it meant — 
'no danger,' or, 'don't be afraid'; torre, 'iron'; casse, 'give'; girgir, 'the sun'; kimiar, 
'men'; kosherail, 'women'; Madiea, Oucdra, Wamaia, Wagera, proper names of men'." 

In 1834 the ship 'Charles Eaton' was wrecked in Torres Straits, and Captain 
C. M. Lewis was sent in search of the survivors. Two accounts of the wreck and rescue, 
those by W. E. Brockett" and T. Wemyss', contain only a few Murray Island words in 
the text, but a third account compiled from Captain Lewis's Journal by Captain P. P. King* 
contains a vocabulary obtained from John Ireland, one of two survivors of the wreck, who 
had lived for two years on Murray Island. This vocabulary contained 532 English words 
or phrases with native equivalents, 13 names of islands, 7 numerical terms, and 40 names 
of parts of the body^ The list is interesting as it seems to show signs of an alteration 
in the pronunciation of words, though allowance must be made for the illiteracy of its 
sailor author. Some examples of ng, v, th, f, sh, occur in the following words as given 
in Lewis's account, but are not now found in the language : dehellang, sweet ; vell-caabe, 
good temper; vea, star, sand; verrer, hunger; verrem, boy; thag, hand; ithpay, feeling; 
emmerouth, old; atr-ri-ther, leap; feik gil-ge- re, to-da.y ; pheim, dream; jAeik, this; moosh, 
hair. These words are now : debe lag, good taste ; werkab, hapjjy ; wer, star, sand ; 
%uerer, hungry ; iverem, boy ; tag, hand ; ekpi, touch ; emeref, old ; ko7-eder, run ; peik 
gerger, this day ; pevrn, dream ; peik, this ; mus, hair. 

In the years 1842-1846 Captain F. P. Blackwood in H.M.S. 'Fly' carried out an 
extensive survey along the N.E. coast of Australia, Torres Straits, and the adjacent portion 
of New Guinea. J. B. Jukes, the naturalLst to the expedition, published an account 
in 1847*, and in an appendix gives a vocabulary of about 800 words of the language 
of Darnley and Murray Islands (called by him Erroob and Maer). This was collected 
chiefly by Mr Millery, the clerk of the ' Fty ' and to it was added Lewis's vocabulary 
of Murray Islands, referred to above", a collection of words from Masseed (i.e. Masig), 

1 T. B. Wilson, Narrative of a Voyaye round the World, London, 1835. With reference to the signification 
of these words, nuthouse, puta, torre, girgir, kimiar, koskerail are the modern words, ma baos, you come out 
(imperative); pmid, peace; turik, iron; gerger, sun; kimiar, male; kosker, woman. The last word has very 
strangely the plural termination ail, which properly belongs to the language of the Western tribe and is not 
used in Murray Island. The proper word for 'give' is ikuar, but casse is probably kase, 'me perhaps,' said by 
a native eager for a gift. Wareka may be for Wa ike. You (are) here. 

- W. E. Brockett, Narrative of a Voyage from Sydney to Torres Straits in search of the Survivors of the 
•Charles Eaton,' Sydney, 1836. 

2 T. Wemyss, Narrative of the Melancholy Shipwreck of the Ship ' Charles Eaton,' Stockton and London, 1837. 
* Phillip P. King, Capt. K.N., A Voyage to Torres Straits in search of the Survivors of the Ship ' Charles 

Eaton,' which tvas wrecked upon the Harrier Reefs in the month of August, 1834, in H.M. Colonial Schooner 
'Isabella,' C. M. Lewis, Commander, arranged from the Journal and Log Book of the Commander, Sydney, 1837. 

» Op. cit. pp. 6.5-83, Vocabulary of the Murray and Darnley Islanders. 

» J. B. Jukes, Narrative of the Surveying Voyage of H.M.S. 'Fly,' London, 1847. 

' This seems to have been an independent vocabulary obtained from the sailor John Ireland. Jukes ex- 
pressly states (Vol. ii. p. 274) that "the copy from which ours was taken was procured by Mr Evans from 
Captain Ashmore of Sydney, who lent it us for transcription. I subsequently arranged it on the same plan 
as our own without altering any of the words." This is however not the orthography in Lewis's account as 
given by Capt. King. For example, ta-age or ta-ag, il-kep, aih-kay, tet-te-ar, coup-or or koo-pore, pell or 
pey-la, which are given for 'hand,' 'eye,' 'middle finger,' 'leg,' 'navel,' 'ears' by King, are as printed by Jukes, 
taag or tawg, illcup, abekay, taerler, koupore, pell or peel. 



INTEODUCTION. 3 

two short lists from Cape York, aud another from Port Lihou in Prince of Wales' Islands 
The general affinities of the languages were discussed in another appendix by Dr R. G. 
Latham I 

A further survey of North Eastern Australia and Torres Straits was made in 
1846-1850 by Captain Owen Stanley in H.M.S. 'Rattlesnake.' An account of the voyage 
was published in 1852 by the naturalist John Macgillivray^. In an appendix he gives 
two sets of vocabularies. The first exhibits the languages spoken in the neighbourhood 
of Cape York, viz. Kowrarega (Muralag, Prince of Wales' Island) and Gudang (Mainland 
at Cape York)^ The second illustrates the languages of South Eastern New Guinea 
and the Louisiades. The Kowrarega (i.e. Kauralag of Muralag or Prince of Wales' Island) 
vocabulary contained about 820 words. It was almost entirely derived from the com- 
munications of Mrs Thompson (Gi'om), a white woman who had been held in captivity 
by the islanders for more than four years*. Nearly all the words procured from her 
were afterwards verified, but Mrs Thompson's want of education prevented her from 
giving Mr Macgillivray anything but a superficial idea of the structure of the language. 

An appendix to Macgillivray's work by Dr R. G. Latham contains a discussion of 
the vocabularies, chiefly referring to the structure of the Kowrarega as related to 
Australian languages, and a comparison of words with those of Australia and New Guinea". 
Crawfurd also commented on the vocabularies of Jukes and Macgillivray'. 

In 1841, J. Lort Stokes in the 'Beagle' visited Murray Island. He gives the word 
for 'iron' as toolic^. The latter form of the word was first given by Lewis. 

In 1871 the New Guinea mission of the London Missionary Society was com- 
menced by the vi.sit of the Revs. S. MacFarlane and A. W. Murray in the ' Surprise.' 
They left Lifu on the 31st May, 1870, and landed Gucheng, the first teacher, a native 
of Lifu, on Darnley Island in the Eastern part of the Straits on July 1st, 1871. 
They afterwards placed teachers on (Tutu) Warrior Island, and Tauan in the West, and 
visited the Mainland of New Guinea. Mataika, a teacher from Darnley, first visited 
Murray in 1872. The first mi.s.sion literature was a .sheet of lessons first used at Darnley 
on Sunday, August 24th, 1873. In his account of the founding of the mission, the 
Rev. A. W. Murray gives in an appendix some vocabularies of native words. Among 
them are those of: (1) Torres Straits and adjacent coast of New Guinea; (2) Murray 
Islands, Darnley Island and Stephen's Island only". These, apart from some few mistakes 

1 Op. cit. II. pp. 274-314. Comparative Vocabulary of the Languages of some parts of Torres Straits. 

'^ Op. cit. II. pp. 313-320. " On the general afiBnities of the Languages of the Oceanic Blacks," by R. G. 
Latham, M.D. This was also published in: R. G. Latham, Essays chiefly Philoloyical and Ethnoyraphical, 
London, 1860, pp. 217-222. 

■ 3 J. Macgillivray, Narrative of the Voyaye of H.M..S. ' Rattlesnake,' London, 1852. 

■• Op. cit. II. pp. 277-316. Comparative Vocabulary of two of the Languages of the neighbourhood of 
Cape York. 

5 Op. cit. II. p. 277. 

* Op. cit. n. pp. 3;M-354. "Remarks on the Vocabularies of the Voyage of the 'Rattlesnake'," by R. G. 
Latham, M.D. Published also in : Opuscula, Essays chiefly Philological and Ethnoyraphical, London, 1860, pp. 
223-241. 

7 J. Crawfurd, Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay Lanyuaye, London, 1852, pp. 174-176. 

* J. Lort Stokes, Discoveries in Australia, London, 1846, p. 257. 

' Eev. A. W. Murray, Forty Years' Mission Work in Polynesia and New Guinea, London, 1876, Appendix. 

1—2 



4 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

in meanings, suggest some changes in pronunciation since they were written. The 
na.salization of b and d as is seen in kamba, kembile, and andut for kaba (banana), 
kebile (small) and adud (bad). Wandrai also is written in error for 'you two.' The 
Murray pronouns are very incorrectly given'. 

In September, 1872, the Rev. W. W. Gill visited the islands of Torres Straits and 
the Mainland of Xew Guinea. His account contains a few words of the island languages*. 

The first book in a Torres Straits language was printed in 1876 by Rev. S. Mac- 
Farlanel Some Erub and Tauan vocabularies by the same, collected about this time, 
were afterwards printed in part by Dr Codi-ington* and fully by the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledg■e^ 

Mr O. C. Stone in the account of a visit to New Guinea in 1876^ gives, among 
other vocabularies, those of the languages of '■ Machik " (i.e. Yorke Island in the Western 
Group) and of Erub (Daruley Island). It does not appear that Stone visited the 
islands. 

In 1875-1877 Signor L. M. D'Albertis visited Torres Straits and the Fly River. 
His account contain.s, among others, a vocabulary of 38 words used in Yorke Island, 
Torres Straits'. 

In 1882 Herr Grube made a re-arrangement of the Murray and Darnley Island 
vocabularies of Jukes and Stone, without adding to a knowledge of the structure of 
the languages^ Curr's work on the 'Australian Race^' and the Annual Report on 
British New Guinea for 1889-1890'" also contained vocabularies of the Western language. 

In spite, however, of the large number of vocabularies, the grammatical structure 
of the two languages of Torres Straits was very little known. Macgillivray's notes 
on the 'Kowrarega' (i.e. Muralag)" with Latham's remarks'- represented the gi-ammar 
of the Western language, and a single example in Codrington's ' Melanesian Languages" ' 
indicated the cases of a Mun-ay Island noun. Grube's so-called ' Grammatische Notizen ' 
in the work of Gabelentz and Meyer is merely a summary of affixes with no meanings 
assigned to them'*. 

■ Au indication of the amount of intercourse with white men is to be found in the Eev. A. W. Murray's 
remark that a native was found who could speak broken English. 

'- Eev. W. W. Gill, Life in the Southern Isles, London, 1876 ; p. 22.5, Torres Straits numerals, pp. 209, 214, 
215, words. 

' First Lesson Book from Darnley Island, Torres Straits, Sydney, 1876. 

* Eev. R. H. Codrington, The Melanesian Lanyuages, Oxford, 1885, p. 222. 

' British New Guinea Vocabularies, London, 1889, pp. 18-20. 

« O. C. Stone, A Few Months in Neio Guinea, London, 1880, pp. 248-252. 

' L. M. D'Albertis, New Guinea: what I did and what I saw there, London, 1880, ii. pp. 387-388. Also in 
Italian edition. Alia Nuova Guinea, p. 567. 

8 "Die Sprache von Errub und Maer," pp. 511-536 of Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Melanesischen, Mikro- 
nesischen und Papuanischen Sjtrachrn, von Georg v. d. Gabelentz und Adolf B. Meyer, Leipzig, 1882. 

E. M. Curr, The Australian Race, Melbourne and London, 1886-1887, pp. 684-685. " Warrior Island, 
Torres Straits," by Arthur Onslow. 

i« Annual Report on British New Guinea from 1st July, 1889, (o SOth June, 1890, with appendices, Brisbane, 
1890. 

" Narrative of the Voyaye of U.M.S. 'Rattlesnake,' ii. pp. 277-313. 

'= In Macgillivray's Narrative, pp. 313-320, and Opuscula, pp. 217-222. 

" Rev. R. H. Codrington, Melatiesian Languages, p. 31. 

" Op. cit. p. 511, '• Worterverzeichniss und Grammatische Notizen von Herrn Grube bearbeitet." 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

During Dr Haddon's first visit to Torres Straits in 1888 he collected all the 
material possible (both printed and manuscript)' which was likely to illustrate the 
language. About the same time, I had commenced an analysis of the Murray and 
Saibai Gospels printed by the British and Foreign Bible Society". The result <A' 
collaboration was a joint Study which embodied the whole of the existing knowledge 
of the languages of Torres Straits and gave for the first time clear indications of their 
grammatical structure. This Study was read briefly before the Royal Irish Academy 
iu 1891 and printed at length in the Proceedings for 1893 and 1897'. In 1892 
Dr A. Graf von Schulenburg also published an analysis of the Murray Island Gospels*. 
In this no reference was made to other material, and much of the grammar is purely 
conjectural. 

During my visit to Torres Straits with the Cambridge Expedition in 1898 I devoted 
my attention chiefly to the structure of the languages. The former grammars (based 
on translations of the Gospels) had left many expressions to be elucidated and explained. 
In both Mabuiag and Miriam also, I found that the language of the translation was 
in many respects much inferior to the language as ordinarily used by the older natives. 
This was especially the case in the Murray Islands, where the language had beeu for 
some years used and taught by white men. The difficulties had been simplified, or 
as my informant Pasi described the process, "they cut it short." 

The grammars now given, based upon oral communications and phrases taken down 
from native dictation, must therefore be regarded as superseding all that was formerly 
written on the structure of the languages. The vocabularies have also been corrected 
and extended. It is extremely unlikely that any white man will ever learn the language 
for the purpose of oral communication with the natives, nearly all of whom have more 
or less acquaintance with English. 

^ A list of this material will be fouml in A Study of the Languages of Torres Straits, i. pp. 467-471 and ii. 
pp. 36.5-367. 

2 An account of these Gospels will be fouml in the sections on Literature. 

' S. H. Eay and A. C. HaJdon, "A Study of the Languages of Torres Straits" in Proceedings of the Royal 
Irish Academy, 3rd Ser., Vol. ii. pp. 463-616 and Vol. iv. pp. 119-373. 

* A. Graf von Schuleuberg, Grammatik, Vocabularium und Sprachproben der Spraehe von Murray Island, 
Leipzig, 1892. 



A GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE SPOKEN BY THE WESTERN ISLANDERS 

OF TORRES STRAITS. 



CONTENTS. 

1. Dialects. 

2. Phonology. 

3. Word-building. 

4. Classes of Words. 

5. Demonstrative Word.s and Particles. 

6. Adjectives. 

7. Nouns. 



8. Pronouns. 

9. Verbs. 

10. Adverbs. 

11. Connective Word.s. 

12. Exclamations. 

13. Numerals. 

14. Syntax. 



1 . Dialects. 

In the speech of the Western Islanders of the Straits we may distinguish four 
dialects, presenting slight variations in pronunciation and vocabulary and corresponding 
to the main divisions of the people. These dialects are those of the Saibalgal in the 
islands of Saibai, Boigu, and Dauan, of the Gumulgal (called Maluigal in Saibai) in 
Mabuiag and Badu, of the Kulkalgal in Tutu, Yam, Nagi and Masig, and of the 
Kaiwulgal or Kauralgal in Muralag and Moa. These names are the collective plurals 
of the personal nouns Saibalaig, Gumulaig, Kulkalaig, Kaiwalaig or Kauralaig formed 
by the sufE.xes lai and g^, from Saibai, the name of the Lsland, Gumu, the place of 
Kwoiam in Mabuiag, Kulka, the redness of dawn (the Kulkalgal being the easternmost 
division), and Kaiwa (in the dialect itself Kara or Kaura) an island (the Kaiwalgal being 
islanders as distinguished from the natives of the Australian Mainland). 

Besides these main divisions the inhabitants of each island have their own distinctive 
name formed by adding lai-g for the singular, and Ig-al for the plural, to the name 
of the island, as e.g. Badulaig, a Badu person, Badulgal, the Badu folk. 

Tlic islanders call the Australian Mainlanders ladaigal, i.e. chatterers or talkers. This 
name is the plural of ladaig, derived from ia, talk, by the suffixes dai (equivalent to 
lai) and g. Another name is Gudau-garkazil, people of the mouth, i.e. mouth of the 
Jardine River, C. York. By the Tutu they are also called Agel, the plural of Age. 

The islanders of the East (Murray, Darnley, and Stephen's Islands) are called 
collectively, by those of the West, the Mirimal or Maiemal, those of Darnley Island 
alone being the Yarubligal. These words are the plurals of Mirim' or Maiem, the former 
being for Miriam, the name given by the Eastern Islanders to themselves, and the latter 
their characteristic salutation. The term Miriam may possibly be the same as Mer-em, 
for Mcr. Murray Island is called Moie, and Darnley libu. 

The natives of New Guinea are called by various names. Those of Parem are 
Gobib-il, those of Kiwai, Kopam-il or Kiwai-lgal, those of Mawata, Moata-lgal, those of 

' Cf. Grammar, p. 16 infra. 

^ It IS possible that Mirim may be the Muralag pronunciation of maiem. 



GRAMMAR OP WESTERN LANGUAGE. 7 

Port Moresby, Hanuabada-lgal. Another name given in Mabuiag was Gebaubil, explained 
as being probably the name of the first visitor from New Guinea. A Muralag name for 
New Guinea bushmen was Kobe-ligal, i.e. Black people. 

White men are Markai-1, from markai, the impersonator of a dead person in the 
death dances (of. Vol. v. p. 2.53), or Tururubil. The latter name is unexplained. South 
Sea Islanders are Salmilal, said to be a mispronunciation of South Sea, and Chinamen 
were called by my informant Koikutal ialbupal uruil, long-haired animals. 

This grammar is in the Mabuiag dialect and is based principally upon material 
derived from Tom (Noboa), a native of the island. Help was also given by Ned (Waria) 
and Peter (Papi), of the same island. The Tutu examples were obtained from Maino, 
the Saibai from Jack (Assaii) and the Muralag from Wallaby (Painauda). Some examples 
in Mabuiag have been taken from Waria's manuscript, and there has been an occasional 
reference to the translation of the Gospels. Examples from the latter are enclosed in 
square brackets. 

The authorities thus represented the four dialects which are referred to in the 
following pages by the names of the Islands, Mabuiag, Tutu, Saibai, and Muralag. 

The language seemed to be of simple construction, especially so when compared 
with those of the Eastern Islanders of the Straits and the Papuans of New Guinea. 

2. Phonology. 

1. Alphabet. Vowels. — a as in father; a as in at; e as a in date; e as in let; i as 
ee in feet ; i; as in it ; o as in own ; 6 as m. on; b as aw in saiv ; m as oo in soon ; u as 
in up. In Saibai o as in German, or in English o in word. The quantities of the vowels 
are not as a rule marked. In monosyllables and the accented syllables of other words 
they are usually long. As finals they are extremely short and very often elided. 

There are several indefinite vowel sounds which have no separate character. These 
appear to vary at the caprice of the speaker, and are even used by the same speaker 
at different times. The first of these sounds varies from d to o and it, and words 
are spelled indifferently with any one of these letters, as e.g. Augdd or Augud, rndgi 
or mogi or mitgi, ddngal or dungal, patai or potai, etc. In the early Saibai books 
this vowel was printed o, which is also used in Lifuan and represents the sound of 
the German o. Another indefinite vowel varies from o to lo and words are spelled 
indifferently with either letter, as e.g. Gomu or Oumu, tohud or tubud. 

Diphthongs. — ai as in aisle; aw as ow in coiv; ei as ay in may; oi as in noise; ui 
same as oi. 

■ The last represents the indefinite vowel d or u in combination with the vowel i. 
From a similar cause ai and oi are often interchanged. 

In Muralag the a in ai is so greatly lengthened, that the sound becomes ari. 

Consonants. — k, g; t, d; p, b; w; s, z; r, I; m, n, ng. These are in Mabuiag sounded 
as in English, ng being the ng in sing. 

There is some confusion between the voiceless and voiced consonants, k and g being 
often written for each other. Similarly t and d, p and b, s and z are often interchanged. 

W is very vocalic and is commonly confused with u. In the native writing, and 
gospels, w and u are used indiscriminately. 



8 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

In Saibai p is sometimes nearly / as in fan, and z is often palatal j as in jam. 
My informant, Jack (Assaii), named the letter z, jed. 

In Muralag s and z are both more palatal than in the other dialects, s being very 
nearly c^ as in chin, and z becoming dz as in adze. 

Some speakers confuse nc/ with m, mapa for ngapa, hither; muk-haltai, cross over 
water, for nguM-haltai. 

Compound Consonants. — The only compound consonants are kiv as qii in quite, and 
qw as in cog-wheel. These are usually written ku and gu, and always so in the native 
MS. and Gospels. 

In the early Saibai Translation of S. Mark's Gospel, t, p, and d are often combined 
with r as tr, pr, dr. These were due to the Lifuau translator's own pronunciation of 
these letters. Tlie natives do not use them. 

2. Syllables. A syllable ends either in a vowel or one of the consonants r, m, 
or n. In all the dialects the indefinite vowels when final are often elided but not 
so often in Saibai and Muralag as in Mabuiag and Tud. In Muralag they are often 
represented by i. In compound words the final vowel of the first component is nearly 
always elided, e.g. gud-wai for gudu-wai, loose ; kuik-aimai from kwiku ; dan-adai, from dana. 

Elision of a vowel in the middle of a word is not so common. Examples are klak 
for kalak, a spear; aimdin for aimadin, made. 

The elision of a consonant occurs in the Mabuiag termination i for Saibai zi. In 
garka, male, and ipika, female, the syllable zi is elided but reappears in the plurals 
garkazil and ipikazil. So also an elided diphthong ai in Mabuiag, as in danal, eyed, 
appears in the derivative danalaig, but disappears again in the plural of the latter 
word, danalgal. 

3. I'jWNimciATiON AND SPELLING OF INTRODUCED WoEDS. The Western Islanders 
of the Straits have little difficulty in pronouncing English words and when these have 
been introduced they are spelled phonetically, as e.g. mdni, Mei, paip, taiial, taim, spun, 
star. Tom of Mabuiag pronounced / for p, in Jiii and rofe, for pin and rope, but 
correctly pronounced ship, plenty, ripe, and stop. Mich was pronounced rish, and chuixh 
became churt. Slight changes are sometimes made, e.g. paita, pint. 

In the Scripture translations, Hebrew and Greek words have been introduced with 
modified pronunciation due to the media by which they reached the languages of the 
Straits. As a rule such words have come from the original through Tahitian, Samoan, 
and Lifuan into Saibai or Mabuiag. A good example is the Greek (Vpro?, which becomes 
in Tahitian and Samoan, areto, owing to the Polynesian difficulty in pronouncing a 
closed syllable, although there is properly no r in Samoan. In Lifuan and in Torres 
Straits there would be no difllculty in pronouncing dpTo<i, but the modified form areto 
is that used in both these languages. So also satauro from aTavpoq, luko from Xu/to?, 
alase from aX?, ekalesia from iKKXijala, karite from Kptdrf. 

In Scriptural Proper Names the language of the Western Islanders now follows 
the Samoan spelling. In the earlier Saibai version the Lifu spelling was used. 

4. Sound Interchanges. Apart from the uncertain vowel pronunciation which has 
been already noticed, there are a few interchanges of sounds which are characteristic 

' See specimen in the section on Literature of the Western Ishmders. 
' Cf. other examples in the List of Introduced words. 



GEAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 9 

of dialect, but are limited each to a single grammatical feature. The dative termination 
ka of Mabuiag and Tutu becomes pa in Muralag and Saibai, though k does not in 
any other case change with p. Similarly the pronoun ni with its plural nita in Mabuiag, 
Tutu and Muralag are always 7ic/i and ngita in Saibai. In the dative and ablative 
forms of the plural pronouns and proper nouns n of Mabuiag, Tud, and Muralag becomes 
I in Saibai. The verbal termination i in Mabuiag, becomes iz in the other dialects. 
The pw of Muralag sometimes represents p of the other dialects. The following examples 
illustrate these changes. 



English. 




Mabuiag. 


Tutu. 


Muraku). 


Saibai. 


upward 




kadaka 


kadaka 


kadaipa 


kadaipa 


for a man 




mabaegka 


mabaegka 


mabaegpa 


mabaegopa 


thou 




ni 


ni 


ni 


ngi 


you 




nita 


nita 


nita 


ngita 


for you (plur.) 




nitauumika 


nitamunika 


nitamunipa 


ngitamulpa 


through them 


(plur.) 


tanamunngu 


tanemunngu 


tanamununguzi 


tanamulngu 


say 




muli 


muliz 


muliz 


muliz 


there 




nupai 


nupai 


nupwai 


nupai 


pearl shell 




mai 


mai 


mari 


mai 



3. Word-building. 

The language of the Western Islanders of Torres Straits is io the agglutinate stage, 
the significant roots and modifying particles being clearly distinguishable. The particles 
have no meaning when separated from the root word. 

1. Roots. Form. — With respect to their form Roots may be : 

1. Monosyllabic, as e.g. u, sound of wind; (m, food; ni, thou; ^a, thing; g id, canoe; 
dan, eye ; mud, house ; pal, pair. 

2. Dissyllabic, as e.g. ia, speech ; asi, going with ; ipi, female ; kula, stone ; muli, 
open, speak ; dimur, finger ; hurum, pig. 

Meaning.— V^\t\\ respect to signification Roots may be classified as : 

1. Nominal: Names of persons, places, or things, as e.g. Waria, a man's name; 
Waiben, Thursday Island ; mud, house ; gul, canoe. ' 

2. Verbal: Expressing actions, conditions or qualities, as e.g. muli, speaking; imi, 
seeing ; ikai, being glad ; kerket, smarting ; kapu, good ; wati, bad. 

3. Demonstrative : Pointing to positions in space and time, i, here ; si, there ; kada, 
up ; mulu, down ; ngai, the speaker, I ; na, a large thing referred to, she, this, that ; keda, 
thus, so ; ada, outside ; mui, inside. 

4. Expletive and Exclamatory, gar, wa, de, au, e. 

Use. — Roots in their unchanged form may be used to form sentences, e.g. Ngai muli, 
I say ; na koi ikai, she (is) very glad ; ni nga 1 who (are) you ? 

2. Particles. Form. — With respect to form, the simple particles are always mono- 
syllabic, as ka, nga, zi. But particles may be addetl to other particles to form compounds, 
as e.g. zi-nga in imai-zi-nga, a thing seen ; laig in dana-lai-g, a person having eyes. 

Particles may be abbreviated as I for lai in l-g-al ; dana-l-g-al, persons having eyes. 
H. Vol. III. 2 



10 



ANTHEOPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



Meaning. — With respect to signification, Particles may be classified as Radical, 
Functional, or Qualitative. 

1. Radical : indicating a modified meaning of the Root. 

(a) Transferring words from one class to another, as e.g. I, zi, changing noun or 
verb to adjective, as in danal, eyed, from dan, eye, imaizi, seeing from nni, see. 

(6) Indicating a difference between words of the same class derived from the same 
root, as e.g. g denoting a person, nya, denoting a thing, in imaizi-g, a person 
who sees, imaizinga, a thing seen, from imi, see. 

2. Functional : expressing the relationship of words to the other words in the sentence, 
u, of, ka, to or for, ngii from, as in inuda-u, of a house; muda-ka, to a house; muda-ngu, from 
a house. 

3. Qualitative : expressing the inherent qualities of a word of any given class, as e.g. 
in verbs, mi indicating plurality ; din, distant action ; gi, negation ; au, interrogation. 

Identity of particles. It is important to notice that in Mabuiag the particles used 
■with the verbal roots are often identical in form with those added to nouns, and in 
native thought are probably also of identical meaning. 
Compare : 

muda-ka, to or for the house, with imai-ka, sees, present and future tense, i.e. directed towards 
seeing. 

muda-nu, in the house, with hna-nu, has seen, sees now, i.e. is in the act of seeing. 

muda-ngu, from the house, with imai-ngul, saw yesterday, i.e. has departed from seeing. 

muda-u, of, belonging to a house, with imor-u, imperative, see! i.e. get or possess seeing. 

m.uda-d, like a house, with ima-d, repeatedly see. 

muda-nge, having become a house, with hnan-nge, saw then. 

With respect to position, the particles in Mabuiag and its cognate dialects are 
always suffixed'. 

Tliere are a few apparent exceptions used with verbs, as e.g. pa, indicating motion away, 
as in pa-uzari, depart ; bal, across or aside, as in bal-tai, turn aside ; kid, in another direction, 
as in kid-tai, invert. Comparison, however, with other verbal expressions shows that these 
are roots, of whicli the separate use is comparatively rare, or even obsolete. Vide Compound 
Verbs. 

3. Compound Words. These will be discussed under the various classes to which 
they belong. 

4. Classes of Words. 

The structure of the Mabuiag language may be most conveniently studied by con- 
sidering the following eight classes of words: 1. Demonstratives. 2. Adjectives. 3. Nouns. 
4. Pronouns. 5. Verbs. 6. Adverbs. 7. Connectors. 8. Exclamations. 9. Numerals. 



5. Demonstrative Words and Particles. 

Tlie Demonstrative Words and Particles in the Mabuiag language are extremely numerous. 
In various combinations they become equivalent to Demonstrative Adjectives, Personal and 

' In this respect the language of the Western Ishmders of the Straits agrees with those of Australia and 
is remarkably unlike that of the Eastern people. In the latter, prefixes and suffixes are both used. 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 11 

Demonstrative Proiiomis, and Adverbs of Place, Time, and Direction. They may also be used 
as Verbal stems. The intimate connection between words of this class renders it convenient 
to discuss them in the same section. The Personal Pronouns, however, are reserved for 
another Chapter. 

1. Simple Forms. The following table shows the signification of the various simple 
particles. 

1. Indicating size or gender : Large or female things, na ; Small or male things, nu. 

2. Indicating number : Singular, na, nu ; Dual, pal ; Plural, ta. 

3. Indicating position: Proximity in front /, Proximity behind, kai; Removal, se; 
Distance, pi. 

4. Indicating motion : Towards speaker, ngapa ; Towards another, ka, pa ; Motion 
from, ngu, zi, ki. 

5. Indicating direction: Windward, pai; Leeward, pau, pun; Upward, i-acia ; Down- 
ward, mulu ; Across, hal ; Below, under, gu. 

G. Adjectival : -h. 

7. Indicating visibility : wu. 

2. Adjectival Demonstratives. These are used to point out a person or object 
and are generally equivalent to the adjectives this, that, or yonder. 

The forms found are the following: 

Singular. Large or female things : ina, this ; sena, that ; pina, yonder. 

„ Small or male things: inu, this; senu, that; pinu, yonder. 

Dual, ipal, these two ; sepal, those two ; pipal, yonder two. 
Plural, ita, these ; seta, those ; pita, those yonder. 

These forms are used after the noun and are predicative : mabaeg ina, this man, or the 
man (wlio is liere) ; kula sena, that stone ; ivali kuikul ita, bad heads these ; mura zapul seta, 
all those things. Before the noun they require the suffix -h or hi (Tutu and Muralag). 

Singular, inab, inub ; senab, senub ; pina,b, pinub. T utn, pinaupa. 

Dual, ipalab ; sepalab ; pipalab. Tutu, pipalaupa. 

Plural, itab ; setab ; pitab. Tutu, pitaupa. 

Examples : Senahi kula, that stone ; inah mabaeg, this man ; setab zajnd nyau aimzinga, those 
things I have done. 

Na and nu are sometimes found without the limiting particles and may then be loosely 
translated ' the.' 

When the person or object indicated is moving towards, or away from, the speaker, 
ngapa, i.e. me-ward (cf Pron.) or ka is added to the forms for ' that ' and ' yonder.' 

■ Examples : Mabaeg pinungapa, yonder man coming hither ; mabaegal pitangapa, yonder men 
coming hither ; iiiabaey senungapa, that man coming hither. 

Pinnka ngapa, yonder towards nie; ijnka palungapa, those two women coming hither. 

In Muralag and Saibai pa is used instead of ka. 

3. Nominal and Pronominal Demonstratives. The forms ina, inu, etc. may be 
used with the noun termination -7iga. They then become equivalent to nouns with 
the meanings ' this one,' ' that one,' etc. Or, the simple form may be used by itself as a 
noun or pronoun meaning ' the place, here, there, or yonder.' When so used it may 

2—2 



A 



12 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



take the suffixed case endings like locative nouns. (See Nouns.) The case endings 
used are kii, for or towards ; zi, from : Id, by. Muralag and Saibai have -pa for -ka. 

Examples: Palai keda, " Inunga adi Kuiani au?" they two said, "(Is) this one Adi Kuiam?"; 
mii piiiuka nika, lie stays there ; nui pinuka poitanga nika, he sits there a long way off ; noi 
semiki niudaka ulaig, he is walking along there by the house; tana senunga kaine purutan, 
they (who ai-e) there not yet have eaten. 

4. Pronominal Demonstratives. These are fidly discussed in the section on 
Pronouns. 

5. Adverbial Demonstratives. The adjective forms may be used as adverbs of 
place or time. Ina, inu, here or now ; sena, senu, there or then. 

Other Adverbial Demonstratives are based on the following forms. 

Kawa (in compounds kau), here, place visible; sewa (in compounds sen), there, place 
visible ; kai (in compounds kb), here, place invisible ; si, siei, there, place invisible. 

These are declined by the affixes -ha (Muralag and Saibai -pa) to ; zi, from ; ki, by or 
along. 

Examples : Ngaikia seupa guban kalazi aimai ! thither with a wind from behind me make 
(carry) ! kaiva ainadan nieda, keep staying here close by ; uui muia utaiginga seuki, he does not 
go in there ; nui kawa, he is here ; kauki ngau kalia, (move) there behind my back ; kdzi uzari, 
go soon, go in a little while : sieizi kadai-tanori, get up from there. 

A further modification is made by adding pai, windward, and pun, leeward, to kai. 
Pal and pun may also be used in the sense of 'right' and 'left'.' Kawa, setua, and 
si are not used with pai and pun. Instead of the two latter na, nu, and pi or j^na, 
pinu (cf. Adj. Demonstratives) are used. 

Examples: Ngai nupwai mangiz, I come here to windward; ngaJbai palpai mangeuman, 
we two have come here ; ngoi tapai mangeu)m)i, we have come her'e (Muralag) ; kula pinapuni 
sipa, stone stops there to leeward ; pipalpuni kula, two stones to leeward ; kaipajia Daudaia pasia 
pungar, to windward along Daudai strait sailed. 

Muralag has nupwai, napwai, for nupai and napai. 

When used without the modifying particles paipa is 'windward,' and paupa, "leeward." 
Palai mata paupa tardan Dauanka, they two continued crossing leeward to Dauan. 

Kada, up, and mulu, down, may be used with kai, na or nu, pina or pinu. Kada 
may often be translated 'right' as well as 'up,' and mulu is 'left' as well as 'down'.' 
The suffix -ha {-pa in Muralag and Saibai) indicates motion towards. 

Examples : Xui nakadaka padaka, he went up the hill ; ngoi seta ngapa muluka sizaromin, 
we then came down hill ; ngalpa muluka paganiika padangu, we down came from the hill ; 
kaikadaka, upward here to my right ; nukadaka, up there ; kaimulka, down here to my left ; 
pinnkndnkn, upwai'd yonder ; pinumnlnka, downward yonder ; nui kuhai iakaman kaikadoka 
Daudaiku, he pointed the thniwing-stick up towards Daudai. 

I have not been able to ascertain the exact meaning of gu, which is u.sed in the 
same way as kada or mulu, suffixed to kai, na, or nu, pal, ta, pina or pinu. Its 
general sense is 'down,' 'under' (something else), or 'beyond' (some other thing or place). 

Examples : Tana dudupimin kaigu nguki, they drowned there in the water ; nagu dogamnu, 
on the further side. 

1 The Dse of these words for ' right ' or ' left ' depends on the position of the speaker with regard to 
the wind, or the slope of the ground. They may sometimes be translated 'before' or 'behind.' 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 13 

6. Verbal Demonstratives. From the demonstratives i, na ami si are formed the 
verbal stems, iai, stop, stay, lie here ; niai, stop, stay, sit here, and siai, stop, stay there. 

These are conjugated with the usual tense endings, Present ka; Past -?i ; Repetition 
-eda; and also with the Imperative termination r, and verbal noun endings -zinga and 
-ginga. 

E.xamples : Kula nimt parunu sika, the stone is (stays) there in front of you ; kuasur kula 
ngau pasiMi siaumaka, two stones are (stop) there beside me; siai nga? wlio is there? ngalbai 
ipaZ niaupa, we two are here ; ngoi ita niamripa (Muralag), we are here ; [ivarit/al kai siamika, 
some shall stop there]. 

In native narrative the use of demonstratives is very common and they are often 
repeated several times in a sentence. 

Example : Keda si palai iaduiuri, a palai ipal palai nge um mengeuman, lit. so then 
those-two declared, and they two both those two then dead became. 

6. Adjectives. 

1. Form and Derivation. Simple. — A few adjectives are simple roots, such as : 
koi, large ; kapii, good ; pepe, thin ; jji'ra, soft. 

Verbal stems may also be used as adjectives without any special termination as 
in : ngurupai mabaeg, teaching man ; minamai za, measuring thing. 

A noun often includes the meaning of an adjective, as moroig, an elderly person, 
sarupa, a drowned person. 

Derived from Nouns. — Adjectives are formed from nouns by the suffixes I or al, dai, 
pul, d, V, gi, ai. 

-1 or -al. This termination is an abbre\-iation of Iai, and expresses the meaning " full of " 
or "possessing," and is the same as the plural ending of nouns. It is only added to nouns 
which take this ending in the plural. 

Examples : kxdal, stony, full of stones, from kula, stone ; uhil, greedy, from uhi, wish, want ; 
mapul, heavy, from mapu, weight. 

-dai. This has the same meaning as / or al, and is added only to those nouns which 
take dai in the plural. 

Examples : indai, wordy, talkative ; aidai, possessing food. 

-pul. The noun za, thing, takes the ending pul in zapul, rich, having many things., 

-d. This ending expresses ' likeness ' when added to a noun. 

Examples : atad, broad and flat ; like ata, the belly of a turtle ; ponipanid, like lightning ; 
mudad, like a house ; kulad, like a stone (cf. kidal, stony, full of stones) ; mabaegad, kazid, 
man-like ; nui uraaid pungaik, he runs like a dog. 

-U. The genitive termination of nouns is used as an adjective denoting close connection in 
such expressions as gimau-za, top thing, lit. top's thing ; zayetau mabaeg, workman, lit. man of 
work ; ugukiu gud, water-hole ; apau pui, boltom lieam ; ngidaii za, a thing of yesterday. 
Sometimes it indicates material, as e.g. \alapasau buiu, alabaster bo.x]. 

-gi. The termination gi forms the negative of adjectives in /, dai, and pid, and is 
equivalent to the Knglisli with ending -less, e.g. kulagi, stoneless; kazigi, childless; zagi, poor, 
i.e. thingless ; mitagi, tasteless ; danagi, eyeless. 

An e.xample of gi reduplicated is seen in ieragigi, satisfied, from iera, stomach, ieragi, 
hungry, lit. stomachless. 



A 



14 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

-ai. A few adjectives appear with the ending ai, the meaning of which has not been 
ascertained. 

Examples are : turukku, male ; ipiai, female ; iabai, foreign, strange ; ngalkai, false. 

Derived from Verbs. — Adjectives are derived from verbs by the suffixes I, zi, and gi. 

-1, -al. The verbal stem being regarded as a noun this ending is identical with the -I 
or -al noted above. It is only added to stems in ai. 

Examples are : amaial, crawling, lame, from amai, crawl ; patal, prickly, thorny, from patai, 
pierce ; toidail, biting, from toidai, bite. 

-zi. This termination has the meaning of a past participle when used as an adjective 
and may be added to either the singular or plural stem. 

Examples : butupataizi, prepared, ready ; poihaizi, given ; mulaizi, spoken ; pudaizi, one 
picked ; pitdeniizi, many picked ; butupataizi mabaey, a man who is ready ; nitamum poihaizi 
wanab, your given blessing ; Noboan mulaizi ia, Noboa's spoken words, the words spoken by 
Noboa ; nungu imaizi goiga, his birthday, lit. his seeing day, day they saw him. 

-gi. This forms a negative as with nouns, e.g. imaigi 7>iabaeg, man who does not see ; 
mulaigi, non-talkative. 

Reduplication of Adjectives. — A few adjectives are formed by reduplication, as e.g. 
kuhikuhi, black, from hubi, charcoal ; idiidi, greasy, from idi, oil ; rimarim, shaking, palsied. 
These may be introduced words. Cf. Miriam, kubikubi, dark ; idi, oil. 

Compound Adjectives. — In compounds the terminations are, as a rule, only added to 
the last member, as e.g. knpu-mjadal, appearing beautiful, lit. kapu, good, ngadal, possess- 
ing a resemblance ; dada kubil, midnight. 

When, however, the first portion of the compound qualifies the second, the adjectival 
ending appears in both parts, e.g. umazi-getal, dead-handed, i.e. having a withered hand. 

Colour names are formed from the names of natural objects by suffixing d and 
then adding the noun gamu, meaning body, skin, or surface, with the suffix -I. 

Examples: kulka-d-gamu-l, blood-like-surface having, i.e. red; puipui-d-gamu-l, dust-like- 
surface having, i.e. brown. As nouns these would have the termination -nga. For complete 
list of colour names see Vol. ii. pp. 60-64. 

When these words are used as verbal stems gamu is retained. Cf. Verbs. 

A few other adjectives denoting the appearance of an object are formed in a similar 
way, huru gamul, ripe ; burn, dirt, sand ; ponipanid ganud, flashing like lightning. 

Adjectival Expressions. — Some equivalents to adjectives are formed by periphrases. 

Examples : nguki-nai, thirsty ; iera-gi, hungry. 

2. Position. The adjective used attributively precedes the notm, as e.g. wati pawa, 
evil deed; kapu za, good thing; kulal baradar, stony ground; ngukigi lag, waterless place; 
palgil urui, flying animal; taiamizi mabaeg, chosen man. Number is indicated by the 
noun alone, as kapu zapul, good things ; palgil until, flying animals. 

When used predicatively the adjective follows its noun, and requires the terminations 
nga (singular) or 7n:d (plural) when used of things or places; and g (singular) or gal 
(plural) when used of persons. It must then be regarded as a noun in apposition 
with that qualified, the word 'thing' or 'person' and the substantive verb being understood. 

Examples : bicrum iigarelnga, a pig having a foot ; ngau tali umanga, my father (who is) 
dead ; ngau lukuiapal utnamal, my brothers (who are) dead ; kula kadamzinga, a stone rolled away. 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 15 

The predicative form is also much used with pronouns, and demonstratives. 

Examples : nita kaurargal, ye who hear (or have ears) ; taua aigigal, those who have nothing 
to eat, they (are) foodless ; kuanialnga ina, it is hot here. 

3. Comparison. There are various methods of comparing things and of expressing 
the degree of the quality expressed. 

A simple comparison is made by two positive statements, e.g. koi kula, magi kula, 
a big stone, a little stone, or, without naming the objects, koimja, magina, big thing, 
little thing. The proper demonstrative may also be used, as koinga ina, magina inn, 
this (is) larger than that, lit. a big thing this, a little thing that. 

Modification of a quality is indicated by means of the nouu dadu (i.e. dada, the 
middle) inserted before the suffix nga. This has in Muralag, and often in the other 
dialects, the drawled pronunciation darado. Examples are : inagidadunga, rather small 
thing; koi darado urui, rather large bird; koi daradonga, something rather big. Further 
modifications of meaning may be expressed by the use of koi, equivalent to ' very ' and 
magi, equivalent to ' less,' with or without dado or darado. 

Examples : magi badahuja, a little thick ; magidad kunakrm nga, rather less strong ; koi 
badabuja, very thick ; koidarado badalnga, more than a little thick, inclined to be thick. The 
expression magi koidaradonga, meaning the medium of a quality is also used. The following 
examples illustrate the gradation of quality. 

Strong to weak. Thin to thick. 

koi kunakannga, very strong ; pepenga, thin ; 

koi darado kunakannga, not quite so sti'ong ; iiiagi badalnga, a little thick ; 

kunakannga, strong ; koidarado badalnga, rather thicker ; 

magidad kunakannga, rather less strong ; magi koidarado badalnga, rather more 
magi koidarado kunakannga, of medium thick ; 

strength ; koi badalnga, very thick. 

magi waunga) ... , 

y a little weak j 
gabun,ga J 

waunga ) 

, . , \ weak. 

kot gabunga J 

The words mina, truly, and mata, still, are used also to emphasise an adjective. 
Examples are: noi mina umanga, he is really dead; inu mina maginga, this is very small; 
ina mata danalaig, he is still alive (person). 

The likeness of one thing to another is expressed by the noun ngada, ' likeness,' 
or ' similarity,' in adjective form ngadal, ' like,' or derived noun ngadalnga, a like thing, 
plural ngadalmal. There are various compounds, as e.g. kedangadalnga, a such like 
thing ; ngadal paru, of like appearance, like in the face ; ngadal za, a like object. 

Examples : keda tusi inu keda ngadalnga, this book is like that ; keda ipika ina keda 
ngadalnga, this woman is like that ; inu tusi ipal keda -tigadalnga, this book is like tliose two ; 
ipal tusi inu keda ngadalnga, these two books are like that one ; inu tusi ita keda ngadalomal, 
this book is like those ; ita tusil inu lako keda ngadalnga, these books are like that. 

The word keda used alone means 'the same.' Jfiriu boitai mid? your baskets how many? 
nr/au boitai keda, my baskets are the same (as yours). 



A 



16 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



Likeness may also be expressed by adding -d to a noun. Sometimes ngadalnga is 
also used. 

Examples : kida kazidonga, the stone (is) like a man ; mudadonga, like a house ; puidonga, 
like a tree ; hda mabaegad ngadalnga, a stone having the appearance of a man ; ptd kulad 
koiridonga, tree (is of) stonelike hardness. 

7. Nouns. 

1. Form .\nd Derivation. Simple. — Nouns which are names of objects are usually 
simple roots, as mm, fire ; kula, stone ; baradar, earth ; gima, the top. 

The simple stem of the verb is often used as a noun, as e.g. luiai, a sending ; imai 
a seeing. 

Derived from Adjectives. — Nouns are derived from adjectives, by the suffixes a, nga, 
mal, g (or aig), and gal (or aigal). 

-a. This is of infrequent occurrence, and is equivalent to -nga. Example : kapua, a good 
thing. 

-nga. This is added to all forms of adjectives to denote a thing or place possessing the 
quality named by the adjective. Examples : koinga, a big thing ; kausalnga, something with 
fruit ; imaizinga, something seen ; poitainga, a far-off place ; imaiginga, something not seen ; 
mudaunga, thing belonging to house ; mumgunga, thing belonging to fire ; gudamatamzinga, 
shut up things'. 

With adjectives ending in -'/, o is often inserted before -nga, as e.g. rnxuladonga, a thing 
like a house. 

-mal. The plural of -nga. Examples : magimal, little ones ; kausalmal, things with fruit ; 
imaizii/ud, things seen; imaigimal, things not seen; umamal, dead things; mudaumal, house 
things ; gidiinguinal, boat things. 

-g (or -aig). This ending expresses tiie person possessing the quality named by the adjective. 
The ai does not properly belong to the termination and is only used with adjectives terminating 
in I. (See Nouns, Plural, and Adjectives, Form.) Imaizig, one who sees; imaigig, one who 
does not see ; ipilaig, man with wife ; iadaig, a talker ; getagig, a person without hands ; kaura 
gudamatamzig , a deaf man'. 

-gal (or -aigal). The plural of -g (or -aig). Imaizigal, those who see ; imaigigal, those who 
do not see. 

Derived J rum Verbs. — Nouns are derived from verbs by the suffixes a, za, zapul, -g. 

-a. This indicates the object of an action. Example : modobia, reward or payment, from 
modobi, get an equivalent. 

-za. This denotes the object or result of the action expressed by the verb, or the means 
or place of its performance. Examples: niaiza, a seat; ubiza, a thing wished for; nganajnulaiza, 
a resting place ; midaiza, a speech ; puidaiza, a nail, thing for hanging. 

It should be noted that all these words are names of tangible things, the names of the 
actions themselves are expressed by the verb stem, e.g. niai, a sitting ; ubi, a wishing ; 
7igana pudni, a resting; mu/i, a speaking; p7iidi, a hanging. 

-zapul. This is the plural of za. Example : niaizapul, seats. 

-g. This has the same meaning as the -g added to adjectives. Its use with the verbal 
stem alone seems comparatively rare, the corresponding derivative from adjectives in zi and gi 

1 Cf. the difference between 7iui kaum ijudamatamzin, he is deaf, lit. he (is) an ear-shut person, and mingii 
hiura guda mutamzinya, he does not hear, lit. his ears are shut-up things. 



GRAMMAR OP WESTERN LANGUAGE. 17 

being more usually found. Examples : jnizig, one who goes after or with another ; kau7-a guda 
viatmnzig, one whose ears are shut, a deaf man. 
-gal. The plural of -g. 

Compound Nouns. — Compound nouns are formed by the juxtaposition of two simple 
nouns, as e.g. zapu garka, rich man, pi. zapu garkazil ; parugarka, front man ; kala garka, 
a poor man (back man). The ablative of the noun may also be used, zangu garka, a rich 
man. Zapu garka, zangu garka are equivalent to zapulaig. Cf. in Tutu : Gumugarka for 
Gumulaig. 

Compound nouns may also be formed by an accumulation of suffixes, e.g. pepezan- 
guzinga, something from a thin thing, piece of a thin thing. 

The noun endings may be compounded into somewhat complicated forms, e.g. 
ngaumainguzinga, some thing belonging to my thing, from ngau, my, and the suffixes 
niai (mal), ngu, zi, and nga. 

Abbreviation. — The noun kazi is abbreviated to ka in compounds. E.g. garka, a man ; 

ipika, a woman ; ngowaka, a girl, etc. 

/ 

2. Gender. Gender is not indicated by the form of the noun, but when used in 

the singular number the appropriate demonstrative is used. Names of all large objects 
and females require the demonstratives in na, those of small objects and males require 
the demonstratives in nu. 

The sex of human beings is usually shown by distinct words, but may be indicated by 
the adjectives turukiai, male, or ipiai, female, as turukiai kazi, son ; ipiai kazi, daughter. 

The sex of animals is shown by the words garka, male, man, and ipika, female, 
woman, more rarely by the adjectives inil, male, and madal, female, from the names 
of the male and female organs. Examples : garka burum, boar ; ipika burum, sow. 

A distinction is sometimes made between the koi nel, ' big name ' and magi nel, ' little 
name,' but the ])ractice is not very general, and seems to have been an imitation of Miriam 
(cf. Miriam Grammar, Gender). Some Mabuiag examples were : bai, koi nel for grasses, magi 
nel, soge and burud : wasal, koi ne.l for dances. 

3. Number. There is no special termination to indicate the singular or dual number, 
but when necessary a singular or dual demonstrative is used, or numeral. 

The plural of nouns is not necessarily marked otherwise than by a numeral or 
demonstrative, but when especially prominent it is indicated by various suffixes : I, ul, 
ar, ai, dai, tai, pul, zil, mal, gal. These are never used with the dual, and rarely with 
small numbers. (Cf Vol. v. p. 249.) 

-1. This is added to nouns ending in a vowel. Examples : gua, seed of Pangitim i-dule, 
pi. gual; wome, a string figure (cat's cradle), pi. womeal; piti, nose, pi. pitil; buiu, bottle, 
pi. buiul. Goiga day, has pi. goigoil. 

-al. The a is very short and represents the indefinite vowel. This ending is suffixed 
to words ending in a consonant or diphthong. Examples : gub, wind, pi. gubal ; gud, opening, 
pi. gudal ; dangal, dugong, pi. dangalal ; natam, namesake, pi. natamal ; dan, eye, pi. danal ; 
a/), field, pi. apal; dapar, large cloud, pi. daparal; nis, leaf, pi. nisal ; gel, hand, pi. gelal ; pokai, 
girl, pi. pokainl. 

In the case of monosyllables it is doubtful whether the vowel belongs to the root or not. 

H. Vol. III. 3 



18 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

-ar, -r. A few words fonn the plural in ar. Examples : akur, intestine, jil. akurar ; kaura, 
ear, pi. kaurar. But kakur, egg, pi. kakurul. 

-ai. Monosj'Uables in I, m, and r suffix ai. Examples : gul, canoe, pi. gulai ; iiel, name, 
pi. nelai ; bom, pandanus, pi. bomai ; nur, noise, pi. nurai or nidai ; ngar, foot, pi. ngarai. 

-dai. Three words form the plural liy adding dai. Li, a woman's basket, pi. Kdai; a/, food, 
pi. aidai ; in, word, pi. iadai. 

-tai. Some words ending in oi or ui add tai. Examples : boi, basket, pi. boitai ; woi, tongue, 
pi. noilai ; nmi, fire, pi. muitai. 

Piii, tree, has pi. puil. 

-pul. The words za, thing, and iniii, time, form the plural by adding pid. 

-zil. Compound nouns with the ending ka (an abbreviation of kaz!) form the plural in 
kazil. Examples : garka, man, pi. yarkazil ; ipika, woman, pi. ipikazil, etc. 

-mal. Nouns derived from adjectives and verbs by the suffix nga, ubstitute 7nal for nga 
in the plural. Examples: aimzimal, doings; karengemizimal, hearings. 

-gal. Personal nouns derived from adjectives and verbs by the suffix -g form the plural 
in -gal. Examples : imuizig, one who sees, imaiziyal, persons who see ; danalaig, live man, 
danalijal, live men ; iadaig, a talker, iadaigal, talkers ; dangig, a blind man, danyigal, blind men. 
So also the names of the people of a place : Badulaig, Badu person, Badidgid, Badii folk ; 
Gumulaig, Mabuiag person, pi. Gumidgal. 

Plural of Verbal Nouns. — In verbal uoiins either the plurality of the action or of 
the object may be expressed, in the first case by the plural mal, in the second by 
the verbal plural mi. 

Examples : ngau lumaizinga ina, this is my seeking, this is what I looked for ; ngau 

lumaizinud ita, these are my seekings, these are what I looked for; ngau adaka pudaiziiiga, 

my picking out (one) ; ngau adaka ptidemizinga, my picking out many ; 7igau adaka pitdemiginga, 

my not picking out many ; ngau minarpalaizimal, my writings. 

Dialectical Variations. 

In Tutu most monosyllabic nouns form the plural in lai. Examples : dangalai, teeth ; 
ridalai, bones; puilai, trees; nisalai, leaves; bazalai, zialai, clouds, but urab, coconut, has 
plural, urabal; litoi, star, pi. titoal; warn, turtle, pi. warurai ; za, thing, has plural zapidai. 
With derivatives mael is used for mal; imaizimael, things seen. 

In Muralag li is used for ; or al. Examples: lagali, places; mudali, houses; za, thing, 
has plui-al, zapuli; kaura, ear, has kaurare. The plurals of the abbreviated nouns garkai and 
ipikai are garkazilt and ijnkazili. 

In Saibai mad is used for mal : imaizimail, things seen. 

Kote on Derivation of the Plural suffixes. 

The original suffix appears to have been -lai, and to be the same as the adjectival suffix. 
The original lai appears in Tutu as the plural, and in all the dialects in the adjective when 
-g is added— as in ipUai-g. In words which take the suffixes dai, pul, pidai, or pull, the d 
or pu has been lost in the nominative plural, but reappears in other cases and so must be 
regarded as part of the root. The suffix ai in gulai, canoes, nelai, names, etc. is probably 
due to euphony; gul-ai, nd-ai for gullai, nel-lai, nur-ai, or nu-lai for nur-lai. Mal is possibly 
a euphonic variant for ngaJ, which would be a regular plural from nga. Cf. ma^ia for ngapa. 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 19 

Other methods of indicating the plural. 

The plural may be shown by the word mura, preceding the noun, usually with the 
meaning of ' all,' ' every ' : mura mabaeg, men, all the men, mura za, all things. 

Words used only in the Plural. 

The word damalal meaning three water bottles, has no singular. One water bottle 
is kusu, plural kusul. 

4. Case. In Mabuiag nouns are declined through several cases by means of sufB.xed 
particles. In the application of these a distinction is made between Common Nouns, 
Proper Names of persons, and Nouns indicating positions. 

Declension of Common Nouns. 

The affixes used with common nouns are : 

Active Instrumental: -an or -n, denoting the instrument or active agent, as tnabaegan, 
by a man. 

Possessive : -au or -U, denoting possession, as mahaegau, of a man, a man's. 

Dative : -ka, denoting the purpose, or motion towards, as mahaeyka, for the man, or 
towards the man. 

Ablative : -ngu, denoting the cause, or motion from, mahaegongu, through or from the man. 

Locative of Rest : -nu, denoting rest at, in or beside, as mabaegnu, in the man, at the man. 

Locative of Motion : -ia, denoting motion at, in or beside, as mabaegia, along with the man, 
or by the man. 

Examples : kulan, with a stone ; wataran, with a stick ; nungu get kulan laban, (he) cut 
his hand with a stone ; burumau, of a pig ; mudau, of a house ; mahaegau mudal, men's 
houses ; mudaka, towards the house ; gxdka uzari, go to the boat ; niudangu, from the house ; 
nui puingu ngapa uzari, he comes from the tree ; mudanu, in the house ; gogoatnu, in the 
village ; mudia, by the house, into the house ; mudia muia uti, enter the house. 

The Simple Nominative or a noun standing alone has no suffix, neither has the noun 
a suffix when it is the object of a transitive verb, but the nominative of a transitive verb 
requires the suffix -an or -n, as e.g. mabaegan hurum, purtan, buruman gabau purtan, man eats 
pig, pig eats yam ; mabaegan kulan nunyu kuikuia mataman, man struck liis head (along his 
head) with a stone. 

A few common nouns are irregular in certain cases. The irregularity corresponds to 
that of the plural suffix, nouns which have irregular plurals being also irregular in case. 

The words za, thing, mai, time, and ia, word, have a second form ending in pu [zapii, 
niaipu, iapu) which is often used as an objective. The word ai, food, has also the form aidu. 
The irregular cases noted are as follows : 

Instrumental : zapun, by thing ; iadun, by words ; aidun, with or by food ; muitui, by lire, 
i.e. in the fire. ' By means of a canoe,' is gulnu, as things carried are necessarilj' ' on ' the canoe. 

Possessive : zangu, of thing ; iangu, of word ; muingu, of fire ; gulngu, of canoe. Note that 
in all these cases a part of the thing named, is necessarily taken from it, and hence the 
use of the ablative for the possessive. Wakau, belt, has possessive wakawau. 

Locative of Pest : zapunu, in a thing ; iadui, in words ; muitui, in fire ; gulnu, in canoe ; 
lidui, boitui, in basket, maitui, at the time. 

Locative of Mution: zapuia, into a thing; iapu, with words; muipu, into the fire; gidpu, into 
a canoe; lipu, into a woman's basket; boipu, into a man's basket; ngurpu, along tlie point; 

3—2 



20 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

■noiapu, on to the tongue. The words muiajm, over the fire, gulabn, across the canoe, were also 
given. In Gospels, [noridi gimal apapu, fell on the earth]. 

In adding the case suffixes to plural nouns in mal, tiie nial is changed to mai : nitaniim 
kareni/emizimaik-n, for the things you have lieard ; tana ■unaiziinain warujamhi, they collected 
(with) the leavings. 

The case of the noun does not always correspond to that used in English. It 
is often influenced by the verb determinative. 

Examples : iigat Papinia dantaian, I saw Papi, lit. I threw a glance at Papi ; hdan nungu 
kuikuia mataman, stone struck his iiead, lit. stone struck on (with motion) his head ; noid 
urahan ngaibepa poibiz (Saibai), he offered to me with a coconut. 

The following sentences afford further illustrations of the cases of common nouns. Nuid 
btcrum, urun dordiviin, he ties a pig with a rope ; nui dudupl si urnu, he drowns there in the 
sea ; iigau get ninu kuluia gar tartari, my hand rubs your knee ; ngai boxia gulgupima, I walked 
round the box ; 7igat nin urahan poibaik, I am giving you a coconut ; ngai nubeka iapu-poibeka, 
I ask him (to him), I to him give in words ; ngai 7nnungu akan meka, I fear you, I through 
you in fear become ; ngana sib unaik, I pity, me the liver leaves. 

A distinction is made between such expressions as 'a fish basket' and 'a basket of fish.' 
The former is wapingu li, a basket (li) from fish, i.e. the purpose of which is to hold fish, the 
latter is li wapiknya, a basket containing fish. Similarly, aingu li, a yam basket ; li aidenga, 
a basket of yams (food) ; li aigiuga, a basket with no food in it. 

Declension of Personal Names. — The affixes used with personal names differ from 
those used with common nouns, the letter n being inserted before the case termination. 

Objective : -an or -n, denoting the object of a transitive verb. 

Possessive : -n, an, or na, denoting possession or relationship. 

Dative : -nika, with names of males ; -naka, with names of females, denoting the person 
for whom intended, or motion towards. 

Ablative : -nungu, denoting the person causing, or motion from. 

Locative of Motion : -nia, denoting companionship, or location beside. 

The Nominative and Instrumental cases have no suffix. Examples : ngat Warian imad, 
I saw Waria often ; Sarar Noboan matamarngul, Sarar struck Noboa ; Noboan mud, Noboa's 
house ; Papi Ausan kazi, Papi (is) the son of Ausa ; Guguna tati, Gugu's father ; Noboayiika 
uzari, go to Noboa ; tana Alarianaka ladun, they went to Mary ; nui Noboanungu uzari, he 
■went away from Noboa ; ngai Noboania asika, I am going with Noboa ; ngat Papinia dan-taian, 
I glanced at Papi ; Noboa ia-muli, Noboa talks ; Noboa ngana iman, Noboa saw me. 

Declension of Locative Nouns. — Names of positions such as : ada, the outside, apa, 
the under ]KU-t, dada, the middle, gima, the top, siga, distance, are found with the 
suffix zi instead of -ngu, denoting motion from. For examples see section on adverbs. 
A few common nouns of similar meanings follow the same rule, such as laga, place. 

Dialectical Variations. 

Tutu. The affixes used in Tutu are the same as in Mabuiag. 

Muralag. In Muralag -nu is (sometimes) used for the instrument (instead of w) ; -pa 
•with common nouns and -ni/;^ with personal names (instead of -ka and -7iika) to indicate 
purpose and motion towards ; -nguzi (for ngu), to indicate origin or motion from ; 7iul (for nu) 
to indicate rest at. The following sentences afford examples : Babanu ngana ivaianu, my 
father sent me ; garkazinu ngana waianu, the man sent me ; Palnauda ngana waianu, Painauda, 



GBAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 21 

sent me ; niii mudapa iizariz, he goes to the house ; nui miidanguzi ngapa nzariz, lie comes 
from the house ; Mii.ralaganguzi, from Muralag ; Muralagapa, to Muralag ; Mura/aganul, at 
Muralag ; Painaudan muda, Painauda's house; pauzari Painaudanipa, go away to Painauda ; 
ina Noboan mud, this (is) Noboa's house ; ngai Noboanguzi uzerima, I went away from Noboa ; 
lagia, into the house. 

Saibai. In Saibai -pa is used with common nouns (instead of -ka) to indicate purpose 
and motion towards, as e.g. mabaegapa, to the man. 

The other cases of common nouns are the same as in Mabuiag. Proper nouns have 
the affix -n to denote the instrument and possessive, -Ipa, for purpose and motion to (instead 
of -nika), -Ingu to denote origin and motion from (instead of nungu), and -nia to denote action 
with. Examples are : Assaiin lag, Assaii's dwelling; A ssaiilpa, to Assnii ; A ssaiilngu, irota As^aii ; 
Assaiinia, with Assaii ; Jackilpa, Jackilngu, Jackinia, to, from, or with Jack. 

5. Vocative Nouns. Some nouns have a distinct form for the vocative. Such 
are baba! father! ama! mother! awade ! materual uncle! or .sister's son! kanie! mate'! 
(addressed to a person of same sex as the speaker), kake ! mate ! (addressed to a person 
of different sex to the speaker), kole ! mates ! 

Kame and kake are sometimes abbreviated to me ! and ke ! 

In other instances the vocative is indicated by the suffix ae or wae, as e.g. 
mabaegae ! O man ! rigau kaziae, my child ! ngau kazilae, my children ! 

6. Causal Nouns. The ending lai sometimes forms a kind of future causal noun 
from verb stems. It is used with the subject and the object in the ablative. 

Examples : mabaegngu ninungit, imalai, the man will see you by and bye, lit. from the man 
through you (there will be) seeing ; nungungti tusingji aimal, he will make a book ; iigaungu 
imailai, don't let any one see me, lit. (let there be) lookings through me. 

Used with the possessive it expresses the power of doing that which is indicated by the 
verbal root. Example : ninu labailai, (something) capable of cutting you. 

Other cases of the pronoun may be used. Nibia asilai, will go with you. 

Ninungu mulalai miaingu ngau iangu ? why don't you tell him nij' word 1 

7. Other Expressions used with Nouns. The word gar added to a noun indicates 
appropriation and emphasis. E.g. Ngau aigar ! that's my food, leave it alone! Ngau 
burumgar, ngau kazigar, ngau ipigar, ngau gulgar ! my pig, child, wife, canoe ! 

Examples in Tutu are: naguai gar, a very good yam; irrab gar, a good co'conut; 
aigar, good food, said by Maino to be the same as kapu ai. 

The word nge added to a noun expresses the meaning "having become" or "it is 
then," or " it really is." 

. Examples : Painaudanga, it is really Painauda ; wngelnga kulainge, the last thing is then 
first ; mabaeg um-mizi a maringe, a man ilies and is then a ghost ; Waria Netinge, Waria is 
now called Ned ; \iagiy iadainge, the dumb spake, speechless became talkative]. 

8. Reciprocal Nouns. These are formed on the analogy of the Reciprocal Pronouns 
by reduplication. Kazikazi matam sagid taraik, men tij^ht one another in play. 

' This word is a call to arrest tlio attention of a friend or stranger and seems to be the exact eciuivalent 
of the word 'mate' as used colloquially by sailors. Tlie English word has been adopted by the natives and 
is one of the many expressions borrowed from a nautical source in connnon use in Torres Straits. 



22 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



8. Pronouns. 

1. Personal Pronouns. Form. — The Mabuiag personal pronouns are as follows : 
First Person : ngai, I ; vgaba, we two ; ngalhai, we two ; ngalpa, we ; ngoi, we. 
Second Person : ni, thou ; nipel, you two ; nita, you. 
Third Person : nui, he, it ; na, she, it ; palai, they two ; tana, they. 

In ngaha and nyalpn the person addressed is included with the speaker ; ngaba, thou 
and I ; nyalpa, you and I. In ngalbai and iigoi the person addressed is excluded ; ngalbai, 
we two and not you ; ngoi, we and not you. 

The distinction between md and na is the same as that between the demonstratives 
nu and na. Nui is used of males and small things, na of females and large things. 
Mnra, all, is often added to tana ; tana mura, all of them. 

The demonstratives are frequently added to the personal pronouns. Noi senu, he 
there ; ngai inu, I here ; tana ita, these here, etc. 

Dialectical Variations in form. 

In ngoi and tmi, o and u represent the indefinite vowel, and in all the dialects these 
may be often written ngai or noi. 

Tutu. Xgdibai is occasionally used for ngaba, and iigai for ngoi. 

Muralag. Ngi is used for ni, ngipel for nipel, and ngita for mto. 

Saibai. Ngalbe is used for ngalbai, ngi for ni, ngipel for nipel, and ngita for nita. 

Note on Derivation. — An analysis of the personal pronouns seems to clearly show 
their origin from demonstratives, 
thus : 



The elements of the compounds may be indicated 



nga, the speaker (as in nga-pa). 
ni, the person addressed. 
nu, a small thing referred to. 



ta, plui-al. 

ba, pa, including. 

I, the plural sign. 



na, a large thing referred to. 
i, a small number present. 
pel, pala, two. 
The bai of ngalbai is unexplainable. 

Declensioti of Personal Pronouns. — The personal pronouns are declined through a 
variety of cases by means of affixes which, although they have a general likeness to 
the noun affi.xes are not exactly the same. In the singular number the cases are 
somewhat irregular but they are quite regular in the plural. 

Nominative and Instrumental. 
simple form of the pronoun. 

The subject of a transitive verb requires a suffix t in the first person singular, J in the 
other persons of the singular. The dual and plural have no suffix. 

Sing. 1. ngat, I; 2. 7iid, thou; 3. nuid, he or it; nad, she or it. 

Examples : ngat Fnpin mataman, I struck Papi ; nid 7nido)iga iapeka ? you choose which ? 

Objective. The Objective Case after a transitive verb is shown by the suffix na in the 
first person singular, n in the other persons of the singular. The dual and plural have no 



The subject of an intransitive verb is indicated by the 



suffix. 



Sing. 1. ngana, me; 2. nin, thee; 3. nain, him or it; nan, she or it. 
Example : Papi ngana mataman, Papi struck me. 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 23 

Possessive. The Possessive Case is shown by the suffixes u, zu, ngu, or nu in tlie 
singular, n in the dual, mun or pun in the plural. Gender, i.e. size, is indicated in the 
first and third persons singular. 

Sing. 1. tiffau, my (a man speaking) ; nguzu, my (a woman speaking) ; 2. ninu, thy ; 3. nungu, 
his or its ; nanu, her or its. 

Dual. 1. inclusive, ngaban, of us two (thee and me) ; exclusive, ngalbain, of us two (him 
and me) ; 2. nipen, of you two ; 3. palamun, of them two. 

Plur. 1. inclusive, ngalpun, of us (you and me) ; ngolmun, of us (them and me) ; 2. nitamun, 
your ; 3. tanaimin, their. 

Examples : ngau paru, my face ; ninu kulu, your knee ; nungu get, his hand. 

In these the n is doubtless the same as the n of the possessive suffix to proper names 
of persons, I is the adjectival suffix; mu, a plural particle, perhaps the stem of niura, all. 
The pu of ngalpun alone is strange. 

These pronouns are equivalent to adjectives, and like the corresponding derivatives of nouns, 
may take the noun suffixes nya and mal, and thus become nouns equivalent to the expressions 
mine, thine, etc. 

First Person. Second Person. Third Person. 

Sing, ngaunga, nguzunya | . ninunga \ . nungunga, nanunga. 

Plur. ngaumal, nguzumcd ) ninuraal) ' nungumal, nanumal. 

And so on with all the possessive forms. 

Dative. The Dative Case indicating distinction or motion towards is formed in the singular 
number from the simple pronouns, and in the dual and plural from the possessive by the 
suffix ka which is the same as that used witii nouns. In the singular ki or be, in the dual and 
plural i is added before the suffix. 

Sing. 1. nyaikika, for or to me; 2. nibeka, for or to thee; 3. nubeka, for or to him or it; 
nabeka, for or to her or it. 

Dual. 1. inclusive, ngabanika, for or to us (thee and me) ; ngalbainika, for or to us (him 
or her and me) ; 2. nij)enika, for or to you two ; 3. palainunika, for or to those two. 

Plur. 1. inclusive, ngalpunika, for or to us (you and me); exclusive, ngolmunika, for or to 
us (them and uie) ; 2. nitainunika, for or to you ; 3. tanamunika, for or to them. 

In the first person singular ngaika is sometimes found. 

Examples : ngai nibeka mid nieka ? I for — you what shall do? aidun nui nubeka barpudika, 
ngaikika launga, he bought food for him, not for me. 

Locative of Motion. The suffix ia meaning " along with " or " beside " is used in the same 
way as the dative ka. 

Sing. 1. ngaikia, with me; 2. nibia, with thee; 3. tiubia, with him or it; nabia, with 
her or it. 

Dual. 1. inclusive, ngabania, with us (thee and me); exclusive, ngalbainia, witii us (him 
or her and me) ; 2. nipenia, with you two ; 3. palamunia, with those two. 

Plur. 1. inclusive, ngalpunia, with us (you and me); exclusive, ngolmunia, with us (them 
and nie) ; 2. nilaniuida, with you ; 3. tanaomiiia, with them. 

Examples ; Noboa ngaikia iasugul sika, Noboa talking with me stays ; Papi nibia dantaian, 
Papi looked at you. 

Ablative. The Ablative Case indicating origin or motion from is formed by adding ngn to 
the possessive in all numbers. 



24 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



Sing. 1. tigaungu, from or tlirough me (a man speaking); nguzungu, from or through me 
(a woman speaking) ; 2. ninungu, from or through thee ; 3. nungungu, from or through him or 
it ; nanungu, from or through her or it. 

Dual. 1. inclusive, ngabanungu, from or through us (thee and me) ; exclusive, ngalhainungu, 
from or through us (him or her and me) ; 2. nipenungu, from or through you two ; 3. paht- 
nntnuiign, from or through those two. 

Plur. 1. inclusive, ngalpunnngn, from or through us (you and me) ; exclusive, ngolmuntingu, 
from or through us (them and me) ; 2. iiitamu7iu-tigu, from or through you ; 3. tanamunungu, 
fi'om or through them. 

Example : nita pa ngawigu, go ye away from me. 

Dialectical Variations in Declension. — The indefinite vowel (% or 6 is frequently heard 
after the endings i or d in all the dialects. 

Tutu. Possessive: Sing. 1. tigazu (a woman speaking); Dual. 1. exclus., 7igalba>i is some- 
times used. 

Dative: Sing. 1. ngapa. Dual. 1. exclus., ngalbanilca (sometimes). Plur. 1. exclus., wjrai- 
riiunika. 

Locative: Sing. 1. ngakia. 

A/t/atire : Sing. 1. (femin.) ngazungu. Plur. 1. exclus., ngaimunungu. 

Muralag. Sominatit^e and Instrumental: Sing. 2. ngid. Dual. 2. Jigipel. Plur. 2. ngita. 

Objective : Sing. 2. nyin. 

Possessive: Sing. 2. nginu. Dual. 1. inclus., ngabani; 1. exclus., rigalbaiyii ; 2. ngipeni. 
Plur. 1. inclus., ngapanu ; 1. exclus., ngoimunu ; 2. ngitamunu ; 3. ta7iamn,nu. 

Dative: Dual. 2. ngipenipa; Z. palamunipa. Plur. \. inclus., ngaljjanijya or ngalpamunipa; 
1. exclus., lu/oitiipa or ngohmtnipa ; 2. nyitanipa or ngitaiiuuuipa; 3. tananipa or tanamunipa. 

Ablative : nguzi is added to the possessive forms instead of ngu as in Mabuiag. 

Saibai. Nominative, Instrumental, and Objective, as in Muralag. 



assess tve : 



Sing. 2. nginu. Dual. 1. exclus., ngalben. 



ngipen. Plur. 1. inclus., 



ngaldpan ; 1. exclus., ngaimun ; 2. ngitamun. 

Dative: Sing. 1. ngniapa; 2. ngibepa; 3. nubepa, nabepa; Dual. 1. inclus., ngabalpa; 
1. exclus., tigalbelpa; 2. ngipelpa; 3. palamulpa ; Plur. 1. inclus., ngalpalpa; 1. exclus., ngai- 
mulpa ; 2. ngitamulpa ; 3. tanamulpa. 

Locative: Sing. 1. ngaibia. 2. ngibia. Dual. 1. exclus., ngalbenia ; 2. ngipenia. Plur. 
1. exclus., ngdimunia ; 2. rigitamunia. 

Ablative: Sing. 1. (femin.) ngdzunguz ; 2. nginunungu ; 3. (femin.) nanunguz. Dual. 1. inclus. 
ngabalngu; 1. exclus., ngalbehigu; 2. mjipelngu; Z. palamulngu. Plur. 1. inclus., tigalpalngu ; 
1. exclus., ngdimulngu ; 2. ngitamidnyu ; 3. tanamtdngu. 

Other expressions used with Personal Pronouns. The personal noun kurusaig (singular 
and dual), or kurusaigal (plural) is used to give an exclusive sense to the personal pronouns, 
somewhat equivalent to the English " self, by one's self." It always requires the possessive 
form of the pronoun preceding. 



' It is exactly equivalent to tlie Old English and Scottisli, my lone, thy lone, etc., and the Melanesian 
noun with suffix. Cf. G. P. Marsh, Lectures on the English Language, London, 1868, p. 215, and my paper in 
Journal Anthropological In,stitute, xxiv. p. 28, 18",I4. 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 25 

Examples : nc/au kurusaig, myself only ; ninii, kurusaig, thyself alone ; nungu kurusaiy, 
iiimself ; nyaban kurusaig, we two only ; ngaJpun kurusaig, we only ; mata md nungu kurusaig 
sika, he stands there alone by liimself ; 7nata palai j^alamun kurusaig siaumaka, they two stand 
there alone. 

Muralag has kurseg. Saibai, kusaig. 

Myself, thyself, himself, etc. as reflexive pronouns are expressed by the ablative case 
of the ordinary pronoun. 

Examples : JVgai ngaungu umeka, I am speaking to myself (lit. I speak from me) ; ni 
ninungu umeka, you are speaking to yourself ; ngaba ngahanungii mataumaka, we two are 
striking ourselves ; ngalpa ngalpunungu ■niatamika, we hit ourselves ; ngai ngaungu matanii, 
I hit myself ; itgi nginungid mataima (Muralag), you struck yourself. 

In cases other than the objective, the ordinary pronoun is used. Aid2m nui nuheka 
barpudika, ngaikika launga, he bought food for himself, not for me ; ai tana tanamunika 
barpudika, ngolmunika launga, they bought food for themselves, not for us. 

Reciprocal Personal Pronouns. These are formed by reduplicating the dual and 
plural forms. Ngubangaba umaumaka, we two are talking to one another. 

2. Interrogative Pronouns. The personal interrogative is nga ? who ? It is 
declined as a pronoun. 

Nominative of Intransitive Verbs. A^ga ? who 1 

Nominative of Transitive Verbs. Ngada ? who ? by whom % 

A causative. Ngaa ? whom 1 

Possessive. Ngunu ? whose ? 

Dative. Ngabeka 1 for or to whom ? 

Ablative. Ngunungu? from or tliruugh whom? 

Locative of Motion. Ngabia 'i with whom % 

Examples: Ninu nel ngai thy name (is) who^ nin ngad mataman? who hit you? nid 
ngan ■mataman ? whon) did you hit 1 inu ngunu tiisi ? whose book is this ? ngai ngapa ngaheka ? 
to whom do I come 1 ni ngapa ngunungu ? from whom do you come 1 ni ngabia pateka 1 
whom do you go with ? 

The suffixes nga and mal forming nouns may be added to the possessive : mjununga 1 whose 
thing ? ngunumal ? whose things ? 

Nga may be used in apposition with a common noun, and then precedes it like a demon- 
strative : nga mabaeg ngana ganitaran ? what man touched me 1 

When two persons are referred to nga is followed by wal. Nga wal sepalab kazin tatiu 
ubi aiman ? which of those two sons did the father's wish 1 

The interrogative pronoun used with common nouns is miai ? what ? It has no 
special form for the dual or plural. It is thus declined. 

Nominative of Intransitive Verb. Miai ? what 1 (is). 

Instrumental and Nominative of Transitive Verb. Midon? whatl (did). 
Accusative. Miai? what? 

Possessive. Mid? mido? midi? of what? This is adjectival rather than possessive. Cf. mi 
and adjective suffix -d. 

Dative. Mika? to what? 

Ablative. Mingu? from what? through what? 

H. Vol. m. 4 



26 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORKES STRAITS. 

Examples : Nungu nel miai ? its name is what ? nid midon mataman ? you hit yourself 
with what? nin midon mataman? what hit you? 7iid miai purtaik? what are you eating? 
mid kubilnu? on what night? ni mika ulaig? you go for what? ni mingu iadu uiiieka? 
what (will) you talk about? lit. you through what speak? 

The noun suffi.xes nga and mal may be added to the possessive mido or jiiidi. Midonga ? 
what thing? which? midimal? what things? midonga mangaumaka? bring which (of two)? 
nid midonga iapeka ? which do you choose ? 

The root mi i.s often used as an interrogative prefix. Afi-Iagnu ? in what place ? The 
adverb una? where? is sometimes used for which? (See Adverbs of Place.) 

3. Demonstrative Pronouns. The demonstrative pronouns in Mabuiag consist of 
the simple demonstrative particles ina, inu, sena, senu, pina, pinu, and their derivatives. 
They sometimes have the noun suffix ncja, but otherwise do not differ from the demon- 
strative adjective.s. 

4. Indefinite Pronouns. The word wara, another, forms the stem of several 
indefinite pronouns, as waranga, another one ; waramal, other things ; warig, another 
person ; warigal, other persons. These are declined as nouns, warigau matam, beating 
of some persons; ap warigupa turari (Muralag), gave the garden to another person. 
Wad, ' like the other,' is also used to express a supposition ; inu wad ngat nin imungid, 
this is like the other time I saw you, i.e. have I not seen you before ? In Saibai 
durai is used for luara. In Muralag hadagi, plur. hadagili, is used for ' some ' or ' any ' ; 
badagi kaivakikal noino gasanuin, some young men caught him. 

Other indefinite pronouns are: mura, all, plur. miirarai, the whole company; manarimal, 
a few things ; manarigal, a few persons. Tana iananah, lit. they severally, is used for 
' each.' 

9. Verbs. 

1. Form and Derivation. In Mabuiag any word or phrase may be used as 
equivalent to a verb and thus form the predicate of a sentence. The following are 
examples : 

Demonstrative : Ngai inu, I (am) that one ; ngai ngapa, I (come) hither ; ina kapu ai, this 
(is) good food. 

Adjective: Xgai kikiri, I (am) sick; mii kulai Nohoajvika, he fronts (gets before) Noboa ; 
na utui, she (is) asleep. 

Noun : Nui Gunmlaig, he (is) a Gumu man ; tana Mualga/, they (are) Moa people ; ngai 
nungu ngulaig, I know him, lit. I (am) his knower ; 7igai zagetka, I am going to work, lit. 
I (am) for work ; nui koamahi, he warms himself, lit. he (is) for warmth ; tana mura sampal, 
they (were) all drowned (men). 

Pronoun: Xi nga? you (are) who? niriu ia mid? what do you say? lit. your word (is) 
what? 

Adverb: Tana nubeka keda, they to him (.said) thus; nita pa ngaungu, (go) ye awaj' 
from me. 

Interjection : Kamn ! aie / mate ! come here ! kole ! ina ! mates ! (look) here ! 

Simple Forms. — The simplest forms of the verb are made by adding ai or i to 
the verbal root. 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 27 

The suffix ai indicates the active voice, i expresses a kind of middle or reflexive 
voice or even a passive. With the former ending the action is transitive and passes 
to another, with the latter the action is directed to the doer either as the object or 
beneficiary of the action, and thus expresses a condition rather than an action. 

The following examples, in which the two forms are derived from the same root clearly 
show this distinction. 

Aral, put in ; ari, go in, enter. Nurai, wrap round ; nuri, go round. 

Angai, carry, hold ; angi, wear. Pamai, dig, make hole ; pami, leave a 

Kosimai, bring up, rear ; kosivii, grow up. space. 

Zupai, shake ; lupi, wag (head, etc.). Pudai, pluck, pull away ; pudi, fall away, 

Matamai, strike ; matami, strike one's self. undress. 

Natai, roast, burn ; nati, burn one's self. Tarai, set upon, put upon ; lari, stand on. 

Nidai, touch ; nidi, hold. Wangai, pack, fill up ; wangi, crowd into. 

In some cases there is a slight change of form, as e.g. ialgai, tear, slit ; ilagi, become 
torn. 

There are many verbs which correspond to transitives in English but have in Mabuiag the 
intransitive form. Examples are: wani, drink; karengemi, hear; iapu-jioihi, ask questions, etc. 

In some cases it is not easy to see the reason for the particular suffix, as e.g. karengemi, 
hear ; iapu-poibi, ask questions ; but it is probable that in such examples the action, such as 
hearing, or questioning, is regarded as beneficial to the hearer or questioner. 

Verbs with the ending ai will be hereinafter referred to as Class I., those with 
ending i being distinguished as Class II. 

For the .syntax of these forms see Mode, Indefinite, p. 3-i. 

The verbal stems in ai and i when used as nouns in the plural may have the 
suffix I or lui. Nungungu ninungu gasanial, from him through you there will be 
catchings, i.e. he will catch you ; matamai, hittings ; imalai, seeings ; karengemil, hearings. 
{Vide Causal Nouns, p. 21.) 

Dialectical Variations. 

In Tutu sometimes and always in Muralag and Saibai, ^■erbs of the second class end 
in iz or izi instead of i. This ending seems to show the identity of the verbal , ending 
with the adjectival termination zi. A few words in Mabuiag have retained the ending, e.g. 
mizi and its compounds. 

Derivative Verbs. — There seem to be a few cases in which a noun stem becomes 
a verb by simply affixing the verbal termination, as e.g. in matam, a stroke, matam-ai, 
strike ; irad, shade, ii,rad-ai, cover ; azir, shame, azir-ai, make or be ashamed ; aka, fear, 
ak-ai, be afraid of; hud, mud, bud-ai, spread out; kada, up, kad-ai, lift up. Usually 
however an indeterminate verb is added to the noun to express a verbal use of 
the word. 

Compound Verbs. — In Mabuiag there are a very great number of verbs which in 
their simple form have an extremely general signification, such as asi, go with, follow, 
become like ; poibi, offer, make a sound ; tidi, bend, break, turn ; adai, put out ; mai, 
make, bring, cause ; mizi, be made, become ; palai, separate ; pali, become separated ; 

4—2 



28 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



puidai, place in lino ; puidi, move in a line ; pudai, pull or pluck ; pudi, fall ; tarai, set 
on, place on ; tari, be put on, stand ; tni, throw, etc. 

To render the meaning definite, words are prefixed to the verbal stem. These 
are often abbreviated and may sometimes be inflected. The prefixed vvords indicate 
sometimes the object, sometimes the instrument, sometimes merely the manner or direction 
of the action named by the verbal stem. 

It is somewhat difficult for a European to follow the construction of these compounds 
and in some few cases the exact meanings of the verbal stems or prefixes were not 
obtained. But in most cases the construction was explained by my informants and 
there is no doubt as to the general principles upon which the compounds are formed. 

The Prefixes may be divided into four classes : Corporal, Nominal, Modal, and 
Directive. 

Corporal Prefixes are names of parts of the body, usually of that by which the action 
is performed, as e.g. dan, ' eye ' in dan-pali, awake (open eye) ; daiuMi-patan, watch (pierce with 
eye) ; dan-tai, turn eyes to (throw eyes) ; or ngana, ' breath, heart, mind,' in nganorpiidi, rest 
(let fall breath) ; ngonaniimai, remember (bring into mind). 

Nominal Prefixes are names of common things, as e.g. la, word, in iadu-palgai, inform (put 
forth words) ; iaka-mai, confess (bring to a word) ; ia muli, speak, say (open word) ; iapu poibi, 
ask questions (cry out in words) ; ia turai, promise, owe (call word), etc. 

In this connection words denoting colour retain the prefix gamu, surface or skin, the 
verb stem used being asi, to go with, become like. Example : Nungu dan paramad gamu-asin, 
his eye became red, lit. his eye param-Iike surface went with ; param, red ochre. 

Modal Prefixes have the force of adverbs and denote the manner or circumstances of 
the action, as e.g. gar, together, in a lump ; in yar-nanami, push, knock against ; gar-palai, 
become convalescent (become whole) ; gar-jmtai, assemble ; gar-tai, press ; gar-walgai, wash ; 
ffar-widami (plur.), stand close together, etc. 

Directive Prefixes. These are by far the largest class and give generally the sense of adverbs 
of direction. Examples are : Ngapa-mizi, come (be brought hither) ; ngapa-uzari, come (hither 
go), etc. 



Table of Verbal Prefixes. 



1 . Corporal. 

bag, cheek. 
dan, eye. 
gam., skin, body. 
get, Iiand. 
gud, mouth. 
kuku, foot. 
kuik, head. 
'^■»i<ic?jt, flesh. 

..^ana, lungs, breath, heart. 
paru, brow, face. 
sib, liver. 
tabai, shoulder. 
wakai, throat, voice. 



Nominal. 



bar, grass. 

bup, forest, bush. 

btirda, grass, thatch. 

bntu, sand. 

gub, wind. 

yud, hole, opening. 

ia, word, speech. 

karar, turtle-shell. 

karunn,, lizard. 

kuik, beginning, foremost part. 

sup, covering. 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 



29 



3. Modal, 
apa, below. 
dada, between. 
gar, in a mass, together. 
yima, above. 
ia, in a row. 
lu, afar. 

ngar, on the edge or point of. 
pal, double. 



4. Directive. 

ada, out, away. 

iu, moving horizontally. 

kada, upward. 

kid, in a reverse direction. 

kun, back. 

mulu, downward. 

tigapa, hither, to the speaker. 

j)a, off, away. 

siga, afar. 
The prefix is used even when it has the same meaning or form as the object of the 
verb. Cf . ngai ngau gamu gar-walgaik, I wash my skin ; ngai ngau garo-gamu gar-walgaik, 
I wash my entire body; ngai ngau kuik gar-walgaik, I wash my head; ngai ngau get gar- 
waJyaumaka, I wash my hands ; nungu gamu gatii-uzir, his skin itches. In these gar means 
body, gamu the skin or .surface of the body. 

The following will serve as examples of the indeterminate verbs as modified by prefixes. 
Many others will be found in the vocabulary. 



Asi, go with, become. 
ap-asi, be humble (ap, ground). 
halhalgi-asi, become straight (halbalgi, straight). 
iagi-asi, be quiet {iagi, wordless). 
kiipuaka-asi, believe (kapuakn, for good thing)'. 
karar-asi, obey (karar, turtle shell) ^ 
kaiiha-asi, be tired (kauha, weariness). 
miipu-asi, be heavy (mapu, weight). 
mina^asi, finish {mina, right, proper, true). 
ngulaig-asi, be able {ngulaig, one who knows). 
pa/el-aiii, wither (palel, withered). 
paupa-asi, decline of day {paupa, down, to west). 
uhigi-asi, dislike {uhigi, not wish). 

PAGAi, pierce. 
adaka-pagai, come out of boat (adaka, to outside). 
yet-pagai, stretch out hand {get, hand). 
ylmiakasia-pagai, step over stream (ginia, top, 

kasa, stream). 
iaragi-payai, hunger (iaragi, no stomach). 
miduka-pagai, come down (mulnka, downward). 
papayai, enclose (;.>(i, fence). 
paiwan-payai, shoot paiwa from mouth (paiwa, 

a lierb)^ 
paai-pagai, stand beside (pas!., side). 
rima-paya.i, come suddenly (rima, metathesis of 

viari, ghost). 
toitu-pagai, pray (toitit, roof). 
ur-pagai, dive {ur, sea). 

1 This is the native explanation, 'go for a good thing.' Tlic wm-d is used in the Gospels for 'faith,' 'believe.' 

- Lit. become like karar, which is soft and pliable when heated. 

3 Paiwa bark was chewed and spit on a head before it was cut off. 

* Keferring to moving of lizard's head from side to side, and applied to a poison persuaded to look at 
many things in rapid succession. 



MAI, bring, take, make, cause. 
adaha-mai, take away [adaka, to outside). 
gamu-mai, snatch away {yamu, surface). 
geget-mai, torment (yeget, smart, pain). 
iaka-mai, confess (iaka, to speech). 
iawa-7nai, journey (iawa, farewell). 
kadalca-m,ai, exalt (kadaka, upward). 
hmnya-niai, despise (lau7iya, nothing). 
viina-niai, measure (mina, proper, true). 
muluka-mai, debase (rnuluka, downward). 
7igapa-mai, bring [nyapa, hither). 
nyonanti-inai, remember (ngonanu, in heart). 
uka-mai, add, mix (uka, two). 

PALAi, separate, divide, carve. 
adakapalai, release {adaka, out). 
horsn-'paliii, damage {bursa, damage). ' 

dan-pa/ai, live, be alive {dan, eye). 
karu7n-palai, bother, distract {karuni, lizard)''. 
kutal-palai, save {kiital, ends). 
■minar-palai, write {miliar, mark). 
ngulaig-palai, inform {ngulaig, one who knows). 
p(dga-palai, smash {pal, double). 
poi-palai, shake off dust {poi, dust). 
sayul-palai, lose, waste {sayul, play). 
sirisiri-palai, choke {sirisiri, tangled bush). 
tiki-palai, sweep {tiki ?}. 



30 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



PUDAI, pull, pluck. 

ador-pupai, surpass, excel (ada, out). 
adakapudai, pluck out (adaka, to outside). 
apor-pudai, spread out {apa, ground). 
bar-pudai, buy, sell {bar, grass). 
gei-pudai, scrape hands, greet (yet, hand) '. 
gud-pudai, open (gud, hole). 
iadi-pudai, haul up anchor [iadi, anchor). 
muhika-jmdai, fall down {imduka, downward). 
ngatia-pudai, 1-est (lujana, breath). 
pasa-pudai, open door (pasa, door). 
urpti-pudai, float {urpu, on sea). 
uru-bal-pudai, stretch string {uru, string, bal, 
across). 

ADAI, put out. 

dan-<idai, be born {dan, eye). 

doia^adai, get well {dot, out of the house, out 

of doors). 
kazi-adai, beget {kazl, child). 
kirer-adai, dance {kirer, dance). 
malguiadai, grow {malgui, a shoot). 
moscd-adai, spit {mos, spittle) ^ 

XIDAI, hold, carry, bring. 
baudia-nidai, draw boat on shore {baudia, to 

shore). 
doi-nidai, heal {doi, out of the house). 
yimia-nidai, set on top {yimia, to the top). 
kata-nidai, seize by throat {kata, throat). 
kuik-nidai, fulfil {kuik, head). 
tunge-nidai, light torch {tunge, dry coconut 

fronds). 

PUIDAI, draw, put along line. 
adaka-puidai, draw out {adaka, to outside). 
apia-puidai, make sit (apia, on ground). 
gimor^uidai, y)ut on to() {ginia, top). 
gudazi-ptiidai, save {yudazi, from hole). 
mai-puidai, weep (mai, mourning). 
nau-puidai, sing {nau, song). 



TAI, tlirow. 
ada-tai, throw away {ada, out). 
aiyi-tai, spend, finish {aiyi, no food). 
bay-tai, threaten {bag, cheek). 
bal-tai, turn aside {bal, across). 
dan-tai, watch {dan, eye). 
kauria-tai, swear {kauria, into ear). 
kid-tai, change {kid, another direction). 
kuikiai, nod {kuik, head). 
marama-tai, bury {marama, pit, hole)". 
ngana-tai, wonder at {nyana, breath). 
piki-tai, dream {piki, dream). 
ic(ujel-tai, follow {wagel, after). 

Mizi, hold, have, become. 
adaka-mizi, depart {adaka, to outside). 
akan-mlzi, fear {aka, fear). 
armin-mizi, dawn {ur, dawn, inina, real). 
ngapa-mizi, come {nyapa, hither). 
um-mizi, die {tim, death, dead). 
wal-mizi, cry out {ival, a cry, coo-ee). 

PUGAi, pluck. 
ada-pugai, despise {ada, out). 
adaka-puyai, throw away, reject {adaka, to 

outside). 
yeyet-puyai, irritate, use bad language {geget, 

smart, sore). 
kulan-pugai, cut with stones {kula, stone). 
wati-pugai, fail {ivati, bad). 

wiDAi, put to. 
adaka-widai, cut ofl' {aduka, to outside). 
gam-widai, kindle fire {gam, surface). 
gar-widami (plural), assemble {gar, together). 
gud-widai, salute {gud, mouth). 
gud-yar-ividami (plural), take counsel, discuss 

{giul, mouth, gar, together). 
ngur-widai, cast out {ngur, point). 



Other less common examples are seen in the following list. 

Aimai, make : kuik-ainiai, begin {kuik, head) ; wara-kid-aimai, do wrongly {wara-kid, another 
way) ; apo-aimai, spread, as cloth {apa, ground) ; irad-aimai, shade {irad, shade) ; kwaimai-avmai, 
scarify {kwaiwii, cicatrix, scar). 

Angai, hold, catch, wear: yetan-a^iyai, getal-anyai, spoil {geta, hand); mai-angai, mourn {niai, 
mourning) ; ikai^angai, rejoice {ikai, glad) ; ras-angai, rise of storm {ras, storm, wind). 



1 The old method of salutation. 

' This may possibly be deriired from ladai, cut. 



' Burial in a grave is an introduced custom. 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 31 

Arai, put in, Ari, go in: hup-ari, escape {bujm, bush); wapi-arai, catch fish (wapi, fish); 
gud-arai, betray {yud, hole). 

Gasamai, get, receive : kain-ipi-gasamai, marry {kain ipi, new wife). 
Gurgumi, roll round : dan-gurgumi, pray {dan, eye). 

/ai, sit : ajyia iai, sit or lie on ground ; niai, sit ; siai, be there (cf. Demonstrative Verbs). 
lapi, choose : bag-iapi, threaten {hag, cheek). 
Imai, see: kuik-imai, begin {kuik, head). 
Irui, swell : maila-irid, be satisfied with food {maita, belly). 

ludai, pour out, iudi, come out : wakai-iudai, pray {wakai, voice) ; wal-iudai, cry out {lual, 
coo-ee, sliout) ; ngana-iudi, wonder at {ngaiia, breath). 

Liud, ruai, tack, go aslant : get-lnai, stretch out arm {get, arm). 
Lupai, rupai, scatter: ngu-rupai, teach {ngu, knowledge, origin)'. 

Matamai, malami, strike : gud-matamai, shut {giul, hole, doorway) ; warup-matamai, beat 
drum {warup, drum); dan-gud-mataraai, blindfold {dan, eye); samu-dan-matami, twinkle eyes 
{sarmi-dan, eyelash). 

Nanamai, strike with body : getan-nanamai, slap {get, hand) ; sup-nanamai, crowd round 
{sup, a cover) ; ngaran-nanwmai, kick {nya/ran, with foot). 

Nitui, project : get-nitui, point {get, hand, finger) ; kaba-nitui, row, paddle {kaba, oar, paddle) ; 
niki-niiui, shoot out branches {/tiki, twigs) ; mui-nitui, make fire. 

Nurai, wrap round, nuri, go round : sup-nurai, wrap {sup, cover) ; sirisiri-nurai, choke with 
weeds {sirisiri, tangled bush) ; wakai-nuri, make mistakes {wakai, voice) ; iaka nuri, forget {iaka, 
for a word) ; gat-nuri, be low water {gat, reef at low tide). 

Palgai (? bring up forcibly), palgi, spring up : iadu-palgai, inform {iadu, word) ; kata-palgi, 
jump up {kata, neck) ; sib-kaf-palgi, be frightened {sibu, liver)-. 

Pali, be partly separated (as a hinge) : dan-pali, be awake {dan, eye) ; gud-pali, open {gud, 
hole) ; apo-2Kdi, btUu-pali, shake off dust {apa, earth, butu, sand) ; ako'pali, be frightened {aka, 
fear); koama-pali, warm one's self {koam, heat); palga-pali, smash {pa, away, lag, place (?)); 
sib-palga-pali, be startled {sibu, liver)"; gar-pali, be whole {gar, body, lump). 

Pamai, dig: sib-pamai, worry about {sibu, liver) °; gud-pamai, enlarge hole {gud, hole). 
Pami, make way through: sib-pami, worry {sibu, liver)"; mad-jjami, be startled {tnad, flesh). 
Paiai, cut, break, stick in : kuik-jiatai, behead {kuik, head) ; butu^patai, prepare {butu, sand) ; 
wat-patai, dry up {wat, dry) ; danan-patai, watch {danan, with eye) ; lu-patai, crack {lu, shell 
of crab) ; miti-patai, taste {mit, sweetness). 

Pati, go in: gulpu pati, embark {gulpu, in boat); butu-pati, be ready ; iatur-pati, shavCi (/ato, 
beard). 

Piui, paint : idin-pini, anoint {idiii, with oil). 
Poibai, give : kasa-poibai, lend {kitsa, bare, only, just). 

Poibi, utter sound : poibi, crow ; ial-poibi, crackle {icd, sounds, words) ; iapu-poibi, ask question 
{iapu, word); nukunuk-u-poibi, .sigh (^nukuuuku, ?). 

Pudi, fall, hang down : inuluka-pudi, stoop (mnluka, downward) ; halbad-pudi, peep (bal, 
across, bad, corner) ; ngana-pudi, rest {ngana, breath) ; bogia-pudi, walk with a stick, be lame 
{bogia, with a walking-stick). 

Pungai, sail : berai-piuigai, to be loose of belt {berai, loose) ; giun-jningai, laugh {giun, with 
laughter). 

Purtai, eat : danan-purtai, watch, stare at {daiiati, with eyes). 

' Cf. suffix -?!,'/«, from, origin, cause. - The liver sibu is the .seat of the emotions. 



32 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

Tamai, carry away, (ami, move away : kabu-tamai, carry with outstretched arms (kabu, breast, 
chest) ; wakain-tamai, think {wakain, with voice) ; ia^tamai, be angry (ia, word) ; tira-tami, sail 
boat (by letting rope slip through tira, holes in gunwale). 

Tarai, set up or place, tari, be placed : kadai-tarai, set up ; kadai-tari, arise (kadai, up) ; 
gamu-tarai, touch ; gam-tari, touch lightly {gam, surface, skin) ; gima-tarai, tread on (gima, top) ; 
kataia-tarai, tie round neck (kataia, on, along the neck) ; sugul-tarai, converse, hold meeting 
(sugul, open space, dancing ground) ; kuliiti-iari, kneel (kulun, on knees) ; bal-tarai, stop (bal, 
across) ; aportari, reach bottom of hill (aqja, ground). 

Tardai, to spin the wdna top : gul-tardai, sail canoe (gul, canoe) ; get-tardai, to dip into 
with hand {get, hand). 

Tidai, bend, turn, break by bending : balbcd-tidai, straighten {balbal, crooked) ; pa-tidai, 
break as stick {jta, away) ; dang-ddai, turn down corner of leaf {dang, tooth) ; wapid-iidai, swim 
like a fish, with wavy motion {ivapid, fishlike) ; tudi-tidai, make fish-hook {tudi, fish-hook) ; 
kaza-tidai, double string {kaza, fathom) ; irad-tidai, overshadow {irad, shadow). 

Tidi, bend or turn round : knnia-tidi, return, go back {kunia, along the back) ; gei-tidi, read 
{get, hand) ; muluka-tidi, bow head {nmluka, downward). 

Turai, call : kunia-turai, recall {kunia, along back) ; ladu-turai, preach (iadu, with word). 

Ulmai, walk, go along : dan-walmai, save, ransom {dan, eye). 

Umai, say, speak : ia-umai, praise {ia, ?). 

Uradai, cover : dan-uradai, die {dan, eye). 

Vtui, plant, shoot, sleep. 

Wadai, stop, hinder : ia-vmdai {ia, word), forbid ; iadu-wadai, caution {iadu, with word) ; 
gud-wadai, present {gud, mouth). 

Wai, put, place, send, iviai, let be, leave : ivakai-wai, give good advice {wakai, voice) ; 
iadai-wai, send message (iadai, words) ; iananab-wai, scatter {iananab, in different directions) ; 
gud-wai, loosen, forgive {gud, mouth) ; get-ioai, let go {get, hand) ; kudu-wai, assent {kudu, a 
syllable, part of word). 

Walgai{V): walgai, fill with solids; gar-walgai, wash {gar, together, lump); gisu-walgai, 
sharpen, make point (gisu, point). 

Wanai, leave, put ; wani, be left : sib-wanai, pity, be sorry for, cheer up {sibu, liver) ; 
k/isctr-ivanai, forsake {kasa, bare, naked) ; terai-wanai, to flavour (terai, tasty). 

Infix. In somo words tlie letter d is apparently an infix conveying a sense of motion. 
For examples, cf. tarai, set, place upon, and tardai, taradai, bear, carry, sail (move ship) ; 
tari, set hand on, taridi, lift. Also cf. tiai, tidai; wiai, widai; niai, nidai; iai, iu^lai. 

Contracted Verbs. — A few verbs appear in a contracted form. 

Examples : mutuini for muia uti.ini, go inside ; sizari for si uzari, go down (go out of sight). 
Perhaps also karengeml, liear, from kauran gasami, get, apprehend with the ear. 

Special Forms of the Verb. There is in Mabuiag no substantive verb. Ina 
kapu ai, this (is) good food; nui Gumulaig, he is a Mabuiag man. Cf Adjectives, p. 15. 

The verb 'have' is expressed by the noun suffix. Ngai tusilaig, I have a book; 
put nisalnga, a tree has leaves. 

There are no special forms of the verb to indicate the Causative, Reciprocal, or 
Desiderative. These are expressed by means of compounds, or by syntax. Vide section 
on Mode. 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 33 

The verbal stem in a coinpouud seems to have very often the force of a causative. 

The stems mai and mizi, and palai, pali especially often seem to merely change the 
pi'eceding word or phrase into a verb, as e.g. ngat nin ikaika-mani, I make you joyful 
nyau nubia asigmga-miad, I did not go with him, lit. my with-him not-going was done 
ngat tusi gumi-maika, I hide a book, make secret a book ; um-mizi, die, become dead 
aka-palai, frighten, cause fear ; guhan borda gaugtd-palaik, wind shakes the thatch 
gaugui-palai, make shaky ; kerket-palai, make smart, cause wound ; koama-pali, make one's 
self warm ; kuik-palai, increase, make head ; iagi-palai, make wordless, silence ; iadai- 
palai, make words, chatter, etc. 

The word a,si, go with, follow, and hence, become like, is used similarly. Noi gamu 
dill usin, he was pleased, lit. he body cheerful went with. 

2. Person. Person is not indicated by any change in the form of the verb. 

3. Number. When required the number, Singular, Dual, or Plural, is shown by a 
change in the ending of the verbal stem. The dual ends in unia, the plural in mi. 
These, however, are rarely used except before the tense suffixes, and when the number 
is shown by the plural noun or pronoun or by the word mura, no sign of number need 
be used with the verb. Verbs of the first class agree in number with their object, 
those of the second class agree with their subject. 

When the object of a verb of Class I. or the subject of a verb of Class II. (without 
a direct object) is in the third person plural compounded with mura, all, the singular 
ending may be used. 

Examples: Ngat tanamun imanu, I see them all, but ngat tana iinaniinu; ngoi mura 
wanin, we all drink, but ngol mura tanamuiiika mulem/inu, we all spoke (to) them. 

The i of the stem is usually dropped before the dual or plui-al ending especially 
with verbs of the first class. 

Examples : palai, sing, palan, dual jxilauman, plur. palamin, cut ; wanai, sing, wanan, dual 
wanauman, plur. waiiamin, sent. 

In some verbs of the second class the i of the stem is changed to e before unia. 

Examples : nmli, speak ; muleuman, two spoke ; nidi, touch ; nideumati, two touched ; 
■mangi, come ; mangeuman, two came. 

Some verbs are irregular in the expression of number. 

Examples : mai, mani, mangauman, viamain, taken ; ainiai, aiman, aiuman, aimin, made. 

Some verbs are defective as regards the expression of number, the missing forms 
being supplied by words from a different root. 

Examples: 8ing. usari ; dual uzarman; plur. ladun, went. Sing, ulaik ; dual ulmeumaka; 
plur. todik, walk. Sing, apaianorima ; dual, apatanormanu ; plur. apa^taianu, sat. 

Some verbs have the singular number ending in 7ni. 

A few verbs are used only in the plural. These often have a singular ending. 

Examples : apa^taean, many sat ; tana ladun, they went. 

H. Vol. III. \ 5 



34 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



Dialectical Vai-iatiuns. 

Tutu and Muralag agree with Mabuiag in the method of expressing number. 

Saibai Las diiia for the dual instead of uma, and mai or 7>ioi in tlie plural instead of mi. 
The plural in the first translation was written nidi. Examples : inatamanu, matamdman, matamain, 
struck one, two, or three ; muliz, mulemdnian, mulenii, one, two, or thi'ee spoke. 

4. Mode. There are eleven modes in which verbal expressions may be used in the 
language of the Western Islanders. The differences are indicated partly by inflections, 
partly by the use of auxiliary words. The modes are as follows : 

1. Indefinite. 7. Desiderative. 

2. Injinitive. 8. Potential. 

3. Imperative. 9. Subjunctive. 

4. Indicative. 10. Conditional. 

5. Interrogative. 11. Quotation. 

6. Negative. 

Indefinite Mode. The simple verbal stem is used with the Possessive, Nominative, 
or Instrumental Cases of Nouns or Pronouns, to express an action indefinitely without 
limit of time or place. 

When used with a possessive the verbal stem may be regarded as a noun. 

Examples : Ngaii nyonanu-mani, I remember (I bring in mind), lit. my bringing in mind ; 
■ngalpun imai, we see (our seeing) ; nitamun keda mulai, your saying so. 

When used with the simple nominative the word exjjressing action or condition 
may be regarded as an adjective. 

Examples : iV'ito ladti, you go ; nui luai nungu ziuju, he stretched out his arm ; tana iadai 
wai, they send a message. These may be compared witii such expressions as na utui, she (is) 
asleep ; ngai kikiri, I (am) sick. 

The instrumental form is also used with the simple stem. Example : nuid karengemi, 
he hears. 

Infinitive and Participial. After an order the infinitive is expressed by the sub- 
junctive endings -e, -mare. (Vide Subjunctive mode.) 

The infinitive of purpose is shown by the suffix ka, which does not differ in 
meaning from the noun suffix ka. 

Examples : Tana ladu barpudaka, they go to buy (for buying) ; aie ! apatanuri purutaika, 
come, sit down to eat ; nuid Tomagani amai nge kiainan wagel niaduka adaka maika, Tomagani 
then made an oven afterwards for taking ofl' the flesh. 

When tlie verb requires an object this is indicated also by the dative : Ngai aigiy nubeka 
poibaika, I have no food to give him, lit. I (am) foodless for giving to him ; nita ubin mimika 
ngaikika niatamka, you wish to kill me. 

The simple forms of the verb (vide Indefinite mode) take the place of participles. 

Imperative. A few verbs are found only in the imperative. Such are aie! come i 
(singular); aiewal ! come! (plural); pa! away! hence! hoi! come! The simple form 
of the verb may be used in the imperative. 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 35 

Examples : Ni uzari barpudi ninu zajnd 1 go and sell thy goods ! nita ladu I go ye ! ninu 
unai ninu uidai ! leave your present ! lit. your present (i.s) your leaving ; nimt, get luai 1 
stretch your hand ! 

An order to one person i.s indicated by the suffi.x: -r. With verbs of Class I. 
Avhen a dual object is indicated this becomes -umar, when the object is plural -mir. 

Examples : Ni iayi asir, be quiet ; nid ngana wanar, leave me alone ; nid nuin waear, 
send him ; ngalpniii dan gud-palaiimar, open the eyes of us two ; ugalpai sib-wanaumar, pity 
us two ; nid ngau aidai butu-patamir, prepare my foods. 

An order to two or more persons is shown by the suffix u. With verbs of the 
second class, and with verbs of the first class when the object is dual, muriit is used 
instead of u. When there are more than two objects the suffix is miu. 

Examples : Ni muli ! speak thou ! nipel muUmariu ! speak ye two ! nita midiiniu ! speak 
ye ! build nudamiu ! fill the bottles ! iagi asiumariu ! be ye two quiet ! nita tanamun aidun 
poibau ! give ye their food ! 

When an order is given to repeat an action -da is used instead of -r, and ziu 
instead of u. With the verbs of the first class these change for dual objects into 
-iimada and -iimaziu, for plural objects into -mida and -miziu. 

Examples : Nid nuin imada, palai imaumada, tana imamida, look at him, them two, 
them often ; Nita nuin imaziu, palai imaumaziu, tana imamiziu, look ye often at him, them 
two, them. 

Modifications of Imperative. The harshness of an imperative is modified by the use 
of the particles gar, de. 

Examples: Ngaika gar marar, (please) bring me that; nita de nuin iapu poibi ! just ask 
him ! garka 7iubeka lak muli de, let the man tell him again ; imau de, go and see ! ni Tnuli de, 
ngai nungu ubigi asig ! (you) tell him I don't want him. Cf. Ngalbai de nubeka lak mulikd, we 
two will just tell him again. 

The Negative Imperative or Pr-ohihitive. This is expressed usually by the simple 
negative with the nominative or possessive form of the pronoun. 

Examples : Ninu maigi ! don't mourn ! nita akagi ! nitaniun akagi ! ninu akagi ! fear not ! 
ninu uzaraigi ! don't go ! wara mabaegau ngrdaig palaigi 1 do not inform other men (lit. don't 
he other man's informant) ; nitaniun uzaraig ! don't go ! nitamun karengemigi ! don't listen ! 
■nipel akagi! nipen akagi! fear not! ninu 7iipen, tananun sepalab zangu imaigi ! don't look at 
those two things (dual) ! nitiu selab zangu imaigi ! don't look at those two (plural). 

Maigi, the negative imperative of 7Hai, mani, do, bring, take, etc. is often used as a 
prohibitive word. 

Indicative. The indicative mode is indicated by a variety of endings. These will 
be discussed in the section on Time. 

Interrogative. In asking questions the verb uiulergoes no change, but the word 
an or wau is placed at the end of the sentence. When an interrogative pronoun is 
used an or wan may be omitted. The interrogative may also be expressed by a 

5—2 



y 



36 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



supposition, aud the tone of the voice, as e.g. kaiki uzarima? to out of sight gone? 
has he gone? inu wad ngat nin imangull did I see you as well? lit. like this other. 

Examples : Ni vianyi an ? have you come 1 ni uzarik au ? are you going ? ina kapu ai 
cm? is this good food? noi nubepa mulaini au? did he tell him? (Muralag). palamunungu 
nga ngapa-uzarika kai ? Gizu au, lannya Waria au ? which of them two will come, Gizu or 
Waria ? 7iinu imaiginya au ? don't you see ? 

Negative. There is properly speaking m> negative verb. An equivalent is formed 
by the use of the negative nouns formed from the verb stem. In the present tense 
the personal noun, in apposition with the subject and in past tenses the verbal noun 
with possessive subject, are most commonly used. 



Present. 
Noi imaigig, he does not see (is not seeing). 
Palai imaigig, tliey two do not see. 
Tana imaigigal, they do not see. 



Past. 
Nungu imaiginga, he did not see one or two 

things (his not seeing). 
Palamu7i imaiginga, they two diil not see one 

or two things. 
Tanamun imaiginga, they did not see one or 

two things. 



The termination of the plural noun is used in the past when the object is more than two. 
Nungu imaigimal, palamun imaigimal, tanamun iinaigimal, he, they two, they, did not see (three 
or more) things. 

With verbs of Class I. the object is put into the possessive case. 

Ngau nungu imaiginga, ' I do not see him ; ngau ninu imaiginga, I did not see you ; ngau 
ii.inu matamginga kaiib, I did not hit you to-day ; ngau nungu ngnl imaiginga, I did not see 
him yesterday; mingu niiiu ngaiktka modohia-maiginga? why have you not paid me? lit. for-what 
your to-me payment-not-making ? 

Dedderative. A wish is expressed by the infinitive of purpose followed by the 
noun ubi, wish, in the objective case, with the tenses of the verb mizi, the object with 
verbs of Class I. being put into the dative case. 

Present. Ngai imnika nhin meka, I wish to see (lit. I have a wish for seeing); ngai uhin 
meka mibeka imaika, I wish him to see. Imperfect. Ngai imaika uhin miar, I wished to see. 

A negative is expressed similarly by iibigi, the negative of ubi, and the verb asi, 
go with, asi being used as a personal noun (t-n-g, a goer with. 

Ngai nungu ubigi asig, I do not want him, I (am) his not-wishing goer-with. 

In some cases the causal noun in lai follows ubigi asi. 

Example : Ngai ubigi asig uunguugu iinahii, I don't wish him to look. 

Potential. The ability or power to pertbrni an action is indicated by a personal 
noun, singular and dual, ngiilaig, plural ngukiigai. This word appears to be derived 
from the noun ngu., indicating cause, origin, knowledge. (Cf. noun suffix ngu.) Hence 
ngulaig is a person with power or knowledge. The negative is also a personal noun, . 
singular and dual, karawaeg, plural karatuaegal, a person or persons who do not know, 



^ 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 37 

who cannot do anything. When used as equivalent to ' know ' or ' know not ' the object 
is put into the possessive case. 

Examples: Ngai nungu ngulaiy, I know him; ngai nungu karawaeg, I don't know him, 
lit. I (am) his not-knower ; ngai karawaeg uzar, I cannot go. 

Subjunctive. The verb in a dependent sentence rarely differs from that in the 
principal statement. In a few cases however there are indications of a special subjunctive 
ending. This is e or i which, with verbs of Class I., forms dual umare, plural mi. 

Examples : ^i nibeka muli, noid ime, iinaumare, imami, you tell him to (go and) see one, 
two, many things ; palamunika muli aidun purteumare, tell them two to eat (that they may 
eat) food ; tanavmiiika muli ai purte, tell them to eat food. 

iVi 77iata nieda, noi mule, you stay (keep staying), let him talk. 

Ni mata nieda, palai muleumare, you stay, let them two talk. 

Ni mata nieda, tana mulimi, you stay, let them talk. 

Nita mata niamiziu, noi mule, stay ye, let him talk. 

Nita mata iiianiiziu, palai muleumare, stay ye, let them two talk. 

Nita mata niamiziu, tana mulimi, ' stay ye, let them talk. 

Nipel mata 7iiaumaziu, noi mule, stay ye two, let him talk. 

Nipel mata niaumaziu, palai muleumare, stay ye two, let them two talk. 

Nipel mata niaumaziu, tana mulimi, stay ye two, let them talk. 

Conditional. The word na preceding the verb or its equivalent, expresses a doubt 
or a future contingency. 

Examples : Ngat na nuin imaika kai, ngai nubeka mtdeka kai, if (or when) I shall see him, 
I will tell him ; iigai na miad, if I am there ; mabaeg na siauviiad, if the (two) men are there ; 
mii na uzari, tana nuin inatamka, if he goes they will kill him. 

Nai or nanai is also used in sense of 'should.' Ngai na nai si meka, if I shall be there; 
ngaba na siaumaka, if we two should be there ; nuid nanai tabu manu, nui nubia toidema nai, if 
he should take uj) a snake, it would bite him. Cf. -luil in nguki-nai, thirsty, from nguki, water. 

Probability is e.xpressed by the word senakai or sinakai. 

Examples : Nui senakai gulna pataikai ngapa, he will perhaps go away in a boat ; ni na 
senakai ubin meka, if you like ; ngat sinakai batainga tardaikai Waibenika, I perhaps to-morrow 
cross to Thursday Island ; ngai sinakai uzarika, perhaps I (will) go. 

Saibai has sike for sinakai. Sike ngalpa nubeka iamidiz, noi uzar, suppose we tell him he 
will go away. 

The particle nge following the verb expresses a consequence, or a completed result. 

Examples : Iita iigat maika nge, I take him now (in consequence of something said) ; ngato 
nuin iman nge, I saw him then. 

A dependent sentence is often avoided liy the use of a noun phrase : Ninungu 
mulalai miaingn nr/du iaiigii ? why did you not tell him what I said ? through you 
(there was) telling from-what from my word ? 

Quotations. These are always introduced by the; demonstrative keda, meaning ' such,' 
' so,' ' thus,' ' the.se,' etc. Sometimes the verb midi, say, or some of its forms appears as 






38 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



an introducer, but more often keda alone is used as though a verb. Sometimes the noun 
ia. word, speech is used with keda to introduce a sentence. 

Examples: Nui muli nungu waduamka keda, " Arvade, ngaikika malud patar" he said to 
his nephew thus, "Nephew, cut green (stuff) for me." Tana Gomnh/al keda ia, " lagi, miai 
dugai, senu Adi Kuiam," those Gomu folk said, "Be quiet, what dogai, that's Adi Kuiam." 
Jfui keda Kuiam, " A wade, ni niidi iadu utmka?" He Kuiam said, "Nephew, what are you 
saying r' Nuid nel taran keda, " Ni ngau tiguki nel Meto," he called (its) name thus, "You (are) 
my water named Meto." Nuid lako si kulal kazi pagan, keda iadai murarai, " Maiva keda, 
mawa keda," etc., he again there speared the first man, saying these words, "Mawa keda," etc. 

0. Time. Time is indicated by the verb, only in the indicative mode. There 
are six principal tenses distinguished by suffixes to the verbal stem and three sub- 
sidiary tenses shown by separate words or particles. 

Present and Future Inceptive Tense. Verbs of the first class suffix -ka or k. This is 
added in the singular number to the stem, in the dual and plural to the modified 
stem in uma and mi, the verb agreeing in number with the object. 

Example : Ngai tusi amjaik, ngat kuasar tusi angaumaka, ngat tusil anyamika, I hold a 
book, two books, books. 

Verbs of the second class have usually in the singular only the stem suffix i. 
With the dual and plural signs this becomes eumaka, and imika. The verb agrees 
in number with its subject. 

Examples : Ngai nibeka ncuji, ngalhai nibeka nageumaka, ngoi nibeka nagimika, I, we two, 
we look towards you ; ngalbai nubeka muleuman, we two talk to him. The ending in -ka is 
however not common and it is more usual in dual and plural to use the present perfect, 
as e.g. iiagetiman, nagimin. 

Imperfect Tense. Continuous or customary action in the past is indicated by the 
suffix -r. Verbs of Class 1. have dual luniir, and plur. mir, those of Class II. dual 
eitmar, Plur. -mir. This tense is rarely used alone, but is usually compounded with n(/ul. 
(See Subsidiary Tetises.) 

Example : Nid kot poiixdai; you were shaking dust (from your) coat. 

Perfect Tense. The present perfect or past just elapsed is shown in verbs of Class I. 
by the suffix nu, usually abbreviated to -n. This has the dual -umanu or -uman, plural 
minu or min. 

Examples : Ngai nuin imanu, ngat palai imaumanu, ngat tana imaniinu, I saw him, them 
two, them ; nipel nuin imami, you two saw him. 

The temporal force seems to be in the vowel u, which never appears in the present tense. 

Verbs of Class II. suffix ma to the stem in the singular, and have dual eumanu, 
and plural iminu or eminu,. 

Examples : Ngai nibeka mulema, I spoke to you ; ngalbai nubeka muleumanu, we two spoke 
to him ; ngoi nipenika mideminu, we spoke to them two. 

Past Tense. Action in a distant past is shown in verbs of Class I. by the suffix 
-din, in dual -urnadin, plural -midin. 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 39 

Examples : Kyat nuin iniadin, ngat palai imaumadin, mjat tana imamidin, I saw him, 
them two, them long ago ; m/at Warian imadin, I saw Waria long ago ; 7igat niheka modobia- 
madin, I paid you long ago. 

Verbs of Class II. end in uidiii, aumadiii, imidin. 

Examples : mulaidin, mtdaumadin, mulimidin, told long ago. 

Repetition. Repeated action is shown in both classes by the suffix -da with the 
usual modifications for dual and plural. 

Examples : Nyat nuin iniada, ngat palai imaumada, ngat tana imamida, I repeatedly see 
him, them two, them ; ngai nubia 7iiada, 1 often stop with him ; palai ngaikia niaumada, they 
often stop with me. 

Future. This is properly expressed by a subsidiary tense but the present endings -k, 
dual -umaka, and plur. mika are used. 

Example : JVgai lagka uzarika kai, I to-house will go by and bye. ( Vide Subsidiary Tenses 
under kai.) 

Subsidiary tenses. These are shown by the suffixed words vgnl, kai, guruig or 
hiruig. 

Ngul (lit. yesterday) indicates a recent past and may be added to any past tense. Ngat 
palai imawmarngul, I saw them (all the time) ; . ngat nuin ugul imangul, I saw him yesterday. 

Kai (lit. by and bye, soon, near) is the usual termination of the future tense. It is usually 
added to the present in ka, or to the stem, but sometimes appears with the perfect in n, 
usually then with the link vowel e. Sometimes kai7ie or kainekai is used for kai. Examples : 
Inuh pui kosik kai, nita banyal kausa imaik kaine, this (little) tree will grow, you by and bye 
fruit will see ; ngai ngajia kaiiiekai, or ngai niangika kaine kai, I will come ; ngat kosar urab 
anffaumaka kaine bangal, I will bring two coconuts to-morrow. 

Sometimes when kai is added the tense ending is lost, as in : ngat mdn imaikai, I will 
see him, but, ngat palai imaumaka kai, I will see them two. 

Kai before the verb may be translated " soon," and expresses a near future. Noid nin 
baiainga kaine imaik, he will see you to-morrow ; Gizu kai uzari, Gizu is about to go. 

Kai alone at the end of a phrase means "yet, still." Inu niiua maginga kai, this i^ still 
really a little thing. 

Gtii'uig or kuruig. This is probably connected witli the verb kurusika, arrive, reach, attain 
to, and is in noun form, though the pluial is not used. It is used to express a distant 
future. 

Example : Nita iapupnimi guruig, ye shall ask. 

Tlie future indicating po.ssibility or capaljilitj' is expressed by the Causal Noun {i^i.de 
Nouns, p. 21): Mabaegnyu ninungu karengemil, the man will hear you, lit. from the man 
through you (will be) hearings 

Continuance. Continued action is shown by the adverb niata, with the endings which 
denote repeated or imperfect action : inata ^ja«<;«7', keep on swinniiing ; mata aimda, keep on 
doing. 

Completed action. The completion of an action is sliown by the past of the verb mina-asin, 
finish. Ni kasauge tnrka niina-asin, you have just iinished fighting. 



40 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

Seqiiences of Tenses. The following examples illustrate the tenses. 

1. Kulai mui gamu-widadin , lit a fire long ago. 

2. Mata kaine vmi gaum-widangul, lit fire since then. 

3. Ngul mui gamu-widarngul, lit fire yesterda3\ 

4. Kuhil mui gavm-widan banged, lit fire last night. 

5. Alata kaine mui gamu-widad, lit fire later. 

G. Mata magi batainga mid gamu-iuidanu, lit fire early this morning. 

7. Mata kaine mui ganiu-widan, lit fire later. 

8. Mui gamu-widan kaine, have just lit a fire. 

9. Mui gama-widaik, just going to light fire. 

10. Mui gamu-widaik kaine kai, will soon light a fire. 

11. Mui miua kai kubil gamu-widaikai, will light a fire to-night. 

12. Mid magi batainga gamu-iuidaikai, will light fire to-morrow morning. 

13. Mui luagel sabat kaine bang(d gamu-widaik, vfiW light a fire next week. 

In these examples (given to me by Maino), kulai may be translated, formerly ; mata, quite ; 
kaiiie, close up in time, before or after ; ntjul, yesterday ; kuhil, night ; magi, little ; batainga, 
morning ; kaine kai, close up here ; tnina kai, really, now ; wagel sabat, after Sabbath, i.e. next 
week. 

Irregularities in the Ed-pression of Tense. 

Verbs ending in ui suppress the i before the tense endings -n, -r and -din, as e.g. irun, 
irur, irudiii from ind, swell ; nitun, nitur, nitudin from nitid, burn. 

Dialectical Variations in Expressing Tense. 

Tutu. In the present tense of verbs of Class II. a few words have iz for i ; ngai nibeka 
ia muliz, I saj- to you. Ngul is sometimes added to the verbal root, as e.g. Sarar Nohoan 
matamngul, Sarar was hitting Noboan. Kuruig appears in the foim koroi. 

Muralag. In the present tense -pa is suffi.xed instead of -ka, and when used without the 
suffix the stems of verbs of Class I. end in ari instead of ai, as e.g. ngata ngin iniari, I see 
you. The distant past ends in cliui instead of din. 

Saibai. In the present and future tenses -pa is used for -ka, and verbs of Class II. have 
iz for i, with the ending 7ni, in tlie plural ; as e.g. noi muliz, palai mulemanian, tana mulem.i, 
he, they two, they speak. In tlie imperfect dra is often found for ar. In tlie future kaiki is 
used often for kai ; ngat iioin matampa kaiki, I will hit him. The ending ngu takes the place 
of ngul, and when suffixed to din there is a tendency to pronounce il instead of in, as e.g. 
madilngu for madinngul, had brouglit yesterday. 

6. List of Irregular Verbs. The list on the following page contains those verbs 
which appear to be more or less irregular in certain tenses and numbers. Only the 
simple stem and simple tenses are given. The number is shown by 1. for singular, 
2. for dual, 3. for plural, when these are irregular, otherwise only the singular is given. 
The dash indicates that no example has been recorded. 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 



41 



English 


Stem 


Present 


Imperfect 


Perfect 


Distant Past 


Repetition 


Class I. 














Bring, take 


mai 


1. maika' 

2. manganmaka 

3. mamaika 


1. marngnl^ 

2. maugaumarngul 

3. mamairugul 


1. manu, mani 

2. maugaumanu^ 

3. mamainu 


1. madin 

2. mangaumadin^ 

3. mamaidin 


1. maida 

2. mangaumaida^ 

3. mamaida 


Catch 


gasamai 


gasamka 


— 


gasamanu 


gasamdin 


gasamad 


Drink 


wani 


1. unika 

2. waniumaka 

3. waniniika 




1. waninu 

2. wauiumanu 

3. wanimiuu 


1. wanidin 

2. waniamadin 

3. wauimidin 




Extinguish 


usimai 


usirnka 


— 


(usimanul 
"(usimnn )' 


usimdin 


— 


Leave 


unai 


anaik 


wanar 


wananu 


wauadin 


wanad 


Make 


aim, aimai 


1. aimka 

2. aiumaka 

3. aiumika 


1. aimar 

2. — 

3. — 


1. aimnu, aimauu 

2. aiumanu 

3. aiuminu 


1. aimdin 

2. aiumadin 

3. aimidin 


1. aimda 

2. — 

3. — 


Point at 


get-nitni 


get-nituik 


get-nitungul 


get-nituu 


get-nitudin 


get-nitud 


Silent, be 


iagi-asi 


iagi-asik 


iagi-asir 


iagi-asinu 


iagi-asidin 


iagi-asi-niad 


Sicell 


irui 


iruika 


— 


irunu 


irudin 


irud 


Woih 


ulagi 


walgaik 


walgar 


walgan 


walgaidin 


walgiad 


Class II. 














Become, be, etc. 


mizi 


1. meka 

2. mengaumaka 

3. mimika 


1. miarngul 

2. mengaumar 

3. mimbngul 


1. mema 

2. — 

3. — 


1. miaidin 

2. mengaumadin 

3. mimidin 


1. miada 

2. mengaumada 

3. mimid 


Come 


mangi 


1. mangika 

2. mangeumaka 

3. mangimika 


" 


1. mangima 

2. mangeumanu 

3. mangimin 




" 


Enter 


muia-uti 


muia-uteka 


muia-utaingul 


1. muia-utema 

2. muia-uteuman 

3. muia-utimin 


muia-utaidin 


" 


Go 


nzar, uzari 


1. uzari 

2. uzarraaka 

3. laduika 


1. uzaraiugul 

2. uzarauraangul 

3. ladungul 


1. uzeiima 

2. uzaraumanii 

3. ladunu 


1. uzaraidin 

2. uzaraumadin 

3. ladudin 


1. ulamida" 

2. ulmemeda 

3. tadida 


Lie flat 


iai 


iuka 


iar 


iunanu 


iunadin 


— 


Look 


nagi 


nagika 


nagaungul 


nagima 


nagaidin 


- 


Melt {intrans.) 


idi-wai 


idi-waiaka 


— 


idi-waiama 


idi-waiadin 


idi-waiaid 


Precede 


kulai-tai 


kulai-taiaka 


— 


kiilai-taiema 


— 


kulai-taiad 


Beach {extend arm) 


get-luai 


— 


get-Iuaiaingul 


get-luaiaima 


get-luaiaiJiu 


— 


Rise {sun) 


danami 


dauaka 


danamaingul 


danaima 


danamaidin 


— 


linn 


zilami 


zilaik 


zimaingul 


zilaima 


zimaidin 


— 


Scratch 


kurtumi 


— 


— 


kurtuima 


— 


— 


Slay 


apa-tanori 


1. apa-tanorika 

2. apa-tanormaka 

3. apa-tanormika' 


apa-tanoraingul 


1. apa-tanorima 

2. apa-tanorraanu 

3. apa-tanorminu* 


1. apa-tanoraidin 

2. apa-tanormadin 

3. apa-tanormidin' 


" 


Tack 


ruai 


ruaika 


— 


ruaima 


ruamaidin 


— 


Torn, be 


ilagi 


ilagika 


— 


ilagima 


— 


— 


Walk about 


ulmai 


1. ulaik 

2. ulmeumaka 

3. todik 




" 


" 


1. ulamida 

2. ulmemeda 

3. tadida 


IVard off 


akami 


akaika 


akamaingul 


akaima 


akamaidin 


— 


» i 

2 
4 


Saibai has 1. maipa 
3aibai lias 1. madilr 
3aibai has 2. mamai 


2. mamampa, 3. a 
igul, 2. mamamangi 
nadin. 


aimaipa. 

il, 3, mamaingul. 


' Saibai has 2. mamama 
' Saibai has 2. mamama 


QU. 

da. 


6 • 


rhese are Saibai. 






' Also apa-tiaik. 




8 J 


Mso apataianu and 


apa-nitaman. 




" Also apa-taian. 




I 


3. Vol. III. 










6 



42 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

lO. Adverbs- 

The number of distinct Adverbs in Mabuiag is somewhat Hmited, their place being 
supplied by the components of the coniponnd verbs. 

1. Form. A few adverbs are formed b}' means of a suffix ma. An example is : 
koima, greatly, from koi, great. 

A few adverbs are formed by redui)licating adjectives : mail, luourning, mailmail, 
sadly ; ikal, glad, ikalikal, gladly ; tuma, waiting, tumatuma (Saibai), presently. 

2. Demonstrative Adverbs. These have been dealt with in the section on 
Demonstrative Words. 

3. iNTERROG.iTiVE ADVERBS are formed by the various cases of the interrogative 
pronoun, by the prefi.x mi, and in a few instances by distinct words. 

The simple interrogative is au or ivau, placed at the end of the phrase. 

Example : Nid Noboan inianu au ? did you see Noboa ? 

l^inie : Mid, the pos.sessive case of ' what 1 ' is used with the name of the special time. Mid 
mai ? what day ? mid kuhil ? what night 1 mid buta ? what space (of time) ? mid ionar ? what 
season ? m.id goiga ? what day 1 

Place: The word una, sometimes unaga, is used in asking the question ' where]' Nui xrnial 
or wd unaga? where is he] semibi kazi unaga sipa (Muralag) .? where does that man stay? 

This word may sometimes be translated ' which ? ' Tusi unaga koinga 1 which is the big book % 
una koinga ? which is the big one 1 unaga minanga ? which is the best (proper) one 1 

The noun lay, its locative lagnu, dative layaka, and ablative lagazi, are used with prefix 
mi in questions as to the place where, whither, and whence. Nui milagnu ? where is he? nui 
milagka usarima? whither is lie gone? noi milagazi? whence (comes) he? ninu tati milagnu? 
where is your father ? 

Manner : The interrogative ' how ? ' is usually translated hy mid kid ? what way ? ngaba mid 
kid minajnka? how (shall) we measure? 7nta mid kid sizarmin? how did you come down? 
nui mid kid kai, a mid iabuia kai ngapa ? how did he come and along what path did he come 
here ? 

Ca^^se : The ablative of mi or mido, mingu or minguz, from or through what, and the 
dative inika, for what ? are used to translate ' why ? ' Mingu ninu ngaikika m.odobia maiginga ? 
why don't you pay me Ijack ? nita ngaikika mika iapupoibimika ? why do you ask me ? ni inu 
mika nidi ? why do you do this ? 

Quantity and Suniber: 'How mucli ? ' or 'how many?' may be translated by jnid alone, or by 
mid in conjunction with other words. 

Examples : A'inu boitai mid ? your baskets how many ? kurusika mid ngat idn poibaik ? 
how much (lit. arrive at what) sliall I give you ? 7iui mid goigoika senu ? he (was) there how 
many days? nimi, kikiriu goigoil mid? j'our sick days what? how long have you been ill? mid 
kazal? how many fathoms? 

"Up to what? ' is translated by kurusika mid? kurusika mid ngat nin poibaik? how much 
shall I give you now ? 

When used with numerals, viid is repeated with each word, mid viabaegal kai 
oigapa .? ■)nid urapon, a mid kosar a mid mura au ? how many men came ? one, 
two, or many ? 

In replying the noun may be omitted. Nin lidai midad ? your baskets how many ? 
ngau itkasar ! mine (are) two ' 

4. Adverbs of Time. Most adverbs of time are nouns or noun phrases. A few 
are demonstratives, and some may be regarded as true adverbs. 



GEAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 43 

Examples : Inab, Inab tiiaipu, now ; kai, kaiki, soon, not yet ; Inah yoiya, to-day ; kaiib, 
this morning ; bataingii, to-morrow ; senab yoii/a, day after to-morrow ; nyul or ngidau yoiya, 
yesterday ; ku/ai yoiya, day before yesterday ; ivara yoiya, some other day ; banyal niaitai, in 
future, by and bye; lako, again; inyaru, always; mata, continuously; mata kulai koi-hdha, 
long ago ; mala^kurdar (Saibai, maia-dobura), immediately, directly ; kaine, for the first time ; 
kulu-ktilba (Saibai), first-time ; mayikia, for a little time, soon after ; aniadan, after a while ; 
kabuziuga, formerly (lit. old thing). 

The use of the particle nye has been already illustrated. {Vide Verbs, p. 37.) 

5. Adverbs of Place. Adverbs of place are usually either demonstratives or nouns. 

Demonstrative adverbs of place have been dealt with in a former section. 

Nouns denoting positions are used as adverbs. The chief of these are : ada, outside ; 
apa, the under part ; dada, the middle ; yima, the top ; siga, a distant place. They are used 
in adjectival form : adal, apal, dadal, yimal, siyal ; in the dative adaka, apaka, dadaka, gimaka, 
sigaka ; or in the ablative adazi, apazi, dadazi, gimazi, sigazi ; or in the locative adia, apia, 
dadia, giniia, sigaia. In these compounds the adjectival form expresses position only, the dative 
expresses motion towards, the ablative motion from, the locative, on with verbs of motion. 

Examples : Urui adal nika nungu mudunyu, bird stops outside (from) its nest ; nui adaka 
pnrdaik, he takes it (to) outside ; ngat adazi maika, I take (it) from outside ; apia kabutar, lay 
(it) on the ground ; apau pui dadal pagaik, garden post sticks up in the middle ; pui apa 
dadaka pudi, tree fell into the middle of the garden ; niii sigaia ulaika, he passes along at a 
distance. 

The word doyam, side, may be used in a similar way, or may be compounded with the 
foregoing, as ada-dogam, etc., or with other words as bodai-dogam, left side ; get dogam, right 
side ; kida dogam, back ; nagu-dogum, tlio farther side ; wara-doyam, other side ; inab-dogain, 
this side. The names of winds in conjunction with dogam, name the points of the compass. 

Other adverbs of place are : kulai, before ; wagel, behind ; amadan, near ; poitai, far oflf ; 
gai, in one place, close togetlier ; iaiimiab (Saibai, nainonob), in separate places ; kula mata 
iananab wazimka, stones separate lie about ; ktdal gai masik urapan dogaiiimt,, stones stop 
together in one place ; si-parui, this way ; lu, distant ; liigl, close up ; babah, everywhere ; 
niagikia, a little farther on ; bal, across. 

6. Adverbs of Direction. 

The word kid, which is somewhat difficult to translate, forms part of many advei>bs of 
iiKinner and direction. It is possibly connected with the demonstrative keda, 'such,' and may 
therefore often be translated "in such a way, that way referred to." 

Examples : Ngapa kid, towards the speaker, from front, right or left ; pa kid, away from 
the speaker, from front, right or left ; kalungu pa kid, from behind, away from the speaker ; 
kiduvgu kid, from the back, towards the speaker ; bal kid, crossways ; kidakida, backwards and 
forwards ; kadakakid, upright ; mulukakid, downwards ; paipakid, towards the wind, windward ; 
paupakid, away from the wind, to leeward. (See Vol. ii. p. 23.) 

Kid may be used with the directive cases of common nouns : mabaegkn kid kabutar, lay (it) 
towards the men. 

Other expressions of direction are : pasitigu keda kid, from one side in sucli a direction ; 
wara pasi'iiyu, from the other side. 

When used with the demonstrative particles kid sometimes appears abbreviated to ki. 

Examples : Mabueg piwikadaka kid ulaig, the man goes up to yonder ; mabaeg pinuka ki 
ulaig, man goes along yonder. 

7. Adverbs of Manner. Many adjectives are used without change as adverbs 
of manner. 

6—2 



44 



AXTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



Examples : sohaginga, fast, quicklj' ; sohalnga, slowly ; koi, very (lit. big) ; gahudan, slowly ; 
Jcasigi, quickly ; magao, boldly ; gunii, secretly. 

A few adjectives are reduplicated to form adverbs of manner. 

Examples : ikalikal, gladly ; moilmoil, sadly ; warawara, diverse. 

Simple adverbs of manner are viamu, mamui, mainoi, carefully, well in health, smart ; 
babab, entirely, completely ; nguigidan, for nothing, without cause, in vain ; mata, alone ; 
kasa, just, barely; sainido, really; tumakai, perhaps (lit. will be by and bye); keda, so, 
thus, this way ; koima, greatly, emphatically ; sinakai, nearly ; matakeda, just so, all the 
same ; gar, xery, indeed, as in gar kutaig, the very last, the youngest child. 

Restrictive adverbs are mata, only ; kasa, just ; bu, in an incomplete fashion, almost. 

Examples: kasa-poihai, lend; ba piiuii, not properly painted; ba nagi, not see properly; 
ina mata kapuza, this is the only good thing ; kula mata urapon sika, only one stone is there. 
' Very ' is translated by koi or gar ; koi sigal, very far ofi'. 

8. Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation. Any word or phrase followed by au 
or wau becomes a question. Ngai aul is it 1? ni mangi «« ? are you coming? 

The affirmative adverb is lua. It is often inserted in the sentence to make it 
emphatic. Wa gar, and sa midu are also used. 

The negative is Launga. Negation is usually expressed by means of the suf3fix gi 

The affirmative and negative adverbs used in reply to a question are used in apposition 
to the question and not as in English. Xinu imaiginga au ? you don't see ? wa, ngau 
imaiginga ! yes ! I don't see ! or launga ! ngat iman ! no ! I see ! ninu ngaikika modohiginga ? 
you have not paid me 1 Answer : launga ! iigat nibeka modobia niadin ! no, I have paid you 
long ago ! 

y. Adverbs of Cause. Expressions such as " for my sake " are translated by the 
possessive case of the pronoun and the noun with the suffix mal (see Nouns, p. 16, 
Pronouns, p. 23). Ngaumal, for my sake; ninumal, for thy sake; nungumal, for his sake; 
kedazangmal, for the sake of such things. 



11. Connective Words. 

1. Prepositions. There are in the Mabuiag Language no prepositions. The 

relations between nouns which prepositions express in English are indicated by the 
noun suffixes or by compound expressions. 

Simple Postpositions. These have been fully dealt with in the section on Nouns 

and Pronouns. As representing the English prepositions they may be recapitulated 
here. 

0/: -au or -u (with Common Nouns) ; -an or -n (with Proper Nouns) ; -u, -nu, -ngu, -n 
(with Pronouns). 

To, towardu, for : -ka (with Common Nouns) ; -n,ika (with Proper Nouns) ; -kika, -beka (with 
Pronouns). 

From, through, because of: -nyu (with Common Nouns) ; -zi (with Locative Nouns). 

At, in (rest) : -nu. 

By, along with, into {motion) : -ia (with Common Nouns) ; -7iia (with Proper Nouns) ; ki 
(with Demousti'atives). 

By means of, with : -an, -n (with Nouns) ,• -d (with Pronouns). 

Like to : -d. 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 45 

These do not always exactly correspond to the English. For example : Burnt with fire, 
is in Mabuiag, muingu nitun, burnt from tire ; a canoe's sail, yulnt/u wakii, sail from a canoe. 

Compounds. These are of two kinds. The first are adverbial and are the cases 
of the adverbs of place derived from locative nouns which have been already illustrated. 
The second are common nouns of a similar character. 

Adrerbial. These have the postpositions ka, to; zi, from; and ia, by or into. 
The suffixes ngu and nu are not used with these. 

Adaka, to the outside of; adazi, from the outside of; adia, on the outside; from ada, 
outside. 

Examples : Nita adaka uzari senah gogaitnr/v,, you go to the outside of (lit. from) that 
village ; iiita pelet adia garwahjan, you have washed the plate on tlie outside. 

Gimaka, to the top ; yimazi, from the top ; gim.ia, by the top ; from gima, top. 

Examples : Urui gimia padia urik, bird flies over hill-top ; mabaeg gimiu kasia pagan, man 
steps over the stream. 

When rest is implied dogaiii is added to ada, and with other words the adjectival form is 
used. Kula Diudanu adadogaimm sika, the stone stops outside the house, but gimal padayxu, 
on the top of the hill, top hill-on. 

Coimhon Nouns. Among these are : 'paru, front ; pasi, side ; kala, back ; mui, inside. 
These are used with the suffixes ka, ngu, nu, and ia. Both the prepositional and 
governed noun are put into the same case. 

Examples: Ahd si mudanu m,uinu, he was there inside (in) the house; tiui mudia muia 
uti, he entered into the inside (into) tlie house ; kula nyaii, pasinu siauniaka, (two) stones are 
on each side of me ; tana za nyau mudia pasta angaik, they carry the thing beside my house ; 
kula nyau parunu sika, stone is in front of me ; kula nyau kalanu sika, the stone is behind me ; 
mii maluia pasia uzari, he walks by the sea ; ui partmyu uzari, walk before ; 7ii kalanyu uzari, 
go behind. 

Verbal. The equivalents of some prepositions are verbs, as e.g. kurusihu, till, lit. 
arrive at, reach ; mina-asin (Saibai, muasin), after, lit. finish ; tumakai, till, lit. wait till 
by and bye ; urgi (Saibai, worogi), upon, lit. placed on another ; asi, with, lit. go with. 

Examples : Kurusika inah ionarnu, up to this time ; yimazi kurusika npa, from the top to 
the bottom ; ukasar maipu na minaasin, after two days, when two days were finished ; kulanu 
worogi wanan (Saibai), left on top of a stone ; nyau nubia asiginga miad, I did not go with 
him, lit. my not going with him happened. 

2. Conjunctions. The common copulative conjunction is a. 

Examples : Nunyu get a ngaunga, his hand and mine ; Papi a Noboa j'alai uzarman, Papi 
and Noboa went. 

When persons are enumerated tval is used after each name. 

Examples : Palamuu tiel Uimuyi wal, a Samiiyi imd, their names were Uimugi one, and 
Samugi the other ; nipel wal Noboa, you and (the other) Noboa. 

The word kuiine (Tutu, kainieg), ' mate,' ' companion,' Plural kaimel, Saibai, kalniel, is 
sometimes used to express 'and' or 'with,' especially with the pronouns. 

Examples : Nipel kaimel uzarmnrin, go with him ! you and he go ! (lit. you two (as) 
companicjns go ') ; wara ngau kaimel ai purutan, one who has eaten food with me. 

Sequence is expressed by nge, or tige keda, and cause by keda used as an adjective 
with the nouns mai, or za in various cases. Nge is thus equivalent to ' thereupon,' 
' then,' and keda mai, keda za, etc. may be translated, ' because,' ' therefore,' etc. 



46 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



Examples : Nan Tiyina Aba nge gasamdin, her Tigi, Aha then took (i.e. married) ; ina 
Dagain kuik nge, nungu ipi Kerpai, palamun kuzil keda Ponau kuikuig a Wais nge keda a 
Maicato nge keda a Badugu nge keda a Dagum nge keda a Mahar gar kutaig, this (is) Dagai's 
family then, his wife Kerpai, their children thus, Ponau (the) -eldest, a Wais, then thus also 
Mawato, then thus also Badugu, then thus also Dagum, then thus also Mabar (the) very 
youngest ; JS'i nan tati, keda inai na mangi, you are her father, therefore she comes ; nuid 
ngana mataman kedazangu, he liit me because of that. 

Sa often introduces a sentence. 

Examples : Sa Kehesun kazil ita, now these are Kebesu's children ; sa lag de wanau ! now 
come away from the place ! 

For the words na, nanai, senakai, sike, cf. Verbs, conditional mode. 

12. Exclamations. 

Exclamations consist fur the most part of vocative nouns or imperative words, but 
there are a few simple forms. 

1. Simple Forms. Wa! yes! launga! no! ae! in answer to a call! wa gar! 
yes indeed ! pa .' away ! ina ! here ! look here ! hoi ! come on ! si ! sikai ! don't know ! 
akami ! oh! (surprise); matakeda! that will do! )igai ngatal ! I am sorry! 

2. Salutations. The visitor ou arrival says sangapa ! those visited reply iva ! 
A passer by says sauki! or on passing by and leaving siaupa ! Those passed say sawa! 
go on ! ' Farewell I ' is translated by yawa, or yawakai ! (singular), nipel yawa ! nita yawa ! 
(dual and plur.) ; and the same is said in return. If tlie journey is short, magi yazuakai! 
is said. 

3. Vocative Nouns. These have been already given. (Nouns, p. 21.) 

4. Imperatives. Certain imperatives are in common use as exclamations. 
Examples: Wanar ! leave off! maigi ! don't (touch)' aie ! come! (to one); aiewal ! come! 

(to more than one) ; tumakai ! wait-a-bit ! asig ! don't go ! yaulaig ! hold your tongue ! be quiet ! 
Other exclamatorj' phrases are : Ngai ngatal ! I am sorry ! mitalnga ! woe ! [in the Gospels 
Mitalnga gar ! is used for Hail !]. 

13. Numerals. 

1. Numerals. Throughout the Western Islands of Torres Straits there were 
practically but two numerals, urapun, one, and ukasar, two. The former was usually 
pronounced urapuni in Muralag, and the latter ukosa. Ukasar was very commonly pro- 
nounced kuasur and ko.sa, and all three forms were written by Waria. Higher numbers 
were expressed by repetition of one and two ; ukasar-urapon, three ; nkasar-ukasar, four ; 
ukasar-ukasar-urupon, five ; ukasar-ukasar-ukasar, six. 

In Saibai uka-madohilgal was given for 'three,' and ukauka for 'four.' 

In Muralag hadagili was given for 'three.' These however are not nmnerids, uka-modobilgal 
literally meaning ' two and the fellow making up (three),' from the verb modobi, ' make an 
equivalent,' 'pay,' 'reward,' with the adjective ending -I, and the plural noun ending -gal. 
Badagi in Muralag means ' some,' hence badagi-li with the adjective ending 

Dr Haddon also obtained at Muralag in 1888, ina nah'iget (this here hand), or nablget 
(this hand) for five ; nabigel nabiget for ten ; nabikoku (this foot), for fifteen ; and nabikoku 
nabikoku for twenty. Nabiget can hai-dly be said to be the name of the number five, but 
indicated that there were as many of the objects referred to as there are fingers on one hand'. 

1 These are suggestive of the Lifu vigesimal system used by the first mission teachers in the Islands, and 
were possibly imitations of their enumeration. 



GRAMMAR OF WESTERN LANGUAGE. 47 

In the same island maura was given for 100 (i.e. mura, 'all'), and knigasa for 1000 (kiji gorsar, 
'a great many'), but these are not true numerals. 

The demonstratives ina (singular), ipdl (dual), and ita (plural), were sometimes used with 
one, two, and three. One Muralag informant, in 1888, gave l=ina urapuni (this one), 2=ipal 
ukasar (those two), 3 = ita badmjili (those not the other two), 4 = ij)al ukasar ukasar, 5 = ipal 
ukasar ina uraj)uni, and 6 = i^ial ukasar ukasar ukasar or wara hadagili. 

Note on Derivation. 

There is no doubt that the root forms of the numerals are wra and uka. The former 
is seen in the adjective wara, other, and the verb imp, (Saibai, worogi), to place one on another; 
and uka appears in the verb uka-mai, to double, make two. 

All the numerals now in use are borrowed trom the English and spelled phonetically : 
wan, tu, thri, fua, fa/iv, sikis, seven, eit, nain, ten, eleven, tuelf, thodin, fotin, fifitin, sikistin, 
seventin, eitin, naintin, tuente, thode, fute, fifite, sikiste, sevente, eiti, nuinte, handed, thausan. 

2. Other Numeral Expressions. There are no ordinal numbers. A kind of 
Distributive is exjjressed by a periphrasis, or by reduplication. 

Examples : lauanab urnan, spoke one at a time ; kosarkosar roaiaumati, sent two at a time, 
or two by two ; mala kusa, two by two (lit. only two, two alone) ; komakoma (Saibai), one by 
one ; ukaukalaelo (Saibai), two by two, two at a time ; seua pamar (Muralag), take one at a 
time (lit. take out that) ; sepal kul mauviar (Muralag), take two at a time ; seta pamariu, take 
three at a time (lit. take out those). 

The expression wara tapi was given for ' half.' 

3. Method of Counting. Counting is usually performed on the fingers, beginning 
with the little finger of the left hand. There was also a system of counting on the 
body by commencing at the little finger of the left hand : 1. kutadimur (lit. end-finger), 
then following on with the fourth finger, 2. kutadimur f/urunguzimja (lit. a thing following 
the end finger); middle finger, 3. il get; index finger, 4. klak-nitui-get (spear-throwing 
finger); thumb, 5. kahaget (paddle-finger); wrist, 6. perta or tiap; elbow joiut, 7. kudu; 
shoulder, 8. zugu hwuik; left nipple, 9. susu madu (breast-flesh); sternum, 10. kosa-dadir; 
right nipple, 11. wadogam susu madu (lit. other-si<le breast-flesh), and so on in reverse 
order preceded by wadogam (other side), the series ending with the little finger of the 
right hand. (These names were obtained at Mabuiag ; those used in Tud and Muralag 
are somewhat different.) This gives nineteen enumerations, of which eleven to nineteen 
are merely inverse repetitions of one to nine. The Rev. S. MacFarlane in a MS. (quoted 
in the former "Study," p. 1G2) gave a similar list for Saibai: — 1. urapon; 2. wardadim 
(other finger); 3. dadadim (middle finger); 4. kalakiinitu, spear thrower; 5. kuikudinio, 
chief finger or thumb; 6. perta, wrist; 7. kudu (elbow); 8. zugu, shoulder; 9. susu, 
breast; 10. kabu, back; 11. wadegani zugu, shotdder on the other side. The names are 
simply those of parts of the body themselves, and are not numerals'. 

This system could only have been used as an aid to counting, like using sticks tied 
on to a string, as was done in Murray Island, and not as a series of actual numbers. 
In a question of trade a man would remember how far along his person a former 
number of articles extended, and by beginning again on the left little finger he could 
recover the actual number. 

Only the old men were acquainted with this method of enumeration, and it is 
now superseded by the European system. 

' Cf. the syatems of counting in the Papuan Lauguagos of British New Guinea in Part iii. of this volume. 



48 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

14. Syntax. 

The following is a summary of the chief syntactical rules, most of which have 
been anticipated in the foregoing pages. 

1. The Subject precedes the Verb. 

Examples : Ngai imau, I saw ; iiiahaey uzari, the man goes ; na awaial si Toranu baltaiar, 
the pelicans there on Tora floated. 

2. The Direct Object follows the Subject and precedes the Verb. 

Examples : JVi/at nuin imari, I saw him ; mdd kounil gud-waian, he undid the bundle. 

3. The Indirect Object usually precedes but sometimes follows the Verb. 

Examples : JViii minyu mudia muia uii, he his house inside went ; mjai gar napapa baltai- 
kai Kuikuaogaika, I will just cross over there to Kuikusogai. 

An Intransitive Verb sometimes has a direct object. Ngat nuin bag-iapi, I threaten him, 
ni hutu apopali, you shake oflf dust. 

4. The case of a Noun depends on the meaning of the verb and its prefix, 
and so does not always correspond to the construction in English. 

Examples : Tana ngahania gar-viapi, they meet us, lit. they with-us body-strike ; ngai 
nungu iaka-nori, I forget his words, lit. I go round for his words ; tana ninungu get utiaigi, 
they do not let you go, lit. they from you hands do not put ; ninu get unaigi nungungu, you 
do not let him go, lit. your hand is not put from him. 

o. Origin always requires the Ablative case in -nfiu, destination or purpose the 
Dative in -ka. 

Examples : Miiiiigu tu, from tii-e .smoke ; iiitaimumgu ubig ngai asik, through them no wish 
I go with, i.e. I don't want them; iigalpa tamaik wagedogamuka, we go to other side; kaukuik 
nupai ngaikika ialarka, a young man there for me calls. 

6. Adjectives and Possessives used Attributively precede the Noun. 

Examples: Kain dumawaku, new cloth; kulal baradar, stony ground; ngau /trtsi, my child; 
lagau kala, house's back ; nimi wati pawa, your bad doing ; wara kutanu, on another evening. 

7. Adjectives used Predicatively follow their Noun with the noun endings -n(ja 
or -7nal for things or places, uj or ir/al for persons. 

Examples : Bnradar kida/ii.ga, ground (is) stony ; ngai iagig, I (am) speechless. 

8. The Adverb as a rule precedes the Verb. 

Examples : A''ui. kadaka wall, he upward climbed ; tana tari nge uzari, they quickl}^ there- 
upon go. 

9. When a Noun denoting a position or part is used with another Noun it is 
placed in the same case. 

Example: Mudia nmia utiz, into the house into the inside enter. 



49 

A GRAMMAR OF THE MIRIAM LANGUAGE SPOKEN BY THE EASTERN 
ISLANDERS OF TORRES STRAITS. 

CONTENTS. 

1. Intrcxluctidii. 9. Pronouns. 

2. Song Language. 10. Verbs. 

3. Phonology. 11. Adverbs. 

4. Word-building. 12. Connectives. 

5. Classes of Words. 13. Exclamations. 

6. Demonstrative Words and Particles. 14. Numerals. 

7. Adjectives. 1,-,. Syntax. 

8. Xovui.s. 

1 . Introduction. 

The Miriam language is spoken only on the Murray Islands (Mer, Dauar and 
Waier), Darnley Island (Erub), and Stephen's Island (Ugar), in the eastern portion of 
the Straits. The language in all these places is substantially the same, and no differences 
of dialect have been noted. In native estimation the language at Erub is .spoken much 
slower than at Mer, owing to the suggestion of the legendary heroes Abob and Kosi, 
and according to the same account the Ugar people are said to speak the language 
slower still'. As I was only able to study the language at Mer, I had no opportunity 
of verif\-ing this alleged slowness of the Erub and Ugar speech. 

The natives of the Eastern Islands call themselves the Miriam le and their 
language Miriam mer. Le and mer are the words for ' people ' and ' language.' The 
derivation of Miriam is unascertained. 

The Western Islanders are designated by the Miriam only by the names of their 
islands followed by le, as e.g. Tud le, a native of Tutu : Saiba le, a native of Saibai. 

Almost all the information emlwdied in this grammar was obtained from the two 
chiefs of the Murray Islands, Arei, or ' Harry,' the Mamus- of Mer, and Pasi, the Mamus 
of Dauar. The latter, the younger man, had been taught in the Mission School^ and 
was fairly well acquainted with English. In using his own language, however, Pasi was 
often found to drop into the shortened style which had been and was in vogue in 
the school and church, and to which he himself applied the term ' cut it short.' Arei 
was much older than Pasi, his knowledge of English was much less, and he had been 
less influenced by the Mission, so that I always regarded his decision as to the meaning 
or construction of a phrase as authoritative. [E.Kamples from the Gospels have been 
quoted only when the construction has been otherwise verified. These are enclosed in 
square brackets] Some examples have been taken from a MS. written by Pasi. {Vide 
Literature ot the Eastern Islanders.) 

The language compared with that of the Western Islaudei's was found much more 
difficult to analyse. 

' Hunt, llev. A. E., "Ethnographical Notes on the Murray Island.^;," in ■Tmir. Anlhrop. Insl. N.S. i., O.S. xxviu. 
1898, p. 17. 

2 Mamus is the word now used by the Queensland Government to designate the leading man in each of 
the Torres Straits Islands. Its origin has been elsewhere discussed. See Introduction, p. 1. 

'■' The first school iu Torres Straits was started at Darnley Island on Aug. 24, 1873. The 'Papuan lustitute' 
for training native teachers was established in Murray Island by Dr MacFarlane in .January, 1879. 

H. Vol. III. 7 



50 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



2. Song Language. 

1. The Malu Songs. The songs sung in the Mahi ceremonies' are said by the 
Miriam le to liave been introduced by the Nagirem le and Sikarem le, i.e. by people 
from the ishmds of Nagir and of Yam and Tutu ; the two hitter being the dwelling- 
place of Sikar, the brother of Malu -. 

The language in wldch these songs were given differed considerably from the 
common speech of the natives. Sometimes the difference appeared to consist in the 
use of archaic Miriam forms, sometimes in the use of strange or foreign words. Some- 
times the differences seemed to arise from the alteration of words to suit the air to 
which they were sung. Mamus Arei, from whom I endeavoured to obtain the trans- 
lations, had great difficulty in explaining the meaning of some of the words, and could 
dve no explanation of others. It seemed to him sufficient when a word was unknown 
to describe it as ' word belong Malu.' In some cases it is probable that the inter- 
pretations are only approximately correct, or even that current Miriam words are given 
instead of the old forms. 

The words of the Malu songs were taken down by Dr Haddon and Dr Myers, 
and will be given in full, with the airs to which they are sung, in Vol. VI. of these 
Reports. I give here: (1) a short vocabulary of all the Malu words known to me 
which differ from the ordinary Miriam, and (2) a list of words for which Mamus could 
give no equivalents. 

Besides the words given in the list for Main's diums, clubs, and spears, which are 
proper nouns, all the nouns which have special reference to him are made into quasi- 
proper nouns by the suffix et; hence: Maluet, Malu himself; tereget, the teeth he wore; 
Adet, the god or hero; padet, the water-hole associated with him. When referred to 
as a man (le) he is leluti ; his spear ' sticks fast ' tararemeti (for tararem), and he says 
naukarikiluti ' haul me out,' instead of naukarik (take me up). 

2. Kamut and Kolap Song.S. In the kamut (cat's cradle) songs words often appear 
which are not current Miriam. Some of these were said to have no meanintr, as e.ar. 
Jcapumita in the kobek song, and zari: in the kiiper song, but from the context these 
are certainly words from the Western language. All the koliip (top) songs (collected by 
Dr Myers) as sung in Mer, appear to have been originally in the Western language, and 
since corrupted. All those which have been recorded contain words from the Western 
language. One which is said to have reached Mer via Muralag and Tud contains a Kiwai 
word. The kamut and kolap songs will be found in Vol. IV. 

S. Other Songs. In Pasi's MS. {vide Literature of the Eastern Islanders) he 
gives two versions nf what he called 'song belong smoke,' and said that it was formerly 
sung when smoking. He was not able to translate it, and it appears to be very 
corrupted, although some words are recognizable as Miriam, while a few words seem to 
belong to the Western language. Attention is called in Vol. vi. to the fact that many 
of the sacred songs in Mer have a Western origin. 



Described in Vol. vi. 

Cf. Vol. VI. in the Bomai or Malu Legend, anil v. pp. 64, 375. 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 



51 



1. Malu Words. 



MaUi word 


Mifiam equivalent 


Meaning 


yotes 


Adaneba 


(?) ardar neb 


found a hole (?) 


The arrangement of these words is not correct, ' found a 

hole ' is properly ' neh ardar.' 


aka 


— 


why ! 




aritarit 


— 


burning 




baui,'ein 


kaisu 


turtle-shell 


This was also given as bau-gimin, which is a Western 
phrase meaning 'on a spear,' or 'along a spear.' 


beizar 


sai 


stone-fence 




dararager 




stick two things to- 
gether (as wax on 
drum) 




deaber 


deib-eber 


swell up 




emarer, emorer 


? 


sway about 


Mr J. Bruce suggested the meaning ' are glad.' 


iaba 


wiaba 


they 




imadari 


iama 


here 




isaua, sauado 


esaua 


smear 




isemadariei 


itarat 


two put in a mat 
and roll up 




kasi 


uerem 


baby 


This is the Western word kazi. 


kopa 


kip 


buttocks 




Malita 


Mala id 


Malu oil 




na 


— 


there 




Neman 


— 


— 


One of Main's drums. This word is not in the songs. 


okadosaker 


oka-deskeda 


exhort 




pasir 


pas 


scented leaf 


Probably sp. of Ocinuim (ii. p. 183). 


pur 


gedub 


garden 


This probably means an open space, or the uncultivated 
ground ; soiie-liur, a grassy space. 


Tut 


— 


— 


The proper name of Main's spear. 


taiawa 


esererdi 


to spout (of whale or 
dugong) 




Tamer 


— 


— 


The proper name of Main's disc club. 


tuglei 


deraueli 


stand round 


I 


uma 


meriba 


we (incl. pUir.) 




Waduli 


— 


— 


The proper name of Main's hammer-sliaped club. 


wakoi 


kuri 


a small mat 


This is the Western word wakii. The mat was said to 
come from Masig or Aurid. 


Wasikor 


— 


— 


One of Main's drums. This word is not in the songs. 



Aberaed-abecned 

akes-akes 

ged-argem 

asak-asak 



2. Unexplained Main Words. 

1 adjective from arlmmda, eker % 

plucked up. 

? sticking up, adj. from iski. gereb 

pinar 

1 cut down, adj. from 

deaak. tol 



1 name of a tree. 
1 name of a tree. 



1 name of a tree. 



7—2 



52 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



3. Phonology. 



e as « in ' date ' ; e as in 
o as in ' own ' ; b as uvj 



rked. In monosyllables and in 



1. Alphabet. Vowels, a as in ' father ' ; t? as in ' at ' 
' let ' ; e nearly as ui in ' air ' ; i as ee in ' feet ' ; t as in ' it 
in 'saw'; u as oo in 'soon'; u as in 'up.' 

The quantities of the vowels are not as a rule niarkec 
the accented syllables of other words they are usually loug. Elision of a short vowel 
between two consonants is very common, as e.g. karhara for karahani, ahgri for abgen, 
idgiri for idtgiri, damsare for dam/jsare, trum for titritm. Elision of a final vowel rarely 
takes place, as the meaning of the word is affected thereby. 

The short sound of a is often confused with u. When used in conjunction with 
the liquids r or I, e and i are often confused, a word being indifferently dasmeri or 
dasmiri, or dasmeli or dusmili. In the early printed books e (due to Lifu influence) 
was used for e. 

Diphthongx. ui as in 'aisle'; aw as ow in 'cow'; ei as ag in 'may'; eu as a 
compound of e in 'there' and ii in 'put'; oi as og in 'boy.' 

Consonants, k, g ; t, d; p, b; w; s, z; r, I; m, n. These are sounded as in English. 
The voiceless and voiced consonants are more distinct than in the language of the 
Western Islanders. The only confusion of sounds especially prominent was that between 
r and l. Z is the soft sound of s, not dz. 

The sound of ng in 'sing,' which is so common in the Western language, is unknown 
in tlie Eastern. In introduced words g takes its place. Arei pronounced sig for sing, 
the ngg sound in 'finger' was sounded as two consonants n and g, fin-ger. 

In the Mission translations u is used instead of u\ as e.g. under for wader ; uaba, 
uiaba for ivaha, wiaba; but in writing they iise the two letters indiscriminately. 

In the Rev. J. Tait Scott's book, written for Erub, v was used for w or «, and Pasi 
in his MSS. has also written v. Pasi was able to say 'five' after some practice, but both 
he and Arei were inclined to pronounce ' fibe.' 

In the early vocabularies' f was sometimes used in words which are now written 
with p. It is strange, however, that in introduced words containing p the tendency is to 
substitute /" for p. Pasi was continually saying j-o/e and sarf for 'rope' and 'sharp,' 
though on one occasion he used rofe and rope in consecutive sentences. 

The early vocabularies also had in some instances sh for s, and th for d. These 
sounds were not heard by me, and s was used for sh, sip and sarf for 'ship' and 'sharp.' 

2. Syllables. In Miriam any consonant may close a syllable. Final vowels are 
not often elided, probably because they have a definite grammatical signification. In the 
spoken language, however, elision of vowels in the middle of words is very common, but, 
when written, there is a tendency to lengthen words by the insertion of quite unnecessary 
vowels. Words, for example, which were plainly pronounced pitge, dasmer, mitkemge, are 
written by Pasi pitege, dasemer, mitikemege. This spelling occurs also in the children's 
letters, and seems to be due to Samoan influence. In Finau's MS. of the Gospels it is 
especially prominent'-. 



' Vide Introduction, p. 2. 

-' Literature of the Eastern Islanders, infra. 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 53 

3. Pronunciation and Spelling of Introduced Words. With the exceptions 
already noted, i.e. g for ng, J for p, and s for sh, the Eastern Islanders have no difficulty 
in pronouncing English words. Those which have been introduced are spelled phonetically 
mani, uk, sefenti, paip or faif. What has been written with regard to words introduced 
from Hebrew and Greek into the Scripture translations in Mabuiag applies equally to 
the Miriam. Scriptural proper names, however, have in Miriam the Lifu spelling, whereas 
in Mabuiag the Samoan orthography is followed. Thus in Miriam Aberahama, Tsaaka, 
and lakobo are used where the Mabuiag has Aperaamo, Isaako, and lakopo. 

4. Sound Changes. In the application of prefixes to verbal stems various 
alterations are made which will be discussed in the section on verbs. The chief 
changes appear to be as follows : 

a becomes e as d-etager from atager, but is sometimes retained as in n-ahi from abi. 

e changes to a or ao, as in n-akeamda from ekeam, n-akesmulu from ekesmer, n-aospereda from 
espili. 

i changes to a or au, as in nakeli from ikeli, nautmeri from itmeri, naupe from ipe, darake 
from ike. 

au changes to i or is retained as in d-idhari, daraiidhari from audbar. 

There is no rule for these changes. 

Consonant changes except that between r and / are rare. The change of a liijuid to a semi- 
vowel is seen in ba'di, past tense baiwer. 



4. Word-building. 

The language of the Eastern Islanders of Torres Straits is in the agglutinate stage, 
but the significant roots and modifying particles are not so clearly distinguishable as in 
the language of the Western Islanders. The Particles have no meaning when separated 
from the root word. 

1. Roots. Form. With regard to form, root words in Miriam consist of one, two, 
or more syllables. 

One syllable: ne, torch; pi, ashes; ur, tire; ad, outside; u, coconut; au, Ijig ; wng, ^md; 
bes, false; gein, oyster; baur, tisli spear. 

Two syllables: abu, fjill ; bigo, bull-roarer; kaha, banana; kivoier, bamboo knife; segur, play; 
tonar, custom. 

More tlian two .syllables: iserum, ant; kimiar, male. 

Meaning. With regard to signification roots are found as Demonstratives, Adjectives, 
Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Connectives. 

Demonstratives : ab, this, that ; pe, here. 

Adjectives : au, large ; kebi, small ; debc, good. 

Nouns : lu, thing ; le, man ; kosker, woman ; gab, path ; getn, body ; meta, house. 

Pronouns : ka, I ; ma, thou ; na ? what 1 

Verbs: erap, break; ero, eat; ipit, strike. 

Connectives : a, ko. 



54 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

2. Particles. Form. With regard to form the Particles in Miriam are usually 
monosyllables, consisting of a single vowel and consonant. The chief exceptions are dara, 
naba, and doge, but these are probably for de and are, na and ha, de and ge. 

Position. With regard to position the Particles in Miriam are prefixes or suffixes. 
Prefixes are used with the Verbs and Pronouns, but suffixes are used with Demonstratives, 
Adjectives, Nouns, Pronouns, and Verbs'. 

Meaning. With regard to meaning the Particles are Radical, Functional, or 
Qualitative. 

Radical Particles modify the meaning of the root : 

1 . Prefixe.s : as, ta-, indicating movement hither ; o-, inception ; ua, continuous action. In 
.Miriam many prefixes of this kind appear to exist in connection with the verb stems, but their exact 
definition is difficult. Examples are : it/, ay, ey, ek in the words ig-mesi, squeeze ; ag-isi, lift up ; 
d-eg-wali, haul ; ek-oseli, beckon. In these the prefix seems to indicate action done with the hand 
(fay). For additional examples vide Verbs — Derivation. 

2. Suffixes : as, kak, indicating negation ; -k, sudden motion ; -mu, outward motion, etc. 

Functional Particles indicate the futictions of words or the class to which they 
belong. 

1. Prefixes : as, no-, one of us ; de-, one of them ; ha-, reciprocal action, etc. 
'2. Suffixes : as, -em, to, for ; -lam, from ; -ye, in, at ; -?■«, of, belonging to. 

Qualitative Particles indicate the inherent quality of the words. 

1 . Prefixes : as, dara, na, dual number. 

2. Suffixes : -i, present time ; -hi, past time ; -lei, dual number ; -are, plural number, etc. 

In Miriam the function of a word and its quality are often indicated by the same 
particle, as e.g. dara- indicates that the action of a verb is directed away from the 
speaker, as well as to more than one person. 

3. Redltplication. There are in Miriam a large number of reduplicated words. 
Reduplication appears to indicate number or repetition, and is therefore used to form 
adjectives and nouns in which some particular state or object is numerous or repeated. 

Examples : nini, watery, full of water (ni, water) ; oi/oy, dirty (oy, dirt) ; muimui, ileep 
{mid, inside) ; mizmiz, a piece (implying other pieces). Most nouns which have continuity, or 
numerous simple parts, appear in reduplicated form, as e.g. weswes, coral; yerger, day (lit. sun); 
wonwon, echinus ; kolberkolher, a tuft of cassowary feathers. 

4. Compound Words. A number of words in Miriam appear to be compounds, 
although the exact components cannot easily be separated. 

5. Classes of Words. 

For convenience of description and comparison the following classes of words may be 
distinguished in Miriam : Demonstrative Words and Particles, Adjectives, Nouns, Pronouns, 
Verbs, Adverbs, Connectives, Exclamations, and Numerals. 

' It is iu the grammatical use of Prefixes that the Miriam agrees with the Papuan languages of New 
Guinea, and differs from tlie Mabuiag and those of Australia. 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 55 

6. Demonstrative Words and Particles. 

The demonstrative words are not nearly so numerous in Miriam as in the language 
of the Western Islanders of the Straits. Moreover, the majority of the words so used in 
Miriam are verbs, whereas in the Western language they are adjectival or adverbial. 

1. Simple Forms. The simple forms of the demonstratives are ia (in composition 
often /), ah, pe, and r/e. There seems to be a very slight difference of meaning between 
these when used without another particle. 

Ia is rarely found alone. Ah is used commonly of past time, and so may be usually translated 
'that,' as, abi/erec/er, that day, i.e. yesterday; abc/ed, that country. Fe is assertive, 'that's it,' 'this 
is it,' in pointing to a thing, pe ! there it is ! Pasi pe ! there is Pasi ! Ge is used of distant 
place ; kara raeta ge, my house yonder. 

Ah is used before a noun with i or pe following it, e.g. nh lu i, ah hir i, this thing, this fish ; 
ab lu pe, that thing. 

Ah is no doubt the stem of the personal pronoun nh-i. 

2. Adjectival Demonstratives. The ordinary expres.sion for 'this' or 'that' is 
abele, which is used with all sorts of nouns as an adjective. The termination ele would 
seem to be connected with the present tense ending li. Cf abele gereger, to-day, this 
day, with ah-gereger\ yesterday, that day. 

Examples: ahele jiauivaU, this liook ; uhele ueis jiatiwali, these two books; ufiele jiauwali 
peike, that book there. 

3. Pronominal Demonstratives. These are to a great extent indicated by the 
verbal demonstratives, as e.g. kaka nuli, I (am) here; e dali, he (is) there. 

Abele is used as a demonstrative pronoun, and is declined as a noun. The ablative 
abelelam, from or through this or that, is used to translate the conjunction ' therefore.' 
Examples: ma kari ahele ikivar, you give me this; nako ahele? what (is) that? 

4. Adverbial Demonstratives. These are formed by prefixing ia, pe, or ge to the 
words noka, irdi, ko and ke, as : inoka, penoka, genoka ; irdi, peirdi, geirdi ; iako, peko, 
geko ; ike, peike. For examples see Adverbs — Time and place. 

.5. Verbal Demox.sthatives. These are numerous in Miriam, and consist of a 
demonstrative stem which is declined through various persons, numbers, and tenses by 
means of prefixed or suffixed particles. 

Those found are : nali, nami, one of us (is) here ; dali, out; of them (is) there ; imi, one of 
them (is) here ; nake, one of us was there ; dike, one of them was there ; ali, one thing (is) here 
or there. As the.se are conjugated in person, number and tense, they will be given fully in the 
Section on Verbs. 

7. Adjectives. 

1. Form and Derivation. Simple. A few adjectives are simple roots, such as an, 
large ; kebi, small ; uit, bad ; debe, good. 

Verbal stems or nouns may be used as adjectives, as in ut-eip-ki, slecp-mid-dark, i.e. 
night; eip-ki, mid-dark, midnight; amri-ki, sitting-dark, i.e. evening. 

Derived from Nouns. Adjectives are derived from nouns by reduplication. 



56 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

Examples : oi/o;/, dirty, from oy, dirt ; wowe, sandy, from we, sand ; hamhain, yellow, from bam, 
turmeric ; nunur, ripe, from nur, harvest-time. 

Sometimes there is a double reduplication : niamnmamain, red, from mam, blood. 

In some cases the adjective appears in reduplicated form, but the noun is not separately 
found : eded, alive ; kerhar, new ; gebiyebi, cold. 

A vowel is often changed in reduplication : adud, bad ; watwet, dry ; garger, sharp. 

Some adjectives appear to be formed from names of places or persons by the suffixes 
eb and em or am, but there is some doubt about the meaning. 

Examples: Dauareb h, men of Dauar ; Nwjirem le, men of Nagir ; Sigarem le, men of 
Sigai (brother of Malu). 

Derived from Verbs. Adjectives are formed from verbal stems by prefixing a, or by 
changing the initial syllable to a. 

Examples : atager, spoken, from delager, say ; amri, sitting, from emri, sit ; apaitered, spilled, 
from epaiter, spill. 

There are many irregular forms, as e.g. audbar from didbari, bind ; aomei from omeida, grow; 
aitgo from ogi, climb. 

As these adjectives represent the simplest form of the verbal stems they are given with 
the verbs in the vocabulary. 

Negative adjectives are formed by adding kak to the root of another word. 

Examples : Ma iiole erar-kak, you are not tired (erar) ; barkak, straight {barbar, crooked) ; 
turum-kak, fruitless ; sip-kak, rootless. 

This formation is usually found with verbal stems, any of which may be changed to a 
negative adjective by this suffix, as e.g. ardar-kak, not tind ; armir-kak, not follow ; asmer-kak, 
not see. 

2. Position. The adjective used attributively precedes the noun. 

Examples : adud u, bad coconut ; golegoh soge, green grass ; huzbiizi lewer, rotten yam ; 
nerazi meta, rest house. 

When used predicatively, the adjective follows the noun, and then usually has the 
termination le (person) or lu (thing), or the noun is repeated after the adjective. 

Examples : Turum ageg, fruit (that is) ripe ; abele lar debeln, this fish (is) a good one ; lam 
euselu, a leaf (that is) withered ; abele lar debe lar, this fish (is) a good fish ; nein lar dehe lar, 
two tishes (are) good fish. 

3. CoMP.4Ri.soN. Comparison. This is usually made by two positive statements. 
Examples : abele debe u, ahele adud u, this (is) a good coconut, this (is) a bad coconut. 
The noun turn, top, may also be used to express comparison, and is used in the 

dative case. 

Examples : Ma Miriam mer au urnele kari tumem^ you know Miriam language more than I ; 
lit. you ^Miriam language great(ly) know me to-above. 

Superlative. The demonstrative is used to indicate superiority. 

Example : Bebe u peike, the good coconut (is) there, implying that the others are not 
so good. 

Equaliti/. The equality of two things is shown b}' means of the words mokakalam, 
all the same, like; or okakes, equal. 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 57 

Very often the equality of two things is expressed b}' a single sentence ; Neis u debe/e nake, 
two coconuts (which are) good are there, i.e. one coconut is as good as the other. 

Likeness. A similarity between two things is shown by the words iiwkakalam, 
or kaise. 

Examples : [kaka etomeret h inukakalam ahiin, 1 (will) show you a man like him] ; e ahi 
kaise, he is like him. 

Suitability. The word koreh or uhkoreb is used after the objective pronouns in 
order to express something suitable or fit. 

Examples : kari koreh, suitable or proper for me ; \keribi ikuar leuer ahkoreb ahele ijerger, 
us give food suitable (for) this day. — Lord's Prayer]. 

4. Compound Expressions used as Adjectives. Many equivalents to adjectives are 
made by periphrases. These are either nouns in the locative case or descriptive phrases. 

Examples : knka abi iiast/e, I (am) sorry for him, lit. I (for) iiim in sorrow ; « kari sirip-ye, 
he (for) me in-.shanie, he is ashamed of me; (jaire-lutjliujle, rich man, lit. a many-thinged man; 
iukak le, a poor man, lit. nothing man ; iw-yem, bare, naked, lit. only body ; no-lam, leaves only. 

5. Indefinite Adjectives. 

These are: iierute, another, a certain, any; leader, some, a part; iieritte a uerute, one and 
then the other, each; </aire, many; iieis, both. All is expressed by the demonstrative verb 
uridili, past urder. 

8. Nouns. 

1. Form and Derivation. Simple Forms. Nouns in Miriam are usually simple 
roots as baker, stone ; ttr, fire ; le, man ; mei, sky ; meta, house ; paser, hill. 

As verbs, adjectives, and nouns of allied meanings are in Miriam usually expressed 
by entirely distinct words, there are not, as in Mabuiag, any definite affixes which change 
one class of words into another. 

In some cases there is the appearance of a suffix, as for example in such a phrase as : ma 
asilam idiyiri, you cure the sore, where ma means j'ou, idir/iri, make well, but the noun ' sore ' 
is asi, and the suffix kim is 'from,' the literal meaning being 'j'ou from-the-sore well-make.' 

Xoiins derived from Nouns. A few nouns appear to be formed from place-names or 
other nouns by the suffixes eb and 2m or am, as e.g. Dauar-eb, Dauar men; Zar/areb,tZ-dg 
men ; keparem le, arrow men. But these words are often used with the noun le {vide 
Adjectives), and are probably adjectives rather than nouns {vide Nagii-em le, p. 50). 

Nouns derived from Verbs. A few nouns appear to be formed from verbal stems by 
prefixing a consonant. 

Examples: yarap, goods (erap, buy); yeum, fear {enmi, dying); yuyd, precipice, slanting 
place (o(//, climb up); /.rfov, strength (ele/r, hold tightly); Icre;/, tooth (cm/, bite). I7(/t Verbs — 
Derivation. 

Compo'imd Nouns. A cuinpound jiersunal noun may bo formed by adding le (person) 
to the simple form of the verb, as e.g. eruam le, thief; lug-asmer le, observant person. 

Le is also added to the name of a place to indicate an inhabitant of that place, as 
e.g. Dauar le, an inhabitant of Dauar; La.'ile, a person belonging to Las (a village 
in Mer). 

H. Vol. III. 8 



58 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



The owner of any property is named by the words kern le, as e.g. nar kern le, owner 
of canoe ; ged kern le, owner of land. 

The name of an inanimate object may also be formed from a verb by adding the 
nonn Ik, thing. 

Examples : bau-hi, seat ; eineret-lu, old thing ; alkct-hi, needle. 

2. NuMBEH. There is no change in the form of a noun to indicate number. Le is 
'man' or 'men'; kusker, 'woman' or 'women'; lu, 'thing' or 'things.' 

When necessary the dual or trial numljer may be expressed by the numerals neis, two, or 
neis-netaf, three, preceding the noun. 

When it is necessary to indicate more than three, the adjective (jair or (/aire, niuny, is used, 
as e.g. ;/«(■?■ /f, i/aire kosker, gair lu, many men, many women, many things. If the immber is 
very large, the first syllable of ijair is lengthened to yai-ai-r or yai-ai. 

When the plural is collective, giz, a noun meaning a quantitj' or an assemblage, is nsed 
following ; as e.g. In giz, a quantity of things ; fe giz, an assemblage of people. 

Totality is shown by the demonstrative word uridili (in present tenses) or urder (in past 
tenses), as, iva rnena uridili, you stay all of you liere ; vd menu, urder, we all stayed here. 

A few nouns appear only as collectives: Omasker, children; lakub, crowd. 

3. Gender. There is no distinction of gender in naming inanimate objects, and 
persons of liififerent sexes are usually indicated by distinct words, as e.g. kiiniar, a man, 
or male ; kosker, a married woman ; neur, an unmarried woman ; makerem, a youth. 

A few nouns indicating persons are of common gender, as le, a human being; werem, 
a child; jmpa, grandparent; nunei, sister's child; narbet, elder brother or sister; nap, 
grandchild. 

Sex in naming animals is shown by kimiar, male, or kosker, female, used as an 
adjective preceding the noun, as e.g. kiiniar boroni, boar; kosker boroni, sow; [kimiar /aid, 
a cock]. 

Somewhat analogous to gender is the native distinction of an nei and kebi nei, or 
big and little names. The aa nei or big name includes not only all the species and 
varieties of the thing named, but also all their parts. The kebi nei has a corresponding 
meaning limited to the particular variety or part. In Pasi's MS. he has prefixed the an 
nei to his lists of animals and things, as for example, when giving a list of parts of the 
body, he says: Gair leixi genira nei peike. Epe gem au nei, kebi nei kerem, kod, neis ikab, 
a ner, ntorop, baibai miis, op, irao, neis pone a pit, etc.; i.e. Many men's body's names 
here. Then gem (body) big name, little name kerem (head), kod (occiput), 7ieis ikab (two 
temples), and ner (breath), morop (forehead), baibai m.iis (eyebrow), op (face), irao (eyelid), 
neis pone (two eyes) and pit (nose), etc. 

Other examples from P:isi's MSS., or given to me orally, are as follows : 



Au NEI. 

Lar (fish). 
Lewer (food). 



Kebi nei. 

Ceigi (Cybium counner.soni) ; dahor (Cybium sp.) ; iruapap (Zyga^na). 

Usari (white yam); ipigaba (3'am var.); kakidegaba (yam var.) ; dtdhar (yam 
with root coming above ground) ; horumatar (a fiat, sweet yam) ; penau 
(a pink yam) ; ipigaba (one wiiich meets with some obstacle in the 
ground and so becomes deformed) ; goz, tap, sap (other varieties). 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 



59 



Au NEI. 

Nor (reef). 



KeBI NEI. 



Aiimekcp, Mehcjor, Etki'p, Keud, Kerget, Makagar, are names of jwiticular 
reefs near Mer ; kes (ci-ack in reef); mnt (coral). 
Nar (canoe). Turim (bows); kor (stern); tarn (platform); garabad (board at end of 

gunwale) ; nets tug (two outrigger poles) ; neis sal (two rails at end 
of platform). 
Mfta (house). T<;ter (side posts) ; senere (main post) ; koaker-teiber (horizontal bars) ; mui 

(inside) ; pfk (upright sticks tied to kosker teiber) ; lemlem (thin 
sticks or laths). 
,S'o»-sor-/n?- (shell tish). JWpar (Tridacna elongata) ; asor (Pterocera lambis) ; keret (Stronibus) ; 

■)inzir (Trochus niloticus). 
Mer (name of one Bnur, KeweiJ, Zaub (places on Mer). 
of the Murray 
Islands). 



Lii (tree). 

Bnker (stone, coral). 

We (beach). 
Sep (soil, earth). 
Le (mankind). 

U (coconut). 
Kaba (banana). 

Nuri (sweet potato). 



Onie (Ficus) ; gar (mangrove) ; kaperkaper (Ahrus precatorius) ; meker 

(Terminalia catappa). 
Neit (rock covered with shallow soil) ; mat (coral from reef) ; iveswes 

(branching coral) ; terpiir (crumbling coral) ; bonaii (round coral). 
Ihirbur (tine sand) ; iser (mixture of earth and sand). 
Berder (mud) ; par (ground). 
Kiinlar (man) ; kosher (woman) ; iiiakerem (youth) ; netir (girl) ; maik 

(widowed person) ; werem (child) ; Pasi, Arei, Ulai (persons' names). 
Gad (green) ; kiril (small, immature) ; pis-u (young) ; ageg-u (dry). 
Neu (ripe) ; zarivem (sweet) ; keres (unripe) ; pes (stalk) ; terib (remains 

of flower stalk). 
Ogargab. 



The au net of the masked performer.s in tiie initiation ceremony of the cult of 
Bomai and Main was af/ud, but Main was the kebi net, and Bomai the gujiiih nei, or 
secret name. 

Some of the a it iiei were said to be an ati nei, or 'very big names.' An example 
given was lu, whicli included lit (propeily plants), ineta (house), bdker (stones), and such 
things also as bokes (bo.xes), bau-lti (chair), turpor (bottle), lanipa (lamp), sik (floor). , 

4. Case. Nouns are declined through nine cases by means of suffixed particles'. 
Two cases have no suffix. A difference is made between Common Nouns and Proper 
Names of Persons. 

Declension of Common Nonnx. 

The affixes used with Common Nouns are : 

1. Active Instrumental : -de, denoting the active agent or nominative to a transitive verb. 
Examples : Larede kari nareg/i, a fish bites me ; neurde nesur ikeli, the girl makes a petticoat ; 

eburde meta ikeli, the bird makes a nest ; meb bazde dimdi, moon by cloud (i.s) covered. 

2. Passive Instrumental : -U, denoting the instrument by means of which an action is done. 

' 111 the printed books only the particles indicating the dative and ablative cases of nouns are suflixed, 
others are written separately after the noun, but are suffixed to the pronouns. Tliat tliey are true sullixos 
appears from the fact that no other particle may come between them and the noun. 

8—2 



fiO ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

Examples : E kari laru napiti, he is hitting me with a fish ; ma <iharu kcremge patera (pit, 
you hit (on) his head with a small bamboo ; e borom dimri lageru, he ties tlie pig with a rope ; 
e lar eremli bauru, he spears a tish with a fish spear. 

3. Possessive : -ra, denoting possession. 

Examples : Lusra lewer peike, the food of Las is there ; ura peau, coconut leaf ; ncur-ra tag, 
wirl's hand. When used simply to qualify, the preceding noun may have no suffix ; la tarn, a 
tree branch. 

4. Dative : -em, ilenoting purpose or motion towards. 

Examples : Kaka otji paserem, I am climbing up to tlie hill ; kaka siimezem bakeaiii, lugede 
kari ipili, I went to the bush, a tree struck me ; e kwer boromem ikedi, he places food for 
the pig. 

.5. Ablative : -lam, denoting cau.se or motion from. 

Examples : Kaka narlam tabakeamulu, I came from the boat ; kaka ekesmer Gelamlam, 
I fell from Gelam ; wiaba Lad am tabakeauware, they came from Las ; e kotorlam tabu, it fell 
from the sky. 

G. Locative ; -ge, denoting rest or motion at, in, or beside. 

Examples ; Kaka metaije badari, I am going into a house ; E Lasge emri, he lives at Las ; 
Kaka sumezge cmri, I stay in the bush ; ebur hi tamge igredi, the bird perches on the branch. 

This case is always used with the verb asoli, hear, as, Kaka gair lege asoli, I hear many 
men, lit. I hear beside many men. 

7. Comitative : -kem., denoting ' in company with.' 

Examples : Lasle leicer eroli Uhighkein, a Las man is eating with an Ulag man ; K meta 
ikeli nerule nvtlakvtn, he makes a liouse along with another house ; -wiaba bakeamvare epeikem, 
they take baskets with them, lit. they go with baskets. 

8. Vocative : -e, only used with common nouns denoting a person. 
Examples : lee, O man ! koskere, O woman ! 

9. Nominative with intransitive verb, anfl 10. Objective. Common nouns have no suffixes 
for these cases. 

Examples: Le bakeani, the man goes; kaka ebur dasmeri, I see a bird; Faside kari u ikwar, 
Pasi gave me a coconut ; kaka wall adeiii igida, 1 take off my clothing ; karim jiaiiwali tekau ! 
bring me a book ; kaka seb daitvi, I dig the ground. 

In a sentence with a transitive verb the noun in the objective case follows the nominative, 
as e.g. eburde le danmeri, the bird sees the man. 

11. Restrictive: -et. This case is used onlj' with common nouns and with the name 
Malu. It transforms the common noun into a kind of proper noun. 

Examples : Larede kari nareyli, a fish bites me, i.e. any fish, but laret kari uarusidare, the 
fish keeps biting me, i.e. the tish I am holding. The suffix et is most frequently used with the 
names of relationships, and in the active instrumental case. In answer to the question : nete 
abele ikeli ? wlio made this ? the reply would be : kari koskeret, my wife, or kari abet, my father. 
.So also in a statement : kari weremet meta ikeli, my son (is) building a house ; abara iveremet 
meta ikeli, his son (is) building a house. For Malu examples vide p. 50. 

Irregular Common Nouns. A few common nouns are irregular. 

Examples : Le, man, has possessive le-ra or le-la, restrictive le-liit. 

Lu, thing or tree, inserts </ before the endings -de, -u, -ra, -em, -lam. Active instrumental 
bigede, passive instrumental liigu, possessive lugra, dative lugem, ablative luylam. E kari ipit 
higu, he hit me with a stick ; liigede kari napiti, the tree struck me. 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 61 

r, coconut, has passive instrumental uu, dative ufin. E kari uem iiamsi, he asked me for 
a coconut. 

Some nouns insert e before -de and -ra. Active instrumental talikede, a knife ; larede, 
a fish ; borumede, a pig ; possessive larera, of a fish. 

Nouns ending in k assimilate k and g in the locative, and have only one k in the comitative. 
Tidike, on a knife ; tulikem, with a knife. 

Personal or Proper Nouns. The cases of Personal Nouns differ slightly from those 
of Common Nouns. 

■ 1. Active Instrumental : -de. 

Examples : Nitide niara kerein ipit ? Paside, who struck your head ? Pasi (did) ; Ninide 
Qiesur ikeli, Nini makes a petticoat. 

2. Passive Instrumental : not used with Personal Names. 

3. Possessive : -ra. 

Examples: Pasira vieta, Pasi's house; Areira werem, Arei's child. 

4. Dative : -em. 

Example : Kaka Pasiem hakeamidu, I went to Pasi. 

5. Ablative : -lam. 

Example : Kaka Pasilam, labakeam, I come from Pasi. 

6. Locative : -doge. 

Examples: Kaka Areidoge eroli, I eat beside Arei ; naket lewer Pasidoge? how many yams 
beside Pasi ? With the verb asoli, doge is also used ; kaka Pasidoge asoli, 1 hear Pasi. 

7. Comitative : -pkem. 

Examples : Keriba Pasipknii bakeam Dauarem, we went with Pasi to Dauar ; wiaha 
Pasipkem lar erem, they spear fish with Pasi ; Kadodoipkem, with Kadodo, along with Kiidodo ; 
mamusipkem, with Mamus. 

8. Vocative : -ae. 
Example : Pasiac I Pasi ! 

9. Nominative with Intransitive Verb. This case has no suffix. 
Example : Kaige tabakeam iikem, Kaige came with a coconut. 

10. Objective: -i. 

Examples : Kaka Ifaddoni dasmer, I saw Haddon ; kaka Baufni dasmc.r, I saw Bautu ; 
kaka Pasil dasmer, I saw Pasi. 

r>. Vocative Nouns. Some nouns have special forms which are used only in the 
Vocative case. 

Examples: JJaba ! fatiier : Amawa ! mother! Awhna! (in addressing a relation by marriage). 

[In tlio (iosjiels oe! appears as a call to a man, but is possibly the Sanioan 'oe, thou, kule ! 
is also used in the Gospels in addressing many. Cf. tlie Mabuiag kole ?]. 

6. SuKSTiTUTioN AND AVOIDANCE OF NAMES. In speaking to his wife's relations 
(i.e. her lather, mother, brother or sister) a man must not use their proper name, but 
addresses them as Awima ! In speaking about any one of them he calls them naiwet, as 
does also any stranger speaking to him about them. 

Similarly a woman must not mention the names of her husband's relations, but 
addresses any of them as Aivima! and speaks of them as neuhet. 



G2 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

7. Sequence of Cases. When a noun in any case except the Nominative or 
Accusative is used with the possessive case of another noun or pronoun, the objective 
suffix may be used for the possessive. 

Examples : E ahi tagc eyimuli, it settles on his hand ; kari koshera epei, my wife's basket ; 
taba gednge, at his own place ; le kemgp, in a man's body ; taha apulam, from his mother. 

8. Other Expressions used with Nouns. I have some examples of an ending 
ei added to a proper noun and indicating duality. Wiaha Pasiei leiuer erolei, they two 
(of whom Pasi was one) food ate; keriba Pasiei bakeanmlei Dauarern, we (Pasi and I) 
went to Dauar. 

9. Pronouns. 

1. Personal Pronouns. The Miriam Personal Pronouns are as follows: 
First Person: Ka, k(ik<i, I; mi, vieriha, we; ki, keriba, we. 
Second Person : Ma, iiiunui, thou ; wa, waba, you. 
Third Person : E, he, she, it ; wi, wiaba, they. 

3Ii and nieriba include the peison or persons addressed and are thus equivalent to ' thou 
and I,' 'you and I,' or 'we and you.' K! and keriba exclude those addressed and are equi- 
valent to 'he and I,' 'they and I,' 'he and we' etc. 

The short foini.s ka, ma, mi, ki, wa, tvi are used generally in conversation and with imperative 
verbs. Mi, ki, roa, tvi may be used either in the dual, trial, or plural, but meriba, keriba, icaba 
and wiaba should only lie used in the plural number. This rule is frequently disregarded in 
the Gospel translation. 

In the printed books E (he, she, it) is miw always printed witli a capital letter, but was 
not so printed in the 1879 Gospels, or in Rev. J. T. Scott's Book of Parables. In tlie printed 
books, also, the plural pronouns are piinted iia, uaba, ui, uiaba. 

Note on Derivation. It will be noticed that the Miriam pronouns may lie arranged either 
into two sets, i.e. ka, ma, wa, and ki, mi, wi, or into three pairs, ka, ki ; ma, mi ; iva, wi. 
The set with a is restricted entirely to the persons conversing, i.e. to the speaker (ka) and one 
person (mn), or more than one (wa) addressed by him. The set with i is restricted to tiie 
speaker's party {ki, iai) and outsiders {wi). Taken in pairs ka meatis I (one jierson), and ki, 
my party, those with me. Ma means thou (one person), and mi, thy party, those with thee. 
Wa means you (man}'), with no outsiders, wi means the other persons without you. Tiie 
natives certainly distinguish the persons in this way. In the jargon English the plnases were 
'j'ou me' and 'other man.' The same idea also governs the distinction of person in the verb. 

Declension of Persinml Pronouns. The Personal Pronouns are declined through 
a variety of cases by means of suffixes, which are practically the same as those added to 
Pei'sonal Nouns. 

1. Xominative: the subject of a transitive or instransitive verb is indicated by the simple 
form of the pronoun. In the first and second person singular the reduplicated form is used. 

Examjjles : Kuka ahi dasmer, I see him ; e bakeam, he goes ; meriba naosmelei, we two 
went out ; wiaba tabaon, they all came out ; mama epermla, you are sliding ; waba karim oituli, 
you helieve me. 

'2. Objective : in this case -i is suffixed as with proper nouns, the root of the pronoun 
being \ariously modified. The third person singular is irregular. 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 63 

First Person : Kari, me ; mfribi, us ; kerihi, us. 

Second Person : Marl, thee ; wahi, you. 

Third Person: Ahi, him, her or it; wiahi, them. 

Examples: E kari dasmer, he sees me; kaka man obapit, I met thee; wiaba abi desauer- 
sireda, they reviled him ; keriba wabi deraimereda, we seek you ; wiaba loiabi darai-auereda, they 
surround them two. 

3. Possessive. The possessive is indicated as with nouns, by the suffix -(•«, which is added 
only to the singular pronouns. 

First Person : Kara, my ; meriba, our ; keriba, our. 

Second Person : Mara, thy ; ivaba, your. 

Third Person : Abara, his, hers, its ; tviaba, their. 

Example : Kara bau, my seat ; mara tag, thy liand; abara sarik, his bow ; luaba ged, your land. 

In the third person tabara is used of property owned by one or more persons and not 
merely in their temporary possession '. 

An exclusive sense equivalent to 'my own,' 'thy own' may be given to these pronouns by 
suffi.xing (in singular only) -bara instead of -ra, to the singular forms. There is no change in 
the plural. Karbara, my own ; inabara, thy own ; tabara, his, her, its or their own. 

Exaniples : karbara meta, my own house ; tabara apu, his own mother. 

The possessive suffixes are 'not used before a noun which is itself in the posse.ssive case, 
the objective is used instead, e.g. kari koskera epei, my wife's basket ; kaka abi taij dei/iratumnr, 
I scraped hands with him (the native method of hand-shaking). 

Similarly karbara, 'inabara and tabara become karba, niaba and taba, e.g. karhahera mela, 
my father's house. 

4. Dative. The Dative case is shown by the suffix -in, added to the objective : 
Singular: 1. karim, to me; 2. niariin, to thee; 3. abiin, to him, her or it. 

Plural: 1. (inclusive) tneribim, to us; 1. (exclusive) keribini, to us; 2. tvabim, to you; 
3. iciabim, to them. 

Examples : Karim jiauwali tekau, bring me a book ; e tabakeamulu kariiii, he came to me ; 
bau marini ike, a seat for you here ; luiaha karim opn uatimedariei, they two nod to me. 

5. Ablative. The AVjlative is shown by the suffix -elam added to the Objective. 
Singular: 1. karielani,, irom or through me; 2. marielam, from or through thee; 3. abielam, 

from or through him, her or it. 

Plural: 1. (inclusive) merihielam, from or through us; 1. (exclusive) keribielam, froni or 
through us; 2. wabielam, from or through you; 3. wiabielam, from or tlirough them. 

Examples: E bakeam karieJam, he goes away from me; e karie/aiit ua/keda, he snatched from mc. 

6. Locative. This case suffixes -doye to the Objective. 

Singular: 1. karidoye, on, at, or by me; 2. maridoye, on, at, or by thee; 3. abidoge, 
on, at, or by him. her, or it. 

Piural : 1. (inclusive) meribidoyf, on, at, or by us; 1. (exclusive), kerihidoye, on, at, or 
by us ; 2. wabidoye, on, at, or by you ; .3. wiabidoye, on, at, or by them. 

Examples: E karidoye eyinmli, it settles on me (said of a fly); e karidoye tumye erapeida, 
it broke on me, on top (of me) ; ki abidoge ereiei, we two eat with him ; keriba wiabidoye 
ereyeda, we eat with them. 

The verb asoli, hear, always requires the Locative case : gair Ic karidoye asurda, many men 
hear me ; kaka maridoye aserer, I heard you. 

7. Comitative. This is shown liy -Ikeni, suffixed to the Objective. 

1 It was also said to refer to the property of a person or persons belonj,'inK to a villaf;e other tlian 
that of the speaker. Cf. te, verbal prefix. 



64 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



Singular: 1. karltkuni, with me; 2. marilki'M, with thee; 3. abitkem, with him, her or it. 

Plural: 1. (inclusive) meribitkem, with us; 1. (exclusive) keribitkem, with us; 2. ivahitkem, 
with you ; 3. ininliitknii, with them. 

The forms karihilke.m, marihitkem, with we, with thee, were also given. 

Examples : Mi meribitkem namrida, we sit down in one another's company ; mi dali 
karitkem, he is along with me. 

Otiier Expressions used witJi- Personal Pronouns. ' Myself, thyself, etc' are expressed 
by adding the syllable bii with various slight modifications to the root forms. 

Singular: 1. karbabu, myself; mabti, thyself; tababu, him-, her- or itself. 
Plural: 1. meribibn, keribibn, ourselves; 2. ivabu, yourselves; 3. iviabu, themselves. 
These forms may be used with the case suffixes thus : 

Possessive : karbara, mabara, tahara. These are identical with the forms already gi\en for 
'my own,' 'thy own,' etc. 

Dative : karbabim, mnhim, fababim, to or for myself, etc. 
Ablative : karbalam, mabielam, tabalam, from or through myself, etc. 
Locative : karbiidotje, )nabido(/e, nbhioge, on, at, or liy myself, etc. 
Coniitative : karbatkem, inabitkem, abitkem, with myself, etc. 

Particles suffixed to Personal Pronouns. The Demonstrative Particles i, pe, ge, and 
the Conditional .se are added to the pronominal roots. For the use of these vide Verbs — 
Tense. 

2. Interrogative Pronouns. The Personal Interrogative is niti? who? It is the 
same in both singular and plural, and is declined as a Personal Noun or Pronoun. 

Active instrumental : iiitide. Possessive : nitira. Locative : nitidoge. 

Nominative to intransitive verbs : iiiti. Dative : nitim. Comitative : nitibitkem. 

Objective : iiiti. Ablative : nitielam. 

Examples : Xitide mnri ismi ? who cut thee 1 nitide wabim neis tulik dekrvar ? who gave 
you two knives? nitira neur iiinmn ? whose daughter (art) thou? nitim keriba bakeam? to whom 
do we go? knkn nitidoffe bakenmu? with whom do I go? 



The Interrogative used for 
Common Noun. 



common nouns is naln ? what? It is declined as a 



Ablative : nalagelam. 
Locative : naluge. 



Active instrumental : -ludugde. Objective : nalu. 

Passive instrumental : nalugu. Possessive : nalugura. 

Nominative to intransitive verb : nalu. Dative : naliigem. 

In n(tbt, lu is the common noun In, thing, and nalu is only used when the ati yiei of the 
thing enquired about is not known. If the au nei is known, ua is prefixed to it to form an 
interrogative noun, and the answer to the question will then be the kebi nei. 

Examples : Na-le maridog 1 what people (are) witli you ? nalugura pes 1 handle of what ? 
ma nugcrgerge tnlxikeam'i on what day will you come? lut jiatnvdli nia laglag ? which book (do) 
yuu want '! 

Na is in very general use prefixed to words and particles to form Interrogative 
Adverbs. For list of these vide Adverbs. 

Nako is also generally used in asking a question when a name is expected in answer. 

Examples : Nako mnra nei ? what (is) thy name ? nako, ma Pasi dasmer 1 what, you saw 
Pasi? i.e. did you see Pasi? nako abele lu? what (is) this thing? 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 65 

3. Indefinite Pronouns. The Indefinite Pronouns have the same forms as the 
Indefinite Adjectives, but are used without an accompanying noun. 

Examples : NertUe, one, a certain one, any one, some one ; uridili, pres. unhr past (combined 
with plural pronoun), all ; nets, both ; (jaire, many ; nerute a nerute, each, one and one. 

4. Demonstrative Pronouns. These have been given in the section on Demon- 
strative Words and Particles. They are very frequently expressed by a verbal phrase 
consisting of a Personal Pronoun and one of the Demonstrative Verbs. 

Examples : Kaka nali, I here ; mama nali, thou liere ; e dali, he there : e dike, he tliere 
etc. Cf. Verbs — Demonstrative. 

lO. Verbs. 

1. Form and Derivation. The investigation of the verb stems in Miriam has 
been a matter of great difficulty, anti what is here written with regard to them is 
somewhat uncertain. The composition of the verbal stems is not as in Mabuiag apparent 
to the present speakers of the language. 

Ve7-bal Stems. All Miriam verb roots appear to commence with a vowel. Many 
verbs retain this vowel in every form in which they are used, but in some the vowel is 
liable to be eclipsed by a prefixed particle. The following are examples of simple verb 
roots: am in ami, clothe; et in eti, look up; ir/ in i(/i, undress; oc/ in ogi, climb. 

Most verb stems, however, are composed of two or more syllables, and there often 
appears to be between the first of these and a corresponding noun a corniection which is, 
however, not ver}' easy to define. In some cases the prefix appears to consist of the noun 
with the initial consonant omitted. The following are examples : 

Xed, rope ; ed-omeli, drag ; d-ed-komedi, fasten up ; d-id-bar, bind. 

Ta;/, hand ; hj-mesi, squeeze ; aij-isi, lift up ; d-ey-wati, haul rope ; ek-oseii, beckon (os = out) ; 
d-i(/-a;/ur, ])ut string on hands in playing kanmt (cat's cradle). 
Karu, fence ; iru-kili, make fence {ikeli = make). 
Tereg, tooth ; erey, bite ; ero, eat ; eruseli, chew. 

In other cases the noun root seems to be present in the body of the verb, as e.g. 
Way, wind ; ivami, to blow (of the wind) ; et-oami, to blow fire. 
Tuy, outrigger pole ; a-truyili, to sail boat (? mana'uvi-e lay). 

•Sap, ground ; n-sap-ri, put in eartli-o\en. ' 

Esor, back (of neck) ; esor-yiru, stand with head bent ; e.wr-erapa, sit with head bent. 
Kent, company, together ; et-kem-edi, gather up. 

Verbal Prefixes. Verbs in use always begin with a vowel or variable particle which 
serves to determine the class of the verb and fix its meaning. Some of these prefixes 
are radical, modifying the meaning of the verb itself; others are functional, and determine 
the relation of the verb to others in the same sentence. 

The Kadical Prefixes are ta, te, tara, and o. 

The prefix ta is only used with verbs denoting movement, and indicates movement towai'ds 
the speaker. 

Examples are : tabakeam, come {bakeam, go) ; tais, bring {ain, take) ; tabaruk, come forth 
(baruk, go forth) ; t(d)i, climb down (speaker below). In some cases ta becomes t, as e.g. 
teosmeda, come out {eosmeda, go out) ; t-erperik, roll back hither. 

H. Vol. III. 9 



6G ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

The prefix te, shows that the person who is the object of the action belongs to a distant 
place. 

Examples: Kaha abi emetu te-detageri, I have told him (a stranger); kaka wiabi fe-darasmer, 
I saw two from other side (of Mer) ; waba abi (ipili, you kill one from a distant place ; kaka 
wiabi etneta f,e-dam(ayerda, I have told plenty of other men. Cf. Pronouns t-abara, ta-babu, etc. 

The prefix tara indicates repetition. 

Examples : Kei-iba ko taramridare, we sat down again ; wiaha karl taratagerda, they tell me 
again ; kaka inari taramarida, I send you again. 

The prefix o is inceptive, and indicates the beginning or nearness of the action. 

Examples : E o eumi, he begins to die (i.e. is on the point of death, nearly the same as : 
e viaike eumi, he nearly dies) ; kara teter obatimeda, my foot begins to go through. 

In some verbs where o appears to be a prefixed particle it is really the noun o meaning the 
liver (regarded as the seat of the emotions), as in o-bazgeda, repent (liver goes back) ; o-ituli, 
believe (liver puts out towards something). 

The prefix wa denotes continuous action, as e.g. e ivatabn, he climbs down, continues to 
climb down. 

The prefixes ba, de, dura, na, will be discussed in the sections on Person and 
Number. 

Verbal SuffiJ-es. The verbal suffixes, like the prefixes, are both Radical and 
Functional. The Radical suffixes of which the meanings have been ascertained are k, 
mu, d, and s. 

The sufKx k indicates sudden motion. 

E.xample8 are : azrik, start back (azer, draw back) ; einarik, let go (emri, stay) ; erperik, 
burst (erajni, break) ; darborik, snatch at (arbor, pluck up) ; desak, erase (desau, rub) ; iprik, 
break and make a dust. 

Before the tense ending da this suffix is often dropped, emarida for emarikda. 

The suffix ??i(t shows motion forth. 

Examples: Bakeamu, go forth; ekesmuda, split; batirimuda, stretch out arms (itiri, 
stretch arms). 

The suffix d or erf seems to form a Causative. 

Examples : Emeredi, hang up, fix up {emri, stay) ; epaitered, spill, cause to be spilt ; eloainered, 
revive fire by blowing; asisiredi, care for (asisi, feed); ikedi, put, place (cause to be here). 

The suffix s is found only in a few examples, and appears to indicate a gradual or 
continuous doing of the action. 

Examples : Enis-iM, chew {ero, eat) ; eus-c.li, witlier (ea-Jili, die) ; babits-er, ooze (abii, 
go down). 

The letter r or i is by far the commonest ending of verbal stems, and is usually 
found with transitive verbs. 

The Functional suffixes to the verb will be discussed in the sections on Person, 
Number, Mode and Tense. 

2. Classes of Verbs. Miriam verbs may be divided according to their meaning 
into four classes. These again may be subdivided into sections according to the initial 
syllable of the stem. The stem may be taken to be that form of the intransitive verb 
which indicates the action of one person, or that form of the transitive verb which 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. G7 

indicates the action of one person or thix^g upon one other person or thing not associated 
with the describer of the action. 

Class I. Intransitive Verbs. 

(a) Commencing with a vowel, as, o(/i, one climbs ; emrida, one sits ; igi, one perches ; 
ekweli, one stands up ; eumida, one dies ; (wsmeda, one goes out ; ali, one (is) here. 

(6) Commencing witli ha, as, bakeamrula, one goes ; bataili, one grows ; haili, one fasts ; 
badari, one enters ; batapili, one is deaf ; batrimuda, one stretches arms out. 

{c) Commencing with ta or te, as, tabakaamiula, come ; leosmeda, come out. 
Class II. Reflexive or Reciprocal Verbs. 

Commencing with ba, as, bapiti, one strikes one's self ; bapitiei, two strike each other ; 
batayriei, two tell one another ; baospUi, one boasts (praises one's self) ; bamrida, one departs 
(sends one's self away) ; baraiyida, one dives (dips one's self). 
Class III. Transitive Verbs expressing action upon things. 

{a) Commencing with a vowel, as, ikeli, one makes one ; araiger, one dips one ; itkam, one 
covers one ; itkiri, one wipes one ; erebli, one paddles ; eroli, one eats one ; epaiteredi, one spills one. 
{b) Commencing with de, as, detail, one writes one ; dikiapor, one thinks ; detoanered, 
one blows (fire) ; derseri, one prepares one. 

(c) Commencing with ba, as, batanredi, one tlirows one; bakedida, one finisiies one. 
Class IV. Transitive Verbs expj-essing action upon persons or animate things. 

{a) Commencing with a vowel, as, emarida, one sends one of them ; itnieri, one asks one 
of them ; ataperet, one scolds one. 

(6) Commencing with de or d, as, detageri, one tells one of them ; dasmeri, one sees one 
of them. 

(c) Commencing with ba, as, bakivari, carry. 
It is not easy to define the exact difference in meaning caused by the prefixes. Some 
examples may be given here t(j show tlie variation in meaning according to prefix. 

j6' nar erebli, lie rows a boat ; e lewer derebli, he digs up a yam ; e barebli, lie swims. 
£ abi itiri, lie wakes him ; e abi ditiri, he sends him ; e batlriinada, he stretches out his arms. 
E etoaniered iir, lie Ijlows fiie (to revive it) ; ur batoamered, tire revives ; u-ag wami, wind blows. 
Wali batageia laidauye, the clotli sticks on the table; etagi, count; delageinli, knead. 
In this classification, it must be noted that it is the native expression, not the English, 
which determines the class. Thus many intransitives in English ai'e transitive in ^liriam, 
as e.g. doze, ut-apit (sleep strikes) ; weep, e-ezoli (shed tears) ; perspire, mereg-igida (takb off 
sweat) ; breathe, ner-esili (send out breath) ; undress, tvcdi udem igida (strip ott" clothes), etc. 

3. Person. In Miriam there are special forms of the verb which indicate position 
and number with regard to the agent and object of the action, as viewed by the person 
describing it. These forms are somewhat analogous to those which indicate Person in 
the verbs of other languages. In Miriam the agents and objects of actions are divided 
into two sets, for which it will be convenient to use the terms Inclusive and Exclusive 
Person. By the Inclusive Person is meant a per-son or persons of the speaker's company, 
i.e. any person or persons represented by the pronouns kaka, I ; mama, thou : ineriba or 
keriba, we. By the Exclusive Person is meant a person or persons outside the speaker's 
company, i.e. any person or persons represented by the pronouns e, he or she, or wiuba, 
they. There is also a kind of Collective Person, with the meanings ' one of us by himself,' 
'one of them by himself,' 'all of us' or 'all of them.' 

9—2 



()8 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



Person is shown by means of prefixed particles, and can only be indicated when the 
verb expresses the action of human beings, or actions directed towards them. The method 
varies according to the class of the verb. 

Class I (Intransitive and Neuter Verbs). Verbs of this class, indicating actions of 
human beings and commencing with a vowel, substitute 7ia for the initial or prefix n, 
when the speaker includes with himself the person or persons addressed. When the whole 
company perform the action bu or b- is used, and, if it be required to indicate the 
speaker's company as well as others, naba or nab- is used. 

Examples : Kaka (or mama or e) ekeamda, I rise (or thou risest or he rises) ; kaka (or mama 
or e) o(/i, I climb lor thou elimbest or he climbs up); ivaba ncis ek/veidariei, they two stand up; 
■ineriba neis nakweidariei, we two (you aud I) stand up ; ivaba (or keriba or wiaba) baos, you 
{or they and I or tliey) all go out ; meriba nabaos, we all (you aud I) go out ; meriba namrilei, 
you and I are sitting down. 

• Verbs of Class I which begin with the syllable ba retain this prefix throughout all 
forms of the verb. When the speaker includes himself in the whole company, na is 
prefixed. 

Examples : Kaka (or mama or e) bakeam, I (or thou or he) go ; meriba (or keriba or ivaba 
or wiaba) bakeamtidariei (or bakeamvidare), we (you and I) (or we, they and I, or you or they) 
two (or three) go ; meriba nabakeuadn, we (3'ou and I) all go ; wiaba (or waba) bakeauda, they 
(or you) all go. 

Class II (Reflexive and Reciprocal Verbs). These follow the same rule as verbs in 
Class I beginning with bu. 

Examples: Kaka karbabu basmeli, I see myself; keriba keribibu barsidare, we (three) are 
striking ourselves ; wiaba tababit barseda, they strike themselves ; keriba batagreda, we (I and 
they) are talking to one another; liut ineriba nabarsare, we (you and I) fought one another. 

Class III (Transitive with inuniinate object). In these the person of the object is 
not expressed. The prefixes na or dt(ru are used, but in verbs of this class they always 
indicate that the object is dual. 

Examples : E letver derebli, he yam digs up ; e meta akurii derendi, lie the house with 
thatch thatches ; mama neis kaba naroli, you two bananas eat ; kaka neis lar naregli, I two fish 
eat ; e neis lar naski, he two fishes spears ; kaka neis siyar ' darasiri, I two cigarettes prepare ; 
wer naokaida, two eggs are hatched. 

A very few verbs of Class III begin with hi. In these the action of subject and 
object arc usually simultaneous, and only one object is implied. If two objects require 
indication another verb is used. 

Examples : Kaka haker batanredi, I throw one stone ; kaka neis baker natimedi, I throw 
two stones; kaka ijair baker i/imed, I throw many stones. 

Class IV (Traiisitives with living object). In these verbs, if the animal or person 
acted upon is present with the speaker, the verb takes the prefix na in the singular and 
de in the dual, trial, and plural. 



' Jargon English for 'cigarette.' 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 69 

Examples : Namarida, namaridariei, namarkidare, 7iamarida, one, two, three, or many send 
one of us ; natageri, nntagriei, nafayridare, nataf/ereda, one, two, three, or many tell one of us • 
demarida, demnridariei, demm-kidare, demarida, one, two, three, or many send more than one of 
us ; detageri, detagrwi, detagridare, dtitagereda, one, two, three, or many tell more than one of us. 

If tlie pei'sou acted upon is outside the speaker's company the prefixes vary accordin"- 
to the conjugation. If the prefix in the singular is a vowel, the dual, trial, or plural is 
shown by the prefix na. If the singular jjrefix is de, the dual, trial, or plural is dara. 

Examples : emarida, emaridariei, emarkidare, emarida, one, two, tliree, or many send one 
of them ; detageri, detagriei, detagridare, detayereda, one, two, three, or many tell one of them ■ 
naviarida, namaridariei, namarkidare, namarida, one, two, three, or many tell more than one 
of them ; daratayri, daratagriei, darntagridare, daratagereda, one, two, three, or many send more 
than one of them. 

For further examples of the Personal Prefixes in conjiinction with the Suffixes see 
the sections on Number and Conjugation. 

4. Number. The Miriam Verb indicates number in agreement with the agent by 
means of suffixes. These are ditferent in the present and past ten.ses, and change also 
according to the conjugation. When the verb has an object it expresses agreement also 
with the number of objects b}' means of prefixes. Number is indicated only in the 
Indicative and Imperative Modes. For the latter, cf. p. 73. 

The suffixes expressing number are: Singular, Present, i or da; Singular, Past, er 
or lu ; Dual, Present, iei or dariei ; Dual, Past, lei ; Trial, Present, ida7-e ; Trial, Past, le ; 
Plural, Present, eda or da ; Plural, Past, are or hire. 

Verbs of Class I. These add the numeral endings to the stem of the verb in the 
singular, dual, and trial. The plural takes the prefix ba or b with na when the speaker 
is included. 

Examples : oyi, one climbs ; ogiei, two climb ; ogidare, three climb ; emridariei, two sit ; 
bogi, all climb ; hamer, all sit ; nabamri, all of us sit. 

If the action is necessarily performed in two places, na is then used as the dual of 
the initial vowel. 

Examples : 'netat ebur igi luge, one bird perches on a tree ; neis ebur nagi luge, two birds 
perch on a tree (i.e. in two places on a tree) ; neis le namridi nebge, two men sit on the grqund 
(make two sittings). 

Verbs of Class II (Reflexive, Reciprocal). These also simply add the numeral endings 
to the stem. When the speaker is included with those addressed na is prefixed. 

Examples : Reflexive : Kaka karbabio bamnili, I see myself ; keriba keribibu barsidare, we 
strike ourselves ; kaka baanieri op, I saw my face. 

Reciprocal : Wi ban'iiiiriei, they (two) see one another ; iviaba bautmereda, they ask one anotiier ; 
wiaba barsidare, tliey (three) liglit one another ; keriba badyile, we (three) cured one another. 

Inclusive person : Meriba nabautmerare, we questioned one another ; 7neriba ndbarsare, we 
fought one another. 

Verbs of Class III (Transitives with inanimate object). These add the; numeral endings 
to indicate the number of agents, but with them arc used the prefixes na or dara to indicate 
two objects. 



70 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TOERES STRAITS. 



Examples : Ikeli, ikeriei, ikerdare, ikereda, one, two, tliree or many make one ; nakeli, 
nakeriei, nakerdare, nakereda, one, two, three, or many make two ; mama kaha eroli, you eat a 
banana ; mama neis kaha naroli, you eat two bananas ; e kari gab nerueli, he shows me the way 
(dual because road goes in two directions) ; gair le lar eregeda, many men eat the fish ; mama 
gair kaha eroli, you eat many Ijauanas. 

With these verbs it is important to observe that when the subject of the verb is 
inanimate the prefix and suffix express the same number. 

Examples : Baker kara kereiii ipiti, a stone struck my head ; haker kara kerem nipitiei, 
two stones struck my head (i.e. struck two places). 

Verbs of Class IV (Transitives with personal object). In these, owing to the expression 
of the person (inclusive or exclusive) of the object, and also through a change by which 
the trial and plural endings may be used when the agent is singular or dual, the expression 
of number is somewhat complicated, and may be most conveniently shown by the following 
table : 



Suffix 






Number of Objects 








Number of Subject 


Prefix 






Ref. to 
Examples 


Present 

Tense 


Past 
Tense 


Inclusive Person 


Exclusive Person 


i or da 


er, lu 


one 


na 


one 


_ 


1 






one 


de or vowel 


two 


— 


2 






one 


de 


— 


one 


3 






one 


dara or ua 


— 


two 


4 


iei or dariei 


lei 


two 


na 


one 





5 






two 


de 


two 


— 









two 


de or vowel 


— 


one 


7 






two 


dara or na 


— 


two 


8 


idare 


le 


three 


na 


one 


_ 


» 






three 


de 


two or three 


— 


10 






one ur two 


de 


three 


— 


11 






three 


de or vowel 


— 


one 


12 






three 


dara or ua 


— 


two or three 


13 






one or two 


dara or na 


— 


three 


14 


da, eda 


are 


plural 


na 


one 





15 






plural 


de 


two or three 


— 


16 






one, two, tliree or more 


de 


plural 


— 


17 






plural 


de or vowel 


— 


one 


18 






plural 


dara or na 


— 


two, three or more 


11) 






one, two, three or more 


dara or na 


— 


plural 


20 



grammar of eastern language. 71 

Examples. 

All the examples which follow were given by my informants at various times. In 
order to obtain them it was necessary to get every possible combination of the pronouns 
as subjects and objects in a sentence. This was a matter of some time and difficulty, 
and was only completely done with the verb ' tell ' (detageri). Nearly all the same 
sentences with the verb ' send ' (emarida) were also obtained, as well as a great many 
with other verbs. These were found to agree with the results obtained with the 
verb ' tell.' 

In the examples the cyphers are used for the numerals, i.e. 1. for netat, 2. for neis, and 
3. for 7ieis-7ietat. The pronouns ending in a are subjects, those ending in i are objects. 

The Verb ' Tell.' 

1. Mama [or e) kari natageri Thou tellest {or he tells) me. 

Kaka {or e) mari natageri I tell {or he tells) you. 

2. Mama {or e) keriln 2 detageri Thou tellest {or he tells) us two excl. 

E meiibi 2 detageri He tells us two incl. 

Kaka {or e) wabi 2 detageri I {or he) tell you 2. 

3. Kaka {or mama or e) abi detageri I {or thou or he) tell him. 

4. Kaka {or mama or e) wiabj 2 daratagri I (or thou or he) tell them 2. 

5. Waba 2 (or wiaba 2) kari natagriei You 2 (or they 2) tell me. 

Keriba 2 {or wiaba 2) mari natagriei We 2 excl. {or they 2) tell thee. 

6. Waba 2 {or wiaba 2) keribi 2 detagriei You 2 {or they 2) tell us 2 excl. 

Wiaba 2 meribi 2 detagriei They 2 tell us 2 incl. 

Keriba 2 {or wiaba 2) wabi 2 detagriei We 2 excl. {or they 2) tell you 2. 

7. Meriba 2 {or keriba 2 or waba 2 or wiaba 2) 

abi detagriei We 2 incl. {or we 2 crcl. or you 2 or they 2) tell him. 

8. Meriba 2 {or keriba 2 or waba 2 or 

wiaba 2) wiabi 2 daratagriei We 2 incl. {or we 2 excl. or you 2 or they 2) tell them 2. 

9. Waba 3 (or wiaba 3) kari natagridare You 3 (or they 3) tell me. 

Keriba 3 {or wiaba 3) mari natagridare We 3 excl. {or they 3) tell thee. 

10. Waba 3 (or wiaba 3) keribi 2 (or keribi 3)..,detagridare You 3 (or they 3) tell us 2 crcl. {or us 3 excl). ' 

Wiaba 3 meribi 2 {or meribi 3) detagridare Tliey 3 tell us 2 incl. {or 3 incl.). 

Keriba 3 {or wiaba 3) wabi 2 {or wabi 3)... detagridare We 3 excl. {or they 3) tell you 2 {or 3). 

11. Mama (ore or waba 2 or wiaba 2) keribi 3,. .detagridare Thou (or he or you 2 or they 2) tell us 3 excl. 

E (or wiaba 2) meribi 3 detagridare He (or they 2) tells us 3 i'hc/. 

Kaka (or keriba 2 or e or wiaba 2) wabi 3. ..detagridare I {or wo 2 excl. he or they 2) tell you 3. 

12. Keriba 3 {or meriba 3 or waba 3 or wiaba 3) 

abi detagridare We 3 excl. {or incl. or you 3 or they 3) tell him. 

13. Keriba 3 {or meriba 3 or waba 3 or wiaba 3) 

wiabi 2 (or wiabi 3) daratagridare ...'We'd excl. {or incl. or you 3 or they 3) tell them 2 (or 3). 

14. Kaka {or mama or e or meriba 2 or keriba 2) 

wiabi 3 daratagridare ...I {or thou or he or we 2 incl. or excl.) tell them 3. 

Waba 2 {or wiaba 2) wiabi 3 daratagridare ...You 2 {or they 2) tell them 3. 

15. Waba (or wiaba) kari uatagereda You {or they) tell me. 

Keriba {or wiaba) mari natagereda We {excl.) {or they) tell thee. 



72 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



IG. Waba {or wiaba) keribi 2 {or keribi 3) detagereda You {or they) tell us 2 excl. {or 3). 

Wiaba meribi 2 {or meribi 3) detagereda They tell us 2 ind. {or 3). 

Keriba {or wiaba) wabi 2 (or wabi 3) detagereda We excl. {or they) tell you 2 {or 3). 

IT. Mama {or waba 2 or waba 3 or waba) 

keribi detagereda Thou {or you any number) tellest us more than 8 excl. 

E (or wiaba 2 or wiaba 3 or wiaba) keribi... detagereda He {or they <(«!/ mtiiilier) tells us mort' //mil 3 excl. 

E (or wiaba 2 or wiaba 3 or wiaba) meribi... detagereda He {or they aiiij number) tells us more than 3 incl. 

Kaka (or keriba 2 or keriba 3 or keriba) 

wabi detagereda I {or we incl. any number) tell you more than 3. 

E {or wiaba 2 or wiaba 3 or wiaba) wabi... detagereda He {or they any number) tells you more than 3. 

18. Meriba {or keriba or waba or wiaba) abi ...detagereda We incl. or excl. or you or they more than 3 tell him. 

19. Meriba {or keriba or waba or wiaba) wiabi 2 We iucl. or excl. or you or they more than 3 tell them. 

(or wiabi 3 or wiabi) daratagereda any number. 

20. Kaka {or meriba 2 or meriba 3) wiabi daratagereda I {or we incl. 2 or 3) tell them more than 3. 

Keriba 2 {or keriba 3) wiabi daratagereda We e.rcl. 2 or 3 tell them more than 3. 

Mama {or waba 2 or waba 3) wiabi daratagereda Thou (or you 2 or 3) tellest them more than 3. 

E (or wiaba 2 or wiaba 3) wiabi daratagereda He {or they 2 or 3) tells them more than 3. 

In the past tense tlie forms for the verb 'tell' are: 1, natagerer; 2, 3, detagerer; 
4, daratagrer; -5, natagrilei ; 6, 7, detngrilei ; 8, daratagrilei ; 9, natagrile ; 10, 11, 12, 
detagrilo (or detagile) ; IS, 14, daratagrile (or daratagile) ; 1-5, natagerare ; 16, 17, 18, 
detagerare (or detagrilare) ; 19, 20, daratagerare (or daratagrilare). 

The Verb 



' Send. 
The forms of the verb 'send' which correspond tn those 



given above are as follows : 



mples. 


I'rexoit. 


Past. 


1. 


namarida. 


namaiiklu. 


2 


eiiiarida. 


emariklu. 


3. 


deniarida. 


deniariklu. 


4. 


iiamarida. 


namariklu. 


5. 


iiaiiiaridariei. 


naniariklei. 


6. 


deiiiaridariei. 


deinariklei. 


7. 


euiaridariei. 


eiuariklei. 


8. 


naniai-idariei. 


naniariklei. 


9. 


iiaiiiarkidju-c. 


iianiarkile. 


0. 


dciiiarkidare. 


demai'kile. 



'Cxanq>les 
11. 


Prexeut. 
demarkidare. 


Past. 
deiiiarkile. 


12. 


eniarkidare. 


emarkile. 


l:?. 


iianiarkidare. 


naniarkile. 


11. 


iiamarkidare. 


namarkile. 


If). 


Iiamarida. 


namarkare. 


16. 


demarida. 


deniarkare. 


17. 


deniarida. 


deniarkare. 


18. 


emarida. 


emarkare. 


19. 


naiiiarida. 


namarkare (or 
naiiiariklare) 


20. 


naiiiarida. 


namarkare. 



Note : It appear.s from some examples that de ma}' lie used with the singular inclusive 
when the action is repeated. The following is verbatim. ' A^ kari nahf/ili ' (i.e. he calls me). 
I say this to you when man calls my name; you answer, 'B mari nole abgerkak' (i.e. he don't 
call you). Then man repeats and I say, ' E knri (lalxjel! ' (he calls me a second time). This 
is analogous to some examples (vide p. 69) with verbs of Class I. 

When the Verl)s of Class IV are used with an inanimate object, they follow the 
const.riK-tion of Verbs of Class III as e.g. kaka baker dasmeri, I see a stone; kaka neis 
baker darasmeri, I see two stones. 

.5. Mode. There are nine Modes in which verbal expressions may be used in 
Miriam. These are : 

1. Infinitive. 4. Interrogative. 7. Potential. 

2. Iniperntive. .5. Negative. 8. Subjunctive. 

3. indicative. 6. Desiderative. 9. Quotation. 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 73 

Infinitive. There is no distinct form for the Infinitive. The stem without endings 
of number, but with the personal prefixes, is used to express the infinitive of purpose 
or object. 

Examples : Kaki mari natager ma ekau, I tell you to take it, I tell you, you take ; kaka 
urem lewer ikaida, I (go) for fire yam (to) cook; ma kari ikwar kaka ereli, you give me water 
I drink : e tabakeamulu kari nasnier ah gerger, he came to see me yesterday. 

[Ill the Gospels ko is used for the infinitive: Ko aliem, to voyage; ese neriUe le grip nagri 
ko asoli, dehele E asoli, if any man ear has to hear, good he hears. I could obtain no support 
for this construction from my informants, ko was always an adverb, 'again.' Vide Future 
Tense.] 

Imperative. The Imperative is shown b}' suffixes which change according to number. 
The ordinary form differs from the Indicative only in the dual number which has the 
ending -lain or -am. 

Examples : Ma ekive ! stand (thou) up ! tva ekwelam ! stand (ye two) up ! iva ekwidare ! 
stand (ye three) up ! wa hakwe ! stand ye (all) up ! ma bakeam ! go thou ! wa bakeaniulam ! go 
(ye two) ! wa bakeaiitvidare ! go (ye three) up ! tva bakeaivare ! go ye up ! ma detager ! tell 
(thou) him ! wa bogi ! all of you climb up ; ogam ! climb ye two ! 

If the speaker includes himself among those he addresses, verbs of Class I (in ha) 
and of Class II have the prefix na or 11. 

Examples : mi nabakeaviulam ! let us two go ! mi nogi ! let us climb up ! 

Verbs of Cla.ss III have the dual prefixes na or dara for two objects, and verbs of 
Class IV have the proper personal prefixes. 

Examples : Class I V : Ma detager (or daratager, or daratagridare, or daratagrare) ! tell 
(thou) one (two, three, or more) ; tva abi datagram ! tell (ye two) him ! wa daratagram ! tell 
(ye two) them two! etc.; ma keribi detagerare. ! tell (thou) us! nui kari lewer ikwar eroli ! 
give (thou) the food (to) eat ! 

When the action ordered is to be continued or performed in the absence of the 
person giving the order the following suffixes are used : 

Singular, -oa or -wa ; Dual, -oam or -warn; Trial, -dariwam; Plural, awem. 

Examples: Ma pleit itkiroa ! wipe the plate! (while I am away); ma de/ageroa ! tell (thou) 
him ! ma daratageroa ! tell (thou) them two ! ma daratagridariwajti ! tell (thou) them three ! 
ma daratagranem ! tell (thou) them all ! wa detagroam ! tell (ye two) him ! wn daratagrowam ! 
tell (ye two) them two ! wa daratagrklariwam ! tell (ye two) them three ! wa daratagrawem ! 
tell (ye two or three) them all ! tva detagridariwam ! tell (ye three) him I wa daratagridariwam ! 
tell (ye three) them two or three ! 

The harshness of an Imperative may be modified by suffixing se to the pronoun, as 
mase, wase, or by commencing the order with dehele, (it is) good. 

Examples: Mase bakeam! if you go! (Jargon, suppose you go!) wane bakeamidam ! debele 
ma bakeam ! good you go ! debele wa bakeamidam ! good you two go ! debele kaka bakeamu 
muriz gediia, good thing I go to a far oft' place. [Tiie form with debek is common in the 
Gospels, dehele no dikaer nhele urntem I good just to leave (it) for this year ! kenbu debele ma 
ismi I afterwards (you) cut it down ! also, mase ma keribi detager ! you tell us !] 

H. Vol. III. 10 



74 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

The Prohibitive or Negative Imperative does not ditfer from the ordiuary negative, 
and is always in adjective form. 

Example : Ma noh eriiam ! don't steal ' 

The Indicative. The Indicative is conjugated through a variety of persons and numbers 
and tense. It is fully discussed in those sections. 

The Interrogative. An Interrogative sentence begins with Nuko? what? 

Examples: Nakn, ma Fasi dasmer? did you see Pasi? nako ahele lu? what (is) this thing? 
An interrogative adverb or pronoun may be used instead of nako. 

The particles ao and me used at the end of a sentence make it interrogative. For 
examples vide Interrogative Adverbs. 

The Negative. The negative can only be used in adjective form, with note preceding 
and kak following the verb-stem, with the prefix a. There is no distinction of tense in 
this mode. 

Examples : E marl vole alxjerkak, he does not call you ; kaka nole umerkak mara meta, 
I do not know your house ; e nole inela adukak, he did not set fire to the house. 

The particle no preceding the verb limits its action. 

Examples : no dasmer, just see and nothing more ; Nageg e no kuiye balu, Nageg she just 
went into a hole; ma no 7uma ! you just stop here! e(je no ekailu wer/e, he was then just left 
(left alone) on the beach. 

The Desiderative, expressing a desire to do something, is shown by the adjective 
laglag, from the noun lag, something wished for. 

Examples : Kaka tnrum laglag, ma kari 7iakwar, I want (some) fruit, you give me (some) ; 
kaka laglag titeid, I want to sleep. 

The negative of laglag is nole lukak. 

Examples : Wiaba nole lakak etiirilu ame.ge, they don't want to stay by tlie oven ; gair le 
nole lakak abele le Jl/okeis, men did not want that man Mokeis. 

The Potential. A Potential is shown by the verb umele, know how, be able ; of this 
the negative is umerkak, unable. I have no examples of this given by my informants, 
but it is of common use in the Gospels. 

The indeclinable word nab is used to express inability. 

Example: Ahele neis nar nab Darage Jekaelei, these two canoes could not stay at Dara. 

Subjunctive. The verb in a dependent sentence does not differ from that in a principal 
sentence, and may be used without any connecting word. 

Illative particles of demoustrative force are, however, often added to the pronouus. 
These particles are i, pe, ge. 

1. kai, mai, ei, ■ — , ■ — , -wai, wii. 

2. kajJe, tnajie, epe, kipe, mipe, wape, wipe. 

3. kage, mage, ege, kige, inige, wage, tuige. 

The particle i is ordy commonly found with the inclusive person and singular number. 
There is not much difference in use between pe and ge, and both may be translated by 
' then,' though ge is generally used of time more distant than j)e. 

Examples : Kaka Gelam paserge oger, kage ekesmer, I on Gelam slope climbed, and then fell 
down ; waba abidoge asoli, wage detar, you hear this and then write ; Arei kikiam tabakeamidu, 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 



75 



ege Pasi tabakeam, Arei first came, then Pasi came ; tvige yun/e baraigida, wige gurlam etpeida, 
then they were di^ung in tlie sea, and then came out. 

' In order that,' ' so that,' is translated by ' weakai,' ' it will happen that.' 

Examples : Maiem, weakai kaka mari itut, come here, so that I touch you ; kaka rnari 
lukiip ikwar weakai ma debele, I give you medicine so that you (get) well. 

Conditional. The particle se affixed to the pronouns, kase, mase, ese, kise, niise, luase, 
ivise, gives a doubtful tone to the sentence, and may be translated ' if,' ' perhaps,' ' suppose,' 
' may be.' 

Examples : Wase nar dasmer, waha sererge, suppose you two see ship, you (will be) glad (lit. 
in joy) ; wise kari nainarkare. kaka Daudai dasmer, if they send me, I (shall) see New Guinea. 

' Ese ' is often used impersonally : £se kaka abi dasmer, tveakai kaka abi detager, if (it may be) 
I see him, I will tell him ; ese e tabakeam, weakai kaka abi ipita, if he comes, I strike him ; ese 
Arei tabakeam ege Pasi tabakeam, if Arei comes, then Pasi comes. 

Quotations. The word kega introduces a quotation. 

Examples: Wige tabakeamvare apu detagerare kega, ' keribi daisumdada Iriemurisde,' then 
they came and told their mother thus, ' Iriemuris made us leave off'; jfcujeg bakeamu tviabi 
itmer kega, ' Geigi iiade ' 1 Nageg goes and asks them, ' Where is Geigi ? ' ; apiiet abi itnier kega, 
'Ma nagelam?' his mother asked him thus, 'Where are you from?' 

Emphasis. A verb is rendered emphatic by suffixing the abbreviated forms of the 
personal pronouns ka, ma, wa, mi, and ki. This method is not found in the exclusive 
person. 

Examples : Kaka neis sigar darasiri-ka, I make two cigarettes, I (do) ; mama wali adem 
igilu-ma, you took off your clothes, you (did) ; meriba wali adem eigidare-mi, or keriba wali 
adem eigidare-ki, we (3) took off our clothes, we (did) ; ivaba (3) ekeamdare-tva, you stood up ; 
waba aosidare-wa, you went out. 

6. Time. There are only two principal tenses in the Miriam verb, the Present and 
the Past. These are distinguished in various ways. 

1. By a change in the endings which denote number. These may be shown in 
a table. 



Tense 


Singular 


Dual 


Trial 


Plural 


Present 


?', U, rti, da 


iei, dariei 


idare 


eda, da 


- 
Past 


er, lu, ilu, dalu, klu 


lei 


le 


are 



The ending hire is sometimes found in the plural past, but is due to the assimilation 
of r and I and of e and i, e.g. darasmereda becomes darasmerare or darasmilare. In 
some cases are becomes ade, as e.g. wiaba meta ekelade, they built a house. 

Some examples seemed to indicate that what is here called the Past, was perhaps more 
correctly Distant time, i.e. Past or Future. 

The omission of the suffix renders the verb indefinite in time, but the past is usually 

10—2 



76 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

intended. Omission is specially frequent in the singular, dual, and trial numbers. Owing 
to the prevailing tendency to 'cut short' the language as used in the school and church 
the trial form is rapidly going out of use, and there is considerable laxity in the use of 
the tense endings, present being used for past and past for present. 

Examples : Kaka detauti, I .say ; kaka detaut ah gerger, I said yesterday ; kaka abi dasmeri, 
I see him ; kaka abi dasmer, I see or saw liim. 

The particles i, pe, (je suffixed to the shortened pronouns (see Subjunctive) may be 
used in a principal sentence with the present and past verbal forms in order to locate 
the action, and are then equivalent to a perfect or pluperfect. 

Examples : Kai au nar dasmer, I (shall) see the .ship soon ; kai abi delageri, I am just 
now telling him; kape au 7iar dasmer, I saw a ship just now; mape au nar dasmili, you had 
just seen the ship; kape abi detageri, I have just told him; kage abi deiagrer, I had then just 
told him ; kage Mac/arlani dasmerer, I saw Macfarlane ; mage Dukesra nar nole asmerkak, 
you did not see the ship of Jukes ; laape au, tiar dasmerer, you saw the ship. 

There is no proper expression for the future tense. It is shown sometimes by the 
prefix wa, properly meaning continuance, or by the adverb ko, 'again.' [The latter is 
the common use in the Gospels.] 

A perfect or pluperfect is often indicated by the adverb einetu, ' finished, already, 
after,' which precedes the verb. 

Examples : Irieniuris emeiu derser abele Geigim, Iriemuris had prepared this for Geigi ; 
e dikiapor Iriemuris eme(u abi ereg, she thought Iriemuris had eaten him. 

Inceptive. The beginning of an action is shown by the prefix o. Vide Verbal Prefixes. 

Continued Action. This is shown by the prefix wa. Vide Verbal Prefixes. 

Sequence of Tenses. The following expressions of time were given with the verb 
'to tell.' 

1. Kaka abi mer atac/er, I am conversing with him. 

2. Kaka abi detagei; I tell him any time. 

3. Kaka abi detagili peirdi, I am telling him now. 

4. Kai abi detagili, I have just finished telling him. 

5. Kape abi detagili, I finished telling him a little while ago. 

6. Kaka abi detagrer, I told him yesterday. 

7. Kape abi detagrer, I finished telling him yesterday. 

8. Kage abi detagrer, I finished telling him yesterday before. 

9. Kaka abi detagrika, I finished telling him before that, lit. I finished telling 

him, I (did). 

10. Kaka ko abi tedetageri, I (will) tell him again. 

7. Conjugation of the Verb. In order to conjugate the Miriam verb it is necessary 
to know the class to which it belongs and the endings of the singular and dual numbers 
in the present and past tenses. Owing to the variation in prefix it is most convenient 
for purposes of reference to give in the vocabulary the form which in verbs of Classes 
I and II indicates one subject in the present tense, and in verbs of Classes III and IV 
also one object in the exclusive person. Thus, taking examples fi-om each class: 



\i 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. n 

Class I. Ogi, one of them climbs; hatagemli, one closes up; emrida, one of them sits; 
baraigida, one dives. 

Class II. Batageri, one speaks to one's self; bamrida, one goes (sends one's self) 
away. Reciprocals ai-e of course only found in the dual, trial, or plural. 

Class III. Ikeli, one makes one thing ; bataiieredi, one throws one thing ; derseri, 
one prepares one thing; ditimeda, one begins one thing. 

Class IV. Detageri, he tells dne of them ; erpeida, one seizes one of them. 

Note : The ending eri is unstable and is often spoken and written ili. In the Vocabulary 
T give the more commonly heard sound. 

There are two conjugations of the verb which are regular, and may be distinguished 
by the tense endings irrespective of the class to which the verb belongs by meaning. 

In the First Conjugation the Tense endings are as follows : 

Present: Singular -i, Dual -iei. Trial -idare, Plural -eda. 

Past : „ -er, „ -lei, „ -le, „ -are. 

Verbs of Class I beginning with a vowel prefix b- for the collective plural and n- for 
the inclusive collective. 

Verbs' of Classes I and II beginning with ba retain the prefix in every form, and 
prefix na (as luiba) for the inclusive collective. 

Verbs of Class III beginning with a vowel change the prefix to na when the object 
is dual. 

Verbs of Class III beginning with de change the prefix to dara when the object 
is dual. 

Verbs of Class IV beginning with de change the prefix to da7-a when there is more 
than one object in the exclusive person, and to na when there is only one object in the 
inclusive person. Cf also the examples of detager on p. 71. 

In the Second Conjugation the Tense endings are as follows: 

Present : Singular -da, Dual -dariei, Trial -dare, Plural -ida. 

Past: „ -lu, „ -lei, „ -le, „ -are. 

Verbs of Classes I and II and those of Class III beginning with a vowel take the 
same prefixes as in those Classes of the First Conjugation. 

Verbs of Class IV beginning with a vowel change the initial syllable to na when 
there is more than one object in the exclusive person, or when there is only one object 
in the inclusive person, and to de when there is more than one object in the inclusive 
person. Cf also the examples of emarida on p. 72. 

The following may be given as examples. A few words (not given by my informants) 
are in brackets. 



78 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



Class 


Ste7ii atid meaniufj 


Object 


Tense 


Number of Subject 


Sin(iular 


Dual 


Trial 


Plural 


1 


og, climb 


none 


Pres. 


ogi 


ogiei 


ogidare 


bogi 








Past 


oger, og 


ogilei 


ogile 


boge 








Pres. 








nogi (inclusive) 


1 


baruk, proceed 


none 


barukli 


barkiei 


barkidare 


barkeda 








Past 


baruk 


baruklei 


barukle 


barkare 


II 


basmer, see one's self 
(dual etc. see one another) 


same as subject 


Pres. 
Past 
Pres. 
Past 


basmeri 
basmerer 


basmiriei 
basmilei 


basmirdare 

basmile 


basmereda 
basmelare 
uabasmereda (incl.) 
nabasmelare (incl.) 


III 


iker, make 




Pres. 


ikeli 


ikeriei 


ikerdare 


ikereda 








Past 


ikerer 


ikelei 


ikele 


ikelare 






with dual obj. 


Pres. 
Past 


nakeli 
nakerer 


uakeriei 
uakelei 


nakerdare 
nakele 


nakereda 
nakelare 


III 


derser, prepare 




Pres. 


derseri 


dersiliei 


derserdare 


dersereda 








Past 


derserer 


dersilei 


dersile 


derserare 


IV 




with dual obj. 


Pres. 
Past 


darasiri 
(darasirer) 


(darasiriei) 
darasilei 


— 


darasirida 
darasirare 


irmili, follow 


one obj. excl. 


Pres. 
Past 


irmili 
irmirer 


irmiriei 
irmilei 


irmirdare 
irmile 


(irmireda) 
irmilare 






more than one ( 


Pres. 


diiTnili 


dirmiriei 


dirmirdare 


dirmireda 






obj. incl. \ 


Past 


dirmirer 


dirmilei 


dirmile 


dirmerare 






one obj. incl. or more j 


Pres. 


uarmili 


narmiriei 


narmirdare 


narmireda 






than one obj. excl. j 


Past 


narmirer 


narmilei 


uarmile 


uarmUare 


IV 


detager, toll 


one obj. excl. or more f 


Pres. 


detageri 


detagriei 


detagridare 


detagereda 






than one obj. incl. | 


Past 


detagerer 


detagilei 


detagile 


detagerare 






more than one ( 
obj. excl. 1 


Pres. 


daratagri 


daratagriei 


daratagridare 


daratagereda 




[For example in full, 


Past 


daratagrer 


daratagilei 


daratagrile 


daratagerare 




vid,' pp. 71, 72.] 


one obj. inch -j 


Pres. 

Past 


natageri 
natagerer 


natagriei 
uatagilei 


natagridare 
natagrile 


natagereda 
natagerare 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 



79 



Class 


Stem and meaning 


Object 


Tense 


Number of Subject 


Singular 


Dual 


Trial ' 


flural 


I 


emri, sit 




Pres. 


emrida 


emridariei 


eniridare ■ 


bamri 








Past 


emrilu 


emrilei 


(emrile) 


bamer 








Pres. 


namrida 














Past 


namrilu 






nabamri 


I 


bakeam, go 




Pres. 


bakeamuda 


bakeamudariei 


bakeauwidare 


bakeauda 








Past 


bakeamulu 


bakeainulei 


bakeamule 


bakeauware 








Pres. 








(nabakeauda) 


II 






Past 








(nabakeauware) 


bamrida, send one's self 




Pres. 


bamrida 


bamridariei 





bamreda 


III 






Past 
Pres. 


bamrilu 


— 


— 




ikedi, put 




ikedi(da) 


ikedidariei 


ikedridare 


(ikedida) 








Past 


ikedilu 


ikedilei 


ikedele 


ikedrare 






Dual 


Pres. 


nakedida 


nakedidariei 


nakedridare 


nakediida 






Dual 


Past 


uakedilu 


nakedilei 


nakedile 


nakedrare 


IV 


emarik, let go, send 


one obj. excl. 


Pres. 


emarida 


emaridariei 


emarkidare 


emarida 






Past 


emariklu 


emariklei 


emarikle 


emarkare 






more than oneobj.excl. j 


Pres. 


namarida 


uamaridariei 


namaikidare 


namarkeda 




[For example in fnll, 
ride p. 72] 


or one obj. iucl. ( 

more than one ( 
obj. incl. 1 


Past 
Pres. 


uamariklu 
demarida 


nauiariklei 
demaridariei 


namarikle 
demarkidare 


namarkare 
demarida 






Past 


demarlklu 


demariklei 


demarikle 


demarkare 



8. Demonstrative Verbs. The Demonstrative Verbs dali, one (person) stays there ; 
imi and dike, one (person) stays here ; and ali, one thing stays here or there, are thus 
conjugated : 

Pres. tense sing, dali ; dual, darali ; trial, ; plural, tiridili. 



Dali 



Imi : 



Exclusive Person 
Inclusive Person 



Past tense sing, dawer ; dual, daralei ; trial, darale ; plural, urder. 

Pres. tense sing. nali ; dual, dali ; trial, ; plural, uridili. 

Past tense nawer ; dual, dalei ; trial, d(de ; plural, urder. 
Imperative: to 1. naiva ; to 2. dawain; to 3. dawadariwam ; to plur. uridwa. 
Continuous Imperative: to 1. edwa; to 2. edwam; to 3. edidariwam ; to plur. baido. 
Imperative for Exclusive Person (let hiin stay, etc.): for 1. e wediiva; for 2. ivi 

ivediwarn ; for 3. ivi tvedidariivam ; for plui-. ni wahaidoa. 
Exclusive Person : 

Pres. tense, singular, imi ; dual, nami ; trial, namredi ; plur. iittrcdi. 

Past tense, singular, imirider ; dual, namirider ; trial, namrider; plur. imreder. 



80 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

Inclusive Person : 

Pres. tense, singular, nami ; tlual, dimi ; trial, dimredi ; plur. namredi. 
Past tense, singular, namirider \ tlual, dimirider ; trial, dimreder ; plur. naiiireder. 
Dike : Exclusive. Pres. sing, dike ; dual, darake ; trial, dikeredi. 

Inclusive. Pres. sing. nake. 
Ali : Pi-es. sing, ali ; dual, (di ; trial, ale ; plur. areder. 
With dual nali, etc. 

Irregular Verbs. A very large number of verbs in Miriam appear to be irregular. 
The irregularities appear in the personal and adjective prefixes and in the tense suffixes. 
The chief changes are as follows : 

Personal prefixes. The irregularities in the prefixed particles consist mostly in the eclipse 
of the e of de by another vowel, and the change of iia, in certain cases to nau oi' nao, 
and of ba to bait or bao. The following are examples : 

(a) D for de : Damredi, wonder ; dismili from ismili, cut ; diiiri from itii-i, to send. 

{b) D(i for de : Doakri, to sail canoe. 

(c) Nau for na : Naatmerl from itmeri, ask ; naupe from ipe, lay down. 

(d) Nao from na : Naoskili from iskUi, obstruct ; naosrniiu from ismida, cut. 

(e) 5aM for ba : Baudner from ifmer, ask. 

(_/') />'«o foi' Art : Baospili, boast, from despili, praise. 

{(j) A few verbs in o prefix b instead of ba ; bogi from ogi, climb up. 

(/() Daraui for dara : Daraudbari from didbari, bind. 

The adjective prefix usually follows the foregoing forms, as e.g. autmer from itmer, aosper 
from despili, but very many of these are so iiregular as not to admit of classification. They 
will be given in the Vocabularj'. 

Tense siiffixes. Many verbs aie irregular in the application of the tense suflixes. The 
irregularity appears chiefl}' in the singular and plural numbers. The following are examples : 

{j) Present -t, past -In : as ikedi put, past ikedilu ; bafauredi, throw, past batauredilu ; 
dedkomedi, fasten up, past dedkoinedilu. In these da in the singular has probably been dropped. 

{k) Present -li, past -lu : as ispili hide, past ispil.u ; deraueli, go round, past derauelu. 

(I) Present di, past -er : as amili clothe, past amer ; bataili, grow, past bataier ; depaupli, 
bale, past depaiiper. These are probably due to the omission of i in the past, and assimilation 
of r and I. 

(m) Pi'esent -da past -khc : verbs from stems in k drop k in the present : emarik send, 
pres. emarida, past emariklu ; badmirik, lose sight of, pres. badmirida, past badmiriklu ; darborik, 
miss, pres. darborida, past darboriklu. 

(ii) Present -rti, past -hi : ekauererti, climb up into, past ekauerelu ; bakaerti, be able to 
see, past bakaelu ; dekaerti, leave, past dekaelu. 

(o) Present -da, past -dalu : daisumda, stop, forl)id, past daisumdalu. 

(p) Present da, past -er : depumeda, store up, past depumer. 

(q) A few verbs change the vowels in forming the past tense : asoli, hear, past aserer ; 
epuli, carry in hand, past eper ; ituri, stumble, past itrer ; ezoli, weep, past ezuer. 

(r) In a few cases -li in the present becomes -wer in the past : esali, increase, past esawer ; 
baili, fast, past baiwer ; ilidi spit, past ituwer. 

(s) Some verbs change the consonants in the past : didmirki, lose, past digmeriklu ; badari 
enter, past balu. 

{t) In some verbs a vowel is omitted from the stem in some tense forms : ni-tigur^ 
draw water ; pres. sing, ni-tigri ; dual ni-taragurdariei ; trial tigridare ; plural tigurda. 



GKAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 81 

9. Indeclinable Verbs. There are many words in Miriam which are used as verbs 
and only as verbs, but have no variation for person, number, or time. 

Examples : lutgri, have ; atiem, embark, go for a voyage ; yeum, fear ; niebgerib, shine (of 
the moon onl}') ; maraii, preach, exhort; irmaiilur, faint for want of food; ]iaret, clear bush. 

The obliciue cases of nouns are often used as substitutes for verbs. 

Examples : nasye., pity (lit. in sorrow) ; dulam, and hodomalam, pay, reward (lit. for an 
equivalent); kogem, fornicate; horederge, (be) in a hurry; kurabem, flavour; mirem, try, tempt; 
wekuge, (be) angry, in anger ; dorge, work. 

The suffixes of these nouns disappear in a negative sentence : kaka nole loahi dukak (or 
hodomkak) ihvar, I (do) not pay you, I (do) not give your wages. 

Adjectives are used as verbs. 

Examples : laglag, wish, want ; lakak, (be) unwilling ; kuiikult, dive head foremost ; miniim, 
want to go. 

There is no substantive verb in Miriam ; any word may be used as a predicate. 
Examples : kaka au le, I am an old man ; kaka nasge, I am sorry. 

10. Defective Verbs. Some verbs are used only with a particular number of 
objects, a different number of objects requiring a different verb. 

Examples: abi, one fell, Jtabi, two fell, latum, many fell; balauredi, throw one, natimeda, 
throw two, dikri, throw many ; ipiti, hit, strike one, napiti, strike two, dertsidare, strike three, 
derseda, strike many ; eski, spear one, past ekos, naski, spear two ; irmi, spear many, past erem ; 
seker, bore one hole, dairili, bore holes. 

Conjugation of Compound Verbs. In conjugating compound verbs the prefi.xed word 
precedes the personal particles. The verb 'sleep' will serve as an example. 

Indus. Person : Pres. kari (or ma7-i) utedi-napiiili, I sleep or thou sleepest (lit. me or thee 
sleep strikes). 

Dual, meribi (or keribi) utexle dapitili; Trial, utede-dapitilei ; Plural, utede-dapiteda. 

Exclus. Pers. : Pres. Sing, e ut-eideda, he sleeps (lit. he lies sleeping) ; Dual, ut-eididariei ; 
Trial, eididare ; Plur. ut-baid. i 

Indus, and Exclus. Pers.: Past. Sing, ut-eidihi; Dual, ut-eidilei ; Trial, ut-eididare ; Plur. 
inclus. ut-nadeder ; Plur. exclus. ut-baid. 

Imperative: Sing, ul-eid ; Dual, ut-eidelam ; Trial, ut-eididare; Plur. ut-baid or nt-eid. 

Other miscellaneous examples are : mos-ekaida, spit. Dual mos-naukeidariei, Trial mos- 
ekeidare, Plur. mos-ekeida ; ner-ezi, rest, sigh, Plur. ner-bazi; geb-baugili, warm one's self, Plur. 
geb-bauyare. 

Some compounds are insufficiently explained and present difficulties in literal translation. 
Examples are : ma koreder emrida, you run {koredfr, (luickly, emrida, stay) ; e abi kodrom 
dikmerida, he carries (it) on his shoulder {kod, back of neck, dikmerida, take up, pick up); 
be tige dalki uteb, lighten (thou) the place with a torch; be tigelam datkiani uteb, light 
(ye two) the place with (two) torches ; be tigedare datkidare uteb, light (ye three) the place with 
torches; be tiyiare datkiare, light (ye) the place with torches {be, torch, nteb, place). In 
the three last examples there are double imperatives from tige (1) and datki, light up, illumine. 

H. VoL III. 11 



82 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

11. Essential Parts (W the Verb. In the Miriam vocabulary tlie following Parts 
of the verb will be given when known. 

1. Present tense: subject singular exclusive person: with (if Class III or IV) one object, 
and (in Class lA^) with the singular object in the exclusive person. 

2. The adjective stem. 

3. Past tense : subject singular exclusive person : with (if Class III or IV) one object, with 
(if Class IV) one object exclusive person. 

i. Present ten.se : subject dual exclusive person : witii (if Class III or IV) dual object, with 
(if Class IV) dual object exclusive person. 

5. Present tense : subject plural exclusive person : with (if Class IV) singular object inclusive 
person. 

Reflexive and reciprocal verbs will be given in the singular present and past, and dual 
present. 

Thus the examples given on p. 78 will appear in the Vocabulary thus : 

o</i, climb {iiugo, oge7; o(/iei, boyi), in English (one climbs, climbing, one climbed, two climb, 
all climb). 

barukli, go forth (bai-i(k/i, haruk, barkiei, barkeda), (one goes forth, going forth, went forth, 
two go forth, all go forth). 

basnieri, see one's self (basmerer), basmiriei, see one another (one sees himself, one saw 
himself, two see each other). 

ikeli, make {aker, ikerer, nakeriei, ikereda), (one of them makes one, making, one made one, 
two make two, all make one). 

derseri, prepare (arser, derserer, darasiriei, derseda), (one of them prepares one, preparing, 
one prepared one, two prepared two, all prepared one). 

irniili, follow (armir, innirer, narmiliei, narmireda), (one of them follows one of them, 
following, one of them followed one of them, two of them followed two of them, they follow 
one of us). 

detageri, tell (atager, detagerer, daratagriei, natagereda), one of them tells one of them, 
telling, one of them told one of them, two of them tell two of them, they tell one of us. 

When the above forms have not been recorded, others will be given from which they 
may be inferred. Cf. Miriam Vocabulary, Introduction. 

1 1 . Adverbs. 

1. Form and Derivation. Many Adverbs, Demonstratives, and Nouns in oblique 
cases are used as Adverbs. There is no special form. 

2. Demonstrative Adverbs. The simple demonstrative particles have been illus- 
trated. They enter very generally into the composition of adverbs of time and place. 

3. Interrogatives. The word nako at the beginning of a sentence makes it 
interrogative. Nako ahele lu ? what (is) this thing ? 

An intern igative addressed to a person is ao following the name, or, if the person is 
unseen, me. 

Examples: Ma Pasi ao? are you Pasi? when speaking to him, but if he is not seen, 
ma Pasi me ? is it you Pasi ? 

Interrogatives of Time. These are formed by prefixing the particle na to various 
nouns naming a time. 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 83 

Example: Nagerger? what day? Na tonar? what season? 

How long ? is asked by Nalcet, how many ? prefixed to the name of the time. 

Example : Naket gerger ma emri ? how many days do you stay 1 

Interrogatives of Place. The general interrogative of place is Nade? where ? or na 
is prefixed to the noun ged, a place. The latter may be declined nagedim, to where ? 
whither ? ; nagedge ? at where ? where ? ; nagelam ? (for nagedlam), from where ? whence ? 

Examples : E nade ? where is he ? mara aba nade ? where (is) your father ? mara boai nade ? 
where are your people ? ma ncujedim bakeam ? where are you going ? ivaba nagelam ? where (do) 
you (come) from ? 

Interrogatives of Manner and Cause. How ? why ? is expressed by prefixing na to 
the noun lu, thing, in its various cases when the answer expected is the au nei (see 
Pronouns, Interrogative), or by prefixing na to the au nei when the kebi nei is required. 

Examples : Nalugem ma kari nautmeri ? why do you ask me ? nalagelam iva note arokak 
abele debe tururn ? why do you not eat this good fruit ? 

Interrogatives of Quantity, Number, and Dimension. The interrogative of number is 
Naket? how many ? Naket lu ? how many things ? how much ? Naket epei? how many 
baskets ? 

How high? how long? or how broad? is expressed by na periperil how heavy? 
by na beber ? 

4. Adverbs of Time. Simple adverbs of time are made by prefixing the particles 
i, pe, and ge to the word noka; inoka, now, soon; penoka, then, just now, soon; genoka, 
then, later or sooner, the tense being fixed by the verb. 

Examples : Kaka inoka detar, I am writing ; kaka penoka detail, I (shall) then write (i.e. 
at some future time) ; kaka penoka detarer, I then wrote (past) ; kaka genoka detail, kaka genoka 
deta/rer, I then write, I then wrote (of more distant time). 

Irdi, 'now,' is also used with the prefixed particles, as irdi, pelrdi, geirdl. These appear 
to be verbs formed from i by the causative suflBx edi. I have the examples : ma irdi 
moderge, lay it on the mat ; with a past tense : geirdirider abgerger, laid it yesterday. 

The adverb ko, ' again,' is similarly used with i, pe and ge, as iako, peko, and geko. E peko 
dasmerer 7ierute gerger, he saw the other day. 

Other words used as adverbs of time are nouns, very often found with the locative 
case suffix -ge for point of time, and -em for duration of time, and with the negative kak. 

Examples: kige, in the night; banege, at dawn; kebi gerger, early; idiinge, in the morning; 
gergerge, in the daytime ; gerger ise maike kikem, (sun appears near night) late in day ; kikem, 
evening, towards night ; iwaokaer, next day ; niaietn, for a long time ; niaiemniaiem, for ever ; 
niaikarem, for ever, for very long time ; eineret, formerly ; emcrellam, from formerly, for a long 
time ; kekiam, first ; keubu, last ; dudum, soon ; nerkak, continuously (lit. without breathing). 

Some phrases are equivalent to adverbs of time. Abele gerger, to-day, this day, that day; 
iwaokaer, abele gerger, to-morrow ; kige ivatokaer neruie, day after to-morrow ; gau-watokaer, 
second day after to-morrow ; nerute gerger, another day ; ab gerger, yesterday ; getidirder nerute 
ki, day before yesterday ; kige tididewer, second day before yesterday ; gaire gerger, every 
day, always; gaij-e ki, every night; ab kige, last night; kebi gerger, early in the day. 

11—2 



84 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

' Before ' the doing of an aotion is translated by the negative. Ua nole amos knk, before 
you ask, lit. you have not asked. 

The introduced word 'sabat' (i.e. sabbath) is now used for 'week,' i.e. the period of seven 
days. I^eis sabat, two weeks ago. 

5. Adverbs of Place. Simple adverbs of place are formed from the syllable ke by 
prefixing the demonstrative particles i and pe, or the particles ma and iti. Thus : ike, 
here ; peike, here or there ; geke, there ; maike, near, close by ; itike, a long way off. Ma 
is probably the same as the pronoun ma, thou. The ke is probably a variant of the 
locative particle ge. The forms with noka and ko are also used of place. 

There are in Miriam a large number of verbs which indicate position, and are used 
where other languages have an adverb. 

E.^amples : iiid, nami, stop here ; nail, Ije liere ; dall, be there ; dike, be there, etc. These 
are fully illustrated in the section on Verbs, Demonstrative. 

The noun (fed, place, or any noun of similar meaning, often with the locative ge, 
commonly expresses position. 

Examples : Abele gedge, here, there ; tauergf, on the shore ; sepge, on the ground ; gaire ged, 
everywhere; murizge, afar, at a distance; tumge, above, on top; Jokodge, under, at bottom, etc. 

Other e.xamples are : maiged, next place ; snger pek, on the other side, beyond ; abele pek, 
on this side ; nog, outside. 

6. Adverbs of DiRECTiON. There is no adverb of direction in Miriam which corre- 
sponds to kid in Mabuiag. Motion towards the speaker is indicated by the verbal prefix 
ta, as in tahakeam, come, from bakeam, go. 

The verbal prefixes of person also imply direction: nasmer, seeing directed towards 
one of us ; dasmer, seeing directed to another. 

The equivalent of the Mabuiag dogam is pek or apek, side. This is used with the 
names of winds to indicate the points of the compass, as e.g. koM, north-west wind ; 
koki pek, the north-west (direction); kuki pekem, to the north-west; koki peklam or 
kokilaiii, from the north-west. 

Another adverb of direction is kepu, in various directions. 

7. Adverbs of Manner. Adverbs of manner are usually in adjective form. 
Examine : E mermer df.tager, he grumbling said. 

Restriction and Emphasis. The word no (the root of no-le, not) is used in a restrictive 
sense, equivalent to 'only,' 'just.' 

Examples : E no yem, he is only body, i.e. he is naked ; e 7io dasmer, he just sees and no 
more. 

The adjective au is used for 'very.' Auau, very big; ma au weserweser le, you (are) a very 
greedy man ; abara gim au asiasi, his body (was) very sore. 

The expression au kale means more than, more beyond; au kase, 'exceedingly great.' 

Other adverbs of a similar character are : elele, strongly ; niamoro, carefully ; abkoreb, 
suitably ; mokakalam, likewise ; sagim, vainly, in vain ; ageakar, truly ; kemerkemer, entirely. 

8. Affirmative and Negative. The affirmative exclamation is wao ! yes ! and 
the negative nolea! or nole! no! Stronger affirmatives are eko ! and peko ! yes indeed! 
that is so ! 



GRAMMAR OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 85 

9. Adverbs of Cause. Expressions such as ' for my sake ' are translated by the 
uouu kes with the possessive case of the pronoun, kara kes, mara kes, etc., for me, for 
thee, etc. 

The meaning of kes is ' property,' especially the sum total of anyone's property. 
Pasira kes, everything belonging to Pasi. Hence abara kesem, the (person) for liis kes, 
translates the English word 'heir.' 

The noun suffi.x lam indicates the cause, as wahielam, through you ; abelelam through that. 

12. Connective Words. 

1. Prepositions. There are in the Miriam language no Prepositions. The relations 
between nouns which are shown by the English Prepositions are indicated by the noun 
suflfixes or by compounds. 

Simple Postpositions. These have been fully dealt with in the sections on Nouns 
and Pronouns. As representing the English Prepositions they may be recapitulated here. 

Of: -ra (with common and proper nouns and pronouns). 

To, towards, for: -em (with common nouns); -iin (with proper nouns and pronouns). 
From, through, because of : lam (with common and proper nouns) ; ielam (with pronouns). 
At, in : -ge (with common nouns) ; -doge (with proper nouns and pronouns). 
By, along with : -kern (with common nouns) ; pkem (with proper nouns) ; -tkem (with 
pronouns). 

By means of, with : -u (with common nouns) ; -de (with animals and proper nouns). 

Compounds. These are all Locative Nouns. Those found in use are : mm, inside ; 
adi, outside; pek, side; deg, edge; mop, end; tuin, upper part, top; kotor, sky, top; 
mud, shelter, underside ; lokod, bottom, underside ; giz, foundation, root, bottom ; op, 
face, front ; so7-, back ; eipu, middle ; kem, company. These take the suffixes -ge, -em, or 
-lam, when rest, motion to, or motion from is intended. 

When used with the pronouns, op and sor require the possessive : kara opem, before me, to 
my face ; ka7-a sorge, at my back, behind or after me. 

The other words take the objective case of the pronoun : kari tumge, on me ; wabi eipu, 
in the middle of you. ' 

Afiti precedes its noun or pronoun, all the other words follow : iimUji' mabi, in you ; muige 
meta, in the house ; 7nefa tumge, on top of the house ; kn7-i tumge, on me ; kari kemem, along 
with me, for m}' company ; onie 7nudge, under, in the shade of the ome tree. 

2. Conjunctions. The copulative conjunction with nouns is pako, 'and,' or 'also.' 
Sentences and verbs are connected by a, 'and,' 'and then.' 

Examples : Malu pako 7ierute le ahara 7iei Sigar, Malu and another man his name Sigar ; 
iviko takoinelei meta, lunab erapei, balei a Mabti tetrimielei, they two again returned to the house, 
broke a hole, entered, and again watched Malu. 

Other coordinating conjunctions are : ga, gaku, tiien. 

The suffix ei added to a proper noun has tiie force of a conjunction : kcriba Pasiei Mamusiei 
nabakeauwidare Daua.reni,, we (including Pasi and Mamus) went to Dauar. 



86 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



13. Exclamations. 

There are few words which appear only as exclamations, most words so used being 
vocative nouns or imperative verbs. 

1. Simple Forms. Wao ! yes ! eko ! yes ! nole ! or nolea ! no ! waiai ! oh ! (of 
admiration); weu ! alas! The interrogative word nako ! is also used as an exclamation, 
What ! 

2. Salutations. The greeting when two persons or parties meet is maiem! said 
by both sides. Persons passed call out to those passing or leaving bakeam! (Sing.), 
hakeumulam ! (Dual), bakeauwidare ! (Trial), or bakeaiuare ! (Plural), according to the 
number passing. These are the imperatives of the verb ' to go.' Similarly the imperatives 
of the verb 'to stay,' nawa! (Sing.), dawarii! (Dual), dawadariivam ! (Trial), uridwa! 
(Plural) are said by those passing or leaving to those who remain. These may be translated 
'You stop while I go! 

3. Vocative Nouns. These have been given already in the section on Nouns, p. Gl. 

4. Imperatives. A few words are only found in an imperative form. Such are : 
mase ! go on ! proceed ! (literally ' suppose you,' vide p. 73) ; warem ! wait a bit ! hold 
on ! stay ! mena ! stop ! wait ! sina ! leave off ! enough ! eseamuda ! it (is) done 1 there's 
no more ! 

14. Numerals. 

1. Numerals. There are only two numerals: netat, one, and neis, two. Others 
were formed by compounding these. Neis-netat, three ; neis-neis, four ; neis-neis-netat, 
five ; neis-neis-neis, si.\. 

English numerals have been introduced and are generally understood. These are 
written wan, tu, thri, fun, fuif, siks, sefen, eit, nain, ten, elefen, tuelf, — , foatin, fiftin, 
— , — , eitin, tuenti, thirti, foati, fifeti, sikesti, sefente, — , nainte, handed, thausan. There 
are no ordinal numbers. 

Multiplications are made in the Gospels by the words kerker, or gaher, times : Naket kerker ? 
how many times ? sefen kerker, sefen gaher, seven times. I have no verification of these. 

In the Gospels also is found the expression neisiem, lit. to-two, for the multiplicative 'twice.' 
This was also in the earlier translations and is an obvious imitation of the Lifu alv,e, twice 
{a causative prefix and lue, two), the Miriam -em being regarded as a causative. 

2. Counting. Numbers are remembered by reference to the parts of the body, as 
in the Western Islands. 

Mamus counted as follows, beginning on left hand: 1. kehi ke, little finger; 2. kehi ke 7ieis, 
(little finger two) ring-finger ; 3. eip ke, middle finger ; 4. baur ke, (spear finger) index ; 5. oit ke, 
(big finger) thumb ; G. kehi kokne, (little bone joint) wrist ; 7. kebi-kokne sor, (little bone joint 
back) back of wrist ; 8. an kokne, (big bone joint) inner part of elbow ; 9. au kokne sor, (big 
bone joint back) elbow; 10. i-ucjar, shoulder; 11. kenani, armpit; 12. gilid, pit above clavicle; 
13. nano, left nipple; 14. kopoj; navel; 15. nerkep, top of chest; 16. op nerkej), front of throat; 
17. nerut nano, other nipple; 18. nerut gilid; 19. nerut tugar ; 20. nerut kenani; 21. nerut au 
kokne; 22. nerut au kokne sor; 23. kebi kokne; 24. kebi kokne sor; 25. a7i ke; 26. baur ke; 



GRAMMAE OF EASTERN LANGUAGE. 87 

27. eip he ; 28. kebi ke ; 29. hehi ke nerute, little finger another. In these there are slight variations 
in 10 and 11, iugar comes before kenani, and so also in 19 and 20, where we should expect kenani 
to be counted first. Similarly in 8, a?4 and 6, kehi kokne, these are named before the back, sor, 
in 9 and 7 and also in 21, 22 and 23, 24. 

Jimmy Rice counted differently: 1. kebi ke; 2. kebi eipke ; 3. eip ke; 4. baur ke ; 5. an ke; 
6. kebi kokne; 7. au kokne; 8. kenani; 9. ttigar ; 10. yilid; 11. nerkep ; 12. iiano ; 13. kopor ; 
then passing to right nipple and so on in reverse order, making a total of twenty-five. 

It appears probable that the method varies with different individuals. 
Jukes' and Rev. S. Macfarlane'' liotli refer to a method of counting by means of 
bundles of sticks, which we have coufirmed. 

15. Syntax. 

The following are the chief syntactical rules : 

1. The subject precedes the verb, as : le azrih, the man goes back ; e ogi, he climbs ; 
kaka bakeant, I go. 

2. The object follows the subject and precedes the verb : le lar iski, man fish 
spears ; e obi dasmer, he him saw ; kaka u erapeida, I coconut break. 

3. Oblique cases of nouns usually precede but may follow the verb : e lar iski 
hauru, he fish spears with a spear; Kuige tahakeain ukem, Kaige came with a coconut; 
e metage emri, he in the house sits ; kaka, wall gurem akmeilu, I a cloth in the 
sea dipped. 

4. Adjectives, or nouns used attributively, and possessives precede the word qualified : 
debe gem wali, good body-cloth (.shirt) ; kara werem, my ciiild. 

5. Adjectives or other words used predicatively follow the subject : lar debele, fish 
(is) good ; kaka nasge, I (am) in sorrow. 

6. In a negative sentence the word nole immediately follows the subject and 
precedes the object : e nole ahi atri kak, he does not send him. 

7. Adverbs precede the verb and the object : e ko dasmer, he again saw ; Inemuris 
emetu abi ereg, Iriemuris already (had) eaten him. 

' Voyage of the Fly, u. p. 302. ' 

- Kev. S. Macfarlaue, MS. quoted iu Sludy of the Languages of Torres Straits, i. p. 547. 



A VOCABULARY OF THE LANGUAGE OF MABUIAG. 

Introduction. 

A considerable number of words used by the Western Islanders of the Straits 
•was given in the former " Study of the Languages '." As these were collected by 
various persons in different islands, there appeared some discrepancies both in meanings 
and orthography which were unavoidable. The verbs were almost all derived from 
MacGillivray or the imperfect Saibai GospeP, and owing to a deficient knowledge of 
the Grammar could not always be given in the simplest form. 

The present Vocabulary is the result of an entire revision made with my Mabuiag 
informants in 1898, and a partial one with my informants from Tutu and Muralag. The 
list obtained at Saibai was sufficient to establish the position of that dialect with 
reference to the Mabuiag. Hence the words now given are in their Mabuiag form, 
and words are only entered from the other dialects when they differ in meaning 
from the Mabuiag. or were not found in the Mabuiag list. 

Many new words relating to their several departments are due to my colleagues. 
Dr Haddon is responsible for the verification and identification of the animal and plant 
names, and for a veiy large number of words relating to the Technology, Sociology, Magic 
and Religion. To Dr Rivers are due the Colour and Kinsliip names ; and to Dr Seligmauu 
the words relating to Taste and Smell as well as some words iu the Sociology. The 
verbs, adjectives, and pronouns are mainly the result of my own enquiries. 

In the present Vocabulary derived words are arranged alphabetically after their 
components. It is hoped that this will facilitate reference, as the variety and con- 
struction of compound words is a most interesting feature of the language. Words 
in square brackets, [ ], are conjectural, the meanings being inferi-ed from compounds 
and not directly obtained from natives. The Jargon English is sometimes given in 
inverted commas. Words from Miriam, the adjaceiat coast of New Guinea, and C. York 
Peninsula are added when they resemble the Mabuiag. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



demons., demonstrative. 

a., adjective. 

H., noun. 

2>ron., pronoun. 

v., verb. 

pre./., prefix. 

stiff., suffix. 

part., particle. 

ad., adverb. 

conj., conjunction. 

num., numeral. 

pi., plural. 



e.(i., for example. 
q.v., which see. 
c/., compare. 

= , equivtUent to, same as. 
Mb. Mabuiag dialect. 
M., Muralag dialect. 
T., Tutu dialect. 
Mg., Masig Island. 
S., Saibai dialect. 
Mir., Miriam. 
B., Bugi, Mai Kasa, New 
Guinea. 



Ku., Kuuiui, E. of Binature K., New Guinea. 

B., Dabu, -, 

K., Kiwai, I New Guinea. 

Mu., Mawata.J 

G., Gudang, C. York. 

0., Otati, C. Grenville. 

Y., Yaraikana, C. York. 

N., Ngerrikudi, C. York. 

K.Y., Koko-Yimidir, C. York. 

Gr. p., Mabuiag Grammar, page. 

G., found only in the Gospel Translation. 



The Roman Numerals refer to the Volumes of these Reports in which further 
information is given. 

' Froc. Roy. Irish Academy, 3rd Ser. iv. 1897, p. 119. 

" Cf. notice of these in the Section on Literature of the Western Islanders. 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



89 



a, conj. and. Mir. B. K. a, K. Ma. f. 
aai, n. family, PI. aal. Cf. <ii. 

aaika-kosimi, v. get a family, have children. 
abai, v. cover, as with mat when sleeping, 
abal, n. pandanus. 

abal-dan, n. kernel of pandanus fruit. 
abl, 

abi-tldi, v. wither, 
ada, n. the outside ; a. outside, ad. out. Mir. ade. 

ada-dogam, u. the outside. 

adal, V. come out, put out, go out ; be born. 

adaka-adal, v. go out, come out. 

adaka-ieudai, v. pour out. 

adaka-ieudi, v. flow out. 

adaka-kadaman, v. flay, peel. 

adaka-mai. v. take away. 

adaka-mizi, v. go out, go away, depart. 

adaka-pagai, v. come out of, as from a boat, 
emerge. 

adaka-paldai, v. hang out. 

adaka-palai, v. release. 

adaka-pardal, v. draw out. 

adaka-patai, v. break away. 

adaka-pa-taml, v. hew down. 

adaka-pudai, v. pull out, as nail ; pull oS, take oS. 

adaka-pugal, v. pour out, reject. 

adaka-puidai, v. pluck out, as eye, gouge out. 

adaka-saiil, n. rails supporting the pole of canoe. 

adaka-tai, v. throw away. 

adaka-tamai, v. get out, escape, come away, emerge. 

adaka-taml, v. go aside. 

adaka-uzari, v. go out. 

adaka-wai, v. send away, disperse. 

adaka-wiai, v. put away. 

adaka-wldai, v. cut otT. 

adal, ad. out. 

adal-siai, v. stay outside. 

adal-tal, v.=udaka-tai. 

adal-tiai, v. cast out, reject. 

ada-mabaeg, n. stranger. 

ada-nitui, v. put down. 

ada-pamai, v. take from top. 

ada-poidai, v. hang out. 

ada-pudal, v. exalt, surpass. 

ada-pudi, v. fall away, exceed. 

ada-pugai, v. despise. 

ada-slai, v. stay outside. 

ada-sizari, v. come out of. 

ada-tai, v. = ada ka- tai . 

ada-tiai, v. cast out, reject. 

adazi, a. strange, foreign. 

adazl-lal, n. a wig. 

adazi-mal, v. take from outside. 

adazi-san, v. shoe. 

adia-turai, v. complain, murmur. 

dan-adai, v. give birth to, be born. 
H. Vol. III. 



doia-adal, v. recover from sickness. 

ia-ada-mai, v. wail loudly. 

kazi-adai, beget a child. 

kirer-adai, v. dance. 

kuki-ada, n. the south-west. 

malgui-adai, v. sprout, grow up. 

moigui-adai, v. put out leaves, grow. 

mosal-adai, v. spit at. 

ngur-adai, v. project, stick out. 

pa-adai, v. appear. 

pusakar-adai, M. v. fill up. 
adabad, adabu, n. salt water. D. adabour. 
adi (ad), n. legend; an honorific title, "good name 
like Mr." Cf. Mir. ad. also V. 18, 67, 80, 367. 

adi-umai, v. relate a legend, 
adi, v. put out. 

mosal-adl, v. spit. 
ae, exclam. in answer to a call, 
aga, n. an axe. 

age, T. n. an Australian. PI. Arjel. 
agu, n. back of a turtle ; a platform on which turtle 

shells were preserved, V. 330. 
ai, sutf. (Gr. p. 26). 
ai, n. grandparent ; ancestor. Cf. aai. 
ai, n. food. PI. aidai. 

ai-baud, n. the season when food is ripe ; the dry 
season ; harvest. 

aigi, a. empty of food. 

aigi-tai, v. finish, spend, bring to an end. 

aingu-tamul, n. the compartments on a canoe in 
wliich the food of the crew is kept. 

ai-purutai, v. eat. 

aisgul, n. a feast after the skull-giving ceremony, V. 257. 
aibo, n. a plant, 'Jussiaea suffruticosa.' 
aidai, v. have, possess. 
aidu, n. =«i. 

aie, V. Imperative only. Come! PI. aiewal, come ye! 
almal, v. make, do. 

apo-aimai, v. spread, as cloth. 

irad-aimai, v. shade, make shade. ' 

kmk-aimai, v. begin. 

kwaimal (or koimal) -aimai, v. make a shoulder scar. 

nlula-aimai, v. entangle, catch. 

tubud-aimal, v. tame. 

wara-kld aimai, v. go wrong, do wrong way, err. 
aingaizlnga, n. (.esopliagus. 
aka, n. grandmother, V. 136. 
aka, n. fear. 

akai, v. ward off, flinch. 

aka-mi, exclam. oh 1 don't ! 

aka-nidai, v. tear. 

akan-mlzi, v. fear. (With obj. in ablative: Ni/ai 
iiiiuinijii akan-mcka, I fear you.) 

aka-palal, v. cause fear, frighten. 

aka-pali, v. be afraid. 

aka-uiet, n. a watch-tower. (G.) 

12 



90 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



akiU, n. a clam shell (Cyraena) ; the shell is used as a 
spoon or knife, and in divination with lice, V. 19. 
akur, n. the intestines. PI. akurar. 
akurau-kuik, n. the rectum of turtle, 
gahu akurar, n. colon of du},'ong. 
gar akurar. n. the jejunum of turtle, 
ialal akural, n. small intestine of dugong. 
pugai akurar, n. the rectum of dugong. 
wai akurar, n. large intestine of dugong. 
al, T. = ar. 
ala, n. [hip]. 

alau-rid, n. the pelvis. 
alai, n. husband. 

algadi. n. barb of javelin. Cf. tun. 
alidan. n. a shell worn on the groin when fighting. 
alup, n. the melon or baler shell (Melo diadema). 
ama, n. mother. Vocative only, V. 134 (Gr. p. 21). 
amadan. ad. near, soon, 
amai, v. crawl. 
amal, n. the native oven, earth oven. In Jargon English 

" copper- maori." 
amal, n. a cumulus cloud. 

amo.u, mangrove; the bark (onopoa isburnttocookparama. 
amu (am), n. a rope used with the tcap, consists of the 

plaited stem of rukii. 
an, suff. (Gr. p. 19). 

ana-g:ud, n. the custodian of the gnd, V. 253. 
angai, r. hold, catch, carry. 

getal-angai. v. spoil, soil, make dirty, 
getan-angai, v. persecute, 
ikai-angai, v. rejoice, 
kid-angai, v. carry forth, 
kol mai-angai. v. mourn, 
mai-angai, v. make mourn, 
pingid-angai, v. catch in a net (G.). 
ras angai, v. to rise, of storm. 
wakai kikiri angai, v. abstain from food, fast. 
angi, v. put on, as clothes, wear, 
aona, M. u. sting-ray. 

apa (ap, apo), n. ground, earth, soil, garden, bottom. 
PI. <q>al. 
apa-dogam, n. the underside, bottom, 
apa-ga, n. the mason wasp, 
apa-gabu, n. a season (about Christmas time). 
apal, a. bottom, 
apal-walbai, v. make trench, 
apa-palai, v. shake ofif dirt, 
apa-pudai, v. spread out. 
apa-pudi, v. stoop down, 
apa-puidal, v. =apia-iniidai. 
ap-asi, V. be humble, 
apa-sik, n. a bed. 
apa-tai. v. sit on ground, 
apa-tanuri, v. sit down, 
apa-tarl, v. reach bottom of hill, 
apa-tiai, v. sit down. 



apau-pui, n. post. 
apla-iui, v. go aslant, of smoke, 
apia-pmdai, v. sit down, 
apia-imai, v. lie on ground, sit. 
apia-utal, v. lay on ground, 
apo-aimai, v. spread, as cloth. 
apo-budai, v. spread. 
apad, n. the sawfish (Pristis). 
aporega, n. the " native companion," the large grey 

crane of Australia. 
apu, n. mother, V. 134. Mir. apu. 
ar, n. dawn, daybreak. 

ar-kulka, n. the redness of dawn. 

ar-kulkad-gamul, a. orange-coloured, n. 61. 

ar-kulkaka, n. towards dawn. 

arkuUria, u. early, at dawn, during the dawn. 

ar-min-mizi, v. becomes really dawn. 

arpu, n. in the morning twilight, in the faint light 

before dawn, 
ar-zllami, v. the dawn is breaking, 
arai, S. = ari. 

aral, v. put in, or lay in a vessel. Wnpi kawa arar ngau 
hoipu '. put the fish here in my basket. 
gud-arai, v. betray. 
pa-arai, v. dash against, 
ararapa, M. n. a bat. 
art, n. a louse. 
ari, V. go in. 

bup-ari, v. escape. 
gud-ari, v. discuss, consult. 
paru-ari, v. be ahead, of wind. 
art, n. a cockatoo, 
ari, 

ari-mai, v. take by force (G.). 
ari-mau-mai, v. suffer violence (G.). 
ari, n. rain. 

ari-pudai, v. rain, fall (of rain), 
ari-puilaig, n. rain-maker, sorcerer producing rain. 
ariu-widai, v. fall of rain (G.). 
ariga, 11. fishing line. Mir. ariag. Ma. ariaga. 

arigal-kupmani, S. n. twisted string, 
arimai-mani, v. suffer violence (G.). 
arkat. n. a hole (in wall, roof, etc.). 

arkat-palai, v. make a hole, 
aruai, u. a whale boat. 
asar, u. a sneeze, I), achi. 
asi, V. go with, go after, become like, 
ap-asi, V. be low, humble, 
balbalgi-asi, v. become straight. 

gamu-asi, v. become, especially with colour names, as 
e.g. paramail gamn-asi, become red, become like 
jxirama. Cf. gamut (Gr. p. 28). 
gamu-dirog-asi, M. v. be lazy, 
gamu-diu-asi, v. be pleased, 
iagi-asi, v. be quiet, 
kaman-asi, v. be scorched. 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



91 



kapuaka-asi, v. believe. 

kapu-wakal-asi, v. trust. 

karar-asl, v. be pliant, obey, be subject to. 

kauba-asi, v. be tired, toil. 

kaubad-wakai-asi, v. doubt. 

kidowak-asi, v. "all same sick." 

Mkiri-asi, v. be sore about, quarrel. 

kunakan(anga)-asl, v. become strong. 

magau-ruaig-asi, v. perspire, be bathed with sweat. 

mapu-asi, v. be heavy. 

marasaragia-asi, v. be scattered. 

mina-asi, v. tinish. 

modoblngu-ubigl-asi, v. forgive, not require an equiva- 
lent, let off (payment). 

mu-asi, S. v. tinish. 

ngata-asi, v. be clean. 

ngulaig-asi, v. be able, know how. 

ngurum-asi, v. be angry, indignant. 

palel-aai, v. witlier. 

paupa-asi, v. decline, of day, go down of sun. 

rimagi-asi, v. vanish. 

tadumai-asi, v. lose, be lost. 

toi-asi, V. purge (G). 

ublgi-aai, v. dislike. 

um-asi, v. wither, become dead. 

wakai-asi, v. pity. 

wakai-kikirl-angai, v. abstain from food, fast. 

wara ngada-asi, v. differ, become different, take 
another appearance. 

wati-wakai-asi, v. repent, be sorry for. 
ata, n. the (plastron) of a turtle. 

atad, a. broad and Hat (Uke ata). 
atel, n. grandfather, V. 136. 
ati, n. the octopus. Cf. Mir. ati. 
au, suff. (Gr. p. 19). 
au, ad. interrogative. 

auban, n. a plant (TabernsEmontana, " bitter bark "). 
aubau, u. a plant with pungent fruit (Morinda sp.). 

"When kaikai, he fight." 
aub(u), n. a small hawk. 
augad, n. a totem. Cf. V. 2, 152. 

augad-tamai, n. a pattern. 
augau-kuik, 

sabl-augau-kuik, n. cloaca. 
auwa, n. a mat. 
awade, n, mother's brother ; sister's child. In Vocative 

only. Cf. icadwam. 
awal, n. the pelican. PI. axaaial. 
awar, n. a claw, finger-nail ; legs of a crab. 

awarau kib, u. the white crescent at base of finger nail, 
aza, n. uneaten food. 

azamai, v. leave remnants, 
azir, n. shame. Cf. Mir. sirip, Ma. uiripo. 

azirai, v. be ashamed. 

aziran mizi, v. become ashamed. 

azir-pagal, v. hang down head in shame. 



ba, ad. indicating incomplete action. 
ba, M. (7 = bai, grass). 

ba-gamuli, M. a. pale green, II. 62. 
baba, n. father ! Vocative only. Cf. Mir. K. D. baba, 

Ku. babe. 
baba, n. the long feathers of a bird's wing and tail, 
babab, ad. completed, entirely, everywhere. 
babat, u. a man's sister ; a woman's brother. Mir. berhet. 

babat puldai bera pui, n. inner rafters in roof. 
bad, 

balbad [?edge]. 

korbad, kurubad, u. a corner, the corner point. 
bada, 

badagi, a. some. 

badaginga, a. whole, entire. 

korkak bad, v. sigh, be sorry, 
bada, n. sore, ulcer. 

badal. a. sore, thick. 
badal = /«i(Za/, q.v. 
badar, the toad-fish. 
badl, n. the full moon, said to be kaiza-ipilaig, i.e. a 

big one married, 
badra, n. a dance, V. 66. 
bag (baga), n. the lower jaw, cheek. Mir. bag. 

baga-minar, n. a cicatrix on the cheek. 

bag-iapi, v. threaten. 

bag-lata, n. hair on the face. 

bag-tal, V. threaten. 

bag-tiai, v. threaten. 
bagai. 

bagain-ldai, v. swear. 
bagai, n. flower spike of coco-nut palm. 

bagamulei, M. a. pale green, II. 62. 
bagai, n. a cloud (hill-shaped) denotmg fine weather, 
bagal-mad, n. the throat-muscles (of turtle). 
bager, n. a long spear, 
bagewad, n. dead leaves during liii,ki. 

bagewad-gamul, a. dull yellow, II. 61. 
bagur, n. pus. Mir. begur, ulcer, 
bai, n. coco-palm leaf. PI. biiilai. ' 

bai, n. grass. 
balb = i«i-/h, boi-ib. 

baidam, n. a shark (various species) ; a constellation. 
Cf. B. Ku. D. baidam, Mir. bczam. 

baidamai IpUnga, n. pattern on a mat. 
baieg tim, n. a fish, V. 343. 

baiib, n. the eyebrows ; a rain-cloud, V. 360; a head-dress 
of cassowary feathers, V. 372. 

zar bal-ib, n. a fighting charm worn on the face. 
baliumek, n. the Tutu equivalent of luwai. 
balngan, n. an orchid with yellow skin, 
bait, n. the cuscus. Mir. burit. Ma. padi. 
baiu, n. a water spout, a decorated post used in the 

turtle ceremony, V. 334, 360. 
balwaln, n. a stick employed in a game, a kind of 
hockey (kokan), 

12—2 



92 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



bal, ad. across. 

balbad-pudi, v. stretch the neck to see. 

balbal^ S. = haUmlgi. 

balbalgl-asiri, M. v. have a fair wind, in sailing. 

balbaiei-palai, S. v. straighten. 

balbal, a. crooked, bent. Mir. harhar. 

balbalgi, a. straiglit; steady, of wind. 

balbalgi-aai, v. become straight. 

balbalgi-palai, v. straighten. 

balbalgi-tidai, v. straighten. 

balbalgi-za, n. place or thing opposite. 

balbal-palai, v. bend. 

balbal-tidal, v. bend. 

bal-iai-pui, n. beam in \vall or roof of house. 

balkid, ad. crossways, across, slanting. 

bal-nagi, r. turn and look. 

bal-ruami, v. enter a village. 

bal-tai, v. turn aside, cross over. 

bal-tari, v. stop, prevent. 

bal-urimai, v. throw down. 

^d-bal-pamai, v. block up door. 

muk-bal-tai, v. float. 

paru-bal-matamai, v. strike across face. 

uru-bal-pudai, v. stretch out, as string, 
balboi, n. a woman's basket. 
bameg, n. a tree; used for making petticoats. 

bamegad-gamul, a. yellow, II. 61. 
bami, 

baminu-mai, v. break, 
bangal. n. another day ; ad. in future. 
banital. v. break, as string; probably = J«?-)H(ai. 
bar. 

barpudai, v. buy, sell. 
baradar, n. earth, soil, ground, brown sand. 

baradarad-gamul, a. pale green, II. 61. 

sagulau baradar. n. open space, street; market-place, 
barari, u. a kind of dance, 
bari, 'Sl.—hai, grass. 

baribari, n. a coco-nut in the stage used for drinking, 
barlt, M. = bait. 

barugut, n. a spear with two prongs. 
bat, n. beche de mer (Holothuria). 
bata, n. wings of butterfly or bird, 
batatnga, n. the morrow, to-monow. 
bau, n. a wave of the sea. PI. bawal. Cf. B. hauii, 

foam ; Ku. biiive, D. 6««, sea. 
bau-waidai, v. break over as waves. 
bau, n. stones on which the cooking shell is supported, 
baud. n. |? shore]. 

bauda-nidal, v. draw up on beacli, as canoe. 

ngulriu baudia, ad. at the water's edge, 
bawa — /'/i», ij.v. 
baz, n. a cloud, 
bera, n. ribs. llir. hir-lid, Ma. bara-soru, rib-bone. 

bera pul, n. a lath, supporting thatch. 

katam bera. n. banana leaf. 



beral, a. loose. 

berai-palai, v. to loosen, make slack. 

beral-pungal, v. be loose, slip through easily, 
beriberi, 

beriberi kar, n, rope fence. 
bete, M. n. driftwood. 
betU, n. "sea grass eaten by turtle." 

beulad-gamul, a pink, II. 61. 
biama, n. a. dead calm. 

bid, S. n. a petticoat worn during pregnancy, V. 194 — 
195. 

bid wapa, S. n. plant used in making bid. 
bidai, n. the squid, cuttle-fish or sepia. 

bidaid-gamul, a. brown, II. 61. 

pitar bidai, n cuttle-bone. 
bidu (bid), n. the porpoise (Delphinus). PI. bidul. 
bigu, u. a bull roarer with a low and deep note. 
biia, M. n. the goatsucker. 

biiu, n. mangrove shoots. A grey slimy paste made from 
the sprouts of the mangrove, and used as food and 
for caulking canoes, V. 73. 
bila, n. a small fish, the parrot fish. 
biru biru, n. a migi'atory bird, arrives in the islands at 

Aibaud, from New Guinea, 
bisi, n. sago. Cf. B. bitsi, Mir. D. bisi. 

bis wab, u. mourning armlets and leglets made of bisi 
leaves. 
bizar, n. the purple yam. 
boa, n. the leaf of kima, a sp. of taro. 
boa. n. a wild yam. 

boad-gamul, a. purple, II. 61. 
boamani, n. a scented plant. 
boboum = 6«6«a»i, q.v. 
boai = ^Hai, q.v. 

boapoidam, cf. dfini binipnidain. 
boat, n. the root of tii{ii tree, used for charcoal for paint. 

Cf. bot. 
bodai, a. left. 

bodai-dogam, n. the left side. 

bodai-get, u. the left hand, 
bogi, n. a stafif, walking-stick. 

bogia-pudi, v. be lame, walk by aid of stick. 
boi, u. the sprouting leaves on top of a coco-nut palm ; 
a basket made of coco-nut palm leaf. PI. boitui. 

boi rid, n. midrib of coco-nut palm leaf. 

boi tamul, n. receptacle on canoe platform for food of 
buai garka = buai tamul. 
boi, n. inner thatch of roof and walls. Cf. bai. 
bolboi, n. name of a plant (Clerodendron inerme). In 
Yule I., B.N.G., its leaves are placed on wounds to 
heal them. 
boiib = bal-ib, n. the eyebrows, a rain-cloud. 

boiiba-min, n. the horizontal forehead furrows. 

boiiba-sam, n. hair on the eyebrows. 
boi tete, u. the forepaws of mouse, etc. 
bok, n. grass. 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



93 



bok, M. n. a kind of arrow. Same as Mir. bisi-kep. 
ttok abar, n. a small shell (Fusus sp.). 
b61 (?) 

b61ad-gamul, a. white, II. 61. 
bom, n. pandanus. PI. homai. 
boman, n. = hnamani. 
bop, T. = /wA-, n. arrow. 
borda, n. = hunio. 

bordau pui, n. thatch bands, 
borsa [n. evil]. 

borsa-iuti, v. condemn. 

boraan-mai, v. find fault with. 

borsa-palai, v. persecute, treat shamefully. 
b6t = to(i(. 

bozi, n. a bird, the rail. 
brabat, 'Sl. = hahtit. 
brua = 6ij™«, q.v. 
brug, n. a saw-fish. 

bu, n. a conch shell (Megalatrachus aruanus and Triton 
variegatus) ; used as a trumpet ; the constellation 
Delphin, V. 13. 

bu-puiai, v. blow the conch. 
bu, n. a hard stone, used iu working dibidibi. 
buai, n. kin. 

gizu-buai, n. head of the family. 
buai. n, bows of a canoe. 

buai-garka, n. the "forehead man" of a canoe ; usually 
the iini of the owner, V. 148. 

buai-tamul, n. the compartment of the crate on the 
platform of a canoe in which the buai-garka keeps 
his food. 

buai-tug, n. the anterior outrigger pole. 
bilbat, n. grandfather, V. 135. 
bubu, n. a stream flowing from a spring. Cf. B. boba, 

ditch. 
bubuam, n. a white cowry shell (Ovulum ovum). Mir. 
buhiuiin, M. buatua. 

bubuam aza, n. the tiger cowry. 

bubuami aagul-aimai, v. cast lots (G.). 
bud, n. a wild yam. 
bud(a), n. crushed coral, used as paint in mourning. 

budad-gamul, a. grey, 11. 60. 

kubi bud, n. a black stone used for making paint. 
buda, n. a large tree, 
budai, V. paint ; spread. 

apo-budai, v. spread. 

padbul-budai, v. flood, 
budi, n. a shell, the small periwinkle. 
budzamar, n. a plant, V. 322. 
bllg(l), n. a large fly. 
bugbug, n. a red ant. 
bula, n. Uame, light of a fire; name of an emblem, V. 373. 

buiad-gamul, a. blue-green. 

kuta buia, n. evening twilight, light after sunset, 
buiu, n. a glass bottle. PI. btiiul. 
buk, n. a common Siluroid fish, which grunts. 



buk, n. name of a tiee, V. 15. 

buk, n. a mask, V. 55. 

bull, n. a fly. PI. bulil. 

bume, n. the frontlet of the dri. 

bungad, n. the sun-star or sea-urchin. 

bupa (bup), D. the bush, forest, uncultivated land. 

bup-ari, v. tiee, go into bush. 

bupa-nitai, v. go close to the bush. 

bup-tugumi, V. enter bush. 

bup-uti, V. enter bush. 

bup-zilami, v. escape. 

ial-bup, n. hair when short, 
bupur, 11. face, surface, floor, 
burdo, n. grass, thatch. 
buradunga, M. a. pale green, violet, "close up white," 

II. 62. 
bum, n. a small arrow. 
buru, n. dirt. 

buru-palai, v. shake off dirt. 

buru-gamul, a. ripe, brown. 
buruburu, n. a small, cylindrical drum. 

buruburu minar, ii. name of a pattern. 
biirua (brua), n. an anklet made of coco-nut palm leaf. 

bru-mad, n. the calf of the leg. 

bru-rid, n. the shin bone, 
burugo, n. the horse-fly (Haematopoda). 
burum, u. the pig. PI. burumal. Cf. Mir. borom, Ma. 

boromOf Ku. blovte. 
buta, 11. room, space, space of time. 

mi buta ? ad. when, 
butu, n. sand, sandy beach. 

butu apa-pall, v. shake off sand. 

butu-patai, v. prepare, make ready. 

butu pati, v. be ready. 
buz, n. a tish, Queensland trumpeter (Pristipoma hasta). 
buzl (buz), n. Flagellaria indica, "lawyer vine." A 
climbing plant, the stem used as rope in house- 
building. Cf. D. boch, reed. 
buzi, n. Dracaena, used for merkai masks. 
buzur, n. a kind of mat used in the aviai, V. 79, J05. 

d, suff. (Gr. p. 13). 

da, suff. (Gr. p. 35, 39). 

da, n. the bosom = A:«6u. 

lar-da, n. inside of gills of a fish, 
dabai, n. carapace of turtle. 
dabai, n. the booby bird. 
dabl, n. a bat or club for striking knkan. 
dabor or dabu, n. a king-fish (Cybium Commersoni). 
dabor, n. a roi'k-lish (Sphyiaenii). 
dabugal, n. a kind of waiiri, V. 346. 
dada, n. the breast-bone; the middle; ad. rather. 

dada-get, n. the middle finger, ring finger. 

dada-golga, n. noon, mid-day. 

dadaig, n. one who comes between, a son or brother 
iKit the eldest or youngest, V. 132. 



94 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



dada-kubil, n. midnight. 
dadal, a. middle, central. 

dadalaig, n. an intermediate son or brother, one be- 
tween the eldest and youngest. 
dadal-manl, v. divide, 
dadal-mizi. v. be in the middle. 
dadal-mulal, v. open in middle, 
dadal-nlal, v. stay in middle. 
dadal-pugai, v. stand in middle, of post. 
dada-mangi, v. meet. 

dadaputa, n. a day in the week, i.e. between (Sabat). 
dada-tamul, n. central compartment in crate of plat- 
form of canoe, for the crew's food, 
dada-tanurl, v. stay in middle. 
dadia-lami. v. meet, 
dadia-manl, v. divide in two. 
dadia-uzari, v. go between. 
katam-dadakora, n. leafspike of bamboo, 
waura dad, n. the east. 
dadlr = da Ja. 
dadu, n. a flag-like streamer made from coco-nut pahii 

leaf, V. 249. 
daga, a. weak. 

daga-sam, M. n. a young ca.asoviB.ry=sam-kazi. 
dagam, n. the bird of Paradise (Paradisea Eaggiana); 

head-dress and plumes of Raggiana. Mir. (legem. 
dagui. u. head-dress of cassowary feathers. PI. daguil. 
dagulal, n. a fish spear of bamboo, with several points. 
dai, suff. (Gr. p. 13). 
dai = (?Oi, doid. 

dal, n. white powder obtained by rubbing down a shell 
on a stone. 
daiad-gamul, a. white, II. 61. 
daia, n. a row of Fusus shells, forming a slide for 

canoe, V. 375. 
daibau, n. a tuber-like sweet potato (V. 156) ; name of a 

pattern and totem. Ct. deabu. 
daid = (?<)/, doid. 
daidaml. a. drunk. 

daidamal, n. pi. deadly things. 
gamu-daidami, v. be tired. 
dak(a), n. the temples; gill openings of a fish; the fore- 
quarter of a canoe. 
daka nltui, v. strike on the temples. 
dam (?damu). 

damab, n. a tree from New Guinea, with aerial 
roots. 
damabad-gamul. a. drab-coloured, II. 61. 
damad-gamul, a. brown, 
damadiai, n. name of a game, 
damalal, u. tliree l;usu (q.v.) fastened together. 
damap, n. a kind of (creeper) from New Guinea, V. 198. 

[Probably = damah. ] 
daml, n. the cross ties in a canoe. 
damn, n. sea-grass ; name of various species of Cymo- 
docea. 



damu-kodal, u. alligator pipe-fish (Gastrotokeus biacu- 
leata), "crocodile that lives among sea-grass." 
dana (dan), n. [anything round and bright] ; the eye, 
face ; pool of water ; eyes of a coco-nut. PI. danal. 
dan-adai, v. give birth to, bring forth, 
danag^, a. blind, without eyes. 
danaglg, n. a blind man. 
danalaig, n. a living person. 
danal-patai, v. watch. 

dana-mi, v. rise [become round], of the sun. 
dauan-patai, v. watch. 
danan-puTutai, v. watch, stare at. 
dan-doridi, v. take counsel, 
dan-goigoi, M. ■v. = dan-gulgumi. 
dan-gud-palai, v. open the eyes, 
dan-gulgumi, v. roll the eyes, pray, 
dania-nudai, v. differ, form factions. 
dan-muk-nagl, v. to glance at. 
dan-nagl, \-. be able to see, get sight. 
dan-palal, v. make alive. 
dan-pali, v. be awake, awaken ; become alive, 
dan-tadumai, v. be thoughtless. 
dan-tadumi, v. make mistakes, of small number of 

things only, 
dan-tal, v. look at, show, inform, exhort, 
dan-uradai, v. die. 
dan-walmai (ulmai), v. make alive, 
dawa-dan, n. = kiiiliu-daii, q.v. 
iara-dan, n. eyelash. 

kaura-dan, n. an artificial eye of nautilus nacre, 
kaura-danau-minar, n. name of a pattern, 
koi-dan-nagi, v. look at earnestly. 
kuiku-dan, n. shoot of banana, 
ngertngerl-dan, n. scalp, skin of head, 
samu-dan, n. eyelashes, antennae of insects, eyes of 
cial). 
danga (dang), n. tooth ; border or edge. D. dangdang, 
bite, Mir. tereg, tooth, ereg, bite. 
danga-mai, n. a crescent-shaped ornament of pearl 

shfll. 
danga-nudl, v. grind the teeth. 
dangau-ira, n. the gums. 

dang-mulpal, n. the new moon when first seen, 
dang-tidai, v. turn down a corner, as of the leaf of a 

hocik, make a dog's ear. 
dang-wazi, v. make a serrated mark ; n.] a serrated 

mark ; zigzag. 
gi-dang, n. canine teeth. 
kibu dang, n. molars, 
sisi dang, n. incisors. 
dangal, n. the dugong (Halicore australis). PI. daiignlal. 
^lir. degi'T. 
dangal-pugai, v. cut up dugong. 
dangal-tapar, n. brainstone coral (Symphyllia). 
daii(i), n. name of a tree (Ficus sp.). 

dani-makamak, n. a leg ornament made of dani. 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



95 



danl-mUBur, n. a plaited bracelet made of daiii. 

dani-kuk, n. an anklet made of dani. 
danilkau, n. a buffoon in the death ceremony, V. 263. 
dapar, n. a big cloud, the sky. PI. daparal. 
darado, M. = da(ia. 
darubiii, n. the native jews'-harp, made of bamboo. 

Mir. daroheri. 
dan, n. V. 346. 
dauma, n. white mud (yellow ochre?). 

daumad-gamul, a. orange and yellow, H. 60. 
dawa, n. the banana tree. 

dawa-dan, n. shoots of banana. 
de [n. foiim of mouth]. 

de-iudi, v. foam at the mouth. 
de, part. (Gr. p. 35). 

dSabu (derb), n. a wild yam ; the root scraped tine and 
mixed with hliu, "colour like curry, he bite too." 

deabud-gamul, a. yellow-green, 11. 61. 
debu, n. a king-fish (Cybium Commersoui). (Mir. dabor.) 
dede. n. name of a star, Betelgeux. 

dedeal, n. pi. name of a season. 
dela, n. a plant (Scaevola Koenigii). 
der, n. a kind of breast-plate made of coco-nut palm leaf, 
which formed a sort of yoke round the neck and 
extended down the chest, being tucked beneath the 
wakau ; also doar, V. 253. 
derb, n. a plant, the root of which is eaten with 

biiu. 
dfirl (dri), n. a head-dress of white feathers. 
dlbag, n. fog. 

dibidibi, n. a round white shell ornament, the top of 
a cone shell ground flat. 

dibidlbid-gamul, a. white, II. 61. 

dlbidibiza, n. a Clypeastroid echinoid. 
dibubuag, n. a mask, V. 340. 
digidlgi, n. a white duck. 
dimlden, n. a fool. 

dimur, n. a finger or toe. PI. dimural. 
din, suff. (Gr. p. 38). 
dlng^, n. a sand- fly. 
diwa (diu), n. joy, gladness. 

dlugi, a. sad. 

diwal, a. glad. 

diwan-mizl, v. be glad. 

gamu-dluka, n. dancing about with joy; gladness. 
diwl, n. a scorpion, 
doa, D. a bridge. 
doam = da>ni. 
doar=der. 

doar, n. a black sea-fowl. 
dob, n. [the dead bush]; the last of growing things. 

dob-utiz (M.), V. flee. 
dobu, a. old, rotten. 
dobura, Cf. matadohura. 
dodu, u. an arrow with a bone barb. 
ddgal, n. a kind of bogey or spirit ; various constellations, 



V. 12 — 16 ; the figure-head of a canoe. Cf. also 
V. 204. 

ddgai i, n. a constellation, Vega, etc., V. 13. 

dogai kukilaig, n. a constellation, a Lyrse, etc., 
V. 16. 

dogai metakorab, n. a constellation, Altair, etc., V. 12. 

dbgai waurulaig, n. a constellation, a Aquilaj, etc., 
V. 16. 
dogam, n. side. 

bodai-dogam, u. left side. 

get-dogam, n. right side. 

kuM-dogam, n. the west. 

minai-dogam, n. right side. 

nagu-dogam, n. further side. 

naigai-dogam, n. the north. 

waur-dogam, u. the south-east, the east. 

ziai (zel)-dogam, n. the south. 
doi [out of doors], 

doia-adai, v. become well, recover from sickness ; [go 
out of doors]. 

doi-nidai, v. make well, heal (G.) 
doid, S. n. plain [open place]. 
doiom, n. thunder. 
dokap, n. the thigh. 

dokap-rid, n. the femur, 
dordimai, v. tie, bind. 

urun-doridimai, v. tie up. 

wapi-dordimai, v. hook fish, catch fish. 
doridi, V. bind. 

dan-doridi, v. take counsel, G. 

doridimi-mud, n. a prison. 

pa-doridimi, v. tighten, as belt, 
dri =:<i?ri, q.v. 
du, n. a ring. 
dua, n. the cashew (Semecarpus heterophyllus). 

dua-urma, n. name of the season when the dua nut is 
ripe and falls. 
duar (•! = dua), V. 28. 
dub(a), n. a swelling. 

duba-ldltlrl, n. dropsy. i 

duba-glu-wali, v. to smile. 

duba-malgui, n. a bud. 
dubidubi, a. murmuring, grumbling. 

dubjdubi iadu umai, v. grumble, 
duburu, 11. !i wiiniau's girdle. PI. duburuL 
duduam, n. a freshwater plant. 

duduam-gamul, a. blue and violet, the colour of the 
underside of duduam leaf, II. 60. 
dudupai, v. sink, make sink, put into a liquid. 
dudupi, V. drown, sink, be drowned, 
dugl, a. quiet. 

dugi kaz, n. a quiet man. 
dugu, fS. a. blunt. Mb. gizugi. 
duia, 

dula-tutai, v. gather up. 
duima = c/i>ioHi, q.v. 



96 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



dukun, n. a tree with hard wood; a toy spear made 

of the wood, V. 45. 
dumarkap, n. a small shell (Turbo sp.). 
duma-waku, n. calico, cloth; clothes. PI. duma-wakul. 
dunur, n. tobacco-pipe fish (Fistularia serrata). 
dupu, n. a bronzed ant. 
dura, M. n. = da, bosom, 
dnral. S. = wara. 

e, suff. (Gr. p. 3-1). 

elari, n. a fruit (Wallrothia). 

elma, n. a species of snake. 

elma-gudulag, n. an arrow carved with a snake's mouth, 
enti, M. n. a spider, 
eso, n. thanks. 

g, suff. (Gr. p. 16). 

ga, n. a tree wasp [hornet]. 

apa-ga, u. the mason wasp. 

ga-rur, n. a small wasp. 

gau pad, n. the nest of f/«. 
ga, n. the central star in the belt of Orion. 
gab(?), V. 197 note, 
gabagaba, n. a club ; stone disc club ; staves (G.). Cf. 

Unha, Mir. gah<i(jiib, K. gabagaba. 
gabau, u. the koi net for yams ; a green taro. 

gabauad-gamul, a. purple, violet, II. 62. 
gaber. n. a plant (Epattes australis). 
gab(o), n. vertical board in bow of canoe ; also a short 
canoe (?) 

kuna gab, n. end board of canoe, 
gabu, n. intestine of turtle. PI. gabuil. 

gabu-akurar, n. colon of dugong. 

gabuil, u. pi. intestines of turtle. 

gabuilau-kulk, n. the oviduct of turtle. 

terar-gabuU, n. intestines of turtle not eaten. 
gabu. a. cold, cool. Mir. gebgeb, M. gabmiahii. 

gabu-dan, a. slow, easy. 

gabu-palai, v. cool, 
gabu, u. medicine, rubbed on body. 

gabu-garka, n. [medicine man]. 

gabu-mabaeg, n. [medicine man]. 

gabuB-mai, v. heal. 
gabu, 

tabai gabu-tari, v. carry on shoulders. 
gabu, n. front board of a canoe. Cf. gaho. 
gabu, n. a plant (Heptapleuron sp.). 
gabu, n. a plant (Eugenia sp.). 
gabuikur, n. jiart of an edible plant. 

gabuikurad-gamul, a. brown, II. 61. 
gad, n. a shell (iJolium). 
gadau-walmal, v. follow. 
gagadi, a. weak, faint, 
gagai, n. a bow; gun. Cf. K. Ku. gagari. 

gagai-palai, v. shoot bow, th'e gun. 

gagai-uru, n. bowstring. 



gagi, n. turtle-shell fish-hook ornament worn by girls 

during betrothal. Mir. sabagorar, M. gagi. 
gagi, n. a shrimp, 
gai, ad. close together. 
gai, n. a feast. 

gaibur, n. the she-oak (Casuarina). 
gaiga = .';oi(/«, q.v. 

galgai, n. the king.fish (Cybium Commersoni). Mir. geigi. 
gaigai-dan, n. rings made of a strip of tii. 
gaigai-ubal, n. a fish (Caranx nobilis). 
gaima, M. n. abscess, boil. 

gainau, n. the Torres Strait pigeon (Carpophaga luc- 
tuosa). 
gainad-gamul, a. pale violet colour, II. 61. 
gal, suff. PI. of g. 
gal(u), n. cold. Cf. B. latkala. 

akan-gal-lupai, v. tremble with fear, 
gal-lupal, V. tremble with cold, 
galu-pali, V. tremble. 
gala! gaipapi, n. a second rope to tie round the tail of a 

dugong. 
gam(u), n. the body, surface of the body, skin; the star 
Altair, i.e. the "body" of the constellation Metakorab, 
V. 13. Mir. gem. 
gamka-tamai, v. put close, 
gam-sasimai, v. pinch. 

gamu-asi, v. become. Especially used with colour 
names, as e.g. }>oamad gaiiitt-asi. become red, i.e. go- 
with-body or surface like paraiiia. 
gamu-daidai, v. be tired, 
gamu-dirog-asi, M. v. be lazy, 
gamu-diu-asi, v. be pleased, 
gamu-dlu-manl, S. v. dance, 
gamu-diupa, n. dancing, 
gamuia-matamai, v. murder, 
gamu-kaubazi, S. v. be tired. 

gamul, a. Used with names of objects to describe 
colours, as e.g. jmramad- gamul, red, paramad- 
ginnuhiga, red thing (Gr. p. 14). 
gamu-mai, v. snatch away. 
gamu-nidi, v. take, 
gamu-tarai, v. touch. 

gamu-tari, v. touch lightly, without pressure, be rest- 
ing on. 
gamu-widai, v. ignite, light, as cigarette or fire, 
gam-uzi, v. itch. 
ia-gamu-widal, v. bring news. 
kopur-gam (?) 
gingai, T. u. skin. 

gangar, n. hole in rock, small reef at sea. 
ganguro, n. a large lizard. 
ganu, n. smell. [PI. garuqnil.] 

ganul, a. possessing smell, scented, 
ganul-tai, v. send forth smell. 

ganu-pulmai [? gatiupiil-mai], v. to smell, get smell 
from. 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



97 



ganu-tai, w.^gtund-tai. 
gapu, n. the sucker-fish (Echeneis naucrates). 
gapu, n. the embryo of the mangrove (Rhizophora 

mueronata), V. 195. 
gar, pref. intlicating emphasis, exclusiveuess, reality. 

dana-garka, n. master; governor (G.). 

gar akurar, n. jejunum of turtle. 

garka. n. a man, a male, a native, not applied to 
foreigners. PI. (jarkazil. 

garkazi = ;;ri rka . 

kala-garka, n. a poor man. 

kida garka. n. attendants on mowai, in puberty cere- 
monies, V. 202. 

kuiku-garka, n. head man, chief. 

ngozu garka, n. my husband, said by a woman. 

puiu-garka(zi), u. a medicine man; physician (G.). 
gara, n. (Paudanus spiralis). 

g^(o), n. body ; things in a lump or together ; hull of a 
canoe. 

danga-gar-mumi, v. gnash teeth. 

gar-mapai, v. continue to assemble. 

gar-mapl, v. meet. 

gar-moidai, v. build. 

gar-mumai, v. crowd up. 

gar-nanamai, v. push. 

gar-nanami, v. knock against (with some part of the 
body). 

gar-ngalkai, v. trouble about. 

garo-minar, n. au incised pattern on the hull of a 
Ciinot'. 

gar-palgi, v. recover, get up from illness. 

gar-palai, \. recover from illness. 

gar-pali, v. recover, become well. 

gar-patai, v. come to, arrive; yar-patami, v. pi. 
assemble. 

gar-sasimai, v. comfort. 

gar-tai, v. press, touch. 

gar-tarl, v. press, touch. 

gar-tatari, v. stroke or rub. 

gar-toridi. v. crowd up. 

gar-walgai (ulgai), v. wash, cleanse. 

gar-widai, v. spread all over. 

gar-widami, v. pi. stand close together. 

gar-widamizi goiga, n. wedding day. 

get-gar-walgai, v. wash hands. 

ia-gar-wldai, v. spread news, spread a report, 
garaba, a. lung, flowing, of a dress. 
garabi, v. be girded, 
garbad, n. the gunwale of a canoe, 
gargui, 

gargui-mal, v. shake, make to shake. 

gargui-mizi, v. shake, tremble. 

gargui-palal, v. shake, make shake, 
gariga {}tl.)-(joigii, q.v. 
garur, n. a small wasp. 
gasa,= kasa q.v. 

H. Vol. III. 



gasamal, v. catch with the hands, get, receive, keep. 

kain Ipl-gasamai, v. marry, get married. 

kikiri-gasamai, v. be sorry (G). 
gasami, v. find. 

kuik gasami, v. tie cloth round head. 
gasi, n. arrowroot (?). 
gat(a), n. fringing reef; reef; reef inshore; "home reef." 

gata-widan, v. "is close to the reef" : said of Baidam 
constellation during Surlal. 

gat-nuri, v. ebb (of tide) ; go round about the reef. 
gato, n. name of an arrow. 
gaugu, n. medicine. 

diwau gaugu, n. V. 183. 
gaugui, 

gaugui-mai, v.=gargui-viai. 

gaugui-mizi, ■v. = gargui-mizi. 

gaugui-palai. v. = gargui-palai. 
gaulonga, M. u. a green coco-nut, used for drink, 
gauma. n. a lagoon. 
gawai, n. a creeping plant, "rope along bush," chewed 

in initiation into maid, V. 321. 
gawat, n. a lagoon, a swamp. 
gebaubil, n. pi. natives of New Guinea, 
gege, 

gege-mai, n. a jiattern, opposite of liuiknl-mui. 
gegead. geget, n. [soreness, smarting], 

gegead-mai, v. disfigure, destroy. 

gegead-pugai, v. torment, irritate. 

gegead-pugi, v. be different, be far away, 
gepuai, n. hopping-fish (Periophthalmus). 
ger, n. a sea snake. 
geriral, n. a small black bee. 
gerka, n. gall-bladder. 
geru, n. sugar-cane. Of. Ku. galiiwe, Mir. iwru. 

geru bera, n. sugar-cane leaf. 

geru kabu, u. stalk of sugar-cane. Cf. kabii, knot. 

geru nguki, n. juice of sugar-cane. 

geru teni, n. stalk of sugar-cane with juice sucked out. 
geta), get(o), n. hand, finger; pincer of crab. 

getal, n. fingers. ' 

getalal, n. a large crab ; name of a constellation which 
appears during ir«Hr. 

getal-angai, v. sjioil ; lay hands on, despoil. 

getal-kaz, n. "a larrikin" [mischievous person]. 

geta-mlnaml, v. measure in fathoms. 

getan-mizi, v. spoil. 

getan-nanamai, v. buffet. 

getau-gugabi, n. a finger ring. 

getau-mazar, n. palm of the hand. 

getau-za, n. rayed discs held in the hand whilst 
dancing. 

get-dogam, n. the right hand side. 

getia-wiai, v. distribute. 

get-lual, v. reach. 

get-mai, v. be hurt. 

get-matal, v. feel with hands. 

13 



98 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



get-matamai, v. handle, feel with hands. 

get-matami, v. strike hands, clap hands. 

get-nldi, v. take hold of. 

get-nitul, V. point at. 

get^pagai, v. stretch out hands to take, apprehend. 

get-pudal, V. to scrape hands. The native mode of 

sahitation. 
get-salmal, v. he withered, 
get-tidal, v. read, 
get-tidi, V. read. 
get-wadal (udai), v. resist. 
get-wai. V. let go. 

get-wanl (unai), v. let go, unloose, release, 
get-wiai, v. di.stribute, give out. 
get-wldai, v. push back, 
il-get, n. the middle finger, 
kaba-get, n. thumb, 
klak-nitui-get, n. the index finger, 
kuik-get, M. n. the index finger, 
kuta-get. M. n. the little finger. 
pa-get-wani, v. let slip, as spear by accident, 
watarau-getalai, u. a scorpion. 
gi, suff. negative (Gr. p. 13, 3B). 
gi, n. a pig's tusk ; a knife, 
gl dang, n. canine tooth, 
gi turik, n. an iron knife, 
gl, n. an old dry coco-nut. 

gi-dub, n. kernel of coco-nut. 
gia, n. [cooked food]. 

glad-gamul, a. blue green, II. 61. 
gfia-palai, v. prepare food, 
glam, n. a house site. 

gida, n. a true story, "jarn," narrative of an actual 
event. Cf. ad, legend. 
glda-umai, v. tell a story, narrate. 
gig, suffix, indicating a person who has or does not. 

PI. fligal. 
gigino, S. n. thunder. 
gigub, n. a no.se pencil. Mir. kirkub. 
giit, M. tree used in sorcery. 

giitad-gamul, a. red, II. 61. 
gil, n. name of a star which appears during M'aur. 
gima, n. top, upper part. 

gima-gasamai garka, n. the president at death 

ceremony, V. 321. 
gima-kabutai, v. lay or put on top. 
grlmal, a. top, uppermost, 
gimal-siai, v. stay on top. 

gima-maui, v. lift up partly, lift up a little way. 
gima-puidai, v. put on top. 
gima-tanuri, v. be set up. 
gima-taral, v. tread on, put foot on. 
glma-toridl, v. lift up. 
gimau, a. top, belonging to the top. 
gimla-kasia-pagai, v. step over a stream. 
gimla-nidal, v. set on top. 



girer, n. the movement in a dance. 

girer-adai, v. dance, 
glribu, n. name of Kwoiam's charm, worn on the chest, 

V. 71. 
giruwa, n. name of an arrow, 
gitalai, n.=getalai. 

gitalai sanalunga, n. crab's footprints, name of a 
jiattern on a mat. 
giu, n. a laugh. 

giun-mai, v. deride, laugh at. 

giun-pungai, v. laugh at. 

giun-salmai, v. mock at, deride. 

glu-palai, v. cause laughter, play the fool. 

giu-tai, v., laugh. 

giu-wali, V. laugh. 
gizu, n. point, edge, sharpness. 

gizugl, a. blunt. 

gizul, a. pointed. 

gizu-mabaeg, u. a ruler, head man. 

gizu-palai, v. sharpen, cut a point. 

gizu-walgai, v. make a point, sharpen. 
goa, u. a tree ant. 

goa, n. the seeds of Pangium edule, used as rattles. 
goba, n. stone used for making clubs. Cf. gabagaba. 
gobai. n. the larva of the ant-lion (Myrmeleon). 
gobaigobai, n. a fish, the fringe-finned trevally (Caraux 

radiatus). Cf. suli. 
gobegobe, n. an edible plant. 
gobib. T. n. a native of Parama. PI. gobibil. 
gobulu, n. tadijole (?). 
gdd. n. a kind of earth. 

godad-gamul, a. light-grey, II. 61. 
gogadi, a,.=gagudi, weak. 
gogait, n. village. 
gogobe, n. name of a fruit. 
goguta, n. the cotton tree (Bombax). 
goi, n. the top of the head, vertex, summit of hill. 

goia, ad. on the summit. 
golga, n. sun, sunlight, day. PI. goigoil. Mir. gerger. 

goiga ar-palami, T. v. sun rises. 

goiga nagi, v. shine, of sun. 

golga palgi, V. sun rises. 

goiga pudl, V. sun sets. 

goigoig, n. a hot day. 

Imaizi-goiga, n. birth-day. 

umauzi-golga, n. death-day. 
goigol, n. a collective name for the firesticks. Mir. 
goigoi, I), guigui. 

goigol salgai, v. make fire with firesticks. 
goin, n. taro. 

goinau, n. the Torres Straits pigeon (Carpophaga). 
goraigor \^l.)=goiga, q.v. 
gorbotut, n. a wooden club, 
gorsar, a. many. 

koi-gorsar, a. many. 
goru. 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



99 



goru-rld, n. backbone of animals. 

goru-rld gfar-wldami, v. join back to back. Cf. 
Folk-tales, V. 29. 
goruba, n. a small crab. 

g6t, n. a yellowish bird, an autjad in Muralag. 
gouga, n. a sponge used for polishing. 
gowa, n. a trench, ditch. Cf. K. jiari-finua, ditch. 

gowa-pagi, v. dig up garden. 
gozed, n. carved staves as stern ornaments of a canoe. 
grauut=/7r«<j^ 

graz, u. a fish trap or weir built of stones on a reef. 
gruat, n. a plant used in medicine (Sesuvium Portu- 

lacastrum). 
grus, M. n. a sea anemone (Discosoma sp.). 

grusa-wapi, n. small fish (Amphiprion sp.) that lives 
comraensally with large sea-anemones. 

grusad, M. a. purple, II. 62. 
gu, demons. (Gr. p. 12). 

gua, n. seeds of Pangium edule, used as rattle. Cf. (Jiki. 
goal, n. vertex of head. Cf. i/oi. 

guail. a. bald, 
guamakiam. n. a kind of taro. 

guamakiamad-gamul, a. green, II. 61. 
guapi, M. n. a shaft of klak. 

gub, n. cross pieces of wood supporting the board 
(moar) covering the dak of canoe. 
gub(a), n. a nose-stick made from inaiwa. 
gub(a), n. wind. PI. ffiibiil. 

gnibal-puial, v. blow witli mouth, 

gubau-puilaig, n. a sorcerer, producing wind and rain. 
gubar. [Prohalily a Miriam word.] 

kazi gubar epiz (M.), v. adopt. Mir. gobarem tnix. 
gubua, n. a plant (Myrmecodia). 

gud(a), n. an upenins;, hole, mouth, doorway, eye of 
coco-nut; hole of marap in which turku is inserted; 
a coco-nut water vessel ; a crescentic mouth board ; 
bow ornament on canoe, with decorations of buhnnm 
and nzii shells. 

dan-guda-matamai, v. blindfold, close eyes. 

gud-ada-tiai, v. fust, go without food. 

g^d-arai, v. betray. 

gud-ari. v. discuss, consult. 

guda gub, n. stick in sabi of canoe for rope of 
anchor. 

gfudaka-turi, v. beg, pray for. 

gudal, a. opened. 

guda-matamal, v. sliut. 

guda-matamzig, n. a deaf man. 

guda-nitui (aituri M.), v. talk about, ask for various 
things, advise. 

gudan-mungai (mungari M.), v. talk about. 

guda-pali, v. open, as bud. 

gudapa-minar, n. upper lip fold. Cf. ijmita-minar. 

gudau-garka, ti. an Australian. PI. ijudau-garkuzil. 
<;»(/=; mouth (of Jardiue Kiver). 

guda-wai, v. let go, unloose, forgive. 



gud-gar-widami, v. pi. consult together, take advice. 

gudop, n. moustache. Cf. grid, abui. 

gud-palai, v. open, as hand or book. 

gud-palami, S. v. overflow. 

gud-pamai, v. enlarge a hole. 

gud-parai, v. overflow. 

gud-pudai, v. open. 

gnid-tadi, V. deny, reject. 

gud-tai, v. invert. With muluka or kadaka according 
to the direction of the movement. 

gud-tapamai, v. kiss. 

gud-tiai, v. fast, abstain from food. 

gud-urati, v. fall on the face. 

gud-wadai, v. prevent. 

gud-wadi, v. caution. 

gud-wai, V. loose, set free. 

grud-wani, v. be quiet. 

gud-wlai, v. salute, greet. 

lugi-gudal, a. neighbourly, friendly. 

magi-gud, n. a small basket. 

ngukiu-gud, n. a well of water. 

sagau gud, n. eye of bone needle. 

wakai gud-wai, v. open the mouth, 
guel, M. a. bald. Cf. guui. 
gugabe, n. an edible plant. 
gugabi, n. a ring, circle. Mir. yogob. 

getau-gugabi, n. finger ring. 

gugabtd, a. round, circular. 

gugabid-tai, v. roll over and over. 

gugabid-tiai, v. twirl round with extended arms. 
gugu, n. name of a bird, V. 311. 
guguba wake, n. a variety of canoe, V. 29. 
guigui, n. = goigoi. 
Sniei = gwia>: 
guit. 

guit-wai, v. let go, release. 

guit-wiai, v. let go, allow, forgive, 
gul, n. canoe, boat. PI. gulai. 

gabo gul, n. a shortened canoe. 

gar gul. n. ark, large boat, (G.). ' 

gulda pui, n. a tree (Maba reticulata). 

gul-pati, v. embark, enter canoe. 

gulpu pati = ,'/HV-/)af/. 
gulagwal, 

katam gulagwal, n. dry leaf of banana, 
gulguml = ;/ urgumi. 

gulgupi, v. go round, walk in a circle, walk round 
something. 

lu-gulgrupi, V. walk, or go round. 
guml, ad. secretly, a. secret. 

gumi-mal, v. hide. 

gumt-uradai, v. hide, cover. 
gumulaig, n. a native of Mabuiag or Badu, from (Imiiv, 

a place in Mabuiag. PI. gumulgul. 
gungau, n. skin of man. Mir. gegur. 
grurabi, n. a white lily (Crinum ?). 

13—2 



100 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



guragar, n. a plant chewed aud rubbed on hair 

(Acacia sp., prob. A. longifolia). 
gTirba, n. a small crab, 
gurgumi (gulgumi), v. roll round, [revolve]. 

dan-gurgumi, v. roll eyes, pray, 
gurugul, a. round; ad. round about. 
guruig, suff. (Gr. p. 39). 
gururu, n. a bird. 
gwabagwaba, n. = goba, gabagabu, stone, and stone 

c-hib. 
gwabagwabad-gamul, a. dark-grey, II. 62. 
gwarabatut, n. a stone club with numerous blunt 

projections. 
gwata minar, n. a fold on the cheek. 
gwiar (guieri, n. a sting-ray (Trygon). 

i, demons, ((jr. p. 11). 

i, suS. to verbs (Gr. p. 2G). 

i, u. name of a constellation consisting of Vega and the 

adjacent small stars. Cf. V. 13. 
1, n. sea-anemone (Heterodactyla hemprichii) ; Alcyo- 
narians (Sarcophyton glaucum). 

magitap i, n. Alyconium flexile, 
la, suff. (Gr. p. 19). 
ia, n. throat. 
la, n. a word, speech, talk. PI. iailai. 

ia-adamai, v. wail loudly, make great mourning. 

iadai, n. pi. language, talk, message ; a. talkative. 

iadaig, n. a chatterer; an Australian. PI. iadaigal. 

iadai palai, v. make talk a great deal, make talk 
nonsense. 

iadai-wai, v. warn. 

iadai wiai, v. send message, send word. 

iadai wiai mabaeg, n. a messenger. 

iadu palgai, v. relate, confess. 

iadu tidai, v. caution. 

Iadu tural, v. inform. 

iadu umal, v. talk about, discuss. 

iadu wadai, v. caution. 

iagi, a. silent, .speechless. 

iagl-asi, V. be silent, be quiet. 

iagi-asi-niai, v. sit silent. 

iagi-but, a. dumb. 

lagi-mlzi, v. be speechless with wonder ; wonder. 

iagi-palai, v. silence, make not speak. 

laka-mai, v. inform, tell about, show by words. 

iaka-nori, v. be at a loss for words, forget. 

iaka-papudi, v. believe. 

la-mul-tal, v. command. 

ia-mulai, v. tell. 

ia-mull, V. speak. 

iananu-mani, S. v. sell, [offer for sale]. 

iangn-kudu, n. language. 

iapu-poibi, v. ask question, interrogate. 

ia-supamai, v. falsely report one's sayings. 

ia-tamal, v. quarrel. 



la-tarai, v.; ia-tarami, v. pi. pull in different ways, 
as in tying string round parcel. 

ia-turai, v. promise. 

ia-ulaig, n. a quarrelsome person. 

ia-umai, v. discuss. 

ia-utumi, v. command. 

ia-utumizinga, n. commandments. 

tata idaig, n. a person with an impediment in speech, 
stammerer. 
iaba, a. strange, foreign. 

iabaig, n. a stranger. PL iabaigal. 

Iaba kazi, n. a stranger. 
iabu, n. path, road. Mir. gab, Ma. gabo. 

goigoi iabu-gud, n. white stratus clouds at sunset. 

iabu-gud, n. a road, path. 

iabu-puil, n. long poles supporting the kuail of the 
canoe. 

kubilau iabugud, n. dark stratus clouds at sunset. 

kulkan iabugud, n. red stratus clouds at sunset. 

mulpalau iabugud, n. yellow stratus clouds at sunset, 
iabur, n. a mask, V. 344. 
iad, n. a spear with simple point. 

iada, n. gill rakers. [Probably iar-da, or perhaps i()ta.'\ 
iadai, n. string. 

iad-gamul, a. brown, pale green, violet, II. 61. 
iadi. n. a stone anchor. 

iadi-pudai, v. weigh anchor, haul uj) anchor, 
iai, V. lie along ; stop, stay. 

apasUda-iai, v. lie on bed. 

apla-iai, v. sit on ground, lie on ground. 

iaiai, v. slant, of smoke from a fire. 

niai, v. sit here, stay here. 

siai, v. sit there, stay there. 
laldl, V. 

pa-iaidi, v. rise, of wind. 
iaka, n. the sheath protecting the ends of the salgal, and 

keeping tlieni dry. 
iakai, n. men who marry women who are tukoiub to 

one another. 
ial, n. hair of the head. PI. ialai. 

ialai, n. pi. the hair twisted in long ringlets ; the 
crest of a cockatoo. 

ialai-wapi, n. a fish, the diamond trevally (Garanx 
gallus). 

lalal-akurar, n. small intestines (of dugong). 

ialal-dad, n. black bat-ii.ih (Stromateus niger). 

ial-bup, n. hair when short. 

ial-damu, n. a sea grass (Cymodocea sp.). 

ial-kap, n. a lock of hair. 

ial-pat, S. n. a comb. 

ial-sak, n. a comb, the old shape, 
ial, 

lal-poibl, V. crackle, make noise, as breaking stick. 
ialgal, V. tear, slit. 

lam, n. ox-eye herring (Megalops cyprinoides). 
iamar, n. a species of coral, branched. 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



101 



Ulna. n. a basket, made of coco-nut palm or pandauus 
leaf, and used by men. PI. ianal. Cf. B. ienga, 
D. eiiaimga, 
iananab, ad. apart, in different places, in groups here 

and there. 
iananga, S. demons, = ia ina, this word, 
iapar, n. necklace of loamadai leaves ; ornamental bands 

worn in the merkai dance. PI. iaparal. 
lapl, V. choose, like, select. 

bag-iapl, v. threaten. 
lapu, n. = i«. 

lapu-poibl, V. question. 
iara, n. stones of the amai. PI. iaral. 
iara-dan, n. eyelash. Probably for ial-dan, i.e. hair- 
eye. 
iarda, n. the inside of a fish's gills. [Probably for 

ial-dii. Cf. ial, da. Cf. also Uidd, lata. 
iaragi, a. angry. 

Iara zia, n. a small cloud, "half-way in sky." 
iata. n. the beard, whiskers, hair on chin and jaw. 

lata-patl, v. shave, 
latai, n. a row of men. PI. iatai. 
lati, V. ooze through. 

kulka-iatl, v. bleed slightly. 
piB-iati, V. leak. 
iatowat, n. women who marry two tukoiab. 
iawa, a. farewell. 

iawai, V. journey, travel, wander about. 
lawad, n. a round house. 
Ibabu, n. a species of fish. 
ibabu, n. a plant which will kill fish and eels, " like milk 

inside." Cf. itamar. 
ibaeba, M. n. sandstone. 
Ibai, v. grind, scrape, 
ibaib, n. spine of the sting-ray. 
ibara, n. crocodile. Perhaps a Mawata word. Cf. K. 

0. eibara, Ku. and llasingara sible. 
ibelai, n. a blanket. [Introduced from Lifu ipelewe, 
blanket, clothing collectively.] 
ibelai-palal, v. wrap in a blanket. 
iboib. 

ibolb-tai, v. be surfeited. 
ibu, n. chin, lower jaw. Mir. ibu, D. tebu. 

ibu poidal, v. help. 
id, n. a small bivalve shell (Tellina staurella), worn 
behiiid ear, and used as a knife. 
warldd Id, n. a bivalve shell (Lucina exasperata). 
Idal, v. scold. 
bagain-ldai, v. swear. 
kabu-idal, v. tie knot. 
paru-idal (idari M.), v. cheat. 
Idara, n. a beetle. 
idl, 

paru-idl, v. be deceitful. 
Idi, u. oil. Mir. ide. 
adaka-ldi-mizi, v. rub out, erase. 



idi-ldi, a. oily, fat, greasy. 

idi-mizi, v. become oil, melt, destroy, rub out, pull 

down. 
Idi-wai, V. melt, become melted. 
Idl-widai, v. melt, cause to melt. 
idilri, n. water in which biiu has been washed. 
idiirid-gamul, a. blue and dark brown, II. 60. 
idui, V. mock, 
lege-palai, v. mock. 
ielpai, v. lead a person, bring a person. 

pa ielpai, v. lead away. 
lena, n. a basket, cf. U'lna. 
iera, n. stomach, 
ieragl, a. hungry. 

ieragigig, n. a person satisfied, filled with food, 
ieratur, 

ieratur madu, n. the abdominal muscles (of dugong). 
ierka, n. spleen; resin, "milk belong wood," used in 
fixing heads and joints of spears, and throwing- 
sticks. 
ieso, n. tlianks. 

ieta, n. the spider shell (Pterocera lambis). 
ietu, M. n. a barnacle, on turtle. 
ieudai (often iitdai), v. pour. 
ada ieudai, v. pour out a liquid, 
muluka-pa-ieudai, v. descend, of rain. 
pa-ieudal, v. shed, spill. 
wabawal-ieudai, v. call out. 
wakai-ieudai, v. pray, 
wal-ieudai, v. cry out. 
ieudi (often iudi), v. flow, of a liquid, come out, [move 
in a stream], ask. 
adaka-ieudi, v. be spilled. 
de-iudi, v. foam at mouth. 
kulka-ieudi, v. bleed in a continuous stream, 
ngana-ieudi, v. wonder, 
uru-ieudl, v. haul. 
igal(i), n. string of coco-nut fibre used in catching 
turtle, or fishing. 
igal kupmani, S. \. = mut umaizinga, q.v. , 

igalaig, S. n. a kinsman, friend, = Mb. tukuiap, tokuiab. 
igaru, n. an edible plant. 

igil, a. alive; green, of a tree. The opposite to patel. 
Ma. kigiro, alive. 
igil(i)-paU, V. give life, save, 
igur, exclam. of pity, "poor thing." 
ika, n. gladness, joy. 
ikal, a. glad. 
ikai-angal, v. rejoice. 

Ikaika-manl, v. please, make pleased, gladden, 
ikal , a. glad. 
ikan-pungai, v. please, 
ika-tiai, v. be glad, rejoice. 
ikai, n. milk, V. 216, note. 
Ikur, n. a food plant ; a rope, 
il, n. gall-bladder and bile. 



102 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



ilde-gamul, a. preen and blue, II. p. 60. 
U-mital, ild-mital, a. bitter, II. 187. 

il, 

il-get, n. the middle finger, 
iladi, T. v. sbiue, of moon only, 
ilagi, V. be torn. 
Ilpal = i('//Jai. 

im im§, n. the carpet shark (Crossorhinus). 
imai, v. see. 

imaizi-goiga, n. birth-day. 

kuik-imai, v. begin. 
imi, n. a man's brother-in-law ; a woman's sister-in-law, 

V. 136, 144—150. 
imulu, n. a fish, the pouched leather-jacket (Monacan- 

thus). 
imun, 

imun-mizi, v. accuse, 
imus, S. n. =so!ie. 
ina, demons, this, here ; of female and large things. 

iuabi. demons, this. 
ingaru, ad. always. 
inguidonga, M. a. blue, II. 62. 
ini, n. penis. 

Inil, a. male. 

inil-tiam, n. a male turtle. 
inu, demons, this, here; of male and small things. 

inunga-dadaig, n. V. 132, a name descriptive of the 
third of five daughters = this one (is) the middle. 

inunga-ngunga-gamuz, n. V. 132, a name similarly 
given to tlie fourtli and fifth daughters. 
inxir, n. dnrkness. 

innrau pudaiginga, T. n. evening twilight. 

inur-dan, n. the early crescentic moon. 

inurad-gamul, a. black, blue, ii. 60. 
ipal, demons, these two. 
ipatu, M. u. a grave, V. 260, 261. 
ipi. n. a female, a woman ; wife. 

ipiai, a. female. 

ipika, n. a female person, a woman, a wife. PI. 
ipikazil. 

ipikai, a. female ; ipihii saiii, a female cassowary. 

ipika-markai, n. impersonator of deceased female, in 
death dance, V. 264. 

ipitoz(i), n. = ij)ika. 
ipidad, n. evil. 

ipidad-pugai, v. blaspheme, 
ira, u. father, mother, son, or daughter-in-law, V. 137, 

142. 
irad, n. a shade, shelter. 

irad-abai, v. shade. 

Iradan (irad-dan), n. eye-lash. 

iragud (irad-gud), n. tlie lips. 

irad-aimai, v. shade. 
iragud, cf. irud. 
lrka = ierfca, q.v. 
irsi, 



mai-irsl, v. cry, shed tears. 
trui, V. swell. 

maita-irui, v. be satisfied with food, be filled, 
iruk, a mollusc, probably Dolabella scapula ; eroko of 
Miriam ; also the snake-like yellow-plumed beche de 
mer (Holothuria coluber). 

irukad-gamul, a. purple, II. 60. 
isa, n. a plant (Phyllanthus sp.). 
isau, n. wax. 

isad-gamul, a. pale green, II. 61. 
isau, n. snout of animals, beak of bird, no.se of fish, 
iser, n. name of a tree. 

isu, n. a kind of petticoat ? made of isu leaves. 
it, n. an edible bivalve (Chama rupellii) ; the rock- 
oyster (Astrea mordax). D. it, oyster. 
ita, demons, pi. these. 
itamar, u. a plant (Indigofera australis), used for killing 

fish. 
itar, n. a spotted dog-fish (Chiloscylhum). 
itara, n. a moth. 

iu, [? ad. in slanting or sloping position], 
iudai, \. = iL'udai. 
iudi, V. = ieudi. 
iui, V. slope, slant. 

apia-iui, v. go aslant, of smoke, go along the ground. 

kadaka-iul, v. slant upward. 

muluka-iui, v. slant downwards, of smoke. 
iuia, n. a gnat. Cf. iwi. 
iunai, v. lie down. 

apasikia iunai, v. lie on bed. 

apia-iunai, v. lie on ground. 

utu-iunai, v. lie asleep, 
iut, n. a lean-to house, porch. Mir. muisu. 
iutai, v. lay down on ground, 
iuti, v. pull, haul. [Possibly the same as ieudi, iudi, 

q.v.] 

borsa-iuti, v. condemn. 

getia-iuti, v. take, lead. 

iad-iuti, v. haul up anchor. 

ngana-iuti, v. wonder, marvel. 

ngapa-iuti. v. come. 

pa-iuti, V. overthrow. 

wagel-iuti, v. follow. 
iwai, n. the cloth-like spathe at the base of coco-nut palm 

leaves, 
iwaiu, n. name of a tree ; samerur are made from the 

boughs. 
iwi, n. mosquito, gnat. 0. eweri. 

iwiri, n. a wood which, when chewed, colours the saliva 
a reddish brown. 

iwirid-gamul, a. reddish brown, II. 61. 
iz, T. S. suff. to verbs = ;. 

ka, suff. (Gr. p. 19, 38). 

ka, n. the waist. 

ka, n. an abbreviation of kazi, q.v. 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



103 



kab, n. trunk, of coco-nut palm. 

kab(a), n. a dance. PI. kabal. Mir. kap. 

kaba-nadua. n. a tail ornament worn in dances. 

kaba-minai, v. dance, 
kaba, u. paddle, oar. Probably =7i-o/), trunk. Cf. D. 
kaba, B. karaba, Mir. iri'bli, v. paddle. 

kaba-get, n. thumb. 

kaba-kok, n. bis toe. 

kaba-nitui, v. paddle, row. 
kababa, u. a di.'ic held in the hand during a dance, 
kabar, n. the queen tish (Chorinemus lysan). 
kabar, n. shells (Trochus and Cerithium). 
kabi, n. a tree ; the aerial roots used as swing ; leaf 

used as a whistle. 
kab(u), n. the chest. 

kabu-ibui, n. a shell (Natica mamilla). 

kabu-minar, n. a scarification on the chest of woman. 
kabu. n. a knot. 

kabu-idai, v. fasten, tie knot. 

kabuzinga, n. [? a fixture], a thing formerly done, 
kabutai, v. put on, lay, put down on. 

baUdd-kabutai, v. put across. 

gima-kabutai. v. lay or put on top. 

ngapa-kabutai, v. put towards me. 

pa-kabutai, v. put away from speaker, 
kada, n. root of a long creeper. 
kada(i), ad. upward. 

kadaln-tamai, v. stand up. 

kadaipa. M. ii. = k<7(iaka. 

kadai-taii, v. stand up, rise. 

kadaka-mizi, v. rise ; stand up ; be risen (of sun). 

kadaka-nagi. v. look up. 

kadaka-pagalai. n. caecum of dugong. 

kadaka-poidai, v. let know, divulge. 

kadaka-pudai. v. to go straiglit up, as smoke. 

kadaka-tamai, v. come up, as tawal. 

kadaka-tanori, v. be standing up, be upright. 

kadaka-wali, v. climb up. 
kadamai, v. roll against. 

adaka-kadamai, v. peel, flay. 
kadapa damu. n. a sea-grass (Cymodocea ciliata). 
kadlg, M. a bracer or arm guard. Mir. kadik. Ma. adiijo. 

kadig-tam, n. the ornament of the kadig. 

kadig-tang, n. = kadiy-tum. 
kag, n. a post. PI. kagai. 

pasi-kag, n. inner side posts of house. 

aaru-kag, n. main post of house. 
kai = /£o/, q.v. 

kai, demons, here, out of sight, behind, 
kai, n. a mat from New Guinea, made of strips of 

Pandanus. 
kai, part, indicating future. 
kaiad, n. grandmother. Mir. knied, ancestor, 
kaiar, n. the crayfish or spiny lobster (Palinurus). PI. 
kniaml, Mir. kaier. 

l£aiar(a)gam, n. a variety of sugar-cane, easily broken. 



kaiar pit, n. a bird. 

kaib (kai-ib), n. this morning, now, to-day. 

kaiet (?) 

kaiet-gamuli, M. a. brown, II. 62. 
kaig = foi(/, q.v. 
kaigas, n. the shovel-nosed shark (Rhinobatis granu- 

latus), V. 164. 
kaigob, n. an arrow with plain bone barb. 
kaigu, demons, down. 
kaikai, n. big feathers, <iuins ; a stick decorated with 

feathers, V. 334. 
kaikukua, n. name of a plant, V. 196. 
kaime, u. nu'te, companion (Gr. p. 21, note). 

kaunel-minami, v. join. 

kaimel-uzari, v. accompany, go as mate. 
kaimi = i(i/Hjt', q.v. 
kain, a. new. 

kaln ipi-gasamai, v. marry ; get married, 
kaine, ad. first time. 

kaip, n. the articular condyle of the lower jaw. 
kaise, M. ad. perhaps. 
kaiwa, n. island. 

kaiwalgal, n. people of Muralag. 
kaiwa, esclam. when head was cut off. 
kaka, n. a tree with strong, hard wood, V. 33. 
kake, exclam. addressed to a woman. 
kakur(a). 

kakurka-tai, v. step across. 

kakur-patai, v. step across. 
kakur(u) , n. an egg ; ovary of a fish ; testicles. PI. kakurul. 

kakurud-za, n. a sea shell (Potamides). 
kal(a), n. the hinder part ; back ; starboard of canoe. 

kala-garka, n. a poor man. 

kalanu, ad. at the back, behind, 
kalak (klak), n. a spear, javelin, thrown with kubai. 
VI. khikal, Mir. kalak, K. Y. kalka. 

klak-markai, n. = baiu. Cf. V. 85. 

klak-Ditui-get, n. index finger, 
kalakala, n. a fowl. Cf. Mir. knlkal, K. kurakura, Ku. 
kdnikiirti. ' 

kalapl, n. the Queensland bean (Eutada scandens). 

Cf. kiiliipi, kolupi. 
kalmel, ii. = kaimel. 

kalu, n. a parrot fish (Pseudoscarus rivulatus 1 ). 
kaliun-rid, n. the collar bone. 

kamad(i), n. a belt made of young ooco-nut palm loaf, 
worn obliquely across the chest. D.ainuta, necklace, 
kaman, n. heat. 

kaman-aai, v. be hot, be scorched. 

kamanal, a. Iiot. 

wakai kamani-mlzi, M. v. be sorry, 
kamat, a. gross. 

kame, exeliim. addressed to a man. 
kamug, n. thatch. 

kamuB, II. a masked performer in the Maica ceremony, 
V. 349. 



104 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



kanga, n. = kamiis, V. 349. 
kang-gu, n. a fro;,'. 

kangu-pagami, v. join. 
kap=Av(?;, ii.v. 
kapai, n. plastrou of turtle. 
kapu, a. good to look at, beautiful. 

kapua, n. good. 

kapuaka-asi, v. believe, have faith, hope. 

kapua-korkak, a. right, straight. 

kapu-ganul, a. scented. 

kapu-mital, a. edible, pleasant to taste. 

kapu-wakai-asi, v. trust, place faith in. 
kap(u), n. a seed; a nut; a single banana. Mir. kep, 
1). hap'i, K. iopu, seed. 

timi-kapu, n. the red aud black seed of Abrus preca- 
torius, "crab's eyes." 
kar, n. a fence. A Miriam word. 

kara, n. name of a tree (Capparis sp.); the raw fruit is 
eaten in initiation into maid, V. 321. 

karad-gamul, a. yellow, II. 61. 
kara, M. = A««ra, island. 

karalaig, M. n. a native of Muralag. PI. karalgal. 
karaba (}i.) = l;iiba. 
karati(u), n. nostrils. 
karar Ikrar), n. turtle-shell ; mask made of turtle-shell. 

karar-asi, v. be flexible, be pliable, as karar when 
heated ; obey, be subject to, agree. 

karar-mad, n. a straight canoe, V. 29. 

karar-tud, n. turtle-shell fish-hook. 
karas, n. mast of canoe. 

karasi uru, n. rigging of canoe. 
karawaeg, n. one who cannot, one who is unable 

(Gr. p. 36). 
karbai. n. the white reef heron (Demiegretta sacra). 

karbaid-gamul, a. white, II. 60. 
karengeml, v. hear, listen. 
kari, n. a snake, V. 66. 
karkar-pal, n. pancreas (of dugong). 
karmoi, n. a fish (Scatophagus). 

karum(a), n. the monitor lizard (Varanus) ; in .Jargon 
'■ iguana." 

karuma-gam, n. skin of the monitor. 

karuma-gungau, n. = karnnui-yam. 

karum-palai, v. cause one to move head from side to 
side, bother, distract by asking one (|uestion before 
another is completed. 

kanima-tapi, v. swim like lizard, n. name of a dance, 
karurl, ii. a bird, the curlew. 
kasa, n. a river, stream. 
kasa, ad. barely, just, only. 

kasa-kupal, a. naked. 

kasa-poibal, v. lend. 

kasa-tabu, n. a harmless snake, 
kasigi, a. ijuick, hurried. 

kat(a) (kato), n. the neck ; pluck of a turtle ; a green 
frog. Cf. B. gata, neck. 



kata-kunuml, v. be strangled. 

kata-mizi, v. be narrow, let slip through with difS- 
culty. 

kata-palgi, v. jump up, spring up. 

katau-kuik, u. lower wall of the pharynx (turtle). 
katak. n. a frog ; a stridulating instrument that makes a 

noise like a frog, IV. . Cf. kata. 
katamlal, n. bananas on the bunch. 

katama-bera, n. banana leaf. 

katama-dadakora, n. leaf spike of banana. 

katama-gulagwal, n. dried banana leaf. 

katama-kurui, n. spike at end of flower-stalk of 
banana. 

katama-pura, n. banana skin. 

katama-titi, n. a bunch of bananas. 

katam-mltal, a. bitter, 
katauoi, n. the green parrot, 
kauba, S. n. laziness, weakness, fatigue. 

kauba-asi. v. become tired, do slowly through fatigue. 

kaubad-wakai-asi, v. doubt. 

kaubalaig, u. a convalescent, 
kaubu. S. n. fighting ; war. Mir. keubu. 

kaubuzig, n. a warrior, 
kauburu. n. a gourd. 
kaukuik= /.(liraA-HfA:, q.v. 
kaunil, n. a buudle, as of arrows. 
kaunil, n. coco-nut fibre or coir, 
kaura, M. = A«/ifa, island. Mir. kaur. Ma. «ra. 

kauralaig, M. n. a native of JIuralag. PI. kauralgal. 
kaura, n. the nautilus shell (Nautilus pompiHus). 

kaura dan, n. artificial eye of nautilus nacre, placed 
in skull. 

kaura-danau-minar, n. a lozenge pattern, 
kaura, n. the external ear. PI. kaurar. 

kaura-mau, n. the ear-hole. 

kaura-pus, S. = kaura-mau. 

kaura-tarte, 'M.. = kttura-tira. 

kaura-tira, n. hole in the lobe of the ear. 
kauru, n. the laughing jackass or giant kingfisher 

(Dacelo gigas). 
kausa, n. flower, fruit, seed, nut. 
kausa, n. a tree (Pandanus pedunculatus), 
kausi, n, a hawk, 

kauta, n. one side or half of a split canoe, 
kauturi, n. a blue crab, 
kawa, ad. here. 

kawa = A(U(ra = A«(irrt, q.v. Cf. B, kauala, island, 
kawakuik, n. a young man, a lad after initiation, 
kawaladi, n. a name of a war dance, V. 302. 
kawer, u, a small black fish, comes in shoals, 
kawlpa, n. grass. 
kaza, n, a fathom. PI. kazal. Mir. kaz. 

kaz-tidal, v. double, fold, fold over, 
kazan, n. [kindness], 

kazanal, a, kind, generous. 

kazangi, a. mean, greedy. 



MABUIAG ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



105 



kazi (/.(I in coni)jounds), ii. a person ; a child ; a de- 
pendent ; voung of animals. PI. kazil. 

garka, garkazi. n. person, man, male. 

ipika, iplkai, ipikazi, n. a woman, female, wife. 

kazi-adai. v. bep;et a child. 

kazigi, a. deserted. 

kazigig. n. a childless person. 

kazi gubax epiz, M. adopt. Mir. gobnrem tah. 

kazilai-gab. V. 183. 

kazilaig, n. person with children. 

kazi-toridi, M. v. adopt. 

kuiku-kazi, n. V. 133. 

samu-kazi. n. a j'oung cassowary. 

waru-kazi, n. a young turtle, 
kebei, n. a tree (Ficus pilosa). 
keda. a. such ; ad. so. 

keda ngadal, a. like, appearing like. 
kek(i), n. a star, a Eridanus. 
keka. n. a long thin stick with sharp point, used in 

lighting. 
kekeri, n. a bird with red breast. 
keki. n. a gull.. 

kerne, n. a season, about Christmas time, 
kemu, n. a plant, V. 351. 
kerai, n. green fat (of turtle), 
kerere, n. a kind of wmtri, V. 346. 
kerikeri, n. a plant (Zingiber sp.). 

kerikerad-gamul, a. yellow, II. 61. 
kerisa, n. blue mountain parrot. 
kerket(i), n. smart of pain ; anger, rage. 

kerketal, a. smarting ; biting of snake. 

kerketigi-tabu, n. harmless snake. 

kerket-palai, v. torment, make smart. 
kemge, n. a boy or girl at the age of puberty, an initiate, 
V. 202—218. 

kemgau matamzi kula, V. 209. 
ketai, n. a yam (Dioscorea). 
kewe, n. hopping fish (Periophthalmus). 
M, 8u£f. (Gr. p. 12, 4.S). 
kiak, n. a sealiird, an aiigad. 
kiaki, n. a plant (Polanisia viscosa) ; " catch woman," 

V. 328. 
kiamai. v. make amni, make " copper masri." 
kiaur. n. a cloud, black one side and violet on the 
other. 

kiaurad-gamul, a. violet, II. 61. 
klbu, n. the loins, lower pai't of the back. 

kibu-mlnar, n. a totem mark on the loins. 
kibu, n. the Occident; sundown; a mythical island to 

which the mari of deceased persons go. 
kld(a), (kido), ad. direction. 

kid-angai. v. carry forth. 

kidagarka, n. attendants in puberty ceremony, V. 
202. 

kidakida, ad. backwards and forwards. 

kidakida nagi, v. look about. 
H. Vol. III. 



kldowak-asi, v. "all same sick." 

kid-tai. v. overturn, turn round, turn inside out. 
kiki, 

klkimi, v. hasten. 
klkir(i), n. disease, illness. 

kikiri-asi, v. be sick, be ill ; be sore about, angry. 

kikirl-gaaamai, v. be sorry. 

kiktrigig, n. a healthy person. 

kikirilaig, n. an invalid, 
kim, n. a canoe, V. 29. 
kima. n. bulb of the plant tiirik. 
kimus, n. an arrow. 

sapur kimus, n. wing-bone of fapiir used for piercing 
ears. 

taiak kimus, n. a poisoned arrow, 
kimus. n. the shin. 

kin, n. a creeping plant; used in making mahamnk. 
kirer, n. vein, artery. Mir. kerar. 
klrkup = i;ii7 up, q.v. 
kisai, n. the moon ; a month, 
kisu. 

kisu-kuik, n. bow ornament of canoe. 

kisulaig, n. a hawk-hke bird, 
kisuri, M. = fcisai. 
klak = J:rtZafc, q.v, 
koam, n. heat. Cf. kaman. 

koama-pali, v. warm one's self. 

koam-asi, v. be hot, have fever, 
kob, n. tail, of mammals. 
kobai = Aw6a(', q.v. 
kobaki, n. cough. Mir. kohek. 
kobebe, n. a bird, "grow in bush," V. 44. 
kobegada, S.=nugedan. 
kobu = A«»&ii, q.v. 
kod, n. a ring. 
koda, n. a food plant. 

kodadar pui, n. a tree (Galactia tenuiflora). 
kodal(u), n. a crocodile (Crocodilus porosus). In .Jargon 
"alligator." Mir. kodal, hidal, D. kaja, koje. 

kodalu-paruag, n. a crocodile arrow. ' 

dam kodal, n. pipe-fish (Gastrotokeus biaculeata), and 
needle-fish (Amphisile scutata). 
kogwoi, M. = A«t«i. 
koi, a. liirgo, great, big. 

koi-gorsar, a. many, numerous. 

koi-kutal, a. long, high, tall. 

koima, adv. much, greatly. 

koi nel, n. generic name. 

koi ngar, n. elephantiasis of the legs. 

koisar, a.^koignrsar. 

kolsar kuikulnga, n. a swear or curse word, " too 
many head," V. 81. 
koimai, n. a scarification on the shoulder, 
kokan, n. a wooden ball ; a hollow ball made of coco-nut 
palm leaf, introduced from the Pacific. 

baiwalnil-kokan, n. a game, a kind of hookey. 

14 



106 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



kokaper, n. a spark. Mir. kuknper. 

kokwam. n. hibiscus. 

kolab, n. the scapuhi, shoulder blade. 

kolain = A-i)/«&. 

kolapi, n. a gozed carved to represent the Queensland 

bean. Cf. kcilai'i, kulapi. 
kole, cxclam. address or call to a number of men. 
komaka, n. name of a tree [? mango], V. 103. 
komakoma, S. = hopukopudan. 
komcin — kiniiaiit koaiii, q. v. 
komazi, n. pectoral and ventral fins of a fish, 
konani, v. bold on forehead. 
\LOinl = knutiil, q.v. 

kopam, T. n. a native of Kiwai. PI. kopamil. 
koper, n. a tree, 
kopi, n. a lump, half. 

kopUai, n. pi. two rows of barbs on the kwi.uru. 
kopukopudan, ad. one by one. 
kopuru. n. a fish, "whiting" (Sillago). 
kora, T. n. = kodal, crocodile, 
korawaig = kariiwa i<i, q.v. 
korerg. n. a fish, 
korkak, n. the throat. Cf. B. iiaiigap. 

kapua korkak, a. right, straight. 

korkak bad, n. sigh, sorrow, 
korkor. n. a crow, 
koroi, T. suS. = giiruig, kiiruig. 
koroseg, n. = kusiiig. 
korsi = /.«)■«(■, q.v. 
kor(u), n. = kuru, corner, q.v. 
korua. n. a tall tree. 
kosa = /i<i».v«, q.v. 
kosa = /.(i.'>'«, q.v. 
kosar^ iikanar. 
koai [perhaps connected with knzi], 

kosl-mai, v. rear, bring up. 

kosi-mi, v. grow up, increase. 

mamui kosimi, v. make peace, 
kotama, n. duodenum (of turtle). 
kote, n. occiput. Jlir. knd. 
kotin, n. a pattern of circles, 
kousa, n. = kiitis(i, flower, fruit, q.v. 
kowal, n. a tree with sour bark, V. 22. 
kozikozi, a. [discontented]. 

kozikozi-muli, v. grumble, argue, 
krabar, n. a plant (Polypodium quercifolium). 
krar= karar, q.v. 
krem, M. n. the white heron. 
kris, n.^kerisa, parrot. 
krup = An/iiy, q.v. 
kual, 11. a red-berried Eugenia, 
kuak, 11. a food plant. 
kuam = fco«Hi, kamun, q.v, 
kuasar = ukasar, q.v. 
kubai, n. a throwing-stick. 

kubai-ngur, n. the peg or hook of the kubai. 



kubai-pit, n. the peg of the kubai. 
kubar, II. n. shell of coco-nut. 

kubi, n. charcoal ; darkness. Cf. B. gobi, dark, Mir. 
kupkupi, dark. 

dada-kubU, n. midnight. 

kubi-bud, n. a black stone, used for making paint. 

kubi-budad, a. black, blue, II. 60. 

kubi-kim, n, a large kind of taro. 

kubikimad-gamul, a. violet colour, II. 61. 

kubikubi, a. dark, black, II. 60. 

kubil, a. dark ; n. darkness, night. 

kubil-gim, n. a plant (Diospyros sp.). 

kubimaidal-pitai, n. banded gar-fish (Hemirhamphus 
{iir) =paris, of Miriam, 
kubu, n. a small fish. 
kubwai, n. a halo round the moon, 
kuda, n. the koi nel for kiugfish. 
kudu. n. the elbow. 

kudulu, n. upper arm of turtle. 
kudu, n. a phrase, verse, sentence; "piece of word." 

kudu-wai, v. assent, say yes. 

kudu-mai, v. admit, accede to. 
kugi, n. the young of sapur. 
kuiai, 

kuiai-turik, n. a sword. 
kuik(u), (kwik), n. head [knob; lump]; base of tree 
trunk. 

kuik-aimai, v. begin. 

kuik-gasami, v. tie cloth round head. 

kuik-get, M. n. the index finger. 

kuik-minar, n. base of trunk. 

kuik-nidai. v. talk with, discuss. 

kuik-palai, v. increase. 

kuik-patai, v. behead. 

kuik-tai, v. nod. 

kuiku-dan, n. shoot of banana. 

kulku-garka, n. head-man, chief. (G.) king, lord. 
PI. kuikn-garkazil. 

kuikuig, n. the eldest son, first-born ; elder of brothers. 

kuiku-ipi, n. first of several wives. 

kuiku-iut, a. head house, V. 306. 

kulku-kazl, n. the eldest of those persons in the 
relationship of kazi, V. 133. 

kuikul, a. chief. 

kuikul-mai, n. a pattern. 

kuik-uru, n. a frontlet. 

kuiku-saiU, n. small vertical posts in front of ku$H 
on canoe. 

kuikutal = Aoi-/,H(a/, q.v. 

kuiku-tatl, n. the elder men of those called tati, V. 133. 

kuiku-tidari, M. v. behead. 

kuiku-tugul, u. stars which represent the dorsal fin 
ill the constellation Baidam. 
kuiop, u. the dragon-fly. 
^mi3.i—guit-wai, q.v. 
kuki, n. the north-west monsoon, the rainy season. 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY, 



107 



kuld ada, n. the south-west. 

kuki dogam, n. the west. 
kuku, n. foot, toes. 

kukun-mapi, S. v. kick. 

kukunu-nanamari, M. v. to kick, 
kukuam, n. flower of the hibiscus. Cf. J^okwam. 
kukusai, n. pole for awning of canoe. 
kul, a. first, 
kula. 11. stone. K. kuni-ere, a stone. 

kula kadami, v. roll stone. 

kulan-mun^ai, v. stone, cast stones at. 

kulal, a. stony. 

kula sib, n. bravery. 

mangizi kula, n. V. 22. 
kulai, n. front. 

kulai goiga, n. day before yesterday. 

kulai-tal, V. go before, precede. 
kulapi, n. the Queensland bean (Entada scandens). 

Cf. kalapi, kolapi. 
kulba, a. worn, old from use ; ad. long ago. 
kuli, n. the tiller, steering board of a canoe, 
kulka. n. blood. 

ar kulka, n. redness of dawn. 

kulkadai. T. u. a variety of yam. 

kulkad-gamul, a. red, purple, II. 60. 

kulka-iati, v. bleed slightly. 

kulka-ieuti, v. bleed in a stream. 

kulkal-sanimai, v. bleed from several wounds, 
kulu. n. the knee. 

kulun-nanamai, v. kick with knee. 

kulun-tari, v. kneel. 

kulu-widai, v. crawl. 
kulu-kulba, S. ad. first time, 
kuma, II. dung, excrement, rust. 
kuman(i), n. name of a plant used in harmful magic, 

V. 325 ; fruit eaten in the rainy season, 
kumikumi, n, a plant (Costus sp.). 
kumikumi, n. long thin sticks, 
kumsar, u. a small black dogfish without teeth. 
kun(a), n. hinder part of a thing ; stem of a canoe. 

kuna-gab, n. end board of canoe. 

kunai, n. terminal bone of turtle. 

kus-tai, v. follow. 

kuna-tamul, n. the last compartment of the platform- 
crate of a canoe, used for storing the crew's food. 

kuna-tete, u. hind i>a\vs of mammal. 

kuna-tug, n. posterior outrigger pole of canoe. 

kunia-tardai, v. go back by water, 
kunia-tidl, v. return, go back, come back. 

kunia-kld-tari, v. turn back to the left. 

kun-toidal, v. follow, 
kunakan, a. strong, hard. 

gimau kunakan, n. kingdom of heaven (G.). 

kimakan-asi, v. become strong, 
kunar, u. lime, ashes. 

ktmarad-gamul, a. light grey colour, II. 61. 



kunumi, v. tie up. 

kata-kunumi. v. be strangled. 
kup(a), u. the buttocks; tuft of fibre at base of coco-nut. 
O. opo. 

igal-kup-mani, S. n. = mut uinahiiii/a, q.v. 

kupa-kuasar, n. adultery. 

kupal, M. n. tail of bud. 

kupal-baba, n. tail feather. 

kup-mani, v. [twist]. 

kup-wldai, v. make a foundation (G). 

ukasar-kupalaig, n. adulterer, 
kupai. n. authority, power; inheritance, a share of goods 

or property. 
kupai, n. = kupm; navel. Cf. Mir. kopor, Ma. iipiiia, K. 

ijtipuro, Ku. opolo. 
kupar, n. a white-berried Eugenia, with edible fruit, 
kupar, n. the navel. 

augadau kupar, n. navel shrine of an aitgad, V. 5. 
kupar, n. a worm. PI. kuparar. 
kupe, n. a medicinal plant, 
kuper, n. a univalve shell (Helix bipavtita). 
kupulei. n. coco-nut water-bottle. 
kupumau tira, n. holes in the side of a canoe to which 

the poles are lashed. 
kupur, n. "whiting" (Sillago ciliata). Cf. kopiiru. 
kur, 

kur-pudai, v. chase. 

kur-tamar, n. large intestine of turtle. 

kur-tumai, v. scratch, 
kurasar, n. a rock at sea. 
kurdai, n. = kwodai, rope, 
kurdar, v. ; mata kurdar, immediately, 
kuri, n. a gum tree, 
kurisai, H. n. fringe of the bid, V. 194. 
kursai, T. n. = kaura, ear. 
kurseg, M. = koruseg, kitsaiy, q.v. 
kursi, n. hammer-headed shark (Zygaina). 
kuru (koru), n. angle, corner, space in the corner. 

kurubad, korbad, u. a corner, the point or projection 

of the corner. i 

kuruai, n. a rainbow ; stars in the tail of the oonstellatiou 

Jkiidam. 
kuruai, n. a triangular slab of urakar wood or turtle-shell 

)nit on the nape of the neck. Cf. iiaiwii. 
kurub(u), n. tree with yellow pungent fruit; "bark 
belong canoe." 

kurubud-gamul, a. green, II. 61. 
kurugat, n. post of a house, 
kuruig, suff. (Gr. p. 39). 

kurup (krup), u. the rock-cod (Serramus crapao). 
kurusaig, n. self, 
kurusika, conj. until, till. 
kus, n. jelly fish, Medusa, 
kuaa, n. "white fish." 

ku8(a), n. Coix lachrymae, Job's tear seeds; a tassel made 
of Alls seeds. PI. kusal. Mir. kus, K. D. kusa. 

14—2 



108 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



kusa-doi. n. a pandauus frontlet, 
kusad-uru (kusad-ul), n. a frontlet worn on the iid. 
kusa-kap, n. a mythical gigantic bird, V. 24. 
kusal, n. a necklace ; the constellation Pleiades. 
kusal-zazl, n. a zazi with a short fringe, 
kusaig. S. n. self. 
kusakus, u. a broom=piwvl. 
kusil, 11. a crate on canoe platform. 
kus6 = kii.111, q.v. 
kusu, n. a coco-nut water-buttle. PI. kuaiil. 

kusu-morap, n. a short bamboo [water-vessel?]. 
kusub. n. a wood used for kiiruai. 
kuta, n. a woman's basket. 

kut(a), n. the end, extremity of anything ; the end of the 
day, evening, afternoon. D. kuta. 
kuta-buia, n. evening twilight, light after sunset. 
kut^apu, n. the relationship between the father's sister 

and brother's child ; father's other wife, V. 134. 
kuta-dimur, n. the little finger. 
kuta-get, M. n. the little finger. 
kutaig, 11. a younger person, younger brother of man 

or younger sister of woman ; a younger son. 
kutal, a. long, 
kutanu, ad. in the evening, 
kuta-tati, n. the younger men of those called Udi, 

V. 133. 
kut-lpi, 11. wife other than the first. 
mop-kutaig, n. youngest of many children, 
pui kut, n. a fine tree, tall tree, 
kutai, n. a fibrous yam (Dioscorea). 
kutibu, n. Kwoiam's charm, worn on the lip; an 

(iiigiul. 
kutikuti, u. a kind of shark ••with hard skin"; an 

atijiad. 
kutin, n. a pencil : wisdom (G.). 
kutinau-kulk, a. wise (G.). 
kutinau-garka, n. a carpenter, 
ku-u-rug, n. the ground dove, 
kuzi, n. a species of hawk, 
kwai, n. = kuai, crown of head, 
kwaimai = koiviai. 

kwaimai (or kninuii) -aimai, v. scarifj-. 
kwal, 

kwali = kote, q.v. 

kweda, n. the gromets on the backstays of a canoe, 
kwier, n.=giciar, the sting-ray. 
kwik = AidiH, q.v. 

kwiuru. n. the dart of the tcap (dugong harpoon), 
kwod, 11. the place in which sacred ceremonies take 
place, V. 208. 
taiu-kwod, n. the meeting place for the initiation 
ceremony. 
kwodal, 11. twisted native rope, 
kwoiamatara, n. a shell, 
kwoie, 11. a hawklike bird, V. 64. 
kwoiram (?) 



kwoiram-rangadal, n. name of a star which appears 

during IlViur. 
kw6ka, n. a black bird, the leather-head; '■ Kaikai meat 

along butcher at Thursday island." (Philemon sp.), 

V. 69. 
kwokata, u. a frontlet of coco-nut palm leaf. 
kwopal, u. the thick spathe of the coco-nut flower. 
kworanga, u. coffer-fish (Ostracion cornutum). 
kwote, u. = kole, the occiput. 
kwual, n. a curlew. 

1, suff. indicating pi. or forming adjective (Gr. p. 13, 17). 
labai, v. cut with knife. 
ladai, v. chop, cut with axe. 
ladu, v. pi. go. 

pa-ladu, V. go back. 
lag(a), n. a dwelling-place. 

laglaig, n. a person belonging to the place. PI. 

lagalpal. 
urpu-pagai-lag, n. a bathing-place, pool, 
lai, suff. (<h-. p. '21). 
lai, T. suff. f\. = l. 

laig, suff. = /((!/), g (Gr. p. 13, 1(5). 
lak(a), ad. again. 
lamai, v. copulate. 
laml, 

dadia lami, v. meet, 
ngu lami, v. hate. 
lapai, V. cut, cut down, 
launga, ad. and exclam. no, not. 

launga mani, n. despise, not do, take no account of. 
leara, n. a species of cashew (Auacardium). 
U, M. suff. =Z. 
li, n. a woman's basket made of pandanus leaves. PI. 

lidai. 
liwak, n. the chameleon. 
Ingu, S. BuS.=nungu. 
I6da, u. the shell worn on the groin when fighting. 

Cf. alidan. 
Ipa, S. suff. = n(fca. 
Itt, n. shoot of a coco-nut. 
lu, n. shell of a crab, skeleton (of a turtle). 

lu patai, V. crack shell. 
lu L'l^'ti "S far as possible]. 

lual, v. stretch out. [Probably same as lu-wai.] 
get-luai, v. reach, stretch out baud, 
paru-luai, v. artificially flatten an infant's forehead, 
luami, 

bal ruami, v. enter, as village, 
lugi, a. near. 

lugi-gudal, a. neighbourly, friendly, 
lugi-ulalg, V. walk close. 
lu-gulgupi, V. walk or go round, 
ngapa-lugl-taml, v. come closer, approach, 
lukup, n. medicine, sorcery ; ink. A Miriam word 
introduced from the Mission school on Murray Island. 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY, 



109 



lulko, n. a palm (Ptyohosperma elegans) ; a water basket 

made of the leaves. Cf. utii. 
lumai, V. look for, seek. 

ngapa-lmnai, v. seek. 
lupadi, n. leaves (G.). 

lupai, V. shake, scatter seed ; [shake one's resolution], 
persuade. 

gal-lupai, V. tremble. 

gamu-gal-lupai, v. tremble. 
lupalai, V. hurry. 

lupali, V. be astonished, marvel, hurry, 
lupi, V. shake. 

Icuiku-lupi. v. wag the head. 
lurug, n. the haunch bone, 
lutuag, V. go to (a place), 
luwai, v. stretch out (hand, etc.); knead and straighten 

a newly-born infant ; shave, 
luwidi, v. stretch out hand. 

ma, .suff. (Gr. p. 38). 

ma, u. spider ; cobweb ; afterbirth ; a moth. 

mabaeg, n. man, PI. mahaeiial. 

mabar, n. windpipe. 

mabara kuik, n. trachea (dugong, etc.). 
mad(a), n. pudendum muliebre ; nest of bird. 

madal, a. female. 
mader, n. a tree ; wood used for fuel and digging sticks. 
mad(u), n. flesh, thick flesh, as on calf and thigh. 
Mir. mtd ; Ku. vuizu. 

madu-minar, n. a scarification on the thigh or calf. 

madu-pamai, v. start, be startled. 

madu-pami, v. be startled, jump. 
madub, u. a plant (Fenzlia sp.). 
madub, n. a charm, V. 345, also V. 36. 
mae, n. a bark used for making petticoats, 
mael, T. suff. = »««!. 
mag, n. sweat. Cf. inuruff. Mir. viei'eg. 

magau-ruaig-asi, v. perspire, be bathed in sweat, 
magad, n. hair of animal, fur. 
magag, n, a kind of wauri, V. 346. 
magao, n. strength. 

magaol, a. strong, 
magi, a. small. 

magi batalnga, n. early morning. In Jargon, 
" small daylight." 

magikia, ad. for a while ; not quite. 

magina, S. T. sometimes for maginya. 

magi nel, n. specific name. 

magi-tiom, n. a boy, lad. 
magls {?), Mir. mefli, vomit ; D. mauiijajc. 

maglsanal-adi, v. vomit. 
magubi, v. increase, 
mai, u. pearl shell, nacre of pearl oyster. Mir. mai. 

danga-mal, n. a crescentic ornament of nacre. 

danga-mari, M. = daniia-mai. 

mald-gamul, a. white, II. 61. 



mai, n. a well, pool. Cf. dan. 
mai, n. time, day. PI. iiiiiii>iil. 
mai, u. a kind of fruit. 
mai, sn(l. = mal (Gr. p. 20). 
mai, n. mourning, grief. 

koi-mai-adal, kol-mai-angai, v. mourn, wail. 

mai-adai, v. weep, mourn. 

mai-irsi, v. cry, mourn. 

mailmail, ad. sadly. 
mai, v. take, bring, do, cause, make. [Probably = »(««!.] 

adaka-mai, v. take away. 

ari-mai, v. take by force. 

aza-mai, v. leave remaining. 

baminu-mai, v. break. 

borsa-mai, v. find fault. 

dadla-mai, v. divide into two. 

gabuu-mai, v. heal. 

gamu-mai, v. snatch away. 

gaug^-mal, v. shake. 

geget-mai, v. torment. 

get-mal, v. be hurt. 

geta-mina-mai, v. measure in fathoms. 

grima-mal, v. tip up, lift partly up. 

giuu-mai, v. deride, laugh at. 

gumi-mai, v. hide, secrete. 

ia-ada-mai, v. make an outcry ("make hell of a 
noise"). 

iaka-mai, v. tell about, confess, relate. 

iawa-mai, v. make a journey. 

ikai-mai, v. make glad, gladden. 

kadaka-mai, v. take up, exalt. 

kamai-mal, v. be patient with, console. 

kausa-mai, v. bear fruit. 

kuasar-kupau-mai, v. commit adultery. 

launga-mai, v. leave off, despise, neglect. 

maman-mal, v. honour. 

mamui-mal, v. make well in health, save. 

mari-mai, v. become thin, pine. 

mata-mai, v. continue, endure. 

mina-mai, v. measure. , 

modobia-mal, v. reward. 

muluka-mai, v. bring down, abase. 

ngadal-mai, v. do the like, imitate. 

ngapa-mal, v. bring. 

ngonanu-mai, v. boar in inind, remember. 

niuia-mai, v. entangle. 

sib-mai, v. take thought for. 

sigazi-ngapa-mai, v. bring from a distance. 

supa-mal, v. bring false report, bear false witness. 

uba-mai, v. clothe, dress up. 

uka-mai, v. put together, mix. 

uma-mai, v. kill. 

wagel-mai, v. follow. 

wara kid ngonanu-mal, v. be perplexed. 

wal-mai, v. awaken. 
malb (.'), 



110 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



maibau-kisa, n. a fresh-water creek. 
maibi, n. a koi net for rays. 

maidam, T. n. an image used in rain making, V. 352. 
niald(e), n. sorcery. Mir. maid. 

maidelaig, n. a sorcerer. 
maideg, n. a grass petticoat, imported from Mawata. 
maiei, T. n. a belt worn obliquely across the chest. Mb. 

Vfiga, M. kamad. 
maiek, 

maiek-tai, v. tie round, as string round a box or 
parcel. 
malg^i = moi,(7i<(, q.v. 
maikuik, n. a generation, 
mail, S. suft. = )Ha/. 
mailman, ad. Cf. mai, mourning, 
maita, n. belly, womb. 

koi-maita, n. crop (of bird or turtle), 
magi-maita, n. stomach (of turtle), 
maita-irui, v. be satisfied, be filled with food, 
maita-kuik, n. resophagus (of turtle), 
maital, a. corpulent, 
maltalaig, u. a pregnant woman, 
patal-maita, n. cesophagus. 
maitui, u. sleepiness. 

maituin tiai, v. feel sleepy. 
malwa, M. n. a species of turtle, V. 155. 
maiwa, n, the giant clam (Tridacna gigas), and other 

species of Tridacna ; a gtib made from maiwa shell. 
maiwas. n. a small leaf petticoat imported from Mawata. 
mak, u. a breakwind of bushes. 

makamak, n. narrow, circular, twisted leg ornaments, 
worn just above the calf. Mir. mukamuk, Ma. 
nuikamak. 
makas, n. a mouse, rat. Mir. mokeis, D. makat, 

B. makata, 0. makacha = ha,t. 
makiam, S. n. a call, cooey = w;ai. 

maklam-ieudai, S. v. wonder at, exclaim = Mabuiag 
wahawal ieudai. 
mal, suff. pi. of n;ia (Gr. p. 18). 
malai, v. fill with a liquid. 

malgui, n. shoot, blade of grass, young plant spring- 
ing up. 
duba-malgui, n. a bud. 
malgui-adai, v. to grow. 
malil. 11. metal. 

malil-uru, n. a chain, 
malu, n. the sea, deep water. Ku. nuilu-7iiii\ salt water. 
O. malo, ocean. 
malud, n. green leaf of coco-nut. [Probably anything 

green.] 
malud-gamul, a. green ; blue, II. 60. 
malud-gamul prak, n. the blue coral (Heliopora 

coBrulea). 
maluig, S. n. = malvliii(i. 

malulaig, S. n. a native of Badu or Mabuiag. PI. 
maluliial. 



mamal, a. beloved, careful. 
mamedia, n. a plant, V. 350. 
mamul. ad. well, carefully, not ill. 

mamui-mai, v. make well, bring health to. 
msimni = HI 1 1 iif II i. 
manarl, n. [a small number]. 
manarigal, n. pi. a few per.sons. 
manarimal, n. pi. a tew things. 
manaulal, n. pi. a few things, 
mang, n. fork. 
mangau labugrud, n. junction of two roads ; street 

corner (G.). 
tamau-mang, n. fork, forked branches of tree. 
mangi, v. come, arrive. 
dada mangi, v. meet, 
mani, v. take, fetch. Cf. K. Y. mane, taken, brought. 

For compounds, see iiuii. 
mapa = j!/;fijOT. 
mapai, 

garo-mapal, v. keep coming, assemble, 
kukuna-mapai, v. kick. 
mapar, n. the palate, 
mapeta, n. a baby. PI. mapetal. B. mapela, child. 

mapeta-kazl, n. baby, 
mapl, 

gar-mapi, v. meet. 
mapu, n. weight, heaviness. 
mapu-asi, v. be heavy. 

mapudaa, n. a phase of the moon, nearly half moon, 
mapul, a. heavy. 
marama, n. a hole in the ground, a pit. 
maramad, n. a grave, a place like a pit. 
maramnu-tiai, v. bmy in grave. 
m.aia,Tp — tiionip, q.v. 
marl, M. n. —mat, pearl shell. 

marl, u. spirit, ghost ; shadow cast by sun, reflection. 
PI. maril. 
marl-dan, S. n. a mirror, 
mari-get, u. name given to the imi of a deceased 

piTson dining the funeral ceremonies, V. 248. 
mari-imai-garka, n. a person who can see ghosts, 
mari-mai, v. pine away. 
marl-naidalza, u. a mirror, 
mari-naidi, v. be reflected, as in mirror, 
mari-pui, u. a plant, V. 321. 
markai, n. the representative of the deceased in the 
death dance, V. 252 ; an inhabitant of Kibu, ; an 
European. [Probably = ?nan and kai i.e. kazi.^ 
ipika-markai, u. impersonator of deceased female in 

the death dance, 
markai-gul. u. an European ship, 
markal-kuik, n. a mask of Dracaena leaves worn by 

iiiurkiii, V. 253. 
markai-mud, n. the store-house of a maideluiff. 
markai-sugu, u. a brittle-star-fish (Ophiomastix 
aiinulusa). 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



in 



markai-tlk, n. a bivalve mollusc used for bait. 

maxkai-widai, v. to divine, V. 358. 

turklam-markai, T. Tt. = mnrkai, V. 268. 
markununika, n. buslies for secludinp a gii-1 at puberty, 

V. 203. 
masalgl, n. a coco-nut when ripening, ' little bit diT.' 
masik, v. .sit, be in, be about, as a fence round 

garden, 
mat, n. a ceremonial heap of shells, V. 4. 
mat =»!('(. 
mata, ad. only ; constantly, still ; alone. 

mata-bangal, ad. in the future, in time to come. 

mata-dobura, ad. immediately, quickly. 

mata-keda, ad. all the same, just so, like, similar. 

mata-kul, ad. in time past, formerly. 

mata-kurdar, ad. quickly. 

mata-mina, a. right, proper, just as it should be. 
matal, v. 

get-matai, v. to feel with hands, 
matamai. v. beat, strike, hit. D. metamar, flog. 

dan-guda-matamai, v. blindfold, make eyes shut. 

gamula-matamai, v. to hit. 

get-matamai, v. strike with hands. 

guda-matamai, v. shut. 

paru bal-matamai, v. slap the face. 

uma-matamai, v. kill. 

warup-matamal, v. beat drum, 
matami, v, strike one's self. 

kabu-mataml, v. smite the breast. 

samudan-mataml, v. twinkle the eyes. 
mataru, n. a calm. Mir. metulti, B. vmtago. 
mSiti. n. a grasshopper, 
matoa. n. name of a plant, 
matu, n. a whale (? sperm whale). 
mau, 

mau-mlzi, v. preach, 
maubu-misin ('?), n. girl at puberty, V. 201. 
maumau, n. split bamboos on the gunwale of canoe, 

covering the joint between yar and ijarbmi. 
maupas, n. flower-stalk of coco-palm, 
mausa-usal, n. a scarilication on the cheek, 
mawa, n. nose. 

magi mawa, n. small nose. 

koi mawa maui, n. prominent nose. 
mawa, ii. uiinio of a ceremony, V. 348. 
maza, n. a reef. K. iiiajti, B. majzu. 
mazar, n. palm of hand, sole of foot, 
mei, n. the sky, clouds. 

mei-tai, v. cluster together, of clouds. 
mek, n. claws of a crab. B. imika, foot; Mir. mek, 

footjjrint. 
mekat(a) (meket), n. sheen, sun shining on water ; 
glory (G.). 

meket-aal, v. be shining; be glorious (G.). 
meke, n. a tree (Terniinalia Catappa). 
meker, n. a tree (Huritiera). 



merkai = »i(irA((/', q.v. 

merkal, a. white, II. 60. 
meroaJ, u. a bivalve (Circe castrenis). 
merpa, n. the pike-eel (Murenesox cinereus). 
met, u. pumice. 

merbal-met, ii. i>umici,-. 
metakorab (met kurabl), n. name of a constellation 
formed by the star Altair and the adjacent small 
stars, V. 12. 
mi, pref. forming interrogatives (Gr. p. 2.5, 42). 
mi, infix denoting the plural (Gr. p. 33), 
mlai, pron. what (Gr. p. 2.5). 
miaka, [? = m(ii-A:(ii]. 

miakal, a. white, II. 60. 
mimeg, V. 183. 
mln, n. paint, 
mlna, a. true, real, good, perfect. 

mina-asi, v. finish. 

mlna-get, n. right hand. 

mina-iaka-tamal, v. believe something not true. 

mlna-lai, n. koi nel for a kind of matwork. 

minanga, n. [truth], 
minai, v. [? arrange, fit together], 

kaba-minai, v. dance. 

kaimel-minal, v. join, 
minamai, v. [adjust, make straight, ?pl. of minui]. 

minamai-za, n. a ruler, a thing with which to make 
straight. 
minami, v. measure. 

get-minaml, v. measure in fathoms, 
minar, n. a pattern, mark, 
minilai, n. a kind of mat. Cf. iiiina. 
mipa, II. a wood used for kurnai, q.v. 
misai (S.), ad. yes. 
mlt(a), n. taste, a pleasant taste, sweetness. Cf. ter. 

mitagi, a. tasteless ; sour. 

mital, a. tasty, sweet, II. 187. 

mitalnga ! exclam. sorry! poor thing! 

mltau usal, n. chest scarification on women, 
mlzi, V. [be made, become, be moving]. , 

adaka-mizi, v. go out, go away, depart. 

akan-mizi, v. fear. 

armin-mizi, v. dawn. 

aziran-mizi, v. become ashamed. 

dadal-mizi, \. be in the middle. 

diwan-mizi, v. be glad. 

gaugui-mizi, v. be shaking, tremble. 

getan-mizt, v. spoil. 

iaka-mizl, v. be astonished, wonder at. 

laragi-mizi, v. be hungry. 

Imun-mizi, v. accuse. 

kadaka-mizi, v. rise, be a little way up, of sun. 

kulai-mlzi, v. precede, go first. 

launga-mizi, v. cease, do no more. 

mau-mizi, v. preach. 

moken-mlzi, v. want. 



112 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



ngapa-mizi, v. come, 
ubin-mizl. v. like, have a wi.sh for. 
um-mizl, v. die. 

wakai-kamani-mizl, M. v. l)e sorry. 
wal-mizi, v. cry out, call for. 
moaga, n. = mny. 
moai, 

moalzinga, n. an ulcer. 
mddal, n. a bundle of leaves. 

modobi, n. an equivalent, reward, payment, or wage. 
modobia, a. equivalent. 
modobigal, n. one equivalent to, one making up 

(cf. Gr. p. 46). 
modobingu-ubigi-asi, v. forgive, 
moi, n. = m»!, tire. 

moi-id, n. an eruption of pimples, 
moian. n. giant perch (Lates ealcarifer). 
moidai. v. build. 

gar-moidai, v. build, 
moie, n. shoulder straps made of pandanus. Cf. maiei. 
moigui, n. shoot, sprout. 

molgui-adai, v. to shoot out, grow. 
moken-mizl, S. v. want. 

mokwi, n. the supra-renal capsule (of dugong). 
mop, [n. tlie end]. Apparently a Miriam word. 

mop-kutaig, T. n. youngest of several brothers. 
morap, n. bamboo; bamboo water vessel. Mir. morep, 
K. intirabo, O. viarapi. 
sukub-morap, n. bamboo tobacco-pipe. O. viarapi. 
morau, n, the cassowary (Casuarius Beccarii). 
morbaigorabinij n. name of a fish, V. 16. 
mordamiziiiga = ;nH« uviaizinga, q.v. 
moroig = HiH)«i(7, q.v. 

mos. n. saliva, spittle. Mir. mos, Ku. mote. 
mosal-adai, v. spit at. 
mosal-adi, v. spit, 
mosu, n. = Hij(s«, ant. 

motoal, n. a fence made of matting. Cf. wosal. 
mowai, n. the attendant on girls during the puberty 
ceremonies, V. 201. [Probably the same as vioroiri 
or muruifi.] 
mowai-garka, n. the attendant on boys during initia- 
tion, V. 208. 
muamu, n. knowledge, wisdom. Cf. ngu. 
mu-asi, S. v. = mi7ta-asi, finish. 

mud, n. house, dwelling ; camp. Mir. meta, K. moto, 
Ku. mrle. 
doridimi-mud, n. prison (G.). 
mudaig-kaz, n. sweetheart. Cf. V. 13. 
mudu, n. bivalve (Anadara scapha). 
mudu, n. the cervical vertebrae ; the neck. PI. madul. 
mudu, n. name of a mask. 

mudu kap, n. a dance, V. 339, 340. 
muga-gud, M. n. a basket = io(. 

mugarir, n. a large fish called "barracoota" (Cybium 
sp.). 



mugu, n. the mound made by termites. 

mugn-urui, n. a termite. PI. mugu-uruU. 
mugud, n. thatch. 
mui, n. tire; a firebrand. PI. iiiuitai. Ku. mute. 

mui-kun, n. the fire-place on a canoe. 

mui-nitui, v. make fire. 
mui, n. the inside. Mir. mui. 

mula-trapotal, M. n. pi. ventral fins of fish. 

mula-uti, v. enter, go in. 

muia-utumi (mutumi), v. go down into, go into. 

muil, a. hollow. 
mukl = n(7HAi, q.v. 

muk-baltai, v. float on water. 
muku, n. ? 

muku-poidai, v. fasten, tie. 

mukulaig, n. promised husband. 
mukui, n. pelvis (of turtle). 

mukui-topwai, n. fat and peritoneum (of turtle). 
mulai, V. open ; open mouth, speak to. D. mulagan, 
ask; muleiye, bid; mule, call. 

dada-mulai, v. open in middle. 

ia-mulai, v. tell. 
mull, V. open ; open mouth, talk. 

ia-mull, V. say, speak. 

kozikozi-muli. v. grumble, argue. 

nukunuku-ia-muli, v. murmur. 

pis-mull, V. be torn, rent, opened, 
mulpal, n. the moou, nearer full moon than kisai. 
Said to be ipihiic], married, or urapun kaziiaiij, having 
one child. When nearly full kuannr ipihiig, having 
two wives. 
mulpal, n. a flat fish (Solea). 
mulu, [? n. lower place]. 

muluka, muluka kid, ad. downwards. 

muluka-pagai, v. come, or go do%vn. 

muluka-pudi, v. stoop, cast one's self down. 

muluka-gud-tai, v. invert, turn down. 

muluka-tidi, v. bow head. 

muluka-sizari, v. come down, 
mumai, v. comfort (? cuddle up). 

garo-mumai, v. to crowd, 
mun, sutlix, to pronouns. Cf. Gr. p. 23. 
munia, suffix (Gr. p. 23). 
munika, suffix (Gr. p. 23). 
mungai, [v. cast]. 

gudan-mungai (mungari M.), v. talk about. 

kulan-mungai, v. stone, cast stones at. 

zugu-mungai, v. give bad luck to. 
mungu, sutlix (Gr. p. 24). 
mur, n. yellow ochre. 

murd-gamul, a. yellow or orange, 11. 60. 
mur, n. heart (of turtle). 
mura, a. and n. all, the whole. 

murarai, n. all of them, the whole company. 

muragudal, n. the northern mullet (Mugil waigai- 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



113 



murar, n. a clay tobacco-pipe, 
mftrl, n. a kind of spirit, V. 369, 360. 
muru, n. the cabbage palm (Livistoiia australis). 
murug, M. D. = mag, sweat. 
muruig, n. an old person ; elder (G.). 
musl, n. fibres; rootlets on kumala, etc.; small pieces 
of thread. 

musi-tdi, v. shred, 
musu, n. a green tree ant. Miriam soni. 
musu, n. a sprouting eoco-nut. 
musur, n. plaited armlet. 
mut, n. a small bird, V. 360. 

mutal, n. a young coco-nut with water, and no kernel. 
muti, n. the pendulous lobe of the ear, an ear pendant. 

PI. niutidl. 
mut(i), n. coco-nut husk ; coco fibre. 

mut-umaizinga, n. plaited string with three plies, 
= S. itfdl-kupmani. 
mutu, 

mutu-trapot, n. the pelvic fin of a fish. 
mutumi = mi(/ utumi, q.v. 
muzu, n. = «iHSH, ant. 



n, suff. (Gr. p. 19, 20, 38). 

na, demons, this or that indefinitely, large or feminine ; 

the. 
na, n. = nau, song, q.v. 
na, pron. she, it. 
na, suff. = 7!. (Gr. p. 20). 
naat, n. — «oaf, q.v. 
nabatiaizlnga, n. hole in lobe of ear. 
nabi, demons, this. 

nabi-get, M. num, five. 
JiaA = noitt. 
nadai, v. chew, 
nadua, n. a tail ornament worn in a dance. PI. nadual. 

nadulza. T. n. hair on the pubes. 
naga. Mb. n. a belt worn obliquely across the chest ; M. 

kiimad, T. maiei. 
nagal, v. give light to, as sun or moon, 
nagalag = ngugdlaiij. 
nagami, v. reason, think. 

wakai-nagami, v. say to one's self, 
nagi, V. look, shine (of eyes and sun). 

bal-nagi, v. turn and look. 

dana-nagi, v. be able to see, get sight. 

dan-mulj-nagi, v. look. 

goiga-nagi, v. shine of sun. 

kadaka-nagi, v. look up. 

kalia-nagi, v. look back. 

kidakidan-nagi, v. look about. 

koi-dan-nagl, v. look earnestly at. 
nagu. [ad. beyond]. 

nagu-dogam, n. the further side. 
naguai, T. n. yam. 

H. Vol. III. 



nag^li, M. n. gardens. [Probably yam gardens. Cf. 

nnguai, and M. PI. i;'.] 
nagwam, T. n. child of ngaibat ; father's sister's child. 

Cf. V. 139, and Mir. negwam. 
nai, V. [want, desire] (Gr. p. 37). 

nguki-nai, v. be thirsty, 
nai. = not, q.v. 
naidi = Hoirf;, q.v. 

naigai, n. the north wind ; the dry season, 
naigai-dogam, n. the north, 
naigai-id, n. the north-east. 
nainonob, S. &A. = iannnab. 
nairi, n. dugong food (Alga sp.). 
naiwa, n. a wood used for kunuii. Cf. kuruai. 
naka, suff. (Gr. p. 20). 
nana, n. vulva (?). 
nanalaig. n. a menstruating woman, 
nana-mad, n. menstrual blood, 
nanai (Gr. p. 87). 

nanamai, v. strike with some part of the body, 
gar-nanamai, v. push, knock against. 
getan-nanamai, v. buffet. 
kukunu-nanamari, M. v. kick, 
kulun-nanamai, v. kick. 
ngar-nanamai, v. kick. 
pa-nanamai, v. dash against, 
sup-nanamai, v. press against, 
zub-nanamai, v. crowd up. 
nanitai, v. stick a post or stick upright in ground, set 

up ; give up, deliver, 
naniti, 

ngurid-naniti, v. tear about, 
napi, a. soft, of clothing, 
nar, M. n. mud. 

narlai, M. a. dirty, muddy. 
narang = (((/nrnn;/, q.v. 
narasaragia, a. scattered. 

narasaragia-asi, v. be scattered. 
nat = "ort(. 

natai, v. burn, roast. ' 

natam, n. a namesake ; an exchange of names. PI. 

itatamal, V. 282. 
nati, V. burn one's self. 

natiam, n. the decorated skull and its case, V. 251. 
natar, n. platform of canoe. 

gapu-natar, n. a design representing the sucker of 
the giipii. 
nau, n. a song; hymn (G.). 

nau-puidal, v. sing. 
naur, n. = ngur, peg of kubai. 
nazaru, n. a plant, dodder. 
ne8t = Ho«t, q.v. 

nel, n. name. PI. m'lai. Mir. nei, 0, anel. 
koi nel, n. the generic name, 
magi nel, n. the specific name, 
nel tarai, v, name, give name to. 

15 



114 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



nep = ngep. 

ni, pron. thou. 

nla, auff. (Gr. p. 20). 

niai, v. sit, stay, stop. 

dadal-nlal, v. stay in the middle. 

kawu-niai, v. stay here. 

kusaig-niai, v. be alone, stay by one's self. 

niai-kazl, n. servant. Ngai nungu niai-kazi, I serve 
him. 

niai-za, n. a seat. 

rimanu-niai, v. be in hiding, hide one's self. 
nidai, v. look, make to stay, touch, hold, carry, bring 
[do]. 

aka-nidai. v. fear. 

bauda-nidai, v. draw up on beach (as boat). 

doinidai. v. cure, heal. 

gfimia-nidai, v. set on top. 

kata-nidai, v. seize by the throat. 

kuiku-nldai, v. happen, be fulfilled. 

timge-nidai, v. light lu (torch), 
nidi, V. miike, do, hold, touch. 

gamu-nidi, v. take. 

get-nidi, v. take hold of. 

igiui-nidi, v. arise. 
nlka, suli. (Gr. p. 20). 
niM, n. a twig, small branch. PI. nikil. 
nikiagul, n. a marine insect (Halobates). 
nipa, M. suff. (Gr. p. 20). 
nipel, pron. you two. 
nla, n. leaf. PI. niml. 

nisad-gamul, a. green, II. 60. 
nita, pron. pi. you. 
nitai ['? —nidai]. 
nitui, [v. put out, push out]. 

ada-nitui, v. put down. 

daka-nitui, v. strike on the temples. 

get-nitui, v. show, point out. 

gud-nitui, v. ask for various things. 

kaba-nitui, kaban-nitui, v. row, paddle. 

mui-nitui, v. burn, throw in fire. 

niki-nitui, v. shoot out branches. 

ngur-nitui, v. try to throw down, 
niu, [ii. a snare]. 

nluia-almal, v. catch, entangle. 
noal, n. a framework erected over a fire on which fish is 

dried and smoked. PI. noal. 
noat, n. a platform from which dugong are harpooned, 
noi, n. framework on which fish is dried = Jiotti. 
noi, n. the tongue. PI. noitai. 

nol-pui, v. lick. 
noidal, a. beloved, dear. 

noidi, v. be reflected in a mirror, be " flash." 
nok, n. the zenith (?). 
nora, n. bone, of fish. 
nori = nuri, q.v. 
noridi, v. fall, drop of fruit. 



nu, suti. (Gr. pp. 19, 38). 

nu, demons, this or that, small or masculine. 

nudai, v. rub. 

dania-nudai, v. differ, form factions. 

muluka-nudal, v. tread on, transgress. 

nguro-nudai, v. quarrel, have family quarrel, 
nudi, V. rub in hands. 

danga-nudl, v. grind the teeth. 

muluka-nudi, v. press down, tread down. 

pa-nudi, v. press. 
nugedan, conj. unless, 
nui, pron. he ; it. K. nou. 

nukunuku, [a. murmuring]. 

nukunuku-ia-mulu, v. murmur, 
nungu, pron. his. 
nungu, sufi'. from (Gr. p. 20). 
nupado-tai, v. roll. 
nur, n. a sound, noise, echo, report of gun. PI. niirai 

and nulai. 
nurai, v. wrap round, bind round, choke. 

sirisiri-nurai, v. choke with weeds, as a garden. 

sup-nurai, v. cover over, wrap up. 

wakai-nurai, v. make mistakes. 
nuri. V. go round, wind about. 

gato-nuri, v. ebb (of tide), become low water. 

iaka-nuri, v. forget. 
nurinuri, u. a sweet potato, 
nursak, n. =«c/«r-saA-. 
nuru, a. unripe. 

nuru-gamul, a. blue, violet, II. 60. 
nutai, V. try, tempt, 
null, V. try, tempt. 

ian-nuti, v. [exorcise], cast out (G.). 

nga, suff. (Gr. p. 16). 

nga, pron. who. 

ngaba, pron. we two, you and I. 

ngabad, S. n. a cave. 

ngabi, n. fat. 

ngabil, a. fatted. 
ngada, [u. likeness, similarity]. 

ngadagi, a. unlike in appearance. 

ngadal, a. like in appearance. 

ngada-pali, v. be ready. 
ngagalaig, n. a hawk, the fish-eagle (Haliastur gir- 

renera) ; a totem. 
ngai, pron. I. K. Y. ngai/u. 

ngaibat, n. father's sister, brother's child. Cf. V. 134. 
ngaU, n. a plant (Achyranthes aspera). 
ngall, n. pi. wooden hooks. 

ngalngai, n. a boar's tusk used for polishing icap. 
ngaka, n. wing of a bird, 
ngalbai, pron. we two, he and I. 
ngalbe, pron. we two, he and I. 

ngalkai, v. suck smoke into the marap, probably con- 
nected with the next word, as the filling of the marap 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



115 



is not the real smoking. Cf. suguha-wani under 
tcatti. 
ngalkal, a. false, hypocritical. 

gar ngalkai, v. trouble about. 

kasa ngalkai, v. be a hypocrite. 

ngalkai-iadaig, n. a liar, hypocrite. 

ngalkaigl, a. genuine, not false ; in earnest, intentional, 
ngalngal, n. a liana or climbing plant ; a figure in icomer. 
ngalpa, pron. pi. we, you and I. 
ngan, pron. whom, 
ngana, n. the breath. 

ngana-kap(u), n. the heart, mind. Mir. nerkep, from 
Iter breath, l!ap seed, shows the same construction. 

ngananu-mani, v. bring to mind, remember. 

ngana-pudl, v. rest. 
ngapa, prefix, indicating motion towards the speaker. 

ngapa-kabutai, v. put towards me. 

ngapa-kid, ad. towards me. 

ngapa-mani, v. bring. 

ngapa-uzari, v. come. 
ngar(a), n. the foot, leg; pelvis of turtle. PI. ngarai, 
niliiriil. K.Y. nijari^ calf of leg. 

koi ngar, n. elephantiasis of legs. 

ngara-malau, n. muscles of thigh (of turtle). 

ngaran-nanamai, v. kick. 

ngara-puslk, n. a dance. 

ngarau-rid, n. leg bones, 
ngarang. n. armpit. 

ngaranga, M. n. a leaf which causes a blister. 
ngarba, 

ngarba rid, n. collar bone, 
ngamgar, n. a sponge. 

ngaru, n. the monitor lizard (Varanus), " iguana." 
ngarubi, v. come to, arrive at. 
ngasa, n. spur or ram of canoe, 
ngata, [a. clean]. 

ngatal, exclam. sorry ! 

ngata-asi. v. be clean. 

ngata-palai, v. keep clean, 
ngau, pron. my, said by man. 

ngaubat, n. a man's sister-in-law ; a woman's brother- 
in-law. Cf. V. 137. 
ngaurani (?) 

ngawaka, n. a girl. PI. ngau-akazil. Mir. 7)eur. 
ngawaki, T. n.=ngawalia, girl, 
ngazaru = najaiTi, q.v. 
ngazu, pron. my, said by woman, 
nge, suff. (Gr. p. 21, .S7). 
ngep, n. grandchild, 
ngeringeri, 

ngeringeri-dan, n. scalp, skin of head, 
ngerpai-girer, n. one way of dancing, V. 62. 
ngi, S. M. prim. = HI. 
ngipel, S. M. pron. =)!i^f;. 
nglta, S. M. pron. = ntta. 
ngobur, n. a plant (Psoralea, sp. nov.). 



ngoi, pron. we, I and they, 
ngoidat. n. a rock. 
ngolkai = 7i'/a/Ant, q.v. 
ngona = 7)i7aH((, q.v. 
ngowa,\a, = ngauaka, q.v. 

ngu, M. nguzi, suffix, indicating origin, direction from. 

ngu [? knowledge, ability. Cf. muamu. The root of 

words expressing ability. Cf. also ngu, suffix]. 

ngul, a. possible. 

ngulalg, n. one who knows how, one who can. (Cf. 
Gr. p. 3G.) PI. ngulaigal. Ngai ninu ngulaig, I 
know you. 

ngulaig-asi. v. be able, know how. 
ngudi, n. a tear. PI. ngudil. 
ngugidan, ad. for no reason, in vain, 
nguigidan, ad. = ngugidun. 
ngukl, n. water, fresh water. PI. ngukil. 

nguWl, a. watery, wet. 

nguki-nai, v. be thirsty, thirst. 

ngukl-toldal, v. urinate. 

uguki-iiraib, n. pleuro-peritoneal fluid. 

ngukiu-gud, n. a well of water. 

ngukiu-maramad, n. a well of water. 
ngnl, n. yesterday. 

ngulai, V. know, count, number, read, reckon. Cf. ngu. 
ngulami, v. hate, 
ngunu, pron. whose? 
ngiir(a)pai, v. teach. 

ngurpal-mabaeg, n. teacher. 
ngur(o), n. hook or peg of the knbai; beak of a bird (?) 

ngur-adai, v. project, stick out. 

ngur-uudai, v. quarrel, between members of same 
family. 

nguro-tai, v. step over, come out. 

ngur-pagaml, n. posterior notch in gunwale of canoe. 

ngurpu-utami, v. join two things. 

ngur-sak, n. point of the nose. 

ngur-turai, v. keep outside. 

ngur-widai, v. hunt away, drive out. 

ngur-zilami, v. sneer. ' 

ngurpai = ng u rapai. 
ngursi, n. mucus of nose, 
ngurum, 

ngurum-asi, v. be angry, indignant; " wail like hell." 
nguzu, pron, my, said by woman. 

oka, n. a grub found in dead wood. 

omai = «mai, q.v. 

oripara, M. ii. the rainbow. 

pa, II. S. sullix = fc(i. 

pa, pref. indicating motion away or outward from 
speaker; exclam. go away! be off I 

pa-adai, v. appear. 

pa-arai, v. dash against. 

pa-dordimi, v. tighten (belt). 

15 — 2 



116 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



pa-get-wani, v. let slip, as spear by accident, 
pa-ielpai, v. lead away, 
pa-ieudai, v, pour out, shed, spill, 
pa-ieudi, v. be upset. 
pa-leuti. V. be overthrown. 

pa-kabutai, v. put that way, i.e. away from speaker. 
pa-kid, ad. that way. 
pa-nudi, v. press. 
pa-pagai, v. enclose. 
pa-torldi, v. strive, argue, dispute, 
pa-uti, V. Ko out of sight, 
pa-uzari, v. go away, depart, 
pa-wadal, S. v. rebuke. 
pa-wai, V. loosen. 

pa-wali, V. land from boat, come ashore. 
pa-walmal, v. arouse, wake up. 
pa-zilami, v. attack. 
pa, n. a fence for garden; a stockade. PI. pal. 
pa-pagai, v. enclose, as a garden, fence in. 
pa-pagl, v. make a fence. 
pad, n. a nest, of bird, or insect. 
pad, n. tympanum of native drum. 
pad(a), n. a hill, mountain. PI. padal. Mir. paser, 
K. podo, B. pad. 
pada kuik, n. the skull. 
padatrong, ii. a bamboo rattle used in Surlal season. 
padbul, n. a flood. 

padbul-budai, v. flood. 
padig, n. a large fly. 
padotu(?), V. 56. 

paekau, n. a butterfly. PI. paekaul. 
paga(?). Cf. pagara, pagoru. 

pagad, a. orange, brown, II. 62. 
pagai, v. [stretch out, extend], go up, go down ; pierce, 
sting, prick; step over, as stream, 
adaka-pagai, v. come out of, emerge. 
azlr-pagai, v. hang down head in shame. 
dimkan-pagai, v. pnich. 
get-pagai, v. jjut out hand, 
gimla-kasla-pagal, v. step over a stream. 
ian-nguru-pagai, v. be perplexed, 
iaragri-pagai, v. be hungry, 
kangu-pagami, v. join. 
muluka-pagai, v. come or go down, 
pagami, v. pi. of piigai, sew, mend. 
palwan-pagai, v. shoot paiwa out of the mouth, 
pa-pagai, v. enclose. 

paruia-pagai, v. be contrary (of the wind), 
pasi-pagai, v. stand beside, 
rima-pagai, v. come suddenly, 
toitu-pagal, v. pray. 
ur-pagai, urpu-pagai, v. dive in sea. 
pagara, n. .sponge. 

pagas, n. name of a star which appears during JVaur. 
pagi, [v. stick in, go in, pierce]. 

gowa-pagi, v. dig up ground for garden. 



toitu-pagi, V. pray, say prayers. 
pagora ('!= pagara). 

pagorad-gamiU, a. brown, II. 61. 
pal, n. a fan ; a digging-stick. Cf. pagi. 
paipa, palpa kid, ad. windward, on right hand. 

paipa kid tai, v. turn back to right. 

palpal, a. on windward side. 

paipa-za, n. vertical stick of giid of canoe, 
paiwa, n. scented bark, V. 328. 
pakai, n. [a tail, streamer?], the tail of a mask. 

wapi-pakai, n. iish-tail ornament on the stern of a 
canoe. 
pal, [n. two together], part. two. 

palai, v. [open, as in shape of V, without complete 
separation], split, divide. 

adaka-palai, v. release. 

aka-palai, v. frighten. 

apa-palai, v. shake off dust. 

arkat-palai, v. make a hole. 

balbal-palai, v. bend. 

balbaJgi-palai, v. straighten. 

berai-palai, v. slacken, make loose. 

borsa-palai, v. treat shamefully, persecute. 

buru-palai, v. shake off dust. 

dan-palai, v. make alive. 

dan-gud-palai, v. open eyes. 

gagai-palai, v. shoot arrow, fire gun. 

gar-palai, v. recover from illness. 

gaugui-palai, v. shake. 

gia-palai, v. prepare food, cook. 

griu-palai, v. play the fool, cause laughter. 

gizu-palai, v. cut a point, sharpen. 

gud-palai, v. open, as book, mouth, hand. 

iadai-palai, v. make to talk nonsense. 

lagi-palai, v. cause not to talk. 

ibelai-palal, v. wrap in blanket. 

Imau-palai, v. be able to see, receive sight. 

kabu-palai, v. cool, make cold. 

karingemil-palai, v. hear, receive hearing. 

karum-palai, v. bother by setting various tasks before 
one is completed ; make look first at one thing and 
then at another ; mislead; deceive. 

kerket-palai, v. make smart with pain, torment. 

kid-waka-palai, v. trouble. 

kuik-palai, v. increase. 

kunakan-palai, v. strengthen. 

kunakananga-palai, v. be strong, overcome. 

kutal-palai, v. save, store up. 

lu-palai, v. hurry up, stir up, rejoice, wonder. 

mabal-palai, v. walk about. 

minar-palai, v. make marks, write. 

ngapa-palai, v. come. 

ngata-palal, v. keep clean. 

nisau-gud-palal, v. put out leaves. 

ngulaig-palai, v. make know, inform. 

palga-palal, v. break, smash. 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



117 



poi-palal, V. shake off dust. 

pul-paJai, V. carve. 

sagul-palai, v. lose, waste, perish. 

sai-palal, v. plough (G.). 

sib-pa-palai, v. be surprised. 

slristri-palai, v. choke with weeds. 

teran-palal, v. flavour. 

tlM-palai, v. sweep. 

urgfU-palai, v. cover up. 
palai, pron. they two. K.Y. biirla. 
palamun, pron. of them two, theirs. 
palel, a. withered, dried up. 

palel-asl, v. wither. 

palel-pudl, V. dry. 
palga-palai, v. smash, 
palgal, v. [liring up]. 

ladu-palgai, v. inform, 
palgl, V. fly, jump. 

kat(a)-palgi, v. leap, fly up. 

slb-kat-palgl, v. be startled. 
pali, v. break [be separated]. 

aka-pall, v. be frightened. 

butu-pall, v. shake off dust. 

dan-pali, v. be awake, become alive, open the 
eyes. 

galu-pali, v. be trembling. 

gar-pali, v. recover, become well. 

gud-pali, v. open, as bud. 

koam-pall, v. warm one's self. 

lu-pall, v. hurry, be astonished. 

ngada-pali, v. be ready. 

pa-pali, v. break. 

sib-palga-pali, v. start, be startled, "jump inside." 
palisa, n. the small feathers on a bird's body, 
palngi, V. flog, scourge. 
pamai, v. dig, [make a hole]. 

gud-pamai, v. enlarge a hole. 

gud-bal-pamal, v. obstruct, block up doorway. 

sib-pamal, sibau-pamai, v. trouble about, take thought 
for. 
pzunl, v. [leave a space, make a way through]. 

mad(u)-pami, v. be startled, be astonished. 

pamil, n. pi. fragments. 

sib-pajnl, v. worry, be worried, 
panau, T. n. knot in a yam. 
pangad, a. stony. 

papai, n. a mash of yams or taro. 
papali, V. bruise. 

paradamu, n. a sea-grasa (Cymodocea sp.). 
parai, v. break off. 

gud-parai, v. overflow. 

koaka-parai, v. pass by. 
parama, n. red ochre ; paint made from red ochre ; 
a tish ; crimson coral-fish (Polyacanthus Queens- 
lundiiu and Cheilinus fasciatus). 

paramad-gamul, a. red, purple, II. 60. 



paramad-gamul prak, n. the organ-pipe coial (Tubi- 
pora musica). 
parapara, S. n. power (G.). A word borrowed from 

Mawata or Kiwai. 
pardai, v. draw or pull. 

adaka-pardal, v. draw out. 
paru, n. the forehead, face ; the front. 

kodalu-paxuag, n. an arrow with a crocodile carved 
on it. 

paruag, n. an arrow with a human face carved on it. 

paru-arl, v. be ahead, of wind. 

paru-idi, v. deceive. 

paru-luai, v. artificially flatten an infant's forehead. 

paru-nudai, v. rub noses and embrace heads ; a mode 
of salutation. 

panmgaizlnga, n. the stays or guys attached to the 
sail of a canoe. 

paru usal, n. scarification on the forehead, 
pas, n. 

magl-pas, n. a crumb, 
pasa, n. door, gate. PI. pasal. 

pasa-gud, n. a doorway. 

pasagudau tuda, n. door-jambs of house. 

paaa-pudai, v. open door, 
pasei, n. a tree with light wood, used for saima and kaba. 
pasi, n. side ; wall of a house. 

pasia, pasinu, ad. beside. 

pasl-kag, n. inner side-posts of house. 

pasiu pul, n. outer side-posts. 

pasika-tamai, v. move a little from the wall. 
pat, n. a sharply-pointed stick for catching octopua: 

a sign of tabu, V. 270. 
patai, V. [put out, stick out]. 

adaka-patai, v. cut off, break away. 

butu-patai, v. prepare, make ready. 

danal-patai, v. watch. 

danan-patai, v. watch. 

gar-patai, v. assemble, come together. 

gar-patami, v. pi. collect food. 

inurl-dad-patal, v. give light in darkneaa. ' 

kuik(u)-patai, v. behead. 

lu-patai, V. crack shell (crab, etc.). 

mlti-patai, v. taste. 

pata-mlnar, n. a scarification. 

salto-patai, v. cut corn, harvest. (G.) Saito iutro. 
from Greek. 

wat-patal, v. dry up. 

zar-patai, v. cut off branches, 
patal, a. prickly. 

patal-iruk, n. small lolly-fish (Holothuria aauguino- 
linta). 

patal-maita, n. oesophagua (of turtle), 
patapi, V. finish, 
patl, V. 

butu-pati, V. be ready. 

gul-pati, gulpu-pati, v. embark, enter canoe. 



IIH 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



iata-pati, v. shave. 
patidai, v. break, 
patidi, V. bow, fall down. 
paud(a). n. quietness, peace. Mir. paud, D. piuda. 

pauda lag, n. a peaceable village. 

paudau garka or mabaeg, n. a peaceable man, V. 302. 
pauna. n. skin of clupong, pip or cow ; leather. 
paupa, paupa kid, ad. leeward. 

paupa-asi, v. decline (of day); go down (of sun). 
paupusa, n. an ornament on the kadig. 
paut, T. n. forehead. 

pawa. n. a habit, deed, action. PI. pawal. 
pawur, V. swim (?). 

paza, n. a flat fish with poisonous stings. 
pazara, n. one of the crew of a boat; a sailor. 
pearku, n. a kind of fish. 
pel, n. tail of a fish. 

pel kaba, n. tail of the sting ray; "tail belong him 
just like oar." 
penai, M. v. dive? 
pepe, a. thin. 

pepedu, n. n bambno flick or whip. Mir. lolo. 
perta, n. wrist; six in counting on the body. 

perta urukam, n. a wristlet. 
pi, demons, yonder. 
pia, n. the bark of a tree. 
piawat, n. fresh water nearly dried up; a. blue green, 

II. 61. 
pibi, n. a plant (Commelina nudiflora). 
pibi kap, n. a war dance, V. 302. 
pida, n. a black bee. 

pidi-mital, a. acid, 
pidai, M. v. dig? 
■plgi = pilii, q.v. 
piki, n. a dream. 

pikln-tai, v. dream, 
pikuru, n. a headdress of teeth ; name of a pattern. 
piner, n. the coral tree (Erythrina). Leaves and twigs 
used for samera, musur, etc. and also worn behind 
the ears. 
pingi, n. a fishing net. 

plngid angai, v. catch fish, 
pinl, V. rub on, as paint, anoint. 

idl-pini, v. anoint. 
pira, a. soft. 
piroan. n. a black snake, 
pis. n. an opening, a crack ; leak. 

pisal, a. leaky. 

pis-mull, V. be torn, rent, opened, 
plsis, n. a snake, V. 66. 
pitar, [sepia?]. 

pilar bidal, n. a cuttle-fish, 
piti, n. the nose. PI. pitil. Mir. pit. 

pitl aek, n.=piti tarte. 

piti tarte, n. the perforation in the septum narium. 
pitu, n. a ring. 



plu, n. leaf of the coco-palm; a stick worn in the hair, 
V. 252. PI. piical. 

piwvU — piwal, n. pi. a broom made of mid-ribs of 
coco-palm leaflets. 
plwer, n. the mullet. 
plis = p<ilisu, q.v. 
poa, n. the bark of a tree. 

poad, n. pig-faced bream (Lethrinus rostratus). 
poamal birubiru, n. a reef-fish (.Julis cyan o- venter). 
poasi=^(i.M', q.v. 
pog, n. a palm, kind of Areea. 
pogai=poA-«/, q.v. 
pogi = i'ir;/, q.v. 
poi, n. dust, powder; scales of a butterfly. Mir. pi. 

poi-palai, v. shake off dust. 
poibai, V. give. 

kasa-poibai, v. lend. 

kikiri-poibai, v. suffer. 

wanab-poibal, v. bless. 
poibi, V. [utter, put out, offer] ; croak, crow. 

ial-poibi, v. crackle, crack. 

iapu-poibi, v. ask questions. 

kid-poibi, v. crow. 

nukunuku-polbi. v. sigh. 
Voiia,i = p III da i, q.v. 
poipiam, v. watch. 
poitai, ad. far away, 
pokai, n. a girl. PI. pokaial. 
pokan-wapi, n. the flying-fish, 
pokirid, n. kidney, 
pokuk. 11. the heel. 
ponipani, n. lightning. M. pnnipo)ii. 
p6pa.=puupa. 
pot, n. a kind of mat. 
potalai, n. a plant (Maba sp.). 
potur, M. n. a digging-stick. 
prak, n. coral. PI. prakil. 

paramad gamul prak, n. organ-pipe coral (Tubipora 
musical. 

malud prak, n. blue coral (Heliopora coerulea). 
prui, M. n.=piii, tree. 
pu (Gr. p. 19). 
pud, u. shaft of javelin. 
pudai. v. let fall ; pull out, dig out, stretch out. 

ada-pudal, v. e.xalt, surpass. 

adaka-pudai, v. take off, pull out, pull o8. 

apa-pudai, v. spread out. 

bal-pudai, v. = har-pudai, q.v. 

bar-pudai, v. buy, spend, sell. 

get-pudai, v. scrape hands, a mode of salutation. 

gud-pudai, v. open. 

iadi-pudai, v. haul up anchor. 

iangu-sakar-pudai, v. reckon up, judge. 

kadaka-pudai, v. ascend straight up, of smoke. 

koanga-pudai, v. let down, lower. 

kuik(u)-pudai, v. pluck up by roots, have an open mind. 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



119 



kUT(u)-pudai, v. hunt about, persecute. 

mai-pudai, v. shed tears. 

muluka-pudal, v. pull down, abase. 

ngaua-pudal, v. rest. 

ngapa-pudai, v. bring hither. 

pa-pudai, v. cease, leave off. 

pasa-pudai, v. open door. 

uma-pudai, v. be a lunatic (G.). 

urpu-pudal, v. float on water. 

uru-bal-pudai, v. stretch string. 

za-pudai, v. barter. 
pudi, V. fall [drop down] ; undress; come out, of feather. 

ada-pudl, v. exceed, fall away. 

apa-pudi, v, stoop, fall down. 

balbad-pudi, v. stretch neck to see, peep round corner. 

bogia-pudi, v. be lame, walk with aid of a stick. 

laia-pa-pudi, v. believe. 

ialal-pudi, v. pull tight. 

kulunia-pudi, v. fall at the knees. 

muluka-pudi, v. stoop, cast one's self down. 

ngana-pudl, v. rest. 

pa-pudi, V. fall on face towards, worship. 

sakaia-pudi, v. fall into hole, 
pugai, v. 

ada-pugai, v. despise. 

adaka-pugai, v. reject, pour out. 

dangal-pugai, v. cut up dugong. 

gegead-pugal, geget-pugai, v. torment, irritate. 

kulan-pugai, v. cut with stone. 

mogabid-pugai, v. curse, punish. 

pugai-akurar, n. rectum (of dugong, turtle). 

watl-pugai, v. fail. 
pugi, 

geget-pugi, V. be far away, be a long way off. 

ikai-pugi, v. be comforted. 
pui, n. a tree, wood, stick; flapper of a turtle. PI. 
jtuil. 

bal kaputal pui, u. a cross beam. 

magi kalai-pul, n. mote (G.) 

malu-pui, n. black coral (Antipathes). 

pul-kut, n. a fine tree, tall tree. 

puin-matamai, v. beat with a stick. 

pui-palai, v. carve a tree. 

puiu-garka, n. medicine man ; physician (G). 
pui, pulpui, [n.=poi, dust?]. 

puipuld-gamul, a. brown, 
puial, V. blow. 

bu-puial, V. blow conch, blow trumpet. 

gubal-puial, v. blow with mouth. 

nau-puial, v. honour. 

uplus-puial, v. whistle. 
puldal, V. hang [place in line, draw along], 

ada-puidai, v. hang out. 

adaka-puldal, v. pluck out (as eye) ; take out ; move 

to the outside (as canoe). 
apia-puldai, v. make to sit down. 



gima-puldal, v. put on top. 

gudazi-puidai, v. wrangle ; save. 

ibu-poidai, v. help. 

kadaka-puidal, v. lift up ; divulge. 

kausau-puidal, v. bear fruit. 

mai-puidai, v. weep. 

nau-puidai, v. sing. 

puidai-za, n. a nail or peg. PI. pui daizapul. 

satauro-puidai. v. crucify. Satauro from Greek. 
puidi, V. follow, resort to. 
pukai, n. a ray (Pteroplatea) ; the markings on its 

back. 
pukar, 

pukat, n. a grasshopper, locust. 
puki, n. side of the abdomen ; a hump. 
pukuk=pofci(/c, q.v. 
pul(a), n. stone of the reef. 

pul-mai, V. take out of sack, bag, or hole, 
pulau, n. a plant (Ipomcea pes-caprae). 
pulipul, n. kidney (dugong). 
pulmal, (?). Cf. pul(a). 

ganu-pulmai, v. smell [? giimipul-titai]. 
pungai, V. slip, move along, run (of sore), running of 
canoe. 

berai-pungai, v. be loose, slip through easily. 

giun-pungai, v. laugh. 

wakai-pungal, v. pray. 

wakulnga-pungai, v. sail a boat, i.e. slip the things 
belonging to the sail. 
pupui, n. a flute. Cf. puiai and bu. 
pura, n. skin. Mir. paui: 

pura-pinitai, v. flay, skin. 

pura-pulgal, v. flay, skin, 
purl, ^l.-piii. 

purimogo, n. name of a season ; about Christmas time. 
purlpurl, n. harmful magic. An introduced word. K. 

Ma. purapurii. 
purka, n. the eyeball ; the eye. 

purkalwapi, n. a fish, spinous schnapper (PagruB 
spinifer). 
purpi, n. the bee-eater (Merops ornata). 
puru, M. stiniliug, theft. M. piro. 

purul-kazi, S. M. n. thief. 

purunu-wasaml, v. steal. 
purur, M. n,=pura, bark of a tree, 
purutai, v. eat. 

danan-purutal, v. watch, stare at. 
pusakar, a. swelled up, swollen. 

puaakar-adarl, M. v. fill up. 
puso, a. young, tender, of plants, 
put, n. an armlet. 
putaC?), 

dada puta, n. a week day. Cf. dada. 
puti, M. = put. 
puti = /)"(//, q.v. 
putil, n. an arrow with many wooden barbs. 



120 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



puwl, u. the flyiug-fish. 

puzari, v. haul. 

puzi, %•. be hanging on, follow, go before. 

ngapa-puzi, v. come. 

wagel-puzi, v. be last, follow. 

rab, n. a mast. 

rab-waku, n. a mat used as a sail. 
rada, n. a sharpened stick used for speariug fish; a 

simple javelin. 
rapai, v. cause to stumble, 
rapi, V. stumble, 
ras, u. scud, driving cloud, [squall]. 

ras-angai, v. rise, of storm. 
ras. n. a lot. 

raz, n. the season when leaves die down ; "time of die." 
reta, 

retau-garka, n. enemy. 
rid, n. bone. PI. ridal. 

alau-rid, n. the pelvis. 

dokap-rid, u. the femur. 

ridal, a. bony. 

rid-guitwai, v. be uneasy, have a presentiment ; tana 
rido-ijiiitwaiaii, they had a presentiment, lit. they 
were loose (as to their) bones. 

tabu-rid, n. spine, backbone. 

tebi-rid, n. bones of the forearm; radius; ulna. 

tele-ridal, n metacarpal bones. 

zugu-rid, n. humerus. 
rim(a), n. secret. 
rim(a), n. a shadow; [perhaps a metathesis of mari]. 

rimagi-asi, v. vanish, 
rimaxim. n. palsy (G.). 
rogaig = )H.(;(ii3, q.v. 
ruai, v. tack, go aside, go aslant. 

bal-ruamal, v. enter, as village. 

mall, T. a. (?) Midad ruialinya ? what kind looks 
like it? 
ruamai, v. understand. 
rug, 

kibu-rug, 

rugal, n. cargo, 
rugaig, n. a sweetheart. 

rugaig puri, M. n. a love charm, 
ruku, n. a creeping and climbing plant (Apocynacea) ; 

stem used for am. 
rumbadi, M. n. a kind of water-lily. 

sa, conj. now. 

sabi, n. tabu, prohibition, V. 269; instructions to kcrnye 
in the kwod, V. 215. M. sabi. 
sabl augau kulk, n. cloaca (of turtle). 
sabi garigu, n. ornament of gainau feathers stuck in a 
Hat disc of wood or karar, V. 29. 
sadau, n. a cicatrix on the breast. 
sag, n. centipede (Scolopendra). 



saga, 1). a bone needle. 

sagau-gud, n. eye of the needle. 
sagai, n. the horizontal fire-stick. 
sagu, n. a kind of purple yam. 
sagul, n. play ; dancing. Mir. segiir, D. ton<joi. 

matam sagul-tarai, v. tight in play. 

sagul-pali, v. play with, waste, lose. 
sai, n. bog, mud ; shallows on sea shore, 
sal, 11. a rail, a small post. PI. saiil. 

adaka-salil, n. outer supports for the bamboo pole 
on canoe. 

baradar saipalaiza, n. a plough (G.). 

kuiku-saiil, n. small vertical rails in front of kasil 
on canoe. 

salll, n. pi. outside rails of kiisil on canoe. 

saiu-pat, n. the pegs of the outrigger on canoe, 
saima. n. outrigger float of a canoe. K. sariiiia, K.Y. 

diirman, Y. tania. 
saingui, ii. ink of the cuttle-fish. 

sainguiad-gamul, a. dark brown, II. 60. 
sak, 11. a comb. Cf. ial-sak, iiil-pat. 

sal-sak, n. a comb. The new fashion said to be 
" South Sea." 
sakal, 11. a cave, hole in a rock, 
sakar, [v = .siii'(i/]. 

iangu-sakar-pudai, v. reckon up, judge, condemn. 

sakar-mal-nitui, v. hold spear between toes. 

sakar-tai, v. change to something else ; surname, 
saked, a. long and thin, as a stick; narrow. 

saked kuik, n. narrow head, as that of Australians ; 
"all same belong Mainland." 
saker, n. a small fish that jumps on the surface of 

the sea. 
saker, n. a sign of tabu, V. 269. 
sal, n. (?). 

salpamai, v. bale, 
salgal. u. a collective name for the two sticks used 

for producing fire. 
sallli, n. a scented plant (Alyxia spicata) ; used for 

deodorizing canoe. 
salmai, 

get-salmal, v. be withered. 

glun-salmai, v. mock at, deride. 

markai-salmal, v. be withered, 
salmisal, n. pi. South Sea Islanders. 
Salop, 11. the melon or baler shell (Melo diadema). 
samido, ad. yes ! indeed I 

samara, n. a head-dress made of cassowary feathers. 
PI. sdiiwral. 

samu-dan, n. eyelashes, antennoe of insects ; eyes 
of crab. 
Bam(u), n. the cassowary of New Guinea (Casuarius 

Beccarii). Mir. sam, Ma. samo. 
san, n. sole of the foot ; footmark. PI. sanal. 
Sana, ii. the cuscus. 
sanlmai, 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



121 



kulkal-sanimai, v. bleed from many wounds, 
sap, u. the spray at bottom of a waterspout, V. 360. 
sapur, n. a lart,'e fruit-eating bat or flying fox (Pteropus). 
Mir. fiiper. 

sapur pat, u. a wing-bone, when used as a piercer it 
is called sapur kimm. 
Sara, n. = sera, a white tern. 

sara, n. the platform on which a corpse was laid, V. 249. 
saramud, n. a kind of matwork. 
sari, n. the netting of a canoe, 
sarima, M. u. saima. 

sarka, n. a river; [perhaps a metathesis of kasii]. 
saru (?) = >Mni. 

saru-kag, n. king-post of house, 
saruai, n. a bright cloud, 
sarupa, n. a drowned person. PI. sanipul. 
sarza, n. a tree ; leaves used in initiation ceremony, 
V. 215; M. stars in the tail of the constellation 
Baidam; fig tree (G.). 
sasa (■?), 

sasa-teral, a. acid, II. 187. 
saslmai, v. squeeze. 

gam-sasimai, v. pinch. 

gar-sasimai, v. comfort, 
sasiwaur, n. beginning of south-east winds ; " small 

fellow south-east." 
sau. n. a rafter. 

sauki, exclam. [prob. = se!('(( ki, along there], 
saulal, Ta.=surlal, q.v. 
samna, n. a tuft of cassowary feathers worn at back of 

belt. 
saur, n. giant herring (Chanos salmoneus). 
sauur, n. a food plant, species of yam ; eaten during 

]\\tur. 
sawi, n. a tall wading bird, 
sazi. u. a creeper, used to poison fish, 
sebag, n. the gecko lizard, 
seber (?), 

sebarar, a. sour, acid, 
seda, 

sedau-minar, n. name of a pattern, 
sege, T. n. a long yam. 
sek, M. n. hole. 

selel, n. a small edible bivalve (Paphia glabrata). 
sena, demons, that, there. 

senakal, conj. perhaps, may be. 
senu, demons, that, there, 
sepal, demons, those two. 

sera, n. a white sea or shore bird ; a tern (Sterna bergii). 
Cf. xara, sesere. 

serad-gamul, a. white, grey, II. 60. 
sesere, n. a bird ; a legendary hero. Cf. V. 40. 
sesi-tamai, S. v. show, guide. 
sewa, demons, there, 
si [n. hissing sound]. 

si-poibi, V. hiss. 
H. Vol. III. 



si, n. frontal fontanelle, upper part of frontal bone. 

si, demons, there ; exclam. don't know ! 

sia, n. the toes. 

siai, V. stay, stand there. 

ada-siai. adal-siai, v. stay outside. 

gimal-siai, v. stay on top. 

kadai-siai, v. stay there, stand up there. 

pasinu-siai, v. stay beside, stand by. 

tautid-tiai-siai, v. stay about, 
siaupa, exclam. [jtioh. = sewa-pa, to there], 
siboi, n. a row of dugong's ribs. 

koi siboi, magi siboi, n. V. 45. 
sib(u), n. the liver. B. zebe, K.Y. diba, 0. iepii. 

kula-sib, n. bravery; panu mata anijeda nibeka kidasi- 
baka, keep getting the smell (of putrid heads) to 
make you brave. 

sibu-gig, n. astonished person. 

sib-kat-palgi, v. be frightened, be startled. 

sib-palga-paliz, M. v. be frightened, be startled; "jump 
inside."' 

sib-imai (wanai), v. pity, 
siga, n. u distance. 

sigapa-tai, v. throw afar. 

sigazi-ngapa-mai, v. bring from afar. 

sigazi-tai, v. throw away. 
sik, n. foam. 

sikad-gamul, a. pale violet, II. 61. 
sikadar, n. a plant (Coleus atropurpureus). 
sikai, exclam. = si. 
sike, S. conj. if. 

singi, n. a loop ; a long thin stick upon which fish are 
threaded for carrying ; a cane loop for carrying lieads. 
K. suit(/L'i. 
sipi, n. root (of coco-palm). 

slrasira, M. n. a tree, bark used for making fishing lines, 
sirisiri, n. tangled bush. 

sirislri-palai, v. become overgrown with bush, be 
choked up. 
sirsimi, v. roll about, squirm, wallow. 
Bis, n. a lizard, gecko. ' 

slsa, n. marginal bones of turtle. 

sisa tObai, sisa tupwai, n. ventral peritoneum, and 
marginal fat (of turtle), 
sisuri. M. n. rainbow, 
sizari, v. come ashore. 

ada-sizari. v. come out of. 

muluka-sizari, v. come down, 
soagai — smcuifa i. 
soba [n. slowness]. 

sobagi, a. (juick. 

sobal, a. slow. 
sobasob, n. the roaring of waves, 
sobera, n. a mat made of pandanus leaf; used in the 

initiation ceremony in Tutu. 
BOge- nowagai. 
soge, n. a mourning fringe made of urakar. PI. sogeal. 

16 



122 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



sokii), n. a spike made of cassowary bone. Miv. sole. 

Ma. zoke. 
soroi, n. = »ii™, entrails. 
sosari, v. leap. 

sowagai, n. weeds, " small bush in garden," grass. 
sowar, ^I. =srt»»?'. 
suai, n. a small spear used by maidflai;i, tipped with 

sting of sting-ray. 
sugu, n. open space between houses in a village street ; 

dancing ground in middle of kicod. 
sug^u, n. the octopus, 
stlka, n. lungs (of dugong, turtle). 

suka t6bai, n. dorsal peritoneum and fat (of turtle). 
sOkai. n. = .'.(i/i(/i, cave, 
sukarmai-nitui, v. hold spear in space between big toe 

and other toes. 
sukuba, n. tobacco. Mir. sokvp, K. sulatha, D. s<i/;«tii, 
B. y<ihupa. 

sukub-morap, n. bamboo tobacco-pipe. 
sukuri, u. bamboo point of an arrow. 
sulai, V. pour out. 
suli, n. a fish, fringe-finned trevally (Caranx radiatus). 

Cf. gohai (lobai. 
suli. V, drip, drop, V. 33. 

ngudi-suli, v. weep, shed tears, 
sulupai, 

mosan-sulupai, v. spit on, spit at. 
sulur, u. the green turtle, 
sumai, n. cold. 

sumain-widai, v. tremble with cold. 
suna-suro, n. hind fins of turtle. 
sup. n. a covering. 

sup-adai, J\L n. bask. 

sup-nurai, v. wrap up, cover up, roll up. 
supa, S. n. a louse, 
supai. V. accuse, 
supamai, v. give hard work for nothing. 

ia-supamai, v. falsely report about. 

karum-supamai, v. seduce. 

wakai-supamai, v. tempt, compel, 
supami, v. give false report, 
suppodar, n. plant (Dianella ensifolia and Htemodonim 

coccineum). 
surka, n. the scrub turkey (Megapodius) ; " wild fowl." 
K.Y. duka. 

surka pada, n. mound of megapod. 
surlal, n. the copulating turtle ; the turtle season, 
sursu, Bursur, n. the koi nel for rays. 
sum, n. a pole for poling a canoe ; yards of sails. D. xur. 
suru, n. bowel. PL surul, entrails. K.Y. dol. 

suru kazi, n. girl with first menses. 
surum, n. a sandbank ; sand. D. chirum. 
su3(u), n. the female breast. Mir. .siis, gum (?). 

ngur-sus, n. the nipple. 

susu-gud. n. the nipple. 

susull-puri, M. n. a plant with milky juice. 



susu-mad(u), n. flesh of the breast. 

susu-minar, n. a scarification on the breast. 

susul-pagazi, n. a small fish (Amphiprion Clarkii) 
that lives commensally with large sea-anemones. 

susul-pui, n. a plant (Euphorbia serrulata). 

susuJ-kuikuir-urukam, n. name of a pattern (dia- 
monds). 

ta, demons, pi. 
ta, {■?). 

ta-umai, v. praise, boast about, 
tabai, n. the shoulder. PI. talal. 

tabai gabu-taxi, M. v. carry on shoulder. 

tabai-uradai, v. carry on shoulder. 
taban, 'SI. n. a petticoat. 

tabom, n. a long petticoat. [Probably tarn bom.] 
tabu, n. the spinal cord [marrow]; pith. Mir. teibur. 
Ma. tiiburu, D. (/(6<', B. diben. 

tabu-rid, n. spine. 

tabu-(kl)kiri, a. angry, indignant, 
tabu, 11. snake. Mir. tabo, K. topo. 

lunal-tabu, n. a venomous snake. 

kasa-tabu, n. a harmless snake. 
tadi, V. spread over, as jam on bread, 
tadi, V. shoot an arrow. 

gud-tadi, V. deny, reject, 
tadu. 11. a kind of crab. 

dada-dan-tadumi, v. faint. 

dan-tadumi, v. make mistake. 

tadu-kap, n. the crab dance. 

tadu-mai-asi, v. lose, be lost. [Probably = become like 
a crab, i.e. lost in the sand.] 

wakai-tadumi, v. doubt (G.). 
tag, n. mast of canoe (?). 
taga, n. the mangrove, 
tagai, n. a constellation ; the dry season, 
tagar, n. a plant, a petticoat, 
tagur, M. n. name of a jjlant, species of flag (Philydrum). 

[Probably same as taiiar.l 
tai, u. time or place for a feast; day of a ceremony, feast- 
day, holiday ; place for a ceremony. Cf. gai. 

taiu kwod, n. the sacred meeting place for the initiation 
ceremony, V. 208, 252. 
tai, V. throw [pass over space quickly]. 

ada-tai, adal-tai, v. throw away. 

adaka-tai, v. throw out, throw away. 

aigi-tai, v. bring to an end, finish, spend. 

apa-tal, v. sit on ground. 

bag-tai, v. threaten. 

bal-tai, v. turn aside. 

dan-tai, v. watch, warn, exhort. 

ganu-tal, v. give forth smelL 

gar-tai, v. press. 

giu-tai, V. laugh. 

gud-tai, V. invert. Cf. kadaka-gud-tai and muluka- 
gud-tai. 



MABUIAG-EN6LISH AOOABULARY. 



123 



gugabid-tai, v. roll over. 

iboib-tai, v. be surfeited. 

iupad-tai, v. plait. 

kadaka-tai, v. lift up. 

kadaka-gud-tai, v. invert, turn up. 

kakurka-tai, v. step over. 

kauria-tai, v. swear. 

kid-tai, v. turn over, turn round, turn inside out, 
change. 

kuik(u)-tai, v. nod. 

kulai-tai, v. precede, go before. 

kun-tai, v. follow. 

kuruia-tai, v. reveal. 

maiek-tai, v. tie string round. 

maramnu-tai, v. bury. 

mei-tai, v. cluster, of clouds. 

muk-bal-tai, v. float. 

muluka-gud-tai, v. invert, turn down. 

musi-tai, v. shred. 

ngana-tai, v. wonder at, marvel. 

ngapa-tar-tai, v. convert. 

ngar-tai, v. jump. 

ngur-tai, v. step over. 

nguru-tai, v. come out, be rumoured. 

paipa-kid-tai, v. turn back to left. 

pikin-tai, v. dream. 

sakar-tai, v. change to something else, surname. 

sigapa-tai, M. v. throw afar. 

sigazi-tai, v. throw from afar. 

tar-tai, v. roll over and over, slew round. 

tupal-tai, v. coil up, roll up, fold. 

urpu-tal, v. dip in salt water, wash baby. 

utuln-tai, v. doze. 

wagel-tai, v. go last, follow. 

wakai-tai, v. make up mind, decide. 

wati-ia-tai, v. speak against, 
taiak, n. an arrow. PI. taiket. 

taiak-kimus, n. a poisoned arrow, 
taiami. v. choose, 
taima, n. a partition, boundary. 
taimer, n. a sting ray (Trygon) ; skin used as a rasp. 
takai, n. a tish spear, a pointed stick, about two and a 

half feet long. 
takar, (?) V. 183. 

takem, n. a tish, a kind of rock lish. 
taku, n. a- three or four-pronged fish spear, sliaft made of 

iser wood, 
tal, n. nail of finger or toe; nail of luiinial's claw; the 
oval piece of melon-shell cemented to handle of 
Inibai. Cf. 0. tal in iira-tal, finger-nail, 
tam, n. a l)ranch. PI. tiimal. 

tamau-mang, n. fork of a tree, forked branch. 
tamad, T. n. breadfruit. 
tamal, v. carry away. 

adaka-tamai, v. come away from. 

gamka-tamal, v. put close to another. 



ia-tamal. v. be angry. 

kabu-tamal, v. carry with outstretched ai'ms. 

kadai-tamai, v. arise. 

kadaka-tamai, v. come up; flow (of tide). 

minaka-tamai, v. trust. 

mina iaka-tamai, v. believe something untrue. 

nguigidan-tamai, v. use spitefully. 

nguki-dan-tamai, v. accuse falsely. 

pasika-tamai. v. move a little from the wall. 

sesi-tamai, v. think. 

wakaiu-tamai, v. think, understand, 
tami, v. shift, move. 

adaka-tami, v. go aside. 

adaka-pa-tami, v. hew down. 

ngapa-lugi-tami, v. come closer. 

tira-tami, v. sail boat ; let cords slip through tira. 
tamudai, v. shut. 

pasa-tamudal, v. shut door, 
tamul, n. a compartment in the crate at the side of the 
platform of a canoe. 

buai-tamul, n. the small compartment at bow end. 

dada- iind kuna-tamul, the two succeeding ones. 

watarau-tamul, n. the long compartment in which 
wood is kept. 
tana, pron. they. K.Y. lUmi. 
tang = (((H(. 
tangai kwik, n. death ceremony for important man, 

V. 253. 
tanigi, n. name of a fish (Diacope octolineata). 
tanori = tanuri. 
tanuri, v. sit, stay. 

apa-tanuri, v. sit down. 

gima-tanuri, v. be set up. 

Igi-tanuri, v. sit up. 

kadai-tanuri, v. arise, get up. 
tapamai, 

gud-tapamai, v. kiss, 
tapan, n. a kind of yam (Convolvulus), 
tapar, n. mushroom coral (Fungia). 

muil tapar, ' 

tapl, n. a ray (Trygon). 
tapi, n. a tree, V. 212. Cf. bout. 
tapi, v. swim, 
tapl, n. half, part. 

tapim(u), n. a ray (Urogymnus). Cf. tapi. 
tapur, n. a bird, the spoonbill, 
tapural, 

kadaka-tapural, \. rise up from water. 
tar = f((/, n. nail of finger or toe; nail or claw, 
tara, ii. the shin. 
taradal, v. bear, carry [? toridi]. 
taral, v. call. 

sugul-tarai, v. hold meeting, converse, 
taral, ad. ijuickly. D. tara-mani, hasten, 
tarai, v. [set upon, put upon]. 

bal-tarai, v. stop, obstruct. 

16—2 



124 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



gamu-tarai, v. toucli. 

gima-tarai, v. tread on. 

kadal-tarai. v. set up. 

kataia-taxai, v. tie round neck, 
tardai, v. cross, as over sea ; spin the waim top. 
taxei = tiiwk. 

tari, 7. put down, set down, as foot on ground, finger on 
hand. 

apa-tari, v. reach bottom of hill. 

bal-tari, v. stop, prevent. 

gam- taxi, v. touch lightly. 

kadai-tari, v. arise. 

kulun-tari, v. kneel. 

tabai-gabu-tari, v. carry on shoulders. 
tarpai = ;i')7«i(. 
tartai, v. move from one side to another ; turn over and 

over, delve; "slew round." 
tarte, n. a hole. 

tata, a. stammering, uncertain of speech ; in naming 
colours, pale, indistinct ; ad. not quite. 

tata-gamul, a. shghtly coloured ; pale blue, pale 
brown, II. 62. 

tata-iadaig, n. a person impeded in speech, 
tataimili, M. n. scales of a fish, 
tatarai, v. make (of wood). 
tatari, 

gar-tatarl, v. stroke, rub. 
tati, n. father, etc. Cf. V. X33. 0. tata. 

tatl-sam, n. male cassowary. 

tatl-waur, n. season when food is plentiful; "big 
fellow south-east." 
taua = (owa, q.v. 

taugoi, n. dry banana leaf; used for wrapper of cigarette. 
tauial, V. give drink to. 

susun-tauiai, v. suckle, give suck to. 
taupal, a. short, of space and time. Mir. teupiii. 
taur, 11. name of a small fi.sh. 
tautil, n. the artificially elongated ear-lobe. 
tawal, n. the mark of high tide on shore. PI. tawalal, 

Mir. taifcr. 
te, T. n. mouth. Mir. te. 
teda, T. n. blowfly, 
teki, n. a reed, 
tepaji, M. n. pandanus fruit, 
tepe, n. a bivalve shell (Barbatia). 

warkld tepe, n. a shell (Modiola subramosa). 
tera, n. bitterness, [strong or unpleasant taste]. Cf. 
mita. 

terar gabuil, n. intestines of a turtle which cannot be 
eaten. 

terar madu, n. V. 183. 

teral, terar, a. bitter, sour, pungent, unpleasant, II. 187. 

tera pa,t = trapot, q.v. 
terpai, v. sew, mend. 

pltuia-terpai, v. thread on a stick, as small fish, 
terti = tarte. 



tete, n. lingers ; claws of mouse, 
tiai, 

ada-tlai, v. cast out, reject. 

gud-ada-tiai, v. fast, abstain from food. 

gud-tiai, v. fast, abstain. 

ikal-tiai, v. rejoice, be glad. 

ura-tiai, v. dance with liead swaying from side to side, 
tiap, n. the wrist. 

tiap-uru, n. a bracelet of plaited string, 
tibi, T. n. ashes. Mir. tibi. 
tidal, a. crooked, zigzag. 

tldai maril, n. a pattern on a mat, IV. 
tidal, V. [bend, turn, break by bending]. 

balbal-tidai, v. bend. 

balbalgi-tldal, v. straighten. 

daug-tidai, v. turn down corner, as of book. 

get-tldai. v. read. 

ladu-tldal, v. caution. 

irad-tidai. v. shadow. 

kausa-tldai, v. receive fruit, obtain fruit. 

kaza-tldai, v. double, fold over. 

kunia-tldai, v. turu back, return. 

pa-tldai, v. destroy, break stick. 

tam-tldai, v. pluck, break stalk. 

tonar-tidal, v. watch, learn, have authority. 

tudl-tldai. V. make fish-hook. 

wal-tldai, v. cry out. 

wapld-tidal, v. swim like a fish, i.e. with wavy-motion. 

zarar-tldai, v. break oS twigs. 
tidan, a. beut. Cf. tidai. 
tidi, 

abi-tidi, v. wither. 

get-tidi. V. read. 

kunia-tldi. v. come back, return. 

muluka-tidi, v. bow head. 

muluka-pa tidl, v. worship. 

pa-tidi, V. l>reak away, 
tidui, V. break. 
tigi, n. the brain. K. tigiro. 
tikat, n. a flea. Mir. titig, D. totolc, B. tt'tek. 
tik(i), n. a mollusc (Asaphis deflorata), used as bait. 
tUd (?) 

tiki-palai, v. sweep. 
timi, n. a plant (Abrus precatorius). 

tlmi kapul, n. the red and black seeds of timi; "crabs' 
eyes. " 
tlraiden, n. shivering. 

timlden-mai, v. shiver: iigaiia timeden maika, I am 
.shivering, 
tiom, 

magi-tiom, n. a boy. 
tira, 11. a hole; the shoe for a mast; holes in gunwale 
of a canoe ; holes in margin of ear. 

tlra-tamaigl, a. going well, of boat. 

tlra-taml, v. sail boat. 
tirap, M. n. = tiap, wrist. 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULAEY. 



125 



tirap-uru, "SI. n.^tiup-nrii. 
titU, 11. opened flower of coco-iialm. 
titoi. n. = titui, star, 
titui, n. star. PI. T. titnal. 

tituititui, n. a tliamond-shaped oriuimeiit, cf. Vol. IV; 
a star fish (Linckia Isevigata). 
titur. n. a plant (Delima or Tetraceros). 
tituri, M. n. = titui, star, 
tfibai. n. = tupai, fat. 
tobai, n. a kind of mat. 
tod, 11. top of a house, roof, ridge pole. 

pasagudau tod, n. lintel. 
toda, n. a bee. 
todik, V. pi. walk. 

togai boapoidam, n. small funeral ceremony, V. 253. 
togi, V. to burn, of fire in one place, 
togui, n. a fin (of shark). 
toena. n. a functionary in the death ceremonies, V. 

252. 
toi, 

toi-asi, V. purge, 
toidai, V. dip out, as water; bite; [take portion out]. 

ngoki-toidai, v. fetch water. 

toldal, a. biting, fierce, wild, 
toie, 11. a bed. 
toikol (?) 

upi-toiljoi, n. testes (of dugong). 
toit(u), n. = tod, roof. 

toitu-pagai, v. pray, 
tokai, n. "alligator." 

tokar, n. a plant (Ocimum sanctum), II. 184. 
tolupai, n. a fish, kind of ray. 
tomi, n. a black ant. 
tonar, n. sign, time, season. 

tonar-tidai, v. watch, look out. 
topi, 11. name of a bird, V. 41. 
tora, = tra. 
toridi, V. carry, lift, raise. 

gar-toridi, v. crowd [? hustle]. 

gima-toridi, v. lift up. 

pa-toridi, v. strive, argue, dispute, 
tortai, V. scratch out. 
totaku, n. hull of a canoe, 
toti, n. a small pale red anti. 
totoiam, n. scales of a fish. 
towa, a. easy, light, 
tra, 11. a ridge. Cf. torn. 

kadaka tra pui, n. rods in roof supporting bcra 
pui. 
trap, n. name instead of rid for the immature bones 

of an infant, 
trapot, n. fins of fish. 

kuikuia-trapot, M. n. dorsal fin. 

muia-trapot, M. n. pelvic fin. 
tu, n. smoke, 

tugl, a. clean. 



tu, n. the etiolated leaf of the coco-nut palm; used for 
petticoats and dance ornaments ; a torch of dry 
coco-nut leaves. 

tuambn, n. leaf strip used in mat making. PI. 
tna)nonil. 

tu nge nidai, v. light a torch, 
tubu, n. a fish, the flathead (Platj'cephalus staigeri). 
tubud, n. friend. 

tubud-gasamai, v. be helped, find succour, 
tudai. V. weed. [Probably = hook out.] 

getia-tudal, v. take away. 
tudar, n. a fly, the blue-bottle. 
tud(i), n. a fish-hook. PI. tudil. K. tudi, B. trudi. 

krar-tud, n. a turtle-shell fish-hook. 

tudi-tidai, v. make a fish-hook. 

tudi-utumi, v. dance in a certain way, V. 52. 
tugi, a. clean. Cf. tn. 

tugu, n. dorsal fin of fish. [Probably .same as tniiui.] 
tug(u). n. poles of outrigger. K. tugu, sago palm, a 
spi'ar. 

tug-puidai, v. spear, 
tugumi, V. enter, go in. 

bup-tugumi, V. go into bush, 
tugutugu, n. a spea,r = sagul tut/u. 
tuldai. 

nguki-tuidai, v. urinate, 
tukoiab = (»/i»i(i^). 
tukulap, n. brother of a man ; sister of a woman, etc. 

Cf. V. 130. 
tul, n. handle of wiimi top. 

tul, 11. spear with sting-ray point; a pronged fish-spear, 
tulai, a. a. dirty. Cf. tu 

tulalgi, a. clean, 
tulu. u. a tree with heavy wood (Polanisia viscosa), 

V. 39. 
tuma, ad. by and by ; v. wait. 

tuma-ia-wai, v. watch, look after, take care of. 

tuma-ia-wal-ipika, n. midwife. 

tumakai, v. wait-a-Iittle. 

tuma-wadai, v. do by and by [prevent for a time]. ' 
tumit, n. dirt. 

tun(a), n. a large barbed javelin, 
tunai, n. name of a plant. 
tupal, n. fat, suet (of dugong, etc.). Cf. tobcii, lojiirni, 

tiipirai. 
tupal, n. a spare bow-string doubled up in a Itnliii. 

tupal tal, v. roll up, coil, fold, 
turab. M. n. side of beach, 
tupami, V. beseech, 
tupwai, n. honey; a,\BO = tupai, fat. 
turai, V, call. 

adia-turai, v. complain, murmur. 

ia- turai, v. call, owe, promise. 

iadu-turai, v. exhort, preach. 

kain-ipl-turai, v. marry. 

kunia-turai, v. ask back. 



126 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



ng:apa-turai, v. call bitlier. 

ngur-turai. v. exclude, keep out, divorce, 
turatai. v. wipe, 
turi, 

gudaka-tiiri, v. bej?, piay for. 

iadu-turi, v. inform. 

ngapa-turi. v. come, 
turik, n. flower-spike of /./wo, a sp. of taro. 
turik, n. irou, old name tor knife. Mir. tii!il,\ Ma. 
tnrika. 

gi turik. n. an iron knife. Cf. vpi. 

kuikul-turik, n. a fiat piece of iron, 
turka, 

turkangu. n. uproar. 

turka-ulaig, n. (juarrelsome (person). 
turkekai, M. = (Hra/.'i«i. 
turku, u. bowl of bamboo tobacco-pipe. Mir. turl'oli, 

D. turku, B. turlo, branch. 
turo, M. = (o«Y(. 
turu, a. confused. 

turu minar, n. confused turtle tracks on sand 
beach. 
turukiai, a. male. 

turukial-kazi, n. son. 

turukiai markai, T. n. representative of deceased man 
in death ceremony. 

tururubil. n. pi. white men. 
tutai, 

duia-tutai, v. gather up. 
tutai. a. dirty. Cf. tului. 

tutai-gamul, a. brown, II. 61. 
tutu, n. 11 wooden club or rod, stick. 

u, n. the sound of the wind. 

u, part, indicating the possessive case, or imperative. 

ubal, n. bladder. 

ubal-madu, n. calf of leg. 
ubami. 

dumawaku-ubami, v. clothe. 
ubar, n. a tree (Mimusops browniana, "wangai pUuu") ; 
weights made of uhar wood used to distend the 
lobe of the ear. 
ubarau-nis, n. leaf of ubar, used for cigarette wrappei-. 
ubl, n. wish, want, desire; greed, 
ubig^i, a. not liked, unwilling, 
ubigi-asi, v. be unwilling, dislike: ii(/ai numju uhi- 

giasiy, I don't like him. 
ubil, a. greedy. 

ubin-mizi, v. wish, desire, like, 
ubiu, a. greedy. 
ub(u), n. the Tea-tree (Melaleuca leuoadendron) with 
flexible straight grained bark; a mat made of uhu 
bark. 
udai = Marfa/. 

udaigi, a. free, 
udar, Mg. n. a paddle. Mir. uzer. 



udi, n. a plant (Exocarpus latifolia). 

udu. n. the arm; upper arm. 0. endn. 

uduin, n. various kinds of parrot-fish, more especially 

Pseudoscarus rivulatus i . 
uduma, n. dirt. 

uduma-korkak, a. dull. 
udup, n. hiccough. 
ugai, V. wait, wait for. 
ui, n. a small mollusc. V. 32. 
uiai = «■(■(!(, q.v. 
uidai = i('!rfa/, q.v. 
uidoi, n. a plant, V. 321. 
uiet = !i;ie(, q.v. 
uka, num. two. Not found alone. 

uka-kid, a. twin. 

uka-mai, v. put two together. 

uka-modobilgal, num. three. 

ukasar, num. two, by metathesis often kua.<>ar. 

ukasar-urapon, uum. three. 

ukaskas, num. two. 

uka-uka. num. four. 

ukauka laelo, S. num. two by two. 
ukSsa, 'SI. = ukasar. 
ulagi, v. = walgai, cleanse. 
ulai, a. wet. 
ulai, v. go along. 

boi-ulal, V. pass by. 

ia-ulai, v. quarrel, have words. 

lugi-ulai, v. walk close. 

maba-ulai. v. pass by. 

ngapa-ulai, v. come hither. 

turka-ulai, v. quarrel, 
ulgai = «■<(/(;<()', q.v. 
ulmai = ica?Hmi q.v. 
ulmai, v. walk about, go, come close. [Possibly pi. of 

ulai.] 
uma, infix, indicating the dual number (Gr. p. 33). 
um(a), n. death; a. dead. Mir. cumi. 

uma-gud, a. stale. 

umal, a. deadly. 

umalaig, n. relative of a dead person. 

nmanga, n. a dead person. PI. umamal. 

um-asi, v. wither, die. 

um-mizi, v. die. 

umauzi-goiga, n. death-day. 
umai. v. tell, relate, narrate. 

adi-umai, \-. relate an adi. 

dubidubi iadu-umai, v. grimible. 

gida-umai, v. relate a gida. 

ia-umal. iadu-umai, v. discuss, talk about. 

ia-umal-urapon, v. agree. 

kozikozi-ia-umal, v. discuss. 

nukunuku-la-umai, v. discuss. 

ta-umai, v. boast about, praise. 

watl-iadu-umai, v. use bad language, 
umai. v. plait, mend. 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



127 



umai. u. the dog (Canis diugo). Miv. oiiuii, M. iiiiu). 
umi, V. talk [to one's self]. 
una. :id. where? 

unaga, ad. where ? 
imab = irandi), q.v. 
unai = !('oJiat, q.v. 
unakar, n. heart (of turtle). 
unawa=Jt'a7i«i(>a, q.v. 
une'wen = toenetoen, q.v. 
iini — ituini, 11. V. 
unua = wawtticn. 
upai, u. a plant (Rubiacea). 
upi, u. a bamboo knife, and the bamboo from which it is 

made, 
upi, 

upi-toikoi, n. testes of dugong. 
upir, n. a plant (Capparis sp.). 
upirl, n. all kinds of internal medicines; poison, 
upius, n. a whistle (G.). 
upu, u. a chain of ponds, a blister. 
upur, n. a sea-urchin (Diadema setosa). 
ur, Mg. n. fire. Mir. nr. 
MI, n. salt-water; sea. Mir. ipir, K. iiro, oro. 

ur-pagai, urpu-pagai, v. dive, swim, bathe. 

urpu-pagai-lag, n. a bathing-place, pool. 

urpu-pudal, v. float. 

urpu-tai, v. dip in salt water ; as in washing-baby : 
nad kazi ni-pu-taian, she dipped the child in the 
sea. 
urab, n. the coco-nut palm and the drinking-nut. PI. 

urahal. G. waraba, 0. wurawa. 
uradal, v. cover over, hide. 

dan-uradai, v. die. 

gumi-uradai, v. hide, 
uradi, v. [rest on], 

tabaia-uradl, v. carry on shoulder. 
urakar. n. tree (Hibiscus tiliaceus). 
urapun, M. urapuni, num. one. 
uratl, V. fall down. 

gud-urati, v. fall on the face. 
uratial, v. dance in a certain way, V. 52. 
uraz, n. the olive shell ; an olive shell necklace used 

as payment for canoe, 
urgi. V. place in layers, one thing on another. 

urgil-palal, M. v. cover up. 
url, V. fly. . 
urimai, v. draw from sheath. 

bal-urimal, v. throw down, 
urma, n. a dropping; dew. 

duau urma, n. a season, 
uru, n. rope; lashing. 

malll-urukam, n. chain. 

urukam. n. rope. 

urun-palngi, v. flog, 
uru, n. mangrove shoots prepared for making biiu ; 
a. orange or yellow, II. 62. 



urugabau, n. yam ; sweet potato. Mir. <irgah. 
urugi, u. a plant (Uvaria sp.). 

urui, n. an animal; beast; bird; insect; an animal 
mask. PI. uruil. 

mugu urui, n. white ant. 
uruka, u. a plant, bark used for zasl. 
uruwain, n. a magical stone, V. 324. 
us, n. quartz used for sharpening upi. , 

usal, n. pi. small linear scars so named from the quartz 
chips with which they were cut. 
usai, a. rotten, putrid, 
usal, n. the Pleiades. 

usar, n. the kangaroo; wallaby. Mir. mar, K. maw. 
usimai, v. extinguish, put out fire, 
usimi, v. go out, be extinguished, 
usut, n. a plant (Hexagonia tenuis), 
uta, 

uta kursai, n. seeds in the rim of the ear. 
uti, V. enter, go in. 

bupa-uti, V. go into bush. 

muia-uti, v. go inside, go into. 

pa-uti, V. go out of sight. 
utimal, n. a constellation which appears during Waur, 

V. 69. 
utu, n. a small palm (Seaforthia). Cf. hilko. 
utua, n. a bee; honey; in jargon English "sugar-bag," 

i.e. bee comb full of honey, 
utui, V. sleep. Mir. ut, M. utua. 

utui-iunal, v. lie asleep, be sleeping. 

utu-lag, T. M. n. house, sleeping place. 

utuin-tai, v. doze, 
utui, v. plant, be cast into, sow seed. 

nagu-utui, v. jjlant yams, 
utui, V. shoot with bow. 
utumi, v. [for iitiiui, pi. of titij. 

ia-utumi, v. command, order. 

ngurpu-utuml, v. join together, 
uza, n. a small grey cowry (Cyprtea errones). 
uzari, v. go. 

ngapa-uzari, v. come, move towards speaker. ' 

uzi, n. a scorpenoid fish (Synaneidium horridum), pro- 
liably also Pelor sp. and Synanecia sp., V. 156 ; spine 
of a stone-fish, 
uzi, v. 

gam-uzi, v. itch (of skin), 
uzu, n. an edible plant. 

wa, exclam. yes! demons, other. 

wagar, exclam. yea! yes indeed! 
wab, u. a New Guinea plant, probably Dracaena. 

wabad-gamul, a. brown, II. 61. 
waba, n. dove. G. warahii, a green dove. K. Y. icabul, 

Torres Straits pigeon. 
wad, a. another. 

wad, n. a fish with blue spots (Blenny sp.). 
wadai, n. ( = \tiUii), a red bean (Mucuna sp.) ; a game. 



128 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



wadai. v. prevent, stop (from doing wrong). 

get-wadai, v. resist. 

gud-wadai, v. prevent. 

ia-wadai, iadu-wadai, v. caution, forbid. 

pa-wadai, S. v. rebuke. 

tuma-wadai, v. postpone, do by and by. 
wadi, 

gud-wadi, v. caution. 
wadogam, n. the other side. 
wadwam, n. mother's brother, sister's child, etc. Cf. 

V. 134. 
wae, = ((('. 
wagel, a. after. 

wai, V. put, place, send ; let out smoke from mouth when 
smoking. 

adaka-wai, v. send away. 

get-wai, V. let go. 

guda-wai, v. let go, unloose, forgive. 

guit-wai, V. let go, loosen, forgive. 

ia-wai. v. travel, look tor. 

iadai-wai, v. send word, warn. 

iananab-wai, v. scatter. 

Idi-wai, v. melt. 

kudu-wai, v. assent, say yes. 

kuik-wai, v. explain. 

lu-wai, v. shave, stretch out hand. 

pa-wai, v. loosen. 

pau-wai, v. lower, let down. 

sig-wai, V. pine away. 

tmna-ia-wai, v. take care, beware. 

ur-ngapa-wai, v. flood, come (of flood) 

wagelau-wai, v. curse. 

wakal-gud-wai, v. open the mouth. 

wakai-wai, v. advise, 
waia, 

waia kap, n. a fruit eaten by the cassowary, 
waiaku, n. guts of dugong. 
waidai, v. break over, of wave, 
waigar, II. =«i«ya/'. 

walikurar, n. large intestine (of dugong). Cf. akunir. 
wailtutu, n. the saw-tish. 

waitutu-kap, n. the saw-fish dance, V. 342. 
walk, n, a plant (Acanthus ilicifoUus). 
wainls, n. a small bull-roarer with a shrill sound, 
waipa. 11. a land shell. 

waipat. n. a head-dress cimsisting of a single plume, 
waipi, n. a iish (?cod). 
waitain, n. a water melon, 
waiti, n. a fish. 
waiwai, n. the testicles. 
waiwi, M. n. kernel of coco-nut. Cf. .'/i. 
waiwi, n. the mango. Mir. wtiiwi, K. B. witci. 
waiwi, n. an armlet made from the shell of Conns 

millepunclatus. 
wakab(i), n. a shell scraper used in mat making, 
wakai, S. v. chase. 



wakai. n. voice; throat. 

wakai-asi, v. pity, regret. 

wakai-kikiri-angai, v. abstain from food, fast. 

wakai-kuam, M. wakai-kumani, a. sorry. 

wakatk-umagi, a. cheerful, "cheer up." 

wakai-kumani-mizi, M. v. be sorry. 

wakail, a. 

wakai-mUau, n. the underside of the jaw. 

wakain-tamai, v. think, understand. 

wakai-nurai, v. make numerous mistakes. 

wakai-supamai, v. give hard work for nothing. 

wakai-tai, v. decide ; make up one's mind, recollect. 

wakai-wiai, v. preach, 
wakasu, S. n. oil. 
wakau, u. belt; band of petticoat. Mir. icak. 

wakau minar, u. name of a pattern representing a belt. 

wakawakau-lag, u. loins, 
waki, n. spines of the sting ray. 
waku, n. mat, the koi net for all kinds of matting. 

duma-waku, n. clothing. 

gulngu waku, n. sail. 

gul wakulnga pungai, v. nianifuvre the sails of canoe, 
sail canoe, 
wal, conj. and. 
wal. n. cry, cooey. 

dan-walmai, v. save. 

gadau-walmai, v. follow. 

pa-walmai. v. 

walmai, v. wake. 

walmaigi, v. not reach land. 

wal-mizi, v. cry out, awaken. 

walsami, v. steal away, 
walbai, v. make trench. 

apal-walbai, v. make trench, 
walgai, v. [cleanse?]. 

gar-walgai (ulgai), v. wash, cleanse. 

get-gar-walgai, v. wash hands. 

gizu-walgai, v. make point, 
wali, v. climb. 

duba-giu-wali, v. smile. 

giu-wali, V. laugh. 

kadaka-wali, v. come up, climb. 

ngana-wali, v. wonder, marvel. 

pa-wali, V. land (from boat), come to shore, 
wali, n. a tree (Pipturus argenteus); used for fisliing- 
line, cord; string. 

walipusi, a. acid. Cf. puso, young, 
walkadun, M. n. wallaby. 
walnga, u. rock-fish. 

walsi, M. name of a plant (Xerotes Banksii) ; a basket, 
walunga, n. steering board of canoe, which also acts as 

centre board ; rudder of boat, 
warn, n. honey-comb. 

wamau-wiba, u. a kind of honey-comb. 

wamau-wlbad-gamul, a. light brown, II. 51. 

wam-mital, a. sweet. 



MABUIAG-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



129 



wamedal, n. leaves of a scented plant which grows on 

tlie beach. 
wamedebu, u, name of a mask, V. 340. 
wamen. u. (luick, fast. Mir. xoamen. 
wana, n. a kind of top, made of halapi seed, IV. 
wanab, a. safe; blessed (G.). 

wanai (unai), leave, put, deposit. Cf. K. Y. nitana, 
ifunana, lie down, be. 

apia-unai, v. lie down, sit. 

dada-unai, v. leave. 

kasa-wanai, v. forsake. 

pa-ia-unai, v. worship. 

sib-wanai, v. pity, love, be merciful. 

terai-unai, v. to flavour, season. 
wanawa, n. " tortoiseshell" turtle (Chelone imbricata 

and Thalassochelys cavetta). 
wa.neB = wainis, q.v. 

wangai, n. the wild " plum." Cf. ubar. 
wangai, v. fill up, pack up, collect, 
wangi, v. travel in canoe ; [be packed in, crowded], 
wani, V. [be left alone]. 

dada-wani, v.. be scattered. 

get-wani, v. let go, be lost. 

gud-wani, v. be quiet. 

pa-get-wani, v. let slip, as spear by accident, 
wani. V. drink. 

sukuba wani, v. swallow smoke of pipe, 
wap, n. a dugong harpoon. Mir. wap. 
wapada, n. the cotton tree (Bombax). 
wapi, n. fish, a koi nel. PI. wapil. 

pokam-wapi, n. the flying-fish. 

wapi-arai, v. obtain flsh, fish. 

wapigi, a. without flsh, as a basket. 

wapil, a. containing fish, as a basket. 

wapil, n. name of a constellation in the north-cast. 

wapi-terapat, n. spine of a fish; fish spine ornament 
on canoe. 
war(a), a. other, different. 

wara-kid-aimai, v. do wrong way, err. 

wara-ngada-asi, v. become different, take another 
shape. 

warig, n. another person, different person, 
waranls, M. n. a green pigeon. 
waraz = Hraz, q.v. 

warka, n. a fish, spotted dory (Drepane punctata), 
waroi, n. a common siluroid fish. 
warn, u. the green turtle (Chelone mydas). PI. warul. 
D. loaru, B. waro. 

kid-waru, n. end of the turtle season. 

waru-karar, n. turtle shell. 

waru-kaz, n. a young turtle. 

waru kwik, n. sand spit. 
warup, u. a drum. PI. icarupal. Mir. trartip, D. 

iirti}}, tvnrap. 
wasal, n. dancing, a koi nel. 
wasami, 

H. Vol. III. 



purunu-wasami, v. to steal. 
wasara, 

wasaral, a. rough, 
wasili, T. n. a kind of basket. Cf. walsi. 
wata, S. = iciet, q.v. 
watar(a), n. fuel, dry wood. 

watarau getalai, n. a scorpion. 

watarau tamul, n. a compartment on the canoe plat- 
form to contain fuel. 

witi-watar, n. fuel, 
wati, a. bad, evil. Mir. toil. 

watigam, M. {?) = icatiziizi, V. 204. 

wati-ganu, n. a stink. 

wati-pawa, n. a bad action; sin (G). 

wati-wakai-asi, v. repent, be sorry for. 

wati-zazi, M. n. menses. 
watu, Mg. v. or n. whistle. 
wau, n. the areca nut. Not chewed by Torres Straits 

islanders. 
wau, ad. interrogative = ««. 
waunga, n. infirmity, 
waumer = wom(;r, q.v. 

waur{a), n. the south-east wind; the dry season. D. 
wura, B. toera. 

waura-dad, n. the east. 

waur-dogam, n. the south-east; the east. 

wauralaig, n. name of a constellation, a Aquilse, 
V. 16. 
wauri, n. a cone shell (Conus litteratus, var. millepunc- 

tatus). 
wauri, n. a human image in wood, wax, etc. used in 

magic, V. 197, 324. 
waus, n. a grass fence or screen (cf. V. 365-7) PI. tcausal. 

Cf. iros. 
wazi, V. lie about. 

wazi-mizi, v. lie about. 
weibad = H'oi7/a(/, q.v. 
wem, n. cockatoo. 

wenewen, n. a charm ; words or song of charm ; magical 
influence of a charm, V. 329. ' 

wera, M. n. stomach. 

weragl, a. hungry, 
wiag, n. a small gasteropod mollusc, 
wiai, 

adaka-wiai, v. 

get-wiai, v. distribute. 

gud-wiai, v. greet, salute. 

guit-wial, V. let go, allow, forgive, 
wiba, n. a green taro, from New Guinea. 

wlbad-gamul, a. blue-green, II. 61. 
wiba, n. one side of a honeycomb, which is hot and 

yellow (? bee-bread), II. 184. 
wibu, n. a fruit tree (Parinarium uonda). 
widai, V. burn food ; [put close to, or in contact 
witli |. 

adaka-widal, v. cut off. 

17 



130 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



gamu-widal, v. ignite, kindle fire, light cigarette, put 
uear. 

gar-wldami, v. pi. assemble, collect. 

get-widai, v. push back. 

gud-widai, v. salute. 

gud-gar-widami, v. pi. consult together, take advice. 

la-gar-widal, v. spread, of news. 

idi-widai, v. melt, cause to melt. 

idln-widai, v. smear with oil. 

kadaka-widai, v. go on top. 

kubin-gar-wldai, v. paint body with charcoal. 

kulu-widai, v. crawl. 

kupa-widal, v. lay foundation. 

ngur-gar-widaml, v. pi. be equal. 

ngur{u)-widai, v. hunt away, send away. 
widi, 

lu-widi, V. .stretch. 
wier, M. n. palm of hand. 
wlet, n. season, year. PL wietal. Mir. nriit, M. urato, 

B. wat. 
wila, n. a kind of fresh-water herring. 
win, n. a fish, the groper (Oligorus terra-reginiE). 
wiripae, n. sand clouds. 
witi, n. a email fish. 
•vriti, (?) a tree. Cf. V. 30. 
wlti-watar, n. fuel. 

wiwai, n. name of a large stone which cannot be lifted, 
subject of a magical ceremony, V. 334. 

wlwai-ipika, n. a woman who stays at home, 
wiwi, n. an edible plant [? = u-alwi, mango]. 
woke, n. the hornbill. 

woibad, n. a soft egg like that of a turtle. 
wome, n. a string figure or trick, " cat's cradle." PI. 

womeal. Mir. kamut. 
womer, n. the frigate bird (Fregata minor). 

womerau-kuik, n. carving of a bird's head, for canoe 
decoration. 
wor, n. bushes. 
worogi, T. S. = urfii. 
wos, n. a grass fence or screen, same as waus or motoal. 

PI. wouil. 
wu, n. a yellow, sere leaf. 

wud-gamul, a. yellow, orange, II. 60. 
wUZ, S. n. quartz. Cf. us. 

The letter y is not used in the Grammar or Vocabulary. 
Words which are elsewhere found with y, must be sought 
under i. 

za, n. a thing, an object. PI. zapul, property, 
za-get. Cf. zayet, work, 
zagl, a. poor, 
zanguzinga. n. portion, 
zapul, n. pi. riches; a. rich, 
za-pudaml, v. pi. exchange many things, barter. 
zapulaig, n. a person with property. 



zabal, M. n. pectoral fin. 

zaber, n. garfish. Mir. jiarix. 

zaget. n. handiwork; work; labour. Cf. za and get. 

zagetka, n. for work, used as = v. go to work; ngai 
•.luii'tkn, I go (to) work. 

zaget-mizi, v. be working ; nijai zaget miar, I am 
working, 
zamiak, a. dressed, decorated, as for a dance; "flash." 
zangai, T. n. child, boy. 
zangawer. u. a plant (?). 
zapu, =za. 
zar, n. branch, bough. PI. zarar. 

zarar markai, V. 253. 

zar-baiib, n. a fighting charm worn on the face. 

zarar-tldai. v. break of branch. 

zarzar, n. a wind screen, made of boughs, 
zaram, u. name of a fish (Pelates). 
zarar, n. a tree, V. 99. 

zarza, u. leaves used as sand-paper (? = sarza, Ficus sp.). 
zazi, n. a large petticoat made of leaves. 

kusal zazi, v. a zazi with fringe. 

wati zazi, M. n. menses. 
zei = ziai, q. v. 
zei = zoi, q.v. 
zelbu, n. fruit of a New Guinea palm washed upon the 

shore; a rock at Pulu, V. 3. 
zermoi, n. a small fish which accompanies the shark ; 

a figure in toomc. 
zez, n. the stay rope of the saima. 
zi, suff. (Gr. p. 14, 20). 
zia, n. a cloud. PI. T. zialai. 
ziai, n. the south wind. B. sjai-maihau, south. 

ziai dogam, n. the south, 
zilarai, v. run. 

bup-zilami, v. flee, escape. 

iadai-zilami, v. be rumoured. 

pa-zilami, v. run away. * 

ziu, suff. (Gr. p. 35). 
zlzlmai, v. drive. 

zogo, T. n. a shrine, V. 347. Mir. zogo. 
zoi, a. flat. 

zozl, n. a root which is scraped or pounded and used 
as a fish poison (either Derris uliginosa or Ehyn- 
ohosia sp.). 
zub, n. bamboo tobacco-pipe. Probably a Mir. word, 
zugu, n. the dancing post in the hwod. 

zugu-mungai, v. give bad luck to. 
zugu, n. the upper arm. 

zugubal, n. magi nel of constellation Utiina! and Usal, 
V. 69. 

zugu-kuik, n. shoulder, 
zunga, n. a tree, 
zura, a. boiling; n. souj), v. 101. 

zurai, v. boil, 
zuru, a. dazzling. 



A VOCABULARY OF THE MIRIAM LANGUAGE, SPOKEN IN THE 
EASTERN ISLANDS OF TORRES STRAITS. 

Introduction. 

A considerable Vocabulary of the Miriam Language was given in the former 
"Study of the Languages of Torres Straits\" During the stay of the Expedition in 
Murray Island this was revised and a number of new words added. Many words 
were collected by Dr Haddon, to whom also are due most of the scientific names. 
The colour names and words connected with them were obtained by Dr Rivers, those 
relating to taste and smell by Dr Myers. I am chiefly responsible for the verbs and 
adjectives and names of common objects. 

In arranging the Vocabulary the proper place for the verbs was difficult to 
determine. In compiling a list for my own use it was found convenient to arrange 
them under the distinctive prefi.x of the exclusive person singular (cf Grammar, 
p. 67), and this method has been adopted in the Vocabulary. Thus, to find the 
meaning of a verbal form met with in composition, it is necessary to substitute this 
prefix according to the following table before consulting the Vocabulary. 

Verbal forms in 

a will be found under a, or if adjectives or negatives na will be found by changing na to lU, or by substi- 

by substituting da, de, di, e or i for a. tuting a, e, or i for Ha. 

ba will be found under ba, or if collective by substi- o will be found under o, or by omitting o, when the 

tutinc c or i for ba. word is a compound, as o-ituli, found under (. 

dam, by substituting de, da, or di for dara. ta will be found by omitting ta. 

de, di, da will be found under de, di, da. te will be found by omitting te. 

e will be found under e. u will be found under u. 

i will be found under i. wa will be found by omitting wa. 

I 

Irregular stems and forms are entered under their initial letter. 

The form of the verb given in the Vocabulary is that of the exclusive third 
person singular, with, if transitive, the prefix of the exclusive singular. Thus, ogi, 
haraigida, ikeli, detageri, given as " climb," " dive," " tell," are lit. " one of them climbs," 
"one dip's one's self," "one makes one," "one of them tells one of them." In order to 
conjugate the verb it is necessary to know, (1) the adjective form, (2) the ending of 
the past tense, er or lu, (3) the prefix indicating dual or plural object, ?ia or dura, 
and (4) in some cases the past tense with plural subject or object. As all the 
forms of all the verbs were not obtained, there is some unavoidable variety in the 
examples given of tense and prefix, but for most verbs some form is given by which 
the essential parts may be determined. Cf Miriam Grammar, pp. 76 — 82. 

1 Froc. Roy. Irish Academy, 3rd Ser. ii. 1893, pp. 557— (516. 

17—2 



132 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



The following parts of the verb are, when known, given in the Vocabulary. 



a., adjective. 

21., past tense singular subjunctive. 
d. , present tense dual subject. 
do. , present tense, dual object. 
pdo., past tense, dual object. 
jipo., past tense, plural object. 



cp,, present tense, collective plural. 

pp., past tense, plural subject. 

ddo., present tense, dual subject, dual object. 

pd., past dual subject. 

pio., present tense plur. subj. inclusive singular object. 



Words from New Guinea and Australia are given when they resemble the Miriam. 
Other abbreviations used are : 



a., adjective. 

ad., adverb. 

conj., conjunction. 

demons., demonstrative. 

indec, indeclinable. 

n., noun. 

part., particle. 

pi., plural. 

pi'ef., prefix. 

post., postposition. 

pron., pronoun. 



recip., reciprocal. 

reflex., reflexive. 

siiff., suffix. 

v., verb. 

ef., compare, refer to. 

q.v., which see. 

G., found only in the Gospel 

Translation. 
Gr. p., Miriam Grammar, page. 
3Iab., Mabuiag. 



.l/(/., Mawatta • 

A'., Kiwai 

D., Dabu 

/;., Bugi 

A"«., Kunini 

Ba., Bangu 

Dm., Dungerwab 

AT.. Koko-Timidir 

<)., Otati 

i'., "i'araikana 



New Guinea. 



Australia. 



Parts of verbs are given in brackets ( ). 
explanations are given in square brackets [ ]. 



Conjectural meanings or suggested 



a, pref. (Gr. p. .56, 74). 

a, conj. and, also. Mab. «., B. a. 

ab. demons, this, that (Gr. p. .5.5). 

ab-gedlam, ad. from thence, from that place. 

ab-gereger, n. yesterday. 

ab-kesem, ad. so that. 

ab-kige, u. last night. 

ab-koreb, a. proper, suitable, fitted to. 

ab-saimarsalmar, ad. .so much ; to such a degree ; 
apiece. 
ab, n. a large blue fish, edible, bones used as orna- 
ments. 
ababurge. ad. when (G.). 
abal, u. the pandanus. 

abal krim (abal kerem), n. pandanus fruit. 
abar = </(;«(, pandanus. 
abara, pron. his, her, its. 
abe, n. father, father's brother, etc., VI. 
abeida, v. confess. 

abeili, v. confess (a. abei, do. iiabeiii). 
abele, demons, this, that. 

abele gereger, n. to-day. 

abelelam, conj. through this, because. 
abemedabemed, a. an unexplained word in llalu songs, 
aber, n. ln'che de mer (Holothuria). 

plrlpirl-aber, u. small lolly-fish (Holothuria sanguino- 
lenta). 

burbur-aber, n. spotted-fish (Holothuria argus). 
abger, a. called. Cf. v. dnhgeri. 



abl, ijron. him, her, it. 
abi, v. = ahu. 

dodo abi, n. waterfall. 
abo, n. a blue fly. 

abu, abuU, v. fall, climb down, drop (a. abu). 
ad, n. a legend ; any thing about which a legend is 
told ; all sacred and magical stones are ad. 

ad, n. outside ; the outer fence of a house plot. Mab. 
add, away, out. 

adem dikri, v. throw away. 

adem itkir, v. snatcli away. 

adile, n. an outsider, a stranger. 
ad(a)ri, adrida, v. put in ease or box, put in pocket, 

sheathe. 
ade, suff. = are. 

adigir, a. healed, from v. idigiri. 
adu, a. from v. edegi. 
adud, a. bad, evil. 

adud nesur, n. menses. 

ae, suff. (Gr. p. 61). 
agber, u. flood tide (?). 
ageakar, n. truth. 

agdg, a. meaty, fleshy, fully formed, hence ripe, of 
coco-nut. 
kolap agfeg, n. "meat," of knlnp bean. Eaten by 
Australians, but not by Miriam. 
agem, a. denied. 

agemkak, a. acknowledged. 
agemli, v. siive up (pdo. nagmer). 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



133 



ager, n. an aroiil with acrid juice; a "stink plant"; 
the tuberous rhizome is used as food during 
scarcity, cooked in "copper maori" (Callicarpa 
longifolia). 
aglmur, a. from v. eiiimtili. 

agist, V. lift (a. agisir, ppo. nagisibi, d. agisidm-iei). 
agud, n. the initiation ceremony of the Main fraternity 
or more particularly the masked performers, also 
certain animals associated with this cult. Also 
certain food zogos. Mab. utigud, VI. 
aipersi [a. from v. epersida]. 

alpersi lu, u. a toy; a stick thrown in a game. 
aipus, n. a small basket made from gei'er (pandanus 

leaf) or u him (coco-palm leaf), 
ais, aisili, v. take (a. aisis, p. alscy, d. aisiei). 
aiswer, n. an exchange of food, food, 
aka, ad. why. 

akari, n. men who marry two sisters, VI. 
akarida, v. rea,ch= ekarik, ekarida, q. v. 
aketi meb, n. new moon when first visible. 
ak(i)meda, v. fix, as anchor (pdo. nukmelu). 
akmeida, v. dip (a. tikmeir, p. ukmelu). 
akmeri, v. understand (a. akmer). 
akomeda. v. return (a. akomeret, ppo. nakomelu). 
akosakos, a. from v. ekos. Cf. II. 55. 
akur. n. thatch, 
alag, n. a ceremony connected with the enau zogo, 

VI. 
all, V. stay here or there (p. areder) (Gr. p. 80). 
alida, n. a shield-shaped piece of shell worn over the 
groin, in fighting and dancing. Cf. ebeneop. Mab. 
alidan. 
amau, amawa, n. mother, etc. Vocative only, VI. 
Cf. Mab. (!««(, KY. ngamii. 
au amawa, u. mother's elder sisters, 
kebi amawa, n. mother's younger sisters, 
amaz. n. a pillow, 
ame, u. the earth oven. 

ned-ame, n. the large stone on top of the amc. 
amer, a. and stem of v. dameri. 
ami, [a. dressed, clothed, prepared]. 

amile, n. the men who prepared a corpse for desic- 
cation, VI. 
amili, v. clothe (p. amier, pdo. luuitier). 
amri, a. sitting, from v. emiida. 

amri-ki, .u. evening, sitting time, 
amulu, n. a bell. 
aneg, n. taro. Ma. anegu. 
ao, n. a hole, pit, a long hole. Cf. awuk. 
ao, ad. yes. B. ao, Du. aau. 
ao, part, indicating a question (Gr. p. 71, 82). 
aokai. a. from v. dekaili. 
aomei, a. from v. omeida. 
aoraret, a. from v. derarti, 
aosmeda, \. = eosmedn. 
aosmer, a. from v. cosmeda. 



aotar, a. from v. detail. 

aotar-le, n. a writer, 
ap, n. a shrub (Macaranga Tauarius). 
ap (?), 

ni-ap, a. thirsty. 
apek, n. side, iVirection, = pek. 
aper, n. a hat. 
aperda, a. from v. eperda. 

aperda-ebur, n. a bird, flying animal. 
apit, a. struck. Cf. v. dapitili, ipiti. 
ut-dapitlU, V. nod, go to sleep, inclus. pers. only 
(p. ut-dapitcr). 
apri, a. from v. iprik. 

apu, n. mother, etc. Not Vocative, VI. ; mother's sister ; 
the horizontal fire-stick. Mab. apu, mother. 
apule, mother's brother and sister's child, reciprocal. 
apu ur llrwar, "fire is produced," lit. "mother gives 

tire," said of the horizontal fire-stick. 
gani-apu, n. a bee. 
isau-apu, n. a bee. 
meg-apu, n. a shrimp. 
we-apu, n. larva of ant-lion, 
araiger, v. dip, dive (a. araiger). Cf. haraigida. 

aralger-le, n. diver, 
arap, a. buying, from v. crapei. 

arap-le, u. a buyer; merchant (G.). 
araparap, a. maimed. Cf. v. erapeida. 
arapeir, a. from v. erapeida. 
araur, [a. from u. xir, fire, i.e. red]. 

araur kaba, n.=sopsnp kaba. 
ardali. Cf. erdali. 

ok-ardali, v. deceive (pdo. oka-darardurer). 
arauer, a. from v. derar(e)ti. 
are, suff. (Gr. p. 69, 73-79). 
areg. a. eatable, from v. ercgli. 
areparep, n. a tree, wood used for goigoi. 
arer, [n. km], 
arem, [a. from v. dercmli]. 

arem-lu, n. a long wooden bodkin used in thatching, 
arem, n. the sky: gair icer emri iiremge. K. aromo. > 
ares, v. fight (a. ares). 

aresem bakeauda, v. pi. go forth to fight, 
ares le, n. a warrior, 
ares lu, n. a weapon, 
argerarger, n. a tree (Callicarpa sp.), wood used for 
goigoi ; also argerger used for abortion and preven- 
tative, 
argerarger wet, n. a small digging-stick. 
argerger, n. = argerarger. 

arlag, n. a fishing line. Mab. ariag, Ma. ariga. 
ariari, n. a small kind of tree, 
aritarit, a. burning. A Malu word. 
aro, aroaro, a. eating. Cf. v. eroli. 
aro-lu, n. a spoon. 
pit-aroaro, n. disease of the nose. 
te-aroaro, n. disease of the mouth. 



134 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



arot, V. put in (a. iirot). Cf. v. barti. 
arsei ('?), 

arsei le, n. the assistaut to a /:c'kiiriik le. 
arti, n. octopus. 

arti lele, n. sepia. 
arub, a. washed, clean. Cf. v. diri(pi. 

arub-kak, a. dirty, 
arzer (?). Cf. 11. 183. 
as, n. a shell (Cassis cornuta), used as a water vessel; 

various shells {Murex, Aiu-icula, Cassis), 
asam, asamasam, a. quenched, darkened. Cf. v. esameida. 
asasem wed, u. songs wailed at a funeral, 
aseamur, a. tinishiug, ending. 

aseamur kak, a. unending, eternal, 
aseseredi, aseseret, v. tend, look after ; adopt (a. ase- 
serel). 
mamoe asesered le (CJ.), n. shepherd. 
op-asesereti, v. recognise, find out. 
asi, n. a sore, pain. 

asiasi, n. painful, sore, 
asisili, v. care for (a. asisii^en't, do. nusisili). 
asislu, u. inner rafter supporting vini pek. Cf. v. asisili. 
asmir, a. from v. ismi. 

asmirasmir, a. triangular, with pieces cut off. Cf. v. 
ismi. 
asoli, V. hear, listen. Personal object always in locative 
case (a. usor, p. aserei; d. aseriei, pio. iisorda, pp. 
aserare). 
asor, n. tlie spider shell (Pterocera lambis). 
aspidar, a. [married], from v. ispili, hide. 

aspldar le, n. bridegroom. 
aspir, a. from v. ispili, hide, marry. 
at, n. a flat fish. 

atamelam, n. the thing shown, a sign, from v. etomcnti. 
ataparet, v. scold, blame (a. ataparet, pdo. nataperter). 
atatmi, a. from v. ctatmili. 
te atatmi lu, n. posts in ground before doorway of 
house. 
ati, n.=arti, octopus, 
atidar, a. from v. eti. 

atiem, v. indecl. voyage, travel on sea (a. <((('). 
atkam. a. Cf. v. itkami. 

atkam le, n. a stealer, one who snatches. 
atkap, a. squeezed up, doubled up. Cf. ditkaptli. 
atket, a. from v. itketi, sew. 

atket lu, n. a needle, 
atkl, a. lighted up. Cf. v. datki. 
atklri, [a. snatched]. 
atkirua, v. wipe out (pdo. natkirer). 
atkobel, a. from v. etkobei ; n. a burying, a laying out. 
atkuritatkurlt, a. maimed (G.). 
atoatatoat, a. torn. Cf. v. ctuati. 
atperik, a. looking all round. Cf. v. dituperti. 
atrimuda, v. 
atruglli, V. [manoeuvre the tuy]. 

nar atruglli, v. sail boat (p. nar atrugrer). 



atrumda, v. accuse ; watch (get into trouble ?) (pdo. 

untnitnlii). 
atu, a. from v. ituli, as in mos-itnli. 
atuer, clouds on top of a hill; "smoke." 
atur, a. from v. ituli, m o-itiili. 
aturatur, n. corrosive coral, 
atwar, [? a. from v. detwi], 

atwar lu, n. a bodkin used in thatching, =« rem lu. 
au, a. large, great ; ad. very. Ma., K. inio ; Pu. wu. 
au-gemgem, a. corpulent. 
au-gur, n. ocean. 
au-ke, n. thumb. 

au-kes, n. a broad crack or opening, 
au-kok, n. elbow. 
au-kok-ne, n. inside of elbow, 
au-kok-ne sor, n. projecting bone of elbow, 
au-kosker, n. old woman. 
au-le, n. old man. 
au-nar, n. a ship. 
aua, n. mother's brother: au or A-fft/, according to age, 

VI. Mab. v;ndu-am. 
aud, a. dead. 

aud-le, n. a mummy, 
audbar, a. bound. Cf. v. didbari. 

audbar-meta, n. a prison, 
audared, a. from v. dederedi. 
augo. a. from v. oni. 
augwat, a. from v. degwati. 

tag-augwat, n. hand scraping, the old method of 
salutation, 
auiraa, n.=:awiina. 
auk. a. cooked, 
aumeraumer, a. [bound up]. 

aumeraumer kaba = so/)sop kaba. 
aupaup, n. a plant (Cupaniopsis). 

auperauper, n. a plant (Luffa gi'aveolens), the hollow 
seed-vessel is used as a whistle (awper-lu), also as 
a rattle (also Makarauga sp.?). 
ausar, a. from v. desaki. 
auskili, v. crouch (a. anski, p. auskilu, pp. baoskirer). 

auski kosker, n. a midwife, 
autmer, a. from v. itmeri. 
auzl, u. a caterpillar, 
op-auzi, n. a sneer, 
awak, n. a trench, hollow in land, valley, a round hole. 

Gf. ao. 
awatmur, a. from v. degwati, deiwat. 
awe, n. a variety of kaba. 
awem, suff. (Gr. p. 73). 
awima, n. wife's relatives. Vocative only, VI. Mab. 

imi. 
aza, n. a shell (^}) = as. 

bubuam aza, n. a shell (Cypraea tigris). 
aziri, v. cast in. 

azer, azrlda, v. go back, draw back, walk backward 
(p. azriklii). 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



135 



azrik-le, n. man going backward, a figure in knnnit. 
a2a:ikedi, take inside, put inside (p. azrikht, ppo. nazrikU(). 

ba, prefix indicating reflexive or reciprocal action, or 

combined movement (Gr. p. 67-73). 
baba, n. father, etc. In vocative only, VI. Mab. Ma. 
D. biiba, Ku. babe (not voc). Cf. KY. peba. 

au baba, kebi baba, n. father's brother, according 
to age. 
babana (?), 

babana segur, n. overture on drums at beginning of 
a dance. 
babuseda, v. ooze (p. bubuschi, d. babnsedariei, 
pp. btibcsa). 

mam babuseda, v. bleed. 
bad. n. a sore, fester, abscess. 

badbad, a. diseased, full of sores. 

badkar, u. an abscess. 
badarl, v. enter (d. badariei, p. balti). 
badi, n. an aroid plant, root eaten. 
badmirida, ■ v. lose sight of (p. badmiriklu, d. badmiri- 

dariei). 
bag, n. the cheek. Mab. bag. Ma. haijo, chin. 

bagbag, a. with puffed out cheeks, 
bagem, n. a secret. 
bager, n. a fire charm. 
bager, n. a long stick, staff, spear. 
bager (?), 

kusibager, n. a small creeping plant. 
bagerl, v. look round, 
bagrill, v. play (p. bagrer). 
baibai, [n. eyebrow]. Mab. baiib. 

baibai-mus, n. the hair of the eyebrows, 
baldoa, from v. dali (Gr. p. 79). 
balli, v. fast, go without food (p. baiwer, d. bahciei). 
baimida, v. cease crying (p. baimilii). 
bafteri, v. drown, sink : kaka iiar baiter gurge (p. baiter, 

d. bai tenet). 
bakaertl, v. be able to see (p. bakaelti). 
bakeamuda, v. go (d. bukeaimidariei, p. bakeamrilu, 
cp. nabakeauware). 

kekem bakeam, v. precede. 
bakedlda, v. finish (p. bakedilii). 
baker, u. a stone. 

baker kaur, n. a rocky island. 

baker paser, n. a cliff. 

Idid baker, n. a stone used for crushing and pounding. 

baker mog, n. the diamond trevally (fish) (Caranx 
gallus) ; the black bat fish (Stromateus niger). 
bakwari, v. carry (p. bakwurer). 

bakwari sorkobu, v. carry on the back. 

kodrom bakwari, v. carry on shoulders, 
balg^p, II. a gust of wind along top of water. 
ball, V. beg (p. barer). 
bam, n. turmeric. 

bambam, a. yellow, orange, II. 56. 



bamarik, stem of v. bamrida. 
bameli, v. ('?). 

ezu-bamell, v. lecip. abuse one another (d. ezu-bamriei, 
p. czH-banirier). 
bamereda, v. (?) 

mukub bamereda, v. become knotted as strings in 
kautut. 
bamesirida, v. become tangled as strings in kamat, be- 
coming knotted ; be a trouble to. Cf. v. damesili. 
bamrida, v. go away, depart, betake one's self (p. bam- 

ril)i, pp. baiimrkare). Cf. v. ertmrida. 
bane, n. dawn, daybreak. Ma. bani. 

bane ekri, n. morning twilight, light before sunrise. 
baos, v. imperative of badari. 
baospili, v. boast (p. baosperer, d. baosperiei). 
bapegeli, v. capsize, overturn, 
bapitl, V. reflex and recip. strike one another. Cf. v. ijiiti. 

o-bapiti, V. meet (p. o-bapitcr). 
bar, n. the season of growth, the time of South-west, 
bar, [bent?]. 

barbar, a. crooked, semicircular. Mab. balbal. 
bar-dltki, v. straighten, judge, put right (a. bar-utug, 

pdo. bar-daratker). 
bar-ditug, \. = barditkl. 
bar-kak, a. straight, 
bara, sufl'. (Gr. p. 63). 
baraigida, v. dip one's self, dive, set of sun (a. araiger, 

p. baraigiln). 
barebll, v. swim (p. barber). 
baremda, v. pi. echo (pp. baremlare). 
baresiei, v. d. make war, fight, 
barit, u. the cuscus or phalanger ; "opossum." Mab. 

barit, bait, K. padi. 
baroma, n. red, branched Alyonarian (Gorgonia). Cf. 

iiuroinar. 
barot, v. = badari, enter, 
barpelli, \. 

gasu barpeili, v. whistle (?). 
bartl, v. = barot, badari, enter, 
barukli, v. go on, go forth, proceed (p. bariik, d. barkiei,* 

cp. barkeda). 
basaredi, v. argue, dispute (a. asared). 
baseseredi, v. look after one's self, take care, beware, 
baski, V. wound one's self, 
baskiri, v. 

oka-basklri, v. [starcj, look about (d. oka-baskiei). 
baskomedl, v. 

basmeri, v. see one's self (p. basmerer, d. basmirici). 
batagell, v. 

oka-batageli, v. be grieved, worry about (p. oka- 
hiilagi'rer). 
batagemda, v. stick to, adhere (d. batagemiei, p. Inita- 

giiiier). 
batagemli, v. stick to, be closed up, conceive (p. bata- 

giiiier). 
bataieda, v. grovj = bataili. 



136 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



bataili, v. grow (p. bdluier). 

bataparet, v. scold one another, quarrel without fighting. 

batamar (?), 

bau batamar, v. carry on a bed. 
batapUi, v. be deaf (p. batajner). 

bataueredi, v. throw, heave, of one thing only (p. butuiie- 
redilu). Cf. itiiiieda, lUkri. 

par batauredi, v. cast anchor, 
batauerda, v. walk round in a circle, veer (p. batauc- 

rikhi). 
batlmeda, v. go through, fall through. 

karemge batlmeda, v. dive, 
batirida, v. 

batlrlk, v. .stem of batiriviuda, stretch arms, 
batirimuda, v. stretch out arms (p. butritnulu). 
batkami, v. cover one's self (p. batlunncr). Cf. v. itkami. 
batkopor, v. reoip. decorate one's self. Cf. etkopoli. 
batoamerdi, v. burn up, revive of itself, said of fire 

(p. hatoamerdilu). 
batuerl, v. descend, go down, 
batuglei, v. d. go round, 
bau, n. posts of sleeping platform. 

sik bau, n. frame of sleeping place inside house, 
baudaredi, v. wail, 
baugeli, v. (?). 

geb-baugeli, v. warm one's self (a. gcb-butinu, p. 
ijeb'bau(jev). 
baugem, n. IVIalu word for kaisu. 
baupamaretl, v. land. 

baur, n. a fish spear sometimes used for turtle ; a carved 
plank used in turtle ceremonies. Cf. tete baur. 

baur ke, n. the index finger. 
bautapUi, v. come out of the ground, as yam, because of 
some obstruction in the soil, " he come back because 
bad road." 
baz, n. a cloud, cloudy sky. 

baz golegole ismi, the dark clouds are breaking. 

golegole baz, n. rain cloud. 

kupkup baz, n. a cloudy sky. 
bazbir, 

bazegruari, v. be quiet (p. bazeiju(ir). 
bazgeda (?), 

o-bazgeda, v. feel to be wrong, be conscience stricken 
(pp. o-baziglare). 
be, n. = /)(■;. 
bebe (?), 

bebe sor, n. a variety of coco-nut with a deep yellow 
husk, 
bebeb, a. wet. 
beberbeber, a. heavy, 
beg, 

Beged (beg-ged), n. Boigu I. ; the spirit-land, 
begur, n. au ulcer. Mab. bayiir. 

begur gim, n. dropsy. 
be(i), n. dry coco-palm leaf, a torch made of it ; a light, 
a flame. Cf. ne. Mab. buia. 



bebe, a. lighted up. 

be le, n. men holding torches at a dance. 

bel lid, n. midrib of palm leaf; a broom made of it. 

beilidu dirupi, v. sweep. 

be tige datki, v. (Gr. p. 81). 

ner bei, n. lightning (G.). 
bei, n. sword-fish. 

beizam, n. shark, various species; a constellation, the 
Great Bear with other stars ; Mab. D. B. Ku. 
buidam. 

beizam-boai or bezam-le, n. certain members of the 
Malu fraternity. 

belzam-mi, n. a clam shell (Tridacna serrifera). 

beizam-u, n. a variety of coco-nut. 
beizar, n. stone fence (?). A Malu word, 
ber, u. = bii: 

ber, u. the left (side). Ma. K. pere, Mab. bodai. 
berber, n. black coral (Autipathes). 
berder, n. swamp, muddy ground. 
berer keber le, n. assistant to kebcr le. 
beri, n. rope for tying the fence or wall, wall of a house. 

beriberi kar, n. a fence made of the rope, 
berbet, n. a woman's brother; a man's sister, VI., uu or 

kidii prefixed according to age. Mab. babat. 
ber-didgar, n. a kind of dance, 
bes, a. f:\lsc. 

bes-apu, n. lying. 

bes-esmeda, v. be still-born. 

bes-ikwari, v. lend. 

bes-kak, a. true. 

bes-mer, n. a lie, falsehood, 
bet, n. a soft wood from New Guinea, 
beuribeuri, n. a plant (Uvaria sp.). 
bid, n. porpoise (Delphinus). Mab. bidu. 
bigo, n. a small bull-roarer. Mab. birju. 
bilid, n. = bir-lid, rib. Cf. bir. 
blr, u. the lungs ; side ; wall. Mab. berrt, rib. 

bir lid, n. ribs. Ma. bara-horu, K. bara-soro (lioro, 
soro = bone). 

birom Ikapsi, v. carry child on hip. 
biri (?). Cf. II. 183. 

birobiro, n. a small migratory bird. Mab. bimbiru 
bisi, n. the sago palm. Mab. D. bhi, B. bitsi. 

bisi kep, n. au arrow ; bok or bop of Mabuiag. 

blsi warn, n. a fringe of sago leaf worn on the leg 
in dancing, 
boai. n. members of a clan ; a friend. 
bodom, n. an equivalent, reward, wages, payment. 

bodoma-lam, n. that which makes the equivalent, 
reward, payment, wages. 
bogai, v. (?). 

o-bogai, V. indecl. dislike, 
bogbog, a. across. 

boigru, u. the place of departed spirits in the west. Cf. 
name of an island Boigu off coast of New Guinea, 
near the Mai Kasa. Cf. beg. 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



187 



bok, n. a small tree, used to procure abortion. 
bologor, n. the saw-fish (Pristis sp.). 
bonau, n. hard coral ; a variety of hnoer. 
borabor. n. Rravel, sand. 

tete borabor, n. gravel from red branching coral. 

un borabor, n. gravel from white coral, 
boroboro, n. a small cylindrical drum. 

boroboro eremli, v. beat the boroboro. 
borom, n. the pig. Mab. burum, K. boromo, Ku. hlome. 
borom, n. a variety of Jain, 
borometa, n. a fiat, sweet yam. 
boz, n. a climbing plant (Flagellaria indica), stem used 

in house-building, for fences, etc. Mab. buzi. 
bozar, n. name of a fish. 
bu, sufif. self (Gr. p. 64). 
bub, n. the chest, front of the body. 
buber, a. elastic, stretchable. 

bubuam, n. various species of cowry shells, usually the 
white cowry (Amphiperas ovum). Mab. bubuam, 
K. buamn. 

bubuam aza, n. Cj^iraea tigris. 

kebi bubuam, n. Calpurnus verrucosus. 
bubuam, n. a variety of kaba. 
bud, n. grey mud, earth, mourning. 

budbud, a. black, II. 56. 

bud desau, v. mark mourners with mud. 

bud egremer, v. = bud dexau. 

bud lewer, n. a funeral feast. 
buer, n. mud. 
bukani, n. a scorpion, 
bull. n. a kind of cuckoo, 
bulibuli, {!). 

ka bulibuli, n. a small univalve shell, 
burner, n. a buzzing sound ; noise of the wind. Cf. iiwr, 
burar, n. a bamboo whistle ; a bamboo receptacle ; a 

bamboo fiute with two holes (introduced?), 
burbur, n. = bor<ibor, gravel. 

burbur-aber, Holothuria argus. 
buromar.n. = 6u™m«, red branching "coral" (Gorgonia). 
busor, n. a shell, the white Natica. 
buzibuz, a. rotten, old, decayed. 

d, suff. (Gr. p. CO). 

da, sutf. (Gr. p. 69-80). 

dab, n. a spear. 

dabgeri, v. .call (a. abjier, pdo. darubijcrer). 

dabim, (?). 

te-dabimdabim, a. dumb. 
dabor, n. a fi.sh, mackerel ; a drum shaped like thu 

fish ; a dance figure. 
dad, n. the Milky Way ; a still white cloud in the night 

sky. 
dad, n. a fish, the spinous schnapper (Pagrus spinifer). 
dager = (/('3('r, dugong. 
dalbar, n. the yam jilant springing up. 
daip, n. a hill. 
H. Vol. IIL 



dairili, v. bore (p. dairier). 
neb dairili, v. bore hole. 
dalsimi(u)da, v. desist, leave off (p. dakumdalu, d. dais- 

iimdarici). 
daisuin(u)da, v. stop, make desist (a. aisamdar, pdo. 

daraismndalu, d. dalsumdariei). 
daiwl, v. dig, make hole as in wood (pdo. daraiwer). 
dakeili, v. dig (pdo. darakeirer). 
daU, V. stay there (p. dau-er, d. darali). Cf. nali (Gr. 

p. 79). 
dalu, suff. (Gr. p. 80). 
dam, n. sea-grass, name of various species of Cymodocea. 

^lab. damit. 
dameri, v. wonder at (a. amer, pdo. daramrier). 

dame lu, n. a wonderful thing. 
damesili, v. leave waiting ; get in a tangle, as strings 

of kamut (pdo. daramesirer (?)). 
dam(o)si, v. ask (a. amos, pdo. daramos, ppo. duramosa, 

pio. namseda). 
damili, v. prepare a corpse for desiccation : e le and damili. 
damriki, v. scourge (pdo. daramriker). 
danako, n. a ring. 
daokiU, v. leave waiting, leave behind (a. aokai, pdo. 

ihirankirer). 
dapitm, V. strike. Cf. ipiti. 
utede-dapitill, v. go to sleep, sleep, nod (p. iitede- 

dapitcr). With objective case of person who sleeps : 

l:ari utede napitili, I am going to sleep, 
dar, n. a kind of sponge, 
dara, pref. (Gr. p. 68-80). 
daradara, a. thorny, prickly, 
darakeker, v. stay between two. 
darakesa, v. chase many, bunt. 
dararager, v. stick two things, a Main word, 
daratumeda, v. d. undo a knot. 
darborida, v. suatch at and miss (a. arbor, pdo. dara- 

boriklu). 
darbum(u)da, darbumuli, v. pluck up, pull up (a. ar- 

humur, pdo. darabumulu). 
dare, suff. (Gr. p. G9-80). i 

d(a|ri, n. head dress of white feathers. Mab. dai. 
dariei. suff. (Gr. p. 69-80). 
dariwam, suff. (Gr. p. 73). 
daroberi, n. the native Jew's harp of bamboo. Mab. 

danihi, 
dasirida, v. sheathe, pass through loop ; fasten bait on 

line; sew together (pdo. darasirikhi). 
dasmerl, v. see (a. asmer, pdo. darasvwrer, ddo. daras- 

iiiiriei). 
datld, v. lighten, light up, give light to (do. daratki). 

be tige datki, v. light up, illumine (Gr. p. HI). 
datklmuartl, v. guide (pdo. daraikhmtarhi). 
datupida, v. step over (pdo. daratupilu). 
dau, v. sling, throw : vui baker dati, you throw stone, 
dauma, n. the constellation Cancer ; an ornament in the 

crab dance or daumer. 

18 



138 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



daumer, n. the Tones Strait pigeon (Carpophapa 

luctuosa). 
daumer le, u. tlie pigeou clan, 
daumer lub, ii. lilack-tipped feathers of ilnumer worn 

ceremonially. 
daup, n. carved and painted dance ornament, 
dazrik, v. put hand in bag. 
de, pref. to verbs (Gr. p. 67-80). 
de, suff. to nouns, indicating instrumental case (Gr. 

p. .'5'.), 60). 
deaber, v. an abbreviation of dcib eber, swell up. In 

Malu songs. 
dear, u. a zingiberaceous plant (Alpinia sp.). 
debe, a. good. 

debe laglag, a. sweet, of taste and smell. 
deberukeb, n. a cleared space in the bush. [Probably 

ili-br, good, and nteb place.] 
dederedi, v. pour water on {a. aiuhin'd, pdo. darti- 

ilcreJilu). 
dedkoli, v. spoil (pdo. daradkoer). 
dedkomedi, v. fasten up (pdo. daradkoincdihi), 
dedui, \\ = di'tn-i. 
deg, 11. an edge, border: locative = iJt'flc. 

gur dege, ad. by the sea side, 
degali, v. (?). 

neg-degall, v. laugh at (d. neij-degai-ici, p. neij-degarer). 
degari, v. 

seg degari, v. hang iu a row. 
degem, n. the Bird of Paradise. Mab. dugam. 
degemli, \. = dUjnii, pass by. 
deger, n. the dugong (Halicore australis) ; a dance 

ornament or a charm in the form of a dugong. 

Mab. dangiil. 
degmorl, v. overcome, conquer (a. agmnr, p. derimorer, 

ddo. daragmoriei). 
degrarti, v. begin (pdo. dant<jlaru). 
degwati, degwatumur, v. .scrape hands, a form of 

greeting (a. awat{u)miii). 
deiar, u. plaited coco-palm leaves used on doiom. 
deib, n. a swelling ; elephantiasis of the leg ; swelliug of 

a corpse. 
deib eberi, v. swell up. 
deirdeir, ii. a shell (Turbo), 
deirdeir pot, n. the operculum of Turbo, with eye-like 

markings. 
deiwat, v. = dcgwu t i. 
dek, n. side, plank. Cf. dey. 
dekaerti, v. leave = (Z«/i«i;i'. 
dekalll, v. leave, let go, as string iu kamiit (a. aokai, 

p. dckaelii, pdo. darakaelu, ddo. daraukairici). 
dekasirl, v. boil, cook food (pdo. du mkasir). 
deketida, v. peep (pdo. daraketilu). 
demaisereti, v. wring ; break up (a. amaiscret, p. 

deiiKiisi'hi, ))do. dammaisi'lu). 
demaiser keremge, v. to kill an infant by pressing 

its head. 



demari, v. shake ; beat drum (pdo. darcuiuii). 
demas, v. open coco-nut, with tulik. 
deparsi, v. drop down (of jaws in death), 
depaupda, depaupli, v. bale (p. depaiipi'r, d. depiiupiei, 

jido. diirapiinpcr). 
depegemeli, v. change (p. depeijemehi). 
depegUi, v. turn over, upset (pdo. durapegrer, ddo. 

iliirapegriei). Cf. bapegeli. 
depumeda, v. store up (pdo. dai-opiniider). 
der, V. rest on .sand, of canoe. 

nar der, v. canoe rests. 
deraimeli, v. seek (a. aniiiiwr, pdo. diiraimcrer, d. 

di'raimeriei). 
derapeida, v. [cut off. Cf. crapei]. 

kerem derapeida, v. behead, 
derapeili, v. share out, divide (pdo. darnrnpeirer). 
derar(e)ti, v. flee, avoid, beware of, hate (a. aorar, 
aoraret, p. derareteder, pdo. daraoror or diiraoralti). 
deraueli, v. -go round, go about (a. arauer, pdo. 

(himuelu). 
derebli, v. dig up, as yam (pdo. daraber). 
der(e)g(l)i, v. put out tongue, bite a person (p. derger, 

d. ergiei, pdo. dtimgwar). 
derem, n. grass bands for tying thatch, grass round 
doorpost of house. 
deremli, v. thatch, tie on thatch (pdo. duranuer). 
deres, n. a large pool or lagoon on the reef. 
dergeirl, v. break, as string with tire teeth (a. argeir, 

pdo. darageir). 
derget, n. fat, as of turtle, dugong, etc. 
deroll, v. 

sirau deroli, v. enjoy one's self (pd. sirau mtroli). 
derumeda, v. stand round (pp. daraumdare). 
derseri, v. prepare, make ready (a. urser, pdo. damslrcr, 

d. dersiriei, ddo. darasiriei, ep. dersciln). 
desaki, v. erase (a. auxar, pdo. darasukeij. 
desaui, v. anoint, rub on (p. desau, d. desauiei, pdo. 
da insii » ). 
bud desaui, v. mark mourners with mud. 
desauersili, v. depreciate, make light of (a. asauersir, 

pdo. daniscmcrsircr). 
desisi, v. care for, tend, look after (do. darasi.si). 
deskeda, v. tell (do. daraskeda). 

oka-deskeda, v. preach (plur. obj.) (pdo. dcirakesihire). 
deskerdl, v. shake, rattle (pdo. daraskedilu). 
despili, V. praise (p. despn-er, d. des])iriei, do. imospili). 
detagemll, v. knead (p. dctagemer, pdo. damtagemer). 
detageri, v. tell (a. atager, p. dctagerer, ddo. daratagriei, 

pio. natagcredii). 
detail, V. go from one direction to another, write (a. 

(lotar, pdo. daraotarer). 
detapl, V. slap (ddo. dai-atapiei). 
detauti, v. speak (a. ataut, pdo. daratauter. 
detoameredi, v. blow nose, snort out water when swim- 
ming (p. detoamcredilu). 
detroki, v. pierce ())do. daratniki-er). 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



139 



detwi, V. separate as strauils of rope, undo a tangle ; cast 

out ; forf,'ive (do. tlaruliri). 
demner, u. a hatchet. 

deuselu, v. (present not found) came undone, 
diadi, a. flat, level. 

dlbadiba, n. a dove (Ptilinopus swainsoni). Ma. K. 
(liliudiha. 
diber kab, u. name of a dance (probably diba). 
dibldibi, n. a shell disc ornament made from the flat end 

of tvaitri (Conus litteratis var. millepunctatus). 
dibuser, v. Cf. bubtmeda. 

u dibuser, v. drink coco-nut water, 
didbarl, v. bind (pdo. daniitdbarer, pio. didhareda). 
dldmirki, v. lose (pdo. diiynijmiiU;). 
didwi, V. undo (pdo. dariidift'). 
digagnr, v. jjut string on hands and fingers, in beginning 

kamut. Cf. IV. 
digemli, v. pass to and fro (d. daragmer). 
digili, (?) V. 

kab-digili, v. dance, make a dance, 
digml, V. go past (pdo. daragmer). Cf. ditjcmli. 
dlgmili, V. look out (pdo. daraymirer). 
dike, V. be here (d. daralw, pd. daraUedcr) (Gr. p. HOl. 
diketida, v. peep round corner (pdo. daruketilu). 
dikiami, v. cut off. 

diklamuda, v. take out, as bowl of pipe from its hole. 
dikiapor, v. think (a. akictpor, d. dikiaporiei). 
dikmerida, v. carry on shoulder, head, or in open hand, 
used with kodroiii, kcrem or tug (a. akmcrik, p. dik- 
meriklti, pdo. diirtikmeiiklu). 
dlkmerik, v. stem of dikiiierkhi. 
dlkrl, V. throw away (a. iikri, do. darakriei). 

adem dlkrl, v. cast away, 
dikrlli, dlkrieda, v. [throw?]. 

wed-dikrili, v. sing (a. iikiriar, p. iced-dikrier, pdo. 

ifrd-daVitkrier). 
wed aklriar le, n. singers at a dance, 
dikromerl, v. twist (pdo. darakromcr). 
dlliki, V. announce a feast (pdo. daraiUkcr). 

dilik, n. feast for child-naming, 
dlmegeri, v. [allow, let?], 
dimi, V. choke (pdo. daraumer). 
dimida, v. shut ; be covered over (pdo. daraimilu). 
meb bazide dirndl, the moon is covered by a 
cloud. 
dlin(i)ri, dimrida, v. tie together, fasten together, sew 
(pdo. (Itirtnnirilu). 
wak dimrl, v. put on belt, 
dimiruarti, v. look up (p. diininiahi). 
dipeli, (dipu), v. blow (pdo. dtiiaiiprer). 
burar dipeli, v. blow the whistle or flute. 
bud dipu, v. to slight or defile mourning, 
muk dipu, v. to break wind, 
te dipu, v. to eructate as a sign of disrespect, 
dirill, v. wag. 

keremu dirlli, v. wag the head (p. diiilii). 



d(i)rimli, v. twirl the fire sticks; spin by rubbing between 

the hands (d. drimliei, p. drimeder). 
dirimeda, v choke (?). 
dirumdi, v. surround (do. daniuinda). 

karu dirumdi, v. surround by a feuce, enclose, 
dirki, v. = dirtri. 

seb dirki, v. sink in a hog = svb-dinvi. 
dirupi, v. wash (a. amp, pdo. darurup). 
dirwi, [v. sink]. 

seb dirwi, v. sink in a bog. 
disirida, v. kindle ; rub backward and forward as 

strings of kuinut (p. disirikilu. pdo. darasirikht). 
disirik, v. stem of dhirida. 
disked!, v. [project]. 

diskemeda, v. run after (pdo. daraskcmelii). Cf. darakesa. 
diski, v. open (pdo. darnuskitu). 
disur, ^. =dasirula, q.v. 

ditakeamuda, v. separate (pdo. daratakcamulu). 
ditakeamur, v. stem of ditakeamuda. 
ditida (?), 

upi-ditida, v. help (a. iipi-atidar, pdo. ypi-daralitii). 

ditimeda, v. begin [probably real meaning is "start off, 

make a move." Cf. itimeda] (pdo. daratimrlu). 

kop ditimeda, v. slap buttocks, 
ditlrida, a. send (a. atri, do. darutrida). 
ditkapill, v. crowd up, double up (a. atkap, p. ditkaper, 
pdo. daratkaper). 

lager daratkaperida peik okakes, v. double equally. 
fold in half. 
ditkeda. v. .snatch away (from a person), 
ditkomeda, v. press, 
ditki. \'. 

bar-ditki, v. straighten, put right, pdo. danitker. 
ditmar, v. catch tup, scoop up fish in basket : e tup ditmar. 
ditpurda, v. delve (pdo. darapurhi). 
ditri, v. send (pdo. darutrcr). 
dituaki. v. expel (pdo. duratuak). 
ditug, stem of v. ditki. 
dituli, V. 

o-dituli, V. hate (a. o-atur, p. o-diterer, pdo. o-dara-* 
t(iivre). 
dituperti, v. peep round, look from behind a post, from 

iHith sides. 
doakri, V. sail canoe (p. doakir, pdo. darakiiiielii). 
dodo, n. running water, a stream, brook. , 

dodo abl, n. water-fall. 

dodo giz, n. source of stream. 

dodo mer, n. the noise of running water. 

dodo te, n. river mouth. 

dodo wamen, n. rapids, 
doge, sullix to nouns, indicating the locative case, with, 

alongside, by, beside (Or. p. Gl, 03). Cf. deg. 
dogai, n. a plani't (Mars?). 

dogaira le, u. jelly fish which abound during iiaiger. 
doiom, n. a stone image used as a charm to produce 
rain or sickness. 

' 18—2 



140 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORPvES STRAITS. 



dopeki, dopekli, v. liave nightmare (p. dopektii). 
dor ('?), n. 

dorge, 11. work. 

dorge-ikeli, v. work, 
drl = (/(()■/. 
du, n. payment for work done. 

dukak, a. = v. not pay for work done: l;nhi noU wiabi 
iluhak, I don't pay them. 

dulam, n.=v. pay for work: Vaha u-iuhi duhiin, I pay 
tliem for working. 
dub, n. a scar or cicatrix. 
dudum, a. quick, fast; ad. soon, 
diun. n. a plant (Apocynacea). 
dirrdur, a. shaking, trembling. 

ziru durdur, a. shivering with cold. 

e, suff. (Gr. p. CO), 
e, pron. he, she, it. 
e, n. = eb, tear, 
eb, sutl (Gr. p. 56, 57). 
eb, n. the penis. 

eb eneop or ebeneaup, n. the shell (Xlelo diadema) 
worn on the groin. Cf. alida. 

puipi eb, n. a " swear word." 
eb, n. tear. 

ebeb, n. tears ; a. weeping, 
ebegri, v. roll down, as hill, etc. (pdo. nnhlgrer). 
eberi, v, swell up. 

ebisida, v. cure (a. abisii; pdo. nabisilu). 
ebur, u. an animal, bh-d. 

aperda ebur, n. a bird. 

ebur lamax, n. a ghost appearing as an animal. 

ebur-meta. n. a nest. 
ed, u. hair twisted into long ringlets, usually plastered 

with mud. 
eda, suff. (Gr. p. 09-80). 
edagl, V. gather up (p. ednger). 
edaremli, v. crawl (p. cdaretnlu). 
eded, a. alive, living. 

ededem, v. indec. make live, 
edegi, v. burn (a. adu, pdo. iiadeyer). 
edoak, n. a shell, the smooth Turbo, 
edomeli, v. draw along, pull (a. adviiier, pdo. juidomerer). 
edwa, V. (Gr. p. 70). 
egali, V. speak (p. cijarer). 
egaredi, v. take, carry in the arms, nurse (a. agared, 

pdo. luiifarc'dilii). 
egawi, V. 
egbl = egobli. 

egeb, u. the season when the bush is cleared, 
egeli, V. look round (p. egerer). Cf. egremada. 
egemedl, v. [? be fresh]. 

ni egemedi, n. pool of fresh water. 
eglda, (?) v. = ekaida. 

mer-egida (mereg-egida), v. perspire (ppo. nagilu). 
egimer, v. take out (p. t-gimelii). 



egimuli, v. .settle on, as fly on hand, perch on. 
egli, V. Cf. egida. 

meg-egli, v. vomit (p. meg-cker). 
egobli, V. leak (p. egoblu). 

usi-egobli, v. leak, 
egremada, v. look round (p. egremalu). 
egremer, v. 

bud egremer, v. — bud dcsaui. 
egwatumuda, v. pull, haul (pdo. nngwatumulu). 
ei, suff. (Gr. p. .S.5). 
eideda, eldlli, v. [lie ?]. 

ut-eideda, v. sleep, p. nt-eidilii, d. ut-eididariei, cp. 
baidi. 
eip(u), n. the middle, midst. 

eip-gereger, n. noon, mid-day. Also gereger eipa. 

eip-ke, u. the middle or ring finger. 

eip-ki, n. midnight. 

eipu-le, n. an intermediary in purchasing, a "middle- 
man." 
eiri, v. stop revolving, as kolap. 

ekada, v. lift with finger, as string in kainut, carry, as 
on pole (p. ekalu, pdo. darakau). 

ki ekadariei, we two carry on pole between us. 

koket ekada (?), v. walk with stick. 
ekaerti, v. roast in fire (pdo. nakacrdelu). 
ekaida, v. 

mos ekaida, v. spit (ddo. naukeidariei). 
ekaida, v. agree ; become right, become well, get better 
of (a. akair, p. ckailu). 

gimgim ekaida, v. recover from sickness. 
ekarida, v. reach (a. akari, p. ekariklu). 
ekarik, stem of v. ekarida. 
ekasi, ekaseredi, v. walk (p. ckasereder). 
ekau, stem of v. ekada. 

ekauererti, v. climb into, embark (p. ekauerelu). 
ekeam(u)da, v. rise up (p. ekeamuln). 
ekelda, (?) v. 

mos ekeida, v. spit (p. mos-ekeilu, d. mos-naukei- 
dariei). 
ekekeli, v. dwindle, not flourish, of plant, 
ekesmeri, v. fall (a. akesmer, p. ekesmelu, ekesmerer). 
ekesmuda, v. split (a. akesmur, pdo. nakesmulu). 

irkes ekesmuda, v. dig a ditch or trench, 
eko, ad. yes, that's so ; pron. he again, 
ekos, stem of v. hki. 
ekosell, v. beckon with the hand, 
ekri, v. 

bane ekrl, n. morning twilight, 
ekwe, n. the cry of the kiaa. 

ekwelda, ekweli, v. stand up (d. ekweidariei, p. ekweilu). 
elam, suff. (Gr. p. 57, 60, 61, 83). 
elele, a. tight, firm ; ad. strongly, urgently, 
em, suffix indicating dative case, for, to, towards, 
emaidereti, v. blame, 
emaiderti, v. caulk, 
emare, v. sway. A Malu word. 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



141 



emarida, v. send ; send a ijurcliased article to the 
buyer; vend (p. emaiikhi, pdo. iKiiiiari/clu, ddo. 
namriridariel). 
amarik le, n. a vendor, 
emarmuli, v. roll about, as water in bucket, wind in 

stomach, etc. 
emegesi, v. (?). 

emeli, v. give to suck (pdo. namerer). 
emeredili, v. hang upon a hook (p. namrercdilu). 
emeret, ii. olden time, former times. 

emeretge, ad. formerly, 
emetu, a. finished. 

emirl, v. fix leiidem in making house (pdo. namrer). 
emorda, v. plant, sow (pdo. vamnrlii). 
emrlda, v. sit, stay (a. iimri, p. cmrilii, pd. namrilii, 

cp. bamri). 
enau, enoa, n. a tree, the Wangai "plum" (Mimusops 

Browniana). Called also Wagui. Mab. ubar. 
eogerdi, v. fall to pieces. 
eosmeda, v. go out (a. aoxmer, p. osmelti, d. aosmedariei, 

[tp. biwn). 
epaiteredi, v. spill (a. apiiltered, pdo. da i-apaiteredilu) . 
eparsida, v. stoop, bend the back. 
eparslli, v. stoop from standing position. 
epei, n. a basket. 
eperda, v. fly (a. uperda, d. cperdariei, p. eperlii, 

pp. huperdure). 
eperklli, v. shoot forth, sprout. Cf. ipriki. 

lam eperkill, v. send out leaves. 
epersida, v. slip (p. epersilu, d. eipersidariei, cp. hai- 

pffaidaj. 
epitlli, v. lie in a hole, wallow. 
epili, 

mer epili, v. 
epki, V. lean on. 

epuli, V. carry in hand (p. cper, pdo. neper). 
er, suff. (Gr. p. 69-80). 
eragl, v. share out (p. eruijer). 

erapei, v. buy, sell, with locative of person, kaka icia- 
bidoije erapei, I buy from (beside) them (a. amp, 
pdo. narapcUu). 
erapeida, v. tear, break (pdo. itarapeilu). 

esor-erapeida, v. sit with head bunt ; pray (G.). 
erar, a. tircil, weary, n. weariness, 
eraski, eraskida, v. turn over (pdo. iiaraskilu), 
erdall, v. see, find (a. ardar, pdo. nardnlii). 
ere (?), 
ere-meta, n. a school. 
ere-werem, u. learning, teaching, v. teach (a. erwer, 

p. ereweremlu). 
ere-wer-le, n. a teacher, 
erebli, v. Cf. harehli, derebli. 

uzer-erebli, v. row, paddle, 
eregli, v. tat animal food, bite Hesh (a. areij, p. I'l-ijcr, 
pdo. nari/er). Cf. tereg. 
tapotu-eregll, v. pinch. 



eremli, v. pierce, spear lish (a. aiem, pdo. iiakos, 
ddo. iiaskiei, from v. ixki). 
warup eremli, boroboro eremli, v. beat drum, 
erer-tikri, v. shout at. 
eri (■.'), 

kab erl, n. dancing, 
eri, erili, erida, v. drink (a. ((/■(, p. crici, p. eriei; erihi, 

pdo. iiarier). 
ero, n. a plant (Eugenia sp.). 
erOko, n. a sea slug (Dolabella scapula). 

eroko mamamam, a. pink, purple, II. 56. 
eroli, V. cat vegetable food (a. aro, p. eroer, pdo. luiroer). 

Ma. iiio, K. irlso, Ku. eruiceiii. 
erosia, u. high tides at night during naigcr and koki. 
erparida, v. roll away (pdo. narpurikld). 
erparik, v. stem of erparida. 
erpelda, v. seize, hold, catch (d. erpeidariei, pdo. iiar- 

peilii). 
erpeili, v. Cf. erpeida. 

korizer erpeili, v. steer, 
erperida, v. burst (p. erperiklu). 
erperidl (?), 

eruam, v. indec. steal, especially to steal woman. Ku. ero. 
erueli, v. show, point out (do. nuraeli). 
eruseli, v. chew (pdo. iiaruseln). 
esaimeda, v. pass by (pdo. nasaimehi). 
esakeida, v. cut (pdo. nasakeilu). 
esali, v. increase, gi-ow bigger (p. esuwer). 
esamelda, v. go out, be extinguished (a. asam, d. esa- 

meidariei). Mab. nsimi. 
esameida, v. put out (pdo. nasameilii). 
esaprida, v. cover over ; put one string over another in 
kamut ; cook (in earth oven) (p. esaprilu, d. esapriei, 
do. nasapri). 
ese i- esi, centipede. 

esekaup, u. a reef-fish (Julis cyano-ventor). 
eseamuda, v. finish (a. aseamur, pdo. naseamulu). 
esegemeda, v. spread out (pdo. nasegemeht). 
esegemeli, v. lie prone (p. esegemelu). 
esegeri. v. spread, as blanket or mat (pdo. naseger). ' 
esererdi, v. blow, spout, of whale, diigong, etc. (p. ese- 

reredilit). 
esese, u. a grass, used for making toy arrows. 
esl, n. centipede (Scolopendra). 

esili, V. [expire, breathe out] (p. esier, pp. basier, 
ba:iarc). 
kobek esili, v. cough. 

ner esili, v. rest, sigh, draw long breath, "take a spell." 
siau esili, v. sneeze, 
esirili (.'), 

eski, V. Cf. iski, ekos. 
eskosi. V. kiss (pdo. naskos, ppo. iui,sko.sa). 
esmeda, v. go out, be born. Cf. aosmer, eusmedu. 
esmeri, v. draw out (pdo. iiaosmelu). 
esoao, n. tlianks. 
esolu, V. girded. 



142 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



esomedi, v. suckle, give suck to (pdo. misomedilu). 
esor, [n. neck, back of neck]. 

eaor-erapeida, v. sit with bending head, pray (a. csor- 
ampi'ir, p. esor-erapeihi). 

esorgiru = a. stooping, with head bent, 
esperi, v. dry. 
espi, n. urine, 
et, suff. (Gr. p. (iO). 

etar, v. pick up (pdo. mitmiu). Cf. etarda. 
etagi, V. count, 
etakili, v. collect, gather up. 

etali, T. swing, sway (a. utar, p. etarer, d. natali). 
etami, v. put together, 
etamili. v. meet, assemble, 
etaperet, v. mix (a. atuparet). 
etarapi, v. be choked up, be hindered, 
etarda, v. pick lap (a. utttriil;, p. ctaruldu, ddo. natar- 

diiriifi. ppo. nutaruklu). 
etarkeda, v. pick np = etarda. 
etatkoi, v. beat into, as waves into boat, fill with water 

(a. utatlo, pdo. natiitkoi). 
etaruk, v. stem of etarda and etarkeda. 
etatmili, v. move to and fro ; wave (of insect's antenna; ; 

rub, polish (a. atami, pdo. natatmirer). 
eti, T. look up (a. iitidar, p. etilu). 
etirida, v. dodge, as stone, with thing dodged in the 

ablative: e halierlam etirida (p. etirihiu). 
etkarti, v. answer (pdo. iiatkalu). 
etkemedi, v. gather up (pdo. nathemedihi). 
etkobelda, v. bury (a. atkohei, pdo. mttkobeilu). 

atkobei uteb, n. burial place, 
etkopoli, V. to decorate another (pdo. natkoporer). 
etoameredi, v. blow fire (p. etnameredilu, pdo. natoa- 

merediln). Cf. icami. 
etoatl, v. tear (pdo. natouter). 
etoatmuda. v. burst (p. ctoatmulu). 
etomer(e)ti, v. show, explain, confess (pdo. iiutomer- 

tilii). 
etopemeda, v. pluck fruit (pdo. iiatopemelu). 
etrida, v. split. 
etuglU (?), 
eturumili ('?), 
eud, stem of v. eumida (a. and). 

eudeud, a. deadlj-. 

eudeud lu, n. poison. 

eud meta, n. an old house used as a store-house. 
eum, n. a plant (ilariscus sp.). 
eumida, v. die (a. eud, p. eumilit, d. euiiiidariei, cp. 

launii). Mab. »?««, dead. 
eupamada, v. leap up (p. enpainalu). 

kab eupamada, v. leap in dancing, 
eupumada, v. = eupamada. 

euselu, a. withered [? v. euacli, wither], Cf. eud. 
ewa, n. spathe of coco-palm leaf, natural cloth. 
eweli, V. plait (p. ezcerer). 
ezagri, v. tear (pdo. 7ta:ai/er). 



ezer, n. the melon shell (llelo diadema), used as a 

cooking vessel. 
ezili = c>77/. 
ezigmada, v. start back (d. exirjmartiei, p. ezii/inalu, 

pp. bazirimarle). 
eziki. V. walk backwards. Cf. azrik, azrida. 
ezoli, V. weep (p. ezuer, A. ezniei, cp. bazoli). 
ezu, 
ezu-bameU, v. recip. abuse one another (p. ezu-bamrer, 

d. fzn-hamrlei, etc., abuse one another). 

S, pref. (Gr. p. 57). 

g, sometimes used as au euphonic letter, as lurj for lu. 

ga, conj. and. 

gako, conj. also, and. 
gab, n. a flat, clear siuface, a road, path. Mab. iabu. 
Ma. K. tjabo, path and sole, Ku. gabe. 

gab te, n. a gate. 

ogar gab, u. the red sweet potato. 

tag gab, n. the palm of the hand. 

teter gab, ii. the sole of the foot. 
gabagaba, n. the au nei for stone clubs. Mab. Ma. K. 

iialiaitnlia. 
gabegeb. n. au old coco-uut. Cf. gebgeb. 
gaber (?), 

neis gaber, num. twice (G.) 
gabo. n. the outer skin of the nostrils, the side of the 

nose, 
gad. n. a green coco-nut. 
gal bar, n. the season of growth. [Probably flaire, all 

things, bar, spring up.] 
gaino, n. the Ton-es Strait pigeon (Carpophaga luctuosa), 

usually called daumer. Mab. gainau. 
gair(e), a. many, all; a sign of the plural, 
galbol, n. a porpoise, whale. 

gali, n. annual initiation ceremony connected with the 
inner zogo; hence usually called inner gali or doiom 
gali. 

gall wed, n. prayers sung at inner gali. 
gam, u. a fishing line. Cf. luekck gem. 
gani (?), 

gani apu. n. a bee. 
gar, n. a mangrove sp. 

gar kurup, n. fruit of the mangrove. 

gar sab, n. a gelar against yams, 
garbad, n. the fiat board at end of cauoe guuwale. 

kor garbad, u. wood of canoe stern. 

tarim garbad, n. board at canoe bow. 
gared, n. the south, 
garger, a. sharp, pointed. 

garger kak, a. blunt. 
garom, n. a grey fish with brown spots, edible, 
gas, n. a hopping fish (Periophthalmus), edible, 
gasu (?), 

gasu barpeUi, v. whistle. 
gasupe, n. the clinging together of frightened people. 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



143 



gaudar, n. a species of vine, root eaten in time of 

scarcity. 
gaus, n. pus. 

gausgaus, a. green, II. 66. 
gawei, n. a spoonbill, 
gawet, u. the mouth of a drum, 
ge, demons, and ad. there, then. 
ge, sulif. (Gr. p. 60, 83, 84). 
gebar, n. ironwood. 
geb, u. [coldj. Mab. Ma. K. yabu. 

geb-baugell, v. warm one's self. 

geblgebi, a. cold. 
gebgeb, a. weak, gentle ; ripe, of fruits. Ma. K. koho- 

kuho. 
gebi, n. a tree, wood used for goiyoi. 
gebb, n. the scrotum. 

geb wer, u. testicle. 
ged, n. laud, country : kaka akoineda karhara gedcm. 
Cf. yeseb, seb. 

ab ged, n. there, that place. 

ged atkam le, n. a stealer of land. 

ged kem le, u. owner of land. 

giz ged, n. place of origin. 

kebi ged, u. an island. 

pit ged, u. a cape, 
gedub, n. a garden, plantation, 
gegedar, n. a worm, earthworm, 
geger, 

geger mer, n. groan, moan, snore, 
gegur, n. skin, bark, when scaly or flaky. Cf. pcoo-. 

gegur tullk, n. hoop iron. 

lu gegur, n. native bark cloth, 
geigi, n. the king tish (Cybium commersoni), name of a 

kamut, and cf. folk-tale, 
gein, n. an oyster (Pecten, Anomia). 
geirdi, ad. then, 
geko, ad. again. 
gelar, n. tabu, prohibition, 
gelub, n. a bamboo spear for catching birds. 
gem, n. the body, abdomen ; trunk of tree. Mab. yamu. 

au gemgem, a. corpulent. 

gemgem, a. from yem [substantial]. 

gem kak, a. lean, thin. 

gem kerar, a. wasted, thin. 

gem lidlid, a. bony, thin. 

gem wall, n. shirt, chemise. 

kebi gemgem, a. thin, in body. 

mekek gem, n. fishing line. 

nar gem, n. eanoe hull. 

u gem, n. trunk of coco-nut palm, 
gem, n. a tree. 

gemelag, n. scent, perfume, 
genoka, ad. then. 

gep, n. the sucker-tisli (Echeneis naucratos). Mab. yii^jH. 
Y. iniyiip, 

gepera neter, n. sucker of the aucker-fish. 



gerar(e), n. a rock at sea. 

gereger, n. daylight, day. Mab. golya. 

abele gereger, n. this day, to-day. 

ab gereger, n. that day, yesterday. 

gereger eipu, n. noon, also eip yereger. 

gereger nesau, u. the morning star. 

gereger osakelda, v. day breaks. 

eip gereger, n. noon, mid-day. 

kebi gereger, n. early morning; "small da.ylight." 
geregere, n. a small migratory bird that comes from 

New Guinea. Cf. Vol. VI. 
gerer, n. pandanus leaf. 

gerer epel, u. a man's basket for carrying fishing 
line. 

gerer moder, n. a small square of plaited gcrcr fastened 
to a necklace, 
geres, n. sea-anemone (Discosoma sp.). Mab. gntx. 

geresgeres werem, n. small tish (Amphiprion sp.) 
living commensally with large sea-anemones, 
geribe, n. a plant with long leaves and a scent like 

an onion, 
gerip, n. the internal car. 
gerip, a. (?). 

meb-gerip, a. shining, of the moon only: ab klge 
iiu'b au mcb-geiip, last night the moon shone 
brightly. 
geru, n. spathe of coco-palm. 
geseb, n. land, soil, ground: kaka ketai dalwi gcseblam. 

Cf. yi'd^ xch. 
gesekerem (?), in Pasi's ms. 
geses, n. (?) on Bomai mask, 
geum. n. fear, terror, fright ; = v. fear, be afraid, c gcnmge, 

he is afraid, 
geur, n. a large marine eel. 
giai, n. the south-west wind, 
giaud, n. lime. 

glaudgiaud, a. white, II. 56. 
giaz, n. a newly-born infant. 

giazgiaz, a. green, II. 66. 

giazgiaz werem, n.^giaz. > 

gib, u. a red fish. 

gilid, n. the hollow above the clavicle, 
gim, u. sickness, illness, disease. 

gimgim akaida, v. recover from sickness. 

gimgim, a. ill, sick, 
gimgam, a. (?) from gent, in imitation of the Mabuiag 

yaiiml. Cf. II. 55. 
ginar, u. a dance. Mab. ginar. 

seb ginar, n. a sitting dance, 
giod, 11. lime ; white pigment, 
gir, n. a boar's tusk; a charm worn on the chest. 

gir put, n. an armlet of boar's tusk. 

gir le. 11. dancers following one another in a circular 
line, 
girgir. ii. thunder. 

girgir{?) Cf. II. 183. 



144 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



giru, a. cold. Cf. zirii. 

giz, 11. base of a tree trunk; roots; origin, basis, founda- 
tion ; a collection, sign of the collective plural. 

dodo giz, n. source of a stream. 

giz meb, n. full moon. 

giz mer, n. a speech ; sermon. 

glz nur, n. the season when leaves are withered; 
harvest time. 

kogiz (kog giz), polj-gamy. 

lugiz, n. great grand-parent, etc. 

tereg giz, n. the gums. 

u giz, n. the swollen base of a coco-palm. 
goa, n. seeds of Pangium edulc, used as a rattle. 
goago (?), 

sumez goago. n. lilies of the bush (G.). 
goal, n. a tree-frog, (Hyla ca-rulea). Sometimes called 

peret), q.v. K. heau. 
goar, n. a fish, the sting-ray. K. ciuere, Mab. ijwiar. 
gob, n. short pieces of wood fixed transversely across the 

hull of a canoe, 
gobar, n. adoption, VI. 

gobarem-tais, v. adopt. 

gobar-neur, n. adopted daughter. 

gobar berbet, n. adopted brother or sister. 

gobar-werem, n. adopted son. 
godegode, n. a turtle shell ear ornament, 
gogob, n. a ring, ring of rope, groraet ; loop of kamut. 
gogo-neb, n. the nostril. 

goigoi, u. the fire drill ; the two sticks (apu and u-erem) 
used for fire-making. IVIab. D. tiuiijiii. 

goigoi le, n. the dust formed by the luii'ioi. 
goki, n. a pool in the rocks, 
gole, n. the cuttle-fish, squid. 

golegole, a. black, II. 56. 

golegole baz, n. rain cloud. 

golegole wer, n. pupil of the eye. 

golera meta, n. egg capsules of squid. 

komosar gole, n. a black birth-mark, 
gope, 11. figure-head of a canoe. Cf. op. 
goram {?), 
gorgor. a. slanting, inclined. Cf. o(ji. 

gorgor paser, n. slanting surface of hill, 
gotat, n. a current in the sea; tideway. 
goz, n. a variety of {ewer. 
gub, n. a water-.spout. 

abele gub batlmeda, the water-spout strikes us. 
gub, n. a dance ornament, 
gulab, n. dry banana leaf, 
gumlk, n. and a. secret; ad. secretly, 
gur, 11. the sea, salt-water. D. yagor, Wab. in; Ma. K. 

(WO. 

au gur, n. the ocean. 

gur-ebur, n. a sea bird, 
gurlguri, n. a variety of coco-nut with small fruit, 
guriz, n. a crab. 
gwar = yo«j-, stingray. 



gwis, 11. a small kind of fish; a stone charm in the form 
of a fish. 

i, demons. 

i, suff. (Gr. p. .5.5, 61, 02, 69, 74, 83, 84). 

la, demons. = i. 

iaba, pron. Main word for u-ialm. 

iako, ad. again. 

ib, n. the zoffo vet for maijiir. 

il)(u), n. the jaw, the chin. Mab. llni, D. tebu. 

keu-ib, n. the lower jaw. 
ibi. n. a wood used for r/oiiioi. 
ibibi, a. shaking. 

ibkep, n. a clapping or clicking noise. Cf. Story of 
Main. 
Ida (?) in mereii-idn. 
idaid, n. the Nautilus shell, 
id, n. coco-nut oil. Mab. idi. 

idid, a. oily. 

idld baker, n. a stone used for crushing and pound- 
ing; also used as a weapon. 

u id, coco-nut oil. 
idare. suff. (Gr. p. 69-80). 
idigiri, v. cure (a. adigir, pdo. nadgirer). 
idikubi, v. indec. comfort, "make no more cry." 
idlm. n. morrow, next morning, 
idisor, n. a small variety of coco-nut water-bottle, 
idoni, n. the brain, 
iei, suft'. (Gr. p. 69-80). 
ierger, n. a tree (Hibiscus tetraphyllus). 
iger, n. a tree, cashew (Semecarpus heterophyllus). 
igi, [v. roast?], 
igi, v. (?). 

ne igri, v. fish by torchlight (p. ne igilii). 
igiami, v. bend (pdo. nuyiamehi). 

igida, V. undress (p. iijiUi, ddo. luigidariei, pp. elgarc, 
aogare). 

wall adem igida, v. undress, 
igmesi, v. squeeze, wring (a. iiymesir, pdo. jwyme- 

never}. Cf. demaisereti. 
igredi, v. sit on something high, as on chair ; perch 

(a. luiimnr, p. igireder). 
ikai, V. ask. 
ikap, n. the temples, 
ikapsi. V. ('?). 

birom ikapsi, v. carry child on hip. 

kowazi ikapsi, v. carry child on back of neck, 
ike, demons, ad. here. 

ikedi, v. put, place (p. ikedilu, ddo. nakedidariei). 
ikell, V. make (a. akcr, p. ikerer, ddo. nakeriei, cp. 

ikereda). 
ikewi, V. break string. 

Ikidill, V. dig up, as yam, etc. (p. ikidyer, d. ikedilei). 
ikik, a. foggy. 

ikrlsi, V. scrape (pdo. itakriser). 
ikupamada, v. rub (pdo. iiaktipamabi). 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



145 



Ikupmaxetlli, v. grind teeth (p. ikupemaiter). 

ikwari. v. give (a. aktvar, pdo. nakicarer). Ma. K. agi- 

tcai. 
Uwel, n. the evening star. 
un, n. a dog-fish (Chiloscyllium). Mab. itar. 
Imada, v. push, put out (p. iiiudti). 
Imadari, ad. here. In Malu songs. 
imi, n. a claw. 

imi, V. stay here (p. imin'der). 
imri, ['? = emrida]. 

nolmrl.v. stop from going, make stay (pdo. )io naiiirilit). 
Imuda, V. drive away (a. amii, do. luimuda). 
imur, n. the chin, 
imus, n. hair ou the face. 

keu imus, n. beard. 

op imus, n. moustache, 
imut, n. pole for pushing canoe, 
in, n. a tree (Pisonia inermis). 
in, n. the lieel. 

inlgob, n. a shell or sione axe. 
inoka, ad. here, now. 
iobaru, n. to-morrow, hereafter. 

ipe, V. lay down (p. iperedtr, do. natipe, ppo. iiaisir). 
Ipe, demons. 

iplgaba, u. a variety of lewer. 
Ipiti, Ipitlli, V. strike, beat (pdo. mipit, ppo. napita). 

ipit-eumilu, v. kill. 

mokarem ipitl, v. crush. 

mut IpitUi, v. make a noise (pdo. mut-7ia2>itcr). 
iprikl, V. break and make dust (a. (qiri, pdo. naprik). 
ipu, n. a ripple on water. 

tot ipu, n. finishing tuft on house. 
It (?), 

ir le, n. the circle of spectators at a dance. 
irado, a. without food or garden, 
irapu, a. working for food, 
irau, n. eyelid. 

irau mua, n. eyebrow, 
irdi, ad. Cf. peirdi, geirdi. 
Irgi. V. rebuke (p. ergei). 
irit, V. plant. 

irkep, n. the eyeball: e pone nsameida: rings of leaf. 
Cf. V. 249. D. ikopa. 

irke-mus (irkvj) hihs), n. eyebrow. 

irkep-irmi, v. 
irkes, n. a ditch, crack or trench in ground or floor. 

irkes ekesmuda, v. dig a ditch or trench, 
irmad, n. stones for supporting the shell saucepan. 
Inner, n. rain. Ma. K. ammo, sky. 

Irmer pi, n. mint, tine rain. 

inner abi, v. rain falls. 

Inner tabarki, v. rain comes down, 
irmautur, a. falling from want of food. 
inni(.'), (stem of v. innili, swallow). 

irkep inni, v. 

H. Vol. IIL 



innili, v. follow (a. arniir, p. initirer, ddo. iianniliei, 

pio. iianiiircdaj. 
irmili, v. swallow (pdo. narinilu). 

iruk, v. "make jump up," probably "enclose" same as 
inikili, said of tup when being caught in tceres 
(a. iirtik). 
Irukill, V. make fence, enclose (a. uruk, pdo. narker). 
iruwam, u. a legendary man who lived in a water-hole. 
irwapap, n. the hammer-headed shark (Zygiena). 
irwi, V. enjoy. Cf. eruaiit. 
isau, n. wax. 

isau apu, n. a bee. 
tse, n. likeness. 

iseda, V. draw out (pdo. nao.ielu). 
iseise, n. a large brittle starfish, 
iser, n. sandy soil close to the beach, 
iserum, n. a small black ant. 
isgarik, a. drawn tight, of a knot, 
isi, n. a centipede (Scolopendra). 
isiri, n. a beetle. D. seresereC!). 
isisiri, v. threadle, as beads on string (pdo. nasisirer). 
iskedi, v. erect, stick up (pdo. naskei). 

ni iskedi, v. ooze from ground, as water. 
iskeli, V. be obstructed, move along slowly, crawl 

(pdo. naoskercr). 
iskemada, v. remove, move a thing from its place, pole 

a canoe, push by means of a pole (pdo. naoskimalu). 
iskl, v. sting, stick into (a. aski, pdo. nakos, ddo. naskiei). 
ismeda, v. draw out (as handkerchief from pocket) 

(pdo. iiaosnu'lu). 
ismida, v. cut, carve; break of clouds (a. usinii; pdo. 

)i(iti)iiilii). 
Ispili, v. hide, marry (a. aspir, pdo. naspilu). 

aspidar-le, n. bridegroom, 
itara, n. clearing of bush for garden, carrying away of 

scrub, etc. 
iteU, V. (?). 

sopem itell, v. bind in a bundle, as banana, 
itarati, v. fold up, roll up (pdo. mitarater). 
iteri, v. fasten up or hang up by a loop, 
itiagi, V. complete (p. itiufur). 

teter itiagi, v. stand on one foot and draw the otlier 
iiuickly up and down the calf. 
Itikaretlli, v. answer (?). 
itike, ad. distant. 

itlll, V. take up, take out (p. itier). 
itimeda, v. throw, shoot (a. atuiicd, pdo. iKitiincdilu). 

opu-itimeda, v. nod (p. opu-itimediiu). 
itlri, V. awaken, put hand on, liold back (a. atrimiir). 
itlrlmuda, v. put out the hand, 
itkami, v. cover over, steal (a. iitkuiii, p. itkamer). 

ged atkam le, n. stealer of land. 
Itkeda, v, snatch away (p. itkelu). 
itketi, v. stick in, stick through, sew (pdo. natkuler). 
itkirl, v. snatch; wipe, wipe out (a. utkir, pio. natkirer). 

adem itkirl, v. snatch away. 

19 



146 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



itkirua, Y. = itkiri. 

itkuri, V. = itkiri. 

itmeii, v. ask questions (a. autmer, pdo. riaiitmerer, pio. 

'litmereda). 
itparl, V. stop up, caulk, 
itrugili, V. sail (p. itnirirer). 
itrumda, v. take out; watch (d. itrumdarki, pclo. 

iiatrumelu). 
itu, V. = ituli, spit. 
ituak, V. Cf. tUtttahi. 
itugeret, v. take away (a. atngeret). 
Ituli, V. spit (a. atii, p. iticer). 
mosu-ituli, v. spit (p. ma-ittcer). 
o-ltuli, V. believe (a. oatiir, pdo. o-natercr), with dative 
of person believed, 
ituri, V. stumble (a. atur, p. itrer). 

teter ituri, v. stumble (p. tetcr-itrer). 
ituti, V. touch (pdo. natiitilu). 
itutida, v. = ituti, touch (a. atutir, pdo. natiitilu). 
itutiri, v. = ituti, touch (pdo. natutihi). 
iwaokaer, ad. to-morrow, 
iwariwar, u. a variety of Icwer. 
iwer, n. a variety of kaba. 

The letter j is found only in the adapted word jamcali 
01 Jiauicali, used for book or paper, which would be more 
correctly written zinti wall. 

k, suff. (Gr. p. CG). 
ka, pron. I. 

kaka, prou. I. 

kakanali, pron. and verb, I here, 
ka, n. a mat made of strips of leaves (from New Guinea), 
ka, n. a shell (Natioa columnaris). 

ka bulibuli, n. a small univalve shell. 
kab, u. a dance. Mab. kap. 

diber kab, n. name of a dance. 

kab digili, v. dance. 

kab eri, n. general name for dancing. 

kab eupamar, n. a leap from the ground in dancing. 
kaba, n. banana tree, leaf, and fruit. D. opa. 

araur kaba, n. = sopso}> kaba. 

aumeraumer kaba, n.=sopsop Icaba. 

kaba kep, n. separate fruits. 

kaba kerem, n. bunch. 

kaba kupi, n. central leaf-spike of banana. 

kaba sus, n. juice of banana. 

ne kaba, n. fruit just forming. 

sopsop kaba, n. banana bound in a bundle {sopsop) while 
growing, in order to improve the colour and flavour. 

sumez kaba, n. wild banana, 
kabor, n. goui'd; a bottle. 

ni kabor, n. a water-bottle, 
kadal = Ao(ia/. 

kadik, n. a bracer or arm-guard worn to protect the left 
arm from the bow string. Mab. kadig. Ma. adigo. 



kag, n. outer sticks joining sirib of canoe to tug. 

kai, n. a fruit used as a ball. 

kai, n. a ball. 

kaiabo, n. a firefly. 

kaied, n. grandparent. VI. Mab. kaied. 

kaier, n. the crayfish; a spiny lobster (Palinurus). 

JIab. kaitr. 
kaigar, n. dugong bacon, 
kaigob, n. a spear, javelin. 
kaip, n. the name of various kinds of bivalve sliells ; these 

are often used as scrapers, spoons and ladles, 
kaise, a. like: e kari kaise, he is like me. 
kaisu, n. turtle-shell, 
kaisu, n. = mMS dari. 
kaiti, n. = kaier, crayfish, 
kak, n. a kebi nei for yams, 
kak, n. purple sweet potato. 

kak, sutHx, not, none, nothing (Gr. p. 56, 74, 83). 
agem kak, a. acknowledged, 
aseamur kak, a. eternal, 
barkak, a. straight, 
gargerkak, a. blunt, 
gem kak, a. lean, thin, 
ner kak, a. incessant, 
nole le kak, n. no one. 
nole lu kak, n. nothing, 
kaka, cf. ka, I. 

kakaper, n. a spark. Mab. kokaper. 
kake (?), 

kakekakek, a. white. Ma. keakea. 
kakekak wer, n. white of the eyes, 
kakigaba, n. a variety of ieiver. 
kakerikakeri, a. [dark?]. 

kaketut, n. a food ceremony connected with marriage, 
kalapi, n. kolap. 
kale, a. added to the adjective ait to intensify the 

meaning (Gr. p. 8-1). 
kalkal, n. a fowl. Mab. kalakala, K. kurakura, Ku. 

karakara. 
kamer, n. a red powder that produces disease. 
kamosar, n. a black dog-fish. 

kamosar gole, n. a birth-mai'k (black). 
kamsam, n. eel. 
kamut, n. string figures ; a game played with a string ; 

"cat's cradle." 
kanai, n. the mitre shell (Mitra). 
kap, n. a butterfly. 
kapeler, u. pandanus. 
kaper, n. a plant (Sterculia sp.). 
kaperkaper, u. a pknt (Abrus precatorius) ; "crab's 

eyes." 
kapkap, a. itching ; applied also to acid, biting, and bitter 
taste. Cf. II. 186. 
kapkap lu, n. a plant (Indigofera viscosa), used as a 
kog lukup. 
kar, n. a fence, enclosure. Mab. Ma. ara, K. kara. 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



147 



beriberi kar, n. a rope fence. 

karu dirumdi, v. surround by a fence, enclose. 

kegar kar, n. a stone fence (on laud). 
kar, a. true, real, actual. 
kara, pron. my. 
karakar, u. a fern. 
karbabu, pron. myself. 

kareg, n. name of the star a in Scorpio, VI. 
karem, n. the deep, far-off sea. 

karemge batimeda, v. dive in sea. 
karker, n. a bird, a crab. 

karom, n. the monitor lizard (Varanus). Mab. Imruiii. 
karomkarom, a. doubtful. [Probably derived from luirvm.] 
karor, n. the frifjate-bird. Cf. waumer. 
karus, n. a blister. 
kase, ad. exceedingly. 

kaai, n. Malu word for icercin. Cf. Mab. kazi. 
katawar, n. a parrot. 
kau, n. a heron. 

kaukau, a. hanging from, suspended. 
kaubkaub, n. a ball, sphere; an European bead; a 
pendant. 

kaubkaub meta, n. a round or beehive house, the old 
form of house. 

kaubkaub neb, u. a ring, 
kaur, n. an island. Mab. kaura. Ma. urn, B. kaiiala. 

baker kavir, n. a rock island. 

u kaur, n. a sand bank, 
kaur wair, n. name of a bird, 
kauaor, n. a hermit crab and its shell. 
kaz, n. a fathom, the unit of measure, from tip to tip 

of finger of outstretched arms. 
ke, n. finger. 

au-ke, n. thumb. 

baur-ke, u. index finger. 

elp-ke, n. middle finger; ring finger. 

kebi-ke, n. little finger. 

kebi-ke-neis, kebl-ke-nerut, n. ring finger. 

teter-ke, n. toe. The toes are named similarly to the 
fingers; teter an ke, big toe, teter haur ke, etc. 
keau mit, n. = A-t'i( mit, the lower lip. 
keauk, n. exchange of brother or sister in marriage. 

Cf. koko ken. 
keaupai, n. a parrot-fish (Chaerops Hodgkinsoni). 
kebe-le, n. a man who borrows a garden. 

kebe-le tonar, u. ceremony for closing gardens, 
keber, u. a death dance. 

keber op, n. mask of leaves worn by a keber. 

kimiar keber, n. representative of a deceased man in 
the death dance. 

koaker keber, n. representative -of a deceased woman, 
kebi, n. small, little. 

kebi bubuam, n. a shell (Calpurnus verrucosus). 

kebi gemgem, a. thin-bodied, thin. 

kebi gereger, n. early morning; "small daylight." 

kebi ke, n. little finger. 



kebi kes, n. a small opening ; a narrow opening. 

kebi kok, u. the wrist. 

kebi kok ne, n. inside of wrist. 

kebi kok ne sor, n. bones of wrist. 

kebi le, n. boy. 

kebi werem sab, n. raised portion of canoe gunwale at 
bow. 
ked, n. a lizard, 
ked, n. plaited string made of coco-nut fibre. Cf. ed. 

kedelup, u. the string handle which joins two coco-nut 
water-bottles. 
kedakeda, n. a kingfisher. 
kedked, n. a kind of lobster, not eaten. 
kef=Av/>, skewer, 
keg, n. charcoal made from coco-nut shell. 

keg warup, n. the marking of non-mourners with 
charcoal at a funeral ceremony. 
keg (?), 

kus keg, n. a wooden skewer, 
kega, ad. sign of quotation ; saying ; thus, 
kegar, 

kegar kar, n. a stone fence, 
kegor, n. woodcock-fish (Centrisous scolopax). 
kei(?), 

kei apek, n. the other side, 
kelmer, n. man's younger brother ; woman's younger 
sister. Mab. kaimH?). 

eip kelmer, n. brothers or sisters between the eldest 
and youngest, VI. 

keimer kek, n. a star in the constellation kek. 

kelmer moder, n. the mainsail of a canoe. 

mop kar keimer, n. the youngest of several brothers 
or sisters, VI. 
kek, n. the front, fore part ; a cape. 

meta kek, u. the front of a house. 

kekem, ad. to the front, in front, before. 

kekem bakeam, v. go before, precede, 
kek, u. = mekek, fish-hook, 
kek, u. a constellation. Cf. Mab. kek. 

keimer kek, n. one of the stars in the constellation.' 

narbet kek, n. another star in the constellation, 
kekuruk, n. a magical method of curing disease, 
kekmir, ii. mucus of nose, 
kelar, n. strength, force. 

kelarkelar, a. strong, 
kelkeri, n. a hermit crab, 
kem, a. possessing, having; sufif. (Gr. p. GO). 

kem le, n. owner. 

maidkem le, n. sorcerer, 
kem, II. the belly ; lower part of the body. D. kom, kaiii, 
Ii. liiiii, Ku. aniline. 

kemge nerezi, n. groan. 

kemkem, a. pregnant. 

kem-osmeda, v. be filled with food, 
kemerkemer, a. whole, entire, filled up, of space. Ma. 



iiiiiiiiiiiie. 



19—2 



148 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



kemur, n. smoke [kfin, and iir]. D. iiiio. 
kenan(l), n. the armpit. 

kenan mus, n. bair of armpit, 
keoge, a. = Ac'ii, low. 
kep, n. seed, a kernel. Mab. hqiu, D. kapa, K. iopu. 

kaba kep, n. separate fruits of banana. 

kep mam, n. drop of blood. 

lewer kep, n. a stone charm to make yams abundant. 

ner kep, n. the hollow in throat under pomum adarai; 
the heart ; seat of the feelings. Cf. Mab. n(jaita-kap. 

zeber kep, n. the kidney, 
kep sabez, n. arrowroot ; a variety of lewer. 
kep, suff. to nouns, 
kep, n. a skewer. 

bisi kep, n. a kind of arrow. Mabuiag hok, hop. 
keparemle, n. = tiiiiiileh. 

keper, n. a small lagoon, pool : keper e kehi eijeinedi. 
kepu, ad. in separate places, by different ways. 

kepkep, a. few. 

kep-le, n. one or two men dancing separately at the 
end of a dance. 

kepu-bamrida, v. disperse. 
ker, n. ovary. 

ker, n. mat made of pandanus. Cf. JMab. kai. 
kerakera, n. a pungent zingiberaceous root chewed and 

swallowed for coughs, 
kerar, n. vein, artery, sinew, tendon. Mab. kirar. 

gem kerar, a. wasted, thin, 
kerem, n. the head. 

abal kerem (krim), n. fruit of pandanus. 

kaba kerem, u. a bunch of bananas. 

kerem lid, n. skull. 

kerem mus, n. hair of the head. 

kerem saker, n. a comb. 

kerem derapeida, v. behead. 

kerem teter, n. inner horizontal beam in wall, 
keres, n. an unripe banana. 

kereskeres, a. raw, unripe, of plants, green. 

keres lar, n. raw fish, 
keret, n. a shell (Strombus). 
kerger(?). Cf. kerknr. 

kerger sam, n. short cassowary feathers, 
keriba, pron. we; they and I, not you. 
keribibu, pron. ourselves, 
keriger, u. cuttle-fish, 
kerkar, a. uew, fresh, young, 
kerker keber, n. a clapper made of pater. 
kerker, u. a crab. Cf. karker. 
keru, n. a kind of curlew. 

kes, n. a crack in the rock, a channel between shallows, 
passage in reef. 

au kes, n. a broad opening. 

kebi kes, u. a narrow opening. 
kes, n. sake ; belongings of any one ; things intended for 
any one. 

kesem, n. heir. 



keserkeser, a. soon, quick. 

kfesi, n. an initiate. 

kesur, n. " tortoi.seshell " turtle ; turtle-shell. Cf. kaisu. 

ketai, n. a variety of yam (lewer). 

ketket, n. = kedked. 

keu. n. [the lower part]. 

keu-ib, n. the lower jaw. 

keu-imus, n. the beard. 

keu-mit, n. the lower lip. 

keu-uerkep, n. pit of the stomach. 
keu (?), 

keuketai, n. a rail (Porphyrio melanotus). 
keuba, u. enemy. Mab. kaubu. 
keubu, ad. afterwards. 

ki, pron. we, he and I, they and I, not you. 
ki, n. night. 

ab kige, n. last night. 

amri-kl, n. evening. 

eip-ki. n. midnight. 

kige tidedewer, n. day before yesterday. 

ki-kem, n. evening twilight. 

ki nesau, n. evening star. 

uteip-ki, n. night, 
kiakikiaki, n. a scented root used as a love charm, 
kiam, n. purple secretion of croko. 

kiamikiam, a. pink, purple, II. 56. 
kiau, n. a kingfisher (Halcyon sanctus). 
kiaur, n. \\me = guuid. 
kibkib, a. blunt. 

kid, u. name of a wood used for axe handles. 
kikiem, ad. in iiont = kekem. 
kimiar, n. a man, a male; a husband. 

kimiar keber, n. representative of deceased man in 
the death dance. 

maik kimiar, n. widower, 
kimus, n. point of an arrow, 
kinani, n. = keiiani, the armpit. 
kip, n. nates or buttock. 

kip lid, n. vertical column of the sacrum. 

kip user, n. a scarification on the buttock. 
kirakira(?). Cf. II. 183. 
klrir. n. a small unripe coco.nut ; abortion, 
kirkir keber { = kerker keber), bamboo clapper. 
kirkub, n. a nose skewer. Mab. gifiu. 
kitoto, n. a stridulating insect ; locust or grasshopper. 
klu, suff. (Gr. p. 80). 
ko, ad. again. 
kobegud, n. a grey clay ; black paint. 

kobegudkobegud, a. grey, II. 56. 
kobek, n. a cough. Mab. kobaki. 

kobek esili, v. cough, 
kobil, n. bush men, especially people of New Guinea, 
kodal, n. the crocodile (Crocodilus porosus). Mab. kadal, 

1). kajd, kdje, B. kadsci. 
kod, n. the occiput; back of head; back of neck. Cf. 
Mab. kote, kwote. 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



149 



kodo [n. conneeted words, phrase, sentence]. JIab. JIo. 
kudu. 
kodo-mer, n. language. 
kodrom ['? derived from kod]. 

kodrom bakwarl, v. carry on shoulders. 
koer=/;iro!<;)-, n. a bamboo knife; a wooden sword, 
kog, n. [sexual intercourse], 
kogem, n. adultery, fornication, 
kogiz (kog-gizi, n. polygamy, 
koglu, kog-lukup, n. a love charm, 
kogmer, n. obscenity. 

koko (kogkogl, a. having marital intercourse ; a 
divinatory game played by girls who thrust their 
hands into sand. 
koko keu, n. exchange of brother or sister in marriage. 
Cf. keauk. 
koiet, n. polygamy, 
koima, u. a device cut on the shoulder or elsewhere as 

a sign of mourning or for decoration. 
koiop. n. dragon-fly. 

kok, n. a joint [probably the projecting bone of the joint, 
lie being the inside of the joint). Cf. Ma. kako, Ku. 
hike, bone, 
au kok, n. elbow. 

au kok ne, u. inside of elbow, seven in counting on body. 
au kok ne sor, n. bone of elbow, 
kebi kok ne, n. inside or front of wrist, six in counting 

on body, 
kebi kok ne sor, n. bones of wrist. 
kok ne, liollow of a joint. 
kok ne lid, n. bone of a joint = /io/i ne snr. 
nerut au kok ne, n. fifteen in counting on the body, 
teter au kok, n. knee, 
teter kebi kok, n. ankle. 
koket, n. a stick, staff. 

koket ekada, v. walk with a stick. 
koki, u. the north-west monsoon ; the rainy season. 
koko. Cf. kog. 

koko, n. au omen bird (Geopelia humilis). 
kokokoko, n. a wood used for go'ujoi. 
kokuam, u. scarlet hibiscus. 

kolap, n. the seed or bean of sirlp, the "Queensland 
bean " (Entada scandens); a stone teetotum or top, 
probably so called from having originally been made 
of a kolap bean, 
kolap ag^g, n. "meat" of kolap bean, 
kolap omen, v. top spinning, 
pewer kolap, n. top made of peicer fruit, 
strip kolap, n. a toy top made of the sirip bean, 
kola pespes, n. a dance wand. 

kolber kolber, n. a tuft of cassowary feathers used as a 
" tail,'' in dancing. 
zom kolberkolber, a. yellow, II. 56. 
kole, n. a master. 
kolelut, n. master, one's own master. [leliU, the ex- 
clusive form of le.] 



komazer, n. tongs of bamboo. 
komelag, n. a whistle, 
komosar, a. = kainos(ir, kumasar, a fish. 
konor, n. name of a tree. 

konor tut, n. a wooden club. 
kop, n. a bay, opening of the sea ; a corner ; end of 
house. Mab. kiqyado, D. kopa. 

kopkop, a. deep, [going far in], 
kop (?) = kip, a Malu word. 0. oj>o. 

kop-ditimeda, v. slap the buttocks. 
kop, n. a sacred ground. 
kopakopa, n. a star in Draco, 
kopei, n. an omen bird. 
kopor, n. the navel. Mab. kupar. Ma. iipuro, K. gtipuru, 

Ku. opolo. 
kor, n. the back; stern of canoe. 

korgarbad, n. wood of canoe stern. 

kor-izer [kor, uzer], n. rudder, 
kor, n. the groin. 

kor mus, hair of the groin. 

korot, n. fold of skin in the groin above penis ; 
bladder (of turtle). 

korot lid, n. pubes. 
koreb. a. 

ab koreb, a. suitable, proper, fit. 
koreder, n. haste, running. 

korederge = a. hastily, (luiek, running, 
kor^g, n. the small sun-fish. 

korizer, n. steering oar (or rudder). Cf. kor, hack, uzer, 
paddle. 

korizer erpeili, v. steer. 
korkor, n. a nearly full-grown turtle, 
kosker, n. a married woman, wife. 

au kosker, n. old woman. 

auski kosker, n. midwife. 

kosker keber, n. the impersonator of a deceased 
woman in the death dance. 

koskerlam, n. adultery (?). 

maik kosker, u. a widow. 

kosker telbur, n. the horizontal bars in wall of house, 
usually made of bamboo, 
kosor = /,■";". 

kotor, n. the sky : i/aire icer einri kolorge. D. Mali. 
kowazl (?). Cf. ikapsi. 
koz6, n. a small tree, with scented root and leaf, wood 

used for goigoi. 
kriskris, n. a cuckoo (Chrysococcyx lucidus). 
kuapal, n. a canoe baler made of coco-palm spathe. 

Cf. gem. 
kuir, n. a kind of dance. 
kuk, n. name of various shells (Nerita). 
kum le, n. a performer in the alag ceremony, 
kumasar, n. a variety of shark (? a sting-ray, Pteroplatea). 
kupe, a. sticks tied to a string and used as a tally for 
recording certain events, such as the number of 
dugong or turtle killed, number of amours, etc. 



150 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



kuper, n. a shell (Helix pepartita, var.) ; maggots. In 
the latter sense probably the Mabuiag word kupnr. 
kupl (?), 

glrkupi, a. tender (G.). 

kaba kupi, ii. central leaf-spike of banana. 

u kupi, ura kupi, n. small yellow sprouting leaves of 
coco-palm. 
kup(i)kup(i), a. tlarlc. B. qohi. 

kupkup baz, n. cloudy sky. 

kupkup sor, n. a variety of coco-nut with a black shell, 
kur, u. a cave: abele Imr au kiipkupi. 
kurab, n. a variety of coco-nut with a bitter husk. 

kurabem, n. = v. flavour (G.) 

kurabkurab, a. bitter, acid, 
kuri, n. a small soft mat for a baby, or for wrapping 

things in. 
kurup (■?), 

sirlp kurup, n. pod of strip bean, 
kus, u. a tree; stick used for husking coco-nut. 

kus bager, n. a stick made of lais wood. 

kus keg, n. a wooden skewer. 
kusl(?), 

kusi bager, n. a small creeping zingiberaceous plant, 
kus, a. steady, of l;olap spinning: liulap Ims, the holap 

is steady. 
kus(u), n. the seeds of Coix lachrymae, "Job's tears"; 

beads. Mab. Ma. D. hiisa. 
kutikuti, a. diving with head under water. 
kwarwei, n. a bird, "wild fowl," smaller than Surka. 
kwas, n. an insect. 

kwas, n. magic directed against fruit crops, 
kwir, n. dart of dugong harpoon. 

kwir girir, n. handle for head-carrying loop, 
kwoier, n. a bamboo knife. 

la, post, sometimes found for ra. 
lag, n. mosquito, 
lag, [n. a wish]. 

debe laglag, a. sweet, of taste or smell. 

geme lag, n. a scent, perfume. 

laglag, a. wishful. 

lakak (lag-kak), a. unwilling. 

semelag, n. stink. 
lag (.'). 

lag sop, n. boarding over gunwale at bow of canoe, 
lager, ii. rope, cord, stays to mast. 

malll-lager, n. au iron chain. 

mat lager, n. a fillet worn on the forehead. 

wall lager, u. twisted string. 
laip, n. the lobe of the ear, the external ear. 

laip neb, n. a hole in the lobe. 

laip sak, n. the pendent lobe. 

laip tut, n. a wooden cone used to distend the lobe. 
lakak, cf. lap. 

lakub, a. many, a great number, 
lam, suff. (Gr. p. 00, 01, 73). 



lam, n. a leaf. Ku. lame. 

lam pot, n. ribs and stalk of a leaf. 
lamar, n. a ghost. [? abbreviation of lela mar, man's 

spirit.] 
lamar ebur, n. the ghost of a recently deceased person 
appearing in the form of an appropriate animal, 
often as a death omen. 

lamar-marik, n. a skull by which to divine, [lamar- 
emarili, ghost sends.] 
lar, n. a fish. 

larem, n. = v. (go) for fish, fish. 
lare, suff. (Gr. p. 75). 
le, suff. (Gr. p. 09-80). 

le, u. a human being, mankind, a person (Poss. lera or 
lela, Exclus. lehttj. B. la, Du. aar. 

aud le, n. a mummy. 

kebi le, n. boy. 

kekuruk le, n. a magician. 

kem le, n. owner, possessor. 

le-ise, a. like a man. 

lekak, a. deserted. 

lela-lid, n. os innominatum. 

le-op, n. a mask; a picture of a man, an arrow with 
carved human face. 

lug asmer le, n. a wise man. 

maid kem le, n. sorcerer. 

mer atager le, n. a chatterer. 

pardar le, n. a wise man 

tarim le, n. front man in boat, "captain." 

zogo le, n. chief men in certain ceremonies ; the head 
men of a cd.'/o. 
le, n, a man's brother, a woman's sister, VI. 
le, n. excrement, f.Tces, rust. 

artl-lele, n. sepia. 

dogai le, n. jelly fish at iiaifler time. 

goigoi le, goigoi pi, n. the dust made by firesticks. 

le serur, n. diarrhoa. 

lele (?), a. from le. 
leb, n. rim of the ear, fin of a fish, an ornament for the ear. 

godegode leb, u. a spiral ornament of turtle shell. 

kus leb, n. an ear ornament of kus seeds. 

mai leb, n. an ear ornament of pearl shell. 

sirer leb, n. dorsal and ventral fins of nageij. 
lei, sutY. (Gr. p. 09). 
lem, n. the sun. 

lem baraigida. the sun sets, dives. 

lem eipu. n, midday, noon. 

lem eupamada, the sun rises, 
lemlem, n. thin upi-ight sticks fastened to kosker teibur 

in walls of house. 
lerkar, a. thin, 
let, n. a cane bowstring. 

pit let, n. the septum nasi, 
lewer, ii. an nei for .yams; vegetable food in general. 

aosmer lewer, n. a gift of food in connection with 
the kaba zoi/o. 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



151 



lewer kep, n. a stone charm to make yams abundant. 

lewer-mog, u. resin chewed to bring good luck in 
tishiuf,'. 

lewer pas, n. a scented grass (Ocimum canum, and 
0. basilicuni). 

lewer puipi, n. a crumb, small piece of food. 

mad lewer, n. a plant (Pouzolzia microphylla). 
li. V. evacuate. Cf. h'. 
lid, n. bone, framework, skeleton, .shell. Mab. ritl. 

bei lid, n. broom made of bui, q.v. 

bir lid, n. ribs. 

kerem lid, n. skull. 

kip lid, n. vertical column of sacrum. 

kok ne lid, n. bone of a joint. 

lela lid, n. os innominatum (? from le, excrement). 

lid agem, a. impudent. 

lid dasmeri, v. stare at. 

lldlid, a. bony. 

map Ud, n. the shoulder-blade. 

waiwai lid, n. pomum adami. 
Uga, n. a shell (Conus). 

ligUe. n. a shell (Conus geographicus). 
lislis, n. a twig, small branch, 
lit, n. a round " cloud " appearing before Taijai, at turtle 

season. 
logab, n. the South, = iia;. 
lokod, n. bottom, under part. 

lokodge, n. = ad. under, beneath, down. 
lolo, n. toy whip to make a cracking noise. 
lu, snti'. (Gr. p. G'J-80). 

lu, n. au iiL'i for trees and plants, an au an net for things 
in general. Sometimes huj, especially before a vowel. 
B. /», tree, wood. 

kapkap lu, n. a plant. Cf. knphap. 

kog lu, n. a love charm. 

lu doridiU, n. noise made by wind blowing through 
trees. 

lug asmer le, u. a man who sees many things, a wise 
man. 

lug atkamer le, n. a thief. 

lu-babat, a. anything pertaining to folklore, or au 
heirloom. 

lu gegur, n. bark cloth. 

lu-giz, n. great grand-parent, VI. 

lu giz, n. swollen base of a tree trunk. 

lu gizra apu, = a. rich. 

luglug, a. plentiful, rich, having plenty of things. 

lu Isml, V. fell a tree. 

lu kak, n. nothing ; a. poor. 

lu kaz, n. a creeping plant. 

lu kem le, n. master of ceremonies at taina. 

lu lam, n. leaf. 

lu lam gtmgam, a. green, II. 56. [!jiiii!jain(?) in imita- 
tion of Mab. ijamul, for which it is grammatically 
equivalent.] 

lu slk, n. a bud. 



lub, n. feather. 

lug, = lu: used before a vowel. 

luk, n. dove (G.). 

Inkluk, a. [stammering, stuttering]. 

lukluk mer, n. au impediment in the speech, 
lukup, n. medicine, therapeutic and magical. Mab. liikiip, 
Ma. nihiipo. 

kog-lukup, n. a love philter. 

lukup kem le, n. a doctor, physician, 
luper. n. a piercer of turtle shell and used for shredding 

leaves for petticoats. Cf. tcr. 
luzap (■?), 

luzap-le, n. an expert, man who knows his work well. 

m, suff. (Gr. p. 63). 
ma, part. (Gr. p. 84). 
ma, pron. thou, you, singular, 
mama, pron. thou, 
mabara, a. thy. 
mabu, pron. thyself, yourself. 
maber, n. a conch shell, a shell trumpet (Semifusus 

proboscidiferus or Triton variegatus). 
mabus, n. a mash of helni and ii. 

mabus-ikeli, v. make mash (p. iiuihiis-ilierer). 
mad (?), 

mad lewer, n. a plant (Pouzolzia microphylla). 
madub, n. an iiei, for charms, wooden images used in 
magic. 
neur madub, n. a magical image of a girl. 
sokop madub, n. wooden image of a man as a tobacco 
charm. 
madupenau, n. a variety of Icicer. 
mag, n. the season when the new leaves of the yam 

are sprouting, 
magur, n. the disciplinary executive of the Malu cult, 
mai, u. nacre, shell of pearl oyster ; the crescentic chest 
ornament made of pearl shell. Mab. mai. 
mai leb, n. ear ornament made of mai. 
mai tereg, n. a pearl. In Gospels peiiina (cf. In- 
troduced Words) is used for " pearl." 
maid, n. sorcery, magic, especially maleficent magic. 
Mab. miiid. 
maid kem le, n. a sorcerer. 

maidem, n. general name [an nui) for stones used in 
magic, e.g. iloiom. 
maidem, n. ii fish with bluish-grey skin and red spots. 
maiem, v. indec. draw near ; exclam. a form of salu- 
tation, 
maier, n. a shooting star, 
maiged, n. the neighbourhood, place close by. [Probably 

the true form of mni'/ii'. ] 
maik, n. mourning. 

maik klmiar, n. a widower, 
maik kosker, n. a widow, 
maik nagar, n. mourning costume. 
maik werem, n. orj^han. 



152 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



malke, ad. near, close by. 

mair, n. roasted yellow ochre, red ochre. 

mairmair, a. red, II. 56. 
malsu, D. lower part of thatch of house, eaves ; a porch, 

verauJah. 
malsu, n. roarinp of the sea (G.). 
makamak, n. a leglet. Mab. Ma. inul;nmak. 

tag makamak, n. a finger ring. 
makerem, n. a youth, a young man. 

kebi makerem, n. a boy at puberty. 

makerem meta, n. a house for unmarried men. 
main. 11. a sheet of metal, iron. 

malil lager, n. an iron chain, 
mam, ii. blood. D. }iii'in^ mam. 

eroko-mamamam, a. pink, purple. 

kep mam, n. drop of blood. 

mamamam, a. bloody, red, various shades are denoted 
by prefi.'sinf,' an or Icebe, II. 56. D. manwm. 

mamamam tjorbor, n. organ-pipe coral (Tubipora uiu- 
sica). 

mamamam pas, n. name of a scent, II. 183. 

mam-amarik, n. a skull used for divining. Cf. lamar- 
mnrik. 

mam babuseda, v. bleed. 

mam kem, a. pregnant. 

mam osawi, ' the red is spreading,' said of the red sky 
at sunset. Cf. v. esaiii. 

somer-mamamamam, a. purple, 
mama. Cf. ma, thou, 
mamoro, ad. carefully, 
mamus, n. chief, head man. 
map. n. the shoulder. 

map le, n. the person who obtains for a girl the man 
she wants ; a go-between. 

map lid, n. the shoulder-blade, 
mapis, n. a variety of lewcr. 
mapodan. a. harmless ; n. peace (G.). 
mar, n. shadow, spirit, soul, ghost. 

mar-asmer, n. reflection of face in mirror or water. 

markak, a. tame, spiritless. 

marmar, a. wild, 
mar, n. a grass-like, scented plant obtained from New 

Guinea, leaf and root edible, II. 183. 
mara, pron. thy. Cf. ma. 
marau, v. indec. preach. 
marep, n. tlie bamboo. Mab. marait. Ma. K. iiuiraho. 

marep p^k, n. thatch-bands of house, 
margor, ii. a cloud appearing during the north-west 

season, a sign of tine weather. 
markak katam, n. a variety of hiha. Cf. Mab. katam 

and Miriam marlmk. 
marmot, n. breast or chest. 

marmot lid, n. the breast-bone, 
mase ! exclam. go on ! jiroceed ! 

masalbri, n. alligator pipe-fish (Gastrotokeus biaouieata). 
mat. n. cloth placed on the fiarbad of a canoe. 



mat, n. stone of coral reef; frondose coral. Mab. B. 
iiiaza, Ku. viaja, reef. 

mat arti. n. a brittle-starfish (Ophiomastix annulosa). 
mat, n. the forehead. 

mat lager, n. a fillet for the forehead, plain or made 
of kiis seeds. 

mat lid. n. frontal bone. 

mat pas, n. wrinkles. 

piau (or idaid) mat lager, u. a fillet made of nautilus 
nacre, 
matei, n. fringe-finned trevally (Caranx radiatus). 
mau, n. nest of small (tree) ant. 
maub, n. a small flat pearl shell (Pinna), 
mauko, n. a variety of kaba. 
maumer, u. the gunwale of a canoe, 
mauteb, u. hibiscus. 

me, ;id. an interrogative (Gr. p. 74, 82). 
meali, u. an invisible bird connected with the kaba 

meau, n. a sea weed (Alga). 

meb, n. the moon, a month. Ku. mabie. 

aketi meb, n. the moon with a thin crescent. 

eip meb, n. nearly full moon. 

glz meb, n. full moon. 

meb dimdi, n. eclipse. 

meb degemli, n. moon in the first quarter. 

meb gerip, v. indec. shine (of moon only). 

meb zizlmi, n. moon in the last quarter. 
mebud, n. a reed. 

med, n. flesh. Mab. madu, D. )iiid, Ku. mazii. 
meg, n. the tide. Cf. meskep. 

au meg, n. flood tide. 

megapu, u. a shrimp. 

meg ogeri, v. rise, of tide, become high water. 

meg omarida, v. ebb, of tide. 

meg tawerge, n. flood tide, 
megi. V. vomit. Mab. magiz, D. maunjeje. 
mei, n. sky. 
meidu, n. the nipa palm, which occasionally floats down 

from the Fly River. Cf. folk tale. 
mek, n. sign or mark, a footprint; the rising of a star or 
constellation which indicates the beginning of a 
season. 

teter mek, n. a footprint. D. mak, B. maka, foot, 
mekek. n. a fish-hook. 

mekek par, n. the sinker of a fishing line. 
meker, n. Cf. mikir. 
meket, 

meket op, n. figure-head of a canoe. 

meket ziriam, n. an initiation ceremonj-, " a small 
zogo like Main." 
memeg, a. serving. Ma. inomoiio. 

memegem, n. = v. indec. make servant of, serve. 

memegle, n. a servant, 
mena, a. continually, often, yet; exclam. wait! stop! 
conj. while. 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



153 



menaba, ail. soon, in a little while. 
mer, n. the wind-pipe ; speech, language, sound. 

adud mer, n. swear word. 

bes mer, n. a lie, falsehood. 

dodo mer, n. noise of running water. 

geger mer, n. a snore, snoring, groan, moan. 

giz mer, n. a speech, a sermon. 

kodo mer, n. speech, language. 

kog mer, n. obscene language. 

kolio mer, n. a cooey, shouting. 

lukluk mer, n. impediment in the speech. 

mer akesmur, n. an oath. 

mer atager, n. gossiping, chattering. 

mer atager le, n. a chatterer. 

merkak, a. speechless, dumb. 

mer kem, u. message. 

mer umer le, n. witness (U.). 
mereg, n. perspiration, sweat. Mab. murug. 

mer-egida (iiiereg-egida), v. perspire, 
mergai, n. a small or medium sized turtle. 
meriba, pron. we, our, you and I. 

meribibu, prou. we, ourselves. 
merot, or merbd, n. calf of the leg. 

merot user, n. a scarification on the calf. 
mes, 11. coco-nut husk, fibre. 

mes aroaro u, n. a variety of coco-nut with edible husk. 
meskep, n. low tide. 
meta, u. a house. Mab. mud, Ma. K. mota, Ku. mete. 

audbar meta, n. prison. 

ebur meta, n. a bird's nest. Usually meta preceded 
by the name of the bird is used for the nest, as 
(i meta, nest of Nectariuia australis. 

ere-meta, u. a school. 

golera meta, n. egg capsules of squid. 

kaubkaub meta, n. a round house; the beehive hut 
foiuierly built in Mer. 

makerem meta, u. house for young men. 

meta kek, n. front of the house. 

The following is the order of procedure in building 
a house : 

Le meta ikeli, man makes a house; e tumir lietar 
kikem teterii, he first draws the plan with his foot ; 
« daitci a teter ekos, he digs holes and erects side posts ; 
e koskcr teibur laijeru didbnr, he ties on the horizontal 
bars with rope ; e ditimedu totge bukedida sebge n jwk 
didbar, he begins at the top and goes down (arrives) to 
the bottom and ties on the uprights ; e sesere ekos, lie 
erects the main post ; e lemlem emir e ditimedu totge, he 
puts iu the thin upright laths beginning at the top ; 
c turn pSfc egawi, he... the horizontal laths behind ; 
e (ikiiru derem, e ditivieda sebge, he laces on the thatch, 
beginning at the bottom ; e sik bau didbar, be ties 
together the framework of the bed place ; e marep ejtat 
sikem, he. ..bamboo for the bed place. Meta ikerer emetii, 
the house is made. 
metalu, n. a calm. Mab. Ma. K. maturu, \i. malaiju. 

H. Vol. III. 



meur, n. a shrub (ScseTola sp.). 

mi, pron. we, thou and I, you and I. 

mi, n. a clam shell with yellow lips (Tridacna compressa). 

beizam ml, n. a clam shell (Tridacna serrifera). 

miskor, n. [perhaps = mi sor], a large clam. 
mlMr, n. a large tree (Terminalia catappa), fruit edible ; 

leaf used for cigarette wrapper. 
mimim, a. desirous of going. 
mir, n. oil in a sprouting coco-nut. 
inir= mer. 

mirem, n. =v. indeclin. tempt, try. 

mirkak, a. quiet. 
miskor. Cf. vii, clam, 
mit, n. the lip. 

keu-mit, n. the lower lip. 

mit-kar, u. the brim ; a. full, filled up. 

mit-lid, n. the gums. 

op-mlt, n. the upper lip. 
mizmiz. n. piece; chapter (G.). 
mo, n. a shell (Cyprsea or Bulla). 

mb-kepu, n. a mottled cowry shell (Cypram argus) ; 
luiug in door-way of house. 

mo-pert, n. a cowry with a broad brown edge. 

m6-siu, n. an ochre of a deep yellow colour ; a. orange 
coloured, II. 56. 
moar, n. a variety of kaba. 
moder, n. a mat, a mat sail. 

gerer moder, n. a small square of plaited gerer fastened 
to a necklace. 

keimer moder, n. the mainsail of a canoe. 

narbet moder, n. the foresail of a canoe. 
mog, n. a piece, lump, bit. 

baker mog, u. a fragment of stone. 

mata mog, u. a pebble. 

moglu, 11. a hammer for making native cloth. 

mogmog, a. in pieces, broken up. 

mog wall, n. a towel, 
moiaini, or muenl, n. a coco-palm leaf plaited on itself, 
so as to form a large screen, used in connection with 
doiom. 
mokakalam, a. the same way, like, similar to. 
mokarem(?) [ilerivcd from mog]. 

mokarem deskemedi, v. pduiui. 

mokarem ipit, v. crush, 
mokeis, u. a rat (Uroinys cervinipes) ; a figure in ktimut. 

Mab. iiiiikas, D. iiiakat, B. makata. 
moko, ad. there, distant. 
mokor, n. a leaf insect. 

mdnan, n. a lizard ; name of a figuix' in komiit. 
mone, n.=mune, vulva. 

moni, n. an edible fish, blue with yellow head and fins. 
mop, n. the end, the head of a tree. 

mopge, u. at the last; conj. until. 

mop werut, n. tip of tongue. 
moramor, n. a red Ilemijitera witli while stripes on 
Imdy and black marks on the wiugs. 

20 



154 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



morgotar, n. mast = .ft'S(;r(, 
mfirop, n. the forehead, 
moroko, n. Megapodius. 

mos, 11. saliva, spittle ; the lungs. Mab. iiws, Ku. mote. 
mos ekaida, v. spit (p. mos ekeilu). 
mos ituli, V. spit, 
mot, 11. cluster of tubers of the ketai. 
motop, n. the middle line of the buttocks. [Probably 

a derivative from )«?>, cowry.] 
mu, suff. (G. p. 66). 
mud, 11. the underside, 
mudge, n. = ad. under, underneath. 
mud mer, n. murmur, grumble, 
mudu, n. a shell (Area), 
mueni, n. = moi<uiii. 
mui, n. the inside. Mab. mui. 
muige, n.=ad. within, 
muimui, a. deep, hollow, 
mukub.n.akuot. K. mopo, fasten, tie knot, D. ;H»/iiyi, knot, 
mune, u. vagina. 

au mune, n. a swear word, 
muriz, u. a distant place. Ma. miireso. 

muriz-ge, n. = ad. afar, far off. 
mus, n. hair. K. muso. Ma. miio. 
baibai mus, u. hair of the eyebrows. 
bag mus, n. whiskers, 
gem mus, n. hair of the body, 
imus. n. hair of the face, 
irau mus, n. hair on eyebrows, 
keu mus, n. beard, 
kerem mus, n. hair of the head, 
kinaniil mus, n. hair of armpit, 
kor-mus, n. hair of the groin, 
mus dari, n. a ridge of hair extending from ear to ear 

of the shaven head. Cf. d(a)ri. 
op imus, n. moustache. 

pis mus, n. tendril (of plant), antenna of insect ; any- 
thing that curls round, 
mut, n. a sound, noise. 

mut ipitili, v. make a noise. 

mutmut, a. rattling, as mnkepu hung over a doorway, 
tag mut, n. a hand-clap, 
muti, n. fibre of coco-nut husk, used for making string. 

na, n. pref. (Gr. p. 67-80). 

na, ad. a Malu word = !J:e, there. Cf. Mab. demons, na. 

na, n. an interrogative prefix; what? (Gr. p. 64, 82). 

nade, ad. where? 

naket, ad. how many? how much? 

nako, a. and pron. what ? 
nab, V. indec. cannot, 
naba, pref. (Gr. p. 68). 
nagar, n. mourning costume, fringe that hangs down 

from the front and back of neck, 
nageg, u. the trigger fish, "leather jacket" (Monocan- 
thus). In folk-tale, the mother of Geiyi. 



nagri, v. indec. have, possess ; kaka epei luiijii, I have a 

basket, 
naiger, n. the north-east wind, varies from NE. to E. 

naiger pek, n. the north-east, 
naiwet, u. wife's relations, not used by man when ad- 
dressing them, VI. 
naiwet kimiar, n. father-in-law or brother-in-law of 

man. 
naiwet kosker, n. mother-in-law, sister-in-law of man. 
nali, v. stay (Gr. p. 79). 

najn, n. the green turtle, when full grown. Cf. mergai, 
korl-or. Ma. i/atnu. 
namra werem, n. the young of nam. 
nano, n. the breast, nipples. D. flmim, breast, nono, 
nipple, 
nano dub, n. a scarification on the breast, 
nano user, n. a scarification on the breast. 
nap, n. grand-child, VI. 
nar, u. a canoe. Mab. rjiil, D. iiura. 
au nar, ship. 

nar aoser, v. launch a canoe. 
nar atrugili, v. sail boat (p. nar-atruyrer). 
nar der, v. rest on sand, be supported on sand, of canoe. 
nar gem, n. hull of canoe. 
nar mui, n. inside of canoe hull, 
narat, n. the platform from which dugong are har- 
pooned. Mab. neet, noat. 
narb, n. a large black hymenopterous Insect, probably 

a soUtary wasp. 
narbet, u. the elder, the foremost. 

narbet berbet, u. man's eldest sister, woman's eldest 

brother, VI. 
narbet moder, n. the foresail of a canoe, 
narbet pek, n. [front or windward side?], 
narger, n. a small fly. D. arko, a fly, B. alako. 
narger, n. a plant, a seed, a stick, 
narur (?), 

kut-narvir, v. change strings from one finger to another 
in kainut. 
nas. 11. sorrow. 
nasge = a. soriy : kaka abi nasge, I am .sorry for hiai. 
nasnas, a. sorry, 
nasem, n. a namesake, 
nasi, nasir, ii. a shell (Trochus niloticus). 

nasir sauad, n. an imitation sauad, q.v., made of 

Trochus shell, 
nazirnazir gob, n. a coral (Fungia). 
nat (?l, 
natkak. a. cylindrical, cubical, 
natkak darakri, v. be uneven. 
naubet=iif(t;'('f. 

naur, n. a plant (Erythrina indica). 
naurnaur, ii. a bird (Graculus melanops). 
naurwer, u. (Brothers' stars) a, fi, y Lyrie and a, fS, y 

Atjuihe. 
nauwareb, n. name of a legendary person. 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



155 



nauwareb zogo, n. the zogo of a certain garden. 
ne, u. [hollow inside a joint, i.e. the part opposite to 
«„•]. 

au kok ne, n. insidt' of elbow. 

kebe kok ne, n. front of wrist. 

ne kaba, n. fruit just forming in banana flower, 
ne, n. dry coco-nut leaf ; a torch made from iie. Cf bei. 

ne-igi, v. fish by torchlight. 
neabgir, n. a short bamboo whistle. 
neasor, n. a spider shell with curved spines (Pterocera 

chiragra). 
neau, [a. ripe]. 

neau kai, n. ripe kai. 
neb, 11. a hole. 

au neb kosker, n. a "swear phrase," lit. large anus 
woman. 

gerip neb, n. the external meatus. 

gogo neb, n. the nostrils. 

kaubkaub neb, n. a ring. 

lalp neb, n. a hole in the ear lobe. 

neb dalrili, v. bore a hole. 

nond neb, n. nostrils. 

pit neb, n. a hole in septum nasi. 
ned(?l. 

ned-ame, n. the large stone on top of the ami;. 
neder, n. a stratus cloud, 
nedibi, [n. the dawu]. 
neg. n. seeds, 
neg, n. laughter. 

neg-degali, v. laugh at. 

negneg, a. laughing ; derisive. 
negwam, n. cousins on mother's side, children of mother's 

brother or sister, etc., VI. 
nei, 11. name. . Mab. ncl, Ku. iini. 

au nei, n. a generic name. Cf. Gr. p. .59. 

kebi nei, n. a specific niinie. 
neid, n. hard earth, stony or rocky ground, 
neis, num. two. 

neis netat, num. tliree. 

neis neis, num. foui'. 
neitawet, u. women who marry two brothers. 
nelzab, n. a tree with octopus-like inflorescence. 
nekerem, n. a sea-urchin (Heterocentrotus mammillatus). 
nem, n. a louse. K. nimo, Ku. nrinine, Ba. ya}iio. 
nem. n. = «an", the breast. 

nem dub, n. = nano iluh, q.v. 

nerasus, ii. a variety of coral, 
nemau, ii. name of a drum used in Malu ceremonies, 
nemipi, n. a variety of linbu. 
nemkod, n. a shell (Cerithium). 
nener, n. a border, boundary. 
nener, n. hiccough, 
ner, n. the breath. 

kemge ner eslli, v. groan. 

keu ner-kep, n. pit of the stomach. 

ner bei, u. lightning. 



ner-ezili, ner esili, v. sigh, take long breath, rest, 
" take a spell." 

ner-kak, a. breathless. 

ner-kep, n. the hollow in throat under pomum adami ; 
the heart ; seat of the feelings. This word and the 
Mab. nyaud-'kiip, heart, are lit. breath-seed. Cf. B. 
natigup, throat; te kapa, heart. 

op ner-kep, n. pit of the throat. 
neru, u. sugar cane. Mab. gem, Ku. flaluue, Du. go!. 
nerute, a. other ; pron. another, a different one. 
neriznerizgob, n. = 7iazirnazir gob. 
ues, n. the gill opening of a fish.- 
uesau, [n. star]. 

gereger nesau, n. the morning star. 

ki nesau, n. the evening star, 
nesur. u. a petticoat. 

adud nesur, n. menses. 

kaba nesur, n. petticoat made from banana leaf. 

kiaki nesur, n. a petticoat made from leaves of the 
klaki vine. 

nesur atparit, n, widow's petticoat wound rouud the 
loins. 

nole nesur kak, a. naked. 

ome nesur, u. jietticoat made of bast of ovie root. 

su nesur, u kupi nesur, n. dance petticoat made from 
young coco-palm leaves. 

teger nesur, n. petticoat of teger leaf, 
net, 11. a moUnsk (Chiton sp.). 
netabet, n. bridesmaid at a wedding, 
netat. num. one. 

neis-netat, num. three. 
nete, pron. who? 
netebu, u. the earth oven, 
neter (?|, 

gepera neter, n. sucker of sucker-fish, gip, q.v. 
neu. 11. a small stick, 
neu, 11. a ripe banana, 
neubet, n. name given by woman, to her husband's 

relatives, VI. 
neud (?), , 

neur, n. a girl, unmarried woman ; daughter. Mab. 
iig(iwa-(kii:i). 

gobar neur, n. adopted daughter. 

neur madub, n. a magical image of a girl. 

neur wer, n. name of a constellation. 

neur werem, n. daughter, 
ni, n. water, fresh water. V. ine, B. ngi, Ku. viie. 

niap, 11. thirst ; a. thirsty ; v. iudec. be thirsty. 

nl egemedl, u. pool of fresh water. 

nl iskedi, v. ooze (as water) from ground. 

nlni, a. tilled with water. 

nini lu, u. sap, [watery thing]. 

nl omeida, v. spring, as water. 

nl pat, n. a well, water hole. 

ni purapura, n. a duck. 

ni sor, n. a ooco-nut shell used as a water bottle. 

2U— 2 



156 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



niai. ml. always, iu future. 

niaiem, n. = ad. always, for long time. 

niai karem, u. for really long time ; for ever (G.). 
no, ad. barely, just, hardly ; a. bare. 

no-gem, n. a bare body, = a. naked. 

no-kdrot, u. a small boy. Cf. no, kor, groin. 

no-sumez, n, weeds, 
nog, n. outside of a place; a mask (or nhr]). 

noge (nog-ge), ad. on outside. 

nog le, n. an outsider, foreigner; heathen (G.). 
nokobar, n. the occiput, 
nole, ad. not ; a. no. 

nolea, exclam. no! nay! 

nole dali, v. not here, not present. 

nole la kak, a. not willing. 

nole le kak, = pron. nobody, no one. 

nole lu kak, = pron. nothing, 
nono, n. nostrils. 

nono neb, n. the nostril, 
nor, n. a sunken reef, detached reef, 
noreb, a,. = nureb. 
norgor, a. slack, easy, 
nosik, n. a row of persons, 
nug, n. the palate ; inside of mouth, 
nunei, n. man's sister's child, VI. 
ntir, n. season when the yam leaf fades, 

giz nnr, n. harvest time, time when yams are ripe. 

nunur, a. ripe, ready for harvest ; faded, of leaf. 

uureb, a. said of the female (/ bird, which has a 
yellow throat. 
nurl, n. an nei for sweet potatoes ; the white sweet 
potato. 

0, n. a triangular shell pendant, worn by women. 
o, pref. to verb indicating inceptive action. 
0, n. the liver. 

kebi o, n. the spleen. 

The following verbs are sometimes preceded by the 
possessive pronoun. 

o-bapiti, v. meet (p. o-bapite). 

o-bazgeda, v. pi. feel to be wrong (pp. o-baziglare). 

o-bogai, V. indec. dislike. 

o-dituli, V. hate (p. o diterer). 

o-ituli, V. believe (a. o-atur, pdo. o-tiiitcrer). 

o-seker, u. ventral spine of fish. 
6a, u. name of a constellation, 
oa. suff. (Gr. p. 73). 
oam, suff. (Gr. p. 73). 
obagobag, a. scented (like Benzaldehjde), II. 183 = iibaDii- 

bag. 
obal, n. the inner sticks binding sirib of canoe to the tug. 
og, n. dirt. 

og-arub, v. wash. 

og-dirup, V. wash. 

ogog, a. dirty. 

okak (og-kak), a. clean. 



dgab. n. a kind of sweet potato. JIab. uru-gabaii. 

ogar-gab, n. the red sweet potato, 
ogi, ogeri, v. climb (a. aiigo, p. oger, d. ogiei, cp. bog). 

meg ogri, v. rise (of tide), flow. 
ogo, n. a .small tree. 
oka(?), 

oka-batageU, v. preach (p. oka-batagerer), 

oka-deskeda, v. (pp. oka-darakesilare). 

ok-ardali, v. deceive (a. ok-ardar, pdo. oka-darar- 
darer), 

oka-sosok, v. indec. grieve. 

oka-taprild, v. indec. forget. 
okakes, a. equal, uniform, level. 

nole okakes, a. unequal. 
olai, n. a turtle, zogo nei for kaisii or baugem. 
omabar, u. a small bird ; a love charm {kog lu), au nei 

for birobiro zogo. 
omai, n. a dog (Cauis dingo). Mab. umai. Ma. timo. 
omaiter, n. a dugoug harpoon used in magical ceremonies. 

Cf. u'dj). 
omare, v. indec. pity, 
omarida, v. 

meg omarida, v. ebb of tide, 
omasker, n. pi. children. 

ome, n. a tree (Ficus sp. near F. Cunninghamii), the 
beaten out bark was used for petticoats ; leaf used 
for cigarette wrapper, 
omeida, v. grow up; sprout, as coco-nut (a. aomei, d. 
niiiidiiriei, p. omciUi, pp. haomi). 

ni omeida, v. spring up, of water, 
omen, a. said of the kolap when spinning. 

omenomen, a. spinning fast, 
omen. n. a species of eel living in salt water, edible, 
omer, n. the Frigate bird (Fregata minor). Mab. womer. 
omoba, u. a shell (Dolium). 
onariwa, v. stick in reef, of boat. 
op, n. the face, front of anything. Ku. opo. 

keber op, n. the leafy mask worn by keber, q.v. 

le op, n. a mask. 

meket op, u. figure-head of canoe. 

op-aseseredi, v. find out, recognize. 

op auzi, u. sneer. 

opem, n. = postp. forward, to the front. 

op etali, V. look about. 

op imus, n. moustache. 

op meta, u. front of house. 

op mit, u. upper lip. 

op nerkep, u. pit of the neck. 

opop, a. having face, as an arrow with human face. 

opole, n. front man, chief; lord, king (G.). 

op sik, n. front seat. 

opu-itimeda, v. nod (p. npu-itimedilu, d. obj. iu 
inclus. person opu-natimedariei) : tciaba karim opu 
niitintedai'iei. 
opisu, n. a cane or reed, 
orida, v. stait = ezigmada (p. orilu). 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



157 



orwar, n. the sucker of a banana. 

osakeida, v. rise, come up, of sun : gereger osakeida, 

day breaks (p. osakcilu). 
osmeda, v.^eosmeda. 

kem osmeda, v. be filled with food, satisfied. 
ouzi, n. leech. Cf. auzi. 

pade, n. a shout, cooey. Cf. kodomer. 
pagas, n. tlie shoulder; the biceps muscle. 

pagas lid, n. the humerus. 
pagi, n. a sea-snake ; a wooden sea-snake carved as a 

sign of gelar ; a figure in kamut. 
paler, n. a platform or framework, especially that on 

which a corpse is desiccated. 
palkai (?) =peik, pek. 

werut paikai, n. tip of tongue, 
palm. n. an idiot, fool. 

paimpalm, a. foolish ; drunk, 
paiwa, n. sandal wood tree; the "chili" plant. 
panigob, n. an axe, usually of shell, sometimes of stone. 
pao. n. a small canoe made by cutting down a larger one. 
pao, n. wing of a bird. 
pap (?), 

pap kerem, u. a method of dancing. 

werem pap lager dimri, v. strangle an infant. 
papaneaut, n. a reef-fish (Juli.< hmaris). 
papek, n. a mat made of enau leaf. 
par, n. a stone used as anchor for canoe; a pounder 
for softening food. 

mekek par, n. sinker of a fishing line. 

par batauredi, v. cast anchor. 
pardar(?), 

pardar le, n. a wise man. 
paret, v. iudec. prune, clear out. 

paret le, n. husbandman (G.). 
parts, n. the gar-fish (Belone). 
pas, n. a crease, fold. 

mat pas, n. wrinkle. 
pas, n. names of various scented plants and trees. Cf. 
11. 183. 

lewer pas, n. (Ocinium canum and 0. basilicum). 

mamamam pas, n. a scent. 

sarik pas, n. (Andropogon nardus). 
pasar, n. crew of a boat. JIab. pazarii. 
paser, n. a hill, mountain. JIab. puda, K. pasaro, 
Ma. jmilci, B. pad. 

baker paser, u. cliff. 
pat, n. a stick for husking coco-nut. 
pat, n. a hollow in ground, valley ; water hole. 

ni pat, n. a water hole. 

patpat, a. fiat, low. 

patpat lu, n. board on which native cloth was 
hammered. 
pat, n. the hip. 

pat lid, n. the hip-bone. 
pater, n. a small species of bamboo; reed (G.). 



pau, n. broken side of an old canoe; door. 

pone pau, n. eyelid. 
paud, n. peace. Mab. paud, D. piud, 
paur, n. skin. Mab. piira. 

pe. demons, and suff. this, here (Gr, p. 55, 74, 83, 84). 
peike, pron. here, this. 
peirdi, ad. now. 
peko, exclam. yes ! that is so ! 
penoka, ad. then, 
ped, a. bald. 
pedi. conj. and. 
peik=//(>i, q.v. 
peike. Cf. pc. 
peirdi. Cf. ye. 

peiwer, n. a plant (Dracaena sp.). 

p^k. u. vertical rafters in side of house behind kosker 
tL'ibur ; the side, direction, 
turn pfek, u. horizontal laths behind pek and Umlciii., 
in wall of house, 
pek, n. a nest. 
pekai, n. a variety of kaba. 

pekiau, n. scented bark of a driftwood from New Guinea, 
pel, n. the ear. 
pelak, n. a zogo house; house in which masks for the 

initiation ceremonies wei-e kept. 
pem, n. a locust. 
pem, n. suckers of octopus, 
peim, n. dream. 

penau, n. a pink variety of h'wer. 
pene weswes, n. blue coral (Heliopora coirulea). 
penoka. Cf. pe. 
peo, n.=pao, wiug. 

pereg, n. the throat, front of the neck; a frog = (;o(i(. 
B. jiahigo, frog, 
pereg gorom, n. front of neck, 
pereg nagar, n. mourning, 
pereg tabo, u. back of the neck. 
pereper, n. lightning ; a mirror. 
periperi, a. long. 

peris, u. a sinew. , 

peror, a. gaily decorated, " flash." 

perorge. n.^^a. proud (G.). 
persokpersok, n. whistle made from a seed. | I'robably 

from pimok, q.v.] 
pert, n. a yellow cowry. Cf. tnh-pert. 
pertarl?), 

pertarpertar, a. slippery, 
pes, n. a stalk, handle, stick of top, spadix of plant ; 
candlestick (G.). 
pes ur, n. dried spadix of coco-nut palm, used as fuel. 
tulik pes, n. handle of panigoh. 
peapes (?), 

kola pespes, n. a dance wand. 
pet, n. a small shell (Cypraea annulus). 

pet wak, n. a belt made of pet. 
petoam, n. sun fish. 



158 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



peumer, n. moss. 

pewer, n. a plant (Dracaena angustifolia). 

pez, [n. unripe fruit]. 

pez u. n. unripe eoco-uut. 
werem pez, n. abortion. 
pi, n. ashes of burnt wood; gunpowder. Mab. poi. 
irmer pi, n. tine rain. 
pipi, a. grej', II. 66. 
piau, n. nacre from idaici (Nautilus); a frontlet made 

of 2)iau. 
pinpin. n. a mussel (Pinna sp.). 

pirsok, n. blue bottle fly; a locust. [Probably refers 
to the buzzing or stridulating sound made by these 
insects.] Cf. persokpersok. 
piripiri, a. oblong. [Perhaps =jji'r/j)e)-i.] 
pis, [a. narrow, attenuated]. 

pis mus, n. antennae ; tendril of a plant ; anything 

that curls over, 
pis oger nagri, v. be abandoned (Or. ), i.e. have a crack 

climbing up (as in a house). 
pis u, n. young coco-nut. 
pis upi, n. an isthmus, tongue of land. 
pit, n. the nose ; a projection ; a point of land. Mab. 
piti, B. wede. 
pit aroaro, n. disease of the nose, 
pit ged, n. a cape, 
pit let, n. the septum nasi, 
pit lid, n. septum nasi, 
pit mop, u. tip of the nose, 
pit neb, n. hole in the septum nasi, 
piupiu, n. name of an ornament, 
pkem, suff. iGr. p. 01). 
pokopoko teibur. n. stomach. 
pone, n. eye. 
au ponepon, a. having big eyes. 
pone mus, n. eye lash, 
pone pau, u. eye lid. 
pone wer, n. = ir-/ii7), the eye ball. 
popa, u. grandparent, VI. 

pot, n. nail of finger or toe ; claw of bird ; operculum 
of univalve shells; rib of leaf; nipple, 
deirdeir pot, n. operculum of turbo shell, 
lam pot. n. ribs and stalk of leaf, 
pottn, u. a kind of carved arrow, 
potowak, n. [?a belt decorated with opercula]. 
tapot, M. [tag pot], finger nail. 
potidan, n. a sprawling herb with large pink flowers, 

grows on tlie beach. 
pua, n. plenty, a number. 
puar, n. an epiphytic aroid. 
pugas = pai;as. 
puipi, n. dust. Mab. poi. 
lewer puipi, n. a crumb, 
puipi eb, n. a "swear word." Cf. puipi, eb. 
pupu, n. an edible fish (Labroides auropinna): c au 
ponepon. 



pupuag, n. jelly fish. 

pur, n. a place without trees. 

soge pur, n. a desert, place covered with grass but 
no bush. 
purapura (?), 

ni purapura, n. a duck. 
puripuri, u. " medicine," magic, sorcery. A word intro 

dueed from New Guinea, 
put. n. an armlet. 

glr put, n. an armlet made of boar's tusk. 

tag put. n. mourning armlet. 

teter put, n. mourning leglet. 
put, n. the spear of Malu. 

ra, suff. indicating the possessive case (Gr. p. 00, 01, 03). 
ragadi, v. rig a canoe, 
ras, n. a storm. Mab. ras. 
ris, u. bait. A Masig word. 
roai, n. image, likeness. 

le roairoai, n. a portrait. 

roairoai, a. like. 
rob, u. a serenading party. 

rob wed, u. serenade, 
rti, suff. (Gr. p. SO). 

s, suff. (Gr. p. 00). 

sab, n. wind north to north-east. 

sab koki, n. points of the compass from N. to NW., 
north-west. 
Bab, n. a sponge. 

kebi sab, n. a green sponge. 
sab (■'). 

sab kai, n. unripe kai. 
sabsab, a. unripe, sour, 
u sab, n. au unripe coco-nut. 
sab, n. a sign of tabu. [Probably the Mab. word sabi.] 
sab (?), 
kebe werem sab, n. raised portion of canoe gunwale 
at the bow, ornamented with nam feathers, 
sabagorar, n. a turtleshell fish-hook-ornament worn by 

L'irls during betrothal. 
sabid, n. oil from scraped eoco-uut ; coco-nut scraped 
into water as substitute for milk and used in nearly 
all zocjo ceremonies. Cf. id. 
sad. n. a climbing plant (Derris sp.), used for stupefying' 

fish. 
sadmer, a. blind. 

sager, n, winds from east to south. 
gared sager, u. south-south-east, 
sager op, a. out of sight. To the SE. of Mer. there 

is nothing but the open sea. 
sager pek, u. points of the compass from E. 
to SE. 
sagim, a. unable, powerless ; ad. vainly, in vain, 
sai, u. a stone fish weir, 
saimar (?), 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



159 



ab-saimaraalmar, a. so luucb. 
sak 

lalp sak, n. the peudent lobe of the ear. 
saker, u. the pipe fish, edible. 
sal, n. rails at end of cauoe platform. [Probably the 

Mab. word saiil.] 
salgar, a. not able to walk, just beginuiug to walk, 
sam, 11. the cassowary. Mab. samu, Ma. samo, D. dirmn. 
kerger sam, n. short cassowary feathers. [keryer = 

kerhar.'\ 
sam uru, n. carved wooden disc, a dance ornament, 
wer sam, n. small headdress of cassowary feathers. 
samena, n. singing of old times. Cf. wed. 
sap, n. a variety of lewer. 

sap, n. fkiftwood, a floating log. Cf. sab, wind, 
saper, u. a large fruit-eating bat or flying fox (Pteropus). 

Mab. sapur. 
sapoka, n. firefly. 
Baret, u. " banana kept long time," the scent of valerianic 

acid, II. 183. 
sarlk 
aarlk pas, u. a lemon-scented grass (Andropogon 
nardus). 
sarik, u. bow ; bow and arrow ; gun. 
sasami, v. indec. be noisy, 
saserlm, a. fierce, strong, healthy, 
sau, n. a fish, spotted dorey (Diepane punctata). 
sauad, n. an artificially deformed boar's tusk used as 
an ornament. 
naslr sauad, u. an artificial miuud, made from luisir 
shell. 
saurlsauri, n. a blue star fish (Linckia laevigata) ; a star- 
shaped stone club; a star-shaped forehead ornament 
of nacre, 
saurlsauri plau, u. a forehead ornament of nacre = 
seitiii<i'uii. 
se, part, perhaps (Gr. p. 73, 75). 
se, n. the tiying fish. 

seb. n. soil, earth, ground. Mab. apa, Ki. sopii, Ma. 
opu. 
seb dirki, seb-dirwi, v. sink in a bog. 
sebge, n. = postpos. below, down. 
seb ginar, n. a sitting dance. 
seber, n. a spider. 

seg, n. things tied in a row with string ; two bunches 
of banana, 
aeg degari, v. hang in a row, tie coco-nuts on a string 

in tens. 
segise ['/ a. st-y-like]. 
segseg, a. having rows, in long string: e-au scysey le, 

he (is) a man with a large family. 
wer seg, n. the belt and sword in the constellation 
Orion, 
sig, u. a constellation (Coma Berenice), 
segei, n. a yam growing under a tree. 
aegur, n. game, fun, play. Mab. smjnl, D. tongoi. 



seker, n. anything long, thin and sharp; a comb; spines 
of fish's fin. 
laid sekerise, v. stick out like comb, be rough, 
kerem seker, u. a comb. 
6 seker, n. ventral spine of fish. 

seker lu, n. a trading present fixed to a bamboo pole, 
sekerseker, a. rough, prickly. 
sor seker, n. dorsal fin of fish. 
seker, v. bore. 

neb seker, n. bore a hole, 
sem, n. a tree (Hibiscus tiliaceus), used for string and 
petticoats. 
seme lag, n. a stink. 
Sep = .■.■'■;/, q.v. 

sepir, n. an edible univalve (Haliotis). 
ser, n. a small tree, leaf slightly scented, 
serame le, n. people who spontaneously join in a dance, 
sered, •t\. = serer. 
serer, gladness, joy. 

sererge, n. = v. indec. be glad, 
serer, n. a corner, edge, ridge ; keel of canoe. 

serer-lid, ii. the shin, 
seri (?), 

serlseriwer, n. comet, 
wer-seri, n. shooting star, 
serib. n. = «/n7;. 
sernier (.'), 

koba sermer, n. earwig. 
serpa, u. a bivalve shell (Area or llarbatia). 
serup, a. shipwrecked. [Probably Mab. siirupii, drowned.] 

serup le, n. shipwrecked man. 
serur, n. juice, saliva, foam of mouHi. 

le serur, n. diarrhoea, 
seuriseuri, n. =S(iiirisiiuri. 
seurlseuri piau, u. star-shaped forehead ornament of 
nacre, 
sea, n. a dog call. 

sesepot, n. a plant (Clerodondron sp.), used as rope, 
seseri, u. centre pole of round bouse ; main house post, 
king post; mast of canoe. j 

seserig, n. a. necklace of dog's teeth, 
seskip, u. a shell (Turbo sp.). 
si, u. dew. 

albeb, a. moist, 
si n. a lizard, "iguana." 

ai gegur, ii. lizard skin used as tympanum of drum, 
si-mer, n. a hissing sound, 
slau, n. a sneeze. 

slau eaill, v. sneeze. 
sider, n. shells (Tcllina) on a string, 
sik, n. Bleeping place in house, bed ; blossom, flower ; 
hydrocele of the scrotum, 
lu sik, n. bud. 

sik bau, n. framework of sleeping place, 
u sik, n. flower of coco-nut. 
sina, ad. enough. 



160 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



sip, u. mangrove root. Cf. Mab. sipi. 

sir, n. the white form of the reef herou (Demiegretta sacra). 

sir, [? satisfied]. 

sirkak le, n. a covetous man. 
sirsir le, n. a man who is satisfied, 
sirar, n. a tern (Sterna bergii). 
sirau (') 

sirau deroli, v. enjoy one's self. 
sirdam, n. authority, 
sirer ['! = serei\ corner]. 

sirer leb, u. the dorsal and ventral fins of a fish, 
suib, n. the outrigger float. 

siriam, or ziriam, n. name of a turtle zogo; au nei lor 
a number of ceremonies held in various places, and 
probably connected with mourning, 
meket siriam, n. a "small" initiation ceremony, 
siriam meta, n. a sacred house, 
sirip. 11. shame. K. siripo. 

sirip, slreb. u. name of a bean-pod (Entada scandens), 
the "Queensland bean "-pod, the hean = fi ol a p; stem 
used as rope in thatching and for canoe cables, 
sirip kolap, u. a toy top made from the bean. 
sirip kurup, n. pod of the bean, 
siruar, n. the green turtle, 
sisi, [n. name of a cloud?]. 
slu, n. yellow ochre. 
m6 siu, n. ochre of a deep yellow colour : a. orange 

coloured, II. 56. 
siusiu. a. yellow, II. 56. 
siuaimi, u. five wands or sticks used in the Malu 

ceremonies. 
siwaimer = simi im i. 
soaso. a. childless. Mab. swisu. 
sob, [a. slow]. 

sobkak, a. quick ; ad. immediately. 

sobe, n. a large tree (Eugenia near E. chisiacfolia), fruit 

edible, wood used for ijoirjoi, leaf used for cigarette 

wrapper, and used for abortion and as a preventive. 

s6ge, n. long coarse grass, used for thatching: wiaha 

einrida shge jntrije. Mab. sowaijiii, Ma. suftgo. 
sok, n. a bone spike used for husking coco-nuts. Mab. 
soki. Ma. zolce. 
sok tulik, n. an iron nail, 
sokop, n. tobacco. Mab. siigula, Ma. K. sid-iihii, D. 
saluiha, B. saf^upa, Du. sukuba, Ba. xokura. 
sokop kemur iruar, v. suck smoke from pipe, 
sokop madub, n. tobacco charm, 
somai, a. "flash." 
somer, n. a plant (Ochrosia sp.), with purple fruit. 

somer-mamamam, a. purple, II. 56. 
soni. u. a green tree ant. 

soni meta, n. nest of soni made of leaves. 
sop, n. a bundle. 

lag sop, n. boarding over gunwale at canoe bow. 
sopem iteli, v. bind or tie in a bundle, wrap, 
sopsop, a. wrapped in a bundle. 



sopsop kaba, n. bunch of bananas, bound up wliile on 
the tree. 
sor, n. a shell, shell of nut, a drinking vessel. 

kuper sor. n. whelk shell, name of an odour, civet, 
II. 184. 

ni sor, u. a water vessel. 

sor tulik, n. an iron cup or mug. 
sor, n. the back, hind part. 

sorge, n. = ad. behind, at the back ; knni sori/e, behind 
me. 

sorkop. n. the back. 

sorkop lid. n. the spine. 

sor kokelid. n. the spine, backbone. 

sor seker, n. dorsal fin. 
soroi, n. a marine siluroid fish. 
soskep(u), n. bile, the gall bladder. Cf. sus, kep. 

soskepusoskep, a. green, yellowish green, II. 56. 
su, u. sprouting leaf of cocc^-palm, used for ornaments 

and dress. 
sub, a. ('?). 

sub le, n. a guest, visitor, 
sugu, n. the octopus. Mab. sugu. Cf. ati. 
sule, n. a man who lends a garden, i.e. who goes away, 
sumez, n. uncultivated land, the bush. 

sumez kaba, n. wild banana, 
sunur. [a. bright]. 

au sunursunur, a. very bright, II. 55. 

kebi sunursunur, a. less bright. 
surka, n. "wild fowl" (Megapodius). 
sursur, a. sucking. 

sursur werem, n. a suckling. 

te sursur, n. stopper put in mouth of corpse, 
sus, n. gum, juice. Mab. stiiu, D. tuiito. 

kaba sus, n. name of a scent, musk, II. 183. 

sussus, a. juicy. 

suskak, a. faint. 

suskakle, n. a variety of kaba, not cooked, 
suseri, n. the rainbow. 

suserisuseri, a. green, bhie, II. 56. 
sussus. n. a plant (Euphorbia atoto). Cf. sussus under 

susueri, n. = seserig, necklace. 

t, pref. (Gr. p. 63). 

ta. pref. indicating motion towards the speaker or his 

jiarty, hither, 
taba, 

tababu, pron. liimself, herself, itself. 

tabara, pron. his, theh', his own, their own. 
tabakeamuda, v. come (p. tabakeamidu). 
tabaos, v. come out. 
tabarki, \. = tabarukU, come, 
tabarukli, v. come (d. tabarkiei, p. tabnrkare). 

inner tabarki, v. rain falls, 
tabi, V. descend hither, 
tabo. n, neck. 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



161 



pereg tabo, n. back of the neck. 

tabo kaubkaub, n. a necklace. 

tabo kerar, n. cervical blood vessels. 
tabu, V. descend hither. 

tabu, n. a snake. Mab. tabu, K. topo, D. <1ibe, B. iliheii. 
tag, D. the forearm, hand, finger. D. tang, B. trdiiif. 

tag-augwat, u. the old method of greeting by hand- 
scrapiny. 

tag-au-kok, n. the elbow. 

tag-degwat, v. scrape bauds. 

tage-lu, n. an ornament worn in kadik during dance. 

tag-gab, n. palm of the hand. B. trang-qab. 

tag-itakiamur, v. crack each thumb by closing the 
fingers upon it. A man does this when he sneezes. 

tag-kebi-kok, n. the wrist. 

tag-lid. 11. the radius and ulna. 

tag makamak, u. a finger ring. 

tag-mut, n. hand clapping. 

tag-nagar (?), 

ta-pot, (tag-pot), n. finger nail. 

tapotu-eregli, v. pinch, 
tagai. 11. a large constellation representing a man. 
taiawa, v. Malu word for esererdi, spouting. 
taibi, n. leaf of a species of Croton. 
taier, n. = ti'ir, q.v. 

taimar, n. a rasp or file. Cf. Mab. t/iimer. 
tais, V. bring (p. tiiiser). 

gobarem-tais, v. adopt, 
takar, n. framework on which fish, etc. are dried, 
takomeda, v. return (p. takomebi). 
tarn, n. platform of a canoe. 

tarn, u. branch, something broken oft; division in sermon, 
tama, n. a ceremonial exchange of presents. Perhaps 

an introduced word =uu_'lptir. 
tamad, n. breadfruit. K. toiita. 

tamera, n. the disc club of Malu, used by Zagareb le. 
tami (?), 

tami-leb, u. the assistants to the three zogo le, at the 
initiation ceremony, 
tanelu, n. a dish or cup. Cf. Introduced words. 
tap, u. a floating plank. Cf. sap. 
tap, n. a variety of leicer. 
taper, n. a small fish, 
tapim, n. the sting-ray; larva of sp. grasshopper; a 

lilack locust, 
taprlki, [cf. v. iprihi, and pref. ta]. 

oka-taprtki, v. indec. forget, 
tarim, ii. bow of a canoe, front. 

tarim garbad, n. end of canoe hull, projecting under 
the bow. 

tarim le, n. the front man; "forehead man," 
"captain," on canoe, 
tarkok, u. bowl of the bamboo pipe. Mab. D. tiirku, 
B. tarku, branch, 
tarkok diklam, v. take out the bowl of pipe, before 
sucking tlie smoke. 

H. Vol. III. 



tarkok iskl (ekos), v. put bowl (with cigarette) in the 
zub. 
tarpor, n. a spherical green alga; a bottle, box. 
tar'pot = tapol, i.e. tag-pot. Cf. tag. 
tauar, n. name of a tree. 

taur, n. a fish, Queensland trumpeter (Pristipoma hasta). 
tawer, n. the shore, beach, either sand or rocks. Mab. 
tau'al. 

meg tawerge, n. flood tide, 
te, pref. (Gr. p. CG). 
te, n. mouth, opening; doorway. 

dodo te, n. mouth of a river. 

gab-te, u. a gate. 

kur-te, n. mouth of a cave. 

meta-te, n. a door. 

te-aroaro, n. disease of the mouth. 

tera-atatmi-lu, n. post in ground before doorway of 
house. Cf. v. etiitmili. 

te-dabimdabim, a. dumb. 

te-dipu, v. imitate sound of breaking wind. 

te-lu, n. doorpost of house. 

te-sursur, n. a stopper put in the mouth of a corpse. 

te-wawida, v. yawn, 
teb, n. roots of kelai. 
tebteb, a. only, alone, 
tebud, n. friend. D. tabad. 

tebud le, n. a name given to the Western Islanders. 
Cf. tokoiap. 
tedabl, cf. tahi. 

tedarakesa, v. pi. run back after things, 
tegaredi, tegardi, v. bring a person, carry (p. legaredilu). 
teger, n. a plant with bulbous root, leaf used for 

petticoats. 
teibur, n. pitli, inside, intestines. Mab. tabu. Mo. tabaru. 

kosker teibur, n. horizontal bars in framework of 
liouse. 

teibur tullk, n. a sword (G.). 
teid, n. a plant the leaves of which are used for petti- 
coats. 
teir, 11. a decoration. t 

marl teirem, v. indec. ornament with flowers. 

teirem, n. = v. indec. decorate, be decorated, 
tekau, v. fetch, bring (p. tekalu). 
tekelar (?). Cf. le, kelar. 

le tekelar, ii. enemy (G.). 
tenarsi, v. Cf. ares. 
teosmeda, v. come out (p. teosmelu, pp. tabaos). Cf. 

eosmeda. 
tep, cf. te, mouth. 

tep-amer, a. acid. 

tep-desker, v. taste [a. ankir]. 
tepe, n. a shell (Haliotis asinina). 
ter, n. a fringing reef, "home reef," reef inshore, 
ter, n. a turtle shell bodkin, used for piercing septum nasi 

of infants, and for shredding leaves. Cf. luper. 
tereg, n. tooth. 

21 



162 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION" To TORRES STRAITS. 



kei tereg, n. a molar or canine tooth. 

mai tereg, u. a pearl. In (G.) \>ea.rl= peitiiia. 

tereg giz, n. the gums, 
terit), n. remains of flower stalk on banana, 
teriruam, n. mesentery and diaphragm, 
terpa, n. the rock oyster; or the clam (Tridacua elou- 

gata). 
terpur, n. crumbling stone, 
tet, n. black teat-tish (Holothuria mammifera). 
tete baur, n. arrow with four points, 
tete borabor, n. red gravel. 

teter, u. the lower leg, the foot; the side posts of a 
house or bed place ; peg of kolap. 

kerem teter, n. inner horizontal beam of wall. 

teter-au-kok, n. knee. 

teter-gab, n. sole of the foot. 

teter-kebi-kok, n. ankle. 

teter lid, n. the tibia and fibula. 

teter mek, n. a foot print. 

teter-mus, n. an anklet made of coco-mit fibre. 

teter pone, ii. the space between big toe and second toe. 
tetor, a. decorated, "flash." 

teupal, a. short; ad. a short time. Mab. taiipai. 
tl, part, sufif. to words in the Malu songs. [Probably 

the same as et.] 
tl, n. the sun bird (Nectarinia australis), an omen bird. 

kupi ti, u. the male (i.e. dark throated) ti bird. 

nureb ti, n. the female (i.e. yellow throated) ti bird. 
Cf. iiui: 

ti meta, n. nest of (/ ; name of a figure in J;<imiit. 
tibi, n. ashes. 

tibi pas, n. a scented plant (Ocimum canum). 
tig, n. a shell (Area). 
tigri, V. pour out (ddo. turauiinliiriei, ppo. tigrare). 

mer tigri, v. command. 

ni tigri, v. pour out water, 
tigrur, stem of v. Ii(jn'. 
tik (?), 

wer tik, u. the milky way. 
tim, n. a small plant. 

titig, n. a flea. Mab. tikat, D. totok, B. tetek. 
titer, u. stars. Mab. (/(«/. 
tkem, suff. (Gr. p. 63). 
toabuki, v. assist. 
toertoer, a. fatted (G. ). 
tog, n. mask made of palm spathe. 
tokoiap, n. a name given to the Miriam by the Western 
Islanders, and sometimes used in return by the 
Miriam. Cf. telnul le. 
tol, n. ear-piercer made of wood, 
tole, n. a small grey bird. 

tolop, n. a black petticoat worn in vwket ziriam. 
torn, n. U.sed in G. for testament : kerkar torn, New 

Testament. Cf. Introduced words, 
tomeili, v. Cf. («, pref. and v. omeida. 

ni tomeili, v. water springing up. 



tomog zogo, n. an important divinatory zogo. 

tonar, u. custom, habit, character, " fashion." Ma. tanar. 

torob, n. storm wind, little rain. 

torob, n. the bamboo between viaumer and hull of canoe. 

tot, n. roof of a house, inner ridge pole. 

tot ipu, n. the finishing tuft on roof of house, 
totoam, n. a kind of fish, follows floating sea-weed, 
totuam, n. a fanning game, 
tug, n. the outrigger pole. 

tugar, n. top of the arm ; shoulder. Ma. K. tigiri. 
tuglei, n. a Malu word for deraueli. 
tuk. u. a boil. 

tulik, n. the au nci for axes ; a shell axe with blade of 
miskor and handle of zom or kid wood; iron. Mab. 
tulik. Ma. turika, B. turika, Ba. tiirik, tomahawk. 

gegur tulik, n. hoop iron. 

sor tulik. n. iron cup. 

tulik-le, n. rust. 

tulik-pes, n. handle of axe. 
turn. u. the top. 

tumem, n. = ad. over, more than. 

tumge, u. =postpos. above, over. 

turn pek, n. laths in wall of house. 

tumtum, a. not deep, superficial, 
tup, u. a small fish which comes inshore in large shoals, 

"sardine." 
tuprik, V. shorten. Cf. teupai. 
turum, n. fruit. 

turumturum, a. fruitful, 
tut, u. a woudeu club, usually of t'iniu wood ; a hammer; 
a stave. 

konor tut, n. a wooden club. 

ubar tut, n. a spear with many prongs. 

laip tut, n. an ear weight, a wooden cone distending 
the lobe, 
tuter, n. the right, the right hand. 

tuter pek, u. the right hand side. 

In the gospels « is used for w. 

u, suff. (Gr. p. 59). 

u, n. the coco-nut and palm. Ma. K. oi, D. ngoi. 

pis u=» 2K'z. 

u gabegeb, n. a ripe coco-nut. 

u giz, 11. the swollen base of a coco-palm. 

u id, u. coco-nut oil. 

u kaur. u. a sandbank. 

u kupi, ura kupi, n. the sprouting leaves of coco-palm. 

u lam. n. coco-leaf. 

u lid, 11. coco-nut shell. 

u mes, n. skin of coco-nut husk. 

u muti, u. husk of the coco-nut. 

u pez, n. a green coco. nut. 

u sab, n. a very young coco-nut. 

u sik, n. flower of a coco-nut. 

wai u, n. a germinating coco-nut. 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



163 



ua, pief. and sufl. = tea. 

ulj(a), n. edge of piece of cloth, garment. [Probably 

Bame as upi, tail.] 
ubagubag, u. a herb with yellow flowers, name of a scent. 

II. 183. 
ubar, n. a flat fish (Solea). 

ubar, n. a tree, fruit eaten for cough; crimson coral-fish 
(Polyacanthus Queenslandise). 

ubar tut, n. spear with many prongs, 
udelagerlager, n. a wood used for goigoi. 
ukes, n. a strait, the passage between the islands of 

Dauar and Waier. 
uknur, n. flower of kiamikiami plant, 
uma, pron. Malu word for meriha, we. 
umele, a. = v. indee. know, know how, can, be able 
(a. umer). Ma. umoro. 

mer umer le, n. witness. 

umerbak, a. unable, cannot, 
umen, n. = omen, an eel-like fish, 
umen (?), 

umen wez, n. a plant (Codieeum variegatum). 
umi, n. swelling of the yam tubers; name of a season. 
un, [? a white coral]. 

un borabor, n. white gravel. 
uni (?), 

iini irke, u. roller on bow of canoe. 

uni irke op, n. plank for bow of canoe. 
upi, n. tail of an animal. 

pis upi, n. isthmus, neck of land. 

upi keup, n. bird's tail. 

upi (.'), 

upi ditida, v. help [a. tipi-atidai; pdo. iipi-dciratdu]. 

upuna, n. small-pox. 

ur, n. fire. Ma. K. era, B. iu. 

pes ur, n. dried spadix of coco-nut palm, used as fuel. 

ur asaskili, n. the aii net for fire charms. 

urem, n. = v. obtain fire or fuel. 

ur ikwar, v. produce fire: ajm ur ikwar, said of the 
horizontal fire-stick. 

ur sekerseker, n. name of a tree, wood used for goigoi. 

urweri, a. hot; n. heat. Ma. K. eraera. 

urweri gim, u. fever, 
uridili, v. plur. all. {p. iirdcr) (Gr. p. 7'J). 
uris, n. the green turtle, 
urker, a. angry ; n. anger, 
uru ('.'), 

sam uru, n. a dance ornament, 
urut, n. a year. Mab. loiet, Ma. K. urate, B. u-at. 
us, n. a thin, sharp shell used for carving, 
usar, n. the kangaroo. Mab. usar, K. usaro, D. tar. 
usarip, n. a variety of Uieer. 
user, n. a scarification. 

kip user, n. a scarification on the buttock. 

merot usur, n. scarification on the calf of leg. 
usi, u. the bladder; urine; bilge water. 

UBi-depaupli, v. bale canoe. 



usi-egobli, v. leak. 
usiam, n. a constellation, the Pleiades, 
usur (?), 

usurusur, a. muddy, 
ut, n. sleep; a. sleeping. Mab. tttiii, Ma. «(ii<j. 

ut-apitili, V. nod. (p. ut-apiter). 

ut-eidUi, ut-eldeda, v. sleep (p. tit-eidilu). 

ut-eip-ki, n. midnight, when all are asleep, 
uteb, n. a place, dwelling, village. 

atkobei uteb, n. burial place. 

gizakos uteb, n. market, ((i.). Cf. Adapted words. 

utebem eupamada, v. make a landing, land from 
boat. 
uwere, n. an arrow with bamboo point, 
uzer, n. a paddle. 

uzer-erebU, w paddle, row. 

wa, pref. and suff. (Gr. p. 66, 73). 
wa, pron. you. 
waba, pron. you. 
wabu, pron. yourselves. 
wabei (?), 

wada, n. a red bean (Mucuna sp.). 
wader, a. some, a few. 
wadewade, n. a tree, wood used for goigoi. 
wadxili. n. Main's club hammer shaped, used by 

Zagareb le. 
wag, n. wind. 

torob wag, n. storm wind, 
wag wami, v. wind blows, 
wagai, n. the "Wangai" plum (Mimusops browniana). 
wagao, n. an edible root. 

wageb, n. a broad white bivalve shell (Cyraena). 
wagogob = wak gogob, n. shoulder belt. 
wal, n. blade of grass. 

wal u, n. a germinating coco-nut. 
waiai, exclam. of wonder and surprise, 
walk. n. a tree fern, 
walmawaima, n. a variety of lewer. 
waipem, n. a lizard. ' 

waiwa lag le, n. chief men of the alag ceremony, 
waiwai, n. the wild mango (Mangifera indica), tree and 
Iruit; leaf used for cigarette wrapper. Mab. waitci. 
Ma. tfiici, B. teitci, Du. wiwi. This word is very 
widely spread. It is used along the New Guinea 
coast and as far east as the Solomon Islands. Cf. 
Introduced words, 
waiwai lid, n. iiomum adami. 
wak, u. a hole, pit. Cf. atcak. 
wak, n. belt, girdle. Mab. wakau. Ma. tiagi. 
pet wak, n. belt made with pet shells. 
vfa,gogo\} = leitk-gogolj, n. .shoulder belt, 
wakari le, n. performer in the alag ceremony, VI. 
wakaisu, n. oil. (G.) Cf. Introduced words, 
wakei, n. the tliigh. K. tcagi. 
wakei lid, n. the femur. 

21—2 



164 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



waW, n. the hornbill (Buceros). 

wakoi, n. Malu word for kuri, mat. The Mabuiag u-uku. 

wakor, n. a plant, convolvulus (Ipomsea biluba?), used 

for abortion and as a preventive, 
walagerlager, n. a tree, wood used for goigoi. 
wall. n. a creeping vine (Pipturus argeuteus), bark used 

for string and fish-lines. 
wali, n. cloth, clothes. 
am-wali, n. dress, 
gem-wall, n. shirt, chemise, 
mog-wali, n. towel. 
Jlau-waU, n. paper, 
wall-lager, u. twisted string, 
warn, suft'. (Gr. p. 7H). 
wamen, wamenwamen, a, fast, quick. Mab. icaiiieii. 

dodo wamen, n. rapids of stream, 
wami, V. blow. Cf. detoameredi, etoameredi. 

wag wami, v. blow (of wind) (p. wag icdiiur). 
wamlwaml sor, n. a variety of coco-nut with a brown 

husk. 
wanwan, u. a sea-urchin (Diadema setosa). 
wao, ad. and exclam. yes. Mab. «•«, D. <io. 
wap, n. a dugong harpoon. Mab. kuj). 

wap omalter, n. a dugong harpoon used in magic. 
wap, u. a variety of liabii. 
wapum, a. slow, taking a long time. 
war, u. marks, pattern, carving; writing. 

gaire war, n. letters. (Introduced meaning.) 
warwar, a. particoloured; marked with a pattern, 
II. 55. 
warab, u. a kchi iiei for », coco-nut. Cf. Mab. unib. 
waraz, n. a shell (Oliva) ; a necklace made of olive shells, 
warem, exclam. wait-a-bit! hold on! stay! 
waridub, n. a large hawk, eagle. 
waru, n. a small sea bird, an omen bird. 
warup, n. a large drum, constricted in middle, jaw-like 
orifice at one end. Mab. icarup, D. arap. 
keg warup, n. the marking of non-mourners with 

charcoal at a funeral ceremony, 
warup-eremll, v. beat drum, 
warupwarup, n. a tree, wood used for goigoi. 
waruwa, ii. [snake]. 

waruwa kep, n. an arrow, with snake carving. Cf. 
Ma. tirua, .snake, 
wasar, n. a small canoe, 
wasikor, n. the drum of Malu. Cf. Neman. 
waswas, n. name of a tree, 
watu, n. a tree (Homalonema). 
watupili, V. keep on coining and going, of many people 

only (p. wutuprer). 
watwet, a. dry, of sand, leaf, 
waumer = o7nt'r, frigate bird, 
wauri, n. a shell (Conus litteratus var. millepunctatus) ; 

an armlet made from cone-shell. 
wawida (?), 



te-wawida, v. yawn (p. ti'-iviiwilu). 
wazwaz, n. a kind of shark, 
we, n. sand; sandy beach. Ma. K. wio. 
wewe, a. sandy. 

we apu, n. larva of the ant-lion, 
weakai, conj. then, thereupon, so that. 
web, u. the ovary. 
wed, n. a song; hymn (G.). 
rob wed, n. a serenade, 
tag wed, n. singing and clapping, 
wed-akiriar, a. singing. 
wed-dlkrlU, v. sing. 
wek, n. an ornament placed in a garden, "to make him 

flash." 
weku (.'), 

wekuge, u. = v. murmur. 
wer, suff. (Gr. p. 80). 

wer, n. star, egg, sun-star or sea-urchin; a cross over 
doorway inside the house. D. piro, B. tcale. 
geb wer, n. testicle. 
golegole wer, u. pupil of the eye. 
kakekak wer, n. white of the eyes. 
neur wer, u. name of a constellation. 
pone wer, n. eyeball, 
seriseri wer, n. comet. 
wer gole, n. name of a fish. 

wer kep, n. a parrot-fish (Pseudoscarus rivulatus <; ). 
wer pirupiru, u. the shovel nosed shark (Khino- 

batis). 
wer sam, n. small head-dress of cassowary feathers. 
wer seg, n. the belt and sword in the constellation 

of Orion. Cf. asisi-asisi. 
wer seri, n. shooting star. 
wer sor, n. turtle egg. 
wer tlk, n. the milky way. 
wer, u. zenith. 

werem, n. child ; sou, brother's son ; the vertical fire 
stick, 
ere-werem, n. learning, teaching; v. teach (a. encer, 

)i. I'lfwtreinlu). 
gobar werem, n. an adopted child, 
giazgiaz werem, n. a newly born infant, 
sursur werem, u. a baby, suckling, 
maik werem, n. orphan, 
neur werem, n. daughter, 
werem drimli, v. twirl the vertical tire stick, 
werem pez, u. abortion, 
weremwerem, a. having a child, 
werer. n. hunger. 

wererge, u. = v. indec. be hungry, 
weres, u. a conical basket u.sed in catching tup. 

weresweres, a. unsteady; kohip wcresweres, the top is 
unsteady [i.e. in spinning becomes itt-rt's-shaped]. 
werir, n. poles used for frightening tup into the iceres. 
werkab, a. happy; blessed (G.). 



MIRIAM-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



165 



werut, n. the tongue. Ku. weta. 

mop werut, u. tip of the tongue. 

werut paikai. n. tip of the tongue, 
weser, n. a ^,'lutton. 

weserweser, a. greedy. 
weskep, n. a vine used as a rope (Pueraria phaseoloides), 

root eaten cooked or raw. 
wesker, n. a broom, 
weswes, n. branching coral (Madrepore). 

golegole weswes, n. black weswes. 

kakekak weswes, n. white iveswes. 

weswes lar, n. coral fish (Labroides sp.). 

majnamamam weswes, n. red wesices. 

pene weswes, n. blue coral (Heliopora ca;rulea). 
wet, 11. a digging stick. 

argerger wet, n. stick made of argerger wood. 
wetpur, n. a native exchange of presents, a feast. 
weu, exclam. expressing sorrow, alas! 
wez, n. the croton plant and leaves; apparently also 
Codiseum variegatum ; a bunch of croton leaves 
inserted in belt to form a tail when dancing. 
wi, n. a squall of wind, 
wi, pron. they. 

wiaba, pron. they. 
wid, n. a large blue fish. 

wid, u. a bivalve shell (Cyriena) narrower than wagch. 
wis, n. a decorated bamboo pule stuck up on sand beach 

as a sign of gelar, during the Malu ceremonies, 
wit, a. bad. Mab. wati. 

wiwar, u. au jiei for stones used in malevolent magic. 
wonwon, n. a sea-urchin (Echinus). Cf. wanwau. 

zab, u. a small fish like paris. 
zab, n. a war spear. Cf. dub. 
Zagareb, ii. a locality in Mer. 

Zagareb le, n. the Zagareb clan, 
zalbi, n. a fruit, 
zaibu, n. a fruit, 
zamer, n. the cotton tree (Bombax sp.), wood used for 

ciinoes and outriggers, 
zaruam, n. a variety of kuha with a sweet taste, 
zarum, n. a fish. 

zauber, n. a wave, breaker: kura iiar erapi abele zauberd 
zazer, a. white. 

zazerzazer, a. white, II. 66. 

zazer u, n. a variety of coco-nut with white skin. 
zeber (?), 

zeber kep, n. kidney. Cf. B. zebe, liver. 

zeber zeber, n. a large variety of kaba. 
zegTi (?), 

zegu maier, n. a falling star, 
zeku, n. a present, gift. Cf. Adapted words. 



zem, u. a plant (Hibiscus tiliaceus). 
zera merkai, n. a kcher ceremony, 
zewa, n. a laud crab, 
zi, n. the mangrove. 

zi kar, n. fence made of trees, 
zi, n. a plant (Avicennia officinalis), 
zl, n. a small univalve shell. 

zi-kuk, n. an edible univalve (Turritella sp.?). 
ziag, n. a cumulus cloud. 
ziai, n. the south-west. 

koki zial, n. the west, 
ziau, n. the dura-mater; connective tissue, the peritoneum 
reflected on walls of abdomen. 

ziau-wali, n. paper. Very commonly written jau- 
IV all. 
zib, n. a small tree, wood used for goigoi. 
ziger, [n. thorn, prickle, properly seker]. 

zigerziger, cf. sekerseker, a. prickly, rough, 
zip, u. a wood used for goigoi. Cp. sip, zib. 
zlrar, n. a large lizard, 
ziiiam = .5 1 n'<( HI, q.v. 

zirim, n. cross pieces inside the hull of a canoe, 
ziru, n. cold; the cold stage of fever. 

ziru durdur, a. shivering with cold, 
ziz, n. a wound. 

zog, 1). specks of foam made by oars when rowing. 
zogar, u. mullet. 

zogo, n. a natural or artificial sacred object of great 
potency, but usually effective for one object only. 
Cf. Vol. VI. Ma. ziigu. 

zogoem, n. = v. indec. hallow, make zogo of. 

zogo ikeli, v. ' make ' zogo. 

zogo kale, n. an nei for siwaimer. 

zogo le, n. the three chief men in the initiation 
ceremonies ; men who have charge of, or ofiiciate 
at, any particular zogo. 

zogozogo, a. sacred, tabu, holy, 
zole, n. (Ill iiei for certain stones used in sorcery = u)U('ar;. 

biiger is a kcbi nei. 
zom, n. a tree (Thespesia populnea), with yellow flower,' 
wood used for axe handles. 

zomkolberkolber, a. yellow, II. 56. 
zor, n. i»uniice stune. 
zorom, 11. sheen, reflection of sun on water; glory (G.). 

gur zoromzorom, n. reflection of sun on sea. 

zoromzorom, a. bright, glittering, shining, glorious 
(G.), II. 66. 
zub, n. a bamboo tobacco pipe. 
zurabzurab, a. acid, sour. 

zurkak, a. smooth. [Perhaps an abbreviation for seker- 
l,;ik.] 

zuTkakem, = v. smootlie. 



A LIST OF INTRODUCED AND ADAPTED WORDS. 

Two classes of Ititrnduced Words may be distinguished in the languages of ToiTes 
Straits. The first class is entirely due to the Scripture translations, and as far as 
I could ascertain, words belonging to it are rarely used outside the church or school. 
The words are usually Biblical terms for which the first translators could find no 
Miriam, Saibai, or Mabuiag equivalents. The expressions used were generally taken 
by the translators from their own Testaments, i.e. from Lifu in the earlier Miriam 
and Saibai versions, and from Samoan in the later Mabuiag. As, however, words of 
this class were introductions into Lifu from Samoan, and into Samoan from Tahitian, 
there is practically very little variation in their form. Also, since words for "synagogue," 
"publican," "circumcision," etc. had no native equivalents in Tahitiau, Samoan, or Lifuan, 
the Greek or Hebrew word was used in the latter languages, with modifications suited 
to the Polynesian pronunciation. These modifications consisted generally in the simplifi- 
cation of consonants, and the pronunciation of a vowel after each consonant. Though 
the natives of Torres Straits would have no difficulty in pronouncing the words in 
their original form, the Polynesian modifications have been retained in the Scripture 
translations. 

For the numerals and a few other words, the English was used in Torres Straits. 

The second class of Introduced Words is due to intercourse with Europeans in 
the Straits. Many articles of European manufacture are used by the natives, and they 
are accustomed to the food and implements of Europeans. Hence words of this class are 
continually increasing in number, and are all of them introductions from the English. 
The use of English as a means of communication with Europeans is extending. In the 
Murray Islands all the younger generation are bi-lingual'. In many instances the 
English is better than their native Miriam-. This use of English is altogether apart 
from the Jargon English to be hereinafter illustrated, which is the usual means of 
communication between Europeans and natives in the Straits. 

A list of words adapted from the native languages, in order to express ideas 
originally foreign to the natives is added. Some of these words are very curious, and 
all are interesting. 

In the following list the abbreviations are : Mir. Miriam ; Sai. Saibai (Gospel of 
1877?); Mab. Mabuiag (Gospels of 1900); Lat. Latin; Gr. Greek'; Heb. Hebrew; L. Lifuan, 
Loyalty Is. ; S. Samoan ; T. Tahitian ; S.S. South Seas, Polynesian ; E. English. Unless 
specially marked the words derived from Greek, etc. are the same in both languages of 
Torres Straits, Lifuan and Samoan. 

1 This is owing to the excellent work of Mr J. Bruce in the School on Murray Is. 

- Some exercises iu Euglish which I set for boys and girls in Mr Bruoe's school were quite equal in 
writing and composition to those of children about the same age in an ordinary English school. 



INTEODUCED AND ADAPTED WORDS. 



167 



1. Words introduced from Greek, Hebrew, Latin. 



aeto, eagle. Gr. derfj. 

alabasa, alabaster. Gr. oKajiaaTpov. 

alas, Mir.; alase, Sai. salt. Gr. oiXs. 

alo, aloes. Gr. dAiij. 

aneto, anise. Gr. afT^dov. 

anijela, angel. Gr. 5776X05. 

apostoh, apostle. Gr. dir6(rTo\os. 

arenio, lamb. Gr. dpv6s. 

arcto, bread, loaf, communion, sacrament. Gr. dpros. 

cirobe, fox. Gr. dXiirrT/^. 

asari, farthing. Gr. dcrcrdpioi'. 

aaiiiii, Mir.; Ashd, Mab. ass. Lat. asina. 

bapataiso, baptise; baptism. Gr. .aoTrrlfw. 

baselaia, kingdom. Gr. ^aaXXdd. 

boi-i, povi, ox. Lat. bovis from bds. 

demoiii, demon, evil spirit. Gr. dai/xup. 

denuri, penny. Lat. denarius. 

diiibolo, devil. Gr. SiajioXos. 

diah'niifij deacon. Gr. StdKofos. 

ditainu, Mir. tares. Gr. fifdno;'. 

eknlesia, church (people). Gr. iKK\T]ala. 

Eleni, Mir. Greek. Gr. "EXXi/i'. 

euangelia, Mir.; evangelia, Mab. gospel. Gr. ei'a77Aioi'. 

eumtka, eunuch. Gr. cvvoOxoi. 

Jiliikteri, Jtlateri, phylactery. Gr. ipv\aKTripi.ov . 

genu, Ueiut, hell. Gr. ydvva from Heb. Din 'jl. 

Heleni, Mab. Greek. Gr. "E\\t)1'. 

Hedis, hell, Hades. Gr. q.5ij$. 

iota, jot. Gr. iura. 

karite, barley. Gr. KpiSij. 

keneturto, centurion. Gr. KivTiipiuf. 

kionu, snow. Gr. x'""- 

koheiia, priest. Heb. |n3. 



kori, measure. Gr. Kopos. Heb. 12 ' 

kumina, cummin. Gr. KiipLivov. 

leiien, Mir.; Uveiin, Mab. leaven. 

lino, linen. Lat. linura, 

lipano, frankincense. Gr. Xijidvos. 

Itiko, wolf. Gi'. \vKos. 

nuikoi, wise men. Gr. ^0705. 

nielikerio, Mir. honeycomb. Gr. /xeXlK-qpov. 

mnw, myrrh. Gr. fMvpov. 

paita, measure, firkin. Gr. ^dros. Heb. n3 . (Cf. 

bathi, in the English list). 
jiasi'ka, passover. Gr. iraax"- Heb. PIDS . 
pekano, rue. Gr. ■m/iydvoi'. 
peniiia, pearl. S. penina, pearl, ruby. T. peninima, 

rubies. Heb. D'O'JS, red coral, pearls or rubies. 
pentekosta, pentecost. Gr. TrevTTjKoard^. 
peritome, circumcise, circumcision. Gr. irepiTO^ii). 
saido, Mir.; saito, Mab. wheat. Gr. ffiros. 
salmo, psalm. Gr. \j/a\ix6s. 
Satana, Satan. Gr. Zdrdv. Heb. ]I2b. satanara uteb,. 

Mir. hell. 
satauro, cross. Gr. aravpds. 
seoli, Hell, Hades. Heb. bis^. 
setadia, furlong. Gr. ardSiov. 
setatani, piece of money. Gr. ardrifp. 
sinupi, mustard. Gr. alvdiri.. 
sake, fig. Gr. avKov. 
stinugo, synagogue. Gr. avvd-yur/Ti. 
sukamina, sycamine. Gr, avKdpXvos. 
sukamoru, sycamore tree. Gr. (TvKd/xopos. 
teio, brimstone. Gr. deiov. 
telona, publican. Gr. nXdv-ns. 
litanUi, tares. Gr. fifdnoi'. 



barus, brass. 

batlii, Mir., L. hutlie, a tirkin (only in 
the early translation), used as being 
approximately .the same measure. 
Cf. paita in words from Greek. 

bokes, box. 

buket, bucket. 

baliibiilu, blue. 

but, boot. 

Disi'jiibti, December. 

etiicni, heathen. 

falauii. Hour. 

/allien, farthing. 

faul, fowl. 

Februari, February. 

fiva, fever. 

(/(iriiHrt, Mab.; ifatiana, Mir. governor. 

glag, glass. 

gold, flol, ijolo, gold. 



2. English Words. 

ijoti, goat. 

goveriinu'iit, 

grin, green. 

gorog, spirits, used for " strong 

drink" in Luke i. 15 of the Mir. 

translation. 
hawa, haua, hour. 
Hebru, Hebrew. 
Janiiari, January. 
Julai, July. 
Jun, June. 
kameUi, camel. 
kapsize, capsize. 
kask, cask. 
kat, cat. 
kau, cow. 

kaura pain; Mir. leather. 
ki, key. 
klok, clock. 



kobar, copper. 

kon, corn. ^ 

konra gegur, Mir. chaff. 
konm pot, Mir. ear of corn. 

kot, coat. 

kubita, cubit. 

kiizi, pillow, cushion. 

lamepa, lamp, candle. 

lepera, leper, leprosy. 

mail, mile. 

mani, money; silver. 

maj), map. 

Mark, March. 

masitu, master. 

Mci, May. 

viei, an anniversary, a festival. The 
term is taken from the annual 
gatherings in London known as 
"May Meetings." In the Straits 



168 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



" mays" have no reference to the 
time of year, but simply denote 
the annual examination, sports, 
etc. at the Mission schools and 
stations. 

mili, mint, via T. mitietn, S. mili. 

minuta, minute. 

misinare, missionary. 

riaipo, knife. 

nani, goat (i.e. nanny). 

7iet, net. 

nidel, Mir. needle. 

«//, Mab. nail, iron nail. 

iiila, Mab. needle. 

nila neb, Mir. eye of needle. 

Novetnba, November. 

niimela, number. 

Oktohu, October. 

palp, pipe. 

pama, palm (tree). 

pann, pound. 



peleit, pelct, plate. 

pen, pen. 

peni, penny. 

pensil, pencil. 

perofeta, prophet. 

jwlismun, the native policeman ap- 
pointed on the islands by the 
Queensland Government. In the 
1879 and 1885 Mir. Gospels 
(Mark xv. 16), this word is used 
for " soldier." 

2)usii, piuii, cat (i.e. puss). 

ring, ring. 

rnfe, rope, rope, string. 

sabat, Mab. sabbath ; week. 

sabath, Mir. sabbath. 

sagul, school. 

seleti, Mir. slate. In Luke i. 63 
used for "writing table." 

Septemba, September. 

sliippo, ship. 



sol, salt. In later translations used 

instead of alim. 
spun, spoon. 
star, store, shop. 
taim, time. 
talani, talent. 
taual, towel. 
Thmsde, Thursday. 
tik-a-tik, watch. 
tomahawk, axe, tomahawk. 
Tusde, Tuesday. 
uina, Mir. wine ; vine. 
uk, hook. 
vinega, vinegar. 
waci, watch, in the Saibai gospel. 

The c is Lifu orthography = eft. 
waina, Mab. wine. 
wik, Mir. wick of candle. Used in 

Matthew xii. 20 for " smoking 

flax." 
toik, week. 



3. Words from 

apiga, the Malay apple (Eugenia sp.). Probably intro- 
duced with the fruit from the islands. Fiji, kavika. 
Banks Is. gaviga, Efate kafika, Malekula n-avih, 
Santo aviga. 

dia, a wooden club made after a Lifu model. Lifu .//'/, 
a club, j = dh. 

faiboibo, marriage, used in the earlier translations. 
L. faiboibo, S. fa'aipoipo. This was a Rarotougan 
word akaipoipo introduced into Samoa for " mar- 
riage with a religious service." Fa, fa'a, aka is the 
Polynesian causative prefix, ipo has reference to 
"loving." T. ij)o, darling, Hawaiian ipo, sweetheart, 
paramour. Gambler Is. ipo, married. 

ibelai, Mab. blanket, wrapper. L. ipelewe, coat, cloak. 

kaikai, food, feast, meal. S. Vii, eat, a common Poly- 
nesian word kai, eat. This word is in use all over 
the South Seas. 

kumala, sweet potato (Ipomsea chrysorrhiza). L. kumala 
from S. 'nnuda. The word is common in the Pncitio. 
Tongan, gnmnla, Marquesas Is. kumaa ; Banks Is., 
Fiji and New Zealand kuinara. 



Samoan, Lifu, etc. 

kumete, basket ("bushel" in Gospels). L. knmete from 

S. 'unmte, a wooden bowl. 
laitlau, table. L. laulmi, table, from S. laulau, a tray 

made of plaited eoco-leaf. 
lantalotain, Mab. lilies. S. a lily (Crinum asiaticum). 
pat, a bell. L. pate. The pate in L. is a piece of wood 

hollowed out like a canoe and struck with one or 

more sticks. 
put ipit, Mir. ring (i.e. strike) bell. 
talofa, talopa, greet, shake hands. S. taloja for ta alofa, 

"I love," a form of salutation; alofa, love, com- 
passionate. 
torn, testament, covenant. Perhaps from S. toma, exhort, 

give directions. 
tusi, Mab. book, bill, writing. L. tiisi from S. (lis;', mark 

native cloth, hence write, print, letter, book. 
waiioai, the mango. British New Guinea, Nala, Mekeo 

veivei; Hula, Sariba, jfaiico/; Motu rnira/. Solomon 

Islands, San Cristoval wawai. Prob. Fiji vaivai. 
wakasu, Sai. ; wakaisu, Mir. oil. L. wakacu (c = ch). 



4. Words probably introduced, but of uncertain origin. 



boonarri, this word was given by Jukes for "coco-nut" 
and is the native pronunciation of "bow and arrow." 
When ships first visited the islands these were 
common articles of trade. The natives may have 
known that "boonarri," meant the weapons or they 
may have thought it was the English for "coco- 
nut." 

kopa-maori, or copper niaori, the earth-oven. This word 
is as widely spread in the South Sea Islands as 
kaikai. Dr Codrington states that it is a compound 
of i-opa = English "copper" and " maori" a native 
of New Zealand. Hence it is the "maori's copper," 



a term used by traders, whalers, etc. to designate 

the native method of cooking. 
mager gab, Mir. a street. Probably an imitation of the 

S. maga ala (g = ng), branch road. 
main, an iron plate, a sheet of metal. Perhaps from 

L. melele, thin. 
mamoe, sheep. L. and S. nuimoe, also used in Tahiti 

and Rarotonga. Probably a word coined by the 

first missionaries. 
oreua, Mir. oreva, Mab. raven. S. oreva, T. L. oreba. 
tanelu, Mir. dish, plate, basin. Possibly the S. tanoa, 

a dish or plate, and the Mir. lu, thing. 



INTRODUCED AND ADAPTED WORDS. 



169 



5. Adapted Words. 



.ill, Mir. (lotl, lit. ".something about which a legend 

is toUl." 
aiiuiz, Mab. pillow. 
ao, Sai. grave, lit. " pit." 
aper, Mir. hat, crown. 
arem, Mir. heaven. 

ares If, Mir. soldier, lit. " lighting man." 
aruai, Mab. whale boat. 
Auijml, Sai. God, lit. "a totem." In the Mabuiag Gospels 

this word is replaced by the English "God." 
batla, Mab. writing tablet. 
bao, bau, Mir. seat, table. 
buiu, Mab. bottle. 
dudamai, Mab. week, lit. "middle days," i.e. days which 

come between the Sabbaths. 
daditmainu, Mab. in the week. 
daita nuhi, Sai. a spring. This is a literal translation 
of the S. mata vai, also meaning a spring. 
l)ana = mata, eye, nuhi or nguki = vai, water. 
da7i gulffuiiii, Mab. pray, lit. " roll the eyes." 
dapai; Mab. heaven, lit. " bright clouds, sky." 
debe merkem, Mir. gospel, lit. "good message." 
deumer ipikeub tuUk, Mir. axe, lit. "dovetail iron." 
dibedih, a dish, lit. "cone shell." 
erurwer, smoke tobacco, lit. ero, "eat," urwer, "fire." 
esorerapei, Mir. pray, lit. "bend back the head, break 

the back of the neck." 
esorgiru, Mir. pray, lit. "bend head." 
etager, Mir. read, lit. "point with the iinger." 
etkobei, Mir. bury, lit. "lay out corpse on stage and 

decorate it." 
ezer, Mir. dish, bason, lit. "Cymbium shell." 
gub kosker, Mir. harlot, lit. "road woman." 
gem u-ali, Mir. shirt, chemise, lit. "body cloth." 
get-tidi, Mab. read, lit. "point with finger." 
giz mer, Mir. sermon, lit. "collection of words." 
gizakos iiteb, Mir. market, lit. " place where many things 

are put out." 
ido III, Mir. treasure. 
iaiujii-sukar-pudu i , Mab. judge, condemn, lit. " fall in 

a hole through words." 
iaki, Mab. altar. 

iudai, Mab. sacrifice, lit. " pouring." 
iudai-mabueg, priest (?from L. huj (J = dh), an offering). 
jaiiali, Mir. book, letter, paper. Properly spelled ziau 

wall. Wall is the word for calico or cloth ; ziau 

is the dura mater, tlie parchment-like membrane 

covering the brain. 
kiiiji, Mir. spoon, lit. "a shell." 

kapiiiika iisi, Mab. Sai. believe, lit. "go for a good thing." 
kaiiriii-tiai, Mab. swear, oath, lit. "be thrown along 

the ears." 
kot meta, n. court house. 
H. Vol. III. 



kutor, Sai. heaven, lit. "above." 

kuikii. garku, Mab. lord, master, lit. "head man." 

lino wall, Mir. linen cloth. 

lukup, Mir. Mab. ink, medicine. 

Inktip le, Mir. physician. 
maigi, Mab. holy. This is the negative of the verb 

'mai,' take, hold, lit. "don't take, don't touch." 
mamus, Mir. Mab. " mamoose" chief, head man. Originally 

a Miriam word, perhaps a personal name Maiii-mus, 

i.e. Eed-hair. It is now applied throughout the 

Straits to the head man of each island. 
maridan, Mab. mirror; lit. "spirit-eye," ur "spirit-pool." 

Cf. dan in Mab. Vocabulary. 
mer akesiiiiir, Mir. oath, lit. " word fall down." 
minar-palai, Mab. write, writing, lit. "mark-cutting." 
mog wall, Mir. towel, lit. "bit of cloth." 
nase In, Mir. alms, lit. "sorrow thing" or "pity thing." 
ngiikiu-za, Mab. cup, lit. " water's thiug." 
opole, Mir. Lord, chief, king, master, lit. "front man." 
periper, Mir. mirror, lit. "lightning." 
pes, Mir. candlestick, lit. "handle." 
pi, Mir. gunpowder, lit. "ashes." 
pinana-rapai, Mab. earthquake, lit. "yonder stumbling." 
poi, Mab. gunpowder, lit. "dust." 
sok, Mir. nail, lit. "dagger of cassowary bone." 

soh tiilik, Mir. an iron nail. 
sor tulik, Mir. cup, lit. "shell iron." 
tabo kuukau, Mir. beads, properly "taho kaubkaiib," 

neck balls. 
tarpor, Mu". bottle, lit. "a sphei'ical green alga." 
tarim le, Mir. governor, judge (i.e. leader), lit. "man 

at the bow of a canoe." 
teibur tulik, or teibur aosos tulik, Mir. sword, lit. "sheath 

iron," or "iron coming out of sheath." 
teter gab, Mir. sandal, shoe, lit. "foot sole." 
toitii-pagi, Mab. pray, lit. "pierce the roof." 
miuiu lug, Mab. tomb, lit. "dead's house." 
waiuaiati kupai, Mir. cup. 

wakai-ietidai, Mab. pray, lit. "pom- out the voice." 
walap, Sai. crown. 
loumib, Jlir. happy, glad, blessed. 
wati nguki, Mab. strong drink, lit. "bad water." 
wati wiika asi, Mab. grieve about, lit. "go with bad 

belt." 
wcrkab, Mab. happy, glad, blessed. Perhaps from werer, 

be hungry, have appetite ; kab, dance. 
zegu-lu, zekii lu, Mir. offering, sacrifice, tribute. 
zegu lu bao, Mir. altar. 
zegur uteb, Mir. market place. 
zogo, Mir. holy, lit. "a sacred object." 
zogo jiauwali, Mir. Bible. 
zogo meta, Mir. church, the building. 
zogozogo le, Jlir. priest. 

22 



170 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



AN ENGLISH INDEX TO THE MABUIAG AND MIRIAM VOCABULARIES. 

This list is intended to serve only as a means of finding the native words 
which correspond in a general sense to the English. It cannot be used as an 
English-Mabuiag or English-Miriam Vocabulary. The native words should in all cases 
be referred to in order to obtain the exact meaning. Words which occur in the 
list of Introduced and Adapted Words, are placed in brackets as e.g. (teio). 



English 


M.\BUIAG 


MiEIAM 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


abandon 




pis-oger, dekaerti 


also 


a 




a 


abide 


niai, siai 


' emrida 


alter 


kid-tai 




depegemeli 


able 


ngulaig-asi 


umele 


always 


ingaru 




niai, niaiem 


abode 


laga, uiai-lag 


uteb 


ancestor 


kaied 




lu giz 


abortion 




kirir, werem-pez 


anchor 


iadi 




par 


about 




deraueli 


and 


a 




a 


above 


gimal 


kotorge 


anemone (sea) 


i 




geres 


abscess 




bad 


anger 


kerket, ngurum 




weku, urker 


abstain 


wakai-kikiri-augai, gud- 


baili 


angle 


kuru, koru 








tiai 




angry 


iaragi, tabu-kikiri 




urker, weku 


abuse 




ezu-bameli 


animal 


urui 




ebur 


accompany 


asi, kaimel-uzari 


bakeam-kemem 


ankle 


dana-kok 




teter-kebi-kok 


accomplish 


pa-tapai, mina-asi 




anklet 


burua 




teter-mus 


accuse 


supai, imun-mizi 


atrnmda 


announce 






diliki 


acid 


pidi-mital, sasa-teral, 


zurabzurab, kapkap, 


anoint 


pini 




desaui 




seberar, walipusi 


kurabkurab, tep-amer 


another 


wara 




nerute 


acknowledge 




agemkak 


answer 


modobi 




etkarti 


across 


bal, balkid 


bogbog 


ant (various) 


bugbug, dupu, 


goa. 


iserum, soni 


act 


pawa 


ikeli 




musu, tomi, mugu- 




add 


uka-mani 


etami 




urui, toti 






adhere 




batagemda 


antenna 


samu-dan 




pis-mus 


admit 


kudu-mai 




any 


wara 




nerute 


adoption 


gubar, kazi-toridi 


gobar, gobarem tais, 
aseseredi 


apart 
apiece 


iananab 




ab-saimarsaimar 


adult 


koikazi 


aule 


appear 


pa-adai 






adultery 


kupa-kuasar, kuasar- 
ku]:ia 


kogem, koskerlam 


appoint 
apprehend 


kupai-poibai 
get-pagai 




depegili 


advise 


wakai-wiai 


mer-atager 


approach 


ngapa-lugi-tami 






afar 


poitai, siga 


murizge 


areca nut 


wau 






afraid 


aka-pali, sib-kat-paU, 


geum 


argue 






basaredi 




sib-palga-pali 




arise 


kadai-tari 




ekweida 


after 


wagel 




arm 


udu, zugu, get 




tag 


after birth 


ma 




armlet 


bis-wab, musur, 


put, 


put, wauri 


afternoon 


kuta 






waiwi 




_ 


afterwards 


wagel 


keubu 


armpit 


ngarang 




kenani 


again 


laka 


iako, ko 


arrive 


gar-patai, ngarubi. 


tabarki 


agree 


karar-asi 


ekaida, netat-mer-de- 
tageri 


arrowroot 


mangi 




kep-sabez 


air 


gub 




arrow 


bok, bop, dodu. 


gato, 


bisi-kep, sarik, waruwa- 


alas 




wen 




kaigob, kimus, 


taiak. 


kep, opop 


alight 




egirauli 




putil, kodalu-paruag 




alike 




mokakalam, okakes 


artery 


kirer 




kerar 


alive 


danalaig, igil 


eded 


ascend 


kadaka-uzari 




ogi 


all 


mura 


gaire, uridili 


ashamed 


azirai 




sirip 


allow 


1 guit-wiai 




ashes 


kunar 




pi, tibi 


alone 


kurusaig, kusaig, mata 


tebteb 


aside 


ruai 







INDEX TO VOCABULARIES. 



171 



English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


ask 


ieudi, iapu-poibi 


damosi, itmeri 


beginning 


kuik-aimzinga 


giz 


assemble 


gar-mapai, gar-patami, 


etamili, netat-gedim- 


behaviour 


pawa 


tonar 




gar-widami 


bakeam 


behead 


kuik-patai 


kerem-derapeida 


assent 


kudu-wai 




behind 


kai, kalanu 


serge 


assist 




toabuki, upi-ditida 


believe 


kapuaka-asi, iaka-pap- 


o-ituli 


at 


uu 


ge 




udi, mina-iaka-tamai 




aunt 


ngaibat, apu 


apu, amau, amawa 


belly 


maita, ata 


kem 


authority 


kupiii 


sirdam 


belongings 




kes 


avoid 




derareti 


beloved 


mamal, uoidal 


nasnas 


awaken 


dau-pali, wal-mai 


itiri 


below 


apal 


sebge 


away 


pa 


ad 


belt 


kamadi, maiei, naga. 


wak, wagogob, petwak 


axe 


aga 


tulik, panigob 




wakau 










bend 


balbal-palai, balbal-tidai 


igiami, eparsida 


baby 


mapeta, mapeta kazi, 


sursur-werem, giazgiaz- 


beneath 


apal 


lokodge 




magi-kazi 


werem 


bent 


balbal 




back 


kala, kibu 


sor, kor, kod 


beside 


pasia, pasinu 




backbone 


gorii-rid, tabu-rid 


sor-kokelid 


betel 


wau 




backwards 




eziki 


betray 


gud-arai 




bad 


wati 


adud, wit 


betroth 


mukulaig 




bag 


iana 


epei 


between 


dadal 




bait 




ris 


beware 




derareti, mamoro-dasmer 


bald 


guail 


ped 


beyond 


nagu 




bale 


sal, sal;pamai 


usi-depaupli, depaupda 


big 


koi 


au 


baler 


alup (shell) 


kuapai, ezer (shell) 


bile 


il 


soskepu 


hall 


kokan 


kai, kaubkaub 


bind 


doridi 


didbari, sopem-iteli 


bamboo 


morap 


marep, pater 


bird 


urui, palgil-urui 


ebur, aperda-ebur 


banana 


dawa, gulagwal, taiigoi, 


kaba, awe, mauko. 


birthday 


imaizi-goiga 


gereger e esmelu 




kapu, katama 


keres, borom.bubuam, 


birth mark 




kamosar 






gulab, markak-katam. 


bit 


tapi 


mog 






iwer, nemipi, jjepai, 


bite 


toidai 


eregli 






zaruam, neu, orwar, 


bitter 


teral, terar, ild-mital 


kapkap, kurabkurab 






suskakle, terib, wap. 


black 


kubikubi 


budbud, golegole 






zeberzeber 


bladder 


ubal 


k6rot, usi 


barb 


algadi, kopilai 




blade 


malgui 


wai 


bare 


abaigi 


no 


blame 




ataparet, emaidereti 


barely 


kasa 


no 


blanket 


(ibelai) 




bark 


pia, poa, purur, pura 


gegur, lu-gegur, disiri 


blaspheme 


gegead-pugai 




barren 


siiasuasizig 


soaso 


bleed 


kulka-iati, kulka-ieudi, 


mam-babuseda 


bart«r 


za-pudami 


erapei 




kulkal-sanimai 




base 


kuiku, kupa 


giz 


bless 


wanab-poibai 


werkab, despili 


basket 


iana, boi, balboi, li, 


epei, aipus, weres 


blind 


danagi 


sadmer 




lulko, mugagud.walsi, 




blister 


ngaranga, upu 


karus 




wasili 




block 


gudbal-pamai 




bat 


dabi, sapur 


saper, bait (?) 


blood 


kulka, iiana-mad 


mam 


bathe 


ui-pu-pagai 


araiger, baraigida 


bloody 


kulkal 


niamam, maniamam 


bay 




kop 


blossom 


kau.sa, kukuam 


sik i 


beach 


butu, turab 


tawer, we 


blow 


puiai, gubal-puiai 


etoameredi, dipeli, wag- 


bead 


kusa 


kaubkaub, kusu 






wami, dc'toanieredi. 


beak 


isau, piti, gud 








esererdi 


bear, bring forth 


dan-adai 




blue 


nurugamul 


suserisuseri, (bulubulu) 


beard 


iata 


keu-imus 


blunt 


dugu, gizugi 


kibkib, gargerkak 


beat 


palngi, matamai, nana- 


ipili, eremli 


board 




patpatlu, garbad 




raai 




boast 


ta-umai 


baospili 


beautiful 


kapu. kapua, kapu-nga- 




boat 


gul, aruai 


nar 




dalnga 




body 


gamu, garo 


gem 


because 


kedamai 


abelelam 


bog 


sal 




beche de iner 




aber 


bogey (female) 


df)gai 




beckon 


boipa-barai (?) 


ekoseli 


boil 


zmai 


dekasiri, tuk 


become 


asi, gamu-asi 


ekaida 


bone 


rid, iiora, trap 


lid 


bed 


apasik, toie 


sik, sik bau 


book 


(tusi) 


(jauali) 


bee 


gerirai, pida, toda, utua 


isau-apu, gani-apu 


border 


dang 


uba, deg, nener 


beetle 


idara 


isiri 


bore 




seker, neb-dairili, daiwi 


before 


kulai 


kekeni 


born, be 


dan-adai 


esmeda 


beg 


gudaka-turi 


ball 


bosom 


da, kabu, dura 




beget 


kazi-adai 




both 


ipal, sepal, pipal 


neis 


begin 


kuik-aiumi 


ditimeda, degrarti 


bother 


karum-palai 





172 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



English 


Mabuiar 


Miriam 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


bottle 


buiu, kupuiei, kusu. 


tarpor 


calf of leg 




merdt 




kuso, damalal 




call 


tarai, wabawal-ieudai, 


dabgeri 


bottom 


apa 


lokod, mud, giz 




wal-mizi 




bough 


zar 




calm 


mataru, biama 


metalu 


bound 




sopsop 


camp 


mud 




boundary 


taima 


nener 


can 


ngulaig 


umele 


bow, n. 


gagai, buai 


sarik, tarim 


cane 




opisu 


bow, V. 


muluka-tidi, patidi, ku- 


esor-giru, esor-erapeida 


cannot 


karawaeg 


umerkak, nab 




lun-tari, kuiku-mulu- 




canoe 


gul, kim, gabo, guguba- 


nar, wasar, pao 




ku-tidi 






wake 




bowl of pipe 


turku 


tarkok 


cape 




pit ged 


bowels 


surul 


teibur 


care 


ubi 


desisi 


bowstring 


tupal 


let 


careful 


uiamui 


mamoro 


box 


buiu, (bokes) 


tarpor 


cargo 


rui^al, gulugu-rugal 




boy 


magi-tiom 


kebi-le, uokorot 


carry 


augai, tabai-gabu-tari. 


bakwari, bataraar, epuli. 


bracelet 


tiap-uru 






tabai-uradai, toridi, 


ikapsi, birom-ikapsi, 


brackish 


adabad-mital 






mani 


ekada, dikmerida 


brain 


tigi 


idoni 


carve 


pui-palai 


ismida, war 


branch 


tarn, niki, zar 


tam 


cassowary 


samu, morau 


sam 


breadfruit 




tamad 


cast 




bataueredi, aziri, detwi 


break 


patai, pali, parai, tidui, 


demaisereti, dergeiri. 


catch 


gasamai, niuia-aimai, 


erpeida, ditmar 




banitai, baminu-mai, 


ikewi, ipriki, erapei 




angai, pingid-aimai 






patidai 




caterpillar 




auzi 


breast 


dada, susu 


marmot, nano, nem 


caulk 




itpari, emaiderti 


breath 


ngana 


ner 


caution 


giid-wadi, iadu-tidai, 




breathe 


nganan-pamai 


esili, ner-bataueredi 




iadu-wadai 




breathless 




nerkak 


cave 


ngahad, sakai 


kur 


bride 


kain-ipi 


kosker 


cease 


pa-pudai, launga-mizi 


daisumda 


bridegroom 


kain-ipi-turaizig 


aspidar-le 


centipede 


sag 


esi, isi 


bridesmaid 




uetabet 


ceremony 


tai, gai 




bridge 


doa 




cliain 


malil-uru 


malil-lager 


bright 


meket 


sunur, zoromzorom, 


challenge 










bebe 


chameleon 


liwak 




brim 




mitkar 


change 


sakar-tai, kid- tai 


depegemeli 


brimstone 


(teio) 


(teio) 


channel 




kes 


bring 


ugapa-mai, ngapa-mani, 


tegaredi, tais, tekau 


charcoal 


kubi, boat 


keg 




ielpai, mai 




charm 


madub, wenewen, ru- 


doiom, wiwar, zogo, zog"- 


broad 


atad, koi-kamadal 


au 




gaig-puri, zar-baiib 


mer, ur-asaskili, oma- 


broken 




mogmog 






bar, kamer, bager, gir, 


broom 


kusakus, piwul 


beilid, wesker 






zole, koglu, kog-lu- 


brother 


babat, tukuiap, kui- 


berbet, keimer, le 






kup, madub 




kuig, dadaig, ku- 




chase 


wakai, kur-pudai 


darakesa 




taig 




chest 


paru-idi 


ok-ardali 


bri)ther-in-law 


imi, ngaubat 


akari, naiwet, neubet 


cheek 


bag 


bag 


brow 


paru, si 




chest 


kabu 


marmot, bub, nano 


bruise 


papali 




chew 


nadai 


eruseli 


bud 


duba-malgui 


lu-sik 


chief 


kuiku-garka, kuikul. 


opole, mamus 


buffet 


getan-nanamai 






mamus 




build 


moidai, gar-moidai 


meta-ikeli 


child 


kazi 


werem, omasker 


buUroarer 


bigu, wainis 


bigo 


childless 


kazigig 


soaso 


bunch 


katam 


kerem, seg 


chin 


ibu, bag 


ibu, imur 


bundle 


kaunil, modal 


sop 


choke 


sirisiri-palai, nurai 


dimi, dirimeda, etarapi 


burden 


kaunil 




choose 


iapi, taiami 


depegili 


bmn 


natai, nati, mui-nitui, 


edegi, batoamerdi, arit- 


chop 


ladai 






togi, widai 


arit, disirik 


circle 


gugabi, gugabid 


kaubkaub-neb 


burst 


palga-palai 


ipriki, etoatmuda, erpe- 


clam 


akul, maiwa 


mi, miskor, beizam-mi 






rida 


clap 


get-matami 


tag-mut, ibkep 


bury 


raaranuiu-tai 


etkobeida 


claw 


awar, mek 


imi 


bush 


bupa, dob, sirisiri 


sumez 


clay 


1 baradar 


seb, kobegud 


bushes 


wor 




clean 


tugi, tulaigi, ngata 


okak, arub 


butterfly 


paekau, goinau 


kap 


cleanse 


gar-walgai, tugi-mai. 


paret, dirupi 


buttock 


kupa 


kip, motop 




ngata-asi 




buy 


barpudai 


erapei 


climb 


wall, kadaka-wali 


ogi, ekauererti 


buzz 




burner 


close 


gai 


maike, batagemli, dimi 


by 


ia 


dog 


cloth, clothes. 


duma-waku 


wali, lu-gegur, ewa, mat 


by and bye 


tuma 




clothing 




gem-wali, am-wali 



INDEX TO VOCABULAEIES. 



173 



English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


clothe, V. 


duma-waku poibai, du- 
ma-wakun-ubami 


amili 


cover 


abai, nradai, sup-nurai, 
urgil-palai 


itkami, batkami, dimida 


cloud 


saruai, amal, bagai, zia, 


baz, ziag.atuer, dad.lit, 


covering 


sup 






baiib, baz, dapar, 


margor, neder, sisi 


covetous 


koi-zangu-ubil 


sirkak, lu-laglag 




iabuyud, iara-zia, mei 




cowry 


bubuam, uza 


bubuam, pert, mo 


dub 


gabagaba, gorbotot, 


gabagaba, konor-tut. 


crab 


getalai, gurba, kauturi. 


kelkeri, karker, guriz, 




gwarabatut, tutu 


tut, sanrisauri, wadu- 




tadu 


kausor, kerker, zewa 






li, tamera 


crack 


pis, lu-patai 


au-kes, irkes, kes, erapei 


coast 


butu 


tawer 


crackle 


ial-poibi 




cockatoo 


ari, weni 


1 


crate 


kusil 




coco-nut 


urab, baribari, gaulou- 


u, warab, wamiwami- ; 


crawfish 


kaiar 


kaier 




ga, gi, musu, mutal 


sor, pis-u, gabegeb, 


crawl 


amai, kulu-widai 


edaremli, iskeli 






kihr-u, gad, beizam- j 


crease 




pas 






u, bebesor, ewa, guri- 


creek 


maibau-kasa 








guri, kupkiip sor. 


creep 


amai 


iskeli, esapem 






kurab 


crew 


pazara 


pasar 


coil 


tupul-tai 




crippled 


dagal 


atkurit 


cold 


gabu, galu, sumai 


geb, gebigebi, ziru 


croak 


poibi 




collar hone 


kalum-rid 




crocodile 


kodalu, kora 


kodal 


collect 


wangai, gar-patamai 


etakili 


crooked 


balbal 


barbar 


comb 


ial-pat, ial-sak, sak 


seker, kerem-sekev 


crop 


koi-maita 




come 


mangi, aie, ugapa-uzari, 


tabakeamuda, tabarki, 


cross 


bal-tai, tardai, balkid 


wer (satauro) 




ugapa-mizi, ngapa- 


tabarukli j 




(satauro) 






iuti, ngapa-puzi 




crouch 




auskili 


come out 


adaka-adai 


tabaos, teosmeda, osa- 


crow 


poibi 


erer-tikri 






keida 


crowd 


gar-mumai, gar-toridi. 


ditkapili, le-lakub 


comet 




seriseri-wer 




zub-nanamai 




comfort 


muuiai; gar-sasimai, 


idikubi, baimeli 


crumb 


magi-pas 


lewer-piupi 




sib-uidai 




cry 


wal, wal-ieudai, mai- 


erer-tikri, eb-ezoli 


command 
commandment 


ia-mui-tai 
la-utumiziuga 


gelar 


cup 


irsi 
(ngukiu-za) 


(tanelu, sor-tulik) 


companion 


kaimi 


kaimeg 


cure 


doi-nidai 


idigiri, ebisida 


company 
compensate 


iatai, kaimil 


uosik, le-lakub 


current 




gotat 


modobia-mai 


bodomalam-ikwari 


curse 


mogabid-pugai, kauria- 




complain 
conceive 


adia-turai 






tai 






batagemli 


cuscus 


bait, barit, saua 


barit 


concerning 
condemnation 


ugu 
modobi 


lam 

mer barditug 


custom 
cut 


labai, ladai, lapai, pugai 


tonar 

esakeida, ismida 


couch 


bu 


maber 


cut off 


adaka-widai, zar-patai 


dikiami 


condemn 


borsa-iuti 




cuttlefish 


bidai 


gole, keriger 


conduct 


pawa 


tonar 


cylinder 




nat-kak 


cone shell 


wauri, waiwi 


wauri 








confess 


iadu-palgai 


abeida, abeili, etomereti 


damp 


ulai 


sibeb 


conquer 
conscience 




degmori 


dance 


kaba, girer, kaba-minai, 


kab, ginar, kab-digili 




obazgeda 




girer-adai, wasal, sa- 




consult 


gud-ari 


itmeri 




s"i , ,. 




content 




sirsir 


dark 


kubil, kubikubi 


asamasam, kupikupi 


continue 


mata-niai, uiai 


mena 


darken 


inuria-uti 


esameida 


contrary 


paruia-pagai 




darkness 


inur, kubi, kubil 


kupikupi 


'■onvalescent 


Kauba-laig 




dart (of har- 


kwiuru 


kwir , 


ook 


gia-palai 


esaprida, dekasiri 


poon) 






•-■ooked 




auk 


daughter 


ipiai-kazi 


neur-werem 


cool 


gabu 




dawn 


ar, goiga danami 


bane, gereger-osakcida 


copulate 


lamai 




day, daylight 


goiga, niai 


gereger 


coral 


iaiuar, prak, pula 


aturatur, nemsus, baro- 


dazzle 


zuru 


zorom 






mil, berber, bonau. 


dead 


uma, dan-uradzi 


aud, cud 


cord 


wall, magi uru 


buromar, weswes 
lager 


deadly 
deaf 


umal 
guda.matamzig,kauragi 


batapili, asorkak 


corner 


koru, kuru, korbad, 


kop, serer 


dear 


noidal 


cud 




kurubad 




death 


uma 


corpulent 


maital 


au-gemgem 


deceive 


ngalkai 


ok-ardali 


corpse 
cou(!h 


umanga. sarupa, gamu 
kobaki 


aud le 

kobek, kobek-esili 


decide 
declare 


wakai-tai 
iaka-mai, iaduturai 


otomerti 


count 

country 

cousin 


ngulai 

laga 

nagwam 


etagi 

ged 

apuale, negwam 


decline 
decorate 


paupa-asi 


teir, peror, etkopoli, 
tetor, somai 



174 


ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 


•J 


English 


Mabuiag 


MlUlAM 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


deed 


pawa 




drive 


ngur-widai, zizimai 


imuda 


deep 


muluka-pamaizi 


muimui i 


drop 


noridi, suli 


abu, kep 


delve 


tartai 


ditpurda 


dropsy 


duba-kikiri 


begur-gim 


deny 


gud-tadi 


ageui 


drown 


dudupi, sarupa 


baiteri 


depart 


adaka-mizi, pa-uzari 


bamrida 


drum 


warup, buruburu 


warup, boroboro, dabor 


descend 


paupa-asi, muluka-pa- 


batueri, abu, tabi 


drunk 


daidami 


paimpaim 




gai, muluka-sizari 




dry 


wat, palel, palel-pudi, 


watwet, esperi, ni-kak 


deserted 


kazigi 


lekak 




palel-asi, wat-patai 




desire 


ubi, Liliin-mizi 


laglay 


duck 


digidigi 


ni-purapura 


desist 




daisumda 


dugong 


dangal 


deger 


despise 


ada-pugai, lauuga-mani 




dugong " plat- 


noat 


narat 


destroy 


gegead-mai, idi-mizi, 


ezagri, eogerdi 


form" 








patapi 




dull 


uduma-korkak, tagir 




dew 


urma 


si 


dumb 


iagi-but 


merkak, te-dabimdabim 


diarrhoea 




le-serur 


dung 


kuma 


le 


die 


dau-uradai, um-mizi, 


eumida 


dust 


poi 


puipi, le, seb 




um-asi 




dwell 


niai 


emrida 


dilier 


wara-ngada-asi, dania- 




dwelling 


laga, mud 


uteb 




uudai, gegead-pugi 




dwindle 




ekekeli 


different 


wara 


uerute 








difficult 


mapu 


beberbeber 


eagle 


ngagalaig (aeto) 


waridub (aeto) 


dig 


pamai, gowa-pagi 


derebli, daiwi, dakeili, 
ikidiii, irkes-ekesmu- 


ear 


kaura, kursai, muti, 
tautil 


gerip, laip, pel, leb, sak 






da 


ear-ornament 


muti, piner, gagi 


godegode, leb, laip-tut 


digging-stick 


pai, potur 


wet 


early 


magi-batainga, arkulkia, 


kebi-gereger, banege 


dip 


urpu-tai, toidai 


akmeida, araiger 




arpu 




direction 


kid 


apek 


earnest 


ugalkaigi 




dirt 


buru, tuiiiit, uduma 


og 


earth 


apa, baradar 


seb, neid, bud, ged 


dirty 


tulai, tutai 


ogog. arubkak, usur- 


earthquake 


(pinana-rapai) 


seb-demali 






usur 


earthworm 




gegedar 


disappear 


pa-uti 




east 


waura-dad, waur-dogam 


naiger-pek 


discuss 


gud-ari, iadu-umai, 


mer-atager 


easy 


gabu-dan, towa 


norgor, beberkak 




kuik-niJai 




eat 


purutai 


eregli, eroli 


disease 


kikiri 


giiu, aroaro 


eaves 




maisu 


disfigure 


gegead-mai 




ebb 


gat-nuri 




dislike 


ubigi-asi 


o-bogai, lakak 


echo 


nur 


baremda 


disperse 


adaka-wai 




eclipse 




meb-dimdi 


dispute 


gud-ari, pa-toridi 


basaredi 


edge 


dang, gizu 


uba, deg, serer 


distance 


siga 


muriz 


edible 


kapu-mital 




distract 


karum-palai 




eel 




omen, kamsam, geur, 


distribute 


getia-wiai 








umen 


ditch 


gowa 


irkes 


egg 


kakuru, woibad 


wer, golera-meta, wer- 


dive 


ur-pagai 


baraigida, karem-bati- 






sor 






meda, kutikuti 


elastic 




buber 


divide 


dadal-maui, palai 


eragi, derapeili 


elbow 


kudu 


au-kok, au-kok-ne 


divulge 


kadaka-poidai 




eldest 


kuikuig 


narbet 


do 


aimai, niai 


ikeli 


elephantiasis 




deib 


doctor 




lukup-kem-le 


embark 


gul-pati, gulpu-pati 


ekauererti 


dodge 




etirida 


emerge 


adaka-pagai 




dog 


tmiai 


omai, ses 


empty 


aigi, kasa, zagi. 


no, liikak, lekak 


door 


pasa-gud, gud, pasa 


pau, meta-te 




kazigi 




double 


kaza-tidai 


ditkapili 


encircle 


gulgupi 


batauerda, deraueli 


doubt 


kaubad-wakai-asi, wa- 


karcimkaroui 


enclose 


pa-pagai 


karu-dirumdi, irukili 




kai-tadumi, kidakida- 




end 


kuta, aigi-tai 


mop 




zilami 




endure 


mata-mai 




dove 


waba, ku-u-rug 


dibadiba, Ink 


enemy 


retau-garka, ngurumau- 


keuba, tekelar, le-weku 


down 


muluka, kaigu 


lokodge 




mabaeg 




doze 


utuin-tai 




enjoy 




irwi, sirau-deroli 


dragonfly 


kuiop 


koio)i 


enlarge 


gud-pamai 




draw 


pardai, urimai, iuti, 


edoraeli, iseda, ismeda 


enlighten 


nagai 


datki 




toidai 




enough 


niataniina 


sina, abkoreb 


dream 


piki, pikin-tai 


peim, dopeki 


entangle 


niuia-aimai 




dress 


angi 


esolu 


enter 


muia-uti, tugumi, bal- 


badari, barot, barti 


driftwood 




sap, tap 




ruami, uti 




drink 


uni, waui 


eri, dibuser 


entirely 


babab, badaginga 


kemerkemer 


drip 


suli 




entrails 


surul 





INDEX TO VOCABULARIES. 



175 



English 


Maboiag 


Miriam 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


equal 


matakeda 


okakes, abkoreb 


fern 




karakar, walk 


equivalent 


modobia 


bodom 


fetch 




tekau 


erase 


adaka-idimizi 


desaki 


fever 


kanianal-kikiri 


urweri-gim, ziru 


err 


wara-kid-aimai, wakai- 




few 


manarigal, manarimal. 


kepkep, wader, no-neis- 




nurai 






manaulal 


neis 


escape 


adaka-tamai, bup-zilami 




fibre (coco-nut) 


musi, muti 


mes, muti 


eternal 




aseamurkak 


fierce 


toiilal 


saserim 


evacuate 




li 


fight 


matam-sagul-tarai 


ares, ipiti 


evening 


kuta 


amri-ki, ki-kem 


figure-head 


d.'pgai 


gope, meket-op 


ever 




niai-karem 


file 


taimer 


taimar 


evil 


wati, ipidad, borsa 


aihul, wit 


fill 


pusakar-adai, malai. 


etatkoi 


exalt 


ada-pudai, kadaka-mai 






wangai 




exceed 


ada-pudi 


kase 


fin 


trapot, togui, komazi, 


leb, seker, sirer 


exchange 


za-pudami 


tama, wetpur 




zabai, suna-suro, tugu 




exclude 


Uf,'ur-tmai 




find 


gasami 


erdali 


excrement 


kunia 


le 


finger 


dimur, geta, tete 


ke, tag 


excuse 


kozikozi-ia-iimai 


batkamda 


finger-nail 


a war 


pot 


exhort 


dan-tai 




finish 


miiia-asi, mu-asi, pata- 


eseamuda, bakedida, iti- 


exorcise 


ian-nuti 






pi, aigi-tai 


agi 


expire 




esili 


fire 


mui, ur 


ur 


explain 




etomereti 


firebrand 


mui 




extend 


pagai 




firefly 




kaiabo, eapoka 


extinguish 


usimai 


esameida 


fireplace 


muikun 




rye 


dana, gud 


pone 


firesticks 


goigoi, sagai, salgai 


goigoi, apu, werem 


tye-ball 


purka 


irkep, pone-wer 


firewood 


watara 




eyebrow 


baiib 


baibai, irau-mus, irke- 


firm 




elele 






mus 


first 


kul, knlai 


kekem 


eyelash 


iara-dan, iradan, samu- 


pone-mus 


firstborn 


kuikuig 


narbet 




dan 




fish 


wapi, wapi-arai, uzari- 


lar, larem, ne-igi 


eyelid 




irau, pone-pau 




wapika 










fish-weir 


graz 


sai 


face 


paru, dana, bupur 


op 


fish-hook 


tudi 


mekek, kek 


faded 




nunur 


fishing-line 


ariga 


ariag 


fail 


wati-pugai 




fitted 


niatamina 


abkoreb 


faint 


gagadi 


suskak, irmautur 


fix 




akmeda, emiri 


laith 


(kapuaka-asi) 


o-ituli 


flag 


dadu 




fall 


pudai, pudi, noridi, ura- 


abu, ekesmeri 


flame 


buia, muingu-iaiamai 


bei 




ti, patidi 




flapper 


pui 




false 


ngalkai 


bes 


flash 


noidi 


peror 


falsehood 




bes-apu, bes-mer 


flat 


zoi, zei 


diadi, patpat 


fame 




mer 


flavour 


teran-palai, terai-unai 




family 


aai, aal 


kusi 


flay 


adaka-kadamai, pura- 


dedui 


famine 


aigi-tonar 


ged-wercrge 




pinitei, pura-pulgai 




fan 


pai 




flea 


tikat 


titig 


far 


poitai, sigal 


murizge 


flee 


bup-ari, bup-ziIami,dob- 


derareti 


farewell 


iawa 






uti 




fashion 




tonar 


flesh 


madu 


med, ag^g 


fast 


wamen, wakai-kikiri- 


dndum, wamen, bail! 


flexible 


karar-asi 






angai, gud-tiai, gud- 




fling 




dikri 




ada-tiai 




flint 


bu 


1 


fasten 


muku-poidai 


dimiri, iteri, dedkomedi 


float 


urpu-pudai, muk-bal-tai 




fat 


tobai, ngabi, kerai, 


derget, toertoer 


flog 


palngi 


damriki 




idiidi 




flood 


padbul, bubu 


agber, dodo 


father 


tati, baba 


abe, baba 


floor 


bupur 




father-in-law 


tati-ipiu 


neubet, naiwet 


flow 


ieudi 




fathom 


kaza 


kaz 


flower 


kausa, kukuam, titil 


sik 


fatigue 


kauba 


erar 


flute 


pupui 


burar 


fault 


borsa 


wit-lu 


fly, n. 


bnli, bugi, tudar 


narger, abo, pirsok 


fear 


aka, aka-nidai, akan- 


geum 


fly, V. 


palgi, uri 


eperda 




mizi 




flying-fish 


puwi, pokan-wapi 


SB 


feast 


gai, tai, aisgul 


wetpur, (kaikai) 


flying-fox 


sapur 


saper 


feather 


baba, kaikai, palisa 


lub, sam 


foam 


dc, de-ieudi, sik 


serur, zog 


feed 


aidun-poibai 


asisili 


fog 


dibag 


ikik 


feel 


get-matai, nuitai 


i 


fold 


kaza-tidai, tupal-tai 


pas, iterati 


female 


ipi, ipiai, ipika, madal 


kosker, neur 


follow 


wagel-tai, wagel-iuti. 


irniili 


fence 


pa, motoal, wos, kar 


kar, beizar, kegar 




kun-toidai, puidi, puzi 





176 


AXTHROPOLOGIOAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 




English 


JIabuiag 


Miriam 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


food 


ai, gia 


lewer, aiswer 


good 


kapu, mina 


debe, barkak-tonar 


fool, foolish 


dimidem 


paimpaim, paim-le 


gourd [ 


kauburu 


kabor 


foot 


ngar, kuku, san 


teter 


grandchild 


ngep 


nap 


footprint 


san 


teter-mek 


grandparent 


kaiad 


kaied, popa 


forbid 


sabi 


gelar 


grass 


bai, bok, burdo, kawipa, 


soge, esese 


force 




kelar 




sowagai, imus 




forefinger 




baur-ke 


grasshopper 


mati, pukat 


kitoto, tapim 


foreliead 


paru, si 


mat, morop 


grave 


maramad 


ao 


foreign 


adazi, iaba 


nog 


gravel 




borabor 


forest 


bupa, dob 


sumez 


grease 


idi 




forget 


iaka-nori 


oka-tapriki 


great 


koi 


au 


forgive 


guit-wai, guda-wai, mn- 


detwi 


greatly 


koima 






dobingu-ubigi-asi 




greedy 


kazangi, ubil 


weserweser 


fork 


mang 




green 


maludgamul, nisadga- 


lulamgimgam, suserisu- 


formerly 


mata-kul 


emeretge 




mul, wibadgamul, igil 


seri, giazgiaz 


fornication 


muku 


kogem, ko 


greet 


gud-wiai, get-pudai 


tag-augwat, degwati 


fowl 


kalakala 


kalkal 


grey 




pipi, kobegudkobegud 


framework 




paier, lid 


grief, grieve 


mai, mai-adai, mai- 


oka-sosok 


free 


udaigi 


no 




irsi 




fresh 




kerkar, egemedi 


grind 


ibai, nudi 




friend 


tubud 


tebud, boai, tokoiap 


groan 




kemge-nerezi, geger-mer 


frigate-bird 


womer 


waumer, omer, karor 


groin 




kor 


frighten 


aka-palai 




groin shell 


alidan, Idda 


alida, eb-eneaup 


frog 


kaug-gu, kata, katak 


goai, pereg 


ground 


apa, baradar 


geseb, seb 


from 


ngu 


lam 


group 


iananab 




front 


paru, kulai 


kek, kikiem, op, tarim 


grow 


malgui-adai, moigui- 


bataili, omeida, bataieda, 


frontlet 


kuik-uru, kusad-uru, 






adai, kosimi 


esali 




ksvokata 




grub 


oka 




fruit 


kausa 


turum, kerem 


grumble 


kozikozi-muli, dubidu- 


mud-mer 


fuel 


watara 


pesur 




bi-iadu-umai 




fulfil 


kuik-nidai 


tabarki 


guest 


adazi-mabaeg 


sub-le 


full 


pusakardan 


kem-osmeda 


guide 


iudi 


datkimuarti 


fnn 




segur 


gull 


keki 




further 


nagu 




gum 




sus 


future 


bangal, kai 


niai 


gums 


dangau-ira 










gun 


gagai 


sarik 


gall 


gerka, il 


soskepu, kurab-lu 


gunpowder 


(poi) 


1P'> 


game 




segur 


gunwale 


garbad 


lagsop, maumer-sab 


garden 


apa, baradar 


gedub 


gust 




balgup 


garfish 


zaber 


paris 








garment 


duma-waku 


am -wall 


habit 


pawa 


tonar 


gate 


pasa 


gab-te 


Hades 


kibu (seol) 


beged, boigu, (seol) 


gather 


parai, duia-tutai, gar- 
widarai, gar-patami 


etkemedi, edagi, etakili 


hair 


ial, ialbup, magad, na- 
dulza 


mus, imus, ed 


gauntlet 


kadig 


kadik 


half 


kopi, tapi 


mog 


generation 


maikuik 


nosik 


halo 


kubwai 




generous 


kazanal 




hammer 




moglu 


gentle 




gebgeb 


hand 


geta 


tag 


get 


gasamai 


erpeida 


handle 


get-matamai, tul 


pes, kedelup 


ghost 


marl, mflri, markai 


lamar, mar 


hang 


puidai, puzi, ia-tarai. 


emeredili, seg-degari 


gift 


sib-wanai 


zeku 




kunumi 


iteri 


gills 


iarda, daka 


nes 


happen 


kuiku-nidai 




gird 


kunumi, doridimi 


esolu, wak-dimri 


happy 


wanab 


werkab 


girdle 


duburu, wakau 


wak 


hard 


kunakan, koi-ridal 


beberbeber 


girl 


ngawaka, pokai 


neur 


hardly 




no 


give 


poibai 


ikwari 


harmless 


kasa, kerketigi 


mapodan 


glad 


diwal, ikai, ikal 


sererge 


harpoon 


wap 


wap, omaiter 


glance 


dan-muk-uagi 




harvest 


aibaud 


uur 


glory 


meket, mekata 


zorom 


haste, hasten 


kikimi 


koreder 


glutton 




weser 


hat 


gouga 




gnat 


iwi 


lag 


hatchet 


aga, turik 


deumer 


go 


uzari, ladu, lutuag, ulai 


bakeamuda, barukli, 


hate 


Dgu-lami, ubigi-asi 


o-dituli, derareti 






mimim, mase 


haul 


iuti, uru-ieuti, puzari. 


egwatumuda, edomeli 


go away 


pa-uzari, adaka-mizi 


bamrida 




bauda-nidai 




go before 


kulai-tai 


keketu-bakeam 


haunch 


lurug 




go out 


adaka-adai 


eosmeda 


have 


aidai 


nagri 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES. 



177 



English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


hawk 


aub, kausi, kuzi, ngaga- 


waridub 


I 


ngai 


ka, kaka 




laig 




idle 


zagetgig 


dorgekak 


he 


nui 


e 


if 


sike, na 


se 


head 


kuiku, goi 


kereni, kod 


ignite 


gamu-widai, tunge-ni- 




head-dress 


deri, dagui, pikuru, sa- 


dari, mat-lager 




dai 






mera, waipat 




ignorant 


karawaig 


umerkak 


head-man 


kuiku-garka 


opole 


ill 


kikiril 


gimgim 


heal 


gabun-mai, doi-nidai 


idigiri 


iUness 


kikiri 


gim 


healthy 


kikirigig 


saserim 


image 


wauri 


roai, madub, zogo 


bear 


karengemi 


asoli 


imitate 


ngadal-mai 




heart 


ngana-kap, unakar, mur 


ner-kep 


immediately 


mata-kurdar, mata-do- 


sobkak 


heat 


kaman, koam 


uweri 




bura 




heaven 


dapar 


kotor 


Impudent 




lid-agem 


heavy 


mapul 


beberbeber 


in 


nu 


ge 


heel 


pokuk 


in 


incline 


iui, iaiai 


gorgor 


heir 




kesem 


increase 


kosimi, kuik-palai, ma- 


esali, bataili 


help 


ibu-poidai, tubud-gasa- 


upi-ditida 




gubi 






mai 




indeed 


samido 




her 


na, uanu 


abi, abara 


indignant, in- 


ngurum-asi, tabu-kikiri 




here 


ina, kai, kawa 


pe, ike, peike, inoka 


dignation 






hereafter 


bangal, kai 


iobaru 


infant 


magi-kazi, mapeta 


giaz, sursur-werem 


herself 


na-kurusaig 


tababu 


infirm,infirmity 


waunga 




hibiscus 


kokwam, 


kokuam, zem, mauteb 


influence 


wenewen 




hiccough 


udup 


nener 


inform 


dan-tai, iaka-mai, iadu- 


akmeri 


hide 


gumi-mai, gumi-madai, 


ispili 




turai 






rimaiiu-mai 




inherit, in- 


kupai 


kes 


high 


koi-kutal 




heritance 






highwater 




au-mek 


initiate 


kernge 


kisi 


hill 


pada 


daip, paser 


ink 


lukup, saingui 




him 


nuin 


abi 


insect 


urui 




himself 


nui-kurusaig 


tababu 


insert 


nanitai 




hinder 


wadai 


etarapi 


inside 


mui 


xnui, teibur 


hinderpart 


kala, kuu 


sor, kor 


interrogate 


iapu-poibi 




hip 


lurug 


pat 


intestines 


akur, gabu, surul 


teibur 


his 


nungu 


abara 


invalid 


kikirilaig 




hiss 


si-poibi 


si 


invert 


muluka-gud-tai, kada- 




hit 


matamai, nanamai 


ipiti 




ka-gud-tai 




hither 


ngapa 


ta 


iron 


turik (malil) 


tulik, malil 


hog 


buruMi 


borom 


island 


kaiwa, kaura 


kaur, kebi-ged 


hold 


angai, get-nidi, gasamai 


erpeida, itiri 


it, 


nui, na 


e, abi 
kapkap 


bole 


gud, arkat, marama, 


ao, awak, neb, wak 


itch 


gam-uzi 




sakai, tarte, tira 




its 


nungu, nanu 


abara 


hollow 


muil 


muimui 


itself 




tababu 


holy 


(maigi), sabi 


(zogozogo) 








honey, honey- 
comb 


utua, warn, wiba 


isau, (melikerio) 


a 


rada, tuna, kalak 
bag, ibu, kaip 


kaigob 
ibu 


honour 


maman-mai, uau-puiai 


despili 


Jew's harp 


darubiri 


daroberi 


hook 


tudi, puidaiza 


(uk) 


join 


kaimel-minami, kangu- 


etami, atkapi 


hope 


kapuaka-asi 






pagami, ngurpu-utunii 


kok, kok-ne 
gab ' 


hornbill 


wiike 


waki 


joint 




hot 


kaman-asi, kamanal, 


urweri 


journey 


iawai 


house 


koam-asi 
mud, iawad, lag 


meta, kaubkaub meta, 


joy 
judge 


diu, diwa, ika 
(iangu-sakar-pudai) 


serer 
meratager 


householder 


gizu-buai 


pelak, siriam 
tarim-le 


juice 
jump 


9U8 

kata-palgi 


sua, serur 
eupamada 


how many 


midi 


naket 


junction 


mangau-iabugud 




hull 


garo, totaku 


nar-gem 


just 


kasa 


no 


humble 


ap-asi 










hump 


puki 




kangaroo 


usar 


usar 


hunger, hungry 


weragi, ieragi 


werer, wererge 


keel 




serer 


hurry 


kasigi, lupalai 




keep 


gasamai 


kep 


hurt 


got-niai, kerket-palai 




kernel 


gi-dub, waiwi 
kukunu-nanamai, ku- 


husband 


alai, garka 


kimiar 


kick 




husk 


muti 


mes 




kuna-mapai, ngaran- 




hymn 


nau 


wed 




nanamai, kulun-na- 




hypocrite 


ngalkai-iadaig 






nainai 





H. Vol. III. 



23 



1.7.8 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


kidney 


pokirid, pulipul 


zeber-kep 


like, choose 


iapi, ubin-mizi 


laglag 


kill 


uma-matamai 


ipiti-eumilu 


likeness 


ngada 


ise, roai 


kiD 


buai, ira, igalaig 


awima, arer, boai 


lime 


kunar 


kiaur, giaud, giod 


kind 


kazanal 


omare 


line 


ariga 


ariag, gam 


kindle 


gamu-widai 


disirida 


lip 


ira-gud 


mit 


king-fish 


gaigai, dabor, debu. 


geigi, 


listen 


karengemi 


asoli 




kuda 




little 


magi 


kebi 


kiss 


gud-tapamai 


eskosi 


live, living 


danalaig 


eded 


knead 




detagemli 


liver 


sibu 





knee 


kulu 


teter-au-kok 


lizard 


ganguro, karum, ngaru, 


monan, karom, ked, si, 


kneel 


kulun-tari 






sebag, sis 


waipem, zirar 


knife 


gi, upi, id 


koer, kwoier 


lobster (spiny) 


kaiar 


kaier, kedked 


knob 


kuiku 




locust 


pukat 


kitoto, pem, tapim 


knock 


nanamai, gar-nanami. 




lofty 


kutal 






matamai 




log 


pui 


sap, lu 


knot 


kabu 


mukub 


loins 


kibu, wakawakau-lag 


kip-lid, sor, wak 


know 


ngulai 


umele 


long 


garaba, koikutal, kutal. 


periperi 


knowledge 


ngu, muamu 






saked 










look 


nagi, nidai, lumai, dau- 


eti, egeU, digmili, egre- 


labour 


zaget 






tai 


mada, dimiruarti 


lad 


kawakuik, magi-tiom 




loop 


singi 


gogob 


lagoon 


gawat 


deres, keper 


loose 


berai, berai-pungai, pa- 




lame 


ngargi, amaial, dagal 


ibibi (?) 




wai, guit-wai 




land, u. 


lag, baradar 


ged, geseb, seb 


lord 


kuikugarka 


opole 


land, V. 


pa-wali, sizari 


utebem-eupamada 


lose 


tadumai-asi, sagul-palai 


didmirki, badmirida 


language 


iadai, iangu-kudu 


mer, kodo-mer 


loud 


koi-ia 


au-kodomer 


large 


koi 


au 


louse 


ari, supa 


nem 


last 


wagel 


raop-ge, keubu 


low 


apai 


patpat 


laugh, laughter 


giu, giu-tai, giu-wali 


neg, neg-degaU 


lower 


pau-wai, muluka-pudai 


keu 


launch 


adaka-tamai 


nar-aoser 


lump 


ko|.ii, kuiku 


mog 


lay 


apia-utai, kabutai 


ipe 


lungs 


suka, ngana-kap 


bir 


layer 


urgi 










lazy 


kauba, gamu-dirog-asi 




mad 


dimidem, rimarim 


paimpaim 


lead 


ielpai, getia-iuti 


datkimuarti 


magic 


maid, puripuri 


maid, puripuri, lukup 


leaf 


nis, piu, taugoi 


lam, bei, ne, su gulab 


magician 


maidelaig 


kekuruk le, maid-kem-!e 


leafy 


nisal 


lamlam 


maggot 




kuper 


leak 


pis, pis-iati 


egobli, usi-egobli 


maimed 


dagal 


araparap, gebgeb, atkuri- 


lean 




gem-kerar, gem-kak, 






tatkiirit 






epki 


make 


aimai, mai, tatarai 


ikeli 


leap 


sosari, kata-palgi 


eupamada 


male 


garka, turukiai, inil 


kimiar 


learn 


tonar-tidai 


erewerem 


man 


mabaeg, garka, muruig 


le, kimiar 


leather 


pauna 


(kaura-paur) 


mango 


komaka, (waiwi) 


(waiwai) 


leave 


wanai, launga-mai 


dekaerti, daokili, dame- 


mangrove 


taga, biiu, gapu, uru 


gar, zi 






sili 


many 


gorsar, koigorsar, ras 


gaire, lakub 


leeward 


paupa 




mark 


minar, minar-palai 


war 


left 


bodai, bodai-dogam 


ber 


market 




(giz-akos-uteb) (zegur- 


leg 


ngar 


teter 






uteb) 


leglet 


biswab, makamak 


makamak 


marry 


kaiu-ipi-gasamai, ielpai 


ispili (faiboibo) 


legend 


adi 


ad 


marrow 


tabu 




lend 


kasa-poibai 


bes-ikwari 


marvel 


ngana-iuti 




let 


get-wai, get-wani, guit- 




mask 


krar 


le-op, op, bok 




wai, guit-wiai 




mast 


karas, rab, tag 


seseri, morgobar 


level 




diadi, okakea 


master 


dana-garka 


kole, kolelut, opole 


liar 


ngalkai-iadaig 




mat 


waku, tobai, buzur, kai, 


moder, ker, kuri, papek, 


lick 


noi-pui 






minilai, pot, sobera 


wakoi 


lie, falsehood 


ia-supamai, supamai. 


bes-mer 


mate 


kaime 


kaimeg 




ugalkai 




mature 


kaikazi 


aule 


lie, recline 


iai, iunai, iutai, wazi- 


esegemeli, epitili 


may be 


senakai 






mizi 




me 


ngan 


kari 


lift 


gima-mani, gima-toridi 


agisi 


mean 


kazangi 




light, lighted up 


buia, nagai 


bei, datki, meb-gerip, 
bebe 


measure 


miua-mai, geta-mina- 
mai 


tonar-detali 


light, not heavy 


towa 


beberkak 


medicine 


lukup, gabu, upiri 


lukup 


lightning 


ponipani 


pereper, uer-bei 


meek 


gabu-pawal 


mapodan-tonar 


like, similar 


ngadal, keda-ngadal 


kaise, mokakalam, roai- 
roai 


meet 


dada-mangi, dadia-lami, 
gar-mapi 


o-bapiti, etamili 



i 







INDEX TO VOCABULARIES. 


179 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


me'.o shell 


alup 


ezer 


navel 


kupar, kupai 


kopor 


melt 


idi-wai, idi-widai 




near 


araadan, lugi 


maike, maiged 


mend 


pagami, terpai, umai 


itketi 


neck 


kata, mudu 


tabo, pereg, esor 


menses 


wati-zazi 


adud-nesur 


necklace 


iapar, kusal, uraz 


seserig, susueri, waraz 


merciful 


sib-wanai 


nasnas 


needle 


saga 


atket-iu 


mere 


kasa 


no 


neglect 


launga-mai 




message 


iadai 


merkem 


neighbour 


lugigudal, mabaeg-ama- 


le-mai-kes, boai 


messenger 


iadai-wiai-mabaeg 






dan 




metal 


(malil) 


(malil) 


nephew 


wadwam, ngaibat.awade 


nunei 


middle 


dada, dadal 


eipu 


nest 


pad, mada, mugu 


pek, ebur-meta, niau 


midwife 




auski-kosker 


net 


pingi, sari 


(net) 


midnight 


dada-kubil 


eip-ki 


new 


kaiu 


kerkar 


mind 


Dgana-kap 


ner-kep 


niece 


wadwam, ngaibat 


nunei 


mirror 


mari-naidal-za (maridan) 


pereper 


night 


kubil 


ki, ut-eip-ki 


miss 




darborida 


nightmare 




dopeki 


mist 




irmer-pi 


nipple 


ngur-sus, susu-gud 


nano, pot 


mistake 


wakai-nurai 




no 


launga, gi 


nole, kak 


mix 


uka-mai 


etaperet 


nod 


kuik-tai 


ut-apitili, opu-itimeda 


moan 




gegermer 


noise 


nur, ial 


mut, mer 


mock 


idui, giun-salmai, iege- 


neg-degali 


noisy 


nuril 






palai 




none 




nole-le-kak, nole-lu-kak 


moist 


ulai 


sibeb 


noon 


dada-goiga 


eip-gereger, lem-eipu 


month 


kisai 


meb 


north 


naigai 


sab 


moon 


kisai, raulpal, badi, 


meb 


north east 


naigai-id 


naiger, sab 




inur-dan 




north west 


kuki 


koki 


more 




tumem, kale, kase 


nose 


piti, isau, ngursak 


pit 


morning 


batainga, ar-kulka 


idim, kebi-gereger 


nose-stick 


gigub, gub 


kirkub 


morrow 


batainga, bangal 


idim, iwaokaer 


nostril 


karabu 


Rogo-neb, gabO, ndnO-neb 


morsel 


magi-pas 


puipu 


not 


launga, gi, ginga, gimal. 


kak, nole 


mosquito 
moss 


iwi 


lag 
peumer 


nothing 


gig, gigal 


nole-lu-kak 


moth 


itara, ma 


degem 


now 


kaib 


peirdi 


mother 


apu, ama 


apu, amau, amaua 


number 


ngulai 




mother-in-law 


ira 


neubet, naiwet 


numerous 




lakub 


mound 


mugu 




nut 


kapu, kausa 




mountain 


pada 


paser 








mourn 


koimai-angai, mai-adai, 




oath 


koisar-kuikulnga 


mer-akesmer 




ia-ada-mai, mai-irsi, 




obey 


karar-asi 


asoli 




wakai-kuam 




object 


za 


lu 


mourning, 


mai, mailmail 


maik, nagar 


oblong 




piripiri 


mournful 






obscene 




kogmer 


mouse 


makas 


mokeis 


occiput 


guai, kwote 


kod, nokobar 


moustache 


gudop 




ocean 


uialu 


augur karem 


mouth 


gud, te 


te, nug, gawet 


ochre 


parama, mur 


siu 


move 


pungai, tami 


iskemada 


octopus 


sugu, ati 


sugu, arti, pem 


much 


koima 


abfaimarsaimar, au 


offer 


poibi, ruamai 




mucus 
mud 


ngursi 

nar, dauma, sai, bud 


kekmir 

usur, border, bud, buer 


often 
oil 


idi, (wakasu) 


mena 

id, mir, sabid, (wakaisu) 


muddy 


narlai 


UBurusur 


old 


kulba, dobu, muruig. 


buzibuz, emeret, au-le. 


mullet 


piwer 


zogar 




kaikazi 


au-kosker 


multitude 


garka-kubi 


le-lakub 


on 


nu 


ge 


mummy 




aud-le 


one 


urapon 


netat 


murder 


gamuia-matamai 




only 


kasa, mata 


tebteb 


murmur 


nukunuku-ia-muli 


mud-mer, wekn 


ooze 


iati 


babuseda, ni-iskedi 


my 


ngau 


kara 


open 


palai, pasa-pudai, pis- 


diski, dcmas 


myself 


ngau-kurusaig 


karbabu 




uiuli, gud-palai, da- 
dal-innlai, gud-pali. 




nacre 


taai, kaura 


mai, piau 




gud-pudai,mulai,muli 




nail 


tal, tar, puidai-za, (nil) 


pot, tapot, (sok-tulik) 


opening 


gud, pasa, pis 


kes, te, kop 


naked 


kasa-kupal, angai-duma- 


uo-gem, nesur-kak 


open space 


sugu 






wakugi 




opossum 


bait, barit 




name 


nel, nel-tarai 


nei 


opposite 


balbalgi 


opem 


namesake 


natam 


nasem 


orchid 


baignan 




narrate 


umai, gida-umai 




order 


ia-utumi 




narrow 


kata-mizi, saked 


pis, kebi-kale 


origin 




giz 


nautilus 


kaura 


idaid 


orphan 




maik-werem 



23—2 



180 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


other 


wara 


nerute 


phrase 


kudu 


kodo 


our 


ngaban, ngalbain, ngal- 


meriba, keriba 


physician 


puiu-garka 


lukup-kem-le 




pun, ngolmun 




pick up 




etarda, etarkeda 


ourselves 




meribibu, keribibu 


piece 


tapi 


mog, mizmiz 


out 


ada, ngu 


lam 


pierce 


pagai, pagi 


eremli, itketi, detroki 


out of sight 


kai 


sager-op 


piK 


burum 


borom 


outrigger 


sarima, saima, tug 


sirib, obal, tug 


pigeon 


gainau, goinau 


daumer, gaino 


outside 


ada, ngur-turai 


ad, nog 


pile 


urgi 




ovary 


kakuru 


ker, web 


pillow 


(kuzi) 


amaz 


oven 


amai, kiamai (k(5pa- 


ame, netebu (kopa- 


pimple 


moi-id 






mauri) 


mauri) 


pinch 


gam-sasimai 


tapotu-eregli 


over 


ia 


tumem 


pincers of crab 


geta 




overcome 




degmori 


pipe 


sukub-morap, murar, 


zub (paip) 


overflow 


Rud-parai 






turku, zub (paip) 




overgrow 


sirisiri-palai 




pit 


marama 


ao, wak 


overtlirow 


pa-ieuti 




pith 


tabu 


teibur 


ovulum shell 


bubuam 


bubuam 


pity 


sib-wanai, wakai-asi 


omare 


owner 




kem-le 


place 


lag 


uteb, pur, ikedi 


oyster 


it 


gein, terpa 


plain 


doid 










plait 


umai 


eweli 


pack 


wangai 




plant 


utui, malgui 


emorda, irit, lu, narger 


paddle 


kaba, karaba, udar. 


uzer, uzer-erebli 


plantation 


apa 


gedub 




kaba-nitui 




platform 


natar, sara noat 


tam, paier narat 


pain, painful 


kikiri 


asi, asiasi 


platter 


(peleit) 


(kumete) (tanelu) 


paint 


min, bud 


kobegud 


play 


sagul 


segiir, bagrili 


palate 


niapar 


uug 


pleasant, 


ikan-pungai, ikaika- 




pale 


tata-ganiul 




please 


mani 




palm, hand 


mazar 


tag-gab 


plenty 


gorsar, koi-gorsar 


pua, gair 


palsy 


rimarim 




pliable 


karar-asi 




pandanus 


abal, bom, kausa, tepan 


abal, gerer, kapeler 


pluck 


puidai, tam-tidai 


darbumuda, etopemeda 


paper 




(jauwali, ziau-wali) 


pod 




kurup 


paradise bird 


dagam 


ilegem 


point, n. 


gizu, ngur, sukuri 


kimus, garger 


parrot 


katauoi, kerisa 


katawar 


point, V. 


get-nitui 


erueli 


part 


tapi, kudu 


mog 


poison 


upiri 




partly 


ba 




pole 


tugu 


seseri, imut, werir 


partition 


taima 




polish 




etatmili 


pass 


maba-ulai, boi-ulai 


digmi, esaimeda 


polygamy 




kogiz, koiet 


passage 




kes 


pool 


dan, mai, urpu-pagai- 


keper, deres, goki 


path 


iabu, iabu-gud 


gab 




lag 




pattern 




war 


poor 


zagi 


irado, irapu 


paws 


boitete 




porch 


irad 


maisu 


pay, payment 


modobia-mai 


bodom, du 


porpoise 


bidu 


bid, galbol 


peace 


paud, mamui, mamui- 


paud, mapodan 


possess 


aidai 


nagri 




kosimi 




possible 


ngul 




pearl, pearl 


mai, (penina) 


mai, mai-tereg, maub. 


post 


pui, kag, sai, kurugat 


teter, seseri, atatmi-lu 


shell 




(penina) 


pour 


ieudai, iudai, sulai 


tigur, tigri 


peel 


adaka-kadamai 




power 


kupai, parapara, unewen 


sirdam, idigir 


peep 


balbad-pudi 


diketida, dituperti 


praise 


ta-umai 


despili 


peg 


ngur, naur, saiu-pat 


pes, teter 


pray 


wakai-ieudai, dan-gul- 


esor-erapeida 


pelican 


awai 






gumi, toitu-pagai, wa- 




pelt 


mungai 






kai-pungai 




pelvis 


mukui, alau-rid 




preach 


wakai-wiai, mau-mizi 


oka-batageli, marau 


penis 


ini 


eb 


precious 


koi-modobil 


au-bodomalam 


people 


garkazil, mabaegal 


gaire-le, le giz 


precede 


kulai-tai, puzi 


kekem-bakeam 


perch 




egimuli, igredi 


pregnant 


maitalaig 


kemkem 


perfect 


mina, babab 


debele-kemerkemer 


prepare 


butu-patai 


derseri 


perfume 


kapu-ganul 


gemelag 


presentiment 


rid-guitwai 




perhaps 


senakai 




present 


ieudai 


zeku, seker-lu 


perish 


sagul-palai 




press 


gar-tai, gar-tari, sup- 


ditkomeda 


perplex 


wara-kid-ugonauu-mai 


nerkep-oka-sosok 




nanamai, muluka- 




persecute 


getan-angai 


dedkoli 




nudi, pa-nudi 




persuade 


lupai 




pretty 


kapu 




person 


kazi, ka 


le 


prevent 


bal-tari, gud-wadai, wa- 




pertpire 


magau-ruag-asi 


mer-egida 




dai 




petticoat 


isu, maideg, zazi, tagar, 


nesur, tolop 


prick 


pagai 






mai was, taban, tabom 




prickle, prickly 


patal 


daradara 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES. 



181 



English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


1 
English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


prison 


doridimi-mud 


audbar-meta 


reed 


teki 


mebud, opisu, pater 


proceed 




barukli, mase 


reef 


maza, gangar, gata 


nor, ter, mat 


prohibition 


sabi 


gelar 


reflect, reflec- 


noidi, mari-noidi, mari 


mar-asmer 


project 


ngur-adai 




tion 






projection 




pit 


reject 


ada-tiai, gud-tadi, ada- 




promise 


ia-turai, iadu-palgai- 


etomereti 




ka-pugai 






zinga 




rejoice 


ikai-angai, ika-tiai 




proper, properly 


mata-mina 


abkoreb 


relate 


umai, iadu-palgai 




property 


zapul 


lugiz, kes 


release 


adaka-pagai, get-wani, 




proud 


gima-nganakap-mabaeg 


perorge, laglag-aule 




guit-wai 




prune 




paret 


remains 


aza 




pudenda mulie- 


mada 




remember 


nganauu-mai 


dikiapori, nole-oka-tap- 


bris 










riki 


pull 


iuti, ia-tarai, pardai, 


egwatumuda, edomeli, 


remnant 


unaizinga 






pudai 


darbumuda, dikia- 


remove 




iskemada 






muda 


repent 


wati-wakai-asi 


o-bazgeda 


pumice 


met 


zor 


report 


nur, iadai 


merkem 


punish 


modobia 


bodom 


resin 


ierka 




purge 


toi-asi 




resist 


get-wadai 




purple 


paramad-gamul 


kiamikiam, somer-ma- 


resort to 


puidi 








mamam, eroko-ma- 


rest 


ngana-pudi, gamu-tari, 


ner-esili 






mamam 




uradi 




push 


gar-nanamai, gar-nan- 
ami, get-widai 


imada 


return 


kunia-tidi, kunia-kid- 
tari 


akomeda, takomeda 


put 


kabutai, ada-nitui, arai, 


ikedi, adari, adrida, 


revolve 


gurgurai 






tarai 


arot, azrikedi 


reward 


modobia, modobia-mai 


bodom 


putrid 


usai 




rib 


bera 


bi-lid, lam-pot 








rich 


zapul 


luglug, lugizra apu 


quarrel 


kikiri-asi, ia-tamai, ia- 


bataparet 


ridge 


tra 


serer 




ulai, nguronudai 




rigging 


karasi-uru 




quartz 


us 




right 


kapua-korkak, mata- 


barkak, tonartonar 


question 


iapu-poibi 


itmeri 




mina 




quick 


kasigi, sobagi, wamen 


sobkak, dudum, keser- 
keser, wamen 


right-hand 
side 


get-dogam 


tuter, tuter pek 


quiet 


iagi-asi, dugi, gud-wani, 
paud, uurgi 


bazeguari, bameri 


ring 


du, gugabi, kod, pitu 


danako, gogob, kaub- 
kaub neb 


quill 


kaikai 




ripe 
ripple 


burugamul 


luinur, agjg, gebgeb, neau 
ipu. 


rafter 


sau 


pek 


rise 


danami, palgi, kadai- 


L'keamuda, osakeida 


rage 


kerket, tabu-kiklri 






tari. kadaka-mizi, ka- 




railing 


sai 


sal 




daka-pudai, ras-angai. 




rain 


ari 


irmer 




pa-iaidi, tapurai 




rainbow 


kuruai, oripara 


suseri 


river 


kasa, sarka 


dodo 


raise 


toridi 


agisi 


road 


iabu, iabugud 


gab 


rasp 


taimer 


taimar 


roar 


sobasob 


uiaisu 


rat 


makas 


mokeis 


roast 


natai 


ekaerti 


rattle 


goa, padatrong 


goa, mutmut, auperauper 


rock 


ngoidat, kurasar 


neid, gerar 


raw- 




keres, kereskeres 


rod 


tutu 




ray 


gwiar, kwier, maibi, 
tapimu,sursu,tolupai, 
taimer, tapi 




roll 


gugabid-tai, gurgumi, 
kula-kadami, nupado- 
tai, sirsimi, tupal-tai, 


erparida, ebegri, itarati 


reach 


get-luai 


ekarida 




tar-tai 




read 


get- tidal, get-tidi, ngulai 


etagi 


roof 


tod, toitu 


tot, meta-tum 
kes, uteb 
giz, sip, teb 


ready 


butupati, ngada-pali 


derseri 


room 


buta 


real 


mina, ngalkaigi 


kar 


root 


sipi 


rear 


kosi-mai 




rope 


uru, amu, buzi, galai- 


lager, beri, boz, sesepot. 


reason 


nagami 






gaipapi, ikur, kwodai. 


ked 


rebuke 


pa-wadai 


irgi 




urukam, wall 




receive 
reckon 


gasamai 

ngulai 

ugananu-mai 


erpeida 


rotten 
rough 


dobu, usai 
wasaral 


l)uzibuz 
sekerseker 


recollect 


nole-oka-tapriki, dikia- 

pori 
gimgim-ekaida 

mamamam, araur, mair- 
mair 


round 


gugabid 


deraueli, bataucrda, eg- 
eli, egremada, kaub- 


recover 
red 


doia-adai, gar-palgi, 
gar-palai, gar-pali 
kulkad-gamul, para- 
mad-gamul 


row 
rub 


iatai, kaba-nitui 
nudi, pini, gar-tatari, 
idimizi 


kaub 
nosik, seg, uzer-erebli 
desaui, etatmili, disirida, 

desaki 



182 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


rudder 


walunga, kuli 


korizer 


separate 


iananab 


kepn, detwi, ditakea- 


ruler 


gizu-mabaeg, minamai- 


kole, opole 






muda 




za 




sepia 


bidai, saingui 


arti-lele 


run 


pungai, zilamj 


koreder, diskemeda 


serenade 




rob 


rust 


tu, kuma 


le, tulik-le 


servant 


mudau-garka 


memeg-le 








set 


pudi, nauitai, tarai 


baraigida, iskedi 


sacred 


(maigi) 


(zogozogo) 


sew 


pagami, terpai 


itketi, dimiri 


sacrifice 


(iudai) 


(zegu-lu) 


shade 


irad, irad-aimai 


mud 


sad 


diugi 




shadow 


mari, rima 


mar 


safe 


wauab 


werkab 


shake 


pargui-mai, gargui-mizi. 


ibibi, durdur, demari, 


sago 


bisi, tugu 


bisi 




gargui-palai, lupai. 


deskerdi 


saU 


gulngu-waku, wakul- 


moder, atrugili, doakri 




lupi, apa-palai 






nga-pungai, tira-tami 




shallow 


sai 


tumtum 


sailor 


pazara 




shame 


azir 


sirip 


saliva 


mos 


mos, serur 


shape 


gamu 


roai, nog 


salt 


(sol), (alas), adabad-mi- 


(sol), (alas), kurab- 


share 


kupai 


derapeili, eragi 




tal 


kurab 


shark 


baidam, kursi, kaigas, 


beizam, irwapap, kn- 


salt water 


adabad, ur 


gur 




im 


masar, wazwaz, wer- 


salute 


get-pudai, gud-wiai, pa- 


degwati, maiem 






pirupiru 




ru-nudai 




sharp 


gizul 


gargergarger 


same 


matakeda 




sharpen 


gizu-walgai, gizu-palgai 




sand 


butu, surum, wiripai. 


we, borabor, iser 


shave 


iata-pati, luwai 






baradar 




she 


na 


e 


sap 


sus 


ninilu sus, serur 


sheath 


iaka 


dasirida 


satisfied 


ieragigig, maita-irui 


kem-osmeda, sirsir 


shed 


ieudai 




save 


igili-pali, mamui-mai. 


agemli 


sheen 


nieket, raekata 


zorom 




dan-walmai 




shell 


lu, kubar 


lid, sor 


sawfish 


waiitutu, apad, brug 


bologor 


shelter 


irad 




say 


ia-muli 


detaut 


shift 


tami 




scale 


poi, tataimili, totoiam 




shin 


kimus. tara 


serer-lid 


scalp 


Dgeringeri-dan 




shine 


nagi, meket-asi 


meb-gerip, zorom 


scar, scarify 


kwaimai-aimai 


dub, user 


ship 




au-nar 


scatter, 


lupai, iananab, narasa- 


ebegri 


shipwrecked 




serup 


scattered 


ragia 




shiver 


timiden-mai 


ziru-durdur 


scent, scented 


kapu-ganul, mina-ganul 


gemelag, pas, lewer pas, 


shoe 


adazi-san 


(teter-gab) 






obagobag, pekiau, sa- 


shoot, n. 


moigui, kuiku-dan 








ret, debe-laglag 


shoot, v. 


utui, tadi 


itimeda 


school 




ere-meta 


shore 


bau, butu, tawal 


tawer 


scold 


idai 


bataparet, ataparet 


short 


taiipai 


teupai 


scorch 


kaman-asi 




shoulder 


kolab, tabai, zugu- 


tugar, pagas, map 


scorpion 


diwi, watarau-getalai 


bukani 




kuik 




scourge 


palngi 


damriki 


shout 


makiam, wal, wal-mizi 


pade, erer-tikri 


scrape 


ibai 


ikrisi 


show 


iaka-mai, dan-tai, get- 


erueli, etomereti 


scratch 


kurtumai, tortai 






nitui 




screen 


zarzar 




shred 


musi-toi 




scrotum 




gebo 


shrimp 




meg-apu 


scrub-fowl 


surka 


surka 


shut 


guda-matamai, tamudai 


dimida 


sea 


malu, ur 


gur, karem 


sick 


kikiril 


gimgim 


search 


lumai 


deraimeli 


sickness 


kikiri 


gim 


seaside 


amadan-nguki, baud 


tawer 


side 


dogam, bera 


apek, deg, ber 


season 


tonar, wiet, buta 


urut 


sigh 


korkak-bad, nukunuku- 


ner-esili 


seat 


niai-za 


bau-lu 




poibi 




seaweed 


damu 


mean, tarpor 


sign 


tonar 


mek, atamelam 


secret 


rima, gumi 


gumik, bagem 


silent 


iagi, iagi-asi, iagi-palai 




seduce 


karum-supamai 




similar 


matakeda 


mokakalam 


see 


imai 


dasmer, bakaerti, er- 


sin 


wati-pawa 








dali 


sinew 


kirer 


kerar, peris 


seed 


kapu, kausa, kusa 


neg, kep, narger 


sing 


nau-puidai 


wed-dikrili, tag-wed 


seek 


lumai 


deraimeli 


sink 


dudupai, dudupi 


baiteri, seb-dirki, seb- 


seize 


kata-nidai 


erpeida 






dirwi 


select 


iapi 




sister 


babat, tukuiap 


berbet, keimer, le 


self 


kurusaig, kurseg, koro- 




sister-in-law 


ngaubat 


neubet, naiwet 




seg 




sit 


apa-tanuri, niai, apa- 


emrida, esor-erapeida. 


sell 


bai-pudai 


erapei 




tai, apia-unai, apia- 


igredi 


send 


wai 


emarida, ditirida 




puidai, apia-iai, ma- 




sentence 


kudu 


kodo 




sik 





INDEX TO VOCABULARIES. 



183 



English 


Mabdiag 


Miriam 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


skeleton 


lu 


lid 


spear, n. 


kalak, bager, barugut. 


bager, baur, dab, gelub, 


skewer 




kep, kuskeg 




dagulal, iad, wap, tul. 


kaigob, put, zab 


skin 


gamu, gungau, pura, 


gegur, paur 




tugu,suai, takai, taku 






pauna, ngeringeri-dan 




spear, v. 


pagai 


eremli, iski 


BkuU 


pada-kuik, natiam 


kerem-lid 


speech 


ia 


mer, giz-mer 


sky 


dapar, mei, gima 


kotor, arem, baz 


speechless 


iagi 


merkak 


slack 


berai 


norgor 


spend 


aigi-tai 




slant 


iui, iaiai, balkid 


gorgor 


spider 


enti, ma 


sober 


slap 


matauiai 


detapi, kop-ditimeda 


spike 


soki 


sok 


sleep 


utui, utui-iunai 


ut, ut-eideda 


spill 


ieudai 


epaiteredi 


sleepy 


maitui 




spin 


tardai 


dirimli, omen 


slide 


daia 




spine 


tabu-rid, goru-rid, ibaib. 


sorkop-lid, seker, o-seker 


sling 


singi 






waki 




slip 


pungai, pa-get-wani 


epersida 


spirit 


mari, mllri 


mar, lamar 


slippery 




pertarpertar 


spit 


mosal-adai, mos-sulupai 


mos-ituli, mos-ekaida 


slit 


iaigai 




spittle 


mos 


mos 


slope 


iui 


gorgor 


split 


palai 


ekesmuda, etrida 


slow 


sobal, gabu-dau 


sob, iskeli, wapum, be- 


spoil 


getal-angai, getan-mizi 


dedkoli 






ber 


sponge 


pagara, ngarngar, gouga 


sab 


slumber 


maitui 




spoon 


akul 


aro-lu, kaip 


small 


magi 


kebi 


spread 


apo-aimai, apa-pudai, 


esegeri, esegemeda 


smart 


kerket 






apo-budai, gar-widai, 




smash 


palga-palai 






tadi 




smear 


pini 


desau 


spring 


kata-palgi, (dana-nguki) 


ni-omeida 


smell 


ganu, ganul-tai, ganu- 


lag 


sprout 


malgui, malgui-adai 


lam-eperkili, kupi 




pulmai 




spur 


ngasa 




smile 


duba-giu-wali 




squall 


ras 


wi 


smite 


matamai, matami 




squeeze 


gam-sasimai 


igmesi 


smoke 


tu, muingu-tu, ngalkai 


kemur, (erurwer) 


squirm 


sirsimi 


epiteli 


smooth 




zurkak 


stab 


pagai 


iski 


snake 


elma, piroan, ger 


tabu, pagi 


staff 


bogi 


koket, bager 


snare 


niu 


pom 


stale 


uma-gud 




snatch 


gamu-mai 


itkeda, ditkeda, adem- 


stalk 


maupas 


lam-pot, pes 






itkiri, darborida, it- 


stammer, 


tat a, tata-idaig 


lukluk 






kiri 


stammering 






sneer 


ngur-zilami 


op-auzi 


stand 


kadaka-tanori, kadai- 


ekweida 


sneeze 


asar 


siau, siau-esili 




tari, kadaka-mizi, ka- 




snore 




gegermer 




dain-tamai 




snout 


iaau 




star 


titoi, lituri, titui 


wer, maier, ilwel, nesau 


so 


keda, matakeda 


weakai, ab-kesem 


star6sh 


tituititui 


iseise, saurisauri 


soft 


pira, napi 


gebgeb 


stare 


dauau-purutai 


lid-dasmeri 


soil 


apa, baradar 


seb, geseb 


start 


madu-pamai, sib-kat- 


ezigmada, orida 


sole of foot 


mazar, san 


teter-gab 




■""'s' . ., , , , 




some 


badagi, wara 


wader, uerute 


startle 


madu-parai, sib-kat-pai- 




son 


kazi, turukiai-kazi 


weiem, kimiar-werem 




gi, sib-palgapali 




song 


nau 


wed, saniena 


stay 


niai, siai 


dull, imi, imri, emrida. 


soon 


kai 


menaba, dudum, keser- 






warem 






keaer 


steady 




kus 


sorcerer 


maidelaig, ari-puilaig, 


maid-kem-le 


steal 


purunu-wasami 


eruam, itkami 




gubau-puilaig 




steep 




au-gorgor , 


sorcery 


maid, lukup 


maid, piiripuri, lukup 


steer 


gimia-pagai, kakurka- 


korizer-erpeili 
datupida 


sore 


kikiri, badal 


asi, badbad, asiasi 


step over 


Borrow 


wakai-kuam 


nas 




tai, kakurka-patai. 




sorry 


ngatal, mitalnga 


nasge, nasnas 




pagai 


kor 


soul 


mari 


mar, lamar 


stern 


kuna 


bound 


nur, u, ia 


nier, mut, burner 


stick, D. 


keka, kuniikumi, pui. 


koket, pes, pat, kus 


sour 


teral, mitagi, sebarar 


zurabzurab, kurabku- 
rab 


stick, V. 


tutu, bogi 


narger, neu 
batagemda, batagemli 


south 


ziai-dogam 


logab 


still 


mata 


bes-esmeda 
iski 


south east 


waur-dogam 


sager, sager-pek 


still-born 




south west 


kuki-ada 


giai, ziai 


sting 


pagai 


south wind 


ziai 


gared 


sting ray 


gwiar, taimer, aona, waki 


goar, tapim, ubar 
semelag 


sow 


utui, lupai 


emorda 


stink 


watiganu 


space 
spark 


buta, sugu 
kokaper 


kes 
kakaper 


stockade 
stomach 


pa 

maita, wera 


pokopokoteibur, keu 
norkep 


speak 


ia-muli, umai 


egali, detauti 







184 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


stone 


kula, pula, bau, kulan- 


baker, neid, irmad. 


table 


(laulau) 


(laulau) 




muugai, iara 


mat, terpur 


tabu 


sabi, saker 


gelar, sab, wis, zogozogo 


stony 


kulal, pangad 


neid 


tack 


ruai 




stoop 


muluka-pudi, apa-pudi 


eparsida, eparsili, esor- 


tail 


kob, kupal, pakai, pel 


upi, keup 






giru 


take 


mai, mani, gamu-nidi. 


ais, aisili, egaredi, dikia- 


stop 


niai, siai, bal-tari, wa- 


mena, imri, daisumda, 




getia-iuti 


muda, itili, itugeret, 




dai 


itpari 






itrumda, egimer 


storm 


ras 


ras, torob, au-wag 


tale 


adi, gida 


ad 


story 


adi, gida 


ad 


talk 


ia, ia-muli, guda-nitui, 


egali 


straight 


balbalgi, kapua-kor- 


barkak 




gudan-muDgai 






kak 




tall 


koikutal 




straighten 


balbalgi-palai, balbalgi- 


bar-ditki 


tally 




kupe 




tidai 




tame 


tubud-amai 


markak 


strait 




ukes 


tangle 


sirisiri 




strange 


iaba, adazi. wara-kid 


sub, kerkar 


taro 


goin, wiba 


aneg 


stranger 


iabaig, iaba-kazi 


sub-le, adi-le, nog-le 


taste 


mita, miti-patai, tera 


tep-desker 


stream 


kasa, bubu, sarka 


dodo 


tasteless 


mitagi 




strength 


magao 


kelar 


teach 


Dgurapai 


erewerem 


stretch 


uru-bal-pudai, luai, pu- 


batirimuda 


tear 


ialgai, ilagi 


etoati, ezagri 




dai, luwai, luwidi 




tear, tears 


ngudi 


e, eb 


strike 


matamai, nanamai, ni- 
tui 


ipiti 


tell 


ia-mulai, umai, iaka- 
mai 


detageri, deskeda 


string 


iadal, wali, igali 


ked 


tempest 


gub, ras 


au-wag, ras 


string figure 


wome 


kamut 


temple 


daka 


ikap 


strive 


pa-toridi 




tempt 


nutai, nuti 


mirem 


stroke 


gar-tatari 




tend 




aseseredi, asisih, desisi 


strong 


kunakan, magaol 


kelarkelar, elele, sase- 


tender 


puso 








rim 


tendon 


kirer 


kerar 


stumble 


rapai, rapi 


ituri 


tendril 




pis-mus 


such 


keda, matakeda 


absaimarsaimar 


termite 


mugu-urui 




suck 


noi-pui, tauiai 


esomedi 


tern 


sera 


sirar 


sucker-fish 


gapu 


gpp 


terror 




geum 


suckle 


susun-tauiai 


emeli, esomedi 


testament 




(tom) 


suckling 




sursur-werem 


testicle 


kakur, waiwai 


geb-wer 


sudden 


rima-pagai 




thank 


eso, ieso 


esoao 


sugar-cane 


geru, kaiara-gara 


ueru 


that 


sena, senu, senab, senub 


ab, abele 


suitable 




abkoreb 


thatch 


mugud, kamug 


akur, maisu, deremli 


summit 


goi 




theft 


puru 




sun 


goiga 


lem 


their 


palamun, tanamun 


wiaba 


sunrise 


ar, goiga-palgi 


bane, lem osakeida 


them 


palai, tana 


wiabi 


sunset 


goiga-pudi 


lem-baraigida 


then 


uge 


weakai, penoka, geirdi 


surface 


bupur 




there 


sena, senu, sewa, si 


ge, moko 


surfeit 


iboib-tai 




these 


ipal, ita 




surname 


sakar-tai 




they 


tana, palai 


wi, wiaba 


surpass 


ada-pudai 




thick 


badal 




surround 


masik 


dirumdi, deraueli 


thief 


puru-mabaeg 


atkara-le, lug-atkamer-le. 


swallow 


angi 


irmili 






eruam-le 


swamp 


gawat 


berder 


thigh 


dokap 


wakei, pat 


sway 




etali, emare 


thin 


pepe, saked 


lerkar, gemkak, gem- 


swear 


bagain-idai, gegead-pu- 


iskosi (?) 






kerar, gem-lidlid 




gai, kauria-tai 




thine 


niuunga 


mara, mabara 


sweat 


mag, murug, magau- 


mereg, meregida 


thing 


za, pawa, ia 


lu 




ruaig-asi 




think 


nganauu-mani, sib-mai. 


dikiapori 


sweep 


tiki-palai 


beilidu-dirupi 




nagami, sesi-tamai, 




sweet 


mital, wam-mital 


debe-laglag 




wakain-tamai 




sweetheart 


rugaig, mudaig-kaz 




thirsty 


nguki-nai 


ui-ap 


sweet potato 


nrugabau (kumala) 


dgab, ogar-gab, kak, 
nuri (kumala) 


this 


ina, inabi, nabi inu, 
inubi 


ab, abele, pe, peike 


swell 


irui, pusakar-adai 


deib-eberi 


thorn 


patal-pui 


lu-daradar, lu-zigerziger 


swelling 


duba 


deib 


thorny 


patal 


daradara, zigerziger, se- 


swim 


tapi, karuma-tapi, wa- 


barebli 






kerseker 




pid-tapi, ur-pagai 




those 


sepal, ta, ita 




swing 


kabi 


etali 


thou 


ngi, ni 


ma, mama 


swollen 


pusakar 




threadle 


terpai 


isisiri, dasirida, digagur 


sword 


kuiai-tuik 


koer 


threaten 


bag-iapi, bag-tai, bag- 




swordiish 




bei 




tiai 





INDEX TO VOCABULARIES. 



185 



English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


English 


Mabdiao 


Miriam 


three 


ukasar-urapon, uka-mo- 


neis-netat 


twin 


ukakid 






dobilgal 




twine 


wall 




throat 


ia, korkak 


pereg, ner-kep 


twinkle 


samudan-matami 




through 
throw 




batimeda, lam 


twirl 


tardai 


dirimli 


tai, adaka-tai, bal-uri- 


batauredi, dikri, itime- 


twist 


nurai, kup-niani 


dikromeri 




mai 


da, dau 


two 


ukasar, kuasar, nkaskas, 


neis 


throwing stick 


kubai 






pal 




thumb 


kaba-get 


au-ke 








thunder 


doiom 


girgir 


ulcer 


moaizinga, bada 


begur 


thus 


keda 


kega 


unable 


karawaeg 


nnierkak, sagim 


tide 


ninii. nginu 


mara, mabara 


uncle 


wadwam, awade 


baba. aua 


tawal 


meg, gotat, meskep 


under 




lokodge, mudge 


tie 


kunumi, kabu-idai, ma- 


diuiiri, didbari, dedko- 


underside 


^a-dogam 


mud 




iek-tai, muku-poidai 


medi 


understand 


wakain-tamai, ruamai 


aknieri 


tighten 


pa-dorilimi 


isgarik, elele 


undo 


gud-wai 


detwi, daratumeda, deu- 


tm 


kurusika 








selu, didwi 


time 


mai, tonar 


(taim) 


undress 




igida, wali-adem-igida 


tip 
tured 




mop 


uneasy 


rid-guit-wai 




kauba, gamu-daidami 


erar 


uneven 




natkak-darakri 


to 


ka, pa 


em, m 


uninhabited 


kazigi 


le-kak 


to and fro 


kidakida 


watupili, detail, digem- 


unless 


nugedan 








li, disirida 


unlike 


ngadagi 




tobacco 


sukuba 


sokop 


unloose 


get-wani 


detwi 


to-day 


kaib 


abele-gereger 


unpleasant 


terar, teral 




toe 


dimur, kuku, sia 


teter-ke 


unripe 


nuru, kobaris 


kereskeres, sab, pez 


toil 


kauba-asi 




unsteady 




weresweres 


to-morrow 


batainga 


iobaru, idim 


until 


kurusika 


mopge 


tongs 

tongue 

tooth 




komazer 


unwilling 


ubigi 


lakak, nole lakak 


noi 


werut 


up 


kadaka 


kotorge 


dang, gi 


tereg 


upright 


kadaka-tanori 




top 


gima, tod, wana 


turn, kolap, sirip 


upset 


pa-ieudi 


bapegeli 


torch 


tu 


bei, ne 


upward 


kaiiai 




torn 


ilagi, pis-muli 


atoatatoat 


urine 


nguki, nguki-toidai 


usi, espi 


torment 


kerket-palai 




us 




meribi, keribi 


totem 


augad 




utter 


poibi 




totter 
tonch 


gamu-tarai, gamu-tari. 


ituti 


vain, in vain 


ngugidan, nguigidan 


sagim, no 




gar -tai, gar-tari, 




valley 




awak, pat 




nidi 




vanish 


rimagi-asi 


badmirida 


tower 


aka-wiet 




vein 


kirer 


kcrar 


tradition 




emeret-mer 


verandah 




maisu 


trap 


graz 




verse 


kudu 




travel 


iawai, waugi 




very 




au 


tread 


gima-taiai 




village 


gogiiit 


uteb 


tree 


pui 


in 


violet colour 


nuni-gainul 




tremble 


gal-lupai, galu-pali, 


durdur 


voice 


wakai 


kodo-mer 
megi, meg-egli 




gamu-gal-Iupai, bu- 
main-widai 




vomit 


magisanal-adi 






voyage 


tardai, bal-tai 


atiem 


trench 


gowa, walbai 


awak, irkes 


vulva 


niada 


mune 


trepang 
true 


mina 


kar, beskak, ageakar 


wag head 


kuikii-lupi 


keremu-dirili 

bodom 

baudaredi 


trumpet 
trunk 


bu 
kab 


maber 
giz, lu-gem 


wages 
wail 


modolti 
ia-adamai 


trust 


kapu-wakai-asi, mina- 
iaka-tamai 


o-ituli 


waist 
wait 


ka 

ugai, tuma, tumakai 


niena, warem 


truth 




ageakar 


wake 


pa-walmai 


itiri 


try 


nutai, nuti 


mirem 


walk 


ulai, ulmai, lugulgu- 


ekasi 


tuft 

turmeric 

turn 


kup 

kiil-tai, bal-tai 


bam 

eraski, egremada 


walking-stick 
wall 


pi 
bogi 
pasi 


koket 

lemlem, kosker-teibur 

epitili 

siuaimi, kola pespes 


turtle 


waru, surlal, sulur, wa- 
nawa 


nam, korkor, mergai, 
siruar, olai 


wallow 
wand 


sirsimi 


turtle shell 
tusk 


karar 

gi, ngaingai 


kaisu, kesur. 


wander 
want 


iawai 

ubi, ubin-mizi, moken- 


laglag 


twig 


niki 


lislis 




mizi 




twilight 


kuta-buia 


bane-ekri, ki-kem 


war 


kaubu 


24 




H. Vol. III. 









186 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


English 


Mabuiag 


Miriam 


ward off 


akai 




wind, V. 


nuri 




warm 


koama, koama-pali, 


geb-baugeli 


windpipe 


mabar 


mer 




kamanal 




windward 


paipa 




warn 


iadaiwai 




wing 


ngaka, bata 


pao 


warrior 


kaubu-niabaeg 


ares le 


wipe 


turatai 


itkiri, atkuua 


wash 


gar-walgai, urpu-tai 


dinipi, og-arub, dedere- 


wisdom 


kutin, muamu, ngn 








di 


wise 


kutinau-kuik 


lug-asmer-le, pardar le 


wasp 


ga, ga-rur, apa-ga 


narb 


wish 


ubin-mizi, ubi 


lag, mimim 


waste 


sagul-palai 




with 




kem 


watch 


danan-patai, danal-pat- 
ai, poipiam, tonar- 
tidai, tuma-ia-wai 


dasmeri, aseseredi 


wither 


abi-tidi, palel-asi, um- 
asi, get-salmai, mar- 
kai-salmai 




water 


nguki, adabad, ur 


ui 


withered 


palel 


euselu, watwet 


waterfall 




dodo-abi 


within 


muinu 


muige 


waterhole 


iiguki, ngukiu-gud 


ni-pat 


witness 


garka 


mer umer le 


waterspout 


bail! 


gub 


woman 


ipi, ipika, ipikazi 


kosker, neur 


water vessel 


gud 


ni-kabor, as, idisor, ni- 


womb 


maita 


kem 






sor 


wonder 


iagi-mizi, ngana-iuti. 


dameri 


wave 


ban 


zauber 




lu-pali, ngana-wali 




wax 


isau 


isau 


wood 


pui, watar 




we 


ngoi, ngalpa, ngalbe 


meriba, mi, keriba, ki, 


word 


ia 


mer 






uma 


work 


zaget 


dorge 


weak 


gagadi, gogadi, kauba, 


gebgeb, salgar 


world 


ina-apal 


abele-geseb 




daga 




worm 


kupar 


gegedar 


weapon 




ares-lu 


worn 


kulba 




wear 


angi 




worry 


sib-pami, gar-ngalkai 




weed 


sowagai. tudai 


no-sumez 


worship 


pa-pudi 




week 


dada-puta, dada mainu 


(gereger sefen) 


wound 


lapaizinga 


ziz 


weep 


mai-pudai, ngudi-suli. 


ezoli, ebeb 


wrap 


nurai 


sopem-iteli 




rnai-irsi 




wring 




igmesi, demaisereti 


weight 


mapn 




wrist 


tiap, tirap, perta 


kebi-kok 


weir 


graz 


sai 


wristlet 


perta-urukam 




well 


ngukiu-gud, mai, dan 


pat, mamui 


write 


minar-palai 


detail, war 


west 


kuki-dogam 


koki, ziai 








wet 


iigukil, ulai 


bebeb 


yam 


gabau, bizar, bud, dea- 


lewer, bonau, borometa, 


whale 


matu 


galbol 




bu, ketai, kutai, nag- 


daibar, goz, kak, kaki- 


what 


mi, miai. Cf. Grammar 


ua, nako, nalu 




uai, sagu, sauur, ta- 


gaba, kep-sabez, ipi- 


when 


mi-l)uta. Cf. Grammar 


ababurge 




pan, urugabau 


gaba, iwariwar, ketai. 


where 


milaga 


nade 






madupeuau, mapis, 


while 




mena, menaba 






penau, sap, segei, tap, 


whip 


pepedu, palngiza 


lolo 






usarip, waimawaima 


whiskers 


bagiata, lata 




yawn 




tewawida 


whistle 


kabi, watu, upius-puiai 


komelag, gasu-barpeili. 


year 


wiet 


urut 






persokpersok, auper- 


yellow 


murdgamul, wudgamul, 


bambam, siusiu, mosiu, 






aupei', neabgir 




uru 


zomkolberkolber 


white 


maid-gamul, merkal, 


kakekakek, giaudgiaud. 


yes 


wa, wagar, samido, mi- 


ao, wao, eko 




miakal 


zazerzazer 




sai 




who 


nga 


nete 


yesterday 


ngul 


abgereger 


whole 


mura, badaginga 


kemerkemer 


yet 




mena 


why 




aka 


young 


kazi, kutaig, puso 


kerkar 


wicked 


wati 


wit 


you 


ni, ngi, nipel, ngipel. 


ma, wa, waba 


widow 


maikaig 


maik-kosker 




nita, ngita 




widower 




maik-kimiar 


your 


ninu 


mara, mabara 


wife 


ipika 


kosker 


yourself 




mabu, wabu 


wig 


adazi-ial 




youth 


kawa-kuik, kernge 


makerem 


wild 


toidal 


marmar 








wind, n. 


guba 


wag, burner 


zenith 




wer 



THE LITERATURE OF THE WESTERN ISLANDERS OF TORRES STRAITS. 

No European has produced a translation or other literary specimen in any of the 
dialects spoken in the Western Islands of Torres Straits. Though mission work in this 
group was commenced on the island of Dauan in 1871, no printed book was in use 
until the year 1884. This first production was a translation of the Gospel of St Mark 
into the dialect of Saibai, made by Elia, a Lifuan teacher' who had worked on the 
island for thirteen years. It was revised by the Rev. S. MacFarlane and printed by the 
New South Wales Auxiliary Bible Society under the editorial care of the Rev. J. P. 
Sunderland. It is entitled INa EVANcelia mareko minarpalaN\ (The Gospel according 
to Mark, Translated into the Language of Saibai, Tuan. Mabuiag, Torres Straits.) 
Sydneij F. Gunmnrjhaine <£• Co., General Printers, 146 Pitt t^treet. 

The pagination is from 1 to 71 including the title-page. At the end of some 
copies there are found paged from 73 to 121, but without a separate title, the following: 

Kulai lapupoibiz. lesun Toitupagiz. lehovan sabi ina. Mura Napoidan Augadii^. 

The whole of this matter is extremely imperfect and was apparently never properly 
revised by the translator nor by any one acquainted with the language. There are 
numerous typographical errors and words are not consistently spelled and often wrongly 
divided. It was essentially a translation from the Lifuan, the gospel being probably 
J3ased on Elia's copy of the version of 1873^ with the hymns from his Lifuan Hymnbook". 

Signs of the Lifu source of the Gospel translation were given by Dr Haddon and 
myself in our former Study of the Languages". They may be briefly stated as follows. 

1. Lifu orthography is prominent. The vowels o and e are constantly used, also 

tr and dr for t and d. 

2. Introduced words from English, Greek or Samoan have the same form as in 

Lifu, altliougli the natives of Saibai and the Straits have no difficulty in 
pronouncing the correct word. Examples are : icaci (watch) ; wan (one) ; 
gavana (governor); waina (wine); areto ('Vpro?) ; alas (tiM); kamete (Samoan, 
'iimete). i 

' The mission of the Loudon Missionary Society in the Islands was commenced by the Kevs. Dr S. 
MacFarlane and A. W. Murray. They proceeded in 1871 directly from Lifu in the Loyalty Islands to Darnley 
Is. and Dauan, and all the native teachers accompanying them were Lifuans. An interesting note on Elia 
and Lochat, the pioneer missionaries in Saibai, is to be found in D'Alberti's New Guinea, Vol. ii. p. 3.50. 

'^ I.e. This Gospel Mark wrote. 

' I.e. First questioning. Jesu's prayer. Jehova's law this. All Hymns (of) God. 

* Isisinyikeu ka nyipixe i John lesu Keriso, hna ujane qangi'me In qene FAeni knwe Ui qene IMm. 
Lonedon, 1873. 

' Niijei Nyimu. London. The Religious Tract Society. (No date.) 

* "A Study of the Languages of Torres Straits," Proceedings of Royal Irish Academy, 3rd Ser. Vol. iv. 
pp. 120, 121. 

2-1—2 



1! 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



3. Lifu idioms are literally translated, as e.g. in Mark x. -t and xvi. 10 where a 

married woman is refeiTed to by the dual pronoun'; and in Mark i. 19 
where 'son of is indicated by the possessive sign". 

4. Lifn grammatical forms are introdnced into the Saibai, as e.g. ' third day' is 

translated by 'goiga thnn' in which 'thrin' is the English word 'three' with 
the Lifu causative suffi.x 'n.' The Lifu verbal particle is also frequently used. 
As an example of the Saibai version, I give an extract (Mark iv. 3 — 8) with 
literal translation, and the corresponding passages in the recent Mabuiag version. 



SAIBAI. 

.S. Ngita karengemiziii, ngapanagemiu, ngapa uzar 
Ye hear ye ■look-hither hither goes 

senabi wara mabaeg utun a utun. 
that one man planted and planted. 

4. A noidoka-' mata utuipa, durai siei putizi 
And lie continues plants some there falls 

iabugudanu, ngapa mangizo urui palgizo a purutamoin. 
on-path hither come biril llying and {they) ate. 

5. Durai gimal muko putizi ina magina baradar, 
Some top rock falls here little earth 

mata dobura malegui-adan, pepe baradarangu. 
quickly sprout came out thin earth-through. 



6. A goiga palgizo, baradar 
And sun Jump up earth 
kainga, wa ramoginga. 
Iiig thing yes rootless-thing. 



koamasin, 
not-became 



then 



7. Durai putizi pui patralai'' 
Sojne falls plant thorny 
malegui adan pui pratralinge-* a 
sprout came-ont plant thorny-then and to JiAd-to outside 
taeamoiu a kiiusa gimael. 
threw then fruit less-things. 



dadal, kadaipa 
among up 

apapa ugurii 



MABUIAG. 

3. Nita karingemiziu ; Senu mabaeg lupan saito. 

Ye hear That man scattered seed 

nui uzari a lupan. 
he goes and scattered, 

4. A nuid lupan saito, wara si noridi iabugud 
And he scattered seed some there fell path 

pasi, a urui ngapa palgin a purutamin. 
side and bird hither Jiew and {thei/) ate. 

5. Waramal norid gimal apapu, soabaginga 

Some falls top rock-on not-slow-thing 
malgui adan apapungu kedamai poaugat boradar. 
sprout canie-out rock-through because shallow earth. 

6. A goiga danami, a boradar kamana asin, 
And sun rose and earth hot became 

um gar asin kedamai sipiginga. 

dead altogether became because rootless-thing. 

7. Waramal noridi patal pui dada kaimel a 

Some falls thorny plant middle mates and 
patal pui malgui adan . a sirisiri uuran, * 
thorny plant sprout came out and crowded twisted-round 
kedamai kausaginga. 
therefore fruitless-thing. 



8. Durai putizi iua mina baraparanu, a 8. 

Some falls here true ground on and 

tariitaiz, a sirisiri, a kiitisalenga; a kousa adan, 
goes-round and grew-tliick and fruitiug-thing and fruit i 
aidaiuga thiirte nainonop a .sikiste, a wan handed. 
food-thing thirty separated and sixty and one hundred. and 



Waramal noridi mina baradar, a malgui 
Some falls true earth and sprout 

a magubi koima thode iananab a siksete 
came-out and ,' greatly thirty separated and sixty 
a urapou handed. 



hundred. 



The Hymns are similarly translated from the Lifu book. The rendering is very 
literal without much regard to metre. The following extract, a version of the well 
known hymn, " All people that on earth do dwell," may serve as a specimen. It is 
the first hymn in both Lifu and Saibai books. The revised Mabuiag version is also given. 



' Saibai: palumuliia gudo-waean, Lifu: sei nyidnti pi, put her away, but lit. put them two away. Also 
Saibai: Palae vzarman, Lifu: htiei nyidoti hna tro. She (Mary Magdalene) went, lit. they two went. 

- Saibai: lakahou Lehedaio, Lifu: lakobo i Zebedaio, James (the son) of Zebedee, lit. James of Zebedee. In 
the Saibai, Xehedaio is wrongly printed Lebedaio. 

^ This is probably for noidd, he, and kai, soon, close up. 

■• An example of the Lifu spelling with pr and tr for ;; and t ; patralai, pratralinge for patalai and patalinge. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS. 



189 



LIFU. 

Nyipunie nojei noje, 
Ye pluriil people 
Thiliju koi Akotesie ; 
Worsliip to God 
Mekuneju la Joxu cas, 
Think of the Lord one 
Ate xupe me kenithe. 
Man nuikes and ? 

Hna xupi sha qa ku' hnadro, 
Did make us indeed from ground 
Hnene la mene i nyide; 

By the power of him 
Nge menu he sha nijjei at, 
And eiT did we plural men 
Hna 'mc-kiiti sha hmaca ha. 
Did right us again have. 



SAIBAI. 

. Ngita kawa koii,'6rsar. 
Ye islarul mantj 
Kapiiza mulpa patidiz, 
Good thing down bend 
Nongo paru lehova, 
His face Jehovah 
Mabaego aimipa. 
Man makes. 

. Noi ugalpau aimipa, 
He us makes 
Ina apalo barada, 
This beloir ground 
Ngalpalpa rimarim mura, 

To-us foolish all 
Noi miua butupatau. 
He true makes. 



MABUIAG. 

1. Nita lagal koigoresar, 

Ye j/laees many 
Mina wakai, 
True voice 
Nungu paru leova, 

His face Jehovah 
Mabaeg aiman. 

Man made. 

2. Nuid ngalpun aiman, 

He us vuide 
Ina apal boradar. 
This below ground 
Ngalpa mura dimidem. 

We all foolish 
Nui mina butupatan. 
He true prepared. 



In 1888, when Dr Haddon first visited the Straits, he obtained from the natives 
some versions of dance songs and incantations. Some of these were printed in his 
papers on the Ethnography of the Western Tribe', and on the Dances of Torres Straits''. 

During the visit of the Expedition in 1898 the work of re-translating the gospels 
was Hearing completion. It was being carried out in the Mabuiag dialect by the 
London Missionary Society's teacher Isaia, a native of Samoa, with the help principally 
of Ned (Waria), and in a less degree of Tom (Noboa), and Peter (Papi). The version 
was sent to England by the late Rev. James Chalmers and printed by the British 
and Foreign Bible Society in 1900. It was entitled : 

EVANGELIA lESU KERISO MATAION MINARPALAIZINGA. 

(Tusi ina lesu Kerison mina ladai.) 
London, British and Foreign Bible Societi/, 1900-'. 

Though only the Gospel of Matthew is mentioned in this title, it is followed, 
without separate title pages, by the Gospels of Mark, Luke and John. 

The basis of the new translation was the teacher's Samoan version^ and of this 
there are several traces. Proper names and words derived from the Greek, such as 
areto, bapataiso, nato, peritome, follow the Samoan instead of the Lifuan spelling where 
the two difi^er^ In some cases a purely Samoan word has been used when a native 
equivalent has not been easy to find, as for example: lautalotalo, lilies of the field', 
matai tusi, letter, tittle. As regards composition this version is a great improvement 

' Vide .Journal of Anthropological Institute, Vol. xix. 1890, pp. 376 — 380. 

2 " The Secular and Ceremonial Dances of Torres Straits," Internationales Archiv fUr Ethnographie, Bd. vi. 
1893, pp. 131—162. 

•' I.e. Gospel Jesus Christ. Matthew's writing. Book this .lesus Christ's true words. 

^ There have been many editions of the Samoan Bible. That which I have used in these comparisons 
is: O le Tusi Paia o le feaguiga tuai ma le feagaiga fou lea, na faa samoaina. London, 187!l. 

•'■ The letter r as in areto, peritome, is not properly a Samoan sound, but was introduced into that 
language in these words from Tahitian. They have the same form in Lifuan into which they were introduced 
from Samoa, but nato, Mabuiag from Samoan, is narado in Lifu, from (ir. vapio^. 

« So in Matt. vi. 28, but in Lu. xii. 27 "lilies of the field" is translated bapau kain, "newness of bush." 
Lifu ill both places has peledi;, a scarlet lily-like flower. Lautalolalo i-; the Samoan mime for Crinum asiaticum. 



190 ANTHEOPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

on the former gospel, owing no doubt to the collaboration of the natives. The chief 
faults were in punctuation and spelling, but most of these I was able to correct whilst 
the book was passing through the press. 

A new version of the Catechism and Hymn Book is also in the Mabuiag dialect. 
It is entitled : 

KuLAi Iapupoibi, Jesun Wakai iudan a Ieovan Sabi. Naupuiuaika'. 

[A hrst Catechism, Lord's Prayer, Commandment and Hymns in the Language of 

Mabuiag, Western Torres Straits.] London, 1902. 

The Hymnal portion has 82 pieces, some of which are prayers and e.xhortations 
rather than hymns. Metre, as in the former book, is little regarded. A specimen has 
been given on page 189. 

During my enquiries concerning the language of the Western tribe I took down 
from my informants on .several occasions short versions of several legends. Thus I ob- 
tained from Waria short accounts of Amipuru and Ainudua, from Maino, the story of 
Tabepa, and from Wallaby the account of the stranding of the first coco-nut on Muralag 
and the story of the Mangrove and the Crab. These will appear hereafter as specimens 
of the dialects. 

Dr Haddon also in the course of his enquiries obtained many .specimens of kap 
kudu or dance songs, and Wenewen, or Uneiuen, magical incantations. All these com- 
positions, which are probably the oldest in the language, present great difficidties in 
translation. The dance songs are especially hard. The introduction of expletives, and 
the clipping or lengthening of the original words to suit the requirements of rhythm 
have caused them to become, even to the natives themselves, a mere string of words 
of which only the general meaning is known-. Even in the hymns, as now sung in 
church, there is very much repetition and lengthening of syllables to suit the tune. 
This indefinite character is, as 1 have elsewhere shown^ a characteristic of Melanesian 
and New Guinea songs, and probably also of those of most peoples in a low stage of 
culture. 

Since the introduction of writing by the missionaries, church and other public 
notices are often written, and S(jme of the younger natives occasionally write letters. 
Some examples are given in Vol. V. pp. 227, 228. 

After our return to England we received from Waria a voluminous manuscript in 
the Mabuiag dialect, which is in many ways of great interest. It is the first literary 
composition of importance produced by a member of the Papuan race-*. Polynesians 
and Melanesians have often produced literature in their own languages, but no Papuan'* 

' I.e. First Questioning. Jesu's Prayer and .Jehovah's Law. Hymns for singing. 

- Cf. Kwoiam's magical invocation " Mawa keda, etc." A native would often give the supposed meaning 
of a song in Jargon English, but this very rarely corresponded to the native words of the song. 

' Introductory Notice of Melanesian and New Guinea Songs, prefixed to : " Songs and Specimens of the 
Language of New Georgia, Solomon Islands," collected by Lieut. B. T. Somerville, Journal of Anthropological 
Institute, XXVI. pp. 436—445, 1897. 

■* Pasi's writings in the Miriam language are earlier in point of time, but more defective as specimens of 
native composition. 

5 The term Papuan is here restricted to the natives of Torres Straits and of British New Guinea West 
of Cape Possession. For fuller details see Part in. of this volume. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS. 191 

had before conceived the idea of committing to writing the sagas of his race. Our 
interest in the native legends no doubt .suggested Waria's writing, and he had written 
for me two short accounts during our stay. The manuscript is entitled : 

NET VVARIAN POLAIZINGA. MURUIGAO TUSI. LAG NEL MABUIAGI'. 

It consists of 281 pages, partly quarto, partly octavo, written on one .side. The 
first 17.5 pages, after a short account of Waria him.self, are taken up by a genealogical 
description of the people of Mabuiag. Then follows a series of Folk-tales comprising 
those of KuiAM (i.e. Kwoiam), pp. 176—212; Waiat, pp. 212—240; a short description 
of the funeral ceremonies, pp. 241, 242 ; Tabepa, pp. 243—257 ; Amipuru, pp. 258—281. 

This composition of Waria's is written just as it would be told to a native audience, 
and hence differs very much in style from the translations. As will be seen from the 
following translations it also differs somewhat in diction from the langua<'e in which 
Waria himself, Maino, or Wallaby told the stories when an European was auditor. 

In the manuscript there is an extreme use of demonstrative words, by means of 
which the narrator infused life and movement into his story. The actors are described 
as continually passing up and down, seaward or landward, to windward or leeward, 
right or left, performing actions close by, or at a more or less distant place. Repetitions 
are frequent, actions of the same person in different places being often described in 
identical phrases, as for example the account of Kwoiam's actions in Boigu and Dauan 
(see pp. 199 and 203, also Vol. v. p. 78, par. 3). On the other hand, a native audience 
would naturally be familiar with the proper verb prefixes in such expressions as 
wakain-taman, thought, butu-patan, prepared, muluha-pagun, went down, ia-taian, ia-inuli, 
said, ngana-taian, wondered, kid-tnean, change, adaku-pudan, pulled out, gud-pudi, shut, 
etc. In the narrative these accordingly appear as taman, patan, pagan, taian, pudan, 
pudi, etc. Besides the verbal abbreviation there is also considerable ellipsis in the 
sentences as, for example, in such a case as " mai pataian," literally, " time, cut," but 
meaning " the time when the scrub is cut for making a garden (see p. 202). 

For these reasons the translation of Waria's MS. has not been easy, and there are 
many blanks, which are to be accounted for by the insufficiency of my vocabulary and 
distance from the author. I have chosen the following as specimens of the Literature 
of the Western Islanders. 

1. Waria's account of his MS. 

2. The Story of Kwoiam. Written in Waria's MS. 

3. The Story of Amipuru. Told by Waria. (A longer account is found in the M^.) 

4. The Story of Amudua. Told by Waria. 

.5. The Story of Uga. Told in the Tutu dialect by Maino. 

6. The Story of the Mangrove and the Crab. Told in the Muralag dialect by 

Wallaby. 

7. The finding of the First Coco-nut on Muralag. Told in the Muralag dialect 

by Wallaby. 

1 I.e. Ned Waria's writing. Old man's book. Place name Mabuiag. 



192 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

An interlinear and a free translation are given. Words not in the native account 
are placed in curved brackets. Doubtful words or meanings are shown by the inter- 
rogative sign, and missed translations by dots. 



1. Waria's Account of his Book. 

NET WARIAN POLAIZINGA' MURUIGAO TUSI LAG NEL MABUIAGI. 

{Ned Waria's ivritiiKj. Old man's hook. Place name Mahuiag.) 

Ngai Net Waria. Ngat na inab tusi paladin wagel kozika ngulaigka. Wara 
/ Ned Waria I tJien this book wrote after for men for knowing One 

inu Sakarian- kutaig Netan kazi nel Mareko, nuin Marekon imadiu^ Jun 7 1896. 
this ? youngest Ned's child name Mark him Mark saw June 7th 1896 

nuin imadin Tusde 8 kolok kubilnu sizi kuik aimdin Tusdengu a Satade 
Him saiv Tuesday S o'clock in evening from then began from Tuesday and Saturday 

nungu kupai ladaidin. Nobemba 5 nuid danuradin. Mura nungu goigoil 117, mura 
his navel cord cut November o he died All his days all 

nungu molpalal 4. Urapon goiga bada paladin wara niolpal nungu gamu miakalnga 
his jnonths One day sores came out one month his body white 

a nungu ialbup miakalnga. Ina mina asin. 
and his hair white Here finished 

Inab tusi keda mamui taiamika mura buaika a mamui lumaika 

This book so carefully for choosing all for relations these carefully for seeking 

mura kuikuka^. InaV) tusi danataean^ mura iabugud na iabu keda koi mabaigal na 
all for heads This book shows all way then way thus big men when 

iawaruu patami kuruig kain koziu dana gurgumaig koi kazika gamu pagaimi kuruig 
in journey should cut new men's look round for big man 

1. Ned Waria's writing. The book of the old men of Mabuiag. 

I am Ned Waria. I wrote this book so that men (coming) afterwards (might) 
know. This one.. .Ned's youngest child (was) named Mark. He was born June 7th, 
189(j. He was born on Tuesday at eight o'clock in the evening, beginning from that 
Tuesday, and on .Saturday his navel-cord was cut. On November 5th he died. All 
his days were 117, all his months 4. One day sores came out, for one month his 
body (was) white and his hair white. This ends. 

So this book is for carefully picking out relationships and for seeking all the heads 
(of families). This book shows all the way, (just) as when the big men (leaders) on 
a journey should cut (a path) for the new men (who) look round. ..for the big men. 

' Polaizimia for iniiiur-palaizinga, from miliar, mark, palai, cut. 
'' I do not know the meaning of this word. 

^ Imai, literally see, is used in speaking of children in the sense of "being born," e.g. Njial nuin iinan, 
I saw him, i.e. he was born. 

■* An abbreviation for kuikuiy-ka, for elders, or for kuiku-garkazika, for chiefs. 
^ Lit. throw-eyes, show at a glance, make "coup d'ceil." 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS. 193 

Dikonal na wa Uikona Zagulgal na wa Zagulgal' a kaiii kozil na ipiu 
Deacons then yes Deacon Zag people / yes Zag people then new men when wife 
kulai gasamzigal, wa sena kuik. Wa ina minaasin. 
first taken yes that head Yes here finish 

Wara nge ina kuikugarkaziu zaget kuikuigal na mimikuruig tana na gegead 
Another then here chief's work eldest if should go they if wrong 

mimikuruig kazil nge taramikuruig kutaigau nguigidan kulai tiaig kazil na 

will go children then would call to the younger in vain not go first children then 

mogimal mimikuruig ngolkai kai kutaigal mimikuruig ingaru maigi tana na 

little ones will go astray soon younger ones will go always not do tJiey then 

kazil asimikuruig wa tanamunika taiamikuruig- ingaru gasamaigi iabugud ina 
children will go after yes to them ivill always not keep way this 

Kuikugarkaziu iabugud a gizu^ mabaigau iabu. Ina minaasin. 
Lord's way and man's way Here ends 

PaDailigau-" kuik nel Peid^ nungu ipi Makasa, palamun kazil keda, Dadabu 
Panai people's head name Peid his wife Makasa their children thus Dadabu 

kiiikuig a CJasara nge keda a Ngaragi nge keda a Wamai gar kutaig. Ita 
eldest and Gasuru then thus and Ngaragi then thus and Wamai indeed youngest Those 

keda kazil. 
tlius cliildren 

Ina kazil nge Dadabu, wad"' kuikuig, nungu ipi Muguda, nuid Akapain 
Here children then Dadabu eldest his wife Muguda he Akapai's 

maik gasamdin'. Nungu Akapain kazi mata kosar, nel Kurso a Abei, matakeda 
widow took His Akapai's child only two name Kurso and Abel only thus 



Then the Deacons, indeed, the Deacon (of the ?) Zag people, yes, the Zag people. 
And when new men first take a wife, then (they are) head men. Yes, this ends. 

Here then is another work of the chief, if the eldest go wrong, then the people 
would call to the younger ones in vain, (if) the people do not go first tiieu the little 
ones will go astray, and (as) soon (as) the younger ones will go and (not) always do 
(what is right) then the children will follow and will follow to them and not always 
keep this way, the way of the Lord and of his people. Here (it) ends. 

The head of the Panai people was named Peid", his wife (was) Makasa, their 
children these, Dadadu the eldest, and Gasara and Ngaragi and then Wamai the 
youngest. These (were) the children. 

Here are the children of Dadabu', the eldest one, his wife was Muguda, he took 
Akapai's widow. Akapai's children were only two, named Kursci and Abei, only these 

' Zag is a village in the South-east of Mabuiag. In these phrases there appears to be some unnecessary 
repetition. 

■^ Kun, after (understood), kun-tai, follow. 

^ Gizu mabaeg, prominent man, head of a family. 

* Panai is a village iu the North-east of Mabuiag. 

'■' Cf. Genealogy. Table I. in Vol. v. and note discrepancies. 

•^ A demonstrative only used with persons. ' I.e. married. 

H. Vol. III. 25 



194 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



o-ar kosar. Nuid na Dadabu gasamdin kazi keda nge Asi kuikuig a Sawi age 
indeed two He when Dadabu took child thus then Asi eldest and Sawi then 

keda a Gabai nge keda a Korai gar kutaig. Ina minaasin. 
thus and Gabai then thus and Korai indeed youngest This ends 

2. The Story of Kwoiam. (Written in the Mahuiag dialect by Waria.) 

Wara Adi' kulai iinunig, uel Adi' Kuiam. 
Another Adi former old name Adi Kuiam 

Nui kuika Gomunu niar, a nungu apu uel Kiiinain, a nungu 

He first at Gomu stayed and his mother name Kuinam and his 

waduam- uel Tomagani, a mura Gomulgau mud kai kulal Gomunu iar. Sena 
nepheiu name Tomagani and all Gomu folk's house big stones at Gomu lie That 

Koburau' padau gizu nuka ugapa pogaik. Na mud sipa paruia iar. 

Kobur's hill's point to there hither comes doiun The liouse stops there on front lie 

Tana sinab inuinu kaimel niasir. 
They there in middle together stay 

Nanu Adi Kuiaman apuau zaget mata wakuu uuiai 
Her Adi Kuiatn's mother's work only mat plaiting 

goigoinu luii Kuiam aiido nabia nge garauia sagul siar 
on day he Kuiam why with her then at side play stop there eh He mat 

uzaraidin tuamonil wakumal paipa pudamidin, nauu mamui kalia nogaiginga miar. 
went leaf-strips mat things up pulled out her carefully to back not looking made 

Tana sinakai mogitiamal koima si miar. Na kedamai mata nguigidan uulaidin 
They perhaps little boys many these luere She therefore continually missing said 



i 



mura goigoinu. Wara 
all on day Some 

au ? Nui waku ramia 

2 



two. When Dadabu married the children were then Asi the eldest, Sawi, Gabai and 
Korai the youngest. This ends. 

2. Story of Kwoiam. 

Another legend of men of old, named the Legend of Kuiam. 

He first lived at Gumu, his mother's name was Kuianam and his nephew's name 
Tomagani. All the Gumu folk's houses are built on the rocks at Gumu. A spur of the 
hill Kobur runs into the sea there, and the houses are placed in a cluster on the 
middle of it. 

Kuiam's mother used to work every day at plaiting mats. Then why didn't Kuiana 

stay by her side and play ? He went and pulled out pieces of the mat when 

she was not looking. There were probably some other boys there. As she kept 
missing (some of the strips), she said " I put them here behind me." She uttered (a 

1 Adi was explained to mean " a story perhaps not true," as distinct from gida, a yarn, true narrative. 
Used as an honorific it may be taken to indicate that the person to whose name it is prefixed is one of 
whom legends are told. No other persons are called adi in Waria's MSS., but the narratives about them are adi. 

2 For a discussion of this term cf. Vol. v. pp. 80, 134, 141, 144—148, 150—152. 

2 In the MS. there occurs here the following, of which I cannot make sense : kosa two, naki, kozi dogamuia 
alongside, pungaik go along, nui he. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS. 



195 



keda, " Kaiki ngaia, ngaia kalia todik. Uibar kotal, wangar kotal." Ipalab 
thus Along here by me by me at back it went Wibar' long squeeze up long Those two 
ia nado taiaumadin. Nui Adi Kuiam keda, " Ama, ngai, ngai." Na keda ia, 

Site thus ivord 



la senu keda, 
Word that thus 



\uord she uttered He Adi Kuiam thus Mother I I 

"Adi Kuiam, nguzu kapu kazi, ngato war kozika taman=." 

Adi Kuiam my good child I anotlier for child thought 

uui urapon kapu muli. 
he one good speak 

Nui inata zikimi kaikadoka nungu mudaka. Nui muli nungu wadumka 
He continually runs up his to house He said his to nephew 

keda, "Awade, ngaikika maludo^ patar a teme^ urakoran pati." Nui pati" kaikaki. 
thus Nephew for me green cut and ? hibiscus stick in He cuts 

Nui nungu waduam si nubeka butupati. Nui Adi Kuiam si ubami nge tu 
He his nephew then for him prepares He Adi Kuiam these dressed then tu 

na nui iatari koiridan adaka maiginga urakoran ubami. Tana kosar nuid 

■ivhen lie tied tightly undone not becoming hibiscus put on Those two he 

gugabi aiuman, padau urn nuin urakar mata angan siki. Nui ubami kosar 

ri7igs made hill's rope him hibiscus continually put on along there He puts on two 

nungu za nel Augad'*. Wara nui parungu kid" 

his things name Augud One he from face — 

sandi. 
{places on) 

Nui zilami nge kaimulka urka adan kaimulka. 
He runs then down to sea outside down 

iman. Tana keda, " Kole, dogai e !" Tana Goniulgal keda ia, "lagi, miai dogai, 

saw They th:us Mates dogai They Gomu folk thus word Be quiet what dijgai 



iatari, a wara nui kabu 
tied and other lie breast 



Tana mogi kozin lujin 
Those little children him 



curse), " May you become like a shrivelled up Ubar tree." Adi Kuiam said, " Mother, I 
(did it)." She said "Adi Kuiam, my good child, I thought you were another sort of 
child." That sa3'ing of his was a good one. 

He was continually running up to his house. He said to his nephew, " Nephew, 

cut some greenery for me and stick some hibiscus in it." He went and cut it. 

His nephew having got it ready, Adi Kuiam then dressed up, tying on the tu petticoat 
tightly so as not to come undone and putting on the hibiscus. He (also) made those 
two rings of creeper and put hibiscus along them. He put on his two Auguds, one 
hanging from his face and the other flat on his breast. 

He then outside ran down to the sea. Some little children saw him, they said 
" Hallo, here's a Dogai." The people said " Be quiet, that's no Dogai, that's Adi Kuiam. ' 



' The ubar tree (Mimusops browniana), or wiha taro, 

" For wakaiu-tamiin, think, from wakai, voice, tiimai, dig. 

^ Lit. like the sea, tiuilu. 

'■' Perhaps pati is for butupati, make ready. 

' Kid here inilieates " direction," 



* Probably tam, branches. 

" I.e. the two crescents yiribu and kutibu, 

25—2 



196 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

senii Adi Kiiiain." Tana Gomulgan uuin mata taumani, tana keda, " Inu 

that Adi Kinaiii Those Gonni folk him continually talk about they thus This 

milaka kosuima inu kazin kai iadii manu au ?" Nuid kasa keda tanamunia 

what-place grew this child soon word bring He onhj thus on them 

dibag pa uian, lak kaipaiki iiti. 
fog let doivn again went in 

Na gar nuugu apu wakun kida wak umai. Nui keda, " Ama, Ama', 
She indeed his motlier mat ! mat plaiting He thus Mother Mother 

ngapa kai nagi." Na keda kai nagi na kido dagulal si baniti paru 

hither here look She thus here look when straightway fish spear then hurled face 

matadad'- pagan. Kosar tota dana taiauman a urapon tota guda taian. 
right in middle pierced Two prongs eye went through and one prong mouth went through 

Na gar mata pudi si. Nuid mata upi ianangu pudan, gizu walgan si, 

She only fell down there He only knife from bag took out edge shaipens there 

keda iadai, " Ina na midi ubi gizu walgan, keda naki lagia bolsikuruig, apuau 
thus words This why knife edge sharpen thus there to place will cross over mother's 

ridaka-\ nakaki kirausul Daudaia boltaikuruig." Wagel gar uuid uauu si kuik 
for bones there arrows at Daudai will turn aside After — he her there head 

nge patan. 
then cut off 

Kaika nui tanuri nungu muda, maiekan kuik nuri, kobe dadia 

For a little he sat his house with mourning head bound charcoal on breast 

adaumau. Mai si nuugu apuka puidan, giiuia maiginga, mata apia 

put on Mourning then his for mother put on up not getting continually on gj-ound 

iar sir, mata na ugursi kaigu boradar tari^ Na ia keda, " Na 

lying sprawling (?) continually then mucus down, ground falling This word thus When 

kaingapa muda maugi, keda, ' Kole, Kuiam nungu apu pagan.'" 
hither house come thus Mates Kuiam his mother speared 

Those Gumu people continually talked about iiim. They said, "Where was this felloiv 
brought up. (We'll) soon find out eh?" He merely let a mist down on them and 
went inside again. 

His mother was weaving a mat. He said, "Mother, look here." She looked, 
and he then hurled a tish spear and pierced iier full in the face. Two prongs went 
through her eyes and one went through her mouth. She just fell down. He took a 
bamboo knife out of a bag and sharpened it, and said, " I will cross over to that place 
for my mothei-'s bones, to turn aside the arrows at Daudai." Afterwards he cut off 
her head. 

He sat in his house for a little while, and bound his head with mourning 
bands, and put charcoal on his breast. He mourned for his mother, not getting up, 
but lying sprawling on the ground, continually slobbering on the ground. He said, 
"When (1) come out of the house, (they will) say, 'Mates, Kuiam speared his mother.'" 

' Ama is the vocative form of apu, mother. - Mata ia here emphatic, dad the middle. 

'■' I.e. to pay for his mother's death. ■* Cf. ngursi ia Vocab. perhaps used here for "slobber." 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS, 197 

Kuiam Gomulgan ianiizi maui, mata taniaii' iagiza, akan, tana ketla, 
Kuiam Gomid-people's wonder bring only thought silently afraid they this 
''Ina apu ina pagan, ngalpa iabaigal nge, ngalpa kulai tomaik'." Tana mata 
This mother here speared we foreigners then ive soon think They continually 

tamau', iagiza kainmlka Sopalaika. Na wad Sopalainu iiaka ginial iiieka-. Tana 
think silently went down to Sopalai / at Sopalai to there above go They 

si iutan. Palamun ntui kaipai Gomunu. 
there lay down Their sleep — at Gomu 

Batainga, goiga danami, nui keda Kuiam, " Awade, gulonga kunal taiar." 
Morning sun comes out he thus Kuiam Nephew boat things back threw 

Nui Tomagani keda, "Ina niilaka ina rabo puidan ?" Nuido Tomagani ngapa 
He Tomagani thus Here to ivhat place this mast lay He Tomagani hither 

kunal taian, palai gar sulan nge kaimulka. Na palamun gul taupainga, kun 
back threw they two emptied then down The .their two boat shoH thing hind part 

potaizinga, mata buai. Keda potHizinga na meka, nel " Gabo." 
cut off thing only bows Such cutting off' when made name Gabo 

Palai tardan mina kaipun Beka, pawali nagudogarau Danakuiku. Nuid 
They two crossed direct leeward Beka landed on further side JDanakuik He 

nuiu waian, keda, "Awade, ngobanika wapi uzari, palamunia meket ka^ piti nidaika." 
him sent thus Nephew for us two fish go with them two for shining nose touch 

Nui awade [Waduam senu nel,]* nui gar uzari kaikadka. Kaikaki nui wapi nungai' 
He nephew Nephew that name lie goes up — he fi^h I 

pulia, kido gulka nagai. 
into reef towards to boat looking 



The Gumu people wondei'ed at Kuiam, but thought only, (they were) afraid. They 
(thought) thus, "This man speared his mother, now (he will spear) us other people." 

They kept thinking thus silently and went down to Sopalai. The at Sopalai is 

towards the top. They lay down there. They two (Kuiam and Tomagani) slept at 
Gumu. 

In the morning at sunrise, Kuiam said, " Nephew, put the boat things in the 
stern." Tomagani said, " Where shall I lay this mast?" Tomagani put (the things) in the 
stern, then they emptied out (the water), and went down. Their boat was a short 
thing, with the hind part cut off, bow.s only. When it is so cut off, it is called "Gabo.*" 

They went directly leeward to Beka, and landed on the further side at Danakuik. 
Kuiam sent Tomagani, saying, " Nephew, go for a fish for us, for those two shiners to 
sniff at." The nephew [that is, the waduam\, goes up. He (gropes ?) for fish in the 
reef, looking towards the boat. 

' For xcakain-tuman, think; tomaik for tcrmaik. Vide note on p. 195. 

^ The meaning of this phrase is obscure. 

2 Meket is sheen or splendour, it refers here to the radiance and flushing of the two Ainiiid. 

* A parenthetical explanation that awade (the vocative) means the same as waduam. 

5 Another account says "put his hands into the crevices." 



198 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

Nui ubami kaipun mamui, walng-a kusia bal kabiitan. Nui 

He dreased leeward carefidly steering board on crate across laid He 

kido kaipun vvali, nano kubai iakaman. Kaikadoka Daukaika, na 

towards lee climbed up his throwing -stick stretched out Up to Daudai then 

kubai keda mata ruainai miiia Boigjuka kaipapa urati, nui keda, 

thro%ving-stick thus continual I >/ go down directly to Boigu to windward fell down he thus 

" Napun kai adaik amaua ridaka, napapa balo taikuruig." 
— soon go-out mother for hone windward across will pass 

Nui kaika wapi nungai kido kalia nagai. Nuid iiuin iman, nui 

He for a little while fsh ? totvards back looking He him saw he 

kedaka, " Inu niiai, nuid ngonakopa ngalkangul au ? ngona mido inu niatamkakai ? " 
thus This what he heart deceived me ivliy this will-kill 

Nuid Adi Kuiam nuin imau, keda, " Mitalnga, inu nuka gegead kalia nageka, 
He Adi Kuiam him saw thus Poor fellow this to here wrong hack to look 

niatakuradar kaipun tudi ainii." Singe kunatomuiiu' paupa kid niar. Nui Tomagani 
quickly — ■ hook make Then sorry lee ward sat He Tomagani 

keda, "Wapi mata urapon." Nui keda a senu matamina pakimunika- piti nidaika. 
thus Fish only one He thus then that suitahle for them two nose to take 

Utui si palamun. 
Sleep there theirs 

Batainga palai tardan nge kaipapa iarusia. Kaipun Boigu 

Morning they two crossed over then to windward with small cloud (f) — Boigu 

pawali kaigu dogamu Kodalobupuru. Na mud si iar Kodalobupurunu na 
landed there place Kodalobupuru A house there was at Kodalobupuru 

kodanu' piiu zarazar^ pogaizinga miar. Na gaikazil si mata 

in an enclosure (?) of coco-palm leaves screen's cut off things put Tlie people there always 



He (Kuiam) dressed up carefully, and laid the steering board across the crates 
on canoe platform. He climbed (on it) and stretched out his throwing-stick up towards 
Daudai so that the throwing-stick kept falling down. Directly towards Boigu it fell 
down to windward. He .said, " (I will) go there for my mother's bones, and will cross 
to windward." 

He (Tomagani) while (groping ?) for fish looked back. He saw him (Kuiam) 
and said, " What is this, is his heart false ? why will he kill me ? " Adi Kuiam saw 
him, and said, " Poor fellow, (it i.s) bad to look back tliere, quickly make a hook." Then 
he was sorry and sat down to leeward. Tinnagani said, " There is only one fish." He 
said, " Then that's enough for those two to sniff." They slept there. 

In the morning they crossed to windward with a small cluud (?), and landed 
at Boigu, at a place Kodalobupuru. There was a house there at Kodalobupuru in an 
enclosure made of screens of cut-off coco-palm leaves. The people there always stay in 

^ Lit. kun, back, tavuii, dig, make hole. " I.e. for the two Augiid. 

^ This is probably tlie same word as that elsewhere spelled kwod. 
* Piu, coco-palm leaf, zarzar, a screen made of leaves. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS. 191) 

iiiar uiapon doganninu. Waro luabaigau adal maiginga miar. Ipikoziu lak keda 
stay one in place Other men's outside not made stay Women's also thus 

adaka maiginga miar. Mata si miar. Na mudo dangalau ngadagi mud iar', 

out not making stay Continually there stay This house of dugung not like house was 

na Kodalobupuiuia kaipaiki paiuia wak pndeka. 

at Kodalvbupuru along windimrd on front mat hangs dovjn 

Palai si nidan^ Nui Adi Kuiam keda, "Awade, ni ngotal^ inu nika." Nui 
They two there reach He Adi Kuiam thus Nepheiu you weak here stop He 

uzari nge kaipaka. Nui Kuiam urun kusumi kaipapa kolakan tidi. lako keda 
goes then to windward He Kuiam with rope took — spear breaking again so 

nui ubami apuka mido ubamaidiu kaika Gomu lako keda ubami kaipapa 
he dressed up for mother how had dressed just before Gomu again so dressed — 

bo ngode Dogai nge pungar. Kaipun balobad pudi zarazoria nui keda inu 

almost like Dogai then go along — across edge stretches along screen he thus this 

mata sabi kadaka pogaik*. Na pasa mata urapon siar. Nuid mata mui 

always tabu up come The door only one stop-there He continually fire 

walman^ wad gamu, a wad gamu gamu uidan. Nui nge pasa pudi. Taua kai 
? one side and other side lit He then door shut They soon 

keda adaka biabi" tarau, keda iadai murarai, " Kole kai miai si." Nui mata 
thus out noises (J) call thus words all Mates what there He continually 

pagi nge keda iadai murarai", " Mawa keda, mawa keda, mawa keda, iaria midi 
spearing then thus tvords all so so so what 

dan, kalia midi dan. Amana Kuinamona kazi danimakamokaka pudaumaka, 

eye at back what eye Mother this Kuinam's son for leg ornament tuill pluck 

surka ngai, kio niki tomanu puzik, aigi kakelinga uuka gimal tiaik." 

scrub-turkey I f twig on branches (?) hanging ? ? there on top placed 

one place. No men stayed outside. The women also were not put outside. They stay 

there always. The house at Kodalobupuni along the windward front a mat 

was hanging down. 

Those two arrived there. Adi Kuiam said, " Nephew, you, a weak man, will 
stop here." He then went to windward, and took a rope, and broke the spears. Ho 
dressed up again for his mother as he had dressed before at Gumu, and then went 
along almost like a Dogai. Then he stretched (the rope) across the ends of the screens. 

He There was only one door there. He continually (piled up) fuel, and (then) 

lit first one side and then the other. He then shut the door. They soon called out 

these words, "Mates! what's there?" He kept on spearing (them) and saying 

at the same time these words: "... So, . . . so, . . . so, (on my throat) what an eye, 
behind me what an eye, Mother ! this is Kuinam's son " Then he destroyed the 

' The meaning of this phrase is obscure. 

^ Lit. touch. ' Ngotal is an expression of commiseration. 

* The meaning of this phrase is obscure. 

' This word which means "to call," is probably a mistake for icalgan, to pack, pile up. 

* Biabi is perhaps poibi, make an inarticulate noise, crow, screech. 

' This song of Kuiam's cannot be translated. Many of the words seem to bo archaic. 



200 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

Si nuid mudo patapan. Nui nge pudi, si gamii pagai iano' si iaro 

TJien he house destroyed He then fell down tliere body stretched i tJiere lay 

a mata kadaka mizi si keda iadai murarai, patapan ina kae. Nui uzari 

and continually up rising then thus luords all finished these tvill He goes 

nge kaipapa guloka mangi kaipai. Nui keda, "Awade, aie Buruka." Mui 
then to windward to canoe comes ivindward He thus Nephew come on to Buru Fire 

nitunu'-, Dumaniu aiau itamar, kibuia geto uiataima mata sabi kadaka pogaik 

is burning ? / ? on loin slaps always tabu up go 

kaipun-'. A palai uzarman nge kaipapa. Kaipun kuikun pateuman nge. Nui 
leeward Then they two went then windward head cut off then He 

Tomagani gabudan patai. Nui kido wameulinga mata patai. Nui keda Adi Kuiam, 
Tomagani slowly cuts He — quick thing always cuts He thus Adi Kuiam 

" Kame ! ni mika mika gabudan pateka, wamenlinga mata pateda keda pateda" 
Mate you why sloiu cut quick thing always keep cutting thus keep cutting 

we ngurpan. Si nuid bo miira girer si mata ulomai. Nui keda, " Wati 

? taught Then he nearly all turning there continually coming He thus Bad 

kuikul ita, Boma kiiikul keda patideda." Nui keda Tomagani, "Matena* koi ia ina 
heads those ! heads thus cutting He thus Tomagani ? big luord here 

ngalbai kuiko aiman." Nui keda Kuiam, "Awade, ni midi iadu umeka?" Nui keda, 
we two began He thus Kuiam NepJiew you luhat word say He thus 

"Ngai keda umeka, ' labina kapu kulai sika susul pagazi wagel mudan araik*.'" 
/ thus ant saying ? good first stop there susu speared after in house put 

Nui keda, "Awade, ngona keda kaine taumada, ugau iaro kapul." Paipa ladun. Mina asin 
He thus Nephew me thus will talk about my ! I Windivard went Finished 

si palamun zaget. Palai kuikun tideuman nge kaipaipa gulo sulan kaipai, 
then theii' two work They two head cut off' then to windward boat emptied — 



house. Then he fell down, and with body stretched out (along) lay there, continually 
getting up and saying these words, " This will soon be finished." He then goes windward 
to the canoe, having come there he says, 'Nephew, come on to Buru." The fire burnt, 

the thunder slaps on loins, (it is) sabi to go leeward. They two then went to 

windward. Then they cut off the heads. Tomagani cut slowly. He (Kuiam) always cut 
quickly. He said, " Mate, why do you cut so slowly, keep cutting quick, cut so," (and then 
he) showed him. He nearly all the time (kept) turning round (in case anyone) came. 

He said, " These are bad heads, heads, to keep on cutting so." Tomagani said, 

"Mate, big quarrel we have begun here." Kuiam said, "Nephew, what did you say?" 

He said, " I was saying that good thing to stop in first (place), afterwards put 

the speared susu in the house." He said, " Nephew, keep on talking about me thus, 
ray " Then their work was finished. They cut off the heads and emptied out 

' Possibly derived from ia, a row, ia-nu, in a line, all along. 

2 Probably refers to the flashing of the Augud. Vide Vol. v. p. 75, "the two Augud blazed," also p. 73. 
' This probably means that they stood to windward when cutting off the heads, as it was sahi to be 
splashed with the blood. 

•* It is possible that this is the English word "Mate," and so eciuivaleut to Kame. 
* For a variant translation of these words, vide Vol. v. p. 73. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS. 201 

sizi palai tardan nge Dowanka. Nui Kniam keda, "Ngaikika seiipa guban 

from there they two sail then to Dauan He Kuiam thns For me to there wind 

kalazi aimei. Ngau upi bodia gugiid ua bo patidui'." Bo niii 

from behind make My knife along left hand i then nearly bent {I) Nearly he 

kido knki^ gainu tari. Palai niata pan pa tardan Dowanka. Kaipapa 

direction North- West touched They two continually leeward sailed to Dauan — 

Daudaia pasia piingar, kaipun pawali Dawanligan gidigidsugul Nnid palai 
by Daudai by side went along — land Dauan folk's ? He these two 

goigaika taiauman Augad konbuzingal Palai kulokad* gam asiumar. Kaipun tana 
for sun tJn-ew Augud figliting tiling They two red became Leeivard they 

Saibaingu imauman, tana keda, " Kole ! palopun miai ? Kaiar pitu au"?" A 
from Saibai saiu tliem two they thus Mates those two what Crayfish nose eh Then 

kutann palai tardan kaipunki Dawanka muluka. Nui Kuiam nubeka inuli 

in evening they two crossed along leeward to Dauan to-doivn He Kuiam to him says 

keda, " Awade, ngoba na kai pa waleilekai, ni tananiunika lako sewa muledekai 
thus Nephew we two when shall land yoa to them again there will say 

keda, ' Adi Kuiam keda, " Sena na ngapa midinga iateka" ' kupa sewa uidnekai", a 
thus Adi Kziiam thus That when hither something is leaking ? there will put and 

urab pamusulnga taranekai." Nui keda, " Dowan a Gebar ngau lag waziuraaka 
coco-nut sprouting luill ask for He thus Dauan and Gebar my place lie along 

gabu ngukilnga gar kabutginga bangal " maluiui dadalo." Keda iadu nui umai, a 
cold tvatery — not placed by and by in sea middle Thus word he says and 

palai pawali, a nui pa mata midi kaika, a tana ialopauraan kai, 

they two land and he away only says — and they lead them two a little way 



the canoe, and from there they two then sailed to Dauan. Kuiam said, " Make a wind 
from behind for me (to go) there. My knife along left hand is neaily bent (round ?)." 
He nearly touched the North-We.st. They two kept on sailing leeward to Dauan, and 
went along the windward side of Daudai, and landed leeward on the Dauan peoples 

He used those two Augud fighting things for a sun, and they became red. 

They leeward saw them from Saibai, they said, " Mates ! what are those two things 
there ? are they kaiar pit (crayfish nose) ? " Then in the evening they (Kuiam and 
Tomagani) crossed over leeward down to Dauan. Kuiam said, " Nephew, when we two 
land, you will say again to them there, 'Adi Kuiam say.s, "Something is leaking,"' and 

will put there, and ask for a sprouting coco-nut." He said (also), " Dauan and 

Gebar my places lie along (coast ?), cold watery, not placed away in the middle of the 
sea." He said these words, and they two landed, and just speaking they lead a little 

' Probably some magical action. ^ Perhaps the sand spit. Sugu is an octopus. 

' This is another reference to the "blazing" of the Augiuls. * Lit. like blood. 

" Cf. Vol. V. p. 79, "the projecting points of the Aiuiud which began to wave like the feelers of an insect." 
" Knp-ioidai, to lay a foundation, hence, to fill up, stop a hole. Kiipa may also be coco-nut fibre used for 
caulking the canoe. Cf. Vocab. 

' liangal, commonly used of future time, is here apparently used for distant place. 

H. Vol. III. 26 



202 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

keda tanurman niogikia. Lako si tarauman biio a urabo pamusulnga, a 

thus sit for a little Again then ask for biiu and coco-nut sprouting and 

palai purteuman si. A kutann iiui kaipapa geda uzari kaipun pada gima 

they tivo ate there Tlien in evening he — thus goes ■ — hill top 

wali kaikadoka Daudai niuipu iagami. Nau si nuid poidan. Mai pataian'. Nui 
climbs up Daudai at fire wondering Sung then he sang Time cut He 

nau kedanga kudul keda : 
song such verses thus 

Wa muitai, wa muitaika Mawata gawata nitui, 
Yes fires yes to fires Mawata sioamp is burning 

Kawa wae moitaika, e wa muitaika Mawata gawata nitui, 
Island oh for fires oh yes for fi,res Mowata swamp is burning 

Kawa wae warn didia, e wa warn didi kara didio wae, 
Island oh — — — — — — — — — 

Warn didio, e wa warn didi, kam didio. 

I kula e wa I kula, aidai, uraba kawa, uraba poiman 

? yes ? foods coco-nut island coco-nut give 

Kaika pogaika watai uraba-. 
For a little spear dry coco-nut. 

Inu uungu nau, nuid na poidan kaika pada gima, bobabo nungu gamu kaika aikar 
This his song he when sung — hill top entirely his body — t 

asin, timeden. XJti pika tana muda aka nidan pig'i. Wagel nui ngapa 

become shiver Went in to yonder they house afraid became yonder After he hither 

muluka sizari na nui kasa muipu iagamaidin. Nui mangi pigu kutaka. Nui geto 
doivn came then he just at fire had ivondered He comes yonder to end He hand 
nge wani kisai' koubuka kaikadoka*. Nuid kosia muia uti pinapaiki 

then put moon for ivur up He into creek entered yonder by windward 

way and sit down for a little while. (Those two) again ask for biiu and sprouting 
coco-nut, and they ate them there. Then in the evening he goes and climbs to the 
top of the hill, and wonders at the Daudai fires. Then he sang a song. (It was the) 
time (when they) cut scrub'. The verses of his song were like this: 

Yes tires, fires are burning in the Mawata swamp. 

Oh, island for fires, oh yes for fires, the Mawata swamp is burning. 

Oh island, warn didia, e wa warn didi kam didio wae. 

I kula, yes, / kida, foods, coco-nut island, a coco-nut is given. 

For a little time spear a dry coco-nut-. 

This was his song, he sang for a little on tlie hill top, his whole body became 

(he) shivered, and went in yonder. Those in the house became afraid. He came dgwn 
after he had wondered at the fires. He then let his crescent^ for war go up''. He 
entered a creek yonder, perhaps some creek that flows by Mabudauan, entered there and 

' This phrase is very elliptical. It probably means that when Kuiam looked, it was the time when the 
scrub was cut and burned, to clear the pround for the gardena. Vide Vol. v. p. 74. 
^ This is a good example of the generally incoherent nature of the native songs. 
' Kisai, the new moon, an allusion to the crescentic shape of the Atifiud. 
* This perhaps means that he left his Augud behind when he went up the hill. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OP WESTERN ISLANDERS. 203 

wad Mabuduwania midi kosa jningaik, siki iiti, iiuin waiian si. Nui iizari 

perhaps (?) at Mabudauan what creek flows there enter him left there He goes 

nge kaikadoka lako keda ubami bo ngode Dogai iige puugar kaikad. Kaika niii 

the7i up again so dresses almost like Dbgai then goes ulonq up he 

mangi, tana lako keda mata niar gaikazil piiu zarazaranu. Pasa lako keda 

comes they again so continually stay men coco-palm leaf in screen Door again so 
urapon siar. Nuid lako keda ainiau, iniii bobabo gamu uidan. Nui nge pasa pudi. 
one was there He again so did fire entirely lit He then door shut 

Tana kai keda biabi tarau. Nuid lako si kulai kazi pagan keda iadai murarai, 
They soon thus cries (?) call out He again there first man speared thu^ words all 

" Mawa keda, raawa keda " Garkazil .si nuid patapan, niata kosar paka palgiumau, 

Men there he finished only two girls jumped up 

a kosa koi kapu urab mangauman. Palai' keda na zolmeuman. Mina kaigu 

and tivo big good coco-nuts brought They two thus then ran away Straight down 

iabuguda pudeuman. Nungu kaika koubu mina asin, nui nge pudi, iauo si gamu 
path luent (down) His — fight finished he then fell lay there body 

pagaiai, a mata kadaka mizi keda iadai murarai, " Patapan ina." 

stretched arid continually up getting thus woi-ds all Finished here 

Kae^ gabumal ian nutamika Buruka. Mui nitunu, Dumaniu aiau itamar, kibuia 
Soon medicines with word tried for Buru Fire burnt thunder (?) ? f loins 

geto-matairaa mata .sabi inu. Kadaka pogaik, kuik nge pati si muia girer 
slapped always tabu tliis Up went head then cut off there all turning 

mata ulmai, wad gamuka nagai, a wado gamuka koi suidan mata waiar, tidi 
always going ? for body looking and ? for body big ? continually leaving cutting 

nge kaika war dogamuia, a war dogamuia, a getia buraraig' guda! patan bo 
then — one alongside and other alongside arid with hand ? mouth stuck almost 

left him there. He then goes up again, dres.sed up, (and was then) almost like a 
Dbgai walking along. He comes close up, and the men again kept (within) the screen 
of coco-palm leaves. There was again only one door. He did the same again, and lit 
a good fire. Then he shut the door. They soon cried out. There again he speared 
the first man, saying these words, " Mawa. keda, rnawa keda, etc." He destroyed all 
the men there, only two girls jumped up and brought two very big coco-nuts. They 
two then ran away, straight down the path they went. His fight finished, he then 
fell down, lay there with his body stretched out, (but) continually getting up mn\ 
saying these words, " It is finished here." 

Soon (lie) questioned the magic things for Buru. The fire burned (?) slapped 

on loins. (This is always sabi.) (Then) went up and cut off the heads, all (time) turning 

round (lest any one) came looking for body cutting then on both sides and 

then with the hand holding a burar in (his) mouth (?) almost entirely hiding his face, then 

' Fiilai refers to the two girls, because Kuiam is alone, To>iiaf,'aiii being left in the boat. 
■ Oviinn to the elliptical construction I have not been able to eatisfoctorily translate what foUow.i. It 
recounts the incidents described in Vol. v. pp. 72, 73. 

' Apparently holding a burar, bamboo or bamboo whistle, so as to hide the face. Cf. Miriam Vocab. 

26—2 



204 ANTHROPOLOCxICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

bobaabo parugi asin ngapa iigoile Dogai nge ngapa pungar zar bobaabo gia asin 
entirely no face become liitlier like Dogai then hither go along bushes entirely ? 

gode goiga nge ngapa taian. Palai nuin inian, palai keda " Ina ua bui ulaik 

like{?) day then hither changed (?) They two him saw they two thvs Thus light goes 

ina niiai Dogai au ? " Palai nuin ngurpan, palai keda, " Inunga Adi Kuiam au ?" 
here ivhat Dugai They two him understood they ttvo thus This one Adi Kuiam 

Palai niata kulai butii pateuman gagai dordiuman nge, kai palai gagai keda na 
They two only first made ready boivs strung then soon they bows so then 

dadopolamin' kaika matauman a kaigu mataunian. Nuid Kuiam keda iaio karengemin, 
rfcew here struck and there struck He Kuiam thus noises lieard 

mata pudi si kadaka gud- keda iadai murarai " Mawa, mawa!" Palai 

only fell down there up path tlius wo)-ds all They two 

mata uiabo nge taiaimian nubia gamuia, a palai keda wadogamuka zolmeuman. 
only coco-nut then threw at him at body and they two thus to other side ran away 

Nui Kuiam nguigidan nge urabau zozinu puzir kaipa, lako kaine si gabudan 

He Kuiam. in vain then coco-nuts in bushes (J) went after — again — tJien slowly 

tidi^ lako uzari kaimulkai mulka bo zar mura gia asin. Nuid mata buia 
returns again goes down down almost bushes all ? He always flame 

iman. Nui keda bui kaine, na na sena buia miar kosar zangu buia nel Augud 
saw He thus light by and by that wlien titat light came two thing light name Augud 

palamun nel Kutibu a Giribu palamun nel. 
uf tliose two name Kutibu and Giribu their {two) name 

Kaipa palai tardan nge batainga ua koubu^ nuid kubila madin kisai" 

— they two sailed then in morning when, enemy he dark was getting new moon 

koubuzinga seuu. Palai batainga nge pungar. Nui kido naigai kaipa. Nuido 
war thing titat They two in 'morning then sail He — noiih — He 



went along like a Dogai. The bushes were quite lighted up (?) like day when 

Two of them saw him, they said, "What Dogai is this going along?" They two 
understood him, they said, "Is this Adi Kuiam?" They first made ready their bows, 
then strung them, soon they snapped the bows (so as to) strike here and there. 
Kuiam heard the noises, and fell down there on the path saying, "Mawa, mawa." They 
two then threw coco-nuts at his body and ran away to the other side. Kuiam then 
for nothing (i.e. without finding the men) went after the coco-nuts in the bush, and 
then slowly went back again. He again went down and the bushes were almost all 

He continually saw light. He had this light coming from those two things 

called Augud. Their names were Kutibu and Giribu. 

They two sailed then in the morning, when that crescent war thing was becoming 
dark. They two went along in the morning. He (directed his course) to the north. 

' From dada, the middle, palai, separate. 

2 Probably for iahu yud. labii alone means a path, gud, lit. hole, the worn hollow in the path. 

3 For kunia-iidi, from kun, back and tidi, bend or turn. 

•* This word should probably be omitted, the writer perhaps intended to put koubiiziiiija here instead of 
making the word follow kisai. * Cf. note 3, p. 20'2. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS. 205 

kadai kulin pungar kaingapa ngapa Mawalomaitoria. Nuido iiiata puidan 

up with steering board sailed here hither by Mawalomaitori He continually sang 

sipa nau. Nui nau keda : — 
there song He song thus 

Ngato pimipa Mawalomaia kadai kulLua. 

/ yonder Mawalomaia put up with steering board 

Kadain pungaipa' biua' ngauugviza o binama waruara tartar. 
Up go along my thing ? varioiis (?) holes {?) 

Kaipa nuido pungar. Taua iman, taiia keda, " Kole, gul piuigaike." Tana ian 
— He go along They saw they thus Mates canoe goes along They xuith word 

ngurpar. Tana warigal keda ia " lagi iagi, senu Kuiam kaingapa pawali." 

teach They others thus word Be quiet be quiet that Kuiam coming here lands 

Nuid kolak guda aran kurpudi nge kaikadoka. Nui mata boradar kuika pagan muangoban 
He spear mouth put chases then up He earth — pierces !■ 

si nguki pagar. Nuido nel taran keda, " Ni ngau nguki nel Meto." 
there tvater springs up He name called thus, You my water name Meto 

Lako sizi nuid taidau kaimulka Gebarka. Nuido keda ia taiau 

Again from there he crosses over doimi to to Gebar He thus word threiv 

guban, " Pa, ngau upi boilia aimei gugudonabo patidui, bo ganu nge 

wind Away my knife along left bring ? almost smell then 

taian." Kaipa raata Gebarka muluka tardan. Nui Adi Kuiam keda, 

comes forth — continually to Gebar down crosses over He Adi Kuiam thus 

"Awade, ngoba na senu pawaleka, ui tana munika keda muledekai sena midinga 

Nepheiu we two when there land you to them thus will say that something 

ngapa iateka kupa sewa uidonekai. Nauo sena bio nuido keda mar kerketo 
hither for leaking ? there will put Its that biiu lie thus brought damage 



He sailed with steering board up hither by Mawalomaitori. He continually sang a song 
there. He sang thus : 

I yonder by Mawalomaitori put up tlie hclru. 

My thing (boat) goes up yonder? oh (and dips in various hollows)? 

He went along close. They saw hiin and said, "Mates, a boat is sailing along." 
They send the message along. The others say, " Be quiet, be quiet, that's Kuiam 
landing here." He put his spear in his mouth and then chased (them) up. He con- 
tinually here pierced the ground then water sprang up. He gave it a name, 

" You are my water named Meto." 

Again from there he crossed over down to Gebar. He thus spoke to the wind, 

"Away, my knife along the left hand put, , almost a smell then comes forth." 

Continually down to Gebar he sailed. Adi Kuiam said, "Nephew, when we land there, 
you will tell them to bring something to stop the leak there. (That is biiu he thii.s 

' These words show tliat Kwoiiim spoke in the Muralag dialect. 



206 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

usimka mar. Keda sena ngapa iateka kupa sewa uidone kai, a urabo 

for putting out hriug Titus that hither for leak '. there will put and coco-nut 

pa musulnga taraiiekai. Ina Gebar ngau lag a Dawan, Palai gabu ngukilonga." 
sprouting will ask for This Gebar my place and Dauan They two cold watery places 

Palai pawali si. Tana lagau tiamal kunaka danarai, tana keda, "Ka ina milaga 
They two land there They uf place boys behind come out they thus this where 

adadin iiiage risa ganul gulo pawali." Nui keda Tomagani. " Kule ! keda iagi, 
has come out — — smelling boat land He thus Tomagani Mates thus be quiet 

wati korkakoka mata balolodalai." A nui sinab ia muli keda. "Adi Kuiam keda 
bad for throat only cut across Then he that word says thus Adi Kuiam so 

sena na, ' Ngapa midinga iateka, kupa sewa uidonekai a urab pamusulnga.' " Palai 
there Hither something leaks !■ there will put and coco-nut sprouting They tiuo 

kadaka toidauman, kai keda mogikia tanurnian biio lako si taran, a urabo 
up here thus for a little sat biiu again there culled and coco-nut 

paniusiduga nano kerketo si wadan. Utui si palamun, a gulo sizi 

sprouting its damage then stopped Sleeping there of them two and canoe from there 

nuid Kuiam wara nge piidan' lako kedanga gabo" nano Kulai gabo si wanan. 
he Kuiani another then bought again like ' its front ? there left 

A batainga palai gar tardan ngapa na salo mata usainga pamar^. 

Then in. morning they two — cross over hither when bale continually rotten things ? 

Nuido Tomagani nui dadal, a piti adaka angar. Nui keda Kuiam nubeka 

He Tomagani lie in middle and nose up was holding He thus Kuiam to him 

umai keda, " Ganu mata angeda nibeka kulasibaka-"." Kai palai Gomu pawali, 
says thus Smell continually get for you for strength Here they two Gomu landed 

palai daiiaman nge kuikun kadaka. Nuid Tomagani amai nge kiaman wagel maduka 
they tiuo bring out then heads up He Tomagani oven then built after for flesh 



brought, fine thing for plastering (?) it up.) So you will ask that for putting in the 
leak, and for a sprouting coco-nut. This Gebar my place and Dauan, they are cold 
watery place.?." They (Kuiam and Tomagani) land there. The boys of the place came 

out to the stern. They said, "Where has this come from, this smelling boat landed?" 

Tomagani said, "Mates, be quiet, bad for the throat only (to sniff?)." Then he that 

word said, " Adi Kuiam said this, ' Something here leaks, put in it, and a 

sprouting coco-nut' " They two up Here so for a little while sat, then again 

asked for biiu and a sprouting coco-nut and stopped up the bad place. They two slept 
there, and Kuiam bought another canoe also like gab, its front was left .1706. Then 
in the morning they two crossed over, and when baling, the rotting things were 
troublesome. Tomagani was in the middle and was holding up his nose. Kuiam said 
to him, "Keep on getting the smell, it will make you strong." They landed here at 
Gumu, they then brought out the heads. Tomagani afterwards made an oven to bring 

1 For har-pudan, bought. " See explanation in text, p. 1!»7. 

' Sal-2)iiiiuii, bale. 

* Lit. for a stone liver, i.e. to be hard-hearted, the liver being the seat of the feelings. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS. 207 

adaka maika. Wara, wa, mata ridal nge kadaka mamair. Kulai kaubuzimal. 

away bring Other yes only hones then up come Formerly 2vur things 

Na na amai mina asin nano ridal iiaiw mato ubaman. Nuid maniui uano 

Then when oven jinwhed the bunes its (?) I dressed up He carefully its (?) 

mato kain tuan ubaman, a parnian pinin bo bobabo ngode kulka nge 
/ 7>ew with iu dressed up and ivith ochre painted almost entirely like blood then 
danaman. Na mato kedanga ina mosik. 

come up This ? so here stop 

Adi Kuiam keda aimadin kuikun keda puia puidaidiii senuki kiiiko guraik. 
Adi Kuiam thus did luith head thus on pole hung along there head ? 

Nelai setab puil saulo. Seta mabaigau kiiikul puia puzimika. Na sena 

Names those jioles saulo Those men's heads on pole hang doimi That there 

bungu moidaizinga meka. Senaki balo urabau tu pudaizinga meka, 

of conch shell built thing ivas Along that across coco-nut's tu hanging thing iuas 

a sepal adaka kido lako urabau tu pagaumaka. A ina mabaigau kubi 
and those two to out wards also coco-nut's tu stick out Then here man's plenty 

keda kolozia garouidamika, taiak' kolozia% Keda, kadaka pogaik. Wagel 

thus along back ? collected admired (?) along back {?) Thus up went After 

kuikun kedange kolozia aimka, nuin Kuiaman iduik. Nuido kolzia keda aimka, 
with Iiead so ? made he Kuiam mocked He along back {?) thus made 

kulai nui na Daudai konbuzinga ngonapudaidiu, nuido keda aimdin. 
formerly he when Daudai tuar thing rested he thus did 

Batainga goiga miaidin tana kido Badulogan gulo ngapa adadin, a si 
In morning day came they — Badu people's bout hither bring out and then 

pawalaidin palaniunia, Utui si kaimel Gomunu. Nuid Kuiam tana iadu 

landed with them tiuo Sleeping there together at Goniu He Kuiam them ivords 

turaidin, Daudai koubu iadu. A batainga tana lako suladiu Baduka, a 
culled Daudai fighting word Then in morning they again clear out (?) to Badu and 

away the Hesli. Different, yes, only bones then. Formerly war custom. Then when 

the baking was done he ornamented the bones with He carefully ornamented 

with new tu, and painted it with red ochre, so that it became almost (tiie 

colour of) blood. This remained like this. 

Adi Kuiam did thus with the heads, he hung them on trees, along them 

The names of those trees were saulo. Those men's heads hang along the tree. Then 
he made a thing built up of bu shells, along that erossways he put hangings of tu 
from coco-nut and two (bunches ?) of tu sticking outwards. Then a crowd of men assembled 
along behind him, and admired behind him. Having done this he went up. After 

having made this with the head.s Kuiam mocked them. He made this along 

formerly when he rested from the Daudai fighting, he did so. 

In the morning when day came, the Badu people came in a boat, and landed 
there by them two. They slept together at Gumu. Kuiam told them of the Daudai 
fight. Then in the morning they again left for Badu, and he .sent Tomagani. Kuiam 

1 For noana-taiak, admired, lit. threw breatli. * The meaning of this word is uncertain. 



208 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

nuido Tomaganin waian. Nui Kuiam keda, "Awade, tanamunika muli keda 'Tana kai: 
he ToriKtr/ani sent He Kuiam tinis Nephew to them say thus They soon 

sewa kakeal dana ui-apon wapi pagei, palamunia piti nidaika,' " a tana keda, " Wa, 
there / pool one fish spear by them two nose for touching and they thus Yes 

iigoi pogaik." A tana pagan, a tana arozi mani. Nui keda, "Awade ! zilami, 

we (will) spear And they speared and they ? briny He thus Nephew run 

keda, ' Senu inatamina.' " A nui zilami, nui keda, " Kole ! aiewalo ! Adi Kuiam keda, 
so That enough And lie runs he thus Mutes come on Adi Kuiam thus 

'Senu matamina.'" Tana keda, "Tumakai, ngoi kai inu pogaik daudaini," a tana 

That enough They thus Wait «. little we soon here spear and they 

wara nge pagan, a tana arozi mani. A nui keda, "E awade, lako zikimi, muli 
another then spear and they ? bring Then he thus nephew again run say 

keda, 'Sepal matamina.'" A nui lako zilami, a walomizi keda, " Kole ! Adi Kuiam 

tlius Those two enough And he again runs and calls out thus Maies Adi Kuiam 

keda, ' Sepal matamina.' " A tana keda, " Tumakai ngoi kai wara pogaik, nuka 
thus Those two enough And they thus Wait-a-bit we will another spear to there 

Zagan gogaita." A nui keda nge zilami a nubeka muli keda, "Tana keda, 'Ngoi kai 
Zag's village Aiul he thus then runs and to him says thus They thus We will 

nuka Zagan gogaita pogaik.'" A tana pagan kaika a arozi mani. Nui keda, "E 
to there Zag's village spear And they spear soon and I bring He thus 

awade, lako zilami, keda, 'Seta matamina.'" A nui gar lako zilami, a walomizi 
nephew again run thus Those enough And he again runs and call 

keda, " Kole ! Adi Kuiam keda, ' Seta matamina.' " A tana keda, " Tumakai, ngoi kai 
thus Mates Adi Kuiam tl/us Those enough And they thus Wait a bit we soon 

nugu Bidun diaua pogaik." A nui gar lako kaipa zilami, a muli kaingapa keda, 
yonder Bidu's ? spear Then lie — again — runs and says — thus 

"Tana keda, 'Ngoi kai nugu pogaik Bidun diaua.'" Nui Adi Kuiam keda, " Mata 
They thus We soon yonder spear Bidu's ? He Adi Kuiam thus Only 



said, "Nephew, tell them to soon spear in the pool a kakeal, one tish, for those two (Augud) 
to sniff." Then they said, " Yes, we will spear it." Then they speared it, and bring 
an arozi. He says, " Nephew, run and tell them that's enough." Then he runs and 
says, " Mates, come on ! Adi Kuiam says that's enough." Tliey said, " Wait a bit ! we 
will soon spear a daudaini," and then they spear another, and bring an arozi. He (Kuiam) 
-says, " Nephew, run again, tell them those two are enough." He ran again and calls 
out, " Mates, Adi Kuiam says those two are enough." Then they said, " Wait a bit, 
we will spear another, there by Zag's village." So he then runs and tells him, "They 
say they will spear another towards Zag's village." Then they soon speared them and 
bring an arozi. He (Kuiam) says, " Nephew, again run and tell them those are enough." 
Then he runs again and shouts, " Mates, Adi Kuiam says those are enough." 
But they say, " Wait a bit, we will soon spear another there, Bidu's diaua." He again 
runs up and says, " They say they will spear another there, Bidu's diaua." Adi Kuiam 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS. 209 

tanur, ngaikika kozika malud patar a teme urakoran pati." Nui zilaini kaikadoka 
sit for me quickly green cut and bra7ich{?) hibiscus stick in He ruiis up 

nuiika. Nui Tomagaii keda, " Ina iniai ina keda aiman, ina iniai waro lago nge 
to inside He Toviayani thus This what here thus do this what other place then 

kai gegead maika wao?" Nuido patan kazika malud, a urakoran pati. Nui Kuiain 

soon destroy bring eh He cat quick green and hibiscus stick in He Kuiam 

mata kuradar si ubami. Nuid iinin ialopan, a palai zolomeunian godon mai kulai 

quickly then dressed He him led and they ran '! time first 

ian iman, waii si Kaura muragoni nan kubai iakainari, na sapurad' 

along look arrived there Kaurainuragoni his throwing-stick held out then like jiying-fox 

puidi kaipapa Puluka. Nui keda, " Kaipun Pulunu," a nuin singe nitan. Nui 
hangs down — to Pulu He thus leeward at Pulu and him ? landed He 

keda, "Awade-, ni kawa siga kubaika balongurka." A nuido singe 

thus Uncle you island far off for throiving-stick point across (?) Then he 

Tawa pogai ian iman. Nui keda, " Kaipun au ? Pulunu." Kaipapa kedange Puluka 
Tawapogai along (?) saw He thus Leeivard eh at Pulu — thus to Pulu, 

na wad koi gogato napunki inek-'. Palai sipa keda nuin kai siga nitan 
big village along there fl"^!/ two — thus him very far threw 

getamotamai sokai, nuid nano kolak guda aran Kaipa murarai nge keda ulomai 
strike with hands grass {f) he his spear mouth put — all then thus go along 

iano iman si, nano kolak koi wamenalnga, adaka pudan, a nuid lako nuin 
along (?) saw there his spear very quick thing out pulled then he again him 

turan keda, " Aie, kawa launga sinakae kaigu mumugu butunu kaimulka." Kedange, a 
called thus Come on here nothing perhaps doivn ? on beach down So and 

nuin si <lada nitan, a nuid kolak sizi guda aran mata min-arai nge 

he then middle readied and lie spear from there mouth put continually together then 

ulomai kaimulka. Nui wara kaigasido'' wazir ngapa kadaka kid, na warigal si, 
go along down He one like a kaigas lying hither up wards the others there 

says, " Sit down, and cut some greeu (stuff) for me and stick hibiscus in it." He ran 
away inland. Tomagani said, " What has he done hei-e, and what other place will he 
destroy next ?" He cut green (stuff) quickly, and sticks hibiscus in it. Kuiam then 

quickly dressed. He led him along, and they two ran climbed up there at 

Kauramuragoni, and held out his throwing-stick. It hung down like a flying-to.\ towards 
Pulu. He said, "To leeward at Pulu," and landed there. He said, "Uncle, you (point) 
to an island far away for a throwing-stick." Then he looked along Tawapogai. He 

said, " Leeward, eh ? at Pulu." so to Pulu big village along there. They 

two (go) there He put his spear in his mouth, and went, and looked 

along there, pulled out his spear very quickly, and again called to him thus, "Come 
on, there's no one here, perhaps (they are) dowTi there (?) on beach." So they go 
down, and he then looked into middle, and then put his spear in his mouth, and went 
down prepared. One (of the men) was lying upward on the beach like a kaigas, (of) 

1 The fruit-eating bat, Pteropns. 

2 Here Awaile! used by Tomagani means "Uncle!", when used by Kwoiam it is "Nephew!" 
' Meaning not known. ■* The shovel-nosed skate, Rhinobatis. 

H. Vol. III. 27 



210 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

a kosar kaigu guluu iaumar, iata masir. Nuid kadaka iai kazi kulai pagan 
and two there in canoe were lying I sit He up lying fellow first speared 

sawao mata dadaka zilami keda iadai, " Mavva keda, Mawa keda, Mawa keda, 

there continually to viiddle runs thus tuords 

Mawa keda, iaria midi dan, kalia niidi dan, suroka ugai keo niki tomanu puzik, aigi 
Kakelinga nuka gimal tiaik." 

Palai kosar kazi kaigu gulnu iaumar, nuid kolak kaimuloka nge nitun. 
Those two two men these in boat were lying he spear up then cast 

Gulo palogapalan, warig mopamito pagan, a warig mopamito pagan. 

Boat smashed one man ? speared and another man ? speared 

Palai gar mata sur pardauman keda gar surabo puziumar. Palai tapeumadin 

They two only pole pull out thus on pole go along They two swam 

Baduka, a kaikadoka Baduia walomaiman, a palai mudaka adauman. Tana 
to Badu and up at Badu called out and they two to house went out TItey 

keda, " Kole, kazi kosar pungaumaka we kolak balosiumaka ngalpun gulo una?" Palai 
thus Mates man two come along — spear our boat where They two 

keda, " Ngolomunia koubu Kuiam ngolomunia kolak nitunu nagu Pulu, nuido ngolomun 
thus Our enemy Kuiam at us spear threw there Pulu he our 

wapi waianu Augadia piti nidaika, ngoi paganu, a arozi manu. Nuid Tomaganin 
fish put to Augud nose touch ive speared and ? hrougJit He Tomagani 

waianu keda, ' Ngapa marei, senu niatamina,' a ngoi iana nutain keda muliminu, keda, 
sent thus Hither bring that sufficient and we basket tried thus said thus 

'Tumakai, ngoi wara pogaik,' " a ngoi wara nge paganu, a nuido lako waianu, 
Wait a bit we another spear and we another then speared and he again sent 

a ngoi lako keda miminu, matakeda nge mimido nuin mata kuna pataianu. 
and we again tlius said all same then kept saying him continually back going 

Ngoi keda wa nupun Pulu nidanu a amai sina kiamnu tana gimalo, a ngalobai 

We thus yes there Pulu did and oven there made they above and we two 



the others two were lying in the boat, (and some) sitting in a row. He first speared 
the mau lying down, then kept running up in the middle, saying these words, " Mawa 
keda, muiva keda, etc." 

Those two men were lying in the boat, he thiew down his spear and smashed 

the boat. He speared one man and then the other. They two pull out a pole 

and go along on the pole. They swam to Badu, and landed at Badu and went up 
to the house. They (the people there) said, " Two men are running along, and a spear 
sticks through them, and where 's our boat ? " The two said, " Our euemj' Kuiam threw 
a spear at us over there at Pulu. He put our fish for the Augud to sniff, we speared 
and brought an arozi. He sent Tomagani to say, ' Bring it, that's enough.' Then 
we tried for a basketful (?) and said, ' Wait a bit, we will spear another.' Then 
we speared another and he sent again. Then we said the same again, and kept on 
saying the same to him, as he continually went back. We indeed did thus at Pulu, 
and made an oven there. They (stayed) above, and we two there in the canoe. He 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS. 211 

palogu gulonu nui kido nuka mangema, ugalobai niata ialo karengeminu, 

two there m canue lie directly to there came we two continually noises heard 

ngapa nui guloka nge tarotaiema, gulo paloga palanu, a ipalo ngalobai nge pagaiimanu." 
hither he to bout then turned over boat smashed and both we tivo then dived 

Keda si palai iaduturi, a palai ipalo palaiiige urn mengeumaii an ? 

«S'o then they two declared and they two both those two then dead became eh 

Sa nungu Kuiaman koubu na mina asin, iiuido turaii kaiiie Tomagonin, 

Now his Kuiam's fiyht when finished he called by and by Tomagani' 

palai kuiko pateuman. Nui Tomagani gabudan keda miar. ladai iadai keda nuido 

they two head cut off He Tomagani slow thus did Words words thus he 

ngonanumar, " Matena koi lag nge ina badapalan '." Nui Kuiam keda, "Awade mimidi 

thought l big place then this i He Kuiam thus Nephew what 

iadu unieka ? " Nui Tomagani keda, " A ngai keda umeka, labina kapu kulai sika 
ivord say He Tomagani thus And I thus say ? good first stay there 

susulo pagazi, wage! mudan aiaik." Nui Kuiam keda, "Awade, ngona keda kaine 

? / after in house put in. He Kuiam thus Nephew nie thus by and by 

taumada, ugau iarokapuP." Paipa ladun, wati kuikul bonia kuikul keda labamida 
praise my / Windward went bad heads / heads thus keep on cutting 

we keda patidamida. Mina asin si. 

thus keep breaking them Finished there 

Nui keda Tomagani, "Ina ngoba amai potuik' ina." Nui keda, " Maigi, kulokal aidai 
He thus Tomagani This we two oven prepare here He thtis Don't bloody foods 

mata abad." Palai nge uzarman kaipaipa, kaipai muda nuid Tomagani 

continually covering They two then went to windward — house he Tomagani 

butupatan si nano kuikul. Utui si palamun, 

prepared there his heads Sleeping there they tiuo 



came straight there, we kept on hearing noises, then he came and turned over the 
boat, and the boat smashed. Then both of us dived into the sea." So they both 
declared, and then those two then died. Is it so ? 

Now when Kuiam's fight was finished, he by and by called Tomagani, and they 
two cut oif the heads. Tomagani did so slowly. He kept muttering to himself, " Mate, 
this big place is cut out (?)." Kuiam said, "Nephew, what are you talking about?" 
Tomagani said, " I was saying that the good iabina stay there first, the speared susul 
are afterwards put in the house." Kuiam said, " Nephew, talk about me by and by, 

my good " They went windward (and) bad heads, heads keep on cutting, 

and keep on breaking so. Then they finished. 

Tiitnagani said, " We will prepare an oven here." Kuiam said, " Don't, the food is 
covered with blood." They two then went to windward, and in the house, Tomagani 
prepared his heads. They two slept there. 

> Meaning not fouud. ' Meaning not found. 

^ For hutu-palaik, prepared. 

27—2 



212 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

Tana Badu kaika iataran^ mata bailudia ngapa goiga kainge ngapa dadia kuloka 
They Badu soon confer vhile at dawn Iiitlier sun soon hither in middle red 

matamar. Nui Kuiam keda, "Awade, tura ulamida, ngona timeden maika." Nui tura 
strikes He Kuiam thus Nepheiv mast go up me shiver brings He mast 

wali, nuid inian nano giilai, a nui ngapa nge nubeka nui keda, "Gulongu inina 
climbs he sees Iris boats and he hither then to him he thus Of boats very 

koigoresar iim gulo mutalnu kidakidan topaikl" Nui keda, " Sa ngode ! ngato de 
many this boat in liusk all ways swims He thus Is it like that I 

imaik." Nui uzari kaipa, nui keda, " A ipalgi kosar tapaumaka kai." Nuid midi 
see He goes — he thus And only two two sivim here He how many 

gulai iadupologaik, a nui kaipa nubeka nge muli keda, " Ina guloginga' ina ipalo 
boats declared then he — to him then says thus This bootless place here those two 

kosar tapaumaka." Nui keda Tomagani, " la launga kai launga wao, ina kai koigoresar 
tu'o float He thus Tomagani Word not here no eh this here many 

ina wao ? " Tana siki nge ulomai koi kurasorania. Nui wali kaipun. Tana 

here eh They along there then go big along a reef He climbs — They 

keda, "A uupun sika we iuu keda moriinari au ? inu mata ngapa goigoi niatainka." 
thus And there stays that thus bony thing eh that only hither to-day kill 

Tana tutulo iakamir keda, " Nino inubo tutun kai matamka." Nuid a kubai 

They clubs showed thus Thee this club will kill He then throwing-stick 

iakamar. Nui keda miar, keda, " Ulamiziu keda Gomuka, ngau lagaka, ngato nitamunia 
showed He thus did thus Go along thus to Gomu my to place I with you 

pinagu adaik, Gomu ngau laga." Nuid kubain waiar. Tana kaipa wa suzaiui 

yonder go out Gomu my place He xuith throwing-stick sent They — yes 

manui garouidaniiu. Savvau. Nui katakuikuia tadai kaine kaimulka pudai 

assembled All right He on a katakuik spread out — down stooping 

kaigu paupa paru gururid tanamunika taian. Tana kuku wanau kaigu ngapa mura 
there leetvard face backbone towards them threw They I put there hither all 



Those Badu (people) conferred at dawn while the sun was rising. Kuiam said, 
"Nephew, go up the mast, I am shivering." He climbed the mast and saw his boats, 
and said to him (Kuiam), " There are very many boats, floating round this boat all 
ways (like the) husk of a coco-nut." He said, "Is that so! let me look!" He went 
up and said, " Only two boats are here." He showed him how many boats, and then 
he said to him, " This is a boatless place, only those two are going along." Tomagani 
said, "Don't talk (like that), none here, (why) aren't there plenty here?" They (the 
Badu boats) then go along by a big reef. He (Kuiam) climbed up. Then they said, 
"Isn't that the bony (man) there? (we) will kill him to-day." They held out their 
clubs, (shouting,) "This club will kill you." He held out his throwing-stick. While he 
did this, he said, "Go along to Gumu, to my place, I will go there with you." They 
assembled All right. He spreading out on a katakuik, stooped down there to 

1 Lit. call-woi'ils. - For tupnik from v. tapi. 

3 From ijul, canoe. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS. 213 

ngapa sama pudi kaingapki nungu iabtiia iia si dadal niogi gud nge keda- 
fiitfier ? falling along hither his on path there in middle little opening then thus 

Si niiar kedanga'. 
Then ivas so 

Tana keda maipu taringe. Si gudan uiai sugtil tarar. Tana warigal 

They thus for a time stop then There in opening put talk together They others 

keda mimir, " Kole kulokul taimiu, ridangu garkazil." Matakeda si umar nuid 

th us said Mates first go of bones men While then kept talking he 

gudange aian kaipun nano kolak, nitun nge ngapa kulai siai kazi ngode watar 
moutJi tlien put in — his spear tlireiu then hither first there man like dry stick 

nge patidan. Tana keda, " Kole, si mi?" Tana keda, " Inn Kuiam mido ! " Nui Kuiam 
then broke They thus Mates there ivJiat They thus This Kuiam why He Kuiam 

mata dadaka zilami kaikadoka keda iadai iadai, " Mawa keda, Mawa keda, Mawa 

continually to middle 7-^uns up thus words words 

keda, Mawa keda, Mawa keda, Mawa keda, iaria midi dan, kalia midi dan, Amana 
Kuinam na kazi danimakamakaka piidaumaka, swrka ngai keu niki tomanu puzik, aigi 
kakelinga nuka giinalo," keda tau nui iniar dadal kazil si a patapan nui nge 

thus ? he did middle men there and destroyed he then 

pudi si gamu pagai iano iuka si, mata kadaka mizi keda iadai 

falls down tJtere body stretched out along lies then continually up gets thus words 

" Murarai patapan ina kai." Usarau ngurka ilo get miak mengeumanu Buruka. 
All destroyed this here Kangaroo's for point ? hand white became for Burn 

Mui nitunu Dumaniu aiau itamai- kubuia gets mataima. Mata kosar a kosar paka 
Fire burnt thunder ? ? mi loins hand struck Only two and two girls (?) 

palogimin kaika ia taian keda, " Ngalpun kozil mata gomu gudo tuguima kazil 
jump up — u'07-d threw thus Our men only body (?) opening entered men 

mata. Ngoi ita ngalpunika matamka." Launga war ngadalnga war ngadainga uniaik 
only We these fur us kill No other like thing other like thing speak 

leeward, his bony face turned towards them. They put along his path, then 

there was a little opening so. It was like this. 

They stopped then for a time at the opening and talked. Some of them said, 
"Mates, go first, (they are) bony men." While they were talking, he put his spear 
in his mouth, then threw it at the front man, and (it) smashed Hke a dry stick. Thej-; 
said, "Mates, what's there?" They said, "Why this is Kuiam." Kuiam continually 
ran into the middle, saying these words, "Mawa keda, Mawa keda, etc." He so served 
the men there in the middle, and destroyed them. Then he fell down there, his body 
stretched out, and lay along (ground) continually getting up and saying these words, 

" It will- be finished here." For Usarau-ngur hand became white for Buru. The 

fire burned, the thunder roared (?) he struck his hand on his loins. Only four 

girls jumped up and said thus: "Our men only (just) entered the opening. (Will you 
let them) kill us?" No! Some say one thing and some another. Then they continually 

> The original MS. has here a Btnall sketch showing the passage. 



214 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

si tana a mata panagimiii, tana tatapogaizimal '. Bo nungu mura girer 

there they then only looked away they were stammering Almost his all turning 

mata ulomai, kaigu Gomunu knikii tidai, a tana lako iataran lako kain 
continually go along — at Gomu head cut off then tliey again discuss again new 

gagauro-taian. Tana koikazil keda, " Kole nita de mata iimaik an ? inu kazi kaigu waro 
bowstring i They big 'men thus Mates you — only speak tJiis man then other 

ngodalnga." Inu tana keda, " Nita miai gabu ia umaik, ngoi mata nita ngoi ina 
like thing they tJius You why cold word speak we alone you we here 

adaik." Tana keda, " Wa, wa, mata paganekai, lako keda maipu ngapa pagan." 
go out They thus Yes yes only will spear again thus for a time hither speared 

Aropaim goiga kainge mutalia miar-, nui Kuiani keda, "Awade, lako tura zilami, 
At dawn sun — in coco-nut put he Kuiam thus Nepheiu again mast run 

ngona timeden maika." Nui zilami. Nuid nano gulai iman. Nui keda " Ka inagi 
me shiver bring He runs He his boats saw He tints 

patapouukaine." Nui zilami kaipa, nui keda, " Gulo mina koigoresar kaine." Nui keda 
^vill finish He run — he thus Canoe really many close up He thus 

Kuiam, " Sa ngode, ngato de imaik." Nuid iman. Nui keda, "A ipalgi ko.sar tapaumaka." 
Kuiam like I ■ — see He saw He thus And only two float 

Nui keda Tomagani, " Launga. Mata na koigoresar gulai nge keda mani, tana siki 
He tlius Tomagani No Only then many boats then thus do they along 

nge ulomai koi kurasorania." Nui wall kaipun. Tana nuino iman. Tana keda, " A 
tlien go big on reef He climbs — They him saw They thus And 

nupun sika we inu keda morimari au ? inu mata ngapa goigoi matamka." Tana tutul 
there stops tliis tlnis ghost this only hither to-day kill They clubs 

iakamir keda, " Nino itab tutun matamka kai." A nuid kubain waian keda, 
showed this Thee these with club will kill Then he throwing-stick sends thus 



look forth, they did not know what to say. He walked along, almost continually turning 

round. There at Guniu (the}') cut off heads, and they again talk, again a new 

bow-string. The big men (say) thus, "Mates, you just talk about it? There is no one 
like that man." They say thus, " Why do you speak coldly ? We alone with you will 
go out." They said, " Yes ! yes ! only (he) will spear us again, as on that day (he) came 
and speared." 

At day, when the sun was rising, Kuiam (said) tlius, " Nephew, again run up 
the mast, I am shivering." He ran up, he saw those boats. He said, "Only one will 
finish." He ran down, he said, " Very many canoes are close up." Kuiam said, " So, 
let me see !" He saw. He said, " Only two are floating along." Tomagani said, " No ! 
there are very many boats going along on the big reef." He climbed up. They saw him. 
They said, "Doesn't that skinny fellow stop there, the one (we) will kill to-day." They 
kept showing their clubs. When they showed them they said, " These clubs will kill you." 
Then he threw his throwing-stick, and said, when he had rubbed it on his feet and 

' Meaning uncertain. Tata is an impediment in the speeoli. 

- Lit. At dawn, when the sun could be put in the liusk of a coco-nut. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS, 215 

na und ' ngarangoganuia nudan a nguidia nudau a waian keda keda " Ularniziu 
when i on smell of feet rubs and with tears (?) rubs and sends thus thus Go along 
Gomuka, ngau lagka, ngato nitamunia seua adaik, Gomu ngau laga." Tana kaipa 
to Gomu my to i)lace I with you there go out Gomu my place They 
keda ulaik. Kaingapa Suzaini mamui garuidamin Sawao pagan kaine Gomuka 
thus go along — assemble spear by and by to Gomu 

tanuri si mata mura kaikadka sama mura pudi kaingapki nungu iabuka lako 

sat then only all up all fell along close hei'e his to path again 

keda si taii pasad guda lako keda gudan uiai sugul tarar, keda miinir, 
thus there stop like door opening again thus at opening put conversed thus saying 
"Kola, kulokulo taimiu, ridangu garkazil." Keda si umaik. Kolak kido si baniti 
Mates first go bony men Thus there speaks Spear — then hurled 

ngode watar nge patidan. Tana keda, " Kole si mi ? " Tana keda, " Inu Kuiam. 

like dry stick then broke They thus Mates there what They thus This Kuiam 

mido!" Mata pazilami keda murarai, " Mawa keda " 

why Only run away thus words 

lawa pawa mata na urapoii. Badu a Mua nuido aigi taiaomadin, kuta potai 
Farewell deed only then one Badu and Moa lie finished up end made 

garkazil Mualogal, Dogaii, a Kererer, Madubal kuta potai ngapa miaidin kaipun kala 
men Mua people Doguis and I Madubs end made hither came — back 

tanuiaidin Dana kama, na sinab dano, nel Badulogau dano. Tana nano uradodin 
sat that iMol name Badu people's pool They his had covered 

gulai imalai mina usainu, ngapa uzaraidin muluka, wara nuid Kuiam 

boats looking for very in rotten stuff hither went down another he Kuiam 

Tomagonin waiadin Gomulgaii mudaka. Wapi nui gar si nge miar. Tana 

Tomagani sent Gomu people's to house Fish he there then was getting They 

kido si tanuri, Gomulgau muda. Si tana rido guitowaian -. Tana iapupoibimin, 
there sat Gomu p)eople's house Then they bone let go ^'^'^i/ asked 

rubbed it with tears, and threw it, " Go along to Gumu, to my place, I will go out 
with you there, Gumu is my place." So they go there, and assembled at Suzainimamui, 

all right, spear by and by all go along his path, so stop there, an opening like 

a door was again there, so that those put at the opening disputed, saying, " Mates, you 
go first, (it's) the bony men." So they said. (Kuiam) then hurled his spear and broke 
(that man) like a dry stick. They said, " Mates, what's there?" They said, "Why! this i.s 
Kuiam." He continually ran about saying these words, "Mawa keda, Mawa keda, etc." 
Then there was only one farewell deed. Badu and Moa he finished up, making 
an end of the Mua people, the Dogai and Kerer and Madub. Then (he) came and 
sat down at Danakama, the pool called the Badu people's pool. They were looking 
for the boats he had covered up in very rotten stuff, and came down. Kuiam had sent 
Tomagani to the Gumu people's house. He was then there getting a fish. They 
sat there in the Gumu people's house, then their bones became loose". They asked 

' Apparently a mistake, nudan being written in the wrong place. 
^ Cf. Vol. V. p. 78, "felt a strange sensation." 



216 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

tanakeda, "Kauki dangalau uziginga wao ? " Tana gar nuin danataiau, tana keda, " Nungu 
they thus Along here dugong's ? eh They — him stared at they thus His 

mabaig innnga meka." Tana gar nuin kurupudan siki, a mataman a kuik gar patan. 
man this one is They — him chased there and killed and head cut off. 

Utui si tanamun sinabo kubilnu. 
Sleeping there of them that night 

JMuino Kuianian timeden mar, nui keda umai, " Mido gar nui iuiiaikai an, nopun 
Hi7n Kuiam shiver took he thus speak How long — he will lie down there 

au, inu ge gar ngato kasa wapi waianu. Koubu gulai mido ina kalazi utei. 
this I only fish sent Enemy boats why here from belnnd enter 

Tomagani mitalonga." Nui keda, "Ngona inu timeden maika, inu Tomagani mamui 
Tomagani poor thing He thus Me this shiver brings this Tomagani quiet 

nika wao ? " Batainga goiga mizi, tana pagan nge kaimulka pasia. Nui kido 
stays In morning day came they speared then down along side He 

Adi Kuiam tura uzari, nuid nano gulai iman, nui keda, " Gulai ulaik." A tana 
Adi Kuiam mast goes he his boats saw lie thus Boats go along Then they 

nuin iman, a tana bu puian. Nui Tomagani nubeka gudo uidi, a nuid ruaman, 
him saw and they conch blew He Tomagani for him gone away and he understood 

nui keda, " Mitalonga ngaikika gudo uidi." A nuid nuin iman, nui keda, " Mitalnga 
he thus Poor fellow for me gone away And he him saw he thus Poor thing 

nuguki sainu gegead' tartaieka." Korkak si nungu miua koima wati, gado 
along there in mud ? turn over Heart then his very greatly bad low water ? 

asin. Nui keda, "Ulamiziu ngato sena nitamunia adaik, Gomu ngau laga." Tana 
became He thus Go along I there with you go out Gomu my place They 

kaipa ulomai suzaini garuidamin, sawao kaimel kaine kadaka mata mura kaikadka 
— go along assemble together by and by up continually all close up 



questions, and said, "Was not a dugong here?" They stared at him (Tomagani) 

and said, " This is his man." They chased him along there, killed him, and cut off 
his head. They slept there that night. 

Kuiam was shivering, he said, " How long will he stay there, I only sent him for 
a fish. Why the enemy '.s boats have come in from behind ! Poor Tomagani ! " He 
(Kuiam) said, "I am shivering, isn't Tomagani quiet?" In the morning day came, they 
speared him along the side. Adi Kuiam goes (up) the mast, he saw his boats, and 
he said, " Boats are going along." Then they saw him and they blew a conch. He 

for Tomagani, and he understood, and said, " Poor fellow " Then he saw 

him, and he said, "Poor fellow, " Then his heart was very bad, and he became 

low water. He said, " Go along, I will go out with you. Gumu is my place." They 
went and assembled at Suzaini together by and by go up, continually all go close up, 

1 This word is variously used for "wrong, bad, spoiled, soiled." Here it probably means "mutilated, 
headless." 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS. 217 

sama mura pudi pika mizi pasad guda tari nge. Nui si nge iar, paupa 
all fall yonder went like door opening stop then He there then stop leetuard 
paru, mata taian si kubai kolakau kope'. Kulai siai kazi ngode watar 

face continually threw there throwing-stick spear's {?) First stop inan like stick 

nge patidan. Tana keda, " Kole, si mi?" Tana keda, " Miai si mi, inu Kuiam 
then broke They thus Mates there what They thus What there what this Kuiam 

mido si." Nui mata pa zilami, keda iadai murarai, " Mawa keda " la lako 

what there He continually — runs thus words all Word again 

na urapon na nungu mina koi kereket nge adan waduam wara nuid ngonanumar. 
then one then his real big wound then went out nephew other he thought 

Si nuid pa patai keda, a madan - patapka mani, lako keda, nuid koima zugun 
Then he away cut thus and with hands stnke make again thus he greatly with arm 

imamin kubai ngur adaka piniti. Wagel nui mata kuik matami mata 

satv throwing-stick peg off slips After he continually head strikes continually 

kunia nge zilami, kasa keda nui pa pungar, a laka kunia pungar. Mata keda 
back then runs only thus he away slips and again back slipped Continually so 

nge miar. Kaikadoka padia nungu mudo wad pinaka gimal meka. Nuido ngapa taian. 
then did Up on hill his house ? to yonder top was He hither goes 

Nui mata pungar kaimul-ka mina nugu apa pudi. Tana mata tari pasia. 
He continually slipped down really there ground falls They keep standing at side 

Tana warigan nuin kuik kadaka mani, a upi kata uidan mogikia. Tana warigan 
They others him head up take and knife neck put on a little way They others 

nuin gar ngalkan keda, " Maigi, senu mina kuik. Nuid na ngalpun wati kuik patamgul." 
him — stop thus Don't that proper head He our bad head used to cut off 

A lako tana geto wanimin. Na kulka mogikia siki ubuia uini, na kulka 

And again they left The blood a little way along titere on ubu blood 



all go down, go yonder, stop then in an opening like a door. Then he kept stopping, 

face to leewaid, continually threw there his throwing-stick, spear's The first 

man was smashed like a dry stick. They said, " Mates, what's there ?" They say, " What's 
there, why it's Kuiam who's there." He continually runs about, saying these words, 
"Mawa keda, Mawa keda," etc. He said the same words again when he struck out a 

very big blow, and thinking of the other one his nephew. Then he and strikes 

with hands, peg of throwing-stick slips off. Afterwards he continually struck 

his head, continually running back, he then just gets away, and again slipping back. 

He did so continually. Up along the hill his house was yonder on top. He 

goes thither. He continually slips down, finally there on the ground falls. They keep 
standing at the side. Some of them lift up his head, and put a knife on it a little 
way. The others stop him and say, "Don't, that's a proper head. He used to cut 
off our bad heads." Then again they left off. The blood a little way along the ubu 

1 Meaning not known, but probably kopi, half, i.e. of the broken spear. 
' Meaning uncertain. 
H. Vol. III. 28 



218 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

nungungu kato palgin. A tana nungiingu inata koi Augad idun, a tana nuino 

from his neck spurted out And they from him very big Augud jee?- and they him 

gagain tidamin, a gabagobau, nuin tana zapun waean. Wa, ina mina asin nungu kulai 
with bow straigliten and clubs him they place put Yes this finished his first 

pawa. Wa. Wagel tana nano niadin. Kaipai wa tana Mualogan kolozia koubuka na kolozia 
deed Yes After they him brought — yes they Mua people ? for ivar ? 

mimika. Nuino Kuiaman pawal tana aimka pawa mata na urapon, a Gomulgau pawa 
came Him Kuiam's deeds they do deed only then one and Gomu deed 

lak keda urapon. Tana na Mualogan kuto patadin, tana kido Gomulgau ngapa tamadin 
again thus one They Mua people end made they — Gomu hither came 

Gomuka tana butu patadin nungu zapul. Na waro Augad ngapa kato palgidin, kozika 
to Gomu they prepared his tilings Tlie otiier Augud hither jump up 

padangu kai waro puiu kuiku utaidin, na pui nel piner, si koi aigui 

from mountain close by other trees root put in that tree name piner there big cairn 

utaidin, nuido kolozia kulai nano sinabnga kuikun ungaik. Na lako si utaidin na 
put in he ? first his that there head ! Then again there put in that 

Gomulogau mudo. Singe iar na kido wara ipika dimiden wangaidin, nauu nel Markai 
Gomu people house There lay an — other woman foolish filled her name Markai 

Tigi, nado nano get nitur, ina na poibai keda, " E ! E ! E ! E ! " Tana Gomulogan 
Tigi she her finger pointed this she cried thus They Gomu people 

iman, tana keda, " Kole ! za ina za." Tana minalai si poidamin. Na toridi 

satu they thus Mates thing this thing They minilai mat then offer It moved 

niuluka niata kusa' si pagaumar. Tana keda ia, " Kole, ngalpa pot nge 
down continually 1 then went They thus wo7-d Mates we pot mat then 

maika wao ? " Tana poto nge niani, kabutan si. Na mogikia kadaka adan. 

bring eh They pot then bring put there Then for a little way up go out 



....... the blood sjjurted out from his neck. Then they jeered at his big Augud. 

Then they straighten him with bow and club, they put him in some place. Yes, here 

finished his first doings. Yes. Afterwards they brought him, Yes. Those Mua 

people for war, then came. Kuiam's deeds they were doing, deed then 

only one, and the Gumu people's deed also the same. When the Mua people had 
finished, the Gumu people came hither to Gumu, and prepared his things. One Augud 
jumped wp hither from the mountain, the other was put in the root of a tree. That 
tree was called jniier. Then (they) put (it) in a big cairn of stones, (where) he 
formerly had put that thing with heads. Then again they put it there in the Gumu 
people's house. There was lying there some woman filled with madness. Her name 
was Markai Tigi. She jjointed her finger and cried out, " E, E, E, E." The Gumu 
people saw it, and said, " Mates, this means something." They then offer it a minilai 

mat. It moved down, and then went They said, " Mates, shall we bring a 

pot mat ? " They then brought a pot mat and put it there. It moved up a little way. 

' Meaning not ascertained. 



NATIVE LITERATUKE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS. 219 

Tana keda, " Kole ! ngalpa miai nge maika ina gi ubu watiza nge." A tana karobai 
They thus Mates we what then bring this ubu bad thing then Then they ? 
ubu nge mani, poidamin si. Na mata nagai torsimginga. Tana keda, "Kole, ngalpa 
iibu then bring offered there It only looks l They thus Mates we 

miai nge maika, ina gi misil ubu watinga nge." A tana warigal keda, " Poiman 
what then bring fringed ubu bad thing then Then they other thus Offered 

de mariu." A tana mani musil ubu, keda kai mogikia kabutan. Na sobaginga 
bring Then they bring fringed ubu thus close little way put It quickly 

ngapa katopalogin, kai geta kabuti. Tana mata kuradar si gar miinian Augud 
hither jumped up arm got on They quickly then croivd round Augud 

tanamunika aiman. Na wado wara Mualgan nungungu idudin. Tana Gomulgan 
for them made The other Mua people for him mocked (?) They Gomu people 

mata urapon nge imadin, a war maingu butaka Maku nge aimdin, lako kedanga 
only one then saiv and other of time for a space Maku then made again so 

mina mata kaine nui inu Kuiaui ngode Adi nge. Inu Maku mina kazi kulai na 
really nearly he that Kuiuni like Adi became This Maku real man first when 

koubu tonar miar. Tana palai uideumar kuikuig, war mabaig ia uidar a 
war fashion did They them two put at head other man word spread and 

kutaig war mabaig ia uidar. Kulai Kuiam mata nui keda uidai. Ina mina asin 
last other man word spread First Kuiam only he thus spread Here finished 

Kuiaman kuik. 
Kuiam' s heading 



They said, "Mates, what then shall we bring? this ubu is become bad." Then they 

bring a karobai ubu, and offer it there. It only looks They say, " Mates, what 

shall we bring, this fringed ubu is become bad." Then others said, " Just bring it and 
offer it." And they brought a fringed ubu and put it a little way off. It (the Augud) 
quickly jumped up, and got on (a man's) arm. They quickly crowd round, and made 

it an Augud for them. The others. Tho.se Gumu people only found one, and 

another for a space of time Maku then made, again so that very nearly he became 
like that Adi Kuiam. This Maku was a real man, he first did it when it was war 
time. They put thus, two first, some men spread the word, and at last other men 
spread the word. At first Kuiam only he thus spread about. 

This ends the heading of Kuiam. 



28—2 



220 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

3. Adi nel Amipuru. (2'old in Mabuiag by Wa7-ia\) 
Story named Amipuru. 

Na mud kaipun Wagedogamunn iar. Na awaial si baltaiar toranu. Nuid 
Tlie house leeward at Wagedogam lay The pelicans there float on ridge He 

mata zarar tidan kozi konaini nge. Tana kai keda palgimin nui mata 
continually leaves broke close tied on then They soon thus jumped up he continually 

ngara nidi kaikadka nuin war sami nge, Ka, Ka, Ka, Ka, keda nui kaiki padia 
foot caught up him take away then thus he along on hill 

puzir. Nui keda, " Ngai inu kaine get uaneka." A nui getwani. Kaipun mata 
hang do^vn He thus I here soon let go Then he let go Leeward continually 

ngaga kabutman. Tana keda, " Kol Amipuru nupun pudi el" Tana kaipapa 
wings spread, out They thus Mates Amipuru leeward stick in here They to leeward 

paran nge kaipun tana nuin paman nge. Nui Amipuru keda, " Kole, ngona de gar 
ran then leeward they him dig then He Amipuru thus Mates me please 

maraui mariu, ngai ipilaig, a kazilaig." Nui Pukar keda, " Kawa tuma pamaziu, 

safe make I married man and have child He thus Here keep on digging 

kawa ngato inu kuik tidaik." Kaikadka nui zilami kozika, nuid upi mani a 
here I this head take off Up he ran to close up he knife brings and 

paiwa^ kaipapa nge keda kaipun, nuid kuik kalia tidan a patan. Nui keda, 
paiwa to leeward then thus leeward lie head back bent and cuts off' He thus 

"Aiewal, ngalpa kawai ladeka*, A, i, io, o, o, o, a isu." Tana keda, "Kole! mata nui, 
Come on. u'e dance will go They thus Mates only he 

mata nui." Ian nutead. 

0)dy he With word kept trying 



3. Story of Amipuru. 

Tlie house lay to leeward at Wagedogam. The pelicans there swam on the ridge. 
He continually broke off leaves and twigs, then tied them on close. They soon jumped 
up, he only caught (one by the) foot, and (it) took him away up, (crying) Ka! ka! 
So he went along hanging down over the hill. He said, " I shall soon let go." Then 
he let go. (The pelicans) continued flying to leeward. They said, '" Mates, Amipuru is 
sticking in there leeward." They then ran to leeward and then dig him up. Amipuru 
says, " Mates ! please save me ! I (am) a married man and have a child." Pukar said, 
" Keep on digging here ! I will take this head off here." He ran up close by, he 
brings a knife and paiiva to leeward. He then at leeward, bends back the head and 
cuts it off. He says, "Come on! we will go dance, (and sing) A, i, io, o, o, o, a isu." 
They said, " Mates, he's all alone, he's alone." He kept on trying to persuade them. 

' Compare another and fuller version by Waria in Jargon English, Vol. v. pp. 99, 100. 

- A call to attract attention. 

^ A herb chewed and spat on the neck before cutting off a head. 

•* This dance is described in Vol. v. p. 303. The words here following are those of the song. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS. 221 

4. Amudua. (Written in Mabuiag by Waria^.) 

Nungu mud dada gogaitnu'-. " Kazin tudi tidamau gat koinga a kazin 
His house middle in village Child fish-hook bend reef big thing and child 

gul adaka puidau." A lako nui uzarai a= " Kazil aiewal ngalpa gul inaika." 
canoe outside shift And again he goes and Children cume on we boat will bring 

Nuid mar, pida imar. Nui keda, " Kazil pagamiu kaiarka." A lako nui 

He brought rock saw He thus Children dive doivn for crawfisli And again he 

pagai'. A nui keda, " ladi taiau " a lako nuid pungar, a iadi taiar. Nui mudaka 
dives And he thus Anchor cast again he lets go and anchor casts He to house 

maika ubinmiar. Nui keda, " Kazin iadi pudau," a lak nui pudar. A mudanu 

brings unshed He thus Child anchor haul up and again he hauled up Then in house 

nidar nui keda, " Kazin wapin ngapa danamau," a lak nuid danamar, a nui keda, 
gets in he thus Child fish hither bring and again he brought and he thus 

"Kazil surul adaka puidau," a lak nuid suruil puidamir. Nui keda, "Kazil zuia 
Children guts out take out and again he guts take out He thus Children boil 

uidau," a lako nui zuranu niar. Nui keda, " Kazin amai kiamau," a lak nuid 
jnit and again he on boil set He thus Child oven make oven and again lie 

kiamar. Nui keda, " Kazin nguki toidau," a lak nui uzarai wauai. Nui maita 
made oven He thus Child uiater fetch and again he goes drink He belly 

pusakar adar. A nui adaka tamai nui uzarai zarar tidar a gigi bal nanitai^ 

swell out goes out And he away comes he goes leaf break and {puts in belt behind) 

kaipa mudia ulmai. Nui keda, "Kole, ngona gabudan iawaiziu, kaukuiko ngai mata 
close by house goes He thus Mates me slow stare at young man J only 



4. Amudua. 

His house (was) in the middle of the village. (He said), "Children, make (lit. bend) 
a fish-hook, a big thing (is) on the reef, and children shift the canoe outside." Then 
again he goes and (says), "Children, come on, we will bring the boat to the rock." 
He brought it and saw the rock. He said, "Children, dive down for crawfish." Then 
again he dives. Then he says, " Cast anchor," and again he lets go and casts anclior. 
He wished to bring them (the fish) to the house. He says, "Children, lift anchor,',' 
and again he did it (himself). Then he gets into the house, (and) he says, "Children, 
bring the fish hither," and again he brought them, and he .says, "Children, gut them," 
and again he guts them. He says, "Children, put them to boil," and again he set 
them to boil. He says, "Children, make an oven," and again he made an oven. He 
.says, "Children, draw water," and again he goes and drinks. He fills his belly and 
goes out. Then he comes away, he goes and breaks off a leaf and puts it in (his) belt 
behind, and goes close to the house. He says, " Mates, stare at me slowly, I am only one 

1 Compare Waria's fuller version in Vol. v. pp. 104—100. This is much abbreviated. 

' Nui keda is omitted. ' This is the meaning given by Waria. 



222 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

urapon," a nguigidan giiowalai. Matakeda mii miar lak nui wanaidin pasika 

one ' and to himself laughed Just the same he did again he drank to tuall 
tamaidin a nora maitia adai madin a um miaidin. Ina mina asin. 

moved and fish bone through belly out came and dead became Here finished 

5. The Story of Uga. {Told in the Tutu dialect by Maino.) 

Kapu ipika Uga Tabibanika iibiii niidin. Tabiba Pulu wanadin aidai, warurai, 
Beautiful woman Uga for Tabiba wish had Tabiba Pulu left food turtles 

dangalal, mata get wanaidin tanamunika Gumul gerka^ Ugan apu iamulaidin keda, 
dugongs only left for them Gumu men Uga's mother said thus 

"Ngalpa karengimika nel kapu kaukoiku, nungo nel Tabiba, ninii^ Gumul gerka 
We hear name fine young matt liis name Tabiba you Gumu man 

ubig niuu al'' Tabiba." Noi uzari, nungu kaimeg gerka muli keda, " Kaime, 
don't wish your husband Tabiba He luent his mate fellow said tlius Mate 
ngaba uzeraumaka ngaban samereka^ tidaik." Uga keda, Tabiba getia gasaman. 
we two will go our for samera break Uga thus Tabiba by hand took 

Tabiba madu pamiz= muluka tidi aziran. Nungu kaime iamuli keda, "Ni 

Tabiba was frightened down hung head ashamed His mate word thus You 

unaga ? " Tabiba keda, " Kaime aie, ngakia ina ngavvoka nidima." Kaime uzari 

lultere Tabiba thus Mate come on beside me here girl is caught Mate goes 
inian keda, " Kapu ipi." Noid ielpan bupa nitan ; tana kapu iauman. Tanamua 

saw thus Fine tuoman He led busli put they good talked Their 

ganiu diuginga, lak tana tunge warupa poieman". Tanamun kaikail pudemir tanamun 

body glad again they torch drum play Their feathers fell doivn their 

gamu diugi tana keda, "Ngapa za miai man, ngalpun gamulai kidowak asimika'." 

body glad they thus Hither thing what do our bodies — go with 



yoxmg man," and laughed to himself. He did the same again, he drank and moved to 
the wall, and the fish bones came out through his belly, and he died. This ends. 

5. The Story of Uga. 

A beautiful woman Uga wished for Tabiba. Tabiba had left Pulu (for) food, 
turtles, dugongs, always left for the Gumu people. Uga's mother had said, " We hear 
about a fine young man ; his name Tabiba. Don't you wish for a Gumu man, your 
husband Tabiba." He went and said to his friend, " Mate, we two will go and pluck (?) 
for our head dress." Uga did thus, she caught Tabiba by the hand. Tabiba was frightened 
and hung down her head ashamed. His friend said, "Where are you?" Tabiba said, 
" Come on, mate, a girl is caught here by me." His mate comes and looks and says, 
" Fine woman." He took her along, and put her in bush, they talk good. They are glad 
and dance in the night. Their feathers fell down when they danced. They said, " What 

' For Mabuiag, Gunmlrjal. - The prohibitive, niiui ubig, don't you wisli, your not wishing. 

^ Al for alai, husband. ■* Samera, a head dress of sarn (cassowary) feathers. 

' Mabuiag, madupami. 

^ Maino translated tunge warupa poieman, "dance in middle of night." 

' Maino translated kidowak axi, "all same as sick." 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS, 223 

Tabiba maioka> tari keda, " Ngakia ina Woropil= ngaiwoka zilaima." Tana keda, " Ngalpa 
Tabiba ? stood thus With me here Mahuiag girl ran They thus' We 

mimik ngalpun lagak-', ngalpa mata kupai^ nauitaka tauamunika apuka a 
will go hack our to place we only tally (/) stick up for them for mother and 

tatika baiabadatak imaika." Noido gul madin Kibuka. Mulpal iirapun midin 
for father for brother find He canoe brought to Kibu Moon one had been 

nubia Uga kazi iakamdin^ Tana keda, " Uga kazi nupunungu iakamaka ; na Kibu 
with him Uga child shewed They thus Uga child ovei- there shoivs she Kibu 

walaidiu." Nanu baiabad kai ngurum asidin". Tana turan nagimin, tana iman gulai, 
has climbed Her brother very sorry became 'They call out look they see canoes 

tana laula', Kaniga' moi nitun. Tana keda, " Merkai nioi napununga laulangul a 
they laida Kaniga fire burned They thus Merkai fire there at laula and 

Kanigngul." Tana imamin keda, " Gulai boie inupunga." Tana mani tutu wakuia 
at Kaniga They satu thus Canoes come now. They take stick along mat 

apia taian. Tana kadaka sizermiu. Uga a Tabiba tanonnan. Tana keda 
vnder put They up come ashore Uga and Tabiba sat down They thus 

makainanga* tanormaka tutu senabi lagonul ulaikoroi. Tabiba Uga korovvaig. 

for a little time sit stick that in place xvill go along Tabiba Uga don't know 

Ugana baiabat tutu mani, mataman Tabiba, kuk, kuk, kuk'. Patapau. Tananiun 
Uga brother stick takes hits Tabiba — — — Finish Their 

niarirai"' kadaka daparak, tana modabia baiu ieudoman, tanamunia modobia 

spirits go up to sky they punishment waterspout pour out ^uith them punishment 

adan Gumulga". 
jmt out Crumu people 

does this mean?" Tabiba stood up and said, "A Mabuiag girl ran away with nie." 
They said, " We will go back to our place, we will only stick up a tally (of things) for 
her mother, father and brother to find." He brought his canoe to Kibu. When Uga had 
been one month with him she became pregnant. They said, " Uga is showing a child 
over there ; she has climbed up to Kibu." Her brother became very angry. They exclaimed 
and looked. They saw canoes. They lit a fire (at) laula and Kaniga. They said, "The 
merkai (have) a fire yonder at laula and Kaniga." They saw it and said, "Canoes are 
coming now." Thoy take a stick and put it along under the mat. They come ashore. 
Uga and Tabiba sat down. They sit thus for a little while, with that stick (lying) 
along in the place. Tabiba and Uga don't know. Uga's brother takes the stick, and hits 
Tabiba, kuk, kuk, kuk. (He is) killed. Their ghosts go up to the sky, they pour out 
waterspouts for a punishment, (they) put them out as a punishment for the Guinu people. 

' This is probably written in error for »i»;(. 

2 Woropi is the Tutu form of Urpi, the spirit name of Mabuiag. 

3 I.e. Kibu. ■* Vide Vol. v. p. 84. " I.e. became pregnant. 
" Translated by Maino, "wail like hell." 

' laula and Kaniga, said to be two small islands near Mabuiag, but Kaniga is on the North of Badu. 

* Probably for nuujina, small, and the noun termination nga. 

" This is meant to represent the sound of the stick striking. 

'« Mabuiag, maril. " For Waria's version of this story see Vol. v. pp. 83—85. 



224 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



6. The Mangrove and the Crab'. {Told in the Muralag dialect hy Wallaby.) 



Na 



Na biu- pui pagar ai si puzir bin. 

The mangrove tree greii) up food there hung down bin 

biu ngapa paraidin a gitalai lu pataiadin. Na keda gitalai, 



Na gitalai'' 
Tlie crab 



kaigo 
down 



The mangrove hither broke-off and crab 



shell 



eked She thus crab 



mar. 
sat 

' Gwoba 

Giuoba 



aie ! 
come 

patan. 
cut-off 



Gwoba, biu kawa kuik patar!" A Gwoba ngapa uzari a biu kuik 

Givoha^ mangrove here head cut-off And Givoba hither goes and mangrove head 



Na 
The 



ngapa 
hither 



biu keda, 
mangrove thus 

a Gwoban moipu 



'Moi aie! Moi Gwoban 
Fire come Fire Gwoba 



uzari 
goes and 

usimar ! " A ur 
quench And sea 

Gudegadi ur kaua wanir 
Gudegadi sea here drink 



Gwuba, 

ngapa 
hither 



natan. 
in-fire burn 

uzari a moi 
goes and fire 



Noi Gwoba 
He Gtuoba 



kaua moipu natau ! " 
here in-fire burn 

keda " Ur aie ! 
til us Sea come 

Na moi keda, 
The fire thus 



Ur 

Sea 



usmian. 
quenched 

A Gudegadi ngapa uzari a ur wanin. 
And Gudegadi hither goes and sea drank 



raoi 

fire 

' Gudegadi 
Gudegadi 

Na ur 
The sea 



Na moi 
The fire 

kaua 
here 



" Kimus aie ! Kimus Gudegadin kaua maita pataear ! ' 
Arrotu come Arroiu Gudegadi here belly pierce 

Gudegadin maita pataeau. 
Gudegadi belly pierced 

Kia-a-kia, iaragi, iaragi, a ki-a-a 
Tepan palema, palema! a-a. 



A 

And 



kimus 
arroiu 



ngapa 
hither 



aie ! 
come 

keda, 
thus 

uzari 
goes 



Finding of the First Coco-nut on Muralag^. 

by Wallaby.) 



{Told in the Muralag dialect 



Daudaingu ngapa urab midin. 
From Daudai hither coco-nut came 



Kulai iuiadiu urab Neabu. 
First saw coco-nut Neabu 



Ngai imadin 
/ have seen 



in-sea fioated Again she went 

ngapa ganuka, bau waidar. 

hither for smell luave was breaking over 



senub urabau lag. 
" that coco-nut's place 

Ipika nanalaig pa ur pagai a nann urpu pudaidin. Laka na uzaraidin 
Woman menstruating away sea dives and her 

a urpu pagaidin. Nado noin iman. Noi 
and in-sea dived She him saw He 

Na keda nanu alaika mulaidin keda, "Ngata wapi imanu mata mina, kai bau widaika. 
She thus her husband-to said thus I fish saw proper-sort big wave breaks over 

ni aie utuika." Palai uzareuman. Na keda nubeka, " Ngata iman ina keda." 

you come for shooting They two went She thus to-him I saw Iter thus 

Noi keda, " Wa, a ur pagaiar ngaikia iniaika." Na pa ur pagaian, nad iman, na 
He thus Yes and sea dive-in with-me- for-seeing She away sea dives-in she saw slw 



1 For translation see Vol. v. p. 106. - Cf. footnote, Vol. v. p. 98. 

3 This is lit. finger or hand possessor, a derivative from ijit, hand or finger. 
■■ For translation see Vol. v. p. 103. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF WESTERN ISLANDERS. 225 

keda, "Kami, nguzu alae, iniar, niina kai ban waidaik." Noi keda, "Sa, adaka." Na 
thus Mate my husband look real big wave breaks over He thus Eh away She 

adaka tami. Noido utun ; laka pardaii a utiin. Kulai kaigub iiel gato, a wagel 
avjay-goes He shot again dreiv and shot First arrow name gato and after 

kaigub nol giruwa '. Urab mosu adadiu. Noid iman, uoi keda, '• Mina kabu pui, 
arrow name giruwa Coco-nut foam went out He saw he thu^ Real good tree 

wara ngadaluga a wara pui wara ngadalnga." Noi komakaka- taiadia 

one having-appearance and other tree other appearance He to-komaka threw 

(ngoimun nel waiwid goraiger). Noi kosimaidin. Noi keda, " Ina luina kabu pui." Noi 
oiir name tvaim to-day He grew up He thus This real good tree He 

moa asin pikin taian. "Ngau tati, nid ngana inika iawaig. Nid ngana butupatau, 
after dream had My father you me why inquire You me prepare 

ngau gam nid ngana uru kapu pudai koroi, a mui ngau gidub mina kapu za, 
my skin you me rope good vjill-pull and inside my kernel real good thing 

a ngau nguki mina kapu nguki, wara puilai wati puilai, ngai urapun mina pui. 
and my water real good water other trees bad trees I one real tree 

Ni keda^'Ngai wati ai.' Ngai mina kapu ai, kaigorsar lag ngakia bangal ubinmimi 
You thus I bad food I real good food many place for me by-and-by will wish 

koroi." Noi moa asin keda muli, " Ngau nel Sabu'', ngau nel Neabu', ngau nel U", 
He after thus says My name Sabu my name Hfeabu, my name U 

ngau nel Baribad^ ngau nel Oi", ngau nel Papamuti oi"." Noido tana uruil turiz. 
my name Baribad my name Oi my name Papamuti oi He those animals calls 

Kulai noid muzulai a pidalai a umail poibiz. Uruil tana kidai purtan, a uoi 
First he ants and bees and dogs gives Animals they first ate and he 

nagiz, keda, " Ina miai ? mina au ? Wa ! " Wagel noid mita patan. Wa, mina kapu 
looks thus Here what food good eh Yes After lie tastes Yes real good 

ai. Umail purutan, muzulai purutan, mina kai ubi. Noi keda, " Wa ! mina kapu ai." 
food Dogs ate ants ate real great wish He thus Yes real good food 

' Wrongly translated in Vol. v. p. 103. " Big wind," and " arrow with plain bone barb " are both meanings 
of the homonymous word kaiijub. 

2 This phrase is not clear. Komaht is possibly the native name for the mango, which is now called 
■waiwL U'aiwi or waiwai is no doubt an introduced term for the mango fruit, as it is found on the New 
Guinea coast, at Kiwai and Motu, in the Mekeo district, and at Sariba in the South East. It is also used 
in the Solomon Islands. 

^ The word "think" is probably to be understood here, "You think I am bad food, but." 

* Sabu is the Parama (Bamptou Is.) name for coco-nut. ' 

» Neabu, name of an island near New Guinea. On a MS. map by Maino of Tutu it appears to be 
Bobo (Bristow Island). 

" Murray Island, w, coco-nut. ' Mabuiag and Kiwai, hnrihnra, the young coco-nut. 

' Kiwai, 01, coco-nut. 

» Kiwai, paramuti, charcoal, probably that made from burnt coco-nut shell. Miiti, Murray Island, coco-nut 
husk. In these names Wallaljy was probably trying to give all the words which he knew for coco-nut. 



H. Vol. III. 



29 



THE LITERATURE OF THE EASTERN ISLANDERS OF TORRES STRAITS. 

The printed literature of the Eastern Islanders of Torres Straits consists only of 
Scriptnre Translations, Lessons and Hymns. There is no evidence that a native (with 
the exception hereinafter mentioned) has produced any work in the language. 

The first book in the language was drawn up b\' the Rev. Dr S. MacFarlane and 
printed at Sydney in 1876\ five years after the establishment of the mission". This was 
probably used by Herr Grube in the account of the language of " Errilb und Maer " (i.e. 
Darnley and Murray Islands), which he drew up for the work of Gabelentz and Meyer^ 
It is named by the latter in their list of authorities, but no extracts from the book are 
given by Herr Grube. I have not seen a copy. 

The first Scripture was a translation of the Gospel of St Mark printed at Sydney 
in 1879. It was entitled: 

EvANGELiA Mareko detali. The Gospel by Mark in the Murray Island Dialect, 
Torres Straits. Printed by Foster <md Fairfax. Sydney, 1879. 

At the end of the twenty-eight pages occupied by the gospel are printed on 
pp. 29 — 31, "Itmer; lesu ra esorerapare ; Ade ra gelar"; (i.e. Catechism; Jesu's prayer; 
God's law) ; and on pp. 32 — 42, " Gair uet " (a collection of 43 hymns). 

The existence of this printed book seems to have greatly influenced the language, 
and the abbreviated grammatical forms used in it became those commonly used in 
intercourse between the missionaries and people. A school was established on Murray 
Island in 1879, and natives from other places were brought in for instruction. This 
also tended to fix the language of the printed book as the general speech, though it is 
certain that the translation did not fully represent the exuberant grammatical forms of 
the Eastern Language. 

In 18N3, the Rev. J. Tait Scott published at Montrose, in memory of his infant 
son, a selection of Parables (34 in number) in the language of Erub (Darnley Island)*. 
In this the language of the extracts from St Mark does not differ from that of the 1879 
translation. 

^ MacFarlane, Kev. S., First Lesson Book from Durnley Island, Torres Straits. Sydney, 1876, 8vo, pp. 38. 

- The mission in Darnley was commenced July 31st, 1871, by the placing of the Lifuan Teacher Gucheng 
on the Island. From Darnley, Mataika, also a Lifuan began on liis own initiative the mission in Murray Island 
in 1872. 

'■' Gabelentz, Geo. v. d., and Meyer, Adolf B., Beitrrige zur Kenntniss der Melanesisehen, Mikronesischen und 
Papucinischen Hprachen. Leipzig, 1882. On pp. 511 — 536, " Die Spraehe von Errub und Maer. Worterverzeiehnisa 
und Grammatische Notizen von Herrn Grube ausgearbeitet." 

^ lesu ra giz mer abkoreb Erub Mer. [Mamoro akiapor David Baxter Scott, Eumeda, 13th July, 1882.] 
(I.e. Jesu's words according to Erub Speech. Careful remembrance (of) David Baxter Scott. Died 13th July, 1882.) 
Montrose, 1883, 8vo, pp. 52. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF EASTERN ISLANDERS. 227 

The Gospels of Mark and John, with the Catechism, Lord's prayer, Commandments, 
Man-iage and Burial Services and 112 hvrans, were published at Sydney in 1885. 

EuANGELiA Mareko detarer. (Gospel of Mark, Murray Island language). Sydney, 
1885, 8vo, pp. 1—57. 

Bound with this, but without separate title-pages are the following: Euangelia 
loane detarer (Gospel John wrote), pp. 59—131 ; Itmer (Questions), pp. 133—137. 
Tonar le ispili didbare Adera opem (Way persons are bound in marriage before 
God), pp. 139—142. Atkobei jauali (Funeral reading), pp. 143—145. Gaire ued 
Miriam mer debele Adim uedakiriar (Songs Miriam speech that may to God be 
sung), pp. 147 — 183. 

The language of these differs very little from the earlier versions, but u is used 
throughout instead of v. 

A new version of the First Lesson Book was written and printed on Murray Island 
by the Rev. A. E. Hunt in 1888'. 

During the visit of the Cambridge Expedition to the Eastern Islands in 1898, Finau, 
the London Missionary Society's Teacher at Murray Island, who hud then been on the 
island for six years, was translating the Gospels of Matthew and Mark into the Murray 
Language, whilst lotaraa, the teacher at Darnley was translating Luke and John. These 
have been since published by the British and Foreign Bible Society, under the care of 
the Rev. Harry Scott". As an example of the translations I give the parable of the 
sower fi'om that of 1879. The others differ so little from this that it is unnecessary to 
reprint them in full. 

Mark iv. 3. Waba aseravem, dasmer, nerut amorda le bakeamu ko ernor. 4. E 
You hear see one sowing man went to soiv He 

dikri, wader kep gab dege abi, iaka ebur giz kotolam tabarkeda abele eroli. 
th)-ew some seed path on-side fell also bird (pi.) from-sky came down this ate 

5. Waner kep tumem neidge abi, kebi .seb ge, sobkak omeili abelelam lerkar 
Some seed to-top on-rock fell little ground on quick grew through-that thin 

seb ge. 6. Gerger eupamada, a eueri a eutnili, abelelam nole sip kak. 
ground on Sun rose and hot and died tlirough-tliat no root not 

7. Wader kep lu eipu daradara ge abi, a lu daradara ge omeili, a ditarapi 
So7ne seed plant middle prickly in fell and plant prickly then grew and choke 

abelelam nole turum kak. 8. Wader kep debe seb ge abi, a omeili, a esawi 
throiigh-that no fruit no Some seed good ground on fell and grew and spread 

a turum turum ; a turum therte nagri, a sikeste, a wan handed. 
and fruit fruit and fruit thirty had and sixty and one hundred 

Notes. (1) Waner in verse o is a printer's error for Wader. 

(2) In Rev. J. Tait Scott's Buok of Parables, kep, kotolam, daradara and 
nagi-i, are printed kep, kotorlam, daradar and nagiri. 

1 London Missionary Society. Kikium ereuerem jiiiiiili, Miriam Mer. First School Book, Murray hlami 
language. L. M.'b Press, Murray Island, Torres Straits, New Guinea, 1888, 8vo, pp. 38. 

- Abele lauali kerkar gelar meriha Opole lent Keri.^o depegeli Miriam mer. Nets a nets Euangelia detarare 
.Mdtaio, Mareko, Liika, loane. London, British and Foreign Bible Society, 1902, 8vo, pp. 240. 

29—2 



228 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



(3) The 1885 Gospel has u instead of w or v in tuaha, wader, aseravem. 
It has also epe for iaka, tahakeuda for tabarkeda, eroare for eroli (v. 4), 
detarapi for ddtarapi (v. 7) and esali for esawi (v. 8). In verse 7 "a6i, 
a hi, daradara ge" is omitted. 

(4) The 1902 version has kep for /.v/), and also nerute for «erit< and bakeam 
for hakcamu in i). 3, kotorlam for kotolam, and a before uader in ;». 4, 
i/;erfi and sikesti for </(e?-te and sikeste in v. 8, but is otherwise identical 
with the version of 1885. 

So far as we were able to learn at Murra}' Island, Finau had not invoked the 
aid of any natives in the preparation of his version. His own pronunciation was ex- 
tremely faulty, /• being pronounced as I, and nearly every consonant being followed by 
a vowel, as e.g. dasemere for dasrner, uatueta for watwet. Many of these errors were 
corrected by his editor while the version was going tlirough the press. 

During my stay in Murray Island I took down from dictation several stories from 
Mamus and Pasi and one from Jimmy Rice. Some songs and speeches were also recorded 
on the phonogi-aph. Towards the end of our visit, Pasi begged of me an exercise book 
and pencil, and wi-ote out a miscellaneous selection of literature. This comprised several 
tales and long lists of classified words. It occupied fifty-nine pages written on both 
sides. This may be regarded as the first unassisted literary effort of a member of 
the Papuan race. Being, however, in the somewhat crabbed style which Pasi had 
learned at school, and which he himself characterized as " cut it short," this production 
cannot be compared in style with the longer and more purely native production of 
Waria in the Mabuiag language. 

There is no title to the manuscript, but Pasi concludes vfith the statement: " Kaka 
ditimeda abele jiauali detali abele meh ra net Ogos 4, 1898, a kara nei Passi" ; i.e. I 
began this book write this month of name August 4, 1898, and my name Passi*. 

The contents of Pasi's book are as follows : 



Stoi'y of Nageg . 
Story of Male . 
Story of Meidu . 
Story of Terera . 
Story of Iruam . 
Story of Mokeis 
Story of Devuner 
Story of Kutut . 
Story of Gedo . 
Names of Islands 
Narue.s of Fishes 
Names of Birds . 
Names of Trees . 
Names of Yams 
Names of Vines 



PAGES 

1—6 
7—17 
17—18 
19—22 
23—26 
26—28 
29—31 

32 
33—34 

35 
36—37 

38 

39 

40 

41 



In the following pages 1 give a selection 
with an interlineal and free translation and 

' Elsewhere he spells 



PAIiES 

Names of Villages . . . 41—43 

Names in Dauar . . . 43 — 44 

Way people read ... 44 

These are right words . . 4,5 

People's words .... 46 — 48 

Names of Reefs .... 49^50 

Names of men's bodies . . 51 

Little bird's names ... 52 

A song 53 

A smoking song ... 53 

Fashion of canoes ... 54 

Fashion of house ... 55 

Shell-fish names ... 56 

Tobacco song .... 57 

Story of Mokeis . . . 58—59 

from the Stories in the native language 

notes. Some untranslated passages are 

his name Pasi. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF EASTERN ISLANDERS. 229 

accounted for by our departure from Murray Island before I had time to go through 
Pasi's MS. with him. 

In the extracts from the MS. I have retained Pasi's spelling. A few of the most 
erratic cases are pointed out in the notes. There is no consistency in them. In the 
other stories I have used the spelling in conformity with my Vocabulary and Grammar. 

List of Stories. 

1. The Story of Nageg. 

2. The Story of Malo. 

3. The Story of Meidu. 

4. The Story of Iruam. 
.5. The Story of Mokeis. 

The following were taken down verbally by me from Pasi or from Arei and Pasi. 

6. The Story of Mokeis. 

7. The Story of Markep and Sarkep. 

8. Nam Zogo. 

!). The Story of Gelam, 
10. Tagai. 

Independent versions of these tales were, with the exception of the story of Mokeis, 
collected by Dr Haddon, and will be found in Vol. vi. 

1. The Story of Nageg. {From Pasi's MS.) 

Abele Nagegra' mer peike. Nagege emiri Nege a keubu e uerem 

This Nar/ec/'s word here iVw^e^ live at-Ne and afterwards she child 

esemelu abara nei Geigi-. E batai au le. Nagegede abara sarek 

hroiight forth his name Geigi He grew big fellow By Nageg his bow and arrow 

dituviak abi ikouar. Geigi e bakemulu keperem kikem itimed bozar. E dabigiri 
cut out him gave Geigi he went to-lagoon first shoots bozar He asks 

tabara apu, " Ama, nalar bozar^ ? areg lar ? " Keubu e itimed gas*. E 
his mother Mother what-fish bozar eatable fiih After he shoots gas He 

dabigeri tabara apu, "Ama, nalar a gas? areg lar?" A e itimed wiruirl 
asks his mother Mother what-fish then gas eatable fish Then he shoots wirwir 

- P 

1. The Story of Nageg. 

This i.s the story of Nageg. Nageg lived at Ne, and afterwards brought forth a 
son. His name (was) Geigi. He grew up. Nageg cut out a bow and arrows for him 
and gave them to him. Geigi went to the lagoon and first shot a bozar. He asked 
his mother, "Mother! what sort of fish is bozar ^ is it good to eat?" Afterwards he 
shot a gas. He asked his mother, "Mother, what sort of fish is </as? is it good to 

' The trigger-fish, "leather-jacket" {MoiwcanUiua). '' The king-fish {Cijhium comiiurHuiii). 

^ Not identified. ■* A hopping fish {Peiiophthnlmu^), but of. Vol. vi. » Not identified. 



230 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

E dabigir tabara apu, " Ama, nalar iiiruir ? areg lar ? " Keubu e baur 
He asked liis mother Mother wJuit jish wirwir eatable fish After she fish-spear 

dituuak abi ikuuar. E tabakemlu, paris' erem. E dasmeii nerut an le abara nei 
cut out him gave He came parts spears He sees another old man his tmine 

Iriemuris. Geigi ekedilu tabara baur. E erapeilu u kupi e lar ikep= 

Iriemuris Geigi put his fish-spear He broke coco-nut sprouts he fi^h. eye 

itukub' kerege^ dimirilu a nis teterge daramirilu pako neis tage dai-amirilu. 
put on on-head tied on and leaf on legs tied on also two on hands tied on 

E baraigilu gurege, e bakemulu karege'^ batimedulu. Keubu ekariklu tup dikiam". 
He dived in sea he went in deep water jumped in After reached tup cut ofi' 

Iriemuris tabara ueres' tekalu, tup akimelu. Geigi e ko tabara apu akomelu. 
Iriemuris his weres fetched tup dipped Geigi he again l/is mother returned 

E adem deregeir abele larekep. E bakemulu edalu tabara apu a nerut 
She outside cut up that fish He went picked up his mother and another 

nole atager kak. Apu e bagem. Nerut gerger eko tabakemulu ko 

not speak not Mother she keep quiet Other day he again came again 

okader derdar"" mokakalam kikem. Apokorep e tup dikiam. Iriemuris e weres tekalu 
cheated same as before Same way lie tup cut of Iriemuris he weres fetched 

e tup akemelu. E erdalu Geigira neis tetergab kakake'. Iriemuris e mermer'" 
he tup dipped He found Geigi's two foot-soles white Iriemuris he grumbling 

detager kega, "Ao mama le kaka dikiapor lar neis gerger ma kare okardar ma 
said thus Oh you man I thought fish two day you me cheated you 

inabu baseseredoua." Nerut gerger abele au le barkak detaut" a Geigide 
yourself take care Other day this old man straight said and Geigi 

eat?" Then he shot a wirwir. He asked his mother, "What sort of fish is wirivir'? 
is it good to eat ? " Afterwards she cut out a spear and gave it to him. He came 
and speared a gar-fish. He saw a certain old man named Iriemuris. Geigi put down his 
spear. He broke off coco-nut sprouts, he dressed himself up, with the eyes of a fish tied 
on his head and leaves tied on his legs and on his hands. He dived in the sea, he went 
to the deep water and jumped iu. Afterwards he reached the tup and stopped them. 
Iriemuris fetched his weres and dipped for tuj). Geigi returned again to his mother. 
She cut up that fish outside. He went and picked them up for his mother and said 
nothing. His mother kept quiet. Another day he came and again cheated the same as 
before. In the same way he stopped the tup. Iriemuris fetched a weres, he dipped 
for tup. He found the two white soles of Geigi's feet. Iriemuris grumbled and said, 
" Oh ! you are a man, I thought you were a fish ; two days you deceived me ; you 
look out for yourself" Another day this old man talked straight, but Geigi thought 

» The gar-fish. 

'- Properly irliep. Cf. Vol. vi. This is probably meant for the twisted leaf rings representing the eye of the 

king-fish. " Properly etkobei. ' Properly keremfle. 

5 Properly karemge. '^ Lit. cut off. 

' A conical fish-trap. * Properly okardarare. 

9 Usually kakekake. '" Reduplication of mer, word. 

" Apparently a missionary phrase, "talk straight to," i.e. caution. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF EASTERN ISLANDERS. 231 

ilikiapouai-e e bes'. Nerut gerger eko tabakemu Iriemuris emetu dereser abele 
thought he false Another day lie again came Iriemuris finish prepared this 

(ieigim. Iriemurisede ueres kikem akemeilu Geigi bakemiilu muige abara ures. 
for Geigi Bij Iriemuris weres first dipped Geigi went in-the-inside his weres 

E tais e paiteredulu paoge^ Iriemuris ererekiri kega, " Soge ueremekein 

He brought he poured out into a broken canoe Iriemuris cried thus Soge with child 

uatabatuuer a uaba tais sop'' a irimad^ a ur." Soge uerekem' wiaba tais 
cottie down and you bring bundle and stones and fire Soge with child they bring 

sop iriinad ur tauerge emiri okakakise". Irimuris gair oma-seker bakeuliare Geigira 
bundle stones fire on shore stop altogether Iriemuris many children came Geigi's 

pone depomedelare. Irimurisde daraisudarare'. Wige tabakeuuare apu 

eyes pick out Iriemuris made {them) leave off They then came mother 

detagarare kega, " Keribi daisumedada Iriemurisde." Uiaba bog tabara uteb. 
told thus Us made leave off Iriemuris They climb up their place 

Irimurisde ditimedulu kikem esak Geigi neis netat taim* dekasir pako tup apokoreb. 
Iriemuris begun first cut Geigi two one time boiled, also tup likewise 

E Geigi ereg. Keubu e tup ereg e ueres erap iriin irimad irim tibi 

He Geigi ate After he tup ate he weres brake swallowed stones swallowed iishes 

alu irim wiruiuiri " alu irimilu. Sina noga amelarere. 

thing siuallowed werir thing swallowed Enough outside 

Nagege e nab dekair tabara uerem. Xeis gerger e tabakemuiu tekalu tabara 
Nageg she cannot leave her child Two days she came took his 

kusbager. E ditimedulu ko ereretikiri kega, " Geigi, kare uerema ma uitikemege ? 
spear She began again cries thus Geigi my child you in-whose-belly 



he did not mean it. Another day he came again, Iriemuris had prepared this for 
Geigi. Iriemuris first dipped in the weres, and Geigi went inside his weres. He 
brought it out and poured it out on a fragment of a canoe. Iriemuris shouted, " Soge 
with the children come down and bring leaves and stones and fire." Soge and the 
children brought leaves, stones, and fire on shore, and stopped altogether. Many cliildren 
came to Iriemuris and poked Geigi's eyes. Iriemuris made them leave off. They then 
came and told their mother, " Iriemuris made us leave off." They went up to their 
village. Iriemuris began first (by) cutting Geigi three times, (theu) boiled him and also 
the tup as well. He ate Geigi. Afterwards he ate the tup, he broke up the weres and 
swallowed it, swallowed the three stones on which the shell saucepan rested, swallowed 
the ashes, swallowed the ^uerir. Finished outside. 

Nageg could not go without her child. In two days she came and took his spear. 
She began again to cry, " Geigi, my child, whose belly are you in ? Have you gone 

' I.e. that he did not mean it, in jargon "gammon." 

- Pao or pau is the curved side of a broken canoe which is used as a receptacle.. 

■' Probably a bundle of leaves for wrapping fish in. ■• Stones for supporting the shell saucepan. 

■ Shortened for wen:mkcin. " The meaning of this phrase is not at all clear. 

" Properly daraisumdarare. 

•* English "time." Cut him three times, i.e. cut him into three pieces. 

" The poles used for driving the tup into the u-cres. 



232 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

Nazikedi ma kenieme tekeb' a bubem tekeb, a sorem tekeb." A 

Have gone in you to belly mouth and to front oj body and to back And 

ko tekiri'* abele netat mer. E tabakemlu Waiar pitege ko ererer tikiri kega, 
again cries that one word She came Waier to point again cries thus 

" Geigi, kare' werem ma nitikemge nazikedi ? Aka Irimuris kemege ekareda 

Geigi my child you whose-belly-in have gone in WJiy Iriemuris in belly can-y 

Dauarege. Irimuris muris nade ? " Irimurisde detaut kega, " E bakemu." E dali gair 
at-Dauar Inemuris {afar I) wJiere Iriemuris said thus She goes She there many 

le, Nagege bakemu uiabi itimer kega, " Geigi nade ? " Uiaba detaut kega, " Ua, e 
men Nageg goes them asked thus Geigi u'here They said thus Yes he 

nade ? keriba nole abi asemerkak." A J^ageg takomelu dasemer Geigira kerem 
whei-e we not him saw Then Nageg went back saw Geigi's head 

mus. E dikiapoar, " Irimuris emetu abi ereg." E abi kusbageru ekos keko diketilu*, 
hair She thought Iriemuris finish him eat She him with spear pierced front 

a keubu bara ib deparisil E umilu. Nageg bakemulu sone" meta" tedekemelu 
and after his jaw dropped He was dead Nageg went ant nest took out 

tabakemulu disur abara kerem eupamalu teterege. E kaueilu disur ko eupamalu 
came sew his head jumped up on. feet She took sew jumped up 

keremege ekoueilu. Geigi edede ekaili. Apuuet abi itimer kega, " Ma uagelam ? " 
on head stood up Geigi alive becomes Mother him asks thus You from where 

Geigide detaut kega, " Irimuris kare akemeda ueresu." Nageg abi detager kega, 
Geigi said thus Iriemuris me dipped with iveres Nageg him said thus 

" Meriba bakemu meriba gad." Uiaba akomelei tabara gedim. Uiaba ekoueilei Ukesege. 
We go our place They return their to place They stand up on Ukes 

Nageg detager kikem tabara kega, " Ma bakemu karemege batimed. Ese gair le 
Nageg told first her thus You go in deep iuater jump in If many men 

into the belly or in the front of the body, or in the back." Then again she cried 
the same words. She came to the point on Waier, and cried again, " Geigi, my child, 
whose belly are you in ? Why Iriemuris carries (him) in his belly at Dauar. Is Irie- 
muris far away?" Iriemuris spoke thus. "She goes." Nageg there asked many men, 
" Where is Geigi ?" They said, " Yes, where is he ? we have not seen him." Then 
Nageg went back and saw the hair of Geigi's head. She thought, "Iriemuris has eaten 

him." She pierced him with a spear, , and afterwards his jaw dropped. He was 

dead. Nageg went and took out a green ant's nest, and came sewed, his head jumped 

up on his feet. She took (and) sewed it jumped up on his head, he stood up. 

Geigi became alive. His mother asked him, " Where (do) you (come) from ? " Geigi said, 
'• Iriemuris dipped me up with a weres." Nageg said to him, " Let us go to our place." 
They went back to their place. They stood up on Ukes. Nageg spoke to him first 
thus, "You go to the deep water and jump in. If men should try to catch you with 

' Apparently a derivative from te, hole, perhaps plural ; see Grammar. 

- Abbreviation of ercr-tikii. '■' Mistake for kara. 

* Uncertain meaning, perhaps from etrida, split, cut open. ■'' Cf. eparsi, stoop. 

'' A green tree-ant. " Lit. house. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF EASTERN' ISLANDERS. 233 

mare mekeku nab uanagotumurauem, ma inekek ekauua a baur nab 

yuu iritli hook cannot let tliem keep on hauling you hook take and spear cannot 

uanasekanem, ma baur erapoua." Eko apn detagcr kega, " Mare 

let them keep on sticking in you spear break He then mother said thus You 

nab unaosemerauera, ma mare osekerede unaregoua." Geigi karemege 
cannot keep on going out you me with spine keep on biting Geigi in deep water 

batiniedulii. Nageg e no kurge bain. Sina. Nagegera mer esemuda. 

jumped in Nageg she only in hole entered Enough Nageg's word finishes 

2. The Story of Malo. {From Past's MS.) 

Gair Malora' mer pike". Malo pako nerute le abara nei Sigar pako Seiu 
Many Male's ivord here Malo also another man his name Sigar also Seiu 

nerute le pako Kolka. Nerute le 4 gair le. Uiaba 4 nar uiaba nagiri a 
another man also Kolka Other man four men They four boats they have and 

uiaba nar par dirkiri narege Sigare nar par debeger ekoueilu nar 

they canoe anchor cast on reef Sigar canoe anchor tipped into water stood canoe 

tamege ereretikiri kega, Uaba ko tabakemu. Uiaba nole lakak emirilu amege 
on platform cries thus You again come They not willing stopped by oven 

wiaba 3 le mena norege miri keubu kepu bamarkare Seiu 

they three men remain on reef stays after different ways betook themselves Seiu 

emiri Masige. Kolka emiri Auridege. Malo e keitabakemlu Merem. Abara uake 
stays at Masig Kolka stops at Aurid Malo he came back to Mer His belt 

ekariku karemu norege abele an ber tedao abara nar diter desemulu'. E 

reached with deep ivater on reef this big his canoe finished He 

gurege baraigilu keubu narera uni irikei^ dikiain. E basekomedulu abele lagerge. E 
in sea dived after canoe's roller cut off' He stuck Idmself this on rope He 

a hook you take away the hook, and if with a spear, you break the spear." He also said 
to his mother, "You cannot go out, you bite me with (your) spine." Geigi jumped 
into the deep water. Nageg meiely went into a hole (in the rock). Enough. Nageg's 
story is finished. 

2. The Story of Malo. 

Many words (about) Malo here. Malo (was) along with another man named Sigar 
and Seiu another man and Kolka. (There were) four men altogether. Thi.'y had fous 
canoes and anchored their canoes on the reef. Sigar dropped (his) anchor and stood on 
the canoe platform and shouted, "You come again." They would not and stopped by 
the oven. They three remained continually on the reef Afterwards they betook 
themselves in various directions. Seiu stayed at Masig. Kolka stayed at Aurid. Malo 
came back to Mer He dived into the sea after (he) had cut off the uni irki of the 

1 This story should be compared with that in Vol. v. p. 04. Also see Journ. Anthinp. Iml. xxvm. 181)8, 
p. 13, and it is (,'iven iu full in Vol. vi. 
- Properly i'ci/v. 

^ The meaning of this is uncertain. 
* Uni irki, the roller on the prow of the canoe, covered with turn, cassowary feathers. 

H. Vol. III. 30 



234 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

emariker. E tekalu iper kikem Begeigizge. Uiaba gair le Dauer Maloi 

let go He brought .stranded (!) first at Begeigk They many men Dauar Malo 

detagertlar kega, " Keriba Agud gesekerim '." Wiaba berber kar dikedare abi detageridar 

told tinus We Agud They rope fence put him told 

ke^a, " Mase emivi keriba bakemu lewerem dasemer." Uiaba bakemu lewerem 

tlms You perhaps stop lue go for food look They go for food 

dasemer. IVJalo erap abele kar baraigilu gurege ekalu Gearege iper. Gair 

look Malo broke that fence dived in sea took at Gear stranded (?) Many 

Gear Dauale abi epeidare- detageredare kega, " Ua keriba Agud gesekerem 

Gear Damir men him seized told thus You our Agud 

emiri." Uiaba abara kar dikidare dirumededare. Uiaba bakeuidare leuerem dasemele. 

stop They his fence put enclosed They went for food looked 

E kar erap baraigilu gurem a ekalu Oremege iper. Gair Oreme le abi 

He fence broke dived to sea and took at Oreme stranded {?) Many Oreme men him 
epeidare a imidare abi detager kega, " Ua keriba Agud gesekerem." Uiaba bakudare' 

seized and shut him said thus You our Agud They ivent 

lewem-" dasemele. E rap abele kar e gurem baraigilu. E ekalu Nege 
for food looked He broke that fence he to sea dived He took at Ne 

iper. Netat Ne le abi erepei detager kega, " Ua keriba Agud gesekerem." 

stranded{?) One Ne man him caught said thus You our Agud 

Uiaba abi detagerdare, " Ma emiri keriba da.semer." Uiaba bakemu dasemer lewerem. 

They him told You stay we look They go looked for food 

Erap abele kar. E baraigilu gurege ekalu adem abele Tekerege. Netat e mekekem 
Broke that fence He dived in sea took out that at Teker One he for hook 

ikweireder. Malo tabara gem depegemelu mokakalam nar. Abele kosekeret dikiapor 
.? Malo his body changed like canoe That woman thought 



canoe. He fastened him.self on this with a rope. He let go. It brought (him) ashore 
first at Begeigiz. Many men at Dauar told Malo, " (You are) our Agud." They put 
a fence round (him) and told him, " Suppose you stay liere, we go and look for fooii." 
They went and looked for food. Mali> broke that fence, dived into the sea and came 
out at Gear. Many Gear Dauar men seized him and told him, " You are our Agud 

, stay here ! " They put up a fence and closed (him) in. They went to look 

for food. He broke the fence, dived into the sea and came out at Oreme. Many 
Oreme men seized him and shut him up and said, " You are our Agud." 
They went and looked for food. He broke that fence ; he dived into the sea ; he 
came out at Ne. One Ne man caught him and said, " You are our Agud." 
They told him, "You stay here, we look." They went and looked for food, (and he) 

broke that fence. He dived into the sea and came out there at Teger. One 

Malo changed his body like a canoe. That woman thought (it was a) canoe. After- 

' Apparently a compound of gesepge, in this laml, but meaning is not certain. 

- Properly ei'peidai-e. ' Properly hukeauwidare. ■* Properly lewerem,. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF EASTERN ISLANDERS. 235 

nar. Keubu e depegetnelu mokakalaiii lu abele e dikiapor abelu In. E niaiko 
canoe After he changed like tree that she thought that tree He close 

abidoge mokakalam ariti. E abara neis teter narpeilu. Kabur ekos bauru 
beside her like octopus He her tivo legs caught hold of Kabur speared with spear 

epeim alu. E karikulu. Maloi kebi kepercge eniariklii. Kabur tabara nesur 
to basket put in She had got him Malo little in lagoon let go Kabur Iter petticoat 

emegesilu keubu Maloi ekailu epeim alu. E opein ekarikulu tabara kimiar detager 
? after Malo taken to basket put in She to front got her husband said 

kega, "Dog, mara o dali." Uiaba abi ekailei meta muige emeredeli a tabara 
thus Dbg your liver there Theg him leave house in inside hang and of him 

batagerei kega, " Meriba kige abi dedelei." Uiaba balei metaem abele 

talk to one another thus We at night him They went in to house that 

kige batekapirikelei. Netat sike uiaba nole utekak. Abele kige Malo e kep 
at night forgot One on bed tliey not sleep That at night Malo he 

be nagilu. Keubu ibkep bapitei e teosmelu adem. E deraueilu narebet 

light shone After clicking struck Itimself he came out to out He went round 

pek e bakemulu peibirige bakemulu Jiietage balu. Abele uiaba ekiamelei gergerge 
side he went at Peibir went into house entered This they two rose at day 

abele tabara mair tekalu gem pako ebur peris baderedulu a 

this his red ochre brought body also animal poured un one another and 

wesatu dimirilu keremege. E deraueilu narebet pek. Abara koseker 

coronet of cassowary feathers tied on on head He ivent round side His wife 

Kabur esolu deb nesur pako Ner mair bagaramelu papek' esegemelu emirilu 
Kabur put on good petticoat and i red ochre turning round mat lay sat 

abra kimiardog. E bakemulu Lasege deketilu. Gair le Lasge enu-i abi dasemer. 
her husband with He went at Las peeped Many men at Las staying him saw 



wards he changed like a tree, then she thought (it was a) tree. He (went) close 
beside her like an octopus. He caught hold of her two legs. Kabur speared (him) 
with her fish spear, and put him into (her) basket. She had got him. (She) let 

Malo loose in a little pool. Kabur her petticoat, and afterwards took Malo and 

put him in the basket. She took iiim before her husband and said, "Dog! here is 
your liver." They leave him hanging inside the house, and say to one another, 

"We him to-night." They went into the house that night (and) forgot. They 

did not sleep on one bed. That night Malo shone (like) a torch. Afterwards 

(he) made a clicking noise and came out. He went round on the side, he 

went to Peibir, (and) went into a house. Those two rose at day( break), put that red- 
ochre on their bodies, and poured on themselves, and tied feathers on (their) heads. 

He went round side. Kabur put on a good petticoat, and red ochre 

turned round, spread out a papek mat and sat on it beside her husband. He went 
to La.s, Many men at Las stayed, and saw him. They said "Brother-in-law! 

' Papel;, nmt made of eiuiii leaf. 

30—2 



236 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

Uiaba mer atager kega, "Auim, nalu dekenoka ?" Dog e akomelu tabara koseker 

They word said thus Brother-in-law what Dbg he returned his wife 

erdalii a nerut gerger gair le uiaba oka ibuara neis le namakare ui 
found and another day many men they ! ? two persons sent they 

Kaburera tub dekalei tabakeinulei abi ekouaiei Kabur wiabi nautemer kega, " Nako 
Kabur's tup took came him stood Kabur them asked thus What 

iko bakemulam." Wiaba Kaburi dotagerei kega, " Mi naidedare uiaba neis le 

he7-e again come They Kabur told thus We lie down they two men 

oka basekir, meriba nole utkak." Uiaba kige batedare utem ui batekapirikelei. 
stare at (us) (.-) we not sleep TJiey at night / for sleep they forget 

Netat sike uiaba nole utekak, ui erkeb nakereder. Dog e abokoreb ko 
One bed they not sleep they eye ? Dog he same way again 

deraueilu mokakalam kikem gergerge. Kabur uiaba leuer ais uiabi naisouer. Uiaba bes 
goes round like first on day Kabur they food took them brought They false 

bakemule. Kaburi detageri kega, " Ma naoua." Uiaba bakemulei lu isepei. Wiko 

go Kabur told thus You stay here They come tree hide They again 

takomelei meta luneb' erapei balei a Maloi teturumelei. Ui tabara ekalei. Abele 
return house a hole break enter and Malo watch again They his got This 

Saremekeb e Zagareb le, Dam e beisam le. Maike baremai Audege Damam kabe 
Saremkeb he Zagareb man Dam lie shark man Near at And to Dam dance 

le, Sarekeb e warub le ga bakemulei Keugige baremei ege Saremekeb, nab 
Tnan Sarkeb he drum m.an and go to Keugiz then Saremkeb cannot 

Dami itekelu kega, " Kaimeg, mako karim tekao." Ege Sarkebde Dami detager kega, 
Dam answer thus Mate you also to me bring Then Sarkeb Dam told thus 

" Keimeg ma no uarub le, naoua, no kare tarararemoua." Wiaba Keugizege baremai, 
Mate you only drum man stay here only me beat drum They at Keugiz 

ga bakemulei gebadar Kobige baremei aga bakemulei Pase gazirge baremei 
then go at Gebadar Kobi and then go at Pasegazirge 

what ? He returned and found his wife, and on another day, many men 

sent two men (who) took Kabur's tup Kabur asked them thus, " Why do yoti 

come here again ? " They told Kabur, " We lie down, but the two stare at us (so that) 

we do not sleep." They for sleep at night, they They did not sleep on 

one bed, those eyes Dog goes round again as he did on the first day. 

Kabur takes their food, took them. They pretend to go away. Kabur says, 

" You stay here ! " They came to a tree and hid. They return again to the house, 
break a hole, enter and watch Malo again. They take him. This Saremkeb (was) 

a Zagareb man. Dam (was) a Beizam man. Close at Aud dance man, 

Sarkeb (was) a Warup man, then they two went to Keugiz then Saremkeb 

cannot, and answers Dam thus, " Mate, you also bring to me." Then Sarkeb said to 
Dam, " Mate, you are only a Warup man, stay here, just beat the drum for me." They 
at Keugiz, and then went at Gebadar Kobi, and then went at 

' Apparently a compound of Ji(, thing or tree, and neb, hole. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF EASTERN ISLANDERS. 237 

aga bakeniulei Damge baremei ekailei ememeredelei. Uige bakemulei tawerege 
and then went at Dam left They then go to beach 

e turumelei gair le nardarare gair le uiabi nautemerare kega, " Nade paike ege ? " 
he watched many men found many men them asked thus Where here then 

Nils le uiabi datarare', " Inoka obege terae." Abele Dog e derauelei. Abara 

Nils men they said There on front platform (/) This Dby he goes round His 

sir= domelu e akomelu Kaburi detager, "Mas bakemu nalugelam kara 

white feathers sticks in he returns Kahur told You perhaps go how my 

sir oremeda." Kabur bakem uineta muige dasemer abele luiieb erertikiri 

white feathers sticks in (/) Kabur goes house in itiside saw that / shouted 

Dogim kega, " Neis le Maloi iturudariei nako tabara ekadariei." Dogede ditimedulu 
to Bog thus Two men Malo watch why Itim they take away Dbg shot 

au mer, "E gar E gar." Kubu= detager tabara kega, " Meriba bakemu Lasem." Wiaba 
big word ? ? After told her thus We go to Las They 

bakemulei Lasem. Gair le eniiri Lasege uiba merekem. Dog pako abara koseker uiabi 
two go to Las Many men stay at Las they message Dbg also his wife them 

nautmerare kega, "Nitide Maloi tekada?" Uiaba abi sogob emerare a detarare, "Ma 
asked thus Who Malo brought They him tobacco give (?) and say You. 

no dekaer meriba Augudge wadauer. Uiaba takomelei ged Tekerem uige 

just leave our at Augud They return place to Teker they then 

oka batagarare. Keubu u kupi erapeirare larerekeb e itukubu^ waba keremege 

grieved After coco-nut sprouts break off ? he dressed on head 

demerare pako neis teterege a tage. Wiaba kab barier. W'iba tabaraigilu 
tied on also two on feet and ou hand They dance They dived down back 



Pasegazii-, and then went at Dam stayed They then went on the 

beach, he found many men, asked them, "Whereabouts here?" Then Nus le said, "There, 
on front of platform ! " Then Dog went round, stuck in his egret (feather), went 
back and said to Kabur, "Just go (and see) how my egret (feather) is stuck in." 
Kabur went inside the house, saw the (hole?) and shouted to Dog, "Two men are 
watching Malo, why, they are taking him away." D6g uttered a big word, " E gar, 
E gar." Afterwards he said to his (wife), "Let us go to Las." They two went to, 
Las. Many men stayed at Las, they talked. Dog and his wife asked them, " Who brought 
Malo?" They offered (them) tobacco and said, "You ju.st go away from our Augud 

They two returned to Teker, they then are grieved. Afterwards he broke off 

coco-nut sprouts he dressed up, tied on his head, also on his two feet and 

hands. They danced. They dived down, Nagir men and Sikaram men, sought Malo 

1 Abbreviated from dctagerare. 

^ The white form of the reef heron, Demiegretta sacra. 

' Keiibit, after. 

■• Dress up for dance, properly elkobei. 



238 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

Nagirame le pako vSikarame le' Maloi tederaiinrai'e mi biileb- pako usav buleb'' 
Nagir men also Sikxir men Malo souglit also kangaroo 

tekederer ga e kederer webaduge nar omar gepi itimerare keaga, " Nade Malo 
put again then he jynt ? canoe suckerfish asked thus Where Malo 

penoka?" Uiaba gepira nam ditidare warupu derainare gepede nenatometo 

then They suckerfish's green turtle with drum heat suckerfish shows 

nar nataire erem Erege ornarl Uiaba Barati itimerare kega, "Malo nade?" Baratede uiabi 
canoe spear at Er They Barat asked thus Malo where Barat them 

daratagarare kega, "Tedali lu mairmair desekeili." Wiaba Baratera nam ditidare a 
told Unis tree 7-ed cut ^'/'^^ Barat's turtle ? and 

uarb demare. Wiaba nar nataiare Lasem. Lasege omar uiaba baiipamaret gesepem 
drum beat They canoe ! to Las At Las they get up to land 

gesep bamer gair le uiabi leweru darsisiare ga ur der utbaider. Gair nar 
ground sat many men them luith food provided then fire slept Many canoes 

Beizamelera tabara nar, a Zagareb le tabara nar, a Omai le tabara nar, a 
shark 7nan's his canoe and Zagareb man his canoe and dug man his canoe and 

deume le tabara nar, a gereger le tabara nar. l^iaba demaredare atiem. 

pigeon man his canoe gerger bird man his canoe They beat (drum) for voyage 

Abele netat le emerasekem leuer tais uige aserare abele lera mer. Wiaba 

This one man food brought they then heard that man's word They 

bako a batir narge tarkerare kor uege ilaramare. Uige narge 

stand up and hold out arms on canoe stern on sand They then on canoe 

mud demare. Omai le kikem moder dikiare tabaupamaret pigir bagarare baker 
house shake Dog men first mat get up again look round stone 

baid. Deume le tabara moder adem dikiriare tabaupamaret bauper baker 
lie down Pigeon men their mat to-outside titrew get up again get up (i?) stone 

bamer a Gerger le tabaupamaret bauper bauper baker bamer Zagareb. le 

sit and Gerger bird men get up again get up (?) get up (!) stone sit Zagareb men 

again and kangaroo put again, and then put canoe suckerfish, (and) 

asked thus, " Where (is) Malo then ? " They a.sked Barat, " Where is Malo ? " 

Barat told them, "There " They Barat's turtle, and beat the drum. 

They canoe to Las. At Las they landed, sat on the ground, and many 

people provided them with food, and then fire and slept. Many canoes, Beizam 

men's canoes, and Zagareb men's canoes, and Omai men's canoes, and Deumer men's 
canoes, and Gerger men's canoes (were there). They beat the drum for sailing. 

One man brought food, then they heard that man's words. They stand up 

and hold out arms on canoe, stern on sand. Then they shake the house on canoe. 

The Omai men first mat, get up again Deumer men their mat outside, 

Then the Gerger men continually get up, Zagareb men. They 

' Nagirum le, people from the islaud of Nagir; Sikarum le, uatives of Yam and Tutu, so called from Sikar, 
Sigar, or Sigai the brother of Malu, cf. Vol. v. pp. 64, 375, and Vol. vi. "The Coming of Barat" in the Bomai 
or Malu legend. 

- These are not identified. 

'■' I cannot make sense of these words, and very little of the remainder is intelligible. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF EASTERN ISLANDERS. 239 

tabaupamart. Wiaba atug a baraer. Beizame le keubu tabaupainaret. Keubu uiaba 
get up again Theij sail and sit Shark men after get tip again After they 

bakare uaiem batir. Maloi sor dikiare akemeirare gurege. Gair Rame le 

go awag to to canoe hold out arms Malo dipped in sea Many Rame men 

pako Sikerame le iiiba nar douaker bakeiuiare tabara gcd. Siiia. Eseimula abele 
also Sikera7n men they canoe sail went his place Enough Finishes this 

Malora iner. 
Malos word 

3. The Story of Meidu. (From Pasis J7,S'.) 

Abele mer Meiduia peike. Eniiii teirige. Uiaba 4 kimiar ueiem uiaba 
This ivord Meidu's here She lived at Teir They four male child they 

kaba etelare. Uiaba nei Ab a Uid Tureper, Monan a Zerai'. Pako gair neur. 
banana picked Their name Ah and Wid Tureper Lizard and Zerar Also many girl 

Wiaba nei Baiso, Eupe, Izeiraged-. Uiaba emiri opege. Meidu erere tekiri kega. 
They name Baiso Eupe Izeiraged They lived on front Meidu cried out thus 

" Nako maniede dimuueda." Meidu e gurim baragihi e tabaruk wege uteidilu. 
What tlirotu out Meidu she to sea dived she came out on beach slept 

Abele meg toger kikem abi teterege igilu ege teter narapeilu a ga 

That tide flotved back first Iter on foot took off then foot broke and then 

toger abi e ipu igilu ege teter nai'apeilu a ga toger abi 

fiotued back her wave took off' then foot broke and then Jloiued back her 

igilu esemulu. Megede abi ekahi. Meidu e mena uteidi karemere'. Narege. 

took off finish Tide her took away Meidu she still sleeps in the deep water In canoe 

ekiamulu darasemer abele neis opem^ Meidu detaut kega, "Mer Daiiar didideoram' a 
stood up saw that two face Meidu said thus Mer Dauar stay yonder then 

and sat down. The Beizam men afterwards Afterwards they went away to 

the canoe holding out their arms dipped in the sea. Many Rame men and 

Sikeram men sailed in the canoe and went home. Enough. This ends Malo's story. 

3. The Story of Meidu. 

This (is) Meidu's story, yhe lived at Teir. They (were) four boys and they picked 
bananas. Their names (were) Ab, Wid Tureper, ]\lonan and Zerar. Also many girls, 

their names Baiso, Eupe, Izeiraged. Thi^y lived at Op. yUvhx cried, " What ', 

Meidu dived into the sea. She came out at We (and) slept. That tide came up again 
and first took up her foot, and then broke off (^cai-ried away) her tcet, and then came up 
again and a wave then took and carried away her (other) foot an<I then tuok her (and) 
finished her. The tide carried her away. I\Ieidu still sleeps in the deep water. In the 
canoe stood up and saw those two faces. Meidu said this, " Mer and Dauar, stay yonder, 

1 Cf. note at end of the tale of Meidu in Vol. vi. In another version, these are .Vb. Wiil, Munan and Zirar. 
- There were four girls, Aiu, Baiso, laraged and Eupe. 
'■' A mistake for karemge. 
■* I.e. the islands of Mer and Dauar. 

■■' Au imperative verb probably eonneoted witli tidiihici; the second day before yesterday (cf. p. 83). Here 
used of place. 



240 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

dibadib tege lem uaeudaua, ki uaesameiua." Eko uteidilu abele 

'pigeun un dom'way sun continues to die down night groivs dark She again slept this 

karemege ekalu. Deudaige iper kesege abara sip namakare. Sina. 

in sea took aivay At Daudai stranded (?) in crack her root sent Enough 

Abele Meidura nier esemuda. 
This Meidu's tuord finishes 

4. The Story of Iruam. {From Pasi's MS.) 

Iruameia' nier peike. Abele Iruam ne padege emiri. Uige gair 

Iruum's word here TItis Iruam water in hole dwells They then many 

tabakeuuare Laselam ne atakoem. Uiba ager igalare. Gair ueurra nei Tepipi a 
came from Las water for drawing They ager roasted Many girls name Tepipi and 

Tisaber pako nerut neurra nei Deo". Uiaba kikem gair neur Deui naba ikairare 
Tisaher also another girl's name Deo They first many girls Deo altogether asked 

kega, " Ma keribim mabara ne tais." Ege Deuede bes idaradare kega, " Kara 
tJius You. to us your water bring Then Deo false sent thus My 

nesor inermer bu." ^''g^ tabakeuuare, Gazir pidege tedketerare, iko 

water bottle ? 1 They then came Gazir at point filled up then 

tederaueirare. Ege Deuede tabara nesor tais keubu tabakemulu gair 

went round again Then Deo her water bottle brought afterwards came many 

neur gebager tupidege abi dasemerare. Gair neu tabara mer batagarare, " Deuede 
girls I ? Irim saw Many girls about her word talked Deo 

meribi bes tidirida." E keubu ekase. Uige Erge bog, ge bamer 

tis false sent away She afterwards walked They then at Er climbed up then sat down 

maike. Eko keubu og uiabi nardarare daratarare kega, " Uaba adud 

close by She also afterwards climbed up them found said thus You bad 

ne ereauem kai noge Eupadege debe ne tari'." Uige gair neur sopekak 

water drink ? I outside at Eupad good xvater drink They then many girls quickly 

and a pigeon on the doorway, the sun dies down, night grows dark." She slept again in 
the deep water. Stranded at Daudai, she took root in a crevice. Enough. This ends 
Meidu's story. 

4. The Story of Iruam. 

This is the story of Iruam. This Iruam lives in a water hole. Then many (girls) 
came from Las to draw water. They roasted ager. The girls were named Tepipi and Tisaber 
and another girl named Deo. The girls at first asked Deo, " Bring us to your water." 

Then Deo sent them wrong, thus, " My water bottle " Then they came to 

Gazir pit, filled up and then went round. Then Deo brought her water bottle, and 

afterwards came. Many girls and saw him. The girls talked about her, " Deo 

sent us wrong." She afterwards walked. They then climbed up at Er, then sat 
down near. She also afterwards climbed up, found them and said thus, " You drink the 
bad water, I will drink good water outside at Upad." Then the girls quickly drank 

' Pasi spells this word in several different ways, Iriwam, Irruuame, Iruuam. I have adopted Iruam, 
as the form which is nearest to the verb eruam, steal, especially woman, which is the subject of the story. 
^ In other accounts these names are given as Ter-pipi, Ter-seberseber or Ter-sabersaber, and Deiau. 
•' From ta and eri. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF EASTERN ISLANDERS. 241 

ereare keiko kikem bakeuuare. Ege Deo og e Upadege nesor edag. 

dnmk ? first went Then Deo climbs up she at Upad water bottle filled 

Ege neis daranuilu kega, " Naiterir." Ege Iruuaiu bamartTcduhi neriier' oker 

She then two .? thus f Then Iruam kept quiet !■ climbed up 

areger. Emetu areger e osemelu Deui itimer kega, "Ma nite ?" Deuede abi detare 

ate Finish ate he came out Deo asked thus You who Deo him told 

kega, "Kaka Deo." Eko abi itimer kega. "Ma nete?" Ege Iruuam abi detager, 

thus I Deo He again her asked thus You tuho Then Iruam her told 

"Tabi a mi adud akailei." Deo nole lakak. E tabara nesor tais 

Come down and we bad do Deo not like She her water bottle brought 

tabakemulu kikem Iruuam keubu tabakemulu tauerege etununelei. Deo e baraigilu 
came first Imam after came on beach i Deo she dived 

au nar te ge. E Mubagabem bakemulu. Iruuam keubu bakesmulu Deui nerner' abi 
big canoe hole in She to Mubac/ab went Iruavi after went Deo her 

ereboreker okerer. Ege tabaia ne demarer. Ege e uperr- gako aiser. Uige 
tore climbed She then her water shook Then she ? then again took They then 

gair neur tabager abi tedasemerar a uiaba bageredare^ kega, " Deoi Iruuamede 

many girls look round again him saw and they talk thus Deo Iruam 

degeli." Uige au dudumege bakeuuare Lasge ne edagare iko uem 

talks They then very in short time went at Las water collected then again sand 

bakarik. Abele dckeuuare oker dibarare Deuera kikem batauerdare. Deoede tabara 
reach (/) ? ? ? / Deo's first threw Deo Iter 

ne edag ege pesur'' etarukulu abi daniirikare. Ege usi dipulu'' kikem maberi 
water collected then pesur picked up him flogged He then made water first conch shell 

etatoko a keubu dipulu au keper etatoko eupamalu keresoge balu. Uige 

filled and after made water big lagoon filled jumped up in ker shell entered They then 



(and) first went away. Then Deo climbed up, she tilled her water bottle at Upad. She 

then two thus, " " Then Iruam kept quiet, ate. After having eaten 

he came out and asked Deo thus, " Who (are) you ? " Deo told him thus, " I (am) Deo." 
He again asked her thus, " Who (are) you ? " Then Iruam told her, " Come down and 
we do bad." Deo did not wish to. She brought her water bottle, and came first, 

Iruam came after, (and) they (both) on the beach. Deo dived into hole of a big 

canoe. She went to Mubagab. Iruam went after, climbed up. She then shook 

her water bottle. Then she then took it again. The girls again looked round and 

saw him and they talk, "Iruam is talking to Deo." Then they went very quickly and 

collected water at Las, and then again reached the sand Deo threw first. 

Deo collected her water and then picked up pesur and flogged him He then 

made water, first filled a conch shell, and afterwards made water and tilled a big lagoon; 
then jumped up, and went into a ker shell, then they (beat) the ker shell. He then 

' Probably an adjective, 'holding bis breath,' from ncr, breath. 

- So in MS. but meaning unknown. ^ A mistake for batageredare, talk to enoh otlier. 

* Dried inflorescence of coco-palm, used as broom. " A mis-spelliiig for depuupli. 

H. Vol. III. 31 



242 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

keresor\ Ege eosemelu asar- sorcge balu. Uige asar depitare. Ege eupamalu^ 

ker shell Then weid out spider in shell entered They then spider shell struck Then jumped up 

sorege balu. Uige nas* sor dipitare. Ege eupamalu semep' sor balu. 

in shell entered They then turbo sltell struck He tlien jumped up semep shell entered 

Uige semep dipitare. Ege eupamalu weiwerege " balu niaaem niaikarem. 

They then semep struck Tlien jumped up t entered for stopping always 

Siiia. Esemuda abele Deoera mer. 
Enough Finished this Dec's word 

5. The Story of Mokeis. {From Pasi's MS.) 

Mokeisra mer peike. Abele Mokeis au uesuese le. Uiba abi dituuakalare, 
Of Mokeis uwd here This Mokeis very greedy man They him put out {expelled) 

" Keriba nole mare lakak, ma au weres erueser" ma no iiaua." Mokeis tabara ne 
We not you want you big weres eat you, just stop here Mokeis his name 

Kepol eper tagu. Ege Bi kikem damos kega, " Ma kare nakauere ?" Bi abi detager, 
Kepol i ivith hand Then Bi first asked thus Yoii me take Bi him told 

"Ma uo naua, keriba mare touar nmele." Ege bakemulu Serari damos kega, "Meriba 
You just stop here we your sort know Then went Serar asked thus We 

bakemu?" Seraride abi detager kega, " Ma no naua, keriba mare tonar umele." Eko 
go Serar him told thus You just stop here we your sort knotu Again 

bakemulu Gobi damos, "Meriba me meriba bakemu?" Gobede abi, "Ma no naua." 
went Gobi asked We ? we go Gobi him You just stop here 

Ega Pilauai-i damos kega, "Meriba bakemu ?" Pilauarede abi detager, "Ma no naua. 
He then Pilauar asked thus We go Pilauar him told You just stop here 



went out, and entered a spider shell. Then they beat the asor. He then jumped up 
and went into a (?) shell. Then they beat the nas (turbo) shell. He then jumped 
up and entered a semep shell. Then they beat the semep. Then (he) jumped up 
and entered a tveiwer, and stopped there for ever. Enough. This ends the story 
of Deo. 

6. The Story of Mokeis. 

The story of Mokeis here. This Mokeis (was) a very greedy man. They put him 
out (and said), '■ We don't want you, you eat big weres (full), you stop here." Mokeis, 

his name Kepol with hand He then first asked Bi, " You take me ? " Bi 

said to him, "You just stop here, we know what you are like." He then went and 
asked Serar, "We go?" Serar said to him, "You just stop here, we know your sort." 
He then again went and asked Gobi, "Shall we go?" Gobi said to him, "You just 
stop here." Then he asked Pilauar, " Do we go ? " Pilauar said to him, " You just 

1 The name of a shell. - Properly o.s-or, the spider shell (Pteroceras). 

^ The word nasi is probably omitted. ■* Nasi (Troclms niloticus). 

^ Uiiidentitied. '' Unidentified. 

' An intensive form of ero, eat. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF EASTERN ISLANDERS. 243 

keriba mare tonar umele." Ege no ekailu wege ekoueilu. E oka batager 

xue ijoiir sort knoiu He then alone left on beach stood He was sorry 

abele mer. E tekalu kega, " Mi Bira uar darapei, k> mi wagei asemuli. 
this word He ? thus We Bi's canue break men we eat finish 

Mi Serarira nar darapi, le mi aregei asemulei. Mi Pilauarra nar darapei, le mi 
We Serar's canoe break men we eat finish We Filauar's canoe break men tve 

aregei asemule. Mi Gobera nar darapi, le mi aregei asemulei." Abele Mokesra 
eat finish We Gobi's canoe break men we eat finish This of Mokeis 

mer peike. Keiibu e bakemulu gabol noge bahi, uerut nar erap, le ereg 

word here After he went whale outside entered other canoe broke men ate 

esemulu, ga bakemulu nerut nar erap le ereg esemulu, ga bakemulu nerut nar 

finish then went other canoe broke men ate finish then ivent other canoe 

erap, le ereg esemulu. Abele neis nar nab Darage dakaelei. Uiba eisiloi 

bi-oke men ate finish This two canoe cannot at Dara leave They were draiun up 

Zuzigirige. Eko erisilu. Sina. Abele esemuda Mokeisera mer. 

at Zuzigiri He again ate Enough This finish of Mokeis word 

6. The Story of Mokeis. (Told by Pasi.) 

Mokeis. Wiabi gaire lera nar. Wiaba lagelag bakeauware norem. Gai le 
Mokeis They many men's canoe They wished go to reef Many men 

nole lakak abara nei Mokeis. Gaire le nole lakak abele le Mokeis. E au lewer 
not wisJi his name Mokeis Many men not wish this man Mokeis He big food 

lagelag, abelelam gaire le lakak abele le ekauere narge. Wiaba no emri 
want through that many men not ivish this man take on canoe They just stay 

gesebge, epe Mokeis au lagelag bakeamu norem. E kikiem bakeamu nerute 
on land he then Mokeis much wished go to reef He first goes other 

stop here, we know what you are." He then was left alone and stood on the beach. 

He was vexed at those words. He thus, " Let us break Bi's canoe, eat the 

men, finish it. Let us break Serar's canoe, eat the men, finish it ; let us break 
Pilauar's canoe, eat the men, finish it; let us break Gobi's canoe, eat the men, finish 

it." This was Mokeis' talk. Afterwards he went into a whale outside broke the 

other canoes, ate the men, finished them, then went to another canoe, broke it, ate the 
men, finished them. Then two canoes tried to remain at Dara. They were drawn up 
at Zuzigiri. He then again ate. Enough. This ends the story of Mokeis. 

6. The Story of Mokeis. 

Mokeis. Many men had a canoe. They wanted to go to the reef. They did 
not want (one) whose name was Mokei.s. Many men did not wish for this man 
Mokeis. He wanted lots of food and through that the men did not want to take 
him on the canoe. They just stayed on the land and then Mokeis much wished to go 
to the reef. He first went to one canoe man and said "Let us go to the reef." 

31—2 



244 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TOERES STRAITS. 

nar le detager kega, " Meriba bakeamu iioivni." Abele iiar kemle abi detager 
cuiioe man told thus We go to reef This canoe owner him told 

kega, " Ma au weserweser le," a e bakeamu nerute nar abkoreb. Wiaba abi 
thus You very greedy man and he went other canoe likeivise They him 

detager kega, " Ma au weserweser le." E bakeamu nerute nar. Wiaba abkoreb, 
told thus You very greedy man He goes other canoe They likewise 

" Ma au weserweser le." Mokeis e ekue wege a wiaba nar doakir. Wiaba 

You very greedy man Mokeis he stands up on beach and their canoe sailed They 

bakeauware Koaipet karemge. Mokeis erpei tabara ni kepor a oka batager. 
ivent to Koaipit in deep water Mokeis seized his water bottle and grieved 

E bakeamulu galbol galbol' noge balu. E bakeamulu nerute nar erapei erpei. 
Ife went ivhale whale outside went in He tvent other canoe broke seized 

Nar erar serebge egimulu. Neis .sereb narapeilu, nar bapigemelu, abele 

Canoe quiet on outrigger rested Two outrigger floats broke canoe turned over that 

galbol le ereg eseamulu. Mokakalara nerute nar erap, le ereg eseamulu. 
^vhale men ate finished Likeivise other canoe broke men ate finish 

7. The Story of Markep and Sarkep. {Told by Pasi.) 

Abele neis lera mer peike. Abara keimer Sarkep. Wiaba kikem okar baskiei. 
This two men's word here His younger Sarkep They first looked about 

Sarkep abu bakeamulu tauerem, e dasmer gaire neur wiaba gur bagrer 

Sarkep) went down went to beach he saw many girls they sea played 

tag-ditilare- Dauarge e pako Waierge. Markep e tais abele tonar mokakalam 
tag-ditilare at Dauar he also at Waier Markep he brought that dress like 



The owner of the canoe said to him, " You are a very greedy man." Then he went 
to another canoe in the same way. They said to him, " You are a very greedy man." 
He went to another canoe. They (said) the same, " You are a very greedy man." 
Mokeis stood on the beach and their canoes sailed away. They went to Koaipit in 
the deep water. Mokeis seized his water bottle and grieved. He went inside a whale 
outside. He went and broke one canoe, seized it. The canoe was quiet resting on 
the outrigger floats. (He) broke the two floats, the canoe turned over, that whale ate 
the men, finished them. In the same way (he) broke the other canoe, and ate the 
men, iinished (them). 

7. The Story of Markep and Sarkep. 

This is a story of two men. The younger one (was named) Sarkep. They first 
looked about. Sarkep went down to the beach ; he saw many girls playing tag-ditilare 
at Dauar and also at Waier. Markep brought that dress like a widow's, and put on 

' Appareutly repeated in mistake, 

- A game of holding liands (tag) in the water, played by girls. Cf. note in Folk-lore, Vol. vi. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF EASTERN ISLANDERS. 245 



mau 



laik kosker e oesur esolu atperiklu, tibi u tabara gem desau, pako 

tvidowed tcoman he petticoat put un round ashes coco-nut his body smeared also 

abara kerem desau. E koket ekalu, abu taueiem. E darabgerare gai neur 

his head smeared He stick walked went down to beach He called many girls 

kega, " Karim neur watakaile neis a neis kari wanagaredlei gege wanatnariklei." A 
thus Forme girl agree two and two ine care for here send And 

wiaba neur neis a neis akaile Markepi degardedare abele kobi paserge' detagridare 
they girls tivo and two agreed Markep look after that little on hill said 

kega, "Nako mari geki namarkidare ?" Markep uiabim detaut kega, "Abele lar 
thus What you there sent Markep to them said thus This jish 

medge- kari namarkidare." Wiaba bakeawidare lar medge. Markepi detagi-idare kega, 
in flesh me sent They went fish in flesh Markep told thus 

"Nako mari geki namarkidare?" Markep vviabi daratagridare kega, "Maike kara uteb 
What you there sent Markep them told thus Near my dwelling 

debele wa kari nagardidare utebge taramridare." Neur abim detaut kega, " Wao." 
good you me look after in village stop there Girl to him said thus Yes 

Wiaba utebem bakeaware a utebge Markep wiabi detager kega, " Waba keriba 
They to village went and in village Markep them told thus You our 

kosker emri peike niai karem." 
wives stop here always 

Sarkep e bakeamulu bauur ekalu bakeaniulu larein abele bologor''. Gaire bologor 
Sarkep he went spear took went for fish that saw-fisli Many saw-fish 

kes bazegualare a e dasmer netat e takemulu dege. Sarkep ekes 

crevice lie quiet and he saw one it went out of crowd at side Sarkep spears 

erpeilu tekalu utebem. Taliara narbet etoinelu, "Peike meriba lar." Markep abi 
caught brought to village His brother showed Here our fish Markep h 

detager kega, " Mara neis kosker kara neis kosker, wiaba erari niaiem niaiem." 
told thus Your two wives my two wives they stop always always 



a petticoat , smeared his body with coco-nut ashes, and his head also. He 

walked with a stick down to the beach. He called to the girls, "Let four girls (come) 
and look after me, send them here." Then they let four girls (come) to look after 
Markep on the little hill, and said (to him). "What sent you there?" Markep said to 

them, " That fleshy fish sent me." They went They told Markep, " What sent yot^ 

there ? " Markep told them, " My village is near good thing you look after me, stop in 
the village." The girls said to him, "Yes." They went to the village and in the 
village Markep said to them, " You are our wives, stop here always." 

Sarkep went and took a spear, and went to fish for bologor. Many bologor lay 
quietly in the crevices of the rock and he saw one going along by itself, at the side. 
He speared and got it, and brought (it) to the village. He showed it to his brother, 
"Here's our fish." Markep said to him, "(Here are) your two wives, my two wives, 
they stop for always." 

> I.e. on Daimr. = Meaning uncertain. " Pristis sp. 



'((//( 



246 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

Nerute gereger wiaba ko bamariklei badge. Sarkep e bakeamu ueurem 

Another day they arjuin betook themselves 'I Sarkep he went for girls 

darab^erare kega, " \Va kari nagardare ge namarkare neis a neis a neis a iieis 
asked thus You me look after then send two and two and tiuo and two 

neur." Abele neur asoli abara mer, wiaba tabakeuare abi egardare abi detagrare 
f/irl Tliose girls hear his voice they came him look after him told 

kfga, " Ge ki mari namarkare." Sarkep wiabi detager kega, " Ge kari namarkare." Wiaba 
thus Then we you sent Sarkep them told thus Then me sent They 

bakeauware abi lar medge. Abara nesur adem deuselu. Wiaba gair neur abi 
luent him fish in flesh His petticoat to out came undone. They many girls him 

dasmerare, tabara batagrare kega, " Kimiar dali," a wiaba koreder adem gurim 
saw him talked about thus Man there and tliey quickly out to sea 

batirik'. Sarkep bakeamulu taba utebge emrilu. Markep e tais bauur larem. 
swam Sarkep went his village in sat Markep he brought spear for fish 

E dasaracr bologor. Emetu narbet detager kega, " Ma nole eipu ekos, ma dege 
He saw saw-fish Finish brother told thtis You not in middle spear you on side 

ekos." Markep e eipu ekos, e eupamalu erpeilii bologor abi asare abara gem 

spear Markep he in middle speared he jumped up caught saw-fish him cut his body 

au a.siasi. Takomelu utebem emrilu tabara uteb, dasmer tabara keimer Sarkep. 
very sore Returned to village sat his village saw Ids brother Sarkep 

Wiaba bataperet, " Nole mokakalam kikem gerger meriba erpei neis a neis neur a 
They quarrel Not like first day we caught two and two girl and 

jjako lar, a peirdi meriba nolea kar." Sina. Eseamuda abele neis lera mer. 

also fish and now we nothing at all Enough Finish this two men's word 



Another day they again betook themselves Sarkep went and asked for girls, 

thus, " You take care of me and send eight girls." The girls heard his voice, they 
came to look after him, and said to him, "Then we go with you." Sarkep said to 

them, " Then go with me." They went His petticoat came undone. The girls 

saw him, they talked about him, and said, "This is a man" and they quickly swam 
away out to sea. Sarkep went and sat in his village. Markep brought a spear for 
fish. He saw a bologor. His brother had told him, " Don't you spear him in the 
middle, you spear him on the side." Markep speared it in the middle, he jumped up, 
and caught it, the bologor cut him, his body very sore. He went back to the village, 
sat in the village and saw his brother Sarkep. They quarrelled with one another, 
" Not like it (was) on the first day, we caught four girls and also fish, and now we 
(have) nothing at all." Finishes this story of two men. 

' Batirik, stretch out the arms. 



NATIVE LITERATURE OF EASTERN ISLANDERS. 247 

8. Nam Zogo. (Dictated by Arei and Pasi.) 

Gair kosker wiaba ditiineda epei ewerli. Keubu gair kiraiar mer atager, " Mei-iba 

Mani/ women they hegin basket plait After many men tuord talk We 

ditirueda idimge dasmer Nam Zogo\" Gair le ismi u, mot, k-wer, 

begin in the morning see Nam Zogo Many people cut coco-nut tubers yam 

kaba. Wiaba bakeamu netat uteb. Wiaba sarek pas= irusor neis netat Ic wiabi detager, 
banana They go one place They lemon grass chew tiuo one man them tefl 

" Waba derser," a wiaba tekue maike metage. Neis netat' le diski wiaba 

YoH make ready and they stand up near at house Two one man open their 

meta te. A keiibu wiaba mos ermeda. Netat le erpi'i epei. Neis netat le 
house door And after they spittle swallow One man seizes basket Two one man 

bada. Nerut le erpei epei mitge. Nerute le erpei nerut mit teosmeda 
enter Other man seizes basket on Up Another man seizes another lip brings out 

metalam adge epei ikedi. Wiaba tais lewer a kaba a ii ikedi netat 

from house to outside basket puts They bring yam and banana and coco-nut put one 

utobge, a pake Nam Zogo ikedi. Gair le ekue deraueli neis netat le detager 
in place and also Nam Zogo put Many men stand round two one man tell 

nerute le koga, " Ma dikiamu abeie kep epeilam." Dizagarnuda gair le dasmer 
other man thus You takeout this skewer from basket Start back (/) many men see 

Nam Zogo, a keubu gad erperik ni babuseda abele Nam Zogo bebeb. Keubu nam 
Nam Zogo and after coco-nut roll icater oozes out this Nam Zogo wet After turtle 

id dedered netat le e kikem itrumda ueise le keubu natrunidarici. Wiaba 
oil pour over one man he first watch two men after watch They 

sik derser tumge lu a keubu neis netat Nam Zogo ikedi tumem luge. 

flat place prepare on top tree and after two one Nam Zogo put to top on tree 

8. Nam Zogo. 

Many womeu begin it by plaiting a basket. Afterwards the men talk, " We begin 
to-morrow to see Nam Zogo." Many people cut coco-nut, ketai tubers, yam and banana. 
They go to one place. They chew sarik pas and tell three men, " You make ready," and 
stand up near the house. The three men open the door of their house, and afterwards 
they swallow spittle. One man seizes a basket. Three men go inside. One man 
holding the basket at the side of the mouth, another man holding it by the other' 
side, bring it out and put it down outside the house. They bring yam, banana and 
coco-nut and put them in one place, aud also put down Nam Zogo. Many men stand 
round, and the three men tell the others, "You take out this skewer from the b;isket." 

They fall back, and many men see Nam Zogo and after water oozes out and that 

Nam Zogo is wet. Afterwards turtle oil is poured over, one man first watches, afterwards 
two men watch. They prepare a Hat place ou the top of a tree and afterwards the 
three men put Nam Zogo on the top of tlie tree. They put white feathers (on the) 

' »V((;k is the turtle. 

= Sarik pas, Andropuijun iiardus, the scented yrass from which citronelle oil is obtaiueJ. '■' I.e. three. 



248 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

Silob' wiaba ikedi neis tag a neis teter. Gair le detager abele Zogo, " Ma 

white feather they put twu liands and two feet Many men tell this Zogo You 

nole keribi ilaisuerare abele gim." Wiaba bakeam gurge baraigida. Wiaba egam 
not us bring this sickness They go in sea dive They ? 

tabara gem a keubu tais Nam Zogo ikedi metage. Sina. Esemuda. 
their body and after bring Nam Zogo put in house Enough Finish 

9. The Story of Gelam. (Told by Arei and Pasi.) 

Gelam- lu ogi. E emri tumem iu sarik kep natomer, tabi. 

Gelam tree climbed He sat to top tree bow and arrows showed comes down 

Apu bnd desau op laniar. Gelam dikiapor lamar. E geiimge koreder emrilu 
Mother mud smeared face ghost Gelam thought ghost He in fear ran sat 

utebem dasmer tabara apu. Neis gereger Gelam lu ogi, apu ko tabakeam 
to dwelling saw Ins mother Two days Gelam tree climbed mother again comes 

lu, Gelain dasmer lamar. Gelam tabu lugelam. Apu kikiem bakeamulu 

tree Gelam saw ghost Gelain came down from tree Mother first went 

utebem. Gelam keubu bakeamulu. Apu dirup tabara bud. adem. Gelam dasmer 

to dwelling Gelam after went Mother washed her mud to out Gelam saw 

bud geripge, nole detaut tabara apu, e gumik. Gelani bakeamulu ismilu nerute lu 
mud on ear not sjieak his mother he silent Gelani went cut another tree 

nei kaper, ituak mokakalam bit. Gelam muige balu baraigilu gurge. 

name kaper scraped out like porpoise Gelam in inside entered dived in sea 

Abele lu au pereper adem bataueredlu a ismi nerute lu abele lu nei zemer, 
This tree very light to out threw and cut another tree that tree name zemer 



two hand.? and two feet. Many men tell the Zogo, " Don't you bring us that sickness." 

Tliey go and bathe in the sea. They their bodies and afterwards bring Nam 

Zogo and put it in the house. Enough. Finish. 

9. The Story of Gelam. 

Gelam climbed a tree. He sat on the top and showed his bow and arrows, (then) 
came down. His mother smeared (her face with) mud, (so that it was like) the face 
of a ghost. Gelam thought she was a ghost. He (was) frightened and ran away, .sat 
down in the house and saw his mother. Two days Gelam climbed the tree, (and) his 
mother came again to the tree, (and) Gelam saw the ghost, and Gelani came down 
from the tree. His mother went to the house first, Gelam went after. His mother 
washed off the mud. Gelam saw the mud on (her) ear, (but) did not tell his mother, 
he kept silent. Gelam went and cut down a tree called kaper, and scraped it out 
like a porpoise. Gelam went inside and dived in the sea. This tree was too light 
(so he) threw it away and cut down another tree called zemer, scraped it out and 

' I.e. sir tub. Cf. footnote, p. 237. ° Gelam is now the volcanic hill on Mer. 



NATIVE LITERATUEE OF EASTERN ISLANDERS. 249 

ituak balii muige abele hi baraigilu gurge. Abele lu au pereper c adem 

scraped out entered in inside that tree dived in sea That tree very light he to out 
batauered. Lu mokakalam beizam. E tabakeamulu abera kereui dikalu, emerutlu. E 
threw Tree like shark He came father's head fetched old thiiicj He 

uteidilu, ab abi detager kega, "Ma bakeam nerute lu ismi, ma kikiem ipit 

slept father him told thus You go another tree cut you first stiike 
abele mut pi." Peimge e detager. Gelam ituak abele lu e balu muige 
this sound pi In dream he told Gelam cut out that tree he entered in inside 

abelu lu, baraigilu gurge. Abele lu au debele au bebcrbeber mokakalam abele 
that tree dived in sea That tree very good very heavy like that 

lar galbol. Nole detager tabara apu, e gumik. Keubu tabara apu detager kega, 
fish whale Not tell his mother he silent After his mother told thus 

" Ma bakeamu miskepem, ma dasmer au lar ma erertikri karim." Apu 

You go to reef at low water you see big fish you call to me Mother 

erertikri, " Gelam, kara werera, tabakeamu, meriba au lar peike." Apu kus-bager 
cried Gelam my child come our big fish there Mother spear 

ditkiri, Gelam keubu osmelii. E apu detager kega, " Amawa, mama kari lamaru 
snatched Gelam after luent out He mother told thus Mother you me with a ghost 

narukeli, kaka bakeam Merem, mama kari lamaru narukeli, kaka dasmer mara bud 
frighten I go to Mer you me with a gliost frighten I saw your mud 

geripge emrida. Kaka bakeam Merem levverlewer daige ma esegemelu, mama kari imo 
on ear stopping I go to Mer food you lie down you me ? 

adap kauaisoge naisueli. Kaka bakeam Merge namrilu." E ame abelelu, e 
? grass give I go at Mer stay He dresses that thing he 

tabakeamu. Apu eupamalu abi upige darborik. Gelam tabakeamulu, e disiriklu 
comes MotJier jumped up him at tail snatches Gelam came he kindled 

abele kemur, a apu dasmer abele kemur. Apu erertikri, " Gelam, kara werem, 
that smoke and mother saw that smoke MotJier cries Gelam my child 

went inside that tree and dived into the sea. That tree was too light (so) he threw 
it away. (That) tree was like a shark. He came and fetched an old head belonging 
to his father. He slept and his father told him, " You go and cut dow-n another 
tree, when you first strike it, it has this sound pi." He told him in a dream. Gelam 
cut out that tree, he went inside that tree and dived in the sea. That tree (was) very 
good, very heavy, like that fish whale. He did not tell his mother, be (kept) silence. 
Afterwards he told his mother, " You go to the reef at low water, you (will) see a 
big fish, and (then) call to me." His mother cried out, " Gelam, my child, come, our 
big fish is there." His mother snatched a spear, Gelam went out after her. He told 
his mother, "Mother, you frighten me with a ghost, I am going to Mer, you irighten 
me with a ghost, I saw mud stopping on your ear. I am going to Mer, 

food , you lie down, you give me grass I go to stay at Mer." 

He dressed up in that thing and came (to Mer). His mother jumped up and snatched 

at the tail and missed. Gelam came and kindled a smoke, and his mother saw that 

smoke. His mother cried out, " Gelam, my child, stay near me." A passage lies between 

H. Vol. III. 32 



250 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

maike tedi karim." Araper, Purem wiabi kes darakeker. Gelam egereinalu 

near stay to me. Warajier Coco-nut Island them passage lies betiveen Gelam turned round 

dasmer Moa. E dikiapor kega, " Ese kaka eniri maike mina amaua tabakeam 

saw Moa, He thought thus If I dwell near continuallij my mother comes 

ais tabara lewer, kaka bakeamu murizge emri." Esegemelu abara op naigerem 
takes her food I go at distance dwell Lay down his face to North-east 

a wak tabaruk iionor deres, e batauerikulu, abara op ziaiein. E mamor 

and wind came nostrils strikes he turned round his face to Soidh-iuest He steadily 

esegemelu niaiem, abele neis kauur' natimedelu niokakalam par. 
lay doivn for always those two islands held to like anchor 

lO. Tagai. (Told hy Arei and Pasi.) 

Tagai- e nagri nar. Kareg e kaimeg Tagai. Tagai ekue tarimge, Kareg ekue 
Tagai he lias canoe Kareg he mate Tagai Tagai stands at bow Kareg stands 

korge. E mut etai. Tagai baur erpei, e dasmer lar. Abara gair pasar emri 
at stern He '! f Tagai spear throws he saw fish His many sailors sit 

eipu, Seg a Usiam, neis neis neis, neis neis neis. Wiaba lewer ero a ni eri, 
middle Seg and Usiam two two two two two two They food eat and water drink 

nole damos Tagai. Kareg e egeremalu, e detager Tagai. Tagai, e keubem 
not ask Tagai Kareg he turned round he told Tagai Tagai he to back 

egeremalu, tabakeamulu eipem, e tais gogob, i.sisir Usiam kikem, 

turned round came to middle he brouglit loop of rope put through Usiam first 

bataueredlu gurge, keubu Seg isisir kepu batauredlu gurge. E au urker. E 
tJirew in sea after Seg pid througli kep threw in sea He very angry He 

detager Kareg, " Ma netate le emri uarge." 
told Kareg You one man stop in canoe 

Araper and Purem. Gelam turned round and saw Moa. He thought, "If I dwell near, 
my mother will continually come to get her food, I (will) go and live a long way off." 
He lay down (with) his face to the North-east and the wind came (and) struck his 
nostrils, (so) he turned round (with) his face to the South-west. He settled down for 
ever, (and) held on to those two islands like an anchor. 

lO. Tagai. 

Tagai has a canoe. Kareg is mate to Tagai. Tagai stands at the bow, Kareg 

stands at the stern. He Tagai threw a spear when he saw some fish. His crew 

sat in the middle, Seg and Usiam, twelve of them. They ate food and drink water 
and did not ask Tagai. Kareg turned round and told Tagai. Tagai turned his head 
(and looked) behind, he came into the middle, brought a loop of rope (a gromet) 
put the (six) Usiam through it and threw them into the sea, afterwards he put a 
skewer through the (six) Seg and threw them into the sea. He was very angry. He 
told Kareg, " You are the only man to stop in the canoe." 

' I.e. Dauar and Waier, which are opposite the cape on Mer called Gelam pit (Gelam's nose). 
^ Tagai is the name given by the natives to a large constellation. Cf. Vols. v. and vi. 



THE JARGON ENGLISH OF TORRES STRAITS. 

The usual medium of intercourse between Europeans and the islanders of Torres 
Straits is a jargon consisting of colloquial English words, with many phrases based on 
native idioms. This jargon is used also by Australians in the Straits, and by the 
people of Mowata and Kiwai on the opposite coast of New Guinea. Among the 
Torres Straits Islanders themselves the jargon is most commonly used by the older 
men in speaking with Europeans, and is more generally used in the Western Islands 
than in the Eastern. In the latter group the jargon appears to be going out of use 
among the younger generation, more correct English taking its place. 

The notice which follows is based mainly upon material collected by Dr Haddon. 

1 . Grammar. 

In the jargon, grammatical forms are at a minimum. The same word serves for 
various parts of speech, and variations in meaning, such as number, tense, or mood, 
are expressed by separate words. 

Pronouns. Personal. Singular. 1. /, me; 2. you; 3. he, him. Plural. 1. we; 
2. you ; 3. they. 

In the singular " he" is used for all genders : woman he go, woman goes ; night he 
come, night comes. 

"Me" appears to be used with intransitive more than with transitive verbs: me growl, 
I disapprove; me one fellow, I am alone. "Me" and "him" are also used preceding "/" 
and "he": me I go, I go; Iiiin he go, he goes; him he run, he runs. 

In the plural "fellow" is often used after "we," or "you": all you fellow, all of you ; 
we fello^u got him, we understand. 

A dual appears in "you me," we two. This is especially used in the Eastern Islands 
for the inclusive person, the exclusive person being "other man." 

Possessive Pronouns. These are formed by the preposition " belong " : piccaninny 
belong me, my child; house belong we fellow, our house. "My" is sometimes used: 7ny 
throat he fast, I could not cry out. In the dual : you and me place, our place. ' 

Interrogative Pronouns. The interrogative pronoun used for persons or things is 
"what name?" Examples are: what name? what is it? wluit name this fellow he come? 
who is this? what name I kaikai now? what am I eating? what name that make a 
noise! what is that making a noise? 

Nouns. Number. Occasionally the word "plenty" is used to express a plural: 
jdenty man go, many people go. 

Case. The Possessive or Genitive is shown by the preposition "belong" other cases 
by the preposition "along." Examples: canoe belong play, toy canoe; liome belong boat, 
boat house; plenty bad belong man, swearing; look along sliell fish, look Uw .shuU fish; 

32—2 



252 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



stoj) all time along Mabuiag, always stay at Mabuiag; rope along bush, rope (i.e. creeping- 
plant) in the bush ; bone along vie, my bone, bone inside me. 

Verbs. As a rule the simplest indicative form of the English verb is used, as : 
he see, he sees; him he I'un, he runs. Occasionally some form of an irregular verb is 
used : I done too much business to-day, I have done a great deal to-day. 

Tense. The Past or Perfect is expressed by " been " : I been look round before, 
I have searched before ; you been say, you said ; / been fight them fellow, I have fought them. 

Mode. The imperative has no special form : give me good road, direct me rightly. 

A prohibition is shown by "see you no," or "no good you": no good you kill me, 
don't kill me ; see you no do that thing, don't do that. 

" Let " is expressed by " give," or " bette)' " : you give me spell, let me rest ; better we 
go to sleep, let us go to sleep. 

"Ought" or "must" is shown by "good thing," or "good job," or "best thing": 
good thing you go, you must go; best thing you learn us, you must teach us. 

A supposition, "perhaps," "if," is indicated by "/ think," or "s'pose": I think he 
kill me, perhaps he will kill me ; s'pose you no give to we, lue fight you, if you do not 
give to us we will fight you. 

The negative is "no," which may be doubled: / no got kaikai, I have no food; he 
no see nobody, he does not see anybody ; he no teach, proper, he does not do it right. 
Sometimes a positive statement is used which implies a negative: my throat he fast, 
i.e. I cannot cry out. 

There is no verb " to be " : lie no proper canoe, it is not a proper canoe. 

Adverbs. These are usually expressed by descriptive phrases. See Vocabulary. 

The adverb of emphasis " very " is expressed by " too " or " too 'much." 

Exclamations. Emphasis: by golly! Surprise or admiration: my word! Pain: 
m?/i .' Calling: hi! alloa ! Derision: aha! 



2. Vocabulary with Phrases. 



Aboriginal. We fellow stop all time along Mdhiiiag, 
we are the aboriginals of Mabuiag. 

Accompany. Go along my ma it, accompany my hus- 
band. 

Advice. You give me had word. 

Against. All man lie growl for you, every one is 
against you. 

Alike. All the same one. 

Alone. Only lie one. 

Always. Not all time, not always. 

Angry. He wild; he wild like hell; he feel something 
bad in heart; inside him lie cross. 

Appetite. Have better class inside. 

Arrive. He catch him place. 

Ashamed. He make all man feel no good, he makes 
every one feel ashamed. 

Assent. Me no speak. 

Awake. He look daylight a long time, he keeps awake 
all night, he waits for dayhght. 

Away from home. My boy outside all time. 



Bewitched. My bone creaked, or bone along me slew, 
I am bewitched, cf. Mab. rid-guitwai ; he been 
xpoil us, he has bewitched us. 

Bird. Pigeon. (This is applied to any kind of bird.) 

Bird, large. All along same an island in sky. 

Brave. He make strong and like stone. 

Breathless. He short of wind. 

Born, be. Gliild he come out. 

Call. Sing out. 

Care; take care of. Look out. 

Carefully. You ivatch me good. 

Ceremony. Another kind of game, different ceremony. 

Change mind. He feel another kind inside. 

Cheat. Make fool of, gammon. 

Child. Piccaninny belong me, my child. 

Consider. Inside tell himself. 

Converse. All yarn. 

Copulating. Make him fast ; turtle he fast, turtle is 
copulating. 

Correct. Proper, 



JARGON ENGLISH. 



253 



Covet. Swallow spit; let go heart. 

Creeping-plant. Hope along bush. 

Cross ; bad tempered. He wild, he is cross. 

Custom, old. Long time fashion. 

Custom, our. Fashion belong we felloxo. 

Day-break. Small fellow daylight; time wihl fowl he 

sing out. 
Death-dance. Make him devil-devil, make death-dance. 
Deceive. He gammon; he talk too much crooked. 
Direct rightly. You give vie good road. 
Disapprove, ile growl. 
Do not. See you no.... 

Dress aUke. We will take one fashion in clothes. 
Dress for dance. Make flash ; put on all flash things. 
Drink. Swill him down. 
Dumb. My throat he _/'u.<t. 
Eat. Kaikai. (Polynesian kai.) 
Enraged. He wild like hell; heart belong him all 

same Jire ; he wild inside. 
Every one. All man. 
Excited. Heart beat hard. 
Exclaim. Sing out. 

Father's younger brother. Small father. 
Feast. Big food. 
Feathers. Grass belong pigeon. 
Find. Look out, find ; hy-and-hy I catch you, I shall 

find you out. 
Food. Kaikai. Cf. eat. 
Foolish. He small boy, he isa, foolish man ; I bloody fool, 

I am foolish. 
Formerly. First time. 

Fornicate. Do bad. Cf. note. Vol. v. p. 223. 
Friendship. They like brother. 
Frigate bird. Man-of-ioar hawk. 
Funeral ceremonies. Make him devil, perform funeral 

ceremonies. 
Ghost ; spirit ; bogie. Devil. 
Give. That belong you, I give it to you ; that belong 

me, give it to me. 
Go away. Clear out! go away! (imperative). 
Grieved. Inside bad. 
Guide. You give me good road, you show me the 

right way. 
Hair. Grass belong man. 
Have. It belong me, let me have it ; he belong me, 

I will have that. 
Honeycomb full of honey. Sugar bag. 
How? What name? what name he do that! how 

did it happen. 
Hungry. My belly no got kaikai. 
Husband. You my man, you are my husband. 
Important man. Big big man. 
Improve. He come a little bit good. 
Influence with charm. Make him humbug. 
Intoxicating liquor. Grog. 
Jealous. Spit. 



Kill. He finish them. 
Know (be conscious of). Feel inside. 
Know (recognize). Savvy. Portuguese sabe. 
Like. All same. 

Love. He like too much ; you like me proper > 
Love-charm. Medicine belong girl. 
Mad with rage. He don't knotc what to do. 
Manner, liis. Fashion belong him. 
Many. Plenty. 
Master. Boss. 

Mild -tempered. He take cold heart. 
Morning, early. Close up daylight ; small fellow day- 
light; when icild foicl he sing out. 
Move. Shift. 
Nearly. Close up, e.g. close up daylight, nearly 

morning; he close up sink, it nearly sinks. 
Once, at. One time. 
Only. Me one fellow, I am only one. 
Order about. Boss. 
Ornament. Make flash; put on all flash things; flash 

like hell, ornamented. 
Ought. Better or more better, e.g. better we go sleep, 

we ought to go to sleep. 
Partly cooked. Cook him small hot. 
Perhaps. We think he eat, he will perhaps eat it. 
Pity. They sorry for boy. 
Pleased. Him he glad for that fisli, he was pleased 

at catching that fish. 
Pregnant. He got family inside; heavy witli family 

inside. 
Pretend. Gammon. 
Promise. 'Talk big. 
Promise not. Talk small fellow. 
Property. He roll up swag, he collected his property. 
Quarrel. Have a row, growl. 
Quickly. He look very smart, he acts quickly. 
Kape. Steal woman. 
Raw. He no cooked, it is raw. 
Keally. He no gammon fine yam, it is really a fine 

yam ; I like you proper, with my heart inside, 

I really love you. 
Eelease. Let go. 
Remember. Put along heart. 

Kesemble. All along same, , 

Best. You give me spell ; he spell for little. 
Eight. He no proper canoe, it is not a right kind of 

canoe; very yood job you kill liim, it was right 

to kill him. 
Rightly. Learn you yood, teach you rightly. 
Rule. Boss. 
Run away. Hook it. 
Scarcity of food. Hard up. 
Scarcity of water. Half tight. 
Scattered thickly. Like drift wood on beach. 
Scoundrel. Aipus was a bloody rogue, Aipus was a 

scoundrel. 



254 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



See. / come look you ; he no see nobody. 

Search; seek. Look out: look for some missus, seek 

a wife; look along shellfish, look for shell fish; 

I been look round before, I have sought. 
Sexual intercourse. Do something along me (said by 

girl). 
Shiver. Me shiver sent, I shivered, ef. Mabuiag, 

ngana timiden nmi. 
Sick; retch. He heave up. 
Skilful. He got good hand. 
Sleep. He no sleep too much, he slept lightly. 
Sleepy. Eye along him heavy. 
Slightly. Little bit heavy, not very heavy. 
Soon. Close iq). 
Sorry. He bad inside. 
Speak plainly. He talk straight. 
Speak truly. Speak straight. 
Spirit. Devil. 
Spoil. Bugger up. 
Stare. You no put eye on me too much : you no look me 

too much. 
Stupid. You think I bloody fool? do you think I am 

stupid ? 
Style ; fashion. This look, this way, this fashion ; 

fashion belong we fellow, our fashion. 
Sunrise. Sun he come up. 
Surprised. My word ! I thought you a different sort, 

I am surprised at you. 
Swear. Talk plenty bad belong man. 
Swallow. He swilled him down, swallowed him. 
Teach. Best thing you learn us, it is good for you 

to teach us. 



Tell tales. Yarn. 

Thin. He all bone, got no meat; be all bone. 

Think. Think inside. 

Think about. Heart along him think. 

Think without speaking. No speak out; keep him itt- 

side. 
Thirsty. Skin belong me heavy. 
Throw. He chuck fishing line, he threw fishing line ; 

he- no chuck him bone, he did not throw away 

the bones ; chucl- him, throw it away. 
Tie. Mahe rope fast along head, tie rope to head. 
Toy. Canoe belong play, toy canoe. 
Turn; turn round. Slew; slew round; sleiv behind. 
Understand. You felloic got him ? Do you understand 

how to do it ? Savvy. 
Useless. No good you talk, it is useless for you to talk. 
Wait. Hold on ; hold on a bit- 
Waste time. Too much run about. 
Weep loudly. Cry like hell. 
What? What name? 
Where. Where he stop ? where is he ? 
Whisper. Speak very low; small talk; not high big 

talk. 
White hair. Hair just like white calico. 
Who? What name? 
Why? What for? why? good thing yoii try, why 

don't you try? 
Work hard. I done too much business to-day, I have 

done a good day's work. 
Wound, without intending to kill. SJtoot him in place 

where no dead. 
Wrong. No good you kill him, it is wrong to kill him. 



THE GESTURE LANGUAGE OF THE WESTERN ISLANDERS. 

By C, G. Seligmann and A. Wilkin. 

The notes collected by A. Wilkin are followed by (W.). 

Adze, Hatchet. The right hand is raised to about the level of the shoulder with its 
fingers extended and touching each other, and its ulnar surface forwards; the hand 
is then moved backwards and forwards as if its ulnar margin were the cutting edge 
of a hatchet. 

Angry. The head is protruded forward. A contraction of the frontal palpebral and 
nasal muscles wrinkles the brow, narrows the palpebral fissures, dilates the nostrils 
and retracts the skin of the nose. 

Armlet, v. Waiwi. 

Assent, v. Yes. 

Attention. To attract attention raise the hand and arm above the head. 

Bad. The hands are quickly raised to the level of and to the side of the face with 
their palmar surfaces towards the face ; they are then abruptly dropped with a 
flinging motion. 

Birds. A general ideogram is used. The upper arms are extended till on a level 
with the shoulder and then slightly adducted, so as to lie rather in front of the 
plane of the body. The elbows are flexed to about a right angle, so that the 
hands with extended fingers point forward and rather inwards. A flapping 
movement is then communicated to the latter by alternate flexion and extension 
at the wrists. 

Biu. Both arms are semi-flexed at the elbows and held in front of the body, the fingers 
are alternately flexed and extended. 

Bo%u. The left and right hand respectively hold and draw an imaginary bow and 
bow-string. 

Brother, Sister. The vertex is tapped two or three times with the tips of the fingers 
of the right hand ; this ideogram may in a wider sense mean friend, companion, 
tribesman, and perhaps conveys the idea as suggested by Roth of " think all same 
together ^" i 

Canoe. The elbow is bent at about a right angle, the upper arm being somewhat 
abducted and rotated inwards so that the hand is in front of the body ; the thumb 
is closed over the flexed third and fourth fingers, the index and middle fingers 
being extended and held apart from each other. 

Children: Hold arms as if nursing a baby, and rock them slowly to and fro. Sex 
is shown by sign either for Man or Wovian. (W.) 

Coco-nut. Tlie right hand with wrist fully extended is held up so as to be above and 

' Cf. W. E. Roth, Ethnoloyical Studies amoiuj the North West Central Queensland Aborigines, Brisbane, 
1897, p. 82. 



256 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

in front of the right shoulder and its fingers are slightly flexed as if grasping a 
large object; a twisting movement is then imparted to the hand, suggesting the 
movements by which a coco-nut is twisted off its stem. 

Cold. The arms are brought across the front of the body, which is flexed so as to be as 
much as possible in contact with itself and to expose as little bare skin as possible 
to the air. 

Come here. First use signal to attract attention. Point at the individual addressed, 
hollow the hand, flexing the wrist and the metacarpo-phalangeal joints, and bring 
the hand inwards till the finger tips touch the arm pit of that side. 

Copnlation. Both arms are supinated and with clenched fists are almost completely 
extended in front of the body. The humeri are then sharply jerked to the sides, 
while the elbows are flexed at about a right angle. 

Gray fish (Palinurus). The open hand with its palm forwards is held up on a level 
with and in front of the face; the fingers— which are not separated — are then 
rapidly flexed and extended at the metacarpo-phalangeal and first inter-phalangeal 
joints. 

Crocodile. The arms are held as in the ideogram for bird, but the hands with their 
dorsal surfaces upwards are level with the nipple. The wrists are rather slightly 
flexed so that the hand is not in a straight line with the foi-e arm, and the 
knuckles arc somewhat bent, as are the fingers, so that the hand is hollowed ; 
alternate slight backward and forward movements of the limbs are then made 
from the shoulders. This well represents the reptile's slow, waddling gait. 

Crywg. The not quite rigidly extended right forefinger is drawn down the cheeks 
from the outer angle of each eye. 

Dancing. The left hand is held palm upwards with extended fingers in front of the 
body. The right hand is held over it, with the thumb, third and fourth fingers 
tucked away into the palm, while the index and middle fingers (the tips of which 
just touch the palm of the left hand) are flexed at their metacarpo-phalangeal joints, 
extended at their inter-phalangeal joints. Flexion and extension movements quickly 
made at the inter-phalangeal joints, alternately raise the tips off the palm of the 
left hand. This ideogram is derived from the Pelican dance. 

Dead man. Point in the direction of Kibu (North & West). This may be preceded by 
a cruciform attitude with rigidly extended spine. 

In order to signify the death of a particular man, hold up a hand to attract 
attention, and point to place where death occurred, then bring hand down level 
with shoulder, pointing with it to the West. 

If a man is dead, and it is desired to emphasize the fact, make the sign 
for Man, by waving forefinger rapidly backwards and forwards about the level of 
the chest. For a zvoman, make sign for Woman, by putting clenched fists on the 
breasts. For children, hold arms as if nursing a baby, rocking them slowly to 
and fro. Sex shown as above. (W.) 

Dog. Both humeri are held nearly horizontally forward, the elbows are bent to nearly 
a right angle, while both the wrists are flexed so that the dorsal surfaces of 
the hands are nearly horizontal at about the level of, and in front of the eyes. 



GESTURE LANGUAGE. 257 

The thumbs are tucked away under the extended fingers, the four tips of which 
represent the four pads of a dog's foot. 

Drink, v. Water. 

Dugong. The dorsum of the nose is tapped with the fingers of the right hand. 

Dugong in Canoe. Touch nose with forefinger and point into canoe : repeat several times 
according to number taken. (W.) 

Dugong with Calves. The humeri are held tightly to the sides with the elbows fle.ved 
at rather less than a right angle; the hands point forwards, palm upwards, with 
fingers and thumb loosely extended. The hands are then moved to and fro in 
front of the body with a swaying motion, each hand travelling nearly to the 
mid line of the body, and for about the same distance outwards; this is done 
two or three times. 

Fight, Fighting. A blow is struck smartly downwards with an imaginary club held 
over the right shoulder: if an enemy has been killed the right forefinger is drawn 
across the front of the throat suggesting that his head has been taken. 

Fire-making, Fire. The middle, third, and fourth fingers of the right hand are so 
flexed that their tips touch the palm. The thumb is extended and the index is 
flexed over this so that its middle phalanx rests on the tip of the thumb. The 
radial surface of the hand is then held a few inches in front of the mouth, whicli 
is puckered as if blowing upon the thumb nail. 

Fish. Apparently there is no rigidly conventionalised sign for fish apart from that for 
fish spearing. The motion is really one of throwing a spear with a throwing stick ; 
the right hand with fingers very loosely clenched is raised palm upwards to about 
the level of the ear, it is then brought smartly forward until the fore arm is 
about at a right angle to the arm, when the fingers and thumb are extended. 
Certain fish are, however, important enough to be represented by special ideograms, 
v. Shark, Sucker fish. 

Food. The right hand is held as in the ideogram for fire except that the terminal 
phalanx of the index is opposed to the tip of the thumb, as in holding a 
fragment of food. The dorsum of the hand points forwards, while alternate Hexion 
and extension at the wrist moves the hand up and down in front of the moutli. 

Go away. Use signal to attract attention. One hand with its palm forward and its 
ulnar edge upwards is held a little distance in front of the face, it is then swept 
widely outwards and backwards by a movement of extension at the shoulder and 
elbow. ' 

Oood. The fore arms and hands with t.'ieir palmar surfaces towards each other, and 
the thumbs pointing upwards, are held directly in front of the body, wliib the 
upper arm is held to the side and the elbows are bent at about a right angle. 
The hands are then supinated ; at the same time the head is slightly depressed 
towards the right shoulder. 

Hill. The pronated hand is carried inwards from the side with a wide sweeping gesture, 
cros.sing the mid line of the body. 

House. The extended fingers are held together with their finger tips touching above 
the head, they are then separated till about on a level with the face. 
H. Vol. III. 33 



258 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

Hungry. The right-hand dorsum up is swept down in front of the abdomen. 
Hush. The open hand, which is sharply brought up to cover the widely open mouth, 
is moved to and fro in front of the face. 

Knife. The liinb is held and moved in the same way as in the ideogram for Adze, 
but the hand is clasped upon an imaginary knife handle. 

Man, Male. The right hand is raised to a plane on a level with and a little in front 
of and to the right of the face, its finger tips point vertically upwards, the index 
finger is then extended, the other fingers being loosely flexed, while the thumb 
lies with its terminal phalanx against the side of the middle finger; the hand is 
then sli<ilitly shaken from side to side (as in the European motion of reproof). 

Mat. The bands with the fingers loosely flexed as if holding strips of pandanus leaf 
move round each other in front of the body as they do in mat-plaiting. 

Mosquito. The index finger of the right hand bent at its metacarpo-phalangeal joint 
gently hovers over the body touching the skin here and there. This vividly repre- 
sents the mosquito hovering over and puncturing its victim. 

Mother, v. Woman. 

No. The head is shaken laterally. 

Plenty. Wave hand horizontally in front of body, elbow bent, and back of hand upper- 
most. (W.) 

River, Stream. The right arm is swung slowly backwards and forwards as it hangs at 
the side. 

Running, To run. The flexed arms with clenched fists are held at the sides and 
alternately moved, slightly backwards and forwards, with a somewhat circular motion. 

Shark. The upper arm is adducted and raised, so that the elbow is flexed at about 
a right angle, the fore arm points forward. The arm with its radial surface upwards 
is then moved slightly backwards and forwards while the wrist is alternately flexed 
and extended. This ideogram mimics the action of the shark's tail in the water, 
and may also be used to represent the idea of fish in general. 

Sister. V. Brother. 

Sleeping, Sleep. The head is leant latei-ally on the hand. The eyes are often closed. 

Snake. The right hand hangs loosely at the side with extended forefinger ; the other 
digits are loosely flexed ; the limb i.s brought up with semi-flexed elbow until it 
points horizontally forward, when the wrist is somewhat extended so that the index 
poults obliquely upwards as well as forwards. A rotatory to and fro movement is 
then communicated to the hand and index by flexion and extension of the larger 
joints of the limb combined with some rotation at the shoulder. 

Spear. The right hand and arm are raised over the shoulder and then brought sharply 
forward, as in throwing a spear with a throwing sticks 

Sucker fish {Echeneis naucrates). A canoe pole is held in both hands obliquely across 

the body. 
Thin. Motion of forefinger as for Man, only above head. (W.) 

Thirsty. The sign for Water is made, the right hand with its fingers extended and 

' This ideogram also means yirc, q.v. 



GESTUKE LANGUAGE. 259 

its ulnar edge forwards is held ujd ou a level with and rather to the right of the 
face. . A rotary movement is then imparted to it. 

Tubacco. The fingers of the right hand are bent into the palm, the thumb lying 
alongside the fingers. The depression between the proximal ends of the thenar 
and hypothenar eminences is then applied to the pouted lips and a sucking sound 
is made, as when a baubau is smoked. 

To-morrow. Both hands are held about one foot in front of the face with their palms 
forward, the fingers loosely flexed, except the indices which point upwards. The 
elbows are then slowly brought to the side while the hands are separated and the 
fingers widely spread out. A definite number of days exceeding one is shown by 
the ideogram for Sleep made the appropriate number of times ; between each gesture 
tlie forefinger of the right hand is brought smartly down on the first interphalangeal 
joints of the closed fingers of the left hand ; the signaller may him.self keep count 
by tapping at each succeeding gesture the first interphalangeal joint of one finger 
only beginning with the little finger and proceeding towards the thumb. 

Turtle, Green. The upper arms are held loosely to the side, the fore arms pointing 
horizontally forward with the hands hanging loosely. The fore arms are then ad- 
ducted, so that the hands cross each other and the middle line of the body, at 
the same time a flapping movement is imparted to the hands by alternate move- 
ments of flexion and extension at the wrists. 

Turtle, Shell. Repeat above ideogram twice, then drop the left arm to the side while 
the forefinger of the right hand twice taps the dorsum of the nose. In these 
ideograms attention is first of all directed to the animal's flappers, while the second 
gesture indicates the sharp and horny beak of the shell turtle. 

To indicate sex of turtle, use sign either for Man or Woman. To indicate 
a tliiii turtle wave forefinger as for Man but above head. (VV.) 

Waiivi, Shell armlet. The left arm is held obliquely in front of the body, the right 
hand is then passed rapidly along it from the wrist upwards, as in putting on 
an armlet. 

Water. The hollowed right hand with its ulnar edge forward and the fingers somewhat 
bent over the thumb is held above the mouth, the wrist being liyperexteuded. 
The same ideogram is used for the verb to drink. 

Wom.an, Female. The arms are held to the sides with flexed elbows when the ulnar 
edges of the clenched fist are applied to the nipples, the back of the hand pointing 
downwards. This sign, but generally made with one hand only, would also be used' 
to signify Mother. 

The same sign is used for Wife. 

Yam (Garden produce generally). The right hand with clenched fist makes a short 
downward stabbing movement— as if using a light digging stick— while the left 
hand holds an imaginary banana shoot in front of the body ; both hands then make 
motions as of heaping up and patting down earth rounil the roots of a young 
plant. The motion of using an imaginary digging stick alone, represents making 
a garden. 

Yes. The head is thrown back and the forehead momentarily wrinkled. This is a 

33—2 



260 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

gesture which seems widely spread among Papuans. It has been noted as accom- 
panying a vigorous affirmative at Waima in the Roro district of British New 
Guinea. 
People come from X to Y. Point to X, then to Y: point again to X, and move 
hand as if coming from X to Y. Such signals are mostly used at sea, and are 
very numerous. (W.) 

To-night I sleep at Mahuiag ; to-moi~>-otu I go to Badu. Put head on chest and hand 
to ear as if asleep, then point in direction of Mabuiag. Next join two forefingers, 
keeping others closed, and separate hands sharply (to-morrow), then wave hand 
towards Badu. (W.) 

What have you got I First attract attention as usual by holding up an arm : point 
to other man and raise arm up quickly : drop arm sharply. (W.) 

What news 1 Make above motion aud then put forefinger to mouth : then lift hand 
above shoulder and shake it with a circular motion. (W.) 

Where are you going? This generally follows on the attention signal, which consists 
in raising the arm aud hand above the head. The index is extended and points 
vertically upwards, the other lingers and thumb being flexed against the palm, the 
arm is then brought forward till the index points at the person addressed. The 
upper arm is drawn to the side while the hand, with its palmar surface pointing 
forward and the fingers extended and separated as widely as possible, is brought 
sharply backward to the level of the shoulder. 



^ 



THE GESTURE LANGUAGE OF THE EASTERN ISLANDERS. 

By a. C. Haddon. 

In ordinary conversation gestures are used to intensify the spoken sentiment, but 
the gestures cannot be compared with the gesture language of the Neapolitans as the 
latter is practically a simultaneous repetition of the spoken word or phrase. Neither 
have the gestures the emotional significance of those employed by the French. There 
is, however, great facial expression, especially in those who have " the gift of the gab." 
Those thus gifted can render themselves very impressive with their rapid flow of 
variously inflected words, expressive gestures and animated countenance. 

The natives can communicate simple ideas at considerable distances by means of 
a well understood sj'stem of signs, and I often amused myself with communicating with 
natives on the beach when I was passing in a boat, much to their delight. 

Some of the simple conversational gestures are as follows : 

Affirmation — the head jerked upwards. 

Negation — the head shaken from side to side. 

Indication of a person present — pointing to that person with the head, or rather 
with the face. 

Signs for coinmunicating at a distance. 

Attention. The attention signal is made by holding up an arm vertically, usually the 
right arm. Attention is also called by whistling. 

Bird. Move the arms like the wings in flying. 

Canoe. E.xtend the arms slightly curved upwards, and alternately move each one verti- 
cally (like motion of a boat on sea). 

Child. Hold the hands horizontally and wave them in the same horizontal plane and 
parallel with each other. 

Coco-nuts, gathering. Raise the hand and hold the fingers upwards, making a twisting 
motion (representing the twisting of the nut off its stalk). 

Come here. Extend the arm with the palm of the hand downwards, and draw it back 
to the body with a downward sweep. 

Contempt. The grossest sign of contempt is pointing to the other person and patting 
your own buttocks. 

Crying. Point to the eyes with the index fingers and draw them down the cheeks. 

Cutting oneself. Hit the breast. 

Cutting down scrub or cleai-ing underwood. Move the hand horizontally. 

Dancing. Close the thumb and last two fingers of the right hand and make a dancing 
movement with the index and middle fingers. 

Dead man. Hold out the left hand with the palm facing the body, violently hit the 
palm with the back of the open right hand and slide the right hand and arm 
along the left palm. 

Direction. Direction is indicated by pointing. If returning the same day a return move- 
ment is made. 



262 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

Dog. Hold the hand horizontally in front of the body with the fingers pointing 

downwards at right angles to the plane of the hand, and alternately move the 

hand forwards and backwards, like a dog running. 
Drinking. Cnrve the hand forwards, downwards, inwards and upwards. (This is the 

movement executed in drinking from a melon .shell, Melo.) 
Dugong. Hook the inde.x finger, clenching the remaining fingers ; put the closed hand 

in front of the niovith and make a forward and downward movement (like a dugong 

plunging), at the same time making a soft snorting noise (like a dugong breathing). 
Fire. Raise the two arms in front of the body and cross the index fingers, closing 

the other fingers ; make a rubbing, or rather a backward and forward, movement 

of the index fingers across each other. 
Fishing. Make a movement as if drawing in a fish-line. 

Food. Point all the fingers of one hand (the fingers being close together) to the mouth. 
Garden, making a. Motion of both hands as if heaping earth together in planting yams. 
Hunger. Vertical upward scratching movement on the front of belly. 
No. Raise one hand and vibrate it, holding it vertically. 
Numbers, up to ten, are indicated by the fingers, etc. Cf. p. 86. 
Plenty men. Clap hands. 
Question. The question signal, " Which way you go?" "What do you do?" etc. Flourish 

one hand vertically. 
Seeing. Point to the eye. 
Sleeping at another place. Point upwards with one finger between pointing in the direction 

of the sleeping place and the return movement. Two fingers for two days and so on. 
Tobacco. Close the fist, hold it at the level of the side of the face and make a short 

forward and downward beat with it. 
Turtle. Laterally extend the partially flexed arms, making a swimming movement, and 

a rather shrill snorting sound. 
Woman. Put closed fists on brea.st. 
Yes. Jerk the head upwards. 

Examples of Conversation by Gesture Language. 

Qu. " Where are you going ? " Sign for Attention followed by sign for Question. 

Ans. Replies by sign for Attention and pointing to direction. If he intends to remain 
he points to the ground beneath him. The signs for Gutting down scrub, Making 
a garden, or Gathering coco-nuts might be made if suitable, at the same time 
indicating if he were coming back the same day. v. sign for Direction. 

Qu. " Where have you been ? " Sign for Attention followed by sign for Question. 

Ans. Sign for Fishing, Turtle, etc. 

Qu. "How many liave you caught?" Signs for Attention and Question. 

Alls. Indicate number by fingers, v. Number. 

Qu. " Have you seen my wife ? " Signs for Attention, Woman, Question. 

Ans. " No." Signs for Attention and No. 

It sometimes happened that the men in my boat wanted a light for a smoke, 

they would then make signs for Attention and Fire. 



FIRE SIGNALS IN TORRES STRAITS. 
By C. G. Seligmann and A. C. Haddon. 

Macgillivray (ll. p. 7) says : " When a large fire is made by one tribe it is often 
intended as a signal of defiance to some neighbouriug one — an invitation to fight — and 
may be continued daily for weeks before hostilities commence ; it is answered by a 
similar one. 

"Many other signals by smoke are in use: for example the presence of an enemy 
upon the coast — a wish to communicate with another party at a distance — or the want 
of assistance — may be denoted by making a small fire, which, as soon as it has given 
out a little column of smoke, is suddenly extinguished by heaping sand upon it. If 
not answered immediately it is repeated: if still unanswered, a large fire is got up, 
and allowed to burn until an answer is returned." 

Dr Seligmann obtained the following information at Mabuiag concerning fire signals 
used at night : 

" A single stationary fire means ' Come here.' A large fire towards which a smaller 
fii-e or torch is carried signifies that strangers have come from the direction from which 
the torch was carried towards the large fire. A large fire would be lighted in reply 
to show that this signal had been understood. 

" I understood, after careful inquiry, that the only smoke signal employed was a 
single smoke column which signified ' Come here.' " 

Dr Haddou obtained the following information at Mer : 

" If a man wants at night-time to tell another at a distance, say on another island, 
that he has a turtle or anything else that he should come over for, he makes a torch 
of dried coco-nut palm leaves, and lighting it waves it about and extinguishes it quickly. 
The next day the man would go over to see what the signal was for. 

"In the daytime .smoke is similarly used. 

" I believe there is no means of conveying any definite information by means of 
fire or smoke signals. They are merely 'attention' signals and may be used to attract 
attention with the object of inviting a visit from the party signalled to — or to advise 
friends of the return of a party which had been away from home, probably when 
foreknowledge of a marauding party was obtained these signals would be utilised as 
beacon fires formerly were employed in Europe. 

"The feature distinguishing a fire or smoke signal from a casual light is its sudden 
disappearance." 



PAET II. 

THE LANGUAGES OF CAPE YORK PENINSULA, 
NORTH QUEENSLAND. 

INTRODUCTION. 

For comparison with the languages of the Torres Straits Islands it is necessary 
not only to consider the languages on the Australian Continent immediately to the 
South of the Straits, but also to determine how far the particular languages in contact 
with those of the Straits represent those of Queensland generally. I propose therefore 
in this part of the Report to give a short summary of what is known with regard 
to the languages of North Eastern Australia. The region taken into account will be 
the Northern Peninsula of Queensland, as far South as the Mitchell River on the West, 
and the Endeavour River on the East. 

For this region very little information as to the structure of the languages was 
available until a comparatively recent date. Jukes, in 1847, published two short lists 
of words from Cape York\ without specifying the names of the tribes. 

In 1852 Macgillivray published a considerable list of words in the Gudaug language" 
and named four other tribes in the vicinity^. Another vocabulary said to be the 
" Dialect spoken by the Cape York tribe," was published by Rev. A. W. Murray in 
1876'', and was probably compiled at the time of the commencement of the New Guinea 
Mission when the Headquarters were at Somei'set. Another short vocabulary of the 
Gudang language by F. Jardine was published in 1886^ 

None of this material gave sufficient indication of the structure of the languages 
to determine their relationship to, or difference from the Torres Straits languages. 
The Gudaug vocabulary showed many words the same or nearly the same as those 
of the Kowrarega of Macgillivray, i.e. the Muralag dialect of the Western Islanders of 
the Straits, and from these and the fragmentary notes of Kowrarega grammar, Latham 

' J. B. Jukes, Narrative of the Surveyini) Voyage of H.M.S. Fly, London, 1847. 

' J. Macgillivray, Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, London, 1852. 

' These were (1) the YaguUe, on the coast South and East of Cape York and beyond Escape River, (2) the 
Katchialaiga, (3) the Induyamo or Tarudolaig, behind Cape York, and (4) the Gomokudin in the South West of 
Endeavour Straits and a short distance down the Gulf of Carpentaria. 

•* Rev. A. W. Murray, Forty Years' Mission Work in Polynesia, 1876, Appendix. 

5 E. M. Curr, The Australian Race, 1886-7, i. p. 282. 




GULF OF PAPUA 



Saibai Is. N < 



T ,., ^ 



-ilEAl 
Warrior /s.O ""^ 



A \ 



«i(!graoe l^\^J\ (Banks Is. ' ^T S 

• Ode 1,^ 'ffgTi",^,i,„j /j,, O^Mt.Attilithus Is. 



\ 

\ 

uT^ I \ •'■y i 






LANGUAGE MAP 
of 

CAPE YORK PENINSULA 
and 

TORRES STRAITS 

by S. H. Ray. 

Australian Languages. ^^ ^^ ' ' ' 
Papuan Languages MIRIAM.I — .J 



Oityfhen Pt 




t AMO UNIV PRESS 



'i 



NORTH QUEENSLAND LANGUAGES. 265 

inferred an Australian origin for tlie Western language, an inference which was extended 
by Macgillivray to the Eastern language'. 

Of the languages of the Peninsula to the South of Cape York, very few specimens 
were in evidence up to the time of the Cambridge Expedition. Captain Cook in 1770=, 
and Captain King in 1827-', had published short vocabularies of the language of the 
natives on the Endeavour River, and a longer vocabulary of the same language by 
R. Phillips was printed in 1897''. Carron published in 1849 a few words from 12° 3' S. 
(probably Weymouth Bay, South of Cape Grenville"). Curr's book contained a short 
list by W. 0. Hodgkinson from Princess Charlotte Bay", and another by T. Hughes 
from Weary Bay". A vocabulary of the language of the Mirkin tribe on the Palmer 
River, called Koogoominny or Akoonkoon was published by E. Palmer in the Journal of 
the Anthropological Institute for 1884' and appeared also in Curr's book', and with different 
spelling. In 1899 Mr J. Mathew published vocabularies by Revs. J. Ward and N. Hey 
from Coen River, and Mapoon River, on the West coast of the Peninsula, and by 
R. Hislop from Bloomfield Valley'". 

The most valuable material for comparison has been published since the return of 
the Expedition. This consists of a grammar and vocabulary, by W. E. Roth, of the 
Koko-Yimidir language spoken on the Endeavour River", and another similar work, on 
the Nggerikudi language'- spoken at the mouth of the Batavia River, by Rev. N. Hey. 
These are the only works which make it possible to compare the structure of the 
Straits languages and those of Cape York with the Australian. 

Orthography of Native Words. 

For Native Words in Part II. the following alphabet has been used. 

Vowels: a as in "father"; S, as in "at"; e as a in "fate"; 6 as in "debt"; 
i as ee in "feet"; 1 as i in "it"; o as in "own"; 6 as in "on"; b as aiv in "law"; 
u as 00 in " soon " ; u as in " up!' 

As a rule the quantities of the vowels have not been recorded. 

Diphthongs: ai as in "aisle"; au as ow in "cow"; oi as in "noise." 

' " Dr Latham informs me that the Kowrarega language is undeniably Australian and has clearly shown 
Buch to be the case : and although the Miriam language does not show any obvious affinity with the continental 
Australian dialects, yet the number of words common to it and the Kowrarega I find by comparison of my 
vocabularies to be very considerable, and possibly were we at all acquainted with the granmiar of the former, 
other and stronger affinities would appear." Macgillivray, o}>. cit. ii. p. 3. i 

- J. Hawkesworth, A71 Account of the Vuxjages..., London, 1773, in. pp. 242, 243. 

5 Capt. P. P. King, Narrative of a Survcij of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia, London, 1827, 
pp. :^68, 309. 

* E. Phillips, "Vocabulary of Australian Aborigines in the neighbourhood of Cooktown," Jour. Anthropological 
Institute, xxvi. 1897, pp. 144-147. 

' W. Cflrron, Narrative of an Expedition, Sydney, 1849. " E. M. Curr, op. cit. 11. pp. 390, 391. 

' E. M. Curr, op. cit. 11. pp. 394, 395. 

* E. Palmer, "Notes on some Australian Tribes," Jour. Anthropological Institute, xm. 1884, pp. 276-347. 
' E. M. Curr, op. cit. 11. pp. 398, 399. 

'" J. Mathew, Eaglehuwk and Crow, London, 1899, pp. 208-272 
" North Queenslaiid Kthnuririipliti, Bulletin No. 2, 1901. 
'- North Queensland Klhnoyruphij, Bulletin No. G, 1903. 

H. Vol. m. '^^ 



266 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



Simple Consonants : k, g ; t, d ; c, j ; p, b, f, v ; m, n ; r, 1, w, y ; z ; h. These 
are sounded as in English except that c is ch as in " church." Sometimes z is ts as 
in "itself"; or dz as in "adze." 

Nasal Consonants: k as nk in "ink"; g as ng in "finger"; t as nt in "enter"; 
d as nd in " undei' " ; c as nch in " inch " ; j as ?y in " injure " ; p as ?>ip in " impel " ; 
h as ?;ii) in "amber"; m. as HWt' in "homeward"; n as vi^ in "sing"; n as /n' in "onion!' 

Note. When a word is printed in italic characters these letters are printed in roman. 

In the section on "Structure of the Languages," ng is used instead of n, for facility of 
comparison with Mabuiag. 

Aspirated Consonant : d' as th in " the!' 
Compound Consonant : q as ^m in " quite." 



i 
1 



STRUCTURE OF THE LANGUAGES. 

The languages of Cape York Peninsula of which Grammars have been published 
show some analogies with the Mabuiag of Torres Straits and with the short sketch 
of Taraikana gi-ammar which follows. I propose here to give a short sketch of the 
structure of these two languages specially with a view to comparison with Yaraikilna 
and Mabuiag. The whole of the material is abbreviated from the Grammars published 
by the Queensland Government in the North Queensland Ethnography, Bulletins No. 2' 
and No. 6-. They refer to the Koko-Yimidir language spoken on the East side of 
Queensland along the coast from the Annan and Endeavour Rivers to the North side 
of Cape Flattery, and the Nggerikudi language spoken by the aboriginals along the 
coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria from Cullen Point, Batavia River, to the North side 
of Duyfhen Point. Though so far distant there is practically an identity of structure 
in the two languages, and, as will be seen, whilst the Nggerikudi shows some re- 
semblance to the Yaraikana, resemblances between the Mabuiag and the Koko-Yimidir 
are also apparent. 

1 . Phonology. 

I have for the sake of easier comparison transcribed words into the alphabet given 
on pp. 265, 266, and used in this book for Australian and New Guinea words. An 
exception is made however with the sound there written, n for ng in "sing," which is 
used in this chapter as in Mabuiag ng. 

2. Demonstrative Words. 

These are by no means so prominent as in Mabuiag. The words "here" and "there" 
are used for " this " and " that," and the points of the compass are also used as demon- 
stratives. With the latter may be compared the Mabuiag use of words for " up," " dowu," 
" windward " or " leeward." 

3. Adjectives. 

Modification of a quality is expressed in Koko-Yimidir by prefixing dam, as in 
dara-hodan, fairly good. With this may be compared the Muralag darado, Mabuiag 
dado (p. 15) with a similar use and meaning. This prefix in Nggerikudi is droiba, 
as in droiha-tra\s.o, fairly good. Likeness, Similarity, Difference are expressed by distinct 
words with those meanings. Comparison is expressed by prefixing the word for "more," 
in Koko-Yimidir, gura, in Nggerikudi, esea. A superlative is shown in Koko-Yimidir 
by prefixing kana, " first." 

' Queensland, Home Secretary's Department, Brisbane. North Queemkind Ethnographi/, Bulletin No. 2, 
" The Structure of the Koko-Yimidir Language," by W. E. Hoth, with the assistance of lievs. G. H. Schwartz, 
and W. Poland, Brisbane, 1901. 

- Queensland, Department of Public Lands, Brisbane. North Queemland Ethnography, Bulletin No. G, "An 
Elementary Grammar of the Nggerikudi Language," by Rev. N. Hey, Brisbane, 1903. 

34—2 



268 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

4. Nouns. 

Gender. There is in neither language any distinction of gender. Sex, if required 
to be distinguished, is shown by the use of woi-ds for " boy," " woman," etc. 

Number. The dual is indicated by the dual pronoun or the numeral. Koko- 
Yimidir, hurla, they two, godera, two ; Nggerikudi, loba, they two, ahute, two. With 
burla may be compared the Mabuiag palai, they two. The plural in Koko-Yimidir 
is formed by a suffix -ngai, sometimes by -gar. The examples of the latter given 
by Roth are all names of persons. Hence these may be compared with the Mabuiag 
suffixes -ai, -l{ai), and the personal suffixes -g, plural -gal. In Nggerikudi the plural 
suffix is ba, and there are a few irregular formations. 

Case. Iu both languages the oblique cases of nouns are indicated by a variety of 
suffixes. 

Nominative. The Nominative has no suffix but stands first in the sentence. 

Objective. The Objective also has no suffix and comes between the Nominative and 
the verb. 

Possessive. Koko-Yimidir has the suffixes -ga, -we, -be, -e denoting ownership. The 
use of -gu indicates that the object owned is not in the owner's possession, but -ive, 
-be, or -e shows that the owner actually has the object in his possession : magar 
dirainggur-ga, net of the old man (not actually possessed) ; magar dirainggur-be, the 
old man's net which is in his actual possession. Nggerikudi has the possessive suffixes 
-na, -ba, -gaie, and expresses a similar distinction by -ma, meaning "very own": agama 
edranana-ma, child of the woman (her very own) ; tchear naidernu-gaie, spear of ni}' 
father (possessed by him). 

Other Gases. These are indicated in both languages by a very large number of 
suffixes. The Locative, Dative and Ablative being usually shown by simple particles 
suffixed, but various modifications are expressed by adding declined words. Identical 
suffixes sometimes express different ideas as the position of words in the sentence 
modifies the meaning. 

It will be noted that these constructions are essentially the same as in Mabuiag 
and YaraikSna, although there appears no agreement in the actual particles used. The 
Position of the Subject and Object with regard to the verb is also the same in the 
four languages. 

5. Pronouns. 

Personal Pronouns. 

The stems of the pronouns are irregular in the third person. Cases are indicated 
by suffixes. 

In Koko-Yimidir the Nominative forms are as follows : 
Singular. 1. ngayii, I; 2. nwlu, thou; 3. nidu, he, she, it. 
Dual. 1. ngali, we two ; 2. yubal, you two ; 3. burla, they two. 
Plural. 1. ngatan, ngana, we; 2. yura, you; 3. dana, they\ 

' Similar word.s for tlie Prououiis are found elsewhere in Queensland. Cf. Myappe (Lower Flinders River) : 
Sing. 1. ngie, 2. yu^o, 3. nullo, Plur. 1. unaira, 2. yudo, 3. thannu ; and Myeoolon (Saxby River) : Sing. 1. ngice, 
2. yuHo, 3. nullo, Plur. 1. unaira, 2. yarra, 3. thanna. Cf. also the Comparative Vocabulary. 



NORTH QUEENSLAND LANGUAGES. 269 

In these there is a remarkable correspondence in structure with the Mabuiag. In 
the first person in all numbers, nga appears as in Mabuiag ngai, ngalbai, ngai, in the 
second person nu or iju corresponds to Mabuiag ni in ni, nipel, nita. The irregular 
third persons correspond also with the Mabuiag, nidu to nui, burla to palai, dana to 
tana. The bal of the second person dual yubal is connected with the burla of the 
third dual, just as Mabuiag ni-pel is connected with palai, whilst the ra in yui-a 
may be thought to be connected with the da of dana, just as the Mabuiag ta in 7nta 
is connected with the ta in tana. 

In the Possessive case the forms are : 

Singular. ]. ngato, my; 2. nanu, thy; 3. nangu, his, her, its. 

Dual. 1. ngali-nun, of us two ; 2. yubal-en, of you two ; 3. burJa-ngan, of them two. 

Plural. 1. ngantan-un or ngana-ngan, our ; 2. yura-ngan, your ; 3. dana-ngan, their. 

These may be compared with the Mabuiag ngau, my, ninu, thy, nungu, his, and 
the possessive suffix -», which are used in the same persons and numbers as the Koko- 
Yimidir -nun, -un or -en, and with the Mabuiag -mun, used where the Koko-Yimidir 
has -ngan. 

The Objective differs only from the Possessive in the 1st and 2nd persons singular, 
which are : ngani, me, nina, thee. These correspond to the Mabuiag, ngana, me, 
nin, thee. 

In Nggerikudi the Nominative forms of the Pronouns are : 

Singular. 1. yiibe, I; 2. edrauba, thou; 3. lube, he, she, it. 

Dual. 1. (inclusive) liba, you and I, (exclusive) naba, he and I ; 2. foeba, you two ; 
loba, they two. 

Plural. 1. (inclusive) abo, we and you, (exclusive) »i(iby, we, not you; 2. yuarba, you; 
3. nam, they. 

These correspond in the singular to the Yaraikana aiyuva, wdwua, uluva, whilst 
the Yaraikana aleva, anava, ipuava, ulava of the plural appear to represent the 
Nggerikudi dual forms. 

In Nggerikudi the Possessive changes in the singular : 

Singular. 1. danu, my; 2. agana, thy; 3. ngonu, his, hers, its. 

The Dual and Plural add na to the Nominative. With these may be compared the 
Yai-aikana irregidar singulars attim, akum, ununi, and the regular plurals by suffix -in. 

The Objective case in Nggerikiidi is irregular in the singular. 

Singular. 1. niba, me ; 2. neaba, thee ; 3. noaba, him or her. 

The Dual and Plural are the same as the Possessive. With the singular Objectives' 
correspond probably the YaraikSna aniva, inava. 

Interuogative Pronouns: In Koko-Yimidir: who? wadu? declined as ^vanu-n? 
whose ? wanu-he ? to whom ? wanu-nga ? from whom ? These may be compared with 
Mabuiag ngad? who? ngunu? whose? ngabeka? to whom? ngunungu? from whom? 
In Koko-Yimidir nganna! what? 

The Nggerikudi Interrogatives are : who ? whose ? edrako ? declined as edrakv-to I 
to whom? edrako-ma? from whom? enai? what? These correspond to the Yaraikana 
ari ? who ? and ni ? what ? 



270 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

6. Verbs. 

The verbs in both Koko-Yimidir and Nggerikudi show many irregularities. They 
undergo no change for number or person. Tense is indicated by a suffix. 

Koko-Yimidu- : Present, -a, -al, -il, -ir, -or, -ur; Past, -ai, -i, -iren, -oren, -uren; 
Future, -nu. 

Nggerikudi: Present, irregular endings; Past, -na; Future, -ci (tchi). 

Mode in both languages is indicated sometimes by adverbs, or by other verbs, or 
by suffixes. The Imperative in Koko-Yimidir ends in -a with a reduplication of the 
last syllable of the root ; there is a past participle in -ga, and a negative formed by 
the suffix -mid. 

In the same language a compound verb is formed by manana, " to take," which 
apparently gives a kind of transitive meaning to the intransitive verb with which it 
is connected. With this cf the Mabuiag verb mai, mani (p. 33). In Nggerikudi the 
Imperative has sometimes the suffix -li with which cf the YaraikSna -ri. Nggerikudi 
also has a past participle in -na. 

7. Connective words. 

There are no prepo.sitions, but both languages have a very large number of particles 
added to words as postpositions. Some with nouns meaning " top," " side," " bottom," 
etc., translate the English prepositions. 

8. Numerals. 

The Koko-Yimidir numerals are : 7iobim, one ; godera, two ; i-wdo, three. Burla 
means "both." Beyond these counting is done in pairs as far as five: huria godera 
burla godera, four; hcrla godera burla godera nulu nobun (both two both two he 
one), five. 

In Nggerikudi : petna, one ; ahide, two ; sumasuma, three. Loba means " both " or 
"a pair." Further counting is done on the fingers or hands. 

With pema cf. YaraikSua ipima, one. 



THE YARAIKANA LANGUAGE OF CAPE YORK. 

The material from which the following sketch is compiled was obtained by me from 
a Yaraikana native named Oikantu, generally known at Thursday Island as Jimmy 
Matauri, a member of the native police force. He spoke English fairly well, and had 
to some extent forgotten his native language, but most of the sentences and words 
were verified by him after conversation with his wife Ewinpu, a native of the same 
tribe. I also obtained some words and sentences from Oikantu's brother Kaiau, who 
was among a party of blacks who visited Thursday Island during our stay there in 
1898. I did not find any essential difference in the language of my two informants. 

The Yaraikana vocabulary shows some agreement with the Gudang, as given by 
Macgillivray' and F. Jardine-. On our visit to Somerset in 1898 we were informed 
by Mr Jardine that the Gudang tribe then consisted only of a very few individuals 
and that the language was practically extinct. Macgillivray's Gudang showed many 
agreements with his Kowrarega (i.e. Muralag) vocabulary but this likeness is not apparent 
between the Yaraikftna and Mabuiag, although a few words are similar. 

The name YaraikSna appears to be a variant of the word ladaigal (chatterers), the 
name applied to the Cape York natives by the Western Islanders of Torres Straits. 
Mr Jardine gave the word as Yadaikan. 

1. Notes on Yaraikaxa Grammar. 

1 . Phonology. 

Vowels : a, e, i, 6, u. 

Consonants: k, g, k; t, d, t, d, d'; c, c; p, b, p, v; m, n, n, n; r, 1, w, y; q. These 
are sounded k as nk in "ink" t as nt in "enter" d as 7id in "under," c as ch in "inch" 
p as mp in " lamp" n as ng in " sing," d' as th in " the," n as ni in " onion," q as (jti 
iu " quite." The remainder as in English. 

Syllables may be closed with d, t, r, 1, m, n, hence the combinations dp, tp, rk, lb, 
Ik, mn, nn, nb, up, nng. 

The vowels are somewhat indistinct, 6 is broad as a in "all," ai is almost e, & almost 
as u in " vp." The sound of r varies to d' {th as in " the ") or 1 ; ki interchanges with 
ci (chi). Before d, the sound of n is nearly missed. There is au interchange of g and w. 

2. Demonstrative Words. 

Ura, urana are used for "this" and " tna. -'Ika arana ataipe, spear that take; 
ura aipai, ura-m kapara, this stone, that-only shell. Besides these the words nkoima, 
this, wanun, that near, atpimu, that yonder (probably adverbs) are used: alka itkoiina, 
spear this; alka wanun, spear that; alka atpimu, spear yonder. 

The particles -u, -ru, -n suffixed to nouns are not translated and appear to have a 
demonstrative sense: wdwrn unuju ama-u ufatema apoqc, you him man-that formerly 
1 Voyage of the Rattlesnake, pp. 277-S13. ' In Curr's Australian Race, i. p. 282. 



272 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

knew; aijuva imiyu ama-u apoqe, I him niaii-that know; ama-ru yoko-n vkea, man 
tree-that spears. 

3. Adjectives. 

The adjective follows the noun as: yapan icanu, fish many. A noun qualifying 
another noun precedes it : awuti ela, basket handle, i.e. handle of a basket. 

4. Nouns. 

Number. The Plural appears to have no special mark, but is shown by the adjective 
icanu, many: alka icanu, spears many. Sometimes there is reduplication as in 
yatpanyatpan, fish, fishes. 

Case. There are a great many postpositions affixed to nouns, of which the exact 
significations were not always ascertained. 

Nominative. The Subject of an intransitive verb appears without suffix, as: moyo 
yege-nu akia, pandanus beach-on grows; ania ani-n ala, man sand-on falls; unia ova, 
fire goes out. The Subject of a transitive verb appears with or without the suffix 
-ru as : aina-ru yoko-n likea, man tree-in spears ; ama-ru udamu ukea, man woman 
spears ; apan-w ama ipima icaru, to-us man one speaks. 

Objective. The Object precedes the verb without or with the suffix -n, as in : ama-ru 
udawM ukea, man woman spears ; evad'a ena-u unia, father fish ate. 

Possessive. There apj^ear to be two forms of the Possessive, shown by the suffixes 
-n, -m or -ma. The latter appears to indicate exclusive possession^ Ama-n u^i, man's 
fish; but yoko-iii ya^a, tree's (own) leaf; ama-m alka, man's (own) spear. 

Dative. The suffix -Tin appears to indicate the Dative : uiuva naro-nii atedit, you 
sea-towards go. Names of places appear without suffix: aiyuva Alauyan ana, I Cape 
York (to) go. 

Ablative. The suffix -mu, expresses motion from : aiyuva anaru Tonud'a-mu, I come 
Possession-Island-from ; ama-mu, man-from ; yoko-mu, tree-from. 

Another particle expressing " from " is -man, as in : aipai-man ana, stone-from go ; 
onouu-man ataru, mother-from come ; yoko-man, tree-from ; evara-man, father-from ; naro- 
man, sea-from. 

Locative. Position in or at is shown by the suffix -wu (-n, -gu), which also appears 
to mean " beside," and with verbs of motion " toward." Ina yoko-nu akia, bird tree-on 
stops; ama ani-n, ivaka-nu, aipa-nu ala, man sand-on, mud-in, stone-on falls; ani-gu 
una, ground-on walk ; ama udamoyu-nu icia, man woman-with (beside) sits ; ama yoko-nu 
icia, man tree-beside sits. 

Instrumental. This also appears with the suffix -nu: ama-ru unuma udamu ari 
yoko-nu, man his woman hits stick-with ; aniva anna unmaikuma ani-nu ari, me eye 
yesterday sand-by hit. 

5. Pronouns. 

The Personal Pronouns appear as follows : 

Singular. 1. aiyuva, aijuva, I ; 2. uduva, thou ; 3. uluva, he, she, it. 
Plural. 1. (inclusive) aleva, you and I, (exclusive) anava, they and I ; 2. ipuava (?) you ; 
3. ulava, they. 

■ Cf. Nggerikudi suffix -ma. 



NORTH QUEENSLAND LANGUAGES. 273 

The Dual adds -orima, the Trial -oikamu, and the Plural may also add -icanu. 

These are changed in the Possessive case: 

Singular. 1. atum, my; 2. akum, thy; 3. unum, his, her, its. 

Plural. 1. (inclusive) alem, apam, (exclusive) anam; 2. ipam; 3. ulam. 

The Dative appears to be formed from the Possessive stem by changing -m to 
-nu, the Objective by a change to -na, but some Persons and Numbers were not 
recorded. 

Examples of Personal Pronouns are: aijuva iva amea, I song sing; uduva yoko-nu 
upana, you tree (on) climb; uhiva amn-n epima tcpi, he man one kills; uluva atu-na 
ari, they me strike; ulava apa-na ari, they us strike; a/na a-pa-nu ikepa, man us-to 
talks; atu-m alka, my spear; aku-m alka, thy spear; unu-m alka, his spear; ale-m 
alka, apa-m icanu alka, our (inclusive) many spears ; ipa-na ota upiela, you by-and-by 
kill-will, you will be killed. 

A few u-regularities appear and are unexplained, such as aniva, me, unu]u, him, 
inava, you : aniva arinuka ota ulava, me fight-will by-and-by they, they will fight me ; 
inava akiela ota ulava, you will kill by-and-by they, they will kill you. It is 
probable that these are objective and correspond to the Nggerikudi, niba, iteaha, noaba. 
(Cf. p. 269.) 

Interrogative Pronouns. These are ari? who? and ni? what? as in: uduva ari? 
you who? who are you? ulicva ari? he (is) who? akum avea ari? atum avea Oikatii, 
your name who? my name (is) Oikantu, uluva ni? it (is) what? ura ni? this (is) 
what? 

In asking the name, ai-i is often omitted: udumu avia? woman (what) name? 

6. Verbs. 

The verb was difficult to make out, and appears to have many irregularities. 
There is no inflexion for number and person. 

Tense. Time is expressed by means of suffixes. 

Present. The Present appears as the simplest form of the verb aud appears to 
have no special suffix, upi, kill, ova, go out (of fire), ipini, swim, ari, hit, fight, ala, 
fall: ama ipini epenu, man swims sea-in ; uluva aman epim upi, he man one kills; 
uma ova, fire goes out. 

Present and Past. The Present and Past often appear with the same endings as: 
aiyuva iva ami-a, I song sing, aiyuva iva unmaikuma ami-a, I song yesterday sang ; 
aman orima uri-wa, men two fight, aman orima unpiatema ari-iua, men two long ago 
fought, aman orima lapudi ari-wa, men two finish fight. 

Past. The past tense appears to end in -a, as : ama unpatema ipini-a, man formerly 
swam ; evad'a enan uni-a, father fish ate. 

Future. There are two forms of the Future. One ends in -ka, as: ama ota ipini-ka 
ipenu, man by-and-by swim-will water-in ; aman orima ota ariwa-ka, men two by-and- 
by fight-will ; ulava apahu ota iku-ka, they us-to by-and-by talk-will ; uma ota ova-ka, 
fire by-and-by go out-will. Another Future ending is -ara, as: uluva ani ota utupun- 
ara, he sand by-and-by bring will ; uluva aman epima upi-ara ota, he man one kill-will 
by-and-by. 

H. Vol. III. 35 



274 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 







Present. 


Past. 


Future. 




Present. 


Past. 


Future. 


kill 




upi 


i/pia 


ufiara 


talk 


ikau, 


kepa 


ikia 


ikuka 


slug 




amia 


amia 


amira 


hit 


ari 




arota 


arinvka 


kindle fire 


u-ama 


u-auiva 


icainaka 


go 


ana 




— 


anaipura 


go out, 


die out 


ova 


— 


ovaka 


swim 


ipini 




ipinia 


ipinika 


climb 




wipana 


unpaiia 


unpani-na 


take away 


utaipa 




titauwe 


utaipuna 


eat 




una 


ttha 


uhara 


sit 


icia 




icia 


— 


fight 
bring 




ariwa 
iitapu 


ariwa 
utatiwe 


ariwaVa 
utapuuara 


fall 


ala 




alii 


alaka 



Mode. A Potential appears with the iindeclined word apoqe, know how : uluva 
apoqe unpan yoko, he can (knows how) climb tree; aiyuva Mn«JM amau apoqe, I him 
man-that know. 

The Imperative appears with suffix -ri: utuva unuva aikiri! you him watch! watch 
him ! Sometimes the Future is used, as : ani atapura ! sand bring ! 

The Negative appears with owona, do not ! owona ikau ! do not speak ! 

In one example there appears a Causative in ti : uina ota ova-^a-ti, fire by-and-by 
out-will-put, put out the fire by-and-by; uma ova, fire goes out. 

There appear to be some negative verbs distinct from the positive : apoqe, know ; 
morepu, not know ; auoipu, not want. 

7. Adverbs. 

Only a few adverbs were collected : ota, by-and-by ; unmaikuma, yesterday ; unpatema, 
long ago. As in Koko-Yimidir, Nggerikudi, and Mabuiag, many noun compounds are 
used as adverbs. 

8. Postpositions. 

Most of these have been given under Nouns. Some nouns with suffixes are 
equivalent to English prepositions as in : aipai okoi-ma aika, stone side-of stand ; yoko 
o\ioi-ma aika, tree side-of stand. For persons the first noun has -n suffixed : evara-n 
okoi-ma aika, father's side-of stand ; onunu-n okoima aika, mother's side-of stand. It 
is perhaps the same word which appears written as akai in : aipai awutiko akai-m 
■utia, stone basket under-of stops, stone is in the basket. 



9. Numerals. 

These were given as : ipi-ma, ipi-uu-ma, one ; or-i-ma, two ; oiku-ma or woiku-ma, 
three; al-oriina-al-orima, four; icanu, five or many. In these ma appeared to mean 
" only." 

The words in the Yaraikana vocabulary were almost all given to me by Jimmy 
Matauri. A few words in Vol. v. pp. 205 — 206 and pp. 220 — 221, are added with 
references to the notes there given. For agreements with Gcati, vide p. 276. Agreements 
with Mabuiag appear in the words for: attendant, banana, drum, sea, spear, sucker-fish, 
throwing-stick. 



NORTH QUEENSLAND LANGUAGES. 



275 



2. YaraikIna Vocabulary. 
Nouns. 



Ankle 


yerku 


egg (bird) 


iima-ati 


Kangaroo (large 


akhno 


arm 


toita 


elbow 


yutu 


kangaroo (scrub) itniba 


armpit 


ivad'o 


eye 


aiina 


kangaroo (small 


avo 


ashes 

attendant on girl 


uman-uco, uco 


eyeball 
eyebrow 


iiimn-woinpa 
ata-anna 


kangaroo (variety S'mStika 
of) 


at puberty 




eyelash 


auna-etivi 


kangaroo (mob o 


") motori 


attendant on ini- 


muicara, akanajV. 


eye-pupil 


manara 


knee 


ifuku 


tiate 


220 






knife 


iri 


Augud 


eyekenu 


Face 


anna, annoi, yiipi 






axe (large) 


ava 


family (one's own) amoftirtumara " 


Land 


avan-wata 






family (wife's) 


ntauuani-widaugaii 


leaf 


i/(/pa, yokom-yapa 


Back 


woUd 


father 


evad'a 


leg 


motu 


banana (wild) 


kiUavi-ari 


father (wife's) 


aiyiive 


lime 


icoti 


basket 


aicuii 


father's brother 


inata 


lip 


aka-akoi 


beach 


y^H' 


(eldest) 




louse 


akui 


beard 


aka-ido 


father's brother 


ivetiki 






belly 


lodpe 


(younger) 




Man 


lima 


bird 


intia 


father's father 


worad^a 


mangrove 


itidi 


blood 


lokoi 


father's mother 


aped'olbo 


meat 


ekaiiia 


blow-fly 


ui 


father's sister 


inwta 


moon 


aikana 


body 


xcata 


(eldest) 




mosquito 


ewd 


bone 


apiul'a, garumada 


father's sister 


iinotiki 


mother 


lumnii, oinona 


bowels 


aweda 


(younger) 




mother (wife's) 


aiyuve 


brother (eldest) 


upitnaa 


finger 


umanitai'iu 


mother's brother 


okota 


brother (middle) 


ipoiki 


finger-nail 


mata-ita 


(eldest) 




brother (youngest) 


itamu 


fire 


unui 


mother's brother 


arara 


lirother (wife's) 


mauu-ara 


flsh 


yadpti^ yatpa 


(middle) 




bull-roarer (large) 


maniiiat, iwaika 


flesh 


aiyiuii 


mother's brother 


araiki 


bull-roarer (small) 


upaliko 


flower 


whreyu, itaga 


(younger) 




butterfly 


ataue 


fly 


oipi 


mother's father 


atciVa 






food 


aie 


mother's mother 


amid'a 


Canoe 


aUt 


food-catcher, V. 


anacena 


mother's sister 


okota 


ceremony, V. 


okara 


220 




(eldest) 




220 




foot 


okar-apa 


mother's sister 


iimilona 


cheek 


ola 


forehead 


yupi 


(younger) 




chest 


aicunpuda 


fowl 


araui 


mouth 


aka 


child 


amaiki 


fruit 


omiti 


mud 


waka 


chin 


aka-idio, akai-yuio 










clam-shell 


II ti 


Girl (before pu- 


ainadino' 


Name 


avea 


clan (members 


mauwara 


berty) 




navel 


oitu 


of same) 




girl (at puberty) 


unuiipaiio'', V. 206 


neck 


wokatu 


cloud 


ata 


grand-daughter 


atoku, atokaiki 


night 


unmawa 


cloud (white) 


ijopa 


graud-father 


atira 


nose 


eye, ede, ere 


coco-nut 


ukopa 


grand-son 


atoka, atokaiki 






crab 


am 


ground 


ane 


Outrigger-float 


tamo, watari 


crayfish 


alimi 


ground for initia- 


teni, V. 220 






crocodile 


ikaiiba 


tion ceremony 




Paddle 


waciiri 


curlew 


owe 






pandanus tree 


moijo 






Hair (head) 


opa-napa 


pandanus fruit 


oria 


Darkness 


manara 


hand 


mata 


pigeon (Torres 


oikuda 


daughter 


aiiiaiki-uiamu 


hand (back of) 


iiiiita-wutui 


Straits) 




daugiiter-in-law 


owanamuU 


hand (pulm) 


imita-napa 


place 


a van 


daylight 


awaia 


handle 


eta 


plum (Wangai) 


akaldia 


death-dancer 


umgai 


head 


apu 






(Iklarkai of 
Torres Straits) 




hill 


ava-mata, ava-uia- 


Rain 


rpin-araro 






\)ani 


rat 


waea 


diamoud-flsh 


utara 


house 


haiire (English) 


relations (own) 


aiiinkiniimara 


dog 


otaa, otaiki 


humpy 


i/olii, yunuinu 


relations (wife's) 


miiiiwura-widaugan 


drum 


ariipa 


husband 


I'inpanii 


road 


iiliib 


dugong 


watain 






root 


leato 






Initiate 


lima 


rope 


(liar a 


Ear 


cwoi, ewe 










earth 


ane 


Javelin 


umla 


Salt 


enna 



This is a Bed Island (Uiyumkwi) word. 



A Red Island word. 



^ In Bed Island, umaipana. 
35—2 



276 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



salt-water 


enaa 


skin 


akoi 


thigh 




etena 


sand 


ani 


sky 


atar 


throat 




manukara 


saud-beach 


yegi 


smoke 


uman-oro, oro 


throwing 


-stick 


oikanhi (akebi, V 


sand-fly 


aiinnai 


snake 


eta 






220) 


sea 


naro, vuilo 


son 


amaiki-unpama 


tongue 




epun 


sea-grass 


oporo 


son-in-law 


owana-muti 


tooth 




(ipu 


seed 


apula, aput-moi- 


song 


iva 


tortoise 


(fresh 


oiya&ai 




ka (?) 


spear 


alka, aka 


water) 






shade 


ergo 


spittle 


viohii 


totem (individual) ari 


shadow (of man) 


ama-ergo 


star 


unpi 


tree 




ynkn 


shark 


eta 


stick 


yoko 


turtle 




iwora 


shark (hammer- 


mautvar 


stone 


aipai 








head) 




stone-club 


aipai 


Village 




okamu 


shark (red) 


taied'i 


story 


get'a, adi, ad'e 








shell (clam) 


uU 


story 


eye'kenu 


Wangai 


plum 


akudia 


shoulder 


oica, aratimi 


string 


uiura-oraiki 


water 




ipe, (pi 


sister (eldest) 


opadi 


sucker-fish 


anapa 


wife 




uAanm 


sister (middle) 


opa'ki 


sun 


wona 


wind 




alba 


sister (youngest) 


amatiki 






woman 




iidamu 


sister (wife's) 


mauicara 


Temples 


ewa 

Adjectives. 


wrist 




lapa 


Bad 


oitpu 


Good 
great 


ekama 
avoqi 


Many 




icanu 


Cold 


oikakSma 


Hot 


umana-awaina 


Small 




od'aki 


Dark 


uumalba 













I 



Verbs. 



Bring 


uiapu 


go 


ana, atedu 


See 


aiki 


bury 


arada 


go out, die out 


ova 


sing 


amea 






grow 


akia 


sit 


aoia 


Climb 


unpani 






sleep 


erema 


come 


ataru, adera 


Hear 


amea 


speak 


ikau, ekia 






hit 


ari 


spit 


moiia-yavta 


Die 


oipuma 






stay 


yer-icia 


dig 


avan-aaanu 


Kill 


upi 


stop 


akia, acia 


drink 


oina 


kindle fire 
Icnow 


trama 
ajioqe, amea 


swim 


ipini, ijyiri 


Eat 


tiiia, oiiia 






Take up 


ataipi 






Live 


ana-iaka 


take away 


utapi 


Fall 


alga 






tell 


ikia 


fear 


Srnlwa 


Hake humpy 


avai-yotaiiin 


throw 


yagani 


tight 


ari 










finish 


lap7}di 


Not know 


morepu 


Walk 


anegu-ana 


fly 


amama 


not want 


aiioipu 


watch 
weep 


aikiri 
yuka 


Get 


ova 


Pick up 


madi 






give 


oma 


put 


ata 







Mamas Point Atamiu 

Thursday Island Motaragaaka 



Names of Places. 

Possession Island Tonud'a 
Ked Island Waimara 



Cai^e York 
Port Darwin 



Alauyan 
Nifin 



i| 



VOCABULARY OF THE OTATI LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT CAPE GRENVILLE. 

By C. G. Seligmann and G. Pimm. 

This vocabulary consists of about four hundred words in the language spoken in 
the neighbourhood of Cape Grenville on the North Eastern coast of the Cape York 
Peninsula. It was obtained by Mr C. G. Seligmann at Thursday Island, whilst waiting 
to join the Cambridge Expedition, and to it is added a shorter list of about sixty 
words in the same language obtained by Mr G. Pimm. Both vocabularies were obtained 
from Caroma, a woman of the Otati tribe, who knew a fair amount of English. The 
list is imperfect, as the English words for which the native equivalents are given end 
with the letter P. 

This vocabulary is the only specimen we have of the languages on the Eastern 
side of the Peninsula between Cape York and Princess Charlotte Bay, a distance of 
two hundred and fifty miles. There appears to be no likeness between the Charlotte 
Bay dialect, of which Curr gives a short specimen^ and that of the Otati. 

There are the following agreements with the YaraikSna : udoi, back (Y. wotni) ; 
oiyopa, bad (Y. oitpu); woola, cheek (Y. oola); ehafii, climb (Y. unpani); atelo, come 
(Y. ataru) ; ewoi, ear (Y. ewoi) ; ana, eyelid (Y. ana, eye) ; oipoi, a fly (Y. oipi) ; okal, 
foot (Y. okar); apugn, head (Y. apu); amil, hear (Y. aviea); yuta, house, humpy (Y. yota) ; 
hana, husband (Y. li^anu) ; owen, knee (Y. imiku) ; ewh'i, mosquito (Y. ewa) ; ana, mouth 
(Y. aka) ; una, sun (Y. wona) ; tena, thigh (Y. etena). 

A few words seem to agree with the Mabuiag, but it must be noted that the 
vocabulary' was obtained in Thursday Island : eweri, mosquito (M. iivi.) ; opo, buttock 
(M. kupa); marapi, bamboo (M. 7norap) ; makdca, bat (M. makas, rat); ivarawa, coco-nut 
(M. urah); tuta, father (M. tati); maca, island (M. maza, reef); vialo, ocean, lagoon 
(M. multi); oca, necklace (M. kusa). 

The word bimi, midnight, appears to have been borrowed from some Melanesian speaker. 

Orthography. The orthography is that of the alphabet given on pp. 205, 266. 
The diphthongs are marked ai, ei, oi. The gn, 6, ii are unexplained by the compilers. 
The last two probably indicate the sounds as in German. The MSS. have ng which , 
is here represented by n, i.e. ng as in "sing," but it may sometimes have been meant to 
represent ng as in "finger." 

1 E. M. Curr, The Australian Race, Melbourne and London, 1886, p. 3i(0. 



278 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



Otati Vocabulary. 



Nouns. 



Abortion 

abundance 

adultery 

afterbirth {see foetus) 

alien 

anchor 

ancients 

ankle 

ant 

arm (fore) 

arm (upper) 

artery 

ashes 
axe 



wonei-dano 

muta 

yeitnneno 



Baby 

back 

backbone 

backside 

bag 

bamboo 

bamboo-pipe 

barb 

bark 

basket {see bag) 

bat 

beach 

bead 

beard 

bed 

belly 

bird 

bladder 

blood 

boat, canoe 

boil 

bone 

bough 

bowels 

boy 

boy (big) 

brain 

breasts (woman) 

brother 

butterfly 

Centipede 

charcoal 

charm 

cheek 

chest 

chief 

chin 

cloud 

cockroach 

coco-nut 

copulation 

corner 

coward 



nenti 

apidaTW 

ehdca-malala (lit. 

dead people) 
rolbii 
Irifiini 
liipa 
edu 
ana (" fellow he 

jump") 

radai 
vidla 

mopa (first child of 
either sex) 

!<doj 
rojno 

kluhc (?) 

marapi 

viarapi 

ecoi 

acoi 

nuikuca 

wulka 

oca 

anwocomo 

vani 

t'lpa 

anal 

wakidinui 

gadal 

kowata 

lupo (egg of buho) 

wnta, ua 

eda 

■udano 

at a n't 

marldina 

nota 

nono 

giina 

targwoi 

tulo 
aka 
mana 
wola 
gnaca 
vuiVelika 
gwalo 
motel 
utiman 

warawa (probably 
not introduced) 
olina 
y a way a 
woiyel 



crab 
crawfish 

Dawn 
day 
dew 
diarrhoea 

dirt 

doctor 

dug 



toiyi^ 
gnaroi 

ahaipil 
munbdto 
woimi 

una-weri (faeoes- 
^wet) 
roico 
noyun 
wohSto 



draught (of water) geta 

di'um taidtira 

dusk waCdah 

dust nena 



Ear 

East 

eel (sea) 
egg (pigeon) 
egg (turtle) 
egg (wild fowl) 
elbow 

eyeball 

eyebrow 
eyelid 

Face 

fate (?) 

father 

fear 

feast 

feather 

female 



friend 
frog 

Gall 

garment 

ghost 

girl 

glass (bit of) 

god 



ewoi 

wanago, naiguri 

gwatanai 

woiha 

wori 

rakal 

raniil 

yeiti tt'tbi (eye 

inside) 
atnn 
ana 

ici 

Inhi (?) 

tata 

woiyel 

eyeh-mino (feed big) 

tava 

ghadarica (?) 

yukoi 



fire 


etovo 


firefly 


runban 


fish 


neia 


fish-hook 


wtm-nunei 


flea 


akulkaja 


flesh 


ratpan 


flood 


leiyul 


flower 


ribaiw 






fly 


oipoi 


foetus (male) 


wiltenu 


fcetus (female) 


enadi 


food 


leiye 


fool 


epudawa 


foot 


ohal, okal 


forehead 


ici 


forenoon 


una-ehaya 


forest 


rota 



kwuiinmdga 
wohol 

woicimo 

arimo 

ugnai 

amateua 

ugn-gnatal 

iigiigikimo 



grass 

grave 

gravel 

grease 

grindstone 

groin 

ground 

gum 

gun (?) 

gut 

Hair 

hammer 

hand 

handful 

handle 

hat 

hawk 

head 

heat 

heel 

helm 

hill 

hip 

hole 
horse 

house 

hunger 
husband 

Idiot 

"iguana" 

island 

Jaw 

Kangaroo 

kernel 

knee 

knife 

knot 

knuckles 



yhaca 

um-mikala 

yiiroi 

addri 

tugn-a 

yugnaina 

«b(i 

woino (?), g'atpai (?) 

paruida 

oiudoino 

ugn-apun 

yoriu 

am (rolled r) 

aru-igania-agnatui 

roko 

agn-kuta 

toiudo 

apugn 

miiti 

hwuto 

waigna 

ahuica-udoi (little 
hiU) 

ilo 

ula 

mordceu (?) (intro- 
duced word) 

yuta 

tapitapi 

bona 

ai'uwolomul 

oiiowe 

viaca 

gwato 

evamo 

woiyi 

Owen 
towra 
ahutal 
aroin 



Labour (of woman) itin 

lad 

lagoon 

land 

language 

leaf 

leak 

leg 

lesson 

liar 

light (of day) 

lips 

liver 

lizard 

looking-glass 



low water 
Maid 



ganaca 
mala 
udui 

ika-atona 
alwai 
mahdti 
ori 
maci 
werimal 
rakano 
anutbi 
tepa 
wital 

mariu-gitinu (in- 
troduced) 
tinbiira 

wowenen 



NORTH QUEENSLAND LANGUAGES. 



279 



man 


baiala 


mouth 


ana 


oil 


meinSra 


man (old) 


milenu 


mud 


aiiba 


owner 


armamo (?) 


mangrove 


wapa 






oyster 


tcunbiiti 


marsh 


wetata (cf. moist) 


Nail (body) 


ara-tal 






mat 


t'awa 


nail (iron) 


ecoi 


Paddle 


rakal 


matches 


etovo (fire) 


name 


anel 


pain 


womidatiw. 


medicine 


yeno 


navel 


Hlci 


paint 


titika 


message 


yago (speak) 


neck 


udul 


palm 


ara-napa 


message-stick 


{yone (Night Is.) 


necklace 


oca 


parrot 


lata 


1 ye\e (Margaret Bay) 


nest 


arama 






midday 


una-haya 


net 


iDavw 


Scrub fowl 


rdmo 


middle 


worurunma 


night 


jagula ^ 


South 


maiyanmano, nai- 


midnight 


biini 


nipple 


nono-yeiti (breast- 




guri 


mildew 


cavlte 




eye) 


South East wir 


d awano 


mill< 


yiitu 


nobody 


margana 


sun 


una 


miscarriage 


oto 


noise 


imdagel 






mistake 


nonwoi 


north 


okea 


Thigh 


tena 


money 


eipei 


North West 
nose 


wind gnunbai 
enmoi 


West 


gnunbai 
awano 


morning 
morrow, to- 
mosquito 


woi-miwima 

add 

ewSri 


notch 
nothing 


oral 
aw una 


wind (N.W.) 

wind (S.E.) 


moth 
mother 


targoi 
nono 


nurse 
Oar 


evaci 
Tahal 


woman (old) 
work 


yltmi 
edeldi 


mountain 


mara 


ocean 


malo 


Youth 


inarldina 






Adjectives. 






Afraid 


looiytl 


fat 


wopol 


light (weight) 


oi-kalkala 


alive 


atima 


ferocious 


leti 


like 


wovi 


angry 


Idman 


few 


woko 


little 


kececa (cf. narrow) 


ashamed 


yovotiva 


fragrant 


maU 


long 


rori 


asleep 


amayunan 


full 


wHtiTio 


loose 


enerenegi (as a sail) 


Bad 

bald 
barren 
beautiful 
big 


oiyopa 

tabai 

awal 

rnayl 

meno 


Gentle 

giddy 

glad 

globular 

good 


akoi-ipo 

araieua 

ejaugitamaii 

apiiu-ivauo 

meyi 


lost 

Mad 
many 
moist 
more 


7ionoi 

arena 
mota 
wetata 
iva 


bitter 


goitu 


greasy 


audari 


much 


muta 


black 


nuiiia, umna 


great 


mino 






blind 


yiti-dpo (eyes bad) 






Naked 


gnawonima 




^^ 


Hard 


wuliito 


narrow 


kececa 


Cold 


renaii 


harsh 


apau 


nasty 


ipo (bad) 


curly 


pieti-pie.ti (spoken 


heavy 


nuugugn 


near 


eyema 




quickly) 


high 


ahi 


new 


ikamo 






hoarse 


olyin 


no 


awoona 


Dark 


jDonoura, unmoga 


hot 


mate 






dead 


alg'an 






Old 


wonomo 


deaf 


ewoi-ipo (ear-bad) 


Idle 


lanipoo (cf. loiter) 


other 


emo 


deep 


malo 


iU 


it in 






distant 


ahi 


insufficient 


oUm-raina (not 


Ked 


rebano 


dry 


raciman 




finish) 


right 


manate 


Empty 


nuwoha (lit. no 


.Jealous 


ycliniwa 


Sharp 


itun 




more) 






slack 


eaimpon 


enough 


otono 


Lascivious 

last 


yoioowi 
yawea 


sour 


gottu 


Fast 


Mjon 


left 


tarbote 
Verbs. 






Abscond 


enaiman 


beat 


aninit 


bury 


akaita 


ache 

arise 
ask 


eiedana I (especially 

of head) 
ilago 
wucl 


begone ! 

bind 

bite 


eiovaii! (lit. you 

clear out) 
titan 
iitan 


Carry 
cheat 
chew 


cdaliici 

aiiaiiiitilu 

gwalamo-inoidal 






bleed 


oti-enineel 


choke 


anaamtman 


Bake 


awan 


boil (kettle) 


opoboro-mukiti 


clap 


arujuna 


bathe 


groma 


bring 


etacelo 


climb' 


ebanil (go up) 



280 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



come 


atelo 


found 


uvala 


kneel 


owcn-d(ina?(cf.knee) 


come here! 


atelo 


frown 


eci-walkumal (fore- 


know not 


tedego 


conceal 


oneici 




head-lowered) 






conceive 


mora 






Lament 


woloto-enago (cf. 


cough 
count 


oUnn'kel 


Gammon 


rama 




hard, cry) 


enact 


gambol 


iutalta 


laugh 


tinahal 


cover 


rece 


get 


oto 


leap 


ratyenal 


crawl 


enarlina 


give 


otllo 


leave 


adal 


cry 
cut 


una 


glisten 


rigieuduucal 


lick 


udal 


ragi 


go 


audi 


lie down 


ikunana 




grind 


otugnaci 


lift 


oipanaci 


Dance 


weAa 


groan 


otil 


light a fire 


emicaci 


dig 


almi-iinul (make 


grow 


taliniajt 


loiter 


lanipo 




hole) 


growl (dog) 


lemaii 


look 


yege 


dislike 


yovovi-rama (like 












no more) 


Hang 


renaci 


Make 


aputul 


dive 


ohan-emiimul 


baste 
haul 


auyima 
waivaci 


marry 
meet 


eden 
yakiniva 


drag 

dream 

drink 


waweena 


hear 


aviil 


miss 


ramadura-unhin 


til/ in 
ical 


help 


do-vara-vaci (lend 


moan 


oten 




me a hand) 


mourn 


ona 


Eat 


caci 


hide 
hold 


ungoci 
uvaci 


move 


renika 


expectorate 


iiava 


howl 


nanina 


Nip 


tadagin 


Faint 


apanalan 


hunt 


euaimaci 


nod 


atdniina 






hurry 


anama 


nurse 


nanaci 


fall 


enaien 










famish 


tapitapi {cf.tmnger) 


Inquire 


ivaci 


Obey 


amil (cf. hear) 


feed 


eii/ote 


inter 


akanel 


offer 


vte 


fetch 


eiucelo 


itch 


ivan (?) 


open 


enaci 


find 


ianin 










finish 


wi'iiiinn 


Join 


ehoroina-taci 


Pacify 


mei-maci (lit. make 


fiout 


iiuhnii 


jump 


ratenu 




good) 


fly 


emi ima 






paddle 


loaituci 


fond of, be 


yowowi 


Keep 


aiigi 


pant 


ananimal 


forget 


eicoi-woTnwn ('*hear' 


kick 


takaci 


pat 


aduiia 




no more, finish"). 


kill 


ahil 


play 


gaenina-palpal 




cf. ear, finish 


kindle, fire 


edobo-enacaci 

Pronouns. 






My, mine 


atonmo 


None 


u-rjinan 


You 


edoiiva 


myself 


vemanamo 


Our 


alimo 







Adverbs, etc. 



Alone 


werna. (one) 


first 




ehncima 


now 


ora 


altogether 


otolava 
















Good-bye ! 




uvana ! 


Often 


nwta 


Below 


gioaia 


gradually 




yhu-tiloma 


oh! 


uhel 


between 


uwrona (rolled r) 








on 


baloma 


by-and-by 


ena 


Harkl 




ytih-gnumi! 


outside 


yaudama 






hush! (to 


chUd) 


yargana ! 


over 


rimanagi 


Close to 


ayema 
















In 




gaiya 


Plenty 


muta 


Down 


gwanogo 










^ 






Nearly 




ytUoma 


Second 


yargwoia 


Farewell 1 


uvana ! 













Numerals. 

1. werna. 2. aroma. 3. yoman. i. mohama. 



5. muta (plenty). 



A SHORT COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY OF THE LANGUAGES 
OF CAPE YORK PENINSULA. 

As an illustration of the variety of languages existing in the Cape York Peninsula, 
I add a short list of words in all those known. These are : 

Lanymuji' LocaHU/ Authority 

1. Gudang Cape York F. Jardiue, in Curr's Austrcdian Race, i. p. 282, and 

J. Macgillivray, Toy. liattlesnake, ii. pp. 277-316. 

2. Yaraikana Cape York S. H. Eay. MS. 

3- Otati Cape Grenville C. G. Seligmann and G. Pimm. MS. 

4. Nggerikudi Batavia River Rev. N. Hey, QueenHaiid Ethnog., Bulletin 6. 

6 Coen River Revs. J. Ward and N. Hey, in J. Matliew's Eufllehauk 

and Crow, pp. 208-272. 

6. Akoonkoon or Mirkin Palmer River E. Palmer, in Curr's Australian litice, u. p. 39h, and 

Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xiii. pp. 276-334. 

7. Bulpoonarra Weary Bay T. Hughes, in Curr's Amtraliun Race, ii. p. 894. 

8 Granite Range, at Head H. M. Mowbray, in Curr's Anxtralimi Race, ii. p. 406. 

of Mitchell River 

9 Bloomfield ValUy R. Hislop, in J. Mathew's Kaylelumk and Crow, pp. 

208-272. 
10. Koko-Yimidir Endeavour River W. E. Roth, Queensland Ethnoc/., Bulletin 2. 

11 Princess Charlotte Bay W. 0. Hodgkinson, iu Curr's Australian Race, ii. p. 390. 

The Mabuiag is added for comparison. In the quotations I have altered the 
spelling in conformity with the alphabet on pp. 265, 266. 

There is apparently great diversity in vocabulary though the words in compara- 
tively distant places sometimes agree, as e.g. " head " in Nggerikudi and Bulpoonarra 
and in Otati and Akoonkoon ; " sun," iu Gudang, Otati, Yaraikana, and Weary Bay ; 
"lire" in Yaraikana, Princess Charlotte Bay, and Akoonkoon. The uniformity in the 
word for " spear " is remarkable. 

Pronoun.s. 

1st Person 2}id Person 3rd Person 

1. Gudang- Sinij. uba, yuba ufoba, doba .... 

Plur. aku urfuba inaba 

2. Yaraikana Sinij. aiyuva ui/uva uluva 

Plur. aleva, aneva ipua ulava 

3. Otati Sinii edoava. .... 

4. Nggerikudi Sini/. yube erfrauba lube 

Plur. a,bo, iialio yuarba naru ' 

5. Coen River Sing, yupu arframe lopu 

Plur. boiti ai/rapu lope 

6. Akoonkoon Sing, inuu inu .... 

7. Bulpoonarra Sing, nayo yuno .... 

8. Granite Range Sing, niyu yuto .... 

9. Bloomfield VaUey Sing, aio yndo nulu 

Plur. aniu yura tana 

Dxtal ali ynbal billa 

10. Koko-Yimidir ,S'/«r;. Jiayu nudu nulu 

Plur. wafan yura dana 

Dual (lali yubal burlu. 
H. Vol. HI. 36 



282 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



1. Gudang 

2. Yaraikana 

3. Otati 

4. NggerUnidi 

5. Coen River 

6. Akoonkoon 

7. Bulpoonarra 

8. Granite Range 

9. Bloomfleld Valley 
10. Koko-Yimidir 



Numerals. 






One 


Two 


Three 


apirman 


elabiu 


dama 


ipima 


orima 


oikuma 


wema 


aroma 


yoman 


pema 


afcute 


sumasuma 


pemi 


aftot'u 


s'umajum 


apul 


ipa, yirnpa 


arulko 


Dobin 


mumera 


ki'ilur 


nupun 


mumfira 


kartu 


nupuu 


mamara 


kolur 


nobun 


godera 


kudo. 



Helly. 



Mabuiag 
Gudang 
Yaraikana 
Otati 

Nggerikudi 
Coen R. 
Akoonkoon 
Weary B. 
Granite Ra. 
Bloomfield V. 



maita 

maita 

lodpe 

tipa 

ra 

orum 
tepar 
jiipa 



Koko-Yimidir i kabul 
P. Charbjtte B. ' tulka 



2. Bird. 


3. Blood. 


4. Breast. 


5. Dog. 


6. Ear. 


7. Eye. 


urui 


kulka 


dada, susu 


umai 


kaura 


dan 


wuroi 


aitu fia 


yo«o, tuttu 


i)iodiiia 


iwuna 


dana, ratair 


inna 


lokoi 


awunpuda 


otaa, otaiki 


ewoi, ewe 


anjia 


a;ial 


gadal 


nono 


woboto 


ewoi 


yeiti 


daibe-dima 




cuo 


oka 


woa 


adae 




trelem 


a^ou 


oke 


woie 


aiioa 


.... 


onel 


onon 


uta 


inur 


Imun 






bibi 


kaia 


mitka-biigir 


mil 




kerkun 


pipi 


kaia 


bina 


mi 


cikal 


mula 


bibi 


narnio- 
muramo 


milga 


mil 


dircir 


garubi 


guy" 


goda 


milka 


mil 






caca 


gwaga 


yipa 


tu(ri 





8. Father. 


9. Fire. 


10. Fhh. 


Mabuiag 


tate, baba 


mui 


wapi 


Gudang 


epada 


yoko 


wopi 


Yaraikana 


evad'a 


uma 


yatpa 


Otati 


tata 


etovo 


neia 


Nggerikudi 


nai-der 


moa 


nia 


Coen R. 


naita 


moi 


ma 


Akoonkoon 


at'ini 


uma 


oyi, uyou 


Weary B. 


nu<;iu 


wacil, kunin 


kuya 


Granite Ka. 


nucun 


umi 


kuyu 


Bloomfield V. 


arfgan 


ku 11 in 


kuyu 


Koko-Yimidir 


peba 


yoku-wulugm' 


kuyu, kuou 


P. Charlotte B. 




yuma 


wunpu 



11. Font. 



oqar 

okar-apa 

okal, ohal 

goa 

qe 

anil, amul 

tena 

jina 

jina 

tamal 

tako 



12. Hand. 



get 

ata 

mata 

ara 

a 

s'uru 

iri 

mara 

mOra 

mara 

ma;ial 

bulom 



13. Hair. 


14. Head. 


ial 


1 kuik 


oji 


pada 


opa-napa 


1 apu 


ugn-apun 


1 apugn 


na, 


troka 


ea 


droke 


aliTO 


1 atogo 




tokal 


mu/;a 


duga 


mo«er 


tokol 


moan 


ka/>ogo 


mea 


niea 



Mabuiag 
Gudang 

Yaraikana 

Otati 

Nggerikudi 

Coen R. 
Akoonkoon 
Weary B. 
Granite Ra. 
Bloomfield V. 
Koko-Yimidir 



P. Charlotte B. 



u. Kiinyaroo. 


16. Large. 


17. -l/'i«. 


18. Moon. 


19. Mosquito. 


20. Mother. 


usar 


koi 


mabaeg 


kisai.mulpal 


iwi 


apu, ama 


ipamu, epama 


itona, 
butagura 


ama.ufcamo 


aikana 


uma, buyi 


atiiia 1 


akopo, itenba, 


avoqi 


ama 


aikana 


ewa 


UIIUKU 


apo 












evamo 


meno 


baiala 




eweri 


nono 1 


amwoko, ka- 


wada 


ma 


roa 


nora 


nai-beguta \ 


ruba, adajuba 










1 


'voku 


woite 


ad'etru 


aroa 


noru 


tatn 


ina 


mam 


pama 


t'argan 


oiolum 


amoK ! 


daba 


teri 


bama 


kita 


.... 


namo 


mina 


mucan 


puma 


nca 


puca 


amu 


willur 


eeri 


di/(ar 


giea 


kumu 


namo 


gaHUru, wo- 


warka 


bama 


keda 


mowo 


Hamu 


dol, gadar, 












bebal 












yirpi 


.... 


.... 


api 


bulbul 





21. Mouth. 



gud 

aka. 

a/ia 

ana 
ena-ena 

ana 
amitin 
unbrga (?) 
jowa, jiwa 
aitel 
barkar 



kama 



NORTH QUEENSLAND LANGUAGES. 283 





22. Nose. 


23. Rail). 


24. River. 


2j. SimiU. 


26. Smoke. 


27. Snake 


28. Spear. 


Mabuiag 


piti 


ari 


kasa, sarka 


magi 


tu 


tabu 


kalak 


Gudant; 


eve 


apura 


epi-taba 


i^oagura 


ekora.ruHura 


waci, kanura 


alka 


Yaraikana 


eye, ere 


epiH-araro 




od'aki 


umaH-oro 


eta 


alka, aka 


Otati 


nurfagel 




.... 


keceoa 








Nggerikudi 


kogana 


nua 


dra 


bamegana, 
fabri 


ni 


aga-dada 


cear 


Coen K. 


kokaue 


nuSd'oad'ana 


re 


foimakome 




agoye 




Akoonkoon 


omo, amu 


ogno 




ocu 


i^kun 


olur, ulur 


ulka 


Weary B. 




kapa 




buban 


nalgo 


tiwalmo 


kulka 


Granite Ra. 


kuwu 


patua 


waripa 


pupi 


kupu 


yaram 


kulka 


Bloomfield V. 


pujil 


kapa 


yiigi 


burpan 


gobo 


capa 


kalka 


Koko-Yimidir 


bunu 


maci 


piri, moledin 


pita 


nalkal 


du(/ul 


kalka 


P. Charlotte B. 


mufin 








tu;)a 


yirum 


kulka 





29. Star. 


30. Stone. 


31. .Sun. 


32. Tongue. 


33. Tooth. 


34. Water. 


35. fl'oman. 


Mabuiag 


titui 


kula 


goiga 


noi 


dan 


nuki 


ipi 


Gudang 


unbi 


ulpa 


ina 


u/ara 


aiio 


ipi 


udamo 


Yaraikana 


uupi 


aipai 


wona 


epun 


a;)u 


ipe, epi 


urfamu 


Otati 






uiia 








yitieti 


Nggerikudi 


nogoda 


manata, agora 


sae 


peduna 


abau 


Hoe 


etranama 


Coen R. 


nokut 


ogwori 


s'e 


)mi 


oftao 


noi 


dronane 


Akoonkoon 


ilbanuj! 


ulkon 


et'a 


elpiu 


ukul, ujul 


ogno 


aruCa 


Wearv B. 


towar 


kulgai 


una 


teol 


noman 


bana 


dalbo 


Granite Ra. 


kuru-pici 


euAa 


u»a 


napil 




patna 


talbo 


Bloomfield V. 


mulu-wacur 


kolgi 


wujia 


uabil 


cira 


bana 


oalbu 


Koko-Y'imidir 


dauar 


UiXhtil 


Tialan 


ntuhu 


mulir 


purai 


n&do 


P. Charlotte B. 


tu;;i 


kula 


wuea 


dabi 


kumun 







36—2 



PART III. 

THE LANGUAGES OF BRITISH NEW GUINEA. 

INTRODUCTION. 

1. Progress of Knowledge of the Languages. 

The first specimen of a New Guinea language was published by Forrest in 1779', 
and showed the language spoken about Port Dorey, on Geelvink Bay, in the North 
West of Dutch New Guinea". The first lists from British New Guinea were published 
by Macgillivray in 1852-'. He gave vocabularies from Brumer and Dufaure Islands, 
near South Cape, and from Brierley Island in the Louisiade Group. In 1876 specimens 
of the language spoken at Redscar Bay were given by the Rev. W. W. Gill ■■, and 
Rev. A. W. Murray'", and a beginning in Mission literature was made by the publication 
within the next two years of a first lesson book in the languages at Port Moresby", and 
Hood Bay'. The first Scripture translation into Motu was published in 1882*. The first 
comparative list was published by O. E. Stone in 1880^. In this appeared the first 
specimens of Papuan languages, those of Koitapu and Koiari (at and behind Port 
Moresby), and Ilema (i.e. Elema) at the Papuan Gulf. Some short vocabularies from 
the Fly River and Yule Island were published in the same year by D'Albertis'". 
Between 1880 and 1886 many short vocabularies were collected by the Rev. .J. Chalmers, 
and the Rev. S. MacFarlane. Some of these were quoted by Dr Codrington", as 

' T. Forrest, A Voyage to New Guinea and the Moluccas, London, 1779. 

- The so-called New Guinea vocabulary published in some of the accounts of Le Maire and Schouten's 
voyage almost certainly represents a language of New Ireland. (A. Dalrymple, An Historical Collection of the 
xeveral voyages, London, 1770-1, and Ch. de Brosses, Histoire des Navigations aux Terres Australes, Paris, 1756.) 

■' .J. Macgillivray, Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, London, 1852. 

■* Rev. W. W. Gill, Life in the Southern Isles, London, 1876. 

^ Rev. A. W. Murray, Forty Years' Mission U'ork in Polynesia and New Guinea, London, 1876. 

^ Bttka kunana. Levaleva tuuliia adipaia. First School book in language of Port Moresby, New Guinea, 
Sydney, 1877. 

' Bulta kunena luiroharo vahaia adipama. First School book printed in language of Hood Bay, New Guinea, 
Sydney, 1878. 

^ leso Keriso ena Evanelia Mareko ese c torea. Motu gadodia e hahegeregerea, London, 1882. 

" 0. E. Stone, A feio months in Neio Guinea, London, 1880. 

'" L. M. D'Albertis, New Guinea, London, 1880. 

" Rev. R. H. Codrington, The Melanesian Languages, Oxford, 1885, p. 32. 



I 



LANGUAGES OF BRITISH NEW GUINEA, 285 

evidence that some, at least, of the New (ininea languages, were Melanesian. The 
entire vocabularies were not, however, published until 1889 1. 

A grammar and vocabulary of the jMotu language by the Rev. W. G. Lawes was 
published in 1885, and supplied the first information as to the structure of the 
language-. 

The first book known to me written in a Papuan language was a school book in 
the Motumotu (i.e. Toaripi) dialect of the Papuan Gulf, drawn up in 1886 by Tauraki, 
the mission teacher, a native of Manahiki^ Two year-s later appeared the first sheets 
of lessons in the language of the Fly Delta, written by the Rev. E. B. Savaged Since 
that time, numerous books and Scripture translations have appeared. These will be 
hereinafter referred to. 

In 1890 some brief vocabularies from the Papuan Gulf were published by T. F. Bevan'. 

From 1889 onwards, the Annual Reports on British New Guinea contain numerous 
vocabularies of the languages in various parts of the Possession". Some of these were 
reprinted by J. P. Thomson in 1892". In 1892 and 1895 I suggested a classification 
of the dialects as Papuan and Melanesian", and in 189-5 published a comparative 
vocabulary of all the dialects known to mc^ 

In the study of the languages of Torres Straits an attempt was made with very 
imperfect material to elucidate the structure of the language spoken in the Fly Delta. 
At the time of the Cambridge Expedition this fragmentary sketch represented all that 
was known of the structure of any Papuan language. During the expedition I took 
advantage of a stay at Port Moresby to study the Koitapu dialect, and at Saguane to 
study the Kiwai. In the Mekeo and Roro di.stricts some knowledge was also gained 
(jf the Melanesian dialects there spoken. The notes then taken have been very largely 
supplemented by MS. information supplied to me since, and by publications issued 
since the return of the E.xpedition. These have rendered possible the following account 
of the languages. 

I take this opportunity of recording my thanks to all those who have so kindly 
aided my study of these languages. Alembers of the New Guinea Government, 
Sir Wm. Macgregor, Hon. D. Ballantine and Hon. A. Musgrave, supplied me with 
material or gave facilities for study. The Revs. Dr Lawes and J. H. Holmes of the 

1 Brituh Neii< Guinea Vocabularies, Londou, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. They are very 
inaccurately printed, and owing to the loss of a page in Part ii. the equivalents are wrongly given. In the 
present work I quote from the original MS. of Part i. and from a corrected version of Part ii. 

^ Kev. W. G. Lawes, Grammar and Vocabulary of the Language spoken by the Motu Tribe (1st edit. Sydney, 
1885), (2nd edit, with Comparative Vocabulary of seven dialects, 1888), (3rd edit. 1896). 

^ Siare Karoro Mutia Natiriuraia. Elema uri. School book in Dialect of Motumotu, New Guinea, Sydney, 1886. 

•■ These consisted of a sheet (4 pp.) of hymns with the heading " Sirio Poho," a sheet of alphabets, and 
•2 pp. of spellings with lessons headed " Sirio Ouera." They were printed in Murray Islands. Extracts are 
given in the second part of the " Study of the Languages of the Torres Straits," Proc. Roy. Irish Academy, 3rd 
Ser. IV. pp. 293-299, 1897. 

'^ T. F. Bevan, Toil, Travel and Adventure in British Nevi Guinea, London, 1890. 

" Annual Reports on British New Guinea, Brisbane, 1890, etc. 

' J. P. Thomson, British New Guinea, London, 1892. 

* S. H. Ray, "The Languages of British New Guinea," in Transactions of Ninth International Congress of 
Orientalists held in London in 1892. Published in 1893; and also in Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xxiv. 1894. 

" S. H. Ray, .1 Comparative Vocabidary of the Dialects of British New Guinea, London, 1895. 



286 ANTHEOPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

London Mission, the Et Rev. the Bishop of New Guinea, Revs. Copland King and 
S. Tomlinson of the Anglican Mission, Rev. W. E. Bromelow of the Wesleyan Mission 
and Revs. P. Guis and Vitali of the Sacred Heart Mission have all aided bj' MS. 
or printed material. I also received most valuable aid from the late Revs. J. Chalmers, 
V. Rijke and P. Bouillat. Throughout my studies the Committee of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society through Rev. J. Sharp have been most generous in granting 
me copies of all that has passed through their press, not only in the languages of 
New Guinea but also in those of Melanesia. I am indebted to the Rev. Dr Codrington 
for suggestions and corrections in the Melanesian portion of my work. 

2. Orthography of the Languages of British New Guinea. 

In British New Guinea the languages have been written and printed in the 
Roman Alphabet and without much variation. Four Missionary Societies have reduced 
the native languages into print, the London Mission on the South Eastern coast, the 
Sacred Heart Mission in the basin of the St Joseph River, the Anglican Mission on 
the North Eastern coast and the Wesleyan Mission in the Louisiade Archipelago. 
Besides these the Officers of the New Guinea Government, to whom so many vocabularies 
are due, have used generally the "System of Orthography for Native Names of Places 
(adopted by H.M.'s Lords of the Admiralty and the Royal Geographical Society)." 
For convenience of comparison these varying methods have not been used in the 
Report, but all New Guinea words and words brought in from other Oceanic languages, 
have been written in the following Alphabet. 

Vowels: a as in "at" or "father"; e as e in "debt" or a in "fate": i as in 
"it" or ee in "feet"; o as in "on," or ow in "own"; b as aw in "law"; u as in 
" up " or as 00 in " soon." 

Diphthongs: ai as in "aisle"; an as oiu in "coiv"; oi as in "noise." 

Simple Consonants: k, g; t, d; c, j ; p, b, f, v; m, n; r, 1; w, y; s, z; h. These 
are sounded as in English except that c is ch as in "church," and z is ts as in "itself." 

Nasal Consonants : k as nk in " ink," g as ng in "finger " ; t as nt in " enter" d as 
nd in " binder " ; c as ch in " inch " ; j as nj in " injure " ; p as vip in " impel" b as 7nb 
in "amber"; m as mw in " hoineward" ; n as ng in "sing," s as ns in "inseH" n as ni 
in " onion " ; mk. 

Aspirated ok Trilled Consonants: k' as ch in German "auch"; g as a trilled 
guttural, "the Melanesian g"; gl as in "glue"; t' as th in "thin"; d' as th in "the"; 
dr as hi "Andrew"; s' as sh in "shine"; nr as in "inroad"; z' as z in "azure." 

Compounds of w : q as qu in " quite " ; gw as in " bigwood " : pw as in " upward " ; 
bw as in " rub vrell " ; n\\ as ngtv in " sing tuell." 

Note. When a word is printed in italic letters the nasal consonants are printed in roman. 



CLASSIFICATION. 

The languages of British New Guinea may be definitely arranged in two divisions 
which have no common feature in grammatical structure and no likeness in vocabulary. 
For these divisions I suggested in 1892 and 18!j4', the use of the distinctive terms 
Papuan and Melanesian. A better knowledge of the languages has in no way 
lessened the applicability of the terms as then defined. They have been adopted by 
P. W. Schmidt to denote similar divisions in the languages of German New Guinea-, 
and have not been found to clash with the observed distinctions of the New Guinea 
people, in physical characteristics, customs and culture, as Dr Haddon has proved'. 

The languages of British New Guinea which are here termed Papuan show great 
variety both in grammatical structure and vocabulary. They fall into several very 
distinct gi'oups which have no conunon grammar or vocabulary, whilst the differences 
in phraseology, formative particles, and words render the languages mutually unin- 
telligible. Though in some respects similar to the Australian languages there is no 
definite indication of affinity with them either in grammar or vocabulary. Many of 
the Papuan languages have somewhat complicated grammars, and this renders them 
difficult to acquire. They are by no means accurately known*, though in most cases 
enough has now been ascertained to show their complete .separation from the 
Melanesian''. 

'J"he characteristics of the Papuan languages may be summed up as follows: 

1. In the individual languages the Roots of Words and the Particles are distinct, 
and the Pronouns have no Common Origin. 

' S. H. Ray, " The Languages of British New Guinea," in Tramnctiom of Ninth Iiitcniatioiml Congress of 
OrientiilisU held in London, 1892, Vol. ii. pp. 754-770, and Joitr. Anthrop. ImliUite, xxiv. 1895, pp. 15-39. 

- P. W. Schmidt, "Die sprachlichen Verhiiltnisse Oceaniens," Mittheilungen d. Anthrop. Gesellsch. in Wien, 
Bd. XXIX. 1899, pp. 24.5-258. 

^ A. C. Haddon, "The Decorative Art of British New Guinea," Royal Irish Academij, Cunningham Memoirs, x. 
1894; "The Ethnography of British New Guinea," Science Progress, ii. 1894, pp. 83, 227; "Studies in the 
Anthropogeography of British New Guinea," Geogrnph. Journal, 1900, pp. 265, 414. 

* Grammar specimens (for British New Guinea) are continued in the "Study of the Languages of Torres 
Straits," I'ror. Roij. Irish Academy, 3 ser. ii. 1893, iv. 1897, Dublin, and in my papers in Transactions of Ninth 
International Congress of Orientalists, and Jour. Anthrop. Imtitutc, already cited. Grammar notices of Papuan 
languages of German New Guinea are contained in P. W. Schmidt, " Die sprachlichen Verhiiltnisse von Deutsch- 
Neuguinea," in Zeitschrift fiir afrile. u. ocean. Sprachen, v. 4, vi. 1, 1902. 

' With regard to the term Papuan, derived from the Malay name of the New Guinea Islanders, it is 
necessary here to point out that I have used the word in the most restricted sense to denote languages which 
are spoken only on the island of New Guinea or languages near that island which are of similar character. 
No other term was possible, although "Papuan" is open to the objection that many writers have used it as 
synonymous with Melanesian. Friedrich Miiller, however, in his Grundriss dcr Sprachwissenschaft, Wien, 1876, 
had used the term "Papuan" to denote certain languages in New Guinea and the Melanesian Islands which 
he considered more primitive and archaic than others. As will be seen in the final part of this volume, the 
use of the word to describe what are certainly the original languages of New Guinea will not hinder the 
extension of the term, if needs be, so as to include whatever may remain in the Polynesian and Melanesian 
Islands of an earher and more primitive language. 



288 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 



2. Possessive Pronouns are formed by suffixing a particle to the Personal Pronouns. 

3. The Cases of Nouns are formed by Postpositions. There are no Prepositions. 

4. The Subject of a Transitive Verb is usually in the Instrumental Case. 

5. Distinct Numerals are in use usually only for " one " and " two," rarely for 
" three." Higher numbers are remembered by using parts of the body as tallies. 

6. The Verb is complicated. Modifications of Tense, Person and Number are 
expressed by Suffixes'. The Suffixes are sometimes used in conjunction with Prefixes. 

The Melanesian languages of British New Guinea are closely related to the 
languages spoken in the Melanesian Islands. They are in every essential feature 
members of the same linguistic family as that found prevailing in the Solomon 
Islands, Banks Islands, New Hebrides and Fiji. They have the same structure as the 
Island- languages, a similar numeral system, similar variations in phonology, and the 
vocabulary is full of common words. Though the areas occupied by the speakers of 
the languages are often geographically separated, words and grammar are usually identical. 
The speakers of these languages by tradition, appearance, and customs appear to be 
immigrants on the New Guinea Mainland-'. 

The characteristics of the Melanesian languages of New Guinea may be summed 
up as follows : 

1. Pronouns are of Common Oiigin and many words are plainly seen to be the 
same as those of the Island languages. When one New Guinea language differs from 
another the diffei'ences are such as are also found in the Islands. 

2. To indicate Possession, Personal Pronouns are suffixed to the name of the 
thing po.ssessed, or, a special Noun with the suffixed Pronoun indicates the nature of 
tile Possession. 

3. The equivalents of Case in Nouns are made by Prepositions. 

4. The action of the verb upon an object is indicated bv a change in the 
termination, or by means of a suffix. 

5. Numbers, at least as far as five, are counted. Though counting is performed 
on the fingers, other parts of the body are not used as tallies. 

6. The Verb is simple. Modifications of Tense, Person and Number, are expressed 
by preceding Particles. 

The Melanesian languages of New Guinea differ from the Polynesian". The 
following is a summary of the chief points of difference '. 



' Cf. p. W. Schmidt, "Die sjwacblicheu Verhaltuisse Oceaniens," in Mittli(>iliiii(iuii d. Anthrop. Gesellsch. iii 
Wien, XXIX. 189'.l, p. 248. 

' Throughout this volume 1 have used the expression " Island lauguages," to denote the languages of 
the Solomon Islands, Banks Islands, New Hebrides and Fiji collectively. 

'■> For a summary of the evidence on these points cf. A. C. Haddon, " Decorative Art of British New 
Guinea," Royal Irish Academy, Cunningham Memoirs, x. 1894, pp. 249-'258. 

^ The languages here termed Polynesian are those of the Eastern Pacific Islanders, of which Samoan, 
Tongan, Tahitian, Rarotongan, Maori are the principal representatives. 

■■■' I have elsewhere dealt with this question. Cf. ''Are the Motu of New Guinea Eastern Polynesians?'" 
in A. C. Haddon, " Decorative Art of British New Guinea," Roi/at Irish Academy, Cunnin(jhmn Memoirs, x. 
1894, p. 2G3, and "Common Origin of the Oceanic Languages," in Jour. Polynesian Soc. v. 1896, pp. 58-68, 
and in Hellas, 1896, pp. 372-402. 








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< Oh 




sii 


^2 


^^ 




m tt: 




2 : 


n UJ" 


■" CO 


<H 


2^ 


pc/5 


gUi 


C to 


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?g>i 


zw 


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PQ 



LANGUAGES OF BRITISH NEW GUINEA. 289 

1. Words which are current Melanesian occur in New Guinea hut do not occur 
in the Polynesian languages. 

2. Of words common to Melanesian and Polynesian languages, the New Guinea 
languages have preserved fuller and less changed forms than the Polynesian. 

3. The New Guinea noun follows the Melanesian use in suffixing pronouns to 
nouns. In Polynesia only a few words take these suffi.xes. 

4. The proper use of the verbal or transitive suffixes is retained in New (Juiuea, 
but in Polynesia these have been transformed into the (so-called) passive endings. 

The view here taken of the Polynesian and Melanesian languages is that they 
are related in grammar and vocabulary. The Polynesian is regarded as a late form 
of a Melanesian language. 



H. Vol. III. 



37 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE PAPUAN AND MELANESIAN 
LANGUAGES OF BRITISH NEW GUINEA. 

Papuan languages appear to be spoken throughout the known portions of British 
Territory except in certain river valleys on the South East coast, in the islands and 
adjacent mainland at the East end of the Possession, and on a long stretch of coast 
on the North East shore of the Eastern Peninsula. 

From the Netherlands-British boundary at the Bensbach River to Cape Possession, 
about halfway between the Biaru River and Hall Sound on the Eastern shore of the 
Papuan Gulf there is apparently no break in the succession of Papuan forms of speech. 
The valley of the St Joseph (Paimumu or Angabunga) River is, however, occupied by the 
speakers of Melanesian languages, and others have occupied the lower portion of the 
Vanapa River, and thence spread along the coast eastward. In many villages in this 
region both Papuan and Melanesian dialects are spoken. On the hills inland, over 
the mountain ranges, and down the river valleys to the other (North) side of the 
island all the languages are Papuan. Another important group of Melanesian languages 
is spoken in the basin of the Kemp-Welch (Wanigela) River, and on the adjacent 
coast. Beyond Keakaro Bay the coast languages are again Papuan as far as Orangei'ie 
Bay, but beyond this all the South coast and islands far to the East are held by 
Melanesian speakers, with the solitary (and perhaps doubtful) exceptions of Rossel 
Island and Tagula at the Eastern end of the Louisiade Archipelago. These doubtful 
languages carry on the Papuan languages to the Northern part of the Solomon Group, 
where they finally become merged in the Melanesian. 

Returning along the North shore of tlie East Peninsula of New Guinea, the coast 
fiom Milne Bay to Cape Nelson, the adjacent D^ntrecasteaux Group (probably), and 
the more distant Trobriands are occupied by Melanesian speakers. From Cape Nelson 
northwards no Melanesian languages again appeal', until Cape Cretin is reached in 
German Territory. 

In the following pages the Papuan languages will be dealt with in Sections 
arranged geographically, as the differences in the languages render collective treatment 
difficult. The Melanesian languages will be dealt with as a whole. 



PAPUAN LANGUAGES WEST OF THE FLY RIVER. 



Introduction. 

The islanders of Torres Straits give the general name of Daudai to the maiidand 
of New Guinea opposite the Straits. In this region, extending from the Mai KSsa 
(Pearl River) to Parama (Bampton Island) there is a slight similarity between the 
languages and one or other of those spoken in the islands of the Straits'. But 
further West, past the Wasi KXsa to the Morehead River and the Netherlands-British 
boundary this similarity disappears. Twelve langnages are known. The names and 
localities of these, commencing from the West, are : 

1. Tugeri or Saliraka. On the Netherlands-British boundary between long. 138' 
and 14r E. 

2. Bangu. Morehead River. 

3. Dunererwab. Wasi Kasa. 

4. Bugi. Mai Kasa. 

5. Dabu. West side of Paho River. 

6. Toga. East side of Paho River. 

7. Jibu. Head Waters of Binaturi River. 

8. Kunini. Coast East of Binaturi River. 

!). Mawata or Kadawa. Mouth nf Binaturi Hiver. 

10. Parama or Perem Island. Bampton Island, East of Kunini. 

11. Tagota. \'illage on South or right bank of Fly River in iat. S'' 25' S. and 
long. 142 2S' H. 

12. Odagositia. Village on right or South bank of the Fly River opposite 
Dauniori Island. 

For all these languages (except the last) vocabularies have been obtained, but the 
details of structure have not been investigated. The notes which follow are mainly 
the result of careful comparisons of words and phrases as given by various collectors, 
and give merely imperfect and perhaps untrustworthy indications of grammar. 

1. Tugeri. 

In the Annual Report for British New Guinea, 1892-3, reference is made to a 
vocabulary "of the Saliraka language of the scattered Tugere People," prepared by a 
Mr Montague and suppliod to Sir Wm. MacGregor by the Resident of 'I'ernate. I am 
not aware that this was printed. The word for "iron," waUre (called also turika), was 

1 The names of some of these tribes end in lai, which is the Miriam le, man, people, as e.g. Bugi-hii, 
Dabu-lai, To"a-lai. In thu names Mai Kasa, Wasi Kfisa, knsn is the Malniiaf,' word for "river." 

37—2 



292 ANTHROPOLOGKJAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

given in the Annual Report for 1889-90. 'I'hrongh the courtesy of Dr J. D. E. Sehmeltz 
of Leiden, I am, liovvever, enabled to quote a vocabulary obtained from Dr J. C. Montague, 
with a few other words obtained by Capt. E. F. Bik of the Netherlands' navy'. From 
the former list I have compiled the following notes on grammar. 

1. Phonology. Vowels: a, e, i5, e, e, i, o, o, u, u. Consonants: k, g, (/ ; t, d, d ; 
p, b, h, v; n, n, m ; r, 1, w, y ; s, z ; h; sj. 

In tlie vocabulary the Dutch oe is written for u, and y, d, b, n, y are written ngg, nd, 
rab, ng, and j. Nearly every word in Dr Montague's list ends with the syllable ke which 
is said in a note to be often not heard. It seems to be an imitation of the unsounded k 
in Malay. 

2. Demonstrative Words. This, iti-ke ; there, ipi \ here, ihire: ipi-teke, there it is; tai-ipi, 
just there. 

3. Nouns. There is an indication of gender in persons by means of a prefix : son, 
wanagibeke ; daughter, ivonagibeke ; grandson, tazebeke ; granddaughter, nazebeke; brother, namike; 
sister, noinnke; father, walk)'; mother, make, oke ; husband, ezumeke ; wife, wazumeke ; married 
woman, ozumeke. 

There are no examples of noun declension, but the equivalent of the preposition follows 
the noun : apope npgoke, morning for, for morning ; mnin dake yahuke tiegoke, give water boat 
for, give water for the boat. A word in the genitive follows as in itereke guseke, finger (of) crab. 

4. Adjectives. The adjective precedes its noun. 

Examples : No, young, tio oninikc, young man ; dojii, bad, dotti, oninike, bad man ; wminupe, 
good, wininupe paturgke, a good servant. 

5. Pronouns. The Personal Pronouns are not fully given. 1, my, mine, nok, tiokte ; you, 
your, tvoij ; we, us, supvrike. 

The Interrogatives are: who? te? tni? tekesc? iekese aba wue? who are j'ou ? what? to? take? 
tokuse bohe? what have you got? to uegokc ? for what? 

6. Verbs. These are not illustrated. There appears to be little difference between verb 
and noun : patare, dig ; patareke, grave. The word inede prefixed forms a kind of passive 
participle : mede kadabeke, murdered ; mede kahivede, dead, choked ; mede kasubeke, broken ; mede 
nadlike, gone away. The imperative (?) of the last verb is given as aumahdva I go awaj- ! 

7. Adverbs. Where ? yedi ? when ? todi ? 

S. Numerals. These have distinct words only for " one," zakudeke, and " two," iueke. 
"Three" is itieki-sakiideke (also given as ineke-lakudeke), "four" is inekc-iiieke. Capt. Bik gives 
zakudaak for "three." 

2. Bangu. 

The only .specimen of the Bangu language, spoken on the Morehead River near 
the Netherlands-British boundary, is to be found in the Annual Report for British 
New Guinea, 1895-C. A vocabulary with many blanks is given in parallel columns 
with the Dungerwab. No pronouns or verbal phrases are given. 

1. Phonology. Vowels: a, e, i, o, ii, u. Consonants: k, g, k; t, d, t, d; c, j, c, j ■. p, b, 
V, h; fj, fj; n, n, n, m; r, 1, y, w; s. 

' These have been since printed in Iiitmtationaks Archiv fiir Ethnogrnpliie, Bd. xvi. Leiden, 190.5, 
pp. 224-240. 



PAPUAN LANGUAGES, WEST. 293 

In the vocabulary k, I, d, c, _/, b, ii, ii are written nk, nt, nd, nty, nj, inb, iig, nkw. 
The combinations, gw, ngb (apparently variants of q and tj), tw, tn, gr, rr, dy and th are also 
found. Tiie last may represent t' or d', and ng maj' represent n or y. 

[There is a good deal of uncertainty in the orthograpliy. Cf. tyerun, c/ie7-un, smoke ; 
mftokatij] mctakothop, sit ; 7iabi, bamboo, namhi, gun ; tanker, neck, and ilankwar, throat ; gaukwar, 
thokivir, calf of leg ; nmthar, masara, green ant ; yarsop, garsop, cut ; genolliav, ye^iothov, drink ; 
sithombu or iithombu, eyelid or eyelash (eye-feather) ; taroba, tarup, ear.] 

2. Noun and Adjective. The qualifying word precedes : nanara, tauqar, coco-nut water ; 
meni sabat, firewood (meni, fire). The object precedes tiie verb : tukar qan or tan, beat drum 
{tdkar, drum) ; nahi garusov, break bamboo. 

3. Verbs. Many of the verbs in the vocabulary end with galliup, yasup, yasoi; kusop : 
as e.g. borin-gathiip, come ; vasin-gasup, bring here ; Jisyea-gasov, blow ; tatu-kusop, carving on 
wood. 

4. Numerals. These are given as far as six : one, nahi, Tuihi ; two, yethohi, kethehi ; 
three, yeiho ; four, asdr ; five, tahoihoi, tahothui ; six, niho, nib. The word for five seems con- 
nected with labia, hand. Other words jiossibly connected are : gahit^iim, thumb ; ket/ieke, little 
finger ; nahi, bamboo ; thitli, elbow ; katha, shoulder blade. 

3. Dungerwab. 

A Dungerwab vocabulary is given in the Report for 189.5-6 with that of Bangu, 
but is much longer. 

1. Phonology. Vowels: a, aa, e, i, o, 6, 6, 6, u, u. Consonants: k, g, k; t, d, d ; th, 
dh ; c, j, j ; p, h, b, i, v ; q ; n, n, m ; r, 1, w, y ; s. 

In the vocabulary k, d, c, j, b, n are written nk, nd, ch (tj and tcli), nj. nib, ng. There 
are many compound consonants, gw, bw, mbw, ngw, mw, tr, dr, rr, tw, ns, and also some 
extraordinary combinations such as mgw, gj, rj, rgw, mbl, mbr. 

2. Demonstrative Words. Comod, this; yebai, lei, that; aweha, other, difl'ei-ent sort; koda, 
kona, anyone. 

3. Nouns. There are no examples of declension given. Subject and object both precede 
the verb as e.g. Gibu Bwigu nanaju, Gibu lives at Boigu ; oar toned, eat man ; aji nou kama/wcd, 
bring coco-nut. 

4. Adjectives. Tiie adjective or qualifying word precedes the noun : dihal aad, big dog ; 
arwrgar kanam, poisonous snake ; meda kanmn, harmless snake ; kabo qod, breast bone ; ci/ro pur, 
crab claw. 

The prefix ivo, wu or w indicates size as e.g. nad, dog, waad, big dog, equivalent to dihal. 
aad; womono, or dihamono, big house; log, canoe, watoga, .ship. This prefix may sometimes be' 
translated "very," as e.g. wokoroda, weighty, very heavy; wolumlacbibi, very little; mc-dihioa- 
pibzvi, very big. 

5. Pronouns. These are difficult to make out and the examples are not consistent. The 

Personal Pronouns are : 

Singular. 1. yond, I; 2. porno, pom, thou; 3. pe, yemo, yemom, he or she, yadi, him. 

Plural. 1. teba, argobe-mUbamudi, we, we many; 2. po-viUbamudi, you many; 3. yebe, pee, 
yebum, yebeder, they many. 

Dual. 1. yoder, yodel, we two; 2. peber, you two. 

Trial. 1. tebe, leheder, we three; 2. pojiom, you three. 



294 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

The Possessive Pronouns seem to be formed fi-om different roots. 

Singular. 1 . ta, my ; 2. pie, thy ; yada, his. 

Plural. 1 . tcbe, our ; tebe, armilbamudi, your, of you many ; 3. yebe, their. 

Dual. 1. jebn, of you two. 

Trial. 1. ari/abe, of us three ; 2. ]>ebe, your. 

Examples are thus given : Ta aad, my dog ; la mono, my house ; ta tomab, my wife ; ta 
tarah, my eye ; pie aad, your dog ; pie mono, your house ; pie tod, your hand ; pie woji, j'our 
banana; yada mono, his house; t/ada tod, his hand; yada itaji, his banana; tebe tnono, our 
house ; tebe aad, our dog ; tebe aryabe aad, dog of us many ; armilbamudi mono, house of you 
many ; yebe mono um, their house ; yebe aad. yam, their dog ; tebe in.ono yumaurin, house of you 
two ; argabe mono, house of us three ; pebe mono, house of you three. The U7ii in these phrases 
appears to be a demonstrative particle. 

The Interrogative Pronouns are thus given : ebe ? larium 1 who ? eda ? whose ? dema ? 
what? lei? which? 

Examples : Ina latum 2 what is this \ ina melaium 'I what is that 1 eda monoi om ? whose 
house this ? eda aadiyum ? whose dog this 1 eda tonidbenum ? whose woman this ? 

6. Verbs. V^erbs appear to be conjugated by means of prefixes but the examples are very 
much confused. I quote those given of the verbs "go" and "give." 

Singular Number. Present Tense. Plural Number. Present Tense. 

1. yodo cijame widan, I to-day go. 1. yonder ci'ymie yonon, we to-day go. 

2. pom cijame niyod, thou to-daj' goest. 2. po//t i-i]aiiie lam, you to-day go. 

3. pe ci]ame yidan, he to-day goes. 3. pee ci^ame taidau, they to-day go. 

1. yod sukuba yaraman, I give tobacco. 1. tebe sukuha milbam.adi temaiueda, we give 

2. pom sukuba yaram, thou givest tobacco. tobacco. 

3. yemo sukicba waram, he gives tobacco. 2. pom,ilbamudi sukuba temanien, you gi\e 

tobacco. 
3. yebe tavamen sukuba, they give tobacco. 

1. ta svkuha yed ■ivaram, I gi^e him tobacco. 1. teba sukuba milbam.udi yemom yeutara, we 

2. pom yadi sukuba twaram, thou givest him give him tobacco. 

tobacco. 2. yeda sukuba milbamudi yemom temam, you 

3. yemom sukuba yaram, he gives him tobacco. give him tobacco. 

3. yemom sukidia taivaramede yebe, they give 
him tobacco. 

Other e.xamples are : kumaram, come, konam, come (if near), kumawal, bring. 

Many verbs appear in the vocabulary with na : na uahujet, chew ; na uwer, catch in hand ; 
naned, burn ; na rida, walk ; nihan, stay ; nurido, carry. Others have a termination (/ (cf. 
"we give," above); taned, eat; naned, burn; ac/od, fight; yejiled, kiss; tebumod, flog, etc. 

There is an appearance of a negative suflix in muiia-bui. " don't know " from munad, " know." 
Cf. also monarobona, "feeble," with wo-munaradubi, "strong." 

A question is asked by ivdr. Naun war ? are they good 1 yela war 1 are they bad ? 

7. Adverbs. Tagai? where? warija gat- tagai ? where is the chief? wodogul tagai ? 
where is the road ? but it is : pom lai nanajo ? where do you live ? gobo, here ; rrwbele, there. 

8. Numerals. These are given thus : ahior, one ; lu)bi (? tnhi), two, cf. tuhi-pier, twins, pyer, 
baby ; lahi, three ; tutu-hiar, four ; ahotod, five ; ahutoda-ahutodornabodad, ten ; ebodad, twenty. 



PAPUAN LANGUAGES, WEST. 295 

These do not appear to be connected with names for parts of tlie body except the word 
for "five," ahotod, which appears to be compounded from ahior, "one," and loda, "hand." Ahatod 
is not used in counting, 1)ut as a separate substantive. The Daap tribe (called Drapa by 
Chalmers, and Dapu by Hely), are said to count also by fours, but their names for the 
numerals are different from the Dungerwab. 

4. Bugi. 

The Bugi-lai (i.e. Bugi folk) are the remnants of tribes who have been nearly 
exterminated by the Tiigeri head-hunters. According to the late Mr B. A. Hely', 
these, with the Pianameti tribe, formed in 1897 and 1898 a settlement at Bugi, at 
the mouth of the Mai Kasa, opposite Boigu, and were joined by the Tuldu, W;isi, 
Bei, Dapu, Mat and Paba tribes, with some of the Tabataba people, comprising about 
220 of all ages and sexes-. A short vocabulary of the language by the late Rev. J. 
Chalmers was published in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute in 1897'. 
On my visit to him in 1898 he gave me a much longer list, which was published 
in the same Journal*. It contains all that is known of the language. The vocabulary 
has many words similar to the Miriam. 

1. Phonology. Vowels: a, e, i, o, u. Consonants: k, g; t, d, d; p, b, b, v; n, n, il, m; 
<1. gw; r, 1, w, y; s, z. 

The dentals are often trilled and then written tr and dr ; </r is also found ; ts and ds 
are also written, and a palatal sound is written jz and sj. 

2. Demonstrative Words. Geeda, here; dadad, that, there. 

3. Nouns. No examples illustrate these. 

i. Adjectives. The qualifying word precedes the noun : (jahatope wede, snout, long nose; 
lu pi, tree leaf ; pa kapa, bird's egg. 

There is apparently a suffix -n (cf. Mabuiag and Saibai -ng) in yuiuibo-potran, corpulent, 
(from potra, body), palainun, white. A negative suffix inada or mada, appears in dader-mada, 
deaf (dader for landra, ear), in i(ika-mad<i, duiiilj (cf. yago-niqina, speech), and in mudrormad, 
feeble. 

5. Pronouns. The Personal Pronouns are thus given : 
Singular. 1. nana, T; 2. bea, thou; 3. bo, he or she. 

Plural. 1. (inclusive of person addressed) yibi, (exclusive) bn, we ; 2. bibi, you ; 3. bo, they. 

The Possessive forms seem to l)e irregular. 

Singular. 1. bo, my; 2. hi-na, thy; 3. wobo, his. 

Plural. 1. (inclusive) ba, (exclusive) wobmia, ours; 2. henae, yours; 3. obudajjo, theirs. 

Interrogative Pronouns .• aitrale 1 who ? eadadeya paida 1 what ? iakaijamalo ? what is this ? 

6. Verbs. No verbal phrases are given, but an analysis of the words given ini the 
vocabulary is not without interest. In some the n<ime of a part of the body, or of an 
oljject is prefixed (cf. Mabuiag), as e.g. lenadadnya, bite {lena, teeth); danay/ia-rametral, lick 
(danamai, tongue) ; nanapo-tvanawana, think {iianapa, throat), ni-mma, drink (ni, water). Cf. 

' Annual Iteport on Britiuli New Guinea. 

- These tribes were somewhat differently given by the Rev. .J. Chalmers, who states them to have been the 
Tebata-lai, Wasi, Bera-lag, Gaima-lag, Uiba-lag or Tabataba, Bera, Buzi, Drapa, Mat (i.e. Maili in South of 
Strachan Is.), Wasi and Wiba. 

3 Jour. Anthrop. Imt. xxvil. 1897, p. 139. ■* -Jour. Anthrop. Inst, xxxiii. 1903, pp. 111-lUi. 



29G ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

also ieAe-paineyaua, see, with i/ede-betroin, eyelid. Several verbs begin with iia?t, but this is 
probably the pronoun of the first person. J^San-yimideija, (I) do ; na7i-anasev., (I) make ; 
nan-aziplan, (I) stay ; nau-dalun, (I) weep. 

7. Adverbs. Deda 1 where ? hfiiana dedn ? where is the chief ? 

8. Numerals. These all appear to be names of parts of the body, and are thus given : 
taranesa, one (little finger of left hand) ; meiakhia, two (ring finger of left hand) ; gini-metakiua, 
three (middle finger of left hand) ; topea, four (index) ; j«ada five (thumb) ; (jaben, six (wrist) ; 
trak-qihe, seven (elbow) ; poder or 2}odei, eight (shoulder) ; ncmm, nine (neck or left breast) ; 
dala, ten (ear or right breast). 

The names for some of these parts of the body are different iu the vocabulary, e.g. 
yaben, joint ; qata, neck ; laadra, ear. Some of the numerals are very like Dabu words. Cf. 
those from "two" to "ten," with the Dabu: iimtukini, middle finger; tiipi, index finger; may, 
thumb ; yabun, wrist ; tanhnn, elbow ; pader, shoulder ; nam, breast ; dor, chest. 



5. Dabu (iiid 6. Toga. 

The Dabu-lai now occupy the land North West of the Government Station on the 
West side of the Paho-turi (Paho River). They are said to have formerly lived on 
the coast not far from the hill Mabu-Dauan, but were driven back by the Tugeri. 
{Ann. Rep. 1890-1, p. 4o). Closely associated with the Dabu-lai are the Toga-lai, 
who occupy the East bank of the Paho River. A vocabulary of the Dabu language 
was commenced by Sir ^^'m. MacGregor through a Saibai interpreter. This was completed 
by Mr J. B. Cameron and published in the Annual Report for 1890-1. There is 
no other record of the language. Some words were added from the Toga dialect when 
it differed from the Dabu, but these are not marked, and it is impossible to separate 
them. 

1. Phonology. Vowels: a, a, e, i, o, ii, u. Consonants: k, g ; t, d, (/; c, j ; p, b, b ; 
n, n, fl. 111 ; r, 1, w, y ; s. 

T and d are trilled and written tr, dr. Other compounds are pi, and gn of doubtful pro- 
nunciation. 

2. Demonstrative Words. Gen, this ; oydcm, dibi, deben, that ; ekenapeobre, each ; toiio, 
another, different sort ; to-ianm-day, any other ; do-bf-day, some others ; pde, here ; utoli, tiiere. 

3. Nouns. In compounds the qualifying woid comes first : e.g. pudi-tudi, fish-hook ; 
nin-kum, foot-point, heel ; fan-kum, elbow ; tan-kor, hand ; nim-km-a, foot-sole. There are no 
examples of case. The object precedes the verb ; nai kire, roast potato ; wototo kire, roast taro ; 
ine, notii, drink water ; iiie atan, bring water. 

4. Adjectives. Tiie adjective precedes the word qualified : rati, big ; rati-ra, big wood, 
tree ; rati-ne, flood, big-water ; ikarmuniya rabu, generous man {rabu, man). 

5. Pronouns. These appear iu the vocabulary in very complicated forms and in tran- 
scribing I have separated by hyphens what appear to be the components of compounds. The 
Personal Pronouns are thus given : 

Singular. 1. yna, una, nana, I ; 2. bn-nu, bu-no, thou ; 3. bwai-nen, he or she. 

Plural. 1. nami, yagi-mauli-day, we; 2. bibi, bibi-daywe, you; 3. ubi-day, dedoneu-dan, they. 

Dual. 1. bii-mi^na-aiiiev, we you and I. 

Whether these are declined does not appear, but among the phrases we have : uniu-rai 



PAPUAN LANGUAGES, WEST. 297 

tomine noi, to-me bring coco-nut, where -rai appears to be a dative suffix to mrrn, whicli appears 
also in the possessive umu-dan, of me. The Possessive forms of the pronouns are given thus : 

Singular. 1. namo, umu-dan, my; 2. ba-ne, uhu-dan, thy; 3. obu, ubtt-dan, his. 

Plural. 1. iba, iba-yuhuj, bi-ne-dagwe, ours; 2. bina (with -da suffixed to noun), your. 

The examples given are: namo tan, my iiand ; namo bun, my head, namo mat/, my thumb; 
bane tan, thy hand ; bane bim, thy head ; bane mag, thy thumb ; obu ton, his liand ; obu 
bun, his head; obu mag, his thumb; iba via, or, iba gulag ma, our house; iba gara, or, 
iba gula gara, our boat ; bina gar-da, your boat ; baia-nana-iba ma-da, house of you two. 
(Gar, boat; ma, house.) 

Interrogative Pronouns: Aai-imnan? who? agdan ? what? aiaaia? which? 

Examples : Bin agda ? what name ? dibi agadan ? what is this or that ? bani bin ba f 
or bani bin danai ? what do you call this? {Bin, name, bane, thy. Cf. Pos.sessives above.) 

6. Verbs. No verbal phrases are given. In the vocabulary many verbs begin witli 
the prefix na- (or n-) ; e.g. natoman, burn ; natikamin, break stick ; namerejok, fasten ; 
naboda, kill ; noni, drink ; naibinun, walk, etc. 

The following examples seem to indicate conjugation by prefix : naibe, ibi, go ; ja-naibo, 
go outside ; misi-naipine, loiter ; naibinun, ibibiaginin, walk. " Give " is anai-iminiba, " gift," 
yuga-be-naminal. 

7. Adverbs. Moceni where? pele, here; xdali, there. 

8. NUiMERALS. Tupi-dibi, one; kumi-rivi, two; kumi-reriga, three; kumi-rivi-kumi-rivi, four; 
tumn, five. In these dibi, ribi, or rim, is probably the demonstrative dibi, that. 

Tupi is the index finger ; kwni is probably the V shape made by holding up two tiiigei-s 
(cf. ku7n in tan-kum, elbow, ni-kum, heel). With reriga and tumu cf. ruru, finger-nail, tiiinu, 
web of duck's foot. These words suggest counting on the body as in other languages of this 
district. 

7. Jibu. 

The Jibu language i.s spoken near the head waters of the Binaturi River, in the 
hinterland of Kunini and Mawata. The only specimen of the language is a vocabulary 
by the Hon. C. G. Murray, printed in the Annual Report for 1900-1. 

1. Phonology. Vowels: a, a, e, e, i, i, o, 6, u, u, ii. Consonants: k, g; t, d, I, d\ j; 
p, b, V, fe ; q, gw ; n, n, m ; r, 1, w, y ; s, z. 

In the vocabulary t, d, b, q, n, are written nt, ml, mb, kw, iig, and the following com- 
binations also occur : kn (initial), gn (initial), ngr, mbr, pr, nw, md, nkt, gm, nit, gl, is, rg, 
rk, Ig, vn, rv, kb. The accented letters were not explained by the compiler. 

2. Demonstrative Words. Yenama, this ; unaieqate, konele, that ; pehen, here ; yirgovara, 
there. Nanamoge ? what is this (or that) ? 

3. Nouns. The qualifying word in a compound precedes the noun qualified. 

Examples : Yer-niz, eyebrow, from i/ere, eye. (Cf. yev-nis, beard ; moku-wiz, hair (of head).) 
Yokobane, falsehood ; yoka webadinini, deceit ; yokobadin, liar. 

4. Adjective. The adjective precedes tiie noun : tvoge nie, fresh water. 

Adjectives are reduplicated, and appear to be so formed from nouns: pi/npmi, tall, long; 
wojewoje, red (wiije, blood); bidbiil, white {bUle, wood); miUemule, yellow. 
0. Pronouns. These are imperfectly given : 
Singular. 1. kono, I; 2. mano, thou; 3. miki, he or she. 
Plural. 1, 2. jogjog reya, we, you (lit. many men); 3. (Art, they. 
H. Vol. III. 38 



298 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

In a phrase elsewhere given "mike" appears to mean "we": mike dudo, let us go. This 
may be the same as miki, here given as " he or slie." 

The Possessives are : 

Singular. 1. moremaje, my; 2. koremaje, thy; 3. katimaje, his. 

Plural. 1. niinieta, ours; 2. wono, yours; 3. iotui, theirs. 

Only two e.xamples are given, neither of which agree with the above. Koriemo ydmeja, my 
hand {yenia, hand) ; kor selave, my banana (sela, banana). 

The Interrogative Pronouns are: yentete? who? (the same word is also given for "hear"); 
qidapimn ? what ? iteAa-yidap ? which ? nada moge 1 what is this (or that) ? nanai ovnete ? 
what are you doing ? 

6. Verbs. The following phrases only are given : yog nikin, I go (to-day) ; m.epe nikiti, 
(I will) go to-morrow ; mai yog nikin, I will not go (to-day) ; wai mepe nikin, (I will) not go 
to-morrow; m.ai kekon some nikitnan, I did not go yesterday. {Yuhe, to-day; mepe, to-morrow; 
2)e, no ; some, yesterday.) 

7. Adverbs. Ojena, upwards ; iyele, downwards ; yd, emeja, yes ; pe, no. Nia rognate t 
■where is the road? (;tia, road); mamuse ritama? where is the chief? (Of. Mir. mamus.^ 

8. Numerals. These are all counted on the body and are given as far as nineteen. 
Yepa, one, and kuraiepa, for any of the numbers two, three, four, or five, are counted on the 
fingers. Then ribeda, six (wrist) ; qijniul, seven (inner elbow) ; sodibi, eight (armpit) ; gnom,u, 
nine (nipple); mua, ten (breastbone); qomnl, eleven (nipple); sodibi, twelve (armpit); qomii], 
thirteen (inner elbow) ; ribeda, fourteen (wrist) ; mogetham, fifteen (thumb) ; yiin-pumam, sixteen 
(index finger) ; piskak, seventeen (middle finger) ; yema, eighteen (ring-finger) ; kiskak, nineteen 
(little finger). The repetition of some of these names is not explained by Mr Jiear. (In the 
vocabulary yemkoko is elbow, and jM-iskak, finger.) 

8. Kunini. 

The Kunini language is now spoken on the coast between the Binaturi and Oriomo 
Rivers but the tribe is said to have formerly dwelt inland (Anyiual Report, 1889-90, 
p. G7). I have not been able to ascertain whether this language is the same as the 
Masingara of which only three words have been i-ecorded. These are sible, crocodile, 
gite, a relation by marriage, and mitse, tabu. The first of these is the same as in 
Kunini. In the Annual Report for 1890-1, the Masingara are said to be different 
from the Kadawa, i.e. the Mawata people, and to have been driven inland by their 
neighbours on the coast. No specimens of the Kunini language have been published, 
but a short vocabulary of Kunini words was drawn up by Manga, the L. M. S. teacher 
at Kunini and sent to me by the late Rev. J. Chalmers. This contains a few sentences 
with Mabuiag translations. 

1. Phonology. Vowels: a, e, i, o, u. Consonants: k, g ; t, d ; p, b, b ; n, n, m; 
r, 1, w; s, z. 

Manga wrote ng for u. Combinations with r and 1 are frequent, gr, kr, kl, rng, dr, 
bl, br, pi, ngl. In the words adnati, sit, and balotniye, wake, there are the combinations dn, tn. 

2. Demonstrative Words. Ei, ai, this ; pui, that. 

3. Nouns. The plural is formed by suflixing -ge or -tatu: blome, pig, blomege, pigs; ireu, 
eye, ireutatu, eyes ; uli, tree, ulitatu, trees. 

A possessive case seems to be formed by suflixing -ame (cf. Pronouns) and a locative by 
suffixing -abu : Tomitomi-ame iriatumuti. Saviour's (?) prayer ; dume-abu, in the sky. 

Sex is distinguished by ima, male, ide, female : bagra, child, ima bagra, boy ; ule bagra, girl. 



' 



PAPUAN LANGUAGES, WEST. 299 

4. Adjectives. The adjective precedes the noun : nia mene, bad talk ; inm bagra, male cliild. 
Some adjectives have a simple form as babo, big. Colour names and a few other adjectives 

are reduplicated as e.g. udindi, red {udi, blood) ; asaasa black ; ebuebo, thick ; zugiziigi, cold. 

The suffix -ge (cf. Plural of Nouns) is used as the equivalent of the Mabuiag -nga : niagi>, 
bad thing (Mabuiag, watinga); mizig, good thing (Mabuiag, kapunga); hunuge, hot thing (Mabuiag, 
kuamalnya); uiiiaye, soft thing (Mabuiag, piranga). The suffix -tatu, which also forms a plural, 
appears to be similarly used : magezuli-tatu, a stony place. 

5. Pronouns. 

Singular. 1. ane, I ; 2. mane, thou ; 3. tabe, he, la, she. 

Plural. 1. (inclusive) wmie, (exclusive) me, we; 2. wene, you; 3. leme, they. 

Dual. 1. (inclusive) mine neneni, (exclusive) ine neneni, we two; 2. wene neneni, you two; 
3. pui neneni, they two. 

In these words -ne seems to be the equivalent of the -do or -d of the Mabuiag. Tlie 
Possessive is uncertain and appears to be irregular. It is formed by suffixing -me. 

Singular. 1. ame-ia, my (masculine = Mabuiag, ngau), e-ame-ia, my (feminine = Mabuiag, 
nguzu) ; 2. mame, thy ; 3. teme, his, teme-ioe, hers. 

Plural. 1. (exclusive) ime, ours ; 3. tebebine, theirs. 

Dual. 2. wem-pe neneni, of you two; 3. tem babamutasa, of them two. 

A dative suffix -id>ua (cf. Nouns) appears in meneabua, from you, and a dative -hao in 
rt-bdo, to me. 

The Interrogative Pronouns are: lat.i? who'? lasine? what? ma ni lasine? you name what? 
(Mabuiag, ninu net nga?); ei ni lasine? this name what? 

6. Verbs. The verbs in Kunini appear to be complicated and the phrases given are 
too few for proper investigation. In eari, give, biri, go, and eati, take, the suffixes -ri and 
-ti appear to indicate motion to and away respectively. Manga gives the following vei'bal 
phrases. The original Mabuiag is added in brackets. 

Atie biri meneabua, I go from you (rigai ninungu nzari) ; ane tiapanine, I see you {ngat 
nin iman); mane tadepi ahao, you come to me (hi itgaikika ngapa uzari) ; ebin ire natuepi, 
you see me (^nid ngan iman) ; tabe biri, he goes {nui uzari) ; ta toalep aie, she comes {na ngapa 
uzari) ; tabe mane iteizi, he hears you (nuid ' nin karengemin) ; ta Ivlo iaruazepa, she eats food 
{nod ai purutan) ; eruweni, eat ; ine neneni geletni, we two buy (ngalbai barpudan) ; ma nena 
neruenite ? you eat what ? {nid miai purtaik). 

7. Adverbs. Luma ate ? where from ? 

8. Numerals. These are thus given : iepa, one ; neneni, two ; nesde, three ; neneni-neneni, 
four ; imegube, five ; matemate, six (wrist) ; miwenawe, seven (elbow) ; abude, eight (shoulder) ; 
name, nine (breast) ; dare, ten (chest). 

It is evident that only the words for "one," "two," "three" are real numerals. "Four"' 
is a reduplication of "two," and me in imegube, "five" is the word for "hand." The other 
words are the parts of the body used as tallies in counting. 

9. Specimen. Manga gives the following version of the Paternoster. It is the only 
specimen of composition in the language. I have added an interlinear translation as far as I 
can. Words which are not in the vocabulary are marked (?). 

Tomitomia^me Iriatumuti. Ime Babe dume abu, meme «i udege. Mizirage''' menie 
Saviour (?) of Prayer (?) Our Father heaven in thy name holy f.rt //,y 

baselaia'^' tatiari mitige. Mizirage'"' meme sini ewepaniti ewe gabgabe dume ahu licpu. Pui 
kingdom Let (?) thy wish earth »ky in 

38—2 



300 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

lolo ibiibine ninarazinis. Ine nia niweninisi, ine pepugemi tepe ine abazininago, iiie tepi 
food Us had forgive (?) we so (?) they them n-e them 

nia niweninisi, ine nanlenazenine liana?i.leite nine. Ine nia mene abua niatepi. Pipumage 

bad forgive (?) us Us bad talk in do not lead (?) Because (?) 

nieme baselaia, a niame kokie, a niame niizi, raizi'"' aclnat ietieta. Amene. 
thine kingdom and thine power and thine glory let (?) sit always 

Notes. ''' This word is apparently connected witli mizig, good, probably as in other 
languages = good thing that. ''' This is the Greek word as used in the mission books. 

9. Mawata (Kadawa) and lO. Parama. 

The language of Mawata at the mouth of the Binaturi River was the first language 
known in the Western part of New Guinea. A vocabulary was given by D'Albertis in 
1880'. The first mission publications were in this language, specimens of which are 
given in the " Study of the Languages of Torres Straits." MS. vocabularies by Mr E. 
Beardmore, Rev. E. B. Savage and Dr Haddon, were used in compiling the notice of 
the Daudai (i.e. Mawata and Kiwai) language contained in the " Study of the Languages 
of Torres Straitsl" As the headquarters of the mission were transferred, first to Saguane 
on Kiwai Island, and later to Daru, the Kiwai language has lately become more 
prominent and is that now used in the mission publications. The language of Parama 
or Perem (Bampton Island) is not very different from that of Mawata. 

During my stay at Saguane in 1898, I obtained notes on this dialect from Abare 
and Dodoa, both natives of Mawata. As the language only differs dialectically from 
that of Kiwai, the Mawata grammar notes will be given in conjunction with those 
of Kiwai. In the vocabulary Parama words which differ from Mawata are marked P. 
In the Mawata neighbourhood the languages of the villages Goua and Sui are said 
to be probably different from Mawata^ 

1 1 . Tagota. 

The village of Tagota is situated on the South or right bank of the Fly River 
about forty-five miles from the North point of Kiwai Island in lat. 8° 25' S. and 
long. 142° 28' E. A short vocabulary by the late Rev. J. Chalmers was .published in 
1897 in the Journal oj the Anthropological Institute*. It contains only 83 words and 
10 numerals. The latter are given as follows : 

Uradaga, one; mitiga, two; nan, three; mitiga-mitiga, four; uradaga, five; nwti-taba-nan, 
six ; moti-mahur-nan, seven ; turupi-nan, eight ; itaba-nan, nine ; moti-tatan, ten. 

In these the words for " two " and " three " appear to form parts of other numerals. The 
reduplication of "two" for "four" suggests that the I'eal numerals do. not go beyond three. In 
uradaga for "live," part of a compound seems to have been missed as uradaga is also "one." 

' L. M. D'Albertis, New Guinea: What I did and what I sair there, London, 1880, Vol. ii. pp. 380-389. 
- S. H. Kay and A. C. Haddon, "A Study of the Languages of Torres Straits," Part n., Proceedings of 
the Royal Irish Academy, 3rd Ser. Vol. iv. pp. 279-355. 

' Annual Report on British New Guinea for 1889-90, p. 08. 
■■ Jour. Anthrop. Inst, xxvii. 1897, p. 140. 



\ 



PAPUAN LANGUAGES, WEST. 301 

The vocabuLary is not long enough to show whether the words given for the liigher numbers 
are also names of parts of the body. 

MacGregor in the Annual Report for 1889-90, p. 47, gave the Tagota word for "pig" as 
boro, or bwoma. This difl'ers from Chalmers, who iias minao. 

12. Odagositia. 

The language of the village of Odagositia on the right bank of the Fly opposite 
Daumori Island is said to be essentially different from that of Kiwai {Annual Report, 
1889-90, p. 11). The word taremd is said to be probably equivalent to the Polynesian 
tabu (Kiwai, tarena), but no other specimen is given {ib. p. 45). 



A GRAMMAR OF THE KIWAI LANGUAGE, WITH NOTES ON 
THE MAWATA DIALECT. 



Introduction. 

The Kiwai language is primarily the language spoken on Kiwai Island in the 
Western portion of the Delta of the Fly, but witii dialectic differences it is understood 
more or less throughout the islands of the Delta, and on the mainland to the West 
(Daudai), almost as far as the Mai Kasa. The language of the Kadawa people at 
Mawata, at the mouth of the Binaturi River, or tliat at Parama or Bampton Island 
does not appear to be essentially different in construction from the Kiwai, but there 
is a considerable difference in vocabulary. In the present sketch I have included all 
that is known of the grammar of the Mawata language. 

The fir-st specimens of the language were the numerals, given by Rev. W. Wyatt Gill 
in 1876'. The first vocabulary from Mawata is to be found in D'Albertis". A vocabulary 
was obtained at the village of lasa by Sir Wm. MacGregor in 18S9 and published in the 
Annual Report for 1889-901 Dr Haddon formed a list of words during his visit to Mawata 
in 1888 and also obtained others from Mr E. Beardmore and the Rev. E. B. Savage. 
The latter had Mabuiag and Murray Island equivalents but no English. The first 
attempt to elucidate the structure of the language was made in the "Study of the 
Languages of Torres StraitsV' but the sketch was extremely imperfect and must be 
lecrardod as superseded by the present notice. Another vocabulary of the Kiwai 
lano-uao-e by Mr A. H. Jiear was published in the Annual Report for 1900-1'*. 
During the visit of the Cambridge Expedition I stayed for a fortnight with the 
Rev. J. Chalmers at the mission station at Saguane on the South extremity of 
Kiwai Island. In his school were several intelligent lads who were learning English 
and from them I endeavoured to gain a knowledge of the structure of the language. 
Two of them, Ibida and Waseu, were natives of Kiwai, two others, Abare and Dodoa, 
were natives of Mawata. Phrases were also obtained from Dedeamo, our guide to iSsa, 
and from other natives at various times and places. 

' llt'V. W. Wyatt Gill, Life in the Soutltern Isles, London, 1870, p. 1242. 

- L. M. D'Albertis, Nejv Guinea: Wkut I did and what I saio there, London, 1880, pp. 389-90. "Vocabulary 
in use among the people of Moatta at the mouth of the River Kataw." 

3 Annual Report on British New Guinea from 1st July, 1899, to HOth June, 1890, with appendices, Briabane, 
1890, pp. 124-130. 

•• S. H. Kay and A. C. Haddon, "A Study of the Languages of Torres Straits," Proceedings of the Royal 
Irish Academy, 3rd Ser. Vol. ii. p. 471 for list of these MSS. 

5 Annual Report on British New Guinea from 1st July, 1900, tu SOth June, 1901, tcith appendices, Brisbane, 
1902, pp. 158-166. 



PAPUAN LANGUAGES, KIWAI. 303 

Note on Translations. The vocabularies do not give all the words in the translations, 
which are very crude and give only approximately the sense of the English. Some of 
the words were spelled differently in the eai-lior books. The translations were not used 
in compiling this grammar, but a few occasional references are inserted within square 
brackets [ ]. 

Note on Languages of the Fly River and Delta. 

From the scanty material available I gather the following with regard to the 
languages of this region. 

1. KUBIRA AND DOROPODAI. 

In the Annual Report for 1889 (pp. 39, 42) the language spoken in the villages of 
Kubira and Doropodai, towards the North end of Kiwai Island, is said to be different 
from that of I3.sa (i.e. the Kiwai language of MacGregor's vocabulary), but to be the 
same as that of Egereba on the mainland North East of the Delta, from which place 
the Kubira and Doropodai people perhaps came. I have not been able to verify this 
statement by a comparison of words. When travelling with Rev. J. Chalmers from 
Saguane to Mabuiag one of our boatmen, Aia, was a native of Kubira and I took 
from him a long vocabulary which is substantially the same as the Kiwai. There is 
a change of pronunciation by which /■ becomes d and p becomes /, as in nido for 
iiiro, inside ; idi for iri, shade ; suido for sairo, leg ; and maufo for maupo, butterfly. 
Only one word is radically distinct, i.e. ogu, father. This differs from the word waiua 
father, used in Girara on the East of Egereba, and is also different from Kiwai. 

2. Wabuda. 

The language of this, the easternmost island of the Fly Delta, is said to be 
different from Kiwai {Annual Rej)ort, 1892-3, p. 22). 

3. WiORum. 

The name and probably the language of these islanders is Kiwai. Wio, sand ; 
aruhi, people. One phrase is recordeil : auo miro mere, "very peaceful men" (Annual 
Report, 1889-90, p. 39). This is Kiwai. 

4. Daumori. 

The language spoken in Daumori Island and by the tribes on the left bank of 
the Fly opposite, is said {Annual Report, 1889-90, p. 44) to have several words the 
same as in Kiwai. Examples are : waduru, the bamboo tobacco pipe ; aturupo, bowl 
of bamboo pipe ; goma, drum (Kiwai, gama). The only other words known are names of 
ethnographical objects collected by Rev. J. Chalmers, and given in the "Study of. 
the Languages of Torres Straits'." 

5. Upper Fly. 

Of the dialects of the Upper Fly nothing definite is known. MacGregor states 
{Annual Report, 1889-90, p. 64) that the dialects of the lower tribes differ much 
from the- upper and that nothing is known of their structure except that in all nf 
them every word ends in a vowel. Fifty miles up the river the people said m) 
(cf Kiwai eso, thank) when they received anything {Ann. Report, 1889-90, p. 51). 
Eighty miles up the word magisio seemed to mean "peace" and pu, "gun" {ih. p. oS). 

' I'roc. Roy. Inxli .Icadfrni/, 3rd Ser. Vol. iv. pp. 300-355. 



304 ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO TORRES STRAITS. 

1. Phonology. 

Vowels : a as in "father " ; a as in " at " ; e as " a " in "date " ; e as in " let " ; i as 
" ee " in "feet " ; i as in " it " ; o as in " own " ; o as in " on" ; 5 as " aw " in " saw " ; 
u as " 00 " in "soon " ; u as in up. 

The quantities of the vowels are not as a rule marked. 

Diphthongs: ai as in "aisle"; au as "ow" in "cow"; ei as "ay" m"may"\ oi as in "noise." 

Consonants : k, g ; t, d ; p, b ; w ; s (h), z ; r, 1 ; m, n. These are sounded as in 
English. 

The Mawata dialect has no s. Its place in words cognate with the Kiwai is taken by h, 
as e.g. hera for sera, breath ; hepate for sepate, ear ; m9i,ho for muso, hair ; ipuhu for ipusu, 
lip, etc. I have not found z in any Kiwai word, and in Mawata it occurs only in zoke, a 
stick for husking, and doubtfully in zugu, tabu, prohibition, which may be a loan word from 
Miriam. 

2. Word Building. 

The Kiwai language is of the agglutinate type, the stems and particles being 
clearly distinguishable. The analysis of compounds has not been fully made, and hence 
it is not always easy to determine the simple roots. The stems to which particles 
are added consist often of two, three or more syllables. 

Particles are prefixed or suffixed. In tliis respect the Kiwai resembles Miriam 
and differs from Mabuiag. The particles often consist of several syllables, and may 
be compounded. They have no meaning except in composition with the words they 
modify. 

3. Classes of Words. 

The Kiwai language may be conveniently studied by considering the following 
nine classes of words : 1. Demonstratives. 2. Adjectives. 3. Nouns. 4. Pronouns. 
5. Verbs. 6. Adverbs. 7. Connectives. 8. Interjections. 9. Numerals. 

I 
4. Demonstrative Words and Particles. | 

1. Simple Demonstratives. The simple demonstratives are ni and gi, which 
indicate near and distant position with regard to the speaker and form parts of 
compounds which are used as adjectives, pronouns, and adverbs, and are probably 
connected with the personal prefixes of the verbs. 

Mawata has iwi or no for ni, and goi or ;/o for gi, and abra is used for "this'." 
Both Kiwai and Mawata add dogi to gi or goi, to indicate an increase of distance, gidogi 
or yoidogi, yonder. 

2. Adjectival Demonstratives. The simple demonstrative precedes the noun, 
number being indicated by the noun suffix. 

Examples : ]fi hukaru, this book ; ni buka toribo, tliese two books ; ni buka potoro, these 
three books ; ni buka sirioro, these many books ; gi bukaro, that book ; gi buka toribo, those 

1 Cf. ahele, "Miriam Grammar," p. 55, ante. 



PAPUAN LANGUAGES, KIWAI. ;305 

two books ; gi huka potoro, those three books ; gi btifca sirioro, tiiose many books ; gidogi hckaro, 
yonder book; gidogi buka loribo, yonder two books; gidogi buka poUjro, yonder three books; 
gidogi bvka sirioro, yonder many books. Mawata has : no bukaro, go bukaro, goidvgi bukani, etc. 

3. Pr