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Full text of "Reports of the Inspectors of Coal Mines of Pennsylvania"

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REPORTS 



Inspectors OF Coal Mines 



OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



1894. 



With a summary of coal production, etc., prepared by the 

Bureau of Industrial Statistics, Department of 

Internal Affairs. 



CLARENCE M. BUSCH, 

STATE PRINTEB OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

1895. 




3> 
*^oqe 



Mo + 



CONXBNXS. 



Report of the Inspector of the First Anthracite District, . 
Report of the Inspector of the Second Anthracite District, 
Report of the Inspector of the Third Anthracite District, . 
Report of the Inspector of the Fourth Anthracite District, 
Report of the Inspector of the Fifth Anthracite District, . 
'teport of the Inspector of the Sixth Anthracite District, . 
Report of the Inspector of the Seventh Anthracite District, 
Report of the Inspector of the Eightli Anthracite District, 
leport of the Inspector of the First Bituminous District, . 
1 >port of tlie Inspector of tiie Second Bituminous District, 
R t of the Inspector of the Third Bituminous District, . 
Re^ .t of the Inspector of tlie Fourth Bituminous District, 
Ren trt of tlie Inspector of the Fifth Bitummous District, . 
H of the Inspector of tlie Sixth Bituminous District, 
Re^ c .he Inspector of the Seventh Bituminous District 
Repor,, the Inspector of the Eighth Bituminous District, 
Report of the Inspector of the Ninth Bituminous District, 
Report of the Inspector of the Tenth Bituminous District, 



Page. 
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181 
223 
261 
279 
305 
341 
371 
399 
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451 
475 
501 
515 
543 




-^^' e)fe '"4^ 



Official Document, No. 11. 



REPORTS 



OF THE 



INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



COMMUNICATION. 



Department of Internal Affairs, 

Harrisburg, April 28, 1895. 

To His Excellency Daniel H. Hastings, Governor of Pennsylvania: 

Sir: In compliance with the requirements of the Act of June 30, 
1S85, relative to the Mine Inspectors' Reports of the Anthracite and 
Bituminous coal regions, and of the Act of April 23, 1889, and of 
Jane 2, 1891, I have the honor to present to you for transmission to 
the General Assembly the rei^orts of the Inspectors of this Common- 
wealth for the year 1894. 

Very respectfully yours, 

ISAAC B. BROWN, 
Secretary of Internal Affairs. 



A-11 94 



Official Document, No. 11. 



MINING STATISTICS. 



The aggregate production of coal for 1894 in the anthracite and 
bituminous districts was 85,306,389 tons, a decrease of 5,295,072 
tons from the production of 1893. This decrease was caused partly 
by the business depression and partly by a strike in the bituminous 
region that was in progress from April until August. The produc- 
tion of anthracite coal was 45,50(5,179 tons as against 47,179,563 tons 
in 1893, a reduction of 1,673,384 tons. The bituminous production 
was 39,800,210 tons as against 43,421,989 tons in 1893, a reduction of 
3,621,088 tons. 

While the production shows this great falling off, the total num- 
ber of employes in and about the mines has increased. The number 
CLTiployed during 1894 was 226,872 as against 219,821 in 1893, an in- 
crease of 16,051. This seeming incongruity can best be explained by 
the reduced number of days the mines were in operation during 1894. 
Tn the anthracite region Luzerne county leads with a production of 
3 7,243,928 tons as against 18,253,144 tons in 1893. Lackawanna 
county comes next with a production of 11,170,382 tons as against 
11,667,550 tons in 1893. Schuylkill county is third in order with a 
production of 9,985,092 tons as against 9,992,085 tons in 1893, a slight 
reduction. The average annual production of coal in the anthracite 
region per employe was as follows: 

1894,.- 326 tons. 

1893, 342 tons. 

1892, 352 tons. 

1891, 360 tons. 

1890, 281 tons. 



In the bituminous region, where, as we have already remarked, a 
stiike was in progress for several months, and where the general 
depression in all kinds of business caused a diminution in the coal 
pioduction of 3,621,688 tons as compared with 1893, the hard times 
were felt to a greater degree than in the anthracite region. As usual, 
W< stmoreland county leads in production with 7,739,080 tons as 
against 7^583,346 tons in 1893. Fayette county comes second with a 
production of 6,684,153 tons as against 6,105,845 tons in 1893. Alle- 



VL MINING STATISTICS. Off. Doc 

glieny county is third in production with 6,415,(511 tons as against 
6,984,510 ton in 1893. lu coke production Fayette county stands 
first, with 3,426,791 tons as against 3,011,054 tons in 1893; Westmore- 
land second, with 1,937,128 tous as against 1,700,889 tons in 1893. 
The average annual coal production in the bituminous region per em- 
ploye for the last five years was as follows: 

1894, 462 tons. 

1893, 531 tons. 

1892, 590 tons. 

1891, 564 tons. 

1890, 609 tons. 

The following is a summary of the fatal accidents that occurred 

in and about the mines in the anthracite region for the last five years: 

1894, 439 

1893, 455 

1892, 396 

1891, 427 

1890, 378 

In the bituminous region ihe fatal accidents for the same period 
wore as follows: 

1894, 124 

1893, 131 

1892, 133 

1891, 237 

1890, 146 

The non-fatal accidents in the anthracite region for the same period 
were as follows: 

1894, 919 

1893, 1,069 

1892, 1,023 

1891, 1,003 

1890, 1,011 

The non-fatal accidents in the bituminous region for the same 
]t( riod were as follows: 

1894 357 

1893. 346 

1892,. 393 

1891 :.... 314 

1800 379 



No. 11. MINING STATISTICS. vii 

The percentage of fatal and non-fatal accidents for the number 
employed during the last five years in the anthracite and bituminous 
regions was as follows: 

Anthracite Region. 

Fatal Accidents. Non-Fatal Accidents. 

1894, 1 to 318 employes. 1894, 1 to 152 employes. 

1893, 1 to 303 employes. 1893, 1 to 129 employes. 

1892, 1 to 327 employes. 1892, 1 to 127 employes. 

1891, 1 to 288 employes. 1891, 1 to 122 employes. 

1890, 1 to 311 employes. 1890, 1 to 116 employes. 

Bituminous Region. 

Fatal Accidents. Non- Fatal Accidents. 

1894, 1 to 695 employes. 1894, 1 to 241 employes. 

1893, 1 to 1,624 employes. 1893, 1 to 236 employes. 

1892, 1 to 592 employes. 1892, 1 to 200 employes. 

1891, 1 to 312 employes. 1891, 1 to 235 employes. 
1890, 1 to 458 employes. 1890, 1 to 177 employes. 

The percentage of fatal and non-fatal accidents in the two regions 
for the period of five years, for the number of tons mined, was as 
follows: 

Anthracite Region. 

Fatal Accidents. Non- Fatal Accidents. 

1894, 1 for 103,658 tons. 1894, 1 for 49,517 tons. 

1893, 1 for 103,691 tons. 1893, 1 for 44,134 tons. 

1892, 1 for 115,511 tons. 1892, 1 for 44,817| tons. 
1891,. 1 for 103,923 tons. 1891, 1 for 44,253| tons. 

1890, 1 for 106,260 tons. 1890, 1 for 39,729 tons. 

Bituminous Region. 

Fatal Accidents, Non- Fatal Accidents. 

1894, 1 for 320,9691 tons. 1894, 1 for 111,485 tons. 

1893, 1 for 331,465 tons. 1893, 1 for 125,497 tons. 
1892, 1 for 350,199 tons. 1892, 1 for 118,515| tons. 

1891. 1 for 176,319 tons. 1891, 1 for 138,081| tons. 
1890, 1 for 273,420 tons. 1890, 1 for 107,609^ tons. 



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Official Document, No. 11 



FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 

(LACKAWANNA AND SUSQUEHANNA COUNTIES.) 



tScranton, Pa., April 15, 18i)5. 
Hon. Isaac B. Brown, 

Secretary of Internal Affairs, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Sir: I have the honor of herewith transmitting to you my annual 
report as Inspector of Mines for the First Anthracite District, for 
the year 1894. 

The total number of tons of coal produced was 5,907,251 or 294,880 
tons less than the productioji of 1893. 

The fatal accidents were 47, the non-fatal 98, making four fewer 
of the former than occurred in the previous year, and an increase 
of two of the latter for the same period. 

Twenty-four wives were made widows and eighty-three children 
made fatherless by the accidents. 

There were 125,686 tons of coal produced per life lost, against 
121,630 in 1893. The number of tons of coal produced per accident, 
fatal and non-fatal, was 40,746. 

The average number of days worked was 171.9 against 195.3 in 
1893. 

There has been no material chj^nge in the general condition of the 
mines during the year, except in a few cases where air shafts have 
been sunk to improve the ventilation. 

In addition to the usual tabulatecj statements, the report contains 
brief descriptions of improvements, also of the majority of the fatal 
accidents, with brief notes on the cause of many of them, together 
with some remarks on the -system of "robbing pillars" in this dis- 
trict, and a description of the Lackawanna mine fire and the success- 
ful rescue of the fourteen men who were in the mine at the time. 
Respectfully submitted, 

EDWARD RODERICK. 

Inspector. 



1-11-94 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



Total Quantity of Coal Froduced During the Year 1894. 

Delaware and Hudson Canal Cc mpany, 2,029,522 

Hillside Coal and Iron Company, 829,097 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Com 

pany, 403,322 

Lackawanna Coal Company, 279,649 

Pennsylvania Coal Company, 241,254 

Edgerton Coal Company, 203,175 

North West Coal Company, 222,011 

Pancoast Coal Company, 203,838 

John Jermyn, 177,338 

New York and Scranton Coal Company 177,151 

Jones, Simpson & Co., 212,873 

Elk Hill Coal and Iron Company, 226,716 

Miscellaneous Coal Companies 701,304 

Total, 5,907,251 



Number of Fatal Accidents and Quantity of Coal Produced per 

Life Lost. 



Names of Companies. 



Delaware and Hudson Canal Company 

HillsMo Coal and Iron Company 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company, 

North West Coal Company 

Lackawanna Coal Company 

Blue Ridge Coal Company, 

Jones, Simpson & Co 

New York and Scranton Coal Company 

Elk Hill Coal and Iron Company 

Miscellaneous coal companies 

Total and average, 



Number 


Number of 


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ton 


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dents. 


per 


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9 




225,502 


7 




118,442 


4 




100,831 


3 




74,004 


3 




93.217 


3 




.50,207 


3 




70,958 


4 




44,288 


6 




37,786 


5 




254,830 


47 




125,686 



No. 11. 



FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRIC'l' 



Names of Companies and Number of Fatal and Non-fatal Accidents 
AND Tons of Coal Produced per Accident , 



Names of Companies. 



Delaware and Hudson Canal Company 

Hilside Coal and Iron Company 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company, 

Northwest Coal Company 

Lackawanna Coal Company, 

Blue Ridge Coal Company 

Jones, Simpson & Co., 

Edgerton Coal Company, 

New York and Scranton Coal Company, 

Elk Hill Coal and Iron Company, 

Mt. Jessup Coal Company 

John Jermyn 

Pancoast Coal Company, 

Miscellaneous coal companies, 



Number 




of acci- 


Number of 


dents 


tons of coal 


fatal and 


produced 


non-fa- 


per accident. 


tal. 




40 


50,761 


26 


31,888 


8 


50,415 


6 


37,003 


5 


55,930 


7 


21,517 


3 


70,958 


5 


40,635 


6 


29,525 


10 


22,672 


6 


17,680 


10 


17,734 


5 


40,767 


8 


85,232 



40,746 



Number of Employes and Average Number of Tons Produced per 

Employe. 

Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, 5,066 

Hillside Coal and Iron Company, 2,140 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Com- 
pany, 916 

Lackawanna Coal Company, 609 

Pennsylvania Coal Company, 695 

Edgerton Coal Company, 459 

North West Coal Company, 556 

Pancoast Coal Company, 661 

John Jermyn, 528 

New York and Scranton Coal Company, 536 

Jones, Simpson & Co., 733 

Elk Hill Coal and Iron Company, 437 

Miscellaneous Coal Companies, 2,678 

Total, 16,014 

Number of tons of coal produced per employe, 368.8 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 

Classification OF Accidents. 



Off. Doc. 



Causes of Accidents. 



Killed or 
fatally 
injured. 



By falls of coal and bone 

By falls of ordinary roof rocic, . . . 

By falls of bell-sliaped rocks 

By falling down shafts, 

By premature explosion of blast, 

By explosions of gas 

By cars inside 

By cars outside 

Kicked by mules 

Struck by flying coal from blasts. 

By explosions of powder, 

By falls of dividing rock 

Miscellaneous, inside, 

Miscellaneous, outside, 



Total, 



Injured. 



9 


20 


26 


38 


2 


9 


1 


4 


11 


12 


2 


2 


27 


33 


1 


3 


1 


3 


3 


3 


2 


3 


2 


2 


3 


3 



145 



Occupation of Persons Killed and Injured . 



Occupation. 



Killed or 
fatHlly 
injured. 



Injured. < Total. 



Miners, 15 

Miners' laborers 16 

Drivers, 7 I 

Runners 

Door tenders 1 

Company laborers 

Footmen 

Headmen 

Slate pickers 4 

Shaft sinkers ' 1 

Driver boss, 1 

Stable boss 

Rock man 1 

Locomotive firemen, 1 

Locomotive engineers 

Plane men 

Carpenters 

Total 47 



43 
17 
S 
7 
5 
1 
3 
4 
2 
1 
1 
Z 
1 
1 
1 
1 



Nationality of Persons Killed and Injured . 







c 




01 
















i 










o 


o 


a 


a 
a 




a 


n 


A 




a 


^ 








A 


a> 

a 


a 


9 


a 


a 


1 


Ml 



o 




3 


0) 






"- 


< 


0. 


< 


« 




a 


CO 


W 


1? 


H 


a 


O 


E^ 


Killed or fatally injured 


8 


2 


13 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


7 


« 




2 




47 


Injured 


26 


18 


13 


b 


1 




4 


3 


M 


» 


1 


R 


1 


Sffl 


Total 


M 


20 


-^ 


7 


2 


2 


6 


6 


le^ 


15 


1 


10 


1 


145 



Improvements of 1894. 



Delaware and Hudson Canal Company. 
At the Leggetts Creek shaft a new plane 500 feet long, with a sec- 
tional area of 112 square feet and a j^rade of one in fifteen, was com- 
pleted. 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 5 

At the Marvine the Clark vei» which is five feet 6 inches thick and 
of very good quality was opened up. The second opening slope 
which was begun in 1893 was completed from the 14-foot vein to the 
surface, a distance of 384 feet. 

It has an area of 98 square feet and a grade of "one in four." It is 
also used for a down cast for air. 

At the Grassy Island mine a new plane 400 feet long on a grade of 
12 degrees was completed. 

A new tunnel was driven from the surface to the number 2 vein 
at White Oak. It is 507 feet long. 

The vein here is 3 feet 6 inches thick. 

A new fan is also in course of erection to' ventilate all the White 
Oak workings. 

At Coal Brook, near the face of the present workings, a new shaft 
was sunk a distance of 87 feet, for the purpose of ventilation. 

A new tunnel was also driven at this mine from the surface to the 
bottom coal, cutting a five-foot vein at a distance of 100 feet. 

Lackawanna Coal Company. 

A tunnel 550 long having a sectional area of 84 square feet was 
driven by this company from the surface to the lower Dunmore vein, 
which is four and one-half feet thick. 

A shaft for the purpose of ventilation was also sunk from the sur- 
face to this vein, a distance of 190 feet. 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company. 

At Storr's mine, a tunnel 6x12 and 750 feet long was driven from 
the "big" vein to the Diamond. 

A new plane 450 feet long on a grade of 11 degrees was also made. 

At Storrs No. 3 two new planes were made, one 450, the other 500 
feet long. 

John Jermyn. 

At Jermyn No. 3 a tunnel is being driven north across the measure. 
It is now 600 feet long and is expected to go 900 feet more to cut the 
lower Dunmore vein. 

The coal from this new opening will be brought to the surface 
through the slope. 

A shaft through which the tunnel workings will be ventilated has 
been sunk to the vein, a distance of 120 feet. 

The vein at this point is reported seven feet thick and of good qual- 
ity- 

A new plane 450 feet long has also been made in this mine. It 

has a pitch of 12 degrees. 



6 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Pennsylvania Coal Company. 

A new shaft 12x24 feet and 55 feet deep was sunk by this company. 
It is used as an air shaft and also for hoisting coal from the third 
Dunmore veiii, which is live feet thick. An exhaust fan 17^ feet in 
diameter, with a five-foot face, run by a horizontal engine having 
14x26 cylinder has been put in. 

A new tunnel was also driven from the surface to the second Dun- 
more vein V hich vein is also five feet thick. 

Elk Hill Coal and Iron Company. 

Completed the sinking of their Richmond No. 3 shaft from the 14- 
foot vein to the Clark. Also sunk their second opening from 14-foot 
to Clark vein, a distance of IGO feet. Dimensions 10x12 feet. 

Moosic Mount Coal Company. 

A new shaft was sunk by this company from the surface to the 
Lower Dunmore vein, a distaace of 175 feet. Dimensions 14x20^. 

The vein here is three feet eight inches thick. 

They also drove a tunnel from the surface to the same vein, a dis- 
tance of 1,000 feet. Dimensions 6x12 feet. 

The tunnel will be connected with the shaft workings in course 
of time. In the meantime a new air shaft has been sunk to ventilate 
the tunnel workings, 

Waddell & Ron sunk a new air shaft to the Archbald vein. Depth 
98 feet. Area 120 square feet. 

Pancoast Coal Company. 

This company sunk their main hoisting shaft, also their man shaft 
from the bottom split of the «14-foot" to the Clark vein, a distance 
of 160 feet. Dimensions of the former 10x34 feet; of the latter 10x14 
feet. They are opening up the Clark vein, which is of excellent qual- 
\i}. and runs from five to five ard a half feet thick. 



Hillside Coal and Iron Company, 
Scranton. Pa., April 10, 1895. 
Mr. Edward Roderick, 

Inspector of Mines, Scranton, Pa.: 
Dear Sir: The following is a statement asked for about the drum 
and fan, the drawing of which T gave you some time ago: 

The drum with fan attached, hs shown in nd.ioining illustration, is 
for the purpose of handling coal on self-acting planes without the use 
of a brake, except for the purpose of holding up the trip when it ar- 







") 



DRUM AND Fa 

It^ use: ON M°l GBA\/ITV PL_ ANEL 
QLLNWOOO COLLIN 8 Y MAYHLLO, PA. 







No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 7 

rh'es at the foot. This is now iu use at the Hillside Coal aud iron 
Company's Glenwood colliery. 

The plane is 1,100 feet long with a grade of 28 feet to the hundred. 
The trip consists of live mine cars, each containing 5,000 pounds of 
coal. The rope used is 1 1-8 steel with hemp center. The speed of 
the trip is about 1,100 feet per minute, or about 12 1-2 miles per hour. 
While the trip is run, no brakes are used, although there are two on 
the drum to be used in an emergency. 

The drum is the ordinary ivpe 8 feet in diameter, with three spi- 
ders, as are commonly used an balance planes. On the drum shaft 
there is a 90 cog steel gear which runs with an 18 cog gear on the fan 
shaft. The fan is eleven feet outside diameter with six blades each, 
being 4 feet by 4 feet C inches, made of three-quarter-inch pine floor- 
ing. The arms of the fan are 4x4 inch oak attached to spider, as 
shown on the sketch. 

This was introduced by Mr. M. M. Walsh the inside foreman at 
Glenwood colliery. 

Very truly yours, 

MONTROSE BARNARD, 
Engr. H. C. & I. Co. 

Pillar Robbing. 

The robbing of pillars has been and is being done in several of 
the mines of this district previous to their abandonment. 

The veins in which this work has been going on during the year 
run from three to fourteen feet thick and are all perfectly flat or 
nearly so. Veins of this kind are, in my opinion, the safest, most 
convenient and economical to do "robbing" in, and especially so when 
the veins are not very deep in the ground, as is the case in most of 
the mines in this locality. Jt is true that every occupation in the 
coal mines, as well as other callings, has its own peculiar danger 
which must at all times be cautiously guarded against so as to avoid 
as far as x>ossible serious or fatal accidents. 

The dangers of pillar robbing in most cases are no greater than 
those of ordinary coal mining, but the general belief is that they are 
greatly in excess of those of mining. But this is not correct so far 
as this district is concerned, for where pillars are taken out carefully 
and systematically in flat veins, the proportion of accidents to the 
number of tons produced in tliis way is far less than by the ordinary 
every day methods of mining. 

During the year not one person lost his life by a fall of roof where 
pillars w^ere being taken out, but three were killed by falls of top 
coal while thus engaged, 



8 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Two of these were instantly crushed to death at the North West 
Coal Company's slope by a fall of top coal on the gangway road, 
which occurred while they were in the act of trying to bar it down. 

The other met his death at Edgerton, also by a fall of top coal in 
which a shot had recently been fired, which had failed to blow it 
down, but had shattered it so badly that it fell by its own weight 
shortly after the unfortunate man had reached the face. 

Coal is being taken from the pillars in many of the mines of this 
district by three different methods. 

In the first place, when the gangways in certain parts of a mine 
have been driven to the boundary line, and the breasts have all been 
worked 1«) their Mmit, if robbing is to be done at all, it is usually 
commenced as soon as the solid coal has been exhausted, and while 
the roads are still intact. 

The work is commenced on the inside pillar at the face of the fur- 
thermost breast. Sometimes two or even three of the innermost 
blocks or sections of pillars are removed simultaneously, but not, 
however, before the breasts on either side of the pillar to be removed 
have been carefully and securely propped or timbered. 

Breasts, as a rule, are driven from three to seven hundred feet in 
length and sometimes longer than this, with cross-cuts from one to 
the other through the pillar every fifty or sixty feet. The width of 
ilie breasts varies from seven to ten yards according to the nature 
and condition of the roof and thickness of vein, and the pillars run 
from five to eight yards as a general thing. 

After the removal of the upper "stumps" or sections has been ac- 
complished, holes are then bored with an auger in the props "stood" 
to ensure safety before the "robbing" began, and giant powder or 
other explosive is placed in the holes and blasted by an electric bat- 
tery or other eflScient means. This operation brings on a fall of roof, 
which usually breaks off close to the pillar next to be removed, and 
thus taking off the "squeeze" from the surrounding pillars; when 
robbing is again commenced and the same process repeated and con- 
tinued until the gangway is reached. 

If the vein is thick, and the top coal has been left up on the gang- 
way when being driven, it is now taken down and loaded and this 
part of the mine is abandoned. 

Secondly, where the roof is very bad and it is not desired to bring 
on a fall or cave-in to the surface, and if the cross-cuts have been 
driven regularly every sixty feet, and only a portion of the coal is to 
be taken from the pillars, it is the rule in such cases to take a block 
of twenty feet from the centre, leaving on each side a "stump" of 
twenty feet. In mines where ^he pillars are large and uniform, and 
where it is not practicable to tnke them all out, a "skip" of two or 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 9 

three yards is very frequently taken off from the gangway road to 
the face of the breasts, leaving from five to six yards of solid pillar, 
the entire length of the breasts to support the overlying roof and 
thus avoid bringing on a general "squeeze," which would in all prob- 
ability let in large quantities of water from the strata as well as from 
the surface which would again have to be pumped out, and thus en- 
tail expense and much inconvenience. 

AVhere robbing is commenced in drifts which have been driven in 
under the mountains, they are known as water-level workings, from 
which the water flows out as freely as it flows in, and over which 
there are no valuable properties, it is done with the intention of mak- 
ing as clean a sweep of the coal as is consistent with safety. With 
this object in view the work is commenced at the furthermost end of 
the "v^orkings The first thing done, as said before, is to stand a 
goodly number of props to secure the surrounding roof, and also to 
serve as indicators of approaching danger from falls. 

The roof in shallow mines in the vicinity where pillows are being 
taken out is supported entirely by these props until such time as two 
or more "stumps" or blocks of pillars have been removed. This done, 
a cave-in is now brought on by blasting out the props and the former 
operations renewed and thus continued until all available coal has 
been removed. 

As previously stated, the number of accidents that occur while 
robbing pillars in veins, such as I have mentioned, are fewer in pro- 
portion to the number of tons mined than by the ordinary, every day 
methods of mining coal. About half a million tons of coal were ob 
tained from pillars in this district during the year 1894, and not one 
person was killed by a fall of rock while thus employed. 

However, on the 27th of September, four men at the old slope of 
the North West Coal Company miraculously escaped from being in 
stantly crushed to death by an extensive fall of roof which occurred 
while they were engaged in taking out a pillar. The miners were 
the most experienced in the mine, and for this reason were employed 
at this particular work. 

,'Vbout noon on this day John Wilce. the man who had charge of 
this work, called his principal miner's attention to the condition of 
a crack or water seam that was running up perpendicularly through 
the rock roof. Wilce thought the seam had opened somewhat dur- 
ing the day. but J. J. Fanning, the miner whom he consulted, and 
who is a very careful, intellicrcnt and practical man. said he did not 
think there was any change in its condition, and went about his work, 
paying no further attention to it. 

He and another miner named W. "R. Mitchell, along with their two 
laborers were busily engaged lojuling a car which was to have beoT> 

' I 



10 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Do:-. 

their last from this pillar,wheii thej heard the roof "working" at a 
point about sixty feet outside of where they were employed. 

At the same moment, so they say, it began to fall in large flakes. 
Realizing their awful situation and knowing it would mean instant 
death to them to try to escape by running out the gangway. Thej' 
instantly made their way through a cross-cut leading into a chamber, 
the pillars of which were intact. 

ne^o, close against the face of this chamber, they were compelled to 
stay and in dreadful suspense listen to the thunderous sounds of the 
fjilling masses of rock, expecting every moment to be their last as the 
fall came nearer and nearer to Ihem. 

At last, when within ten foot of where they were closely huddled 
together, the falling ceased, and with it the fear of instant death 
that had been for half an hour or more staring them in the face. 

This was about three o'clock, Thursday, September 27. Soon after 
willing and eager hands were hard at work to recover, as all sup- 
posed, the dead bodies of the unfortunate men. 

It was thought by all that they had been caught and instantly 
ci'ushed to death near the car which they were loading. But this 
fear was happily dispelled when, about 11 o'clock on Friday, the 
men at work heard a faint lap; but failing after many successive 
efforts to get a second sound from them, many again feared that they 
were surely dead. 

However, during Friday and Friday night the work of rescue was 
carried bravely on with all possible dispatch, and by Saturday morn- 
ing a narrow passage seventy feet in length had been made through 
the fallen rock, going as it suifed them best, sometimes on top of the 
ffill, then again between large flakes of rock, and oftentimes burrow- 
ing their way through where the most speed could be made with the 
least labor. 

The car which the men were known to have been loading when the 
fall occurred was reached about S o'clock Saturday morning, but no 
trace of the men was to be seen here. 

Tt was not long after this that on(> of the workmen again rapped on 
the rock and received a response from one of the entombed men. 
The rescuers, now assured that at least one of them was alive, re- 
df.ublod their efl'orts. About three o'clock in the afternoon sufficient 
headway liad been made so that a conversation could bo held with 
tlie prisoners, and it was now learned that all four were alive and 
unininred. 

This was ioyful news and iho\" rescue was an assured fact and but 
a. matter of a few hours when they would be rescued from their un- 
comfortable situation nlivo nuil safe. 

The work of rescue from now on was pushed with incroased force. 



No. 11. FIBST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 11 

No unnecessary risks, however, were taken, yet the work was urged 
with all possible speed, with (he utmost care, precaution, system and 
safety to all who were engaged in the dangerous task. 

About 9.45 P. M. the entombed men were reached and safely res- 
cued, after having been shut off from the world for fifty-five hours. 

A physician was at hand and after they had been given some light 
food and stimulants according to his directions they were conveyed 
to their homes and families, and in a few days were all at work 
again after a most thrilling and awful experience. A close and care- 
ful examination of the surroundings revealed the immediate cause 
of so sudden and extensive a ff-.ll. At a point sixty or seventy feet 
outside of where the men had been working during the day, the 
water seam running up into the roof had been noticed and watched 
for several days for any indications of opening. Another seam of a 
similar nature was brought to view during the day by blasting the 
coal from the pillar. This also ran up into the roof nnd parallel with 
the first discovered, thus leaving a mass of roof seventy feet widf^ 
and about one hundred feet long with a loose end on the lower side, 
supported by props and several "stumps" of pillars which would 
have been sufficient support had it not in one solid body moved down 
toward the end that was broken off and thus dislodged the props and 
crushed the pillars which had been left as supports for it. 

Water cracks are frequently met with in the roof of the shallow 
mines of this locality, and when ii becomes necessary to remove the 
jiillars in such places, it is done with all care and precaution, so as 
to guard against any possible danger. Sometimes, however, long im- 
munity from injury in this kind of work, as in any other, leads men 
1c over confidence, and to taking unnecessary risks, causing them to 
have frequent narrow escapes, and finally resulting in their death. 



Lackawanna Mine Fire. 

About half past ten o'clock on the night of December 28, a fire 
which for a time seriously threatened the lives of fourteen men, was 
discovered in the Lackawanna Coal Company's shaft by David Myles, 
a miner, who was on his way into the mine, being on the eleven 
o'clock shift. He got as far as the main door near the foot of the 
hoisting shaft, and on opening.' it discovered dense volumes of smoke 
coming out of the main gangway. 

He hastened with all possible speed to the surface and gave the 
alarm. Soon after Outside Foreman William Harper and mine fore- 
man Jolin "Rerkheiser, together with a large force of workmen were 



12 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Ofl. Doc. 

on the scene. They first went down the main shaft to ascertain, if 
possible, where the fire was, but failed to go any further in the gang- 
way than to the main door. 

They then returned to the suiface and hurried to the air shaft, 
about 2,700 feet distant in a northeasterly direction. Here they 
found the ladders covered witlv ice. This was removed as rapidly as 
possible, and the way was clear to descend into the mine. The 
foreman and his assistants carefully descended into the shaft and 
soon learned that the slope engine house, located about two hundred 
feet from the foot of the air shaft was a seething mass of flames, and 
jhe smoke backing up through a cross-cut into the main intake was 
carried by the air doM'n into the workings where the men were known 
to be. 

The Inspector, who had been sent for in an hour after the fire was 
discovered, now arrived at the mine and at once descended to the 
scene of the fire. 

After a hasty consultation v>ith Foreman Berkheiser and David C. 
Evans, his assistant, it was decided that there was but one thing to 
be done to save the lives of the men. and that was, to prevent as 
quickly as possible, with what means we had at hand, the smoko 
from going into where they wore. To accomplish this end. all efforts 
were now directed. In the first place it was necessary to construct 
a brattice across the main inlet below the hole through which the 
smoke was issuing in a great volume, notwithstanding that the fam 
)iad been speeded up to its extreme limit, with very good results. 

The object of the brattice was to divert the course of the air from 
the main inlet to the cross-cut from where the smoke was coming, 
and thus force it to the main road, and thence to the up-cast. While 
material was being obtained for the brattice an effort was made to 
close the cross-cut wilh rock, but this was ineffective, as the smoke 
forced its way through it. 

Tn a short time, however, the brattice cloth was on hand and verv 
y)romptly placed in position with good results, as the volume of 
smoke forcing its way back wa«! greatly reduced. 

It was now three o'clock in the morning and as yet no water of 
my account had been obtained. 

The Excelsior Hose Company of Olyphant was sent for as soon 
.IS the fire wns discovered and responded with commendnble prompt- 
ness, but found when they arrived that they could do nothinir. ns the 
hvdrant within two hundred feet of the air shaft was frozen nnd 
useless, and the nearest one to it wns one thousnnd feet awav with 
onlv 800 feet of hose at hand. Word was now sent to the man 
'm charire of the Peckville Ho«jo romnnnv's hose, and the terrible sit- 
untinn of tho men in the mine described to him. Yet. for some rea- 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 13 

soa he sternly refused to give up the hose to aid in fighting the tire 
in an effort to save fourteen precious lives. 

On his refusal to listen to an appeal for the hose, word was hastily 
sent to the Eagle Hose Company, of Priceburgh, Pa., but in the 
meantime the boiler tires at the air shaft were damped, and a two- 
iueh hose connected to the boiler injector, and soon a small but val- 
uable stream of water was being thrown on the fire. Half an hour 
later the Priceburgh hose arrived and was promptly put to good 
service by the firemen, who worked bravely in an atmosphere six de- 
g4ees below zero. 

The smoke was soon prevented from going to the men, and in 
about an hour afterward the men who were thought to have been 
suffocated many hours before, came walking out to meet those in 
search of them, who eagerly grasped their hands and rejoiced to 
see them, who, as it were, came through the very jaws of death 
uninjured and apparently none the worse for their most thrilling 
experience of seven hours. 

The origin of the fire has not been definitely ascertained, but it is 
generally supposed to have started from the mine lamp of Frank Mc- 
(.'cibe, one of the engineers, who had occasion to go into the engine 
house to seek some bolts to repair a pump, and in looking around 
for these a spark must have fallen from his lamp into some cotton 
waste, or else by looking on a lower shelf of a closet in which such 
things were kept he set fire io the upper one. Not finding what he 
was looking for, he immediately left for the shaft on the outside of 
the mine, and on returning to the scene of his operations he detected 
strong odors of smoke coming out of the gangway, and a few minutes 
later discovered the engine house in which he had been half an hour 
previous a roaring mass of flames. Now occurred an act of bravery 
and heroism not surpassed even on the battlefields, but which cannot 
be fully comprehended nor appreciated by any save those conversant 
with the scene and circumstances. 

McCabe, who when he first discovered the fire could have made his 
escape, but instead, chose to sacrifice this opportunity, and with 
out a moment's hesitation aQ<^ after informing Frank Bennie, the 
other engineer, of the fire, they both hastened to the remote parts of 
the mine to warn their fellow men of the great danger which threat- 
ened them, and took their chances with them of ever coming out of 
the mine alive. 

To this brave and noble act, the cool headedness and intelligence 
of Patrick Brenntin, Charles Williams and William Evans, is due the 
^;;iving of their own lives and the lives of nine others who were in 
the mines with them. This shows the importance of having intelli- 
gent men in mines at all times. The story of their awful experience 



14 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc 

as told by themselves is as follows: "As soon as we learned of the 
fire we dropped our tools aai our first thought was of escaping 
through the air shaft, and to w^- ids this we wended our way. The 
kinoke was quite thick and n ade some of us sick. The nearer we 
came to the shaft the denser the smoke became and we soon learned 
that we could not make our way out in that direction. We now held 
a consultation and decided to make our way back to the furthermost 
Ijarts of the mine, and to leave all doors open behind us, knowing as 
we did that there was no danger of any accumulation of gas, and 
that the air in these remote parts would remain pure for several 
hours at least. The doors being left open, the smoke laden air would 
return by the shortest route to the up-cast and we would in this way 
escape it. 

We were not here long, however, before one of the party who went 
out the gangway to explore, returned with the news that the smoke 
was gradually settling towards us, but that it was not as thick as it 
had been. We now concluded that something had to be done at once 
to prevent the smoke from coming to us. 

So we began to build a wall across the heading with the material we 
had convenient. AVe soon had this in place and felt that we were 
comparatively safe for some hours at least, and living in hopes that 
we would yet be rescued. 

For several hours we remained behind this barricade in dreadful 
suspense, thinking of home and dear ones, and suffering intensely 
from cold, as the most of us had escaped, leaving our heavier gar- 
ments behind. 

About half-past four 'clock in the morning we ventured out along 
the gangway and found to oui- great joy that the smoke had disap 
peared. We continued on our course and soon found ourselves re- 
joicing with those who had worked all night to rescue us." It surely 
was a very happy ending of what at one time threatened to be one of 
the saddest accidents in this locality. 

The men having been rescued, all efforts were then directed to ex- 
tinguishing the fire. More hose was obtained and soon after the 
men were able to get down on the main gangway, inside of where the 
fire was raging, and in a very short time had it under control, and it 
was entirely extinguished by eight o'clock Sunday morning, Decem- 
ber 30. During the entire time spent in fighting the fire, no one was 
]>ermitted to take any unnecessary risks, but on the other Imnd, 
every precaution was constantly exercised to prevent accidents by 
fire and falls of rock, which so frequently occur when the roof in the 
vicinity of a fire is cooling off and contracting. 

Mine Foreman's Examination. 

The Board of Examiners of applicants for mine foremen's certifi- 
cates of qualification, consisting of A. P. Patten, Superintendent 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 15 

Vaughan Richards and James E. Morrison, miners, together with the 
District Inspector, held its examination at Carbondale, I'a., on the 
tenth and eleventh of July. 

Those who were recommended to receive mine foremen's certili 
cates were the following: 

W. U. Noyles, Nanticoke. 

David C. Evans, Olyphant. 

Andrew Kennedy, Olyphant. 

John T. Lynch, Carbondale. 

Peter Pinkney, Dunmore. 

W. H. Jenkins, Scranton. 

L. M. Evans, Scranton. 

David M. Jones, Peckville. 

M, M. Hughes, Plymouth. 

John J. Walsh, Maytield. 

J. A. Kearney, Archbald. 

S. J. Jennings, Forest City. 

Those who received assistant mine foremen certificates were: 

James B. Williams, Olyphant. 

Thos. P. Lally, May field. 

George Barron, Scranton. 

W. J. Williams, Priceburgh. 

Luther Edwards, Scranton. 

Christopher Campbell, Scranton. 

AbsdloK! 0. Jones, Scranton. 

William Hodgson, Scranton. 

Thos. G. Edwards, Scranton. 

William G. Kichards, Scranton. 

Andrew Nicholas, Scranton. 

Morgan Morgan, Scranton. 

Joseph T. Moore, Priceburgh. 

James Clark, Carbondale. 

D. J. Richards, Peckville. 

W. H. Chapman, Peckville. 

Reuben Morgan, Dickson City. 

Gomer Parry, Dickson City. 

Alonzo D. Richards, Winton. 

eJohn S. Evans, Throop. 



Description of Fatal Accidents. 

Accidents by Cars. 

At the Lackawanna Coal Company's shaft on the third of January, 
a Polish laborer, 32 years of age, named John Mankoska, was struck 



IG REPORT.^ OF THE INSrECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

by a trip of loaded cars while walking on a gravity plane and in- 
stantly killed, it was iiis tirst day in this mine and from the 
evidence of John Berkheiser, the mine foreman, it was learned that 
he had quit work between three and four o'clock and started on his 
way home. A plane 1,200 feet long has to be traveled before reach 
ing the shaft level gangway on which a trip of five cars was hoisted 
every half hour. No person was permitted to travel this way while 
cars were in motion, special orders to this effect having been issued 
bj the foreman and the writer to the headman four months previous 
to this accident. 

At the head of this plane there is a safety hole made in the rib iu 
which the headman kept his oil and he had been in there putting 
some oil into a small can from a larger one just a few minutes pre- 
vious to hearing of the accident. Mankoska being a stranger in the 
mine, and therefore not accustomed to its rules, must have passed 
during the headman's short absence and walked down the plane 
about 800 feet, and hearing the noise of cars stepped to one side to 
let them pass. It would seem from the foot prints made in the culm 
uu one side of the plane that after the empty trip had passed up he 
walked to the centre of the down track before the loaded trip had 
passed and was struck, knocked down and dragged about 200 feet 
before his body was discovered by the footman in a horribly man 
gled condition. Patrick Cowley, the headman, stated that he had 
not been ten feet away from the head of the plane during the day. 
He had neither seen the man go down nor did he know anything of 
his being on the plane until he Avas informed by the footman that a 
man had been killed thereon. 

Enoch Thomas, the footman, stated that from the place where he 
gijres the signal to hoist he can see a light at a distance of 500 or 
r>00 feet up the plane, but that he saw no light before nor after giving 
the rap to hoist, and knew nothing of any one's being on the plane 
until he heard a shout from the man as he was struck. 

Car Accident. 

Michael Yeudets and Joseph Wavra, two company laborers em 
l)loyed loading culm at the Forest City breaker, were fatally in 
jured by a runaway car on a culm plane on the 10th day of January. 
The accident was caused by the breaking of a hook, as a car filled 
'\ ith ashes was nearing the head. The former died from his iujurie* 
in about four hours; the latter lived until the seventeenth of the 
month. 

In my examination made on the following day I learned from the 
footman that the two men bad been repeatedly told to keep away 
!'i(»i!i tlie t(H)t of This plane when a car was ascending or descending 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 17 

upon it. Instead of doing as they had been told, they began to load 
a culm car directly at the foot of the plane while a loaded car was 
being hoisted thereon. 

When the car had reached within a few feet of the top,the hook broke 
and the car dashed to the bottom and struck the two unfortunate 
nsen before they could get out of the way. 

John F. Gallagher, the outside foreman, stated that he had many 
limes given orders to all who worked under the breaker to keep away 
from the foot when cars were being hoisted on this plane. 

J. D. Caryl, the outside sup«n'intendent, also stated that the above 
was a well known standing order, which was frequently repeated by 
himself as he passed under the breaker. Had these men not violated 
an established rule adopted to insure their safety they in all prob- 
nbility would have been uninjured by the breaking of the hook. 

David Koese. a Welsh driver, 19 years of age, was fatally injured 
at Storr's No. 2 on the first day of May by falling under a trip of two 
cars. 

1 made an investigation on the following day, and learned from 
Thomas Williams, an old man whose duty it was to tend a door 
nearby where the accident occurred, that young Reese a few seconds 
before he was hurt was standing on the right side of the track where 
there is five feet of space between the track and the rib. 

He had stopped his trip here for a short time to wait for orders tr> 
"pull out." Having received word to start, he shouted at the mule, 
who, instead of starting began to balk and turned around and got 
between the first car and the rib. Reese shouted to Amos Hamfield. 
the runner, who was standing at the rear end of the trip, to drive the 
mule back. He did so. then sal on the bumper of the rear car. 

The mule started and the boy attempted to step across the 
stretcher to the left side, and must have stumbled and fallen under 
the cars or between them and the rib on the left, which was very 
close at this point. 

He was taken from under the car as quickly as possible by Wil 
Hams and Hamfield and in a short time placed in a car. where he 
died on the way to the foot of the shaft. 

At Storrs No. B shaft, on the eleventh day of June, an Irish Com 
pany laborer ?,() years of age. n.imed Michael J. Walsh, was instantly 
killed by falling under a loaded car. 

In my investigation made on ihe following day it was found that 
his work was that of timber man, but for three or four days had 
filled the place of a runner who was ill. 

At the time he was killed he was engaged in running a car out of 
a chamber. John Smith, the laborer -whose car he was running, and 
A'ho was present when the accident occurred, stated that Walsh had 
2-11-94 



18 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Dec. 

put in one sjirag, then took hold of the latch on the car door to pull, 
while Smith was pushing at the rear of the car to keep it from "stick- 
ing," as the grade was hardlv heavy enough to carry one sprag at 
this point. When the car advanced to a heavier grade Walsh at- 
tempted to get ahead of it to put on a "front wheeler" when it 
reached a certain point. 

It was evident from the position in which he was found that when 
he made an effort to pass ahead of the car that he stepped on the 
rail, fell and was caught and instantly killed. 

William Lewis, a driver, who was sitting about thirty feet from 
where Walsh was killed, said that the runner had put in a "hind 
wheeler," but fearing the car would "stick," took hold of the latch 
and began pulling until the car struck the iron road, when he tried to 
get ahead of it, but stumbled and fell under the car. 

On the twenty-third of June, Joseph Brillka, a Slavish locomotive 
fireman, 19 years of age, was fatally injured near the Blue Ridge 
breaker by falling under a trip of loaded cars. From the evidence 
of John Kearney, the locomotive engineer, I learned that the fireman 
was in the habit of coupling cars on a "fly," or while they were in 
motion. The trip of cars being drawn from the shaft became un- 
coupled near the breaker and Brillka got on (he front bum]>er of the 
head car of the section yet coupled to the engine. He stood on this 
and when the sections came together he put one foot on the bumper 
of each car, stooped to pick up the coupling, and while in this act 
fell under the cars and was fatally injured, dying the same day. 

He, it seems, had been repeatedly warned not to do this, but hav- 
ing escaped injury many times before, thought he could still further 
continue this dangerous practice, but this time failed. 

Bartly Ambersavage, a young Polish driver, Avas fatally injured at 
the Pancoast shaft on the twenty-seventh of September. The boy 
was coming out of the gangway to the foot of the slope with a trip 
of loaded cars, and according to his own statement, his light went 
nut and in some way he slipped and fell on the rail. The cars passed 
over his leg near the hip, nearly severing it from his body. He was 
otherwise severely injured intei'nally and died in a few hours. 

At the Lackawanna shaft on the thirtieth day or October a Hun 
garian laborer 24 years of age, whose name was Michael Oniffrey, 
M'as instautlv killed by being squeezed between a car and the rib. 

T visited the scene and made an investigation of the particulars. 
The cause of this accident was not difficult to discover. The cham- 
ber from which the ear was being run was very steep, necessitating 
the sandinir of both rails to within a foot of the wheels of the car. 

This had been done and when the runner came up for the car. the 
laborer went to flic side of it to pull tlie blocks from under the 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 19 

wheels. As soon as they had been removed the car started, but one 
rail having been sanded a few inches further up than the other 
caused the rear end of the car to tip and leave the track. In jump- 
ing the track it was thrown against the rib, jvhere it caught the la- 
borer and squeezed him to death in an instant. 

It was plainly evident that it was the grit of the dry sand on the 
rail that caused this car to leave the track, and the fact that one rail 
had been sanded further up Ihan the other caused it to slew to one 
side, for had both rails been sanded evenly, the car would then sim- 
ply tip up and fall back again on the track. This was purely an un- 
forseen accident. 

Accidents by Falls of Rock. 

A visit was made to the Lackawanna shaft on the eighth of Feb- 
ruary to investigate the accident that occurred there on the seventh 
whereby a German laborer twenty-two years of age, named Joseph 
Trunel, was instantly killed by a fall of rock. 

Joseph McHugh was turning a breast from the gangway. He had 
placed a set of timber across the gangway at this point to support 
the roof, also a prop had been placed in the breast not far from the 
gangway track. INIcHugh fired a shot and knocked out this prop, 
and without first ascertaining the condition of the rock, which lately 
had been supported by the prop, he began to make preparations to 
stand another. Just as he stepped away to get his drill, a piece of 
rock in the shape of a large "bell" fell, struck Trunel on the head, 
breaking his neck. 

There is no doubt but that this accident could have been avoided 
had McHugh carefully examined the rock before getting ready to 
si and a prop. As it is, another young life has been brought to an 
early end by the lack of proper appreciation of danger on the part 
of the miner in charge. 

On the twentieth of March John Walkroski, a Polish miner, 35 
years of age, was instantly killed by a fall of rock at Forest City 
slope. 

On my arrival on the scene T learned from the miner working the 
next breast that Walkroski fired a shot about five minutes before 
his death. The coal from this shot knocked out two props from 
under a loose piece of rock. Soon after, he began clearing away the 
('(*al from where these props had been, without first making an ex- 
amination of the roof, and while at this work the rock (which was 
something similar in shape to a bell) fell on his head causing his in- 
stant death. 

The rock was ten feet lonu and eight feet wide, running from a 
feathered edge to about two feel thick at the centre. 



20 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off Hoc. 

At the Glenwood shaft, on the sixth day of June, John Murko, a 
Polish laborer aged thirty-four years, was fatally injured by a fall of 
slanty rock, d^'ing from his injuries later in the day. 

I made a careful investigation and found that deceased had been 
employed in a chamber worked by two miners named Larky Durkiu 
and Joe Griffith. From the evidence of these two men it would ap- 
pear that a shot had been fired a few minutes before the fall took 
j)lace. 

By this shot a prop which had been supporting the rock at th€ in- 
side edge had been displaced, but whether or not any other props ha<l 
been removed by the shot is not known, but four were seen lying on 
the ground after the fall occurred. 

An examination of the roof had been made by one of the miners 
after this shot had been fired, and it was said to have been safe. 
Shortly after this, and while the miner was yet in the face, the driver 
who was standing nearby waiting to pull up a car, hooked his mule 
to the pulley chain and pulled the car to the face, the laborer in the 
meantime blocking it, and while at this work he was caught under 
the edge of a mass of a rock measuring twenty-two feet in length 
and six feet in width, tapering to a thin edge on all sides from a 
tliickness of two feet and and a half at the centre. 

The roof in this locality was very bad, necessitating much prop- 
l>ing and careful watching, which was being done at all places, and 
in this chamber many props had been placed to support the roof; 
three were under this slab and to all appearances it w^as very safely 
secured. 

But while it is not known whether more than one of the above 
props had been removed, it is my opinion that if some of them had 
not bec!] entirely displaced they must have been loosened by the 
fiying coal from the recently fired shot, thus giving the rock a start 
to fall. 

One of the miners was in the act of putting up a prop when tlie 
fjill occurred and came very nearly being caught also. As far as I 
could see, no blame could be attached to any one for this accident, 
and it can only be said to be one of these unfortunate occurrences 
that take place when no one suspects any danger. 

George Deacle, an English rockman, aged 21 years, was fatally in- 
jured at the Marvin(! shaft on Ihe nineteenth of June, dying in a 
short time after. 

T made a careful investigation of this afTair on the following day 
and learned that deceased had been employed as chargeman over a 
gang of workmen who were engaged loading rock at the foot of the 
shaft. 

A slab of rock which measured 11 feet long. 18 inches wide at one 
end. and .'*. 1-2 feet at the other, about 5 inches I hick at the centre, 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 21 

tapering to a thin edge on all sides, had been loose for sometime. 
Uis attention had been called to it by the chargemau of the previous 
shift and hence he was well aware of its dangerous condition. It 
was also asserted that he had been told to stand a prop under it, but 
h« neglected to do so, and continued to work under it until it fell on 
bini. However, there was conllictiug evidence concerning the cause 
of the accident, and it was decided to institute further inquiries into 
ihe case. The coroner was notified and held an inquest at the In- 
spector's office on the twenty seventh of June. Twenty-seven wit- 
nesses were examined, and from the evidence the jury rendered the 
following verdict: 

We, the undersigned, find that the death of George Deacle was 
caused by a fall of rock in the Marvine shaft and was due to his own 
neglect in disobeying orders he received to stand a prop in the dan- 
gerous place. 

We do also find that the contractor, Henry Miller, was in no way 
to blame for the fatal accident. 

T. I. DUFFY, 
MARTIN McCORMICK, 
F. E. HODGSON, 
F. W. EDWARDS, 
W ILLIAM H. SMITH, 
WILLIAM MURTON, 

Jury. 
I'eter Belena, a Polish miner, aged 28, was fatally injured at the 
Ontario on the twenty-ninth day of June by a fall of roof. I visited 
the scene of accident, and made diligent inquiry as to its cause, and 
learned from one George Smith that Belena was firing a shot and 
that he and his laborer had, as they supposed, retired to a place of 
safety, along with Geo. Smith and his laborer, to await the explosion 
of the blast. 

The first squib missed fire; Belena then went back to the hole and 
I)ut in another. He then went back to his place of safety to await 
results. 

The four men were standing in a recently abandoned chamber, 
near to the gangway road when the shot went off, the concussion of 
which shook a large piece of fire clay roof down on them. 

Three of them escaped as by a miracle, while one was caught under 
the main portion of the mass, which was triangular in shape, measur- 
ing five feet at the base and six feet on the other two sides. It was 
twenty inches thick. This may be called purely an accident. Yet 
men should at all times look and examine the roof to make sure of 
its condition when they have cause to go under it. 

An accident occurred at Storrs No. 2 on the eleventh day of July 
whereby a "Welsh miner 41 years of age, named David Morgan, lost 



22 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Orf. Doc. 

ills life bj a fall of rock, i learned from those vvliu reached the 
scene shortly after it had taken place, that the deceased had discov- 
ered this loose piece of rock, and was in the act of getting out from 
under it, but slipped on the bottom slate and fell on his back the mo- 
ment the slab fell, ihe edge of which struck him on the top of the 
head nearly severing it in two. 

It measured live feet in length, was three feet and a half wide, and 
iour inches thick. The roof in this place was very "shelly" and a 
great umny props had been placed under it to insure its safety. 

As yet no prop could have been placed under the piece that fell, 
as it was too close to the face. It could, however, very readily have 
been taken down if discovered in time. The miner had very recently 
tired a shot, but his laborer did uot know whether or not he had ex- 
unined the roof afterward. 

On the second day of October Thomas Wooley, an English miner, 
47 years of age, was fatally injured by a fall of rock at tStorrs No. I 
mine. An investigation made on the following day revealed that 
Wooley was in the act of standuig a prop to secure this piece when 
it fell upon him. 

This man's attention had previously been called to the slab, but 
he had neglected to put a prop under it. The roof in this part of the 
mine is of a slaty and slippy nature, requiring careful watching and 
good propping. 

This chamber was very well timbered from where he got killed to 
the branch, and there was some half dozen props lying in the cham 
ber when the fall occurred, and there was no reason why a prop 
should not have been placed under this slab when his attention was 
first called to it. 

And I can only remark that tbis is another fatality added to the 
many that occur through oversights on the part of the miner. The 
slab which ended this man's life measured five and one-half feet by 
seven feet, and was from three to eight inches thick. 

The roof was only seven feet from the rail, making a safe height 
to work in, and if proper care were exercised and frequent examina- 
tions made of the roof, accidents of this nature would very soon be 
reduced. 

At Forest City slope, on the ninth of October, an accident occurred 
whereby a Polish laborer 33 years of age named Michael Macoviski 
was instantly crushed to death by a fall of roof at the face of a 
chamber. On the tenth I investigated the cause of this occurrence 
and learned that the chamber was very well propped to within ten 
or eleven feet of the face. The roof was very "slippy," and constant 
vigilance seems the only way to prevent accidents in such places. 
The laborer stood within a few feet of the face of the chamber, and 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 23 

was in the act of loading a car when a slab of rock five by seven feet 
six inches thick fell and caused the poor fellow's death. 

The slab could not very well have been propped as it was too close 
to the face, but could very readily have been taken down had it been 
disco\ered in time, but it escaped detection, only to fall with fatal 
results a few hours later. 

1 think if this miner had been in the habit of making a careful ex- 
amination of the roof after each blast in all probabilty he would have 
noticed this loose slab and would have prevented this sad occur- 
rence. 

John Manton, an English miner, 3G years of age, met instant death 
at the Marvine shaft on October 30 by a fall of rock. On the folloAV- 
ing day I went to the scene of this sad occurrence and soon discov- 
ered that it was a purely unf(nseen accident. 

Manton was known as a very careful and competent miner. He 
had discovered that the roof in his place was somewhat "drummy" 
by carefully sounding it, and had taken the precaution against the 
danger by placing two props within six feet of each other under the 
part which appeared to be bad. 

He, however, had been deceived, as it was discovered later on that 
be had put the props, one on the inside the other on the outside of 
ihe treacherous bell-shaped rock, which fell on him while sitting 
between the props, waiting for the smoke of a recently fire shot to 
clear away. The rock which caused his death was less than six feet 
(me way and seven the other, resembling the roots of a huge tree with 
a short piece of the trunk actacked thereto. 

This was one of those unavoidable accidents that are so frequently 
caused by the treacherous formations which exist in the roof of so 
many of the niine§ in this locality. 

Michael Gownley, an American driver, 15 years of age, was in- 
stantly killed by a fall of rock at the Jones, Simpson & Co.'s shaft on 
the thirtieth day of October, 

The particulars in this case, as found upon investigation, are as 
follows: Young Gownley had received a powder keg from one of 
the nearby miners and had gone into the face of a gangway for the 
purpose of hiding it from the other boys. M. J. Dean, a good, prac- 
tical miner, along with some other men, were taking down some top 
coal at a point about seventy feet from the face of the gangway. 
Two of these men were here loading a car and when young Gownley 
came back he stood a few feet away talking to them about the keg 
which he had just hidden, when, without the least warning whatever, 
a piece of rock fell from the roof and crushed his young life out in 
an instant. 

M. J. Dean, the miner who had charge of this work, stated that he 
]iad carefully examined the roof just a few minutes before the fatal 



24 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

fall occurred and was satisfied it was perfectly safe. This roof is a 
sandstone mixture and usually is very safe, but here it was wet and 
very '"seamy," and, as was afterwards discovered, the piece that 
fell was entirely cut off or dt tached from the roof proper by a water 
t;rack or mud seam, and after the coal had been removed from under 
it the water gradually worked it loose until it fell, with this sad re- 
sult. 

Andrew Botscavish, a Polish miner 28 years of age, was instantly 
killed at the Clifford on the seventh of December. Investigation 
showed that deceased, a few minutes before the accident, had fired a 
shot in the coal which failed to do its work. 

Botscavish was in the act of ''working out" this shot when a slab 
of rock from the roof gave way and crushed him to the ground. 

The vein is only three feet thick and the unfortunate stood with 
his back against the rock when it fell. 

He was not cut or bruised in any way, but was literally squeezed 
to death by the weight of a rock about seven feet long, four feet widt 
Hnd fifteen inches thick at the centre, tapering to a feather edge on 
1)11 sides. 

The man had sounded it and said it was safe, but either from a lack 
of proper knowledge of the nature of such roof, or for the want of 
viive, this man lost his life in a very simple manner. 

William Lewis, a Welsh miner 59 years of age, instantly lost his 
life on the seventh of November at the Powderly slope. It seems 
iliat both miner and laborer were aware of the dangerous condition 
of the roof, and with the intention of shaking it down had put a 
strong hole in the c<ml pitching towards the roof. This, however, 
only had the effect of loosening the coal which the laborer afterward 
iried to remove by barring. 

While the laborer was thus engaged, the miner was standing on 
one side watching the roof for any signs of moving, when, without 
the slightest warning, it fell and a part of about four feet square 
struck the poor old man and at once caused his death. It might be 
siiid that with a little more precaution on the part of this miner the 
accident might have been prevented, but it is my opinion that he mis 
judged the condition of the roof where he was standing, and the 
piece which killed him fell very unexpectedly, and caught him while 
watching for another's safety. 

At any rate, it was a very sad accident to an old and experienced 
miner. 

The Mt. Jessup slope was the scene of an accident on the four- 
leenth of Xovomber wliich resulted in the death of a Polish laborer 
aged 20 years named Joseph Peartross. On visiting the scene I 
lenrmd tliat the miner had inst begun to drive a cross-cut. \ shot 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 25 

had just been fired here, and after waiting for a few minutes for the 
smoke to clear away, the laborer started for the face, followed by 
the nriner, and when within a few feet of the face, a piece of rock 
measuring four and one-half feet by thirteen and from eight to tec 
inches thick fell, struck the laborer and instantly killed him; the 
miner narrowly escaped the same fate. Props had been placed in a 
row across the chamber within six feet of the face of bottom coal, 
and to within four feet of the edge of the slab of rock which fell. 
The 'miner had discovered the opening, but never for a moment 
thought that the rock would bi-eak off so short. In my opinion this is 
another of those sad accidents which take place where least looked 
lor, and oftentimes to the most experienced miners. 

At the Blue Ridgo, on November thirtieth, Michael Bartasoviski, a 
Slavish miner 28 years of age. was fatally injured by a fall of roof at 
the face of his chamber. 

On inquiry as to how this accident occurred I learned that a shot 
had just been fired, by which two props had been knocked out from 
under a large slab of fire-clay. 

Bartasoviski was on his way back to the chamber, and was picking 
up the coal which had been thrown back on the road by the shot and 
had reached within a few feet of the face without paying any atten 
lion to the condition of the roof. 

His laborer shouted to him that the roof was "cracking," to whom 
he replied by saying. "1 guess roof all right." No sooner had this 
remark been made than the large slab of fire clay which had been 
supported by the props recently displaced fell, injuring him so se- 
verely that he died in the ambulance on his way to the hospital. 

James Morrison, an Irish miner 52 years of age, was fatally in 
jured by a fall of rock at the Forest City shaft on October first. 

On the following day I went to the scene of accident and after dili 
gent inquiry learned that the foreman and his assistant had given 
this man orders to put up a set of timber to secure the roof over hi.s 
chamber road. 

Before putting up the set he placed a prop under this loose piece 
of rock to insure his own safety while preparing a place for the tim- 
ber. When he had placed the two legs in position and was about to 
put up the collar he discovered that the prop which he had recently 
i'laced under this rock was in the way of the collar, and had to be 
lemoved before the collar could be put upon the legs. 

Learning this, he asked his laborer to hand him a hammer with 
which he knocked out the prop, but had no sooner done so than the 
r< ck which it had been supporting fell, with fatal results. 

Accidents by Falls of Coal. 

On January first an Irish miner 40 years of age, named John Mul- 
herin, was Instantly killed at Richmond No. 3 bv a small fall of coal 



26 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

and rock. I went to the scene on the followmg day and after taking 
the testimony of the foreman, who had been in this man's chamber 
but a short time previous to the accident, and after carefully exam- 
ining the place, 1 concluded that he had lost his life by his own reck- 
lessness. 

After firing a shot in the top coal and trimming down all that 
came with little ehort, he began to pry down a dangerous looking 
piece which was a mixture of coal and rock. Failing to accomplish 
this promptly with pick and drill, he left it standing for the time 
being and went to work under it. 

He fastened his drilling machine in the bottom coal directly under 
this piece and while stooping to pick up a drilling bit this overhang- 
inging piece of top coal and rock fell, striking him on the back of his 
head breaking his neck. 

Dominio Collosie, an Italian laborer 25 years of age, was instantly 
killed at Edgerton drift by a fall of coal on February second. 
I went to the scene and learned that the chamber in which he was 
killed was being worked by another Italian named Anthoney Tale- 
rack, who stated to me that he had examined the coal which fell 
some two hours before the fall occurred and said it was safe. 

The coal at this place, being within twenty feet of the surface, is 
very brittle, with water cracks running all through it, making it very 
treacherous. The bench of coal which fell was only eight inches 
thick, a slab of which fell measuring 8x6 feet. The edge of this 
struck Collosie on the back of the head while in a stooping position 
and broke his neck. 

The Blue Ridge Coal Company's shaft was the scene of an accident 
on March twenty-second which caused the death of a young miner 
named Arthur Cochran. I went to the chamber where deceased had 
been employed and carefully examined the roof and top coal. 

I found that there were "slips" in the roof running down through 
the top and bottom coal which had been visible for more than fifteen 
feet. 

On the right side of the chamber no slips were to be seen and here 
a prop had been pla(;ed to support the top coal, the intention being 
10 keep it up for a roof, as it was thought to be stronger and safer to 
work under than the fire clay above it. The top coal had been taken 
down near the centre of the chamber, but had been left up for ten or 
twelve feet on the left rib. 

At the hindermost end of this strip of coal, deceased had fired a 
shot some thirty minutes before his death. During this half hour he 
and his laborer had been sitting some distance from the face and 
conversing about some matters in which they were interested. When 
they had concluded their conversation Cochran went to the face of his 
own chamber and on his arrival his laborer asked him what kind of 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 27 

a hole did it make." He replied that it made a "Jim Dandy," after 
vhich his laborer started for the gangway to see if the driver was 
coming in and Cochran began to work out the loose coal without 
paying any attention to the condition of the coal above him. 

He had, however, just began to work out the bottom when he 
heard the top coal also beginning to "work" or crack and realizing 
his danger made an attempt to run from under it, but before he 
could reach a place of safety it was down on him, crushing him so 
badly about the head and body that he died in the ambulance on his 
way home. 

Patrick Powers, ati Irisli miner 5o years of age, was instantly 
killed by a fall of top coal and "buck" at Jermyn No. 1 shaft on May 
twenty-second. 

I made a careful mvestigation on the day fuUowiug and found that 
deceased was at the time of his death engaged working out some bot- 
tom coal which liad been loosened by a shot tired on the previous 
day. The "fourteen-iuch" and "buck" were fastened together at this 
l»oint, no "smooth" being visible between them, though many "slips" 
could be seen running through them both. Powers had on the pre- 
vious day worked out the bottom coal for a distance of four or five 
feet, and on the day of the accident had again, the first thing in the 
morning, begun to remove what had been shattered by the "last shot" 
of the day before, and that, as his fellow miner stated, before making 
a proper examination of the coal above him. 

While he was thus engaged the top coal fell and instantly crushed 
him to death. 

The accident which occurred at the Marvine shaft on May twenty- 
ninth, whereby an English miner 42 years of age, named William 
Cawley, was fatally injured, was carefully investigated by me on the 
day of its occurrence. I found that deceased had been engaged driv 
ing a "proving hole," which was about twelve feet wide and about 
the same height. 

The coal was somewhat free, but not dangerously so, and the roof 
was very smooth and apparently safe. Cawley, as his laborer stated, 
had sounded the roof during the morning and had said it was safe, 
•ont notwithstanding all the care and precaution taken it fell in a few 
iiours after he had made his examination and almost instantly 
caused his death. 

The slab which fell was eighteen feet long, eight feet wide at one 
end and three feet at the other. 

It increased from three inches in thickness at one end to eight 
Inches at the other. Cawley was known as a very careful and prac- 
ticil miner who never knowingly took any unnecessary risks, but on 
the other hand took every precaution to insure his own, as well as 
the safety of those working with him. 



28 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Jermjn No. 1 shaft was the scene of an accident on July twenty- 
hist which instantly ended the life of a Polish laborer 23 years of age, 
named George Sharrick. I visited the scene shortly after and found 
the chiiniber to be one of the safest in the mine. 

The root was good and solid throughout, but as an extra precau- 
tion props were being systematically placed in the chamber. The 
top coal, or a:s it is better known in this region, the "14-inch,", had 
been squared even with the face on the previous day. 

Daniel Donovan, the miner who worked on the side of the chambei 
where the man was killed, said that he had fired two or three shots 
I in this side during the preceding day, and had, as he thought, care 
fully trin med down all loose material, but it seems that that which 
ff 11 and ended the life of this man had escaped his notice, it being so 
small and so close to the face of the chamber. 

It measured but sixteen inches on the longest side, eight inches 
ti ick and seven inches wide, and only fell some four feet before strik- 
er- g the unfortunate man on the head. However, it instantly broke 
his neck. 

The two miners, named Daniel Donovan and Thomas Williams, 
respectively, are careful men and the condition of their chamber gave 
evidence of this, but as above stated, this small piece in some way or 
other escaped their notice to fall a few hours later with fatal result 
to their laborer. 

At the "Sturges sbaft," on September eleventh, George Smith, a 
Polish laborer aged 20 years was instantly killed by a fall of top coal. 

In the investigation it was learned that the foreman had visited 
the chamber in which the accident occurred about 10 o'clock on this 
day, and had made an examination of the top coal, and while it did 
not appear dangerous, he thought it advisable to have it taken down. 

He therefore gave the miner orders to blast it down at once. The 
miner, whose name is Mike Koscosky, said he would do so immedi- 
ately; the foreman then left him to proceed on his journey through 
the mine. 

The miner, however, did not do as he had been ordered at this 
time, but later drilled a hole in the top coal, but instead of firing it 
tis he should have done, kept on working for some time afterwards 
on the bottom coal. A little later on he and the laborer were load- 
ing a car and whih' thus engaged this top coal fell and instantly 
( aused the laborer's death. 

In reply to an inquiry why he liad not fired the hole in the top coal, 
he said that it was his intention to have done so as soon as the car 
was loaded, and that he ^^■as trying to scrape up enough coal to load 
the car when the fall occurred. Nothing can be said of this, but 
that another life has been lost throug the gross negligence of an in 
different and careless miner. 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 29 

Adam Clupeck, a Hungarian laborer 26 years of age, met instant 
death bj a fall of top coal at the Simpson slope on October twenty - 
second. I made an examination of this accident shortly after it oc 
cvrred, and found the chamber a very safe one in every particular; 
the roof was solid sand rock and very secure. The vein is fourteen 
feet high, split into three benches, the bottom coal being mined first, 
the top coal taken out afterAvard. 

The miner had just fired a shot in the rib in the bottom coal, and 
had gone back a short distance from the face to put some oil into his 
lamp. 

The laborer in the meantime, fearing no danger from the top coal, 
went back to the face to prepare some coal for the next car. He, 
however, no sooner reached a spot near the face, than a piece of coal 
from the middle bench, about fifteen inches square, fell, striking him 
on the right temple and causing his death instantly. 

The men had been at work but a short time when the accident oc- 
curred. The piece which did the fatal work must have been shaken 
to the point of falling by the shot: just fired, and was so small that it 
could not very readily be dit^covered, nor even suspected of being 
dangerous. 

However, there is no doubt that if this miner had carefully exam 
ined his place on the morning before commencing to work in it, he 
would in all likelihood have discovered the small, dangerous piece 
of coal and would have taken it down and thus would have prevented 
this fatality. 

At the Edgerton drift, on November third^ an Italian laborer 33 
years old, whose name was Frank Bruin, was instantly killed by a fall 
of top coal. 

Inquiries made on the following day revealed that the miner and 
laborer v,ent to the face of the chamber immediately after firing a 
shot \v the top coal which failed to bring it down. 

The miner, without first making an examination of this, began to 
work under it. In a few minutes, however, it fell without any warn 
ing, severely injuring the miner and instantly killing the laborer. 

This place was apparently perfectly safe and with precaution on 
the part of the miner the accident would not have occurred. 

But, notwithstanding that men may be working in a safe place, the 
conditions at the face change with each succeeding shot and often 
times become very dangerous and if the miner is not extremely can 
tious at this time he may ^ei caught by a fall when least expected. 

On November twenty-eighth, about one o'clock in the afternoon, an 
accident occurred at the Simpson slope of the Northwest Coal Com 
pany, which resulted in the death of a German miner named Fred 
(M-ick Rhine, aged 42 years. :ind his laborer. .Anthoney Paulby. an 
Austrian 30 years of age. \n a few hours I was on the scene, and 



30 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

soon learned that a large fall of top coal had taken place on the first 
lift, on the east side of the new slope, where pillars were being 
"robbed." 

When I arrived, I found that the work of recovering the bodies of 
the unfortunate men was well under way, directed by J. L. Crawford, 
W. I. White, J. G, Shepherd and Thos. Jenkins, the foreman. 

An examination of the surroundings was made and all was fonnd 
safe to proceed with the work of recovering the bodies. About seven 
o'clock in the evening th_^ laborer was discovered buried under large 
pieces of coal and some slabs of rock which had moved down from 
the top of a fall which had been brought on several days previous to 
this fall of coal. 

The work of recovering this body was necessarily slow, owing to 
the size of the coal which lay upon him and which had to be broken 
by pick and wedge, as blasting could not be done without further 
I'^utilation of the body. It was released at ten o'clock and at once 
iaken to his home. 

Before Rhine's body could be taken out, some loose pieces of rock 
had to be removed, as they were not safe for the men to work under. 
This was soon accomplished by blasting and the work of recovering 
the body of Rhine began. 

His body was discovered about 12.30 o'clock, in a stooping position 
close to the rib on the lower side of the gangway buried under two 
feet of loose coal, and was removed in half an hour. 

While the work of rescue was being performed, I carefully exam- 
ined the only persons j)resent who knew anything of the sad affair. 

Charles Curtis, for whom these men were working, stated that 
"Rliine. who was my brother ;r. law, had been employed by me on the 
strength of his knowledge and practical experience as a miner. He 
was also a very careful man and one who thoroughly understood his 
^vork. I went into his place about five minutes before the fall oc- 
< urred, and asked him how h<^ was making out. to which remark he 
'^f plied "all right." At this t'lne he and his laborer were barring 
down a piece of top coal whi<'h was in the shape of an arch, between 
the coal and the lo^^er side and that which fell upon them from the 
upper side of the g,iugway. 

Thorr was a "slij»" running diagonally across the gangway and up 
tln'ongh tlie to]) coal, behind which "Rliino had drilled and lamped a 
hole ready to fire, and was trying to bi'(>ak this .irch so that the holf 
would have a better cliance to mt. Curiis sjiid. nftci' nsking him ho'vf 
he was making out. 'TT went out of tho gangway, but hjul not been 
absent but a minute or two when the second laboi'ei* came running 
after me. telling me that both men had been killed. 

"T heard Ihe fnll. but thoiiglif tlu^v liad barred it down nnd were 
safe, but it must li;n( fallen so quickly that escape was impossible. 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 31 

"As soon as possible 1 hurried to the scene, made an examination 
of the roof and found it all right. I then went over the fall and 
s-houied 'Fred.,' but received no answer, I listened for a moment, 
and heard the groans of the dying laborer and directed the men 
where to find him. 

"The coal which fell on the men had been standing on three props 
on the upper side of the track, and was to have been left there as a 
"stump pillar," but when they broke the small arch, which was about 
ten inches wide, and five or six thick the coal slid off the prop and 
covered them up." 

Another person examined on this occasion was David Cushine, Jr. 
He said that some twenty or twenty-five minutes before the fall he 
Avas in there and at that time Rhine was tamping a hole on the left 
side in the top coal. After tamping it, both men took each a drill 
and went barring at the coal which fell on them later. 

Thi^ was a sad and deplorable accident, caused, perhaps, by a want 
of sufficient care and cautious examination of the top coal, or by over- 
confidence in the safe condition of the same. 

And it may be said that Rhine, old and experienced as he was, 
trusted (as many had done before him) once too often to his own judg- 
ment, and that, without making an examination, thought he was per- 
fectly safe in trying to break what appeared an insignificant arch of 
coal and bone, but what afterwards proved to have been the only 
(support to the mass of coal that resulted so disastrously to himself 
and his laborer. After making as complete and thorough an exam- 
ination of this case as was possible, there was no doubt in my 
mind as to how the accident had occurred, and T deemed any further 
inquiries by the coroner utterly unnecessary, hence did not notify 
this officer to hold an inquest. 

Accident from Falling Down Shaft. 

John Naughton, an Irish laborer, 50 years of age, was instantly 
Idled at Richmond No. 3 February thirteenth by falling down a shaft. 

The circumstances are as follows: James Hawley. a driver. Miles 
McDonell, miner, and John Naughton, with a mule were on a des- 
cending carriage in the shaft. 

Hawley's evidence is as follows: "I was trying to back the mule 
into the mule cage which stood on the carriage, but could not do so. 
A Hungarian took hold of the bridle and tried to back him in, but 
failed. After this, McDonell and Naughton took hold of the bridle 
and succeeded in putting the mule in the cage, when the headman 
gave the signal to slack off. The carriage started with its load, three 
men and a mule. Whf'n within thirty feet of the bottom of the shaft 
the mule became unruly and bucked up against the chains that were 



32 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

holding the cage on the carriage. This caused the mule cage to 
^wing around, striking Naughton and forcing him off the carriage 
down the shaft." 

Miles McDonell's evidence was identical with the above. In an 
swer to an inquiry whether he knew that it was against the foreman's 
strict orders for any one but the driver to get on the carriage with a 
muk-, he said he knew that the orders were not to go, and furthermore 
it was in direct violation of this rule that we got on, but did not think 
oj any danger nor of anything but of assisting the boy to handle the 
mule. 

It was the headman's duty to prevent these men from getting on. 
but he failed to do so. 

Stanley Romel, a doortender, aged 14 years, was instantly killed 
by falling down the Jerniyn Is'o. -3 air shaft on May thirty-first. 

I learned, upon investigation, that the boy, with others, was 
foming up on a carriage, and when within one hundred feet of the 
top he inquired of another small boy named John Moore whether or 
not they were near the landing; the young fellow replied that they 
were, and a moment afterwards he saw Romel fall, and before he 
could take hold of him he was passing down between the carriage 
and the side of the shaft, at the bottom of which, very shortly after, 
the body was found very badly mangled. 

It ]s supposed that the boy, not having been accustomed to riding 
'ip a shaft, became dizzy and fell with above sad results. 

An accident occurred at the Leggetts Creek shaft on March twenty- 
sixth, to James Gallagher, an American driver boss, 2G years of age, 
which resulted in his death three days later. 

Shortly after it o<Murred I went to the scene and learned from sev- 
eral persons that Gallagher caine up the main shaft, went to the 
blacksmith's shop, got a light, and went directly to the air shaft. In 
a tunnel leading from the surface to the air shaft he was met by 
the footmnn and two doortenders w'ho had just come up on the car 
riage. 

The footman rapped the carriage back and remained at the head of 
the shaft until the safety gate, which is operated by the carriage, 
came back to its proper place. He then started for outside and met 
Gallagher about fifly feet from the head of the shaft, whom he 
liailed by saying, "Hello, Jim," and passed on. A few minutes later 
v.ord was received that Gallagher had fallen down the shaft from the 
tunnel to the Diamond vein, Avhere he was picked up seriously, and as 
afterwards proved, fatally injured. 

Failing, nftor dilig( nt inquiry, to decide as to how he came to fall, 
;ind after receiving notice of h'v death, the coroner was notified and 
:ui inquest held. 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 33 

The jury's verdict was that Gallagher came to his death by an acci- 
dent at the Leggettsi Creek shaft 

Kicked by Mules. 

An examination of the circumstances connected with the death of 
William fcscott, an American driver boy, which occurred at the Leg 
gttts Creek on January fifth, revealed the following facts, as seen by 
an eyt witness of the sad occurrence. George Green, who was within 
two feet of the boy when he received the fatal kick, stated that de 
ceased was standing giving hha (^Green) a light. After giving Green 
;i light he shouted ro the mule to start up and the same moment he 
received a kick from the mule on the left side in the region of the 
heart that caused him to fall forward on his face into the ditch, 
(^reen lifted the boy's head from the ditch and placed it on a plank 
.'J? the side of the rail and ran for more help; he met another young 
boy who hurried with him to the scene and they together raised him 
from the ditch. Other help soon arrived and the poor boy was with- 
out any delay hoisted to the surface and conveyed to the engine 
house, where he soon died, without regaining consciousness. 

On May twenty-eighth, at the Ontario tunnel, Phillip Ingoldsby, an 
Irish driver 17 years of age, was fatally injured by a kick from a 
mule. 

All that could be learned about this affair was that he was driving 
a mule on the head of a plane and at the time of the accident was 
walking behind him and striking him on the rump with a small stick 
when the mule kicked him in the abdomen. 

He did not seem to be seriously injured at the time, and walked 
home after being accompanied to the mouth of the tunnel by his 
brother. He went home and did not complain of pain anywhere but 
in the region of the abdomen. No one thought, however, that he 
was seriously injured, for on tbc following day he arose from his bed, 
walked around the house for some time, then retired and died in a 
few minutes. 

Breaker Accident. 

On September twenty-seventh an accident occurred at the Ontario 
breaker which resulted in the instant death of a slate picker named 
IJyron Evans, 12 years of age. 

I made a thorough investigation of this affair and learned from 
the breaker boss who found the young boy's body in a schute leading 
into the mud screen, that it was this boy's duty to sit on the side of 
a schute to scrape down the coal as it became clogged. 

About a month previous to This occurrence a new set of scrapers 
iiad been put in position to scrape the coal from a schute to the mud 
screen, 

3-11-04 



34 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

They were in a remote part of the breaker and none but the fore- 
man and oiler ever had occasion to go near them. This boy, however, 
got to where they were and was caught and killed by them, in what 
manner no one knows, as no one was present when the accident took 
place. 

Since making the investigation, I have learned that it was a habit 
of this boy's to stand on these scrapers and ride to a certai-u point 
cind then jump off. AVhether this is true or not, something of thi^ 
nature caused the accident, for he could not have gotten into the 
scrapers without lirsc climbing over the schute heading to them, ot 
else b}^ going around by another way. 

Accident from Pretnature Blast. 

On July sixteenth, William Williams, a Welsh miner, 5U years ol 
age, was fatally injured at the Leggetts Creek shaft by the prema- 
ture explosion of a blast. 

I visited the scene on the following day and learned from the fore- 
man (who had questioned the dead man's laborer at the time of the 
accident) that deceased a few minutes before he was killed had gotten 
ready to fire a shot in the bottom bench of coal, which was about one 
foot thick and very wet 

The first squib failed to put off the shot; then, after waiting a 
moment, the miner and his laborer went back to the face together. 
The miner took another squib, cut about one-half of the match off, 
then lit and placed it in the barrel which was pitching an angle of 
thirty degrees. At that instant the blast exploded while he was yet 
standing, or perhaps more properly, leaning over it. The coal struck 
him in the face and literally smashed it into fragments. 

He, however, lived to be taken home, but never regained conscious 
ness. It can only be said of this that it was a sad case caused, per- 
haps, by being in too much of a hurry for fear of losing a few inches 
of powder in a "wet hole." 

A person can hardly believe that any sane man would take suci! 
an unreasonable risk. Yet such are very frequently taken. Some 
times the person may be somewhat excited and led on by over conli 
dence in his own ability to escape unhurt he takes useless and often 
times fatal chances. 

Again, he may be a man well up in years, having worked the 
greater portion of his life in the mines, and perhaps enjoyed immu- 
nity from injury that is remarkable, and to all appearance has grown 
accustomed and indifferent to the dangers that daily surround him. 
Sucli a one is sometimes the victim of his own imprudence. 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 35 

Fatal Accident from Explosion of Powder. 

investigation made by me of llie fatal accident wliicli occurred at 
Jones, Simpson Si (Jo.'s shaft on May tliirty-tirst revealed that the 
victim, a Polish laborer aged 28 years, and named John Polaski, went 
back from the face of the breast to put a cotton in his lamp, and on 
his way went to a powder keg containing about twenty-six inches ol 
powdoi' in a paper bag. 

He had a lamp on his head, and while in the act of looking into the 
Ueg a spark from his lamp fell into the powder, causing it to explode. 

His clothes instantly took hue and before the flames could be extiu 
guished he was severely burned and died on the following day. 



Inquest notes of testimony taken before J. A. Kelly, coroner, and Mr. 
Edward Roderick, Mine Inspector, at the court house at Scran- 
ton, March 9, 1894, in the matter of the accident at Richmond 
No. 3 shaft, on March 6, 1894, whereby Richard Hughes, Albert 
Richards, Thomas Holwell and James Northey lost their lives. 
Coroner's Jury: 

Vaughan Richards, William Morton, John Sykes, James J. Fahey, 
John J. Loftus and Jocab Ferber. 

Mr. John Lumax called for examination and after being duly sworn 
by the coroner testified as follows: 

Examination. 

By the Coroner: 

Q. What is your occupation, Mr. Lumax? 

A. Miner. 

Q. How long have you been one? 

A. For the last twenty-four or twenty-five years. 

Q. Where do you work? 

A. At Richmond's. 

Q. Were you working in the shaft the morning the men were killed 
and on that shift? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. What time did it occur? 

A. As near as I can think, about 4.10 or 4.15 Tuesday morning 
last. 

Q. Describe to the jury the nature of that accident as you saw it 
on that morning. 

A. All I can tell is that there was no hopes of saving the men when 
I left there. 

Q. What was the nature of tlie chunk? How far from the bottom 
did it fall? 

A. Just over the rail about eight feet. 



36 , REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Q. Were the men buried uudei- this piece fully? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. How many were there? 

A. Three men completely uiider it. 

Q. Where was the fourth man? 

A. He was on the other side of the rock opposite. 

Q. There were three who escaped? 

A. Y.es. 

Q. What was their relative positions to the other men? 

A. One stood drilling a hole. 

Q. How far was he awaj' from the fall? 

A. Two or three feet. 

Q. Is there any gangway or opening at the bottom? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. Did they ever use the safety holes there? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. Were there holes there for that purpose? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. Should there have been? 

A. I think there ought to have been holes there. 

Q. AVere you at the bottom of this vein which you were sinking? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Is there any projections or slabs at all along the perpendicular 
(,»!' is it wider at the bottom? 

A. Only just where the men were working undermining it with 
their picks. 

Q. Were you informed by the chargeman of the previous shift, of 
the dangerous condition of this piece? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. Was any man ou your shift? 

A. Not as I am aware of. I didn't hear it. 

Q. How many shots were find that night? 

A. Two shots only. We ran two holes only to one shot. 

Q. What is the usual way in firing these holes, by battery? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Whose duty is it to look after the place after a shot is fired? 

A. The chargeman's. 

Q. Who was the chargeman of your shift? 

A. Thomas Holwell. 

Q. Well, does he always look after the loose material? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. Did he ever do it? 

A. No, sir; not while I was there; he used to leave that to me. 

Q. Did you do it on the night before the shot was fired? 

A. Yes, sir. 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT 37 

Q. Did you notice jmythin}^ loose? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. Did jou examine it closely? 

A. As closely as I could. 

Q. How long after yon went down did the other men go down to 
work? 

A. As soon as they saw that everything was safe. 

Q. I would like the jury to understood, Mr. Lumax, how this bucket 
is suspended; is there mucli rope between the carriage and the 
bucket? 

A. About (>0 feet, as far as I can judge. When the bucket is at th«' 
bottom of the pit the carriage is 60 feet above. 

Q. Do the buntings go dowr as far as the slides? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. And the slides go down below the buntings? 

A. No; just even. 

Q. And the projections on the side of the shaft were protected by 
these slides? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q How many men were allov,fd to ride in the bucket? 

A. Four men. 

Q. Do more than four ever ride in the bucket? 

A. When anything is the matter, five may ride in it. 

Mr. John Connelly sworn. 
I»y th«^ Coroner: 

Q. What is your occupation? 

A. A sinker. 

Q. Where do you work? 

A. Richmond's. 

Q. How long have you been a sinker? 

A. Ever since I was 12 years old. 

Q. Were you working on the morning of this accident? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Well, you may tell your experience of that morning to the 

A. I knew nothing about the ground being bad and I did not hear 
anything of it. 

Q. W>re no remarks at all passed? 

A. Not that I know of. 

Q. Did you hear Holwell say anything of this ground being bad? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. How many blasts took place that night? 

A. Two holes. 

Q. How was the gas ignited? 



38 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

A. I cannot answer that. 

Q. Was it ignited when the fall took place in the first place? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. There must have been somt one who took a lamp and went in 
where the gas was, or there would have been no gas? 

A. 1 don't know. 

Q. Did YOU consider the place perfectly safe? 

A. I thought it was as safe as it ever was. 

Q. Never thought it would require being secured by beams? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. Were you working when the men were killed? 

A. Yes, sir; within a few feet of them. 

Q. What time do you take supper when you are on the 11 o'clock 
shift? 

A. About 2 or 3 o'clock. 

Q. How many men were dowL the shaft? 

A. Eight. 

Q. Were you on that shift? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Were you down? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Did you think i+ needed timbering? 

A. I don't know. I thought it was the chargeman's place to look 
after that. 

Q. Was it the chari^eman who went down to examine the place? 

A. I could not tell. 

Q. Did you have a substitute? 

A. I don't know; somebody went down. 

Q. Did he go down ahead of you? 

A. Yes, sir. • 

John Laiigstonr, sworn. 
])y tlu Coroner: 

Q. What is your occupation? 

A. I work on rock. 

Q. Woi-k most of the time sinking? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. How long have you worked at tliat? 

A. Six months. 

Q. What did you work at before that? 

A. A miner. 

Q. Were you down in this shaft the morning these men were killed? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Suppose you tell the jury what you saw that morntng? 

A. T did not see anything but the concussion on the bottom; that's 
all T could see; the men weir underneath it. 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 39 

Q. The men were underneath the chunk, you say? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Do you know Alexander Turner? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Does he work on your shift? • 

X. No, sir; I work on the shift Tom Hoi well works on. 

Q. Do 3'ou know anything about Alex, Turner having given a warn- 
ing iu.-'truction to your ehargeman? 

A. I heard them talk, but we never paid any attention to what they 
were saying. 

Q. Did Thomas Hoi well tell you men what Turner told him? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. Didn't tell any of the men? 

A. Not to my knowledge. 

Q. Did this piece that fell out, killing these men, give any warning? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. How was the fall undermined; was it picked out or blasted 
out? 

A. It was picked out. 

Q. Who were picking it out? 

A. Connolly and two of the men who were killed and another man. 

Q. Did you notice them sounding this piece before they began to 
pick? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. It looked to be solid; you never suspected it of being bad? 

A. No, sir; I did not. 

Q. The ehargeman never madt' any remark about it? 

A, No, sir, 

Q. Where did you see Holwell and the ehargeman have the con- 
versation? 

A. In the shanty where they shift. 

Q. How far is that from the head of the shaft? 

A. Not very far. 

Q. About how many feet? 

A. Twenty-five or thirty feet ; T don't know exactly. 

Q. You are positive you saw them talking? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. What were they saying? 

A. T don't know. 

Mr. C. Dodan sworn. 
By the Coroner* 

Q. What is your occupation? 

A. Miner and shaft sinker, between rock and coal; always followed 
those mv whole lifetime. 



40 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Q. Where are you working now? 

A. Richmond's 

Q. How long have you been in this work sinking? 

A. About three or four years, 

Q. Were you there the morning of the accident at the bottoin of the 
shaft? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Can you tell the jury what your experience was that morn 
ing? 

A. I can tell nothing but that we loaded the coal and the rock 
came down. It was what they call a roll bottom, the bottom falling 
first and the top afterwards, and I nearly got caught. 

Q. Did anybody ever tell yon it was loose? 

A. Nothing about it. 

Q. Who was your chargeman? 

A. Thomas Holwell. 

Q. Did Holwell usually tell you if there was anything dangerous? 

A. No, sir; he never had occasion. No, sir; he never told us any- 
thing that I remember. 

Q. Do you know whether or not Thomas Holwell's attention was 
called to this piece by the chargeman of the other shift, Turner? 

A. I could not s;iy. 
' Q. Did you see Turner and Holwell have any conversation? 

A. No, sir; I did not see them speak. 

Q.*They might have done so without your attention being called 
to Jt? 

A. i'es, sir; but if he told him anything, T never heard him. 

Q. Did Holwell ever make any remark to you? 

A, iS'o, sir; I didn't see anything dangerous. This rock was above 
our reach; we were loading the coal and picking out what was loose 
and were loading our last bucket, and our chargeman was ready to go 
up, just at that moment it came down. 

Q. How long before it fell did you fire? 

A. Jz was nearly an hour, for the water was up, then we got suppe."" 
and loaded fifteen or twenty buckets before it came down. 

Q. Did Tom Holwell undermine this place with a pick? 

A. No, sir. 

■Q. Is the coal hard or. soft? 

A. It is soft coal. 

Mr. Oeorge Barron sworn. 
By the Coroner: 

Q. What do you work at, Mr. Barron? 

A. W^orked at rock for the la si six weeks. 

Q. How long have you been sinking? ' 



No. 11. P^IRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 41 

A. >Six weeks. 

Q. You were a iiiiiiei- befoi-e that? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. That is all the experience you have had in sinking, is it? 

A. Oh, 1 have been from one jdace to the other. 

(2. ^^'el'e you clown in this shaft the morning that these men were 
killed? 

A, Yes, sir, 

Q. Suppose you tell what you saw that day? 

A. [ went down the first time and saw the rock but could not see 
any men. I went down the second time and found some of them; in 
tlie afternoon 1 went down again and helped to get two of them out. 

(<>. How many shots were tired in your shift? 

A. One round; live holes. 

Q. Did you do considerable picking after these shots were fired? 

A. Yes, sir; we did quite a little picking. 

Q. Do you know whether or not Turner called the attention of 
your shift to the dangerous condition of this rock? 

A. Yes, sir; he did. He did not call our attention to it, but he did 
th»^ next. 

Q. Well, did every man on tlie sliift know the danger of it just as 
well as Turner? 

A. Y'es, sir; I knew the danger of it when I left the shaft. 

Q. And did Turner call your attention to it? 

A. He didn't call mine, because probably he thought it was safe. 

Q. You didn't consider it dangerous after you left your shift? 

A. It was dangerous after that. 

Q. Do you know whether the chargeman of your shift called the 
attention of the chargeman of the other shift to it? 

A. Yes, sir; I made it my business that night to go and tell th} 
man about these blowers. 

Q. Are you sure ihe blowers were extinguished before you left the 
mines? 

A. Yes, sir. 
• Q. W hose business is it to see that the blowers arc extinguished? 

A. The chargeman's, of course. 
) Q. He has the ])OA\er to deputize any other man to do it if ho 
sees fit? 

A. Yes. 

Q. You say that Chargeman Turner called the attention of Charge 
:ian Ifohvell of the dangerous condition of this piece? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. ^.\<n-e you ])resent w^hen he told Holwell? 
■ A. 1 was going liome with Turner. T walked a short distance with 
him and he told me tlie conversation they had. 
2 



42 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES Off. Doc. 

Q. And Turner never called his men's attention to it at all before 
he came up? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. Why did Mr. Turner warn Chargemau Holwell ol this danger 
at the top of the shaft, when you say he thought it was perfectly safe 
before he came up? 

A. It was perfectly safe. 

Q. Did yoi! think that it would require timber? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. \Yhose duty was it to S(;e that it was timbered? 

A. The succeeding shift. 

Q. Suppose the succeeding shift was not not i tied and failed to at 
once discover the danger of it? 

A, A man has io go and examine a place before he puts men to 
work. 

Q. After your men come up from shaft duty, is it necessary for men 
to go down and inspect the work? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Is it always carried out? 

A. It ought to bt 

Q. Do you know if it was do»e that day? 

A. I do not know; I was not working that day on Holwell's shift, 
but Turner examined our shift. 

Q. \Ahat did you mean when you stated in your testimony that you 
thouglit it was perfectly safe Avhen you left the shaft, and then why 
do you think it required timber, if it was safe it would not require 
timber? 

A. No, sir; but I said he took the coal from underneatli it. 

Q. Could you swear that it Avould not have fallen if they had no! 
been working at it? 

A. I don't believe it could. 

Q. You are positive about that? 

A. I have got that much judgment, I think. 

Q. Who told you that they worked under that rock? 

A. Mr. Lumax, I think it was, 

Q. When did he tell you? 

A. The same day. 

By Mr. Roderick: 
Q. What part of the shaft did you load the coal from? 
A. The south. 

Q. How near to the rib did you put these two holes? 
A. Near the rib. 

Q. You do not know whetlie: these two holes undermined the rib 
or not? 



No. 11 FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 43 

A. No, sir; I don't think they did. On the side of the shaft where 
th(.' cave was, there was only one hole. 
By the Coroue'': 

Q. How long before this accident occurred did you have au ex- 
plosion? 

A. We didn't have an explosion. 

Q. Did you have any shots or blasts in this shaft on that night? 

A. Yes. 

Q. How' long before? 

A. Two hours. 

Q. How many uien were down the shaft? 

A. Eight men. 

Q. You Icnev, the danger of this as well as Chargeman Turner? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Did you all know it? 

A. Yes, sir; I guess so. 

Q. You told two 01 three of the men and you knew Turner told 
Hoi well? 

A. I am most certain. 

Q. Did you think ii ought to have been propped up? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. AYhy didn't Tu^'ner prop it up? 

A. Eecause he didn't have a chance. 

Q. You claimed before, that it was safe before Turner left the 
shaft and did not require propping? 

A. Yes, sir. 

By Juror Fahey: 

Q. In a shaft you cannot prop anything, can you? 

A. We cannot prop it; wn can timber it. 

Q. When you warned these men. did you call their attention to the 
propping or timbering; of this place? 

A. No, sir; it was not m}^ business. 

Q. You didn't do that? 

A. No, sir. 

Mr. Alexander Turner, sworn. 
By the Coroner: 

Q What's your occupation'.' 

A. Formean of the opposite shift. 

Q. How^ long have you worked as foreman? 

A. Since last August. 

Q Were you w'orking in the shaft where this disaster occui'red? 

A. Yes, sir; Hichmond's shaft. 

Q. Were you foreman of the opposite shift? 

A. Yes. sir. 

Q. Mr. Turner, when you got through with your shift, was there 



44 RE} ORIS OF THP] INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

a7jy iufonnation to the foreman of the opposite shift about any dan- 
jTf V in sinking this shaft? 

A I told Mr. Hohvell to k( (•]• his lamp on the east side of the 
sl'ift. She was hot. "She was hot as hell" were the words I used, 
:»!>d that there was a seam in the rock and lie could examine it, and 
if he thought it needed it, to ]>ul a bunting in. 

Q. I would like you to explain to the jury what you mean by a 
bunting? 

A, It is a timber crossing from one side of the shaft to the other. 
He then started v)ll" and said "1 will fix it." 

Q. Why didn't ^ on put the hunting in? 

A. I didn't think it needed it. 

Q. Hut you warned him of tlie danger? 

A. 1 told him to look at it and if he thought it needed it to put 
it in. 

Q. What end of the shaft did this fall come on? 

A. The whole sid;^ on the north side of the shaft. 

Q. Who stood there when you were talking with Hoi well? 

A. I don't think Ihere was anybody. 

Q. Did you tell .-mybody that you told Hoi well this? 

A. Yes, sir; ] did. 

Q. Whom did you tell? 

A. I told James Connolly and I told George Barron. 
By Mine Inspector Eoderick: 

Q. How many times did you tire that night? 

A. Once. 

Q. How many holes did yon fire? 

A. Five holes. 

Q. Were they near the rib? 

A. Two or three feet from the rib. 

Q. Pointing toward the rib? 

A. Xo, sir; toward the cenire of the shaft. 

Q. How deep did you put them? 

A. Four feet. 

Q. I>id you load nil the coal? 

A. Yes, sir. all; with the exception of a strip which run across th-"* 
shaft. 

Q. Was the coal left there intentionally to supporf this rock? 

A. No, sir; it was not. 
■ Q. Is it customary in sinking n shaft to put sum]) holes fifteen feet 
apart? 

A. The holes were four feet deep, five feet from the edg(» of the 
shaft; that would loave fourteen feet between the two sump holes. 

Q. Is that a good method of mining, to put fourteen feet between 
the two sump holes? 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 45 

A. We didn't know how deep it was, to get to tlie bottom of the 
vein, 

Q. How many holes had beei: fired in the coal by you before this 
shift? 

Q. How many cars did you load on Monday night? 

A. 1 think six. Fridny nigl'.t we loaded ten and the shift before 
we loaded seven. 

Q. Those holes didn't cut to the rib? 

A. No, sir, 

Q. How early in your shift did you notice this piece to be danger- 
ous? 

A. In the fore part of the shift. 

Q. Did you examine it carefully and discover any seams? 

A. L could not discover any seams at all only one that came up 
from the bottom. 

Q. Did Holwell usually trim up and timber a good deal? 

A. Yes. 

Q. He did more than 30U did? 

A. No, sir; I don't think he ever put in more timber than 1 did. 
I don't know that lie put in as much as I did there. 

Q. How far from the top of the coal was. this rock out? 

A. Five or six feet. 

Mr, Joseph Connolly, sworn. 
By the Coroner: 

Q, What do 30U work at? 

A. Sinker, 

Q, How long haA'e you been a sinker? 

A. Since the first of July. 

Q. Did you w^ork in this shaft where the accident occurred? 

A. Yes, sir, 

Q, Were you working on the morning the accident occurred there? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. Were you working on the shift before that? 

A. Yes. 

Q. Did you notic:* any danger at all at the bottom of the shaft? 

A, I noticed that rock, 

Q, Did you susppct uny danger? 

A. No. sii-; if I had seen any danger I would not have worked 
ti:ere. 

Q, What was the appearance of the rock when you left? 

A, It was secure and all right 

Q, Did any one on your shift have any conversation about this 
p ece before you l<^it the bottom of the shaft? 

A. We were told i\ot to go on that side of the shaft. 



46 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Q. Who was it told you? 

A. Tom Hoi well. 

Q. Who told him ■? 

A. Turner. 

Q. How do you know ? 

A. 1 was there. 

Q. \\'as anybody else there? 

A. Yes: ^^ith the exception of Reynolds, all Holwell's shift were 
[)reseut. 

Q. Were any of Holwell's men saved? 

A. Yes: John Lumax. 

Q. When you came up, did you hear Mr. Turner speak of the dan- 
ji'er of this piece of rock? 

A. He didn't say anything about danger at all; he told us to open 
up on one side. 

Q. Why? 

A. Because he was going to look after that matter himself. 

Q. What time did this accident occur? 

A. I don't know; I was in bed. 

Q. Did you hear any more remarks passed about the condition of 
this rock? 

A. Duiing my shift we w-ere going to put a stick to it, if we had 
time. 

Q. Was it undermined during your shift? 

A. Xo, sir, 

Q. And you thought it perfectly safe? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q, You knew that if the coal was taken out it would drop? 

A, It had a chance to drop. 

Q. Where did the conversation take place between Holwell and 
Turner? 

A. In the shanty outside. 

Mr. Vincent Kcynolds, sworn. 
By the Coroner: 

Q. What shift were you on? 

A. Turner's. 

Q. I>i(l anybody iiiforni you as to a conversation they had when 
they came up from llie shaft? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. Ko remarks passed about this piece of rock? 

A. Not that I know of. 

Q. Was there any coiivcrsalion at all during youi- shift about this 
piece of rock? 

A. Not that I lieard. 



Ko. II. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 47 

Mr. Luke Kelly, sworn. 
By the Coroner: 

Q. What do you work at? 

A. Driver boss. 

Q. You work in Providence shaft, where this disaster occurred? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Tell the jur} all that you know about this accident. 

A. I came there the morning- of the accident about 5:30, 1 believe, 
and went down the shaft. The gas was burning and the water was 
a little up, but I could see nobody and came back up again. Some 
one made the suggestion to set a charge of dynamite over it and it 
might quench the gas. They did so, and it broke the stone, and I 
w ent down and found a man and took him up in the bucket with me. 

Q. Who was that man? 

A. Richard Hughes. I went down again, several times, and suc- 
ceeded in getting another man up. 

Q. What are your chief duties — to simply look after the drivers? 

A. Anything I am told. 

Q. You are not supposed to inspect this work before the men go 
to work? 

A. No. 

Ml". Patrick Rodgers, sworn. 
By the Coroner: 

Q. State to the jury what you know about this accident? 

A. All I know is that I heard a noise in the shaft; didn't know 
what it was. When the gas went off they commenced hollowing. 

Q. What is your occupation? 

A. Headman. 

Q. Did you hear the men moan or call out below? 

A. I heard the men hollow to slack the bucket, and then I knew 
there w'as something wrong. 

Q. What was the signal that was used, a bell or a tube? 

A. A bell; of course we had a speaking tube. 

Q. Is that all you know about it? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Thomas Naughton, sworn. 

By the Coroner: 
Q. Wfiat do you w ork at ? 
A. Track laying. 
Q. Do you work in this shaft? 

A. I work in the fourteen; I did work in the sinking shaft. 
Q. Do you know anything about this accident? 



48 REI ORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

A. No; onh- that I came there and helped to get the iiieu out. 

Q. You were not working there at the time of the accident? 

A. No, sir. 

Mr. A. Aikman, sworn. 
B}- the Coroner: 

Q. Do you know anything about this accident? 

A. No more than what I heard and saw. I got to the shaft aboui 
eight o'clock in the morning. I lieard about the accident about G.20. 
When I reached the mines I met Mi. Roderick and we went down. 
Shortly after, preparations were begun to hook the bircket on thi- 
opposite side and one of the Avitnesses that was recently examined 
entered with another and brought up the body of Mr. Hughes. They 
were exhausted, and another fresh relay of men went down and 
brought up the bod}' of Holwell. 

Q. Were you in the fourteen foot vein? 

A. Yes, sir; I went down the shaft about three o'clock in the after- 
noon, but the water was up to the foot of the shaft and covered this 
stone. As far as I could see, the stone that had fallen out was prac 
tically covered with water, but I could see the place it had fallen oul 
of, and I could assume the thickness of it on the side of the shaft. 
(Here he explained on the table how the rock might have fallen out.i 
There is another course that might be very ajjt to have loosened the 
stone, that is there were two holes fired at one time, and it is quite 
]:-ossible that they might have opened it out; and the opening become 
tilled with gas, and in that way it would deceive any man. 
By Juror Fahey: 

Q. Is it customary to use precaution in sinking a shaft? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. To the best of your judgment, how fai' would you timber a shaft 
in sinking? 

A. That would entireW depend u])on the nature of tht^ surround 
ings. Because of the strata being of a loose nature it would reipiirr 
to be timbered very close to the bottom. 

Mr. Richard Williams, sworn. 
By the Coroner: 

A. I ki ow nothing more than that Mr. Roderick asked me if I 
would like to go down, and I went down and examined the ])lace. J 
am of tin- same opinion as the other gentlemen. 

^Iv. Hodgth^on, sworn. ^^ 

By the Coroner: 

Q. What is your occupation? 

A. T am in charge of sinking r;iii<-();isl slintt. 

(}. llow long have yon l)een a sinlcer? 



No. n. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 49 

A, I first started when I was nineteen years of age, and 1 have 
done that work off and on ever since. 

Q. Have you got anything further you woukl like to state to the 

A, I think Mr. Aikman gave a very good description of it, and I 
don't think I could add anything to it. 
JMr. Hailstone, sworn. 

By the Coroner: 
Q. You may state as briefly as you can what you know in regard 
to this accident? 

A. I am of the same opinion as Mr. Aikman. Mr. Roderick and 1 
have been in consultation several times about the law being obeyed, 
and that gentleman wanted to know whether we complied with the 
law or not; and I say (pointing to Fahey) all precautions necessary 
were taken, an adequate supply of air was furnished, and I always 
instructed my chargemen to examine and see that there was no gas 
standing in the bottom of the shaft, and that was always complied 
with. 

By Juror Fahey: 
Q. Was this contract work? 
A. No; company work. 
Mr. Thomas Grier, sworn. 

By the Coroner: 
Q. Mr. Grier, is there anything further you can state to the jury? 
A, No, sir ; only that Mr. Hailstone failed to say that Mr. Roderick 
had talked to us In regard to the sinking laws, but he said every- 
thing was all right, and I think we have lived up to the letter of the 
law. Mr. Hailstone had failed to find his book on ventilation, and 
the next morning he got one. 
Mr. Patrick Mullin, sworn. 

By the Coroner: 
Q. Do you know anything about this accident except as to the res 
cuing of the bodies of those who were killed? 
A. No, sir: only that T helped to take them out. 
John Howell s, on examination, said he also helped to take them 
out. 

Mr. Roderick. 

On the thiiteouth of February T went to Mr. Hailstone and con- 
sulted with him about the law on shaft sinking and Avas told by him 
that the law was being obeved to the letter. 



The jury's verdict was that these men came to their death by an 
unforseen accident. They also thought that the cliargi-nien should 
be more careful in the discharge of their duties. 
4-11-94 



50 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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No. 11. 



FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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Official Document, No. 31. 



Second Anthracite District. 



(LACKAWANNA COUN'IY.) 



Scrautou, Pa., April 1, 1895. 
Hou. Jsaac B. Brown, 

Secretary of Internal Affairs : 

Sir: I have the honor of herewith presenting my annual report for 
the year ending December 31, 1894, in compliance with article -, 
section 9 of the Anthracite Mine Law, approved June 2, 1891. 

The total quantity of coal mined in the Second Anthracite district 
was 5,671:,579.09 tons; shipped, 5,195,27l'.08 tons; consumed at col- 
lieries, 317,087.19 tons, and sold for local consumption, 158,272.02 
tons. 

The number of fatal accidents was 41, as a result of which there 
were left 13 widows and 39 orphans. The number of non-fatal acci 
dents was 141, some of which were of a very slight character. 

The quantity of coal mined per life lost was 138,404 tons. 

Hereto attached will be found tables giving in detail the statistics 
required by law. 

There were no improvements during the year except what were 
necessary for the economic working of the collieries. ■ 

Tbe following named persons pnssed a satisfactory examination 
which entitled them to be recommended to the Secretary of Internal 
Affairs to have certificates issued qualifying them to hold the posi- 
tion of mine foremen and assistant mine foremen: 

Robert E. Owens, mine foreman, Scranton, Pa. 

John Connolly, mine foreman, Taylor, Lackawanna county, Pa. 

Reese Thomas, mine foreman, Scranton, Lackawanna county. Pa. 

Isaac Watkins. mine foreman, Rendham, Lackawanna county. Pa. 

Howell G. Reese, mine foreman. Scranton, Lackawanna county. 
Pa. 

Thomas F. Jones, mine foi'cmaii, Scranton. Lackawanna county. 
Pa. 

David A. Jones, mine foreman, Minooka, Lackawanna county. Pa. 

John T. Davies, mine foreman, Scranton, Lackawanna county. Pa. 

Francis E. Tosgrove, mine foreman. Old Forge, Lackawanna coun- 
ty. Pa. 

5-11-91 



iiO REPORTS OF THK INSPECTORS OF MINEts. Off. Doc. 

Edmtmd Davies, mine foreman, Scrauton, Lackawanna county, 
I'a. 

Alfred l*o^^ ell, mine foreman, ^cranton, Lackawanna county, Pa. 

Charles Hainsworth, assistant mine foreman, Marsbwood, Lacka- 
wanna county, Pa. 

Edward E. Davis, assistant mine foreman, Scranton, Lackawanna 
county, Pa. 

Evan Walters, assistant mine foreman. Scran ton, Lackawanna 
county. Pa. 

John Devereaux, assistant mine foreman, Scrauton, Lackawanna 
county, Pa. 

Frank J. Campbell, assistant mine foreman, Scranton, Lackawanna 
county, Pa. 

Lewis P. Davis, assistant mino foreman, Scranton, Lackaw'anna 
county. Pa. 

Daniel Mathias, assistant mine foreman. Scranton, Lackawanna 
county, Pa. 

Kespectfully submitted, 

PATRICK BLEWITT, 
Inspector of Mines. 



No. 11. 



SECONt) ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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SECOND ANTHR.ACITE DrSTRlCT. 



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SECOND ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



73 



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SECOND ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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SECOND ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



79 



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RKFORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES 



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SECOND ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



81 



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197,442 
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141,890 

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105,768 

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112,875 
171,182 
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REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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Official Document, No. 11. 



Third Anthracite District. 



(LUZERNE COUNTY.) 



Pittston, Pa., April 2, 1895. 
Hon, Isaac B. Brown, 

Secretary of Internal Affairs: 
Sir: I have the honor herewith of presenting my annual report as 
Inspector of Mines of the Third Anthracite District for the year 1894.. 
The total production of coal in this district was 5,541,952 tons, a 
decrease of 87,962 tons from that of 1893. 

The number of fatal accidents was 51, leaving 26 wives widows, 
fvnd 67 orphans. The number of non-fatal accidents was 148. The 
quantity of coal produced per life lost was 108,665 tons. 

The report contains the usual tables, with a description of a few 
of the fatal accidents, and of the improvements in the mines during 
the year 1894. 

Yours very respectfully, 

H. Mcdonald, 

Inspector of Mines. 



Tons of Coal Mined During the Year 1894. 

Pennsylvania Coal Company, '. 1,210,395 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company, 755,204 

Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, 286,173 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company, 149,521 

Butler Mine Company, Limited, 277,199 

Ntrwton Coal Company, 331,630 

Waddell and Company, 151,915 

Hillside Coal and Iron Company 105,549 

John C. Haddock, t . . . 243,657 

Clear Spring Coal Company, 196,363 

Floience Coal Company 80,244 

W. G. Payne and Company 105,872 



84 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



Off. Do«. 



Abbott Coal Company, 

Keystone Coal Company, 

Avoca Coal Company, 

Annora Coal Company, 

John M. Robertson and Company. 
Langcliffe Coal Company, ....... 

Stevens Coal Company 

Babylon Coal Company 

Mount Lookout Coal Company. . 

Foity-Fort Coal Company 

Hiitchens and Company, 

Old Forge Coal Company 

Raub Coal Company, 

Algonqnin Coal Company 

Total 



9,544 

102,964 

65,662 

29,171 

49,426 

121,314 

83,046 

244,856 

315,462 

184,225 

10,575 

212,009 

33,942 

186,034 



5,541.952 



Number of Fatal Accidents and Tons 

Life Lost. 



OF Coal Produced Per 



N'ame of the Operators, 



Number o f 
lives lost. 



Tons of coal 
ralaed per 
life lost. 



Penn.sy 1 vania Coal Comrn ny . 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company 

Delaware and Hudson Canal Company 

Delaware. Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company, 

Butler Mine Company. Limited 

Newton Coal Company 

Waddell & Co 

Hillside Coal and Iron Company 

John C. Haddock 

Clear Spring Coal Company 

Florence Coal Company 

W. G. Payne & Co 

Abbott Coal Company 

Keystone Coal Company 

Avoca Coal Company 

Annora Coal Company 

.Tohn M. Robertson & Co 

Langcliffe Coal Company, 

Stevens' Coal Company 

Babylon Coal Company 

Mount Lookout Coal Company 

Forty Fort Coal Company 

Hutchlns Coal Company 

Old Forge Coal Company 

Raub Coal Company 

Algonquin Coal Company 



No fatalities. 



No fatalities 
No fatalities 



No fatalitiep 



No fatalities 
No fatalities 



No fatalities 



Total. 



134,488 

107. SS6 



149.521 
92. "599 
6fi,326 
75,957 



196,363 

80.244 
35.290 



102,964 
6.'->,662 



121.314 

20,761 
122.428 
31 '.,462 

36,84.5 



212,009 
33,942 
93,017 

108.666 



No. 11. 



THIRD ANTHRACITE DISTRICT 



85 



Number of Non-Fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Mined Pku 
Person Seriously Injured. 



Name of the Operators. 



Pennsylvania Coal Company 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company 

Delaware and Hudson Canal Company 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company, 

Butler Mine Company, Limited , 

Newton Coal Company 

Waddell & Co 

Hillside Coal and Iron Company 

John C. Haddock 

Clear Spring Coal Company, 

Florence Coal Company, 

W. G. Payne & Co 

Abbott Coal Company 

Keystone Coal Company 

Avoca Coal Company, 

Annora Coal Company 

John M. Robertson & Co 

Lanpcliffe Coal Company 

Stevens' Coal Company 

Bab3'Ion Coal Company ; 

Mount Lookout Coal Company, 

Forty Fort Coal Company 

Hutchins' & Co 

Old Forge Ctial Company 

Raub Coal Company 

Algonquin Coal Company 



Number o f 
persons In- 
jured. 



Total. 



Tons of coal 
mined per 
person In- 
jured. 



40,346 
19,873 
57,234 
74,760 
46,199 
27,635 
151,9^15 
105,549 
121,827 
65,454 



52,936 
162,' 964 



30,328 
20,761 
122,427 
26,238 
36,845 



26,001 
33,942 
20,670 



37,445 



Number of Fatal and Non-Fatal Accidents and Tons of 
Produced Per Each Person Killed or Injured. 



Coal 



Name of the Operator. 



Number killed 
or injured. 



Tons of coal 
prod u e d 
per person 
killed or 
Injured. 



Pennsylvania Coal Company 39 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company 45 

Delaware and Hudson Canal Company -5 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company 3 

Butler Mine Company, Limited 9 

J^ewton Coal Company 17 

Waddell & Co 3 

Hillside Coal and Iron Company > 1 

John C. Haddock 2 

Clear Spring Coal Company | 4 

Florence Coal Company, 1 

W. G. Payne & Co., ! 5 

Abbott Coal Company i No Injuries. 

Keystone Coal Company 1 2 

Avoca Coal Company I 1 

Annora Coal Company | No injuries. 

John M. Robertson & Co I No injuries. 

Langcliffe Coal Company, 5 

Stevens' Coal Company I 8 

Babylon Coal Company, | 4 

Mount Lookout Coal Company I 13 

Forty Fort Coal Company, 1 10 

Hutchins' Coal Company I No injuries. 

Old Forge Coal Company ; 9 

Raub Coal Company 2 

Algonquin Coal Company 11 



Total, 



199 



31,033 
15,782 
57,234 
49,840 
30,798 
19,507 
50,538 
105,549 
121,828 
49,090 
80,244 
21,174 



51,482 
65,662 



24,263 
10,380 
61,214 
24,266 
18,422 



23,556 
16,971 
16,»12 



86 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Classification of Fatal and Non-Fatal Accidents. 



Cause of Accidents. 



Killed or 
fatally In- 
jured. 



Seriously In- 
jured. 



By explosions of carburetted hydrogen gas, 

By falls of roof and coal 

Crushed and ran over by mine cars, 

By falling down shafts 

By explosions of powder and blasts, 

By miscellaneous causes underground, 

By miscellaneous causes on the surface, . 

Total 



Occupation of Persons Killed or Injured. 



2 


24 


22 


42 


13 


38 


4 


3 


3 


15 


4 


14 


3 


12 


51 


148 



Miners 

Miners' laborers 

Prlvers and runners 

Door boys and slate pickers 
Miscellaneous underground. 
Miscellaneous on surface, . 

Total. 



Natiosality of Persons Killed or Injured. 



Injured. 




















a 














a 










R 














a 


,a 




S 


^ 


M 




« 








A 
« 
& 


a 


a 


J3 
O 


ei 

a 
« 


ID 


an 
a ' 
p 


o 

3. 


o 
S 




Killed or fatally Injured 


13 


2 


9 


6 


2 


3 




2 


13 


1 


. 61 




81 


10 


46 


U 


1 


2 


i 


11 


b« 


2 


I4tj 






Total 


44 


12 


54 


16 


3 


5 


1 


13 


19 


3 


199 



The Condition of the Mines. 

A great number oi Mnprovements have been made in and around 
the mines of this district. A hirge number of old frame buildings 
surrounding the fans have been taken down and replaced by sub- 
stantial brick buildings which give better satisfaction in ventilation 
and remove the possibility of their taking fire, which has been too 
often the case with wooden structures. Likewise a number of the 
collieries have replaced the horizontal steam boiler with the tubular, 
which gives better satisfaction, both in steam and safety. While 
there have been very few fatal accidents in the anthracite coal field 
from boiler explosions, in comparison with other causes in and 
•around the mines, the number of which must be admitted by all who ex- 
amine these reports, is to an alarming extent, too great. But, never- 



No. 11. THIRD ANTHRACITE DISTRICT, 87 

theless, such is the case, but would not be if the victims themselves, 
in the majority of the cases, had taken the ordinary precaution to 
secure their own safety. By careful examination of the causes of ac- 
cidents, both fatal and non-fatal m the reports, it is clearly shown 
that two-thirds of them have taken place through hurry or a disre- 
gard of the law. 

An article which appeared in the Philadelphia "Press" at the be- 
ginning of this year, 1894, shows that while in England coal mining 
accidents decrease year by year, in our anthracite coal mines they 
have increased. For fifteen years past the average ratio of miners 
killed in the United Kingdon to each 1,000 miners employed in the 
five years ending 181)0 was 1.83, in the previous five years 2.01, in the 
five years ending with 1880, 2.39. Here is a regular continuous de- 
crease, and as tbe amount of coal mined has increased 30 per cent, 
in this period of fiftfeu years, from 131,801,000 tons in 1875, to 
181,634,000 tons in 1890, it is clear that a greatly increased output 
has been secured with constantly increasing safety to miners. 

In our anthracite coal mines, a like decrease has not taken place. 

The "Colliery Engineer," published in their mining paper accident 
figures in the anthracite region, collating them from the .Inspectors' 
reports. 

In the five years ending with 1892, there were 3.49 deaths to every 
],000 persons employed. In the five years previous, 3.20, and in the 
five years ending in 1882, 3.32. Instead of a decrease as in Great 
Britain, here there has been an increase. 

It is quite reasonable to suppose that the public would want to 
know the reasons why such a difference exists. I shall explain, in 
my opinion, a few of the reasons that cause the great difference 
between the United Kingdom and the Anthracite coal field in gene- 
ral. In the first place in the method of mining. It is a well known 
fact that mining coal with picks and then wedging it down, as I un- 
derstand is principally the way the miner gets his coal down in the 
British mines, is not so dangerous a method as blasting with powder 
in whatever form it may be used, as is the custom here. Therefore, 
accidents from falling coal are not so liable to occur in the former 
case as in the latter, or the overlying strata are not disturbed, as is 
frequently the case where powder has been used, often causing a 
comparatively safe roof to become very dangerous, and occasionally 
about ready to fall by the time the miner goes back to the face. An- 
other cause is the different size of seams in height. The roof in low 
veins can be more carefully guarded and inspected by the miner at 
all times while at work, and dangerous pieces taken down or easily 
propped. 

Another cause, and in ray opinion the greatest, is the difference in 



hH ItEl'OKTS OF THE INSPECTORS OE MINES. OH. Uoe. 

the workmen as a whole j not that the educated miner of Britain is 
any more competent than the educated miner of the anthracite mines 
of Pennsjlvauia. The former are men who have been brought up to 
the occupation of miners, from the lower grades in the mine from the 
lime the law allows them to entei-, working either with their fathers 
or some friend who takes interest in making them competent work 
men and look after them until ihey are able to conduct a place ol 
their own. How^ different we find it in our coal mines here. It is 
ootJiing uncommon to find about two-thirds of the miners and their 
laborers that cannot speak or understand the English language, the 
mine foreman directing them by signs how to proceed with their 
work; or, if they cannot understand by that method, he will bring 
one of their nationality who can talk a little English to tell them 
what he wants them to do in their own tongue. By inquiring of the 
mine boss I find that every miner has a miner's certificate entitling 
him to mine coal. How men, such as those referred to, get their cer- 
tificates I do not know, but I do know that the law granting theui 
was one of the worst pieces of legislation that was ever passed for 
this region, as it has driven competent miners coming to this coal 
field away, as they refuse to labor for two years with this class of miu 
ers before they can have a place for themselves to work. Therefore, 
I hey go to other coal fields where this law is not in operation. Theu 
is it any wonder that the accidents do not decrease? 

In conclusion, I would say that it might be expected that in a few 
years this state of affairs would be overcome after these miners had 
become accustomed to mining, and then a better state of affairs in 
regard to killed and injured. This should be the case, but those who 
are fortunate enough to escape death or serious injury and have ac 
cumulated some money, go back to the country they came from and 
a fresh supply arrives and takes their places. 

Again, Great Britain fatalities are based on their total output or 
production of their mines, while in the anthracite mines of Pennsyl 
vania they are based on the prepared coal after passing through the 
breakers, and not on the total }»roduction of the mines. The waste 
of the anthracite mines, whicn amounts to about 30 per cent., is not 
taken into consideration in determining the amount of coal mined to 
the life lost. 

Shaw's Standard Gas Testing Instrument. 

Four years ago the State furnished this office witli one of the aluivj^ 
instruments, whieh I find to be very valuable in determining the pe< 
cent, of gas wliich may be givon off by the strata. In si'veral instances 
to my knowledge the return air current was within two per cent, of 
the explosion point, which T found by testing the return air on the 
;ibove iiistnimont. and bv •jivuiL'" notice to the mino boss of the con 



No. 11. THIRD ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 89 

djtiou of tlie ail- current another split of air wouki be furuisiied, oi 
tiie intake air current increased in volume so as to reduce the car- 
buretted hydrogen in the current to one and one-half per cent,, as 
was done in the above case. 

This instrument is in use at a few of the collieries of this district 
for making tests of the return air currents, which records are kept 
in the office at the colliery for reference. It requires very little time 
to understand the instrument, and to become proficient in making 
tests with it, and 1 can recommend it to all coal companies in the 
anthracite coal field as a valuable instrument in determining the 
per cent, of gas in the air current. 

Description of Accidents. 

The total number of persons killed or seriously injured was 199. 
Oi these, 49 were killed and 150 injured, which number, 1 am happy 
to report, is 15 less in the fatal than was reported last year. The 
causes in the majority of these accidents I have called attention to 
in my report. The ioliowing is a brief account of how they oc- 
curred: 

Accidents No. 29 and '60. A. G. Mason, age 55 years, division su- 
perintendent of the Lehigh Valley Coal Company, and William Wil 
son, age 10 years, inside foreman of the Exeter Colliery, for the above 
company, were fatally injured, dying the same day, and Kobert S. 
Mercur, age 20 years, mining engineer, employed by the above com 
pany, and Joseph Barrell, age 25 years, instructor in mining in the 
Lehigh University at Bethlehem, Pa., were seriously injured by fall- 
ing down the Knight shaft, located in the borough of Exeter, on July 
twenty-sixth. On the above morning the four above mentioned men, 
with Jacob Gates, the fire boss of the colliery, got on the carriage of 
the second opening shaft and were lowered to the Fittston seam to 
inspect some work that was necessary to be done inside before the 
colliery would resume work, as the tower over the hoisting shaft was 
undergoing repairs at this time. Mr. Barrel being on his vacation 
and at Wilkes-Barre, went down with Mr. Mercur, as above stated, to 
see the mine; the party arrived safe at the bottom. They had been 
in the mine about an hour when they came to the foot of the shaft to 
be hoisted to the top. The signal was given to hoist, but for some 
reason tlie engineer did not start immediately to take the cage from 
the bottom, as a pair of sliding doors over the mouth of the shaft had 
to be opened to let the cage through, as this was the return airway to 
the fan, and by looking up the shaft they could tell when the engineer 
was going to hoist, and while doing so they detected a 
part of one of the guides out of place twenty-three feet 
from the bottom. Thev nil jrot off the carriage and sent 



bO REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Ott. Duo. 

it up empty to see if it would pass ilic biolien guide, wliicb, uu 
fortunately, it did. They then signalled the engint^er to slack ou 
again to the bottom, the carriage passing ovei- the displaced guide 
ail right. They then held a consultation in regard to the danger, buL 
came to the conclusion that it Jacob Gates, the hre boss, would get 
on the cross-head of the carriage to enter the shoes of same, they 
could pass all right. The signal was given the engineer to hoist,and tlie 
lisk was taken. \\ hen they came to the displaced guide the hre boss 
entered the top shoe all right, but the bottom shoe of the carriage 
caught on the broken guide, causing the cage to get out of the con 
ductors and the end of cage got under one of the buntings and broke 
the uprights of the cage oh' close below the cross-head, which al- 
lowed the cage and four men to fall to the bottom, a distance of 2,6 
feet. The piece of guide which was broken was four feet long and 
it would not have taken over a half hour to have repaired it and 
made it safe, but they chose to take the risk with the foregoing re- 
sult. 

Accident iS'o. 33. James A. Bryden, age 02 years, inside foreman 
for Pennsylvania Coal Company at A'o. 4 shaft, Pittston, Pa., was 
killed by an explosion of gas on the morning of (September 10, ISUl. 

On the above morning he had a couple of miners who were going to 
start work in the Marcy seam, and he went with them to show them 
the places to begin, as this. heading had been abandoned for a num- 
ber of years and was now about to start up again. The fire boss, 
Charles Norris, had made his examination in the part of the mine 
where these men were going to work and found no gas and reported 
the same to Mr. Bryden, who went with the men and marked oh" their 
chambers for them. While he was in this part of the mine he thought 
he would go through some of the abandoned workings, as he con- 
templated starting a heading soon to cut oH some of the old roads 
which had fallen. Leaving the men, he proceeded for some distance 
in until he came to a division; passing through the door he came on 
the air way which was the return for this split of air which he came 
in on, and started to go along this gangway, but had proceeded but a 
short distance when he encountered a body of gas which had accu- 
mulated by reason of a recent fall on the heading road and which was 
ignited by his lamp, ai> be had an open light with him at the time. 
In a short time after the explosion parties of men went in search of 
him and in coming to the division door through which he went the 
staff was found which he carried, but it was impossible for the men 
to go further on account of gas which had accumulated after the 
explosion. Boards and canvas wore immediately juocured and a 
temporary brattice erected along the airway road for a distance of 
SO or 90 feet, when John B. Law came with the incandescent lamp, 
wliich was put on by Alex. Law. and going in advance of the brattice 



No. 11. THIRD ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 91 

and over the fall he found the body of Bryden lying on the gangway 
road. He was severely burned on face and hands, but undoubtedly 
lost his life by the afterdamp, as he evidently got confused and went 
the wrong way to a distance of 150 feet from where his staff was 
found. He was a man of large experience in mining and had for a 
number of years conducted mines that gave off large quantities of 
gas. 

Taking the Water out of the Pettebone and Hallstead Shafts. 

In my report of 1893 the Pettebone shaft, operated by the Dela- 
»vare, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company, was reported 
flooded to extinguish a fire caused by an explosion of gas. I there 
fore wrote Superintendent Benj. Hughes, of the above company, for 
information in regard to the taking out of the water and likewise to 
give me the information regarding the Hooding of the Hallstead shaft 
located at Dnryea and operated by the above company. 

The following information was kindly sent to me for this report: 

Scranton, Pa., Jan. 18, 1895. 
Mr. B. Hughes, General Inside Superintendent: 

Dear Sir: Referring to Mine Inspector McDonald's request for in- 
foimation as to Pettebone and Hallstead. 

We commenced hoisting the water at the second opening on May 
twenty-third, 1894, and hoisted continuously in this shaft, excepting 
on Sundays, and about thirty days lost for repairs of shaft timbers, 
etc., until September 22. 

A pair of iron tanks fitted to travel on the guides, each of a capac- 
ity of 1.175 gallons, and arranged for automatic filling and self emp- 
tying, were used. With allowance for leakage, etc., it is estimated 
that they hoisted 1,100 gallons each trip. 

The greatest number of tanks hoisted in one shift of eight hours 
was 593. Daring the 75 days of actual hoisting, a total of 65,809 
tanks were raised, or a daily average of 877 tanks. 

As the water stood at the beginning 320 feet down the shaft, and 
the total depth is 1,150 feet, the average hoist was 735 feet, and the 
<iuantity nearly 1,000,000 gallons every 21 hours. 

This hoisting was done with a pair of 30x60 slide valve direct con- 
nected engines. 

From July 6tli to 17th we also hoisted in the main shaft, using 
wooden tanks placed on the regular carriages, one with a capacity of 
530 gallons, the other of 750 gallons, or an average of 750 gallons. 

Of these we hoisted a total of 8.194 tanks. 

The total water hoisted is estimated from the above data at 78, 
000,000 gallons. In addition to this, there were pumped from the 



92 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

dips in the several veins, which would not how to the tanks, from 
5,UUU,UUU to 1U,UUU,U00 gallons, making a total of about 85,000,000 gal- 
lons corresponding very closely to the amount estimated as put in in 

Kegarding the Hallstead. The water started to how into the mine 
on the morning of September 21st, 1894, and by night was flowing at 
from 2,500 to 3,000 gallons per minute. This inflow was caused by a 
cave which extended over about 10 acres, and the cracks from which 
were visible on the surface. As the ground affected is all underlain 
with water bearing gravel through which the cracks extended, it 
seems probable that the water comes through this gravel, partially 
from the river and partially from the small streams which disap- 
peared near the cracks on the surface. These streams have been 
cttrried in flumes for some disiance, and this seems to have decreased 
the flow in the mines. 

In order to handle the water, it was necessary to introduce nine 
pumps of various sizes, 250 horse power of boilers, lay about 5,000 
feet of ten-inch and twelve-inch column pipe, and 0,000 feet of five- 
inch and six-inch steam pipe, in addition to the pumping plant pre- 
viously in use at the colliery. 

These pumps were started one week after the breaking in of the 
water and steadily lowered the water which had filled up the work 
ings below, and part of the No. 9 level. The colliery resumed the 
shipment of coal on November 21, 1804. The flow has decreased so 
that it does not now average over 1,200 gallons per minute. 

Colliery Improvements During 1894. 

Some very important improvements were made at several of the 
collieries during the year 1894, a few of which are described in de- 
tail as follows: 

Improvements by the Pennsylvania Coal Company. 

At No. 10 shaft, Jr., a 20-foot Guibal fan was erected run by a hoi-i 
zontal engine 14x30 inches, under a speed of 50 revolutions and half- 
inch water gauge, exhausting 75,000 cubic feet of air per minute. 

At No. 7 shaft a 20- foot Guibal fan was erected run by a horizontal 
engine, 1(1x30 inch, directly connected, which gives very good re- 
sults. 

In the Hoyt shaft the second opening from the red ash to the 
Marcy seam was driven through the rock strata between the seams 
on a grade of 27 degrees a distance of 270 feet, with a sectional area 
of 84 feet. 



No. 11. THIRD ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 93 

Improvements bj the Lehigh Valley Coal Company. 

At the Oakwood shaft the second opening to the underground 
slope has been sunk to the red ash seam a distance of 325 feet, with 
a sectional area of 230 feet. 

An underground slope was also sunk in the red ash vein a distance 
of 614 feet on a grade of four and one-half degrees. This slope opens 
up a large field of good coal for this colliery. 

The Exeter breaker has been remodelled and enlarged and a new 
tower erected over the hoisting shaft. The shaft has been repaired 
from the top to the bottom and the inside workings placed in shape 
for a large transportation of coal. The buildings at the second open 
ing with the shaft have undergone complete repairs. 

At the Wyoming Colliery a 15-foot fan was erected on the old 
opening of the Hillraan shaft, which gives very good results; it is 
rim by a horizontal engine 14x24 inch, and driven by belting. 

Improvements by the Old Forge Coal Mining Company. 

The Columbia shaft of this company was sunk from the Marcy to 
the red ash seam, connecting with the workings of their Phoenix 
shaft and completing the second opening for both shafts. 

Improvements by the Butler Coal Company, Limited. 

A slope was sunk by this company on the outcrop of the Marcy 
vein to a depth of 200 feet on a grade of 18 degrees, sectional area 
84 feet. The coal is taken to the breaker by a small locomotive. 

Improvements by the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad 

Company. 

A tunnel was driven in the Hallstead shaft from the second to the 
third seam, a distance of 656 feet, area 6x12. 

Improvements by the Algonquin Coal Company. 

Two underground slopes were sunk in the Pine Ridge shaft, a dis- 
tance of 1,100 and ."^OO feet respectively. 

Improvement^! by John C. Haddock. 

In the Black Diamond shaft a tunnel was driven from the Bennett 
to the eleven foot seam, a distance of 200 feet, area 8x12. An inside 
gravity plane was built a distance of 1.500 feet for transporting cnnl 
to font of shaft. 



34 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

ImprovemeDts by the Florence Coal Company. 

This company sunk a shaft from the surface to the Marcy seam, a 
distance of 227 feet. It has a sectional area of 220 feet. The coal is 
taken to the Elmwood breaker by a small locomotive a distance of 
1,033 yards. The second opening has not been completed at this 
writing. 

A 15 foot Guibal fan was erected on one of the compartments of 
the shaft, w^hich is run by a horizontal engine 12x18 inches. 

Improvements by Robertson and Law. 

A new slope was sunk at the Katydid colliery from the surface to 
the Checker seam, a distance of 200 feet, area 7x9, grade 18 degrees. 
The coal from this slope is taken 2.000 feet to the breaker by a 
locomotive. The workings are ventilated by the Consolidated slope 
fan. 

Improvements by the Babylon Coal Company. 

A tunnel was driven from the top to the bottom split of the red 
ash seam, a distance of 162 feet, area 7x12, to be used for transporta- 
tion of coal. 

Improvements by the Forty Fort Coal Company. 

The 'llarrv E." shaft of this company w^as sunk from the eleven 
foot to the red ash seam a distance of 220 feet, area 22x12 feet. The 
second oprning shaft w^as sunk to Ihe red ash seam at the same time, 
and a new 20 foot Guibal fan erected therein, run by a vertical en- 
cine directly connected to fan shaft. 

Improvements by the Delaware and Hudson Coal Company. 

Two tunnels were driven in the Delaware shaft, one between the 
Baltimore splits, a distance of 150 feet, the other to the Ross seam, 
300 feet in length, to be used for transporting coal. Two air shafts 
were sunk to a depth of 30 and 50 feet respectively, to air the work- 
ings of these tunnels. Two inside slopes are being sunk on a 15 de- 
gree pitch and are 100 and 180 feet down at present. 

Improvement by the Mt. Lookout Coal Company. 
F-lectric Power Plant, Mt. Lookout Coal Company, Wyoming, Penna. 
The power house containing the generators and engine is a sop 
aiate brick building ^orty by thirty feet, situated about two hun- 
dred feet from +he mouth of the main hoisting shaft 
and about one hnndied feet from the air shaft. The generatincr 
plant consists of ono AT. P. 4. 100 Kilowatt. (135 H. V.) crenerator. 
driven at a speed of 050 revolutions per minute and developing 575 



No. 11. THIRD ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 95 

volts at full load ; and one M. P. 4, 20 Kilowatt (27 H. P.) generator, 
driA'en at a speed of 675 revolutions per minute and developing 550 
volts at full load. Both generators are belted direct to one 16x18 
inch single cylinder, automatic high speed engine, built by the J. H. 
McEwen Manufacturing Co. The engine runs at a speed of 218 revo- 
lutions per minute and receives steam at about 100 pounds pressure 
fi'om the main battery of colliery boilers situated a short distance 
from the power hous''. The generators are the standard multi-polar 
type manufactured by the General Electric Company. A view of 
the inside of the power house before the smaller generator was in- 
stalled is shown in Fig. 1. 

The larger generator furnishes current for haulage, drilling and 
pumping in the mine: the smaller one furnishes current for arc and 
incandescent lighting circuits on the surface; although by the use of 
suitable switches, the smaller generator can be connected to the 
pumping line as a reserve power in case of accident to the larger 
one. 

The current for the haulage, pumping and lighting circuits is dis- 
tributed from two skeleton wood switchboards which are equipped 
with Weston ammeters and volt meters and Carpenter enamel rheo- 
stf^ts. The switches, circuit breakers, lightning arresters, etc., are 
of the standard type manufactured by the General Electric Company. 

The offices, engine and boiler houses, etc., are lighted by 16 c. p. in- 
candescent lamps, while the breaker and surrounding grounds are 
lighted by 2,000 c. p. arc lights. At present there are fifteen incan- 
descent lamps and twenty arc lif^hts on the surface, although the 
smaller generator is capable of furnishing current for double this 
number of lights. 

The conductors for the inside lines are suspended in the down cast 
air shaft, and consist of No. 000 and No. 0000 Siemens lead covered 
cables for fpeders and No. bare wires for returns. The total depth 
of the air shflft is about 300 feet. From the bottom of the air shaft, 
the feeder lines are suspended along the main gangways parallel with 
the trollev wire or through old workings or air ways. The feeder 
lines in the mine consist of waterproof, rubber covered copper wire. 
All feeder wires are run on glass insulators attached to roof blocks. 

By referring to the map showing the plan of wiring, it will 
be seen that the feeder line divides at the bottom of the 
air shaft, one bran oh supplying current to the trolley wire 
in the north workings and the other branch supplying 
current to the trolley wire in the south workings. The 
pump circuit follows the south branch of the feeder line until it 
reaches the bottom of a slope at E. where it passes into the main air 
\\u\. The north 1)i;inch of the feeder line is connoeted to tho trollev 
line at D. which is about 800 feet from the bottom of the air shaft; 



96 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc 

the south branch is about 1,000 feet long and is connected to the 
trolley wire at E. No. hard drawn copper wire is used for the 
trolley lines with bonded rail returns. The trolley wire is suspended 
to oak roof blocks by a special mining ear which clamps the wire 
instead of being soldered to it. 

The haulage in the north working is done by one General Electric 
Company's standard T. K. M. 15 locomotive with inside wheels. The 
locomotive is equipped with two 15 H. P. waterproof motors, single 
reduction, and is capable of exerting continuously a draw-bar pull of 
1.500 pounds on a straight level track at a speed of six miles per 
hour: at starting it will develop between 3,500 and 4,000 pounds 
draw-bar pull without slipping it? wheels. The total weight of the 
locomotive is about six and one-half tons. Its extreme dimensions 
are 11 feet 4 inches long, 57 inches wide and 34 inches high. Fig. 2 
gives a view of the locomotive in actual operation. 

The total length of the gangway over which the T. M. M. 15 locomo 
tive runs is about 2.800 feet: although, including sidings and turn- 
outs, there is about 3,000 feet of trolley suspended in the north work 
ings. The locomotive is making from 20 to 25 round trips per day, 
hauling at present 7-car trips. The locomotive is capable, however, of 
handling about twice this output. The grades on the gangway from 
A to C on the map, are all against the empties, varying from a level 
up to 2.8 per cent, as a maximum. 

The haulage machinery in the south workings consists of one Gen- 
eral Electric T. M. M. 25 locomotive with inside wheels. Tt is 
equipped with two 25 horse power single reduction motors and is ca- 
pable of exerting continuously a draw-bar pull of 2,500 pounds on a 
straight level track at a speed of fi miles per hour: at startings, how- 
ever, it can exert between 4,000 and 5.000 pounds drawbar pull with- 
out slipping its wheels. The total weight of the locomotive is about 
ten and one-half tons. Its extreme dimensions are as follows: length 
over all 11 feet 4 inches, width over all 58 inches. heig|it above the 
rail 34 inches. Fig. 3 shows the locomotive before it was placed un- 
derground. 

The maximum length of run in the south workings which the loco- 
motive makes is about 1.200 ft., inrlnding sidings and turnouts, how 
/>ver, there is about 1.800 feet of wire in the south workings. At pres. 
ent the locomotive is making from 40 to 45 round trips per day. haul- 
ing ten-car trips. The trips are made up in the entries. F. G. H and 
I, as shown on the map: the locomotive pushing in n trip of ompties 
and hauling out a trip of loaded. The heaviest work is done by the 
locomotive in startin.fr the trip from these entries, as there is a sharp 
curve and grade ajrainst the loaded. The mnin gangway from E to^ 
the branches H and T is rather uneven, the grades averaginir from 



No. 11. THIRD ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. i>T 

about one per cent, against the loaded to one per cent, in their tavor. 
The mine cars weigh 3,0UU pounds unloaded and about 8,UUU poundss 
loaded, and have a capacity of OU cubic teet. Eventually, the haul- 
age line in the south workings is to be extended along tlie gangway 
from H to K and through a rock tunnel to L, as sliown on the map. 
W hen this is done, the branches F, (i and 1 are to be abandoned and 
the locomotive will then make a trip over about 3,500 feet of track, 
and haul about tlOO cars per day from the end of the rock tunnel at L. 

jLuc electric pump is located in the workings off the branch i as 
shown on the map. The pump is of the standard duplex, double 
acting, piston type, manufactured by the Knowles Tump Works, and 
is operated by a General Electric Company's waterproof shunt wound 
motor developing about 15 horse power. The pump is capable of 
throwing 300 gallons of water against 40 feet head, it has been 
operating for over a year, doing duty twenty-three hours a day. it 
requires attention only at starting and stopping and for occasional 
lubricating. The speed of the pistons is absolutely constant, irre 
spective of the amount of water thrown, and when the water in 
slump hole or chambers falls below the mouth of the suction pipe, 
the pump does not race, and hence demands no attention. Fig. 4 
gives a view of the pump in its chamber. 

in addition to the electric pumping and hauling machinery, the Mt. 
Lookout Coal Company are operating two General Electric Company 
A-4 rotary coal drills. The drills are being used in a low seam in 
the southeast workings and are run from a circuit taken from the 
circuit connected to the feeder lines in the main gangway. At pres 
cut, the length of the circuit from the feeder line is about i,400 feet. 
The drills are used in working a three-foot seam of coal and taking 
up about two feet of slate bottom. In coal the drill makes about 
six feet per minute with an inch and a half bit, and in slate or boney 
it can drill about four feet per minute. The weight of each drill 
complete with post is IGO pounds, the drill itself weighing 100 pounds. 
A view of one of the drills is given in Fig. 5, where it is set up ready 
for operation. 

The Burning of the Annora Breaker. 

At 3.30 on the morning of Tuesday, December 1, 1894, the large 
breaker of the Annora Coal Company, located in the borough of Laf- 
lin, was discovered to be on fire and was totally consumed, and all 
the machinery more or less damaged or destroyed. The last coal 
put through the breaker was in the month of August, 1894, the col 
liery then closing down for the remainder of the year. A new coui 
pauy had taken the colliery some time previous to the fire and were 
7 11-94 



9S REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

doing some repairs in and around the mine, as the breaker had been 
placed in working order some time before with the expectation of 
starting on the first of January, 1895, to prepare and ship coal. How 
the fire originated is impossible to say, as there were no fires in or 
around the breaker, nor had there been for some time previous. A 
new breaker is in course of erection on the site of the old one, which 
is expected to be ready shortly to prepare and ship coal. 



No. 11. 



THIRD ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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THIRD ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



105 



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REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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THIRD ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



107 









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died next day. 
was firing with 

exploded on him. 

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in the hospital, 
of cars on the 

g taking off his 

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108 



REPORTS OP THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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THIRD ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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THIRD ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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114 



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THIRD ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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Official Document, No. 11. 



FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 

(LUZERNE COUNTY.) 



Wilkes-Barre, Pa., April 2, 1895. 
Iloii. Isaac B. Brown, 

Secretary of Internal Affairs: 
►Sir: I have the honor herewith of presenting my fifteenth annual 
report as Inspector of Mines for tlie Fourth district of the anthracite 
region, for the year 1894. 

It contains the usual tables and statistics relating to the accidents,, 
and brief articles on the condition of the mines of each company, 
with account of their production and names of all the officials. 

]t also contains information relative to the improvements at the 
mines and a description of some of the most notable accidents 
which occurred during the year. 

Very respectfully yours, 

G. M. WILLIAMS, 
Inspector of Mines, Fourth Anthracite District. 



Tons of Coal Mined During the Year 1894. 

Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company, 1,778,284 . 40 

Delaware and Hudson Canal Comi)any, 1,262,838.55 

Susquelianna Coal Company, 1,365,6(50.35 

Kingston Coal Company, 683,813.75 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Kailroad Company, 470,379.45 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company, 305,261.85 

Red Ash Coal Company, 212,721 . 30 

Alden Coal Company 193,514.20 

Parrish Coal Company, 107,519 . 35 

Plymouth Coal Company, 193,151.80 

West End Coal Company, 224,526 . 95 

HanoA'or Coal Company, 67,116.60 

Hiliman Vein Coal Company. 77,306.40 

A. J. Davis 117,824.60 

Newport Coal Company 26,005.20 

The Reynolds and Moyer Coal Comi)any, 30,191.40 

Kidder Coal Company, 46,844.95 

Total, 7,162,961. 10 



118 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Number of Fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Mined Per Life Lost. 



f 

Names of Operators. 




Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company, 

Delaware and Hudson Canal Compauj', 

Susquehanna Coal Company, 

Kingston I'oal Company, 

Delaware, Lackawanna A Western Railroad Company, 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company, 

Red \sh Coal Co'.npany, . . ' 

Alden ('oal Company, 

Parrish Coal Company, 

Plymoutt' Coal Com pan \'^, 

West End Coal Company, 

Planover (^oal (-ompany, 

Hill man Coal Vein Compan}-, 

A. J. Davis, 

Newport Coal Company 

Reynolds & Moyer Coal Company, 

Kidder Coal Company, 

Total, 



17 

2 

20 

21 

1 

3 

No life lost. 
1 

No life lost, 
1 
2 

No life lost. 
3 

No life lost. 

No life lost. 

No life lost. 

No life lost. 



*71 



104,605 
631,419 
68,283 
32,562 
470,379 
101,753 

193,514 

193,151 
112,263 



25,768 



100,886 



Number of Non-Fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Mined Per Per- 
son Seriously Injlred. 



N;imes of Operators. 




Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company, 

Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, 

Susquehanna Coal Company, 

Kington Coal Company, 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company. 

Lehigh Valley < :oal Company, 

Red Ash Coal Company, 

Alden Coal Company, 

Parrish Coal Company, 

Plymoutii Coal company, 

West Knd Coal Company, 

Hanover Coal Company, 

HiUman Vein Coal Company, 

A. J. Davis, 

Newport Coal Company, 

The Reynolds A Mover Coal Company, 

The Kidder Coal Company, 

Totals, 



x5_: 
2® 






27,358 
90,202 
28,451 
24,421 
22,399 
19,078 
70,907 
24, 189 
11,946 
48,287 
44,905 
67,116 
25.768 
58,912 



31,554 



•The six faiol «iui six iion-t'.iiul ncoldents wlilcli uccurreU la new shafts, where no con! *a» piuJuced, 
are not Includ d in itaes* tables. 



no. 11. fourth anthracite district. 119 

Classification of Fatal and Non-Fatal Accidents. 



Causes of Accidents. 



By explosions of tire-damp, 

By tails of roof and coal, 

By tailing down shafts, 

Crushea and run over by mine-cars, . . 
By exijlojsions of powder and blasts, . . 
By miscellaneouis causes vmderground. 
By miscellaneous causes on surface, . . 



Totals, 



O <B 



77 



7 


33 


44 


68 


2 




7 


59 


4 


23 


6 


27 


7 


23 



233 



Number of widows, 46; orphans, 182. 

The Collieries of the Fourth District . 

During the year 1894 there were forty-three breakers and sixty-six 
openings at work more or less time, mining and preparing coal for 
market in the Fourth Anthracite district. An average of 46,789 
tens per day worked was produced, making a total production of 
7,162,961 tons in an average work of 153.1 days. 

The collieries in operation less than 153.1 days were those of the 
Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company. The No. 3 colliery of the 
Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, which, after working 153 
days, was destroyed by fire on the evening of November 15, and re- 
mained idle the remainder of the year. The No. 3 colliery of the 
Susquehanna Coal Company, where the production is not sufficient 
to keep the breaker working all day owing to the partial exhaustion 
of the mine. The Gaylord colliery of the Kingston Coal Company, 
several weeks' idleness caused by the disastrous cave of February 
13th. The collieries of the Lehigh Valley Coal Company, the Red 
Ash Coal Company, the Parrish Coal Company, the Mafifet colliery of 
the Hanover Coal Company, and the Warrior Run colliery of Mr. A. 
J. Davis. 

The Lee colliery of the Newport Coal Company did not work more 
than 100 days. It was suspended on August 25th, and since then ha» 
passed into the possession of another company. The Buttonwood 
colliery of the Parrish Coal Company is an old mine enlarged and re- 
oi)ened. It was lying idle since 1866. The shaft was enlarged and 
sunk to a deeper seam and a new breaker was erected. It began 
shipping coal in September, 1894, and worked 50 days until the end 
of the year. 



120 RK PORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

It is thus evident, that if the collieries would work full time their 
producing capacity would exceed 14,000,000 tous per yeav. 

Collieries of the Lehigh aud Wilkes-Barre Coal Compauy. 

This company is the largest coal producer in this district. It oper- 
ated ten collieries, consisting of seven shafts aud live slopes in 1894. 
.\.il are large collieries, having workings of wide extent in several 
seams. ^Vith the exception of ^O. 10 all are working deep parts of 
the coal basin, where explosive gases are ev.olved in large quantities, 
requiring immense volumes of air currents and great care in the 
management. They are excellently ventilated and carefully con- 
ducted, aud liberal provisions are made to insure safety in the event 
of an accident occurring, which would disable the ventilating fans. 
A'o standing gas is permitted to remain in any part of thj 
\\orkings, and where such a large volume of air circulates, no satis- 
factory excuse can be presented by any foreman for the presence of 
standing gas. 

In gaseous gangways, where the feeders of gas are copious and 
lii'ble to ignite from blasts, water pipes are laid, with water under 
high pressure ready to apply immediately to extinguish ignited 
feeders, and it is frequently done. 

The rocks constituting the roof and lloor are in most parts strong 
and tenacious, and not much trouble has yet been caused by heaving 
and pucking of the bottom rocks. In the localities where the roof 
requires securing by timber, it is invariably done in a safe, strong 
aud skillful manner. No where can better timbering work be seen 
than in the mines of this company. 

The greatest part of the wc rkings are in large coal seams, but lately 
they begun to work the thin seams and have opened quite exten- 
sively in them. Their gangways, airways, and hauling passages are 
all large, clean and safely constructed, liaviujij ample room for the 
passage of large air currents and for the drivers and runners of the 
mine cars to travel along in safety. 

During the last few years effective imi)rovemeuts have been made, 
both inside and outside at their collieries, and at this time they are all 
in highly satisfactory condition. They were employing af the end of 
the year, 0,078 persons in iiud about tlie mines. Seventeen ])(M'sons 
were killed and 05 injured during 1804. Most of these were caused 
by falls of coal in the thick seams. Accidents of this character are 
much more frequent in thick than in thin seams. 

In an average of 121.58 days of work, they produced an average of 
14,082 tons per day, or a tnlal of 1,778,284 tons. Of this. 1,700,068 
tons were shipped to the markets. 

"The Wilkes-Barre Coal and Iron Company was incorporated in 



No. 11 FOIJRTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. -121 

Juue, 1804, aud in January, 1874:, it was consolidated witli tlie Honey 
lirooli Coal Company. Tlien the name was changed to "Lehigh and 
\\'ilkes-Barre Coal Company/' The organization is conducted undei- 
the charter of the Broad Top Mining Company, dated June, 1871, 
which was absorbed a short time afterwards. 

In 1877 the property was plac ,'d in the hands of receivers, who con- 
tinued in control until January, 1882, when the company again ob- 
tained possession. Jt is controlled by the Central Railroad Company 
(►f NeAY Jersey, which owns nearly all of the stock and about -18,000- 
000 of bonds. 

The directors are J. Kogers Maxwell, Edward D. Adams, George F. 
llaker, James A. Garland, Henry Graves, Calvin Pardee and Charles 
Parrish. 

The officers are J. Rogers Maxwell, president; Geo. F. Baker, vice 
president; S. M. Williams, second vice president; Henry Graves, Jr., 
secretary and treasurer; VV. C. Johnson, general auditor; P. B. Heil- 
ner, general sales agent; L. A. Powelson, assistant general sales 
agent, and ^^^ T. Wintringham, superintendent of barges. 

The Wilkes-Barre Coal and Iron Company was the owner of a large 
Tract of land extending south from the city of Wilkes-Barre on each 
side of the Susquehanna river. Its property included about 6,000 
acres of coal land besides several thousand of timber laud. The 
Honey Brook Coal Company was chartered in 1804 with a capital of 
$.H,000,000. Its coal fields were very extensive, covering about 8,000 
acres located in Luzerne and Schuylkill counties. At present the 
Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company controls by ownership and 
lease nj^wards of 40,000 acres of valuable coal lands, a large i^ortion 
of which is undeveloped. Charles Parrish was president of both the 
Honey Brook and Wilkes-Barre Companies and for several years re- 
tained the same position in the new company, aud, during the time 
the receivers had control of the property, he operated the collieries in 
the Wilkes-Barre division under a contract. 

At the time of the consolidation spoken of, the directors of the 
Honey Brook Company were Charles Parrish, J. B. McCreary, John 
Taylor Johnston, J. B. Johnston. Charlemange Tower, Samuel Bon- 
nell, Jr., and A. L. Mnmper. The directors of the W^ilkes-Barre Coal 
find Iron Company were Charles Parrish, John Taylor Johnston, John 
I>eisenring, Samuel P.onnell, Jr., E. W. Clark and Jeremiah Skid- 
more. 

The mining officials at present are Elmer H. La wall, general super- 
intendent; Moi-gan R. Morgan, inside su])erintendent; W. J. Rich- 
ards, mining engineer; W. H. Herring, outside superintendent; 
James Pollock, mechanical engineer; offices, Wilkes-Barre, Pa; 
David R. Roberts, assistant superintendent, Audenreid, Pa. 

A new colliery, to be known as Maxwell No. 20, is under construe- 



122 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

tion at Ashley. The shaft and breaker will be completed ready to 
ship coal in a few months, and this is expected to add about 2,500 
tons per day to the already large producing capacity of this company. 

The following is a list of their collieries and names of the foremen 
in the Fourth or Wilkes-Barre district. 

Hollenback No. 2, Rees W. Morgan, inside foreman; J. A. Connor, 
outside foreman. 

Empire No. 4, D. W. Davies, inside foreman ; Thomas Williamson, 
outside foreman. 

South Wilkes-Barre Nos. 3-5, J. F. Jones, inside foreman; T. B. 
Robinson, outside foreman. 

Stanton No. 7, Wm. M. Thomas, inside foreman; Jacob Rhinehart, 
outside foreman, 

Jersey No. 8, S. R. Morgan, inside foreman; C, L. Peck, outside 
foreman. 

Sugar Notch No. 9, H. N. Martin, inside foreman; Thomas Mack, 
outside foreman. 

Lance No. 11, William E. Jones, inside foreman; Dennis Moore, 
outside foreman. 

Nottingham No. 15, James D. James, inside foreman ; G. R. Connor, 
outside foreman. 

Reynolds No. IG, James Rowe, inside foreman; J. B. Wolfe, outside 
foreman. 

Wanamie Nos. 18, 19, Richard Lloyd, inside foreman; Thomas C. 
Carr, outside foreman. 

Maxwell No. 20, S. R. Morgan, inside foreman; D. C. Tiffany, 
outside foreman. 

Collieries of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company. 

This company operated nine collieries in the Fourth Anthracite 
district in the year 1894. Four of these are located in Wilkes-Barre 
and five in the neighborhood of IMymouth. Besides these, two new 
shafts are about completed, one near the Boston, and one north of 
the No. 2 shaft, Plymouth, for the purpose of working the lower 
seams in properties where the old collieries are working the upper 
seams. 

This company employed an average of .3,501 persons in and about 
their mines during 1894, and worked 179.66 days. They produced 
1.262,838 tons of coal, of which 1,243,151 tons was shipped to market. 
This shows a producing capacity of 6,919 tons per day from their 
collieries in the Fourth district. 

Their mines in the Plymouth division are all, excepting the No. 4, 
working the Bennett or overlying seams. The No. 4 only has worked 
in the Red Ash and Ross seams; therefore, only a small proportion 
of these lower seams is mined. 



N'o- 11- FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 123 

lu their collieries in the Wilkes-Barre division, the workings in 
the Baltimore seam are nearly exhausted and the coal is mined at 
present from the Red Ash, Hillnian and Kidney seams. 

Of all the large coal producers, this company has maintained the 
best record as to accidents for many years. Last year, in 1894, they 
bad only two fatal and 14 non-fatal acidents in their nine collieries, 
and mined 631,419 tons per life lost, a remarkably good record. 

Their mines all have what is considered a safe roof, or top, except- 
in;j: portions of the Baltimore No. 3 mine, where the roof in some lo- 
cations is very bad. In past years there was a bad roof in sections of 
the Ross seam workings in the No. 4 mine, Plymouth, but it is much 
safer in the present workings. Taking all their mines in this dis- 
trict, they require much less timbering and propping than the mines 
of the other large companies. 

Hitherto they have been remarkably free from explosive gases in 
all excepting the Conyngham mine, and this in the last few years is a 
small colliery since the workings of the Baltimore seam have been 
tilled with water. Occasionally a small accumulation of gas is found 
in each of their collieries, but the quantity evolving is merely a trifle 
^hen compared with the volume emitted in the deepest mines of 
other companies. 

I'he ventilation is good and fairly conducted in the Wilkes-Barre 
mines, and while the quantity of air forced into the Plymouth mines 
is ample for the requirements, it is not as carefully conveyed to the 
face of the workings as it might be. There is no standing gas any- 
where in their mines — the mines that are in operation. The work- 
ings of the Baltimore and Conyngham, which are filled to a height of 
GO feet with water, may have some, but there is no one working in 
them. 

They have a large area of caved workings which cannot be exam- 
ined, but it is in sections where no gas has been seen, and no sign of 
any can be found around its outlines. 

This company has a large proportion of experienced miners who 
have been raised in their employ, and though they worked only 
179.60 days at the breaker, more or less work was done every day, 
nearly, by the miners and inside hands. Fewer accidents occur in 
proportion to the coal mined during steady daily work than when 
the work is done intermittently. 

The Delaware and Hudson Canal Company was chartered by the 
New York Legislature April 23, 1823, to construct a canal and rail- 
road from the coal fields of Pennsylvania to the Hudson river at 
Rondout, N. Y. The canal, extending from Honesdale to Rondout, 
was completed in October, 1828. The state of New York, in 1827, 
loaned its credit to the enterjirise to the amount of $500,000 and 
again in 1829 for |200,000. 



124 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

The company is largely engaged in mining and selling coal, but 
the D. «fe H. Canal now forms a veiy small part of its transportation 
facilities. This company operates a number of railroads aggregating 
a length of 687,72 miles, together with the Delaware and Hudson 
Canal from Honesdale to Kondont, a length of 108 miles. 

The com})any's coal lands are scattered for a distance of 40 miles 
in the ^^'yomiug and Lackawanna valleys, and the headquarters of 
the coal department is now located in their new railroad depot 
building at Bcranton, Pa. 

The first mining operations were in the vicinity of Carbondale, 
from which place a gravity road was built to carry the coal over the 
mountains to Honesdale; it was finished in 1829, and the company 
shipped 7,000 tons in that year. 

Altogether they have thirty-three collieries in operation, nine of 
which are in the Fourth inspection district. This company is not- 
able for its conservative methods of mining and its cautiousness in 
adopting new devices. The capacity of their breakers is not larger 
than the producing capacity of the mines, but in most cases is rather 
less. They are not what is understood as "hustlers," but with their 
steady motion and safe mining })roperties. Ihey uiine coal cheap with 
the best recoi-d foi- safety to the employes. 

The mining operati(ms are in cliarge of the folh)wing officers: A. 
H. Vandling, geneial su}>eriutend(Mit coal department; (\ H. Scharar, 
chief engineer mine department; J. L. Atherton, general outside su- 
perintendent; Andrew Xichol, general mine superintendtMit ; Andrew 
r. Pattern, assistant mine superintendent Lack, division; W. L, 
l'\x)te, assistant superintendent Wilkes-Barre division; E. R. Peck- 
ens, assistant sujierinteudeiit Plymoutli division, and Alexander 
Siui)>son, master mechanic. 

The names of the collieries and of th- forenuMi in this district 
are as follows: 

P»altimore No. 2, .Tnm<>s Hhepherd, inside foreman; Elihu Smith 
or.tside foreman, 

Baltimore No. 3, William Armstrong, inside foi-eman; E, M. Brad- 
shaw, outside foreman. 

Baltimore tunnel, John (\ Williams, inside foicman; Ed. Macldn, 
outside foreman. 

Conyngham. Thomas Stoneham. inside forcMuan; .b»hn Bowers, out- 
side foreman. 

Boston, Owilym P. Evans, insi(l(> foi-eman: .las. ^\'. N'andling, out- 
side foreman. 

Plymoutli No. 2, E. H. Rees, inside foreman; E. I). Peckens, out- 
side foreman. 



No. 11. FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 125 

Plymoutli No. 3, Job Habblett, inside foreman; Oscar Schnell, out- 
side^ foreman, 

Plymouth No. 4. Edward Hahn, inside foreman; John Dooley, oat- 
side foreman, 

Plymouth No. 5, I). J. Linskill, inside foreman; J. N. Atherton, out- 
side foreman. 

The board of managers of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Com- 
pi'.ny is as follows: 

eJames Roosevelt, Robert M, Olyphant, Wm. H, Tillinghast, Alfred 
Van SantVoord, James A. Roosevelt, Alexander E, Orr, Cornelius 
Vanderbilt, Chauncey M. Depew, John A. Stewart, James W, Alex- 
ander, James R. Taylor, Benjamin Brewster and Horace G. Young. 

President, Robert M. Olyphant, New York city. 

Vice President. James Roosevelt, New York city. 

Second vice president. Horace G. Young, Albany, New York. 

Treasurer, Charles A. Walker, New York city. 

Secretary, F. IMurray Olyphant, New York city. 

General sales agent. Thomas F. Torrey, New York city. 

General counsel, David Wilcox, New York city. 

General agent of real estate department, C, S. Weston, Scranton,Pa. 

Superintendent of coal department, A. H. Vandling, Scranton, Pa. 

Superintendent of Pennsylvani'i division, C. R. Manville, Carbon- 
dale. Pa. 

Collieries of the Susquehanna Coal Company. 

The collieries of this company are located in Nanticoke and Glen 
I.yon, near the western end of the Wyoming Valley. They had four 
breakers, supplied with coal from seven mine openings, consisting 
of two double shafts having four hoisting cages in each, one single 
shaft having two cages, two slopes, and two level tunnels in opera- 
tion during the year 1894. 

They worked an average of lOO-.'^yi days and j^roduced 1,365,660 tons 
of coal, or 7,174 tons per day. Of this 1,344,102 tons was shipped to 
market. The number of persons employed in and about the mines 
were 4,117. There were 20 fatal and 48 non-fatal accidents. 

In the No. 3 West Nanticoke mine, though the coal was all taken 
from ]Mllais, 88.769 tons were mined without one accident. The ad- 
vancing woik of this mine is finished. Tn the No. 6 tunnel at Glen 
lAon, one jierson only was injui'ed. All the other accidents occurred 
in and about the other openings. Excepting the two mines named, 
the operations ai'<^ in difficult and dangerous ground. The seams 
arc irregular, faulty, and lying deep in the earth, where the volume 
of fire damp emitted is exceedingly large. The roof is generally bad, 
refjuiring a great amount of skillful timbering. The bottom rocks 
aie, in the lowest seams, too soft to sustain the pressure of the pil- 



126 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

lars and the weight of the strata resting thereon, and is heaving up 
in the worked out parts, causing much trouble and expense to keep 
the haulage and ventilating passages open and in good order. 

With a view of obviating some of the difficulties peculiar to these 
mines, the pillar and breast method of mining was changed to a kind 
of block work. The change was gradually introduced as the work- 
ings were driven on during the last four years. It is rather soon to 
determine the effect of this change, but hitherto there has been no 
perceptible effect on the number of accidents, as compared with the 
quantity of coal mined. The future may show better results, and 
we believe it will. 

There are six coal seams simultaneously mined from the openings 
at Nanticoke, and three in the No. 6 shaft, Glen Lyon, and all are 
worked by the same method. 

All are efficiently ventilated, and considering the great difficulties 
peculiar to the territory in which they are mining, these mines are 
kept in good condition. The officials are at all times willing and 
ready to comply with the requirement of the law and to carry out the 
suggestions of the Mine Inspector whenever it is necessary in order 
to secure the safety of the employes. The manager and superinten- 
dent have on several occasions urged the Inspector to exercise the 
freedom of suggesting improvements tending to enhance the safety 
of the mines, whether or not the law requires it, and this is freely 
exercised. 

The machinery and appliances at the collieries of this company are 
all strong, efficient and of the most approved character. 

The Susquehanna Coal Company is the largest producer of four 
anthracite mining companies controlled through the ownership of 
stock, by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. It was organized 
March 15, 1869. The mining operations are under the supervision of 
the following staff: 

Irving A. Stearns, manager; George T. Morgan, superintendent; 
J. H. Bowden, chief mining engineer; W. J. M. Turner, general inside 
foreman; Michael Magee, assistant outside superintendent. Office, 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa., and Nanticoke, Pa. 

The names of the mines and the foremen are as follows: 

Shaft No. 1, Lee seam, Daniel Daniels, inside foreman; James 
Croop, outside foreman. 

Shaft No. 1, Forge seam. David Griffiths, inside foreman; James 
Croop, outside foreman. 

No. 3, West Nanticoke, Lewis Morgan, inside foreman; R. P. Rob- 
inson, outside foreman. 

Shaft No. 2, Jacob Morgan, inside foreman. 

Slope No. 4, John S. Lee, inside foreman. 

S])nft No. 6, Isaac Britten, inside foreman; William Morgan, out- 
side foreman. 



ISTo. 11. FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 127 

Tunnel No. 6, Worthy Carver, inside foreman; William Morgan, 
outside foreman. 

Slope No. 6, Thomas K. Williams, inside foreman, William Morgan, 
outside foreman. 

The chief officers of the Susquehanna Coal Company are as follows: 

George B. Roberts, President. 

Isaac J. Wistar, vice president. 

George H. Koss, Secretary. 

Thomas P. Havilaud, Treasurer. 

Directors, George B, Roberts, Isaac J. Wistar, John P. Green, A. J. 
Cassatt, N. P. Shortridge, Henry D. Welsh, William J. Howard, Amo8 
R. Little, Samuel Rea. 

Collieries of the Kingston Coal Company. 

In the year 1863 the collieries now operated by the Kingston Coal 
Company at Edwardsdale, Pa., Avere leased and operated by the firm 
of Waterman and Beaver. They were then under the supervision 
of the late David Morgan, who, in the year 1868, left the company, 
and Mr. Daniel Edwards took charge of the operation. In the year 
1877 the Kingston Coal Company, Limited, was organized and oper- 
ated for six years. Then the Gaylord Coal Company was united, 
and on August 8th, 1883, the Kingston Coal Company was chartered, 
with a capital stock of one million dollars. 

Jii 1894 they operated three breakers, five shafts and one slope. 
Four of the shafts are located in Edwardsdale, and one shaft and one 
slope in Plymouth. 

They are working more or less coal from the Red Ash, Ross, Ben- 
nett, Cooper and the Lance seams. Each mine has an extensive area 
of coal laud to work from, and an operation of such a length of time 
has a large area of old workings. Much of this is closed by caves, 
but there is no gas existing therein, and all is safe. 

The production for 1894 was 683,813 tons in a work of 175.98 days, 
an average of 3,317 tons per day. The number of persons employed 
was 2,162. The number of accidents was higher than usual, owing 
to the disaster of February 13 in the Gaylord shaft, an account of 
which is given in another part of this report. The record of the 
Kingston Coal Company's accidents is higher than its neighbor's for 
the last two years, when compared with the quantity of coal mined. 
In Nos. 1 and 4 shafts, slopes are sunk to the dip, a distance of nearly 
a mile. The lower workings in these slopes, in the Red Ash seam, 
have dangerous top, but in the npper seams the roof is generally 
better. A serious mistake made when sinking these slopes was, that 
proper precautions were not taken to provide means for an efficient 
ventilation of the lower workings. 

While the quantity of air circulating through these workings is 



128 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

ample for the few men employed there, the volume is not sufficient 
for a larger number of workingmen. The attention of the officials 
was called to this over a year ago, but hitherto only futile attempts 
have been made to improve it. In July, the writer found that the 
return air in the slopes of No. 4 shaft was charged with two per cent, 
of explosive gas, and all had to work by safety lamps until the ven- 
tilation was somewhat improved and the air made reliably safe. 

The workings to the rise in all the seams are fairly ventilated, and 
their general condition is satisfactory. The officers of the Kingston 
Coal Company are as follows: 

Daniel Edwards, president and superintendent. 

William B. Chamberlain, treasurer. 

E. 1\. Morgan, secretai'y. 

Directors, Daniel Edwards, .John C. Bullitt, E. W. Dwight, T. L. 
ISewell and W. B. Chamberlin. 

Mr. Daniel EdAvards has acted as superintendent since the year 1868. 
He is assisted by Morgan D. Rosser, who is directly in charge of the 
Nos. 1 and 4 shafts, and by Gwilym Edwards, who has charge of the 
Nos. 2 and 3 shafts, and of the Gaylord mine. The names of the 
mines and of the foremen are as follows: 

Shaft No. 1, David M. Jones, inside foreman; Thomas J. Morgan, 
outside foreman. 

Shaft No. 2, Lance vein, ^rordecai Dando, inside foreman; Wil- 
liarii Cook, outside foreman. 

Shaft No. 2, Bennett vein, .John D. Williams, inside foreman; Geo. 
W. Edwards, outside foreman. 

Shaft No. 3, Richard B. Watkins, inside foreman; Geo, W. Ed- 
wards, outside foreman. 

Shaft No. 4, .Tohn Armstrong, inside foreman; Thos. J. Morgan, 
outside foreman. 

Gaylord, D. W. Morris, inside foreman; Frank Trimble, outside 
foi*('man. 

Collieries of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Com- 
pany. 

(k)U(eining the history of this company, the following is copied 
from the "Coal Trade Journal." 

"Tliis company, which has a charter antedating the present Con 
stitulioii of the State of l*ennsy]vania, is one of the few privileged 
to caiiy on coal mining and selling, together witli ti-ansportation. 

This was originally the Ligett's Gap Railroad, incorporated by 
special act of Pennsylvania Legislature approved April 7, 1832, chai-- 
tered March 10, 1849; name changed by special act of Pennsylvania 
Legislature. apj)roved April 14. 18.51. to Lackawanna and Western: 
consolidated Ai)i-il 30. 1853, with the Delaware and Cobbs Gap Rail- 



No. 11, FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 120 

load (chartered December 4, 1850), and name changed to 'Delaware, 
LackaAvanna and Western Raih-oad Company.' The road was open- 
ed from Scranton to Great Bend October 20, 1851, and from Scranton 
lo the Dehiware river May I'T, 1857. In 1850 a hnise was taken of the 
Warren Raihoad, extending from the Delaware river to a junction 
with the Central Railroad of New Jersey, the latter line Ix-iiig us(m1 
]»rior to 1875 as an outlet to the Hudson river. 

In 1868 a lease was taken of the Morris and Essex Railroad, which 
lunv, with the Warren Railroad, forms this company's line to the 
Hudson. 

In 1855 a ])er}K'(ual lease was taken of the Cayuga and Susque- 
lianna Railroad. In 1805) a lease was taken of the Oswego and Syra 
cuse Railroad. In 1809 control was obtained of the Syracuse, Bing- 
hiinipton and New York Railroad by the purchase of the major part 
of its stock. In 1871 the Galley Railroad, extending from Great 
Bend to Binghampton. was built in order to form a connection with 
the Syi'acuse, Bingham])ton and New York Railroad, the Greene, and 
the Utica, Chenango and Susquehanna Valley Railroad's leased lines. 

fn 1873 the" Delaware, Lnckawanna and Western, and the Lacka- 
wanna and Bloomsburg Railroad companies were consolidated. In 
Septtmber, 1881, the company obtained control of the Sussex Rail- 
road of New Jersey by the purchase of a major part of its stock. In 
October, 1882, a lease was taken of the New York, Lackawanna and 
^^'estern Railway, which extended the line to Buffalo. Total mileag'i 
now oi)erated, 898 miles." 

The coal lands of the company are located in Lackawanna and Lu 
zeine counties, Pa. In 1894 it operated 24 collieries, two of which 
are located in the Fourth district, viz: Avondale and Y^ oodward. 
The pioduction of these two collieries for the year 1894 was 470,379 
tons. Shipments 427,377 tons in a Avork of 169.15 days. Production 
l)er day, 2,780 tons. Q^he number of fatal accidents was one, and of 
non-fatal, 21. In the Avondale mine both the Red Ash and Ross 
seams are mined. In the Red Ash seam the workings to the rise 
from the shaft are nearly exhausted. More or less explosive gas is 
found in the workings of both seams, but none standing. The roof 
is generally good and so is the general condition of the mine. In the 
No. 2 slope the ventilation is hardly adequate for the future work- 
ings, but a new air shaft is in process of sinking for the purpose of 
im])roving it, and this will be completed during 1895. 

The Woodward Colliery began to ship coal in 1888, but it is now a 
large colliery Avith extensive working in the Red Ash, Rossi. Bennett 
and Cooper seams. The shafts are over 1,000 feet deep, and, in the 
Bennett and Red Ash there are deep underground slopes extending 
from the shaft levels. A large quantity of fire damp is evolved in each 
seam. The roof is generally fair, except in the Red Ash seam, in 
9-11-94 



130 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

which, at some places it is very bad. At the deepest points of the 
worliings the floor or bottom roclc heaves, causing much labor and 
expense to keep the passages safe and in order. Hundreds of props 
are broken merely by the upheavel of the bottom rock. 

The ventilation is good throughout, and a large, new fan is in 
course of construction to ensure its efliciency in the future. 

The coal department of this company is located at ycranton under 
the direction of the following officers: 

W. R. Storrs, general coal agent. 

W. H. Storrs, assistant general coal agent. 

A. H. Storrs, superintendent. 

John F. Snyder, "chief mining engineer. 

Benjamin Hughes, general mine superintendent. 

Thomas D. Da vies, assistant general mine superintendent. 

Thomas Phillips, assistant general mine superintendent. 

The foremen of the collieries are as follows: 

Avondale, Evan J. Evans, inside foremen; T. D. Kingsley, outside 
foreman. 

Woodward, William O. Williams, inside foreman; Wm. Beacham, 
outside foreman. 

Bliss (new colliery), Edwin Rees, inside foreman ; Thomas H. Carey, 
outside foreman. 

The officers of the company are as follows: 

President, Samuel Sloan, New York. 

First Vice President, E. R. Holden, New York. 

Second Vice President, W. S. Sloan, New York. 

Secretary and Auditor, Fred. F. Chambers, New York. 

Treasurer, Fred. H. Gibbons, New York. 

Managers, John I. Blair, George Bliss, Eugene Higgins, William 
W. Astor, William Rockfeller, Henry A. C. Taylor, J. Rogers Max- 
well, George F. Baker, James Stillman, Alex. T. Van Nest, Frank 
Worth, Hamilton McK. Twombley, Harris C. Fahnestock, F. W. Van- 
derbilt. 

Officers of transportation department: 

W. H. Hallstead, general manager, Scranton, Pa. 

G. Bogart, superintendent Delaware, Lackawanna and Western 
main line, Scranton, Pa. 

Jnraes Archbald, chief engineer, Scranton, Pa. 

Collieries of the Lehigh Valley Coal Company. 

The Lehigh Valley Coal Company was organized January 11, 1881, 
to mine and sell coal. In 1884 the property of the Spring Mountain 
Coal Company was purchased, and on June 1st, 1884, 45,000 acres of 
land in Centre county. Pa., known as the Snow Shoe property, was 
also purchased. Since then, various additions have been made to the 



No. 11. FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. ISl 

property, and it is owned entirely by the Lehigh Valley Railroad 
Company. 

Of the twelve collieries owned and operated by this company in 
the Wyoming Coal Field, only two are located in the Fourth district, 
viz: Dorrance and Franklin; both these collieries are located in 
Wiikes-Barre, Pa. 

The production in 1894 was 805,261 tons and the shipment was 
280,(>83. Days worked 151.97, and the number of employes was 931. 
Three were fatally and 16 seriously injured. 

In the Dorrance colliery the Baltimore, Hillman, Bowkley and 
Abbott seams are being worked. The workings are effectively ven- 
tilated by two thirty-foot fans located one on each shaft. The roof 
is generally good, needing but little work in timbering. The work- 
ings across under the Susquehanna river are exceedingly dry and 
dusty. The greatest need for care is to prevent accumulations of 
fire damp, for a large quantity is unceasingly evolved, but in this they 
have hitherto been successful. 

The openings of the Franklin colliery are two main slopes, one on 
the Baltimore seam, from which, by a tunnel through the upper 
rocks three of the upper seams are also mined. The other slope is 
sunk from the surface across the strata to the Red Ash seam on a 
pitch of about 30 degrees. The Red Ash is in two parts, and both 
are separately mined. Each slope has a separate system of ventila- 
tion produced by a fan located on the upcast of each mine. An- 
other fan is soon to be constructed to ventilate the upper seams of 
the No. 1 slope. The workings of both slopes are in fair condition, 
the roof is generally good, except in some localities in the Red Ash 
seam, where careful timbering is required. 

The officers in charge of the mining department are: 

W. A. Lathrop, general superintendent. 

T. R. Moister, division superintendent. 

R. S. Mercur, division engineer. 

Robert Shoemaker, outside district superintendent, Dorrance 
colliery. 

Joseph J. Jones, inside district superintendent, Dorrance colliery. 

Thomas Samuel, mine foreman, Dorrance colliery. 

Frank Eicke, outside foreman, Dorrance colliery. 

Thomas R. Thomas, general mine foreman, Franklin colliery. 

William N. Thomas, mine foreman, Franklin colliery. 

Charles Lynn, outside foreman, Franklin colliery. 

Pi'incipal officers of the company: 

E. P. Wilbur, president, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Henry S. Drinker, general solicitor and assistant to president. 

Charles Hartshorne. first vice president, Philadelphia. 



132 REPORTS OP" THP: INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

William H. Sayre, secoud vice piesideut, South Bethlehem, Pa. 

John K. Fanshawe, secretary, Philadelphia. 

John B. Garrett, treasurer, Philadelphia. 

Israel W. Morris, general land agent, Philadelphia. 

W. A. Lathrop, general superintendent. AVilkes-Barre, Pa. 

Directors, Kobert H. Sayre, George H. Myers, Joseph Wharton, 
Thomas McKean, Beauveau Borie, John B. Garrett, Wm. L. Conyng- 
han), James I. Blakslee, C. O. Hkeer, Charles Hartshorne, W. A. Ing- 
ham. John R. Fell. 

Collieries of the Miscellaneous Coal Companies. 

Beside the collieries commented on in the foregoing articles, there 
were twelve collieries oi)erated by smaller companies in the Fourth 
district. These together produced 1,29(5,722 tons of coal and shipped 
to market 1,192,80G tons, in an average of 129.70 days of work. They 
employed 3,890 persons and mined 185,24(> tons of coal per life lost. 
Three of the seven fatal accidents took place in the Hillman vein 
colliery, two in the West End, and one each in the Alden and Dod- 
son collieries. The Nos. 1 and 2 collieries of the Red Ash Coal Com- 
pany, the Parrish and Buttonwood, of the Parrish Coal Company, and 
the Maffet, Warrior Run, Lee and Chauncey, did not have one fatal 
accident. 

These mines are all in safe condition and efficiently ventilated, 
^loie or less firedamp is emitted in each, but not in such quantities 
as we find in the deeper mines. They are working closer to the out- 
crops where the roof is generally better than in the deeper portions 
of the basin. 

The names of the collieries and of the officers are as follows: 

Nos. 1 and 2 Red Ash Coal Company. 

M. B. Williams, general superintendent, W'ilkes-Barre, Pa. 
P. H. Ganahan, assistant general superintendent, Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa. 

Daniel J. James, mine foreman No. 1 Red Ash. 
Joseph Hopie, outside foreman No. 1 Red Ash. 
Timothy Theopilus, mine foreman No. 2 Red Ash. 
John Herriotts, outside foreman No. 2 Red Ash. 

Officers of the Parrish Coal Company. 

IT. H. Ashley, general superintendent. Plymouth, Pa. 

Thomas R, Evans, general mine foreman, Plymouth, Pa. 

Parrish colliery, Henry G. WMlilams, inside foreman, Plymouth, 

i:a. 

Parrish colliery, Thaddeus Eddy, outside foreman, Plymouth, Pa. 
Buttonwood colliery, Wm. T. Pritchard, inside foreman. 
Buttonwood colliery, Merrit Frederick, outside foreman. 



No. 11. FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 133 

Officers of the Alden Coal Company. 

K. M. (Smith, general superintendent, Alden, Pa. 
Wm. H. Bray, mine foreman. 
William (^hl, outside foreman. 

Officers of the Pl^inouth Coal Company. 

James B. Davies, general superintendent, Plymouth, Pa. 
John B. Davies, assistant superintendent. 
Paniel K. Davies, mine foreman. 
•J. C. Young, outside foreman. 

Officers of the Hanover Coal Company. 

J. Roberts, Jr., general superintendent, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
Daniel Lewis, general mine foreman. 
J. Willard Good, mine foreman. 
Lee Minnick, outside foreman. 

Officers of the Hillman Vein Coal Company. 

S. J. Tonkin, general superintendent, \\'ilkes-Barre, Pa. 
Hugh Jones, mine foreman. 
Stanley J. Tonkin, outside foreman. 

Officers of the Warrior Run Colliery. 

A. J. Davis, general manager, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
John C. Jones, general superintendent. Peely, Pa. 
William ^^. Williams, mine foreman. 
K. F. Lloyd, outside foreman. 

Officers W^est End Coal Company. 

L. L. Sarge, general superintendent, Shickshinny, Pa. 
Henry Adams, mine foreman, Shickshinny, Pa. 
Jonathan Weir, mine foreman, Shickshinny, Pa. 
W. A. Briggs. outside foreman, Sliickshinny, Pa. 

Officers of the Reynolds and Moyer Coal Company. 

C. n. Reynolds, general superintendent, Kingston, Pa. 
M. H. Corgan, mine foreman. 

Colliery Improvemiwta in 1894. 

Notwithstanding the depression in the coal trade during 1S04, im- 
portant imjirovements were made at a number of the collieries of 
this district, a detailed account of which is given in the following: 



134 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company. 

Hcllenback No. 2 Colliery — 

Return airway in rock from the Diamond basin; 12x8x400 feet. 

No. 2 Red Ash slope being sunk in coal in the bottom split vein. 

Annex on east and west side of breaker for the preparation of 
stove and chestnut coal. 

South AVilkes-Barre No. 5 Colliery — 

No. 1 airshaft has reached the vein; o7xl2x(i50 feet. 

Tunnel has been driven from Stanton to Hillman vein. 

Rock slope finished from Hillman to Baltimore veins and second 
openings in rock finished to same. 

New fan, 35 feet diameter, has been erected at No. 5 shaft. 

Erected 250 horse power Stirling boilers. 

Erected 500 horse power National boilers. 

Erected 470 feet of 8-inch steam line to fans. 

Sugar Notch No. 9 Colliery — 

Main airway enlarged to 90 square feet; 1,050 feet in length. 
Ross slope extended in rock 120 yards. 
Tbnnel, Twin to Ross veins. 

Lance No. 11 Colliery — 

Rock slope to Ross veins finished; sunk a distance of 400 feet this 
year. 

No. 2 airshaft completed to Ross vein, and second openings are 
no:v being driven to connect with the rock slope workings. 

No. 12 plane partly in coal and partly in rock has been finished. 

No. 2 slope in coal has been finished. 

Erected 250 horse power National boilers. 

Erected 430 feet extra steam line to fans. 

Nottingham No. 15 Colliery — 

The Ross slope is being extended in rock through the anticlinal. 
The Red Ash No. 3 slope is being extended in coal. 
Erected one 24 feet by 8 feet Guibal fan on No. 1 airshaft. 
Erected 300 horse power Stirling boilers. 
Ei'ected 4,000 feet 8-inch steam lines to fans. 

Wanamie No. 18 Colliery — 

No. 5 slope is being sunk in coal in the Ross vein. 

Tw » bore holes, 200 feet deep each, have been put down for hoist- 
ing and pumping purposes. 

No 19 slope has been sunk in coal almost to the basin. 

Erected one pair geared engines, 18x30-ineh, with 8xl0-foot drums. 



N"o. 11. FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 135 

Delaware and Hudson Canal Company. 

No. 2 Baltimore — 

A new double fan was erected, 17^ feet diameter, enclosed in brick- 
work, and an underground slope was driven to a depth of 700 feet, 
which is still being extended. 

lioston — 

The new shaft was sunk to a depth of 475 feet, and its sinking is 
continued. It is 12x33.5 feet, and has passed through three coal 
seams. 

No. 5 Colliery — 

The new shaft was sunk to a depth of 725 feet during 1894, and its 
sinking was continued. Its size is 10|x33 feet. 

Susquehanna Coal Company. 

Five new tunnels were driven in the mines of this company: 

One 8x14 feet and 800 feet in length from the Ross to the Twin 
seam. 

One Sxl4 feet and 400 feet in length from the Hillman to the Hill- 
man seam. 

One 8x12 feet and 200 feet in length from the Forge to the Forge 
seam. 

One 8x34 feet and 800 feet in length, from the Forge and was unfin- 
ished at end of year. 

Oni- 8x14 feet and 500 feet in length, from the Mills to the Mills 
seam. 

Three of the underground slopes were extended. The No. 10 slope 
was ext'-nded a length of 2,000 feet. No. 12 was extended 500 feet, 
and No. 13 1,500 feet. 

Five new gravity planes were made, varying in length from 200 to 
1,500 feet. These improvements open new areas of coal property in 
each of the seams. 

Improvements by the Parrish Coal Company. 

The underground slope on the Baltimore seam in the Parrish col- 
liery was extended a distance of 900 feet, making the total length of 
this slope 2,316 feet. 

Improvements by the Alden Coal Company. 

A new air shaft was sunk for the Alden colliery from the surface 
to the Cooper seam, a depth of 612 feet. Its sectional area is 416 
sqiiure fert. A new fan, 24 feet diameter, is in progress of construc- 
tion. The engine is 20x36 inches, directly connected. This will be 
applied to ventilate the north basin workings of the property. 



13G REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Improvements by the West End Coal Company. 

,\ new slope was opened at the West End colliery on the Ked Ash 
seani and sunk to a depth of 500 feet, having an average grade of 10 
degrees. ^Mleu completed it is expected to be about 8,000 feet in 
depth. 

Improvements at the ^^'arrior Kun Colliery. 

A new Ian was erected at this colliery to replace an old one. It is 
20 feet ill diameler, run by an engine llMncli diameter, directly con- 
nected. At a speed of 02 revolutions per minute 86,000 cubic feet of 
air is exhausted, the water gauge being 1.8 inches. 

The Buttonwood Colliery. 

This was an old colliery and was abandoned in 18GG after working 
but a short time. Tlie Parrish Coal Company re-opened it under a 
lease from the Lehigh and Wilkes- Barre Coal Company. During the 
years 1892, 1893 and 1894. The shaft was enlarged to a size of 32x12 
feet and sunk through four coal seams, the lowest of which is cut at 
a depth of 080 feet, which is the present depth of the shaft. They are 
working the two lower seams, viz: the Hillman and Bennett. 

.\n air shaft was sunk from the surface to the Hillman seam, a 
dei)th of 57-1 feet, having an area of 12x22 feet. The two lower 
seams are connected also by a tunnel 370 feet in length. A tunnel is 
I eing driven to the Kidney seam, which was driven a distance of 42 
feet at (he end of the year. When this is completed, the workings of 
the three seams will be connected to (he air shaft, which is the 
second opening. 

A new 24-foot fan Avas erected on the top of the air shaft, run by 
an engine 20x30 inches, directly connected. At 48 revolutions it is 
exhausting 93,000 cubic feet of air ]>er minute, with a pressure of 
.7 inch water gauge. 

The new breaker was completed and s(ar(ed to ship coal in Septem- 
ber, 1894. It is substantially buil( and cciuipped with the best kind 
of machinery, and every dangerous part is protected by railing or 
covering, as the law reijuires. At the shafts and breaker iliere are 
three pairs of hoisting engines, aggregating 2.170 liorse power. 

Concerning the history of the Old Budoiiwood colliery and the 
cause of its abandonmenl, the following account was kindly fur- 
niylied liy .Mr. .Tames E. Koderiek. who was in charge at that time. 

Stockton, I'a.. Febrnary 2S. 1895. 
Mr. C. ^\. Williams. 

Inspector of (-oal Mines: 

My Dear Sir: Yours of the 20tli received. In re])ly will say that in 
\ho early part of 18<;f; .Tohn T. (iriitith se<-ured Ihe contracl of But- 
tonwood shaft to put the coal on big cars at so much per ton, Some 



N-0. 11. FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 137 

time in the summer of that year an explosion of gas took place which 
shattered the shaft and inside workings, killing all the men in the 
mine, viz, three. The gas exploded from a furnace located near the 
bottom of llie shaft. During the laic fnll of IStiC, J. T. Griffith was 
iii;;d(' the general inside superintendent of the Lehigh and Wilkes- 
IJarre Coal Company, and he delegated me (at the time the mine 
foreman of the Empire shaft) to go to Buttonwood and repair the 
damage made by said explosion and prepare the place for work. I 
arranged a new fan, near top of shaft, timbered and relined the shaft 
from top to bottom, cleared the inside workings of gas, reopened the 
airways, timbered airways and gangways, etc.; in fact, made the 
place safe. While doing all that work we used only safety lamps. 
Afterwards we discarded the safety lamps and worked on for wrecks 
getting the inside ready to start to mine coal. John T. Griffith's con 
tract having been assigned to me. 

When we considered everything ready to start work, and being the 
last day until the breaker would start, w-e decided to qui^ early on 
that day. as the men had worked hard and faithfully while at this 
dangerous work. We went back to shaft, on cage and were hoisted 
to the surface. Every person having his naked light on his hat. I 
stepped off the cage at surface, and went towards engine house, 
which was only a short distance from shaft. On my way I met Big 
Bill, the engineer, who was going towards the top of the shaft. Just 
as I entered the engine house I heard a loud report and looked out, 
when to my horror, I saw the timbers, top of shaft, fan and every- 
thing movable going up into the air. Before I recovered myself two 
more explosions took place. As soon as possible I ran down to top of 
shaft, and behold all the men that came up with me (eight in number, 
and also Big Bill the engineer,) were horribly burned and rolling in 
the black coal dirt. The only living person whom I remember was 
with me w-as James McDade, now of your city. Of the others I only 
remember Joshua Da vies, late of Wilkes-Barre, and Big Bill, the en- 
gineer. 

You may ask. what caused the explosion? Where did the gas 
come from? 

Undoubtedly the explosion was caused by gas coming in contact 
with the men's naked lights on the surface, while taking their tools 
off the cage. Where the gas came from is not so easy to answer, 
as there was not a lampful of gas in any part of the mine when we 
("nme out. .Joshua Davies. our fire boss, and a better man could 
not be found, had made a thorough tour before we left the mine. 

In my humble opinion, the gas that caused this explosion r>am(* 
from old workings abandoned and wnlled in about ninety feet from 
the bottom of the shaft. T think n fall must have oceurred in somo 



138 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

I)ait of these old workings, the force of the air from said fall burst 
the brick walls about the shaft, allowing this confined gas to escape 
up through the shaft. During the winter of 180G and 18G7 I was sent 
again to Buttonwood by J. T. Griffith to take out the pumps, column 
pipes and pump rods. This was accomplished without anj- loss of 
life and but a slight injury to one person. All this work was done 
without even the aid of a safety lamp — all by s.^nse of feeling and 
knowing the place perfectly well. 

Of the men with me doing this work, I can think of only two, the 
late John Lewis, Newtown, now Rolling Mine Hill, Wilkes-Barre, and 
the late William Richard, of Warrior Run, then of Wilkes-Barre. 

I think the shaft was sunk in 1859 and 1860. 

Very truly, 

JAS. E. RODERICK. 

The Revival of the Chauncey Colliery. 

The name of this colliery reappears this year among the list -of 
producing collieries. It was abandoned at the close of 1886, the old 
breaker rotted down, and from appearances, it was permanently 
abandoned. The Reynolds and Moyer Coal Company, Limited, leas?d 
the culm bank and erected a separator. Subsequently a lease on the 
coal remaining in the old mine was obtained and a small breaker was 
erected, which started to ship coal at the end of the year 1894. The 
chief part of the coal production reported this year came from the 
culm bank, but the old tunnel is being reopened and also the work- 
ings of the Ross seam. A small fan was erected to produce ventila- 
tion, and the mine will soon be in shape to furnish coal. 

The Maxwell Colliery No. 20. 

This is a new colliery being opened by the Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre 
Coal Company. The sinking of the shaft was started in 1892. Its 
size is 54x12 feet. In 1893 the sinking was suspended, but it was re 
sumed after a few months. At the end of 1894 the shaft had passed 
the Baltimore seam and was at a depth of 820 feet. The depth to 
the Baltimore seam is 648 feet. From this point to the Red Ash 
seam the size of the shaft is reduced to 37x12 feet. Connections arc 
already made to the Bnltimoro seam workings, from which tunnel^^ 
have been driven to work the upper lifts of the Ross and R/^d .\sh 
seams. 

A slope lias also been sunk from the surface to a depth of 635 feet 
on the Hillman seam. 

The immensely large breaker is completed and fully equipped with 
machinery ready to prepare and ship coal as soon as the shaft is com- 
pleted. 



No. 11. FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 139 

The Bliss and Auchincloss Nos. 1 and 2 Shafts. 

These three shafts are the property of the Delaware, Lackawanna 
and Western Railroad Company, located in Hanover township, about 
8 miles southwest of Wilkes-Barre city. They were started in 1892. 
The three are of equal size, being 12x43 feet 2 inches. At the close 
of 1894 the Bliss shaft was completed to the bottom of the Red Ash 
seam at a depth of 904 feet. The two Auchincloss shafts at this 
time were at a depth of 85 J feet each, and were connected under- 
ground by a passage driven in one of the coal seams passed. They 
are still sinking. A slope is being sunk on the Ross seam from the 
old Hanover tunnel gangway to effect a second opening in this seam 
for the Bliss shaft, and the old Hanover slope was reopened on the 
Baltimore seam, from which a gangway is being driven to make con- 
nection in that vein. The pitch in both these slopes, in some parts, 
is as steep as 55 degrees. 

A breaker is in progress of construction at the Bliss shaft which 
will be completed early in 1895. 

The following, furnished by Mr. A. H. Storrs, superintendent, gives 
a detailed account of the machinery and improvements made at these 
shafts during 1894: 

Bliss Shaft. 

During the early part of 1894 there were put in operation at this 
new shaft a pair of first motion hoisting engines, and with them the 
sinking of the last 200 feet of the shaft was done. The shaft sinking 
is now completed, the Red Ash vein having been reached at a depth 
of 888 feet, and the work of opening out the several veins is now 
progressing. 

The engines above referred to are a pair of 36-inch diameter by 
48-inch stroke slide valve engines, directly connected to a drum 
shaft 19 inches in diameter and 18^ feet between bearings. On this 
shaft there are a pair of conical drums 9 feet diameter at small 
end, and 13 feet diameter at large end, with a cylindrical extension 
at large end. 

One drum is keyed fast to the shaft: the other is fitted with a 
clutch admitting of the adjustment of the ropes to permit of hoisting 
in balance from the intermediate veins in the shaft. Each drum will 
coil 1,269 feet of 14-inch diameter rope. The engines are fitted with 
the 'Toore" balanced slide valves, and with steam reverse so ar- 
ranged that the motion of the reversing engine exactly follows that 
of the hand lever, permitting of linking up if desired. 

A novelty for this region is the use of the "Gooch" valve motion, 
which seems to have peculiar advantages for this service. 

Two brakes are provided, one on each drum. These engines have 
been sot in n brick house with iron roof trusses and roof covering. 



140 REPORTS OF THE INSPE«TORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

A slope is being sunk on the Ross vein from the old Espy tunnel 
gangway to make connection with the Bliss shaft. This is operated 
by engines on the surface through a bore hole. The two old Espy 
slopes have been pumped out and gangways are being driven east 
and west from them. 

Auchincloss. 

At this colliery two new hoisting plants have been installed during 
the year, and are now being used to complete the shaft sinking. 

The shafts are now down about 900 feet each. The engines at the 
main shaft are a pair of 36-inch by 48-inch slide valve engines, the 
same as described for Bliss, excepting that the drums will each coil 
3,800 feet of l^-inch rope. These drums are of same diameter as 
those at Bliss, but of wider face. 

At the second opening are a pair of 32-inch diameter by 60-inch 
stroke engines with Corliss valve motion, being the first engines of 
this type to be used for hoisting in this region. The cut-off on these 
engines is controlled by a governor which takes control of the en- 
gines upon their reaching the maximum speed, about 3,000 feet per 
minute in the shaft. When running at lower speeds, the engineei" 
has the same control of the engines with throttle and reverse as in 
the usual slide valve type. 

The drums on these engines are conical, 11 feet 8 inches diameter 
at small end, and 15 feet, 10 inches diameter at the large end, with 
cylindrical extension at the large end. They will coil 1,800 feet of 
l-]-inch rope each. 

One drum is fitted with a clutch, the same as on the '*Bliss" en- 
gines. As wnth the others, they are fitted w^ith steam reverse, and 
two brakes, one of which in this case is operated by steam. 

During the early summer, the two shafts at the Auchincloss were 
walled with concrete, from the rock to the surface, a height in one 
shaft of somewhat over 100 feet, and in the other of about SO feet. 

The average thickness of these walls is four feet, and the shafts 
are 1^2 feet by 43 feet 2 inches inside of walls. The concrete was 
machine mixed and as many as 1,200 barrels of material, stone, sand 
and cement were used in 12 hours, making 5 feet height of wall all 
around the shaft. 

Breaker No. 3, Delaware and Hudson Canal Company. Destroyed by 

Fire. 

At about seven P. M., Thursday. November 1.^, 1894, fire was dis- 
covevvTl in the pump room at the main No. 3 shaft of the Delaware 
and Hudson Canal Company, and every effort made to extinguish it 
fnilod. Tb'' breaker, pump room, engine nnd boiler houses were 



NTo. 11. FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 141 

completely consumed, and the machinery was all irreparably dam- 
aged. 

There wert ten men working in the mine, but all escaped through 
the Boston shaft without injury. The workings of the two mines are 
connected. 

The fan in the second opening was stopped and the hoisting shaft 
beneath the fire was converted to an up-cast. No smoke entered the 
mint^ workings. 

The next morning the company made preparations to build a new 
breaker about 300 feet west of the location of the old one, which is, 
by this time, about half finished and will be completed in April or 
-May, 1895. The new breaker is to be covered with sheet iron instead 
of boards. The engine house will be of brick, and only a simple 
frame will be erected over the shaft. 

A Singular Accident and IJappy Escape at the South Wilkes-Barre 

Colliery. 

The New York Retail Coal Dealers' Association visited the Wy- 
oming coal field, about 120 in number, and on Thursday, May 24, un- 
der the guidance of the officials of the Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal 
Cv mpany, they started early in the morning to make an examination 
of the South Wilkes-Barre colliery. After making a cursory exam- 
ination of the boiler plant, consisting of three batteries of high pres- 
sure water tube boilers of 750 horse power and twelve cylindrical 
boilers, they examined the 35-foot fan and the hoisting engines and 
outside arrangements. While some were going to see the breaker, 
the others desired to see the interior workings of the mines. 

When ready, nine visitors, in charge of Superintendent Morgan, 
desc.'uded the shaft on the first cage. The second party of nine, in 
cluirge of .John F. Jones, tlu^ mine foreman, was dest^ending, when, 
to the consternation of all on surface, one of the cylindrical boilers 
exploded with a loud report. All the hoisting engines and fan at 
both shafts were instantly made powerless. The flying boiler and 
debrit; had broken all the steam pipe lines. Fortunately, Mr. Elmer 
H. Lowall, the general superintendent, and Mr. W. J. Richards, chief 
mining engineer, find other o/ficials were at the head of the shaft. 
Every available man was set to work at once to repair. In fifteen 
minutes, by i)lugging a steam pipe, they were able to run the hoist- 
ing engines^ of No. j:, and all the men were hoisted out. The visitors 
ond over 400 workingmen were in the No. 5 shaft, 1,068 feet deep, 
which is the gassiest mines in the country, and no hope for ventila- 
tion for an hour at least. 

On losing steam the engineer applied the brake and stopped the de- 
scending cage within about Jn feet of the bottom, fortunately oppo- 



142 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

site a hole through the ];uriition to the ladder waj. The foreman 
led the visitors on to the ladders and to the bottom. He and Super- 
iuiendent Morgans were there, both cool and experienced. They 
learned the siLuatiou by telephone, and ordered the top men to pour 
water down th'. shaft compartments at once. This thought and or- 
der saved over 401) lives. It was executed promptly, and the first 
stream was pouring down in six minutes. The air current had al- 
ready reversed and would have come to the bottom of the shaft in an 
explosive condition in fifteen minutes. Messengers had been sent to 
all parts to call the workingmen out, and to see that no lighted lamp 
was forgotten. The visitors were told to climb the ladders, and 
every workman, as soon as he came, was sent up the same way. 

It was raining heavily, and a large stream of water running down 
the street was turned into the shaft. It had been utilized once be- 
fore to flood a fire, and that made it easy to turn in now. 

From some cause, at this time, the telephone failed to work, and 
uo information could be obtained on surface as to the situation below, 
and those ^\ho realized the awful situation trembled with fear and 
anxiety. 

There were 56 flights of steps to climb, in 20 feet lengths, having a 
platform at each length, and a vertical height of 1,008 feet from bot- 
tom of shaft to the surface. 

In a short time the boys and younger men reached the top, and 
said that all the men would come up the ladders; that the visitors 
were on thr. way climbing courageously. Shortly after, parties came 
and reported that the water made a good current of air, and that 
all the men were out of the faces and on the way out 

The officials understood that the small current caused by the falling 
water could not be sufficient to dilute the gas exuded, and that the air 
in the returns and up-cast, most probably, was explosive. In about one 
hour the steam pipe leading to the fan was repaired, but after a con- 
sultation of the officials, the Mine Inspector concurring, it was 
deemed best not to start it until all the men were out. If a lighted 
feeder existed, an explosion might be caused by starting the fan and 
thereby moving a body of gas upon the lighted feeder. It was evi- 
dent that starting the fan without first knowing the condition in the 
mine would be risky and would not increase the safety of the men, so 
it was not put in motion. Of course, an explosion might take place 
from a feeder burning, without starting the fan, or some person 
might thoughtlessly put his lighted lamp to a crevice in the partition 
between the ladderway and the up-cast and cause an explosion; but, 
fortunately, nothing happened and all came out safe. To see the 
mine foreman, John F. Jones, Superintendent Morgan R. Morgans, 
and the fire bosses appear on the surface was an assurance that all 
were out, and it was a happy relief and intense satisfaction to every- 



N'o- 11- FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 143 

body. It was peculiarly fortunate that the New York coal agents 
were there, for their presence had been the cause of the presence of 
all the mine officials. Mr. Lowall, Mr. Richards, Mr. Herring, the 
general outside superintendent were on the surface, and Morgan R. 
Morgans and John F. Jones and firebosses were at the foot of the 
shaft. All were in the best position to cope with this emergency, and 
all worked well and no mistakes were made. 

Electricity of Trolley Roads Found in the Mines. 
During the latter part of 1894, in the manner described in the fol- 
lowing, furnished by the ofScials of the Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre 
Coal Company, it was found and determined by elaborate experi- 
ments that in all the mines located between the electric railroad and 
the power plants, the pipes in the mines are charged with the elec- 
tricity of these roads on its return to the power plant. The explana- 
tion and tables of the result of the experiments are here presented: 



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No. 11. F'OURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 149 

Possible Gas Explosion Due to Trolley Currents. 

\\ hile eugaged iu iustalliug the pipes of the Shaw mine sigualiug 
apparatus at South Wilkes-Barre No. 5 colliery, one of the workmen 
reported that he had received an electrical shock. He was standing 
in water at the time at a point 8,000 feet from the foot of the shaft, 
and had placed his ear to the pipes iu order to listen for a signal. 
Experiments were then made with an ordinary magnetic needle, which 
proved conclusively the existence of an electrical current. The cur- 
rent was traced to the foot of the shaft and from the shaft to the sur- 
face to the operating room of the signaling apparatus. A bell of 
high resistance having been connected between the pipes of the 
Shaw system and the Wilkes-Barre Gas Company's mains, a strong 
current was found to be passing, and in order to determine its origin 
a number of tests were made in the vicinity. At a dwelling 500 feet 
distant from the colliery the pipes of the Crystal Spring Water Com- 
pany and the Wilkes-Barre Gas Company were used as the poles and 
a strong current shown. Here the water pipe was positive to the gas 
pipe negative. This test proved that the current originated outside 
the colliery, and the indications were that it was due to leakage from 
the lines of the Wilkes-Barre and W^yoming Valley Traction Com- 
pany. The Traction Company's electrician having been notified, 
after visiting and testing various portions of the mine, also ar- 
rived at this conclusion. 

South Wilkes-Barre No. 5 colliery is located between the Traction 
Company's power house and the Ashley Trolley line. In construct- 
ing this Ashley line the bonding was negligently done, iron wire 
being used, which became corroded and broken, leaving the rails 
without other connections than that furnished by the fish plates. The 
current returning from the cars west of Parrish street escapes at 
tliese joints, and naturally passes to the water and gas pipes laid in 
the streets. 

At the corner of Hazle and Parrish streets, the water and gas mains 
on Parrish street afford a short circuit and the line of least resistance 
for the current to pass to the Nanticoke Trolley line, from which point 
the current is carried through the rails of the latter line to the power 
house. The water pipes used to feed the boilers and carry water 
into the Soutli Wilkes-Barre mines are connected Avith the Parrish 
street mains, consequently a portion of the current passes into these 
branch lines and is carried through the boilers to the engines and 
other machinery connected with them, while part passes into the 
water lines entering the mines. As these pipes are laid in the 
ground, a large part of the current escapes to the earth. The Shaw 
signaling api)aratus is connected to the boilers through the steam 
pipes and receives a large part of the current. Tn order to deter- 



150 Reports of the inspectors of mines. off. doc. 

mine the extent of these currents, a Western volt meter and an am- 
meter were secured, and a series of experiments were made embrac- 
ing the entire extent of the mine. A table showing these tests ac- 
companies this report. An examination of the table will show that 
between the pipes of the operating room of the Shaw system and the 
Wilkes-Barre Gas Company's pipes, a current of from 6 to 12^ am 
peres was found, with a difference of potentials of from ^ to 2 volts. 
The tests made in the mine between the. Shaw pipes and the water in 
the ditch as the poles, show^ed a current of less than one ampere, 
with a difference of potentials of from one-tenth to six and one-half 
volts. As the mine is exceedingly gaseous, it was deemed advisable 
to take immediate steps to remove, as far as possible, any danger 
that might be liable to arise from this unexpected source. When the 
ventilating current is in proper shape, the electricity can do no harm, 
but should the air in any part of the mine become explosive, these 
pipes charged with electricity would be a source of great danger, as 
a spark caused by an imperfect contact of the pipes would be the 
means of igniting the gas, which would result in disaster. The cur- 
rents with high potentials were all found in the Shaw pipes. These 
pipes are perfectly insulated, in order to aid their sound-carrying 
Ijruperties, as signaling ironi the mine is one of the main features of 
the apparatus. 

The pipes are suspended their entire length by hooKs driven in 
wooden plugs or collars, thus making them excellent conductors. 

In order to cut off this current, some insulating material will be in 
serted in each line at the level of the head of the shaft. This will not 
only prevent the escape current of the Traction Company from pass 
ing into the mine, but will also prevent any danger from lightning. 
All pipes in the mine where a current could be detected have been 
short circuited wherever possible, and their ends grounded. This 
provision should be sufficient to guard against all possible danger. 

On the outside, the Traction Company have re-bonded the rails on 
the Ashley line with heavy copper wire and have agreed to run a re- 
turn wire from Hazle street down Parrisb street to their power house. 
By this arrangement they hope to prevent any serious escape of the 
current. 

Tests have been made at all the other collieries, and the current 
found has been too small to deflect the needle of the ammeter. With 
the exception of Lance, Maxwell and South Wilkes-Barre, the differ- 
ence in potential has not exceeded one volt. 

At Maxwell colliery, at the faces of the sixth and seventh west 
gangways, a difference of potential of from two to four volts was 
found. This colliery is also in the electric field between the Traction 
-Company's power house and the Ashley line, and the workings are 



M"o. 11. FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 151 

very gaseous. In order to lessen the current, short circuits of cop- 
per wire have been laid. 

At Lance colliery, on the eighth east gangway, a distance of 5,000 
feet from the foot of the shaft, a current of one-tenth of an ampere, 
and a potential of three volts was found. The water pipe and the 
water running in the ditch along the side of the gangway were the 
poles used. This colliery is in the electric field between the Trac- 
tion Company's Plymouth line and the power house at Wilkes-Barre, 
and has also been short circuited with copper wire, a shirt circuit 
being offered by the rails of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Com- 
pany across the flats. 

The leakage will be stopped when the Traction Company have com- 
pleted their short line to Plymouth. 

These electric currents are unexpected dangers and their early de- 
tection has probably averted serious consequences. The railroad peo- 
ple are co-operating with us in every way to remove the danger. 

In addition to the currents from the trolley lines, it is probable 
that electricity is generated by the action of the acid water in the 
mines on the rails, etc., in the same manner as it is generated in a 
battery. 

The Annual Examination of Applicants for Certificates of Qualifica- 
tion. 

The examination of applicants for certificates of qualification was 
held in the Central school building, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., on June 20 
and 21, 1894. 

The board of examiners was G. M. Williams, Inspector of Mines, 
Charles M. Conyugham, operator, Daniel J. Rees and Anthony Wirt, 
miners. 

Thirty-four applicants were examined for mine foreman certifi 
cates, and the following named passed the required standard: 

John Maxwell, Joseph Lewis, H. G. Evans and Fred Badman, of 
Plymouth, Pa. 

William A. Wallace, Luzerne borough. 

John E. Williams, Fred. Kichols, Charles Poad, Wm. May, John H. 
Mathews, Rees J. Morris, Benjamin J. Thomas, Richard D. Roberts. 
Benjamin James, Edward Clocker, John D. Joseph, David J. Jones. 
of Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

Madoc Thomas, Edwardsdale, Pa. 

David R. Jones, Glen Lyon, Pa. 

Patrick J. Moore, Peely, Pa. 

Sixty-eight were recommended for certificates of qualification for 
assistant mine foreman. 

Each person who had the lawful experience and was able to read 



152 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

and write the necessary reports was recommended to have a cer- 
tificate as assistant mine foreman. After an experience of several 
years, the writer is convinced that to put fire bosses and assistant 
foreman through an examination before a board representing the 
State does no good, and is a cause of futile expense to the applicants 
and to the State. 

The Accidents of 1894. 

The number of fatal accidents in 1894 was 71 in collieries produc 
ing coal and six in new shafts in process of sinking. The quantity 
of coal mined per life lost was 100,886 tons of marketable coal. 

It takes the same proportion of labor and risk to mine and prepare the 
waste that goes to culm heaps at the breakers and to mine and store 
the refuse in the mines, which in many seams is fully ten per cent. 
of the total quantity of material mined, except that the latter is not 
hauled out. We hear it often stated that anthracite mining is ex- 
cessively dangerous, and comparing the amount of coal produced per 
life lost with the production in the bituminous region, the compari- 
son appears unfavorable. 

The bituminous seams are all thin, the coal is all marketable, and 
nearly the material mined and hauled is coal accounted for in the 
total production,while in the anthracite the seams are nearly all thick, 
the coal has to be mined by blasting, and not two-thirds of the material 
mined is accounted as product. All the culm also goes to the dump. 
The quantity of fuel used to generate steam at the anthracite mines 
is perhaps five times as great as at the bituminous ones, and this is 
not accounted for in the production. This all combines to make the 
production per life lost in the anthracite mines appear much less 
than it is if fairly compared with the production in bituminous mines. 

An examination of the record for 1894 in this district shows that 
only four persons were fatally injured and 23 non-fatally directly by 
the use of powder; but of the 44 killed and 08 injured by falls of roof 
and coal the largest number was indirectly caused by blasting. To 
return to the faci' of a breast in a thick seam immediately 
after firing a blast is fraught with danger, for accidents 
from falls of coal or roof frequently occur; a very large number hap- 
pen thus. Props are suddenly displaced, the coal support is abruptly 
torn from under the roof, and large pieces of coal, frequently more 
than half loosened, are left hanging and fall just when the miner re- 
tuins. Thus the disruptible effect of blasting is the cause of more 
than half the accidents from falls in our anthracite mines. If all the 
miners were to wait five minutes after firing a blast before returning 
to work, a large proportion of the accidents by falls of roof and coal, 
would bo averted. 



N-0. 11 FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 153 

Seven were fatally injured and thirty-three seriously by explosions 
of gas. This class of accidents are less excusable than a large num- 
ber caused by falls. The safeguards against explosions are so well 
known that if they were strictly executed no explosion would take 
place. Nearly every accident of this class is the direct result of 
some one's carelessness in disobeying well known regulations. In this 
class of accidents the innocent frequently suffer through the careless 
uess of others. 

The mine cars are prolific sources of accidents, the most of which 
might be averted if the boys could be pei'suaded to exercise more 
care, but it seems to be an innate desire in a boy to be daring and 
venturesome, and in his recklessness he is often caught and injured. 

The accidents of all classes could be reduced by a more effective 
discipline, by an effective enforcement of well known rules, and by a 
stricter regard for the proper qualifications of the persons employed 
to do the various kinds of work. All this depends on the foremen, 
and all the foremen have not had the power and natural executive 
ability to compel obedience to the rules. 

Disaster at the Graylord Colliery. 

At about 2.15 A. M., Tuesday, February 13, 1894, an extensive 
area of the workings of the Gaylord colliery of the Kingston Coal 
Company at Plymouth, Fa., collapsed, closing the workings in each 
seam from the Red Ash to the surface, and thirteen workingmeu 
were buried nearly under the centre of the mass. No one escaped, 
and no one can explain how these thirteen experienced men were so 
suddenly entrapped. 

On Monday morning, February 12th, George Picton discovered a 
squeeze in the workings of the Ross seam. On examination he sus- 
pected that the base and origin of the squeeze was beneath, in the 
Red Ash seam, and sent his son, Thomas Picton, and another person 
to make an examination in the old workings of said seam. They 
went down and found the breasts on the third lift west of Plane 
cracking and showing a decided indication of a troublesome squeeze. 
(This point is indicated by the letter C on the accompanying map.) 
This part of the Red Ash seam workings had been finished and aban- 
doned for seven years and only about eighty car loads of coal re- 
mained to be mined in the seam altogether at this time, and that from 
a place above the head of the plane. 

After a consultation, Messrs. Gwilym Edwards, superintendent, 
and George Picton. general foreman, decided to have a row of props 
set to support the pillar on the west side of the plane just above the 
third lift, (At A; see map), and a party of sixteen men were selected 
and st-nt for to execute the work. The mine was idle and the men 
hnd to bo fsiimmoned from their homes. Four laborers were there 



154 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

already or came earlier than the others, viz: Henry \\ illianis, Kobert 
Williams, Eli Culver and John tSoley. The mine foreman, Thomas 
I'icton, was in charge. He showed these lour men the place and told 
them to clean along- the rib to make room lor the props. After work- 
ing there awhile and hearing ominous cracking in the pillars and coal 
falling in the breasts west of them, they became afraid and decidea 
U) leave and go home. 

On reaching the foot of the shaft, thfey met the other party of men 
coming in with props and tools in charge of Thomas Picton. The 
latter asked, where they were going, and they answered 
that they were afraid, and would go home. All right, an- 
swered Picton, if you are afraid, 3'ou better go. This was shortly 
after six o'clock P. M. Three men had been left outside to cut props 
and ten went to work setting the props up. 

At 10.30 they were using the timber up, six more of the party went 
outside to help in getting more props. It was a cold, stormy night, 
but by fifteen minutes of twelve they- had cut the necessary supply 
and sent them down the shaft. Then they went into the engine 
house to warm themselves. John D. Jones, the night engineer, 
asked them if there was much danger there and they replied that 
there was no danger at all; that the four laborers who went home 
were unnecessarily alarmed. At about 12.10 they all descended the 
shaft. 

At 1.30 A. M. George Brace, the stable boss, accompanied by 
Thomas Leyshon, came up the shaft for plank to make cap-pieces. 
They sent six oak planks eight feet long, one and one-half inches 
thich down the shaft, and Thomas Leyshon descended the shaft on 
the same cage, and Brice went home. 

At 2.15 A. M., about three-quarters of an hour aft(?r Leyshon 
descended the shaft, the engineer felt a concussion of air, and 
the speaking tube whistle blew a long, loud whistle. He imme- 
diately gave alarm by blowing the steam whistle. George Picton, 
William Edwards and a number of miners responded in a short time, 
and went down the shaft and attempted to go up the plane, and suc- 
ceeded in going up a distance of about 400 feet, where the place was 
crushing and threatening to close in upon them. They shouted, but 
heard no reply. Lest the missing men had gone up the plane and 
were groping in the darkness of the open workings above the plane, 
parties were sent to enter above from the manway at the outcrop. 
They, after a search for several hours, came out satisfiod that the 
men Mere not there. Every open space above and below and 
around tlie caved workings was searched without avail. Shouting 
and tapping brought no r>'sponse. By noon all hopes of saving 
tlie men had vanished and work \mis pr(>ini)tly commenced to reopen 



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Llie plaue. it was over 1,600 feet in length, and the thirteen missing 
men had been working at about the middle of it. 

The plane had been operated after Leyshon descended, for the cars 
of timber attached to the rope at the bottom and the planks he took 
down had been hoisted up to the point where the men were at work. 

George iJrace was in the mine with the men till near 1,15 
A. M., and he says thai; all appeared safe when he left. 
He was at the top of the plane at midnight, and saw no sign 
of a fall. When coming out he noticed the roof cracking about 
100 feet below the men, and he called to Picton and told him. 
Picton replied, "It is all right; hurry and send us cap-pieces," 
He and Leyshon went outside and asked the engineer what time 
it was, and the engineer said it was 1.30 A. M. The planks 
were taken down and placed on the car and hoisted up to the 
middle of the plane, and the cave took place at 2,15 A, M, Evidently 
the plane was clear of all obstruction when it was operated, and this 
shows that the linal crush was sudden and without the usual warn- 
ing. 

The dotted line on map shows the outlines of the caved workings. 
The men were working at A, and all the bodies were found in the 
space between A and B. The farthest had not gone more than 240 
feet in his flight for life. All were covered by the coal crushed in 
fcom the pillars. About GOO feet of the plane had to be reopened to 
find all the bodies, and then the workings of this seam were aban- 
doned. Work was continued incessantly day and night until all the 
bodies were found, and each was found as follows: 

I'ttter McLaughlin, on face, head down the plane, March 13, at 1.30 
A. M, 

Michael Welsh, stooping in a running position, March 14, 4 A. M. 

Thomas J, Jones, crushed down on face by a fall of rock, March 15, 

P, M. 

Richard Davies, stooping, in running position, March 16, 10,30 
A. M, 

James Kingdom, lying on face, head down plane, March 23, 5 A, M. 

Thomas Cole, lying on face, head down plane, March 24, 6.30 P, M. 

Thomas Leyshon, lying oi face, head down plane, March 28, 3.45 
l\ M. 

Thomas Merrima'n, lying on face, kead down plane, March 30, 2.45 
P. M. 

Joseph Olds, lying on face, head down plane, April 1, 7.45 A. M. 

John D. Morris, lying with head down the plane, April 2, 4.30 A. M. 

John Hamer, lying with head down the plane, April 2, 10.45 A. M. 

Daniel W, Morgan, lying head up the plane, April 5, 10.30 P. M. 

Thomti.s IT. Picton. lying across the plane, April G. 10 A. M, 



156 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. OfiE. Doc. 

All were within a short distance of each other in a distance of 200 
feet, and all except one, who was under rock, covered by loose coal 
crushed from the pillars. The mine foreman, Thomas H. Picton, and 
Daniel ^\'. Morgan had gone only a few feet from the place where 
they were working, and it is evident from the position that they were 
found in, that they were in the act of running down the plane when 
caught. 

The Red Ash seam in this section of the mine was twenty feei 
thick, and although the pillars were large, it is most probable that, 
during the seven years idleness, enough had scaled off in some of the 
old breasts to make the pillars too weak to sustain the pressure. It 
is also probable that the squeeze had been progressing for some time 
before it was discovered. 

An inquest was held on the death of the victims of this disaster 
by the deputy coroner and a jury of experienced men, and they 
rendered the following verdict: 

"We, the jury, do say that Thos. H. Picton (and the others) came to 
their death through an error of judgment on their part, or on the 
part of the person or persons in charge of the party who lost their 
lives, thereby remaining too long in a place that, as appears to the 
jury, must have been plainly dangerous for some hours prior to the 
cave. The cause of the cave is, in our judgment, due to the ineffi- 
cient size of the pillars left in the Ked Ash seam, which were further 
reduced in size by the chipping of the pillars due to atmospheric 
causes and to the shocks caused by shots or blasts in the overlying 
vein. The jury recommend that the next Legislature so amend the 
present mine laws, if that be possible, so as to prevent miners and la- 
borers from going or being sent into such places as make possible 
such catastrophies as that under consideration.'' 

JOHN E. PERKINS, 

Deputy Coroner. 
A. REES, 
D. S. DAVIS, 
AUSTIN GINLEY, 
JOHN E. MALONEY, 
REES JONES, 
P. B. NEALON, 

Jury. 



N-0. 11. 



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FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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Official Document, No. 11. 



FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 

(luzkulNK and carbon counties.) 



Hazleton, May 1, 1895. 
lEoii. Isaac B. Brown, 

Secretary of Internal Affairs: 

Sir: I have the honor of herewith submitting my annual report as 
Inspector of Coal Mines for the Fifth Anthracite District, for the 
year ending December 31, A. D. 1894. 

The tables will show that during the year 6,132,627 tons of coal 
were mined in the district; being lOG,!!! tons less than the produc- 
tion of 1893. 

The number of lives lost in the mining and preparation of this coal 
was 58, being the same number as in 1893, leaving 30 wives widows 
and 66 fatherless children in this and foreign lands. 

The number of non-fatal accidents was 95, or a decrease of four 
from the number of like accidents for the year previous. 

Embodied in table No. 4 will be found two fatalities that occurred! 
on the clay strippings under contractors, by which two wives were- 
left widows and seven children orphans. 

The tables show that a life was lost in some manner for each 105,- 
735 tons of coal mined; also, that a non-fatal accident is reported for 
each 64,551 tons of coal mined; and an accident, fatal or non -fatal is 
reported for each 40,082 tons of coal mined. They also show a fatal 
accident for each 316.6 persons employed, a non-fatal accident to 
eacli 193.3 persons employed, and a fatality or non-fatality to one of 
each 120 persons employed. 

A brief description of some improvements at the collieries is given, 
together with some remarks on the accidents, fatal and serious, to- 
gether with some remarks on the fatal dynamite explosion at 
Stockton. 

According to their new policy during the year, the Lehigh Vallev~ 



182 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Cocil Ooiiipany has by the expiration of k'ases became the operators 
of collieries on their lands at Hazleton and Jeansville operated for- 
merly by A. Pardee & Co., and J. C. Haydou & Co. Owing to the 
change occurring Xoveniber 1, 1894, there are 1,421 persons who 
worked at these collieries for A. Pardee & Co., and 874 who worked 
for J. C. Haydon & Co, who are reported also by the Lehigh Valley 
Coal Company in tables Nos. 2 and *3. The live stock (horses and 
mules) and boilers and mine locomolives are tlius twice enumerated 
ill table No. 2. 

Yours very respectfully, 

JOHN M. LEWIS, 
Inspector of Mines. 



Tonnage Mined in Fifth Anilnacite District for Year 1894. 

A. Pardee & Co., 436,070 

The Cross Creek Coal Company, 1,091,9G() 

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, 835,542 

G. B. Markle & Co., 555,782 

Linderman & Skeer, 464,553 

A. IB. Van Wickle, 560,310 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company, 275,936 

J. C. Haydon & Co., 244,784 

Ilpjier Lehigh Coal Company, 309,470 

Pardee Bros & Co., 322,624 

Calvin Pardee & Co 122,092 

Pardee Sons & Co., 208,920 

C. M. Dodson & Co., 210,018 

31. S. Kemmerer & Co., 191,264 

Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company 165,978 

John S. Wentz & Co., 86,000 

The Evans Mining Com])any, 51,318 

Total tonnage 6,132,627 



No. 11. 



FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



183 



Number of Fatalities and Tons of Coal Mined per Life Lost by 

Each CoMrANY. 



Names of Operators. 



A. Pardee & Co., 

The Cross Creek Coal Company, .... 
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, 

G. B. Markle* Co., 

Linderman & Skeer, 

A. S. Van Wickle, 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company, .... 

J. C. Hay don & Co., 

Upper Lehigh Coal Company, 

Pardee Bros. & Co., 

Calvin Pardee & Co., 

Pardee Sons & Co , 

C. M. Dodson & Co., 

M. S. Kemmerer & Co., 

Lehigh & Wilkes-Barre Coal Company, 

John S. Wentz&Co., 

The Evans Mining Company, 



Total fatalities. 



58 



C C 



62,581 
181,994 
119,363 
185,261 
42,232 
93,385 
275,936 



154,735 
53,771 
40,697 
52,230 

210,018 



165,978 



105,735 



Number op Non-Fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Mined per Person 
Injured by each Company. 



Names of Operators. 



A. Pardee & Co., . . . , 

The Cross ('reek Coal Company, . . . , 
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, 

G. B. Markle & Co., 

Linderman tfe Skeer, , 

A. S. Van Wickle, 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company, .... 

J. C. Haydon & Co., 

Upper Lehigh Coal Company, 

Pardee Bros. & Co., 



OS, 



19,821 
181,994 

61,753 
30,970 
280, 155 
31,492 
27,198 
77,367 
63,771 



184 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



Number of Non-Fata.l Accidents and Tons of Coal Mined per Person 
Injured by each Company — Continued. 



Names of Operatives. 



Calvin Pardee <fe Co., 

Pardee Sons & Co., 

C. M. Dodson & Co,, 

M. S. Kemmerer & Co., 

Lehigh & Wilkes- Barre Coal Companj'^, 

John S. Wentz & Co., 

The Evans Mining Company, . . 



Total non-fatal accidents, 




30,523 
69,640 
105,009 
95,632 
55,326 



95 64,554 



Number of Fatal and Non-fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Mined 
PER Person Killed or Injured. 



Names of Operators. 



A. Pardee & Co., 

The Cross Creek Coal Company, . . . . 
Lehigh ("oal and Navigation Company, 

G. B. Markie tt Co., 

Linderman & skeer, 

A. 8. Van Wickle, 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company, 

J. C. Haydon A (/O., 

Upper Lehigh Coal Company, 

Pardee Bros. & Co., 

Calvin Pardee tt Co., 

Pardee Sons & Co., 

C. M. Dodson ct Co., 

M. S. Kemmerer & Co., 

Lehigh & Wilkes Barre Coal Company, 

John S. Wentz & Co., 

The Evans Mining Company, 



Total fatal and non-fatal accidents. 



c . 



£i 0) 

S3 



153 



(C o 
.-. © 

!<-i Qj qj 

O o. l< 

a $ c 

o f^-H 



15,037 
90,997 
119,363 
46,315 
17,867 
70,039 
30,659 
27,198 
51,578 
26,885 
17,442 
29,846 
70,006 
95,632 
41,499 



40,082 



No. 11. 



FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



185 



Nationality of Persons Injured Fatally and Non-Fatally. 



Nature of Accident. 



Fatalities, 

Non-latalities, . . . 

Total accidents, 



d 
.2 

83 

60 

a 

a 

W 


d 

1 


43 

'u 
M 


a 

a 

u 
o 


X! 
CO 
•t-t 


d 
1 


d 

..1 
u 

ai 
S 
<1 






.d 
o 

o 

o 
32 


•3 


22 
24 


16 

18 

34 


4 
17 


4 

4 


4 
13 


4 
8 


3 
5 


1 

2 


2 


' 1 


1 


46 


21 


8 


17 


12 


8 


3 


2 


1 


" 1 



58 
95 



153 



Classification of Fatal and Non-fatal Accidents. 



Causes of Accidents. 



By explosion of C. H* gas, 

By falls of coal, roof and sides, ... 

By falls of coal, rock and clay on strippings, 

By mine cars, 

By cars on the surface, 

By machinery inside and outside, 

By explosions of powder, 

By premature blasts, 

By nniscellaneous causes inside and outside. 

Total from all causes, 



58 



1 

33 

1 

16 
15 
7 
2 
9 
11 



95 



2 
50 

5 
22 
24 
10 
12 
14 
14 



153 



186 



Rl'^IORTS OF THK INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



Comparative Statement, showing Number of Tons of Coal Mined per 
Fatal Accident, Number of Persons Employed per Life Lost, and 
Number of Fatalities peu Thousand Employes in the Fifth Anthra- 
cite District, for the Past Fipteen Years. 





•s-g 


"S 


o a, 


T. 


-c 






CS 

xti (!) 


% 


OJ & 


o 


>> 






o S 


"5 


§-^ 


<s 


o 


J3 "" 




.s — 


t5 




1—^ 


CL 


c4 (B 


Years. 


Ilk 


Cm 
O 


er of 
mine 
accide 


si- 


er em 
e lost. 


erofde 
sand p 
loyed. 




X!^ t, 


•^"S 


-O ^ — ^ 


-2 & 


^ *'«-" 


-"3 a, 




els * 

3c® 


5 S 


« o is 


2 S 


^f 


a.§a 




3 W >> 


p-c 


S O Vi 


S 05 




pis <D 




& 


'A 


^ 


^ 


l^ip. 


^ 


1880 


4,298,764 


26 


165,337 


10,255 


394.42 


2.535 


1881 


5,037,948 


47 


107,190 


11,386 


242.25 


4.127 


1882 


5,360,497 


40 


134,012 


12,298 


307.45 


3.252 


1883 


5,666,767 


38 


149, 125 


13,598 


357.84 


2.794 


1884 


5,274,227 


40 


131,885 


14,299 


357.47 


2.797 


1885 


5,535,544 


42 


131,798 


14,224 


338.66 


2.952 


1886 


5,333,518 


35 


152,386 


14, 140 


404.00 


2.475 


1887 


3,961,594 


15 


264,106 


14,096 


939.73 


1.064 


1888 


4,892,514 


32 


152,891 


14,448 


451.50 


2.215 


1889 


5,655,196 


46 


122,939 


14,686 


319.26 


3.132 


1890 


5,776,699 


52 


111,090 


14,421 


277.33 


3. 006 


1891 


5,808,964 


53 


109,509 


14,961 


282.28 


3.548 


1892 


5,842,721 


48 


121,725 


16,277 


339.19 


2.949 


1893 


6,239,068 


58 


107,570 


17,540 


302.48 


3.307 


1894 


6,132,627 


58 


105,734 


18,361 


316.57 


3.159 


Totals. 


80,811,648 


630 


128,272 


214,990 


357.13 


2.935 



Comparative Statement Showing the Number and Causes of Fatali- 
ties in the Fifth Anthracite District for the Past Fifteen Years. 



Cause of accidents. 
















Years. 
















i 


00 
00 


1 




i 


in 


to 

00 


CO 


CO 

00 

CO 


i 


d 

1 


05 


00 


i 

00 


i 




By water from old work- 
ings 


















9 

6 

16 
6 
4 

5 

1 

6 
"63" 


.... 


3 




12 
t> 
11 

361 

157 


Asphyxiated by gases 

By explosiun ol (". U. 4 gas, 
By lulls of coal root aud 

sides • •••••••••..■, • 

Uy cars inside and on tne 


12 

7 
3 

1 


'"3' 

24 

11 
1 

4 


.... 

24 

8 

1 
i 


18 

11 

1 

3 


10 

17 
3 
2 


19 

8 

3 

8 
3 

5 

42 


' i' 

13 
5 

2 

1 
1 

12 


.... 

6 

3 

2 

I 
1 

1 

16 


14 

4 
2 

6 
32 


.... 

23 

11 
4 

"4 

4 

46 


1 

19 
19 

1 
7 

6 

52 


25 
15 
2 
3 

3 

48 


1 
i« 

15 
11 
4 

± 

68 


1 
21 

15 
15 
3 

3 


By blasts and explosions 
of powder, • 

By maehlnery inside and 
outside 


56 

39 
10 


Hv miscellaneous causes 
insidi! and outside 


4 
26 


4 
47 


5 

lo" 


6 
38 


8 


78 


Totals 


68 


630 



No. 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 187 

Colliery rmprovcinoiils in Uie Fifth Anthracite District During ihc 

Year 1894. 

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company. 

Colliery No. 4 — A trial slope opening a lift of ninety yards on the 
Mammoth vein, making the third lift below water level, has been 
sunk, linding the vein fifty feet in thickness and very good coal, on a 
regular pitch of seventy degrees. 

Turnouts, a pump house with capacious pump, and airways con- 
necting with a new ventilating fan, 21 feet in diameter, have been 
made for the purpose of developing this new lift in the best man- 
ner possible. A slope to meet and connect with present main hoist- 
ing slope has been located carefully and is being on line up the 
pitch. 

The pumping capacity of top pumping station has been increased 
2,058 gallons per minute. 

Colliery No. 6.— The Mammoth vein, fifty feet in thickness, of good 
quality, on a pitch of forty-five degrees south, was cut by the tunnel 
from No. 6 shaft at a distance of 900 feet from the shaft on the 
i^ecoud lift below water level. The air connections have been 
completed and gangways east and west are being driven in the 
"Crack" vein, a small vein underlying the Mammoth vein, with ten 
yiwds- of intervening rock, preparatory to tapping the water in the 
abandoned first lift below water level. 

Screen Building — Here the steam power has been increased by the 
en ction of two additional batteries of Babcock and Wilcox high 
pressure boilers, giving an increase of 440 horse power to the plant 
erected in 1893, A system of mud tanks which make it possible for 
the water which has been used to clean coal to be pumped back and 
used over again, has also been erected. 

G. B. Markle. 

The new Jeddo No. 4 breaker erected in 1893 was put in operation 
February 1, 1894, and the coal which formerly was prepared there 
and at Jeddo No. 3 was all put through the new breaker, allowing 
the abandonment of Jeddo No. 3. 

This company have also erected and enclosed a new set of boilers 
at their Highland No. 5 colliery. 

Upper Lehigh Coal Company. 

Slope No. 2 — A new Worthington pump 20xl2xl5-inch, and a line 
of column pi])e 550 feet long have been placed in this slope. 
A new slope was sunk to the east gangway of No. 1 slope and con- 



188 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

tinued about 25 yards down to the basin known as No. 1 basin, iu 
which the east gangway is now being driven. The 2,500 feet of rail- 
road necessary for transportation of coal from this slope to No. 2 
breaker has been graded and built. 
At No. 3 slope a new second opening has been completed. 

A. S. Van Wickle. 

Coleraine Colliery — At this colliery, since it has passed into the 
hands of Mr. Van Wickle, improvements have been the desire of the 
proprietor and the end and aim of the management. Some of the 
noted ones are, a new boiler plant for supplying steam to the coal 
breaker and hoisting engines and pumps at No. 1 slope. 

Two new mine locomotives for use on the strippings and for trans- 
porting coal to the breaker. 

The breaker enlarged and improved in every way. 

New openings to develop the Primrose vein, which has been cut 
and found in good workable condition; also, second openings have 
been provided for this vein. 

A commodious residence for the superintendent, convenient to the 
colliery, the same for the mine foreman and outside foreman, have 
been erected; also many new houses for the comfort of the increased 
number of employes, 

A new pleasantly located and conveniently planned office has also 
been erected during the year. 

Pardee Bros. & Co. 

Lattimcr No. 3. — At this colliery there has been an addition made 
to the breaker in the form of a shaft tower through which all the coal 
is hoisted from the surface level to the top of the breaker by means 
of two automatic dumping cages, which, by reason of the elevation 
being increased, is delivered on the plates much higher than formerly 
and thus allows the slate rock and bone to be picked out as it comes 
fi-om the mines and stripping, thus aiding very much in the prepara- 
tion of the coal before it goes to the rolls and into the screens and 
jigs and picking schutes, which renders it possible to handle more 
coal witli the same men and machinery. 

Many contemplated improvements were nipped in the bud by rea- 
son of the poor state of trade, and many more were spoiled by the 
flooding of the mines by a rainstorm which began on Friday, May 18, 
and continued until Monday, May 21, filling up many of the subterra- 
nean slopes and causing a period of idleness varying from one or 
two days to a month and more at all the mines of the district. The 
extra expense of getting out this unexpected inflow of water and the 
other expense of preparing against the mines being again llooded. 



No. 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 189 

by digging ditches and canals and erecting flumes large enough to 
carry the surface water into the different creeks and water courses. 
These needed improvements were made, while some contemplated 
ones were left for another year. 

Examination of Applicants for Certificates of Qualification as Mine 
Foremen and Assistant Mine Foremen. 

The annual examination of applicants for certificates ot qualifica 
lion as mine foremen and assistant mine foremen for tnis district 
was held in the public school building on Pine street in the city of 
llazleton, on June 12th and 13th, 1894. 

The board of school controllers of the city granted the request of 
the boards of examiners for the use of the building. 

The board of examiners was composed of E. L. Bullock, of Beaver 
Brook, superintendent, George McGee, of Freeland, and Thomas 
Thompson, of Hazleton, miners, together with the Mine Inspector of 
the district. 

The board recommended the following named persons to Hon. 
Thos. J. Stewart, Secretary of Internal Affairs, as having passed the 
examination satisfactorily, and certificates of qualification as mine 
forfmen were issued to them: 

Adam Lesser, Upper Lehigh. 

John J. McGuines, Lattimer Mines. 

Evan L. Jenkins, Nesquehoning. 

I'atrick Quinn, Drifton. 

Samuel Tinner, Stockton. 

Richard Airy, Stockton. 

Frank Carter, Milnesville. 

The following named persons were recommended to receive certifi 
cates of qualification as assistant mine foremen. 

Alfred Radley, Stockton. 

David M. Emmanuel, Nesquehoning. 

William Curtis, Summit Hill. 

Albert Haughton, Summit Hill. 

William Purdy, Hazleton. 

William Cooper, Hazleton. 

Henry Hawke, Hazleton. 

John Richards, Hazleton. 

Robert Robertson, Hazleton. 

Henry Smith, Hazleton. 

Thomas H. Blackwell, Hazleton. 



190 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Review of Fatal Accidents of 1894 and Tlieir Causes. 

During ilie past year there- were 58 fatal accidents in and about 
the mines and coal strippings of this district, many of which were 
due to the want of proper judgment and the reci^lessness of the 
victims themselves, and some of which were caused by the lack of 
judgment in persons employed with the victims. 

By falls of roof coal and sides in the mines and on the strippings 
'21 lives were lost, or 3G.2 per cent, of the whole number of fatalities. 

By cars inside and outside 15 lives were ended, being 25.D per cent, 
of the total fatalities. 

Explosions of powder killed 10 persons, or 17.2 per cent. Trema- 
ture blast proved fatal to 5 persons, or 8.6 per cent. Machinery, in- 
side and outside the mines, caused 3 fatalities, or 5.2 per cent., an 
explosion of C. H. 1 gas caused one person's death or 1.7 per cent., 
while 3 persons, or 5.2 per cent., lost their lives from miscellaneous 
causes. 

A brief description of each accident and the cause of death is given 
in the table No. 4; a fuller description of some of them, and of the 
''Stockton Disaster" follows; the numbers used correspond (o those 
of table No. 4. 

No. 1 — At Hazleton mine breaker, January 3, Edward Devinney, 
American, loader, 21 years old, was, by the slipping of his brake-iron 
thrown off and in front of loaded cars, and both legs were so 
badly crushed and bis arm torn under the wheels as to cause his 
death at the hospital the same day. It being an idle day for the 
mines, the breaker was run for the purpose of recleaning some cars 
of condemned coal. Devinney and another young man were running 
down three cars, the last not being coupled, and Devinney was stand- 
ing between the first and second cars, which began to move away 
from, the third, when the other young man (George Henderschedt) 
motioned to Devinney to put on the brakes, which he did. and when 
the cars came together Henderschedt heard him crying out, and, 
stopping the cars, found him under the second car holding on to the 
axle, while the wheels rested on his legs. He was gotten out as 
soon as possible and taken to the hospital where all that could be 
done to alleviate his pain and help him was done, but nothing could 
prevent his death, which resulted from his injuries the same night. 

No, 2 — Charles Martin, American, miner, 24 years old, single, at 
cflliery No. 5, February 6, was fatally injured internally in the 
breast, in which he worked. He had fired a hole in a rob of rock 
which ran across the bi-east, and going up to the face, began to Avork 
with his pick around the rock wlien a large piece fell from the roll 
and squeezed him about the thighs and injured him internally, as be 
fore stated. 



No. 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 191 

He was taken to the Hazleton hospital, where he expired February 
iJ. This was a sad case, as the accident occurred when he was 
woi'king alone, his partner being- sick that day, and he, on account 
of his approaching- marriage, was loath to lose a day at that time. 

Ao. 3 — At Beaver Meadow Colliery, -February 14, John Rapschock, 
Hungarian, slate loader, 23 years old, single, was fatally crushed 
under the slate cars near the bank where they were dumped. In 
goiiig out to the dump he rode on the side of the locomotive, and when 
tJic dump was reached the locomotive ran on one track while the cars 
were supposed to be spragged by him and run in on a branch road. 
AVhen the engineer ran his locomotive away from the slate cars and 
stopped, he was horrified to see Rapschock under the cars between 
the rails being pushed along by the cars and crushed under the cross- 
pieces of truck against the sills and branch rails. He must have tried 
to cross the track in front of the cars after getting off the locomo- 
tive. 

His death followed at the hospital the same night and it was cer- 
tainly due to want of care on his own part. 

No. 4 — At Beaver Brook colliery, February 19, Andrew Leshko, 
Hungarian, loader, 43 years old, wife and two children, was so badly 
injured that he died an hour and a half after at his home. He had 
two gondolas loaded, and wishing to run them down the road, he 
procured a bar and began to use it on the hind wheel of the first car, 
standing between the cars and astride of the rail, when he, work- 
ing with the bar started the first car and jerked the second for- 
ward. It ran against his heel and pinned him fast between the 
llange of the wheel and sill, and before the cars were stopped the 
wheels had run over his leg from heel to thigh. He certainly need 
not have stood as he did to do the starting work. 

No. 5 — Michael Trifcan, Italian, laborer, 24 years old, single, at 
Highland No. 2, February 24, was injured about shoulders and legs 
by a fall of dividing slate and coal which fell on him while he 
was drilling a hole under it in the bottom coal, while his miner, who 
had brought him in on this, which was an idle day. to help prepare 
coal for the next working- day, was preparing a charge for the hole. 
He was apparently not seriously injured, yet the same afternoon, 
^^hil<' waiting at the Freeland station for a train to take him to the 
hospital at Hazleton, he died. It was one of the coldest days of the 
winter, and the exposure may have hastened his death. 

No. 7 — At Hollywood stripping, April 8, Erasmus Towel, Hun- 
garian, stripping miner, 43 years old, having wife and three children, 
had his skull fractured by coal falling from a pillar alongside of 
which he. with the men in his charge, was engaged in cleaning the 
clay out of the old breast so that the pillar could be robbed back 



192 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OP MINES. Off. Doc. 

down the pitch and loaded up out of the schute of the old breast. 
One of the laborers warned him that the pillar top showed signs of 
falling, and in going to a place of safety he ran directly under a large 
piece of coal. He died of his injuries two hours later. 

No. 9 — George Stenge, Hungarian, slate picker, 17 years old, em 
ployed at the top of plane to screen building at Hauto, April 12, was 
killed by being run over by Barney truck on plane down which he 
rode on the truck against a trip of loaded cars. In getting off, his 
left leg was run over by hind wli(;el of truck, and he, on being thrown 
or rolling into middle of road, the heavy hoisting rope attached to the 
truck struck him on the head, causing almost instant death. 

His riding down the plane was in violation of rule 10, article XH 
of the mine law^, and yet I have cause to think it was not the first 
time he had been guilty of the offense, and that he was not the only 
offender, but I am glad to say that discipline has been revived, and 
there is now no riding down the planes allowed, even on the empty 
cars. 

No. 10 — John Conlon, Irish, miner, 58 years of age, wife, no chil- 
dren under 16 years old, employed at No. 1 stripping Lattimer, April 
25, was struck on the head by a small piece of top coal which fell on 
him from a bridge of coal between two pillars between which the 
road ran. Cars being scarce, he came out from his working place, 
and while talking to some other men, the coal fell and struck him on 
top of the head, rendering him unconscious. The men revived 
him with some water and after sitting down awhile he walked to his 
home, washed himself and went to bed, where he became uncon- 
scious and died about seven hours after the accident. 

No. 14 — Upper Lehigh No. 4 slope, in what is locally named the "Q" 
vein, May 7th, Martin Sisino, Austrian, laborer, 19 years old, single, 
while throwing tamping into a hole for his miner, John Wargo, was 
instantly killed by the powder exploding and throwing the coal 
out against him. Wargo was very seriously burned about the face, 
and his ej^esight destroyed temporarily. The cause of the explosion 
was the presence of a band of sulphur in the coal through which the 
drill passed, and from which no doubt a spark w^as struck by the 
butt end of the drill in tamping. 

No. 10 — At Ooleraine colliery, No. 2 slope. May 17, Thomas Mul- 
herin, American, miner, 40 years old, married, was fatally injured by 
fall of to]) slate at toj) of manway which he was getting ready to ex- 
tend, and by falling down said manway a distance of 00 feet. 
He had cut the coal out fiom under this clod with a shot he fired on 
tlie rib, and as he was cutting holes in the bottom slate to stand the 
manway props, the clod fell, but whether the piece struck him and 
knocked him down the manway, or in trying to avoid the falling clod 



No. 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 193 

he lost his balance and fell down, is not clearly known, as the laborer 
who was on the other side of the breast could not tell whether the 
chid had struck him or not, but knew he had fallen down the manway 
after, and he gave the alarm. Henry Spohr, going up the manway, 
found him lying on his back with his head down the pitch. He was 
taken out, but died soon after reaching the surface. He left a widow 
and four children. 

No. 19 — Joseph Wolff, German, miner, 44 years old, wife but no 
children, employed at No. 8 slope, Hazleton mine, was instantly killed 
on June 9th by a fall of top coal in the face of his breast. He and 
his partner had drilled a hole in the top coal and fired it, but it did 
not bring the top part down. W'ollf went up under it while his part- 
ner was loading the buggy. The partner warned him that the piece 
was bad, and advised him to bar it down by standing on one side of 
it, but he said Maier was afraid and climbed up on top of the bottom 
and sat down under it. Maier asked him three times to come out 
from under it, as the slips were working, but he only made light of 
it, and the coal fell on him, crushing his head against the bottom coal 
and killing him instantly. He was the victim of his own foolhardi- 
ness. 

No. 24 — At Drifton slope No. 1, June 23, John Plahita, Hungarian, 
special laborer, 25 years old, single, was killed instantly by being 
struck by a trip of three runaway loaded cars in the inside slope. 
The runaway was caused by the rope breaking when the cars were 
about 12.5 feet from foot of the slope. He, with the roadman, was at 
the foot fixing a latch on the branch, and had he staid where he was 
or followed the roadman into the gangway he would have been un- 
hurt, but, becoming excited he ran right into the danger by trying 
to cross the foot of slope and was caught by the cars striking two 
other cars at the bottom and throwing them against him. 

No. 27 — At East Sugar Loaf No. 2, July 12, John Mulligan, Amer- 
ican, assistant ticket boss, 18 years old. While the loaded car was- 
standing on the plane to the breaker at the dump, as the car would 
not to be dumped for some time, he went below the car to clean out a 
small hole or pocket that caught the coal from the cars. He was 
throwing the coal into the dump when the loaded car started back, 
and one of the other persons employed about the dumps gave a 
warning cry, but before he got safely out of the pocket, which was 
between the rails, the car struck him and rolled him down the ]»lane 
and the wheels passed over his legs, injuring him so terribly that he 
died while being conveyed in the company's ambulance to his home. 
] made an investigation on the same day, and also ordered an inquest, 
which was held. 

While the engineer testified very positively that he had received 
13-11-94 



Utl REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

the signal to let back the empty ear from the dump, the testimony of 
the three persons employed with Mulligan was that neither of them 
had given any signal or been in position to give one, and the loaded 
car was silent proof of this fact. The jury's verdict was ''That the 
said John Mulligan came to his death at No. 2 colliery, Stockton, on 
Thursday, July 12, A. D. 1894, by b*eing struck on an inclined plane 
by a loaded car; said acident being caused by carelessness or negli- 
gence on the part of the engineer in lowering said car." 

It was also apparent from the testimony that the pocket could have 
been cleaned just as well when the car was at the foot of the plane 
and so need not have been cleaned by Mulligan while the cars were 
standing over it. 

Nos. 28 and 29 — At No. 4 slope, -'Cranberry," in the lower lift, July 
14, Michael Tomka, miner, 33 years old, married, and John Andrego, 
laborer, 3.5 years old, married, were instantly killed by the premature 
exj)losion of a blast which they were preparing to fire. These two 
men were employed driving a cross-heading from the west gangway to 
the sump, and had drilled a hole with a machine in the west rib of 
this cross-heading, and Tomka had made the charge of powder for it 
and gone in with it, and, according to the evidence of Thomas Lou- 
den, the miner who was in charge of the gangway, and the last per- 
son to see Tomka alive, he had about time to have reached the hole 
and put the powder in preparatory to tamping it, when there was an 
explosion and all the lights were extinguished. Louden procured a 
light and inquired for Tomka and looked in the heading to which he 
usually retreated when firing for him, and not finding him, went 
into his working place and found him and his laborer both dead. 
Andrego the laborer was 2.5 feet from where the hole was drilled, 
while Tomka was about 8 feet from the hole. From the fact that 
Mr. Louden was sure he detected the fumes of dualin powder when 
he went into their place, he thought that, as the place was narroAv 
(0 feel wide) and the coal hai-d to blow, Tomka may have put a stick 
of dualin powder and a cai> in the back end of his cartridge, and. 
having the open end of (he ca]) pointing outward when he pushed 
his needle bnck with the powder into Ihe liole. it entered the cap and 
cnr.sed the explosion. And lliis. T Ihink. is the only satisfactory 
expli'.nalion. 

Tomka lefl a wife and four children, and Andrego left a wif(» and 
two children in TTungarv. Andrego, tlie laborer, held a miner's cei'- 
tificale ;ind had been in this coal region for some years, and then re- 
turned to Hungary and mari-ied and came here the second time seek- 
inf»" his fortune, only toj'eacli (his untimely end. 



No 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 195 

Fatal Explosion of Powder in West No. 1 Slope, Lindermaii »!t Skeei*, 

at Stockton. 

At about 7 o'clock A. M., Tuesday, July 17, 1894, eight persons 
were instantly killed by an explosion of Atlas Powder at the foot of 
the subterranean shaft from the Mammoth vein to the Wharton vein 
in the west No. 1 slope of Linderman & iSkeer, at Stockton. They 
w«re Charles O'Donnell, footman, American; Andrew Sabol, Hunga- 
rian, miner; John Pirimbo, Hungarian, loader; John Kasheda, Hun- 
garian, loader; John Brizyon, Hungarian, loader; John Krinock, 
Hungarian, loader; John Mateofski, Hungarian, miner; Anthony 
Norcavitz, Pole, loader. 

The miners and loaders were employed in the Mammoth vein, to 
AN'hich a tunnel is cut back from the foot of the subterranean shaft, 
in robbing what w^ould be known as the third lift of the Mammotii 
vein of the west No. 1 slope, and as usual were on this morning taking 
to their several schutes the powder, fuse and caps which would be 
i-equired through the day to start the batteries; the miners having 
brought l)ack the night previous what had not been used the day be- 
fore 

The powder, fuse and caps were all brought from the magazine on 
the surface by Charles O'Donnell, the footman, in order to avoid all 
duuger of explosions on the slope, or in the shaft, by reason of care- 
lesf^ handling of the caps and sticks of powder by the men while rid- 
ing down the slope with it, or in the shaft on the cage. He kept 
1 hem under lock and key in a box near the foot, when not distributing 
them to the men. 

On this morning, while he was giving out to the men the powder, 
fuse and caps they each made request for, in some way an explosion 
was caused and every one present killed. 

There are many theories as to what was the cause of the explo- 
sion, one being that one of the men had dropped fire from his lamp 
or pipe into a cap; another that some one had been picking at a cap 
with a lamp picker or horse shoe nail to remove the line sawdust 
with which they are sometimes clogged, and still another that one of 
the men having his powder lying beside him on a bench near the 
box cut his fuse into lengths and began placing the caps on these 
lengths of fuse ready for use when required, and in pushing the fuse 
inio the cap twisted the point into the fulminate of the cap and it, 
ex])loding near his powdei", set it off, and that in turn set off what 
was in the box nearby. The only thing we know is, there was an ex- 
plosion caused in some way by some one of the eight persons present. 
and those of us that remain should take warning and be careful in 
the handling of these explosives ourselves, and be watchful of others 
to see that they are careful. 



196 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

8uperiutendent James E. Roderick was informed of the explosion 
and at once went to the slope and entered the mine and was lowered 
to the foot of the shaft, where the work of recovering the bodies at 
once began. This was rendered difficult owing to the timber at the 
foot of the shaft being blown down by the force of the explosion, but 
by 1] o'clock the bodies were all placed in coverings and these in 
boxt s provided by an undertaker and by 12 o'clock noon they had all 
been taken to the surface where the undertakers took charge of them. 

An inquest was held and the jury rendered a verdict of accidental 
death for which no blame could be attached to any living person. 



No. 11. 



FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



197 



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FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



203 









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REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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No. 11. 



FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



205 



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REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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No. 11. 



FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



207 



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208 



REI ORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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1 Fatally injured; in running loaded cars 
of coal his brake-iron slipped and he 
was thrown under the wheels and 
had both legs crushed, from which in- 

1 juries he died at the hospital same day. 
Fatally injured; in working out a shot 

1 in a roll of rock in his breast, a piece 
of rock fell on him, injuring .him in- 
ternally, causing death at hospital, 

i February 11. 
Injured fatally; in going out to the 
dump he rode on front end of loco- 
motive and in switching the slate 
cars he fell in front of them be- 
tween the rails and was crushed 
under them about the head and body 
and died at hospital same day. 
Fatally crushed under loaded gondola 
car; in starting two cars with a bar, 
stepped between and front wheel 
caught his foot and ran on him till 
it rested on his thigh; died from his 
injuries in a short time. 
Injured about head and shoulders by a 
fall of top coal and slate while drill- 
ing a hole under the same; died same 
afternoon at Freeland, while waiting 
for train to take him to hospital. 
Struck and fatally injured by a piece 
of rock from bank over pillar between 
Hollywood and Milnesville workings 
while at work in stripping; died of 
his injuries »ame day. 


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Beaver Meadow, Carbon, . . 

Hazle township, Luzerne, 

Foster township, Luzerne, 
Hollywood, Luzerne, 


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FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



209 



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REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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No. 11. 



FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



211 



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REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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No. 11. 



FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



213 



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REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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No. 11. 



FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



215 



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tace ot breast. 
Jawbone and one rib fractured by a 
piece of top coal falling on him 
while he was barring it down. 


ident. 


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REl CRTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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Official Document, No. 11, 



SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 

(SCHUYLKILL COUNTY.) 

Shenandoah, Pa., March 25, 1805. . 
Hon. Isaac; 1>. Brown, 

Secretary of Internal Affairs : 
Sir: As required by section ten of article two of the Act of June 
2, 1891, I have the honor of herewith submitting to you my annual 
report as Inspector of Mines of the Sixth Anthracite District for the 
year 1801. 

The usual tabulated forms are herein contained, giving the names 
and location of the collieries in the district, the number of tons of 
coal mined and shipped from each colliery, showing the total produc- 
tion and shipments in tons of 2,240 pounds during the year 1894. 

The number of men employed at each description of service is also 
j^iven, together with the number of fatal and non-fatal accidents, and 
the nationality of those killed or injured, ;is well as the number of 
wives made widows and children made orphans. 

Yours very respectfully, 

WILLIAM STEIN, 
Inspector of Mines. 

Examination of Ai)plicants for Mine Foreman's Certificates. 

The annual examination for mine foreman's certificates in Sixtli 
districi was hckl in rotfsvillo, July, 1894. 

The examiners were William Stein, Mine Inspector; NVilliam H. 
LeA\ is, superintendent; Fred Hughes, miner, and William McGuire. 
miner. 

The following are the names of the successful candidates: John C. 
McGinnes, Frackville; David Rennie, Shenandoah: Thomas Harlor, 
]Mahanoy City; Silas Frost, Ellangowan; William Dowling. Ellaii- 
gowan ; Frank Kelly, Yatesville; Lawrence Keating, (lilberton; 
Edward Coldin, INIahauoy City, who were qualified as mine foremen. 
Frank Wilkin, Shenandoah: Morgan Bevan, Shenandoah, and Fred 
erick Weeks, qualified as assistant mine foremen. 

T regret to have to report thirteen more fatal accidents llian in is;>:{. 
but a perusal of the list of the accidents will be sufficient to satisfy 
those who understand mining I hat many of the deaths were the re- 
sult of ignorance, carelessness or foolhardiness. 



224 REPCRTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off Doc. 

1 am glad to be able to say that the collieries at present in opera- 
tion are in very good condition, both as regards ventilation and gen- 
eral safety. The operators are very positive in their instructions to 
their officials to have the collieries well ventilated, well timbered 
and well drained, and where any danger exists, to cease work until 
the danger is averted. Notwithstanding we claim that every care ia 
taken to protect the workingmen in and about mines, there are those 
\Nho would try to make the uninitiated believe that mine officials 
care not for the safety of their workmen. 

I herewith assert, without fear of contradiction, that if our work- 
men v-ould observe the law in the same manner as min? officials do, 
we would have very few accidents to record. I speak thus from prac- 
tical experience, and not because I would uphold the assertions of 
either operator or mine official at the expense of the character of our 
employes. It is much to be regretted that men are sent to the halls 
of legislation from mining districts, who by their speech-making try 
to make their fellows believe that mine officials have only one object 
in view, and that is to make money, irrespective of safety to the work- 
men. Improvements have been made during the year at many of 
the collieries, with a view of still further increasing the safety of the 
workmen, and not because the law demands these improvements, 
which goes to show that the producers are desirous of protecting 
their workmen against any possible danger while going to and from 
their labor, as well as while at work. I have the opportunity and 
pleasure of often meeting at our collieries our best mining experts, 
who are always willing and ready to discuss any subject relative to 
mining operations which might have for its object the general Avel- 
fare of the workmen. I notice in particular that Mr. John Veith, 
general mine superintendent of Ihe Philadelphia and Reading Coal 
and Iron Company, has decided to drive tunnels through the rock 
measures from one vein to another twelve feet wide and seven and 
one-half feet high, instead of ten feet wide and seven and one-half 
fee t high, which not only provides more passing room, but also offers 
less resistance to the air current while cars are being hauled in and 
out of the tunnel. Mr. Veith also gives peremptory instructions that 
where gas is given off to any extent, locked safety lamps must be 
used, but the workmen have given evidence of their disapproval of 
those orders to the extent that they will conceal their "miner's lamp'' 
about their person and light them after reaching their places of work. 
Two lives were sacrificed during the year from this practice, and in 
order to prevent a repetition of an exy)losion from this cause, it was 
even deemed necessary by the mine foreman to search his men for 
naked lamps, and he took dozens from their persons. About five 
years ago T visited a colliery in my district; Mr. Veitli happened to 
visit there also; the question of using safety lamps absolutely at this 



No. 11. 



SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



225 



colliery was talked over, and Mr. VeitU gavie iustructioiis to tlie fore- 
luau not to allow the us? of naked lamps. However, his instructions 
were violated during the year, which, I am sorry to say, caused the 
death of three men. More might be said with reference to th? causes 
(»f fatal accidents in and about our mines, but to those who are prac- 
tically informed a careful perusal of table 4 will exhibit a very 
luarked carelessness on the part of some of the victims, and a lack of 
knowledge on Ihe part of others. 

The Following is the Number of Accidents Fatal and Non-Fatal and 
THE Nationalities of those Killed and Injured. 



Americans, 

English, . . 
Irish, 

Welsh, . . . 
Scotch, . . . 
Germans, 
Poles, . . 

Hungarians, 
Italians, . . 
Austrians, . 



Totals, 



Injured. 



Fatal. 



73 



Non-Fatal. 



10 
2 

1,^ 
4 
4 
2 

45 

4 



94 



Trifling accidents. 
Wives left widows. 
Orphans, 



42 
47 
176 



Table A — SJiowing Comparafive Sfatements of Fatal Casualiiies for the 

Years 1S93 and 1H9L 



Explosions of fire damp, 

Explosions of blasting material, . . . . 

Premature explosions, 

Falls of coal aTid roof, 

Crushed bj'^ mine cars, 

i'"'alling down shafts and slopes, .. . . 

By coal flying from shots, 

By machinery on surface, 

Boiler explosions, ... 
Sutlocated by gHS generated by mine fire. 
Miscellaneous, 



Years. 



Totals, 



1893 


1894 


1 


12 


3 


2 


1 


3 


27 


23 


14 


7 


2 


2 


1 


1 


4 


4 


2 


4 




2 


5 


13 







73 



IT)- 11-94 



226 



REIORTS OF TH3 INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



Number of Fatal Accidents and Quantity of Coal Produced per 

Life .Lost. 



Pliiladelpliia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, 

Lehigh Valle^^ Coal Company, 

Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company, 

Lentz, Lilly & Co., 

Silverbrook Coal Company, . . . 

Mill Creek Coal Compan}'-, 

William Penn Coal Co., ' 

Coxa Brothers, 

Individual operators, 



p iS 



v-l 


33 


S a> 








"2 C 






^ 


o ^ 


a 




a> 


t^-a 


0) 




TS 


O <D 


■a 










c 


O 




y 








2 


a 


Q-O 


cS 


^ 




E- 






39 


92 


,800 




9 


60 


,6161 




7 


76,651 




8 


10 


,850 




3 


81 


,500 




1 


283 


,427 




5 


57 


,392 




2 


111 


,6941 




4 


92 


994 



Table B — Showing Comparative Statement of Non-Fatal Casualities 
for the Years 1893 and 189^. 



Explosions of fire damp, .... 
Explosions of blasting material. 

Premature explosions, 

Falls of coal and root, .... 

Crushed by mine cars, 

Falling down siiafts and slopes. 
By coal flying from shots, . . . 
By machinery on surface, . . . 

Boiler explosions, 

Miscellaneous, 



Years. 



Totals, 




Table C — Shovnng the Quantity of Coal Produced and Shipped During 
the Years 1893 and 189^ 



, 


Years. 




1893 

6,674,807 
6,252,493 


1894 


(iuantily of coal jH-oduced in tons of 2,240 lbs., 

Quantity of coal shipped in tons of 2,240 lbs., 


6,340,631 
5,888,300 



No. 11. SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 227 

Table D. — Comparisons behveen the years 1893 and 1894. 



Niiinber of persons employed, 

Tons of coal produced per lilc lost, 

Nuniljer of tons of coal produced per each personal injury, 

Ratio of employes per life lost, .' . . . 

Average number of tons of coal produced per employe, . . 
Ratio ol employes per each personal injury, 




Years 



1894 



20, 109 

86,847 

37,968 
274+ 
31.5+ 
119+ 



Table E. — Talcing the death rate per thousand as a basis of comjjarison 
between the different companies and individual operators, loe have the 
folloioing ratio for the year. 



Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, 

Lehigh Valley Coal (Company, 

Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company, .... 

Lentz, Lilly and Company, 

Silverbrook Coal Company, 

Mill Creek Coal Company, 

William Penn Coal Company, 

^o.xe Brothers, 



Individual operators, 1,317 




Ol 

a. 



3 

5+ 
4— 
3— 

5+ 
1+ 
8+ 
2+ 
3+ 



228 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



Off. Dor. 



Comparative St.\tement of Fatal and Non-Fatal Casualties and 
Their Causes for Five Years. 



Casualties. 



Fatal. 

Explosions of tire damp, 

Explosions of blasting material, 

Premature explosions, 

halls of coal and roof, 

Crushed by mine cars, 

Falling down shafts and slopes, . . . 

By coal flying from shots, 

By machinery on surface, 

Boiler explosions, 

Suffocated by gas generated by mine fire, 
Miscellaneous, 

Totals of the respective years, . . . 

Non- Fatal. 



Explosions of firedamp, . . . . 
Explosions of blasting material, 

Pren)ature explosions, 

Kails of coal and roof, 

Crushed by mine cars, .... 
Falling down shafts and slopes, 
By coal flying from shots, . . . 
By machinery on surface, . . . 

Boiler explosions, 

Miscellaneous, 



1890 



Totals for the respective years. 



66 



18 

4 

2 

38 

12 



1891 1892 



22 



97 



4 
3 

6 
28 
7 
3 
1 
2 



66 



10 

5 

5 

31 

18 



18 



11 



1893 



Total 
1894 for five 
years. 



1 

3 
1 

27 
14 
2 
1 
4 
2 



54 



31 

' 4 
32 
17 



60 



28 
8 
10 
36 
28 



23 



92 112 



20 



139 



12 
2 
3 

23 
7 
2 
1 
4 
4 
2 

13 



73 



22 

1 

8 

23 

20 

2 



94 



319 



534 



Ni. 



SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



229 



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siio; JO .igquuiu i«;oj. 



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CD ^ O CO ^ 



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O OO CO lO CO 
en (M CO rfi CO 
C-l CD (M CO as 



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JO suo^ JO J9qian>i 



CO lO CO r^ lO 



qoB9 o^ pauiui \eoD 
JO suo^ JO .laqunijsj; 



+ 



+ 



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sa.^oiduia jo aaqmn^ 



•S9jtOld 

-ina JO aaquinu ib-^oj^ 



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CO CO CO o o 

— I <N .-( -H (M 



<M 'ji •* Ji — I 



Oi 05(M COD: 



+ 



o — '^^ CO ti 

O C: Cs ^ Ci 
CO 00 00 C<j C/3 



230 REPORiS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Total number of persons employed inside and outside and their de- 
scription of service: 

Inside. 

Inside foreman 15S 

Miners, 4,405 

Miners' laborers, 2,459 

All other company men, 3,145 

Drivers and runners, 807 

Dooi- boys and helpers, 253 

Total inside, 11,227 

Outside. 

Outside foreman, 73 

Blacksmiths and carpenters, 378 

P^ngineers and firemen, 756 

Slate pickers, 4,582 

All other company men, 2,990 

Superintendents and clerks 103 

Total outside, 8,882 



Total inside and out 20,109 



Average number of days worked by the various coal companies in 
this district: 

Philadelphia and Readiug Coal and Iron Company, 109 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company 144.7 

Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company 249.8 

Lentz, Lilly and ( 'ompany, 115.9 

Silverbrook Coal (Company 180 

Mill Creek Coal Company, 158.8 

William IVnn Coal Company 256| 

Coxe Hrothers, 225 

Individual firms, 176.3 

Number of pounds of dynauiite used, .323,148 

Number of kegs of j)owd<M- used 154,402 

Xuml)er of steam boihM-s in use 1,284 

Number of horses and mnles in use 1,962 



N'^. 11. SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 231 

Hempel's Apparatus for Quick Deteiiuiuatiou of Gases. 

Among tlie nuiuy difliculties piesenting- tlituuselves iu subduing an 
uudergTouud mine Are, none are more dreaded than that of the gases 
generated by the fire. Among these are carbonic oxide (white damp) 
and carbonic acid gas (bhick damp), both of which are poisonous. 

Continued breatliiug of an atmospliere heavily cliarged with eitliei', 
will cause death in a short time, while a relatively small percentage 
of either will cause violent illness, with severe pains. 

In an atmospliere containing ().1>8 per cent, of carbonic oxide and 
0.01 per cent, of carbonic acid, men are unable to work; neither ar*- 
they able to >\ ork in an atmosphere containing 0.32 per cent, of car- 
bonic oxide and 3.77 per cent, of carbonic acid gas. Continued breatli- 
iug of an atmosphere containing 0.48 per cent, of carbonic oxide and 
1.13 per cent, of carbonic acid gas has caused severe sickness. The 
carbonic oxide is the more dangerous, since it is odorless and taste- 
less. 

At the Packer colliery fire in ]May last, the apparatus described 
below gave excellent satisfaction. 

It is easily manipulated, thoroughly reliable and quite inexpensive. 
Kichard L. Ogden, A. C, prepared for the Lehigh Valley Coal Coni- 
lany the description and directions for using the apparatus Which 
are here given. The drawings from which the cuts. Figs. I and II, 
N^ere made, were prepared in the office of Mr. F. E. Zerby, division en- 
gineer of the company. 

The apparatus used for making determinations of quantity of car- 
bonic acid gas ((J02) or black damp, consists of a Henipel- Winkler 
gas burette and a Hempel simple absorption pipette (Fig. 1). 

The gas burette comprises two glass tubes, A and B, of which A is 
a levelling tube and B a measuring tube of 100 c.c. capacity and grad- 
uated to fifths, with stop cocks D and E. The tubes A and B ar<^ 
connected by rubber tubing C, which should be about three and one 
half feet long. The pipette consists of glass bulbs (1 and H and 
capillaiy tube M. The connection to burette is made by capillary F, 
and rubber tubing I and I'. 

To prepare jupette: Fill bulb G with short rolls of wire gauze 
of about 1-12 or 1-15 inch mesh. These should be about l-l-inch in 
diameter and 3-4-inch long. The absorbent is a solution of one ])art 
commercial caustic ]K)tash and two parts water. Introduce suffici(M\l 
of the solution to fill bulb G and cai)illary M, leaving bulb H entirely 
empty. 

Method of analysis: Disconnect burette from pipette by detaching 
rub))' r tubing I'. Open stojt-cocks D and E. Pour water into level 
ling tube A until tubes A and \\ are about half full of 
water. Raise tube A until II is full of water, and close 



232 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

stop-cock D; connect gas bag to burette by rubber tubiug, tak- 
ing care to expel air from tubing by passing gas through it before 
connecting with burette. Open stop-cock D, lower tube A, and after 
running about 100 c.c. of gas into burette close stop-cock D. Allow 
three minutes for water to run down walls of burette, then raise or 
lower, as may be required, tube JB, until the water in A and B are at 
the same level, when gas in burette will be at atmospheric pressure. 
Note volume of gas in burette reading from the bottom of meniscus, 
connect pipette to burette b}^ rubber tube I', first tilling capillaries 
M and F, and tubing I and V with the absorbant by blowing at K, 
avoiding air bubbles in capillaries, as far as possible. By using a 
pinch-cock for rubber tube T when disconnected, capillaries can be 
kept filled with solution. 

Now open stop-cock D, levelling lute A forcing gas over into pipette 
until water in burette has reached fc^, then close stop-cock D. 
The gas is now in contact with the solution and the absorbtion of the 
carbonic acid gas will be almost instantaneous. After one minute 
open stop-cock D, lower lute A and run gas back into burette until 
the solution has reached rubber lute I', close stop-cock D, allow three 
njinutes for water to run down, bring water in A and B to same 
level again and read as before. The difference in the two readings 
will express the amount of carbonic acid gas absorbed, from which 
calculate the percentage. 

Example: Say, reading before passing the gas into pipette is 02.4 
c.c. and after running back into burette 84.2 c.c, showing a difference 
of 8.2 c.c, then 8.2^92.4 equals the percentage of gas lost by absorp 
tion, showing 8.874 per cent, of carbonic acid gas in the sample. 

A single filling of the i)ipette will safely absorb (>,000 c.c. of car 
bonic acid gas. 

If the gas to be analyzed contains a large percentage of carbonic 
acid gas, it will add to the accuracy of the results, if the water to be 
used in the burette is first satui'atcd with the gas. This can be done 
by filling a suitable flask about half full of water and passing a 
stream of tlic gas through it for some lime. Tf, however, repeated 
analj^ses of about the same gases are to be made, the water will soon 
become saturated witliout this precaution. 

In Fig. ir is shown Uempers double absorption pii»efte for the de- 
tei-mination of oxygen (()) and carbonic oxide (co) or white dam]). 
To pr pare pipette: l*our water through M until it reaches (t. In- 
sei i a lliin glass tube about 40 inches long in rubber connection at L 
and fasten a small funnel to upper end of tube by means of a piece of 
rubber tubing. T'pon pouring the re-agent into funnel the pressnre 
given it f>v tl'e loner class tube enables it lo (piickly puss llironiili Hi 
rapillai-y K into bnll)s A and 1!. ^^'^l('n bulb 15 is about two (liirds 
full of the re-agent, close the rubbei- conn 'ction at L with a pinch- 



No. 11. SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 233 

cock and detach glass tube. Pour water through M until bulb D is 
about two-thirds full, then shake pipette vigorously for some time to 
remove all gases absorbable by the re-agent. Connect glass tube 
again, open pinch-cock and admit enough of the re-agent to fill bulb 
B. Fill bulb D with water, detach glass tube and allow re-agent to 
pass from B to A. Connect glass tube again and admit 
enough re-agent to about half fill the bulb B. Detach glass tube as 
before and allow re-agent to pass from B to A again. The pipette is 
now ready for use. If the work has been properly done, tubes K and 
E and bulb A are filled with the absorbent, the space from B to F 
with a gas free from oxygen, C and G with water and D with air.**** 

Jt is not essential, however, that the bulbs and tubes should be 
filled in exactly these proportions, the object being to protect the ab- 
sorbent from the action of the oxygen in the atmosphere through M. 

Absorbent for oxygen : Dissolve 10 grains pyrogallic acid (C6H603) 
in 30 c.c. of water, to this add 240 grains of commercial caustic pot- 
ash (KOH) dissolved in 160 c.c. of water. A single filling of the pi- 
pette will safely absorb 400 c.c. of oxygen. Absorbent for carbonic 
(.xide (CO) or white-damp: Dissolve cuprous chloride (Cu2C12 in con- 
centrated hydro-chloride acid (HCl). A single filling of the pipette 
will safely absorb 700 c.c. of CO. Method of analysis: Same as that 
given for carbonic acid gas, with this exception, after the gas has 
been run over from burette to pipette, close pipette securely at N 
with a pinch cock, detach from burette and shake vigorously for 3 
minutes, when the absorption of oxygen or carbonic oxide, as the case 
may be, will be complete. Connect burette again at N and proceed 
as directed for carbonic acid gas. A separate pipette is used for 
(>ach absorbent and the gases should be removed in the following 
order: Carbonic acid gas, oxygen and carbonic oxide, as the absorb- 
ents for both oxygen and carbonic oxide slowly absorb carbonic acid 
gas, and the absorbent for carbonic oxide slowly absorbs oxygen. 
Mv. Ogden recommends that the following precautions be taken: (1) 
All rubber connections be made air-tight. (2) Frequent tests of con- 
nections. (3) Do not allow samples of gases to remain long in rubber 
bag, as gases are rapidly absorbed by vulcanized rubber. (4) Use 
distilled water for burette where practicable. (.5") All apparatus and 
liquids should be of the same temperature, i.e., that of the room. 
Avoid changes of temperature in room, as far as possible. 

Packer No. 5 Colliery Fire. 

On the night of April 30-May 1, a fire broke out in the Packer No. 5 
colliery of the Lehigh Valley Coal Company near Lost Creek, threaten- 
ing the destruction of the entire colliery. Its existence was discovered 
by the night shift men, who on attempting to make their way out in 
tlie regular way were met by volumes of sniokc ()l)ligiiig them to re- 
8 



234 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

treat and make their escape through the outlet in the Holmes vein at 
the western limit of the workings. 

These men at once gave the alarm, notifying the bosses, who 
quickly organized an exploring party, which entered the mine and at- 
tempted to locate the seat of the lire. An examination revealed the 
fire burning on the West Mammonth slope level gangway somewhere 
between the tunnel from the seven-foot bed and ^'breast" No. 56 on 
this level. The density of the smoke and volumes of gas prevented a 
closer examination, as it was impossible until an additional supply 
of fresh air could be had to pass the points referred to. 

Learning of the fire on the afternoon of May first, while making an 
inspection of the Lawrence colliery workings at Mahanoy plane, I at 
once set out for the colliery, which was reached at 4.15 P. M., where 
I met Colonel D. P. Brown, division superintendent for the Lehigh 
Valley Coal Company, with whom I had an interview, during which 
I learned that two Polish miners Scidor Pranzy and August Leopold 
had been engaged on the South dip No. 2 counter gangway re-opening 
it, and as they had been neither seen nor heard of since the fire broke 
out we surmised which proved correctly, that they were still in the 
mine. 

My first move was to rescue these men alive, if possible, and failing 
in this, to recover their bodies, and for this purpose I organized a 
party of six men, picked out by Colonel Brown, with whom I at once 
proceeded to reach the No. 2 counter gangway through the water 
level gangway, leaving it at a point above "breast" No. 52 of the 
slope level. Upon reaching this point, it was found that the gases 
generated by the fire had filled up all the workings east and west of 
it, making further progress impossible. It further demonstrated that 
if the men were still in the counter gangway all hope of rescuing 
them alive was gone and that they were beyond human aid. 

It was supposed by many that Pranzy and Leopold had made their 
escape and left the region, fearing a prosecution for firing the mine. 
This opinion, however, was shared neither by myself nor by the 
officials of the company, and the efforts to recover the bodies of the 
two men, as well as to extinguish the fire were carried on with all the 
skill, care and vigor that could be summoned up. 

For a correct understanding of the nature of the work and its 
progress, a brief description of the colliery is necessary. 

The Packer No. 5 colliery is situated between the village of Lost 
Creek and the town of Girardville; the coal beds are developed by a 
shaft 501 feet deep. Its dimensions are 45 feet long and 14 feet wide, 
divided into six compartments for hoisting, pumping and up-cast air- 
way. About 4,000 feet east of the No. 5 shaft was situated what was 
known as the Packer No. 1 (Colorado) colliery; the coal minod al this 
colliery has, since the demolition of tlu* No. 1 breaker, been brought 



No. 11. SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 235 

on the surface by a locomotive to the No. 5 breaker to be prepared for 
market. The underground workings of the No. 1 colliery may be con- 
sidered tributary to that of No. 5 colliery, or in fact so closely iden- 
tified Avith each other that they should be considered but one opera- 
tion, as they really are. 

Upon examination of the map accompanying this report it will be 
t)bserved that the openings on the east consist of a double mouthed 
tunnel, together with three slopes sunk on the "Mammoth bed." At 
the bottom of the No. 5 shaft a tunnel has been driven southward to 
the Buck mountain bed. To comply with the mine law requiring a 
second outlet from the shaft level, an opening has been driven in the 
"Mammonth bed" from the shaft level connecting with the west level 
of No. 1 sloi^e or (No. 1 Colorado). On the west end of the property 
a shaft has been sunk and a drift driven on the "Holmes bed." From 
these it will be seen that ample provision had been made in the way 
of escapement openings in case of accidents. A further examination 
of the map exhibits an anticlinal axis passing through the property 
giving to the coal beds a north and south dip, both of which are 
worked. The ventilating apparatus or fan erected on the top of shaft 
has a diameter of 20 feet with blades or vanes 6x6 feet; speed of fan 
ordinarily 90 revolutions per minute, producing 105,000 cubic feet of 
air per minute. 

The points of intake being the crop-falls at Bear Ridge, the water 
level tunnel and the slopes and the colliery workings were furnished 
with a plentiful supply of fresh air, the course of the air current was 
generally speaking west^^ard. A brick and cement wall divided the 
main tunnel, the west side being used as a transportation way, and 
the east side as the return airway to bottom of shaft. 

The tidal elevations of the several important points are as fol 

lows: 

Top of Packer No. 5 shaft, 1,105 .37 

Bottom of Packer No. 5 shaft 603.80 

Mouth of water level tunnel, 1,170.30 

Top of No. 5 hoisting slope, 1,290.39 

Bottom of No. 5 hoisting slope 943.53 

Toj) of counter chute (No. 59|), 1,083.00 

Bottom of counter chute (No. 59^), 945.00 

Water level gangway at turn, 1.184 .00 

No. 2 counter gangway at turn, 1,085.00 

Active operations, it will be seen, were carried on in four levels, 
namely, water level, counter gangway, slope level and the shaft level. 
Mining was also carried on in what is known as the seven -foot plane 
level from the shaft level. 

At ten oVlork on the morning of the first of ^fay a party succeeded 
in reaching a point about 15 feet east of the fire, which was found 



i 



23G REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

burning in the counter chute driven between breasts Nos, 59 and 
60 of the West Mammoth slope level gangway. The counter chute 
is 240 feet long, ten feet wide and seven feet high, and 
through it was passed all the coal mined from the 'breasts" 
on the counter gangway. This chute was heavily timbered, 
and a quantity of cut coal remained in it, affording abundant 
material to feed a fire. The fire originated, as nearly as could be de- 
termined, near the bottom of the counter chute, and had its origin 
\vithout a question of doubt from a lamp carried by the loader com- 
ing in contact witli the dry timber in chute while going up to ascer- 
tain the quantity of coal he might have to load. The dry condition 
of the chute timbers added to the rapid progress of the fire, giving it 
such headAvay as to make it in the meantime impossible to approacli 
or get in close i)roximity to it. The distance of the chute from the 
j^everal openings is as follows: From the No. 5 slope 3,515 feet; from 
the mouth of the water level tunnel to the top of the chute 4,162 
feet ; from the bottom of No. 5 shaft 1,335 feet, and from the Holmes 
vein outlet 2,695 feet. A party attempted to construct a dam in the 
gangway near the fire to prevent if possible the spread of the fire 
eastward, but before much could be done in this direction the gases 
generated from the burning wood and coal compell 'd them to retreat 
and the attempt Avas abandoned. 

The Mammoth bed at this point is 33 feet tliick and is inclined at an 
angle of 35 degrees, and every effort was made to hold the fire in 
check and meanwhile a consultation was had with a view of deciding 
u['on the best plan of action. To this Avere called a number of min- 
ing experts, and the conclusion I'oached was to fight the fire directly 
with hose and pipe. Flooding the entire mine and slushing the area 
covered by the fire were both suggested as methods, but for a num- 
ber of reasons, the direct method was preferred and the wisdom which 
chaiacterized the deliberations in concluding to carry out the methoii 
agi'eed upon demonstrated to the satisfaction of all ccmcerned that it 
was the best. Immediately upon reaching this conclusion all mate- 
I'inl required was sent for and tlie most enei'getic efforts were put 
forth to subdue the fire. To reai'h the locality of ihc fire and be able 
to remain there and live was the first (piestion to be decided. Some 
300 feet west of the counter chute a lunnel had been driven from 
the seven-foot to the Mammoth bed. On this level and through it. a 
strong current of fresh air was passing and in order to make it pos- 
sible to reach the counter chute from this side, a brattice partition 
was built in the gangway for some distance eastward, and the air- 
current from tunnel turned into and east on the gangway by means 
of canvas. The gases, however, became so strong in volume that it 
was necessarv to build an air-tight box 6x6 feet, of two-inch ])lnnk 



No. 11. SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 237 

within ttie gangway eastward to a point near tlie bottom of the coun- 
ter chute, which gave very satisfactory results. 

Pi'ior to the breaking out of the fire a 4-inch line of gas pipe had 
been laiiiifrom the pump at the bottom of No. 5 shaft through the air 
yide of the tunnel with necessary connections to extend lateral pipes 
to any of the gangways on the shaft level, while the line extended 
up to the slope level and through the second outlet in the Mammoth 
bed. This pipe serves for conducting compressed air to the power 
di'ills when tunnels are being driven, while in case of fire it can be 
quickly connected to the pump and used to convey water. A second line 
of four-inch pipe was then laid from the pump at the foot of the No. 
5 slope along the west gangway, but considerable difficulty was ex- 
perienced before reaching the foot of counter chute on account of 
the gases from the fire having filled the openings east and north to 
the extent that it was dangerous to even approach westward. To 
clear away the gases (carbonic acid and carbonic oxide) a "brattice" 
was built in the centre of the "gangway" westward from the pillar 
between "breasts" Nos, 34 and 35, at the same time closing all the 
chutes as the work of building the brattice in the gangway advanced 
westward to the counter chute, which cleared away the gases and 
enabled the workmen to reach the fire. The "breast" openings north 
of the slope level were filled with carbonic oxide gas, and to prevent 
any possible danger to the workmen, it was decided to drain this gas 
off by means of wooden pipes one foot square inserted through the 
batteries in breasts Nos. 39 and 41 opened from No. 5 slope west level 
gangway, crossing overhead and connectmg with "breasts" Nos. 14 
and 16, opened from No. 5 shaft, east level gangway, and the gases 
were conducted direct to the shaft fan, a plan which gave excellent 
results. After these arrangements were completed the work of fight 
lug the fire north of the counter chute was carried on very satisfac- 
torily. 

In order to head the fire off and prevent its passing around the end 
of the saddle on the counter gangway level, a line of four-inch pipe 
was laid along the water level gangway from the top of the colunni 
pipe of the slope pump, A No. 10 Knowles pump was also put in 
place at the mouth of the drift tunnel and connected with this line. 
The line left the water level "gangway" at a point above "breast" No. 
52, passed down and across this, and into the next "breast" west and 
thence to the No. 2 counter gangway west to the locality of the fire. 
( -onnection was also made with the Girard Water Company's main at 
Rappahannock, the line coming down the Holmes vein shaft along the 
Holmes "gangway" and through the tunnel to the Mammoth bed, 
thence eastwardly to the locality of the fire. This gave four main 
lines which by means of connections were divided as desired. Valves 
were fitted to the play ])ipes at distances sufficiently far from tliefireto 



238 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

make it safe to turn on the water, the ends of the play pipes were 
alw ays fastened, hence none of the men were required to be near the 
tire while the water was playing on it, in fact, no one could have re- 
mained at these points and lived. 

To properly get at the fire the gangway on either side of the chute 
had to be cleared of the fallen coal and slate as quickly as it cooled. 
The removal of this material was attended with much danger, since its 
place was taken by rushes of burning coal from the chute. When a 
sufficient quantity had been removed and the fire on the gangway ex- 
tinguished, that in the chute was vigorously attacked and timbering 
begun to prevent further falls of top. The repeated rushes of live 
coal down the chute from the head made work there extremely haz- 
ardous, and in order to furnish a safe retreat a "manway" was driven 
along the east "rib" of breast No. 60 through "gob," which was used as 
a traveling way; entrance to the chute being had through the head- 
ings already driven in the pillars between. 

Great care had to be exercised in drawing the coal from the chute 
since the heat had affected the pillars between it and breast No. 60 
to such an extent that scaling off had begun. As will be observed by 
a study of the map, the success of the undertaking depended in cut- 
ting off the fire from the head of the chute and preventing it from 
extending east or west from this point. To attain this object a most 
vigorous attack was made from above on the counter gangway, which 
was found to be closed by a mass of burning material which had 
fallen from the top and sides for a distance of 100 feet east of the 
ciiute. The removal of this material, after cooling, required con- 
siderable time, as the opening was small in area, which necessitated 
the use of hand barrows. 

The material, after being cooled, was wheeled back and dumped 
into an old breast opened from the slope level, and as quickly as it 
was removed and the fire extinguished for some distance, timber was 
put in place to prevent further falls. As might have been expected, 
the volume of gas generated by so large a body of burning coal was 
very great and the heat intense. The quantity of air passing along 
the water level gangway was owing to the falls, etc., (the main fan 
l)eing on the opposite side) found to be inadequate, and to remedy 
this, it was decided to erect a 16-foot forcing fan at the mouth of the 
water level tunnel. Tliis work was assigned to Mr. George H, Tench, 
general outside foreman of the York Farm and Blackwood collieries 
of the same company. The entiie W(^rk. including the setting of the 
engine and fan. and making the steam connections was performed in 
the remarkably short period of eleven and one-half hours, the several 
parts being entirely dismantled upon their arrival at the mine. 

This fan furnished a plentiful supply of air to the counter gangway, 
bnt owing to tlio fnct that the currents met. namely that passing 



No. 11. SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 239 

westward along the west slope level gangway, which had by means of 
a door been turned up breast No. 58 to the counter gangway and the 
current from the forcing fan on the counter gangway, some difficulty 
was experienced in regulating them so as to keep both sections of 
men at work. A severe rain storm set in on the nineteenth of May, 
continuing for four days. During this time a dam on the shaft level 
was built to hold the water back and prevent the pump at bottom of 
shaft being submerged and also the upcast to fan being cut olf, 
but the pressure of water on the dam proved to be more than it could 
sustain and consequently it broke away, cutting off the exhaust fan 
as well as drowning the pump. The air-current being cut off, safety 
had to be sought upon the surface. To recover the pumps at the foot 
of the shaft, tanks holding 1,500 gallons each were constructed on the 
cages, and the water was hoisted to surface by this means. As the 
period of time to clear the shaft workings was problematical, it was 
decided to erect a 16-foot exhaust fan at the top of the Holmes vein 
shaft, a spur track was laid from the Lehigh Valley Railroad and a 
locomotive run upon it to furnish steam to this fan. The nearest 
steam boilers already erected were a half mile distant from this 
point. This work was acomplished in 12 hours. After the water 
had been hoisted from the shaft workings the main fan was again 
put in operation. Near the head and east of the counter chute will 
be noticed a triangular block of coal which supported a large area of 
roof. The probable condition of this when reached, whether still 
standing or not, gave the officials much concern, for upon its condi- 
tion much depended. Fortunately it was found intact. A point 
where it was expected would, and subsequently did give much trou- 
ble, was the bottle-shaped breast, the last one on the north dip of the 
counter gangway, which was without any heading or connection to 
the other breasts. The fire had worked its way up this about one- 
half the distance to the face. As rapidly as the burning coal from it 
v,'as cooled and removed its place was taken by more of the same 
material. Attempts to drive a pipe through the gob here were not 
successful, and it was not until a manway had been driven through 
that much progress against it could be made. It was proposed to 
drive headings to it from the breast east of it, and through these pla.y 
a si ream upon the fire, and failing in this, to build a dam or dams 
were suggested so as to flood it. The fire extended to all the headings 
and gangways in the vicinity which were followed up and the fire in 
each extinguished. On May 9th the gob in breast No. GO was discov- 
ered to be on fire by reason of the excessive heat coming therefrom, 
but on acocunt of the gases existing, entrance to this breast was im- 
possible. Pipes, however, were put through the headings and water 
played on the fire until it was extinguished. 

After It was supposed that the fire on the oonnter gangway had 



240 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

been extiuguislied ii again bioke out and burned fiercely over the 
new timbeimg. streams were directed upon this, but witnout mucu 
effect until draw holes were made and the burning coal drawn down 
through them. To protect the men from being burned by the hoL 
water tailing down on them, a canvas was sUetcned along tne collars 
of the counter gangway timbers, it being diiJicult to keep a cur- 
rent of air up to the face of the burning mass, a second canvas was 
placed one foot below the other. Connection was made with the 
counter chute and the space between the canvasses served as a re- 
turn airway. This assisted very much in keeping a good supply of 
fresh air forward to the men wh(m needed. \\ hat hre remained was 
followed up and extinguished and by July Dth the tire was entirely 
out. On June lith the bodies of I'ranzy and Leopold were recovered 
by a party under the leadership of Colonel Brown. They were found 
at Ihe point marked O on the map. Evidences were plenty to point 
to the fact that they had made no effort to escape, but on the contrary 
they built a battery to ward off the poisonous gases and seemingly 
lay down to await the arrival of a rescuing party. Had they at- 
tempted to escape, it would at the outset have been possible for them 
to have passed down breast No. 90 of the south dip slope level gang 
wny, and through this opening gotten out safely. Attempted rescue 
by this avenue was made useless, after some time had elapsed, owing 
to the gasses generated from the tire having tilled these passages. 
Although seventy days' hard work were required to extinguish the 
tire and the work often attended with great danger from falls, explo 
sions and sickness incurred by the presence of noxious gases, it is al- 
most marvellous that the extinguishing of the tire was accomplished 
with the loss of but a single life, Mr. George Fishburn, inside foreman 
of Blackwood colliery, who with other bosses of the company, had 
l>een summoned to assist in the work. At about 3 o'clock on the 
morning of May 19, Mr. Fishburn, who was in charge of the party 
fighting the fire on the counter gangway, mounted a fall and at- 
tempted to change the direction of the nozzle playing into the head- 
ing leading into breast No. Gl, and while so engaged a piece of coal 
weighing about 75 pounds fell, striking him on the right side be- 
tween neck and shoulder. His position at the time was such that 
the ribs of the left side were broken which penetrated the lung. Mr. 
Fisliburn died before he could be removed to the surface. His death 
caused universal sorrow, for he was a man of excellent judgment, 
cool and brave in the face of danger, and his daily intercourse with 
his men, both here and at Blackwood, he won their esteem. During; 
the time of extinguishing the fire, samples of the surrounding atmos 
phere were taken from the mine in rubber bags frequently during 
each day and tested by the "Shaw gas tester," and the "Herapler ab 
sorption npparntns," in order to determine exactly the character of 



No. 11. SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 241 

ilio gases mixing with the air, and to prevent loss of life from the 
breathing of the noxious gases. The former of these has already 
been described in these reports. A description and directions for 
using the latter are included elsewhere in this report. The fact that 
these instruments were in constant use, increased the confldence of 
the workmen and assured them that the officials were using every 
means to protect them against the dangerous gases generated from 
the fire. 

In view of the possibility of danger in setting tire to the timber in 
dry places, such as this counter chute was, I would suggest that men 
working in them be obliged to use the Clanay safety lamp and no\ 
naked lamps, notwithstanding what the workmen may think to the 
contrary. During a period of about ten years I have been called 
upor to assist in extinguishing 17 mine fires. Twelve of these orig- 
inated from a miner's lamp coming inadvertently in contact with dry 
timber; the other five originated from a blast igniting the gas. 

In extinguishing this mine fire, too much credit cannot be given 
to Mr. W. A. Lathrop, general superintendent of the Lehigh Valley 
Coal Company, who was present most of the time personally direct 
ing the work. His faith in the successful extinguishing of the fire 
never wavered, while his presence with his men, sometimes for a 
whole day, and occasionally a whole night in the mine added greatly 
to encourage them, while Colonel D. P. Brown, division superinten 
dent, was almost constantly with one or the other of the working 
parties, as was also Mr. Frederick E. Zerby, division engineer at the 
time, but now superintendent and engineer of the Hazleton division 
of the company. 

The mine foremen called from the several collieries of the company 
to assist in the work were Messrs. Price, Heaton. Jones and Irvin, of 
the Packer collieries, and Messrs. Leckie and Fishburn, of the York 
Farm and Blackwood collieries. Mr. McKeone being the foreman of 
the colliery which was on fire. Mr. John J. Williams, inspector for 
the company, was also summoned to aid in the work. All exhibited 
excellent judgment and bravery in carrying out the work assigned to 
them. 

Major Heber S. Thompson, superintendent and engineer of the 
Girard estate, upon whose lands Packer No. 5 colliery is opened, was 
almost a dally visitor until the fire was extinguished. Also Mr. John 
B. Granger, mine inspector for the Girard estate. Both of these gen 
tlemen having had much experience with mine fires, the benefit of 
their excellent judgment was freely given and their suggestions from 
time to time were of much value. 

There is no doubt but that the extinguishing of this fire by the 
methods used as described in this report, taking into considerntion 
the proportions it had reached in such a short time, and its relative 
Ifi- n 04 



242 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

proximity to other openings, makes it the greatest success in the his- 
tory of mine fires in the anthracite region, for had the mine been 
flooded, the bodies of the two unfortunate imprisoned miners would 
have been consumed and valuable coal property would in all prob- 
ability have been completely destroyed, before enough of water could 
have been run into the collierv to have submerged it to water level. 



No. 11. 



SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



243 



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SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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No. 11. 



SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



255 



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SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



257 



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258 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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No. 11. 



SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



259 



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Official Document, No. 11. 



SEVENTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 

(NORTHUMBh^RLAND, COLUMBIA, SCHUYLKILL AND DAUPHIN 

COUNTIES.) 



Shamokin, Penna., March 19, 1805. 
Hon. Isaac B. Brown, 

Secretary of Internal Affairs, Harrisburg, Penna.: 

Sir: I have the honor to present to you the following report for the 
year 1894: 

The quantity of coal produced during the year 189-1 was 5,404,82;^ 
tons, against 5,288,890.88 tons in 3893, an increase of 115,932.12 tons. 

The number of fatal accidents \A^as 78, an increase of 1 over the pre- 
ceding year. The Henry Clay boiler explosion and the Luke Fidler 
colliery fire, by Avhich 7 and 5 lives were lost respectively, greatly 
augmented the fatalities. 

The non-fatal accidents were 70, against 119 in 1893, a decrease of 
43. 

On account of the fatal casualties 32 wives were made widows and 
88 children orphans. 

Several of the fatal accidents were due to the carelessness on the 
l)art of the victims, and in some cases were due to direct violations of 
law. Three deaths having occurred from jumping on accommodation 
wagons while in motion on slopes, while several deaths from prema- 
ture explosions would not have occurred had proper care on the part 
of the victim l)een exercised. 

Respectfully submitted, 

EDWARD BRENNAN, 

Mine Inspector. 



Examination of Applicants for Mine Foremen Certificates. 

An examination was held at Pottsville on July the 12th and 13th. 
Tlie board consisted of Edward Brennan, Mine Inspector; Andrew 
Robertson, coal operator, Shamokin; Robert Muir, miner, Mount Car- 
mel, and James Gordon, miner, Ashland. 



262 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

The following persons passed a successful examination and were 
recommended to ►Secretary of Internal Affairs for certificates of 
qualification: 

John T. Thomas, Shamokin. 

Michael Madden, Shamokin. 

Charles F. Long, Wiconisco. 

John Marsh, Wilburton. 

John E. Ambose, Mount Carmol. 

Andrew Gallagher, Centralia. 

George Schaum, Centralia. 

John Ruffing, Locust Gap. 

Condition of the Collieries. 

There has been considerable improvement in the condition of the 
collieries in this district, especially with regard to ventilation and 
things conducive to the safety of the workmen. There are still, how- 
ever, some two or three collieries where the ventilation is not what 
it should be, two of the collieries being apparently new where such 
conditions should not obtain. This is largely due to lack of attention 
by those in charge. The managers, however, promise to remedy mat- 
ters as soon as possible. If this is not done, extreme measures will 
be used to compel them to do so. 

Improvements Made During the Year. 

Owing to the dull condition of the trade, less work was done in the 
way of improvement than for many years past. The Scott shafts, 
which were being sunk by the Union Coal Company, were stopped 
and allowed them to fill up with w'ater until a revival of trade with a 
greater demand for coal would warrant their completion. 

The remodelling of the Bear Valley breaker by the Philadelphia 
and Reading Coal and Iron Company, and the building of a jig house 
at Cameron colliery by the Mineral Railroad and Mining Company, 
^■(■rc til? only iinj)rovoni('nts of note ni;itle dnrinu' the year. 

Luke Fidler Colliery Fire. 

A most disastrous fire occurred at this colliery on the evening of 
Oclober 8, between the hours of 7 and 8 o'clock. Trvin Bnffington, a 
cirpentar, assisted by John Anderson and Daniel Gallagher, were re- 
pairing the air brattices in the No. 1 shaft, (see map), which extends 
from the No. 10 to the No. 9 seams. The shaft is operated by bore 
hole'"' from the surface; the construction of it is such that the steam 
])ir»'« i\vo very close to the air compartment, thus making the brattice' 
and t'Trbei in one end of the shaft verv drv. For this reason Ian- 




Luke Fidler Colliery 
5hamokin Pa, Mar ai.iass. 




No. 11. SEVENTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 263 

terns, only, were used in making repairs, and for fear of fire even 
smoking was prohibited. Notwithstanding these rules, Bufifington, 
in direct violation of orders, used a naked light and foolishly placed 
it against the brattice to look for a leak, thinking to discover it by 
having the flame draw up th' ^-'gh the opening. Tn doing this he set 
the brattice on fire, and as everj hing was as dry as tinder there was 
no possible chance of extinguishing it. Discovering this, Bufifington 
went up the shaft, shouldered his tool chest, and started out the 
tunnel to make his escape, but so rapidly did the tiames spread that 
the fumes overtook him and he paid the penalty of his violation of 
orders with his life. At the time the fire broke out there were 60 
men at work in various parts of the mini.'. John Anderson, who was in 
the shaft, with Bufifington, not flunking of self, went down, and to- 
gether with others who w^ent down the new shaft, (see map), notified 
all the men they could reach to go to the new shaft, which was the 
most accessible place where they could reach the surface with safety. 
The colliery, fortunately, is furnished with many avenues of escape, 
otherw'ise a greater number of men would have perished. In spite of 
all efforts, however, four lives were lost. Two of these victims were 
notified to go to the new shaft, but made a mistake and tried to es- 
cape by the traveling-way from the foot of the old shaft to the water- 
level, (see map), but were overtaken by the fumes from the fire and 
were lost. Two others in the No. 3 slope could not be reached, de- 
spite every effort. So intense was the fire, and so rapidly did it 
spread, that by no efforts could the bodies of the men be reached, al- 
though every human exertion was made. 

Owing to the location of the fire, it being at both the top and the bot- 
tom of the shaft, thus destroying the return air-way, and the mine 
generating large quantities of explosive gases, any effort to fight the 
lire would have been extremely hazardous, if not suicidal. The only 
recourse left was to seal all the openings and fill the mine with water. 
This was done by turning in Coal Run creek, and also by pumping 
all available water into the mine. It required over one billion gal- 
lons of water to fill it to water level. As the fire had gotten above 
watei' level, dams had to be constructed in the new shaft, also in the 
main tunnel (see section) in order to raise the water above the fire. 
This was done successfully, and at this writing the water has been 
rim off from above water level and the fire found to be extin- 
guished. It was found to have gotten above water level about 100 
feet, and did more damage than was expected. 

The names of the men whose bodies are still in the mine are George 
Brown, Stany Bober. Mike Kovalis and William Bareavidge. 

The work of taking out the w'ater below water level has been com 
monced. but it will take some time before the bodies can be recov- 
ered or the mine o])erated again. 



264 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



Henry Clay Boiler Explosion. 

On the morning of October the 11th, at about 7.30 o'clock, one of 
the most disastrous boiler explosions which has occurred in the his 
tory of mining, happened at the Henry Clay colliery. The plant, 
which was almost a new one, contained 34 cylinder boilers. Twenty- 
seven of these, without any apparent cause, exploded, killing 7 men 
and injuring 2, and utterly demolishing the boiler house, besides 
doing damage to the surrounding buildings. Boiler experts from all 
sections of the country visited the scene, but none could give any sat- 
isfactory reason, or no two agree, as to the cause of the explosion. 
All agreed, however, that the material in the boilers was first-class, 
and that the explosion was not due to this cause. A strange thing 
which may be mentioned was that 15 boilers on one end and 12 on 
the other, exploded, while 7 in the centre remained in position and 
did not explode. The closest investigation on the part of the com- 
pany and also by the coroner's jury, failed to place the cause, conso 
quently it will have to be classed among the many of the strange hap- 
penings for which no satisfactory reason can be assigned. 



Table A — Comparative Statement of Fatal Casualities from Various 
Causes that Occurred During the Years 1892, 1893 and 189}).. 



1892 



Suffocated by smoke from mine fire, 

Explosions of fire damp, 

Falls of coal and roof, 

Mine fars an(t machinery, 

Fallin{» down slopes and shafts, . . . 
Breaking of ropes and chains, . . . . 
Explosion of blasting materials, . . 

Kicked by mules, 

Falling down schutes, 

Boiler explosions, 

Miscellaneous, 



Totals, 



45 



1893 



77 



1894 



6 
6 
27 
12 
3 



78 



No. 11. 



SEVENTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



Table B — Showimj Number of Tons of Coal Mined b>/ each Company 
Number of Fatal Casualities and Number of /Tons Mined for each 
Fatality. 





Tons Mined. 


Deaths. 


Tons Mined 
per Death. 


Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron 
C'onipanv, .... 


2,052,496 
431,674 
392,474 
306, 133 
632,823 
294,781 

1,294,442 


33 
10 
11 

b 

4 

10 


62,197 
43,167 
35,679 

153,066 
79, 103 
73,695 

129,444 


Mineral Kail road and Mining Company, 
Summit Branch Railroad Company, . . . 
Lykens Valley Coal Company, .... 

Tiie Union Coal Company, . ' 

Lewis A. Riley ifc Co., 


Individual Companies, 


Totals, 


5,404,823 


78 


576,351 



Note— Average number of tons ol coal mined per life lost, 69,293. 



Table C — Shoiving the Comparison of Non-Fatal Casualities for the 
Years 1892, 1893 and 1891^. 



Falls of coal and roof, 

Explosions of tire clamp, 

Mine cars and machinery, . . 

Explosion of blasting materials, 

Kicked by mules, 

Breaking ot ropes and chains, 
Falling down schutes and manways. 
Miscellaneous, " . , 

Totals, 




Table D— Showing Comparison of the Quantity of Coal Shipped, the 
Estimated Quantity Used and Sold at Collieries, and the Total Pro- 
ductio7isfor the Years 1892, 1893 and 1894.. 



1892. 



Quantity ot coal shipped, 

Quantit}^ of coal used and sold at collieries. 

Number of tons produced, 



9 



5,142,605 
322,073 



5,464,678 



1893. 



4,968,273 
320,618 



5,288,891 



1894. 



4,973,-335 
431,488 



5,404,823 



266 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



Table E — Showing General Comparisons Between the Years 1892, 1893 

and 189Jf.. 



Number of persons employed, 

Niiml)c»r ot tons of coal mined per life lost, . . . . 

Ratio of employes per life lost, 

Niimlier of tons of coal mined per person injnrod. 
Tons of coal mined per employe, 



1892. 



18.43; 

121,487 

410 

54,10(1 

296 



1893. 



19,179 
68,687 

249 
44,444 

276 



1891. 



19,121 

69,293 

245 

71,116 

283 



Table F. — Slunoing the number of persons employed by the several 
companies and the number of deaths. 



Philadelpliia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, 

Mineral Railroad and Mining Company, 

Summit Branch Railroad Company, 

Lykens Valley Coal < ompanj'^ 

Tiie Union Coal Company, 

Lewis .\. llileyand Company, 

Individual collieries, 

Totals, 



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11 


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2 


1,072 


8 


2,655 


4 


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10 


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78 


19,12] 



No. 11. 



SEVENTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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270 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



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272 



REFORTS OP THE INSPECTORS OF MINES 



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Ofeicial Document, No. 11 



EIGHTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 

(SUllUYLKILL COUNTY.) 



Pottsville, Pa., March 8th, 1895. 
Hon. Isaac B. Brown, 

Secretary of luiernal Affairs: 
Sir : I have the honor of herewith presenting my annual report as 
Inspector of Mines of the Eighth Anthracite District for the year 
1S94. 

The number of lives lost for the year was 20, leaving G wives wid- 
ows, and IS children orphans to mourn the loss of husbands and 
fathers. 

The number of serious nonfatal accidents was 40. 
The total production of coal was 3,341,315 tons, and quantity 
shipped to market and sold at mines was 3,088,794 tons. In this re- 
poi't I have added the production of washeries and several small 
places. Some of them have not a sufficient number of persons em- 
ployed to bring them under the provisions of the present mining law, 
yet the figures showing the amount of coal produced by them may be 
intei-esting. The report also contains, besides the usual tables, a de- 
scription of the principal improvements made during the year. 

Yours very respectfully, 

JOHN MAGUIRE, 
' ■ Inspector of Mines. 

Condition of Collieries. 

The general condition of the collieries in this district at the end of 
the year as to health and safety of the persons employed therein was 
satisfactory. During the year a great deal of work has been done 
in reopening and taking the water out of mines that had been aban- 
doned many years ago, and allowed to till. This work refjuires 
a great deal of care on the part of the workmen engaged in 
it, as well as on the part of those in charge, as the openings are gener- 
ally found to be badly broken down, the airways closed up and inac- 
cessible, with many unseen dangers in the shape of bad top and sidea,;i 



280 Reports of the inspectors of mines. Off. doc. 

with broken and. rotten supports that are liable to give way when 
disturbed. And pent up obnoxious gases that are apt to be dis- 
turbed as the water leaves the partly obstructed openings are also 
encountered. I am pleased to say that great care and every precau- 
tion for safety has been taken by the workmen, the officials and en- 
gineers in charge, and while a great deal of dangerous work has been 
accomplished, no accidents have occurred from this source. Some 
of the mines in this district are attaining a great depth, and we con- 
stantly meet with increased dangers requiring constant watchfulness 
on the part of those in charge to successfully meet the ever changing 
conditions. A mine may be assumed to be perfectly safe to-day, but 
changes are liable to occur, particularly where there are heavy pitches 
with robbed out and inaccessible workings above, which will change 
the conditions in a short time. ' Several new fans have been erected 
which improve and increase the air currents where they have been 
placed. A considerable number of improvements have been made 
and are being made in the matter of drainage, which is fast becoming 
a serious question at the deeper mines. 

Special care has been taken to see that the machinery in and 
around breakers is properly guarded, in order that accidents from 
this cause may be prevented as far as possible. 

Mine Fire. 

At the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company's No. 11 shaft, about 
two o'clock on the morning of November I'U, 1S94, a fire started in 
the lamp house which was at foot of empty car hoist plane near foot 
of shaft. It was discovered by the pumpman after all the other 
night shift men had been hoisted up the shaft. As the shaft was 
filled with smoke he made his way up the pump hole and gave the 
alarm. The fan was stopped and a party of men sent down a hole 
inside to open doors to prevent the smoke from traveling through the 
inside w^orkings and to shorten the route of the air current. They 
accomplished their mission, but being overcome by smoke were as- 
sisted by a second party and soon revived after getting to pure air. 
The fan was then started, which soon cleared shaft of smoke and 
men got down and fought the fire with buckets until pipes were put 
down the shaft They also hoisted the 35 mules out in safety. 
While this was going on, ashes and water w^ere run down the pump 
hole to seal it and prevent the fire from getting into that opening. 
The pumps were stopped and water soon raised at bottom of car hoist 
and prevented the fire from spreading eastward and also prevented 
the men from getting to fire in that direction. They then fought it from 
gangway north of shaft, using rafts until water got too high to get 
under top of gangway. A line of pipe was then run down the airhole, 



No. 11. EIGHTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 281 

which is about 300 feet long, pitching from 80 to 87 degrees, and men 
traveled up and down that hole and fought the fire from western end 
until it was extinguished. The timber was burned out from apex of 
plane to near pump hole, a distance of about 100 feet. The vein 
being nearly vertical, fell very high where timber was burned, which 
greatly hindered the men in their work. 

Work was not resumed by the end of year, but is now in shape to 
resume again, about six weeks' work having been lost in extinguishing 
the fire. The officials acted very promptly and vigorously, and too much 
credit cannot be given to the men under them, as they worked with a 
will and determination in preventing the spread of a fire that would 
have been very expensive to the company and would have entailed a 
great loss of time to the workmen. 

Colliery Improvements Made During the Year 1894. 
Albright Colliery. 

The former owners having sunk the Black Mine slope to a depth of 705 
feet from the surface on an average dip of about 38 degrees south, 
the present owners, The Albright Coal Company, have continued the 
slope 300 feet deeper on an average dip of about 55 degrees, and 
opened the third lift at 1,005 feet from surface. They have also 
continued the slope as a trial slope, 243 feet deeper, striking the basin 
about 40 feet below tide level. In the third lift they are now driving 
a tunnel south, which is now in 350 feet^and has cut Black Mine vein 
on north dip; also the Little Tracy near anticlinal, and will be con- 
tinued to the Salome vein. They are also pumping the water out of 
the old Salome slope that was abandoned many years ago, and are 
now down 380 feet from surface. A 16-foot opening running fan has 
been erected on Black mine airhole. A pair of new engines to hoist 
coal from Black mine slope, built by the Vulcan Iron Works, 24x48 
inches, have been erected. A new breaker containing about 500,000 
feet of lumber and fitted with the most approved machinery is near- 
ing completion. 

The Williams Coal Company has pumped the water out of the old 
Spencer and Milnes slopes on the "Sharon" tract, a distance of 650 
feet from surface to old level on a dip of about 24 degrees south, and 
they are now sinking the slope, which is on the "Spohr" or "Lewis" 
vein, and are now 100 feet below the old level. The vein is in good 
condition, A small breaker to handle coal while developing, is being 
erected, after which a larger structure will be built. 

Two Vulcan boilers 18 feet long by 6 feet diameter have been 
erected. 

The Lytle Colliery. The pumping of water from the old workings 
that were abandoned many years ago has been pushed vigorously 



282 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

during the year. The water iu the okl Kear Primrose vein slope is 
out to the fourth lift. There is yet another lift full of water, but as 
the workings in this are not very extensive, it will not take long to 
get the water out of it. A tunnel 105 feet long has been driven trom 
the Primrose fourth lift gangway to the Holmes vein, to tap some of 
the water from the workings of that vein, which were opened from 
the Mammoth or ^Vhite Ash vein slope No. '2. The water has been 
taken out of the White Ash No. 1 slope to the third lift. Then the 
Ko. '2 White Ash slope was reopened and is now following the water 
down in this slope to the Fourth lift, which is the lowest level opened 
in these slopes. There is yet 90 to 100 feet vertical of water in the 
White Ash No. 2 at this writing, December 31, which will be out in a 
week or two. Pumps have been put in the Forestville slope, and the 
water has been pumped to a depth of 800 feet from surface. There is 
yet about 350 feet of water in this slope, but the workings of the 
lower lift are not very extensive. The pumping of the water from 
these old workings has been retarded a great deal on account of the 
slopes and openings being closed and badly broken down, making it 
very expensive and tedious job to re-open them in order to follow the 
Mater down with the pumps. Every precaution has been taken in 
order to conduct the work safely and successfully. 

During the year a new lift 27G feet long was sunk in the No. 2 
Primrose slope and gangway turned west, making the fourth lift in 
this slope. A heading from level of this gangway eastward cuts the 
face of the fourth lift gangway from the Kear Primrose slope. Eight 
new Vulcan return tubular boilers, 18 feet by 72 inches, have been 
erected at the White Ash No. 1 slope. Three new Coatesville return 
flue boilers, IG feet by 72 inches, have been erected at the Forestville 
slope. Nearly 11,000 feet of old water level gangways have been re- 
oijened and several miles of ditches made on surface to prevent water 
from going down to lower levels. 

Oak Hill Colliery. A new shaft G55 feet deep to level of fourth lift 
of Primrose No. 2 slope, has been completed. This shaft is 12 feet by 
24^ and is divided into tliree compartments 2 feet seven inches by 
12 feet, and the other 8 feet 4 inches by 12 feet, the latter being used 
for upcast, on which a new 24-foot diameter Guibal fan, driven by a 
20x3G inch direct acting engine, has been placed. A tunnel from bot- 
t<mi of shafts connects with Black Heath gangway. The sinking of 
this shaft makes an available and good outlet for the Black Heath 
workings, which could not be connected to upper workings on ac- 
count of anticlinar between them, and it also improves the ventilation 
of the whole colliery. 

riiamberlain Colliery. Tlio water has been taken om of the Lewis 
vein slope to bottom or lliird lift gangway, wliicli is about !)00 feet 



No. 11. EIGHTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 283 

from surface, on an average dip of about 8G degrees south. This 
slope had been abandoned and Idled with water more than thirty 
years ago, and much difliculty was found in re-opening it to take 
water out, as the slope and other openings were badly broken down. 
After getting the water out, a tunnel was driven north, starting 150 
feet west of slope on third lift, cutting the Little Tracy vein at 344 
feet, and is being continued to the liig Tracy vein. A new lift of 275 
feet has been sunk on the Lewis vein slope and gangways in this new 
lift started. An airhole has been driven 53 feet west of slope con- 
necting the new lift to the old one. The water has also been pumped 
out of the slope on Little Tracy vein to bottom, a distance of 535 feet 
from surface, and the slope sunk 130 feet deeper, at which point gang 
ways were started. An air hole has been driven in Little Tracy vein 
from Lewis vein slope and connected to Little Tracy solpe. Founda- 
tions for a new 20-foot diameter fan, to be driven by an 18x36-inch 
engine, are now being built, A new pair of hoisting engines for 
Lewis vein slope, 3GxG0-iuch, htted with steam brake and steam re- 
verse gearing, are in course of erection. Six new Stirling boilers 
have been erected and a large new breaker fitted with first class ma- 
chinery is nearly ready for operation, 

Kaska William Colliery, The Dodson Coal Company having sunk a 
trial slope 360 feet deep on top bench of Mammoth vein about 80 feet 
west of tunnel to top bench, a hole was driven up opposite south end 
of tunnel and a double track hoisting slope made of it, A new pair 
of hoisting engines, 26x36-inch, placed in tunnel to hoist coal from 
tills slope gangwa}^, were extended east and west from bottom of 
slope, and a tunnel 92 feet long driven to bottom bench about 300 
feet east of slope on which gangways are being driven, 

A tunnel for return air course on level of heading was also driven 
from top to bottom bench in inside slope. The tunnel west of bot- 
tom of shaft that was in about 425 feet has been extended to 1,434 
feet, cutting the south dip of North Dale basin, on which gangways 
are being driven east and west. They have also started to take the 
water out of the old Northdale slope, which was abandoned many 
years ago. This water being out will give a new lift of about 500 
feet from level of tunnel to slope gangway. A new Jeansville com- 
pound duplex pump was put in at bottom of shaft, high pressure cyl- 
inders, 42 inches diameter, low pressure 25^ inches diameter, 36-inch 
stroke, Avith plungers 12-inch diameter. A hole was bored from sur- 
face 500 feet long, 10 inches diameter, in which an 8-inch diameter 
]>ipe was placed to carry steam to pumps and inside engines, instead 
of having steam pipes in shaft. Three new Jeansville boilers, 18x6 
feel, have been added to steam plant. A new dirt plane has been 



284 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

made, and a new pair of engines, 12xl8-inch, erected for dirt plane. 
The breaker has been repaired, remodeled and fitted up with new 
machinery, and was started in October last. 

Morea Oolliery. A shaft 12 by 15 feet, divided into two compart- 
ments of 7x12 each, was started inside in Mammoth vein, and was 
sunk 165 feet, cutting through the seven-foot vein, when it was de- 
cided to sink the shaft from the surface to where it was started in- 
side. This has been completed, the distance from surface to gang- 
way below being 178 feet, making total depth 343 feet. They ex- 
I>ected to sink about 100 feet deeper to cut Buck Mountain vein. 

Two new Jeansville boilers have been added to steam plant. 

Roberts Colliery. In August last, the Roberts Coal Company took 
possession of the Schuylkill Valley colliery, lately operated by Lefler, 
McTurk & Co., and changed the name to Roberts Colliery, and at once 
began to make repairs and improvements to put the colliery in condi- 
tion, so that mining could be i^rosecuted on a larger scale. They 
have enlarged and retimbered slope which is on Holmes vein 120 feet 
long on south dip of 54 degrees, and have built a plane and trestle 
from top of slope to grading, level with top of breaker, and doing 
away with outside plane hoist. They have started a tunnel at bot- 
tom of slope to cross basin to north dip; it is now in 118 feet and has 
cut the "Church" or "Primrose" vein. They have also built a gravity 
plane outside to run coal from stripping and upper drifts to breaker. 
The breaker has also been remodeled and new machinery put in. 

East Ridge Colliery. The East Ridge Coal Company took charge 
of the Kechline or Mine Hill colliery and changed name to East Ridge 
colliery, and commenced to make improvements with a view of in- 
creasing the output. They are building a new breaker, and are sink- 
ing a new lift on the "Billy" vein slope, also reopening the old Hill 
water level tunnel to work the Buck Mountain vein, which was not 
worked when tunnel was driven. They are also driving gangways on 
Buck Mountain vein in Conner tunnel. 

Greenwood No. 13 Colliery. The breaker of this colliery having 
been destroyed by fire November 30, 1893, a new breaker has been 
erected, which was started to prepare coal on 17th of April, A large 
flue boiler of Baldwin manufacture has been added to steam plant. 

Tamaqua Colliery. Messrs. Beard and Farber have erected a new 
breaker, which was started to work in November. They have also 
erected a new large locomotive boiler. 

Losch, Moore & Co., having leased the old Lorberry colliery, are 
erecting a new breaker and have a few men opening up work in the 
old Wheeler tunnel, from which they expect to get their coal by rob- 
bing the old Mammoth vein workings. 

At the Blackwood colliery, the Lehigh Valley Coal Company has 
erected a IG-foot double fan on shaft over the Blackwood tunnel, 



No. 11. EIGHTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 285 

wliich takes the place of two fans that were placed higher up the 
uiountain. This new fan improves the ventilation, besides shorteu- 
. ing the steam lines and preventing the fumes from mine locomotives 
from entering the workings. 

The Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company has made the following 
improvements: 

At Colliery No. 8 a new dirt plane has been erected 544 feet long, 
on a pitch of 18^ degrees, giving a vertical height of 70 feet above old 
banks. The steam power has been increased by adding two batteries 
410 horse power, of Babcock and Wilcox boilers. 

At colliery No. 12, a trial slope has been sunk 74 yards below the 
present level on the Primrose vein, with the view of developing a new 
lift. A new pump room, 50x20 feet, has been excavated in the top 
rock of the Primrose vein, and a new Jeansville duplex pump put in 
place, 

A drill hole has been sunk from the surface 315 feet vertical, and 
an 8-inch steam pipe laid to the new pump. 

At the collieries of the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron 
Company the following improvements have been made: 

At Brookside Colliery. The East Brookside slope has been sunk to 
basin, a distance of 2,327 feet from surface. A tunnel from the No. 
5 vein to the No. 4 vein on the No. 4 level has been driven and air- 
hole driven to surface on the No. 4 vein, on which a new 21-foot di- 
ameter fan, driven by a 16x30-inch engine, has been erected to ven- 
tilate the East Brookside workings. In the No. 4 slope, the inside or 
Basin slope has been sunk from the third to the fourth lift, and is 
still sinking. This slope is sinking eastward along dip of basin, start- 
ing at bottom of an inside slope, which is about 800 feet east of the 
bottom of No. 4 slope. The pitch distance to face of basin slope from 
surface or top of No. 4 slope is about 3,500 feet, with a vertical depth 
of about 1,000 feet 

Lincoln Colliery. The No. 1 vein slope has been sunk 737 feet below 
the fourth lift and is still sinking. The No. 2 vein slope has been 
sunk 570 feet below the fourth lift and is still sinking, with a view of 
opening two new lifts in each slope. This colliery is the largest pro- 
ducer in the district, and the improvements now being made will 
keep it in the front rank for many years. Two new tubular boilers, 
18 feet long by 6 feet diameter, have been added to the steam plant, 
and a tail rope plant is now in course of erection to haul the coal from 
top of slopes to breaker. 

Good Spring Colliery. The tender slope has been sunk 373 feet 
below the first lift gangway and new lift gangways started. This 
sIo])e is on the Mammoth vein and tunnels will be driven from new 
lift north and south to under and overlying veins. 



286 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

A new screen building has been erected on the site of the old Kal- 
mia collier}^ breaker, which was put in operation in December to 
wash coal from the old Kalmia colliery dirt banks. It is fitted up 
vv'ith the most approved machinery. 

JNliddle Creek Shaft. This shaft, having previously been sunk to 
the Primrose vein at a depth of 597 feet, and the coal on that level 
having been exhausted, it has been sunk 190 feet deeper, making a 
total depth from surface of 787 feet. From this new level, tunnels 
will be driven north and south, cutting the Holmes, Primrose, Mam- 
moth and Buck Mountain seams, which will giVe this colliery a. new 
lease of life. 

Otto Colliery. The workings of the fourth lift of "Nest" or Holmes 
vein slope being nearly exhausted, with exception of robbing the 
west "White Ash" or bottom bench of Mammoth vein and the east 
gangway of Primrose vein, a new^ lift of .^00 feet has been sunk in the 
Primrose vein slope and a tunnel driven 147 feet long to Holmes vein, 
on which a hole will be driven to connect main hoisting slope in this 
vein to the level. This tunnel has been continued 132 feet farther, 
cutting the "Black Heath" or top bench of Mammoth vein, on which 
an air hole is being driven to level above. The tunnel will be con- 
tinued to "White Ash" or bottom bench of Mammoth. A new 12- 
foot diameter Guibal fan was erected on Primrose vein airhole, which 
was started on September' 15, Inf^i, which improves the ventilation, 
being confined to the Primrose vein and new lift, while the old fan 
ventilates the old lift only. In the White Ash basin, or bore hole 
slope, a new self-acting plane has been made at No. 58 breast on 
south dip plane, west gangway. This plane is 70 yards long. 

In the "Meed" drift, a tunnel has been driven from the Primrose 
vein to the Holmes vein in south dip 190 feet long. A new 1 2-foot 
diameter forcing fan has been erected to ventilate the workings of 
this drift. 

Phoenix Park No. 3 Colliery. A new lift, 315 feet, has been sunk 
in slope which is on Diamond vein, making the fifth lift of this slope. 
Gangways are being driven on this new lift to take the place of fourth 
lift gangways, which are driven to boundary and are being robbed 
back. Tlie breaker has been remodeled, and additional machinery 
put into it, which increases its capacity. 

Clendower Colliery. A hole has been driven to surface a distance 
of about 900 feet, 50 yards west of hoisiing slope, which is intended 
to bp enlarged for a new pum])ing slope. 

Tn the Taylorville slope, a tiinnol 150 feet long has been driven to 
the Buck Mountain vein, which was found in good condition, and 
gangways are being di'iven oast and west. 



No. 11. EIGHTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. - 287 

At the Thomaston colliery a plane has been made in the Buck 
Mountain vein 414 feet long. 

At the Pine Forest colliery a trial slojie has been sunk on the Buck 
Mountain vein 100 yards long from water level. Three holes 8 inches 
diameter have been bored 243 feet long from surface to top of slope. 
Two of them are being used for hoisting ropes, and the other to take 
steam down to pumps. At the Eagle Hill colliery a new lift, 107 
yards long, has been sunk in the Holmes vein slope, which makes the 
fifth lift, and is about 1,700 feet from surface. A tunnel 150 feet long 
has been driven from Holmes to Primrose veins and gangway driven 
to line of Primrose slope which will be extended to this level. An 
air tunnel also 150 feet long has been driven from Holmes to Prim- 
rose veins on level of heading, for ventilation, A tunnel has been 
driven north from Holmes vein 010 feet long, cutting the seven foot 
top and bottom benches of Mammoth and Skidmore veins, which will 
be continued to the Buck Mountain veins. Gangways are being 
driven, on all veins cut in tunnels, and airholes are being driven, 
which will make this colliery a large producer when the improve- 
ments now under way are completed. 

Silver Creek Shaft Colliery. The hoisting shaft of this colliery, 
which is 914 feet deep to top bench of Mammoth vein, was completed 
in 1893, at the bottom of which tunnels have been driven north to 
bottom bench of Mammoth and Skidmore veins and south to Seven- 
foot vein. A plane was driven on bottom bench of Mammoth, and 
tunnel driven south 240 feet, cutting the top bench of Mammoth and 
Seven-foot veins. An airhole on Seven-foot vein, 1,100 feet long, was 
driven from shaft level, connecting with air shaft, which is 719 feet 
deep, and which is divided into two compartments, one 10x10 feet, 
for upcast airway, on which a 21-foot diameter fan with double inlet 
has been placed to produce ventilation; the other compartment 7x10 
feet, is used for lowering and hoisting the men. A traveling way 
for men has also been made to bottom of upcast shaft. Separate air- 
holes have also been made, connecting each gangway in each vein to 
upcast. The breaker, which started to prepare coal in November, 
1893, is fitted up with first-class machinery and every modern im- 
provement for the preparation of coal. The machinery erected at 
this colliery is of the best and most substantial order, and special 
care has been taken in opening and laying out the work, both inside 
and outside, to secure safety and convenipnc(\ 

The examination of ai>plicants for certificates of qualification as 
mine foremen was lield at the court house iit Pottsville in July, 1894. 
The board consisted of John Maguire. Tns])ector; Thomas Doyle, su- 
[Krintendent; James P. Walsh and William H. Willoughby, miners. 



288 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



The following named persons were recommended by the board to 
the Secretary of Internal Affairs for certificates of qualification as 
mine foremen: 

Louis Lorenz, Jr., Middleport. 

Pat. J. Purcell, Heckscherville. 

John W, Dempsey, Minersville. 

Mich. Moses, Morea. 

Elijah Hale, York Farm. 

John Sheiblehut, Yorkville. 

Henry Culbert, Joliette. 

Table showing quantity of coal produced, number of fatal acci- 
dents and number of tons of coal produced per life lost by the differ- 
ent companies and individual firms during the year 1894: 




Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, . 

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, '. . 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company, 

Dodson Coal Company, 

Lytle Coal ('oinpany, 

Albright Coal Company, 

Cliamberlain (^oal Company, 

Individual hruis, 



Totals, 



1,822,8(30 

603,922 

153,159 

168,969 

36,768 

47,581 



508,056 






® 



01 



•S2 

I" 



10 

6 

None. 

1 

1 

1 

1 

None, 



9. f^ 



OT3 
CO,® 

& 



182,286 
100,653^ 



168,969 
36,768 
47,581 



3,341,315 



20 167,0653 



Table showing the number of each class of employes in Eighth 
Anthracite District for 1894: 

Inside. 

Inside foremen and fire bosses, 127 

Miners, 2,541 

Miners' laborers, 1,011 

All other company men 2,052 

Drivers and runners, 387 

Door boys and helpers, 163 

Total, 6,281 

Outside. 

Outside foremen 58 

Blacksmiths and carpenters 228 

Engineers and firemen 482 

Slate pickers, 1 ,605 



No. 11. 



EIGHTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



289 



All other company men, 2,016 

Superintendents and clerks, 64 

Total, 4,453 

Summary. 

Tons of coal produced, 3,341,315 

Tons of coal shipped and sold at mines, 3,088,794 

Tons of coal used at mines for steam and other pur- 
poses, 252,521 

Tons of coal produced by washeries which are added 

to total production, 234,105 

Number of fatal accidents, 20 

Number of non-fatal accidents, 40 

Number of wives left widows, <> 

Number of children made fatherless, IS 

Number of persons employed, 10,734 

Number of kegs of powder used, 45,296 

Number of pounds dynamite used, 228,987 

Number of steam boilers in use, 771 

Number of horses and mules, 1,153 

Number of mine locomotives, 15 

Tons of coal produced per fatal accident, 167,065^ 

Tons of coal produced per non-fatyl accident, 83,532 ^ 

Tons of coal produced per each employe, 311+ 

Number of mines in operation, 44 

Number of washeries in operation 12 

Number of collieries idle, 4 

Number of collieries doing pumping only, 3 

Snuill places for local sales, not enumerated in report,. 7 



OLASSIFICA.TION OF FaTAL AND NoN-FaT.AL ACCIDENTS FOR 1894. 



Cause of Accidents. 



Explosions of fire damp, 

Falls of coal aTui roof, 

Crushed by mine cars, 

By machinery on surface, 

By fiilling down slope, 

By blasts and explosion of blasting material, . 

By explosion of boiler, 

By steam pipe bursting Inside, 

By falling from trestle, 

Kicked by mule, ... 

By miscellaneous causes inside and on surface. 

Total accidents, 

19-11-94 



Fatal. 



1 
6 
3 
1 
1 
None, 
None, 
1 
1 
1 
5 



20 



Non- 
fatal. 



5 

10 

4 

5 

None, 

9 

1 

None, 

None, 

None, 

6 



Totals. 



40 



6 
16 
7 
6 
1 
9 
1 
1 
1 
1 
11 



60 



290 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OP MINES. Off. Doc. 

Classification and Percentage of Fatal Accidents. 

Explosions of fire damp, 1 killed, equal to 5 per cent. 
Falls of coal and roof, 6 killed, equal to 30 per cent. 
Crushed by mine cars, 3 killed, equal to 15 per cent. 
By machinery on surface, 1 killed, equal to 5 per cent. 
By falling down slope, 1 killed, equal to 5 per cent. 
By steam pipe bursting inside, 1 killed, equal to 5 ])er cent. 
By falling off trestle, 1 killed, equal to 5 per cent. 
Kicked by mule, 1 killed, equal to 5 per cent. 
Miscellaneous causes, 5 killed, equal to 25 per cent. 
Total, 20 killed, equal to 100 per cent. 



No. 11. 



EIGHTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



291 






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297 



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BITHMINODS MINE DISTRICTS. 



Official Document, 



No. 11. 



FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 

(ALLEGHENY, FAYETTE, WASHINGTON AND WESTMORELAND 

COUNTIES.) 



Monongahela, March 1, 1895. 
Hon. Isaac B. Brown, Secretary of Internal Affairs: 

Sir: In compliance with an act of the General Assembly of Penn- 
sylvania relating to Bituminous coal mines, approved May 15, 1893, 
I have the honor to herewith submit my annual report as Inspector 
of Mines for the First district for the year ending December 31, 1894. 

In this report will be found a brief description of each mine in the 
district. The usual tables are inserted, also additional ones relative 
to fatal and non-fatal accidents. 

By the tables it will be seen that twenty-five persons lost their 
lives during the year, and eighty-nine were injured. Some of the 
latter were of a slight nature, while others were very serious. The 
causes from which they occurred are embodied in the report. 

Table A. — Montlily report of fatal and non-fatal accidents. 



Month. 



January, 
February, 
March, 
April, . . 
May, 

June, . . 
July, . . . 
August, . 
September, 
October, 
November, 
December, 



25 



17 



50 



15 

7 
8 
5 

1 
9 

12 
9 
4 

10 
9 

89 



20-11-94 



306 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc 

Table B. — Chai-acter of fatal accidents. 

By premature blast, 1. ^ 

By falls of slate, 12. j 

By falls of coal, 5. ! 

By falls of coal and slate, 3. 

By a fall of horse-back, 1. 

By being run over by Dilly trips, 2. 

By mine cars, 1. 

From subsequent investigations into the causes of those fatalities, 
evidence was not wanting to show that a number of them could have 
been prevented by the exercise of even ordinary judgment on the part 
of the unfortunates. 

Table C. — Non- fatal accidents and their causes. 

By falls of slate, 32 

By falls of coal and slate 4 

By falls of coal, 6 

By falls of roof coal, 7 

By falls of "black jack," 2 

By a fall of horse-back, 1 

By mine cars, 19 

By fire damp, 6 

By being struck by posts, 7 

By a premature blast, 1 

By the ignition of powder and fire damp 1 

By a runaway mule, 1 

By a blast blowing through a rib 1 

By being caught by Dilly line, 1 

89 



Table D. 
The following statistics are compiled from the operators' annual 
reports to this office, for the year ending December 31, 1894: 

Number of mines in the distriot employing ten or more 

74 
persons ' ^ 

Number of miners, men 8,940 

Number of miners, boys 427 

Number of other persons employed in and about the 

1 802 
mmes, ^ • -' 



Total number employed 11.175 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 307 

Pi'oduction of coal, run of mine, tons, 5,282,181 

Number of tons of coal shipped, 5,277,104 

Ratio of tons of coal produced per each person em- 
ployed, 472+ 

Number of lives lost during the rear, 25 

Ratio of coal produced per each life lost, 211,287 

Ratio of persons employed per each life lost, 447 

Number of persons injured during the year, 81) 

Ratio of tons of coal produced per each person injured, 59,350 
Number of persons employed per each non-fatal acci- 
dent, 125+ 

Number of days worked during the year, 9,103 

Number of kegs of powder used in the mines, 16,387 

Total number of horses and mules, 542 

Number of steam boilers in use in and about the mines, 117 

Number of mine locomotives, 5 



Prosecutions for Violation of the Mine Law, 

Legal proceedings were brought in six cases against persons for 
violation of the Act of May 15, 1893, relating to bituminous coal 
mines, as follows: Four for passing the danger signals before the 
mine was examined; one for the violation of rule 63, and one for ne- 
glect of duty through drunkenness. 

Passing Danger Signals. 

Lewis Anzie and Joseph Smiley, employed in the Washington mine, 
were charged with passing a danger signal in the above mine on the 
morning of January 19, before the mine was examined. The case 
came up before a local justice of the peace, which resulted in the dis- 
charge of Smiley, and in Anzie being held for court. The case of 
Anzie was afterdards compromised on the payment of costs. 

Joseph and John Rasma, miners, employed in the Catsburg mine, 
parsed the danger signal on February 25, before the fire boss had 
made his examination and reported the mine "safe." These persons 
were tried during the February session of court and a verdict of not 
guilty rendered, county for the costs. 

Violation of Rule 63. 

Stephen Cowilli. a miner em])loyed in the Manown mine, was 
charged with firing a blast on January 24, before notifying "all per- 
sons who might be endangered thereby.'' This neglect caused the 
serious injury of a miner named John Revilli, who worked in an ad- 
jacent room. 



308 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

On Tuesday, February G, Cowilli was given a hearing before James 
L. Graham, J. P., of Elizabeth, which resulted in his being remanded 
to the borough lock-up for a further hearing, but during the night of 
the day of the hearing, he, in some mysterious manner made his es- 
cape. 

On February — , I was notified in writing by Samuel O'Neill, 
attorney or agent for the Fayette City mine, under date of 
February 1, 1894, that he had discharged his mine foreman, W, C. 
Gartley, for being intoxicated in the mine. In accordance with sec- 
tion two, article twenty-six, the writer, by petition, called the atten- 
tion of the court to the matter. On presentation, his honor Judge 
Ewing set Saturday, March 31, for the hearing, but in the meantime 
it was postponed until April 2. On that day a preliminary hearing 
was held in the office of the district attorney at IJniontown, and from 
the statements of the witnesses it was soon apparent that the Inspec- 
tor had no case, and the district attorney so informed the writer. 

It is proper, and in justice to this office, that a full statement of 
this suit be given in this report, so as to anticipate any charge being 
made that it (the suit) was an "ill advised one." On receiving notice 
of the dismissal of Mine Foreman Gartley, I made inquiries to ascer- 
tain on what grounds the charge of drunkenness was based, and as a 
matter of proof, I was referred to the superintendent and fire boss. 
Those parties did not hesitate to say that the mine foreman had been 
intoxicated in the mine on January 30, 1894, and also on the 31st of 
the same month, and that his condition was such as to render him 
unfit for his official duties. (In connection with this unfortunate 
affair an explosion of fire damp occurred in this mine on the morning 
of the latter date, by which five persons were injured, four of them 
seriously.) 

While the superintendent was somewhat reserved as to the con- 
dition of Mr. Gartley on January 30 and 31, he was positive the 
charge of intoxication was true. There was no such reservation on 
the part of the fire boss, but on the contrary he let no opportunity 
pass in trying to impress on the writer's mind that the charges were 
true and could be easily substantiated, but at the hearing he would 
not, under oath, make the same statements as he had made pre- 
viously to the writer, neither would the superintendent. 

This change of base was for some cause unknown to the writer. 
Other witnesses were questioned but the result was the same. 

In justice to the mine foreman, W.C. Gartley, I will state that he pos- 
itively denied that he was intoxicated in the mine or even had intox- 
icating liquors of any kind during the period named, and that he 
wanted a full and complete investigation made. 

During the national strike among the miners, which was inaug- 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 309 

urated April 2,1, and "declared ott" June 18, numerous small mines in 
pools 5, G, 7 and 8, which had been apparently abandoned some time 
before, were cleaned up and persons put to work in them again, and 
others which had heretofore given employment to but one or two per- 
sons, were increased to nineteen, in some instances. 

The activity in the above mines was caused by the great demand 
for coal and the good prices ottered for it. 

On examination of some of these mines, 1 found them, as regards 
ventilation in a terrible condition, there being no visible movement of 
the air current at all, and to make matters worse, the workmen were 
using as an illuminant an oil which I am informed was taken direct 
from the wells. This made the atmosphere of the mine so smoky 
that it was almost impossible for one person to see another. I called 
the attention of the operators of those mines to what was required 
by the act relating to bituminous coal mines, and those who did not 
employ a sulficient number of persons to come under the jurisdiction 
of this office, I asked to prohibit the use of such oils by the 
workmen, which was not only injurious to their health, but it in- 
creased the dangers incident to the raining of coal. 

I also requested them to give some consideration to the ventilation 
of their mines, so as to make the calling of their miners as pleasant 
as possible. 

The condition of these mines is a good exemplification of what a 
great many others would be, were it not for the existence of our ven- 
tilation act. 

Summary. 

The coal produced during the year show^s an excess of 405,874 tons 
over that of 1893. The fatal accidents are, in number, the same as in 
the year 1893. The non-fatal accidents show an increase of thirty- 
three. The number of tons of coal produced per each life lost, was 
1G,235 more than that of the previous year, but the ratio to each non- 
fatal accident was 29,310 tons less than the year 1893. 

By a review of the accidents, fatal and non-fatal, which is given in 
this report, it will be readily seen that "falls of slate," "falls of coal" 
and "falls of coal and slate" w^ere responsible for a number more than 
of all others combined. 

We have, in parts of this district, a coal and slate in which slips, 
fractures, etc., appear at times so unexpectedly that it will not only 
deceive the inexperienced, but the most practical miner, nnd when 
we take into consideration the large number of *persons engaged in 
the raining of coal in this district who have very little, if any, prac- 

* Hungarian, Italian, Slavish, Polish and Finlanders. 



310 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

tieal knowledge of the work, 1 am uot surprised at the uuinber of ac- 
cidents Avhich occur. 

In concluding my rei)ort, I am pleased to say, that the mines of the 
district are, in a general way, in a better condition than they were 
in the year previous. 

All of wliich is respectfulh' submitted, 

HENRY LOUTTIT, 
Inspector of Mines. 



Mines Located on the Monongahela Division of the l*ennsylvauia 

Railroad. 

Charleroi. On my last visit to this mine, its general condition was 
fair. The mine consists of two face and four cross-headings, the air 
current of the mine being in two divisions. 

To mine the coal, two systems of room work are in use, one of 
wliich is the room and pillar, the other double headers. The latter 
is thirty-nine feet wide, with a road on either side. 

During the year they have extended the rope haulage some 1,800 
feet into the mine. , ; 

Fidelity. On my last examination of this mine, I found the general 
condition satisfactory. 

Allen. This mine was, on my last visit, in a general way satisfac- 
tory. 

Acme. On the date of my last visit to this mine, I found it 
in fair condition, with the exception of a few rooms, which were 
somewhat deficient in ventilation. Those rooms I suggested should 
be ventilated so as to comply with tbe law. I have since been in- 
formed by the mine foreman that the niatt(M' had been attended to. 

Courtney. Condition of tliis mine, on my last visit, fair. Number 
of persons employed insid<\ Ihiily-iight. C^ubic feet of air passing at 
inlet, 9,100. 

Mines Located on the Pittsburgli and Wheeling Division of tlie Bal- 
timore and Ohio Railroad. 

Gastonville Nos. 1 and 2. The above mines were not in operation at 
my last visit. Among the improvements made at the latter mine dur- 
ing the year were tlie sinking of a shaft and the building of a ven- 
tilating furnace. 

The shaft is six feet in diameter and 1:20 f(»et in de]»tli. Previous to 
the sinking of the shaft, a nin<>-inch test hole was drilled, which, 
when finished, was found that owing to its proximity to the main en- 
try, it was practically impossible to place the furnace as originally 
-.mapped out. So. to overcome this difficulty as far as possible, the 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 311 

shaft was commenced and continued on the line of the test hole until 
within twenty-four feet of the bottom of hole, at which time work on 
it was suspended. The furnace was then built some 45 feet from the 
above mentioned entry and the shaft connected with it by a "dumb'' 
drift 

The furnace has a grate surface of 64 square feet. Height below 
bars, 2 feet; above bars, 4 feet (> inches; width, 8 feet 3 inches; 
length of arch, 16 feet, with an elevation of 22 inches. 

Anderson. Not in operation on my Jast visit. In operation 111 
(lays during the year. Total number of employes, 170. 

Nottingham. When last examined the ventilation in parts of the 
mine required improvement. 

Eclipse. This mine has been worked in two divisions, but on my 
last vist they had temporarily abandoned one of them and the whole 
force of workmen was placed in the other division. The object 
being to work out this part of the mine as rapidly as possible. The 
mine was fairly ventilated, but the drainage required improvement. 

Snowden. On the date of my last visit to this mine its general con- 
dition was satisfactory. 

Germania. Condition of mine, on my last visit, fair. 

The main headings are driven eight feet wide, with thirty-three feet 
of coal pillar between them. The mine is worked (with the exception 
of one entry) on the double entry system. 

The parallels are driven twenty-four feet apart and so cut off the 
main headings as to leave 120 yards between them. From these, the 
rooms are turned every 33 feet at a width of 6 feet 6 inches; at this 
width they are driven in 15 feet, and then widened out to 24. When 
driven up 60 yards they are abandoned and the rib is withdrawn. 

Hacket. On my last visit to this mine, the ventilation, in parts of 
the same, required improvement. The drainage also required atten- 
tion. 

Mines Located on the McKeesport and Belle Vernon Division of the 
Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad. 

Cleveland. The general condition of this mine was, <vhen last ex- 
amined, fair. 

North Webster. The condition of this mine, on my last visit, was, 
in a general way, satisfactory. The inlet air measurement, as shown 
by the instrument, was 27,080 cubic feet. This air current w^as in 
three divisions, neither of which has above the minimum number of 
feet required by law. Improvements have been made on the inside 
of the mine to facilitate the haulage. These consist of the making of 
a -new double parting and extending the mechanical haulage some 
900 feet. 



312 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

►Sliepplar. In the early part of tlie year the ventilation of this mine 
was very unsatisfactory. This was owing to the ventilator they used 
not having enough power to move the air required for the mine. 1 
called the attention of the operators to this slate of affairs, and after 
some delay a larger furnace was commenced and in due time com- 
pleted. This ventilator should give an ample supply of air if proper 
attention is given it. 

Manown. The coal produced at this mine is all mined by machines. 
Total number of persons employed inside on my last visit, 16G — 
classed as follows: 16 machine operators, 133 fillers, 9 drivers, 4 day 
men, 2 trappers and 2 pick men. Mine was in fair condition. 

Mines on the Monongahela Kiver. 

{Stony Hill. The condition of this mine in the eai'ly part of the year, 
as regards the ventilation, was not satisfactory. The ventilator 
used here was a furnace placed quite a distance from the face of the 
workings, and in a place where the natural surroundings were against 
it To increase the air current in the workings of the mine, a shaft 
was put down at the head of the main entry, and a new furnace 
placed at the bottom of it. 

^V ith an ordinary tire the writer measured 31,000 cubic feet of air 
passing the outlet. On my last examination of the mine, its general 
condition was fair. 

Coal Centre. The "tail rope" system of haulage has been introduced 
into this mine during the year, and the following is a general descrip- 
tion of the machinery: 

Th(j engines are of the most modern design. They are self-con- 
tained and have all the latest improvements that are known to the tail 
rope system. They are most conveniently constructed, most power- 
ful in operation, and beautiful in design. They are rated at 100 
horse power, with boilers, ropes, sheaves, rollers and electric signal, 
the entire system being complete in every particular. The diameter 
of th'i cylinders is 14 inches and the length of the stroke 10 inches. 
There are two cylinders connected to one engine shaft at right angles. 
Upon this engine shaft is a very strong pinion which carries the 
jjower to the drum shaft. There are two drums, each 52 iuclies in 
diameter, 30 inches wide on the face, with flanges of sufficient height 
to carry two miles of three-quarter-inch wire rope. Both of these 
drums are loose upon the drum shaft and are fitted with hard bronze 
busbings, a provision made for cheaply renewing the hole in the drum 
should it become worn any time upon the drum shaft. These drums 
arc driven by means of positive clutches, one for each drum. The 
positive clutches are fitted upon two heavy keys which are at right 
angles, set firmly into the drum shaft, the clutches sliding in and out 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 313 

of ge.u' Upon these keys. The clutches are operated by levers extend- 
ing from the fulcrum, which is very close to the clutch, back to the en- 
gineer's position upon the footboard. 

Each of these drums is provided with a separate brake and brake 
band, operated by lever, radius, pawl and ratchet, and is also very 
coLver.ient for the engineer; all of the levers, throttle, brakes and so 
on ail- vtiy convenient to operate from his position. 

The arrangement of these drums is most complete, as the drums 
being loose upon the drum shaft, they can be operated at will. Wheu 
on(.' drum is hauling the load, the other drum is running loose upou 
the shaft and is adjusted or held with sufficient friction to keep the 
Inilrope taut \iy the brake lever at the engineers' stand. The object 
of this is" not only to keep the rope properly tightened, but to keep 
the trip of mine cars properly stretched on their hitchings, also 
to prevent the mine cars, on a descending grade, from over-running 
the front line. This tension, of course, can be operated, slackened or 
tighn I ed at will. An expert engine runner will regulate the speed 
of his trip largely by this brake. 

The steam plant for operating this machinery consists of two steel 
cylinder boilers, each boiler 40 inches in diameter, 28 feet long, and 
is so arranged that one or both boilers can be used at will, there 
being ample valve provision for shutting the steam off between the 
boilovs and the water supply arrangement as well. The boilers are 
supplied with water by two injectors; one for each boiler. These 
boilers are made of steel, 60,000 pounds tensile strength, and were 
fully tested by hydrostatic pressure to 150 pounds pressure per 
square inch before they were erected. The plant can be operated 
quite successfully with one of these boilers in case of an emergency. 

The electric signal in connection with this plant is most complete. 
The battery, bells, switches, insulators, etc., are placed in a cabinet 
in th'i engine room close to the engineer, a double line extending 
through the mine the entire distance or length of the entry in which 
the plant is placed or operated, and is convenient to the trip rider 
from his seat on the mine wagon, so that he may operate it, or signal 
anywhere along the entry to the engineer in the engine house for 
stopping, starting, pulling backward or forward, as he may wish. 

At th-? present the hauling is d(>ne only in the main entry. 

Howevtr, the arrangement is so complete and is such, that at any 
ime in the future it may be extended so as to haul an indefinite dis- 
tance, or haul from as many side entries as they may desire. 

The length of haulage at the present time is one mile. 

The grade fluctuates. The heaviest grade against the load is 4 
feet in 500 feet, but in the greater part of the distance, the grade is 
slightly in favor of the load. 



314 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc 

TJie line of the entry, over which this haulage operates, is prac- 
tically ill the .shape of the letter "Z," there being two turns at nearly 
right aiigles. 

The size of rope used in this mine is three-fourths of an inch in di- 
ameter, of crucible cast steel, seven wires, hemp centre. 

These engines v.ill haul from 50 to 100 tons at a load in this mine 
at an average rate of speed of say 600 feet per minute, or greater if 
necessary. At the present time they haul 40 wagons at one load, 
and make a round trip in twenty minutes, thus hauling at the rate of 
120 mine wagons an hour, or 1,200 mine wagons in 10 hours. These 
min > wagons, including the load, weigh from 4,200 to 4,500 pounds 
each. 

Owing to the room at the tipple being limited, the machinery was 
placed back in the ravine between the first and second hill, and is 
locate*! three-quarters of a mile away from the tipple where the coal 
is deiiA'ered. The pulling out rope passes around a sheave wheel 80 
feet froiii the drum; it passes out through the entry to the tipple at 
the river, there around a bull wheel and back into the entry to the 
parting at the inner end of the mine. The tail rope passes 
around a similar sheave 80 feet from its drum, passing in around 
a bull Vvheel at the back end of the parting where the coal is gathered, 
from there follows the trip out to the tipple at the river. With this 
location, and the system, as it is designed, it has proved most suc- 
cessful and satisfactory in its operation. 

This entire plant was planned, erected and started running, 
hauliii:^ ctn.' in a most satisfactory manner to the company, by J. 
and J. B. Milholland, of Pittsburgh, Pa., who seem to be the pioneers 
in this country of wire rope liaulage, as they have over 300 of these 
now I'unning in successful operation, and they are well known build- 
ers of hoisting machinery and mine locomotives. 

When the mine was examined last, a portion of the "Old HilT re- 
quired improvement in ventilation, but the new part of the mine was 
satisfactory. 

Buffalo. In operation only 48 days during the year. Active opera- 
tions ceased April 21. 

Rostraver. Total number of persons employed in and about the 
mine. 172. The improvement made at this mine during the year con- 
sist of a railroad tipple, with the necessary sidings. This gives fa- 
cilities for shipping the product of the mine either by rail or water, 
as they may elect. 

On my last visit to this mine, the condition was fair. 

Little Alps. On the date of my last visit to this mine, I found the 
general condition fair. The instrument at outlet registered 24,500 
cubic feet. Number of persons employed inside, 43. 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 315 

Alougaii. On my first vist to this mine 1 found the ventilation in 
inuti-. unsatisfactory, this being caused by the ventilator not having 
sufticieut power. As a remedy they allowed the steam from the en- 
gine which operates the electric plant, to exhaust into the upcast 
shaft. This resulted in an increase in the volume of air moving in the 
mine, but on examination I found the quantity still inadequate. It 
was evident that some other means would have to be employed to 
produce the air required for the mine. A large furnace has since 
been built, and I am informed that it is giving good results. 

Caledonia. This mine was found, as regards ventilation, in fair 
condition, when last examined. 

Champion. Number of persons employed inside, on my last visit, 
105; entries being driven, 5; cubic feet of air eutering the mine, 
19,380. 

The mine, with the exception of entries 19 and 20, was in fair con- 
dition. The above entries required an increase of air. Suggestions 
in this direction were given and I have since been informed that they 
have been complied with. 

Milesville. The general condition of this mine, as regards ventila- 
tion and drainage, was, on my last visit, fair. 

An air course on either side of the main entry was being driven and 
would, when completed, shorten the air route some 3,000 feet. 

These workings will also be used as an airway to split the air into 
divisions. 

A^'esta No. 3. This mine was not in operation on my last visit. A 
few persons were at work, cleaning uj) and posting their places, with 
a view of seeking work elsewhere. The mine, I was informed, had 
been closed down indefinitely. Condition of mine, fair. 

Fox (formerly Leonard). When last examined, the mine was not 
giving employment to a sufficient number of persons for the law to 
apply to it. 

Stonesburg. In operation but 80 days during the year. Persons 
employed inside, on my last visit, 114. Condition of mine, unsatis- 
factory as regards ventilation and drainage. 

Vigilant. A n?Av ventilating fan, 25 feet diauieter, 8 feet wide, was 
erected at this mine during the year. This ventilator is of the "Vul- 
can Guibal" type, driven direct by an 18-inch by 30-inch engine, built 
and erected by the Vulcan Iron Works of Wilkes-Barre, Penna. A 
recent test of the plant showed a movement of 139,000 cubic feet of 
air per minute in the air course at the foot of the shaft, which is 
about two-thirds of the capacity of the fan under favorable condi- 
tions. The air courses in the mine were not in the best of condi- 
tion at the time of the test, but are being changed and enlarged, and 
when this work is completed the plant will, no doubt, show much 
better results. 



316 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

The fan is arranged for both exhausting and blowing, with double 
inlet air courses. The change from exhaust to blow or the reverse is 
easily and quickly made by the use of adjustible shutters. When ex- 
hausting, one shutter is raised above the cut-otf and the other shutter 
lowered in line with the spiral casing. The doors back of the inlet 
circles are closed and the doors in the air course at the mouth of the 
shaft are open. When blowing, this operation is reversed, the engine 
running in the same direction at all times. 

The operators of the mine have furnished the fan with excellent 
foundations and air courses, and the plant is very creditable to both 
builders and owners. 

The general condition of this mine, when last examined, was satis- 
factory. 

Eclipse. — On my last visit to this mine, I found that some parts of 
the workings were not sufficiently ventilated, I called the mine 
foreman's attention to the matter, with the request that the air be 
increased to the legal limit, which suggestion has been complied 
with 

Climax. — Condition of mine, on last visit, fair, as regards ventila- 
tion, but the drainage required improvement. 

Vesta Nos. 1 and 2. — When visited, I found the general condition 
of each mine satisfactory. 

Ella. — On examination of this mine, the general condition was sat- 
isfactory. 

Among the improvements made at the mine during the year, is a 
complete electric mining plant. A ventilating fan sixteen feet in 
diameter has also been erected. This fan should, providing proper 
attention is given to it, produce all the ventilation required for the 
mine and for a large extent of territory yet undeveloped. 

Knob. — The general condition of this mine was, on my last visit, 
satisfactory. 

Albany. — In operation sixty days during the year. One hundred 
and seventy-five miners, nine drivers and eighteen other persons 
were at work on the date of my last examination. On this visit I 
found the general condition of the mine satisfactory. The outlet 
air measurement was, as shown by the instrument, 40,000 cubic feet. 
Water gauge taken near the ventilating fan registered seven-tenths 
of an inch. Horse power in the air 4,4. 

Tremont. — The general condition of this mine was, on my last visit, 
fair. 

Cedar Hill, — On each visit to this mine. T had occasion to complain 
in regard to the ventilation and di-ainnge. The mine is operated by 
a cooperative company. No work is being done, except on the pil- 
lars and entry "stumps." 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 317 

Black Diamond. — On the last examination of this mine, I found the 
general condition satisfactory. Work was in progress on a proposed 
extension of the wire rope haulage. The length at present is 3,900 
feet taking the measurement from mine entrance to the return wheel 
located at the double parting in the interior of the mine. From this 
point two branches will be put into use. One is 2,200 feet in length, 
and the other 2,800 feet. The mine has four main and seventeen 
cross-headings. The air currents are in two divisions and with the 
completion of an over-cast, which is now being constructed, a third 
division will be made. As an additional improvement in the sani- 
tary condition of the mine, a face entry is being driven from the up- 
cast shaft to intersect the cross-headings as they advance, the object 
being to give each entry a separate air current. 

Washington. — In parts of this mine, on my last visit, the ventila- 
tion and drainage required improvement. To remedy the former, 
two Clark fans will be erected. Work in this direction has already 
been commenced. The drainage will also be given attention. 

Fawcett. — This mine has not been in operation for some years. 

Crescent. — On the date of my last visit to this mine, only a few 
persons were at work inside. T made an examination of the work- 
ings and found them, in a general way, fairly good. 

This mine is now ventilated by a fan placed on top of the shaft, 
previously used as an up-cast for the Vigilant mine. In the descrip- 
tion of the latter mine, the fan is also described and cuts of the same 
shown. 

Old Eagle. — The condition of the mine, when last examined, was, in 
a general way, satisfactory. 

Bunola. — Number of persons employed inside on the date of my 
last visit 130. Cubic feet of air passing over furnace was 28,800. 

The volume of air was moving in two divisions, but in parts of the 
mine the velocity was so weak that it would not move the vanes of 
the Anemometer. To make matters worse, indiscriminate blasting 
was allowed. This resulted in what little movement there was in the 
air current being so surcharged with powder smoke that it was some- 
what diflScult to see surrounding objects. I suggested that the venti- 
lation be increased to the legal quantity and also some action bo 
taken to prevent the unnecessary blasting. I have since been in- 
formed that my suggestions have been complied with. 

Jefferson. — Extensive improvements have been made in and about 
this mine during the year, 

A new tipple which stands four feet higher than the old one has 
been built and fully equipped with the necessary machinery for ,the 
handling of large quantities of coal. The approach to the tipple has 



318 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

been adjusted so as to form part of the incline, making a total length 
of the latter of 1,500 feet. 

The mechanical haulage has been extended 1,400 feet. To produce 
Ihe ventilation for the mine, a six foot Clark fan has been erected, 
which I am informed is giving very good results. 

Apollo. — On each visit to this mine during the year, I found reason 
for calling the attention of the management to some sections of the 
law, which were not then complied witli. This had occurred so fre- 
quently that I came to the conclusion that there was a disposition 
to evade the law relating to bituminous coal mines, and that the only 
remedy this oflflce had in the matter was to resort to legal proceed- 
ings to compel observance; but before it reached that point a change 
was made, and I hope that the result will be that the mine will be 
put in condition so that the requirements of the law will be observed. 

Catsburg. A complete electric mining machine has been installed 
at this mine during the year, at a cost I am informed, of twenty- 
eight thousand dollars. In brief, it consists of one one hundred 
and sixty horse powder engine; also one one hundred horse powder 
generator; seven cutting machines, six of them undermining six 
feet, and one seven feet. 

Condition of mine as regards ventilation and drainage, satisfac- 
tory. 

Coal Bluff. On my last visit to this mine, the ventilation was, in 
some of tlio ]»arts. Tinsalisfactory. This being a very large iiiiiic. 
it requires a large quantity of air to keep it in good sanitary condi- 
tion. I take it that this mine should be ventilated by a fan. This I 
have suggested. 

Little Redstone. On the last examination of this mine, I found the 
ventilation in parts of the same not up to the legal requirements. 
The making of cut-throughs in the room pillars had been neglected. 
I called the attention of the officials of the mine to its condition, 
;ind T have since been informed that the matter has been attended to, 
and the cause of complaint removed. 

Tvil. When last examined, the condition of tliis mine was in a gen- 
eral Avay, as regards ventilation jind drainage, fair. 

Chamouni. In parts of this mine, when visited last, I found tlie 
ventilation inadequate, owing to the improper distribution of the air 
current. I suggested that it be increased to the legal requirements. 
This has been done. 

r.eaumont. In operation 200 days during the year. Total number 
of persons employed in and about the mine 215. The mine consists 
of four face and eight cross-headings. 

The main heading is driven on the butt of the coal and shows a 
(}[]) against the load of 4S feet in a distance of 1,900 feet. The en- 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 319 

tries are all driven eight feet wide. The parallel entries have a coal 
]>illar of fifty feet between them. The blocks are 150 yards. This 
gives the rooms from either entry a limit of 75 yards. 

Snow Hill. This mine has been operated by the present company 
(Alps Coal Company) since the year 1881. The system then in vogue 
for working the coal was single entry; this continued until 1890 
when the double entry plan was adopted. This seems to have proven 
satisfactory. In 1892 the company erected a ventilating fan, 16 feet 
in diameter, which, including foundations, etc., cost |4,000, 

During the present year they have extended their wire rope haul- 
age. 

The sanitary condition of the mine has been much improved by 
the air being split into divisions, by a system of locating and building 
of over-casts. The air current is in three divisions and is so ar- 
ranged that each pair of entries is ventilated by fresh air. 

In addition to the above improvements, a traveling way has been 
made, and is so located as to leave no excuse for persons to travel on 
the haulage road. On examination of this mine I found the general 
condition of the same satisfactory. 

Fayette City. One of the improvements made at this mine during 
the year is the installation of mining machines operated by com- 
presed air. 

As noted elsewhere, an explosion of fire damp occurred in this 
mine on the morning of January 31, by which Thornton Hamilton, 
Samuel White, Thomas Taylor and Charles Mathews were seriously 
and Louis Dewalt slightly injured. These persons were employed as 
miners on entry 8, and on the above morning were on their way to 
work, and when op])osite an abandoned and worked out room (Xo. 2.3), 
the gas took fire from a naked light carried by one of the party. This 
explosion occurred a short time after the fire boss had made his ex- 
amination and reported the mine ''safe." Upon questioning the fire 
boss in regard to his examination of the mine on that morning, he 
stated that he found no indication of gas in the above place, and that 
it was his opinion that a fall had taken place during the interval 
wliich occurred between his examination and the time that the in 
jured persons passed, as other ])ei sons passed this point with safety 
after the "danger board" was turned. 

When last examined they were employing 144 persons inside, class- 
ified as follows: 28 machine men. 105 fillers, and 11 other persons. 
The air at outlet measured 35,000 cubic feet. The ventilation was, 
in a general way, fair. In parts of the mine, the drainage required 
improvement. 

TTmpire. Tliis mine was not operated very extensively during the 
vear; was idl'^ nhen Inst visited. 



320 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Walton's Upper and Lower Mines. These mines were in fair con- 
dition when last examined. 

Hilldale. In operation 145 days during the year. Number of per- 
sons employed in and about the mines, 153; cubic feet of air passing 
at outlet, 27,000; condition of mine, fair. 

Rock Run. General condition of mine when last examined was fair. 

Fulton. In operation but 30 days during the year. Persons em- 
ployed in and about the mines, 97. On examination, I found the ven- 
tilation in parts of the mine very unsatisfactory, the air being very 
much impregnated with black damp. I suggested that the quantity 
of air required by law be furnished. This suggestion has been com- 
plied with. I 

Amity. In a general way, this mine was in fair condition when I 
made my last visit. 

New Eagle. On the date of my last visit to this mine, it was idle, 
owing to some trouble between the operators and employes. During 
the year the tail rope system of haulage was introduced into the 
mine. The distance from the return wheel located in the interior of 
the mine to the one at tipple is 1,300 yards, the engines being 9x14 
inches. The ropes used are four-eighths and five-eighths, respec- 
tively. ! 

Average number of cars in each trip, 25. 

Allequippa. General condition of this mine, on my last visit, was 
satisfactory. 

Banner. In operation 80 days during the year. The principal work 
being done was entry driving. 

On the date of my last visit, two cross headings and two water 
courses were being driven. The outlet air measurement showed 32,- 
000 cubic feet passing the furnace. General condition of mine. fair. 

Stockdale. This mine was operated by Mr. John Crombie until the 
early part of * From this date until September, it re- 
mained idle, when a company of miners leased the place under the 
name of the Fulton Coal Company. This firm immediately com- 
menced to make such repairs in and about the mines as were deemed 
necessary. I examined the mine a short time after operations were 
resumed and found it in a very unsatisfactory condition as regards 
ventilation and drainage. 

Camden. In operation 150 days during the year. 

This mine is quite extensive, giving employment, as per last re- 
port, to 308 persons. 

The original method of working the coal at this mine was by the 
single entry system, but a few years ago the double entry system was 
adopted. This, it seems, has given general satisfaction. 



* No date given. 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 321 

Tlie butt headings are diiveu parallel with each other, leaving a 
solid pillar of coal 30 feet wide between them. The rooms, oi* work- 
ing faces, are turned off of the butt headings thirty-three feet apart. 
They are driven in i:i feet at a width of 7 feet. They are then wid- 
eiied out 13 feet additional, making a room, its full width, of Ul feet. 
At this width they are worked up a distance of 75 yards, when the 
rib is withdrawn. 

On my last examination of the mine, 1 found the general condition 
fair. The air current at the furnace measured 80,200 cubic feet. 

Cliff. On my last examination of this mine, I found it in a satisfac- 
tory condition. 

Abe Hays. In operation but 00 days during the year. Number oi 
persons employed inside, 70; outside, 4; condition of mine on last 
examination, satisfactory. 

Watson. A complete electric mining plant has been installed in 
this mine during the year. On my last visit I found it in several 
places being driven in advance of the air current, which I suggested 
discontinued and the places ventilated before again being worked. 
Have since been informed that my suggestions had been complied 
with. Number of persons employed inside, on my last visit, 136. 

Cincinnati. In my annual report for the year 1893, mention was 
made of a proposed slope to connect with the workings of the mine, 
so as to have an additional means of ingress and egress. From 
various causes very little work was done on the slope during the 
year. I hope, however, to be in a position to reports its completion 
in my next annual report. 

This mine is one of the oldest in the district, and from its very 
commencement has given oti' tire damp at times copiously. 

As the mine has been very extensively worked, a large number of 
abandoned workings is the result. These have at various times 
given trouble, owing to the gas accumulating in them. This was the 
case during part of the year in an old entry known as "Old 13." The 
condition of this part of the workings was such as to cause much 
anxiety to the writer, and how to remove the accumulated fire damp 
was a subject for serious consideration. 

Owing to the position of the workings, it was thought that a cur- 
rent of air could be forced through them, making an outlet of the 
Buffalo mine shaft, which lies adjacent, but after repeated trials in 
this direction, it was found that the openings between the two m.nes 
were not at a point where the difficulty could be remedied. Several 
other methods were tried for the purpose of removing the gas, but 
each in turn proved a failure. 

No plan of this part of the workings was known to exist, and al 
21-11-94 



322 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

our work was on "infoimatiou received'' in regard to the excavated 
parts. This was anything but reliable, so it will be seen that we were 
working at a disadvantage. 

Stoppings w^ere put up in the entrance leading to the workings of 
Old 13. Alter doing this, I notified Inspectors Blick and Connor to 
meet me at the mine for consultation, with the purpose of forming- 
some plan of action. In the meantime, however, an entry (part of 
which was driven through part of the upper strata) was started from 
near the shaft with the object of intersecting an entry known as "Old 
No. 7.*'' This latter entry was connected with Old 13, and if not 
closed by falls, a current of air could be forced through the old work- 
ings. Fortunately, when holed, the place was sufficiently open to allow 
a current of air to travel through the entrance at the point before 
mentioned. These stoppings were then removed and a current of air 
turned into the place. The accumulated fire damp was so large in 
volume that it would fire in a safety lamp at the outlet near shaft 
some 14 days afterwards. 

1 am pleased to state that this large body of fire damp was re-, 
moved without any accident whatever. 

AVhen examined on December 22, the mine, as regards ventilation 
and drainage, was in fair condition. 

Blyth. On my last examination of this mine, but a few persons 
were at work inside. Work of an active nature having been sus- 
pended owing to the lack of loading facilities. 

At the time of my visit, the ventilation was of the continuous cur- 
rent system, but work was being done to comply with the law, re- 
garding the divisions. With this exception, the mine, as a whole, 
was in satisfactory condition. 

Anchor. This is a new opening, located on the east side of the river 
and nearly ojtposite the borough of Roscoe, and is operated by A. G. 
and J. E. Leonard. The mine consists of two main and five cross 
headings. 

On my first visit, after active operations had begun, I found the 
ventilation in parts of the mine very unsatisfactory. This was, in 
part, the fault of the person whose duty it was to attend to the fur- 
nace. What little air there was circulating through the mine was so 
mixed with smoke from pow^der blasts that it was unfit to breathe. 
Tliis condition necessitated a request that the mine be so ventilated 
as to conform with the law. This the management promised to do. 

A fan IG feet in diameter has since been put in position, and with 
proper care should produce all the air required for the mine for some 
time to come. 

* On examination of the mine by Inspector Blick and Conner tliey aprreod that 
what was being done was for the best under the circumstances. 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 323 

Crowthers. This mine consists of two small drift openings which, 
when examined last were emplo,viug eight and six persons, respect- 
ively. The ventilation and drainage required attention. 

Clipper. On each visit to this mine I had occasion to call the at- 
tention of the mine officials to some violation of the act, or non-com- 
pliance with its provisions. This was especially the case as regards 
the ventilation in parts of the mine. The matter of openings was 
also a subject which required adjustment. 

An opening which was to be used as an escapement in cases of 
emergency was allowed (after being put in a passable condition) to 
get into such a condition as to be almost impassable for quite a dis- 
tance. I have requested the officials of the mine to have the cause 
of complaint removed. 

Ohalfant. This mine is located on Dunlap's creek. When last vis- 
ited there was not a sufficient number of persons employed to bring 
it under the provisions of the law. 

Fatal Accidents. 

Mike 1 1 niiiiul;!, ;i iniiK'i- cinjdoyt <1 in llic '!''!•( iiiont uiiiic. was. on 
.Jaur.;ii-v K!. so badly linrl l>y ;i ])r(nn;il ni-(^ blast thai he lived but IS 
hours. 

The deceased and Andrew Rando worked together, and previous to 
tlie accident they were about to fire a blast in the coal. Hunnula 
placed the squib in position and ignited it and then made his way to a 
safe position, but after waiting a short time for the blast to fire, the 
deceased remarked that the squib had gone out and that he would re- 
light it. This Rando protested against, but no attention was given the 
warning. The result was that Hunnula went and set fire to the squib 
and before he could get out of the way the explosion occurred, throw- 
ing the coal, some of which struck the unfortunate man, with the re- 
siiii. as abos'c stated. liuiniula w;is a Finlandoi-. 21 years of age, 
and single. 

Joseph Backo, a miner, was, on January 25th, fatally injured by a 
fall of slate in Beaumont mine. 

This accident occurred in room 5, entry 7, while the deceased was 
at work "bearing in." Owing to the place being cleaned up by two 
persons without authority from the mine foreman, I did not get to 
see the original position of the room after the accident, but from 
what I could learn, a post which the deceased had under the slate 
was not in the proper place, and as a consequence was of no prac- 
tical use. Backo was a single man, 22 years of age, and a Hungarian 
by birth. 

Peter Sonslow, a miner, employed in the Climax mine, was on Jan 
nary 27th, instantly killed by a fall of coal. Frank Toad, Louis Fer- 



324 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Uoc. 

rick and the deceased were at work drawing entry pillars, between 
entries 9 and 10. 

derrick was "bearing in" next to right side of place, Toad on 10 en- 
try and directly opposite to where SSonslow was at work. This was 
near a break-through and on the corner of pillar a "bearing in " some 
12 feet long and about 2 feet inches in depih, coal to the amount of 
about 00 bushels fell from this and struck tSonslow, with the above 
result. He was warned of the dangerous condition of the breast at 
this point by one of his companions, but he answered that it was "all 
right." fcsonslow was a native of Hungary, in which country he left a 
widow and two children. Deceased was 32 years of age. 

Alexander Over and, a miner, 32 years of age, was fatally injured 
in Ella mine on February 10th by a fall of slate. Deceased and 
Matthew Dewson worked together and at the time of the accident 
were engaged in loading a car, when a piece of slate which measured 
7 feet long, 2 feet wide and ten inches thick fell, striking Overand, 
injuring him so badly that death resulted some nine hours after. TUe 
slate, I am informed, was examined thirty minutes previous to its 
failing and was considered at that time "safe." Overand was a na- 
tive of Scotland. Deceased left a wife and four children. 

Thomas Dunn, English, a miner 51 years of age, employed in the 
Black Diamond mine, was on the 12th day of February instantly 
killed by a fall of slate. Dunn and a son aged 16 years worked to 
gether in the main air course, and while at work loading a car, the 
slate fell on the deceased. This slate measured 7 feet long, 3 feet 
wide and 10 inches thick. 

On examining the place where the accident occurred, I found that 
some slate had been taken down on the right side of working place, 
but on the left side slate had been left up, and from under this the 
deceased was shovelling coal into a car when the slate fell. This slate 
showed a slip next to the face, which cut it off from any support at 
thjs point. One side rested on the coal pillars but the other side was 
unsupported and consequently caused the slate to form a leverage on 
the coal pillars; this made the slate very dangerous. 

Taking into consideration the place as seen afterward, it showed 
an oversight on the part of the deceased that cannot be accounted 
for. Dunn was an old miner, and as far as practice went, was one 
of the best in the kind of work he was engaged in. The deceased 
left a widow and three children. 

At Black Diamond mine on the 22d day of February, an accident 
Dceurred whereby a driver named John McCaliill, iin American, was 
instantly killed by mine cars. McCahill, while moving a trip of four 
cars on main entry out toward the double parting, was in some mys- 
terious manner thrown under the first car of trip, and when found his 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 325 

body was lying parallel with the track, face toward centre of entry, 
Ihe car oif the track and resting on the body. 

A trapper boy, whose door is located quite a distance from where 
the body of McCahill was found, says that when deceased passed 
through his door that he (McCahill) was sitting on the top of the front 
end of the first car of the trip. From this, and tlie distance from the 
body at which the deceased's caj) and lamp were found, it is supposed 
tliai the cap and lamp were knocked off by coming in contact with 
the roof, and being in the dark he jumped off tlie car, and in doing so, 
eltlier fell or tripped, and before he could recover himself the cars 
caught him. McCahill left a young widow to mourn his untimely 
death. Deceased was in his twenty-first year. 

Guiseppe Dariguzzie, an Italian miner, 32 years of age, and single, 
met instant death on February 24th, by a fall of coal in Blyth mine. 

Deceased and Minia Davitt worked together in entry 7, room 27, 
and at the time of the accident were engaged as follows: The former 
"bearing in" and the latter cleaning the room track. While he was 
thus engaged the coal fell, striking him, resulting as above. On 
examination of the place I found that they had fired a butt shot; 
this did not throw all the coal, but what was left was somewhat 
loose under this, and on the end of butt Dariguzzie had been at work. 
Davitt informed the writer that some time previous to the fall of the 
coal the deceased had tried to get it down but gave it up, and imme- 
diately before the deceased started to "bear in" Davitt asked him 
how the coal was and the answer was "all right," but he was in error, 
for he had worked but a few moments when coal to the amount of 
five bushels fell on him. 

John Powers, an Irish miner, 44 years of age, was instantly killed 
by a fall of coal in Gastonville mine No. 2 on March 16. 

The deceased and a brother, Thomas, worked together, and at the 
time of the accident were "bearing in" and loading a car, respectively. 

Subsequent examination into the cause of this accident showed 
that they had a "bearing-in" made in a butt which measured 
about 10 feet long and some 3 feet deep. To make room to mine it 
deeper, a small charge of powder had been put in immediately under 
the "bearing slates," and next to the right rip, but this shot not only 
loosened the coal below the "slates." but also the whole breast some- 
what: in addition to this a middle shot had been fired which shat- 
tered the end of the butt, leaving the coal in an extremely dangerous 
condition. At a point near the end of the butt, the deceased was at 
work "bearing in," when, without warning, the coal fell. Powers 
left a widow and seven children. 

John Tromasky, a Slavish miner, 30 years of age. was instantly 
killed bv a fall of coal and slate in Acme mine on March 21st. 



326 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Jt seems that the deceased and George Poh\ski, who worked with 
him, were "bearing in'' on a butt. The latter heard the coal and slate 
move and called to Troniask.v to "look out," but before the unfor- 
tunate man could do so the fall took place, resulting as above stated. 
Tromasky left a widow and one child. 

In Champion mine, March 22, Alexander Sabine, an Italian miner, 
29 years of age, was so seriously injured b}' a fall of coal and slate 
thai, death resulted 11 days after. Sabine was a single man. 

On April 7tli an accident occurred in Cliff mine, which resulted in 
the instant death of a French miner named Henry Dehose, by a fall 
of "horse-back." 

The deceased worked in room 24, entrj^ 18, and had but a few cars 
It) mine to finish the room. For some unknoAvn reason he left his 
room and started up the entry, and when opposite room 25 he was 
paught by a fall of horse-back. Inquest held and a verdict of acci- 
dental death rendered. Dehose left a widow and seven children. 

By Dilly trip, in Gastonville mine No. 1, April 11th, John Mieter- 
skey, a Polish miner, 45 j^ears of age, was instantly killed. 

This accident occurred near the mine entrance, and from the evi- 
dence it seemed that the body was dragged by the trip, some 54 feet. 
Three cars of the trip were off the track, the body being found under 
the fifth car. 

The trapper who attended a door close by, stated that he saw the 
deceased in the centre of the entry while the trip was under way, 
and that he (Misterskey) made no effort to get into a place of safety 
which he could have done, as, while there was no shelter holes at this 
point, there was sufficient room between the cars and rib for the trip 
to pass him under ordinary circumstances. At the point whei-e the trip 
is supposed to have caught him, there was a space of three feet eight 
inches, measuring from rail to coal pillar. Verdict of coroner's jury, 
accidental deaili. "Misterskey left a idow and Iwo cliildreii. 

In Little Kedstone mine, an accident occurred on April 14th where- 
by John Shock lost his life by a fall of slate. Deceased worked with 
a brotlior, and while they were loading a car, a piece of slate measur- 
ing feet inches long, 1 foot fi inches wide, and about 10 inches 
thick, fell with the result as above stated. 

I am informed that it was known to be unsafe previous to its fall- 
ing, and to make it secure, a post was brought to the place to 
set, but for some reason unknown to the writer this was not done. 
Shock left a widow and two children. 

Patrick Oates, Irish, a miner, 00 years of age, was fatally injured 
on July 2d, in Blyth mine by a fall of slate. Lived some 30 hours 
after. 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 327 

After a careful examinaliou of the place where I lie accident oc- 
curred, 1 am of the opinion that it was unavoidable. The room beiug 
^\•ell posted and the general appearance of the whole showed the 
work of a practical miner. The slate which fell measured on an 
average 4 feet long, 2 feet wide and some 10 inches thick, the shape 
being in the form of what is known in mining parlance as a "pot." 
Deceased left a widow and eight children. 

John Mikula, Slavish, a miner il years of age, was fatally injured 
by a fall of slate in Manown mine on July 3d. Lived some two hours 
after. Mikula left a widow and two children. 

Miko Katuris, Austrian, a miner 38 years of age, was instantly 
killed by a fall of coal in Ivil mine on July 7th. The deceased and 
Michael Eeckenwish work together in room 12, entry 38. At the 
time of the accident the deceased was "bearing in" on the end of a 
butt, while Eeckenwish was drilling a hole in the same butt. While 
this work was being done, part of the coal fell with result as above 
stated. 

These miners were told by a miner who worked in an adjacent 
room that the coal was loose and that they had better put a sprag 
under it, but they did not heed the advice. Am informed that the 
deceased had been in the (country but two weeks. The unfortunate 
man left a widow and two children. 

Joseph Battallulh, Italian, a miner, was instantly killed in Ivil 
mine on August 18th by a fall of coal and slate. The deceased and 
vStephen La Franka worked together in room 46, entry 36, and at the 
time of the accident the deceased was loading a car, La Franka being 
engaged in repairing the room track. While the deceased was load- 
ing the coal from the road-head, the coal and slate fell on him, result- 
ing in instant death. Battallulh left a widow and three children. 

On September 4th, W. H. Teesdale, English, a miner, 38 years of 
age, was instantly killed in Eclipse (railroad) mine by a fall of slate 
The deceased was driving No. 18 entry, and at the time of the accident 
was loading a car. A piece of slate was hanging on side of entry, 
under which the deceased had intended to place a post, he having a 
post at the face for that purpose, but for some unknown reason he 
failed to do so. It fell, resulting as above stated. 

He left a wife and five children. 

John Lenox. Jr., American, a miner 19 years of age and single, was 
fatally injured on October 5th, in Stockdale mine, by a fall of slate. 
Lived but six hours after. 

John Gilleum, Belgian, miner, aged — years, was on October 8th 
fatally injured by a fall of slate in room 16, entry 23, Old Eagle mine, 
and died shortly after. At the time of the accident the deceased was 
knocking coal from under the slate. A miner who worked in the 



328 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

next room just a few moments before it fell, told Gilleum to set a 
post under the slate, but the unfortunate man did not heed the warn- 
ing, and as a consequence lost liis life. Deceased left a widow and 
two children. 

Frank Vielli, French, miner, 30 years of age, was fatally injured by 
a fall of slate, October 17th, in Nottingham mine. Died some 11 
hours after. He left a widow and one child. 

John Cutko, Hungarian, miner, 38 years of age, was fatally injured 
October 22d, in Climax mine, by a fall of coal. Death resulted some 
12 hours later. 

Deceased and Peter Alexander were engaged in driving a 12-foot 
place for air. They had put off two blasts in the coal, one on either 
side, neither of which brought all of the coal down that was under- 
mined, but the remainder, however, was somewhat shattered, and to 
get it down Cutko commenced to ''shear" (cutting the coal vertically) 
the coal on the right of the place and immediately against the pillar. 
While at this work, and before he could get to a place of safety, the 
coal fell, striking Cutko, resulting as aboive stated. Deceased left a 
widow and one child. 

On the morning of October 24th, Gaspara Chiafia, Italian, was fa- 
tally and Frank Benditi seriously injured by being run over by the 
Dilly trip in Stony Hill mine. 

These men were not employed at the mine, but had received a prom- 
ise of work from Mr. Dixon the operator, and for the purpose of see- 
ing the mine foreman they started toward the mine entrance with a 
view of entering the same. Mr. Dixon being present and seeing the 
object of the men, advised them not to enter the mine until the trip 
came out; this warning they did not heed, but entered the mine, 
and had not proceeded far until the trip struck them, resulting as 
above stated. Chiafia was a single man. I was not informed of 
his age. 

John Shannic, Polander, a minor, was on November 12th instantly 
killed by a fall of slate in room 35, entry 7 of the Allen mine. 

Owing to the place having been cleaned up by unauthorized persons 
before I visited the mine, I can give no report as to its condition im- 
mediately after the accident. From what I can learn, the piece of slate 
which fell on the deceased was from a position near the road-head, 
and it seems to have been an unavoidable accident. Shannic was 34 
years of age and single. 

Charles Kulkman, German, a miner, was instantly killed on No- 
vember 28th, in Gastonville mine No. 2 by a fall of slate. 

Knlkman was working in a room pillar. Some time previous to 
the accidoTit a fall had taken ])laco in this part of the workings and 
look the "face." The pillar was then "cut-over" some thirteen feet 



No, 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 329 

from edge of fall. This left a block of coal in the above, thirteen feet 
ill length and about eight feet in width. This "block" the deceased 
wished to take out, but the mine foreman advised him not to make 
any attempt in that direction, as it would be dangerous, and ordered 
Kulkman to not work at it at all, but he disobeyed, and the loss of his 
life was the result. 

Or examination of the place subsequent to the accident, I foun<l 
that the deceased had undermined the aforesaid "block" some three 
feet deep to its entire length. 

Some slate (which measured 4 feet long, 3 feet wide and 14 inches 
thick) had also been "up" on the face next to and immediately oppo- 
site the pillar proper. Under this piece the deceased was found. 

The time of this man's death is not definitely known, but is sup- 
posed to have occurred in the neighborhood of 6.30 P. M., as a fellow 
miner named Joseph Partman saw him about three-quarters of an 
hour before the time the body was found. 

He was a single man, 28 years of age. 



11 



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FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



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FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



339 






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Official Document, No. 11. 



Second Bituminous District. 

(ALLEGHENY, INDIANA AND WESTMORELAND 
COUNTIES.) 



hwiii, Maich 2, 1895. 
Hoij. Isaac B. Brown, 

Secretary of Internal Affairs: 

Sir: In compliance with the requirements of section 11 of article 
10 of the Act of Assembly approved May 15, A. D. 1893, I have the 
honor of submitting my annual report as Inspector of Mines for the 
Second Bituminous district for the year ending December 31, 1894. 

There are at present 72 mines in the district; 66 of these have been 
in operation during a part of the year. There was a strike in the 
Irwin district which continued for three months. There wei'e six" 
mines in Allegheny county on strike from three to five months. The 
mines in the Latrobe district also sulfered from a strike for three 
months, and the mines have not been in operation much more than, 
half time since the strike, except the Westmoreland Gas Coal Com- 
pany and the New York and Cleveland Gas Coal Company. There 
was a very stubborn strike in the coking part of the district, which 
lasted for months, but during a greater part of this time the mines 
were running under the protection of the sheriff, and labor was 
brought to the region from other localities. All the strikes ended 
very disastrously to the men, and when they were over many of them 
had to seek new fields of labor, their places having been filled by new 
men. Since the strike, the mines in the coking part of the district 
have been running very well. 

The mines are still improving, both in ventilation and drainage. 
There is three or four times as much air at some of the mines as the 
law calls for, and this quantity is kept sweeping through the mines. 
Two fans and six furnaces were erected during the year, so that there 
is but one mine in the district at present which is ventilated by 
natui-al means. 

A brief description of all the mines is given, with the average 
quantity of air in circulation per minute in each mine. The burning 
of impure oil for lighting purposes is still causing some trouble, and 



342 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



men are complainiug that it is impossible to pioeure a good quality 
of oil. Tlun'e is some truth in this, but I believe we will be able to 
overcome it in a short time. There are 1,155 more persons em- 
ployed in the district than there were in the year 1893. 

The following table shows the number of accidents, their causes, 
etc., that occurred during the year: 



By falling slate, 

Py falling coal, . 

By mine wagons, 

By a fall of roof, 

B3^ being run over on the Dilly road, 

By being struck by a post, 

By au iron rail, 



Totals, 



Widows by fatalities, 
Orptians by fatalities, 



Fatal. 



18 



Non- 
fatal. 



22 
4 
10 



39 



9 
16 



After a careful investigation of these accidents, I found that eight 
of them were caused by stubbornness, or willful carelessness. Sev- 
eral of the others who were killed had been in the mine only a short 
tiuie and knew nothing of the danger encountered in mming. Some 
of them had been warned of the danger a few minutes before they 
were killed, but they gaA'e no attention to these repeated warnings. 
Five of the persons killed were English-speaking people. The other 
thirteen were foreigners. 

I regret to have to report an increase of four in the death rate, and 
-eleven of the non-fatal accidents. This, in a great measure, may 
be attributed to the unskillfulness of a majority of the victims them- 
sf Ives. A strict enforcement of the law and rules by the mine otti- 
cials would, I believe, lessen the number of accidents. Danger- 
ous places should be visited and inspected, and officials should not try 
to hide behind the law. 

The stricter the officials are, the fewer accid .nts they will have to 
report. This much I have discovered in my otHicial capacity, that no 
matter how often the oflBcials visit the working places, they will 
always find some one working in <hinger who needs to be warned and 
severely reprimanded for his carelessness. One of the most fruit I'nl 
causes of accidents is from falls of slate, and care should be taken in 
.sertiiig ])osts. The posts should always be set ]»lumb or on angle 
with the roof and floor. Tlie cajt ])ieces should always be set across 
the slips in the slate. The slate should always be posted, no matter 
]:ow strong it sounds. The conl should be well spragged and all pre- 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 343 

cautionary measures taken to insure safety. If this were done, tliere 
would be fewer accidents to report. I hardly ever visit a mine but I 
tind some one working in danger, and after looking over all the 
ground, it surprises me very often that there are so few accidents. 

The following statistics are a summary of reports from all the 
mines, as set out in the tables: 

Mines in the district, 72 

Mines in the district operated, 66 

JS'umber of persons employed inside of mines, 9,351 

Number of persons employed outside 2,798 

Total number of persons employed, 12,149 

Tons of coal mined, of 2,000 pounds each, 6,424,633 

Tons of coal shipped of 2,000 pounds each, 4,000,777 

Tons of coke manufactured of 2,000 pounds each, 1,225,243 

Tons of coal mined for each fatal accident, 356,925 

Tons of coal mined to each non-fatal accident, 164,734 

Number of days Avorked by all of the mines, 12,171 

Average number of days worked by the sixty-six mines, 184 

Number of employes for each fatal accident, 675 

Number of employes for each nou-fatal accident, 311 

Number of horses and mules in use, 1,055 

Number of coke ovens in the district, . 7,155 

Number of mine locomotives in use, 3 

Number of kegs of powder reported as used in the 

mines, 344 

Number of steam boilers in use, 229 

Number of pumps in use, m 

Ni:mber of stationary engines used for hoisting and 

hauling coal, 68 



From the foregoing statistics the reader will be able to see that the 
production of coal has fallen off 211,075 tons, as compared with last 
year's production. Notwithstanding the decreased production of 
coal, there were 1,155 more persons employed in the district. This, 
with the low price of mining, was the cause of the wages of the min- 
ers being very low. I know of some men in the district having only 
f!3.12 to draw for two weeks, and having wives and children to sup- 
port. How they livc^d I cannot imagine. Of course, they were Hun- 
garians, and they can live when the American and his family w^oukl 
starve. I have no recollection of the coal trade being in such a de 
plorable condition as it is now, and the present prospect looks very 
discouraging. There were* three mines in the district that worked 
less than 100 days. Three worked one-third time. Twelve one-half 
time, and there were only two mines that worked 300 days. 



344 REPORTS OP THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Coal is mined now for less than it was before the war, and rents 
and provisions are much higher. The mining law of 1893 is giving 
great satisfaction and is well observed by the operators. We had a 
miner from the anthracite region who had a miner's certificate from 
that region, who opened his safety lamp in one of our gaseous mines. 
We brought suit against him and he got very indignant and got 
away before he was arrested. We propose to prosecute every viola- 
tion of the law, no matter where they come from or what they know. 
There are 50 per cent, of the mines generating fire damp C. H.-4, and 
we have had no explosion during the year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WILLIAM JENKINS, 
Inspector of Mines. 

Description of Mines and Improvements in the Second Bituminous 

District. 

Alexandria Mine. This mine is in very fair condition, with an aver- 
age of 28,965 cubic feet of air going out at the outlet per minute. 
This volume is divided and is fairly distributed throughout the work- 
ing places. The mine drains are also in fair condition. The outside 
improvements are a large boiler house and two tubular boilers of 100 
horse power each. 

Mine foreman, Daniel Campbell. 

Arona Mine. This mine has been kept in a healthful condition dur- 
ing the year, with an average of 35,670 cubic feet of air going out at 
the outlet per minute. This volume is well distributed through the 
working places. The mine drainage is also in good condition. One 
additional boiler, a haulage engine, and a tail rope system of haulage 
lias been put into the mine. 

Mine foreman, William Nesbit. 

Calumet Shaft. This mine has been kept in a healthful condition 
duiiug the year, with an average of 46,018 cubic feet of air going in at 
llie inlet per minute. This volume is in three divisions, jind is well 
conducted through the working places. The mine drainage is in very 
good condition also. An air eompressure 7x9 inches, has been 
erected at the mine, and is used for pumping the water out of the dip 
workings. 

Mine foreman, John Nicholson. 

Carbon Mine. The condition of this mine is very good, both as re- 
gards ventilation and drainage. The average volume of air passing 
nt the inlet per minute is 43,730 cubic feet. This volume is divided 
into three splits and is well circulated t*hrough tho working plnces. 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 345 

The outside improvements are a coke crusher, having a capacity of 
seventy-five tons per day. 

Mine foreman, Joseph Weightman. 

Chiride Mine. This mine has been kept in a safe and healthy condi- 
tion during the year, with an average of 19,748 cubic feet of air pass- 
ing at the outlet per minute. This volume is in two divisions and is 
fairly conducted through the working places. The mine drainage is 
kept in very good condition. 

Mine foreman, William Johnston. 

Dnquesne Mine. This mine has been kept in fair condition, both as 
• regards ventilation and drainage during the year, with an average 
of 23,120 cubic feet of air passing at the outlet per minute. There 
are three inlets of air coming into the mine, and this is fairly distrib- 
uted through the working places. 

Mine foreman, Mark James. 

Derry Shaft. This mine has been kept in a safe and healthful condi- 
tion during the year. The average volume of air passing at the inlet 
per minute is 69,000 cubic feet. This volume is divided into five 
splits and is well conducted through the working places. The mine 
drainage is in good condition. Ten flue boilers, size 5^x16 feet, with 
57 flues in eacli boiler, have been erected at the mine. 

Mine foreman, John Baker. 

Denmark Mine. The condition of this mine has been improved 
since my last report. An additional inlet has been made, and the 
fresh air from this inlet is conducted to the face of the working 
places. The volume of air passing at the inlets per minute is 41,553 
curie feet. This is divided into three splits. The mine drainage is 
also in very fair condition. 

Mine foreman, Edmond Whiteman. 
Greensburg Nos. 1 and 2 Mines — 

Greensburg No. 1 Mine. This mine has been kept in a safe and 
healthy condition during the year, with an average of 28,233 cubic 
feet of air passing at the inlet per minute. This volume is divided 
into three splits and is well conducted through the working places. 
The mine drainage is also kept in good condition. 

Mine foreman, David Clark. 

Greensburg No. 2 Mine. A Murphy fan six feet in diameter, driven 
by an engine 10xl6-inch, has been erected at the mine during the 
year; also a flue boiler 4^x15 feet to furnish steam for the fan. On 
my last visit I measured 20,090 cubic feet of air passing at the inlet 
per minute. This volume is well distributed through the working 
places. The mine drainage is also in good condition. Mine foreman, 
John McTntyre. 

Gem Mine, This mine has not been in operation a great while dur- 
ing the Tear, so they have not been able to reach the air shaft with 



346 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

tliejr heading, and the furnace has not been built yet. The average 
amount of air passing at tlie outlet per minute' was 7,105 cubic feet. 
This A'olume was fairly distributed through the mine. The mine 
drainage was in good condition. Mine foreman, John Bell. 

H. C Frick Coke Company Mines — 

Standard No. 2 Shaft. The condition of this mine in regard to safe- 
ty and healthfulness has been very good during the year. The aver- 
age volume of air passing at the inlet per minute is 100,408 cubic feet. 

This volume is in seven splits and is well conducted through the 
working places. The mine drainage is also in good condition. On 
mj' third visit I measured 1(!5,000 cubic feet per minute passing at 
the inlet, with the fan making 58 revolutions, and showing a water 
gauge of 1.2 inches. Mine foreman, Robert Hay. 

Mammoth Shaft and Slope. These mines have been kept in very 
good condition both as regards ventilation and drainage. There was 
no tire damp C. H. 4 reported in the mine during the year. The aver- 
age volume of air passing at the inlet per minute was 61,455 cubic 
feet. This volume is in four splits and is well distributed through 
the working places. Two additional overcasts have been built of 
luick and railroad iron; area of each 70 feet and 62 feet. A pump- 
ing station has been erected near the foot of the slope, 4,500 feet from 
the shaft, size 14x50 feet. The roof is taken down to the sand rock 
and a drill hole 10 inches in diameter and 300 feet in depth was just 
put down. The water from the dip working is pumped to the surface 
with a (torder air i»ump 12ix24x:)() indies. An air line <> inches in 
diameter and 4,500 feet long supplies air for this purpose. On my 
last visit 1 noticed that the fan was making 54 revolutions per minute, 
showing a water gauge of 1.2 inches and producing 61,455 cubic feet 
of air per minute. Mine foreman, James Eaton. 

Monastery Slope. This mine has been kept in very good condition 
during the year, with an average of 35,.300 cubic feet of air passing 
at the outlet per minute. This volume is in three splits and is 
fairly distiibuted through the working places. The drainage is also 
in fair condition, A Avater line has been laid to the Loyalhanna 
(Tcek for the purj)Ose of supplying the boilers with water. Mine 
for( man, George W. Wilkes. 

Stnndard Slojie. There has been no work done in the mine except 
cleaning up and repairing. Mine foreman, Alexander Erskine. 

Saint Clair Mine. This mine has been kept in reasonably fair condi- 
tion during the year. The average volume of air ]tassing at the out- 
let per minute was 18,500 cubic fe't. This volume is fairly distrib- 
uted through the working places. The mine drainage is also in fair 
conditioTi. l\Tine fnremnn. Jnmfs Wnrdlv. 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 347 

Hostetter-Connellsville Coke Company's Mines — 
Whitney Mine. This mine has been kept in a safe and healthful 
condition during the jear, with an average of 52,250 cubic feet of air 
passing at the inlet per minute. This volume is divided into four 
sj^lits, and is well conducted through the working places. A bore 
hole 10 inches in diameter and 185 feet in depth was put down, and a 
Lafayette steam pump, size 12x24x36 inches, was put in for pumping 
purposes. The drainage is in good condition. I noticed on my last 
visit that the fan was making 50 revolutions per minute, showing 
water gauge of three-tenths of an inch, and producing ^0,500 cubic 
feet of air. Mine foreman, Mathew Laick. 

Hostetter Mine. The condition of this mine, both as regards ventil- 
ation and drainage is very good. The average volume of air passing 
at the inlet per minute was 48,333 cubic feet. This volume is divided 
into five splits and is well conduc.ted through the working places. A 
boiler house 24x40 feet, and a brick safety lamp house has been 
erected. On my last visit I noticed that the fan was making 45 rev- 
olutions per minute, showing a water gauge of two and a half -tenths, 
and producing 47,500 cubic feet of air per minute. Mine foreman, 
Ceorge Eustis. 

Hecla Nos. 1 and 2 Shafts- 
No. 1 Shaft. This mine has been kept in very good condition dur- 
ing the year, both as regards ventilation and drainage. The average 
volume of air passing at the inlet per minute is 41,470 cubic feet. 
This volume is in two divisions, and is well condiicted through tlie 
working places. Mine foreman, William Dean. 

No. 2 Shaft. Three brick stoppings with 13-inch wall have been 
built between the main intake and outlet to prevent leakage of air. 
The mine has been kept in very good condition during the year, both 
as regards ventilation and drainage. The average volume of air 
parsing at the inlet per minute was 52,5.53 cubic feet. This volume 
is in several splits and is well circulated through the working places. 
On my last visit I noticed that the fan was making 25 revolutions 
I)er minute, with a water gauge of five-tenths of an inch, and pro- 
ducing 62,440 cubic feet of air. Mine foreman, William Snedden, 

Hampton Mine. This mine has been kept in a reasonably fair con- 
dition during the year, both as regards ventilation and drainage. 
TIk' average volume of air passing at the outlet per minute was 23,- 
920 feet. This volume comes in at three inlets and is fairly distrib- 
uted through the working places. Mine foreman, Edgar Thompson. 

Hempfield Mine. This mine has been kept in a reasonably fair 
condition during the year, with an average of 43.056 cubic feet pass- 
ing at the inlet per minute. This volume is in three divisions and is 



348 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

well conducted through the working places. The drainage is also in 
good condition. Mine foreman, Ralph Dawson. 

Isabella Furnace Mine. A twelve-foot diameter fan, size of engine 
12x15 inches. The fan is run by belt and has been erected at the 
mine during the year. The fan was built by Hockensmith & Wag- 
oner, of Irwin, Pa. The fan is giving perfect satisfaction. On my 
last visit I measured 67,2((0 cubic feet of air going out at the outlet 
iter minute, with the fan running at 74 revolutions. This fan will 
produce ample ventilation for the mine. A few changes are needed 
to conduct .the air into the faces of the working places, which will be 
done as soon as possible. The drainage of the mine is kept in fair 
condition. Mine foreman, Morris J. Lewis. 

Jamison Mine. This mine is in very good condition, both as regards 
ventilation and drainage. The average amount of air going out at 
the outlet per minute is 13,510 cubic feet. This volume is fairly dis- 
tributed through the working places. A pair of double haulage en- 
gines have been erected at the mine, size of cylinders, 14x16 inches, 
iind a flue boiler 5x16 feet. Mine foreman, John A. Hart. 

Lucesco Mine. This mine has worked very irregular during the 
year, and did not come under the provisions of the law at all times. 
I visited the mine four times, and there was from 9 to 44 persons em- 
ployed in it. A small furnace was built and a Syphon pipe laid for 
driiinage. The mine is in fair condition, with an average of 4,800 
cubic feet of air going out at the outlet per minute. Mine foreman, 
S. U. Phillips. 

Lockport Mine. This mine was in operation only a few months dur- 
ing the year. I made three visits to it and on my last visit it was 
idle. I have generally found the mine in fair condition, with an 
average of 6,900 cubic feet of air passing at the outlet per minute. 
Mine foreman, JTohn Walters. 

Loyalhanna Coal and Coke Company's Mines — 
Loyalhanna No. 1 Shaft. — This mine has been kept in a very fair 
and healthful condition during the year. The average volume of air 
going in at the inlet per minute is 27,580 cubic feet. This is in three 
divisions and is fairly conducted through the working places, The 
mine drainage is also in good condition. Mine foreman, Alexander- 
Park. 

Loyalhanna No. 2 Shaft. This is fi new ()]>ening sunk during the 
year, situated on the Ligonier Valley Railroad, one and one-fourth 
iniles southwest from Latrobe station in Westmoreland county, and 
is operated by the Loyalhanna Coal and Coke Company. The coal is 
reached by a shaft 12x20 feet and ISO feet in depth, which is all tim- 
bered with 10xl2-inch oak in rectangular sections 4 feet 6 inches 
from centre to centre, paneled in with 3-inch plank, and divided into 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 349 

three compartments by 10xl2-inch oak buntings. Two are for cage- 
wajs 10 feet 2 inches by 6 feet 4 inches. The other is a water and 
steam way 10 feet 2 inches by 4 feet 4 inches. Two rings are cut in 
the shaft rock for the purpose of carrying olf the surface water. A 
pump house has been erected near the bottom of the shaft 160 feet 
long, 10 feet wide and 10 feet high, timbered with SxlO-inch oak, 
strongly lagged overhead. Five pumps are placed in this pump 
house, which are used to pump the water from these shafts, namely, 
Loyalhanna No. 1, Loyalhanna No. 2 and Pandora. 

One "Allison Cataract" pump, 12-inch suction, 12-inch discharge, 
0-foot stroke. 

One "Allison Cataract" pump, 8-inch suction, 8-inch discharge, 4 
foot 6-inch stroke. 

One Yough pump, 12-inch suction, 10-inch discharge, 2-foot 6-inch 
stroke. 

One Yough pump, 8-inch suction, 8-inch discharge, 2-foot 6-inch 
stroke. 

One Yough pump, 6-inch suction, 0-inch discharge, 2-foot stroke. 

One Barr quadruple pump, 4-inch suction, 3-inch discharge, 1-foot 
siroke. 

The last named pump is used in the shaft to pump the water from 
the rings to the surface. There are three water lines used in the 
shaft. 

One 18-inch cast iron line. 

One 16-inch cast iron line. 

One 2-inch wrought iron line. 

The steam for these pumps is supplied from boilers on the surface 
through a 6-inch pipe, and the exhaust is returned through an 8-inch 
pipe. The outside improvements are a head frame 38 feet in height, 
which is built of Georgia pine; the guides are of the same material. 
Substantial trestles and tipples with dumping machinery have been 
built to load railroad cars. The engine house is 26 feet by 28 feet 
inches by 14 feet high, built and covered with corrugated steel. One 
pair of engines, cylinders 14x124 inches, geared, engines 6 feet, 
gvocved drums. The ropes are one and one-fourth-inch steel, fitted 
to steel cages with bridle chains and safety catches. 

A boiler house 30 feet 6 inches by 35 feet, and 14 feet high, built 
and is covered with corrugated steel. It contains three boilers 
of 80 horse power each. These boilers supply the steam for hoisting 
and pumping purposes. Two 22.000 gallon capacity tanks supply 
the water for boilers, etc., from a 22-foot elevation. A Barr quadru- 
ple pump, which is directly connected with the tanks and fire appa 
ratuj=, is provided for tenement houses. Blacksmith shop and other 
necessary buildings have been erected. 

This mine is ventilated bv the 2.5-foot fan at the Pandora shaft. 



350 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

There was on my last visit, 25,110 cubic feet of air per minute pass- 
ing at the shaft. This volume is well couducted through the work- 
ing places. The mine drainage is also in good condition. Mine fore- 
man, Enoch Bowley. 

Pandora Shaft. On my visit to tliis mine, July 11th, they were just 
starting up after a long spell of idleness. They were cleaning up 
and getting the mine in order. I measured 36,400 cubic feet of air 
passing at the inlet per minute. This volume was fairly distributed 
through the working places. The mine drainage was also in fair con- 
dition. Two 23,000-gallon capacity water tanks, one blacksmith 
and carpenter shop, and an oil house were built outside. Mine fore- 
man, John Park. 

Latrobe Coke Works Mine. This miue has been kept in a healthful 
and safe condition during the year. The average volume of air pass- 
ing at the inlet per minute was 31,075 cubic feet. This is divided 
and is well conducted through the working places. The miue drain- 
age is also in very good condition. Mine foreman, Stephen Ark- 
wright. 

Graceton Nos. 1 and 2 Mines — 

No. 1 Mine. There were 11 persons employed in this miue when 1 
made my last visit on December 31st. The fan was not running, 
owing to everything having been frozen up. There was a small quan- 
tity of air in circulation, however, but not sufficient to move the 
animometer. The mine drainage was in good condition. 

No. 2 Mine. This mine is in very good condition, both as regards 
ventilation and drainage. The average volume of air passing at the 
outlet per minute was 29,400 cubic feet, aud this volume is well con- 
ducted through the working places. The product of this mine is 
principally used for coke, and they have erected a German coal 
washer, which the patentee claims will wash all the impurities out of 
the coal. Mine foreman, John Lochrie. 

M. Saxman Mine. This mine is still ventilated by the natural forces. 
The 0])erator complained of the hard times, and the mine was only in 
operation 110 days during the year. The mine is well arranged for 
a nntural current of air, but notwithstanding all this, there are two 
oi' tliiee months in the year that we have but very little natural cur- 
reitt. Before another year has ]);!ssed I will see that a fan is erected 
at the mine. The avei'age voliiui" of air going out at the outlet pei' 
minute is 22.295 cubic feet. Tliis is ^^ll('n the weatluM- is favorable. 
The mine drainage is in first class condition. Mine foi'enian, John 
0. Dovey. 

Madison Mine. A fan l(i fool in dinmoter, driven by an engine, 
cylinder 12x18 inches, which is attached directly to the fan, has been 
erected. An endless rope haulage engine, cylinder 20x3r)inrli, nnd 
1^-iuch wire rope, also a Lafayette pump, steam cylinder 18x44-inch, 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 351 

and water cylinder 12x44-incli. The mine is now in very good condi- 
tion, both as regards ventilation and drainage. The average volume 
of air passing at the inlet per minute was 32,913 cubic feet. This is 
fairly distributed through the working places. Mine foreman, Harry 
Gardner. 

Maher Nos. 1 and 2 Mines — 

No. 1 mine is nearly exhausted; there is nothing left now but ribs 
and heading slumps. The mine is in fair condition, with an average; 
of 9.600 cubic feet of air passing at the outlet per minute. 

No. 2 Mine. A furnace has been built in this mine during the year, 
which gives very satisfactory results; size of furnace, fire bed 5 feet 
2 inches by 6 feet equals 31 square feet, length of arch, 12 feet. The 
air shaft is 24 feet in depth with a stack on top 20 feet in height. 
The average volume of air in circulation was 7,140 cubic feet per min- 
ute. On my , last visit I measured 14,520 cubic feet passing 
at the outlet per minute, and this volume was well conducted through 
the working places. The mine drainage was also in very good condi- 
tion. William Beveridge is foreman of both these mines. 

Millw^ood Shaft. The general condition of this mine has been very 
good during the year, both as regards ventilation and drainage. The 
average volume of air passing at the outlet per minute was 23,200 
cubic feet. 

On my last visit, the fan was making 78 revolutions per minute 
aud showing a water gauge of seven-tenths of an inch, and producing 
21,120 cubic feet of air. Mine foreman, Thomas Thomas. 

Ocean Shaft. This shaft is located on the Hempfleld branch of the 
Pennsylvania Kailroad in Sewickly township, Westmoreland county, 
and is operated by the Ocean Coal Company, superintendent, F. I. 
Kimball. The company commenced to sink the shaft on the 26th of 
May, 1893, and reached the coal at a depth of 279 feet, on October 
loth of the same year. Size of shaft, 23x13 feet. It is timbpred 
with lOx] 2-inch oak timber and lagged with 2-inch plank all through. 
Tlie girders are 7x8-inch yelloAV pine. The shaft is divided into three 
compartments, two for cage-ways, and the other for a steam and 
waterway. The steam and waterway is separated from the other 
w:th yellow pine flooring. The roof at the bottom of the shaft is 
taken down to the sand rock for 125 feet on each side of the shaft, 
and well timbered with 10xl2-in(h oak timber. The air shaft was 
sloited on September IHth. and reached the coal at 26.5 feet on th,' 7th 
day of January. 1894. This shaft is well timbered with 10xl2-inch 
oak timber and lagged with 2-inch plank. A stairway is fitted u]) in 
this shaft for an escape-way in case anything should ha])pen to the 
lioisting shaft. The air passage in this shaft is 125 feet in area. A 25- 
font reversible fan built by Kenny & Co., of Scottdale. was placed on 



352 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

top of the shaft, and on my last visit I measured at the inlet 60,361 
cubic feet per minute passing, with the fan running at 25 revolutions 
per minute. There are seven overcasts in the mine, and the volume 
of air is divided into five splits, and is well conducted through the 
working places. The management propose to ventilate this mine 
on the split air system, doing away with doors altogether. They 
have encountered a good deal of water and bad roof in opening out 
the mine, but I believe that they will soon overcome this trouble. 

The outside improvements are substantial, and consist of the fol- 
lowing: 

An engine house 30x40 feet with a pair of first motion engines 
coupled at right angles; size of cylinders, 24x36 inches, with conical 
drums 6^x8 feet, built by the Vulcan Iron Works. The head frame is 
iron and was built by the Pittsburgh Bridge Company. The hoisting 
ropes are steel one and one-eighth inch. A large equipped boiler 
house 42x48 feet, with three safety tube boilers, pattern built by 
Heine Boiler Company of St. Louis, 600 horse power. A blacksmith 
and carpenter shop are provided: also a large and well appointed 
office furnished throughout in yellow pine, with two vaults for papers 
and maps. A large store room 45x80 feet, run by the Ocean Supply 
Company. Twenty double houses with 12 rooms in each have been 
built, and ten more are in course of erection. Mine foreman, William 
Bainbridge. 

Ocean Mine. An air shaft has been sunk and a furnace built at 
this mine during the year. The nverage volume of air passing at th' 
outlet per minute was 5,313 cubic feet. The mine is a small one and 
does not come under the provisions of the law very often, so that it 
gets very little attention from the operator. I have found the mine 
on several occasions in a rather defective condition, both as regards 
rrntilation and drainage. Mine foreman, Gottlieb Vogel. 

Pleasant Valley Mine. An air shaft was sunk 31 feet deep and 7 
feet in diameter. The shaft is lined with brick for 28 feet up the 
shaft for the purpose of keeping the water back and as a protection 
against fire. A stack 32 feet in height is placed on top of the shaft. 
A furnace has been built with n fire bed of 6x9 feet, equal to 54 
square feet, with an arch 12 feet long. There is a manway on each 
side of the furnace for protection against fire. 

On my last visit I measured 25,000 cubic feet of air passing at the 
furnace per minute. This volume is in two divisions, and Is well 
conducted through the working places. This quantity could nearly 
be doubled by firing the furnace up briskly. The mine drainage is in 
very good condition. Mine foreman. Joseph H. Powell. 

New York and Cleveland Gas Coal Company Mines — 
Oak Hill No. 4 Mine. This mine has been kept in a very healthful 
condition during the year, with an average of 34,927 cubic feet of air 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 353 

gcinjr out at the outlet per minute. This volume is in four divisions 
and is well conducted through the working places. The mine drain- 
age is also in good condition. Mine foreman, William P. Owens. 

Sandy Creek Mine. This mine is in a healthful condition, and has 
been kept in that way during the year. The average volume of air 
going out at the outlet per minute was 29,653 cubic feet. This is 
fairly conducted through the worlcing places. The drainage is also 
in fair condition. Mine foreman, Joseph Corbett. 

Plum Creek Mine. The general condition of this mine as regards 
health and safety is very good. The average amount of air passing 
at the outlet per minute was 24,710 cubic feet. This volume is fairly 
circulated through the working places. An additional inlet has been 
made into the mine. The mine drainage is also in very good condi- 
tion. Mine foreman, William W. Carter. 

Penn Gas Coal Company Mines — 

Penn Gas No. 1 Shaft. This mine has been kept in safe and healthy 
condition during the year, with an average of 59,383 cubic feet of air 
passing at the outlet per minute. Each heading is supplied with a 
fresh split of air, which comes in at the head of each entry. The 
mine drainage is also in good condition. I noticed that the fan was 
making 66 revolutions per minute, showing a water gauge of one 
inch, and producing 59,383 cubic feet of air. Mine foreman, John 
Bolam. 

Penn Gas No, 2 Shaft. This mine has been kept in a safe and 
healthful condition during the year. The average volume of air pass- 
ing at the outlet per minute was 45,545 cubic feet. This is divided 
into three splits and is fairly conducted through the working places. 
The mine drainage is in good condition. On my last visit I noticed 
that the fan was making 70 revolutions per minute, showing a water 
gi>uge of one and two-tenths inches, and producing 47,600 cubic feet 
of air. Mine foreman, William Jamison. 

Penn Gas Coal Kun Mine. The condition of this mine has been very 
good as regards health and safety during the year. The average 
volume of air passing at the inlet per miute is 32,573 cubic feet. This 
volume is divided into two splits and is well conducted through the 
working places. The mine drainage is also in good condition. Mine 
foreman, William Rodgers. 

Penn Gas No. 4 Mine. This mine has been kept in a fair and health- 
ful condition during the year. The average volume of air passing at 
the outlet per minute is 33,665 cubic feet. This volume is split into 
four divisions and is fairly distributed through the working places. 
The mine drainage is also in fair condition. Mine foreman. -John 
Giles. 

23-11-94 



354 REPORTS OP' THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

I'enn Manor Shaft. The condition of this mine lias been very good 
as regards health and safety during the year. The average volume of 
air jtassing at the inlet per minute is 26,270 eubic feet. This volume 
is in two divisions and is well conducted through the working places, 
Tlic iiiinc (liainage is also in good condition. Mine foiciiuiu. Samuel 
Ferguson. 

S. H. Smith's Mine. A furnace has been built and an air shaft sunk 
at this mine during the year. The air shaft is 25 feet in depth and 7 
feet in diameter. Size of furnace, fire bed 3G square feel^ length of 
archl2 1eet. This mine is now well ventilated. The average volume 
of air passing at the outlet per minute is 15,722 cubic feet. The miuf 
drainage is also in good condition. Mine foreman, Joseph C. Knap- 
pov. 

Smith's Mine. A furnace has been built in this mine during the 
Acaj', size of furnace, 30 square feet; fire bed, with an arch, 12 feet in 
length. The air shaft is 40 feet in depth with a stack on top 16 feet 
in height. The mine is well ventilated now. The average amount of 
air going out at the outlet per minute is 15,738 cubic feet. The 
mine drainage is also in good condition. Mine foreman, Roy Gerard. 

Spring Hill No. 2 Mine. The condition of this mine is very good, 
both as regards ventilation and drainage. The average volume of 
air passing at the outlet per minute was 24,060 cubic feet. This is in 
two divisions and is well conducted through the working plaei^s. 
Mine foreman, William B. Morris. 

Stickler Mine. A fan was erected at this mine during the year; 
size of fan, 12 feet in diameter, driven by an engine 10x18 inches. 
The average volume of air going in now is 26,880 cubic feet per min- 
ute. This in two splits and is well conducted through the working 
places. The mine drainage is also in very good condition. Mine 
foreman, Alexander Davenport. 

Brick Works Mine. This mine is situated on the southwest Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, near Hunker Station, and is operated by the Fire 
I'.rick Company. Add Leitch is superintendent. They are working 
the Upper FreepoiM vein and the fire clay bed below it. T received an 
anonymous letter from a miner who had worked at the mine, and 
was discharged, I presume, for trying to get the men out on a strike. 
He stated that there was fire dam[> in the mine, and that there was 
no certificated mine foreman employed. It was true as to the mine- 
foreman, but I examined the mine very carefully, and there was no 
sign of fire damp O. H. 4 in either of the mines. I notified the su- 
perintendent that if he continued to run coal he must em])loy a mine 
foreman and ventilate the mine. He said he only ran a little coal 
during the strik'o to snpjtly some of his cnsloincrs and Jhcn stopped. 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 355 

The Southwest Connollsville Coal and Coke Company Mines — 

No. 1 "A" Shaft. This mine has been kept in excellent condition 
during' the year. The average volume of air going in at the inlet per 
minute is 100,550 cubic feet This volume is divided into eight sepa- 
rate splits and is well conducted through the working places. The 
mine drainage is also in good condition. A 25-foot fan ventilates 
both "A" and "B" shafts. On my last visit I noticed that the fan was 
running at 54 revolutions per minute, and showing a water gauge of 
nine-tenths of an inch, and producing 190,400 cubic feet of air per 
minute. Mine foreman, John Duncan. 

No. 1 "B" Shaft. The condition of this mine, both as regards health 
and safety, has been very good during the year. The average volume 
of air passing at the inlet per minute is 81,200 cubic feet. This is in 
several divisions and is well circulated through the working places. 
The rope haulage has been extended 2,400 feet into the dip workings. 
Mine foreman, John Whitfield. 

Alice No. 2 Mine. Tliis mine lias been kept in a safe and liealthful 
condition during the year, with an average of 78,960 cubic feet of 
air passing at the inlet per minuter This volume is divided into four 
splits and is well distributed through the working places. The mine 
drainage is also in good condition. On my last visit I noticed the 
fan was running at 56 revolutions per minute and showing a water 
gai ge of seven tenths of an inch, and producing 81,200 cubic feet of 
air per minute. Mine foreman, William H. Howarth. 

No. 3 Shaft. This mine has been kept in very good condition during 
the year. The average volume of air passing at the inlet per minute 
is 55,017 cubic feet. This is divided into three splits, and is well con- 
ducted through the working places. Another opening has been made 
across the railroad, and tlie coal will be hauled to the present shaft; 
part of the road will be on the surface. The mine drainage is in fair 
condition. Mine foreman, Robert Hair. 

No. 4 Mine. The condition of this mine has been very good during 
the year, both as regards health and safety. The average volume of 
air going in at the inlet per minute is 44,920 cubic feet. This volume 
is in three different splits and is well circulated through the working 
places. The mine drainage is also kept in good condition. The rope 
haulage has been extended 800 feet into the dip workings. Mine fore- 
man, Robert Morris. 

Turner ]\Iine. An air shaft was sunk at this mine and a furnace 
erected, size of furnace, firebed 24 square feet. This furnace has 
been completed since my last visit. The average volume of air going 
in ai the inlet per minute is 8,620 cubic feet. This was fairly dis- 
tributed and the mine drainage was in fair condition. Mine foreman, 
J. n. Turner. 



356 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Weinman Mine. On my first two visits to tliis mine, no air measure- 
ment could be taken on account of there being no fire in the furnace. 
The last two visits I measured 3,188 cubic feet of air in circulation 
per minute. Sometimes I find fewer thau ten men employed inside. 
The mine drainage is always in good condition. Mine foreman, Jacob 
Weinman. 

United Coal and Coke Company's Mines — 

United IS'o. 1 Shaft. This mine has been kept in safe and healthy 
condition during the year. The average amount of air going in at 
the inlet per minute is 71,431) cubic feet. This volume is split into 
several divisions and is well conducted through the working places. 
TJie mine drainage is also in fair condition. Another opening has 
been made into the mine at the outcrop and is used as a traveling 
way from the mutual side. Mine foreman, William West. 

United ^'o. 2 Mine. A pump house has been erected in the mine 
and a Gordon pump put in. The water is pumped through a bore 
hole 14 inches in diameter and I'oU feet deep. A new air compressor 
steam cylinder 18x3G inches, air cylinder 21x3G inches, furnishes the 
power to pump the water out. A 6-inch diameter air line carries the 
compressed air to the pump. A new IG-foot steel fan and a brick 
fan engine house has been erected. A landing to hold 30 wagons has 
been made in the dip. The mine is now in very good condition, both 
as regards ventilation and drainage. The average amount of air 
passing at the inlet per minute is 49,040 cubic feet. This is well dis- 
tributed through the working places. 

The outside improvements are a boiler, a haulage engine house. 
Mine foreman, John W. Greaves. 

United No. 3 Mine. This mine is in a safe and healthful condition, 
with an average of 20,100 cubic feet of air passing at the outlet per 
minute. This is well distributed through the working places. The 
mine drainage is also in very good condition. Mine foreman, William 
M. Hart. 

Mitchell Muie. This mine is in very fair condition, with an average 
volume of 7,365 cubic fet of air passing at the outlet per minute, and 
this is fairly distributed through the working places. The mine 
drainage is all right. An air shaft 7 feet in diameter and 34 feet 
deep has been sunk for ventilation, and they intend building a fur- 
nace very soon. Mine foreman, Milton Peddicord. 

Graff Mine. This is a small mine, situated about one mile from 
Blairsville, Indiana county, Pa., and is oi)erated by the Indiana Coal 
Company. The mine came under the provision of the law during the 
miners' strike in the summer. The ventilation was defective, and 1 
ordered a furnace built. An air shaft was sunk and a furnace will 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 357 

be built soon. I measured 9,720 cubic feet of air in circulation on one 
of my visits. Mine foreman, William Hamer. 

Westmoreland Gas Coal Company's Mines — 

Larimer No. 4 Mine. The mine lias been kept in a reasonably good 
condition, both as regards ventilation and drainage. The average 
volume of air going in at the inlet per minute was G4,027 cubic 
feet. This is divided into seven splits and is fairly conducted 
through the working places. The endless rope system has been ex- 
tended several hundred feet further into the mine. This was done 
ill order to take the coal from the mouth of each pair of butt head- 
ings. Mine foreman, John Williams. 

Export Mine. The company moved the ten-foot fan that they had at 
their South Side mine to the "Export" and erected the same on an 
air shaft that had been sunk at this time. The fan is used as an ex- 
haust and does very efficient work. The average volume of air pass- 
ing at the outlet per minute is 33,223 cubic feet. This volume is 
being coursed around the mine and is receiving a fresh supply from 
leakage as it passes on, and is fairly distributed through the working 
pkices. The mine drainage is in very good condition. Mine foreman, 
George Carroll. , , j 

Westmoreland Shaft. This mine has been kept in very fair condi- 
tion during the year, with an average of 57,860 cubic feet of air pass- 
ing at the outlet per minute. This is divided into several 
splits and is fairly distributed through the working places. 

The mine drainage is in excellent condition. On my last visit the 
fan was making 65 revolutions per minute, showing a water gauge of 
l.<5 inches, and producing 63,420 cubic feet of air. A few days after 
my visit the fan broke down and the mine had to stop until it was re- 
paired. The 12-foot fan formerly in use was not large enough to ven- 
t'late this large mine. Mine foreman, James Thompson. 

South Side Mine. This mine is ventilated with the return air that 
comes from Larimer No. 4 mine. The mine is in good condition. 
There are only a few persons working in it, furnishing custom coal. 
Mine foreman, John Williams. 



358 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



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Was instantly killed by a fall of slate 
as he was shoveling coal back from 
under it; there was a clay vein in his 
room and he had not taken the proper 
precaution in setting the post in the 
right place, and he , was working 
under too much slate; the coroner 
held an Inquest and rendered a ver- 
dict of accidental death. 

Was fatally injured by a fall of slate 
and died in a short time after; he was 
knocking coal at the time of the acci- 
dent; there was a water slip in the 
slate, but it could not be seen until 
after the slate fell ; if he had sounded 
the slate he would have discovered 
that it was loose; the coroner held 
an inquest and rendered a verdict of 
accidental death. 

Was fatally injured by a fall of roof 
coal and died in an hour after; at the 
time of the accident he was taking 
out a post in a rib. August .Iltt 
warned him not to go after the post 
but go he did and he was caught 
under tons of roof coal and slate. 
The coroner held an investigation and 
rendered a verdict <^f accidental death. 

Was instantly killed by a fall of roof 
coal as he was drawing a post Out in 
a rib. Thomas Moore, the man who 
worked with him, told him not to go 
back for the post, as it was unsafe. 
but he was self-willed and back he 
went, and there were tons of roof and 
slate fell on him. 


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Official Document, No. 11 



THIRD BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 

(Al MSTRONG, BUTLER, CLARION, INDIANA, JEFFKRSON, LAWRKNCE 
MERCER, WESTMORELAND AND BEAVER COUNTIES,) 



Mercer, Pa., March 4, 1895. 
Hon. Isaac B. Brown, Secretarj^ of Internal Affairs: 

Sir: As required by the eleventh section of article X of the Bitu 
miuous mining act, approved May 35, 1893, I herewith submit my an 
nual report for the year ending December 31st, 1894. 

Nine persons lost their lives in this district during the year, whicli 
is an increase of 200 per cent, ovor that of last year. The reported 
number of non-fatal accidents was only twelve, against twenty six for 
the 3'ear 1893. The almost un^jqualled record of this district for 
safety has been broken by the heavy increase in the number of deaths 
in this unfortunate year. It is hard to account for this sad and sud- 
den change. The very favorable conditions that have existed in and 
about the mines of the district in the past, are practically, unchanged. 
The methods of mining, together with all the appliances used in min- 
ing the coal, remain practically the same now as in the past. The 
coal seams, with their surrounding strata are unchanged. The same 
clas:' of workingmen, possessing nbout the same degree of skill and 
knowledge of mining now as formerly, are still employed in the 
mines of this district. While at many of the mines in the larger por- 
tion of the other districts the non-English speaking races have taken 
the places of our own English-speaking citizens, such is not the 
case to any great extent in this district; consequently, we cannot 
ascribe this great increase in the loss of life to that cause. Only one 
of the number killed was non-English speaking, and the investigation 
did not disclose the fact that ignorance was the main factor in caus- 
ing Potuskey's death, and admitting that he lost his life through 
his inexperience in mining and his lack of that judgment neces- 
sary to protect himself, yet this argument cannot be advanced in 
extenuation of the others who lost their lives, as they were all m(Mi 
of good, ordinary intelligence (with possibly one exception), and of 
large practical experience. In the cases of Cornman, Agnew, David- 
son and Williard. they practically committed suicide. After the 
Avarning these men had of their danger, it would only be reason- 
able to infer that they did not value their lives very highly. Corn- 
man lay down in front of ten tons of coal which hnrl boen undercut 
alniusl (-(unplctcly ntid relieved on all sides. This mass of coal was 



372 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

baugiug without auy support, and uot a single precautionary mca- 
s'!!e had been taken by Cornmau, so far as 1 could learn upon investi- 
gation. Coruman was told by his son, who was working with 
bin;, that the coal was about to fall and warned him to get up from 
the front of it. It seemed that he did not heed the son's advice, 

Agnew had been frequently requested by his partners to be more 
cartful in spragging the undercut coal, but he as good as told them 
1o mind their own business. Davidson also was told by his grandson 
(a young hoy) that he believed the coal was going to fall upon him, 
ijnd he was so afraid of this occurring that he ran out of the room. 
A\'illiard did not exercise ordinary prudence. He failed to sprag the 
mined coal and it fell upon him. 

Vogan, who was killed by a fall of roof and coal, was not blessed 
with any great amount of intelligence, but Morrow was an intelligent 
miner. Had either of those men taken the ordinary, precautions to 
cart fully examine or sound the roof frequently to ascertain its condi- 
tion, they would not have lost their lives. Four of these unfortunate 
men lost their lives a few days after they had returned to work after 
a strike, and they were extremely poor and their families in destitute 
circumstances, which made them eager to make the best use of 
their time while in the mines, so as to increase their meagre earnings 
as much as ])Ossible. Taking all of these maltei's into consideration, 
we cannot emphasize the fart too strongly that miners, no matter 
how poor they may be, or what their circumstances are, their first 
duty is to have their working places made safe, no matter what 
time it requires to do it. They must be compelled to use all proper 
and necessary pi-ecautions in protecting theii- lives and limbs. The 
pejformance of this duly must not be left optional with the working- 
men. It must be rigidly enforce! by men in authority. The mine 
ofTieial lias a great responsibility resting n])on him, and if he would do 
his full duty, fatal accidents. T nm confident, would be fewer. The 
mine foreman must not visit the woi-king places of ihc miner in a per- 
functory way, merely to satisfy tlie law, as it were, but he must feel 
it his duty to cai-ry out the full intention of the law by urging the 
woikmen nnder his charge to use every precaution necessary to pro 
tect themselves. "By mingling wi+h the miners as the law requires, 
the mine foreman can soon find out the imprudent and reckless ones, 
and if he finds any employe trying to evade or disobey his orders as 
far as carrying out the true spiril of the law is concerned, lie should 
he summarily punished. Discipline must he maintained at all haz 
ards and should a mine foreman fail in carrying out this essential re 
quirement, the sooner he resigns his position, the better it will be for 
all concerned. T am lead to heli"ve, from personal observation, that 
too mnnv of the mine foreman do not visit the rooms of the miners as 
outlined :il)ove. Evei-y death caused thi'ough neglect, where th" 



No. 11. 



THIRD BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



373 



mine oilicial has not performed his full duly, his conscience, if he has 
siiffli an article, must undergo a trying ordeal. A mine foreman^ 
should never accept a position as such unless he intends to carry out 
the s])irit of the mining law; n^jr should he allow any other otftcial 
t© dictate to him in such a manner as to restrain him from perform- 
ing his whole duty under the law. 

The following table shows the nuuiber of fatal and non-fatal acci 
dents and their causes; also the number of wives made widows and 
children orphaned by these casualties: 



clauses of Accidents, etc., for 1S91. 



By falls of roof, 

By falls of coal, 

By mine wagons, 

By premature explosions of powder, 
By miscellaneous causes, 



Total, 



12 



3 

a, 



12 



The following is a synopsis of the statistics as compiled from the 
ofiicial retnrns to this office from the operators of the district for the 
year: 

Number of mines in the district, 7.') 

Number of miners (men and boys), 5,310 

Number of "day men" employed inside of mines, includ- 
ing mine foremen and trapper boys, 7Go: 

Number of "day men" employed ©utside of the mines,. . (j61 

Total number of employes, G,731 

Number of sliort tons of coal produced in 1894, 2,641, 12() 

I)ecrease of short tons of coal, as compared with 1893,. 583,010 
Number of short tons of coke manufactured in 1894,. . . 3,488 
Number of short tons of coal produced per fatal acci- 
dent 293,457 77+ 

Nrmbw of shorl tons of coal produced ]ter non-fatal 

accident 220,093.83+ 

Total numlier of days (he mines were in operation in 

1894, 10,574 

Average number of days worked at seventy of the 

mines 171 + 



374 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

The coal mining industry in tliis district has been in a very unsatis- 
factory condition during tlie year. It will be observed from the tab 
ulated statistics contained in this report that only about tifteen or 
sixteen of the whole number of mines were in operation three-fourths 
time, while quite a number were in operation only one-fourth to one- 
third time. Also, the coal production shows a decrease of over a 
half a million tons, while the statistics show an increase in the num 
ber of persons employed and an increase in the number of mines in 
the district. It can be very easily understood what the results will 
be from such a state of alfairs. Jt means greater depression in the 
coal business and increased misery among the workingmen. 
Tlirough forced strikes among the workingmen and by reason of th^ 
inability of the smaller ojjerators to secure contracts, a "cut-throat" 
mtthod of reducing prices has been inaugurated, resulting in the 
c(.mplete demoralization of the trade. In the mines where work was 
to be had, they have been overcrowded with men, and although they 
spent their time in the mines, their earning power was much depre 
elated owing to this condition of affairs. Owing to broken time, and 
the meagre earnings of the miners, great distress has prevailed 
among them during the year. 

It would seem that the large companies or corporations had se- 
cured what little trade was going, crowding in a measure the smaller 
companies and individual operators to the wall; yet, in the face of all 
this, the small operations are rapidly increasing. One-half of the 
mires now opened in this district could ampl}' supply the demands 
of the trade. It does seem strange how everybody who can secure a 
lease of coal property which requires little capital and apiiarcntly less 
brain to develop, is eager to get into an already demoralized business, 
knowing if they would give this matter proper thought, that it 
iiiei:us disaster to them in the end. A large number of the mines in 
this district are controlled by men of very limited means, and in too 
many cases it is hard to get them to realize that it is their duty to 
have their mines operated by approved systems and in a lawful man 
ner. \Mien improvements are suggested to this class of men, the 
excuse is offered that the}' are poor and not able to make them. 
They also think that because of their lack of means to equip their 
plants on approved plans, that they ought to be permitted to violate 
the law, and if law ful authority intervenes, they itnagine that the law 
is being enforced arbitrarily . As a general rule, the IiisimmIois have 
veiy little trouble in having the hnv complied with, where the man 
agcment at the mines is intelligent, and the capital ami)le to have 
the mines run in a proper manner. I do not wish it to be understood 
from the foregoing that I am in any way against small companies or 
individnal operators, but no poi-son should go into it unless he is pre- 
pared with suflScient capital to do so in a legal and proper manner, 



No. 11. THIRD BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 375 

and especially he should never make the lack of means a plea or ex- 
cuse for violating the laws pf this Commonwealth. 

Owing to the irregular manner in which many of the mines have 
been operated in this district during the year, there has been some 
dilBculty in keeping up the details always so necessary to maintain 
Ihem in good sanitary condition, but where they have been mining 
reasonably regularly, the same spirit has prevailed among the larger 
number of the mine officials which has characterized them in the past, 
namely, that of having the mines in their charge conducted in a law- 
ful manner. 

A brief description of the mines, the fatal and non-fatal accidents, 
and the usual tables containing the statistics of the district, will be 
found in another part of this report. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Yours very respectfully. 

THOMAS K. ADAMS, 

Inspector. 



jinprovements Made at the Mines of the Third Bituminous District 

During the Year. 

At the Hill Mine in Mercer county, a ventilating shaft was sunk 
and a furnace built. 

The Morgan Coal Company, of Beaver county, opened and equipped 
a new mine. 

The Bagdad Coal and Coke Company made and equipped a new 
dj ift opening with tipple and inclined plane connections to take the 
place of the old Bagdad No. 3 mine. 

At Clinton mine, in Lawrence county, a second opening has been 
provided, also a water course has been made with its outlet by the 
second opening. 

At Keister mine, in Butler county, an air shaft has been sunk and 
a ventilating furnace built. 

At Haddon mine, Armstrong county, a second opening has been 
provided and a furnace built. New iron has been ]int on the inclined 
plane, and repairs to it generally have been made. 

At Blackstone mine a substantial furnace has been built and the 
mine repaired generally. 

A small furnace has been built in the Monarch mine. 

The Turner Coal and Coke Company opened and equipped a new 
mine in Butler county. 

At Oak Ridge mine new weighing scales were put on the upper 



376 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

platform at the tipple, and a set of uew brakes was provided for tke 
banlin;^ niachiuery. 

At Big (Soldier Run mine a 25 feet diameter Guibal fan has beeii 
erected and a tubular boiler five and one-half feet in diameter by IG 
feet long put in place, with 1,;U)0 feet of five-inch steam pipe to 
convoy the steam to the fan. Eimlit overcasts were constructed in 
the mine to carry forward to the workings, eight different currcntsi 
of air. 

At the Sterling Coal (Company's new property a uew drift opening, 
fully equipped for shipping coal has been provided. Also, a ventilat- 
ing fan twelve feet in diameter has been erected. 

At IJutt's Cannel shaft a second opening has been provided aiul a 
fan eight feet in diameter erected. 

A fan t^\elve feet in diameter has been erected at the State Line 
mine. 

An air shaft has been sunk and a small furnace built at the Ma- 
lu)uing mine. 

At the Fairmount mine No. 2 for the upper coal seam \\()rkings, a 
fan six feet in diameter has l»een erected and a new haulage road in 
the workings of the lower mine has been constructed. 

At tlu^ Thompsf»n Run mine an air- shaft has been sunk and a ven- 
tihitiug furnace built. 

A substantial furnace has been built and an aii- shaft of consider- 
able de])th sunk at the Gilpin mine. 

The Lake Erie Coal Company ma<h' a new diift oi)ening, sunk an 
air shaft, and built a fuinace during the year. 

The AW'st Penn Coal Com]»any made a new drift opening and sunk 
an air shaft. Improvements are located in Butler county. 

At the vSiandard Aline, in liutler county, a second opening has been 
provided and geniM'al rejiaii's have been made to the slope. 

Description of Mines. 

Mii.'cs in Armstrcmg and (Jlarion Counties Situated on the Allegheny 

Vallej' Railroad. 

There are still twelve luines located along this road. While the 
Kit tanning mine has been aband(med for the present, the Eagle 
mine wa> opened duriug the year. The (losfoi-d, now named the 
Lewis mine, is being opei-ated wiili only about (en minci-s. The 
Rimei'toii and .Monarcli mines have done very little work during the 
y<'ai'. and in fact tluw have been ( ntirely shut down for the last few 
months. Only four of the twelve mines in this division of the dis- 
trict woi'ked over half time during the year, and th<^ greatest numbei- 
of days woiked by any one of the other mines was one hundred and 
thirty. \Vith the exception of about six weeks' time being- lost by a 



No. 11. THIRD BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 377 

geiiei'al strike, the balance of idle time was caused by the opeiatois 
of this section not being able to compete in the general market with 
other operators having larger capital and who were more favored bv 
luning thicker and possibly purer seams of coal. 

Glen. This mine was not in as good sanitary condition at the time 
of my last visit as it should have been. I was required to stop sev- 
eral miners who were working too far ahead of the ventilating cur- 
rent. J measured only 2,000 cubic feet of air per minute in circula- 
ticii. The drainage of the mine m as excellent. 

Pine Creek. The small and inetticient ventilating furnace was not 
producing over 2,500 cubic feet of air per minute in this mine. Much 
of this volume of air was being lost before it reached the face of the 
workings, by leaking through defectively constructi^d doors and brat- 
tices. Parts, also, of Nos. 2 and 3 butt entries are being ovt-rl-un 
with a "creep" caused by not having pillars of sufllicient size and 
strfngth. 

xMahoning. At the time of my last visit to this mine I found the veu- 
lihitiiig current back a cousiderat.'le distance from the face of th"' 
butt entries. However, a new furnace had just been erected and a 
ventilating shaft sunk, which I have no (hiiibt will add to llie vol 
umc of air. There was a groat lack of judgment dis[>layed in tht- 
buil(?ing of this furnace and in the sinking of the ventilating shaft. 
P.odi the diameter of the shaft and the size of the furnace are entirely 
too small for practical purposes. 

Kiverview. At date of last visit to this mine, I found it in an excel- 
lent sanitary condition. The drainage was very favorable and the 
vei tilation was of sufficient volume and well distril)uted to the face 
of the workings. I measured 37,000 cul)ic feet of air ]>er minute in 
circulation, with the fan running at sixty revolutions per minute. 
There is an excellent system of tail-rope haulage in opera1i(»n at this 
ii;ine. 

Hardscrabble. This mine is being operated in a haphazard mannei'. 
I did not find any person in charge of it. It is not being operated 
steadily, only a day or two in a week, and sometimes only that many 
days per month. At last visit I found water about eighteen inches 
deep on the main haulage road. Although there is a good furnace in 
this miuf, it would seem from appearances that a fire is not kept in it; 
however, there was a fair quantity of air circulating through the mine 
from natural means. 

Catfish Run. At date of my last visit the mine was not in operation, 
consequently no fire was in the ventilating furnace. T examined the 
whole of the workings, both in the new and old opening. I mea- 
sured a natural current of 7,500 cubic feet, and if a fire had been kepr 
in the furnace an ample volume of air would have been circulating 
Ihrbuj-^hont nil of the workings in the new opening. I noticed that there 



378 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

had been some neglect in having a sufficient number of doors erected 
and the brattices repaired, to have the air conveyed close to the work- 
ing faces. 

Minerar Ridge. This mine was found to be in a very good con 
dition. The hauling roads and other workings were practically 
dry, and the volume of air being produced was conveyed close- 
to rhe face of the most advanced workings. I measured 5,000 cubic 
feet of air in circulation in the interior workings of the mine. 

Church Hill. I measured 8,100 cubic feet of air jjer minute in cir 
culation, which was being very well distributed to the face of each 
entry. No. 1 butt entry is being overrun with a "squeeze" or "creep" 
which is the natural etfect of not having pillars of sufficient size and 
strength along the enlry. Beyond the squeeze, toward the face of the 
w orkings Nos. 1 and 3 butt entries will be connected by a passageway 
so as to make that part of the works perfectly safe. The drainage 
and hauling roads have been considerably improved lately. 

The Mines Located on the Low Grade Division and the Sligo Branch 
of the Allegheny Valley Railroad. 

There are ten mines situated in this division, one less than last 
year. Cherry Run mine has remained idle during the year. The 
Keystone, Diamond, Acme and Fairmount No. 5 mines only averaged 
about one-fourth time during the year. Long Point mine was aban- 
doned early in the year. In describing the condition of Long Point 
mine in my last year's report, I stated that I found a portion of the 
coal on fire at the bottom of the ventilating shaft and in said report 
1 gave the names of the mine officials, and Mr. S. U. Phillips is men- 
lioned as the mine foreman. I desire to state, in justice to Mr. Phil 
lips, that he had not yet entered upon his duties as mine foreman 
at this mine at the date on which 1 examined it, and from the data 
I collected at said examination I wrote my report; therefore, he was 
in no way responsible for the condition of the mine as reported by 
me. In fact, Mr. Phillips was with me when we found the state of 
affairs as I reported them, and at my suggestion he remained and 
helped to extinguish the fire. It was some days after this that Mr. 
Phillips took charge of this mine. 

Avondale. This mine was found lo be in excellent condition in 
every respect. At date of my last visit, I measured ;>,()(>0 cubic feel 
of air in circulation, which was being well distril)u(ed and conducted 
to the face of the workings. The drainage was also very good. 

Oak Ridge. There was in circulation in this mine 2S,140 cHbic feet 
of air per minute. The total volume of air was well distributed to 
the interior workings in each of the two openings. The mine, as a 
whole, was well drained, insuring healthful working places for the 
miners and laborers. 



No. 11. THIRD BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 379 

New weighing scales weie put in place on the upper platform at the 
tipple of this mine, and a new set of brakes provided for the hauling 
machinery which is connected wath the mine. 

Fairmount No. 2. There was ou,500 cubic feet of air well distrib 
uted to ihe face of the workings of this mine at my last inspection. 
The upper seam of coal produces a large quantity of water, and 
owing to the floor being of soft clay, the hauling roads at differ- 
ent points are rather muddy. With this exception, it is in very 
good condition. An additional ventilating fan has been erected to 
ventilate a territory disconnected from the main body of the work- 
iugs of the upper mine, which is doing very effective work. 

Fairmount No. 5. This mine is only in the experimental stages yet, 
and the prospecting is going on with about thirty miners. The 
L(.wer Freeport coal bed which tliey are working here is very much 
faulted, which may cause this mine to be soon abandoned altogether. 
Jn fact, mining operations are susj^ended now at this place. 

Star. This mine was not sutTHciently ventilated at the time of my 
last visit, but as there was no new work being drivea, and the pres 
ent workings nearly all on the return towards the ventilating power. 
ihe quantity of air will increase as a result of the decrease of friction. 
I measured 14,850 cubic feet of air in circulation, which was being 
convened well up to the face of the works. The mine was well 
drained. 

Acme. I measured in this mine 12,250 cubic feet of air in circula- 
tion^ but found it completely shut oft" from reaching the face of some 
of the butt entries owing to an extensive fall of roof in the main air- 
course through which the ventilation for that portion of the mine 
was conveyed. This defect was being remedied by driving a new 
air-course around the fall througli the solid coal. The drainage was 
excellent. 

Brier Ridge. I measured in this mine about 10,800 cubic feet of air 
at the furnace, but only about 3,200 cubic feet of this volume was con 
vfyed to the face of the works. There was water over the bed of the 
main hauling road at one point, v.hich was caused by the valves of 
the steam pump being out of order. The rope hanhige system at this 
ojuMiing is being extended farther into the mine. At what is known 
as the new opening, the total quantity of air in circulation was insuf 
lie lent. I measured only 2,700 cubic feet of air at the outlet and only 
a small portion of this (juantity was at the face of the works. It has 
been claimed that the work bein^- done at this opening was merely 
for testing purposes, but the extent of the excavation is growing and 
more men are being put to work here, yet the permanent and neces 
sary improvements promised are still in abeyance.. 



380 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Mines Situated at Reynoldsville, Jefferson County. 

Tliere was considerable broken time at the live mines located in 
tliis region, owing to strikes and a lack of contracts. The mines 
only averaged about 105 days run during the year. 

Big Soldier Kuu. During my last visit to this very extensive mine, 
the volume of air was not sutticient. I measured only 47,220 cubic 
ft-et of air in circulation and there were nearly six hundred persons 
employed in the mine, but at tha+ date all the arrangements were 
completed for the erection of a 25-foot diameter Guibal fan. In fact, 
this large ventilator arrived at the mine on the date of my last visit 
and was put in operation a short time afterwards. Also, eight new 
overcasts have been constructed, thereby allowing the total volume 
of air to be divided into eight ditTerent splits. By the means of (hesc 
separate currents the several parts of the workings of the mine arc 
ventilated. A tubular boiler five and one-half feet in diameter by 
sixteen feet long has been erected to supply the motive power for the 
ventilating machinery. This boiler has been placed beside a nest of 
other boilers which produce the steam for the hauling machinery, at 
a distance of about ],?>00 feet from the fan. The steam for the fan is 
conveyed through a pipe five inches in diameter and 1,300 feet long. 

Mr. .lolm H. Bell, the mine superintendent, informs mc flinl tlic tan 
is now producing 137,000 cubic feet of air per minute, running at 
50 revolutions pei- minute, with a pressure of 1.1 inch water gauge. 
The size of cylinder of engine driving the fan is 18x30 inches. This 
mine is now certainly in a splendid sanitary condition. 

New Hamilton. I measured 17.<>00 cubic feet of air jter minute in 
circulation in this mine. This volume of air was reasonably well 
ionducted to the face of the interior workings. Also the drainage of 
the mine was very good. 

The Standard mine was exliausted on the 22d of .lanuary, 1805. 

Henry Bros. There was being well conveyed to the face of the in 
tei'ior workings of this mine 17,7()0 cubic feet of air. The ventilation 
was ;ill that could be desired, as was also the drainage. The sanitary 
condition of the mine was good. 

Sprague. With the exception of the current of air being rather 
weak near the face of No. 1 entiy in the Broadliead oitening, all the 
othe- workings in the two openings were in excellent condition. In 
lh( r.T'oadhead or new opening T measured 24.000 cubic feet of nir 
per minute being produced, whidi w;is being well cimveyed to the 
fa/e of the works in this division of the mine. In the old works T 
ineiisuved 20,040 cubic f(M't of air in circnlafion, tnnking the total 
volume of air circulating in the whole mine 51,000 cubic foot. The 
di'ainage was excellent. 



No. 11. THIRD BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 381 

Tlie Mines in Mercer and Butler Counties Situated on the "Pitts- 
buigh, Shenango and Lake Erie" Railroad. 

There are seventeen mines in this division of the district, and with 
the excei)tion of the Keystone and Enterprise mines, none of them 
were in operation more than half time. Chisholm did not run at all, 
and Pardoe was only in operation 22 days during the year. There 
was a general strike among the miners of this region of several 
months' duration, which was the principal cause of so much loss of 
v.oik. 

Enterprise. 1 found this small mine in excellent condition, both as 
regards ventilation and drainage. 

Standard. This mine had been abandoned for a long time, but it 
resumed operations again during the year. This is a small concern, 
and is now being operated by P. D. Sherwin, Considerable re- 
pairs have been made to the slope and also to the inside of the 
mine. A second opening has also been sunk. I measured (),iiOO 
cubic feet of air in circulation which was well conducted tothe face 
of the works. The mine was in very good condition. 

Keister. An air shaft has been sunk and a small furnace built at 
tills mine during the year. The hauling roads have been corduroyed 
and (lie di-ainage much improved. I measured 8,700 cubic feet of air 
in circulation, which was being ^ell conducted to the face of llu' 
works. The general condition of the mine is very good. 

Couiersal. During my last visit !o this mine T found the ventilation 
defective in Nos. 4 and 5 entries, which was caused in a great mea- 
sure by the water course, which is also being used as an air course, 
lu'ing closed from a fall of roof. I measured 8,280 cubic feet of air 
beijig dislributed in the mine. The general condition of the mine 
was not what it should have been. 

Lake Erie. This is a new drift oi>ening, situated on Ihe Hilliard 
branch of the Pittsbui-gh, Shenaugo and Lake Ev\e Railroad in But 
ler county and ojteraied by the Lake Erie Coal Company. (Jeorge 
Findlay is superintendent and mine foreman. This mine was in 
good condition when last examined. 

Keystone, 'i'liis mine Avas fonud to be in v<M-y good condilitui, both 
in regard (o vcnlilalion and drainage. At my last examinati<m I 
measured 7.700 <iil)ic feet of air in circnlation in the workings of the 
mine. 

Spears. I measured 6,240 cubic f( et of air per minute in circnlation 
at the inlet, but through leakage this volume was reduced to about 
2,50i! cubic feet at the extreme end of the works. The quantity of 
air measured at the face of the workings was not sufficient to insure 
the healthful conditiftn of the mine. The drainage was reasonably 
gciod. 

A wire rope system of haulage has been introduced inside of the 



382 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

mine extending into the workings for a considerable distance and is 
}^iving satisfactory results. 

liallville. There was being distributed in the workings of this 
uiine 10,900 cubic feet of air per minute. The mine, both in regard to 
ventilation and drainage was in fair condition. 

]>lack Diamond Nos. 1 and 2. I found loo much water on some 
parts of the hauling roads in No. 1 mine. The quantity of air in cir- 
culation was 11,100 cubic feet and the mine was in very fair condi 
tion with the exception noted. There was being circulated in the 
workings of No. 2, 8,000 cubic feet of air, which was fairly well con- 
du( ted to the face of the works. This mine was reasonably well 
drained, and its general condition was good. 

Cliesuiut Ridge. The dip workings on the north west side of the 
shaft were very wet. The narrow work here was only being driven 
for |)ro.«;pecting purposes. At the face of these works the air cur- 
rent was not strong enough. There was 6,000 cubic feet at tlie 
inlet but most of this volume was being lost through leakage be 
fore it reaches the face of the works in this division of the mine. 
There were 10,000 cubic feet of air being forced to the southeast side 
of the mine. The volume was much better distributed to the work- 
ing.s on this side of the mine, although the air was not as pure as it 
was on the other side. The haulage roads have been considerably 
improved on the south side of the shaft, but much remains to be done 
alonp, this line to make the improvements complete. 

Jewell. This is a new drift mine, opened in the month of September 
last and is operated by the West Penn Coal Company with C. A. Jew 
ell, sppei'intendent, and Thomas J. Simpson, mine foreman. The 
y.(. nifcnent ventilating power has not jet been erected, but an air 
shaft has been sunk. The mine was in very good condition, however. 

The Other Mines in Mercer County. 

Tl ere are six mines in operation in this ])art of the district. The 
Ljjrkawannock mine has been abandoned during the year. 

Stoneboro Nos. 2 and 8. The No. 2 mine was in reasonably good 
condition. On my last visit T measured about 16,000 cubic feet of 
all in circulation, while in No. 3 mine T measured 8..^)00 cubic feet of 
air, which was very well conveyed to the face of the workings. The 
dr;'"nage and the haulage roads in tho latter have been very much 
im[»'o^ed lately. 

Carver. The fan shaft A\as almost closed with ice at th<' lime of my 
last visit, which was a means of i-educing the volume of air in cir- 
culation in the mine considerably, but a fair volumi' was being pro- 
dncrd by the exhaust steam from the steam pumps at the main 
hoist ir.i: shaft. .\t th(> Ilii'fH' inirjs 1 measured a iotal volume of 



No. 11. THIRD BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 383 

17,340 cubic feet of air being produced, which was ventilating the 
Miine fairlv well; especially was this the case in the larger portion of 
he mine. Much of the work in this mine is on the retreat, conse 
qu( iitly, where the pillars are being taken out the work and men are 
fiT('j>tly scattered, making it hard to maintain an efficient system of 
ventilation. The mine is a wet one, in consequence of which, some 
of the entry roads are wet and muddy. 

Ormsby Slor)e. T measured at il.is mine 18,680 cubic feet of air in 
circulation, but about 4,000 cubic feet was the greatest volume I 
found near the face of the works in the main split. At some points 
of the mine the drainage was somewhat defective. The mine was in 
a reasonably good condition, taking into consideration the number of 
peT'Kfns employed therein. 

Sbenango. During my last visit to this mine I measured 13,000 
cubic feet of air in the mine, but only about one-half of this quantity 
was near the extreme end of the works. The drainage and haulage 
roads were in much better condition at the time of my last visit than 
they had been at previous ones. There is much room for improve- 
nnni in the distribution of the volumes of air in the mine. 

nil I. This is a new drift mine operated by the Hill Coal Company, 
Limited, and is situated in Jackson township. William Jenkins is 
th«^ superintendent and mine foreman. The mine was not in the best 
of condition when I last examined it, however, but since my visit, an 
air shaft has been sunk which has improved the ventilation consid- 
erably. 

Mines Situated in Lawrence and Beaver Counties. 

Fxcdsior. This mine was fairly ventilated as a whole, except in 
No. 3 entry, wiiere the air current was not near enough to the face of 
it. I measured 9,100 cubic feet of air in circulation. The drainage 
in No. 3 entry was very defective, owing to a fall of roof filling up 
the ditch, thereby damming the water and causing it to cover the 
I'oadbed. The mine was only in fair condition. 

Rock Point. This mine was in excellent condition, both in regard 
to ventilation and drainage. A new haulage road was beiug made 
in this mine which would short'^n the distance and provide a safer 
and much better passageway, as tlie old one was being overrun with 
a bad squeeze or creep. I measured 11.690 cubic feet of air 
in circulation, which was being well distributed to the face of the 
works: 

Thompson Run. I found this mine in very fair condition, both as 
regards ventilation and drainage. T measured 8,450 cubic feet of air 
conveyed reasonably well to tht^ face of the works. A ventilating 
shaft has been sunk and a furnace built at this mine during the 
vear. 



384 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Clinton. I found this mine in good condition. 1 measured 7,200 
cubic feet of air in circulation, which was being taken well up to the 
face of the works. The drainage of the mine has been much im- 
proved by the cutting of a ditch which was extended out to the sur 
face. A second opening has also been provided for the mine during 
the year. 

Jiaker. Tliis mine was only in fair condition at the time of my last 
visit. 1 measured 7,000 cubic feet of air in circulation. The mine 
was well drained. 

Keaver. I measured 11,1(>0 cubic feet of air in circulation which is 
conveyed well to the face of the works. The mine otherwise was in 
very good condition. 

Cannelton. The coal yet to be taken out of the old mine is all in 
jiiilrrs. At these works a new drift opening has been provided which 
is connected with the tipple by a long inclined plane. At this new 
place, much of the old abandoned workings had to be gone through 
in Older to get to the solid coai. The ventilation and drainage of 
the mine were not up to the standard, but a better system of working 
will be introduced as soon as solid territory is reached. 

Sterling. This mine is in a reasonably good condition, both in re 
gard to ventilation and drainage. T measured 10,.500 cubic feet of air 
in circulation, which is being well conveyed to the face of the works. 
A twelve-foot diameter ventilaliug fan has been erected at this mine 
<iming the year. 

I>u(t's Canncl Shaft. The genei-al condition of this mine as regards 
veitilation and drainage is very good. A ventilating shaft and a 
secon(^ 0]>ening have been provided, and a ventilating fan has been 
orertei' during tlie year. 

Slate Ijine. This iiiiiie was in (.'xcenoiit condition at the lime of 
last visit. A venlilating fan IL* feet in dianieti'i- has been erected dnr- 
itig th( year. 

.Mines Situated Along the West I'enn Kailroad in \\'estnioreland and 

Armstrong ('ounties. 

There are louileen mines in this diNision of Ihe di.slricl. and with 
the e:^ception of the Fairbank, Fostei- and Apollo, they have been in 
operation on an average of 252 days during the year which shows a 
greater average number of days worked than at the mines in an.v 
other division in the district. At most of the mines here, the general 
strike among the miners was of short duration. 

Avoiimore. T measured 13,500 cubic feet of air being moved 
thioigh the workings of this mine. An additional furnace will have 
to be erected in the "dip" workings of this mine, as they are some- 
what disconnected from those in thr other parts of it. The mine was 
reasonably well drained, and as a whole, was in ii(M»(l erdei-. 



No. 11. THIRD BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 385 

Foster. I fouud this mine in excellent condition, both as regards 
ventilation and drainage. 1 measured 10,000 cubic feet of air in cir- 
culation, which was well taken up to the face of the works. 

Apollo. This mine has done very little work during the year. 
Abou^. twenty-live persons were employed at the time of my last 
visit. The ventilating furnace has not yet been built, nor the air 
shaft sunk, although all the necessary preparations have been com 
pleted inside of the mine for the sinking and building of the same. 

I'iue Kun. 1 measured 32,300 cubic feet of air being produced, but 
nuicli of this volume was lost by leakage through improperly erected 
doors before reaching the face of the entries. The drainage was ex- 
celhnt and the other conditions were fairly good. 

Bagdad No. 2 and 3. At No, 3 at time of last visit I found the 
workings in excellent shape. A new drift opening, fully equipped 
for shipping coal has taken the place of the old mine. 

At No. 2 the current of air was not strong enough at the face of 
some of the butt entries where the pillars were being removed in the 
old part of this mine, but in the workings in the new opening, I mea- 
sured 0,750 cubic feet of air which was fully taken up to the face of 
the entry. This division of the mine was in excellent condition. 

Lcechburg No. 4. This mine was found to be in excellent condition, 
both in regard to ventilation and drainage. I measured 9,600 cubic 
feet of air being produced which was being fully taken up to the ex- 
treme end of the works. 

lical. In this mine I measured 0,400 cubic feet of air in circulation. 
The air was not near enough to the face of No. 4 entry. Some of the 
brattices were down in this entry, and the person in charge of the 
mine had neglected to replace them. The mine was very well 
drained. 

West Penn. I measured 5,500 cubic feet of air in circulation, 
which was only fairly well conducted to the face of the butt entries. 
A good deal of brattice cloth w-as being used on mouth of rooms in- 
stead of doors made with boards for conducting the ventilating cur 
rents to the face of the works. J?rattice cloth is very handy for tem 
poi-aiy use, but should never be used for permanent purposes. In 
fact, even doors made of boards and used to guide ventilating cur 
rents, should be dispensed with. The mine was in reasonably good 
condition. 

lilackstone. This mine is in splendid condition, both in regaid to 
vei.tihition and drainage. The ventilating fui'nace in course of con 
stn ction at time of writing my last year's report, was completed 
early in the year, and is giving v?ry satisfactory results. I measured 
13,000 cubic feet of air l)eing produced in the mine which was being 
cc•n^■eyed to the face of the workings. The drainage and hauling 
roads have been mucli iuii»roved during the yeai'. 
25-11-04 



386 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

iJ addon. 1 found this mine in a splendid sanitary condition. It is 
a small operation, but I measured about 5,670 cubic feet of air near 
the face of ^Yorks. The mine was also well drained. 

(iilpin. This mine was in a xevy satisfactory condition in all re 
sp- cts. I measured 8,240 cubic feet of air being produced, and much 
of this volume was at the face of the workings. 

A new ventilating furnace has been built and au air shaft sunl; 
(iijiing the year. The size of furnace is seven feet wide and five feet 
above the grate bars, two and a half feet from grate bars to tloor. 
and an arch fifteen feet long. The depth of air shaft is SO feet and 
the diameter six feet. 



No. 11. 



THIRD BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



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Official Document, No. 11. 



FOURTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 

(McKEAN, POTTER, TIOGA, BRADFORD, SULLIVAN, LYCOMING, CLIN- 
TON, CAMERON AND ELK COUNTIES AND ALL THOSE MINES IN 
CLEARFIELD COUNTY ADJACENT TO THE LOW GRADE DIVISION OF 
THE ALLEGHENY VALLEY RAILROAD; ALSO THE MINES ADJACENT 
TO THE CLEARFIELD AND SUSQUEHANNA BRANCH OF THE PENN- 
SYLVANIA RAILROAD; ALSO THE MINES ADJACENT TO THE BUF- 
FALO, ROCHESTER AND PITTSBURG RAILROAD IN JEFFERSON AND 
CLEARFIELD COUNTIES.) 



Blossburg, March, 15, 1895. 
Hon. Isaac B. Brown, Secretary cf Internal Affairs: 

Sir: I herewith submit my annual report as Inspector of Mines for 
the Fourt Bituminous Coal district of this State, for the year ending 
!>• eeirber 31, 1894, in compliance with the Act of Assembly of May 
15, 1893, together with the usual statistical tables compiled from the 
operators' annual reports returned to my office. 

Tlf.sf returns show a small aggiegate decrease in production, due 
to i g< neral strike of the miners throughout the district during the 
raf I ths of May, June and July. The Kettle Creek mines at Bitumen. 
ho\ (iver, continued to run throughout the suspension. Five new 
mnoF have been opened and three have been worked out and aban- 
dored during the year. 

Improvements continue to be made at many of the mines through- 
out the district, and the operators generally display a disposition to 
have their mines conform to the recjuirements of the law. 

The number of fatal accidents is greater than last year, which is 
due in a great measure to ignorance on the part of some, careless- 
ness and disobedience of orders of the mine foreman on the part 
of others. A large percentage of those killed are of foreign birth, 
having had no knowledge of coal mining prior to their arrival in this 
country, and of course know but little of the dangers to be en- 
countered. They consist mostly of Slavonians and Hungarians. 
Tlie number of fatal accidents is somewhat less than in 189.''). 

1 also append herewith a report from The Cottage State Hospital 
of this district, showing the number of patients admitted for treat- 
ment since the opening of the institution, and other matters relating 
to its administration up to the beginning of the ])respnt year. 

Respectfiilly submitted, 

JAMES N. PATTERSON, 

Inspector. 



400 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



Olf. Doc. 



Mining Statistics. 

Nur ber of mines in the districr, 

Ni rrber of tons produced, 

Ni mber of tons shipped, 

Xi mber of tons of coke manufactured, ., 

Ni mber of days worked, 

Xi u ber of miners employed, 

Ni uiber of outside men, 

Total inside and outside, 

Number of horses and mules, 

Number of mine locomotives, 

Number of steam boilers, 

Number of coke ovens reported, 

Number of kegs of powder used, as per operators re- 
port, 

Number of fatal accidents, 

Number of non-fatal accidents, 

Number of tons produced per each fatal accident 

Number of tons produced per each non-fatal accident,. 

Classification of Fatal Accidents, 

By falls of coal 

By falls of roof, 

Caused by mine cars, 

Total, 

Classification by Non-fatal Accidents. 

By falls of roof, 

By falls of coal, 

By mine cars, 

By mine cage, 

Miscellaneous, 

Total 



Go 

4,290,596 

3,504,875 

242,810 

6,099| 

7,742 

1,294 

9,030 

797 

24 

86 

1,743 

29,041 

11 

20 

390,599 

214,599 



11 



20 



Tioga County Mines. 

Antrim Nos. 1 and 5 arc in very good condition, both as to ventila- 
tion and drainage. At No. 5 the engine house and boilers which 
were located at the mouth of the slope, during the year were re- 
moved to the tipple, a distance of about 800 feet, thus enabling them 
to handle the coal much more rapidly. At No. 5 I found 45,900 cubic 
feet of air in circulation, well distributed throughout the workings. 
Ventilating fans are used at both mines. 



No. 11. FOURTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. • 401 

Arnot Nos. 3, 4 and 5 are ventilated by a 20-foot Guibal fan, and 
the total quantity of air passing through the several divisions was 
100,800 cubic feet per minute, as measured at the outlet, and these 
mines are in fairly good condition. 

Fall Brook Nos. 2 and 6 were in good condition. No. 2 is ventilated 
by a fan, and I found 69,600 cubic feet of air in circulation as meas- 
ured at the outlet. No. is ventilated by a furnace producing 8,000 
cubic feet per minute. 

Morris Run Slope is in a very good condition. I found 122,000 
cubic feet of air per minute passing at the outlet, well circulated 
throughout the workings. 

Salt Lake. Quite an improvement has been made here. At the 
new mine. No. 2, a heading has been driven north 1,470 feet from the 
Fall Brook heading No. 1 to Dougals heading No. 7 to get the coal 
from the back part of the workings. It reduces the haulage distance 
fully one-third, and gives a very good grade for both empty and 
loaded cars. The drainage is fair and ventilation good. 

Bear Run Mine. The ventilation has been improved here since my 
last report. I found 36,900 cubic feet of air in circulation measured 
at the outlet, fairly well distributed around the workings. 

Gurnee Mines had not been working enough miners to be subject 
to inspection until very recently, but too late to report an examina- 
tion within the year. 

Jefferson County Mines. 

Adrian No. 2 Slope. They have added a tail-rope for haulage and 
enlarged the overcasts, increasing the number of splits of air to se- 
cure better ventilation. I found 85,000 cubic feet of air in circula- 
tion and the mine generally in good condition. 

Adrian No. 1 is a drift mine and has not been in operation during 
the year. 

Adrian No, 4 is a drift mine ventilated by furnace, and is nearly 
worked out. 

Eleanora No. 1 was found in good condition, ventilated by a fan, 
producing 60,900 cubic feet of air per minute at the outlet, circulated 
well around the workings. 

Eleanora No. 2. is a new mine opened during the year. The im- 
provements are first class in every respect. It is thoroughly equip- 
ped with compressed air for coal cutting, so as to avoid the use of 
steam pipes in the mine. They have placed here a first class endless 
haulage system, have built boiler plants, shops, etc., and are well 
prepared for a large output. 

Walston No. 1 was found in good condition. I found 24,000 cubic 
feet of air in circulation, well distributed to the face of the workings. 
26-11-94 



402 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Ou. Doc. 

Walston Nos. 2 and 3 are ventilated by the same fan and are in 
fair condition. The airways have in some jjarts been enlarged, so 
as to improve the ventilation and drainage. 

Kurtz and Rinn is a new mine opened during the year. They have 
erected a Clark fan, seven feet in diameter, run by a ten-horse power 
engine. I found 28,000 cubic feet of air in circulation and the mine 
in good condition. 

Beachtree Nos. 3 and 4. These mines were found in good condition. 
At No. 3 I found 99,000 cubic feet of air in circulation, and work here 
is mostly confined to pillars. The tipple and fan house were burned 
at the time of the suspension during the summer, and have since 
been rebuilt. 

At No. 4 the tail-rope was removed to the Eleanora mine about 
two years since, and they are now making preparations to replace it 
with a new one and resume operations. 

London Mine. A new fan and boiler have been put in position here, 
and a mining machine plant constructed. I found 72,000 cubic feet 
of air in circulation. The old fan is used to ventilate the engine 
road alone, and the new one to ventilate the workings. 

Brock Mines. Have done but little work during the year, and are 
in good condition. 

Clarion Mine No. 1. This mine consists of three separate openings 
and one tipple. I found 58,000 cubic feet of air in circulation well 
distributed through the mine, which is in good condition. 

Clarion Mine No. 2 consists of three separate openings, one being 
ventilated by a fan and the other two by a furnace, and the condition 
of each is good. 

Clarion No. 3 consists of a single drift opening-, ventilated by a 
furnace. I found 24.000 cubic feet of air in circulation, and the mine 
in good condition. 

Coal Glen Nos. 1 and 2 consists of two openings and one tipple, 
with other improvements of a substantial character, com])leted dur- 
ing the year. T found .58,000 cubic feet of air in circulation at No. 1 
and 24,800 cnl)ic feet at No. 2. and both mines were in good condition. 

Lycoming County Mines. 

Red Run Mine. Prejiarations are being made to extend this mine 
into a new field at the rear of the old mine. They intend to us^ the 
old main heading for a lunnel for cariying the product of the new 
mine to the old tipple, by rope haulage. They have erected a plant 
for the manufacture of fiie brick from I lie under clay of the mine. 

McKean County Mines. 

Instanter Mine operates in a small way, with about 42 miners, an<l 
the general condition is fair. 

Clermont Mine has becMi idle throughout the vear. 



No. 11. FOURTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 403 

Bradford County Mines. 

Long Vallej' No. 1 has been idle throughout the year. 

Long Valley No. 2. They have erected a five-foot Clark fan during 
the year. I found 44,500 cubic feet of air in circulation, and the mine 
generally in good condition, except the drainage, which is only fair. 

Clearfield County Mines. 

Helvetia Mines Nos. 1 and 2, are ventilated by a 25-foot Guibal fan. 
Mine No. 1 is almost exhausted. 1 found 95,000 cubic feet of air in 
circulation at both mines, and the general condition is very good. 

Williamsport Mines were idle on my last visit in December, but the 
general condition of the mines was good. 

Dixon Mine has been exhausted and abandoned during the year. 

Brittanic Mine has done but little work during the year. 

CJntaract mine was not in operation at my last visit, but was in 
fair condition. 

Karthaus Mine is entirely confined to pillar work and is in fair 
condition. 

Sandy Lick Mine. The ventilation is fair. I found 28,500 cubic 
feet of air in circulation, and the drainage good in some, and defec- 
tive in other parts of the mine. 

RocLu st(r Mine. They have constructed a new slope near the shaft 
for a traveling way, which will discontinue the use of the hoisting 
shaft for conveying the miners to and from the mines. This change 
will shorten the airways and will improve the ventilation very much. 
1 found ^2,000 cubic feet of air in circulation. The rope haulage in 
the mine has been extended 1,500 feet during the year. 

Berwind-White Mine. This is a new shaft mine 265 feet in depth 
to tlic bottom of the coal. They are still making improvements, 
which are of a substantial and extensive character, but have shipped 
no coal during the year. These improvements were quite fully de- 
scribed in my last report. 

Elk County Mines. 

Cascade Mines Nos. 5 and 6 are both worked out and abandoned. 

Hazel Dell. Is in fairly good condition, with furnace ventilation. 
T found 10,000 cubic feet of air in circulation. 

St. Mary's Mines, four in number, are nearly worked out, and are 
in fair condition. 

Paine Mine is a new mine ventilated by a furnace. Fifty-two 
miners are employed, and I found 6.000 cubic feet of air in circula- 
tion. 

Dagus Slope and Dagus Nos. 2 and 3 Mines employ nearly 500 
miners. They were found in good condition. Dagus slope is ventil- 
ated bv a fan and T found 2."). 000 cubic feet of air in circulation. 



404 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Dagus Xo. 2 is ventilated by a furnace and I found 18,000 cubic 
feet of air in circulation. Dagus No. 3 is also ventilated by a fur- 
nace, where I found 19,000 cubic feet in circulation. 

Shawmut Mine consists of four separate openings, and the coal 
from all passes over the same tipple. 

Shawmut No. 4 is a new opening. The main drift is 400 feet with 
two headings branched off. The air shaft is completed and they have 
commenced to build a furnace for ventilation. This mine will con- 
nect with drift No, 1, which will improve it to the extent of taking 
the long haul from the last named drift. I found them in fair con- 
dition. 

Mead Run Mines were found in good condition. They are opening 
three new drifts around the hill in what is called Roll Hollow. The 
tram road is laid out around the hill to this point for the purpose of 
bringing the coal to Mead Run, or Shawmut No. 2 chutes. They are 
now using a ten-ton locomotive to haul the coal, and the same locomo- 
tive will be used to bring the coal from the new openings in the 
other ravine to the same chute. 

Elbow Mine is ventilated by furnace power. I found 12,200 cubic 
feet of air in circulation, and the general condition of the mine is 
good. 

Glen Fisher Mine. This mine is ventilated by a fan and I found 
35,600 cubic feet of air in circulation, well distributed throughout 
the workings. 

Clinton County Mines. 

Kettle Creek Mines were found in good condition, both as to ventila- 
tion and drainage. There are two openings, each of which is ven- 
tilated by a separate furnace. At No. 1 furnace I found 33,580 cubic 
feet of air in circulation, and at No. 2 furnace 30,090 cubic feet, which 
is well distributed throughout the mines. 

Sullivan County Mines. 

Bernice Mines consist of two openings, an old one and a new one. 
The old opening is ventilated by a fan, and the new one will be 
ventilated in the same way when the work is a little more advanced. 
At the old opening I found at the inlet 33,880 cubic feet of air in 
circulation, and both openings were found to be in fair condition. 

Fatal Accidents. 

John Landlicskie, a miner, 40 years of age, was instantly killed 
February 10 by fall of coal. The deceased was taking down back 
room pillars and had his place undermined four feet deep and four- 
teen feet long and loose at both ends. He left a wife and two chil- 
dren. 



No. 11. FOURTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 405 

Anthony Leobon, a miner, was instantly killed February 28 iu 
Mead Run mine by a fall of horse-back. He had his room well-tim- 
bered, but if he had made a close examination of the roof, he would 
hiive discovered its dangerous condition, notwithstanding all the 
other precautions which had been taken. He was 36 years of age 
and left a wife and one child. 

Joseph Pei'rin, a miner, 35 years of age, was instantly killed April 
10th by fall of roof. The deceased had fired a shot and went back 
to see what it had done, when the roof fell with the above result. 
The stone measured nine feet long, four feet wide, and eight inches 
thick. He left a wife and two children. 

Gustav Salin, a miner in Dagus slope, was instantly killed by fall of 
coal April 17. Deceased was taking out back entry stumps and had 
it undermined three feet deep and ten feet long and loose on both 
ends. He was a single man, 40 j^ears of age. 

Henry Ricks, a miner, 56 years of age, was fatally injured August 
10 by a fall of roof. The deceased and Benjamin Rouse worked to- 
gether. Mr. Gregory, the mine foreman, informed me that he had 
ordered him to stand a prop under the loose stone, which he did, but 
after Mr. Gregory had gone away, he took it out, as he thought it 
was in his way, when a piece of roof measuring eight feet long, six 
feet wide and six inches thick, fell and injured him in such a manner 
tliat he died nine hours afterwards. He left a widow to mourn his 
untimely death. 

Joseph Mihouski, a miner, was instantly killed August 28 in Mor- 
ris Run slope by a fall of roof. The deceased was breaking away a 
room and did not stand a sufficient number of props to secure him- 
self. He was told repeatedly by the mine foreman to stand props, 
but neglected to heed the warning. Mihouski was a single man, 21 
years old. 

James Guthrie, a driver, was instantly killed by fall of roof August 
28 in Walston No, 2 mine. His trip jumped the track, and when he 
hitched to the car to pull it on again it knocked out a prop, which 
caused a piece of stone five feet long, three feet wide and six inches 
thick to fall upon him. He was a single man 21 years old. 

John Hancade, a miner, aged 36, was instantly killed by a fall of 
slate at Karthaus, September 15. A large piece of slate was loos- 
ened by slips on both sides, which is called a "pot hole," and the coal 
having been tnken from the under side of it. it fell. He left a wife 
and one child. 

Andrew Anderson, a miner, 66 yenrs of age, was instanth' killed in 
Antrim No. 1 by a fall of coal while in the act of undermining, after 
having removed the sprags and blasted the coal. He left an agnd 
V. ife and five children. 



406 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Burt Lingwaj', a miner, 35 years of age, was instantly killed in 
Adrian No. 1 by being run over on the dilly road. He had no cause 
to be on the dilh^ road, as there was a traveling way independent of 
that road for the miners to travel on, which was in good condi- 
tion. He met his death by willfully disobeying orders and violating 
the rules of the mine. He was 35 years of age and left a wife and 
six children. 

Tony Pickle, a miner, 19 years of age, was instantly killed by fall 
of roof November 12 in Walston No. 3 mine. He was working an old 
room contrary to the orders of the mine foreman, and neglected to 
post the roof and lost his life through his own neglect. 

Keport from the Cottage State Hospital of the Fourth Bituminous 
Coal District, located at Blossburg, Pa., submitted by Dr. G. D. Cran- 
dall, physician and surgeon in charge. 
Number of patients admitted for treatment from Feb- 
ruary 19, 1891, (date of opening) to March 1, 1892, ... 52 

From March 1, 1892, to March 1, 1893, 98 

From March 1, 1893, to March 1, 1894, 128 

From March 1, 1894, to February 2(5, 1895, 22G 

Total admitted, 504 

Average number of days that patients were supported 

in the institution from Feb. 1, 1893, to Feb. 1, 1894,. . 50 63-112 

From Feb. 1, 1894, to Feb. 1, 1895 35 3-11 

Number discharged from treatment from Feb. 1, 1894, 

to Feb. 1, 1895, 210 

Number of patients treated in the institution from Feb. 

1, 1893, to Feb. 1, 1894, 112 

From Feb. 1, 1894, to Feb. 1, 1895 165 

Number treated outside of the institution from Feb. 1, 

1893, to Feb. 1, 1894 19 

From Feb. 1, 1894, to Feb. 1, 1895 58 

Number of prescriptions compounded from Feb. 1, 1894, 

to Feb. 1, 1895, 1,145 



Xo. 11. 



FOURTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



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FOURTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



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FOURTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



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REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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Official Document, No. 11. 



FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 

(FAYETTE AND SOMERSET COUNTIES.) 



Uniontown, March 16, 1895. 
Hon. Isaac B. Urown, Secretary of Internal Affairs: 

Sir: In accordance with the requirements of section eleven of ar- 
ticle ten of the Act of Assembly approved May 15, 1893, I have the 
honor herewith to submit to you my annual report as Inspector of 
Mines for the Fifth Bituminous district for the year ending December 
31, 1894. It contains in tabulated form the names of all the mines in 
the district, their location, the names of operators and superinten- 
dents, with their postoffice address, the total production of coal and 
coke in net tons for each colliery, also the shipments of coal. The 
number of days worked, number of persons employed and their oc- 
cupations, and number of fatal and non-fatal accidents, number of 
kegs of powder u«ed (approximately), number of steam boilers, loco- 
motives, mules, horses, etc. It also shows the causes of the various 
accidents which occurred during the year, with the number of widows 
and orphans left by fatalities. I also give a summary of the above 
for the years 1893 and 1894, for the purpose of comparison, from 
which it will be seen that one more fatal, and three non-fatal acci- 
dents occurred during the year 1894 than occurred during 1893. But 
while that is the case, it will also be noticed that the total number 
of persons employed was greater, and that the proportion of acci- 
dents to number of persons employed is less than in 1893. 

The production of coal is also greater by 278.789 tons than in 1893, 
and this too. despite the fact that a prolonged strike took place dur- 
ing this year. The total amount of coal mined for 1894 is 3,908,348 
net tons. The average number of days worked for the year by the 
mines in the district is 170 3-4, a little over half-time. Thus, it will 
be seen that the mines have a producing capacity of about 8.000.000 
tons of coal annually. 

It is a lamentable fact that notwithstanding all the precautions 
taken to prevent accidents, at least sixty per cent, of those which 
have occurred iti (his district during th-' venr. liave been directly due 



416 REPORTS OP THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

to the carelessness of the persons injured. It seems that "familiar- 
ity" with danger "breeds contempt" for it, and persons take unwar- 
ranted risks which must necessarily result in accidents, and no pre- 
cautionary measures can prevent their occurrence. A number of 
these accidents have occurred in consequence of some act of "the in- 
jured which has been in direct violation of law. The above goes to 
show that neither legislation nor instruction will prevent accidents 
unless the persons employed in or about the mine will exercise com- 
mon sense, and take precautions to protect themselves while em- 
ployed in their dangerous avocation. 

AVhile it is true that immunity from accidents cannot be expected, 
yet every possible precaution should be taken to reduce their num- 
ber. To do so successfully, all known dangers should be guarded 
against and removed if possible. One of the greatest dangers met 
with in this district is the accumulation of explosive gas in the "gob" 
where j^illars have been taken out. Considerable gas is given off 
from the overlying strata when it is broken by falls, where the coal 
has been excavated, as in the drawing of pillars. This gas accumu- 
lates on the top of these falls in the gob in large quantities, and is 
only kept in check by the pressure of the air, from mixing in danger- 
ous volumes with the atmosphere of the mine, and is a constant men- 
ace to the safety of life and property. In my judgment such a dan- 
ger ought not to exist when it can be removed, and that it can be re- 
moved has been very clearly demonstrated by an experimental bore- 
hole drilled from the surface into one of these reservoirs of gas at the 
Oliver mine, which drained off the gas from a gob fall of about teu 
acres in extent; and gas has not been seen in that part of the mine 
since, thus demonstrating beyond question the effectiveness of this 
method of dealing with the danger. In view of the above, it can no 
longer be said "that large volumes of gas in gob workings cannot be 
removed," and should an accident ever occur by an explosion of gas, 
which has thus been allowed to accumulate, there could be no satis- 
factory excuse offered, but on the contrary the oflScials who permit 
such conditions to exist with a knowledge of these facts, would be 
culpable. The question of expense cannot even be offered as an ex- 
cuse, for when bore-holes can be drilled at a cost of |1.00 per foot, the 
total cost of a bore-hole will not exceed from |.300 to |400 on an aver- 
age. This cost, divided by the tonnage in ten acres of coal, will be 
so small a fractional part of a cent per ton, that the question of cost 
will not be considered a factor wlien the increased safety to life and 
property is taken into consideration. 

In another part of this report will be found a detailed description 
of the work done by the "Stanley Header" mining machine at West 
Leisenrinc: mine. 



No. 11. FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 417 

I also include as part of my report an opinion of Deputy Attorney 
General Stranahan relative to qualifications of applicants for mine 
foreman's certificates. 

Two persons were prosecuted for violation of the mining law during 
the year, viz: Thomas Checks and William Holland. The former 
for unlocking his safety lamp and lighting it with matches in Leisen- 
ring No. 1 mine, the latter for willfully injuring his safety lamp in 
Grindstone mine, both of which mines are worked exclusively with 
locked safet}" lamps. Both were convicted and were each sen- 
tenced to tw^o months' imprisonment and two hundred dollars fine, 
and in default of payment of fine, to two months' additional imprison- 
ment. The fines were not paid in either case, and each of them 
served the additional two months' imprisonment. These convictions 
have had an excellent effect upon the persons employed in mines 
where safety lamps are used, as greater care has since been exercised 
where safety lamps are used in the mines. 

The condition of the mines in the district (with a few exceptions) 
is very satisfactory. There is a disposition on the part of the ma- 
jority of the owners to cheerfully comply with the requirements of 
law. A few, however, seem determined to evade in every possible 
way the provisions of the law, and will not do anything except they 
are compelled to. Especially is this the case with reference to 
the furnishing of some artificial means of producing ventilation in 
the mines in Somerset county. The mines in this part of the district 
have in the past been run on very loose methods, consequently the 
condition of the mines, with regard to ventilation, are such as will 
require the expenditure of money to put them in shape, and this 
necessary expense is offered as an excuse for their non-obedience 
to the law. This excuse will not, however, be entertained, as the 
mines will be required to be oi)erated in accordance with the law, or 
otherwise to cease operations. 

Accompanying this report are the usual statistical tables. All of 
which is respectfully submitted. 

CHAS. CONNOR, 
Mine Inspector. 



27-11-94 



41S 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 
SUMMAKY. 



Off. Doc. 





1893. 


1894. 


Number of mines in tlie district, 


60 
55 


67 


Number or mines operated during the year, 


64 


Number ol mines idle during the year, 


5 


3 


Number of new mines opened, 


3 

1 




Number of new mines abandoned during the year, . . 




Number of persons employed in the mines, .... 


4,146 


4,943 


Number of persons emploved outside the mines, . . . 


2,487 


2,676 


Total number of persons employed, 


6,633 


7,619 


Total number of days worked by all the mines, . . . . 


9,671 


10,930 


Average number oi days worked by all the mines, . . 


158 


1703 


Number of tons of coal mined (2,000 lbs. ), 


3,629,559 


3,908,348 


Number ol tons of coal shipped (2,000 lbs.), 


599,252 


669,701 


Number of tons of coke produced (2,000 lbs.), . . . 


2,092,993 


2,264,971 


Number ot tons of coal mined for each fatal accident, . 


302,463 


300,642 


Number of emploves for each fatal accident, 


553 


586 


Number of tons of coal mined for each non-fatal acident, 


82,490 


83,156 


Number of employes for each non-fatal accident, . . . 


151 


162 


Number of horses and mules in use, 


581 
140 


619 


Number of coke ovens built during the 3'ear, 


320 


Number of coke ovens in district, . 


7,276 


7,517 


Number of mine locomotives in use, 


7 


15 


Number of kegs of powder reported as used in mines, . 


4,032 


3,835 


Number of steam boilers in use, 


175 


183 


Number ot fatal accidents during the year, 


12 


13 


Number of non-fatal accidents during the year, . . . . 


41 


47 


Number of wives left widows by fatalities, 


11 


9 


Number of orphans left by fatalities, 


21 


22 







Causes of Accidents. 



By falls of roof or slate, . . 

By falls of coal, 

By being struck with cage. 
By filling down shafts, . . 

By mine wagons, 

By gunpowder, 

By mules and horses, . 
By being struck with posts, 
From naiscellaneous causes. 

Totals, 



1893. 



12 



16 



44 



1894. 



13 



23 

2 
1 
4 

47 



No. 11. FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 419 

Attorney General's opinion as to the necessary qualifications for 
applicants for mine foreman's certificates: 

Uniontown, January 31, 1894. 
Hon. William U. Hensel, Attorney General, Harrisburg, Pa.: 

Dear Sir: On behalf of the examining board for the Fifth Bitumin- 
ous district, I respectfully ask you to give a decision on the follow- 
ing points:- 

1st. Must a mine foreman be able to read and write in order to be 
competent to discharge the duties of mine foreman in accordance 
with the law? 

Article VI, section 8, requires that "he shall enter in a book * * 
a report of the condition of the mine, signed by himself," etc. Also, 
in article XII, section 1, it is required that the person having charge 
of a mine shall notify the Mine Inspector of any accident that may 
occur, etc. Also, article VI, section 5, says, "the mine foreman shall 
measure the air current * * * ^nd keep a record of such mea- 
surements," etc. 

In view of the above, can an examining board grant a certificate of 
competency to a person who cannot read or write? 

2d. If a person is unfit to discharge the duties of mine foreman as 
required by law. because of his inability to read or write, is an exam- 
ining board bound to examine such person when they have discov- 
ered that he is unable to read or write? Article XV, section 2, re- 
quires that "the examining board shall examine any person applying 
thereto as to his competency and qualifications to discharge the du- 
ties of mine foreman or fire boss," 

An early reply to the above inquiries will oblige. 

Yours respectfully, 

CHAS. CONNOR, 
Mine Inspector Fifth Bituminous District. 



Letter of Attorney General. 

Office of the Attorney General, 
Harrisburg, Pa., February 6, 1894. 

Charles Connor, Esq., Mine Inspector Fifth Bituminous Coal District, 

Uniontown, Pa.: 

My Dear Sir: Your letter of January 31, 1894, on behalf of the ex- 
amining ])oard for the Fifth Bituminous district, has been received. 
In this letter you asked to be advised upon three questions. These 
questions can all be summed up in one: Must a mine foreman and a 



420 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

fire boss be able to read and write in order to be competent to dis- 
charge their duties under the act "relating to bituminous coal mines, 
and providing for the lives, health, safety and welfare of persons 
eniploj-ed therein," approved May 15, 1893. (P. L. 181)3, p. 52.) 

It is not the province, neither is it the disposition of this Depart- 
ment to interfere in any manner with the duties of your examining 
board, yet this question, presenting itself as it does, deserves at the 
hands of the Department more than an ordinary inquiry. . 

This act of Assembly is a very important one, and the objects to 
be obtained by it have been questions of careful study for many 
years past. The act itself was prepared carefully by practical and 
experienced men. The duties imposed by it are of a very important 
character. The persons upon whom these duties are imposed are 
supposed to be intelligent, practical and experienced men. The law 
has thrown around all of their duties extreme care. In every section 
of the act, pertaining especially to the duties of mine foreman and 
fire boss, great care is taken to require a faithful performance of 
duty. They are to be men of knowledge and of practical experience. 
They are not only to have knowledge, but are also required to com- 
municate that knowledge, and this, by the duties assigned to them, 
is to be done orally as well as in writng. 

By article V, section 2, it is said, "The person or persons making 
such examination shall have received a fire boss certificate of com- 
petency required by this act," etc. Article VI, section 8, requires 
that the mine foreman "shall enter in a book * * * ^ report of 
the condition of the mine, signed by himself," etc. Also, in article 
XII, section 1, it is required that the person having charge of the 
mine shall notify the Mine Inspector of any accidents that may occur, 
etc. Also, article VI, section 5, provides that "The mine foreman 
shall measure the air current * * * rjjjj keep a record of such 
measurements," etc. 

It will be observed by a careful examination of this act that the 
duties required by a mine foreman and fire boss under it are largely 
personal and require their personal attention and ability to perform 
them. 

It is to be inferred from your letter that persons applying to the 
examining board for tliese positions under this act can neithei* read 
nor write. It is doubtless true that many persons of large experience 
and practical knowledge in the operation of bituminous coal mines 
can noitliei' rend nor write, yet the Legislature, in its wisdom, in the 
adoption of this act, prepared undoubtedly by competent and exper- 
ienced persons, seems to require, in addition to this knowledge and 
experience, the intelligent power of imparting it, and directly re 
quires tlie nbilifv to rend as well as to write. If this inabilitv to read 



No. 11. FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 421 

or write should appear in the examiDation of your board, in the per 
son of any applicant, it would undoubtedly be an evidence of in- 
competency under this act of assembly, and at the same time would 
not discredit the practical knowledge and experience of such person. 

I repeat that it is not the disposition of this Department to inter- 
fere with your duties under this act. The examinations are to be made 
by the examining board. These persons have been selected to per- 
form this duty in consequence of their superior knowledge and ex- 
perience in the bituminous coal mines. It would be unwise and im- 
proper for this Department in any way to interfere with their duties 
in this behalf, but it will certainly appear to the examining board 
that many of the duties required by this act to be performed by the 
mine foreman and fire boss should be in writing, and under their 
own personal knowledge and supervision, and not left to be done or 
performed by others; and after it is so done, they themselves would 
be unable to read the record so kept by those doing business for 
them. 

It is only in consideration of the importance of this bill and of the 
great interests at stake under it that this Department undertakes by 
this letter to make any suggestions whatever in the matter. The 
examining board will be guided by its own superior judgment in the 
performance of its duty. 

Very truly yours, 
(Signed.) JAS. A. STRANAHAN, 

Deputy Attorney General. 



Description of the "Stanley Header" Machine. 

In my last year's report I gave an account of the work done by 
the "Stanley Header" for a short trial that was made by it as an ex- 
periment. 1 am now in a position to give a more detailed account of 
the work performed by it at Leisenring No. 2 mine of the H. C. Frick 
Coke Company. The description was written for the "Colliery En- 
gineer and Metal Miner," and is here reproduced. 

The Leisenring No. 2 mine is located at Bute, Fayette county, Penn- 
sylvania, on the Vance Mill branch of the Monongahela division of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad (P. V. & C. R. R.) It is situated in about the 
heart of the Connellsville coke region, and is about seven miles from 
Connellsville and five miles from Uniontown. R. A. Slater is superin- 
tendent and Walter O'Malley is underground foreman. The coal is 
reached through a sliaft some 425 feet in depth. Both sides of the 
shaft have been developed. 

It was found tliat he coal on the "dip" side was much softer than 



422 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

that on the "rise" side of the shaft. As the headings were driven 
towards the western outcrop, it was found that the coal became 
harder. Just before the heading machine was placed in the mine it 
was impossible to get men to drive these headings at the usual scale 
rate; the scale called for $1.12 per 100 bushels of coal, while the 
I'rick Company paid for these headings a minimum price of $1.80 per 
100 bushels and more frequently $2.00. 

After working for some eight years, these headings have advanced 
nearly a mile and a half from the bottom of the shaft, and about 2,000 
feet remained to be driven before they would reach daylight. To 
drive them out to the crop was the task set for the machine to do. 

The workings were so far in, that it was very difficult to properly 
ventilate this part of the mine, and these headings were to b.^ driven 
to the outcrop for two purposes: 

First. For an upcast or outlet for the ventilation. 

Second. For a second safety opening. 

The compressor at the works was an old style, straight line, poppet 
valve compressor, size 20x30 inches. At 85 revolutions per minute 
it was capable of compressing air to a pressure of 75 pounds. From 
the compressor, the air was conducted through a four-inch pipe to a 
receiver some 75 feet away and situated at the top of the shaft. From 
the receiver a four-inch j)ipe ran down the shaft 425 feet, and from the 
bottom it ran into the works about 200 feet. Coupled to this was 
4,375 feet of 6-inch pipe; following on this line of six-inch pipe was 
700 feet of 3-inch pipe, GOO feet of 2f inch and 1,500 feet of 2-inch laid 
in the order given. The reason the pipe was laid in this manner 
was that before the machine came to the mine the dip workings were 
kept free from water by pumps driven by compressed air. As the 
work of the Stanley machine was more in the nature of an experi- 
ment, owing to the fact that this seam of coal was considered too 
soft to mine economically with machines, the Frick Company did 
not care to go to the expense of repiping the shaft until the success 
of the machine was demonstrated. The pipe was laid very hurriedly 
and carelessly. No provision was made for draining the condensed 
water, and in going over this line of pipe, the writer counted no less 
than 70 leaks and seven right angle turns. With a pressure of 75 
pounds at the compressor, a standing pressure of only 35 pounds 
could be had at the face. When the machine was running, the mean 
effective (running) pressure would drop to eight pounds. 

At this point new features were met in heading driving with the 
Stanley. All the work heretofore done by this machine had been in 
mines where the demand was for a maximum quantity of lump coal, 
and never before had the machine been required to cut a heading 
more than six feet in diameter. At Leisenring \o. 2, wliere all the 
coal is coked, small coal was the most desired. 



No. 11. FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 423 

A new head or cutting had to be designed. Instead of the bifur- 
cated arms, a casting was made, across the face of which were taper 
sockets for the reception of the cutting tools. These bits were set 
every nine inches across the face alternating on each side of the cen- 
ter, so that the distance between the concentric circles was four and 
one-half inches. They were placed so that the center bit led the out- 
side ones by about a foot. This made the cut a conical one, the slack 
as it was made, sliding back out of the way of the cutter head. Af- 
ter the bits had penetrated to a depth of five or six inches the coal 
was found to break off, even when the work was on the butts of the 
coal. More power was necessarily needed to drive this new head, 
cutting as it did a seven-foot opening and grinding the coal approx- 
imately to slack. This was accomplished by an extra back gearing. 

The Stanley engines are of the duplex type, size 8x6 inches, making 
350 revolutions per minute. Longitudinally through the centre of 
the machine, a screw shaft runs, attached to the forward end of 
which is the cutter head. This screw is the device by which the head 
is fed forward as the cut advances. After six feet has been cut, the 
head is anchored and the feed nut reversed. By this operation the 
whole machine is pulled up andthesameprocess is again gone- through 
with. Through the lower section of the machine, an endless chain 
conveyor is run, which carries the coal as fast as cut to the rear end 
of the machine and deposits it in mine wagons. 

In the operation of the machine, the services of three men are re- 
quired. One, the foreman, runs the machine and sees that it is kept 
up, and also as the work progresses, squares up the bottom with a 
pick. He receives for his work |2,50 per shift of nine hours. The 
other two are common laborers, their duty being to shovel the coal 
into the conveyor as fast as it is mined. They receive $2.00 each per 
shift. 

In driving 2,254 feet of heading an actual average of 17 feet per 
shift was made, and 75,150 bushels of coal mined and loaded. 

75,150 bushels cut in 130 shifts, at |6.50 per shift, |845 00 

Machine repairs, 5 00 



A total cost of 1850 00 



Cost per foot • 3775 

Cost per 100 bushels coal |1 13 



Of these 130 shifts of 9 hours each, only 55 per cent, of the time 
was consumed in actual cutting or in the operation of the machine. 



424 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

On this basis, the work should have been completed in 73.1 shifts of 
9 hours each. 

75,150 bushels in 73.1 shifts, at |6.50, $475 15 

Machine repairs, 5 00 

Total cost, $480 15 

Cost per foot, |0 21 1-3 

Cost per 100 bushels, 64 

In not driving the parallel, the Frick Company saved: 
Excess rate per 100 bushels of coal in heading over room 

rate was, |0 80 

1,475 feet— 49,170 bushels, at SO cents, |393 36 

Break — through every 300 feet through a 30-foot pil- 
lar—ISO feet— 5,100 bushels, 40 80 

Total, 1434 16 



The 2,254 feet that was cut in 130 shifts of nine hours, represents 
every shift in which any cutting was done, as well as those shifts 
when the machine was broken down or undergoing repairs. Some 
days the men would start the machine and cut only a foot or so, when 
some delay on the part of the mine management would arise, makin^^ 
it an impossibility to get either any more wagons or compressed air 
for the machine. 

The men were on duty 130 shifts of nine hours each. Total, 1,700 
hours. The delays during the said time were as follows: 

Hours. 

For empty wagons to load, 106 . 1 6 

For wrecks on haulage after cars left machine, 85 . 30 

For compressed air, 20.08 

For pipe and track, 47 . 58 

For engineer giving points, 20.09 

For cutting roof and horse-backs 36.00 

For sundries, (>9 . 2) 

For machine break downs :'7 . .■)0 



Total, 511.96 

Actual working lime 658.04 



No. 11. FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 425 

The problem of handling the wagon was quite a serious one. From 
the end of the rope haulage to the starting point of the machine was 
a haul of 2,500 feet up a seven per cent, grade. All a team of mules 
could do was to haul two empty wagons up this grade. The handling 
of the loaded wagons was as difficult. Often the loaded wagons with 
all wheels spragged would get away from the driver and tear down 
the grade and wreck themselves, playing general havoc. No further 
comment on the other delays is needed, save perhaps it might be well 
to state that of the thirty-seven and one-half hours chargeable to 
machine, twenty of these were consumed in sending for and getting to 
the works a small gear shifter, no extra parts being kept on hand. 

A great portion of this work was done during the general miners' 
strike. During this strike, the only work done at Leisenring No. 2 
was in driving these headings by the Stanley machine. The drivers, 
etc., were naturally disorganized, and it could hardly be expected 
that the work should have progressed as fast as if the mine had been 
running at its full capacity. 

A distance of 1,475 feet was driven without a parallel. This is re- 
markable, as Leisenring No. 2 mine is one of the most gaseous in thf^ 
Connellsville region, the general use of safety lamps being required 
by law. Tn this case the parallel was an unnecessary feature, as the 
heading was driven only for a second opening and as an upcast for 
the ventilation. 

The machine ventilates its heading as it progresses by utilizing the 
exhaust as a .let blower, sucking up all the dust, etc., into an 8-inch 
pipe and discharging it at the rear end of the machine. By this de- 
vice, great distances ahead of the natural ventilation can be driven. 
Besides the saving in break-throughs, the pillar is kept intact, saving 
all leakages in the stoppings. Many runs of ?A feet in a shift of nine 
hours were made and in a few cases 100 bushels of coal have been 
mined and loaded into the wagons in eighteen minutes. 

The heading made was beautiful, being perfectly arched, increas- 
ing the strength of the roof. Tt was perfectly smooth and straight, 
giving much less frir-tion for the air current. 

Tn doing this work at loast 100 "horse-backs" were encoimtered. 
They M'ere of a slaty nature, but the machine had no difficulty in cut- 
ting them although they frequently occupied half the cross 
section of the heading. This made an additional saving, for by hand 
the minors only cut the coal out and are followed by a crew of 
horse-back men who shoot uo the bottom and load the refus" into 
the wagons. This method is both expensive and dangerous, by rea 
son of the existing fire damp. 

Pummarizincr the advantaees of this machine which occur to thf 
writer nro: 
14 



426 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

First. Rapidity of development; great speed attained. 

Second. Reduction in cost of heading driving. 

Third. Economy in the use of compi'essed air. 

Fourth. Reduction in cost of timber, and improved ventilation, 
owing to the arclied roof, smooth rib, and reduced number of break- 
throughs. 



Description of Mines in the Fifth Bituminous Inspection District. 

Atlas. This mine is operated by the Cambiia Iron Company, and is 
located near Dunbar. The fire which is still burning in the mine is 
a source of danger, and has to be carefull^y watched to keep it from 
spreading. To do this more eifectually, new brick stoppings have 
been built along the side of the man way, the better to exclude the air. 
Through these walls })ipes are inserted, to wliich can be attacluMl 
connections from a new three-inch pipe-line l.(KH) feet in length, which 
has been put into the mine during the year, and which is connected 
to the water cistern outside the mine. Through this pipe-line, water 
is conveyed into the mine and can be utilized to keep the mine fire 
under subjection and within definite limits. Every care is exercised 
to prevent th ^ fire from spreading, also to prevent accidents from that 
source. A large water sump has been made at the extreme dip 
workings during the year for the purpose of collocfing the water 
which the mine makes, and also that of adjoining mines (Mahoning 
and Anchor). Large pumps are located near, which will raise this 
water through bore-holes to the surface. Various improvements nuide 
in the mine during the year have cost an aggregate of over $1,000. 
The mine is in good condition as to ventilation and drainage, and is 
being well looked after. 

Mining boss, Chas. R. Trew. 

Anchor. Ts operated by the Atchison Coke Company, and located 
near Dunbar. The coal in tliis mine is nearly all procured from ribs 
and entry pillars, and is rapidly approaching the mine mouth and 
will soon be exhausted. 

The mine fire which has been burning in this mine for years is left 
behind in the "gob." and does very little damage, except that black 
damp and other noxious gases are given off and mix more or less 
with the air current. -but as there is an abundant su])ply of fresh air 
being forced into the mine by the fan, the deleterious effects are not 
felt much. TTnder the careful supervision of Mr. Duncan, every pre- 
cr.ution is taken to insure safety to life and property. At the pres- 
ent rate of mining, the mine will be exhausted in about two years. 

Mining boss and superintendent. William Duncan. 



No. 11. FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 427 

Bessie. This is a uew mine opened out during the year, and is 
owned and operated by the Lynn Coal Company, and located on a 
l)ranch road of the I'emicky Railroad, near I'erryopolis, Fayette 
county. 

The improvements consist of a new tipple, with all the most ap 
proved appliances for screening and ])reparing coal for market, a new 
boiler and engine house, one boiler and a pair of engines. 

The opening is a slope, and follows the dip of the coal the grade 
being al)out seven feet to the hundred. The main heading will bp on 
the double heading system, and the butt headings will be worked on 
the three-entry plan. A shaft twenty-eight feet deep has bei^n sunk, 
on which will be built in tlie near future a fan of the "Guibal" type. 
This promises to be a well laid out mine, and under the present man- 
agement will be well looked after, both as to healthfulness and 
safety. 

Mining boss, Jacob Hauser, 

Baugh. This is also a new mine. It has been opened out by the 
Baugh & Luce Coal Company, and is situated near Perryopolis, on the 
bi'ancli road of the Pemicky Railroad which runs up Washington Run. 
The opening has been driven diagonally across the dip of seam, and 
the coal is hauled out by mules. Another opening is being made 
Avhich will shorten the haul, and also improve the ventilation, which 
at the present is by natural means. Some artificial means will be 
adopted w^hen the second opening is completed, which, with other 
<'ontemplated improA'ements, Avill bring the mine within the require- 
ments of the law. 

Mining boss, Allan Chamj). 

Buffalo. Idle all year. 

Berlin. Operated by John (). Stoner and located on the Berlin 
branch of th<> Baltimore and Oliio Railroad near Berlin, Somerset 
county. This mine Avorked 200 days during the year, but most of the 
time only three men were employed to supply local consumption of 
coal for domestic purposes in the town of Berlin. Ventilation and 
drainage fair. 

Mining boss, Com-ad J. Baker. 

Casselman. Situated on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad at Gar- 
rett, Somerset county, and operated by the Casselman Coal Company. 
This mine was not o])erated very strongly during the year, working 
only ]r>>0 days and with a greatly diminished force of workmen, pro- 
ducing only 25,000 tons of coal in 1894, as compared with 60,000 tons 
in 1803. Loss of orders caused by the strike is assigned as the reason 
for the decreased production. 



428 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doe. 

A stairwa}' was put iu the air shaft as a second meaas of escape. 
The draiuage and ventihition have been improved. A new slop» has 
been put down through the old workings which will shorten and im 
prove the haulage of coal and lessen the cost of operating the mine. 
Mine generally in good condition and well looked after. 

Mining boss, Henry Naylor. 

Cumberland. Operated by the Cumberland and Summit Coal Com- 
pany, and located near Myersdale, Somerset county. This mine is 
in fair condition as to drainage, but the ventilation is defective. 
Formerly it was ventilated by natural means, and in order to comply 
with the law which requires some artificial means of producing ven- 
tilation, a "fire basket" was put in at one of the old openings to act as 
a furnace, but it has proved utterly inadequate to furnish sufficient 
ventilation for the requirements of the mine. While nominally com 
plying with the law, so far as it relates to artificial means being em- 
ployed, virtually and actually it depends on natural means to pro- 
duce what little ventilation is in circulation. At each of my visits T 
found just a little over the lawful quantity of air per man, but more 
is needed to remove the dense volumes of powder smoke generated by 
the excessive use of gunpowder in blasting the coal. 

Mine boss and superintendent, Fred. Rowe. 

Clarissa. Owned and operated by James Cochran, Sons & Co. 
'This mine is in good condition in every respect. Formerly it wa-s 
ventilated by natural means, but in order to comply with the law, m 
large furnace was built at the bottom of air shaft which produces an 
abundance of air throughout the entire mine. 

Mining boss. .T. C. Moore. 

Chester. Operated by E. A. Humphries & Co. The ventilation in 
this mine was somewhat defective at the beginning of the year, on ac- 
count of Ihe power producing the air current being too w(\nk to over- 
come the resistance of the airAvays. To remedy this evil, a new air 
shaft was put down in the interior of the mine, which reduces the 
distance that the air had to travel about one-half, and consequently 
gives a greater volume of air in the mine. The mine is now fairly 
well ventilated, and in other respects it is in good condition, 

]\Tining boss, George Armstrong. 

Trossland. This mine is in excellent condilion and is looked aft(\r 
in such a manner that complaint is unuecessnrv. Tlie ventilation is 
abundant and well distributed around the working places. The haul 
age roads and drainage is kept in good shape. A new "Cuibal" fan 
has been erected over a new air shaft, which was sunk during the 
venr. The fan is so constructed tliat it mav be used cillici' as a 



No, 11. FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 429 

blower cvi' an exhaust, and gives good results. A new tipple has 
bekii builL and also coal bins, from which the coal is loaded into a 
"larry," and the coke ovens are charged by this means, instead of di- 
rectly from the mine w agons, as was formerly done. Much better re- 
sults are secured, and valuable time saved by the new arrangements. 
Mining boss, David Walters. 

Choat llaveu. This is a new mine opened out on the Fairmont, 
Moi«gantown and Tittsburgh Division of the Baltimore and Ohio Kail- 
road, and operated by the Cheat Haven Coal Company, it is opened 
out on the double entry system and is well laid out with a view to 
large shipments. An air shaft has been sunk and a furnace will 
probably be built in the near future. 

The coal lies up on the hills several hundred feet above the level 
of railroad and is lowered down from the mines to the tipple by 
means of a self-acting incline, whereby the loaded miue cars haul up 
the empty oues. The tipple is well built and has all modern improve- 
ments and equipments for the preparing of coal for market. The 
mine does not at present employ a sufficient number of persons to 
come under the provisions of the law, and therefore has no mine boss. 

Superintendent, Chris Echard. 

Edna. This mine only worked 84 days during the year, and was not 
working at any of my visits, and is now idle again. Its condition was 
fair as to drainage and ventilation. 

Mine boss, H. M. Wilson. 

Elm Grove. Operated by W. T. Rainey. This mine is in fair con- 
dition, both as to drainage and ventilation, A new slope opening is 
contemplated as one of the improvements in the near future. 

Mining boss, Walter McDonald. 

Fairchance. Located near Fairchance and owned and operated by 
the Fairchance Furnace Company. This mine is a peculiar one, 
owing to the surface being so thin above the coal seam. On this 
account numerous falls break through the surface and make it im- 
possible to have any regular system of ventilation. The bottom 
being a soft lire clay, and the surface water having ready access to 
the mines, the drainage is at times very bad. A new fan was built 
during the year and would give good results providing the air 
current was not cut off so frequently by the numerous falls through 
to the surface. Upon the whole, however, the men do not suffer for 
want ef air by reason of the great number of falls which all act as 
air shafts. A new slope is now being worked which will go under 
thicker surface, and better results will then be obtained. 

Mining b«ss. Jolin N. King. 



430 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Ferguson. This mine has only worked part of the year and only 
with about nine or ten men employed. The mine generally is in fair 
condition. 

Mining boss, Michael McQuade. 

Fairvievv. Operated by the Fairview Coal Company, and located ou 
Crassy Kun, Somerset county. The ventilation in this mine is still 
produced by natural means. I have received promises at each visit 
to this mine that it should be put iu conformity with law, but as 
yet they have not been f ulhlled. There is only one thing that is left 
to be done under the circumstances, viz: To prosecute the manage 
ment for violation of the mining law. On my last visit I notihed the 
superintendent to comply with the law before my next visit, and ou 
failure to do so that I would enter proceedings against him. There 
are no means used to force air into or conduct it around the workings 
of the mine in any regular, continuous current, but nature is left to 
do the best she can to supply the deficiency, and when natural means 
fail, then the men employed in the mine have to suffer for lack of 
air. The condition of the mine in this respect is a standing disgrace 
to the management, and a positive injury to the health of the persons 
employed therein. 

Mining boss, Archie Cochrane. 

(Jrindstoue. This mine was idle nearly all year, having only worked 
;>() day^. The condition of the mine was such, that when 1 learned 
that it had commenced operations again, 1 at once visited it. It gen- 
crates large quantities of explosive gases, and knowing that large 
accumulations of such gases were in the old and abandoned parts of 
the mine on former visits, I was anxious to know if these gases were 
still allowed to remain in the mine. On examining the mine T found 
that the dangers still existed, whereupon I made the following sug- 
gestions in writing to Thomas Burtolt, mine foreman, on July 7, 1894: 

First. That masonry stoppings be built between main intake and 
return airways. 

Second. That slielter holes be made on main haulage road. 

Third. That air erossings be made of incombustible material. 

Fourth. That safety lamps be used exclusively in all parts of the 
mine. 

I added, "I e.\p('<t to hear from you that the above suggestions have 
been carried out in as short a time as possible." 1 waited for two 
weeks, and not receiving any communication from the mine olVicials 
relative to the above suggestions, I made arrangements with three of 
the other Inspectors to visit the mine with me, and on July 24th, 
Messrs. l.outtit, Jenkins and Callaghan, Inspectors of the First, Sec- 
ond and Ninth districts, respectively, and myself, again visited the 



No. 11. FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 431 

mine and found the same dangers to exist, whereupon the officials vveie 
again notihed as before, and shortly afterwards ail of the suggestions 
were complied with. At this second visit 1 notified the mine loremau 
in writing to have all of the standing gas removed as tar as practic- 
able within hve days, which was done, and the mine was then in a 
comparatively safe condition. After the safety lamps were intro- 
duced into the mine another dihiculty arose from the fact that elec- 
tric wires were distributed throughout tUe mine lo supply power to 
run mining machines, and such wires and machinery connected 
Iberewith were not constructed in such a manner as to insure safety 
from the emission of sparks into the atmosphere of the mine, as re- 
quii ed by law. Under these circumstances (on learning that the ma 
chines were still being used in the mine) 1 at once notified the super- 
intendent to immediately stop all the electric currents from entering 
the mines, unless they could secure freedom from the emission of 
sparks into the mine atmosphere as required by law. On receipt ol 
my notification the machines were promptly withdrawn from the 
mine. Shortly afterwards the mine was shut down and has not again 
resumed operations. 

Mining boss and superintendent, William Gillie. 

Great Blufi". This mine was only run for the purpose of supplying 
coal for domestic purposes and employed only five men during the 
year, and was therefore not under the provisions of the law. 

Grassy Kun. Mine in fair condition as to drainage, but not comply- 
ing with law in regard to ventilation, inasmuch as it has no artificial 
means to put air in circulation through the mine, although at each 
v'sit 1 found an abundant volume of air passing around the working 
places which was produced by natural means. 

Mining boss and superintendent, John Meagher, 

Hamilton. This mine employs only uine persons and does not come 
under the provisions of the law, and is nearly exhausted. Only a few 
ribs and entry stumps are to be mined to finish the mine. 

Hocking. This mine is located on the Salisbury branch of the B. & 
O. Railroad, Somerset county. This is one of the many mines in 
Somerset county which has never adopted any artificial means of 
producing ventilation, and like all such the ventilation is uncertain 
and variable, sometimes there is an abundance, and at other times 
not any at all. The owners were notified to comply with law in this 
respect, and failure to do so on their part will result in proceedings 
being entered against them. The drainage and other conditions of the 
mine were good. 

Mining boss, Robert A. \\' inter. 



432 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OP MINES. Off. Doc 

Hill Farm. This mine is operated by the Dunbar Furnace Com- 
pany. Located near Dunbar. Ventilation is produced by fan and is 
amply sufficient for the requirements of the mine, but it is not well 
distributed around the working places. The drainage is also bad in 
parts of the mine, especially on the manway. The slope is also in a 
very dangerous condition, from the effects of the fire, which has 
loosened the strata to such an extent that numerous falls occur, and 
careful watching is necessary to prevent accidents. Every pre- 
caution is used by the mine officials to render it as safe as possible. 
The mine fire still burns on each side of the slope, hence the tem- 
perature of the air on the slope is very high, ranging from 85 to 90 
degrees. 

Mining boss, Matthew Herron. 

Hurst. This mine has no second means of escape for the men, ex 
cept through the furnace shaft. 1 notified the owners to have an 
other opening made as soon as possible to comply with the law, and 
not to work more than 20 persons at any one time in the mine uutij 
such opening had been made. The air current was not sufficient for 
the requirements of the mine. I therefore had the superintendent 
build thirty feet of stack on top of the air shaft, and also to turn the 
exhaust steam into the shaft, by which means the volume of air was 
considerably increased. Owing to lack of trade the mine has sus- 
p<'nded operations indefinitely. 

Mining boss, Jacob Hauser. 

Juniata, This mine is in good condition in all respects and is well 
and carefully managed. 

Mining boss, John D. Hayden. 

Ivyle. Owned and operated by the H. C. Frick Ooke Company. Lo- 
cated near Fairchance. The mine is in good condition as to ventila- 
tion, drainage and general safety. 

Mining boss, L W. Rickard. 

Keystone. Idle all the year, 

Leith. Owned and operated by the H. C. Frick Coke Co. Located 
near Uniontowu. This is an extensive mine and is in good condition 
in all respects. The officials are desirous of doing everything to con- 
form to law, and indeed even exceed its requirements in many in- 
stances. The mine is well equipped with first class machinery and 
appliances for the rapid handling of a large output of coal, and is 
efficiently managed and looked after. A new pipe-line four inches in 
diameter has been laid from the shaft to a bore-hole (which has been 
drilled for water) located at the foot of Chestnut Ridge near Hop- 
wood, ;i (lislnnce of nboiil two miles. Tlie watei- (lows from the bore- 



No. 11. FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 433 

hole and runs by gravity to the shaft where it is used in the boilers; 
also for the coke ovens. This insures a reliable supply of water dur- 
ing dry weather. 

Mining boss, Thos. Hooper. 

Leisenring No. 1. This mine is in good condition generally, ventila- 
tion and drainage being well looked after. A new underground fire- 
proof stable was completed early in the year; also the pump house 
was arched over with brick and lighted by electricity. Everything 
about the mine is of a substantial character. 

Mining boss, George Roebuck. 

Leisenring No. 2. This mine is now in fair condition. On one of 
my visits I found the air in the headings on north flats very feeble, 
and the lights burning dimly. This was due to the fact that some 
doors and stoppings were not in yilace. Some alterations with ref- 
erence to the position of doors and the erection of overcasts were 
made, when the condition of the air was very much improved. The 
drainage upon the whole is good, as is the condition of the mine gen- 
erally. 

Mining boss, Walter O'Malley. 

Leisenring No. -S. This mine was found to be in good condition at 
each of my visits. The drainage is good, as is also the ventilation. 
T always found large quantities of explosive gases in the old or 
abandoned workings where ribs had been drawn, and also in the 
gob, where ribs were being worked. T am of the opinion that this 
danger could be obviated by the drilling of bore-holes from the sur- 
face through into these "gobs" and the gases allowed to escape 
through the bore-holes. This mine is kept safe only by the large 
volumes of air brought to bear upon the gases, and should a break- 
down in the ventilating apparatus occur, the mine would soon fill 
Avith these explosive gases and become dangerous. Great en re is 
exercised by the management to prevent accidents and the mine is 
b^ing well looked after. 

Mining boss, John Nolan. 

Lynn. This mine is in good condition, both as to ventilation and 
drainage. A new air shaft was sunk 70 feet in depth, on top of which a 
stack of 80 feet w.ns built. At the bottom of this shaft a furnace was 
built which produces nn abundnnt volume of air for the requirements 
of the mine. 

Mining boss and superintendent. James Hafding, 

Laughead. Tliis small mine is in good condition, having an abun- 
dant supply of air and is well drained. The coal is beincr worked on 
the retrentinc: system, the headings having all been driven to tho 
2S: 11-04 



434 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

boumlai y before rooms were worked, thus cleaning all the coal as the 
workings come back. The water is all drained by the adjoining 
mines, they being to the dip. The mine is well looked after. 
Mining boss, James Allen. 

Lemont No. 1. 0\\ ned and operated by the McClure Coke Company. 
This mint; has a large number of i»illar workings which have been 
left standing for years, and it will be diflicult to recover them on ac- 
count of the numerous falls in the old rooms, and also because the 
l»i]lars have not been left large enough to allow them to be split. 
When work is commenced to draw them, a sciueeze may be exi)ected 
to overrun the mine, and large quantities of coal be lost. Gas is 
generated in the mine in considerable volumes where ribs are being 
drawn, and great care is required in order to keep it safe. A con- 
siderable volume of the intake air was allowed to escape through im- 
Ifcrfect stoppings, before reaching the w^orking ])laces of the mine. A 
Aolume of ?>0,.500 cubic feet was measured at inlet, while at a point 
fnriher in ilio airway (and before it had been split to supply the 
working' places) a volume of only 21,000 cubic feet could be obtained, 
showing a loss of 1S..500 cubic feet by leakage, oi- nearly one-half. T 
called attention to this matter and the mine officials promised to have 
the defect remedied. 

Mining boss, James Hart. 

Lemont No. 2. This mine is in good condition, having been opened 
out and worked by the" ■VrcClure Coke Co., they having retained as the 
mine boss Mr. Ellas Philip during all Ihe time the mine has been 
ojterated. It has been carefully looked after, and in consequence 
its condition is good in every respect. There has been no gouging, 
but everything has been done by systematic methods. The min-.^ has 
b(>en well laid out by the engineer in charge and ihe plans have been 
faithfully followed.- The results show that coke can be made as 
cheap by proper methods of working a mine, as by haphazard melh 
ods which result in great damage to the mine, and also great loss of 
coal. The mine exceeds the demands of law Avith reference (o health- 
fulness and safety. T regard this mine as one of the best in my dis- 
trict. 

Mining boss, Ellas Philips. 

>rorgan. Operated by Pinnell &: Morgan and located on Salisbury 
blanch of the "Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Somerset county. Tliis 
mine is a new one and employs only ten men, but more men will be 
employed as the work is developed. The openings hav(^ not yet been 
connected, but are being rapidlv pushed, and will soon be in such 
shape that the ventilation can be conducted up io and around the 
workincr plnres. The mine has only been in operation since Septem- 
ber 1, 1S04. No mine boss is employed yet. 



No. 11. FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 435 

Morrell. This mine is operated by the Cambria Irou Company. 
The condition of the mine has not been very favorable during a great 
part of the year. The ventilation was not carried up to the working- 
places but allowed to leak throiigh imperfect canvas doors and stop- 
pings. The drainage was also very bad in parts of mine, sections 
of main haulage roads being under several inches of water for dis- 
tances of several hundred yards. The main slope is also in a danger- 
ous condition. The timbers supporting the roof are broken and re- 
quire to be renewed in quite a number of jthux^s to insure safety. 
Some improvements have been nuuh^ and others are now being made 
to put the mine in better condition. 

Mine boss, John Yocum. 

IMahoning. Operated b^' the Cambria Iron Company. This mine is 
in good condition both as to ventilation and drainage, and is well 
looked after. 

Mining boss, D. P. Brown. 

Mt. Braddock. Operated by W. J. Kainey. This mine has been 
pushing the headings and oi)ening up new workings. The old part of 
the mine being in bad condition, an effort has been made during the 
year to develop new work so that the mine could be put into such 
condition as would conform to the law, and at the same time enable 
the operator to secure a sufficient quantity of coal to keej) the ovens 
in full blast. If the developments are continued during next year, 
the mine will be in such condition as will place it amongst the best 
in the district, instead of being as now regarded, one of the worst. 
A new air compressor has been built during the year for the purpose 
of running the mine pumps by air instead of steam as heretofore. 
Eighteen new dwelling houses have been also erected during the year. 
The condition of the mine is good as to ventilation and drainage. 

Mining boss, J. M. Franklin. 

Nellie. This mine is in good condition throughout. New brirk 
overcasts have been built and some new splits made in the air cur- 
rent, which have greatly increased the volume of air in circulation in 
the mine. A new coal crusher has also been erected which crushes 
the coal before it is put into the coke ovens. It is claimed that a 
better quality of coke is made by the adojition of this melliod of (I'ent- 
ing the coal. 

Mining boss, David B. Young. 

Nellie. This is a new opening which has been made during the 
year. It is located on the Salisbui-y branch of the Tialtimore and 
Ohio Railroad in Somerset county and is operated by E. Statler. The 
mine is being well opened out and if the present methods are con- 
tinued, a good mine will be the result. .\t ]»r sent only nine ])erson» 
are employed, and consequently no mining boss is required. 



436 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Oliphant. Operated by the H. C. Fiick Coke Company. Located 
near Faiichance. This mine is in fair condition. At the be^nninji 
of the year the air current was somewhat vitiatinl on the left side of 
the slope, owing to black damp from the gob workings being allowed 
to mix with it, where ribs had been taken out. The direction of the 
air current was changed, and this defect was remedied and the mine 
is now in fair condition, both as to vpntilation and drainage. 

Mining boss. James S. Connor. 

Oliver No. 1. Operated by the Oliver Coke and Furnace Co. This 
mine is in good condition. A new fan has been erected during the 
year which produces an abundance of air. Several new brick overcasts 
have been built, and thp air current is split into various parts of the 
mine and conducted into main return airways, which go directly to 
the upcast shaft and are independent of and have no connection witli 
any of the traveling or haulage roads. By this arramgement. if 
gas should be given off in dangerous quantities, it can be carried di- 
rectly out and not be allowed to go to any other part of 
the mine. An endless rope system of haulage is being put into the 
mine, which will very much improve the handling of the coal. The 
stables are also made fire proof by being lined with brick laid in ce- 
ment. 

Mining boss, C. R. Ross. 

Oliver No, 2. Operated by the same company as the Oliver No. 1 
mine, and is practically the same mine, as it is ventilated by the same 
fan and is connected in such a manner by underground railroads that 
coal can be sent from any part of the workings to either shafts as re- 
quired. A new iron head-frame has been erected at this shaft, and is 
ofjuipped with self dumping cages which deliver the coal automatic- 
ally from the mine wagons into a large iron bin. From this bin the 
coal is drawn through openings into larries which charge the coal 
into the coke ovens, J^OO in number, which haA'e also been built dur- 
ing the year. The engines and machinery about this plant ar(^ of a 
strong and durable character. 

Mine boss. C. "R. Ross. 

Paul. Operated by W. J. Rainey. This mine is in excellent condi 
fion both as to ventilation and drainage. The slope has been re 
gr.'ided to allow the cars to run back into the mine by gravity, and so 
well has this been done that a very large output of coal can be deliv- 
ered in1n the bins in a remarkably short time. 

Mining boss, Robert Nelson. 

Percy. Operated by the Percy Mining Company. This mine has 
not run full titup during the year, the production being mostly used 



No. 11. FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 437 

lo Kupply coal lor the locomotives on the Baltimore aud Ohio Kail- 
load. Condition of mine good. 
Mining boss, Everhart Shiplej. 

Pine Hill. Located on lierlin i>ranch of Ihe Ualtimoiu and Ohio 
liailioad. Owned and operated by 8. (Jolemau 6i tSon. This is a 
small mine and is not in very good condition either as to drainage or 
ventilation. The most of the coal produced during the year was 
mined when the other mines in {Somerset county were on a strike. 

Mining boss, Henry Naylor. 

Kedstone. Operated by the H. G. Frick Coke Company. The condi- 
tion of this mine is evidence of the fact that it is being looked after 
by careful and competent persons. The ventilation, drainage and 
general conditions are good throughout the entire mine. 

Mining boss, Elijah Parker. 

Stewart. Operated by the Stewart Iron Company, Limited. The 
condition of this mine is also good. The new workings are being de- 
veloped by headings in such a manner as to make a squeeze impossi- 
ble when the ribs are being removed. The management has profited 
by experience, as quite a large quantity of coal was lost by creeps 
which were caused by leaving insufficient pillars. Attempts art- 
being made to recover some of this lost coal, but with What success 
the future will determine. 

Mining boss, Isaac G. Roby. 

Snidwrs. This mine is operated entirely for the production of coal 
for domestic purposes, and except during the winter months, does 
not employ enough men to bring it under the requirements of law. 
On the whole it is in fair condition. 

Mining boss, Robert Wilson. 

Smock Nos. 1 and 2, Operated by J. D. Boyd Goal Company. No. 
1 mine is in good shape as to drainage, but the ventilation is not vig 
orous enough to keep the working places clear of powder smoke. iSIo 
better results can be hoped for with the present furnace, as it is too 
small t© do the work. No. 2 mine has just been opened out and does 
not yet come under the provisions of the law. 

Mining boss, Ben Holliday. 

Statler. The drainage in this mine is good. The veutihitiou is un 
certain and variable, both in quantity and direction, being produced 
by natural means. A new air shaft has been sunk, at the bottom of 
wliicB a furnace will be built and better results are anticipated. 

Mining boss, Orlando Flesher. 

Shaws. This mine is in good condition so far as drainage is con- 



438 ' REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

cerned. The ventilatiou, however, is uot wliat it should be. This 
as due to the fact tliat the iuruace is too small for the size of the 
mine, and is unable to produce air in sufficient quantities to ventilate 
the workings properly. A fan was at one time about to be erected, 
but the lack of water to supply boilers to generate steam, caused the 
plans to be changed, and now a new shaft will be sunk near the face 
of the j)resent workings and another furnace built of such dimen- 
sions as will give an air current sufficient for the mine. 
Mine boss, James Philips. 

JShaw's Grassy Run. This mine is about exhausted, as all the coal is 
nearly worked out. A few more mouths will tinish it. 
Mining boss, Wm. K. Murray. 

Standard, This is an old mine reopened and located on the lierlin 
blanch of the Baltimore and Ohio Kailroad. It has not been oper- 
ated very extensively, however, as there are only ten or twelve men 
employed. The condition of the mine is uot good, as the drainage 
and ventilation are defective. Since Ihe strike ended only nine men 
have been reptuted as being employed, theref(U-e there is no mine boss 
in charge. 

Tub Mill Run. The drainage of this mine is good, but the ventila- 
tion is very defective. Notice had been given to the operators to 
comply with the requirements of law, and provide some artitieial 
meam; to pioduce ventilatiou, but nothing as yet has been done. Ex- 
cuses were made that the strike had prevented them from doing so. 
Unless action is taken to comply with law, proceedings will be en- 
tered against them. 

Mining boss, John Rees. 

Thoiiins. This mine is in fair condition as to drainage, but is not up 
to the I'equirements with regard to ventilation. 

Mining boss and superintendent, Benjamin Thomas. 

Tiotter. Operated by the 11, (). Frick (-oke (Company. This mine 
is in good condition, and like all the Frick ('ompany's mines is kept 
ahead of the re(|uii('ments of the law in regard to ventilation. 

Mining boss, \V. .1. Callaghan. 

Taylor, This is a new mine and is operated by Isaa(; Taylor & Co. 
It is located on a branch of the P. V. & C, Railroad near Vance's Mill, 
It has not yet emidoyed more than nine men in the mine, conse- 
quently no mine boss has been employed. 

Uniondale. Idle all year. 

W'ynn. Ojjcrated by the H. C, Frick Ooke Ooinj)any. Located near 
Fairchance. This mine only worked :M davs during the vear. It is 



No. 11. FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 439 

in good condition both as to drainage and ventilation and is well 
looked after. 

Mining boss, Robert Donaldson. 

Wheeler. Operated by Cambria Iron Company. Ventilation good, 
general condition fair. Drainage could be improved, especially on the 
hauling roads. 

Mining boss, Frank Deary. 

Washington. Operated by the Washington Coal and Coke Com- 
pany. This mine has been very rapidly developed, and the workings 
are very extensive for the time the mine has been operated. At each 
visit I found the mine in good condition, the air well distributed and 
abundant in volume. The drainage good and the mine throughout is 
being well managed and looked after. It is now producing about 
2,400 tons of coal daily. 

Mining boss, George W. Santimyer. 

Walker. Operated by George K. Walker. Located near Elk Lick, 
Somerset county. This mine is in good condition but requires some 
ai'tificial means to produce ventilation in order to comply with the 
law. 

Mining boss, Robert Easton. 

Yoder. Operated by Cumberland Coal and Mining Co. This is au 
old mine which has been reopened. The condition of the mine is not 
good, either with regard to ventilation or drainage. Improvements 
have and are being made, which when completed will put it in fair 
shape. This will require time, patience and expense, which are being 
expended upon it. 

INIiuing boss, Thomas Coulihan. _ . 

Youngstown. Operated by the Youngstown Coke Company, Lim 
iied. This mine is a very difficult one to operate, owing to the b;id 
roof which is encountered. Explosive gas is also generated largely, 
and great care has to be exercised to keep it in a safe condition. This 
is being done by the officials in charge, and despite the difficulties 
which they have to contend with, its condition is being steadily im- 
proved. A change in the method of ventilation is contemplated, and 
when this is accomplished good results will follow. The air will be 
greater in volume and better distributed. ]More or less trouble has 
been experienced from a partial s(jueeze which has taken place where 
ribs have been drawn in i)arts of mine. This difficulty has to a great 
extent been overcome, and if the same good management is contin 
ued, the mine will in a short time be in a comparatively good condi- 
tion. 

Mining boss, James Exton. 



440 



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FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



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FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



443 



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FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



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FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



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FIFTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



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29-11-94 



Official Document, 



No. 11. 



SIXTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 

(CAMBRIA, SOMERSET AND INDIANA COUNTIES.) 



Johnstown, March 8, 1895. 
Hon. Isaac B. Brown, 

Secretary of Internal Att'airs, Harrisburg, Pa.: 
Sir: I have the honor of herewith submitting my annual report as 
Inspector of Mines of the Sixth Bituminous District for the year end 
ing December 31, 1894. The report shows that the production for 
the year as compared with 1898 has decreased 159,190 tons, and 
owing to the long strike of three and a half months in the beginning 
or the year, the avei'age number of days worked has been decreased 
from 176 in 1893 to 140 days for this year. The total production for 
the year 1894 was 2,981,088 tons. The report contains tabulated 
statements of the fatal and non-fatal accidents, number of employes 
outside and inside of the mines, etc. Also a brief report on the con- 
dition of the ventilation and drainage of each mine in the district; 
also an article on the improvements made in the methods of mining, 
hauling, draining and ventilating, which are conducive to increasing 
the safety and sanitary condition of the collieries. 

Yours respectfully, 

J. T. EVANS. 



Causes of Accidents. 





1 


1 

■V 

a 

o 


to 
o 


Orphans. 


Mine wagons, 


3 

5 
4 

1 


6 
4 

7 







Falls of. roof, 






Falls of coal, 






Falling down shafts, 






1 


Totals, 


13 


17 


7 


18 







452 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Accidents. 

The uumber oJt accidents iiave mcieased suniewiiat, vvliicli was 
caused by Llie increased negligence on Llie pan ol me uniortunate 
persons receiving the injuries, and a lack ol knowledge in a lew ol tlie 
cases of Llie way to protect tneinselves. Ol tiie tnirteen fatal acci- 
dents reported in the district, eight of them would never have oc- 
curred il only a little care and common judgment had been exercised, 
but in violation of the mine rules, they did that which caused then- 
deaths while everything necessary was at hand to enable them to 
protect themselves and prevent the accidents. 1 regret very much lo 
have to comment on the actions of the unfortunate victims who mit 
their death through their own carelessness. It is with great reluc- 
tance that 1 do it, but it is only for the purpose of warning others 
who may meet with the same fate, if they practice the same methods, 
namely, trying to load a car before standing a prop when they know 
there is danger hanging over their heads, or mining under a piece of 
coal that should be spragged up, and a hundred other little careless 
ii.cts that are done every day in the mines. It is a lamentable fact 
that for the want of properly realizing the amount of unnecessary 
risks that are being taken in our mines, that fully forty per cent, ol 
the accidents occur. It is a large percentage to claim, but it is nt> 
exaggeration of what has happened during the last three or four 
years, and I only hope that all the mine foremen will urge their men 
to practice more care in the future, and thus enable me to report an 
improvement and a decreased accident list for 1895. 

A remarkable fact in the accidents which proved fatal was that 
six out of the thirteen were not thought to be even serious, but af- 
terwards they proved fatal. 

Summary. 

Number of new mines opened during the year, 

Number of mines abandoned, 1 

Number of mines now in the district, 81 

Number working and reported as producing coal, .... 71 

Total coal production in net tons, 2,981,088 

Total coal shipments in net tons, 2,(>45,080 

Total production of coke, tons, 41,GG2 

Average number of days worked for the year, 140 

Number of men employed inside the mines, 6,401 

Number of men employed outside the mines, 543 

Total number employed, 6,944 

Number employed per each fatal accident, 554 

Number employed per each non-fatal accident, 408 

Number of fatal accidents, 13 



No. 11. 



SIXTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



453 



Number of non-fatal accidents, 
Kegs of powder used, 



17 

17,970 



The following table gives the quantity of coal mined in this district 
during the last ten years, 1885 to 1894, inclusive; also shows the 
amount of coal mined per each fatal and non-fatal accident and the 
average number of persons emploj'ed for each fatal and non-fatal ac- 
cident during that period, with the causes of accidents. 

Total quantity of coal mined in net tons, 41,992,857 

Total number of fatal accidents, 95 

Total number of non-fatal accidents, 148 

Number of tons mined per each fatal accident, 442,030 

Number of tons mined per each non-fatal accident 283.735 

Number of persons employed per each fatal accident.. . 809 
Number of persons employed per each non-fatal acci- 
dent 519 



Accidents Occurred as Follows: 



By falls of coal, 

By falls of rock, 

Mine wagons, 

By machiuerj', 

Killed by kick from mule, 

By blast, 

By hauling rope, 

Burned by powder, . . . , 
Gas, 

Totals, 



Fatal. 


Non- 
fatal. 


44 


64 


31 


31 


14 


42 


2 


5 


1 





2 








1 


1 


4 





1 



95 



148 



Summary' of Improvements in Mining. 

In my report on each mine I have but briefly stated the condition 
in which I found the drainage and ventilation, and now wish to make 
some further remarks on the improvements in the methods in mir 
ing, hauling, di'aining and of ventilating the mines, other than those 
ie(iuired by the Mining Act, all of which add greatly to the genera', 
safety and sanitary condition of the collieries. 

There are at least four very important changes noticeable in the 
manner of opening up and conducting the mines at the present time 
that I wish to make favorable mention of, as all of them give the very 
best results as to economy, safety or sanitary conditions. Time 
and space will nof allow mo to make remarks on all flic l»ene- 



454 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

ficial results of these cliauges, but I will mention one or two principal 
ones. The first is haulage by machinery, the introduction of which 
has greatly increased the safety of hauling. In proof of this I would 
state that during the past three years, about 0,000,000 tons of coal 
have been taken from the mines of this district by machinery and 
prior to July 24, 1894, not a single accident had occurred in the mov 
ing of this enormous quantity of material. The second is the drainage. 
In all well opened and conducted mines I observed that special provi 
sions were made for the drainage, and in place of running the water 
along the main roads or in ditches cut beside them, the parallel or 
main airway is utilized for drainage and ventilation, which is driven 
on the lower side instead of the upper side, and tlie water naturally 
Hows to that point, thereby leaving the hauling roads dry, and in ad- 
dition to this, it improves the ventilation and gives an opportunity to 
tliose in charge of the mine to split the air and carry a fresh current 
to each section of w^ork without the necessity of having to make the 
overcast large enough to carry the whole volume of air. Each over- 
cast will require to be of only suflQcient size to carry the volume of 
ail' for the one split by reason of the driving of this parallel heading 
on the lower side of the main hauling road. This improvement is 
made without, any additional expense for driving headings, and it 
reduces the cost of hauling the coal out. 

The third is the driving of wider headings for hauling coal over 
(where the roof permits) as it lessens the risk for drivers, gives larger 
areas for the air to travel through, keeps the road in better condi- 
tion, and enables the drivers to do nearly double the work, thus re- 
ducing the cost of hauling. 

The fourth is possibly one of the greatest and most beneficial 
changes that has been made in the manner of working mines in recent 
years, as it contributes most to their economy and safety. It is in 
pillar drawing, something that was not done at all many years ago, 
therefore leaving as much as fifty per cent, of the coal in some of the 
mines that could never be recovered. At others a smaller percentage 
was left. That most extravagant system, I am glad to say. has en- 
tirely been abandoned in our State, and a systematic plan of pillar 
di'nwing substituted. 

When pillar drawing was first inaugurated, after a room or stall 
'\\as driven to its destination, the pillar would be left to stand for 
several months, possibly years, before being drawn, whicli was a A'ory 
dangerous and costly practice. Tostly on account of the coal losin^j 
its gases, and dangerous because the props that were set to 
keep the roof, or to give warning to the miner before a fall, had be 
come rotten and consequently were of no service in protecting the 
miner nor in irivintr w.'irninij: of apin'onchinT danirer. The present 
method is to draw back the pillar immediately on the room reaching 



No. 11. SIXTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 455 

its destination. This gives good coal from the pillars and insures 
good, solid timbers to protect the miner in his work and is a pre- 
ventive of creeps as well. 

As stated in the beginning of this article, these improvements are 
S'.ome of the many that have been inaugurated, which were not com 
pelled by law, but I claim that they are the results of the passage of 
the mine laws which compelled conditions that required a little tech 
nical knowledge of mining, which was sufhcient to create a desir'.- 
for a more thorough knowledge on the subject. The result will be a 
continued improvement in the methods of mining, which will eventu 
ally reduce the dangers thereof to a minimum. Of course, accidents 
will occur as long as mining is done through over-confidence, or the 
neglect, possibly, of some individual. One of the particular dangers 
of mining is that the lives of so many are in the hands of each indi 
vidual workman, so that the mistake of one man may cause the 
death of many, and this is why the discipline in the mines should be 
more stringent as it w'ould greatly reduce the accident list. 

Improvements requiring a large outlay of money have not been 
\ery numerous during the past year, j-et a few have been made. 

The Sterling Coal Company have put in an endless rope haulage at 
their No. 12 plant, which has a capacity of handling from four to six 
hundred tons per day. The same company at their No. 8 colliery had 
a six-inch diameter hole drilled 204 feet deep through which they 
now i»ump all their water from the mines by steam power. This 
was done to replace pumps driven by compressed air. There 
were also four fan§ put in during the year to replace furnaces, and 
three new furnaces put in to replace smaller ones, and quite a num- 
ber of other improvements, such as second openings, new hauling 
roads, and self-acting planes, etc., showing a gradual but constant 
improvement. 

Condition of Mines. 

The "Rolling Mill & Uautiei'" mines are the property of the Cam- 
bria Iron Company. "Haws Shaft'' is owned by A. J. Haws & Son. 
All of them are ventilated by fans and kept in the best of condition 
as to drainage, ventilation and general safety. The first named 
mine is one of the largest in the district, employing about three 
hundred persons insid(\ nnd from twenty-five to thirty outside. Al- 
though this is n gaseous mine, requiiing thi-ee fire bosses to look 
aftei* it. y(^t the grentest source of danger that is encountered 
here, is bnd roof running through or ncross the workings, and in 
pinppR where the cover over tlie mine is from -t50 to .^.^0 feet thick. 
\N ith the ordinarv svstem of driving rooms, I consider it verv danger 



456 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

ous mining, but I believe that other methods of working can be adopt- 
<'d in this case that would decrease the danger, and I have no doubt 
thej will be put in operation in the future, as those in charge have a 
desire to see their number of accidents as few as possible; and there- 
fore will introduce some safer method of working in the part of the 
mine that has the bad roof. 

Conemaugh Mine. Is located two and a half miles east of Johns- 
town. The drainage, ventilation and general safety of this mine is 
excellent. 

Mineral Point Mine is located about one mile east of Mineral Point. 
Work has been very dull here during the past year, but they have 
(lone a great deal of prospecting on the property to locate the Miller 
or B seam of coal, which if found in its normal condition, will make 
this a very valuable property. 

South Fork Mines. The following collieries are located at this 
point: Argyle, J. C. Stineman, Euclid. Aurora, Sumner No. 2 and 
Webster No. 3. 

The latter is one of the largest mines in the district, and one of 
the best equipped. Everything connected Avith the mine is on the 
most modern improved plan. They have two complete rope haul- 
ages and two inclines in the mine, and the third is now b^ing made. 

Two fans are in use for ventilatinjr. one 16 feet and the other IS 
feet in diameter. The drainage, ventilation and general condition of 
the mine are excellent. 

Argyle is another mine which T find in excellent condition. Tt is 
one of the best furnace ventilated mines in the district, and is von 
tilated in sections by the erection of well built air bridges to sep 
arate the currents, 

J. C. Stineman colliery has in use an improved door for condurtiuir 
the air in its proper courso through the mine, that T believe has no 
equal, especially as a check door. Tt ought to be put in n proper 
])lace, which would be on some level place on the heading, so that the 
trip could pass through it at an ordinary rate of speed, as the dooi- 
is opened by the mulo nnd opens either way and will not stand open. 
l»ut is made to stand square across the heading, which is closed and 
will stand a very heavy pressure of air before it will open. This is 
flone by a little slot made in part of the hincre fastened to the frame 
nf the door, and a little bevel in thnt part of the hince fastened to tho 
door, so that when it is closed it lavs in the bottom of this slot. Tl i'^ 
a jrreat improvement over the canvas doors on account of theii' beinir 
easily torn down and often throucrh ne£rlect not put up a"-nin. 
This lonvos: the miner in his room without miv menns of r^ot 
ting frf»sh nir, This door, if properly made, will last foi' years. 



No. 11. SIXTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 457 

and as stated before will alwajs be found closed. I therefore find 
the ventilation of this mine well looked after and its general condi- 
tion for safety good. 

Sumner No. 2. A new fan, 12 feet in diameter, has been put up at 
this mine during the past year, which has greatly improved its san- 
itary condition. 

Euclid and Aurora mines I find in a good, healthful and safe condi- 
tion. These are not large collieries, but care is required by those in 
charge of small as well as large collieries to keep their mines in good 
shape. When this is neglected in any colliery, it very soon shows a 
dilapidated condition of things. 

Portage Mines. There are nine collieries on this branch, only four 
of which worked regularly during the past year, the Puritan Shaft, 
Continental, Lukins Slope and Excelsior. 

The first named has run very steady, except during the big strike; 
the other three have run fairly well. The other mines, Ebuval, An- 
chor, Caldwell and Continental Nos. 2 and 3, have practically done 
nothing since the strike. The sanitary condition of the mines that 
have been running regularly is reasonably good. There is one thing 
in particular needed in nearly every mine on this branch in their sys- 
tem of mining, and that is to drive their headings wider, so as to give 
room for ditches along the side of the roadways; not only would it 
improve the mine, but it would be economy as well. 

Each of these mines is ventilated by a fan and has adopted the split 
system so as to give each section of men a fresh current of air direct 
from the outside, pure and undiluted, except the Continental No, 1, 
where the number of men as yet does not compel them to have but 
one current, as they only employ about fifty or sixty persons, sixty- 
five being the maximum allowed by law. 

The other mines referred to have splits, some of them for each 
group of twenty-five or thirty men, which is the proper system to ven- 
tilate a mine for economy, as well as for the health of the men em- 
ployed. 

Bens Creek Mines. Five mines are worked on this branch, namely, 
Sonraan Shaft, Sonman No. 2, Dysert No. 2, Mentzer and Columbia 
Mine. 

The two first named have fans and the shaft is well ventilated and 
drained, and is in good condition. The Sonman No. 2 has been 
greatly improved during the past year, and I fully expect in my next 
report to make very favorable mention of the condition of this mine, 
as a great effort is being made to get it into good condition, it being 
a very old mine and difficult to put in good order. 

Columbia Mine is ventilated by a furnace and on my last examina 
15 



458 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

tion I measured 14,500 cubic feet of air per minute passing into this 
mine, which was well distributed Uirough the workings. 

The Mentzer and Dysert mines I very seldom find in a satisfactory 
condition, as they are for the greater part of th6 year dependent on 
natural ventilation, as a great difference of elevation exists between 
the two mines. It is a favorable condilion for this mode of ventila- 
tion, but too much dependence cannot be placed in it, even in the 
most favorable seasons of the year, summer and winter. The weather 
is so changeable that under the most favorable circumstances that 
exist at these mines natural ventilation is a miserable failure. 
The Dysert No. 2 people have decided to put in a six-foot Stine fan. 
At the Mentzer mine they will either be required to put in a fan or 
well built furnace in the spring. 

Dunlo Mines. There are three collieries on this branch, two shafts 
and a drift mine. The latter is mining on the E or Lemon seam, and 
the shafts on the B or Miller seam. 

Henrietta shaft is the property of the Henrietta Coal Company. 

Dunlo shaft belongs to the Berwind-White Coal Company. 

The latter mine is ventilated by a IB-foot Guibal fan, which has a 
capacity of double that required for the mine at present, but they 
intend to increase the capacity of this colliery to 800 or 3,000 
tons per day, when more air will be required to keep it in good 
sanitary condition, hence the propriety of putting in a large fan. As 
yet the Henrietta people have nothing but exhaust steam from 
pumps to ventilate their mine with, which is inadequate for the work. 
A fan is promised for this shaft as soon as a little dispute in refer- 
ence to the coal territory is settled, which will enable them to select 
the proper location for the same. 

Dunlo mine is a drift opening and veulilated by furnace, and when 
examined last was found inadequate to the work it had to perform. 
The drainage is also good and the general condition of the mine first 
class. 

Lilly Mines. There are four mines op'^'ated on this branch. Lilly 
Slope, Standard, Sonman No. 2 and Bear Rock. 

The first two are ventilated by fans and on each of my examina 
tions I have found them in good sanitary condition. 

The Sonman No. 2 I cannot say the same of, but rather the reverse, 
as they are endeavoring to ventilate it by a furnace, which is not ade- 
quate to the work. A fan has been purchased that is to be erected 
in this mine, but a new openinir is reqnired to enable them, even with 
the fan, to properly air this colliery. When these improvements are 



No. 11. SIXTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 459 

completed and the fan started, I have no doubt but they will then be 
able to keep the workings in a condition fit for men to labor in. 

The Bear Rock Colliery I found on my last examination to be in a 
very fair condition as regards drainage and ventilation. A furnace 
is the only means in use for ventilating, but as th;.- mine is compara- 
tively new, it does the work fairly well so far. Quantity of air meas- 
ured on last examination was 11,000 cubic fcn^^t per minute. Number 
of men employed, 85. 

Cresson Shaft is located at Cresson. The drainage and ventilation 
here are in a very fair condition, but they have not worked very ex- 
tensively during the past year. This is a first class hoisting plant, 
with all modern improvements, including a self-dumping cage. 

Gallitzin Shaft and Gallitzin Slope are both located at Gallitzin on 
the summit of the mountain. The latter is operated by J. L. 
Mitchell, of Tyrone. The drainage, ventilation and haulage of this 
mine are in excellent condition. The shaft has not been working very 
steadily during the past year. Ventilation is fair at this colliery. 

Dean No. 4 and No. 5 are located on the Cresson and Coalport Rail- 
road at Frugality. The former is ventilated by fan and the latter by 
furnace, both of which are kept in good condition as regards ventila- 
tion, but there is quite a difficulty in keeping the drainage of these 
mines up to the standard, on account of the overlaying strata being 
so open, which admits the water in wet weather from the surface, 
which flows through and out of the mines over the hauling roads, as 
it is more than the ordinary ditches of a mine can hold. This trouble 
is only encountered in w^et seasons of the year. In all other respects 
they are kept in good sanitary condition. 

Patton mine is located near Coalport, also on the Cresson and Coal- 
port Railroad. The ventilation and drainage are in fair condition. A 
now furnace has been erected here recently, which will no doubt im- 
prove Ihe ventilation. Considerable trouble has been experienced 
in this mine by a dislocation in the strata which causes great incon- 
venience to those operating the mine, especially in the haulage. 
NotwiHistanding this trouble, they have kept the sanitary condition 
of the mine up to the standard. 

Oakland No. 2 is located at Coalport and operated by Samuel Ha- 
gerty. This colliery has been idle for the last two months; in fact, 
has worked very little during the past year, having mined only about 
4,000 tons. Condition of mine as to ventilation when examined 
last was a little defective, having just started up after the strike. 

Patton Mines. There are six mines located at this point, namely, 



460 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Pattoa^AslK'ioft. Columbian, New Pardee, Flanigan Run, and Moshan- 
non. To describe each of these mines would only be a repetition, as 
all are worked on the same seam of coal and nearly by the same sys- 
tem of mining, but I wish to state thai the New Pardee mine is some- 
what in advance of the others, particularly in ventilation, having re- 
cently put in a twelve-foot fan, which has a capacity of 40,000 cubic 
feet of air per minute. This enables those in charge to keep the 
mine in the best sanitary condition. This, I am sorry to say, cannot 
be said of all the mines where small furnaces are used. 

The Ashcroft and Columbian mines have enlarged their furnaces 
during the past year, but I think it would have been much better to 
have put in a fan at each. 

The Pat ton luiuo has a furniice (Miiial in capacity to the work it has 
to perform. 

Flanigan Run mine has no proper means of ventilation and they will 
either have to enlarge their shaft and furnace, or put in a fan in the 
earl}' spring to enable them to properly ventilate the mine. 

The Moshannon mine is fairly well ventilated, but is poorly 
drained, no provisions having been made for ditches to carry away 
the water made in the mine; consequeuth', in many places it is left 
to run in the middle of the hauling roads, which is bad and expensive 
mining in the long run. Since I examined this mine last they report 
much improvement in the drainage. 

Hastings Mines. There are five mines located at this point, namely, 
Sterling No. 8 and No. 9, Benton No. 1, Oakland and Hastings. The 
last named mine is well ventilated and drained. It is opened by two 
drifts about one hundred yards apart, and at a point about two hun- 
dred feet from the drift mouth, a shaft has been sunk, and from that 
point an airway is driven between the two main headings, which 
gives two main currents of air for the mine, and from each main cur- 
rent, additional splits can be made at a small cost and carried direct 
to the main return airway at will. This is opening up a mine with 
some provisions for its future, which, I am sorry to say, is sadly neg- 
h cted in a majority of the mines, thus causing an unusual expense 
after a few years' work, to keep and maintain good hauling roads, 
ventilation, etc. 

The Oakland mine is also well ventilnted nnd drained and in good, 
safe condition. 

Benton No. 1 is another mine that I find in first class condition in 
drainage, ventilation and general safety. 



No. 11. SIXTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 461 

Sterling No. 8 and No. 9. These collieries are working to the dip 
of the coal seam, and are connected. Being large mines, a fan and 
furnace are used to ventilate them, No. 8 being very much improved 
during the past year in every respect, drainage, ventilation and haul- 
ing. A fan was put in here during 1893 to replace a furnace, and it 
is doing excellent work, but a 12-foot fan can not do the work of i 
20-foot fan, which should be placed in a mine of this capacity. Ar- 
rangements are now being made to sink a shaft at the face of the 
workings, which will enable the machinery now in use for ventilat- 
ing to double its capacity as it will shorten the travel of the air one- 
half. No. 9 on my last examination was having its mining system 
entirely changed from that of pillar and room to "long wall" work, 
consequently the ventilating system was somewhat broken up. I ex- 
pect, when the new system is well established, that it will very much 
improve the ventilation, and will I hope be an improvement in the 
system of mining a small seam such as they have here. 

Barnesboro Mines. There are located at or near this place five 
mines now working, and three more about to be started up, Cymbria, 
Delta, Lancashire No. 3 and No. 4, and Sterling No. 11. I am 
pleased to state that all of these mines are in good condition as re- 
gards ventilation, drainage and general safety, and they can only be 
improved by putting up fans for ventilating, as each now has a good 
furnace well looked after by competent persons, but is an expensive 
♦£iode of ventilating shallow mines. 

The Spangler mines are four in number. Benton No. 2, Spangier, 
Lancashire No. 5 and Sterling No. 12. All of them have well built 
furnaces by which they produce ventilation for the mines, which are 
properly attended to. This cannot be said of all mines that produce 
ventilation by means of furnaces, as they are sadly neglected in some 
mines, the result of which is defective ventilation. 

Elmora mine is located near Carrolltown and is working on the B 
seam of coal and operated by the Elmora Coal Company. The ven- 
tilation and drainage of this mine, when last examined, were found in 
fairly good condition, but could be improved by putting in a fan, as 
the furnace is not in a favorable position, especially in the summer 
time, as there is quite a difference in producing ventilation with a 
furnace, between summer and winter, so much so that very few of the 
mines ventilated by furnaces have any surplus air in summer time. 

Somerset County Mines. 

These are all located on the Cambria & Somerset branch of the Bal- 
timore and Ohio Railroad. The Krebbs, Hooversville and Bethel 
mines. 



462 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

The first named is about two miles nortli of Somerset Towu and is 
working tlie C bed of coal. There are only about fifty-five men em- 
ployed at present, but the mine has a capacity for employing one hun- 
dred and fifty to two hundred men if the trade were better. The 
ventilation ajid drainage is good, and the general condition of the 
mine is excellent. 

The Oakland mine, when examined last was not in very good condi- 
1 ion. but they were then making some improvements in the ventila- 
tion by putting in a new shaft and furnace, as the mine liad never 
been in condition for working many men prior to this party taking- 
hold of it. I expect to find it much improved on my next examina- 
tion. It is now idle and has been so for several months. 

Bethel mine is located at Holsopple and supplies coal for the loco- 
motives of this division of the railroad; also ships coal to market. 
The ventilation, drainage and genei'al condition of this mine are 
good. 

Vintondale Mine. This is a new operation located on the Black 
Li(;k branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad about eight miles below 
Ebensburg. All mining is done here by machinery, electric power is 
being used, and as stated the plant is new and not developed yet. 
The intention is to do all the mining by iron miners driven by elec- 
tricity. All the tipple work is done by machinery driven by electric 
power, and the haulage will eventually be done by the same power. 

Ingleside Mine. This jilant is not doing a great deal now, as it was 
the source of supi)ly for the .lolinson & Moxham Mills, and since they 
have removed their rolling mills to Lorain, Ohio, they require very 
little coal now% and do not ship any to market. The mine wiien ex- 
amined last, was found to be in good condition as to drainage and 
ventilation. 



No. 11. 



SIXTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



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Official Document, No. 11. 



SEVENTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT, 

(ALLEGHENY, WASHIISGTON AMD HEAVEK COUNT1E8.) 



Idlewood, Maich 24, 1895. 
Hon. Isaac B. Biovvn, Secretary of Internal Affairs: 

Sir: In compliance with the Act of Assembly approved May 15, 
1893, 1 have the honor of presenting to you my report of the inspec- 
tion of coal mines in the Seventh Bituminous District, for the year 
ending December 31, 1894. 

1 am pleased to state that under the beneficent infiuence of the 
act of 1893 the sanitary condition of the mines is being raised to a 
higher degree of perfection both as regards ventilation and other 
matters pertaining to the health and safety of the employes. And t 
may venture to assert without fear of contradiction, that the condi- 
tion of the greater number of our mines, considered from a sanitary 
point of view, is far in advance of what they were a few years 
past. In some few cases where it had been the custom to move 
along in a kind of "'go as you please" style, the stringent but wise 
I>rovisions of the above act were only accepted and complied with 
after much urging, and then very reluctantly, and very probably, in 
some few cases, it will require constant pressure from without to pre- 
vent a relaxation or turning back to the old make-shift methods and 
loose discipline of the past. 

Nine persons lost their lives in and about the mines during the 
year, as against twenty-one for the previous year. This is a very low 
death rate for this section when we take into consideration the dan- 
gerous nature of the slate immediately overlying the coal bed in 
nearly all the mines in this district, and also from the fact that a 
very large proportion of the persons employed in our mines are noi 
practical miners. This large decrease in the list of fatal accidents 
is probably due in a large measure to the wise provisions embodied 
ill article V of the present mining law, which require that in all 
mines wherein explosive gas has been discovered, "every working 
place, without exception, shall be examined immediately before the 
men enter to their work." A number of instances have been brought 
to my notice where the person making these periodical examinations 
have discovered extremely diuigorous condilioiis in the working 
places from loose roof and slate, and have notified the mine foreman 



476 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

of the nature and location of the danger, who, in turn, proceeded im- 
mediately to the point indicated and caused the dangers to be re- 
moved, or proper safeguards made use of for protection, which had 
it not been discovered and attended to at once in the manner above 
described, would undoubtedly in some cases have resulted in loss of 
life. 

The number of non-fatal injuries during the year was forty-seven, 
or an increase of three over those of the previous year. 

Of the nine persons killed, it would appear that the loss of three 
lives was purely accidental and four men lust their lives for want of 
the exercise of proper care on their own part. One life was lost be- 
cause the person killed had not the least idea of any of the dangers 
surrounding the miners* occupation and knew not what to do in order 
to protect himself, while one fatality occurred by reason of the fact 
that the safety applimces on top of the shaft were not kept in repair 
and in good working order, as required by law; or, in other words, 
the accident was in the main due to a violation of law on the 
part of the mine ofticials. 

The above fatalities have deprived five wives and twenty-five chil- 
dren of husbands and fathers. Three of the widows and seven of the 
orphans are residents of foreign countries. 

The total production of coal for the year is 190,591 tons less than 
that of last year. This small decrease in the production is much less 
than was anticipated in view of the general depression in business, 
and of the fact that operations at nearly all of the mines were sus- 
pended for about two months in the early part of the shipping sea- 
son. The supension was caused through a dispute between the oper- 
ators and the miners about the price of mining. 

The total number of people employed in the district is about 446 
more than were employed last year. 

The market value of the product and the wages of the miners at the 
present time are far too low. Fair profit on invested capital is out of 
the question, and in most cases those of the miners who are Amer- 
ican citizens are unable to purchase a sufficiency of the ordinary nec- 
ess^aries of life, and in many cases extreme destitution prevails 
among them and so long as the labor market continues to be over- 
ci'owded, as at present, with unskilled foreign labor, we do not antici- 
piite much improvement in the miner's condition for some time to 
come. 

A descri])tion of (he cause of each fatality and of the general condi- 
tion, and improvements made in the various mines of the district, 
together with the statistical tables and other necessary information 
will be fonud in Ihcir proper places in tliis i'('])ort. 

Yours respectfully, 

JAMES BLICK. 



No. 11. 



SEVENTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



477 



Total production run of mine coal in tons of 2,000 

pounds 

Total production in tons of coke, 

Number of mines in district, 

Number of employes inside, 

Number of employes outside, 

Total number of employes, 

Number of persons killed in and about the mines, 

Number of non-fatal injuries, 

Number of wives made widows by above fatalities,. . . . 

Number of orphans from same cause, 

Number of tons of coal produced per life lost, 

Number of tons of coal produced per person injured,. . 

Number of persons employed per life lost, 

Number of persons employed per nonfatal injury 

Number of horses and mules in use .' 

Number of steam boilers in use 



Cause of Accidents. 



4,238,825 

6,000 

72 

9,115 

729 

9,844 

9 

47 

5 

25 

470,981 

00,188 

1,094 

209 

588 

121 



By falls of coal, roof and slate, 

By explosion of gas, 

By mine wagons, 

By miscellaneous causes, . . . 



Totals, 



34 
3 
7 
3 



47 



22 
3 



25 



Description and General Condition of the Mines in the Seventh Dis- 
trict During the Year 1894. 

Mines on and Near the Monongahela River. 

Bellwood. Is in very favorable condition. On each inspection 
made during the year the workings were found to be well ventilated, 
and the health and safety of the omyjloyes appear to be well cared 
for. Quite a large quantity of black damp is given off from the old 
workings during the summer season, which requires a brisk and con- 
stant air current to prevent an accumulation of this noxious gas. 
Quantity of air in circulation, when last measured, 36,960 feet per 
minute. 



478 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Calhoun. Is a small operation, employing during the winter season 
about eighteen men. Ventilation is produced by a small furnace 
which was passing 10,200 feet of air per minute when last measured. 
Condition of mine is favorable. The product is sold in the town of 
Homestead, principally for domestic use. 

Knoxville. Is also a small operation. Frequently there is not more 
than nine men employed, except for a few weeks in the winter sea- 
son. They have a small ventilating furnace which will give suffi- 
cient air current if properly attended to. 

Streets Kun. On my last visit to this mine the inside conditions 
were only reasonably good. The quantity of air passing at the fur- 
nace was 13,600 feet per minute. This volume of air is ample for all 
purposes if properly distributed, but I found that most of this 
air current was passing directly from one of the inlets to the furnace, 
and was of no benefit to the working parts of the mine. Probably 
the mine foreman was not directly to blame for this state of affairs, 
for upon investigation I found that some laborers working upon the 
street car line in the near vicinity, had thrown open one of the pit 
mouths which the mine foreman had partially closed up, and he had 
not detected this until the date of my examination of the mine. 

Hays Street Kun Nos. 2 and 3. and the Beck's Eun mines have been 
ic"le throughout the year, but there is some prospect of operations 
being resumed in the near future. 

First Pool. This mine is now in first class condition. A 25-foor 
Vulcan fan has been provided to produce the ventilation; this fan is 
giving good results. Volume of air passing, when last measured, 
103,000 feet per minute; speed of fan, 50 revolutions; water 
gauge one inch. The Harrison type of mining machines have been in- 
troduced into the mine during the past year, and they appear to be 
working very successfully. Fire damp is generated in different parts 
of the mine, but there is a good, sweeping air current passing through 
all sections of the workings, which carries away all noxious gases 
as fast as generated, and it may be said that the health and safety of 
the employes is pre-eminently considered in the general management 
of the mine. 

Walton. At the time of my last visit the general conditions were 
favorable, excepting that the distribution of the air current through 
the workings needed some little improvement. Some parts of 
the workings were receiving more air than was needed, while other 
parts were rather inadequately supplied. Quantity of air passing in 
the return air-wav 4S.000 feet per minute. 

Ormsby. They have built a furnace which has improved the ventil- 
ation, and the general condition of the mine is satisfactory. Fire 
damp is sometimes generated very freely in the advanced parts of the 
workings, which requires constant care and a brisk air current in 



No. 11. SEVENTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 479 

order to keep on the safe side. Quantity of air in circulation when 
lasc measured, 31,700 feet per minute. Number of persons employed 
inside, 119. 

Castle Shannon. Is in a fairly good condition. Quantity of air 
piissing at the outlet, 23,000 feet per minute, the same being fairly 
well distributed to the working parts of the mine. The only defect 
noticed was that some of the room pillars were not cut through for 
ventilation at the proper distances. 

Mines on the Little Saw Mill Run Railroad. 

Enterprise. Was on each visit found in good condition. In one section 
of the mine they are mining out a large number of old pillars which 
were overlooked or left standing in position several years ago. In this 
section, large volumes of black damp are generated, and considerable 
difficulty has been experienced in propelling a sufficient volume of air 
current to the face of workings to keep them in a healthful condi- 
tion; but generally speaking, fairly good results have been obtained. 
Quantity of air passing at the outlet 93,000 feet per minute, well dis- 
tributed through the different sections of the workings. 

Venture. After much urging a 20-foot Vulcan fan has been provid- 
ed to produce ventilation, and since this fan has been in operation, 
the mine has been found in fairly good condition. Quantity of air 
passing at the outlet 40,000 feet per minute. This quantity can be 
increased to about G0,000 feet per minute if found to be necessary. 

Fox. Is in much better condition than formerly. They have pro- 
vided a ten-foot fan which was passing 17.000 feet of air per minute 
when last measured. This volume of air is ample for present re- 
quirements if properly conducted to the working places, but the air- 
ways and inside arrangements in general are rather crude and in- 
sufficient. 

Mines on the Pan Handle Railroad. 

Idlewood. Is in somewhat better condition than formerly. The 
air is conducted forward to face of mine much better than in the 
past. Drainage is not very good and the roadways in some places are 
wet and muddy. Quantity of air passing at the outlet 14,000 feet 
per minute. 

Grant. They have built a new stack on the top of furnace shaft 
which has had the effect of adding power to the furnace, and increas- 
ing the volume of air in circulation through the workings. General 
condition of the mine is reasonably good. Quantity of air passing 
at outlet, when last measured, 16,.500 feet per minute. 

Fort Pitt. Has been in operation only a few weeks during the year. 
When last visited the general condition inside was favorable. Quan 



480 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

lity of air in circulation 11,000 feet per minute. The mine is not in 
operation at the present time, and 1 understand that it is abandoned 
for the time being. 

Champion. The inside conditions of this mine are reasonably good. 
They have opened a new pit-mouth into a separate coalfield of small 
extent, and are now driving entries and mining considerable coal 
therefrom. A small furnace has been erected to ventilate this terri 
tory apart from the main workings. This furnace was producing 
7.400 feet of air per minute, and the other furnace in the Old section 
of workings was producing 17,200 feet per minute when last mea 
sured. 

Nickel Plate. On my first visit the ventilation was inadequate. 
The cause of this defect was on account of the new ventilating fur- 
nace not being properly completed. I directed that certain changes 
be made in its construction, which were made at once, and which 
proved to be very beneficial, nearly doubling the volume of air in cir- 
culation. At the time of my last visit the mine was not in operation, 
but the general inside conditions were favorable. Quantity of air 
passing, 30,000 feet per minute. 

The territory being developed by this mine is perforated in all di- 
rections with oil wells and requires careful engineering to keep clear 
of them. Sometimes oil is found penetrating through the coal strata 
into the mine, but not to the same extent as formerly, and it may be 
said that all of the territory surrounding the mines in this vicinit.v 
is in the same condition as at this one. 

Ulack Diamond. This is only a small operation, employing about 
GO miners. The inside conditions are reasonably good. Quantity of 
air moving through the workings when last measured, 6,600 feet per 
minute. 

Midway. During the early part of the year the ventilation was far 
l.'elow the requirements, but they have since provided a twelve-foot 
fan and the condition of (he mine is now satisfactory in all respects. 
Quantity of air in circulation when last measured, 28,600 feet per 
minute. 

Piimrose. Is in favorable condition. They have, during the year, 
made a separate traveling way running parallel with the main tunnel, 
sr- that it is no longer necessary for the men to use the dilly road in 
pr.ssing to and from their work. Quantity of air passing at the out- 
let, when last measured, 32,000 feet per minute, the same being pretty 
well distiibntod to the working j)arts of tlie mine in several air splits, 
by means of air bridges which ar being placed where necessary. 

Jumbo. Is not in as good condition as it should be. The quantity 
of air passing at the outlet wlion last mensui'erl was r)."),000 feet per 
minute. Tliis volume would be nearly sufficient for all purposes if 
properly distribute, but the inside arrangements for ventilation are 



No. 11. SEVENTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 481 

not up to the requirements. iSome parts of the workings are well 
b applied with air, while other parts do not receive a sufficient sup- 
ply. This defect could be easily remedied by a judicious system of 
air-splits, and by erecting permanent air-tight stoppings between 
main intake and return airways to prevent leakage. They have a 
main intake air shaft near the face of the workings, and Avith skillful 
management all j)arts of the mine could be well ventilated and the 
total amount of air in circulation materially increased. At the pres- 
ent time I understand that improvements in the line above suggested 
are under way. 

Brier Hill. The general condition of this mine is satisfactory. 
They have made a new dilly road through the main body of the work- 
ings which intersected the airways at several points, causing a slight 
disarrangement of the ventilation for the time being, but this will 
be overcome in the near future, and the dilly road will be used as a 
main inlet to carry the air forward to face of mine. Quantity of air 
passing when last measured, 52,800 feet per minute. 

Laurel Hill Mines Nos. 1, 2 and 4. Considerable improvement has 
been made at the No. 1 mine during the year. They are at the ijres 
ent time making a traveling and air way from the main pit-mouth 
into the body of the mine, running parallel to the main hauling road. 
When this is completed it will make a decided improvement in the 
ventilation, and the men will have a traveling road to and from their 
work independent of the main dilly road. They have also provided 
a twenty-foot Vulcan fan, which is capable of producing upwards of 
60,000 feet of air per minute. Before this fan was provided the ven- 
tilation was below the requirements. 

The No. 2 mine has not been run to its full capacity for more than 
about two months during the year. At the present time they are 
only driving entries and making general repairs. A new twenty-foot 
Vulcan fan has also been provided at this mine which will, under 
present conditions, produce about 70,000 feet of air per minute, so 
that the mine is well supplied with fresh air; but other conditions 
are not by any means satisfactory. Very little skill has been dis- 
played b}' the management hitherto, but the mine has not been in 
operation long and there is a large field of coal yet undeveloped, and 
with permanent skillful management in the future, past mistakes 
may be rectified to a great extent. 

The inside conditions of No. 4 mine are not of the best. The quan- 
tity of air passing at the inlet when last measured was 75,600 feet 
per minute. (This air is produced by a twenty-five-foot Brazil fan.) 
But one section of the workings was not receiving a sufficient volume 
<»f air-current. This defect was due to a large portion of the air hav- 
ing leaked through the old workings into the return airway, instead 
of passing into the working parts of the mine, but they were making 
31-11-94 



482 REPORTS OP THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

arrangements to build a new main overcast over tlie main liaulin^ 
road to change the direction of the air current. This would enable 
ihem to conduct the air from the inlet to the face of mine, and would 
remove the above defect in the ventilation, I notice that manholes 
were needed on the main hauling and traveling way, which I told 
them to make at once. 

From the above description it will be noticed that each mine is 
provided with good ventilating machines, and if the mines are not 
properly ventilated the blame will rest with the inside management. 
The great lack hitherto has been the want of permanent skillful man- 
agement w hich should be vested in the hands of a qualified general 
manager, one who is well versed in the practical science of mining, 
Av'ithout which a property of this extent cannot be operated to good 
advantage. 

Willow Grove. Has only been in operation about four months dur- 
ing the year. When last visited the conditions were reasonably 
good. Quantity of air at outlet, 3G,000 feet per minute. 

Star. Is in rather poor condition. Only about thirty men are em- 
ployed taking out pillars, and from present indications the mine will 
be abandoned in the near future. Quantity of air passing in return 
airway, 5,000 feet per minute. 

Pine Ridge. Is a new mine opened during the present year. The 
workings are not sufficiently advanced for a general description; only 
a few men are employed driving entries. 

National. Is in a reasonably good condition. Quantity of air pass- 
ing, 1G,900 feet per minute. On my last visit I found that the trav- 
eling way was not in gODd condition and the men were using the 
dilly road to travel to and from their work. I ordered them to clear 
up and drain the traveling w^ay so that the men could use it, and also 
told them to make man-holes on the hauling roads where the men 
have to travel. They are advancing tow^ard old workings containing 
a large body of water and I mstructed the mine foreman not to ap- 
proach too near the line of the old works until he w^as ready to tap 
and drain off the water, which will be some time in the future after 
they have driven to the outcrop for a natural water way. I also can 
tioned him to use the drill for protection where necessary. 

Oak Kidge. The conditions of this mine are considerably improved 
since last repoit. They have enlarged the old airway near to the fur- 
nace and made new connection near face of mine, so that all the air 
produced by the furnace can now be conducted to the face of the 
workings. Quantity of air passing when last measured 14,600 feet 
])er minute. 

Koyd. Is in fairly good order. Volume <»f air passing in return 
air way when last measured, 20,000 feet per minute, being reasonably 
well distributed to the working parts of the mine. 



No. 11. SEVENTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 483 

Mansfield and Erie. Is in somewhat better condition than formerly', 
but very great improvement is still necessary before the conditions 
vi'ill satisfy legal requirements. A more powerful ventilating appa- 
ratus is needed, which the operators have promised to supply, but it 
takes them a long time to fulfill their promises; however, the matter 
is becoming urgent and will have to be atended to unless the number 
of employes is reduced. 

On my last visit I noticed that the oscapeway leading from the 
mine to the outside was not in good condition, and several other de- 
tails in the management were not properly attended to. Quantity of 
air passing when last measured, 8,190 feet per minute. * 

Mines on the Chartiers Valley Railroad. 

Mansfield No. 2. The workings of this mine are very extensive and 
it requires close and constant daily attention to keep all parts of the 
\N orkings in good order, but on each examination I have found the 
general conditions very favorable. Quantity of air in circulation 
when last measured, 70,000 feet per minute. 

Nixon. The condition of this mine is also fairly good, so far as it 
can be made. In one part of the mine the roof is exceedingly soft, 
and mining the coal with safety- to the employes is a difficult opera- 
tion, requiring very close attention on the part of the miner and mine 
officials. However, the new territory now being developed) is out of 
tlie danger and in safe, solid ground. All parts of the work- 
ings are reasonably well ventilated. Quantity of air passing when 
last measured, 40,000 feet per minute. 

Leasdale. Most of the coal contained within the boundary lines 
of this mine is now worked out and they are now working into a 
field of coal formerlj^ owned by the operator of the Nixon mine. In 
order to reach this coal field it was necessary to open a new road-way 
through part of the old workings of the above mine, which took con- 
siderable time and expense to accomplish. The old part of the mine 
is well supplied with air, but the new workings where the ventilation 
is produced by the ventilator of the Nixon mine, is short of the r<^ 
quired amount of air current, and it will be necessary for them to 
sink a shaft and erect a furnace for the proper ventilation of this part 
of the mine. Quantity of air passing in the new workings, 4,800 feet 
per minute; number of men employed, about 20. 

Summer Hill. Is in fair condition. Quantity of air in cir- 
culation, 37,000 feet per minute, but the mode of distributing this air 
is not the best. In fact, there is some difficulty experienced in 
trying to give each section of the mine a fair share of air supply 
when the power of the ventilator is inadequate to the requirements, 
and when the main inlet is located at a point remote from the work- 
ings; both of which conditions exist in this mine. It is the intention 



484 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

l'.> sink a shaft at the face of the workings foi' an inlet of the air-cui- 
rent, and if this will not suffice, then a moi-e powerful fan will be 
provided. I must say in justice to the operator and manager, that 
ihej are at all times anxious to do all that is necessary to keep the 
mine in a safe, healthful condition. 

Bower Hill. The general conditions of this mine are favorable, but 
on my last examination I notice that the road leading to the second 
outlet was not in good condition, but they are now driving Lo the out- 
crop for a new escapeway at the face of the mine. Quantity of air 
iu circulation, 24,000 feet per minute. 

Bridgeville. The ventilation in this mine during the past summer 
has been far below the requirements, but they are now erecting a 
16-foot Vulcan fan. When this fan is set in motion the mine will be 
well supplied with fresh air for many years to come. Quantity of air 
passing near face of entries, when last measured, 4,500 feet per 
minute. The mine has run very irregularly the greater part of the 
year. 

Hasting's Slope. They have sunk a shaft about eighty feet deep at 
the face of the mine. This shaft will be used as an inlet for the air 
current. Stairs will also be put in one compartment for an escape- 
way for the mine. Quantity of air passing, when last measured, 
11,000 feet per minute, but the time is not very far distant when a 
more powerful ventilation will be required. 

Boon. Is in reasonably good order. Air in circulation, when last 
measured, 18,000 feet per minute. 

Allison. Is in very fair condition. All parts of tJie workings are 
supplied with plenty of fresh air, and I have not found it necessary 
to make any complaints about the condition of the mine during the 
year. Quantity of air passing, 16,560 feet per minute. 

Enterprise. During the earlier part of the year, the air current 
prissing through the face of the workings was inadequate, but on my 
last visit I found that matters were much improved and the ventila- 
tion in general was fully up to the requirements. Parts of the mine 
are very wet, and there can be no relief from this defect until they 
tap and drain away the water from the old mine adjoining, which was 
abandoned and allowed to fill with water a number of years ago. 
Quantity of air passing, 10,500 feet per minute. 

Northwestern. They have lately driven a new slope for a traveling 
way into and from the mine. Taking all things into consideration, 
the condition of the mine at the present time is favorable. Quantity 
of air passing through the worjcings, 15,500 feet per minute. 

Morgan. At the time of my last visit the workings on the south 
side of mine were short of air-current, but other parts of the mine 
were in reasonably good condition. Quantity of air passing at the 
outlet .32,250 feet per minute. 



No. n. SEVENTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 485 

Standard. When last visited was found in a very favorable con- 
dition, excepting in one pair of entries where the ventilation was 
not up to the requirements. This defect was due to the slow 
speed at which the fan was being driven at this time. Quantity 
of air passing, 29,800 feet per minute. The capacity of the fan, if 
driven at an average speed, is about 50,000 feet per minute. 

Creedmore. The general conditions are favorable, but the details 
in the inside management could be and should be improved. For 
instance, there should be several air bridges erected so as to dis- 
pense with several doors now found on the main face entries, the use 
of which is detrimental to a constant flow of air-current to the face 
of the mine. This difficulty would in a great measure be overcome 
by providing the air bridges. This mine is opened into a large, 
valuable coal property, and the general lay and conditions of the coal 
field are very favorable for first class ventilation, and with ordinary 
skillful management in opening out and developing the property, ail 
ventilating doors could have been dispensed with. Quantity of air in 
circulation, when the fan is run at an average speed, 48,000 feet per 
minute. 

Kidgeway Bishop. Is in fairly good order. Quantity of air passing 
at the inlet, when last measured, 37,800 feet per minute, being fairly 
well distributed to the different sections of workings. Drainage is 
also reasonably well provided for. 

Mines on the P. C. & Y. Railroad. 

Pan Handle. Several overcasts have been built during the year to 
distribute the air current on the split S3'Stem, but at the time of my 
last visit I observed that the air current was not moving with suffi- 
cient velocity to keep the workings in a healthful condition. This 
defect was due to the neglect of the fan engineer in not running the 
fan to the proper speed. I ordered them to run the fan up to a safe 
average speed, after which I measured 34,800 feet of air per minute 
passing at the outlets. If this volume of air is maintained and proj)- 
erly distributed, it is quite sufficient for present needs. 

Essen. A 20-foot Guibal fan has been provided and is now in opera- 
tion, so that he former defect in the ventilation has been removed, 
and all parts of the mine are now well supplied with plenty of fresh 
air. Other conditions are also favorable. Quantity of air passing 
when last measured, 03,000 feet per minute. 

Beadling. The condition of this mine during the past year was not 
satisfactory, but they have now provided a 25-foot Vulcan fan to pro- 
duce the ventilation. This fan is one of the best in the district, and 
the foundations and general mode of its construction and erection 
ere very substantial. Quantity of air passing at the face of mine 



486 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

since the Ian lias been set in motion is about •10,000 cubic feet per 
minute. Tlieie sliould be two aii-bridges piovided so as to give each 
secti(.'n of workings a propoiliouate sliaie of fresh air, and the air- 
ways near the sliaft sliould be enhirged. When these improvem-.'nts 
aie completed there need be no further complaint about a lack of 
ventilation, for the fan will produce upwards of 100,000 cubic feet of 
ail- per niiuule if necessary. At the present time they are erecting a 
mining plant, and in the near future the coal will be undermined 
with machines of the Harrison type, driven by compressed air. 

Essen Nos. '2 and 3. The small six-foot Champion fan formerly in use 
at Essen No. 1 mine has been removed to the No. 2 mine, but its 
power is too limited to be of any permanent benefit. At the last 
measurement it was producing 15,000 feet of air per minute and the 
general condition of the mine was favorable. 

The condition of the No. 3 mine has been considerably improved 
since my last report, but the ventilation is still below the require- 
ments. They are now driving an entry to intersect a point at the face 
of the mine where a shaft will be sunk, to be used as an inlet for air. 
When this is done it will cause a great improvement in the ventila- 
tion, especially in the summer season when it will be most needed. 
Quantity of air passing when last measured, 27,000 feet per minute. 

Pittsburgh Fuel No. 2. At this mine they have a habit of turning 
rooms in advance of the air current. On one of my visits to the mine 
I found ten rooms in a-dvance of the air way in one of the entries, 
and twelve men working them in an atmosphere that would quickly 
destroy the strongest constitution, and as I had previously ordered a 
number of men out of the mine who were working under the same 
conditions and also cautioned the manager not to repeat the offense, 
and seeing that my previous caution had been ignored, I considered 
it my duty to institute legal proceedings against the inside manager 
to compel him to comply with the requirements of the mining law, 
and to give proper attention to the health and safety of the employes 
under his charge. At the time of my last visit to the mine (after in- 
stituting the above legal proceedings) I observed that the conditions 
were much improved and that ventilation was then being disli-ibuted 
reasonably well tlirough the working parts of the mine. (Quantity 
of air passing at the outlet 19,000 feet per minute. 

O. I. C. This mine, when last inspected, was found in reasonably 
good condition. Quantity of air passing at the outlet, 1.5,000 feet per 
minute, fairly well distributed to the face of the workings. 

Federal. Ts in favorable condition. Quantity of air ])assing when 
last measured. 40.000 fes't per minute. This volume of air is ample 
for all purposes if properly distributed. 

Federal Spring. At the time of my last visit I observed that some 



No. 11. SEVENTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 487 

parts of the mine were uoL well supplied with veiitilation, while lu 
other parts there was more air passiug thau was uecessary, 1 sug- 
gested to the manager that he give more attention to the distribution 
of the air current so that all parts of the workings might be supplied 
with plenty of fresh air. (Quantity of air passing at the outlet 17,500 
feet per minute. 

Ueachmount. Is not in the best of condition. The roadways are 
wet and muddy, and parts of the mine are not well supplied with ven- 
tilation. The workings are so much cut up and intersected, that it 
is a diflicult matter to conduct the air-current forward to the face of 
some of the entries in sulhcient quantities to maintain a pure, health- 
ful atmosphere. Quantity of air passing at the outlet when last 
measured, 15,000 feet per minute. 

Hickman. At the time of my last visit I observed that the air cur- 
rent in parts of the mine was defective. Since that time they have 
driven to the outcrop at the face of the mine, and this opening will, 
in the future be of gr^at benefit to the ventilation. The mine has 
been in operation only for about four months during the year. Quan- 
tit}' of air passing at the outlet, 30,000 feet per minute. 

Moon Kun. This is the only mine opened on the Moon Run Railroad 
and is a very extensive operation. The inside develoj)ments are a 
fair representation of the science of mining as it should be. All of 
the new developniL^nts are being conducted on the three-entry system, 
and in the near future about 500 men will be employed in the new 
sections of workings, and the ventilation conducted through the 
same without the use of doors, which will insure a constant flow of 
air current to the face of the workings which will have an important 
bearing on the health and safety of the workmen and will be quite 
a step in advance of any other mine in the district. Hitherto the ven- 
tilation has been produced by furnace power, but it is now the inten- 
tion to provide one, and probably two, fans and have them erected 
ready for use during the coming spring. The outside equipments 
are also very substantial and well adapted for handling a large ton- 
nage. Total volume of air in circulation at the outlets when last 
'Uddsured, 06,400 feet per minute. 

Reech ClitT and Montour. Both of these mines are located on the 
Montour Run Railroad. When last visited each mine was found in 
pretty good condition. Quantity of air passing in the Cliff mine 
when last measured, 20,800 feet per minute, and 20,000 feet per min 
ute were jiassing in the Montour mine, but this mine was not in 
operation at the time, consequently the furnace was not being fired 
to its full capacity. 

Min'^s West of the Allegheny River. 

Pine Creek. On each visit made to this mine T found that the air 
current was not conducted forward to the face of the entries as well 



488 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

as it might and sliould have been, but when last inspected they weiie 
replacing the lumber stoppings between main intake and return air- 
ways with masonry. This work, when completed, will prevent leak- 
age and cause more air to pass to the face of the workings. Quantity 
of air at inlet, 26,000 feet per minute. 

Hite. Is in pretty good condition. Quantity of air in return air- 
^^ay, 12,100 feet per minute, the same being pretty well conducted to 
the face of workings. They have sunk a shaft at face of mine 
v.hich will be used in future for drainage and ventilation. 

West Tarentum. This mine has been run for years as a country 
bank, and it is only recently that they have been employing a suffi- 
cient number of men to bring them under the provisions of the law. 
AVhen visited the mine was in poor condition. The ventilation at 
face of mine was defective and there was no second outlet provided. 
I requested them to take steps to comply with the law at once. 
Quantity of air at outlet, 7,000 feet, produced by a fire basket. 

Brakenridge. Is in good order. Quantity of air passing at the out- 
let, when last measured, 19,000 feet per minute. 

Natrona. The conditions of this mine are favorable. All parts of 
the workings are generally well supplied with fresh air. Quantity 
of air passing at the inlet, 17,200 feet per minute. 

Freeport. Is a small operation. Very little coal has been mined 
during the year. The condition of the mine, as regards ventilation, 
is away behind the times, but when they again commence operations, 
matters must be improved and they will be expected to comply with 
the legal requirements. 

Description of Fatal Accidents in the Seventh Bituminous District 
During the Year 1894. 

\Mlliam Wright, a colored miner, 27 years of age and single, was 
killed by slate falling upon him in the Boyd mine, on March 5th. 
1I(? was working in .a room in company with another miner. They 
were aware of the dangerous condition of the slate and were in the 
yet of setting a prop to protect themselves when the accident oc- 
curred. The men had without doubt been woiking for some time in 
extreme danger, not having sufficient props set under the slate to 
ju'event it from falling, and they had no spare timbers in the room 
at this time. 

Peter Kroneberger, miner, 44 years of age, was killed by a fall of 
slate in the Walton mine on March .31st. This man was mining coal 
in a room. The piece of slate which fell upon him would weigh 
about 1,500 pounds and was disconnected on one side by a free, 
natui'al slip in the strata which could not be seen until after the slate 
Lad fallen. On the opposite side from the natural slip the slate was 
(III loose by the roof having been taken down over the roadway. 



No. 11. SEVENTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 483 

Tlie deceased was loading a car at the time of the accident, and in 
all probability he had examined the slate and found it to be unsafe, 
for he had taken a prop forward, presumably for the purpose of 
using it, but had deferred doing so until after he had tinished load- 
ing his car, which delay proved to be fatal. The deceased was 
sj)oken of as being a very careful, industrious man, and his 
untimely death leaves eight children without father or mother. 
The man was working alone in his room and had been dead for 
some time before any one knew of it. He was discovered 
by a driver who was passing along the entry and who observed 
smoke escaping from the room, which appeared to be produced from 
burning linen, and upon going into the room to investigate found the 
man under the slate and his clothing nearly all burnt from the body, 
it having taken fire from his pit lamp after the slate had fallen upon 
him. 

Frank Gusryouski, miner, 22 years of age and single, was fatally 
injured by being crushed between car and side of entry. This man 
was walking along the entry to his working place. On this entry 
there were rooms turned every way 24 feet which were all unob- 
structed, and instead of stepping into one of these rooms for the trip 
to pass, the man continued on his course until he met the trip of full 
cars, and then tried to pass between the cars and side of entry where 
the space between cars and side was not more than six inches, conse- 
quently he received injuries which proved fatal three weeks after 
the occurrence. The man had only been employed in the mines for 
a few days and had no idea of the dangers connected with the miner's 
occupation. The accident occurred in the Northwestern mine on 
April 9th, and death resulted on the 27th. 

Mike Rodocay, miner, 2S years of age, leaves widow and two or- 
phans in Austria, was kilh d by fall of slate in the Essen No. 3 mine 
on August Otli. This man had fired a blast in the coal alongside of 
a clay vein, and then went under the draw slate to throw back the 
coal dislodged by the shot. The slate was cut loose by a slip from 
the clay vein, which could readily have been seen. But it was evi- 
dent that the num made no examination or he could have detected 
the danger if he had been a practical miner. Yi'vy probably his 
knowledge of mining was not sufficient to enable him lo ascertain 
whether he was working in danger or not. The fire boss reported 
the room in a safe condition when he made his nu)rning examiualion. 
but the blast in the coal was fired after that time. 

Jose})h P»nisk(), miner, aged 32, leavers widow and two orplians in 
Italy, was fatally injured by a fall of coal in the Pi iiiirosp mine on 
August 1th. Tie died in the hospital two days afterward. Two 
Italians were AAoiking together in a. room and upon investigation ii 
would seem that they had undermined a quantity of^coal and had 
16 



490 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Oft. Doc. 

set a spiag under the coal foi- piulectiou while uuder-cuttiiig the 
same, and that one of the men commenced to take out the sprag pre- 
paratory to tiring a bhist while the other man was still undermining 
beneath the coal, and as soon as the sijrag was taken out the coal 
suddenly fell upon the man, causing fatal injuries. 

Frank Deitrich, miner, 39 years of age, leaves widow and threj 
orphans, was instantly killed by fall of rock in the Pine Creek mine 
on August 21st, The deceased and another man were working to- 
gether in a room, and both of them being practical miners, the room 
was well timbered. The i)iece of rock which fell Avould weigh about 
live tons and was surrounded by a free slip which intersected in the 
roof about four feet above the coal. This slip could not be seen 
until the roof had fallen. There were two j^rops set under the piece 
of loose rock, but owing to its centre of gravity being unsupported 
the })rops were thrown out by the giving way of the rock. The men 
had fired two shots in the coal just previous to the accident, and it 
would appear that the shots had broken through the roof coal and 
penetrated into the slip in the rock, which had the elfect of liberat- 
ing it, but by reason of the roof coal not being broken down, the ef- 
fects of the shot in the ui)per roof were not visible. As before stat- 
ed, the room was well timbered and bore evidence of care and skill 
on the part of the miners, and the occurrence may be regarded as 
jmrely accidental. 

Thomas Christian, miner, 43 years of age, leaves widow and seven 
(>i])hans, was fatally injured by fall of slate in the Creedmore min'- 
on October Gth, and died on October 8tli. This man was loading 
(oal after the mining machine in the main face entry. He had just 
finished loading the last car of coal from a shot fired the previous 
clay. He had been loading from under a (pnintity of overhanging 
slate, part of which he had taken down just before the accident, and 
the remainder he had left standing. He said it sounded solid and 
appeared to be safe, nevertheless it fell upon him, causing injuries 
as above stated. He was a practical miner, well qualified to judge 
as to whether his working i)lace Avas safe or not, and I would likelv 
be justified in coming to the conclusion that the occurrence was 
purely accidental. 

Carl Cramer, miner, 50 years of age and single, was fatally injured 
by slate falling ujion him in the Standard mine on December 10th. 
He died in the hos])ital on December 14th. This man was turning a 
room and had only drive n it about four feet from the entry. He ha<l 
fired a blast which broke down the coal, and broke into a natural slip 
in the overhanging slate and left it in a dangerous condition. He 
tlicn loaded the coal dislodged liy the shot and had connnenced to 
undermine the coal iM<'paratoi'y to another blast, and it would ap- 
I)i'ar that he had given no attention to the slate to see whether it was 



No. 11. SEVENTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 491 

Kiife or iiol, iiud while uuder cuttiug the coal, the loose slate siid- 
deiily fell upon him with fatal results. The place was reported safe 
by the hre boss when he made his morning examination, but the 
sliot was fired and the danger developed subseipient to that time. 
The deceased had only worked one day in this mine. 

JMartin Macek, laborer, 40 years of age, leaves widow and three 
ojphaus in Austria, was killed on December 22d, by falling down 
the shaft at the Laurel Hill No. '2 mine. This man was employed on 
the tipple outside the mine, part of his duty being to assist in taking 
the full cars from the cage and putting the empty cars back. He 
had been employed at this work for about eight days, and on this 
occasion he pushed the empty car to the wrong side of the shaft in- 
stead of pushing it to the opposite side where the cage was up, and 
from which point he had just previously taken the full car. The 
conse(iuence of this mistake was that he pushed the empty car into 
the shaft and both the car and the man fell to the bottom, a distance 
of ninety feet. Death was instantaneous. His neck was dislocated, 
one leg was broken in two places, and the body otherwise bruised. 
He should, as was the custom, have stopped with the car some dis- 
tance back from the shaft for the purpose of oiling the wheels, and 
have pushed another car on the cage which was standing on the 
light track ready to be put on, but almost any person is liable to 
make a mistake of this nature and there is no reason why such a 
mistake should result in loss of life or even personal injury, and if 
tlie safety gates on top of the shaft had been in working order the 
accident would not have occurred, for they would have prevented 
the car from being pushed into the shaft. I found upon investiga- 
tion before the coroner's jury that the safety gate had been out of 
repair and not in use 'for about ten days and this fact was well 
known to the mine officials, who were censured by the coroner's jury 
for their negligence in the matter. The law requires that safety 
gates be provided and that they be kept in good repair, and the fact 
that they were out of re])air is a violation of the law on the part of 
the mine officials, and legal ])roceedings will be instituted. 



492 



REPORTS OP THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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SEVENTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



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Official Dotument, No. 11. 



EIGHTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 

(CENTRE, CLEARblELD AND JEFFERSON COUNTIES.) 



Johnstown, March 10, 1895. 
Hon. Isaac B. Brown, 

^Secretary of Internal Affairs, Harrisburg, Pa.: 

{Sir: In compliance with the requirements of section 11 of article 
10 of the Bituminous Mining Act, approved May 15, 18U3, we here- 
with submit the annual report of the inspection of mines of the 
Eighth Bituminous district. 

The report will not be as complete as it should be, as we were" not 
able to get sufficient data to report on the condition of each mine, 
but enough is had to enable us to report on tlie general condition of 
the mines of the district, which shows a gradual improvement in 
the drainage, ventilation and safety of the collieries, and a desire 
by the majority of the operators to make improvements, and thus 
bring their mines up to the proper sanitary condition. 

Several fans have been put in and quite a number of air shafts 
sunk and new furnaces erected to improve the ventilation. 

The report shows a production of 3,404,078 net tons, a decrease 
as compared with 1893 of 1,039,400 tons as reported from mines, and 
a decrease in the average number of days worked from 172 in 1893 to 
119 days for 1894, which shows about the same average output each 
day worked as in 1893. The number of fatal accidents during the 
year was twelve, a decrease of eight from 1893. The non-fatal acci- 
dents were 41, an increase of nine, yet they were not of a very serious 
nature, but in the reports received from the mine foremcai on the 
causes of accidents, much complaint is made of the carelessness of 
the injured in not complying with the mine rules, by failing to secure 
their safety with the means at hand nnd in not being at their post jf 
duty in several cases when injured. 

Tl>e report is complete, with the one exception, as stated, that we 
could not get suffu'ient data to report on the condition of each mine 

*The mine inspector of this district. Mr. I). H. Tliomns. having died .Taniuiry 27. 189.i. this report was 
prepared by Mine Inspectors Josinh T. Evans and Roger Hampson of the adjoining districts. 



502 REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

separately. It contains the usual tables showing the coal and coke 
production, number of employes inside and oulside, number of acci- 
dents with their causes, etc. 

Number of mines reported, 81 

Number of mines reported producing coal, 77 

Total production in net tons of coal, 3,454:,078 

Total shipments in net tons of coal, 3,3S2,39<) 

Total production in net tons of coke, 13,302 

Average number of days worked, Hi) 

Total number of persons employed, 8,160 

Number employed inside the mines, 7,686 

Number of horses ?nd mules, 837 

Number of steam boilers, 100 

Number of stationary engines, 71 

Number of fatal accidents, 1- 

Number of tons mined per fatal accident 287,840 

Number of persons employed per fatal accident, 080 



Accidents and Their Causes. 



By mine wagons, . . . . 

By falls of coal, 

By falls of rock, . . . . 
By hauling rope, . . . . 
Kicked by mule, . . . . 
Scalded by steam, . . . . 
Caught by hoisting cage, 
Burned by powder, . . . 

Total, 



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Non- 
fatal. 


3 


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2 


17 


f) 


7 





1 





2 





1 


1 


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41 



J. T. EVANS, 
R. HAMPSON. 

l^eport of the Cottage State Hospital at Philii)sburg, Centre County, 

for 1S94. 

Total number of patients treated duiiug the year, ... 89 

Minei's and children of miners, <»0 

Pcrsous of other occuijations, 29 

Patients discharged, 80 

Number of deaths 9 

M iners 7 

Railroad employes, 2 




SWITCH BOARD. 




Fig, I. — CO^ Burette. 




Fig. 2. — CO Burette. 



No. 11. EIGHTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 503 

Desci'iptiou of Injuries. 

Fractured limbs, --i 

Injuries necessitating amputation, 4 

Fractures of sliull, 5 

Powder burns, !"> 

Miscellaneous injuries, 52 



Total 8l> 



This hospital is of inestimable value to the miners and to the in- 
jured <;(Mierally. But to miners it is of especial benefit, as the ad- 
missions of men in that industry number G2| per cent, of the total 
cases treated. Miss M, D. Fisher, the matron, is a perfect nursp 
and she is qualified for the position in every sense of the word, and 
mei'its all the approbation that the patients under her care and the 
general public bestow upon her. 

JOSEPH KNAPPER/ 

Inspector. 

*Mr. Knapper Is the present Inspector of this district. 



504 



REPORTS OF THE INSPECTORS OF MINES. 



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EIGHTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



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Official Document, No. 11. 



NINTH BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 

(FaYETIE, WESTM0KELANI> and ALLEGHENY COUNTIES.) 



Coiinellsville, March 4, 1895. 
Hon. Isaac B. Brown, 

Secretary of Internal Affairs: 

Sir: In compliance with the Act of Assembly, approved May 15, 
].^'{)3, I have the honor of herewith submitting to you my annual re 
port as Inspector of Coal Mines of the Ninth Bituminous district, 
for the year 1894. 

There have been produced in this district 4,090,911 tons of coal, 
and 1,473,982 tons of coke, a falling off in the production of coal of 
li'3,l'G7 tons, and an increase in the production of coke of 233,818 
ions, as compared with 1893. The average number of days worked 
was 103, agamst 180 days in 1893. The number of persons em- 
ployed inside this year is 281 in excess of those employed in 1893, 
but two more mines have been in operation. The number of fatal 
accidents was 11, and the number of non-fatal accidents 40, which is 
4 fewer fatal, and 5 more non-fatal than were reported for 1893. 
From the reading of the report of the accident to the boy Norton, it 
will be observed that he was not employed in the mine, but was 
visiting his relatives and he was forbidden to ride on the trips. He 
slole in on the empty trip and was too far in for the driver to put 
I'im off, as he had no lamp. Then, jumping on the first loaded trip 
that he met going out, he lost his life. In commenting on these 
fata! accidents, it nuiy be said that eight of them occurred from the 
assumption of unnecessary risks by the victims. The killing of 
Brown, Burtoft' and Kreuter might be termed accidents, be