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Full text of "Reports of the Inspectors of Coal Mines of the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania for the year 1872"

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IIGTION. AT WIST NORWttliAJ 

Scale 1200 Feet ooe lucli 




Scale looo Feet -one Inch 




ScjIg too y eel - one fitcb 




SiiTlOl* m ASHLAND 

Scale 1300 Feet oue aich 



Transverse Section of Locust Dale focil Seams 





Tiajis^TOi-se Section of Shanandoah Coal Basiu 




Transverse Seolion of ft-eslon Coal Seatns at Giira rds rille 




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Transverse Seetimi of Danphui Fork. 




Rook Faiilts lu Goal Secuns 




\ 



\ 



^ REPORTS 



OF THE 



INSPKCTORS OF MINES 



OF THE 



z\NTHRACITE COAL REGIONS 



OP 



PEN'IS"SYL"\ri^NIA., 



FOR THE 



YEAR 187 2. 



HARRISBURG: 

BENJAMIN SINGER LY, STATE PRINTER, 

1 878. 



CONTENTS. 



(oininunication. 

Report. . 

Colliery statistics 

Counties — statistics 

Counties compared 

Coal statistics 

Counties— casualties 

Monthly do 

Coal tonnage 

Deaths 

Injuries 

List of deaths. 

Table of injuries. 

Mine casualties 

Mine casualties compared with Eng- 
land 

JSchuylkill county tonnage 

Northumberland county tonnage . 

Columbia county tonnage 

Dauphin county tonnage 

Employees 

Coal — anthracite 

Transverse sections 

Ventilation jet 

Safety lamps 

Thermometer 

Barometer 

Water gauge. 

Bituminous coal 

Iron 

Steam 

Air 

Gas 

Gas pipes 

Water 

Steam boilers 

Heating surface... 



8 

fl 



11 

14 

18 

20 
21 
23 
24 
24 
24 
25 
26 
31 
33 
32 
34 
34 
35 
3(] 
37 
38 
40 
40 
41 
41 
42 



PAGE. 

Boilerplates 43 

Stay bolts 43 

Steam fans 45 

Beltings , 46 

Boiler explosions 47 

Mine inspectors 51 

Trails 52 

(^ar wheels. 52 

Drums 53 

Slope hands 54 

Ropes 54 

Ventilation 55 

Ventilation — natural 58 

Ventilation— water . 5.S 

Ventilation— furnace 59 

State roads and canals 60 

Schuylkill county roads ()6 

F. Schmultzer's report 67 

Potts^ille district—casualties (59 

Do tonnage . 71 

Do..., collieries. 74 

T)o statistics 96 

J. Eltringham's report 100 

Ashland district — casualties.. 101 

Do tonnage 104 

Do collieries 105 

Do .statistics 126 

Shamokin district— casualties 130 

Do tonnage, 133 

Report of John T. Evans, inspector of 

coal mines in the Southern district, 135 
JReport of T. M. Williams, inspector 

of mines for the Middle district 158 

Report of Patrick Blewitt, inspector 
of coal mines for the Eastern dis- 
trict, composed of the coimties of 

Luzerne and Carbon 216 



N 



COMMUNICATION. 



To His Excellency John F. IIartranft. 

Governor of the CommonwcaUh of Pennsylvania : 

Sir : — In compliance with the requirements of an act of Assembly approved 
the fifth day of April, A. D. 1870, entitled "An Act for the preservation of the 
records of the inspectors of mines," etc., I have the honor to herewith submit my 
annual report of all data, matter and information that came to my notice, with 
carefully prepared lis^s of casualties and mortality, derived from proper sources 
of information, which is both of interest and import, furnishing the number and 
character of these casualties, fully detailed, the condition of the collieries and 
character of ventilation of the same, the system and plans adopted for mining 
of high (li])ping coal seams, and the numerous dangers incident to ill manaa't'« 
ment of mines, the unskilled workingman and mine boss, and matters of general 
interest. 

Your Excellency's attention, and that of the General Assembly, is most re- 
spectfully called to the conduct of the late examining board for this district, who, 
through their conduct, have deprived some eight thousand deserving miners and 
workingmen in Shamokin district of that protection guaranteed tliem by virtue 
of the act of March the third, 1870, of the services of an inspector of mines 
since the 22d of February last past. The casualties in this district appear to 
have increased. The clamor of the minei'S is urgent asking relief through your 
Excellency's interposition. 

Such information as relates to casualties in Shamokin district I was obliged to 
obtain from private sources, but we may presume other casualties have occurred 
of wliicli we have no authentic data. 

Your Excellency will be pleased to learn that the services of the inspectors of 
coal mines in the other districts have accomidislied good results. They have 
done much good, and even surpassed the most sanguine expectations of every 
friend of the measure. 

The deep development of our coal seams greatly increases the dangers to life ; 
the chances for exit and safety will be lessened, but while the Commonwealth 
exercises its present vigilance over the safety of our miners it is hoped the sacri- 
fice of life will generally be diminished. 

Annexed to this report please find the reports of each respective inspector, each 
detailing in full all statistical information relating to their districts, all of which 
are interesting and instructive. 

The mortality and casualties that occurred during the year are each tabulated 
under their proper heads. The number of persons employed, the aimiber of 
2 



steam engines in use, and the horse power of the same are given ; and all the 
)iecessary information regarding the coal tonnage of the district, together with 
the deaths in each county and district, proportionate to the number of tons 
mined in the same, is carefully given. 

Hoping, in f urnislnng your Excellency with such information, we may have 
performed oxu* duty to your satisfaction, 

I have the honor to be, witli great respect. 
Your obedient servant, 

P. F. M'ANDEEW, Clerk. 



REPORT 

OF THE 

CLERK OF THE MINING DISTRICT OF SCHUYLKILL, 1872. 



To the Senate and House of Bepresentatives of the Commonioealth of Pennsyl- 

vania : 

Gentlemen : — In compliance with the requirements of an act of General 

Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, approved the fifth clay of 
April, 1870, entitled "An Act for the preservation of tlie records of the inspec- 
tors of coal mines in the mining district of Schuylkill, etc.," I havetlie honor to 
herewith submit my annual report of all data, matter and tiling that came to my 
notice, caret idly collected from official information, as required by the act re- 
ferred to, together with such information furnished me by the inspectors of 
mines as is hereto annexed, relating to the number and character of the casual- 
ties, the condition of the collieries with regard to safety and ventilation, and 
such improvement as is required by the act of Assembly, etc. The subjects 
therein referred to are particularly Interesting to our mining public. 

European governments have enacted beneficial la,\vs for the safety and health 
of their mining subjects. Its excellent effect has won for it the admiration and 
gratitude of this class of people. Your clemency has been lately aroused to the 
necessity of throwing around yom' mining public, and in full sympathy with 
their wants, have created laws adequate to afford relief, if i)roperly adminis- 
tered, entitling you to the gratitude of your race for the mauy calamities that 
haA'e been averted through the good offices of your inspectors of mines, as demon- 
strated in their different annual reports, on the visible decrease ni every class of 
casualties connected with the working of coal within their respective districts. 

I am constrained to bring to your notice another subject of very grave interest. 
This subject relates to a school of mining for the education, training tnd in- 
struction of persons in the managing and working of coal mines. Ignorance 
and inexperience is at the root of "most of our mine casualties. Our investiga- 
tion of this subject clearly demonstrates this fact. The mine bosses, much like 
a number of their miners, are uneducated, and their judgment is generally at 
variance with correct principles ; calculations with them is a matter beyond their 
comprehension. The training and discipline of the workingmen of a well man- 
aged mine should be equal to that of a military or naval force ; but in the mine 
the enemy is omnipresent and more destructive, while ignorance and inexperi- 
ence renders him more dangerous. The laggard, the impetuous, the heedless and 
ignorant, each prepares his own winding sheet and involves the lives of others 
as well as his own. The production of coal chiefiy depends upon deep develop- 
ments, and the dangers are multiplied correspondingly, hence, the great necessity 
of a practical knowledge of mining and mine management, for tiie safety of life 
and property, is indeed claiming your attention. There are features in the act of 
March, 1870, which contraventionalists boldly combat, and, if not successful, 
aids to retard the operation of the law. The costs and expenses created by de- 
fendants incases arising under the processes of injunctions, etc., hitherto has 
been born by the Commonwealth. No provisions for the recovery of such costs 
appears to be made in the act. 

A review of the annexed statistics will show a slight decrease in mortality and 
casualties generally. Careful attention to the collection of these statistics an- 
nually, will supply very interesting information, 

I have the lionor to be, with great respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

P. F. M'ANDREW, Clerk. 



STATISTICS KELATING TO COLLIERIES. 



The following statistics will show the various items of interest rclatinj? to the 
different colleries in the Pottsville and Ashland districts. The Shamokin dis- 
trict not being represented, but stands nearly as last year : 



POTTSVILLE DISTRICT. 


ASHLAND DISTFaCT. 


290 visits. 


219 visits. 


4,147 miles traveled. 


3,012 miles traveled. 


7,306 hands employed. 
17 deaths. 


12,371 Jiands employed. 
42 deaths. 


74 maimed. 


89 maimed. 


9 widows. 


25 widows. 


41 orphans. 


08 orphans. 


63 slopes worked. 
13 shafts worked. 


57 sh)pes. 
8 sliafts. 


27 drifts worked. 


75 drifts. 


50 miles gangway. 
79 miles tracks. 


67 miles gangway. 
122 miles tracks. 


580 breasts worked. 


1,741 breasts worked. 


36 steam fans. 


45 steam fans used. 


708 horse power of fans. 


958 horse power of fans used. 


7 furnaces. 


12 furnaces. 


110 out-lets for ventilation. 


100 out-lets for ventilation. 


225 steam engines. 


330 steam engines. 


15,960 horse power of engines. 
534 steam boilers. 


17,454 horse power of engines. 
074 steam boilers. 


556 mules used. 


975 mules used. 



805 tenements. 
779 families. 
52 coal breakers. 
150 coal seams worked. 



2,360 tenements. 
2,417 families. 
72 coal breakers. 
158 coal seams worked. 



The above statistics are taken from reliable data : " Inspectors'' papers.'''' 

CASUALTIES IN THE YEAR 1872. 

Casualties resulting in death or serious injury to persons employed in the mines 
of the district ^f IScliuylkill, comprising the counties of Schuylkill, Northumber- 
land, Columbia and Dauphin, respectively exhibit that 91 persons came to their 
deaths by iniuries received wliile employed in and about the mines of the district ; 
that of this number 62 wure killed, and 29 others died of injuries; 49 of whom 
were married, 10 were unmarried, and 26 were under age, leaving 49 widows und 
1G9 orphans. 

That 265 persons were maimed and injured. That since the 22d of February, 
Shamokin district had no inspector. That some 8,C00 persons employed at 66 col- 
lieries in that district were deprived, throiigh the action of tlie examining board, 
of the services of the government inspector of mines. Tliat from a careful in- 
vestigation of the causes of such calamities, it is found that most of them arises 
from ignorance, inexperience and bad management, and that such conduct upon 
the part of the managers and workingmen cannot be too severely condemned, 
and should be restrained and abated by legal measures. 

CASUALTIES IN TIIK SUB-DISTRICTS IN 1872. 



Districts. 


Killed. 


Maim c'. 


Wi low^. 


Orphans. 


Total. 


Pottsville 




74 

89 
102 


25 


41 

60 


141 


Ashland .., -. 


224 


Shamokin. 




209 


Total... 


91 


265 




1-i ' 


F.7t 



CASUALTIES IN THE SUB-DISTRICTS IN 1871. 



Districts. 


Killed. 


Maimed. 


Widows. 


Orpha P. 


Total. 


Pottsville.. 


30 
56 
43 


118 
168 
120 


8 
24 
24 


65 
97 
95 


231 


As'iliitirl 


345 


Shaniokin. 




282 


Total .. 


129 


406 


i: , 


257 


858 



CASUALTIES IN SUB-DISTRICTS IN 1S70. 





Districts. 


Killed. 


Maimed. 


Widows. 


Orplians. 


Total. 


Pottsville 


J. ■ 
62 
21 


127 

93 
78 


30 

38 

1 


Ill 
121 

48 


314 


Ashland 


314 


Shaiuokin. 




160 


Total .. 


298 


81 


280 


78S 







CASUALTIES IN SCHUYLKILL COUNTY FOR SEVEN AIONTHS IN 18G9. 





Killed. 


Maimed. 


Widows. 


Orphans. 


Total. 


1869, Schnvlkill county 

1870, 8cluivlkill disirict 


56 
129 
129 

91 


86 
298 
406 
265 


30 

81 
06 
49 


150 
280 
257 
169 


322 
783 


1S71, Schuylkill district 

1872, SchuVlkill district 


853 
574 






Total 


40.-, 


1, 055 


226 


856 


2, 542 



ANNUAL CASUALTIES IN EACH SUE-DISTRICT FOR FOUR YEARS. 



Pottsville district in 18r,9 

Pottsville district in 1S70 

Pottsville district in 1S71 

Poitsviile district in 1872 

Total 

Ashland district in 1869 

Ashhind district in 1870 

Ashland district in 1871 , 

Ashland district in 1872 

Total 

Shamokin district in 1869.. 

Shamokin district in 1S70 

Shamokin district in 1871 

Shamokin district in 1872 

Shamokin district in 3'.$ vears 
Ashland district in Z}4 j'ears .. 
Pottsville district in ji'^; 3'ears. 

Grand total 



Killed. 



20 
46 
30 
17 



113 



24 

()2 



42 



184 



12 
21 
43 
32 



Maim d. 



405 



30 
l:'7 
118 

74 



349 



40 
93 

168 

89 



Widows. 



10 
30 

18 



67 



16 

38 
24 

25 



Orphans, 



390 



16 

78 
120 
102 



103 



4 

13 
24 
15 



108 


316 


56 


184 


390 


103 


113 


349 


67 



1, 055 



226 



54 

111 

65 

41 



271 



80 

121 

97 

68 



366 



12 

4S 
9'. 
60 



215 
366 
271 



852 



Total. 



114 

314 
231 
141 



800 



160 
314 
3U> 
2:^4 



1, 04?5 



44 

i(>a 

282 
209 



695 
1, 043 

800 



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Schuylkill district coal tonnage for 1872, giving the shipments and local consumption 
and totals in the counties of Schuylkill, Northumberland, Columbia and Dauphin, 
respectively : 



Counties. 



Sbipments. 



j Local 
jconsumption. 



Gross 
total tons. 



Schuylkill 4, 130, 593 

Northumberland ! 1, 221, 327 

Columbia ' 310, 220 

Dauphin ; 450, 328 

Total 6, 121, 468 



1, 181, 000 

170, 000 

25, 000 

40, 000 



1, 4ir., 000 



5, 311, 593 

1, 391, 327 

344, 220 

490, 32S 



7, 547, 468 



County proportionate tonnage to each casualty : 

Schuylkill county, 1 iievson lost a life for each 78,981 tons mined. 

Northumberland county, 1 person lost a life for each 138,132 " 

Columbia county, 1 person lost a life for each 49,171 " 

Dauphin county, 1 person lost a life for each 61,290 " 

Pottsville district tonnage is 1,065,804: tons proportion to each casualty. 

For each 97,988 tons mined 1 person lost a life. 
For each 22,511 tons mined 1 person has been maimed. 
For each 185,089 tons mined 1 person became a widow. 
For each 40,629 tons mined 1 person became an orphan. 

Ashland district tonnage is 3,000,000 tons proportion to each casualty. 

For each 82,053 tons mined 1 person lost a life. 
For each 38,721 tons mined 1 person has been maimed. 
For each 137,851 tons mined 1 person became a widow. 
For each 50,679 tons mined 1 person became an orphan. 

Shamokiu district tonnage is 2,425,431 tons proportion to each casualty. 

For each 75,795 tons mined 1 person lost a life. 
For each 23,788 tons mined 1 person has been maimed. 
For each 161,695 tons mined 1 person became a widow. 
For each 40,424 tons mined 1 person became an orphan. 

The coal tonnage of the respective counties has been kindly furnished me by 
Messrs. Bannan & Ramsey, editors Miners'' Journal, which is the most reliable 
source of information upon that head. 



COUNTY CASUALTIES FOB THE JDAST FOUR YEABS. 





SCHUYLKILL. 


xokthumber'd. 


COLUMBIA. 


DAUPHI^ 


• 




5 


2 

s. 




O 
*t3 


w 




Hi 


O 


W 




g 

& 


O 
a 


w 


1 


51 


C 

►3 




a 


13 


o 


S3 


& 


■ fD 


o 

5! 


p 


® 


5 


o 

5! 




5 

CD 


o 

si 


c 




56 


p. 
86 


30 


150 




P 


?° 


pa 






a: 


ai 


-" 




EC 


JC 


In 1869, 7 months 
In 1870 




112 

102 

6G 


252 
339 
226 


70 
57 
39 


250 
162 
128 


14 

20 
10 


35 
54 
26 


7 
8 
4 


26 
26 
16 


2 
2 
7 


9 

"io 


1 

3 


12 


1 

6 

8 


2 
14 
13 


1 
1 

3 


'>, 


In 1871 


6 


In 1872 


11 


Total 


336 


893 


196 


690 


44 


115 


19 


68 


11 


19 


4 


12 


15 


29 


5 


I'l 







8 



DISTRICT COAL TONNAGE FOR POUR YEARS, AND THE PROPORTIONATE TONNAGK 

TO EACH CASUALTY. 



In 18(50, 
4,688,904 tons. 



In 1870, 
3,938,429 tons. 



81,944—1 death, 85,161—1 de;tth. 45,341—1 death. 

r)l,526— 1 inju'd.jl.'),628— 1 iii.jur'd. 14,408—1 injured 

151,296—1 wido\v'54,700— 1 widow. J8S,fi36— 1 widow. 

31,1259 — 1 orph'n!l5,()2S— 1 orphan. 22,762 — 1 orphan. 

239— lemp'd.l 187— 1 einpl'd.l 197— 1 empl'd. 




In 1871, 
5,850,000 tons. 



Total, four J' ears, 
22,014,801 tons. 



S3,S29— 1 death. J54,357— 1 death. 

24,669—1 inj u'd. 20,866— 1 injured 

153,826—1 widow, 97,410— 1 widow. 

44,600—1 orph'n 25,718— 1 orphan. 

247—1 eiiip'd I 180—1 empl'd. 



MONTHLY CASUALTIES IN THE DISTRICT OF SCHUYLKILL IN THE YEAR 1872. 



Months. 


Killed. 


Maimed. 


Widows. 


Orphans. 


Totala. 


January 

Kebruarv 


3 

1 

5 

15 

8 
14 
10 

8 
7 
8 
7 
5 


1 

3 

14 

49 
30 
18 
28 
41 
19 
26 
22 
14 


2 
1 
4 
6 
6 
6 
4 
2 
6 
4 
6 
2 


2 

5 
10 
14 
29 
28 

6 
11 
26 
15 
21 

2 


8 
10 


]SIarch , 


33 


April 


84 


May 

.June 


73 

66 


July 

August 

September 


48 
62 

58 


October 

November 


53 
56 


December 


23 






Totals 


91 


265 


49 


169 


574 



TONNAGE OF THE ANTHRACITE REGION IN 1872. 

The quantity mined in each county , proportioned to the number of deaths and in- 
juries during the year, as follows : 



COUNTIES. 



Schuylkill 

Columbia 

Northumberland 

]>auphin 

Luzerne 

Carbon 

Total anthracite mined 



Tons mined. 



5,311,593 
344, 220 

1,391,327 

490, 328 

10,791,171 

4, 110, 674 



22,449,313 



Tons 
per death. 



78,981 
49, 174 
138, 132 
61,290 
100, 800 
104, 400 



Tons 
per injured. 



24, 590 
22, 743 
34, 422 
37,717 
31, 900 
108, 100 



TONNAGE OP THE ANTHRACITE REGION IN 1871. 

Thr. quantity mined in each county, i^roporiioncd to the numher of deaths and in- 
juries tliat year. 



Counties. 



Schuylkill.. 

Northumberland 

('olumbia 

J)auphin , 

Carbon 

Luzerne 



Tons 




Tons 


per killed. 


pe 


r injured. 


50, 000 




15, 000 


47, 000 




25, 000 


258, 000 




518, 000 


88, 500 




38, 000 


94, 000 




70, 000 


66, 000 




49, 000 



Becapitulation of deaths and injuries in the anthracite region for the year ending 

Bece^nher SI, A. D. 1872. 



Counties. 


Killed. 


Maimed. 


Widows. 


Orphans. 


Aggregate 
casualties. 


Schuylkill 


66 
10 

7 

8 

25 

40 

67 


216 
26 
10 
13 
38 
121 
185 


39 

4 

3 

3 

11 

21 

28 


129 
16 
12 
11 
33 

119 
61 


450 


Northumberland 

Columbia 

Dauphin 

Carbon 

Luzerne, east 

Luzerne, west. ... 


56 

32 

35 

107 

301 

341 


Total casualties 


■is^ 


609 


:09 


381 


1,322 



Tonnage of the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania in 1872 ivas 22,447,313 tons, 
proportioned to casualties. 





Deaths. 


Maimed. 


Widows. 


Orphans. 


Anthracite region 


100, 660 f ons. 36, 859 tons. 


205, 938 tons. 


58,517 tons. 



CHARACTER OF DEATH CASUALTIES IN SCHUYLKILL DISTRICT IN 1872. 

Casualties of the deaths are as follows, viz : 
2-5 persons were killed by falls of coal. 

9 do do falls of rock and top slate. 

4 do do falls into rolls, screens and machinery. 

17 do do explosions of gas. 

3 do do explosions of ijowder. 

1 do do discharges of blasts. 

14 do do being crushed by mine wagons. 

3 do do being crushed by mine timbers. 

12 do do falling in slopes, shafts and cogs. 

3 do do suffocation. 

91 persons lost their lives in and about the mines of the district. 



CHARACTER OF THE INJURIES SUSTAINED IN SCHUYLKILL DISTRICT IN 1872. 



63 persons were maimed l)y falls of coal. 

10 do do falls of rocks and slate. 

91 do. do being burned by explosions of gas. 

11 do do being burned by explosions of powder. 

12 do do being burned by explosions of blasts. 

29 do do being crushed by mine wagons. 

4 do do being crushed by mine timbers. 

4 do do being crushed by wheels, belts and machinery. 

5 do do rollers. 

5 do do falling off cage. 

5 do do fall in slopes and shafts. 



16 

9 



.do. 
.do. 
• do. 
.do. 
.do. 



.do explosion of steam boiler. 

.do falling of mules. 

.do falling in scliutes, breasts, etc. 

.do falling on a circular saw. 

.do sundry causes. 



265 persons were maimed, — of whom died subsequently of their injuries. 



10 



CHARACTER OF THE INJURIES SUSTAINED. 

2 persons lost an arm each. 

1 person lost both arms. 

10 persons had eacli an arm broken 

2 persons had each both arms broken. 
4 persons lost a leg each. 

2 persons lost both legs each. 
36 persons had each a leg broken. 
2 persons had each both legs broken. 

1 person lost an eye. 

2 persons lost both eyes each. 

9 persons had each their hands crushed. 

3 persons had each theu" lingers cut off. 

3 persons had each their foot crushed. 
1 person had his toes cut off. 

4 persons liad each tlieir persons crushed. 
13 i)ersons liad each their heads crushed. 
— lost a leg and arm. 

3 persons had each their backs broken. 
72 persons sustained injuries by explosions of gas. 
95 persons sustained other injuries. 

265 total number of persons who sustained injuries. 
27 total number of persons who died of their injuries. 
568 total number of casualties this year, to 858 do. last year. 



COAL MINE CASUALTIES COMPARED WITH CASUALTIES DISCONNECTED FROM 
COAL MINING IN THE DISTRICT. 



In and about mines : 

91 persons killed. 
265 persons maimed and injured. 

49 persons widowed. 
169 persons orphaned. 

574 mine accidents. 



Other than at coal mines. 

65 persons killed, dec'd and suicided^ 
118 persons maimed and injured. 

31 persons widowed. 
109 i)ersons orphaned. 

323 county accidents. 



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14 



TABLE OF INJURIES. 

Names of persons employed in and about the coal mines of the mining dis- 
trict of Schuylkill ivhose casualties resulted in death, maiming and in- 
jury, for the year ending December 31, A. D. 1872. 



Date. 



Names of persons 
injured. 



Feb. 9, 
16, 
26, 

Mar. 12. 

12, 
12, 
12, 
12, 

12, 
14, 
15, 

18, 
18, 
20, 
20, 
25, 
25, 
28, 
28, 

Apr. 4, 

4, 
4, 
4, 
4, 
4, 
4, 
4. 
4, 
4, 
4, 
4, 
4, 
4, 
4, 
5, 
5 
6 
fi, 
8, 
8, 
10, 
10, 
15, 
15, 
15, 
15, 
17, 
26 
26, 
27, 
27, 
20, 
29, 
29, 
29, 
29, 
29, 
29, 
29, 
29, 



Names of 
the collieries. 



David Bowman. 
Job Mitchell .... 
Samuel Shane... 

3 persons. 
Jno. Raudabush, 
John Larkin .... 
John Griffith.,.. 

David Davis 

John Kavanagh 
John Thomas.... 

The boss at 

Thos. Connor 

Wm. M'Keon... 
John Hartman., 
Thomas Fannon, 

.John O'Neil 

Thomas Johns.... 
James Blecker... 
J. A. Goodman... 
Chas. Goodman.. 
16 persons. 

Dan'l Miller 

Lyb'd F. Nolen.. 
John Williams... 
George Eevan .... 
Andrew Stitzer. 

.Toiin Monroe 

James Macks 

Frank Branan ... 

Enoch Thomas... 
James Madden... 

Jenk'sGranage.. 
Geo. Granage 

Storis Waldron.. 

John Helper 

Joseph Merkle... 

John Jones.... 

John Morris. . 

Michael Keller... 

William Daily... 

Samuel Ilearter, 

Jas. Sheehan 

John Sheatter 

A miner 

Elias Feler 

James Duffy 

Thos. Murra3'' 

.John Keller 

John Kensely...., 

A miner 

A miner 

Martin Kelly , 

A fireman 

.Jas. Carpenter .., 

Evan Ar^ust 

Evan Reese , 

JohnPrichard... 

David Davis 

Benja'n Argus .. 

Pat. Canilt 

Daniel Colry 

Martin Kelly 



Len cz & Bowman 

Glen Carbon 

Silver Creek 



Otto Red Ash 
Otto Red Ash., 
Otto Red Ash., 
Otto Red Ash. 
Otto Red Ash., 
Otto Red Ash., 
Mammoth Shaft, 

Plank Ridge 

Plank Ridge 

Plank Ridge 

Phtenix, No. 3... 
Phffinix, No. 3... 

Eagle 

10as;le 

Swift Creek 

Swift Creek 



Remarks. 



Williamstown ... 
Williamstown ... 

Locust Dale 

Locust Dale 

Locust Dale 

IjOcu.st Dale 

Locust Dale 

Locust Dale 

Ijocust Dale 

L jcust Dale 

Locust Dale 

Locust Dale 

Henry Clay 

Henry Clay 

Mentilius 

Pine Forest 

Pine Forest.. 

TTnion 

Ea.st Pine Knot.., 

Colkett 

Tj. Ranch Creek. 
Red Mountain .., 

Franklin , 

Hill and Harris., 

Turkey Run 

Thomaston 

Eagle.. ..:., 

L. "Ranch Creek. 

Taylorville 

Taylorville 

Beech wood 

,1 Hillside 

Hillside 

otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

OttsoRed Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 



Leg broken in the mines. 

Slightly burnt by an explosion of gas. 

Leg broken by a fall of coal. 

Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by the same explosion. 
Severely burnt by the same explosion. 
Severely burnt by the same explosion. 
Severelj^ burnt by the same explosion. 
Severely burnt by the same explosion. 
Leg broken (doulole) by a fall of rocks. 
Severely injured by a fall of coal. 
Severely injured by a fall of coal. 
Foot broken by a fall of coal. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt hy an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 

Mortally injured by a wagon. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
j Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Fatally burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Fatally burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely injuretl by a fall of slate. 
Severely injured by a fall of slate. 
Severely inj ured by explosion of powder 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt \)y explosion of powder. 
Thigh broken by a fall of coal. 
Severely injured by an explosion of gas. 
Severely injured by an explosion of gas. 
Severely injured by fall in the slope. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Mortally injured ; dragged by wagons. 
Severely injured ; fall of coal. 
Morial.'y burnt by gas; died. 
Mortally burnt by powder. 
Severely injured by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Mortally burnt by explosion of gas ; died 
Leg Vjroken falling over a bank. 
Leg broken falling off a building. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Arm broken by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 



15 

Table op Injuries — Continued. 



Date. 



Apr. 29, 

29, 
29, 
29, 
30, 
30, 
30, 



Names of persons 
injured. 



May 



30, 

1, 

1, 
1, 

1, 
6, 



9, 

10, 
10, 
10, 

12, 
12, 
17, 



John M. Kelly. 
Frank Kerns ... 
James Joyce.... 
Joseph Schock. 
Thomas Leonard 
Patrick M'Corly, 
Patrick Kealing, 

Charley Miller... 
47 persons. 

John Roberts 

Martin Brinan.... 
John M'Cafferty, 
John B. Wright 
James Golan .... 
Charley Frumm, 

E. P. Foulk 

Henry H. Helt... 
George Rothford 
G. Rothford, boy, 
John Richards... 



Names of 
the colleries. 



Otto Red Ash... 
Otto Red Ash... 
Otto Red Ash... 

Enterprise 

Tamaqua shaft. 
Tamaqua shaft. 
Colkeit 



Remarks. 



L. Ranch Creek. 



Colkett 

Pine Forest 

Honey Brook 

Tremont 

Union 

Otto White Ash. 



David Reese..., 
Morg'n Williams 
John Tierney.. 



18, J. Prenderghast, 
18, Samps. Cooch 

18, ' 

20, 

20, 



21, 

21, 
21, 
21, 

22, 



24, 
24, 
24, 
25, 
25, 
25, 
29 
29, 



George Glenn 

Conrad Silbach... 
Thos. O'Donnall, 



Shamokin. .. 
Shamokin... 
Ravensaale. 
Ravensdale. 
Tunnel Rids 



June 3, 



Austin Lyons 

Thomas Hughes, 
Patrick Devitt.... 
Patrick Hannity, 

Alex. Kieser 

John Jones 

Christ Yeofert.... 

James Davis 

John H. Thomas, 

John Morris 

Aliek Anderson, 

A miner 

A miner 

John Lewis 

Michael Cleary... 
John Taylor... 
W. Wilson, boy, 
Chas. Newman.. 

37 persons. 
John Moore 



Primrose 

Greenwood . 
Eagle 



3, A t)by 

3, A man 

6, Samuel Schell.... 
5, Jona. Stitzman... 

5, John Derany 

8, Patrick Nevins... 

8, A miner 

8, Charles Carroll... 

11, Patrick Berrigan 

12, Henry WootteQ.. 
12,! Pat. Narv, boy... 

13, Hugh Golden 

13,1 Uriah Brown 



Pine Knot 

Wm. Penn 

St. Clair shaft.. 
Plank Ridge... 
Pine Forest 



Shenandoah 

Lehigh, No. 3 

Shenandoah city 

Plank Ridge 

Williamstown ... 
Williamstown ... 

Pine Forest ,. 

Pine Forest 

Pine Forest 

Pine Forest 

Beechwood 

Beechwood 

Beechwood 

Beechwood 

Indian Ridge 

Wiggans 

Pine Forest 

Luke Fidler , 



Tunnel Ridge.. 



Girardsville 

Girardsville 

Colkett 

Colkett 

Girardsville 

Eagle Hill shaft.. 

Tunnel Ridge 

Hill & Harris 

Commercial 

Lentz tt Bowman 

Wm. Penn 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 



Severely burned by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burned by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burned by an explosion of gas. 
Severely' injured by a fall of coal. 
Severely burned by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burned by an explosion of gas. 
Severel^^ burned by an explosion of , 
powder. 

Leg severely injured — run over by a 
wagon. 

Mortally injured by a blast. 

Severely burned by an explosion of gas. 

Severely injured by a fall of coal. 

Severely injured by wagons. 

Leg broken by a fall of coal. 

Arm brekon — run over by a wagon on 
dirt bank. 

Ribs broken — fell down a breast. 

Crushed by wagons in the gangway. 

Severely burned by an explosion of gas. 

Slightly burned by an explo.sion of gas. 

Severely injured by falling down a man- 
way. 

Slightly injured by a fall of coal. 

Severely burned by gas. 

Eyes destroyed by coal discharged from 
a blast. 

Eyes injured by coal. 

Leg broken by a fall of coal. 

Severely burned by an explosion of gas. 

Head severely cut by a fall of coai. 

Severely burned by the discharge of a 
blast. 

Arm broken by a fall of coal. 

Head severely cut — fell down a schute. 

Knee severely cut by a fall of coal. 

Foot cut oti" by a fall of coal. 

Severely injured by a fiill of rocks. 

Severely injured by a fall of rocks. 

Slightly injured by an explosion of gas. 

Slightly injured by an explosion of gas. 

Slightly injured b^-- an explosion of gas. 

Severely injured by an explosion of gas. 

Severely injured by an explosion of gas. 

Severely injured by an explosion of gas. 

Severely injured bj an explosion of gas 

Slightly injured b^' an explosion of gas 

Arms broken by a fall of coal. 

Mortallj^ burned by gas. Died June 1. 

Severely injured by a fall of coal. 

Hand amputated by a fall of coal. 

Severely injured — crushed by mine 

wagons. 
Head badly cut by a fall of coal. 
Thigh broken by a fall of coal. 
Eyes destroyed by a blast. 
Slightly injured by a blast. 
Mortalh'^ injured. 

Severely burned by an explosion of gas. 
Leg broken by a fall of coal. 
Fingers cut oli" by wagons. 
Arm amputated — crushed by timbers. 
Head severely cut by a fall of coal. 
Eyes injured by a blast. 
Severely burned by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burned by an explosion of gas. 



16 

Table of Injuries — Continued. 



Date. 



June 13 
13 
19 



July 



8, 
10, 
11 
11 
13 
13, 
13 
17 
17 
19 
19 
19, 

2o: 

20, 
24 
24 
24 
24 
25 
25, 
26, 
26 
26 

26: 

29 

Aug. 5 
7, 
8 
8, 
8 
9 
12 
12 
13, 
13 
14, 
14 
17 
19 
22 
22, 
22 
22 
22 
22, 
23: 
23 
23, 
23 
24, 
24 
24, 
24, 
24, 
24 
26, 



Names of persons 
injured. 



Names of 
the collieries. 



Alfred De Long.. 
Martin Madera... 
B. Ij. l']sclielnnvn 

17 persons. 
Lawrence Egan . 

Peler Egan 

Samuel Tregoe... 
Pat'k .VIonaghan 
Patrick Ruddy... 

JosiahGill 

.T:unes Jordan 

Ttiotnas Bohan... 
Lul^e Hagerty ... 
Tiiomas Galvin... 

John Lewis 

Daniel Hughes... 

Joseph Jones 

Daniel Howies ... 

Win. Hartney 

John W. Tiiomas 

An engineer 

I.srael Ilodgers ... 
Phil. Imse wilier 

Thi'Mias Bane 

Hugii Evans 

James Walsh 

A miner 

John Higgins 

John Dolan 

John Williams... 
Thos. Pilchards. .. 

David Oliver 

William Bale 

Henry Hunt 

30 persons. 
Robert Parkins .. 
T. Go'd.^worthy.. 

Albert Dennis 

Rich.Filzpatrick 
Matthew Schue.. 
.Jacob Daubler ... 
Jacob Koroeskia 
Wm. Lindemuth 

.Tohn Thomas 

Wm. Jones 

Richard Culbert, 
James Valance... 
("hrist. Rohrbach 
Richard Brj^ant.. 
Martin Wheton.. 
John M'Cormack 
.Jas. Garraway.... 

George Barns 

John Walsh 

Edward Murphy 

William Kyle 

Wm. Kyle, Jr.... 
Daniel Harvey... 
G. Mei/eniger .... 
John Minchell ... 
Ri(!hard Kneicht 
John M'Neal ..... 
Th'is. Needhani. 
D. Fitzgerrold.... 
Thomas Youtz ... 
John Greener 



Luke Fidler 

Hickory Swamp, 
Pi-eston, No. 2 

Beechwood 

Beechwood 

Boston Run 

Plank Ridge 

Lost Creek 

Plank Riilge 

Tunnel Ridge 

Eagle Hill shaft.. 
Eagle Hill shaft.. 

Colorado 

Coaldale. .... 

Turkev Run 

St. Clair shaft .... 
St. Glair shaft.... 

Tunnel 

Big Lick 

Eagle, No. 2 

Plank Ridge 

Colkett.. 

St. Nicholas 

St. Nicholas 

St. Nicholas [ker 
Focht & Whitta- 

West Lehigh 

Cameron 

Mammoth 

Tunnel Ridge.... 
Eagle Hill shaft.. 

Wiggan 

Leiitz & Bowman 

Buck Ridge. 

Glendon. 

Elm wood 

Elmw(;od 

Hillside 

L. Rauch Creek.. 

Bear Valley 

Bear Valley 

Taylorville 

Ta.vlorville 

L. Rauch Creek- 
Copley 

Colkett 

Furnace 

Lehigh, No. 3 

Lehigh, No. 3 

Gilberton 

Beechwood , 

East Piue Knot .. 
S^ast Pine Knot .. 
L. Rauch Creek. 
L. Rauch Creek. 
L. Rauch Creek. 

Cambrian 

Lehigh, No. 3 

Lehigh, No. 3 

Plank Ridge 

Plank Ridge 

Plank Ridge 

Kohinoor 

Kohinoor 



Remarks. 



Leg broken by a fall of coal. 

Ann broken — run over by a dirt car. 

Head severely cut by a fall of slate. 

Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 

Severely burnt by an explosion of gaa. 

Back crushed by a fall of coal. 

Severely injured by a fall of coal. 

Head injured by a fall of coal. 

Leg broken by a fall of coal. 

Leg broken by a wagon. 

Severely burnt by an explosion of gaa. 

Severely iiurnt by an explosion of gas. 

Legs broken by a fall of coal. 

Hand cut off by a fall of slate. 

Hand cut by a fall of coal. 

Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 

Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 

Thigh broken — crushed by a wagon. 

Arm broken by a fall of coal. 

Severely scalded by a boiler explosion. 

Slightly injured by a fall ot coal. 

Severely burned by gas. ■ 

Severely injured by falling off the cage. 

Severely injured by falling olf the cage. 

Severely injured by falling off the cage. 

Leg broken by a fall of coal. 

Severely crushed by a fiill of coal. 

Eyes destroyed bj' an explos'n of powder. 

Leg broken — run over by wagons. 

Severely injured by a blast. 

Arm broken by fall of trestle-work. 

Leg broken by a iall of coal. 

Severely injured by a fall of props. 

[a keg of powder. 
Head severely injured hy explosion of 
Collar bone crushed by wagons. 
Severely injured in the mine. 
Fatally injured by a blast — arm cut off. 
Head cut by a fall of coal. 
Severely injured by an explosion of gas. 
Severely injured by an explosion of gas. 
Severely injured by an explosion of g.is. 
Severely injured by an explosion of gas. 
Severely injured by an explosion of gas. 
Mortally injured by an explosion of gas. 
Severely injured by a fall of coal. 
Head severely injured by a blast. 
Arm broken by a wagon. 
Seve'ly inj'd — fell off slope truck — died. 
Seve'ly inj'd — fell off slope truck — died. 
Crushed Vadly by a fall of coal. 
Foot lost— crushed in the cog-wheels. 
Severelj' burnt by an explosion of gas. 
SevereU' burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of ga.s. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Seve'ly'inj'd bj' breaking of slope chain. 
Head and back sev'ly inj'd hy fall of coal. 
liCg broken by a wagon. 
Head severely cut by explos'n of a blast. 
Hands seve'ly cut by explos'n of a blast. 
Hands seve'ly cut by explos'n of a blast. 
Back .severely cut by a fall of coal. 
Hand cut off by the' circular saw. 



17 



Table of Injuries. — Continued. 



Names of persons 
injured. 



Owen T. Jones. 

John Murry 

■, (boy) 



James Kelleger.. 
D.Grumm,(boy) 
William Roberts 
Daniel Crow... 

38 i^ersons. 
John Wilson . 
James Roberts .. 
William Morgan 
W. II. Jones ... 
Allen Walkins, 
Pat. M'Garve^... 
Richard James.. 

David James 

J. Cunningham 
Patrick Quinn ... 
James Howells.. 
Jacob Gehress... 

J. Warrens 

F. A. Polander.. 
J. Prenderghast. 
John Thomas.... 
J. Murry, (boj^,; 
James 8titzer 

19 persons. 
Patrick Flynn.... 
Edward Brophy 

John Curran 

J. Cunningham., 

John Ticee 

Lewis, (boy) 

A workingman 
Owen T. Jones 

John Regan 

Patrick Murphy 
Andrew Tempus 

J. Calhouse 

John Feuran 

Gritlith Smith. 
John B. Busli.. 
John Schmidt. 
Sam'l Donaldson 
Michael Daj'las 
Wm. Barnes .. 

A miner 

.Tames Harris,... 
Anthony Nary. 
F. M'Andi-ew... 

John Dooley 

A. Rowland 

Jame3 Killy 

Anthony Barrett 
J. Wyle, (boy).. 
John Quilliam... 
I homas Bur'.s... 
Charles Reighter 
John Mathews 
Bart. Dillman. 
Patrick Jordan 
Edward Jones. 
Davy Williams 

John Walsh 

Wm. Pooler.. .., 

Patrick Martin 

Daniel Haley.. 

3 



Name of 
the collieries. 



St. Clair sliaft.... 
St. Clair shaft.... 
Otto Red Ash.... 
Diamond No. 2.. 
St. Clair shaft.... 
St. Clair shaft.... 
Big Lick.. 



Boston Run.... 
East Mine shafts 
Lentztfe Bowman 
Glen Carbon .. 
Spruce Forest. 
Otto Red Ash. 
Otto Red Ash. 
Otto Red Ash. 
Otto Red Ash. 
Otto Red Ash. 
Otto Red Ash. 
Otto Red Ash. 
St. Nicholas.... 
Buck Ridge.... 

Forestville 

Forestville 

Forestville 

Keystone 



Mt. Laffee. 
Glen Carbon. 
East Pine Knot... 

Girard 

Williamstown ... 

Mt. Carmel 

Mt. Carmel 

St. Clair shaft.. .. 

Ravendale 

Ravendale 

Hickory shaft.... 

Bowman's 

Eagle 

Ravendale 

Williamstown ... 

Henry Cliy 

Colkett 

Big Lick 

Mt. Carmel 

Mt. Carmel 

Mt. Carmel 

Mt. Carmel 

Beechwood 

Locust Mountain 

Girardsville 

Diamond 

Anthracite 

Primrose 

Eagle Hill 

Charter Oak 

Koh-i-noor 

Plank Ridge 

Koh-i-noor 

Lentz &. Bowman 
Daniel Webster.. 

St. Nicholas 

St. Nicholas.., 

Koh-i-noor 

Short Mountain.. 
Short Mountain.. 



Remarks. 



Mortally burnt by explosion of gas — died. 

Leg crushed by wagons. 

Leg cut off — run over on dirt bank. 

Ribs broken by a fall ot coal. 

Burnt by an explosion of gas. 

Burnt by an explosion of gas. 

Leg broken — run over by a dirt truck. 

Arms broken — fell down a schute. 
Mortally injured — fell down shaft — died. 
Head severely cut by a fall of coal. 
Injured by being crushed by wagons. 
Leg cut off in the small rollers. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Mortallyburnt by explosion of gas — died. 
Severely burnt liy an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Leg broken (amputated) by dirt wagon. 
Severely injured by a fall of rock.?. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
M»rtally burnt by explosion of ga.s — died. 
Mortally burnt by explosion of gas — died. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 



Severely injured by a fall of coal. 

Severely injured — fell down the slope. 

Severely injured. 

Severely injured by a fallof coal. 

Severely injured by a fall'of coal. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Slightly burnt by gas. 

Leg broken by wagons. 

Leg broken by wagons. 

Leg broken b}'' wagons. 

Head and back injured — fell into schute. 

Fatally injured — fell off a building. 

Leg amputated — injured by elevators. 

Severely injured by a fall of coal. 

Severely injured Ijy gas. 

Head injured by a fall of coal. 

Leg broken by a fall of coal. 

Severely injured by a blast. 

Hand injured by a fall of coal. 

Scalp wound by a kick from a mule. 

Severely burnt by explosion of powder. 

Severelj-crushedby wagons— leg broken. 

Severely crushed by wagons. 

Arm broken by a tall of coal. 

Arm crushed by rollers. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Dangerously burnt by gas. 

Dangerously injured by a fall of coal. 

Dangerously injui-ed by a fall of coal. 

Dangerously cut by a circular saw. 

Triple break of leg. 

Dangerously burnt by powder. 

Dangerously burnt by powder. 

Leg broken — fell into a schute, 

I^yes burnt by powder. 

Arm broken bj' a fall of coal, [rope. 

Back severely injured, sliding on slope 



18 



Table of Injuries. — Continued. 



Date. 


Names of persons 
injured. 


Name of 
the collieries. 


Remarks. 


Dec. 9, 

9, 
9, 
12, 
12, 
12, 
10, 
19, 
19, 
28 


Frank Buckley.. 

Christian Foster, 
Christian Post.... 
David Lewis .... 
Pat. M'Anulty... 
Patrick Ryan.. .. 

James Smith 

Robert Dillon 

Westly Yhoe 

Henry Bolton 

Kern'Mangan 


Tunnel Ridge 

Tunnel Ridge 

Tunnel Ridge 

Shoemaker's 

Mahanoy City.... 
Mahanoy City.... 

No. S 

East Mahanoy ... 
Mahanoy City.... 
No. 10 .!! 


Head severely injured by a fall of coal. 
Severely injured by a fall of coal. 
Severely injured by a fall of coal. 
Head severely injured by a fall of rocks. 
Severely injured' by a fall of coal. 
Severely injured by a fall of coal. 
Mortallj^ injured — "caught in machinery. 
Arm broken in tbe mines. 
Foot crushed in rollers — died 20th Dec. 
Leg A arm broken— crushed by -wagons. 
Ribs broken — fell into the shaft. 


28, 


Ellengowen 



2G5 persons were injured, 27 of v?hom died of their injuries. 



CASUAL,TIKS IN POTTSVILI.E MINING DISTRICT, RESULTING IN DEATHS AND 

INJURIKS, IN 1872. 



Name of colliery. 



Mine Hill Gap Mine Hill Gap 

Glen Carbon Mackoysburg 

Thomaston Thomaston 

Taylorville Taylorville 

Beechwood Mount Latiee 

Pine Forest shaft St. Clair 

East Pine Knot Greenburg 

St. Clair shaft St. Clair 

P. R. C. & I. Co.'sshafc East Mines 

High Mines Tamaqua 

Eagle St. Clair 

Eagle Hill shaft Eagle Hill 

Silver Creek Silver Creek 

Swift Creek Tuscarora 

Tamaqua shaft Tamaqua. 

Oreenwood Tamaqua East 

Commercial New Philadelphia. 

Coal Dale slope I Coal Dale 

Oak Hill { Norwegian 

Spruce Forest New Castle 

Kentucky slope Tuscarora 



Location. 



Anthracite , 

Buller .. 

Bull Run, No. 

Raven Dale 

Heckscherville slope., 



10.. 



Tamaqua . 
Comliola.. . 
Bull Run. 



Heckscherville , 



Total casualties in 1872 was. 
Total casualties in 1871 was. 
Total casualties in 1870 was 



17 
30 
46 



74 

LI 8 
127 



G2 



4 

13 

10 

6 

12 

3 

1 

7 

7 

1 



92 
148 
17.3 



The above results are very gratifying, showing the annual decrease in the 
mortality and casualties of the district are greatly on the decline. 



19 



CASUALTIES IN ASHLAND MINING DISTRICT, RESULTING IN DEATH AND INJURIES, 

IN 1872. 



Name of colliery. 



St. INicholas 

Copley 

Focht & Whittaker. 

Tunnel , 

Primrose 

Indian Ridge 

Locusi Dale 

Honev Brook 

Lehigh, No. 3 

Locust Run 

Girardsville 

Koh-i-noor shaft 

Bear Run 

Gilberton 

West Lehigh 

Trenton 

Ellen Gowan 

Draper 

Elmwood 

Mahanoy City slope . 

Tnrke\^ Run 

Union 

Cuyler 

Lost Creek 

Wm. Penn shaft . 

Plank Ridge 

Hillside 

Shenandoah, West.. 

Tunnel Ridge 

Girardsville 

Keysione 

Hazle Dell 



Location. 



St. Nicholas... 

Mahanoy City 

Mahanoy City 

Ashland , 

Mahanoy Cit^^ 

Shenandoah City .... 
Columbia countj''... . 

Wew Pottsville , 

Shenandoah, West. 

Ashland 

Girardsville 

Shenandoah, West . 

St. Nicholas 

Gilberton 

Shenandoah, West. 

Near Delano 

Maple Dale 

St. Nicholas 

Mahanoy City 

Mahanoy City 

Shenandoah City.... 

Big Mine Run - 

Raven Run 

Near Colorado 

Near Colorado 

Shenandoah City 

Mahanoy City.. 

Shenandoah City.... 

Mahanoy City 

Girardsville . 

Ashland, West 

Centralia 



Total casualties in Ashland district in 1872 was. 
Total casualties in Ashland district in 1871 was. 
Total casualties in Ashland district in 1870 was. 



27 



14 



89 



89 

168 

9.3 



G 
4 
3 
2 
3 
3 
14 
4 
7 
2 
1 
8 
3 
4 



2 
10 



130 



130 
224- 
155 



CASUALTIES IN SHAMOKIN DISTRICT RESULTING IN DEATH AND INJURIES IN THE 
YEAR 1872, AS PAR AS HEARD OF. 



Name of colliery. 


Location. 


Si 
5" 


s 

S' 

& 


1— 1 

a 

c" 
-i 

CD 


1 Total 


Stewartsville 


Stewartsville 


1 
1 

1 
f) 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 

1* 




1 

G 
4 
8 
29 
2 


2 


(^olkett 


Donaldson .... , 

Williamstown 

Williamstown 


1 


8 


Big Lick 


5 


Williamstown slopes 


1 

3 


15 


Otto slopes 


Branch Dale 


33 


Black Diamond 


Schmoelie's 

Shamokin 


3 


Excelsior 




1 


Burnside 


Shamokin 






1 


Cameron 


Trevorton 

Tower City 




3 
2 
10 
1 
5 
3 


4 


Brookside 




3 


Lower Rauch Creek 


Rauch creek 


1 
1 

2 


13 


Daniel Webster 


Shamokin 


3 


Diamond, No, 2 


Forestville 

Mt. Carnael , 


7 


Buck Ridge 


4 



20 



CASUALTIES IN SHAMOKiN DISTRICT — Continued. 



Name of colliery. 


Location. 


5 
a 


2 

p. 


3 


1 


Mt. Carmel 

Locust Mountain C. & I. Co... 
Phoenix, No. 3 


Mt. Carmel 

NearMt. Carmel 

Phoenix Park 


1 
1 




4 

2 

1 
1 
3 

1 
1 
1 
3 
3 
o 

2 


5 
3 
2 


Red Mountain 


Ti-etnont 






2 


Franklin 


Tremont 

Donaldson 

Shamokin 

Shamokin 

Donaldson 

Donaldson 






1 


Treniont 






1 
3 


Henry Clay 


Enterprise 






1 


Eureka ... 






1 


Tremont Coal Company 






1 


Shamokin 


Shamokin 






3 


Luke Fidler 


Shaniokin 


•ii 


Hickory Swamp 


Shamokin 

Shamokin 

Swataru 

Branch Dale 


2 


Bear Valley 

New Town.. 


.... ^. 


1 


2 
1 


Otto White Ash 


1 











Total casualties as far as learned 


2-2 10 


102 


134 


Total casualties in Shamokin 
Total casualties in Shamokin 
Total casualties in Shamokin 


district in 1S72 


32 
43 
21 




102 
120 

78 


134 


district in 1,S71 

district in 187i> . 




1G3 




99 







The casualties are greater in the district. 
February 22, 1872. 



Inspectors' reports ceased since 



COLLIERY DEATHS, &C., C03IPARED WITH ENGLAND. 

In England in 1871, there was one death to each 109,945 tons of coal mined. 

In the Pennsylvania anthracite regions in 1872, there was one deatli to each 
99,276 tons mined, and an accident to each 3(3,194 toiis mined. 

In England there were 318 tons of coal mnied in 1871 for each person employed 
at the collieries. 

In 1S72 in the counties of Schuylkill, Nortliumberland, Columbia and Dauphin 
there were 256 tons produced for each person employed. 

In Luzerne district in 1872, there were 4-26 tons produced for each person em- 
ployed. 

In Carbon district in 1872, there were tons produced for each person em- 
ployed at tiie collieries. 

This statement sliows that those employed in the Schuylkill district did not 
work regularly; and it maybe presumed a considerable number were reported 
who were making improvements which yielded very little produce in coal ton- 
nage, as the i)roduct per person employed is not much over half the product of 
eacii person employed in the Luzerne district. 

PRODUCT OF BELGIAN COAL. 

The following was the product in the last seven years : 

In 1852 6,795,363 tons produced. 

In lfc62 9,877.146 " 

In )8()7 12,787,343 " 

In 1868 11 ,755,956 " 

In 1869 12,959,704 " 

In 1.570 13,496,564 " 

In 1871 13,671,470 " 

Sho ,ving the produLit doubled in twenty years. 



21 



County Coal Tonnage for 1812. 
Schuylkill County. 



Names 
of collieries. 


Locations. 


Land owners. 


Names of operators. 


Tons ooal 
mined. 


Butler 


Silver Creek .... 


Svvayne & Able.... 


Winlack & Co 


11, 574 


Eagle shaft 


Eagle Hill 


P. R. C. and I. Co 


.1. C. Oliver & Co 


59, 7(k5 




Mt. Laffee 

Glen Carbon 


P. R. C. and I. Co 
P. R. C. and I. Co 


' J. Buckley 


Idle. 


Glen Carbon 


1 .lohn Lucas 


61, 037 


Feeder Dam 


Mill Creek 

Xew Philadelp'a 


P. R. C. and I. Co 
P. R. C. and I. Co 


1 Wm. \lurry. 


10, 5?.9 


Commercial 


i Wm. Kendrick 


9,173 


East Mine 


Eu.st Delaware.... 


P. R. C. and I. Co 


Wm. Kendrick 


()0 


St. Clair shaft. 


St. Clair 


P. R. C. and I. Co 
Lehigh C. AN. Co 
P. R: C. and I. Co 


Wm. Kendrick 

L. C. and N. Co.... 
Wm. Kendrick.... 


73, 238 


Coaldale slope 

Eist Pine Knot... 


Coaldale 


60, 500 


Green b'y Vallev 


46, 987 


Black Heath.. 


St. Clair 


P. R. C. and I. Co 


A. .Tackson 


2, 138 


Manchester 


Wadesville 

New Castle 

Rivendale 

EigleHill 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 

G. Richardson 

P. R. C. and I. Co 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 


Alden & Co 


4, 359 


Spruce Forest 

Ravendiile 


.T. Dennings 


1, 666 


Wm. Starr 


54, 2(52 


Diamond 


Diamond C. Co 

J. R. Davis 


7, 530 


Ellsworth 


New Castle 


2Sf5 


Mammoth vein... 


West Castle 

Minersville 


.1. Dennings 


317 


Bullock 


Bullock ct Bros 


' .1. H. Thomas 


2, 078 


Glen Dower 


Glen Carbon 


P. R. C. and 1. Co.l Wm. Kendrick 


40, 477 


E igle 


St. Clair.. 

Tamarjua 


P. R. C. and I. Co.! G. W. Johns 

P. R. C. and I. Co.| Macky Walker 

P. R. C. and L Co.i D. Hock & Co 

P. R. C. and L Co. Rowland ct Co 

P. R. C. and 1. Co. J. O. Malev 


70, 142 


Tamaqua shaft.... 
Forestville 


16, 834 


Forestville ..: 

Wadesville 

Phcenix Park 


19, 601 


Monitor 


11,643 


PiKjenix, No. 4 


1, 392 


Diamond, No. 2 , 


Forestville 


P. R. C. and L Co.i L. Sutter ct Co 

P. R. C. and I. Co. P. R. C. and I. Co. 


2, 114 


Mammoth shafts. 


E-».st Mines 


S, 113 


Hickorv slope 


St. Clair 


P. R. C. and L Co.! Wm. Draper & Co.. 


18,113 


Mine Hill Gap 


Mine Hill Gap.... 


P. R. C. and L Co. Wm. Kendrick 


225 


Swift Creek 


Tuscarora 

Tamaqua 


G. Bast and others,! G. Bast ct Co 

P. R. C. and I. Co. Gen.H.L.Cake&Co 

P. R. C. and L Co. Wm. Kendrick 

P. R. C. and f. Co. Wm. Kendrick 


Idle. 


Alaska 


16, 7.33 

26, 493 


Wabash 


Reevesdale 

Reevesdale 


Reevesdale 


493 


Newkirk 


Reevesdale 


P. R. C. and f. Co.' Fry & Shoemaker.. 


26, 493 


Silver Creek..' 


Silver Creek 


Swavne A Able t Thos. Williams 


12, 968 


Pine Forest 


St. Clair 


P. R. C. and I. Co*. 


Wm. Kendrick 


97, 106 


Hickory shaft 


Wadesville 


P. R. C. and L Co. 


'Wm. Kendrick 


78, 294 


Greenwood 


Tamaqua 


Lehigh C.&N. Co. 


E. Borda ) 


88, 122 


Greenwood, No. 1 


Tamaqua 


LehighC. &N. Co. E. Borda ^ 


Beechwood 


Mt. Laffee 


P. R. C. and I. Co. Wm. Kendrick 


89, 649 


York 


Pottsville 


A.Ru.ssell cfe others 
A.Russell cfcotherf 

Richardson 

P. R. C. and I. Co. 
Richardson 


Llewellyn & Co 

.Job Rich 

.Jos. Wood 

Mackev it Co 


400 


York Farm 


Pottsville 


600 


Shai-p Mountain 
Tamaqua 


Pottsville 


7,444 


Tamaqua 

Yorkville 

Combola 

y. Philadelphia.. 


16,834 


Yorkville 


Baltaiser & Co. 


600 






9 810 


NewPhiladelp'a. 




Hein <k Co 


1,048 


Thomaston slojae, 


Thomaston 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 


Wm. Kendrick 


3, 033 


Thom'nslo., new, 


Thomaston 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 


Wm. Ivendrick 


15, 1.05 


Heckscherville.... 


Heckscherville... 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 


.J. Wadlinger 


10, 047 


Anthracite 


Tamaqua ! 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 


August Raab 


238 


Bull Run 


Bull Run 


Lehigh C. A N. Co. 


Ij. C. and N. Co 


114, 000 


Taylorville 


Glen Dower 


P. R. C. and L Co. 


T. Shollenberg 


9, 088 


West Pine Knot... 


Coal Castle 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 


W4n. Ivendrick 


Idle. 


Tjittle Tracy : 

N. America 


East Mines 

East Mines 

East Mines 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P.'R. C. and I. Co. 


C Conner 




Wm. Meade 




N. America,No.2, 


Faust & Bro 




N. America, No. r5, 


East Mines 1 

Minersville 

Ea.st Mines 

East Mines 

Tuscarora 

Tuscarora i 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co.' 
Kentucky Bank...' 


John R-ese 




Palmer 


J. Wadlinger 

WuL Clark 


125 


Tracy vein 


250 


East Mine 


G. Seibert 

J.Sullivan 

Sholl & Donohoe... 


25) 


Tuscarora 


19S 


Iventuckv 


13, 096 


Peach Orchard 


Tuscarora ! 


Keiiiuckv Bank...' 


R. Rowbotham 


4,318 


Buckville 


Buckville ' 

Glen Carbon | 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 


Wm. TCfiiiHrinlr _ 




Live Oak. 


P. R. C. and L Co.| Wm. Kendrick..!!!! 


16,414 



22 



County Coal Tonnage — Continued. 



Names 
of collieries. 


Locations. 


Land owners. 


Names of operators. 


Tons coal 
mined. 


White Oak 


Newcastle 

Glen Carbon 

Oak Hill 

Middle.Port 

Coal Hill 


P. R. C. and L Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and L Co. 
P. R. C. and T. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and L Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P, R. C. and T. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and T. Co. 
P. R. C. andLCo. 
P. R. C. and T. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
Delano Land Co... 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and 1. Co. 
Caldwell and oth's 
P. R. C. and T. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 

L. V. R. R. Co 

P. R. C. and I. Co. 
J. Gilbert 


J. Dennings ......... 


440 


Oak Dale 

Ilolohan 


.John Lucas 

Holohan it Bro 

J. jNIaior 


48,137 
765 


Kaskawilliani 


663 


Palmer 


B. F. Palmer 


622 


Taggert 


New Castle 


Johi\ Taggert 

Jas. Lanagan 

J. R. Jones 

Konfer it Kantner.. 
Moss it Abblitt 

Wm. Kendrick 

Wm. Kendrick 

S. C. Harris.. 

Focht it Whittaker 

Packer it Co 

Fowler it Co 

Wm. Kendrick 

G. NevillsitCo.... 
Roinel,Hill.tH'rris 
J. Dennison it Co... 
Gorman and others 

Phillip.s it Son 

INIiller it Maize 

J. Lawrence it Co.. 
Mumiier and oth's. 
H. B. C. Company.. 
Atkins it Co 


.173 


I^anagan 


New Castle 


249 


J. R. Jones 


Minersville 

Minersville 

New Kerk 


364 


Konfer 

New Kerk slope. 

Six others 

A^'m. I'enn 


495 
1,765 


Shenandoah 

Shenandoah 

Locust Dale 

Mahanoy city 

Shenandoah 

Maple Dale 

Maple Dale 

Mahanoy city 

Mahanoy city 

St. Nicholas 

Mahanoy city 

St. Nicholas.. . ... 

Gilberton 

Gilberton 

New Plains 

New Pottsville... 
Ashland 


738 
89,360 
80,560 
29,964 


Indian Ridge 

Locust Dale 


East Mahanoy 

Lehigh, No. 4 ... 
Knickerbocker ... 
M'Neal, l,2tt3... 
Primrose 


59,606 

"A^.'rm 

1,445 
25,000 


Mahanoy city 

St. Nicholas 

Delano 


101,289 
88,149 
15,013 
49,080 
52,989 


Suffolk 

Stanton 


Lawrence 


J. Gilbert 

Philadelphia citv.. 
H. Brook C. Co..'... 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
Delano Land Co... 


66,825 
4,649 


Bear Ridge 


Hon'yBrook, 1,2,3 
Cambrian 


196,950 
17,291 


Plank Rido-e 


Shenandoah citj^ 
Mahanoy city...'. 

Shenandoah.' 

Girardsville 

Gilberton 

St. Nicholas 

Gilberton 

Gilberton..* 

Girardsville 

Slienandoah city 

Mahanoy city 

JNIahanoy aMy 

Gilberton 


Lee it Grant 


133,103 


Grant 


Dr. Yocuin 


2,513 




P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and T. Co. 


White it Co 


10,000 
67,781 
62,000 


Preston. 1 ct 2 

Boston Run 


Wm. Kendrick 

Althouse it Bro 


Bear Rvm 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 

J. Gilbert 

J. Gilbert 

Philadelphia city.. 
.1. Gilbert 


Wiggan it Trebles.. 

Atkins it Bro 

Wm. Draper 

Beattv it Garretson 


74,430 


Furnace 


26,777 


Draper 


125,544 


Girard 


40.425 


Kohinoor 


R.IieckscheritCo. 

G. B. Cole 

Lee it Wren 


104,743 


Tunnel Ridge 

Elmwood 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
J. Gilbert 


83,760 
-5,339 


Gilbert 


Gilberton C. Co 


65,227 


Ellen Gowan 

Girardsville 


Maple Dal* 

Girardsville 

Girardsville 

Girardsville 

Locust Dale 

Mahanoy city.. .. 

Mahanoy city 

Mahanoy city 

Ashland 


P. R. C. and I. Co. J. C. Scott ct Son... 
Philadelphia city.. Asrard it Moodv 


76,409 
84,947 


M'Michtel 

Prcston, Set 4 

Kevstone 


Philadelphia citv.. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
L. Val. R. R, Co... 
L. Val. R. R. Co... 
Locust Mt. C. 1. Co 
Girard heirs 


Agard it Moody 

Wm. Kendrick 

Wm. Kendrick 

A. Hunt 


18,822 
54,558 
24,845 




50,000 
50,000 
50,000 
84,309 


Copley 


Lentz it Bowman.. 
J. B. Bovlan 


Locust Run 


G. S. Ripplier 

Philad'a C. Co 

Wm. Kendrick 

Philad'a C. Co 

J. O. Rhoades 

Peter Bowman 

J. R. Cleaver 

Thomas Coal Co.... 

G. Pomroy 

Breneizer it Co 

J. Donaldson 


Lehigh, No. 3 

Lilly 


Shenandoah city 

Ashland 

Colorado 


53,250 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
Delano Land Co... 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
Girard heirs 


44,919 


Colorado 


127,085 


vShenandoah city. 

Beaver Run 

Excelsior 


Shenandoah city 

INIahanoy city 

Ashland 


74,061 
2,026 
9,234 




Shenandoah city 

Mahanoy city 

Shenandoah city 

Raven Run ' 

Lost Creek 

Ashland 

Raven Run 

Mahanoy city 

Shenandoah city 

Ashland 

Ashland 


106,279 


Hillside 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 
Gilbert itSheafer. 

Girard heirs 

Philadelphia citv.. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
Girard heirs 


8,349 


Turkey Run 

Girard Mammoth 
Lost Creek 


77,469 
39,996 


Philad'a C. Co 

J. K. Seigfreid .... 

Heaton ct Bro 

H. Eshelman 

Maize it Lewis 

Taylor it Lindsay.. 
J. b. Gilmore 


63,459 


Tunnel 


1,475 


Cuyler 


41,617 


Hartford 


Kear & Patterson.. 
Gilbert ctSheafer.. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 


36,498 


West Shenando'h 

Big Mine Run 

Burget 


9,487 

11,742 

331 



23 

County Coal Tonnage — Continued. 



Names 
of collieries. 


Location- 


Land owners. 


Names of operators. 


Tons coal 
mined. 


Oliver 


Shenandoah City 
^Mahanoy City ... 
Mahanoy City ... 
Brookside 


P. &R. C.ttl. Co... 
Phila. ct M. C. Co. 

Delano L. Co 

Monsonct \Vi 11 iams 
Lvkens S. C. Co .. 

Tremont C. Co 

P. &R. C. &LCo... 
P. &R. C.&I. Co... 
Fish'g creek estate 

Swatara C. Co 

Swatara C. Co 

Tremont C. Co 

P. & R. C. ct I. Co.. 
P. & R. C. & L Co... 
P. ctR. C. ctl.Co. . 
Jilanhattan C. Co... 
Helfenstein it Bro. 
MonsonA Williams 

Tremont C. Co 

Tremont C. Co 

Tremont C. Co 


JonesWardttOliv'r 
Rom'l,HiIlctHarri9 
B. L. Eschelman... 
Gordon & Repplier, 
Schmoelv it Co .... 
Ow'ji,Eck'l&Colk't 

J. Wartlin;i;er 

Wm. Kendrick 

Phillips ct Sheafer, 
Miller and Graff.... 
Levi, Miller & Co., 
P. ct R. C. &■ I. Co... 

Wm. Keiulrick 

Wm. Kendrick 

Wm. Kendrick 

Claud White 

Win lack A others.. 
Gordon ct Repplier, 
All'n.Fish'rctoth'rs 
Ow'n,Eck'lAColk't 

J. C. White ♦.... 

Miscellaneous 


5, 252 


Silliman 

B. L. Esclielman, 


6,722 

5,712 

50, 891 


Black Diamond... 
Colkett 


Locust Summit... 

Donald.son 

Forestville 


1,654 

03, 487 
33, 972 
73, 896 

22, 022 


Diamond 


Franklin 

Kalmea 


Strongville... 

Paul valley 

Ranch creek 

Lorherry 

Middle creek 

Branch D lie 

Phauiix Park 

Phoenix Park 

Swatara 

Swatara 


L. Rauch Creek... 
Lincoln 


117,713 
40, 592 


Middle Creek 

Otto's, 1, 2 and 3.. 

Phcenix, No, 2 

Phoenix, No. 3 

Swatara- 

Straw 


* 

'" "71,"325 

19, 601 

829 

8,504 

577 


Tower city 

Tremont..' 


Tower City 

Tremont 


32, 696 
3,249 


West end 


Donaldson 


561 


White 


Donaldson 


299 
1,318 




' shipments..., 




Schuylkill countv 
Local consul!) ptio 
♦Screeniiigs and la 


4, 130, 593 


n 






1, 181, 000 


nd sales 




















5,311,593 



Oned'eath to each 78,981 tons mined. 



NORTHUMBERLAND COUNTY'. 



Names 
of collieries. 


Location. 


Land owners. 


Names of operators. 


Tons coal 
mined. 


A. S. Wolff 

Big Mountain 

Buck Ridge 


Locust Gap. 

Shamokin 


L. Gap I. & C. Co., 

B. Mt. Im't Co 

L. Gap I. & C. Co., 

B. Mt. Im't Co .... 

C. Run Im't Co 

Fulton C. Co 


Kemble ifcGrasber, 
J. Langdoncfc Co... 

Mav and others 

May tt Co 

Goodwill <t Co 

Giiit'rm'nttGorm'n 
M. R. C. &. M. Co., 

Wm. Kindrick 

Wm. Montilius 

M. R. R. & M. Co.. 
Bomgardner A Co., 
Guit'rm'nAGorm'n 
N. Franklin C. Co., 
G. W. John & Bro.. 
Kimble & Grajber. 
Ex. Min. Co 


50, 982 
67, 924 




89, 384 

66, 109 

61,721 

620 


Burnside 

BearYalle3^ 

Bradv 


Shamokin 

Carbon run ....... 

Shamokin 


Luke Fidler 

Cameron 


Shamokin 

Trevftrton 


Burnside C. Co 

P. <feR. C. &1. Co.. 
Mt. C. C. & I. Co.,.. 
N. C. R. R. Co [Co. 
M.C.&L.M.C.ctl. 
Fulton C. Co 


76, 812 
76, 510 
91, 560 
49, 236 
65, 794 


Stuartville 

Hickory Swamp.. 
Reliance 


Mt. Carmel 

Shamokin 

Shamokin 


Henry Clay 

Trevorton 

Monitor 

Locust Gap 

Excelsior 


Shamokin. 


64, 220 


Trevorton_ 

Locust Gap 

Locust Gap 


P. R. & L.V. R. Co., 

L. G. Im't Co.. 

L. G. Im't Co 

Fulton C. Co ... . 


50,284 
58, 185 
54,883 
51,617 


Coal Ridge. 

Ben Frarikiin...... 


Mt. Carmel 

Helfenstein 

Shamokin 

Shamokin. 

Shamokin 

Shamokin 


C. R. C. ct I. Co 

Helfen.steinA Bro., 
Fulton C. Co 


Burton and others. 
R. B. Doutv 


50, 698 
27, 743 


Greenback 


Guit'rm'nitGorm'n 
.1. Langdon & Co... 
Ent. C Co 


25, 537 


Hickory Ridge.... 
Enterprise 


N. C. R. R. Co 

Ent. C. Co 

Hay, KeLsoctKeller 
Helfenstein Bros... 
S. ttC. M. G. Co.... 

North'd L. Ass 

Shamokin C. Co ... 


2?, 882 
23, 600 


Shamokin 


Weaver & Martin.. 

Fagely &, Co 

Rhoades A others.. 
Wm. Brown 


22, 804 


Helfenstein 


Helfenstein... 

Stuartville 


21,845 


Coal Mountain.... 


14,951 


Daniel Webster. . 


Shamokin 


14, 843 


Lambert_ 


Win. Brown 


13, 627 


Morton 


Shamokin 


A. Morton 


12, 897 



* Sinking shaft. 



24 



County Coal Tonnage — Continued. 



Names 
of collieries. 


Locations. 


Land owners. 


Names of operators. 


Tons coal 
mined. 


Caledonia 


Shamokin 


Henry Saj'lor 

HelJenstein Bros... 

Bell's heirs 

North'd Land Ass.. 

Fulton Coal Co 

N. C. R. R. Co 

L. S. C. Co 

Fulton Coal Co 

P. R. C. and I. Co. 

Helfenstein Bros... 


Schwanck & Co 

Haas tt others 

Shipp & Co 


8,177 
7,135 


Franklin 


Helfenstein 

Shamokin 

Shamokin 




5,920 




Heim cfe Co 

Reese & Bros 

Smith ik Kiser 

Carter & Gorman... 
Enterprise C. Co.... 

Miscellaneous 

Locust Dale C. Co.. 
Gordon & Smith ... 


5,207 


<Teorge Fiiles 

Ijancaster 


Shamokin. ...'. 


6,097 


Shamokin 


2,141 


Locust Summit... 
Margie Franklin.. 

Marians 


Shamokin 

Shamokin. , 

Locust Gap 


863 

85 

18 

14, 883 


Franklin 

V 

Aggregate shipm( 
Local consumptio 
Screenings and la 


Helfenstein 


li4, 122 




1, 221, 327 


n 






170, 000 


nd sales 
















Vffgre'nte number nf fnns ininpd .. 


1, 391, 327 













One death to each 138,132 tons mined. 



coijUMBia county shipments in 1872. 



Names 
of collieries. 



Union 

Continental . 
Hazle Dell.., 

'Eagle 

(^entralia 

Locust Dale. 
Locust Run. 



Locations. 



Centralia .. .., 
Centralia .. .. 
Centralia .. . 
Centralia ..... 

Centralia 

Locust Dale.. 
Centralia ...„ 



Land owners. 



Nam es of operators. 



Girard heirs Ryon & Anderson. 

Philadelphia city.. R. Gorrell, agent.. 
L. Mt. C. and I. Co.| Robert Gorrell.. .. 

Girard heirs Philip Brinzle , 

L. Mt. C. and L Co.l J. M. Freck 

P. R. C. and I. Co. S. C. Harris, ag't.. 
L.Mt. C.andL Co.! G. S. Repplier 



Seven collieries shipped... 

Local consumption.. 

Screenings and land sales 



.Aggregate tons of coal mined. 



Tons coal 
mined. 



47, 394 
93. 139 
03, 889 
G,059 
69 
29, 964 
84, 309 



334, 823 

10, 000 

400 



344, 223 



One death to each 49,174 tons mined. 



DAUPHIN county SHIPMENTS IN 1872. 



Names 
of collieries. 



Locations. 



William stown .... Williamstown. 
Short Mountain...! Williamstown... 

Big Lick I Williamstown... 

East Franklin.."! Williamstown... 



Land owners. 



LykensSuin.C.Co. 
LykensSum.C.Co. 
Ly kens Sum. C.Co. 
LykensSum.C.Co. 



Names of operators. 



LykensSum.C.Co. 
LykensSum.C.Co. 
LykensSum.C.Co. 
LykensSum.C.Co. 



Total shipments 

Tjocal consumption 

Screenings and land sales. 



Aggregate tons of coal mined. 



Tons coal 
mined. 



4.50, 328 
40, 000 



4911,328 



One death to each 61,290 tons mined. 

It will be observed that in the district of Schuylkill there are 30,o00 persons 
employed in mining aiid handling coal, and that tlie coal tonnage of the year 
i-eaches to 7,537,468 tons, while not more than 14,500 of the whole force of the 
district are employed in mining, whicli would average 519 tons each, while not 
more than one-fourth of tlie persons employed in British mines are employed out- 



25 

side. The product of the mines of Great Britain is nearly all utilized, whilst fully 
one-half of the product of our anthracite mines is put to waste, the handling of 
whicli is a serious expenditure, besides its great inconvenience in crowding up 
the buildings necessarily used at the colliery, which often necessitates the remo- 
val of tliese large structures to a more favorable locality at an enormous cost to 
the operator. 

Attemj^ts have been made by a few individuals to manufactvire an article for 
fuel out of this waste, but so far their efforts have not proved a pecuniary success. 
Although the specimens which we examined under experiment gave evidence of 
satisfactory results, the introduction of this new sort of fuel received no encour- 
agement to warrant an outlay by the parties, and therefore, this subject is set 
aside for the present. 

I have no doubt but this enormous waste will yet be utilized, but the necessity 
does not now exist to require its use, whilst the present article of fuel is so readily 
procured. Although we are always opposed to the general manner of preparing 
coal since tlie introduction of tiie Battin roller system, which destroys a large 
percentage of our best coal, but such is the desire of the operators for their use, 
owing to their capacity for rapid production, that the great loss they create is 
overlt)()ked in the great anxiety to accomplish»a large amount of lalior in a short 
period of time to fill up consignments, at a given notice from abroad. 

COAL — ANTIIKACTTE. 

The geological conformation of the soil of Pennsylvania, embracing the general 
terms of original rock structure and decomposed superficial complex form of the 
diversified quality and system. The Lawrentian system— tlie oldest series — ap- 
pears in the South Mountain and the Welsh Mountains. The Iluronian system 
ranges next in order and age, but is not exposed in the State. But tiie Paheo- 
zoic or older secondary system : First, tliQ Potsdam sandstone, seen at Reading 
and along tlie Xorth Valley Hill, in Chester county, and terminating near the 
coal measures, is also finely developed throughout the State. Tlie Mesozoic or 
middle secondary system. New Red Sandstone, Trias, &c., is thinly dilfused over 
the last, in a zone of country embracing the counties of Berks, Bucks, Lebanon, 
Lancaster, York and Adams. The Kainozoic or Tertiary system or Cretaceous 
system is only found outside the limits of the State and forms the Atlantic sea- 
board. The valley of the Delaware has been deeply filled with Animal Post-plio- 
ceneage. But the Beaver and other rivers occupying the drift terraces in the 
north-western section of the State are assigned to the Quaternian or Human age, 
or the age when man originally occupied the earth. These Quaternian and Ter- 
tiary terms are })urely conditional, while those between the Tertiary and Creta- 
ceoiis, or Cretaceous and Jurassic, or Trias and Permian, or between any two 
systems are used as conventional terms, in the order of classification more tiian 
of truth. Gaps that are open in mountain ranges to separate formations in one 
county are found to be filled with by intermediate deposits in another county, 
and geologists customari'y designate the age by the animal formation peculiar to 
the rocky structure. There are three notable features in the geology of Pennsyl- 
vania which strongly resemble land and sea levels, as shown by chemical action 
into gneiss, granite, slates, marble, rolled conglomerate, sandston.e, mud rocks 
and limestone, all of which bear the visible marks of iiressure, moisture and heat. 

The base fioor of the State, like that of the United States throughout, is prin- 
cipally formed of granite, gneiss, mica, slate and marble, in stratas of various 
deptlTs. Beneath the anthracite coal fioor and the Broad Top, the stupemlous 
depth of seven miles might be sunk before the rock formation of Labrador and 
Canada, the central ridges of Utah, the hills of Missouri and Arkansas, those of 
North Carolina, Massachusetts and Maine — these rocks are characterized by spec- 
ular iron ore, feldspar and minerals containing iron, and may continue down to 
inaccessible depths, from the stupendous causes that acted upon tiie surface of 
the country in ancient ages, by decomposition. Hydrostatic pressure denuded 
the elevated formations of the deposits stored away within them and washed the 
debris out into the margin of the great waters, creating a new surface, such as 
may be seen along our Atlantic fringed shores. 

The next oldest rocks are those found at Philadelphia, Chester, Delaware, Lan- 
caster, York and Adams counties, and are formed of siratas of gneiss, with mica 
slate, containing white magnesia, limestone, serpentine, trap, iron ore and quartz 
veins containing gold, chromic and titanic acid, and continues into Georgia. 
Some of the decomposed Codorus ore-beds alford extensive beds of brown hema- 
tite in York and Adams counties, and in time will become as notable as the Lehigh. 



26 

river district. Geologists have separated tlie Pennsylvania Palaeozoic system into 
thirteen formations : i. f., six species of sand rock, four slate and shale and two 
of limestone ; and these thirteen embrace the coal measures — that all the moun- 
tains of the State are outcrops except the South Mountain range. The Potsdam 
white sandstone underlie the Palaeozoic formation ; the limestone contains brown 
hematite iron ore, lead, zinc and barytes ; the shale contains roof-slates at Lehigh ; 
the sandstone forms the Kittatinny, north, Bower's Cove, (in Pulton county,) 
Tuscarora, Black Log, Shade, Stone, Jack, Buffalo, in Union coimty. Kitany, 
Muncy, Bald Eagle, Dennings, Lock Canoe IIole,Tussy, Evitts, Wild Mountains 
and Montour Ridge, red shales with fossil ore beds, the lini3sto!ie with brown 
hematite iron ore pockets and lead ; the sandstone usually forming a rocky ridge, 
but in Juniata and Perry counties rise to consideral)le mountain ranges ; the 
olive shales and green sandstone with hydraulic limestone rocks, and occasional 
thin coal seams with valuable brown hematite, whilst in the western districts are 
found large saltwater basins and petroleum. The red sandstone forms terraces 
on the white sandstone, as the Catskill, Pocona, Second Mountain, Cove Moun- 
tain, (in Dauphin county,) Short, Berry's, Buffalo, (in Perry county,) Mahan- 
tongo, Mahunoy, Catawissa, Nescopec, Wyoming, Shickshinny, Shawnee, Alle- 
gheny, Elk, Towanda, Blossburg, Town Hill, Scrub Ridge Mountains. The con- 
glomerate or wliite sandstone supports tlie coal measiu'es «and forms the Mauch 
Chunk, Locust, Short, Sharp, Big. Broad, Mahanoy, Beaver INIeadow, Sugar Loaf, 
Buck, Hell Gate and the JNIacCaiiley Mountains, (in Schuylkill, Carbon and Lu- 
zerne counties ;) the Broad Top, Mount Savage, Little Allegheny, in the south- 
ern district of the State. A subordinate system of mountains constitutes the coal 
measures, which requires a description peculiar to their formation. 

Pi'of. H. D. Rogers lias in his Geological Report of Pennsylvania, substituted 
divisions of tlie day in place of numericals, to designate the local names of the 
different formations or geological sys.tems, as appears in the subjoined table, as- 
signed to Pennsylvania formations as the outcro]i with diininisiied thickness in 
long belts running east and west, and the same system appears in the State of 
Kew York 

9 
GEOLOGICAL NOMENCLATUKE IN NEW YORK AND PENNSYLVANIA. 

Tliicknets ' , I'hiclcness 

in fee' in H. D. Rooer's v^ English and New York in 

Penn'a. Nomenclature. g. Nomenclature. New Tork. 

3000 feet Coal Measures. 13 O «" p]roded from New York. 

12 ? S S > Eroded from New York. 

jw 6- ~ i 

10 ^ I "§ Catskill group. 2500 feet. 

"1 (6 g Chemung group. 

I g Portage o-roup. 
. o J Sq .Genesee slates. 
*" ] ^ I Hamilton slates. 
I c?" 'I Marcellus shales. 
I ? § Upper Heidelb'g 
g Sclioharie grit. 
*^ Chaudagtell grit. 
7 .Oriskany sandstone. 

? G § Lower Helderb'g limestone. 

!> ■£ 

^ Onandago salt group. 1000 

■? Niaijara limestone. 250 

5 s Clinton Group. 200 

) C Sii Medina sandstone. 400 

> 4< ►^^Shawnynnk srit. 500 
; ' ^ Oneida conglomerate. 100 

> o ^ « Hudson slates. } 
\ ° ^ 'ts utica slates. S 
; ) -5 "s Black river limestone. ) 
I 2 J '^ I Bird's eye do. [ 300 " 
) ) St^Chazey do. ) 
} . I Calciferous sand rock. 
\ k; Potsdam sandstone. 50 " 

It will be understood that the stratas aliove differ considerably in different lo- 
calities southward and northward. In Pennsylvania the sum of tliese depths 
amount to 32,850 feet, while in New York only 10,850 feet. The conglomerate at 



1200 " 8eral Cono;lomerate. 


3000 ' 


' Umbrel red sandstone. 


2500 ' 


' Vespertine sandstone. 


(500 ' 


' Ponent red sandstone. 


.3200 ' 


' Vergent olive shale. 


1700 ' 


' Ver!>ent c;rav sandstone. 


700 " Cadent upper black slate. 


1100 ' 


' Cadent olive shales. 


800 ' 


' Cadent lower black shales. 


300 ' 


' Post meridian limestone. 




Wanting in Pennsylvania. 


500 " Meridian Sandstone. 


600 ' 


' Prenieridian limestone. 


350 " iScalent lime.=>tone. 




Wanting in Pennsylvania. 


2600 " Surgent red shales. 


"( Levant white sandstone. 


1800 ' 


'.< Levant red sandstone. 




' ( Levant gray sandstone. 


1200 ' 


' Matinal "blue slates. 


400 ' 


' Matinal black slates. 


550 ' 


' Matinal limestone. 


5500 


' A uroral Magnesia Pmestone. 


250 ' 


' Auroral calc sand. 


4000 ' 


, ^ Primal sandstone. 


'( Primal slate. 




1000 



27 

Pottsville is 1,200 feet thick, while scarcely 300 feet thick at the Wyoming moun- 
tain, and gradually thins out to 100 feet thick at Towanda and Blossburg. The 
thickness of the silicious formation degenerates northwardly in like manner. 
At Pottsville are pudding stone, conglomerate and course sand rocks. Along the 
Allegheny escarpments the conglomerate pebbles are small, while at Lock Haven 
they appear very large. Throughout the territory bordering on the Ohio iState 
line the rocks are reduced to a coarse pliable sandstone, destitute of any pebbles. 
The conglomerate of the anthracite measures obey the same law, and become re- 
duced to a mere coarse sandstone in the bituminous regions. The Falffiozoic sys- 
tem can scarcely be successfully defined in the Sinnemahoning, Genesee and Al- 
legheny counties. In the oil bearing rocks there is scarcely any noticeable dis- 
tinction between the conglomerate and surgent system. In the Soutliern otates 
there are coal seams found in and xuider the red shale of the Levant system. 
. The coal measures characteristically described contain zinc, lead, barytes, lime, 
magnesia and iron ; the zinc, lead and barytes are confined to the limestone for- 
mation ; sulphuret and silicate of zinc, with oxide of magnesia are found in the 
brown liematite through tlie Cumberland valley, &c. Many of those veins are of 
vast thickness : e. q., the Bloomsburg bed at Morrisons's cove is 100 feet thick ; 
the Mount Pleasant, at Path valley ,1s SO feet thick ; the Moselem bed is of un- 
known thickness. The whole phenomenon is local, dependent upon the solul)ility 
of the limestone system, possessing vast quantities of iron ore. Baker's bed at 
Altoona, is of vast proportions. At Balston, Elinira and Williamsport extensive 
beds of blue carbonate of iron is worked. It is largely stratified througli Somer- 
set, Fayette, Centre, Lycoming, M'Kean, Butler and Lawrence counties, and 
also in Warren. 

The coal measures or carboniferous formation is divided in two series of lower 
and upper, by some 500 feet of barren measures, in AVashington and Greene coun- 
ties and the central hills of the Pottsville anthracite basin. Tlie total tlnckness 
of the carl)oniferous strata is unknown, and it is equally uncertain whether or 
not if the Permian formation had ever been deposited upon them. What is now 
remaining will measure 3,000 feet. Tlie bituminous and semi-bituminous beds 
are the same at Cumberland, Broad Top, ]31ossburg and Towanda, and are the 
same beds as the anthracite beds in Luzerne, Carbon, Schuylkill, Columbia, 
Northumberland and Dauphin. Tlie cliaracter of tlie different coal may be traced 
to the facility of the escape of the volatile hydrocarbonous form of tlie coal beds 
by the disturbed condition of the stratas. Where the gas is pent up the coal re- 
tains its liitumen quality ; this being the case it renders it very remarkable. 

Near ]\Iauch Chunk the coal contains from 2 to 5 per cent, of gas ; at Potts- 
town from 7 to 10 per cent. ; Lykens Valley, Shamokin and Trevorton from 10 to 
12 per cent. ; on Broad To]i from 15 to 17 per cent. ; at Altoona 20 per cent. ; at 
Mount Pleasant and Clearfield 22 to 25 per cent.; and further west, from 30 to, 40 
per cent. In the anthracite regions many of the coal seams stand nearly vei^cal 
and often the texture of the coal appears to be crushed. In the Allegheny and 
Monongahela districts the coal seams are found in a horizontal position, while in 
the anthracite regions the seams are found jammed, broken, contorted, overlap- 
ped, swelled, thinned, &c., forming numerous basins pointing east and west. 

Five great changes subdivide western Pennsylvania into six great shallow bitu- 
minous basins, getting shallower as they extend westAvard, terminating in broad 
expanse of liorizontal coal seams to the Ohio and Virginia State lines. Another 
striking difference between the anthracite and bituminous coal seams respecting 
their tlnckness, is in the Pittsburg beds. They grow gradually thicker as tliey 
ascend the Monongahela river, and are twelve feet thick at Connellsville, while 
westward they are "but six feet thick. At Somerset county the seam is fourteen 
feet thick in a small fragment, and sixteen feet in the Cumberland basin. In 
Clearfield and Jefferson counties the lower coal bed is twelve feet thick. On the 
Allegheny mountain, Bell's, eight feet of ii coal seam is worked ; but the anthra- 
cite seanis reach from four feet of good, workable coal to sixty feet, and up- 
wards. 

Out of all the known coal seams in the bituminous regions only twelve can be 
selected, and six of these belong to the lower series. In the anthracite region 
there are fifteen enumerated. 

The position of the bituminous coal seams in the formation is shown in the fol- 
lowing scheme : 



28 

' Shales in the upper strata 80 feet. 

Coarse sandstone 80 " 

Shales 10 " 

Coal L — Brownsville coal 6 " 

Shales 60 " 

Massive sandstone 3-5 " 

{ Coal K 3 " 

■ Limestone 8 " 

Shales m " 

Sandstone 15 " 

Coal J 2 " 

Shales 10 " 

i Limestone CO " 

Coal I— limestone coal 2 " 

Non-fosiliferous limestone 15 " 

Massive sandstone. 25 " 

Sliale 20 " 

Shale and ore 30 " 

Coal II— Pittsburf,^ bed, 6 to 12 feet 12 " 

' Limestone, ore and shales 25 " 

Sliales and sandstone 30 " 

Limestone 4 " 

Ked shales 12 " 

Limestone 4 " 

te Yellow shale 10 " 

IJnff si ale 18 " 

Red shale 4 " 

Limestone 3 " 

Sliale and sand 10 " 

Red marl 10 •' 

Gray sandstone 70 " 

( )live shale 100 " 

Limestone 2 " 

Coal G 1 " 

Red and blue marls 20 " 

Slaty sandstone 30 " 

I Siialcs 50 " 

Coal F— Elk Lick 1 " 

Mahoning- sandstone 75 " 

f Shales 50 " 

Coal E— Upper Ereeport G "» 

««Limestone 8 " 

bi Shales 50 " 

I Coal D— Lower Ereeport 3 " 

Sandstone, with thin coal 70 " 

Shales and thin coals 100 " 

Coal C— Kittanning 3 " 

Shales ^ 25 " 

Bnlu'stone ore — 

Limestone 25 " 

Shalf-s .• 30 " 

Coal B— Eerriferons 3i " 

Sliales and coal beds 40 " 

, Conglomerate and coal A 100 " 

In tlie anthracite regions the beds of the foregoing section are exhibited under 
a different aspect. Tiie intervals vary at every mine ; also the character and con- 
dition of eacli coal seam. A section at Scranton will exhibit the appearance of 
the series in that region. 



29 



Series. 


Feet. 

25 

.5 

20 

7 

90 

12 

80 

6 

50 

15 


Series. 


Feet. 


Shales 


Intervals of sandstone. 


40 


Coal I... 


Coal D 


8 


Shales 

Coal M 


Inte'ls of sandstone and top slate. 
Coal C 


60 
6 


Interval of sandstone au'l shales.. 
Coal G.. 

Intervalsof sandstone and shales.. 


Intervals of sandstone 

Coal B 

Sandstone arid slate 


50 
5 

50 


Coal F 


Coal A 

Sandstone and slates 


2 


Intervals of sandstone chiefly 


50 


Coal E 


Conglomerate floor .. 





A section of the measures at Pottsville, as they appear in the section series of 
that region : 



Series, 


Feet. 


Series. 


Feet. 


Shales covering coal 




Intervals of sandstone and shales 
Coal F. Holmes seam 


175 

4 


Coal N. Sandrock Red Ash 


3 

130 

9 

150 

4 

72 

9 

192 

7 

270 

3 

50 



100 

10 


Intervals of sandstone and shales, 
Coal M. Gate seam, R. A 

Interval of sandrock and shales... 
Coal L. Little Tracv, B. A 


Intervals sandstone and shales... 
Coal. Seven and four feet seams, 

with parting slate 

Sandstone and shales 


100 

11 
20 


Interval of sandstone and shales.. 
Coal K. Big Tracv, R. A 


Coal E. Mammoth White Ash 

Coal F. Skidmore seam, W. A 

Coal C. Gamma 

Coal B. Buck Mountain 


35 
75 


Intervals of sandstone and shales, 
Coal J. Diamond, R. A 


8 
100 


Intervals of sandstone and shales, 

Coal I. Little Orchard 

Intervals of sandstone and shales, 


5 

125 

10 


Coal H. Big Orchard.. 

Intervals of sandstone and shales, 
Coal G. Prinirose 


Coal A. Alpha 

Conglomerate floor 


50 
3 







Tliere are about ten workable coal seams in this basin, and their local and clas- 
sical nomenclature are given in the foregoing section, as given in a work on Coal, 
Iron and Oil, by Bannan & Daddow. 

No amount of air can prevent blowers, as regards their liability to explode, ex- 
cept the constant use of the safety lamps in such working places. To the safety 
lamp alone, then, we must look for safety. 

Any collieiy having an active, honest, intelligent superintendent to manage 
affairs will seldom have any accidents, except such accidents as may occur by the 
acts of careless or ignorant worlcmen, of which there are many such persons. 

The following diagram is illustrative of the combustion of fire-damp, of which 
the product is after-damp or choke-damp : 



Fire-damp before com- 
bustion. 


Elementary mixtures after combustion. 


Prod ucts of com- 
bustion. 


Weight. 


At07ns. WeigV. 


Weigh-. 
22 carbonic acid 


8 carburetted hydrogen 










fl oxygen 8 

1 1 do 8 




144 atmospheric air 


{I do 8 




1 1 ...do 8 


[combined. 
112 nitrogen un- 

152 after-damp. 


152 


152 



30 

COLLIERY ACCIDENTS. 

This melancholy fact forcibly attracts attention to the inquiry : To what pro- 
portion of these accidents preventable causes may be clue, and how far from them 
are the dangerous nature of the miners' occupation inseparaljle? In most cases 
mine accidents scarcely receive a passing notice, except in the vicinity of a serious 
disaster, where, for a time, all is inquisitive confusion, often enveloped in palia- 
tive excuses and speculative opinions, as the result of accident or irresponsible 
causes among the tliousands of woi'kingmen, as well as higher agencies, until of 
late. 

Since the State commission of mine inspectors, these various causes liave been 
carefully investigated, and have been fully recorded, and valuable information 
afforded by their published reports, especially of the chief accidents wliich have 
taken place in eacli year. By tliis means casualties that are deemed accidents,^ 
that occur from unforseen causes, are set plainly before us, that a diligent study"" 
of their description ought to effect a diminution of tlieir occurrence from year to 
year. Often it has been objected to the inspectors that the number of casualties 
is not diminislied in a greater degree, but it should be remembered that whilst 
the casualties really are diminished, the production of coal has been increased, 
and in like ratio has the number of Avorkingmen been increased, as will be shown 
by our statistics of deaths and injuries. The result of the system of mine in- 
spection cannot but be considered a success. 

It will be seen by a careful perusal of our statistics that in each year there 
arises accidents from infraction of the laws and of the rules prescribed by the 
inspectors, being generally applicable to tlie safety of men. The variety and"con- 
dition of the collieries are more or less subject to frequent and different kinds of 
accidents, in accordance with the nature of tlie coal seam, the character of the 
top rock and age of the mine, the length of time the colliery has been in operation, 
the plan upon which it is worked, the general intelligence of the managers and 
workingmen, the proper government of the employees and enforcement of good 
order amongst the workmen, for whilst at one colliery one death or accident" will 
average for 90,000 tons produced, another more favored colliery may have scarcely 
any accident to 150,000 tons inined. 

The following tables, taken from official records, will show the number of deaths 
and casualties, resulting from different causes, in the several collieries of this dis- 
trict, from the commencement of the estahlishment by the State government of in- 
spectors of coal mines, with the gratifying fact that great disasters are rapidly 
decreasing, that a better system of ventilation has been adopted, rendering great 
explosions les's frequent than has been the case in former years, with less tbrce of 
workingmen, and,a smaller production of coal. 

Falls of roof are amongst the most prolific sources of accidents, and are prin- 
cipally occasioned by soft shale j- top rock where the excavations are carried on on 
a large scale, with a lack of jn-oper timbering, and detached masses of shale give 
way to pressure. To guard against this class of accidents, it is necessary to limit 
the excavations, or resort to a proper system of timbering and gobl>ing. If the 
miner is not a practical person, competent to do this work', it should then be per- 
formed by practical parties. Contractors are apt to neglect tlie necessary precau- 
tions, intent upon making the most money by the smallest amount of labor, and 
often, when tlie roof is treacherous in a]>pearance, this neglect is permitted even 
by the contractors and some bosses, l)y conhding blindly to the cliaractei- of the 
roof, while a few well set props Avould counteract an overwhelming crush, and 
save both life and property. 

Fire-damp explosions.— The form and extent of the excavations, the abundance 
of gas, and negligence, are the sources of terrible casualties. Effective ventila- 
tion and proper precaution, if promptly applied, will remedy this great evil. The 
explosion may be (piite harmless, or may not involve more tlian one unfortunate 
individual, or may take place in a single locality, giving no serious alarm to the 
workingmen, whilst in neglected districts it may flash with lightning fury, car- 
rying all within its limits to destruction, not leaving one persoii" alive in its track, 
and enveloping every object in ruin. Some coal evolves much more gas than 
others, while there are certain coal seams that generate scarcely any gas at all. 
In a good current of air in mines that generate fire-damp abundantly men should 
not experin)ent with naked lights, for woe to him who will voluntarily and yet 
carelessly enter an unexplored nook, in which a portion of gas is in an explosive 
condition ; his incautiousness will most assuredly bring him to grief. But of 
late a vast amount of relief is found in the use of the safety lamp, in connection 



31 

witli instruments used in mines to ascertain tlie condition, pressure, temperature 
and velocity of the air, and cf tlie quantum of air supplied by its system of venti- 
lation. First, in the order of their usefulness, is tlie safety lamp ; next is the 
anemometer, or air fan ; next is the use of the thermometer, to ascertain the tem- 
perature ; next the barometer, to ascertain the atmospheric pressure or weiglit of 
the mine air and gaseous air ; next the water gauge, which will afford a know- 
ledge of the pressure of the circidating volume of air supplied. 

STEAM JET VENTILATION. 

Tlie steam jet. system of ventilation in mines is known to have been used as 
early as 1814, but owing to its not being practically put to use it became a failure 
at the time. In the year 1S28 a Mr. Stewart, of Wales, used it as a ventilator, 
but then, as before, its use liad been abandoned. Again, in 1835, a Mr. Golds- 
worthy Gurney explained his views on the sid)ject of steam jet ventilation ; and 
again, in 1839, lie made an elaborate communication to the parliamentary com- 
mittee for inquiry into mine accidents, upon its practical use, but nothing a.pi)ears 
to favor its practical use ; but Mr. T. E. Forster, at Seaton Delaval colliery, in 
1848, put his system into practical use, and the subject received sucli commenda- 
ble opinions, by practical as well as scientific persons, that parliamentary com- 
mittees considered it superior, for ventilation of coal mines, to furnace ventilation. 
At length the subject received the closest scrutiny by colliery viewers, and both 
powers being tested by the most careful experiments, it was ])roved that furnace 
ventilation, of the two, is tlie most serviceable, and that the steam jet is attended 
with an increased expenditure in fuel, not taking into consideration the ma- 
chinery and its attachments, without any corresponding advantage, either in the 
steadiness, security or efficiency of ventilation ; that the furnace is less liable to 
derangement of its efficiency in cases of emergency, and is a more secure, more 
safe and more eligible mode of ventilation than the steam jet, the latter increased 
consumption of coal being nearly three to one. 

MECHANICAL VENTILATION. 

There are several systems of machine ventilators in use. Some are used for 
forcing air into the mines, whilst others again are used to exhaust the air out of 
the mines. There is a considerable saving of fuel in the operation of the steam 
fan system of ventilation, and a. large amount of effective power obtained which 
none of the other systems can supply. In Belgium coal mines that produce fire- 
damp the furnace system is prohibited by law and steam fan system substituted, 
for safe, effective power and economy. In addition to the above, the pump and 
piston system had been in use. A large macliine had been erected by a Mr. 
Nixon, near Al)erda)e ; the Elscar fan, by Mr. Biram ; the centrifugal ventilator, 
of Mr. Brunton ; the pneumatic screw, of Mr. Motte ; the windmill ventilator, of 
M. Lesoume ; the spiral machine, of M. Pasquet ; the inclined vane fan, of M. 
Letoret ,'the curved vane fan, by M. Combes ; the pneumatic wheels, of M. Fabry; 
the centrifugal fan, of M. Guibal, of Belgium, which is upon the principle of the 
exhaust fan — same as the present Beadle fan. The fan is constructed of eight 
arms and eight vanes of inch boards, or sheet iron secured to a revolving shaft, 
tlie whole encased, except about the one-fifth of its periphery; an outer walling 
for partition air-way. whereby the up-cast air is conducted to the side draw-holes 
of the fan ; all other openings excluded. As the machinery is put in motion the 
vanes, in communicating a velocity, form a draft or vacuum, and instantly a cur- 
rent of air is created in the mine, equal to the speed of these vanes and the di- 
ameter. The following table is an extract from results of experiments taken by 
M. Cochrane, at Elswick colliery: 



32 





£2, 


Strolfe 
gine 
per n 






Horse 
trans 
fan... 


•1 

5 "^ 


Water 
top o 
mini 


Useful 
horse 


CD CD CD 

►a £.r- 


Useful 
trans 
fan .. 






= ? 


: o 




= s.^ 




^'S.jq 


k*.r CD 

^1 




; 




• CD 


CD S?! CD 




: o 




£2, 




CD <ri- 


• 5 2, 










: P 


: ft> 


: sr * 




: cdO<? 


I-! — 


5" ^* 


: c^ c5 




^ ' 


: - ' 




: '^ 




• '^ 


: Hj CD 


;■ 3 


: •' ^ 


: n 


1 


20 

S8 


1 
1 


2.39 
9.94 


1.99 

8.37 


24.123 

38.487 


.200 
.600 


.76 
3.54 


29.34 
3(5.62 


83.2 


2. 




43.5 


S 




3S 
39 




10.02 
9.73 


8.81 
7.80 


39.883 
36.504 


.500 
.500 


3.43 

2.88 


34.43 
29.63 


39.1 


4. 




37.0 


5. 




39 


yi 


8.21 


6.85 


29.641 


.250 


1.17 


14.26 


17.1 


fi 




41 
55 
55 
57% 




7.63 
23.84 


6.00 
20.94 


23.469 
56.378 
56.995 
60.441 


.100 
1.200 

""i'.400 


.37 
10.66 

""13.33 


4.85 
44.71 


6 2 




1 


50.9 


S 






9. 


1 


23.53 


19.73 


52.40 


67.55 


in 




87 


1 


r)9.9(? 


58.16 


85.544 


2.550 


34..37 


49.13 


59.10 









In testing tlie relative proportions of useful product of different ventilators, it 
is iiccessary to recollect that the water gauge at the top of the upcast sliaft, con- 
nected with a fan or pump near to it, indicates the difference of barometrical 
pressure between the outer atmosphere and the air within the circuit of ventila- 
tion, (except under unusual conditions;) without any perceptible error we may 
consider water to weigh 62.5 lbs. per cubit foot, so that each inch of water column 
or gauge represents 'i-V "^ ^-'^ ^^'*^- P^^' square foot of ventilating pressure ; and 
to ascertain the power developed, we have only to multiply in such cases the dif- 
ference in inclies of the level of water as indicated by the water gauge, by 5.2 to 
find the ]wunds pressure per square foot ; and this multiplied by the number of 
cubit feet of air circulating per minute, gives the foot jiounds of "developed power 
per minute, and this product divided by 33,000, gives the horse power utilized. 

When the quantity of air is measured, and the water gauge is read off, and an 
indication of the engine taken, we have the necessary data for determining the 
proportion or per centage of the engine power that really utilized. With the 
w^ater gauge undergroun'd the case is not the same, the reading of the instrument 
in such cases, not including the indication of the resistance that the air meets in 
the shaft, and the consumption of coal per horse power per hour. 

The sudden stoppage of the fan ceases ventilation, whilst after the stoppage of 
a furnace the ventilation continues for a considerable time owing to the heated 
surroundings, and this circumstance alone is favorable to furnace ventilation. 



ACCIDE]SrTS IN MINES. 

The chief causes of accidents in mines, arises from discharges of fire-damp, ex- 
plosions, inundations, fall of roof and coal ; other accidents arise from lli'eaking 
of ropes and chains, derangement of machinery, inattention to haulage, etc. 
Causes of explosions in consequence of bad ventilation : the air may be loaded 
with fire-damp to the firing point ; in which case you will have a thorough explo- 
sion. A blower may admit of good enough ventilation for a while, but will 
rapidly rise to the firing point when few persons may have the slightest notice of 
its presence ; neglected doors and stoppages, will permit the accumulation of gas 
in districts, which will probably result in explosions. The rotten condition or 
injury to the lamp gauze will cause an explosion when gas is present. A good 
ventilation, but mismanaged so as to force the air current to be from the pillar 
or lamp district, into these worked with the naked lights, may produce fatal re- 
sults. 

The question is how can these causes be controlled, and if so, to what extent. 
Although under ordinary care there is no excuse for accidents from deficiency of 
air, because the question is well settled and proof well established that a sufficient 
quantum of air can be produced by a fan or furnace, to dilute and render harm- 
less any noxious element generated in any mine if propeily applied, and Avliat is 
of the highest importance, spacious air-ways and well arranged stop gates. Not- 
withstanding tlie large amount of air found circulating in some of our collieries, 
a large addition can be made to the column by this method. Shaft, slo])e and 
drift intakes, leaves no possible excuse for want of a projier supi)ly of air ; it is the 
outlet air current that requires the management, all things else correspondingly 



33 

large, sufficient for the requirements of the colliery. The quantum necessary for 
each district, can be obtained in splits from the main current to ventilate any 
working district safely, and requires but skillful attention on part of the mine 
manager. 

SAFETY LAMPS. 

First. — The Davy lamp is generally the commonest lamp in use, and the most 
reliable, it being the most sensitive of the many safety lamps now in use. It con- 
sists of a cylindrical brass oil stock and tube, affixed to Avhich is a wire picker, 
which, by moving the picker upward or downward, operates the wick at pleasure. 
Upon this oil cylinder is screwed a cylindrical wire gauze some 6i inches long, by 
H inches in diameter. Upon this tube is surmounted a bonnet of the same ma- 
terial, which may be removed at pleasure. This bonnet is two inches long, and 
envelopes the gauge tube ; all of which is firmly held together by brass rods 
screwed on the oil stock. The standard which was fixed on for a safe limit, was 
a gauze witla 28 iron wires to the linear inch, or 7S4 square meshes to the square 
inch, which is pronounced to be safe in careful hands. It must not, however, be 
exposed to rapid currents of air, or permitted to become red hot from the com- 
bustion of the gas within the gauze, otherwise it is safe ; the only objection to it 
is the small amount of light it supplies. The lamp may be securely locked, but 
often miners commit very serious errors in opening it, which commonly leads to 
explosions. It would occupy too much space in this place to describe the various 
other contrivances in use as lamps, some of which are the inventions of Dr. 
Pereira, Clanny's lamp, Dubrielle lamp, Stephenson's lamp, Baty's lamj), Muese- 
ler lamp and Elvin's lamp. All of which are more or less recommended by tlieir 
patrons. There is no department of mining that needs a more stringent discip- 
line than this. Impunity, ignorance and hardihood has often been the cause of 
sacrificing hundreds of lives. Infractions of the law, and innovations on the 
rules of inspectors of mines, the reckless man will ]eoi)ardize the lives of many, 
as well as his own, to gratify his desire for the sweets of his pipe. 

THE AKEMOMITBR OR AIR METER — THE BIRAM AND CASELLA INSTRU- 
MENTS. 

Second. — This instrument is used in mines, by the managers and inspectors, ta 
ascertain the velocity of the current of air supplied by the system of ventilation 
used, by finding the section, area of the gangway or opening, in square feet, and 
multiplying this sum by the velocity of the air current per minute, gives the 
quantity of air in cubic feet supplied per minute. The quantum of air necessary 
to sustain the number of workmen, animals and lights in the mine, as required, 
may be readily calculated, and may be compared with the amount of air supplied. 
The instruments are constructed of a train of metallic toothed gearing, with a 
dial and indicators rising from 10 feet to 10 millions of feet. To this gearing is 
attached a number of vanes which the action of the air sets in motion, which 
operates the instruments, the diameters of whicli vary from 3 to 12 inches. These 
instruments, when well adjusted, are found to be entirely reliable wliere the air 
current is full, while, by its use, the supply needed can be known, and the venti- 
lating apparatus be made to furnish a supply, or diminish it, as the case may be. 
By this means the air can be so regulated as to be sufficient to remove any dele- 
terious gases that are found dangerous or troublesome to the men. A journal of 
the operation of the anemomiter is of vast importance to the manager, who, at 
any time of day, may refer to the state of ventilation, and see whether the per- 
sons entrusted with the direction of ventilating the mine is industrious or negli- 
gent in his duties. In no case should their use be objectionable to the operator 
or mine managers, as its use is of great importance to his interest as an operator. 

THE THERMOMETER. 

Tliird. — This instrument needs no description here, as its use is well known by 
most persons ; but its use to a mine manager is of decided importance. By it he 
ascertains the outside temperature of the atmosphere. Tliis he compares with 
the temperature of the mine in different locations. Where he finds an increase in 
the temperature inside, it indicates the state of that air to be warm, and when 
warm it necessarily expands and becomes buoyant, conseqiently favoring natu- 
ral ventilation and showing that in such state it favors the production of gas, in 

4 y 



34 

proportion to the degree of pressure thereby removed from the gas Assures, which 
freely combines with this air, causing explosions imminent. When this condi- 
tion of the air becomes known, tiie mine boss brings into requisition the use of 
the safety lamp to enable him to ascertain to wliat extent the atmosphere is 
charged with gas and how far his workmen are secured from danger, which if 
found to be in a dangerous condition he forthwith takes measures to secure their 
safety. In extensive muies it is a most necessary auxiliary to the mine boss for 
the safety and protection of his workingmen. 

THE BAROMETER. 

Fourth. — This instrument scarcely needs a description in this connection , al- 
though the Aneroid barometer is the instrument used by the inspectors of this 
district, it being more convenient and portable than any other in use, being the 
size of a common watch, the index sweeping a dial numbered up to 32°, and an 
outer movable disk whicii marks altitudes up to 6,000 feet above sea level — it be- 
ing exceedingly convenient for scientific persons to carry it about their person. 
When this instrument is used in the mines in connection with the thermometer, 
it indicates the condition of the air ; if gas be present by a sudden fall of the in- 
dex, and if a sudden rise is shown by the thermometer and a corresponding fall 
in the barometer, this change in the instruments indicates the condition of the air 
to be explosive. Owing to the atmospheric air being mixed with fire-damp the 
pressure is quickly removed, the gas being but one-half the pressure of atmos- 
pheric air. By aid of tliese instruments the miner may at any moment be able to 
intelligently ascertain the character of the surrounding element and govern him- 
self accordingly. 

Fifth. — The water gauge is quite another adjunct to insure the miner of the 
pressure of the air current, and furnisli him with any system of ventilation. The 
instrument consists of a tube in the form of a siphon, some six to ten inches long 
by one-half incli in diameter. The tube is securely litted to a board with the open 
ends turned upward and nearly tilled with water. The tube is marked into inches 
and tenths of inches, so as to indicate a rise or fall in the water by the force of 
air brought to bear on one of the tubes, whilst the other end is shaded from the 
effects of the force of the air current as it passes through an aperture where the 
instrument is placed, so that at any time the superintendent desires to examine 
its operation he can readily see by its index the condition of ventilation during 
his absence, a register for which ])urpose is generally kept in mines where such 
instruments are kept for a proper record of the actual condition of ventilation 
from time to time. It is a common thing to have tliis instrument placed in such 
a situation that it may be accessible to ail persons interested ; that the most cas- 
ual observer may determine the action of the air supplied. 

Notwithstanding all these, the precautions that science may bring to the relief 
of the miner, unless he be an experienced, cautious person, lie may, by the slight- 
est careless step, become the instrument of his own destruction, as will numbers 
of his co-workingmen, wiien exposed to the prompt fury of this subtle agent— ^re 
damp—^o that nothing short of a proper supply of fresli air can render tliis dread- 
ed element harmless. Therefore, for the proper ventilation of a mine, it is not 
sufficient to supply air enough to supply men, animals and lights, but a sufficient 
quantity should be provided for the removal of all deleterious effluvia, gases, pow- 
der smoke, tlie decomposition of animal and vegetable matter, and for refriger- 
ating the surroundings, where the temperature is high, and artificially over- 
come the chemical action of these noxious elements, so that one hundred or more 
cubic feet of fresh air per man is not too liigh an estimate for the health and safety 
of miners in some collieries. No system of pipes can be relied upon for perfect 
ventilation — the volume of air required must be made to pass through the drifts 
and gangways and introduced into the w^orking districts in si)its and caused to 
return by back air courses out of all i)ossible danger. The liability of men and 
boys to be run over by wagons in gangwaj^s and inclined planes should be met by 
strict discipline, to be provided with refuges along the gangways, with separate 
traveling ways, and intelligent signals, fences at shaft and slope bottom, to insist 
on such traveling ways to l)e used, proper care to be us^d in hoisting and low^ering 
men into and out of the mines, care taken in blasting when the needle sliould \)H 
of copi)er and the ram-end of the tamping bar should be of copper also, safety- 
fuse should be used. The casualties whicli occur from choke-damp and fire-damp 
are generally attributable to negligence and daring in entering dangerous places. 
To reduce this class of perils a resort must be had to proper ventilation and good 
discipline. 



35 

Mining as a life-long occupation might excite some surprise that so many peo- 
ple will be found to brave its dangers, but the enemy being invisible and famil- 
iarity with mining are different things, and these dangers are the more readily 
overlooked. The work though enormous, is simple and re(iuires but little skill in 
coal cutting, and in well-managed collieries the men seldom complain. Interfer- 
ing with the proper organization of a colliery is an act of folly to the well being 
of all parties. A ship in a gale with all hands commanding and all reluctant to 
obey, is in no more a plight than a fiery coal mine stripped of its discipline, ac- 
knowledging no one in full authority. 

COAL — BITUMINOUS. 

Pennsylvania has within its territory the finest bituminous coal fields, affording 
every variety of coal and of the best quality. The Allegheny mountains bound 
it on the east and it extends south and west to the State line, and continues 
further south and west into Ohio and West Virginia and still further south. Its 
area in Pennsylvania alone exceeds lii,000 stjuare miles. — liodyers. 

Owing to the rock formation rising towards the north and north-east faster than 
the surface does, in consequence of which each coal seam runs out as it dips north- 
ward, the lower seams appearing, whicli again give place to others in their turn. 
At AVaynesburg, in the Alonongahela district, the seam is found 238 feet higher 
than the Pittsburg seam. The" coal is six feet tiiick. As it goes northward it 
rises still higlier and finally runs out. At Brownsvi le the seam is found at the 
level of the river, and gradually rises until at Pittsburg, wliere it is 300 feet above 
the river, and it disappears on the hill-tops in Allegheny county. In the northern 
counties of the State only the lower coa^ seams are found on the high summits 
of mountains, and that, too, in small fragments. 

On tlie Allegheny river the lower coal rock measures are 600 feet thick, and 
contain, besides the Sharon sub-conglomerate splint coal of Mercer county, five 
seams, designated A, 13, C, D, E and F. Next above are barren measures, some 
570 feet thick. Above this occur the ujiper coal measures, 240 feet thick, con- 
taining tlie Pittsburg seam. Finally, in Washington and ( ireene counties, al.)Ove 
all are over 900 feet of upper barren measures, sandstone and shales, with six thin 
coal seams. 4 

Throughout the whole field east and north-east of the Pittsburg district, the 
rock strata and coal seams are formed into a number of vast fiexures, tlie course 
of whicli run generally north-east and south-west, dividing the Held into six large 
basins, trenched in numerous places by ravines and valleys, rendering it of im- 
portance to its development. 

The differeift kinds of coal produced in Pennsylvania may be classed into, first, 
anthracite, containing less tlian 12 per cent, of volatile (combustible matter ; sec- 
ond, semi-bituminous, containing more than 12 per cent, and not less than 18 per 
cent. ; third, bituminous, containing as much as 20 per cent., and splint coal, con- 
taining some 37 per cent, of volatile combustible matter. 

The antliracite is confined chiefiy to Luzerne, Carbon, Schuylkill and Northum- 
berland counties, with a small quantity in Dauphin. The semi-anthracite is con- 
fined to Sullivan and Wyoming counties. The semi-bituminous coal is found in 
Tioga, Bradford, Centre, Cambria, Huntingdon and Bedford counties. Tlie bi- 
tuminous coal is found in Fayette, Greene, Washington, Westmoi'eland and Alle- 
gheny counties. The splint coal is found in Mercer and Lawrence counties; 
some cannel coal exists, but not in any commercial {piaiitity. But coal has been 
found in nearly all the counties lying west of the Blue Ridge, m more or less 
quantities, but awaiting railroad facilities for further developement, which is 
in rapid advancement for that purpose. 

Pennsylvania, without exaggeration, has no rival in the AVestern Hemisphere 
as to her resources in fuel, oil, etc., nor in no State in the Union has tliere been 
so much caiiital invested in commercial and transportation facilities, progressive 
industry and enterprise. Its government thoroughly vindicated, tiie laws exe- 
cuted, property, liberty and religion prottcted, education and morality cherished, 
with a self sustaining population. 

Prof. H. D. Rodgers had estimated the whole anthracite coal area to be 410 
square miles. Mr. James M'Farlane, of Towanda, who has paid much atteutio:<i 
to the subject, estimates it at 472 square miles, on the following basis : 



36 





S 


'^ 


> 

1 






CD 


to 

h5 


CO 


> 




50 


CD 




C 
P 




00 


CD 




S CD 


Districts. 


O 
3 
05 


cr 
■-1 

o 


s 
a 


CD 


Districts. 


?" 


p- 


3 


C^3 








5" 


CD 








CD 
OH 


■ P 

i'3 




















433 


.Schuvlkill 


73 


2 




146 


Upper Lehigh... 










Mahanov 


25 


2 


50 




Hazleton 


14 


K 


lOK 




8hainokin 


20 


2K 


50 


100 


Br. Meadf)W 

Black Creek 


11 
12 


Ya. 

y- 


8)^ 
6 




Wyominp;,Lack- 


• 


awanaand Car- 










Little B. Creek... 


7 


% 


2>^ 




bon 


50 


3% 


187 


187 


Lower B. Creek.. 
Green Mountain, 
Other sm. basins, 


10 

7 


)4 

% 


5 
3 


37M 


Total square ni 


iles of 


anthracite area 










433 



The Pittsburg seam underlies an area somewhat less than 3,000 square miles in 
extent, containing 20,000,000,000 tons of coal, while the anthracite estimates 
100,000,000. 

The upper Freeport coal bed underlies an area twice as extensive as that of tlie 
Pittsburg bed, and tlie large bed of tlie lower bituminous coal series underlies an 
area three times as extensive, so tliat every part of western Pennsylvania is well 
supplied with coal. Many varieties of it exist, due chiefly to its condition. 

Anthracite coals are distinguislied by liard, soft and semi-anthracites; white, 
gray, pink and red ash coals ; glassy, curly and boney coals. In like manner the 
bituminous coals are distinguishable into bituminous", semi-bituminous, fat coals, 
prismatic coals, high gas coals, laminated coals, block and splint coals, cannel 
coal, brash coal, etc. BlocK coal is a dry, compact, tirm variety, valuable for the 
manufacture of iron, because, like coke, it is capable of sustaining the weight of 
ore and flux without being crushed in blast furnaces, and is characterized as 
Vteing the lower beds of the coal measures, and is extensively mined in Ohio and 
Indiana. The conglomerate series, in \^-stern Pennsylvania, underlies all the 
workable coal measures and lies one-tliird up the coal measures in eastern Ten- 
nessee. Tlse thin limestone bed which mulerlies it in the western counties of 
Pennsylvania, becomes in the southwestern states a great formation, named 
sub-carboniferous limestone. Therefore, an older system of coal measures, not 
present in Pennsylvania, appears to come in between this limestone and the con- 
glomerate which lies upon it, thickening and receiving beds of*coal as it ap- 
proaches the Crulf of JSlexico. 

The trap dykes are prominent at Mount Joy, on the Iiarrisl)urg and Lancaster 
railroad; at Gwynedd, o)] the N. Pennsylvai ia railroad, and is iiuely exposed in 
York county. One of these trap dykes appears at the nortii foot of .South 
mountain, in Cumberland county, traverses the great valley, passes near Carlisle, 
cuts through the North n)ountain, crosses the Cove mountain, the Juniata river, 
the Susquehanna river above Halifax, Berry's mountain near Millersburg, and 
ends at Wiconisco creek ; is tlsirty miles in length and some four feet wide. 
Where it passes Duncaimon lurnace it is tliere connected with a bed of ii'on ore. 
At Cornwall, in Lebauon county, are found large beds of iron ore in beds of red 
sandstone, beds of traj). beds of magnetic iron ore mixed with copper, and white 
marble. The copper ores are found chiefly along the southern edge of the belt 
of new red sandstone near Phosnixville, in Chester county, on the Schuylkill 
river. At Phtenixville a fossil-beariiig bed has been cut in the tunnel on the P. 
& R. R. R. It runs tlirough Maryhu.d, southern Yirginia and North Carolina, 
on the Dan liver, where six beds of coal had been recently opened, but in Penn- 
sylvania there is no likeliliood of a workable bed being ever discovered in this 
series. 



IRON. 

We extract from the report of ^Ir. Henry M'Alister, Jr., secretary of the Iron 
and Steel association, information in reference to the iron and steel production 
in the United States in the year 1S72. 

The production of anthracite pig iron in 1871 in the Lehigh region, was 372,000 
tons, the product of tlie forty-three furnaces, many of which were out of blast 
for a considerable portion of the year. The production of the furnaces in the 



37 

Schuylkill region during the same time was 157,30-5 tons. The furnaces from 
Harrisl)urg clown along the Sus<iiiehanna made 143,777 tons, and above Harris- 
burg 96,0()U tons. The product of anthracite pig iron in tlie United States in 
187f, was 957,008 tons, of which Pennsylvania niade 714,700 tons. The produc- 
tion of raw bituminous coal and coke i)ig iron was 570,000 tons, making the total 
production in tlie United States 1,912,608 tons. The utmost present annual 
capacity of the blast furnaces of the United States is estimated at about 2,500,- 
000 tons. 

The total production of rails in the country in 1871, amounted to 775,733 tons. 
Of this amount 715,691 tons were iron, and 00,042 tons were steel and steel-headed. 
The following will show the localities where tliese rails were made : 



States- Tons. 

Pennsylvania made 335,604 

Illinois made 91,178 

New York made 87,022 

Ohio made 75,782 

Maryland made 44,941 

Wisconsin made 28,774 

Massachusetts made 28,861 

Michigan made 14,000 



States. Tons. 

Maine made 13.383 

Indiana made 12,778 

Tennessee made 9 ,667 

Missouri made 8,200 

New Jersey made 6,700 

Georgia made 7,846 

West Virginia made 5,000 

Kentucky made 6,000 



The report received from the rail mills indicate that a large number were in 
operation during a part of last year. There are forty-eight rail mills in the 
country, and their utmost annual capacity is placed at about 1,000,000 tons. 
During the year 1871, the rails imported amounted to 572,387 tons, making the 
total consumption in tlie United States 1,348,119 tons. The product of the forges 
and bloomeries of tlie country amounted to 63,000 tons, and 10,000 tons below the 
average of the last ten years. 

The estimated production of rolled and hammered iron, other than rails, is as 
follows : Merchant bar and rod, 330,000 tons ; sheet and plate, 118,000 tons ; hoop, 
22,000 tons; nails and spikes, 155,000 tons; axles, etc., 80,000 tons; making a 
total of 705,000 tons. The product of steel is set down at 80,000 tons, of wliich 
45,000 tons was made by the Bessemer process. 

The number of persons employed in the production of raw and manufactured 
iron in the United States is given at 940,000, of which 140,000 persons are em- 
ployed in the direct production of iron, and 800,000 in the manufacture of articles 
of iron. The value of this labor, if only paid at tlie rate of two dollars per day of 
300 working days in a year, would amount to iiJo64,000,000, and tlie value of the 
product at $900,000,000, divided as follows : Pig iron, !$75,000,000 ; product of 
mills and forges at .$138,000,000 ; and value of articles made from iron, 687,000,000. 

An approximate estimate of the production of pig iron in the whole world, in 
1871, in tons of 2,000 pounds, is as follows : 



Countries. Tons. 

United States 1,912,000 

Great Britian 6,500,000 

France 1,350,000 

Germany 1,250,000 

Belgium 896,000 

Austria 450,000 

Norway & Sweden 280,000 



Coimtries. Tons. 

Russia 330,000 

Italy 75,000 

Spain 72,000 

Other countries 200,000 

Total number made 13,315,000 



It will be seen that Great Britain produces nearly one-half the iron of the whole 
world, with a population not as great as the United States. There is no country 
on tlie globe employs more labor, capital and machinery, and lier untiring pros- 
perity is due to her great practical knowledge of arts, and the sciences and the 
current use of money. 



VELOCITY OF STEAM. 



The velocity of steam, when flowing into a vacuum, is about 1,556 feet per 
second, when at an expansive power equal to the atmosphere ; wlien at 10 atmos- 
pheres, the velocity is increased to about 1,780 feet per second, or 1,215 miles au 



38 

hour nearly. When flowing into the air, under a similar pressure, it is about 650 
feet i)er second, increasing to 1,600 feet for a pressure of 20 atmospheres. 

The boiling points of water, corresponding to different heights of the barome- 
t^er, is given in tlie following table : 

Boiling 2ioints of water corresponding to altitudes of the barometer between 26 and 

31 indies. 



p 


W j 


W 


W 


td 


W 


W 


W 


p 


o 1 


!a 


o 


v> 





p 





















o 


^, 


O 


^ 


3 


t^' 


3 


K 


3 


a 


3 

CO 


a 


3 


3 


a 


3 




CR 


CR 


CD 


CR 


m 


Oq 


3 


'n 


ffi> 


•n 


a> 


V 




"3 


o 




I-! 




•t 




<S 


2. 


ET* 


3 




13 




P 




3 


as 










<rt- 






JO 


:' 












' 


26. 


204.01O 


27.5 


207.550 


29. 


210.190 


.30.5 


212.880 


26.5 


205.710 


28. 


208. 430 


29.5 


211.070 


31. 


21.3.76° 


27. 


206.670 


28.5 


209. 310 


30. 


212. 000 













Water exx)ands corresponding to the degrees of temperature. 



^ 


a 


H 


H 


H 


M 


Ol 


\A 




^ 




H 


3 


n 


3 


V 


3 


-3 


^ 


» 


*3 


p 


•0 


P 


CB 


3 


© 


3 


CD 


3 




00 


<t 


CO 


1 




P 


o" 


» 





P 





^ 


3 


^ 


3 


c 


3 














JD 




6 

• 




.* 


• 


120 


1.00^36 


820 


1.00312 


1.520 


1.01034 


220 


1.00090 ! 


920 


1.00477 


1620 


1.02245 


32° 


1.00022 } 


1020 


1.00677 


1720 


1.02575 


*40O 


1. 1 


1120 


1.00880 


1820 


1.02916 


520 


1.00021 ! 


122° 


1.01116 


1920 


1.03265 


620 


1.00083 ! 


1320 


1.01367 


2020 


1.036.34 


720 


1.00180 ! 


i 1420 


1.01638 


2120 


1.04012 



*Water is held to be at its greatest density when at 39.830. 
Hence, at 72^-, water expands 1.00180, equal to 55o.55ths of its bulk. 
Fluids e'cpand at 212", the volume at 32^. equals 1. 

Air , 1.376 ij 

Alcohol 1.11 



The ratio of expansions for solids and liquids increases with the temperature ; 
that of the gases is uniform for all temperatures. 







KXPANSION OF AIR.— (DALTON.) 






H 


« 


1 


i !;? 


H 


i !^ 


M 




3 


^3 




1 a> 

5 


►3 


2 






•d 


P 




►3 




•3 








C 




a> 




CD 








CO 




H 


ai 








p 







P 





P 







s 


3 




3 


3 


3 
















-t 






a 






? 




CD 






300 




1.002 


60O 


1.066 


1000 




1.152 


330 




1.004 


650 


1.077 


2000 




1.354 


340 




1.007 


700 


1.080 


2120 




1.376 


350 




1.007 


750 


1.099 


3020 




l..'-i58 


400 




1.021 


8OO 


1.110 


3920 




1.7.39 


450 




1.0.32 


850 


1.121 


4820 




1.912 


50O 




1.043 


90° 


1.132 


5820 




2.028 


550 




1.055 


950 


1.142 


68OO 




2.312 



39 

To compute the volume of .cfas at any temperature — its volume at 32° by 490 — 
add the quotient to 1, if it is below 32°, and subtract 1, if it is above 32°, multi- 
ply the volume of gas at 32° by the resulting number, and the product will give 
the number required. 

Example: — What volume will 1,000 cubic feet of air at 32° acquire, by being 
heated to 1,000°? 
Answer : — 2,975i feet. 

Thus :— 1,000°— .32°=96SO, which -h by 490=1.9775, to which add 1=2.9775, then 
1,000X2.9775=2,9751 cubic feet. 

By a careful observation of the above rule, we can easily ascertain the expan- 
sion of air at any given degree of temperature. 

Tliat a knowledge of these calculations is rendered necessary for the ijractical 
use of mine inspectors, there can be no doubt. 

Expansion or dilation of solids, lineal foot, [Faraday,] as shown by the following : 

To compute tlie temperature to which a substance of a given length or dimen- 
sion must be submited or reduced, to give it a greater or less length or volume 
by expansion or contraction. 

When the length is required to be increased : 

Example:— A copper rod 100 feet long, the temperature is at 32° Fahrenheit, 
to what temperature must it be subjected to increase its length to 1.1633 inches 
longer? 

The expansion for a unit of length of copper for 180° is .001745, hence .001745^ 
180°=.000009694 for each degree. 

Thus- 100V12-I-1 103.3 — 100V12 1.1633 

xuub. iy)U2^i^-ri.irMio luuAi-^ , 3^0=, pqQ +320=132° Ans. 
.000009694X100X12^ .011633 t"'^- ^^- ^'i'" 

When the length is required to be reduced : 

Example. — Use the elements of the preceding case; then to ascertain the 
length, 1200X(1X-000009694X (132°— 32°) =1200X1+0009694=1200X1.0009694= 
1201.1633 inches. 

MEAN TEMPERATURE OF VARIOUS LOCALITIES. 



London is 51° 

Edinburg is 41° 

Dublin is 52° 

Rome is 60° 

Equator is 82° 



Mexico is 71° 

Polar region is 36®. 

Globe is 50® 

Hawaii is 72° 



SNOW LINE OR LINE OF PERPETUAL CONGELATION. 



Latitude. Feet hiah. 

10° 14.764 

20° 13,478 

30° 11,484 

40° 9,000 



Latitude. Feet high. 

50° 6,334 

60° 3,818 

70° 1,278 

80° 451 



At the equator it is 15,260 feet ; at the Alps, 8,120 feet ; and in Iceland, 3,084 
feet ; at the Polar regions ice is constant at the surface of the earth. 



TEMPERATURE OF THE EARTH. 



The ratio of increase in its temperature is directly as the depth from the sur- 
face, being about 1° for every 65 feet. The temperature of mines are variable, 
in consequence of the force of the air currents passing through the mines where 
meclianical appliances are used to form a current, but where no air current is 
perceptible, atmospheric action materially affects the temi)erature, much more 
80 in damp or wet mines than it does in dry mines, so likewise gases aifect the 
temperature to a considerable extent. 



40 



OF GAS— DOMESTIC. 

Domestic gas. — A retort produces about 600 cubic feet in five hours with a 
charge of about H cwt. of coal, or 2,800 feet in 24 hours. 

Purifiers. — Wet purifiers require 1 l)usliel of lime mixed with 48 bushels of 
water for 10,000 cubic feet of gas. Dry purifiers require 1 bushel of lime to 
10,000 cubic feet of gas, and 1 superficial foot for every 400 cubic feet of gas. A 
cubic foot of gas, tlie jet 1-33 of an inch in diameter, the flame 4 inches high, 
will bu:n for 65 minutes. Outside liglits require 5 feet and indoor lights 4 
cubic feet per hour. When pipes are laid inclined, eitlier above or below the 
plane of the horizon, a correction must be made in estimating the supply, by 
adding or subtracting one hundredth of an inch from the initial pressure for 
every foot of rise or fall in the length of the pipe. The pressure should seldom 
exceed 2i inches of water at the works, or the leakage will exceed the advantage 
gained by increased pressure. 

Average duration of light in winter per day is 5.08 hours ; in summer it is 2.83 
hours ; in spring it is 3.41 hours, and in. fall 4.16 hours. 

Street lamps in New York consume 3 feet of gas per hour, while in other 
cities 4 to 5 feet are consumed per hour. Tlie standard of gas burning is a 15- 
hole Argand lamp, a 7-inch chimney, and internal diameter .44 inch, and con- 
suming 5 cubic feet per hour, giving a light from common coal of 10 to 12 candles ; 
with cannel coal, 20 to 24 candles ; with ricli Virginia coal and Pittsburg coal, 14 
to 16 candles. Gas which at the level of the sea has a value of 100, would have 
but a value of 60 in the city of Mexico. 

VOLUME OF GAS OBTAINED FROM A TON OF COAL, ROSIN, ETC. 





Cubic feet 


Spec, gravity... 




Cubic feet 


a: 

V 

CD 

era 

: 


Boghead cannel 


13, 334 

15, 426 

15, 000 

9, 500 

10, 000 

11, 000 
10, 000 

12, 500 


.42 
.73 
.58 


Oil and grease 


23,000 

8, 000 

11, 800 

9, 520 
15, 600 
15, 000 

8,963 

12, 000 


.67 


W^igan cannel 


Picton and Sidnej'... 

Pine wood 

Pittsburg 




Cannel 

Cape Breton 

Cumberland 


.66 


.24 

.05 
.04 


Resin 


.66 




Scotch 


.55 


Newcastle 


Virginia 




Kilkenny 


Wallsend 


.42 



Australian coal is much superior to Welsh coal for gas. 1 pound of peat will 
supply gas for one liour's light ; 1 ton of wigan coal has produced 1,326 pounds 
of coke, 338 pounds of gas and 250 pounds of coal tar, and a waste of only 326 
pounds. 

GAS PIPES. 

The flow of gas in pipes is determined by the rules governing the flow of water 
in pipes, the pressure applied is indicated and estimated in inclies of water. 

LENGTH AND DIAMETER OF GAS PIPES TO TRANSMIT GIVEN VOLUMES OF GAS TO 

BRANCH PIPES. 





# 
















^<l 





f 


> 


e 


f 


^< 


« 


f 


tTo 




CD 


Fo 




CD 


t^o 






o ^ 


S5 


3 


o ^ 


p 


a 


o ^ 


p 


3 


P c 


B 


a? 


P != 


3 


tr<5 


C P 


3 


m 




CD 

CD 


cr 




CD 
CD 




^B 
i;?"* 


CD 
CD 


p- 




l-j 


>-!« 






i-i> 






!:* 


. CD 


5' 


CD 


CD h^ 

r^ CD 


5" 


CD 


• CD 


S" 


CD 




















50 


.04 


100 


1, 000 


3.16 


. 1,000 


2,000 


7. 


6,000 


250 


1. 


200 


1, 500 


3.87 


1,000 


6,000 


7.75 


1, 000 


500 


1.97 


600 


2,000 


5.32 


2,000 


6,000 


9.21 


2,000 


700 


2.65 


1,000 


2,000 


6.33 


4,000 1 


8,000 


8.95 


1,000 



41 



The loss of volume of discharge by friction in a pipe 6 inches in diameter and 
one mile in length, is estimated at 95 per cent. 



GAS — AVERAGE COMPOSITIOK OF. 



Aqueous vapor, 2; carbonic acid, .7; carbonic oxide, 7.5; light carboretted 
hydrogen, 39.5; nitrogen, .5 and oleiiant gas, 3.8. 

COMBUSTION, TEMPERATURE AND POWER OE GASES. 





§1 

CD SO 


Water heated 1 degree. 


Temperature of 
combustion, 
open flame... 


> 

CD 




Per pound 
of material. 


Per cubic 
foot of gas. 


1 •* 

CD 53 
CD r-^ 
• CD 

; & 

: o 
: S 

'■ CD 




Cicbicfeet. 
24.6 
38.9 
31. 
31. 

6.7 
37.5 
30.9 
47.2 
40.5 
40.5 
38.7 
38.7 
37. 
34.4 
16.7 
37.7 
25.3 


12.929 
18.573 
20. 140 
14.544 

4.825 
21.060 
13.219 
62.080 
23.543 
21.344 
21.327 
17.752 
17.230 
17.589 
18.001 

7.414 
15.809 


I\)unds. 

1597 

7134 

760 


Degrees. 
4831 

5026 
5121 
3026 
5358 
5228 
5150 
5744 
47(32 
5217 
5239 
4937 
4413 
5095 
4388 
4122 
4641 


Cubic feet. 


Camphene 




CaiiTiel ""as 


36.585 






Carbonic oxide 


320 
6,50 

3217 
329 
996 

1585 


15.403 




31.299 


Ether 




Hydrogen 

Marsh gas 


15.837 
47.946 


Oletiant gas 


76.290 






Sperm oil 

Sperinacite 

iStearine 














Wax 


671 
819 




Wood spirit 









Temperature of Gases — The combustion of a cubic foot of common gas will heat 
sixty-five gallons of water 1°. 

WATER. 

Fresh Water. —The constitution of it by weiglit and measure is— oxygen, by 
weight, 88.9, by measure, 1 ; liydrogen, 11.1, by weight, and 2, by measure. 

One cubic incli of watei- (distilled) at its maximum density of 39^.83, the barom- 
eter at thirty inches, weighs 252.6937 grains, and it is 828i times heavier than 
atmospheric air. 

A cubic foot of water weighs 998.068 ounces, or 62.37925 pounds avoirdupois; 
for facility of calculation a cubic foot of water is taken at 1,000 ounces or 62.5 
pounds. 

STEAM BOILERS — Natural Draft. 

Land steam boilers should be set at an inclination of one-half inch to the foot 
of their length. 

Gr7-oie.*--. — They should have a superficial area of one square foot for every 15 lbs. 
of coal required to be consumed per hour at a rapid rate of combustion, and should 
be set one-lialf inch in every foot downward inclination towards the bridge wall, 
to obviate the dressing of the fires and to increase the draft. ^Vlien, however, 
the rate of consumption is not high, in consequence of the low velocity of the 
draught of the furnace, or the fuel being insufficient, this proportion should be 
increased to one square foot for every 12 lbs. of coal. With wood as the fuel, their 
area should be U square feet that for coal, the width of the bars should be the 
least practicable, and the spaces betweei> them from one-half to three-fourths of 
an inch, according to the fuel used. 

Ash Pit.~The transverse area of it, for a like consumption of 15 lbs. of coal 
per hour, should be one-quarter the area of the -grate surface for bituminons coal 
and one-third for anthracite. The velocity of the current of air entering an ash 
pit may be estimated at 12 feet per second. 



42 

Furnace, (for coal.) — The volume of it should l)e from 2f to 3 cubic feet for ev- 
ery square foot of its grate surface. But for wood the velocity should be about 
5 feet ])er second. 

Combustion is the most complete with firings or charges at intervals of from 15 
to 20 minutes. 

The vohune of smoke for each cubic foot of water converted into steam is from 
coal, 1,780 to 1,950 cubic feet, and from wood, 3,900. 

Bridije Wall — [Flue Boilers.) — The cross section of the flues should have an area 
2 square inches to every i^ound of coal consumed per hour, or 26 square inches for 
each square foot of grate, for a combustion of 13 lbs. of coal per lu)ur ; the differ- 
ence in the area depending upon the character of the conformation of the section 
of and the length of the passage of the gases ; the area being inversely with the 
diameter, and dii'ectly with the length of the flues or the spaces between them. 
Thus, in horizontal tubular boilers the area should be increased to 31 square inches ; 
in vertical tubular, to 36 square inches ; and when a blast is used the area may be 
decreased to 20 square inches. 

The temperature of the furnace is about 1,000, and the volume of air required 
for the combustion of 1 it), of bituminous coal is 155 cubic feet, which when ex- 
])osed to the above temperature, makes the volume of lieated air at the bridge wall 
fi'om 450 to 470 ciibic feet for each pound of coal consumed upon the grate. 

When 13 lbs. of coal per hour are consumed ui)on a square foot of grate, 
13 X 2 = 26 square inches are required, and in this proportion for other quantities. 

The temperature at tlie ends of the tubes should be 500, and their area and the 
base of the chimney should he three-fourths of that over the bridge wall. The 
area of the bridge wall over the area of the flues should be from 7 to 8 over the 
lower flues, and 5 to 6 of the blast. 

Fhies. — Their areas should decrease with their length, but not in proportion 
with the reduction of the temperature of the lieated air, tlieir area at their end 
being 7 to 8 to their area at the bridge wall ; large flues absorb much more heat 
than small ones, as tlie volume and intensity are greater. 

The admission of air behind a bridge wall increases the temperature of the gases, 
but it must be at a point where their temperature is not below 800°. 

Evaj)oration. — One square foot of grate surface, at a combustion of 13 fts. of 
coal per hour, will evai)orate 2 cubic i'eet of water ])er hour. 

Water Surface. — At low evaporation 3 square feet of grate surface, and at high 
evaporation 4 to 5 square feet. 

HEATING SURFACES. 

The grate and heating surfaces should be increased .07 for sea water over that 
of fresh water. 

RELATIVE VALUE OF HEATING SURFACES. 

Horizontal surfaces above tlie flame=l I beneath the flame=l. 
Vertical do. do. =^5 | tubes and fluevS=56. 

A scale one-sixteenth of an inch in tliickness wi 1 effect a loss of 14.7 per cent, 
of fuel. One square foot of fire-surface is computed to be as effective as three 
square feet of heating surface. 

Western boilers. — In the boilers upon the western rivers and lakes of the United 
States, where the coal consumed is of the best quality, and the smoke stacks are 
carried to a great height, the combustion of coal per square foot readily reaches 
40 pounds. One and one-eightli cords of western wood have been consumed per 
hour upon 48 square feet of grate surface. 

To compute tlie heating and grate surface required for a given evaporation or 
volume of cylinder and revolutions : 

Operation. — Reduce the evaporation to the required volume of cybnder, num- 
ber of revolutions of engines, pressure of steam and point of cutting off ; then 
reduce these results to the range of consumption of. fuel per square foot of grate, 
pressure of steam and number of revolutions for the several cases above, and mul- 
tiply tliem by the units given for the surface required. 

Illustration.— T\\i^Ye is required an evaporation of 492.24 cubic feet per hour un- 
der a ])ressure of steam of 17.3 pounds per square incl), stroke of engine 10 feet, 
cut off at one-half the stroke, 15 revolutions i.)er minute and consumption of fuel 
(coal) 13 pounds ])er square foot of grate per hour, in a marine boiler having in- 
ternal furnaces and vertical tubes. 



43 

Volume of steam at this pressure compared with water, 883. 492.24X833^-60= 
6833.93 cubic feet of cylinder per minute, 6b'33.93^15X2=227.79 cubic feet of cyl- 
inder at half-stroke. Then 227.79-20=197.04 cubic feet at 17.3 pounds pressure, 
and 197.04-2()X1'5=147.78, which X06, the time of heating surface for a tubular 
boiler at 20 ])ounds pressure and 20 revolutions=9753.48 square feet, and 147, 78X 
2=the unit for grate under a like condition=29o.56 square feet. 

BOILER PLATES, BOLTS AND JOINTS. 

Boiler platrs and holts. — The tensile strength of iron plates and bolts range from 
42,500 to 62,500, being increased when subjected to a modern temperature. 

The mean tensile strength of copper plates and bolts is 33,000 lbs., being re- 
duced when subjected to a temperature exceeding 120^, at 212° being 32,000 lbs,, 
and at 550° but 25,000 lbs. 

BURSTING AND COLLArSING PRESSURE. 

For compxxtation for iron plates and bolts, without reference to the riveting, 
sliould be based upon a strength of two-fifths, that of the ultimate strength of 
the metal, and for use in fi'esii water upon one-half that of its ultimate strength, 
with copper one-half is a s ife reduction for all purposes. 

The resistance to coJ]ap;e is much less than the resistance to bursting; the 
ratio or proiiortion cannot be determined, as the resistance decreases with its 
length, or that of its course. With an ordinary cylindrical boiler four feet in di- 
ameter, single riveted, -20 feet in length, witli flues loi inclies in diameter, shell 
five-sixteenths thick, flues i inch, the relative strength are: Bursting, S50 lbs; 
colLapsing, 152 lbs. The following units are based on a tensile strength of iron 
of -52,500 lbs., and copper of 32.000 lbs. 

To compute the tliickness, maximum working pressure and diameter of an 
iron boiler or flue. 

FOR SERVICE IN SEA AVATER. 

Thichncss. Euh. — Multiply the diameter in feet, by the working pressure in 
l)0unds; divide the product by 1,260 for square riveting, 1,170 for staggered, and 
900 for single, and the quotient will give the tliickness in decimals of an inch. 

Working jircssure. ii'((?e.— Multiply the thickness by 1,260, 1,170 or 900, as 
before given ; divide the product by "the diameter in feet, and the quotient will 
give the pressure in pounds. 

Diameter. Eidc. — Multiply the thickness by 1,260, 1,170 or 900, as before given ; 
divide the product by the working pressure, and the quotient will give the diame- 
ter in feet. 

Example : — The diameter of a single riveted iron boiler is 4 feet, and the 
thickness of the plates is 5-16tlis, what will be its maximum woiking jn-essure ? 

Thus :— 5-16ths.3125.3125X900^4=70.3+lbs : but for use in all calculations for 
fresh water, the preceding units are increased, viz :— 1575.1460 and 1125. 

TO compute the diameter of stay BOLTS. 

EuLE : — Multiply the distance between their centre in inches by the square root 
of the quotient of the maximum working pressure, divided by 5530 for sea water, 
and by 6900 for fresh water, for iron bolts, and by 5000 for copper bolts, and the 
quotient will give the diameter in inches. 

The strength of iron stay-bolts should be computed at l-7th for sea, and l-6th 
for fresh water, of their ultimate strength, and for copper bolts l-5th. 

Example : — The maximum working pressure of an iron boiler for use in sea 
water is 70 lbs., and the distance apart is 8 inches, what should be their diameter ? 

70 

8XV =8Xl/.01266=8X.1125=9 inches. 

5530 

TO compute the distance apart OF STAY-BOLTS. 

Rule : — Multiply the square root of 'the quotient of 5530 for sea, and 6900 for 
fresh water for iron bolts, and by 5000 for copper bolts, divided by tlie maximum 
working pressure, by the diameter of the bolts, and tlie product will give the 
distance m inches. 



44 

ExAiMPL,E : — The maximum working pressure of an iron boiler, for use in sea 
water, is 70 lbs., and the diameter of the stay-bolts is 9 inches, what should be 
their distance apart ? 

5530 — 

V X.9 in.=v 79X.9=8 inches. 

70 

Stay-bolts when screwed and riveted are i stronger than when screwed only. 
A copper bolt screwed and riveted into a copper plate drew out at a strain of 
16,265 pounds. Iron bolts f inches in diameter, screwed into a copper plate I 
inches thick, drew out at a strain of 18,260 pounds. A like stay-bolt screw hd and 
riveted into an iron plate, drew out at a strain of 28,760 pounds. 

Tluckness of boiler iron plates required and j)Tessure allowed by the laws of the 
United States. Pres.swre equivalent to the standard for a boiler 42 inches iyi di- 
ameter and i inch thick plate. 

DIAMETER OF BOILER. 



^ 


-g 




or!. 






a 


fS- 


01? 


: a 


p 


: a> 


c 


• ai 


Oq 




a 






: B 


No. 1 


5 


2 


4K 


3 


4K 


4 


4 


5 


3% 


6 


^'A 


7 


3 



169.9 
158.5 
147.2 
135.9 
124.5 
113.2 
101.9 



lfiO.4 
149.7 
139.1 
128.3 
117.6 
106.9 
96.2 



CO 

00 


5" 

o 

CD 
CO 


152. 


141.8 


131.8 


121.6 


111.4 


101.3 


91.2 



144.4 
134.7 
125.1 
115.5 
105.9 
96.2 
86-6 



137.5 
128.3 
119.2 
110. 
100.8 
91.7 
82.5 



131.2 
122.5 
113.7 
105. 
96.2 
87.5 
78.7 



125.5 

117.2 

108.8 

100.4 

92.1 

83.7 

75.3 



RIVETED JOINTS. 

Form and Proportions of Riveted Joints. 





.5 

■ CD 


% 

P^ 


CD 

3 




3 s 


% 


tl 


Multiplier. 


• CD 
". IB 


5' 


►1 


5' 


n 


'E 
5' 


: 2. 




Single 


Double 


: ^ 

: o 

: 1-^ 


: O 


."-s 


< 


• 


.>-! 


•- * 


joint. 


joint. 


Inch. 


Inch. 




Inches, 




Inches. 




Inches. 






3-16 


3-8 


2. 


% 


4.5 


n{ 


6.5 


m 


6.8 


11.1 


1-4 


1-2 


2. 


iVs 


4.5 


iM 


6. 


m 


6. 


10. 


5 16 


5-8 


2. 


1% 


4.5 


i% 


5.2 


1>8 


6. 


10. 


3-8 


.3-4 


2. 


1% 


4.5 


^% 


4.7 


2 


5.3 


8.8 


12 


13-16 


1.5 


2K 


4.5 


2 


4. 


2'< 


4.5 


7.5 


5-8 


15-16 


1.5 


2% 


4.5 


2V. 


4. 


2% 


4.4 


7.3 


3-4 


^'A 


1.5 


3% 


4.5 


3 


4. 


Sji 


4.3 


7.2 



The length of a rivet alike to a bolt, is measured from inside of its head. The 
multipliers are for computing the diameters, lengths and distances between cen- 
tres of the rivets ; also for the laps for single and double joints, by multiplying 
the thickness of the plate by the multiplier for the elements required. 

In riveted, joints exposed to a tensile strain, tlie area of tlie rivets should be 
equal to the area of the section of the plates through the line of tlie rivets, run- 
ning a little in excess up to 9-16th inches, and somewhat less beyond that diame- 
ter of rivets. 



45 

RELATIVE STRENGTH OF RIVETED JOINTS PER SQUARE INCH OF SINGLE PLATE. 

Single lapped. — Machine riveted, 3 diameters from centres 25,000 lbs. 

Hand riveted, 3 diameters from centres 24,000 " 

Staggered set and eqni-distant from centres 30,500 " 

Hand riveted ; a butt joint not "staggered," equi-dis- 

tant from centres ; single strip cover 30,000 " 

Square set rivet single cover 42,000 " 

" " double covers 55,000 " 



The above deductions are here given by calculation from Hasvv^ell. 

STEAM FANS. 

Proportion of parts. — Blades : Their width and length should be at the very 
least equal to "i the radius of the fan. 

Openings.— The inlets should be equal to the radius of the fan, and the outlet 
should be in depth not less than i the diameter, its width being equal to the 
width of the fan. 

An increased number of blades or paddles renders the working of the fan 
smoother, but does not increase its capacity for ventilation. The eccentricity of 
a fan should be : 

1. Of its diameter: By experiments deduced by Mr. Buckle, it is shown that 
the velocity of the periphery of the blades should be .9 that of tlieir theorical 
velocity; that is, the velocity a body would acquire in falling the height of a 
homogeneous column of air equivalent to the required density. 

2. That a diminution of the inlet from the proportions here given involved a 
great expenditure of power to reduce the same density. 

3. That the greater the depth of the blades the greater the density of air pro- 
duced with the same number of revolutions. 

To compute the velocity of air discharged per minute : 

aXl/X60' 

■ =-[/ in cubic feet ; a representing the area of the discharge 

160 in square inches. 

Illustration. — The area of the discharge is 40 inches, and the velocity 123 
feet per second, 

40 in.X123 ft.X60 sec. 

=1,845 cubic feet. 

160 
The Beadle suction fan, now in use at our collieries, is commonly made of 
six blades ; the shrouding is formed of inch boards ; the inlets are formed around 
the shafts of an area nearly i the diameter of the fan. The rims of many are left 
open all round for the free discharge of the discharged air, winlst many others 
are covered excepting an outlet opening on the rim. Builders generally differ in 
their opinions on the principle of construction for utility, contending that the 
open rim is the most effective, whilst they condemn the use of closed rims. 
Many experunents have been tried to establish a reliable opinion on this im- 
portant subject, and the best authority states that the closed rim, (except the 
outlet openings,) with the side draw-holes, are by far the most effective ; the 
blades running sm_oothly close to the rim and side covering, forcing the air along 
to the point where it is discharged into the outlet opening. In this way notliing 
can derange or interfere in the least with the passage of the air, wliist in the 
open rim fan, the current of the atmosphere blowing Into the open rim, counter- 
acts the discharged air, and thereby retards the proper operation of tlie fan. 

Some economists, in order to curtail expenditure in ventilating their mines, 
substitute any sort of inferior machine, whilst an existing necessity requires the 
adoption of a first-class fan to ventilate the mine. Many are the fiimsy expedi- 
ents resorted to liy the advocates of this false economy, but the expenses in the 
end largely exceed any benefit derived from such "management. The loss of 
health, and even life and limb is put in jeopardy ; lost time to the miners, which 
is the operator's loss also, besides the loss in his business, creating a very large 
drawback in his business by the unwise management in non-ventilated colleries, 
which, in this item alone, lies the causes of bankruptcy, wliilst in collieries that 
are properly ventilated none of these evils exist, the work of the collieiy can be 
kept constantly going on, realizing some profits to the employer, which he could 
not obtain if his colliery had been poorly yentilated. 



46 



BELTS. 

Belting is a subject wliich requires a knowledge of their general use. The re- 
sistance of belts to slipping on the different drums and pulleys upon which they 
may be used, is a matter of interest to operators and employees. 

Their slipping is entirely independent of their breadth, consequently there is 
no advantage derived from increasing their dimensions beyond that which is ne- 
cessary to enable tlie belt to resist the strain it is subjected to. 

Tlie ratio of friction to pressure, for belts over wood-drums, is, for leather belts 
when worn, .47 ; when new, .5; and when over turned cast iron pulleys or drums, 
24 and 27. 

A leather belt will safely and continuously resist a strain of 350 lbs. per square 
inch of section ; and a section of .2 of a square inch will transmit the equiyalent 
of a horse power, at a velocity of 1,000 feet per minute over a wooden drum, and 
.4 of a sciuare incli over a turned cast iron pulley. 

A vulcanized India-rubber belt will sustain a greater stress than leather, added 
to which its resistance to slipping is from 50 to 85 per cent, greater. 

In high speed belting, the tension and the breadth of the Ijelt should be in- 
ca-eased, in order to prevent tlie belt from slipping. Tlie longer the belt, the grea- 
ter is its effect. 

TO COMPUTE THE STRESS OF BELTS OR CORDS. 

Rule :— Multiply the value of the co-efficient, from the following table, by the 
stress in pounds : 



Proportion of arc 


VALUE OP CO-EKFICIBNT. 


C. AIDE MEMOIRE. 










embraced to the 


Leather belts. 




Cords on 


wooden sheaves. 


circiuuterence ot 










driving pulley. 
























On wood drums 


On iron pulleys 




Rough. 




Polished., 


.2 


1.8 


1.4 




1.9 




1.5 


.3 


2.4 


1.7 




2.6 




1.9 


.4 


3.3 


2.0 




3.5 




2.3 


.5 


4.4 


2.4 




4.8 




2.8 


.6 


5.9 


2.9 




6.6 




3.5 


.7 


7.9 


3.4 




9. 




4.2 



C. — The ratio of the resistance of a drum or pulley to slipping a belt or cord, when 
the resistance of a belt or cord upon the slack side is known. 

Example :— What is the stress a belt is capable of transmitting when the arc 
etmbraced upon the surface of the driving and wooden drum is .4 of its circumfer- 
ence, and the power or tension of the belt is 200 pounds ? (See table) — opposite 
.4 is 3.3. 

Thus : 3.3 X 200 = 660 pounds. 

TO COMPUTE A STRESS WHICH IS TRANSMITTED TO A I5P:LT OR CORD. 

Rule: — Divide the power in pounds transmitted to the periphery of the pulley 
by the velocity of the drum. 

Example : — A cast iron pulley, 4 feet in diameter, driven by a 4 horse power, 
makes 160 revolutions per minute ; what is the stress upon the belt V 

Thus : 33000 X 4 = 132000 fts. , 1 foot per minute. 

4 X 3.1416 X 100 = 1256.64 feet velocity. 

132000 

= 105 lbs. = difference of the stress upon the belt and the resistance 

1266.64 s 

of the slack side of the pulley.-^ = s, and s -^ s =p; p represents the stress 

c— 1 
transmitted by a belt, s the resistance of its slack side, and p the sum of s -f s, or 
the stress and resistance. 



47 

Illustration. — What should be the resistance of the iinrler or slack side of a 
leather belt running over the semi-circumference of a cast-iron pulley, 1 foot in 
diameter, driven by a power of 200 pounds ? 

Thus : 200 

= 142.85 lbs. 

(per table.) 2.4 — 1 

TO COMPUTE THE REQUIRED WIDTH OF A LEATHER BELT. 

Illustration: — An engine of 4 horse power, the power to be transmitted 
through a leather belt over a cast-iron pulley, embracing .4 its circumference, .4 
feet in diameter, and making 100 revolutions per minute; what should be the 
width of the belt ? 

Power as per preceding example, 132000 pounds. 

Velocity " " 1256.64 " 

S. " " 105 " 

s 105 

Then : = = 105, and s+s=p=105+ 105=210 pounds. 

c— 1 2—1 

The resistance or tensile strength of a leather belt is from 270 to 350 fts. per 
square inch ; and assuming the thickness of it to be .15 of an inch, then 300X-15= 
45 fts. Hence 210^45=4.07 inches. 

Illustration.— A belt, 11 inches in width and .22 thick over a drum 4 feet in 
diameter, c=.5, making 60 revolutions per minute, is sufficient to transmit the 
power from an engine working at 990,000 lbs. per minute. 

990000 990000 1313. 3 

Then: = =1313.3 fts., and = 38617, which X2 = 

4X3.1416X60 753.98 4.4—1 

772. 35 

772.35 fts. Hence, 300X.22=66, and = 11.7 inches. 

66 

VULCANIZED INDIA RUBBER BELTING. 

Adhesion of gum and leather beltings as per experiments. 

J. H. CHEEVER. 
RUBBER. lbs. I LEATHER. fts. 

Belts slipped on iron pulley, at 90 | Belts slipped on iron pulleys, at 48 

Belts slipped on leather pulley, at . . 128 I Belts slipped on leather pulleys, at . . 64 
Belts slipped on gum pulley, at 183 | Belts slipped on rubber pulleys, at. . 128 

Hence it appears that a rubber belt for equal resistances with a leather belt may 
be reduced, under the circumstances here given, respectively 46, 50 and 30 per 
cent., from the results to be obtained by the foregoing rule. 

The computations here given are based upon the actual horse power. 

STEAM BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 

Belgium had 90,578 steam boilers in use within the last ten years, between the 
years 1860 and 1870, with a total of 71 explosions, 96 deaths and 65 wounded. In 
England, from 1861 to 1870, there were 411 steam boiler explosions, killing 639 
persons and wounding 782. It is a noticeable fact that in Belgium, England and 
France the proportion of deaths to explosions is very nearly 1+ to 1. No simi- 
larity exists in the proportion of wounded. There is", however, no regularity at 
all,. when it is to be considered the occurrences year by year. These facts were 
shown at the meeting of the Alumni association of the school at Leige, Belgium, 
and they were collected with a view to ascertain whether some standard could 
not be discovered which would increase our knowledge of the cause of explosions 
of steam boilers. This expected knowledge was not tlien derived, but other sig- 
nificant facts were developed, which are of great importance. For instance, the 
English Boiler insurance and steam company made, by its inspectors, 49,163 visits 
in 1871. and found 1,H63 safety valves in bad condition or overpoised ; 676 manome- 
ters out of order, and 452 water level indicators also in bad condition. Here were 
2,820 opportunities for explosions, which a kind Providence saved the people from, 
and the discovery of which shows that these disasters can be prevented by proper 
care. 



48 

Tliese investigations into the cause of steam boiler explosions form a part of 
that general inquiry into industrial disasters, undertaken for the purpose of re- 
lief to humanity of the fearful risks which attend the operations of man on their 
present extended scale. Steam cannot be now dispensed with, because it gathers 
its victims ; for steam at present is the moving power of the world. But a con- 
stant study of the cause of its destructive power and narrowing down restric- 
tions upon carelessness and more rigid inspection will undoubtedly relieve us of 
very many of the dangers to which operatives are now subjected and many val- 
uable lives endangered. 

Tliere is a constant crying demand that something more should be done by 
scientists for the security of life and limb than that which is done up to the 
present, to protect us from universal disasters from steam boiler explosions. 
The security rendered so far by experts in tliis branch is indeed wonderful, but 
fails utterly of the security needed, or of satisfactory results. The subject is un- 
fortunately still open and unexplained, although the dangers are rapidly on the 
increase in every civilized nation, yet so far true science has failed to fully deter- 
mine the true cause. Upon the report of some dreadful disaster, faint attempts 
are made to explain away the causes, many of which have but the sliglitest foun- 
dation of facts, as the interest of parties are consulted, paramount to science and 
truth. 

The dreamy theories and flimsy speculations that are set afloat, that really are 
but shadows, are taken as facts by the common engineer, and limited on their 
part, that steam boilers cannot be exploded while a full guage of water can be 
maintained, with free safety valves, and a competent engineman to run the ma- 
chine, "wliile the iron is considered good." It would be well for the world if 
this was the case, as tliey all are controlable causes, but unfortunately steam 
boilers continue to explode, despite the most Avatchful precaution of the engine- 
man, full water line, reasonable steam pressure, and good boiler iron. They ex- 
plode, too, when circumstances wipe out all evidence that none of the above 
careful provisions could liave averted the disaster, tearing the very best metal 
into fragments, and hurling wliole boilers to a great distance, with such terrible 
force seemingly far beyond the power of steam. The theorists have given the 
public various speculative assertions, but they sadly fail to substantiate any pro- 
per fact. The globular condition which boiling water is capable of assuming 
was a notable and for a time a popular instance, but as the conditions, a red hot 
metal is impossible within a steam boiler while the water is in contact with the 
iion, it is evident the cause must be attributed to some other source. The ex- 
plosion of the steamer Mosella, at Cincinnati in 1838, with the loss of 200 souls, 
has never been explained. Low water has been assigned by experts to be the 
cause, yet it is known of an instance in that city in which the water leaked out, 
and tlie boiler got red hot while still under the pressure of steam, nevertheless 
the water utterly refused to "spheroid" or suffer itself to be decomposed into its 
constituent gases. Old enginemen know of many such cases. Neither is high 
pressure a requisite of an explosion. Tlie propeller Globe arrived in the harbor 
of Chicago in i860, at 4 o'clock in the morning, with 80 poimds of steam. The 
fires were allowed to die out, and at 11 A. M., with only 10 pounds of steam, lier 
boilers exploded utterly destroying the boat. Tlie New York ferry boat, VVhit- 
field, is an evidence of many occurrences of tliis class of explosion. The Whit- 
field had but 27 pounds of steam on when the boilers and boat were torn into frag- 
ments, causing the loss of nearly 100 persons. 

Tiiese exi)losions cannot all be attributed to bad iron. Kailroad statistics fur- 
nish more than a few instances in which locomotive boilers containing 100 to 
150 flues, and consequently must be difficult of a thorough or frequent examina- 
tit)n ; that when examined in the shop for general repairs, have been discovered 
witii whole sections of the boiler corroded, until a mere shell, as thin as a sheet 
of paper, was all that lu4d the water, iind 100 to 110 pounds of steam pressure, 
and yet these boilers did not explode, whilst an ordinary stroke of a liammer 
couhi i)enetrate the boiler, yet new boilers just from the shop have exploded under 
ordinary pressure. 

Explosions must be attributed to other causes than bad iron only. It may be 
readily seen by the seeker after truth, that there lies within the iron walls of the 
steam boiler, as ordinarily used, a mysterious power which science, experience 
ami prudence have failed to explain. Hence the folly of stocking a coroner's jury 
with persons wlio know little about steam power. As long as the verdicts com- 
promise nothing more than the customary condemnation of the dead engineer, 
the censure Of the boiler maker, who tested his boiler by hydraulic pressuj-e of 



49 

300 pounds to satisfy himself of its fitness, and the stale presumption of "low 
water" over pressure and tlie like, it can be looked upon as a stigma upon the pre- 
tented intelligenee and scientific knowledge of the age. 

To what causes, then, may steam boiler explosions be assigned ? Is it to liad 
iron, low water, ciirjlessness,over-])ressure, that the cause must be attributed to ? 
All of which are sutticient to produce it, cannot be denied. T5ut the exploding 
and bursting of a boiler is not alike ; the latter consists of the yielding or giving 
away of a weak part of a boiler, and letting out of steam and water. These oc- 
currences are numerous, and not attended with very serious results, except in 
scalding tliose who are in the line of the escaping water. The boiler is seldom 
moved (.)ut of position, nor torn from its strongest parts. 

An explosion is the contrary in its nature ; the boiler gives way, regardless of 
its weakest parts, and the strongest and best boiler plates are torn into ribbons, 
and tiu'own surprising distances, with surprising force, leaving very little traces 
of water. 

A belief is gaining in the minds of practical and observant experts that im- 
purities in the feed water are an important source of danger, which, strangely 
enough, has been overlooked. "Water, being a natural compound of oxygen and 
hydrogen, and contains by weight 88.9 of oxygen, and 11.1 hj'drogen.and by mea- 
sure oxygen 1, and hydrogen 2. One cubic inch of water, at its maximum den- 
sity of SO-*, (S3 the barometer,) 30 inches weighs 252.0937 grains, and is 828.^ times 
heavier than atmospheric air. A cubic foot of it weighs 62.37925 pound^ivoirdu- 
pois. At a temperature of 212°, its weight is 59.675 pounds, and the weight of a 
cubic foot of ice is but 57.25 pounds. It expands .089=1.1124 of its bulk in freez- 
ing. From 40° to 12°, it expands .00236 of its bulk, and from 40° to 212°, it ex- 
pands .04012=. 00023325 for every degree, giving an increase in volume (40 from 
40° to 212°) of 1.04012=1 cubic foot in 24.92 feet ; 35.84 cubic feet of water weighs 
a ton, and 39.13 cubic feet of ice weighs a ton. 

When water is pure it will not become turbid or produce a precitate with any 
of the following re-agents : 

Baryta water — if an opaqueness appear carbonic acid is present. 

Chloride of barium indicates sulpliates. 

Nitrate of silver indicates chlorides. 

Oxatate of ammonia indicates lime salts. 

Sulphide of hydrogen, slightly acid, indicates antimony, arsenic, tin, copper, 
gold, silver, lead, bismuth. 

Sulpliide of ammonia indicates nickel, cobalt, magnesia, iron, zinc, alumina audi 
chromium. 

Chloride of mercury indicates sulphate of zinc, indicates organic matter. 

Mineral waters are classed into 5 groups, viz : 

1. Carbonated — containing pure carbonic acid, as Seltzer, Germany; Spa, IM-, 
gium ; Prymont, West Philadelphia; Seidlitz, Bohemia, and Sweet Spring, Vir-,. 
ginia. 

2. Sulphurous — containing sulphuretted hydrogen, as Harrowgate and Chelten- 
ham, England; Aix-la-Chapella, Prussia ; Blue Lick, Kentucky ; Sulphu;i^ Springs, 
Virginia. 

3. Clialj'beate — containing carbonate of iron, as Hamstead, Tunb^'idge, and 
Brighton, England; Spa, Belgium; Ballstonand Saratoga, New York, and Bed- 
ford, Pennsylvania. 

4. Alkaline — containing carbonate of soda. These are rare, as Vichy, Ems, 
etc. 

5. Saline — containing salts, as Epsom, Bath, England;: Baden Baden and 
Seltzer, Germany ; Kissingen, Plombiers, France ; Lucca, Italy; Yellow springs, 
Ohio ; Warm springs, N. C. ; Congress springs, N. Y., and, Greenville, Kentucky. 

RULES TO ANALYZE WATERS AKD TO DETERMINE TO WillCII OF THE ABOVE 
CLASSES THE WATER BELONGS, 

1. If the water reddens blue litmus paper before boiling, but not afterwards, 
and the blue color of the reddened paper is restored upon warming, it is carbo- 
nated. 

2. If it gives off a nauseous odor, and gives a black precipitate with acetate 
of lead, it is sulphurous, 

3. If, after the addition of a few drops hydrocloric acid, it gives a blue precipi- 
tate, with yellow or red prussiate of potash, the water is chalyleate. 

4. If it restores the blue color of litmus paper after boiling, it is alkaline, 

5 



50 

5. If it possesses neither of the above properties in a marked degree, and 
leaves a large residue upon evaporation, it is a saline water. 

River water contains 1-20 and spring water contains 1-14 of its volume of 
gaseous matter. 

A cubic foot of sea water weighs 64.3125 pounds, and 34.83 cubic feet of ife 
weigh a ton. 

AVater will solidify at a temperature of 32° Fahr., and at an elevation above 
the sea line of 531 feet it will boil at a temperature of 212° Falir., and just as the 
in-essure is increased we must also raise the temperature to produce the same 
effect. While this is true of pure water, it is far different with waters contain- 
ing impurities t)r foreign substances. Even the presence of artificial matter, 
that is, matter not in true solution, will greatly influence the conditions of evapo- 
ration. Take a vessel containing pure water and another containing a few 
grains of sand, the first will evaporate steam with the usual currents of the 
water, while the latter vessel, which contains the few grains of sand, will suffer 
violent el)ullition. Water containing any greasy or oily substance will display 
very singular phenomena. Molten iron had been dropped into water where 
workmen Avashed and used soap freely, an instant flash — an explosion ; the metal 
was thrown up to the roof, and as often as it Avas repeated this was the result ; 
Ijut when the hot metal was dropped into pure water, no explosion ensued, only 
a Inibbling, sizzing of escaping steam. 

River and harbor waters are loaded with abundance of foreign matter and 
earthy salts, which, to a certain extent, unfits the same for steam boilers, with- 
out first evaporating it in tanks to purify it, but this would be an expensive job. 
A chemical analysis of the Mississippi water, taken below the mouth of the Mis- 
souri river, showed nearly 6 grains nitrogenous matter (albumen) to the gallon, 
and with the presence of earthy matter, fats or oils, and alkalies derived from the 
decomposition of animal and vegetable substances, might be set down as extra 
iiazzardous at high temperatures. 

High authority says : " The instability of all nitrogenous compounds is the 
striking peculiarity."' Tliese elements are held together by fickle affinities, and 
liave a proneness to decomposition when deranged by heat or molecular distur- 
/.lances. Viewing the Ohio river in the same light, it is nothing short of a sewer 
•on a large scale, the drainage of petroleum regions, slaughter-house drainage, gas 
Jiind refuse, etc., into one channel, the rains wash the slimy refuse of numerous 
valleys into this feed-water of decayed vegetable matter, the nitre-beds of Ken- 
tucky, and the mineral sewerage of the contiguous States, furnish their quoto of 
the mixture which is used in steamboat and stationary engine boileis. If such 
.impure watei- will exhibit such remarkable explosive powers in the chemists labora- 
tory, is it not reasonable to suppose that when subjected to high temperature in 
;stecun-boilers, it may manifest similar phenomenas. 

All new boilers contain more or less grease as they come from the shop, and 
for a few days the water foams furiously, and every observant engineer knows 
tiuit at times .of freshet, when these waters are loaded with animal, vegetable and 
mineral impurities, there is much annoyance occasioned from foamings, and the 
gauges are often clogged and troublesome. To what then may explosions be as- 
f-igned ? 

It is well known that some boiler explosions, by the fact that when water has 
been boiled long enough to lose its air, it does not become steam gradually as be- 
fore, but tiie whole mass is suddenly converted into vapor. Faraday, to obtain 
wattr without air, availed himself of the extraordinary power possessed by bodies 
in cr.ystallizing. of excluding air. Water in freezing takes np its crystalline form 
and excludes everything extraneous to itself. The experiment was i)erformed : A 
lumi) of ice was placed in a clean test tube in an oil bath, and just covered with 
Oil, the whole being covered by a glass jar to prevent scattering the oil. When 
the water boiled it did so with a sharp explosion, violently dischargins: the oil into 
the air. Another tube containing common water covered with uil boiled 
tranquilly. 

Steam boiler incrustations is a serious drawback to security of life. Dr. Cliand- 
ler, I think, offered some years ago a plan to prevent incrustations in steam 
boilers, wiiich often cause explosions. The Dr. said : Boiling expels the carbonic 
acid, and causes the separation of the carbonates of lime and magnesia, and if 
conducted at a high pressure, under considerable pressure, results in the almost 
complete precipitation of the sulphate of lime. It would merely transfer the in- 
crustations to another vessel and leave the water free from foreign matter." 
The proposition was to have the water boiled before entering the tank, that the 



51 

impurities in the water would be precipitated. It certainly offers the simplest 
method of dealing with incrustations. Thus at watering stations along the line 
of road, a steam tank can be used, connected with a pumping engine or steam 
pumps, of a capacity sufficient for heating the required amount of water, into 
this tank the exhaust pipes could be laid, the steam and heat could be utilized to 
advantage, and the water purified of all impurities. The cost of such improve- 
ments would be but small in comparison to the gross repair bills to a railroad 
company. The heating tank to be closed, the water to be heated to the boiling 
point, would subject it to a pressure of 1-5 pounds to the square inch. A tube 
leading from the boiling tank to the receiving tank would drain off the pure water 
and leave the calcareous matter in the heater, which could occasionally receive a 
cleansing, and this process repeated as often as is necessary, thus keeping up the 
supply according to the demand. 

It is estimated that 1,000 gallons of water can be heated to the boiling point 
with 172 lbs of coal=30^ cents, or 8,000 gallons heated by one ton of coal, at $2 50 
per ton. To purify the water for one locomotive during one year will cost 94 tons 
of coal, at $2 50 per ton, amounting to .^235 20. To this add the cost of the boil- 
ing apparatus, say $oB0 00. This apparatus will boil water for many other en- 
gines. Fully 75 per cent, of locomotive repairs is owing to incrustations ; so 
under favorable circumstances there would be a saving of over $400. liut the 
gain is even greater than this. The conducting power of incrustation is very 
low ; and as, after four months, there will be in the locomotives on western roads 
a crust of one-sixteenth of an inch thick, so a much greater heat must be main- 
tained to raise steam in crusted steam boilers than if it were free. The thicker 
this crust, the higher must the temperature of the fire be raised to supply the re- 
quired amount of steam, which no doiibt will expose some parts of the metal to 
an overstrain and fracture. The entire saving is not less than $700, less the cost 
of coal. Tills gives an annual profit of not less than $464 80. This calculation 
is not the result of experiment, but an accurate estimate deduced from practical 
conclusions. The question is of importance to coal operators and land-owners 
generally, to furnace men, railroad and canal companies. The saving will in 
their case be in the item of repairs and safety of the employees. 

APPOINTMENT OF MINE INSPECTOR. 

The principle of examination of candidates for that important position is a 
sound one, and no reasonable objection whatever can be brought forward against 
a careful inquiry into the becoming fitness of a candidate to prove his practical 
knowledge and scientific qualifications to fill the position and discharge the du- 
ties of the appointment, and prove his particular fitness above other candidates 
in competition for the office. But against the manner and form in which exami- 
nations have been conducted in the examination of candidates for Mine Inspec- 
tors in the past and in part of the anthracite coal region, there is a great deal of 
sound and sensible objection that may be truthfully brought forward. The com- 
mission who are appointed by the courts for discharging that critical duty, ought 
to be persons of intelligent, discriminative ability, ripe in experience, capable of 
distinguishing the business powers — the scientific as well as the practical knowl- 
edge, the mental capacity and moral character of the candidates who may come 
beifore the board^otherwise their deliberations will become the subject of ridi- 
cule. The class of candidates who present themselves for examination generally 
have not the requisite attainment, but are prompted by a sort of singular selfisli- 
ness, characteristic of ignorance and uncultivated minds, who, many of them, are 
more to be pitied than to be blamed, lacking the very first essential principles 
requisite and most necessary to a good inspector of coal mines, whilst men of 
higher culture and practical experience shrink the ordeal of an examination sus- 
pecting their inability to succeed or to risk their reputation at the hands of the 
commission. 

AVhen examiners come to deal with practical and scientific men, who add the 
faculty of fair criticism and executive ability to an intimate and varied experience 
of mining,the question presents increased difficulty. Who shall be taken or chosen ? 
Is it the practical candidate familiar with all the details of the work as it is carried 
on, or shall the scientific man be chosen who knows how the Avork should be car- 
ried on ? To combine these two requisites in one person is a matter of difficulty, 
especially at the rates paid and the labor to be performed, that it is almost an im- 
possibility. The duty of the government to its people and its dealing with the 
owners of the industry which requires strict supervision, is a matter of much con- 



52 

cern.the government claiming the right to protect human life as of the first prin- 
ciple-, the ojieiators holding that their business should he carried on and that re- 
strictions sliould not be opi)ressive. In the matter of mine inspector it is utterly 
impossible for him to bring to his aid too mucli accurate knowledge of tlieory or 
too mucli pr;\pticiil experienct;, for both should be necessarily combined in the offi- 
cer of the government. The lack of either essential qualitication unfits him for 
the proper discharge of duty. Besides this, he should be i)ossessed of a decisive 
mind, fearless in his undertakings, neither give to the one nor take from the other 
aught but what was justly their due. At the head of this commission and in fact all 
the board sliould be i)ersons well informed in science. The inspectors should be 
men of ability, imposing no more requirements than what are reasonable, practi- 
cal, beneticial and neceesary. To carry on the work in safety all their instructions 
should be sensible, the plans possible, take timely advantage of circumstances, 
and this scheme has the advantage of testing criticism and of recommending it- 
self to ins])ector, master and miner alike, who see their interests committed to, 
practical, honest men of their class. 

The method proposed by the present English law^ is looked u]^on as a good one. 
The home secretary is to designate three owners, tliree practical miners and three 
mining engineers, and this commission in conjunction with the inspector of the 
district, is to select examiners, who wall inquire into the fitness of the manager of 
the mine. It is intended to suffer none to have the management of a collieiy ex- 
cei)t persons who give satisfactory proof under examination and possess tl;ere(iui- 
site qualifications and vouched for by competent certificates as a means of ascer- 
taining their real ability, and this method gives promise of as good results as any 
plan yet devised. 

All classes who are interested in mining coal and working in coal mines should 
be satisfied that tlie selection of the inspector by the examining board is satisfac- 
toiy, and looking at the action of the ccnnmission, the people should have the 
right to a])peal to the courts when an imposition has been pr-i.cticed upon tliem, 
nor should the unwarrantable acts of the board of examiners be tolerated a mo- 
ment longer than the interest of the miners and laborers in mines is regarded as 
unsafe, a great responsibility rests on tlie commission in making their examina- 
tion. Public interest requires the candidate's fitness for the p'^sition and that he 
discharges the duties of his office with fidelity and promptly, otherwise the lives 
of many valuable peisons are endangered, distress and ruin brought on families, 
and the law itself made a mockery of and a snare in the hands of incompetent 
men. 

Weight of Trails in pounds ver yard., and in tons of 2,2AQ poiinds per mile — Stand- 
ard u'cicjht at Benjamin May woods\ Esq., rolling mills at Pottsville, Schuylkill 
county, Pa. 

Tons. lbs. 

At IC) pounds per yard it requires 25 325 per mile. 

At 18 pounds i)er jaird it requires 28 640 per mile. 

At 20 pounds per yard it requires 31 660 per mile. 

At 22 pounds per yard it requires 31 1280 per mile. 

At 25 pounds i)er yard it requires 39 610 per mile. 

At 28 pounds per yard it requires 44 .... per mile. 

At 30 pounds per yard it requires 47 320 per mile. 

At 33 pounds per yard it requires 51 1920 per mile. 

At 45 pounds per yard it requires 05 960 per mile. 

At 48 pounds per yard it requires 75 960 per mile. 

At 68 pounds per j-ard it requires 106 1920 per mile. 

The above table will serve ip approximately estimate the cost of a mile of any 
siz3 T rail, now in common use about the mines. Is useful and convenient for 
almost all purposes, and will serve the purposes of mine managers for close esti- 
mates. Three pounds of iron are estimated to be worn off railway bars for each 
ton carried one hundred miles distance over the vailvoiid.— President Gowen''s 
report, 1872. 

CAR WHEELS. 

It is consistent with mine economy to notice car wheels in connection with 
mine statistics, and the savings gained in this item alone are evidently of great 
importance to coal companies, as well as to the individual operator. There are 
ai present noi. less than 120 dilterent patterns of car wheels in use, many of which 



53 

are worthy of note. It is not our purpose in tliis place to show the superiority 
of one pattern above the othei's, having no interest in the matter further than 
long experience in the dilferent sorts. We found the Wliituey phite wheels to 
equal and, if anything, to be superior to any other pattern now in use for all prac- 
tical applications and for durability, being much less liable to injury, injudicious 
application of severe breakage or liasty usage, which is not the case with all the 
spoke wheel patterns. The Gardner and Cliristian self -lubricating plate wheel 
is also deserving of notice, though this pattern is but recently brought into use 
at the mines, but is l)eing largely patronized by our coal operators. There ai"e 
many other wheel patterns in use whose advocates claim for them all the neces- 
sary qualities for real economy, but which often have proven to be far below the 
standard claimed for them when used upon our mountain grades under severe 
trials, under heavy trains and fast running. 

DRUMS. 

Brakes attached to drums are of great necessity, and the supplying of proper 
and safe brakeage for drums that are used in operating in shafts, slopes and on 
inclined planes is a matter which should seriously engage the especial attention of 
mine inspectors, operators and managers of coal mines. Althougli the act of As- 
sembly of 1870 recpiires that such appliances shall be so secured to drvnns as to 
make their operation safe and secure, we yet tind many cases where this matter re- 
ceives but very little attention, and the operators seem to be quite indifferent in 
the matter, but substitute any sort of trum[)ed-up contrivance for the tmie being, 
which may supply a temporary want, and thereby endanger the lives of persons, 
besides the damage that will surely arise from accidents occasioned by negligence 
and bad and inadeqiuite brakeage. Drinns should be so constructed as to have 
the brake placed in its entre on its periphery ; the break to be made of an iron 
band some six inches broad and of the necessary thickness, running upon an iron 
ring or disc with suflicient leverage near the hand of the engineer that the opera- 
tion of the drum may be at his command, and that by a slight movement he couU.i 
direct and control its action. The cost of such a brake would in a short time 
re])ay the operator. 

Persons entrusted with operating shaft, slope and incline plane engines and 
machinery, and whose duty it is to lower and hoist men on such contrivances as 
are applicable to such openings, and having, in part, the lives and safety of these 
persons in their hands, should be persons of sound and intelligent judgment, liav- 
ing full and free control of his business without let or hindrance, possessed of 
temperate and steady habits, not prone to hasty or rough temper, having the in- 
terest of his fellowmen and fear of a just God at heart, to be fully acquainted 
with all the minutia of the machinery, the condition of the shaft and slope wajs, 
the necessary strain and speed, tlie strength and resistance to the operation of the 
machinery, and to frequently visit and inspect the same ; to see every part of the 
bearings well oiled, to prevent friction, so as to be at all times cool to the touch, 
and to pride himself upon his perfect knowledge and his avocation ; for every 
thing have a place, and a ])lace for every thing, in their proper order. The ser- 
vices of such a person is eminently invaluable, comiiared with the services of the 
ignorant, sloven, careless blusterer, who never lias an interest in his employment ; 
if he can read at all, he is sure to read vulgar matter of the lowest type, lounging 
idly, that his person is a burthen to him, surly, dogged and insolent; he may 
be a mechanic, too, but his habits unfit him to be employed about mine machiner> . 
where the lives and safety of persons are at stake — his real ydace would be in 
some low doggery, loafing away his time amongst such associates. I am persuadec: 
to make this mark of distinction betw'een the different classes of stationary en- 
gineers that are met within the district. This subjeci may ajipear severe to 
some, nevertheless it is too true, and think it but onr bounden duty, in connec- 
tion with this subject, to reprove where apparent and real negligence belong. — 
Although I may incur their displeasure by this hint, a glance at our death statis- 
tics during the last four years, w 11 convince the public that these remarks are 
justifiable, when we connect these deaths and casualties, and the misery entaile<( 
upon widows and orphans by careless and negligent persons. 

Although they may escape, " as often they do," the censure of the community, 
yet before their God they are responsible as accessary to the destruction of lumian 
life. To show the truth of this assertion, visit the many engine houses in this 
region, and the evident examples of carelessness is visible. Valuable machinery 
is found encased in filth and oil, the steam-valves overloaded with old m tals. 
debris laying around every where, the wall covered over with vulgar papers and 



54 

readable matter, the engineer listlessly lounging with a gruff ness unbecoming his 
responsible position. 

SLOPE AXD SHAFT HANDS. 

Persons who are employed as top and bottom men at shafts, slopes and incline 
l)lanes, are, in a great measure, culpable for casualties that occur in such places. 
Many of which lack the requisite energy to enforce the rules tmd regulations pro- 
mulgated by the employers, in forbidding tlie men crowding upon the cages and 
wagons that are used for lowering and hoisting persons into and out of the mines. 
I may liere assume the risk of incurring the displeasure of many of this class, by 
giving publicity to their timid and vacillating conduct, whilst the safety of the 
other employees are, in a great measure, placed in their hands. But on the score 
of luuuanity I will reprove such conduct wherever found ; and vice versa, will al- 
ways approve the praiseworthy conduct of any man who will faithfully discharge 
liis duties without fear or favor, whilst the safety of persons, in a great measure, 
rests in his liands. 

Breaking strciin of v:ire ropes. Tests furnished by Mr. Eohling, wire rope manu- 
facturer, Trenton, New jersey. 





RorES OF 133 


WIRES. 






Koriis 


OF 49 WIRES. 




^ 


„ o 


o 


'^ 


^w 


a 


1^ 


^ 


^ 


i-< 


n 


s 


^ :^ 


p" 


2. 


OS 


2 ^C' 


;;? 


=^ "i^ 


S. 


^^ 


2 3'»5" 




o 2 


3 


CD 


^^ 


5 = S 


CD 


2 


CD 


2 3 


3022 


a 
3 

cr 

CD 


CD 3 
• CD 

: i-« 

: o 
: 
. o 
: ® 


Q 
<-. 

5' 

5' 

a 

P" 


CD 
O 


"o ^ 


^-03 
I-. ^ 1-1 

CD CD 

cr 
: 


3 

C 

3 
cr 

CD 
•-. 

i 


CD P 

• CD 

• CD 

: a 

. C5 

: ® 


CD 



CD 
1-1 

"0 !T 

OCD 
5=9. 


05 CD 1^3 3 

ET^ CD HL 
3 3 J 

^ ■^►^ 3 

CRff 3 
p.^! "3 CD 
.~C CD CD 

. — . ao 
: ^ -0 


' 


: s 






: t3 


. Ma -ij 




• 3 




J" B' 


: ? 3 "> 


1 


&% 


2V^ 


%l 20 


74.00 


15i,< 


11 


4^< 


54 


36.00 


10% 


2 


6 


2 


1 05 


05.00 


14>^ 


12 


41^ 


47 


30.00 


10 


3 


5V< 


W^ 


91 


54.00 


13 


13 


334 


41 


25.00 


9K 


4 


5 


1-K 


78 


43.60 


12 


14 


3% 


35 


20.00 


81^ 


5 




IM 


65 


35.00 


10?<^ 


15 


3 


29 


16.00 


7i< 


6 


4 


1'^ 


63 


27.20 


^}i 


16 


25< 


23 


12.30 


6>^ 


7 


■6y> 


1% 


41 


20.20 


8 


17' 


2% 


18 


8.80 


5>4 


8 


'6% 


1 


34 


16.00 


7 


18 


2K 


15 


7.60 


5 


9 


3 


% 


2,S 


11.40 


6 


19 


1^^ 


13 


5.80 


4% 


10 


li>4 


Va 


25 


8.64 


5 


20 


l-¥ 


11 


4.09 


4 


10 1.^ 


2 


% 


24 


5.13 


4K 


21 


1% 


9 


2.83 


31^ 


10^ 


m 


9-1(3 


23 


4.27 


4 


22 


IV^ 


8 


2.13 


2% 


mX 


1>^ 


>2 


22 


3.48 


m 


23 

24 
25 

26 

27 
27i/< 


1 

% 

% 


7 

6K 

6 

5 

4 


1.63 

1.38 

1.03 

.81 

.56 

.25 


2M 
1?^ 














28 
29 




3 

2 


Lar. sash cord 
Sm. sash cord 

















For a safe working load allow 1.5 to 1.7 of ultimate strength, according to speed, 
and vibration. Drums, sheaves and pulleys should double the diameter in feet 
that the rope is in inches in circumference, but never under the minimum of the 
rope circumference. Kopes will Avear double as long upon hiFge drums, and also 
with the speed ; it is better to increase the load than the speed. A hempen centre 
wears much better than a wire centre on short bends, and should not be coiled or 
uncoiled like hemp ropes. All twists must be carefully avoided. Raw linseed 
oil is the best preserver when mixed with lamp-black. The best preserver under 
water for ropes is three-fourths of tar to one-fourth slacked lime, to coat it over. 



55 

VENTILATION OF MINES. — Greenwell & Atkinson. 

The volume of air necessary to sustain a man appears to be 27.8 cubic feet per 
hour. The lungs scarcely absorb any nitrogen and only three parts of oxygen out 
of every 100 parts of atmospheric air ; thus the air expired contains only seventy- 
nine per cent, of nitrogen and eighteen per cent, of oxygen. The tliree parts of 
oxygen are re-placed by their equivalents in carbonic acid and vapor of water. — 
Annals d<'s Ifincs^ first series^ I'oL 10. 

Thus^ 150 workmen, employed eiglit hours in a mine, will respire 33,301 cubic 
feet of air, which is about equal to 70 cul)ic feet per minute. They will absorlj in 
the act of respiration 999 cubic feet of oxygen, and restore to the bulk of the vol- 
ume of carbonic acid, (blaek-damp,) and nearly 3,765 cubic feet of nitrogen, which 
will remain in excess over the proportion of common air. — Ponson^ Traite de X'- 
Exploitaiions des Mines de Ilomille^ Vol. 11^ p. 5. 

Five cubic inches of nitrogen are consumed every minute by an ordinary man, 
according to Dr. Henderson and Sir Humphrey Davy. Allen and Pepys say that 
azote is given out by the lungs, and Ellis has labored to show tliat in respiration 
the natural nitrogen of the atmosphere Ls untouched in quantity and unchanged 
in quality. 

The combustion of lamps absorb a quantity of oxygen which depends on the 
nature and weight of the substance burnt in a given time. There are at the pre- 
sent produced carbonic acid and vapor of water. Ordinary mine lamps require 
some ten cubic feet of air per hoiu- for their combustion. 

Oxygen of the air is also absorbed by the animals' employed in mines, as well 
as the chemical decomposition of substances found in mines. Whilst under the 
influence of air and A^apor, sulphurets are transformed into sulphates, as in the 
case of iron pyrites, which are found transformed into sulphates of iron. And 
it is known that animal and vegetable matters in the same circumstance undergo 
a fermentation in which the oxygen of the air disappears, the products being dis- 
sipated into the surrounding atmosphere. These are chiefly carbonic acid gas, 
carbonic oxide or white-damp, (?) gaseous compounds of carbon and hydrogen, 
nitrogen and ammonia, and these gases are combined with other substances, wliic'i 
chemical analysis has been able to isolate. They usually have a sickly odor, and 
are in the highest degree deleterious to life as miasmata. 

Tlie deflagration of powder employed in mines forms a gas and forms a compo 
sition of carbonic acid, carbonic oxide, nitrogen vapor of water, carburetted 
hydrogen, and a little sulphuretted hydrogen. The solid products of the defla- 
gration, which are composed of unburnt powder, sulphate of potash and sulphuret 
of potassium, are projected in minute particles into the surrounding air, which is 
obscured by them. The fumes of powder, blasting powder especially, are disa- 
greeable and powerfully irritate the organ of respiration ; consequently it is 
necessary to expel them by the renewal of fresh air where blasting has talien 
place. 

The gases met with in mines which, when sufficiently diluted with atmospheric 
air, are productive of deleterious effect upon the workmen, or capable of forming, 
with it, an explosive compound, are as follows : 

1. Carbonic acid, called black-damp. 

2. Dicarburet of hydrogen, or light carburetted hydrogen, fire-damp ; mixed oc- 
casionally with carburet of hydrogen, or heavy carburetted hydrogen, or olefiant 
gas, according to many authorities. 

3. Sulphuretted hydrogen, rarely. 

4. Carbonic oxide — white-damp. 

1. Carbonic acid consists of two atoms of oxygen and one atom of carbon. Its 
speciflc gravity, compared with air, is 1.52901 ; the weight of a cubic foot is 
0.123433 pounds avoirdupois (Itegnault.) AVater absorbs nearly its own volume 
of this gas. Caustic, alkalies and alkaline earths alisorl) it readily. It will not 
support combustion. Atmospheric air, mixed with one-tentli of this gas, be- 
comes unfit for combustion, and lights will burn badly in an atmosphere containing 
five to six per cent, of this gas. Eight per cent, of carbonic acid gas is dangerous 
to respire. It acts like poison, and to prevent its effects being fatal persons 
asphyxiated (suspended animation) by this gas should remain in it for a short 
time. When they recover they find themselves subjected to attacks of severe 
headaches for some time. Carbonic acid is discharged from fissures and cavities 
in the strata, and is found to result from respiration, decomposition and deflagra- 
tion of powder. From its great specific gravity it has a tendency to accumulate 
in low situations, notwithstanding the tendency of gases mingling with each 
other, when contained in isolated places. • 



56 



2. Dicarhuret or hydrogen is composed of one atom of carbon anrl two atoms of 
hydi'ogen. Its specilic gravity is 0.5619, and the weight of a cubic foot is 0.045361 
pounds avoirdupois. It is insoluble in water, and is not absorbed 1)y allcalies. 
When mixed with amosplieric air in the proportian of l-30th to 1-lotli of the 
volume the flame of the candle, when plunged into it, is elongated as the piopor- 
tion of the intlammaljle gas approaches l-15th of the volume. The flame of the 
wick is surrounded by a halo of pale blue, which is most perceptible towards the 
point. Tlie combustion only takes place around the wick, and does not extend 
to the surrounding mass. When the fire-damp forms the l-14th of the total vol- 
ume tlie inflammation extends throughout the whole teriform mass, but without 
loud detonations. The raindity of the inflammation increases with the propor- 
tion of inflammable gas until it amounts to 1-lOtli or l-8th of the total volume. 
In these latter proportions the mixture is exiflosive in the highest degree. If the 
proportions of fire-damp are increased still further the mixture becomes less ex- 
plosive ; and when the mixture contains one-third of its volume of gas it is no 
longer explosive, but any flame immersed in it is, on the contrary, extinguished 
by it. 

The contact of iron at a red heat is not suflicient to produce the inflammation 
of fire-damp mixed witli air ; the presence of flame only is necessary to explode it. 

Nitrogen, or carbonic acid, added even to an explosive mixture in small pro- 
portions, weakens or even prevents an explosion. One-seventh of carbonic acid 
added to a mixture the most explosive, is suflicient to render it harmless. 

We have, however, from observations on these gases, formed the opinion that 
certain mixtures of fire-damp and air, rendered inexplosive by tlie admixtures of 
carbonic acid, may, under certain conditions, be again rendered explosive by a 
further addition of fresh air ; the carbonic acid which formed one-seventh in bulk 
of the most explosive compound, forming still proportion of the still explosive 
compound of the fire-damp with the additional quantity of air. 

Dicarburet of hydrogen mixed with air, can be respired for some time without 
danger, so long as it constitutes less than one-third part of the whole volume ; 
beyond this proportion it causes asphyxia by insufticiency of oxygen. 

Light cai'bnretted hydrogen is disengaged from stagnant waters and mud in 
the form of bubbles, and may be easily obtiyned from this source. In some local- 
ities fire-damp flows out from fissures of the soil ; in many places causes natural 
fires ; borings for rock salt often gives off jets of this gas. But it is principally 
found in coal mines, escaping from the seams of this mineral with a hissing noise 
analogous to that produced by water when at the boiling point. It is largely pro- 
duced in faulty places wliere the texture of the coal has been changed, and also in 
coal beds, in cavities where it is pent up until the pressure has been reduced, 
when it rushes out with considerable force. 

According to Sir H. T. de la Biche and Dr. Lyon Playfair (Report on gases and 
explosions, 1846) the analysis of fire-damp obtained from coal mines of the north 
of England, presented the following results : 





n^ 


rn^ 




^ ^ 


en 
w so 


viaq § 


m p 


<^w9 




P 


CD p 


^ 




CD M 


<a ^ ^ 


a> i-i 










-t 












Constituent parts. 


p 2 
9t^ 




O 

W 

CD 


13 O- 

: J3 


: t-i 


3 CB CB 

s 

p 
: »a 

• <! ' 


3 2 

. _<! 

: 3-- 
: < 


3 a; 
: a-io 
, p *. 

: 3 
: w CD 




: O 

: S 

:' 'S. 
: CD 


i W 

• CD 

: n 

: E. 

i ^ 

: g 




: W 
; CB 
: 3 
: w 
. P- 
: &i 

• B 


: ^ 
• '> 

• o 
: p 
r 3 


: g ^ 
• 12. < 

'■ £2; 


'• ? 
: ►^ 
: c 
- p 
: <-! 

: » 
• ■-« 


• 5* 

: - C 

. CD O 


Decarburet of hy- 


















(iro^ren 


92.8 


77.5 


83.1 


86. 


79.7 


98.2 


93.4 


92.7 


NitroiTen 


6.9 


26.1 


14.2 


12.3 


14.3 


1.3 


4.9 


6.4 


Oxvgen 






.6 




3.0 








Carbonic acid 


.3 


1.3 


2.1 


1.7 


2.0 


.6 


1.7 


.9 


Hydrofeu 










3.0 




















Total 


100.0 


101.9 


100.0 


100.0 


102.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







The general result of these examinations is that the only inflammable constit- 
uent present was dicarburet of hydrogen as an explosive mixture, not a trace of 
olfcjfiant gas, and only in one of the eight gases analyzed is there any hydrogen. 



57 



In connection with this it is necessary to make some remarks upon the carbu- 
ret of hydrogen or olefiant gas, one atom of which is composed of two atoms of 
carbon and two atoms of hydrogen. Its specific gravity is .9852S,and tlie weiglit 
of a cubic foot is .079540 tbs. avoirdupois ; it burns with a red flame of wliich the 
illuminating power is much greater tlian that of dicarburet of liydrogen. A con- 
siderable quantity of this gas is obtained from coal by distillation, (or street gas,) 
as from analysis by Dr. Henry : 



No. 


CONSTITUENTS IN VOLUME. 




Specific grslvity 


Olefiant gas. 


Fire-damj). 


Carbonic oxide. 


Hydrogen. 


1 
2 
3 


.620 
.630 
.500 


12 
12 

7 


64.53 

57.40 
55.80 


7.33 
13.35 
13.95 


15.84 
17.16 
23.25 



Common gas, from its mixture w'ith olefiant and hydrogen gases, is much more 
inflammable than fire-damp, being easily ignited by iron at a low red heat. M. 
Bisliolf , chemist of Bonn, concludes that the inflammable gases of coal mines are 
mixtures, in di&rent proportions, according to locality, of tire-damp, olefiant gas, 
and also of other gases in small quantities. lie has not been able to detect olefi- 
ant gas in the mines of Gerhart & Wellesweiler, in the coal basin of Saarbruck. 
It is not the same with the inflt^mmable gas ])roduced in the coal basin of Schaum- 
burg, in the coal formation of the Lias. Here the absorption of chlorine mixed 
with the gas was considerable, and the endosmometric analysis indicated not less 
than 16 per cent, of olefiant gas, 79 per cent, of fire-daiup, and 4.79 of other gases. 
The w'ire-gauze used in the mines of Saarbruck requires to be much finer in its 
texture than that used in the mines of Schaumburg. The actual constituents of 
the above three gases were as follows : 



Localities. 


Olefiant gas 


Fire-damp. 


Probably 
nitrogen. 


Gerhard 


1.98 

6. .32 

16.11 


83.08 
91.36 
79.10 


14.94 


Wellesweiller 


2.32 


Schaumburg 


4.79 









Memoire sur L'Aerage des mines, M. Gustav Bischoff. Eecueil de memoires et 
de rapports public par L'Academie Eoyale des Sciences et Belles Lettres deBrux- 
elles, 1840. 

Particular experiments have been instituted by Professor Graham on this sub- 
ject, from which the following is an extract : ''■Mining Journal, June 13, 1846. 

Killingworth gas : specific gravity , 6306 

Dicarburet of hydrogen 82.05 

Nitrogen .' ^ 16.5 

Oxygen 1.0 

100 

This, coupled with the results arrived at by Sir H. de le Beche, Dr. Lyon Play- 
fair, Turner, Sir H. Davy and several other skilled analysts, must be considered 
conclusive upon this point as regards fire-damp of coal mines yet exi)erimented 
upon. The question, however, sliould not be considered as finally settled, but 
should be left open for further trials. 

3. Sulphuretted Jujdrogen :— Thin gas is characterized by the odor of rotten 
eggs. Its constituents are 1 atom of sulphur, and 1 atom of hydroge)!. Its spe- 
cific gravity is 1.177, and the weight of a cubic foot is 0.U95016S lbs. avoirdupois. 
Water is capable of absorbing 3 times its volume of this gas. Alkaline solutions 
absorb it rapidly; chlorine decomposes it by combining with the hydrogen, and 
causes a deposit of sulphur. ]\Iixed with air, it takes fire at the api)roach of a 
flame ; the products of the combustion being water and sulpluu-ous acid. 

When present, even in small quantities, in gaseous mixtures, it blackens the 
white oxides of lead and bismuth, which enables us easily to detect its existence. 
It is sufficient to expose to the mixture in which it is contained, slips of paper 
which have been dipped in a solution of acetate of lead, and allowed to dry. 



58 

It exercises a very deleterious influence on animal life in the highest degree, A 
bird perishes in air containing 1.1500th part of its volume of tliis gas ; 1.1800th 
part is sufficient to kill a large dog, and 1.2500th part will destroy ahorse. How- 
ever, in its application to man, its results seems to be somewhat exaggerated. 
M. Parent Ducliatelet observes, that workingmen respired, witli freedom, in air 
containing 1.100th parts of sulphuretted hydrogen, and that he, himself , respired 
in air containing 3 per cent. 

This gas is formed whenever sulphur, in a very commnnicated form, is brought 
into contact with hydrogen in a nascent state. Thus it may form in mines where 
there is a decomposition of iron pyrites, and is also found in old colliery work- 
ings, but in rare cases. 

4. Carbonic oxides : — This gas consists of 1 atom of oxygen and 1 atom of car- 
bon. Its specific gravity is 0.9762, and the weight of a cubic foot is 0.07880 lbs. 

Carbonic oxide takes a more deleterious effect upon animal economy than does 
carbonic acid gas. 

It burns with a beautiful light blue flame, but gives little light. When mixed 
with common air it will not explode like fire-damp, but burns brilliantly. A light 
can burn brightly, but human life will quickly become extinct. Opinions exist 
that from instances of this nature some fatal accidents have occurred. 

From the properties of the gases above described (excepting carbonic oxide) 
we may penetrate without danger into any atmosphere which we find to possess 
no disagreeable odor, which Avill not blacken acetate of lead, and in which a safety 
lamp will burn with facility. Even under these conditions the atmosphere may, 
from tlie presence of carbonic oxide, be rendered dangerous, and tliis should lead 
us to the most practical conclusion, viz : That it is our bounden duty, under all 
circumstances, to be accompanied by a suflicient current of fresh air in our exjilo- 
rations and excavations in mines. 

NATURAL VENTILATION OF MINES. 

Yentilation of coal mines consists of sundry applications and under different 
heads, viz: Katural ventilation consists of making the lowest surface opening 
the in-take, whilst the most elevated opening is used as an outlet ; the temperature 
of the mine atmosphere being the only medium to give circulation to the volume 
in its passage outward. By the appliances of wind-gates and Avining sheets the 
air current can be directed on its passage into the working places, and from the 
increase of temperature its expansion depends, which increases its buoyancy and 
motion, causing a natural current. This sort of ventilation is greatly accelerated 
in winter, owing to the outside atmosphere being much colder than in summer. 
The cold air, having more vapor in its volume, affects the carburetted hydrogen 
to such an extent that in cold weather very few explosions occur, except in rare 
cases where negligence is exhibited. 

In deep mines, where the temperature of the mine is at all seasons of the year 
greater than the outer temperature, the ventilation may continue Tiuinterrupted 
throughout the year, but however effective it may be in collieries where gases and 
noxious vapors are generated, this sort of ventilation is inadequate for health and 
safety of workingmen. 

The feeble reliance that may be placed on atmospheric changes but increases 
the chances of danger to life and property. Therefore, it is more prudent to sub- 
stitute artificial ventilation, it being more reliable and safe, and leads to conceiv- 
ing a more comprehensive view of the true subject with a view to ultimate surC- 
cess. 

"WATER-FALL VENTILATION. 

This mode of ventilation has received considerable attention, and has been 
largely practiced in England, especially in Wales. To create a circulation of air 
in a mine the water is let fall down the downcast shaft, but if the water has no 
adit or outlet to pass out by, it is expensive to have it raised by pum])s for further 
utility. Yet it is an important method for ventilation, and particularly in cases 
of explosions or accidents to furnace or fan ventilating apparatus wliile under- 
going repairs, or when shafts may by accident get on fire ; then its merits become 
very important. 

Tiie effect of a water-fall experimented at Blackboy mine in 1845 : Tlie mine 
was ventilated by a nine feet furnace. The experiment was made in a woi'king 
district previous to and after sub-dividing the portion of air applied for its ven- 
tilation. 



59 

1. Before splitting the air : 

The quantity passed in with the furnace working was 8.394 per minute. 

The quantitj^ passed after putting on the water-fall was 11.565 " 

Increase due to the water-fall was _^:l!il " 

2. After splitting the air : 

The quantity passed into the district alone was 11.313 " 

After putting on the water-fall it was 13.G87 " 

Increase due to water-fall 2,374 " 

Resistance reduced the increase. 

Ventilation in mines produced by a water-fall produces a dampness in the air 
near the shaft bottom which soon destroys the timbers. 

Furnace system has been in use in England and Belgium until lately. Some 
persons adopt furnace ventilation by using it near or at the surface, whilst others 
locate it within the mine. The surface furnace is but a poor substitute for ven- 
tilation, because the air does not receive any higher temperature until it strikes 
the fire, where it suddenly is increased in temperature, and consequently expands, 
which increases the draft, and then. but only feebly, whilst a furnace placed deep 
in the mine, not only heats the air in the furnace, but heats the whole column of 
air in the upcast shaft. 

The effect of a furnace in creating a current in a mine, arises from the expan- 
sion and lessening tlie density of tlie volume of air in the upcast air course, by 
the increased temperature imparted to it, over the air supplyed by the downcast, 
the heated air becomes lighter, and therefore reduces the iuiit of pressure, des- 
troys the balance of pressure, and creates a draft so long as the heat is continued 
in the upcast. This current causes a circulation of air throughout the whole 
mine, when artificially conducted into each working place, removing any dele- 
terious air, and supplying fresh air to the workingmen. 

Now, since air expands with every additional degree of (Fahrenheit scale) 
1.459ths parts of its volume at zero, or at 32^ below the temperature of melting 
ice, the mode of finding the height of the head of the motive column of air of 
the same density as the air descending the downcast shaft, is thus expressed by 
T— t 

H^D =(1) 

(459+T) 
Where H==liead of the motive column in feet. 
D=depth of the shaft in feet. 
T^average tempei'ature of air in the upcast shaft. 
t=temperature of air in the downcast shaft. 
459=the constant number already mentioned — results of the best experi- 
ments known. — Magnus and liegnault. 
Air currents meet with resistance as they come in contact with stationary 
bodies ; impede the velocity of the current. This resistance is compared with 
the force of gravitation, height H, and consequently be expressed by 

Tl/"=|/r)4iH in feet per second=(2) 
Which is the same as y "=8.0208|/ H =(3) 
But if the velocity were (in the absence of friction) to be taken in feet per 
minute=^/', then by 

l/'=l/23i:600H=(4) 
Or, in another form, by 
y '==481.2^/11 -(5) 
Kow the weight of a cubic foot of air is deduced from Regnault's able and 
delicate experiments, in this latitude, and at sea level is expressed by 
(1.32529B) (7000+100 

(WO= X =(6) 

459+t 1728 

Or bv its equivalent, viz : 
536.865B 

WO=. =(7) 

459+t * 

Where W^the weight in pounds of a cubic foot of air at the pressure B, (ex- 
pressed in inches of the density due to the temperature of 32"J on Fahrenheit 
scale, being that of melting ice,) the pound being avoirdupois=to 7,000 grains. 



60 

■W=the weight in grains of 100 cubic inches of dry air. 

B=nb;irometrical pressure as exists. 

t=tlie temi)eiaiure of the air causing the motive power. 

Hence, in order to find the pressure in pounds or grains on each square foot, 
operating to produce ventilation, we may proceed a-! follows : 

l.si. Find tlie weight of tlie column 11 by fornuila (1.) 

2d. Find tlie value of W by using formula (6.) 

od. Multiply the so found value of 11 by that of W, and the result is the pres- 
sure per sui)erficial scpiare foot in pounds, operating to produce ventilation, which 
being denominated P, gives — 

P = 1 1 w ( 8 . ) 

Notwithstanding wJiat has been said, it is somewhat peculiar (judging from the 
resistance and the T»ressure necessary to overcome the due velocity) that the ac- 
tion of the passage of air is quite different to that of water, and tliat in comput- 
ing tlie correct amount of ventilation, it is neceesary to carefully allow with due 
regard to the condition of the air just measured. 

In si)litting the air two points require particidar attention : 

l.sL Not to carry the splittina: too far, or the separate currents will become fee- 
ble, notwitlistanding the increase produced by their means in the total quantity 
of air ])assed in a given time. 

2d.. To use large air-ways to where the air is split, and again at where the split 
currents meet, and continued onward to the surface outcast shaft, and should 
vary with their circumstantial conditions. Any district air where fire-damp is 
evolved, that si)lit of air should be carried carefully into the upcast sliaft, and 
not suffered to unite with the splits that are free of gas, as in such a condition 
the volume increased by this connection that the whole would reach the explosive 
point. 

Tlie necessary quantum of air may be easily conveyed in splits in proper pro- 
portions, and conducted away to safe airways without danger. Energetic venti- 
lation is necessary in all collieries that generate gas, consequently great skill and 
industry is necessary to confine the vitiate air into safe cliannels on its outward 
course. 



Pennsylvania's Public Works — What the State has a 



CCOMPLISriED. 



MAIN LINE. 


Miles in 
length. 


Cost of im- 
provements 


Columbia railroad, Philadelphia to Columbia 

Easrern Division of canals, (Columbia to Duncan's island 

Juniata Division of canals, Duncannon to Ilollidaysburg .... 

Allegheny Portage railroad, ITollidaysburg to Johnstown 

Western Division of canals, Johnstown to Allegheny city 


81.00 
46.00 

127.00 
41.00 

104.00 


§5, 227, 278 
1, 737, 285 
3, 575, 966 
2, 708, 672 
3, 173, 432 


Total 


399.00 16,422,633 






LATERAL, LINES. 

Erie extension of canals, including the Beaver division, She- 
nango and Conneaut lines, French Creek division and 
Frankhn line 

Susquehanna Division of canal 

West Branch canal, Northumberland, Farraridsville, etc 

North Branch canal to Lackawanna creek.. 

Upper Nortli Branch canal to York State 


163.00 
41.00 
80.50 
72.50 
94,25 
12.25 
60.00 


§4, 533, 291 
897, 160 
1, 833, 183 
1,623,117 
6, 643, 491 
393, 440 
1, 543, 763 


Wiconisco canal to Duncan's island 

Delaware Division, Easton to Bristol 






Total 


523.50 j 16,467,445 


Total of transferred works to corporations.. 


922,53 32,890,078 



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ee 

One linndred and severity public improvements within the State, making? 6,2*^7 
fil-KJO miles, at $24:,()00 per mile, gives $1.5U,432,(I00, as an amount of capital for 
these improvements alone. The e(iuipments and rolling stock of tlie same maj 
h? estimated at $100,(]{l(),()00, whilst the buildings, lands, salaries, etc., may iuah« 
up .'i$>),()0'J,000, making an aggregate amount, in round numbers, of 

$300, 432 ,000, as a (irst cost investment. 
+ 067,911,708, as investments in colleries. 

4,207,789, as value of improvements and materials. 
= 372, 550 ,49-5. To this amount must be added 

, for ojjening and excavations of collieries. 

, for subsistance, stock and steam power. 

, for iron interest and real estate. 

Figures which we have not at liand, and then we have but a remote knowledge 
of the vastness of her improvements outside these public works. — Statistics /ront 
Pennsylvania Atlas. 

SCHUYLKILL COUNTY RAILROADS IN 1872.— "WHAT THE COUNTY IIA3 ACCOM- 
PLISHED. 

SchuijJkiU county freight lines, operated by the Philadelphia and Beading raihond 

and other companies. 

READING company's ROADS. 

Its main line. Fort Clinton , Fottsville and sidings 85 mile?. 

Canal sidings ., 4 

Little yclm'ylkill railroad and sidings ' 54 •' 

Schuylkill and Susquehanna railroad and sidings 30 *' 

Fine Grove and Lebanon do do 6 " 

Union , Fine Grove and Lorberry railroad tind sidings 4 

liOrberry do do 14 " 

(lood Spring do do 214 '' 

Mine Hill and Schuylkill Haven.. . .do do U8i '' 

Mount Carlwn do do 15 '' 

Mount Carbon and Fort Carbon do do 14i '' 

Mill Creek do do 25 '■ 

Schuvlkill Valley do do 34 '• 

Kast Mahanoy do do 13| '' 

Mahanoy and Shamokin do do 671 " 

Mount iCagle do do 4 •' 

Fhiladelphia and Heading company's railroads 4801 '' 

Maucli Cluuik gi-avity road in Scliuylkill county 4 " 

Beaver Meadow do do G "' 

Nesquelioning do do 9i •' 

Lehigh Valley do do 52 •' 

Catawissa do do 25 " 

21 railroads for traffic 577 " 

Schuylkill county, in gangway tracks in operation. 143 " 

Scliuylkill county, outside tracks in operation 297 - 

Total tracks in operation in the county 1,017 •' 

Fottsville Feople's street railway " ' 

1,023 '' 
Canal IV "' 

Total 1,040 ■' 

This exhibit is an endorsement for Schuylkill county, as being the leading 
county of the State. 



REPORT 



OF THE 

IJfSPECTOR OF MINES OF THE FIRST, OR POTTSVILLB 



DISTRICT, FOR 1872. 



His Excellency, John F, Haktranft, 

Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania : 

Sir : — In compliance with the requirements of an act of Assembly approved 
the third day of March, 1870, entitled "An Act providing for the healtli and 
safety of persons employed in tlie anthracite coal mines of Pennsylvania," I have 
the lionor to herewitli submit my annual report of all casualties which occurred 
in and about the seventy-six (76) collieries of my district during the year, shovv-- 
iiig their extent and character ; the number of maimed persons ; tlie number (A 
widows and orphans ; the character and condition of our collieries ; the condition 
and improvement in mines and ventilation ; the decrease of mortality and casual- 
ties in the district, less than what it was last year, as shown in our annext^d 
death-roll ; tlie steam power used for producing coal at our collieries ; the force 
of hands employed in connection with mining coal, etc. 

Your Excellency will be pleased to learn of the visible decline in mortality and 
the improvement which is taking place in the collieries since the State assumt'd 
the right to protect miners and mine workiwgmen. We are consoled in the con- 
sciousness of having discharged our duties faithfully and under trying circum- 
stances, to the best of our ability, for general good. 

Although tlie collieries of my district, "with very few exceptions," generate 
gases largely, I am pleased to say that that element is nearly under control. No 
serious disaster need be apprehended in the very worst cases at present. The 
regulations of the mines and a fit compliance with'the requirements of law greatly 
lessen the dangers of the mines. There are but two collieries that were reluctaiit 
to comply with the provisions of law, and these are evincing better industry. 
There are accidents over which no amount of vigilance has control, but from 
our experience and practice and investigations of the casualties that do occur, 
we find ninety-six per cent, of them to arise from the hasty, ignorant and inex- 
perienced acts of the parties themselves. The other four per cent, we charge to 
irregularities of mine discipline and negligence. Being present at sixteen in- 
quests, and taking the testimony of witnesses in these cases, and my own view 
of the facts, the juries rendered verdicts of accidental deaths. On the whole, I 
am pleased to say the law has wrought a wonderful change both in the condition 
and character of the collieries and peo^ile far above expectation. I am not foi- 
getf ul of the many courtesies I have received from the managers and mine bosses 
in aiding me to discharge my duties and their conforming with my instructions 
for the general improvement of the condition of their mines. Particular in this 
case are JSIr. William Kendrick, mining superintendent for Philadelphia and 
Reading Coal and Iron Company, and Mr. W. Zeliner, superintendent for Lehigh 
Coal and Navigation Company, whose examples are worthy of honorable mei>- 
tion. I trust that others may soon deserve a like approbation. 



68 









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69 



POTTSVILLB OR FIRST DISTRICT. 

List of names of persons maimed and injured in and about these mines 
during the year ending December 31, A. D. 1812. 



r>ate. 



Feb. 



16, 

20, 

Mar. 14, 

25, 



Names of 
injured persons. 



•loA 
2S.I 



Apr. 



Mav 



Samuel Shane... 

Job Mitchell 

A miner 

Thomas Johns... 

James Blecker... 

Jac. A. Goodman 
28, j Chas. Goodman.. 

o,i John Jone.s 

o,| John Morris 

(),; William Dailey 
If),' Thomas Murry... 

15,1 John Keller 

2G,i A miner 

2(5,i A miner assist't.. 
27,1 Martin Kelley ... 
30,1 Thos. Leonard... 
30,'Patr^kM'Corley. 
l,i Patrick Brinnan. 
Kt,; Geo. Rothford.... 
10,[ Geo. Rothford, jr. 
12, i Morg. Williams.. 

17,1 John Tierney 

18,! J. Prendergliast. 

IS,! George Glenn 

20,iThos.O. Donnell. 
22,! Christ. Yeofert... 

' 22, i James Davis 

22,! Jno, H.Thomas.. 

22,; John Morris 

24,1 Alick Anderson.. 

24,i Two miner.s 

24, j John Lewis 

2!t, W.Wil.son,(boy) 
June s,[ Pattick Nevins... 
11, Pat'k Berrigan... 

3,1 Larry Egan 

3,!Peter Egan 

11,1 Thomas Bohan... 
11, Luke Haggerty.. 
13,, John Lewis....... 

17, 1 Joseph Jone.s 

Daniel Howies... 

David Oliver 

John Williams... 

John Thomas 

William Jones... 

George Barns 

John Walsh. . 

Edw'd Murphy. 

Owen T. Jones... 

John Murry 

Daniel Grumm. 

Wm. Roberts 

James Roberts... 

W. H. Jones 

Allen Watkins... 
VFrank Flynn 

Edw'd Brophy... 

Jolin Curran 1... 

Owen T. Jcnes... 

Thomas Regan... 
23, Patrick Murphy.i 
23,1 Andrew Tunpus.' 



Names of 
the collieries. 



July 



1 

20, 

26, 

Aug. 13, 

13, 



29, 
29, 
31, 
31, 

Sept. 10, 
16, 
18, 

Oct. 2, 

3, 

8. 

17, 



Silver Creek 

Glen Carbon 

Mammoth shaft 

Eagle 

Eaile 

Swift Creek.. 

Swift Creek 

Pine Forest 

Pme Forest 

East Pine Knot.. 

Thotnaston 

Eagle , 

Taylorville , 

Taylorville 

Beech wood 

Tamaqua shaft ... 
Tamaqua shaft .. 

Pine Forest 

Raven Dale 

Raven Dale 

Greenwood 

1^-igle 

P]ast Pine Knot.. 
St. Clair shaft.... 

Pine Forest 

Pine Forest 

Pine Forest 

Pine Forest 

Pine Forest 

Beech wood 

Beechwood 

Beechwood 

Pine Forest 

Eagle Hill shaft.. 

Commercial 

Beechwood 

Beech wooci 

Eagle Hill shaft. 
Eagle Hill shaft. 

Coal Dale 

St. Clair shaft.... 
St. Clair shaft.... 
Eagle Hill shaft. 
East Mine shafts. 

Tajdorville 

Taylorville 

Beechwood 

East Pine Knot.. 
East Pine Knot... 
St. Clair shaft.... 
St. Clair shaft.... 

St. Clair shaft 

St. Clair shaft 

East Mine shafts. 

Glen Carbon 

Spruce Forest 

Beechwood 

Glen Carbon 

East Pine Knot... 

St. Clair 

Raven Dale 

Raven Dale 

Hickory shaft.... 



Remarks and causss of injuries. 



Leg broken by a fall of coal. 

Burnt by an explosion of gas. 

Leg broken by a fall of rocks. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Thigh broken by a fall of coal. 

Mortally burnt by gas — died. 

Mortally burnt by powder. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

jNIortally burnt by gas — died. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Slightly burnt by gas. 

Severe!}^ burnt by ^as. 

Eyes destroyed by a blast. 

Eyes injured by coal. • 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by a blast. 

Slightly burnt by gas. 

Slightly burnt by gas. 

Slightly burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Slightly burnt by gas. 

Severely injured by a fall of coal. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Arm amputated — crushed by timbers. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severelj' burnt by gas. 

Hand cut off by a fall of slate. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severelj^ burnt by gas. 

Arm broken by fall of a trestle work. 

Leg broken by a fall in the shaft. 

Severely burned by gas. 

Severely burned by gas. 

Foot cut off in the cog wheels. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Mortally burnt by gas — died. 

Leg crushed by wagons. 

Severely burnt by gas 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Mortally inj ured— fell down the shaft. 

Severelj'- crushed by wagons. 

Leg cut off in small rollers. 

Legs broken — fell off the breaker roof. 

Severely injured— fell into a schute. 

Severely injured by a fall of coal. 

Severelj' burnt by g^s— died. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Slightly burnt by gas. 

Severe!}^ crushed by wagons. 



70 



PoTTSViLLE OR FiRST DISTRICT — Continued. 



Bate. 



Oct. 28, 

28, 

29, 

31, 

Nov. 2, 

Dec. 28, 



Names of 
injured persons. 



John Flegan 

Griffith Smith ../ 
Patrick Flynn... 
F'nk M'Andrcw 
John (iuilliani... 
Henrv Botten.... 



Names of 
the collieries. 



Remarks and causes of injuries. 



Eagle 

Raven Dale 

Tuscarora 

Beechwood 

Eagle Hill 

Tunnel No. 10... 



Leg broken by a wagon 

Severely injured — fell down a schute 

Thigh broken by a fall of coal 

Scalp wound — injured by a mule 

Dangerously injured — burned hy gas 

Leg and arm broken— crushed by wagon.s 



Sixtj'-iiine persons were maimed and injured during the year ; six of which 
died subsequently from tlie effects of their injuries. 



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74 

Butler Collieiit. — Wenlack & Eandal, Operators. 

The Butler Colliery is situated at Silver creek, in Schuylkill county, on the es- 
tate of Messrs. Swayne & Co., of the Philadelphia Puhlic liccord. It coiisists of 
a slope sunk 100 yards deep, on the south dip of the E vein, together with some 
drift workings. These mines have been extensively operated for a number of 
years by different parties. By a i)ractice of reducing the pillars the slope finally 
closed, causing a considerable loss to the present firm, who were then engaged in 
recovering the pillars and coal. Tliey, however, have succeeded in opening the 
D or Skidmore vein by a tunnel some 58 yards east of the slope, the dividing rock 

being only feet thick, Tlie coal seam is found from 7 to 12 feet tluck and of 

excellent quality. There are east and west gangways opened, with four breasts 
working in eacli ; the character of work done is considered safe ; tlie west gang- 
way on the present lift is cut off by a ravine ; the east gangway has an exten- 
sive r\ui. 

There being no second outlet for workingmen's escape, it was necessary to have 
an injunction executed against its further operation in contravention of law un- 
til this requirement be complied with, which would make the mining of coal safe 
and an escape secured for the miners. 

In tlie further working of the mines, I directed the pillars to l>e made thicker, 
and stronger propping and timl)ering to be used. The writ of injunction result- 
ed favorably, since which time matters go on satisfactorily. 

The improvements consist of one sixty horse power hoisting and pumping en- 
gine, a ten horse breaker engine, with eight steam boilers, the condition of which 
was not reported to me. 

Ventilation is produced by natural means, and is not adequate nor practical, 
but preparations for erecting a steam fan are in progress, after which ventilation 
will be effectual. Black and white damps only are generated here. 

The present monthly shipment exceeds 2,500 tons. 

There are 47 men and 6 boys employed ; 4 head of mules and 11 n)ine wagons 
are used ; tlie improvements "are valued at some .$;5,000 ; 700 yards of 25 tt)S. T rail 
is laid on the premises ; the appearance and conditions of tilings are favorable. 



Eagle Hill Shaft Colliery . — James C. Oliver, Operator. 

This colliery is situated east of Port Carbon, on the present estate of the P. 

It consists of a shaft sunk 100 yards deep, from which a tunnel of 20 yards south 
oi>ens the E vein ; east of this point a slope is sunk 140 yards deep on an angle of 
25'-' ; the E seam is found here in two benches or split seams ; the coal in the top 
seam is 14 feet and that in the bottom seam 18 feet in thickness, all of whicli is an 
excellent- quality. The dividing rock strata is from 9 to 40 yai'ds tliick. Both 
these seams are worked east and west, making a lift of 4 distinct gangways ; 24 
breasts are worked in tlie mine with schute and heading workings. 

Ventilation — the condition of which and means of, was for a long time unsatis- 
factory. It was found necessary to restrain the further working of the mine by 
the services of a writ of injunction until proper means and better ventilating 
(flannels were established. After some time this difficulty had been overcome to 
my satisfaction. A steam fan is at present in operation which is capable of pro- 
ducing a full supply of ventilation to render the mine safe for the workingmen 
from ex])losions of fire-damp. I found 107 persons employed in the mine, each re- 
quiring 06 cubic feet of pure air per minute ; tlie 107 lights required 792 cubic feet 
of air per minute to sustain them, and 6 mules required 2,376 culiic feet of air i>er 
minute to sustain them ; the wliole needed supply of air required was 10,230 cubic 
feet, while no allowance had been made for defects, &c., and the actual supply 
found to be produced by careful measurement was only 5,040 cubic feet of air, the 
velocity of which being 120 feet per minute, and the section area of the opening 
being 42 square feet. The temperature outside of the mine was 78^ F. and inside 
it was 74^ F., whilst tlie Aneroid barometer indicated outside 28i inches and in- 
side was 29 inches. 

EiKjiitcs.— There are 5 steam engines equal to 196 fiorse power, and a new 20 
Jiorse steam fan ; 14 steam boilers in use, whose condition is not reiun-ted upon ; 
307 Jiands are employed ; 8 mules and 3S mine wagons are used ; 3,000 yards of 28 
lbs. T rail are in use. The valuation of the improvements is estimated at ;j?80,000. 



75 

It is proper to state that a manifest desire on part of the operator to comply 
with the requirements of law is daily apparent, whilst under the operation of the 
new steam fan and the proper distribution of fresh air, good ventilation will be 
permanently secured, and the dangers of mine accidents be largely reduced. 

Such collieries as are well ventilated, and where proper discipline lias been en- 
forced and obeyed, the casualties are gi-eatly decreased in comparison to such col- 
lieries as are not under proper stringent regulations, as will be noticed in tables 
on accidents in this report, which gives the names of the collieries and nuni])er of 
nccidents in »ach. Total number of casualties at the Eagle Hill Shaft Colliery 
during the year — 1 person died of injuries; 7 persons were injured; 8 visits had 
been made, equal to Gl miles traveled. The general condition of the colliery is 
rapidly improving. 



ISToKWEGiAK Colliery.— Ifcssrs. Schweers and JBrown, Operators. 

This colliery is situated near Mount Laffy, on the estate of the Philadelphia 
and Reading railroad. The mines have been worked for 38 years. It consists of 
8 slope and 1 shaft opening; all of which, of late, have been idle. The new slope 
had been sunk 100 yards deep on the south dip of tlie Primrose or G seam ; the 
coal is 10 feet thick ; the seam dips on an angle of 70^. The south dij) is ojiened 
by an incline plane, started 450 yards from the slope; 2 gangways are worked east 
and west, with 17 breasts open on this counter. In June a crush nearly closed 
the old gangway, and most part of the counter gangways; the otIier,"ied ash 
slope working, had been fdled with water, which tlireatened the destruction of 
the counter workings, should the breast workings be advanced ; tliis imperiled 
the lives of the workingmen. In view of this apparent danger, I directed a pro- 
cess of injunction to be issued torestraiir the further working of these breasts in 
that dangerous direction, as indicated by careful surveys made of the locality. 
And furtiier, there had been no second out-let for egress and ingress to escape by. 
This improvement would, necessarily, involve an expenditure which the operators 
were reluctant to bear, and they finally concluded to close the works. This step, 
perhaps, saved the lives of a number of workmen. Ventilation was produced by 
a steam fan, but was not adequate to furnish a proper su])ply of air for the men, 
owing to its improper distribution. The mines generated fire-damp largely, which 
rendered the operation of the miner a perilous undertaking. 

Improvements. — There are 5 steam engines, equal to 290 hoi"se power, 13 steam 
boilers, 23 wagons, 8 mules in use, and 12 blocks of liouses, with 19 families. — 
Value of improvements is about .ij;50,000. Sixty inside hands, and 22 outside 
hands, were employed. Outside temperature 76°, and inside 78^. Barometer 
outside was 28 7-10, and inside 28 inches. Monthly shipments of coal was som» 
S,500 tons. One thousand yards of T rail has been used. 



Glei^ Cakbon Colliery. — John Lucas & Co.., Operators. 

The colliery is situated at Glen Carbon, on the present estate of the Pliiladel- 
phia and Eeading railroad company. It consists of a slope ojiening, sunk 200 
yards deep on the south dip of the Crosby vein, on an angle of 66^; the Church- 
vein is also worked by this slope. There are 4 gangways in use ; a partition rock 
45 yards thick separates these two coal veins ; the coal of wliich is from 7 to 18 
feet thick. Eighty-six yards of a tunnel opens the Daniel vein, whicli lies north 
of the Crosby vein. The mines are divided into 4 working panels. The charac- 
ter of Avork done is considered a safe operation. 

Ventilation is produced by the operation of a 40-horse i)ower steam fan ; each 
panel is ventilated by a separate spit of air. There are 100 liands eini)loyed in- 
side, and 100 hands employed outside ; 12 breasts, with schutes and headings, are 
working. Ventilation is found to be excellent. 

Engines. — There are 7 steam engines — 290-horse hoisting engine, a 40-horse fan, 
a 290-horse jiumping engme, a 40-horse steam pump, a 50-horse breaker engine, a 
30-horse feed pump=630 horse steam power, with 10 steam boilers, the condition 
of which is reported to me to be good. I recommended a change in the mode of 



76 

conducting the air into and out of tlie working places, which would largely con- 
tribute to furnisli a good supply to the workingmen, as fire-damp is generated 
lar^vly in this colliery. 

Outside temperature — , inside temperature — ; outside barometer — , inside 

barometer — . The supply of air found, by measurement, was cubic feet per 

minute for 100 hands, llOlights and 8 mules. 

Valuation of improvements is estimated at $ ; there are houses, 

with families ; wagons and 12 mules in use. Monthly shipments 

tons. 



Feeder DA3I Collteky. — William Murray^ Operator. 

The Feeder Dam colliery is situated north of Port Carbon, upon the estate of 
the Xorth America company. It consists of a slope sunk in two lifts, some 200 
yards deep, on the south dip of the Diamond or J seam, on an angle of 20° dip. 
The cliaracter of work being done is driving gangway and breast working. An 
inclined ])lane opens a counter-gangway 500 yards east of the slope. This plane 
is 7-5 yartls long. Five hundred j-ards of gangway have been opened here, with 
seven breasts working. Tlie -water level is used for an air-course and travelling 
road. A crush took place lately which impeded mining opei'ations considerably. 

Ventilation is produced by tlie operation of an 8-liorse steam fan, the slope 
being used for an inlet. The gangway is used for an in-take. The air is passed 
up into tlie working places and returned back through the bi easts and headings 
to the fan out-let. Five visits have been made to this colliery. As fire-damp is 
largely generated here it was deemed necessary to give it our especial attention. 
The outside temperature was 7(P and inside temperature 78°. Outside barometer 
was 28y and inside 28 inches. This condition of the air indicated a large portion 
of fire-damp mixtures in tlie air, and the use of safety lamps was rendered tliereby 
necessary. Forty-nine hands were employed inside and 46 outside. Forty-nine 
men, 52 lights and 4 mules required 5,412 feet of pure air to sustain proper respi- 
ration, whilst by measurement it was found that only 4,200 cubic feet had been 
supplied. To increase this supply I directed the necessary improvement, which 
was complied with. 

Erujiiies.—Four steam engines=104 horse power, with 8 steam boilers ; 24 wag- 
ons and 5 mules are used ; 1,492 yards of T rail are laid ; monthly slii])ments 1,700 
tons ; value of improvements is $50,000. On the second day of October the 
crush closed the colliery for the present, covering up a 40-horse steam pump and 
fixtures, with 20 wagons, a lot of T rail and wire rope, rendering the wliole a loss. 



Commercial Colliery. — WilUam Kendrick, Oi^rator. 

This colliery is situated near I^Tew Philadelphia, upon the estate of Messrs. F. 
B. Gowen, G. Bast and others. It consists of three slopes sunk, some of which 
are sunk two lifts, but all on the F or Holmes vein. The principal slope is 300 
yards deep, and ranges in angles of dip from 20° to 70° south. The character of 
work being done is driving gangways and breast working. The 7-feet vein is 
opened by a tunnel 115 yards north of the F vein, and 300 yards of a gangway are 
opened on it and five breasts are working. The coal runs from 3 to 12 feet thick. 
An east gangway is open 350 yards in, with five breasts working on it. Its coal 
is nine feet thick. Prior to Mr. Kendrick taking the colliery the former operators 
did not open a second outlet, owing to faulty ground and his inability to defray 
its expenses. Already 100 yards of the new outlet are excavated. In vain pros- 
pecting for tlie F vein heretofore had been a failure, but of late a trial with tlie 
Diamond drill proved its location a reality, witli a tliickness of 28 feet of solid 
coal. It is now contemplated to sink a sluift and make tliis a first-class colliery. 
I was compelled to restrain tlie former ojierator by a writ of injunction to work 
these mines, owing to the insecurity it presented to the workingmen. The use 
of steam pumps in slopes rapidly destroys the timber, and consequently destroys 
\ a slope that would, under ordinary care, last a number of years longer. Ventila- 
tion is produced by natural means, which is highly objectionable in the ventila- 



77 

tion of deep mines; which, indeed, is no ventilation at all. I found the place un- 
tenable from tlie effects of smoke, fire-damp and black-damp. Outside temi)era- 
ture was -54^ and inside 04^. The barometer outside was .it 29i while inside it 
was 28 8-10 inches. Tiiis indicated the air to be in a dangerous condition. Tiiere 
had been 62 hands inside, 64 liglits and 4 mules. This force required 8,184 cubic 
feet of pure air to sustain healthy respiration, whilst it was found, by measure- 
ment, only 5,616 cubic feet of impure air had been supplied. 

Four steam engines are in use. A 30()-horse steam pump and a 20-horse steam 
pump in the new lift. A 60-horse hoisting engine and a 30-horse breaker engine 
=410 horse, with 14 steam boilers, the condition of which is not reported ; i,69S 
yards of T rail are in use ; 14 colliery houses, occupied by eight families ; value 
of improvements is estimated at $70,000; monthly shipments exceed 3,0(X) 
tons ; seven visits of inspection have been made=112 miles. I recommended the 
better repairing of the mines and a more careful inspection of the working places 
to secure the men from explosions of fire-damp. At present the conditioji of 
things looks promising, and a prosperous future for the colliery is anticipated. 



East Mine Land Sale Colliery. — Ifcssrs. Fidler and Osterman, Operators. 

This small colliery is situated north of Pottsville, on the out-crop of the ISTorth 
American veins, on the present estate of the P. It consists of a drift opening 
on the Big Tracy vein, on an angle dipping north 80^. Sixty yards of a gangway 
are being opened. The coal is 5 feet thick. It alforded emijloyment to'8 hands. 
The improvements are valued at some $600. Its monthly shipments are=to 140 
tons. At present this small place is abandoned, owing to a sudden change in the 
coal seam. 



St. Clair Suaft Colliery. — Ifr. William KendricJ:, Operator. 

This colliery is situated near St. Clair, on the estate of the Philadelphia and 
Eeading Railroad Company. It consists of a shaft opening, and has l)een 18 
years iii operation. It is sunk 500 feet deep, to the E vein. There are 4 principal 
gangways open, working 25 breasts of coal. A large force c?f hands are employed 
in the mine. Tliis colliery has always been one of tlie largest producing collieries 
in the region. AVhilst under the management of Mr. Keudrick it is not likely to 
lose any of its former prestige. 

The E and seven-foot coal seams are extensively mined in this shaft, and every 
facility that practical knowledge and the aid of machinery can render in produc- 
ing coal is amply supplied. A large amount of coal tliat had been left untouched 
by former operators, who considered it an impossibility to remove it, Las been 
reached by a safe opening, and will become a large acquisition to the annual sliip- 
ments of the colliery. 

Ventilation is here produced by the operation of a 15-horse power steam fan. 
An old slope is used for an in-take. The air is divided into spits through tlie 
different working places to the fan out-cast, -which is located in the shaft open- 
ing. Tliis system of ventilation is quite satisfactory. The temperature outside 
was at 60-, and inside it was at 7-P. The barometer indicated 29 S-10 outside, 
and inside 29 6-10 inches. Fire-damp is largely produced in some districts of the 
mine, wliilst in others it is but comparatively small ; but from the present sys- 
tem adopted for ventilating the mine but little danger need be apprehended of 
explosions except from acts of careless or negligent persons. 

Engines in U^e. — There are 7 steam engines in use : One 500-horse Bull engine, 
used for permanent pumping ; one 150-horse hoisting engine, a 30-horse plane 
engine, a 30-horse breaker engine, a 15-horse steam fan, a" 13-horse boiler water 
feed, and a 6-horse smithing engine=744 horse, with 13 steam boilers, all of which, 
with their fixings, are in good condition. 

Remarks. — Two persons were killed, 1 person died of injuries, 9 persons were 
injured, 171 persons are employed inside and 82 persons outside=253. One hun- 
dred and twelve mine wagons and 35 mules are used. Monthly shipments average 
8,000 tons. Valuation of improvements is estimated at $- . 



78 

Coal Dale Colliery. — Lehigh Coal and Navigation Compamj^ Operators. 

This colliery is situated at Coal Dale, near Summit Hill, on the estate of the 
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company. It consists of a tunnel 380 yards long, 
whic'i oi)ens tlie E vehi of the colliery, "has been 21 years in active operation, and 
tlie F vein is also opened some 60 yards south of the E vein, with east and west 
gangways open in it some 950 yards in length. The character of work done is 5 
breasts open, extendhig gangways, opening schutes and robbing pillars. 

The coal seam westward is but 5 feet thick and increases as it runs eastward to 
y feet thick. The first lift on the E seam is worked out ; a prospecting slope is 
now Slink 100 yards deep from the present lift with east and west gangways 260 
yards ni length open on it ; and 80 yards east of this slope a larger or hoisting 
slope will be open which is already in progress of completion. The coal seam 
at this pouit is 30 feet thick. 

Ventilation. — This is produced by natural means, and both the F and E seams 
are thus ventilated and found to be satisfactory. 

Engines. — There are 6 steam engines in use equal to 1,180 horse power, with 13 
steam Ijoilers, all of which with their attendant machinery and lixings are in good 
condition. 120 mine wagons, with 41 mules, are in use ; 99 inside hands and 105 
outside liands, equal to 214 persons are employed. This comjiany has at all times 
complied with the provisions required by the mining law, which rendered our du- 
ties much pleasanter and greatly reduced the causes of injury to their working- 
men. A proper code of rules are laid down to govern mining and are generally 
respected and adhered to by the men. Tliis speaks well for Mr. Zehner, general 
superintendent of mines, who furnishes monthly statements of the condition of 
things generally, rendering me all the aid and satisfaction necessary in the dis- 
charge of my duties. 



East Pine Knot Colliery. — Wm. KcnrlricJc, Esq., Operator. 

This colliery is situated in Green Berry Valley, upon the estate of the P . 

It consists of a slope sunk 228 yards deep on the south dip of the E vein, on an 
angle of 65^. The coal seam is 25 feet thick. The cliaracter of work done is ex- 
tending the east gangway, working 5 breasts, and driving schutes and headings. 
There are 1,100 yards of gangways open iji this colliery, which has been in opera- 
tion over 27 years. Botli gangways open on the Crosliy vein are abandoned, the 
coal of whicli is 12 feet thick. 117 persons are employed inside and 162 persons 
outside, equal to 279. Tlie principal work done at present is getting out the loose 
coal and skipping old pillars. 

Ventilation. — This is effected by a 25 horse steam fan. The air under the pres- 
ent system is caused to pass through a distance of 3,632 yards of old workings from 
inlet to outlet. The condition of ventilation is thus rendered unsatisfactory, as 
tire-damp is largely generated with other mixtures of noxious air, renders mining 
a dangerous operation and exi)losions imminent, but a vigilant watch is kept up, 
so that most cases of accidents result from carelessness of the workingmen. 

Engines. — There are 7 steam engines in use— av450 horse pumping engine, 2 
ninety liorse hoisting engines, equal to 180 horse power, a 30 horse to hoist and 
lower men and material with, a 30 horse breaker engine, a 30 liorse plane engine, 
a 25 horse fan — with 22 steam boilers. Their fixings and tackle are in good con- 
dition. 

October 2d, I found the outside temperature to be 68° and the inside tempera- 
ture 64" ; barometer outside 29 and inside at 29.4 inches, showing but little ap- 
parent danger of any explosive mixtures then ; 5 visits have been made to this 
colliery ; 117 hands are employed inside and 162 hands outside, equal to 279 hands ; 
(52 slo[)e wagons and 28 mules are used ; 5,050 yards of 28 it)s. T rail are used ; 52 
tenant houses, occupied by 39 families : estimated value of improvements is $300,. 
000; and monthly shipments exceed 9,000 tons. 8,736 cubic feet of air had 
been supplied per minute, whilst 13,467 cubic feet were needed to render mining 
operations healthy. 

I directed the necessary improvements which would remedv this evil, which 
would render the supply more pure and remove the noxious gases, which would 
Ibe of great benefit to the workingmen. 



79 

Black Heath Colliery. — Adam JacJ^son, Operator. 

This colliery is situated near St. Clair, on the estate of the Philadeli)hia and 
Reading- railroad company. It consists of a drift opening on tlie F or Holmes' 
vein; the coal seam dips on an angle of 10-^ sotith ; the seam is 6 feet thick. The 
ctiaracter of work doing is extending gangways, opening l)reasts and headings, 
which I consider safe. The colliery is small, but a new enterprise. 

Ventilation is produced by natural draft, circulating through the workings nj)- 
ward to the out-let air hole,wluch is altogether objectionable. Outside tempera- 
ture was 02^, and inside 70'^; Barometer outside was 28i, and inside at 28 7-l(t 
inches, with no perceptable current of the air, which rendered the air unhealthy 
and full of smoke. 

Etujines in use. — One lO-horse breaker engine, with 2 steam boilers, whose con- 
dition had not been reported. This colliery gives employment to some 16 hands. 
I made 3 visits to this colliery, equal to 20 miles. 



Manchester Collieries, Nos. 1 and 2. — 3Iessrs. Parlcer and AUdcn^ Opera- 
tors. 

These collieries are situated at Wadesville, near St. Clair, on the estate of the 
Philadelphia and Heading railroad company. It consists of 2 slope openings. — 
Slope Xo. 1 is sunk 17U yards deep on the south dip of the Orchard or II seam, 
on an angle of 15'- — here both south and north dips are worked with a dividing 
strata of 20 yards. There are 20 persons employed inside, and 7 persons employed 
outside. Two hundred and seventy yards of gangway has been opened, and 7 
breasts are working. 

Ventilation is produced by a furnace, Avhich, in this small colliery, ]n-oduces an 
adequate amount of air. The mine generates tire-dainp. The outside tempera- 
ture was SO^, and inside 66'^. Barometer outside was 28, and inside 28^ inches. 
One .50-horse engine is used for pumping and hoisting purposes. Six slope wagons 
and 2 mules are used. 

Xo. 2 slope is idle for the present, and needs no mention in connection Avitli 
tlsis report. 



Spruce Forest Shaft Colliery. — Joseph Dennings, Operator- 

Tliis colliery has been 10 years in operation, but in different hands. It is situ- 
sited north of St. Clair, on the estate of George Richardson, Esq. It consists of 
ft sliaft opening, sunk 75 yards deep, on the south dip of D or Skidmore vein. — 
The character of work doing is recovering the coal left by former operators, and 
gives employment to 20 hands. 

Ventilation is produced by natural means, which does not produce an adequate 
supply, and ventilation is poor. 

Eniiincs. — There^ire 3 steam engines in use=100-horse power, with 6 good steam 
boilers ; their appomtments are all in good condition. There are 12 shaft wagons, 
4 tenant houses, 1,000 yards of T rail in use. Improvements is estimated at $40,- 
OOO. At present, no further comments is necessary in connection with this 
report. 



Raven Dale Colliery. — V^ilUam H. Starr, Operator. 

This colliery is situated north-east of Fort Carbon, on the estate of the Phihi- 
dplphia and Reading railroad company. It consists of a slope, sunk 300 yards 
deep, on the south dip of the Primrose or G vein, on an angle of 30°. This col- 
liery has been in operation 18 years. The character of work doing, is driving 
gangways, opening breasts, schutes and headings. Tiie mines are divided into 1 
working panels. The western panel is 925 yards long, working 16 breasts with 
60 men ; the coal is 20 feet thick. The eastern panel Is 800 yards long, working 



80 

9 breasts with 36 men ; the coal is 10 feet tliick. Tlie outside force consists of 75 
hands. The total force employed is 171 hands. 

]"crttilution is produced by the operation of a 20-horse steam fan. The air is 
separated into two spits, traversing the working places regularly to the fan out- 
cast. By measurement the quantum of air supplied was found to be but 3,360 
cubic, feet per minute, whilst 8,712 cubic feet were needed for a healthy supply of 
fresh air for the force employed. The outside temperature was 6P, and inside 
temperature 60*^. Barometer outside was 29 7-10, and inside 29 8-10 inches. This 
investigation showed that but very little explosive mixtures had been present in 
the air'at that time. 

En<iincs. — Four steam engines are in use=160 horse power, with 10 good steam 
boilers. All their equipments are in good condition. There are 2,400 yards of T 
rail in use. Valuation of improvements is estimated at $70,000. The monthly 
shipments exceed 6,000 tons. 

E<^marks. — The mines produce fire-damp largely. I recommended the use of 
another 20-horse steam fan on the eastern district, owing to tlie extensiveness of 
the excavations. This system would overcome any quantity of noxious air that 
may be produced, and w^ould prevent the chances of explosions. Yentilation 
would be permanently established, and would relieve the Aiiners of much fear and 
danger. An apparent desire on the part of the operator is evident, and the fu- 
ture of the colliery is hoped to be prosperous. 



Glentworth Colliery. — Diamond Coal Company, Operators. 

The colliery is situated at Eagle Hill, north of Port Carbon, on the estate of 
tlie P. and R. R. R. Co. Has been twelve years in operation. It consists of two 
double track slopes. ISTo. 1 slope is sunk 330 feet deep on the south dip of the F 
or Hohnes vein, on a 30- angle. It has been comparatively idle for the last two 
veais. No. 2 slope is sunk in 3 lifts on the south dip of the G or Primrose vein. 
The F vein opens into the tl vein gangway 81 yards east of the slope by a 
tunnel 53 yards long. The iiuality of the coal is excellent, and the seam runs 
from 10 to*^ 12 feet thick. Drainage, ventilation and the character of the work 
done renders satisfaction. The coal seam of the G vein is from 14 to 30 feet in 
tlsickness. Mining of coal here is conducted upon a practical principle, which 
alfords stability to the mine and safety to the workingrnen. 

Ventilation is produced by a 10-horse steam fan, which supplies an adequate 
amount of fresh air, and is conducted on a practical system. Fire-damp is largely 
generated in the mine, yet explosions under the present system of ventilation are 
not imminent. I found"^the outside temperature to be 62^, and inside at 70"^. The 
))arometer indicated a pressure of 29* outside and 29 3-10 inches inside. Tliis test 
indicated a portion of fire-damp in the air but not sufficient to explode. The quan- 
tum of air supplied was found to be 6,268 cubic feet, whilst tlie legal supply re- 
quired would be but 4,224 cubic feet per minute. However, there is no rule to 
govern ventilation in a mine that produces gases, but a copious supply of fresh 
and pure air properly conducted to the working places on its inward and outward 
course. « 

Gangways.— There are some nine hundred yards of gangways open, working 9 
breasts ; opening schutes, headings and gangways— all of which work renders 
satisfaction. 

Engines in t\?c.— Six steam engines are used at the colliery, viz : One 50-horse 
lioister, a 50-horse steam pump in lower lift, a 50-horse steam pump in upper lift, 
a 25-horse breaker engine, a 10-horse fan, a 20-horse pump=205-horse steam pOAver, 
with 8 good steam bo^ilers, Avith all their equipments, and apparently in good con- 
dition. 

Valuation of improvements estimated at .>ti;60,000. There are 25 slope wagons 
and 5 mules in use ; 16 tenant houses, stables, shops, etc., 2,000 yards of T rail in 
use ; 37 inside hands, 42 outside hands=79 persons employed. Monthly ship- 
ments, some 7,000 tons, i^o accident recorded against the colliery during the 
year. 



81 

'New Castle Colliery.— /o/in E. Davis, Operator. 

The colliery is situated west of New Castle, on the estate of the Phihulelphia 
and Readinc'' railroad company. It consists of a drift openin.q; on the south dip 
of the E vein and Seven Feet vein. Tliese tvi'o seams are divided by 3 feet of a 
slate strata. Tlie E seam is 40 and the Seven Feet seam is ."O feet tliick. Thr 
dip of these seams is 20^ souch, and w^ill admit of breasting-.j 140 yards long from 
the level of the working of the late Mr. G. S llipi)lier. At present the gaiigwa>- 
openings are 130 yards long, and ventilated by natural means. A bi-eaker of 
large capacity is in course of construction. Monthly shipments will exceed (^OOo 
tons. Value of improvements, $50,000. The number of persons empl(\ved inside 
is 20, and outside 20, with 3 mules and G mine wagons. Four hundred yards of 
T rail are now in use. 



Mammoth Yeik Colliery, (new.) — Joseph Dennlngs, Operator. 

The colliery is situated west of New Castle, on the estate of the Philadelphia 
and Reading railroad company. It consists of a tunnel opening driven 60 yards 
nortli to the E and Seven Feet coal seams, which dip 45^ soutli. The partition 
slate is only 2 feet in , thickness. The coal seams, collectively, are GO feet thick. 

Two hundred and eighty yards of gangways are opened. A new slope is sink- 
ing, and a breaker is in course of construction, all of which improvements will be 
in full operation in the spring. The shipments are estimated at 6,000 tons per 
month. There are 12 men employed. A 25-horse breaker engine, 4 steam boilers, 
3 horses, 4 mine wagons and 500 yards of T rail are in use. The improvements 
are valued at 3-0,000. At present ventilation is produced by natural means. A 
prosperous future is anticipated for the colliery, Mr. Denning being well schooled 
in mining and in the practical management of mines from youth. 



Bullock Colliery. — John H. Thomas and E. J. Price, Operators. 

This colliery is situated north-east of Minersville, on the estate of Bullock and 
Brothers. It consists of 2 drift openings on the Peacock and Cockle red ash 
veins. Five hundred yards of gangways are opened on the Cockle vein, the coal 
of which is 4 feet thick, with 40 yards of breastings. Six miners are employed in 
this district. The Peacock gangways are 550 yards long, with only 2 feet of 
workable coal in the seam, employing 4 men. Ventilation is produced by natui-al 
means, of which there is a sullicient supply. The coal is broken by horse power. 
Four hundred yards of track are laid. Fourteen hands are employed. Tliree 
head of stock and 7 mine wagons are used. Monthly shipments exceed 700 tons. 



Glendower Colliery.— r/io??ias Schollenherg, Operator. 

The colliery is situated at Glendower, on the estate of the P. and Pt. R. R. Co. 
It consists of a double track slope sunk 300 yards deep, on the north dip of the 
Crosby seam. A tunnel from this level 80 yards long opens the south dii* of the 
Crosby vein. The seams are 18 feet thick, " 85 hands are employed in tlie mine. 
The character of work doing is extending gangways, opening scliutes and head- 
ings, and working 15 breasts, all of which are based upon a practical system of 
mining. 

Ventilation is produced by the operation of a 50 horse steam fan. The main 
air column is divided into spits and conducted into and out of the different work- 
ing districts in a safe and i)ractical manner. The western division of tlie mines 
is ventilated by a 25 horse fan, and a like system of ventilation adopted. The 
outside temperature was at 58"^, and inside temperature S^"-*. Barometer indica- 
tions outside was 28i and inside 29.2 inclies. The quantum of air supplied per 
ininute was 7,571 cubic feet for 85 men, 95 lights and 10 head of stock. 10,230 
cubic feet of pure air was required per minute. Only one death has occurred 
during the year. 
7 



82 

Engines.— There are eight steam engir es in use, equal td 975 horse power. Twe 
90's as hoisting engines, one 6(J0 liorse Bull pump, 2 steam fans, a 50 and a 25 
horse, a 60 liorse at old slope, a 30 iiorse Ijreaker engine, and a 30 horse plane en- 
gine, with 23 steam boilers, together witli all their equipments, are in good con- 
dition. There are 165 hands employed; 85 slope wagons and 19 mules in use ; 
.S,oo8 yards of 25 ft). T rail are used. Monthly shipments at present are 5,000 tons. 
Value of improvements is estimated at $300,000. A 50 horse engine is used to 
hoist and lower men and material in the mines, equal to 9 engines of 1,025 horse 
l>ower. 



Eagle Colliery. — George John & Bra. 

The colliery is situated in St. Clair, upon the estate of the Philadelphia and 
Reading li. It. Company. It has been in full operation for 33 years. It consists of 

slope sunk on the south dip of the E vein and two drifts open on the D vein, 

and the Seven Feet vein is worked in conjunction with the E vein. There are 102 
hands employed in the different districts of this extensive colliery, working only 
seven breasts and robbing out pillars and loose coal, which is remarkable for sucti 
extensive old mines. The condition of the gangways and of ventilation is excel- 
lent. One person died of injuries and six were injured during the year. 

Ventilatio7i is produced by furnaces and outcast air-holes. Under a practical 
system it renders ventilation safe, as very little fire-damp is given off, and neces- 
sary precautions maintained for the safety of workingmen. The outside temper- 
ature was at 60'-', and inside at 60^\ Barometer indicated 28.8 outside and 28.8 
inches inside. The supply of air was 23,580 cubic feet per minute for 102 hands, 
112 lights and 10 head of stock, equal to 176 men, the legal complement being 
11,616 cubic feet per minute. 

Engines in use are six, equal to 255 horse power, with 18 good steam boilers, 
which with their equipments, &c., are all in good condition. 



Tamaqua Shaft Colliery. — Messrs. Machey & Walker, Operators. 

The colliery is situated east of the borough of Tamaqua, upon the estate of the 
Philadelphia and Reading R. R. Co. It has been in operation 15 years. It con- 
sists of a shaft and drift opening. The shaft is sunk 100 yards deep on the E vein. 
Four different gangways are operated on this lift. Tlie E, F, D, and double Q 
gangways, or four differ^it coal veins , approach by four tunnels, whose total length 
is 280 yards. The coal seams run up from 6 to 11 feet in thickness and of very 
good quality. The drift is open south of the shaft on a line with the breaker sur- 
face level. Considerable coal is now mined in this drift. Owing to a want of 
proper timbering of portions of these gangways, and no second outlet for miners' 
safety, I directed proceeding in injunction against the further working of the 
mine in contravention of law until this matter of complaint be complied with. 

Ventilation is produced by the operation of a 20-horse steam fan, which does 
not satisfactorily supply the needed quantum of air to make it healthy for the 
workingmen. This evil is caused chieliy from the smallness of the air-course con- 
nections and an objectionable system of managing the air, which I insisted upon 
being discontinued and to adopt a better and different plan, which proved a suc- 
cess when completed. The outside temperature was found to be 80-^, and inside 
at 68°. The barometer here indicated 29 outside and 29.4 inches inside. The in- 
dications were that the air had but very little mixtures of explosive matter. 

Engines in i<se. —There are seven steam engines in use = 235-horse power, with 
13 steam boilers, all of wliich fixtures and appointments appeared to be in good 
ordinary condition. 22 hands were employed inside and 30 hands outside. There 
are 47 mine wagons and 14 mules used. 8,000 yards of 25 ttt. T. rails are used. 
Monthly shipments exceed 1,800 tons. Improvement valuation is estimated at 
$250,000. Only two persons were injured during the year. The P. and R. R. Co. 
Iiave lately leased this large property and are making liberal expenditures in put- 
ting it in proper condition for making it a goad colliery. It fell into decay under 
a system of sub-operators, who sacrificed the permanency of the works to save 
what money they could by curtailing expenses where it was imperatively necessary 
to expend it, hence the decay of the works. 



83 

FoRESTViLLE COLLIERY.— jDrtJu'eZ Hoch & Co., Operators. 

The colliery is situated at "Woodside, west of Minersville, on the estate of the 
P. and R. R. II. Co. It consists of a slope, sunk 50 yards deep on the south dip 
of the Bliick Heath vein, on an angle of 25^. It has been in operation 27 years. 
The D vein is opened into by a tininel 25 yards in length some 380 yards east of 
the bottom of the slope. Both gangways are open 830 yards, with 19 breasts work- 
ing and schute and headings. The coal is six feet thick, with a safe rock top. A 
drift is open 800 yards west of the slope upon the same vein. One hundred and 
five persons are employed inside. No accident has occurred at the colliery this 
year. 

Ventilation is produced by a furnace in the slope workings. The drift is venti- 
lated by natural means, both of which have given tolerable satisfaction. Novem- 
ber 28 outside temperature was 4G'J and inside 56°. Barometer outside was 28 8-10 
and inside 281 inches, thus indicating the air to contain some little of an explo- 
sive mixture. The management of the mines is under strict regulations, and un- 
less a mere accident little danger need be apprehended. 

Engines in use. — There are three steam engines in use^TO horse power, with six 
steam boilers, which, together with all their appointments, are in good condition. 
There are 105 hands employed ; 4 visits have been made=64 miles ; 38 mine wag- 
ons and 5 head of mules are used ; 3,000 yards of T rail are used ; value of im- 
provements is estimated at $40,000. 



Monitor Colliery. — Boidand<k Co., Operators. 

The colliery is situated at Wadesville, on the leased estate of the Philadelphia 
and Reading railroad company. It consists of a double track slope, sunk 110 
yards deep on the south dip of the G or Primrose vein, on an angle of 23^. The 
colliery has been nine years in operation, but the drift levels have been worked 
for over thirty-three years. Thirty-four hands Inside and twenty-one hands out- 
Bide are employed at the colliery. The management of the mines is not to satis- 
faction. Annually a new paity operates the mine, and like all such leased col- 
lieries an eye to the curtailing of expenditures is their ruin. 

Ventilation is produced by a 6-horse steam fan, which under the present plan is 
not eq^ial to the needed supply. The distance the air is forced to travel is too 
great. The leakages are too many and the power too light, &c. Gangways open 
are three, equal to 1,280 yards in length, with six breasts working, extending gang- 
ways, schutes and headings, &c. A considerable amount of fire-damp is here gen- 
erated. 

Three engines=86 horse power, with five steam boilers. The east gangway is 
used for an ingress and egress road for miners. Improvements consist of a slope 
house, shops, breaker, 3 tenant houses, 20 slope wagons, 8 head of mules, 2,8<J(i) 
yards of T rail, &c., valued at some $30,000. 



PiiCENix Park Colliery. — James CMalley, Operator. 

This is a small colliery, situated at Phoenix Park, on the present estate of the 
P. and R. R. R. Co. It has been some four years in operation. It coiii-ists of a 
drift open on the Peach Mountain vein. The seam dips on an angle of 20° south. 
The coal is seven feet thick. Seventeen hands are employed. Ventilation is pro- 
duced naturally and considered very good. One hundred and twenty yards of 
gangway are open, working three breasts, schutes and headings. Thirty yards 
above the lower lift a counter gangway is worked witli 40 yards of breastings on 
it. The coal is prepared over horse-power rollers. Its shipping capacity is 400 
tons per month. No gas as yet appears to invade the mine, although it is known 
the seam generates fire-damp largely in other localities, and often resulted in se- 
rious consequences. 



84 



Diamond Colliery No. 2. — Lewis Sutter & Co., Operators. 

The colliery is a small one, situated north-east of Pottsville, npon the estate of 
the P. and 11. 1\. li. company. It consists of a drift, open on the Diamond or J 
vein. The coal is six feet thick. The seam dips on an angle of 35^' south ; is excel- 
lent, and of a red ash quality. The gangway is now open some 400 yards, with 
3 breasts working on it. 

Ventilation is produced by natural means, which acts sufficiently good at present. 
A breaker for preparing the coal is run by a 10-horse engine, of one boiler capacity. 

There are men employed ; G drift wagons, and 2 head of mules are used ; 400 

yards of T rail is used ; monthly shipment, 500 tons. 



East Mine Mammoth Shafts. — General Pleasants, Director General. 

These shafts are situated at the East Delaware mines, upon the estate of the 
P. R. C. and 1. Co. , 2 miles north of Pottsville ; are now under progress of develop- 
ing the deep seams in that basin. These devolopments consist of two shafts and 
a slope opening ; the slope opening contains a section area of 147 square feet, the 
dips of which is 60-* north ; the slope will be exclusively used for the drainage of 
the shafts by means of timnels connecting the openings together as aqueducts ; 
very little water has been encountered at a depth of 400 vertical feet, below the 
water line of the valley. The east shaft will be exclusively used for coal outlet, 
having two compartments throughout its whole depth. The west shaft will be 
of a similar construction, but in three compartments, and made as an outlet for 
coal, men and mine material. 

August 3, 1871, the sinking of these openings commenced ; but not till January 
17, 1S72, the regular sinking commenced ; the full depth of shaft completed in 
January 1, 1873, was 510 feet. The flat vein was reached at a depth of 108 feet ; 
Little Tracy seaiB at 250 feet ; Big Tracy seam at 477 feet, in its basin, its north 
dip at an angel of 75"^, its south dip, 34^. A new system of rock excavation has 
been introduced and successfully prosecuted. This consists of rotary diamond 
drills, operated by Root engines •, the diamond drill bit is secured to gas pipe shaft- 
ings, extended in additional sections until the desired depth has been reached ; 
water is forced through these pipes under a pressure of 100 lbs. per squai% inch, 
for cooling the drills and washing out the sediment. A number of these holes are 
bored to any required depth, they are then tilled with coarse sand, the sand is re- 
moved to suitable depths, and blasting and excavation commences, and prosecuted 
until tlie bottom is reached, when the drills are again placed in position and boring 
again commences. The machines are propelled by compressed air. The best 
drilling was 79 feet in 12 hours and by 80 feet of blasting in one month. The pre- 
paratory improvements, etc., were commenced September 1, 1871, at the West 
shaft, and a depth of 230 feet has been reached. January 1, 1H73, with similar 
success, an explosion at this shaft occasioned considerable delay. It is antici- 
pated that the E seam will be reached in the east shaft by the first October, 1874, 
when suitable buildings will be constructed and coal shipping commence. 



Hickory Colliery. — Hickory Coal Comimny, Operator. 

This old colliery is situated at St. Clair, upon the present leased estate of tlie 
Philadelphia and Reading railroad company. It has been in operation for over 
30 years. It consists of a double track slope, sunk 300 yards deep, on the south 
dip of the E vein, at an angle of 20°. 

Mr. John Pinkertonwas the first to open this colliery, and successfully operated 
it up to 1854, at which time it came into the hands of Mr. William Milnes, who, 
in his term, operated it up to 18(30, at Avhich time it came into the hands of the 
Hickory coal company, and latterly it came into the hands of the Pliiladelphia 
and Reading railroad company by lease and purchase. The slope has 4 lifts. Tlie 
E and seven foot seams are worked at present ; the former seam is 30 feet, and 



85 

the latter is 9 feet thick. Some 525 yards of gangway is now open as new work ; 
all the old openings are idle. Twenty-one hands are employed at tlie time, but 
then very little work Iiad been doing. 

Ventilation is produced by natural means, which is not quite sufficient for an 
increased operation. The temperature outside was at 78^, and inside at 76^. — 
Barometer outside indicated 28 6-10, and inside 29 1-10 inches. Tlie quantum of 
air supplied, was 3,0-10 cubic feet per minute. 

Engines in use. — Tliree steam engines=145-horse power, with 4 good steam 
boilers, all of which are in good condition. Twenty slope wagons and 2 liead of 
mules, and 2,600 yards of 25 lb. rails are used. Montlily sliipments exceeds 3,000 
tons. Yalue of improvements is $10,000. 



Mine Hill Gap Colliery. — William Kendrick, Operator. 

This colliery is situated at the Mine Hill gap, on the estate of the Philadelphia 
and Reading railroad company, leased from James Dundas, Esq., and previously 
operated by Kear Brothers. It has been in active operation for 26 years. It con- 
sists of 3 slope openings, viz : — A double track coal slope, a pump slope and a ma- 
terial and workingmen carriage slope. Tlie coal slope is sunk 300 yards deep on 
the north dip of the E vein, and so are the others, and are of equal depth. The 
colliery l)uildings are of stone, and of their class very substantially constructed. 
There is a large body of coal open m the mine, and a considerable amount of fire- 
damp is generatt-d, but ample provisions liave been made to subdue its influence. 
For its adaptation for coal production, drainage and accommodation for miners, 
it has not any superior in the region. 

Ventilation, is produced by a 20-horse steam fan ; the air is divided into spits, 
ventilating eacli separate district in a practical manner. 

Gangways. — There are 8 main gangways operated. The coal mined in the upper 
tier of gangways is discharged into schutes, and loaded in connection with the 
coal mined in the lower level. Tlie refuse coal, slate and rock, in tlie upper work- 
ings, is stowed away inside, and is used in supporting the roof. 

Engines in use. — Nine steam engines are in use at tlie colliery ; aggregate power 
is equal to 4S2-horse, witli 16 steam boilers, with ad their equipments and fixings 
in good condition. 

There are hands employed inside, and hands employed outside; 

mine wagons are in use, with liead of mules. Monthly shipments exceed 

10,000 tons. Yalue of the improvements of every kind, is estimated at .$500,000. 
Three visits, of 24 miles, lias been made. One person was killed during the year : 

this was ttie only accident that has happened. There are persons employed 

in and about the colliery. 



Swift Creek. — Gideon Bast & Co., Operators. 

This colliery is situated west of Tuscarora, en the estate of the operators. It 
consists of a double track slope, sunk 110 yards deep on the south dip of tlie 
Holmes or F vein, on an angle of 65-' dip. Five hundred and fifty yards of 
gangways have been opened in the mine, but a fault in tlie seam occasioned tlie 
suspension of mining most of the year. The colliery is at present idle, and has 
been only two years in operation. 

Engines. — Tliere are 2 steam engines in use=145 horse, with 8 steam boilers, 
whose condition is good. The improvements are estimated at $50,000. Two 
visits of 44 miles have been made. Tlie colliery, when in full operation, would 
give employment to IGO hands. Two persons were injured during the year. 



86 

Alaska Colliery. — Oen. Henry L. Cake, Operator. 

The colliery is situated in the northern limits of the borough of Tamaqua, upon 
the estate of the Mammoth coal and iron company. It consists of 2 drift line 
gangways, opening westward, on the south dip of the A and C veins, at angles of 
80^. This colliery is idle mostly during the year. There are 2,100 yards of gang- 
way open. The breasting lift on these drifts is 190 in length. The coal is from 
7 to 10 feet thick. Ventilation is produced by natural means. Both seams gene- 
rate fire-damp, with a large portion of black-damp. 

Three steam engines are used=55-horse power, with 5 steam boilers. Their 
condition has not been reported. Eighty-two hands are employed when in ope- 
ration. Forty-six wagons and 15 mules are used. The monthly coal shipments 
are 5,000 tons. Value of improvements, 150,000. There are 2,800 yards of T rail 
used. 



WabAvSii Colliery. — William Kendrick, Operator. 

This colliery is situated a mile south of Heaves Dale, upon the estate of the P. 
K. Coal and I. Co. It consists of a douijle track slope sunk on the G or Primrose 
vein on an angle of 73° north. The slope is 185 yards deep. 100 yards Avest of 
the slope level an 80 yard tunnel opens the E seam south uf the G seam, and 18 
yards further south the cross-cut seam is also open. The coal runs from 6 to 16 
feet thipk. 1,500 yards of gangways are opeiied, working only 4 breasts, but are 
driving gangways, schutes and headings, and removing loose coal. 

Ventitution is produced by a 25 horse steam fan. These seams generate fire- 
damp, but the distribution of the air supply into the panels, and its return is un- 
der a practical system and the supply ample for the purpose and at present gives 
satisfaction. No accident occurred during the year. Ample provision has been 
made for egress and ingress and for the safety and health of the workingmen. 

Nine steam engines are in use^691-liorse power, and 17 steam boilers, with all 
their appointments, are in good condition. There are 40 slope wagons and 14 mules 
used ; 1,621 yards of 30 ft. T rail used ; 13 tenant houses, occupied by 12 families ; 
47 inside and 97 outside hands are employed ; monthly shipments exceed 6,000 tons ; 
value of improvements is estimated at $300,000. Four visits = 128 miles, have 
been made. 

November 13th, the temperature outside was 50° and inside 62°. The l)arom- 
eter outside indicated 29 and inside 29i inches. These indications were favorable. 
The quantum of air supplied was 7,351 cubic feet per minute for the legal com- 
plement, being 6,666 for 47 hands, lights and 8 mules, the condition of ventilation 
l)eing fully satisfactory. The colliery has been in operation for three years, and 
latterly the estate and collieries have come into the hands of the P. & R. R. Co. 
by lease and purchase rights. 



Reevesdale Colliery. — Beevcsdale Coal Company^ Operators. 

The colliery is situated at Reevesdale, west of Tamaqua, upon the estate of the 
Mammoth coal company. It consists of a drift tunnel driven 450 yards south, 
to the R seam. This seam is the underlying seam in this basin. The O, G, F, 
E, Q, double Q and R seams are open in this tunnel. The dip of these sea ns is 
on an angle of 70*-. Except the R vein, all the others have been worked out upon 
this tunnel level. Nine hundred yards of gangways have been opened on tlie R 
seam, Avorking 4 breasts, scliutes and lieadings, with 20 hands employed in them. 
The coal runs from 5 to 20 feet in these veins. 

Ventilation is produced by natural means and practically applied in the eastern 
panel. The western panel is not as favorable. Tlie outside temperature, No- 
vember 14, was 6(P, and inside 68°. The barometer indicated 28 8-10 inside, and 
outside 28 9-10 inches, whicli condition appears favorable. 

To better tlie condition, and to increase the supply of air for the safe woiking 
of the mine, I directed tliat the needed improvements be made at an early day. 

Two steam engines are used at the colliery =50-horse power, and 3 steam boil- 
ers, wliose condition has not been reported". Eight hundred and fifty yards of 



87 

25 ft. T rail has been in use. Forty hands are employed at the colliery. Sixteen 

drift waarons and 6 mules are used. The monthly shipments of coal are 

tons. Value of improvements, |;20,000. 



New Kirk Colliery.— Fr;/, Shoemaker & Co., Operators. 

Tlie colliery is situated west of lleevesdale. It has been 30 years in active ope- 
ration. The estate is owned by the Philadeli)hia and Reading railroad company. 
It consists of a double track slope, sunk 114 yards deep on the south dip of tiie 

vein, on an angle of 45'^. A tunnel from the s!o[)e level opens the i\ E, 

cross-cut and D seams. This tunnel, from the slope gangway to the F seam rock, 
measures 4o yards. The rock tunnel to the E seam is 100 yards ; to the cross-cut 
is 12 yards, and to the D is So yards. The coal in these seams runs from 4 to i!l' 
feet in thickness. A tunnel opens the Washington seam, which is 5 feet in 
thickness. The character of work done is quite safe. 

Ventilation is produced by a 20-hors3 steani fan, which produces a sufficient 
supply of air for mining purposes. November 1-5 the temperature was 54^ out- 
side, and inside 6 P. Tne baromater indicated 2d outside, and 29 o-lO inside. The 
condition of ventilation is greatly improved. 

Five steani engines are in use, whose aggregate power is 430-horse, with 19 good 
steam boilers, with all their equipments, and are in good condition. There are 
12 gangways open in the mine ; 350 yards of openings. Four tliousand yards of 
T rail are used. Fifty slope wagons and 14 mules are used. Value of improve- 
ments, $ . 



SiLYEE Ceeek Colliery. — William c^ Thomas Williams^ Operators. 

' Tins colliery is situated at Silver Creek, on the estate of Swayne & Able. It 
has been 12 years in operation. It consists of a double track slope, sunk 100 yards 
deep on the south dip of the D vein, on an angle of 30-'. A tunnel S6 yards long 
opens the E vein. There are 2,350 yards of gangways opened upon the colliery, 
working seven breasts, opening sciiutes and headings. The coal in the upper 
seam of the E vein is 14 feet thick. A large portion of the mine is being worked 
out. The breaker building and fixtures were destroyed by lire in November, which 
caused the suspension of shipments since. 

Ventilation is produced by a 10-horse steam fan, which is conducted upon a prac- 
tical system, which produces a sufficient supply of air for all purposes. ISo far 
no fire-damp has been generated. 

Five steam engines are in use, equal to an aggregate of 180 horse power, and 
10 steani boilers, with all their fixtures, were found to be in good condition. Fort y 
inside and fifty outside hands are employed when the colliery is in operation. Sixty 
slope wagons and sixteen mules are used ; 4,000 yards of 25 pound T rail are used ; 
monthly shipments exceed 3,oo0 tons; value of improvements is estimated at 
$50,000; one person was injured during the year. 



PixE Forest Shaft Colliery. — William Kendriek, Operator. 

This colliery is situated east of St. Clair. Has been eight years in active ope- 
ration by George W. Snyder, Esq., but of late it came into the liands of the F- 
E. Coal and Iron Co. It consists of a double cage track shaft, sunk 100 yaids 
deep upon the south dip of the E seam. The coal strata has a dip of 43'^ south. 
The Seven Feet and D veins are o])ened by tunnels from the E gangway. Four 
principal gangways are open. Tliirty-three In-easts are worked, with such schute 
and lieadingsas are necessary, employing 80 liands inside. The character of t\w 
work is considered safe. Latterly the mines become free of fire-damp, whicli was 
heretofore a terrible menace to mining operations, reuuiring the greatest vigilance, 
with the necessity of the constant use of the safety lamp to enable the working- 
men to cope with this scourge of the mine. 



88 

Ventilation is produced by a 25-liorse steam fan. The air is properly divided 
into spits and conducted upon a practical plan, whicli renders the mine in so safe 
}{, condition that the safety lamps are at present unnecessary. November 18, the 
temi)erature outside was 50^ and inside 62-'. Tlie barometer outside indicated 
It) 3-10 and inside 129 7-10 inches. This condition of the air indicated it to be free 
from noxious mixtiu'es. The quantum of air supplied was 25,000 cubic feet per 
minute, whilst the legal supply wo\dd be 10,500 cubic feet per minute. 

.Six steam engines," equal to 855 horse power, are in use, and 29 steam boilers, 
which, with all their appointments, are kept in good condition. There are 11.055 
yards of 25 pound T rail used ; 46 tenant houses, 72 mine wagons and — mules 
are used ; monthly shipments exceed 10,000 tons ; value of improvements, $ . 



Hickory Shaft Colliery. — William Kendrich, Operator. 

The colliery is situated at Wadesville, upon the estate of the P. R. Coal and Iron 
Company. It has been in active operation the last ten years. It consists of a 
double track cage-way and pump chamber ; is sunk 694 feet deep to the south dip 
of the E vein. The coal is 32 feet in thickness. The operations of the colliery 
were retarded some weeks in summer by the discovery of a portion of a district 
or panel of the coal taking Are under unknown circumstances. The colliery was 
threatened with destruction from the advances made by the fire. It was finally 
decided to inundate the mine, which was a heavy undertaking. TJiis being finally 
accomplished it had the desired effect, and the safety of tlie mine was accom- 
plished. Under tlie unremitting exertions of Mr. Althouse, maiuiger of the col- 
liery, the work lias been carried out successfully, and is once again in full and 
satisfactory operation. 

Seven principle gangways are working, with 47 breastings, schutes, headings, 
&c., employing 120 liands, 1,830 yards of gangway opening and two inclined planes 
of 247 yards each. The E and Seven Feet seams are worked in conjunction, and 
in lifts proper tor mining, the character of which is considered a safe operation. 

VcntiUdion is produced by a 30-horse power steam fan. The supply of air is tol- 
erable good, but owing to tlie presence of so much fire-damp and noxious mixtures 
it is decided to improve the means of ventilating the mine and secure a larger 
supply for all occasions, tliough little or no complaint has been made of any want 
of air supply. 

Tiiere are 7 steam engines in use, whose aggregate power is 670-horse, and 20 
good steam boilers with all their equipments are in good condition. One hun- 
dred mine wagons and 30 mules are used ; 385 persons are employed. The present 
monthly tonnage exceeds 10,000 tons ; it is confidently expected 20,000 tons can 
be sliipi)ed monthly in the spring. Tlie value of this colliery is estimated at not 
much less tliau $1 "000,000. 



Greenwood Colliery, No. 1. — Eugene Borda, Esq., Operator. 

The colliery is situated at Greenwood, east of Tamaqua, on the estate of the 
Lehigh coal and navigation company. It consists of a sloi)e sunk 213 yards deep 
on the south dip of the E vein, on an angle of 43-'. The E and cross-cut veins are 
worked west, and stands idle. An 80 yard long tunnel is driven southward in 
the iKisin, to open the north dip of the E vein, and 250 yards east of this tunnel, 
jinother tunnel is open 40 yards into the cross-cut vein ; the coal is 90 feet thick, 
l.u^ a little soft ; the D vein is also oi)en and the parting rock is only 9 feet thick. 
Tae character of work doing is getting out the loose coal, which, at best, is a 
dangerous undertaking. 

]\')dil(Uion is produced by a furnace arrangement which does not fully supply 
the necessary amount of air needed. I directed the necessary improvements to 
be commenced, which, when completed, will fully supply all wants. 

Four steam engines are in use equal to 146 horse, and 7 good steam boilers with 
.nil tackle and appointments are in good condition. Forty wagons and 13 mules 
are us.'d ; 61 inside witli 21 outside liands are employed ; monthly shipments is 
4,000 tons. Outside temperature, November 20, was 36'^, and inside 60^. Barom- 
eter outside 28.8 and inside 29.2 inches^ . 



89 

Greenwood Colliery, No. 1. — Eugene Borda, Esq., Operator. 

This colliery is sitviated at Greenwood, east of Tamaqua,upon the estate of*the 
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company. 

It consists of a slope sunk 282 yards deep on the F or Holmes seam on an angle 
of 50^ south. Driving breasts, gangways, schutes and heading is the character of 
the work doing. A tunnel 70 yards west of the slope opens the E vein, with 66 
yards of rock parting. The seam is 25 feet thick. 1,500 yards of gangway is op- 
erated, working 10 breasts, schutes and heading. A proper compliance with the 
requirements of law is carefully maintained. 

VcnWdtion is produced by two steam fans, each a fifteen-horse power, one ou 
each seam, and its condition is satisfactory. November 22d, the outside temper- 
ature was 40° and inside 65°. The barometer indicated outside 2S and inside 29.3 
inches. The supply of ventilation was 10,340 cubic feet of air per minute. 

Seven steam engines are used = 851-liorse power, and 21 good steam boilers with 
all equipments are well conditioned. Sixty slope wagons and 25 mules are used ; 
135 liands are employed ; 3,380 yards of track is used. Monthly shipments exceed 
5,000 tons. Value of improvements is estimated at $ 



Beeciiwood Colliery. — WUlimn KendricJc, Esq., Operator. 

This colliery is situated at Mount Laffee, and has been 37 years in operation. 
At present it belongs to the P. and R. R. E. Co. It consists of a double track slope 
sunk 300 yards deep on the south dip of the E vein, on an angle of 49^ ; some 14 
gangways whose aggregate length is 30,000 yards. There are 54 breasts working 
and schutes and headings. Tlie management of the mines was at first a difficult 
task, cliiefiy due to crushings and the large amount of fire-damp generated. This 
difliculty is obviously overcome. 

Ventilation is produced by a 30-horse steam fan, which operation is based upon 
a practical system givinjx quite a satisfactory result, as follows : the number of 
cubic feet of air supplied in the following districts per minute— in the lower lift 
19,000, in the new slant 7,400, in the old slant 8.500, in the tunnel 14,590, in the 
west spit 8,700, and in the outlet 58,190 cubic feet per minute. No fire-damp could 
be found, and tliese conditions are fully satisfactory. One person had been acci- 
dentally killed and twelve persons were slightly injured. 

Six steam engines are in use = 22G-horse, and 12 good steam boilers and condi- 
tion of the sanie reported, with all machinery connected with the colliery is kept 
in good repa r. Ninety slope wagons and 22 mules are used ; 30,600 yards of track 
are used ; 15 tenant blocks ; 338 hands are employed, 235 of which are inside hands. 
Monthly shipments are 10,000 tons ; value of improvements estimated at $ . 



York Colliery. — Llewellyn & Company, Operators. 

This colliery is situated west of Pottsville, on the estate of A. Russell and otli- 
ers. It is three years in operation. It consists of a single track slope sunk 55 
yards deep on the south dip of the gate vein, on an angle of 55°. The west gang- 
way is 550 yards long, working four breasts. The coal is seven feet thick. The 
colliery gives employment to 20 liaiids. 

Ventilation is produced by natural means, wiiich is only moderate. One steam 
engine is used of 20-horse with two steam boilers. Six mine wagons and 600 yards 
of track are used ; yearly shipments are 2,000 tons. The colliery is a land sale and 
its shipments depend to be stimulated by the season of the year more than upon 
the common market. 



York Farm Colliery. — Job Eich, Operator. 

This colliery is situated west of Pottsville, on the estate of the old York com- 
pany. It has been 38 years in operation. It consists of a single track slope, sunk 
150 yards deep, on the south dip of the tunnel vein, on an angle of 28°. The coal 



90 

is 7 feet thick, and 2 gangways operates botli soutli and north dips. The basin 
dips westward, and to continue mining on this lift, drainage will, in that event, 
))eeonie a difficult matter. 

Ventilation is not adequate, and consequently very unhealthy for men to work 
amongst smoke and noxious air. 

Mr. Bich is a very i)ractical miner in his way, and manages matters to the best 
wishes of his few hands. A furnace is used, but its action is not adequate to 
furnish a sufficient supply of air. 

One 20-liorse engine and 2 steam boilers are used, which have not been legally 
examined. Four liundred yards of track is used; 8 inside hands and 4 outside 
liauds are employed, Avitli 4 wagons and 1 mule. 



SuAKP Mountain Colliery. — Joseph Wood, Operator. 

This colliery is situated on the Sharp mountain, south of Pottsvi'le, upon Mr. 
Richards' estate. It consists of a single track slope, sunk 110 yards deep, on th« 
JJartlofe vein. The coal seam is 7 feet thick. A tunnel 55 yards long opens -a 
white ash seam 7 feet thick, and the coal is disposed of to the citizens. Twelve 
persons are employed in and about the colliery. 

Ventilation is produced by natural means, and found satisfactory. Ko acci- 
dents occurred during the year. Two engines of 25-horse power are used with 1 
l)oiler ; 8 slope wagons, 2 head of mules and 900 yards of T rail is used. Monthly 
shipments tons. Value of improvements is ,$8,000. 



Tamaqua Drift Colliery. — Messrs. Mcickey and Walker, Operators. 

This small colliery is situated soulh of Tamaqua, upon the estate of the Phila- 
delpliia and Reading railroad company. It consists of adrift open on the D seam, 
the gangway of which is 700 yards in west. A tunnel 21 feet long opens the P 
seam on this gangway. The P seam is 90 feet thick, and the coal mined in this 
drift is prepared at the shaft breaker. The mine is properly managed and safe. 
Ventilation is produced by a furnace, in a practical way, and is considered very 
good. This colliery employs 24 hands, and has 780 yards of gangways opened ; 3 
V)reasts, with schutes and headings are working, which I consider safe. Seven- 
teen mine wagons, 3 mules and 900 yards of track are in use. Monthly shipments 
3.000 tons. 



YORKViLLE Colliery. — Baltaiser & Co., Operators. 

' This colliery is situated in Yorkville, west of Pottsville, upon Mr. Richard- 
son's estate. It consists of a drift driven 64 yards soutli to a white ash vein ; 40 
yards east of this tunnel a slope is sunk 40 yards deep, and a like slope is sunk 
west of it 50 yards deep. Three hundred and forty yards of gangways are open on 
this new lift, working 3 breasts, etc.; the coal is 5 feet thick. 

Ventilation iiji produced by natural means, and so far it is sufficient for ])resenl 
mining operations. Sixteen persons are employed in and about the colliery ; 4 
mine wagons ai\d three mules are used. Annual shipments 2,000 tons. Having 
no outlet to market, the shipment of coal is necessarily eonliued to the borough. 
With an outlet, a considerable amount of good coal could be mined from this 
place. Hauling to tlie railroad would incur an unwarrantable expense, and would 
necessitate a re-iiandling of the coal, which would produce a waste, hence the col- 
liery must be confined to its present condition. Value of improvements, p,00©. 



91 

LA>rBERT Colliery. — Samuel Morgan & Co., Operators. 
This colliery is situated West of ISTew Philadelphia, upon the estate of 



It consists of a double-track slope, sunk 200 yards deep on the 
south dip of the Palmer vein, on an angle of 30^. The present mining is con- 
fined to the second lift. The seam is four feet thick. Two gangways are open 
1,180 yards long ; working 15 breasts, schutes and heading. 70 yards east of the 
bottom of the slope a tunnel is in progress of construction to open the Potts vein. 
The mines are well managed for safety, drainage and ventilation. 

A 10-horse fan produces ventilation, which is constructed upon a practical 
plan. 52 pei"Sons are employed inside and 30 outside. 

3 steam engines are used, (85-horse,) and 7 good steam boilers, with all their 
fixtures and machinery, are in good condition. 30 mine wagons and six mules 
are used. 2,000 yards of T rail is laid. Monthly shipments are 4,000 tons. 
Yalue of improvements is estimated at $80,000. 



Kew Philadelphia Colliery. — Hine & Co., Operators. 

The colliery is situated east of New Philadelpliia, upon the estate of the P. and 
K. E. E. Co. It consists of a shaft sunk 100 yards deep, on the Gate vein, the 
coal of which is 8 feet thick. Two main gangways are open in 1,300 yards. 
Only 4 breasts Avere working. The breaker at the colliery was accidentally de- 
stroyed by tire, in March last. The colliery discontinued operation since. 40 
persons were employed in and about the colliery when in operation. 12 mine 
wagons and 6 mules were used. 1,400 yards of track is used. Monthly ship- 
ments, 1,000 tons. Yalue of improvements, $14,000. No accidents occurred 
during the year. 5 engines (75-horse) with 4 steam boilers are used. 



Thomaston' Slope Colliery, No. 1. — Thomas Shollcnhurg, Operator. 

This colliery is situated at Thomaston, on the estate of the P. and R. R. R. Co. 
It is in operation one year. It consists of a double track slope, sunk on the 
Crosby seam 280 yards deep, on a 43^ north dip. At present nothing else is doing 
tlian extending the west gangway to meet the east gangway of tlie No. 2 Slope; 
tills gangway is protected for the use of a safe ingress and egress for the work- 
men. At present 24 hands are employed. 

Ventilation is produced by a 40-horse steam fan, located at the Thomaston Slope 
Colliery, and is conducted in a practicable manner to supply air to this slops 
workings. Five hundred yards of gangway is open ; extending gangway is the 
only work doing at this time. The condition of the mine is quite satisfactory. 



TiiOMASTOK Slope Colliery, No. 2. — William Kendrick, Esq., Operator. 

This colliery is situated at Thomaston, upon the estate of the P. and R. R. R. Co. 

It has been —years in operation. It consists of a double track slope, sunk 

280 yards deep, on the north dip of the Crosby vein, on an angle of 43^. The 
Church vein is opened by a tunnel 8G yards long, driven northward ; tlie Daniel 
vein lies 9i yards south of the Crosby vein. A tunnel is in progress to open the 
Daniel vein, and also to open the Skidmore vein. The coal in tliese seams runs 
from 5 to 12 feet thick. 

Ventilation is produced by a 40-horse steam fan, practically conducted in spits 
into and out of each panel, and is one of the best ventilated mines in the district. 

Four gangways are open 868 yards in length, working 16 breasts, shutes and 
headings, with 78 men employed. The character of the work done is considered 
safe. December 4, the outside temperature was 40-^ and inside 45°. Barometer 
outside was 29j, and inside 29 8-10 inches. 31,924 cubit feet of air was supplied 
per minute ; this result was quite satisfactory. 



92 

Five steam eiigines=240-]iorse are in use, and 12 good steam boilers with all 
the necessary eciuipments are in good condition. Twenty-six slope wagons, 13 
mules and 2,000 yards of outside and 1.G42 yards of inside traclv is used=3,642 
yards. 78 inside and 68 outside hands are employed=146. Monthly shipment8= 
2,500 tons. Yalue of improvements '$ . 



IIeckscherville Slope Colliery. — John Wadlinger, Oxjerator. 

This colliery is situated at Heckscherville, and has been in operation some 
years. It consists of a doid:)le track slope, sunk 300 yards deep on the Crosby 
vein, on an angle of 60'-" south, in 2 lifts. A tunnel run 67 yards south opens the 
Church vein. Work in this vein is at present suspended. A tunnel 119 yards 
long opens the Daniel vein from the Crosby gangway. The Daniel seam is 24 feet 
'thick. The I^eller veins are opened by a slope sunk 100 yards deep. The rock 
strata is only 16 yards thick. 

Four gangways are open, working 18 breasts, etc., employing 67 hands, and 
35 hands outside. The mine is in good condition. 

Ventilation is produced by a 40-horse fan, which is conducted in a practical and 
satisfactory manner. December 5 the temperature was 40° outside, and 46° in- 
side. Tlie barometer outside was 29 2-10, and inside 29i inches. The quantity 
of air supi)lied was 14,762 cubic feet per minute. Thirty-six wagons and 8 mules 
are in use ; 101 hands employed ; 1,880 yards track laid ; 14,762 cubic feet of air 
supplied. 

Six engines=426-horse power, with 20 good steam boilers, with all their equip- 
ments, are in proper condition. 



iVNTHRACiTE CoLLiERY. — Aiujustus Bauh, Op&rator. 

This colliery is situated north of Tamaqua, upon the estate of the Lehigh Coal 
and Navigation Co. It consists of a drift opening on the south side of the C. 
vein ; dips south on an angle of 80° in the lower lift, where the coal is 7 feet thick, 
while in tlie counter gangway the dip is 60° and the coal 20 feet thick. The 
mine, for the most part, is idle for the year. Ventilation is produced by natural 
means. One 25-horse engine is used at the breaker , with 3 boilers. Their condition 
is not known. Thirty-two hands are employed ; 1,200 yards of track are used. 
Monthly sliipments, 700 tons. Value of improvements, $14,000. Three visits 
were made=108 miles. 



Bull Rux Colliery, (Tunnel ISTo. 10.) — Lehigh Coal and Navigation Co., 

Operators. 

This colliery is situated east of Tamaqua, on the estate of this company. It 
consists of a tunnel opening 331 yards north to the E vein. This tunnel level is 
worked out, but a slope is sunk at the face of the tunnel, on the E vein, 70 yards 
deep. The vein dips 40° south. Both gangways are open 671 yards, working 17 
breasts, gangways, schutes and headings, tlie character of which is considered 
a safe operation. The coal is 50 feet tliick. The west gangway is open 750 yards, 
working IS breasts, etc. An outlet for men and mules is open on the west side. 
A pumj) slope is also sunk 80 yards west of the coal slope, and atrial slope is now 
sinking to prove the deiith of the basin. One hundred and seven persons are em- 
ployed^ in this mine. There are two gangways, working 35 breasts. Mr. E. T. 
Jones is entitled to credit for his skill and industry. 

VeniiUdion is produced by a 20-horse fan, and is conducted upon a practical 
system, giving entire satisfaction. The quantum of air supplied per month is 
15,167 cubic feet. 

Five steam engines are used = 440 horse, and twelve steam boilers with all their 
appointments are in good condition ; 204 hands are employed ; 94 mine wagons 
and 12 mules are used, with two locomotives ; 60 tenant houses occupied by 60 
families; 4,000 yards of track is used of 30 and 40 ft), rail; monthly shipment 

9,500 tons; value of improvements S ; outside temperature was 49°, inside 

60° ; barometer outside 29 and inside 29.3 inches. The indications were such that 
rery little tire-damp existed in the mine. 



93 

Taylokville Colliery. — Thomas ScJioUenberg, Operator. 

This colliery is situated at the extreme western end of Glen Carbon basin, upon 
the estate of the P. & R. K. Co. It consists of a double track slope sunk 300 yards 
deep on tlxe Daniel vein on an angle of 69^ south. Two lifts are worked in this 
mine in four gangways = 975 yards, working 35 breasts, schutes and headings, 
employing 100 "hands. ' The coal is six feet thick. 



West Pine Knot Colliery. — William Kendrick, Esq., Operator. 

The colliery is situated west of New Castle, upon the estate ol the P. & R. R. 
Co. It consists of a double track slope 235 yards deep on the E vein, on an angle 
of 65° south. Mining is suspended for the present. Some extensive repairs are 
going on, and preparing to sink a new slope. Thirty-eight persons are employed 
in the mine on this occasion. When these contemplated improvements are com- 
pleted it will be amongst the first-class collieries of our district. 

Four steam engines are in use = 595 horse, and 13 good steam l)oilers, with all 
their appointments are in good condition. 

Ventilation is produced by a 25-horse fan, but in consequence of sinking the 
new lift its use had to be dispensed with and natural ventilation substituted. 



Little Tracy Colliery, (small.) — Charles Conner, Operator. 

This colliery is situated north of Pottsville, upon the estate of the P. and R. R. K . 
Co. It consists of a small drift opening on the little Tracy vein. Its gangway 
is 350 yards in length. Sort of work doing is robbing out the present level ; 12 
person's are employed. Value of improvements some .^400. 



^NToRTii America Colliery, {s-m.a-lTj.)— William 3fead, Operator. 

This colliery is situated north of Pottsville, upon the estate . It consists of 

a tunnel open on the Lewis vein, south dip 31'^. The coal is seven feet thick. 
Six persons are employed. The improvements are valued at some $500. Venti- 
lation is produced by natural means. 



KoRTH America Colliery, No. 2, (small, new,)— J'aust tt Bro., Operator.^. 

This colliery is situated north of Pottsville, upon tlie estate of the P. and R. 
R. R. Co. It consists of a slope sunk on the Tracy vein 25 yards deep. The gang- 
way is open 60 yards in. A tunnel 15 yards long opens the nortli dip. Coal in 
both dips is four feet thick. The colliery will become one of considerable import- 
ance when fully developed. Twelve hands are employed. Value of improvements 
is estimated at ;;?3,000. Monthly shipments 40 tons. 



North America Colliery, No. 3.— John Reese, Operator. 

This mine is situated on the P. and R. R. R. Co.'s estate. It consists of a drift 
open on the Palmer vein ; 280 yards of gangway. The vein is small. The coal 
is good and three feet thick. The character of work done is safe. 



94 

Palmer Colliery (small) — Josqjh Seitzinger, Operator. 

This colliery consists of a small slope sunk on the Palmer vein 36 yards deep. 
The coal is four feet thick, on a dip of 40°. The operation is a new one and needs 
no extended report on its present condition, further than all work done is satisfac- 
tory. Some ten persons are employed. 



Tracy Veik Colliery. — William Clark, Operator. 

This colliery consists of a slope sunk 50 yards deep on the Little Tracy vein. 
The coal is five feet thick. This is a small laud-sale colliery. The work done is 
safe. Ventilation is produced by natural means. A full description of the col- 
liery is unnecessary, further than the mine is in a safe condition. Value of im- 
provements is ^2,000. 



East Mine Colliery, (small.) — George Seihert, Operator. 

The colliery consists of a slope, sunk on the Lewis vein, 90 yards deep to the 
water level. The coal is 5 feet thick. The character of work is safe. At present 
the place is idle. When in operation it gives employment to some 12 hands. 



TuscARORA Colliery, (small.) — John Sullivan, Operator. 

This colliery consists of a drift, opening on the north dip of the Diamond vein, 
the seam dips 60*^ south. One hundred and eighty yards of gangway are open. 
The seam is 8 feet thick. Mining is not considered a safe operation under the 
present condition of things. Extensions of any sort is discontinued. When in 
full operation it gives employment to 14 hands. Any further comment is needless 



Kentucky Colliery. — Shall tt- Donohoe, Operators. 

This colliery is situated west of Tuscarora, on the estate of Philadelphia and 
Beading railroad company and Kentucky Bank tract. The western section of 
the mine is worked upon the Kentucky tract, and the eastern section upon tlie 
Philadelphia and Reading railroad company's tract. It consists of a double track 
slope, sunk 161 yards deep on the E vein, di]) 60° south. The character of work 
d-oing is extracting loose coal and robing pillars. Both gangways end in faulty 
rock dykes. One thousand six hundred and fifty yards of gangways are open at 
present. Tlie oiierators and owners refuse extending the excavations through 
these rock faults. 

Ventilation is produced by a 20 horse fan, and is practically applied, supplying 
a sutiicient quantum of air. 

December 12, the temperature outside was 35° and inside 56°. The barometer 
29i outside and 29 8-lOth inches inside. The ventilation was safe. Little or no 
fire-damp existed • 9,530 cubic feet of air had been supplied per minute. 

Five steam engmes are in use==205 horse, and eleven good steam boilers, which 
with all their appointments are in good condition. Forty wagons and ten mules 
are used ; 3,000 yards of track are used ; 54 hands are employed in the colliery. I 
fiad the colliery managed properly with regard to health and safety and economy. 



95 

Pkacii Orchard Collieuy.--JB. Bowehotham, Operator. 

The colliery is situated West of Tuscarora, upon the estate of G. Bast and 
the Kentucky Bank tract. It consists of a single track slope, sunk 65 yards deej), 
on the Peach Mountain vein, on a dip 78° soutii. 4G2 yards of gangway is open, 
the extension of Avhicli ceased in consequence of a fault in the seam. Mining is 
therefore conlined to extracting the loose coal and pillar-robbing. Ventilation is 
produced by natural means ; the supply was ordinarily sufficient and the mine in 
good condition. 10 persons were employed inside and 16 outside. 

Two engines are in use == 60-horse poAver, and 3 steam boilers, whose condi- 
tion I consider unsafe. Safe means for egress and ingress is permanently estab- 
lished. The operator discontinued extending gangways for the present, but the 
mines are in a fit condition to proceed wiien it is decided to do so. 



BuRKViLLE CoiLLERY.— Tft'JZiam Kendrick, Operator. 

This colliery is situated west of Taraaqua, on the estate of the P. and R. K. R. 
Co. It has been uiany years in operation. It consists of a double track slope, 
sunk 270 yards deep on the Holmes or F vein, dipping 45-^ south. The coal is IH 
feet thick. 100 yards east of the slope bottom, a tunnel, 87 yards north, opens 
tA\e E vein. The seam is 30 feet thick, with 850 yards of gangways open on it. 
A steam pump of — horse power has been erected on the Tucker (old) works, i» 
•ttimection with this colliery, for the double purpose of draining both places. 



96 



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north I 



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REPORT 



OP THE 



mSPI^.CTOE OF MINEl OF THE SECOND OE ASHLAND DIS 

TRICT, FOR 1872. 



His Exoellency, John F. Hartranft, 

Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania : 

Sir : — In compliance with the requirements of law, I have the honor to here- 
with submit my annual report of tlie condition and cliaracter of the collieries irx 
my district, tlie number and character of the casualties that have occurred during 
the year, which I regret, is so large as forty-two deaths— only four deaths less 
than last year. The largely increased force of persons employed in these mines 
this year and the increased tonnage of coal, will, in a great measure, account for 
this mortality, when it is a known fact that hundreds of our modern miners and 
mine liands, witli impetuous youths, are employed to do the work of practical ex- 
perienced persons. Many of these collieries are profuse in generating fire-damp, 
and nearly all have high dipping and thick coal seams. By these conditions the 
dangers are multiplied, but the force of necessity bedims dangers, and conse- 
quently, casualties result from numberless causes. Even the most vigilant can- 
not escape. Tiie deaths that occurred were generally single cases, and the verdicts 
rendered by thirty-nine juries is that all came' to their deatlis by mere accident. 
I am pleased to inform your Excellency that Mie condition of the mines and mine 
ventilation is greatly imi)roved, and is upon the part of all managers and mine 
bosses receiving encouraging attention. The dread of the execution of" the law 
by tlie Inspector of mines is passing away, and a desire to comply with its re- 
(juirements is gaining friends. I ani not without hope that a decline in casual- 
ties will result from the precautionary measures adopted by our managers and a 
Httle more caution exercised by the miners, who often not only endanger their 
own lives, but the lives of others, by their hasty acts. Our duties may be incon- 
veuient and hazardous, but the consciousness of having discharged it Avith fidel- 
ity and to the l)est of our ability nerves us for the good work, asking the co-oper- 
ation of mine bosses and miners and those employed in tlie mines to aid by such 
raeans as is at tlieir control to lessen the causes of death and misery resulting 
from their negligent acts. 



101 



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103 



ASHLAND DISTRICT. 

List of nameff of persons maimed and injured in and about these mines 
during the year ending Deoeviber 31, A. B. 1872. 



Date. 


Names of persons 


Names of 


injured. 


the collieries. 


Feb. 9, 


David Bowman.. 


Len tz & Bowman 


Mar. 15, 


Thos. Conners.... 


Plank Ridge 


18, 


Wm. M'Keon.... 


Plank Ridge 


18, 


John Hartman... 


Plank Ridge 


Apr. 4, 


John Williams... 


Locust Dale 


4, 


Gteorge Be van .... 


Locust Dale 


4, 


Aiidrew Stitzer. 


Locust Dale 


4, 


.lohn Monroe 


Locust Dale 


4, 


Jame.s Macks 


Locu.st Dale 


4, 


Frank Branan ... 


Locust Dale.. ... 


4, 


Enoch Thomas... 


Locust Dale 


4,1 .James Madden... 


Ljcu.st Dale 


4, 


Jeuk'.s Granage.. 


Locu.st Dale 


4, 


Geo. Granage 


Locust Dale 


fi, 


Michael Keller... 


Union 


1.% 


Elias Feler 


Hill and Harris., 


1.5, 


James Duffy 


Turkey Run 


27, 


The fireman 


Hillside 


29, 


,Ias. Carpenter ... 


Hillside 


May 1, 


John M'Cafferty, 


Honey Brook 


6, 


James Golan 


Union .,.. 


10, 


John Richards... 


Tunnel Ridge 


12, 


David Reese. 

Samps. Cooch 


Primrose 


18, 


Wm. Penn 


20, 


Conrad Silbach... 


Plank Ridge 


21, 


Austin Lvon.s 


Shenandoah. 


21. 


Thomas Hughes, 


Lehigh, No. 3 


21, 


Patrick Devitt.... 


Shenandoah citv 


21, 


Patrick Hannity, 


Plank Ridge .... 


25, 


Michael Clearv... 


Indian Ridge 


2.5, 


John Tavlor 


Wiggans 


June 3, 


John Moore 


Tunnel Ridge 


^>) 


A boy 


Girardsville 


3, 


A miner. 


Girardsville 

Girardsville 


5, 


John Devany 


8, 


A miner 


Tunnel Ridge.... 
Hill & Harris 


s^, 


Charles Carroll... 


12, 


Henry Wootteo.. 


Lentz it Bowmai 


12, 


Pat. Nary, boy .. 


Wm. Penn 


19, 


B. L. Eschelman 


Preston, No, 2 


July fi. 


Samuel Tregoe.. 


Boston Run 


8,1 Pat'k Moi;a}ihan 


Plank Ridge 


8, 


Patrick Ruddy... 


Lost Creek 


8, 


Josiah Gill 


Plank Ridge 


10, 


James Jordan 


Tunnel Ridge 


13, 


Thomas Galvin... 


Colorado 


13, 


Daniel Hughes.. 


Turkey Run 


Ifl, 


Wm. Hartne}^ 

Israel Rodgers... 


Tunnel 


20, 


Plank Ridge 


24, 


Thomas Bane 


St. Nicholas 


24, 


Hugh Evans 


St. Nicholas 


24, 


James Walsh 


St. Nicholas [kei 


24, 


A miner 


Focht & Whitta- 
West Lehigh 


25, 


John Higgins 


26, 


Thos. Richards... 


Tunnel Ridge 


20, William Bale 


Wiggan 


29, Henrv Hunt .... 


Lentz & Bowman 


Aug. 7, T. Gokisworthv.. 


GlcTidon. 


8, Albert Dennis 


Elmwood 


8, Rich.Fitzpatrick 
8, Matthew Scliue.. 


Elmwood 


Hillside 


14, 


James Valance... 


Copley 


19, 


Richard Bryant.. 


Furnace 



Remarks. 



Leg broken in the mines. 

Severely injured by a fall of coal. 

Sei'erely injured by a fall of coal. 

Foot broken by a fall of coal. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Mortali'y burnt by gas — died. 

Mortally burnt by g^s — died. 

Severely burnt by powder. 

Severely burnt by gas. 

Severely injured by a fall of coal. 

Leg broken — fell over a bank. 

Leg broken — fell off a building. 

Severely injured by wagons. 

Leg broken by a fall of coal. 

Severely injured — fell down a manway. 

Severely injured by a fall of coal. 

Leg broken by a fall of coal. 

Head severely cut by a fall of coal. 

Arm broken by a fall of coal. 

Head severely cut — fell down a schute. 

Knee severely cut by a fall of coal. 

Foot cut off by a fall of coal. 

Arms broken by a fall of coal. 

Mortally burned by gas. Died .Tune I. 

Severely crushed by mine wagons. 

Head severely cut by a fall of slate. 

Thigh broken by a fall of coal. 

Mortally injured. 

Leg broken by a fall of coal. 

Fingers cut off by wagons. 

Head severely cut by a fall of coal. 

Eyes injured by a blast. 

Head cut by a fall of slate. 

Back crushed by a fall of coal. 

Severely injured by a fall of coal. 

Head injured by a fall of coal. 

Leg broken by a fall of coal. 

Leg broken by a wagon. 

Legs broken by a fall of coal. 

Head cut by a fall of coal. 

Thigh broken — crushed by a wagon. 

Slightly injured by a fall of coal. 

Severely injured by falling off the cage. 

Severely injured by falling off' the cage. 

Severely injured by falling off' the cage. 

Leg broken by a fall of coal. 

Severely crushed by a fall of coal. 

Severely injured by a blast. 

Leg l)roken by a fall of coal. 

Severely injured by a fall of timbers. 

Collar bone broken by wagons. 

Severely injured in the mines. 

Arm cut ofifin the mine. 

Head cut by a fiill of coal. 

Severely injured by a fall of coal. 

Arm broken by a blast. 



104 

Ashland District — Continued. 



Date. 



Names of persons 
injured. 



Aug. 22, 

22, 
23, 
24, 
24, 
24, 
24, 
24, 
24, 
26, 

Sept. 4, 
12, 
IS, 
27, 

Oct. 13, 
21, 

Nov. 7, 

9. 

15, 

27, 



27, 
27, 
28, 
5, 
5, 
S, 
12, 
12, 
12, 
12. 
12, 
12, 
19, 
19, 
28, 



Dec. 



2 men 

Jas. Garraway.... 

C. Meizeniger .... 
John Mincliell ... 
Richard Kneicht 

.John M'Neal 

Thos. Need ham.. 

D. Fitzgerrold.... 
Thomas Youtz ... 

.John Greener 

.John Wilson ... 

Wm. Morgan 

J. Warrens 

.James Stitzer 

J. Cunningham.. 
John Coalhouse.. 

A. Rowland 

.\ miner 

John Wyle, boy.. 
Ghas. Reighter... 
John Mathews... 

B. Dillmm 

Patrick .Jordan... 
Timothy Connell 

Wm. Pooler 

David Williams.. 

.John Walsh. 

David Lewis 

Frank Burkley... 
Christian Foster.. 

Christ. Post 

Pat. M'Anally ... 

Patrick Ryan 

Patrick Dillon.... 
We.sley Yhoe.... 
KeiiR Mansjran 



Names of 
the colleries. 



Remarks. 



Jjehigh, No. 3 

Gilberton 

Cambrian 

T^ehigh, No. .3 

Dehigh, No. 3 

Plank Ridge 

Plank Ridge 

Plank Ridge 

Ivohinoor 

Kohinoor 

Boston Run.. 

Lentztfe Bowman 

St. Nicholas 

Iveystone .. 

Girardville 

Bowmans . 

Girardsville 

Lo.st Creek 

Primrose 

Kohinoor 

Plank Ridge .... 

Kohinoor 

JjentzA Bowman 

Kohinoor... , 

Kohinoor ,. 

Sc. Nicholas 

St. Nicholas 

Shoemaker's ... 

Tunnel Ridge 

Tunnel Ridge 

Tunnel Ridge 

Mahanoy City.... 
Mahahoy City.... 
East Mahanoy ... 
East Mahonoy ... 
Ellt>n<jowen.. 



Severely i njured — fell off the slope truck 
Bodj' crushed by a fall of coal. 
Seve'ly inj'd by breaking of slope chain. 
Head and back crushed by a fall of coal. 
liCg broken by a wagon. 
Head seve'ly cut by discharge of a blast. 
Hands seve'ly cut by di.scharge of a blast. 
Hands seve'ly cut by discharge of a blast. 
Back severely cut by a fall of coal. 
Hand cut off by a circular saw. 
Arm broken — fell down a scliute. 
Head severely injured by a fall of coal. 
Jjeg broken (amputated) by dirt car. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely — fell into the slope. 
Leg broken — crushed by wagons. 
Ijeg broken by a fall of coal. 
Severely injured by a slope truck. 
Arm cut olf by the rollers. 
Sf^verely injured by a fall of coal. 
Severely injured by a tall of coal. 
Severely injured by a circular saw. 
Leg broken in three placf^s — tall of coal. 
Mortally injured by a fall of coal — died. 
I^jVes burnt by an explosion of powder. 
Severelv burnt by explosion of powder. 
Leg broken — fell down a schute. 
Head severely cut by a fall of rocks. 
Head severely cut by a fall of coal. 
Severely injured by a fall of coal. 
Severely injured by a fall of coal. 
Severely injured by a fall of (!oal. 
Severely injured by a fall of coal. 
Severely injured Ijy a fall of coal. 
Foot crushed in rollers. Died Jan. 20, 7.1. 
Rilis broken — fell down the shaft. 



99 persons Avero maimed and injured during tlie year, against 168 last year. 
Coal tonnage for 1872 was 3,101,903. 



Ko. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

.5 

(> 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

1.5 

16 

17 

IS 

19 

20 

21 



Names 
of collierie.s. 



Wm. Penn 

Indian Ridge .. 
Locust Dale.... 
East Mahanoy 
Lehigh, No. 4.. 
Knickerbock'r 

M'Neal 

M'Neal, No. 2 
Barry, No. 3.... 

Primrose 

Mahano}'- City, 
vSt. Nicholas.... 

Delano 

Suffolk 

Stanton 

Lawrence 

Bear Ridge 

Hon 'y Brook 3, 

Cambrian 

Plank Ridge... 
Grant 



Location. 



Shenandoah , 

Shenandoah 

Ashland 

Mahanoy city.... 

Shenandoah. 

Maple Dale 

Maple Dale 

Maple Dale 

Maple Dale 

Mahanoy city 

Mahanoy city.... 

St. Nicholas 

Mahanoy city.... 
St. Nicholas.."^ . .. 

Gilberton 

Gilberton 

New Plains .... 
New Pottsville.. 

Ashland 

Shenandoah citj 
Mahanoy city 



Land owners. 



P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and T. Co. 
Delano I^and Co... 
P. R. C. and 1. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
Caldwell and oth's 



Names of operators, 



L. V. R. R. Co 

P. R. (.'. and I. Co. 

J. Gilbert 

J. Gilbert. 

Philadelphia citv.. 
H. Brook C. Co.?... 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and 1. Co. 
Delano Laud Co... 



Wm. Kendrick. 
Win. Kendrick., 
S. C. Harris. ... 
Focht & Whittaker 

Packer* Co 

Fowler & Co 

Wm. Kendrick 

Wm. Ivendrick 

Wm. Kendrick 

Nevills & Co 

Romel.HillttH'rris 
J. Denni.soii <fe Co... 
Gorman and others 

Phillips & Son 

Miller c<k Maize .... 
.T. Jjawrence <fe Co.. 
Mumper and oth's. 
H. B. C. Company.. 

Atkins <fe (\i 

T^ee it Grant 

Dr. Yocum 



Tons 
mined. 



89,360 
80,560 
29,964 
66,606 



45,596 
84,22.3 
84,22:j 
84,223 
52,213 

101, 2«^ 
88,14i) 
1.5,013 
49,080 
52,989 
66,825 
4,6a9 

196.9.5U 
17,291 

133,193 
2,513 



105 

Ashland District — Continved. 



No- 


Names 
of collieries. 


Location. 


Land owners. 


Names of operators. 


Tons 
mined. 


22 


West Lehigh... 
Preston, No. 1, 


Shenandoah 

Girardsville 


P, R. C. and I. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 


White &Go 


5,351 


23 


Wm. Kendrick 


13,171 


24 


Pre.ston, No, 2, 


Girardsville 


P. R. C. and T. Co. 


Win. Kendrick 


54,010 


25 


Boston Run 


St. Nicholas 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 


Althouse it Bro 


02,000 


26 


Bear Run 


Gilberton 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 


Wiggan it Trebles.. 


74,430 


V,7 


Furnace 

Draper 


Gilberton 


J. Gilbert 


Atkins it Bro 

Wm. Draper it Co. 
Beatty it Garretson 
Berton & Bro 


20,777 


"^8 


Gilberton 


.1. Gilbert 


12."), .544 


9,0 


Girard 


Girardsville ... 


Philadelphia city.. 
L. Val. R. R. Co... 


39 791 


30 


Coal Ridge .... 


Mt. C.armel 




31 


Ivohinoor... 


Shenandoah cit% 


.]. Gilbert 


R. Heckscher & Co. 


104,743 


32 


Tunnel Ridge. 


Mahanoy city 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 


G. W. Cole 


83,760 


33 


Elniwood 

Gilbert 

Ellen Gowan... 


Mahanoy citj' 

Gilberton 

Maple Dale 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 
J. Gilbert 


Lee it Wren 


5,3.39 


34 


Gilberton C. Co 

J. C. Scott it Sons .. 


65,227 


35 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 


70,409 


83 


Girardsville 


Girardsville... 


Philadelphia city.. 


Agard it Moody 


84,947 


37 


M^Michael 


(Girardsville 


Philadelphia city.. 


Agard it Moody.. .. 


18,822 


38 


Preston, No. 3. 


Girardsville 


P. R. C. and 1. Co. 


Wm. Kendrick 


2,055 


39 


Preston, No. 4.. 


Girardville 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 


Wm. Kendrick 


52,503 


40 


Kevstone 


Locust Dale 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 


Wm. Kendrick 


24,845 


41 


Union 


Centralia 

Mahanov city.. .. 


(Jirard heirs 

P. R. C. and I. Co. 


Ryon it Anderson.. 
A. Hunt 


47,394 


42 


Malvern 


19,248 


43 


Copley 


Mahanoy city 


L. Val. R. R. Co... 


Lentz it Bowman.. 


75,226 


44 


Glendon 


Mahanoy city 

Ashland 


L. Val. R. R. Co... 
Locust .Mt. C. I Co. 


J. B. Bovlan 


25,244 
84,309 


45 


Locust Run. ... 


G. S. Ripplier 


4« 


Lehiiifh, No. 3.. 


Slienandoah city 


Girard heirs 


Philad'a C. Co 


53,250 


47 


Continental 

Lilly :. 


Centralia 


Philadelphia city.. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 


R. Gorrell, Agt 

Wm. Kendrick 


93, 139 


48 


Ashland 


44,917 


4<t 


Colorado 

Shenandoah C, 


Colorado 


P. R. C. and T. Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 


Philad'a C. Co 

.1. O. Rhoades 


127,089 


50 


Shenandoah city 


74,001 


51 


Hazle Dale .... 


Centralia 


Locust Mt. C. I Co. 


Robert Gorrell 


73,889 


62 


Beaver Run 


Malianov city 


Delano Land Co... 


Peter Bowman 


2,026 


53 


Excelsior 

Thomas 


Ashland 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 
Girard heirs 


J. R. Cleaver 

Thomas Coal Co.... 


9,234 


54 


Shenandoah city 


100,279 


55 


Hill Side 


Mahanov city.... 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 


G. Pomroy 


8,349 


56 


Turkey Run.... 


Shenandoah citv 


Gilbert it Sheafer. 


Breneizer it Co 


77,409 


57 


Girard ^him'th 
Lost Creek 


Raven Run 

Colorado 


(xirard heirs 

Philadelphia city. 


.1. Donaldson 


.39,996 


58 


Philad'a C. Co 


03,459 


50 


Tunnel 


Ashland 


P. R. C. and 1. Co. 

Girard heirs 

Kear it Patterson . 


J. K. Seigfreid 

Heaton it Bro 

H. Eshelman... 


1,475 


60 


Cuvhr 


Raven Run 

Mahanoy city 


41,(il7 


61 


Hartford 


30,498 


62 


W. Shenand'h, 


Shenandoah city 


(Gilbert it Sheafer. 


Maize it Lewis 


9,487 


68 


Eagle 


<.!eiitralia... , 

Centralia. 


Girard heirs 

Locust Mt. C. I Co. 
P. R. C. and I. Co. 


P. Brenzle : 


6,059 


64 


Centralia 

Big .Mine Run. 


.1. M. Freck 


69 


65 


Ashland 


Taylor it Lindsy... 


11,742 


66 


Pioneer Drift.. 


Ashland 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 




2,000 


67 


Bursiet 


Ashland 


P. R. C. and I. Co. 


J. D. Gil more 


331 


68 


J'nsVV'd&Ol'er 
Silliman 


Mahanoy city 




J'nes W'ditOliv'r 
Rom'l,HillitHarris 


5,252 


69 


P. and M. C. Co.... 


76,727 


70 


B. L. Eshelm'u 




Kea r & Patterson. 


B. L. Eshelman 


5,712 









William Penn Shaft Colliery. ^ 

This colliery is situated west of Shenandoah city, uiionthe Girard estate; but 
latterly the estate of the Philadelphia and Readini^ coal and iron company. It lias 
been 8 years in operation; consists of a sliaft and drift openings ; the drift workings 
are finished ; tlie shaft is sunk on the E vein ; 2,900 yards of gangways are open, 
embracing 5 different courses; 46 brensts are working on 3 different coal seams, 
the aggregate tliickness of which are 4-5 feet. One safe out-let has been opened, and 
the colliery is in splendid condition. One hundred and sixty-four persons are em- 
ployed inside, and 75 persons outside=2o9. 

Ventilation is produced by a 20-horse steam fan. An air hole is also used to as- 
sist in ventilating the mine, producing 18,200 cubic feet per minute ; the neces- 
sary sup])ly would be 16,104 cubic feet per minute. Tliis result is satisfactory for 
iijen, lights and animals. Six steam engines are used=275-horse power, and 8 



106 

good boilers, with all their equipments in good condition. Outside temperature 
6<P, and inside 65°. Barometer indicated l29i outside, and 29 7-10 inches inside. 
This result was satisfactory, showing very little presence of fire-damp. Sixty 
wagons and 10 mules are used ; 239 hands are employed, and 4,400 yards of track 
in iise. Eighty tenant houses, occupied by 100 families, are erected on tlie pre- 
mises. Monthly shipments 10,000 tons. Value of improvements, estimated at 
$35,000. One death during the year. 



Indiak Ridge Colliery. — William Kendrick, Operator. 

This colliery is situated at Shenandoah. It has been 3* years in operation. It 

consists of a double track shaft, sunk yards deep, on the E vein, and now 

owned by the riiiladeli)hia and Reading coal and iron company. Three gangways 
of 000 yards in length are opened, working 16 l)reasts,schutes and headings. The 
coal seam is split ; the coal is 45 feet in thickness, and considered to be among the 
best coal in market. The character of work done is considered safe. Sixty-four 
hands are employed in the mine, and 30 outside=94 hands. 

Ventilation is produced by a 20-horse fan, which result is satisfactory, supply- 
ing 13,260 cubic feet of air. Outside temperature 60°, inside temperature 65°. — 
Barometer outside 29 3-10, and inside 29 5-10 inches. This result is favorable to 
the condition of tlie air, and the supply necessary for the force employed. 

Five steam engines=^300-horse, and 8 boilers, are in use, with all their appoint- 
ments in excellent condition. Mine regulations are established for the safety of 
men. Two accidents, resulting in death, and one injury, occurred during the 
year. Thirty wagons and mules are used in the mine ; no indications of fire- 
damp is apparent ; 880 yards of track is laid. Monthly shipments is 5,000 tons. 
Yalue of improvements estimated at .$200,000. After a careful examination of 
the premises, 1 directed some improvements to be made in regard to ventilation. 



Locust Dale Colliery.— S. Harris, Agent. 

This colliery is situated west of Ashland, in Columbia county, on the estate of 
the Philadelphia arui Reading coal and iron company. It has been 19 years in 
operation. It consists of aslope opening; the slope is a double track opening, 
sunk in two lifts 310 yards deep on the E vein. A pump slope is sunk east of the 
coal slo])e, which is used also for a traveling road ; tlie E and D seams are worked ; 
the coal is 40 feet thick. Three hundred yards of gangway are open, working 10 
breasts. The character of v.-ork doing is safe. 

Ventilation is produced by a 30-liorse steam fan, which produced but nominal 
relief for a time until improved, which gave satisfactory results in sui)plying 
18,475 cubic feet of air per minute. Outside temperature 56°, and inside 60°. 

Five steam engines are in use equal to 475-horse, and 16 boilers witli all their 
appointments are in good order. Two persons were killed; 2 persons died of their 
injuries and 10 ])ersons were burned by explosions of gas. Sixty-two wagons, 8 
mules and 1,900 yards of track is used. Eighty tenant houses occu])ied by 100 
families. Montliiy shipments 3,375 tons. Value of improvements ^200,000. 



East Mahanoy Colliery. — Focht, Wittaker & Co., Operators. 

This colliery is situated east of Mahanoy city, upon the Delano tract. It con- 
sists of a shaft opening on the Buck Mountain vein in 2 lifts. Four principal 
gangways are open=;957 yards in length, working 30 breasts, shutes and headings. 
Tlu-ee veins are worked ; aggregate thickness of coal 36 feet. Seventy-six hands 
are emi)loyed in the mine ; "the sort of work done is considered safe. Two per- 
sons were accidentally killed and one person injured during the year. 

Ventilation is produced by a steam fan of lb-horse power ; the air is not dis- 
tributed quite satisfactory, but improvements are in progress, which will effect 
the desii ed result. 



107 

Three steam engines are in nse=100-horse power, and 4 steam boilers. Fifty- 
tiiree wagons, 9 mules and 1,800 yards of track is used. Two tenant houses with 
two families ; monthly shipments is 2,000 tons ; value of improvements ^10,000 ; 
6,000 cubic feet of air has been supplied per minute. 



West Lehigh, No. i.— White & Faclier, Oxierators. 

The colliery is situated north of Mahanoy City. It has been two years in ope- 
ration, on the present estate of P. R. C. and I. company. It consists of a slope 
sunk on the E vein. The D and G- veins are worked in conjunction with the slope 
workings. Six gangways are open, aggregate length 725 yards, working 30 breasts, 
scliutes and headings. Seventy-four feet of coal is worked in this mine. Five 
different lifts are sunk in connection witli the colliery, having two safe out-lets 
for men. One hundred and ten persons are employed inside and 40 persons out- 
side. The character of work done I consider good. 

Vcntilatiim is produced by two 15 horse steam fans, 2 furnaces and 5 air-holes. 
The means supplied, if properly applied, would doubtless be sufficient to produce 
the necessary quantum of air. To remedy this deficiency, I have recommended 
such nnprovements as will shortly eifect a proper result. 

Seven steam engines are used=268 horse power, and 19 boilers, with their equip- 
ment, are found in good condition. Forty-four mine wagons and 14 mules are 
used. Two thousand five hundred yards of track is used. Fifty tenant houses, 
occupied by 40 families, are on the place. Monthly shipments, 3,000 tons. Value 
of improvements, $10,000. No fire-damp is generated in the mine. Outside 
temperature 45^ and inside temperature 50°. I could not well ascertain the 
quantum of air supplied, but its condition was fair. 



Knickerbocker Colliery. — W. P. Foioler, Ojjerator. 

This colliery is situated at Yatesville, on the present estate of the P. R. C. and 
I company. It is 9 years in operation. It consists of a slope and 5 drift open- 
ings. The slope is a double track opening, sunk 103 yards deep on the south dip 
of the E vein, on an angle of 40^^. The drift workings are nearly exhausted. 
Four hundred yards of gangways are open in the slope, and 32 breasts are work- 
ing. Two veins are operated in the mine. Seventy-five hands are employed in- 
side and 68 hands outside. The coal seams are together 28 feet thick. 

Ventilation is produced by a 10-horse steam fan and an air-hole, yet the supply 
is not satisfactory. I have instructed the boss to remedy this defect. 

Six steam engines are in use=190 horse power and nine steam boilers, which 
with all their equipments are in good condition. Seventy-seven mine wagons and 
20 mules are used ; 1,730 yards of track are used; 60 tenant houses, occupied by 
80 families, are on the place; monthly shipments 6,000 tons; value of improve- 
ments is 5?50,000. 



M'Neal Colliery, No. l.— miite, Foider A Co., Operators. 

This colliery is situated at Yeatsville, on the estate of the P. and E. R. E. Co. 
It has been nine years in operation, and consists of a slope sunk in two lifts on 
the Primrose vein. Eight hundred and sixty yards of gangway are 0])en in the 
mine. Fifty yards of a tunnel oi)en the E vein on the M'Neal level. Forty-three 
breasts are worked in tlie mine and six veins are producing coal, the aggregate 
thickness of which is 81 feet. The character of work done is safe. A furnace 
produces ventilation for this mine. Some fire-damp is generated in the mine. 



108 

M'Xeal Colliery, Xo. 2. 

This colliery is worked in connection with No. 1 \\\wn the same coal seams. It 
consists of a double track slope opening on tlie Primrose vein. Botli north and 
south dips are worked liere, and the mine is ventilated by a fan All the work 
done is quite safe. Five hundred and seventy-five yards of gangway are opened, 
and mining operations are conducted similar to that in No. 1 mine. 



M'Keal Colliery, No. 3, or Barry Slope. 

William Kendrick, Esq., general agent of the Pliiladelphia and Reading Coal 
and Iron Company, operates all three collieries for that company, and the three 
collieries are so rei)orted upon conjointly as their tonnage, steam power, force em- 
ployed and value. No. 3 is a double track slope colliery, sunk on the Prhiirose 
vein. Ventilation is produced by a furnace. Two engines are in use, with seven 
boilers and equipments, all of which are in good order. 

Thirteen gangways are open on tlie three collieries, amounting to 1,732 yards in 
length. Two safety outlets are used. No steam fans are used, but seven differ- 
ent air-holes are open for ventilating purposes. Tliree hundred persons are em- 
ployed inside and 2-10 persons (jutside. — steam engines of — horse ])ower are 
used, with 22 steam boilers, wliich with all their equii)ments are foimd in good 
order. One Imndred and tliirty tenant houses, occui)ied by loO families ; S3 mine 
Avagons and 2-5 head of mules are used ; 5,280 yards of track are used ; monthly 
shipment 18,000 tons ; value of improvements is estimated at ^500,000. 



Primrose Colliery. — Charles B. JSfevils tt- Brother, Operators. 

The colliery is situated at Mahanoy City, npon the estate of Caldwell and oth- 
ers, and has been nine years in o])eration. It consists of drift and slope openinj? 
on the G vein. The slope has been opened on the hill 73 yards above the drift 
level and sunk 51 yards under the drift level to the basin of that vein. The F. E, 
Seven Feet, D and B veins underlie this basin. Sixty yards of a tunnel running 
south opens the G and E veins, and another tunnel from the E vein opens the F 
vein. There are 4 gangways open of 3,720 yards in length ; 34 breasts are worked, 
&c. ; a 12-horse fan, a furnace and 5 air-holes ventilate the mine, which at present 
are not satisfactory. I have directed the necessary clianges ti) be made which 
will remedy this evil. One hundred and four inside and 50 outside hands are em- 
ployed ; 3 engines of 165 liorse power, with 6 boilers, are used; 12 mules and 44 

wagons are used ; monthly shipments 7,<i00 tons ; value of improvements is $ ; 

casualties during the year were one death and two injuries ; 3,500 yards of track 
are in use in and about the colliery. 



Mahanoy City Colliery. — Messrs. Hill, Bomell & Harris, Operators. 

The colliery is situated at Mahanoy city. It consists of a double track slope, 
sunk 166 yards deep on the south dip of the E vein, with four drifts open on 
other veins, and a tunnel opens tlie G vein. Six gangways, whose aggregate length 
is 627 yards, are open, working 30 breasts of coal. There are 5 veins on the tract. 
The thickness of coal in these seams amounts to 33 feet. The character of work 
done is satisfactory. 

Ventilation is produced by a 15-horse steam fan, a furnace and 3 air holes, all 
of which are practically applied and produce satisfactory results. There are 72 
persons employed inside and 30 outside. Four steam engines are in use = 165-hors« 
power, and 6 good steam boilers, with all the machinery and tackle, is in good 
condition. 



109 

Saint Kicholas Colliery.— De7i?n'so?i and others, Operators. 

The colliery is situated at St. Nicholas and is 10 years in active operation. 
The estate is included in the purchase of the P. and R. C. and I. Co. It consists of 
a double track slope, 122 yards deep on the E vein. There are 4 coal seams 
worked in connection with the E seam, i. c, the 7 and 4 feet, the F and D seams, 
7 dilTerent gangways are open, whose aggregate length is 1,655 yards; 104 
breasts with schutes and heading, are worked, all of wlilch are practically man- 
aged. The coal in these will exceed 82 feet in thickness. Four safety outlets are 
oi)en for egress and ingress. 

Ventilation is produced by a 16-horse steam fan and 8 different outlets, the 
condition of which is satisfactory. Seventy-three inside and 84 outside hands are 
employed. 

Five steam engines are in use = 275-horse power, and 14 good steam boilers. 
A speaking tube is used in the slope which serves an excellent purpose ; 60 mine 
wagons and 20 mules are used ; 2,880 yards of track is used ; 40 tenant houses, 
occiipied by 60 families, are on the premises. Montldy shipments are 12,000 tons. 
Value of improvements is $ . 6 persons received injuries during the year. 



Delano Colliery. — Gorman and Wlntersttne, Operators. 

The colliery is situated east of Malianoy City, on the estate of the Leliigh 
Valley II. R. Co. It has been 10 years in operation. It consists of a double 
track slope, sunk 170 yards deep on the E vein, on a dip 46"^ north. The slojie is 
only 2 years in operation. The Buck mountain vein is worked in connection 
witli this slope by a drift 700 yards in length ; 3 gaiigways are open = 555 yards. 
15 breasts are worked, together with sciiutes and headings, etc. The 7-feet vein 
is also open. The three seams will average 25 feet in thickness. The character 
of work done is safe. 

Ventilation is produced by a 15-liorse steam fan, a furnace and 2 air holes. 
The system of controlling the air required a different plan, whicli I recommended 
to be adopted, in order to improve its condition and increase the supply. 93 
hands inside and 41 outside are employed. 

Three steam engines of 92-horse power are used, and 9 stejmi boilers, with all 
their appointments, are in good condition ; 30 wagons and 8 mules are used ; l,7J-0 
yards of track is used. Monthly sliiimients are^5,000 tons. Value of improve- 
ments, $50,000. No calamity occurred during the year. 



Suffolk Colliery.— Jo7i?i Phillips & Co., Operators. 

The colliery is situated east of St. Nicholas, on the estate of the Philadelphia 
and Reading coal and iron company, and has been 10 years in operation. It con- 
sists of 3 drift openings, with 7 gangways=7,998 yards in length. Thirty breasts 
are worked. Aggregate thickness of coal, 32 feet. Two slope lifts are sunk 110 
yards deep on the south dip of the Primrose or G. vein. Two safety roads are 
open for miners. The character of work done is considered a safe operation. 

Ventilation is produced by a 10-horse fan and 3 air outlets. I found it neces- 
sary to direct a different system for ventilating the mine to that which was 
ado'pted, in order to increase the supi)ly and better its condition. Fifty-eight 
persons are employed inside, and 75 persons outside. 

Two steam engines, of 40-horse power, and 4 boilers are used. Fifty-six mine 
wagons and 20 mules are used. One thousand yards of track are used. Seventy- 
tive tenant houses, witli 75 families, are on the premises. Monthly shipments, 
8,000 tons. Value of improvements, $180,000. No casualties duriug the year. 



110 

Stanton Colliery. — Miller and Mayi^, Operators. 

The colliery is situated near the foot of the Frackville planes, upon the estate 
of John Gill»ert and others. It has l)een one year in operation. It consists of a 
double track slope, sunk on the south dip of the E vein. The location is particu- 
larly favorable for a colliery of its kind. Two miiin gangways are open, only 150 
yards in length, working 4 breasts, schutes, headings and gangway extensions, 
which, of its kind, is a safe operation. 

Ventlhition. in April was produced by a steam jet, but a 30-horse fan is used. 

Thirty-eight outside and 4S inside hands are employed. Two steam engines of 
130-horse power, with 6 steam boilers, are used. All their appointments and fix- 
ings are in good condition. Twenty-one wagons and 6 mules are used. Eight 
lumdred and ten yards of track are in use. Monthly shipments, 2,800 tons. 
Value '^f imi)rovements, $ . No accident occurred during the year. Drain- 
age and ventilation are satisfactory. 



Lawrence Colliery. — Jacob Laicrcnce and others, Operators. 

The colliery is situated at the Frackville planes, on the estate of John Gilbert 
and others. It is four yeai'S in operation and consists of a douV)le track slo])e sunk 
100 yards deep on the north dii> of the E vein. The angle of dip is 55°. The coal 
is fovuid to be 40 feet thick. Two gangways are open = 1.400 yards ; 64 breasts, 
schutes, headings and extensions are carried on, all of which work is a safe oper- 
ation. A safety road for miners is open. 

Ventilation is produced by a 20-horse fan. This improvement has been added 
this season, and connected with this is an air-outlet. The drums are secured by 
good breaks ; 48 inside and 40 outside hands are employed ; 4 steam engines of 170- 
horse power, with 9 good boilers are in use ; all their appointments are in good 
condition ; 35 wagons and 12 mules are used ; 2,000 yards of track is hsed ; 4 ten- 
ant houses with 4 families are on the premises ; monthly shipments are 8,000 tons. 
Some small quantity of fire-damp is generated at present, l)ut not in any sufficient 
amount to excite alarm. This matter receives especial attention. 



Bear Kidge Colliery. — A. L. Mumper and others. Operators. 

This colliery is situated near the foot of Erackville planes, upon the estate 
granted by Mr. Girard to the city of Philadelphia, and has been in opei-ation nine 
years. It consists of a double track slope sunk in two lifts 240 yards deep on tlie 
south dip of the E vein. A pumping slope is also open for drainage. A tunnel 

opens the D vein. Two gangways are open =800 yards, working 14 breasts. 

Tlie E vein is exhausted on tlie present lift. The coal is 30 feet thick. Tiie char- 
acter of the work done is safe. 

Ventilation is produced by a 20-horse fan, and in conjunction with it an air out- 
let is open ; 18 inside and 6 outside hands are employed; 5 steam engines = 400 
horse power, witli 2() steam boilers ; 40 wagons and 10 mules are used ; 840 yards 
of track is used ; 53 tenant houses with 55 families are on the premises. 



Honey Brook Colliery, IN'os. 1, 2, 3 and 4 Slopes. — Honey Brook Coal 

Company, Operators. 

These collieries are situated at New Pottsville, "near Audenreid," in the ex- 
treme eastern lij.nits of Schuylkill county, upon the estate of the -said operators. 
They are some ten jears in oi)eration. Tluee of the slopes are sunk on the Wliar- 
ton and E seams, in Schuylkill county, and the foiuth slope lies in Carbon county. 
The excavations extend into each county from eacli slope. The E vein is 30 feet 
in thickness. The sloi)es are; sunk in unequal deptlis, so as to supply lifts The 
work is well managed for safety and ventilation. 



Ill 

Cambrian Colliery. — John Lexvis & Co., Operators. 

The colliery is situated west of Ashland, on the estate of the P. R. C. and I. 
company ; is three years in operation. It consists of a double track slope, sunk 
123 yards deep in a new lift. The aggregate deptli of the slope is 162 yards on tlie 
E vein. Three gangways are open=6oU yards in length. Four breasts are work- 
ing, with schutes, headings, &c. The coal is 25 feet tlii^k, and the character of 
work done is considered safe. 

Ventilation is produced by a 20 horse steam fan. 



Plank Ridge Colliery. — Lee, Grant & Co., Operators. 

' This colliery is situated on the eastern suburbs of Shenandoah city, upon the 
estate of the P. R. C. and I. company. It has been 12 years in active operation. 
It consists of a shaft sunk 100 yards deep on the E vein ; the 7 foot vein is also 
worked by this shaft ; 4 gangways are open=2,400 yards in length ; 40 breasts are 
worked ; there are 3 lifts worked in the mine ; the coal is 40 feet thick ; 5 differ- 
ent safety roads are used as egress and ingress traveling roads. Mining has been 
conducted upon a large scale in this colliery since its commencement, all of which 
appears to be safe and well managed. 

Ventilation is produced by natural means and a furnace, which under the 
present management does considerable execution. Yery little gas of any sort is 
met witli. Powder smoke is the only troublesome matter to be met with. Two 
hundred persons are employed inside, and 110 persons outside. Six steam en- 
gines of 320-horse power, and 12 boilers, are in use. All machinery and appoint- 
ments are in good condition. 

One hundred and ten mine wagons and 27 mules are used ; 10,350 yard of track 
is laid ; 17 tenant houses, with 17 families, are upon the premises. Monthly ship- 
ments is tons. Value of improvements is .§ . The temperature outside 

was 59'-', and inside 60°. Barometer outside 29 3-10, and inside 29 1-10 inches ; 13 
persons received injuries during the year, none of which were killed or died of 
injuries. 

Beniarls. — A new slope lift has been commenced, to be excavated 150 feet un- 
der tlie present lift ; the vein is nearly flat ; the breasts are open as chambers, and 
the wagons are hauled into each. A conversation can be held by the miners with 
the miners of the Shenandoah city colliery. 



Grant Colliery.— Dr. Yocum & Co., Operators. 

This colliery is situated north of Mahanoy tunnel, on the Delano land com- 
pany's tract. It has been in operation 9 years. It consists of two drifts open 
on the Buck mountain and .Skidmore veins ; the coal is 18 feet thick ; 24 breasts, 
schutes, headings and gangway extensions are working. Three veins are u{)on 
the tract, and the character of work done is safe. Fifty-six hands are employed 
inside, and 35 hands outside ; 2 steam engines and 4 good steam boilers are used ; 
24 wagons and 8 mules are in the mine ; 2,000 yards of 25 11). railroad iron is used. 
Monthly shipments is 1,000 tons. Value of improvements is ,'$50,000. 

Ventilation, is produced by a furnace and air holes, and the supply is not quits 
adequate. The absence of gases relieves the miners from some responsibility and 
restraint in their avocations, that would not be the case had gases been present. 



West Lehigh Colliery.— TF/iiie tfc Co., Operators. \ 

This colliery is situated west of Shenandoah city, upon the estate of the P. R. 
C. and Iron Company. It is three years in operation. It consists of a drift and 
slope oi)ening on the E vein. The D vein is also worked in connection with the 
slope ; 5 different gangways are open = 700 yards in length ; 25 breasts are work- 
ed with scliutes, &c. ; 4 seams are in the tract ; the thickness of workable coal is 
50 feet ; 3 lifts are sunk ; 2 good out-lets for travel are open. 



112 

Ventilation is produced by two furnaces and three air outlets. The supply ia 
not sufficient to remove the powder smoke, which is uuhealtiiy foi respiration. 
Ti)e workiugmen complain of this troublesome agent. I have recommended a 
change in the present plan wliich will remedy this evil. Seventy-eight inside and 
38 outside hands are employed at the colliery ; 5 steam engines=i75-liorse ; 9 steam 
boih^rs are in use, with alltheir machinery and equiiunents are in good order ; 45 
wagons and 15 mules are used; 1,000 yards of track is laid; 30 houses with 30 
families are on the premises; monthly shipments are 5,000 tons. Value of im- 
provements $50,000. 



Preston Colliery, Nos. 1 and 2. — William KendricJc, General Agent — Phila- 
delphia and Reading Coed and Iron Co., Operators. 

These two collieries are situated at Girardsville, upon tlie operators' estate, are 
11 years in active operation. No. 1 consists of a drift oi)en on the Red Asli seam, 
T and a drift open on the D seam. All the coal mined is prepared in the same 
breaker of No. 2 colliery. 

Ventilation is produced by a 10-horse fan, which supples moderate ventilation. 
Tlie character of work done is considered safe. The engines, gangways, &c., 
connected with this mine will be accredited to colliery No. 2. 



Preston (No. 2) Colliery. 

The report of this colliery is connected with that of No. 1, as twin collieries. 
Tliere are 14 sejiarate gangways open, which will exceed 5,280 yards in lengtli ; 15 
breasts are working with schiites, headings and extensions; tl>e coal of the tln-ee 
veins is 52 feet tliick ; 2 slope lifts and 4 water levels are operated ; 5 safety roads 
are available for travel. 

VentiUjiion is produced by three steam fans, which appears to be adequate in 
furnisliing a sufficient supply of air. One hundred and thirty-five inside and SO 
outside ] lands are employed ; 7 steam engines of 290-liorse power, and 10 boilers, 
are in use, witli all machinery, tackle and ai)pointments in good condition; 80 
mine wagons and 30 mules are used ; 7,040 yards of track is laid ; 52 houses and 
52 families are upon tlie place. Monthly shipments is 10,000 tons, and value of 
improvements is ^150,000. No accident of any serious nature occurred during 
the year. Tlie prospects of the colliery are favorable, and further improvements 
under the new company are progressing favorably. One death and 2 injuries 
during the year. 



Boston Run Colliery. — Althouse & Brother.] 

This colliery is situated east of Frackville planes, on the estate of the Phila- 
delphia and Reading coal and iron company. It has been 12 years in operation, 
and consists of a double track slope sunk on the nortli dip of the E vein. Tiie 
7 feyt, the 10 feet and Buck Mountain veins, are worked by a tunnel. Four gang- 
ways are open 1,800 yards in length ; aggregate thickness of coal is 45 feet; the 
8loi:e is sunk one lift only, and the character of the work done is good and safe. 

Ventilation is produced by a 20-horse fan and two air out-lets. The plan adopted 
results satisfactory at present ; 57 inside and 60 outside hands are employed ; 5 
steam engines-=lGO-horse, and 10 good steam boilers, with all tlieir appointments, 
aie in good order. Fifty-five wagons and 8 mules are used ; 2,000 yards of track 
is laid; 50 houses and 50 families are on the premises. Monthly shipments 1,000 
tons, and value of improvements ^150,000. One death and 3 injured during the 
year. 



113 

Bear Run Colliery. — Wlggan& IVeihles, Operators. 

This colliery is situated at St. Nicholas, upon the estate of the Pliiladelphia 
and Reading coal and iron company. It has been 13 years in operation. It consists 
of a double track slope, sunk 2U0 yards deei) on tlie E vein. The Seven-Feet and D 
veins ai-e worked in connection witli this slope. Four gangways, making 2,000 
yards in lengtli, are open, working 17 breasts, schutes and headings, all of which 
work is C(nisidered a safe operation. Tliere are six workable coal seams on the 
track •, aggregate thickness, 67 feet. The slope is sunk 2 lifts. There are 2 safety 
roads open. Eighty-one inside and 60 outside hands are employed at the coUieiV. 

Ventilation is i)roduced by a 10-horse fan and 3 air outlets. The air is well 
managed and renders satisfaction. A new outlet is in progress of opening. 

Six steam engines, of 39o-horse power, aud 14 good boilw'S, are used, with all 
their appointments, and are in good order. Fifty-two wagons and 14 mules are 
used. Three thousand yards of track are laid. Sixty liouses, witli 60 families, are 

upon the premises. Montldy sliipments, tons. Value of improvements, 

$ . No indications of tire-damp appear. One person was killed aud one 

person injured during the year. 



Furnace Colliery. — Atkins & Bro., Operators. 

The colliery is situated at Gilherton, upon the estate of .John Gilbert and others. 
It has been 3* years in operation. It consists of 2 drifts o])en on the E and D 
veins. Two gangways are open, 2,225 yards in length, working 3 breasts. The 
coal is 26 feet thick on the E vein, and 6 feet thick on the D vein. All the work 
done is considered safe. The mine is properly conducted. 

Vetdilation is produced by a furnace and 4 air outlets, which result satisfacto- 
rily. These seams are nearly Hat workings. The breasts are used for a track 
road for haulage. T!iirty-five inside and 30 outside hands are employed. One 
steam engine, of 2o-horse power, with 2 boilers, 30 wagons and 11 mules are used 
in the mine. Four tliousand yards of track are laid . "Twenty-two tenant liouses, 
witli 24 families, are on the premises. Monthly shipments, 3,400 tons. Value of 
improvements, ^$32,000. 



Draper Colliery. — Draper & Co., Operators. 

The colliery is situated east of the Frackville planes, upon the estate of John 
Gilbert and others. It has been 9 years in operation. It consists of a slope sunk 
on the north dip of the E vein. One thousand six li undred yards of gangways are 
open, working 13 breasts, schutes and headings. The character of Avoik done is 
considered a "safe oi^eration. The seam is 25 feet, and of an excellent quality. 
Slope No. 2 is sunk 136 yards deep upon the same vein, the coal of which is pre- 
pared in the new breaker. The old breaker is abandoned, and tliis new double 
breaker has the capacity of preparing all the coal that can be mined in the col- 
liery. 

Ventilation is produced by a 20-horse steam fan. The system adopted for ven- 
tilation is not quite satisfactory. Instructions have been given to remedy the 
error, which warrant a suthcient supply of air, by substituting a fan for each 
slope. One hundred and forty inside and 80 outside hands are employed. 

Six steam engines of 395 horse i)0\ver and 16 good boilers are in use, with all 
their appointments in good order ; 50 wagons and 13 mules are used ; 2,240 yards 
of track are laid ; 62 houses, occupied l)y 70 families, are on the premises ; monthly 
shipments 10,000 tons ; value of improvements is $ . 



Girard Colliery. — Beatty & Garrettson, Operators. 

The colliery is situated east of Girardsville, on the Philadelphia city tract. It 
has been ten years in operation. It consists of a sliaft 58 yards deep on the E 
vein to the water level. A slope is sunk 41 feei deep on the D seam. There are 
9 



1 



114 

4 gangways open ; their aggregate lengtli is 1,600 yards. There were 3 breasts 
working at the time. The coal is 33 feet thick. One good safety road is open for 
the safety of workingmen. Two a)-horse steam fans are used for ventilating the 
mine and two air outlets. All the work done is safe and satisfactory. 

VenWaiion is tolerable fair, but a ciiange is recommended for improving, it, 
which improvement will shortly be effected. One hundred and sixty inside and 
70 outside hands are emp'oyed ;"5 engines=230 liorse piovver, witli 14 good boilers, 
are used ; 10 mules and 75 w^agons iire used ; 2,236 yards of track are laid ; 16 
houses, occupied by 16 families, are on the i)remises ; monthly shiinnents 6,000 
tons; value of improvements is $100,000; outside temperature, 44° ; inside tem- 
peiature, 52° ; barometer outside 29 and inside 29 3-10 inches. 



Coal, Ridoe Colliery (Northumberland County.) — Berton, Brother & 

Co., Operators. 

The colliery is situated east of Mount Carmel, in Columbia county, on the es- 
tate of the Lehigh Valley railroad. It has been in operation some 16 years. It 
consists of a double track slope, sunk 200 yards deep on the south di^) of the E 
vein. The angle of dip is 40^. Two gangways of 3,080 feet are open, with 18 
breasts working, with gangway extensions, schutes and headings. The coal seam 
is 30 feet thick. Two safe travelling roads are available. 

Ventilation is produced by natural means. Tiiree air-lioles are open to the sur- 
face. The plan of ventilation adopted was not adequate to supply the wants of 
the colliery, and hence the cause of complaint. I directed the necessary improve- 
ment to be commenced at once, whicli when completed will remedy this evil. 186 
inside and 120 outside hands are employed ; 6 steam engines of 555 horse power. 
with 12 boilers, are used, with all their appointments in good condition ; 19 mulefi 
and 33 wagons are used ; 34 houses, with 34 families, are on the premises ; montlily 
shipments is 6,000 tons; value of the improvements, $100,000 ; outside tempera- 
ture, 64°, inside, 68°; barometer outside 29 and inside 29 inches. This indica- 
tion is favorable to the good condition of the colliery, being free from tire-damp. 



Kon-i-NOOR Shaft Colliery. 

The colliery is situated west of Shenandoah City, on the estate of Gilbert & 
Bheafer. It consists of a doul)le cage shaft, sunk 140 yards deep on tlie E seam 
to the basin. The Ten Feet vein is open in the shaft. The colliery has been four 
years in operation. Both these seams are worked by the shaft. Tliis shaft is eon- 
etructed upon the most approved modern English plan, and fully merits all the 
economical improvements claimed for it. These seams are nearly tlat, Tlie wagon 
tracks are laid into the chambers. Tlie system of mining is but a few degrees 
removed from tlie English or Belgian system. Five steam engines of 211-lior3e 
power, witli 8 steam boilers, are used. All their machinery and appointments are 
kept in excellent condition. 

Ventilation is produced by a 20-horse steam fan. The plan adopted by the man- 
agers to ventilate the mine meets my approbation. 



Indian Ridge Colliery. — William Kendrick, Esq., Operator. 

The colliery is situated at Shenandoah City, upon the estate of the P. and R. 
C. and I. Co. It has been in operation one year, and consists of a double track 

ghaft, sunk — feet deep on the dip of the E vein. Four gangways are oi)^!^^ 

650 yards, with 30 breasts, schutes, headings and extensions. Tlie seam is 4ufeet 
thick. A safety road is in coiu'se of completion. All the work done is -consid- 
ered a safe operation, and is managed in a practical manner. 

Ventilation is produced by a 20-liorse steam fan, which is put into practical op- 
eration, rendering the most satisfactory results. One hundred and ten inside and 
70 outside hands are employed ; 7 steara engines=210 horse power, and 14 boilers 
are used ; 36 wagons and 11 mules are used ; 1,550 yards of track. 



116 

Tunnel Ridge Colliery.— George W. Cole, Operator. 

The colliery is situated at Malianoy City, upon the estate of the P. and R. coal 
and iron company. Et lias been in operation some 8 years. It consists of a doubla 
track slope, sunk 1(50 yards deep on the north dip of tlie D vein. A drift has 
been opened on tlie E and 7 feet veins, wliich veins have been nearly exhausted 
of coal. Four gangways = 1,966 yards in lengtli, are opened, working 121 breasts, 
schutes and headings. There are three safety roads open for the egress of work- 
men. 

Vmtilation is produced by a 20-horse fan, 3 air outlets and a steam jet, which 
produces a moderate supi)ly of air. I directed the necessary changes to be made 
which will remedy this comijlaint. 

Seven steam engines = 3U-liorse power and 12 good boilers are used, with all 
their machinery in good condition. Fiftv-two inside and 120 outside hands are 
employed. No accidents occurred during the year. Twenty-two mules and 40 
wagons are used; 4,130 yards of track is used; 46 tenant houses, with 46 families, 
are on the premises. Montlily shipments exceed 9,000 tons. Value of improve- 
ments, $ . Temperature outside was 64^ and inside 69°. Barometer out- 
side was 28 and inside 28i inches. Fire-damp is not generated to any extent. 



Elmavood Colliery.— Xee a)uZ Wren, Operators. 

This colliery is situated in Mahanoy City, upon the estate of the P. and K. coal 
and iron com)»any, and has been 1 year in operation. It consists of a double tra.-k 
slope, sunk 140 yards deep on the south dip of the G vein. Four veins can ba 
opened into by a tunnel from the present level; 2 gangways are open some 3VJ 
yards. The cliaracter of work done is considered safe. Twenty-three inside and 
20 outside hands are employed. Four steam engines are used = l'50-horse, and 6 
boilers, with all their equipments, are in good condition. 

Ventilation is produced by a steam iet, which is not adequate to ventilate an 
extension of the excavations. One death and one injury occurred during the 

year. Seven mules and 16 wagons are used. Monthly shipments are tons. 

value of improvements is $75,000. 



Gilbert Colliery. — Gilbert Coal Company, Operators. 

The colliery is situated in Gilbeiton, on the operators' estate. It has bees 14 
years in active operation. It consists of two slopes. The new slope is 210 
yards deep ; the old slope is 100 yards deep and is used solely for drainage ; '1 
90-horse engines are used for this purpose. Two gangways are in use = 1,100 
yards in length, working 53 breasts, schutes and headings. Only 1 vein is opeii 
tliough there are veins available on the tract. This seam is 25 feet thick. Two 
lifts have been sunk on the E vein, and 5 safety roads are available for traveling. 
Seventy-eight inside and 50 outside liands are employed. Five steam engines of 
4.50-horse power are used, and 14 boilers, with all their equipments, are in good 
condition. Ventilation is produced by a 12-horse steam fan. The supply and 
condition of ventilation is satisfactory. 

Tiie operators are now sinking tlie slope another lift, and at present are open- 
ing gangways in it, also breasts anil headings. An air hole is open to commnn'- 
cate with the old level for the purpose of ventilating the new workings. A tun- 
nel is also driven to the G vein. Wiien these improvements are completed, tliis 
colliery will be among the first in tlie region. Twenty mules and 60 wagons ara 
used ; 3,520 yards of track are in use ; 80 families are on the premises. Monthly 
shipments 10,000 tons, and value of improvements :^300,000. Slight quantities of 
fire-damp are generated, but at present threatens no serious alarm. Tempei-atui-o 
'outside 63°, and inside 66°. Barometer indications outside was 28, and inside 
281 inches. Result satisfactory'. 



i 



116 

Ellen Gowek Colltery.— I, C Scott & Sons^ Operators. 

This colliery is situated in Maple Dale, on the estate of tlie Philadelphia and 
Reading coal and iron company, and lias been 10 years in operation. It 
consists of 5 drift openings on as many veins of coal ; a shaft is in course of sink- 
ing with two 30-horse engines. There are at pi-esent 8 gangways oj)en=8,560 
yards in length ; 33 breasts are worked with schutes. headings, etc.; the coal in 
these seams wiJl make 09 feet in thickness ; 4 safety roads are available for travel- 
ing. 

Ventilation is produced by 2 furnaces and 3 air holes, which requires consider- 
able trouble to give it free circulation tlu'ough this extensive mine ; all tlie coal 
mined is extracted above water level, and lire-damp is not of any consequence 
while this is tlie case; 133 inside, and 100 outside hands are employed. 

Three engines of 100-horse i)ower and 12 boilers are used, with all their equip- 
ments in good order and well conditioned ; 90 tenant iiouses occupied by 100 
families are on the premises. Monthly sliijmients is 8,000 tons, and value of im- 
provements is $120,000. Temperature outside was 61°, inside 66^. Barometer 
indicated 28 outside, and 28 1-10 inside ; result satisiactory ; causalties during the 
year : 1 death and 2 injuries. 



GiRARDViLLE CoLLiERY. — Mcssrs. Affard, & Moody, Operators. 

This colliery is situated east of Girardville, on the Philadelpliia city tract, and 
has been 10 years in active operation. It consists of several drift openings and 
upon different lifts above water line.- The E and D seams are worked here, and 
are 58 feet iii tliickness. Five gangways are open, making 5,175 yards ; 45 breasts 
are worked with schutes and headings ; there are 4 safety roads available for 
traveling in and out. 

Ventilation is produced by natural draft, and is in most cases good ; no gases of 
any consequence is met with; 207 inside, 175 outside hands are employed; 45 
mules, 110 wagons and 6,500 yards of track is used ; 102 liouses with 120 families 
are on the premises ; montlily shipments are 1,200 tons, and value of improvements 
$ii00,000 ; no casualties during the year. 



M'MiCHAEL Colliery. — 3£ess7-s. Agard & Moody, Oinrators. 

This colliery is situated east of Girardsville, in close proximity to tlie Girards- 
ville colliery, and has been in operation four years. It consists of four drift 
openings on the D seam in four successive lifts, all above water line. The coal is 
18 feet in thickness. There are tiiree safety roads available for miners to travel 
in. 1,600 yards of »angways are open, working 15 breasts, schutes, &c. The char- 
acter of work done is considered a safe operation. 

Ventilation is produced by natural means and is found to work tolerably well. 
With a slight imjjrovement a lO-horse steam fan would greatly improve ventila- 
tion. Three steam engines of 70-liorse power and foiu' boilers are used ; 55 inside 
and 83 outside hands are emploj^ed ; 5 mules and 20 wagons are used ; 2,500 yards 
of track is used ; monthly shipments are 7,500 tons. Value of improvements is 
S;10 ),000. Casualties occurred during the year, resulted in one death. 

A new slope is sunk 38 yards deep on the south dip of the D vein. At present 
its further progress has been discontinued. A necessity to increase the supply of 
coal by this improve^tnent does not at present exist. The present drift openings 
can furnish any required supply. 



Preston, No. 3. — Wvi. Kendrick, Operator. 

The colliery is situated in Girardsville, on the south of the town. It has been 
ten years in operation. It consists of a slope and drift opening. The slope is sunk 
two lifts of 150 yards in depth on the north dip of the E vein, Tne estate is own- 



117 

ed bj' the P. R. C. and I, Co. The vein is 22 feet thick ; 1,700 yards of a gang- 
way is open ; 3 breasts are worlced. Tlie cliaracter of work done is considered 
safe ; 37 inside and 8 outside hands are employed ; 2 engines of 8()-horse power are 
used at present at the colliery ; 3 boilers with all their appointments are in good 
ordei'; 6 mules and 40 wagons are used ; 26 houses with 2G families are upon t!ie 
place. The monthly sliipments are 2,000 tons. The value of the improvements 
now in progress will amount to $200,000. 

The P. 11. coal and iron company are improving the colliery on a large scale 
with a liberal expenditure, creating' it a centre for a large business in its line. 



Preston, No. 4. — William Kendrick, Operator. 

This colliery is situated at and west of Girardsville. upon the estate of the P. 
R. C. and I. Co. It has been nine years in operation. It consists of a tunnel 337 
yards long on the E vein ; two gangways are open= 3,110 yards in length. The 
character of work doing is robbing pillars and extracting loose coal. The seam is 
25 feet thick and is finely formed. One steam engine is used = 50-horse, and four 
boilers with idl their ai)pointments are in good order ; 17 mules and 00 wagons are 
used ; 'Id houses and 26 families are on the premises ; 4,000 yai'ds of tracks are 
used; 17 inside and 20 outside hands are emi)loyed^37 hands. Monthly ship- 
ments 2,000 tons. Value of improvements is $100,000. 



Keystone Colliery. — Wm. Kendrick, Operator. 

This colliery is situated west of Ashland, upon the estate of the Philadelphia 
and Reading coal and iron company. It has been 12 years in oiieration, and con- 
sists of two slopes and a drift opening ; one a double track coal sloi)e. The sin- 
gle track slope is used for drainage, men and material used in the mine; both 
slopes are sunk on the E vein loO yards deep ; 2 gangways are open 6o0 yards, 
working 13 breasts, schutes and headings ; the coal seam is 20 feet thick. The 
works are managed in a practical manner, and considered safe. Two safety roads 
are available for miners use. 

F(»^//(^(^"oH, is produced by a 40-horse fan, and the result is satisfactory. One 
hundred and one inside and 75 outside hands are employed; 9 steam engines of 
407-horse power, and 23 steam boilers, are in use, with all their appointments in 
good condition ; IS mules and 40 wagons, with 2,690 yards of track is used ; 48 
houses, with 48 families, are on the i)remises. Monthly sliipments 5,000 tons, and 
value of imi)rovements $150,000. No casualties during the year, yet fire-damp is 
largely produced in this mine. 



Union Colliery, (Columbia couNTY^)— IZbu. J. Byon tfc Anderson. 

This colliery is situated north of Ashland, near the Schuylkill county line, on 
the Girard estate. It has been 8 years in operation, and consists of a drift cpen 
on the E seam ; the D vein is opened by a tunnel, and the coal in these seams is 
30 feet thick. Three gangways are open 4,410 yards in length, working 10 breasts, 
schutes, headings, etc. The character of which work is considered safe. 

Ventilation is produced by natural means, three air holes and a furnace; under 
this system the ventilation is tolerably fair. The works being all above water 
line, very little gas has been met with, owing to the large deposit of coal lying- 
above water level ; it will require several years labor to exhaust tliese drifts. 

Three steam engines==66-horse, and 4 steam boilers, with all their appointments, 
are in good order ; 71 inside and 45 outside hands are employed ; 16 mules and 53 
wagons are used. A 20-horse power locomotive is used for hauling to and from 
the mine. 



118 

Malveun Colliery. — Alfred Hunt & Co., Operators. 

This colliery is situated north of Malianoy city, upon the estate of the Lehigli 
Valley railroad company, and lias been 8 years in operation. It consists of a tun- 
nel opening three veins ; Sgangways areopen in the mine,constituting3,880 yards 
in length ; 5 seams are open, working 12 breasts, schutes, headings, etc., and the 
toj) rock is somewhat dangerous, 

Ventilation is produced by a furnace and air holes opened ovit to the surface. 
The works are all above water line, and so far very little gas is met with ; the coal 
in these seams will give 46 feet in thickness ; 45 inside and 45 outside hands are 
employed ; the character of work done is considered safe. 

Two engines of 40-horse power and 3 steam boilers, with all their fixtures, are 
in good condition ; 17 mules and 60 wagons, together with 4,180 yards of track, 
are in use; 15 houses and 13 families are upon the premises. Monthly shipments 

6,000 tons; value of improvements, etc., . Temperature outside 80°, inside 

70°. Barometer indicated outside 28, and inside 28i inches. J^'o casualties dur- 
ing the year. 



Copley Colliery. — Lcntz & Boioman , Operators. 

This colliery is situated north of Mahonoy City, upon the estate of the Lehigh 
Valley railroad company, and has been 9 years in operation. It consists of drift 
openings on the B and 7-feet coal seams, all above water line. Four princii)al 
gangways are open, making some 630 yards in length, working 20 breasts, schutes, 
heading and extensions. The coal in the seams is 40 feet thick. The character 
and condition of the work is safe. 

Ventilation is i)roduced by a furnace and air-holes open to the surface, producing 
satisfactory results. 

One hundred and eight inside and 60 outside hands are employed. Four casu- 
alties occurred during tlie year, resulting in 1 person being killed, 2 persons 
dying of injuries, and 1 injured. The inquests in these cases rendered verdicts of 
accidents. 

Two steam engines, of 60-horse power, and 6 good boilers, with all machinery 
and fixings, are used and in good order. Twenty-two mules and 60 wagons are 
used. Two thousand seven hundred yards of track are used. Eleven houses, oc- 
cupied by 11 families, are upon the i)remises. Monthly shipments, 9,000 tons. 
Value of improvements estimated at $^70,000. 



Glendon Colliery. — J. B. BoyJan, Operator. 

The colliery is situated nortli of ]\Iahonoy City, upon the estate of the Lehigh 
Valley railroad com})any, and has been 9 years in operation. It consists of a 
double track slope, t-uuk on tlie Seven-Feet vein 160 yards deep, witli 2 gangways 
open. The D-vein is opened by a tunnel. Twenty breasts are worked, together 
with other improvements. !Sixty-six inside and 43 outside hands are employed. 
The character of work done is considered safe, and the mines are properly man- 
aged. 

Ventilation is produced by a 20-horse fan and 3 air-holes, under which system 
the results are satisfactory. Three engines, of 75-horse power, and 9 boilers are 
used, with all their appointments, and are in good condition. Eight mules and 
30 wagons are used. One thousand three hundred yards of track are used. 
Eight houses are upon the premises. Montlily shipments, 3,200 tons. Value of 
improvements estimated at :|i;50,000. Outside temperature was 75° and inside 60°. 
Barometrical indications outside were 2Si and inside 2Sl inches, indicating the 
condition of ventilation to be satisfactory. No casualties during the year. 



no 

Locust Run Colliery.— Georye S. Rej^pUer, Operator. 

The colliery is situated north of Ashland, upon the estate of Locust Mountain 
ooal and iron company, and has been 16 years in operation. It consists of a 
double track slope, sunk 285 yards deep on the south dij) of the E seam in threa 
lifts. Two gangways are open. Tlie seam is 40 feet thick. These gangways ar» 
open 900 j'ards west and 350 yards east^l,250 yards, working 7 breasts, scliutes, 
headings, &c. Tlie cliaracter of work done is considered safe. A good safety 
road is available for men to pass in. Fire-damp is generated in the mine to a 
considerable extent. 

Ventilation is produced by a 20-horse steam fan and an air out-let, the operation 
of which gives satisfactory results. Gt-reat vigilance and industry is required on 
the part of the officers t(^ keej) tlie mine clear of tire-dani]) and i)rotect the men. 
Eighty-live inside and 115 outside hands are employed; S steam engines of 525 
liorse power and 22 boilers are used; 15 mules and 40 wagons, with 1,500 yards of 
track, are used; montldy shipments, 9,000 tons; value of the improvements es- 
timated at $150,000. Tlie casualties that occurred during tlie year were two ])er- 
80 IS killed, two died of injuries and ten were injured, all from effects of explo- 
aijiis of fire-damp. 



Lehigh, Ko. 3. — Philadelphia Coal Company^ Operators. 

The colliery is situated west of Slienandoah, upon the estate of Mr. Girard. It 
has been in operation 6 years. It consists of 2 di'fts and a double track sunk 110 
yards deep on the south dip of the E vein. The seam is 45 feet thick. Two gang- 
ways are open of SOO yards in length, working 22 breasts, scliutes, headings, &c. 
The character of which work is considered a safe operation. Tlie system adopt- 
ed is upon a i)ractical plan. 

Ventilation is i)roduced by a steam fan, the operation of which is adequate to 
supply the mine witli a fullquantity. As no fire-damp exists no danger is appre- 
hended. Four steam engines and eiglit boilers are in use, which with all their 
appointments and niacliinery are in good order. Sixty inside and 34 outside hands 
are employed ; 8 mules and 22 wagons are in use ; 1,780 yards of track is used ; 12 

houses and 12 families are on the premises. Monthlyshipments tons. 

Value of improvements is . Casualties during tlie year, three deaths and 

five injuries. 



Continental Colliery, (Colu3Ibia county.) — Eobert Gorrel, Agent. 

■ The colliery is situated east of Centralia, on the Philadelphia city tract, and 
has been nine years in operation. It consists of a double track slope sunk 175 
yards deep on "the south dip of tlie E vein, tlie coal of which is 25 feet thick. Two 
gangways are working; 8 breasts, schutes, headings, &c., are working, the char- 
acter of which is a safe operation; 2 safety travelling roads are available; 1,374 
yards of gangway are open. 

Ventilation is i)roduced by a 20-horse fan, the operation of which supplies suffi- 
cient quantum of air. Seventy-seven inside and 52 outside hands are employed,, 
and in addition 50 boys = 179 hands. Six steam engines of 290-lioi'se power, with 
13 boilers are used; 14 mules and 38 wagons, 1,974 yards of track are used. 
Casualties — one jiei-son liad a leg broken. Monthly shipments, 9,000 tons. Valire 
of improvements $200,000. 



Union Colliery, (Schuylkill county,) — Emanuel Bast, Operator. 

This colliery is situated east of Ashland, on the estate of the Philadelphia and 
Reading coal and iron company. It has been 12 years in operation, and con- 
sists of a double track slope, sunk 274 yards deep, on the south dip of the E vein, 
with 4 drifts above water level, all of which openings are supplying coal ; all 



120 

these gangways will aggregate 2,600 yards in length ; 74 breasts are working with 
extensions, scliutes and lifadings. Tln-ee seams are ojien, the coal of which is 2o 
feet thick. All the work done is condncted upon a safe practical plan, altliongh 
a large quantum of lire-damp is produced. 

Ventilation is good, a 40-liorse steam fan is used for this purpose, and is found 
adequate. Seventy-eight inside and 75 outside hands are employed ; 7 steam en- 
gines of 880-Iiorse power are used, and 16 boilers with all their apjiointments in 
good order ; 9 mules, 111 wagons and 4,840 yards of track in use. Monthly ship- 
ments are 11,000 tons and value of improvements .*loO,000 ; casualties this year 
was 1 deatli and 1 injury. Outside temperature 79^, and inside 64^ ; barometer 
indications 28 6-10 outside, and 28 6-10 inches inside ; condition of air safe. 



Colorado Col-lietiy. — Philadelphia Coal Company, Operators. 

This colliery is situated at Colorado, east of Girardville, upon the estate of the 
Philadel]Miia and Reading coal and iron company. It has been 12 years in opera- 
tion, and consists of 3 drifts, open on the E and D seams, all of which openings 
are above water line. Three gangways are open, working S breasts and robbing 
out pillars, which work requires skilled miners for that undertaking. Seven 
gangways are open, in all 5,280 yards in length ; 12 breasts are working ; the seam 
is nearly flat and 30 feet thick. 

Ventilation is produced by air holes and drift inlets. 181 inside and 150 outside 
hands are emi)loyed ; 5 engines of ISo-liorse, and 6 boilers are used ; 26 mules, 180 
wagons and 6,300 yards of track are used •, 72 houses and 72 families are on the 
premises ; Montlily shipments 14,000 tons and value of equipments is $150,000 ; 
only one injury this year. 



SiiENANDOAn Colliery.— J. 0. Ilhoadcs, Opereitor. 

The colliery is situated at Shenandoah City, upon the estate of the P. R. C. and 
I. Co., and has been ten years in operation. It consists of a doul)le track slope, 
sunk 258 yards deep on the south dip of the E vein, at an angle of 20°. The seam 
is of vast proportions in the basin, of some 300 feet in thickness on this line across 
its measures. Three gangways are open on eacli side of the slope=2,250 yards. 
Eight breasts are worked, with taking out loose coal and robbing pillars. Two 
veins are worked in connection with the slope, and mining in this place requires 
skill in the management and practice in the workman. 

Ventilation is produced by a 15-horse fan, which appears to be adequate for its 
purpose. 200 inside and 100 outside hands are em])loyed ; 6 steam engines of 226 
horse power and 12 boilers are used ; 30 mules and 130' wagons are used ; 48 houses 
and families are upon the i)remises ; drainage is a specialty here ; value of the im- 
provements is estimated at $200,000 ; monthly sliipments are 10,000 tons ; casual- 
ties during the year was one death by a fall of coal, leaving a widow and six or- 
phans. 



Hazle Dell Colliery. — Robert Gorrell, Operator. 

The colliery is situated east of Centralia, upon the estate of the Locust Moun- 
tain coal and iron company, and has been ten years in operation. It consists of 
a double track slope, sunk on the north dip of tlie E vein. Two gangways are 
open, being 1,500 yards in length. Twelve breasts are working at present, with 
schutes, &c., and robbing i)illars. The seam is 30 feet thick. One out-let in 
available for miners to travel in. 

Ventilation is produced by natural means, as air-holes open directly to the sur- 
face. Sixty-five inside and seventy-five outside hands are employed. Complaints 
concerning ventilation or safety have not come to my notice. Three engines of 



121 

150 liorse power and 6 boiters lare in use, with all their machinery and tackle in 

good condition. Monthly shipments, tons. Value of improvements, ig . 

Casualties during the year was one death. 



Beaver Run Colliery. — Peter Bowman, Operator. 

The Colliery is situated north-east of Mahanoy City, upon the Delano land com- 
pany's tract, and has been three years in operation. It consists of a tunnel 188 
yards long, opening the D vein at 40 yards, the Six Feet vein at 100 yards, the 
Seven Feet vein at 230 yards and the Buck Mountain vein at 16 yards. The ag- 

fregate length of all gangways open is 1,170 yards, working eight bi'easts and rob- 
ing pillars. 6.3 inside and 25 outside hands are employed ; 7 mules and 27 wagons 
are used; 2,640 yards of track are used; monthly shipments, 2,000 tons;, value 

of improvements is $ ; outside temperature, July 25, was 80° and inside 65^; 

barometer indication outside was 28i and inside 28* inches. No tire-damp exists 
here at present. No other buildings than the breaker and smith shop are on the 
premises. 



Excelsior Colliery. — J. Cleaver, Operator. 

The colliery is situated in Ashland, upon the estate of the P. and B. C. and T, 
Co., and has been four years in operation. It consists of a slope sunk 80 yards 
deep on a 6-feet vein. T!ie improvements consist of a small breaker and its at- 
tachments. Two gangways are worked some 275 yards long. Seven breasts are 
open, with extensions, scliutes and heading workings. 

Ventilation is produced by natural means, wliich is not adequate to produce a 
sufficient supply of air at i)resent. 28 inside and 17 outside hands are employed ; 
2 engines of 45-horse power and 4 boilers are used ; 5 mules, 16 wagons and 760 
yards of ti-ack are used : monthly shipments, 2,000 tons ; value of the improve- 
ments $10,000 ; no casualties during the year. 



Thomas Colliery. — Thomas Coal Company, Operators. 

The colliery is situated at Shenandoah, upon the Girard estate, and has been In 
operation nine years. It consists of a double track slope, sunk 125 yards deep on 
tlie E vein. Tiie seam is split l)y an 18-inch slate seam. Tlie whole vein is 45 feet 
thick. Two gangways are open some 3,520 yards in length, working 10 breasts 
and robbing pillars. Five steam engines of 160-horse power and 11 boilers are 
used, with all their appointments in good order. 

Ventilation is produced by a 20-horse fan, the operation of which produces sat- 
isfactory results. The colliery is well managed throughout, and tlie character of 
work done is safe. 78 inside and 100 outside hands are employed ; — mules and 
— wagons are used ; 4,400 yards of track are used ; montldy shipments, 8,000 tons ; 

value of improvements, .$ ; outside temperature, 84°, inside, 65'-'; barometer 

indicated 28i inches inside and 28i inches outside ; no casualties occurred during 
the year. 



Hillside Colliery.— Georgfe Pomroy, Operator. 

The colliery is situated at Mahanoy city, upon the estate of the P. B. C. and I. 
Co., and has been four years in operation. It consists of a drift and slope open- 
ing. The slope is sunk two lifts in the south dip of the E vein, witli two gang- 
ways open some 1,110 yards in lengtli. Fourteen breasts, schutes, headings, &c., 
are worked, the cliaracter of which is considered a safe operation. Two safety 
outlets are available for traveling. 



122 

Ventilation is produced by a 20-horse fan and two air-holes, giving satisfactory 
results. fSixty inside and 25 outside hands are employed ; 3 engines of fcfo-horse 
and 8 boilers are in use ; 7 mules and 24 wagons are "used, with 1,740 yards oi 

track. Monthly shipments 2,400 tons. Value of the improvements ^ —. Oue 

I>erson was injured during the year. 



Turkey Kun Colliery.— P. Breneizer & Co., Ojierators. 

The colliery is situated south of and at Slienandoah city, upon the estate of 
Jolm Gilbert and otliers. and is tln-ee years in operation. It consists of a tunnel 
open in sontli to the E vein. Two gangways of l,SoO yards in length are opened, 
working 30 breasts, witli scliutes, heading, '&c. The mines are properly managed 
and the character of woik done is safe. 

Ventilation is produced by a 20-horse fan and four air-holes, which give satis- 
factory results. No gases are as yet exi)erieneed. 

Two steam engines are used = 70 horse, and 4 steana boilers, with all their fix- 
tures are in good order ; 137 inside and 107 outside hands are employed ; 17 mules 
and 86 wagons, with 2,600 yards of track are used ; outside temperature 78^, in- 
side 64°; barometer outside was 28.4 and inside 2Si inclies. Monthly shipments 
11,000 tons. Value of improvements $200,000. .One person was injured during 
ttie year. 



GiRARD Mammoth Colliery. — John Donaldson, Operator. 

The colliery is situated at Eaven Run, in Scluiylkill county, on the Shamokin 
line of the Lehigh A^alley railroad, upon the estate of the Girard lieirs, and has 
been six years in operation. It consists of a tunnel and drift openings, together 
witli a doul)le track slope, sunk 188 yards deep, Go yards of whicli are above tlie 
tunnel level. 1 ,600 yards of gangways are open, working 32 breasts, shutes, head- 
ings, &c. The character of tlie work is safe. The mine is properly managed. 

VeiitUation is produced by 2 furnaces and 3 air out-lets, wliich furnish a satis- 
factory supply of air. 66 inside and 95 outside hands are employed ; 5 engines of 
168 liorse power and 4 steam boilers are used ; 24 mules and 52 wagons, witli 1,800 
yards of track, are used; 84 houses and families are on the premises; monthly 

ahipments, 5,400 tons; value of improvements is $ ; no casualties occurred 

during the year. 



Lost Creek Colliery. — Fldladelphia Coal Company, Operators. 

The colliery is situated north of Colorado, upon the Philadelphia city tract, and 
has been live years in operation. It consists of a double track slope, sunk 130 
yards dee]) on the south di]) of the E vein. The coal is 40 feet thick. 2,800 yards 
of gangways are open in two lifts, working 1 6 breasts, schutes, headings, &c. One 
safety road is available for miners' use. The character of the work done and 
management of the mine are excellent. 

Ventilatiejn is produced by a 20-horse fan and 4 air out-lets, and produces by this 
means satisfactory results. " 8 steam engines of 400 horse power and 12 boilers are 
used, with all their appointments in good order and well conditioned ; 110 inside 
ffiid 80 outside hands are employed ; 8 steam engines and 12 steam boilers are used ; 
70 wagons, 15 mules and 3,900 yards of track are used ; 52 tenements, occupied by 
60 families, are upon the premises ; monthly shipments, 12,000 tons ; value of im- 
provements, ;g200,000; one person killed and one injured during the year. 



123 

Tunnel Colliery. — J. K. Seigfried, Operator. 

The colliery is situated at Ashland, upon the estate of the P. and R. C. and I. 
Co. It has been 15 years in operation. It consists of three slope openings. The 
old slope is sunk on the north dip of th.e E vein 2(3S yards deep. A new hoisting 
slope and a i)unip slope have been sunk on the D vein, tlie seam of whieli is seven 
feet thick. The old slope will be used to accommodate tlie passat^e of working- 
men and material. The colliery and necessary l)ni!dings have been remodeled iiixm 
a large scale. The coal of the Pioneer colliery will be liandled througli this, wliich 
will constitute a double colliery. The point of concentration of drainage of both 
collieries will meet at the new pump slope, which lies midway in a territory of 3i 
miles in length. The hoisting slope is 230 yards deej), with 40 additional yards up 
to its landing. Tlie section area is 16+19+8^ feet in clear, with a double track 
of 40 pound rail, fish-])late jointings and six feet gauge. The supports are of lieavy 
material, massive oak and yellow pine, perfectly in line and symmetry, upon a 58° 
dip at top to 70° at bottom. The E seam is opened by a tunnel fro m this slope 
152 yards in length. Its section area is 15+8. The coal is raised by large boxes — 
self-dump arrangement. Tiie pump slope is 243 yards deep; top, 16; bottom, 19 
and 7 feet high, used for drainage, men and material. 61 yards east of the pump 
slojie a second tunnel, 157 yards in length, opens the E vein. The east gangway 
is 788 yards long ; the west gangway is 877 yards. A solid mass of coal, 357 yards 
in length, supports the railroad and tenements. 

The arrangement for ventilation is comi)lete in its character. 62 breasts are 
open in the new workings. Two 24-inch column bull pumi)s are used conjointly, 
with alternate movement, and may be disconnected for convenience. The present 
steam jiower in use at the coUieiy consists of 2 steam pumi)s of 125 hoi'se jiower 
each and 1 of 125 horse jiower, all used in the old slope ; 1 bull engine, 200 horse 
power, one IS-inch puni]), a 16-inch pumji and 10 steam boilers ; one 60-liorse power 
hoisting engine, a 20-horse power steam fan and a 12-liorse power steam fan. The 
present owners intend recovering all the coal left in the Pioneer colliery by coun- 
ter working. The shipping capacity of the tunnel colliery when the present im- 
provements are completed is estimated to sui)ply 150,000 tons for a number of 
years. The energy witli which tliese imi)rovements are pushed forward is char- 
acteristic of General Seigfried's management. The surveys, plans and specifica- 
tions of the establishment are under the superintendence of General Pleasants, as 
director general, and of William Kendrick, Esq., as mining superintendent. 



CuYLER Colliery. — Heaton & BrotJiers, Operators. 

The colliery is situated at Piaven Ptun, upon the estate of Girard heirs, and has 
been 10 years in ojieration. It consists of drift openings, on the E and 1) veins. 
A slope is sunk 221 yards deep, it being 121 yards below water line. Five liun- 
dred and two yards of tunneling opens the I) and B veins. The length of the 
main tunnel is 700 yards. Two hundred yards of a tunnel opens the E vein, 
working 21 breasts, schutes, headings, &c. One thousand two hundred and fifty 
yards of gangway is o]:)ened. , The character of work done is safe. 

VcntVation is produced by 3 outlet air holes, and operates in a moderate way. 
1^0 gas has so far been discovered. 

Four steam engines=160-horse, and 4 boilers are used ; and also a 15-hors8 
steam fan is used is connection with the air holes. Twenty-five mules, 75 wagons 
and 3,680 yards of track are used ; 80 good tenements and 75 families are on the 
premises; monthly shipment is 6,000 tons; value of improvements is .$150,000; 
casualties during the year was one death ; 80 inside and 80 outside hands are em- 
ployed. 



124 

IIartfokd Colliery. — H. Etichehnan, Operator. 

The colliery is situated at Mahanoy City, upon the estate of the P. E. C. and 
I, company, and has been in operation 10 years. It consists of a drift open on 
tlie B vein, and another on the E vein ; the haulage is one mile per round trip ; 
2 gangways are open, 1,730 yards in length ; 14 breasts are working with schutes, 
&c ; 80 yards of a tunnel opens the D vein ; 5,280 yards of track is used in and 
about the colliery. 

The D seam is ventilated by a furnace and an air hole. Not until proper out- 
lets are open can ventilation be a success, however this matter is engaging the 
attention of Mr. Eschelman, who is prosecuting the improvements with energy. 
One breaker of 40-horse and 3 boilers are used ; 22 wagons, IG mules and 5,700 
yards of track are used ; monthly shipments, 2,500 tons; value of improvements, 
$25,000. 



SiLLiMAN Colliery. — Bomell, Hill & Harris, Operators. 

The colliery is situated a little north of Mahanoy city, upon the estate of the 
P. and R. C. and I. Co., and has been 10 yeais in operation. It consists of a 
new douT)le track slope, sunk 10-1 yards deep on tlie south dip of the 7 feet vein, 
and 3 drifts, all above water level. Three gangways are open some 1,450 yards 
in length. Thirty-four l)reasts are woiking upon tlie 3 coal seams, with schutes, 
headings and extensions. The character of the work done is considered a safe 
operation of its kind. 

Ventilation is i^roduced by two 10-horse steam fans placed on the 7 feet vein, 
their operation produces very satisfactory results. One hundred and thirty-one 
inside and 58 outside hands are employed. Four steam engines of 140-horse power, 
6 good boilers, with all their equipments, are in good condition. Thirteen mules, 
38 wagons and 2,780 yards of track are used. Twenty tenements, occupied by 
20 families, are u])on tlie premises. The slope has been only 2 years in oi)era- 
tion. The upper levels are nearly exhausted of coal. The shipments exceed 
7,000 tons per mouth. Value of the improvements is estimated at $ . Casu- 
alties during year was one death. 



PocHT & Alter Colliery.— Jbc/ii & Whittaker, Operators. 

The colliery is situated north of Mahanoy city upon the Delano land Co.'s 
estate. It has been 8 years in operation. It consists of a double track shaft, 
opening the B and 7 feet coal seams •, 3 gangways are open, 910 yards in length, 
with 30 breasts^vorking, also schutes, headings and extensions. The coal is 25 
feet thick. One good safety road is available for miners. All the work done is 
considered safe. • 

Ventilation is produced bv a 10-liorse steam fan. Its operation gives satisfac- 
tory results. Ninety-eight inside and 79 outside hands are employed. Three 
steam engines are used == lUO-horse power, with 4 steam boilers and all their ap- 
pointments in good condition. 



Big Mine Run Colliery.— Toj/Zor, Lindsy, & Co., Operators. 

The colliery is situated east of Ashland, and has been now 19 years in opera- 
tion. It consists of a double track slope and 3 drift levels. The slope is sunk 
112 yards deep below water line, on the south dip of the E vein. The coal seam 



125 

is 40 feet in thickness. The D vein is worked in this slope by a tunnel. There 
are 3 drift oi)enings made on the mountain whicli supply a large amount of coal. 

The slope workings are ventilated by means of a 40-liorse steam fan, whilst tlie 
drifts are ventilated by natural means. The character of work done is princi- 
pally robbing out the coal from the present lifts. 

Tliere are six steam engines = 240-horse power, and 19 steam boilers in use, 
with all their appointments found in good order. The estate lately came into 
the hands of the P. and R. C. and I. company, superintended by Wm. Kendrick, 
Esq., mining superintendent. 



126 



e«5 
1— 









Dip of seam 
north 



t-i u •-, %^ 

o c o o 



o o 



hip of 
south.., 



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Wking seams. 



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03 



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coiMMco CO '-i<©coiM<©irti-irt.-(^><ioe<i(M^c<jr-ieo<N(Mi-i-<^i-ii-(cqi-« 



Ventilation 



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c c c o 



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Outlets. 



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I'^iirnaces 


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Breasts 


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Deaths 

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127 



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Value of the 
itiiprovem'ts 
by estima- 
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Monthly ship- 
ments in ton- 
nage 



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No. of wagons. 






No. of mules... 



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131 



SHAMOKIN DISTRICT. 

List of names of persons that were maimed and injured in the mines of 
this district during the year ending December 31, A. D. 1872. 



Date. 




Names of 
the collieries. 



Remarks. 



Mar. 12, J. Raldabush 

I'l. John Larkin 

12, John (Griffith.., . 

12, David Davis 

12, John Kavanagh.. 

12. John Thomas 

20, Thomas Fannon, 

20, JohnO'Neil 

Apr. 4, Dan Miller 

4, Lyb. F. Nolan ... 

4, Storis Waldron... 

4, John Helper 

4, .loseph Nerkle... 

8, Samuel Hearter..! 

8, James Sheehan...! 

10, John Shaefler j 

10, A miner. ! 

17, John Kennedy...] 
20, Evan Aryfiist 



May 



29 
29; 

20, 
20, 
20, 

20,1 
29,1 
20, i 
20, 
29, 
20, 
30, 
30, 
1, 
1. 



20, 

June 5, 

5, 

13, 

13, 

13, 

13. 

July 10, 

10, 

20, 

25, 

• 5, 

9, 

12, 

12, 

14 

17. 

23, 

23, 

23, 

20, 

30, 

31, 



Au£ 



Evan Reese 

John Prichard ... 

David Davis 

Benj. Argust 

Patrick Cauniflf... 
Daniel Colvy .... 

Martin Kelly 

Frank Kearns 

James Joyce .... 
John M. Kelly... 
Joseph Schock... 
Patrick Keating.. 
Charley Miller... 

John Ilobfrts 

John B. Wright.. 
Chas. Freeman... 
E. P. Foulk.. ... 
Henry H. Helt... 

Alick Kpser 

.John .Jones 

Chas. Newman... 
Samuel Schell ... 

J. Stitzman 

Hugh (xolden 

Uriah Brown 

Alfred Deljong... 
Martin Madera... 
J. W. Thomas.... 

Tlie engineer 

Philip Imswiller 

John Dolan 

Robert Parkins... 
Jacob Daubler.... 
.Jacob Ivoroeskia, 
W. Lindemuth... 
Richard Culbert, 
Christ Rohrbach 
William Kyle.... 
Wm. Kyle, Jr.... 
Daniel Harvey.. 

A boy 

Jas. Kellegher...] 
Daniel Crow 



Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Plicenix No. 2 

Phcjenix No. 2 

Williamstown.... 
Wilhamstown.... 

Henry Clay 

Henry Cla^' 

Siuartsville 

Colkett 

L. Ranch Creek.. 
Red Mountain ... 

Franklin 

L. R mch Creek.. 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Otto Red Ash 

Enterpri.se .-.. 

Colkett. 

L. Ranch Creek.. 

Colkett 

Tremont 

Otto White Ash.. 

Shamokin 

Shamokin 

Williamstown.... 
Williamstown.... 

Luke Fidler 

Colkett 

Colkett 

Otto Red Ash 

otto Red Ash 

Luke Fidler. 

Hickorv Swamp, 

Rig Lick 

Eagle. No. 2 

Colkett... 

Camerf)n 

Buck Ridge.. . 
L. Rnuch Creek.. 

Bear V^alley 

Rear Valley 

L. Rauch Creek. 

Colkett 

Tj. Rauch Creek.. 
Ij. Rauch Creek.. 
Tj. Rauch Creek. 

Otto Red .\sh 

Diamond No. 2... 
Big Lick 



Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt hy an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt hy an explosion of gas. 
Mortallj'' injured by wagons. 
Sevei-ely burnt by gas. 
Severely nijured bj- a fall of slate. 
Severely injured by a fall of slate. 
vSeverely injured by powder. 
Severely injured by an explosion of gas. 
Severely injured by an explosion of ga-s. 
Severely injured by fall in the slope. 
Severely'' burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt — arm broken by explo- 
sion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of i^as. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely injured by a fall of coal. 
Seve'ly inj'ed by an explosion of powder. 
Leg injured — run over by a wagon. 
Mortally injured by a blast. 
Severely injured by wagon.s. 
Arm broken — fell down a breast. 
Ribs broken — fell down a breast. 
Crushed by wagons in the mines. 
Severely injured by a fall of rocks. 
Severely injured by a fall of rocks. 
Hand cut off by a fall of coal. 
Eyes destroyed by a blast. 
Injured by the blast. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Leg broken by a fall of coal. 
Arm broken by a dirt car. 
Arm broken by a fall of coal. 
Severely scalded by a boiler explosion. 
Severely burnt by gas. 
Eves destroyed by explosion of powder. 
Head severely injured by powder. 
Severely injured by an e.xplosion of g;c<. 
Severely injured by an explosion of gxs. 
Severely injured by an explosion of g^:v. 
Mortally injured by an explosion of gis. 
Head injured by an explosion of blast. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an expi'^sion of <t:is. 
Severely burnt bv an explosion of gas. 
Leg cut off by a din oa i- 
Ribs broken by a ^'all of coal. 
IjCg broken by a dirt car. 



132 

Shamokin District — Continued. 



T^a*/^ 


Names of persons 


Names of 






injured. 


the collieries. 


Hept 


.18, 


Pat. M'Garvey ... 


Otto Red Ash 




18, 


Richard James... 


Otto Red Ash 




18, 


David James.. .. 


Otto Red Ash.... 




18, 


J. Cunuinsham.. 


Otto Red Ash 




18, 


Patrick Quiun... 


Otto Red Ash 




18, 


James Howells... 


Otto Red Ash.... 




18, 


Jacob Gehress.... 


Otto Red Ash 




19, 


A Polander 


Buck Ridge 




27, 


J. Prenderghast, 


Diamond, No. 2, 




27, 


John Thomas 


Diamond, No. 2, 




27, 


Jas. Marry, bov, 


Diamond, No. 2, 


Oct. 


11, 


Michael Tice 


\^ illiamstown.... 




11, 


Edwards, boy 


Mt. Oarmel 




11, 


A workingman .. 


Mt. Carmel 




23, 


John W. Rush... 


VVilliamstown.... 




23. 


John Schmidt.... 


Henry (Jlay 




W, 


M. Dauglas 

Wm. Barnes 


Big Lick 




29, 


Mt. Carmel 




29, 
29, 
'?9, 


A miner 


Mt. Carmel 




James Harris 

Anthony Nary... 
John Dooley 


Mt. Carmel 




Mt. Carmel 


Nov 


. 2, 


Locust Mt. C. Co. 




2, 


John Morrison... 


Coal Mountain... 




4, 
3, 


James Kelly 

Edward Jones ... 


Diamond 


Dec 


Daniel Webster, 




7, 


Patrick Martin... 


Short Mountain.. 




7, 


Dan. Kellv 


Short Mountain.. 



Remarks, 



Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely burnt by an expl')sion of gas. 
Mortally burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Seriously burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Seriously burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Seriously burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Seriously injured by a fall of rocks. 
Severely injured liy an explosion of gas. 
Mortally burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Mortally burnt by an explosion of gas. 
Severely injured. 
Mortally injured by a fall of coal. 
Mortally injured by a fa.'l of coal 
Severely injured — fell o;f a building. 
Leg lacerated by the elevator. 
Severely burnt by gas. 
Scull fractured by a piece of coal. 
Leg badly cut by a piece of coal. 
Severely injured by a shot. 
Hand injured by a fall of coal. 
vSeverely burnt by powder. 
Foot badly crushed in the rollers. 
Run over by wagons. 
Dangerously burnt by powder. 
Arm broken by fall of coal. 
Dangerously injured by the slope rope. 



Eighty-nine persons weie injured as per report, and thirteen persons whose 
names had not been ascertained, "making a total of one hundred and two persons in- 
j ured. 



133 









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REPORT 



OF THE 

ITsSPECTOK OF COAL MII^ES IN THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT 
OF LUZERNE AND CARBON COUNTIES, FROM DECEMBER 
31, 1871, TO DECEMBER 31, 1872. 



John T. Evaj^s, Inspectoe of Coai. Mines. 



To His Excellency John F. Harteanft, 

Governor of the Stale of Pennsylvania. 

Hon. Sir :— Conformably with the requirements of the law, I have the honor 
ol sulnuittinj? to you my annual report, as Inspector of Coal Mines in the district 
of Southern Luzerne and Carbon counties. I feel happy that I am aljle to report 
a diminution in the list of fatal accidents compared with that of the year 1871. 
In my report for 1871, it will be found that the number of fatal accidents were 29 
to 2.500,000 ton of coal, or oue to every 8(5,207 tons of coal. The number of fatal 
accidents for 1872, are 25 to 3,500.000 tons of coal, or one to every 140,000 tons of 
coal raised, which shows a decrease of 4 in the number of fatal accidents ; not- 
withstanding that 1,000,000 tous of coal more were mined during the year 1872. 

The following table will show you the number and cause of these accidents : 

]3y fall of coai U 

Explosion of powder 1 

Cars inside ^ 

On slopes 1 

Fall of roof 1 

Premature blast 2 

Falling of gauff 1 

Falli?) g into breaker rollers 1 

Fire-damp 1 

Total 25 

In the list of accidents not being fatal, I have the unpleasant duty to report an 
incretise of two over that of the year 1871. The number of accidents in my last 
report Avas 36 to 2,500,000 tons of coal, or one to every 69,444 tons, 16 cwt., while 
the number for 1872 is 38 to 3,500,000 tons, or one to every 92,105 tons, 10 cwt., of 
coal raised. Comparing it with the amount of coal mined, it is really a decrease, 
»s the above figures show, still it would have been a great satisfaction to me to 
be able to report a diminution in tlie number of accidents. It is almost a prover- 
bial saying in these coal regions, "that accidents will occur." This has its effect 
upon those who have charge of mines, and it even makes the men more careless. 
It seems something singular to me, liow the recurrence of accidents takes away 
the horror connected with such events. It is nothing uncommon when a poor 
fellow hath a limb fractured, to hear his fellow-laborers saying, "oh, he got off 
very well, only a limb or arm fractured." In comparison with life, he might 
have "got off very well," but it is something for a man to loose a limb and be dis- 
nbled perhaps for life. I am anxious to see the day, when both employer and em- 
ployed will use every means and precaution, in order, if possible, to do away en- 
tirely with accidents. I am perfectly satisfied that the inspection of mines will 
in course of time, have a very beneficial effect on the health and comfort of the 
miners and all concerned. 



136 

Ventilation is improving thronghout the whole of my district. Should im- 
provements be made in the future to the same extent as tlie last few years, those 
that are voung to-day in the mines, will enjoy happier days in their old ase than 
the old miners of to-day. The old miners of to-day are with very few exceptions 
asthmatic, which is owing to bad ventilation, but those days are fast passing 
away, and the miner having the pleasure of working in purer aij-, which will have 
a beneficifl.1 effect upon the general health of the miner. 

There has not been a single instance of boiler explosion, nor a rope broke to in- 
jure any one. I have made it a specialty to see that the ropes are good, and that 
"boilers are kept in perfect order, by compelling each company to report state of 
boilers semi-annually according to law, and oftener when I doubt them. Things 
are not yet as I would wish them to be. It requires time to have things to per- 
fection. Full and cordial co-operation of both those in charge of mines and mi- 
ners is necessary to bring full and perfect safety of health, life and prosperity. 

I have been obliged to summon one befoi'e a justice of the peace for violation of 
the law which forbids riding on loaded cars in slopes and shafts, and it is proba- 
l»le that more are guilty of the same ottY^nse, but I have succeeded in detecting 
but one. I am doing and will do all Avithin my power to prevent any violation of 
the law in this respect. Besides the general report, accompanying it you will 
tind a list of every fatal accident with a short sketch of eacli ; also a list of acci- 
dents not proving fatal, together with a table, giving location of collieries, land 
owners, operators and coal shipped during the year 1872. 

DAMAGES TO PROPERTY. 

One slope was destroyed at Stockton, Luzerne county, by a crush. This occur- 
red owing to working too near the slope or taking away the slope pillars some 
years ago by former operators in the first and second lift of No. 1. 

Breaker burned down at Ebervale, Luzerne county. The fire in No. 6 Tunnel, 
bummit Hill, Carbon county, continues to burn, but has not broke out to the sur- 
face. The company is pi-eparing to dam the works, so as to fill them with water, 
and I hope that they will be successful in extinguishing th'e fire. 



137 



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142 

LIST OF FATAL ACCIDENTS IX THE SOUTH DISTRICT OF LUZERNE AND CAR- 
BON COUNTIES FOR THE YEAR 1872, 

'No. 1. George Wills, married, aged 35 years, was killed on the 5th of January, 
1872, by a fall of coal in breast in Xo. 3 slope, Stockton. Mr. Wills leaves a 
■wife and three cliildren to mourn his loss, in England. 

No. 2. John Wigaud, single, aged 21 years, was killed at foot of breaker plane 
at ni)per Lehigh, January 18. The deceased and another young man were 
standing at foot of breaker plane at tlie time the car was being hoisted, when it 
was about landing tlie swivel bolt broke, which left the car run back. Tliey 
could have gotten away safely had tliey listened to the man on to]) of breaker, 
for he detected the bolt before it broke and called on them to get out of the way, 
but the deceased, through excitement, could not get away and Avas struck by the 
car, which killed him instantly. The otlier young man escaped without the "least 
injury. 

No. 3. James Malley, single, aged 20 years, was burned by the explosion of a 
keg of powder, on 18tli of January, and died on the 21st of the same month, at 
No. 2 slope, Buck Mountain. 

No. 4. James G. Marshall, aged 18 years. Instant deatli by being bumped 
between cars on gangway, while driving, at Woodside slope, Feb. 9. 

No. 5. A. Gaitenhiger, married, aged 52 years, came to his death on the lOth 
of February by being run over by a car in itazleton (old) slope. 

Nos. 6 and 7. Andrew O'Donneld, mariied, aged 50 years, and James Sweeney, 
married, aged 35 years, came to their death by a fall of coal in breast, at No. 1 
slope, Yorktown, on the 27th of March. Mr. O'Donneld leaves a wife and seven 
children, and Mv. Sweeney a wife and two children, to mourn their loss. Inciuest 
held by Dr. E. B. Longshor, J. P. Decision of jury : The deceased persons came 
to their death through neglect of propi)ing. 

No. 8. William Morrist, aged 50 years, married, was instantly killed by a fall 
of coal in l)reast at No. 2 slope, Stockton, on the 10th of April. He leaves a wife 
and one cliild to mourn his loss. 

No. 9^. James Boyle, aged 18 years, was instantly killed by a fall of coal in 
breast, in Cranberry slope, on the 11th of April. 

No. 10. John Gallagher, aged 22 years, single, was instantly killed, by the face 
of his breast running suddenly upon him. He was covered with several tons of 
coal and slate, and was there for nearly forty hours before he was found, at No. 
4 slope, Buck mountain, on the 12th of June. 

No. 11. Francis Ward, aged 22 years, single, was instantly killed by a fall of 
coal in breast, at No. 4 slope, Eckley, on the 18th of June. Accidental death. 

No. 12. Reuben Canera, aged 20 years, was injured on the 24th of June, and 
died on the 25tli of same month. He was bumped between a car and rib of coal 
in No. 4 slope, Summit Hill. Accidental death. 

No. 13- Archil)ald Williams, aged 19 years, was injured on the 11th of July, by 
a lump of coal running against liim from battery of breast, fracturing his leg so 
badly tliat he died on the 25th of same month, at No. 5 slojie, Treskow. 

No. 14. Edward Parker, married, met his death by a fall of slate in Wharton 
vein. No. 1 slope, Yorktown, on August 1st. He leaves a wife and three chil- 
dren to mourn his loss. 

No. 15. John W^ard. single, aged 32 years, was instantly killed by a fall of coal 
on gangway, while opening a new breast, in Laurel Hill, old slope, on the 3d of 
August. 

No. 16. Thomas D. Williams, aged 70 years, was instantly killed by being struck 
by a- i>iece of coal from a premature blast in breast, in No. 5 Tunnel, Summit 
Hill, August 8th. 

No. 17. Jenkin Prosser, aged 27 years, met with a severe accident in No. 2 slope, 
Latiinore, August 19th, by a jiremature blast in breast, from which he died on 
the 23d of same month. Mr. Prosser leaves a wife and two children to mourn his 
loss. 

No. 18. Frederick Hinder, aged 23 years, single, was instantly killed while cut- 
ting room for a prop in scliute. The gangway prop either broke or got loose from 
bottom slate, gauff and timber fell on him, which caused instant death, October 
14t'i, at No. 2 slope, Eckley. 

No. 19. Thos. Boyle, aged IS years, driver, fell under cars in No. 1 drift, Cole- 
rain. This boy was driving from the tiu-n-out to mouth of drift. The inside dri- 
vers missing him went in search of him, and found him lying dead alongside of 
his trip of cars. By examination we have every reason to believe that lie jumped 



143 

off the cars after his hat and himp, which fell off, without stopping: the mules. 
His foot slii>ped on a piece of slate, ai d he fell under cars and was dragged about 
17 feet. Dr. E. B. Lorzstor, J. P., held inquest. Decision of jury: Accidental 
death, October IS. 

No. 20. Charles Depuey, aged 13 years, w^s instantly killed by falling into the 
small rollers in Laurel Hill breaker, Hazleton, October 22. This young boy was 
doing something to his seat on the schute. In the act of doing it his foot slipped 
and he fell into the schute leading to the rollers, feet foremost, passing under a 
platform that covered the rollers, that extended up the schute 18 inches and 6^ 
inches high. The rollers caught the foot and drawed the whole body through, 
completely smasliing it up, and no help could be rendered in any way. 

No. 21. Oharles Paul, aged 45 years, widower, 6 children, met instant death by 
a fall of coal in face of breast in No. 2 slope, (Jolerain, oil October 22. He had 
l)ut a blast in the coal, which did not bring it down. He took a pick and com- 
menced working under it to loose it. While in the act of doing so the coal fell 
on him, causing instant death. 

No. 22. Daniel Maglin, aged 40 years, married, 2 children, met his death in No. 
2 slope, Stockton, October 22, l)y an explosion of fire-damp at the battery of his 
breast. This was an unexpected occurrence, as no gas had been found there be- 
fore. His breast had fell very heavy a few days before the accident and closed it 
up entirely. The vein doubled at this point. He and his partner were filling cars 
to rid it. The deceased, perceiving a hole through tlie coal, put liis lani]) up into 
it to see into the breast. This ignited the gas that liad accumulated unawares to 
him on the top of the loose coal. He was burned and bruised so bad that he lived 
but a few hours. 

No. 23. Edward Delliley, aged 28 years, single, met instant death by a fall of 
coal in breast in No. 2 slo))e, Eckley, November 7, two slijjs meeting each other 
in top coal, causing it to fall off, quite unawares to him or his partner. TJiis place 
was considered quite safe before the accident. 

No. 24. Wm. Joyce, aged 33 years, wife and 3 children in England, was injured 
by a fall of coal in a breast in No. 1 slope, Woodside, November 2G. Pie had a 
leg fractured and also injured in the side of his bowels, causing infiammation, from 
which lie died on the 30th of the same month. 

No. 25. Nimrod Norris, aged 32, married, 4 children, was injured by a fall of 
coal in the Wharton vein gangway, in No. 1 slope, Jeanesville, on the"3d of De- 
cember, and died on the evening oi" the next day, living about 30 hours after the 
accident. 



REPORT GIVING DESCRIPTION AND CONDITION OF COLLIE- 
RIES IN SOUTH DISTRICT OF LUZFRNE 
AND Ci^RBON COUNTIES. 

Colliery No. 1 — Upper Lehigil Luzerne county. — Land oioners, The Nescopec 
Coal Co. — Operators, Uppter Lehigh Coal Co. 

Slopes No. 1 and No. 2 are on the north side ot basin and on the estate of Nes- 
co])ec coal company. 

No. 3 is on the south side of basin and on the estate of Hon. Tench Cox. The 
vein worked is the Buck Mountain. Average thickness 14 feet of good clear coal, 
a strong bottom slate and an excellent roof. These works and machinery are in 
excellent order. Great attention is paid to the ventilation of the mines by the 
mine agent, Wm. Powell, sr., and W. Powell, jr., assistant. 

No. 1 slope, south dip, 320 feet in length anil 150 feet vertical, with a pmn])ing 
sloyie of tlie same length, and an inside slope in west gangway, called No. 5 slope, 
with an hoisting engine and steam pump. The steam is carried through pipes 
from the surface boilers, and the exhaust is put into the upcast to assist the fur- 
nace to create ventilation for the use of mines. The current of air traveling 
through the workings at present will average 16,000 cubic feet per minute. The 
sloi»es and workings are in good condition. 

No. 2 slope, south dip, 330 feet in length, 191 feet vertical; also a pumping 
slope of the same length. A large and commodious breaker is built at the top of 
this slope, and the cars are taken out of No. 2 slojie to top of breaker ; also cars 
of No. 1 slope are taken up a breaker up lane on the opposite side from No. 2. 



144 

This breaker prepares the coal of both slopes. There is also an outside slope in 
the east gangway of No. 2 slope, called No. 4 slope. Tliere are extensive work- 
ings and well ventilated by a twelve feet fan on the east side and a furnace on 
west side. The current of air on both sides will average 30,000 cubic feet per 
minute. 

The directions of gangway in starting from all the slopes are east and west, but 
the west gangway is gone around the basin and is now nearly opjwsite the slope 
cm the opposite ])iteli of No. 2 slope. These workings formerly constituted the 
Upper Lehigli collieries, and coal is shipped at present only from these. The ship- 
ment for 1872 is 205,018.1 tons. In blasting tlie coal 3,277 kegs of powder were 
used. Men and boys employed inside, 131) ; men and boys employed outside, 93; 
total in two slopes," 232. JNIules inside, 34 ; outside, 15 ; total in two slopes, 49. 

No. 3 slope, north dip. This is a new slope now sinking on the opposite side 
of the upper Lehigh Basin, on the estate of lion. Tench Coxe, employing at pre- 
sent, 18 men and boys ; 97 kegs of powder liave been used. The machinery of all 
the collieries consist of 8 hoisting engines, 6 pumping engines, 1 breaker engine, 
1 fan engine — total IG stationary engines of 42G-horse power. Two steam pumps 
and 24 boilers, all of which are In good condition. 

D. Bertsch, superintendent; Wm. Powell, Sr., mine agent; W. Powell, Jr., 
assistant ; S. M. Rigliter, outside foreman. 



Ck)LLiERY No. 2, Cross Creek, Drifton, Luzerne county. — on the estate of Hon. 
Tench Coxe — Operators, Coxe, Bros. & Co. 

No. 1 slope is 360 feet in length, 103 feet vertical. This slope is sunk on the 
Buck Mountain vein ; average thickness 14 feet. Also a slant is driven half course 
to the pitch of the slope from the top, to take emjity cars down to counter gang- 
ways which are about 900 feet in length, on west side of slope. Direction of gang- 
ways east and west from slope, Avhich is pitching north. This is a fine colliery, 
well conducted and well ventilated by 2 furnaces, assisted on west side by exhaust 
steam from steam i)ump. The i)resent amount of air traveling on botli sides is 
24,000 cubic feet per minute. Tliis vein has a good strong slate bottom and an 
excellent roof of rock, a moderate pitch, good clean coal and a large breaker to 
prepare the coal, worked by a 30-horse power engine. Tlie machinery consists of 
2 hoisting engines of 152-horse power, 2 pumping engines of 200-horse power= 
382 horse power. Ten boilers in good order ; coal shipped 119,407 4-20 tons ; pow- 
der used 2,400 kegs ; men and boys employed inside 129, outside 83=212; mules 
inside 28, outside 4:=32. Arthur M'Clellan, superintendent ; Ed. L. Powell, 
mine agent. 



Colliery, No. 3, Woodside, Luzerne county. — Land owners, Jeddo Coal Co. — 
OXteratnrs, Jeddo Coal Company. 

No. 1 slope, south dip, is 270 feet in length, and 136 feet vertical. This slope 
also works the Buck Mountain vein, the average tliickness of which is 14 feet. — 
Direction of gangways is east and west from the slope. This is not a very exten- 
sive colliery, yet it is well conducted and well ventilated. The air passing through 
the mines amounts to 15,000 cubic feet per minute. The machinery and boilers 
are in good order, and consists of a breaker, worked by a 25-horse power engine, 
2 hoisting engines of 60-horse power, and 1 pumping engine of 60-horse power= 
to 14o-horse power ; boilers 6. Coal shipped in 18T2, is 28,627 tons. 

H. L. Fuller, superintendent ; William M'Donel, mine agent. 



Colliery, No. 4, Jeddo. Luzerne county. — Landowners, Union Lnproving Co. — 
Operators, Q. B. Markle & Co. 

Old slope is 350 feet in length, 181 feet vertical. This slope is sunk in and 
works the big vein; average thickness 27 feet ; it is well ventilated, but nearly 
worked out. Machinery consists of 1 hoisting engine of 80-horse power, 1 breaker, 



145 

worked by a 25-liorse power engine, 1 pumping engine of 80-liorse power. Total 
horse power of engines 185 ; boilers 12. Men and boj'S emi)]oyed inside (39, out- 
side 63=132; mules 18; coal shipped in 1872, 70,050 tons ; powder used, 712 kegs. 
Wm. II. Thomas, mine agent ; Stephen Thraslur, outside foreman. 

Hed Aah slope. — Lengtli 846 feet, vertical 434 feet. Buck Mountain vein in 
thickness 14 feet, well ventilated, but nearly worked out. Average air traveling 
18.000 cubic feet permuiute. 

Machinery consists of 1 hoisting engine of 50 horse power ; 1 breaker worked 
by a 25-horse power engine ; pumping engine, 40 horse power ; 1 steam ])ump, 50 
horse power ; total horse power of engines, 145 ; coal shipped in 1872, 39,725 tons : 
powder used, 817 kegs; men and boys employed inside, 52; men and boys em- 
ployed outside, 39 ; total, 91 ; mules, 14. George Pattersou, mine agent ; C. An- 
drews, outside foreman. 

Uakdale slope, Xo. 1. Length, 640 feet ; 313 feet vertical. This slope is sunk in 
and works the Big vein. Average thickness, 27 feet. Two gangways, one east 
and one west. The east gangway is a very long one, going around a point of the 
basin. A locomotive engine is used in this gangway to bring back the coal from 
a turn-out Avhere it is brought from the miners by mules. The air is letdown 
through a down-cast passing the miners or face of workings, going up east, to 
near tlie bottom of the slope, through the gangway in which the locomotive works. 
There is also a letting down plane from a counter in west gangway. The mines 
are well ventilated. The present current of air traveling on both sides is about 
20,000 cubic feet per minute. The machinery consists of 1 hoisting engine of 80 
horse power; 1 breaker engine of 30 horse power; st(am pump, 50 horse power; 
1 locomotive, 15 horse power ; total horse power of engines, 160 ; l)oilers, 12 ; Wni. 
Bradley, mine agent ; Robert Cawany, outside foreman ; men and boys employed 
inside, 88; men and boys employed outside, 61 ; total, 149 ; mules, 20 ; coal shipi)ed 
in 1872, 119,042 tons ; powder used, 1,350 kegs. 

Oakdale slope, No. 2, south dip. This slope is quite new, and is sunk a lift l)e- 
low the No. 1 slope. Breaker not ready. Machinery, 1 hoisting engine, of 80 
horsepower; a steam pump and 4 large boilers. Ventilation good. Two gang- 
■\vays are driven to open work. Coal goes to Oakdale, No. 1. "Wm. II. Thomas, 
mine agent. 



Colliery No. 5, Highland Mines.— LaiuZ owners, Highland Coal Company. 
Operators, G. B. Markle do Co. 

Slope No. 1, south dip. Length, 661 feet ; 319 feet vertical. This slope is sunk 
in the Buck Mountain vein. Average thickness 14 feet. Gangways are driven, 
east and west. The present workings are nearly worked out. The company is 
preparing to sink a lift lower. This will make the third lift in this slope. These 
mines are well conducted. Ventilation good. Average air traveling the work- 
ings is 22.464 cubic feet per minute. Ventilated by exhaust steam from steam 
pump. Men and boys employed inside, 74; outside, 62; total, 136: mules. 23; 
machinery, 1 hoisting engine of SO horse power ; breaker engine of 30 horse pow^r ; 
2 steam pumps, 50 horse power each ; total horse power of engines, 210 ; boilers, 
9; coal shipped in 1872, 83,511 tons ; powder used, 989 kegs ; Peter Brown, miixi 
boss. All these works are operated by the same company, viz : G. B. Markle & 
Co. They have four breakers at work and one nearly I'eady , viz : Jeddo, Eed Asli , 
Oakdale, No. 1, Highland, the new one at Oakdale, No. 2. G. B, Markle, super- 
intendent ; John Turner, miiie agent. 



Council EiDGE Collieries, EeUey, Lvzeme connty.—Land owner, Hon. Tench 
Coxe. — Sharp, Weiss & Co., Operators. 

This colliery has 3 hoisting slopes, 2 pumping slopes and 2 slopes inside ; 2 lartje 
breakers ; 6 hoisting engines and steam pumps to drain these works, with 20 boil- 
ers. These works are all on the Buck Mountain vein. Average thickness about 
13 feet. 

Slope No. 2, north dip. Length, 630 feet ; vertical, 300 feet. Well ventilated 
by exhaust from steam pump. Air according to measurement for the month of ' 
II 



146 

November, 16,456 cubic feet per minute on both sides, east and west. An inside 
slope in tlie west gangway of this slope, with hoisting engine and 2 boilers. 

f^lope No. 3, south dip. Length, 750 feet ; 200 feet vertical. This slope is not 
so well ventilated as the others. The air at present is 4,704 cubic feet per minute 
ft)r 27 men and boys and 7 mules. The work of this slope is all in an inside slope, 
with an engine and boiler. The inside slopes are driven to reach deep places in 
these small basins. 

No. 4 slope, north dip, is in length 300 feet, 160 feet vertical. This work is 
well ventilated on both sides, by a furnace on north-west and exhaust from steam 
pump on south-west side. The east gangway is driven around the point of basin 
and has gone around from east to west on the north side of the basin, in which 
the company is preparing a place to sink an inside slope, to work the coal lying 
;mder the south-west and north-west gangways. Average amount of air tiavel- 
ing through this work is 17,312 cubic feet per minute. 

All the macliinery and boilers of these collieries are reported to be in good 
condition. Men and bovs employed inside 180, outside 141 = 321; coal shipped 
in 1872, 150,045 tons and 9 cwt. 

Sharp and Weiss, superintendents ; Samuel Bateman, mine agent. 



Buck Mouktain Coli,iery, Luzerne and Carbon Counties. — Land owners and 
Operators, Buck Ifountain Coal Co. 

The mines are in Luzerne county and the breaker in Carbon county. The coal 
worked is the Buck Mountain vein. The seam, altogether, will make 15 feet of 
coal, but tliere is a slate from 2 to 4 feet thick dividing the vein into two seams. 
This runs about 6 feet in the vein above bottom slate. The coal below it is called 
6 feet, and that which is above 9 feet or top bench ; this bench is an excellent 
coal, clean and good in quality. The 6 feet is a rougher but a good, strong coal. 
No. 1 and No. 3 slopes are abandoned for the present. No. 2 and No. 4 slopes 
are working. 

No. 2 slope, south dip. Length 270 feet ; 160 feet vertical. Direction of gang- 
wvays, east and west. The work at present on the east side is in an inside slope ; 
;the west side has several gangways and counter gangways, also letting down 
; planes., (balance plane,) from a counter to main gangway. The work is nearly all 
.on the top or 9 feet bench. There is also in this side a slope into one of these 
^troughs that is so common in the Buck Mountain vein, but not at work at 
.present. 

Wm. Ilendson, mine boss, 

;SJI-ope No,. 4., north dip. Length 726 feet, 125 feet vertical. This slope is situated 
cfbout two miles south from breaker. The workings of this slope are nearly the 
same as those of No. 2, and working the same vein. Direction of gangways, east 
and west. Ventilation good, and nearly all the work is on the top bench. The 
roof is generally good. The coal is taken down a balance plane to slope No. 3, 
and then drawn to the top of a hill situated between slopes No. 3 and No. 2, by 
an engine. The cars have a grade to run from here for a consideral)le distance 
to the top of a balance plane that lets them down to No. 2 slope. Then the coal 
from No. 2 and No. 4 slopes is let down a balance plane to the breaker, which 
makes it a difficult place to work in the winter season. 
Mining boss, George Ilendson. 

Men and boys employed inside in both slopes, 176 ; men and boys employed out- 
side in both slopes, 79 ; total, 255. Mules, 63. Coal shipped in 1872, 125,585 tons. 
Powder used 3,442 kegs ; machinery, three hoisting engines 220-liorse power ; one 
breaker engine of 30- horse power ; pumping engine 60-liorse power ; one saw mill 
engine of 20-horse power ; total horse power of engines, 330. Two large steam 
pumps and 32 boilers reported in good condition. 
General superintendent, Wm. Spencer ; outside foreman, Geo. Hughes. 



Ebervale Colliery, Luzerne countu. — Landowners, Union Lnproving Co. — 
Operators, LJbervale Coal Company. 

Slope No. .1 , south dip. Length feet ; feet vertical. Slope No. 2, south 

dip, length feet ; feet vertical. These slopes are sunk convenient to each 



147 

other and into the same workings and are working the Big coal vein only. Direc 
tion of gangways east and west. Thickness of vein, 27 feet. A new lift has lately 
been sunk in tliese slopes to bottom of basin and will work both pitches. The 
breaker of these slopes was formerly at the top of Xo. 1 slope. On the 30tli of 
August, 1872, this kirge and commodious breaker was destroyed by fire. The 
erection of anothar to take its place was soon commenced at the top of No. 2 
slope and will soon be ready for operation. Nearly all the ^iien are employed in 
No. 3 slope, as the company is working this slope day and night for the purpose 
of keeping the men employed. 



No. 3 slope, nortli dip. Length 742 feet, 247 feet vertical. This slope is also 
sunk in the Big vein, and is connected by an air-way witli No. 1 and 2 slopes, and 
has also a good traveling way. These colleries are in good condition, and are 
well ventilated. Tlie average amount of air traveling each of the workings of 
these slopes, is about 9,000 cubit feet per minute. 

The machinery consists of 3 hoisting engines of 180-horse power, 2 breaker en- 
gines of 50-horse power, 5 pumping engines of 320-horse power=10 engines of 550 
horse power ; boilers 38. 

Coal shipped in 1872, Avas 207,559 tons. Men and boys employed inside 200, out- 
side 150=350. 



MiLXESViLLE Colliery, Luzerne countij. — Land owner ^ Perter''s estate. — Opera- 
tors, Stout coal company. 

No. 5 slope, north dip. Length 280 feet, and 120 feet vertical. The coal worked 
is the Big vein ;. thickness 27 feet. This basin is very sliallow ; the slope is sunk 
to bottom of basin, and works both pitches ; the coal is good and strong, but that 
on east and west side is faulty. This work is well ventilated by exhaust steam 
from pump ; 12,000 cubic feet per minute of air pass through the workings ; all 
the other slopes are abandoned. 

The machinery consists of 2 hoisting engines of 85-horse power, 1 breaker en- 
gine of 25-horse power, 1 pumping engine of 25-horse power, 2 steam pumps and 
13 boilers, all of which are reported in good condition. Men and boj's employed 
inside 60, outside 58=118 ; mules 10. Coal shipped in 1872 was 92,089 tons ; pow- 
der used, 1 ,375 kegs. 

W. H. Harris, of Ebervale, superintendent : Charles Kerbaugh, assistant ; Jno. 
Cleghour, outside foreman ; Paul Wmters, mine boss. 



Hakleigii Collieries, Luzerne county. — Land owners, Big Black Creek Ln- 
provement Co. — Ojyerators, Harleigh Coal Company. 

No. 1 slope, south dip. Length, 4G1 feet ; vertical, 155 feet. The coal worked 
is the Big vein ; thickness 27 feet. Yentilation is much tlie same as that cf last 
year, so that the mines are now tolerably well ventilated. Amount of air passing 
at present is 5,700 cubic feet per minute. Tliere is also in No. 1 slope, an inside 
slope of about 80 yards in length, lioisting tlie coal to the bottom of No. 1. The 
hoisting engine and steam pump are supplied with steam from tlie surface. 

No. 2 slope. This is a pumping slo])e to drain tlie surface water of No. 1. 

No. 3 slope, south dip. Length, 609 feet ; vertical 297 feet. This slope is also 
sunk and worked in the big vein ; average thickness 27 feet. This slope works 
the coal below No. 1, or is a lift deeper in the basin. In No. 3 there is also an 
inside slope to the bottom of basin, about 100 j-ards in length. Two gangways 
are driven in a circular form to follow the basin, both started on the west side. 
The basin liere forms a kind of circle. 

The machinery consists of 4 hoisting engines of 155-horse power, 2 breaker en- 
gines of 60-horse power, 1 pumping engine of 80-horse power and 16 steam pumps 
of 180-horse power=13 engines of 1,710-horse power. Coal shipped 144,764 tons •, 



148 

powder used 2,534 kegs ; men and boys emplojed inside 206, outside 105=311 ; 
mules 26. Morgan Silliman, superintendent; iJaniel lieid, mine boss; Wm. Sil- 
ver and Perry Fitzsimon, outside foremen. 



Latti:mer Collieries, Luzerne Co. — Land oicners, Black Creek Imiyroving Co. — 
Operators., P cm-dee Bros. & Co. 

No. 1 slope, nortli dip. Lengtli, 489 feet ; vertical, 297 feet. 

No. 2 slope, south dip. Length, 360 feet ; vertical, 297 feet. The coal worked 
is the Big vein ; average thickness, 27 feet. Both slopes are down to the basin 
and connected with each other by a gangway driven across the basin, yet the 
workings are separate, but much better ventilated. The air at present is tolera- 
ble in No. 1 and good in No. 2. The amoiuit of air passing through the work- 
ings of both slopes is 11,620 cubic feet per minute. There are 2 breakers with an 
engine to each — one on each slope ; 2 hoisting engines ; several large steam 
pumps ; 22 boilers in good order. Men and boys employed inside, 169 ; men and 
boys employed outside, 108; total, 277. Mules, 32. Coal shipped in 1S72, 148,390 
tons ; powder used, 2,771 kegs. 

M. M. Cooper, superintendent; Wm. Martin, mine boss. 



Stockton Collieries, Xwzer»e Co. — Landowners, Smitli, Boherts and Packer — 
No. 3 slope is on Tench Coxe^s land. — Operators, Lindcrman, Skeer tt Co. 

The coal worked is the Mammoth or Big vein ; average thickness, 27 feet. 

No. 1 slope, north dip. Length, 840 feet. This slope was destroyed by a crush- 
ing in of the slope the beginning of August, 1872, caused by working too near to 
the slope in the two upper lifts, the pillars being too weak to support it ; so the 
pump slope as well as the hoisting slope was destroyed. The lower lift or the 
present workings are connected with those of No. 2 Slope, and are nearly at a 
level also with the workings of No. 5 slope, but a lift below them. The water is 
pumped up at present to No. 5 and from there to No. 4 slope. 

Men and boys employed inside, 60, and 43 outside, making a total of 103, most 
of which are working in the other slopes. Amount of coal shipped from this 
slope in 1872 was 35,073 tons. 

Machineri/. — 1 hoisting engine, 1 pumping engine, and 1 Breaker engine ; total 
of horse power, 170 ; 2 steam pumps. 

Edward Mordue, mine boss ; John Travarn, outside foreman. 

No. 2 slope, south dip. Length, 1 ,200 feet. This slope is working the Big vein ; 
average thicknes 27 feet. The workings at present are on the east side of the 
slope, those on the west side have been abandoned for some time. The workings 
are connected with those of Nos. 1 and 3 slopes ; also a good traveling w^ay. Tlie 
ventilation was rather weak for some time, owing to the water being so higli in 
the workings of No. 1 slope, which was the intake for tliis slope before the crush 
in No. 1 slope, so they had to make their traveling way an intake for some time ; 
now the water is pmiiped low enough to admit the passage of air. The ventila- 
tion is much improved at present. The amount of air traveling through the 
workings will measure 7,000 cubic feet per minute. Men and boys emi)loyed in- 
side, 66 ; outside, 42 ; making a total of 108 ; mules, 12 inside and 2 outside, mak- 
ing a total of 14; amount of coal shipped in 1872, 47,382 tons ; powder used, 450 
kegs ; machinery, 1 hoisting engine of 100-horse power ; 1 breaker engine of 30- 
horse power ; pumping engine of 60-horse i)0wer, and a steam pump. John James, 
mine boss ; David Holman, outside foreman. 

No. 3 slope, north dip. Length, 855 feet; Tench Coxe, land owner; Tenoer- 
man, Skeer & Co., operators. The coal worked is the Big vein ; average thick- 
ness 27 feet. This work will soon be abandoned if not sunk deeper, as they are 
working the pillars out. The lease expires at the close of the year 1872. I be- 
lieve the company will renew the lease and open the work anew, by sinking the 
slope deeper. Ventilation good ; ventilated by means of a furnace. Men and 
boys employed inside, 72; outside, 41; making a total of 113; mules, inside 12, 
outside 8 ; total 15 ; amount of coal shipped in 1872, 77,600 tons ; powder used in 



149 

blasting, 891 kegs ; machinery, 1 hoisting engine of 60-horse power ; 1 breaker 
engine of 30-liorse power; pumping engine of GO-liorse power ; total horse power 
of engines 150. Samuel Simmons, mine boss ; John Steven, outside foreman. 

ISro. 4 slope, north dip. A pumping slope ; and also hoisting men out of tlie 
mines of No. 5. Machinery, 1 hoisting engine ; 1 pumping engine and steam 
pump. 

No. 5 slope, north dip, length 621 feet. The coal worked is the Big vein ; aver- 
-age thickness, 27 feet. The workings in this slope are well ventilateil and on t!ie 
east side works two ranges. The coal of the upper range is let down to the lower 
gangway by a balance plane. This slope and No. 4 are on the property of Smith, 
Roberts & Packer. Men and boys employed inside 94, outside 56, making a total 
of 150; amount of coal shipped in 1872, 94,304 tons ; powder used 1,707 kegs. 

Mine boss, John Airey ; outside foreman, Henry Rough. 

Amount of coal shipped by the company in 1872, 256,667.17 tons. 

General Superintendent, Wm. Carr. Mine agent, John Beecroft. 



HuMBOLT Colliery, Luzerne county. — Land owners, L. V. E. B. Co. — Opera- 
tors, Lindcrman, Skeer & Co. 

No. 1 slope, north dip, length 390 feet, vertical 150 feet. The coal is the Whar- 
ton vein ; average thickness, 9 feet ; direction of gangways, east and west. This 
slope is driven to the basin. The basin dips west from the slope, so that they 
have two gangways on west side, one on each pitch. This work is tolei'ably ven- 
tilated. The work at present is all on the east side, as the range has got too short 
on tlie west side. A new inside slope will be sunk on the west side to the basin 
for the purpose of lifting the range. The air passing through the workings at 
present is 8,000 cubic feet per minute. Men and boys employed inside 75, outside 
43, making a total of 118. Mules inside 9, outside 7, total 16. Amount of coal 
shipped in 1872, 63,272i tons. 

Mine agent, Wm. Airey. 



Mt. Pleasant Colliery, Luzerne count)/. — Lmul oicners, C. Koons tt Co. — Op- 
erators, Ihggcrt, Butler tt Co. 

No. 1 slope, north dip. Length, 420 feet. Thickness of vein is 9 feet, being the 
Wharton. This work at present is well ventilated by two furnaces, one on each 
side. Tlie air passing through the workings of the mines in the month of No- 
vember, 1872, was 16,500 cubic feet per minute. The gangways at the bottom are 
driven east and north-east. About midway in the slope there is a counter-gang- 
way. It starts west and comes around over the north-east gangway, following 
the circumference of the basin. There are 2 breakers on the i)roperty, only 1 ni 
tliem working ; 2 hoisting engines, 1 at the slope and 1 at the breaker ; a pumping 
engine and a steam pump; men and boys employed inside, 86- outside, 45; -ma- 
king a total of 131 ; coal^shipped in 1872, 43,083 tons 17 cwt. Wm. Taggert, su- 
perintendent ; Ralph B. Piatt, mine boss. 



Beaver Brook Collieries, Prenchtown, Luzerne count)/. — Land owners, 
Frenchtown Coal Company. — Operators, Beaver Brook Coal Company. 

There are two slopes and two bi*eakers in operation. One sinking at present. 

No. 1 slope, south dip. Length, 420 feet ; vertical, 160 feet. The coal worked 
is the Big vein. Average thickness, 25 feet of beautiful coal. Direction of gang- 
ways, east and west. East gangway is driven to the line. West gangway, after 
having been driven for a considerable distance in the basin, took to rise west, 
whicli shortens the range very much and caused the company considerable trouble 
and expense. The basin is now dipping west. This work is Avell ventilated. 
Amount of air passing through the workings is 11,425 cubic feet per minute. 



150 

Ko. 2 slope, south clip. Not in same basin as N'o. 1 but in the basin south of it. 
The coal worlced is the Wharton. Average thickness, 8 feet; length, 759 feet; 
vertical, 130 feet. It has been driven down to the south line of Frenchtown pro- 
perty. Average pitch of the vein is 13 degrees, so they connnenced working from 
the bottom upward. Gangways are driven east and west from the slope, and the 
breasts are worked one-half course and the cars are taken into them. Counter 
gangways driven off the slope at certain distances are driven across the top of the 
breasts. This slope is working with a single tract for the purpose of hitching or 
coupling to cars on any part of the slope. The air is good. Tlie amount of air 
in tliese works is about 10,000 cubic feet per minute, partly caused by the exhaust 
from a steam pump and by air going through an air-way to No. 1, Yorktown. 

No. 3 slope. This is a new slope now sinking in the Wharton vein in the same 
basin as No. 1 slope. Men and boys employed inside, 176 ; men and boys employed 
outside. 111 ; total, 287 ; mules, 19 ; amount of coal shipped, 80,038 tons ; powder 
used, 1,650 kegs. E. Bullock, superintendent ; D. Eeese, mine agent. Machinery, 
2 hoisting engines of 140 horse power; 2 breaker engines of 60 horse power; 2 
pumping engines of 110 horse power ; total horse power, 310. 



Hazleton Collieries, Luzerne county. — Land owners, Diamond coal company. — 
Operators, A. Pardee tfc Co. 

Old Sugar Loaf slope, south dip.— Length 1,755 feet, and vertical 979 feet. 

New Sugar Loaf, or No. 2 slope, south ilip. — Length 1,165 feet, and vertical 639 
feet. These slopes are sunk in the Big vein, and the old one sunk to the basin. 
The slopes are about 150 yards apart, and a breaker erected between them. The 
bottom lift was worked tlu'ough the old slope, and the lift above througli the new- 
slope. Tlie bottom lift, or that which was good to work, is at present full of 
water. The present workings is only that of taking i)illars out, and driving a 
rock tunnel to the opposite pitch from the bottom of the new or No. 2 slope. Air 
is rather weak in these workings, and but few men are employed. 

Tlie machinery consists of 2 hoisting engines, one 40 and the other 80-horse 
power, 1 breaker engine of 40-horse power, 2 pumping engines, one 60 and the 
other 70-horse power ; boilers 23. 

South Sugar Loaf, or No. 3 slope. — Length 666 feet ; vertical 382 feet, north 
dip. A fine' new work, and tolerably ventilated by steam exhaust from steam 
pump. Coal worked is the Big vein ; average thickness 27 feet. There is also a 
fine breaker erected at the top of this slope for preparing the coal. 

The machinery consists of 1 hoisting engine of 90-horse power, 1 breaker en- 
gine of 20-horse power and 2 steam pumps ; boilers 8. 

Wm. Fotkin, mine boss. 



No. 1, Old Slope, south dip. — Length 2,271 feet ; vertical 836 feet. — Landowners, 
L. V. R. R. Co. Operators, A. Pardee & Co. 

Coal worked is the Big vein ; average thickness 27 feet. This slope has been 
sunk to basin, but the present workings is about 60 yards above the bottom of the 
slope. Direction of gangways east and west. The E gangway is driven a con- 
siderable length, and several breasts opened in it. The W gangway is on a level 
with the E gangway of No. 3, and is connected by an air-way with the workings 
of No. 3. The ventilation is good, caused by 2 furnaces. This work accumulates 
a little fire-damp, but no one has been injured by it this year. The mine boss acts 
as fire boss. 

The machinery consists of 1 hoisting engine of 60-horse power, 1 breaker en- 
gine of 15-horse power and 1 pumping engine of 60-horse power ; boilers 11. Air 
passes through the mines at the rate of 6,000 cubic feet per minute. 

Peter Watson, mine boss. 



15L 

Ko. 3 slope, south dip.— Length 1.062 feet ; vertical 555 feet.— Laud owners, L. Y. 
R, R. Co. Operators, A Pardee & Co. 

This slope is sunk in the Big vein, and is on a level with the present workings 
of iSfo. 1 slope, and connected witii tliem. Tolerably ventilated; about 4,000 cubic 
feet of air passes through tlie workings per minute. The work is all on the west 
gangway. 

The machinery consists of 1 hoisting engine of 80-horse power, 1 breaker en- 
gine of lo-horse power and 1 pumping engine of 100-horse power ; boilers 11. 



Laurel Hill, Hazletojt, Luzerne county. — Land owners, L. V. li. B. Co. — 
Operators, A, Pardee & Co. 

iSTo. 4 slope, north dip. Length 543 feet ; vertical 293 feet. This slope is used 
for pumping and hoisting men in and out of the mines ; also the lumber used in 
tlie workings of j!^os. 4 and 5 slopes. 

2«ro. 5 slope. Length 375 feet ; vertical 293 feet. ISTorth dip. This slope is 
sunk through a rock to the place where the vein takes a rapid pitch, which ac- 
counts for its being shorter than Xo. 4. Tliere are 3 tracks in this slope to the 
place where it strikes tlie vein, and two from there to the bottom, the third track 
takes the coal from the workings of No. 4 up into the breaker, which is a lift 
above the workings of Xo. 4. The workings of No. 4 are nearly all in the west 
gangway, and have many day falls, and ample natural ventilation. Xo. 5 has 2 
gangways, east and west. The east gangway is nearly a mile in length, witli a 
letting down plain in it. Tlie west gangway is nearly the same length. The 
west side is well ventilated by a furnace. These are extensive works. Machinery, 
3 hoisting engines of 190-liorse power ; 1 breaker engine of 20-horse power ; 1 
pumping engine of 00-horse power ; and 2 large steam pumps ; boilers, 20. 



Cbanberry Slope, Hazletox, Luzerne county. — Land owners, A. L. & E. 
Roberts. — Operators, A. Pardee & Co. 

The coal worked is the Big vein ; average thickness 27 feet. There is not much 
work on the east side of the slope, only ripping the pillars out. West side gang- 
way is driven in a considerable distance, in driving which great difficulties and 
obstacles were met with in the shape of rolls and faults, but tliey have been suc- 
cessful in getting into a fine field of coal. There are 2 gangways going on in it, 
one east and the other west. The east gangway met a roll in "the basin, wiiicli 
turned it around to the south, and is at present going west. The west gangway 
proper keeps its course. This work is tolerably ventilated. Amount of air pass- 
ing through the workings per minute is 8,500 cubic feet. Machinery, 1 hoisting 
engine of 60-horse power ; 1 breaker engine of 20-horse power ; 1 pumping engine 
of 60-horse power ; boilers, 15, in good order. 



Crystal Ridge Slope — length 444 feet, vertical 144 feet, north dip. — Land owners. 
A. L. & E. Roberts. — Operators, A. Pardee & Co. 

Tliis slope is nearly worked out. Ventilation good. Xew Crystal Ridge slope 
is worked by the same lioisting engine as the old Crystal Ridge slope. The rope 
Ijasses over rollers on the surface to the new slope, wliich is driven through a rock 
to the coal vein. The coal from this slope is delivered to the bottom of tlie old 
slope, wliich is a lift above the Ijottom of tlie new slope. The l)ottoni of this sloi)e 
is down to the basin and there is not niucli work in it yet. There is a traveling 
way up to Cranberry west gangway for mules and men. The machinery consists 
of one hoisting engine of 40-liorse power, breaker engine of 15-liorse power, one 
pumping engine of 60-horse power, and 12 boilers. Total number of hands em- 
ployed, 1 ,035. 



152 

Crystal Ridge No. 2 Slope. — Land owners, A. L. & E. Roberts. — Operators, A. 

Pardee & Clo. 

This is a new slope, sunk to bottom of basin, and coal brought up to old Crystal 
Ridge slope. Tliis is a new work and not many are working in it as yet. Air 
good. The machinery consists of one hoisting engine of 40-horse power, and 
steam pump. 



Go WEN Collieries, Luzerne county. 

These collieries are situated about 12 miles west of Hazleton and on the estate 
of the Roberts coal company. Operators, Roberts Run coal company. 

No. 1 drift is now abandoned and a new slope sinking at the mouth of drift, 
from the surface, to reach a lift below the former workings. Average size of 
vein is 10 feet of good coal and of good quality. 

No. 2 drift. This drift is on another vein lying over the vein in drift No. 1, of 
about 10 feet in thickness and about 2 feet of slate and dirt running in it, making 
aljout 8 feet of coal ; this is of a good quality. No definite name is yet given to 
tliese veins, as they differ from all the other veins in the Lehigh region. They 
have a fine breaker built here, with an engine of 30-horse power and 3 boilers; 
1 lioisting engine of 60-horse power^'with 2 boilers, nearly new. Men and boys 
employed inside, 39 ; Men and boys employed outside, 28; total, 67. Mules in- 
side, 5 ; mules outside, 2; total, 7. 

Lewis Rothermel, superintendent ; A Witchey, mine agent. 



YoRKTOWN Collieries, Carbon Co. — Land oivners, Nein YorTc and Lehigh 
coal company. — Operators, A. L. Mumper and Co. 

No. 1 slope, south dip. Length 780 feet. The coal worked is the Big vein ; 
average thickness, 25 feet. Tlie west gangway is driven to line and nearly 
worked out. A tunnel has been driven 65 yards in length, through slate 
and rock, to the Wharton vein, which is 8 feet in thickness. This vein lies un- 
derneath the liig vein. An airway was driven in this vein to the surface, pass- 
ing through the'property of the Frenchtown coal company, and which connects 
the workings of No. 1 with those of No. 2 — Beaver Brook company. 

The air is good in the Wharton vein but not so good in the east and west work- 
ings of the Big vein, which will ere long be worked out, owing to the south dip 
not proving workable. A breaker is attached to this slope. 

David Thomas, mine boss ; Richard Morris, outside foreman. 

No. 2 slope, north dip. Length, 420 feet ; Big vein breaker and engine ; 1 hoist- 
ing engine, and a large steam pump. Tins slope will soon be abandoned. 

No. 4 slope, north dip. Length, 330 feet ; coal Avorked is the Wharton vein 8 
feet thick. The coal from this slope is taken to No. 2 breaker. Air is rather 
Aveak, but will be better before long. An airway is in process near face of gang- 
way to surface. This could not be effected sooner, owing to the gangway taking 
a turn south and east under the tips of No. 2, into the No. 5 basin. Morgan 
Moses, mine boss of Nos. 2 and 4 ; Evan Thomas, outside foreman. 

No. 5 slope, south dip. Length, 390 feet ; the coal worked is the Big vein. 

Description. — This is a new slope, working the southern basin of this property. 
Direction of gangways east and west. The coal at present is brought to No. 2 
breaker, until the new breaker on top of slope is completed. 

Condition of air. — Air is good on the Avest side, but rather weak on the east side. 
A new airway to be driven down on the east side, instead of passing down the 
mainway as it now does. The west side is supplied Avith air by the exhaust 
from steam pump in an airway for the ])urp()se, acting as a steam jet. A good 
traveling foreman in accordance with law. Evan Rees, mine boss. 

The machinery of all the collieries consists of 4 hoisting engines of 200-horse 
poAver, 2 breaker engines of 40-horse power, 5 pumping engines of 535-horse power ; 
total engines 11 ; total horse power 775; coal shipped 156,000 tons; powder used 
3,680 kegs. Thomas John, superintendent. 



153 

Jeansville Collieries, Luzerne and Carbon counties. — Landowners, the Spring 
Mountain coal company. — Operators, the Spring Mountain coal company. 

No. 1 slope, south dip. Length, 880 feet ; vertical, 304 feet. These collieries 
comprise 3 slopes and 1 drift. 

Description. — There are 2 veins worked in this slope, viz : The Big vein of 25 
feet thickness, and the Wharton f^t 9 feet thickness. This slope is sunk in the 
Big vein, and a tunnel is driven to the Wharton vein. No gangways going on in 
the Big vein ; the east side driven to line, and west side to a rising out in the 
vein. The gangway in the Wharton starts from the tunnel east and west. 
These gangways are driven on each side about 200 feet and a few breastings 
started. The vein looks well and the coal is of tlie best quality. 

Condition of air good ; 15,000 cubic feet per minute. Machinery, 1 hoisting en- 
gine of 100 horse power ; pumping engine and a large steam pimip of 460 horse 
power ; total horse power of engines, 560 ; 1 large breaker with an engine of 25 
horse power ; A. Williams, mine boss. 

Slope No. 3, south dip. Length, 420 feet ; vertical, 144 feet. This slope is sunk 
in the Big vein, and a tunnel is driven across to the Wharton, witli a gangway 
driven a considerable distance, but the Wharton does not prove well liere. The 
Big vein is nearly worked out and ere long will be abandoned. The coal goes to 
No. 1 breaker. Machinery, 1 hoisting engine, 1 pumping engine. Condition of 
air good ; average 3,000 cubic feet per minute passing through the mines ; men 
and boys employed inside both slopes, 90 ; men and boys employed outside both 
slopes, 69 ; total, 159 ; mules, 24; coal shipped in 1872, 60,000 tons ; powder used, 
890 kegs; John Probert, mine boss; Wm. Morton, outside foreman. 

Slope No. 4. This slope is a new one, sinking in the Big vein. Length at pre- 
sent is 135 yards, south dip. Will be sunk to basin before starting gangway. Ma- 
chinery, 1 hoisting engine, 1 steam pump and 1 breaker engine ; men and boys em- 
ployed, about 20 ; powder used, about 100 kegs. 

Slope No. 5, south dip. Length, 775 feet ; vertical, 298 feet. This slope is sunk 
in the Big vein and a tunnel driven to Wharton vein, wliich is 10 feet thick. They 
have 2 gangways going east and west and several breastings. The coal is of ex- 
cellent quality ,'with a range of 200 yards from this gangway to the Wharton drift 
gangway. But this will be parted into two ranges by putting a slope in the Whar- 
ton drift, taking one-half tln'ough the Wharton drift to breaker. No gangways 
in operation in the Big vein. The air in this work is good, about 20,000 cubic feet 
per minute. Still the air is weak in some portions of tlie workings, owing to so 
many openings caused by falling in. No. 5, No. 1 and No. 3 are sunk one in each 
basin and to bottom of basin in the Big vein, Wharton lying under the Big vein, 
therefore it will need slopes yet in each of these gangways to reach the different 
basins of Wharton. Machinery, 2 hoisting engines of 100 horse power ; 1 breaker 
engine of 25 horse power ; 1 pumping engine, 100 horse power ; total horse power 
of engines is 225, and a large steam pump ; coal shipped in 1872, 90,000 tons ; pow- 
der used, 1,400 kegs ; men and boys employed inside in No. 5 and No. 1 drift, 105 ; 
men and boys employed outside in No. 5 and No. 1 drift, 76 ; total, 181 ; mules, 
26. William Morris, mine boss. 

Tunnel No. 1, or Wharton drift. The workings above water level of this tun- 
nel will soon be abandoned, but a slope will be sunk here in an air-way from No. 
5 slope and an engine put on top to hoist the coal from one-half tlie range between 
these workings and that of No. 5 slope. Engine inside. Boilers to be at mouth 
o€ the tunnel. There are not many men working at ju'esent in tliis drift. Air 
is good. The coal goes to No. 5 breaker. The tunnel is ventilated by a furnace. 
Tlie slopes are ventilated by exliaust from steam pumps. Coal shii)ped from all 
these co'lieries in 1872 is 150,000 tons ; powder used, 2,390 kegs. J. C. fleyden, 
superintendent ; Stuart MTarling, mine agent. 



CoLERAiNE Collieries, near Beaver 3feadoic, Carbon county. 

No. 1 breaker takes the coal from three drifts, one in the big vein and two on 
the Wharton vein. These old workings are nearly worked out. The Wliartou 
here is about 10 feet thick with an excellent roof. A new slope is about to be 
gunk to take the place of the Wharton drift, on north dip, in south basin. 

The machinery consists of one hoisting engine to hoist the coal out of a valley 
to a level with the breaker, and one breaker engine of 25-horse power. 



154 

Air good. Ventilated by a furnace. Coal shipped, 80,000 tons ; powder used, 
13,000 kegs ; men and boj'S employed inside 84, outside 37, total 121 ; mules, 29. 

Slope No. 1, west dip. — The coal is the Big vein, length 1,0.';0 feet, vertical 210 
feet. Average thickness of vein is 25 feet, but has been found in some parts to 
double the bottom slate of one seam to form a top for the other. This work is 
ratlier extensive and tolerably ventilated by a fan. Tiiis slope works the middle 
basin, but has been coiniected with tlie northern basin by a tunnel through a 
ridge in the vein, not coming to siirface at this point as it does at the top of the 
slope It works a lift of that basin east and west of that tunnel, meeting east 
with the property of the old Beavei Meadow coal company, west with the property 
of the Spring Mountain coal company. Jeansville, east side, is as near as can be 
allowed to the line, as the old workings on the east side are full of water and there 
are no maps to show their extensions. 

Slope JSTo. 2, north dip. — Length 400 feet, vertical 320 feet. This slope is start- 
ed fro n the surface near the top of No. 1. The workings are driven down to the 
bottom of the basin. Tliis work is entirely new and will work both tlie north and 
south pitches. This will last for several years. A new airway is now in progress 
in S(uith pitch to the surface. Ventilated by exhaustion from steam pump. 

Tlie machinery consists of two hoisting engines of 120-horse power, one breaker 
engine of 2o-horse power, one pumping engine of 70-horse power on the top of a 
I)um])ing shaft, one fan engine of 15-horse power ; boilers 16 Coal shipped in 1872, 
70,000 tons. Powder used, 1,095 kegs. 

Jolui Wear, superintendent ; John Trevaskis, mine boss. 



South Spring Mt. Collieries, Tresclcoic, Carhon county. 

These collieries have changed hands of late, formerly they belonged to the 
German Pennsylvania Coal Co. They are owned at present by Samuel Bonnell, 
Jr. They consist of 4 slopes and one large breaker. 

No. 2 slope, south dip. Length, 450 feet. Coal worked is that of the Wharton 
vein ; average thickness of vein 9 feet. Air good to answer the number of men 
at work. At tlie face of the gangway the amount of air is 4,375 cubic feet per 
minute. 

No. 6 slope, north dip. Four hundred and fifty feet in length. Coal worked is 
the Big vein ; average thickness of which is 25 feet. This slope will soon be 
abandoned, for they are now taking the pillars out. The work is well ventilated. 
In face of workings the amount of air is 8,770 cubic feet per minute. 

No. 5 slope, south dip. Two hundred and sixty feet in length. The vein here 
is the Big vein ; average thickness of 25 feet. Gangways east and v/est from 
slope. East side nearly worked out. On the west side there are 2 gangways, one 
on each side of basin. Owing to the basin dipping west, these gangway's are a 
considerable distance from each other. Before reaching the line to work this 
coal another slope must be sunk. Air is good at present, the amount of which 
traveling per minute is 5,000 cubic feet. 

No. 6 slope, north dip. — Length, 440 feet. The coal worked in this slope is the 
Wharton, of 9 feet average thickness. The workings are nearly all on tlie east side 
of the slope. There are two gangways, one going east, the other curving around 
basin to south dip. The coallooks well and is of excellent quality. This slope 
is ventilated by a furnace built in tlie out-take. Air good ; amount at present, 
6,000 cubic feet per minute. Men and boys employed in these collieries inside, 
140 ; men and boys employed in tliese collieries outside, 140 ; total, 280. Mules, 
22 inside ; 20 outside ; total, 42. Coal shipped in 1872, 94,458 tons. Powder used, 
2,108 kegs. 

The machinery consists of 5 hoisting engines of 220-horse power, breaker en- 
gine, 5 pumping engines of 450-horse power, and 32 boilers. 

T. N. Patterson, superintendent ; Owen Evans, mine boss ; George Spencer, 
outside foreman. 



155 

Beayer Meadow Collieries, Carbon Co. — Land owner, Hon. Tench Coxe. — 
Operators., Ellis Martin & Co. 

These works are composed of outside patch or pit, stripping the coal and quar- 
rying it out, but for the present this is abandoned. This pit is on tlie L. V. E. 
R. Co. or tlie old Beaver Meadow track. 

No. 1 slope, north dip, and 

No. 2 slope, south dip. — These are shallow slopes to basin. The slopes com- 
mence on a ridge in the vein, but further west the ridge lowers down to a tlat to 
the bottom of basin and the two basins join in a tlat. A gangway is now^ in pro- 
gress from No. 2 slope around the ridge to come into No. 1, and will be through 
by the middle of January, 1873. They have an excellent vein of coal in this 
place, of about 25 feet in thickness. 

The machinery consists of 1 hoisting engine of 50-horse power, 1 breaker 
engine of 20-liorse power, 2 steam pumps, and 6 boiler-^. The breaker engine and 
boilers are on the property of the L. Y. 11. II. Co. Coal shipped in 1872, 10,000 
tons ; Powder used, 300 kegs. 

John Martin, superintendent; Richard Gilbert, mine boss. 



Su3iMiT Hill Collieries, Carbon countij. — Land owners and Operators., Lehigh 
Coal and Navigation Company. 

No. 4 slope, south dip. — Length 450 feet. The slope is sunk in the Mammoth 
or Big vein ; average thickness 50 feet. This is a large and extensive work, and 
well conducted. The gangways are very long on the east, about one mile in 
length, and on the west 1,200 yards. The pillars on the west side have been taken 
out, reserving the gangway pillars to keep the gangway up as an air course for 
the next lift, which the company is preparing to open by sinking a small slope 
near the bottom of the main slope on the west side. Outside an engine lias been 
erected to hoist from the sinkers to the bottom of the present sloi)e. Tlie east 
side will be cut off by a new slope sunk in No. 5 tunnel. The ventilation on the 
west side is good ; it is not so good on the east, because there are so many surface 
openings through which the air escapes. The works are ventilated by a fan of 15 
feet in diameter on the east ; west side is supplied with air by natural ventilation. 
Amount of air, on both sides, is about 20,000 cubic feet per minute. 

The machinery consists of 2 pvmiping engines, one of 206-horse power, and the 
other 520-horse power ; 2 hoisting engines, one of 120-horse power, and the other 
100-horse power ; 1 breaker engine of 30-horse power and 1 fan engine of 20-liorse 
power; total horse power of engines 1,010 ; boilers 16, all in good condition. 

Coal shipped in 1872, 84,477 tons 14 cw^t.; powder used 1,068 kegs; men and 
boys employed inside 181, outside 138; total 319. Mules inside 23, outside 11 ; 
total 34. One locomotive of 14-horse power used outside, to take dirt to the dirt 
bank. 

David Lawson, mine boss ; Samuel Nevins, outside foreman. 



TuxNEL, No 5, Summit Hill. — Land owners ^and Ojierators, Lehigh Coal and 

Navigation Company. 

Coal worked is the Big vein, which is about 40 feet thick. This tunnel has been 
driven through rock to the Big vein. It also crosses the Red Ash vein. The 
works at the end of the tunnel have been abandoned. No. 4 slope being a lift be- 
low these workings, and working under the gangways, the company have come 
back in the tunnel to the Red Ash vein, and have a gangway of nearly a mile in 
that vein, being tunneled from the face of the Red Ash gangway through about 
100 yards of rock to the face of the Big vein gangway, which extended the work- 
ings from this point nearly three-sixths of a mile. A locomotive engine of 40- 
horse power takes the coal from this tunnel through the Red Ash vein gangway 
out to the breaker, which is about a mile and a-quarterof road for the locomotive 
to work on. The coal is brought to a point to meet the locomotive by 23 mules. 
The work is well ventilated by a fan ; there is one large breaker. 



156 

Tlie machinery consists of 2 engines to work the breaker and lioist the coal to 
the top of it ; one of 30-horse power, and one of 60-liorse power; boilors 4, and 
all s'ood. Coal sliipped in 1872, 77,053 tons; powder used 877 kegs ; men and boys 
employed inside loO, outside 120 ; total 276. Amount of air in circulation, 16,000 
cubic feet per minute. 

George Davis, mine boss ; Wm. Katcliff, outside foreman. 

Tunnel Xo. 6.— Tliis tunnel is driven through rock and slate across the measures 
to the Red Asli and Big vein, into the mountain on tlie north side of Panther 
Creek valley. The work at the end of the tminel is abandoned and a slope sunk 
down and worked a lift below the water level of tliis tunnel, and that also is aban- 
doned. The pi esent workings are opened from a gangway driven in tlie lied Ash 
for a considerable distance— about three-fourths of a mile. A tunnel is driven 
across the measures from the Red Ash to the Big vein, on the east side of ^o. 6 
tunnel. The present workings are an extension from the tunnel driven from the 
lied Ash. So this tunnel works two veins, viz : Red Ash, which is about 7 feet, 
and the Big vein, which is about 30 feet thick ; but this is not all of the Big vein. 
A large slate has come into the vein and caused it to be unworkable to the bot- 
tom slate. This will be worked in some future time. When the top part is work- 
ed over, the Red Ash proves ratlier poor here and there is not much work in it. 
A locomotive of 40-horse i^ower takes the coal out of this work from a turn-out in 
the Big vein gangway to the breaker. The road is about H miles long. 

The machinery consists of one breaker with two engines— one 20-horse power 
and one 30 horse power— with four good boilers. Coal shipped in 1872, 69.377 tons. 
Powder used, 81-5 kegs. Men and boys employed inside 170, outside 155, total 325. 

Wm. II. Evans, mine boss ; Moses Meiger, outside foreman. 

No. 9 tunnel.— This tunnel is driven into the mountain, on the south side of 
Panther Creek Valley, cutting 7 veins of coal. The last, and the one worked at 
present, is the Big or Mammoth vein. The Red Ash has been worked in this, 
but at present is abandoned for some purpose best known to the company. Av- 
erage thickness of Big vein, 60 feet ; Red Ash about 9 feet. Total length of the 
tunnel is 215 feet. This colliery is operated by Thos. Phillips, for the L. C. and 
N. Co. The work at present is above water level. A new slope will soon be 
siuik in this tunnel, as the company are preparing to sink near the end of the 
tunnel in the Big vein. The present workings are in among the old workings, 
working tlie lower seam of the locally-called 4 feet, under a slate called the 18 
inch, consequently tte workings are very hot and take a great amoxmt of air to 
keep them cool. Tlie air is not what it should be to answer the heat of the work- 
ing i)lace.s ; especially is this the case in the upper part of the work, which is on 
top of ;i balance plane. The other portion of the work is well ventilated. 
Amount of air in the in-take is about 25,000 cubic feet jier minute. 

Coal shipped in 1872, 68,936 tons ; powder used, 1,500 kegs ; men and boys em- 
ploved inside, 137 ; men and boys employed outside, 100 ; total, 237. Mules, 32. 

Tiie machinery consists of 1 breaker, with 2 engines of 30-horse power, and 4 
good boilers. 

Thomas D. Jones, superintendent and outside foreman; Thomas Thomas, 
mine boss. 

Mt. Tunnel.— This tunnel is driven into the mountain above No. 6 tunnel to 
work the crop of the same vein. The coal was not worked to bottom slate in the 
old workings of No. 6 ; 2 seams or benches were left, locally called 4 feet and yard 
veins. A slate parts them from the other part of the vein. This work is ope- 
rated by contract. The coal is delivered to No. 6 breaker by a balance plane, 
from a level with the tunnel, and is prepared with the coal of No. 6 tunnel. 



Room Run Mines, Nesquelioning, Carbon county. 

No. 1 shaft.— Depth, 300 feet. This shaft has until late worked the Big vein. 
A tunnel has been driven to the Red Ash vein. At present the workings of Big 
vein are all on the west side of shaft. The Red Ash on east side. The tunnel 
proved to go under the basin of the Red Ash vein, so a plane was driven up to 
bottom of liasm, through which the Red Ash coal is let down to the tunnel on 
east side of Big vein gangway, through which it is taken to bottom of shaft. 
This work yields a great quantity of carbonated hydrogen gas, (lire-damp,) es- 



157 

pecially the Big vein. This work was stopped for some time to drive a new air- 
Avay, the ventilation not heiug sufficient to clear the old and new workings, owing 
to the air escaping through day-falls. This was driven in a little vein locally 
called the crack. This vein lies 10 or 12 feet below the Big vein. It is better 
ventilated at present ; we have at present about 8,000 cubic feet of air on the west 
side and about 3,500 cubic; feet on the east side. The west side gangway is venti- 
lated by a 15 foot fan, and the east side by natural ventilation, from a traveling- 
way to old No. 1 tunnel, which is the second opening for this shaft. Machinery, 
1 hoisting engine of 100-horse power; 1 pumping engine of 3S7-liorse power;! 
fan engine of "lO-horse power ; boilers, 8, William Watkins, mine boss. 

Room Run slope. No. 3. — This slope is sunk in the Red Ash vein ; thickness, 
10 feet. A tunnel is driven from the Red Ash to Bier vein. The Red Ash work 
is nearly all abandoned. At present the work is nearly all in the Big vein. The 
tunnel is driven south and the gangways east and west from it. All the work is 
on the west side of slope. The workings produce a little fire-damj). The aii- is 
good, averaging about 18,000 cubic feet per minute. The Red Asli gangway is in 
faulty ground, and has been stopped for some time. The Big vein does not i)rove 
well, but the company are still progressing forward with gangways and breasts, 
in hopes of meeting better success. The work is not very extensive. The work 
is ventilated by a 15 feet fan. Amount of air circulating, 10,000 cubic feet per 
minute. Machinery, 1 hoisting engine of 65-horse power ; 1 ])umping engine of 
157-horse power ; 1 fan engine of 15-liorse power ; boilers, 6. William 8mitl;am, 
mine boss. 

Room Run slope, No. 4, south pitch. — This slope is driven down in tlie Big vein 
from the top of a saddle in the vein that comes to the surface at this point, near 
the shaft, but on a contrary pitch to the workings of the shaft. This slope is 
driven down to a faidt in the vein and two gangways are driven off of it east and 
west. The east gangway struck the fault and is stopped. The west gangway is 
in trouble, bi\t is still carried on. The air is rather weak in this work, but there 
are only a few men working in this slope. If the vein proves well, ample venti- 
lation will be produced. The machinery consists of one hoisting engine of 29- 
horse power and one pumping engine of 29-horse power. Steam to work them is 
conveyed from the shaft boilers. 

Tunnel No. 2. — This is now in progress to cross the basin of No. 4, to catch the 
north pitch of the Red Ash vein. This is also situated near the shaft and passes 
it about 15 feet from the top. The breaker is situated about three-fourths of a 
mile from the workings of the mines. A locomotive of 58-horse power is heie 
used to take the coal from the mines to the breaker ; one breaker engine of Go- 
horse power, and four l)oilers at breaker. 

Men and boys employed in all these workings inside 16G, outside 118, total 284. 
Mules used, 32. Coal sliipped 08,597 tons. Powder used, 1,097 kegs. 

W. D. Zelnier, general superintendent; James Smitham, assistant; Richard 
Eustice, outside foreman. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COLLIERIES IN AND FOR THE MIDDLE DISTRICT OF LU- 
ZERNE AND CARBON COUNTIES, FOR THE YEAR E.^D- 
ING DECEMBER 31, 1872. 



Office of Inspector of Coal Mines, ) 
WiLKESBARKE, Pa., Feb. 1, 1873. ) 

To His Excellency, J. F. Hartranft, 

Governor of the Coimnonicealth of Pennsylvania : 

Sir :— In compliance with tlie requirements of an act of the General Assembly 
of 1870, I have the honor to submit lierewith my annual report of accidents pro- 
ducing death or serious personal injury to persons employed in and around coal 
minesin the Middle district of Luzerne and Carbon counties for tlie year ending 
December 31, 1872. 

In my report of 1871 a general report only of the condition of the district was 
made. This year a brief report is made concerning the condition of each mine, 
in an alphabetical order of their operators, ^. e. as far as the same relates to the 
health and safety of persons employed in it. Also a list of the prosecutions that 
took place during the year, after which the coal production of the district is given 
and a recapitidation of the accidents, which are tabulated. Also two maps, in- 
tended to assist in exjilaining the cause of the accidents to which they relate, &c. 
Very respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

T. M. WILLIAMS, Inspector of 31ines. 



Blake & Co.'s Shaft. 

Wcfit Pittston shaft. — This shaft is located at the western end of West Pittston, 
and IS 270 feet deep". Tliere has been no work done in tlie al)ove mine since the 
dreadful calamity of May, 1871, except pumping, whicli has been also abandoned 
since the spring of 1872, and the erecting of the new fan, which is 21 feet in di- 
ameter, for which they were preparing room when the lire took place. 

A new In-eaker has been built about 200 feet away from the old sliaft. The first 
new sliaft, wliich Avas begun south of the old one for a second opening, has been 
abandoned, and another new one commenced — feet west of the old one, viliich 
is l)eing sunk rapidly and is down at present about 150 feet, and may be connected 
to the old shaft in 1873, 



Consumers' Coal Company's Shaft. 

East Boston shaft. — This shaft is located a short distance north of Kingston, 
and is 160 feet deej). In 1870 the mine was operated by Mr. Charles Hutclieson, 
lessee, and had but a single opening. Since April, 1871, the company have been 
Avorking the mine themselves, and haA*e made their second opening by sinking a 
ncAv shaft to the depth of 170 feet. This year they have put in ladders in said 
second opening. ■ 



159 

There is also a commuiucatiou between this and the Hutcheson shaft, in regard 
to which there has been much trouble and litigation between the company and 
Mr. Hutcheson. 

Last spring notice was given to Mr. W. G. Payne, superintendent in charge, to 
have the mine better ventilated, and some suggestions were given as to what im- 
provements should be made so as to obtain the desired result. The same was 
faithfully promised, but notwithstanding the time given, of several months' du- 
ration, Mr. Payne insisted in moving an old ten-feet fan to the new shaft, rumiing 
the same by wire rope transmission of power, and even now, after having s}!ent 
as much capital as would have been required to have built and put into operation 
a good fan 15 feet in diameter, the mine is so very poorly ventilated that I was in- 
clined to apply for an injunction to have it stopped in Xovember, the time of my 
last visit. I coiild not find but 12,000 cubic feet of air at the foot of the air shaft, 
and could not find sufficient air current to run the instrument, in the cross-cuts, 
at any point near tlie face of the mine. I liad to condemn a brake that had been 
put on the hoisting drum, after much time and money had been spent, as it would 
not answer the purpose. In a word, much trouble is had in having things done 
at all. and mucli more in having anything done satisfactorily. Tlie mine is not 
yet in a satisfactory condition, either as regards ventilation or the safety appli- 
ances attached to the machinery for hoisting and lowering persons. 

Mr. Wm. G. Payne, superintendent in charge ; Wm. Evans, mining boss. 



A. J. Davis & Co.'s Mines. 

Warrior Bun. — These mines are located as their name indicates, at Warrior 
Run, and consist of two drifts, now abandoned, and two slopes, one of which is 
on the Red or B vein, 300 feet long, which is a new work not much opened, and 
the other on the E vein, from which they have a tunnel south to the D vein. 
The latter slope workings are ventilated by a fan 15 feet in diameter. Their 
mines have been lying idle this year until tlie month of November. 

Mr. Jas. E. Roderick, general superintendent ; John C. Jones, mining boss. 



Delaware and Hudson Canal Co.'s Mines. 

These mines consist of four slopes, three shafts and 1 tunnel, to wit : 

Baltimore^ iVo. 1 tunnel. — Tliis mine is located about H miles south-east of 
Wilkesbarre and was driven into the Baltimore vein. Their present workings 
are in a slope some 1,200 feet long, commencing at a point a little east of the tun- 
nel, inside. This mine has lost much time during 1872 ; had some heavy and 
damaging falls of roof, and subsequently was drowned out for a longtime. They 
had to drive a second opening, owing to the above mentioned fall closing the old 
one, also a new traveling road liad to be made for the same reason. The ventila- 
tion is not very commendable, yet I have received no complaints. Natural ven- 
tilation, 19,200 cubic feet. Number of persons employed inside, 78. 

A Nicolls, general superintendent ; Wm. M'Gregor, assistant superintendent ; 
Jas. Tretheway, mining boss. 

Bdhimore, No. 2 sMj't. — This mine is located east of and adjoining the No. 1 
tunnel mine. It is a shaft 80 feet deep and has near its bottom, a little v\'estward, 

a slope feet long. Another part of the mine is worked through a tunnel 

whicli has an inside slope. 

Tills mine has been working about 30 years and evolves a small quantity of 
carburretted hydrogen gas (tire-damp.) Several persons have been slightly burnt 
in tliis mine, caused generally through their own carelessness. 

Ventilation — Produced by natural means ; 19,470 culjic feet per minute at inlet ; 
at face of mine, 9,200 cubic feet of air per minute. Number of persons em- 
ployed, 32. 

A. Nicolls, general superintendent ; Wm. M'Gregor, assistant superintendent ; 
Ed. Ilahn, mining boss. 

Baltimore, Ao. 3 slope. — This mine is located east of and adjoining No. 2 shaft 
of the Co.'s mines. It is a slope on the Baltimore vein, feet long, and 



160 

evolves a small quantity of fire-damp. It has a good traveling road, (made in 
1871,) for the ingress and egress of persons employed. 

Ventilation.— This mine is well ventilated considering that it is done by natural 
means, without the assistance of any mechanical or artificial means. No of per- 
sons employed, 120. 

A. Nicolls, general superintendent; Wm.M'Gregor, assistant superintendent ; 
Wm. "W. Reese, mining boss. 

Laurel Ihin slope .—This mine is located near a small village called Laurel Eun, 
about 2^2 miles south-east of Wilkesbarre. There is but one mine between it and 
the Xo. 3 Baltimore of the same company. It is a slope on the Baltimore vein, 
wliich is split at tliis point. It has three lifts and has a good travelling road for 
the ingress and egress of persons employed. The top bed, which is just being 
opened out, generates explosive gases, but there has not been any discovered in 
the lower seam as yet. 

Condition. — The mine is in a tolerably good condition. The seams are small, 
5 or 6 feet in thickness, and take much powder to mine them, thereby requiring 
a large amount of air to carry off the powder smoke. 

AV the stoppings along the slope, between the main gangways and their paral- 
lel air-ways, are being rebuilt with stone and morter instead of wooden brattice, 
producing very good results. 

Ventilation. — Amount of air at inlet, 69,800 cul)ic feet, and at face of mine, 
39,500 cubic feet per minute. Number of persons employed inside, 161. 

A. Nicolls, general superintendent ; Wm. M'Gregor, assistant superintendent ; 
Hugh M'Donald, mining boss. 

Pine Itidge Shaft. — This colliery is located east of Wilkesbarre, and near Mi- 
ners' station. 

It is a shaft 400 feet deep sunk into the lower bed of the Baltimore vein. This 
mine gives oft great quantities of carburetted hydrogen, (fire-damp,) as may be 
seen from the following : 

On the 11th day of May, 1872, an explosion of fire-damp l)y which four persons 
named David Davis, David Morgan, Thomas Morgan and Evan Davis were fear- 
fully burnt, resulting in the death of David Davis and David Morgan. The other 
two survived, but are mucJi disfigured and crippled in the hands for life to all ap- 
pearance. On the 13th I examined that portion of the mine where the accident 
occurred, in company with John J. ]Moore and others. We found that one of the 
workmen, at the time of the accident, was in the act of taking down some coal 
over a check A in tunnel, which caused him to let said check-door open for a short 
time. In the meantime a party of the company's mine surveyors descended the 
shaft and not meeting the boss at the foot, they proceeded at once to make their 
way into that part of the mine where they had been making a survey the days 
previous. They had no idea of any great danger in traveling this road, as they 
had been led out over the same roadthe evening previous l:)y the mine boss, to 
avoid tlie inconvenience of passing so many cars on the main road, while Chey had 
their surveying instruments to carry with them ; but just as they were almost 
through the air-way in tlie top vein, and near the main road, the explosion above 
mentioned took place. We then measured the air passing tln-ough the top vein, 
when the door A in the tunnel was open. We tried it for twenty minutes. Gas 
accumulated three feet deep for quite a distance along the roof in the air-way— 
air passing through at the time of its accumulation 9,120 cubic feet per minute. 
We then closed said door A and found that the gas would ignite in the lamp 
(safety) for eight or ten minutes at the point where tlie explosion took place, and 
that while there were 16,320 cubic feet of air per minute i)assing. 

We then measured all the air passing in through the tunnel at C, a part of 
which had to pass over the check-door A, the balance through the air- way in top 
vein just mentioned, at B, and found 33,862 cubic feet of air per minute i)assing. 

We found that if check-door A would be left oi^en, that more air would enter 
through the under vein D and pass througli door-frame of A and tunnel C ; not- 
withstanding this, the gas would ignite at the door A from a lamp on a person's 
head, there being a large gas-feeder in the roof at that point, besides decreasing 
the quantity passing into tlie top vein B, thereby allowing the gas to accumulate 
therein. The person that was taking down the coal over door A was doing it ac- 
cording to instructions from his boss, neither of whom thought for a moment of 
any person traveling in througli the top vein B, which had such strong gas feed- 
ers so that it was not used for traveling ; still the air was circulated through and 
no danger was anticipated, even sliould any one travel tlirough the same from the 
shaft, which was only a distance of some 400 or -500 feet. 



PINE HIDGE COI^XaIERY 

WILKESBARRE, PENN'A. 




Plan Xo. II 






Pi 



Sciiio ouo ;,„.ii=ioo V'. 






161 

The party of engineers acted on tlie supposition that it was just as safe at that 
lime, as it was the evening previous. There is one thing certain, that this alarm- 
ing accident miglit liave been avoided, had tlie suggestions and instructions of tie 
inspector been acted upon and carried out, as the attention of the mine boss 
Moore, and the assistant superintendent M'Gregor, had been called to the gnat 
danger of leaving the air that was recpiired to keep the top vein B clear of g.is. 
travel into the other part of the working mine, October 19, 1871, and request) d 
tliem to have a separate split of air for the top vein B, so that the great quant i y 
of gas it generated might have been conveyed to the return air-way immediatelv ; 
this having been done the calamity would not have occurred in my opinion. 

The top vein is extraordinary hery in this basin. While they were driving or 
opening the gangways in the top vein B, the giis would ignite by the discharge of 
each blast, and a hose 2i inches in diameter, had to be kept attached to the pump 
column, to be used in ]>utting out the tire after each blast. At one time Mr. 
Moore and I measured 25,000 cubic feet of air per minute passing through tunnel 
C; notwithstanding this amount of air, the gas would ignite two feet from the 
roof, at any point, for 50 feet or more along the main intake road. The same air 
passed into the other part of the mine north and east, as can be seen in i)lan No. 
2, accompanying this report ; the arrows showing the direction of the air current. 

The return F — in plan No. 2 — requested since October, 1871, from B to E, 
has been completed since the accident — which had to be driven entirely without 
the use of gunpowder a distance of about 130 feet. A number of other improve- 
ments have been suggested and promise to be done, and some of them are now 
being done, to wit: A separate si)lit of air for the workings north of the fault, 
which is between this mine and Mill Creek mine. A shorter road for a traveling 
and safety (or escape) road from the east side of the shaft at the point II, (on 
plan,) towards the second opening, a distance of 500 feet, and leading to the Mill 
Creek mine by way of second opening at point I — a separate split of air from ti.e 
new slope (marked L on plan) to the upcast at M. A new return air-way aloj g 
the anticlimal axis from the proposed escape road II, at point K, to the main 
shaft, a distance of 550 feet. 

There is a fan 20 feet in diameter in this mine, and exhausts from 70,000 to 75.- 
000 cubic feet of air per minute, at its usual si)eed of 75 or 80 revolutions, and a 
double fan at Mill Creek mines, exhausting about 120,000 cu))ic feet of air per 
minute. There is another fan of 20 feet diameter being built, to take part of tiie 
air from Mill Creek mine, and part from Pine Ridge mine, to ventilate that part 
of the nune (Pine Piidge) north of the fault lying between the two mines. 

In 1S70, the Pine Ridge fan only exhausted" -19,500 cubic feet of air per minute, 
there being a square box about 12 or 15 feet area for the air to return through up 
the shaft to the fan. Since that time the aforementioned box has been taken out, 
and one whole compartment of the shaft partitioned off: for air, with the present 
favorable results of over 70,000 cubic feet of iiir per minute. 

A. Nicholls, general superintendent; Simptson, assistant superintendent 

at present; Jno. I. jNIoore, mining boss. 

Mill Creek slope. — This colliery is located about 3 miles north-east of W'lkes- 
barre,and consists of one slope and one drift, both on the same vein — BaltHU'^re 
split. The slope has five lifts on the lower seam or bed, besides having three tu; - 
iiels through which they are working the top seam. The most ]>a]-t of these wo;' - 
ings generate explosive gas more or less, but there are some parts that gi;*-eoif ex 
traordinary large quantities of gas, about equal to the Pine Ridge wor:isings. 

Condition. — The mine is the lareest in this district, and notwithstanding the 
large amount of gas evolved, it is kept in order generally. 

There are several fire-bosses kept by day, and one by uight. The'vxorking parts 
of the mine are travelled daily by these officers in their respective districts, in 
strict accordance with law, besKles travelling the old workings about once per 
week, and in this manner the mine is always kept clear of standing gas. 

In order to satisfy myself of the correctness of the officer's rejiort of the con- 
dition of this mine, I have at different times— after travelling the working part- 
traveled through the old workings, Init did not find any standing gas, except at 
one time, immediately after an explosion had taken place ; in that case it was a 
natural consequence, the air-ways being deranged. 

Ventilation. — This mine lias a larger volumn of air circuMed than any other 
in this district. It is so divided and sub-divided, that each part has its own split 
of fresh air. The mine is well arranged for ventilation Jiaving a large and roomy 
u])-cast shaft 12X1-1 feet. It has 7 or 8 separate splits, and 4 in-takes. It is ven- 
tilated by a double fan, or two fans built upon the aain© shaft, each tea feet in 
12 



162 

diameter ; when being run as at present, about 180 revolutions per minute, it ex- 
liausts about 123,000 cubic feet of air per minute, with a water gauge of .8 of an 
inch. The other new fan is not quite ready, it is 20 feet diameter. Number of 
persons employed inside 128. 

Air report for December. — Inlet 135,800 ; face of mine 73,700 cubic feet of air 
per minute ; fan revolutions 180. The drift workings are in good condition ; they 
do not generate so much gas as the slope workings ; number of personjs employed 
58. The ventilation is produced by a furnace. Amount of air at out-let about 
80,000 ; face of mine 20,000. 

A. Nicholls, general superintendent ; Mr. Simptson, assistant superintendent ; 
John E. Cook, mining boss since July, 1872. 

Younf]\s slope. — This mine is new. It is located half a mile east of "Wilkesbarre. 
It is a slope just sunk, on the Hillman vein. The gangways east and west have 
been started preparatory to driving for a second opening. A new breaker is now 
being built, which will be ready to break coal early in the spring of 1873. 

Conyngham shaft. — This is a new shaft, located a short distance north-east of 
Wilkesbarre, and is down about 516 feet. There is soiue very fine masonry at the 
he4id of this shaft, which is divided off into five compartments, two for hoisting 
coal, one to i)lace the pumps m, one for repairing pumps, &c., besides hoisting 
and lowering of men and machinery, and one compartment for air. Dimensions 
42X13 feet. Mr. Philip Eepp, contractor. 



Delaware, Lackawanka and Western Kailroad Company's Mines. 

Boston shaft. — This mine is located about one mile and a-half north-west of 
Kingston, on the Baltimore vein, which is split at this point. The shaft is 160 
feet deep. 

Condition. —This mine is kept generally in good condition. One important im- 
provement has been made by building stone and mortar stoppings instead of 
wooden ones. The only complaint now is too long a route for the air to travel, it 
being coursed in one current around the whole mine. 

The power used to create ventilation is a furnace, dimensions 8 feet, fire grate 
^JLtars, width 7 feet, and usually moves about 35,000 cubic feet of air per miniite at 
the. furnace, and 14,000 at face of mine. This furnace is favorably located, hav- 
ingvabout 274 of air column to heat before it reaches the surface, and 18 feet of a 
stack on top of air shaft, total 272 feet, which gives it advantage over some of 
tlie furnaces in use elsewhere in this district, most of which moves from 16,000 
to 20,000 .cubic feet per minute. 

The following experiments were made on this furnace in December, 1870, by my 
solicitation,.and assisted by the following gentlemen : Messrs. C. S. Snyder, Head 
Engineer for the D. L. and W. R. R. Co.'s works, and Benjamin Hughes, Gen- 
eral Superintendent of mines for the same company, both the above from Scran- 
ton ; also R. P. Rothwell, M. and C. Engineer, Wilkesbarre, and myself. 

The furnace is located about feet away from the down cast or main shaft, 

and is nearly level with the foot of the same. Dimensions of furnace : Length of fire 
bars 8 feet, width of fire grate 7, area=56 square feet ; ash pit 3 feet below the fire 
bars ; from fire bars to spring of arch 2i feet ; and 6 feet from grate bars to arch, 
which lias 3i feet radius. The furnace was fired up only six days per week, and 
it burned 4 mine car loads of coal during that time, equal to two-thirds of a car 
load per day of 24 hours. The mine car contained 95-83 cubic feet of coal, exclu- 
sive of toping, which made it=105.5 cubic feet, and equal to 422 cubic feet per six 
days. This coal was loaded especially for the use of the furnace. 

Air Measurements. — A small instrument of the Cassella make and one of the 
Biram four inch anemometers were used with the following result : 

In six consecutive trials the Cassella instrument indicated a velocity of 720.67 
feet per minute. Table of correction used — 6=714 cubic feet. The Biram instru- 
ment indicated i/=598.33X .974-47=627 cubic feet. 

Area 57.375X1-/627=35,954 cubic feet per minute. 
Area 57.375Xl/ 714=41 ,054 cubic feet per minute. 

The water gauge on main gangway door, about 300 feet from furnace and about 
the same from do\\ii cast shaft, indicated .2-5 of an inch. Hence, by taking the 
average of the measurements of both instruments, which=38,504 cubic feet of air 
per minute X by the water gauge, .25X5.2-t-33,000=1.516 P. 



163 

It is difficult to say how many cubic feet of coal should be allowed for a ton, as 
we had no means to ascertain at the time, but will assume it at 40 cubic feet, 
hence the following : 

2,240X1.7533 

422h-(40X6)=1.7583 tons per day of 24: hours. Therefore, = 109.7 

1.516X24 
ft>s. per horse power per hour. 

This does not take into account the difference between the temperature of the 
mine and that of the outside which Was S'-'. 

In connection with the above figures it jnay not be out of place here to state 
that the above results are nearly similar to what was found in England. 

It will be seen by referring to the "Trtmsactions of the North of England Insti- 
tute of Mining Engineers," for April lOth, 1868, page 102, that a Mr. Morrison 
gave a table of experiments that had been conducted to compare the work of a 
Guibal fan and a furnace, when it was claimed that the annual expense was re- 
duced in favor of the former £100. Also, the following table exhibiting the ef- 
fective power : 

Eppkctivk Power. 





o 


O 


O 


<^ 1 


K 


C 






5.aE 


g-al 


%tl 


o o aJi 


gcsS 






"■» 2 


3«i 


cons 
perh 
erage 


cons 
perh 
wer 
ur.... 




3 O 






\u 


i 1^? 




um- 

orse 
per 


wer 
bot- 
up- 





•■ II 




Tons. 


T. cwt. qr. lbs 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


H. P. 


Cubic/eet. 


Inches. 


Furnace.... 


96 


6 17 16 


640 


101.75 


6.29 


36, 350 


1.1 


Fan 


62 


4 8 2 8 


413 


19.82 


20.83 


64, 700 


2.05 







B. Hughes, general mining superintendent ; Thomas D. Davis, assistant ; 
James George, mining boss. 

Jersey mine. — This mine is located a short distance north-west of Plymouth, 
and has a tunnel opening into the Red Ash vein. All the coals are hoisted by a 
slope to the water level, and; are brought to the surface through the aforesaid 
tunnel. 

Condition. — The condition of this mine has not been flatt'ering to any person 
interested in it, although somewhat better perhaps now than it has been hitherto. 
A new air shaft 230 feet deep has been sunk ; and a fan similar to that at Avon- 
dale is m contemplation, which will give better ventilation than this mine has 
had in the past. A new travelling road has been made there ; also a good wash 
house, furnished with hot and cold water, and a stove, all of which are kept in 
good order. B. Hughes, general superintendent of mines ; F. J. Phillips, mine 
boss. 

Avondale s/iqff. This colliery is located about two and a-half miles west of 
Plymouth. It "is 237 feet deep, and sunk into the Eed Ash vein. 

Condition. — This mine has been kept in a very good condition ever since it was 
re-built after the calamity of 1869, and is better arranged than most of the mines ; 
yet there is one important part that has been overlooked in this, as in the ma- 
jority of other mines, to wit : No preparation for the protection of the air cur- 
rents, by having double doors so as to keep the currents steady; this is very 
difficult to do unless provided for in the opening out of the mine. The hoisting 
carriages were provided with bridle chains and safety catches. The gates were 
put on at the head of the shaft, and a brake on the hoisting drum prior to my 
first visit, in 1870, all of which were of the best kind in use, except the brake, 
Avhich has since been replaced by a better one. It has 400 pounds dead weight 
upon a compound lever, and is conveniently placed ; it will bring the pair of en- 
gines, 14 inch cylinders, to a dead stand with a full head of steam, (80 pounds pres- 
sure,) and the load in a revolution and a half of the drum. I would here state 
that tliere is one more change desirable to this brake, so as to have it arranged in 
a manner that it can be used independent of the dead weight, as a brake is sel- 
dom used wken there is dead weight attached to it, unless in a case of emergency, 
when the engineer is very liable— not being accustomed to the use of his brake- 
to forget that he has one, hence I prefer an efficient lever brake, that may be used 



164 

in letting down persons or material, whereby tlie engineer becomes accustomed 
to the nse of Jiis brake. However, Mr. Preedhoe, the master macliinist under the 
Deleware, Lackawanna and Western Company, on this line, is entitled to credit 
for tlie manner in which he built his brakes, as they were about the third good 
brakes built in the district, and the first of this kind. 

Ventilation. — The power used to cause a circulation in this mine, since the 
wood work Avas rebuilt, is a fan 12 feet in diameter, sheet iron casings, revolving 
disc and open periphery which exhausts from the mine about 38,000 or 40,000 
cubic feet of air per minute. This air is conducted around the mine, in two 
dilferent splits or currents, one east and one west ; number of persons employed 
inside 138. There has not been much improvement made during last year, except 
in the building of all the stoppings, between the main air-ways and gangways with 
stone and juortar, which assists very much in keeping the air to tlie face of the 
mine, besides being much cheaper than the old wooden ones. 



Elliot & Go's Colliery. 

ITolJenhach Colliery. — This is a slope located on the plank road, Plainville town- 
ship, and is sunk on the Ilillman vein. It is a small colliery working around and 
stripping a fault to the dip of the old Hillman mines, besides mining a small 
tract of coal lymg between them, and the mines of the Seneca Lake coal com- 
pany, south of them, 

Condiiion. — Nothing very important can be pointed out in the shape of improve- 
ments since my first visit. 

There are but few persons employed inside. Ventilation at inlet, 14,500 cubic 
feet ; at face of mine, 7,000 ; number of persons employed, 20 inside. No mechani- 
cal or artificial means used to assist ventilation. 

llobert Pool, general superintendent ; Thos. E. Morpeth, mining boss. 



Franklin Coal Company's Mines. 

Broicn''s slope. — This slope is located a short distance south of Wilkesbarre, and 
is opened on tlie Baltimore vein. 

Condiiion, t'Oc. — The coal is hoisted to an old water level gangway. It is then 
brought to the surface through a tunnel. This mine has been idle a long time 
this year. The men are not allowed to travel the slope, there being a traveling 
road for that purpose. The mine is tolerably safe. They have some very poor 
roof, but it is generally well timbered. Otherwise it is about the same as when 
the last report was made. 

Ventilation. — It is produced by having a small furnace, which moves about 13,- 
620 cubic feet of air per minute at outlet ; at face of mine, 12,350 cubic feet ; num- 
ber of persons employed inside, 75. 

A new tunnel has been driven from the water level gangway into the Ked Ash 
vein, from which they may be able to mine some coal in 1873. 

R. R. Morgan, general superintendent ; Wm. Thomas, assistant superintendent; 
Samuel Thomas, mining boss. 

Old slope. — This slope is located a short distance east of the Brown's slope, on 
the same vein and nearly adji)ining. There is also an underground slope to this 
mine. This mine is toler;ibIy safe, there being but a small amount of gas gen- 
erated, and there is a reasonably good current of fresli air circulated through the 
whole mine. Power used to create circulation is a fan 12 feet in diameter, wliich 
discharges about 30,000 cubic feet of air per minute. Number of persons em- 
ployed inside, 93. 

li. 11. Morgan, general superintendent ; Wm. Thomas, assistant superintendent ; 
John D. Hughes, mining boss. 



165 

HiLLMAN & Sons' Colliery. 

This colliery is located about two miles east of Wilkesbarre, between the Mill 
Creek and the back road. It is a slope upon the Hillman vein, so called because 
this firm worked it on the plank road for many years. This vein is being very ex- 
tensively worked along the plank road at present. 

Condition. — Tiiis mine gives off a small quantity of fire-damp, but its general 
condition is good. 

Ventilation. — There is plenty of pure air in tliis mine. It is a new and veiy 
shallow mine, and has a fan 12 feet in diameter, wliich discharges about 25,000 
cubic feet of air per minute. Number of persons employed inside, 40. 

II. B. Hillman, general superintendent; George Ferteig, mining boss. 



Lehigh Coal and ^N'avigatiox Company's Mines. 

Slope jSfo. 3. — This slope is located a short distance west of Wanamie, on the 
Koss vein. It has been lying idle for many months this year. 

Tliere is a small quantity of fire-damp generated in tliis mine ; liowever, there 
should not be any trouble in ventilating the same, as there is a fan 15 feet in 
diameter there wiiich exhausts at present about 28,700 cubic feet of air per min- 
ute and may be increased when needed. 

The mine is tolerably well arranged at present. The fan has been put up in. a 
very good style and will give good results when put to the test. It was built 
in the company's shops in this place, under the superintendence of Mr. C. Cal- 
vin, master machinist. iSTumber of persons employed inside, 37. 

J. Smith, general superintendent; Jas. Waddle, mining superintendent ; Evan 
E. Jones, mining boss. 

JV'o. 2 drift. — This drift is located west of Wanamie and near the I^o. 1 
breaker, on a vein called the 7 feet. Tlie measures being somewhat confused in 
this end of the valley to what they are elsewhere, few persons make any preten- 
sions at locating tliese veins geologically. Hence I may state that this vein over- 
lies the one worked in the No. 3 slope, called the Ross vein. 

Condition and ventilation. — This drift is in better condition at present than it 
had been. It is a small place, not many persons employed, and in such cases it 
is often difficult to have the same attention paid to them as to larger ones. There 
is no fan or furnace used to create a draft or current, but two small sections or 
rings of an old steam boiler, 2^ feet in diameter each, with a grate placed in the 
bottom, are put in one of tlie old chambers that has been worked out, having a 
small hole to the surface. Ventilation report for December, 6,000 cubic feet at 
face of mirte. Number of persons emploj^d, 16. 

J. Smith, general superintendent; Jas. Waddle, mining superintendent; J. C. 
Edwards, mining boss. 

No. 1 slope. — This slope is located west of Wanamie, and near foot of plane at 
No. 1 breaker. It is supposed by many that the vein worked in this slope is the 
same as that worked in tlie 7 feet drift. Tlie slope has been sunk anotlier new 
lift this summer, and they are only just opening out the same for ventilation. 

The following is the report for December : 7,600 cubic feet at face of mine. 
Number of persons employed inside, 14. 

J. C. Edwards, mining boss. 

No. 1. ticnnel. — This tunnel was first opened into the vein worked in the sloi>e, 
and since has been driven through what is supposed to be the Ross vein, and into 
tlie measures where it is claimed the Red Ash vein should be ; but the ground 
seems much confused and the seams which were found are small, hence it is dif- 
ficult to identify the measures or veins at this point. No coal is being taken out 
of this tunnel except what little is taken from the top vein. 

J. C. Edwards, mining boss. 

No. 1 drift. — This drift is opened on the same vein and adjoining the No. 1 
slope. 

Condition and ventilation. — There has been a little improvement made in this 
mine this year, by forcing the air-current more to the face of the mines. A fur- 
nace is used to create circulation, which moves 22,000 cubic feet of air per 
minute. 



166 

J. Smith, general superintendent ; Jas. Waddle, mining superintendent ; J. C. 
Edwards, mining boss. 

iVb. 2 sloi)e. — This mine is located at the eastern end of the village of Wanamie, 
and near the No. 2 breaker. It is opened into a vein supposed by some to be the 
same vein as that in drift No. 1 ; others differ and claim it to be an overlying 
vein. 

Condition and ventilation. — This slope has been worked but a short time this 
year. Early in tlie spring a fan 15 feet in diameter was put up there, which ex- 
hausted a considerable amount of air ; but having been put up in haste, and not 
having the proper arrangements, such as large air-ways and cross-cuts, it could 
not be expected to give the desired relief to the persons employed, or satisfaction 
to the bosses, that it would if it Avas well put up, and otherwise well provided for. 
The interior part of the mine was in very great need of better ventilation. Tlie 
cross-cuts were too small, not as many doors as there should be to force the air 
to the face of the mine, and the old ones badly constructed ; the stoppings were 
very badly made up, where they were made, and the whole mine was in a very 
imsatisfactory condition. The most of the above deficiencies having been pointed 
out, and ordered to be remedied on several occasions ; but it seemed as if there 
was great indifference or inability on the part of tlie officers in charge. 

J. B. Smith, general superintendent ; James Waddle, mining superintendent ; 
George Sager, mining boss. 

Slope No. 4. — This is a new slope, located north of Wanamie a short distance. 
It has not been worked since the first part of the year. 

Smith and Waddle, general superintendents. 

Nottingham Shaft. — This shaft is located within the borough of Plymouth. It 
is sunk into the Ked Ash vein, and is about 400 feet deep. 

Ventilation and condition. — The ventilation of this mine has been improved 
within the past year, by having a 15 feet fan, instead of a 10 feet fan, which ex^ 
hausts more air from the mine. The same was put at so great a distance from 
the workings, which were very badly opened, that the amount of air put into cir- 
culation , about 25,000 cubic feet per minute, is very much reduced before it reaches 
the face of the mine, as a great deal of the same leaks out before it can be used, 
nevertheless there are some hopes of having things better in the future, as tli€ 
superintendent, H. C. Brodhead, and the mine boss, J. Johns, are endeavoring to 
have those complaints remedied. There has been a great many of the old wooden 
stoppings re-built Avith stone and mortar, and all the new ones are being built of 
this material. Many new doors have been put up, some as double doors, and 
others as check doors ; in this way they ai-e improving things gradually, and will 
be much better after the 24 feet fan is erected and connected to tliis mine, which 
will be done early next spring. Number of persons employed 103. 

John Johns, mining boss. 



Washington Colliery. 

This colliery is located a short distance north-west of Plymouth , and consists 
of a slope and a tunnel. The tunnel workings are above water level, and are ad- 
joining the old workings that have been worked out in all directions to the crop 
of the vein. The vein pitches about 35 or 40^. 

Ventilation in this mine has not been satisfactory to the Inspector up to this 
time. 

There is a small furnace built under the supervision of Mr. Charles Smith, in 
the employ of Broderick & Co., which is located close to the gangway side, to cre- 
ate circulation. It is difficult to decide which is the worse, the construction or 
location of the same. 

The whole of the mine shows evidence that it has been badly managed up to 
the present time. Whatever may be done under the administration of the pres- 
ent firm and its officers remains to be seen. 

Slope No. 1. — The slope is located near the entrance of the tunnel. It is sunk 
upon the same vein that is being worked in the tunnel and shaft — Red Ash. There 
are two lifts being worked in the slope. On the first lift eastward a large fault 
was met, through which a tunnel has been driven into the vein north of the fault. 

That part of the mine opened north of said fault is being ventilated by a cur- 
rent of air that passes through it from the Nottingham shaft workings, towards 



167 

a fan 15 feet in diameter, which is placed on an old lift 300 feet above this level, 
^id air is not healthy for persons to breathe after having traveled said (Notting- 
ham) mine. The whole amonnt of air circulated is about 25,000 cubic feet per 
uiinute, and it has to ventilate the shaft workings and those north of the fault, 
whereby it has to do for about 140 persons between both places. 

The two lifts working on the west side of the slope have been ventilated by a 
small iron-cased exhaustion fan H feet in diameter, and running at a very high 
speed, which has been removed preparatory to having the 24 feet fan put up in 
its. place. 

The air has not been quite so bad in this part as in the tunnel workings, although 
it was ix)or enough. There liave- been some improvements made in the slope 
workings on both sides, since the present firm has had possession of the place; 
such as the building of good stone and mortar stoppings in many places and put- 
ting up main doors arew with heavy frames and built around with stone and 
mortar. All the stoppings between the main gangways and air- ways are now be- 
ing built in this substantial manner. 

There will be plenty of pure air in this mine after the new fan above mention- 
ed is erected. It is to veutihite the Nottingliam shaft workings and the work- 
ings of this slope. 

H. C, Brodhead, general superintendent; A. Reese^, mining boss. 

Slope JVb. 2. — This is a new slope located a short distance west of the breaker 
of the Washington mines and near the foot of the Jersey mines' plane. Tliis 
slope is being sunk through rock and is down at present about 350 feet. It may 
reach tTie Red Ash vein in about 200 feet more. It is being done under the su- 
pervision of H. C. Brodhead, general superintendent over all the Lackawanna 
Coal and Navigation Company's mines on the Plymouth side of the Susquehanna 
river, 



Hutchison & Co.'s Shaft. 

This colliery is located about a mile and a quarter north-east of Kingston. It 
is sunk about 170 teet on to tlie same vein that is being worked in the next shaft 
west of them, and is called by some the Cooper vein. This mine is considered 
tolerably safe ; roof being good and no fire-damp discovered as yet. 

Ventikvtion. — This is produced by a fan 15 feet diameter. The mine has been 
opened in such a manner that it will always be difficult to properly ventilate it, 
and up to this time, although comparatively a new mine, no satisfaction lias been 
given to the inspector in the matter of ventilation. The fan is large enough to 
exhaust at least 60,000 cubic feet of air per minute, while being driven at about 
100 revolutions, while at present there is only 22,000 cubic feet per minute passing 
into the return near foot of shaft ; how much is being lost in the shaft I know 
not ; and about 8,000 cubic feet per minute traversing the face of the mine. The 
vein is about 6 or 7 feet in thickness, works rather hard, and requires much pow- 
der to loosen the same, and must necessarily make a large amount of powder 
smoke. Number of persons employed, 60. Charles Hutchison, general superin- 
tendent ; James Hutchison, mining boss, successor to Mr. William M'Culloch, 
who liad charge of opening the mine. 



Hillside Coal and Iron Company. 

Enterprise mines. — This colliery is located on the Plank road, Plainsville town- 
ship, and consists of one slope on the HUhnan vein, and a shaft about 150 deep to 
the Five Feet vein. 

Slope tvorkings^ their condition aiicl ventilation. — These workings are not as safe 
as many of our other mines. In the first place there is very bad roof, requiring 
a great deal of care on the part of the miner and his boss ; liowever the muie is 
well timbered, and all precautions are being taken to secure the safety of the 
men. Very few accidents occur, which must be attributed mostly to the great 
care and vigilance of the parties above mentioned. There is a small quauiity of 
gas generated in this mine, but it has not given much trouble so far. The venti- 



168 

lation is not as good as it should be, although it is much better than it was in 
ISTO, before the new fan was put up at the shaft. Kumber of persons employed, 
80. 

VcntiJation. — Amount of air at inlet 9,360 cubic feet per minute. 

J. II. Swoyer, general superintendent ; William M'CuUoch, mining superinten- 
dent ; Frank M'Uabe, mining boss. 

ISIidft n:orkin(jN. — The shaft is sunk into the Five Feet vein, which was aban- 
doned" after having been worked a sliort time ; after which a slope, 400 feet long, 
was sunk across the measures into the Baltimore vein, the beds of which are di- 
vided by about 8 feet of slate and bone. There is considerable gas generated in 
the top bed, and there lias been much trouble to get a lawful second opening to 
tbis mine. A gangway was driven westward nearly to the boundary line, aiid a 
slope sunk nearly parallel with the same to the depth of 400 feet, for the purpose 
of connecting with the workings of the Henry shaft west of it. For some reason 
best kno\^^l to the parties themselves, this slope was discontinued, and is now 
filled up with water. 

Since that time another out-let has been driven parallel with the hoisting slope, 
3'10 feet apart, out into the Five Feet vein, a distance of 400 feet through rock. 
There is a tunnel from the Five Feet into the Hillman vein, and a road from 
there to the surface. The high water sometimes trouble them, and it is now in 
contemplation to continue the second opening from the Five Feet across the mea- 
sure to the Hillman vein, and perhaps to the surface, so as to be able to close the 
aforementioned tunnel, to guard against the high water in the spring and fall. 

Ventilation. — This slope is being Ventilated by a fan 15 feet in diameter, placed 
at the head of the shaft. Number of persons employed 50. Amount of cubic 
fe^t of air per minute at out-let, 15,110 ; at face of mine, 10,400, 

J. H. Swoyer, general superintendent ; Wm. M'Culloch, mining superintendent, 
and Philip M'Cabe, mining boss. 

Fort Boickley slope. — This colliery is located on the plank road, and consists of 
tv.-o slopes ; one to the surface, which is being supplied with coal from another 
undergromid slope. 

In 1870, this was one of the poorest ventilated mines in the region, but a fan 15 
feet in diameter was put up, which has made a great cliange in its ventilation. 
There is some fire-damp generated in this mine, but with proper care and good 
management, there is no reason to apprehend any difficulty or danger therefrom. 

Fearing that some danger might take place from a thin rock covering on the 
vein when near the river edge, I requested the mine superintendent to ascertain 
the vertical height from the coal seam to the surface, thence to ascertain what 
depth of wasli is over said rock, which would show at once the tliickness of rock 
overlying the coal. This course was deemed necessary, as many persons appre- 
hended trouble from sand-bars, &c., about the present or former bed of the river. 
The leveling and boring having been done, a wash of 80 feet was found over the 
rock, whicli leaves about 85 feet of rock covering over the vein. 

I called their (bosses) attention to the workings imder the canal, and the offi- 
cers claim that they are well timbered wherever "they have worked under it. 

l)uring my visit I noticed many of the log cabins or shanties built, which they 
state were built to support the roof under the canal. 

Number of persons employed, 79. Amount of air at outlet, 36,000 cubic feet 
IDer minute ; amount at face of mines, 16,760 cubic feet. 

J. H. Swoyer, general superintendent ; Wm. M'Culloch, mining superintendent ; 
Jolui J. Meahan, mining boss. 



Luzerne Coal and Iron Company's Mines. 

Burroucjli's shaft.— This mine is located on the plank road, in Plainville town- 
ship. It is a shaft 80 feet in depth and sunk into the Ililhnan vein and worked 
loose into the adjoining mine (Enterprise.) It is abandoned since June, 1872. 

This mine had a cave-in of a part of its roof on the morning of July 4, 1871, 
which let in the water from the canal, whereby this and the adjoining (Enter- 
prise) mine were inundated, and remained idle therefrom for a length of time. It 
being a holiday no person was at work : liad there been the usual number, some 
lives might haVe been lost. In due time the breach was closed up as secure as 
could be, to all appearances, and work resumed and continued until its abandon- 
ment. 




,M EH Wit COmM lySV 

WILKES BAR RE, PENN'A. 



169 

I examined the interior part of the mine near the locality of tlie cave, on two 
different occasions, in company with the mine boss, Nichols, and others, and ob- 
served that there had been an immense amount of timbering and filling done 
imder the canal, in places that looked in any way weakened from any cause. I 
did not see any deficiency in that particular. I have in my possession a map of 
the same up to the time it was abandoned. Tlie parties owning the adjoining 
mine east, called my attention to the fact that if the water was left to fill up this 
mine it would eventually run over to tlieir workings, the Enterprise ; and further, 
that if at any future time another cave-in of the roof should take place in this 
old and abandoned mine, by w^hich a large body of water would be let in, it 
must overflow and enter the Enterprise mine. I answered the party thus : "That 
as far as damages to property from such an event is concerned, I did not think I 
had anything to do with it, but if they apprehended any danger to the lives or 
limbs of their employees from any cause that came within my jurisdiction, I 
would cheerfully co-operate to have the same looked after." The party referred 
to answered " No ; that no immediate danger appeared to them ; but could not 
See how the mines would be likely to continue without having falls of roof and 
perhaps bring in the water as before, since there would be no person to look after 
it, to timber, &c., it being abandoned and partially tilled with water." I then 
promised to submit the matter to my counsel, H. W. Palmer, which I did. He 
told me that in his opinion I had nothing to do with the mine after they had 
abandoned it, but that it was a legal matter between the two parties, and 
thought that any party has the right to abandon a working and are not compelled 
to keep the same in repair for any further time ; and thusthe matter now stands. 

F. Mercur, general superintendent for the L. C. and I. Co. 

Henry shaft. — This colliery is located on the Plank road, Plainsville tov»mship. 
It is a shaft 400 feet in depth, and has been sunk through the Hillman to the top 
bed of tlie Baltimore vein, on which the mine was first opened. A tunnel has 
been driven from foot of shaft south into the under bed, which Is very fiery, and 
a connection has been effected with the second opening by sinking the second 
opening shaft of the top vein from the top to tlie lower bed of the Baltimore 
vein, and an air- way driven from the tunnel under said shaft. 

On the sixth day of February, 1872, a serious explosion of fire-damp took place 
in this mine, which resulted in the death of four persons, as follow :— Robert 
Hays, Robert Morris and Patrick M'Culloch, also Michael Barret, who ignited 
tlie gas, but he lived three or four days after the explosion. 

The explosion occurred as near as could be learned about as follows : — The 
mine had been lying idle for some time except for repairing which was being 
done at the time. The Luzerne coal and iron company not having had the 
mine very long, and desirous of making many changes in the manner of work- 
ing the Slime, were putting in new roads and a different kind of mine cars. The 
mine boss, John Nicolls, who had been looking after this place for two or three 
years, was in charge of the mine, and Mr. F. Mercur, general superintendent. 
On the morning of tlie calamity, the four men above mentioned descended the 
shaft as usual, and proceeded on their way into that part of the mine known tis 
the middle lift, where their place of working was, and where they had been 
at work some days previous, which was on the main road, and on the same 
level as the foot of the main shaft. Mr. Collins who was in charge of the gang, 
he being the head track layer, had occasion to remain in the rear of the party as 
they came near their i^lace of working, and before he had time to catch up to 
them again, a terrific explosion took place. Immedititely some other men that 
were in another part of the mine, also repairing, on hearing the explosion, ran to 
the spot where it occurred and found Messrs. Collins, Barrett, M'Colloch and 
Hays, immediately. Mr. CJollins was not much the worse ; Mr Barret was fear- 
fully burnt, and died in a few days ; the latter two were dead when found. The 
fourth, Mr. Morris, was not found for several hours, he having fell at the inside 
end of a fall of roof on the gangway, where he could not be got at without going 
around through the cross-cuts of the chambers. This was done when a fresh lot 
of men came to assist ; he was dead when found, and in all probability had not 
lived long, if any time, after the explosion. At 12 A. M. of the same date, I was 
informed of the sad calamity, but was too sick to leave my bed until the next day 
at noon, when, in company with Mr. J. W. Miles, I proceeded to the mine. 
Messrs. Miles, Coryell and Evans accompanied me through that part of the mine 
where the explosion took place. We descended the shaft at 3 P. M., and after 
having examined the parts where it was supposed that the gas was ignited, we 
ascended the shaft at 7.15 P. M. 



170 

On the 8th, an inquest was to be held. E. B. Hai-vey, J. P., acting as coroner, 
appointed the following persons as jurors, to wit:— R. 0. Mitchel, E. O. Baker, 
Robert Mullighan, John Gray, Michael Walsh and Francis Murphy ; after recog- 
nising the bodies of the deceased Robert Morris, Robert Hays and Patrick M'- 
CoUocli, they adjourned to meet at the office of the acting coroner, after the 
burial at 5 P. M., at which time another adjournment took place to meet at 9 
o'clock on the morning of the 9th, at the house of Mr. Michael Barret. 

On the 9th the jury met at the appointed time and place and took the testimony 
of Mr. Barrett, who stated that he was the person who it was that ignited the 
fire-damp, and that he was at the main door A and in the act of opening it when 
the gas ignited, and that after the explosion had passed over he ran back over the 
rubbish along the gangway for quite a distance. He stated further that there 
was no fire boss in that part of the mine this day, nor had Mr. Robert Hayes been 
requested to act as such to his knowledge, and did not see a safety lamp Avith any 
person this day, and had not seen any gas at this point while at work there the 
day previous, they being on the main road did not apprehend any danger from 
fire-damp. 

After taking the above testimony the jury proceeded to the office of E. B. Har- 
vey, J. P., acting coroner, where the inquisition was continued to its completion, 
(the acting coroner having since died I have been able to get a copy of all the tes- 
timony,) when the following verdict was rendered by the jury : 

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
Luzerne County, 

An inquisition indented and taken at Plainsville, in the county of Luzerne, the 
eighth day of February, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sev- 
enty-two, before me, E. B. Harvey, a justice of the peace in and for said county, acting? 
as coroner, upon the view of tlie bodies of Robert Hays, Patrick M'Cullough and 
Richard Norris, then and there lying dead, upon the oath of Robert Mitchell, Michael 
Welch, E. O. Baker, John Gray, Robert Milligan and Frank Murphy, good and law- 
ful men of the county aforesaid, who being sworn and affirmed to inquire, on the part 
of the Commonwealth, when, where, how and after what manner the said Robert 
Hays, Patrick M'Cullough and Richard Norris came to their death, do say, upon their 
oath and affirmation, that the said Robert Hays, Patrick M'Cullough and Richard Nor- 
ris were killed and Michael Barrett seriously injured by the explosion of tire-damp 
or carburetted hydrogen in the Henry colliery on the morning of Tuesday, the sixth 
day of February, A. D. 1872, and agree : 

First. — That the explosion was the result of a want of care in carrying out the re- 
quirements of the ventilation law, as by examining the mines before the men went fco 
their work. 

Second. — That if there had been that required and careful examination of the minies 
before the men went to their work, the explosion would not have transpired. 

Third. — That John Nichols, mining boss, possessing the right to hire a fire bosB, 
should have had one, or should have performed the duty of examining the mines him- 
self, and thus averted the explosion. 

Fourth. — That John Nichols is a competent mining superintendent, and did not neg- 
lect having an assistant or fire boss, nor omit performing the requirements of the law, 
wilfully or from malice, but from an over-devotion to the company's pecuniary interest. 

Fifth. — That from the testimony of witnesses the Luzerne coal and iron company, 
the present owners of the said Henry colliery, under the careful management and 
supervision of Fred. Marcus, Esq., superintendent, and T. M. Williams, mine inspec- 
tor, since June 16, 1871, have been and are now making improvements and repairs, 
which, if completed, will perfect the ventilation of said mines and make it safe for 
the miners, so long as the appointees perform their duty. 

Sixth. — That the owners of said colliery are not careful enough to see and know that 
their bosses and appointees fully keep and perform all the requirements of the ven- 
tilation law. 

In witness whereof, the aforesaid acting coroner and the jurors aforesaid have to this 
inquisition put their hand and seals this ninth day of February, Anno Domini one 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, at Wilkesbarre, county and State afore- 
said. 

E. B. HARVEY, 
Justice of the peace and acting coroner. 

R. C. MITCHELL, 
E. O. BARKER, 
ROBERT MULLIGHAN, 
JOHN GRAY, 
MICHAEL WELSH, 
FRANCIS MURPHY. 



171 

In addition to the above I would give the following as my humble opinion of 
how the sad affair took place, together with my reasons for the same. The most 
violent part of the explosion must have been at a point a little inside of the door 
A on plan 2, about the chamber B, where there had been some great force piling, 
&c., against the rib on the lower side of the gangway, which blew a wooden brat- 
tice and a stone wall out of a cross-cut that was between the gangway and the 
air-way, into the latter as clear as if it had been shoveled therefrom. In the 
said chamber B many timbers had been blown out and some of the roof had fallen. 
In chamber A the force of the blast seemed to have entered it from chamber B, 
blowing the timber, &c., in the same direction through cross-cut No. 2. In cham- 
ber C the indications were just the reverse, looking as if the force had been in- 
ward just as it had been outward in chamber A. The No. 2 cross-cut in chamber 
A was near the face, while No. 1 cross-cut was further back. The air (if tliere 
were any in circulation) traveling inward would naturally strike some distance 
aheiid of cross-cut No. 2. 

The distance from cross-cuts Nos. 1, 2 and 3 can be seen by referring to plan of 
mine. The breadth of the chamber can also be seen. The thickness of vein is 
about 7i feet, and pitching there about 7° or 8°, but there is one other matter to 
be mentioned in regard to- this chamber B, that cross-cut No. 3 was not cut 
through the top coal bench, hence it would help to dam back the gas down to the 
level of the cross-cut top before the air would get hold of it. No trace of fire 
could be seen along the gangway, or at any point inside of chamber C, there be- 
ing pieces of paper lying along the gangway and loose powder having been blown 
over and scattered at one j>lace but not ignited. 

That part at door A being as low, if not lower than from there to face of gang- 
way, I am of opinion that if the gas had filled to this point, it would have been 
through the inside chambers, and the gangway, down to and level with the place 
where it was ignited, as it would pass inward through the cross-cuts before it 
could fill down to the gangway, we did not see any indications of there having 
been such a body ignited. And further, had there been such a body of gas igni- 
ted by any person opening the door A, it would have been impossible for him to 
have lived any longer than the blast would have been in reaching him, as this 
door was at the junction of tlie air-way and gangway, and all the workings in- 
side it, except one chamber ; hence the whole force would concentrate in tliis di- 
rection, being an air channel. Again, it is very difticult to think that any person 
could have lived to come from the door A, under the circumstances wliich Mr. 
Barret escaped immediate death, as every thing were swept away for a long dis- 
tance, and dashed to pieces against the curved side or rib, even the heavy door 
frame, 12 inch square timber, was blown and carried 25 or 30 feet along the gang- 
way. 

In conclusion, I would give it as my decided opinion, that the gas was ignited 
in chamber A, from which it spread to chamber B, where there might have been 
a sufficient quantity of gas above, and from cross-cuts 2 and 3 to face of chamber, 
to have produced the results above described. This being the reservoir, as the 
effect was shown in blowing the timber outward into chamber A, and inward 
intochambei C, and a person igniting it in chamber A, might have been saved 
much better there than at any other point near the scene of the accident. This, 
in my opinion, accounts how Mr. Barret, who ignited the gas, fared at the time 
better than the other three men who were on the gangway, and who were instantly 
killed. 

Now the next question naturally asked is, how came the gas to accumulate in 
any such quantities ? By referring to the plan of the mine, it will be seen that 
the air current at that time traversed inward through the chambers, from the 
down-cast air shaft X (or second opening shaft) to the face of the gangway ; it 
was then conveyed along a new air-way as a return to the point where the said 
new air- way formed a junction with the main gangway near the door A, from 
whence it was to travel the main gangway as a return until it came to the cross- 
cut or air- way No. 4, which connected the upper with the lower workings, i. e., 
when the current would be going in its usual course. It seemed from what some 
of the witnesses stated, that door B, just outside the connecting air-way No. 4 
had not been very carefully closed the evening previous, when these men quit 
work ; the reason they gave for it was that the road having been newly put down, 
and not yet filled up between the sills, there was quite a space left under the door, 
and the road being a little higher than in the past, the door would not close tight, 
they knowing that no persons were working, did not take extra care to close it, 
and thus it was left. This door being a single one, and not one of a pair, it let 



172 

part, at least, of the current to take the short and most natural road through door 
B into air-way jSTo. 4 instead of around the face of tlie mine, which reduced the 
quantity travelling in that direction, how much no one is supposed to know. The 
reason Mr. Nicholls gave for having but a single door on the gangway at B to pro- 
tect the current at this point was, " that tlie mine or gangway at this point had 
been driven, most part of it, through a rock fault, in some places no coal at all, 
other parts had thin coal as shown on plan, but that they were then endeavoring 
to connect chamber E with workings on top of plane F, in order to correct this 
matter, and had been doing all they could to improve the condition of the place 
ers'er since the L. C. and T. Co. got possession, and that they had also opened the 
new air-way from doer A inward, so as to avoid the necessity of having the re- 
turn air on the main gangway, which they thought to have connected to a cliam- 
ber marked H, winch was being driven parallel with the gangway from air-way 
No^ 4 inward, so as to make it a complete return." 

Up to tlie time of the explosion this mine had been very badly arranged. It is 
true tliat the faults, &c., made it difticult, nevertheless, the general plan of the 
mine and the manner in which it was being worked were wrong in principle. 

I entered my protest against the manner of ventilation each time I visited the 
mine, although I did not find standing gas therein but once. I condemned it to 
Mr. Jas. Thomas, superintendent in charge, and to Mr. John iS'ichols, the mine 
boss, for I have always opposed the idea of coursing the air-current first through 
tlie chambers, even when there are parallel air-ways with t!ie gangways, but still 
more so when a mine has no such air-ways, and where the main gangway is made 
tlie return for the smoke and foul of the mine. If an explosion or fire takes 
place, the after-damp and gases are met in the main gangway, the very place 
where the pure air is required the most, to keep the fresh men in good condition 
and to recussitate those that may be effected by said gases. 

This had in contemplation a new fan, IS feet in diameter, to be placed at the 
new shaft at X on plan, but it was not quite ready. There was a small propul- 
sion fan at the hoisting shaft that liad been in use, but had been abandoned, 
leaving the whole hoisting shaft to be an up-cast and the new shaft to be the 
down-cast. 

^^The following was the air report for December, 1871, (the mine "vas not work- 
ing in January :) Amount at face of mine, 12,500 cubic feet of air per minute; 
amount at outlet, 18,000 cubic feet of air per minute. I must say that this com- 
pany Ave re endeavoring to improve matters from the time they took possession. 

In regard to the matter of fire-boss, had there been one, as the law especially 
provides for, it is more than likely that the sad catastrophe w^ould iiot have oc- 
curred. That it was one of many serious accidents that have occurred in our 
opal mines from the effect of bad management, including loose discipline and a 
want of proper respect for the ventilation law, few will deny. 

Since the accident the new fan has been put up, and was built by Mr. Snyder, 
Pottsville, and gives the following result: Fan dimensions, IS feet in diameter, 
6 feet wide, centre opening 9 feet in diameter. Upright engine, first motion, cyl- 
inder, 18 inclies diameter; stroke, 2 feet. When fan is running 56 revolutions it 
gives about 56,000 cubic feet per minute. Number of persons employed at pre- 
sent, 72. 

r. Mercur, general superintendent; Jenkin B. Jones, mining boss at present. 

Prosjject shaft. — This shaft is located east of Wilkesbarre, between the back 
road and the plank road. It is 600 feet deep and sunk into the Baltimore bed. -N"o 
coal has or can be sent from this mine for some time, the breaker not being quite 
ready ; and the shaft having been newly sunk, will take some time to have the 
mine properly opened. Mr. Mercur showed me the plan on wliich he purposes to 
have the same opened, which, should it be carried out, will undoubtedly prove a 
good one. 

This mine generates some fire-damp. There appears to be ample provision made 
to ventilate the same, as there is a fan 20 feet in diameter put up there of Mr. 
Weightman's design, and built by Snyder, Pottsville, Pa. 

Tlie fan is put up in the most substantial manner, and is being driven by an up- 
right engine, first motion, 18-inch cylinder. The engine house is built of stone, 
not a stick of timber, except what sustains the roof, to be seen in the building. 
The fan house adjoining is built nearly in the same manner. The fan is enclosed 
on the sides with stone and brick, the periphery with cast iron plates, and a sheet 
iroM stack 15 feet high. The head house of the shaft is composed of a few pieces 
of timber, braced and bolted together in a simple yet substantial manner, with 
an iron ladder firmly and permanently placed to ascend the same for the purpose 



173 

of oiling the sheaves, around which there is an iron railing around the top of the 
frame wliere it is necess-iry for any person to travel. It has no roof of any kind. 
The breaker is being built several hundred feet away from the shaft. 

The hoisting is being done by a pair of first motion engines of Snyder's, Potts- 
vlUe, Pa., make. Tlie cylinders of which are 24 inches diameter, 6 feet stroke. 
The drum is of cast iron, witli groves on it for the wire rope, whicli is 8 feet di- 
ameter in centre, and 12 feet at each end. There is a very powerful brake attached 
to the drum, the handle of which is conveniently placed to the engineer. This 
brake has already been found to be very useful and has been well tested ; on one 
occasion the engineer found tliat he had no control of his engine while hoisting, 
there being something the matter with the valve, he immediately applied his 
brakes, and stopped the engine until he had his engine again in order. 

Oak Wood shaft. — This is a new shaft, a second opening, that is being sunk 
about half a mile or more east of the present shaft, wliich is down now about 40 
feet. It has about 7UU feet to go to reach the coal it is so stated. F. Mercur, 
general superintendent ; John ISicholls, mining boss. 

Exeter shaft. — This shaft is located a short distance west of the West Pittstou 
old shaft, and is being sunk for a second opening for the same. It is down at 
present about 150 feet, or about half way dovvu to the coal. F. Mercur, general 
superintendent. 



Maltby's Shaft. 

This shaft is a new one, and is located a short distance below Wyoming towTi, 
near the turnpike road leading from Kingston to Pittston. It was began in 1871, 
remained idle through the winter, and work resumed again in the spring of 1872; 
but it has since been abandoned for the present. This is a circular shaft 20 feet 
in diameter, built of a brick wall 22 inches thick, set in cement, and coated with 
a heavy coat of cement on the outside, making a smootli surface to it, so that it 
may easier pass downv/ard through the sand and gravel. The wall aforemen- 
tioned is firmly bolted togetlier by a number of wrouglit-iron rods that are placed 
in the centre of the wall, and each 13 feet in length, at which distance a cast-iron 
plate — inches thick is placed in the wall around the whole shaft, it being cast in 
segments. Each of the rods are fastened through the cast-iron plate, and a dis- 
tance of 3 or 4 inches is left between the ends of the rods of the adjoining sections. 
The brick work is built in layers of 6 or 8 feet at a time, which is being done 
above the surface, the weight of the wall, &c., pressing it down into the sand or 
loose ground below, as the same was being hoisted by bucket or otherwise. 

There was a difficulty experienced in connection with the wall. When they 
had built about 70 feet of it it was found to be giving way. In the lower part a 
breach was discovered in the wall, being broken and apart several inches, which 
occurred by tlie breaking and crumbling of the cast-iron plates, caused probably 
by the maimer in which the rods were placed through the cast-iron plates, tlie 
whole weight being thrown upon that part of the plate between the top end of one 
rod and the bottom end of the other, together with the enormous side-pressure 
due from quicksand and water. The rock at this point is 100 feet l)elow the sur- 
face ; hence it is quite an hazardous undertaking in the manner proposed. It is 
now contemi)lated to start and build another wall inside the present, and con- 
tinue it until the rock is reached ; also, to commence a second shaft at a distance 
to make it a laAvful second opening for the former. The latter proposed shaft 
may be sunk much easier than the former, the g-round being sandy ; consequently 
the sinking of the first will lesson the quantity of water to be contended with in 
the second. The whole work done has been imder the supervision of Mr. O. C. 
Fowler, general superintendent for IS. C. Maltby, Es(i., proprietor. 

Malthy old mines. — These mines consist of the Maltby old shaft and a water 
level drift. The old shaft is located a short distance north of the new shaft, near 
the back road. It was abandoned by S. C. Maltby in 1870. Since that time 
Wilner & Co. leased the small vein above water level in the shaft, and have sub- 
sequently opened a drift on tlie mountain side, on the same vein tiiat was being 
worked in the shaft in 1870, and is supposed to be the vein next overlying the 
Pittston big vein. In the drift very little work has been done. Tliere are a few 
chambers opened on each, some of which are worked up and through into an old 
drift higher up on the mountain side. 



174 

The firm of Wilner & Co. having failed late in the fall, Mr. Maltby has taken 
hold of the whole concern once more, with the intention of driving a tunnel from 
the small vein now being worked in the shaft to the mider one. O. C. Fowler, 
general superintendent. 



MocANAQUA Coal Company's Mines. 

These mines are located near Shickshinny, and consist of three drifts. There 
has not been any work done in these mines during this year. These mines being 
situated as they are, several hundred feet above the level of the river, are easily 
ventilated, there being no gases to contend with ; the greatest danger is met by 
sudden falls of pieces of the roof, which is very irregular. 

Ventilation was produced by a small furnace, and sometimes only by natural 
means. A fan was in contemplation just before their stopping. A. J. Cohen, 
general superintendent ; Z. Kreiger, mining boss. 



Mineral Spring Coal Company's Mine. 

This colliery is located east of Wilkesbarre, Pa., and is bounded on the east by 
the Laurel run, and on the Avest by the Baltimore No. 3 mines. It is a slope on 
the Baltimore vein, split ; the two veins being worked separate, which are in 
some places 28 feet, and in other places only a few feet apart. The top vein gene- 
rates tire-damp in small quantities. 

Condition and ventilation.— This mine is tolerably safe, roof being generally 
good, and not much gas to contend with. Two furnaces are in use to create ven- 
tilation, both moving a current of about 34,000 cubic feet of air per minute. 
Amount at face of mine, 27,000 cubic feet. Numbef of persons employed inside 
68. There has been some improvements made in forcing more of the air through 
tlie faces of the working places than heretofore, by building stone and mortar 
stoppings instead of wooden ones, and other clianges. A. J. Davis, Esq., suc- 
cessor to Mr. J. K. Davis, general superintendent ; Wm. Cobly, mining boss. 



New Jersey Coal Company's Mines. 

These mines are located a short distance west of Ashley borough, and consist 
of two collieries Nos. 1 and 2. The No. 1 colliery is located about one mile west 
of Ashley, and consists of one slope and one tunnel. This colliery has not been 
worked any during the year 1872. F. Barnes, general superintendent. 

No. 2 colliery. — This colliery is located a little nearer the borough of Ashley, 
and consists of one drift opened on the Red Ash vein. There was a slope also 
upon the same vein, but it has been abandoned, and the coal is being taken all 
out the drift at present. There has been but very little wo^k done in this mine 
during the year 1S72, except supplying a local trade. They did not ship coal 
until the month of November. 

Ventilation. — This is rather scarce and has always been so in this mine. The 
vein has been very irregular in parts of tliis mine and the work done there is 
much of the same character. A small furnace is being used to create circula- 
tion. Frank Barnes, general superintendent ; Thos. Iluglies, mining boss. 



Northern Coal and Iron Company's Mines. 

These mines are five in number, but only four of them shipping any coal as 
yet. 

No. 1 shaft. — This colliery is located a short distance east of the borough of 
Plymouth. It is sunk 295 feet. There are two veins being worked in this shaft — 
the Lance and the Cooper. The lower or Cooper bed generates a small quantity 
of fire-damp. 



175 

Condition mid ventilation. — These workings are considered tolerably safe, except 
that there is bad roof on the Lance vein. Ventilation is produced by a fan 12 
feet in diameter, which exhausts from the mine, (in both veins,) about 50,000 
cubic feet of air per minute, but which is not being conveyed through the faces 
at the different parts of the mine as well as when I made my last report. The 
mines are being enlarged, hence there is a greater distance for the air to travel, 
which causes more friction and more pressure upon the stoppings, which, having 
been made of wood, are giving out, although not two years old many of them, 
causing heavy leakages. Number of persons employed in both veins inside, 130. 

C. Sliavar, acting general superintendent ; A. Weir, mining boss. 

iVb. 2 shaft. — This colliery is located east of and adjoining No. 1 shaft work- 
ings. The shafts are about 650 feet apart. This shaft is sunk to the depth of 
about 500 feet. There are two veins being worked, the Lawler and Wilkman veins 
having met with some irregularities of the seams, not much work has been done 
tiiere. They commenced shipping coal last spring, but again suspended every- 
thing except driving the main gangways and air-ways. 

Tlie ventilation is produced by a fan 12 feet in diameter, which is built similar 
to the fan at No. 1. No. of persons employed inside at present, 23. 

C. Sharar, general superintendent, (acting ;) A. Weir, mining boss. 

]!fo. 3 shaft. — This shaft is located about one mile east of No. 2 shaft. This 
^aft is sunk about 350 feet. It is intended to work the Cooper and Bennet veins. 
A second opening is being driven to it fiom the Boston shaft workings. 

Contractor — T. C, Harkness, Esq. 

JVb. 4 shaft. — This shaft (locally known as the Sweatland shaft) is located about 
oaie mile north of Plymouth. This colliery is an old one, but has had its shaft re- 
timbered and new carriages and engines provided, since the N. C. & I. Co. took 
posvsession. The vein worked in this shaft is the Bennet. 

Condition and ventilation. — The mine is generally considered a safe one ; roof 
tolerably good and no explosive gas generated. Ventilation is produced by a nat- 
ural draft, assisted by the steam exhaust, from a large steam pump which is 
placed at the foot of the air shaft. The ventilation is not satisfactory, and a fan 
has been promised which may be built in 1873. Present ventilation. — Amount of 
air at face of mine, 19,800 ; amount at outlet, 23,200 cubic feet per minute. 

Number of persons employed, 140. 

C. Sharar, general superintendent, (acting ;) M. Shonk, mining boss. 

JSfo. 5 shaft. — This colliery is located between No. 4 shaft and Plymouth. It is 
sunk through the Cooper and into the Bennet vein a depth of 235 feet. This col- 
liery has been idle for some time this year while changing their hoisting drum 
and putting on another new brake, which also has been condemned since. This 
is the third brake that has been condemned at this one place within two years, 
and a fourth is now being constructed. 

A brake should be convenient to apply and easily handled, either to be put on 
oo: taken off, so that the engineer becomes familiarized with the use of the same 
as he does with his engine handle. 

Condition and ventilation. — This mine is a very safe one ; has good roof and no 
explosive gas generated. The hoisting arrangements and safety appliances are of 
the best in use for safety, except the brake. Ventilation is produced by a fan 13 
feet in diameter. Amount of air at face of mine, 24,000 cubic feet ; amount at 
outlet, 39,200 cubic feet per minute. Number of persons employed, 102. 

C. Sliarar, general superintendent, (acting ;) C. Shonk, mining boss. 



Paxton Coal Company's Mines. 

These mines are located near Shickshinny, several hundred feet above the river. 
They consist of three drifts on the lied Ash vein. These mines have been idle a 
gre-.it deal of the time during the year 1872. 

Condition. — These mines are tolerably safe ; have good roof and they do not 
gejierate any fire-damp. Ventilation is produced by the use of small grates in- 
stead of furnaces. Amount of air at face of mine, 3,000 cubic feet ; amount at 
outlet, 6,000 cubic feet per minute ; number of persons employed inside, 79. 

J. H. Harman, general superintendent ; John Thomas, mining boss. 



176 

Egberts, Albrighton & Co.'s Mine. 

Chauncey mine.— This colliery is lociited west of and adjoining the Avondale 
workings. It is a tunnel opening, but lias a slope from the far end to reach the 
coal in the Ked Ash vein. 

Condition.— This is an old mine which has been worked, like many others in 
times past, without any regard to system or economy of mining. The vein is 
from 20 to 25 feet in thickness. It has some bad roof but does not generate fire- 
damp. 

Ventilation is produced by connecting their air current to a fan in the adjom- 
ing colliery west of them. It has not been satisfactory up to tliis time, and I am 
not able to see any great improvement likely to be made in the near f utiu-e. In 
the past many good promises have been made in regard to improvements and but 
few of them fulfilled. Amount of air at inlet, 17,000 cubic feet ; amount at face 
of mine, 4,800 cubic feet per minute ; number of persons employed inside, 100. 
John Albrighton, mining boss. 



Susquehanna Coal Company's Mines. 

These mines are located at East and West ISTanticoke, and consist of three drifts 
and two slopes at East ISTanticoke and one slope and one tunnel at West Nanticoke. 

East Nantivoke.— 1^ OS. 1 and 2 drifts are being worked loose to each otlier, and 
are ventilated by the same furnace. This mine is considered tolerably safe ; has 
good roof and does not generate explosive gas. 

Vcntilution.— This has always been at a low figure in this mine and was not 
much different when I last visited it, altliougha ])romise had been made for some 
improvements. Amount of air at face of mine, 8,000 cubic feet ; amount at out- 
let, 18,500 cubic feet per minute. 

Joseph Stickney, general superintendent ; O. Richards, mining superintendent; 
George T. Morgan, assistant mining superintendent; David Evans, mining boss. 

Slope No. 1.— This slope is adjoining the No. 1 drift below water level and on 
the same vein. 

Condition.— The roof is generally very good, and no explosive gasses being gen- 
erated, the mine is considered a safe one. 

Ventilation is produced by a fan 15 feet in diameter, which ventilates the whole 
mine tolerably good since last winter, when the return air- ways were enlarged, 
wliich increased the aggregate quantity of air from 13,000 to 35,000 cubic feet per 
minute. There are two lifts being worked, each being ventilated separately. 
Tim. Downing., mining boss. 

Honey Pot ilrift.— This drift is located a little south of 'No. 2 drift ; has about 
30 places working. Ventilated by a furnace. Amount of air at outlet, 8,000 cu- 
bic feet. S. Wilson, mining boss. 

Mo. 2 slope. — This mine is located a short distance west of the town of asTanti- 
coke. The vein which the slope is sunk upon is claimed by some to l)e one of the 
divided beds of the Baltimore vein. There is a tunnel from foot of slope south- 
ward to the overlying vein, which they also work through this tunnel and slope. 
The top vein generates a small quantity of fire-damp. Both tlie veins are being 
ventilated by a fan 15 feet in diameter ; the two currents being connected at fan. 
The vanes of this fan are different in shape to those used in other fans in tliis 
district of a similar make, such as the Avondale fan, &c. The difference is this : 
the vane is contracted at the point. It is claimed by some that such fans are ' 
superior to others, but I have not seen any data either for or against this argu- 
ment. 

Condition. — The roof is rather of a dangerous character. It is of a melting 
nature, hence very treacherous, in both veins ; the top vein also generates a small 
(luantity of fire-damp. 

Ventilation is tolerably good in both veins. Amount of air at face of mine, 
45,500 cubic feet ; amount at outlet, 62,800 cubic feet per minute. 

Geo. r. Faulkmyer, mining boss. 

West Naaticoke. — These mines comprise what was formerly known as the 
Harvey and the Grand Tunnel mines. Tiie Ilai-vey mine has been almost en- 
tirely abandoned, and a slope has been sunk whicli has three lifts, and two of 
them are connected with the old workings of the M'Farland shaft. Tlie head of 



177 

the slope lias Ijeen placed high enough so as to run the coal out level with the 
trestling leading to the top of the new breaker. 

The old Harvey breaker was torn down, and in its stead there has been built 
one of the largest coal breakers in this district. It has about 800,000 feet of lum- 
ber in it, which breaks the coal from this and the Grand Tunnel mine. The vein 
being worked is the Red Ash, or as often called the "Grand Tunnel bed." 

Condition. — The general condition of this mine is considered safe. 

Ventil(Uio7i is produced by a fan 15 feet in diameter, phiced in the old M'Far- 
land shaft, and is large enough to exhaust a large quantity of air if properly ar- 
ranged. The lower lift just opening has not a second opening, but it is being 
driven to connect with No. 2 lift. Amount of air at inlet 18,500 cubic feet per 
minute. Number of persons employed 40. John Parry, mining boss. 

Grand Tunnel 7)u'ne.— This mine is a tunnel, and adjoining the Harvey mine on 
the west, and bounded on the east by the Chauncey mine, and working the same 
vein. The old workings of this mine have been nearly all abandoned. A few 
places are being worked near the crop of the vein in the Harvey old workings, the 
coal from which is brought to the surface through this tunnel. Besides the above, 
a new work has been opened by driving a tunnel to a portion of the vein out off 
by a fault north of the old workings. 

Condition and vetUilcUion. — The roof of the vein when in its regular place is 
very good but it is not so here, hence no dependence can be placed on the roof, 
the whole being more or less confused. 

Ventilation is produced in summer by connecting to the M'Farland shaft's fan 
and in winter by natural draught, (the mine being located high on the mountain 
side,) neither of which is satisfactory, and a fan or furnace is promised to be 
erected in the spring of 1873. 

The coal from this mine is now being taken to the new breaker at the Harvey 
mine, as the old breaker that was here was abandoned at the time of the boilev 
explosion in 1871. 

Jos. Stickney, general superintendent •, O. Richards, mining superintendent ; 
Geo. T. Morgan, assistant mining superintendent ; John Parry, mining boss, 



Watekmak, Beaver & Co.'s Mines. 

These mines are located just north of Kingston and consist of one shaft hoist- 
ing coal, and one shaft now being sunk which is down about 50 feet ; also a slope 
sunk on the out-cropping of the vein located about four-fifths of a mile nortli of 
the main shaft. It is also the second opening to the main shaft. The main sliaft 
is 385 feet deep in which two veins are being worked, supposed to be the Baltimrre 
vein divided. 

Condition and ventilation. — These mines are usually considered very safe„ hyXY-, 
ing a good roof in both veins and do not generate explosive gases. Yentifii^tiou' 
is produced by a fan 12 feet in diameter, put up this year. It is similaji; in^'con-' 
struction to the Avondale fan. This fan has to ventilate both veins, bjUi^ ii is too 
small to do so in a satisfactory manner, especially during the hot wefi,tjher. It is 
located on much higher ground than the top of the downcast, besic^s, being. plaped 
at BO great a distance away from the working part of the mine. 

The air is divided east and west ; also one split for the top y«ini. The top vein 
workings had to be stopped for a time in the forepart of las^ sumnjer foi;- "vyApt ot. 
better ventilation, during which time there were sever^i^ iniprovenients. hiade,' 
such as replacing the old wooden stoppings with ston©. and mortar ones, and 
making many new cross-cuts between the different p^rls, that w-ere in need of 
such, besides making a new communication thro,^gh the rock between the two 
veins for a new and shorter return air-way. 

There are two parallel places being driven i'fona the weste^'n end tv? ^he, oldi 
workings in the lower vein to connect with the new shaft, now bein^ aunkj aiic\ 
this will form a second opening for said new shaft. I am, com,pe^l«^ to S;tate that 
there has been but very little effort made towards the proper ventil^tiiOji of this, 
mine until very recently, caused either from the want ofknawledge of the mvties 
in charge or otherwise, by disregarding the plain requireu^ents of the ventilation 
law, together with the many complaints and suggestions o^ the mine Inspector. 
Amount of air at face of mine, 18,900 cubic feet per minute • amount at outlet, 
28,300 cubic feet per minute ; number of persona employed, 59, Daniel Edwards^, 
Esq., general superintendent : M. Rosser, mining boas. 
13 



178 

No. 1 slope. — This slope, as stated before, is located at the northern end of the 
second opening to the old shaft, and is on the same vein ; it is now ready to hoist 
coal, having its machinery, &c., in working order ; some coal is being hoisted at 
present for local sales ; but the new breaker and the road leading thereto are not 
quite ready. 

iSTo. 2 fihaft. — This shaft is located north-west of the old shaft some distance, 
and is intended to work the coal from the north and west as far as their jurisdic- 
tion goes. Tiie work is being done by direction of the general superintendent, 
Daniel Edwards, Esq. 



WiLKESBARBE AND SeNECA LAKE COAI, COIPANY'S MiNES. 

This colliery is located on the plank road near the Hillman old colliery. The 
same vein is being worked as formerly was worked by Ilillman & Son, hence called 
the Hillman vein. Besides the above, there has been another vein tunneled into, 
but not much coal worked out from it as yet. 

The surface opening is a slope, which is sunk about GOO.feet below the old Hill- 
man (or water level) gangway. One lift is just opened out at bottom of slope. 
Tlie other lift 300 feet below the water level is the one in regard to which we had 
so mucli law in regard to the second opening. This matter having been well ven- 
tilated tlirough the papers from time to time, I do not deem it necessary to go 
into the details in this report, but suffice it to say, that the action of the inspec- 
tor was sustained by the decision of the county court, which has since been 
affirmed by the Supreme C^ourt. 

That part of the mine just referred to has been idle for many months this year, 
but is now being worked in compliance with tlie requirements of the ventilation 
law. There is considerable gas generated in that part of the mine, but with or- 
dinary care on the part of tlie mine boss and the employees, tliere should be no 
serious difficulty in ventilating the place. 

There is some work being done on the old water level lift. It is an oM working, 
find is difficult to get any extra current to circulate the face of the mine. There 
i&^, small furnace being used at present to ventilate the same. 

}''e,ntiUUinn is produced for tlie lower working by a fan 12 feet diameter. 
.iKixioiiint of air at face of mine 10,550 cubic feet per minute ; amount at outlet 
Ls}2,0U<i) cubic feet. 

WX)^- M'- M.affet, general superintendent ; J. Teasdale, mining boss. 



WiLii'ESBABRE Coal and Ikon Cojifany's Mines. 

The mines operated by this company are located some on the north and others 
south of the Susquehanna river, and consist of 4 shafts, 7 slopes, 1 tunnel and 1 
drift producing coal, exclusive of two drifts abandoned, Holleuback No. 1 and 
the Ilarttord water level drifts. In addition to the above, there are 4 shafts, 3 
tunnels and 2 slopes now being opened or sunk. 

No. — tunnel.— This is a new opening. It is located at Espy, a small village 
between Warrior Run and Wanamie. It has been driven southward into the 
base of the mt)untain about 1,500 feet. The intention is to reach the Red Ash 
vein. It is discontinued for the present. 

No. — ISlopc. — This slope also is located at Espy. It is a new one ; just being 
sunk, and is down at present about 200 feet. It is opened on the cropping of a 
vein just outside of the tunnel entrance. No breaker has keen built at this place 
yet. 

Geo. Parrish, general superintendent. 

No. 9 skaft. — This shaft is located within the borough of Sugar Notch. It is 
sunk into d small vein called the five feet, from which a tunnel has been driven 
into what ls generally called the Ross vein here. 

This has beeu rather a troublesome mine to ventilate, on account of having 
met with so juany large rock faults. Besides that, their fan is placed at so great 
a distance a«'ay from the working that much of its power is expended by friction 
outside of the working part of the mine. Notwithstanding this, the mining boss, 



179 

Mr. Eobt. Looney, and his assistant, have made better use of tlie quantity of air 
they have than two-thirds of the mining bosses in this district,?', e., the air is 
better Icept up to the face of the workings and thereby makes it safer and healthier 
for their men. Very few persons have been injured there in any way, and es- 
pecially by burning, during the last year. 

Mackinery . — There has been much trouble in having the safety appliances sat- 
isfactory, such as safety catches, covers on carriages and an adequate brake on 
the hoisting drum. There have been three brakes condemned at tliis place dur- 
ing the last two years ; the fourth is on the drum at present and gives good 
satisfaction; it is a compound lever brake without any dead weight attached. 
The superintendent of this company has decided to put on in future a different 
kind of safety catches from the ones in use at present ; they are to be similar to 
the kind in use at Avondale shaft. 

Robert Looney, mining boss. 

Bed Ash tunnel. — This is a small opening or mine located south of the borough 
of High, on the mountain side. The tunnel has been driven into the lied Ash 
vein. Tliere are two lifts being worked in this mine when in operation, but it 
has not been worked much during tliis year. 

Condition and i-eniilation. — This mine may be considered a safe one. It has 
good rock roof and no explosive gases are evolved. The ventilation is produced 
by tlie use of a furnace which is located above the workings in the outlet, the 
results depending much upon the temperature of the atmosphere outside. This 
mine has been worked by contract. Mr. J. Lovel, contractor. 

Robt. Looney, mining boss. 

No. 10 slope.— This mine is located a sliort distance north of the Xo. 9 shaft at 
Sugar Notcli. It is a new colliery, the slope now being sunk about 600 feet and 
not yet graded, but will be ready to commence opening gangways and drive for 
a second opening early next spring. 

Gee. H. Farrish, general superintendent; Thomas Cassedy, assistant superin- 
tendent; Adam Harkness, mining boss. 

Hariford Slope No. 1. — This slope is located near Ashland borough and sunk on 
the Baltimore vein. The workings on the same lift at the slope have been worked 
out and another slope has been sunk on the same vein, commencing at a point 
several hundred feet east of the foot of No. 1. The coals from this slope are being 
hoisted to the surface through slope No. 1. There is also a tunnel driven from 
the Baltimore vein into the Ross vein, and one lift is being worked there, and its 
coals are taken out through said tunnel and hoisted through No. 1 slope. 

Condition and rentilation. — These parts of the mine are considered tolerably safe. 
Ventilation is produced by a fan 15 feet in diameter, in the Ross vein, and by 
natural means, with the assistance of the heat and steam from boilers in No. 3 
slope, on the Baltimore vein. Number of persons employed in No. 3 slope 36. 
John Clinton, mining boss. 

No. 2 slope. — This slope is located south of No. 1, but is started fi-om the inside 
on the water level gangway of the old tunnel, through which its coals are brought 
to the surface ; it is sunk on the Ross vein, and through it the coals from one 
lift is being hoisted ; the lift below being worked through the tunnel from the 
Baltimore vein. 

Conditio)!, ami ventilation. — 'These workings are toleralily safe. The roof is 
good, but there are small quantities of fire-damp generated in the lower lifts in 
both veins. Ventilation is produced in the Ross vein, both lifts, by a fan 15 feet 
in diameter. The air is divided east and west at the low^er tunnel. This is then 
coursed through both lifts, and as a matter of course the air cannot but be very 
foiil before it traverses the whole route, an unavoidable result where the system 
of coursing tlie air for so long a distance is adopted. It is an old working, and' 
badly arranged for a systematic ventilation of the same. Geo. H. Parrish, Esq., 
general superintendent ; Mr. William Tiffeny, assistant superintendent in charge ; 
Mr. John T. Griffith, mining superintendent : Thomas Harkness, mining boss. 

Slope No. 8 — This slope is located east of and adjoining the Hartford niines. It 
is sunk on the Baltimore vein. This colliery is nearly worked out, there being 
but some few places at work robbing pillars, &c., preparatory to abandonment. 
Ventilation is produced by a fan 15 feet in diameter. Number of persons em- 
ployed inside, 20. Samuel Marsdon, contractor, and other officials same as over 
the Hartford mines. 

Empire No. 2 sliaft. — This shaft is located south of Wilkesbarre and near the 
Empire mines. It is 280 feet deep and sunk into the Red-Ash vein. This shaft 
has not been worked any since July, 1870, when it was stopped by the mspector. 



180 

not having a second opening. The company began to drive for a second opening, 
but the driving was suspended artd^has remained idle ever since. 

ISlope Mo. 2. — This slope is located close to the No. 2 shaft. It is sunk on the 
Baltimore vein. Its upper workings having been worked out, it was continued 
down and connected to the west side of the Empire shaft workings. The coals 
from the west gangway workings are being hoisted through this slope. Besides 
this, a slope has been sunk still deeper, which is located a short distance west of 
the foot of No. 2 slope, and is called No. 4 slope. The coals from this No. 4 slope 
are also hoisted through No. 2 slope to the surface. 

Condition. — This mine cannot be called a very safe one. It has tolerably good 
roof in most parts, but the vein is thick and has various pitches, «. c, iu different 
parts of the mine. A number of persons have been injured by falls of coal, &c., 
and a good many by being burnt by explosions of fire-damp. Some of them have 
been crippled for life, others having lost their lives, and caused in divers ways- 
some from their own carelessness, others from ignorance of the elements they had 
to contend Avith. 

The officers in charge have generally exercised a great deal of care in the man- 
agement of this mine, and in order to try and lessen the number of accidents 
from explosions of fire-damp they employed a fire-boss for night as well as for day. 
A set of special rules have been drawn up and are being put into practice, which 
work well. 

Ventilation. — The ventilation is produced by a fan 15 feet in diameter, which is 
placed inside of the mine and discharges in the old workings Amount of air at 
face of mine, 22,000 cubic feet ; amount at outlet, 29,000 cubic feet per minute. 
Number of persons employed inside, 159. 

George H. Parrish, general superintendent ; John T. Griffith, mining superin- 
tendent ; Christ Xonrad, mining boss. 



Empire Shaft Workings. '• 

This shaft is located a short distance south of the city of Wilkesbarre. It is 
320 feet deep and sunk to the Hillman (or 7 feet) vein. The workings in this vein 
consist of about 30 places and were lying idle from July, 1871, until last spring, 
having been stopped for want of sufficient ventilation, when there was a ten feet 
diameter fan put up to ventilate it, and this small fan was put up against the re- 
monstrances of the Inspector, as it was very evident that it would be too small to 
produce the circvdation required. It was started and gave as good results as 
could be expected, but not as much as was claimed it would give, by some of the 
officers of the company, and after having been in operation but six months, it has 
been replaced by a fan fifteen feet in diameter, and Avhich gives very good satis- 
faction. The vein worked is a small one in comparison to the Baltimore vein. 
It is hard to mine and has some few wet places, the whole requiring a great deal 
of powder to loosen the coal and in consequence makes much powder smoke, 
which requires a strong current of fresh air to carry the same away. This vein 
also generates a small quantity of fire-damp. 

Amount of air at inlet in 1870, 3,000 cubic feet per minute ; amount of air at 
inlet in year 1872, as per report, 29,600 cubic feet per minute ; amount at face of 
mine, 9,200 cubic feet per minute. Number of persons employed inside, 84. 

A short distance south-west of the shaft a tunnel has been driven into the Bal- 
timore vein, and on the east side of which No. 5 (an inside) slope has been sunk 
where two lifts are being worked and opening a third at present. 

Condition. — This part of the mine has good roof and does not give off a very 
great quantity of explosive gas. Ventilation is produced by the action of the fire 
under the steam boilers, together with the assistance of the steam exhaust from 
the hoisting engine. Amount of air at inlet, 27,900 cubic feet ; amount at face of 
mine, 9,050 cubic feet per minute. Number of persons employed, 132. 

Safety appliances and niea-hincrri at shaft. — These are all of the best kind in use 
in the district except the safety catches on the hoisting carriages, which are soon 
to be changed. There has been a large bull pump put up in 1871, of 500 horse 
power. This year a pair of first motion engines have been put up to hoist coal, 
which were built by Snyder, Pottsville. The engine, its drum, brake, &c., are of 
the same make as tiiose put up at the Prospect shaft by the Luzerne coal and iron 
company, previously described, of a smaller size. Too much praise cannot be 



181 

given to the officers of the company in regard to the manner in whicli they en- 
deavor to protect their employees while ascending and descending this stiaft. 
They have the required gates on the shaft head. Besides that they keep a man 
there from the time the first persons descend in the morning until tlie same are 
all hoisted in the evening, and not more than ten persons are ever allowed to de- 
scend or ascend at a time. Each person must procure a ticket before getting on 
the carriage, if there are but ten. There have been some special rules drawn up 
at this mine in regard to places generating explosive gases which are much needed 
to become general through the district in addition to these few. 

George H. Parrish, general superintendent; John T. Griffith, mining superin- 
tendent • Lewis S. Jones, mining boss. 

Slo2}e Ifo. 7.— This slope is located west and adjoining the ISTo. 4 slope and sunk 
down from the old Stanton slope through the western end of the No. 4 gangway. 
It is at present about seven feet long and below the No. 4 workings, and is in- 
tended to connect with the Audenreid shaft for a second opening for the same. 
There are over 2,000 feet of rope at present on the hoisting drum. 

This slope has all the appearance of becoming an extraordinary fiery place. It 
is being driven by contract by Messrs. John Haycoke, James H. Williams and 
Morgan R. Morgans. J. T. Grittith, mining superintendent. 

IloUanback^ No. 3, sZope.— This slope is located within the south-east corner of 
the city limits, opened on the Hillman vein, and is 12 feet deep. This slope has 
not been worked for several months, except preparing to sink a new lift and 
further preparing a new road to take the coal from there in future to a new breaker 
which is being built east of the slope and near the Diamond shaft. 

Condition.— This vein is usually very safe ; has good bone roof and can easily 
be timbered, and does not generate much fire-damp. Ventilation is produced by 
a fjin 15 feet in diameter. Amount of air at inlet, 30,000 cubic feet ; at face of 
mines, 18,000 cubic feet per minute; number of persons employed, 60. William 
Dickie, mining boss. 

HoUanback, No. 2, sZope. — This slope is located a short distance south-east of 
the No. 3, but it is opened on the Baltimore vein. It has another slope inside 
which supplies it with coal from the lower workings. 

(Jondition. — This mine is a safe one ; has good roof generally and does not evolve 
any fire-damp as yet, but no telling how soon it may be met with. 

Ventilation is produced by a fan 15 feet in diameter, which is located on the 
surface near the head of the slope, and has to draw the air through an air- way 
made along the main slope through the old workings, and being a large vein and 
an occasional crush on it, it is hard to keep in good order ; however, the ventila- 
tion is better than it was prior to the fan being put up, but the mine cannot Ije 
called a well ventilated muie up to the present time. Usually it has considerable 
powder smoke along the faces of the chambers. The parties in charge are very 
sparing in drivhig cross-cuts from one place to another, and not enough of its air 
forced through the faces of the chambers, caused by too few cross-cuts and check 
doors on main gangway. Amount of air at out-let, 30,675 cubic feet ; at face of 
mine, 20,716 cubic feet per minute ; number of persons employed inside, 104. M. 
B. Williams, mining boss. 

Diamond shaft.— This shaft is located a short distance east of the city limits, 
is 300 feet deep* and sunk into the Baltimore vein. This mine has a good roof, 
with the exception of a few places were the vein pitches rapidly and the coal 
very full of slips ; but has considerable gas in some parts of the mine. It is an 
extensive mine, has an inside slope, sunk down west of the shaft towards the 
Hollanback new shaft ; a new lift is being opened at the distance of 300 feet 
below the old gangway; besides this the slope is being continued downward. 
This slope has symptoms of considerable gas in the coal. , 

Ventilation is produced by a natural draught, assisted by the heat from steam 
lx)ilersand steam exhaust from hoisting engines placed inside to hoist from inside 
slope. The amount of air is sufficient in this mine to do the work, but it is coursed 
in one single current though the whole mine, which causes a great deal of foul 
air and smoke to linger along the chambers, the vein being about IS or 20 feet 
thick in some parts, and the men having to wheel the coal for long distances, this 
smoke makes it both unpleasant and unhealthy and in some instances unsafe. In 
otlier particulars this is well provided with the necessary safety arrangements, 
ilnd first class doors, and as many of them, such as check doors, as can be of any 
advantage. The air-ways are large, and the stoppings are being built at present 
with stone and mortar instead of wooden ones as heretofore. Amount of air at 
inlet 19,360 cubic feet, at face of mine 15,600 cubic feet per minute ; number of 
persons employed inside, 220. Leopole Stutz, mining boss. 



182 

Audenreid shaft. — This shaft is located south-west of the city. It is just being 
sunk, is down at present over 700 feet, and will probably reach the Baltimore vein 
at about 800 feet from surface. There are all indications of this becoming a fiery 
mine when once opened ; it will have its second oi)ening ready by the time it is 
down. Kendrick Bros., contractors ; Jolm T. Griffith, mining superintendent. 

Hollanhack shaft. — This is a new shaft located near the S. R. R., and within 
the city limits. It is down at present about 350 feet, it is to go to the Baltimore 
vein. There are indications of large quantities of gas in this shaft also. The 
second opening to it will be made from the Hollanback, 'No. 3, in the Ilillman vein, 
and from the Diamond shaft for the Baltimore vein. Murry & Son, contractors ; 
John J. Griffith, mining superintendent. 

South Wilkesbarre shaft. — This is a new shaft, located also within the city limits. 
It has not been worked of late ; only preparing to start, having had its head 
house, engine house, &c., burnt down a short time ago. It is down now about 
100 feet, and is intended to reach the Baltimore vein. Smyth & Son, contractors ; 
John T. Griffith, mining boss. 

Lance shaft. — This colliery is located near Plymouth borough. It was sunk 
last year from the 1 .ance vein to the Bennet vein. Gangways, air- ways, &c. , have 
been started in the Cooper bed or the top bed of tlie Baltimore vein. There is to 
be a second opening made between this and the Dodson shaft, by driving gang- 
ways from both sides to meet. The old 8 feet fan has been replaced by a 15 feet 
fan. They are changing some of the hoisting machinery and remodeling the 
breaker, and expect to be ready to ship coal in 1873. 

The plan upon which tlie bottom and turnouts of this shaft is bemg opened out, 
promises to be an improvement upon the old style of opening out around the bot- 
tom and tunnels of mines in the past, if properly carried out, with some slight 
changes as suggested by the inspector, it will give a fair chance to ventilate the 
raine properly by having double doors, so that tlie air currents on either side need 
not be cut from one end of the week to the other, besides having hundreds of feet 
on either side of tlie shaft without a door, hence free to pass from the obstructions 
of so many doors clo.se to foot of shaft. -John T. Griffith, mining superintendent ; 
Wm. Smyth, assistant ; Geo. H. Parrish, general superintendent; F. Tiffeney, 
assistant. 

Dodson shaft. — This shaft is located in Plymouth borough and is 280 feet deep. 
It is sunk into the Bennet vein, in which vein the work has been opened out. 

There has been considerable trouble experienced in opening this mine. A heavy 
stream of water v/as cut in the west gangway, which compelled the abandonment 
of the same, having cut the same twice in this same vein, and a similar one in the 
overlying vein, from which cause it was found necessary to abandon the west 
gangways in each vein for the present. It was my opinion from the outside in- 
dication that it was doubtful as regards the safety of opening a gangway west- 
ward on the Cooper vein without first ascertaining how much rock covering it 
had, as it might be that the rock roof of the same could be replaced by a sand 
bed which, if struck, would let in the water from the river bed and drown out the 
mine in a short time, and in all probability sacrifice many lives. Accordingly, I 
called the attention of the company's ofiicials to the matter and requested them 
to find out the thickness of rock overlying the vein at this point. When the time 
arrived for them to start the gangways westward, they did not pay any attention 
to the matter of how much rock roof they had, but pushed on their gangways. 
They did not go far, however, before they struck a water seam and which caused 
them to abandon the same. This shows how much unnecessary risk of loosing 
many lives and destroying much valuable property is often run for the sake of 
saving a few paltry dollars and this even after being cautioned of the danger, &c. 
Otherwise the mine is tolerably safe, considering that there is some explosive gas 
generated and that the Cooper vein has some very dangerous roof, but it being 
very well timbered. 

Ventilation is produced by a fan 15 feet in diameter, and is tolerably good at 
present, having had several important improvements made this year in the way 
of making new air bridges of large size, and splitting the air into several cur- 
rents ; besides this they have the stone and mortar system of building their stop- 
pings, instead of the wooden ones, as heretofore, and which, on the whole, makes 
it a well ventilated mine. 

All the safety appliances are in good order, such as bridle-chains, safety- 
catches, speaking-tube, gates at head of shaft and an adequate brake on the 
hoisting drum ; besides, there is a convenient way to travel up and down the 
second opening shaft by a first-class set of ladders. Amount of air at inlet, 



183 

25,500 cubic feet; amount at face of mine, 23,300 cubic feet per minute. Num- 
l)€r of persons employed inside, 80. 

Daniel E^ese, mining boss ; Jno. T. Griffith, mining superintendent ; Wm. 
Smyth, assistant ; Geo. II. Parrish, general superintendent ; F. Tiffeney, as- 
sistant. 

Gaylord shpc^ — This slope is located in Plymouth l)orough. It is sunk across 
the measures and has its bottom opened out on the Cooper bed and has a tunnel 
into the Bennet vein. The body of its present workings are in the Bennet seam, 
the Cooper not proving as good as it does in other localities. On tlie western end 
of the mine the two seams, Bennet and Cooper, are united into one large vein, 
not having more than six inches of slate between the two beds. 

Condition.— This mine is a veiy safe one, has good roof and does not generate 
any fire-damp. Many important improvements have been made in this mii>e 
during the time that this company has had possession of It, such as the putting 
up of a fan 15 feet m diameter; the laying of new roads; building of stone and 
mortar stoppings instead of wooden ones, as heretofore; new air- ways, cut 
through tlie solid rock, and a n«w set of steps put in alongside the slope for a 
traveling road, with a row of ten-inch timber thickly set between the traveling 
and the hoisting road, and planked on the side nearest the car with two-inch 
plank; this makes a tolerably good traveling road, about as good as can be made 
when placed in the sloi>e as this is — a very unfit place to have a traveling road if 
it can be avoided ; but when a slope is sunk through rock it is difficult to over- 
come this matter. 

Ventilation is tolerably good. Amount of air at inlet, 35,200 cubic feet per 
minute ; amount at face of mtne, 32,600 cubic feet per minute ; number of persons 
employed inside, 115. Georgp Pickton, mining boss ; Jolin T. Griffith, mining 
superintendent ; William Smyth, assistant ; George H. Parrish, general superin- 
tendent; F. Titfeney, assistant. 

Were shaft. — This is a new shaft just being sunk. It is down about 50 feet, and 
ready to put in the permanent timber. Dimensions, 46X13 feet. It is intended 
to reach the Red- Ash vein with this shaft at a depth of 50 feet. Officers in charge, 
Smyth, Griffith, Tiffeney and George Parrish. 

The following new breakers are being built by the Wilkesbarre coal and iron 
company : One at Sugar Notch, which is almost ready for operation at present ; 
one at the Diamond shaft, which will be ready early next spring. Besides tlie 
above, the Lance breaker, now being remodelled, will be ready for operation next 
spring. 



LOCAL OPERATIONS. 

There are some nine of these that I have a record of ; most of them, however, 
work only during the winter months. 

Messrs. Davis & Co.'s Colliery. 

This mine is located a short distance north of the West Pittston old shaft. It 
is a small opening just being opened on tlie water level to supply a local trade. 
Employs 14 persons inside and 9 outside. Mr. Joseph Davis, mine boss. 



Payne Petybone's Drift. 

This is a small drift located on the back north 'of the town of Wyoming. It 
is worked only during winter to supply a local trade. Wm. Jones, mining boss. 



Moss & Pollock's Drift and Slope. 

These mines are located a short distance west of the Petybone drift, on the back 
road, and work only during the winter months to supply a local trade. 



184 

L. Myers' Coal Bed. 

This is a small water level drift, adjoining that of Pollock & Co/s. It has not 
been worked any during 1872. 



Stark & Sirkel's Drift. 

This is a small drift located about a mile west of the Maltby shaft, on the back 
road between Pittston and Kingston, and is worked only during winter to supply 
a local trade. 



Georoe Eice's Drift. 

This drift is located north of the Hutcheson colliery, opened on the Red Ash 
vein. It is being worked only to supply a local trade. 



J. D. & H. M. Hoyt's Drift. 

This drift is located north of the Waterman and Beaver mines. It is ofnly 
worked to supply a local trade. 



Goodwtn's Drift. 

This small opening is located just north of the "Waterman and Beaver new 

slope. It has not been worked any during 1872. 



Warden's Drift. 

This drift is located within a few hundred feet of the Goodwin drift. It is only 
worked to supply a local trade during the winter months. 



Improvements. 

The following improvements are in progress in the district : There are 10 new 
shafts being sunk, besides one that was begun in 1870 that has not been worked 
auy during 1872. There are five new slopes and four new tunnels. There are 
seven new breakers that have never broke any coal that will be ready to do so 
early in 1873, and one that has been remodeled, &c., which broke no coal during 
1872, will be ready early in 1873. 



Pans. 



There have been twelve new fans built and put into operation during this 
year and one now under construction at Mill Creek mines, as follows : 

No. 1. — Wanamie, No. 2 slope fan, April 15 feet in diameter. 

No. 2. — Nottingham shaft fan, May 15 feet in diameter. 

No. 3. — Gaylord slope fan, May 15 feet in diameter. 

No. 4. — Waterman & Beaver's fan, July 12 feet in diameter. 

No. 5. — Hutcheson & Co. 's fan, July. .". 15 feet in diameter. 

No. 6. — Conyngham shaft fan, July 20 feet in diameter. 



185 

No. 7. — Empire shaft, Hillman vein fan, July 8 feet in diameter. 

No. 8. — Wanamie, No. 3 slope fan, July 15 feet in diameter. 

No. 9. — Henry shaft fan, August 18 feet in diameter. 

No. 10. — Prospect sliaft fan, September 20 feet in diameter. 

No. 11. — Lance shaft fan, October 15 feet in diameter. 

No. 12. — Empire, Hillman vein, replaced November 15 feet in diameter. 



Coal Productiok of the District. 

The quantity sent to market during 1871, was 3,000,000 tons. 

The quantity sent to market during 1872, was 3,250,000 tons. 

Increase during 1872 250,000 tons. 



Number of Persons Employed ik the District. 

Employed in the year 1871, were 9,870 

Employed in the year 1872, were 9,807 

Decrease during 1872 63 

The above number of persons being divided as follows : 

Inside men 5,326 

Inside boys , 949 

Total inside 6,275 

Outside men 1 ,807 

Outside boys 1,725 

Total outside 3,532 

Total number of men 7,133 

Total number of boys 2,674 

Total number of both 9,807 

Total number of actual miners employed 2,450 

The above exhibits that there were sent to market 331.4 tons of coal to each 
person employed at the mines, and 1,326.5 to each miner employed in 1872 ; hence^ 
if we divide tfie amount produced during the whole year by 313, the number or 
working days in one year, it will=1.0575 tons per day per person, and divide 1,326 
again by the number of actual miners employed, or who call themselves such>= 
4.236 tons per day to each miner. Now, then, it is well known that much time is 
always being lost each year about the mines from various causes, and the average 
number of days worked in this district during 1872 were about 220 ; therefore, to 
ascertain the amount of coal produced per person employed, the amount should 
be divided by 220 days, instead of 313, which^l.5 tons per day, and for each 
minea: employed=about 6 tons per day for the year 1872. 

Casualties. 

There have been 40 lives lost in the district during the year, causing 21 widows 
and 61 orphans; besides the above, 121 persons were seriously injured, many of 
whom will be crippled for life ; of the above number of deaths, 37 killed, or died 
from injuries received inside the mines, and 3 were killed, or died from injuries 
received outside the mines. 

In 1871 the ratio of deaths in and around the mines, was 1 deatli for every 
56,000 tons of coal sent to market, and 1 serious accident to every 32,000 tons. In 
1872 the ratio is one death to every 81,250 tons of coal sent to market, and 1 se- 
rious injury to each 26,859 tons sent to market. 



186 

Fiutlier, the death rate of persons employed is as follows : 
In 1871 number of persons employed inside, 6,380 ; number of lives 

lost, 47 73 per cent. 

In 1871 number of persons employed outside, 3,490; number of lives 

lost, 6 17 per cent. 

Total number of persons employed inside and outside, 9,870 : total 

number of deaths, 53 53 per cent. 

In 1872 number of persons employed inside, 6,275 ; number of lives 

lost, 37 59 per cent. 

In 1872 number of persons employed outside, 3,532 ; number of lives 

lost, 3 84 per cent. 

Total number of persons employed inside and outside, 9,807 ; total 

number of deaths, 40 4 per cent. 

Total nimiber of persons employed in 1871 w^ere 9,870 ; death rate. . .53 per cent. 
Total number of i>ersons employed in 1872 were 9,807 ; death rate. . .4 per cent. 
Decrease in 1872 was 63 ; decrease 1 per cent. 



In regard to the above list of casualties, I would state that a large percentage 
of the same have occurred through the carelessness and ignorance of the victims 
tliemselves, in not obeying the rules or orders given them by their bosses, and 
often from not knowing the result or consequence of their disobedience until too 
late to remedy the same. Again, a heavy percentage of the list should be at- 
tributed to tlie carelessness and unfitness of mining bosses ; many of them acting 
upon the principle of making money for their employers, tliough neglecting the 
safety of persons under their care, the lives and limbs of employees being of 
secondary consideration. 

I am of opinion that a mining boss should be a person of much experience in 
mining, should be possessed of at least an ordinary education, and should be a 
man of energy and much executive ability ; without these qualities he cannot 
succeed in putting liis plans into operation in an effective manner. 

There is one reason in particular Avhy we have so many examples in the posi- 
tions referred to, and that is this : The companies take pride in having a large 
number of general superintendents and their assistants, mining foremen and their 
assistants, all of whom draw large salaries; but the actual mining boss can be a 
low salaried officer, as there are always plenty of applicants for such positions at 
low rates ; again he must take all the orders given him from those higlier in rank, 
and execute them, no matter how wrong they may be ; if he puts them in prac- 
tice, and they do not answer their purpose, he is discharged and another cheap 
boss employed. The competent men look on and are too much discouraged and 
disgusted to try for a position, as they know they could not stand sucli abuse from 
any source. In this way very little inducement is held out to a good class of men 
to become mining bosses. 

Machinery. 

The number of steam engines, boilers, &c., in use in the district, are about the 
same as when last reported. In regard to steam boilers, I must say that it is a 
wonder that we do not have more accidents from explosions, as the present system 
of inspection is not adequate. It seems to me that there is as much need of a 
boiler inspector in Luzerne and Carbon counties, as there is in the counties of 
Schuylkill and Columbia, where they have such an officer already. 

Inquests. — I would suggest that if any change be made in the mining law, that 
the manner of holding inquests be uniform. It is very unsatisfactory in this 
county at present ; no inquests are being held unless the coroner or justice of the 
peace sees fit to do so, and that is seldom. The reason of which is, some difficulty 
exists in regard to pay for holding the same, on account of a county law passed in 
1866. This should be remedied. It is true tliat the inspector has power to hold 
an investigation to learn the cause of the accident for the purpose of making a 
record of the same, but in many instances this is not satisfactory \o the inspector, 
or to the parties interested. 

Prosecutions. 

The case of the Commonwealth, upon the relation of T. M. "Williams, against 
"the Wilkesbarre and Seneca Lake coal company," mentioned in last years re- 
port, was pushed the present year to successful issue. The prayer of tlie bill was 
for an injunction to restrain the defendants from working a lower lift in a slope, 



187 

to which there was but one outlet. The defendants contending that two open- 
ings communicating with upper lifts was virtual compliance with the words of 
the act, which only requires them to be in communication with every seam or 
stratum of coal for the time being at work. The court below, Hon. G. M. Hard- 
ing, president judge, did not so view the law, and upon appeal to the Supreme 
Court, he was amply sustained and an injunction granted. 

In addition to the above, two persons, one a mining boss and the other a miner, 
were prosecuted for riding upon a loaded car in the Gaylor slope, near Plymouth. 

The following is the decision of the Hon. G. M. Harding, in relation to working 

of second lifts : 

Commonwealth ex rel. T. M. Williams, Inspector of "j 

Mines for the Middle district of Luzerne and Car- | j Eauitv 

bon counties, ^ ^^^ 22, October Term, 

I 1871 

The Wilkesbarre and Seneca Lake coal company and | 

William R. Maffet, &c. ) 

This is a proceeding utider an act of the General Assembly' of the Commonwealth, 
entitled "An Act providing for the health and safety of persons einployed in coal 
mines," approved iMarcIi 3, 1871. 

The first paragraph of the bill, after setting out that the relator is the inspector of 
mines for the Middle district of Luzerne and Carbon counties, and that the defend- 
ants are the lessees and occupiers of a coal mine and colliery, couimonly known as 
the colliery of the Wilkesbarre and Seneca Lake coal companj^ situate in Plains 
township, Luzerne county, and within the jurisdiction of this court, charges, sub- 
stantially, that the said coal mine or colliery is worked through a single slope, by the 
side of Avhich tl'.ere is a small air-way only, and that there are not two outlets in com- 
munication with the seam or stratum of coal thus worked, "separated by natural 
strata of not less than one hundred and fifty feet in breadth," whereby distinct 
means of ingress and egress are always available to the persons emploj'ed in the 
said mine or colliery. 

The second paragraph of said bill, as now amended, charges that the defendants 
have sunk a slope from old workings in a certain vein, called the "Hillman " vein, 
to the depth of three hundred feet and upwards, along and following the pitch of 
said vein, and have driven gangways from the foot of said slope, therebj"- opening 
what is practically a new mine, and that they are engaged in working the same, 
without having two outlets connected therewith, for the safe and convenient ingress 
and egress of persons employed therein ; and further, that the defendants employ a 
large number of persons, "to wit: forty persons at the same time," and permit them 
to be in the said mine, where they are daily engaged in mining, raising and shipping 
coal, and in carrying on the usual and ordinary business of said mine, in contraven- 
tion of tlie act of the General Assembly before referred to. 

The bill concludes with a prayer that an injunction may issue from this court to 
restrain the said defendants, their agents, servants, workmen, and all other persons 
deriving authority from them, from working the said mine or colliery, until compli- 
ance shall have been made with the provisions of the act of Assembly aforesaid. 

We had entertained the hope that the act of 3d March, 1870, better known as the 
"Mine ventilation law," had been so fully passed upon by this court in Com. ex rel. 
V. Bonnell, et al., leported at length in Leg. Int. vol. 28, p. 221, as to render any fur- 
ther adjudication on our part unnecessary. Such a result, however, experience has 
shown to be beyond the range of possibility. The magnitude of the interests ef- 
fected by the provisionsof the act, together with the responsibilities which it imposes 
upon the ofRcers created by it, combine to make it a starting point for questions hith- 
erto entirely novel in the general litigation of the country, but which, for the present 
and prospectively, are keenly set with matters of large concern, considered in their 
relations to public, to corporate, and to individual rights. 

The present case has about it a phase altogether new, and hence a statement, em- 
bracing its peculiarly distinguishing features, must precede necessarily its further 
consideration understandingly. Detached from the trammels imposed b^-^ ihe lan- 
guage of the bill, and stated rather as the drafts of the premises, the affidavits pro- 
duced before us and the arguments and admissions of counsel presented it, the case 
discloses substantially the following features: The defendants are the lessees and 
occupiers of a field of coal, which, at the point where the mining operations are car- 
ried on, is oval in its shape, or which, at least does not lie in a horizontal plane. A 
slope has been driven from the surface downwards, following the pitch of the seam 
or stratum of coal to a very considerable depth, and at the foot of it the coal has been 
exhausted to the extent of about forty acres. The area thus created is denominated, 
in the language of the bill, "old workmgsof a vein called the Hillman vein." In 
communication with this area, or these "workings," there are several distinct out- 
lets which extend therefrom to the surface, such as air-ways, and air-shafts, and 
which are separated, at least some of them, from the main slope, at their respective 



188 

places of exit on the surface, for a distance excseding "one hundred and fifty feet," 
thus alfjrding always convenient and ready means of ingress and egress available to 
persons employed therein. 

So far, then, as these " old workings " constitute the mine or colliery of the defend- 
ants, there is, and has been hitherto, even more than a compliance with the provi- 
sions of the third section of the act of 3d March, 1870. By the terms of that section 
"two outlets" are enjoined, here there are six; clearly, therefore, the mine thus far 
is not within the legislative inhibition. The sudden and oven total destruction by 
fire, or otherwise, of the elaborate erections pertaining to the colliery, such as the 
engine house, the breaker, the hoisting gearing with all its complicated and heavy 
machinery, would not entomb the persons employed in the mines. Indeed, consid- 
ering the multiplied avenues of exit, if the main slope should be utterly closed up 
with burning timbers and masses of detached rock, slate or coal, the miners and 
other persons engaged below could scarcely be endangered at all. 

The complaint of the mine inspector and plaintiff in this bill is not, however, in 
any sense aimed at the mine or colliery of the defendants, so far as the same is con- 
Btiluted by the " old workings " in the " Hillman vein ;" on the contrary, it is leveled 
in earnest at what is alleged to be a Kiost dangerous mischief in connection with this 
colliery, but which is deeper down in the earth, by several hundred feet, than the 
old workings of the Hillman vein. 

As we have before remarked, the seam or stratum of coal at the point where an 
area of forty acres has been worked out, is oval in its shape, or, more distinctly 
speaking perhaps, it pitches downwards. In this area, but following still the same 
seam of coal, the defendants have made what is termed a new lift, and have pushed 
forwards and downwards a slope to the distance of three hundred feet and upwards. 
At the bottom of this slope, they have driven gangways, and opened breasts and 
chambers into the coal, which, as shown by the drafts submitted to us, constitute an 
extensive field for mining operations; here the chief product of their colliery is ob- 
tained, and here, in the language of the bill, is where they have practically opened 
"a new mine, and are engaged in working the same without having two shafts, 
slopes or outlets," &c., as required by law. 

At the hearing of the case, several affidavits were presented on the part of the de- 
fendants, some of which set forth, inter alia, that the defendants had not made, nor 
were they making, a new mine "either practically, theoretically or actually ;" but 
that, on the contrary, the mining was carried on in the same vein, in continuation 
simply of the prior working, and by "the ordinary method of mining practiced in 
this region, as well as elsewhere ;" and further, that "there are two and more outlets 
in communication with the said vein and all its workings." 

However much we may admire the adroit and general terms in which these affida- 
vits are couched, still, we are obliged to note that they do not set up any denial of the 
ruling allegation contained in the plaintiff's bill of complaint. They make no aver- 
ment that the seam or stratum of coal penetrated by this continued slope is in com- 
munication with "at least two shafts, or slopes, or outlets, separated by natural strata, 
of not less than one hundred and fifty feet in breadth, by which shafts, slopes or outlets, 
distinct means of ingress and egress are always available to the persons employed in 
the coal mine or colliery." Indeed, it was not shown by the drafts, nor claimed in 
the argument, that these "two and more outlets" were anj'thing else than mere pas- 
sage ways or air-ways, running along, near to and parallel with the continued slope 
Furthermore, the only outlets which pass out to the surface, and which were shown 
to be in communication with this particular seam or stratum of coal, are those com- 
municating with the "old workings" thereof, where it is denominated as the "Hill- 
man vein," and they have been herein previously referred to at length. 

The important question raised by the plaintifTs bill of complaint on the one side, 
and combatted by the defendants on the other, depends almost entirely on the con- 
struction to be given to the act of 3d March, 1870, as it bears upon the particular fea- 
tures presented in the present case. Is this mine or colliery, projected by a slope, as 
it now confessedly is, down into the earth for a distance exceeding three hundred and 
fifty feet below the point where there are "at least two outlets, separated by natural 
strata of not less than one hundred and fifty feet in breadth," and there worked by 
a large number of persons in the employ of the defendants, and who are engaged in 
mining, raising tmd shipping coal, within the inhibition of law? 

In support of the application for an inj unction, plaintiff's counsel proffers the statute. 
He further relies upon the charges as contained in the bill, which he claims have not 
been contj-adicted, but, on the contrary, have been sustained both by the affidavits 
and by the drafts submitted in the cjise. 

In antagonism to the application, the counsel for defendants proffers: first, the un- 
constitutionality of the statute; and second, its construction as laid down by this 
Court in Com. ex rel. v. Bonnell, et al., before referred to ; and. in this connection, he 
contends that, assuming the charges contained in the plaintiff's bill to be correct so 
far as they relate to the manner in which the mine of the defendants is operated, stili, 
the case does not fall within the terms of the act of 3d March, 187C, but, on the con- 
trary, it presents, at most, a casus omissus; and consequently is altogether free from 
any' statutory ban whatever. 



189 

With regard to the constitutionality of tiie act of 3d Marcli, 1870, we briefly indi- 
cated our views in Bonnell's case, before referred to. Tiiese views remain yet un- 
shaJien, notwithstanding the very able argument of the counsel for defendants in op- 
position tliereto. We simply add in this connection that this statute, relating as it 
does exclusively to the manner of operating coal mines, embodies notliing less than 
the will of the supreme power of the Commonwealth, which every citizen, no matter 
what may be his interests, is bound to obey ; and, therefore, until it shall be amend- 
ed, altered or repealed by the same power which created it ; or, at least, until a Oourt 
higher than ours shall adjudge that our construction of it has been conceived in error, 
we shall administer and enforce its provisions as we understand them, even though 
the great pecuniary interests involved in the coal production of the region, together 
with the varied minor interests dependent thereon, maybe materially prejudiced 
thereby. The question considered in nn aspect pertaining to the constitution, it must 
be remembered, is not one of ethics, nor of right, nor of expediency ; it is solely one 
of legislative power. Quoting, as we did in Bonnell's case, substantially, from one 
of the very eminent jurists of our State, a constitution lays down certain great and 
fundamental principles, according to which the several departments it calls into ex- 
istence are to govern the people; but all auxiliary rules which are to give effect to 
these principles must, from the necessity of the case, come from the legislature. It 
is for this ver3' purpose that the constitution establishes a legislature. 

Recognizing, therefore, the act in question, as the embodiment of legislative wis- 
dom, or, in other words, the creation of legislative power, it would be not only a most 
unwarrantable derogation thereof, but an exercise of unblushing presumption on our 
part to set at naught a statute thus originated, and which was passed for the special 
and declared purpose of protecting the health and the lives of a very large class of 
citizens. It would indeed be the utterance for law of a vain and dangerous conceit of 
our own, in opposition to and above the aggregated wisdom and power of the whole 
Commonwealth. In effect it would be making, not expounding the law. 

And again, adopting in substance the language contained in tne opinion of this court 
in Bonnell's case, we say, if the legislature can prescribe conditions, regulations and 
rules, which are to be observed in the use of any peculiar property by the owners, 
what is thereabout coal mines specially to exempt them from similar and appropriate 
supervision and control? Clearly, from the very necessities incident to our system 
of government, a power of this character is inherent in the legislature. It has been 
80 conceded almost from time immemorial. Indeed, the exercise of powers imme- 
diately in analogy with this, has not only thus been recognized, but the legislature 
has again and again delegated them to the cities and boroughs — mere creatures of 
statutes — throughout the State. We allude, of course, to the corporate powers of cities 
and boroughs, in establishing a police force; prohibiting the carryingon of any manu- 
facture, trade or business, which may be noxious or offensive to the inhabitants, or 
the sale or exposure of fire-works or other inflammable and dangerous articles, and 
limiting and prescribing the quantities that may be kept; making such regulations 
as may be necessary for the health and cleanliness of said cities and boroughs ; pro- 
hibiting nuisances therein ; regulating markets; in short exercising a class of powers 
pertaining to the health and safety of the citizens of such cities and boroughs, as 
broad in their compass and as trammeling of what, under other circumstances, might 
be donominated individual right, as anything contained in the act in question affect- 
ing the rights of the owners, lessees or occupiers of coal mines. 

And further, as health and life occupy in the scale of human estimation a position 
immeasurably above thatof posessions, and as the maxim which applies undeniablv to 
property the world over — "make use of your own in such a manner as not to injure 
that of 'another" — needs no legislative iteration to make it as operative to-day as it 
was at the moment of its recognition, we are not prepared to say that this act "pro- 
viding for the health and safety of persons employed in coal mines," was necessary 
at all to give effect to the purposes it has in view. Though a positive mandate to the 
owners and occupiers of coal mines, that they shall so work them as not to injure the 
health nor endanger the lives of the persons employed therein, is it, after all , anything 
more than the mere embodiment in statutory form of a principle akin to natural law 
itself, and which springs alone from the internal dictates of reason? 

In bar also to an injunction, as has before been stated, the counsel for defendants 
relies upon our ruling in Bonnell's case. In that case we said, referring to the third 
section of the act of 3d March, 1870, that it stops outright the working of every mine 
or colliery which has but a single opening; but there is one condition on which such 
a mine niay still be operated. It is, that every seam or stratum of coal wherein mining 
is carried on, shall be in communication with a second outlet "separated by natural 
strata of not less than one hundred and fifty feet in breadth ;" that is, the openings or 
outlets shall be apart on the surface, at the points of ingress and egress, at least one 
hundred and fifty feet. And the reason for this is clearly obvious. The outlets are 
to be sutticiently remote from each other, so that in case of destruction by fire, or 
otherwise, of the necessary erections about one outlet, the other may be used for the 
safe and convenient egress of the persons employed in the shaft or slope where the 
destruction has taken place. And further, that by the terms of the act it is imma- 
terial whether these two outlets belong to the same mine or not. All that is posi- 



190 

lively enjoined is a second, safe and convenient meansof exit for the persons emp." eyed 
in the mine, in case of accident. Any mine or colliery, tlierefore, having bnt a single 
shaft or slope, bnt being in communication with a second outlet, and having also the 
additional requisites for the safety of the persons employed therein, as prescribed by 
the statute, may be operated to its full capacity, and coal may be mined therein, and 
prepared for, and sent to market, with as much freedom as though the act had not 
been passed. 

To this ruling we still adhere. And we repeat again what we said in that case, ten- 
der no u*hcr state of things can a coal mine or collier^', which has but a single shaft or 
slope, be worked and operated in producing coal for market; and that any owner, 
lessee or occupier of such a coal mine or colliery, or any agent who has the care and 
direction thereof, and who persists in working it in contravention of the plain and 
reasonable requirements of the statute, is guilty of flagrant and inexcusable wrong; 
and any inspector of mines, who, being cognizant of the fact, but nevertheless per- 
mits or'sutters such working to be carried on, is grossly neglectful of his duties. 

This language followed after we had quoted at length the third section of the act, 
and had explained fully what kindoi outlet was therein prescribed. Jt was not to be 
a mere air-way or passage-way within a tew feet of, ahd parallel with, the particular 
shaft or slope,' but it was to be an outlet separated therefrom by natural strata of not 
less than one hundred and fijty feet in breadth. 

We can hardly conceive of an honest unders-tandingso obtuse as to lay hold of a de- 
tached sentence, such as "all that is positively enjoined is a second, saf j and conveni- 
ent means ot exit for persons employed in the mine, in case of accident,'' and con- 
ftrue it as a warrant for working a slope which extends down into the earth over three 
hundred feet, and which has nothing more than a passage-way or air-way distant 
from it far less than one hundred and fifty feet, when such a construction was plainly 
counter to the whole drift of the opinion, as well as in direct antagonism to the terms 
of the law itself. 

Not only do we stand by the (rpinion in Bonnell's case, but to the extent that the 
construction of the statute therein laid down will meet the case before us, we have al- 
ready applied it, holding, as we have herein, that in so far as the "old workings" of a 
vein called the"Hillman vein," constitute the min"? or colliery of the defendants, 
the same is not within the legislative inhibition. 

It is not, as we have said before, at these old workings of the Hillman vein, that 
the plaintiff's bill of complaiiit is leveled ; nor is it m concern for them except as they 
are an incident of the case, but rather for the mine or colliery as worked by the new 
lift, or through the continued slope, that this earnest contest has been pressed by the 
defendants. Considering, then, that the mine or colliery is oj erated, as was shown 
bv the drafts and conceded in the argument, by a slope continued in a seam of coal 
from certain old workings there, down for a distance of three hundred feet and up- 
wards, with no second outlet communicating therewith after it leaves the old work- 
ings, except a passage-way or air-wajs as has been described, another question of some 
importance arises, upon which it becomes our duty to'pass. That question is: Does 
the case thus presented constitute a casus omissus? If it does, then undoubtedly the 
present application must fail ; for a casus omvssus can never be supplied by the courts. 
It is not the province of judges to make laws ; on the contrary, it is their duty to ad- 
minister them as the Legislature have made them ; excepting, of course, such as in- 
fringe upon the Constitution, and these it is their duty to set at naught altogether. 

The construction of statutes is for the courts, particularly where the Legislature 
has not been sufficiently explicit in the terms used, or in designating the subject mat- 
ter to be embracL'd within the statutory provision ; and such cases sometimes call 
into exercise a verv responsible feature of judicial duty. The experience of centu- 
ries has not, however, failed to discover ani to establish certain rules of construction 
which judges adhere to, and which lead to results in accord with the general interests 
of the Stale. 

The sense and spirit of an act— its scope and intention— are primarily to be regarded 
in the construction of statutes. It the object be plain and intelligible as gathered 
from the whole act, then it is the duty of judges so to construe it as to suppress the 
mischief aimed at, and advance the remedy contemplated. And where the object is 
at all in doubt, though the style or title of the act is of no controlling account over its 
clearly expressed terms, yet as a guide to the tiue intention of the law-giver, the title 
may be considered in connection with the other parts of the act. Whenever, there- 
fore, the intention which the makers of a statute, especially one remedial in its char- 
acter, can be discovered, it ought to be followed in its construction, in a course con- 
sonant with reason, so as most effectually to meet the beneficial end in view, and to 
prevent a failure of the remedy. 

In Pray vs. Edie, 1 T. R. 313, where the policy of an act of Parliament had been 
questioned, Lord Mansfield said : " Whatever doubts I niav have in my own breast 
about the policy of this law, yet as long as it continues in force, I am bound to see 
it executed according to its meaning." And again, in the same case he says, "let us 
consider the mischiefs intended to be remedied, and the provisions of the act for 
remedying them." 



191 

The act of 3d March, 1870, has about it nothing whicii ofTers to the mind even a sin- 
gle doubt as to the legislative intent. Its very title— An Act providing tor the health 
and safety of personsem ployed in coal mines — is suggestive of mischiefs which are 
to be reniedied ; its term embrace a catalogue of these very mischiefs by iianie. And 
not only this, but the proper means are mentioned, and are enjoined upon the owners, 
lessees, or occupiers of mines, whereby such mischiefs may be avoided. Maps of 
mines are to be prepared and kept, so that in case of the abandonment of any mine, 
either in whole or in part, the dangers incident to the falling of the surface may be 
escaped ; two outlets to every seam of coal worked by a shaft or slope are to be pro- 
vided, distant from each other at least one hundred and fiftj'^ feet, so that any destruc- 
tion of one, either by the burning up of the hoisting gearing and other necessary 
erections at the surface, or the closing thereof by falls of overhanging or adjacent 
slate, coal or rock, may not jeopardize the lives of the persons employed therein ; 
suitable S'entilation inust be secured and kept up in every mine, in order that it may 
be always free from noxious, poisonous, inflammable and explosive gases; where 
such gases exist, and cannot be expelled by a single current of air, the mine must be 
divided into districts, carefully separated from each other, and each must be venti- 
lated by a distinct current of air; and when any mining operations approach aban- 
doned workings wherein inflammable gases, or accumulations of water are suspected, 
bore-holes must bo driven at least twenty feet in advance, so that the dangers conse- 
quent upon these accumulations, such as fire from the one and inundation from the 
other may not be encountered. 

Recurring now to the mine or colliery of the defendants, who will say that it is not 
within the scope and spirit of the act? or who, that it presents a casus omissus ? Ad- 
judging, as we have already, that the mining operations are carried on in entire con- 
formity with the statute, down to the point where the new lift commences, namely, 
the old workings in the Hilman vein, still, following on from this new lift, does not 
the slope continue in a seam of coal for a distance of three hundred feet and upwards, 
which is not in communication with a second outlet separated from said slope by 
" natural strata of not less than one hundred and fifty feet in breadth ?" Thus oper- 
aced and worked by the defendants, who employ a large number of persons in min- 
ing coal down at the bottom of this slope, can it yet be confidently urged that the 
naine is not under the ban of the statute? But it is even intimated, that being in a 
seam of coal which is in communication with two or more outlets, the mine is opera- 
ted according to law. This is too technical by far. Very true, the seam of coal at the 
point where the old workings are, communicates with six diilerent outlets and is the 
same penetrated by and worked at the bottom of the slope ; but dort'ri lliere this com- 
manication does not extend. The six outlets from the "Hilman vein" do not commu- 
nicate with the mining operations at the bottom of the slope by any second outlet 
" separated by natural strata of at least one hundred and fifty feet in breadth ;" on 
the contrary, the extent of the communication is the slope itself, and the passage-way 
or air-way hereinbefore described. 

We have in hand, then, a mine projected down into the very home of poisonous, 
inflammable and explosive gases, and connected with it, there is no second outlet as 
required by law. At the bottom of this mine large numbers of men are daily " en- 
gaged in mining, raising and shipping coal for market." A fall of slate or of coal, or 
of rock, occasioned bj' a faulty roof, or by an explosion of gases, might, at any mo- 
ment, as effectually close up the only means of e^rress, namely, the slope and air- way, 
as did the burning timbers at Avondale and at West Pittston. 

And now, to wit: February 12, 1872, after due consideration of the complainant's 
bill, and after hearing the arguments of counsel on the one side and on the other, it 
is ordered that an injunction issue in conformity with the prayer of the bill, restrain- 
ing the defendants from operating their mine or collierj' in connection with the new 
lift, or continued slope aforesaid, until the further order of the Caur^. 



192 





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c 


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t: 


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g ^ 


OB 




p 


fl 


z. c 




1 




1 


53 

O 






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^ 


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-o « 


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1 u 


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a 


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« 


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a 


2 
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a 


a 


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>> 


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>-( 




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IS 


Location of 


<I 


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c 
1 


1 

ei 


1 OS 












;- 
















a 










>> 






^ 


IN 








^H 






K 










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d 

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t 






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o 


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c 




^ 


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IS 


1 

K 


1 
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a 

P 
P 
p 


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cs 


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1 


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s 




a 


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ir^ 


9 




























C8 


a 


; 










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3 


3 


= 


t 


< 










_ 




^ « 


No. of Accident.. 


t- 


r « 


S 


© 

(N 


5 


S^ 





197 



u a 


: 


ffi e3 


u 


SB 


2 


tap 


o 


|5 


Si 



bo 

8 



pq 



T) 


ts 


13 


fl 


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C3 


f^^ 




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O 



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1 


1 




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o 






C 






d 


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d 







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a 


a 


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e« 






o 


u 









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a 



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u 

e3 
230 

S 
CO 



ss 



198 





73 

.2 

13 

a 
o 
m 

V 

&< 
o 

03 

s 

a 


Total 




r- 


rH T-l rH ^ 










Miscellane's, 
above gro'd 






\ '~* 










Miscellane's, 
under gro'cl 
















By mine cars 








: '"' 






Bur't by gun- 
powder 
















Fall down a 
shaft 






















Fall of coal .. 




l-l ; ^ 


1-1 




Fall of rock.. 


iH 












Explosion of 
fire-damp ... 














Q 
iz 

M 

E- 
25 
O 

o 

J 

d 

12; 


Cause of accident, and remarks. 


Mr. White was killed by a fall of slate from roof 
while at work in a chamber; the same fall also 
caught and injured his laborer. 

Mr. Zintard was killed by a fall of top coal. He had 
been forbidden to go under said coal by his miner, 
Wm. Reese, but m his anxiety to get a piece of coal 
to finish loading his car, he ventured under, with 
the above sad consequences. 

Mr. Snyder was killed by falling upon the engine 
while it was in motion. " He was almost dead when 
discovered, lying on and partly entangled in the 
machinery. 

Mr. Gallagher was killed by a fell of top coal while 
at his usual employment, loading coal. The coal 
that fell was very high over him, and consequently 
not easy to ascertain whether it was safe or not ; but 
it was full of slips, as called by miners, which 
caused it to fall so sudden. 

The boy,Davis, was riding on the hind end of a loaded 
mine car; very unexpectedly one of the front 
wheels broke, letting down one front corner and 
throwing up one of the hind corners, whereby he 
was caught between the car and the roof, and caus- 
ing almost instant death. 

Mr. Williamson was killed by a faU of coal ; he wa^ 
an old and experienced miner; he knew that th( 
said coal was unsafe, and was preparing a blast ti 
bring the same down ; but it was more ready to fal! 
than he anticipated, as it fell, injuring him so se- 
verely that be died in a short tinie afterwards. 




Orp 


bans 


oo ^ CO : 




CO 










Wic 


lows 


rH r-l .H 




>-( 










1 

as 


22 
1— 1 


c 

a 


American 

Irish 


* 
American 








No. 


of Accident.. 


nT 


CO 




(M 







199 



: '~' : : : I 

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: : : ' 1-1 : : 



o ^ ^ 

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2 tjc ^- >, 2 






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73 !C ■ 



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^ £^ 2c o -^B 



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cD.„S^ oOJ.^'^OJ-T^CSGOS-^'-^-r^ 



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200 





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No. of Accident. 


a 


er. 


« 


CO 


CO 

CO 







201 



Ttt CO 


00 






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1-5 






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W 


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8 




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2 


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1-3 





p 


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a 








s- 








u 








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£ 


^ 


Jl! 


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£ 


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2 


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Li 

c3 




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125 


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202 



Total. 



Miscellane's, 
above gro'd, 



Miscellane's, 
under gro'd, 



By mine cars 



Bur't by gun- 
powder. 



Fall down 
shaft 



Fall of coal... 



'a of rock., 



"xplosion of 
fire-damp ... 



25 

M 

H 

^: 
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c 
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X 



«■=, ^ ^.SPS-^ = ?? 



5- "^ ^ 



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c 5--C o' 






>." . 

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fl ^ ^ .£ c: -O ; 

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S a; • 



— a; k. 



M£ g O) -' -- '^' ° 



.=2 






:^ " ci c5iS ■5_,_2 



.5 rt-c ^I's;'*" 
• ^"j:; g SxJ 5-? '^'^ 






c fee -^ - --^ 

■S t; ^3 ° i^- * vi 

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^g^-S 



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f3 ^ 






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p ::^ -^ Qj i» c3 



«, -C ° rt £ fe E "C t- ® O 

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^=1:2 C E c C 



&WC/3 
1^,°- 



c3 "C .;:•-< y 



•5 o 



s 

-.— ^ ^ 33 

cs g o -^-s •'! ^ S.2 fl . 



Orphans 



Widows 



as .2 






No. of Accident.. 



203 



rt '■ '■ 


lO 




■^ 


• * • I 


t^ 








CO 


; r-l t-( 


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OS p bCc C i 

ort-^l-S J" 



(E 53 « 

i- te O 



•■ ^ ^5 "5 S t« c 

tv« £ O 3 -^ tc fl 

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C > c« -p -iJ <D =»^ 
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cs .; 



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>^-;2 fl.5 bnjr 

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03 a; o i- 

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204 



be 
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s p^tf 



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03 03 (P 03 03 



03 03 

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03-5 5 -t3 

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No. of Accident. 



205 



U U 

o o 






h1,^ 



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o o 

== S 



C3 C3 

CO cc 
(D (» 



03 03 
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fl d 
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WW 

-co 

c d 

c3 03 

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c3 c6 

^^ 
03 03 



d 
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c3 



W « ^p: 1^ 



<-< ,2,2 Th 






c o 

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d =^ 

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q o 

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d d 
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^r^ ^ d:^:2 ^ ,2 J< 

g? g pi fig 



f-~, 


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^ 


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c« 


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01 


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i?;^ 12; cc;?;^ !?; dn ^ l^li^i 



d^ 

O "K 
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>>. 



206 



» 
P 
S5 
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S5 

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Total.... 

Miscellane's 
above gro'd 



y-i (N F-( W r-i .-H -H "-I rH T-l r-l i-H iH i 



Miscellane's 1 
under gro'dl 



By mine cars 



Burnt by 
gunpowder, 



Fall down 
shaft 



Fall of coal. 



Fall of rock. 



Explosion of 
fire-danip ... 



ft 



D 


o • 


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93 • 






d) 


a . 


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: C 




ITS 


^ \ 


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rf ' 










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ci 


:-^ 


W 






. a.' 


73 


: es 





P iz; -2 _5 ." (s; aj <» o J; 

O =" -^ ffl >^ g--^ .= 03 

aid) ,£oK4j(-C 
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s o -^ « :" -3 5 •^,•^■-2 

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•" ^- ^ c - = ^ 2 ^'-o 



■^ 



;5 3 



_, o 

8.2 
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£•3 
3 1 



« i: 






c3 
be CO 



"5 O 



> 5 

03 



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t3 

>^ u^ be 
&, -"^ "■c:S 
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3 



■>l=l 60 



be 

a 



)5 03 

•^ 00 

c fl o 

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210 



Total. 



Miscellane'9, 
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i-H <-< *^ 



Miscellane's, 
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By mine gars 



Biir't b.v gun- 
powder 



Fall down a 
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No. of Accident. 



211 



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No. of Accident. 



213 



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214 



H 

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Total 

Miscellane's, 
abov9 gro'd 



Miscellane's, 
under gro'd 



- By mine cars 



Bur'tb3' gun- 
powder 



Fall down a 1 
sliaft 



Fall of coal. 



Fall of rock.. 



Explosion of 
fire-danop... 






523 = 

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05 ® 



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No. of Accident. 






215 



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REPORT 



OF THE 



IXSPECTOR OF COAL MINES OF THE WYOMING COAL FIELD, 

LUZERNE COUNTY, LYING EAST OF AND INCLUDING 

JENKINS TOWNSHIP, FOR 1872. 



His Excellency, Joiix F. IIartranft, 

Oovernor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania : 

Sir : — In compliance with the requirements of an act of the General Assembly, 
iap[)roved the 3d day of March, A. D., 1870, providing for the health and safety 
of persons emploj'ed in coal mines, »fcc., I have the honor to lierewith submit my 
report for the year ending tlie 31st day of December, A. D., 1872 : 

By reference to tlie tabulated and general report hereto attaclied, your Excel- 
lency will observe the number of coal mines and collieries that have been in- 
i^pected, and statements as to their general condition, showing the number of 
siiafts, slopes and tunnels; the number of breakers, screens and schutes for pre- 
paring, cleaning and loading coal ; the means of ventilation ; tlie number of per- 
sons employed at each mine or colliery, and the number of tons of coal mined at 
each colliery ; also tlie number of steam engines and boilers, with the horse 
power of each ; the name of veins worked and average thickness of each vein, 
and all other information which the mine ventilation laws of 1870 demand. 

I huve arranged all accidents in a tabular form. Table No. 1 shows tliose re- 
sulting in actual death ; table No. 2 shows the serious accidents or those not 
resulting fatally. 

I have idso arranged in a tabular form the number and name of each coal 
mine and colliery ; where it is located ; by whom operated ; the manner in which 
each is ventilated ; the numl)er and description of opening at each colliery ; the 
number of persons employed in each and the amount of coal mined at each col- 
liery. 

I have caused legal jiroceedings to be taken to punish infringments of the law, 
viz: Against the working of the Eagle shaft mine, Pittston, on account of 
standing gas in the mine. I herewith transmit Judge Dana's opinion granting 
an injunction. Also against the Are boss in Pine Brook shaft, Scranton, for 
n gleet of duty, allowing persons to go into the mine when there was gas in it to 
a u.aigerous extent. Also against a'miner in Hampton shaft, for neglecting to 
])-oi) and secure the roof in his chamber, which afterwards fell, killing one man. 
The two last cases are now pending in the Mayor's court of the city of Scranton. 

1 would most respectfully recommend the printing of the mine ventilation 
laws of 1870, in all the mine inspectors' reports, if there are any printed this 
y\'. r, for distribution, as it would be a source of information to the parties who 
rtciuire it. 

It lias occupied considerable of my time in writing out my report for 1872, iis I 
had to describe each mine in detail, as my report for 1871 was not published with 
the other mine inspectors' reports. It was omitted through no fault of mine, as 
I transmitted it to the Governor and he sent it to the Senate on the 25th of 
January, 1872. 

1 have received universal courtesy and assistance from all parties with whom I 
had any official business transactions in this mining district, for which I retuni 
them my sincere th.uiks. 

By coinputing the area of square miles in this mining district, wliicli contains 
C'liil beneath its surface, from the most reliable data, 1 find that Jenkins town- 
sliip contains 9 square miles, Pittston townshii) and borough contains 11 square 



217 

miles, Ransora township 1 square mile, Old For^e township 5 square miles, 
Lackawanna township 7 square miles, Scranton city and Dunmore borough 16 
square miles, Blakeley township 21 square miles, and Carbondale townsliip, Car- 
lx)ndale City and Fell township 21 square miles ; in all 91 sqm^re miles. There 
are 77 square miles lying on both sides of the Lackawanna river, and 14 square 
miles lying east of the Susquehanna river, in Jenkins township and part of Pitts- 
ton, winch is in the Wyoming valley. Tlie Lackawanna river runs for a distance 
of '27 miles in Luzerne county, through the coal measures, and the coal extends 
into Suscjuehanna county for some distance. This mining district is 31 miles 
long and it averages nearly 8 miles wide. 

The condition of three-fourths of tlie mines in this mining disti'iet will com- 
pare favorably with any in the State of Pennsylvania as to their permanent con- 
struction, system, safety and ventilation ; the others require some mechanical 
power to be used as a means of ventilation. IMines that are ventilated ])y the 
action of the atmosi)liere cannot comply with the mine ventilation laws of 1870. 
At certain times and seasons of the year, when the temperature is the same in the 
mines as it is outside, there cannot be any ventilation or circulation of air inside 
the mines if there is not some mechanical power used, as it is tlie difference of 
temperature that causes a circulation of air in the mines. The mine ventilation 
laws of 1870 require a steady current of air at all times in the mines, hence it 
follows that mines ventikited by the action of the atmosphere cannot comply 
with the laws. In all the new mines that are in course of constru(;tion the par- 
ties are to have them ventilated by suction-fans. In the old mines that have l)een 
worked for years and that are now ventilated by natural means, the 0])erators 
are building furnaces, iS:c., and by the time I make my next report I expect it 
will show a great improvement in this district for the year 1873. 

The following is the decision of Judge Dana, in the case of Inspector Blewitt vs 
Alva Tomkins, which involves important matter relating to the Mine Ventilation 
Law, and is of great interest to both operators and men : 

Commonwealth ex relatione, Patrick Blewitt, "^ ^ ^ . ■, ■ ■ Ti., /-, 

Inspector of Mines, [ Important decision. In the Court 

ys { Connnon Pleas of Luzerne 

Alva Tomkins. J county. 

ls(. The defendant's mine, at the point where workings are going on, is free from 
standing gas, bnt these workings connect with and open into old-abandoned work- 
ings wliere standing gas accumulates, flows and by frequent falling of the roof, is lia- 
ble to be driven into the defendant's workings, to affect the air and to cause destruc- 
tive explosions: held, that nnder these circumstances and thus connected, ''the en- 
tire mine is not free from danger to the lives and health of the men," nor in a fit state 
for them to work therein, as required by the ventilation act, and an injunction 
awarded. 

2d. A mine is not free from danger when it actually exists within the mine, simply 
bec.iuse the danger originates in oiuses located a few feet or yards beyond and out- 
side of the bourdary line. The act deals with its presence, not its origin. 

3(Z. The act does not require that a mine be kept absolutely clear of gas, for this is 
impossible ; but as fast as evolved, it is by the introduction of pure air and the pro- 
cess of ventilation "diluted, rendered harmless and expelled," and its accumulation 
as and so as to fall within the designation of "standing gas" avoided. 

<^Dinion by Dana, A. L. J. 

The bill in this case discloses the facts : 

That the defendant is the lessee of a coil mine in Pittston township, Luzerne coun- 
ty, known as the Eagle shaft, and situated within the mining district of the relator. 

That the shaft has been worked by the defendant, and he proposes to work it aijan 
in the usual manner and with a sutHcient and the usual force of men ; and — 

That this shaft and mine and others with which it connects, contains standing gas 
in large quantities, deleterious to the health of the men, liable to be ignited, and by 
explosion to endanger their lives; and that such gas is suffered to be, accumulate and 
remain in the same, in contravention of the act of 3d March, 1870. 

As indicated Ir the second foregoing paragraph, actual mining operations and the 
removal <if coal from this shaft are temporarilj^ suspended, and apprehendinn' danger 
from resuming work, the Inspector of the district, under the alleged state of facts and 
condition of the mine, applies in accordance with the fifth section of the act for an in- 
junction to prohibit the %vorking of the same. No objection is taken in the faors that 
pe'-sons "are not now actually employed in working, or permitted to be for the pur- 
pose of working," etc., to the jurisdiction of the court in the premises, but by the 
consent and to avoid the danger and expense incident to the actual resumption of 
work, the question is raised whether under the bill and facts agreed upon and report- 
ed in the case, adequate ventilation, agreeably to the 7th section of the act of od March, 



218 

1870, P. D., 1618,07, has been provided, "to furnish sufficient pure air, to dilute and 
render liannless and expel tiie noxious poisonous gases to such an extent that the en- 
tire mine is in a tit state for men to work therein, and free from danger to the health 
and lives of the men by reason of said noxious and poisonous gases, and all workings 
kept clear of standing gas. In the language of the counsel for the parties, would it 
under the facts be lawful for the defendant to continue to cut and mine coal? 

It appears that the mine at the points where workings have been, and are intended 
to be, carried on, is free from standing gas. It connects, however, as stated in the 
bill, underground, with extensive abandoned workings of old mines, belonging to 
and controlled by others than the defendant, where the roots have fallen in, forming 
Ciivities — "graves," as they are technically called — in which inflammable gas accu- 
mulates, liable, from change of temperature, the barometio pressure of the atmos- 
phere, to flow, or, by further fall of roof, to be driven, into the workings in this mine 
and there be ignited and cause destructive explosions. 

It also appears that fresh air circulates through some of the old workings to the 
new, but whether through press and air-courses and in-take drifts, or simply through 
the abandoned chambers of old workings, (when the advantages of an increased sup- 
ply of air are neutralized by the more ready transmission, these currents occasion of 
disengaged inflammable gas in the proper mixture with atmospheric air to become 
explosive,) does not appear either in the facts admitted or reported. 

It is further stated, and the depositions are substantially to the same effect, that it 
is impracticable to close up the old workings, so as to disconnect them from the new, 
and that it would be impossible to force air enough down the Eagle shaft to expel 
from thence the standing gas, or in any other practicable manner to ventilate them. 
Considered in itself, and as to danger originating within its own limits, the ventila- 
tion of the Eagle shaft is in substantial compliance with the law. The dangers with- 
in, result from causes existing and having their origin without. It is assumed, and 
believed to be true, that the communication between the old and abandoned work- 
ings was made before the passage of the ventilation act, and before the precaution of 
keeping bore-holes twenty feet in advance of the face of the workings, when driving 
towar is or approaching an abandoned mine, supposed to contain inflammable gas, or 
to be inundated with water, was enjoined in the 9th section as an imperative duty. 
■ But is it material to the present inquiry where the danger originated, if it actually 
exist ? The act of Assembly deals with its presence, not its origin. 

When the bill was presented it was said t^at the same state of facts existed and 
that the same questions would arise in the ease of other mines, and it was, therefore, 
by consent, referred to Andrew Bryden, Esq., a gentleman of intelligence, practical 
experience and skill in mining, to examine into and to report upon the facts. The 
results reached in his report, as far as they relate to the present question, are, briefly, 

First. Tnat whilst in mines where large quantities of inflammable gas are gener- 
ated it is practically impossible in literal compliance with the act, to keep both the 
old and new and all workings clear of standing gas, or of all accumulations of gas, 
in either larger or less quantities, but that it Is practicable, under ordinary circum- 
stances, to keep the working places tolerably secure from danger; and — 

Second. That it is not safe to wall off or disconnect old workings, unless there be a 
shaft or opening sunk upon the highest point where the explosive gas, which is of 
less specific gravity than common air, can rise from the old workings to the surface 
and escape. 

The evidence appended to the report, whilst sustaining these conclusions, estab- 
lishes the farther fact that this mine cannot be kept clear of standing gas, or made to 
conform to the requirements of the Ventilation Law. The several witnesses, fore- 
men, mine superintendents, and miners, who are familiar with or have examined 
the mine, concur in this view, as John Thomas, Henry Thomas, Thomas B. Williams, 
William Law; whilst E. Cartright, Walter Smiles, Henry Brown, Greorge Garten, 
and John Thomas, in addition, particularize the danger of attempting to mine and 
remove the coal on the south-east side of the roll in the mines. This immediately 
connects with the old workings, and is understood to be the point where further ope- 
rations are proposed. 

The requirements of the law are not understood to be, as some of the witnesses 
seem to infer, that a mine shall be absolutely free from gas, for this, where its evolu- 
tion is continuous, is obviously impracticable. The tenor and object of the act is, 
that by the introduction of pure air to the face of every working place and elsewhere 
throughout the mine, to dilute and render harmless and expel, to such an extent, 
that, by these several and joint means "the entire mine shall be in a fit state for 
nien to work therein, and be free from danger to life and health." " All workings," 
says the act, " shall be kept clear of standing gas ;" that is, as fast as evolved it is to 
be diluted, rendered harmless and expelled, and thus its accumulation, so as to fall 
within the designation of standing gas, to be avoided. This is possible, and this we 
understand the act to require. 

Recurring, however, to the real question — "Is a mine 'free from danger,'" 
when its presence is admitted and shown to exist, merely because that dan- 
ger, although distinctively manifesting itself within the mine, yet originates 
fiom causes located a few feet or yards beyond and outside the boundary line? 



219 

l3 danger the less real because its removal is impractioable? The act recoprnizes 
no such distinction. It is entitled "An Act providing for the health and safety 
of persons employed in coal mines." Its provisions, prohibitions and penalties are 
directed to this end. The melancholy record of mining casualties in this and other 
coal fields, called for legislative protection. The application and enforcement of the 
law in a case where, from circumstances beyond the operator's control, compliance 
with its provisions is rendered impossible, may work hardship, but when the ques- 
tion is brought to the practical issue, is capital or human life to be sacrificed ? can the 
answer be doubtful? 

It is understood that the present and proposed workings are upon the south-east 
side of this saddle or roll in these mines. Agamst these, although not especially des- 
ignated, the bill was filed, and to these alone this decision relates. Whether the ooal 
may be mined on the north-west side of the roll safely and conformably to law, as 
intimated in the opinions of several of the experts examined, can be ascertained 
when the mining is attempted and its method and all the facts disclosed. 

Upon careful consideration of the case presented, we are of the opinion that the 
operations, where and as they are conducted and proposed to be carried on, are not 
in conformity with the provisions of the act, and it is thereupon ordered that an in- 
junction issue to prohibit the same until otherwise ordered. 



220 



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XoTE. — There were 6,560,450 tons of coal mined in this district in the year 187:^. 
There were 67 deaths, which would give 97,917 tons of coal mined for every death. 

Nature of Death. 

There were killed by breaker machinery 1 

Do do locomotive 1 

Do do cars 5 

Do do falls of coal 17 

Do do falls of roof 15 

Do do falls of rock 4 

Do do premature blasts 7 

Do do falling down shafts 4 

Do do breaker being blown down 3 

Do do falling off trestles 1 

Do do explosions of fire-damp 3 

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Fell dead in mines 1 

Died from inj uries received by cars 3 

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230 

The amount of coal mined in the year 1872 was 6,560,450 tons. There was 97,- 
917 tons mined for every death ; 55,129 tons mined for one orphan ; 172,613 tons 
mined for each widow ; and 35,082 tons mined for each accident. 

Nature of Accidents. 

There were injured by falls of coal 25 

Do do falls of roof 43 

Do do cars in mines 40 

Do do fire-damp explosions 24 

Do do powder explosions 6 

Do do premature blasts 21 

Do do hoisting carriage 1 

Do do falling down the shaft 3 

Do do nuiles 10 

Do do props 2 

Do do cog wheels in mines 2 

Do do falling off breaker 1 

Do do outside cars 7 

Do do breaker machinery 2 

Total 187 

KoTE. — There were thirty-seven persons had their legs broken, and thirteen 
persons had their arms broken ; these are included in the above list. 



231 



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Number of colliery or 
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232 







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Average thickness of 
each vein 



.-Hi— (1— li-HtHi— li-lr-<,-( r-li-Hi— I rH.-4 

«r ^ _,;i_i5 '30" «r -fl'" 

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Average thickness of 
each vein 



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73 "S "C '^ '^ 'S tS 

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Ani't of coal mined at 
each colliery or mine, 



oioojioo'oo-f — lo-ront^iooooxocoioo ci ox> 



No. of persons employ- 
ed at each colliery or 
mine ... 



-tl lO 00 CO CS lO CO QO M< Ci '-0 ^ "O LO CC t^ t^ to K CO •M CI O — I CO rt lO C'T 

t^iMcociO-^-^c-icoosi^ooaiCD'C-^'eo-^ooeo-^c-iorjo-stiOTti 

r-l .H rH M .H i-( CO r-( ?-l r-( rl i-KM i-l .-( 



Number of screens and 
schutes 



Number of breakers.., 



Tunnels. 



iH .-( : : r-i c<j ci 



Slopes. 



Shafts. 



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Number of colliery or 
mine 



rt(McOTi<ioi:oi^ooc50-HrMco-+ii-';cor^ooo50.HMfo-*;Lf.o»--( 



235 



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236 






O 



Average thickness 
of each vein. ., 



t^t^iOt-»aooo-Hi 



Average thickness 
of each vein 



Amount of coal 
mined at each 
colliery or mine, 



Number of persons- 
employed at each 
colliery or mine.. 



Number of screens 
and schutes.... 









d d d c d o i o 



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No. of breakers. 



i-H rH 1-1 l-H >-l (M i-l 



Tunnels. 



Slopes. 



Shafts , 



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No. of colliery or 
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237 

ABANDONED MINES. 



Name of colliery or mine. 



Eagle shaft 

No. 3 slope 

*No. 1 mines 

"No. 2 shaft .4 ..... 

*No. 3 shaft 

No. 1 shaft 

Rockwell's mines 

Clark's mines 

Part of Elk Hill Coal Co.'s mines... 

Top vein of No. 3 colliery 

Top vein of Grassy Islarid colliery, 

Nos. 4 and 5 tunnels 

Nos. 1 and 2 tunnels, "White Oak ... 
No. 2 mines, Carbondale 



Where located. 



Jenkins township 

Jenkins township 

Pittston Ijorough 

Pittston borough 

Pittston borough 

Dunmore borough 

Providence, now Scrant. 
Prov'dence, now Scrant. 

Blakely township 

Blakely township 

Blakely township 

Blakely township 

Blakely township 

Carbondale city 



By whom operated. 



Alva Tomkins. 
Pennsj'lvania Coal Co. 
Pennsylvania Coal Co. 
Pennsylvania Coal Co. 
Pennsylvania Coal Co. 
Pennsylvania Coal Co. 



Elk Hill Coal cnmpanj'' 
Del. and Hudson C. Co. 
Del. and Hudson C. Co. 
Eaton it Co. 
Del. and Hudson C. Co. 
Del. and Hudson C. Co. 



* Now used for pumping. 



238 



Av. thickn's of 
each vei.i.. 



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peso 



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C3 O O.O 

c o o o 



Amount of coal 
mined at each 
col'y or imne. 

No. screens and 
schntes 

Breakers 

Tunnels 

Slopes , 

Shafts , 



t^ lO ^T o 



T-l r-l tH (M : .-( iH rH >H i-H <M rH 1-1 1-t 






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IT 




Mors e power... 


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:: c6 '"'::: : : 
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How many ho. 


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t : : ■% : : : co c^ co 


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pow 


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of engines 


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: : : a : : •^•h -h 


: : : 




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in 


mines 


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^ 








• o • • : • : 


: '. O '■ '■ • '•.:'. 




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How many ho. 


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: • ai : : : : : : 

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f) 




po 


wer 


'• '• 32 ' I d 








• cc 














• • -^ 


P • • & 








: 3 






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No. 


of pumping 


i ig i : 1 ! i 1 








1-H 


i? 






Cl 




engines 


= i^ i M M 1 


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:^ 






ff 


How mnnv lin. 


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No. 


of hoisting 


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Steam gauge or 


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55 


^ 


safety valve... 


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W 








Pre 




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Diameter 


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in inches 


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a; 






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ft 








Length in 


2 


<4; 




5 




feet 


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So. 


of boilers.. 


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Fan engine 








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y-t z : '. : 






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lo in : >o : o : o : 
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: CO : : o ic i >o lo 
: t^ : : ci CI : ci ci 




Breaker engine 




; : "H ,H 1-1 : : rH 
\ \'p : : 








: rH : : rH t-( ; i-i .-i 




How many ho. 
power 




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: : 01 : : 
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^ 


No. of engines 
in mines 




is ! 

: (s : 




: j J : : i : : i :^ i 


ico : : 




o 


How 
pow 


many ho. 
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pc 






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70 

160 

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lo :o 


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. 




w 


many ho. 
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No. 
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f hoisting 
nes 




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tion 


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1-1 
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Date of boi- 
ler exami- 
nation. 


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Nov. 23... 
Have work 

Dec.' '"".. 


Dec 

Dec 

Oct. 17... 


a- 

C 

c 


June 9... 

June 10... 

New 

New 


Nov. 16... 
Nov. 19... 
Nov. 19... 


Jan. 7, 1873 
Jan. 8, 1873 
Nov. 11... 
Nov. 16... 


Oct. 6... 
Oct. 6... 
Oct. 6... 


o 


Steam gauge or 
safety valve... 




- 




= 






Pre 




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Diameter 
in inches 


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CO 


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o 


Length in 
feet 


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CO 


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P4 


No. 


of boilers.. 


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iC 


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^ 


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8 

C<H 

o 

03 

a 


c 

K 

cS 

i 


No. 3 shaft, Pittston 

No. 2 breaker, Pittston 

Ontario colliery 

Enterprise colliery 


Enterprise colliery 

Enterprise colliery 

Dawson shaft. Brown's col'y 


> 

5 
55 


Spring Brook colliery 

Spring Brook colliery 

Oak Hill colliery 

Carbon Hill col'y. No. 2 shaft 

Carbon Hill breaker 

Carbon Hill, No. 1 shaft 

Elliot Kcerner's colliery 

Elliot Kcerner's colliery 

P^'ne colliery, shaft No. 1 

P3'ne colliery, shaft No. 2 

Pyne colliery, shaft No. 3 

Pyne colliery, shaft No. 4 

Pyne colliery slope 

Tavlor colliery 


Taylor colliery 

Taylor colliery 

JTaylor colliery 

Coray breaker 

Greenwood breaker 


Stafford Brook colliery 

Stafford Brook colliery 

National Anthracite colliery 




No. 


o 


f colliery 




?;s" 


i 


^-i 


oo' Ci" o' 1-i 
CA Ci CO CO 




CI 

CO 


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241 



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wo : lo : : ct cc CO : : c o : : : o : o : : : c» : .is : : ; o : o : : »o : : o 
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iH i-( : rH : : i-Hi-i >-i ijt-I'-i.jIi-i !i-i|;|i-(j:.-(::;TH:r-it|'H::.-( 




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: : 

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242 



Horse power. 



Fan engine.. 



Horse power . 



Breaker engine 



How many ho. j 
power 



's 



^ 






No. of engines 
in mines 



ri ; c 



How many ho. 
power 



;=2 

: <D 



No. of pumping 
engines 



How many ho. 
power 



No. of hoisting 
engines , 



Present condi- 
tion 



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titeam gauge or 
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Pressure 



lO lO LO lO lO lO S C> 1 



Diameter 
in inclies 



C rH -ti >* -t O -# ■ 



Length in 
feet .. 



No. of boilers.. 



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244 

No. 2 OK Port Griffith Slore. 

May 1st, I inspected the above named colliery, opened by the Pennsylvania 
coal company. John B. Smith is general superintendent, William Law is gen- 
eial mine superintendent and Henry Jopling is mine boss. 

This slope is 1,029 feet long, driven at an angle of o<P. There is no breaker at- 
tached to this mine. They send the coal to be i»repared to No. 2 breaker, Pitts- 
ton, and to the new breaker in Dunmore. They mine 150 tons of coal i)er day. 
TJiey employ 24 miners, 23 laborers, 6 drivers, 1 door-boy and 7 company men in 
the mine. They employ outside 8 company men, 4 mechanics and 1 boss. Tliey 
employ in all 74 men. They are working the Pittston or 14 feet vein. The aver- 
age thickness of this vein is 10 feet. They drive headings 10 feet, airways 15 feet 
and chambers 24 feet wide ; leave cross-entrances for the purpose of ventilation 
from 18 to 30 feet apart, and leave i)illars to sustain the roof from IG to IS feet 
thick. The roof is coal and rock. They have furnished a map of the mine. They 
are connected with No. G shaft, which can be used as a second opening. It is 
about 2,500 feet east from the mouth of the slope. There, is no house for the men 
to wash or change their clotlies in ; tlie men have not asked for it yet. They have 
an adequate amount of ventilation ; it is conducted to the face of the workings 
in two splits — the intake is from No. G shaft workings and the outcast at mouth 
of slope. The ventilation is assisted by the use of steam exliausts in the sl()j)e. 
There are large quantities of noxious and poisonous gases evolved in this mine. 
There is no standing water or gas in mine. The currents of air are so conducted 
as to carry all the gas away. The ventilation is good. They have an average of 
83,000 cubic feet of fresh air per minute. 

The mining boss seems to be a com])etent, practical and careful man. He has 
no assistant and attends to all the duties appertaining to the office himself. The 
mine is examined morning and evening. The air-doors or gates are hung so that 
they will close of tlieir own accord. The ventilation is measured and reported 
according to law. They have double doors lumg on traveled roads so as to keep 
up a steady current of air. They have a metal speaking tube in the slope ; tliey 
have a safety arrangement for men coming up ; they walk down ; they have an 
adequate brake on the lioisting drum. The strength of main links and ropes is 
tested daily by hoisting coal in the slope. There are no boys working in the mine 
under twelve years of age. The engineers are competeiit, ])ractical and sober 
men. There are no persons allowed to ride on loaded cars in tlie slope. They do 
not allow more than ten men to ride on a car in the slope at one time. The par- 
ties having charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident. The 
boilers have been cleaned and examined once every six months and reported in 
good condition. The feed pipes and water gauge cocks are in good condition. 
They have a steam gauge to indicate tlie pressure of steam per square inch. They 
use one hoisting engine of 40-horse power and four steam pumps; aggregate 120 
horse power. The area of the intake airway, which is No. G shaft, is 120 feet and 
the area of the outcast, which is at the mouth of the slope, is 80 feet. 

Itcmarks. — This slope is located on the east bank of the Susquehanna river, two 
and one-half miles south-west of Pittston, in Jenkins township. Tliis slope has 
been in operation for twenty-two years. They do not work more than 50 men in 
any one split of air. 



• EvERHART Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Jenkins tow-nship and situated about three miles 
south-east of the Susquehanna river and close to the outcrop of the coal measures. 
It is operated by T^verhart & Co. The opening is a tunnel driven in coal. There 
is a breaker located about 700 feet from tlie moutli of the tunnel. They have not 
mined or shipped any coal from this colliery for the year 1872. When last work- 
ing they mined and shipped about 300 tons of coal per day. They employed wdien 
last working, 84 men and boys in the mine and 41 men and boys outside — in all 
125 men an(l boys. Tlie character of the workings is a water-level tunnel with 
pillars and ciiamber. The average thickness of the coal is 10 feet. They worked 
headings 12, airways 10 and chambers 24 feet wide. They leave pillars from 12 to 
15 feet wide to sustain the roof, and cross-entrances from 30 to 3G feet apart for 



245 

the purpose of ventilation. The roof is hard rock. The mine was in a good work- 
ing condition. 

VentiJ((tion was produced by a furnace located 300 feet from the main opening. 
The intake is located at the mouth of the drift ; area 108 feet. The outcast is lo- 
cated in the furnace air-shaft; area 36 feet. The main doors were hung so tliat 
they would close of their own accord. They had attendants at the main doors. 
Tlie air was circulated to face of the workings in two splits. They had no instru- 
ment for measuring the amount of air. Ventilation was good. 

ILadiinerii. — TJiey use one engine of 40-horse power to run the breaker machin- 
ery, and to hoist on the planes outside. There is no machinery required at the 
tunnel. 

EemarJcs. — Tliey have furnished a map of mine. They have a second opening. 
They had no house for men to wash or change in. Tliey did not allow any per- 
son to work in the mine under twelve years of age. Tlie parties liaving charge 
know their duty in case of death or serious accident. There is a branch railroad 
built from the Lehigh and Susquehanna division of the Central railroad of New 
Jersey to the colliery. The breaker machinery is fenced and boxed off so that 
operatives are safe. 



Ko. G Shaft Colliery 

Is located in Jenkins township, about two miles south-west of Pittston, on the 
east side of the Susquehanna river. It is 180 feet deep to tlie Checkered or 7 feet 
vein and 312 to the Pittston or 14 feet vein. This mine is operated by tlie Penn- 
sylvania coal company, and John B. Smith is their general superintendent, ^Ym. 
Law is general mine superintendent, Thomas Aubrey is mining boss and Loftus 
Campbell is outside foreman. 

Description. — They have a breaker attached to the shaft tower by a trestle IGO 
feet long. They mine about 250 tons of coal per day. All the coal mined at Xo. 
6, 5 and 11 shafts is cleaned and prei)ared at No. G breaker. Tliey employ 36 mi- 
ners, 3G laborers, 15 drivers, 2 door-boys and 16 company men in the mine, and 30 
slate pickers, 4 head and plate men, 2 drivers, 17 company men, 3 mechanics and 
1 boss outside, in all 168 men and boys. Tliey have two gravity planes in opera- 
tion in the mine ; one is 300 feet and the other ISO feet long. The loaded cars go- 
ing down the planes, haul the light cars to the top. Tliis is a very clieap mode of 
getting coal to the foot of the shaft. They are only working the Pittston vein ; 
average thickness, twelve feet. Tliey drive headings 10 feet, airways 15 feet and 
chambers 24 feet wide. Headings and airways are driven on a level and chambers 
on a pitch. The roof is good slate. They leave pillars to sustain tlie roof, from 
16 to IS feet wide. They leave cross-entrances for the purpose of ventilation , from 
IS to 30 feet apart. 

Ventilation. — This mine is ventilated by steam at the outcast in No. 2 slope. 
The intake is located at Nos. 6 and 7 shafts. The air is conducted to the face of 
the workings iu two splits or currents. They have air-doors and gates on the 
main traveled roads, so as to control the air-currents and force the air to the face 
of all the working places. They have double doors on the main traveled road 
with attendants so as to keep them closed. The main doors on headings and air- 
ways are hung so that they will close of their own accord. They work in one 
split 30 men and in the other 42 men. The amount of ventilation has been meas- 
m-ed and re])orted monthly according to law. The amount of air at the intakes 
averages 28,750 cubic feet and at the outcast 30,000 cubic feet. Ventilation is 
good. The size of the intake air-way is 150 and 91 feet and upcast 80 feet. 

Machiner!/. — They have two hoisting carriages in the shaft ; one is a safety car- 
riage with all the modern improvements. The ropes, links, chains and connec- 
tions are in good condition. They have a metal speaking tube in the shaft, and 
have flanges of sufficient dimensions attached to the side of the hoisting drums. 
Tiiey have adequate brakes on hoisting drums. The boilers have been cleaned, 
examined and reported in good condition. They use safety valves and steam 
gauges tor safety and to indicate the pressure of steam. They use two hoisting 
engines of 70-horse power. 

licniarks. — They have furnished a map of the mine. They have no house for 
men to wash and change their clothes in. They have no noxious, inflammable or 
poisonous gases evolve in the mine. The mining boss seems to be a practical and 



246 

competent man. There are no persons allowed to ride on loaded wagons or car- 
riages either on the planes or in the shaft. The mine is in a good, safe, working 
condition. The parties having charge know tlieir duty in case of death or seri- 
ous accident. The sliaft landings are protected by safety-gates. The breaker 
machinery is boxed and fenced off so tlmt operatives are safe. 



Xo. 5 Shaft 

Is located in Jenkins township, about two miles south-west of Pittston, on the 
east side of the Susquehanna river. It is 88 feet deep to tlie Checkered vein and 
170 feet to the Pittston or 14 feet vein. This mine is operated by the Pennsylva- 
nia coal company. Benjamin Harding is mine boss. 

Description. — They have no breaker attached to this mine, as the coal from this 
mine is ])repared at No. 6 shaft breaker. They emphw 34 miners, 34 laborers, 8 
drivers, 2 door-Vioys, 7 company men in the mine; 2 drivers, 6 company men, 2 
mechanics and 1 boss outside ; in all OG men and boys. They are working the 
Pittston or 14 feet vein ; average tliickness lOi feet. The Checkered vein is not 
working. They have two gravity planes in the mine ; length of each 350 feet: 
They drive headings 10 feet, air- ways 15 feet and chambers 24 feet wide. Tlie na- 
ture of the roof is slate. 1}\ey leave ])illars to sustain it from 16 to 18 feet wide, 
and cross-entrances for the purpose of ventilation from 18 to 25 feet apart. 

Ventilation. — Yentilation is produced in the mine by the action of the atmos- 
phere. They have air-doors and gates on the main traveled roads, so as to control 
air-currents and force air to tlie face of all the working places. Tliey liave double 
doors on all main traveled roads with attendants so as to keep them closed. TJie 
main doors are hung so as to close of their own accord. The air is conducted to 
the face of the workings in two splits or currents. They work 32 men in one and 
36 men in the other. The amount of ventilation has been measured and reported 
monthly according to law. The amount of air, per measurement, at intake aver- 
ages 16,500 feet pel- minute. The intake is located at Ko. 5 sliaft and ISTos. 8 and 
4 slopes. The outcast is located at the mouth of No. 11 shaft. The area of in- 
takes is 130 feet and outcast air-way 150 feet. 

Madiinery. — They use two hoisting carriages in the shaft ; one is a safety-car- 
riage with all the modern improvements. The ropes, links, chains and connec- 
tions are in good order. They have a metal speaking tube in the mines. They 
have flanges of sufficient dimensions attached to the side of tlie hoisting drums. 
They have adequate brakes on the hoisting drums. They have bridle chains at- 
tached to the safety-carriage, where they hoist persons into and out of the mine. 
The boilers have been cleaned and examined, and all the feed pipes, water gauge 
cocks, &c., are in good condition. They use a steam gauge to indicate the pres- 
sure of steam per square inch. They also use one hoisting engine of 40-horse 
power. 

Bemarl^s. — They have furnished a map of the mine. They have second open- 
ings nearest to shaft 1,100 feet. They have no house for men to wash or change 
their clothes. They have no noxious or poisonous gases evolve in the mine. The 
minmg boss seems to be a practical and competent man. There are no persons 
allowed to ride on loaded wagons or carriages in the mine. The engineers seem 
to be sober, competent and experienced men. The parties having charge know 
their duty in case of death or serious accident. The mine is in good, safe, work- 
ing condition; there are no boys Avorking in the mine under twelve years of age ; 
the shaft landings are protected by safety-gates. In the ventilating of this mine 
the air-currents "are quite the reverse in summer to what they are in ^vinter. This 
sliaft is located three-fourths of a mile south-east from the Susquehanna river. 



No. 11 Shaft. 

This shaft is located in Jenkins township, 2 miles south-west of Pittston, on 
the east side of the Susquehanna river. It is 62 feet to the Checkered vein and 
194 feet to the Pittston or 14 feet vein. This mine is operated by the Pennsyl- 
vania coal company. Andrew Bryden is general mine superintendent and Ben- 
jamin Harding is mining boss. 



247 

Descrlptmi. — The coal mined here is cleaned and prepared at "No. 6 breaker, 
which is located 1,800 feet north-west. They employ 24 miners, 25 laborers, 5 
drivei's, 2 door-boys, 4 company men, in mine ; 2 head and plate men, 1 driver, 1 
company man, 2 mechanics, ontside ; in all, 66 men and boys. They are working 
the Pittston or 14 feet vein; average thickness, 10 feet; they drive headings 10, 
air-ways 15, and cliambers from 20 to 24 feet wide. The roof is good slate ; they 
leave pillars to sustain it from 14 to 18 feet wide. They leave cross entrances for 
the purpose of ventilation, from 18 to 50 feet apart. 

Ventilation. — The ventilation is produced by steam and the action of the at- 
mosphere. They have air-doors and gates on the main traveled roads, so as to 
control the air currents and force tlie air to all the working places. Tliey have 
double doors on main traveled roads, with attendants, so as to keep them closed. 
The main doors are hung so that tliey will close of their own accord. The air is 
conducted to the face of the workings in one volume. They work 60 men in this 
volume. The amount of ventilation has been measured and reported according 
to law ; the amount of ventilation averages 16,500 feet per minute. The in-take 
is located at shaft Xo. 5 and slopes Xos. 3 and 4 ; area about 100 feet. The out- 
cast is in main sliaft ; area about 100 feet. 

Machinery. — They use 2 hoisting carriages in the shaft ; one is a safety car- 
riage with all the modern irai)rovements. They use flanges of suflicient dimen- 
sions attached to tlie sides of tire hoisting drum ; tliey liave an adequate brake 
on hoisting drum. The strength of ropes, links, cliains and connections are 
tested every day by hoisting coal. They have bridle chains attaclied to the safety 
carriage. They do not allow more than 10 men to ride on any wagon or cage at 
one time. Tlie boilers, feed-pipes, water-gauge cocks, &c., have been cleaned 
and examined, and reported in good condition, according to law. Tliey have a 
steam gauge to indicate the pressure of steam per square inch. They use 1 steam 
engine of 40-horse power. 

Remarks. — They have furnished a map of mine ; they have a second opening ; 
they have no house for men to wash or change their clotlies in ; they have no 
noxious or poisonous gases evolved in this mine ; the mining boss and engineer 
seem to be practical, competent and sober men ; the parties having cliarge know 
their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the mine is in a good, safe, work- 
ing condition ; the shaft-landings are protected by safety gates ; the sliaf t is 
located 1,500 feet south of No. 5 shaft. 

Notc.—ThQ mines operated by the Pennsylvania coal company are worked regu- 
ifirij and systematically. 



ISTo. 7 Shaft. 

This shaft is located in Jenkins township, about li miles south-west of Pitts- 
ton, and about i mile south-east of the Susquehanna river. It is 160 feet to the 
Checkered vein, and 312 feet to the Pittston or 14 feet vein. This mhie is ope- 
rated by tlie Petmsylvania coal company. VYm. Law is general mine superin- 
tendent, Wm. Reid is mining boss. 

JDcscription. — There is no breaker attached to this mine, but they have large 
sehutes attached to shaft tower ; they mine and clean 350 tons of coal per day ; 
they employ 40 miners, 44 laborers, 14 drivers, 6 door-boys, 17 company men, in 
mine ; 4 slate pickers, 16 company men, 3 mechanics and 1 boss, outside ; in all, 
145 men and boys ; they are working tlie Pittston or 14 feet vein ; average thick- 
ness, 12 feet ; they drive headings lb feet, air- ways 15 feet, and chamljers 24 feet 
wide. Tlie nature of the roof is coal and rock; they leave pillars to sustain it, 
from 15 to 25 feet wide ; they have cross entrances, for the purpose of ventilation, 
from 18 to 30 feet apart ; they have 2 gravity planes in the mine operated, on the 
same principle as they are in No. 6 shaft ; one is 350 and the other 196 feet long. 

Ventilation. — Yentilation is produced by means of a suction fan ; at No. 4 
shaft they have air-doors and gates on the main traveled roads, so as to control 
the air currents and force the air to the face of all the working places ; they 
have no double doors on traveled roads ; they have attendants at all main doors, 
so as to keep them closed ; the air is conducted to the face of the workings in 2 
splits ; they work 8 men in one split and 76 men in the other ; the amount of 
ventilation has been measured and reported monthly, according to law ; the in- 
ta)ie i§ located at No. 7 shaft ; amount of air per measurement is 25,200 feet per 



248 

minute; tlie out-cast is located at 'No.A shaft; the area of the in-take is 100 
cubic feet and tlie area of tlie out-cast is 81 cubic feet ; ventilation is good. 

Machineri/. — Tliey have 2 hoisting carriages in the shaft; one is a safety car- 
riage witli all the modern improvement ; tlie ropes, links, chains and connections 
are in good condition. They use a metal spealving-tube in tlie mine. They have 
tianges of sufficient dimensions attached to the sides of hoisting drums ; tliey 
have adequate brakes on hoisting drums ; the boilers, feed pipes, water-gauge 
cocks, etc., are in good condition ; They use a steam gauge to indicate tlie pres- 
sure of steam per square inch ; they use 2 lioisting engines = 160-horse power. 

Remarks. — They have furnished a map of mine ; they have no house for men 
to wash or change their clothes in ; they have second openings at Kos. 4, 5, 6 and 
11 shafts and No. 2 slope, as all these works are connected together; there are 
no boys working in the mine under 12 years of age ; tliey have an adequate 
amount of ventilation in the mine to expel therefrom all noxious or poisonous 
gases ; the mining boss seems to be a practical, careful and competent man ; he 
lias an assistant ; they examine the mine every morning before men enter to 
work, and every evening to see that the mine doors are all closed ; the engineers 
are experienced, competent and sober men; the shaft-landings are well secured 
by safety-gates. ' 



No. 4 Shaft. 

This shaft is located in Pittston borough, and part of the workings are located 
in Jenkins township, 1 mile south-west of Pittston and k mile sontli-east of the 
Susquehanna river. Tliis shaft is operated by the Pennsylvania coal company. 
This shaft is 192 feet deep ; size, 16 feet by 9^ feet. Andrew Bryden is general 
mine superintendent, and Peter P. Daley is mining boss. 

Description. — They have no breaker connected with this mine, but they have 
large schutes for loading large railroad cars. The coal from this mine is pre- 
pared at No. 2 breaker, Pittston, and at the screens in Dunmore; they mine 
about 350 tons of coal per day ; tliey employ 52 miners, 50 laborers, 15 drivers, 2 
door-boys and 8 company men, in the mine ; 13 company men, 2 mechanics and 1 
boss, outside ; in all, 143 men and boys. They are working the 14 feet vein ; av- 
erage tliickness, 11 feet ; they work headings 10, air-waj^s 15, and chambers from 
20 to 26 feet wide ; they leave pillars from 14 to 20 feet wide to sustain the roof ; 
they leave cross entrances from 18 to 50 feet apart for the purpose of ventilation ; 
the roof is good slate ; the mine is in good working condition. 

Ventilation. — Ventilation is produced by the action of the atmosphere ; the 
in-take is located in main shaft ; it contains an area of 95 feet ; the up-casts are 
located in No. 7 shaft and No. 4 slope at present ; they contain an area of 95 
feet ; the average supply of fresh air is 15,500 cubic feet per minute ; the main 
doors on headings and air- ways are hung so that they will close of their own 
accord ; they have attendants at all main doors to keep them shut, so as to assist 
the ventilation ; they have double doors on main traveled roafls, and an extra 
one in case that any of the others should get broken ; the air is circulated to the 
face of the workings in 3 splits ; they employ 52 men in one, 16 in the other and 
34 in the other ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ac- 
cording to law ; ventilation is good ; they are putting up a new fan which is not 
in operation yet, the up-cast then will be in main shaft. 

Ifadiinery, — The engines in use at this colliery are 2 40-horse power and 2 10- 
horse power fan engines, and 2 10-liorse power engines used for sinking the new 
slope. They have a metal speaking tube in the shaft ; they have tianges of suffi- 
cient strength and dimensions for safety, attached to the sides of their hoisting 
drums ; they have adequate brakes on their hoisting drums ; the links, chains, 
ropes and connections, are in good condition ; the boilers have been cleaned, ex- 
amined and reported in good condition, according to law ; they have a steam 
gauge and safety valves for safety and to indicate tiie pressure of steam. 

Remarks,— They have furnished a map of the mine ; they are connected with 
the workings of No. 7 shaft and No. 4 slope, which can be used as a second ojien- 
ing ; they have no house for men to wash or change their clothes in ; the mining 
boss is a practical and competent man ; there are no boys working in the mine 
under 12 years of age; the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and 
sober men ; they comply, generally, with the requirements of the law ; the shaft- 
landings are protected by safety-gates. 



249 

ISTo. 4 Slope. 

This slope is located in Jenkins township, lying south-east of I^o. 4 shaft. It 
is 184 feet long, 9 feet wide and 6 feet high. It is operated by the Pennsylvania 
coal company. Andrew Bryden is general superintendent, and James Bryclen 
is mining boss. 

Description. — Tliere is no breaker connected with tliis mine. Tliey mine and 
ship about 275 tons of coal per day. They employ 40 miners, 40 laborers, 13 
drivers, 6 door boys and S company men inside ; 5 drivers, 13 company men, 2 
mechanics and 1 boss outside ; in all 128 men and boys. They are working two 
gravity planes in the mine ; one is 203 and the other is 2-50 feet long. The vein of 
coal which they are working is called the Pittston or 14 feet vein. Its average 
thickness is 11 feet. Tliey drive headways 10, air-ways 15, and cliambers from 20 
to 20 feet wide. They leave the pillars from 14 to 21 feet wide to sustain the roof. 
They leave cross entrances from 18 to 50 feet apart for the purpose of ventilation. 
The roof is slate. The mine is in a good, safe working condition. 

Ventilation. — The mine is ventilated by the action of the atmosphere ; the in- 
takes are located at the mouths of ]^os. 3 and 4 slopes ; the areas are 51 and 60 
feet ; the out or upcast is in No. 4 shaft in summer and at the mouth of tunnel in 
No. 3 slope workings in winter ; area about 75 feet ; the average amount of fresh 
air to supply the mine is 35,800 cubic feet per minute ; there is no noxious poison- 
ous or inflammable gas evolved in this mine ; the main doors on headings and 
airways are hung so that they will close of their own accord, and tliey have at- 
tendants at all main doors to keep them closed so as to keep a steady current of 
air and conduct it to the face of the working places; the air is conducted to the 
face of the workings in one volume ; the ventilation has been measured and re- 
ported according to law ; the ventilation is tolerably good. 

Mac Inner!/. —They use one hoistinfj engine of 20-horse power ; they have a metal 
speaking tube in the mine ; they have flanges of sufficient dimensions attached to 
hoisting drum for safety; they have an adequate brake on hoisting drum; the 
boilers, feed pipes, water gauge cocks, &c., have been cleaned and examhied and 
reported in good condition according to law ; they have a steam gauge and safety 
valve for the purpose of indicating the pressure of steam and for safety. 

Bemarls. — They have furnished a map of the mine ; No. 3 slope and Nos. 4and 
11 shaft workings are connected and can be used as a second opening ; they have 
no house for men to wash or change tlieir clothes in ; the mining boss is a prac- 
tical and competent juan ; there ai-e no boys working in the mines under twelve 
years of age ; the engineer is an experienced, competent and sober man ; there are 
no persons allowed to ride on loaded cars on the planes or in the slope. The par- 
ties having charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident. 



No. 5 Slope or Grand Tunnel. 

This mine is located in Pittston township, about one-fourth of a mile south-east 
of the Susquehanna river. This mine is opened by a slope and tunnel ; the slope 
is about 500 feet long ; it is 10 feet wide by 7 feet high ; the tunnel is 500 feet long 
to where it connects with tlie slope ; tlie opening is 7 wide by feet high ; it is 
operated by the Pennsylvania coal compahy. Wm. Law is general mine super- 
intendent and James Watson is mining boss. 

Descrij^tion.— There is no breaker connected with this mine. The coal is pre- 
pared at No. 2 breaker and the screens in Dunmore ; they mine al^out 300 tons of 
coal per day ; they employ 38 miners, 38 laborers, 21 drivers and 12 company men 
In the mine, 4 drivers, 18 company men, 2 mechanics and 1 boss outside ; in all 
134 men and boys ; they have two gravity planes in the mine, one is 180 and the 
other 238 feet long ; they are working the Pittston vein of coal ; average thick- 
ness 12 feet ; the character of the workings is drawing back top coal ; the head- 
ings are 10, airways 15 and chambers 24 feet wide ; the pillars are from 16 to 20 
feet thick to sustain the roof ; the cross-entrances are about 30 feet apart for the 
purpose of ventilation ; the roof is very good slate, and the mine is in a good 
working condition. 

Ventilation. — Ventilation is produced by the action of the atmosphere ; they 
have cut luose in to the old workings of the Butler coal company's mine in sev- 
eral places ; there are a great many cave-holes to the surface in these old work- 



250 

ings, which causes the air to play baclcwards and forwards in the mine according 
to the temperature and pressure of the atfnosphere outside ; the ventilation is 
generally good. 

Hack Inert/. — They use one hoisting engine of 20-horse power ; they have a metal 
speaking tube in the mine; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and re- 
ported in good condition ; they have a steam-gauge to indicate the pressure of 
steam. 

BemarTis. — They have furnished a map of their mine ; they have no house for 
men to wash or change their clothes in ; there is no noxious or poisonous gas 
evolved in the mine ; the mining boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; 
there are no boys working in the mine under twelve years of age ; tlie engineer 
seems to be a practical, competent and sober man ; they do not allow any person 
to ride on loaded cars on the planes in the mine ; the parties having charge know 
their duty in case of death or serious accident. 

Note. — Alexander Craig, Esq., has cliarge of the boilers and machinery of the 
Pennsylvania coal company. He is a gentleman of practical experience and he 
has the boilers cleaned and examined and the machinery kept in good condition, 
so as to comply Avith the requirements of the mine ventilation laws of 1870. 



Tomkin's Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Pittston borough, and is situated directly on the east 
bank of tlie Susquehanna river. The Checkered vein is worked by a tunnel from 
the crop ; the shaft is 130 feet deep to the 14 feet vein, (abandoned,) and it is 150 
feet deep to the Third or Lower vein. It is operated by xilva Tomkins, Esq. 
John Hughes is mining boss and D. Davis is outside foreman. 

Description. — There is a breaker connected with shaft buildings ; they mine 
and prepare about 75 tons of coal per day ; they employ in the Checkered vein 18 
miners, IG laborers, 6 drivers, 3 door-boys and (3 company men, and in the Third 
vein 5 miners, 7 laborers, 1 driver, 1 door-boy and 3 company men ; 20 slate pick- 
ers, 3 head and plate men, 7 company men, 2 mechanics and 1 l)0ss, outside ; in 
all, 99 men and boys. They are Avorking a slope 75 feet long, and driven on an 
angle of 35 degrees; they are working the Checkered and Third vein of coal; 
average thickness of the Checkered is'4i, and the Third vein is 6 feet ; they work 
headings 10, and chambers 24 feet wide ; they leave pillars from 12 to 18 feet 
wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross entrances about 20 feet apart for the 
purpose of ventilation ; the roof is slate and rock ; the mines are in a good work- 
ing condition. 

Veyitilation. — Ventilation in the Checkered vein is produced by means of a 
furnace, and in the Third vein it is produced by means of a steam jet ; the in- 
take is located in main opening, area 37 feet ; the up-cast is located in furnace 
air-shaft, area 36 feet ; the amount of pure fresh air is 9,750 cubic feet per min- 
ute ; there is inflammable gas evolved in the lower vein ; the mines are examined 
every morning before men go to work, and every evening to see that the main 
doors are closed ; the main doors are hung so that they will close of their own ac- 
cord ; they have attendants at main doors ; they have double doors on main trav- 
eled roads and an extra one in case of an accident to any of the others ; the air 
is circulated to the face of the workings in 2 splits in tlie Checkered vein ; the 
amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ; ventilation is good. 

3fachineri/. — They use 1 hoisting engine of 40-horse power, 1 pumping engine 
of 30-horse power, and 1 breaker engine of 15-horse power; they have a metal 
speakmg-tube in the shaft ; they have 1 self-dumping carriage with an improved 
safety-catch, bridle chains, etc., attached to it ; they have an adequate brake and 
flanges of sufficient strength and dimensions attached to the hoistin;g drums ; 
the ropes, links, chains and connections are in good condition ; the boilers have 
been cleaned and examined and reported in good condition ; they have a steam 
gauge to indicate the pressure of steam. 

liemarls. -^They have furnished a map of mine ; they have a second opening 
for the Clieekered vein about 400 feet from main opening ; they have no house for 
men to wash or change in ; the mining boss seems to be a practical, competent 
man ; he has a fire boss to assist him ; there are no boys working in the mines 
tinder 12 years of age; the enghieers seem to be experienced, competent and 
sober men ; they do not allow any persons to ride on loaded carriages in the shaft, 



251 

or loaded cars in the mines ; they do not allow more than ten men to ride on the 
gafety-carriage at one time ; the parties having charge know their duty in case 
of death or serious accident ; the shaft-landings are protected by safetj'-gates ; 
they have no second opening yet in the bottom vein; the breaker machinery is 
fenced and boxed off so that operatives are safe. 



Maryland ISTatioxal Anthracite Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Pittston township, and situated one mile south-east 
of the Susquehanna river. It is operated by Thomas Waddell, Esq. Thomas 
Waddell is general superintendent, Alexander Lauder is mining boss and Owen 
Mulloy is outside foreman. 

Descriptio)i.— The opening to the coal consists of a shaft and two tnnnels. The 
shaft is 270 feet deep to the Pittston bottom vein ; tliere is a breaker connected 
with these mines, located on the east bank of the Susquehanna river ; they mine 
and prepare about 100 tons of coal per day ; they employ 20' miners, 20 laborers, 6 
drivers, 1 door-boy and 3 company men in tlie mines ; 15 slate pickers, 4 head and 
plate men, 3 drivers, 2 mechanics and 1 boss outside ; in all 75 men and boys ; they 
are working a slope inside 113 feet long and driven at an angle of lli degrees; 
they are working the Pittston bottom vein of coal ; average thickness aboiit 3^ 
feet ; they work lieadings and air- ways about 12 and chambers about 24 feet wide ; 
they leave pillars about 14 feet wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cros?-3n- 
trances from 30 to 50 feet apart for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is good 
rock ; the mines are in a good, safe working condition. 

Ventilation is produced by a furnace in the tunnel ; the intake for shaft is lo- 
cated at mouth of shaft, area — feet, and the intakes for tumrels are located at 
mouth of tunnels, area of each 64 feet ; the upcasts for shaft ^p tunnels are lo- 
cated in furnace air shaft, area 40 feet ; the amount of pure an' in shaft is -' — 

cubic feet and in the tunnels it is cubic feet per minute ; the main doors are 

hung so as to close of their own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; the 
air is circulated to the face of the v/orkings in one volume in each place ; the 
amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ; ventilation is good. 

Ilachineri/. — They use one breaker engine of 25-horse power and one engine for 
hoisting an'd pumping at shaft of 80-liorse power ; they have a metal speaking 
tube in shaft ; they have a safety-carriage with all the modern improvements ; 
thev have an adequate brake and flanges of sufficient strength and dimensions for 
safety attached to their hoisting drum ; the ropes, links, chauis and connections 
are in good condition ; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and re])orted 
in good condition ; they have a steam-gauge to indicate the pressure of steam ; 
the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced off so tliat operatives are safe. 

Bemarks.— They have furnished a map of mines ; they have a second opening ; 
they have no house for men to wash or change in; the mining boss seems to be 
a practical and competent man ; there are no boys working in the mines under 
twelve years of age ; the engineers seem to be expei'ienced, competent and sober 
men ; they do not allow any persons to ride on loaded cars in the mines : they do 
not allow over ten men to ride on the safety-carriage at one time ; the parties 
having charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the upcast 
for shaft is in main opening. 



No. 9 Shaft. 

This shaft is located in Pittston borough-, lying one-fourth of a mile south-east 
of the Susquehanna river. It is 71 feet deep to the Clieckered vein, and 136 feet 
deep to the Pittston or 14 feet vein ; it is 12 feet wide by 16* feet long. It is ope- 
rated by the Pennsylvania coal company. Andrew Bryden is general mine super- 
intendent and Tliomas Ilichardson is mining boss. 

Description. — The coal mined here is prepared and cleaned at ITo. 10 breaker, 
which is 2,500 feet from the shTift ; they mine about 160 tons of coal per day; 
they employ 28 miners, 14 laborers, 4 drivers, 2 door-boys and 4 company men, 
in the mine ; 3 head and plate men, 3 drivers, 2 company men, 3 mechanics and 



252 

1 boss, outside ; in all, 64 men and boys ; they are workinj? the Pittston or 14 feet 
vein of coal ; average thickness, 9 feet ; they work lieading- 10, air-way 1-5, and 
chambers from 20 to 24 feet wide ; they leave pillars from 14 to 18 feet wide to 
sustain the roof ; tliey leave cross entrances from IS to 50 feet apart for the pur- 
pose of ventilation ; the roof is good slate ; the mine is in a good safe working 
condition. 

Ventilation. — Tlie ventilation is produced by means of a furnace, viz : There 
is a brick partition in second opening and the furnace is on one side of it and 
steps for men to travel in on the other side ; the in-take is located in main shaft ; 
it contains an area of 100 feet ; the up-cast is located in air-shaft ; it contains an 
area of 60 feet ; the average supply of fresh air is 20,000 cubic feet per minute ; 
there is noxious, poisonous and inflammable gas evolved in the mine; the mine 
is examined every morning before men are allowed to go to w^ork, and every 
evening to see that the main doors are all closed; the main doors are hung so 
tliat they will close of their own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; 
the air is circulated to the face of the workings in two splits ; the amount of 
ventilation has been measured and reported according to law; ventilation is 
good. 

Mdcliineni.—They use 1 hoisting engine, 40-horse pow^r ; they have a metal 
speaking-tube in the shaft ; they have a safety-carriage with all tlie modern im- 
provements ; they have flanges of sufficient strength and dimensions for safety, 
and an adequate brake, attached to their hoisting diurns ; the main links, chains 
and connections are in good condition ; the boilers have been cleaned and exam- 
ined and reported in good condition according to law ; tliey have a steam gauge 
and safety-valves for safety and to indicate the pressure of steam. 

ii'eni ftrAvs.— They have furnished a map of mine ; they have a second opening 
located 500 feet from main shaft ; they have a house for men to wasli and change 
their clothes in ; the mining boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; he 
has a fire boss to assist him; there are no boys w^orking in the mine mider 12 
years of age ; ipey do not allow any person to ride on loaded carriages in the 
shaft ; they do not allow more than 10 men to ride on the safety-carriage at one 
time ; the parties having charge know their duty in case of death or serious ac- 
cident ; the shaft-landings are protected by safety-gates ; they do not work more 
than 50 persons in one split of air. 



]Sro. 10 Shaft Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Pittston borough, and lying one-half of a mile south- 
east of the Susquehanna river. The shaft is 99 feet deep to the Checkered vein 
and 159 feet deep to the Pittston or 14feet vein ; it is 12 feet wide by 27 feet.long ; 
it is operated by tlie Pennsylvania coal company, Andrew Bryden is general 
mine superintendent and William Abbott is mining boss. 

Dcsfvripiioii.— There is a double breaker connected with these mines ; it is con- 
nected to the shaft-tower by a trestling 50 feet long ; they mine and prepare about 
560 tons of coal per day ; they employ 82 miners, 72 laborers, 20 drivers, 7 door- 
boys and 18 company men in the mines ; 61 slate pickers, 14 head and plate men, 
2 drivers, 14 company men, 13 mechanics and 2 bosses outside; in all 305 men and 
boys. The character of the workings is pillar and chamber : they are working 
the Checkered and Pittston veins of coal ; average thickness of the Clieckered is 
6 and of the Pittston vein 8i feet ; they are working headings 10, air-w^ays 15 and 
chambers from 20 to 26 feet wide ; they leave pillars from 14 to 18 feet wide to 
sustain the roof; they leave cross-entrances from 18 to 50 feet apart for the pur- 
pose of ventilation ; the roof is good slate ; the mines ai-e in a good workuig con- 
dition ; they are working a slope in the Checkered vein. 

VentUation.—'IhQ ventilation in the Checkered vein is produced by a furnace 
and in the Pittston vein by the action of the atmosphere ; the intake is located 
in the main shaft for tlie Checkered vem, and in No. 8 shaft and second opening 
for tlie Pittston or 14 feet vein ; the uiicast for the Checkered vein is m the fur- 
nace air shaft, and for the Pittston or 14 feet vein in No. 8 shaft in winter and in 
No. 3 shaft in summer ; the amount of fresh air in the Checkered vein is 23,000 
and in the Pittston or 14 feet vein 23,000 cubic feet per minute ; the main doors 
on I'.eadings and air-ways are hung so that they will close of their own accord ; 
they have an attendant at main doors ; the air is conducted to the face of the 



253 

workings in a systematic manner ; tlie amount of ventilation lias been measured 
and reported according to la-w ; ventilation is good. 

Madiinerij. — The engines in use in tliis colliery are one hoisting engine of 40- 
liorse power, one pumping and hoisting engine of 40-horse power, one breaker en- 
gine of 40-liorse power, one steam-pump of 30-horse power and one sloi)e engine of 
oO-horse power. They have two metal speaking tubes in the shaft ; they liave a 
safety-carriage with all the modern improvements on it ; they have llanges of suf- 
ficient strengtli and dimensions for safety and an adequate brake attaelied to the 
sides of the hoisting drums; the ropes, links, chains and connections are in good 
condition ; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported in good con- 
dition according to law ; they have a steam-gauge and safety-valves for safety and 
to indicate the pressure of steam. 

Remarks. — They luive furnished a map of the mines ; they have second open- 
ings for both veins located at various distances from the main opening ; they have 
a house for men to wash and change their clothes in ; the mining boss seems to 
be a praciieal and competent man ; there are no boys working in tlie mines under 
twelve years of age ; the engineers seem to be experienced, competer.t and sober 
men ; tliey do not allow any person to ride on loaded cars in the shaft or on the 
slope; they do not allow more than ten men to ride on the safety carriage at one 
time ; the parties having charge know their duty in case of death or serious acci- 
dent ; they have four hoisting carriages in the shaft, two to eacli vein ; they h:V','e 
two safety-carriages with all the modern improvements, one to each vein ; they 
liave a man and mule way from the surface to both veins ; all parties working in 
the mines go in and out by tins passage ; the sliaft landings are protected by safe- 
ty-gates ; tlie breaker machinery is fenced and boxed off so that operatives are 
safe. 



I^To. 2 Breaker, Pittstox. 

Tliis breaker is located in Pittston borough, at the head of 'No. 2 plane. They 
break, screen and prepare the coal here from the different shafts aromid Pittston 
that have no breaker connacted with them ; they employ 38 slate pickers and 14 
men ; in all 52 men and boys. 



ISTo. 8 Shaft Colliery. 

This shaft is located in Pittston township, and lying 1 mile south-east of the 
Susquehanna river : it is 08 feet deep to the Checkered vein and 136 feet deep to 
the Pittston or 14 feet vehi ; size of shaft is 14 feet long and 9^ wide. This mine 
is operated by the Pennsylvania coal company. Andrew Bryden is general mine 
superintendent and James Moffatt is mining boss. 

2)escrjptioj!.— There is a breaker connected with this mine about 400 feet north 
of the shaft ; they mine and prepare about 4o0 tons of coal per day — 3o0 tons 
from the shaft and 100 tons from ]Sro. 6 slope ; they employ 52 miners, 47 laborers, 
13 drivers and 7 company men, in the mine ; 42 slate pickers, 12 head and plate 
men, 2 drivers, 13 company men, 5 mechanics and 2 bosses, outside ; in all, 195 
men and boys. This mine is worked by 4 planes and 1 slope ; 1st plane is 400, 2d 
plane 230, 3d plane 300 and 4t]i plane 440 feet long ; the slope is 440 feet long. The 
character of the workings : They drive headings and air-ways at water level, 
and they open chambers off the air-waj's to the pitch ; they are working the 
Pittston vein of coal ; average thickness, 10 feet ; they work headings 10, air- 
ways 15 and chambers from 20 to 24 feet wide ; they leave pillars from 14 to 18 
feet to sustain the roof ; they leave cross-entrances from 20 to 50 feet apart for 
the ]iurpos3 of ventilation ; the roof is good slate ; the mine is in a good working 
condition. 

Ventilation. — Yentilation is produced by the action of the atmosphere ; the in- 
take is located at shafts Xos. 10 and 3 in the winter time, and in Xo, 6 slope and 
main shaft in the summer time ; the intake in J^os. 10 and 3 shafts each contain 
an area of 100 feet ; the areii of main shaft is 100 feet, and Xo. 6 slope contains an 
area of 54 feet ; the average supply of fresh air is 20,650 cubic feet per muiute ; 



254 

the main doors on headings and air-ways are hung so that they will close of their 
own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; the air is circulated to the face 
of the workings in four splits ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and 
reported according to law ; ventilation is good. 

irarhincry. — The engines in use at this colliery are one pair of hoisting engines 
of 40-horse "power, one breaker engine of 30-horse power and one donkey engine 
in mine for pumping purposes, &c.; they have a metal speaking tube in tlie shaft ; 
they have a safety carriage witli all tlie modern improvements"; they have flanges 
of sutllcient strength and dimensions for safety ; they have an adequate brake on 
the hoisting drums ; the main links, chains and connections are in good condition ; 
the boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported in good condition ; they 
have a steam-gauge and safety-valves for safety and to indicate the pressure of 
steam ; the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced off so that operatives are safe. 

Jiciiiarks. — They have furnished a map of the mine ; they have second ojienings 
located at various distances from the main opening ; they have no house for men 
to wash or cliange clothes in; the mining boss seems to be a practical and compe- 
tent man ; there are no boys working in the mine under twelve years of age ; the 
engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men ; they do not allow 
any person to ride on loaded cars on the planes in the mine ; they do not allow 
more than ten men to ride on the safety-carriage at one time ; tlie parties having 
charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the shaft landings 
are protected by safety-gates. 



Ko. 6- Slope. 

Tills slope is located in Pittston township, a-nd lying about 600 feet south-east 
of No. 8 shaft ; it is 900 feet long, 6 feet high and 10 feet wide ; it is operated by 
the Pennsj'lvania coal company. Andrew Bryden is general mine superintendent 
and James Moffatt is mining boss. 

Description. — There is a brefiker connected with this mine about 1,200 feet 
away ; they mine and prepare about 100 tons of coal per day; they em])loy 22 mi- 
ners, 13 laborers, 3 drivers and 2 company men in the mine, 2 drivers, 3 company 
men and 3 mechanics outside, in all 48 men and boy's ; tliey are Avorking the 7 feet 
vein of coal; average thickness 6 feet; they work headings 10, air-Avays 15 and 
chambers from 20 to"26 feet wide ; they leave pillars from 14 to IS feet wide to 
sustain the roof ; tliey leave cross-entrances from 18 to 50 feet apart for the pur- 
pose of ventilation ; the roof is good slate ; the mine is in a good working con- 
dition. 

VentUation. — Yentilation is produced by the action of the atmosphere ; the in- 
take is located in No. 10 shaft and No. 6 tunnel ; it contains an area of 100 feet 
at No. 10 shaft and an area of 30 feet at the drift or slope ; the outcast is located 
at mouth of slope ; it contains an area, of 54 feet ; tlie average supply of fresh air 
is 19,(370 cubic feet per minute ; the main doors are hung so that they will close of 
their 'own accord; tliey have attendants at main doors ; the air is circulated to 
the face of the v.'orkings in two splits ; the amount of ventilation has been meas- 
ured and reported according to law. Yentilation is good. 

Ilachineri/. — They use two hoisting engines of 20-horse power each and one 
steam pump of 25-horse power; they have a metal speaking tube in the mine; 
they have tlanges of sufficient strength and dimensions for safety attached to the 
sides of their lioisting drum ; they have an adequate brake on their hoisting-drum ; 
the ropes, links, chains and connections are in good condition ; the boilers have 
been cleaned and examined and reported in good condition according to law; they 
have a steam gauge and safety-valves for safety and to indicate the pressure of 
steam. 

Rcmarli-s. — They have fiu-nished a map of their mine ; they have second open- 
ings located at various distances from main Opening'; they have no house for men 
to wash or change their clothes in ; the mining boss seems to be a competent and 
practical man ; there are no boy's working in the mine under twelve years of age ; 
tlie engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men ; tliey do not al- 
lov/ any person to ride on loaded wagons or cars in the slope ; the persons having 
charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident. 



255 

Seneca Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Pittston borougli, and situated one-fourth of a mile 
•south-east of the Susquehanna river. The opening consists of a slope three hun- 
dred and thirty feet long, driven at an angle of 19-; the opening is 6 by 8 feet ; it 
is operated by the Pittston and Elmira coal company. Jos. Cool is general mine 
superintendent and Isrcel Watkins is mining boss. 

Description. — There is a breaker connected with these mines, situated about 
three hundred feet away ; they mine and prepare about three hundred and twen- 
ty-five tons of coal per day ; they employ 33 miners, 33 laborers, 23 drivers, G door- 
boys and 22 company men in the mines ; 27 slate pickers, 4 head and plate men, 8 
drivers, 11 company in^n, -4 mechanics and 1 boss outside ; in all 167 men and boys ; 
there is a plane inoperation in the mines ; length 220 feet. They are working the 
Pittston and Checkered veins ; average thickness of the Pittston 10 feet and of 
the Checkered 6* feet ; they work headings 10, airways from 12 to 15, and cham- 
bers 2-1 feet wide ; they leave pillars in each vein about fifteen feet wide to sustain 
the roof; they leave cross-entrances in the Pittston about 30 feet and in the 
Checkered vein about 25 feet apart for the pur])ose of ventilation ; tlie roof is 3 
feet of slate next the coal and the rest is good rock. The mines are in a good 
working condition. 

VeHtilotion. — Ventilation in the Checkered vein is produced by means of a fur- 
nace, and in the Pittston vein it is produced by the action of the atmosphere ; the 
intake for both veins is located in main opening ; the outcast for the Checkered 
vein is located in furnace air shaft ; the outcast for the Pittston vein is located 
in Eavine shaft ; the ai^ea of the intake is forty-eight feet and the area of tlie out- 
cast is twenty-six feet; the amount of pure air is 25,000 cubic feet per minute; 
there is some inflammable gas evolved in the mines ; the mines are examined 
every morning before men go to work and every evening to see tlmt the main doors 
are all closed ; the main doors are hung so that tliey will close of their own ac- 
cord : they have attendants at th.e main doors ; they have double doors on main 
traveled roads and an extra one in case of an accident to any of the others ; the 
air is circulated to the face of the workings in one volume in both veins ; the 
amount of ventilation has been measured and reported; ventilation is good. 

Machinery. — They use one breaker engine of 30-horse power and one hoisting 
engine at the slope "of 40-horse power ; they have flanges of sufticient strengtli and 
dimerisions attaclied to their lioisting drums ; the boilers have been cleaned and 
examined and reported in good condition ; they have a steam-gauge to indicate 
the pressure of steam. 

Remarks. — They have furnished a map of the mines ; in the Pittston vein they 
are connected with Ravine shaft, which can be used as a second opening, and the 
second opening for the Checkered vein is located sixteen hundred feet from the 
main opening ; they have no house for men to wash or change their clothes in ; 
tlie mining boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; tliere are no boys 
working in the mines under twelve years of age ; the engineers seem to be expe- 
rienced, competent and sober men ; they do not allow any person to ride on load- 
ed cars in the mines ; the parties having charge know their duty in case of death 
or serious accident ; the breaker machinery is fenced and boxed off so that opera- 
tives are safe. 



Ravine Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Pittston borough, and is situated one thousand feet 
south-east of the Susquehanna river ; the opening consists of a shaft ; it is eighty 
feet deep to tlie Checkered and one hundred and fifty feet deep to the Pittston 
vein ; the opening is ten by sixteen feet ; it is operated by the Pittston and El- 
mira coal company. Jos. Cool is general mining superintendent and Israel Wat- 
kins is mining boss. 

Description. — There is a breaker over the shaft; they mine and prepare about 
three hundred tons of coal per day; they employ in the Pittston vein 10 miners, 
10 laborers, 7 drivers, 2 door-boys and 6 company men, and in the Checkered vein 
18 miners, 18 laborers, 7 drivers, 4 door-boys and" 8 company men ; 27 slate pickers, 
6 head and plate men, 6 drivers, 12 company men, 5 mechanics and 1 boss outside ; 
in all 147 men and boys ; they are working a slope in the Checkered vein 250 feet 
long ; they are working the Pittston and Checkered veins ; average thickness of 



256 

the Pittston 10 feet, of the Checkered vein Gi feet ; they work headings 10, air- 
ways 12 and chambers about 21 feet wide; they leave piUars about 15 feet wide to 
sustain the roof ; tliey leave cross-entrances twenty-five feet apart in tlie Pittston 
vein and thirty feet in tlie Checkered vein for the i)urpose of ventilation ; the roof 
contains about tln-ee feet of slate and the rest is solid rock ; the mines are in a* 
good working condition. 

Ventilation. — Ventilation in the Checkered vein is produced by a furnace and 
in the Pittston vein by the action of the atmosphere. The intake is located on 
tlie main'sliaft for botli veins ; the area of intake is 160 feet ; the upcast for the 
Checkered vein is in Furnace air shaft ; the Pittston vein is connected with the 
Seneca slope ; when the Seneca slope is the intake the main shaft is outcast ; it 
reverses according to the temperature outside; the amount of pure fresh air is 
18,000 cubic feet per minute ; tliere is a little noxious gas evolved in the mines ; 
the mines are examined every morning before men go to work and every evening 
to see tliat the main doors are all closed ; the main doors are hung so that they 
will close of their own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; they have 
double doors on main traveled roads and an extra one in case of an accident to 
ai^v of tlie others ; the air is circulated to the face of the workings in one split iu 
each vein ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ; ventila- 
tion is good. 

Machincrii. — They use one hoisting engine of 60-horse power and one breaker 
engine of 2U-horse po^ver ; they have a metal speaking tube in the shaft ; they 
have flanges of sufficient strength and dimensions for safety attached to the hoist- 
ing drums ; the ropes, links, chains and connections are in good condition ; the 
boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported in good condition ; they 
have a steam-gauge to indicate the pressure of steam. 

Bemarks. — They have furnished a map of the mines ; the second opening for the 
Checkered vein is located about 200 feet from the main opening ; they have a house 
for men to wash and change clothes in ; the mining boss seems to be a practical 
and competent man ; he has a fire boss to assist liiiii ; there are no boys working 
in the mines under twelve years of age; the engineers seem to be experienced, 
competent and sober men ; the men walk in and out Seneca slope ; tlie parties 
having charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the sliaft 
landings are protected by safety gates ; the breaker machinery is fenced and box- 
ed off so that operatives are safe. 



Beaver Mikes or Morgan's Slope. 

This colliery is located in Pittston borough and situated about 2,000 feet south- 
east of the Susquehanna river. It was once a slope Init is now a tunnel ; it is 
operated by Beaver & Co., Danville. Daniel Edwards is general superintendent, 
Fred. Bu'rget is mining boss and D. Davis is outside foreman. 

Description. — There is a small breaker located about 150 feet from the mouth of 
the tunnel ; they mine and prepare about 80 tons of coal per day ; they emi)loy 9 
miners, 9 laborers, 5 drivers, 3 door-boys and one company man in the mine ; 2 
slate pickers, 5 company men, 1 mechanic and 1 boss, outside ; in all 36 men and 
boys ; this. mine is worked by one plane inside about 350 feet long ; they are work- 
ing the Clieckered vein ; average thickness 6i feet ; they work headings 15, air- 
ways 18 and chambers 24 feet wide ; they leave pillars about 12 feet wide to sus- 
tain the roof ; they leave cross-entrances about 15 feet apart for the purpose of 
ventilation ; the roof is good ; tlie mine is in a good working condition , this mine 
is nearly worked out ; they are getting coal wherever they can without any refer- 
ence to system. 

Ventilation is produced by the action of the atmosphere ; ventilation is tolera- 
bly good. 

Ilachinery. — There is no machinery required except for running the screens, 
&c. They use one breaker engine of 20-horse power. 



257 

EocK Hill Tunnel 

Is located in the borouch of Pittstoii, and is situated 1,000 feet south-east of 
tlie Susquehanna river. It is operated iiy Bowkly & Son. Robert Sharp is gen- 
eral superintendent, Benjamin Lloyd is mining boss and Abram Price is outside 
foreman. 

Description.— There is a breaker located about 500 feet from the mouth of the 
tunnel ; they mine and prepare about 85 tons of coal per day ; they employ 11 mi- 
ners, 11 laborers and 4 drivers in the mine ; 9 slate pickers, 4 head and plate men, 
1 driver, 6 company men, 1 mechanic and 1 boss outside ; in all 48 men and boys ; 
they are working the Checkered vein ; average tliickness 7 feet ; tJiey work head- 
ing 12, air-w*ys'lOand chambers 24 feet wide ; they leave pillars from 10 to 15 feet 
wide to sustain the roof ; tliey drive cross-entrances as often as necessary for the 
purpose of ventilation ; the roof is very good ; the mine is in a tolerably good 
working condition. 

Ventilation is produced by the action of the atmosphere ; they are connected 
with Beaver & C^o.'s mine, and one acts as an outcast for the otilier. 

Machinery. — They use one engine of 25-horse power to operate the breaker ; 
there is no machinery required at tlie mine. 

Remarks. — They have furnished a map of the mine; there are no boys allowed 
to work in the mine under twelve years of age ; the parties having charge know 
their duty in case of death or serious accident. 



Twin Shaft Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Pittston borough, and situated on the east bank of 
the Lackawanna river; it is operated by tlie Pittston and Elmira coal company. 
Jos. Cool is general superintentlent, Tliomas Smiles is mining boss and S. H. 
Huntington is outside foreman. 

JDesn-iption. — These mines are opened by two shafts twenty feet apart ; tliey a.re 
65 feet deep to tlie Checkered and 110 feet deep to the Pittston vein; there' is a 
breaker attached to the sliaft tower ; they mine and prepare about 28(J tons of ccal 
per day ; tliey employ 22 miners, 22 laborers, 14 drivers, 5 do()r-]>oys and 12 com- 
pany men in Pittston vein ; 7 miners, 7 laborers, 2 drivers, 1 door-boy and 1 com- 
pany man in Checlcered vein ; 27 slate piclvei's, 5 head and plate men, 2 drivers, 7 
company men, 3 mechanics and 1 boss outside ; in all 138 men and boys ; they are 
working the Pittston andClieckered veins ; the average thickness of the Pittston 
vein is 8 feet and of the Checkered vein 6 feet ; they work lieadings 10, air-ways 
15 and chambers 24 feet wide : they leave pillars about 15 feet wide to sustain the 
roof; they leave cross-entrances about SOfeet apart forthe purpose of ventilation ; 
tlie roof is tliree feet of slate and good rock above ; the mines are in a good work- 
ing condition. 

Ventilation in both veins is produced by means of a steam jet ; the intake is lo- 
cated in the shaft where they hoist coal ; area 100 feet ; the upcast is located in 
the shaft that is used for hoisting men and supplies into and out of the mines ; 
area 100 feet ; the amount of pure fresh air is 15,200 cubic fi.'et per minute ; there 
is some inflammable and nox:ious gas evolved in the Pittston vein ; the mines are 
examined every morning and evening liy the fire boss ; they have double doors on 
traveled roads and an extra one in case of accident to any of the otliers, and the 
main doors are liung so that tliey will close of their own accord ; they liave at- 
tendants at main doors ; the amount of ventilation has be^n measured and re- 
ported : the air is conducted to the face of the workings systematically liy the aid 
of check doors ; there is but very little inflammable gas in the mines except when 
a door or gate gets broken, and tlien not to any dangerous extent ; ventilatioii is 
good. 

Machineri/. — They use one hoisting engine of 60-liorse power ; one pumping en- 
gine of 40-horse power, and one breaker engine of 10-horse power ; tliey liave a 
metal speaking tube in tlie shaft ; tliey have one patent safety-carriage with all 
the modern improvements in tlie sliaft used for hoisting and lowering men and 
supplies; they have lately put on a new wire rope and attachments, whicli are 
sjife and in good condition ; they do not allow any person to ride on loaded car- 
riages in tlie shaft ; they do not allow over ten persons to ride on tlie safety-car- 
riage at one time ; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported in 

18 



258 

good condition ; they have flanges of suflRcient strength and dimensions for safety 
attaclied to their hoisting drums ; tliey have an adequate brake on the lioisting 
drum ; they Inive a steam-gauge and safety-valves for safety and to indicate the 
pressure of steam ; the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced olf so that opera- 
tives are safe. 

Ecynarks. — They liave furnished a map of tlie mines ; they have second open- 
ings for both veins ; the Checkered vein is connected with Rock Hill Tunnel 
workings, and they have a shaft with ladders in from the Pittston vein to tlie 
surface ; it is located about 1,500 feet south of main shaft ; they liave a house for 
men to wash and cliange in ; tliey have no standing gas or water in the mines ; 
the mining boss is a practical and competent man ; he tlioroughly imderstands 
his business ; there are no boys working in the mines under twelve years of age ; 
the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men ; tlie parties hav- 
ing charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the shaft land- 
ings are protected by safety-gates. 



Rough and Ready Shaft Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Pittston township, and situated on the east bank of 
the Lackawanna river. Tliis mine is operated by the National iron company of 
Danville. Elijali Evans is superintendent and mining boss. 

Description. — This shaft is 35 feet from the siirface to the Checkered vein ; then 
7 feet of coal ; then 35 feet of rock to the Pittston vein ; tlien 12 feet of coal ; 
then 98 feet of rock to the vein they now propose to work ; they had a breaker 
attaclied to the sliaft tower, but it was burned down during tlie year; tliey are 
not Avorking here at present ; they mined only about 5,000 tons of coal during the 
year 1872, as they have been idle a greater portion of the time ; the average tliick- 
ness of the vein of coal that tliey proi)ose to work is about 8 feet ; the Pittston 
and Checkered veins are nearly worked out ; they are now preparing to build a 
new breaker and they say that they will get the mines in good Avorking condi- 
tion. 



Columbia Tunnel. 

This colliery is located in Pittston township, and situated about i mile south- 
east of the Lackawanna river. It is operated by Grove Brothers, Danville. 
Daniel Evans is general superintendent and mine boss, and Evan J. Evans is 
outside foreman. 

Description. — The opening to the coal is a tunnel 7 feet wide by 6 feet high 
and 2,300 feet long to the face in the mine ; there is a breaker located about 500 
feet from mouth of tunnel; they mine anel prepare about 90 tons of coal per day ; 
tliey employ 10 miners, 10 laborers, 3 drivers, 2 door-boys and 1 company man in 
the mine ; slate pickers, 2 head and plate men, 1 driver, 2 company men, 3 
mechanics and 2 bosses outside; in all 42 men and boys; they are working the 
Pittston vein ; average thickness, 8 feet ; they work headings 10, air-ways 14j 
ar.d chambei's 24 feet wide ; they leave pillars about 14 feet wide to sustain the 
roof; they leave cross entrances about 20 feet apart for the purpose of ventila- 
tion ; the roof is fire-clay and slate ; the mine is in good working condition. 

Ventilation is produced by a furnace aided by check-doors ; the in-take is loca- 
ted at mouth of tunnel; area 42 feet ; the up-cast is located in furnace air-shaft ; 
area 25 feet ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ; venti- 
lation is good. 

Machinery. — They use 1 breaker engine of 30-horse power. 

Remarks. — The mining boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; there 
are no boys working in the mine under 12 years of age. 



259 

Butler Colliekt. 

Tliis colliery is located in Pittston township and situated about two miles south- 
east of the Susquehanna vivei- ; it is operated by the JButler coal company. S. J3. 
Bennett is general superintendent, Thos. Tetley mining boss and Robert Jaques 
outside foreman. 

Description. — These mines are opened by a shaft and tunnels ; the shaft is 67 
feet to the Pittston and 106 feet deep to what they call the Butler vein ; there is 
a doul)le breaker attached to the shaft tower; they mine and prepai'e about 85 
tons of coal per day; they employ 26 miners, 26 laborers, 10 drivers, 2 door-boys 
and 7 company men in the mines ; 24 slate pickers, 6 head and plate men, 3 dri- 
vers and 8 company men, 6 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in all 120 men and 
boys ; they work one plane in the Pittston vein 2-50 feet long ; the character of 
workings is drawing back top coal and robbing pillars in the Pittston vein, and 
in the Butler vein is driving headings and airways for opening up the mines ; the 
shaft has been sunk to this vein since my last report ; the average thickness of 
the Pittston is 14 and the Butler 8 feet ; they work headings 10, air-ways 15 and 
chambei'S 25 feet wide ; they leave pillars about 16 feet wide to sustain the roof ; 
they leave cross-entrances about 20 feet apart for the pui'pose of ventilation ; the 
root' is good slate and rock ; the two veins are in tolerable good working condition. 

Ventilation. — In the Pittston vein it is produced by the action of "the atmos- 
phere ; there are several cave-lioles in the surface which cause the ventilation in 
these mines to be good ; ventilation in the Butler vein is produced by a fan ; tlie 
intake for the Butler vein is located in the shaft ; the air is conducted to the 
face of the workings by the aid of cheek-doors ; the upcast is in the partition on 
the north side of main shaft ; the area of the intake is 100 feet and tlie upcast 26 
feet; the amount of pure fresh air is 13,800 cub;c feet; there is no inflammable 
gas evolved in the mines ; the main doors are hiuig so that they will close of their 
own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; the amount of ventilation has 
been measured and reported ; ventilation is good. 

Machinery. — They use two hoisting engines of 40-horse power each, and one of 
"Knowles and Silsby's" donkey pumps in the mines ; they have a metal speaking 
tube in thejnines ; they have two self-dumping hoisting carriages with an im- 
proved safety-catch, bridle, chains, &c., attached to them; the ropes, links, 
chains and connections are in good condition ; the boilers have been cleaned and 
examined and reported in good condition ; they have a steam-gauge to indicate 
the pressure of steani. 

Remarks. — They have furnished a map of the mines ; the miners, laborers, &c., 
walk in and out the man and mule way driven from the Butler vein to the sur- 
face, as they are not allowed to go up or down the shaft ; the men wash and change 
their clothes in the engine room ; the mining boss seems to lie a practical and 
competent man ; there are no boys working in the mines under twelve years of 
age ; tlie engineers seem to be experienced , competent and sober men ; tlae parties 
having charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the shaft 
landings are protected by safety-gates ; the breaker machinery is fenced and box- 
ed off so that operatives are safe. 



Ontario Colliery. 

This colliery is located on Little IMill Creek, in Pittston township, and situated 
2 miles south-east of the Lackawanna river and on the Lehigh and Susquehanna 
railroad. The coal mined at this colliery is shipped by the Lehigh Valley rail- 
road company ; tliey have built a railroad from Pittston to tliis collierv. These 
mines are operated by the Luzerne coal and iron company. Fred. Mercur is gen- 
eral superintendent, Chas. Smith is mining boss, and Jos. L. Cakes is outside 
foreman. 

Description.— ThQ openings to the coal are 2 tunnels, namely: North and 
South ; there is a breaker located about 300 feet east of North tunnel ; they mine 
and prepare from 300 to 400 tons of coal per day ; they employ 50 miners, 40 
laborers, 15 drivers and 10 company men in tlie mines ; 40 slate pickers, 2 drivers, 
40 company men, 2 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in all 201 men and boys ; 
they are working what is supposed to be the same vein that they are working in 
the Bough and Ready and Butler shafts ; average thickness 10 feet ; they work 

• 



260 

headings 12, air-ways 10, and chambers about 20 feet wide ; they leave pillars 
about i'j feet wide to sustain the roof; they drive cross-entrances whenever it is 
necessary for the purjjose of ventilation ; the roof is good rock ; the mines are 
in a good working condition. 

VentUatinn.— The ventilation is produced by the action of tlie atmosphere and 
it is assisted by grates, wlien necessary ; the in-takes are located at moutlis of 
tunnels, areas 54 by 5-1 feet; the up-casts are in air shafts, areas 36 by 40 feet; 
the amount of pure, fresli air is 12,200 cubic feet per minute ; tlie main doors are 
hung so that they will close of their own accord ; they iiuve attendants at main 
doors ; the ventilation has been measured and rejjorted ; ventilation is good.. 

Machinerii. — Tliey use 3 euginesatthe breaker; their boilers have been cleaned 
and examined and reiiorted in good condition ; they liave a steam gauge to indi- 
cate the pressure of steam ; there is no machinery re(iuired at the tunnels. 

R(viari.s. — They have furnished a map of mine ; they have second openings for 
be ti tunnels; they have no house for men to wash and cliange in ; the mining 
boh-s is a practical and competent man ; there are no boys working in the mines 
under 12 years of age; the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and 
sol er men ; the parties having charge know their duty in case of death or serious 
accident. The breaker machinery is fenced and boxed off so that operatives are 
safe. 



Enterpkise Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Pleasant Valley borough, in Pittston township. It 

IS feet to tirst. 80i feet to the second, and 105 feet deep to the tliird vein. It 

is operated by the Hillside coal and iron company. William M'Culloch is general 
mine sui)erhitendent ; W. E. Colborn is mining boss; and J. W. Patten is out- 
side foreman. 

Description. — There are two breakers attached to tlie shaft tower; they mine 
and \)repare about 500 tons of coal per day ; they emjiloy 41 miners, SClabor^rs, 8 
drivers, 6 door b(«ys, and 10 company men in the mine ; 40 slate pickers, 10 head 
and plate men, 3 drivers, 10 company men, 3 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in 
all 1>;3 men and buys ; tliey have a slojie in operation in the mine ; it is 050 feet 
long, and driven at "an angle of 5 degrees ; they are working what is supposed to 
be tlie Stark vein, average thickness 6i feet ; tliey work lieadings 12, air-ways 15, 
and chambers about 25 feet wide ; tliey leave pillirs 12 feet wide to su.stain tlie 
roof ; they leave cross-entrances about 50 feet apari for the purpose of ventilation ; 
the I oof is rock ; tiie mine is in a good working condition. 

Veniikttion. — Ventilation is produced by means of a steam jet; tlie intake is 
located in main shaft, area 130 feet; the outcast is located in second opening, 
area 53 feet ; the amount of fresii air is 9,300 cubic feet per minute; the main 
doors ou headings and air-ways are hung so as to close of their own accord ; they 
have attendants at main doors ; they have double doors on main traveled roads, 
and an extra one in case that any of the others get broken ; the air is circulated 
to the face of the workings in one volume ; the amount of ventilation has been 
measured and reported according to law ; ventilation is good. 

Muchincrij. — They use two hoisting engines 60-horse power each ; one breaker 
engine at breaker No. 1, 25-liorse power ; and one at No. 2 breaker 60-horse jiower ; 
one inside of the mine 15-horse power ; they have a metal speaking tube in the 
shaft ; they have a safety carriage, with all ti.e modern improvements ; they have 
an adequate brake and llanges of sutlicient strength and dimensions for safety 
attached to their hoisting drum ; the ropes, links, chains and connections are in 
g K)d condition ; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported in good 
condition ; they have a safety valve to indicate the pressui-e of steam. 

licmarks. — Tliey have furnished a map of mine ; they have a second opening 
located 300 feet from main opening ; they have a house for men to wash and 
change their clothes in ; the mining boss seems to be a practical and competent 
man ; there are no boys working in the mine under twelve years of age ; tiie en- 
gineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men ; they do not allow any 
persons to ride on loaded cars in the mines ; they do not allow more than ten men 
to ride on the safety carriage at one time ; the parties having charge know their 
duty in case of death or serious accident ; there is a slope about 3tK) feet from the 
shaft ; it is driven to the top vein, and tliere is a man and mule way from tiiere 
to the lower vein ; the shaft landings are proiected by safety gates. 



261 

Enterpkise Colliery Drift. 

This colliery is located in Pleasant Valley borough, Pittston townshi]i; it is 
500 feet long and (3 feet liigh by 5 feet wide ; it is operated by the Hillside coal and 
iron company. Wui. M'Oolloiigh is sreneral mine superintendent, W. E. Colbourn 
is mining boss and Jos. W. Patten is outside foreman. 

Description. — Tlie coal mined here is prepared at the Enterprise breaker ; they 
employ 1.5 miners, 18 laborers, o drivers, 3 door-boys and 2 comiiany men in the 
mine; in all 41 men and boj^s ; they are working what is called the" Brown vein ; 
average thickness 12 feet ; they work headings 12, air-ways 12 and chambers 24 
feet wide ; they leave pillars 12 feet wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross-en- 
trances about 80 feet apart for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is bony coal ; 
the mine is in a good working condition. 

Ventilation is produced by ineans of a furnace about 400 feet from main open- 
ing ; the intake is located at mouth of tunnel, area 60 feet ; the upcast is located 
in furnace air-shaft, area 49 feet ; the amount of fresh air is 4,o00 cubic feet per 
minute; the main doors are hung so that they will close of their own accord; 
they have attendants at main doors; they have double doors on main traveled 
roads and an extra one in case of an accident to the others ; the amount of ven- 
tilation lias been measured and reported ; ventilation is good. 

Mavhinerii. — They are connected witli Enterprise colliery shaft ; therefore they 
do not need any machinery, as the mine drains itself. 

Remarks. — They liave furnished a map of mine ; they have a second o])ening in 
furnace aii'-shaft ; they have a house for men to wash and change tlieir clotlies 
in ; there are no boys working in the mine under twelve years of age ; the ])arties 
having charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; they are 
using one breaker here where the coal is washed and cleaned and the slate is jnck- 
ed by machinery ; they say it gives satisfaction ; the breaker machinery is fenced 
and boxed off so that operatives are safe. 



No. 12 Shaft. 

This shaft is located in Eittle York, Pleasant Valley borough, lying about one 
and one-fourth of a mile south-east of tlie Lackawanna river. It is a new sliaft. 
sinking by the Pennsylvania coal comi)any ; they are also building a new breaker 
in ciinnection with this and No. 13 shaft, which tliey are also sinking; it is lo- 
cated in Pleasant Valley borough and they are sinking it to form a connection 
with the Stark colliery workings and for a second opening for No. 12 shaft. 



Brown's Colliery Tunnel. 

This tunnel is located in Pleasant Valley borough, about one and one-half 
miles south of the Lackawanna river and close to Spring Brook creek : it is ope- 
rated by the Pennsylvania coal company. William Law is general mine super- 
intendent, and James Young is mining boss. 

Description. — The coal mined at this tunnel is prepared at Brown's colliery 
bi-eaker, which is located about 800 feet east of the mouth of the tumiel : they 
mine about 200 tons of coal per day: they employ 39 miners, 21 laborers, 10 
drivers, 3 door-boys and 11 company men in the mine ; 2 drivers, 7 company men. 
1 mechanic and 1 boss outside — in all 95 men and boys; they are workin.g tw > 
slopes inside; one is 200 feet and the other about loO feet long; they do not 
use any steam macliinery to hoist coal up these slopes; they are working the 
Brown colliery vein; average thickness, 8+ feet; they work headings 10, air- 
ways 15 and chambers 26 feet wide ; they leave pillars from 14 to 18 feet wide to 
sustain the roof ; they leave cross-entrances from 18 to 30 feet apart for the ])ui- 
pose of ventilation; the roof is good slate; the mine is in a tolerably good 
working condition. 

Ventilation. — Ventilation is produced by the action of the atmosphere, assisted 
by a furnace when necessary ; tlie intake is located at mouth of tunnel ; area is 
60 feet; the outcast is in furnace air-shaft; the area is 50 feet; the average 



262 

supply of fresh air is 12,400 cubic feet per minute ; the air is circulated to the 
face of the workings by the aid of check doors ; the main doors are hung so as 
to close of their own accord ; they have attendants at main doors. 

The amount of ventilation has been measured and reported according to law. 
Ventilation is generally good. 

Machinery. — There is no machinery connected with this mine except two hand 
pumps. 

lieinarls. — They have furnished a map of mine ; they have no house for men 
to wash or change their clothes in ; there is no inflammable gas evolved in this 
mine ; tlie mining boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; there are 
no boys working in the mine under 12 years of age ; the parties having charge 
know their duty in case of death or serious accident. 



Dawson Shaft— 'Brown's Colliery. 

This shaft is located in Pleasant Valley borough, about one and one-half miles 
south of the Lackawanna river : it is 147 feet deep to the Powder Mill vein ; it 
is 12 feet wide by 16i feet long ; it is operated by the Pennsylvania coal company. 
AVilliam Law is general mine superintendent, James Young is mining boss, and 
G. M. (Snyder is outside foreman. 

Description. — Tliere is a double breaker connected to the shaft by a trestling 
100 fett long; all tlie coal mined at Brown's colliery tunnel and at this shaft is 
cleaned and prepared here ; they mine about 300 tons of coal per day: they em- 
X)loy 46 miners, 46 laborers, 10 drivers, 4 door boys and 5 company men in the 
mhie ; 22 slate pickers, 4 head and plate men. 2 drivers, 2 mechanics and one boss 
outside ; in all 142 men and boys ; they are working tlie Powder Mill vein of 
coal, average thickness 7 feet; they woik headings 10, air-ways 15, and cham- 
1 e:s 30 fejt wide ; they leave pillars from 15 to 21 feet wide to sustain the roof; 
t.iey leave cross-entrances from 18 to 30 feet apart for the purpose of ventilation ; 
the roof is of very good sandstone rock ; the mine is in a good working condition. 

Ventilation. — Ventilation is produced by the action of the atmosphere ; the in- 
take is located in main shaft in summer and tlie out-cast in Stark sliaft, and in 
w^inter the in-take is located in Stark sliaft and Powder Mill tunnel and the out- 
cast in Dawson shaft ; the area of Dawson shaft equals 192 feet and the area of 
Stark shaft equals 192 feet and that of Powder Mill tunnel equals 80 feet ; the 
amount of fresh air is 16,800 cubic feet per minute; they have no noxious or 
poisonous gases evolved in the mine ; the main doors are hung so that they will 
close of their own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; the air is circu- 
lated to the face of the workings in 2 splits ; the amount of ventilation has been 
measured and reported according to law ; ventilation is good. 

Machinery. — They use 2 hoisting engines of 40-horse power each, and 1 breaker 
engine of oO-horse power at Dawson shaft ; they have a metal speaking-tube in 
the shaft ; they have a safety-carriage with all the modern improvements on it ; 
they have flanges of suflicient strength and dimensions for safety and an adequate 
brake attached to the hoisting drums ; the ropes, links, chains and connections 
are in good condition ; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported 
in good condition according to law ; they have a steam gauge to indicate the 
pressure of steam. 

Bemarl's. — They have furnished a map of the mine ; they are connected with 
Stark shaft which can be used as a second opening ; they have no house for men 
to wash or change their clothes in ; the mining boss seems to be a i)ractical and 
competent man ; they have no boys working in the mine under 12 years of age ; 
the engineers teimto be experienced competent and sober men; they do not 
allow any person to ride on loaded carriages in the shaft ; they do not allow more 
tlian 10 men to ride on the safety-carriage at one time ; the parties having charge 
know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the shaft-landings are pro- 
tected by safety-gates ; the breaker machinery is fenced and boxed off so that 
operatives are safe. 



263 

Stark's Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Lackawanna township ; it is one-half of a mile south 
of tlie Lackawanna river ; the opening to the coal is a shaft ; it is 108 feet deep 
to what is called the Powder Mill vein: it is 12 feet wide by 16i^ feet long; it is 
operated by the Pennsylvania coal comi)any. William Law is general mine snper- 
intendent, Alexander Laird is mining boss, and F. J. Boone is outside foreman. 

Descriijiion. — There is a double breaker connected to the shaft by a trestling 
100 feet long ; they mine and prepare about 350 tons of coal per day ; they em- 
ploy 04 miners, 33 laborers, 13 drivers, 5 door-boys and 8 comi)any men in the 
mine; 29 slate packers, 3 head awd })late men, 1 driver, 17 company men, 5 me- 
chanics and 1 boss outside, in all 179 men and boys; this mine is operated in- 
side by a plane -WO feet long and aslope 1,000 feet long; they are working the 
Powder Mill vein; average thickness, 8 feet; they work headings 10, air-ways 
15 and chambers 30 feet wide ; they leave pillars from 16 to 2-5 feet wide to sus- 
tain tJie roof ; they leave cross-entrances from IS to 30 feet apart for the purpose 
of ventilation ; the roof is slate and rock ; the mine is in a good working con- 
dition. 

Ventilation. — Ventilation is produced by the action of the atmosphere, and 
assisted by steam when necessary; the intakes are located in the main shaft 
and Powder Mill tunnel in winter, and in the Dawson shaft in summer; the 
main shaft contains an area of 192 feet. Powder Mill tunnel 80 feet and Dawson 
shaft 192 feet; the mines are ventilated right the reverse in summer from what 
they are in winter ; the amount of fresh air is 31,200 cubic feet per minute ; the 
main doors on headings and air-ways are hung so that they will close of their own 
accord; they have attendants at main doors; the air is circulated to the face 
of the workings in two splits ; the amount of ventilation has been meiisured and 
reported according to law ; ventilation is good. 

Machinefi/.—Thiiy use 3 steam engines for hoisting and pumping, 80-horse 
power, and ^1 breaker engine, 300-horse power ; they have a metal speaking tube 
in the shaft ; they have a safety carriage, with all the modei'ii improvements. 
They have flanges of sufficient strength and dimensions for safety, and an ade- 
quate brake on the hoisting drums ; the ropes, links, chains and connections are 
in good condition; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported in 
good condition, according to law; they have a steam gauge to indicate the 
pressure of steam. 

Jicmarks. — They have furnished a map of mine; they are connected with the 
Dawsoii shaft, which can be used as a second opening ; they have no house for 
men to w;i.sh or change their clothes in ; the mining boss seems to be a practi- 
cal and competent man ; there are no boys working in the mine under 12 years 
of age ; the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and so]>er men ; they 
do not allow any persons to ride on loaded cars on the slope or in the shaft ; 
they do not allow more than 10 men to ride on the safety carriage at one time : 
the parties having charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; 
the shaft landings are protected by safety gates ; the breaker machinery is 
fenced and boxed off so tliat operatives are safe. 



Spring Brook Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Lackawanna township and situated on Spring Brook 
creek, 1,500 feet south of the Lackawanna river; it was operated by the Glen- 
wood coal company, now in bankruptcy. George Filer is general mine superin- 
tendent, John Micklow is mining boss and Josiah Carryl is outside foreman. 

Description. — The opening to the coal consists of two tunnels, namely, Xos. 1 
and 2; No. 1 is located close to the breaker and on the north side of Spring Brook 
creek, and No. 2 is located one-half of a mile south-east of breaker and on the 
south side of Spring Brook creek; they mine and prepare 300 tons of coal per 
day when working ; tliey employ 45 miners. 40 laborers, 8 drivers, 3 door-boys 
and 5 company men in the mines ; 30 slate pickers, 6 head and plate men, 3 dri- 
vers, 5 company men, 4 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in all 151 men and boys ; 
they are working the Spring Brook vein of coal ; average thickness six feet. 
They work headings and air-ways 15 and chambers 25 feet wide ; they leave pil- 



264 

lars from 10 to 15 feet wide to sustain the roof, and cross-entrances 60 feet apart 
for tlie purpose of ventilation ; tlie roof is good rock ; the mines are in a good 
working condition. 

VentUation is produced by furnaces; the intake is located at the mouth of the 
tunnels ; area 75 feet; the outcasts are located in furnace air shafts ; area 60 
feet ; the main doors are hung so as to close of their own accord ; they have 
attendants at main doors: the amount of ventilation has been measured and 
reported ; ventilation is good. 

Maddnery. — They use one breaker engine of 35-horse power and two hoistiug 
engines on the i)lanes outside of 45-horse ]>ower each ; the boilers have been 
cleaned and examined and reported in good condition; they have a steam-gauge 
to indicate the pressure of steam; the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced 
off so that operatives are safe ; they require no machinery around the tunnels. 

Remarks. — They have furnished a map of the mines; the furnace air shaft 
can be used as a second opening ; they have a house for men to wasli and cliange 
in ; the mining boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; there are no 
boys working in the mines under twelve years of age ; the engineers seem to be 
experienced, competent and sober men; the parties having charge know their 
duty m case of death or serious accident. 



Oak Hill Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Lackawanna township, and situated on the east bank 
of the Lackawanna river, on the Lehigh and Susquehanna division of the Central 
railroad of New Jersey ; it is operated by the Glenwood coal company. Geo. 
Filer is general mine superintendent, Timothy Parfery is mining boss and David 
Stearns is outside foreman. 

Description. — The opening to the coal consists of three tunnels, namely, Nos. 1, 
2 and 3 ; there is a breaker connected with these mines ; they mine and pre- 
pare 200 tons of coal per day; they employ 30 miners, 25 laborers, 6 drivers, 4 
door-boys and 4 company men in the mines ; 25 slate pickers, 4 head and plate 
men, 4 drivers, 3 company men, 4 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in all 111 men 
and boys ; they are working the old vein ; average thickness six feet ; they 
work lieadings and air-ways 15 and chambers 25 feet wide; they leave pillai-s 
from 10 to 12 feet wide to sustain the roof, and cross-entrances sixty feet apart for 
the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is good rock ; the mines are in a good, 
woi'king condition. 

Ventilation is produced by means of furnaces ; the intake is located at mouth 
of tunnels, area from 50 to 60 feet; the outcast is located in furnace air shaft, 
jvrea 75 feet ; the amount of pure air is 13,200 cubic feet per minute; the main 
doors are hung so as to close of their own accord ; they have attendants at the 
main doors ; the air is circulated to the face of the workings in one volume in 
ea,ch tunnel ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported, ven- 
tilation is good. 

Machhury. — They use one steam engine at the breaker of 25-horse power ; the 
boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported in good condition ; they 
have a steam-gauge to indicate the pressure of steam ; the breaker machinery is 
boxed and fenced off so that operatives are safe ; they require no machinery 
around the tunnels. 

Remarks. — They have furnished a map of the mines ; they have a second open- 
ing ; they have a house for men to wash and change in ; there is some standing 
v.'ater in the mine ; the mining boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; 
tiiere are no boys working in tlie mine under twelve years of age ; the engineer 
seems to be an experienced, competent and sober man ; the parties having cliarge 
know theii" duty in case of death or serious accident. 



Carbon Hill Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Old Forge township, and situated on the west bank 
of the Lackawanna river, on the Lackawanna and Bloomsburg railroad ; it was 
operated by the Glenwood coal company, now in bankruptcy. George Filer is 



265 

general mine superintMiclent, Edward Jones is mining boss and A. Wisenflew is 
outside foreman. 

Description. — The opening to the coal consists of 2 shafts and a tunnel ; one 
of the shafts caved in about 2 years ago, and is now used as a pump shaft ; there 
IS a breaker connected with these mines; they mine and prepare about 250 tons 
of coal per day: they employ 40 miners, 40 laborers, 5 drivers, 3 door-boys and 
5 company men in the mines ; 25 slate pickers, 4 head and plate men, 3 drivers, 2 
company men, 3 mechanics and 2 bosses outside — in all 132 men and boys. They 
are working tlie Carbon Hill vein of coal ; average thickness, 6 feet ; they work 
headings 15, air-ways 15 and chambers from 25 to 27 feet wide ; tliey leave pil- 
lars from 8 to 15 feet wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross-entrances GO feet 
apart for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is rock ; the mines are in a good 
working condition. 

Ventilation in the shaft is produced by a steam jet, and in the tunnel by a fur- 
nace ; the intake for the shaft is in main shaft, area 100, and the upcast is in 
main shaft, area 60 feet ; tlie intake for tunnel is at mouth of tunnel, area, 50 
feet, and the outcast is in furnace an- shaft, area 60 feet ; there is some noxious 
gas evolved in the shaft ; the mines are examined every morning before men go 
to work, and every evening to see that the main doors are closed ; tlie main 
doors are hung to close of their own accord ; they have attendants at main 
doors; the air is circulated to tlie face of the workings in tlie sliaft in one 
volume ; the amount of pure air in the shaft is 4,000, and in the tunnel 5,000 
cubic feet per minute ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and re- 
ported ; ventilation is good. 

Maehincry. — They use one breaker engine, 25-horse power ; 2 hoisting engines, 
45-horse power each, and 1 pumping engine, 60-horse power ; they have a safety 
carriage, with all the modern improvements ; they have an adequate l)rake, and 
flanges of sufficient strength and dimensions for safety attached to the hoisting 
drum; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported in good condi- 
tion ; they have a steam gauge to indicate the pressure of steam ; the breaker 
machinery is boxed and fenced off so that operatives are safe. 

Beniarks. — Tliey have furnished maps of mines ; they have no second opening 
for the shaft yet, but they have for the tunnel ; they have a house for men to 
w;ish and change in ; there is some standing water in the old shaft workings ; 
the mining boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; he has a lire-boss to 
assist him ; there are no boys working in the mines under 12 years of age ; the 
engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men ; they do not allow 
any persons to ride on loaded carriages in the shaft ; they do not allow over 10 
persons to ride on the safety carriage at one time ; the parties having charge 
know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the tunnel workings is a 
different vein of coal from the vein that they are working in the shaft ; the shaft 
landings are protected by safety gates. 



Elliott, Keorner & Co.'s New Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Old Forge township, and situated one mile and a 
half north-west of the Lackawanna river; the opening to the coal consists of a 
shaft and slope ; the shaft is 85 feet deep to the first workable vein : the open- 
ing is 10 feet by 45 feet ; tlie slope is located 1,500 feet south-west of tlie shaft in 
I)rogress of sinking ; they employ 48 men and boys in and around the works. 



Pyne Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Lackawanna township, and situated about 2 miles 
north-west of the Lackawanna river : this is a new colliery, owned by the Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna and Western railroad company ; the opening consists of a 
shaft and slope ; tliey are also building a new breaker ; in the slope they employ 
12 sinkers and 4 mechanics. S. D. Kiiigsley, Esq., has charge of building all the 
new breakers and keeping them in repairs for this company; he eni])loys about 
16 carpenters ; John M'Andrews has about 15 masons, and the company has about 
12 company men ; in all 59 men. 



266 

Taylor Colliery Shaft. 

This colliery is located in Lackawanna township, and lying about one-fourth of 
a mile north Avest of the Lackawanna rivei" ; it is 180 feet deep to tlie Clarke vein ; 
the size of tlie opening is 10 feet by 39 feet; it is operated by the Delaware, 
Lackawanna and Western railroad company. Wm. R. Storrs is general coal 
agent, Benjamin Hughes general mine superintendent, Thos. D. Davis assistant 
general mine superintendent and E. R. Walter is general superintendent of col- 
lieries outside. Tlie above named gentlemen have charge of all the collieries op- 
erated by the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railroad company. John S. 
Powell is mining boss and J. P. Cooper is outside foreman. 

Des^criittinn. — There is a double breaker connected with this mine, attached to 
the sliaf t tower. Tlie coal mined in the shaft and drift of this colliery is prepar- 
ed here; they mine 490 tons and they prepare fiOO tons of coal per day; they 
employ -59 miners, 50 laborers, :^8 drivers, o door-boys and 18 company men in the 
mine ; 74 slate pickers, 9 head and plate men, 5 drivers, 21 company men, 10 me- 
chanics and 2 bosses outside ; in all 281 men and boys. Tliey are working tlie 
Clarke vein of coal ; average thickness 9 feet ; they "work headings 12, air-ways 
IS and chambers 30 feet wide : they leave pillars from 5 to 7 yards wide to sus- 
tain the roof ; they leave cross-entrances from 40 to 50 feet apart for the purpose 
of ventilation ; the roof is slate ; the mine is in a good working condition. 

VenUJation. — Ventilation is produced by means of a fan located close to the 
main shaft ; the intake is located in the second opening ; it contains an area of 
fifty-two feet ; the upcast is located in main shaft ; it contains an area of JOO feet ; 
tht\ amount of pure fresh air is 50,960 cubic feet ])er minute ; there is no noxious 
aixA intlammable gas evolved in tliis mine ; the mine is examined every morning 
before the men go to work and every evening to see that tlie main doors are all clos- 
ed; the main doors on headings and airways are hung so that they will close of 
their own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; they have double doors 
on main traveled roads and an extra one in ciise an accident should happen to any 
of the others ; the air is circulated to the face of the workings systematically by 
the aid of check doors, &c.: the amount of ventilation has been measured and re- 
ported according to law ; ventilation is good. 

Mocliinenj. — The engines in use at this colliery are one pair of hoisting engines 
of 120-lioise power ; one fan engine of 80-horse power, one pumping engine of 110 
horse power, one breaker engine of 60-horse power, all in shaft and pumping en- 
gine rooms, two steam pumps, one 20 and the other 12-horse power, in tire engine 
and boiler rooms, and one steam-i)ump at foot of small shaft, wliich is located 
twenty-feet north of main shaft, of 100-horse power; they have a metal speaking 
tube in the shaft ; they have two safety-carriages with all the modern improve- 
ments on it : they have flanges of sufficient strength and dimensions for safety 
and an adequate brake on the hoisting drums ; tliey use standard wire ropes with 
clevis and cone attachment ; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and re- 
ported in good condition according to law ; they use a steam-gauge and safety- 
valves for safety and to indicate the pressure of steam ; the breaker machinery is 
boxed and fenced off so that operatives are safe ; the shaft-landings are protected 
by safety-gates. 

Remarks. — They have furnished a map of the mine ; the second opening is a 
traveling way driven to the surface, and it is in a good safe condition ; tliey have 
a house for men to wash and change their clothes in ; the mining boss is a com- 
petent and practical man ; he has a fire-boss to assist him ; there are no boj'S 
working in the mine under twelve years of age ; the engineers seem to be experi- 
enced, competent and sober men ; there are no persons allowed to ride on car- 
riages in the sliaft ; the mine rules compel persons to walk in and out tiie second 
opening ; tlie parties having charge know their duty in case of death or serious 
accident ; all the mines operated by the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western 
railroad company compare favorably with any others in this country for unifor- 
mity and system ; they established a code of mine regulations whicth are executed 
and they ])i-event a great many deaths and accidents ; the ventilation of their 
mines and their mode of conducting the air currents to the face of the workings 
are systematical. 



26^ 

Taylok Colliery Drift. 

This drift is located in Lackawanna township and lyinc: about one-fourth of a 
mile north-west of the Lackawanna river ; it is about 1,800 feet to the face of the 
drift ; size 7i feet by 7 feet. John S. Powell is mining boss, and J. P. Cooper is 
outside foreman. 

Descriptkm. — The coal mined at tliis drift is prepared at the breaker; they 
mine about 110 tons of coal i>er day ; they employ 11 miners, 11 laborers, 5 drivers, 
2 door-boys and 4 company men in the mine ; in all 33 men and boys ; tliey are 
working the "F" vein of coal ; average thickness 7 feet ; they work headings 12, 
airways 15 and chambers 20 feet wide ; they leave pillars from 5 to 6 yards to sus- 
tain the roof ; they leave cross-entrances 60 feet apart for the purpose of ventila- 
tion ; the roof is good shite ; the mine is in a good working condition. 

Ventilatinn. — Ventilation is ]n-oduced by means of a furnace ; it is located about 
1,500 feet west of tlie moutli of tlie drift ; the intake is located at the mouth of 
the drift ; size about 524 feet ; the upcast is in Furnace shaft ; area 144 feet ; the 
amount of fresh air per minute is 16,240 cubic feet ; there is very little inllamma- 
ble gas evolved in the mine ; the main doors are hung so tliat they will close of 
their own accord ; they have attendants at the main doors : they liave double 
doors on main traveled roads and an extra one in case an accident sliould happen 
to any of the others; the air is circulated to the face of the workings in one vol- 
inne; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported; ventilation is 
good. 

Bejnarks. — There is no machinery required in the workings; they have furnish- 
ed a map of the mines ; they have a second opening ; they liave a house for men 
to wash and change their clothes in ; tlie mining boss is a practical and compe- 
tent man ; there are no boys working in the mines under twelve years of age ; the 
parties having charge know their duty in case of deatli or serious accident. 



CoRAY Breaker Colliery. 

Tliis breaker is located in Lackawanna township, and situated about one-fourth 
of a mile south-east of the Lackawanna river : it is operated by the Lackawanna 
and Susquehanna coal and iron company ; Thomas B Williams is general super- 
intendent, William Reese is mining boss and William 11. Daily is outside fore- 
man. 

Description, — The opening to the coal consists of two tunnels, namely, Kos. 4 
and 5 ; they are located one mile east of tlie breaker ; they mine and prepare from 
800 to 400 tons of coal per day ; they employ at No. 4 tunnel 20 miners, 8 lalxn-ers, 
9 drivers, 5 door-boys and 3 company men, and at Xo. 5 tunnel 29 miners, 20 
laborers, 15 drivers, 6 door-boys and 6 company men in the mines ; 34 slate pick- 
ers, 11 head and i)late men, 6 drivers, 16 company men, 8 mechanics and 2 bosses 
outside ; in all 198 men and Iwys ; they are working the vein ; average thick- 
ness, 6 feet ; they work headings 15, air-ways 15 and chambers 30 feet wide ; they 
leave pillars about 12 feet wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross-entrances 
about 00 feet apart for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is good ; the mines 
are in a good working condition. 

Ventilation is produced by furnaces ; the intakes are located at mouth of tun- 
nels, areas from 50 to 60 feet ; the outcasts are located in furnace air-shaft, areas 
from 50 to 60 feet ; the amount of i)ure air is 16,000 cubic feet per minute ; the 
main doors are hung so as to close of their own accord ; they liave attendants at 
main doors ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ; venti- 
lation is good. 

MacMncry. — They use 1 breaker engine, 60-horse power ; the boilers have been 
cleaned and examined and reported in good condition ; they have a steam gauge 
to indicate the pressure of steam ; the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced oft 
so that operatives are safe ; there is no machinery required at the tunnels. 

liemarks. — They have furnished a map of mines ; they have a second opening ; 
they have no house for men to wash or cliange in ; the mining boss seems to be a 
practical and competent man ; there are no boys working in the mines under 12 
years of age ; the engineer seems to be a practical and sober man ; the parties 
having charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; they use 2 
locomotives to run coal from the mines to the breaker ; the engines will average 
about 20-liorse power each. 



268 

Greexwood Breaker Colliery. 

This breaker is located in Lackawanna township, and situated i mile south- 
east of the Ijuckawaniui river; it is operated by the L. S. C. & I. Co. Thomas 
B. Williams is t^eneral superintendent, William Eynow is mining boss and M. L. 
Covne is Outside foreman. 

Description.. — The coal that is prepared at this breaker is mined at No. 6 tun- 
nel, whicli is situated about + mile south ; they mine and prepare from 200 to 300 
tons of coal per day ; they employ 37 miners, 31 laborers, 19 drivers, 7 door-boys 
and 7 company men in the mine; 38 slate pickers, o head and plate men, 7 drivers, 
6 company mpu, .5 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in all 164 men and boys ; tliey 
are working tlie " Old " vein ; average thickness 6+ feet ; they work headings 15, 
air-ways 1-5 and chambers 27 feet wide ; they leave pillars from 8 to 14 feet wide 
to sustain tlie roof ; they leave cross-entrances GO feet apart for the purpose of 
ventilation ; the roof is good ; the mine is in a good working condition. 

Vcntildtioa is produced by a furnace ; the in-take is located at mouth of tunnel, 
area 50 feet ; the out-cast is located in furnace air-shaft, area 50 feet ; the main 
doors are hung so as to close of their own accord ; they have attendants at main 
doors ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ; ventilation 
is good. 

Machinery — They use 1 steam engine at the breaker of 40-horse power; the 
breaker machinery" is boxed and fenced off so that operatives are safe ; they use 
no machinery at the tunnel. 

liemarls. — They have furnished a map of mine; they have a second opening; 
they have no house for men to wash or change in ; the mining boss seems to be a 
practical and competent man ; there are no boys working in the mine under 12 
years of age ; the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sol)er men ; 
the parties having charge know tlieir duty in case of death or serious accident. 



Stafford Brook Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Lackawanna township and situated 500 feet south- 
east of the Lackawanna river. It is operated by the W. V. R. 11. and coal company. 
William Connell is general superintendent, James Connell is mining boss and W. 
Thomas is outside foreman. 

DescriiAion. — The opening to the coal consists of a shaft and two tunnels ; the 
shaft is 70 feet deep to No. 2 vein, whicli is the bottom bench of the Big vein; 
there is a lireaker connected with these mines ; they mine and prepare about 200 
tons of coal per day ; they emi)loy 41 miners, 10 laborers, 24 drivers, 4 door-boys 
and 19 company men in the mines ; 20 slate pickers, 4 head and plate men, 4 dri- 
vers, 11 comiiany men, 4 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in all 143 men and boys ; 
they are working the No. 2 vein of coal ; average thickness about 8 feet ; they 
work headings and air-ways from 12 to 15 and chambers 25 feet wide ; they leave 
pillars al)out 15 feet wide to sustain the roof; they leave cross-entrances about 60 
feet apart for the i)urpose of ventilation ; the roof is rock ; the mines are in a 
good working condition. 

Vcntllatidn is produced by furnaces ; the intakes are located at mouths of tun- 
nels ; area about 96 feet ; the outcasts are located in furnace air shaft ; area about 
93 feet ; the amount of pure air is 28,200 cubic feet j^er minute ; tlie main doors 
are hung so that tliey will close of theii- own accord ; they have attendants at 
main doors ; they have double doors on main traveled roads and an extra one in 
case of an accident to any of the others ; the air is circulated to the face of the 
workings in two splits : the amount of ventilation has been measured and report- 
ed : ventilation is good. 

Machincrii. — They use one breaker engine of 25-horse power and one hoisting 
engine of 40-horse power; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and re- 
ported in good condition; they have a steam-gauge to indicate the pressure of 
steam ; the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced off so that operatives are safe ; 
there is no maclunery required at tlie tunnels. 

Uemarks. — They have furnished a map of the mines ; they have second 0])en- 
ings: they have a house for men to wash and change in ; the mining boss seems 
to be a i>r"actical and competent man ; he has a fire-boss to assist him ; there are 
no boys working in the mines vmder twelve years of age ; the engineers seem to 



269 

be experienced, competent and sober men ; the parties having charge know their 
dut}^ in case of death or serious accident ; the shaft landing is protected by a ver- 
tical safety-gate. 



J^'atioistal Anthracite Colliery. 

This colliery is located in the city of Scranton, and located abont 1,000 feet 
south-east of the Lackawanna river. It is operated by the W. Y. R. It. and C 
Co. Wm. Connell is general superintendent, John llumplirey is mining buss 
and Robert Penman is outside foreman. 

Description. — The opening to the coal consists of four tunnels ; there is a 
breaker connected with these mines ; they mine and prepare about 300 tons of 
coal per day; they employ 73 miners 40 laborers, oO drivers, 5 door-boys and 18 
company men in the mines; 45 slate pickers, 6 head and plate men, 5 drivers, 20 
company men, 4 mechanics and 2 bosses outside; in all 248 men and boys; tliey 
are working the Xo. 2 and 3 veins; No. 3 vein is commonly called and known as 
the Clarke vein ; average tluckness of No. 2 is 8 and No. 3 vein is 9 feet ; they 
work headings and air-ways, from 12 to 15 and chambers 25 feet wide ; they leave 
pidars 15 feet wide to sustain the roof; they leave cross-entrances 60 feet apart 
for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is rock ; the mines are in a good work- 
ing condition. 

VtntilatUm is produced by furnaces: the in-takes are located at mouth of 
tunnels, area about 90 feet; the out-casts are located in furnace air-shaft, area 
about 96 feet ; the amount of pure air is 21,800 cubic feet per minute ; the main 
doors are lumg so as to close of tiieir own accord : they have attendants at 
main doors; they have double doors on main traveled roads, and an extra one 
in case of an accident to any of the others; the amount of ventilation has been 
measured and reported ; ventilation is good. 

Machinery. — They use 1 breaker engine of 25-horse power, and 2 hoisting en- 
gines, each '30-horse power; tliere is no machinery required at the tunnels. 

Bemarks. — They have furnished a map of mines ; they have a second opening 
for each tunnel; they haVe a house for men to wash and cliange in ; the mining 
boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; he has a fire boss to assist him ; 
there are no boys working in the mine under 12 years of age ; the engineers seem 
to be exi)erieuced, competent and sober men; the parties liaving cliarge know 
their duty in case of death or serious accident; the breaker machinery is boxed 
and fenced off so that operatives are safe. 



Meadow Brook Colliery. 

This colliery is located in the city of Scranton, and situated about 1,000 feet 
east of tlie Lackawanna river : it is operated by William Connell & Co. ; Thonras 
L. Jones is mining boss, and William Humphrey is outside foreman. 

Description. — The openings consist of 4 tunnels, namely, Nos. 1,3, 4 and 0; 
there is a double breaker connected with tliese mines; they mine and prepare 
abont 480 tons of coal per day ; they employ 70 miners, 74 laboreis, 20 drivers, 8 
door-boys ;uid 13 company men in the mines ; 60 slate pickers, 8 1 ead and plate 
men, 2 drivers, 17 company men, 6 mec!i;inics and 3 bosses outside — in ; 11 2S1 men 
and boys : tliey are working No. 5 vein in Nos. 1, 3 and 6 tunnels, and ^o. 3 vein 
in No. 4 tuiuiei : they work lieadings and air-ways from 12 to 15, and cliambers 
about 25 feet wide ; they leave pillai's about 15 feet wide to sustain the roof ; they 
leave crcHr:sentrances about 60 feet apart f(n- the purpose of ventilation ;Cith8 roof 
is hard rock ; the mines are in a good working condition. 

VentiUdiiSn is jjroduced by means of furnaces ; the intakes are located at mouth 
of tunnel, areas from 72 to 90 feet ; the upcasts are located in furnace a'r shafts, 
areas from 72 to 90 feet ; the amount of pure fresli air is 64,800 cubic feet per 
minute; tlie main doors are liung so that they will close of their o' n acco;-d; 
they have attendants at main d( ors ; they have double doors on m in travelled 
roads, and an extra one in case any of the f^*:hers cq.i broken ; the amount of ven- 
tilation has been measured and reported according to law ; ventilation is good. 



270 

Machinery. — They use no mnchinery at the tunnels, but at the breaker they 
use one breaker engine, 45-Iiorse power, and 2 locomotives, 2()-horse power each, 
to haul coal from the drifts to the breaker to get prepared ; the boilers have been 
cleaned and examined and reported in good condition ; they have a steam gauge 
to indicate the pressure of steam. 

BemarLs — They have furnished a map of mines; they have second openings 
for eacli tunnel ; they have a house for men to wash and change in ; the mining 
boss seems to be a jn-actical and competent man ; he has persons to assist him ; 
there are no boys working in the mines under 12 years of age ; the engineers seem 
to be experienced, competent and sober men ; the i)arties having charge know 
their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the breaker machinery is fenced 
and boxed off so that operatives are safe. They use one locomotive of 20-horse 
power to run coal from the mines to the breaker. 



Local Coal Sale Mines in the 12tii Ward of the City of Scranton. 

One of these mines is operated liy Gardner, Clark & Co. ; the opening to the 
coal consists of a tunnel and a "sloi^e which they are just sinking ;" there is a 
small breaker connected with tliese mines which has a capacity of cleaning and 
preparing 80 tons of coal per day. The other is operated by John Gibson & Co. ; 
they work at these two mines 4:0 men and boys ; this vein is called the Kolling 
Mill vein ; average thickness, 5 feet ; the roof is good hard rock ; the mines are 
not systematically worked. 



ScRANTON Coal Company's Mine. 

This mine is located in Lackawanna township and situated on the west bank of 
the Lackawanna river; the slope is 550 feet long to the first lift, then a level of 
270 feet, and then 450 feet long to the bottom ; it is 7 feet high by 10 feet wide ; it is 
operated by the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railroad company. Eichard 
M. Hackett is mining l)0ss and John A. Mears is outside foreman. 

Description. — There is a breaker connected with this mine 600 feet away; they 
mine and prepare about 450 tons of coal per day ; they employ 59 miners, 59 la- 
borers, 29 drivers, 8 door-boys and 22 company men in the mine ; 56 slate pickers, 
10 head and plate men, 5 drivers, 20 company men, 6 mechanics and 2 bosses out- 
side; in all 276 men and boys ; they are working the "G" or Big vein ; average 
thickness 13 feet ; they work headings 12, airways 18 and chambers about 30 feet 
wide; they leave pillars from 15 to 21 feet wide to sustain the roof ; they leave 
cross-entrances about 60 feet apart for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is good 
slate ; the mine is in good working condition. 

Ventilation is produced by means of a furnace located 1,500 feet from the main 
opening ; the intake is located at mouth of drift north of breaker, area 42 feet ; 
tlie outcast is located in Furnace air shaft, area 36 feet ; the amount of fresh air 
is 24,000 cul)ic feet per minute ; there is noxious, poisonous and intlammable g;M 
evolved in the mine ; the mine is examined every morning before men go to work 
and every evening to see that the main doors are all closed ; the main doors are 
hung so that they will close of their own accord; they have attendants at main 
doors ; they have double doors on main traveled roads and an extra one ni case of 
an accident to any of the otliers ; the ainount of ventilation has been measvu'ed 
and reported; ventilation is gof d. 

Jfachinerii. — They use one iioit-ting engine of 80-horse power, one hoisting en- 
gine inside of 00-horse power, two steam pumps of 25 and 18-horse power each ; 
one bi'eaker engine of 95-horse power -in l)reaker engine room ; they have a metal 
epeaking tube in the mines ; they have an adeciuate brake and llanges of sutticient 
strength for safety attached to their hoisting drum ; the boilers have been cleans- 
ed antl examined and reported in good condition ; they have a steam-gauge to in- 
dicate the pressure of steam. 

Uemarkn. — They have furnished a map of the mine; they have a second open- 
ing 700 feet from main opening ; they have no house for men to wash or change 
in ; the mining boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; there are no 



271 

boys working in the mine under twelve years of age ; the engineers seem to be 
experienced-, competent and sober men ; the parties liaving cliarge know their 
duty in case of deatli or serious accident- 



Dodge Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Lackawanna townsliip. about I of a mile north-west 
of the Lackawanna river. The shaft opening is 211 feet to the Rock, and 301 feet 
deep to tlie 14 feet vein ; it is 10 feet by 2-1 feet. It is operated by the Delaware, 
Lackawanna and Western raih'oad comiiany. Lewis Roberts is mining boss and 
Edward E. Tliomas is outside foreman. 

Description. — There is a double breaker connected with tliese mines; it is lo- 
cated on the Lackawanna and Bloomsburg railroad, 1,100 feet east of shaft ; they 
mine and prepare 630 tons of coal per day ; they employ 67 miners, 66 laborers, 
32 drivers, 8 door-boys and 12 company men in the mines; 76 slate pickers, 11 
head and plate men, 7 drivers, 16 compau}^ men, 8 mechanics and 2 bosses out- 
side ; in all 305 men and boys ; they are working a plane in the mines from the 
Rock to the 14-feet vein ; it is 325 feet long and driven on an angle of 18 degrees ; 
they are working the G and F veins ; average tliickne.ss of tlie G vein 12 and F 
vein 7 feet ; they work lieadings 12, air-ways 15 and chambers 30 feet wide ; they 
leave pillars from 18 to 24 feet wide to sustain the roof; they leave cross- 
.entrances about 60 feet apart for the purpose of ventilation; the roof in the G is 
slate and in the F vein rock; the mines are in a good working condition. 

Ventilation is produced by means of a double furnace, located 1,000 feet from 
main opening ; the in-take is located in main shaft and in second opening ; it 
contains an area of 138 feet ; the uj^-cast is located in furnace air-shaft ; it con- 
tains an area of 120 feet ; there is noxious, poisonous and inllaminable gas 
evolved in this mine; the mines are examined every morning before men are 
allowed to go to work, and every evening to see that the main doors are all closed ; 
the main doors on headings and air-ways are hung so that they close of their 
own accord; they have attendants at main doors; they have double doors on 
main traveled roads, and an extra one in case of an accident to any of the others ; 
the air is circulated to the face of the workings in 4 splits ; the amount of venti- 
lation has been measured and reported; ventilation is good. 

Marhinery . — They use 1 pair of hoisting engines of 90-horse power, 1 pumping 
engine of 9o-horse power — all in engine room at the shaft — and 1 breaker engine 
of 60-Iiorse power in the breaker engine house ; they have 2 metal speaking-tubes 
in the shaft ; they have 2 safety-carriages v/ith all the modern improvements -. 
they have an adequate brake and flanges of sufficient strength and dimensions 
attached to the sides of their hoisting drums ; they use standard wire ropes witli 
clevis and cone attachments ; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and 
reported in good condition; they have a steam gauge to indicate the pressure of 
steam : the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced off so that operatives are safe. 

Hemarks. — They have furnished a map of the mines ; they are connected with 
Bellevue slope which can be used as a second opening; they have no house for 
men to wash or change their clothes in ; there Is some standing water in the 
mine ; the mining boss seems to be an experienced, competent and practical man ; 
he has a lire-boss to assist him; there are no boys working in the mines under VI 
years of a^e; the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men; 
they do not allow any person to ride on loaded carriages in the shaft or on loaded 
cars in the slope ; they do not allow^ more than 10 men to ride on the safety car- 
riage at one time : the parties having charge know their duty in case of death or 
serious accident: the shaft-landings are protected by safety-gates. 

Note. — Thomas Saver, Esq., has charge of the boilers and machinery for the 
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railroad company. He is a gentleman of 
practical experience and he keeps the boilers cleaned and examined and the ma- 
chinery in good condition, so as to comply with the requirements of law. 



272 

Bellevue Shaft Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Lackawanna township, and lyinj? one-fourtli of a 
mile north-west of the Lackawanna river; tlie sliaft is 182 feet deep to the G vein. 
Tlie opening is 10 feet by 18 feet; it is operated by the Delaware, Lacka wan nil 
and vVestern railroad company ; John Hale is mining boss, and J. M. Acker is 
outside foreman. 

Description. — There is a double breaker attached to the shaft tower : they mine 
and prepare about 350 tons of coal per day ; they employ 42 miners, -42 laborers, 
22'drivers, 12 door-boys and 15 company men in tlie mine ; 51 slate pickers, 7 head 
and plate men, 4 drivers, 17 company men, 5 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in 
all 219 men and boys; tliey are working the G or liig vein, average thickness 
12 feet; they work lieadings 12, air-ways 15 and chambers 30 feet Avide : they 
leave pillars from 15 to 20 feet wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross entrances 
about GO feet apart for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is good slate ; the 
mine is in a good working condition. 

Ventilation is i)roduced by means of a furnace located 500 feet from main open- 
ing ; the intake is located at mouth of shaft, area ISO feet ; the upcast is located 
in furnace air shaft, area 36 feet ; the amount of fresh air per minute is 18,060 
cubic feet ; there is poisonous, noxious and intlammable gas evolved in this mine; 
the mine is examined every morning before men go to work, and every evening 
to see that the main doors are all closed ; the main doors are hung so as they wifl. 
close of their own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; they have double 
doors on traveled roads and an extra one in case that any of the others would 
get broken ; the air is circulated to the face of the workings in two splits ; the 
amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ; ventilation is good. 

Maehinery. — They use one pair of hoisting engines of 90-horse power, one puiup- 
ing engine of 80-horse power, one breaker engine of 40-horse power, all in shaft 
engine rooms ; one Are pump of 30-horse power in donkey liouse at river ; they 
have a metal speaking tube in the shaft ; they have two safety carriages with all 
the modern improvements ; tliey have an adequate brake and tlanges of sufficient 
strength and dimensions attached to their hoisting drums ; they use standard 
wire ropes, witli clevis and cone attachments ; the boilers have been cleaned and 
examined and reported in good condition ; they have a steam guage to indicate 
the pressure of steam. 

llcniarks. — They have furnished a map of mine ; they are connected with 
Dodge shaft workings, which can be used as a second opening ; they have a house 
for men to wash and change their clothes in ; there is some standing water in 
the mines ; the mining boss is a practical and competent man ; he has a tire boss 
to assist him ; there are no boys working in the mine under twelve years of age; 
the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men ; they do not allow 
any persons to ride on loaded carriages in the shaft ; they do not allow more than 
ten persons to ride on the safety carriage at one time ; the parties having charge 
know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the shaft landings are pro- 
tected by safety gates. 



Bellevue Slope Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Lackawanna township, and lying one-fourth of a 
mile north-west of the Lackawanna river ; the slope is 300'feet long to the Dia- 
mond, and 710 feet long to the Rock vein ; it is 7 feet high by 14 feet wide ; it is 
driven on an angle of 11^ ; it is o'perated by the Delaware, Lackawanna and 
Wester]! railroad company ; John Hale is mining boss, J. M. Acker is outside 
foreman. 

Dcficription. — There is a breaker connected with this mine, located 600 feet 
away ; they mine and prepare 350 tons of coal per day ; they employ 36 miners, 36 
laborers, 10 drivers, 10 door-boys and 9 company men in the mines ; 51 slate pick- 
ers, 6 head and plate men, 5 drivers and 14 company men outside ; tliey have the 
same mechanics and bosses that they have at the shaft workings — in all 177 men 
and boys ; they are working the .Diamond and Kock veins ; average thickness. 7 
feet each ; they work headhigs 12, air-ways 15 and chambers 30 feet wide; thty 
leave i)illars from 15 to 20 feet wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross entrances 
about 00 feet apart for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is slate ; the mines 
ai'C in a good working condition. 



273 

Ventilation is pvoflucecl by means of a furnace, located 400 feet from ma.n open- 
ing : the intake is located at mouth of slope, area 98 feet : the upcast is located 
at furnace air shaft, area 2-5 feet ; the amount of fresh air is 16,100 cubic feet per 
minute; there is noxious gas evolved in the F vein: the mines are examined 
every moruinp: before men go to work, and every evening to see tliat tlie main 
doors are all closed ; the main doors are hung so as they will close of their own 
accord; they have attendants at main doors; they have double doors on main 
traveled roads, and an extra one in case that an accident would happen to any 
of the others ; the air is circulated to the face of the workings in two splits ; the 
amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ; ventilation is good. 

Jlnrkincri/. — Thej use one pair of hoisting engines of 120-liorse power, one 
breaker engine of 40-horse power, one pumping engine of 80-horse ^ower, one 
steam pump in the slope of 20-horse i)ower; they have a metal speaking tube in 
slope ; they have an adequate Ijrake and flanges of sufficient strength and dimen- 
sions attached to the sides of the hoisting drum ; the boilers have been cleaned 
and examined and reported in good condition ; they liave u steam guage to indi- 
cate the pressure of steam ; also a safety valve for safety. 

Bemarks.— They have furnislied a map of tlie mines ; they are connected with 
Dodge shaft and the old slope, which can be used as second opening ; they have 
a house for men to wash and change in ; there is some standing water in the 
mines; the mining boss is a practical and competent man ; lie lias a fire boss to 
assist him ; there are no boys working in the mines under twelve years of age ; 
the enghieers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men ; they do not allow 
any persons to ride on loaded cars in the slope ; the parties having charge know 
their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the breaker machinery is boxed 
aad fenced off so that operatives are safe. 



Oxford Shaft. 

This shaft is located in Scranton city, about i of a mile north-west of the 
Lackawanna river. It is 206 feet deep to the Diamond vein and 23S feet deej) to 
the Rock vein; the opening is 22 feet by 10 feet. It is operated liy the Dehiware. 
Lackawanna and Western railpoad company. John Lewis is mining boss and 
William H. Carling is outside foreman. 

Description. — There is a double breaker attached to the shaft tower, which has 
2 self-dumping hoisting carriages for the purpose of hoisting coal out of tlie 
mines; they mine and ])repare about 550 tons of coal per day; they emi>loy 57 
miners, 40 laborers, 31 drivers, 11 door-boys and 19 company men in the mil es : 
56 slate pickers, 7 head and plate men, 6 drivers, 20 company men, 7 nif^clianics 
and 2 bosses outside : in all 255 men and boys ; they have a second oi)eiiing from 
tlie surface to both veins, where men and mules travel into and out of the mines 
they are working the Diamond and Rock veins at this colliery, average thickness 
of Diamond vein is 6 feet and Rock vein 8 feet ; they Avork their headings 12, air- 
ways 12 and chambers 30 feet wide; they leave pillars from to 7 yaid.^ wuw in 
sustain the roof; they leave cross-entrances from 20 to 30 yards aiait f(trthe i)ur- 
pose of ventilation; tlie roof is good slate; the mines are in a. goo-l working 
condition ; the mouth of second opening is on the west bank of the i.acl- awanna 
river. 

Ventilation. — Ventilation is produced by a large arched brick furnace : the in- 
take is located at the mouth of second opening, tlie area is 60 square feet ; the 
up-cast is located in air-shaft at the furnace, 900 feet from main shaft : it coj:- 
tains an area of 00 feet ; the air is conducted to the face of the wnkings in both 
veins systematically by the aid of check-doors ; the average supply of pure, fresli 
air at in-take is 18,000 cubic feet iier minute; there is but very little noxious or 
inflammable gas evolved in this mine: it is never found in the mines except wlien 
a door or gate is broken mid then not to any dangerous extent ; the main doors 
are all hung so that they will close of their own accord, with an attendant at 
each ; they have double doors on main traveled roads so as to keep up a steadv 
current of air, and tliey have extra doors in case that anv of the others get hrS- 
keu; they do not work over fifty men in any split of air ;" the amount of ventila- 
tion has been measured and reported according to law ; ventilation is good. 

3/(ic7u'aery.— The engines in use at these mines are 1 pair of hoisting engines 
af 90-horse power, 1 breaker engine of GO-horse power, 1 pumping engine oi: 80- 



274 

horse power, all in engine room, and 1 lioisting engine inside of 25-horse power : 
tliey luive a metal speaking-tube in the shaft ; they use clevis cones and standard 
wire ropes; the flanges on the sides of hoisting drums are of sullicient strength 
and diineiisions for safety; they have a good steam brake on lioistiiig drum; 
the boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported in good condition ac- 
cording to law ; they have a. safety-valve aiid steam gauge attached to their 
boilers, for tlie jjurpose of safety and to indicate the pressure of steam ; tho 
breaker macliinery, screens, shaftings, cog-wheels, beltings and pulleys ave boxed 
and fenced off so iliat operatives are safe, 

licinarks. — The company have furnished a map of the mines; they have a 
house for men to wash and cliange their clothes in ; they have some standing 
water in thti mines but they are not working towards it ; the mining boss is a 
practical and competent man ; he has no lire boss or assistant ; there are no boys 
allowed to work in the mines under 12 years of age ; the engineers seem to be ex- 
perienced, competent and sober men ; there are no persons allowed to ride on 
loaded cars on planes around the mines ; the ])arties having charge know their 
dnty in case of death or serious accident; persons are prohibited by the mine 
regulations from riding up or down the shaft ; the shaft-landings are i)rotected 
by safety-gates. 



* CeNTIJAL COI/LIERY, 

Tliis colliery is located in the city of Scranton, and lying abont one mile north-' 
west of the Lackawanna river, It is IVB feet deep to the JDiamond vein, 202 feet 
dee]) to the Rock vein, and 320 feet deep to the G or Big vein. The opening is 34 
feet by 10 feet. It is operated by the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western rail- 
road company. John Flynn is mining boss, and .S. K. Stetler is outside foreman. 

Besrrtption. — There is "a double breaker attached to the shaft tower ; they mine 
and prepare about 450 tons of coal per day ; they em])loy .56 miners, 58 laborers, 
26 diivers, 3 door-boys and 22 company men in the mine ; 57 slate pickers, 8 head 
n'>d plate men. 3 drivers, 15 company men, 7 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in 
a"l 257 Ttien and boys ; they are working the G or Big vein ; average thickness 12 
fd-x ; they woik headings 12, air-ways 18 and chambers 30 feet wide ; they leave 
])i!l;us tosurtain the inof, 21 feet v/ide ; they leave cress entrances 60 feet apart 
fo;- the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is good slate ; the mine is in a good work- 
ing condition. 

Ventilation. — ^Ventilation is i)roduced by means of a fan, located on the surface 
close to main shaft ; the intakes are located in main shaft and Hyde I'ark air 
shaft ; it contains an area of 160 feet in main sliaft ; tlie upcast is located at 
main shaft; it contahis an area of 00 feet; the average supply of fresh air per 
minute is 36,500 cubic feet ; they have intlammable, noxious and poisonous gases 
evolved in the mine ; the mine is examined every morning before the men are al- 
lowed to go to work, and every evening to see that the main doors are all closed, 
so as to keep up a steady current of air ; the main doors on ^leadings and air-WHys 
are hung so as they will close of their own accord, and they have attendants at 
each to keep them closed ; they have double doors on main traveled roads, and 
an extra one in case tliat one of the otliers would get l)roken ; they do not work 
over fifty men in any split of air; the amount of ventilation has been measured 
i«Kl reported according to lavr ; ventilation is good. 

Mdrjiincvij. — The engines in use at tliis colliery are one pair of hoisting engines 
of 12*.)-horse poAver, one fan engine of GO-h(n'se power, and one breaker engine of 
SO-hor-se power, all in engine room ; one steam iiumi) at foot of shaft of 15-horse 
power; 2 pnmping engines of loO-horie power in shaft engine room ; they have a 
metal speaking tube in the shaft ; they have two i)atent safety carriages witli all 
tlie modern improvements; they have flanges of suflicieiit strength and dimen- 
sions attncheii to the sides of the hoistinjr (Irums; they have an adequate brake 
o I liois(;ing-di;uitns ; they use clevis, cones ami standard wire ropes; the boilers 
!i ive be^axileaned :'.nd examined and reported in good condition according to law; 
rlicy li^^ve a steam .grange and safety-valve for safety and to indicate tlie pressure 
• •f steam; tlie l)reiVi:er machinery is boxed and fenced oJf so that operatives are 
.safe: all the machinery, boilers, &e.. are new and in good condition. 

HcmnrLi. — The ceuivauy have furnished a map of the mine ; they are connected 
wit!: the Hvde I'ark shaft, whicli can Ite used as a second opening; tiiey liav« a 



275 

house for men to wash and change their clothes in ; there is no standing gas or 
water in the mine ; the mining boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; 
he has a fire-boss to assist him ; there are no boys allowed to work in the mine 
under 12 years of age ; the engineers are said to be competent, practical and sober 
men ; there are no persons allowed to ride on loaded carriages in the shaft ; they 
do not allow more than 10 men to ride on the safety carriage at one time ; the 
persons having charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the 
shaft landings are protected by safety gates. 



Sloax Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Lackawanna township, and situated 1 mile north- 
west of the Lackawanna river ; the shaft is 250 feet deej) to the Diamond, 2So 
feet deep to the Rock, and 393 feet deep to the Gr or Big vein ; this is the cross- 
section of strata in the sh;'f t opening ; they are also driving a slope for the second 
opening ; it is 500 feet long to che E vein, and 5S0 feet long to the T vein : they 
employ 18 company men in the mine, 5 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in all 25 
men ; they have a double breaker attached to the shaft tower ; they do not intend 
to mine any coal until they connect between the shaft and slope for a second 
opening ; it will take 3 months before they can connect. 



Aechbald Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Lackawanna township, and lying one and one-fourth 
miles north-west of tlie Lackawanna river, in Keiser valley. It is operated by 
the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railroad company. John Gooden is 
mining boss and John Fern is outside foreman. The slope is used as a second 
opening. 

Descrifjtlon. — These mines are opened by a shaft ; it is 188 feet to the Diamond, 
216 to the Rock and 307 feet deep to the "G'' or Big vein ; it is 10 feet by 27 feet, 
and by a slope 500 feet long driven at an angle of 18 degrees : it is — feet wide by 
— feet high ; there is a double breaker attached to the shaft tower ; they mine 
and prepare about 240 tons of coal per day ; tliey employ 28 miners, 28 laborers, S 
drivers, 2 door-boys and 13 company men in. the mines ; 52 slate pickers, 7 head 
and plate men, 1 driver, 19 company men, 9 mechanics and 2 bosses outside; in 
all 169 men and boys ; they are working the "G" or Big and Rock veins of coal ; 
average thickness of "G" or Big vein 10 and Rock Q} feet ; they work headings 
12, air-ways 15 and chamber 30 feet wide ; they leave pillars from 5 to 6 yards 
wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross-entrances from 50 to 70 feet apart for 
the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is good slate ; the mines are in a good work- 
ing condition. 

Ventilation. — Ventilation is produced by means of a fan located near the main 
opening ; the intake is located at mouth of shaft ; it contains an area of 160 feet; 
the upcast is located in air-shaft , it contains an area of 110 feet ; the amount of 
fresh air is 10,200 cubic feet per minute ; there is very little noxious or iioisonous 
gas evolved in tliese mines ; i he main doors are hung so that they will close of 
their own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; they have double doors 
on main traveled roads and an extra one in case of an accident to any of th.e 
others ; the air is circulated to the face of the workings in two splits ; tlie amount 
of ventilation has been measured and reported according to law ; ventilation is 
good. 

IfacTdnery. — They use one pair hoisting engines of 120-horse power, one breaker 
engine of 80-horse power ; in s'laft engine room one fan engine of 60-horse power, 
one steam-pump at foot of sliaft of 20-liorse power ; they liavetwo metal speaking 
tubes in tlie shaft ; they liave two safety-carriages witli all the modern improve- 
ments ; they have an adequate brake and flanges of sufficient strength and dunen- 
sions for safety attached to the hoisting drums ; they use standard wire ropes 
with clevis and cone attachment ; the boilers have been cleaned and examined 
and reported in good condition according to law ; they have a steam-gauge to in- 
dicate the pressure of .steam ; the breaker machinery is fenced and boxed off so 
that operatives are safe. 



276 

Eemavls. — They have furnished a map of the mines; they have a second open- 
infj; for each vein ld(nited about l.OdO feet from main opening; they have a house 
for men to wash and change tlieir clotlies in ; they liave an opening to tlie surface 
wiiere men and mules can travel in and out at all times ; there are no boys work- 
ing in the mines under twelve years of age ; tiie engineers seem to be experienced, 
competent and sober men ; the mining boss seems to be an experienced and com- 
petent man ; the parties liaving charge know their duty in case of death or seri- 
ous accident ; the shaft landings are protected by safety-gates. 



Continental Collieky. 

This colliery is located in Lackawanna township, and lying one and one-fourth 
miles north-west of the Lackawanna river, in Keiser valley. The shaft is 112 
feet to the Diamond or E, 242 feet to the ¥ or Rock, and 292 feet deep to the 
Clark vein; the opening is 10 feet by 21 feet. It is operated by the Delaware, 
Lackawanna and Western railroad company. William Dome is mining boss, and 
James F. Green is outside foreman. 

Description. — There is a double breaker attached to the shaft tower ; they mine 
and prepare 470 tons of coal per day; they employ G7 miners, kil laborers, 23 
drivers, 11 door-boys and 20 company men in the mine ; 46 sh'te pickers, 8 head 
and plate men, 2 drivers, 20 company men, 10 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in 
all 27G men and boys ; they have opened from the Clark to the G vein by a rock 
tunnel 850 feet long ; they are working the Clark vein of coal ; average thickness 
7 feet ; they are just opening in the G vein ; they work headings 12, air-ways 18 
and chambers SO feet wide ; they leave pillars from 5 to 7 yards wide to sustain 
the roof ; they leave cross entrances about 20 yards apart for the purpose of ven- 
tilation; the roof is good slate ; the mine is in a good working condition. 

]''cntiIation.. — The ventilation is produced by means of a fan, which is located 
north of main shaft ; the intake is located at the mouth of shaft ; it contains an 
area of 100 feet ; the upcast is at fan air-shaft, area 100 feet ; the amount of pure, 
fresh air is 34,740 cubic feet per minute ; there is no noxious or poisonous gas 
evolved in these mines ; the main doors are hung so as they will close of their 
own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; they have doul)le doors on tlie 
main traveled roads, and an extra door in case that any of the others should get 
broken ; the air is circulated to the face of the workings in two splits ; the amount 
of ventilation has been measured and reported according to law ; ventilation is 
good. 

Mmhinerij. — They use one pair of hoisting engines of 120-horse power, one pump- 
ing engine of 05-horse power and one breaker engine of 40-horse power, all in 
shaft engine room ; one steam pump foot of shaft of 80-horse power, and one fan 
engine in the fan engine house of 00-horse power ; they liave a metal speaking 
tube in the mine ; they have two safety carriages with all the modern improve- 
ments : they have llanges of sufficient strength and dimensions for safety, and an 
adequate brake on their hoisting drum ; they use stranded wire ropes with clevis 
and cone attachment ; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported 
in good condition ; they use a safety-valve to indicate the pressure of steam. 

licmarks. — They have furnished a map of mine ; they liave an opening to day- 
light where men and mules travel in and out ; they have no house for men to 
wash and change their clothes in ; the mining boss seems to be a practical and 
competent man ; there are no \)oy& working in the mine under twelve years of 
age ; the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men ; the parties 
liaving charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the shaft 
landings are protected by safety-gates ; the breaker machinery is fenced and boxed 
off so that operatives are safe. 



Hampton Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Lackawanna township, and lying one mile north- 
west of the Lackawanna river ; it is 125 feet deep to the Diamond vein ; it is 16 
feet by 9 feet; it is operated by the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railroad 
company. Tliomas Carson is mining boss, and Jas. i\ Green is outside foreman. 



277 

Description. — They have a double breaker attached to the shaft tower; they 
mine and prepare ooO tons of coal per day ; they emjfloy 6S miners, 64 laborers, 33 
drivers, 10 door-boys and LS company men in tlie mine ; 55 slate pickers, 12 head 
and plate men, 4 drivers, 27 company men, 9 mechanics and 2 bosses outside : in 
all 302 men and boys ; they are working 2 slopes in the mine, wliich are worked 
by ma^ihiaery ; one is 423 fe3t long, and tlie other 575 feet long, each driven on an 
angle of 7^ ; they are working the Diamond vein, average thickness 5i feet ; they 
work headings 12, air-ways 12 and chambers 30 feet wide ; they leave pillars from 
5 to 6 yards wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross-entrances 20 yards apart 
for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is good slate ; the mine is in a good 
working condition. 

Ventilation. — The ventilation is produced by means of a furnace located about 
1,000 feet from main opening ; the intake is located in C'entral and Sloan shafts ; 
it contains an area of 100 feet ; the upcast is located at furnace shaft ; it contains 
an area of 80 feet ; the amount of fresh air is 25,225 cubic feet per miiuite ; there 
is very little noxious or poisonous gas evolved in the mine ; the main doors on 
headings and air-ways are hung so that they will close of their own accord ; they 
have attendants at main doors ; they have double doors on main travelled roads, 
and an extra one in case an accitlent should hapi)en to any of the others ; the air 
is circulated to the face of the workings in 2 splits ; the amount of ventilation 
has been measured and reported according to law ; ventilation is good. 

Machineri;. — They use 1 pair of hoisting engines, 120-horse power, and 1 pump- 
ing, 100-horse power, in hoisting engines' rooms ; 1 breaker engine, horse 

power ; 2 hoisting engines inside, horse power each ; 4 steam pumps inside, 

horse power ; they have a metal speaking tube in the shaft ; they have 2 

safety carriages, with all the modern imiirovements ; tliey have an adequate l)rake, 
and flanges of snfficient strength and dimensions for safety attached to the side 
of the hoisting drum : they use standard wire ropes, with clevis and cone attach- 
ment ; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported in good condi- 
tion ; they have a steam gauge to indicate the pressure of steam. 

Bcmark.s. — They have furnished a map of the mine ; they are connected with 
Continental, Sloan and Central shafts, which can be used as second openings; 
they have no house for men to wash or change their clothes in ; they have no 
standing gas, but some water in their mine ; the mining boss is a practical and 
competent man ; there are no boys working in the mine under 12 years of age ; 
the engineers seem to be experienced, -competent and sober men; they do not 
allow any persons to ride on loaded carriages in the shaft or on loaded cars in the 
slope ; they do not allow more than 10 persons to ride on safety carriages in 
the sh;ift at one tiiae ; the ])arties having charge know their duty in case of death 
or serious accident : the shaft landings are protected by safety gates ; the breaker 
machinery is fenced aud boxed off su.that operatives are safe. 



Hyde Park Colliery. 

This colliery is located in the city of Scranton, lying about H miles north-west 
of the Lackawanna river. It is 148 feet deep to the Diamond, I83i feet deep to 
the Rock and 265 feet deep to the G or Big vein ; the shaft-opening is 18 feet by Is) 
feet. It is operf^ed by the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railroad com- 
pany. D. W. Moser is mining boss and Robert E. Ruthven is outside foreman. 

Description. — There is a double breaker attached to the shaft tower ; they liave 
2 patent safetj'-carriages with all the modern improvements ; they mine and pre- 
pare about 450 tons of coal per day ; they employ 61 miners, 61 laborers, 23 
drivers, 9 door-boys and 14 company men in the mine ; 80 slate pickers, 9 head 
and plate men, 3 drivers, 20 company men, 8 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in 
all 290 men and boys : they are working the G or Big vein, average thickness 12 
feet ; they work headings 12, air-ways 18 and chambers 30 feet wide ; they leave 
pillars from 6 to 7 yards wide to sustain tlie roof ; they leave cross-entrances 60 
feet apart for the inu-pose of ventilation ; the roof is good slate ; the mine is in a 
good working condition. 

Ventilation. — Ventilation is produced by means of a fan located in Central 
shaft ; the in-take is located in air-shaft about 1,000 feet from main shaft ; it con- 
tains an area of 120 feet ; the up-cast is located in Centinil shaft, it contains an 
area of 110 feet ; the average supply of fresh air per minute is 30,880 cubic feet ; 



278 

there is but very little noxious or inflammable giis evolved in this mine ; it is very 
seldom ever seen in the mine except wlien a door or gate is broken, and then not 
to any dangerous extent ; the main doors are all hung so that they will close of 
their own accord, with an attendant at each ; tliey liave double doors on main 
traveled roads so as to keep up a steady current of air, and they have extra doors 
in case that any of the others get broken ; they do not work over 50 men in any 
split of air ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported according 
to law ; ventilation is good. 

Machincri/. — The engines in use at this colliery are 1 pair of hoisting engines 
of 120-horse power, 1 breaker engine of 60-horse power, 1 steam fire pump of 30- 
liorse power, (all the above are in the shaft engine room,) and 1 steam pump at 
the foot of shaft of 80-horse power ; they have a metal speaking-tube in the shaft ; 
the flanges on the sides of the hoisting drums are of suflicient strength and di- 
mensions for safety ; they have an adequate brake on hoisting drum ; they use 
clevis cones and standard wire ropes ; the boilers have been cleaned and exam- 
ined and reported in good condition according to law; they have a safety valve 
and steam gauge atta'ched to their boilers for the purpose of safety and to indi- 
cate the pressure of steam ; the breaker machinery, screens, shaftings, cog- 
wheels, beltings and pulleys are boxed and fenced off so that operatives are safe". 

Itemarks. — They have furnished a map of mine ; they liave second openings in 
Central and Continental shafts ; they have a liouse for men to wash and change 
their clotlies in ; the mining bt)ss seems to be a competent and practical man ; 
there are no boys working in the mine under 12 years 6f age ; tlie engineers seem 
to be jn'actical, experienced and sober men ; they do not allow^ more than 10 men 
to ride on the safety-carriage at one time ; the parties having charge know their 
duty in case of death or serious accident ; the shaft openings are protected by 
safety-gates. 



Capouse Colliery. 

This colli-ery is located in the city of vScranton and situated one and one-fourth 
miles north-west of the Lackawanna river. The shaft is 130 feet deep to the 
] 'i unond and 169 feet deep to the bottom of the Hock vein. They are sinking a new 
s'uift to tlie lower veins, which is located about 850 feet w^est of main sliaft ; it is 
operated by the Lackawanna iron and coal company. (Jharles F. Mattes is 
general superintendent, K. J. Brooks is mining boss and D. Brooks is outside 
foreman . 

Description. — There is a breaker attache<feto the shaft tower ; they mine and 
jn-epare 600 tons of coal per day ; they em^y 66 miners, Gi laborers, 40 drivers, 
S door-boys and 20 company men in the mines ; 40 slate pickers, 8 head and plate 
men, 6 drivers, 9 company men, 7 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in all 270 men 
and boys ; they are working the Diamond and Rock veins ; average thickness of 
the Diamond 6 feet and of tlie Rock \em 8 feet ; they work headings 15, air-ways 
15 and chambers 30 feet wide ; they leave pillars 15 feet wide to sustain the roof ; 
they leave cross-entrances from 50 to 60 feet apart for the ])urpose of ventilation ; 
the roof is rock in both veins ; the mines are in a good working condition. 

Ventilation is produced by a suction fan ; the intake is located at north side of 
main shaft, area 140 feet ; the upcast is located in soutli side of,main shaft, area 
70 feet ; the amount of pure air in tlie Diamond is 13,000 and in the Rock 13,300 
feet per minute ; they have double doors on main traveled roads and an extra one 
i<i case of an accident to any of the others ; tlie main doors are hung so as to close 
of their own accord > tliey have attendants at main doors ; the air is coiiducted 
systematically to the face of workings by the aid of check-doors ; they have two 
splits of air in each vein ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and re- 
ported ; ventilation is good. 

MacMnerij. — They use one breaker engine of 40-horse power, two hoisting en- 
gines of 80-horse power, one pumping engine of 70-horse power, one fan engine of 
lO-liorse power ; they have a metal speaking tube in the mines ; they have two 
safety-carriages with all the modern improvements ; they have an adequate brake 
and flanges of suflicient strengtli and dimensions for safety attached to tlie hoist- 
ing drum ; the ropes, links, chains and connections are in good condition ; the 
boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported in good condition ; they have 
a steam gauge to indicate the pressure of steam ; the breaker machinery is boxed 
and fenced olf so that operatives are safe. 



279 

Eemarlcs. —They have funiished a m:ip of the mines; they liave a second open- 
ing for each vein :' they have a house for men to wash and change in ; the mining 
boss is a practical and competent man ; tliere are no boys working in tlie mines 
under twelve years of age ; tJie engineers seem to be exi)erienced, competei.t and 
sober men; tliey do not aUo# over ten men to ride on the safety-carriage at one 
time; they do liot allow any person to ride on loadeil cars in the mines or on 
loaded carriages in the shaft: the parties having charge know their duty in case 
of death or serious accident; the shaft landings are protected by safety-gates. 



Mt. Pleasant Colliery. 

This colliery is located in the city of Scrauton, on the northern division of the 
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western raih-oad, and situated one-fourth of a mile 
north-west of the Lackawanna river ; it is operated by the Mount Pleasant cocil 
company. William T. Sniitli is general superintendent, James 11. Jiimes is mining 
boss and Th&nias I). Bevan is outside foreman. 

Description. — The opening to the coal is a slope driven on an angle of 1-3^ ; it is 
500 feet to where Jt strikes the Diamond, 5^0 feet to where it strikes the Ptock, 
and 700 feet to wliere it strikes the Big vein of coal ; it is 1,200 feet long to where 
they take the coal out at the basin ; there is a breaker connected with these 
mines, located about 50 feet from main opening ; they mine about 350 tons of coal 
per day; they employ -13 miners, 43 laborers, 20 drivers, o runners, 8 door-boys 
and 14 company men "in the mines ; 23 slate pickers, ii head and i>late men, 3 dri- 
vers, 7 eompanj" men, 4 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in all 177 men and ])oys ; 
they are working the Diamond and Rock veins, average thickness 7 feet each ; 
they work headings and air-ways from 10 to 12, and chambers 28 feet wide ; they 
leave pillars from 15 to 20 feet wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross-entrances 
about 60 feet apart for the purpose of ventilation; the roof is good slate: the 
mines are in a good, safe working condition. 

Ventilaiion is produced by means of furnaces ; the intakes are located at mouth 
of slope, area 54 feet ; the upcasts are in furnace air shafts, area 48 feet ; the 
iimount of fresh air is 14,500 cubic feet per minute, passing through both veins ; 
the mai4i doors are hung so that they will close of their own accord ; they have 
attendants at main doors; they have double doors on main travelled roads, and 
:an extra one in ca.se of an accident to any of the others ; the air is circulated to 
the face of the workings in one volume in each vein : the amount of ventilation 
has been measured and reported ; ventilation is good. 

Jlmhiacry. — They use 1 lioisting engine, 70-horse i)ower, and 1 breaker engine, 
-i-5-liorse power; they have an adequate brake, and flanges of sufficient strength 
and dimensions for safety attached to their hoisting drum ; the links, chains, 
ropes and connections are'in good condition; the boilers have been cleiined and 
examined and reix»rted in good condition ; they liave a steam gauge to indicate 
the pressure of steam ; the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced off so that ope- 
ratives are safe. 

Reriiarks.. — They have furnished a map of mines; they have second'openings 
for both veins ; they have a house for men to wasli and change in ; the ur iiing 
boss seems to be a practical and co npetent man ; he has a fire-boss to assist him ; 
there are no boys working in the mines under 12 years of age ; the engineers seem 
to be experienced, competent and sober men ; they do not allow any persons to 
i-ide on loaded cars in the mines; the parties having charge know tlieir dutv in 
case of death or serious accident ; they are sinking an air-shaft 13 feet in diame- 
ter, and it is now down 110 feet; they intend to build a furnace in it when com- 
pleted; they are working 18 men in it at present. 



Fellows' Local Coal Sale Mine. 

This mine is located in tlie city of Scranton, and situated on the west Ijank of 
the Lackawanna river. It is operated by J. T. Fellows, Esq. George Perigo hiis 
oliarge of the works, and John Frank is mining boss. 



280 

Description. — The opening to the coal consists of a tunnel; there is a breaker 
connected with this mine, located 500 feet sontli-west of the mouth of tunnel; 
they mine and lu'epare about 80 tons of coal per day ; they employ 16 miners and 
laborers and 4 drivers in the mine ; 10 slate pickers, 8 men and boys and 2 bosses 
outside ; in all 40 men and boys ; they are workii>^ the Diamotid vein of coal, 
average tliickness 7 feet; they work headings 14, air-ways 16 and chambers 30 
feet wide ; they leave ])illows io feet wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross en- 
trances wherever necessary for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is good slate ; 
the mine is in a good working condition. 

VcnWation is produced by the action of tlie atmosphere ; the intake is located 
at mouth of tunnel in siunmer,and in second opening ni winter : just the reverse 
for the outcast; the amount of pure air is 4.ono cubic feet i)er minute : the main 
doors are Jiung so as to close of their own nccord ; the air is conducted to the 
face of the workings in one volume ; tlie amount of ventilation has been measured 
and reported ; ventilation is good. 

Marhina-ij. — They use one breaker engine of 20-horse power, and one small 
pumping engine of 204iorse power ; they require no machinery in the tunnel. 

Jianarks. — Tliey have furnished a map of mine ; they liave a second opening 
in air and pump shaft ; they have no house for men to wash or change in ; the 
mining boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; there are no Ijoys work- 
uig in the mine under twelve years of age ; the engineers seem to be experienced, 
comiietent and sober men ; tlie parties having charge know their duty in case of 
death or serious accident ; the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced off so that 
operatives are safe. 



]Sro. 2 Diamond Shaft. 

This shaft is located in the city of Scranton and lies i of a mile north-Avest of 
the Lackawanna river ; it is 166 feet deep to the Rock vein and 216 feet deep to 
the G or Big vein ; the size of the opening is 36 by 10 feet. It is operated by tha 
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railroad company. Rees T. Evans is min- 
ing boss, and Daniel Lightstaff is outside foreman. 

IJcscription.— They have a double breaker located about 500 feet north-east of 
the shaft ; they mine and prepare about 800 tons of coal per day ; they employ 40 
miners, 40 laborers, 32 drivers, 4 door-boys and 13 company men in the E or Dia- 
mond vein ; 51 miners, 51 laborers, 35 drivers, 7 door-boys and 20 company men 
in tlie G or Big vein ; 68 slate pickers, 12 liead and plate men, 14 drivers, 27 com- 




the average thickness of the E vein is 6 feet and the G vein 12 feet ; in the E 
vein they' work the headings 12, air-ways 18 and chambers 30 feet wide ; they 
leave pillars from 5 to 6 yards wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross-entrances 
20 yards apart for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is slate, in some places it 
is very good and in otlier places the parties having cliarge must be very careful 
in order to keep it up; in the G vein they work headings 12, air- ways 18 and 
chambers 30 feet wide ; they leave pillars from 6 to 8 yards wide to sustain the 
roof; they leave cross-entrances 20 yards apart for the purpose of ventilation ; 
the roof is good slate and rock; the mines are in a good, safe, working conditinn. 
Ventilation.— The ventilation in both veins is produced liy means of furiiace>s; 
the in-take in E vein is located in main shaft, it contains an area of ISO feet, and 
the upcast is in No. 2 slope furnace ; the intake for G vein is in main sliaft, it 
contains an area of 180 feet ; the up-cast is located in air-shaft, about 300 feet 
south of main shaft, it c(nitains an area of 42 feet ; the amount of fresh air for 
(r vein is 24,000 cubic feet, and for the E vein 10,500 cubic feet per minute ; there 
is noxious and inllammable gas evolved in the G vein ; the mines are examined 
every morning l)efore tlie men are allowed to go to work, and every evening to 
see that all the main doors are closed; they have double dooi'S, and an extra 
door on the main traveled roads in the G vein ; the doors are liung so that they 
will close of tlieir own accord ; they have an attendant at all main doors ; they 
have 2 splits of air in the E vein and 3 in the G vein ; there are no more than 
lii'tv men allowed to work in any one si)lit in the G vein ; the air is conducted 
to the ii'.ce of the workings systeniatically by the aid of check-doors; the amount 



281 

of ventilation lias been measured and reported according to law ; ventilation is 
good in both veins. 

Madiincrij. — The engines in use at this shaft are 1 pair of hoisting engines for 
each vein, of 90-horse power, 1 pumping engine of 100-horse power, (all in engine 
room,) 3 steam pumps inside, of 150-liorse power, 6 6-horse power i)umps also in 
the mines, 1 breaker engine; they have speaking-tubes in the shaft; tliey use 4 
safety carriages with all tlic modern improvements ; they have flanges on their 
hoisting drums of sufficient strength for safety ; they have adequate brakes on 
lioisting drums ; they use standard wire ropes with clevis and cone attaclnnent ; 
the boilers, feed pipe's, water guage cocks, etc., have been cleaned and examined 
and reported in good condition ; they have steam gauges and safety-valves for 
the purpose of indicating the pressure of steam and for safety ; tlie l^reaker ma- 
chinery is boxed and fenced off so that operatives are safe ; the shaft-landings 
are protected by safety-gates. 

Remarks.— T\\e company have furnished a map of the mines ; they have second 
openings ; the opening used for the E vein is located f of a mile north-west of 
the shaft and for the G vein about 800 feet from main shaft ; tliey have a house 
for men to wash and change their clothes in ; there is no standing gas or water 
in the mines; tlie mining boss is a practical and competent man; he has afire 
boss to assist him ; there are no boys allowed to work in the mines under VI years 
of age; the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men; there 
are no persons allowed to ride on loaded carriages in the shaft ; the rules of tlie 
mines compel all i)ersons to walk in and out at the second openings ; the parties 
having charge know their duty in case of deatli or serious accident ; since my 
last report they have sunk a new air-sliaft about f of a mile north-west of the 
main shaft ; it is sunk to the E or Diamond vein and is intended to ventilate the 
E vein of Diamond mines and Tripp slope workings, botli of these mines are 
connected with it ; the company intend to erect a 1-i-feet fan for each mine. 



No. 2 DiAMOKD Slope. 

This slope is located in the city of Scranton and lying one-fourth of a mile north- 
west of the Lackawanna river ; it is 375 feet long to the '••Cx" or Big vein ; it is 20 
feet wide by S feet high, and it is driven on an angle of 221 degrees ; it is oi)erated 
by the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railroad company. Daniel Phillips 
is mining boss and Daniel Langstaff is outside foreman. 

Description.—ThevQ is a double breaker connected with this mine about 50 feet 
away ; tliey mine and prejiare about 400 tons of coal per day ; tliey employ 58 mi- 
ners, 42 laborers, 24 drivers, 13 door-boys and 17 company men in the mine ; 5'o 
slate pickers, 10 head and plate men, 6 drivers, 17 company men, 4 mechanics and 
3 bosses outside ; in all 250 men and boys ; the coal mined at Tripp slope is pre- 
pared at this breaker ; they are working tlie "G" or IJig vein of coal; average 
thickness 12 feet ; they work headings 12, air-ways 18 and chambers 30 feet wide ; 
they leave pillars from 5 to 7 yards wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross-en- 
trances from 15 to 20 yards apart for the luirpose of ventilation ; the roof is good 
slate and rock; the mine is in a good working condition. 

Ventilation. — Ventilation is produced by means of a furnace located alxuit 500 
feet north of the main opening ; the intake is located at the mouth of the slope ; 
it contains an area of 160 feet ; the outcast is located at the furnace air sluvft ; 
it contains an area of 144 feet ; the average sui)i,ily of pure fresh air is 35,450 cubic 
feet per minute ; there is noxious, poisonous and inflammable gas evolved in tiie 
mine ; the mine is examined every morning before men are allowed to go to woik 
and every evening to see that the main doors are all closed ; the main doors on 
headings and air-ways are liung so that they will close of their own accord, aud 
they have attendants at each so as to keep "them closed and to keep up a steady 
current of air ; they have double doors on main traveled roads and an extra one 
in case of accident "to any of tlie others ; they do not work over flfty men in any 
one split of air ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ac- 
cording to law; ventilation is good. 

Machincri/. — The engines in use at this mine are two steam-pumps at foot of 
slope of 150-horse iiower, one hoisting engine of 80-horse power, one breaker en- 
gine of 20-!iorse power ; they have a metal speaking tube in the slope ; they hiive 
flanges of sufficient streagtli 3.nd dimensions for safety ; they have an adequate 



282 

bnike on linistin;^ dnim ; they use standard wire ropes ; the boilers liave been 
cleaned and examined and reported in good condition according to law; tljeyhave 
a steam-gauge and safety-valve for safety and to indicate the pressure of steam. 

Ecrnark-'^. — They liave furnislied a map of the mine; they use No. 2 sliaft as* a 
second opening; they liave a house for men to wash and change tlieir clothes in; 
tlie mining boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; he lias a tire-boss to 
assist liim ; there are no boys working in the mine under twelve years of age; 
the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men ; the men travel 
in and out the second opening : the parties having charge know their duty in case 
of deatli or serious accident : tiie breaker machinery is boxed and fenced off so 
tiiat operatives are safe. 



Tripps Slope. 

This slope is located in the city of Scranton, and lying one-fourth of a mile 
north-west of the Lackawanna river ; it is 300 feet long to coal, and diiven on 
an angle of 13 degrees; it is 8i feet wide by 6 feet higli; it is operated by the 
Delaware, Lackawanna and AVestern railroad company. E. K. AV'alter, general 
O'.itside superintendent; Benjamin Hughes, general inside foreman; Thomas 
liouser, mining boss ; and D. Langstaff , outside foreman. 

Description. — There is a breaker connected with tliis slope by a trestling and 
railroad track 1,000 feet long ; they mine, prepare and ship about 325 tons of coal 
per day ; tliey employ 36 miners, 30 laborers, 20 drivers, 4 door-boys and 20 com- 
])any men inside ; this coal is cleaned and prepared at No. 2 Diamond slope 
breaker ; they work in all 116 men and boys ; tliey are working the E or Diamond 
vein, average thickness 7 feet ; tiiey work headings 12, air- ways 18 and chambers 
30 feet wide ; they leave pillars from 15 to 21 feet wide to sustain the roof ; they 
Jeave cross-entrances for tlie purpose of ventilation, about 60 feet apart ; the roof 
is slate and fire clay ; the mine is in a good working condition. 

Ventilatwit. — This mine is ventilated by means of a furnace, located about 1,200 
feet from main opening; the intake is located at moutii of slope; it contains an 
area of 51 feet ; the npciist is located in furnace air shaft ; it contains an area of 36 
feet ; the average supply of fresh air per minute is 15,000 cubic feet ; there are 
no noxious, poisonous or intlammable gases evolved in this mine ; the main doors 
on headings and air-Avays are hung so that they will close of their own accord, so 
as to assist the ventilation, and they have attendants at them to ke^^p them closed 
so as to keep up a steady current of air at all times ; they have double doors on 
mai)i traveled roads, Init no extra one in case of an accident to the otliers ; the 
;tir is circulated to the face of the workings in one volume ; tlie ventilation has 
been measured and reported according to law ; ventilation is good. 

Machincri/.—Thny use two hoisting engines 200 feet from mouth of slope of 60- 
horse power ; two "steam pumps inside, one is 40-horse jiower, and the other is 20- 
horse power ; they have a metal speaking tube in the slojie, and have llanges, of 
sntlicient dimensions, attached to hoisting drum, with an adequate brake. The 
boilers, feed pipes, water-gauge cocks, etc., have been cleaned and examined, and 
reported in good condition ; they have a steam gauge, to indicate the pressure of 
steam per square inch. 

Jieniarhs.— They have furnished a map of mines ; they have a second opening ; 
they have a house for men to wash and change in ; they have no standing gas, 
but some water in their mines ; the mining boss seems to be a practical and com- 
petent man ; there are no boys working in the mine under 12 years of age; the 
engineers seem to be practical, experienced and sober men, and do not allow any 
l>erson to lide on loaded cars in the slope ; the parties having charge know their 
duty in case of death or serious accident. 



Brisbin Shaft. 

This is a new shaft just sinking ; it is located in the city of Scranton, and situ- 
ated about one-half of a mile north-west of the Lackawanna river ; it is 268 feet 
deep to the Diamond vein ; they are now sinking between the Diamond and Rock 



283 



veins; the shaft opening is 10 by 3G feet ; tlie Delaware. Lackawanna and West- 
ern raih'oad company are sinking it, nnder the supervision of Benjamin Hughes, 
general mine superintendent ; they employ about 18 sinkers, (3 head and 'plate 
men, 2 company men and 6 mechanics ; in all 32 men. 



Cayuga Colliery. 

This shaft is located in the city of Scranton, and lying one-half of a mile north- 
west of the Lackawanna river; it is 3G8 feet to the G or 14-feet vein; shaft open- 
ing is 32i feet long and 10 feet wide ; it is operated by the Delaware, Lackawanna 
and Western railroad comiiany. William K. Storrs is general coal agent, E. R. 
Walter is general outside superintendent, B. Iluglies is general inside foreman, 
Thomas Watkins is mining boss and ,1. C. Bowman is outside foreman. 

DescripUnn . — They have'a breaker connected with this mine, att;vclied to shaft 
tower ; they mine, shii) and prepare about 450 tons of coal per day ; they employ 
52 miners, 52 laborers, 19 drivers, 3 door-boys and 14 company men in the mine; 
^ slate pickers, 9 head and plate men, 2 drivers, 18 company men, 8 meclianies 
and 2 bosses outside: in all 228 men and boys; they are working the G or Big 
vein, average thickness 9 feet ; they work lieadings 12, air-ways 15 and cliambers 
27 feet wide ; they leave pillars from G to 7 yards wide to sustain tlie roof ; they 
leave cross-entrances 20 yards apart for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is 
slate ; the mine is in a good Avorking condition. 

Ventilation.— Th% ventilation is produced by means of a fan adjoining the main 
opening ; the intake is located at the main opening, area 230 feet ; the upcast is 
located in one side of main shaft, area 90 feet ; the'average supply of fresh air per 
minute is 18,900 cubic feet ; they have a little noxious, inflammable and poisonous 
gases evolved in the mine ; the main doors on headings and air- ways are hung so 
that they will close of their own accord, so ;],s to assist ventilation, and they have 
attendants to keep them closed, so as to keep up a steady current of air; they 
have double doors on main travelled roads, and an extra door in case of accident ; 
the air is circulated to the face of the Avorking places in 2 splits ; they work 50 
men in one split, and 54 in the other ; the amount of ventilation has been mea- 
sured and reported according to law ; ventilation is good. 

Madiinery. — They use 1 pair of hoisting engines, 120-horse power ; 1 breaker en- 
gine, GO-horse power, in shaft engine house; 1 fan enghie, 60-horse power, in fan 
engine house ; 1 donkey engine at bottom of sliaft, 25-horse power, and 1 lire 
pump, 20-horse power, in a brick building about 100 feet from boiler rooms ; they 
have a metal speaking tube in shaft ; they have 2 hoisting carriages in shaft, with 
all the modern improvements; they have ilanges of sufficient dimensions on the 
hoisting drums ; they have an adequate brake on hoisting drum ; they use. clevis, 
cones and standard "ropes, in good condition; the boilers, feed pipes and water 
gauge cocks are in good condition ; they have a steam gauge and safety valves for 
safety and to indicate the pressure of steam per square inch. 

Eemarl-s. — They have furnished a map of mine ; they have a second opening 
about 1,200 feet from main opening; they have a house for men to wash and 
cliange their clothes in ; the mining boss seems to be a practical and com}>etent 
man ; there are no boys working in the mine under 12 years of age ; tliey do not 
allow more than 10 men to ride on a loaded carriage or cage at one time in the 
shaft ; the persons having charge know their duty in case of death or sei'i(Mis ac- 
cident ; the breajjer machinery is boxed and fenced off so that operatives are safe ; 
the shaft landings are protected by safety gates. 



Yon Storch Colliery, 

This colliery is located in Scranton city, and situated on the west bank of the 
Lackawanna river; it is operated by the Delaware and Hudson canal company^ 
E. W. Neston, general superintendent ; J. M. Chittenden, general outside breaker 
superintendent ; Andrew Nicol, general mine superintendent ; J. C. Simpson and 
A. B. Nicol, assistant mine superintendents. The above named gentlemen have 
charge of all the collieries operated by the Delaware and Hudson canal company 



284 

in this mining? district. Richard D Roberts and John Aubry, are mining bosses, 
and Cliarles Ziep;]er, is outside foreman. 

JDc^criptiou. — The opening- to the coal consists of a shaft and slope ; the shaft 
is 35(1 feet deeii to the Fourteen Feet vein, and 550 feet deep to tlie Clark vein ; 
the slope is 1,300 feet long to the G or Big vein, and driven at an angle of — de- 
grees; there is a breaker connected with these mines, situated aVjout 500 feet 
from mouth of slope ; they mine and prepare about 650 tons of coal per day ; 
they employ 02 miners, 78 laborers, 42 drivei's, 16 door-lioys and 55 company men 
in the mine ; 82 slate pickers, 11 head and i)late men, 3 drivers, 26 company men, 
8 mechanics and 3 boses outside — in all 416 men and boys ; they are working tlie 
Fourteen Feet, Diamond and Clark veins of coal; average thickness of ti;e 
Fourteen Feet 8 feet ; Diamond 51 feet, and of tlie Clark vein 9 feet ; they work 
headings in Fourteen Feet vein 10, air-ways 14 and chambers 30; in the Diamond 
vein they work headings and air-ways 14, and chambers 30 ; and in the Clark 
vein they work Iieadings 10, air-ways 14, and chambers 30 feet wide ; they leave 
pillars in the Fourteen Feet and Clark veins about 18 feet, and in tlie Diamond 
about 15 feet wide, to sustain the roof; they leave cioss entrances in eacli vtin 
50 feet apart, for the purpose of ventilation ;' the roof in the Fourteen Feet and 
Clark veins is slate, and in the Diamond vein it is fire-clay ; the mines are in a 
good working condition. 

Ventilation is produced by means of a large fan — tliis is a suction fan, and is 21 
feet in diameter liy 5 feet face ; tlie in-take is located at mouth of slope, ar^ 
190 feet; the up-cast is located in main shaft, area 100 feet; the amount of 
pure air in the Fourteen Feet is '21 ,500, and in the Diamond 19,100 cubic feet per 
minute ; there is standing water in the dip workings of eacli vein ; the inain 
doors are hinig so as to close of their own accord ; they have attendants at main 
doors ; the air is circulated to the face of the workings systematically by the 
aid of check-doors ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported 
good. 

Machinery. — They use one breaker engine of 62-horse power, two hoisting en- 
gines of 123-liorse jiower , one hoisting engine used to hoist on the plane outside, 
25-horse power, and one steam pump 105-horse power ; they liave a metal speak- 
ing tube in tiie mines; have two safety carriages, with all the modern imi)rove. 
ments; liave an adequate brake, and flanges of sufficient strength and dimen- 
sions for safety, attached to their hoisting drums ; the ropes, links, chains and 
'connections are in good condition ; the boilers had been cleaned and examined, 
and reported in good condition ; have a steam guage to indicate the pressure of 
steifm; the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced off, so that operatives are 
safe. 

Remarl-^. — They have furnished maps of mines; they have second openings ; 
they have no house for men to wash or change in. Mr. Roberts is a competent 
and practical man, and Mr. Aubry seems to be a practical and competent man. 
There are no boys working in the mines under 12 years of age; the engineers 
seem to be ex])erienced, competent and sober men, and do not allow any persons 
to ride on loaded carriages in the mines, or more than ten persons to ride on the 
safety carriage at one time : the parties having charge know their duty in case 
of death or serious accident ; tlie fan is run at the rate of 48 revolutions per 
minute; it does not give as good results as Legett's Creek fan, on account of the 
friction, tte ; tlie roof in both veins requires to be well timbered, as it is very 
bad where faults and rolls come in, and they have to drive the chambers narrow 
at these places ; the siiaft landings are protected by safety gates ; tlie mines 
operated by the Delaware and Hudson canal company Avill compare favorably 
with any other mines in Pennsylvania for uniformity and system ; they have es- 
tablished a code of mine regulations which they carry out successfully, which 
prevent a great many deaths and accidents. 

Ventilation of a majority of mines in this mining district, and their mode of 
conducting the air currents to the face of the workings, is systematical ; there 
are some of the mines, operated by this company, connected with old mines that 
have been worked for years, ami it is almost impossible to ventilate them syste- 
matically. Alexander Simpson, Esq., is niii^ter mechanic of the mining depart- 
ment of this company, and has charge of machinery, &c.; he is a gentleman of 
ability, and he lives up to the requirements of the law. 



285 

Legitt's CjtEi£K Colliery. 

Tliis colliery is located in the city of Scrtinton and situated i mile north-west 
of the Lackawanna river ; the shaft is 340 feet deep to the G or 14 fert vein. It is 
operated by the Delaware and Hudson canal company. J. C. Simpson is assistant 
mine superintendent. Thomas Bamford is mining boss of tlie Diamond and 
I'iuley Koss is mining boss of the G or 14 feet vein, and J. L. Atherton is outside 
foreman. 

Description. — There is a double breaker attached to the shaft tower ; they mine 
and prepare about SOU tons of coal per day ; they employ in the Diamond vein 41 
miners, 35 laborers, 15 drivers, 21 door-boys and IS company men ; in the G vein 
4<J miners, 35 laborers, 16 drivers, 8 door-boys and 23 company men ; G3 slate 
pickers, 8 head and plate men, 3 drivers, 6 company men, 10 niL^clianics and 3 
bosses outside ; in all 352 men and boys ; they are working the Diamond and G 
veins of coal ; average thickness of tlie Diamond 6 feet, and of the G vein 8 feet ; 
they work headings 9, air-ways 12 and chambers 30 feet wide, except where the 
roof is very bad ; they leave pillars 18 feet wide to sustain the roof ; they leave 
cross-entrances 50 feet apart for the purpose of ventihition ; the roof in the 
Diamond vein is tire clay next to the coal, then rock, and in the G veiu it is bony 
coal; the mines are in a good working condition. 

Ventilation is produced by a fan ; the in-take is located at mouth of shaft, area 
240 feet ; tlie up-cast is located in air-shaft, 500 feet from main opening, area 93 
feet; the amount of pure air is 103,925 cubic feet per minute; tliere is noxious 
and inflammable gas evolved in these mines; the mines are examined every 
morning before the men go to work, and every evening to see that the main doors 
are closed ; the main doors are hung so as to close of their own accord ; they 
have attendants at main doors ; they have double doors on main traveled roads 
and an extra one in case of an accident to any of the others ; the air is circu- 
lated to the face of the workings in six splits ; the amount of ventilation has 
been measured and reported. Ventilation is good. 

Machinery. — They use 1 breaker engine of 77-horse power, 2 hoisting engines of 
123-horse poVer, 1 hoisting engine for outside plane of G2-horse power, 1 pumping 
engine of 105-horse power at second opening, 1 hoisting engine of 77-horse power 
and 1 fan engine of 49-horse power; tliey have a metal si)eaking-tube in the 
shaft; they have 3 safety carriages with all the modern improvements; tliey do 
not allow any persons to ride up or down the main shaft, they are all hoisted and 
lowered by a safetr-carriage in the second opening ; they have an adequate brake 
and flanges of sufficient strength and dimensions for satety attached to the hoist- 
ing drum; the ropes, links, chains and connections are in good condition; the 
boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported in good coutlition ; they 
have a steam gauge and safety-valve to indicate the pressure of steam ; the 
breaker machinery is boxed and fenced off so that operatives are safe. 

Jiemarts.— They have furnished maps of mines; they have no liouse for men 
to wash or change in. Finley Ross, mining boss, is a practical iind competent 
man ; Mr. Thomas Bamford seems to be a practical and competent man ; they 
have a fire boss to assist them in each vein ; tliere are no boys working in the 
minesunder 12 years of age ; tlie engineers seem to be experienced, competent 
and sober men ; tliey do not allow over 10 persons to ride on the safety-carriage 
at one time ; the parties having charge know their duty in case of death or seri- 
ous accident ; they are working a gravity plane in the Diamond vein ; the air is 
conducted sj^stematically, by the aid of check-doors, &c.,to the face of the work- 
in.gs by 3 air-splits in each vein ; they do not work over 50 men in any one split 
of air ; the fan is 21 feet in diameter by 5 feet face and it runs at the rate of 08 
revolutions per minute ; the shaft-opening is protected by safety-gates. 



, Marvin Shaft. 

This shaft is located in Scranton city, ard situated about 500 feet north-west 
of the Lackawanna river. This is a new shaft just sinking ; it is sunk down to 
the Diamond vein, which is 155 feet below the surface, average thickness of coal 
7 feet ; the opening is 10 feet wide by 41 feet long ; they are putting up very t iib- 
stantial brick buildings around the shaft for engine house, etc. 



286 



Macldnery. — They use 2 hoisting engines of 120-horse power, and 2 smaller 
hoisting ts L,ines of 30-horse power; they are now in the act of building a 
breaker, etc! I gave instructions when I last visited it to put a brake on the- 
drum before Ihey hoist any more men in or out of the shaft. 



KoLLiNG Mill Colliery. 

This colliery is located in the city of Scranton, and situated on Eoaring Brook 
creek ; it is operated by the Lackawanna iron and coal company. C. F. Mattes 
is general superintendent, and Evan Davis is mining boss. 

Description. — The oi)ening to the coal consists of a slope and tunnel ; the slope 
is 1,023 feet long, and driven at an angle of 5"^ in a south-westerly direction ; there 
is no breaker connected with these mines ; all the coal mined here is consnmed 
by the company's rolling mills and blast furnaces ; they mine and prepare about 
240 tons of coal per day; they employ 90 miners, 18 drivers, 13 door-boys and 7 
company men in the mines ; 1 head man, 2 drivers, 2 company men, 9 mechanics 
and 1 boss outside ; in all 143 men and boys ; they are working the Rolling Mill 
vein of coal, average thickness 4* feet ; they work headings 9, air-Avays 30 and 
chambers 30 feet wide ; they leave pillars 15 feet wide to sustain the roof ; they 
leave cross-entrances 30 feet apart for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is good 
hard rock ; the mines are in a good working condition. 

VentilationAs produced by means of furnaces ; the intakes are located at mouths 
of slope and tunnels ; the area of intakes for the slope is 72, and for the tunnel ■''A 
feet ; the upcasts are located in furnace air-shafts ; the area of the upcasts for 
the slope is 03, and for the tunnel 113 feet ; the amount of air in the slope is 9,150, 
and in the tunnel 14,250 cubic feet per minute ; the main doors are hung so as to 
close of tlieir own accord ; they have attendants at main doors; they have douL-le 
doors on main travelled roads, and an extra one in case of an accident to any of 
the others ; the air is conducted to the face of the workings in" one volume in the 
slope and tunnel ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ; 
ventilation is good. 

Machinery. — They use two hoisting engines near mouth of slope, 40-horse 
power eacli"; there is a double acting steam jnunp in mines, 80-horse power, and 
1 feed steam pump ; they have no metal speaking tube in the mines ; they have 
an adequate brake, and flanges of sufficient strength and dimensions for safety 
attached to the hoisting drum; the ropes, links, chains and connections are in 
good condition ; the boilers have l)een cleaned and examined and reported in go(id 
condition ; they have a steam gauge to indicate the pressure of steam. 

Eemarks. — Tliey have furriished a map of mines ; they have a second opening ; 
they have a house for men to wash and change in ; the mining boss seems to he 
a practical ;ind compet;'nt man ; there are no boys working in the mines under 12 
years of age ; the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and practical men ; 
they do not allow any persons to ride on loaded cars in the mines ; the parties 
having charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the stacks 
over furnace air-shafts are built of brick, 7 feet in diameter in the clear. 



Pine Brook Shaft. 

This shaft is located in the city of Scranton, and situated about 1,000 feet south- 
east of the Lack;; wanna river ; it is 175 feet deep to tlie Clark vein ; it is o]n'- 
rated by the Lackawanna iron and coal company. Charles F. Mattes is gener;'.-! 
sui)erinten(lent, Morgan Bowen is mining boss and Henry Hess is outside foreman. 

JJiscription. — Tiiere is a breaker attached to the shaft tower; they mine and 
piepiire about 250 tons of coal per day ; tliey employ 37 miners, 34 iaboi'ers, 14 
drivers, door-boys and 16 company men in the mine; 15 slate pickers, 1 head 
and plate man, 2 drivers, 8 company men, (> meclianics and 1 boss outside ; in aU 
140 men and boys. They are working the Clark vein ; average thickness 6} feet ; 
ti\ey work headings 14, air-ways 21. and chambers 27 feet wi(le ; they leave pillars 
Vz ieet wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross-entrances GO feet apart, for tiie 
piirixiseof ventilation; thereof is slate; the mine is in a good working condi- 

ti'Jl;. 



287 

Ventilation is produced by a fan and fnmace ; the in-take is located at month 
of shaft, area 140 feet ; the up-cast is located in furnace air shaft, area 132 feet; 
the air shaft is located 2,700 feet south-east of main shaft, and the amount of pure 
air is 49,500 cubic feet per minute; intlainmable gas is evolved in large quanti- 
ties in this mine; the mine is examined every morning before men go to work, 
aad every evening, to see that the main doors are closed; the main doors are 
hung so as to close of their own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; 
they have double doors on main traveled road, and an extra one in case of an ac- 
cident to any of the others ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and 
reported good. 

Hachinery.— They use 1 breaker engine 30-horse power, 2 hoisting engines 00 
horse power, 1 pumping engine 7.5-horse power, 1 fan engine 10-liorse power, 1 
donkey pump 15-liorse power and 1 tire pump; tliey have a metal speaking-tube 
in the shaft ; tliey have two safety-carriages with all tlie modern improvements ; 
they have an adequate brake, and flanges of sufficient strength and dimensions for 
safety, attached to the hoisting drum ; the ropes, links, chains and connectioi.s 
are in good condition ; the boilers have been cleaned and examined, and reported 
in good condition ; tliey have a steam giTage to indicate the pressure of steam ; 
the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced off, so that operatives are safe. 

Remarks. — They iuive furnished a map of mine; tliey liave a second oi)euing ; 
there is a man and mule-way driven to the surface, wherennen and mules walk in 
and out ; they have no house for men to wash or change in ; the mining boss is 
a competent and sober man, and has the fire-boss to assist him ; there are no boys 
working in the mine under 12 years of age ; the engineers seem to be experienced, 
competent and sober men ; they do not allow any person to ride on loaded car- 
riages in the shaft; they do not allow over ten men to ride ontlie safety-carriages 
at one tim.e ; tlie parties having charge know tlieir duty in case of death or seri- 
ous accident ; the sliaft-opening is protected by safety gates. 



Fair Lawn Slope. 

This slope is located in the city of Scranton and situated i mile south-east of 
the Lackawanna river ; it is a new slope just sinking ; !t is down 235 feet at an 
angle of 19 degrees; hosie & Co. are sinking it ; they are making preparations 
to build a breaker in connection with this slope. 



Green Ridge Colliery. 

This colliery is located in the borough of Dunmore,-lying I of a mile south- 
east of the Lackawanna river. The oix'ning consists of a rock slope ; it is 31K 
feet long. It is operated by Filer & C;o. Geo. Filer is general mine superintend- 
ent, Timothy Fertrey is mining lioss and E. Brownell is outside foreman. - 

Dcscrqition.—Thave is a breaker connected with this mine; it is located 240 
feet away; they mine and prepare about 400 tons of coal per day; they employ 
60 miners, 55 laborers, 18 drivers, 11 door-boys and 28 company men in the mine; 
70 shit« pickers, 7 liead and jtlate men, 6 drivers, 23 company men, 4 mechanics 
and 2 bosses outside; in all 284 men and boys ; they are working the Clark vein, 
average thickness 8 feet ; they drive headinus 14, air-ways 12 and chambers 2S 
feet wide; tliey leave pillars from 15 to 18 feet wide to sustahi the roof; they 
leave cross-entrances 30 feet apart, and closer if necessary, for the purpose of 
ventilation ; the roof is slate ; the mine is in a good working condition. 

Ventilation, i.s produced by means of a furnace located aliout 560 feet from 
main oi^ening ; the hi-take is located at mouth of slope, area 75 feet ; tlie u})-cast 
is located in furnace air-shaft, area §0 feet ; the amount of fresh air is 22,0<HJ 
cubic feet ]ier minute ; tlie main doors are hung so that tliey will close of th.eir 
own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; they have doul)le doors on 
main traveled roads and an extra one i]i case of an accident to any of the others ; 
tlie amount oi' ventihilion has been measured and reported. A'entilationis good. 

Jf(/.'-////ici7/.— They lise 2 hoisting engines, (100 feet from moutli of slope,) of 
80-hoise power. 1 breaker engine, (100 feet from mouth of slope — ste;an taken 



288 

from boilers of lioisting engine,) of 2o-lioise jiower; they have a metal speaking- 
tube in t!ie slope ; they have an adecpiate brake and llanges of sufficient strength 
and dimensions for safety att;iched to tlie lioisting drums ; the boilers have been 
cleaned and examined and reported in good condition ; they have a steam gauge 
to indicate the pressure of steam. 

JicrnarkK. — They have furnished a map of mine ; they have a second opening 
located -560 feet from main opening; tliey have a house for men to Avash and 
change in ; there is very little gas and water in tlie mine ; the mining boss seems 
to be a jiractical and competent man ; he has a lire boss 1o assist him; the mine 
is examined every morning before men go to work, and every evening to see that 
tiie main doors are all closed ; there are no boys working in the mine under 12 
years of age ; the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men ; 
they do not allow any persons to ride on loaded cars in the mine; the parties 
having charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the breaker 
machinery is fenced and boxed off so tliat operatives are safe. 



jSTo. 2 Shaft, Dunmore. 

This shaft is located in Dunmore borough and lies 1 mile south-east of the 
Lackawanna river. It is 53 feet to first vein, which is abandoned, and No. 2 vein 
is worked by a rock tunnel 600 feet from the bottom of shaft ; size of sliaf t 12 
by 15 feet. It is operated by the Pennsylvania coal company. William Brydeu 
is general mine superintendent, Jas. M'Miller is mining boss and J. W. Marchell 
is outside foreman. 

Description. — There is no breaker connected with this mine but there are large 
schutes where they load large railroad cars and run them to the screens in Dun- 
more, where the coal is cleaned and prepared ; they mine and ])repare about 240 
tons of coal per day; they employ 40 miners, 40 laborers, 7 drivers, 2 door-boj'S 
and 6 company men in the mine ; 14 head and plate men and 1 boss outside ; in 
all 110 men and boys ; they are working the lowest vein of coal, average thick- 
ness 4 feet ; they W'ork headings 10, air-ways 15 and chambers 30 feet M-ide; they 
leave pillars from 15 to 21 feet wide to sustain the roof; they leave cross- 
entrances from 25 to 40 feet apart for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is 
bony coal and slate ; the mine is in a good working condition. 

]^entilati()n is produced by means of a furnace located 2,000 feet from main 
opening; the in-take is located in old No. 1 shaft and in main shaft, area from 
145 to 150 feet; the ui)-cast is located in furnace air-shaft, area 00 feet; the 
amount of fresh air is 13,500 cubic feet per minute ; the main doors on headings 
and air-Avays are hung so tliat they will close of their own accord ; they have at- 
tendants at main doors ; tliey have double doors on main traveled roads and an 
extra one in case of an accident to any of the others; the air is circulated to the* 
face of tlie workings in 2- splits; the amount of ventilation has been measured 
and reported according to law : ventilation is good. 

Machinerii. — They use 1 hoisting engine w^itli pumping gear attached, 40-horse 
power ; they have a metal speaking-tube in the shaft ; they have an adequate 
brake and lianges of sufficient strength and dimensions for safety attached to 
the sides of tlie hoisting drum ; the ropes, links, chains and connections are in 
good condition ; the Itoilers have been cleaned and examined and reported in 
good condition ; they liave a steam gauge to indicate the pressure of steam. 

Remarks. — Tliey have furnished a map of mine ; they have a slope to surface 
and they are connected with old No. 1 sliaft workings, which can be used as a 
second opening ; they have no house for men to wash or change their clothes in ; 
the mining boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; there are no boys 
working in the mines under 12 years of age ; the engineers seem to be experi- 
enced, competeni and sober men ; they use 2 patent safety-carriages in the sluift ; 
tiiey do not allow more than 10 persons to ride on a safety-carriage at one time ; 
tliey have been working botli veins in the beginning of the j'ear 1S72; the shaft- 
landings are protected by safety-gates. 



289 

EOARING BJROOK COLLIERY. 

This colliery is located in the borough of Diuimore, and lyins? one and one-half 
miles south-east of the Lackawanna river. The shaft is 211 feet deep to the up- 
per vein, 24(> feet deep to the middle vein, and 294 feet deep to the lower vein ; 
the opening is 10 by 21 feet. It is operated, by the lloaring Brook coal company. 
J. E. Davis is general mine superintendent, Patrick Mongan is mining-boss and 
C. W. Baxter is outside foreman. 

Description. — There are two breakers connected with these mines — one is con- 
nected to the sliaft tower, in whicli they prepare coal for local coal sales, and the 
other is forty-five hundred feet south-east, connected by a plane and railroad to 
the shaft ; it is situated on the southern division of the Delaware, Lackawanna 
and Western railroad ; they mine and prei)are about 6-50 tons of coal per day ; 
they employ 70 miners, 70 laborers, 49 drivers, 7 door-boys and 37 company men 
in the mines ; 35 slate pickers, 6 head and plate men, 8 drivers, 30 company men, 
13 mechanics and 3 bosses outside — in all 327 men and boys; there was a large 
fall in the lower vein on the 31st of December ; they are working these veins, 
which are called Nos. 1, 2 and 3 veins; average thickness of each 5 feet; they 
work headings and air- ways from 10 to 12, and chambers about 33 feet wide ; they 
leave pillars about 13 feet wide to sustain the roof; they have cross-entrances 
aljout 25 feet apart, for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is of a schaly and 
fire-clay nature, which is elfected by being exposed to the air, as it causes it to 
break up into small particles, becomes dangerous, and requires a great deal of 
care and timber to secure it ; the mines are not in a good working condition at 
present. 

Ventilation is produced by means of a furnace, located two hundred and twen- 
ty-five feet from main opening ; the in-take is located in main sliaft, area 160 
feet ; the up-cast is located in furnace air shaft, area 80 feet, and the amount of 
fresh air is aboiit 28,000 cubic feet per minute ; the main doors are hung so that 
■they will close of their own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; they 
have double doors on main traveled roads, and an extra one in case of an acci- 
dent to any of the otliers; the air is circulated to the face of the workings in; 
three splits ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ; "ven- 
tilation is generally good. 

Machinery. — They use two hoisting engines at shaft of 70-horse powder, 1 punap- 
ing engine of 60-horse power, 1 breaker engine of lO-horse power running snvxll 
breaker, 1 breaker engine of 35-horse power running large breaker, 1 engine tor 
hoisting the men, of 2o-horse power, 2 engines for hoisting up planes of 40-horse 
power ; they have a metal speaking-tulje in the shaft ; they have two safety-car- 
riages, with all the modern imi)rovements ; they have an adequate brake, and 
flanges of sufficient strength and dimensions for safety, attached to the sides of 
the hoisting drum ; they use standard ropes and links ; the boilers have been 
cleaned and examined, and reported in good condition; they have a safety valve 
to indicate the pressure of steam. 

Bemarks. — They Mve furnished a map of mines ; they have a second oi^ning, . 
located 225 feet from main opening; they have a house for men to wash and 
change in ; the mining boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; there 
are no boys working in the mines under 12 years of age ; the engineers seem to 
be experienced, competent and sober men; they do not allow any person to ride 
on loaded cars in the mines ; they do not allow over ten men to ride on the safety 
carriage at one time ; the parties having charge know their duty in case of death, 
or serious accident ; the shaft opening is protected by safety gates ; the breaker, 
machinery is boxed and fenced off:, so that operatives are safe. 



Gipsy Groyb Colliery. 

Description. — This colliery is located in the borough of Dunmore, and it is situ- 
ated 2 miles south-east of the Lackawanna river ; the shaft is 60 feet deep to the 
First vein, 102 feet deep to the Second vein and 167 feet deep to the Third vein ; 
the opening is 12 by 18 feet ; they are also working 4 tunnels, namely, Finnerty's, 
Swartz's, Smith's and Sawyer's ; the shaft and the 3 tunnels first mentioned are 
working in the Dunmore upper vein, and the last mentioned in the Clark vein ; 
the average thickness of each vein is H feet ;■ they work headings 10, air-ways 15 



290 

and chambers 30 feet wide ; tliey leave pillars about 15 feet wide to sustain the 
roof; they leave cross-entrances from 20 to 30 feet ai)art for the jiurpose of venti- 
lation ; the roof is good slate and sandstone in tlie I^unmore upper vein, and bony 
coal and slate in tlie Clark vein ; tliere are no clKunl)ers opened in the sliaft or 
Smith's tunnel yet; tliey liave second openings to all the workings; tlie mines 
are in a good safe working condition. 

Ventilation is produced by means of furnaces : the furnace in the sliaft is located 
900 feet from main opening ; Finnerty's tunnel, 850 feet from mouth ; Swartz's 
tunnel, 800 feet from mouth ; Smith's tunnel, not working now, and in Sawyer's 
tunnel 200 feet from mouth ; the intakes are located in the sliaft and in the open- 
ing of all the tunnels ; the areas of intakes and upcasts vary from 40 to 60 feet ; 
the amount of pure fresh air at shaft is 3,2i!0, at Finnerty's tunnel is 9,500, at 
Swartz's tunnel is 6,357, at Smith's tunnel air is not measured, and at Sawyer's 
tunnel is 6,200 cubic feet per minute ; there is no noxious or inflammable gas 
evolved in the mines ; the main doors are hung so tliat tliey will close of their oAvn 
accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; they have double doors on main 
travelled roads ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and rejiorted ; ven- 
tilation is good ; the air is circulated systematically to the face of tlie workings ; 
the air currents are good, but not sufficient to keep the mines clear of powder 
smoke; as the veins are low and the coal hard, it requires a large amount of 
powder for the miners to comjtlete their day's work. 

Machinery. — There is no machinery reciuired at any of the tunnels, as they are 
driven so as to drain the workings; tliey use 2 engines at the shaft, 30-horse 
power each ; one is used for hoisting, and the other to run the breaker machinery ; 

also a large punii»ing engine, liorse power ; they liave a metal speaking tube 

in the shaft ; tliey have a safety carriage, with all the modern improvements ; 
they have flanges of sufficient strength and dimensions for safety attached to the 
sides of the hoisting drum ; they have an adequate brake on hoisting drum ; the 
ropes, links, chains and connections are in good condition ; the boilers have been 
cleaned and examined and reported in good condition ; they have a steam gauge 
and safety valves for safety and to indicate the pressure of steam ; the breaker 
machinery is boxed and fenced off so that operatives are safe. 

liemavks. — This colliery is operated by the Pennsylvania coal company. Wil- 
liam Bryden is mine superintendent, -las. M'Millan is mining boss and Wil- 
liam Jennings is outside foreman. There is a double breaker attached to the 
shaft-tower ; tliey mine and prepare about 430 tons of coal per day ; they employ 
in the shaft 10 miners and 6 laborers, and outside 30 slate pickers, 16 liead and 
plate men, 3 drivers, 2 company men, 7 mechanics and 2 bosses; at Finnerty's 
tunnel 32 miners, 32 laborers, 7 drivers, 3 door-boys and 3 company men in the 
mines and 2 outside drivers; in Swartz's tunnel 10 miners, 8 laborers, 2 drivers, 
1 door-boy and 1 company man, and at Sawyer's tunnel 20 miners, 20 laborers, 4 
drivers, 2 door-lioys and 2 company men in the mines and 2 drivers outside ; in 
all 227 men and boys ; they have furnished a map of mine ; they have a house 
for men to wash and change tlieir clothes in ; the mining boss seems to be a puac- 
tical and competent man ; there are no boys working in the mines under 12 years 
of age ; the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men ; they 
do not allow any persons to ride on loaded carriages in the shaft ; they do nut 
allow over 10 persons to ride on the safety-carriage at one time ; the parties liav- 
Ing charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the shaft- 
ianding is protected by safety-gates. 



The Screens in Dunmore 

are located at the head of plane No. 6, on the loaded track of the Pennsylvania 
coal company's railroad. They screen and clean the coal here which is siiipped 
from the different mines belonging to the company which have no breaker con- 
nected with them ; they employ 73 men and boys w^orking about the screens ; 
they cleaned and screened in the year 1872, 146,463 tons of coal; they use 1 en- 
gine here of 40-horse power. 



291 

New Breaker in Dijnmore. 

This breaker is located on No. 6 plane, on tlie loaded track of the Pennsylvania 
coal coini)any's railroad. It is a new donble breaker, built with all the- modem 
imi»roveuients ; they have done Imt very little work at this breaker in 1872, as 
they only prepared and ship[)ed 7.774 tons of coal : they employ 1-5 men and boys 
around tliis breaker; they use 1 engine here of 25-horse power to run the b:e .ktr 
machinery. 



Elk' Hill Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Blakeley township, and situated about one-fourth of 
a mile north-west of the Lackawanna river. It is operated by Elk Hill coal coni- 
panj' — L. E. Jiidd is geweral mine superintendent, Benjamin Reese is mining- 
boss and John (x. Wyland is outside foreman. 

Dcficription. — There is a breaker connected with this mine, located about 1,000 
feet north-east of t!ie mouth of drift : they mine about 300 tons of coal per day : 
they employ 51 miners, 40 laborers, 16 drivers, 8 door-boys and 4 company men in 
the mine ; 32 slate pickers, 6 head and jtlate men, 2 drivers, 4 company men, 4 me- 
chanics and 2 bosses outside ; in all 109 men and boys ; they are working No. 2 
vein; average thickness 7i feet; they work headings 11, air-ways 10, and cham- 
bers about 30 feet wide ; they leave pillars about 10 feet Avide to sustain the roof : 
they leave cross-entrances about oO feet apart, for the purpose of ventilation ; tlie 
roof is good rock. The mine is in a good safe working condition. 

Ventitation is produced by means of a furnace ; the in-rtake is located at mouth 
of drift, area 48 feet ; the up-cast is located in furnace air-sliaft, aiea 55 feet ; 
the amount of pure air is 20,0(iO cubic feet per minute ; the main doors are so 
hung; that they will close of their own accord ; tliey have attendants at main 
doors; they have double doors on main traveled roads, and an extra one in ca.s(:> 
of an accident to' any of the others ; the amount of ventilation has been mea- 
sured and reported ; ventilation is generally good. 

Machincri/. — Tiiey use one breaker engine of 40-horse power ; the boilers have 
been cleaned and examined, and reported in good condition ; there is no ma- 
chinery required at tlie drift. 

Itemarks. — Tiiey have furnished a map of mines ; they have a second o^iening ; 
they have a house for men to wash and change in, if they are disposed to use it ; 
the mining boss seems to be a i>ractical and competent man ; he has no flre-boss 
to assist him ; there are no boys working in the mines under 12 years of age ; the 
engineer seems to be a practical, competent and sober man; the parties having 
charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the breaker ma- 
chinery is boxed and fenced off, so that oi)e.ratives are safe. This mine was 
opened and worked on the old style, by driving a heading only, and opening cliavp- 
bei'S off it, making the air-way of the first cross-entrance tliat vvas cut from one 
chamber to another, after they were opened out, which was a very bad way to 
ventilate a mine. In the new workings they are di'iving air-ways along the head- 
ings, so as to carry air with them, and. in course of time their mine will be m a 
good condition. 



No. 2 OR Dip Mixe. 

This mine is located in Olyphant, Blakeley township, and is situated on Eddy 
creek, 500 feet south-east of the Lackawanna river; it is operated by the Dela- 
ware and Hudson canal company. A. B*. Nicol is assistant mine superintendent, 
E. K. Laidler is mining boss and R. E. Alexander is outside foreman. 

Description. — The opening to the coal consists of a tunnel : there is a breaker 
connected with this mine, located 350 feet from mouth of tunnel; they mine and 
prepare 400 tons of coal per day ; they employ 56 miners, 56 laborers, 25 drivos, 
C door-boys and 9 company men in the mines ; 24 slate pickers, 4 head and plate 
'men, 1 driver, 11 company men, 3 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in all 197 men 
and boys ; they are working No. 1 vein of coal, average thickness li feet ; they 



292 

work headings 10, air-waj's 14 and chambers 30 feet wide; they leave pillars lo 
feet wide to sustain tlie roof; they leave eross-entrauces -50 feet apart fortlie pur-' 
pose of ventilation ; tlie roof is slate ; the mine is in a good working condition. 

VentilatUm is produced by means of a f lunace ; the intake is located at mouth 
of tunnel, area 3G feet : the outcast is located in furnace air-shaft, area 42 feet; 
the amount of pure air is 9,060 cubic feet per minute ; they have doul)le doors on 
main travelled roads ; the main doors are hung so as to close of tlieir own accord ; 
they have attendants at main doors ; the air is circulated to the face of the work- 
ings in one volume ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ; 
ventilatiim is good. 

Marliineru. — They use 1 breaker engine, 70-liorse power; the boilers have been 
cleaned and examined and reported in good condition ; they liave a steam gauge 
to indicate the pressure of steam ; the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced off 
so that oi)eratives are safe ; they require no machinery around the tmmel. 

liemarks. — Tliey have furnished a map of mine ; they have a second opening ; 
they have no house for men to Avash or change in ; tliere is some standing water 
in tlie mine ; the mining boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; there 
are no boys working in the mine under 12 years of age ; the engineer seems to be 
a practical, experienced and sober man ; the parties having charge know their 
duty in case of death or serious accident. 



Eddy Creek Shaft. 

This shaft is located in Olyiihant, Blakeley township, and situated on Eddy 
creek, 500 feet south-east of the Lackawanna river; the shaft is 408 feet deep to 
No. 2 vein of coal ; it is operated by the Delaware and Hudson canal company. 
A. B. Nicol is assistant mine Superintendent, R. K. Laidler is mining boss and. li. 
E. Alexander is outside foreman. 

Description. — Tliere is a Ineaker connected with this mine, located 350 feet 
from main shaft ; they mine and prepare 100 tons of coal per day ; they employ 
14 miners, 14 laborers, 6 drivers and 4 company men in the mine ; 2 head and 
plate men, 4 mechanics and 1 boss outside; in all 45 men and boys; they are 
Avorking the oSTo. 2 vein of coal, average thickness 5-i feet ; they work headings 10, 
air-ways 14 and cliambers 30 feet wide ; they leave pillars 15 feet wide to sustain 
the roof ; they leave cross-entrances 50 feet apart for the purpose of ventilation ; 
the roof is fire clay ; the mine is in a good working condition. 

VentUation is produced by means of a water-fall ; the intake is located in 
second opening, area 42 feet; the upcast is located in main opening, area 60 feet ; 
the amount of pure air is 18,000 cubic feet per minute ; the main doors are hung 
so as to close of their own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; the in- 
take is in second opening, and traverses the workings of No. 2 vein, then goes 
down the main sliaft to the lower vein, goes tlirough all the workings and comes 
up the main shaft ; there is noxious gas evolved in the lower vein, not working 
now ; the air is circulated to the face of the workings in one volume ; the amount 
of ventilation has been measured and reported ; ventilation is good. 

Mackinev]/. — They use •/ hoisting engines, 118-horse power ; 1 pumping engine, 
77-horse power, and 1 steam pump, (iO-horse power ; they have a metal speaking 
tube in the shaft ; tliey have a safety carriage, with all the modern improvements ; 
they have an adequate brake, and 'flanges of sufiicient strength and dimensions 
for safety attached to the hoisting drum ; the shaft is protected by vertical gates ; 
the ropes, links, chains and connections are in good condition ; the boilers have 
been cleaned and examined and reported in good condition ; they have a steam 
gauge to indicate the pressure of steam. 

htmarks.—They have furnished a map of mine ; they have a second opening ; 
they have no house for men to wash or change in ; the mining boss seems to be a 
practical and competent man ; there iixe no boys working in the mine under 12 
years of age ; the engineers seem to l)e experienced, competent and sober men ; 
tiiey do not allow any persons to ride on loaded carriages in the shaft ; they do 
not allow more than" 10 persons to ride on the safety carriage at one time ; the 
parties having charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident. 



293 

No. 1 Colliery — Olyphant. 

This colliery is located iu Oh'phant, Blakeley township, and situated 1,000 feet 
south-east of the Lackawanna river, on the loaded track of the Delaware and 
Hudson canal comiiany; A. B. Nicol is assistant mine superintendent, Andrew 
Patten is mining boss and William IJell is outside foreman. 

Description. — There is a breaker connected with these mines; they mine and 
prepare 400 tons of coal per day; tliey employ (io miners, 53 laborers, 35 drivers, 
9 door-boys and 9 com[»any men in the mines ; 3S slate pickers, G head and plate 
men, 22 company men, 3 mechanicsand 2 bosses outside; in all 242 men and boys; 
they are working Xos. 1 and 2 veins of coal ; avera,ge thickness 7i feet each ; they 
work headings 10, air-ways 14 and chambers 30 feet wide : they leave pillars 15 
feet wide to sustain the roof; they leave cross-entrances 50 feet apart, for the pur- 
pose of ventilation ; the roof is slate and fire-clay ; the mines are in a good work- 
ing condition. 

'Ventilation is produced by means of a furnace ; the in-take is located at mouth 
of slope for the slope, and at mouth of drift for drift ; areas 57 feet each ; the out- 
casts are located in furnace air-sliaft : area 50 feet ; the amount of pure air is 
9,300 cubic feet per minute ; the main doors are hung so as to close of their own 
accord ; they have attendants at nwin doors ; the air is circulated to the face of 
the workings in one volume; the amount of pure air has been measured and re- 
ported ; ventilation is good. 

Machincr]!. — They use one.breaker engine of 36-horse power, and one hoisting 
engine of 43-horse power ; they have a metal speaking-tube in the sloi)e ; they 
have an adequate brake, and iianges of sufficient strength and dimensions for. 
safety, attached to the hoisting drum; the roi)es, links, chains and connections 
are in good condition; the boilers have been cleaned and examined, and reported 
in good condition ; tliej^ have a steam gauge to indicate tlie pressure of steam; 
the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced off, so that operatives are safe. 

Bemarks. — Tiiey have furnished a map of mines; they have a second opening; 
they have no house "for men to wash or change in.; the mining boss is a compe- 
tent and practical man ; there are no boys working in the mines under 12 years 
of age ; the engineers seem to be ex[)erienced, competent and sober men ; they 
do not allow any persons to ride on loaded cars in the mines; the parties having 
charge know their dutv iu case of death or serious accident. 



No. 3 Colliery— Olyphant. 

This colliery is located in Olyphant, Blakely township, and situated 1,000 feet 
south-east of the Lackawanna river, on tlie loaded track of the Delaware and 
Hudson canal company's railroad. It is oi>erated by the Delaware and Hudson 
canal company. Andrew B. Nicol is assistant mine superintendent, and Andrew 
Patten is mining boss. 

Description. — The opening to the coal consists of a slope and tunnel ; the slope 
is 327 feet long : the coal mined here is prepared at No. 1 breaker ; they mine 00 
tons of coal per day ; they employ 14 miners, 10 laborers, 5 drivers and 2 company 
men in the mines ; in all 31 men and boys ; they are working No. 2 vein of coal ; 
average thickness 5i feet ; they work headings 10, air-ways 14 and chambers 30 
feet wide : they leave pillars 15 feet wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross-eii- 
trances 50 feet apart, for the purpose of ventilation; the roof is fire-clay; the 
nynes are in a good working condition. 

Ventilation is produced l)y means of a furnace: the in-takes are located at 
mouth of slope and drift, area 50 feet; the out-casts are located in furnace air- 
shaft, area 45 feet ; the amount of pure air is 8,400 cubic feet per minute ; the 
main doors are hung so as to close of their own accord ; they have attendants at 
main doors; the air'is circulated to the face of the workings in one volume; the 
amoiuit of ventilation has l)een measured and reported ; ventilation is good. 

Machinery. — They did use two breaker engines, 86-horse power, at tlie breaker 
now aljandoned ; they have an adequate brake, and fianges of sufficient strength 
and dimensions for safety, attaclied to the hoisting drum ; the ropes, links, chains 
and connections are in good condition ; the boilers were cleaned and examined, 
and reported in good condition ; they have a steam gauge to indicate the pressure 
of steam. 



294 

J?c/HrtrA-.?.— They l;ave furnished a inay) of mines ; they have a second opeiiin.ji,' ; 
they have no liouse for men to wash or change in : there are no boys worlvuiij in 
the mines under 12 years of age; the parties having cliarge know their duty iu 
case of death or serious accident. 



Grassy Island Colliery, 

This colliery is located in Blakeley township, and situated about one-half of a 

mile south-east of the Lackawanna river ; tiie shaft is feet deep to the four- 
teen Feet vein: it is operated by the Uelaware and Hudson canal company. 
David Ai'Donald is mining boss, and J. G. Bell is outside foreman. 

Description. — Tiiere is a breaker connected with this mine, about 3,700 feet 
away from main opening they mine and prepare about 576 tons of coal per day ; 
they employ 140 miners, 50 laborers. Si drivers, 13 door-boys and 21 company men 
in the mines ; 40 slate pickers, 9 head and ])late men, 4 drivers, 9 company men, 
12 iueclianics and 2 bosses outside ; in all 334 men and boys they are working 
the Fourteen Feet vein of coal, average thickness 10 feet ; they work headings 10, 
air-ways 14 and chambers 30 feet wide ; they leave pillars 15 feet wide to sustain 
tiie roof : tliey leave cross-entrances about 50 feet apart for the purpose of venti- 
lation ; the roof is rock ; the mine is iu a good working condition. 

Ventilaiioii is produced by means of a furnace ; the in-take is located at mouth' 
of sliaf;, area 144 feet , tiie up cast is located in furniice air-shaft, area 49 feet; 
the amount of pure fresh air is 40,200 cubic feet per minute ; the main doors are 
Jiung so that they will close of tlieir own accord, they have attendants at main 
doors; they have double doors on main traveled roads, and an extra one in case 
of accident to any of the others ; the air is circulated to the face of tiie workings 
in 2 splits ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ; ventila- 
tion is good. 

Mad dnery.— They use 1 breaTcer engine. 61 3-5-horse power ; 1 hoisting engine, 
72-horse power ; 1 hoisting engine, 77-horse power, and 1 bteam pump, 97i--iiorse 
power : they have a metal speaking tube iu the sliaf t ; they have a safety carriage, 
witli all tlie modern improvements ; they liave an adequate brake, and flanges of 
sutiicient strength and dimensions attaclied to their hoisting drums ; the boilers 
have been cleaned and examined and reported in good condition ; they have a 
sie.im gauge to indicate the pressure of steam ; also a safety valve for safety. 

itcmarkti. — They have furnished a map of mine ; tliey have a second opening, 
located about 1,100 feet away from main opening; tiiey have no house for men to 
wasii or change in ; they have standing water in the mine ; the mining boss seems 
to be a practical and competent man"; tliere are no boys working in the mine 
under 12 years of age ; the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober 
men ; they do not allow any pi-rsons to ride on loaded cars in the mine ; they do 
not allow more than ten men to ride on the safety carriage at one time ; the par- 
ties having charge know tlieir duty in case of death or serious accident ; thesiiaft 
landings are protected by safety, gates ; the breaker machinery is fenced and 
boxed off so that operatives are safe; they have 1 locomotive, 20-horse power, to 
transport coal from the mine to the breaker. 



Eaton & Company's Colliery. , 

This colliery is located at Archbald, in Blakeley township, and situated on tlie 
east bank of the Lackawanna river. It is operated by Eaton &Co. Alva Eaton 
is general superintendent, James Eaton is mining boss and George W. Eaton is 
outside foreman. 

Descrii)tioti.—T\\Q opening to the coal consists of four tunnels; there is a brea- 
ker connected with these innies ; they mine and prepare about 500 tons of coal 
per day ; they employ 104 miners, 100 laborers, 42 drivers, 8 door-boys and 4 com- 
pany men in the mines ; GO slate pickers, 15 head and plate men, 2 drivers, 7 me- 
chanics and 2 bosses outside; in all 344 men and boys; tliey are working the 
Lackawanna vein ; average thickness 10 feet ; they work headings 10, air-ways 10 
and chambdrs 26 feet wude ; they leave pillars about 14 feet wide to sustain the 



295 

roof; they leave cross-entrances about 50 feet apart, for the purpose of ventila- 
tion ; the roof is sandstone rock; the mines are in a good working condition. 

Ventilation is produced by the pressure of the atmosphere ; the in-lakes are lo- 
cated at mouth of tunnels, area 42 feet each; the out-casts are located in the air- 
• shafts, area 3.5 feet each ; tlie amount of pure air is 13,750 cubic feet per minute ; 
the main doors are hung so that tliey will close of their own accord ; they have 
attendants at main doors ; the air is circulated to the face of the workings in one 
volume; ventilation is generally good. 

Machinery. — TUey use 1 breaker engine and 1 hoisting engine at breaker, and 1 
hoisting engine to hoist on the planes outside, 25-horse power each ; the boilers 
have been cleaned and examined, and reported in good condition ; they have a 
steam gauge to indicate the pressure of steam ; the breaker machinery is boxed 
and fenced off, so that operatives are safe ; they require no machinery at the tun- 
nels. 

liemarl's. — They have furnished a map of mines ; they have a second opening 
for each tunnel; they have no iiouse fen- men to wash or cliange in ; the mining- 
boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; he has no fire-boss to assist 
him; tliere are no boys working in tlie mines under 12 years of age; the engi- 
neers seem to be practical, competent and sober men ; the parties having charge 
know their duty in case of death or serious accident. 

Ventilation is produced by the action of the atmosphere, therefore the in-takes 
in winter will be the out-cast in summer ; when the temperature is tlie same in 
the mines as it is outside, tliere cannot be any ventilation ; there has been no 
complaints from the miners on account of bad air in the mines.. 



White Oak Colliery. 

This colliery is located at Archbald, in Blakeley township, and situated on the 
east bank of the Lackawanna river ; the opening to the coal consists of 2 tunnels 
and a slope : it is operated by the Delaware and Iludson canal company. Nicho- 
las George is mining boss, and Thomas Law is outside foreman. 

JJesa-iption. —Theve is a breaker connected with tiiese mines, located about fiOO 
feet from mouth of tunnels ; they mine and prepare about 450 tons of coal per 
day ; they employ 110 m.ners, 85 laborers, 33 drivers, 8 door-boys and 14 comjiany 
men in tlie mines ; 54 slate pickers, 4 head and ])late men, 5 drivers, 4 com])aiiy 
men, 7 mechanics and 2 bosses outside ; in all 326 men and boys ; they are work- 
ing the Bottom vein of coal, average thickness 10 feet; they work headings 10, 
air-ways 14 and chambers 8G feet wide ; they leave pillars from 12 to 14 feet wide 
to sustain the roof ; they leave cross-entrances about 50 feet apart for tlie purpose 
of ventilation ; the roof is good rock : the mines are in a good working condition. 

Ventilation is i)roduced by means of a furnace ; the in-take is located at mouth 
of tunnels, area 36 feet ; the up-casts are located in furnace air-shaft, area 48 feet ; 
the amount of pure air is 11,860 cubic feet per minute ; the main doors are liung 
so that they will close of their own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; 
the air is circulated to the face of the workings in one split ; the amount of ven- 
tilation has been measured and reported ; ventilation is good. 

Machinery. — They use 1 breaker engine, 61|-horse power ; there is no machinery 
required at the tunnels. 

Itemarks. — They have furnished a map of mine ; tliey have a second opening ; 
they have no house for men to \vash or change in ; the mining boss seems to be a 
practical and comjietent man ; there are no boys working in the mines under 12 
years of age ; the engineer seems to be a practical and sober man ; tlie parties 
having charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident : the breaker 
machinery is boxed and fenced off so that operatives are safe ; they have not 
opened any chambers in the slope yet ; they are driving heading and air-way to 
find the basin of the coal. 



296 
\ 

No, 1 Shaft Colliery. 

This colliery is located in Gibsonburg boroii,2;li, and situated about 500 feet 
sontli-east of the Lackawanna river ; the opening to the coal consists of a sliaft 
and drift : the sliaft is lOU feet deep to tlie Carbondale vein ; it is operated by- 
Joh)i Jermyn, Es(i. Jolni Jerniyn is general superintendent, Robert Carter is 
mining boss and Jolin Kniglit is outside foreman. 

i)cs'rrii)tton. — There is a breaker coimected with this mine, located about 100 
feet from shaft ; they mine and iirepare about -500 tons of coal per day ; they em- 
ploy 100 miners, 7-5 laborers, 25 drivers, 4 door-boys and 6 company men in the 
mine ; 50 slate pickers, 6 head and plate men, 5 drivers, 30 company men, 8 me- 
chanics and 2 bosses outside; in all 311 men and boys; there are 2 self-acting 
planes in the mine, 600 feet long each ; they are working tlie Carbondale vein, 
average thickness 11 feet ; they work headings and air-ways 11 and chambers 36 
feet wide ; they leave pillars from 15 to 18 feet Avide to siistain tlie roof ; they 
leave cross-entrances 60 feet ai^xrt for the ])urpose of ventilation ; the roof is solid 
rock ; the mine is in a good safe working condition. 

Ventilation is produced by means of a furnace ; tlie in-take is located in hoisting 
shaft for the sliaft, and at moutli of tunnel for tunnel; area of sliaft is SO feet, 
and area of tunnel is 42 feet ; the np-casts for shaft and drift are located in fur- 
nace aii'-shaft, area 80 feet ; the amount of fresh air is 17,840 cubic feet per min- 
ute ; the main doors are hung so that they will close of their own accord ; they 
have attendants at main doors : they have double doors on main traveled roads, 
and an extra one in case of an accident to any of the others ; the air is circulated 
to tlie face of the workings in three splits ; the amount of ventilation has been 
measured and reported ; ventilation is good. 

3Iachincr If. —Tlmy use 1 breaker engine, 25-horse power, and 1 hoisting and 
pumping engine, 60-horse power ; they have a metal speaking tube in the shaft ; 
they have a safety carriage, with all the modern improvements; they have an 
adequate brake, and tlanges of sufficient strength and dimensions for safety at- 
tached to the hoisting driim ; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and re- 
ported in good condition ; they have a steam gauge to indicate the pressure of 
steam ; the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced off so that operatives are safe. 

lientarks — Tliey have furnislied a map of mine ; they have a second opening ; 
they have a house" for men to wash and change in ; the mining boss seems to be 
a practical and competent man ; he has no tire-boss to assist him ; tliere are no 
boys working in the mine under 12 years of age ; tlie engineers seem to be experi- 
enced, competent and sober men ; the parties having cliarge know their duty in 
ctise of death or serious accident ; the shaft landing is protected by safety gates. 



Jermyn's Slope Colliery. 

This slope is located in Gibsonburg borough-, and situated about one-half of a 
mile south-e;ist of the Lackawanna fiver. It is operated by Jolin .Jermyn. Esq. 
John Jermyn is general superintendent, Alfred Green is mining boss and Peter 
Merritt is outside foreman. 

Description.— There is a breaker connected with this mine, located about 300 
feet away; tliey mine and prepare 650 tons of coal jier day; tliey employ 120 
miners, 120 laborers, 20 drivers, 6 door-boys and 6 company men in the mine; 50 
slate pickers, 7 head and plate men, 3 drivers, 30 company men, 6 meclianics and 
2 bosses outside ; in all 369 men and boys ; there are two self-acting planes inside, 
600 feet long each ; thev are wen-king the Carbondale vein; average thickness 11 
feet ; thev work headings and air-ways 11, and cliambers 36 feet wide ; they leave 
pillars 151'eet wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross-entrances 60 feet apart, 
for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is solid rock ; the mine is in a good safe 
working condition. ■ , , ^ , 

Venl'ihUion is produced bv a furnace ; tlie in-take is located at mouth of slope, 
area 75 feet ; the up-cast is located in air-shaft, area 80 feet ; the amount of pure 
air is 18,750 cubic feet per minute ; the main doors are hung so as to close of their 
own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; the air is circulated to the face 
of tlie workings in 3 sjilits ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and 
eported ; ventilation is good. 



297 

Jfac7u'(K,r)/.— They use 2 hoisting engines, 25-horse power each, and 1 breaker 
engine of 25-horse power;- they have a metal speaking-tube in tlie slope; they 
have rtangesof sufficient strength and dimensions for safety attached to the hoist- 
ing drum ; the bpilers have been cleaned and examined, and reported in good con- 
dition ; they have a steam gauge to indicate the pressure of ste^i ; the breaker 
machinery is boxed and fenced off, so that operatives are safe. 

Eemarks.— They have furnished a map of mine : tliey have a second opening ; 
they have a house for men to wasli and change in ; the mining boss seems to be a 
j)ractical and competent man ; he lias no fire-boss to assist him ; there are no boys 
working in the mine under 12 years of age ; the engineers seem to be experienced, 
couipeteut and practical men; they do not allow any persons to ride on loaded 
cars in the mine ; the parties having cliarge know their duty in case of death or 
serious accident. i 



Erie Collieuy. 

This colliery is located in Carbondale township, and situated 1 ,000 feet south- 
east of the Lackawanna river. The shaft is 183 feet deep to the Carbondale vein. 
It was operated by the Gleuwood coal company, now in bankruptcy. Edward 
Jones is general mine superintendent and John C. Evans is mining boss. 

Description. — There is a breaker attached to the shaft tower; they mine and 
prepare 200 tons of coal per day ; they employ 34 miners, 34: laborers, 10 drivers, 3 
door-boys and 3 company men in the mine ; 4S slate pickers, -5 head a)id plate men, 
1 driver, 4 company men, 6 mechanics and 2 bosses outside; in all 149 men and 
boys; they are working the Carbondale vein of coal ; average thickness lOi feet ; 
they work headings 12, air-v/ays 14 and chambers 45 feet wide; they leave pillars 
14 feet wide to sustain the roof; they leave cross-entrances 30 feet apart, for the 
purpose of ventilation ; the roof is rock and sandstone ; the mine is in a good 
working condition. 

Vditiialioa is produced by a furnace ; the iu-take is located in main shaft, area 
210 feet ; the ui)-cast is located in furnace air-shaft, area 140 feet ; tlie amount of 
pure air is 14,000 cubic feet per minute ; the main doors are hung so as to close of 
their own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; the air is circulated to 
the face of the workings in two splits ; the amount of ventilation has been mea- 
sured and reported ; ventilation is good. 

Machinery. — They use 1 breaker engine, 25-horse power, 2 lioisting engines, 30- 
horse power each, and 1 pumping engine of 60-horse power: they have a metal 
speaking-tube in the shaft ; they have an adequate brake, and flanges of sufficient 
strength and dimensions for safety, attached to the hoisting drum ; they use one 
safety carriage, with all the modern improvements ; the ropes, links, chains and 
connections are in good condition ; the ))oilers have been cleaned and examined, 
and reported in good condition ; they have a steam gauge to indicate the pressure 
of steam ; the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced off, so that operatives are 
safe. 

BemarTcs. — They have furnished a map of mine ; they have a second opening ; 
they have a house for men to wash and change in ; the mining boss seems to be a 
practical and competent man ; there are no boys working in the mine under 12 
j-^ears of age ; tlie engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men ; 
they do not allow over ten men to ride on the safety carriage at one time ; they 
do not allow any persons to ride on loaded carriages in the shaft ; the parties hav- 
ing charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; the shaft land- 
ings are protecJ;ed by safety gates. 



PowDERLY Slope. 

This slope is located in the township of Carbondale, and situated one-fourth of 

a mile south-east of the Lackawanna river ; it is feet long to the Top and 

Bottom Carbondale vein ; the opening is 6 by 12 feet, and driven at an angle of 
— degrees ; it is operated by the Delaware and Hudson canal company. Andrew 
B. Nicol is assistant mine superintendent, .James iS'icol is mining boss and "Wil- 
liam Bowers is outside foreman. 



298 

Description.— The coal mined here is prepared at Rackett's Brook breaker ; 
they mine o30 tons of coal per day ; they employ 6t miners, 51 laborers, 17 drivers, 
4 door-l)oys and 8 company men in the mines ; 2 slate pickers, 12 head and plate 
men, 1 driver, 1 company man, 6 mechanics and 2 bosses outside^; m all 168 men 
and boys ; they ft-e working the Top and Bottom Carbondale veins of coal, average 
thickness 5+ feet each ; they work headings 10, air-ways 14 and chambers 36 feet 
wide ; they leave pillars 1-5 feet wide to snstain the roof : tliey leave cross-entrances 
50 feet ai)art foi- the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is good rock ; the mines are 
in a good working condition. 

Veiitikuhn is produced by means of a fan ; tlie in-take is located at mouth of 
slope, area 48 feet; the outcast is located in air-shaft, area 25 feet ; th^ amount 
of pure air in the Top is 31,400, and in the Bottom vein 31,400 cubic feet per 
minute ; tlie main doors are j^ung so as to close of their own accord ; they have 
attendants at main doors ; the air is circulated to the face of the workings in one 
volume in each vein ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported^; 
ventilation is good. 

Ilachinerit. — Tliey use 2 hoisting engines, 118-horse power, and 1 steam pump, 
35-Iiorse power ; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported in good 
condition ; they have a steam gauge to indicate the pressure of steam. 

Bemdrks. — Tliey have furnished a map of mines ; they have a second opening ; 
they liave no house for men to wash or change in ; the mining boss is a practical 
and compntent man ; there are no boys working in the mines under 12 years of 
age ; the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men ; they do 
not allow any persojis to ride on loaded cars in the mines ; the parties having 
charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; they have large 
schutes connected with these mines, where they load large railroad cars arid also 
separate and clean the coal. 



PowDERLY Rock Tunnel. 

Tliis tunnel is located in the township of Carbondale, and situated one-fourth 
of a mile south-east of tlie Lackawanna river. It is operated by the Delaware 
and Hudson canal company. Andrew B. Nicol is assistant mine superintendent 
and James Xicol is mining boss. 

Deserij)tl<>n. — The coal mined here is prepared at Rackett Brook breaker ; they 
mine and ship 200 tons of coal per day, they employ 30 miners, 27 laborers, 7 dri- 
vers, 7 door-boys and 5 company men in the mine ; in all 76 men and boys : tliey 
are working the bottom coal of tlie Carbondale vein ; average tliickness 5i feet; 
they work headings 10, air-ways 14 and chambers 36 feet wide ; tliey leave v)illHrs 
15 feet wide to sustain the roof ; they leave cross-entrances 50 feet apart, for the 
puri)ose of ventilation ; the roof is slate ; the mine is in a good working condi- 
tion. 

Ventilation is produced by two grates ; the in-take is located at mouth of tun- 
nel, area 48 feet; the out-cast is located in grate air-sliaft, area 25 feet; the 
amount of pure air is 10,200 cubic feet per minute ; the main doors are hung so as 
to close of their own accord ; they have attendants at main doors ; the air is cir- 
culated to the face of the workings in one volume ; the amount of ventilatiooi 
has been measured and reported ; ventilation is good. 

Machinerj^ — There is no machinery required at this tunnel. 

liemnrh-s. — They have furnished a map of mine ; they iiave a second opening ; 
they have no house for men to wash or change in ; the mining boss is a jn-actical 
and competent man; tliere are no boys working in the mine under 12 years of age; 
t!\e parties having charge know their duty in case of death or serious accident. 



]^o. 1 Slope. 

This slope is located in the city of Carbondale, and situated on the east bank of 
the Lackawanna river. It is operated by the Delaware and Hudson canal com- 
pany. A. B. Kicol is assistant mine superintendent and John Campbell is mining 
boss. 



299 

Dcscriptinyi.— They are working only 6 men and boys ; opening out the bottom 
vein of coal by liea.iiut^'.s and air-ways ; tliey mine 20 tons of coal per day, they 
work headings 10, and air- ways 14 feet wide ; the mine is in a' tolerable good work- 
ing condition ; tiie slope is 358 feet long. 



White Bridge Tunxel. 

Tliis tunnel is located in the city of Carbondale ; it is operated by the Delawai-e 
and Hudson canal company. John Campbell is mining boss, apd William Bowers 
is outside foreman. 

Dr script ion. —Th^re are large schutes connected with these mines ; they mine 
and prepare about ooO tons of coal per day; they em]iloy 78 miners. 53 lal)orers, 
27 drivers, 2 door-boys and 9 company men in the mines; 4 slate pickers, 12 head 
and plate men, 2 drivers, 1 company man, 4 mechanics and 2 bosses outside : in all 
194 men and boys : they are working the Top and Bottom veins, average thick- 
ness of each 6 feet : they work headings 10, air- ways 14 and chambers 36 feet 
wide; they leave pillais from 14 to 15 feet wide to sustain the roof ; they leave 
cross-entrances about 50 feet apart for the purpose of ventilation ; the roof is 
slate and rock ; tlie mines are in a good working condition. 

Vpiitilntion is produced by means of a fnrnai-e ; t!ie ii - ake is located at mouth 
of tunnel, area 50 feet : tlie out-cast is located in furnace air-shaft, area 25 feet ; 
the amount of pure fresh air is 13,4uo cubic feet per minute ; tlie main doors are 
hung so that they will close of their own accord ; they have attendants at main 
doors; the air is circulated to the face of 'the workings in one volume; the 
amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ; ventilation is good. 

Madmury . — TLey use 1 pumping engine, 61 3-5-hoise power ; they use no ma- 
chinery around the tunnel. 

liaaarks.—T\wy have furnished a map of mines ; they have a second opening 
for botli veins ; they liave no house for men to wash or change in ; the yiining 
boss seems to be a practical and competent man ; there are no boys Avorking in 
tlie jnines under 12 years of age ; the engineer seems to be an experienced, com- 
petent and sober man ; the parties having charge know their duty in case of death 
or serious accident ; the Top and Bottom veins of coal here are worked by driving 
tiie bottom chaml)ers first, and then drawing the Top vein back : wlien the cham- 
bers are worked their full length the rock between both veins averages 3 feet. 



N'o. 3 Shaft— Carbondale City. 

This shaft is 70 feet deep to tlie Bottom vein. It is operated by the Delaware 
and Hudson canal company. John Hughes is mining boss and Wm. Bowers is 
outside foreman. 

Description. — Tliere are large schutes connected with this mine ; they mine about 
400 tons of coal per day; tliey employ 82 miners, 29 laborers, 22 drivers, 2 door- 
boys and 9 company men in the mine : 4 slate pickers, 12 company men, 3 me- 
ciianics and 2 bosses outside ; in all 165 men and boys; they are working the Bot- 
tom vein of coal : average tiiickness 5f feet ; they work headings 10, air-ways 14* 
and chambers 86 feet wide ; they leave pillars about 15 feet wide to sustain the 
roof; they leave cross-entrances about 50 feet apart, for the purpose of \eutila- 
tion ; tlie roof is slate ; the mine is in a good working. condition. 

Ventilation is produced by the action of the atmosphere, and when necessary 
assisted by a furnace : the iii-take is located in second opening, area 49^ feet ; the 
up-cast is located in White Bride furnace air-shaft, and in Fall Brook tunnel, 
area 60 feet ; tlie amount of pure fresh air is 14,700 cubic feet per minute ; the 
main doors are hung so that they will close of their own accord ; they have at- 
tendants at main doors; the air is circulated to the face of the workings in one 
volume ; the amount of ventilation has been measured and reported ; ventilation 
is good. 



300 

Machinerif. — Tliey use 1 lioisting engine of 77-liorse power ; they have flanges 
of sufficient strength and dimensions attaciied to the lioisting drum; tlie boilers 
have been cleaned and examined, and reported in good condition ; they have a 
steam giuige to indicate the pressure of steam. 

h\niurks. — They have f urnisiied a map of jniue ; they have a second opening ; 
they have no house for men to wash or change clothes in ; tlie mining boss seems 
to be a practical and competent man ; there are no boys working in the mine un- 
der 12 years of age ; the engineer seems to be an exi)erienced, competent and 
sober man ; the i)arties having cliarge know their duty in case of deatlior serious 
accident ; the shaft landings are protected by safety gates. It is a very difficult 
matter to ventilate this mine, as it is connected with miles of old workings, where 
the top coal was taken out several years ago ; they are now taking the bottom 
coal out from under the old workings that have caved into the surface in some 
places, and in other places the old works are in good condition ; there is oidy 3 
feet of roof between tlie bottom vein wliich they are now working, and the top 
vein which has been worked out ; sometimes there is a cave in of tlie roof be- 
tween the two veins, which causes a leak in the current of air, Avhich is almost 
impossible to lu-event. They work one pillar and chamber under the other, or in 
other words, the workings in the bottom vein is the same as the top vein. 



Coal, Brook Tunnel. 

This tunnel is located in Carbondale city; it is operated by the Delaware and 
Hudson canal company. E. E. Thomas is mining boss, and W. P. E. Morss is 
outside foreman. 

DpserlYition. — Tliere is a breaker connected with this mine, located about 1,400 
feet from main opening: they mine and prepare about 2-50 tons of coal per d;t,y ; 
they employ 70 miners, 57 laborers, 24 drivers, 4 door-boys and 6 company men "in 
the mine ; 65 slate pickers, head and plate men, 11 drivers, 20 company men, 7 
mechanics and 1 boss outside ; they have 24 persons working in different ca[)aci- 
ties in /vnd around the breaker ; in all 295 men and boys ; they are working the 
Bottom vein of coal, average thickness 5i feet ; they work headings 10. air-ways 
14 and chambers 36 feet wide ; they leave pillars about 14 feet wide to sustain the 
roof ; they leave cross-entrances about 40 feet apart for the i)urpose of ventilation ; 
the roof is rock; the mine is in a good safe working condition. 

Ventilation, is produced by means of a fvu'nace ; the intake is located at mouth 
of tunnel, area 42 square feet ; the upcast is located in furnace air-shaft, area 34 
square feet ; the amount of pure fresh air is 20,000 cubic feet per minute ; the 
main doors are hung so that they will clo^e of their own accord ; they have 
attendants at main doors ; the air is circuhited to the face of the workings in two 
splits ; the amount of fresh air has been measured and reported ; ventilation is 
good. 

Ilachmery. — They use 1 breaker engine, 77-horse power, and 1 hoisting engine, 
56-horse power ; the boilers have been cleaned and examined and reported in good 
condition ; there is no machinery required at the tunnel, as it is driven to drain 
itself. 

Hcmarks. — They have furnished a map of mine ; they have a second opening; 
they have no house for men to wash or change in ; the mining boss seems to be a 
practical and competent man ; there are no boys working in the mine under 12 
years of age; the engineers seem to be experienced, competent and sober men ; 
they do not allow any persons to ride on loaded cars on the i)lan(^s in tlie mine ; 
the parties having cliarge know their duty in case of death or serious accident ; 
•the breaker machinery is boxed and fenced oil' so that operatives are safe. 



Breaker Tunnel.