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Full text of "Reports on the progress of zoology and botany, 1841, 1842"

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^^r 



/s- 



RAY SOCIETY 

c Pu.i/y cart ion . V.I J 

INSTITUTED MDCCCXLIV 




/U--(ujlX 



u ^ *-**-*^-^i^. 



REPORTS 



ON THE PROGRESS 



OF 



«■ _ , • 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY 



1841, 1842. 



EDINBUBGH 

PRINTED FOR THE RAY SOCIETY 

MDCCCXLV 



* « 



PRTNTBO Bt W. H.LISABa, BDINBUBGH. 







ADVERTISEMENT. 



The principle of establishing Societies for the purpose of 
publishing such works, in various departments of literature 
and science, as would otherwise be inaccessible, has now 
become so generally recognized, as to render any defence 
of their institution wholly unnecessary. 

^ The Parker, the Camden, the Percy, the Sydenham, and 

^^ 

^ several other Societies, have been formed for the purpose of 

,^ supplying a demand for particular kinds of literature, which 

**? the ordinary means of publication could not be brought to 

«^ meet. Following in the footsteps of these respectable Asso- 

^ ciations, the Eay Society recognizes as its object, the easy 

^ acquisition of works on Natural History, more particularly in 

Zoology and Botany, which, from various circumstances, can- 
not be readily procured. In one point, the Eay Society will, 
indeed, differ from most, if not all, of those which have pre- 
ceded it — ^in the publication, namely, of original modem works, 
or memoirs in Natural History, which, from the expense of 
their publication and the improbability of a sufficiently exten- 
sive sale, would not be undertaken by a publisher at his own 
risk, or printed in the transactions of existing Societies. The 
Council of the Ray Society are very anxious, that this point 



IV ADVERTISEMENT. 

should be nnderstood by the members and the public, as they 
have no intention of invading the province of the publisher. 

According to the present constitution of the Bay Society, 
the following are the classes of works which the Council con- 
templates being able to supply to the members : — 1. Original 
Works in Zoology and Botany. 2. New editions of Standard 
Works of established value. 3. Bare Tracts and Manuscripts. 
4. Translations of foreign works, ancient and modem. Under 
each of these departments the Council has already had sug- 
gested to them works for publication, the appearance of which, 
they feel confident, will be very acceptable to the members of 
the Society, and materially aid in the extension of the sciences 
of Zoology and Botany. 

In selecting a name for the Society, the Council have felt 

« 

no difficulty, as every one will recognize the propriety of 
designating it after the first of British Naturalists. And in 
presenting the first volume to the members of the Society, they 
would have gladly rendered it the vehicle of matter having 
reference to the labours of Bay ; but, as this has been found 
incompatible with the early publication of a volume, they hope 
the Beports on the Progress of Zoology and Botany, for the 
past few years, will not be deemed an inappropriate commence- 
ment of their labours. 



CONTENTS. 





Fagc 


THE STATE OF ZOOLOGY IN EUKOPE, 




Bt C. L. BONAPABTB 


1-43 


Tti Britain .... 


4-10 


— Sweden .... 


10-12 


— Denmark .... 


12 


— Russia .... 


12,13 


— Prussia .... 


. 14-17 


— Switzerland 


18-20 


— Holland 


. 20-24 


— Belgium . . . . . 


24-26 


— France .... 


26-34 


— Spain . . . . . 


34 


— Portugal .... 


34 


— Italy .... 


35-43 



THE PROGRESS OF ZOOLOGY IN 1842 



1-348 



1. Mammalia, by Prof. Andr. Wagner 


3-67 


Quadrumana . . . . 


17-24 


Chiroptera .... 


24-28 


Insectiyora . . . . . 


. 28-33 


Camiyora .... 


33-37 


MarsupiaUa . . . . 


38-40 


Rodentia .... 


40-59 


Edentata . . . . . 


59,60 


Solidungula .... 


60,61 


Pachydermata . . . . 


61, 62 


Ruminantia .... 


62-67 


Cetacea . . . . . 


67 



Tl 



CONTENTS. 



2. BiBDS, by Prof. Andr. Wagner 
Aocipitres 
Passerinie 
Clamatores 
Zygodadjli 
ColmnbiniB 
Gallinaoeae 
CuTBores 
GrallaB 
Natatores 





3. Rkptilia, by Dr. F. H. Tposchel 
Chelonii .... 

Saurii .... 

Serpentes .... 
Batrachia 



4. Fishes, by Dr. F. H. Troschel 
Acanthopteiygii 
Makcopterygii . . 
Lophobrancbii 
Plectognathi 
Cyclostomi 
Plagiostomi 



Troschel 



5. MoLLUscA, by Dr. F. H 
Cephalopoda 
Pteropoda 
Heteropoda 
Gasteropoda 
Pulmonata 
Ptenobranchia 
Pomatobranchia 
Gynmobranchia 
Aspidobranchia 
Cyclobranchia . 
Tubulibranchia 
Cirribranchia 
Conchifera 
Tunicata . 



6. Insects, Arachnida, Crustacea, and Entomostraca, 

by Dr. W. F. Erichson 

Coleoptera 



• • 



• • 



68-90 
74 

75-81 
81 

82-84 
85 

85,86 
86 

87,88 

88-90 

91-99 

94 

94-96 

96-99 

99 

100-115 
105-108 
108-114 
114 
114 
115 
115 

116-149 

120 

121 

121, 122 

122-145 

122-130 

130-142 

142 

142-144 

144 

144 

145 

145 

145-149 

149 



150-279 
156-218 



CONTENTS. VU 

Page 

Orthoptera 218-230 

Hymenoptera 231-239 

Strepsiptera . . 239 

Lepidoptera 240^256 

Hemiptera 25^2%2 

Thysanura 262 

Parasita 262 

Fossil Insects 263 

Arachnida 263-270 

AxanesB 264 

SolifugaB 265 

Opiliones 267 

Acari 267^-269 

Pycnogonides 270 

Crustacea 270 

Decapoda 270-274 

Stomopoda 274 

Ampliipoda 274-276 

Isopoda 276 

Myriapoda 276, 277 

Entomostraca 277-279 

PhyUopoda 277 

Siphonostoma 278 

Cirripedia 279 

7. Annblidbs, by Prof. C. Th. V. Siebold . . 280-^289 

8. Entozoa, by Prof. C. Th. V. Siebold . . 290-318 

Gordiacea 292-298 

Nematoidea 298-302 

Aoanthocepbala ....... 302 

Trematoda 303-313 

Cestoidea 313-314 

Cystica 314-316 

Helminthes, d. g 316 

Pseudo-Helminthes 317 

9. ECHINODERMATA, ACALEPHA, PoLTPI, and InPUSORIA, 

by Prof. C. Th. V. Siebold .... 319-348 

Echinodermata 319-530 

Acalepb® 330-334 

Polypes . 334-343 

Foraminifera 343—348 

Infosoria 343-348 



CONTENTS. 




E PROGRE^ OF PHYSIOLOGICAL BOTANY IN 


P«« 


1841, Bv Db. H. F. Link 


1-104 


Internal Structure of Planta 


4-32 


Stems, Leaves, uid Budt .... 
R«oto and Tubers 


32-57 

57, 58 


Flowen ...... 


59,60 


A. Parasitei ..... 


60-68 
69-72 


B. Lenmacen 


72,73 


Fems ....... 


73-77 


MoHWa 


78.79 


LichenM 


79,80 


Alg« 

Fungi . 

MonstKMitiea 


80-84 
84-86 
86-91 




91-94 


Growth — Nutrition ..... 


94-.fl6 
96-100 




100-104 



OBSERVATIONS 

OM THE 

STATE OF ZOOLOGY IN EUROPE, 

AS REGARDS THE VERTEBRATA. 

READ AT THE THIRD MEETING 
OF THE ITALIAN CONGRESS OF SCIENCE, FLORENCE, 1841. 

BY 

CHARLES LUCIAN BONAPARTE, 

PRINCE OF CANiNO AND MUSIQNANO. 

TRANSLATED FOR THE RAY SOCIETY, 
H. E. STRICKLAND, M.A., F.G.S. 



OBSERVATIONS 



ON THB 



STATE OF ZOOLOGY IN EUROPE. Ac. 



When it was proposed last year, at the Turin meeting, that 
some person should be requested to give an account to the 
members, at the ensuing meeting, of the scientific researches 
which might be made during the year in all countries, espe- 
cially as regarded new discoyeries on subjects relating to the 
respectiye sections, I pointed out the great difficulties which 
presented themselves, particularly in regard to Zoology. I re- 
marked, that expectations would thus be aroused, which could 
not be accomplished by a single person, and that any one who 
should earnestly and diligently undertake so difficult a task, 
might easily incur the criticisms of those, who in particular 
departments, were acquainted with details of which he was 
unayoidably ignorant. Besides, who could assure himself, that 
the work would eyer be fully accomplished ? What security 
could be found, that he who undertook it would not be inter- 
rupted by the arriyal of the future meeting t It appeared to 
me, also, to be more consonant with the independence of our 
pursuits, and more conduciye to that spirit of intercommuni- 
cation, which is a chief object of our meetings, that eyery 
one should use his own priyilege, of informing the members, 
of whatever has, to his knowledge, been effected during the 
year in those places where literature and science are pursued. 
3 



4 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

And as each one could append to such a statement his own 
ideas, and follow his own views in explaining the subject, the 
work would thus be rendered more complete, and no one 
would be unduly injured in his own estimation, or discouraged 
from joining in this most useful but most extensiye under- 
taking. 

On further considering the subject, I regretted not to hare 
proposed it at Turin, as it would have been in favour of such 
a plan, that the many learned members there assembled, might, 
by combining their materials, hare erected such an edifice 
with great success. Be that as it may, however, by making 
use of many books and journals to which I had access, and 
also a considerable amount of correspondence, with which 
zoologists in most parts of the world have honoured me ; aided 
too by the inspection of many museums, during my various 
journeys since October last (including a visit to Lyons during 
the recent scientific Congress of France), I am enabled to lay 
before you such notes on the subject as I could collect, hoping 
that you will all be willing to aid in rendering them more 
perfect. 

BEITAIN. 

CoMMENOiNa with Great Britain, I think I ought, before all 
others, to make mention of the work to which Gould is de- 
voting great study, labour and expense, entitled the ^' Birds 
of Australia^'' and for the sake of which he visited Australia 
with all his family, and remained there more than two years. 
That distinguished zoologist entrusted to me the first number 
of his work, that I might present it to this meeting ; a work, 
as you all see, truly superb and marvellous, and capable of 
adding to a fame which already seemed to have reached its 
ultimatum. He showed me about 500 species of Birds, many 
among them of wholly new genera, and many others belonging 
to genera, which in Europe are very poor in species, such, for 
instance, as Plato^lea, Himantopua, and others ; all which he 
will figure and illustrate in the truly excellent mode which you 
see in the specimen before you, together with an account of 
4 



IN EUROPE — BRITAIN. S 

their manners and habits, from the egg to maturity, and that 
too, from a country whence hardly 150 species were before 
imperfectly known. Besides those anomalous animals from 
Australia, which are already celebrated, you will be interested 
in seeing others added, of which we had before no notion. I 
will here limit myself to mention two only, the first of which 
is the TaUgalla lathami, till now a subject of dispute, as to 
whether it was a gallinaceous bird or a vulture. These birds 
haye the habit of uniting together in communities, and of col- 
lecting, by the aid of their feet alone, rast mounds of yegetable 
matter, disposed to fermentation, and prepared for the recep- 
tion of their eggs, which in due time they bury at intervals of 
a foot, and with the point downwards. Another new bird, 
called by Gould, Leipoa ocellata, makes mounds of sand for 
the same purpose. There are also two species of Passerine 
Birds (Chlamydera, Gould), which form, with marvellous 
skill, a gallery, I might rather call it a covered terrace, for the 
purpose of walking there and playing with the females, which 
terrace one species decorates with shells, the other with feathers 
of various colours. Nor has Gould confined himself to Birds, 
for while making observations and collections in all the classes, 
he has especially attended to the Marsupial animals, of which 
he has published an entire series, admirably figured. By the 
help of these figures, and the never sufficiently praised re- 
searches of the celebrated anatomist Owen, this sub-class of 
animals, hardly known a few years since, will be illustrated in 
a manner adequate to the singularity of its characters. 

The whole class of Mammalia is more efiectually studied in 
England than elsewhere, not so much because the museums of 
that country are the richest in those animals, as from the fact, 
that those zealous naturalists readily undertake long and ex- 
pensive journeys, for the sole purpose of verifying the objects 
of their studies in the museums of all other nations, and of 
cancelling or adopting the species which have been proposed or 
suspected, thus rendering more perfect the critical department 
of science ; while, on the other hand, allow me to remark, that 
continental naturalists, although worse supplied with specimens, 
rarely or never visit London with this object. In reference to 
5 



6 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

MammiferB, not to mention the veil known labours of Bell, and 
Uie usefiil resettcheB of the encyclopsedie J. E. Gray, who so 
worthily BuperiBtonds the first zool<^cal museum in the world ; 
there are, at present, three men who ate earnestly engaged on. 
this class in Britain — Martin, Waterhouse, and Ogilby. The 
first, if it had not been for tlie unfortunate failure of a pub- 
lisher, would probably haTe finished a complete general work 
on the Mammalia, the commencement of which, embracing only 
the Tarieties of Man and the ShnHdee, forms a luminous sample 
of a work worthy of all praise, and leaves in us a lirely and 
unhappily insatiable desire for the remainder. Mr. Waterhouse, 
who occupies the enviable position of Curator to the Museum 
of the Zoological Society of London,* and who founds his 
researches upon the structure of the cranium, to which, how- 
ever, he perhaps attaches too exclusire an importance, has 
given us some excellent monographs, of which I beg to offer as 
a specimen to this meeting, that of the Oaleopitlieai, in which 
group he establishes, on good grounds, two species. He has 
also arranged the Camhiora into new and very natnral 
groups, giving his chief attention, however, to the Modentia, 
in regard to which we may depend upon his work beii^ most 
perfect, as he has promised to figure Oib entire series of this 
very intricate order. Of Mr. Ogilby, the worthy secretary of 
the same Zool<^cal Society, it is sufficient to allude to the 
friendship and renown which he enjoys among men of science. 
He spares no exertion to increase his extensive knowledge of 
Mammalia, with the view of publishing, in due time, a general 
work on species. Meanwhile, he does not cease to pubhsb 
memoirs on many questions connected with this subject, espe- 
dally on the Suminantia, which he has arranged in a much 
more philoso]^cal manner than was before known. And even 
those who, like myself, cannot attach so great an importance 
to tiie organs of locomotion and of prehension, as he is dis- 
[H>sed to do, must admit, that even the abuse of this principle 
lias in his hands been beneficial to science. By conversing in 

■ Mr. Waterhouw does not now occupj this position, tut he is 
•qatiHj well placed for the study of Zoology, a* asaistant-curalor in 
ihe British Musenm. — Ed. 



IN EUROPE — BRITAIN. 7 

London with men of this stamp, and aided especially by the 
two last named, I haye remodelled the Catalogue which I have 
been for some years compiling, of all the Genera of Mammifers, 
and which, with your permission, I propose to read on another 
occasion, not doubting that I shall be much aided by your 
obseryations on the application of my system to so important a 
branch of Zoology. Mr. Jenyns, the well known author of the 
Manual of British Vertebrate Animals^ pursues his raried 
inyestigations into the small Mammifers of those islands ; and, 
in a late excellent memoir, corrects all the errors into which 
he had fallen. He has published a new species of Arvicolay 
under the expressiye, though not laudable, name of neglecta, 
which species I belieye not only to be a good one, but to 
occur on the continent also, being nothing else than the true 
agrestis of Linnaeus and Nilsson, which has been brought to 
light by De Selys Longchamps. 

Ornithology flourishes in Britain more than oyer, as is 
proyed, not only by the yarious inimitable works of Gould 
before spoken of, but by those of Macgilliyray, of Eyton, of 
Yarrell, of Jardihe, and of Selby. The two last authors haye 
united to resume, after a short interruption, but with increased 
energy and improyed execution, their beautiful Illustrations 
of Ornithology. If the United Kingdom has to deplore the 
irreparable loss of the erudite Vigors, and the far remoyal of 
Swainson, who neyertheless may render great sendee to Or- 
nithology in New Zealand, it may yet console itself with the 
labours of Mr. George Bobert Gray, a worthy brother of the 
well known naturalist of that name. This gentleman, haying 
laid aside Entomology, seems desirous of applying himself more 
strictly to the study of Birds, which are now his special depart- 
ment in the British Museum ; and while peacefiilly engaged in 
arranging them in the magnificent and splendid gallery, lately 
built for them at the national expense, he has not n^lected to 
send to press, a second edition of his List of the Genera of 
Birds, the first edition of which was already celebrated as 
the most complete comparatiye work known on that subject. 
He and I mutually satisfied ourselyes on many of the details 
of that class: he was also willing to adopt many particulars 
7 



8 STATE OF zooumr 

of my Claesiflcation, so that our final laboitrs will differ but 
sli^tly from each other. Great Britain may alao congratu- 
late it«elf on another omitholt^st, Mr. Strickland, vho, in 
his brief criticiBms on the workg of others, has shown himself 
well acquainted with a subject which he proposes to treat of 
more at large. JAr. Blyth, the secretary of the Ornithological 
Society, has left London to reside in India, at the head of one 
of the chief scientific establishments ; a new obserrer will tiius 
be added to the Hodgsons, the Sykeses, and others, to inform 
us of the Vertebrate Animals of those regions. Macclelland 
has published a Paper on the Birds and Quadrupeds of Assam, 
on the remote frontiers of China. 

Britdn has contributed little or nothing to Erpetolc^ since 
the elegant work of Mr. Bell on British Beptiles. I am only 
able to mention witb praise, the short descriptions given by 
Mr. J. £. Grray, of the most interesting species in the British 
Museum, and the not yery successful attempts at the classifica- 
tion of the Batraehia by Mr, J. Hogg. 

Ichthyology is there continually extended by the labours of 
Mr. Tarrell on the Indigenous Fish. Messrs. Thompson, Par- 
nell, M'Coy, and others, also continue to describe new species, 
without, however, sufficiently studying continental works, iu 
consequence of which they occasionally publish as new, species 
which are only remarkable as being found for the first time in 
that country. Allow me to mention an example of this in 
my Torpedo noiiliana, which has been reproduced under two 
different names. Sir William Jardine is publishing a magnifi- 
cent work on the Salmonida, of which I have recommended 
the distribution of prospectuses. Mr. Low is brining before 
the pubhc, in a handsome form, the Fish of Madeira, the com* 
oarison of which, with those of our seas, will supply some im- 
tant information. There are also in Britain other authors, 
1, from time to time, make known some of the rare fish, 
ught from the numerous colonies of that country. I ought 
to pass oyer the iehthyological researches, exhibited in 
utiful plates, and carefiilly edited letter-press, by Dr. A. 
rth, in his work on the Zool(^ of South Africa, and by 
. Darwin, in the Zoology of the Voyt^ of the Beagle, ia 



IN EUROPE — BRITAIN. 9 

whicli the new species of Birds are illustrated by Gould, the 
Fossil Mammalia by Owen, and the existing ones by Water- 
house. I cannot, however, refrain from remarking, that Ich- 
thyology, and as I said before, Erpetology, are far from being 
cultiyated in Britain so fully as the two superior classes of 
Vertebrate Zoology. 

The United Kingdom is adorned, especially in its manufac- 
turing towns, with zoological museums, more or less complete 
an^well arranged. There are also formed (and the taste is 
on the increase,) viraria of all kinds of animals, in beautifully 
situated gardens, at the head of which are the magnificent 
Zoological Gardens of London, where we have lately heard of 
the birth of a Giraffe, which is being successftdly reared. New 
societies which rise in all quarters, and which, being confined 
to particular objects, are better adapted than the more com- 
prehensive ones, to the making tranquil observations, contri- 
bute remarkably to a more perfect knowledge of animal 
beings. The extension of zoological science in Britain is 
further advanced by the meetings of the British Association, 
as may be seen in various periodical journals, which are too 
many to enumerate. I will merely mention, that the report of 
Mr. Thompson, on the Zoology of Ireland, is a valuable and 
lucid essay which faithfully exhibits the subject, and seems to 
me worthy of imitation. The union into one of the two best 
magazines of natural history, which took place last year, is 
chiefly owing to the departure for America of Mr. Charles- 
worth, the young editor of one of them.* Science, however, 
will be no loser, if by means of the English privileges of im- 
partiality and freedom of insertion, the surviving journal con- 
tinues to maintain its former reputation. I cannot omit to 
mention the importance of the Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society^ although they have been so roughly censured by an 
eminent author. What shall I say of their Transactions, pub- 
lished with so much careful attention and splendour ? Mean- 
time, the Transactions of more ancient origin, such as those of 
the lannaean, the Wemerian, the Boyal, and other Societies, 

* Mr. Charlesworth has since returned, and is now Curator of the 
Museum of the York Literary and Philosophical Society. — Ed. 

9 



10 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

still continue to be published. The Library of Natural His- 
tory^ edited by Sir W. Jardine, continues to flourish with the 
progress of science ; and among its many merits, I consider 
the greatest to be, that it fayours the diffusion of knowledge, 
by the low price at which these learned and elegant treatises, 
adorned with excellent coloured figures, may be purchased. 
This eulogium is fiilly justified by the latest yolumes, including 
those of Hamilton Smith on Dogs and Horses, and especially 
that of Waterhouse on the Marsupials. The zoological 
volumes of the Library of Entertaining Knowledge are no 
less deserving of praise, as well as the learned ones of Lard- 
ner*8 Cyclop€edia, and the articles scattered, alphabetically^ 
by the pen of a Broderip, in the widely circulated Penny 
Cyclopasdia, which has served as a model to so many similar 
works. 

SWEDEN. 

Sweden has not departed from the station to which Lin- 
naBus raised her. In the department of Yertebrata (to which, 
as you are aware, I confine this sketch), her eminence is 
worthily sustained by Professor Nilsson, who occupies himself 
with equal success in all the four classes, and has shown him- 
self a complete master of each, in his Fauna Scandinaviea. 
This work is unfortunately written in the Swedish language, 
which is very unfavourable to the diffusion which it deserves, 
and the same is also the case with his other work, the IHu- 
minade Figurer till Skandinaviena Fauna, That author has 
informed me, that he is also preparing a special work on the 
PhocidcB, of which he has carefully studied the specimens pre- 
served in the museums of Berlin, London, and Paris. Nor 
can I pass by a valuable letter, which he has lately written to 
me, in which he clearly proves, that the Lepua timidus of Lin- 
n»us, and more particularly the species described in the 
Fauna Suecica, is not the common hare of the continent of 
Europe, which does not occur in Scandinavia at all, but is 
the Lepua variabilis of Pallas, as is clearly shown, by the 
phrase oestate cinereus hyeme semper albus, and especially by 
10 



IN EUROPE — SWEDEN. 11 

the character, cavda ahrupta^ semper alba. In that hare, 
moreoyer, Nilsson recognises two distinct forms, which I would 
regard as two good species, and the rather, because the hares 
of different countries seem to me not to have been sufficiently 
compared. The same naturalist has recognised six Swedish 
species, of that very difficult genus, Le/nrnua or Arvieolay viz., 
— the norwegicvs^ the amphibms, a new species from Lap- 
land, which he calls mediua, the arvalis, the rutilus^ and the 
glareola. He has also discovered in Scania, the most southern 
province of Sweden, the Mus hetulmus of Pallas, which he 
clearly proves not to be a Mus^ but to belong, in reality, to 
the very distinct genus, Sminthua. Nor ought I to pass over 
some facts, from which he advises me to cancel my Scmrus 
itaUcus, but which rather confirm the existence of a* species 
hitherto mistaken by others. I beg, therefore, the meeting to 
test this species, by the very rules which my learned opponent 
suggests, referring to the skulls which I here exhibit. A 
more just objection is made by him to the criticism of 
Temminck, on the shortness of the claws in the Plates 6 and 
7 of his Lagopus subaJpitms, a critique which originated in 
Temminck not being aware, that the bird changes not only its 
feathers but its claws, which last are longest only in winter ; a 
provision which adapts it to scratch the hardened snow, just 
as the white plumage enables it to remain unobserved by rapa- 
cious animals, upon the whitened surface of the ground. The 
light thrown by Nilsson on the Ichthyology of the Baltic is 
well known ; I will merely mention one of his more recent dis- 
coveries, viz., — ^an obscure species of Salmonidce from that 
region, and a second species of the Mediterranean genus, 
Argentina. In that country also is continued, and now nearly 
completed, the purely Iconographic work of Wright, on the 
Birds of Sweden. Sundevall also, who has given us an orni- 
thological system, abounding in sound science, continues to 
publish, in the Swedish periodicals, the descriptions of various 
birds of that country. Let us unite in lamenting the death of 
the Ichthyologist Fries, and let us be thankful, that his surviv- 
ing colleague, Erkstrom, continues in a praiseworthy manner, 
the magnificent work on the Fish of Scandinavia, which they 
11 



12 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

published in common^ and which has already thrown much 
light on the Fish of Europe, including eren the southern parts. 
And although some errors occur in it, they certainly appear 
to arise not from negligence or from wrong yiews, but from 
hypercriticism. The continuation of this work is rendered the 
more valuable, now that Sundevall has joined in the undertaking, 
and the Latin translation which accompanies it will make it 
more extensively known. 



DENMARK. 

Denmark also contributes to the advancement of Zoological 
Sciencci It is from thence that Lund departed to South 
America, where he has collected a rich harvest of antediluvian 
animals. The Transactions also of their Academies testify to 
Danish science, as do the writings of Professor Reinwardt, 
and among which I ought specially to mention his excellent 
description of the celebrated Bogmaro^ a Fish of the genus 
Trachypterus ; also the Danish Ichthyology, in course of pub- 
lication by Kroyer, who, moreover, has published a Journal 
of Natural History since the year 1836. 



RUSSIA. 

The vast empire of Russia is also powerful in Science, of 
which we have an incontrovertible proof, in the honourable 
rivahry between the two Academies of Moscow and Petersburg. 
Nor let us wonder, that it flourishes under the direction of an 
Ouwarow, who gave us a written proof of his great and valuable 
interest in the Italian Congress. After the impulse given by 
the long desired publication of the Fauna Rossica of Pallas, a 
Erynicki, an Eichwald, a M^n^tries, a Brandt, a Nordmann, 
strove to reap the well sown field. Of M. Brandt's writings, 
I have only seen the first and second parts of his SpicHegia 
OmitJiologica, which make me impatient for their continua- 
tion, inasmuch as the learning there exhibited, would do honour 
12 



IN EUROPE — RUSSIA. 13 

to countries which boast of being far more ciyilized. The 
recent labours of the same author, on the Pelecanidce and the 
Alcidce, rival his former writings on the Hystrices and the 
Solenodon. 

We may here speak of a Russian work, though printed at 
Paris in the French language ; the Travels in South Russia 
of Prince Demidoff, who after himself directing an expedition 
that would do honour to a state, whether we consider the 
individuals that composed it, or the measures taken to ensure 
the most successful results, has spared no effort to render his 
work perfect, accompanied as it is with all the typographic 
splendour which the French metropolis supplies. The zoolo- 
gical part of the work is wholly from the pen of Nordmann, 
who has also superintended the execution of the magnificent 
plates, among which those of Mammalia and Fish are specially 
to be admired. The text supplies a desideratum in the Euro- 
pean Fauna, which was very deficient in its eastern portion ; 
and it will, therefore, deserve an attentive examination. Of 
the Batrachians no notice is taken, and some orthographical 
errors have occurred to me, which sometimes obscure the 
sense; as, for instance, the Serpent, called Callopeltis leo- 
pardimis, has no other resemblance with Ccelopeltis than that 
of the name. Useful observations, however, I need hardly 
remark, are deduced from every part of the work, and the two 
following have occurred to me in merely turning over the 
pages : — ^The Pleuronectea nasutvs of Pallas, is nothing else 
than the Sole of Porro (Solea laacaris of Bisso) ; an inspection 
of the plate of the Callionymua festwua, has convinced me, 
that it is my Callionymus dracunculuSf the fish so called by 
Bondeletius and Linnaeus. The especial memoir on the 
Pastor roaeus, whose habits were not previously well known, 
is deserving of all praise. The observations on the Scales of 
Fish, by Professor Mandl, are the more important, because 
they serve to correct some misconceptions of Agassiz, although 
they are far from weakening his theory on the growth of scales, 
which is the foundation of his system of Ichthyology. 



13 



14 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 



PRUSSIA. 



Returning from Russia towards Germany, and resting a 
while in Prussia, I behold in her capital a museum, which, 
in many branches, especially in Ornithology, is the richest in 
the world. Its director. Professor lichtenstein, continues to 
occupy himself chiefly with Mammalia, and with Monographs 
of Aquatic Birds. Wiegmann, the oracle of Erpetology, having 
died without publishing his long expected work on Serpents, I 
am fortunate in possessing his last words of censure against 
those who claiming high authority, make a chaotic confusion 
of si)ecies, and his exhortations to their successors to act 
otherwise. With his loss, however, we fortunately have not 
to regret the cessation of his most precious Archiv fiir Natur- 
geschictej as Professor Erichson will devote himself with equal 
attention and diligence to that publication. And if the Me- 
moirs of Nathusius on the Sorices, of Keyserling and Blasius 
on the VespertilionioUBj of Erohn on the Metamorphoses and 
Generation of the Sygnathi and Hippocampi, and of Bur- 
meister on the Corneous Integuments of the Tarsi of Passerine 
Birds, which Aimish a good method for their classification, 
sufficed to raise that journal to great renown, the no less 
valuable labours of its present editor, which are there em- 
bodied, will equally maintain its reputation. This author is 
chiefly devoted to the Invertehrata, while in regard to Ver- 
tebrata, it will suffice to mention the valuable treatise of 
Wagner on the Rodentia. Muller and Henle, names which 
are inseparable, whether they treat of profound anatomical 
doctrines, or of the right determination of distinct species of 
Fish, have completed their work on the Plagiostomi, of which 
the second and concluding fasciculus, that which treats of the 
RaiicUB, yields in no respect to that on the Squalidce, which 
has been so universally admired. Henle, moreover, has pub- 
lished independently an important Memoir on the Lingual Ap- 
paratus of Reptiles, compared anatomically. The posthumous 
work of Nitzsch, entitled Pterologia, is continued to be pub- 
lished, and unquestionably supplies new means for classifying 
14 



IN EUROPE — PRUSSIA. 15 

birds. The Acta Natures OurioBorum speak for themselres, 
as do the writings of the various professors of Bonn, and those 
of the celebrated Prince Maximilian of Wied, from whom we 
have, besides the descriptions of two most interesting species 
of Rodentiay two new species of North American birds, Zona- 
trichia comatay Wied, in the FringillincB, and Oymnorhinus 
cyanocephalus in the GarruUnoB^ the last of which forms 
a distinct genus, to which I feel bound to propose the name 
of Cyanocephalus as generic, the name giyen by the author 
haying been preyiously occupied. 

Gloger has lately added to his many zoological works, an 
European Ornithology ^ deserving of high praise, of which we 
are expecting to receive the concluding volume. This author 
pushes, to an undue extent, the mania for restricting species, 
a useful but often dangerous tendency, and not unfrequently 
fallacious, an instance of which is furnished, among others, 
by the triumph of our countryman, Savi, respecting the 
Sorea etruacua, in which it were desirable that he had exer- 
cised more moderation. Directly opposed to Gloger, is the 
well known Brehm, who continues to multiply species ad in- 
fimtvm, and not content with those which he has already 
created, he re-examines them daily, to extract from their 
ranks one or more new ones, a practice as you know already 
sufficiently exposed. The reader, however, who neglects to 
study this work, will deprive himself of many philosophical 
views, which indeed are not always able to emerge from the 
reality of facts without the aid of fancy. Whoever may have 
an opportunity of visiting Brehm, in his house, will admire a 
vast collection of birds, living and dead, in skeletons, models, 
and drawings. We might well say, that no one has studied 
the habits of birds more than Brehm, were it not for the 
Naumanns, which family for three generations has occupied 
itself with this curious and useM branch of natural history. 
So warm is their zeal, that they have constrained Nature, 
in order to procure and render familiar the winged tribes ; one 
spot they have clothed with forests, another they have converted 
into a marsh; they have turned aside rivulets, and reared 
plantations of various foreign trees ; not to mention the new 
15 



16 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

kinds of bird-lime, the new nets and the new cages, which they 
haye inyented and constructed. The present Naumann, after 
collecting and sifting the knowledge of his predecessors, and 
perfecting it by means of the growing light of the a^, is now 
completing the last yolume of a work, which excels all others 
of the same class, no less in the completeness of the text, than 
in the accuracy of the plates. 

Proceeding to visit Northern Germany, we meet with Messrs. 
Blasius and Eeyserling, who after haying employed themselyes 
on a Monograph of the European VespertilionidcB, haye un- 
dertaken to giye a descriptiye Catalogue of the Vertebrata of 
that portion of the world, a most useftd task indeed, but of 
which I will not now speak in detail, as the questions on which 
I differ from those authors will be sufficiently elucidated when 
my work on the same subject is published. The descriptions 
of the Mammalia and Birds are already issued, and those of the 
Beptiles and Fish are anxiously expected. In Frankfort on the 
Main, Dr. Biippell, now deserted by Professor Cretzschmaer, 
who seems to haye bidden farewell to our science, has com- 
pleted the ample yolume of his Fauna von Abyssinien. We 
haye also, from the same author several monographs, one on 
Ceblepyris, another on the Swans (among which he enumerates, 
to my surprise, the Cairina moschata), and he promises to 
publish others. 

Southern Germany beholds new works published daily, but 
not of such importance, since the deaths of Spix, Wagler, and 
Michahelles. The supplements to the work of Schreibers on 
Mammifers are still continued. Besides the great work pub- 
lished at Darmstadt, I have received a periodical publication 
on the Birds of Europe, by Susemilh, which will now acquire 
fame, from the care bestowed on it by the celebrated Schlegel. 
There is also a treatise by F. Berge, on the Propagation of 
Birds, containing figures of their eggs. Some articles on 
Zoology occur in the Journal of Dr. Bohatzsch, published at 
Munich. The celebrated Tiedemann, by studying daily the 
brains of animals, and by weighing, measuring, and analysing 
them in every way, has succeeded in distinguishing the species 
even when closely allied, more especially of the Q^adru7nana 
16 



IN EUROPE — SOUTHERN GERMANY. 17 

and Camiuoray by the drcumyolutions of the brain. He is now 
preparing to publish a magnificent work, with plates, repre- 
senting particularly the brains of the FeUdce^ from which we 
may expect some important principles for future researches on 
the Animal Kingdom. 

At Vienna, Natterer haying returned from a lengthened 
sojourn of sixteen years in Brazil, has brought with him, as 
is said, the largest collection of Brazilian Birds hitherto 
known, amounting to more than a thousand species ; and we 
cannot therefore be sufficiently urgent, that he will soon de- 
cide on making them known. Nor has he confined himself 
to collecting Ornithology only, since we frequently see remark- 
able animals of other classes published, which are said to be 
the fruit of his expedition. Among these I will merely men- 
tion the famous Lepidosiren^ the description of which he 
entrusted to Fitzinger, who, as well as Bischoff and others, 
belieyed it to be the last link of the Batrachians, although 
furnished with scales, whilst I, persuaded by the profound 
anatomical researches of Owen, do not hesitate to class it 
with Fishes. 

Fitzinger, from whom we expect researches of still greater 
interest, continues to issue detached memoirs, which are always 
of yalue, such as that on Crocodiles in the Annalen dee Wiener 
Muaeuma der Naturgeschicte, a work which, I regret to say, 
is no longer published. In these Annals, the famous Heckel, 
the curator of the ichthyological portion of the Vienna Mu- 
seum, and the inyentor of a yery useful instrument, which he 
calls an Ichthyometer, for the measurement of fish (which being 
thus defined by certain formulaa, may be drawn without seeing 
them), has published yarious memoirs which emulate each othw 
in merit. He sent me seyeral new genera, accurately defined, 
that I might include them in my writings on fish ; and more 
recently, he has informed me of a new inhabitant of the fresh 
waters of eastern Europe, which he calls Aulopyge^ most re- 
markable for haying the anal fin perforated, and also for its 
affinity to the Anoiblepa of South America. 



17 B 



18 St ATE OP ZOOLOGY 



SWITZERLAND. 

An humble eottage in Switzerland was the cradle of Scientific 
Congresses, which Italy now beholds in gilded marble saloons, 
thanks to the love of science which certain of her princes ex- 
hibit, on these occasions especially, as an example to others. 
It was there that these Congresses were founded by the worthy 
GK>sse, whose accomplished son honours this meeting with his 
presence, and from them the celebrated Oken originated those 
of Germany, from which, rather than from the later Associa- 
tions of France and Britain, you are well aware that our 
Congresses are modelled. The annual recurrence of these 
meetings in the Swiss Bepublic, proyes abundantly, that no 
other country of the world includes so many men of science in 
so small an area. Another proof of it is to be found in the 
various collections of Academical Memoirs, among which the 
most distinguished in the present year are, the Transactions 
of the Helyetic Society, and the Mmioires de la Societe dee 
Sdencea Natarellea de Neufchatel. Neufchatel is a comer of 
the world, illuminated by the presence of an Agassiz ; of that 
Agassiz, who, in the morning of his life, launched into such 
reputation, that the Academies of Rome, of Paris, of London, 
of Petersburg, of America, strove to enrol him among their 
members. He continues with success his great work on Fossil 
Fish, and has at last issued the first specimens of that other 
magnificent work on the Fresh-water Fish of Central Europe, 
the plates of which, illuminated in water colours, and silvered 
in a manner entirely new, surpass in truth and splendour every 
other work of a similar description. It was fortunate for him, 
that the British Congress preceded that of Turin (to which, as 
you are aware, he communicated a most important letter re- 
specting Italian fossils), as he was well repaid with interesting 
observaticms made in richer regions, and in the fame which he 
earned, by proving that all the surface of the British Islands 
had once been covered with perpetual ice; although his fa- 
tiguing exertions and the rigour of the climate injured his 
health, so that being unfitted for profound study, and having 
IS 



IN EUROPE — SWITZERLAND. 19 

fallen into a nerrous state, he reposed unwillingly for some 
months. In the midst of this repose howeyer, he employed 
himself usefully in compiling a uniyersal Nomenclator of all 
the Genera of the Animal Kingdom, for which vast work he 
has collected more than 17,000 words, of which already more 
than 700 hare proved to he used in duplicate. To render more 
perfect this well-conceiTed undertaking, he has resolyed to 
submit the respectiye classes to those who are more especially 
devoted to one or other of them; and he has done me the 
honour of requesting my revision of the ornithological portion, 
in which he has already collected 1700 genera, to be followed 
by the Ichthyology which I have also in hand. I now exhibit 
to the section a slight specimen of this work. This learned 
naturalist intended to have spent the summer among the moun- 
tains in his vicinity, then to publish another part of his Poia- 
sons FossUes^ and then to anticipate the arrival of this 
Congress, being desirous of first visiting with me the Maritime 
Alps ; but the projects which he meditated were interrupted 
by the unfortunate episode of his illness. Under such a man 
who can doubt of the daily advancement of the Neufchatd 
Museum, patronised as it is by the patriotic feeling of those 
learned dtizena, and assisted by M. Goulon? Greneva, that 
focos <^ civilization, is not confined to sheltering illustrioufif 
botanists ; once the abode of the two. Decandolles, of Duby, of 
Moricand, and others, she now boasts of a Fictet, who, not 
content with the fame which be aDqmrod by the study of In- 
sects, has now given us eKeelle^it illustrfutions of new Verte* 
bratay preserved in the flourishing museum of that city. The 
oriental plague in Syria has carried off Dr. Otth, the pride of 
Berne, whece idly repose his colled^ons and precious manu- 
scripts, which, in a less, turbulent and mpre studious city of 
Switzeriand, would have been aj]*eady publi^ed, as a rare 
treat to the cultivators of natural science. All Switzerland is 
peopled with active naturalists and adorned with museums. I 
will rest a moment at Zurich, where the Saxon, Okeai has hifif 
peaceful abode, and continues to edit the Isis, perhaps the 
most scientific journal of natural hist<M7, not in Germany 
merely, but in the whole world. He has lately finished his 
19 



20 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

great philosophical work on the whole of natural history, in 
which he has developed new and lofty theories, which, if to 
some they appear rather extravagant, are admitted hy all to 
he most ingenious. There are none of us who do not regret 
the absence of a man to whom literature and science are so 
much indebted. Zurich may also boast of haying given birth 
to that unwearied compiler. Professor Schinz, who has this 
year published a work on the Vertebrata of Europe, not in- 
deed very well digested, and void of criticism, yet very useful, 
as containing every species, though they may be derived from 
books rather than from nature. 



HOLLAND. 

The natural sciences flourish at present in Holland more than 
ever. This is shown by numerous publications, written, for 
the most part, in a language which is scarcely or not at all 
familiar to the generality ; and by the prizes offered for the 
solution of certain questions, a specimen of which you have in 
the programme, which I now lay before you, of the Society of 
Science at Haerlem, a society to which I am proud to belong, 
and to be its representative on this occasion. The last volume of 
the Transactions of this Society, just now published, contains, 
among other papers, two, which, though foreign to Zoology, 
are of such importance, that I will here mention them, in order 
to make them known in Italy. One is by Herr Eeitzing of 
Nordhausen, in Prussia, on the Metamorphoses of certain 
A IffCB, and their development into plants of a higher organization ; 
the other is by the celebrated Martins of Erlang, on the fecun- 
dation of vegetables. The richness of the museums of Holland 
has become proverbial, but they all are eclipsed by the national 
collection at Leyden, which, under the direction of a Tem- 
minck, aided by a Schlegel, a De Hahn, and a Beinwardt, has 
acquired a lustre, which equals, and even surpasses the most 
celebrated ones hitherto formed. Wonderful, above all, is the 
collection of skeletons, which is such, that no one can hence- 
forth adequately treat of Zoosteology, without first having 
20 






IN EUROPE — HOLLAND. 21 

recourse to this maryellous depository. In the court yards of 
this museum lires the gigantic American Salamandride, which 
in consequence of the decided opinion of those professors as to 
its being a true Salamander, it fell to my lot to call Sieboldia ; 
a name which it has been afterwards yainly attempted to change 
into Megahbatrachus, and more recently (therefore less ex- 
cusably) into Cryptobranchtis ; but I shall the more earnestly 
insist on the former appellation, because it commemorates the 
famous Dr. Siebold, who brought this Amphibian all the way 
from Japan, with other most interesting curiosities. 

Temminck has concluded the series of his Planches Goto- 
rieesy forming a sequel to those of Buffon, and accompanied 
by an index which has hardly equalled expectation. He has 
also completed the fourth yolume of his Manuel cCOmitho^ 
loffiey which had been long expected, and in which is included 
a supplement to the preceding yolumes, and a considerable 
number of species, either wholly unpublished, or new to the 
European fauna. A good work, on the Birds of this quarter 
of the globe, would hare been much less imperiously wanted, 
if Temminck's Mantiel d*Omithologie, praised as it has been, 
especially in France, had been improved in its classification, 
its style, its arrangement of the descriptions (which, however, 
are yery characteristic), and its notices of habits. The same 
naturalist has resumed, after a long interval, his very useful 
Monographs of Mammalia, among which the most anxiously 
expected was that intended to clear up the genus Vespertilio^ 
more especially as the publication of his researches on these 
animals had been retarded more than twenty years. As long 
ago as 1830, I remarked in my Oeservazioni aulla seeonda 
edizione del Regno Animale del Cuvier, '* I shall abstain from 
saying more on the Ghiroptera (of America) to which I at one 
time gave my attention, but afterwards entrusted the specimens 
which I had collected to the learned Temminck, who is in a 
position to make a better use of them than I can do." We 
may therefore conclude, that he has devoted very little time 
to this subject during these twenty years, for notwithstanding 
his inunense materials, and the aid which he has received from 
every side, the work would have afforded us but little light if 
21 



22 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

its drfects had been less prominent. Pennit me, therefore, to 
mention a few of these points, especially as it is an opinion 
which I hare elsewhere maintained, that to correct the errors 
of eminent writers is the most effoctnal means to adrance 
sdence, while the great yeneratioa which is entertained tor 
Tenuninck, and his ex cathedrd tone, tiay ih some cases 
prove fatal to truth. Not to enter on the discusrion of classi- 
fications and the limitations of groups, which are matters of 
abstract opinion, I will here only remark upon ^edes, which 
beyond all doubt, are matters of fact. His Vespertilio bra- 
ehyotu8^ BailK, is nothing else than the V. pipiatrellue. The 
Vespertilio sehreihersi is perhaps the same with Miniopteru8 
ursinii of my Fauna Italica^ in the description of which he 
.considered that the account of the teeth was wanting (of 
which, on the contrary, I gaye a most minute description). 
This arose from his not knowing the proper place to seek it, 
for I haying giyen these characters under the genus, could not 
repeat them under the species. The Vespertilio limnopkilus 
published by him as new in Plate 48. of the work, is the Fe*- 
pertiUo dasycnemus of Boi^. In regard to the two European 
species of Plecotus (a most excellent genus, notwithstanding 
his facetious remarks, now that it is restricted within due 
limits), he would haye done much better to omit my aiurikta 
and my brevtmamts, rath^ than the aiiritus and the camutue 
of Faber, which are all one. It is true, that my brevimanu» 
is diflfwent from that of Jenyns, which Temminck, with good 
reason, regards as the young of the auritus. He did not per- 
ceiye, and I therefore announce it the more readily, tltat my 
VespertiUo emarginatus^ of which he says my figulie represents 
it exactly, is in fact the V, nattereri^ which I haye recently 
discovered also at Sestri. Possibly, there occurred to Tem- 
minck (whose figure is evidently copied from that of 6eoffi*oy), 
that which I confess happened to myself, the failing to recog- 
nise the true emarginaius in the Paris Museum, where I 
made the strictest search in company with Isidore Geofiroy 
St. Hilaire, son of the founder of the species, which I would 
gladly have recovered, as thie name of emarginatus ought to 
be retained for the species of Bat described by him. His 
22 



IN EUROPE — ^HOLLAND. 23 

Veapertilio megapodms is evidently my capaccinii, of which I 
may add, that the Ve^ertilio dasypvs, of the Turin Museum, is 
a synonyme. As I now wish to raise this species to the dignity 
of a genus, I shall call it Capa^nius megapodms, being oyer 
desirous of honouring a most worthy prelate, whom I would 
gladly see sitting where he delights to sustain the honour of 
Roman learning, especially in our assemblies. The Vesper^ 
tilio kum^ralis is not a good species, but only a yariety of 
mystacinus. The Vispistrellus is nothing else than the Vesper* 
tilio kuhli. And here we may remark, that Sayi will lose this 
as well as others of his species, as among Birds he loses his 
Emheriza palnstris, which is identical with the Emheriza 
pyrrhuloidea of Pallas. Another more magnificent and more 
recent work, which is also under the direction of Temminck, 
and does great honour to the typography and calchography 
of Holland, are the Illustrations of the island of Java; the 
last number of which contains a most interesting new genus of 
Marsupial. Schlegel continues his coloured representations of 
Amphibia, of which I have just receiyed the fourth fasciculus, 
containing, among other things, the figures of many Salaman- 
dridcBy among which I rejoice to see figured the celebrated Pleu- 
rodeles, which I strongly recommended to the scalpel of our 
countryman, Busconi, and which is accurately drawn with the 
very sharp ribs projecting beyond the skin. I cannot, however, 
abstain from expressing my regret, at seeing there repeated, 
among the Italian Salamanders, those words introduced equi- 
vocally, and now admitted to be erroneous, ^' video m^liora 
proboqtie, deteriora sequor^ It is superfluous to say, that 
in his own mod^n writings, Schlegel continues to increase 
that spirit of ultra reunion, which I need not have alluded to, 
if that fatal school had not invaded our own country. It is a 
mischievous inconsistency in his principles, that while restrict- 
ing species, he yet multiplies their names, by giving a new 
term to the species which embraces the former ones ; a fatality 
which persecutes Zoology I And to say the truth, the daz- 
zling style of Schlegel, the confidence with which he lays down 
his own opinion, often indeed a just, and never a trifling one, 
frequently induce the reader to despise the object which he 
23 



24 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

attacka. This is not the place to bring forward the manj 
errors of fact, contained in his fascinating chapter on the 
geographical distribution of the Ophidia, which I shall do on 
another occasion, with the respect which is due to such a man, 
and to so great a personal friend ; who has now implied him- 
self, and I see the announcement with joy, to a work on the 
Cetaceay which will certainly throw light on a subject, which 
notwithstanding the recent labours of F. Cuyier and of Lesson, 
is still very obscure. 



BELGIUM. 

TuRNiNQ towards Belgium, we find, that when she separated 
from Holland, she carried with her her due share of literary 
fame. My friend Cantraine, who was of such service to Tem- 
minck and to the Leyden Museum, now worthily occupies the 
chair of Natural History in the Uniyersity of Ghent, and 
although he prefers the study of Molluaea^ in which he has 
produced several descriptive and anatomical works, and is 
preparing others, he is also successfully occupied with Verte- 
hrata ; and among his other writings, has published an excel- 
lent Memoir on the Fish Ruivettua of SicUy and of Madeira. 
The Memoirea de VAcademie Royale des Sciences de Brux- 
elleSy afford us not a few papers of much value, among which 
I will notice a Monograph of the Dolphins with plates, a sub- 
ject, as all know, that supplies a desideratum in science, very 
little being known of these fish-like animals so renowned in 
fable. This work we owe to M. Wesmael, who is also known 
for his entomological papers, especially that on the Instinct of 
Insects. The researches in Zoology and Comparative Anatomy 
by Wambeem, in the same Transactions, deserve honourable 
mention, though they relate principally to Mollusca. 

The zoological labours of the active spirit of Dumortier 
are also well known, especially those on the crania of Orang- 
outangs, and the philosophical inductions which he draws 
from them. He only admits one species of these animals, not- 
withstanding the diversity in the cranium, which sometimes 
24 



IN EUROPE — BELGIUM. 25 

.exhibits d. simple fronto-parieto-occipital crest, and sometimes 
presents it of enormous size and doable. He shows, that the 
Simla resembles Man in regard to its structure when young, 
and gradually becomes less human as it grows older, while 
Man, the older he grows, by the wisdom which he acquires, 
approaches always more, and more to God. Science is also 
not a little indebted to another Belgian legislator, the active 
secretary of the Chamber, Baron Dubus, who has giren us 
many descriptions of new species of Birds, and haying now dis- 
tributed them into decades, is about to publish figures of them. 
Anatomical researches on Man and Animals are daily extended 
by M. Burgraeye, whose anatomical and physiological museum 
attracts the admiration of strangers. The uninterrupted re- 
eearches oi the celebrated astronomer, Quetelet, on Social 
PhyaieSy or in other words, the natural history of Man, in- 
cluding his circulation, physical deyelopment, &c., must not be 
forgotten, as they will lead to admirable results. But the most 
Jealous and meritorious of the zoologists of Belgium, whence 
he diffuses his knowledge to more extended regions, is M. de 
iSelys Longchamps, whose affability and learning the sayants 
of Italy had an opportunity of appreciating at the Congress 
t)f Turin. Without speaking of his writings on the LibellaUB^ 
which do not fall within our scope, I will commemorate his 
well known Etudes de Micramammalogie, which will throw so 
much light on the genera Mua and Arvicola^ not to mention 
his Catalogue of the Mammifers of Europe. He is now extend- 
ing his researches to the genus VespertiliOy and to the yery 
intricate fresh-water Fish of his country, among which he 
describes thirty species of C^mnidoe. I haye lately received 
from him a valuable letter, in which he admirably establishes 
the differences between the much confused Vespertilio nat- 
tererij emarginatuSj mystacmvs^ d/mbenton% and douycfie- 
mu8y for which he has laid down excellent characters ; and 
he promises me perfect specimens, which I hope to receive 
in time to lay before this section, as he will be prevented 
from attending in person. All these undertakings are only a 
prelude to his greater work, the Faune Beige, which we are 
daily expecting. For the absence from this meeting of those 
25 



26 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

eminent Belgians, we are abundantly recompensed, by the 
presence of Professor Morren, whom we all esteem as excelling 
in many branches of natural science, an actiye promoter of 
useful discussions, and admirably chosen by his wise king and 
by the Academy of Brussels, to represent the science of 
that learned and industrious nation. 



FRANCE. 

It cannot be doubted, that France preserres her ancient 
scientific renown, notwithstanding the petulance of those who 
would wish to detract from it. Paris is eyer the great c^itre 
of attraction, wherefore the attempts of those persons are most 
praUeworthy, who endeavour to transfer a portion of the light 
of science from this absorbing focus, to the rays and circumfe^ 
rence of the circle, a tendency which we perceive in the annual 
Congresses, and in the recent establishment of the Provincial 
Institute, which now has its abode at Mans. There are 
founded also, in every region of France, new museums and 
schools, while the old ones are increased and adorned on every 
side. Bordeaux has, for many years, boasted of her lannsean 
Society; she may now be proud of the " Actes'' of that 
society, and of the museum lately entrusted to the care of 
Gachet. Marseilles daily enlarges her museum, and especially 
enriches it with specimens from AMca ; thanks to the care of 
the indefatigable Barthelemy de la Pommeraye, who honours 
this meeting by representing his country, and who is the 
possessor of many new species, two of which, very interesting 
from their resemblance to their European congeners, I have 
described in the Revue Zoologique. Avignon too boasts, that 
amidst her turretted walls rises a museum, which, with many 
otiher philanthropic institutions, she owes to the care of her 
deservii^ citizen Bequien. Aries, the birthplace of Laugier, 
the sharer of Temminck's labours, although it no longer 
possesses the celebrated collection which served as a ground- 
work for the Planches Calorie^, still retains a respectable 
museum, which is especially rich in the products of that French 
26 



IN EUROPE — FRANCE. 27 

Africa, La Orau, Nismes boasts not only of an interesting 
^nerd collection, but a special one of the Ornithology of the 
Department of Gard. Montpellier has not fallen from her 
ancient fame, and though in the branch of science which now 
concerns us, she has lost a Dug€s, she yet contains several 
scientific men, including Professor Lallemand, whom we hare 
seen amongst us, and from whom we have some yaluable 
obserrations on the supposed spermatic Animalcules. Stras- 
burg, a city that shares in the adrantages of France and of 
Germany, desenredly selected as the seat of the tenth scientific 
Congress of France, possesses a museum which has long been 
celebrated, as well tar the professors which formerly adorned 
it, as for those which adorn it still, of whom we haye an 
eminent example in our colleague M. F^e. Metz, happily 
situated on that Moselle, which was long since celebrated by 
the lyre of Ausonius, boasts of two faunas in its department, 
one preferable to the other. Bochefort is the abode of Lesson, 
who is oyer influenced by that tendency of strong minds to 
attempt too much; and if we might express a wish in his 
behalf, it would be, that he might be enabled to appear to 
more adyantage, by residing in cities better supplied with books 
and cabinets. His last work treats of Man and the SimioB* 
The scientific journals are often adorned with his papers, or 
extracts from them. M. Allard, at Montbrisson, attracts the 
attention of naturalists, by his collection of the three kingdoms 
of nature, which recdyes daily additions and improyements. 
The nucleus of this collection, was that of Baron Feutrier, 
which still preseryes objects possessed by the fiamous Bufibn. 

Not to be unduly prolix, I confine myself to Normandy, in 
which not only the ancient capital Bouen, but the learned 
city of Caen, and eyen the little Falaise, are decorated with 
Scientific Societies, Transactions^ and Museums. That of 
Bouen is worthily presided over by Professor Pouchet, author 
of a Treatise on Botany, and of an equally yaluable one on 
Zoology, of which the second and improved edition has been 
published in the present year; the only work hitherto in 
which the doctrines of his celebrated master, Blainyille, are 
adequately developed. A devoted friend to this institution, 

27 



28 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

Pouchet, would have come amongst us three years since, had 
not a defect in his hearing induced him rather to await at his 
abode for the volumes of our Transactions. Caen has to boast 
of Professor Desjardins, of Brebisson, and of M. Caumont, 
the founder of Scientific Congresses in France. In Falaise 
resides the most practised ornithologist of France, the Baron 
de Lafiresnaye, worthily connected with the family of Buffon. 
His classification, founded chiefly on the Habits of Birds, is 
the work which most particularly distinguishes him. 

After the death of Cuyier, the sceptre of Zoology, which was 
disputed with him by Geoffroy St. Hilaire, passed into the 
hands of that family, which, in right of succession, is likely 
long to retain it. Paris will be indebted to the young Geofiroy 
for improred arrangements in her museums, which, in the 
ornithological branch especially, by no means equalled the 
expectation of excellence, which, in so great a metropolis, we 
were lustified in entertaining. This eminent naturalist, far 
from being wearied with so'many laborious and nsefnl on- 
dertakings, is now preparing a work which will serve as a 
continuation to the great iconographic publication of his father 
and Frederic Cuyier, holding out to us also the prospect, at 
some future time, of a general Species of Mammifers. 

I want words to praise, in adequate terms, the learned and 
magnificent work of M. Ducrotay de Blainville, another suc- 
cessftd rival to Cuvier, which is the result of forty years of 
unwearied study. In truth, I know not whether most to praise 
the excellence of the descriptive portion, or the erudition 
which accompanies the history of science in each department. 
May we be allowed, however, to wish for a more rigid deter- 
mination of species in this work ? May we venture to say, 
that in order to avoid too great a multiplicity of genera, he 
forms some which are wholly inadmissible? It cannot be 
denied, that he ^s unacquainted with many species, especially 
of VeapertilionidcB. 1 may also add, that he has not weighed 
with much diligence, the characters of several of the genera 
which he has himself cancelled ; such, for instance, as those 
which he incorporates with his Suhursus^ a word constructed 
to suit a theory, and certainly not an acceptable one. Among 

28 



^ 



IN EUROPE — FRANCE. 29 

his scholars, and among those who assist him, the most dis^ 
tingoished is M. Geryais, already well known by several useful 
memoirs. 

The famous Professor Dumeril does not cease from his 
learned and successful studies. In compiling his uniyersal 
Species of Amphibia^ he entrusted a part of the labour to 
M. Bibron, who, it is only justice to say, has exceeded the ex* 
pectation of all the cultiyators of science, and especially that 
of his colleague. This distinguished young man, not honoured 
as yet with chairs or titles, nor enriched by well earned and 
profitable rewards, will ere long be esteemed one of the first 
zoologists of France. It is beautifol to obserre how at erery 
step of the publication of the Erpetologie Oemrale, the orders 
there treated of continually improye, as their arrangement 
proceeds in his hands at the Jardin dee Plantes. These two 
naturalists are now turning their attention to Serpents, which 
will .be comprised in two yolumes ; the publication of the Ba- 
trtxchia, which form the concluding yolume of the work, being 
now anticipated. 

I may here allude to that most useful undertaking of the 
publisher Boret (the worthy editor of the collection of Man- 
uels), who imder the title of Suites d Buffon, a name which 
carries great weight in France, like that of Galepinus in Italy, 
is publishing a series of excellent treatises on the different 
branches of natural history. I regret, that this is not the place 
to speak of those on the Invertehrataj and will only remark, 
that since the death of Desmarest, to whom he had entrusted 
the class of Fish, the selection of his successor will become a 
matter of general interest. Three plans would suit me if I 
were in the position of that editor : — ^First, to contriye by all 
means, that the work should be undertaken by Agassiz, who, 
it cannot be doubted, would render it noyel and important 
in eyery aspect; , secondly, that MM. Dumeril and Bibron, 
should apply to Fish the same energy and acumen which they 
haye shown in treating of Beptiles, in which case eyery one 
might guarantee the yalue of their labours ; or, thirdly, if 
neither of these two plans were practicable, to entrust it to 
the ichthyologist of the day, M. Valenciennes, eyen though 
29 



30 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

he should only give us a second and improved edition of that 
truly excellent work, which he had the honour to commence, 
in conjunction with the great master Guyier, and which he 
has now for some years continued alone. This work has now 
passed the fifteenth volume, and notwithstanding some slight 
defects, is undeniahly heautifiil and useAil in every way, 
although the author finds himself tied down to the somewhat 
antiquated system of the before mentioned master. All the 
other writings of Valenciennes are equally to be praised, and 
especially the ichthyologic portion of the distinguished work 
of MM. Webb and BerthoUet on the Canary Islands. To 
whom shall a chair be given if not to him ? It were better for 
science had he been elected to the Chair of Ichthyology rather 
than of Malacology, a subject which he ever strives, and suc- 
cessfully, to overtake. The cultivators of sdence are them- 
selves subject to malignant stars, and no one experienced them 
more than that esti^nable friend of Cuvier and Humboldt. Milne 
Edwards, the last fortunate rival of Valenciennes in the elec- 
tion to the Institute, is ever the chief zoological contributor 
to the Annales des Sdencea Naturelles. He has published 
ElSmens de Zoologie, but the lower animals seem more 
particularly to attract his studious inquiries. 

M. A. D'Orbigny continues the fine zoological illustrations 
to his Voyage dans FAnierigne Meridianale, in which he has 
announced so many new species. His not less- able brother, 
with other learned coadjutors, has undertaken a new Diction- 
naire d^Histoire NatureUe, the two first volumes of which 
excite favourable hopes. I now lay before you some plates of 
this work, accurately coloured, by which you may judge of their 
inimitable high finish, although the work is of a popular nature 
and moderate price. There has also been published at Paris, 
a Supplement, rendered necessary by the lapse of time, to th^ 
great Dictionnaire dee Sciences Naturelles, which the articled 
by Blainville suffice to render precious. The Armalea.du Muh- 
9mnk dHistoire NaMrelU are published firom time to time, 
and are not unworthy of the great collection of mepoirs t9 
whidi they form a sequel. Tl^ Remie Zoologique de la 
Society Cuvieriemie, edited by Guerin, has now acquired, an 
30 



IN EUROPE — FRANCE. 31 

European fame and use, no less than the rery comprehensiye 
Miigaaia de Zoologie of the same author. The Comptes 
Rendus de T Institute the journal of the same name (Vlnatitut)^ 
which speaks not only of the French scientific bodies, but of 
those of the whole world, Mid the Eco du Mond Savant^ are 
so many sonorous trumpets, which proclaim from Paris the 
progress of the natural sciences. 

M. Bourjeaud de St. Hilaire has giyen us a new yolume on 
Parrots, being a continuation of those of Le Yaillant, much 
inferior, indeed, to that of the English artist Lear, yet not 
wholly deprired of merit. The celebrated Mademoiselle Pau- 
line de CourceUes, now Madame Enip, has commenced, with 
the literary aid of M. Florent Prevost, a writer not sufficiently 
actiye in following the rapidity of her pencil, a new series of 
Pigeons, not comprised in her former work, the text of which 
was written by M. Temminck, and of which a second edition is 
publishing at the same time, as appears by the prospectus 
which I haye laid before you. I should neyer end, were I to 
enumerate all the zoological undertakings, and all the zoolo- 
gists of eminence who adorn the French capital ; I therefore 
take leaye of them, briefly alluding to Prince Massena, whose 
rich zoological collections, we hope, will ere long be made 
pubUc. The entomologists Dejean and Boisduyal, Eiener, 
profoundly occupied with his IconograpMe des CoquilleSj the 
encydopsddic Bory de St. Vincent, who is now at the head of 
a scientific expedition, exploring Algiers (whence we may 
expect a work of not less interest than the magnificent ones 
on Egypt and the Morea, gained for science by the arms of 
France, or than those others which were the fruit of the 
yarious yoyages round the world, of a Freycinet, a D'Uryille, 
and others), do not permit me to leaye Paris without at least 
mentioning their names. 

What shall I say of Lyons J The ninth Scientific Congress 
of France, there assembled from the 1st to the 12th of the 
present month, and at which I proposed to myself the honour 
of attencBng, did not giye me the opportunity of reVisiting this 
illustrious city ; but I was consoled, by reflecting how much 
the clergy of that and other dioceses abound with zealous 
31 



32 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

Cttltiyators of natural science, and how the co-operation, and 
occasional presence, of that eminent Archbishop, the Cardinal 
Bonald, placed in the station of Albo, the first Honorary 
President, would add to the splendour of those meetings ; in 
which it is daily becoming more fit that the ministers of the 
sanctuary should take an active part, inasmuch as they lead by 
a more or less direct path from yisible to inyisible wonders^ 
and by the ministry of the first-bom daughter of God they 
pay homage to the Maker and Founder of all things. But the 
volume of Transactions of that most numerous Congress, which 
is now in the press, will at once give a full account of the state 
of natural science, and of the ever increasing splendour of the 
scientific establishments of the second city of France. In what 
more particularly relates to Zoology, and especially to Yerte- 
brata, the Abb^ Croizet, who supplied to Cuvier, to Blainville, 
and others, so many fossils of his native Auvergne, and who is 
himself well acquainted with these objects, not only filled with 
much honour the office of President of the combined sections 
of Zoology, Botany and Mineralogy^ but exhibited many objects 
of much interest and novelty, and occasionally entered into 
general discussions on the Animal Kingdom. In that city of 
Lyons, are the ornithological collections of M. Fleuret, which is 
very complete in Birds of Europe ; that of Dr. Bifieri ; and the 
fine one of M. Boursier, who was deputed by a Lyonese Society 
to come here, and to whom we owe those fine photogenic draw- 
ings, admired in several sections, and well adapted to repre&ent 
natural objects with ease and fidelity. In his collection are an 
abundance of rare species of Humming Birds, the new ones of 
which he has published in beautiful coloured plates, as you see 
in the specimens which I have presented in his name to the 
section. Would that my prayers could induce him to publish 
the wished for Monograph of the gem-adorned family of 2Va- 
chilidce^ for which his collection^ united with those of lioddiges 
and of Leadbeater, which he could easily visit in England, 
would suffice to supply him with all the materials hitherto 
known. If a person, who like myself, has given but little 
attention to this family, might venture to give him advice on 
the sub-division of these birds, it would be to recommend him 
32 



IN EUROPE — ^FRANCE. 33 

to attach much value to the colours, eren more than to the 
form of the remiges and tail, in forming the various groups. 
The chief boast of that Congress, as he is of the chairs and 
city of Lyons, was M. Jourdan, founder of a museum posses- 
sing double merits. One of these is, that not beii^ complete 
by nature, it is made so by the artifice which M, Jourdan has 
invented, of supplying the absence of the real object by the 
best figure to be obtained, and where this was wanting by the 
name. Thus, at a glance of the eye, one beholds the entire 
state of the Animal Kingdom, and at the same time one per- 
ceives what species are wanting to render the whole complete. 
The other merit of the collection consists in the arrangement 
according to the nervous system, which M. Jourdan considers 
the best for the whole kingdom, and for each of its classes. I 
who follow it in the case of the Mammifers, abstain from re- 
peating the discussions which I held with that eminent profes- 
sor, but confine myself to laying before you, at his request, an 
epitome, not only of this, but of the interesting psychological 
results which he deduces. He considers, that Animals should 
be classed according to their respective degrees of animation 
and sensibility. The circulation of the blood, res{Hration, 
digestion, generation, do not seem to him to correspond with 
the degrees which may be measured by means of the above 
mentioned faculties. The nervous system, on the other hand, 
is always developed in proportion to the sensibility, and on 
this, therefore, Jourdan takes his stand. The more abundantly 
animation is exhibited, the more extensive does the nervous 
synthesis appear. The fly, for instance, is more animated than 
the oyster, and thus the advocate of a single series of beings 
would see assigned to the Artieulata that pre-eminence over 
the Mollusca which was denied to them by Cuvier. Just as 
vegetables and minerals have their sovereign characteristic 
law, so animals have tiieirs in animation, which shows itself by 
means of the sensations producible, in successive degrees, from 
the lowest Insect up to Man, who, combining them all, raises 
them to a yet more elevated point, so that Man, to adopt 
Jourdan's expression, is an animal microcosm. In the three 
lowest divisions of the Animal Kingdom, the sensations only 
33 C 



1 



34 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

indicate instinct, that is to say, the spirit of self-preserration. 
In the fourth, will, or more correctly, intelligence, begins to 
deyelop itself. But in the fifth, composed of the human race, 
appear free-will, reflection, imagination, and abore all, the 
spirit of perfection, which is not found in any other class. 
These progressive degrees are completely indicated by the 
greater or less development of the nervous system. A work 
on the comparative researches into that system, and which 
supplies rules for classification, was lately given me by Signer 
Bazin, entitled ^' Del Sistema Nervosa, delta vita Animale e 
delta vita Vegetahite'^ These are subjects, on which, as all 
must see, an hasty opinion cannot be given. 



SPAIN. 

The Spanish disturbances do not, as yet, permit that nation 
to employ itself successfully on studies which require peace 
and quiet. It is however known, that in certain provinces, 
especially in Catalonia, new museums are being erected, and 
that the Academies are beginning to flourish again, two of 
which, that of Madrid and of Barcelona, we have the pleasure 
to see here represented. 



PORTUGAL. 

Portugal, of which I might repeat the above remark, has 
suffered, besides a great loss in the Prince Augustus of Leuch- 
temberg, the first husband of th^ Queen, an excellent friend 
and patron of the unfortunate Wagler. So great were his 
aims, and his noble intentions for the promotion of natural 
science, which he cultivated and loved beyond all others, ai^ I 
could show to you by the epistolary correspondence with which 
my noble relation favoured me. 



34 



IN EUROPE — ITALY. 35 



ITALY. 

Coming to our own Italy, rich in so many branches of learn- 
ing, that she need not be ashamed if in Zoology she is not 
equally advanced, we have chiefly to deplore the late irre- 
parable loss of M. Camillo Ranzani, the Bolognese professor, 
and one of the first zoologists of Europe, who, a few days be- 
fore his decease, wrote his last Memoir on the Fish of Brazil. 
There was no subject which he undertook which he did not 
penetrate deeply on every side. Oh ! how much we have to 
regret, that he did not finish his Elementi di Zooloffia, and 
especially the Erpetological and Malacological portions, of 
which subjects he had a perfect knowledge. Public opinion has 
already proclaimed, as his successor in the chair of Zoology, 
Professor Antonio Alessandrini, worthily called the Cuvier of 
Italy ; and this appointment would be the more appropriate, 
because it seems reasonable to unite the chairs of Comparative 
Anatomy and Zoology, just as these subjects are united in 
our present section ; whereas, there is little or no connection 
between Zoology and Mineralogy ; both which professorships 
were held together by the deceased naturalist whom I have 
above extolled. 

Signer Bisso, encouraged by the warm and merited recep- 
tion which he experienced at the Turin meeting, is devoting 
himself to &esh labours^ with the additional experience which 
he has acquired, and is chiefly occupied with a monograph of 
the very intricate Labridce of the Mediterranean. The mag- 
nificent ornithological collections of the Marchese Costa at 
Chambery, a city devoted to natural history, increase percep- 
tibly, as do those of the Marchese di Breme at Turin, and of 
Carlo Durazzo at Genoa ; who, while pursuing his researches 
on the Ornithology of his own country, has this year enriched 
Europe with two new species, the Fodiceps longirostris of 
Sardinia, which is wholly new, and the Fuliea criatata of 
Spain, Barbary, Sardinia, and Liguria itself, resembling (at 
least in appearance), the one figured by Bufibn as coming from 
35 



36 STATE OF ZOOLOaY 

Madagascar, a point which remains for verification. It is cer- 
tain, that by the inspection of Chinese drawings, we learn that 
this, or another Fulica equally crested, inhabits the waters of 
that region. Nor can we pass over in silence, the growing col- 
lections of the University of Genoa; nor the worthy professor 
who presides over it ; nor the unrivalled entomologist, Massi* 
miliano Spinola, whose capacious mind embraces at once the 
highest philosophy of the science, and the minute details of 
insects ; nor the zealous naturalist Verany, founder of an in- 
teresting ornithological collection at Nice, a diligent designer 
of animals, and second to none in the knowledge of CephalO' 
poda. But in Turin, undoubtedly the most cultivated city of 
Italy, we need not wonder to see the three chief branches of 
natural history, respectively superintended by three men, equal 
in every virtue and talent, a Gen^, a Moris, a Sismonda. The 
first of these, an eminent zoologist, though entirely devoted to 
editing the Transactions of the Turin Congress, has not wanted 
time or energy to continue his researches on the Animals of 
Sardinia, and to enrich the incomparable museum of which I 
was lately a witness, as well as to study the fresh-water fish 
of that kingdom, from which great results are promised for 
Ichthyology. Dr. Bellingeri ceases not to investigate the 
fecundity of animals, and the development of their intellect^ 
from which researches he deduces many ingenious arguments. 
Favia preserves her ancient lustre, which is amply main- 
tained by Busconi, always intent on his profound studies, 
especially on the Batrdchia, with which he alone has hitherto 
been dissatisfied ; and which will open to us, I feel confident, a 
new field of knowledge, including the anatomy of the Pleuro- 
deles which I discovered in that collection, where for fifty 
years it lay confused with the Tritons and Salamanders. And 
now the country of this distinguished man boasts also in 
respect to Zootomy, of a Panizza, who ever strives for the 
attainment of fame, formerly by means of medical and now 
by natural science, and. whose advancement is likely to be 
aid^d by his ingenious scalpel which he generously dedicates 
to our instruction, of which his excellent Memoir on the Lam- 
prey is a recent example. The rich collection of Serpents, 
36 



IN EUROPE — ITALY. 37 

in that university, has been rendered more precious by the 
learned illustrations of them, undertaken by that actiye dis- 
ciple of Schlegel, Dr. De Filippi, whose profound knowledge 
of anatomy, and of comparative physiology, seems to refute 
the too strong assertion of the Barbassori, that forty years of 
study, and grey hairs, are necessary to make an anatomist. 
Milan, which has been generously enriched with the Decris- 
tofori collection, so well intrusted to the care of Professor 
Balsamo Grivelli, is preparing herself to receive, in a suitable 
manner, the Italian Scientific Congress. And if Dr. De Fi- 
lippi confines himself to the study of Vertebrate Animals, the 
city is more than compensated by her eminent students of 
Malacology, such as the noble Signer Carlo Porro, the able 
compiler of a classed bibliography of that subject; and of 
Entomology, such as the noble Signer Carlo Bassi, who from 
his very infancy gave token that his genius had happily led 
him to that branch of natural history, in which the serenity of 
his mind and of his style does honour to himself and to his 
country. . 

The Venetian provinces yield in nothing to those of Lom- 
bardy, there being one Institute of Science, which is divided in 
equal proportion between both regions. This is not the place 
to speak of many eminent men who compose it. In Venice, I 
will only mention the ornithological collections of Count Con- 
tarini, who has made excellent observations on the Birds of 
that country. The many learned writings of Dr. Nardo, who 
is always engaged in completing his Fauna Adriatica, are 
familiar to you all, as tending to perfect, in every point of 
view, the natural system of Ichthyology. Verona has her 
scientific societies, and thanks to the prudent zeal of her 
citizens, she even has private parties so arranged as to be 
useful to science. The Italian Tyrol also boasts of her col- 
lections. Even from Chioggia the learned city of Padua 
attracted to her library Professor Naccari, who, if he has not 
yet joined this institution, has certainly the merit of having 
been the first to publish the Embryos of Faunae in the form of 
catalogues, and who yields to none in zeal. Belluno, abound- 
ing in Birds, has produced a very useful ornithological synopsis ; 
37 



38 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

and in a valuable work of the geological Professor Catullo, is 
a good list of the Vertebrata of that province. 

Grossing the Adriatic, we see even the semi-barbarous MoU 
daria, establishing, under the patronage of her enlightened 
Hospodar, a natural history society, already rich in facts and 
specimens. Nor is this wonderAil, in an age when the Tartar 
Emperor of CSiina was enrolled in the register of the Academy 
of Brussels. 

Athens, ai|d the Ionian Islands, also nobly strive to cul- 
tivate the natural sciences in those countries. Malta has 
seen the publication of a good Catalogue of the Fish which 
live around her coasts ; and that of the Birds, enriched with 
notes on their manners, is in preparation by Signer Antonio 
Schembri. 

Sicily, more devoted to these sciences than the continental 
parts of the kingdom, beholds, on all sides, the growth of new 
societies, new journals, and new museums. Tou all know» 
gentlemen, the name and the activity of the Accademia Gio- 
enia of Catania. Messina is distinguished among the Sicilian 
cities by Luigi Benoit and Anastasio Cocco. The latter con- 
tinues to throw light, in every way, on the Fish of his own 
country, as is fully shown by his articles in periodical works, 
to which I may add the epistolary correspondence with which 
he obligingly honours me. Benoit has published the Ornito- 
logia SiciUana, a truly useful littl^ work, especially in Sicily, 
although it does not equal the expectations of those who looked 
for an original work on the Habits of Birds, rather than a 
repetition of other authors, who were frequently defective in 
points where it behoved him to have set them right. 

Naples being the city in which the somewhat limited zoo- 
logical science of the continental part of the kingdom seems 
V> be concentrated, has lately beheld the formation of a society 
of young cultivators of natural science, which has already 
produced several useful works, and given promise of more. 
Dr. Oronzio Costa, its founder, who has undertaken a journey 
to France and Britain, has given us some new numbers of his 
Fauna del Regno di Napoli^ so conveniently divided into 
monographs, which, if of but small interest as regards Mam- 

38 



IN EUROPE — ITALY. 39 

mifers and Birds, is more important for the study of Fish, and 
especially of the lower animals. He has published, in yarious 
journals, articles on natural history, and particularly his Cor- 
rispondenza Zoologica, To him also we owe the knowledge 
of the most imperfect of the Vertebrataf the fish Branchios- 
toma, described a short time afterwards by Tarrell, in Eng- 
land, under the name of AmpMoa^us, which is depriyed of the 
organ of smell and taste ; not, howeyer, of eyery trace of eyes 
and of brain, as erroneously supposed by some. In a recently 
established journal, the Antologia di Scienzi Naturally we 
note, with pleasure, the writings of Signer Piria, and of the 
equally well known Signer Archangelo Scacchi. Signer Dalle 
Chiaje, the continuer of Poli, adhering to his anatomical re- 
searches, has published the second yolume of his complete 
physiological work, and an interesting Memoir on the Proteus 
anguinus. 

Entering the Roman State, we find at Yelletri an ornitho- 
logical collection, the property of a lady, the Signora Gontessa 
Borgia, who employs herself profitably with this science. Stop- 
ping too at Terradra, before arriying at this city, I may re- 
mark, that if the clear and cultiyated intellect of an Elisabetta 
Fiorini were applied to Zoology rather than to Botany, in 
which branch she is famed among the highest masters of the 
science, I could with greater fitness exclaim with Ariosto : — 

'* he donne son yenute in eooellenza 
D'ogni bell* arte, in che hanno posto cura/' 

In Bome, we haye collections of natural history, not indeed 
despicable, but far from being proportionate to a city, which 
centuries ago boasted of the famous Kircherian Museimi, or 
to the immense opportunities afforded by the Catholic Propa- 
ganda. These collections are daily enriched by the care of 
Professors Metaxa, father and son, of Dr. Ponzi, and of the in- 
defatigable Signer Riccioli. We owe to the Metaxas an appro- 
priate journal, where not only the medical sciences, but Zoology 
also has a place, by the publication of interesting memoirs 
which their zeal collects from all parts of Italy, with additional 
39 



40 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

materials of their owb. Ichthyology, and especially its atia- 
tomical department, is illustrated by them in useful papers. 
The Oiomale Acadieo, the true foundation of which was laid 
in 1818, by a Lyncean Academy, now existing at Florence, 
includes many memoirs on natural science, which fell within 
the scope of its extensive range, unassisted at first by any 
public money. My own cabinet and my zoological library, 
which my subject obliges me to allude to, being now trans- 
ported from the extremity of the Quirinal Hill to the centre 
of the dty, may aid the student, by furnishing him with appro* 
priate books and objects. You are acquainted with my own 
humble labours, which, by the aid of your intelligence, I shall 
endeayour to render always less unworthy of yoor compassion. 
It is right, that I pass an encomium on the rare collection of 
that zealous cultivator of science. Signer Lavinio Spada 
Medici, rich in minerals and crystals, and abounding in fossil 
bones, collected with much industry. With the death of the 
meritorious Cavalie]:e Abate Scarpellini, it is not right that the 
Accademia dei Lincei^ which he restored, should also perish, 
when, by uniting it with another of great renown, through the 
care of the eminent Lambruschini, the Prefect of the Studies, 
and by the conspicuous zeal of the eminent Cardinal Griusti- 
niani Gamerlengo di Santa Ghiesa, a zeal consistent not only 
with his personal character, but with the office which he sus- 
tains with equal dignity, — ^it will certainly not descend from 
the honourable rank in which it was placed by a Federico 
Gesi, with the aid of so many illustrious men, and especially of 
a Galileo. 

Viterbo possesses the Accademia degli Ardentiy which is 
also concerned with science. Perugia sustains her ancient fam« 
by the men whom she at present boasts of, and by the periodi- 
cal works which she publishes. In natural history, she derives 
fame from a Bruschi, the founder of her Botanic Garden, and 
the author, besides other writings of the most classical wc^rk 
on Natural History that Italy has known; while the total 
privation of sight, which this learned man labours under, 
recalls the verse, — 

" Occhio cieco, divin raggio di mente I" 
40 



L 



IK EUROPE — ITALY* 41 

The venerable Colizzi is famed, not only for his Toluminous 
work on Natural Law, but also for his profound knowledge of 
science, and especially of Chemistry. Besides her public col- 
lections, Perugia shows, with pride, the ornithological one of 
the Marchese Orazio Antinori. Ascoli deserves to be recorded 
for Orsini and his collections. The same may be said of Sini- 
gagli, for Procaccini Bicci and his collection of fossils of every 
class, among which it most concerns us to mention the Fish. 
The Universities of Macerata, of TJrbino, and of Ferrara, have 
also cause for boasting in regard to natural science. The 
learned Felsina, with her rich collections, her chairs from 
which such profound instruction is given, has her Armali delle 
Seienze, abounding with select matter, and her Atti delT Ac- 
cademia, I will only mention, not to be prolix, the excellent 
treatise of Professor Alessandrini on the Branchia of Fish, 
and especially that on the Heterobranehus, of which I am 
surprised that Valenciennes has not availed himself. 

Modena, centre of the Italian Society, the birth place of an 
Amici, the abode of a Marianini, has beheld the publication of 
the first volume of the Storia Naturale degli Stati Estensiy 
by our colleague. Professor Brignole. 

Parma, in whose praise it is sufficient to mention that 
second Esculapius, Professor Tommasini, an honour of which 
she has deprived our own Bologna (which boasted of having 
given him a chair), is also proud of Professor Jan, versed in 
all the branches of natural science, and long known for his re- 
searches made in combination with the zealous Decristofori. 

Lucca offers some respectable collections in the royal palace 
of the Duke. The Zoological Museum of Pisa, in regard of 
the abundance and beauty of the preparations, and especially 
of the manner in which it is arranged, deserves to be cited as 
a model to Florence herself, if not to all Europe. This fine 
establishment is owing to the care of the truly zealous Paolo 
Savi, who forwards in every way the munificent views of his 
sovereign, and who every day strengthens his claims on the 
Grand Duke's liberality towards this institution, and on the 
gratitude not of Tuscany only but of all Italy. He is already 
fiufiiciently known to the scientific world for his extensive 
41 



42 STATE OF ZOOLOGY 

knowledge of natural objects, and for the remarkable advance-^ 
ment which Zoology has received from him, by the aid of the 
two other sciences, which with rare success are united in him, 
Geology, namely, and Anatomy ; as is shown by his numerous 
and highly praised writings, which are particularly remarkable 
for the clear ideas and correct judgment which distinguish him 
aboye others. Nor can I leave Pisa without praising ite long 
established Oiomale de' Letterati, which now, under a change 
of title, has become more dedicated to natural science, and 
in which we have lately perused an interesting Memoir by 
Fecchioli on the Arvicoke. Sienna, renowned in Italian 
history, and even the commercial Leghorn, are provided with 
scientific establishments and with academies, with which the 
ever smiling Tuscany continually adorns herself. 

It would be carrying flowers to the garden, were I to speak 
diffusely of this city of Florence, which now receives us with 
so much affection, generosity, and splendour, for you your- 
selves, with what I may call your judicmm attbtile videndis 
artibus^ have been better able than myself to judge of the 
happy condition in which, amidst every other science, that of 
natural history luxuriates and fructifies abundantly ; for which 
I should give renewed praise to the illustrious sovereign, were 
I not sure, that whatever fell from my lips would be inadequate 
to his deserts. I feel, however, that I should be justly blamed, 
if I omitted to say, that Leopold II., devoted as he is to the 
true progress of the highest studies, spares no anxiety to 
invite, and liberally entertain, the most eminent men of our 
common country ; for he most wisely considers, that the inte- 
rests of municipal protection are never to be preferred to the 
cause of truth and to the glory of the state. Tou have before 
you sufficient proof of the warmth of his zeal, not only for 
the details of science, but for those external matters which 
serve to embellish her. On the present occasion, he has 
spared no care to provide for the ornamental and scientific 
arrangement of the extensive museum in which we are now 
assembled. For this, a deserved tribute of praise must be 
given to the learned and modest director, Cav. Vincenzio 
Antinori, ably seconded by the active curator, Signer Brus- 
42 



IN EUROPE — ^ITALY. 43 

coli, and by Professors Mazzi, Nesti, and especially Dr. Carlo 
Passerini, whose accuracy in matters of science, is matched 
by that strictness of moral character in every social relation 
which we so rarely meet with. 

Ton have seen with what liberality they haye adorned with 
new and varied improvements this Botanic Garden, which by 
the active care of the excellent family of Targioni, has arrived 
at such perfection, and may rival any other in the abundance 
of species, through the assiduity of the agriculturist. Signer 
Baroni, who is so eminent for his theoretical and practical 
knowledge of Phytology. Thus to renew the vigour of scien- 
tific establishments, on occasion of these meetings, is certainly 
not the least of the infinite benefits arising from the insti- 
tution of Congresses. 

And from this third Italian meeting, which we are about 
to conclude in these revered and hospitable walls, — a meeting 
which, from the number and eminence of the visitors, has 
exceeded its predecessors in a flattering degree, — while we 
derive an ever increasing hope of the rapid advancement of 
our institution, we have also a fresh evidence, that to what- 
ever honourable enterprise the Italians are summoned, they 
respond to the call, as they have always responded, when 
Patriotism attracts, unites, and warms them. 



43 



REPORTS 



ON THE 



PROGRESS OF ZOOLOGY, 



FOR THE YEAR 1842. 



TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN, 



BT 



W. B. MACDONALD, B.A. 

OF &AMMB&SCALE8. 



MAMMALIA. 



BY 



PBOFESS08 ANDB. WAGNER OF MUNICH. 



The difficiiky of ftregfintuig a BUA(»not review «f the variottB 
works, in tim depai1i»ettt of Sdence, is every year kicreasisg. 

Norl^ Afiserica, and the raet colonial enfxtre of EBgland, 
are daily aaftiiming a more actiYe pwrtioipatiiin ta sdentiSe 
reeearch, asd the mutiial ^Mfficulty we exix^ienee of becomiiig 
eofl^ltttely cowrer^iit wkfa tbe laboans t)f each otber, in- 
croases the kboar of UBiting, in one icaitegory, their puhlished 
works with our 0mm* This difficulty heooines nnidi greater, 
aanouatii^ sometbaes eyeu to imi^ssibility, becaiise the ezira- 
Earqpeaii natiiralists do aot always employ <oiir Tcminology, 
though well adapted for a^eeiarate definition. A ihoroiu^ 
ao^aintanee with '' lll^er^$ Prodrome Syatematis Mam- 
moAmm. ^ Jjumn -addiUfi iermmis ZooffrapkiciSi^ would be 
a great reeonunendation to ik&m. 

Ef^n within the pronnoe of onr own adentifie tmlture, the 
diffienlties are i&iareased, of making onrselyes master of zoo- 
logical literature in its whole extent. The different ^alects 
of the great empire in whioh the Teutonic tongue prevaik, are 

* For example, we have not yet succeeded in procuring, from Eng- 
land, after repeated attempts, 1^ Calcutta Journal of Natural History ; 
so that a notice of that work must be deferred till aext Eeport. 

47 



4 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII: 

striying with more and more energy to obtain an equal influence 
with those languages, which hare hitherto held uniyersal sway, 
both in the ordinary intercourse of life and in the scientific 
world; and although these national attempts in themselres 
may not inyite us to much exertion in mastering them, yet, on 
the other hand, it is not to be denied, that they produce such 
important scientific labours, that he who would giye a view of 
what has been done in Zoology could not omit noticing them, 
without leaying many gaps and errors in his sketch. 

No one has suffered more from this difficulty than Lesson 
did, last year, in his " Nouveau Tableau du Rlgne Animal; 
Mammiflres^ Paris, 1842, 8yo. This Tableau was designed 
to be a Catalogue of all the hitherto published species of 
Mammalia, and a similar one was promised on the Birds, 
Reptiles, MoUusca, and Zoophytes, the materials for which 
had been already collected. The former might haye been 
looked upon as tolerably complete, if therological literature 
had been exhausted in French and English works ; but as, 
besides these, there also exists a German, Dutch, Swedish, 
Danish, and American literature in Zoology, — the omission of 
so^ extensiye a field, in the Tableau of Lesson, forms one 
of the principal obstacles to its completeness. The continu- 
ation of Schreber*s Natural History of the Mammalia, since 
1834 ; ihe treatises of Dutch zoologists on the Mammalia of 
the Indian Archipelago ; whateyer has been done for t|tis class 
in Wiegmann's Archiyes, and by Nilsson, Brandt, andl others, 
haye all been entirely oyerlooked in this Tableau as if they 
had no existence. To these serious faults many others are to 
be added. First, there are great critical defects, and true 
and doubtful species, without selection, are arranged together 
in progressiye numbers. Moreoyer, whereyer Lesjio^ has de- 
parted from the systematic arrangement of Guyier, he gropes 
about in the dark. For example, he places in one family, 
Ascomys with CricetuSj Gerbillus with DipuSj Hydromya 
with Castor, Hapalotia with Eriomys, &c., eyidently showing, 
that he is ignorant of their anatomical relations. Finally, 
we could not bring into use his new nomenclature of families, 
and partly of genera, without blushing for such a tyro in the 



MAMMALIA. p 

ancient languages; M<i8t<mqnadelphie^ Hydromastologie^ 
Dipodineai^ HippopotamisidecBj Rhinoeerosidece^ Stmdea^ 
Bov€8idecp, Echymipera^ MysateUsy MicoureuSy &c,,.are some 
of the numerous newly inyented names, with which Lesson has 
the hardihood to display to the world his ignorance of the 
ancient tongues. 

During the course of last year, the third division of th^ 
supplementary yolume of Schreber's Mammalia, continued by 
A. Wagner, has been completed. The printing of this volume 
is just finished, but it will be still some time before it can be 
published. Of the Rodentia^ the families Pedimana, Sciurina^ 
Myoanna^ Maeropoday Ghinchillina, Paammoryctinay Cuni- 
cularia, and Murina^ are fully described in it. The fourth 
division of the supplementary volume, which will soon appear, 
will contain the Terrestrial Mammalia. 

The thirteenth volume of the Mammalia, in the Naturalist's 
Library, by Jardine, has been announced. It contains Col. C. 
H. Smith's Introduction to the Mammalia, but it has not yet 
tome to hand. The twelfth volume, containing the Equidce^ 
inerely ipentioned in the former report, will this time be dis- 
cussed in its proper place. 

The Histoire Naturelle des Mammifdres, by CFeofiroy and 
Fr. Cuvier, the latter numbers of which have not yet been 
obtained, has' terminated with the seventy-second. 

Martip's Natural History of Quadrupeds has, unfortunately, 
since the third number, ceased to appear, in consequence of 
the bookseller's embarassments. 

The Breeds of the Domestic Animals of the British Islands, 
described by David Low, Professor of Agriculture in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, and illustrated with Plates, from draw*' 
ings by Mr. W. Nicholson, reduced from a series of portraits 
from life, executed for the Agricultural Museum of the Uhi- 
tersity of Edinburgh by Mr. N. Shiels. Lond. 1841-2, 4 vols. 

folio, price £16, 16s. 

The first volume contains the Horse ; the second the Bull ; the third 
the Sheep and Gout ; the fourth the Hog. These are the most sump- 
tuous drawings of the domestic animals which have yet appeared. By 

49 D 



6 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

the aii of these beautifully drawn and faithM portraitf , one eaa malj 
foim a dear idea of the different English xaoes of these 



Verzeichmss der in dem Museum der Senckenberg. naturf. 
Oeaellschait aufgestellten Sammlungen, 1st Abtheil: Saiig- 
thkre und deren Skelete. Frankf. 1842. 

This Gktalogue, prepared by Dr, Rdppell, is a Toucher for those who 
cannot personaJlj visit the Smckenberg Museum, that this magnificent 
institution can show one of the most remarkable ooUections of the Mam> 
maUa, both in stuffed spedmens, as well as in skeletons and skulls. It ia 
already known, that a great portion of this oolleotion has been Iffought 
together by Riippell's unwearying actiTity. 

It is much to be desired, that an index to the contents of all such 
great collections should be from time to time published. 

We are also indebted to the same author for two excellent Treatises 
on Theorology, in the third yolume of the Museum Senkenbergianum. 
The first is on Mammalia, of the order Bodentia, obserred in the nortih'- 
east of Africa ; and the second is a description of seyeral New Mam- 
malia, to be found in the Zoological Cdlection of the Natural History 
Society of Senckenberg. These two treatises will be more particularly 
in the division of this Report appropriated to species. 



Descriptions of some New Gtenera, and fifty unrecorded 
Species of Mammalia. By J. £. Gray. (Ann. and Mag. of 
Kat. Hist. X. p. 255). 

A fiiir number of new species are here made known to us, but unfor- 
innately in a yery incomplete manner, frequently without mention of size, 
seldom with a comparison of them with known species, so that, in many 
eases, without specimens, it is impossible to make them out. Meanwhile, 
we shall only mention the names of Gray's new genera, which are as fol- 
lows : — Stumira, Noctulinia, Trilatitus, Eeriyoula, Myotis, Murina, Har- 
piocephalus, Centurio, Osmetectis, Nesokia, Vandeleuria. Although 
these names are not so uncouth as those of Lesson, yet the most of them 
are sufficiently barbarous to debar their entrance into the system. Why 
should the rules of Linnaeus, for nomenclatare, which are to be found in 
his PhUotophia Botanica, and repeated by Bliger in his ProdronmSf not 
be generally recognised in England and France? This should be the 
express condition under which any new names ought to be receiyed. 
Luckily, in the present case, most of the genera are of one character, so 
that they may be cashiered at the same time with their uncouth names. 

Of the more general works on the internal structure of the 
Mammalia, the foUoTving may be mentioned : — 
50 



MAMMALIA. 



Osteographie, &c. Par M. Ducrotay de Blainyille. Parig. 

Sirice 1840. 

The tenth and eleventh are now added to the nine earlier numbers, 
tiie dmakois oompriaing Muttela and Vivemra, 



Todd's Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology. Lond. 

Since 1839. 

Seven numbers of the third volume, parts 19-25, have appeared. 
Among the articles of its more general contents, may be here particukrly 
mentioned — Mammalia by Owen, and Mammary Glands by S. Solly. 

Neue IJntersuchungen aus dem Gebiete der Anatomie nnd 
Fhysiologie. Yon F. J. C. Mayer. Bonn, 1842. 

* The Essays pertaining to our Beport, are, — ^1. The Bwtkl PhoAryngea 
of the Mammalia : 2. The Anatomy of the Ma/rtwjpiaUa : 8. A Feeuliar 
Organ m the Tongue of Man and the Mammalia; 4. A peouliaJCify in 
the Structure of the Tongue of the Armadillo. Nob. 2 and 4, will after- 
wardi be more particularly mentioned. 

Nasmyth has laid before the Paris Academy, an Essay on 
the Macroscopic Formation of the Teeth (Gompt. Bend. xy. 
p. 678) ; on which Dntrochet, Flonrens, and Serres, have given 
in a report. (Ibid. p. 1055). 

The authors of this report agree with Nasmyth, that the (cartila- 
ginous) fundamental substance of the ivory, and the enamel of the teeth, 
is composed of oeUs ; on the other hand, they differ firom him with regard 
to the tubes, said to bear calcareous matter in the substance of tiie ivory, 
and which he considers as fibres, while they have convinced themselves 
of the correctness of previous observations. On the external surfiice of 
the enamel, Nasmyth observed a tender cuticle, which the reporters also 
discovered and rec(^gnised as a cellular formation. This is, perhaps, the 
same membrane which Erdl described in the Munich Gel. Anz. X7. 
p. 771, as the commencement of caries. 

Traits pratique et theoriqne d^ Anatomie Comparatiye com- 
prenant I'art de diss^quer les animaux de toutes les classes et 
les moyens de conserver les pieces anatomiques. Par H. 
Strans-Dnrklieim. Paris, 1842, 2 toIs. 

The animal stmeture is not merely deeoribed in this book, in a dear 
and comprehensive style, but the manner in which prepaxafckms can best 
be made and most durably preserved is also pointed «ut. In tiie latter 

51 



8 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

lefpeot, it may be ocmsolted with advantage by the cniators of xoologi- 
cal ooUections. The dassifieation of the animal Idngdom is oopional^ 
treated of in the introduction. 

o 

Arsberatielser om nyare Zoologiska Arbeten och Upptack- 
ter, till E. Yetenskaps-Academien afgifnefor aren 1837-1840. 

Af. C. J. Sundewall. Stockh. 1841. 

This arriyed too late for review in my last year's report ; bnt I agree 
completely with the judgment of the editor of our Archives upon this 
solid work, and which he has appended in a note to my report. I am 
surprised, however, that my continuations of Schreber's Mammalia seem 
only known to the author, £:om a notice of them in the Isis and in the 
Archives. It is a great pity, that the language in which this excellent 
review is written, should be a hindrance to its general circulation. 

Osserrazioiii sullo stato della Zoologia in Europa, in qoanto 

ai Yertebrati nell* anno 1840-1841, lette li 27 Settembre, 

1841, alia terza riunione degli Scienziati Italiani da C. L: 

Principe Bonaparte. Firenza, 1842. 

An excellently written review, and very complete, eo far as Italy, 
France, and England, are concerned, of the works which have appeared 
on Vertebrated Animals during the year 1840-41. German contributions 
are less noticed and known. A Pterologia, for example, is composed 
fit)m the Pterylogrojpia of Nitzsch. According to the Prince, the Acts 
of the NatvrcB Ctmosorv/m are quoted as " gli Scritti dei vari Profe&- 
dori di Bovm,** a misconception, probably aiising from the Acta Natwrm 
Cwrioiorwin being published at Bonn. A compliment is paid to Southern 
Germany, that it sees new works daily appearing ; but then follows this 
dubious addition, that these works are of less importance since the death 
of Spix, Wagler, and Michaelles. The Mammalia of Schreibers (t. e. 
Schreber) is also praised. A work upon European Birds, besides the great 
one at Darmstadt, he proceeds to mention, as published by Susemilh 
(t. e. Susemihl) ; another by Berge, on the Propagation of Birds ; some 
zoological articles which have a^^peared in the Journal of Dr, Eohatsch ; 
and that Dr. Tiedemann still continues busy, weighing, measuring, and 
dissecting various brains. These the author supposes to be the con- 
tributions of Southern Germany. Of Holland, he speaks with praise, 
that natural historians are more abundant there than formerly ; and it is 
leather curious, that neither Yrolik, nor Schroder van der Eolk, nor 
S. Miiller, although the principal contributors of treatises on that subject, 
nor Van der Hoeven, although editor of a periodical on Natural History, 
are mentioned at all, probably because their works are written in " qvxl 
idioma pbco o nulla familiare all' universale." Temminck's Monograpih 

52 



MAMMALIA. 9 

oir Ve^pertiUones is strictly criticised, so &r as ooncems the European 
species, and some mistakes wkich had slipped into it are corrected ; how- 
ever, the reviewer has on this occasion forgotten, that these corrections 
were already made by Keyserling and Blasius^ in our Archives, two years 
previously. Notwithstanding these little criticisms, we hail with plea- 
sure the continuance of this annual report, as by its means we become 
more readily and perfectly aoquiunted with Italian contributions to science ; 
and we have only to express a wish, that the celebrated author may fill up 
omissions, by the aid of our Arohives, which otherways might occur in 
the sketch of German literature. 

Amtlicher Bericht iiber die 19te. Yersammlung deutscher 
Naturforscher und Arzte zu Braunschweig im September, 
1841. Von F. K. v Strombeck u. Dr. Mansfield. Braunschw. 
1842. 

Mudi richer in ^gard to Zoology than that of last year, as Blasius 
has given a brief account of a great portion of the results of his Russian 
Joumej. 

Atti della terza riunione degli Scienzati Italiani tenuta in 
Firenze nel Settembre, 1841. Firenz, 1841. 

The zoological portion has been briefly noticed in the Isis; whence 
it is clear, that much that is Interesting had been brought forward. 

No reports of the Transactions of British and Scandinavian Natu^ 
ralists have yet reached me, so that I must here leave a gap. These 
Societies, if they had any anxiety that their Transactions should early 
become known to us, might lessen the trouble of editing, if they them- 
selves would timeously forward their Eeports, or, at least, send them 
over to the Academies. 

Yerhandlungen der schweizerischen naturforsch^den Ge* 
sellschaft bei fliren Versammlungen zu Zurich den 2, 3, und 4. 
August, 1841. Ziirich, 1842. 

In the introductory diitoourse by Schinz, some interesting statem^ts 
axe made of the condition of Scientific Institutions in Switzerland, whidi 
furnish, an obvious proof of what great progress can be made |n this 
deipartment, when theiwork is set to with wiU and energy. In the for-» 
mation of large collections, Geneva, Neuenburg, Ziirich^ Basle, Berne, 
and Aargau, have especially taken the lead. Lucerne and Freiburg have 
shown a preference for other objects. 

Tbe history of the Fauna of individual countries has made 
rapid advancement in the past year, both by writings peculiar 
to the subject and by books of Travels. 
53 



10 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCLXII : 

H. Freyer, Fauna der in Erain bekannten Sisiugtliierey 
Vogely Beptilien und Fische ; nach Cavier^s System geordnet, 
etc. Laibach, 1842. 

T haye not yet reoeived this Fauns, althon^ ordered, owing most 
probably to the difficulty of intercourse between the Leipsic booksellers 
and those of the proyindal towns of Austria. 

Landbek's Beiti^ge znr Zoologischen Geographie, die 

Saugihiere Siebenbiirgens. (Isis, 1842, p. 176). 

A rery grateful contribution to Animal Geography, as we have 
hitherto known almost nothing of the Fauna of l^ebenbnrgen, althou^ 
the variety of its physical relations led us to expect much that is remark- 
able with regard to it. Amongst those species more deserving of notipe, 
I may here quote, Urms arctos, FeUs lynx, Ccutot Jlber, Aretomyi 
Bdbac or Marmotta, Lepus va/nabilU, AntUope rupicapra. Copra ibea, 
almost extirpated. In all, fifly species are described. 

Faune Beige, Ire Fartie : indication M^thodique des Mam- 
miferes, Oiseaux, Reptiles et Foissons observes jusqn'ici en 
Belgiqne, par Edm. de Selys Longchamps. Liege, 1842. 

Besides eleven species of Domestic Animals, the author enumerates 
sixty-three species of Mammalia for Belgium. Among these he reckons the 
Human as one, and a^r it immediately follows the Badger. That the 
author has felt the unfitness of such an arrangement is evident, from his 
attempting a sort of apology for it. 310 species of Birds are mentioned 
as being found in Belgium. 

As the making out of these Faunas rests upon numerous personal 
observations, this work may be regarded as a highly valuable contri- 
bution to the knowledge of European species and their geographical 
distribution. 

Bonaparte, Iconografia delia Fanna Italica. Tom. 1. Mam- 
miferi et Uccelli. Boma, 1832-41. 

Th0 conclusion of this beautiftd work has now reached us. Of the 
ninety species of Mammalia which the author ascribes to Italy, fixHy-foor 
are here represented; and of 390 species of Birds, tidrfy-five. This 
Iconografia is the most important contribution to the knowledge of the 
remarkable Fauna of iJie basin of the Mediterranean ; and the Prince 
has gained not less merit by its publication, than he did by that of the 
North American Fauna. 

Travels in Kashmir, Ladak, Iscardo, the countries adjoimng 
the Mountain Course of the Indus, and the Himalaya north of 
the Panjab, by G. T. Vigne. In 2 rols. Lond. 1842. 
54 



MAMMALIA. 11 

> These traveli may be regaxded^ in some meaMre, as the oonlinuatioii 
of a work written two years before, — " A Personal NarratiTe of a Visit 
to Ghnzni, Kabul, and AffgHanistan.** The author is the first European 
who has penetrated to Iscardo, the metropolis of Lesser Tibet. With- 
out possessing a systematic knowledge of Zoology, he has, as a dilettanti 
and sportsman, principally paid attention to the Game Animals of these 
countries, and imparted much valuable ioformation regarding thenu 
The portions of wild sheep and goats brought back by him were identi- 
fied by Blyth. 

Cabool : being a personal NarratiTe of a Journey to, and 
Residence in that City, in the Years 1830, 1837-8, by the 
late Lieut.-Gol. A. Bumes. Lend. 1842. 

The author, who is well known by his Journey to Buchara, and his 
melancholy death at Kabul, gives, in his description of that place, a 
short notice of tiie animals (p. 162), which is very jrorthy of attention^ 
although defectiye in scientific distinctians. The waterfowl are there 
very numerous, as Bumes says he collected no less than forty-fiye dif* 
ferent species of Ducks (meaning web-footed lMrds)« Animals with for 
fit for use, are much in request; of these, from eight to tesEL specaas 
were found, — amongst them, the Lynx, " Cfor-Jnm^** and the " Mooahf 
Kkoorma ;" but one of the most prized is the " DUa Khaujuk,**.tk large 
Weasel, of greyish colour, with white on the neck. The ** Oakigo criM- 
MccmdcUvbs" of Cuvier (surely erroneously identified) was also found 
by the author, as w^ as tiie Huzara Bat, a creature without a tail (pro- 
bably a Lagomyi), Porcupines and Hedgehogs are there in abundance ; 
Marmots are also caught, but Hares are rare and small With the ez* 
ception of waterfowl, there is very little game, though the Afghans hunt 
eyeiy thing that has fur* Bears of a reddish-brown hue, and Wolyes 
are seen in winter ; also the Bed Fox and the Common Fox (Beymod)^ 
which is larger than in India. The people also talk much of the ^ Suff 
i Zb^ee," Hill-Hound of Huzara» but the author donbts if it actually be 
the Wild Dog, as there are neither woods nor jungles. There is also 
andher animal, similar to our Badger, and called " TibbergatnJ* Some 
pretty specimens of wild Sheep and Goats were brought from Hindu 
Kusdi; these have been tolerably circumstantially described by Dr. 
Lord, in Appendix, No. V. 

The Expedition to China is already beginning to bear fruits 
in Natural History. Th. Cantcnr has produced an Essay, 
** General Features of Chusan, with Remarks on the Flora 
and Fauna of that Island.'' (Ann. of Nat. Hist. ix. p. 265)« 

Cunningham mentions, as fiir back as the year 1701, that Chusan 
abounded in Cows, BufiUoes, Goats, Stags, and Swine. The Stags have 

55 



12 KEPORT ON ZOOLOGY, M&CCCXLII : 

taow wholly dimppeared with tlie wooda, and the orer-peopling of the 
idand hu done awaj witlt the large domestio auimalH. The few Oxen 
which were found <m tlie flist occupation of the uland were merely med 
for hiubandiy ; but tliere were neither Bufiiiloes nor Sheep, whidi latter 
(of a broad tailed spedea) were vei; numerous in Chinii. SeToral tHiui 
of the Manit psntadactifla were seen, whidi must have been the product 
of the iilaod. Two specimena (^ the Cervw axit were bKnig^t fimn 
Fonnofls. 

SouTenirs d'un Voyage dans I'lnde execute de 1834 & 
1839, par M. Adolphe Delessert. Paris, 1843. 8to. 

Thit work is divided into a description of his Travela and a Zoological 
Af^iendiz. The flret aeenu merely inteaded for the inibnuation of the 
anthor'i private friendi, and containa no scientific infoimatitm. His 
longest stay was at Pondicherry, whence he undertook many huntdng 
expeditioDB to the ^il^erriet, and made a large collection, which «cai- 
taius no less than 1200 apeoimenB of Mammalia. The Appendix 
stretches over all tho cliief dlTiaons of Zoology, and is Aimished wi& 
beautiful plates, uz of which belong to Therdogy: — Tab. 1. Bom fron- 
ta&t : 2. Canit prinxmmt : 3. Sciwut Dtleuertii : i, SkoU of Seivrv* 
Delettertii and imtigait: 5. SkoU of Sc. Raffitm: and 6. Skull of 
6c. cmriventer. 

Verhandelingen orer de 14'atuiirl : geschiedenis, Ac. Zoologie. 
No. 7. Leid : 1842. 

The seventh nnmber C^ this pnhUcslion &]ls to be mentioned, which 
is accompanied with eight plates, — " Semnopithecwt eamatranut, Bhi- 
tMcero* sondatf^u* and ncmatroniM, Bot tovtdaictu, Cerwt JS-vAlii;" 
skull uid homs of " Cenmt nuHt, Rutta molaceaMis, Bwa timoriennt, 
«j>utnui and KvhUi;" of Birds — " Svterot ea»ddix," Very beantiiiil 
and oorrect plates, which bIidw that the work is mfifcing good prDf^OBs ; 
•0 tliat it would be much to be lamented, if, as the prospectus holds out, 
it should soon come t« a cDnclosion, jost as a commencement has been 
made to Tejoesent the aoologiaal rdatiooB of the Colonies of the Netlier^ 
lands. The very great expense at which this work, by distinguished 
naturalists, has beeii be^;un, m^es continued elaboratiou in the same 
scale oeceBsarj ; and, for tlie interest of science, we Itope that tlie en> 

teoed GoTemment i^ Holland, which encourages in the strongest 
every scientific aim, will afford to this work, one of the most im- 

ant in our department, the meana of completion. In tiiis way, they 
erect such a monument in the history of the sdences as few nations 

exhibit. 

^anna Japonica, sire descriptio animalium, qun in itinere 

Japonicam, jiissu et auBpiciis snperiorum, Sx. Suscepto, 



MAMMALIA. 13 

annis, 1823-30 coUegit, notis, obsenrat. et admnbrat. illustravit 
Ph. Fr. de Siebold. Mammalia elaborantibus G. J. TemminCk 

et H. Scblegel. Lugd. Butay. 1842. Decas. 1. 

This also is one of the most important works, which, by the muni- 
fioenoe of the Qoyermnent of Holland, have been contributed to science ; 
and, at the same time, affords a happy proof how scientific zeal can set 
aside the barriers which Japanese mistrust has opposed to the entrance 
of European elements. In the first Number, the following species are 
described : — " IntMLs tpeciotuSy tab. 1 and 2. Pteropvs dasymaUus, Pt, 
p9elaphon, Rhinolophus nippon, tab. 3, fig. 1, 2. Rh. comtUuSy tab. 3, 
fig. 3 and 4. Veapertilio moh^mis, tab. 3, ^g. 5, V. nocPhUa, V, hie- 
potis, V. macrodactyhfs, V, abranvus, V. akakomtUiy Tdlpa Wogvra, 
itkh. 4, ^g. 1-5. Urotrichus talpoides, tab. 4, fig. 6-11. Sorex platy- 
cephahbSj tab. 5, ^g, 1,** Besides these, there are figured : — ** Sorex 
vndicus and Kinezvmi, tab. 5, fig. 2, 3. Meles a/nahuma, tab. 6. Mustela 
fMUi and mela/mpvs, tab. 7. Nycthereutes v%verrmu$y tab. 8. Cijmis 
hodophiloue, tab. 9. C, familiaris japonicusy tab. 10." 

In the Mus. Senckenb. iii. p. 115, Dr« RtLppeU has given a view of 
the geographical distribution of the Rodentiay collected by him in the 
north-east of Afiica and the coasts of the Bed Sea. Thirty-five species 
are enumerated in all. 

Two new numbers, the 15th and 16th, of A. Smith's Illustrations, 
have arrived^ It is a pity this beautiful undertaldng does not advance 
quicker. 

The fourth number of Harris's Portraits of the Game and Wild 
Animals of Soulhem Africa has appeared, with tab. 19. RhinoceroB 
dnvuB : 20. Strepdceros capends : 21. QazeUa albifrons : 22, Elephas 
ajriccmuB : 2S, Aegoceros niger : 24. Eqtms fnontcmuB (E, zebray Lin.) 
and Oreotragvs mltratrise. The plates rival those of the former numbers 
in beauty and splendour. 

Beise ia das innere Nord Amerikas in den Jahren, 1832 
bis 18S4. Von Maximilian Prinzen zu Wied. Coblenz, seit, 
1838. 

This work has now come to a conclusion, and will take its position 
amongst the most important contributions to the literature of travels. 

A Catalogue of the Mammalia of Connecticut, arranged ac- 
cording to their Natural Families. By J. H. Linsley (Sillim. 
Am. Joum. xliii. No. 2, p, 345). 

It is very fortunate, that individual Faunas are every day occupying 
more attention, because, in this way, the most certain materials are 
brought together for a General Animal Geography. Linsley enume* 

57 



14 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCOCXLII : 

ntef teTOitjr-one tpedet for Oonnectiont, in which, however, the usual 
domeitio aniinklfi, and seven species of Whales, are induded. 

Bnchanan has oontribnted Terj eztensiyely to the knowledge of North 
American Mammalia, in the Journal of the Academy of Natural Science 
of Philadelphia, yiii. 1 (1839) ; 2 (1842), mention of which will after- 
wards be made in the course of this Eeport. 

In the Compt. Rend, des Stances de TAcadem. des Sc. zr. p. 10i5, 
Is. Geofiroy has furnished a report on Castlenau's Journey in Florida, 
from whioh much that is valuable may be expected on the Fauna of that 
province. As the procuring of zoological literature is every day becom- 
ing more expensive, it is much to be desired, that if possible, pictures of 
costumes and customs, picturesque views, and figures of all those species 
of animals which have already been drawn, were omitted, and merely 
the new and interesting species given. If, on the one hand, it is to be 
most thankfully acknowledged, that the French Government, annually, 
either directly contributes very considerable sums for editing costly works 
(in the course of the year more than 400,000 francs), or subscribe for 
firom 100 to 150 copies; yet, on the other hand, the author is thus 
tempted to publish lus work, in a style which adds quite unnecessarily 
to the cost, and increases the difficulty of procuring it in a foreign 
country. 

Diagnosen neuer Arten Bra^silischer Saiigthiere. Yon. A. 
Wagner (in these Archives, eighth year, 1 vol. p. 366). 

In conjunction with Mr. J. Natterer, I have been engaged on the 
Mammalia of Brazil, for which, by his persevering energy, materials 
have been brought together in Vienna, such as no other collection can 
exhibit. It is confidently to be hoped, that the Supreme Austrian 
Government will extend the same support to this work which other states 
lend to similar undertakings. A beginning is here made to the publish- 
ing of a general Fauna of Brazil, to which Austrian Naturalists have 
given preparatory aid ; and, in the meanwhile, I have selected twenty- 
seven new species of Mammalia, whose diagnoses I have made known* 

Journals of two Expeditions of Discovery in North-west 
and Western Australia, during the years 1837, 38, and 39. 
By G. Gray, Governor of South Australia. London 1841, 
2 vols. 8vo. 

A very instructive journey, made through a portion of New Holland 
hitherto very little or not at all known. As the author remarks. North- 
west Australia seems partioularly rich in Birds, Reptiles, and Insects ; 
of Mammalia there are but few speoes, and even these are limited in 
numbers. During a five months' residence, Gray found only four species 

58 



MAMMALIA. 15 

of Kangaroos, namely,^- Halmatwrw giganteus ; two smaller species, 
of which Petrogale hraehyotU is one, and a Kangaroo Rat. Also a sort 
of Opawwm^ as he calls it, or a Flying Marsupial ; two species of Dogs, 
one of which agrees with that of Timor; besides Rats and Mice. He 
twice followed the track of an animal with cleft hoofs, whose size, 
judging from the footsteps, must have exceeded that of the Buffalo. 
Qraj mentions an unknown domestic animal, which perhaps might have 
been a Cow, escaped from some earlier expedition. In the appendix are 
found contributions to the knowledge of the geographical distribution 
of the Australian Mammalia^ with notices upon some newlj discovered 
species (already mentioned in the Archives, 1842, p. 339). Qould has 
added a list of Birds, comprising 182 species. 

A more general index of the contributions to the knowledge of the 
remains of antediluvian Mammalia must be mentioned at a future 
period. 

Sur les GaTemes et les Brdches §. Ossements des Enyirons 

de Paxi8. Par M. J. Desnoyers. (Compt. Bend. xt. p. 522, 

with a note in the " Annal. des Sc. Geolog. 1842.'') 

Ouvier had to undertake his first labours on the fossil cavernous ani- 
mals, chiefly &om materials collected in Germany. A considerable 
period elapsed till similar bone caretna were discovered in the South of 
France ; and ten years after the death of that great naturalist, Desnoyert, 
along with 0. Prevost, collected a great many of such remains in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Paris. They found them in excavations of 
Gypsuzu {Qvp$»cMoten)i of which one at Montmorency, a few mdtres in 
width, alone contained more than 2000 bones of more than 300 indivi^ 
duals, and of about twenty species, generally of great size. The list 
enumerates the following genera: — 1. Shrew-mouse, two spedes, of 
which one resembles the Sarex tetrctgonwrus, the other the 8,ffMen% 
(very abundant) : 2. Mole, of the common species (abundant) : 3-61 
Badger, Weasel, Polecat, Martin, not differing firom those of the present 
day (few): 7. Field-mouse, of 4-5 species (most abundant) 4 6. Maimot^ 
not differing fiom those of the present diiy (pretty common) : ?. 8pet* 
incph4lu9f agreeing with Sp. mpertiUosUs of Kaup : 8. Hare, bigger than 
the common one : 9. Lagomys, two species (rather few) : 10. Wild Swine^ 
teeth (few): 11. Horse (abundant): 12. Reindeer (antlers and bonto): 
13. Stag, of a small species. Along with these remains of Manima]i% 
were found some bones of l^rds, very like those of the Common Land 
Rail ; besides some small BatracTUa of Ihe size of a Frog, and seveal 
species of Hetix and Pupa, Some time afterwards, to the south of Paris^ 
at Corbril, a cavc(ni was discovered in sandstone, containing bones of the 
Elephant, Rhinooeros, Hysena, Cavern-Bear, Horse, Ox, and an antlered 
ruminating animal. 

59 



16 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

Sur des nouyelles Cayernes ^ Ossements de TAude. Far 
M. Marcel de Serres (Instit. 1842, p. 388). 

These cayems are found in the neighbourhood of Caicassone (Aude), 
at the little town of Caunes, in transition limestone, which furnishes the 
finest marble in the South of France. There has hitherto been disco- 
vered, — 1. Eqv/us, most abundant ; out of some small bones, M. de Serres 
might describe a second smaller species : 2. Cervus, abundant, of small 
stature: 3. Ccupreolust identified by the teeth: 4. Antelope, among 
which will be distinguished the Chamois : 5. C<ipra cegagrvs, " a species 
easily distinguished hy its back teeth" (?) : 6. Bos mtermedius : 7. Lepvs, 
tolerably abundant : 8. UrtfM, numerous, but the portions were not so 
complete as to render the species recognisable : 9. Canis, partly agreeing 
with the Household Dog, partly with the Fox : 10. Hyama q>elcea, not 
abundant : 11. FeUs, classed by the author, from the remains, partly 
with the F, leopa/rdus and F. serval. Among the bones of Birds were 
recognised an Owl, Buzzard, and Quail. 

Lund has imparted the newest discoyeries of his continued 
inyestigation into the Brazilian Cayems, containing the bones 
of buried antediluyian Mammalia. 

These are to be £ound in a treatise, dated Logoa Santa, 30th 
January, 1841, which is epitomized in the ** Oversigt oyer dot k. danske 
Videnskabemes Selskabs Forhandlinger i Aaret, 1841, af Qrsted. Kid- 
benh., 1842, p. 16." Lund has discoyered, up to this time, 111 species, 
diyided into fiffy-four genera, whilst the liying Mammalia of the same 
country, only amount to eighty-nine species, belonging to forty-nine 
genera. Among the most important of the newly discoyered fossil spedes 
are, — ^two species of ant-eaters, yery like the Myrmecophaga jubata^ 
and tetradckctyla ; two species of DouypuSf WagL, one of which Is of 
the size of the Tatu tMrimf the other (D. suJcatus) somewhat lugger 
than D. pwrhctatus: a dwarfish epecies o£ Megatherivm, somewhat laxgier 
than the Tapir (Megatherium LamrUlardi) : a new genus of the fiimily 
of the. Sloths, diBtinguished by its large canine teeth, like those of the 
CholcBpus (Oenotheriwn gigas); and, lastly, the Otter, a species not 
hitherto discoyered among antediluyian remains. 

Among the correctiims of his earlier labours, the most important is, in 
r^ard to his former statement about the occurrence of the Hyisena — 
more complete remains haye conyinoed him, that they belong to a genus 
between the dog and cat ; he names it SnUlodon, on account of its firmly 
compressed almost lancet formed canine teeth. This animal was of the 
size of the lion, but of a heayier structure, and its canine teeth exceed, in 
iize, those of all hitherto known beasts of prey. 

Lund gives a yery ample description of the Platyonyx. He placet 

60 



MAMMALIA. 17 

this genus next the Sloths, with the reniai4[, that it is organized on the 
plan both of the MegdUmyx and Megatheriwm, and that, on this aooount, 
its place among the Sloths appears incorrect, as the primitive genera 
were covered with a coat of mail. The question, whether the human 
bones, found with the antediluyian remains of animals^ may be of the 
same age, Lund thinks it at present impossible to answer with any 
degree of certainty. 

Human Footprints in Solid Limestone. By Day. Dale 
Owen, M.D. (Sillim. Americ. Joum. 1842^ xliii. No. 1, p. 14). 

When I recognised in the plate accompanying this paper footsteps, 
undoubtedly human, I entered on the perusal of it with caution, and the 
more so, when it appeared that the author was also the possessor of the 
specimen, for he, in common with us all, would naturally lean towards a 
theory that gave additional yalue and interest to it. My fears were, 
howeirer, groundless. Dr. Owen explains these footsteps to be the works 
of the idle Indians, in opposition to the opinion of Shoolcroft and Man- 
tell, who had considered them to be those of the antediluyians. Owen's 
explanation is doubtless equally applicable to the human steps on the 
Zauberberge, northward of Athens-Georgia. (Inst. 1842, p. 140). That 
they are not those of man may be confidently asserted, when we learn 
that this limestone belongs to a formation older than the coal. I am of 
opinion, that in general, animal traces of this kind in- rocks will be found 
to have some similar origin to those described by Dr. Owen ; T)ut that 
this is not the case with Tespect to the impressions on the sandstone 
slabs of Hildbv/rghausen, I am equally persuaded. A personal inspection 
of these slabs, during the last summer, has satisfied me, that the tracks 
have been made by an animal ; as truly as those are in the Weilheimer 
Lime-tophtM, which I had already discoyered two years previously, and 
concluded to be made by the impressions left &om the tread of stags« 
From what animal the Hildbttrghavsen tracks have had their origin, I 
am at a loss to say, for I am not sure even of its class ; but analogy may 
lead us to conclude that it was a reptile. Similar prints have lately been 
found, in variegated sandstone, at Aura on the Saul (Unterfranken)^ 
Rumpf in Jahrb. f. Min. 1842, p. 450. 



QUADEUMANA. 

Becherches d'Anatomie Compared sur le Ghimpansd, par 
W. Vrolik. Amsterd. 1842. Folio. 

The internal structuie of the Chimpansee was first described by Tyson, 
in the year 1699, in a masterly work for the time. It was more than » 

61 



18 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDGCCXLII : 

eentury befbve any new eontribatiani were added, and though Owen hat 
wriiten on tU OMeogmphj, and Sandilbrton ila Myahgy^ jet enoi^ 
■MMined to aAod ridi gteaningv for Violik the younger. I will oulj 
quota one portum of his exeellent work : The wrist, as in man, has only 
eig^t little bones, idiile in all other apes, even in the orang-oatang, it 
has nine, to which the snpemnmersry many oomered hone, as Qg calls 
it, is to he added. The latisdmus dord is the same as in other apes, 
and always sends off a slip to the olecranon. The extensor of the index 
fikiger is not a separate musde, and therefore it cannot perform the act of 
pointing out and showing. This want, without doubt, has reference to 
the less perfect state of the intellectual faculties, and the impossibility of 
forming abstract ideas. The reporter has, in his Monograph on Apes, 
pointed out this defect in the same way. Vrolik has yery fairly shown 
the superiority of the human hand over that of the ape. The sac of the 
head of the windpipe is sometimes single, sometimes double, and appears 
to be only a prolongation of the yentricles of the larynx. The vermiform 
appendage of the ctecum is separated from it by a constriction. Vrolik 
mentions a difference between the brain of the orang-outang and the 
human brain, which has hitherto been oyerlooked; that the eorpug 
coManun in the former is much shorter, and does not quite reach to the 
anterior corpora quadrigenUna. The internal structure is weU ex- 
hibited in seven plates : and there is also a vignette, representing the 
live Chimpansee in London. 

J. Brooke asserts, that in Borneo, according to the report 
of the natiyes, and his own researches, two or three species 
of Orang-Outang are indigenous. (Ann. of Nat. Hist. ix. 
p. 54). 

One species is, the Miaspappcm (Simla Wwmhiii Owen), with cheek 
callosities in the male, as well as in the female and in the young ones. 
Brooke killed a male, which measured from head to heel, four feet. The 
if ios hoMar is considered by the Malays and Dyaks as a different species, 
without cheek callosities in both sexes, much smaller and weaker ; hands 
and feet proportioned to the body, not such gigantic extremities as in the 
Pappa/n; the countenance projecting at the under part, and the eyes 
externally larger. Brooke killed two grown females, one with young, 
and an almost grown male. He supposes this Eassar to be Owen's Simia 
morio: both species inhabit the same woods, yet Brooke did not find 
them together on the same day. The latter is most abundant. The 
third species, Mias Rambi, from the report of the natives, must be as 
tall as the Pappan, or even taller, but not so stout, with longer hair, 
smaller countenance, and, in both sexes, wanting cheek callosities. As 
Brooke sent five live orang-outangs to England, we may e^qteet some 
ftr&er information in regard to these species. 

62 



MAMMALIA — QUADRUMANA. 19 

Is. Qeofiroy has again distiiiguished two species of our orang-outangs ; 
the Pithecus 9atyinis of Borneo and Sumatra, and another of Sumatra, 
wMoh he calls P. bicolor, because the fur above, and in the middle of the 
bellj, is red ; while behind the belly, on the sides, shoulders, inside the 
fhi^, and around the mouth, it is fulvous white. The sockets of the 
eyes, in the former, are longish and oval ; in the latter, fonr-oomerecl» 
and scarcely longer than broad. The latter is the one which lately was 
alive in the Menagerie (Compt. Bend. xv. p. 720). As the colour 
and form of the sockets are variable, this aew species appears very 
problematicaL 

Snr les Singes de TAncien Monde, specialement sur les 
Genres Gibbon et Senmopitheque par M. Is. Geofiroy. (Compt. 
Bend. xv. p. 746). 

Is.. Qeoffroy wiU contribute a copious work upon these genera, in 
Jiflcquemont's *' Voyage auz Indes ;" and meanwhile, he gives an extract 
fiom it : — He enumerates ten species of Gibbons, — ^1. Hylcbates leitcMcus: 
2. H. (igiUs : 3. H, Raffiem : 4. J7. albimcmus : 5. H, l&ucogenys ; 
habitat unknown : 6. S. Hooloek : 7* H, choromcmdAx^, not yet exactly 
identified: 8. H. concolor, HarL, a species to which, as Is. Geoffix>y 
■ays, Dutch SEoologists have incorrectly Attached the fulvous and brown 
Gibbons from Borneo; he does not, however, mention to what these 
properly belong : 9. H, tyndactyhis : 10. H, enteUoides, a new species 
of Ib. Geoffiroy, with this character : fur very light fulvous colour ; orbit 
of the face white ; face and hands black ; cheek caUosities small and 
round ; second and third toes united by a piece of skin, fklmost to the 
joining of the first with the second joint : from the Peninsula of Malacca. 

Blyth remarks in a letter (Ann. of Nat. Hist. ix. p. 61), that Lieut. 
Beagin, from a sketch of Hyldbates leucogewys, recognised an animal 
which he had often met in the Malabar ghauts, where it lived in the 
jungles, generally in groups of e^ht or ten. 

Of the genus SenmopithecuSf Is. Geofiroy enumerates fifteen species, 
besides one NasaMs, He describes a new species, 8enmopithecu8 dus- 
mmderi: — ^body greyish-brown; head, throat, sides, and under part of 
body, fulvous ; tail and legs brown, which, on a great portion of the tail, 
on the fi>re-arms, and the hands and feet, passes into red-brown (roux) ; 
hair upon the head divergent : horn the Malabar coast. 

In the Ann, of Nat. Hist. x. p. 256, Gray adds a i^iecies also to the 
dander apes, viz., IVe^fis ndbiUs: bright rufous, without any streak 
on the shoulders. Habitat, India. British Museum. This species difiers 
fiKnn the Simia TneUdophoB in being darker, and not having a black 
aest; firom P. jlavimamAJis in being of a nearly uniform auburn, and 
not yellow, with a blackish back, and in having no black streak across 
&e diouldeor or on the cheek. 

63 



20 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

In the Ann. of Nat. Hist. ix. p. 503, Owen luw shown that the 
stomach, esDcom, and the rest of the intestinal canal, in the Coldbng 
urdnuSf are of the same nature as in the Senvnopithecus, which was to 
be expected after Rdppell had proved the same thing in the CoMn^ 
guereza ; cheek pouches wanting. Owen has confirmed the identity of 
the C. ursmtM with polycomos, as ebown by myself. The latter name is 
to be retained as the original. 

Mr. Thomson, Surgeon pf the last Niger Expedition, brought home » 
large arm-shield, made from the skin of Colobvs guereza. The shield 
consists of the greater part of the back with the white stripe ; and is 
distinguished from an Abyssinian specimen in the British Museuni, by 
the white band being considerably broader, and not furnished with quite 
such long hair. (Ann. Nat. Hist. x. p. 203). 

For fixing the hitherto very uncertain accounts of the habitat of a 
great portion of the African Apes, the following notices of Fraser, the 
Naturalist of the last Niger Expedition, are worthy of attention. (Ann. 
of Nat. Hist. ix. p. 262). In the neighbourhood of Sierra Leone, were 
found Simla troglodytes, Colobua urstnus, Cercopithecu$ fuUginosm 
(common), C, Sahasus, and Cynocephalvs papio. At Bassa, Fraser saw 
some skins of Cercopithecus Dicma, said to be common there. At Cape 
Coast, Cerccpithecus petaturista is to be found, and Coldbus Uucomeros; 
skins of the latter, as well as of Cerccpithecus Diana, were extremely 
plentiful at Accra. 

Is. Geoffrey has, in D'Orbign. Diet. Univ. d'Hist. Nat. iii.. 

p. 296y furnished a Monograph on the Genus Cercopithecus. 

After the separation of the Mangabeys (Cercopithecus fidiginosus and 
cethiops, as ^irell as C, talapoin), the author enumerates still twenty species 
of Cerccpithecus, in which aU the grinders are four-sided, and have four 
tubercles. He groups them in the following way : — A. Snout somewhat 
shorter, body slender, disposition peaceful and sofl : a. Nose hairy and 
white. — 1. C, nictitoAhs : 2. C. petawrista ; my description of an old 
male is not noticed, although the difference is considerable. 5. Sides and 
'Under part of the fiice coyered with yery long hairs : 3, C pogonias, 
c. Tail lively red : 4. C.cephus: 5. C. erythrotis, d. Tail of different 
(solours, but dull ; above the eyes no white bands : 6. C, labiatus, a new 
species of Is. Geoffrey which, by the colour of the upper side and dispo^ 
sition of the dieek hair, is very similar to the C nictita/as, but is different 
in the colour of the under side and tail ; the former is dirty white ; the 
latter is, in a great extent, dirty fulvous beneath, and red and black 
speckled nbove ; the rest black : habitat unknown : 7. C, CampbeUi : 
8. C, Martini : 9. C. Temjninchii ; douhtful : 10. C, monoides, a new 
species of Is. Geofiroy, like the Mona, but of a different colour on the 
under part of the body, which, in the C, monddes, is greyish : habitat 

64 



3IAMMALIA— ^UADRUMANA. 21 

Bnknown. €. Like d,, but with white bands above the ejes : 11. C, mana : 
12. C, rolowa/y ; which Is. Qeoffiroy sepaxates from the Diana, because 
the back is deep dark brown, almost black (in the Diana, brown); 
farther, the belly is white in the living animal, bordering on orange (in 
the Diana, blackish) ; and the inner side of the thighs is of the same 
colour (in the Diana, rust-coloured): thus, Bennett's C. dicma should 
be placed with the Roloway : 13. C, diana, founded on the species of 
Linnaeus and Schreber: li. C leucampyx,; in order to distinguish 
this species from both the preceding, it is to be remarked, that the white 
hue upon the under side, in the C. roloway^ comprises throat, breast, 
and belly ; in the O. duina, throat and breast only ; and in the C, leu- 
e<MnpyXy merely the chin; the latter species also has no beard, and the 
outlines of the forehead are much larger. — B, Snout somewhat longer, 
body less slender, disposition petulant and irritable, fur greenish-grey 
or green : 15. O. Lakmdii, Is. Geoff. (C. pusilhM, Desmoul), is distin- 
guished by Is. Geoffrey from the C ptfgerythrus, because in it the fur 
is not properly green, not even on l^e 'back or head, but only grey, 
slightly or scarcely at all sprinkled with a green or olive hue : from the 
Cape, especially from Cafferland ; common : 16. O. pygerytJvms ; like 
the preceding, but head, back, shoulders, sides, and upper side of the 
tail yeUowish-green, sprinkled with black ; differing from the following 
species (equally with the preceding) by the colour of the hinder parts, 
the hands, and the blade chin: habitat unknown, though Fr. Cuvier, 
from confounding it with the former one, gives the Cape : 17. C, cyno- 
iuroSf to which the author joins the C. tephrops : 18. C, griseo-viridia : 
19. C. Sahasus : 20. C. tantalus ; yet very uncertain : 21. C, rufo-viri- 
dis; also first characterized by Is. Geoffroy; head superiorly olive- 
green ; back greenish-red ; sides pure red ; shoulders and thighs green- 
ish-grey ; the rest of the upper parts grey ; under parts white : habitat 
unknown, g. Fur red. 22. C, ruber , from Senegal : 23. O. pyrrhono- 
#tM, from Nubia. Is. Geoffrey separates both, as specifically distinct, 
while I, in my monograph (with which the author is not acquainted), 
have given them as two varieties of the same species. I believe now, 
on account of their different habitats, it would be better to hold them 
as separate. It is not the case, however, t^t in the C, pyrrhonotus, as 
Geoffrey says, the outside of the under part of the limbs is red, and grey 
in the O, ruber ; the reverse is exactly the case (vide my Monograph). 
On the C. ^MgulariSf the author has no information. 

Some farther inftrrmatifirn on the Cercopithecua erythrotis-aiSid Martini 
has been given by Mr. Waterhouse in Ann. of Nat. Hist iz. p. 147. 

J. E. Gray describes (Ann. x. p. 256), a Cercopithecus Burnettii; — 

greyish-bliusk; head, nedc, and upper part of the back yellow dotted; 

tiixoat, cheek, abdomen, and inside of leg}B greyish-white ; hair of the 

cheeks attd fixrehead yellow, with a small black tuft over each eye ; hairs 

65 E 



22 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

long, pale at the base, then grejiflh-black ; those of the Head, neek,^ bael:^ 
and root of the tail, with two or three broad jellow-brown subtermiixal 
bands ; body 19'' ; end of tail mutilated : from Fernando Po^ 

Is. Geofiroy separates from Cereopittiecus a peculiar genus^ 
MiOPiTHECUS (jutm, minor). 

. He glres, as its chief characteristics, in D'Orb. Diet. iiL p. 308,— SknH 
raised higher aboye the eye-sockets ; partition of the nose pretty broad ; 
nasal fossae opened downwards and sidewards; last grinders less than 
the anterior ones; in the under jaw, onfy with three Imobs, two anterior, 
and one posterior ; similar arrangement in the upper jaw ; siie much 
inferior to that of the other apes of the Old World. The genus is 
founded upon the Simia talapoin. As a seecmd species. Is. Qeof&oy 
adds to it a Miopithecus capillatus, very like to the first, but somewhat 
bigger ; colour reddish with a dash of oliye, not green ; the back-hair, 
in its under half, black, not grey ; also wants the tui%6 of yellow side- 
ways inclined hair, which the Talapoin has on the cheeks. As the skull 
and teeth of the new species are not known, there remains an uncer- 
tainty whether it properly belongs to this genus. 

The Inuvs speeioevs has been fully described by Temminck 

m the Faun. Jap. Mam. p. 9. 

It agrees most nearly with the J. ecaudatus, but is }th less. This is 
the only species of ape in the Japanese islands, and not in all localities. 
It is pretty common in the island Sikok, and in the province of Aki 
(island Nippon) ; in that of Kiusiu, the southernmost of this group ; it 
is found in the mountains of Figo ; its geographical distribution will, 
on this account, be bounded by 35° north latitude. It lives in herds, 
and is as docile as the /. eccmdatus. 

American Monkeys. — ^The reporter has already giyen the 
diagnoses of four new Brazilian species in these Archiyes 
(8 Jahrg. 1 Bd. p. 357). 

J. E. Gray has mentioned some species in the Ann. Nat. 
Hist. X. p. 266, yiz. : — 

EriodeB fironfatus ; no thumb <m the hand ; reddish-brown, yellowish- 
brown beneath ; forehead, elbows, knees, and the upper side of the arms 
and of the four hands, black. Young like the adidt, but with long 
white hairs on th& cheeks, and amongst the black hair on the forehead : 
habitat. South America. Captain Belcherr British Museum. Appears 
to be a good species. On the contrary, Gray's Pithecia pogonias is 
nothing more than a young male or female of Pithecia Imeoeephalaf 
which figures in the System abeady, under six different names at least; 

66 



MAMMALIA — QUADRUMANA. , 23. 

Gray lias correctly remarked, that NyctipUheeui trivirgatus, Humb., 
and N.felinusi Spiz, are two verj difierent species. The former has^ 
hitherto only been known from the description and drawing of Hum^ 
boldty and &om a defective specimeii, in which the muscles of the ear 
were almost wholly wanting, so that Gniy gives it the name of Aotus, 
and characterizes it ; paleK)Oloured brow, with three narrow converging 
stripes running together on the nape, the side ones extending on to the 
cheeks ; tail remarkably dark : Brazil. I am not acquainted with this 
spedeB, but Jhn. Natterer writes me as follows of it : — *' On l^e upper 
Rio Negro, I found a night ape, which presents to me too much differ^ 
enoe not to separate it from the Southern Miriquina. It differs £rom 
this by much shorter and whiter fur — by black streaks upon the crown 
of the head, which are of equal bxteadth, running more apart, and almost 
parallel — by the brownish-grey-white mixed hue of the throat — the 
anterior part of the neck and the breast, — by the much paler whitislji 
ochre-coloured belly — by the greyer ground-oolour of the chest, without 
mixture of brownish-yellow — by a bread bright yellow-brown strips 
from the nape to the root of the tail — by the grey tinge of the root of 
the tail, without mixture of odbre — and by hair of one colour on the 
black part of the tail. In the Miriquina of Azara, both the black side 
stripes of the crown of the head are narrower than, the middle stripe, 
which is as broad again, and represeAts an oval spot pointed at botji 
ends ; the side stripes run towards each other, and often unite with th^ 
middle ; throat, fore-part of neck, and all the belly, are of a pale ochre- 
colour; the general hue of the upper side is more brownish-grey, or 
yellow brownish-grey, without back stripes ; the root of the tail is ochre- 
ooloured, as well as the hair of the black part of the tail at its roots ; 
the tail itself has longer hair, especially at the point. The first 
named Northern Night-Ape seems to be only a somewhat darker variety 
of the Simia trivirgata, Humb. The iV. trivirgatus of Gray will also 
belong to it, although, in the latter, the stripes on the head unite on the 
nape, in which respect it certainly differs from our specimen and from 
that of Humboldt ; but the difference need not be reckoned of much 
consequence, as in the Miriquina the stripes are often separated, and 
often united." With these remarks I fully agree, and can confirm them 
in respect to the N.feliwas. We distinguish, accordingly, two speciea, 
r~l. That of Azara, Rengger, Fr. Cuvier, Spix, and myself, described 
as Nyctipithecus AzanB, Humb., ^m Paraguay and Southern Brazil, 
but stretching eastward as far as Para, where Spix found it : 2, The 
«pecie» at first described by Humboldt, now also by Gray and Natterer, 
N. trivirgatus, Humb., from the north-west of Brazil, beyond the 
Amazon, and the adjoining part of New Grenada. Lastly, a third 
irpedes could be made, N. vodfercms, Spix, dwelling in the woods of 
Tabatinga, on the coast of Peru, if the irregular colouring be present ii^ 

67 



24 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII: 

all the indiyiduaU there, which I do not know, tm Spiz aolj brought one 
specimen. But if it should be merely a variety, it would not be, as 
Gray supposes, one of the N. trivirgatui ; but, on account of the agree- 
ment in the marking of the head, stripes, and colour of the tail, one of 
the N. Azanz {N, felinui, Spiz). 

Gray's remark, that the Cheirogaleut CommersanU of Vigors and 
Horsfield, is nothing more than the N. felinus, is valuable. I could 
not bring it in among the half-apes, so that in my monograph, I only 
mentioned it in a note to Cheirogaleus, I cannot imagine how Vigors 
and Horsfield have made such a serious mistake. 

ItEUUBiDM* — Gray defines, in the same work, three new species from 
Madagascar (z. p. 257). 

1. Lemu/r earonatus ; ash above, limbs and beneath pale yellowish ; 
Hmo white ; orbits grey ; cheeks and forehead bright rufous, with a large 
black spot on the crown ; tail thick, end blackish. 

2. Cheirogaleits Smitkii ; pale brown ; streak up the nose and fore- 
head; the chin and beneath paler; tail redder. Distinguished firom 
€h, typicfM, Smith, in British Museum, by its much smaller size and 
different colour, which is greyish-brown ; head a redder brown ; orbits 
black ; cheeks and beneath white. 

3. Oalago minor; pale grey; back rather browner washed, beneath 
whitish ; tail elongate, depressed, narrow. Not more than half the sixe 
of the Galago nenegaknsis. 



CHIROPTERA. 

Many valuable contributions have been given to this order, 
particularly by Tenuninck, Gray, and Bachmann. 

Frugivora. — Among the ten species of Cfhiroptera brought 
by Von Siebold from Japan, two belong to the genus Pteropus, 
(Faun. Japon. p. 12). 

Both species, Pt, dasymallus and pselapJiony having been described 
already, I shall only add some more ezact information about th^ dis- 
tribution. The former is found in the south of the' ishind Eiusiu, in the 
district of Satsuma, and rarely at Jaknnosima ; the latter is only known 
in the island of Bonin. 

RtLppell's Pt, schoimii is firom Schoa ; '' ecaudatus, aurieulus brevi^ 
bus, halluce elongate, corporis colore cervino, regione epigastrica canes- 
eente ; macula albicante ante et post auriculas, ad latera faciei a naribus 
per oculos fascia umbrina ; unguibus nigris." Very like the Pt, Whiteip 
s, IcibiatuSf but the ears much shorter. 

68 



MAMMALIA — CHIROPTERA. 26 

IsTiOPHORA.-— Gray defines a new genus, under the name of 
Sturnira (Ann. Nat. Hist. x. p. 257). 

Tail and interfemoral membrane wanting ; nose-leaf lanceolate, 
simple ; tragus distinct ; inner surface of the lips bearded on the sides ; 
bind feet large ; lower lip with a single larger wart surrounded bj a 
series of small ones. 

The species is called 8t gpectrum ; fur brown, with darker tips to 
the hairs, beneath pale whitish ; membranes dark blackish : Brazils. 

Unfortunately, neither are the teeth described, nor is a comparison 
made with the already identified genera. Diphylla appears to stand 
nearest it. 

Gray has two other Brazilian species of this division, yiz. : — 

1. Phyllostoma elongatum, — ^The front of the lower lip with a large 
triangular space divided by a central groove; ears rounded, large; tragus 
slender and lanceolate ; nose-leaf elongate, lanceolate, tapering. 

2. Phyllophora megalotis, — The groove of the lower lip not fringed 
on the edge ; far blackish, rather pale beneath ; nose-leaf large, ovate- 
lanceolate, longer than broad ; ears as long as the head, rounded ; fore- 
arm bone 1" 3'^' ; body and head 2 inches. 

I have characterized another Brazilian species, Phyllostoma excisum, 
in these Archives, 8 Jahrg. 1 Bdr p. 358. 

Two species are added to the Rhinolophi, viz. : — 

1. Khinoloph/as fumigoUus, Enpp. (Mus. Senck. iiL p. 132) ; similar 
in the border of the nose and form of the ears to the Rh. cUvosus, but 
the tail shorter, the fore-arm longer, the thick long fur dark smoke-grey: 
from Schoa: 2. Bh, moriOf J. £. Gray (Ann. x. p. 257), like Rh, luctu$, 
but reddish-brown, which is perhaps the effect of brandy : from Malaoca^ 
Singapore. 

Rh, ferrum equinum has been found in Algiers (Diivernoy in the 
M^m. de Strasb. iii. p. 3) ; and besides this, the Ve^ertUio mtmntM, 

Gymnorhina. — Blasius has imported some interesting 
obseryations on the Flight and Habits of Bats, theu* Wan- 
derings and Geographical Distribution, in the " Yersammlung 
der Naturforscher zu Braunschweig,'* (p. 62). 

The question about their migration finds a sufficient solution in facts 
connected with the Vesperugo NilMomi. This species exists generally 
In the latitude of 54-58'' in Russia, on the plains, and next it in the upper 
Harz and the Swedish mountains ; I may also add to these the hills at 
Regensburg. In summer, on account of the dear nights, it is nowhere 
to be firand in all the north of Russia, between 60-70'' north latitude : 
it is first to be seen there in August, when the dark nights begm. 
The author describes (p. 86), from an ori^al spedmen, the VetperiUio 

69 



26 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII: 

'volgevaU, Evemn., as identical with V. DaMbentcniif a oondunon which 
I did not Tenture to mention in former reports, becauae, in mj spedmeo, 
which was much injured bj insects, the skin of the wing did not reach 
to the under end of the shin. The other species of Erersmanni th^ 
Veepertilio tv/rcomwnus, which I have not seen, Bhisius describes as a 
decidedly new species, belonging to the group of VeepertiHo gerotinus. 

Schinz has found in Switzerland, VegpertiUo discolor and Nattereri, 
and has also discovered a new bat in the environs of Zurich, which he 
calls Vesp&rtilio mmuHssimus. According to his description, the bade is 
dark coffee-brown; the bellj dark brown, almost b}ack; ear small, heart- 
shaped, sloping at the outer margin ; tragus broad, lanceolate, with blunt 
point. Whole length ^" 8'", of which the tail occupies 1" ; the whole 
breadth onljr 0". (Verh. der schweiz. Gesellsch. 1841, s. 7Q. It is a 
pity that Schinz has not followed the plan laid down by Keyserling apd 
Blasius, in the recojgnition of this sp^ies. 

Sely3 Longchamps (Faune Beige, p. 21) insists, that Vespert, emar- 
ginatus is a peculiar species ; he wonders how it could be confounded 
with V. m/yatacinus ; it rather resembles, as he says, the F. Nattereri ; 
but differs from both by its woolly projecting hair, bright red on the 
back and over the interfemoral membrane, by very emarginated ears, 
thick snout, &c. Its colour is very like V, serotinus. The reporter 
would here remark, that Koch has also placed a separate spedes very 
like the V, mystaci/nus in the V. Schrcmhii, which agrees with that one 
in the number of grinders, the form of the ears, and the flying mem- 
brane, but is different in colour. The hair, both on the upper and under 
surface, is double coloured, namely, — ^black on the inner half, and on the 
outer a glittering fulvous brown, perceptibly lighter on the abdomen. 
Is this the F. ema/rgvnatus ? Selys remarks also (p. 300), that accord- 
^n^ to his examination of the F. hrachyotis of Baillon, it Is nothing 
more than a casual variety of F. pipistrelhis with the ears destroyed, 

Canlor's Vespertilio irretitus comes from the Chinese Island of Chusan 
(Ann, YK. p. 481) i ears rounded^ shorter than the head ; tragus lanceolate ; 
muz?:le bluQt, with so^ie long hairs ; fur soft, upon the back brownish- 
grey, on the belly dust coloured ; tail slightly protruding from the inter- 
femoral membrane, the latter thinly haired beneath ; grinders 4-5 ; body 
2" 1'" ; tail 1" 1"' ; length of ear 2J lines ; breadth of ear 2^'' ; lengtib 
9f tiie tragus 1'". 

J. E. Gray has wished to surprise zoologists, by the defining 

pf saven new genera of VespertilionidcB (Ann. Nat. Hist, x, 

p. 257). 

It is evident, that he has paid no attention to the labpurs of Keyserlii^g 
and Blasius, as they are in the German language. It is nothing to him, 
th&t from this neglect, exactly those characteristics are passed ove^, m 

70 



MAMMiLLlA— CHIROPTERA. 27 

which «lone the genera and aib-genera can be -established; and he adheres 
to those which serre merely for defining tiie species. I will Iherefoie 
abridge my account of them. Under Scctophilus, Gray will only adnat 
the species whose flying membrane is fixed from the heel to the root <of 
ihe toes (V, seroHn/us, discolor, Leialeri, nmrmus), Noctiulmia is a 
new genus like ScotopkUus, but the flying membrane is only flzed to 
ihe heel ( V. proierus and Julvu$). VesperHUo comprises the species 
which haye the feet free, with the. wings only attached to the ankles ; and 
the interfemoral membrane is furnished only with a few scattered hairs, 
and the fncae is short and hairy (V, mystacinuSf Da/uJbentonu, Curoli), 
Fvom tiiese Gray separates ^ve new genera: — 1. TrilatiUM(t) feet free; 
tnterfemoral membrane with cross tufts of hair beneath (V. HaMelHi, 
macelluSi hlepotis), 2. Kerivoula, the same; but the wing arises from 
the root of the toes (V, HcMrduncMi, pictus, ten/ais) ; and two new spe- 
cies, K. griseus! habitat unknown; and K.poeiMi8, from Fernando Po. 
3. Myotis; wing extending to root of toes ; ear large; tragus long (F. 
mtfrtntM, already cited by the author at {Scotophikbs!! V, Beehsteinii 
and Natereri), From V^»pert. iuUlus, the genus (4.) MtMrmct ib made ; 
and from F. harpyia, the genus (5.) Haapioc^^LhaliM, 

On the genus Cbntdbio of Gray, wil^ ^'^'^'^ incisors:; large^ars; sbcM^ 
indented tragus; no tail; deeply eut in flying membrane; I will refw 
for An*ther information to S. Mliller and Schlegel, as the Centurio wnese 
j>i Gray from Amboyna, occurs in their Fauna of the Indian Archi- 
pelago. 

Bachmann in the Joum. of the Acad, of Nat. Science of 

Philadelphia, yiii. 2 (1842), p. 280, has described foua* species 

of VeBpertilio, collected from North Ammcii. 

As the author was unacquainted with tiie woik of Eeyserling and 
Blasius, he has oYcrlooked the ralue of some important characters, as for 
example, those derived from the grinders, whose number he does not 
give, whilst he notes all the incisors and canine teeth, although these 
are universaUy present in the same number as a constant generic mark, 
and thus possess no yalue for specific definition. 1. VespertiUo monti- 
cola ; *^ Yesp. subulata brevier, aoriculis brevioribus, tragis non exce- 
dentibus dimidium longitudinem auricul«e ; colore fulvo ;" body 1^' 8"' ; 
tail H^' : from Virginia : 2. V^ mrginicMvus ; ** V. monticola paululum 
longior, aurieuUs paululum longioribus, magisque aoutis ; dentibus prim, 
max. sup. simplicibus; interfem;. membrana nuda; corpore supra fuligineo- 
•fusco, subtus cinereo-fuscato :" from Virginia: 3. V. Leibii; ** V. supra 
fusco-ferrugineus, subtus cinereus, alis auribusque nigris ;" body V^ T'^ ; 
.tail 1" ^*" : from Michigan : 4. V. califomicus ; " V. fusco-lutescens, 
vellere longo et molli, trago longitudine dimidium f* body 1'' T" ; tail 

71 



28 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDOCCXLII : 

1'' &". BiiisliiwRTi|i renuurkt of V, Mtbuto^uf , that it is identical with 
M?Miirtrie'8 T. hidfvb^yu^ kdA Green*! V. dometticua, and tliat it is 
rery widelj distribnted, as he has reoeiyed this species from Carolina 
and Labrador during summer. V, co/rolineniU is found in autumn, 
winter, and spring ; but in summer appears to wander northwards, and 
is at that time plentifhl in the State of New York. 

It should not here be omitted, tiutt aooordingto BlainTille's statement, 
Bhinopoma carolineMe U a Moloesns. 



INSECTIVORA. 

AcuLEATA. — Two new Monographs on the Hedgehogs haye 
appeared since mine. 

One is by Burmeister in Ersch and Graber^s AUgem. Encydop. Bf 37 
(1842), under the artide ErinaeeuSf and giyee a careftd and laborious 
oompariaon of what has hitherto been published on tiie fBsaSlj of the 
Hedgehogs^ His opinion, that my Erinacefu alhiventris must be only a 
small indiyidual of E, frontaUsy of which I now possess a specimen, is 
altogether without good ground. 

The other monograph is by Sundeyall (Ofrersigt af slUgtetErinaoeus, 
in the Sy, Vetenskaps Acad. Handl. 1641). I haye reoeiyed it as a 
separate pamphlet, through the editor of our Archiyes, ftxr the yolume 
in which it is contained wiU not appear until at a later period. Un^ 
fortunately my Monograph of the Hedgehogs had not reached the author, 
although in the hands of the booksellers since 15th May, 1841, so that 
my E, alhiventris is omitted ; but definitions might haye been giyen of 
two other species characterised by me (E, hrachydoLCtylus and prwMfri), 
Bundeyall's monograph is rich in personal researches, and is a yery yalu- 
able contribution to the knowledge of the Hedgehogs. The foUowing 
species are enumerated : — a. Erinaoei aculeis yarie interteztis, yerticis 
preminentibus, non yel parum breyioribus ; pHi in plerisque longiores, 
rigidi. 1. E, europcBus : 2. E. frontalis, Smith : 3. E, coneolor. Mart, : 
4. E, heterodactyhis, Sund. ; ^'griseus, auriculis magnis, digitis connezis, 
pedibus posticis 4 dactylis :" from Sennar : 5. E, asthiopicus, h. Erinaoei 
aculeis densius positis, ordinatis, antrorsum sensim multo breyioribus (in 
8p. quas yidi, numeri 6-8, pili corporis simt breyes densissimi moUes, 
quasi lanei, auriculas. magns): 6. E, aurictus. Pall.: 7. E, platyotis, 
Sund. : 8. E. agyptiuSy Geoffiroy {E. libycus, Ehrenb.) The author adds, 
as species of this diyision, which he has not seen, E. hypomelas, collarisy 
Cfra/yi, spata/ngus ; and, finally, giyes to that one mentioned by PaUas, 
from Dauuria, the name of E. dauwricus, 

72 



MAMMALIA — INSECTIVORA. 29 

I have next to remaiik, that the E. heterodactylui, Bond., u identical 
with mj E. pruneri; the posterior thumb is wanting in both. I supposed 
this defect in E. prwM/ri and alhiventris, to be occasioned by an iiguiy, 
and therefore omitted it in mj description; but since Sundevall has 
found the same, I do not hesitate to state the want of the thumb, on the 
hinder foot, as a yery important diagnostic mark for my E. pruneri and 
nlbiventrU, The E, cethiapicus, £hr., perhaps identical with my E, 
lyraehydactyhis, cannot be separated from the group to which E, a/mitus 
belongs; the bristles are idso in this one quite soft. E, platyotis, Sund., 
with the diagnosis, — *' dense albido-pilosus, auriculis mazimis, poUioe 
postioo breyisslmo," — ^would seem also to belong to my E, hrachydacty- 
luSf were there not too great a difference in the length of the bristles. 
In the E. hrachyd<ictylu9 they are as long as the ears, or even more so ; 
in the E, platyotis, on the other hand, Sundeyall gives the ears 20-29 
millimetres, while the bristies of the baek are only 18-19 millimetres. 
His two spedmens came from Egypt. E. cBgypticuSf Geoffr., Sundevall 
places with the E. libycibs, Ehrenb., and gives as diagnosis, — ** dense 
moUiter albido-pilosus auriculis longit. 1-^ capitLs, pollice postico brevi 
peifecto." The distinction between it and the former species does not 
appear to be satisfactory. Certainly Sundevall says of E, platyotia, — 
'* simiUimus priori (E, awrito) et sequenti {E, asffypL), sed ab utroque 
differt proportioni digitorum et ab E, cegyptiaco magnitudine auricu- 
lamm." However, I must remark, that in these short-toed animals a 
difference in length in the toes is at least difficult to detect, and the 
length of the ears may be modified in consequence of the preparation. 
Both these species should be more strictly defined, and the constitution 
of the bristles expressly detailed, according to the mode 1 have shown. 
It is very doubtful to which of the three Egyptian species (E. hrachy- 
dactylus, platyotis, and Itbycus) the E. cegypticus, Geofiroy, belongs. 
In the CataL des Mammif, Geoffroy says, — *' or^illes trds along^s," 
which does not exaotiy agree with SundevaU's E, cegypticus, I have 
lefened it to my E. hroMshydactylus. 

Duvemoy and LerebouUet (Mem. de Strasb. iii. p. 4), have described 
a stuffed specimen of Erinaceus algirus from Oran, with this diagnosis : 
" £. auriculis subarcuatis digitis et unguibus mediocribus ; toto coipore 
subtus pilis confertissimiB, moUibus, magnopere albis vestito ;** &' long. 
It belongs to my second division of the Hedgehogs, and must be a variety 
of the Es hrachydactylus or csgypticus* In order, however, to be cer-> 
tain of this, the length of the ears and bristles, and particularly the outer 
and inner structure of the latter, must be specified. It is interesting to 
know, that the Hedgehog is found at Algiers ; whilst, on the other hand, 
Siebokl asserts, that it was introduced into Japan from China. 

We have yet to register the ** SmybolsB ad Erinaoei Europsi anato* 
men, diss, inaug. quam oonscripsit Seubert ;" Bonn, 1841, principally 

73 



30 REPOBT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

ezplftming tbe muacaliu suboutaneiu, and the male organf of genera- 
tion. Two beautifiillj drawn plates are appended. 

SoBiciNA. — ^Duyemoy has presented us with two excellent 
Treatises on the Shrew-mice, — ^the one entitled, " Sur les 
Dents des Musaraignes, consider^s dans leur composition et 
leur stmcture intime, leurs rapports arec les machoires, leur 
d^veloppement et leur succession" (Compt. Bend. xy. p. 270, 
804, 483, 1000) ; the other, " Notices pour servir h, la Mono- 
graphie du genre Musaraigne'' (Magas* de Zool. 1842), with 
.16 copper-plates. 

Next to Wagkr, Duvemoy laid the foundation for separating the 
Shrew-mice into natural groups, which has been fiirther accompUshed 
by him in this new work, in which he has carefully described the species 
known to him ; and, moreover, illustrated the most of them with figures. 
He enumerates the following species: — I. Subg. Sorex {Croddwraf 
Wagl.) a With three small intermediate teeth. 1. 8, ara/neus, tab. 
38 : 2, 8, leucodon, tab. 39 : 3. 8, cycmeusy Duy., tab. 40, 41 : 4. 8, 
fierpesteSf Duv., tab. 42, 43. I had ventured the opinion, in my mono- 
graph, that this might be a younger state of 8. varius ; but from this 
description and the drawing, I see that this cannot be the case, as the 
8, herpeites has long waved hair at the tail, which is totally wanting in 
the 8, varius. It is also difierent from my 8. infumatus, by its oolour. 
On the other hand, it may be identical with A. Smith's 8. capensoides 
(South Afric. Quart. Joum. 1833, p. 62) : 5. 8, crassicoAidus. Duver- 
noy conjectures, that Geofiroy's 8. nvifoguros may belong to this, but it 
is by no means the case with the 8, myosuroB described by myself and 
Pallas (compare Schreb. Suppl. ii. p. 72). — h With four small interme- 
diate teeth : 6. 8. gtganteus (8. indicus), tab. 45, according to a speci- 
men from Egypt, wants, on the right side, the third, on the left, the 
fourth intermediate tooth : 7. 8, 8onneratii ; the animal from Japan, 
represented on tab. 46, I hold for 8. myoguroSy Pall : 8. 8. Perrotetii, 
Duv., tab. 47, a new species, only of ttie size of the 8, etruscuB ; ear 
large, fur dark brown above, and on both sides blackish ; beneath with a 
grey tinge: from the Nilgherries, 2300 metres above the sea. — II. Subg. 
Amphisorex {8oreoe, Wagl.) : 9. A, pygmasus, tab. 48 : 10. A. alpmuSj 
tab. 49 : 11. ^. Le»ueurii, Duv., tab. 50, of the size of 8. etruecus ; ftir 
above somewhat dark ash-grey, lighter on both sides, palest beneath ; 
tail above blackish-grey, beneath pale ; lips whitish : from the banks of 
Wabasch, in the State of Indiana. — III. Subg. Hydrosorex (Crossopue, 
Wagl.) : 12. H, carinatus (8. fodiens), tab. 51. — IV. Subg. Brachysorex, 
a new group : points of teeth coloured, upper incisors with only one lobe ; 
the intermediate tooth following does not go over it; under incisors with 

74 



MAMMALIA — INSECTIVOEA. 31 

2-3 blunt denticulations, «8 in Amphuorex ; iBtennediate teeth i-^, the 
first two of which are pretty equal in size, the last wholly iwdimentary, 
and standing inwards to the first large grinder : 13. B. hrevicoMdus, Say, 
tab. 52 : 14. B, Ha/rlcmiy Day., tab. 53, is perhaps, as the author con- 
jectures, Identical with S, parvus, Say. In the appendix, Sorex leuco- 
4on is described and figured, tab. 54. We hope that the author of this 
distinguished contribution to the Monography of the Shrew-mice will 430on 
^ye us the promised continuation of his work. 

Masius remarks (Bericht uber die 19^ Yersamml. der ^toiSwsch. 
p. 87)) that after the examination of seyeml specimens of Sorer waveo- 
lens which were collected in the Crimea, on the estate «f Pallas, this 
spedes is identical with 8. etruBCus, Of this Sayi had already remarked, 
that the side gland was wanting in it, and iliat its musk smell proceeded 
from the excrements. From another obseryation of Blasius, ;Sf. Cfmelini 
does not seem different ^!tim 8. p^gmasus. 

itiippflll, in the Mos. Senckenb. iiL p. 133, described a 8orese mdicus, 
▼ar. einereo-cBnea, from Schoa. The dimensions were all the same as in 
the Indian specimens, only the colour was difierent ; upper side, feet, 
and tail, dark grey passing into red-brown, with a sort of metallic gloss ; 
under side ash-grey ; whole length 7", of which the tail occupies 1-5. 
The 8, flavegcens stands nearest it in point of colour, but the tail is 
jonly 1-4. 

Temminck has described already one species of the Shrew-mice of 
Japan, Crossopiis platycephalus. Faun. Japon.^ p. 23; it is a third 
bigger than our Water Shrew-mouse, dark brown aboye, dark grey 
beneath. 

Gray has made known two species of Shrew-mice &om India, in the 
Annals of Nat. Hist. x. p. 261. — 1. Croesoptis Mmalayicus ; slate- 
coloured black, with longer and white-tipped hairs on the sides and 
rump ; lower part of the throat and the middle of the beUy ru«ty brown ; 
t^il scaly, with adpressed dark brown hajrs aboye, ai^d elongate rigid 
whitish hairs beneath ; feet rather naked ; teeth white ; body 5^ inc., tail 
3'^ This, from its white teeth and naked feet, is not a Crossopvs, but 
a Crocidura. 2, Cordra nigrescens ; bladdsh lead-colpur washed with 
rufous ; chin and beneath pale and rather more rufous ; whiskers dark ; 
daws white, ears hid in the fur ; cutting teeth brown at the tip ; body 
3" 6"' ; tail 1" 4'" : from India. 

In conclusion, I may remark, that I possess a specimen of the 8. va/nus, 
from which I obserye, that it agrees in the teeth with 8. a/iromevs ; but, 
from the want of the long undulated hair on the tail, it differs from all 
the spedes of the Crocidwra : the sub-genus Myosorex of Gray is thus 
established. On the other hand, 8. varvm is not, as Gray imagines, 
identical with ctnnamomeusy as I haye conyinced myself by the ex- 
amination of specimens of both at Berlin, In them, also, the tail 13 

75 



82 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

fiinushed with long wared hair, and therefore these epecies are to he 
xanloed under Crocidura. 8, ptUeheUus will also helong to this diyision, 
aa its teeth are snow white. 

Duyemoy has added a copious Supplement to his earlier 
Treatises on Macroecelides Bozeti, in the M^m. de Strash. iii. 
p. 50. 

It treats of the skeleton and the structure of the teeth, the formation 
of the snout, the gland of the tail, the digestiye apparatus, and the female 
parts of generation. It is rich in personal observations, and in deep 
acquaintance with the literature. A plate shows the anatomical pecu- 
liarities mentioned. 

Talpina. — ^Temminck has, a short while ago, given the 
description of a new genus, XJrotrighus, which he announced 
some years since. 

It is to be found, in the Dutch language, in the Instituut of Yerslag. 
van het K. N. Instit. van Wetenschapp., Amst. 1842, p. 212 ; and in 
French, in the Faun. Jap. p. 20 ; also in Gu^rm*s Magas. de Zool. 1842, 
Mammif. pi. 55, Head elongated, with a long thin snout naked at the 
end, formed of two cylinders ; ears and eyes concealed by fur ; the feet 
naked, the anterior like those of the Mole. The tail measures }d of 
the length of the body, thick, scaly, and covered with long bristles ; teeth 
36, whereof | incisors, the upper formed as in the Wiichuhol. (The 
skull and teeth, unfortunately, are very indistiactly figured). The 
Zygoma is present. The only species is the U, talpoides, of the size of 
our Water Shrew-mouse, with soft, velveiy, glittering, dark brown fur. 
Plentiful in Japan, never in the level, but in hilly regions, where it digs 
like the Mole, but does not cast up hillocks. 

Japan has also a peculiar species of Mole, called by Temminck Talpa 
Wogura, It is, like our own, but with only six instead of eight incisors 
in the lower jaw, and of a light brown cobur, which is brighter on the 
sides, and becomes reddish on the belly. On all the Japan islands. At 
Sikok a black variety is found ; at Kiusiu a white. 

Bachmann has defined five species of the genus Scalops^ 

hitherto known as containing one only. 

His descriptions are to be found in the Joum. of Fhiladelph. viii. 1, 
p. 58, and 2, p. 292. — 1. 8calops Townsmdii, Nutt. ; 44 teeth ; for dark 
above and beneath, black under the usual admission of light (the hairs 
are greyish-black till towards the point); tail sparingly covered with 
short hair; body 7i"; breadth of fore-hand 7'". Another specimen, 

76 



MAMMALIA — CARNIVORA. 33 

eaught by Townsend at Columbia River, is about 1'^ longer, and has a 
white line under the belly ; to this belongs Richardson's Sc» ccmadenHs. 
2. 8c. Breweri ; also with 44 teeth ; glittering ash-grey ; black above, 
brownish beneath ; hands slender ; tail flat, broad, and hairy ; nasal foss» 
situate at the sides instead of on the upper surface of the snout, as in 
Sc. aquaticus ; body 6"; tail, without hair, 1"; with hair, 1" 5"'; 
breadth of hand 4f*'; of tail if" : in Ohio and several of the Northern 
States. 3. Sc. ao'gentatug, Bachm.; like the following species, only 
36 teeth ; hair of the back, firom the roots upwards, furmshed with 
narrow dark blue and white rings to near the points, where a broader 
grey white ring exists, with such a short brown point, that the clear 
colour on the upper surface is stiU visible, and presents a fair silveiy 
appearance ; on the under side the hairs are lead coloured, with a whitish 
and light brown pointed ring standing on end; nasal fossae on upper 
surface of snout ; body 7" ; tail 1" ; breadth of hand 10"' : from Michi- 
gan. 4. 8c. latimcmus, Bachm. ; bigger than 8c, aquaticus ; hair 
longer, looser, and compact, without the same shining glossy appearance, 
dark grey with dark brown points ; teeth and hands almost double the 
size of 8c. aguaticus; tail naked; body 6" 8'"; tail 1" 7'"; breadth 
of hand ICK'' : from Mexico and Texas. According to this, the animal 
described by me (Schreb. Suppl. ii. s. 104) would belong to 8c. latima/MM. 
6. 8c, ctquaticuSf Linn. ; only 5 or 5^'' long ; colour, although occasion- 
ally varying, far brighter than in 8c. Toivnaendii. The young have only 
90 teeth till after the first year, when they get 36. 



CARNIVOEA. 

Ursina. — The reporter has taken considerable pains, to show 
that the specific identity of the Cayem Bears with the Brown 
Land Bears, as. asserted by Blainville, is untenable. 

As my treatise from the Mun. gel. Anzeig. (1842, n. 130-X32) has 
been already reviewed in these pages (1843, p. 24), it is superfluous to 
enter farther upon it. Procyon psora is described by Gray in the Ann. 
of Nat. Hist. X. p. 261. Yellowish -brown and grey, grisled; face, 
temples, side of neck, chest, belly and sides of body, dirty yellow ; fore- 
head, cheeks under the eyes, each side of the throat and back of the 
ears, blackish-brown ; frir rather long, dark brown ; longer hairs yellow- 
white, those of the back, head, and shoulders brown tipped ; tail short, 
perhaps destroyed ? body 27'' ; tail 3'^ ? From California. 

77 



34 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

MusTELiNA. — ^Bachmanii has given a valuable contribution 
to the knowledge of the American Weasels. 

He shows (Joum. of Philadelph. viii. 2. p. 288), that the Europeaa 
Muttela vulgaris is different from the American, as Richardson describes 
it, and gives the latter the name of M, fmca, ThiJs American species is 
of a medium size, between M, erminea and vulgaris ; the tail is shorter 
than in the first, but longer than in the latter ; and, as in the former, 
black at the end, yet the hairs are short and soft, and not so long and 
stiff as in the Ermine. The upper side is brown, the imder pure wliite, 
without mixture of brown hairs, as is the case in the M, vulga/ris ; at 
the same time, the white hue extends farther out, and reaches, on the 
inside of the legs, down to the tarsus ; whilst, in the European Weasel, 
it scarcely reaches the thighs. 

M.eniMnea. 

Body U" 7'" 

Tail 4 6 

Tail with hair 6 2 

Height of ear, posteri(»rly 2^ 



f* 



M. fusca. 


M, vtdgartt. 


9" 0"' 


... 7" 0"' 


2 9 


.,. 1 9 


3 2 


... 2 1 


3 


... 2 



Badmiscnn kept an Ermine and a Weasel in his house during winter; 
the first became aU white, the latter not. He is convinced^ that M, fusca 
does not become white, at least in the latitude of New York, which is 
not the case with the Weasel (Jf. vulgaris), hitherto supposed to he 
identical with the former. M. fusca extends, in the southern states, as 
far as the upper parts of South Carolina and Georgia. The reporter 
remarks, that the M, fusca is identical with M. dcogna/nii, Bonap. 
Bachmann, however, has rendered great service, in having shown, in a 
convincing manner, the specific difference of this from M. vulgaHs^ 
Bachmann does not appear yet to know, that the identity also of the 
American Ermine with the European is doubted, which is unfortunate 
on this account, since he first could give a decision on this point. 

Bachmann has added the description of Mustela frenata, Licht. 

Karelin raised the question, in the Bullet, de Mosc. 1841, p. 572, 
whether the Zobel of Altai, of which he sent two specimens while on 
his tour, may not constitute a different species firom the Zobel of Eastern 
Siberia^ The Altai differs from the Siberian by the body being more 
extended, and by yellowish spots on the throat. From these marks, we 
ttkight place the Zobel of Altai with the Martens ; but it is a real Zobei^ 
as its hairy coat extends under the paws. 

The reporter gave an extended notice, in these Archives, 8 Jahrg. 
1 Bd. p. 258, of a new Brazilian species of Lutra — L, soUta/ria, Natt. 

P. Gervais has observed (Instit. 1842, p. 117), that Arctonyx must 
not be placed with Meles, but with Mydaus, as the reporter had pre- 
viously done. 

78 



MAMMALIA — CARNIVORA. 36 

Laurillard asserts, that Morren has found, in the tertiary formation at 
Brussels,' the remains of a Badg^ intermingled with those of Batra^hia, 
Snakes, Birds, and Shark teeth. He proposes the name Melea Morreni 
(D'Qrb. Diet. Univ. ii. p. 593) for the species. 

H. Yon Meyer has obtained from the brown coal of Eapfnach, in 
Switzerland, a fragment of the under jaw with the teeth, of a genus 
intermediate between the Badger and Weasel, which he has named 
Trochictis, The species is named Tr, carhona/ria (Jahrb. F. Min. 1842, 
p. 586). 

It was announced, in the " Oversigt over det K. danske Vetensk, 
Selskabs Forhandl. i. Aar. 1841,'' that Lund had discovered, among the 
Brazilian beasts of prey at present existing, a new genus, between that 
of the Wolverene (Jaerv.) and the Dog, which has been named by him 
Cynogale venatica. Farther information must be waited for before the 
family of the said species can be determined. 



ViveRrina. — ^Mr. T. R. H. Thomson has described, in the 
Annals of Nat. Hist, x. p. 204, a Genetta Richardaonii from 
Fernando Po. 

Rich fulvous ; three streaks on the nape ; numerous unequal spots on 
the back, sides, and limbs, and twelve bands on the tail black; nose 
grey; feet greyish fulvous, scarcely spotted; legs, cheeks, belly, and 
inner side of limbs brighter fulvous ; body 13^, tail 12} inches. Might 
not this be a young Genetta poensis, Wat. ? 

The difference between the Algerine Genetts and those of the Cape 
and South of Europe, has been shown by Lereboullet (M^m. de Strasb. 
iiL p. 7). The Strasburg Museum possesses a specimen of each of these 
Genetts ; but no special habitat is assigned to the latter. The author 
finds the following difference : — The Algerine Genett has larger, cbser, 
darker, and fiill spots ; a peculiar white spot above the eye is wanting ; 
the paws brown« In the Cape Gtenett the spots are more distant, fulvous 
in the middle ; the paws grey. In the European Genett the tail is longer 
than the body; in the Algerine it reaches to the eye ; in the Cape Genett 
to the nape ; and has eleven black rings, and a white tip, while the others 
have only nine ; and the ear is hairy inside, in the others the edges only 
ate so. The reporter remarks, that a supposed Spanish Genett, of the 
Yienna Museum, agrees pretty nearly in the colour and length of the 
tail, since it has about ten black rings, with a brownish-yeUow tip, and 
is as Ismg as the body (each 17'0 ; there are also spots on the sides, ^1 
and large, like the Strasbuig specimen. We might thus distinguish this 
Genett as Viverra gemietta, va>r, Ewropea, if these marks should provQ 
to be constant in several individuals. 

79 



■N 



36 REPORT ON ZOOLOOY, MDCGCXLII : 

The discoYery of a Mangusta in Spain is important for 
animal Geography* 

J. £. Gray mentions in the Ann. of Nat. Hist. iz. p. SO, that Captain 
Widdrington had brought from Siena Moiena an Ichneumon (along 
with a FeU9 pardina), to which he gives the name of Herpegtes Wid- 
dringtonii; — fbr black and white, grisled; side of the nose, feet, and 
end of taQ UackiBh ; the hair of the back is long, black, with three broad 
white rings, and a very fine brownish tip ; under fur soft, bay coloured; 
hairs of the face short and adpressed; throat and belly nakedish ; ears 
shorty rounded, ooyerod with short soft fine ringed hairs ; body twenty- 
two, tail twenty inches. Very nearly allied to H, icJmeumon, but it 
differs from that species in the hairs being much shorter, and haying 
only three rings ; while the hairs of the back of the H, ichneumon are 
white, with seven broad black rings, leaving a long white base, and only 
narrow rings between the black ones above. It would be another im- 
portant fiict for the geographical distribution of animals, if the Pcmto- 
doxfMtu NubioB, Fr. Cuvier (Mammif. 71 livr.), was actually a native of 
Nubia, whence Burton is alleged to have brought it. It agrees so much 
with our P. felvnuB, that one might believe the description of the P« 
NubicB was drawn from this specimen. What, however, I much doubt, 
is the assertion that its habitat is Nubia, sinoe, of the whole genus, no 
species is known from Africa; and from the carrying about of specimens, 
their secondary dwelling is often taken for their original. 

J. E. Gray has given a romarkable specimen of his love of making 
genera, in the Ann. x. p. 260, as, from a very doubtful drawing in Hard- 
wicke's Illustrations of Indian Zoology, which he at first looked upon as 
Viverrafuica, he has characterized a genus Osmetectis, without knowing 
any thing of the nature of the teeth, or of the structuro of the soles. He 
believes he has discoverod in it the Indian roprosentative of the Namce, 
I, on the contrary (Schrob. Suppl. ii. p. 289), have guessed it to be a 
Paradoxna^a, 

Canina. — Gray has given some notices on the Wild Dogs 
of New Holland, in his Journal of Two Expeditions in North- 
west and Western Australia. 

Besides the Dingo, he saw in North-western Australia, a totally dif- 
eront dog. Its colour is the same, but partly with a blackish tinge ; 
the nose is long, thin, and very pointed, like that of the groyhound, but 
the shape is moro sturdy. According to the report of some of his tra- 
velling companions, who had been at Timor, this dog must agree with 
the one common in that island (Ca/nis rutUa/M\ which is the moro pro- 
bable, as it was only seen in the company of natives ; whilst the Dingo 
was found in some regions abundant in the wHd state. 

80 



MAMMALIA — CARNIVORA, 37 

Delessert gave a sketch of the Canis primoBvus in Souv. d*uii Voy. 
dans rinde, p. 16, tab. 2. B]e killed one at Gengy, on the coast of 
CoTomandel, and saw them oflen in the NiJgherries, hunting in companies 
of three and four. 

Cemis Aza/rce was found by Bridges >m the valleys of the east side of 
the Andes of ChUi, between 34"* and 35*". It seems to differ from the 
Great Fox of Chili, called Culpeo, by having coarser ears. Ann. of 
Nat. Hist. ix. p. 509. Waterhouse remarked (p. 513), that this Fox 
difPeied from that figured in the Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, 
in having no black on the chin and comers of the mouth. 

Hyjenina. — A comparison of the specific differences by 
which the Hycena hrunnea is distinguished from thB Hycena 
stiriata and crocuta, in the construction of the skull and teeth; 
has appeared by the reporter. 

It is to be found in the Abh. der Munchn, Akadem. iii p. 607, and is 
aooompanied by a plate of the skull of the H, hrun/nea, of the size of 
nature, with a representation of the canine and molar teeth of the other 
«pecdes. 

Felina. — Gray has enriched his genus Leopardus^ with 
four new species (Ann. of Nat. Hist. x. p. 260). 

Two species are from Central America, and have been named by him 
Leopardus grisev^ and pictus ; the third, X. Elliott, is &om Madras ; 
the fourth, L, Horsjleldii, fi*om Bhotan. Neither their dimensions are 
giyen, nor a comparison with known species ; hence a certain recognition 
of them is impossible; and I content myself with merely naming them. 
At the Swiss meeting, Bruno introduced a discussion about a South Ame- 
ricaii Cat, which is distinguished from the Felis pa/rdalis by its smaller 
size, and the want of ohligue stripes &om the shoulders to the haundi ; 
and from the F, macrura, by a thicker head and a weak and a shorter 
taiL : he called it F, pa/rdaloides. Pictet supposed that it may, perhaps, 
be a YBxiety of F, macrwra, (Isis, 1842, p. 257.) 

PiNNiPEDiA. — ^Riippell has ^yen a description of a young 
Stemmatoptis eristatua in the Mus. Senck. iii. p. 134. 

There Is a notice, in the Eey. Zool. 1S42, p. 401, of a liying Seal 
taken in Corsica, where they are abundant 



81 



38 REPORT ON ZOOLOOT, MDCOOXLII : 



MARSUPIALIA. 

Owen has written the article Marsupialia in the thilxl yolume 
of Teddys Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, with as 
much copiousness as exactness, and explained the Anatomical 
Structore by many Wood Cuts. 

Mayer has gi^on some Taluable remarks on tiie Anatomy of the Mar- 
BupiaUa in his *' Nenen UntenRu^nngen aus dem Gebiete der Aiiatom. 
und Fhysiolog. 1842, 8.. 20," oonoeming the fonnation of the purse and 
the pnne bones, to which he chiefly ascribes the wide gpouting of the 
hladd&r : also of the parts of generation and of the hndn, in which, in 
opposition to Owen, he recognises oonTolutions and a corpus callosum, 

P, Gervais has inade known a rery remarkable genus, under the 
singuhir name TAssirEs, His description is to be found in the Magazine 
of Zoology, 1842, p, 35-37^ The external appearance is, in some mea- 
{mre, that of a Shrew-mouse, bnt the head is bngor, the nose mneh 
esrtended and slender; ears short, rounded, not hairy; hinder limbs 
somewhat longer than the fore, with naked soles and short toes ; fore- 
feet with five free toes, the point of each forming a small ball as in 
the Tariia, and projecting over the small nail; m the hinder-^t the 
second and third toe unite at the smallest part, and even as fiir as the 
nail joint ; the fourth toe is the longest, and like the fifth, with a small 
nail, which the ball also jHrojects orer ; the hinder great toe is opposite 
and without a nail ; the tail is very long, coyered at the root by the fur 
of the back, th#n the hsjr becomes quite short like that of a rat's tail ; 
the female is provided with a purse ; the skull, at first sight, resembles 
that of the ant-eater; there is no fi;Led socket for the joint of the nnd^r 
jaw, and this resembles that of the Myrmecophaga jvhata, as well a9 
tiiat of the Manotremaip The system of the teeth is as remarkable a« 
the structure of the skull. In the under jaw are found, anteriorly, a 
couple of knife-shaped teeth directed forwards ; towards the posterior 
third of the tooth-margin of the under jaw-bone, on each side, there is 
one small tooth and no more. Tn the upper jaw are at first seen a couple 
of small inoisors ; behind them in the first third of the tooth-margin, on 
each side, are small wart-formed teeth* and none any where else. Qervais 
looks upon this paradoxical genus as constituting a separate fiunily, in 
the division of the Dtddphis syndactylus, and gives it the name of TVvr- 
tipedidcR {!), The reporter would ratiier bring it, as an auomaloiis fimn, 
under the Insect-eating Marsupials of prey, where, as a separate family, 
it would assume a place analagous to the Proteles among the Hyamas, 

Gervais gave to his species the name Ta/rnpes roitratus. Fur fidvous 
brown (hair lead coloured at the root, fulvous at the point), beneath 

82 



MAMMALIA — ^MARSUPIALIA. 39 

. bright Mtous colour. A darkbh stripe along the back, on both sides 
bordered with light fulyous ; besides this, on each side of the back, a 
reddish-black watered band length-wajs; bodj 4^, tail 3j^ inches : firom 
Swan riyer. Gray soon after described a specimen of the same genus 
under the name Taawpes BpensercR. (Ann. of Nat. Jlist iz. p. 40.) 
Genrais asserts that this is identical with his own.* 

The genus Choeropu$, hitherto incomplete! j known. Gray has defined 
more exactly and fully. (Ann. of Nat Hist iz. p. 41). The slender 
forO'-feet have actually no more than two toes of the same length, and 
fumifihed with conical daws. The hinder feet ha^e four toes, the outer 
ones yery small, with a daw, the middle ones very strong and long with 
A compressed claw; the two jimer toes straight, weak, united up to the 
daws. Tail hairy with-a small terminal penclL Gray names Hie spedes 
desiaribed Ch, ccutonotis; baeowni^^grey, beneath white, sides brownish ; 
kngth of body 10, of tail 3^ ear 1} inches. Lires in the bush at Murray, 
and was sent home by Captain Gr^. He also got, in the same district, 
an animal like the Ch, ecwwdcutuB^ but with a stxong taiL It is, according 
to him, certain, that from the skin of the first described specimen, the tail 
had been accidentally lost, 

I haye, in the meanwhile, ^yen the charaoters of ten new spedes of 
'the genus ZHdelphys, in the Aidiiy. 18429 1 Bd. p« 358. 

Lund has fiiund, in the country inyestigated by him in the Braxils, 
Minas Geraes, in all seyen liying flpedes of Marsupial Rata. (Det K. 
Danske Yidensk. Selsk. Afh. yiii p. 236). He brings them into two 
diyisions : — a. Large spedes, with long white bristly hairs projecting far 
oyer the others. 1. Didelphys <mrita^ Neuw., agreeing in all respects 
with the description of the Prince : 2. D, alHvenlris, Lund ; yery 
intelligibly described by Markgraf as the Carigueya, but unknown to 
all other authors. Head, neck, sides of the belly, hair of the back, ai 
the root and posterior half of the tail, pale Isabella-yellow. Extremities, 
a band through the eye, another aboye the forehead, points of the. hair 
en the neck, back^ and rides, with the anterior half of the tail, blade ; 
ears grey, with whitish tips. Whole length 22^^ of which the body con-* 
stitutes one half; ears 2^' 3'^\ Distinguished from the 2>. virgmia/na, 
by its smaller size, longer tail, white belly, and larger ears. — h. Smaller 



* Gray was induced to the characterizing of a second species, chiefly per* 
haps by Genrais' inexact description of its locality. Dr. Pireiss, to whose 
kindness I am indebted for the sight of two specimens .of this remarkable 
little animal, assured me that it is quite unknown at Swan Riyer. The indiri- 
dnals brought by him, he receiyed from the natiyes, at St. George's Sound, who 
cafl it Nnlbingar. Gray's also came from the same place. It liyes in holes of 
trees, and feeds on fruits and insects. There remains no doubt of the identity 
of the species of Geryais and Gray. — EniToa or AacHiy. 

83 



40 REPORX ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXUI : 

ipeinea, witliout brutlj haliv; in Nos. d-S, the tul u longer Uian the 
bodj, in Noa. 6, 7, diorter: 3. V. meana. Land; pore grej mbove, 
beneath white ; a grejiah-black band throng t^ eye ; toil light brmm, 
towards tip whiti^, naked to the root; ears grey- Very difierent 
from JD. cinere^, Temm. ; body 4"; tail 5": 4. D. tnarina, Anot, : 
5. D. ptiiilla, Deam. ; only portioni of the akeletoii, which point to 
Aian'B £!nano (?) : 6. D. trieolor, in die and ooknir quite sgredng 
witL Ataxa'e Colicorto, but the colour of the sidet, which he calla a lirdy 
cinnamon hue, ii, in the liTisg species, merely ochre-yellow, on which 
account, Lund places it with doubt with the D. tricolor ; 7. D. trt{m«ata, 
described by Markgraf as a Slirew-moiue. 

J. E- Qray has increased the genus Phatcogaie with two new species. 
The one he names Ph. tupicalit, in size and appearanoe resembling the 
Ph. mtntma, but differing in having long white tips to the dark brown 
- and black hairs ; in the short conical tapering tail, covered with longisli 
yellowish-tipt hairs, but chiefly in baring a terminal pencil of black-tipt 
hairs. In the upper jaw were found only two false grinders, probably 
in ccHuequence of its youth : Habitat unknown. (Ann. ix. p. 518)-. 
To the other species, Gray gires the name Ph. leacoput ; fur grey, 
washed with blackish ; head ratiier redder ; lips, chin, throat, chest, and 
belly, inside of legs and feet, white; tail slender, under half white, upper 
blackish brown ; ears large. Easily distinguished from Ph. leucogaiter 
by its white fbet. (Ann. x. p. 261.) 

Besides these, Mr. Qould has increased tlie already great number of 
species of Kangaroos by sii. (Ann. ii. p. 345 ; i. p. 1.) These spedes 
are called — Oephranter antilopinwi, O. (?) iBobeUinui, Halmaturtu 
agiUt, Macropm oci/dromui, Lagorchettet congpicillatai, and L. albl^ 
pilit. O^hranter is a. newly established genua or aub-genus, founded 
on the great eztenaion of the nasal fosaic and muxzle, the proportionably 
small rise of the lateral toes of the hind-foot, and the great developinent 
of tiie middle toe, ice. It is unnecessary to enter mote exactly into 
this at present, as Oould will farther Uluatnite these species in his 
monograph. 



BODENTIA. 

Waterhouse, induced by my Treatise on the Systematic 
Grouping of the Rodentia, has begun the correction of his 

angement in opposition to mine. (Ann. of Nat. Hiat. x. 

197.) 

Ls we both commence from different principles, so it follows that the 

aping of families must often be dlflerent. Waterhouse places great 
64 



MAMMALIA— RODENTI A. 41 

^portance on tlie form of the under jaw, whilst I have assigned to it 
onlj a very subordinate importance. In particular, I do not classify 
according to one and the same character, which must always lead to a 
more or less artificial distribution ; but in the fixing of a family, I have 
been guided by those marks which are prominent in it above the rest. 
What my method, by this proceeding, obviously loses in logical con- 
sequence^ it gains richly on the other hand^ for it can be made to com- 
prehend the genera together in groups according to nature. On the 
individual £unilies I shall, where it is necessary, in proceeding, speak more 
at large ; and I thus hope to come to an understanding with Waterhouse, 
whose distinguished services to Therology I acknowledge with the high- 
est respect. 

Miram explains, in the BvHl, de Mosc^ 1841, p^ 541, that the merit of 
having first drawn attention to the peculiar little bones on the mai^gin 
of the passage of hearing in the Guinea Pig, does not belong to him but 
to Leuckart4 

The reporter has concluded " Schreber's Saugth. Suppl. iii." with the 
family of the Mice. The fourth supplementary volume will give the rest 
of the Bodentia, and the remaining orders of land Mammalia, 

SciURiNA. — Waterhouse (Ann. x. p. 202) has given a 
wider extension to his family SciwridcB, according to the 
following scheme ^— 

Family SciURtDiB, with the genera BciMTUB, Pteromys, 8ciuropteni», 
XeruSf ToAfnias, Spermophihis, and Arctomys, 

Aberrant Form9 (without post-orbital process to the frontals). 

1. With large ant-orbital opening; palate contracted between the 

anterior molars... ... Anomalurus, 

2. With small ant-orbital opening. 

a. With rootless molars , ... |— | — Aplodontia, 

5. With rootless molars „. |~| — (Sciu/ridce?) 

.a. Folds of enamel simple ... ..< ... Asdomys, 

b. — — complicated ... ,.. Castor, 

I cazmot agree with the muon of these aberrant forms to the Squirrels, 
just because they are aberrant, and eould find a legal place elsewhere. 
I consider Anomaltirus to belong to the Myoxince, according to the few 
notices which are given of it. Aplodontia apd A9comy» rank naturally 
with the Jumping Mice ; and this shows how necessary it is to have 
characterised a peculiar family, Cv/nicuUiria, as Pallas had asserted ; 
otherwise ^e genera of this gioup must have been scattered among the^ 
other fiunilies, and these would then have been deprived of their natural 
ebaracter, as the .other classification is a forced one. The addition of the 

85 



42 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

Beayer to the SciuriwE destroys completely their natural chaaracter; 
and I blow not what definition could then be given of the Scktridos, In 
his first work on the Bodentiaf Waterhouse (Loud. Mag. of Nat. Hist 
183i^, p. 593) had placed Castor and A$€amy$ with SpcbUtx in his fiunily 
of the ArvicoUdoe, a classification, at least, more allowable than the 
present one under the Sciurinoe* Ccutor shews, however, in its whole 
Aelet(m and dental struotore, in the Ibnnation of its feet, tiul, and 
secreting apparatus connected with the organs of generation, so many 
serious deviations even from the Mice, that any union with them ia 
likewise unnaturalr 

The addition to the mew species of the genus Sciurus is extremely 
large, but unfortunately a great part of it is so unsatisfactorily charac- 
terized, that the reporter, in the want of specimens, cannot determine on 
a separation of the species which may be nominal only. He contents 
himself with simply quoting the species according to their habitatsL 

a. Indian, — The ample description of the Sc. Delessertii by Gervais, 
with a plate of this species and its skull, as well as of the skull of 8c. 
intigniSf Rajflem, and o^i/reiventeTf has now appeared twice ; once in the 
Magas. de Zool. No. 20, and again in Delessert's Souv. d*nn Yoy. dans 
rinde, which is much to be disapproved of, as it costs the purchaser 
double; and amongst the 1200 Mcmtmalia which Delessert brought 
home with him, there must have been sufficient novelty for other plates* 
' Besides, Gervais has, in both works, confounded Tomios and .F\mam- 
hulus together ; while in fact the former have cheek-pouches, and the 
latter, like true Squirrels, have not. 

J. E. Gray describes in the Ann* z. p. 203, six other species : — ^1. 8c. 
ruf(hgular%9 firom China, very like the 8c. RajfleHi, but only half the 
size ; without white on the cheeks ; and the shoulders and side of the 
neck are red. 2. 8c, rufoniger; black; throat, inside of legs, and be> 
neath, bright red ; along each side an indistinct streak ; outside of the 
thigh grisled white : India. 3. 8c, rufogaster ; reddish, grisled ; head, 
side of the neck, and outside of the limbs, leaden-grey, grisled ; tail and 
feet black ; abdomen red : Malacca. 4. 8c, atrodorsalis ; grey ; middle 
of the back blackish, slightly grisled ; cheeks and whiskers yellowish ; 
ears, chest, belly, and under side of limbs, dull rufous ; tail blackish, hair 
with a broad black central band : Bhotan. 5. 8€. ca$tcmeoventri8 ; very 
like the 8c, hippuris, but <mly half the size, and the ears are grey : China. 
6. 8c. ccmiceps ; pale grey, grisled ; back yellowish, beneath paler grey ; 
tail long, grey, black varied, ringed, hair with three broad black bonds ; 
Bhotan. 

h, Apiccm, — Waterhouse has described three species fixxm the Niger 
Expedition, in the Ann. x. p. 202: — 1. 8e. Stangeri; larger than the 
common Squirrel, with coarse fur, fireokled with black and yellow on the 
upper parts' of the body ; the abdomen thinfy covered with hair ; tail 

86 



MAMMALIA — ^RODSNTI A . 43 

r&rj large and bushy. 8. Se, rufobraehium ; like the Se. wwukktfM^ 
but rather larger, more beautifiillj- oolooied, aad haa the potterior part 
ef the fore and hind legs fringed with rusty-red hairik 3. Se, hu/cogtny^; 
aboTe rich brown from the admixture of black and xkAx yellow ; bencyith 
white ; tail principally blaek, but the hairs tipped with white and red ftt 
the root; the mesial portum of the tail beneath is bright msly-redf thue 
sides of the face white; the siee about that of the eonunon SqiuireL 

«. North ^f»ema«^.-^BBchmann puUished, in the Joum. of the Aoad* 
of Nat. So. of Philadelphia, Tiii. 2 (1842), p. 310, six North AmeriMua 
species : — ^1. Se. kmigerut ; fur long and wooUj ; tail thick, bushy* 
seareely two-rowed ; nose, ears, and feet^ almost black ; upper side dark 
grey, sprinkled with brown ; under side pale brown •; body 12'' ; tail 11'' : 
N. California. 2< So, nwutelmus ; whole body uniform shining black ; 
10" long; tafl 13^^: from California* Distinot from So. niger, by the 
want of the white on the nose and ean« 3. Sc. farruffinewentrU ; abore 
bnght grey, reddish-brown on the shoulders; beneath light red; body 
8" 10"'; taiilO": California. It so much resembles some YBziotiet of 
Se. emereui and leueotig, that it might be reckoned a yanety of the on* 
or other, were not the great distaaee of their habitats an oljeotioiu 
5. So, molUpiloBus ; dark brown, red on the sides ; beneath grey : allied 
to the So, hudooniousy but the light colour of the belly is much less : be^ 
tween the colouring of the back and the under side there is no dark line^ 
&o. ; body 8^" ^ tail T' : N. California^ 6/ So, oeddoniaUs ; fwt bng 
and soft; head^ back stripe and tail/ Uaek; sides brown, mixed with 
black; under side brown black; ears narrow; body 11"; tail lit"* 
Most nearly allied to the black Tariety of Sc, IoucoHm, yc>t different, as 
no species was Ibund out of the Atlaatic States, westward of the Batkj 
Mountains, or, with the exception of So^ oetpUtroiius, westwani of the 
Mifliissij^ Eight permanent or uncertain ^ecies ef black Nertk 
American Squirrels «re now known. 

Lesson defines two species from Cential Ameriea, in his Tableau dn 
lUgne Animal, p. 112:— ^c. PUadoi(I) from St Salvador, ^d Sc. 
Adolphei, from Nicaragua. The first is OTidently nothing eke than Se* ' 
auroogaster, Fr. Cuvier; the other has, as Lesson says, a great resem^ 
bisBH^ to the Capistrato a lomgue queue of Fr. CuTier, yet he does net 
speak of a whito colouring on the nose. Gray's Sc. JUekeurdeomi is from 
Honduras (Ann. x. p. 264). Bfaick, brown, yaried ; hairs black, with • 
btoad •uboentral brown band ; cheeks aad ndes brown ; middle of throat- 
chest, belly, and inner side of the limbs, white; hair ci tail with l^ig 
white tips ; feet black ; ears haiiy ; length of Hm body, and head, ? 
of tail, ? If Gray himself cannot give the length of his new 
species, who can ? 

d. Souik Ameneom. — ^The reperter published in &• Aroiiiyes, I842< 
YoL i. p. 300, two new Brazilian species : — Se, iffmvet^trie and p^ftho-f 

87 



44 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

fiotuSi Nattr Further researches have smoe shown, that the 8c» cutuMMf 
found in the southern part of Brazil, has a sepresentatlve in the north- 
west part, which is distinguished by the ochre colour of its throat, and 
on this account, has been named by us 8c» gilvigularis, Graj's Sc. Bel^ 
cheH is firom Columbia ; black, minutely dotted with bright yellow ; 
sMes of head and outside of legs more orange ; feet bay ; edge of eyes^ 
and under side of body, bright orange ; lips and throat paler ; along the 
sides of the body a black streak between the two colours ; whiskers black ; 
ears hairy^ slightly pencilled; tail flat, rather narrow, black and red 
varied, with long white tips to the hairs ; body 7^''; tail 4^''. (Ann. z< 
p. 263.) Gray also mentions another species, habitat unknown, Sd, 9plen^ 
did/ue, — of the size of English Squirrel, but brighter red ; hair uniform 
red-bay to the base ; head rather paler ; cheeks and chin stni more so ; 
belly, and inside of the legs as far as the wrist, pure white ; whiskers and 
tdft of hairs on the temples black ; ears rather naked ; tail flat, two-rowed, 
bright red, with hair of one colour to the base. Gray describes, with an 
interrogation if from India ? a Xerus tvivittatus (Ann. x« p. 264) ; dark, 
brown, minutely grisled with grey ; outer sides of the limbs with longer, 
brown hair; broad streak on each side of back, belly, cheeks, lips, throat,r 
lower part of sides and inside of limbs, white ; a narrow streak on the 
middle of the back grey-brown ; tail broad, hair whitish, with three 
broad black bands. 

: Pteromys has also had a considerable addition to its species. One> 
from Afirica, where none of them had been previously known, is impor- 
tant to the knowledge of their geographical distribution. Gray has de- 
scribed three species from the Old World (Ann.^ of Nat. Hist. x. p. 262). 
1.. Pteromys derbicmua ; blackish-brown, grey grisled ; hairs dull black 
brown with whitish tips ; shoulders whitish ; tail and feet black ; tail 
round ; beUy and inside of limbs greyish-^white ; head abore and below 
blackish-grey ; body 14" : Sierra Leone, Mr* Whitfield. 2. Sciurop- 
tema canicepa; blackish-brown^ yaried with red bay; hairs long, dark 
btaddsh, with red bay tips ; outside of the legs redder^ beneath reddish* 
yellow ; head iron grey with longer black interspersed hairs ; throat 
white ; chin black ; tail flattish, black, with some reddish-tipped hairs ; . 
body 9^' ; tail 8^". Sent with the following, by Pearson, from Dargellan 
(India). Another specimen is about ^d. smaller; pale above and below; 
head coloured like the back. Either a young one or new species, which 
in the latter case, should be named Sc, Pearsonii. 3. Sduroptervs 
nobilh; bright <diestnut brown, with yellow tips to some of the hairs ;\ 
pale rufous beneath ; the top of the head, shoulders, and a narrow strode, 
down the middle of the upper part of the back, pale fulvous. — ^Bach- . 
man's Pterormfs oregonemis comes from the Pine Woods on Columbia . 
Rivetj and is minutely described in tiie Journal of Philadelp^. viii. 1, 
p. 101« It is of medium . size, between Pt, volucella and sahrinua;. 
88 



MAMMALIA — RODENTIA.. 45 

brown abore, jeUowish-Wliite beneath ; baa longer and narrower ears 
than the bitter; spur at the root of the hand much longer (11^ lines, in 
iabrvMis only 9), and therefore the wings also are much broader ; on 
bellj an ochre-ooloured tinge, which is wanting in the Pt, sahrvmb9; 
body &* &'^ ; tail 6'' ; 'ear T^* ; breadth between external margins of 
wings 8". 

The Poudied Squirrels hare been enriched with three North American 
species, oalleeted from the coasts of the Padfic. Two of these, collected 
bj Townsend, are described by Bachmann (Phil. Joum. viii, 1, p. 68) : — 
1. T(mUas Totpnsendii; like the T, Lysteri, but larger; tail much 
longer ; no white stripes on the sides, but a red colour on the haunches t 
head and back yellowish-brown, with five black stripes lengthways; 
body 6'' 9^" ; tail, without hair, 4", with hair, 5" : Common in the woods 
on the west coasts, where it liyes in holes under the earth. 2. 7. mim-^ 
nms; a black stripe runs sl(mg the spine from the forehead to the tail ; 
on each side a whitish ash-coloured one, then a brown, next a pure white^ 
and at last again a brown stripe accompanies it; under side white; &om 
the nasal fosssB^ over the eye, is a white stripe, bordered superiorly with 
brown ; through the eye to the ear runs a red line, under it another ; 
tail slender, superiorly brown, bordered with bright red ; body 3'' 9^'' ; 
taU, without hair, 3" 2'", with hair, 4" : Very plentiful along the banks 
of the Rio Colorado. The third species, T. Hindei, has been described 
by Gray (Ann. x. p. 264:) ; rufotis brown, with three rather dose black 
streaks on the middle of the back, the outer ones edged with a white 
streak, having an indistinct black edge to it on its outer side ; belly 
white; feet rusty brown ; hair of tail red at the base, with a broad blade 
subterminal band and a whitish tip ; body 5}'' ; tail 4}'' : California. 

Blasius remarks, in the Verb, der deutsch. Naturf. zu Braunschw. 
p. 87) that Tamias striatus is found westward from the Ural, almost to 
the Dwina; and in the woods on the Witsch^ada and Sissola it abounds. 
On the other hand, Pteromys volcms vi rarely seen in all the North. 

To the American Marmots some additions have been made to their 
species by Bachitiatm, in the Journal of Philadelph. viii. 1, p. 6, and ii. 
p. 319. 1. Spermophihis Totonsendii, allied to the Sp. Richardsonii 
and guttatua, Bidh, ; above brownish-grey (hair black at the root, then 
silver-grey, then dark brown; with yellowish-white tip) ; hair of the under 
side black, tipped with grey; tail above the same colour as the back, be> 
neath slightly tinged with brown ; body 3f ; tail, without hair, 1", with 
hair, 1^'' : inhabits the prairies on the Walla-walla ; becomes very fat ;' 
disappears in August, and appears again early in spring in a very lean 
Ojomdition, 2. Sp^ awnulatus ; superiorly reddish-brown, spotted with 
Uack ; beneath white ; tail with 17-20 black rings ; body S'' 2'" ; tail> 
without hair 8^, with hair 9'' 4''^: Inhabits the western prairies, without 
^act limit* 

89 



46 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

Blasins, in hk remarks on the European Marmots (Yerh. der 19ten 
VemammL d. Natnrf. Bnmnachw^ p^ 87), laments that the knowledge of 
the species is not altogether cle«r# Sp^ gnitatuMf the least diffiised 
speoies, was found hy him in the regions of the upper and middle 
Donetz, Nearly a^ed to it, he describes the Sp* muiieui, of the high- 
est Alps of the Caneansus. 8p. citillus appears to be diffused from the 
Danube and Sohlesia as &r as tiie Altai. 

Ar€to9Mf$ Jlavwenter has been brought by Douglas^ from the moun- 
tains between Texas and Califomia; and is described by Rachinann 
under this name (Journal of Fhiladelph. Tiii. 2, p. 909). It is nearly 
allied to the A. empetra, but the feet are browmsb-yeUow instead of 
black; abdomen yellow instead of rich rust red; hair of the back yeU 
kwish-white and black-coloured instead of rust brown, black and white ; 
daws half as long t body 16" ; taU, with hair, 6'' W". BachmanTi men- 
tions of A, fnoMug (Jootn. PhlL p. 322), that rudimentary cheek-pouches, 
into which a pea oonld be inserted, are present. 

Mtoxina. — ^Biippell has described a new speoies MMyosem 
eineraceas^ in the Mus. Senck. iii. p. 136. 

Tail bushy, as in the M. glis; upper surface and tail mouse-grey, with 
1^ tinge of a light tawny colour ; under surface yellowish-bright grey ; 
throat and paws milk white; body 4^"; tail 2" 5'": From Port Natal 
in South Africa. 

A remarkable link has been found between the Sciuridoe and the 
Myaxidas in the AnomahMrus Frasevi, Fraser discovered this Eodent 
at Fernando Po, and Waterhonse gave it the above name in the Ann. z. 
p. 201. The external appearance is Ihat of a Pteromya; fur very deli- 
cate and soft, and oi a sooty colour on the upper parts of the body, 
freckled with yellow ; beneath whiftash ; on the under side of the basal 
third of the tail, there is found a doubled longitudinal series of largo 
homy scales, with projecting anglss, which assist the animals in climb- 
n^ ; skull m general HSbc that ei the Squirrels, but without the post- 
orbital process, and with a comparativefy large ant-orbital opening; 
molars |, the palate contracted between them. This genus I rank 
provisionally with the MyoxidcB, or Dormice. 

DiPODA.-^^To Sdrtetes a species has been added by J. E. 
$ray. (Ann. x. p* 262.) 

He caUs it Alactaga indiem^ and says that it agrees with 8e» (leontium 
in the proportipn and length of the hind feet, but diifers fron it in this, 
that it is yeDowish, and that the hairs of the tuft of the tail are yellow 
with blaok tips; whilst in the £1^. aeontium the black hairs are one 
colour to the base, and there is only a slight indication of the 

90 



MAMMALIA — RODENTIA. 47 

form of the pads to the hind toes, so strongly developed in the A, indica. 
In it the J are oompreAMd, with three to Are grooyes on each side, and 
crenated on the front edge; bodyS^''; tail 6''; earV'4^''': Candahar, 
at Qaettah. 

With regard to the Dipus vexiUmiui, EUudiu thinks that it is not 
essentially different from D. jacuhis, 

Davemoy and Lerebonllet haye giyen a masterly description of the 
DipUB maurit€inicu8. Day., in the M^m. de Strasb. iii. The authors 
haye principally compared the anatomical rektions most completely, 
with an exactness which brings to mind the beaatifal works of Pallas 
and Daubenton. The delmeation of the mnsdes of the hind limbs is 
particiilarly interesting, as it shows how the latter axe ftiUy adapted for 
powerfol springing. The chief anatomical peculiarities are rendered 
dear by two beautiful plates. In reference to the geographical distri- 
bution, the authors remind us, that Dipus mawritcmicui from the 
western proyinces of Algiers, and also the specimens f^m Constantine, 
axe not distinguished from those of Tunis and Tripoli. The Dipu» 
mofurita^iouB, howeyer, is larger, stronger, of a darker hue, and the red 
is more mixed with black, than in the Springing-mouse of Tripoli, which 
is smaller, and Ughter red. The latter has likewise a somewhat longer 
and narrower head, and comparatiyely larger ears. The hairs are, be> 
sides, in the Algerine Spring-mouse, stiff and pretty rough ; in that of 
Tripoli remarkably £Me, and as it were, woolly ; and this is also the case 
in the specimens from Constantine, which approach nearer the Tripoli 
than the Algiers Spring-mouse. 

PsAMMORYCTiNA. — The new genus Schizodon ttom Cbili, 
described by Waterhonse, in the Ann. of Nat. Hist. ix. p. 507, 
is allied to the Psammoryctea and Octodon, as well as to 
Ctenomys^ 

Fore-feet strong, with large daws for burrowing ; ears of moderate 
size; molars |, rootless, the crown of each diyided into two parts by the 
meeting of the folds of enamd of the outer and inner side, and the sur- 
face of these teeth may be compared to a series of cylinders (two to 
eadi tooth), whidi are much compressed in the antero-posterior direction. 
The three foremost molars are of equal size, the posterior one smaller. 
Ant-orbital opening yery large, besides a peculiar but yery small infra- 
orbital openii^. The only spedes is 8eh» fiucus, of the size and colour 
of the common Bat, but with softer fur; bodye^'; tail T' 8"''; ear 5^''': 
Very common on the eastern side of the Andes, undermining the whole 
oouatry, so that hones are continually plunging into the burrows. 
Figures saoA frirther anatomical details are much to be desired^ 

Lund has diyided the South American Bristle Rats into four genera. 

91 



43 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLIl : 

(E. Danske YidenaL Selsk. Natnrr. Afhaadl. 1841, p. 243). 1. Phtl< 
LOUTS ; each upper molar oonsisting of four simple parallel little cross 
plates. 2. .EcHncYs; upper molars composed of two double cross 
plates, the Hmbs of which are united to tiie inner margin in the form 
of two separate ▼. t. 3. Lokcheubs; two little cross plates, the 
anterior single, the posterior like double v. ▼. 4. Nblomts ; upper 
molars originally consisting of two cross plates, the anterior simple, the 
posterior in the form of a single y. I haye here to remark, that PhylUymyB 
is a true Nelomys, or rather Lancheres, according to my definition ; to 
which also, perhaps, will belong the genus Lonchophorub, described by^ 
Lund afterwards (p. 282). Lund's Echimys and Lonehereg are identical 
with my Echinomys; and Lund's Nelomys agrees, in all material 
respects, with Jourdan's genus of the same name (or Loncheres accord^ 
ing to my definition) ; but differs from it by the want of bristles, as it 
appears, and by a small yariation in the molars* 

Lund has only found some under jaws of Phyllomys hrcmlien$i8, in a 
hole in the yalley of the Rio da Yelhas. He has obtained no species as 
yet of his Echimys, to which he joins E. chryswrus, eajewnensis, &c. ; 
but he has got twif species of LonehereMj which he distinguishes as 
£. elega/M and laticeps, Loncherei elega/ns he says is generally distri- 
buted. It is slender, and of a rat-like appearance; superiorly rich 
rusty yellow brown, beneath pure white ; both colours stop suddenly ; 
tail scaly, thinly coyered with hairs, which, towards the end, increase in 
length, so that they here form a thin pencil } body 8" ^ tail 8^''. In 
my opinion, this species will be nothing else than Echinomys leptosoma, 
(E» cajennemis). Of the habits of the Bristly Rats, hitherto quite 
unknown, Lund giyes us the first information. L» elegcms keeps in the 
neighbourhood of standing waters, where it makes its nest amongst the 
sedges. It swims quickly, yisits by night the com fields, when it climbs 
the maize stalks, nibbles the ears, and destroys the crop. According to 
Natterer's information, the species of Echinom/ys ascend the trees, whilst 
those of NelomyB inhabit holes. This latter fact Lund also obseryed. 
Of Lund's second species of Loncheres, called by him L, laticepBy I find 
no other account by him, than that (p. 99) it is rare. Lund also men- 
tions two Hying species of Nelomy$ (Lancheres of tiie reporter), N. cm^ 
tricola and mleidens, NelomyB omtrieola (p. 246), formerly called by 
him EchmamyB <zpereaideB (p. 98), is not a true Bristly Rat, as it wants 
eyery trace of bristles, and its hairs axe of the usual constructicm. 
It is plump, with a thick snout, short ears, and ycry hairy tail ; aboye 
grey-brown, composed of a mixture of rusty yellow and black-brown'; 
beneath white ; bodylO''; tail7i'': liyes in holes, and feeds on all 
oi^ganic substances which it can gnaw. N. BuleidenB, Lund, is only 
known from the remains of bones that haye been found, according to 
which it differs in this respect fiom the other species^ that the cuttingr 

92 



MAAiMALIA — RODENTIA. 49 

teeth have a furrow lengthways. Lund's N» cmtricola is eyidently 
nearly allied to Loncheres unicolor, Bilpp., which I have' characterized 
in these Archives hurt year (1 Bd. s. 361), without being perfectly sure 
of ranldng it under LoncJieres, since its teeth were not known to me. 
Two other Brazilian species, L, macrwra and nigri-spina, Natt, are 
described at the same place. 

CuNicuLARiA. — BUppell has added one of the most 
remarkable forms to Mammalia in his new genus Hetero- 

CEPHALUS. 

It is represented in the Mus. Senckenb. iii. p. 99, tab. 8, fig. 1, and 
tab. 10, fig. 3. Skin almost wholly naked, with single hairs here and 
there ; body plump ; eyes small ; external muscles of the ear obsolete ; 
limbs strong, five toed, with stout daws; tail rather short; cutting 
teeth strong, smooth, obliquely sharpened; molars |, consisting of a 
simple cylinder, the upper ones with an indentation on the inside, the 
under with two indistinct protubercmces pushing against each other. 
To the only hitherto known species, Ruppell has given the name 
Heterooephalus gUxber; body, in a straight line. At* ; tail 1" 3''^ ; fore- 
foot, with middle daw, T*' ; hind-foot, with middle daw, W : lives in 
holes in the meadows of Schoa. The reporter, from the plate, finds the 
skuU most nearly resembling that of the Oeorhychus, 

Riippell has made another important addition to this family, in a 
second North African spedes of Rhizomys (Tctchyoryetes). lib. dt. 
p« 97y tab. S, fig. 2 ; tab. 10, fig. 2. He calls this spedes Rkizomyi 
mcbcrocephalus ; hair pretty long and extremdy delicate ; whole upper 
surface rich reddish-brown with a beautiful sil^ gloss verging towards 
metallic (hairs dark bluish-grey, with brown. tips); under side dirty 
yellow grey ; body 12^' ; tail 1" ^'^ : habitat, earth passages of the 
pasture meadows of Schoa. 

J. £. Gray has defined another spedes under the name of Rhizomyi 
minor ; far grey with browner ends, long, very silky ; whiskers brown ; 
sides of head rather browner; tail naked; body 6^'' ; tail If : Indian 
or Cochin China? (Ann. z. p. 266.) 

Bachmann, in the Joum. of Philad. viii. 1, p. 103, has more exactly 
characterised Ascomys (Geomys) borecUis, Rioh., and A, T<non9endiiy 
Rich., hitherto only known by an unsatisfiictory notice. A, horealU is 
pale grey ; superiorly washed with yellow ; under side, feet, daws, and 
tail white ; cutting teeth anteriorly yellow ; in the upper ones a slight 
groove, towards the inner margin, is visible by means of a magnifying 
glass; body 7^"; tail 2''. Bachmann acknowledges, that he has not 
been able to find out the difPerenoe between this and the A. Tatontendii, 
He states the body of this latter to be 7V'y the tail 2}". Bichardson 

93 



50 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLU : 

himiwlf, has at present only said that the tail of the latter if smnewhat 
laxger than that of the fi>nn^: both species axe natives of Goltanbia 

KuRiNA. — Waterhouse has made a modification in the 
arrangement of this family, in the Ann. x. p. 203, , aJPter the 

. following scheme : — 

Family. — Murida — Genera: GerbilluSf PBommomySf Mus, Ee^pe- 
romys, Dendromys, Phkeomys, Cricetomys, CricetuSt Euryotis, Hapa- 
loHif Rdthrodon, Sigmodon, and Neotoma, 

Sub -family 1. — Agpalomyina — Genera: Ehizomys, Aspalomys, 
(8palaa!)y and Heteroc^halus^ 

Sub-fiunily 2. — Arvicolina — Genera: Ondatra^ Arvicola, and 

Against this arrangement the reporter has to obeenre, that its logieal 
seqnenoe is not to be granted, as the two sub-families, taken together, 
do noiy perhaps, form a part (tf the £imily Mwrida, but stand as an 
appendix to it. This appendix, moieoTer, would not be necessary for 
the Arvicolasy as they, in the most essential respects, bear the type of 
the Mice, and in their most importent differenoe, the construction of the 
molars, do not stend isolated, but by Neotoma and Mygtromfs, adyance 
into veiy intimate union with the oOtet divisions of the Mwrince, It is 
somewhat different with the Aipalomyina. These are strange members 
in the family of the Mice, yarying from them yeiy essentially in the 
structure of the skull, the molars, and cutting teeth, and in the limbs, so 
that the passage from them to the Mice is only made by a jump. My 
arrangement and division of the family Murina is now completed in 
Schreber's Suppl. iiL 

Two new. genera haye been described by Gray in the Ann. x. p. 2&^ 
NxsoKiA and Yandxlbubia. On their relation to the other genera, the 
reporter does not yentuie any judgment, as the i«esent description is 
not sufficient for that purpose. The molars eyen of Vcmdeleuria are 
not known. Nesokia. — Cutting teeth yery large, flat in front and 
mooth ; grinders f ; front, in upper jaw, large with three ooss ridges; 
the middle oblong, and the hinder much narrowed behind, each wilii 
two cross ridges ; the front lower grindet larger, narrowed in front with 
three eross ridges ; hinder each with two ridges, the hindermost mnalfast ; 
tail short, thick, with whorls of scales and scattered bristles; ears 
moderate, naked. The author disdngnishes this genus from Mus, by 
the large onttmg teeth and short tail; he looks on it as intermediiate 
between Mus and Rhizomys. As a qiecifis, he plaoes in it Mus Mctrd^ 
mckU from India; and. he thinks it probable that Brandt's Hypudasus 
Ouira may belong to the genus. VANnBUUBUu — Upper cutting teeth 
triangular, with a deep grooye near the middle on the oblique front 

94 



MAMMALIA — ^RODSNTIA. 61 

•dge ; ean hairy ; for foft, with soine longer bristles ; hind feet refty 
long, tiender, soles bald beneath; toes 4-5, kmg, the thfeo auddle 
almost eqaal» the hinder middlfi vtty long; the front outer scaioe^ 
risible; the front inner weak; tail verj long, sealjr, with scattered 
hairs, and with longer more enmded hairs at the tip. Very like the 
American QerbUH (jocuUm) in external appearance and fonn of hmd 
feet; differs frem DtnirimMft in the Ibrm and proportion of the toes: 
lines in bushes and trees in bidia. The upeeies is Jlics oleraeeMf Sykes? 
or M, Umgiccmdatus of Elliott. 

To Smith's genus Ototnyt^ the reporter had to furnish a new name, 
Malcbcothrix (Schreb. So^. iiL p. 496), because Fr. Cnyier had, nine 
years preyiously, given the same title to another genus (Ewtyotis). 

With regard to the new species whidi hate been added to the genus 
JfiM, and even to tiie family Mwridce, I diaH refer for a notice of them 
to my monograph of this group, in order to gain room; and I shall only 
ooeaeionatty notice some species, while I shall more closely consider sndi 
others as have come to my knowledge sfaice the printing of tiiat woric. 
Lesson's Mus (forulems has dipped out of some colony into the granaries 
of Roehefort ; Aboye slate bine ; beneath bluish ash-grey ; tail bhwkish ; 
extremities flesh coloured (Tab. du iUgn. Anim. p. 138). Selys (Ber. 
Zool. p. S46), eonsiden Hie Jfus hibenUout as an accidental Tariety ef 
M. rattus. Tobias of Gorlits, has imparted some interesting observe. 
taons on tiie habits of the Jf«s mmutus, and foimation of its nest. 
(las, 1642, p. 387.) Riippell has described and given drawings of the 
North East African Mice, in the Mus, Senckenb. iiL p. 104; viz., Jfus 
abygsiMcuSy oMptB^ leucagterwwMf d&mbeenm, imberbis^ and Criee^ 
twMf% g€i/rMwMM. Of M, cUexa/ndrinus, Riippell mentions, in the 
Yen. d. SenoL Samml. p. 29, that he has received one fr^om North 
America; and the r epor te r has it fiiHU the Bnudls, — a proof how widely 
these Miee are extended. 

Bachmann has described five new q;>ecies in the Joorn. of 
the Acad, of Nat. Sc. of Philadelphia, viii. p. 300^ which he 
places under Mvu, bnt which, as the reporter supposes, do 
not, perh3>ps, collectively belong to this genus* but must fall 
under Heaperomys, and, perhaps, under genera yet to be 
(established. 

1. Jfus hmMiiB ; reddiah-grey above (hair at under part lead-coloured), 
beneaith lig^t fulvous ; eheeloi, and a side streaik, blight nut colour; tail 
thinly covered with hair, above brown, beneath somewhat lighter; 
body 2'' ^"i tail 2''4'''; ear Z'" \ South Carolina. 2. Jf. (caUmya) 
aureolu$; above bright orange colour; belly light fulvous; throat, 
breast, and fore-feet, white ; body if' 3"' ; taU 3" V' ; ear, posteriorly, 

95 



52 EEPOET ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

3"': inCiroliiwuidOeoTgw: dimbi Tery well. Very hkeM. Uumput', 
bnt KHnewhat luger, and the em lattier ■horter. 3. if. miehigcmeniU ; 
lig^t giejish'brown, teneath wMtish ; cheeka jellow ; bodj 4" ; tail 
2i" ; ear 1'" ; from Michigaji. Difibn &om M. leueopat bj ita maoh 
ihorter tul, shorter ear*, and the whitfl not extending to the sides. 
4. Jf. coroItneiHu ; light lead ooloiir (hairs of one colour), beueaOi 
somewhat paler; ears long and hair^; upper cutting teeth slightly 
fiUTOWed ; body 2" 4"' ; t^ 2" 9"' ; ear 4'". Not niuneroas on the 
coasta <^ South Carolina. 5. Jf. Ltcontii; abofe dark reddish-brown 
^haiifl at root lead coloured) ; beneath light Mtoiu ; ears slightly pro- 
jecting from the tai ; upper cutting teeth deeply fsnowed ; body 2i" ; 
taO 2" ; ear 1^"' : from Georgia. Professor Stdiinz showed me tw« 
miee, whii;^ oame'from the same State; one of which agrees with 
Jf. Leeoittii, the other, which aeems midescribed, I have named Ifus 
poli<mot\i$ : M. supra flavido-plombeu^, Bubtua pedibnaque albidua ; 
aariculis mediocribus ; dent. prim, int^ris ; cauda pUosa abbreviata ; 
body 2" 4'" ; tul 1" 2"' ; ears 4"' ; hind foot 7"'. As mentioned already, 
nrather species belong to Jfu«, but their teeth are tudmows to me. 

Four new Brazilian species of ffetperomyi have bean described in 
tbeae Archives by the reporter, 1848, 1 Bd. p. 361 :— if. (Oirymyetenu) 
nuteOatat, Wagn. ; H. aruiculoidet, Fict ; H. orobintu ; and S. mb- 
Jlavru, Wagn. 

With regard to Pkloeomyt Cumingii, described by Eydoux and 
Souleyet fVoy. Sur la Bcaiite, ZooL i. p. 43, tab. 7), I must remark, that 
it is Tery different from the animal characterized by Waterhouae. The 
latter, which. I myself had an opportunity of eiamining at Vienna, ii 
quite black on the back ; tail and fbet foiy black. On tlie other hand, 
the Frendi sodo^ata describe thur animal as mostly white. It appears, 
UierefixN, to be either an Albino, or some other species. 

JfiM harbarut, and Rhombomyi robuttut, Wagn. {QettiUut ShawUt 
Duv.), have been amply Hlmtrated by Davemoy and LerebouUet in the 
iSija. de Straab. iii. The anatomioal pecnliaritiee, particularly the eye, 
and several syitema, have been iUnstrated witii great ezactnesa in hoQi 
these species, as well as in Dipwt mo/vritanieui. Two plates represent 
these as well as the animali themselves. 

The newly described Jumping Mice of Riippell and A. Smith have 
alteady been noticed in my monograph, where also a new spedes finm 

i& is des<adbed. 

yerbUlat aytUrarm, Gray (Ann. z. p. 266) ; iiir grey-brown, rather 

sled, under flir lead-colotued ; abdomen whitish ; chin and throat pure 

ite; tail covered with pale chestnut-brown hairs,* those near the 



MAMMALIA — RODENTI A . 53 

end black-tipped ; upper cutting teeth with a deep central groove ; 
body 5" 3'" ; toil 4" 3'" : Affghanistan. 

Much labour has been expended on the group of Burrowing 

Mice. 

Seljs jdaoed, in his Faun. Beige, the Hypudaius offreHie as a peculiar 
species. He now recognises his H, fiUvus as identical with H. a/rvalis ; 
but still lingers on the distinctness of the H, mbterraneus. The reporter 
does not know it from observation, but agrees with the opinion of 
Keyserling and Blasius. 

The reporter described a new species from St. Gothard, in Schreb. 
SuppL iiL p. 576, under the name of J7. alpinus, and gave a sketch in 
tab. 191, B. The name of the H, nivalis, of the Faul Horn, was only 
known to the reporter from the Rev. ZooL 1842, p. 347, at the time his 
description was printed. He has since found, that a diagnosis of this had 
abeady been given in the preceding number of the Zeitschrift, p. 331, 
from which it is to be concluded, that H, alpiwus and nivalis are 
identical. Selys also shows H. neglectus to be identical with H, agrestis, 
Sundevall has given, in the K. Yetensk. Acad. HandL for Ar. 1840, 
Stockh. 1842, p. 15, a very careful description of the teeth of H» arvalis 
(according to more recent definitions JET. agresHs), of H. ruHlus and 
gloreohMf and of Myodus lemmus, with important renuirks on their 
geographical distribution in Sweden. Correct plates illustrate the 
teeth of the known spedes. Two species have been described by Gray 
in the Ann. z. p. 265 : — 1. Arvicola Boylei ; rufous grey, beneath grey ; 
hair dark lead colour at the base ; ears moderate, round, hairy ; tail 
covered with pale hairs ; first lower grinder has a large rhombic anterior 
process, and three folds on the outer side and four on the inner one ; the 
hinder upper one has three folds on each side, and an elongated lobe 
behind; body^''; tail T' 2^'' : Cashmere. 2. Arvicola americima^ 
like the English Water Bat, but only half the size ; fit>nt cutting teeth 
slightly grooved on the outer edge : South America. This is the first 
notice of real Field-Mioe beiog indigenous to South America ; but since 
no authority is given, it may be «uppo6ed that an error in the habitat 
has occurred. 

Four new species of North American Burrowing-Mioe have been 
described by Bachmann, in the Journal of Philadelphia, viii. 1, p. 60 ; 
and iL p. 295: — 1. Arvicola Totmaendii; hairs above lead coloured, 
with dark brown tips, beneath ash-grey ; feet and daws brown ; ears 
large, someirhat projecting ; body 6'' ; tail 2^'' ; breadth of ear 5''' : 
from Columbia River. 2. A, fulvua; fur smooth and glossy, above 
chestnut-brown, beneath whitish-groy; ears and limbs long; body 
3" 9"' ; tail 1" 4'" : probably from Illinois. 3. A. nagutm ; head and 
nose elongated; far above dark rust-brown, beneath dirty yellowish- 

97 G 



54 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

grey; legs and tail light biown; body 5'' V''\ taU 1" ^'' : abuMUmt in 
the northern parts of New York. 4. A, teakptaides ; head thick ; note 
blunt ; ears concealed ; fur abort, yery soft, aboye li^t brown, beneath 
bright grey; body ^" ; tail l(f" : Long Ldand,— not rare in the neigh- 
bourhood of New York. Differs from A. pen$ylva/nica by its thicker 
head ; by the fbr being only half as long and withomt the longer bristles : 
from A.pinetarwny by its siae, and the want of a chestnut-brown hue on 
the^ cheeks. 

Blasius has giyen some lemarks on the Lemmings, in the Verb, der 
Naturf. zu Braunsohw. p. 88. The last under molar has in them four or 
fiye alternating prism* ; in the Arvicola only three, standing obliquely 
behind eadi other (not alternating). All the Northern spedes, as 
MyoduB hud9onieu8f haye oonyex rounded fiire-teeth, which fi>rm a bow 
on the edge. The species found farther south, to 6^** latitude (M. nor- 
UfeffiefM or UmmuMf M, torquatus and laffwrw)^ haye finre4eeth with 
single bows running into each other on the anterior surfwe. The most 
southern £>rm, Jf . migratorius (Lemmu$ obeims , Brandts ; Qeorhychtu 
luteu€f Eyersm.), whieh belong to the KirguisiBa Steppes, has flat, not 
curyed, upper fore-teeth* 

Rathke has furnished a copiooa account of the Norwegian Lemming, 
with regard to its aflatonucal relations, in the last publications of the 
Naturf. Qesellsch. in Danaig, 1842, p. 1. 

Mv9 hetulmui has been found in Sweden by W. Yon Dilben. He 
disooyered this species at Bonneberga, in the neighbourhood of Land* 
skrona, and described it in the E. Yetensk. Acad. HandL Stock. 1843, 
p. 175. This disooyery points out a wide distribution of the known 
species; and it is also of importance, as the Prince of Musignano 
obsertes, since it afforded Nilason an opportunity of determining that it 
cannot be arranged under Jfus, but must be placed under Smm^wg* 
Bladus has, in like manner, conyinoed himself, that the allied trades, 
Mu» v<igu$, belongs to the genus 8fnmtku$ (Yerh. p. 87). 

Castorina. — The position of the nipples of the Myopo- 
tamuB hSiS, since my la.st year's report, called forth much 
obseryation, the most of which is yet deposited with me in 

manuscript. 

It was announced in last year's report, that a Mr. Popelaire had made 
known a strange animal from Chili, which, among other anomalies, had 
nipples on its back. Wesmael named this wonderful animal Ma,9t(motU9 
PopelarU; and Lesson has since giyen it a second name, QuUUnomyM 
chiiaMis. I esteemed the whole account as fiibulous. The assertion 
was, howeyer, not long printed, until the Academy reoeiyed the K. 
Yetensk. Acad. Haadl. for Ar, 1839, Stockh. 1841, in which Fahrfeus 
98 



MAMMALIA — RODENTIA. 55 

daoUred, firom an examination of a akin, ihai the nipples, in fiiet, thougli 
not exactly upon the back, yet lay 1^ inches above the mesial line of 
the sides, and that the animal was nothiqg else than the well known 
MyopotcMMns c&ypu9. He promised forther information on the receipt 
of two liTuig spedmenSy whidi had been promised him (p. 226, also 
given in the Isis, 1S42, p. 356), Sundevall gave a ooafirmatum of this 
ftct, in the Arsber. om nyare Zool. Arbet. p. 538. The question was 
now not one of a fable, but only of correct interpretation. Farther 
evidenee of this appeared. Dr. Biippell informed me, about the 11th 
February, that he had found, in two females of the Myopot<miu8 from 
ChUi, the nipples, four pair in number, just as Fahrasus had described 
them ; and he observed, that Christie, in the Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1835, 
p. 182, had previously mentioned, that in this animal the nipples were 
situated ** uncommonly high on the sides.*' In a third specimen in 
Frankfort, probably a male, excrescences were not £>und on the sides. 
At the same time, Dr. Schinz informed me, that he had observed the 
same position of the nipples, not merely in the Myopota/mu$, but also in 
the iMgostamfM. About dd March, I received from Eriohson the infor> 
mation, that he had convinced himself, from the examination of a skin 
from Chili, of the correc tn ess of the earlier assertions. He laid before 
me, at the same date, a notice from Sondevall, who had kept for a while, 
in Stockholm, a live adult male of Myopotamusy and on which, after its 
death in the previous May, no trace of exerescenoes were found. In 
addition, I have to remark, that I have fonnd, very distinctly^ these 
excrescences in a specimen in the collectum here. It is therefore proved, 
that in Myopotamvs, merely in the female however, nipple-like organs 
are found h^h on the sides, but their function has not yet been pointed 
out That tiiey represent nipples is probable, from their absence in the 
male ; but in order to be certain of it, either their connection with the 
mammary glands, or at least the fact of suction, by means of these 
organs, must be shown. One circumstance struck me on the examina- 
tion of the specimen here, a very large old individual, that these excres- 
censes were quite concealed beneath the under fur, and surrounded by it, 
whilst in others the nipples are situated on the naked skin. It is a very 
interesting fact, that a similar position of these organs has been found 
by Dr Schinz in LcLgostomus, but we have both sought in vain for them 
in the OhincMUa, * 

Dr. Rjippell has drawn my attention to a eireumstance whioh deserves 
fiurther observation. In both his specimens from Chili, the fur is dark 
brown, grisled with bright brown ; the top of the nose is also dark brown, 
but witii a whiter spot at the point, and the mouth is edged with white. 

* Neither ooold I find them i« the stofTed skins of La^ttam/ui, especially 
in the Hare-vme, of this collection.— Editob of Arch. 

99 



56 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLIl : 

The specimen here, which also came from Chili, is of the same colour. 
In a third specimen, said to be from FaiagoBj, the apex of the nose, 
with the whole fur, is mstj red ; the border of the mouth ash grey.* 

Weber showed, in the meeting of Natural Historians at Brunswick 
(Verb. p. 65), that in the male Bearer, behind the urinary bladder, there 
lies another bladder, which much resembles a uterus bieomUy and con- 
sists of two tubes. 

AcULEATEA. — Atherura ofricana (A.fasciculata, Benn.) 
was characterized by Oray as follows, from a living and a 
stuffed specimen (Ann. x. p. 261) : — 

Spines all dull steel black; of the back strong, elongate, end com> 
pressed, angular ; of the head, under parts and limbs flat, channelled ; 
whiskers black, bristly; tail elongate, tapering, ^d the length of the 
body, with a tufl of compressed white elongate quills; ears rounded, 
somewhat naked, black : Sierra Leone. Veiy dilferont from the figure 
of the Indian Atherura in the Illustrations of Indian Zoology. 

The Cercolahes melcmwrv*, characterized by me in these Archives, 
1842, 1 Bd. p. 360, has, at the same time, been defined by Gray in the 
Ann. z. p. 262, under the name SphiggtMrus melanv/rus, 

SuBUNGULATA — DcLsyprocta nigricanSy Natt., has been 
distinguished firom the other species by the reporter, in the 
Archives, v. J. 1 Bd. p. 362. 

Among the three new species of Ddtyprocta which Gray has described 
in the Ann. z. p. 264, his D, nigra is identical with our Z>. nigriccmSy 
Natt. From a young immaturo specimen, Wagler had proviously marked 
it as 2). fuliginosa, Qray's 2>. pwnctata is the real Aguti described by 
Azara, to which, therefore, Lichtenstein has given the name of 2). Azarce, 
This species belongs to Paraguay and the southern regions of Brazil, 
but is totally absent in the northern, according to Natteror's ezact inves- 
tigations. The D. aguti, described by Desmarest, Fr. Cuvier, the Prinz 
von Wied, and others, is peculiar to the north and east parts of Brazil. 
Natterer collected most of his specimens at Borba, whero the D, Aza/rcR 

* In the specimens in the collection here, the reverse is the case. The South 
Brasiliaii have the fore-part of the snout and the margin of the mouth of rather 
a rifih white, while in the GhUi specimens above mentioned, the same parts are 
muddy grey. In one of the South Brazilian, the fore-paws are grey ; in another 
the whole fur is yellowish-white. The Chili specimen is, on the whole, darker 
coloured than the South Brazilian, because the black of the scattered hairs 
more extended. The same is observable in the whiskers, which, in the South 
Brazilian, are mostly white ; in the Chili ones, black, mixed with some brown. 
— Editob of Arch. 



MAMMALIA — RODENTIA, 67 

is not' to be met with. Graj describes also a D. aibida ; whitisb-grey, 
nearly imifbnn; the hair of the back elongated, white at the base : from 
St Yinoents, in the West Indies. Size of a Guinea-pig, Ccma cobaya. 
This species (?) is quite unknown to me. 

Lund has, in the often quoted Eopenh. Denkschr. p. 286, also drawn 
attention to the difference between the two citron yellow AguHs. I am 
of his opinion, that MarkgraTs AgtUi is the one defined by Desmarest 
and most authors as D. <iguH, Lund, on the other hand, would totally 
separate the South Brazilian species fiom that of Paraguay (the D, Azcmtcb, 
Lichtenst.), and calls the former D. ca/udcUa, He distinguishes the two 
by this, that in the 2>. Azurce the rump is of the same colour with the 
rest of the body (in the D, caudata, pure grey) ; the size is smaller, and 
the tail shorter. I can, however, affirm, from seeii^ the numerou 
South Brazilian speciniens in the Vienna collection, that the colour o 
the rump in them here and there also falls into grey ; no difference o 
size exists ; and therefore the specific distinction is inadmissable. 

The reporter regrets, that from want of room, he can only 

epitomise the extensiye and yalnable communications of Lund 

in the Eopenh. Denksch. of 1841. 

Lund distinguishes two CavicR ; a laiger darker one, with white belly, 
which he calls Cavia a^erea, and considers identical with Lichtenstein's 
C obscura and C. leibcopyga, which is correct. To another smaller one, 
with shining fur passing into reddish, and a yellow-grey beUy, he giyes 
the name of C. rufetcens. This is, as the reporter adds, the same with 
Wagler's C julgida, Lund distinguishes a smaller species of Cerodon 
rupestrisj which he names C. aaxatiHsj but merely characterizes it by 
the configuration of the skulL Coelogenys fulvus and fuscut belong to 
one species ; the difference of the skull in regard to smoothness or rough- 
ness depending, he is inclined to think, on difference of sex. 

DuPLiciDENTATA. — What Blasius complains of in the Eu- 

ropsBo^Siberian Hares, that they are certainly not numerous, 

but sufficiently intricate, applies still more to the numerous 

species of the other zones. Blasius has not merely lamented, 

but busied himself, along with Bachmann, in unrayelling this 

intricacy. 

Blasius mentions, in the Yerh. der Versamml. der Naturf. zu Braun- 
schweig, p. 88, that after the examination of an Irish Hare, he finds 
that the Lepus fUbemicus cannot be separated as a species from L, vct- 
riabilis {L. horeaUs), He describes, moreover, a new species, L, aqui- 
lonius, already mentioned by Pallas, under the L, variabilis, as " Bussak" 

101 



58 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLIl : 

The tail has fourteen Yertebro, as in the v<»ridbili8, but it is (excluding 
the hair) of the length of the head, and marked in the same way as in 
the L, Hmidm, abore black, beneath white. The ear is also, as in the 
L. timidiu, of the length of the head, the slit of the ear mneh shorter 
than the head ; upper side brown ; head and sides of trunk, thighs, and 
after part of back, on the outside, dirty greyish-white, without rust 
colour. This new species appears principidlj to inhabit between 55** 
and 63'' north latitude, where, in Russia, the L, timidug is totally absent. 
Across the Baltic, towards the west, it is not observed. 

Kilster has remarked of the Hares of Spalatro (Dabnatia), that they 
are smaller than ours, with a very bright grey tinge on the k>ins (Isis, 
1842, p. 611). 

The dark-tailed Tariety of the Lepu$ crasgieaudatuB was. ooneotly 
described by Rtippell, in the Mus. Senckenb. iii. p. 137, under the name 
X. melcmwrus. 

Bachmann has reyised his earlier Monograph on North 
American Hares, and added four new species. 

His new work is contained in the Joum. of the Acad, of Nat. Sc. of 
Philad. yili. 1, p. 75. — a. Species in the higher latitudes, in winter 
becoming white. 1. Lepus glcLcialu : 2. L, campeitrU, Bach. : 3. L. CLtne- 
ricanuB, End. {L, virgmicmus, HarL) : not found, as the author re- 
marks in his corrections, on the other side of the Rocky Mountains ; but 
confined to the north parts of the United States, Canada, and the north- 
east coast, as fkr as 64^. — h. With long ears and tail : all from the 
north-west coasts. Z. T<wmsendU, Bach., new species, tab. 2 ; size of 
Z. ommcontes ; ears, tail, legs, and tarsi very long ; fur above bright 
grey, beneath white : at Columbia River. 5. L, longicaudatuB, Gray : 
6. L. nigricaudatuBy Bonn. : 7. L. Richa/rdBonii, Bach., new species ; 
somewhat larger than L. tylvaHeuB ; ears and legs much longer and 
slenderer ; tail shorter ; upper side grisled grey, under side white : Ca- 
lifornia. L. caUfomicuB, Gray. — c. Tarsi thinly haired, daws pro- 
jecting over the fur. 9. L, tiquaHouB, Bach. : 10. L, pa2us<m, Badi. 
— cK. Like Cj but the feet thickly haired. 11. L, gtflvaticuB, Bach. — 
e. Small ears ; head and tail short. 12. L. artemidaf new species ; grey, 
on the nape and the limbs rusty red ; under side white ; tail above same 
colour with back, beneath white ; tarsi weU haired ; body 12" : at Walla- 
walla. 12. L. Bdchmcmi, Wat., new species ; like the L, paluBtrU, but 
about Jd less ; ears longer ; feet thickly haired ; colour less yellow ; taU 
above greyish-black, beneath white ; body 10" : in the south-west parts 
of North America. 14. L. Nuttallii, Bach. 

A new species of Burrowing Hares {Leporidce) has been discovered 
on the mountains of Cabool, Lagomys rtifescens, Gray (Ann. x. p. 266). 

102 



MAMMALIA — EDBNTATA. 59 



Pale grey, with a bright rafous tinge ; Ixase of the bain dark lead-colour ; 
•lightiij varied with blaok on the hinder part of the bade ; cheeks, middUs 
ai throat, abdomen, inner sideB of limbe and feet whitish ; ears huge, 
haiij, rounded ; daws black. On rocky hills near Baker^s tomb, at about 
6000 or 8000 feet eloTation. This is easily known from all the other 
Old World species, by its pale colour and rafous tinge. 

Hodgson procured another species from the snowy region of Nepal, 
on the border of the Holy Lake, out of whidi the Trisal Ghmga flows. 
He calls it Lagom/if% nepalenns; and gives the following character of 
it : — ** with broad, roonded, nndish ears, nearly half the length of the 
head; soles nude on the termino-digital baUs only, and sofk equable fur, 
which is dark bay from the snout to waist, and mfesoently freckled black 
thence to the vent; bdow and the limbs pater bay; snout to vent 7 
inches; head 2; ears |; palm (with nail) |; planta (with nail) 1|." 
The lemate is rimilar, but smaller. Hodgson himself does not deny the 
possibility that this spedes may be identical with L. Roylei (Ann. z. 
p. 76), 



EDENTATA. 

BfjppELL gave, in the Mus. Senck. p. 138, an exact descrip- 
tion and sketch of a rare species of Sloth in that collection, 
which he named Bradypua gularis; 

It is identical with Wagler's B, €U4SuUigery and bdongs to the north- 
eastern parts of Brazil and Ghiiana. The geographical distribution of 
two other species has been now fixed by the jouraeys of S^ and Nat- 
terer. B. infiucaiu$, WagL, inhabits the north-west part of South 
America ; the A a», WagL {B. tndactyltu, Cuv,, Neaw.) inhabits, on 
the other hand, South Brazil 

Lund and Owen have simultaneously proved, that the assumption of 
Megatherium having a mail*<»vering is incorrect Lund's essay is, in 
the meanwhile, only communicated in a short notice in the Oversigt over 
det K. danske Yidensk. Selsk. forh. i. Aaret. 1841, p. 161. He remarks, 
that he has placed his genus Platyonyx (which he has separated from 
MegaJUmyx), next the Sloths, for he is of opinion, that the type of the 
organization of these animals, as well as of the MegcUanya and Mega- 
thermm is the same, and consequently, that they have no covering of 
maiL 

Owen's description of a tooth and part of the skeleton of the Olyp- 
todon elavipee (Transact of the OeoL Soc. of London, vi. jp. 81), is one 
of the best works which has appeared on Palssontology during the 
preceding year. He brings forward evidence, that the fossil pieces of 

103 



60 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

mail which were found in South America, do not belong to the Megor- 
theriumy but to a peculiar genus which he calls Olyptodon, Lund, at 
the same time, gave to it the name HolophoruSf and D' Alton that of 
Pctchypue. 

OrycterotheHum missaurieniie is a new species described by Harlan. 
The bones were found bj Koch on the Missouri : the teeth are like those 
of the MegaUmyx ; the daws like those of Orycteropus, (Sillim. Amer. 
Joum. xlii. p. 392 ; and in Ann. z. p. 72.) 

Harlan^ in Sillim. Amer. Joum. zliii. p. 14:1, quotes Owen's article, 
MegatherUdce, in the Penny Cyclopiedia, xv., where are five genera 
comprehended : — Megatheriv/m^ MegaUmyx, GloMOtherium, Mylodon, 
and Scelidotherium. He also puts us in mind, that he had proposed, in 
1835, the name Aulaxodon or Pleurodon, for Myloddn, The latter of 
these two is eyidently better than Mylodon, which signifies nothing else 
than grinder. Orycterotherittm would also belong to the family Mega- 
theriidoB, 

Lund has given some excellent remarks on the Brazilian ArmadiUoes. 
(Det E. Danske Yidensk. Selsk. Afh. viii. p. 55, 65, 225.) He distin- 
guishes a species, D<Mypus wrocerae (2). S^nctus, Linn.), from Datypua 
longicaudus (D, d-cinctus), of the Prince of Neuwied : it has eight 
molars, eight bands, and tail somewhat shorter than the body. He has 
also discovered a smaller species, called by the Indians Tattt-fnirim, 

Mayer has called attention, in his Neuen Untersuch aus der Anat. 
and Phys. p. 32, to a small nipper-like organ, under the tip of the 
tongue of the Dagypns, 

Owen has illustrated the anatomical relations of the Monotremata in 
the third volume of Todd's Cyclopaedia. The internal structure of these 
remarkable animals is here very clearly and fundamentally shown, with 
many illustrative plates. Whoever wishes to become acquainted with 
their anatomy cannot select a better guide than this article. 



SOLIDUNGULA. 

The Natural History of Horses. By Col. Ham. Smith. (The 

Naturalist's Library, vol. xii.) 

The author has brought forward no fewer than twelve species of 
horses — a. The Eqmn>e form : 1. EqwM cahalliM domesHcus : 2. E. 
vcurius : 3. E, hippagrus. — b. The Asinine form : 4. Asinus equ>uleus : 
5. A. onager: 6. A, hamna/r: 7. A.. henUonus, — ^. The Hippotigrine 
form : 8. Hippotigris zehra : 9. H, a/ntiquorwm : 10. -flT. Bwrchelli : 
11. H, quacha : 12. H. isahellinus. — E. varius is the spotted horse, which 
Moorcrofk, Qerard, and othiers mention. From the species, our Piebald 

104 



MAMMALIA — PACHYDERMATA. 61 

Horses originate ; and, in the year 1815, some squadrons of Bavarian 
hussars were mounted with them. In the E, MppagruSy which rests 
on the fabulous Koomrah of the North African mountains, the author's 
lively imagination leads him to believe, that he recognises Oppian's 
Hvppagras, The Asinus eqvndeus, identified with the Yo-to-tse of the 
Chinese, is defined from a single individual, which, in all its particu- 
lars, was nothing more than a Hybrid or Mule, between the Horse 
and Ass. The A, ha/mar rests merely upon an incorrect drawing of 
the KuUvn by Ker Porter. Hippotiffris antiquarv/m, or the Zebra 
of Congo, is distinguished &om that of the Cape on insufficient infor- 
mation. H. udbellinua is founded upon a stuffed specimen, whose 
habitat is unknown, but it may be only a variety in colour of the 
QiMgga, We see &om this, that the slightest marks aro sufficient for 
the creation of new species. The monograph of the reporter on the 
Horse is, naturally to the author as an Englishman, totally unknown. 



PACHYDERMATA. 

Count Keyserlino has described an under molar tooth of 
Elasmotherium, which was found in the Eirguisian Steppes, 
in the neighbourhood of the Caspian Sea. According to his 
and Brandt's opinion, this genus forms a link between the 
Rhinoceros and Elephant. 

Fischer of Waldheim founds upon this tooth a new species, 
E. Keyserlingi, (Bullet, de Moscow, 1842, p. 254, tab. 3.) 

Goddard has announced, after an examination of the Miaau- 
rium Kochii, that it is a Mastodon, (Proceed, of the Acad, 
of Nat. Sc. of Philad. Oct. 1841, p. 115.) 

In digging canals in Louisiana, an under jaw was found at the depth 
of forty-five feet, which, however, was so rotten, that it crumbled to 
pieces, and only one tooth was preserved. Professor Carpenter holds it 
for the fifth tooth of a Tapir, which it evidently is from the description, 
though not from the plate, in which the artist, through exaggeration of 
the perspective, has quite disfigured the originaL (Sillim. Amer. Joum. 
xliL p. 390.) 

Owen's description of some fossil remains of Cho^ropotamus, PaUeo- 
theriwm, Anoplotheriv/m, and Dichobwthe, from the eocene formation. 
Isle of Wight (Transact, of the Geol. Soc. vi. p. 41), gives some expla- 
nation of the alliance of Choeropota/mus with the Peccaris. He also 
describes a new species of Dichobune, Z>. cervinwm, 

105 



62 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

There was found, in the newest tertiary formation of South Carolina, 
(among some bones of Mastodon, Elephant, Stag, Getacea, Tortoises, 
Sharks), a fragment of the under jaw of a Boar, in the form and num- 
ber of the teeth very nearly approximating to the BahirvMa, HacLan 
names it Bus americ€mu8, (Sillim. Amer. Joura. zliii. p« 143.) 

H. y. Meyer has given many Taluable remarks on Chzistors descrip- 
tion of the Rhmoeeros megarhmu$, (Jahresb. f. Mineral, 18i2, p. 585.) 



RUMINANTIA. 

In the Boston Journal of Nat. Hist. iy. 1 (1842), p. 1, Jack- 
son has furnished a description of the internal Structure of 
two grown Dromedaries of both sexes. 

The Cervus artigiensia^ D'Grb., has been fully described by 
Fucheran. 

The description is to be found in D'Orb. Diet. Univ. d'Hist. Nat. iii. 
p. 328. The horns are very peculiar ; the rose is yery small, surrounded 
by a pearled wreath ; the branch is forked from one-half to two inches, 
so that the animal seems almost four-horned. These stags inhabit the 
East CordiUeras of BoIlYil^ at the height of 4000 metres aboye the sea. 

Laurillard mentions, in the same book, that he is acquainted with 
about fifty species of antediluvian stags, and although he acknowledges 
that several nominal species are to be found amongst them, yet he stiU 
thinks the number of real species will be pretty abundant. 

Pusch ascribes a stag horn, found in Lithuania, to a species which had 
died out : he names it Cervua hremends. The reporter must, however, 
agree completely with the remark added by von Bronn. (Jahrb. fur 
Min. 1842, p. 47.) 

Zi^ler showed, from a preparation, that ill a roe, the Graafian vesicle 
had already burst in August, so that this does not first occur in Novem- 
ber, as Po<^el believed from his investigations. (Bericht. iiber die Vem. 
der. Naturf. za Braunchw. s. 82.) 

In the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 1842, p. 21, 
Owen has made some remarks on tiie birth of a Giraffe and the foetal 
membranes ; as well as upon some of the natural and diseased appear- 
ances, which the dissection of the young animal presented. A beautifid 
plate of the mother and young is added. 

With respect to geography, it is chiefly worthy of notice, that Riippell, 
by the immediate comparison of the Senegal Antilope redwnea with the 
Abyssinian, which have hitherto been held identical, has convinced him- 
self, that the latter differs spedfically from the former. He now gives 

106 



MAMMALIA — RUMINANTIA. 63 

the Abyssinian one the name of AntUope hohor. (Vers. d. Senck. 
SammL s. 38). 

Captain Abbot has informed us, that the AnHlope acbgia lives in 
large flocks in the Steppes, between the river Oxns and the Caspian. 
(Ann. ix. p. 147.) 

In the 16th number of Smith's South African Zoology, a plate is given 
of AnHlope gcrgon, with an ample description. 

Blasius spoke upon the generic distinction between Ovu and Copra, 
at the meeting of Naturalists at Brunswidc. (Ber. p. 89.) All Sheep 
possess a distinct lachrymal groove, which is wanting in Goats. The fore- 
head in Copra rises to a steep protuberance ; in OvU it is flat, or even 
somewhat hollowed. In all species of (Ms, the greatest diameter of the 
horn is across the longitudinal direction of the head, while, in all species 
of the Copra, it runs parallel with it. The Gk>ats have, on the anterior 
side of the horns, at each constriction, two or three stronger trans* 
verse knobs, between the smaller cross waves ; the Sheep only moderate 
cross pads. In Capra, the form of the hoof, viewed sideways, is four- 
sided, trapezoidal, scarcely higher before than behind. In Ovm, it is 
three-sided, running out to a point posteriorly, like a goat's hoof out 
through diagonally. Blasius also made some remarks on periodicity in 
the growth of the horns of these animals, which corresponds to the 
shedding of the antlers in the Stags. The same author farther remarked, 
that in general, complete specific distinctions were to be found in the 
arrangement and direction of Sheep's horns. In the (Ms a/rgali, 0, 
montcma, O, nahor, and a newly defined species which Brandt has 
received from the Caspian, the right horn winds in a space to the left, 
and the left horn to the right. 0, nivicula and O. ealifamica are 
identical with 0. montana. 

In the O. mtMman and O. Vignii, Hodgs., the horn has the same 
twist, but so slight, that the anterior surface lies quite on the same 
level, and the twist is only perceptible on the posterior surface. In 
the O. tragelophut, O, orientalis, Gm., O. bwrhel, and the Cyprian 
Sheep (0. cyprius), which Blasius considers as a peculiar species, 
the left horn is twisted to the left, and the right to the right. 
The direction of the tips and the spread of the horns is also aflected 
by this oonstruction. Our domestic Sheep, in respect to the horn 
formation, comes nearest O. mtismon, and to a species of Brandt's still 
undescribed. 

The reporter is of opinion, that separate names should be given to the 
constant local finms of the genus; though, in the meanwhile, whether 
they are to be considered as species, or only as races, which haw 
evidently a permanent type, is a question, the definite answer to which 
must be furmshed from a series of indubitable observations. 

The reporter extracts the following quotation from a Report of Karelin, 

107 



64 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLIl : 

to the Imperial Society of Naturalists at Moscow. (Ballet, de Mosc. 
1841, p. 563.) 

" I spent some time on the mountains of Tschingis Taou in the Kir- 
guisian Steppes, to the east of the district Earkaralinsk, where I observed 
some very remarkable animals, which are known bj the name Arkhari, 
or Mountain Sheep {Ovi8 ammon), 1 have killed many of these, and 
among others, a male of almost eight puds. The Arkhates and Tschingis 
mountains are the true oountij of tiiese animals ; and I think that those 
of Corsica and Sardinia are a different species." 

According to Pallas, the Argali was distinguished by the Kirgis-tatars 
by the name Arkar ; since, howeyer, this was found also in the Altai, 
therefore that Arkhari, which was compared with the Muflan, must 
perhaps rather be Ovis (yrientalis, or the new species of Brandt. 

The Mountain Sheep of Cabool, described by Dr. Lord in Bumes' 
Cabool, p. 384, appears, so far as I can gather from the indistinct 
account of the direction of the horns, rather to belong to the Muflons 
than to the Argalis, Horns three-sided, with anterior angle, the longest 
side behind, the shortest at the top of head ; toward the root they become 
somewhat four-cornered, whilst, on the fore-side, a knob is observable. 
They are whitish light brown, cross-rooted; above this, at spaces of 
from four to six inches, with a deft or channel. At the root the ante- 
rior angles stand about three inches asunder, the posterior are so near, 
that the little finger can scarcely be inserted between them ; at a short 
distance from their origin tiiey begin to turn backwards, and end twisting 
round spirally towards the front. Nose convex ; lachrymal groove large ; 
no hoof grooves. Colour fulvous, somewhat bay ; haimches mixed with 
grey, behind with a stroke of dirty white, which passes under the belly ; 
head grey ; a white or greyish beard under the chin, which passes on 
towards the breast, of an almost black hue ; body 4' W ; tail 3^'' ; 
height of shoulders 3' 2^'' ; horns, according to the twisting, 2' 8'' : 
inhabits, iu great numbers, the mountains north of Cabool, which form 
a part of the great Hindu Eusch : is called Oosfmid-i-koh (Mountain 
Sheep) ; should also be called Buz-i-hoh (Mountain Goat). 

A remarkable new species of Goat has been found in the Caucasus. 
Only two species of Capra have hitherto been known from these moun- 
tains : a third has now been described, under the name JEgoceros Pal- 
Umi, by Bouillier in the Bullet, de Mosc. 1841, p. 910, and figured in 
tab. 11. According to the description, the head is very much like that 
of a Sheep ; no lachrymal grooves ; under the chin is a beard 3^ inches 
long. The horns black, wrinkled, moderately thick, semicircular behind, 
and falling down externally, but afterwards the tips turn upwards and 
inwards ; at the base they are almost triangular, in the middle roundish, 
compressed towards the tip. Colour of the whole wool chestnut brown. 
The female has no beard, and only small horns with slight curve. The 

108 



MAMMALIA — RUMINANTIA. 65 

bnck 4' Z" long ; horns 2^ 3" ; distance between them at root W\ in 
the middle 1' 4}'', at the tip r 3'' : habitat, the heights of the Caucasus. 
This species oomes nearest the Ca/pra pyrenaica in the form of the horns. 

Kejserling and Bkisius have already remarked, in the *' Wirbelthieren 
Europas," that the Cretan Wild Goat, drawn by Belon, is probably 
Copra sinaitica. A specimen in the Konigsberg Museum, which is 
reported to have come firom Crete-^and is decidedly C. sinaitica, as 
Blasius - adds in the appendix—confirms this coigecture (Bericht der 
Vers. z. Braunschw. p. 91). 

The presence of the Wild Qoats in the Nilgherries has been proyed by 
Delessert, who killed some there (Joum. d'un Yoy. dans Tlnde, p. 116).. 
Blyth was also informed by Lieutenant Beagin, of the existence of a 
true Ibex upon the Nilgherries, with long knotty horns, and great beard, 
in which characters it differs from the Himalayan Ibex (Ann. ix. p. 62). 

Lord describes two specimens of the Markhor firom Cabool, which 
Vigne also found in Lesser Tibet. Lord calls it a true Goat, which he 
compares with Copra asgo^grus, Lachiymal grooves wanting. In the 
first specimen, the horns are long, oval, anteriorly very much flattened, 
with twelve protuberances or galls, which do not run all round; two 
finger's-breadth distant from each other at the root, then receding 
fivther, whilst they twist somewhat outwards, upwards, and then back- 
wards ; colour muddy brownish-grey, lighter beneath, but almost black 
on the firont of the legs ; the beard is black, and confined to a tuft under 
the chin ; tail with a black pencilling of hair ; horns towards the root 
blackish, further up dirty yellow; body 4' 10^''; tail 9^'; height of 
shoulders 2^ W ; horns, according to twist, 2f : on the hills north of 
CabooL The other specimen came firom the hills at Baghlan. Horns, 
at the posterior base, touching each other, anteriorly separated by a 
finger's breadth, advandng in long spiral windings upwards, outwards, 
and a little backwards, forming two complete circuits. Without these 
circles, the horn would be completely triangular; rings or wrinkles 
wanting, although it is rough. Colour muddy red-grey, blackish fixmi 
the horns to the' tail ; abdomen, haunches, and feet below the knees 
grey ; horns dirty yellowish-white, darker beneath, with distinct annual 
furrows ; beard grey, with long white shaggy hairs continued down on 
the neck; body 4' 10^''; tail &' y horns, in a straight line, 2^ 1^''; 
according to twist 2^ &' ; distance of tips 1' 8''. Disting^uished by the 
upright spiral formed horns. On account of the variety in the form of 
the horns, Blyth looks on this Mo/rlchor as a Qoat become wikL 

Under the two articles Bceuf and Buffle, in D*Orb. Diet. 
Uniy. d'Hist. Nat. ii., Boulin has giyen a good Monograph of 
the genus 0<r. 

He brings them into four groups: — a. Oxen {Taureawe); forehead 
109 



66 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXUl : 

flat, or even Bconewhat oancaye, snd almost as broad as high ; horns at 
the ends of the oodpital ridge ; thirteen pairs of ribs. 1. B, tauru9 : 
3. B* gauruB : 3. B. gayal : 4. B, hanimg, — 6. Bisons ; fixrehead broader 
than high, aiched ; orbita projecting ; horns under the top of the fore- 
head ; more than thirteen pairs of ribs. 5. B. Uton (1' Aurochs) : 6. B, 
omericantM Qe Bison.) — c. Yaiks. 7. B. grtmnieng.—d. Buffalo. 8. B, 
bvbalus : 9. L'Ami d eamea en ennsicmt : 10. L*Arm gecuit : 11. B, 
caffer: 12. JB. hratchffcerag. The latter is described according to the 
same living individual fix>m which Grraj had defined his species, but, 
firom growth, it has undergone considerable modification in some of its 
marks. 

Boulin looks on the Qaur, Qajal, and Banteng, as three difTerent 
species ; and from the marks which he gives of their skulls, this seems to 
be indeed the case. With respect to the Gaur and Banteng, from tlie 
plates of their skulk (see our Archiv. v. tab. 9, for the former, and the 
NederL Verb. n. 7, for the latter), there cannot be a doubt but that they^ 
are different species ; as to the Gayal, there is still adifferenoe of opinion. 
Whilst Roulin places it as a peculiar species, Dolossort, on the contrary, 
asserts, that the wild oxen killed by him in the south of India, were the 
nme with the Gayil {B. frontalis t. ti^lhsta/nm)y as well as the Gaur; 
he refers at least for the latter to Hodgson's description; so that it 
cannot remain doubtfiil, that at least those' wild oxen of this division, 
extending through anterior India, from Cape Comorin to Nepal, belong 
to the Bob gauruSf whilst the Boi tylhetanut of Sylhet and further 
India must be a different species from it. On this point S. Mtiller and 
Schlegel will, periiaps, soon furnish us with the necessary information. 
What Boolin has communicated <ni the Bison is the least satisfkotoiy. 
His knowledge amounts to what Cuvier said of them, and he has made 
no mention of what has sinoe been published by Bojanus, Jarocki, 
Brincken, Baer, Fusch, and the reporter, upon <his subject The dia- 
tinctions formerly given by the reporter between the Bison of ttm New 
and Old Worid, have sinoe been confirmed by the sight of three beauti- 
ful Tiithnanian specimens set up in Berlin. Their whole body is thickly 
haired, partieulariy on Ihe fi>re part, without, however, any remarkable 
prolongation of the hair on the sides of the neck ; whilst, in the American 
Bison, the shoulders, neck, and head, are covered with thick curly felt, 
a foot long on the oociput. In the Lithuanian specimens, ako, the rufifs 
at the posterior margin of the metacarpus, so remarkably well defined 
in the American Bison, are wanting. 

Blyth has given some information about two species of Wild Ox, said 
to be &om the north-west of Africa. It is certainly not sufficient to ^x 
the speciea (perhaps not even the genus), but still will give an impulse 
to further investigation. Of the one, a specimen was fiom the central 
region of Mount Atlas, and for some mimths lived at Tangiers ; its 
110 



MAMMALIA — CETACEA. 67 

country name is Sherif al Wady, but the systematic name which it 
should haye, when reoeiyed into the system, Blyth proposes to be Bo9 
atlantinus. The other species, with a flowing nuchal mane (Wadan ? 
Peeasse ?) is found, commonly in huge herds, about Rabat and Salee, on 
the Barbary coast. (Ann. iz. p. 62.) 

The first diyision of OgQby's Monograph of the Hollow- 
homed Buminants, mentioned in last year's report, is now 
completed in the Transact, of the Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 33. 



CETACEA. 

BUPPELL looks upon a Dolphin, living in the Bed Sea, as a 
new species, Delphmus dbusalam^ which he distinguishes firom 
Z). turaio by the number of the teeth, the dorsal yertebrso, and 
the position of the eye towards the comer of the mouth. 
(Mus. Senck. iii. p. 140, tab. 12.) 

Couch has given a short description, with a plate, which he 
boasts as being true to nature, of a Delphmus glohiceps 
{Fhoeama melcul), twenty feet long, from a specimen caught 
on the coast of Cornwall. (Ann. ix. p. 371.) 

Doumet has given an account of a Hyperodon, stranded on 
the coast of Corsica, in the Bev. Zool. 1842, p. 207, and has 
added a sketch of it. 

Haldeman has been too late with his proposal of giving the 
Dolphin with two teeth in the under jaw, the name of Hypo- 
don^ as it has long since been called Heterodon. Proceed, 
of the Acad, of Fhiladelph. 1842, p. 127. 

A short notice has been given in the Instit. 1842, p. 384, 
of a fossil Dolphin found in Maryland, Delphinua calvertenm. 



Ill 



BIRDS. 



BY 



PROFESSOB ANDR. WAGNER OF MUNICH. 



The report on the contributions to Therology has so far 
exceeded the bounds assigned to it, that the reporter is con- 
strained to abridge the Ornithological division, which he can 
readily do, by confining himself principally to references ; and, 
indeed, it would require more time than he has at his disposal, 
for a critical review of all the new species made known during 
the last year. 

In the following enumeration of the general contents of 
the works to which access has been had, those, as usual, are 
not separately named, which, from embracing both classes of 
warm-blooded animals, have already been mentioned in the 
Therological division. 

Nomina Systematica generum Avium tam Viventium quam 

Fossilium. Auctore L. Agassiz. Becognoverunt Princeps C. 

L. Bonaparte, O. B. Gray, et H. E. Strickland. Solodur. 

1842. 

Agassiz goes on briskly with his Nomendator Zoologicus. The Omi- 
thological division has quickly followed the Therological, elaborated by 
naturalists well fitted for the task. This catalogue is of the greatest 
utility, for the facility it gives us of finding out the fiunily, under which 
the new generic names, in a great measure little known, are to be brought. 
The most difBLcult part is the etymology, as the more recent dilettanti, in 

112 



BIRDS. 69 

their manufacturing of genera, have set aside all the laws of nomencla- 
ture, and indulged in the most senseless compounds, which no philologer 
can divine. For instance, the name BriiehyptercLcias does not, as is here 
supposed, derive its concluding syllables from M ; but the frightful 
name, as Wiegmann called it, is forged frvm Brachifpteryx and Corctcias, 
just as Cifpgnagra is from Cypsehu and Tanagral! Again, Dacelo is 
not a proper or personal name, but Leach coined it by a transposition 
of the letters of Alcedo, There is need of an Dliger to clean this 
Augean stable ! 

The 13th volume of the Naturalist's Library, conducted by Sir 
William Jardine, has been issued. It contains the natural History of 
the Necta/rmiadcB or Sun Birds. 

In the Rev. Zool. p. 202 and 66, Hartlaub has communicated some 
observations on Gray's Genera Avium, and contributions to the correc- 
tion of synonymes. It is much to be desired, that this latter occupation 
was oftener exercised, and that ornithologists, instead of busjring them- 
selves with the defining of new species and genera, would employ their 
leisure in the critical examination of those already published. 

Marcel de Serres, des causes des Migrations des Animaux 
et particulidrement des Oiseaux et des Poissons. 

The Scientific Society at Harlem had selected for a prize essay. What 
are the causes of the migration of fish, particularly the species which 
serve for nourishment or other economical purposes ? Marcel de Serres 
of Montpellier, has answered the question to the satLsfaction of the 
Society, and they have published his work in the Natuurk. Yerhandel. 
van de H. Maatschappii der Wetenschappen te Haarlem. 2 Deel. Haarl., 
184:2. It occupies the whole volume. M. de Serres properly took up 
the general question, and extended his work to all classes of a.niTna.lB of 
which there are migratory species. The treatise is very interesting, but 
cannot here be farther discussed in detail. 

In the Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 31 7» attention is called to a little PoHsh 
book on fowling, which appeared in the sixteenth century, and has been 
again published, with a commentary by Ant. Waga, under the title 
Myslestwo Ptasze, ^. It contains many details on the Birds of Poland. 

Several works have appeared on the eggs and nests of birds. 

Des Murs has given in the Mag. de Zool. 1842, Ois. pL 22, contribu- 
tions to an Ornithological Ovography, to be used in the System of Birds, 
in which he considers form, shell, and colour. He distinguishes six 
forms, the spherical, oval, cylindrical, ovate, ovato-conic, and elliptic. 
He also gives an example how these forms are to be systematically em- 
ployed. Lafresnaye also makes some remarks on the same subject, in 
the Rev. Zool. p. 302. The eggs of all our SaxicoUiux are blue ; of all 

113 H 



70 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

the An%9odactylce ot Emrope snd America white or slightly fleeh-ooloured, 
flcatteied with dark brick-red spots or points. Most of those species, of 
all orders, which nest in the hollows of trees, have altogether white or 
▼ery pale coloured eggs. 

To the common remark, that in tropical regions, there are a greater 
number of birds which build covered nests than in moderate climates, 
Hill adds his obseryations, according to which, in the West Indian 
Islands, the nests, with the exception of those of the Pigeons and Hum- 
ming Birds, have almost always circular coyerings, composed of dry grass, 
with wool, moss, and feathers interwoven. He imagines that the eggs 
are thus protected from the many severe hurricanes, as well as &om the 
hurtful efPects of electricity and dazzling light. (Ann. of Nat. Hist. iz. 
p. 145.) 

The eleventh number of Beige's Fortpflanzung der Vogel has been 
published. The plates of the nests and eggs of birds, which belong to 
Oken's Atlas, are very usefuL 

Two books of instruction, for the preparation of Birds, fall to be 
noticed, viz. : — 

Brehim, die Kunst Vogel als Balge zubereiten, auszustopfen, 
&c. Weim. | Thlr. Eick, Anleit. fiir Naturaliensammler, 
wie Vogel, Saugthiere, &c., conservirt werden konnen. Stuttg. 
J Thlr. " Eurze Anweisung, naturhist. Gegenstande einzu- 
sammeln und zuzubereiten.'' This has appeared in the Galwer 
Vereinsbuch-handlung ; and is very useful for collectors in 
foreign countries. 

Euhlmann, de absentia furculss in Psittaco pullario. Diss, 
inaug. Kiel, 1842. 

It is remarkable, that in this species, the fiircule is constantly wanting, 
whilst, in the other parrots, hitherto examined, it is always present. 

Osteologie der Vogelfusse, von Eessler in Petersburg. 
(Bullet, de Mosc. 1841, iii. p. 465, and iv. p. 626.) 

The reporter willingly confesses, that in consequence of this fundamen- 
tal and copious work, he resigns a great portion of the species, which in 
the past year were published as new. The osteology of a part of the body, 
the form of which has the closest relation with the habits of the bird, is 
here examined with care; and, at the same time, a very important j^om^ 
d'appui has been gained for the classification of birds, as well as for the 
definition of their fossil species. The author's researches extend over 
all the orders and families of Birds ; and it is only to be regretted, that 
he did not choose, for his ground work, the system of Nitzsch, which 

114 



BIRDS. 71 

takes a very complete view of the skeLeton, instead of that of Cavier, 
which, in regard to Osteology, was not sufficiently elaborated ; and in 
Qonsequence he does not alwd>ys keep to the natural arrangement. When 
the author, for example, remarks, that Oyp^ehM and Oa^primwil^uB do 
not altogether agree with Cuyier's Fimrostre$; he, on his side, justifies 
the separation of these genera from the Swallows, and their complete 
division from the Passerind first proposed by Nitzsch. Two tables, 
drawn up with unwearied care and perseverance, show the measurements 
of the bones of the posterior extremities. 

Mayer has communicated, in the Neuen Untersuch. aus dem Gebaete 
der Anat. u. Phys. Bonn, 1842, some obseryatkms on a tooth formation 
in the upper-bill of the foetus of birds, probably destined for gradually 
rubbing through and breaking the egg-shelL There are also remarks on 
the presence of the urinary bladder, which is not totally wanting, but in 
some birds, is distinctly met with even at a later period : And, lastly, 
he remarks on the use of the Bursa Fabricii as a uterus in the female 
bird, and as a seminal sao in the male. 

£. Weber spoke on the construction of the lungs and the mechanism 
of breathing in birds, at the Brunswick meeting of Naturalists. (Amt. 
Bericht, p. 75.) 

C. Siedhof has imparted his experience on the management of Cham- 
ber Birds, particularly Singing Birds, in the Lais, 1842, p. 339. 

Many contributions have been made to the description of difPerent 
Faunas. They constitute the most important part of soographical labours, 
and axe of great consequence in the dass of birds, as it is only by a com- 
prehensive knowledge of the principal Faunas, that the extent and direc- 
tion of the migrations of birds of passage can be ascertained. . 

The works upon German Ornithology by Naumann, Susemihl, Bekker, 
and Zander, have been continued. Brehm has continued his account of 
several trips to Brinnis at Delitzsch, and, as a good observer, haa made 
many interesting remarks with regard to Zoology, and in particular to 
Ornithology, which the reporter would extol the more, as he confesses 
himself at variance with the unhappy multiplication of species. 

C. Tk V. Siebold has published new contributions to the Vertebrated 
Fauna of Prussia. (Preuss. Provinzial Blatter, 1842, Bd. 27, p. 420.) At 
first he gives an account of a MS. left by Klein, ** Aviarium Prussicum," 
as well as of a set of drawings belonging to it. He next discusses some 
rare species which occur in it, namely, Falco ccmdiccms, Alcmda alpes- 
trig, Ar^Ua egretta, Podiceps a/r€ticu$y and auritu8, appending some 
observations of his own. Sylvia locustella, never till now mentioned 
as a Prussian Bird, was found by Siebold, in the summer of 1840, at 
Heubude, in the wild garden of Biom. It is worthy of attention also^ 
that in April, 1838, a flight of Rooks entered into the city of Danzig, 
and settling upon all the larger trees, in gardens as well as in the most 

115 



72 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

crowded streets, built their nests there and brooded. He farther remarks, 
that judging from an oil painting, a Peleca/nus <mo€rotalu» was shot in 
Prussia, in the year 1608. Finally, he gives an interesting description 
of the Sasper-lake at Danzig, on which numerous water-fowl brood in 
great security, but which he surprised in a boat. Lamt ridtbwndus is 
most abundant. In the nestlings of the Sterna nigra, he remarked a 
chalbj white spot on the tip of its otherwise black bill. 

The first attempt at an enumeration of the Birds of Siebenbiirgen has 
been made by Landbek in the Isis, p. 181. Though the author hims^ 
confesses the incompleteness of his list, yet he has already mentioned 
261 species. There is an interesting description of the Reiherinsel at 
Adony in Hungary, by the same author (Isis, p. 267). Andree's 0f7er- 
sigt af Gottland's F&^hur, in the K. V. Acad. Handl. for 1841, p. 207, 
is a valuable contribution to the knowledge of the geographical distri- 
bution of the European species. In C. J. SundevaU's Remarks on 
Scandinavian Ornithology (1. c. Ar. 1840, Stockh. 1842, p. 31), there 
are mentioned : — a. Birds accidentally present. 1. Twrdu8 varius : 2. 
Fringilla erythrina : 3. Colvmba tv/rtv/r : 4. OtU tetrax. — h, Scandi- 
navian species. 5. Ala^da alpestris : 6. Anthus pratensU : 7* Mota>cilla 
Jlava : 8. Emberiza citrineUa : 9. FrmgiUa Unaria, The second 
division is particularly valuable, from the separating of the varieties 
and their distribution, to which we shall return at a later period. 
L. Schrader has Aimished a List of Birds in the high north regions of 
Scandinavia, in the Isis, p. 616. 

The reporter takes this occasion of drawing attention to some Swedish 
oopper-plates, which, however, are merely known to him from SundevaU's 

o 

report, in his Arsberatt. om. Zool. arbet. p. 540, namely, — 1. Svenska 
Foglar af brodema v. Wright, which, as Sundevall asserts, excel all 
other works, native or foreign, in faithful delineation ; and not only are 
the exterior covering of the feet and bill admirably represented, but also 
the feathering and posture of the bird (30 Nob., each 2^ Bdr. Bko., with 
6 plates). 2. Komer Skandinaviska foglame, mit kol. ^g. (6th part, 
1841). 3. J. Ad. af Strom Svenska foglame, mit kol. fig. (6th part, 
1841). 4. J. Ad. af Strom Svenska foglama, 100 Sid. med. 9 pi. af W. 
V, Wright. Stockh. 1839. 5. Svenska Colorerade fogelagg af J. D. Hog- 
beg (Ist part, Stockh. 1840. 

W. Thompson has continued his description of the Birds of Ireland, in 
the Ann. of Nat. Hist. ix. p. 141, 221, 373, and x. p. 50, 171, and has 
got as far as Ca^privmdgvs, H. L. Meyer's Illustrations of British Birds 
and their Eggs, N. I. Lond. 1842, 8vo., is a smaller edition of the same 
author's larger work in 4to. The Naturalist's Library, vol. 34 (1842), 
contains the third volume of British Birds, by Sir. W. Jardine. 

The Faune Beige, par E. de Selys Longchamps, is rich in personal 
observations on the Belgian Birds, and contains a tolerably complete 

116 



BIRDS. 73 

dassification, which, however, being founded only on external characters, 
cannot be consideied as a step forwards in the ornithological system. 

Th. Cantor has found the following birds on the Chinese Idaod 
Chusan : — Lomius erythroTMtuSy Dicrurug halicasgiuSj Turdus memUoy 
PhUedon tp., Sylvia hypolais, Hirwndo erythropygia, Pyrgita rMmta/na^ 
PaMor crittateUwy Pica vulgaris, Alcedo hengalensia, and Ardea sp. 
(Ann. ix. p. 482.) 

The reporter is only acquainted with the title of T. C. Jerdon's Cata- 
logue of the Birds of the Beninsula of India, Madras, 1839, and of his 
Illustrations of Indian Ornithology, to be published in fi^ coloured 
plates (Ann. ix. p. 242), 

A description of seyeral Abyssinian BMs, mostly new, of the order of 
Climbers, by Dr. E. RiippeU, consisting of ten spedes, wiU be mentioned 
in its proper place. 

Two numbers of A. Smith's IDiistra.tion8 of South Afirica^ the 15th 
and 16th, have been received in the past year. 

The Birds of America, from drawings made in the United States and 
their territories, by J. J. Audubon, voL ii. 1842, is at present only known 
to me, firom a copious notice in Silliman's Amer. Joum. xlii. p. 130, fiom 
which the following is borxowed : — Since the completion of his first 
volume, Audubon has obtained 395 new subscribers, the half of whom 
are from the city of Boston alone, so that his work now numbers almost 
a thousand ; a case of liberal support, to a work on Natural History, 
without a parallel in the New World, and hardly even in the Old : at 
least there is no parallel to it in South Qermany. This second volume 
contains 70 plates, with 136 figures of birds, besides a great number of 
etchings of plants, nests, insects, &c, and with the text, cost 14 dollars 
(about 2^ fl.), which is a reasonable price. There are seventy species 
of birds represented, twenty-six of which are not to be found in the 
work of Wilson, and seventeen in no other work on American Orni- 
thology. Townsend's List of the Birds of the Rocky Mountain Region, 
the Oregon district, and the north-west coasts of America, is valuable 
to compare with the eastern species (Joum. of the Acad, of Nat. Sc. of 
PhUad. viii. p. 151). A list of some birds, collected by Bridges in Chili, 
is contiuned in the Ann. ix. p. 509. 

Numbers 6, 7, 8 and 9, of Gould's Birds of Australia, have appeared 
during the last year, and this splendid work is making rapid progress^ 



117 



74 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLIl : 



ACCIPITRES. 

Brehm, who, as lie mentioned in the Isis, 1842, p. 418, was 
rery naturally astonished, that the Condor stood alone without 
sub-species, has had the happiness to trace out and distinguish 
two tfti^species. 

1. Sarcaramphtu gryph/u$f Linn. ; mDch lazger than VuUu/r anereut. 
In old age both sexes baye a silTer- white band ai an ineh in breadth, 
passing through above the white shield of the wings : 2. 8, amdor^ Br. ; 
size of tiie Vultur fuhvs. Both sexes in old age have a silver-white 
wing-shield, over which there is no white band, or at least only an 
imaginary one. 

Brehm has added a new spedes to his Vultures, formerly described 
in the Isis, p. 509, Vultu/r isabellinu$, which he distinguishes by the 
Isabella colour from similar Vultures, and which must belong to the 
West of Europe. 

Lafresnaye, in the Rev. ZooL p. 173> has quite unnessarily made a 
particolar genus, HarpyhaUaetotf firom the HcMrpyia coronata, VieilL 
Lesson (ibid. p. 378) has distinguished another genus, with the name 
Camifsx, which Sundevall had already bestowed upon a Pipra : in its 
princ^Mil marks, it is like HerpHotheres^ but difim by its long and 
strong tarsi, and the shortness of its wings, in proportion to the length of 
its taiL He adds to it a new species, C. na»o, from Central America. 

Brehm has been successful in dividing our Osprey into five species — 
1. Pandion alticeps, Br. : 2. P. medifMin^ Br. : 3. P. planieepsy Br, : 
i. P. atbigukure : 5. P. fiuciatum. (Isis, p. 425.) 

The following speciee of £agles are represented in Qould's BSrds of 
Australia, parts 6^9 : — AquUafueoaa^ Guv., and A, marphnaides, Gould 
(both in part 7); Buteo nkdcmosUmon (part 9); Ekmus axillarigf 
Lath., and E, $oriptue, Oould (ibid.) ; Accipiter torquatus, Cuv., 
(part 6) ; Astur approaimanB, Vig., and A. omentusy Gould ; MilvuB 
afinis, Qould (part 6). None of these species are new, as even those 
described by GoiUd were characterized by him previously in the Proceed- 
ings of the Zoological Sodety. 

A. Smith hajs represented two species of Owls, in the Illus- 
trations of South Afiica, No. 15. 

1. Bubo capendsy Smith ; a young specimen, whose specific difference 
from our Screedi-K)wl is not yet proved : 2. Athene Woodfordi, Smith ; 
supra rubro-brunea, maculis fasciisque albis notata, in&a pallide rubro- 
bnmea, fascus albis variegata ; cauda rubro-brunea, 7-8 fiisciis pallide 
flavo-bruneis, rostro pedibusque flavis ; length 13^". 

118 



AVES — PASSERINE. 75 



PASSERINE. 

C. SuNDEVALL drew the attention of the meeting at Bruns- 
wick, to the fact, that he had already, in his Ornithological 
System, published in the Transactions of the Swedish 
Academy for the year 1835, giren a clearly defined character 
for the order of Singing Birds as comprised by Nitzsch. 
(Amtl. Bericht uber die 19te Vers, deutscher Naturf. 
Braunschw. 1842, p. 78.) 

In all Singing Birds, tlie tectrioes alarum are so short, that the larger 
of ihem do not reach the middle of the wing-feathers of the second order, 
and end in the middle of the breadth of the wings. In all birds which 
hare no muscular apparatus for singrag, these tectrioes are much longer 
and more numerous, so that the smaller ones reach about as far as the 
larger ones in the Singing Birds, and the larger stretch out far oyer the 
middle of the wing-feathers of the second order, constituting quite a 
different form of the wing and of the whole bird. The fi>llowing birds 
oinly appear deviating or doubtful : — 1. Menura has the wings of a Sing- 
ing Bird, but a different formation of foot : 2. Upv^ has the wings of 
a Singing Bird, but no muscular apparatus for singing : 3. The Spedded 
Woodpeckers approximate to the Singing Birds in wing-formation. 

CoRViNiE. — Hodgson distinguishes a new genus of Cryp- 
sirhina and Dendrodtta, Conostoma, with a more compressed 
bill, and founds it upon a species, C. cemodius, also hdd as 
new, from the neighbourhood of the snowy region of Nepal. 
At the same time, Hodgson remarks, that 850 species of birds 
are known to him from Nepal. (Ann. x. p. 77.) 

Lafresnaye has giren the name of Pica San-Blasiana^ in 
the Mag. de Zool. Ois. pi. 27, to the species defined by Neboux 
as the Geai de San-Blas^ and has added a drawing of it. 

The reporter remarks, that his Corvu$ infumatus, and Hedenborg's 
O. umbrinus (see Amnml Report, 1839-40), are identical, according to 
an immediate comparison which Natterer had an opportunity of making. 
Sondeyall's description, '' capite colloque grisesoentibus," must, therefore, 
be oonected, as it leads to misconception. 

Ampelid^. — Lesson has described a Pipra fastiuysa, in 
the Rer. 2k)ol. p. 174 : habitat, Bealejo in Central America. 

119 



76 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

Hartlaub has remarked, ibid. p. 56, that EupJumia ccelestis. 
Less., and Pipra elegantiasima, Bonap., belong to one species ; 
again, p. 203, that Minla ignostincta, Hodg., is = Leiothrix 
omata, Horsf., and Civa cyanouroptera = L, lepida, Horsf. 

TANAGRiDiE. — Lesson has given two species of Tanagra 
as new, in the Bey. Zool. p. 175. 

Aglaia diaconus and Euphama afiniSf both from E^alejo. His 
Pitylus lazuh/s is also from Central America. Lafresnaye has added 
two new species to CyclorkU (Lcmiagra), hitherto founded merely upon 
the Tcmctgra guicmennSf viz., the O. Jla/viventriiy from Santa-Cruoe in 
Mexico ; and C. nigrirogtris, from Columbia. Azara's Hahia vert he 
looks upon as identical with Ta/Migra guianevms (Rev. ZooL p. 134). 
An Arremon atropileus, and a Tcbchyphonus Victormi, both from 
Bolivia, are also described by him (op. cit. p. 335). A description of 
the Pyranga leucoptera of Trudeau, from Mexico, is to be found in the 
Joum. of Philad. viii. p. 160. 

FRiNGiLLiBifi. — ^Landbek asserts, in the Isis, p. 90, that 
Fringilla cisalpina and hispaniolensis are only yarieties of 
our House Sparrow. 

F, dsalpina was distiuguished from it by not being present on this 
side of the Alps ; he found it plentiM in Under Engadin, Canton Orisons. 
Among the Sparrows which he shot on the roof of the inn, were some 
Italian ones, some birds of passage, and some common Sparrows. In the 
newly fledged young ones, and in the adult female, he could discover no 
difference from the common ones. In voice, habits, nest, and eggs, no 
difference was observable between the two sorts. As it is now observed, 
that amongst F, hivpamiolends, the young males, especially, completely 
resemble our own ; so Landbek regards those southern Sparrows not as 
peculiar species, but only varieties of one and the same. 

Sundevall distinguishes two varieties of Fringilla Ivaa/na^ in the 
K. Vet. Acad. HandL for 1840, Stockh. 1845, p. 56.— Var. a. (iwwma 
alnorwra et Holboelli, Brehm) ; rostro majuscule, basi tantum plumis 
tecto, altitudine 7, longitudine ad summum angulum frontalem 11-12 
millim. ; macula guise nigra longitudine rostri vel ultra. Var. h (Lin- 
aria hetulcbrwrny Brehm) ; rostro parvo, ultra medium plumulis tecto, 
altitudine 6, longit. ab. ang. frontis 8-10 millim. ; macula guise parva 
(longit 5-6 millim.). Besides this, Sundevall remarks, that var. a. is 
larger, with the forehead more compressed and blackish; var. h, is 
smaller, with the forehead high arched and greyish. 

Hautlaub asserts, in the Rev. Zool. p. 56, that Carduelii rufogularisy 

130 



AVES — PASSERINE. 77 

Less., is identical with Fringilla thoracica, HI., and Pipilo rufiUyrques, 
Swains. ; Pyrgita perwvia/na, Less., with Fringilla matutina, Licht. ; 
Pyrrhula cruentata. Less., with Fringilla hoBmorrhoa, Wagl. {Pyr- 
rhula frontalis, Say, and Eryth/rotpiza front.^ Bon.) ; aJso Cocco- 
thratMtes fortwoitris, La&., with C meUjmoxamth/iM, Hodgs. ; Looeia 
prasipterony Less., with Spermestes cucuUata, Swains. ; Pitylus gut- 
tatus, Less. {Ouira>ca mela/nocephala, Swains.), with Fringilla xa/n- 
thomaschaliSi WagL Lesson's Coccothratutes ca/meus oomes from 
Acapulco. (Rey. ZooL p. 210.) 

Callyrhyncus was separated by Lesson, in the Rey. Zool. 

p. 209, as a genus among the Pyrrhulinoe, 

Bill stronj^, yery high, oonyez, crooked, much compressed sideways ; 
upper mandible much curyed, narrow, pointed ; ridge of beak oonyez, 
diyiding the frontal feathers, bordered on each side by a grooye, from 
which rises the swollen lateral corneous plate; nostrils round, bare, 
placed at the margin of the frontal feathers, and coyered by a few 
hairs ; under mandible much compressed sideways, swollen in the middle 
and beneath ; tail moderate, pretty straight, &c. The new species is 
called C peruviamus from Callao. 

Lafresnaye also has established a separate genus amongst 
the FringillidcB, to which he gives the name of Catambly- 
RHYNCHUs. (Rey. Zool. p. 301.) 

Rostrum breye, arcuatum, yalde compressum, maxillas carina supera 
planulata, utrinque linea impressa marginata, apice obtusa, rotundata. 
Lafresnaye has established this genus from the peculiar formation of 
the bill, which rests upon a newly disooyered species, C, diadema from 
Columbia. 

Gould, in his Birds of Australia, has represented the following species 
of this family : — Estrilda temporalis. Lath, (part 6) ; E. ru/icauda, 
Gould, (part 7), and E, phaeton, Hombr. (part 8) ; Emblema picta, 
(part 7) ; Donacola casta/neothorasc, Gould, and D. pectoralis, Gould, 
(part 7) ; Poephila acuticauda, Gould, P. personata, Gould, P. cincta, 
Gould, (part 6). 

Brehm has now to>ught the Lark of the Desert (Phileremos), founded 
on Alauda alpestris, into fiye species. (Isis, p. 502,) He has been still 
more suocessfrd with the Yellow Hammer, which he has diyided into no 
fewer than eight sub-species, of which he has giyen yery full descriptions, 
with some interesting remarks on their habits. (Isis, p. 752.) 

Emberiza hortulana, which, according to Bigack, is extremely rare 
in Prussia, has been found by M. Rosenheyn pretty frequent on the 
bushy banks of the Weichsel; and at Culm is a very common bird. 
(Preuss. Proyinzial Blatter. 1842, p. 2'd2,) 

121 



78 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

Demtiboitreb. — Brehm, after diTiding the Lanms tninor into five, 
and the X. collurio into seven sub-species, in the Isis, p. 652, gives a 
copious history of the habits of both these species. HarUaub asserts, in 
the Rev. 2^1. p. 57» that McUaconotus aura/n$iope€tui, Less., is iden- 
tical with M. chrytogasUr^ Swains. ; also PyenonotuB niveoventer, Less., 
with Ofimcalus pectoTiUUf and Pycn. carbancMriuSy Less., with CMe^ 
pyri$ lugubrie, Sundev. 

Delessert, in his Souv. d'un Voj. k Tlnde, p. 24, asserts his Mvsdeapa 
vwriegata to be identical with Siva strigula, Hodgs., and has given a 
drawing of it on tab. 8. A short description has been given of M, rufula, 
Lafr. Hartlaub has defined, as identical species (Op. sup. cit.), Platy- 
rhynchus pseudogilla^ Less., and Mvsiccipa mystacea, Spiz (Flwvicola 
cursana, Sw., (Ena/nt?ie climazwra, VieiU.); also Mu&eipeta lo/pis^ 
Jj&BB.=M. melcMfiopBf Yig., of which M, thalassmay Sw., will be the 
female; Musdca/pa hilineata, 'LeBB.=Acanthiza arrogo/nSf Sund. ; 
Setophaga caatcmea, ljea8,=Mu8cicapa vulnerata, Wagl. Lafresnaye 
has found a second species of Copurus, C. leuc<motu8, from Bolivia (Rev. 
Zool. p. 335). Lesson's fVom tityroides comes from Central America. 
(Ibid. p. 210.) 

Grould, in his Birds of Australia, part 6, has figured six species of 
Arta/mtis (Ocypterus); A, 8ordidkb8, Lath., ctnereiM, YieilL, min<n', VieilL, 
8upercilio9U8, G., personatus, G., and leucopygialis, G. 

SuBULiBOBTRES. — A spocimeu of the TvrdtLS varitts, PalL, was killed in 
Sweden (Jemtknd) in the year 1837, and described by Sundevall in the 
K. Vet. Acad. HandL p. 36. The reporter takes this opportunity of 
observing, that another specimen was shot in Steiermark last harvest, 
and sent to the Vienna Cabinet. Turdu8 nigropHetiSy Lafr. is described 
by Delessert in his Souvenirs, p. 27« Hartlaub, Rev. ZooL p. 58, defines 
T. colkirU, Sor., as identical with T, albocinctuB, Royl. ; Petrocincla fer- 
rugmeoventer. Less., with P. rufiventru, Jard. ; Ixos plwmigerus, Lafr., 
with Brachypus leucogenya. As the name Cratercpus Delesaertii, Lafr., 
was already given by Jerdon to another species, Delessert has now 
defined it in his Souv. p. 28, as Or, Lafreanayii, Bibia nigrictps, 
Hodgs.= Ctnc^osoma aipiatratv/m, Vig. (Hartl. in the Rev. ZooL p. 202). 
Timalia pcscilorhyncha, Lafr. = T. Btfbrufa, Jerdon. (Deless. Souv. 
p. 28.) 

Townsend has pointed out, in the Joum. of the Acad, of Nat. Sc. of 
Fhilad. viiL p. 148 and 159, that the bird drawn by Audubon, as Sylvia 
phUadelphia, is veiy difTerent from a species finmd by him at Columbia 
River, and to which he gave the name S, tolmcd: afterwards, when 
Audubon perceived his error, he gave it the name of S. MacgHUvrayi. 
Brewer has corrected, in Sillim. Amer. Joum. xlii. p. 132, many mistakes 
of Audubon in the definition of the American Syhnce. Muscieapa SeUm, 
Aud., is the young of Sylvia cncuUata^ Wils. ; ByL Vigorm^ Aud., the 

122 



AVES — PASSERINiE. 79 

young of 8,pinu$; 8yl. ra/ra is the young male of ;Sf. azwrea; S.pal- 
fnarwniy Bon., is identical with S, petechia, Bon. ; S, puHUaj Wils. and 
8, iphagnotay Aud., are identical with S, canadensis; S, tigrina, Bon., 
does not agree with that of Latham, but with SyL monta/na ; 8. Roscoei 
is the joung of the common Maryland Yellow Throat; 8, CMldrenii, Aud., 
is the common Summer Yellow Bird not completely feathered, which 
broods in this state. 

Of the genus Drymoica, A. Smith has given, in the lUust. of the Zool* 
of South Africa, No. 16, the description and drawings of Z>. substriata, 
pallida, rujUcapUla, Le VailkmtU, tetrix, and terre^t/ris. 

The Wagtails (Bndytes) have now been extended by Brehm 
to ten species. (Isis, p. 511 and 566.) 

They are called — 1. B, atricapilhis, Br. (Motaeilla melcmocephala, 
Licht.) : 2. B. melcmoc^hahu, Boje. (M, melanocephala, Lieht.) : 3. B. 
Feldeggii, Mich. : 4. B, cinerea-capilltis, Sayi : 5, B. ccmiceps, Br. (M, 
cinereo-capUla, Auct.) : 6. B. mega/rhynchos, Br. {M, Jlava, Auct.) : 
7. B, hoarulue {M, hoa/rula, Liim.) : 8. B, chrysogaster, Br. (M, Jlava, 
Linn.) : 9. B. fiavus (M, Jlava, Linn.) : 10. B. JloAfeohM, Temm. {M. 
JUwa, Gould). Brehm himself confesses, that the distinction between 
Nos. 2 and 3 is very difficult, and between 3 and 5 still more so ; when 
young, perhaps quite impossible : it is not possible to come to a conclu- 
sion, as he says, without examining the shape of the bill and head. But 
if the species admit of slight variations in the colour, why should it not 
also do so in the form of the head and bill? Selys Longchamps men> 
tions, in his Faune Beige, p. 88, five YeUow Water Wagtails, — 1. Mota- 
cilia JUx/va: 2.M, dnereih-capilla: 3. M, melanocephala : ^M.Jla/ueola: 
and 5. M. howrula. The M. cmerechcapilla, of which he shot a speci- 
men at LtLttich, he is inclined to suppose a southern race of 3f. Jlava. 
Sundeyall, in the E. Vet. Acad. Handl. Stockh. 1842, p. 47, divides the 
Motaeilla Jla/va into five varieties : — ^Var. 1. (Anglica, M. Jla/veola, 
Temm.) ; capite semper virescente, colore dorsi : Yar. 2. {Vulgaris 8ue- 
ca/na); dilutior, pure laeteque oolorata, superciliis perfectis, latis, Lara 
fere implentibus limboque gulari lato pure albis. Maculae colli pecto- 
risque pallidiores fusee : Yar. 3. (Borealis e Lappoma) ; obecurior 
paullo sordidius oolorata, loris definite nigris, limbo gulari colore juguli ; 
maculae colli pectorisque distinctae, obaeuriores; apices tectricum ex 
fiiscescente sordidse. $ caput obscure canescens, lateribus pure nigrum ; 
vetuB superdliis plane nullis, fronte verticeque fere nigris : Yar. 4. {Dal- 
matica, Bruch., M, Feldeggi, M, cmereo^apiUa?) Yar. 5, {AfncavuL, 
M. melanocephala, Licht.) 

The reporter would rather recognise local varieties than different 
species in the described deviations of Motaeilla Jlava, 

123 



80 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

Certhiparus is a new genus of Lafresnaye, founded on 

Parua senilis^ Dub. (Rey. Zool. p. 69.) 

He regards it as an intermediate genus between the Tit Mice and 
Woodpeckers ; resembling the latter from its rigid tail, with somewhat 
outwardly turned feathers at the sides ; and the former from the shape 
of the bill, feet, and whole form. On these accounts, in the reporter's 
opinion, it ought to be reckoned with the Tit Mice. The Parus nav. ze- 
kmdice, Lath., as Lafresnaye thinks, might be added to the Parus senilis, 
yet its tail is not stiff, though it has the same form. But this is, as the 
reporter adds, a farther and certainly yery striking proof, that the 
genus Certhipa/rus is quite untenable. Hartmann has (in the Rey. 
Zool. p. 75) defined the Orthonyx heteroclitesy Lafr., which is allied to 
this, as identical with Muscicapa chloris, Forst. loon., ined. tab. 157, 
M. och/rocephala. Lath. 

Sundevall has divided the AnthvLs pratenms into three yarieties, — 1. 
Yar. Vulgaris; gula alba, striola nigricante utrinque a basi maziUaB 
inferioris : 2. Yar. CervvMi {Motacilla cervina. Pall.) ; gula juguloque 
fulyis, stria laterali ad latera juguli nulla eyidenter nigro-maculata ; 
Cauda et alsB breyiores. A specimen was shot in East Finmark in 1837 : 
3. Yar. Rufigularis, Br. ; superciliis, gula juguloque saturate ex griseo 
rubicundis, striola gulas nulla, cauda et alas longiores. 

Lesson characterizes two species of MegalonyXy which he names 
M. nantbs and rufocapilluSf both from the island Chiloe, on the coast 
of Chili (Bey. Zool. p. 135 and 209). Lafresnaye now numbers nine 
species of Orallaria (ibid. p. 333) ; among them, G, rufieapilla is a 
newly added species from Bolivia. 

Gould, in his Birds of Australia, has given plates of Ephtkia/ntM'a 
albifrons, Jard. (part 6) ; E. awrifrons, Q., and tricolor, G. (part 7) ; 
Drymodes hrwivneopygia, (part 8) ; Petroiea multicolor, Yig., Oooden- 
oviiy Yig., phoBnicea, G., hicolor, Sw., fusca, G. (part 8) ; Eryth/rodyas 
rhodinogaster, Drap., and rosea, G. (part 8) ; Pitta strepitans, Temm., 
and iris (part 6). 

Certhiaceje. — New species : Dendrocolaptes tria/ngularis, Lafr., fit)m 
Bolivia (Bev. ZooL p. 134) ; Picolaptes capistratus. Less., from Bealejo 
(ibid. p. 174) ; Tatare (Sitta) fuscus. Less. (ibid. p. 210) ; Conirostrum 
aJhifrons and ooeruleifrons, Lafr., frcnn Columbia (ibid. p. 301). 

Hartlaub has remarked, that the genus Uncirostrum, Lafr., had pre- 
viously received the name Diglossa from Wagler. He points out six 
species (Bev. Zool. p. 569). 

Delessert mentions, in his Souv. p. 23, tab. 8, that Chloropsis auH- 
ventris, Del., is identical with Chi. ourvirostris, Sw. Hartlaub, how- 
ever, had mentioned the same before in the Bev. p. 58. The Acanthiza 
tenuirostris was used by Lafresnaye for the formation of a new genus, 
and drawn in the Mag. de Zool. Ois. pi. 27. 

124 



AVES — CLAMATORES. Bl 

HiBUMDiNACEiB. — Laudbek has giyen some valuable observations on 
Hirundo rupestris in the Isis, p. 97. The New Holland Swallow, which 
Vigors ajid Horsfield had comprehended under one specieswith Hirundo 
javanica, has been separated from it by Gould, and defined as H. ne- 
oxena (Birds of Australia, part 9). In the same part are given Atticora 
(Hirundo) leucogtemon, G., Collocalia ariel and a/rborea. 



CLAMATORES. 

Macrochires. — Townsend has discovered a new S\rift at 
Columbia Biver. 

He names it Cypselus Vauxii, and distinguishes it from Cpelasgiua, 
with which it may be confounded, from its lighter colour and much 
smaller size ; only 3^^' long. (Joum. of the Acad, of Philad. viii. p. 148.) 

Hartlaub (Rev. Zool. p. 58), and Delessert (in his Souv. p. 25, tab. 9), 
have mentioned, that Cypselus leuconotus, DeL, is identical with ChoB- 
tura nudipes* Cypselus cmstralis has been represented by Gould in 
the Birds of Australia (part 9) ; Acanthylis cwudacuta, Lath, (ibid.) 

Boorcier has described, in the Rev. ZooL p. 373, three species of 
Humming-birds from Columbia, by the names of Ormigmyia AUne, 
Julie, and MuhiMit, Lesson has given the name of 0, dnnamomea 
to a fourth species from Acapulco (ibid. p. 175). Longuemare has given 
a drawing of his 0. Clarisse, in the Mag. de ZooL N. 23. 

Caprimulginjb. — Eurostopodus (Caprimulgus) albigularis, Vig., 
and guttatu8, Vig., have been represented by Gfould. (Op. sup. cit. 
part 9). 

ToDiDiB. — Gould has given a plate of the Merops omatus. Lath, 
(part 7). According to HartUub's statement, Alcemeropa paleazureu$. 
Less., ia = A, Athertoni, Jard. = Nyctiomis casruleus, Sw. = N, am- 
hergticbnus, RoyL = Buda nipalenm, Hodgs. (Rev. ZooL p. 58.) 

LiPooLos&fi. — ^Brehm, in the Isis, p. 488, has divided the European 
Hoopoe into four sub-species — Upupa hifasciata, macrorhynchos, epopt, 
and hrctchyrhynchos. From observation of a live specimen, he thinks 
that this genus must be added to the Earth Woodpeckers. There is a 
beautiful plate of Buceros casddix, fem., in the NederL Yerhandel. n. 7. 
TodWomphus recu^rvirottris, Lafr. (Rev. ZooL p. 134), was brought 
from the South Sea, and is the third species of this genus. 

Strickland has lately proved, that Alcedo wn/ymendB, Linn., is actually 
to be found in Asia Minor (Ann. of Nat. Hist. iz. p. 441). Two species 
of Prionites have been described by Lesson, from Central America ; 
Crypticus (Hyloma/net) apidster, and Momotus Lewonii (Rev. ZooL 
p. 174). 

125 



82 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDOCCXLII : 



ZTGODACTYLL 

RuppELL, in the Mus. Senckenb. iii. p. 127, has given a list 
of the Climbing Birds obsenred by him in the north-east of 
Africa. 

They are aa follows : — Picua pcecephaluSf Bchoensis, Hemprichii, 
asthiopicus, and abtfisinicus ; Tuna torqidlla, and (jequatoralis; Cu- 
culu8 c€moru8y 9olitariu8, serratus, afer, Claam, cupreus, and OMrattu ; 
Coccyzus gla/nda/rius ; Centropus senegalensis, m/perdlioaus, and mo- 
nachus ; Indicator archipelagicuSf and minor ; Bucco chrysozonicua ; 
Micropogon margcMritatus ; Pogonias keviroatris, melanocephaluSj 
Vieillotiy BrucH, and v/ndatu$ ; Trogon na/rina ; Psittaoua rudventriSf 
JlavifronSy Meyeri, Le VaUlanH, taranta, and cubicularia ; Corythaix 
leucotig ; ChizcBrkis zonura, peraonata, and letuogagter. In all, thirty^ 
eight species, of which twelve were discovered by RdppelL 

CucuLiNiB. — RiippeU has clearly shown (Op. ant. dt. p. 122), that 
Cuculus serratus of the Cape and Abyssinia, is a different species from 
the C. melcmoleueoB of India. He has also given a minute description 
of Le YaUlant's Cttculus aoHtaritu, which is also found in Abyssinia as 
well as at the Cape. 

W. Thompson has mentioned, in the Ann, ix. p. 225, four instances 
of the presence of the Coccyzus americanuBy Bonap., in the British 
Islands. 

Lesson, in the Rev. ZooL p. 210, has defined the Coccyzus erythropy- 
gus of San-Carlos, in Central America, as a new species. 

Gould has circumstantially described, in the Ann. iz. p. 237, two new 
species of Trogon from the Cordilleras: — 1. Trogon personals, very 
like the Trogon atricollisy but the abdomen is scarlet instead of orange : 
2. Tr, (cahirus) oMriceps, allied to the T. pavoninus, but larger ; bill 
bright yellow ; wing-coverts longer, &c. 

Lesson has described a thirc^spedes from Realejo in Central America, 
as Trogon capistratus, and appended a description of the male of 
Tr, mexica/nus, Sw. (Rev. Zool. p. 135.) 

BuccoNiDiB. — Hartlaub has described a Bv^co mcUinccensis, allied to 
the B. ctrmilla/risy but differing from it by the light blue throat, red 
cross-bands on the anterior part of back, want of the orange coloured 
breast-bands, &c. At tiie same time, he enumerates the species of Bucco 
particularly, and brings their number up to twenty-three. (Rev. Zool. 
p. 336.) 

RuppeU (Op. ant. dt. p. 124) has discovered that the southern pro- 
vinces of Abyssinia axe the habitat of the Pogonias lasvirostrisy a fact 
not previously known. 

126 



A VES — Z YGOD ACT YLl . 83 

Rhamphastid^. — The third number of Gould's Mono- 
graph of the RhamphasUdce, translated by J. H. C3ir. Fr. 
and J. W. Storm, has appeared. 

This third number has not yet been sent to our State Library, and 
therefore is not accessible to me at present. * 

Gould, in the Ann. iz. p. 238, has given the name of Pteroglossus 
(Aulacorhynchus) castcmeorhynch^s to a new species from the Cordil- 
leras, standing next the Pt, hoBmatopygus, but differing from it and all 
other species by its much larger size (18"). 

PiciNJE. — ^RUppell, in the Mus. Senckenb. iii. p. 119, has 
increased this family with two species. 

1. Picus (Dendobratiu ?) schoensU, very like the P. hia/rmicusy but 
larger, the two white streaks on the sides of the head not uniting, &c. : 
from Schoa. 2. Tv/nx cequatorialis, from the Southern Proyinoes of 
Abyssinia. Hitherto there were only two species Imown in the Old 
World, Tiz., F. torquilla of Europe and North Africa, and Y, peciaralU 
of South Africa. This new third species corresponds in size with the 
Northern ; and is near the South African by the rusty red of the under 
side of the body, which, however, is differently disposed or divided. 
Rnppell has appended to these two species the description of a female 
Pieui poecephahis. Swains. 

On a review of the SpecHed Woodpeckers (Isis, p. 649), Brehm 
believes he has found out, that the smaller species of Picus may be 
separated into a particular genus, which should be called Piculus. Their 
chief mark is the tail, which is not so wedge-shaped as in the other 
Woodpeckers, but is much blunter. They are also particularly distin- 
guished by a black and white banded back, and the females have pro- 
bably no red, but only black upon the top of the head : this, at least, is 
the case in the Picus minor, Macei, moluccerms, and concretus. This 
separation may be very good, but the name Piculus has already been 
used by Is. Geof&oy as identical with PicwnvnuB. Brehm has announced 
a sub-species of the Picus, in the meanwhile, as P. rosdventris, 

Hartlaub has remarked, that Picus luridus, Nitzsch, is synonymous 
with P. tuhhiy Less., and Hemicercus hru/neus, Eyt. (Rev. Zool. p. 57.) 

PsiTTACiNJE. — ^Chr. L. Brehm, Monographic der Fapageien. 
Fol. das Heft Mit. 10 ill. Abbild. 
After the oopper-plates of Panots by Le Yaillant and Bouijot St. 

* In the fifth number of the Archives of last year^ I have given a notice of 
this number, and drawn attention to its increasing value in original obser- 
vations^ additions, and improvements. — Editok of Arch. 

127 



84 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCOCXLII : 

Hilaire, it is a doubtfiil matter to publish others, as the great libraries 
haye no need of such a work, and will delay the purchase until con- 
yinoed, that after the publication of the first number, it is not given up, 
as happens in so many cases. Should science need such an undertaking, 
the author (at whose command, indeed, must stand the whole ornitho- 
logical literature of this family, and a great collection), promises to give 
a critical description of aU the species hitherto known, wiih. plates of 
those which have not been preyiously represented. 

Riippell, in the Mus. Senckenb. iii. p. 125, has made known to us two 
new species of Parrots : 1. Psittacus (Pionus) ru/iventris ; in size and 
form of tail resembling the Ps, senegalus, and ako approaching it in 
the distribution of the principal colours, but having a much stronger 
bill : from Schoa : 2, Ps. (Pionus) Jlavifrons ; about l-6th larger than 
Ps. Meyeri ; fore-part of head and region of eyes beautiful citron yellow ; 
the rest of plumage different shades of green : from the Abyssinian 
province of Godjam. 

Pgittaeus (Amazona) aura-palliatus of Realejo, Arara erythrcfrons 
of Valdivia, Ps. (Cai'ca) chrysopogon of San-Carlos, and Pa. (Aratinga) 
ebwmvrostrwm of Acapulco, have been described by Lesson in the Rev. 
Zool. p. 135. 

. The following species are represented in the new parts of Gould : — 
Nymphicvs novas hollomdke (part 7) ; Apramycttbs tcapulatua, Bechst., 
and erytJvropterus, Gm. (part 8) ; Trichoglo89u$ SioainsonU, Jard., rubri- 
torqtm, Vig., and versicolor, Vig. (part 9). 

AMPHiBOLiE. — ^Riippell has made known, in the Mus. Senck. 
iii. p. 127, two new species of Ckizcerhis, from the southern 
provinces of Abyssiniau 

1. Ch, personata ; regione ophthalmica, gems, mento et gula pennis 
denudatis, pileo crista plicatili plumis laxis elongatis colore murine; 
nucha, regione parotica juguloque albidis, jugulo et pectore viridi- 
glaucis, abdomine et tibiis rufocervinis, auchenio, dorso et alis csesio- 
umbrinis, rectricibus oHvaceis ; cauda elongata, subrotundata, supra 
cinerea, infra luteo-virente ; 19" : 2. Ch, leucogaster, pQeo, crista plica- 
tili, plumis apice truncatis; capite, gutture, collo, cervice, dorso et 
alis ex caesio-iunbrinis ; tectricibus mediis nigro-marginatis, remigibus 
dimidio basali albis, apicaJi umbrino-nigris ; cauda subrotundata, nigra, 
fascia lata alba transversa, rectricibus 2, intermediis ex caesio-umbrinis, 
abdomine et tibiis albis ; 18f '^ 

CMzasris felicke = GK concoloTy Smith (Rev. Zool. p. 5&). 



128 



AVES — GALLINACEiE. 85 



COLXJMBINiE. 

Oeophaps Smtthiif Jard., plwmifera, G., and seripta, Ptilinopus Swain- 
Mmii, G., and Etmngiiy G., have been represented by Gould in the 7th 
part of his Birds of Australia. Both species of Ptilinopus have been 
hitherto united under the name of Colwmha pxvrpurata, and thej agree 
in the distribution of colour ; but the Pt, Ewingii is smaller, the top of 
the head rose-red instead of crimson, the breast pale greenish-grej, 
instead of muddy green, the middle of abdomen bright orange, instead 
of lilac ; and the tail-feathers greenish-yellow instead of being tipped 
with rich yellow. 



GALLINACEJE. 

Galling. — Buhle's Naturgesch. der domesticirten Thiere, 
Heft. 3. (Pfau, Truthuhn und Perlhuhn nebst ihren Verwand- 
ten.) Halle, 1842. 

This book has not yet reached me. 

Delessert, in his Souv. p. 2% tab. 10, and Hartlaub, in the Rev. Zool. 
p. 58, have remarked, that Frcmcolvaus mvostM, Del., is identical with 
Ft, Hardmckii, Gray. Lesson^s Ortyo! leucopogony is from San-Carlos 
in Central America. (Bev. Zool. p. 175.) 

The riddle in Temminck's announcement (Man. d'Qmitholog. iv. 
p. 313), which he put down as very doubtful, that the Turkey (Meleagris 
gallopavo), was found wild in Dalmatia, has been satisfactorily solved, 
as KtLster mentions (Isis, p. 611), that Otis tardea is known, throughout 
Dalmatia, by the name of " Wild Turkey." By a similar misunder- 
standing, Hellenius once took a female of the Mufion, which is commonly 
called a Boe in Sardinia, for Cenms capreolus ; and thence Rudolphi, 
from its fruitful pairing with the Bam, drew the conclusion, that the 
latter fact could not be brought into consideration for the determining 
of a species. (Yid. Munch, gel. Anzeig. iv. p. 936.) 

Penelope albiventer, firom the province of Nicaragua, has been de^ 
scribed by Lesson as a new species. (Rev. Zool. p. 174.) 

The presence of the genus Megapodws in New Holland, 

has now been proved, by the M. tumulus being found on 

Coburgh Peninsula, on the north coast. (Oould^s Birds of 

Australia, part 6.) 

The most remarkable thing in these birds, is, their peculiar way of 
hatching their e(;g8. These are found in large sand heaps, which are 

129 I 



86 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

generallf of & conical &Tm ; one of them waa iizty feet in circumference 
at the base, and fifteen high : the eggi Ikj deep in thete heaps, sligbtl}' 
oovered with sand, which, hy the heat of the lun, acquires a ooniideTable 
wamith. How these heaps have be«n erected, and how the joung oome 
ont of them when titey have newly chipped the shell, hu not yet been 
observed bj Europeans; and only sonM nnsatisfaotoiy accounts have 
been received &om the natives. 

Megapodiw, TaUegaUa, and Leipca, form a very remaik&ble femily, 
from the peculiar manner in which they hatch tiieir e^. They extend 
ttaai the Philippines over the islands of the Indian Archipelago, sa far 
as New Holland. 

Hartlaub holds it as certain, that the geoos Ateckthelia, Less., is only 
the young of Megapodint. (Rev. ZooL p. 204.) 

Crypturid^. — Lesson has given a new species fW>m Cen- 
tral America, in the Kev. Zool. p. 210, TinamtiB (Notkura) 
cmnamomea. 



CURSORES. 

Mayer, in his N^euen Uutersuch. aus dem Gebiete der Anat. 
uttd Physiol, p. 30, has discussed a pectdiar formation of the 
sexual opening in the female Emu of New Holland. 

The conuDOn opening of the tectum, Bezmd parts, and urinary oi^;ans, 
has the form of a cup, or crown of a flower, of considerable size. There 
ore twenty-eight folds, or rays, wliich run from the middle opening of 
the common fandament, like radii towards the periphery, and form on it 
80 many sacs, or cells, in which a white fatty substance is secreted. The 
, intention of this organ is not known : there is nothing like it in the other 
running birds. It is remarkable, as the author observes, that even in a 
bird of New Holland, there is a purse shaped organ in the sexual region, 
as an eipression, so to speak, of the endemic genius of the structure, 
which, in the same country, prevails in the MammaUa. 

A plate is given in the Transactions of the Zoological Society, of a 
'1 thigh-bone, found in New Zealand, which Owen recognised as that 
bird allied to the Ostrich. 



AVES — GRALLiE. 87 



GRALL^. 

Alectorides. — Gould has now given a drawing of the Otis 
auatralasiana^ in the Birds of Australia, part 8. 

This species is abundant, and spread widely over New Holland. It is 
larger than the Otis tarda, A capital error in Gould's work is the want 
of measurements, although there is plenty of room, 

FuucARi^. — Parra cordifera^ from Aeapulco^ has been 
described by Lesson in the Bey. Zool. p. 135 and 210. A 
drawing of Gallirallus hrachypterua^ Lafr., was given in the 
Magas. de Zool. n. 22. 

Leib found the FuUca a/merica/Mi brooding, in very great numbers, 
in the month of June, in the marshes at Lake Erie, in company with the 
OaUinula galeata. The nest is woven of rushes, without lining, 1^ to 
2^ in diameter, swimming on the water, and attached to the reeds : the 
eggs, ten to fifteen in number, are oval, greenish-yellow, with small dark 
brown freckles. (Joum. of Philad. viii 203.) 

Erodii. — ^Brehm has divided the small German Bitterns 
(Ardea minuta) into three sub-species : — Botaurus minutus^ 
pusillus, and melanottju, (Isis, p. 770.) 

Hemiglottides.— Drawings have been given of PlataUa 

regia, G., sjii Jlavipes, G., in the Birds of Australia, part 7. 

The latter species is remarkable, as it agrees in many respects with 
the white species of Ibis, and accordingly proves, from another source, 
the connection of the PlataUa and /Hs, in one family, as asserted by 
Nitzsch. 

LiMicOL^. — EurKinorhynchus griaeas^ Nilss. (Platalea 

pygmcea, Linn.), has been described, with a plate, by Hart* 

laub, in the Bev. Zool. p. 37. 

Ouyier and Temminck have arranged this bird correctly among the 
Snipes. Its habitat is not Surinam, as asserted by Linnsus, but BengaL 

Nordmann has most exactly shown the difference between 
his Glareola melanoptera (which name Fischer wishes to 
change into O. Nordmanm), and the O. torquata. (Bullet, 
de Mosc. 1842, p. 314. tab. 2.) 
131 



^ I 



88 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCOXLll : 

They have been very accurately described in the short diagnosis of 
both species: 1. Olareola torquata; *' tectricibus inferioribus alarum 
rufo-castaneis :" 2. Olareola melanoptera ; " alia supra et subtus uni- 
ooloribus nigris." The Olareola pratincola, Pall., belongs, as a sy- 
nonyme to the latter species, which Pallas erroneously esteemed as 
O. torquata. Both species are plentiful in the South of Russia, yet it 
appears, that the new species is a form found more to the eastward. 
Whether it also be difierent from the O, (yrientalis, Nordmaon, from 
want of literary aid, could not decide. But the reporter can assure him, 
that this alone would not have helped him out, because the description 
which Leach gives of O. orientalis is so inexact, and his plate is so 
incorrect, that the bird cannot be recognised from it. Since, however, 
the collection in this place possesses a Javanese specimen, the reporter 
can add, that O, orientalu is quite a different species from the O. mela- 
noptera. Certainly the alula is of the same colour ; but the winjgs upon 
the under side are like the O, torquata. 

Die Waldschnepfe von C. E. Diezel. Leipz. 1842. 

A very excellent little book for sportsmen as well as naturalists, rich 
in original observations, and distinguished by its lively style. 

Of this family, the following species have been represented in the 
Birds of Australia: — Charadrius {Lobivanellua) lobatus, Lath., and 
peraonatus, G. (part 8) ; Rhynchoea australisy G., and JRecurvirogtra 
rvbricolliSf Temm. (part 9). 

Hartlaub has given, on tab. 2, in the B«v. ZooL, plates of the bill and 
feet of his Chioms minor. 



NATATORES. 

LoNGiPENNES. — A large flock of Sterna arctica was seen in 
the interior of England last May, about which a slight dis- 
cussion has arisen between Strickland and Austin. (Ann. ix. 
p. 351, 434, 518; x. p. 75). A drawing of Sterna tereti- 
colUSf Lafr., was giyen in the Magas. de Zool. n. 27, 

TuBiNARES. — W. Thompson has cited two cases, in which 
PufintM major, Fab. was taken in Ireland. (Ann. ix. p. 433.) 

Unguirostres. — The eleyenth Tolume, and first number 
of the twelfth, of " Naumann's Naturgeschichte der Vogel 
132 



AVES — ^NATATORES. 89 

Deutschlands,'* has been published. The concluding half of 
the former, and commencement of the present volume, are 
occupied with the genus Anas, 

The anatomical characteristics of the genus have been arranged, with 
valaable annotations, bj Rud. Wagner, from the papers left by Nitzsch. 

The following species have been treated of in the following order : — 
First Group, Swimming Ducks, with an unlobed hinder toe. — a. Bur- 
rowing Ducks, called by later Ornithologists, Tad(yma or FttZpon^er, 
although thej have nothing of the Goose tribe. 1. A, tadorna: 2. A, 
rutila, h. Fresh-water Ducks, *^ lately divided into fiye genera and 
more, on account of slight deviations, which are scarcely tenable, as 
sub-genera." 3. A, hoschas: 4. A, acuta: 5. A, strepera: 6. A. qu^r- 
quedula : 7. A, crecca : 8. A, penelope. c. Shovellers. 9. A. clypeata. 
Second Group, Divers, with the hinder toe lobed. " This great section 
may be properly divided into several sub-divisions or families, between 
which there is no want of transitions, on which account it is difficult to 
determine whether the whole group should be considered as a separate 
section of the genus Anas, or whether our following families of Ducks 
should appear as so many different genera." a. Fen Ducks. 10. A. ru- 
Jma: \l,A.ferina: 12, A, nyroca (leucophthalmos) : IS. A, fuligula : 
14. A, marila. 

Anas purpureoviridis, Schinz, has been pronounced by Selys 
and Bonaparte a hybrid of ^no^ hoschas and A. moschata. 

Selys relates, in the Faune Beige, p. 141, that he shot a female of 
A. pwrp, at Longchamps-sur-Geer, in December 1835. He saw a male 
at Baillon ; and examined two other males in the museum at Lausanne, 
perfectly alike, which had been killed on the Lake of Geneva. 

Leib found the nest of AnaB discora, along with that of A. hoschas, in 
the meadows which border on the marshes of Lake Erie. It was com- 
posed of dry grass, thickly lined with feathers, and contained eighteen 
eggs of a delicate cream colour. (Joum. of Philad. 1842, p. 204.) 

Gould has formed a new genus, Merganetta, for a species 
of Duck from the the Chilian Andes. (Ann. ix. p. 511.) 

In many of its characters, as he says, it approaches the Ducks, but in 
others it evinces an affinity with the Mergansers, especially in its long 
and stiff tail-feathers and narrow and pointed beak. It differs, how- 
ever, from either of the groups mentioned, in having, in both sexes, 
a strong spur on the wing. Gould gives to the species the name 
J£, armata. 

Gould has figured a new species of Duck in the Birds of Australia, 
part 6, Nettapus coromandelianus, Gm., and piUchelliis, G. 

133 



90 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, HDCCCXLll: 

Yarrell has given « short notice on the Ttadiea of Anier gamb^am, 
in the Ann. iz. p. 147- 

La&esnaye has Temarked, in the Rev. Zool. p. 71, tliat Ducks and 
Qeese procl&im themselvei aa different genera bj their liabite and food 
— a fact previously known. 

Pyoopodes. — Podiceps antareticiu of Valparaiso, faae been 
described as a new species bj Lesson, in the Rev. Zool. p. 209. 



REPTILIA. 



BY 



DB. F. H. TROSCHEL. 



Several Faunas of European countries are here to be men- 
tioned, as interesting with regard to geographical distribution. 

A. Zawadzky : Fauna der Galizisch-bukowinischen Wirbel- 
thiere. Stuttgart, 1840. 

The section on Beptilia extends from p. 140 to 161. The genera 
and species are described, and. notice taken of their occurrence, hahits, 
and uses; the Polish names are added. This Fauna contains, in all, 
twenty-fiye Reptilia, viz., one Tortoise, four Lizards, six Snakes, and 
fourteen Batrachians, nine species of which are without tails, and five 
with tails. A list of the Latin names of the genera and species is 
appended ; likewise a list of Polish names, to which the German and 
Latin ones are added. 

H. Freyer: Fauna der in Krain bekannten Saugethiere 

Vogel, Beptilien, und Fische. Laibach, 1842. 

Beptilia from p. 41 to 45. The species are not described, but onlj 
^e Latin, German, and Krainian names given, with some STnonymes, 
and short remarks on the places where the species are found. Among 
the twenty-six Reptilia, are two Tortoises, three Lizards, seven Snakes 
(among which is a new one. Coluber isahellinusjf and fourteen Batra- 
chians, eight without, and six with tails. 

135 



92 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDGGCXLII : 

Edm. de Selys Longchamps Faune Beige, I'* partie ; Indi- 
cation M^thodique des Mammiferes, Oiseaux, Reptiles, et 

Poissons, observes jusqu'ici en Belgique. Liege, 1842. 

Reptilm, p. 169 to 182. The species are not described, the remarks 
being confined to notices of their occurrence and varieties. Among the 
twentj-three species, are one Tortoise, four Lizards, five Snakes, and 
thirteen Batrachians, eight without, and five with tails. Eight of these 
twenty-three species are found in almost all parts of the country, twelve 
in particular localities, and the occurrence of three within the Belgian 
bounds is not sufficiently determined. There are plates of Triton pal- 
matus and punctatusy male and female. 

In the Fauna Caspio-Caucasia, von Eichwald, Petersburg, 
1841, — the section on Reptilia occupies from p. 44 to 128 ; 
plates 3 to 31 belong to it. 

Three Tortoises are mentioned: — Clemmye caspica, Wagl. ; Emys 
ewropcea, abundant in the rivers which discharge themselves into the 
Caspian Sea ; Testudo Hbera, Pall. 

Many Lizards inhabit the shores of the Caspian. They show, in 
general, a greater approximation to the Fauna of Egypt and Syria than 
to that of Europe. PiammoMuruB casptcvs, Eichw. ; Lacerta oceUata, 
Daud., viridis, Daud., stirpiv/mf Daud., agiUs, L., strigata, Eichw. (L. 
quinquevittatay M^n^tr., in the Vienna Mus., from Syria, as L, viridis, 
var., X. Michahelletii, Fitz.) ; Zootoca exiffua, Eichw. (X. gylvicola, 
Eversm.), crocea, Wagl., chalyhdea, Eichw. (X. »<ixicola, Eversm.) ; 
Atpidorhinvs (nov. gen.), gr<i€ilis, Eichw. . (X. vittataf Eversm.) ; 
Podarcia veloai, Wagl., deserti, Lepechin (X. variahilU, Pall.) ; OpJUops 
eUgamSy M^ndtr. {Amystes Ehrenbergiif Wiegm.) ; Stellio ccufMosw^ 
Eichw. (X. 8tellio et muricatay Pall.) ; Phrynocephalus caudivolvulus, 
Eichw. (X. eaudivolvula, Pall., Agama ocellata, Lichtst.), heUoscopus, 
Kaup. (0. helioacopa, Pall.) ; Megalochilus a/writu8, Eichw. (X. aurita, 
Pall.) ; Trapellus ga/nguinolentus, Eichw. (X. aanguinolenta, Pall., 
Agama aralensis, Lichtst.) ; Qym/nodactylut caspius, Eichw. (Uromas- 
tix fasciatuB, M^n^tr.) ; Euprepis princeps, Eichw. ; Pseudopus serpen- 
Hwus, Merr. ; Anguis fragilis, L. {A, DeM&riy Andrz. et Ang. mcertusy 
Kryn.) 

Snakes. — Eryx turcicuSy Daud., Trigonophis iberusy Eichw. (Coluber 
ffivaXy Schreiber, Ta/rhophis fcdlaXy Fleischm.); TrigonocephahM kaly»y 
Lichst., TovnAfris (nov. gen.) oxiatMiy Eichw., new species ; Tropidono- 
#us pertay Eichw. (Colvher perga, Pall.), natrix, Kuhl, ater, Eichw. 
(Tr, natricis, var.?) ; ScutatuSy Eichw. (Coluber acutatusy Pall.), hydrus^ 
Fitz., 9auromate8y Eichw. (0. va/riegatusy L., O. sauromates. Pall.) ; 
Hcemarrhois trdbalisy Bole ; Tyria argonautay Eichw., najadumf Eichw. 

136 



REPTILIA. 93 

Zctcholus IcBvie, Eichw. (Col, ktuisy Lac^p.) ; Zamenis JEsculapn, 
Wagl. ; Ccelopeltis IHone, Eichw. (Col, Dione, Pall.), erythrogattra, 
Eichw. (Col, ^ryth/rogcuter, Fisch.), la,certma, Wagl., vermiculata, 
Eichw. (Col, vermiculatus, M^n.) 

The only Batrachians in those regions are, Hyla viridiSf Laur. ; Bcma 
tempora/riay L., tigrina, Eichw. (Rama dentex^ Kiyn.); aichmncms, 
PalL ; Bufo vaHahilis, Pall., cinereus, Schneid. 

Hence it follows, that the two new genera onlj contain animals not 
preyioiislj known ; but manj names bear the authorily of the author, 
although such a change of name was often unnecessary. The Herpeto- 
logy of Dumeril and Bibron is not jet made use of. 

Th. Cantor, in an Essay entitled '^ General Features of 
Chusan, with Remarks on the Flora and Fauna of that 
Island," makes some obserrations on its Beptilia. Ann. ix. 
p. 275. 

Of Chelonian Reptiles, but two forms were found, one of which, 
Trionyx tuberculatum, approaches closely to T,javanicus, None of the 
larger Saurians occur, nor Monitors ; but both the little Hemidactylum, 
which is very numerous, and the TiUqua are nearly allied to species 
inhabiting Bengal and other parts of India. It has generally been 
believed, that China is infested with very few serpents. At Chusan, 
although few in species, they are remarkably numerous. Naja, which 
appears to be the only terrestrial venomous serpent, as well as the 
species of Lycodon, Coluber , and Tropidonotus, are, as pointed out in 
the descriptions, closely allied to Indian species. Python Sclmeideri has 
hitherto been found only in Java, Banca, Amboyna, and once at Malacca. 
All these, however, are forms which characterize tropical Asia. I am 
told, that several species of Pelagic Serpents occur in the Chusan Archi- 
pelago. In the Batrachian Reptiles, there exists a striking resemblance 
between the Fauna of Chusan and Japan. In both, the Frogs are 
European forms, the Toads not ; Bufo ga/rga/rizanB approaches to the 
Indian Toad, figured as B, duhia in Hardwicke's Blustrations. 

The species are furnished each with a short diagnosis (Ibid. p. 482), 
but as this is limited to colouring, it is insufficient for fixing the species. 
They are the following ; — Trionyx tuherculatus, Envys muticua; HenU- 
dactylui na/aus, Tiliqua rufoguttata ; Naja atra, Lycodon rufozonor- 
tus, Coluber dhumnades. Col. mandarlnus, Tropidonotus rufodoraatus. 
Python Schneideriy Merr. ; Rana tempora/ria, var., Rana esculenta, 
var. ; Hyla a/rborea, var. ; Bufo gargarizcms. 

A list of the above mentioned species of Reptiles, collected 
by Cantor in Chusan, is also to be found in M'Clelland's 
Calcutta Journal, vol. ii. 1842, p. 101. 
137 



94 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

In Ernest DiefTenbach's TrayeU in New Zealand, London, 1643, 
p. 202, J. £. Graj enumerates the New Zealand BeptUia known to 
him ; their number, however, is but small, being onlj seren. These 
are : — ^Two species of Tiliquaf T. zelcmdica and omata ; three species 
of the genus Naultinui, of the family of Gechanes, described by Gray, 
Zool. Misoell. p. 72, N, elegans, Gr., N, pacijicus, Gr. (Platydactylus 
Duvaucelli, Dum. Bibr.), N, punctatvs, Gr., Hatteria ptmctata, Gr., 
Pekbmys bicolor. Other Snakes and Amphibia seem to be entirely 
wanting. 

J. E. Gray describes, in his Zool. Misoell., London, 1842, several new 
genera and species of Australian Beptilia, from a collection made by 
Gilbert at Port Essington. A description of some Reptilia of other 
countries, in the British Museum, is also included. (Ibid. p. 57.) 

• • 

Berthold : Uber verschiedene neue oder seltene Amphibien- 
arten. Gottingen, 1842, 4to. — Unfortunately this has not yet 
come to hand. 

Haro has made known bis researches on the breathing of 
some Amphibia ; Memoire sur la Respiration des Grenouilles, 
des Salamandces, et des Tortues. (Annales des Sc. Nat^ 
tom. xviii. p. 36.) 



CHELONIL 

J. E. Gray, in the Zool. Miscell. London, 1842, describes a 
new tortoise, Hydraspis victorice, from Victoria River, on 
the north-east coast of New Holland. 



SAURII. 

Spring and Lacorbaire have imparted some information 
on certain parts of the Organization of the Phrynosoma 
Harlanii, from a specimen brought alive by Firson from the 
Texas to Europe. 

It was in a state of numbness, from which it could only be roused by 
the direct influence of the rays of the sun, and by repeated gentle pushes. 
It opened its eyes, raised its head, and began to run pretty quickly ; but 
soon became again benumbed. Besides the anatomical observations, 
the authors correct the description of Dumeril and Bibron in regard to 

138 



REPTILIA — SAURIl. 95 

oolour. This specimen had, on each side of the back stripe, five black 
spots, which, on their posterior half, were edged with the finest jonquil 
yeUow ; the throat, sides, and roots of the limbs were, as it were, dusted 
with the same hue ; the under half of the body was pure white, without 
speck. The pores of the thighs could not be discovered. (Bulletins de 
I'Acad. de Bruzelles, iz. 2, p. 192.) 

AspiDOBHiMUS (noY. geu.), Eichw., 1. c. p. 74. Nares prominulae, 
eziguis scutellis elevatis apici rostrali impositsB ; squamae temporum sub- 
tilissimae, granulosa^ ; collare ; squamsB notsei ezigusB, granulosae. There 
is one species, A, gracUis, Eichw. (L<ic. vittata, Eversm.) 

TiUqua Esmtgtonii^ Crntyy Zool. Miscell., from the north coasts of 
New Holland. 

LiaUa BurUmi, hicatenata, and punctulata are three New Holland 
species, described by Gray in the work just quoted. 

(Edura, Gray (nov. gen.), of the family of Oeckones, ibid. p. 52, Toes 
5-5, wide, free, scaly beneath at root, ends somewhat broader ; under side 
with two rows of cross folds, the last on each toe broad ; claws 5-5, con- 
cealed in the groove between the folds ; back and belly with oval convex 
equal scales, smaller on the sides; tail oval, lanceolate, very thick, low, 
with pointed tip, covered with rings of broad scales ; anal pores in a 
erescentic line. CE, m<Mrmorata^ New HoDand. 
. PmiA, Gray (so v. gen.), of the family of the Oeckones, ibid. p. 53. 
Like Ptyodactyhi$, but the toes are shorter, thicker, wide at the root, 
and there are anal pores present. Ph. pwnctulata, New Holland. 

Gecko SnUtkiif from Prince of Wales' Island, and G, chinensis, from 
China, have been described by Gray, Zool. Mis. p. 57. 

Tarentula chfpeata. Gray, ibid. : habitat unknown. 

Phelsufna trilineatum and Imeatum (Gecko wvunguis, Cuv.), are also 
described by Gray (ibid.) : the latter species from Madagascar. 

Gehyra, Gray (nov. gen.), from the family of the Geckones, ibid. p. 57, 
forms a part of Wiegmann*s Peroplus, but has the scales of the Gecko : 
it is distinguished from this genus by the length and compression of the 
end of the toes. G, ocecmica (Gecko oceanuma), 

Naultinus, Gray, Zool. Mis. p. 72, is distinguished from Gehyra by 
the ends of the toes not being compressed. There are three species : 
N. pacijicus, ib. p. 58 ; thumb without nail ; bright brown ; irregular 
broad stripe on each side : South Sea Islands. N, elegans, ib. p. 72 ; 
thumb with nail ; green ; irregular spots on each side of the back : New 
Zealand. N. punctatus, ib., in Dieffenbach, p. 204 ; thumb with nail ; 
dark green ; back with very small black dots ; under half yellow- 
green; 4". 

BoLTALiA, Gray, Zool. Mis. p. 58, holds a middle place between Gehyra 
and HenUdactyhM ; toes free, folds beneath numerous, slender, transverse, 
narrow, divided by a deep small groove ; thumb similar ; pores of thigh 

139 



96 REPORT ON ZOOLO(3^Y, MDCCCXLll : 

distinct ; tail somewhat oompressed, ringed, with a middle row of shields 
beneath : B, mblevis, India. 

HemidactffluB depresmiSf tnercatorius, said faseiatus, Gray, ibid. ; the 
first two from Madagascar : of the latter the habitat is unknown. 

Goniodactylus Baei, Gray, ibid. : from India. 

ToLABENTA, Graj (noY. gen.), of the same family ; the feet as in Agamfia, 
but head, nasal fossae, and ejes, show that the genus belongs to the 
OecJcones. 8. WUhmwnii (Savignj, -Bept. ^gjpt. t. c. f. 3) : Egypt. 

Cyrtodnctylus ocellatus, ibid. p. 59 : from Tobago. 

Cyclv/ra quinquecarinatay id. ibid. p. 59 : Demerara? 

The new genus Lofhognathub, of the family of the AgcbfMt (Gray's 
Zool. Mis. p. 53), is distinguished from Calotes only by the presence of 
two or three thigh pores, and two anal pores on each side : L. Oilberti, 
from the north coasts of New Holland. 

The genus Difobiphoba, Gray, ibid. p. 53, of the same fiimily, is 
distinguished from Ora/mmatopfiora only by two anal pores ; in habit it 
stands between Orammatophora and Calote» : D. hilmeata^ from the 
north coast of new Holland. 

Hatteria, Gray, ibid. p. 72, of the family of the Ag(Mna ; head four- 
oomered, covered with small scales ; throat with a cross fold ; nape and 
back have a ledge of compressed bristles; body covered with small 
scales ; beUy and under side of the tall have broad, four-cornered, un- 
quilled scales, in cross rows ; tail compressed, triangular, covered with 
small scales, and with a crest of broad bristles ; toes 5, 5, covered with 
small scales ; no thigh pores ; smaU anal pores : H, punctata^ from New 
Zealand. 

SERPENTES. 

In opposition to the observation of Valenciennes, mentioned in the last 
report (p. 172), on the temperature in the hatching of the Python hivit- 
tata, Dumeril is of opinion, that the increased temperature is produced 
in the eggs of the snake, and is not to be ascribed to the influence of the 
brooding mother. (Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 5.) 

Aloysii Calori : De vasis pulmonum ophidiorum secun- 
dariis observationes novae (Commentarii Acad. Bononiensis, 
T. p. 395), with a lithographic plate. 

In the Biblioteca Italiana o sia Giomale di Letteratura, Scienze, ed 
Arti, compUato da varj letterati (tom. xciz. Milano, 1740, p. 163 and 306), 
is found a Catalogue Raisonn^, describing the Snakes in the Museum of 
the University at Pavia, by De Filippi. Catalogo ragionato e descrlttivo 
deUa Eacolta de' Serpenti del Museo dell* S. R. Universitct di Pavia. 

140 



REPTILIA — SERPENTES. 97 

Del Dottor Filippo de Filippi, gii assistente alia cattedra di storia 
naturale nella detta Universitlk. The species are arranged aooording to 
Schlegel's Essai sur la Physiognomie des Serpents ; but a new species of 
the genus Cal<iTnaria is described (v. i.) 

' J. E. Graj, in his Zool. Misc., London, IS^, p. 41, giy^s a synopsis 
of the family Boidce. This family contains thirty-two species, which 
the author divides into twenty genera. Of these, eight genera and ten 
species are found in Tropical America ; four genera and five species in 
A&ica; six genera and eight species in Asia; four genera and eight 
species in New Holland ; one species in Europe. The species of the 
genus Python inhabit Asia and Africa, but each division of the world 
has its separate species. One species of the genus Eryx is common to 
the South of Europe and North of Africa. Several species are cited as 
new. 

There is contained in the same little work, p. 47> a synopsis of the 
species of the family Crotalidoe, which comprises ten genera with thirty 
species. Six genera and eleven species are peculiar to America ; two 
genera and sixteen species belong to Asia and the islands ; one genus is 
common to Asia and Africa ; one genus, with two species, is found in 
Africa ; Europe and Australia contain no species. Several new species 
axe distinguished by their colour. 

There is found, besides, in the same work, p. 59, a s3mopsis of the 
family Hydridoe, which numbers forty-three species in twenty-three 
genera. Twenty species are found in the Indian Ocean ; sixteen in the 
salt-water canals of India and the neighbouring islands ; and six inhabit 
Tropical America. The following are defined as new genera : — 

Lapemis ; different from Pelnmis, by the smaller somewhat compressed 
head, and a smaller mouth : Hydras curtuSf Shaw, and L, Ha/rdtioichu, 
Gray. 

Liopala; belly shields broad, the anterior smooth, united, the pos- 
terior separated, knobbed; the anterior scales of back smooth; the 
posterior has a central tubercle ; one or two posterior eye shields : 
Hydrus gracilisy Shaw ; and L, fa%ciata, Gray. 

Atxtbia; beUy shields tolerably broad, the two middle rows united 
into a single broad six sided plate ; all the scales smooth : A, omata. 
Gray; Hydrophia Lividsa/yiif QrtLj ; Hydru8 spiralis, Sh&w (Hydrophis 
meUjmura, Wagl.) ; A, elegcms, Gray. 

Bitia; tail has two rows of shields beneath; nasal fossss between 
two plates; abdominal shields, on each side, quilled; scales smooth: 
B. hyd/roidesy Gray. 

DixADES is American, and contains Homalopm pUcatilis and leopar- 
dina, Schlegel. 

FsRANiA, like Hypsirhina, Wagl., but the body is compressed ; the 
back quilled ; tail conical : Homalopm Sieboldii, Schlegel. 

141 



98 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

- Raclitia ; hodj eylindrical ; scales smooth ; yeriebral shield rather 
small ; anterior shield of foErehead smaU, triangular ; . a bridle shield ; 
one small anterior, and long posterior eye shield; taU short, conical: 
R, indica, from India. 

Higina; body cylindrical; scales smooth; abdominal shields rather 
small ; an anterior broad, two posterior smaller eye shields ; no bridle 
shield : H. fasciata, from Demerara. 

Fordonia; head broad posteriorly; three forehead shields, the an- 
terior elongated; between the nasal shields no bridle shield; body 
compressed ; tail short : F. leuccbaUa (Hamalopeis leucobaUa, Schl^el). 

MiRALiA ; Type, Brachyorros alternant, Reus (Homalopm decus- 
sata, Schlegel). 

Farancia; anterior forehead shields united into a triangular cross 
plate ; posterior forehead shield broad ; nasal fosssB sideways, smaU, in 
the midst of a four-sided shield ; an anterior and two posterior ocular 
shields ; body fusiform ; scales smooth ; tail conical : F. Drurmnondii, 
from California. 

Lastly, Gray, in the same work, p. 68, has given a synopsis of the 
family Viperidce. Twenty-one species form the eight genera of this 
family, of which two genera and three species inhabit Asia ; four genera 
and twelve species, Africa; two genera and four species, Europe; and 
one genus with one species, Australia ; one genus, Echis, has both an 
African and an Indian species. 

Gray's genus Daboia, has for type the Vipera daboia, Daud; agreeing 
with it, D. RusseUi, Russ., Ind. Serp. t. 32 ; and D. pulchella of Ceylon. 

Coluber itabeUi/Mis, Freyer, 1. c. p. 42; iuibella-yellow ; eyes red; 

head has eleven small shields ; upper jaw edged with seventeen, under 

jaw with twenty-one small shields ; abdominal shields 221 ; tail shields 

. eighty-two ; length 2' 6" ; length of tail 5J" ; at Feistenberg in Lower 

Krain. 

Tropidonotui OMstralis, Gray ; Zoological Miscellany, p. 54 ; from 
the north coast of New Holland. 

Calamaria fabas de Filippi, 1. c. p. 176 ; head small, not broke off 
from the trunk ; the bridle shield, which is usually wantmg in CaJor- 
ma/ria, is present in this species ; back scales bay, with somewhat brighter 
margin ; belly white, with many alternating square spots ; both anterior 
forehead shields white ; allied to Col, Linncd : habitat unknown. 

Lycodon reticulatuSf and L. olivaceus, Gray ; Zoological Miscellany, 
p. 54 : both from Australia. 

DendropMa (Ahetvdla) fuBca and oliva^ea, id. ib. : from same place. 

Elaps (ymatus, id. ib. ; whitish, the scales of back and sides bordered 
black: Australia. 

Naja oMitralU, id. ib. ; bright brown, brighter beneath; only two 
posterior eye shields. 

142 



REPTILIA — BATRACHIA. 99 

Tomyrit, Eichw., 1. c. p. 103 (nov. gen.) ; caput oollo subdilatabili 
latius, duplo longius quam latum, tela 2 utrinque distincta dentesque 2 
imperforati breyiores, lis postpositi, scutella submazillaria tria, interque 
eorum par postremum unum majus (non tria alia minora in triangulo, 
NaJ89 ezemplo) ; squamae notsei elongato-lanceolataB, plan», Iseves, exi- 
guse; gulares majores per 4 series obliquas dispositse. Affine UriEO 
(Najce), Wagl., genus. There is one species, T, oxicma ; e purpureo 
rosea, transyersim nigro-yittata, yittis integris atris, medio dorso sub 
angulo confluentibus, postremis eyanidis, gul4 e flayo rose& ; 2^''. 



BATRACHIA. 

Aloysii Calori : Descriptio anatomica Branchianim maxime 
internarum gyrini Banse Esculentse, unaque praBcipuum dis- 
crimen, quod inter branchias ad inyicem et batrachiomm uro- 
delorum intercedit. (Gommentarii Acad. Bonon. y. p. Ill) ; 
with two lithographic plates. 

R. P. Lesson describes a new species of Bufo^ which he had 

already briefly characterized in his *' Catalogue de la Faune 

du Departement de la Charente-Inferieure," viz. : — 

B, vmearum ; first finger as long as second, upper socket margins 
projecting, rounded, skull covered with thick skin, parotids elliptical, 
rounded on each side, longish, separated ^Ito two parts by a space, skin 
of tympanum concealed, hinder toes semipalmate ; three protuberances 
on the heel, two on the hands, no lenticular gland on either thigh, no 
ledge of skin on inner margin of tarsus, iris red, above knobbed, un- 
derneath small regular protuberances, no spots. In the vine hills of 
Haute-Saintonge. (Rev. ZooL 1842, p. 33.) 

Some new species of Batrachia have also been described by 
J. E. Gray, in his Zoological Miscellany, viz. : — 

Discoglossus omatu8, Alytes a/ustralis, Pelodytes nasutus, P. afinis, 
Hyla ccerulea (H. cyomea^ Daud.), H. rubella, Eucnemis bicolor. They 
are all firom the north coast of New Holland. 

Rapp describes three new Batrachia in these Archives, 1842, 
1, p. 289 : Hyperoliua marmoratus, Engystoma guttatum, 
and Breviceps verrucosus. 



143 



REPORT 



ON THE 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF PISHES, 

DURING THE YEAR 1842. 



BY 



DB. F. H. TKOSCHEL 



MacLeay has made known a new Arrangement of Fishes, in 
the Calcutta Journal of Natural History for July, 1841, and 
in the Annals, ix. p. 197, of which the following arrangement 
of the larger groups may serre as an example : — 

I. CTENOBRANCHII ; gills pectinated. 

1. Plaoiostomi, Cuv. — Cartilaginous fish with fixed branchiae ; lead- 
ing to Mammalia. 

2. Sturiones, Cuv. — Cartilaginous fish with free branchiae. 

3. OsTiNOPTERYGii, MacLcay. — Bony fish with free branchiae ; leading 
to Amphibia. 

II. ACTENOBRANCHII ; gills not pectinated. 

4. LoPHOBRANCHii, CuY. — Bony fish with tufts, arranged in pairs 
along the branchial arches. 

5. Ctclostomi, Cuy. — Cartilaginous fish breathing by a series of 
cells. 

The author calls the first division an aberrant, and the second a 
normal group. His division, Oatinapterygii, he divides again into an 
aberrant group, Accmthopterygii (Artedi), all of which he thinks have 

144 



PISCES. 101 

Ctenoidian scales ; and a normal group, Malaeopterygii (Artedi), all 
of which he thinks have Cycloidian scales. The classification then 
proceeds: — 

A. ACANTHOPTERYGII : 

1. Balistina. — Plectognathi, Cay. Maxillary bones soldered to the 
inter-maxillaries, and both to the palatine arch; opercula and gOls 
concealed under the skin. 

1. BalisHdcB? 

2. Ostraciontidas ? 

3. Cephalagpis? Ag. 

2. Percina. — Bones of the jaws free and complete ; operculum dis- 
tinct; operculum or prseoperculum generally with dentated edges, or 
with spines. 



4. OrthcbgoriscidcB ? 

5. Diodontidce? 



4. Cirrhitidce, 

5. Sparidce, 



1. ChcetodonticUE, 

2. Percidce. 

3. Scorposnidce. 

3. FisTULARiNA. — Boucs of the jaws free and complete; operculum 
distinct; operculum and prseoperculum generally with smooth edges. 
(We see upon what a small peculiarity this character is founded, when 
we consider, that even in the same genus, species often occur with den- 
tated and smooth opercula !) 



1. ScombridcB. 

2. Fistularidoe. 

3. Gobioidce. 



4. Lophiidce, 

5. Ldbridce. 



B. MALACOPTERYGII : 

4. Pleuronectina. — ^Ventral fins, when existing, inserted under the 
pectorals, and directly suspended to the bones of the shoulder. 



4. PleuronecHdcB. * 

5. Gadidce. 



1. Anguillidce, 

2. Echeneidce, 

3. Cyclopteridce, 

5. Clupeina. — AbdommaleSf Guv. Yentrals suspended behind the 
pectorals, and not attached to the bones of the shoulders. 



4. Glwpeidce, 

5. Salmonidce, 



1. 8ilv>rid(B, 

2. Gyprimdas, 

3. Esocidce, 

The number ^re continues in a similar way to regulate the whole 
system, three groups always coming together, and then again two. 

Several important papers, on the geographical distribution of Fishes, 
have been already meiitioned in this year's report on the Natural 
History of Reptilia. 

145 K 



102 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

A. Zawadzki's Fftuna der GUiziMh-bukowinischen Wirbelthiere, 
(p. 166 to 182), eniiinerstef forty-firar tpecies of Fishet, the number of 
which might, perhaps, be still farther increased, by continued inquiry « 
The distance from the sea, says the author, prevents our being rich in 
Migratory Fish, and yet we can point out many which come into our 
riyers from the Baltic and the Black Sea. Among the forty-four Fishes, 
are three species of Petr<nnyzont three of Acipenser, six of 8almOy one 
of J^soo?, -twenty Cyprini, three of CobiHs, one Silurtu, three Percaidof, 
one CottuSf one Gctsterotteus, one OctduSf and one Murana, 

H. Freyer in his " Fauna der in Erain bekannten Wirbelthiere," has, 
in all, only thirty-two Fishes, namely, two Peranda, one Cottus, fifteen 
Cyprini, three Cdbitis, one E$ox, one Silurug, four Salmones, one 
Ocbdus, two Mtirasnce {acutirostris and latiro8tris, Risso), one Adpenter^ 
and one Petromyzon, 

The Faune Beige, 1^ Fartie, Indication m^thodique des 
Mammiferes, Oiseaux, Reptiles, et Poissons, observes jnsqu'ici 
en Belgique, par £dm. de Selys Longchamps, Liege, 1842, 
contains the class of Fishes, from p. 183 to 245. 

He divides it into two sections, — Fresh-water Fishes and Sea Fishes. 
There are fifty-three Fresh-water Fishes in Belgium, forty-three of 
which live only in fresh-water; six in fresh-water, but which go in 
winter to the mouths of the rivers ; and four Uve iu the sea, but migrate 
into the rivers in spring or summer. They are divided as follows accord- 
ing to their genera : — One AcipenseVf one Pleiironectes, one Cottus, one 
Aeerina, one Perca, one 0<idu8, thirty-one Cyprinoidce, two Alosoe^ four 
Sahnones, one Esox, two OaMerostei, three Anguilke, three Petromy- 
goneSf one AmmoccBtes. The family of the Cyprinoids is treated with 
peculiar preferiBUce, and in a manner that forms a monograph of them. 
Several new species are described ; and figures in Hthography are given 
of LeucUcus dolahratus, Holandre, L, Selysii, Heckel, L, jeses, Jurine, 
L. ruHloides, Selys, X. rutilua, Abramis Heckelii, Selys, and Cyprmus 
Btriatue, Holandre. Forty-one species of Sea Fishes are mentioned, 
thirty of which pass up the Scheldt as far as Antwerp : of the rest none 
have yet been observed there. These are, — ^two BajcB, one Squatina^ 
one Spinax, one 8cylUumf one Ca/rcJiarias, one Mustelus, one Chimasra, 
one Syngnathus, one Hippocampus, five Pleu>r<mecte$f one Mullus, two 
TriglcB, one Cottusy one Aspidophorus, one OchiuSf one Cyclopterus, one 
Eoarces, two Callionymi, six Gadidce, three Clvpeacea, two Salmones, 
one Belone, one TrachinuSy one Scomber, one Am^nodytes, and one 
Mwrcena. 

The new fishes of the Caspian Sea are figured on four plates, in the 
Fauna Caspio-Caucasia, von E. Eichwald, Petersburg, 1841. They have 

146 



PISCES. 103 

all been already described in these Archives, 1838, i. p. 97, to which I 
refer. The section on Fish contains a copious introduction on fishing, 
and its extension to the Caspian Sea. 

McClelland has given some interesting information on the Indian 
Fishes, collected in different regions by Gfriffith. (Calcutta Journal, 
p. 560.) The new Fishes collected in Afighanistan have been described 
and drawn. They are mentioned below. 

Cantor remarks on the Fishes of the island of Chusan, in his treatise 
previously mentioned, p. 95, that those forms of sea fish which became 
known to him were almost all also inhabitants of the Bay of Bengal 
and other parts of the Indian Ocean. The firesh-water fishes are mostly 
Indian forms. Two species inhabit Bengal, viz., Anabas scandens, and 
Cpprmus doMtconitM, Ham. ; one is Javanese, and three are European : 
among the latter is an Eel, which seems to be identical with Anguilla 
latiro8tris of Yarrell. (Annals, iz. p. 277.) The species are given at 
p. 484 of the same .work. Many are considered as new. The remark 
made, when noticing the Reptiles, that the diagnosis is almost wholly 
oonfined to colour, is equally applicable here. The fin rays are numbered. 
The following species are mentioned : — Anabas sca/ndenSf Cuv. ; Mae- 
rcpodui oceUatuB, Ophic^halus a/rgus, Mugil cephalotus, Cuv. ; 
PeriophthalfMM modesttM, Eleotris Jlammcmg, Cyprinus g^lwides, 
Cyprinus a/uratug, Leuciscua •daniconmSf Hamilt. ; CobiHs a/ngvAlli- 
c<iudata, Heimramphu8 mtermedius, Silwms pimctatus, Anguilla 
latirostris, SynhrcmehuB grobm/micus. 

Cantor has also given a list of these species in M*Clelland's Calcutta 
Joum. vol. ii. 1842, p. 102. 

A number of Ph. Fr. de Siebold's Fauna Japonica, Lugduni Bata- 
vorum, appeared in the year 1842, which includes Fishes. This work 
was undertaken by Schlegel. The Fishes which appear in it are all of 
the family ofPercaidce ; many are lithographed and beautifully coloured ; 
but, upon closer inspection, one is tempted to doubt their correctness. 
The new species are noticed hereafter. 

In the Transactions of the ZooL Soc. of London, vol. iii. part 1, 1842, 
there appeared a Supplement to a Synopsis of the Fishes of Madeira, by 
Lowe. The results have already been mentioned, from the Proceedings 
of the Zoological Society, in a former annual report (Archives, vi. 2), to 
which I refer. 

In the same book is found a treatise by Dr. Richardson on the 
Fishes of Australia, in which the species are very fully described. 
This paper has already been mentioned in the Reports for the years 
1840-41-42, fron the epitome of it in the Proceedings of the Zoolo- 
gical Society. There are three copper-plates, containing the fol- 
lowing species : — Serrcmua gasorj Nemaddctylus concinnus, Trigla 
Vanessa and polyommata, Latris hecateiay Clinus despidllatus. Only 

147 



104 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

one new species, Bcorpcena militarise appears to have been added to the 
science. 

Dr. Richardson has also published, in the Ann. of Nat. Hist. iz. p. 15, 
120, 207, 384, and z. p. 25, contributions to the Ichthyology of Australia, 
and these are not yet concluded. The materials were furnished by Gould, 
whose assistant, Grilbert, had collected them at Port Essington, on the 
north coast of New Holland. Some remarks are added on some drawings 
of Fishes, made by Lieutenant Emery on the north-west coast of New 
Holland. There are also some observations on the species from Van 
Diemen's Land and New Zealand, which are in the Museum at Haslar. 
Many species have been described as new, others are looked upon as 
species already known, and described anew in comparison with the 
descriptions already given by earlier and by more recent Ichthyologists. 
The new species are mentioned below. 

In Dleffenbach's Travels in New Zealand, Lend. 1843, p. 206, Gray 
and Richardson have given a list of ninety-two species of new Zealand 
Fishes now known. Most of them are determined according to older 
authors, particularly Solander, Banks, and Forster. Some have also 
been collected by Dieffenbach, and are here described. Long articles 
are given on Hemerocetes acanthorhynchus; Cuv., Val. ; Hevnircmyphus 
marginatus, Lacep., and Rhombus plehejus, Soland. Three new species 
only have been described, viz. — Eleotris hasalis, Gray, Oalaxiasfas- 
datus. Gray, and Anguilla Diefenbachii, Gray ; but they had already 
appeared in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 73. The notice of these Travels 
has been anticipated, although of 1843, from their dose connection with 
Gray's Miscellany. 

Camill. Ranzani has published four treatises on the New Fishes in the 
Bolognese Museum, in the " Novi Commentarii Acad. Scient. Instituji 
Bonon ;" tom. iv. 1840, p. 65 ; tom. v. 1842, p. 1, 307, and 339. Peculiar 
species and genera will be mentioned below. They are all figured. 

In the Annali Universali di Medicina di Milano, August, 1841, is 
contained ** Developpement des Poissons : M^moire lu au Congrds de 
Florence, par M. de Filippi." (S. Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 45.) 

H. J. R. Jacobi de vesica aerea Piscium, cum Appendice de vesica 
aera cellulosa Erythrini ; Diss. Inaug. Berol. 1842. The author compares 
the varieties of the swimming-bladder, in all respects, especially as they 
are given in Cuvier and Valenciennes' Nat. Hist, des Poissons. In an' 
appendix, the swimming-bladder of Erythrinus, which is cellular in the 
anterior portion of the posterior division, is described, and a drawing of 
it is added. 



148 



PISCES — ACANTHOPTERYGII. 105 



ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

M'Clelland describes a small Fish of Calcutta as the Am^ 
haasis lata, Cuy., in the Calcutta Journal, ii. p. 150. 

A, indica, id. ib. p. 585 ; with a black spot on the top of the anterior 
dorsal fin ; eight upright spines in the dorsal fin, and three at the base 
of the fin concealed ; three upright spines at the base of the anal fin, and 
one concealed : Loodianah. A, (Chanda) ruconius, Buchan., has been 
d««ribed by him firom the same place. 

Apogon lineatua, Schlegel, L c. p. 3, difiers firom A, lineolatus, Rupp., 
by the less breadth of the anal fin, the want of the bhick spot at the base 
of the caudal fin, and its less compressed head; D. 7-1. 9; A. 2. 8; 

C. 17 ; P. 12 ; Y. 1. 5. Ap, semilineatus, id. ib. p. 4, has a black band 
passing from the point of the nose over the eye till under the second 
dorsal fin ; a second goes firom the point of the nose, through the eye, to 
the point of the operculum; D. 7-1. 10; A. 2. 8; V. 1. 5 ; P. 13; C. 19. 
A, aprion, Richards., Ann. iz. p. 16 ; without serratures on the pm- 
operculum, and with a small cluster of teeth on the tongue. 

Several species of Serranus have been described by Schlegel, 1. c. 
Their Japanese names have been, in general, retained. 8. hawcbm^boAri 
agrees in form with 8. hepatus ; five cross bands ; rows of small spots 
upon the soft perpendicular fins ; a large spot upon the membrane, which 
fills up the deep semicrescentic section of the operculum ; two brown 
lines on the praeoperculum ; D. 12. 12 ; A. 2. 10. 8, latifaciatvSy has 
two bright very broad bands lengthways, the hinder fins haye large dark 
points ; corresponds to 8, merra ; D. 11. 12 ; A. 3. 8. 8, pcecilonotus ; 
four white curved stripes lengthways above and on the sides ; D, 11. 15 ; 
A. 3. 8. 8. octocinctus ; brownish-red, with eight white perpendicular 
bands ; a large black spot on the tail ; D. 11. 14 ; A. 3. 9. 8. tsirimenr- 
ara ; allied to 8. ma/rginalisy Cuv., Val. ; with a row of five or six white 
spots on the sides ; the spinous portion of the dorsal fin only has a black 
margin; D. 11. 16; A. 3. 8. 8. epistictus; brownish-red, with three 
rows of black points on the body ; D. 11. 14 ; A. 3. 8. 8. aka-ara ; 
reddish-brown, with brick-red spots, becoming on the dorsal fin small 
oblique bands ; D. 11. 16 ; A. 3. 8 ; 8. atoo-a/ra ; brown yellow ; all the 
fins, except the spinous portion of the dorsal, have a yellow margin ; 
the body is covered with yellow dots; D. 11. 16^ to 11. 18; A. 3. 8. 
8. mo-a/ra, brown-grey, with some large dark marbled spots ; D. 11. 15 ; 
A. 3. 8. 8, dermopterus; uniform brown-red, the fins somewhat darker; 

D. 11. 19, to 20 ; A. 3. 9. 

8€rranuB QiJhertiy Richardson, Ann. ix. p. 19 ; the body and the ver- 
tical fins covered with umber-brown spots ; the ground colour is paler, 

149 



106 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

and on the back and sides appears like the threads of a net, enclosing 
the dark round spots. There are about a dozen spots in a row between 
the gill-opening and caudal fin; P. 17; V. 1. 5 ; D. 11. 17; A.3. 9. S. 
stella/nSf id. p. 23, resembles «Sf. Pa/rhinsonii and kexagonatus, Guv. and 
Val. ; P. 16 ; D. 11. 15 ; A. 3. 8. Serromus luridua, Ranzani, 1. c. v. 
p. 356 ; P. 15 ; D. 11. 15 ; A. 3. 9 ; fins brown, bordered wilh black, 
body and head yellowish ; belongs to the group of Merous : habitat the 
Brazils. 

Di€i€ope Spams, Schlegel, 1. c. p. 14; D. 10. 10; A. 3. 8; P. 16; 
resembles a Spools in habit. 

Metoprion carponotatus, Richardson, Ann. iz. p. 28, back darkifth 
and somewhat clouded ; fins unspotted ; a dark spot girdles the base of 
the three upper pectoral rays ; D. 10. 15 ; A. 3. 10 ; P. 14. 

Ranzani also describes two new species of the genus Jfesoprion, 1. c. 
T. p. 352. M, hahiensiB, P. 15 ; D. 10. 14 ; A. 3. 8 ; head dark-brown, 
back red-brown, other parts reddish-silvery coloured. M, argyreuSy P. 16; 
D. 10. 12 ; A. 3. 8 ; yiolet spots on the nape, similar lines before the 
eyes. 

Cirrkitea aureus, Schlegel, 1. c. p. 15, uniform golden yellow, the first 
ray of the soft dorsal fin elongated; D. 10. 12 to 13; A. 3. 6 to 7; 3^''. 

Schlegel, 1. c. p. 15, describes a Japanese Fish under the name of 
Avdacocephalus, of the same size with Centropristes, It has three spinels 
on the operculum, the prseopercnlum is yery strongly dentated on the 
horizontal margin, and the caudal fin is rounded. The colour is violet, 
a yellow band runs on each side to the tail and close under the dorsal fin, 
sinking a little at the anterior end^ and goes through the eye to the point 
of the upper jaw : D. 9. 13; A. 3. 10; P. 12. 

Therapcn rabricatus, Richardson, Ann. iz. p. 127» with smaller head 
and larger ventral fins than those of the TK serous and theraps ; D. 
12.10; A. 3. 9. 

Therapon (Pelates) oxyrhyncJmSy Schl^el, 1. c. p. 16 ; body elongated ; 
snout pointed ; palate and vomer without teeth ; bluish-green, with four 
black bands lengthways, between them some indistinct and interrupted 
cmes ; D. 12. 10 ; A. 3. 8. 

Schlegel also describes, at the same place, p. VJ, a Fish under the 
name of Anoptus, which he places in proximity with Ncmdus, He 
separates it from Datnia, because it possesses vomer teeth; and dis- 
tinguishes it from Na/ndus by the want of palate teeth. It is olive 
brown ; abdominal and caudal fins blackish ; a large black spot ant^orly 
on the dorsal fin ; B.6; D. 10. 13; A. 3. 8; P. 15. This Fish is figured 
by Erusenstem, pi. 54, f. 1, a, under the name of Bcmjos, 

Percis emeryana, Richardson, Ann. iz. p. 130 ; the spinous dorsal fin 
is much arched ; D. 5. 21 ; A. 16. 

Sillago hurrus, Richardson, Ann. iz. p. 128, is banded on the sides 

150 



PISCES — ACANTHOPTERYGII. 107 

like 8. fnacvUata, bnt wants the silvery lateral stripe, and shows spots 
on the dorsals ; D. 10. 20; A. 1. 21. 

M'Clelland establishes a new Perooid genus allied to SiUa^o, from a 
vesry small Fish which Buchanan has fignzed and described as an AtherifMi. 
He calls it CestrcBU9, which name had already been used by GuYier and 
Valenciennes. Its characters are, head oral and flat anteriorly ; eyes 
projecting and forward; jaw flat and turned upwards; small conical 
teeth on the intermaxillary ; four gill rays and two rough ledges, those 
at the upper and posterior angle of the operculum end in blunt points ; 
pectorals round, oyer the yentrals, the first ray of which is a prickle ; 
dorsals £ur separate ; a fleshy projection from the anal fin. C mmimMs ; 
D. 5-9 ; P. 16 ; V. 1. 5 ; A. 12 ; C. 13. (Calcutta Joum. n. 1842, p. 151.) 

Ranzani, 1. c t. p. 340, arranges a new genus, Diapteru$^ m the 
family of the Percoids, The species described, howeyer (2>. av/ratuB)^ 
does not seem to me different from Oerres hrasilia/MMf Guy. and Yal. ; 
and must return to that genus. 

Seorpcena hurray Richardson, Ann. iz. p. 215; crimson fading to 
reddish- white on the branchiostegous membrane ; the side of the head is 
yeined with deeper lines ; all the drrhi are green, and the body is marked 
with a few irregular oliye green blotches. Sc, panda, id. ib. p. 216 ; 
flcales yery laige, thirty-fiye in a row, and about sixteen in a yertical 
line; yermillion with two dark hyacinth^red bands on the side; body 
spotted with round drops of dark orange-brown ; D. 11-10 ; A. 3-6 ; P. 
16. Sc. erg<Mtulorum, id. ib. p. 217 ; scarlet ; a black spot crosses the 
ninth, tenth, and eleyenth dorsal spines ; P. 15 ; D. 12-9 ; A. 3-5. Sc. 
militarisy id. Transact. ZooL Soc. iii. p. 90 ; capite breyiusculo, drrhis 
nullis (?), spinis capitis fere Scorpoense porci yel bufonis, opercnlo summo 
genisque squamosis, squamis coporis ciliatis; colore carmesino; B. 7; 
P. 16; D. 12. 10; A. 3. 5; V. 1. 5 : Australia. 

Stfna/nceia trachynis, Richardson, Ann. ix. p. 385, allied to the 
Sc, horrida and hrachiOf bat the posterior dorsal spines are lower than 
the anterior ones ; the praeoperculum has a spine ; and the species has 
▼omerine teeth. (It belongs, therefore, to the genus Syna/ncidiiMn. J. 
MiilL Abh. d. Acad, zu Berlin, y. j. 1839.) 

Ranzani, 1. c. y. p. 342, distinguishes the genus HcevMAlon into two 
diyisions. The first contains the longish, not much compressed species, 
with complicated lateral lines ; the second, those with high compressed 
body and simple lateral lines. In the second diyision, two new species 
haye been described, H. mela/noptenim, P. 17; D. 12. 18; A. 3. 9; and 
H, moricandi, P. 17 ; D. 12. 16 ; A. 3. 9 : both are from Brazil. 

Scolopsis longulusy Richardson, Ann. ix. p. 389 ; four times as long it 
is high ; D. 10-9 ; A. 3-7 ; P. 17. 

Ampkiprion melarwstohiSy Richardson, Ann. ix. p. 390 ; three white 
yertical bands ; head and body black ; pectoral fin black at the base, the 

151 



108 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

rest of it primroae-jrellow ; caudal paler yellow, with an obliqoa whit« 
baud; the soft donal haa a narrow jellow border. A. (?) rubrocinctvt, 
id. ib.; black; under jaw, throat, breast, half the taU, and all Qie &nt, 
Termillion red) the bars are white. Pagrut qaadritubercv.latai, Ranz. 
I, c. V. p. 348 ; has fonr bonj protuberanoea on tbe head, two on the 
point of the snout, two be&re the eyes : Brazili. Cheetodon gexfat- 
ciatHt, Richardson, Ann. x. p. 26 ; has uz verticsl bands ; D. 10-20 ; 
A.3-17; F. 17. CA^^monmor^o^M, Richaids., Ann. x. p.29; wants 
the two vertical bands which C. rottraltti possesses ; the dorsal fin is 
rounded, the anal pointed; D. 9-29; A. 3-18; P. 15. 

M'Clelland, 1. o. p. 583, describes two new species of the genus Ophi- 
cephabit: 0. Ifidictt$, two scales between the eyes, and one on front of 
snout ; head half as long as the body without caudal fin and head ; about 
thirty-six scales along the lateral line; D. 26; P. 17; V. 6; A. 17: 
Loodianah. 0, 'iiuyntanus, three scales in a row between the eyes; 
three scales placed in a triangle in'&ontof snout; about forty-three 
along the lateral line ; pectoral fins with fine transverse bars ; D. 32 ; 
P. 14; V. 6; A. 17: Himalaya. 

Acanthurut vuln«ralor, Buizani, 1. c v. p. 350; P. 16; D. fl. 28; 
A. 2. 26 ; brown ; fins black at tip : Brazils. 

Eleotria basalU, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 73 ; brown, with fine dark spots ; 
fina blackish ; pectorals with a broad yellow band ; head blackish ; tail 
round; D. 7-10; V. 5: New Zealand. 

Scorus amplut, Ranzani, 1. c. p. %4; bead and back violet-lnuwn ; 
belly and fins bright red : firasils. 



MALACOPTERYGII. 

J. MiJLLER has given important information on some families 
of the Soft-finned Fislies, with fixed and comprehensive cha- 
racters for distingniBhing them. (Monatsbericht der Acad, 
zu Berlin, 1842, p. 206.) The reporter has very lately 
brought the results of these researches together, in an Essay 
in this year's Archives, to which the reader is referred. 

Eq. Antonii Aiessandrini : Apparatus branchiarura Hetero- 
iranchi anguillaris (Commentarii Acad. Bonon. v. p. 149) ; 
rith two. lithographs. 

In a Discourse on the Swimming-bladder of Fishes (Mo- 
latsberichte der Acad, zu Berlin, 1842, p. 174 and 202 ; and 



PISCES — MALACOPTERYGll. 109 

MUller's Archiv. 1842, p. 310), J. Miiller, in conjunction with 
the author of this report, has made known two new genera of 
the family of Siluroides, from a MS., " iiber neue Welse." 

Calophysus, M., T. (1. c. p. 179) ; wide gill clefts ; no teeth in palate ; 
a row of strong teeth on upper and under jaw, behind which, in the 
one or other, is a row of smaller ones ; the first ray of pectoral and 
dorsal fin simply membered at the end, without spines ; a long adipose 
fin ; six barbules ; seven branchial rays. The species are, O, mdcrop- 
terus, M., T. {Pimelodus macropteruSy Lichst.) ; and C. ctenodusj M., 
T. (Pimelodus ctenod/uSf Ag.) 

EuANEMUS M., T. (1. c. p. 203) ; narrow gill clefts ; body compressed 
laterally ; crest covered by skin ; teeth on upper and under jaw haclde- 
shaped in a band ; none on the vomer and palate bone ; the first ray of 
the dorsal and pectoral fin is a spine ; the dorsal stands quite forwards 
and is small ; a very smaU adipose fin ; anal fin very long ; rays of the 
pectorals more numerous than in the other Siluridce ; eyes concealed by 
skin; six barbules. The species, E, colynibetes, is new, and from 
Surinam. 

Silu/ru8 inddcus, M*Clelland, 1. ,c. p. 583 ; four soft rays on the very 
small dorsal fin; head short; gill covering posteriorly with a blunt 
rounded angle ; four barbules ; B. 11; D. 4; P. 1. 3; V.8; A.71; CIS: 
Loodianah. Its varieties are, S, ccmio, duda, and chedra of Buchanan. 

PimelodAis pusillus, Kanzani, 1. c. v. p. 332 (habitat unknown) ; seems 
new. The mail-coat of the head runs out behind to a point, extending to 
the first ray of the dorsal fin ; eight barbules ; D. 1. 6 ; P. 1. 7 ; A. 10. 
P, anisv/ruSj McClelland, 1. c. p. 583 ; under flap of caudal fin shorter 
than upper; eight barbules; B. 10 to 15; D. 2. 8; V. 6; A. 9; C. 15; 
Loodianah. P. indicus, id. ib. under flap of caudal fin shorter than 
upper: eight barbules; B. 2; D. 2. 6; P. 1.7; V. 6; A. 8; C. 18: 
Loodianah. 

Bagraa mcbcronemuB, Ranzani, 1. c. v. p. 334', appears to be Galeich- 
thys Chronovii, Val. ; at least it belongs to this genus. 

An interesting new genus of Siluridce has been described 
by McClelland, 1. c. p. 584, with the name 

Gltftosteknon. — Teeth velvety ; head broad and flat ; mouth at its 
under surface ; eyes small and directed upwards ; if there be spines, they 
are concealed in the membranes of the fins ; pectoral and abdominal fins 
broad, sidde shaped ; body beneath more or less covered with warty or 
striped suction surfaces, in order to attach itself to stones; no bony plates 
in body: habitat, the mountains of India and Central Asia. G. reticu- 
lata ; the under surface of the head and the anterior part of the body 

153 



110 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

fbnns a flat wrinkled outer surface : found at the source of the Gabul 
Biyer. Q. Bulcatu$ ; an oval disc on the breast, between the pectorals, 
composed of cross plates ; and a row of similar plates on the broad under 
surface of the first raj of the abdominal fins ; D. 8 ; P. 13 ; V. 7 ; A. 9 : 
Kasyah Mountains. O. striatut; eight barbules; a striped suction 
surface on the breast ; B. 8 ; D. 8 ; P. 11 ; V. 6 ; A. 9 : Easjah Moun- 
tains. O. pectinopterus ; eight barbules ; striped on the breast ; B. 9 ; 
D. 8 ; P. 9 ; Y. 6 ; A. 7 : Simla Mountains. O. labiatus ; lips enveloped 
with many flaps, and so broadened round the mouth, that they form 
a broad flat sucking disc ; anal fin yerj small ; dorsal without spines ; 
adipose fin long ; barbules very short ; D. 7 ; P. 14 ; V . 7 ; A. 6 : Mish- 
mee Mountains. From the formation of the lips, should this species not 
form a peculiar genus ? 

McClelland describes another new genus of the same family, 
which he calls Olyra. Its characters are : — 

Body soft, long, and cylindrical, with two dorsal fins, the first radiated, 
the second adipose ; head elongated, and flat at the snout ; the gill coyer- 
ing ends posteriorly in an oblique point turned towards the dorsal fin ; 
anal long, caudal entire ; teeth yelvety ; no dorsal spine ; six to eight 
thin barbules. O. longicaudatvs ; a rough spine before the pectoral 
fins ; jaws equal in length ; six bristly barbules ; the middle ray of the 
caudal fin elongated into a point ; B. 6 ; D. 7 ; P. 1. 6 ; V. 5 ; A. 23. 
The author observes, in this species, a union between the Shad-fish 
and Cobites. 0. laticeps; under jaw longer than the upper; head 
anteriorly veiy low ; eyes small and vertical ; the rays of the anal fin 
increase in length posteriorly ; six or (?) eight thin barbules ; B. 13 ; 
D. 7 ; P. 9 ; Y . 7 ; A. 15 : Easyah Mountains. 

Callichtys personatus, Eanzani, 1. c. v. 1842, p. 322, appears to be 
C, hngi/ilisy Yal. 

Hypostomus hrevitentaculatus, Ranzanzi, 1. c v. 328, is H, duodeci- 
malis, Yal., Hist. Nat. xv. p. 498. 

The sixteenth volume of the great Histoire NatureUe des Poissons, 
par Ouvier et Valenciennes, appeared in 1842, and contains the oom- 
mencement of the family of the Cyprinoids, viz., the genera Cyprinus, 
Barbus, Labeoharhus, Riipp. ; SchizotJiorax, Heckel ; Oreinus, M*Cel- 
land; Dangilay Val., Rohita, Val., CapcRta, Yal.; Cirrhmus, Cuv., 
Gohio, Cuv., Tinea, Cuv., Laheo, Cuv. In an appendix, the author con- 
demns the divisions of the Cyprinoids made by Hamilton, Buchanan, 
and John M'Clelland, and tries to reduce them to the genera above 
mentioned. He then gives the species with barbules, which he thinks 
doubtful : their number is considerable. 

Danffila, Yal., has a long dorsal ^n, without an anterior spine; a 

154 



PISCES — MALACOPTERYGII. Ill 

border of oonical papillaB on the thin upper lip, and four barbules : the 
species are from Java and India. 

Nuria, Yal., has a short dorsal fin directed backwards, without an 
anterior spine ; two barbules at each side of the comer of mouth ; lips 
thin : species from Ceylon and India. 

RohAta, YaL ; lips fleshy, more or less fringed ; a thick fold of tkin 
forms superiorly a sort of stumpy fleshy snout^ and beneath there is a 
velum, which conceals the openiii^ of the mouth in the closed state ; in 
the open state, the mouth forms a sort of sucking-cup. To this belong 
several of Buchanan's species. 

Oapceta, Yal. ; only two barbules at the comers of the mouth ; the 
first ray at the dorsal fin hard and serrated, or hard and not serrated, or 
soft. 

M'Ciellflnd, 1. c. p. 576, has arranged a number of new species^ and 
also a new genus, in the family of the Cyprmoids. 

Racoma is distinguished from SchizothorctXy Heck., by protrusile 
jaws, the intermazilkry forming a moveable border. R. gMoidet ; the 
operculum ends in a round point ; dorsal fin central ; between the eyes 
and caudal fin it has anteriorly a prickly ray, which posteriorly is 
serrated; D. 3. 8; P. 19; Y. 1. 11; A. 6: Bamean River; 12". 
B. chrysochlora, brownish-yellow ; D. 3. 8 ; P. 19 ; Y. 10 ; A. 8 : 
LoJpore, Cabul River ; l(y\ R. nobilis ; body and fins have many 
small spots ; D. 3. 9 ; P. 19 ; Y. 11 ; A. 8 ; 18". R. lahiatus ; head 
longer than .tiie height of the body ; intermaxillary covered with thick 
fat ; the barbules end in three points ; D. 3. 8 ; P. 19 ; Y. 10 ; A. 7 : 
Pushut, Koonar River, at Jallalabad. R, hrevis ; Hps covered with a 
thick fleshy membrane ; fins small ; D. 2. 7 ; P. 20 ; Y. 11 ; A. 7 : 
Helmund River. 

ScHizoTHOBAX, Hock. ; head elongated and oonical ; snout pointed ; 
intermaxillary fixed, a. Under lip, only at the comer of the mouth, 
has a fr^e enveloping margin. 8. intermedius ; D. 4. 8 ; P. 1. 18 ; 
Y. 1. 10 ; A. 2. 6 : Cabul River, at Jallalabad ; Tamuck River, h. The 
enveloping margin to the under lip, free at the point. S, edeniana ; 
border of the under lip entire ; snout compressed ; dorsal spine serrated 
at the base; D. 3. 8; P. 1. 19; Y. 1. 9; A. 1. 7: Cabul River, at 
Koti-i-Ashruf. <Sf. ritschieana ; posterior margin of the under lip triple 
flapped ; lips broad ; dorsal spine broad ; body spotted ; D. 4. 8 ; 
P. 1. 19; Y. 1. 9; A. 1. 6: Aflghanistan. S. ha/rhatus; head elon- 
gated ; lips thin and hard at margins ; dorsal spine very broad, 
compressed, and bony ; D. 3. 8 ; P. 20 ; Y. 12 ; A. 2. 6 : Cabul River, 
at Jallalabad. 

OreintM plcbgiott&mus {Schizathorax plcugioBtomuSy He<^), O. 
Chrijitkii ; mouth half as broad as the length of the head ; dorsal spine 
broad; D. 4. 8; P. 20; Y. 11; A. 1. 6: Affghanisian. 

155 



112 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

Cirrhinug bumena/na; head short, thick, and round; gill covering 
narrow and small; under jaw short; mouth beneath; D. 9; P. 16; 
v. 9 ; A. 7 : Cabul Eiyer at Jallalabad. 

Opsariut piteatorius; back arched before the dorsal fin, anal fin 
under the posterior part of the dorsal ; mouth small ; sides silyerj, with 
nine bars ; D. 8 ; P. 16 ; V . 9 ; A. 8 : Seharanpore. O, bicirratus ; two 
drrhi ; length of the head equal to height of body ; dorsal fins somewhat 
before the anal ; thirty-five scales on the lateral line, and nine incom- 
plete stripes on the sides ; D. 8 ; P. 13 ; Y. 8 ; A. 2. 10 : Khyber Pass 
and Cabul River at Jallalabad. 

Leiici$€U8 neglectus, Seljs' Faune Beige, is distinguished &om L, idus^ 
L., by its longer head, lower body, deeper cleft caudal fin ; the lateral 
lines consisting of fifty-five scales, while in the idus sixty are present : 
foimd at Brussels. L. ruHloides, id. ib. ; D. 12 ; A. 13 ; length 5" ^" ; 
fins yellow : perhaps only a variety of L, rutilus. 

Aspius albumoides, id. ib. ; D« 11 ; A. 19-21 ; fifty scales on the 
side line, eight rows above, four beneath : nearly allied to A. albuTMis, 

Abrcumis Heckeliif id. ib. ; D. 13 ; A. 19-20 ; lateral line has forty-eight 
to fifty-three scales, ten rows above it, five below : A. Buggenhagii (?), 
Yarrell ; 8" 10"'. 

Ccbitis hontonengis, M'Clelland, 1. c. p. 586; snout somewhat com- 
pressed ; lips fringed ; ax barbules ; D. 8 ; P. 11 ; V. 8 ; A. 6 ; C. 18 : 
Boutan at the Mishmee Mountains. 

Platycara a/nisura, id. ib. ; caudal fin entire, sickle-shaped posteriorly, 
as the under rays are shorter than the upper ; ^\e rudimentary barbules 
in firont of the mouth, two at the comers ; D. 10 ; P. 21 ; V. 11 ; A. 7 ; 
C. 19. P. lissorhynchus has a disc behind the mouth ; snout smooth 
and round ; caudal fin four-oomered ; D. 9 ; P. 18 ; Y. 9 ; A. 6 ; 0. 19 : 
both species are from the Kasyah Mountains. 

J. Miiller has arranged, in his family of the CharaciruB^ a 
new genus, Hemiodus. 

A row of teeth on the intermaxillary like round leaflets, serrated 
at the margin ; no teeth in the under jaw ; adipose fin. The species, 
H. crenidens, firom Brazil, is Salmo unimaculatus, Bloch. (Monats- 
berichte der Acad, zu Berlin, 1842, p. 106, and Miiller's Archiv. 1842, 
p. 324.) 

J. Miiller separates the genus Erythrinus, as it is defined 

by Agassiz, into two sub-genera. 

The one, Eryth/rinuSy Cuv., MiQl., has simple hackle-formed palate 
teeth ; the larger dog teeth, under the jaw teeth, are proportionably 
short ; the swimming-bladder cellular. E, unitasniatus, Ag. (SynodtM 

156 



PISCES — MALACOPTERYGII. 113 

ertfthrinus, Bl. S.), and E, salvus, Ag. The other, Macrodon, MiQl.» 
has a row of larger conical palate teeth before the hackle-formed ones ; 
under the jaw teeth several very large dog teeth ; swimming-bladder 
without cells. M, trahira. Mull. {Er, macrodon, Ag., Synod/as mala- 
haricus, Bl. S.), and M. hrasiliengis, Mull. (Er, brasiliengiSf Ag.) 
(Monatsberichte der Acad, zu Berlin, 1842, p. 173; Muller's Archiv. 
1842, p. 308.) 

McClelland, 1. c, makes known an Indian Salmo, S. ori- 
entails, 

A row of hooked teeth along the margin of the under jaw ; the inter- 
maxillary is continued along the margin of the upper jaw, hj which 
structure there are two rows of teeth in it ; some teeth on the vomer 
and on each side ; three at the point of the tongue; head equal to height 
of body, and a fourth of its whole length ; back and sides have green 
and red irregular spots ; B. 12 ; D. 12 ; P. 14 ; V. 10 ; A. 10 : Rivers 
near the Ozus. 

Selys Longchamps confirms the presence of Coregonua oxyrhynchus 
on the Belgian coast; he found ten individuals among Osmerus eperla/nus 
in the market at Brussels ; they came firom Antwerp. (Bullet, de TAcad. 
de Bruxelles, iz. 2. p. 510.) 

Clupea mdcrophthalmia, Ranz. 1. c. v. p. 320 ; eyes large ; small 
conical teeth in both jaws ; no side lines ; Br. 8 ; D. 17 ; A. 17 : Brazil. 

Exoccetus hahiensis, Ranzani, 1. c. v. p. 362 ; abdominal fins pretty 
laige, reaching as far as the fourth ray of the anal, nearer the anal fin 
than the operculum, which is without scales ; -no appendices to the jaws. 

Esox indica, M'CleUand, 1. c. p. 582 ; commencement of dorsal fin 
exactly above that of anal ; D. 12 ; P. 11 ; V. 7 ; A. 15 ; C. 15-: 
Loodianah. 

HemiraarvphMS unifasciatus, Ranz. 1. c. p. 326: Brazils. Belone 
raphidoma, Ranzani, 1. c. v. p. 359 : Brazils. 

Stannius has published, in Miiller's Archiv. 1842, p. 338, a 
Treatise on the Peripheristic Nervous System of the Haddock 
{Oadus Callarius). 

Ranzani, 1. c. iv. p. 76, describes a Synbranchus fuligi- 
no9U8 from Brazil, which, if not identical with, is certainly 
yery nearly allied to S. marmoratus^ Bl. 

The teeth stand, in front, in six, at the sides, in three rows ; lateral 
lines not branchy ; the dorsal fin begins behind the anal ; the tail mea- 
sures only \ of the whole length ; but with this statement the drawing 
does not agree. 

157 



114 REPORT Oy ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

Ranzani, L e. iv. p. 76, describes a Qymnothoraac funebrU^ which 
closely resembles the O. afer, BL, but is unspotted, and comes fi^om 



Conger opistophthalmus, Ranzani, L c. iy. p. 78 ; ejes almost behind 
the comer of the month ; lateral lines channelled with angular inverted 
margins. C. hranlienni, id. ib. p. 79, pL xiiL f. 1 ; anteriorly four 
conical teeth, laterally teeth in five rows; lateral lines consist, as it 
were, of a row of scars in the skin. C. cylindraideus, id. ib. p. 80 ; 
teeth in two rows ; on each side in front of the snout two tubes, the 
anterior of which has a thread-formed appendix : all three are from 
Brazil. O. rubesceng, id. ib. p. 81, from the Mediterranean, has the 
teeth in four rows. 

EucHELioFHis, J. Muller (Monatsbericht der Acad, zu Berlin, 1842, 
p. 205); no pectoral fins; the gill clefts on both sides united in the 
middle by the junction of the gill membranes ; the anus is placed much 
farther forwaid than in the OpJUdice, and immediately behind the gills ; 
rays of the gill membrane six. The species, E. vermiculari*, Miill., is 
new ; 4'' ; the body prolonged posteriorly to a point. 

G. Valentin has published an Essay on the Anatomy of the 
Electric Eel (Oymnotua electricus), in the new Denkschrift 
der allg. Schweizerischen Gesellsch. f iir die gesammten Natur- 
wissenschafben Bd. iy. Neuchat. 1842. 



LOPHOBRANCHIL 

A. D£ QuATREFAGES gives, in the '* Annates des Sciences 
Naturelles," tome xriii. p. 193, a Contribution to the History 
of the Derelopment of the Syngnathus ophidiorij Linn. 

The author thinks the observation new, that the eggs in this species 
are fixed &ee under the body. This fact had been already made use of 
by Fries as a ground of division of the genus (v. Archiv. 1838, i. p. 238). 
Only one step m the development has been described, as the author had 
only the eggs of one Fish for examination. 

PLECTOGNATHI. 

Banzani, 1. c. iv. p. 72, describes two new species of Tetro- 
don^ from Brazil. 

The one, T, ma/rmoratus, has two tentacula, and behind them the 
nasal fossae. It is rough on the back, smooth on the sides ; beneath it 

158 



PISCES— CYCLOSTOMI. 115 

has points, in which small sharp spines are concealed ; superiorly it is 
marbled with brown and grey-brown ; on the sides it has a row of black 
spots ; there is no mention of a cuticular bulb on the sides. The other, 
T, pachycephaluSf has in a hollow papilla two nasal fossae ; the beUy is 
rough with prickles, which stand, as it were, in the meshes of a net ; 
superiorly it is dark grey ; on the sides silvery. 



CYCLOSTOMI. 

The Treatise mentioned in last year's Jahresbericht, p. 186, 
on the Anatomy o{ Amphioams lanceolqtus, by John Goodsir, 
has appeared, accompanied with two lithographic plates, in 
the Transactions of the Boyal Society of Edinburgh, yoI. xy. 
part 1, p. 247. 



PLAGIOSTOMI. 

A. Alessandri has written " Observationes super intima 

Branchiarum Structura Piscium cartilagineorum.'' (Comment. 

Acad. Bonon. iv. 1840, p. 329.) 

The two Dog Fishes described by Ranzani, from Brazil, have been, 
at a later date, also described by MtQler and Henle. His Galeus ma- 
culatus, 1. c. iy. p. 69, is Galeocerdo tigrinus, Miill. and Henle. His 
CcLTchtMrias porogus, 1. c. iv. p. 70, is probably Cwrchnmas (Pt%on<ydon) 
MilberH, Val. 



159 



REPORT 



ON THE 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE 
MOLLUSCA, DURING THE YEAR 1842. 



BY 



DB. F. H. TROSCHEL 



D'Orbigny has invented an instrument of general interest, 
for measuring the spiral angles of the conyoluted shells of the 
Mollusca. He calls it a Helicometer. 

It consists of two arms, moyeable by a joint, and to the one a semi- 
circle, diyided into 180 degrees, is attached. If a shell is laid be- 
tween the two arms, the spiral angles can be immediately found out. 
D'Orbigny remarks, that Shells can thus be brought into three divi- 
sions : — 1. They have a spiral angle regular in its whole length : 2. The 
spiral angle is convex, or swollen in the middle : 3. It is concave. He 
points out the different ways of measurement applicable to these three 
forms. The increase of the spire is more or less rapid, and the oblique 
direction of the suture agrees with it. It is enough that a shell be placed 
in the Helicometer, with the mouth imdermost, so that the one arm lies 
parallel to the axis or side of the spiral angle, whilst the other follows 
the suture. This measurement D'Orbigny calls the suture angle. He 
measures, besides, the length of the last whorl in relation to the whole 
length of the shell. (Institut. 1842, p. 52.) Unfortunately, the diffi- 
culty of exact measurement, and the irregularity of the spire in the 
same species of shell, will be an impediment to the introduction of this 
instrument into science. 

160 



MOLLUSC A. 117 

Under the title, " Abbildungen und Beschreibungen neuer 
Oder wenig gekannter Conchylien," R. A. Philippi has com- 
menced a new work at Cassel, the first number of which has 
appeared. Cassel, 1840. 

It contains six plates, upon each of which, species of one genus only 
are represented.^ The plates are also numbered according to the genera, 
so that, at the conclusion of a volume, or of the whole work, they can 
be arranged systematically. The aim of the work is to represent, in 
good plates, new or little known Shells, — which aim it seems likely to 
accomplish, as the more recent plates of the second number for 1843, 
which has already appeared, are progressively improving. Those of the 
first number contain the genera Melania, Strombus, Helix , Natica, and 
Unio. 

6. B. Sowerby's Thesaurus Conchyliorum, or Figures and 
Descriptions of Shells, Part 1, London, 1842 (the other parts 
I am not acquainted with), contains Monographs of Helicina, 
Pupinay Rostellaria, Aporrhais^ Struthiolariay and Strom- 

There are figures of all the species with each number, and the larger 
ones on a scale smaller than nature, so that each plate is full in figures. 
The descriptions are short, consisting merely of the specific character. 
The work is absolutely necessary for the naming of collections. 

Two sheets of text, which conclude the first yolume, have 
been received of the Histoire Naturelle de Tile de Cuba, par 
Bamon de la Sagra, in which D'Orbigny has written the 
MoUusca. They contain the genera Pyramidella, Tomatella, 
Siphonaria, Vermetua, Odontostoma, Helicina, and Cyclos- 
toma. The first seven sheets of the second volume have 
already appeared. The work is making rapid progress. 

Numbers seventy-three to eighty-two, of Kiener's Species 
G^n^ral et Iconographie des Coquilles Yivantes have appeared 
in the year 1842, and contain the text for the genera Ceri- 
thium, Manella, and THtonium, and plates of the THtonium 
and Murex, 

Of Lovell Reeve's Conchologia Systematica, or complete 
System of Conchology, the first two parts of which have 
161 L 



118 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

already been mentioned in the preyioug report, twelre numbers 
haye now appeared, which conclude the work. 

There are 300 neat copper-plates in aD, with 1500 figares. The hook 
oontainB, with a few exceptions, most of the genera hitherto described. 
It is particularly to be reoommended in the study of the Mollosca, from 
the fidelity of the drawings ; althon^ it cannot be concealed, that the 
arrangement and view of the genera do not always correspond to the 
loesent standard of science. It would be too long to cite here all the 
misconceptions of this sort ; but the arrangement of Littormay Scalaria, 
Twrritella, and others in the family of IW^macecc ; of Natiea in that 
of the Neriidcece ; of Anypulla/ria in Peritiomata {Paludina and ViU- 
vata)y &c., may serve as examples. In illustration of the false limits of 
genera, the connection of Physa, Limnoeus, and Amphipeplea, in 
one genus, may be adduced. Here and there, too, a species falsely 
defined is met with ; for certainly the sheU figured as Ampullaria 
rugosa. Lam. (Nerita v/rceus, Mull.), is not that species, but rather 
A, globosa, Swains. The first ^ve numbers form the first volume, and 
contain the Cirripeda and Bivalves, The remaining seven contain the 
rest of the Mollusca, and form the second volume. Ehrenbeig's Poly- 
thalamia {Foraminifera of D'Orbigny) are joined to the Cephalopoda; 
but only five genera are figured as types of the difTerent forms. Several 
new species are incorporated in the work, which is particularly impor- 
tant on this account, as they have already been defined in the Proceed- 
ings of the Zoological Society. 

One number, the fifth of the second volume, of the long in- 
terrupted Iconographie der Land und Susswasser MoUusken, 
yon Bossmassler, has appeared in 1842. 

The first plate contains species of the genus Helix ; the second of 
Cla/ugilia ; the third of Pupa ; the fourth and fifth of Anodonta and 
Unio. Many species are new. In the preface, the author promises that 
the twelfth number shall conclude the second volume ; and then there 
will appear a ** Fauna Molluscorum Extramarinorum Europie," in 
which he wiU arrange, systematically, the collected materials. We hope 
he may soon make good his promise. 

During the year 1842, two numbers, the fifth and sixth, 

have been added to Hartmann's Erd und Susswasser Gaste- 

ropoden. 

In the fifth number, species of the genera Helix, Neritina, and lAmr- 
n<mi8y with varieties and monstrosities, are figured. The author also 
adds exotic genera, viz., Helix (Chromocochlea), TwrhinoideSy and 

162 



MOLLUSCA. J.19 

Mindarcma, and promises to do so oftener, which gives, in fact, a new 
feature to the work. The plates of the sixth number comprise the 
genera Pti^a^ Plcmorhis, Olcmgilia,, Helix, with their varieties and 
monstrosities. Of exotics there are Helix pulcherrima, hoBmastoma, 
and some species &om the Canary Islands and Madeira. 

An Index Mollusoorum Groenlandias, by MoUer has appeared. (Na- 
turhistorisk Tidskrift. Utgivet af Henrik Kroyer, 1842, iv. p. 76.) The 
work has also been published in a separate form, under the same title, 
Ha&ise, 1842. The detailed analysis uHll be given below. Many 
species are new. 

Cantor remarks, on the Fauna of Chusan, that the Fresh-water Mol- 
Insca are rich in forms : some approach to European species, three are 
identical with Indian, viz., — Helix tapeina, Benson, Planorhis com- 
pre89U8, Hutton, and Helix naninodes, which last is also found at 
Singapore. (Ann. ix. p. 277.) The species, among which there are 
three new genera, have been described by Benson. (Ibid. p. 486.) 

In the Bulletin de FAcademie de BruxeUes, vol. ix. 2, p* 340, are to 
be found diagnoses of some new species of living and fossil shells by 
Cantraine, which belong to the basin of the Mediterranean. The living 
species are mentioned in a future part of this report. 

Many remarks, on the presence of Mollusca, are to be found in the 
Ilep(»rts of Journeys in Dalmatia and .Monte Negro, by Ktister. (Isis, 
1842, p. 283, 609, 743, and 847.) 

Petit corrects, in the Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 232, the synonymes of 
several Shells, which had been described by R. P. Lesson in the same 
journal Lesson's Fu9us fiiniculatus is =» ^. DupetittJuma/rsU, Kiener ; 
Fu8U8 Boscb-ponti is Tiirhinella m/ultinoda, Auct. Lesson cites the 
Mitra casta, M, hicolor, Oliva tuslcama, and OLpuelchana of lyOrbigny, 
as belonging to one species of Mitra. This the author denies from his 
own inspection of the specimens. 

George Hyndman gives a list of thirty-nine species of Mollusca, which 
he obtained, with the dredging net, about two miles east of Sana Island, 
at the depth of forty fathoms. (Ann. x. p. 19.) 

W. Thompson has added a list of Mollusca (ibid. p. 21), found also 
with the dredging net, at a great depth on the Scottish coasts. From fifly 
fathoms, eight miles S. S. W. of the Mull of Galloway, he obtained ^ve 
living species and three dead ; from 110 to 140 fathoms, five miles S. W. 
of the Mull of Galloway, one living species and six dead ; &om 145 
fathoms in Beaufort's Dyke, about five miles S. W. &om the Mull of 
Galloway, eight living species and ten dead. 

D'Qrbigny bas presented to the Society Philomatique, some eggs of 
the Voluta hrasiliana. They have a diameter of seventy millim., while 
the animal itself has only 200 ; they are oval, and have a cartilaginous, 
pUant, and transparent shelL Each egg contains fifteen or twenty 

163 



120 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

yellowiih yolki, lunoimded by a thin membnuie. At a later period an 
embjro if formed in the middle of each yolk, which, on farther deyelop- 
ment, vergee to the tide of the shell, when having reached the tize of ten 
millim., and with two oonyolutions, the fortm breaks through and escapes. 
(Institat. 1842, p. 43.) 

Some remarks are added, at the same place, by Laurent, on the egg 
capsules of the Valvata piicinalU, These capsules are globular, affixed 
to some body under water, and contain ten to twenty eggs, surrounded 
by a common glaire. Each has its separate shell, ending in a twisted 
thread at each pole, and only one yolk. When the derelopment of the 
eggs ii fhr advanced, the capsule is torn asunder, and the eggs come out : 
some days later the covering of the individual egg opens and lets the 
embryo escape. 

Laurent meiitions, in the same place, Ihat seminal animalcules are 
found in the egg of the Limctx ctgrestis. He says iJso, Ihat the grape- 
formed organ in the Hermaphrodite Snails, which contains, in its paren- 
chyma, seminal animalcules and eggs, is provided with a single outlet, to 
convey the egg and the seminal animalcular fluid into the first chamber 
of the matrix; while, at the same time, the secreting organ of the glaire 
supplies the necessary proportion of jeUy. The matrix only supplies 
that portion which forms the egg-shell ; and this gradually thickens the 
nearer the egg is to its exit. The author possesses a preparation of a 
Limcuc atir, which died during the formation of the egg. 



CEPHALOPODA. 

Milne Edwards has giyen, in the Annates des Sciences 
Natnrelles, xviii. p. 331, a full account of the Spermatophora 
of the Cephalopoda, in continuation of his obserrations 
made with Peters in Nizza, and already mentioned in the 
former year*s Report. Four plates belong to this treatise, 
the last of which exhibits the male organs of generation, of 
the S^yia officinalis. 

'■ A. Erohn has given some additional remarks on the 
Structure of the Eye of the Cephalopoda, in the Leopoldiner 
Acten. xix. 11, p. 41. 

B. Ball exhibited to the Irish Academy the following 
Cephalopoda, as a contribution to the Fauna of the Irish 
3ea. (Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. p. 348) : — 
164 



MOLLUSCA — HETEROPODA. 121 

Sepia qfieinalis ; S, rupellaria (?) ; Loligo sagittcUa, var. (?) ; X. 
9ubulataj two varieties (?) ; L. media, oad a yariely (?) ; L. Eblavue ; 
Eledone ventricoea; Octopus vulgaris; Sepiola Rondeletii; Rossia 
Owenii and R. JacMi; Spirula australis. He oonsiders the two 
Rossia to be new. R. Owenii has large aoetabula placed on long pedicles 
in three rows, those of the centre row being not more tixan half the 
diameter of those on each side ; on the first pair of arms the acetabula 
are more numerous, more equal in size, and smaller than on the others. 
R, JctcobU has smaller acetabula, and arms proportionably shorter. 

Peters has given, in MiiUer's Archiyes, 1842, p. 329, some contribu- 
tions to the anatomy of the Sepiola; thej refer to the ink-oigan and 
parts of generation. The autiior esteems, as of doubtful value, the 
differences between the species of this genus hitherto described, since 
the smaller breadth of the cuticular flap which unites the mantle and 
head, as well as the presence of an under eyelid, can ftimish no specific 
<^iaracter, for the former varies very much, and an under eyelid is pre- 
aent in all the Sepiola. ^ 

Owen has received from Captain Belcher a specimen of Na/utilus 
pompUius, with the shell, from Amboyna. The position of the animal 
in the shell agrees exactly with the description which Owen had formerly 
given of it in his Memoir on the Pearly Nautilus. The spire of the 
shell is covered by the dorsal fold of the mantle, and is lodged in the 
concavity at the back of the muscular plate above the head. The in- 
lundibulum rests upon the outer wall of the large chamber containing 
the animal. (Ploc. ZooL 8oc. 1842, p. 143.) 



PTEROPODA. 

Cantraine mentions, in the Bulletins de Bruxelles, iz. 2, 
p. 340, that Odontostoma rugulosum is Dentalium trachea, 
Montagu, and calls it, accordingly, Odontostoma trachea, 

Odontostoma Usviswmum, id. ib.; testa cylindrica, arcUata, vitrea, 
IsBvissima, infeme oblique truncata, subpapillosa, dausa : Golf von Ca^ 
gliari. 

Moller, 1. c. p. 4, gives a new Limacina; L, halea, testa turrita, 
anfir. 7 ; spira prominente, apice acuto. 



HETEROPODA. 

Milne Edwards has now published his Observations, made 
along with Peters, on the Organization of the Carinaria 
165 



122 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLIl : 

mediterranean in a more extended state tlian formerly. (Annal. 
des Sc. Nat. xTiii. p. 323 ; Tide Archiy. 1641, ii. p. 265.) 

Lorell Beere has giren a plate and description of a new 

species of Carinaria, Tiz. : — 

C. ^oci/if ; shell tmispaient, cam prc—e d at the rides ; keel with a 
rimple straight edge ; yertez small; length ^^" ; breadth 1}'' ; height 
2" : habitat unlmoini. (Annak, ix. p. 140.) 



GASTEROPODA. 

PULMONATA. 

Description des limacides de rAmerique, par Amos Binney« 
Boston, 1842. 

This work, tmfortunatelj, has not jet oome to hand. The author 
describes all the speeies of LimacidoB which are found in North Ame- 
rica, with Latin diagnoses and English descriptions, aooompanied with 
remarks on their geographical distribution and habits. The species 
Bie-^Limax Jlavus, itgrettU, campe9tri$y new speeies ; Arion hortengis ; 
Td}enophorug (new genus) ccMrolinensU (Limax carolinengU, Auct.) ; 
Philomycus (Rafin.) dorsalis, Binn. (S. Rey. ZooL 1842, p. 221.) 

W. H. Benson has airanged a new genus, Ineilaria, in the fiimilj of 
the IAma.cid<B, which only differs from Limax in this, that the body is 
bordered by a velum. The species, /. hUineaUij is livid, with two 
L&teral and one mesial stripe, and the velum is sprinkled with brown 
points and spots. (Ann. ix. p. 486.) 

The Vitrina ngaretina, Beduz, from the banks of the Cazamanca, 
in Africa, described in the Rev. Zool. 1841, is to be found figured in 
the Magas. de ZooL 1842, pi. 59. 

Vitrina zd)ra, Le Guillou ; t. rotundata, umbilicata, supra depresso- 
conveza, subtus oonveziore, hyalina, flammulis albis et spadiceis oblique 
undulatis omata; anfraddbus 4 supra tenuiter striatis; apertura sub- 
dilatata, umbilico minimo ; 7 mill. : Auckhind Island. (Rev. Zool. 1842, 
p. 136.) 

PfeifTer describes (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 187) three new species of 
Succinea, S, elegans, reJUxa, and va/riegata, from Chili ; and remarks, 
that they belong to the same group with Helix gallina-9ulta/na^ Chemn., 
in which, according to PfeifTer, are also to be reckoned Bulimug 
Broderipii and coquimbensisy for, on account of the want of a columella, 
these are probably true Succinece. D'Qrbigny's observations prove that 
the animal of the S. gallina-sultana is very similar to Succinea in it« 
form and habits. 

166 



MOLLUSCA — GASTEROPODA. 123 

Lea, in the Prooeed. of the Amer. Philosoph. Soc. 1841, p. 31, giveg 
the diagnoses of nine Succinea: 8, gracilis^ from Java; wiirdiana, 
from Ohio; totteniaoMtf from Newport; nuttaUana, from Oregon; 
awreay from Ohio; comdeaAML^ from Martinique, which is perhaps 8* 
hcUiotidea, Mittre (Rev. ZooL 1841, p. 65) ifulgenSy from Cuba, perhaps 
8, sagra, D'Orlngny; oregonemiSf from Oregon; and injlata, from 
South CSarolina. 

In the Bey. ZooL 1842, p. 1, is to be fonnd an " Essai d^n 
Arrangement de plusieurs MoUusques du genre HeUx, selon 
les lois de leurs rariations specifiques, par Ch. Porro." 

The author regards the foUowing as yarieties of one species :--&./«: 
etMTieoUma^ ¥6r, ; eircwnorndtaj F^r. ; companyoni, Anton ; erycma, 
Jan. ; globulcMris, ZiegL ; grohmannia/na, PhiL ; gualtericma, F6t. ; 
hispcmica, Partsch (non. Lam.) ; hospitanSj Bonelli ; marmorata, F6t. ; 
meHtengiSy F^r. ; mwralis, MiilL ; nebrodenns, mandraliscaf nidensis, 
F^r. ; pacinicma, PhiL ; RaspaUli, Pajr. ; sege»ta/iMiy Phil. ; terpentina, 
Fdr. ; signata^ F^r. ; vplendensy Drap. 

Mittre describes three new species of the genus Helix in the AnnaL 
des Sc. Nat. xYiii. p. 188 : — H, mmoricerms ; testa orbiculato-oonvez^ 
imperforata, gLibriusoula, albida aut lutesoente, supeme mamilis friscis 
interruptis, infeme aliis fasdam fingentibus; anfractibus 5 oonvezius- 
culis, spira prominula, apioe fusco; hibro margine reflexo ; fauoe pallide 
rosea, columella subdentata ; T*' : Minorca. H. telonensis ; testa sub- 
depressa aut conrexiuscula, oomea tenui, pelludda, subtilissime striata ; 
anfractibus 5 oonyezis, ultimo majore, apertura rotundata, peristomate 
acuto, simplioi, umbilioo magno ; 4''' : Toulon. H, Nyeli ; testa orbi- 
eulari, cannata, supemd depressa subtus oonreza late umbilicata, sub> 
tilissime striata, grisea yel lutesoente, supra maculis fuscis, infra duobus 
fiisoiis omata; apertura angulata, labro albo, tenui, intus maiginato, 
subreflezo; 5^" \ Minorca. 

Souleyet has characterized three new species of the same genus in the 
Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 101 : — H, Chevalierii; circular, deeply umbilicated; 
keel slight, brown, with a chestnut band ; 37 mill. : Malacca. H. DiMron- 
deauii ; circular, with a keel ; olive brown, obliquely wrinkled, striped 
crosswajs ; 41 null. : Lu^n. H, Umra/Mmis ; oonical, umbilicated, thin, 
closely striped, bright brown; 16 mill.: Cochin-China. These three 
species have been figured in the ** 2iOologie du Voyage de la Bonite." 

Le QuUlou has increased the number of the species of the genus Helix 
by twenty-six, for the diagnoses of which we refer to the Rev. ZooL 
1842, p. 137. Their names are as follows : — H. umbilicata, Sumatra; 
tvhgranosa, N. Australia ; Nouleti, Viti Islands ; recluziana, habitat 
unknown ; Jannellii, N. Australia ; ta^omonisy Salomon Islands ; deles- 

167 



124 R£PORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

9ertiana, Warrior Island (StraitB of Tonret) ; tritonUmU ; "Sew Guinea ; 
tuccinulata, Gnaham ; tematana, Temate ; crouanii, Hamoa ; aUmla, 
Temate ; Valencienneiii, habitat unknown ; appraximata, Hogolen and 
Temate, arrawemUf Arrow Islandfl ; hyalinay Salomon Islands ; eon- 
eentricay Yarao ; aucklandica, Auckland Islands ; oceanica, Tahiti ; 
BlaifmlUi, Arrow Islands; torticoll%$. New Guinea; K%e»neri, New 
Guinea ; purpurottoma. New Guinea ; qtictd/nfaseiata, Temate ; guU 
tata. Coram ; cyclostamata^ Warrior Islands. 

Helix Ouerinif Pfeiffer (Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 304) ; is somewhat more 
depressed than JET. trochiformis, F6t, ; brown, wrinkled lengthways ; at 
the keel of the last whorl, and at the base of the others, doselj fringed 
with hairs : Plateau of the Nil^erries. 

Helix zeus, Jonas, ib. ; umbilicated, circular, with oblique wrinkles 
and eleyated spiral streaks; the last whorl angled; superiorly brown, 
with yeUow zigzag lines ; iuferiorlj has a broad brown band : Philip- 
pinesc 

Pfeiffer (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 85) describes sixteen species of 
HeliXy which were collected by Cuming on the Philippines, and hare 
been named by Sowerby, Broderip, and himself. And at p. 150 of the 
same Tolume, he gives descriptions of six additional species from the 
same islands. 

Helix Valtoni, Loyell Reeve (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 49) ; ovate, 
depressed ; dark ruddy-brown with streaks lengthways ; aperture with a 
black lip : Ceylon. It is figured in the Conch. Syst., and is especially 
characterized by its curiously speckled epidermis. 

Helix ravida, Benson (Ann. iz. p. 486), sub-globular, umbilicated, with 
six whorls, somewhat plaited transversely : Chusan. 

H, na/ninoide$y id. ib. ; shell sub-discoidal, slightly striated in a ra- 
diating manner above, and marked below with distant smooth stri»: 
habitat Singapore ; scarce at Chusau: 

In the first number of PhUipprs descriptions and plates of new shells, 
the fourth plate is devoted to the genus Helix, Most of the species 
have been described by v. d. Busch, and are already contained in 
Pfeififer*s SymbolsB, No. 2, viz., — H, Rumphiiy gemina, hatavicma, 
inquinata, rotatoria: all from Java. Bensoniy from Bengal. The 
H, fhuUbf Sow., is also figured ; and H, conus, Phil. ; shell conical ; 
keel sharp ; chestnut-brown, with yellow sutures : Java. 

Helix tewnesaeensis, Lea (Proc. Amer. PhU. Soc. 1841, p. 31) ; above 
plano-convex ; convex beneath ; yellow, obliquely striped ; umbilicated ; 
labrum inwardly concealed : Cumberland Mountains. H, mobilia^na, 
id. ib. p. 82 ; globular ; reddish-horn colour, shining ; umbiHcated ; aper- 
ture lunated, labrum reflexed : Mobile, Alab. H, minutiedima, id. ib. ; 
globular ; brownish-horn coloured ; umbilicated ; four whorls ; aperture 
roundish ; labriun sharp : Cincinnati. 

168 



MOLLUSCA — GASTEROPODA. 125 

Petit de la Sauasaye distinguiflhes, as a species of Helix distinct from 
the (Str^tcuxfis) cambaides, D'Qrb., of Chiquitos, a shell from Bahia, 
mentioned bj Moricand, in the writings of the Geneva Nat. Hist. Soc. ; 
and he calls it H, (Streptaxis) dejecta. It has two teeth on the labnun, 
while in the H. comhoides, D'Orb., only one, of a much larger size, is 
found. The author also gives here the character of a new species, 
nelix Ca/ndei; testa subovali, albida, nitida, perforata, anfr. 5-6, 
oonvexiusculis ; apertura rotundata, edentula, breve refleza, umbilico 
parvulo ; 5 mill. : New Granada. (Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 175.) 

Carocolla cumberla/ndianaf Lea (Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 1840, p. 289) ; 
whitish, marked with brown; widely umbiUcated; aperture furrowed 
interiorly : Cumberland Mountains. C edgcuricma (id. ib. 1841, p. 31) ; 
above plain, beneath convex ; bay ; not umbilicated ; columella has one 
tooth : Cumberland Mountains. 

J. C. Jay of New York describes two new species of Bulinms (Rev. 
Zool. 1842, p. 80). B. malleatu$ ; testa ovato-oblonga, sub-ventrioosa, 
subtenui, mgoso-malleata, albida, maculis fuscis subseriatis irregulariter 
picta, anfractibus quinis, ultimo mazimo, spira conico-subacuta, apice 
obtuso, apertura ovato-acuta, intus sublutescente, columella oontorta, 
labro albo, crassiusculo, late reflezo, umbilico ovato-oblongo ; long. 
55 mUL ; larg. 28 mill. B, fiilguratu$ ; testa oblonga, solidiuscula, 
transversim striato-undulata, anfractibus quinis, conveziusculis, ultimo 
dilute olivaeeo, flamnus fuscis fulgurantibus interdum confluentibus 
omato, supeme maculis albis altemis cincto, spira conico-subacuta, 
decorticata, dilute-rosea, apertura ovato-oblonga, intus subfulva vel 
aurantia, columella plicata, umbilico oblongo, labro reflezo, albido; 
long. 50 mill. ; larg. 22 mill. : both species are from an island in the 
Pacific. 

A new Bulimus, described by Souleyet, is to be found in the same 
work, p. 102. B. iMnbUicaris ; testa umbilicata, ovato-conica, albido-rosea, 
IsBvigata, anfr. 6-7 conveziusculis, apertura ovato-oblonga, angustata, 
columella subrecta, refleziuscula, labro tenui, subreflezo, umbilico 
magno, (^lindrico, usque ad apioem perspicuo ; 13 null. : Bolivia. 

Dr. J. H. Jonas (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 188) describes four new 
Bulvtai. B. calobapttiSf umbilicated ; reddish, with yellow wavy bands. 
B. hcdanaides, yellow, with brown red bands ; base of the last whorl 
green. B. aplomorphm^ yellow, with three red brown bands. B. 
iimplex, green, the last whorl has an obtuse angle:* All from the 
Philippines. 

Pfeiffer describes (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 88) five species of 

* This seems a proper place to remark, that the reporter, in his abridgement 
of the specific characters here and elsewhere, often omits those particulars 
which aire most distinctive. — Trans. 

169 



126 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

BinHmus from the Philippines, collected bj Cuming, yiz., B. hreviculus, 
CufMingii, ligna/riuSy jugla/ns, and nympha. And nine species of the 
same genus aie described bj him at p. 151, viz., B» cochliodes, cuyoentii, 
ejfu$u$, macroMtoma, ramblonengis, $olidu9, tuhcarmatus, uber, and 
virens. 

Pfeiffer also describes four species of Bulimus, fiom Chili (ibid, 
p. 186), yiz., B, Bridgem ; yellow-brown : pachychUus ; strong ; white : 
rhodcbcme ; umbilicated ; white with reddish spots and flashes : terebra- 
ns ; wrinkled lengthways ; whitish ; above brownish>blue. 

BulifMAB imeircigdinus of Reeve is green, with a white band at the 
sutures. (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 49.) It is fiom the Philippines, and 
was first figured in the Conch. Systematica. Bulimus ja/yanMs, Lea 
(Proc Amer. PhiL Soc. 1841, p. 31), oval conical; above whitish, 
beneath chestnut-brown ; umbilicated ; six whorls : Java. 

Partula Dumartrayii, Souleyet (Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 102), testa ovato- 
oonica, pallide olivacea, supeme fusca, anfr. 6, sub-convexis, Isevigatis, 
apertura obovata, bilamellata; lamella palatali validiore, immersa, 
lamella oolumellari breviore; labro intus incrassato albido aut fusoo, 
eztus tenue compresso, basi subreflezo ; umbilioo mediocri ; 10 mill. : 
Sandwich Islands. P. injlata, Reeve; testa obeso-conica, transversim 
tenuissime striata, albida, epidemude luteo-fusca induta; anfractu ultimo 
angttlato-inflato, umbilicato; apertura subquadrata, labro pianissimo 
expanse. (Proc. Zool. 1842, p. 197.) 

Achatina Perroteti, Pfeifier (Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 305), approximates 
to several species of the genus Glandina ; smooth, transparent ; the last 
whorl measures a third of the whole length : Plateau of the Nilgherries. 

LoveU Reeve has described four new species of Ach^tma (Proceed. 
Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 55) ; which have been figured in his Conchologia Sys* 
tematica, vol. ii. A. lactea; cream-coloured, striated longitudinally: 
Zanzibar. A, tmcta; whitish, stained with large longitudinal spots; 
apex rose coloured : Africa (?). A, KrcmsU ; chestnut brown, marked 
with small zigzag stripes except on the last whorl : Cape Natal, Africa. 
A, picta ; bright yellow, with green bands crossing the whorls ; aperture 
round, yellowish : Cuba. 

Achatina erecta, Benson (Annal. ix. p. 487), whitish, fusiform, rough ; 
eight whorls : Macao. 

A, twfhmata, Lea (Proc. Amer. PhU. Soc. 1841, p. 31), whitish; 
obliquely banded and spotted ; sub-carinated. A. striata, id. ib., cylin- 
drical ; striped longitudinally ; homy ; eight whorls : both are from 
Siberia. 

J. Forster has published an Essay in the Acten der Leopoldiner Aca- 
demic, voL xix. pars 2, p. 249, " Ideen iiber die Gebilde der Clausilien," 
in which he separates, and describes fully, the different forms of the 
Clausilia ventricosa, not as species, but as " Gebilde'* (forms), to which 

170 



MOLLUSCA — GASTEROPODA. 127 

he g^yes separate names. There are three forms, and the first is divided 
into three orders. 

Cla/unlia pluviaHlts, Benson (Annul, iz. p. 486), pale olive colour ; 
fourteen whorls, all faintly striated transversely ; at the base of the lip 
an oblique solid fold, and a parallel groove. CI. aculus, id. ib., brown> 
ish; ten or eleven whorls, marked with faint oblique striae; aperture 
with two or three teeth : both are from Chusan. 

Pupa Hoppii, MuUer (Qroenl. p. 4) ; testa detrorsa, cylindraoea, 
obtusa, IsBvi ; columella bidentata. 

The Cyclostoma cuvienammi and Mekmoatoma Petit, formerly 
described in the Rev. Zool. 1841, have been figpired in the Magas. de 
Zool. 1842, pi. 55, 56. 

Cyclostoma Cfironnierii, Souleyet (Eev. Zool. 1842, p. 101); orbi- 
cular; umbilicated; white with brown spots'; chestnut brown beneath; 
22 milL: Lu^on. 0. maculosa, id. ib.; bulged and spherical; umbili- 
cated, with a keel, with yellow and brown lines and spots ; 14 mill. : 
Lufon. 

D'Orbigny has described several species of Cyclostoma in the Hist. 
Nat. de Cuba. C. laiUabris, allied to C laJbeo, but shorter ; conical and 
longitudinally striped. C.ventricosa; bellied out; pupa-formed; smooth; 
rose-coloured; anteriorly violet. C awriculata; cylindrical; longitu- 
dinally striped; umbilicated; whitish; anteriorly violet. C. hiMdata; 
whitish ; rose coloured, with lamellated striae crossways ; aperture with 
two borders. C.pudica; violet, striated crossways; margin of aperture, 
above the umbilicus, divided into two flaps. 0. Pretrei; white ; umbili- 
cated ; lameUated longitudinally ; spinous across. C. auheria/na ; finely 
striated crossways; suture deeply crenated ; labrum simple. C. candeana; 
fiirrowed across; lameUa-like striss longitudinal; suture irregularly 
lamella-like crenated ; labmm bipartite. C. delatreana ; not umbili* 
Gated ; yellow with brown bands ; ribbed lengthways ; striated across ; 
suture crenated ; aperture ovaL C. sagra; umbilicated ; yellow, spotted 
brownish-red longitudinally and across; cross strise; suture simple; 
aperture oval. C. poeyana; deeply striated across; brownish-yellow 
with red bands ; suture simple ; aperture oval. 

Several new species of CyclosUmia, fix)m the Philippines, are to be 
fi>und described by G. B. Sowerby in the Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 80. 
C. acuti-4narginatwnf luzonicum, canaliferum^ vaUdum, Stainforthiif 
tuba, phiUippina^rum, altum, pupimforme. Cyclostoma cincirmatensis 
of Lea (Ptoc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 1840, p. 289), has this character;— r 
t. elevato-copica, IsBvi, nitida, diaphana, umbiHcata, anfractibua senis; 
apice obtuso, labro margine reflexo: Cincinnati. 

D'Qrbigny characterizes a new genus, Odontostoma (the name has been 
already given), in the family of Cyclostom<i (Ramon de la Sagra's Hist. 
Nat. de Cuba, MoUusques, p. 237). It is distinguished from Helicina 

171 



128 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLIl : 

onljr bj the margin of the mouth not being thickened, and bj the pre- 
■enoe of teeth on the oolnmeUa, which are continued inwardlj like 
lamells. The animal seemg to want an operculum. The two species are 
from Cuba. O. depre$sa is low and has six whorls: O. globulosa is 
spherical, with fire whoris: both have two lamelle on the columella. 

Helicina 9CLffraiana, lyOrb., Guy., is distinguished &om H, major. 
Gray, by the thickened unreflezed margin of Uie mouth. H. variegata, 
mo/rmorataj and lanieriana, appear to correspond with yarieties of 
PfeifTer's species^, ad^persa. H.crassa; thick; spherical; streaked 
lengthways; bay with white band; the angle of columella toothed. 
H, zephirina; spherioo-conical ; smooth; reddish; labrum white. H. 
petitiana; conical; yellow; furrowed across; labmm white; angle of 
columella sharp. H. Sloanii is J7. eonica, Pfr. H. eonUa; trochi- 
form; yellow; smooth; aperture triangular; whorls keeled; angle of 
columella plain, sub-dentated. J7. trochulina; trochi-form; smooth; 
angle of columella convez ; aperture semicircular. B. elegant appears 
to be i7. rupe»tri»y Pfr. H. elongata; elongato-oonical ; smooth ; above 
as it were hammered obliquely ; bright yellow. H, rotunda; spherical ; 
smooth ; rose coloured ; angle of columella emaiginated. H. dentigera; 
roundish ; depressed ; smooth ; white with a band ; angle of columella 
dentated, emarginated. H. minima; roundish; depressed; smooth; 
bright rose colour; less than the preceding. J7. globulosa; spherical; 
smooth ; white with broad bands : all these are from Cuba. 

Sowerby enumerates more than sevenfy species in his monograph on 
the genus Helicina, L c, amongst which seyeral axe new. H. ja>maic- 
entis ; H, awrantiai, Gray, simillima, sed t. magis oonica et magis tenui ; 
peritremate pallidiore, minus incrassato. H. Brownii, t. globosa, tenui, 
anfr. ultimo magno ; apertura semilunari, labio eztemo reflezo, paulu- 
lum ezpanso, prope collumellom indsura elongata ; labio intemo prope 
oollumellam subcalloso ; columella obliqua, acuta. H, lutea; t. globoaE^ 
subangulata, IsBvi ; labio eztemo paululum ezpanso, viz incrassato, labio 
intemo leviter incrassato : Antilles. H. a^tUlarum, t. depressa, magna, 
tenui, leyiter striata, anfractu ultimo magno, labio intemo tenui, prope 
oolnmellom paululum incrassato, columella rotundata, angusta, obtusissime 
angulata ; labio eztemo ezpanso, reflezo, postioe subdepresso : Antilles. 
H. guadeloupeniis (Zool. Pro. 1842, p. 7). H. ma,eulata, t. trapezoi- 
dea, subangulata supra Infraque conica, laeri, tenui, mbrofasciata et 
maculata, labio eztemo reflezo, subezpanso, ad basin columeUee tenui, 
columella subcallosa, ad basin attenuata, operculo comeo : South America. 
H. polita (Zool. Proc. 1842). H. timilis (Zool. Proc. 1842). H, parva 
(Zool Proc. 1842). H. maxima (Zool. Proc. 1842). H. pellueida ; H. 
zephyrvMi, Dud. ; similis, sed columella poene recta, subangulata : Guiana. 
H, pyramidalie (H, conica, D*Orb.) H. angusHedm^a (H. acutisnma) 
•{Zool. Proc. 1842). H. trochiformig, ib. H. aglutinans, ib. //. 
172 



MOLLUSCA — :OASTER0P0DA. 129 

LazarvSj ib. //. rotella, t. laBvi, angulata, viz carinata, labio eztemo 
reflezo, labio interno ezpanso, columella' subangulata. H, piloga (Zool. 
Proc. 1842). H, a/ngulata, ib. H, cornea, H. orbiculatoB {Oligyras 
orb., Btij), simillizna sed t. crassiori, labio eztemo ad basin oolumellfe 
Bubemarginato, columella caUosa. H, minuta (Zool. Proc. 1842). 

The species from the Proc. Zool. Soc. are also published in the Annals, 
z. p. 400. 

Sowerbj's monograph of the genus Pv>pina, 1. c, contains nine species. 
The tezt is already printed in the Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1841, p. 102. 
Vide Archiv. 1842, ii. p. 390. 

R. B. Hinds describes two new species of Pupina, P, cmrea ; golden 
yellow ; aperture with a notch below, emarginated aboye and toothed : 
New Quinea. P. mitU; brown ; a red line on the sutures ; aperture 
with a notch inferiorly ; above emarginated and toothed : New Ireland. 
(Ann. z. p. 83.) 

Awricula frumentum. Petit de la Saussaye (Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 105); 
brown; columella with three folds; no umbilicus; 8 miU. : Peru. 
A. cbvena, id. ib. ; brown ; cylindrical, pointed ; columella has three 
bright yiolet folds ; labrum inwardly thickened in the middle ; no umbi- 
licus ; 7 mill. : Chili. 

Petit de la Saussaye describes (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 201), siz 
species of the genus Attricula as new, which were collected by Cuming. 
A. tomatelUformu, from the Philippines ; doliolum, from Lu^on ; redu- 
nana, from West Columbia ; ptfriformia, ib. ; ceylomca, from Ceylon ; 
pulchella, from the Philippines. 

Carychium esdle, Lea (Sillim. Amer. Joum. 1842, p. 109) ; yeiy high ; 
whitish, striated longitudinally ; siz whorls ; three teeth in the aperture : 
Philadelphia. 

Loyell Reeye has published (Ann. Nat. Hist. iz. p. 218 ; and z. p. 74) 
a synopsis of the genus Sca^rahus, in which he comprehends eleyen 
species. They are all figured on a plate, which also belongs to the 
author's Conchologia Systematica. Helix clau$a, Wagn., which is 
included, evidently does not belong to this genus. The Auricula 
Mca^aJxBua, Quoy, he names 8c. striatus. There are, besides, two 
new species described: Sc. lehithostoma, which is distinguished by 
the bright yelk-yeUow colour of the mouth: and 8c. pyra^nidatuB, 
the most oblong of the species, with a mouth yellowish and highly 
enamelled. 

R. B. Hinds describes a new species of the same genus from the 
Feejee Islands : 8c. pollex ; chestnut brown ; strongly striated longitu- 
dinally. (Ann. z. p. 82.) 

Lea describes some species of the genus Phy$a in the Proc. Amer. Phil^ 
Soc. 1841, p. 32. Ph. hUd/reihiana, from Illinois ; infiata, from Vir- 
ginia; troostemis, from Nashyille. 

173 



130 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLH : 

fienioii notices the preeenee of PlanorbU tpirorbis, MiilL, and Lim- 
nom$ glaber, Mull., in Ireland. (Calcutta Journal, vol. ii. p. 223.) 

Planorbu papyrcLceus, Benaon (Ann. ixw p. 487) ; very minutely ra- 
diato-atriated ; keeled at the margin ; hollowed on both sides. PL hemi- 
sphoBTulaj id. ib. ; superiorly oonyez, beneath hollowed ; without keel : 
these are from Chusan. PI. regularis. Lea, Proc. Amer. 1841, p. 32 ; 
spherical ; plain superiorly, beneath narrow umbilicated ; transparent ; 
pale yellow ; three whorls keeled superiorly : United States. 

PL Imchanennsy id. ib. ; lenticular; keeled at circumference; be- 
neath narrow umbilicated ; three whorls : Ohio. PL helhi9, id. ib. ; 
orbicular; beneath wide umbilicated; greenish-yellow; four whorls, 
keeled above, sub-keeled beneath ; interiorly reddiBh-brown : Tennessee. 

Lymnea plicatula, Benson (Ann. iz. p. 487) ; last whorl transversely 
with pUdt; the suture impressed; spire pointed, generally ferruginous. 
L. minor, id. ib.; smooth; four whorls; fold of coUumella obsolete: 
both are from Chusan. 

Lea describes sixteen species of this genus in the Proc. Amer. Phil. 
Soc. 1841, p. 32, viz., L» phUadelphioa, from Philadelphia ; griffiihiamaj 
from Lake Charlotte, New York; nuttalliwna and hulimoides, from 
Oregon ; extgua, from Tennessee ; planulata. White Sulphur Springs, 
Va. ; fiitifarmis, Niagara ; rustica, Ohio ; plica, Tennessee ; coarctata, 
Newport; casta, parva, curia, strigasa, hirtlandicma, frt>m Ohio; 
rubella fr^m Oahu. 



CTENOBRANCHIA. 



NEW QENERA AND SPECIES. 



VaXvata bicarinata, Lea, Proc. 1841, p. 83; t. orbicnlari, supeme 
planulata, bicarinata, subcrassa, supeme cornea, infeme albida, late 
umblHcata, suturis impressis, spira depressa, anfractibus quatemis con- 
vezis, apertura rotunda, intus albida : Schuylkill Biver. 

Paludina Breughelii, Cantraine, BulL de Bruz. iz. 2, p. 349 ; testa 
ovato-conoidea, solida, oomeo-frdvescente, epidermide viridi-fusco ; anfr. 
4-5 convezis; apertura ovali, supeme viz angulata, spiram non 
sequante, peristomate continuo, labro simplid : Malta. 

PaludvMi mbfusca, id. ib. ; testa conoidea-depressa, subperforata, 
oomeo-viridescente aut frdva sub-epidermide fusca ; anfr. 3-4 convezis ; 
apertura ovato-rotundata, supeme viz angulata, spiram superante ; 
labro acuto simplici; labio refleziuscnlo, subincrassato, peristomate 
continuo : Istria and Dalmatia. 

Paludina quadrata, Benson, Ann. iz. p. 487, olive green, with 
slight transverse plaits ; furrowed longitudinally. P. lecythoides ; with 

174 



MOLLUSCA — CTENOBRANCHIA. 131 

transyerse faint folds ; 6-7 whorls ; margin of mouth somewhat turned 
baek, black. P. (Bithynia) longicomis ; four whorls; polished; margin 
of mouth somewhat turned back, blackish. P. (Bithynia) striatula ; 
polished ; homy ; margin of mouth turned back, blackish, wavy : these 
are all from Chusan. 

P€Uudma seminalis, Hinds, Ann. z. p. 83 ; obtusely turreted ; apex 
eroded; mouth bluish: California. (Allied to P. nuclea of Lea.) — 
P. regularis, Lea, Proc. Amer. Soc. 1841, p. 34 ; spherical ; greenish 
horn coloured ; not umbiHcated ; five whorls ; mouth large, interiorly 
blue : Ohio (?), P. obtusaf id. ib. ; cylindrical ; greenish ; slightly 
umbilicated ; four whorls : Ohio. P. troostiana, id. ib. ; bellied out 
oonicaUy; horn-yellow; umbilicated; mouth large, round: Tennessee. 
P. €ingulata, coosaenais and cyclostomaforinis, id. ib. p. 83, from the 
Coosa River, Alabama. P. incrasaata and coarctata, id. ib. 1843, 
p. 243, fi*om Alabama. P. hermondinma, D'Orbigny, Cub. ; greenish ; 
umbilicated ; anteriorly slightly keeled. 

D'Orbigny describes, in the Hist, de Cuba, several species of his 
genus Paludestrina ; viz., P. a'viberia/na, affi/ms, candea/na. 

Lea describes, in the volume already quoted, p. 34, five species of the 
giemiB Anculosaj — troostiana, gibhosaj dentata, ca/rinata, variabilis; 
and at p. 83, A. rubiginosa, hella, griffithiana, tuherculata; and, 
1842, p. 243, A, vacisa, Foremani, soUda, flanwnata ; as also Afrmi- 
cola arbunUata and parva, 

lo tenebrosa. Lea, ib. ; testa fosiformi, subtenui, subnigra, Isevi, spira 
oonica, suturis viz impressis, anfiraotibus senis, subplanulatis, apertura 
irregnlariter pyrifonni, intus purpurea : Tennessee. 

Laouncvla, nov. gen. Benson, Ann. iz. p. 488, testa turbinata, sub- 
globosa, apertura majori, integra, oblonga ; peristomate interrupto ; 
labio subrefiezo; umbilico profimdo, tortuoso. There is one species, 
L. pulchella, from Chusan. 

Haldeman makes some remarks on the genera allied to Melania. 
Pi/rena amrita he is indiaed, on account of its fringed mantle, to place 
with the CerithinoB (genus Claviger, Hald. ib. vol. zHi. p. 216). 
Pirena atra he considers as the type of the genus, and puts it in the 
family of the Melamai, as he says it has the same connection with 
Melanapsis, as Mekmia has with Anadoiay in respect to organization 
and habits. (SiUim. Amer. Joum. vol. zli. p. 21.) 

The genus Mda/nia is remarkably rich in newly described speoies. 
Two species, if. ca/iM:ellata and M. (Hermrniua (?) Swains.) crebrieoBtis, 
from Chusan, are described by Benson. (Ann. iz. p. 488.) In the first 
number of Fhilippi's plates and descriptions of Hew Shells, the first 
plate is dedicated to the genus Melaaiia ; and the new species are de- 
fined by V. d. Bnsch. M. Wvnteri ; turreted ; greenish ; near the suture 
a row of pointed protuberances ; basis striped : Java. Jf . flammulata ; 

175 



132 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

fVisiform ; reddish-browi^, with rust brown flames longitudinallj ; eleven 
whorlB : JaTa. M. ecronata ; bellied ; decollated ; a row of pointed 
protuberanoes near the suture ; three whorls : Bengal. M, semigranosa ; 
longifih ; decollated at the point ; four whorls ; two granulated lines near 
the suture ; base smooth, with black lines : Java. M, crassa ; bellied ; 
decollated ; olive coloured ; glittering ; 2^ whorls : Bengal. M. glans ; 
longish ; smooth ; decollated ; two whorls ; mouth bluish : Java. M, 
zonata ; oval ; smooth ; eroded at the point ; yellow brown, with three 
black bands : Bengal M. teitudinaria ; smooth ; decollated at the 
point ; yellowish with black streaks ; four whorls : Java. M, torquata ; 
turreted ; smooth ; yellow brown ; 4^ strong convex whorls : Java. 
M. terebra ; fusiform ; greenish-grey, with points and black longitudinal 
lines : Java. M. omata ; longish ; smooth ; olive green ; four whorls ; 
adorned superiorly with brown spots : Java. M, granum ; small ; bay ; 
latticed ; eroded at the points : Java. Besides these there are figured 
also, Jf. taherculata, Miill. (Melcmoideg fuBCtolata, Oliv.), and M. 
spmu/osa, Lam. 

Lea describes many Melcmice in the different annual Proceedings of 
the Amer. Phil. Society. Two species, M, catenoides and hoyMnianaf 
from Chatahooche River, 1. c. 1840, p. 289. In the volume for 1841, 
p. 11, he divides the genus into nine groups, viz., smooth, plaited, 
keeled, burrowed, striped, knotty, granulated, latticed and spinous. Of 
new species there are described, twenty-five smooth, sixteen plaited, 
five keeled, one fuxiowed, three striped, three knotty, one granulated, 
and two latticed. To name all these would require too much space, and 
for the same reason we omit the seven additional species described at 
p. 82, and the twelve others shortly described in the volume for 1842, 
p. 242. Lea's catalogue extends in all to 266 species of the genus 
Melcmia, of which forty-four are fossil. 

MeUmia hrevts, D'Orb., thick ; smooth ; brown with black lines ; four 
whorls. M, cvha/aicma, id. ; black brown; smooth; oblong. M, canica ; 
oblong conical ; smooth ; brown green ; last whorl somewhat keeled. 

Benson, Ann. ix. p. 488, forms a new genus, Batillaria, with (7«ri- 
thium zonale. Testa turrita, insculpta, rudi ; anfractibus plurimis ; aper- 
tura oblonga, infra angustiore, basi truncata, evasa ; labro sinuato, supra 
emarginato, infra provecto, labio supra callo munito ; columella planata, 
basi incrassata, oblique truncata, canalem vix efibrmante ; operculo cor- 
neo, tenui, spirali, multivertidllato. There is only one species, B. zo- 
nalis, 

Menestho, nov. gen., Moller, 1. c, animal pede elongate, angusto ; ore 
simplice, membrana linguali destitute (?) ; tentaculis brevioribus, crassius- 
oulis, oculos perparvos ad basin intemam ferentibus; operculo pauco- 
spirato, testa conico-turrita. Turbo albulus, Faun. Gropn., 4'''. Perhaps, 
nearly allied to lAttorma, 

176 



MOLLUSCA — CTENOBRANCHIA. 133 

Riuoa plica, Cantraine, Bull, de Bruz. iz. 2, p. 346 ; smooth ; milk 
white ; oolunella with a fold above ; allied to R, manodanta, Plulippi : 
Sardinia. B, ttibventricoga, id. ib. ; greenish horn oolouied ; narrow folds 
longitudinally with vertical stripes; labrum outwardly slightly emar- 
ginated : Ostia. B, mctrmorata, id. ib. ; greenish ; marbled dirty brown ; 
white at the base ; pointed with minute stripes : Sardinia. B^punctum, 
id. ib. ; smooth ; horn coloured ; labrum inwardly slightly thickened ; 
peristome complete ; allied to the B, puncPultMn, Phil. : coasts of the 
Peninsula, Sant Antioco. B, obtusa, id. ib.; obtuse; smooth; horn coloured, 
yellow ; three whorls ; suture deep ; peristome complete : Sardinia; rare. 
B, saHndum, id. ib. ; obtuse ; sub-umbilicated ; smooth ; horn coloured, 
grey ; apex brown ; four whorls ; mouth roundish, marginated ; peristome 
complete : Sardinia. B. eastcmea, 9crobiculata, gldbuhM, MoUer, 1, c. 
fi*om Greenland. B, ca/nbcRa, a/uberictna, gradata, D'Orbigny. 

Bi89oina cateshycma, sctgraiana, elega/ntissifnaf striaUhcottata, 
hrotoniana, sloamana, D'Orbigny : from Cuba. 

Truncatella scalariformis, Reeve, from the Pacific. (Proc. Zool. 
Soc. p. 197.) 

AfnpullcMria tasmama, Le Quillou (Rev. 2iooL 1842, p. 105) ; coni- 
cal; five whorls; slightly striped; bay, with brown interrupted cross 
lines ; umbilicus deep ; 15 mill. : Van Diemen's Land. 

Turritella lactea, MoUer, L c. ; white ; thirteen wavy ribbed whorls. 
T. poUx/rii, Beck, ib. ; grey violet, with twelve rounded, four cornered, 
smooth whorls. T. coshiJ^ata; white, with twelve to fourteen cylin- 
drical sharp ribbed whorls. T. caribasa, D'Orb., slightly undulated; 
whitish ; twelve whorls : from Cuba. 

Sailaria EgchHchtii, Holb., in MoUer, 1. c. ; ten fine longitudinally 
striped whorls, the inferior quite smooth. 8c, hotessieriana, D*Qrb., 
ten flat ribs; eight whorls; the last anteriorly fiirrowed across: Gua> 
daloupe. Sc* albida, id. ; narrow, obHque, leaf-like ribs ; nine whorls. 
8c, foliaceicogta, id. ; high, posteriorly widened lamellffi ; eleven whorls. 
8c, echinaticottaf id, ; undulating, four-bristled lamellae. 8c. tmcina- 
ticosta, id. ; rose-coloured, with high ribs, hooked posteriorly. 8c, com- 
deama, id., is perhaps 8c, acuta, Pfr. Archiv. 1840, i. p. 256. 

Lea describes a new species of the genus Patitheay which he calls 
sordida (Sillim. Amer. Joum. xlii. p. 110). Adams declares it (ib. 
p. 392) to be a variety of Odostomia trifida, Qould ; Actceon trifidus, 
Totten. He also remarks, that it is not from Boston, as Lea asserts, but 
frx)m Dartmouth. 

Actasan parvus, Lea, ib. p. Ill ; acutely conical, smooth, white, um- 
bilicated, columella with one fold : Delaware Bay. 

Lovell Reeve has published a monograph of the genus Tomatella, in 
which he reckons thirteen species ; among these, seven are new. (Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 58.) 

177 M 



134 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

I^framidelia cmda and glant^ Reere. (Proe. tap. dt. p. 198.) 

Rednt dsMribet, in the Bey. ZooL 1842, p. 73, some new speeiet of 
NerUa : — N. awnmlMi, fnm tbe Philippines. N. E§mngtimif fnm New 
Hollend. N, (NmiHna) cummgia/na, from the FhiHppxnes and the 
Molueeas. N, (Neritina) phadana^ Iran St. Domingo. N. (ClUhonJ 
rugata, from the Philippines. N, (Clithon) gandaHna, from the South 
Sea Islands. N. (CUihan) aveliana, from Manilla. N. (NeritinaJ 
temiktia, from Sumatra. 

The same author remarks, ib. p. 177, that the Nerita proper are 
essentiallj distinguished from the Neridna, bj the lAteral snmmit of the 
sorfiioe o£ their AnimiAlu being incised, and not bj the teeth on the 
inside of the labmm. He also describes several additional new species : 
N, corr<mUa, New Guinea ; Longii, Malabar ; Le OuiUauana, Salomon 
Islands ; mcwra (Chemn. Condi, t. pL 190, f. 1948-49, atrata^ Lam.), 
Polynesia, Madagascar; tenAra$a, Solo Island, North of Borneo; N. 
piiiformU, Otaheite ; N, nUttreanaf in fresh-water at Qrasse in Pro- 
Tenoe ; K. fCUthan) iouleyetanay Otaheite ; N, (CHthon) obseurata, 
Otaheite ; N. (Clithon) ipinifera. Island of Quaham ; If. (Clithon) 
menkecmay Otaheite. 

Some Neritinas b j Soulejet, which were collected during the yoyage of 
the Bonite, are to be feimd, ib. p. 269. N. indiea appears to be ^. me- 
lanMoma of the reporter. N, auiblata, from the Philippines, is allied 
to N, mibcanaUculata, Redux. N. towranennt, allied to the preceding : 
Cochin-China. N. vestita, allied to N. dubia ; the epidermis is drawn 
forward over the labmm: Philippioes. N. Gcmnardii; green, with 
black undulating longitudinal lines, lip without teeth : Godiin-China. 

Neritina armstrongiana. Hinds' Annals, z. p. 82; black, spotted 
with golden yellow ; spines upon the last whorl ; lip with one bhiiit 
tooth : Marquesas Islands. 

Bedus describes twenty-one spedes of Neritoe from Cuming's ooUee- 
tion, among which are many new. (Proe. ZooL Soc. 1842, p. 168.) 

Neritina tri$ti$f IVOrb., Cuba ; black with white points ; four whorls ; 
columella dentated. N. mierotioma, id.; greenish with narrow black 
undulating longitudinal lines ; perhaps Listeri, Pfr., Archiy. 1840, p. 255, 

Lesson describes (Bey. ZooL 1842, p. 187) a new Neritina {Nerip- 
teron) giga$, which certainly, as Beduz, ib. p. 236, has already asserted, 
is identical with Neritina granoea, Sow. Beduz takes this opportunity 
of diyiding the eared Neritce into two diyidons : — 1. Neripteron ; t. n»- 
yicelliformis, labrum postioe supeme et infeme productum, interdum 
utmmque canaliculatum. The spedes of this section are N. awriculata. 
Lam., tahitenHs, Less., navicellina, Guillou, UcanaUoulatat Bed., 
mibav/rieulata, Bed., Mawitux, Less. 2. Clffpeohtm; t. rotundata 
sen dypeifonms, labrum lateraliter dilatatum sen auetum. Spedes N. 
latissima, Brod., ca/riosa. Gray, oweniana, Ghray, rangiana, Mus. Par. 
178 



MOLLUSCA — CTENOBRANCHIA. 136 

dilatata, Biod., gldbosa, Brod., alata. Sow., Nuttalli, Red., gr€tno§at 
Sow., intermedia, Sow., labiosa, Sow. 

Recluz describes nine species of the genus Navicella, amongst which, 
JV. va>riahili8, ou/mingicma, clypeohum, all from the island of Mindanao, 
are regarded as new. (Proc. p. 154.) 

Le GKiillou describes fonr new species of NaHca in the Rey. Zool. 
184^, p. 104 : — N, quctdrifaeiata, from Msngaieya ; N, candidieeima, 
from Vayao; N, ecmdaUna, from Sandal Bay; N, pcMrvtUa, from 
Borneo. 

In Philipprs plated and descriptions of new shells, No. 1, there is one 
plate dedicated to the genus Natica, which contains, besides JV, rechh 
nana, Desh., daplicata. Say, heros, Say, triseriata, Say, plumbea, 
Lam., conica, Lam., senUmdcata, Gray, coneolidata, Couthouy, seyeral 
new species. N, ajfinis, y. d. Busch ; oyal, smooth, with white and red 
alternate bands, and red longitudinal streaks; umbilicus wide, with 
small spiral callosity : Hab. ? N. rhodostoma, Phil. ; white, with fiye 
rows of rust-brown spots; umbilicus open; columella and callosity of 
columella rose-coloured : Hab. ? N, alba, Loy^n ; smooth ; greenish- 
white ; umbilicus quite dosed ; labium scarcely callous : Greenland. 
N. pygmaa, Phil. ; white, with red points, and three indistinct bands ; 
labyrinth forms partitions, whilst the whorls aboye are pressed flat to 
tlie suture : Hab. ? N", s^tentrionalis, Bedc., in Moller's Moll. GronL ; 
spherical, grey-red; umbilicus concealed by a semicircular callosity; 
operculum challcy. N. nctna, Moller, ib. ; spherical, imperforate, white, 
operculum homy : both fiN>m Greenland. N» vberina, lyOrb., Cuba ; 
smooth white, six whorls. J^. BCbgraiana, id.; white, with brown 
undulating longitudinal lines ; is perhaps N. puichella, Pfr. ; Ardiiy. 
1840, p. 254. N, lacemula, id.; brown-red, with a white band 
anteriorly, sutures white. 

lyOrlngny (Cuba) adds three new species to the genus NoHca, Bed., 
yiz., — N, tulcata, striata, lamelloea. 

Amauba, noy. gen., Moller, Moll. Gronl. p. 7 ; Animal Naticis affine ; 
pede paryo, compacto, lobo posteriore destituto, lobo anteriore profunde 
sinuato, oculis subcutaneis, ad basin intemam lobi sitis ; operculo ter- 
miaali, panooepiiato; tesU ovate, imperfonta, l»yi. spira pi«ducta. 
apertura obpyriformi, drdter dimidiae testes longitudinis. A, xcmdida ; 
white, shining : Greenland. 

Sigaretus helicaideus, Le Guillou, Bey. Zool. 1842, p. 105; milk 
white, furrowed yerticaUy, striped longitudinally, with an umbilical 
cleft ; 17 mill : Amboyna. 8, (?) grosnlandicuB, Moller, L c p. 10. 

Velutina kmigera, id. ib. ; auriform, woolly, bright yellow. 

DelphinAila calcaroidee, Cantraine, Bull. Brux. ix. 2, p. 341 ; testa 
parya, orbiculata, supra plana, infira oonyexa, late umbilicata; anfr. 
3-4, ultimo bicarinato; carina supema spinis armata, infemacrenata; 

179 



136 RBPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

apertur arotundato-oompreeia : Gnlf of Cagliari. D. tyria, from New 
Holland, imperialU, tncMa, formosa, and aculeata, from the Philip- 
pines, haTe been described bj Loyell Reeve, Proc. p. 102. D. tubercu^ 
iq0a, D'Qrb. (Cuba), has six knobbed cross ribs, and four whoris. 

RoteUa $em%9triataf lyOrb. (Cuba), whitish, with Vertical stripes 
snperiorij ; beneath smooth, transparent. R, dia^hcma, id. ; like the 
preceding, bat without stripes ; probably R, puHUa, Pfir. R, carinata, 
id. ; keeled ; in other respects like preceding. R. ttriata, id. ; striped 
longitndinallj, with open umbilicos. R. anomala^ id. ; smooth, keeled, 
with open umbflicns. 

D'Orbigny (Cuba) divides the genus Solarium into two divisions. 
The Solaria proper have a depressed operculum with few whorls; 
interioriy with an elevated protuberance ; the others (Heliaeug) have a 
spiral conical operoulum. To the latter division belongs Sol. Hd>erti, 
Desh. ; 8oL Philippii, Cantr. ; Bull. Bmz. iz. 2, p. 344 {Valvata 
striata, Phil.) : Sardinia. 8, himlcatum, D'Qrb. (Cub.) ; two ribs on 
the periphery ; above them five, beneath them six cross-ribs. S. del- 
phintUoides, id.; cross-ribbed, white; trochiform. S. inomatum ; 
frangible, smooth, with a light keel. 

Lovell Reeve has laid before the 2iOological Society seven species of 
the genus PJioruSy Montf., amongst which four are new : Ph, exusttis, 
caleuliferus, pallidulusy and corrugatua (Proc. p. 160). AU of them 
are figured in his Conchologia Systematica. 

Ckmeulus Blainvilliif Cantr., Bull. Bruz. ix. 2. p. 344 ; testa orbicu- 
lato-conoidea, umbilicata, nitida, leevi, albicante, lineis obliquis,pleramque 
angulatis, purpureo-lividis picta ; anfr. 5 oonvexis, sutura simplioe dis- 
tinctis, ultimo depresso, umbilico mediocri, spirato, non crenato, albo ; 
apertura ovato-depressa ; labro intus sulcato, oolumeDa supra unidentato- 
pHcata, infra subunidentata aut trituberculata : Tripoli 

Troehu8 asteriacus, genvmotus, hanleyanuSf modestus : habitat of all 
unknown; eximius, from Payana; melanostoma, from New Holland, 
are figured in the Conchologia Systematica of Lovell Reeve (Proc. p. 
184). T. hotesseriamua; D'Orb. (Cuba), circular ; umbilicated, with two 
lateral elevated stripes ; variegated white, black, and red ; columella with 
one tooth. T. canaliculatus, id. ; circular, keeled, whitish, spotted wavy 
brown, umbilicated ; one tooth on the columella. 

La,cuna glacialia, MoUer, L c. ; testa ovato-conica, rufo-frisca, anfr. 
5 cylindraceis, plicis membranaoeis angustis, dnereis, confertis or- 
natis. 

Margarita glauca, MoUer, 1. c. ; testa oonoidea, bsvi, opaca, albido- 
livida, umbilico mediocri, anfr. 4 cylindraceis, sursum cresoentibus. 
M, Vahlii, id. ib. ; testa conoidea, hyalina, nitida, margaritacea, umbi- 
lico angusto ; anfr. 4-4}^ cylindraceis sursum crescentibus. M. (?) 
costulataf id. ib. ; testa minuta, depresse globosa, lutea anfr. 3 sursum 

180 



MOLLUSCA— CTENOBRANCHIA. 137 

creioentibtts, cjlindricis, plicis oonfertif transTersim omatis; umbiUoo 
angustiore ; peristomate oontinuo, p»|ie soluto. 

Phaticmdla umbilicata, D'Orb. (Cuba), umbilicated, with red points ; 
white and red spotted ; the last whorl angled anteriorly. P. zdnina, 
id.; mnbilicated, with oblique lines, and red or white spots; perhaps 
P. punctata, P&. ; Aiehiv. 1840, p. 256. P. hrevis, id; ; umbilicated, 
white, with red or black points ; spire very short. 

Turbo ticcumicus and variabilis, from the Philippines ; pulcher and 
squanUger ; habitat unlmown. Lovell Beeve (Proc. p. 185). 

OomM victor, Broderip, Proc. 1842, p. 54 ; yellow, with white spotisi, 
and two dark brown neddaoe bands ; Hab ? 

MargineUa caribosa, D'Qrb. (Cuba), yellowish, with three brown 
bands; labrum yellow, smooth. M. aboU/neata, id.; yellow-red, with 
three white lines. Jf . iubtriplicata. Id. ; three folds on the columella. 
M, ovuliformis, id. ; white, smooth ; spire oonoealed. Jf . la/valleeana, id. ; 
appears to be minuta, Pfr. ; Arch. 1840, p. 259. Jf. sulcata, id. ; whitish, 
with two reddish bands ; ribbed longitudinally ; labrum toothed inwardly. 

Mingicula semistriata, D'Qrb. (Cuba), oyal-oonical ; thick ; whitish ; 
cross-striped anteriorly; columella thickened, with two folds; labrum 
thickened in the middle, with a protuberance ; 2 milL 

OUviiui miUola, lyOrb. (Cuba), whitish, with undulating brown lon- 
gitudinal lines ; columella thickened, with one fold. 

VohOa deles$ertia/na, Petit, Mag. de ZooL 1842, pi. 57; spindle- 
shaped ; ribbed longitudinally ; margin of columella wrinkled yertically, 
with three folds at the base; labrum sharp, thickened externally; 56 
nulL : Madagascar. Broderip has described seven varieties of Voluta 
auUca, m Proc. ZooL Soc. 1842, p. 53. 

Mitra anais. Lesson (Rev. ZooL 1842, p. 142) ; t. ovato-turbinata, 
IflBvi, lutea, fasciis rufis angulatis omata ; labro deztro crasso unidentato, 
columella bi-tridentatave : Gambier Islands. M, hicolor and casta, 
Swains. ; Oliva teJiAielcha and puekha are united in one species by the 
same author. M. a^nis, id. ib. ; t. cylindracea, laeyi, grisea cum lineolis 
flezuosis nigris; suturis lineola aterima notatis; ultimo anfractu basi 
transrerse sulcato et nigrosericeo, columella sextiplicata : Gambier 
Islands. Jf. dbliqua, id. ib. ; t. fusiformi, laeyigata, immaculata, lutes^ 
oente, fulvo cincta minutissime transrersim striata, ultimo anfractu basi 
striate, columella quadriplicata alba : same habitat. Jf. virginalis, id, 
ib. ; t. fusiformi-turrita, subulata, longitudinaliter transyersimque striata, 
areolata,niyea, columella quadriplicata, labro extemo denticulate: Taiti. 
Jf . grcenkmdica. Beck in MoUer, L c. ; spindlenshaped ; reddish-brown ; 
smooth ; finely cross-striped ; columella has four folds. 

Admetb, noy. gen. Eroyer in Moller 1. c. ; animal pede magno antioe 
lato, truncate, sinuato, postice lanceolate, capite paryo, rotundato ; ore 
simplice (proboscide et membrana linguaG destituto), tentaoulis longis^ 

181 



1 



138 REPORT ON ZOOLOOY, MDCCCXLII : 

filifomiibiif , oeulos minutoi in tabercolif ad basin exteriofem ferentibnt ; 
opeitsulo nullo ; testa oyata, diaphana, fragili ; apertnra oyata, antioe yiz 
■ubemarginAta, oolumeUa aicnata, oblique tnmcata, labio tenni, recto. 

A, critpOfj n. sp* 

Lesson has made us acquainted with some ColtmbellcB (Bev. ZooL 
1842, p. 184) : O. clathra ; ooyeied with strong longitudinal and yertieal 
ribs, whidi form deep fosssD between each other; three folds on the 
columella: Sandwich Islands. C. \meevnoide9; allied to lugubriBy 
Kiener; with black ledges and red hollows between: Aoapulco. 0. 
ampla; furrowed yerticallj; labmm within has numerous folds; 3-4 
protuberances on the columella: Gambier Idands. C, aphthtggera ; 
brownish yellow, minutelj striped across with regularly placed blackish 
laces ; longitudinal ribs point out the swelling of the last whorl ; mouth 
white, with purple on the columella, on whidi are white points : Acapuloo. 
C, pulieariSf has longitudinal ribs, white, with regular rows of black 
stripes on them ; mouth white, with black spots on the labmm : Mar- 
quesas Islands. O. digitalis ; ooyered with little shields like a thimble ; 
white, with some yellow undulations; mouth small, white; columella 
with points and a pad. C philippin<Mrum, Reeve (Plroc. p. 199). 

Ebvma jciponica, Reeye, from Japan (Proc. p. 200). 

Terebra pretiosa, Reeye (Proo. p. 200). 

Buccinun chliqwum is, according to Pfeiffer = B, vtfreum, Fir. (Rey. 
Zool. 1842, p. 26). B, genetta, Lesson, ib. p. 237 ; spindle-shaped, with 
brown-black streaks ; folded longitudinally; striped vertically; last suture 
has many warts: Oran. B, ajinis, id. ib. ; reddish-green; smooth; 
labium dentated on the margin : Pacific. B. phalcma, id. ib. ; small, 
shining, ribbed, striped vertically, ribs warty, white, with reddish lines 
on the spire ; labrum smooth, thickened internally, pointed : Acapulco. 

B, Jlaridanum, id. ib. ; chestnut-brown, with white spots : South Sea. 
B, tulipa, id. p. 238 ; thick, shining, with undulating ribs ; between them 
numerous stripes with little white warts ; yellow : Acapulco. B. ptk^ 
lica/ris; small, knobbed, plaited longitudinally, grey, with blade pro- 
tuberances and white stripes : Sandwich Islands. B, elegans, fiom 
California, and B. pyrottoma. Reeve (Plroc. p. 199). B. tmdulatum, 
MoUer, 1. c. p. 11. B. icalariforme, Beck., ib. 

Plcmiixis circiwMitu,9i Lesson (Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 187) ; red, deeply 
furrowed ; epidermis woolly, red ; mouth wide, toothed superiorly ; colu- 
meDa dentated: Acapulco. P a/reolatu», id. ib. ; white, with red bands ; 
whorls with shields ; sutures granulated ; mouth small, toothed supe- 
riorly ; labrum furrowed internally : Tuti. 

Ricinula iodostofna, Lesson, Mag. de Zool. 1842, p. 58 ; globular ; 
mouth violet (in the plate rose-red); epidermis brownish; surrounded 
by brown lines and six black bands ; 18'" : New Zealand ; already de- 
fined in Rev. Zool. 1840. The same author describes two new species 

182 



MOLLUSCA— CTENOBRANCHIA. 139 

of this g«niu in the IUt. Zgol. p. 102. B. nrfatoma ; globular ; knotty ; 
month yiolet internally; at eireumferenee white, with yellow stripes; 
labram internally with six teeth ; oolumella four wrinkles ; three cent : 
Gambier Islands. A. men$truo$a ; grej, wrinkled ; margin of lip with 
six unequal digitations; mouth orange; fiye warts on labmm; threes 
folds on the oolumella ; twenty-four mill. : same habitat. 

Some new species of the same author are added, ib. p. 186. Pwrpura 
vioUicea ; testa parra longitudinaliter et transyersim oostata, canoellata, 
grisea ; apertura riolaeea, obliqua, intus dentata ; canali distincta, oolu- 
mella l»vi : Gambier and Marquesas Islands. P. aterrima ; t. oyata, 
nigra, spira InreTi acuta, tuberculata, transrersaliter funiculata ; apertura 
ampla, nigra, labro tenui : Crambier Islands. P. aven^acea ; t. oyato- 
oblonga, fusifonni, atra, transrersim striata; striis perlatis, apertura 
longitudinali, labro deztro IsbtI, oolumella mfo-castanea : same habitat. 
P. bieolar; t. ovata transyersim tenuiter striata, grisea, striis nigris, 
anfractibus oonyezis, spira breyi, ultimo anfiractu dilatato, apertura lon- 
gitudinali purpureo-atra ; labro dextro IsbtI, denticulis intus albis 
notato : South Sea Islands. 

Oniecia Dennisoni and 9tr<>inbif(>rmi$, Beeye, Proo. 91 : habitat un^ 
known. 

Sowerby*s monograph of the genus Aporrhais contains three species : 
— A. pespelecam ; A, petearbonis, magis tenui quam A, petpeleccmif 
eanaUbus elongatis, labio extemo trilobate : Mare Medit. : and A. oc- 
cidentalis ; testa turrita oonoentrioe plicata, spiraliter striata, canaHbus 
breyibus, labio extemo unilobato. Gray's A. senegcUenns is omitted. 

The monograph of the genus Rostellaria, by the same author, contains 
^nr species : — M, curvtrogtriMn, Encycl. ; cwrta, Sow. (Zool. Proo. 1842, 
p. 165) ; rectirostrum. Lam. ; and Povestt, Petit MS. (?) The latter 
species has been described in the Bey. ZooL 1840, p. 326; and has 
appeared with a plate in the Magas. de Zool. 1843, pL 53. 

The monograph of the genus Struthiokvnay by Sowerby, contains also 
iye speciBs (ib.) : — 8, ttra/nwMa (Murex seromtneus, GmeL); 8. no- 
duloia. Lam. ; 8, ttierfiMs, Sow., Zool. Joum. ; 8. gigas, new species ; 
stramineflB simiHima, sed majore ; angulo anfiractuum rotundata, nodulis 
minoribus omato ; and 8, cblita, Sow. Tankeryille CataL App. p. 18. 

Sowerby enumerates fifty-eight species of the genus 8Pr<»nbu8f ib., of 
which the following are new : — 8, cri9patu$ (Proc p. 143) ; 8. 8ibbaldii ; 
t. subdayata, lasyi ; spira parya, anfractibus angulatii, plicatis ; ultimo 
magno, yentricoso, labio interne nigro-lineato ; labio extemo interne 
striate, medio sub-incuryo ; sinu panro : Ceylon. ;Sf. wmiformM ; t, conica, 
IsByi, pallide fulya, fasdis brunneis interruptis eincta, yalide angulata, 
spira breylBsima, anfractibus ad angulum plicatis, apertura angustata, 
labio extemo yix expanse ; sinu paryo. 8, dMu,$ ; form of a cone ; 
labrum slightly drawn forward, and internally crenated. 8, eiegam; 

183 



140 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDGCCXLII : 

t. subelongtift^ foiiformi, fpira subeloiigsta, anfractibiis angnlatiB, ad 
angnlum plioatiB, in medio mimite taberculatis, antioe sulcatis ; nltimi 
maigine Tuioosa, apertuia ovali, striata. 8. hoBmoUoma; ij oTali 
ttriata, longitiidiiialiter plicata; apertuia loeea, striata, labio extemo 
sinu yalido. 8. fimformU ; t. fusifonni, Invi, antiee subtnmeata ; spira 
oonica anfiactibas prope sutaram nnisiiloatis, ultimo ad mai^guiem striato, 
doTBO snbgibboeo, apertura aagostata, labiis intus striatis postiee in 
canalem spine partem decurrentem attenuatis, eztemo oblique tmncato, 
sinu antioo parro. 8. terebellatus ; t. elongata IsbtI ; spira brevi, an- 
fractu ultimo antice oblique truncato, apertnra interne striata, labio 
eztemo tIz ezpanso, paulvlvm inerassato, sinu antioo indistincto, sab- 
dentate. 8. huJbulu9 (iSooL Proc. 1842). 8, glabratui ; t. subpyra- 
midali, nitida, apertnra oTsli, bicanaliculata, columella truneata; labio 
eztemo crasso, reflezo, antioe subemarginato ; opeiculo ovali ; anfractu 
ultimo ad dorsum prope sutnram plicate. 8, a/u$tralts ; t. ovali, rugosa, 
spiraliter oostata, spira elongata, anfractibus angulatis, plicato-tubercu- 
latis, ultimo oostis tuberculatis duabus; apertura lata, labio intemo 
antioe gibboso, labio eztemo ad anfractus duos eloTato, valide ezpanso, 
unilobato, intus snlcato, postioe costis duabus magnis, margine crasso, 
snbinflezo, intus crenulato, canali recurvo : Australia. 

8tr<mJbu9 pondera$u$, PhUippi (Abbild. u. Beschr. neuer Conch jlien, 
i. 1) ; white, with rusty yellow longitudinal spots ; outer lip has five 
brownish yertioal bands ; whorls tuberculated, upon the last a compressed 
knob: Pacific. 

8tronibus Chemnitisii, Pfir., has been by Pfeifier himself reckoned as 
identical with 8tr, pcmfront, Swains. (Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 2%,) 

Grimaud de Cauz and Gruby have described the organ which con- 
tains the purple fluid in the Murex hrcmdaris. This vesicle is two 
centimeters long, one and a half centimeters broad at the base, and is 
funnel shaped. It is situate at the upper part of the body, between the 
head and liver. This is properly the cavity of the lungs, it opens 
between the margin of the mantle and the body of the animal The 
fluid contained in it, has, at the same time, been ezamined by the 
microscope ; it is transparent and contains oval cells. (Comptes R^idus, 
vol. zv. p, 1007.) 

Mvrex Cleryi, Petit, first described in the Rev. Zool. 1840, is now 
figured in- the Magas. de Zool. 1842, pi. 54. The author is now in- 
clined to consider this species as identical with Typhis Belcheri, Brod. 

M, 8tevnforthii ; habitat unknown. Reeve, Proc. p. 104. 

Of the genus Triehotropis, Sow., two new species, &om Greenland, 
are to be found in Moller, 1. c, atla/nHca, Beck, and conicay Moll. 

Mangelia HolboUii, Beck, ib., testa conico-fusiformi, tenera, diaphana, 
albida, IsBvi, anir. 7, conveziusculis longitudinaliter subtillissime striatis, 
ad futuram rugosis. 

184 



MOLLUSCA— CTENOBRANCHIA. 141 

Many apecies of Miller's genus Defrwi^cia are also to be found in 
Moller, 1. c, all fiom Greenland, viz., — nobU%$y sciUcuris, exctrata, woodi- 
ana {Plewrotama turricula. Wood), elegctns, cinerea, Pmgelii, Beck, 
VaMiif Bedk, eylmdracea, Bechii, livida, viridula (Tritonium inri- 
d/ala. Faun. Groenl.) 

Fu9U8 funiculatus, Lesson, Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 104, allied to F. Petit- 
Thouarni, Kienar : Acapulco. F, roio-pcntif id. ib. ; yellow red, with 
regular tubercles ; mouth rose coloured ; six cent. : Oambier Islands ; 
was, id. p. 212, by the same author, joined to Fasetolariaf but it wants 
the folds in the columella. F. imbricatus, id. ib. p. 212. ; striped verti- 
cally ; ribbed longitudinally ; whorls concealed by small lamellae ; has 
two keels in the middle ; six cent. : Chili, Peru. F. pyruhides, id. ib. ; 
like preceding, but without longitudinal ribs; mouth yellow: Chili. 
F. dnuatiis, id. ib., allied to Fvs. sinuatus, but only twenty-six mill, 
long : Chili. F, foUicus, id. ib. ; rounded longitundinal ribs, intersected 
by wavy laces of leaflets, like a tile roof; between these tile-Hke scales, 
the laces are alternately rose coloured and white : Taiti. F. frondomSf 
id. ib. ; similar to preceding ; grey with some black laces : Marquesas 
Islands. F. ventricoBUB, id. ib. ; oval ; bellied with regular laces ; 
without longitudinal ribs : Chili. F. latericeus, Moller, 1. c. ; bright 
red, with a glassy epidermis and projecting lines. F. Kroyeri, id. ib. ; 
bay, with undulating impressed lines. F, HoJhoUii, id. ib.; white, 
smooth ; epidermis brown yellow. 

Fasciola/ria sulcata, Lesson, Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 212 ; eight whorls, 
with broad longitudinal ribs, and alternating vertical laoes ; bay ; 
twenly-four mill. : Acapulco. 

Pleurotoma perlata. Lesson (Bev. Zool. 1842, p. 143); t. parva, 
ovato-oblonga, rufa, perils niveis cincta, spira acuta, apertura ovali, 
canali elongata : Sandwich Islands. P. fimiculatay id. ib. ; t. parva, 
oblongata, turriculata, rufa, costis drcularibus, undulatis lamellosisque 
tecta, spira acutissima, apertura longitudinali, scissura rotunda: Aca- 
pulco. P. apecioiay Reeve : habitat unknown. (Proc. p. 199.) P. Bechii, 
id. ib., from the Philippines. 

TurbineUa paci/ica, Lesson, Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 211, allied to T. cre- 
nvlatay Eiener, with rounded ribs ; regular vertical stripes ; eighteen 
mill.: Sandwich Islands. T, tmtends; about six ribs on the last 
whorl ; labrum furrowed internally ; columella has three or four pads ; 
six mill.: Taiti. T. pwrpuroides ; has the appearance of a Ricinula ; 
columella has three vertical pads : Gambler Island. 

T. ifnperiaUB and vexillulum, Reeve, Proc. p. 198. According to a 
remark of L. Pfeiffer, Cerithiu/m procerwm, Kiener, is ss C. martini- 
anunhf Pfir. of Lamarck, oonfonnded with C, vertagua, 

Cerithium lacteu/m, Eiener, must receive some other name, as that 
one has already been used by Philippi. Two species are united by 

185 



142 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

Kieaer under the mune of O. §tercu9-wu§earumf Say, one of which onlj 
oonnesponds to it (ReT. Zool. 1842, p. 26). C. tfonce/totum, Lea, 
(Sillim. Amer. Jouxn. xliL p. Ill); mib-umbflieated ; funowed longi- 
tndinallj ; itriped tnafrenelj ; mouth beneath protracted to a canal. 

Crepidula acuta. Lea (Sillim. Amer. Jonm. zlii. p. 108) ; convex, 
smooth, farownish; apex pointed, straight; plate triangular, white; 
mouth elliptical : Delaware Bay. 

Calyptraa cinerea, ReeTe, Proc p. 50, ham Gape Horn. 

Owen deecribes a new genus, Lithkdafhus. It diffbrs from Calyp- 
trcea in having a second or yentnd shelly valTe. The head is long and 
sub-cylindrical ; between the head and foot is found a peculiar process* 
like a second head, but which is only a duplicature of the mantle. The 
branchin are composed of two short parallel rows of conical processes. 
The snout encloses a long homy tongue. The species is called 
X. hngiroitrU. (Proe. ZooL Soc. 1842, p. 147.) 



POMATOBRANCHIA. 

Of this dirision, MoUer only gives some new Greenland 
species. 

Bullosa punctata ; shell oblong, white, with fine pointed lines. 

BuUa twrrita; small, cylindrical, white, spire drawn forwards; a 
narrow umbilical deft. 

B. cortkata. Beck ; cylindrical, imperforate, yellow, \rith undulating' 
longitudinal stripes ; apex sunk, covered by the swell of the columella. 

B, Bdnhardii, Holb. (J9. insculpta, Totten?) B. wbangtUata; 
bellied, yellow, angular in the middle of the whorl ; spire flat. 



GYMNOBRANCHIA. 

MiLNs Edwakds has observed, in a OalUopcsa at Nizza, peculiar canals 
which communicate with the anterior portion of the digestive canaL 
There are two longitudinal vessels from which many branches arise ; the 
anterior go to the feelers, the others pass to the processes on the back, 
usually considered as gills, where they ramify two or three times. All 
these vessels are soon filled after the animal has taken food, and can be 
easily observed from its transparency. (Annales des Sc. Natur. xviii. 
p. 330.) 
Joshua Alder and Albany Hancock have given descriptions of seven- 

186 



MOLLUSCA — QYMNOBRANCHIA. 143 

teen new species of Nudtbranchia, which were found at Cullerooats, on 
the ooast of Northumberland. (Ann. iz. p. 31.) They detected ejes in 
young individuals of Doris repcmda and OoniodorU nodosa, behind 
the dorsal tentacula ; the greater opadtj of the skin generally prevents 
their being observed in older individuals. The new species are : — 

Doris cLspera ; body depressed ; white or yellowish ; cloak filled with 
spicules, and covered with obtuse tubercles ; branchias consist of nine 
small simply pinnated transparent white plumes ; ^'\ D. depressa ; 
body much depressed, of a pale sandy colour, spotted with orange or 
reddish-brown ; cloak covered with delicate pointed papiUae, and having 
spiculsB arranged transversely across the back; ten or eleven simple 
branchisB in a horse shoe form ; ^j^'\ D. repasada ; doak covered with 
minute white granular tubercles ; a row of sulphur yellow spots on each 
side ; branchiso consist of four or five broad tripinnate transparent white 
plumes. . D, similis ; body rather convex, with numerous conical white 
papillae ; branchiae of nine narrow transparent white plumes, tripinnate, 
with a strong denticulated central rib. 

Polycera oeeUata; greenish black, with irregular ocellated spots of 
|Mtle yellow ; veil interrupted in front, continued along the sides of the 
head and back in an elevated ridge with scalloped edges, and terminating 
in two or three lobes or tubercles on each side behind the branchiae ; 
branchiaB three or four large flocculent plumes, tripinnate ; ^". Triopa 
noihus, Johnston, may be the young of this species. 

Tritonia felina ; rough with small warts ; spotted with reddish-brown 
and white; branchiae stout, two or three times branched, six on each 
side of the back ; 1". Considered distinct from T. urborescens, Cuv. 
T.ptdchella; rose coloured, with small opaque yellowish tubercular 
spots ; five pair of branchiae, the front ones consisting of three branches. 

MeliboBa omata; pale yellow, with pink streaks and spots; very much 
resembling M. coronata, Johnst. 

Eolis rosea ; white, tinged with rose colour and buff on the back ; 
'branchiae arranged in fifteen or sixteen dose-set transverse series, five 
or six in each on the sides of the back. E, obtusalis ; ochrey-yellow, 
with reddish-brown blotches on the head and back ; about twelve rows 
of branchiae. E. awra/ntia; buff-coloured; ten or eleven rows of 
branchiae. E. olivacea ; pale yellow, sprinkled with white and orange- 
red or brown ; six or seven rows of branchiae. E, hystrix ; white, with 
olive brown spots on the back, and a row of large blotches of the same 
along the sides ; six or seven rows of branchiae. E, vittata ; pale buff 
speckled with fawn colour ; head rather large and truncated in front ; 
six or seven rows of branchiae. E» pallida ; whitish-yellow, with white 
and rose-coloured spots ; branchiae crowded. E, minuta ; yellowish- 
white ; branchiae few ; in about two clusters. E, nana ; yeUowish ; 
branchiae in seven or eight rows. 

187 



144 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

Arthur Hill Hassall gires some remarks on the Oymno- 

branchia found in Dublin Bay. (Ann. ix. p. 133.) 

Lowe has described a new genus of Cfymnobrcmckia (Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1842, p. 51), and names it Peplidia. Corpus limaciforme, repens, ob- 
longum ; postioe oompresso-triquetrom, dorso abrupte cristatum sea 
alato-carinatum ; apioe attenuate, acuto. Caput antioe veliferum ; velo 
semidrculari, maigine fimbriato-laoero, ciliolato ; ore inter labia baocalia 
subtus, simplicL Tentacula duo. Orificium generationis ad colli dez- 
trum. BranchiaB diplomorphsB ; sen in medio dorsi ciica anum stellatim 
ramossB, arbusculiformes, ramis pectinato-<nliati8 ; et per latera utrinque 
longitudinaliter biseriatss, conico-papilliformes, papillis apice subdivisis, 
ciliatis. One species, P. maderoe. 

MoUer also describes several new species in his Index 

MoUuscorum Grcenlandise ; viz. : — 

Tergipes rttpium ; yellow, with six dorsal papillsB on each side, which 
are also yellow, with white tops and a yellow ring at the base. Doris 
litwrata. Beck.; depressed, yellowish, with a broad chestnut-brown 
line on the back ; sixteen branchiss. D, aeuHuscula, Stp. Euplocanvus 
HolbolUi ; prismatic pale yellow green ; anus in middle of back ; three 
branchiie. 



ASPIDOBEANCHIA. 

Emarginula €<moidea, Lovell Reeve. (Proc. p. 50.) 

CYCLOBRANCHIA. 

Patella insesia. Hinds, Ann. x. p. 82; oyal, brown, transyersely 
striolate, internally white ; apex with white spots : California. 

P. cerea, Moller, 1. c. ; depressed, milk white, rough ; vertex somewhat 
forward, yellowish. 

PateUoida depicta, Hinds, Ann. x. p. 82 ; very small, linear, white, 
with irregular broken rays diverging j&om the apex ; length four times 
the breadth : California. 

8iphona/ria cha/ra^teristica, Lovell Reeve, Proc. 1842, p. 49 ; from 
Panama. 

Pa^rtnophoruB corrtigatus, from Madagascar; and P. intermedius, 
from the Philippines, have been described by Reeve. (Pioc. p. 50.) 



188 



MOLLUSCA — CONCHIPERA. 145 

TUBULIBRANCHIA. 

Vermetus ebwrnetM, Reeve. (Ppoc, p. 197.) 

CIRRIBRANCHIA. 

Dentalmm longirostrum, Reeve. (Proc. p. 197.) 

CONCHIFERA. 

Milne Ebwards has discoyered, in Pecten glaber, male and 
female sexual organs, and so proved the hermaphrodite nature 
of these animals. Annales des Sc. Nat. xyiii. p. 321. 

The ovarimn is orange-coloured, and occupies the inferior and posterior 
half of the abdomen ; a duct comes from it, which penetrates a portion 
of the testis, and runs between the basis of the tentacula to the top of 
the abdomen, tenninating at the anterior end of the branchisB. The 
testis occupies the larger anterior half of the abdomen, and is milk- 
white. In front, it passes into the foot, and ends in two small openings, 
which He in the groove of the under margin. Another excreting yellow 
organ is found on each side before the muscle and under the anterior 
end of the branchia, and appears also by its outlet to stand in union 
with the foot. It may perhaps perform the function of an accessory 
gland. 

Sowerby has described some new species of the genus Pecten (P»)c. 
p. 163), viz. : — P.pictuSy Philippines ; ittperhuSf veluHnus, the latter from 
Madagascar ; 9erratuB, Philippines ; mtgapormus, Singapore ; crassico- 
8tatu8, Japan ; alholineatus, Philippines ; ^lendiduluSy Singapore ; 
pseudolima, Philippines. All these are figured in his Thesaurus. 

Area gakbctodes, Benson ; Annals, iz. p. 489 ; rhomboidal, anteriorly 
sub-angular, posteriorly rounded, multi-radiated, margin smooth, epider- 
mis brown : Chusan. 

MoUer, 1. c, adds three sub-genera to the genus Nucula^ which he 
characterizes as follows : — 

NucuLA ; animal sine tubis ezsertilibus, pede brevi, crasso, pallii 
parte solum inferiore aperta. Testa subtrigona, rotundata, antice 
latiore, prominente, postice obtusa, circumdrca arete claudente; serie 
dentium acute angulata, dentibus anterioribus planis. Two new species 
from Greenland are described : N, corticata, Holb., and lenticula, 

189 



146 REPORT ON ZOOLOOY, MDCCCXLII : 

LxDA, Schiun. Atiim^l tubit brevibiiSy tenuibus, reciis pnediium, 
pede longo, tenni, flexili; pallio toto aperto, maiginibuB simplicibus. 
Testa transTernm ovata, Bolidioie, antice rotundata postioe plus miniuve 
ekmgata, ooaretata tnmcata, intus pariete nidimentali, quae tubulos sepa- 
nre yideretur, praedita, parte truncata, ubi valvaB paululum hiajoi, oostis 
duabia obsoletis diveigentibiu, a natibos egredientibuB, indusa, aerie 
dentium leyiua angnlata, dentibua angulatia, imbridformibus. Z. mad- 
lenta, Stp., and L, compla/nata, are new apeciea. 

YoLDiA, Moiler; animal tubia longia curvatia inatructnm; pede 
magno, valido; pallio toto aperto, marginibua poatice ciliatia. Testa 
transyeraim OYata, fragili, antioe valde, poatioe parum hiante, antioe et 
poatice rotundata, pariete rudimentaU tubulorum destituta; serie den- 
timn leyiter angolata, dentibns angulatia, imbricifonnibus. Nucula 
arctiea, Graj, and T, cmffularis {Nuc, tnyalis, Couth. ?) 

The genus Unto has been enriched by seyeral new species in Philippics 
description of new Shells. In the first number is found a plate, deyoted 
to the species of this genus. U, parwM, Barnes, is figured, beodes two 
that are new. U, temiffranoius, y. d. Busch, fiom Mexico ; roundish, 
ocunpressedy mostly ooyered with oblong grains, blackish, internally dirty 
purple coloured. U. gnUia$uSf Paireias. ; small, with radiated wrinkles : 
firam New HoUand. 

Two spedea from Chuaan are described by Benson; Annals, iz. 
p. i89. U. {Thelidermaf Swains.) Leaii, and U. (TheHdetma) diver- 

Lea has described many species in the Proc. of Amer. Phil. Society. 
In the yolume for 16il, p. 30, there are eig^t spedes : U, mpoialentu 
and tecofnatemiit &om Mexico ; rajdhensU, from Calcutta ; highyemU, 
Big., Bigby Creek; croc€^tu8, Sayannah Riyer; ealloms, Ohio; dut- 
$ani€tnu8, Sayannah ; georgia/nu$. Stump Creek. Again, at p. 82, there 
are flye spedes : U. 'br%t/mleya/MM, Warrior Riyer ; regyUarU^ French 
Broad Riyer; tnoeatus. Do.; ipcurmu^ Holston Riyer; a/rgenUu*^ Do. — 
Anodonta gtbba, Benson, L c, from Chusan ; A. montezuma, Lea (Proe. 
Amer. Phil. Soc 1841, p. 31), from Central America; A. globosa, id., 
from Mexico. 

M. Neuwyler has giyen a zootomical contribution on the oxgans of 
generation of Unto and Anodonta (Neue Denksehr. der Allgem. Sohweiz. 
Gesell. Band, yi Neufchatel, 1842). He holds that these animals are 
hermaphrodite, and the brown gland, which lies between the heart and 
abdomen, he oonsidera to be the teatia. 

OastaUa Duprei, Reduz, Rey. ZooL, p. 305, without longitudinal riba ; 
dentibuB oaidinalibua tribus aubyerticalibus ; dente laterali antica et 
mediana in yalyula dextra exterius sulcata, postica biservata; dente 
antica suprema in yalyula sinistra interius sulcata, posticalibus binia 
integerrimis : Brazilian Sea. 

190 



MOLLUSCA — CONCHIFERA. 147 

Marion de Proo^, physiciaii at Nantes, has made some obserrations 
on the motion of the Mytilut edulis, by means of its bjssus. (Ann. 
des Sciences Nat. zTiii, p. 59.) The author preserred an animal in a 
g^ass vessel, alive, for more than a month. It stretched* its foot out of 
the shell, to a length of 30 centimeters, and fastened at the point the 
end of a byssus-thread to the glass. 

MyHlu$ niger, Benson ; Annals, iz. p. 469; testa obbnga, trigona; 
cardine unidentato ; natibus subincurvatis, decorticatis, sub-epidermide 
albis, nuuginibus purpurascentibus ; intus maigaritaoeo^plendida, mar- 
gine purpureo : Chuaan. 

Modiola Chenui, Redua, Bev. ZooL 1842, p. 306 ; furrowed longitu- 
dinally, yeUow, with a broad brown band in the middle; hairy poste- 
riorly: Brazil 

Jf. dlipHca, Lea (Sillim. Amer. Joum. zlii p. 107), with purple spots, 
radiated stripes posteriorly and in front; crenulated at the margin: 
Delaware Bay. M, pulex, id. ib. ; smooth, greenish with purple lines : 
Do. M, smAotMia, Benson, Ann. ix. p. 489; epidermide olivaeea, 
obeciire radiata; ala natibusque strigis flezuosis spadiceis omatis; basi 
leviter emarginata : Chusan. M, cicerevla, MoUer, 1. c p. 19 ; spherical ; 
rough; green-yellow; 2"^ M. vitrea, Holb. in MoUer (with Myi, 
decutgatue^ Mont. 9 ) 

Dreiisena purpfircu^eni, Benson, Ann. ix. 489.; t. oblonga sub-quad- 
rata, radiato-plicata, sub-epidermide albo porpureoque omata; epidermide 
brunnea: Chusan. 

Cardium aquUiwum^ Mittre, Ann. des Sc. Nat. xviiL p. 191 ; testa 
minima, tumida, subcordata, gibba, obliqua, insBquilaterali, flavo-Tires- 
eente, macnlis rufo-fusciB et albidis ; oostiB planulatis, Invibus ; natibus 
prominulis, mfesoentibus ; intus violaoea ; 6"' : Toulon. C elegantu- 
hum^ Beck in Moller, L c; transversely oval; white, with twenty or 
twenty-five fine tile roof-like ribs. 

Xucina critiata, Becluz, Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 270 ; t. ovato-subtri- 
gona, depresso-plana, valvula sinistra planissima, dextra vix convexa, 
albido-vitrea, pellucida, concentrice plicata ; plids inferioribus strisefor- 
mibus, postioe attenuata, angulata, margine superiore oblique recta, acute 
crenata, antioe rotundata, supeme tenue arcuatim emarginata ac cristata ; 
apidbus antice recurvis : Campeadiy. 

Cyclas Sieenbuckii, Moller, 1. c. ; unequal sides ; triangular ; blunt 
anteriorly; bellied; smooth; greyish-yellow: Greenland. 

Cytherea tffoua and ea;cav€Pta, Hanley, Proc. p. 123. Cyrena pur- 
purea, Lea (Sillim. Amer. Joum. xlii. p. 106 ; t. rotundato-triangulari, 
ssquilaterali, subinflata, subcrassa, diaphana, et purpurea et alba, polita, 
striis transversis; natibus prominentibus ; margine non crenulato: 
Delaware Bay. C €be»a, Hinds, Ann. x. p. 81 ; flavo-virente ; denti- 
bus lateralibus serrulatis ; intus palHde vielaoea ; Rivers, Feejee Islands. 

191 



148 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

O. tendfroBa, id. ; fuBoo-virente, dentibos lateialibus semilatis, intua 
violaoea : from the Mme habitat 

CcMcula fiiueata, Benson, Ann. iz. p; 490; fiuoo-yurente, polita, 
intns et ad nates yiolacea, nuffgine interioii plernmque nigresoente; 
extrinsecns sukis crebris dicunidata : Chnsan. 

Sanguinolaria iridetcens, Benson, Ann. ix. p. 490 ; albida, exilissme 
transyerse striata ; latere postioo snbrostrato, subangulato, antioo Ion- 
giore, rotnndato : Chnsan. 

PiMrMnabia coitata, Hanley, from New Zealand. (Proc. p. 122.) 
Pi. decora, Hinds, Ann. z. p. 81 ; dnnamomeo-bninnea ; valva deztra 
planinscola, sinistra yentrioosa ; pallide yiolaoea radiata ; intns yiolacea : 
California. Astarte globosa, MoUer, L c. p. 20 ; triang^ular, bellied, 
minute yertical stripes ; jellow brown : Greenland. 

Loyell Beeye giyes a monograph of the genus Cfrcutatellaf in which 
nineteen species are mentioned, ten of them new. (Proc. 1842, p. 42.) 
Thej are all figured in his Conchologia Systematica. 

Pandorina arenosa, MoUer, 1. c. ; grej, with attached sand : Green- 
land. 

Solen acuminatui, Hanlej, from the Blyer Hooglej, in the East 
Indies. (Proc. p. 122.) 

Duyernoy's treatise on the animal of the Uffulina rubra, which has 
been briefly noticed from the Institute in last year's report, p. 404, has 
now appeared complete in the Annales des Sc Natur. zyiii. p. 110. 

Professor Owen has published an account of the Anatomy 
of the Pholadomya Candida^ in the Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, 
p. 150. 

The animal exhibits the characters of the Acephdla incltMa, being 
completely yeiled in the cloak, which giyes issue only to the siphonic 
tube and the foot ; it presents, howeyer, in addition to the pedal and the 
two siphonic apertures, a fourth orifice, at the under part of the siphon, 
which is of small sizQ and circular form, and which appears to be a 
supplementary entrance for water to the branchiae. This animal is dis- 
tinguished from Panopcsa OMgtralis, not only by an accessory bifrux»ite 
foot, but also by its undiyided branchiffi. 

Thracia inceg^lis, Adams, SiUim. Amer. Joum. xlu. p. 145 ; Ann. x. 
p. 238; fragile, yery inequiyalyed, striated, inequUateralj posteriorly 
truncated ; left yalye flat, right yeiy oonyex ; ossiculum lunate, semi- 
circular ; 1' 2'\ Th, myopm, Beck in MoUer, 1. c. ; the latter doubts 
whether the species belongs to the genus Th/ra^da, 

The first number of the Magas. de Zoologie, 1842, contains 
a Treatise, by Fr^d^ric Cailliaud, on the genus Clavagella, 
192 



MOLLUSCA — TUNICATA. 149 

The author ascribes the perforation of this animal into stone to a 
solrent acid, and supposes that it must be developed in veiy small 
quantities at the same time, otherwise the shell itself would be attacked 
by it. He supposes also, that the animal has it in its power to apply the 
acid to anj place where it wishes to work ; and that it can lessen its 
effects by diluting it with water, if the acid should endanger the shell. 
He supposes the small tubular openings, which Rang thought were for 
the passage of a bjssus (which, however, is not to be found), are for 
filling up the cavities often left by other animals, in perforating the 
stone^ and so closing up all entrance to its abode. They may be, how- 
ever, quite accidental, and not special characteristics. These animals 
undergo great alteration at different periods of life, by which one may 
be misled to distinguish them into different species. The author reduces 
them to four, which he has figured on three plates, viz., — C aperta. 
Sow. (C, lata, Brod. and Desh. ; C, sicula, delle Chiaje) ; C, haJanorway 
Scacchi ; C, dongata, Brod., and G. melitensis, Brod. 



TUNICATA. 

There are some new species of this division, in Moller's work ' 
already quoted : viz. — 

Cynthia gluHnans ; yellow, thin, covered with sand. 

Ascidia m(nK>cero$ ; cylindrical, tuberculated, pale red, with a homy 
projection between the openings. A. lurida; flat, brown-grey, smooth; 
openings lateral, blackish. 

Cla/velina cristallina; spherical, pedicled, compressed above, clear 
like glass, minutely tuberculated, openings whitish. 

Boltema dliata ; kidney-shaped, brown-yellow, tuberculated, fringed 
with hairs ; openings reddish ; pedicle granulated, fringed at the end. 



193 



REPORT 



ON THE 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF INSECTS, 

ARACHNIDA, CRUSTACEA, AND ENTOMOSTRACA, 

DURING THE YEAR 1842. 



BY 



DB. W. F. EBICHSON. 



A Treatise, displaying profoniid research in the History of 
the Formation of Animals, " Uber die riickschreitende Meta- 
morphose der Thiere," by Bathke (Neuest. Schrift d. Natiirf. 
Gesellsch. in Danzfg,. iii. Bd. 4 Hft. Beitrage zur VergL 
Anat. und Physiol, yon Dr. H. Bathke, Danzig, 1842), is 
peculiarly interesting in the science of Entomology. 

The author calls that phenomenon, where, in the regular course of the 
development of the animals, particular foims of the organism shrink up, 
or even disappear, '< Hetrograde metamorphosis" (ruckschreltende me- 
tamorphose). This may either happen through dissolution (metamorph. 
retrogr. per dissolutionem), or through solution (met^iet. per solutionem). 
In the former case, the organs concerned become gradually melted away, 
while their elementoiy parts pass into the mass of the rest of the or> 
ganism ; in the second case, they are cast off with the cuticular coverings. 
This occurs with the hind legs of caterpillars, the legs of many parasite 
crabs, the eyes of several Entomostrcbcay as well as with some internal 
organs, as the branchisB of the larva of the Dragon Fly. The first case 
must always precede the second ; for, as the author remarks in regard to 
the eyes, where cornea, lens, and pigment are thrown off, the other parts 

194 



INSKCTA. 151 

must beocnne absorbed ; in the same way, for example, in the kgs^ the 
masdes, &e., belonging to them must sfatink up. Besides legs, the bran- 
chisB of the lanne of different inseofcs — their simple eyes (which the author 
Yery correctly does not consider as correspcmding to the ftttoie oompU- 
eated eyes of the complete insect), — also the saUvaiy Tcssels, and the 
jaw-feet of many Iheapoda, which are afterwards absorbed, belong to 
^e oigans which are lost by the retrograde metamorphosis. This meta- 
moxphosis ^oWS itself in the most striking manner, where the animals 
are fixed in tiie last stages of life, as the parasitic Crustacea and the 
Lefmie$, The conseqnaioes which the author draws from his researches 
inv, — ^Ist, That when, through the retrograde metamorphosis, a part has 
Shrunk up, or eten completely disappeared, another has normalLy formed 
itself which compensates for i^ or undertakes its fonotion : 2d, That in 
swper cases, a part of the body only, at one place, undergoes an absorp- 
titti, whilst anotiier is more highly developed ; and, dd, That by way of 
•zceptlen, individual portions of the body are lost without being replaced 
by cihers, as is chieiy the case in the lower Cratta,esay wheire the author 
si^rposee, that all the fonctioiis, and with them also their oigans, yield 
to the veiy highly impartant derelopment and actiTity of the ovgans of 
propagation. 

Kolliker has carefully investigated the incipient derelop- 
ment of particular insects, viz., — the formation of the larva 
in the ^g of the Chironomua jgonatus^ wbich forms the Alga 
ffloeonema; of the SinrnUa eanescens^ Bremi, and of Donacia 
ercissipes (?). (Observationes de prima Insectorum genesi ad- 
jecta articulatorum eyolutionis cum vertebratorum compara- 
tione, Diss. Inaug. Scr. Alb. Kolliker. Turic. 1842, 3 tab.) 

In the oradparison with the development of t&is^ vertebrata, the author 
has arrived at the following conclusiaiia: — 1. In articulated animals, the 
germinating tissue is divided into a serous and mucous fold : 2. From the 
primitive part of the serous fold, the abdoodnal plates (visceral platten) 
sprout out towards the yolk, grow over it, and unite upon the yolk side 
of the egg; upon the cqiposite side of the fold are formed the dorsal 
plates; they do not grow together, but form themselves into the hind 
limbs : 3. The wings of insects are the lateral limbs : 4. The first traoea 
of the vertebral column show themselves in the diain of abdominal 
muscles situate between the nerves and the intestinal canal : 5, The 
nerves (animalischen nerven) take their origin in the outer part of the 
serous fold ; they are not^ however, endosed in a canal, but only covered 
by skin, as the dorsal plates are not united ; the ganglion of the brain 
also takes its origin from the primitive part : 6. The organs of sense 

195 



152 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

belong to the primitive part of the serous fold : 7. The mucous fold and 
the intestines are formed from the primitiye part towards the jtiHk, so that 
thej pass from the form of a semi-canal to that of a canal : 8. The moUth 
penetrates the ganglion chain and the primitive part, as the parts of the 
mouth originate from the latter : 9. The anus has its place in the joDc 
part, or between it and the primitive part : 10. The liver springs from 
the intestines; the other glands originate by themselves. The heart is 
situate on the jolk side, between the serous and the mucous fold. The 
development of articulated animals is thus not so different from that of 
the vertebrated animals as has hitherto been supposed, but agrees in 
important parts. The author assents to the view first taken by Rathke 
and Geoffipoy St. Hilaire, according to which, the abdomiual side of the 
articulated animals corresponds to the dorsal side c^the vertebrated; 
and adds also, that the legs of the articulated animals correspond to the 
dorsal plates of the vertebrated, which, in the former, grow to free limbs, 
in the latter, unite with those of the other side, and so form the canal 
for the spinal manow, and only in fishes form themselves, in the dorsal 
fin, into a sort of organ of motion. The wings of insects, as above men- 
tioned, correspond, according to the author's view, with the l^gs of ver- 
tebrated animals. The author considers the branchiee of the Cru8t<icea 
as corresponding to the wings of insects ; but they are always united with 
the legs, and form themselves sometimes into organs of respiration, some- 
times into organs for steering, since, in the Crustacea and Entotnostraca, 
the original form of the legs is that of the cleft feet, one arm of which 
often becomes an oigan of respiration (branohia). 

If we should, as Oken has done, consider the wings of insects as 
branchite, the comparison may be made, partly with the larvae of insects, 
partly with articulated worms. The researches and conclusions of the 
author, already ascertained by his microscopic observations in the region 
of physiology, deserve all attention ; with regard to the history of de- 
velopment in the egg, the relation in structure of the vertebrated and 
articulated animals, can be most certainly explained ; and, perhaps, the 
comparison between the two, which possesses much interest, may be 
farther conducted in a judicious manner. I must however confess, that 
I have no doubt, but that from a general comparison of the organization 
of both divisions of the animal kingdom, the conclusion must be drawn, 
that there is no actual identity of the parts of the body ; but that a 
eomparison can be instituted only in reference to the functions of the 
organs; So much the more important is it to compare the development 
of the egg in both. 

Steenstnip's work, tjber den Generationswechsel oder 
die Pfortpflanzung und entwickelung durch abwechselnde 
196 



INSECTA. 153 

Generationen, eine eigenthiimliehe Form der Brutpflege in 
den niedem Thierclassen. Copenhag. 1842, 8vo., has attracted 
the attention of zoologists in a great degree. 

In the articulated animaLs, the author recognises (p. 121) the phe- 
nomenon of the yaried generation, only in the change of the swarms of 
the aphides, which lay eggs and also produce liying young; but he finds 
also an allied phenomenon in the peculiar nursing swarm of wasps, bees, 
ants, and termites ; the phenomena of life, however, arise in such variety 
and fulness in these classes of animals, that it is almost to be expected 
similar varied generation wiQ also be discove]:ed in other families, as 
soon as the attention of observers is directed to it. The propagation of 
gall flies {Cynvp%era) at least in one respect deviating from the rule^ 
might next richly merit the attention of physiologists (v. infr.) 

We have followed, with interest, inquiries on the use of the antennad. 
Of late years no new facts have come to light. Bobineau Desvoidy alone 
(Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. xi. p. 23), wonders that there is still doubt on this 
point. " He has already shown, in the year 1827, that, in the crabs, as 
the outer antennae are evidently the seat of the sense of hearing, so the 
inner ones are the seat of that of smelling ; and afterwards proved, in 
his Eecherches sur TOrganization Yert^brale des Crustac^s, Arachnides 
et Insectes, 1828, that, in the Isopodes, the sense of hearing is no longer 
doubtful ; in tiie Arachmd^ it is wanting, while, on the other hand, the 
parts pointed out as mandibles, are here organs of smelling, and the 
poison canal in them corresponds to the kchrymal passage of the higher 
animals. In the insects, the antennae are organs of smelling, and usually 
also of touch. They have no organ of hearing at all." 



INSECTA. 

Partial essays on this class have been laid before the Pari- 
sian Academy, by Percheron (Compt. Bend. d. Seanc. de 
TAcad. de Sc. xiii. n. 24, and in Froriep Neue Notizen, xxi. 
p. 49), and by Bmlle (Ann. d. Sc. Nat. xvii. p. 267). 

Neither of these will be of any benefit to science, as they are not 
grounded on new researches on the different orders. 

Percheron takes the parts of the mouth as characteristics of the first 
rank, and divides insects into Chewing {Newroptera, Orthoptera, and 
Coleoptera)f Chewing and Sucking (Hymenoptera), and Sucking (Hemip- 
tera, Diptera, Lepidoptera), But where are the Strepsiptera, which can 
neither chew nor suck, and also all the wingless orders ? 

197 



154 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

BniM oonaiders, that fhe oiden of inseeli aire i^aoed in two pafallel 
rows, of which the one hM the parts of the mouth adapted for chewing, 
the other for sacking. The Strepmptera haye occasioned some hesi- 
tation to the author, because he did not know whether they diew or 
suck; and, indeed, ihey do neitber. The HymetMptera he has placed 
with the chewers, although thej can also snok. finally, the Ntwmp- 
t&ra stand among tiie chewers, although a great dlTision of them — 
tiie PhryganeoB, certainly do not chew. Again, the natural order of 
tiie liee is split, and fhe sucking ones have receired tiie wery improper 
name of an order, Zoophaga. The Tkrips haye also receiyed another 
new name, McUaeoptera. 

The author has afteiwaids extended tiie idea of the douMe row to 
the whole animal kingdom (lib. cit. xyiiL 50, 298) ; but also here in 
a manner equally usdess, firom his superficial knowledge of the subject. 

Two treatises by Glaser, ** Von der Uebereinstimmung swischen 
den Characteren der Pflansen und der an ihnen lebenden Insecten, im 
besonderen der Schmetterlinge," and ** Parallele zwischen der Elasse 
der Insecten und dem gesammten Thierreibh," are to be found in the 
Isis (p. 6 and 13). 

Esquisses Entomokgiques, ou Histoire NatureUe des Insectes les plus 
remarquables, par M. TAbb^ J. J. Bourass^, Tours, 1843, 12 m. K« is 
only known to me by name. 

Hope (Transact, of the Ent. Soo. of Lond. iii. p. 129), has arranged, 
together, all the insects which at different times haye seryed for the 
food of man. Dierbach's ** Uebersicht der gebrftuchlichsten Arzneimittel 
des Altertiiums mit besonderer Riicksicht auf die Werke des Dioscorides 
und Plinius, ein Pharmocokgisclier Versuoh." Isis^ p. 103, is a w<»rk <^ 
like nature. 

Siebold has arranged the preyious obseryations on insects which haye 
been infested by Fila/ria. (Ent. Zeit. p. 146.) 

Villa has published a short paper (Note su Alcuni Insetti Osseryati nel 
Periodo dell Eodisse dell 8 Luglio, 1842, Milano, 1842), in which he 
describes the influence of the eclipse upon the manners of dif^ent in- 
sects, whidi he obseryed during its continuance. The insects, in general, 
were yery restless, moyed their feelers strongly here and there, and hid 
themselyes. Lepturce and Cetonice ceased to fly, and remained quiet upon 
the leayes. lAbellula fiaveola, which was present in great numbers, disap- 
peared half an hour before the darkness, and appeared again half an hour 
afterwards. The larger HyvMfnoptera also disappeared. Diptera, on the 
otiier hand, flew tiU the commencement of the eclipse. The OoedneilcB 
were latest in concealing themselyes. Nootumai insects did not come out. 
1 1^ once, many years since, during a total eclipse, in the open air, 
and made similar obseryations. The peculiar anxiety with which the 
insects sought to conceal themselves struck me most forcibly. 

198 



IKSBGTA. 155 

Remarks conoerning uuects are to be found in Ratcebuig'8 Fontwis^ 
sensdiaftlicfae Reisen dorch yennhiedene Gegenden Deutschlands, Berlin^ 
1842, in Brehm'B Ausfitige naoh Brinnis (Jbjb, p. 409, 488, 566, 647, 752), 
and KiiBtor't Reiseberiobtesi tma Dalmatien nnd Montenegro (Xsis, p. 283, 
609, 743, 847). 

The twentjT-aeoo&d number baa appeared of Gennar'a Fanna Insecto- 
mm EiuropB* 

^nyenin d'nn Voyage dans Tlnde ex. de 1834-39, par Adolphe 
Beleaaert, Paris, 1843, iL yoL 8, 35 pL, is of importance for a know- 
ledge of Indian insecte, which I here defer mentioning:, as the portions 
an Tnammalia and iHids haye already been taken ap in this year's report. 
The entomological portion has been executed by Gu^rin. The new 
species haye been in part briefly characterized abeady in the Bey. ZooL, 
bat they are here more minutely described, and some beautifully 
figured. In general, what has been said of the insects of the hig^ 
lands of the Nilgherries, is particularly worthy of attention (T. ii. p. 3). 
The type of the European is here mingled with the Indian Fauna. 
The greater number of the species belong to European genera, and there 
are also found seyeral indigenous to Europe, as Coccinella 7'punctataf 
Vanessa Cardmi, PolyofMnatus hceticus; whilst, on tiie dediyity of the 
mountains, we meet with pure Indian fimns, Omithoptera JSeliac<m, 
Stemoeera chrym, ISklgora Ddessertii, Macronota Jlavo-maculata, 
Mylohris Sides, &c. 

In the zoological numbers of the " VerhandL oyer de NatuurL Qes- 
chiedenes der Nederlandsche Bezittingen," a larger treatise by De Haan 
has appeared, which treats oi the Orthopterous Fauna of Netherland- 
India, and will be mentioned aftorwards. 

The great number of insects collected by Cuming on the Philippine 
Islands, of whidi a complete series of species has been deposited in the 
British Museum in London, might weU call forth a more extensiye work, 
which would giye a profound yiew of the peculiar relations of the &una 
of this important group of the Indian world. These yeiy important 
materials haye only been partially examined, in different periodicals. 
During this year, for example, tiie CerambycidcB haye be^i described 
by Newman, some CwrculionidcB by Waterhouse, and some Bugs by 
Ad. White. 

The reporter has giyen a oontributi<m to the Entomology of Van 
Diemen's Land in these Arohiyes (8 Jahig. 1 Bd. p. 83). 

** A report on Hie Insects of Massachusetts injurious to yegetation, 
pubfished agreeably to an order of the legislature, by the Commissioner 
on the Zoological and Botanical Suryey of the Stete, Cambridge, 1841, 
8yo," is a yery learned work on the Natural History of the Insects of 
North America. The autiior, Th. W. Harris, is one of the most distin- 
guished entomologists of that country, and has executed his task with 

199 



156 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

thorough knowledge and the greatest care. The book has been written 
for a wide circle ; and while thus, on the one hand, it contains much 
which is onlj subservient to introducing the subject to general readers ; 
on the other, it is rich in yaluable information on the habits of North 
American Insects. As this work is probably but little kno¥m in Europe, 
I shall, in the course of this report, frequently draw attention to it. 

The entomological portion of lyOrbigny's voyage, which had been in- 
termitted for several years, has been renewed by Blanchard, and carried 
on ¥rith more research than his predecessor devoted to it. The text 
lying before us, reaches to the end of the Clcwicomia. The plates axe 
in advance, but they cannot be here noticed until the descriptions have 
also appeared. 

The zoological portion of the Voyage autour du Monde, 1836-37, 
sur la Corvette Bonite, par M. Vaillant, Pans, 1841-42, is not yet 
accessible to me, so that a report upon it must be postponed. 



COLEOPTERA. 

Herrm. Meyer has analyzed the homy shell of Beetles. 
(Miill. Archiv. f. Anat. iind Phys. 1842, p. 12.) 

In order to remove from it the brittleness, which renders fine sections 
for microsoopical research impossible, it is necessaiy to soften it for a 
long time in caustic potass. By this means an epidermis on both sides 
is removed, which is formed of one simple layer of cells, placed in rows 
next to each other. The internal epidermis is veiy thin, the walls of its 
cells are recognised with difficulty, and instead of the usual included 
substance, each cell has a spicula rising up obliquely in the middle of it. 
The middle portion of the homy shell is composed of small longitudi- 
nal fibres, which are united in layers by simple apposition, of which 
a greater or lesser number are joined together in order, so that the 
directions of the fibres of each layer cross at angles of 45° or 90°.* As 
to whether any peculiar connecting substance exists between the small 
fibres, the author is still doubtful. Between the external epidermis, and 



* The original of this difficult passage is added. 

Es lasst sich daranf an beiden Seiten ein Epidermisiiberzug ablosen, der 
aus einer einfachen Schicht neben einander gereihter Zellen gebildet wird. 
Die inner Epidermis ist sehr diinn, die Granzen ihrer Zellen sind schwer zu 
erkennen, mid statt der kerns hat jede Zelle einen shrSgen stachel, der sich in 
ihrer Mitte erhebt. Der mittler Theil der Homschale ist aus StILbchen zn- 
sammengesetzt, welche durch Nebeneinanderlegung imd Anastomosiren zn 
Sohichten vereinigt smd, deren nach Unstttnden eine grossere oder geringere 
Zahl aufeinandergefiigt sind, so das die Richtungen der Stabe der einzelnen 
Schichten sich unter Winkeln von 45 oder 90*" kreuzen. 

200 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 157 

the peculiar texture of the homy shell, the author o1)8eryed a layer of 
pigment in the unsofbened pieces, which seemed to be composed of a 
homogeneous substance. 

Observations on the History of the Metamorphosis of the Coleoptera 
have been published by Goureau (Ann. d. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. zi. p. 173), 
principally in reference to the transformation of the Beetle from the 
nymphnr-membrane, and, in particular, of the Pyrochroacoccmea. The 
view very correctly taken by the author, that the spines and bristles, 
standing out on the covering of the nympha-membrane, serve to retain it 
in its place on the evolution of the Beetle, and thus render that operation 
easier, has already long been maintained by ourselves. 

The reporter has continued his researches on the larvas of the Coleop- 
tera (Arch. 8 Jahxg. 1. Bd. p. 363), with reference to the division of Qie 
LcumsllicomeB, Heteromera, Ciirculiones, CercMnbyces, Cucujidce. 

A knowledge of the larvae Ib of great importance in the arrange- 
ment of tho Heteromera, which present very important variations in this 
respect, according to their natural families. The larvae of the Melasoma, 
Tend)rione8, Taxicomes, Helopice, and Cistelines, agree very closely ; 
and from that the idea has been derived, to unite aU these divisions into 
one great natural family, which is also accurately enough divided from the 
rest of the Heteromera, by the characteristic marks of the Beetle. The 
Serropalpi, (EdemeridcB, Losgria, Pyrochroa (Pyrochroa and Pytho)^ 
and Mordellaf have peculiar forms of larvae. The larvae of the Meloidoe 
are only satisfactorily known in a very youthful state. Of those of the 
Anihdcidce and Salpingidas nothing is known. 

A comparison of some of the differences presented in the general struc- 
ture of the body, by which the two sexes of Beetles are distinguished 
from each other, has been published by Hofimeister (Sechster Jahres- 
bericht tlber die Thatigkeit des Yereins fur Naturkunde in Cassel, ab- 
gestattet d. 18. Apr. 1S42, von Dr. A. Philippi). 

Some remarks on the natural history of German Coleoptera, are to be 
found in the Entomol. Zeitung> viz. : BeitrUge zur nahem Kenntniss des 
Lebens und Fanges einiger Coleopteren von Banse, Erasper und Matz 
in Magdeburg (p. 24) : Entomologische Mittheilungen von Dr. Eosen- 
hauer (p. 33, 50), und uber die an und in alten Zatinen lebenden Eafisr 
von demselben (p. 162.) 

Schaum (Qermar Zeitschr. iv. p. 172) lias published a contribution to 
the knowledge of the Salt Beetles of Northern G^many ; i. e. such beetles 
as are only found in the salt districts. They are confined to a few fami- 
lies. The half of them are Ca/rahicinas. Next to these. Water Beetles, 
which live in brackish water (Dytiacidce and HydropMlidce). Among the 
Staphylinidce, some species of Bledms ; and, besides these, only two of 
Heterocervs (parallelus, Gebl., and femoraliat Ullr.); one Pselaphug 
(BryaxU Helferi, Schm.) ; and one Anthicus (humilis), 

201 



158 RBPOBT ON 200L0OY, MDCCCXLIl : 

A diaiertatioii wbioh has appeased in Vienna, ^ QiUBclam genen et 
ipaoiea Ooleup te run u n Ajw hidno at nit Aaataup pondnm deacriptonun^ Diss, 
inaug. Anct QniL Bedtenbacher, Yind. 1842, 8^" deaeribea tarentx-dz 
ipedea of BeetleBy of wludi two onlj constitate new genera (t. inf.) 

Heers ** die Kiiftr der Schweis, mit beoondeittr BeriklEgichtigDng 
ilixer geognph, Yerbreitong" (Ft 1, No. S), haa i^peared in the 
Neo. Denkaohr. d. AUg. Sdhweis. Ooaollaoh. £ cL gesammten Natorwias. 
5 Bi^ and baa, beaidea been printed aepaiately, 18^. Thia woik keepa 
equal paoe with the Fauna Coleopt Hehr. ; and the ahoYe number 
cofteaponda to the third number of the latter work. 

Hope (Ann. of Nat. Hiat iz. p. 494 ; x. p. 91) has deacribed a number 
of new apeciea ficom Western Tropical Africa^ so lidi in Coleopieta; also 
Imhof (Beribht iiber die YerhandL d. Naturf. Getellach, in Basel, Yom 
Aug. 1840, bb Juli 1842, y. Basel, 1843), which will be mentioned more 
minutely aflerwaida. Those of the former are mostly tram Gape 
Falmas, thoee of the latter frcMn the hill countiy <^ Aquapim. 

Hope has made a conlributiou to the Faona of Sjlhet» by describing 
fourteen rare and beautiful Beetles, of whidi short characters are giYon 
in the Fh)oeedings of the Linnsean Society (Ann. Nat. Hist. iz. p. 247)* 
These are, scYcn LucamdiB, one Mimela, one Chry9oehroa^ four Longi- 
ecme$^ among which is a new genus, Zcnoptenu, and one 8agra. More 
minute informatiDn on these species may be learned from the treatise 
itself. Of the new genus nothing can be at present said, as nothing 
YOiy ezact has been stated as to its position in the series of the Longi- 
comes. Hope has mentioned a number of Coleopterck, collected by 
Cantor in Chusan and at Canton (Proceed. Ent. Soc» p. 60) ; but we 
cannot enter more minutely on them here, as the characters giYen of 
them are too superficial* to recognise the species, and often oYOn doubts 
remain whether the genera are correctly defined. It is to be desired 
that a more ezact description were giYen. A communication upon the 
Beetles of Port Essington, by Hope (Proceed. Entom. Soc. p. 43), 
possesses mudi interest for the Fauna of New Holland, as the north 
coast of New Holland was till then quite unknown ; and the presence of 
soYeral genera in New Holland is ascertained, whidi hitherto had not 
been known to occur there. To the latter bdong Coprii and Megaee^ 
phala. The enumeration is partly incomplete, and the characters giYen 
are Yery meagre and uncertain. 

Newman has published a lut of Beetles, which were collected at 
Port Philip, on the south coast of New Holland (Entomologist, p. 361^ 
361, 401, '413). Were this catalogue complete, and the descriptionB more 



* For example, " Sp. 19, Lagria nigrieoUiSy Hope. Flava, antennis, capite, 
thoraceqne nigris, elytris pallide castaneis, Yillosis, corpora infra piceo, pedi- 
bos conooloribus." What, then, is yellow abo«t the animal ? 

202 



INSBCTA— <K)LEOPTBILA. 169 

miniite, an important oomporison miglit be instituted 'between the Fauna 
of tbe oontiaent of New Holland and the island of Van Diemen's Land, 
as the inseots described by me wen ooUected at Port Fhdip, a point lying 
ezBotly opposite to the latter. 

CiciNDXLiDJt. — This ftniily has been subjected to a earefbl Teviaon, 
in respeet to their systematic diyision, by Lacordaiie (Mdm. d. L Soc 
Boy. d. Sc. de lA6gey torn, i p. 85). The author divides them into five 
groops : — ^I. McmtieoridcB embraces tiM genera Mcmtic^a, PlatychUe^ 
AmbhfeheUa, Ovmu, — ^11. MegcbcephaMdiB, distinguished from the former 
as well as fiom the rest, by the pecuHsr length of the labial-palpi, par- 
ticalarly of tiie stem (erroneously taken by tiie author fbr its first joint). 
OxycheHa ; CevUroch&Ua {PaenidoaBychdla, Gner.), differing fiom Oxy. 
by its triang^nlar labrum, suddenly narrowed anteriorly, and elcmgated 
into a strong point, containing the O. bipugtmlatay Latr. ; JS^urymorpAo, 
Hope; Meffocephdla {Apiema, Enc), confined to M, $enegalenBUt 
which the author distiagaishes fiom the other MegtieephcUcR comprised 
by Hope under Tetracha, by tiie completely rounded shoulders of the 
^ytza. It is the only one that is wingless, for if. 4riignata, which the 
anthor separates as a wing^ss species in the genus Tetraehay is com- 
pletely winged. There is therefore no sufficient generic distinction 
in the absence of wings, as we do not even find it sufficient finr a spe- 
<9fio distinction, it often enough occius, that in sudi species as in general 
toe unwinged, winged individuals are found, even independent of oases 
arising from difference of sex. For this reason, I consider that the dis- 
tinction given by the author between Megaeephala and Tetraeha, is as 
little to be maintained, as he, with justice, has deemed those defined by 
Hope, according to the number of the teeth on the mandibles. Aniara 
(B^ulchrcblu), the s^taration of which, though scazoely on suffidoit 
grounds, yet tspf^ean less constrained. Lastiy, Iresia. This genus can- 
not here be in its right place ; it is more nearly allied in its habits to 
Ekifro9opu8. The sculpture of the elytra resembles mudi the CMyridCB, 
In the structure of the antennsD only, /. Lcbccrdairei shows the character 
of the Megacephalidce, In the J. bMotataf EL, tiie labial palpi scarody 
exceed in length the maxillary palpi; in /. Umctculata, Kl., they are 
even shorter; in J. Beahii, both are of tolerably equal length. This 
differmoe in the different species is so nindb the more striking, as the 
first three, at least, stand in the very closest relation, and the author 
could so much the less presuppose it, as he had only an opportunity of 
examining the first. It is also of consequence^ as it shows that the 
relative length of the palpi affords no satisfactory mark of the Megace- 
phalidci and CicindelidcB, — III. CieindelidiB, the most numerous group. 
Oxygoma, Man., and Cicindela, including CkUoehroa and Abrotcelig, 
H<^, CyUndera, Westw., and La/phyrOy Dup., which the author shows 
as untenable, have simple labial-palpi and antericNr tarsi, without an 

203 



160 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

impreflsed longitndiiud line. The following haTe an indented line on thet 
anterior tarri : Euryoda {Hepatodowta, Hope, but which name the aathor 
rejects, at the labnun has only five crowded teeth), with a short tran»- 
rerte 5-7 toothed labrum {C. analig, F.; 4rpunet€tta, ¥.; candnna, 
Dej. ; verricolar, Dej. ; Leprimri, Dej. ; fettiva, Dej. ; omato, KL ; co- 
iofi, KL ; mirabUis, Broil. ; viridicyanea, BnilL ; all from the Old World). 
CkUonycha has a long three-toothed labmm, coToring, in a great 
measure, the mandibles, and which, in the $, is produced into a spine ; 
it differs firam OdowtocheUay by its short arched body, and is South 
Am^can : C. chcUyhea, Dej. Phyllodroma, different from Odawto- 
cheUa by a short 1-3 toothed labmm ; habits rather similar : Ph, igni- 
mollis, new species, probably Brazilian ; O. ctMrtUabrit, and aperta. El., 
and iemicyanea, BrnlL OdontocheUa, Lap., corresponding to Dejean's 
first division of Cicmdda ; Plochionocera, Hope (nodic&mU), is 
quite correctly joined to it; O. ventralis, duHgma, Dej., Bericina, Kl., 
fugipennis and tenebrico^af KolL, form a small peculiar group, with 
shorter body, elytra moro or less impressed (eingedriickten), of black 
hue with silky gloss, inhabiting woods, not found upon leayes, but on 
the banks of water. Lastly, those haying the second joint of the labial 
palpi thickened : Physodewtera, in which also the second joint of the 
maxillary palpi is swollen (O. Adonis, Lap., from Madagascar) ; Distip- 
gidera, Westw. ; Megalomma^ Westw. (I published some criticisms on 
these genera in last year's report) ; Apteroessa, Hope ; Dromica, Dej. ; 
EuproBOpM, Latr. — TV. Collyrida. The throe known genera, Theratesy 
Tricondyla and Collyris. — Y. CtenostonUda, The genera Psilocera, 
Brail, (this name having been proviously applied elsewhero. King's 
Pogonostoma is to be proferrod) ; Proeephalus, Lap. ; Ctenottoma, EL ; 
and MyrmecUla. The latter is founded on a small new species, M, pyg- 
moea, from Brazil, differing from both the preceding by its longer labial 
palpi, while, in habit, it holds a medium between them. I must confess, 
that from our specimen of this Beetle, the difference does not appear to 
me very important, especially as it seems impossible, from a series of 
twelve species, which I have beforo me in the Berlin collection, to disr 
tingnisli, in any satisfiictory way, between Jhrocephaku, Ctenostoma, and 
Myrmedlla. 

Megacephala and Oicindela have been enriched with new species 
from several quarters. Megcbceph, mgricollis, dongata, violdcea, gror- 
ciliSf Beiche (Rev. Zool. p. 239), are from New Granada. M, cmstral- 
asicBf Hope (Proceed. £nt. Soc. p. 45), from Port Essington ; the first 
species of this genus known in New Holland. 

Cicindela litterifera and aubtruncata, Chaudoir (Bull, de Mosc. 

p. 801), are from Astrabad, on the Caspian Sea ; Calochroa Strachani, 

Hope (Ann. Nat. Hist. z. 91, 14), from Sierra Leone ; Cic. ocreata, 

eupriventris, Fava/rgeri, Reiche (Rev. Zool. p. 240), from New Granada ; 

204 



INSECT A — COLEOPTERA . 161 

and O, ioscelu, Hope (Proceed. Ent. Soc. p. 45), from Port Essington, 
in the north of New Holland. 

Schmidt of Stettin has made some interesting observations on the 
larye of the Cic. eanvpestris (Ent. Zeit. p. 270), from which it appears, 
that by night the larva leaves its habitation for prey. The pupa is also 
for the first time described and figured, figs. 9-11. 

Cababici. — ^Rosenhauer (Die Lauf and Schwimmkafer Erlangens, mit 
beeonderer Berdcksichtigong ihres Yorkommens und ihres Verhaltnisses 
za denen einiger anderer Staaten Europas, Erlangen, 1842), and Safifiian 
(Die Caraben des Regierungsbezirks Arensbeig, verglichen mit denen 
der Mark Brandenburg in Germ. 2ieitschrift. iv. p. 149), have made 
some important contributions to the distribution of the Ca/rabi (including 
the Cicmdelidce) in Germany. The former has given a careful list of 
the species, with important remarks on their occurrence, and a compari- 
son of the Fauna of Paris, Switzerland, Brandenburg, Sweden, and Lap- 
land. The latter, on the other hand, goes very profoundly and carefully 
into the comparison with the Brandenburg Fauna. In general, the Mark 
is richer by fifty-five species than the Amsberg district, which wants 
the genera Omoph/ton, Licinus, Masoreus, Cephalotes; whilst the genera 
Callwtas and Olisthopug are. present, whidi are not to be found in the 
Mark (OlistJ^opus rotwndatus maj, perhaps, have been found, at least I 
have met with it in Pomerania ; but it appears to like a clayey soil, of 
which there is very little, at least in the neighbourhood of Berlin). 

The Capably according to my experience, are, for the most part, very 
constant to one soil The Fauna of Erlangen, where there is great 
variety of soil, appears to confirm this. It is richer by twentynseven 
species than that of Amsberg ; and although they agree in having fewer 
species altogether than Brandenburg, yet it differs from the Amsberg 
Fauna in being richer than it in most of the families ; only the Elor- 
phrini, lAcimniy and Chkemini, have one, the Sccmtini and Aneho- 
fnenimiy two species less. Whilst none of the species, native to Bran- 
denburg, are missed, the Erlangen region has, besides, CallUtus and 
OlistJioptis, also PolysHchus. 

A remarkable fact, in Sufirian's treatise, is the presence of the Co- 
raJbus nodulo9us in the Amsberg Wood. His information on the pre^ 
sence of the Car, pi^rpurascens, which, in Western Germany, represents 
the Eastern 0. violacefiSf deserves all attention. He considers them as 
one species. According to his statement, both are present at Mainz ; 
and, according to Schmidt, C vioUiceus is constantly found on hiUy stony 
ground, C. pwrpiMrascens in iboist meadows. They are also to be found 
in the Harz, where the reporter can add, that an intermediate species, 
C. exa»peratuSf Duft., of which we have a series in the Berlin collection, 
is also found ; the extreme specimens of it are not to be distinguished, 
the one from C violaceus proper, the other from C» purpvvnMceas. 

205 



162 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

AoeoidiDg to RotenhMiar, ^ete tliree foanw axe fiNmd at Eriangen at 
well as in Austria. There are still some other foms of the C. woUueuB, 
which are looked upon as peculiar speoies; and in other species, local 
yarieties haye been considered as species hj entomologists, which De- 
jean, ey«n against his own eonyiotion, has had the modestj to describe 
as such. 

Fisdier yon Waldheim (Bey. ZooL p^ 270), wishes his genns (M- 
liithenet, disallowed by Dsjeaa, to be agun established, as neoessarify 
separated from CcdoBoma hy its peculiar habit, and want of wings. This 
necessity acknowledged, we most often reckon one spedes to two genera, 
as it happens, that one and the same species is sometimea winged, some- 
times wingless. The genns CalHitheM$ would thus xeqniie a better 
foundation. The author nekoDa in it three spedee: €L Pimdariy 
C. M<a»€lwMkii (Cwr. arbiculaiM$, Mdtadh.X snd a Fittheri, Mdn., 
from the Chinese eonfiiiea. Gndria adds a fourth species (ibid. p. 271)» 
C Bdchd from Persia, distinguished from O, M^tsehoulshU bj the 
smoothness of the upper surface, whilst the other, aooordii^ to Mots- 
diolulsk, has a fine scaly coat. 

The Helkumides haye been subjected to a reeyision by Beidie (Ann. 
d. L Soc Enl d. Fr. xi. p. 323), the group fixed, the genera hitherto 
characterized confirnied, and some new ones added. The diy]si<m of the 
author is as follows : — ^The wingless are, Omphra^ Leadi, with trun- 
cated labrum ; Hdluo, with long labmm concealing the mandibles. The 
rest are winged : one group haying three long spine-like lobes to the 
mentum, and (in MctcrocheUue) the last joint of the labial-palpi cylin- 
drical, or (AccmthfiffUMis) triangular hatdietdiaped ; in the other group 
the lobes of the mentum are short and broad, and the inner one remark- 
ably shorter. The labmm is either short and truncate, as in P/on^tds, in 
which the posterior angles of the thorax are simple, and Dialod»ntu», in 
whidi they are reflexed ; or has a projecting tooth in the middle, in Pieu- 
rac€miku9; or it is long and coyers the mandibles, in Helluamorpha, 
.Enigma is a ninth genus, the diavacters of whidi Reiche could not 
make out. The spedes are diyided as foUows :-— 

Omphra, East Indian; Atrto, F. (trwfis, Leaok); jmIoso, <Urata, Kl.; 
and a new spedee, O. eompkmcUa, from anterior India. 

Helhto, New Holland ; eogtaiuSf Bon. 

JikUgmaf Newm., New Holland ; im, Newm. 

MiJteroekdluBf Kirby, Hope, East Indian; 3-pu9M€auSy Dej. (jBms- 
mmi, Hope, 4-9naot»^#iis, Gndr). 

A€€mihog€niu8, Rddie, new genus, Asiatic and African; impiohts^ 
Wied.; gr<mdU, Dej. ; laibronMf Dej.; hmgnatus, Reiche (Mmacula^ 
tus, Dej.) ; biffuttatH9, Qory ; di9t<n€tus, Wied. ; dorsaZis, SL ; eruek^ 
fws, Maro. ; and a new qtedes, scapuiarUf Reiciie. 

Pkme$e$f MacLeay, East Indian ; UmaoukUuB, MacLeay {siiffmaf ¥., 

206 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 168 

which the author plaoe» hefe upon Hope's authority, does not bekmg te 
this group). 

DailodontuB, Reiche, new genus, South American ; OafennendSf Dej.; 
ru.Jlpe9, Broil. 

PletMr<iccmth/u8t Gray, American; tuleipenms, Gray; Brmmliama, 
brevicollis, Laeordairei, Dej.; cnbratusy Beiehe; unthracmM, son- 
ffuinolentuSy naid ferrttffineus, Kl. 

Hellucmorpha, iMp., American. HeroSf Gray; offathi^rwus, Boq.; 
hellicoaa, Lap. ; unicolcr, BrulL ; mdanariaj Reiche, new species ; femo- 
rata, Dej. ; nigerrimaf pubeKens, Kl. ; coracina, Mannerii. ; tparsa, 
Brull. ; are South American, with slightly thickened antenn» and i^ortev 
thorax. H. pranitta, laHccmu, nigripenmSf Clairvillei, Dej., are North 
American, with much thickened antennje and longer thorax* 

{HdL pygmcms, Dej., does not belong to this genus, but rather to 
JHaphoruSy in Eeiehe's opinion.) 

The family of the Carabi has been enriched with a number of new 
genera by Chaudoir (BulL Mosc 1842, p. 832) ; they have been co- 
piously and accurately described, but the distinguishing characteristics 
have not been prominently noticed ; other new genera haye been founded 
by Waterhouse and others, so that during this year, these fosm a con- 
siderable series. 

Rhombodera, Beiche (Rerr. Zool. p. 313); allied to LeUa ; the thorax 
somewhat rhomboidal ; the fourth joini of the tarsus simple ; the daws 
with a blunt tooth at the base, without comb-like toothing. Rh, virgata 
firam New Granada, and Rk. atrorufa from Brazil 

Glfda, Chaudoir (BulL Mosc. 1842, p. 805), founded on the OymmdU 
omata. El., an intermediate form between CymindM and CaUeida, 
agreeing with the former in the simple fourth tarsal joint, with the latter 
in the strong hatchet-shaped last joint of the labial-palpi. 

Coeleprosopug, Chaudoir (1. c. p. 839), formed on the Cfatascoput 
4t-4Ha€ulatus, MacLeay, which differs from Catcucopu^ by wanting the 
tooth on the mentum ; but how it differs from PenealuB, MacLeay, is 
yet to be determined. 

LobodontM, Chaudoir (1. c. p. 841), allied to Thffreopterus ; the tooth 
on the mentum large and rounded. L, tringiMXtus ; new i^peeies from 
South Africa. 

SccpodeSy Erich. (Archiy. 1 Bd. p. 123, t. 4, f. 1) ; mentum with very 
short side lobes, without a tooth ; hind legs l(mg and slender; eyes very 
large. 8c* Boops, new species frmn Van Diemen's Land. 

Scwrvphites, MacLeay. Under this name Westwood separates (Arcana 
Ent. p. 157), a small group of the species of 8ea>ritS8, from New Hol- 
land, as a sub-genus, which agree in the want of wings, the wide rounded 
abdomen, and the cylindrical last joint of the palpi. He has de- 
scribed three new species, loc. cit. p. 87, and beautifully figured them : — 

207 



164 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII ; 

8c, B€tcchu9, from Swan River, 8c. l^enafUM, from New Holland, Sc, 
8Uenu$f from Swan River ; a fourth is aAerwardB added (p. 157), Sc, 
McicLeayi, from New South Wales ; but it appears to me to be the same 
with 8c, rotundipennis, Dej., which is also found in Van Diemen's Land. 
(Vid. Arch. 1842, 1 Bd. p. 95.) 

Gnathoxy$, Westwood (Aican. Ent. p. 89, t. 23, f. 2, 3), a distinct 
genus, whose position is still doubtful; the habit is like ScariteSy as is 
that of BaripuB and Cnetnacanthus ; the head small, and the mandibles 
simple like PterogtichuB; the antennse and the exteriorly dentated tTbise, 
as in 8cariU$f in which gijoup the genus may for the present stand ; the 
mentum is toothless on the emargination ; the tarsi seem to be simple. 
To the two species figured, On, granulans and irregularis, from Port 
Essington, Reiche (Rev. ZooL p. 121) has added two other species, 
O. obscwus and citatricosus, from Swan River ; and Westwood after- 
wards remarks (Arc. Ent. p. 158), that he has seen two East Indian 
species of this genus in Paris. 

MystroptenUf Chaudotr (Bull. Mosc. p. 844), a genus of DitomidcB, 
distinguished from PachycaruSy Sol. {cycmeuSy 01.), by the presence of 
a sharp tooth on the mentum, founded on the Dit, ccaruleus, BruU. Exp. 
d. Morde. 

Chilotomus, Chaudoir (ibid. p. 846), founded on the Dit chalyhceus, 
FaM. CoL Pers. Armen., without a tooth on the mentum, with united 
elytra, and the thorax produced behind. 

Brachyccdus, Chaudoir (ibid. p. 848), a genus of HarpalidcB, of the 
form of Cratocerus; mentum with a broad tooth ; on the four anterior 
tarsi, the first four joints are widened, and have a thick coating of felt 
beneath. Br, Duponti, a new species from the Straits of Magellan. 

Loasomerus, Chaudotr (ibid.. p. 851) is certainly identical with He- 
teroda^tyluSy Gu^r. (vid. last year's report, p. 206.) The new name, 
however, as the earlier one was no longer free, is as little superfluous 
as the exact description. The species is called Z. n^tyrioides, and is the 
same with Heterodact, ndMrioides, Gu^r. 

Migadcps, Waterhouse (Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. p. 136, t. 3, f. 2, 3), re- 
sembling Sdenophorus ; the dilated tarsal joints of the male have a 
thick downy felt beneath ; a double tooth on the emargination of the 
mentum. In M, virescens, from Terra del Fuego, M, falhla/ndicuSj 
f^m the Falkland Islands, M. Darwinii and nigroccsruleus, from Terra 
del Fuego, the intermediate tarsi of the male are evidently dilated; 
whilst, in the Jf. ovalisy from Terra del Fu^go, the first two joints only 
are dilated in a slight degree. 

Megalottylusy Chaudoir (Bull. Mosc. p. 855), allied to Pcadlus, with an 
obtuse rounded tooth on'the mentum, and the first joint of the antennae 
very long ; founded on five species from New Orleans, which, however, 
are not described. 

208 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 165 

Ahropus, WaterlioiisQ (Ann. Nat. Hist. iz. p; 134^ t. 3, f. 1), fonned 
from the Metius aplendidus, Gii^. ; differing from the Metws hcMrpoM- 
des. Curt., which is the tjrpe of the genus Metius, bj its Anchomen/u9- 
lilce form, as well as much longer antenne, and kibrum not distinctljr 
emarginate in front ; but the most important difference is in the structure 
of the tarsi, the penidtimate joint of which is distinctly bilobed, and 
iumished beneath with membranous appendages in both sexes. Ahroptu 
approaches yeiy nearlj to AntarcHa, the only essential difference is, 
that Anta/rctia has no appendages on the fourth tarsal joint. 

Amblytdus, EricH. (Arch. 1842, i. p. 129, t. 4, f. 2), is a distinct genus 
of Pteroatichmai, which is distinguished particularly by the bilobed fourth 
tarsal joint ; and in* this, as well as in the colour, approaches many 
Tru/ncatipemue ; the only species is C curttu, F. 

Lestigna/thuSy Erich, (ibid. p. 132, t. 4, f. 3), is a genus of Ancho- 
menincB, with one new species, L. ewnor, from Van Diemen's Land* 
distinguished principally by the broad toothed mandibles crossing each 
other. « 

OphryodactyliM, Chaudoir (Bull. Mosc. p. 832), allied to Dyteohu, 
differing only by the tooth on the mentum being deft ; the tarsal joints 
are deeply furrowed at the sides, so that they seem to have a padded 
border. 0, 9ubviolaceus is a new species £rom BraziL 

ParanonmSy Chaudoir (ibid. p. 835), also allied to Dytcohu, and, as it 
seems, chiefly distinguished by the tooth on the mentum being some- 
what emarginate at the point. P. Vhermimeri, new species from 
Gnadaloupe. 

JSomotheSf Newman (Entomologist, p. 402); very nearly allied to 
Euleptus, Klug, differing chiefly in its fonn, as the thoarx is much 
narrowed posteriorly ; the elytra, more rounded at the sides, flat, striated, 
f ' lanugine sericatft macnlatim omata." H. degcms, from Port Philip ; 
a second species is Euleptits BericeuSj Erich. (Arch. 1 Bd. p. 131, 17)« 
The essential characteristics of the genus are still to be ascertained ; 
it'will then be ^own if it is really different from EuUptus* 

Cyphowma, Hope (Proceed. Ent. Soc Lond. p. 46), and Cyrtoderus 
(ibid« p. 47), I do not understand, and therefore can only name thenu 
The former is between JEnigma {Hdluo) and CatiMCopus^ the latter 
appears to its author to be allied to Zabrru, The species Cyphowma 
unicolor and Cyrtodems a/ugtralasicdy are from Port Essington. 

Molpu$, Newman (Entomologist, p. 413) ; of this also I know nothing 
worth mentioning. The author has not pointed out its position. From 
its very large eyes, it might be joined to Scopodes (vide supra), but the 
notice of it is very slight. M, 6-pu/nctatuSf from Adelaide, appears at 
least to be different frcon the 8c. hoops^ of the reporter. 

The number of species newly described is great. Of European spedes 
there are Dy$chiritM salinuSf Er. Schaum (Qerm. Zeitschr. iy. p. 180), 

209 O 



n 



166 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

Iband in all the nit countries of north Gcniianj ; Ha/rpcbUii tntneatutj 
Amara plamiuculaf Hcmmhtsaet^ (Lanf nnd Sdiwimmkftf. Erkngen, 
p. 12, 21), horn Erlangen ; and thiee mentioned by^ Bedtenbacher, from 
Aoatria (Colaopt Aoatr.) Tix., — Elaphnu UUriekU^ Dej., on the hanks 
of riyen ; Ptetoatichu Jugtumif Spitzy, from the Anitxian Alps ; and 
8tenolophus humeralig, whidi is only kngwn to me hj description, 
and lesemhles Baduter humerali$. 

Chandoir has made a oonsiderahle contribotion to the knowMge of 
the Carabi of Western Asia (BulL d. 1. Soc Imp. de Nat de Moeoow, 
1842, p. 601), hy publishing a list of the species ooQected by Karelin at 
Astrabad, in the provinoe of Masanderan, amoonting to seTenty-siz, and 
of whidi many are new. Drypia anguttata, perhaps too hastily distin- 
guifihed, firom one specimen only, by seTcral '' pfais*' and " moins," from 
the Z>. emarffimakif which is also natiye there ; Zuphiwn longkuculufn, 
resembling Z. olent; Brachinuf cmnulieomig, eleffons, ligutkUus, fffU* 
tula, $cuiellari$ ; Anthia Ma/nnerhdmii, nearly allied to A. iexgwUata ; 
Scarites crenulaMs, persicua; Clivina lamfrons, Elaphrus imprea-' 
dfron$j PanagcBua elongoiius, Mann., not differing, in Chaudoir's 
o^nion, from P. crux major ; ChkBniut dinUdiatus, fulvipea, auriceps ; 
Dinodes anguslicollu, Ka/relinU; Pogonms micons, Anehomerwu dia- 
cophoru9y principally distinguished from A. prasinuB by the larger 
dorsal spot ; Agonum cibscwum, Calathus dUutus, Poecihu Kareliniif 
kBideoUU ; Bothriopterui lasvicoU%$, PterogUehus 9ubcordatu8, Pseudo-^ 
maim$ depUmaUis^ Lisaotargua reticulatua, Cepihalotea longtcoUia, 
Leirus parcUlelua, Ama/ra peraica, Cdia dbbreviata, Acinopua ewry^ 
eephaluay enuMrginaiua ; Ophanua atroeyaneua, Harpalua cribripennia. 
The faona, in general, agrees pretty closely with the European ; eTen 
the newly characterised species do not appear satisfiKHxxrily diffisrent. 
The presence of an Anthia, which, perhaps, is the same with the Indian, 
is remarkable. 

Some East Indian species haye been described by Gndrin in Dele»- 
sert's voyage : HeUuo ^-puaiulaiua, Dej., which was joined as a variety 
with the H, ^-macuZahia of the Bev. ZooL ; Orthogoniua lateraHa, from 
the Island of Penang ; CM, bilunatua belongs, as a variety, to the CM. 
Mdgherienaia ci^he Rev. ZooL ; Chi, Lafertei, from Pondichexiy. 

Of the African Fauna, ten new speciee are to be mentioned, which 
Lucas discovered in French Barbary, and which are described in the 
Ann. d. Sc. Nat. xviii. p. 60 : Cymindia aeUfeenaia, leucophthalma ; 
Skaritea Le-Vaillantiiy Ditomua ruJUcmiay Nebria variabiHaj very like 
N. hrevicollia; OUslhopua pwncHeoUiay PoecUua ha/rbaruar Jf^umidicua 
eoarcta^ua, Zdbrua diatinctua. 

Hope has also characterized a number of new species from tropical 
Africa, principaQy from Sierra Leone (Ann. Nat. Hist. z. 91) :- Deaera 
viridipenmaf Galerka a^hnacina, CalUida nigriventriaf Ewrydera 

210 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 167 

biftuciata, Orthogonias latus, longipemm, Stracham, d/Mus; Oatfu- 
copus Savctgei, jucmvdMs; Ozama lutea, BcariteB Savagd, Panagcgui 
Savagd, Baddoni, So/yersii, Khigii, tropieuB, Erichsoni, Strachani, 
growus, Imhoff has also described a nmnbeT of species from Guinea 
(Verh. d. Naturf. GeseUsch. in Basel, y. p. 164) : Caloioma Quineenee, 
Cataseopus femoralis {8avagd, Hope, Westermcmni, Dej. Cat.) ; 0. 
niffripes (ju&undus, Hope, soaioely differing &om the O. senegatenns^ 
Dej.) ; O. speculcms, PaatctgcBus gra/ndk (grosmu, Hope) ; P. gccibri- 
collU, Epomis altemams, Mario ffumeensis (senegalenm, Dej.), differing 
firom M, orientoMs, by the somewhat broader form and ooarser inner 
stritB of the elytra. 

Beiche has* made a oonsSd^Mtble contribution to the knowledge of Sonfli 
American CambicincB, in the Hey. Zool. p. 241, 272, 807, by the de- 
floription of a nmnber of new species from Colnmbia, principally from 
New Granada. These are, — ^two species of Oasnonia, one OardUtes, one 
LeptotT<ushdu9, two Cfalerita, two CymMidis, thirteen Caileida, three 
Dromius, two Aspciday fire Ldna, one Coptodera, two species of the 
newly diaracterized genns lUumthodera (yide sup.), of which one, 
however, is Brazilian. This work is to be ccmtinued in the next year*s 
publication. 

The Fauna of New Holland has been enriched from many quarters. 
The following are from Port Essington, with the exception of the 
JEnigma waicolor: — A, eycMMpenne, Cyphoioma vmieolor (yide sup.), 
Cataseopus ausPralcuicB, Onataphcmus (?) licmoides, Cyrtoderus cms-^ 
tnUo/mm (yide sup.) ; Hope, Proceed. Ent. Soc. p. 46. Frran Port Philip : 
CaUeida auturata, Letna caUida, luctiiosa, laculenta, henifica, irrita, 
moUis; Feronia Philippi, Anchomenus (?) wigro-^gneua, Homotes eU^ 
gans (yide sup.) ; Newman, Entimiologist, p. 867, 401. From Van Die- 
men's Land : Calo9oma Seha/yeri, Scopodes (yide sup.) hoops; PlocMonus 
€mstralis, CaUeida focifiea, Cymindis cwrtaXay inqmnata ; HoApahts 
verHcalis, promptas, vestigialis; PterosHchus (PoecUus) prolixus, coror* 
cirms {Argwtor\ soUidtus; Anchomsnus marginellus, umbigwis; 
ESulep^us sericeuSt Dyscolus cmstralis, dUatatus; LesUgnaihus (yide 
sup.) cwrsoTy Erich., in the Archiyes, 1842, L p. 122-34. 

Westwood has laboured excellently, with rich materials, at the Sca/n- 
tidcB of New Holland. The genus Ca/rewum, Bon., forms a principal 
element — a pure New Holland form, with which Amidius, Leach, is 
identical, and to which the author also joins Eutoma, Newm. Eleyen 
species are mentioned (Arc. Ent. i. 81, t. 21-23), of which six haye been 
preyiously described : O. BondlU (O. cycmeum, Bon.) ; mctrginatmn 
{Amid, m.. Leach, Boisd.) ; perpUasumy White ; €y€un&wm {Scetr, cy€m.f 
F.) ; Spenceiy Westw. ; inctUalm (Eutoma), Newm. : two, C sma/rag^ 
dulwn and megacephahtm (Eutomus fnegacephatus), from Port Es* 
sington, also published by Hope (Proceed. Ent. Soc. p. 46) : three, 

211 



168 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

C. politumf from Van Diemen's Land, C gemmatuni and tum/ptUoaum, 
from Port Eflsuigton, are new. A twelfth spedes is C. loculosum, Newm. 
(Entomol. p. 369, Westw. Arc. Ent. p. 158), from Port Philip. The 
Scarites proper belong mostly to the pecoliar form which was ahoye 
mentioned, under the name 8€ariphit€t. One species only, Sc. sculpHlu, 
does not belong to this, but is nearly allied to 8c. lateralis, Dej. The 
treatise includes also the new genus Onathaxys (yide sup.) ; and there 
is a beautiful plate of the 8c. Schr&teri, Schreib., on which, as the names 
giyen it of Heteroscelis and Hyperion are already occupied, the generic 
name Cam/ipylocnemus was bestowed by Westwood. 

Haliday has published, as his opinion on the systematic position of 
Adelotopu8 (Entomol. p. 305), that the almost whoUy smooth antennae 
and compressed tarsi of the genus point out its situation among the Water 
Beetles ; that it differs in essential points from the Oyrimdas, and for the 
present must, therefore, be joined to the DyHtcidas ; that Adelopug does 
not liye in the water. The beetles are to be found, according to Dayis's 
report, under the bark of Eucalyptus (ibid. p. 306). There would be no 
reason against this opinion, did not the swimming tarsi form an essential 
character of the Dytiscidcc, and the Adelotopus has none. Besides, the 
antennae are not smooth ; in Adelotopus^ they are certainly more thinly 
haired, but in the allied genera they are just as thickly so as in the rest 
of the Ca/rabi. 

Newman (ibid. p. 365), following Haliday, would establish for these 
beetles a peculiar order (I), in the same rank with the CaroihiteSy Dytis- 
citesy and Oyrimtes, and standing in the middle between them, under the 
name of Pseudomorphites. The number of the species of this group has 
reoeiyed an accession, particularly those of the genus Adelotopus: A^ 
hcemorrhoidalis Erich. (Arch. 1843, i. 126, 50), fr^m Van Diemen's 
Land, is perhaps the same with A..%nquinaMs, NewnL (EntomoL 366, 
50), from Port Philip; also A. scohftides, Newm. (ibid. n. 51), from the 
same place; A. dytiscides (ibid. p. 365, note), from Adelaide; and 
SilpJhomorpha guttigera, Newm. (ibid. p. 367, 52), from Port Philip. 

Dytisoi. — Rosenhauer (die Lauf und Schwimm-k&fer Erlangens) has 
giyen a correct list of the Dytisci of Erlangen, and a comparison with 
other fauna. Erlangen has 89 species, Switzerland nearly the same 
(87 spedes): Sweden, 103, and Mark Brandenburg 100, are richer: 
Lapland 73, and Paris 72, poorer. (According to the inyestigations of 
Apetz, Osterland [Gotha, or Upper Saxony] has 75 species ; the difference 
principally lies in the genus Hydroporus.) 

The true Colymbetes conspuPus, Sturm, has been determined by 
Eiesenwetter (Ent. Zeit. 88). It. is distinguished frrom C collaais^ not 
only by its larger, and broader form, but also in the nmr ln^g of the 
elytra, and especially in the formation of the fore claws in the male. 

Two new European species of Hydroporut haye been described by 

212 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 169 

'Aub^ (Ann. d. 1. Ent. Soc. d. Fr. xL p. 229). H, Schofumei is from 
Sicily, H, poUmicus from Warsaw. Of the latter, the description of the 
male is added (ibid. p. 345). A third new species is H, loMtus, Schaum 
(Germ. Zeitschr. ir. p. 187), from Mansfeld Salt Lake. 

Kiellerup (Eroyer's Nat. Tidsskr. iy. p. 318, 337) asserts, that Hali-^ 
plus fluviatiliSf Aubd, is identical with H, ruficollis, and H. lineatuBf 
Aub^, with jET. cbliquus^ as they pass into each other. I have not ob- 
serf ed such transitions. H, JluviaHlis and ruficollis are yery eyidently 
distinguished ; neither haye I oyer found H, obliqwus and Imeattis in 
company. Haliplus ater, Redtenbacher (Coleopt. Aust. p. 8), allied to 
the H, impresmiSy but quite black, appears to be a doubtful species, and 
the more so, as one indiyidual only has been found. 

New New Holland Dytisci are Efjmect^M helvoltts, Erich. (Arch. 1842^ 
i. p. 134), from Van Diemen's Land ; and Cybigter intula/ns, Colymbetet 
nMnosUgma, and Hydroporus collaris, Hope (Proceed. Ent. Soc. p. 47)y 
from Port Essington. 

Schiodte has giyen a description of the azygos system of neryes of 
the pharynx in the AcilvM mdcatus, in Eroyer Naturh. Tidsskr. iy. 
p. 104, 1. 1. 

Gtbini. — ^The German Cfyrim haye been subjected to a complete reyi- 
aion by SufPrian (Ent. Zeit. p. 219). The presence of the G. strigipenms, 
Suffir. (striaPus. Aub^), in Northern Germany (at Elberfeld and Stettin), 
is worthy of attention. With G. mwrmus Suffiian joins O, csneus. 
Leach, cdratus, Steph., as weH as a yariety G. cmthrciciwus, St., and 
G. dorsalis, GyU. ; but he considers the G» ameus, Aubd, as the same 
with G, opacus, Sahlberg, so that the former represents the species, the 
latter a dark blacldsh yariety. Finally, he separates a third species, 
G. rdtens, Parr., frrom both these, which is found in the South of 
Europe, and which unites to the form and the smooth interstices of the 
striae in both sexes of the G, mergtu, the black inflexed nuugin of 
the G. ma/rmu8. The remark which the author appends, that he has 
often obseryed the OrectochUus villosus swimming about, in the day 
time, on the surface of water, is chiefly important on this account, that 
it does away with an opinion expressed by Ahrens, that the O. villoma 
is a nocturnal insect, and preyents this from becoming, through frequent 
repetition, an accredited fru;t. 

Dineutes Gouldii and Gyrimu iridis, Hope, are new species from 
Port Essington, in New HoUand. (Proceed. Ent Soc. p. 48.) 

Stafhtlini. — Holme has published some remarks on the habits, 
manners, &c of British Brachelytra (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend. iii. p. 108). 
They chiefly refer to Stephens^ lUustrations. The author remarks, in an 
appendix, that many of the supposed species in that work Stephens 
himself has reduced in his Manual, which has since appeared, and that 
a still greater reduction must be made, since he has conyinced himself^ 

213 



170 REPORT OK ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

'by an impeefekm of Kirby't ooUection (Stephen haa arranged his work 
on tluB fiunilj ehiefly fiom Kirby'a MS8.), that many of the typical 
•pecimena are only iaunatore individnals of well known spedea ; but be 
has unfortunately loat hia notes. Several speoiea are defined as new : 
StaphyUnfM iompolkut (pethxpsfiisccthu, Gr.), Raphirus mgrieamut 
Omalmm meBomeku, They all iqypear to me doubtfoL 

Miirkel has disoorered and described five new and distinot species 
among the Staphylini^ which live in the nests of the Formica fuUginomi 
(Enl Zeit p. 142) ; they all behmg to the groap of Aleoehofrc^ and acre, 
MynMdowia eognaUi^ loHcoUia ; Owypoda vktaUtf Aleochara inquUina, 
Ewyuia c^owmtuUa, 

LathrMum longicame, Redtenbacher (CoL Anstr. p. 8, n. 5), appears 
to me the same with Lath. angutikoUe (Qen. et 8p. Staph. 50S-7). 
Jaoobson remarks, in referenoe to the doubts raised by me about the 
Lathr, elangatwn, Qyll. (Eroyer Natarhist Tidsskr. iy. p. 344), that 
he has foimd, among a number of Scandinavian individuals, some agree- 
ing with Qyllenhal's, as well as some with my description ; whether, 
and how they are different, except in the fonnation of the penultimate 
segment of the abdomen in the male, is not more exactly men- 
tioned. 

Aub^ has described several Staphylini from the south of Europe 
(Ann. d. L Soc Ent. d. Fr. xL p. 234) ; Ocyput gieului and pkbnipen- 
nts, from Sicily, are allied to the 0»pedator; Pcedenu htiitamcus, fmm 
Portugal, simOar to the southern variefy of the P. Uttomlu, but distin- 
guished by the smaller spherical thorax, longer elytra, and legs nearly 
black, is particularly easy to be recognised from tiie black intermediate 
femora, which in the P. Uttoralig are yellow. 

The reporter has described Aleochctra tpeeuUfera as a new species 
from Van Diemen's Land (Arch. 1842, i. p. 134). 

Blanohard has published the Staphylini of lyOrbigny's voyage. The 
new species are, Staphyli'Mis luctuoms, from Bolivia, placed by the 
author near 8t, villoms and variegatua, and compared with the 8t, ery- 
^irocephahUf but should, periiaps, stand nearer the 8t. erithacm; 8t. 
jcmMnipewnii near the 8t. BophiriMM and hUiMris, from Bolivia ; 8L 
enbratipenmBi ibid. ; 8t,nigreteeM, from Monte Video, near the Stfiu- 
dcomis, Germ. ; 8t, chryioptenu, BrulL, from Bolivia, a good and dis^ 
tinct species, the bad figure of which induced me, doubtfrdly, to 
refer it to 8t ncbUia; 8t. trtsHs, BL, from Monte Video; I^ilonthus 
GmtdichaudU, from Bio Janeiro, P^. rubranMCulatus, from Monte 
Video, Ph. pcUlipe^ from the islands of Parang, all three with five- 
punctured strifiB on the thorax ; Sterculia tplendida^ from Bolivia, dis- 
tinguished by the golden red posterior part of its body, incorrectly called 
Julgens on the plate by Bnill^, and also so cited by myself; CryptoUwm 
bcu€Ue, from the islands of Parang ; Cr, erythrothoraa^y from the district 

214 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 171 

of Bio Janeiro, both compared with Cr, hicolor; La4haMfMn futvipet^ 
£oin the isliuids of Panuoi ; PinophUw maiuSj Brail., from Coirienies ; 
P. cribraius, from Brazils ; P. lividdpemiU and dbscwruSy from the i&Iands 
of Panm4. 

BupRKSTiDjs. — ^HarriB has published some information on the habits 
of North American Bupre9ti (Ins. of Massachus. p. iff), B, (Chako- 
phora) virginica, Dniry, which shows itself towards the ^d of Maj and 
in Jane, is lilce our B, mariana ; the larra liyes in the wood of the 
different species of pines, and becomes rery detrimental to these trees. 
B. (Dicerca) divarkata, Saj, preys on the wild (JPruwus serotmoij and 
garden dierry, also on pear trees. The larva of the J3. (ZHcerca) hurida^ 
P., is n^ore exactly described; it lives in the hickory. B. (OhryiO' 
bo^J denies, lives in oak stems. B, (Chr») femarata, F., in -fig 
trees^ also on white oaks. B, (Chr,) fahoguttata, Harr. (New EngL 
farmer, viii., TcLch^fpterU Drummondif Kirby), lives in the stems of 
the white pine. B. (Ohr,) HcMrrigU, Hentz (small glittering bluish- 
green ; the sides of thorax and the thighs, in the £, cQpper-ooloured) ; 
lives as a larva in small boughs and shoots of the same tree. 

The reporter has described three new spepies from Van Diemen's 
Land; Stigmodera virgineaf Mddbam hypocriia, prisea (Arch. 1843, 
L p. 135). 

Bortolini has given an ample description of the natural history of the 
Supr. FiiMcii (Nov. Comm. Acad. Scient. Bonon. v. p. 87> t. 8) ; the 
larva lives in the wood of the pear tree, and is very prejudicial. 

EuoNBMiBBS. — Nematodes strepens^ Eedtenbacher (Col. Aust p. 9), ig 
Tharopi melasoide», Lap., leorhipis Lepa/ygei, Dej. 

EiiATEaiDA. — In the Proceed. Zool. Soc. of Lond. (1842, p. 73), is to 
be found a notice of a papw of Hope's, on a division of the JSlaterida, 
which IB defined as a peculiar family, Phyllophoridce, It contains the 
genera Phyllophorus, H. {El, gigas, F.); Tetrakibtis, Serv. (nine 
sp&deB); Fiezophyllvs, H. (two new species); Oxynopterus, H. (El, 
nmcranatus, 01., and four new species) ; Leptophylhts, H. (a new species) ; 
Pectoceraj H. (two new species). The genera are all new except Tetra- 
idbus ; but I am not able to give their essential characteristics from the 
descriptions published; and as the author himself refers us to the 
plates by Westwood, we must wait for these before entering more par- 
ticularly on this treatise. 

Germar (Zeitschr. iv. p. 43), has arranged a peculiar group out of 
those El<Uerid(Bf in which the forehead is gradually flattened anteriorly. 
The new genus, CrepidomevmSf was established by the reporter in the 
Archives (1842, i. p. 140) ; it differs from the others by the third 
and fourth tarsal joints having beneath them a heart-shaped membrane. 
There are three species described, C, fulgidas, dec<yratus, and UieniaPiiSf 
all from Van Diemen's Land. Among the others with simple tarsi, in 

215 



172 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDOCCXLII .' 

■ome (A.) the thighs are inwaidly hollowed and abruptly widened: 
LudkUf Latr., Beliophoru9f Esch., TamicephaluB, Latr., Hemiaps, Eseh. 
LudiuB, with a distinctlj separate apparent joint at the point of the 
eleyenth joint of the antennn, containn EL ferrug%neu$, L. ; L. coracinu§, 
ttom. North America; El, thesms. Germ. ; and Z. deecnu, new species 
firom Valparaiso. BdiophoruB, Each., haying the ekrenth antennal 
joint undiyided and slender, was first characterized by the articiilati<m 
of the hind 1^ being at the an^ of the dilated thigh ; it is confined 
to the B. ed)rionoide$t Esch., fimm the Cape;* the other species 
mentioned bj Esch., EL tnucronahM, OL, which he did not -know, 
has been described as a* different genns, and been named by Hope 
Oxynoptenu (yide sap.). TamieephaluSf Latr. (Megacnemitu, Esch.), 
has also a simple eleyenth antennal joint, but the thighs are consider- 
ably dilated towards the inside at the bend ; the only species is T. $am^ 
guinieoUis, Latr. Hemiop$f with its labrom emarginated anteriorly, 
contains J7. fiavus, Lap. {luteus, Dej.), from Jaya ; . H, mgripes. Lap., 
Germ. ; and H, chinentU, new species from China. In the others, (B.) 
the thighs are gradually dilated internally. Carymbites has only the 
second antennal joint small, the third of the form of the fourth. Dia- 
canthuB and PriiHiophMs haye the second and third antennal joints 
small, the third at least narrower and shorter than the fourth. In the 
former, the thorax is shorter, and the elytra become broader behind 
the middle. This distinction, howeyer, does not appear to me satis- 
factory. I would rather say, that in Diaca/rUhus, the mouth is coyered 
by the prostemum, in PrisHlopJwu it remains free ; in which case, at 
least, Latreille's typical species, E» mektncholieus, would remain in the 
latter genus, and D. corporomu and tuhmetcUlicus, two new spedes from 
North America, coHcUUy Payk, and guttcOus, Dej., would belong also to 
PrisHlophus, P. Uxvigatus ; Beichei, a new species from South Carolina ; 
and morio, F. ; which together form a small sub-diyision with projecting 
mesostemum; also cethiops, Hbt., and innHwis, Germ, (depresiutf 
Meg.), are to be placed under Diacanthug. Thus, Corymbiteg contains 
twenty-fiye, Diaecmthui twenty-eight, and PrigtUophvs thirteen species. 
Finally, CardiorhiwMy Esch., difibrs from the former by the emargi- 
nated labrum. The number of its species moitioned is not more than 
eleyen, but the author has not had the use of the Berlin collection during 
his labours at this genus. 

Germar (ibid. p. 98) has brought together the species of the genus 
Campiostemus, taking ^ope's enumeration as his basis. (Vide Ann. 
Nat. Hist. yiii. p. 453.) A number of Hope's species are either unknown 

* Beliopkorug, £soh. mit ungetheiltem II. Fiihlergliede, und sehr schmalen, 
erst an der Einlenkung der Hinterbeine im Winkel erweiterten Schenkel- 
deoken ist anf den B. cebrionoidet Esch. von Cap bcschrl&nkt. 

216 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 173 

to him, or somewhat doubtful, firom that gentleman's unsatisfiustorj diag- 
noses. Some species are added, viz., — O. violatu$, Bsng^foveolatus, Ma- 
labar ; as well as seyeral more exactly described, viz., — O. Latreillei, Dej., 
fiom Cochin-China, probably agreeing with Hope's species of the same 
name, which is therefore retained ; C. rutUans, Chevr., from Manilla. 
* There is still another new species to be added, which Gudrin (Deless. 
Jour. d'Voj. dans llnde, ii p. 37) has described under the name of Caanp- 
909terMM Latrdllei, and which appears to be different fiom aU the others, 
in haying a fine white coat of hair, more or less thick : it was disoovered 
at Pondicherrj. 

Redtenbacher has described three Austrian species (Col. Aust. p. 11) : 
E, (Ampedim) fulvtts is a small beetle, which differs from Ampedus by 
its membranous appendages on the tarsal joints, so that U, (8erico8omu$) 
lugem should rather bel<mg to Ampedus. E, (Ectinus) wbceneus, Ziegl., 
appears to me properiy to stand under PrittUophus. Desyignes (Entor 
mologlBt, p. 326) has characterized a new British species, Elat. rufi- 
tarmu, which appears to belong to Ampedus, and to be allied to the 
E, nigrinus, 

Agrypwus grcmdis, Hope, is a large New Holland Ektter from Port 
Essington. (Proceed. Ent. Soc. p. 48,) 

Of the Fauna of Van Diemen's Land, the reporter has described (Arch. 
18i2, i. p. 136) one new species of Lctcon, six of MonocrepidiuSf one of 
Mela/noaicmthus, one of PristUophus, three of the new genus CrepidO" 
menMs (vid. sup.), and also one new genus Atelopus, allied to DolopkiSi 
but removed from the other genera with an arched forehead, by the 
fourth tarsal joint being proyided with a membranous appendage ; con- 
taining four new species. As the name Atelopus is already in use 
among the amphibia, it should be altered to Acroniopus, 

RniPicERiDA. — Three new New Holland species of Rhipicera haye 
b^n recorded by Westwood. (Proceed. Ent. Soc. 64.) Rh, attenuata, 
pumilio (from Swan Biyer), and hru/nnea. 

Ctfhonidjb. — ^The reporter has described a new species of Ctfphon 
from Van Diemen's Land, O, cMstralis (Arch. 1842, i. p. 144). 

LAMFTBiDiB. — Dicckhoff (Eut. Zoit. p. 117) has published his obserya* 
tions on the light emitted by the species of Laanpyris ; he proceeds on the 
supposition that it seryes the insect as a protection against animals of 
prey. Robert (Ann. d. Sc. Nat. zyiii. p. 379), relates, that he had a 
La/mpyris $ in his hand, which shone so brightly that he could read small 
writing when held near it ; a ^ was found, and, after a few moments, 
the sexes had united ; that then the light, which was at first bright, 
gradually lessened, and after half an hour was completely extinguished. 
When he cut a lAx/mpyris $ transyersely into two pieces, the light gra- 
dually disappeared in about the same space of time, but it could be again 
called forth if the posterior parts of the body were placed near a lighted 

217 



174 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

amdle, periiapf, in oonnqiienoe of the heat ; bat it was onlj within the 
fiift thirfy-dx hoon that this took place, and but once. 

liYciDM. — The reporter has remarked (Aroh. 1842, i. p. 100), on the 
genera Lyeu$, Lygtstopt&nu {DictycpteruB, Ghi^.), Porroctoma, and 
M4tricrhynekMSf that thej contain the species with a proboscis ; but tiiai 
onlj three of them can be maintained: Ly€U9 (distingnished by the 
mdimentarir mandibles), and lAfgistopteruiy both with antenne at the 
base of the proboscis; and Porroitoma, with them attached to the fine- 
head. Each of these has a long and a short proboscal diyision ; Me^ 
triorhync?iu$, Ghidr., is the short proboscal diyision of Porrattama, 

In the same Tolmne (p. 144), scTeral species are described from Van Die- 
men's Land; Porrostama erytkr^terum, P. (MetriorK) ru/ipennu (the 
tatneLye.ru/ipenm8, F.), P. (M,) nujurginctt%t8,di9coide»s; Anarhynchut 
geutellarU. Buquet has made known fire South American species of the 
form which corresponds to the genns Dict^fopteniu, Ondr. (Eev. ZooL 
p. 6) : L. regcdit, hwmercUis, from Bogota ; ^fasdatuB, impericdii, ftom 
Columbia ; 4r€0ttatuiy from BrariL It is to be remarked, that the first 
species, Lycus succincttis, Latr., is in Humboldt's collection, and that 
the generic name, Lygiitoptnvs, used long ago hj Mulsant, is to be 
preferred to that of Ou^rin, which Latreille has used in another 



Telbfhoudjb. — ^Bedtenbadier has characterized Canthar%$ mgripes 
as anew species from the Schneeberg, in Austria (Col. Aust. p. 13) ; but it 
is the same with C. bcurbara, F., pallida, Rossi ; which, besides Barbery, 
is also found in Portngal, Italy, and Switzerland. CantharU nobiU- 
Uxta of the reporter, is a new species from Van Diemen's Land (Arch. 
1842, i. p. 146). 

Meltbides. — Redtenbacher has described a new Austrian spedes of 
the McUa^hii (Col. Aust. p. 14), Anthocamus fuHvus ; the reporter has 
described another from Van Diemen's Land (Arch. 1842. i, p. 147), 
Attahts abdommalis, 

Graells has described a new Spanish Dagytes, allied to the 2>. ndbUis, 
but of flatter shape, as D, ciliatut (Ann. d. 1. Soc. £nt. d. Fr. zi. p. 221, 
t. 10, f. 3-6). It liyes on the flowers of Cistus fnongpeU&Mis, and 
aWidMs, 

Clbrii. — A comprehensive work on the CUrii, founded on the 
Berlin collection, has appeared by Klug in the Schriften der KonigL 
Acad, der Wissensch, '' Versuch einer systematischen Bestunmung und 
Auseinandersetzung der Gattungen und Arten der Clerii, einer Insecten 
familie aus der Ordnung der Coleopteren." Systematical arrangement is 
here difficult, as the genera are very nearly allied to each other ; nu- 
merous repetitions of individual forms and colours occur in each, so that 
the appearance is quite deceptive ; besides, a great number of smaller 
divisions and groups are found, which are neither sufficiently marked 

218 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 175 

for genera, nor do they stand in immediate connection with the forms 
taken as typical. Under these circumstances, the author, in order to 
avoid the error of splitting too much, has chosen the plan of determin- 
ing a limited number of genera, but distinguishing all the variations 
which occur within them; and noting, as sub-genera with their own 
names, those farther removed. 

First, the genera with five distinctlj jointed tarsi. 

I. CylidnMj divided into two groups, — 1. {CyUd^nxs^ Spin.) with a 
concealed labnim : C. cycmeug, ¥.,famatfa8, Lap., and two new species, 
O. cibdommcUis, from Braail, balteaM$, from the Cape ; and, 2. (Dencps, 
Stev.) with the firont of the head emaiginated and the labrunf fiee : 
a>lbofa9ciatu8, Charp. 

n. Tillu8.—A. Claws twice toothed before the tips.— 1. (TUhis) Body 
slender, antennn long and serrated : T. elongatus, to which T, hyalitmsy 
Sturm, and })imaevblajta%y Don., are. joined as varieties. — 2. Body slender, 
thorax constricted, antenna doubly pectinateid : T. pectinicomie, new 
species, native country unknown. — 3. (Cymobtkodera, Gray) Antenna) 
filiform, last joint gradually becoming pointed, not much longer than the 
preceding : Hopeiy Gr., o^lindhieollis, Chevr., inomatuSf Say, and four 
new: fnwnnoratus &om Mexico, proliojus and conftagratus from Orinoco, 
cingulat^M fix>m the Cape.— 4. Antennas shorter, sub-serrated, the last 
joint as long as the two preceding: T, compremcomisy new species 
fiom the Cape. — 5. {MiMsroUhM, Kl.) Antennt» ten-jointed, the tenth 
as long as all the others together: f^rmmatus. Say. — 6. (Tilloidea, 
Lap.) Antenna- short and serrated, labrum transverse : T, rubricollis, 
Gndr. (piiheMem, Lap.), trcmwersalia, Charp., unifitseiatus, F., and a 
new species, notatvs, from the East Indies. B, Claws with only one 
tooth before the tips. — 7* {Callitheres, Dej.) The last joint of the labial- 
palpi transverse (quergezogen) ; peculiar to Madagascar : a. (Patients, 
Lap.) Antenna broader towards the tips, serrated from the fifth joint, 
tarsal joints of equal breadth, tips of elytra rounded continuously: 
tricolor, Lap., and two new species, cMlicua and vidwus, h, {Joda/nms, 
Lap., Ccdlitkeres, Spin.) An^ennn broader and serrated towards the 
tips, the first two joints of the hinder tarsi somewhat compressed, elytra 
elongated and pointed : acutipenms, Lap. c. (Xylobius, Gudr.) Antennse 
broader towards the tip, compressed, with the last joint rounded, tarsal 
joints of equal breadth, tips of elytra rounded continuously : aztx/reus, 
Kl., and three new species, ven/iMtu$, longuluB, pulcJiellua. d. Antennas 
as in c, tarsal joints and tips of elytra as in l>: fastigiatus, new species. 
e. Antennae scarcely serrated near the tips, tarsal joints and tips of 
elytra as in a ; awncomu9, new species. — 8. (PfUloealus, KL) Palpi 
the same, antennas bluntly serrated, body elongated: tuccinctus and 
0onatu8, from the Cape. — 9. {Clerononms, Kl.) Antennas tiiickened 

219 



176 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

towardt the tip, thorax ihort : biplagiahju (bHnaculatui)^ new species 
fiwm Mezioo. 

in. JMocera, Kirbj; four species: P. variegata, Sarbj; trinotata, 
new species firom Columbia ; sptnosa (CL tpinomUf F., Till, ^-pwnctatut. 
Lap.) ; and P. bi^tumat new species from Braiil. 

In the following genera the first tarsal joint is shorter, bat jet dis* 
tinctly recognisable. 

rV. Clerus. — 1. (Chnadius, Lap.) Eyes dose, upon the top of head, 
deeply emarginated beneath, daws dentated, hinder tarsi with the joints 
indistinctlj separated, and the penultimate one onlj haying a double- 
flapped appendage: a. Tarsal joints compressed, triangular fix>m the 
sixth ;- thorax cylindrical, oblong : CL proUxtu (O. indictM, Lap.), and 
one new spedes, CL mode$tu%; both fiom Jaya. — b. Joints of the antenn» 
oblong, narrowed at both ends, thorax rounded on the sides, constricted 
posteriorly: CL ne&uJostis (O. trifaseiatuSj Lap.) — 2, (8tigmatw/m^ 
Gray). Eyes and daws as in 1, the hind tarsi formed like the others : 
cicindelaideM, Gray, and fnwtUkuriuSy F. — 3. (Thancttin/ut, Latr.) Eyes 
distant, on the top of the head, emarginated beneath, antennsB with 
(generally three) broader terminal joints, daws toothed beneath, tarsal 
joints of equal length ; the typicfd group, containing forty-fiye spedes, 
of whidi twenty-nine are new. — 4. Only differing from 3 in the tarsi, in 
whidi the last joint is as long as the two preceding : CL MUric<thu, new 
spedes from Van Diemen's Land. — 5. Eyes distant, on the top of the 
head, a little emarginated beneath, temunal joints of the labial-palpi 
transyersely hatchet-shaped, daws simple, the form of body resembling 
Opihu: CI. 4:rmaculatfus, F., ahd(>mvMilu, Germ., %ndieu%, F., &om 
the Cape, marmoratusy Dej. {Not. cfUnenm, F.), ibid., and CL nUtia, 
new spedes, from the Cape. — 6. {Thanerocleru8, LefV.) Eyes distant, 
on the top of the head, emarginated beneath, terminal joint of the labial- 
palpi slightly hatchet-shaped, daws simple, last tarsal joint as long as aU 
the others : iongtMneut, Say, Buguetii, LefV., and one new spedes, der- 
mettaides, from Arabia Felix. — 7. (Pezoponu, Kl.) Wingless, and with 
simple claws, in other respects like 3, only differing by the head being 
large, and the anterior angles of the dytra not projecting : coarctcttus, 
new spedes from the Cape. — 8. (Lemidia, Spin.) Eyes not emarginated, 
strongly projecting, antennsB eleyen-jointed, with dilated terminal joints, 
claws simple : nitena (Hydnocera nUens, Newm.). — 9. (Hydnocera, 
Newm., PhyllobcBnua, Dej.) Eyes not emarginated, projecting, wide 
apart, antennsB yery short, ten-jointed, with a button-shaped terminal 
joint, labrum not emarginated : a. Claws dentated : hwrneralis. Say, and 
six new species : basalts from Columbia, attenuatus, lividus from Brazil, 
hr€bchypteru$, tuturalis from North America, tendlus from Mexico. 
h. Claws simple : gteniformie, new species from Brazil. — 10. (Evenus^ ' 
Lap.) Like 9, but the body elongated, the lablal-palpi very long, with 

220 



INSECT A — COLEOPTERA . 1 77 

an oblong and slightly hatchets shaped terminal joint, the hind legs long, 
the hind tarsi, at least the first three joints, without membranous ap- 
pendages: E. JUiformis, Lap., from Madagascar. 

Y. Ptychopteras, (This name cannot be a good one, on account of 
the dipterous, genus Ptychoptera, In the first plan of this work, which 
was contained in the " Monatsberichten der Acad." of 1837, the genus 
was named PlacocervSy and it is only by mistake that this name has 
not been retained.) Labial-palpi long, with a triangular terminal joint ; 
antennae broad and flatly compressed from the third joint, short, broadest 
in the middle : P. dimidAatus, the only species, from Cafferland. 

YI. Aodna, Eirby: containing a single species, analis, Eirby, not 
different, perhaps, from the ruJUa/ms, Perty. 

In the following genera the first tarsal joint is so much shortened 
that the tarsi are apparently four-jointed. 

Vn. Opilits (Notoxus, F.) — 1. MaxOlary-palpi filiform, appendage 
of the tarsal joints undivided : 0. porcatus, F. 

In all the following, the terminal joint of the maxillary-palpi is hatchet- 
diaped. — 2, Antennae proportionally thin ; appendage of the tarsal joints 
lobed: O. mollis^ L., damesticus, St., pcdlidus, 01., vmvittatu8, Ross. 
(fcuciatus, Steph.), and six new species, Ueniatus from Eagusa, thoraci- 
cus from Maoedonia,yronta^i8 from Constantinople, tropicus from Sennaaf, 
dnetus from Senegal, cbscurus fr^m the Cape. — 3. Like 2, but the ter- 
minal joint of the antenna double the length of the preceding : inter^ 
rtipttis from Senegal, hascUis from Sinai. — ^. Like the preceding, but the 
ninth and tenth antennal joints turbinate, the eleyenth abnost as long as 
all the rest together : guberosus from Madagascar. — 5. The last three an- 
tennal joints dilated ; in other respects like the preceding, a. Body of 
the more common oblong form : tristisj and coUosub from Madagascar, 
jpatKciiM from Van Diemen's Land. h. (PlatycleruSf Spin.) Body broad 
and flat : plaaiatiie (Clervs pL, Lap.). — 6. (Trogodendran, Qu^.) An- 
tennse thickened towards the tips, appendage of the tarsal joints undi- 
yided : fasciculatus {CL fasc, Schreib.) 

YIII. JBlrymcmthaSy Kl., Spin.; agreeing with Trichodeg in the 
antenn&e and palpi, habit rather that of OpiluSy thighs all thickened, 
tibiss curved, tongue deeply and sharply emaiginated, terminal joints of 
the labial-palpi cup-shaped : E, gemmcOiLS, frH}m the Cape. 

IX. Trichodes, The typical Trichodes have distinctly dub-shaped 
antenniB. There are seventeen species (a great number of which are 
nominal). T, nobilis from Constantinople, and omUcus from the Cape, 
are new. A small group peculiar to New Holland, with the antennie only 
a little thickened at the point, forms the genus Zenithicola, Spin., with TV. 
augtraUs, Boisd., matabUis, Newm., and one new species, Tr. ocharopua. 

In the following genera the tarsi are apparently four jointed, as the 
fourth joint is rudimentary and concealed in the emargination of the third. 

221 



178 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

X. Covynete$, — 1. (CoryiMfet, Steph.) Tenninal joints of the palpi 
aliDOft hatdhet^aped, the jomts of the dab of the antennse do not lock 
together : C. ewruleu$ (Cler. camU,, De Geer), rujlccmis, St., and the 
following new ones, putiUit» from Sardinia, g&niculatus from Portugal 
and Andalusia, anedU and peetorcUh firam Cafferland. 

In the foUowing, the tenninal joint of the palpi is almost acmninate : — 
9. (Oorffnetes, 'HhL Neerobiaf Steph.) Qnb of antennsB broad, with a 
large and almost qnadrangnlar terminal joint : 0. viol€ieeus, rvtfipeB, rufir- 
cMii. — 3. The joints of the club of antennss of equal siae locking to ea^ 
other: C. teutelkirUf DL, hicdor. Lap., collari$, Sch., defunetorwm, WaltL, 
and two new species : C. rubrieoUis and ater, ftom the Cape. — 4. Joints 
of the club of antenna) separate : O. dMcolor and pcUUpet, new species 
fiom Mezioo. — 5. (Notatten'm, Dej.) AntennsB gradnallj thickened to- 
wards the point, bodj flat, linear : O. ffiridiB (Anob* vir., Thnnb.) and 
Hi/wnbergU (Anob. cceruleum, Thnnb.) 

XI. GyUgtus, Kl. ; palpi filiform, antennas stnmgly pectinated from 
the fonrth joint, daws broadly dentated below the point : O. v<MriMl%$, 
from the Cape, is a spedes yarying in odour, with the habit of Eno- 
pitum 9angMWM€oUe. 

XIL Enopliwa, Latr. — ^1. Palpi with a cylindrical terminal joint, 
daws broadly dentated below the point : E, tanguinieoUe, diumecmey 
and three new spedes : E, nMrinwn from St. Domingo, velutinwn from 
Brasil, lepidwn from Caba. — 2, Palpi with a hatdiet-shaped terminal 
jdnt, tarsal joints of equal length : a. Claws simple : E. serrcoicome, F., 
pilaaum, Forst. ; ma/rginatwn, Say ; viridipenney Kirby ; JEfr6«^, Gray ; 
trifouciatum (Clerus), Laporte ; ramieome (Ohariema ramicormsy Perty) ; 
ffesHtwn (Brcbchymorpha vestit,, Chevr. ; CoryMt.y tpeetahiUsy Laporte); 
and ten new ones : genieulatwn from Monte Video, alciccmey poiHcwny 
ruJlpeSy omatumy decorumy fasciadatwn, icopa/rUmiy leuoophcBwn from 
Birazil ; fugax frx>m Colmnbia. b. Claws dentated : a. AntennaB eleven 
jointed : («i^ac«um and IwrMwin from Brazil; b. AntennsB ten jointed : 
^-punctatfMny Say ; and fiye new ones : ^-notatmny 12-puncUxhMn from 
Brazil ; ^ontaminatumy pilo9wn frx>m Columbia ; crimtum from St. Jdm's 
(West Indies). — 3. (EpiphksuSy Dej.) All, or the hibial-palpi alone, 
with pointed terminal joints, aatennn very short, eyes large, emargi- 
nated internally, first joint of the hinder tarsi elongated, daws dentated 
at the base : eight new species from Brazil ; and one, dutrophum from 
North America. — 4. (Piatynk^ptera, Chevr.) Palpi short, with a strong 
hatehet-shaped terminal joint, antenn&e strongly cranpressed, the first 
seven joints extremely short and dose together, elytra posteriorly 
strongly dilated : lyeiformey Chevr., and one new species, E, aanpUtUumy 
from BraziL — 5. (Ichneay Lap.) Terminal joints of the palpi almost 
acmninate, antennae broadly flattened, ten jointed, the six before the 
three terminal of unequal breadth, elytra not dilated : lyncide^. Lap., 

222 



. INSECTA — COLEOPTBRA. 179 

and aevmi new species : mekmwrumf prasnuiumy ma/rginellumy lateraUt 
suturale, fTOin*Brazil ; op<MiMn, from Cayenne and Sorinani ; (Uerrwmm 
from Mexico. 

In all 219 species, contained in the Berlin collection, have been 
minutely examined, and thirty-two *of the more distinct figured at the 
end of the treatise; fifty-nine doubtful species, or only known by 
description, are mentioned. 

Cheyrolat has described a number of Clerii from South Africa (Rev. 
Zool. p. 276), which, for the most part, are not doubtful as species, 
although, perhaps, they do not generaUy belong to the genera to which 
he has assigned them with a query. Among seyen spedes of Notascus 9 
the N. (9) versicolor is a TUlus, and certainly the same with T, (PhUo- 
calus) guccinctiUy EL (vide sup.) j^. (?) cbioletus and a/picalis are 
perhaps near the following, N. (?) fasdolatus, which seems to agree with 
T, (Cymatodera) obgoletus, Kl. ; JV^. (?) virescena and latu$, with a broad 
round head, short rounded thorax, and flat elytra, are unlmown to 
me ; finally, N, (9) marmoratus is a Clerus (CL ma/rmoratus, Kl.) ; and 
N. sdbrinua perhaps is only a variety of the same. Clems ? altenMrns, 
and TUlus ? 9aeemctu» are unknown to me, as weU as the new genua 
Micm^pfteruB (brevipenmsjy which in habit must resemble an Aptmus* 
Nothing is said of the generic character, nor is the form of the antennae 
given. DozocoUetus obl&ngus, is Clerus (Pezoporus) coarctaPm^ El., 
characterized as a new genus, with the habit of Ctenogtoma, 

Some new Clerii, from Port Philip, New Holland, have been described 
by Newman (Entomologiat, p. 363). A new genus, Xcmthoeerus, cor- 
responds to Th, trogodendroriy Spin. (Opt7us, p. El.) Besides the CI, 
fiuciculaius, Sdireib., the author adds his CI. aplendidats, dmplex and 
ptdcher, and a new species, X. idoneus. Pylus, with a thick body, and 
a protuberance in the middle of the sides of the thorax, has likewise a 
new species, P. hieinctus. ThanasMmiis ckccvnctus, ctcerbuSf confugus ; 
OpHua congruup (very like the 0. moUis), and Hydnocera canfecta, 
are also new. The most of these species are found on the flowers of 
the Eucalyptus, Newman (ibid. p. 402) has added another new species, 
Pffhjts cmtkiddes, 

Ptiniores. — Newman (Entomologist, p. 403) has described three new 
forms from Port Philip, in New South Wales, which he, probaldy incor- 
rectly, ascribes to this family : Synercticus, with antenn» moniliform, 
and the terminal joint pointed, round eyes, heart-shaped thorax, broader 
convex elytra, short legs, heteromerous tarsi ; 8, heteromeruSy taken on 
the flowers of the Eucalyptus, Epiteles, with large extended head, 
strongly crooked mandibles, long palpi, witii the terminal joint s<»ae- 
what thickened and truncate, kidney shaped eyes, short antennse den- 
tated from the fifth joint, narrow thorax of equal breadth, elytra 
scarcely covering the abdomen, short legs, swollen thighs, and " quasi'* 

223 



180 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

fiT&gointod tani; E, €<mtumax, taken horn under the bark of the 
Eueahfptui. DeretaphruB, yid. under Col^dii, * 

XyUHnuB omatuB, Qermar (Faun. Ins. Eur. 22, 2), black with a grey 
haby ooat, and the tip of the striped and pointed elytra red, is a new 
species from Hungary. 

PtinuM exulans of the reporter, is fixxm Van Diemen's Land (Arch. 
1842, i. p. 147). 

Lnhof has enriched ApaU with three new species from Guinea (Ver- 
handL d. Naturf. Ges. su Basel, r. p. 176) : A. producta, tonta, and 
erimtcMTsU, The reporter has added one from Yan Diemen's Land, 
A. collaris (Arch. 1842, L p. 148). 

Harris (Lis. of Massachus. p. 52), has described two new North 
American species, Lymexylon iericeum, and Hyleccetug americanus. 
He is in doubt if the former actually belongs to Lymexylon, In this I 
do not agree with him. A female, howeyer, is alone known to me. On 
the other hand, in the HyleecBtus americanug, the presence of a single 
red ocellus in the middle of the forehead, as in AUctgmMis, &c., is yery 
striking, and appears to indicate that this beetle, which is not known 
to me from personal inspection, is incorrectly placed under HyUeoebua, 
The reporter has also added a new species to this small group, Lymeacy- 
lon auatraU, from Van Diemen's Land (Arch. 1842, i. p. 147)< 

SiLFHALEs. — In D'Qrbigny's Voy. d. I'Am^., Blanchard has described 
the following new species of this family : — Necropharus didytnus^ Brull., 
and N. scrutator, BL, both from Boliria ; SUpha apicaUs, BrulL, frt>m 
Potosi (Boliyia) ; S, erythrura, Blanch., fr!om Monte Video ; 8. dUci- 
eoUis, BrulL, from Boliyia; the last agrees with the 8. co/yennenns^ 
Sturm. Cat. 1826, t. 2, f. 10,- whilst the one preceding is identical with. 
8. hcemorrhoidalis, St. 

Agyrteg glaher (Tritam, glabr. Payk., GylL, Zett.), from the north of 
Sweden, has been figured by Germar (Faun. Ins. Europ. 22, 1). 

CijUops auitraUs of the reporter, is from Van Diemen's Land (Arch. 
1842, i. p. 243). 

Schiodte (Kroyer's Naturhist. Tidsskr. iy. p. 107) has corrected .an 
error of Leon Dufour, who had represented 8Upha as having an azygoe 
secreting organ of the urinary bladder, cpusisting of a yessel, and a 
bladder yoiding into the rectum. That bladder is the caecum, and the 
yessel a yessel-like appendage to it, similar to the corresponding parts of 
Dyti9€U9^ 

Palpatobes. — ^Aub^ (Ann. Soc. Ent. de Fr. xi. p. 233) has enriched 
the gronp of the Scydmcmvs thoracicus with two new species : 8c. la- 
ticdlis, from the Jura, is double the size ; 8c. mmuti8$im/u$, from the 
island of Louyier, is only half the size of 8c. thoracicus. 

8cydmcBnug aaitidotus, Helf., has been figured by Germar (Faun. Ins. 
Eur. 22, 3), 

224 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 181 

NiTiDULARiiB. — The reporter (Germ. Zeitsch. iy. p. 225) has attempted 
a sjstematie division of this family, and divided it into six groups, 
according to the number of the maxillary lobes, the proportions of the 
tarsal joints, &c. : — 1st Group, Cateretes, with two narrow, long, maxillary 
lobes, and, as in the four following groups, very small fourth tarsal 
joint; it is divided into the genera Cercua, Latr. (pedicidcMrivs^ &c., six 
species), and Brachypterus, Kug. (gravidus, urticce, &c., nine species), 
the former having simple daws, the second dentated ; the latter differs, 
besides^ by a small segment, which, in the male, is found at the point of 
the posterior part of the body, &c. 

The following groups have a single maxilLuy lobe : — 2d Qroup, Car- 
pophilini, distinguished from the following group by strong shortened 
elytra, which leave two or three segments of the posterior part of 
the body free: Mystrops (three new species); Colaatus (formerly 
Colopterus, Nit. rwpta, F., eighteen species, all American); Brctchy- 
peplvs (first descrjlbed in these Archives, 1842, L p. 148, four species, 
of which two are from Van Diemen's Land); CUlcBua, Lap. (besides 
the species characterized by Lap. &om Madagascar, a new one from 
Columbia); Canotdua (Stewus conicus, F., eight species, all finom 
America) ; CcMrpophiliu, Leach (twentynaeven species) ; and Ecnomasw 
(with one new species from Senegal). — dd Qroup, Nitidulinas, forming 
the central point of the whole family ; the genera are grouped aoodrding 
to the antennal furrows on the under side of the head ; these are either 
converging in Epu/rcea (antennal furrows obsolete ; N. cutiva, &c., thirty 
species), Nitidula (bipustulataf six species), Perilopa (two new species), 
Saronia (Jf. punctoHsgimaf three species), Prometopia {Nit, 6~maculataf 
Say, two species), PsHotuSy Fisch (Nit. comuta, F., three species), Platy- 
chora (Nit. LdHuiij Dej., two species), Axyra (one new species from 
Guinea), I^hcena (two new species from Java) ; or the antennal furrows 
are straight and parallel, in Ipidia (Ips. 4b-notata, ¥.); or they are 
behind the eyes, arched round externally in Amphotis (Nit. ma/ryin- 
ata, F.), Lcbiopa (Nit. undulata. Say, ten species from America), 
Omogita (N. colon, three species), Pkenolia (Nit. grossa, F.), Stelidota, 
(N. ttrigoaa, Sch., seven species). — 4th Group, Strongylvnce, differing 
from the preceding group, by the breast having projections ; i. e., the 
pro-sternum juts out posteriorly ; the posterior margin of the thorax ia 
either locked to the anterior margin of the elytra, or it grasps strongly 
over them. To the first sub-division belong Tkalycra (Strong, sericeus, 
&t. ; N.fervida, GylL.), jEthina (one new species from Madagascar), Pria, 
Steph. (Nit. dulcama/rcB, IlL, four species), MeligetheB, Steph., Hebctsau 
(Sphonid. cmcde, F., four species), Ocmlodes (one new species from New 
Holland), Lordites (four new species), Pocadius (Nit. ferruginea, F., 
five species). To the second sub-division belong Ciimptodea (SphcBrid. 
gcutellatum, Sturm., thirty-nine species, partly with dentated, partly 

225 P 



182 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

with simple claws, all American), Cyllodes (Strong, ater, Hbt., five 
species), Cyckramua, Kug. {^kcerid, luteum, F., three species), Am- 
phicrossus (Nit. ciliata, 01. Enc, three species), PcUlodes (Strong, 
annulifer, Hffg., Lap., four species), Oxycnemus (one new species from 
Brazil), TrtocontM (Nit. a^ccdis, Er., in Mejens Reise) ; the last three 
genera are distingaished by ebngated and narrow hinder tarsi. — 5th 
Group, IpincB, differing from the NitidulinoB by the concealed labnun ; 
containing three genera: Crypta^rcha, Shuck. (N. strigata, F., ten 
species), Ips (nine species), and Rhizophagus, Hbt. (one new species from 
North America). So far, with the exception of the genera Meligethes 
and RhizophagvSy the species of the Berlin collection are quoted, and 
the new ones described (exclusive of those of Madagascar, in consequence 
of Elug*s labouring at the fauna of that island) : — The 6th Group, Tro- 
gontincBf is only slightly mentioned ; it differs from the former in the 
formation of the tarsi, in which the first joint is the shortest, and often 
scarcely observable. According to the general opinion, a single maxillary 
lobe only has also been ascribed to this group ; but later investigation 
has convinced me, that the inner one, which, in groups 2-5, is alone 
present, is here so far back, and connected with the outer, that it is 
usually scarcely to be observed. I shall attempt soon to fix the genera 
of this group ; but have here to remark, that the Peltides (Peltis and 
ThymaluBy but not Colohicus) still belong to the family of the NitidAi- 
la/ri<By but stand so near to the TrogotitinaSf that they can hardly be 
separated from them as a peculiar group. *> 

Blanchard has described a pretty considerable number of new species 
of Nitidula/rice, in D'Orbigny's Voy. d. TAmer. Mer ; but «rhich, for 
the most part, remain doubtful, on account of their undefined generic 
marks, and insufficient descriptions, in which the most essential charac- 
teristics are passed over ; on which account, I can only ment j§n the spe- 
cies by name, without venturing to express an opinion to which of the 
genera, recognized by me, they belong : Ips. e^envna, BL, from Bolivia ; 
NitidAila villoma, BL, ibid. ; N. nigro-maculata, BL, ib. (probably a 
Ldbiopa, but it is impossible to fix the species); N. lata, BL, ib. ; 
N. hrevipennis, from Peru ; N. pollens, BL, from Corrientes ; Strongy- 
Itis M-rubrum, Brull., from Bolivia (a beautiful Ca/mptod^, allied to 
my C.phaleratus) ; 8tr. tristis, Lap., from Brazil (is Ca/mptod. scutellor- 
Pus, Sphcerid, scutelL, Sturm.) ; Str. nigritus. Lap., from Monte Video 
(appears identical with my Campt, mela/naritts) ; Str. humeralis, Brull., 
from Corrientes (a better defined Caanptodes); Str. thoracicus, Lap., 
from Chiquitos, in Bolivia (doubtful) ; Str. meUmwrus, BL, in Bolivia, 
caught on the mimosa and other flowers (doubtful) ; Str. villosus, BL, 
from Moxos in Bolivia (apparently a Pocadius). 

HisTERES. — Aubd has described three new European species of 
Ahroffus (Ann. d. L Soc. Ent. d. Fr. xi. p. 231) ; A. atomarvm, caught 

226 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 183 

once at Fontainbleau, and A. punctum, from Italj, resemble the A. 
nigricomis ; A, parvulvs, found at Fontainblean, in a decayed oaJc, is 
very similar to my A. granulunif and differs only in the elytra being 
much closer punctured. 

In D'Qrbigny's Voy. d. TAm. Mer, this family has been increased by 
Blanchard with a number of new species : Hololepta attenuata, from 
Bolivia ; Saprinua omatm (this name has already been given by the 
reporter to the S, interrwptus, Fisch.), allied to the 8. decoratus of the 
reporter, and S. patagonicuSj both abundant in Patagonia ; 8, nigritu, 
from Maldonado and Monte Video ; 8, erythropus, from Buenos Ayres ; 
8* piceua (this name also is not free, as Hist, piceus, Payk., is a 8apn- 
nuB), from Corrientes; 8. impresnfrons, from Bolivia; 8. atro-nitiduSf 
from Corrientes. 8apriwu8 mcisu8y of the reporter, from Van Diemen's 
Land, is also to be mentioned (Arch. 1842, i. p. 152). 

Debmbstzni. — A new species, Megatoma adspersa, has been found by 
B'Orbigny abundantly in Bolivia, in houses and walls ; and has been 
described by Blanchard, in tbe Voy. d. TAm. Mer. 

Megatoma morio and Trogoderma riguum of the reporter, are two 
new species from Van Diemen's Land (Arch. 1842, i. p. 152). 

Btbbhii. — This fanuly has been treated of by Stefiahny in an excel- 
lent dissertation, " Tentamen MonographisB Byrrhotum " (also printed 
in Germar's Zeitschr. f. d. Entomol., iv. p. 1). The difficult and 
hitherto much mixed species are firmly established. The genus Byrrhus 
is, following Stephens' arrangement, confined to such as have the antennae 
gradually thii^ened ; and also show some variations in the form of the 
terminal joint of the maxillfEry palpi, the shape of the lobes of the 
labium^ the toothing of the mandibles, and in the presence or absence 
of a membranous appendage on the under side of the third tarsal joint, 
which are used for Ihe certain distinction of the species. B. seahru 
pennis, approximating to the B. gig as, fr^m the Styrian Alps ; B. regalis, 
Dahl., from the Banat; B, insignia, near to the B. nmrinus, from 
Turkey ; B, decorus, allied to the B, lariensis, Heer, from the Banat ; 
and B. s&niellaris, Esch., from Kamtschatka, are new. The B, Btriatus 
of this author is the same with B, gldbratus, Heer. The genus 8ynca- 
lypta, Dillw., with a three-jointed dub of antennae, contains B, setiger, 
SL ; B, CMrenwnuB and pudlhus, St. ; and a third new species, 8» stridto- 
punctata, Dej., from Spain. PedilophoruB, a new genus, with a five- 
jraited dub of antennae, broad tibiae, and the thiid tarsal joint with an 
a|)pendage, is founded on B. auratuB, Duft. (nit&ns, Germ.) Simple- 
caria. Marsh., with a fEve-jointed club of antennse, narrow tibiae, simple 
tarsi, embraces B, BemtBtriatuB, F., and picipeB, 01. 1 have also found 
tiiat Amphicyrta, Esch., which Dejean places between the ChtysofMlcB 
and Colaspes, belongs to this feumily. It has filiform ant^inlae, the third 
tarsal joint has a membra&ous appendage, and narrow tibiae With im- 

227 



184 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

perfect tarsal grooves; the known species are, A. denttpes. Each., from 
Califomia; and A. chrygomelina from the west of the Bockj Moim- 
tains in North America. 

Michrochoetes gcopariug and Linmichus mistralts of the reporter, 
are two new species of this fiunilj from Yan Diemen's Land (Ardi. 
1842, i. p. 153). 

Macbodactyli. — Pamus longipes, Bedtenbacher (Col. Austr. p. 14, 
n. 12), from the brooks of Austria, is the same with P. substriatus, 
MtilL, Dumerilii, Latr. 

Blanchard has describe^ two new species in D'Orbigny's Voy. d. 
I'Amer. Mer., Pamus ptibescens and Pota/mophilus cinereus, Bl., of the 
size of P. acuminatus, both from Gorrientes. 

HsTEBocEBiDJt. — Elosenwetter has published an excellent work on 
Heterocerus (Germ. Zeitschr. iy. p. 194, t. 3). The species of this genus 
closely resemble each other, so that hitherto there have been no frmda- 
mental distinctions ; but a minute examination has brought to light a 
surprisingly rich collection of them. The author describes twenty 
species examined by himself, and thirteen of these are certainly natiye 
to Germany. Among these, — H. pa/rallelus, GebL, and H. femoralis, in- 
habit salt districts ; H, fossor, ma/rginatus, F., hispidulus (marginatus, 
Pz.), ohsoletus, Curt., Icevigatus, Panz., obliterates, fusculus, are pretty 
widely distributed ; JET. intermedins, at Berlin and Stettin ; sericcms, in 
Saxon Switzerland and Austria (also Italy); pulchellus at Leipsic; 
mwrvaus, found by Dr. Bosenhauer at Augsburg; H, miwutus, Dej., is 
from the south of France ; H. Jlavidus from Italy (Sea/rah, fi, Bossi) ; 
J7. euphratictis and minimus, have been collected in Mesopotamia ; H, 
limbatus, Kn., from North America ; H. vaHus and lituratus, from St. 
Thomas in the West Indies. The following species hare only become 
known to the author by description : H, dubiiis, F., from the East Indies ; 
H. pallidAis and pusillus. Say, from North America ; H, hamifer and 
nanus, Gen^, from Sardinia ; in all twenty-fiye species, of which two- 
fifths are new. 

Htdbophilidjs. — Bobert (Ann. Sc. Nat. xyiiL p. 378) has proyed 
that Hydrophilus piceus, eyen in the state of a perfect beetle, does not 
feed on water plants but on water snails (Lim/ncBus), 

A new German species, Hydrcena d&ntipes, Mark., discoyered by 
M&rkel at Pima, has been described and figured by Germar (Faun. Ins. 
Euiop. xxii. 5). Hyd/robius ma/rgvnicollis and assimUis, Hope, from 
Port Essington (Proceed. Ent. See. p. 48) ; and Cercyon dorsaJe of the 
reporter, from Van Diemen's Land (Arch. 1842, i. p. 153), are new New 
Holland species. 

The description of the Hydrophili, for D'Orbigny's yoyage, began 
by BroUd, has been finished by Blanchard (yide Jahresb. f. 1838, p. 
314). The following are described in the new number : Hydrophilus 

228 



INSECTA — COLEOPTEBA. 185 

(TropUtemus) doncUiSf Br., firom Brazil; H. Tr, lepid/M, Br., from the 
Parang in Entre Bios ; also IT. (PhUydrvs) pallipes, Br., from Monte 
Video ; H. Ph, stridtui, Br., from Goirientes ; H. Ph. gibbus, Br., in 
the Parani behind Corrientes ; JJ. Ph. femoratus, Br., from Corrien- 
tea ; Berows pallipes, Br., in the Parang in Corrientes ; B. cUtemoms, 
in the Rio Negro. 

Lamellicobnbs. — Mulsant has published an important work on this 
family ; ** Histoire Naturelle des Col^ptdres de France, Lamellioomes, 
Paris, 1842.'' Much praise is due to him for his extension of the 
nomenclature, and the attention he has bestowed on the natural history 
of these insects, especially in their earlier states. We have descriptions 
and figures of the lame of Onthopha>gu8 vacca, Aphodius peccMri^ 
VcUgus henwpterus, Dorcus pa/rallelopipedus, .M»(Uu9 scarahceoidetf 
and Sinodendron cylindricu/m. The division, in general, is pretty much 
the same as that of Latreille ; the Lmnellicomes are separated into 
the naturally very different Petalocerides and Priocerides, the former 
into the groups of the CopridoR, AphodidaSy Trogidics, Oeotritpince, 
Orycteske, CallicnemicB, MeloUmthiituB, and Cetanice, all yery correctly 
determined ; but the group of the CallicnemicB cannot be maintainable, 
since, of the two genera which compose it, CcUicnemis and PcLchypus, 
the former appears to me to belong to the preceding, the latter to the 
following group. In the farther diyision, Mulsant has much that is 
new and peculiar, so that we must often recur to this work. As, how- 
eyer, in his systematic researches, he has confined himself to the French 
Fauna, a great part of his divisions will require a wider foundation. 
Every variety should not be granted a peculiar name, for where, then, 
would be the limit of nomenclature ? 

Leon Dufour (Ann. d. Sc. Nat. zviii. p. 162, t. 4, 5) has made a com- 
parison of the larv» of Cetonia aiMrata, and Dorcus pa/rallelopipedus, 
according to their external as well as internal structure, and has come 
to the conclusion that the 8ca/rah€eid<B and lAiccmidas may be divided 
into two families. In the former, the abdominal plexus of the nervous 
system is composed of a mass of ganglions soldered together ; in the 
latter, of a chain of knots proceeding from each other. The alimentary 
canal in the former has three collars of blind bags, a large lateral 
cecum, and the gall vessels ending in numerous windings, closely 
applied to each other; in the latter, the canal has a single collar of 
rudimentary blind bags, a csecum not lateral, and simple gall-vessels. 

He also brings forward many external difierences, but which are 
not comprehensive, as they only refer to the C. a/urata. It is to be 
desired, that anatomical researches were multiplied. He is not ac- 
quainted with De Haan's important work on this subject. 

Beiche (Ann. d. 1. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. xi. p. 59) has commenced a 
correct description of the OoprophcKfi, beginning with the Ateuchidce 

229 



186 KEFORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

and the apterous diyiskm. The genera with tarsi on the fore-legs are : 
Aulacium^ Dej. {MintopkUu$, Lap.), indnding the only known New 
Holland spedes, A. carinatum, Beiche (AuL Hollanduje, Dej.) ; Coprce^ 
C1M, Beiche, difiering fix>m the preceding by the simple rounded posterknr 
angles of the thorax, is not jet sufficientlj defined, as the specimen of 
the C hemigphoBricuSy P^ron (from New Holland), in the Paris collection, 
according to Liatreille and Gudrin, wants the antennie and parts of the 
mouth ; Te9M/rodonj Hope {At, hoUandias, F.), only kno?m to the adthor 
from Hope*s plate, and placed here coigectiirally. In the others, the 
anterior tarsi are wanting : Circ^wun, Latr. {A. B€tcchus, F.) ; Eucra- 
nium, Dej.; OlyphideruSf Westw., which has two — P<ichy90fna and 
MnemaHum, MacL., having a single spine on the intermediate tibias. 

Westwood (Proceed. Ent. Soc. p. 61) has made known two new New 
Holland genera of AteuchidcB, CephcUodeandua ; dypens in medio 
4-dentatus, dentibns intermediis valde elongatis, prothoraz magnus 
8-angalaris, pedes yalde elongati, tarsi antici distincti, breyes: O. 
amUger, Temnoplectron ; dypens in lobos dnos minntos obtusos pro- 
dnctus, prothoraz lateribus rotnndatis (et cum elytris subcontinuis) 
antioe parum anguBtior; tarsi antid minuti; ungues subtus denticulo 
instructi : T. rotwadwm, from Melyille Island. To the genus Tesaero- 
don (At, HollcmdicB, F.), he adds two spedes, T, angulatus firom 
Swan Biver; and T, piceus from Port Essington; the latter is also 
described by Hope (Proceed. Ent. Soc. p. 44). 

Westwood has also (Proceed. Ent. Soc. p. 58), pointed out some new 
genera of the same family: Arach/nodes and Nemos, however, alone 
belong to the Ateuchidce, both formed at the expense of EpilUaus, Dej. ; 
the former (Circ. nitiduvn, Lap.), with the mentum not emarginated, 
slender labial-palpi, sides of the prothorax angular and reflexed ; long 
legs, and the last tarsal joint running out to a small spine ; Nemos (Circ, 
pygmoeum. Lap.), mentum strongly emarginated, labial-palpi very short 
and thick, sides of the prothorax rounded, shorter legs, and crooked tibisa. 

The following belong to the real Copridce, having tibiae broader 
towards the end, and the tarsal joints of the hind legs gradually 
narrower : Macroderes, almost hemispherical, with emarginated clypeua, 
very large prothorax rounded at the ddes : the type is Ontliophagus 
Oreenii, Kirby ; Uroxys, oblong, somewhat flat, dypeus sharply 24obed 
anteriorly, sides of prothorax angular in the middle, elytra pointed 
posteriorly, elongated fore-legs, and (in the one sex) tibiae angular 
internally ; U, cvprescens from Columbia. 

Westwood has mistaken the genus Scatonomua of the reporter; 
both the species mentioned by him, Se. myrmidon (Onth. myrmidon, 
Lacord.) from Cayenne, and Se, sma/ragdinus from Brazil, belong to 
Onthocharis, Dej., from which Scatmomvs is essentially very different. 
Anomiopus, with two new Brazilian species, A, virescms and nigricans, 
230 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA . 187 

is distinguished with difficulty from Onthochwru, by the very broad 
hind legs ; at least, in the Berlin collection, I have a series of species be- 
fore me, in which a gradual transition is found in the hinder tarsi, £rom 
the broadest form, as in the Anomiopus, to the narrower, as existing in 
the O. fnymddon. 

The genus Buhas, Meg., has been distinguished &om OnitiSf by Mul- 
eant (CoL Fr. p. 76), from having no scutellum, nor any firee space 
in place of it ; the first joint of the labial-palpi not smaller than the 
second, the body tolerably oonyez, and the prothoraz forming projections 
anteriorly ; the spedes are O. hUan, F., and hubcUus, 01. 

Hope has described some new species of CopridcB from Western 
Africa (Ann. Nat. Hist. iz. p. 494) : Oymnoplewrus hila/risy IcRtus, and 
Heliocopria DicmcB, 

The New Holland Fauna has been enriched with eleven species of On- 
thophagus, five from Port Essington by Hope (Proceed. £nt. Soc. p. 43), 
and six from Van Diemen's Land* by the reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. IM). 

The presence of the genus Copris in New Holland, appears to be con- 
fined to the north coast. Hope (Proceed. Ent. Soc. p. 44) describes a 
species, C. glabricollie, from Port Essington, and mentions that he is in 
possession of three other species from Melville Island. 

The AphodiidcB have been divided by Mulsant (Col. Fr. p. 160, &c.) 
into two divisions, and the number of genera increased. The first divi- 
sion, AphodicMriiy with narrow hinder tarsi, and distinct claws upon them, 
is separated into three sub-divisions : — 1. AphodiatCB, has normally the 
striflB on the elytra with simple interstices, the head flat or slightly 
convex, half-six- angled or semicircular, and then slightiiy emarginated 
anteriorly; weU developed membranous maxillary lobes. 1. Colobop- 
terus ; elytra truncate, not completely covering the pygidium ; A. error- 
ticus. The following genera (2-6) have the clypeus laterally dilated 
before the eyes. 2. Coprimorphus ; first joint of the hind tarsus as 
long as the four following put together ; A. scrutator. 3. Ewplewrus ; 
scnteUum long, back of the elytra flat ; A. mbterraneua. 4. Otophorus ; 
scutellum long, back of the elytra convex, dilatation of the sides of the 
dypeus forming a right angle ; A, TujemorrhoidaUs. 5. Teuchestes ; like 
4, only the dilatation of the sides of the clypeus is rounded;. A.fowyr, 
6. AphodiiM; scutellum short; A, gcrybcblcMrniSf conjugatuSf fxtens, 
^metariuSj rubens, Dej. ; alpicola, new spedes, from Savoy ; vem/uSf 
new species, from the South of France ; ater, grcmcmus, bimcuiulatus, 
plagiatus, ^r^maculatus, trutis, esGigwuSy new species ; pudllus, Hbt. ; 
manticola, Dej., new species ; hydrochceris, F. ; sordidus, F. ; lugensy 
Cr. ; imm/undaSy Or. ; nitiduhiSy F. ; merda/rivs, F. ; ferrugineus, Dej., 

* One of these has been called 0. hirculusy a name under which a species, 
abundant in Brazil, has been described by Mannerheim, and which must 
therefore be altered. 

231 



188 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLIl : 

new speeies ; Uvidu$, 01. ; lineolatus, HL ; mdanasHctttB^ Schiipp., Schm. ; 
inqwinaMu, F. ; pictus, St. ; testulatug, Or. ; ttietieus, Pz. ; cantputus. 
Or.; ^-guttoHu, Hbt.; terieatuij Zgl.; obMurtM, F. ; porcus, F. In 
the two following genen (7 and 8) the dypeni Ib little if at all dilated 
laterally. 7. Acronus ; clypeus semiciicolar, posterior border of tha 
prothoiax, at leaat in the middle, not maxginated; A, ducus, Jnr.; 
ruJlpeBf L. ; Iwridus, F. ; depreamu, Kng. ; Peeari, F. 8. Melinopteru$ ; 
cljpena semihexagonal ; A. prodronwu, Brahm. ; obliteratus, Heyd. ; 
contaminatuSj Hbt. 9. Trichonottu ; differing fi!om the preceding by 
the hairy prothoraz; A, terapha, F. 10. HeptaulacuB, has seven 
furrows on the elytra, with rib-like interstiees ; A. mm, F. ; nivcUis {aus, 
yar., Oyll.), and testwUnarius, F. — Second sab-diyision : AfnmosciatcB ; 
head strongly arched, dypens semicircular deeply emarginated, the 
maxillary lobes short and fringed. A single genus : 11. AtMnoBcius ; 
A, elevatut, F. — Third sub-diyision : PUwrophoratas ; ten rib-like in- 
terstices of the strisB on the elytra, the sixth and eighth shorter than 
the seyenth. 12. Pktffiogonus ; elytra truncate obliquely to the suture ; 
A, arenarius, IlL 13. Oxyomv* ; head simply dotted ; A, porcatus, 
F. The following haye the head coyered with eleyated granulations. 
14. Platytomus; prothorax fringed, and without transyerse furrows, 
first joint of the hinder tarsi dilated triangularly ; P. sabuhmM, Dej., 
rare in the South of France. 15. Pleurophorus ; prothorax as in the 
preceding, first joint of the hinder tarsi narrow and of equal breadth ; 
A, ccews, Panz. 16. Rhyasenwu; prothorax fringed with short bristles 
on the sides, the back transyersely frurowed ; A. porcatus, F. ; verru- 
cosus, new species, from Marseilles. — The second diyision, i^ommo- 
diarii, has the hind legs thickened, the hind tarsi with gradually smaller 
joints and indistinct daws. 17. DiasHcttAs ; prothorax without fringes 
and cross furrows; A, sabuleti, Payk. 18. PfomMnodius; prothorax 
with cross furrows, and set with short little bristles on the sides; 
A, sulcicoUis and parcicoUis, HI. 

There is certainly much good in this arrangement, though the diarao- 
ters usually employed are preferable, and the marks of the genera are 
often yery minute and undefined* An examination of the extra European 
species will establish some of them and alter others, and espedally giye 
the proper rounding to the divisions. The AmrnceciatcB wUl then assume 
a less subordinate rank in richness of species. The genera Coprimorpkus 
and EupletMTus cannot be separated ; but Colohopterus and Teuchestes, 
as well as Acrassus, appear yeiy natural groups of species. Heer has 
shown, that Diagtictus (sabuleti) is the proper PiBammodius, Gyll., and 
does not belong to the AphodudcBy but the Trogidce. (V. Jahresb. f. 
1841, p. 225). 

Aphodius Zenkeri, Germar, has been figured in his Fauna Ins. Eur. 
22, 6. 

232 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 189 

Aphodius erows of the reporter is a new species from Van Diemen's 
Land (Aich. 1842, i. p. 157). 

To the Trogidce the reporter has had the Trax augtroUanoi, Latr., 
from Van Diemen's Land (ibid. p. 158), 

Germar has written an excellent monograph on the spherical Trogidas 
(Zeitschr. iy. p. 109, 1. 1). Thej form four genera; some are completely 
spherical (the posterior angle of the prothorax quite rounded) : SphcBro- 
marphns, with ten-jointed antennae, broad flat tibie, long and thin tarsi, 
contains fifteen species from different parts of America, hitherto all un- 
described; Synarmogtes, with nine-jointed antenna, broad flat tibi», 
short tarsi : containing two species from Madagascar, Aca/nthoc. tibialis, 
Kl., and scctbroitu, Laporte. In the others, the sphere is incomplete 
(the prothorax has blunt angled posterior comers) : Clceotus has nine- 
jointed antennsB, triangular tibi», short tarsi; two new species from 
Columbia. Lastly, Acaa^thocerus, MacLeay, with ten-jointed antennie, 
triangular tibias, pretty long tarsi ; nineteen species, of which seven have 
already been described in diflerent places, and one (aphodioides) even 
under four names. Thus thirty-eight species are known ; of these, two 
are from Madagascar, the others belong exdusively to America; for 

A. senegalengis. Lap., owes its name to an error in its locality, which 
is Cayenne, so that Dejean's name of A, striatus should be employed. 

Mulsant has enriched the Geotru^idce with one new genus, Thorectes 
(Col. Fr. p. 367), which differs from Qeotrupea by the soldered elytra, 
rudimentary wings, and the dub of the antennsB, in which, when it is 
folded up, the middle fold is not concealed ; G, Icevigatus, F. The name 
is synonymous with Thorictus, Qerm. I cannot conyince myself of the 
utility of this genus, and would rather consider it, as well as Cerate- 
phyusy as a sub-genus of Geotrupes, 

Mulsant has enriched Bolbocerus (ibid. p. 350, 1. 1, f. 15, 16) with 
a distinct new European species, B. gaUicug, It has much similarity to 

B. AEneas, but the upper side is glossy black, the scutellum not dotted ; 
diflerent from the North African B, hocchus, by the simple conical head- 
horn of the male, &c. Many New Holland species of this genus have 
become known, principally belonging to the north and west sides. Bain- 
bridge (Trans. Ent. Soc. of Lend. iii. p. 79) has described a series of 
them: B, Kithyi, latus (same with B, frontalis, Gudr. Yoy. de le 
Fayorite, both females), serricoUis, hastifer (same with Athyreus recti- 
camis, Gu^., ibid., but really a Bolbocervs), 7'tubereulatus, Jissiccmis, 
trituberctUatus, The first species is from Melyille Island, the rest from 
Swan Biyer. Hope (Proceed. Ent. Soc. p. 43) also describes B. Kirbyi, 
from Port Essiogton, besides three new spedes, B, neglectus, rotwndor- 
tus, both females ; B. rtibescens. The two latter are amongst the smallest 
spedes. The reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. 105) has shown, that the 
genus Elephastanitts, MacL., is untenable, as E, proboscideus is only 

233 



190 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

an aberrant male of Bolbocerus, and certainly B, austrcUasicBy Kirby, 
is the female, upon which, also, the genus Bolbocerus is founded. 

The reporter has increased the group of DynasHdce with one new 
genus, Pimelopus, which has, in common with Cheiroplatys, Hope, the 
hind legs strongly thickened, with leaf-like terminal spines, &c., but is 
distinguished by its three- toothed anterior tibin, also three-toothed man- 
dibles, five-toothed maxillm, and a body more swollen. One species, 
from Van Diemen's Land, P. p&rcellua (Arch. 1842, L p. 159) ; also 
Cheiroplatys mcelivs of the reporter (ibid. p. 158). 

Waterhouse has made known a Beetle of Yaldiyia as OrycUymor- 
phtM (?) piettu (Entomologist, p. 261), which Ghi^rin has already 
described as O. variegatus. The author was only acquainted with the 
female, so that his opinions with regard to the definition of the- genus 
are not well grounded. 

In the group of Rutelidce, Gu^rin has characterized a new genus, 
Barymorpha (Delessert Voyage, ii p. 40, t. 11, f. 2), which, in most 
points, agrees with Parastasia, but difiers in the daws of the hind tarsi 
being equal and simple ; B. himciculataf the only species, is from the 
island of Penang, on the coast of Malacca. Parastada has also been 
enriched by the same author with a new species from the same place, 
P. cbscu/ra ; and Westwood has added another, P. rufopUta, from Sylhet 
(Proc. Ent. Soc. p. 55). 

Harris (Ins. of Massachussets, p. 23) mentions, that the Pdid/nota 
punctcUa is often found, in great quantity, on the wild and cultivated 
vine, the leaves of which they gnaw, and do much harm to the fruit. 
They fly by day. The larva lives in decayed wood. 

Mulsant has divided the MelolonthidcB (CoL Fr. p. 405) into four 
groups, MeloUmtha/ricB, Serica/ricB, AwymobUj/ria, and Hoplicmce, the 
characters of which are only given in regard to the European ones, 
and taken from the daws alone ; the author distinguishes the SericaruB 
from the Mddontha/noBy by their daws being so cleft at the point, that 
the under tooth is broader and blunter than the upper. I have formerly 
remarked (Arch. 1 Jahrg. i. p. 261), that in this division the labrum is 
concealed, so that the anterior margin of the mentum lies immediately 
upon the clypeus ; there are also some other characters which are found 
united in the European Seriacasy and which extra European genera have, 
individually, in common with them. The AnonuUa/rioi are distin- 
guished by simple, and, in general, remarkably unequal hind daws. 
This is always the case; but it does not distinguish them from the 
Hoplia/ricBf for which the author gives a single hind daw as a charao- 
teristic, as the greater number of the extra European, espedaJly the 
numerous South African forms of this division, have two simple unequal 
claws like the Anomalarice. The want of tiie terminal spines, on the 
hind legs, should rather characterize the Hopliarice, The division 

234 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 191 

SericcmcB here contains the genera Serica (pnmnea)y with double-toothed 
anterior tibiae, nine-jointed anteniise, with an elongated laminated dub 
in the ^, and somewhat truncated maxillary palpi ; OmalopUa {holso- 
sericea. Scop., va/nabili$, F.), with double-toothed anterior tibisB, ten- 
jointed antennae, pointed maxillary-palpi ; Br<ichyphylla {ruricola, F.), 
with double-toothed anterior tibiae, nine-jointed antennae, and the hind 
margin of the clypeus depressed on each side, and, in consequence, haying 
a projecting posterior angle ; Triodonta (AquUa, Dej., Lap.), with triple 
toothed anterior tibiae, indistinctly ten-jointed antennae ; and HymenopUa, 
Esch., with triple^toothed tibiae, nine-jointed antennae, and claws fur- 
nished beneath with a membranous border. Under the Hoplia/ncB the 
author separates the HoplicB with ten -jointed antennae, as a peculiar 
genus, Deca/meria, although the male abne distinctly possesses the ten- 
jointed antennse and not the female. 

Mulsant has described several new species : Anoana scutella/ria, Chevr., 
from the South of France, resembling the avstralia, Sch. ; Rhijsotrogus 
thoradcvSf Dej. (is maculicoUu, Villa, Heer) ; Rh, cicatricoaus, chiefly 
inhabiting the south, plentiful at Lyons ; Rh, ma/rgmipes, Cherr., also 
in the south, especially at Bordeaux ; Rh. viciwus, Dej.; HymenopUa 
Chev^rolatii, in the south of France, at Lyons, upon Festuca elatior, 
different from the Portuguese H, sPrigosa (Mel, atrigosa, HI.) 

Heer has published a valuable treatise, " Uber geographlsche Yer- 
breitung und periodisches Auftreten der Maikafer." He here shows 
a three years' cycle of development. Rosenhauer also asserts, for the 
Erlangen district, a three years' period. Katzeburg (ibid. p. 39) adduces 
his farther, experience in favour of a four years' cycle. 

Gu^rin (Rev. Zool. p. 6) has remarked, that several species of Rkizo- 
tragus, of Algiers, are wingless; and, in consequence of this circum- 
stance, have peculiar habits; he therefore proposes, that they should 
form a peculiar sub-genus, under the name of Geotrogus, There are 
four species cited, one of which is new ; Rh. Magagnosciif which must 
have a great similarity to the Rh. diepdr, only the hind tarsi of the ^ 
are thin, and scarcely longer than the tibiae, while, in the rest, they are 
a half longer ; I do not know if this is the case in the other three species 
enumerated under Qeotrogus; both sexes of Rh. dupar. Gory, wiU 
belong to this sub-genus (the same is also the case with the RJi. Gabcb- 
lu8, Buq., which is not mentioned) ; of Rh. Gera/rdii and Amphytus 
(not Evphytus), Buq. ; the fenuiles only belong to it, the males being 
true winged Rhizotrogi. 

Hope has mentioned some new species from Wei^tem Africa (Ann. 
Nat. Hist. ix. p. 495) ; Popillia suloipennis, luteipen/nis, cyanoptera, 
Lepidiota Sa/vagei, Euchlora circv/mcincta. 

Anuoplia theicola, Waga (Ann. d. 1. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. xi. p. 273, 
t. 11, f. 9), was found in a packet of Chinese tea. 

235 



1 



192 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

The reporter has made some oontnbutions to the knowledge of New 
Holland Melolonthas (Arch. 1842, i. p. 160-170). The position of the 
genus Cryptodus (p. 106) I have left doubtfiiL I haTO since oonyinoed 
myself, that this genus, in a wider sense, does belong to the MeloUmthcBj 
and certainly to the division of the Cyclocephalites, Lap., where it ap- 
proaches nearest to Lcmvproput, Lap., which is also to be reckoned in that 
group. The species fiom Van Diemen's Land, described by me (ibid, 
p. 160), Or. a/t^thracinvis, is probably the same with Cr, tcLgmcmnicmuSf 
Westw. (Proceed. Ent. Soc. p. 34). 

Seyeral new genera have been characterized, of which Silopa (with 
eight species) ; Nepytis (one species) ; SduUa (two species), stand in 
the middle between the proper Melolonthas and Sericce, as they have, 
in common with the former, the distinct protniding kbnim, and with 
the latter, the short blunt mandibles, and broad shield-like femora. 
They correspond, perhaps, partly to the genus Sericestis, Dej. ; Scitala 
espedaJly belongs to it ; different forms, however, appear to be inter- 
mixed. The new genus Telwra (one new species) is somewhat more 
aberrant, as its femora do not more than cover one segment of the 
abdomen. One Lipa/retuB and one Phyllotoevs (Macrothops) are also 
described. 

Hope has characterized one new genus from Port Essington, Phoenog- 
nathus (Proc. Ent. Soc. p. 45) ; " Pachypo affine, pedibus posticis longis- 
simis, caput in medio comutum, labrum porrectum, oonicum, mandibular 
exsertae, antennie 9-articulat8B maxillie lobiB minutissimis, prothorax 
antice subretusus, elytra conica postice vaMe attenuata." One species, 
Fk, JSrichsonii ; 3"' long ; doubtful, in my opinion. Also : SericestkU 
Oouldii, not belonging to the genus characterized by me, but to a 
new one, which 1 have provisionally marked in the Berlin collection with 
the name of Col/pochUa ; Lipa/retra nigricollis ; and, lastly, Moechidius 
rufus. Westwood has given the diagnoses of five new species of McBchi- 
divs (comprehending the last), which 1 here mention by way of supple- 
ment (Proc. Ent. Soc. p. 40). 

In the Ins. of Massachusetts, Harris has contributed some valuable 
information on North American MdolontMdcd. Areoda la/nigera is par^ 
ticularly injurious to pear trees, without, however, sparing others. It 
appears in May and June, and flies in the morning and evening. The 
genus PhyUophaga, Harris, takes a preponderating rank in North 
America (described in 1826, afterwards called AncyUmycha, by Dejean) ; 
Ph, quercina, appears in May and June, in masses, flying by night, 
chiefly destroying the leaves of the dherry trees. The larv» eat the 
roots of grass, so that the turf can, in spots, be lifted up like a carpet ; 
Ph, fratemay Harr., somewhat smaller than the preceding, slenderer, 
the dots upon the prothorax and the elytra not so distinct, the three 
raised lines on the elytra scarcely to be perceived, otherwise like 

236 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 193 

the former ; appears in June and July ; lees numerous, habits similar ; 
Ph, hirticulay Kn., appears at same time ; common. In other places, 
Ph, georgica/na {Mel, georg,, Schonh.) appears in masses in May and 
June. Melolontha vctriolosa, Hentz. (this is the true Mel. occidentalis, 
L.), is found at some points of the coast, in multitudes but seldom uniyer- 
sallj. The nocturnal Omcbloplia veapertina and sericea gnaw the leaves 
of the Ro9a rubiginosa. Anofnala coeld>Sy Germ., to which perhaps Mel. 
vctricms and Itmcola, F., belong, is found in great quantity on the dif- 
ferent species of Sumach, which it often entirely strips of leaves ; and, 
since 1825, has begun to spread itself over the wild and cultivated vine. 
Mcbcrodactyhns avhtpmosusy commonly called '* rose-bug" in North 
America, appearing at the season of the rose-blossom, and generally 
upon roses, has in latter years very much increased, and extended itself 
to other plants, particularly the vine and fruit trees, and may be esteem- 
ed the worst of all MelolonthidcBf as it not only consumes the leaves, but 
also the blossoms and fruit. The development from, the ^;g to the 
beetle takes place in it within a year. 

The MeUtophiloB have been treated of in Burmeister's *^ Handbuch 
der Entomologie, 3 Bd., Coleoptera LameUicomia Melitophila." 

Mulsant (CoL Fr. p. 519) divides the group CeUmiid<B into three sub- 
divisions : Valg<Mii, Trichiariiy and Cetonia/rii. The first differs from 
the others by the hind legs diverging from each other. The last sub- 
division is separated into three genera : Cetonia, with a knob-like dilated 
apophysis of the 1»reast, the others with a simple one ; Oxythyrea (aHctica)^ 
tibias double-toothed; Tropinota {hirtella, L., hirta, F.), with triple- 
toothed anterior tibise. Under the last genus a new species, Tr. Reyi, 
is mentioned, which has hitherto generally been confounded with 
Tt. hirteUa, and is minutely distinguished by the author : it had already 
been described by Gharpentier (Hor. ent.) as C. crinita, 

Westwood has contributed much to the knowledge of this group in his 
Arcana Entomologica; a peculiar treatise is devoted to the GoUaifddce 
of Asia (p. 113). He adds to the genus Narydus, as a sub-genus, Cypho^ 
nocepJicUuB, which, at the first sight, especially in the form of the horns 
of the head, resembles Dicronocephalus (Hardtiuichit)^ but agrees with 
N€vryciu9 in the parts of the mouth, and differs by the simple anterior 
tibisB of the <^. N. (Cyphonoceph.) gma/ragdulugy is a beautiful East 
Indian beetle. Mycteristes, with the sub-genus Phcedimtui and Jwmnos, 
are next mentioned, from which M. rhdnophyllua $, and J. Raylii ^, are 
figured; the genus Rhombarhina, Hope, with nine species, is men- 
tioned, of which Rh, apicalis from Nepal, Rh. microeephala from the 
Himalayah, Rh. clypeata from Japan, are new ; and Rh. japonica and 
hyacmthinay Hope, are figured ; a tenth, Rh. piUpes, only cursorily 
mentioned by name, is afterwards, p. 192, again introduced as a variety 
of Rh. MeJUi. A new genus, Anomalocera^ has been described by Hope, 

237 



194 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

and is here figured ; the long aoteimal-clulMi of the male, as well as the 
longer and narrower thoraeic spines, distinguish it from the preceding 
genus. A, Pa/rrii is from the Himalajah. TrigonocephahMy Hope, is 
represented as a peculiar genus, with four species ; of these plates are 
giyen of Tr. nepalemU (Hardtvickii), i, DelesserHi, and a new one, 
TV. Sawndeniij from the East Indies ; the fourth, Tr, Ccmtori, Hope, 
according to Westwood, does not differ from the first. Under the 
name Heterorhina, he comprehends those of which the males have 
not the fore-legs remarkably long. It is principally formed from 
GhfiatKocera and Dieheros, Gory. The different species, eren those 
nearest allied, deriate in the characteristics of the sex and the form of 
the maxillary lobes, the latter vary also in different indiyiduals of the 
same species, and eyen in one and the same individual ; there belong 
to it of Asiatic species — for the genus is also common in Africa — 
OncUhoe, nigrit<Mrti$f HopH, Gory ; dlives, Westw. {MacLea/yi, Goty, 
pretiosat MacL.) ; MaeLeayi, Kirby (pretiosa, Esch.) ; decora, JJL 
{(^-mcbculata, F.); amncena, Hope; punctatigmna, Westw. (jucunda, 
Hope); tibialis^ Westw.; glaberrima, Westw., new East Indian species ; 
BengalentUf Hope (melanariay Gory) ; jucunday Germar (»maragdina, 
Gory); elegcms, F. ; oUviueay Gu^r.; himacula, Wd. {Wiedema/nni, 
MacLeay) ; confusay Westw. (bimaculata, Gory) ; Cwoera (Diceros <?i*v., 
Newm.) ; Childrenn, new species from Bengal ; hicomis, Latr. {Dicker, 
plagiatvs, Gory) ; omata (Dick, om., Hope) ; higuttata, Westw., new 
species from the Philippines ; decora {Dich, dec,. Gory) ; PeteUiy Buq. ; 
which last scarcely differs from the preceding. These twenty-three 
species are, with few exceptions, figured with dissections. 

Westwood has illustrated the QoUathidas of Africa in a similar 
manner. At the top stand HypselogefMa and OoUathvs with the 
three known species, O, giganteuSy Lam., which he examined- in 
the Glasgow collection ; Drwrii, Westw. (9 regiugy Kl.) ; and Cacicus 
(9 prmcepSy Hope). Of Mecynorkma, Hope; M, Pohfphemue 9, and 
torquata i and 9» &ro represented in excellent plates. Under Cerato- 
rhina the author comprehends Dicronorhinay Hope; and EudicelUty 
White; the group Dicronorhina is composed of mieansy Druiy, 
which the author holds to be different from that found at Senegal, and 
to which, on this account, he gives a new name, cavifrons ; tplendens, 
MacLeay ; and both sexes of a splendid new species, C, derbycma, 
Melly, from the interior of South Africa^ are very beautifully figured. 
The second group, HudiceUay White, contains Daphnis, Buq. ; SmithU, 
MacLeay; Morgani, Wh.; frontalUy Westw.; the two latter are 
figured ; OralUiy Buq. ; and one new species, C. (Eud,) ignitay West#., 
from the Gold Coast. The third group, Ckeirolasiay Westw., is a new 
fi>rm, where the anterior tibias of the male are unarmed either outwardly 
or inwardly ; but on the fore-legs, on the inside, the tip of the thigh, 

238 



INSECTA— COLEOPTERA. 195 

the base of the tibia, and the daw-joint, are covered with thick hairs ; 
the colour is not metallic, the upper suifaoe is ornamented with spots of 
felt : C Ch, Bwrkei from South Africa. Tatn/rhina (NireuSf Schaum) ; 
Coelorrhina (Ai-m(icv,lata, F., av/rata, Westw.) ; and Stepho/norrhma, 
Burm. (jguttata, 01.); form the three following groups. The next 
genus, Tmesorrhina, Westw., has the short thoracic apophysis in 
common with the preceding, but differs in the unarmed head of the 
male; Tm. concolor, new species from Sierra Leone, and Jris, F. 
{okmabiUs, Bainbr.) The new genus, Aphelorrhina, Westw., agrees 
with the preceding in the unarmed head, but differs in a long thoracic 
apophysis; A. dmillima, formerly figured as Tmesorrh, s., is a new 
species firom Sierra Leone. To these are added Dym/usia (cyanea, 
01., and punctata, Sch.) ; Bothrorrhina (refiexa and och/reata. Gory) ; 
Chordodera (5-Uneata, F., and pentaehordia, Kl.) ; and Plcedorrhina, 
Burm. ; (depressa, Gory, cmcta, Voet., pkma, Wd., medianay Westw., 
new species from Cape Palmas ; abbreviata, F.) The African species 
of Heterorhina are : — Africa/na, Drury ; viridi-^a/nea, PalL, Beaur. ; 
vnonoc&ros, Gory ; sutwoMa, F. ; algoerms, Melly, a new species from 
South Africa, of which the male, with two long horns, approaches the 
East Indian form of Dicheros ; JlavipeiMiis, Westw., likewise new ; also 
Feigtha/meliif chloris, and sma/ragdina. Gory. Lastly, the new genus, 
AniMrrhma, Westw. ; the different species exhibiting Taxied formation 
in the head; the thoracic apophysis conical, projecting; the tibiae in 
the male all simple, in the female the anterior tibiae three>toothed, 
the posterior with spines below the middle : the species are, himaculata, 
Dej. {Jlavoma,eulata, F.) ; v/n\h(mata. Gory ; 3-vittata, Schaum ; hicolor, 
Burm. ; natalendst Hope. The last three species are figured. 

Another treatise of Westwood (ibid. p. 125, t. 32), represents several 
remarkable CeUmiai of Madagascar : Bothrorrhina rejtexay Schizorhina 
ChMriniiy new species; and plwrnigera {Ceton, phi/m,. Gory); and 
ChromoptiUa diversipeB, Westw., a new genus, which, to the Trichia- 
like form of body, unites the hairy covering on the legs, similar to that 
of the preceding species. 

The same author also figures (ibid. p. 103, t. 28) some remarkable new 
CetonicB of the East Indies and New Holland : Schizorhma obUquata, 
from New Holland; 8ch. BesHi, from Norfolk Island; Macronota 
Mea/regU, from the Himalayah ; M. BafiesioMa, from Sumatra ; if. trigtis, 
from Java ; if. vitHgera, from Mysore ; lastly, he figures (ibid. p. 1S7) 
t. 48, f. 6), an African species of the genus Inca : I, lineola, Westw., 
from Sierra Leone. 

' There are also two new species firom Western Africa, Diplognatha 
admixta, and CeUmia cmcticolHsy'Hope. (Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. p. 494«) 

In the voyage of Delessert, Gu^rin has given an etching of the head 
and parts of the mouth of the genus Centhrognathus ; a beautiful plate 

239 



196 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

of Ool (Trigcnophorout) DeUnerHi; m well as oopions descriptions of 
the CeUmia ooUeeted bj Delessert (Chuathocera oUvaeea, Macronota 
picta, Cet. McUayana, Chtyi, rufimttata). 

Saunders has characterized two new species fimn the north of India, 
Crema$tocheilu8 (Ccmochilus) CampbelUi, and C. brutmeus. (Proceed. 
Ent. Soe. p. 51.) 

Among the LueanidcB, Molsant has described (GoL Fr. p. 582) a 
genns, HexapJiyUuB, which he had characterized (1838) in the Ljons 
*< Ann. d. Sc. Phys. et Nat. publ. par la Soc. d'Agric./' but which has 
hitherto been little known ; it differs ftom Luc<invs only in the greater 
number of antennal plates, a characteristic which is not essential in 
Luecmug, and in which the species nearest allied show yariation. The 
species, J7. Pon&}r%anti, Muls., which was found once at Lyons, does not 
appear to me to be new, but identical with L. harbctrosia, F. 

Hope has characterized, as new, spedes of Lucanus, from Western 
Africa (Ann. Nat. Hist. iz. p. 494), L, Savtigei, picipenms, cMgulatug, 

Ghidrin has figured, in Delessert's Souy. (p. 48, 1. 12, f. 3), under the 
name of Lucanus Delestertii, a variety of the Z. hicolaTf OL, in which 
the yellow of the sides of the elytra gradually dilates posteriorly. 

DorcuB LessonU, Buquet, is a new Chilian species. (Ann. d. L Soc. 
Ent. d. Fr. xL p. 283, 1. 12, 1.) 

The species of the genus La/mprima haye been catalogued by the 
reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. 108). The males of one group haye the 
single terminal horn of the anterior tibias yery broad and hatchet- 
shaped: L. LatreiUii, MacLeay (omea, Boisd.); L. q>lendens, new 
species; L. fulgiday Boisd. (cmrata, MacLeay); L. ruHlans, new 
species ; here also belongs X. c^nea, MacLeay (Lethr. cBneut, Fab.) In 
the others, the same terminal horn of the anterior tibiss is narrower 
and knife-shaped : L, viridisj new species ; and L, Micardi, Reiche. 
L, pygnuxa, MacLeay, is doubtful. 

Two Guinea species of Pasaahu haye been described by Lnhof (Yerh. 
der Naturf. Ges. zu Basel, y. p. 171) : P. paaxuticus, like tiie P. 6ar6attcs, 
F., but the antennal dub is three-leayed (in that it is fiye-leayed), is 
new; the other, P. dcbsyplewrus (p. 172), appears to me identical with 
P. planicepB, Esch. 

Tenebbiones. — The Marquis de Br^me has published, in the Rey. Zool. 
p. 81 and 106, and also under a separate title, " Monographic de quelq. 
genr. de Col^opt^res h^t^rom^res appartenant it la tribu des Blapsides, 
8yo., ayec une planche au trait. Paris, 1842 ;" a monograph of one group 
of Blapsides, which embraces Misola/mpus, Sphcerotu/s^ and some other 
aUied genera. Misola/mpus has four species, of which two are new : 
M, ludtcmicuSf like the M, giblmkbs, but the dots upon the head and 
prothoraz are more isolated and deeper, the elytra without striae and 
irreg^ularly dotted, is from Portugal ; and M. Bcmibwri, with rows of 

240 



INSECT A — COLEOPTERA. 197 

superficial points and extremely finely dotted interstices on the elytra, 
from Andalusia. Spha^rotus has eight species, in three sub-divisions : 
Spk, cwrvipes, Kirby ; cribratuB, new species from Paraguay ; loevigatvs 
and costatvMy new species from Brazil, have a longish oonvez prothoraz ; 
8ph. poUtus, new species from Mexico, has a longish but less convex 
prothorax, narrowed anteriorly ; Sph, gravidus, thoracicvs, mexica/nus, 
new species from Mexico, have a shorter and flatter prothorax, also the 
£Ye penultimate joints of the antennae less conical. ZopMus, a new genus, 
founded on the Helops rufo-pictus, Wied. ; HeUofuguSf Guer. (AmphywSf 
Dej.), with the three species described by Guerin in the Mag. de ZooL ; 
lastly, a new genus, Dmonvm, allied to Heliofagus, but the clypeus 
not distinctly divided from the forehead, the prothorax almost of the 
breadth of the elytra, &c., with a single new species, D. perforatfmy from 
Mexico. In the separately published treatise, the generic characters 
are figured. 

In the group of the OpatrtdcR, the reporter has described (Arch. 1S42, 
i. p. 172) one new New Holland genus, Cestriwus, with two new species 
from Van Diemen's Land, which has the habit of Opairwn, but is 
apterous, and differs in the undilated anterior tibifie, &c. 

Schiodte has given a description of the internal structure of OpottrtMn 
sabulogwm (Kroyer, Naturh. Tidsskr. iv. p. 204). 

Westwood (Proceed. ZooL Soc. 1841, p. 66) laid before the Zoological 
Society of London, a paper on some TenebrionidoB of .tropical Africa, in 
which several new species are described : Chiroscelia bifenestreUa and 
p<i88aloides ; Prioscelis {Iphius, Dej.) Baddoni and crassicomis, from 
GKiinea ; and OdontopfM tristis, frY)m Senegal ? There is a continuation, 
in the Proceedings for 1842, p. 117. Besides seven species of Nyei^ 
hates, N. mcerens, confwfus, punctatus {Helopa pwnct., F.), hypocrita 
(Iphthin, hyp,, Dej., gmneensis, Westerm.), tra/ngversalis, hrevicomis, 
rottmdicoUis, four new genera are described : CcUostegia ; large, oblong, 
sides of prothorax serrated towards the anterior angle ; antennae short 
and thick, the 7'lOth joints larger than the rest, the eleventh still 
larger and somewhat pointed ; the interior maxillary lobe has a hooked 
tooth at the point, all the thighs with two spines near their apex, tibiae 
sinuated on the inner side both above and below their middle : C ptMr- 
pwtipenms, from Ashantee. Negioticus ; short, round, strongly gibbous, 
inner maxillary lobes without hooks, terminal joints of the maxillary 
palpi hatchet-shaped, antennae compressed, a little thickened towards the 
point, legs simple, mesostemum forming a blunt projection : M, fia- 
vapictus, from the Gold Coast. Ogcosoma; short and very broad, 
antennae thin, scarcely thickened towards the point, both maxillary ap- 
pendages membranous, prothorax convex, all the angles sharp, elytra 
convex with interrupted ribs, legs thin bristly: O, grcuMdcMre, from 
Ghunbia. Megaccmtha; thick and convex, eyes kidney-«haped, inner 

241 Q 



198 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

maxillary lobe membranoufl ; antenne long, the last joints, from the 
seyenth, somewhat broader ; prothoraz rounded, legs long, anterior thighs 
with one tooth, anterior tibiss crooked, middle tibi» in the male serrated 
intemallj (on the anterior tibiie the tooth and crook is stronger in the 
male) : M, tend/roia, from Ashantee. 

Of two New Guinea species described by Imhof (VerhandL der Na- 
turf. Ges. zu Basel, y. p. 174), one, IphtfUmv^ crenato-striatus, is identical 
with the N^ct, hypocrita, Westw. ; the other, Tenebrio gmneends, is 
known nnder the name of T. aubrugosuBj Dej. 

The reporter has described seyeral species from Van Diemen's Land 
(Arch. 1842, i. p. 174), namely, UpU (Iphthin.) (mgulatus^ Tenebrio 
hunUUs, cohfdioidesy corvinus, 

Hope (Gtt^r. Magas. de ZooL Ins.) has figured Cdka/r (?) inhuoMitus 
(pi. 89), and Monomma rednoiu/m (pi. 87), both from Gum. Anim^. 
The latter is nearly allied to M. marginata (Tritoma m.. Fab.), but is 
not the same ; the former must, at all eyents, be more minutely exa- 
mined to determine its genus. 

A monograph^ by the Marquis de Br^me, on the group Cosgyphidce, 
Paris, 1842, has reached me, but I must defer my report upon it till 
next year, when it will be completed. From the notice in the Eey. Zool. 
1843, p. 46), it is at present to be* understood, that the author unites the 
Helasus (with the exception of dlibe) with Cosgyphus, and diyides the 
former into four, the latter into two sub-genera. 

The reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. 175) has described Cilibe peltata as a 
new species from Van Diemen's Land, and founded a new genus, Saragus, 
upon the 8ilpha loevicolUs, F., which (1. c. p. 171, t. 4, f. 7) was placed 
with the PedinilxB, but which now appears to me more closely allied to 

Imhof has enriched the group of the HelopicB (Yerhandl. d. Naturf. 
Ges. zu Basel, y. p. 175) with two new species of Stenochia, St. criM- 
pennis and cupripes, and one of the (still undescribed) genus Hyhonotus, 
Dej., H» femoralis ; all from Guinea. 

The reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. 175) has described three new species of 
AdeUwm from Van Diemen's Land, and characterized two new genera : 
OUsthoBna (p. 177, t. 4, f. 8), and Titcma (p. 178, t. 4, f. 9) ; the former 
with one, the latter with two new species. 

The new genus, Ulodes of the reporter, belongs to the Diaperialoe, 
and has one new species, U, verrucosus^ frt)m Van Diemen's Land (1. c. 
p. 180, t. 5, f. 1). BoUtophagus Sapphira, Newman (Entomologist, 
p. 404), from Port Philip, appears to be a yery distinct new species. 

McMrgus ohscwrus, Redtenbacher (Col. Austr. p. 17)) from Austria, may 
be placed as s3monymous with Teneb. madens, Charp. 

A new genus, Blepusa, of the group CisteUcUe, has been described 
by Westwood (Transact. Ent. Soc. iii. p. 69, t. 3, f. 3). It is AllecuH- 
242 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 199 

fonn, with membranous appendages on the middle tarsal joints, distin- 
guished by the transyerse hatchet-shlaped terminal joint of the palpi. 
Bl, coUata; glossy black, with alternately elevated interstioes of ^e 
punctate strisB on ihe eljtn; &*' long ; probably from Mexico. 

CUtda ndfiMripes, Thihlf Eedtenbacher (CoL Aust. p. 18), has already 
been described by Germar under the same name (Spec. ins. nov.) 

MoBDBLLOinss. — MovdeUa promucua is a new species of the reporter's 
from Van Diemen's Land (Arch. 1842, i. p. 181). 

SALPiNGinjB. — The reporter has remarked (1. c. p. 183), that the Euro- 
pean species of Salpingus separate into two forms : the one (Sphairiestesy 
Kirby : S, ater, picece, bima-culatu»f foveolatus) has the last fiye joints 
of the antennsB imperceptibly thickened, and the margins of the pro- 
thorax simple ; the other (SalpiTigus, Latr., lAsiodemaf Curt. : 8. curaor, 
dentatus) has the last three ant^inal joints remarkably thickened, and 
the margins of the pxothorax dentated. Between these stands Salp, 
h^bridfu, firom Van Diemen's Land, which agrees with the latter in the 
antennae, and with the former in the prothorax. 

Laoriari^. — ^In this family might be reckoned an insect from Gmn. 
Animd, which Hope figured under the name of MegcUocera rvbricoUU 
(€hi^. Mag. de 2iOoL Ins. pL 88.) It is slender, with spreading serrated 
antennas with triangular joints, projecting eyes, punctate-striate elytra, 
and small and lobed penultimate tarsal joint. 

Amthicid js. — Dr. Schmidt of Stettin has published a treatise on the 
European species of ^fitAictw, in the Entomol. Zeitung (p. 79, 122, 170, 
193). He divides the AnthicuSf F., into three genera: Notoxtu, 
Geoff., with squarish mandibles, and filifonn antennae, also easily to 
be recognised by the comuted prothorax ; AnthictM, with triangular 
mandibles, and somewhat filiform antennas ; OchthenonMis, Dej., with 
triangular mandibles, and dub-shaped antennas. Six species of Notoxu% 
are mentioned, of which three are new : N, major, Dej., from different 
parts of the South of Europe ; N. cmnatug, from the Tyrol, nothing 
more perhaps than a slight yariety of the N. corrwUus ; and N, nUles, 
a- good species from the Banat, chiefly differing from N. cwnutusy by 
the truncated points of the elytra. 

Thirty species of Anthicfia are described: among these, as new, 
No. 4. A, terminatuSf Dej., from Corfu, a species yaiying much in 
colour, with whidi No. 12. A, ruficoUU, is to be united as a yariely ; 
No. 6. A, longicoUUy from Hungary and Italy ; No. 11. A, tristiB, from 
the South of France ; No. 12. A, rufieoUMy from the South of France and 
North of Italy (yariety of No. 4. A, terminatust Dej.) ; No. 13. A. tmi- 
fasdatus, Dej., from the Tyrol, North of Italy, and«South of France 
(already figured as A, fasciatus, Cheyr. in Guer. loonogr. Rdgn. An.) ; 
No. 14. A, nuynogrcMmMMy Kunze, from Nice (same with A. cinettM, 
Road, ajims, Dej.) ; No. 15. A, sardcusy Kunze, from Sardinia ; No. 16. 

243 



200 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

A, amomiu, from Avignon (teneUMi, Hoffg., Dej.) ; No. 18. A. mela/na^ 
rtfM, from Maneillefl (lame with phmJbeus, I^JO \ No. 19. A, vmcolor, 
from Stjiia, Hungary, and France ; No. 20. A. brevis, from Marseilles ; 
No. 21. A, caUotuB, ibid, (same with A, hruMneu$y Yert6 S^n.) ; No. 22. 
A. feneitratus, Dej., from Italy and the South of France; No. 25, A. 
instabiUs, Hoffg., from the Sonth of France and Spain ; No. 26. A. 
cueiUarUt fitvm Hungary and Italy ; No. 27. A. hUeicomis, from Upper 
Bavaria ; and No. SO. A, pulcheUuB, Dej., from the South of France and 
Spain. The genus Ochthenomut contains one new species, O. dnuatus^ 
Kunze, from Italy and the South of France, with the 0. tenuicoUis, 
widely distributed in the South of Europe {Notox. ten., Rossi, O. ctngtts- 
tatus, Dej.) ; to the latter also belongs Laporte's A, dongatigtimus, for 
which he prefers the generic name EndonUa, which is not a whit more 
correct than that of Dejean, and deserves no more attention. 

The Marquis de la Fertd S^nectdre has fronished another contribu- 
tion to the knowledge of the species of Anthieus (Ann. de le Soc. Ent. 
de Fr. ^ p. 247). . He has described and partly figured fourteen species, 
found at a single spot at Perpignan: A, guttatus, Hoffg., Dej. (this 
delineation is founded on one furnished by Dejean ; in the Hoffinannsegg 
Collection the species is named by Alters, the 4b'guttatus, Rossi ; it is 
therefore not new) ; A, ajlnu (is a variety of A, dnctus, Rossi, and 
certainly A. monofframmug var. y, Schmidt) ; A, l)rwnneus (same with 
eaUosuSf Sdim.) ; A. cmtonioB (doubtful, perhaps a variety of the A, ter- 
minatfu, Dej.) ; A.plwmbeus, Dej. (same with mekmcMiius, Schm.) ; A, 
teneUuSf Hof^., Dej. (same with A, amoenvs, Schm.) ; A, Bremei, a 
species very nearly allied to the humiUs, Germ., and Wjpornis, Dej., 
which, however, appears to differ by slenderer 1^, shining underside, 
&c. (it is the same with inqwdtor, Qeaii) ; A, minwtus, allied to the 
preceding, but the vertex is not pointed posteriorly (same with cu/nor, 
Qen6, 9aUmb$, Helf.) ; A, mela/nophtJialmus, a very distinct species 
(like several of the others it is found also in Italy, but especially in 
Sicily); A, piUcJiellvs, Dej.; lastly, the author gives a description of 
the A, instabiUs, Hoffg. There are several, as may be inferred from 
the remarks appended, which have been also described by Dr. Schmidt, 
partly under the same, partly under other names. 

Two new species have been described by the reporter, from Van 
Diemen's Land, Anthieus strictus and vinctus (Arch. 18^, L p. 182). 

XylopMlus nigrinus, Germar, Faun, Ins. Europ. 22, 7, 8 {£ and $), 
is a new German species, which has received from the reporter the same 
name in the Berlin collection. 

YEsicAzmA. — The genus Meloe has received an addition of three new 
species from Ghi^rin (Rev. Zool. p. 338) : M, foveolata from Tripoli, is 
distinguished from M, cicatricomu and coriarius, by the pitted elytra ; 
it must, therefore, perhaps stand next to M, etythrocnemui ; M, hume- 

2U 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 201 

raHs, from an elevated plain of the Cordilleras ; and M, a/ndeneiSf from 
the top of the Andes ; both, have the terminal spines of the posterior 
tibiae simple, like M, ccmcellatusy but differ firom it, the former by its 
defl daws, the latter by its entire simple ones. The latter is deoep- 
tively like the M. Klugii, but is distinguished firom it by the terminal 
spines of the tibi» and the claws. 

Harris gives some information oonoeming the oocnrrenoe of the 
North American species of l^tta (Ins. of Massadius. p. 109). Most of 
the species seem to prefer the potato plant, especially the L, vittata and 
cinerea, which attack it in masses ; X. ma/rginata prefers the ClematU 
virffinia/na, also CI. vioma and critpa; L, atrata, F., the SoUdago 
altitdma. The Meloe cmgusHcolUSf Say, which is common in autumn, 
and feeds on the leaves of the Eanunculi in preference, also attacks the 
potato plant. 

CuBcuLioNiDjs. — ^The second half of the sixth (second supplementary) 
volume of Schonherr's great work, '* Genera et Species Gurculionidum," 
has appeared. It contains the groups CleonideSy MolytideSf and Byno- 
pides. In the first, the genus Cleon/u$ is rightly extended by the sup- 
pression of Bothynoderus, as also that o£EpiccBru8 by Chraphorinus ; on 
the other hand, a number of new genera are added, viz., — Phcutologus, 
nearly allied to QronapB, but differing in the form of its body ; and 
Bhyparosanwu, resembling LittroderuSy both South African forms ; Byr- 
9opages, approadiing Hylobivs, native of Kamtschatka ; Strcmgaliodetf 
differing from Barynotus by the prothorax being lobed before the 
eyes (von Bar. vorztiglich durch das vor den Augen gelappte Halsschild 
unterschieden.), with a Chilian species; Catcptes, standing nearest 
Liaphlceus, from New Zealand ; Catapionua, from Cashmere, allied to 
LiophlcBus and Barynotus; Ampkidees, Mexican; Odontorhdnvs, from 
Persia, very near Barynotua ; Tropiphorus, principally separated from 
B<MynoUi8 by the want of the scutellum, containing the B. mercuaiaUSf 
ca/rinatus, gkbaPue, &e, ; Perp&rut, New HoUand, having the habit of 
OHorhffnchuB ; Pa/Mcoptbs, formed from the Baaynotua erinaceuSf Say; 
MegcUonyetiSf Chilian ; Bhydidophloeus, containing the Cwc, aUnpes, 
01., frx>m Madagascar ; Bastactea, Brazilian. — ^Under the MolyHdes, the 
old genus Molytes is divided into Molytes (coronatua, &c.), Trydbiua 
(ten^nioides, Pall., &c.), AnUorhynchua (bajuhu, tnonctchua, &c.), and 
Leiaaamua (ovatuluay Clairv., dec.) Sotasmua, nearly allied to PUnthu8f 
and CyUndrorhinuay Ghidr., both from New Holland; Macrotanua 
from anterior Asia, nearly approaching Phytonomus, are also newly 
diaracterized. Finally, by way of appendix, Procas, Steph., is added ; 
Erirkinua Steveni, Schonh. iii., placed in it, and its situation shown to 
be next Lepyrua, — To the Byraopideay 8ynthocua, from Africa, Periegea, 
from the Caucasus, BorborocoBteat from Persia, Hypocokbua, from 
South Africa (one of the twenty species was previously joined with 

245 



202 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

8paHecent$\ and J^ptpeckw, firam the interior of Oayenne, haye been added 
aa new genera ; besides this, almost all th^ earlier genera are enridied 
with new species ; as the typical specimens of the earlier descriptions 
were mostlj giyen back to their owners, and thus served no longer for 
comparison, it oonld not be ayoided, that freqnentlj known species were 
described as new, an error of slight consequence in the yery great 
utility of the work. I haye remarked, in the report for 1839, p. 257^ 
that the genus EublepharuSf SoL, which the author mentions under the 
Cleonides, as distinct, but unknown to him, fidls under Lophotus, Scfa. 
(.^orhinus, Er.) 

Labram and Lnhoff haye concluded, with the tenth number, a yolume 
of their ** Gattungen der Russelk&fer," and also given a review of its 
contents. This tenth number contains Mecoeerus divernpeSf Imh., a 
new species from Guinea ; an exact analysis and copious description of 
the previously characterized genus Denterocrates ; BlaherusfallcLX, Sch., 
from the Cape; a new species from Madagascar, under the name of 
ApodertM camelus, Sch., which was called by Elug, in the Berlin collec- 
tion, Ap, castaneuB ; as a new species, the Rhynchites grcmdis, from, the 
Philippine Islands, which is the Rh. ccelestmus, Schonh. (PhiUppensis, 
Ghevr.) ; Cuma/rotua coccinelloides, Sch., from a drawing by Geimar 
(fresh specimens are thickly dusted with yellow) ; the true Platymerus 
Oerma/ri, Sch., because, in the first number, PL Dregei was represented 
under this name. 

Some Rhynchophorous Beetles, of Van Diemen's Land, haye been 
described by the reporter (Arch. 1842, p. 183-212), viz.,-— one Anthnbut, 
two TropidereSf one Rhinotia, one Rhynchites (Auletes), two Ewthyn- 
chu$f one AmUallus, two Aterpu», one Pelororhinus, one Rhinaaia, one 
Steriphus (new genus allied to Plmthus), two Amycterus, one Nothrodes 
(characterized as a new genus of the group Otiorh/ynchidcBf but, as it 
seems to me, coming under the genus Pantopcffus, since published by 
Schonherr), four Mandalotus (a new genus most nearly allied to Tylo- 
deres), two OrthorhintMy one Erirhintbs, one Notionomus, one Crypto- 
plus (a new genus, allied to Anoplus), one Meriphui (a new genus of the 
group Erirkmce), one DiapelnMis (a new genus near to Anthonomus)^ 
eight CryptorhynchaSy three AccUles, one Cyllorhamphus (ranking with 
Mitr^horus, Sch.), three Melcmterius (a new genus most nearly allied 
to Chalcodermus, Sch.), two Rhyncolus, one Tomicus, one Cryphahts. 

Seyeral new East Indian CurculionidcB have been made known by 
Gu^rin iu Delessert's Voyage (ii. p. 51-54) : Mecocerus ffibbosus, Epi- 
somus montcmuSf Bcmdius neelgheriensis, Myllocerus subfasciattMf 
from the Nilgherries ; if. Fdbricii, from Pondioherry. 

Waterhouse (Proceed. Ent. See. p. 62 ; Ann. Nat. Hist. x. p. 68) has 
described two new genera, allied to Rhynckites: — Mmurus; rostrum 
elongatum ad apioem dilatatum, antennae elongatse tenues versus medium 

246 



INSBCTA — COLEOPTERA. 203 

Tostri insertaB ll-«rticulat8B articolis basalibus sub-nqualibus, elytra 
oblonga abdomen tegentia : M. testaceus, firom Chiloe ; and Metopon ; 
antemiflB tenues ad basm rostri insertae ll-articulatss articuliB basalibuis 
aob-flBquaUbns tribos ultimis dayam sub-solidam foimantibtis : M, mA- 
turalis, a new species from Van Diemen's Land. To this latter genus 
tbe RhynchiteB (Auletes) mekmocephahis, described bj the reporter 
(Arch. 1842, i. 185, n. 112), appears to belong. 

Gu^rin has given an excellent iconographical anrangement of the 
species of Evpholus, in the Magas. de Zool. (1842, Ins. pi. 96, 97). 

Waterhouse (Ann. Nat. Hist. iz. p. 302) b^gan a monograph on the 
Philippine species of Apocyrtus. 

Several new species from Austria have been described by Eedten- 
bacher (Col. Austr. p. 19-21): — Phytonom/ua maculatvs, Dahl, living on 
the Verbaacwm pklomaides; OHorhynchuB momdihulaais, Hylednus 
Butu/ralis, 

Germar has made some very valuable observations on the synonymes 
of different European CurcuUonidce (Entom. Zeit. p. 2 and 98). A 
present from Mr. Walton, of English Cwrculionidce, very exactly de- 
fined according to Marsham, Kirby, and Stephens, gave rise to this 
treatise; an account is, therefore, given principaUy of the English 
species hitherto imperfectly known on the continent. Schmidt (ibid, 
p. 110) has shown, that the Swedish author^, under Otiorhynchus ater 
and niger, have not meant the Fabrician species of the same name 
{yilloio-punctatus, Sch.), which is not found in Sweden, but a variety of 
the O. tenebricoMS, Junker (ibid. p. 63) has pointed out, that by Bh, 
viminalia, F., recently developed yellow individuals of the Orchestes 
quercus, as they appear in summer, are meant, whilst the completely 
coloured individuals show themselves in spring as soon as the oaks bud. 

Goureau has published a long essay on the natural history of the 
Pissodes pint (Ann. de le Soc. Ent. de Fr. xi. p. 53). Dr. Schmidt 
(Entom. Zeit. p. 273, fig. 3-7) has described the metamorphosis of the 
Lixus gemellatusy Sch., which lives in the stalks of Cicuta viraaa, 
Leunis (ibid. p. 190) has made known his experience, that the larva of 
Brachyta/rsu8 scabrosus, lives in the coccus of the CcMrpiiMM hetulus, 
in which also the metamorphosis goes on, so that the beetle proceeds 
frx>m the coccus pustule. 

Schiodte has investigated the internal structure of the OHorhynchus 
atro-apteru8 (Kroyer, Naturh. Tidsskr. iv. p. 212). 

Harris has imparted much information on the different Rhyncho- 
phorous Beetles of North America (Ins. of Massachusetts, p. 53-76). 
Bruchus pisi is so injurious to the growth of peas, that in many dis- 
tricts they cannot be cultivated. Attelaibus analia and hipusiulatus 
are found upon oak leaves. Several species of Rhynchites are hurtful 
to the vine, particularly Rh, hicolor, Pandeleteius hilciris lives on 

247 



204 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII . 

the white oak, — the beetle on the leaves, the hurva in the stem. 
HyldbiuB pale9, Hbt., lives in pine wood ; also JET. picivoruSf Gferm., and 
Piuodes Strobi, Peek (nemorentis. Germ.), often destroying tracts of 
several thousand acres of wood. In gardens, C<motractelu9 nenv^hwr, 
Hbt. (argula^ ¥.), is particularly detrimental, chiefly to plums, but also 
to several other fruit trees ; it pierces the fruit as soon as it is formed, 
and there lays its egg. The larva gnaws the firuit, which decays and 
falls off as soon as the larva is grown. The metamorphosis goes on in 
the ground. If these insects are numerous, no plums ripen. The same 
beetile causes, by its perforation, warty ezeresoences on the younger 
twigs, in which also larvas are found, and in consequence of the drcn- 
lation of the sap being disturbed, the branches die above these galls. 
Calandra grana/tia and oryzce are destructive almost every where to 
the grain laid up in granaries, the latter not only to the rice, but also 
to the maize. Of Bark Beetles, the Hylurgus terebrans is found in the 
pitch fir ; H, dentatus, Say, in the red cedar ; Tomieus exemM, Say, in 
the pitch fir ; T, pini. Say, in different species of pines ; Seolytus pyri, 
Peck (not an Eccoptogaster, rather a TonUeuB), in pear trees, in the sap 
of the branches, which die in consequence of its gnawing. 

Homung (Entom. Zeit. p. 115) discovered a number of Bark Beetles 
inhabiting Betel-nuts (Areca hatecku). Bostrichus dactyliperda, F., 
was most numerous ; B, palmicola and carpophagus, both allied to the 
preceding, occurred more rarely. B. arecoe, a small new species, was 
abundant. 

Brenthides. — Harris has given some information concerning the 
larva of the Brenthug (Arrhenodes) Hptentrionu (Ins. of Massachus. 
p. 60). When full grown, it is above 1" long, and scarcely 1'" thick; 
almost cylindrical, only somewhat flat beneath ; white, with the excep- 
tion of the last segment, which is homy dark brown, hollowed out 
obliquely posteriorly and dentated at the margin. The thoracic segment 
bears legs, and at the end next to the body there is a fleshy pseudo \&g, 
flrom which it is very evident that it has no alliance with that of the 
Cvrcalumidce, but rather with that of the ElateridoB, or perhaps still 
more the ColydiL Farther comparison must show how far it may agree 
with the one or the other. According to the opinion of the author, the 
larva bores in the wood ; the female pierces with her thin proboscis the 
bark of the white oak, and lays an egg in each perforation. The larva 
makes cylindrical passages in the hard wood, which it always keeps free, 
as it pushes out the chips to the external opening with the last segment 
of its abdomen, so that these passages are easily detected. The change 
to the pupa takes place in the larva-passage. The pupa has upon its 
back transverse rows of smstll spines and sharp teeth, which probably 
serve to retain the cuticle when the beetle escapes. 

Harris would place the Brenthides at the end of the CurcuU(midcPf 

248 



INSECTA— COLEOPTERA. 205 

but the reporter is of opinion, that the difference ia too considerable for 
the Brenthides, which have hitherto been considered as a totally ano- 
malous member of that familj, to be farther united with it. 

A plate of Cephalobarus macrocepJialus, Sch. ($), has been given 
by Labram and Imhoff (Qatt. der RiisseMfer, 10 Lief.) 

CoLTDii. — Several new genera have been characterized : — 

Deretaphrus, Newman (Entomologist, p. 403), is «o far mistaken by 
its author, that he reckons it with the Ptimtes. It is most nearly allied 
to Bothrideres, Dej. {Lyct. contrctctug, F.), and differs principally in 
the antennae having not the first but second penultimate joints larger. 
There are four species mentioned from Port Philip ; of these, however, 
only the first, 2>. fossuSy from which the generic characters are taken, 
and probably also the second, Z>. puteus, belong to this genus ; at all 
events, the last two, D. ilhimiB and vittatus, are true Bothaideres. 
The Berlin collection contains three other species of real Deretaphrus^ 
from different parts of New Holland. 

PtfCftomenM of the reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. 214, t. 5, f. 4), hitherto 
oonfounded with Cerylon, shows striking varieties in the formation 
of the antennas in. its different species. The native P. teretrntng 
has ten-jointed antennae ; P. mlcicollis {Cerylon a. Germ.), has only 
eight-jointed ones, both with a knob-shaped thickened terminal joint. 
Other species, as P. r^fiexus and haimatodeB (Lyct), Say, as well as the 
new species firom Van Diemen's Land, P. fiiliginomis, have eleven- 
jointed antennae, with a two-jointed dub. 

LatamehM of the reporter (ibid. p. 213, t. 5, f. 3) is heteromerous, 
therefore differing fiom the remaining genera of this fiunily in the 
number of tarsal joints, but showing much agreement with Sivrrotriwn^ 
Coxehis, &c., which have all the tarsi only four-jointed : X. ptifbescen$ 
is a new species from Van Diemen's Land. 

Lcmgelcmdia, Aub^ (Ann. de le Soc Ent. de Fr., zi. p. 225, t. 9, 
£ 2-6), is a new genus, remarkable in many respects, which has been 
placed by its author in this family. It has, with a proportionably 
longer prothoraz, the appearance as well as the antennae of Ditoma, but 
wants eyes, and, like all blind insects, is apterous. The tarsi are all 
only three-jointed. L. cbnophthalma, discovered in France by Lange- 
land, lives in the earth in the mouldering remains of plants. 

Ditoma mterrupta of the reporter is a new species from Van Die- 
men's Land (Arch. 1842, L> 215). 

The internal structure of the Saarotrmm muticwn has been described 
by Schiodte (Erbyer, Naturh. Tidsskr. iv. p. 209), as that of a remark- 
able variety of Opatrumf with which the author found a great agree- 
ment. The circumstance is passed over, that the six gall- vessels are 
here fixed by their ends to the- thin gut, whilst in the Opatrum they 
form loops. 

249 



206 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLU .' 

Favwidm, — ^A newly diMOYeied East Indian Pautws has been laid 
before the LinnsHui Society bj Westwood, under the name of P. hear- 
eyanuM (Ann. Nat. Hist. z. p. 409). It belongs to the second division 
of the genus, approaching PlatyrhopaluB, in haying the penaltimate 
joint of its labial-palpi about two-thirds the length of the terminal joint, 
and is onlj distinguished from Poussus cognatus hj the antennae. 

Qermar's Thorictus belongs to a family still midefined, of which he 
has figured a snudl Sicilian species as Th. ffrandicollis, (Faun. Ins. 
Eur. xzii. 4.) 

CucujiFBs. — ^Letzner (Arbeit, d. Sehles. Gesellsch. f. VaterL Knhnr, 
i. j. 1842) opposes the assertion of Gjllenhal, in legaid to the sexes 
of the Chicujus depresfUB, as his obsenratians on liying beetles have 
conyinoed him, that the heteromeious indiyiduals are not, as supposed 
by GyUenhal, the males but the females. It appears, howeyer, from the 
account, that he is deceiyed by the oyipositor of the females. The 
larya of this rare beetle has also been obseryed by him. It appears 
to agree yery nearly with the larya of Brontes, described by the reporter ; 
it liyes, for a year at the most, under the bark of old fir posts. 

The new genus, Platiius, of the reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. 216) has 
the closest agreement with Cucuju$, and principally differs in the first 
tarsal joint being as large as the following one : PL fuscus is from Van 
Diemen's Land. 

Phksostichus, Eedtenbacher (Qu»d. GoL Austr.) ; has the antennae 
with three larger terminal joints ; the prothorax with teeth on the sides ; 
the tarsi are described by the author as heteromerous. On a specimen 
which I had an opportunity of examining, I found fiye joints on all the 
tarsi, but the first was certainly yery short. There is here, peihaps, also 
a similar distinction of sex as in Cucujus. PJU, denHcollie is like a 
Salpingus, dull black, finely downy, with two sinuated dark yellow 
bands on the elytra ; it is found under the bark of the maple tree. 

StemmoderuSf Dej., has been published by Spinola (Ghi^r. Mag. de 
Zool. 1842, Ins. pi. 91). This beetle stands in near relationship to 
to Rhysodes; the antennae are rather short; the joints cylindrical and 
closely connected; the head conyex beneath; the eyes large and 
kidney-shaped; the labrum homy; mandibles flat, toothless, with a 
simple point; the mentum not quite concealing the opening of the 
mouth ; the maxillary palpi rather long, with an oblong-K)yal terminal 
joint truncated at the point ; legs elongated ; tibiae simple ; tarsi eyi- 
dently fiye-jointed. St, migulcmsy Bej., ^m Senegal, is castaneous ; 
4"' long; the forehead has three protuberances, flat in the middle, 
swollen out on each side into two great bladder like pads; the pro- 
thorax is covered posteriorly by two knobs like balls, but flat on the 
back; the elytra furrowed, with anterior angles strongly projecting 
forwards. 

250 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 207 

The reporter has described two Brontes from Van Diemen's Land, 
one Dendrophagus, and one 8ilv<MMM, as new species (Arch. p. 217). 

LoNoiooBMES. — ^The species of this fanulj, collected by Cuming in the 
Philippine Ishinds, have been described hy Newman, though not with 
sufficient accuracy. (Entomologist, p. 243, 275, 288, 298, 318, 369, 381.) 

From Harris's observations on the North American CerambiddoB 
(Ins. of Massachus. p. 77), it appears that the larva of the Priowis 
laticolliSf Dnuj, (brevicomis, F.) lives in poplars ; that of the Steno- 
eorus (Ceraephorus) cinctus, Brury, {garganicus, F.) in hickory trees, 
boring through the stem in all directions ; Ekbphidion putator (Stenoc), 
Peck, is found in the black and white oaks, and according to Peck's 
observations, the larva lives in the pith of the boughs, and at last gnaws 
through the wood, and undergoes its metamorphosis when lying on the 
ground. CalUdiwm, bajuhta and violcbcewn have been brought from 
Europe, and become native to North America. The beautiful Clytus 
epeciosus, Say, (Hayi, Griff.) is occasionally destructive to the sugar 
maple, into the wood of which the larva bores ; that of the CL JUxuosus 
lives under the bark, and in the alburnum of the Bdbinia pseudacada. 
The larva of the Saperda calca/rata, Say, lives, like our S. ccMrcharias, 
in the stems of different species of poplar ; that of the 8, Wvittata, Say, 
in apple trees, to which they do great injury, as weU as in various 
trees and bushes, but origmally it preferred the North American 
Aronioe, The larva of the 8^ (Oherea) tripunctata lives in the pith of 
the branches of a species of bramble (Btibus villoius), which is cul- 
tivated abundantly for the sake of its fruit resembling the currant. 
Dewnocerus palliatus is found upon the elder tree ; the larva lives 
in the lower part of the branches in the pith. The larva of the 
Rhagium Imeatum lives under the bark of the pitch fir, which comes 
off by its gnawing, and the tree is destroyed. 

Spinola has published a valuable treatise on the systematic arrange- 
ment of the PrionidcB (Mem. deUa R. Acad. d. Sdenz. d. Torrino. 2, Ser. 
V.) He comprehends, in one large division, all those beetles in whidi 
the first three tarsal joints are covered beneath with hairy felt, and the 
fourth is very sn^all and narrow, and united to the fifth, as the Curcvr- 
UonidoB, CercmbycidcBy and ChrysomelidcB. This division he separates 
into two groups, either as the prothoraz consists of tergum, epistema, 
and presternum, or only of a single piece, generally of a teigum and 
presternum. The first group contains the BruchidcB and Halticas (both 
defined as springing, which is not suitable for the former, as all spring- 
ing insects have straight tibiae; those with crooked tibiae, like the 
BruchidcB, however much the thighs may be thickened, are not spring- 
ers), the Hispidas, OallerucidoB, ChrysomelidcB, and Priomdce. The 
second group contains the CerambycidcB, Lamice, and CurculionidoB. 
The Prionidas are separated from tiie rest, by the cylindrical anterior 

251 



208 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

hips lying in oonesponding sockets. This gives an excellent character 
for the group of the IVionidcB, In some, as Maeradontia, the proster- 
num is not separated by a suture, and the whole prothoraz consists of a 
single piece, so that the separation of the IVumMKo;, from the rest of the 
CercMnbycidaSf cannot be justified on fliis ground ; at least if the larrsB 
be also taJcen into consideration, which have the greatest agreement with 
the Cerambyces proper, and particularly the L^twres, 

The new genus Rhipidoeerus, Westwood (Transact. £nt Soc. iiL 
p. 70, t. 3, f. 2), is one of the few forms of CerambycidcB with flabeUate 
antenne ; in both sexes these aro of the length of the body, in the male 
the third and following joints have each a long fan-like branch, in the 
female they are simple ; the prothorax has one spine on each side ; the 
elytra are simple and rounded at the end ; the legs short and similar. 
In many points this beetle resembles a Lamia ; in others, particularly 
the minutely punctured elytra, a 8tenocoru$, Westwood places it 
between Phoenicoeenis and Polyoza ; it approaches nearest the latter 
genus, at least the parts of the mouth, eyes, and joints of the antennte 
indicate its situation among the PrionidcB. Eh, australnsicB ; dark 
green with fine yeUowish hairs, and leddish-brown antennae and legs ; is 
a native of New Holland. The generic name is actually identical with 
Rhipicera. 

A new European form of Prionidas has been described by Mulsant^ 
under the generic name of PrincbiuB (Ann. d. Sc. Fhys. publ. par la 
Soc. d*Agriculturo d. Lyon, v. p. 107, 1. 11, f. 1). It resembles Macro- 
toma, having likewise the third antennal joint as long as the two 
following ones put together ; the eyes are almost without emargiuation ; 
the prothorax is transverse and quadrangular, having a smaU tooth on 
the posterior angles ; the tibi» are, however, unarmed ; but I know not 
wherein it diifers firom Ergates, JPr. My€Mrdi is found in Corsica, 
under oak bark ; it greatly re^mbles Pr, Oerma/ri, Dej., {scutellarU, 
Germ.) and it is principally distinguished by the broader prothorax ; it 
may very likely be the male of that insect, particularly as in Ergates 
faber, a similar distinction of sex is seen ; at all events, the iV. Oermaai 
is diffused over the islands on the west side of Italy. The Berlin col- 
lection was enriched by Schuppel with a beautiful specimen of this rare 
insect, which was caught at CagHari in Sardinia. 

Newman (EntomoL p. 351) has founded a new genus CnemopUtes, which 
ought to be received ; it has the anterior tibias dentated on the outer side* 
He includes in it Pr, tpinicoUiSy MacLeay (King's Voy. ii. 449), to 
which he adds, as a synonyme, Mallodon OMstralis, Boisd. ; also a new 
species Cn. edulis from Port Philip ; and lastly, Mallodon ma/nUlcBy 
Newman (EntomoL p. 247), from Manilla. Maerotoma austra^is of 
the reporter (Arch. p. 218), from Van Diemen's Land, may be added, 
and perhaps also Mallodon insulare, Hope (Proc. Ent. Soc. p. 48>. 

252 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 209 

from Port Esslngton. It has already been remarked in last year's 
report, that the genus Oncinotus of the reporter (ibid. p. 219, founded 
upon iV. {ircv>atu8, F.) falls under TaxeuteSf Newm. 

Blanchard (I'Instit. p. 23) has made known a beetle from Tangiers, 
under the name of Prionus Favieriy which is very injurious to the 
palm trees. It may, howeyer, be 83monymous with Pr. for/lcatus, F. 

Newman has described two new species from Manilla, Macrotoma 
cBgrotunhf and absurdum (Entomol. p. 247). 

There are two new American species of PnonicUB, Callipogan 
Lemoineiy Beiche (Gu^. Mag. d. ZooL Ins. pL d8), from New Qranada, 
distinguished from the O. ha/rbatus by a broad longitudinal band of 
white felt' on each elytron, interrupted anteriorly; and Derobrachus 
Levintwrieri, Buquet (Ann. d. 1. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. xi. p. 203, pL 9, f. 1), 
from Columbia. 

The new genera of the group Cerambyddce are: — 

Euchroa, Qudrin (Deless. Sout. d'un Voy. d. Tlnd. ii. p. 56, 1. 14, f. 
1), allied to Pa^hyteria, but certainly not distinguishable from Nircsus, 
Newman, as also the species E. dimidiata, Gudr., from Pnlu Penang, 
is the same with N, tricolor, Newm. 

SclethniSy Newm. (Entomol. p. 247), founded upon the Ibidion 
amosnum, Gu^r., is very different from Ihidion, and resembles a 
Tricondyla, 

Ceredum, Newm. (ibid. p. 322), allied to Ohrium, with a narrow 
head elongated anteriorly ; includes three new species from the Philip- 
pine Islands, Obr, vmmite and cetkiops (p. 247), and C, raripilum 
(p. 322). Newman remarks, that the New HoUand Call, mtortwn and 
vUe, perhaps belong also to this genus (ibid. p. 223). 

Omot€9 and Sophron, Newm. (ibid. p. 353, 354), are two new genera 
from New Holland, apparently allied to Callidmm, which at present I 
do not know, and cannot disooyer the essential characteristios from the 
description. 

Mecynopus of the reporter (Arch. 1842, i p. 222), belonging to the 
Necydalidcs ; elytra ns in Stenopterus ; antennas and legs long, especi- 
ally the hind ones ; thighs only slightly thickened. M. cothwmatus 
from Van Diemen's Land. 

BLanchard has again attracted discussion to the Pwrpwricewus Loreyi, 
Duponch. (Ann. d. 1. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. xi. p. 49). He takes the yiew of 
Buquet, that the Eburia stands near it, and the E, dimidiata, Chevr., 
nearest, but thinks that both these, in some '* plus " and ^ moins," yary 
from Eburia, and either form a peculiar genus Heterops, or Ceraspho- 
riM, Coccoderus, and CJdorida, must be united with Eburia. 

Redtenbacher has described, as a new Austrian species (GoL Austr. 
p. 24), Callidium scahricolle, Meg., but it is the Call, mwricatwm, 
Dalm., GylL 

253 



210 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDOCCXLII : 

DeUu9 fvtgax^ Seir. (Callid, /,, Fab.), it figoied by Gemuur (Faun. 
Ins. Eun^. 22, 9). 

SeToral species fiom French Barbaiy haye been described as new by 
Lucas (Ann. d. Se. Nat. xviiL p. 184). Of these the more remarkable are, 
— Ho/maticJieruB Mirbeekiit which is hardly anj thing else than H, veltir- 
tinuSf Dej. ; H.p<Uudiva,gu8, which, so far as I can conjecture, does not 
differ fiom the J7. Nerii, Cheyr., of the reporter (mawritanicus, Buq.) ; 
Pwrpuricenus harbarus, which I hold as a yarietj of the P. Desfan- 
tainU (S. Wagn. Algier. iiL 162) ; He^f>erophane8 rotwndicoUig, tomen- 
totuB, and ajfmu; and, histly, CalUdiwrn thorctcicwn^ Dej., which has 
been already described by Mnlsant under the same name, and is the 
troe CaMid, melancholicumj F. 

Newman mentions, as new species, horn the Philippine Ldands 
(Entomol. p. 2^), four HamaticheruSf three CalUchroma, one Polyzo- 
nuSf two Arhopalus, fiye Clytug, and one (EtiMna, on which he remarks, 
that this genus differs from Petalodes only by the simple antemue, and 
that therefore, perhaps, it may be the female of it. 

Hope mentions, as new species fiom New Holland (Proceed. Ent. Soc. 
p. 48), PlaccBderug auitraloMCBf 8tenochom9 vicimus, cruciger, Xy$- 
trocera <iu$tr(U<mas, CalUdium ewingtoni, firom Port Essington ; and 
Newman (Entomol. p. S52), Phoraca/ntha imbellis, Callidium arttfex^ 
terebrcms, Omotes cucvjides, Sophron vnomatwmy from Port Philip. 
The reporter has described (Arch. 1842, i. p. 220), Stenocorus proBcox, 
Merapctchys aericcmSf Phacodes pergonatus, from Van Diemen's Land. 

The group of Lctmice has been enriched with a long series, not only 
of new species, but also of new genera, through the labours of Newman, 
on the Beetles collected by Gunung at the Phillippine Islands. It would 
be difficult, howeyer, for me to point out the characters of the new 
genera, as the author has often stated them in a yery uncertain manner, 
and frequently left yery essential circumstances untouched ; for example, 
the thoracic formation, eyen where it is yery remarkable. There are 
mentioned (EntomoL p. 275, &c.), Batocera, with four species, of which 
three are new ; AnopJUophora, one new species ; ManoJiommua, twelye 
species, of which ten are new ; Mimomorpha (p. 322), a new genus, with 
one new species ; Lctmia (pulchellator, Westw.), (p. 288) ; Agelasta, a 
new genus, but which does not seem to differ from CoptopSy Sery., with 
three new species, to which C. cedificator might be added; Ahyna 
(p. 289, 29Sy 323), a new genus, allied to the preceding, with fiye spe- 
des; EuoUa (p. 290), a distinct new genus, with two new species ; C<icia 
(p. 290), a new genus, with a tuft of hair on the fourth antennal joint, 
containing two new species ; Planodes (p. 323), a new genus, with one 
new species; Doliops, Waterh., with two species: D, curculionides 
and geometricus, Waterh., the latter characterized by Waterhouse (Proc. 
Ent. Soc. p. 55) ; Agnia (p. 291), a new genus, allied to Ptyckodes, con- 

254 



INSECT A — COLEOPTER A . 21 1 

taining two new species ; Plocia (p. 292), a new genus, which apparently 
must be near Colobothea and Leptocera, as well as Hypsioma, with two 
new species ; Hispomorpha (p. 323), a new genus, Hke a Hispay with 
one new species ; Achthophora (p. 292), a new genus, Hke Hypsiomay 
with two- new species ; Thysanodes (p. 292), a new genus, but which 
should not be separated ftom Stheniasy Dej. ; the species, T, jttcunda, is 
Cer. crocatusy 01. ; Onoma, with two species, of which one is new ; Apo- 
mecyna, with one species, considered as new; Astathes (p. 299), the 
same as the genus Tetra>ophthalmu8 of Dejean, which name is inappli- 
cable, with two new species ; Phceay with two new species ; Eu8tat?ie8 
(p. 300), a new genus, with one new species ; Tetraglenea (p. 300), a new 
genus, like HippopsiSy but with four eyes, completely separated, two 
oblong ones on the vertex, and a small round one on each side of the 
head, far removed &om the antennae, containing one new species; 
U^apJ^ra (p. 301), also allied to Hippopgis, with only two eyes ; Colo- 
botheay one species ;. Olenea (Sphenura, Dej., Lap., which name should 
be altered, as it already belongs to a genus of birds), with seven 
species ; Isosceles (p. 318), a new genus, including Oherea seminigra, 
Chevr., and two new species, but properly, perhaps, corresponding to 
Oberea, Dej., as I do not find that the species fix)m Manilla differ from 
the rest, such as oculatay &c. ; under Saperda are two species generically 
very different, S, ustulata of the reporter, and Colobothea albonotata 
(leucospilay Westw.) ; Homonoea (p. 319), a new genus, including that 
of Urocahfmmujby Westw., which name the author has not retained, as it 
refers to the tail-Hke prolongation of the elytra of the H. longimanay 
which is not common to aU species ; Ichthyodes (p. 321), a new genus, 
nearly allied to the preceding, with one new species ; Demodes (p. 322), 
a new genus, with one new 'species; Pterolophia (p. 323, 370, 381), a 
new genus, with ten species ; and lastly, a series of species, which are 
described from specimens so mutilated and fisuled, that it hardly rewards 
the describer*s trouble. There is also a new generic name, Microlophia 
(p. 383), but without generic characters. 

Guerin (Deless. Voy. dans Tlnde, ii. p. 61) has characterized a new 
genus, Centrwray which is allied to Apomecyna and Hatlia, but is dis- 
tinguished from them by its ventricose elytra, posteriorly produced into 
diverging spines; .from C&rcoptera, Spin., by its undilated cheeks, and 
from Urocalymmay Westw., by wanting the tooth on the sides of the 
prothoraz. Perhaps Sap. lynceay 01., belongs to this genus, ifrhich is 
founded on a new species, C. costatay from the Nilgherries. Pelctrgo- 
derus tessellaPus, Gudr., perhaps belonging to the genus Agma, Newm., 
if that is different from Pela/rgoderus ; Saperda (Sphenura) 44»ototo, 
Gudr., a Stiba/ray Hope, very nearly allied to Sap, morbillosa, F., and 
Sap, (^hen.) nmltiguttatay Gudr., are new species from the same 
mountains (ibid. p. 58-60). 

255 



212 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

The following new genera belong to the New Holland Fauna : — Pen- 
taeomniay Newm. (EntomoL p. 361) ; a small Lamia^ with the third and 
fourth antennal joints greatly elongated, and the fifth bearing a tuft of 
hair ; one spine on the sides of prothorax, and slightly thickened thighs. 
Sfftnpheletes (ibid. p. 362), corresponding in form to Latn, Solandri, F. 
Zygoeera, Dej., was described by the reporter from its external character 
(Arch. 1842, L p. 224) ; and a new genus, lUcenay characterized for a 
small fi>rm of Saperda, with simple daws, distingoished by the palpi, 
the last joint of which is very large and sharp pointed. 

Rhtftiphora piperita, tuberculata, detrita, Hathlia laeteola, ^li- 
neata, Ivaedla, mekmocephala, of Hope (Proc. Ent. Soc. p. 49), are 
new species from Port Essington. Aca/nthodertu ingl(friu8, Penta- 
cosnUa scopcma, Rhytiphara mixta, caprvaa, Symphyletes nodosa, of 
Newnuin (EntomoL p. 361), are fiom Port Philip. Lamia pao'dalis of 
Newman (ibid. p. 414), is fiom Sydney. Zygocera ca/nota and Illaena 
exilis of the reporter (L c. p. 223, 225) are fix>m Van Diemen's Land. 

I am doubtfhl concerning the position of the genos CaUipyrga, Newm. 
(EntomoL p. 413), with one new species, C twrrita ; it has rather small 
eyes, not emarginated towards the base of the antennas. 

Spalaccpsis, Newm. (EntomoL p. 303), is a remarkable new American 
genus. It has the form of Hippopds, but differs in the eyes, which are 
small and round, and situated on the sides of the head, distant from the 
base of the antennas. In this it agrees with Tetraglenes (vide supra), 
only the eyes on the yertez are here wanting. There are three species, 
Sp. atellio from Brazil, 8p, »tolata and mfiusa from East Florida. 

There are two Austrian Saperda, S, (Phytoeda) v/nHnata and hig%^ 
tata, Redtenbacher (CoL Aost. p. 25, 26) ; the seocmd is ahready de- 
scribed in the first volume of the BulL Moeo. yon Zoubkoff^, as 8. 
bipunctata. 

8. (PhytoBcia) cirteenns, 8. (Oberea) maouUcoUis and moMrita^nica, 
Lucas, are three new 8aperdai from North Africa (Ann. des So. Nat. 
xYiii. p. 187). 

In the group of Leptwridcd, Mulsant has described the known Toxotus 
cvnctus {R}iagiu/m cincUis, Fab.), as a new species, under the name 
T, dentipes (Ann. des Phys. publ. p. le Soc. d'Agric. de Lyon, y. p. 109, 
1. 11, f. 2 ; CoL de Fr. Lamellicom. Suppl.) 

Hope has noticed Rhagiomorpha wnicolor and plagiata as new 
species from Port Essington (Proceed. Ent. Soc. p. 49). 

Pseudocephalus, Newm. (EntomoL p. 353), is a remarkable new genus, 
which I mention here at the conclusion of the Longicomes, as its posi- 
tion seems doubtful, although the author places it in this family after 
Callidiwirn, The eyes are not emarginated; the antennas somewhat 
more than half the length of body, rather thickened towards the point 
(in the figure they become rather thinner), the first joint elongated ; the 

25^ 



INSECTA — COLEOPTERA. 213 

head is large and round ; the prothoraz narrow, tumid m the middle Of 
each side ; the legs long, the thighs somewhat dub-formed and thickened ; 
the tarsi (in the aotompanjing woodcut) thin, not at all formed like the 
tarsi of the CerambyddcB, Yet there is as little stated concerning their 
form as of the palpi. Ps, formicideSf firom Port Philip ; 2^'^' long ; 
resembling an Anthicus, 

Chrtsomelinis. — HarriQ (Ins. of Massachus. p. 95, 109) mentions the 
following North American species : — Criocerw ^lineata, 01., lives both 
as a beetle and larva on the potato plant ; the latter covers itself with its 
excrement like our C. merdigera. Hitpa rosea, Web., {quado'atay F.) 
lives on the apple trees, upon Amekmchier ovalis and Pyrus arbuti- 
folia, Higpa satwralis upon Rcbmia pseudctcctcia. The larva of Caa- 
tida oMrichalcea lives upon bitter-sweet (SoUmum dulcamara), and 
upon different species of bind-weed, especially Convolvulus sepiwn, 
Galeruca calmariensis has been introduced from Europe, and increased 
80 much, that the elm trees were eaten bore by their larvse, at Baltimore, 
in 1838 and 1839. G, vittata, F., is also very detrimental, especially to 
cucumbers, melons, &c. Haltica puhescens also feeds on the cucumber ; 
and various Crucifero! are attacked by H, striolata (Crioc, sir,, F.) ; 
and the H, chalyhea, 111., is destructive to the vine. The large orange 
coloured black spotted larvsB and the pupsB of Chrysomela Z-maculata, 
F., live on the Asclepias syriaca ; and the white larvie, marked with 
dark dorsal Hnes, and square lateral spots, of Ch/r. scalaris, Hve upon the 
lime (TiUa a/mericana) and elm; Chr. cceruleipennis, Say, like our 
Chr. polygoni, from which it can hardly be distinguished, lives upon Po- 
lygonum aviculare. Eumolpus awratus, F., is found upon Apocynuva 
androscemifoHum, Clythra domicama upon sumach ; CI, guttata upon 
oaks. Chlcmvys gibbosa upon bilberries. Cryptocephalus luridus upon 
wild indigo ; while most of the other species of the last genus live upon 
the different kinds of oak. 

Dr. Schmidt (£nt. Zeit. p. 27) has described a new German Lema, 
L, Suffriami ; it is most nearly allied to L. brtmnea, and differs chiefly 
in the under side of the first two antenna! joints, the breast, the knee- 
joint, and the extreme tip of the claws, being blacL There is, however, 
only one individual (from Erfurt) at present known. 

L^tomorplia JUiformis, Dej., from Sicily, has been described and 
figured by Germar (Faun. Ins* Eurqp. 22. 10). 

Gravenhorst and Scholtz have made some observations on the meta- 
morphosis of the CassidcB (Yerhandl. der Kais. Leop. Acad. d. Naturf. 
ziz. 11. 431, t. 73). They found, that upon the reflexed fork of the last 
segment of the abdomen, the rejected skin remains sticking, and that 
upon this, and not immediately upon the fork, the larva lays its excre- 
ment, which serves for its protection. The form of the excrement varies 
in different species. The larva of one species, belonging perhaps to 

257 R 



214 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLIl : 

O. fnargaritaeea, has three cast akiiis upon the fork, but no excrement. 
The krvtt of 0. murrcM, equuiris, vtridu, and tigrina, hare also been 
obserred. The larva of a Bengal Cauida is figured. 

Newman has enriched the genus P<urop$M (EntomoL p. 414) with ten 
specieB, which have been mostly taken at Port Philip, on Eucalypti, 
He has given only short diagnoses, so that most of the species cannot be 
detennined with certainty. Two of them are Fabrician species, viz. : — 
P. Hrcwmdata, N., is Chrys. rujip€9, F. ; and P. fallaXy N., is Chr. 
moriOy F. The reporter has described twelve new species of the same 
genus, from Van Diemen's Land (Arch. 1842, i. p. 226>d0). 

Bfatsek has given an arrangement of the Silesian Chry$omelidce (Ar- 
beit, der. Schles. Ges. fiir YaterL Kultur. 1842, i.), but which only refers 
to TimcMTcha and Chrys&mela, in the sense of Dejean. The former oon* 
tains three, the latter nineteen species: Timcbrcha tplendens, Kohler, 
according to the short description, must be Chrys, rufa, Meg., Duft. ; 
Chr, atra is certainly not that of Dahl, which is a native of Sicily, but 
a peculiar and different species, allied to the Chr, henUtphcerica, 

Of the four species described by the reporter from Van Diemen's Land 
(Arch. 1842, i. 230), two, Chr. congtricta and pctci/ica, belong to a 
peculiar New Holland form, which agrees with Helodes in the pointed 
terminal joint of the pidpi, and differs by the daws being dentated at the 
base. The two others, Ch. luteieamig and orpAotia, belong to Phcedon. 
ColatpU jugulaais, C. (odontionopa) viridulaf and proxima, of the 
reporter (ibid. p. 232), are from the same place. Odontumopa, Chevr., 
is distinguished from the true CoUupis, by two small teeth projecting 
at the anterior margin of the dypeus (ibid. p. 119). 

Saunders has laid before the Entomological Society of London, his 
researches on the New Holland Cryptacephali, anoompanied by short 
reniarks, but not suffident from which to form a judgment, at least in 
re^^ird to the newly characterized genera, since no notice is taken of some 
most important points, sudi as the form of the posterior margin of the 
prothorax, the scutellum, the insertion of the head, and proportion of the 
tarsal joints. Aporoeera is allied to Clythra (Proc. E. S. p. 53) ; antennae 
two-thirds of the length of the body, thorax gibbous in front, and as 
broad as the elytra : A, bicolor, and apicaUsy from New South Wales ; A, 
chalyhea (ibid. p. 57) from Port Essington. Mitocera (p. 54) ; antennae 
one-third as long again as the body, which is sub-elongate and flattened, 
thorax sub-quadrate : M, viridipenmi, from Swan River. Dieenopaii ; 
antennae not half the length of the body, the third to fifth joints long, the 
remainder short, forming a kind of lengthened dub : D. hosmatodes, from 
Van Diemen's Land. Ochrcpds (p. 56) ; antennae as long as the body, 
joints gradually increasing in size from the sixth, not different from the 
following, except in its pale colour : 0. vermicular, wuttralis, erosa, 
melanocephala, Idiocephala (Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. p. 317, formerly in 

258 



INSECTA— COLEOPTERA. 215 

Pr. B. 8. p. 64, called Anodonta) ; atitainaB in the female half as long as 
the hodj, snb-ciaTate, in the male ahnost the length of hody, the joints 
firam the sixth of eqnal length (in other vespeets agreeing with our Cryp- 
toc^phahu) : J. Boei, nlbUineay pulehdlaf effampewMM^ ficmv€niri$^ 
rugosa (Pr. £. S. p. G6}, stim/M, UtamaMea, DannnU^ $emibrunn€a 
(Ann. Nat Hist p. 317). HeUd^morpha ; antennss fililcom, body long, 
OTal, eompressed: H. atra, asnea, metalUctb (Ft, E. 8. p. 65). 

The reporter (Aich. 1842, L p. 119) obsenred, that the genns CadnvuM 
and Odontoderus, Dej^, were lemarkahle for their broad soles, formed 
as in Cassida, thickkd corered beneath witii felt; with the daw joint 
scBiealy projecting beyond the segments of the third joint, but show- 
ing no ftssential difbranoe between themselves ; in these, as in Orypto- 
e^phalns proper, the month is ooTeied by a peculiar hood> formed by the 
prc^rudxag margin of the prostemnm, whilst P<uhyibr(MkMj Dej., which 
fi>rm appeaza to be unknown in New Holland, possesses the veiy essen- 
tial charaeteristic, thai the mouth is not retracted. Another New Hol- 
land genns, Ditropidtu, Chevr., Dej., has the posterior margin of the 
prothoraz deeply sukate on both sides ; the middle is protruded between 
the etytra, the small points being, hollowed out &r the reception of the 
acntellnia, which is pointed at both ends, and is not elevated. The pro- 
atemum fbmis no projection over the mouth. Neither of these forms is 
contained among the above genera diaracteriaed by Saundeors. The 
reporter has described three new spedes of Ditropidus (ibid* p. 233). 

Several new Austrian MaiHccB have been described by RedtenboNsher 
(CoL Anst p. 27) : H. (Bakmomorpha) cireumdataf H. (Ttinodactiffla) 
fUgricepgf H. (Aphihana) CampoMUah The last, wluch is nearly aDied 
to H, euphorbia^ is £ound upon Cijumpamfala rotnndifMa, The re- 
porter (Arch. 1842, L p. 235) has described H, (Oraptodera) corruaccb, 
JPsyUiodea, chUrophama^ from Van Diemen*s Land ; and ehaitetsmed 
one new genns, Armpoda^ which is allied to DiboUa and P^Uiode^^ 
espedally by the very strong!^ thickened posterior thighs, differing 
firom botii by the toothed daws; from the Ibrmer by the simple tenninal 
apine of the posterior tibia, from the latter by the deven-jointed antennas, 
and the hinder tarsi articulated to the point of the tibiss. This genus is 
peculiar to New Holland. A> bifircna is a speoiefr from Van IHemen'i 
Tiflndi 

EnoTTuniB. — Laoordaare's work on tins fimdly (Monographie des 
Erotyliens, Paris, 1842), is a most sdentifio publication; important 
from its great ridmess in spedes, and also from its systematic divi- 
sions. A series of genera, Ibrmed merdy aosording to their habit, 
is heie defined in a scientific manner, and often, indeed, with quite 
different limits. As this indispensable work must certainly be in all 
hands, 1 may presume that the author's arrangement is known (vide also 
Entom. Zeitung. 1843, p. 132), and rather employ my space in making 

259 



216 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

tome remarks on it. The author haa introdiioed a new characteristic, 
namelj, the greater or leaa conyexity of the fiusettes of the ejes. This 
preaenta, indeed, an excellent distinction, and he has found it constant 
in each genus. Only one striking exception has hitherto occurred to 
me, riz., — ^in the I$ehyrui inngnis the eyes are fine grained, while else- 
where in this genus, and even in the allied J. v€nu$tu$, thej are rough* 
The inner maxillary lobe is armed with two hooks in the Erotylvrup 
proper ; I find the same in Eneau8te$, to which the author ascribes a 
simple tooth on the lobe; and, in fact» this genus, in other respects 
also, joins most closelj to Aulaeocheiku. On the other hand, « hooked 
(but not with daw-like hooks, therefore unarmed) inner nuudllaiy 
lobe is found in the Triplax cenea^ whilst in *r. rustica it has the usual 
protruded quadrangular form. OocycMus, with the terminal joint of 
both pair of palpi equally large, does not appear to me essentiallj dif- 
ferent from I»chyru$, where, in the proportions of each terminal joint, 
many yarieties are to be met with, and O. tarsatui (from Cuba, not 
Columbia) completely agrees in the form of the body with the small 
Ischyrif although 0, violaceu$ differs a little ; the blue colour also is 
present in- Ischyrus, and with regard to the generally yellow terminal 
joints of the antennn in the Oocyanus, upon which the author lays so 
much stress, the same is also endemic in the West Indian ones, and 
present in the most different families and genera, even in the Tene- 
hrianes (for example Blapstinus), and is therefore to be disr^arded 
in this point of yiew. Among the Erotylince proper, there are 
sereral genera only differing in habit (habituellen merkmalen); thus 
Erotylus, ZoncMrins, and Eurycardius, agreeing in all other respects, 
the two latter do not seem to me maintainable as genera. One of the 
most extensire genera and richest in forms, is Brachysphenus, and I 
agree with the author in placing all the forms in one genus; it is 
habit only which separates this genus fiom .MgithiM, and they may 
perhaps yet be united. The Erotylus Bfiquetii, Laooid., also appears 
to me to be a Brachygphenus, This fiimily is most difficult to arrange, 
and we must do justice to the author, to whom the attempts of previous 
writers were rather perplexing than advantageous, by adding, that he 
has succeeded in his task in a very remarkable manner. The number 
of species described is very great, those of Columbia, indeed, surprisingly 
numerous ; the descriptions extremely dear, so that another monograph 
could scarody be found which renders its subject so easy, and even, iu 
the present case, without plates. 

Dejean has made some observations on the above work (Ann. d. 1. 
Soc. Ent. d. Fr. xL p. 285), but they do not touch on any thing of 
importance. I may add here, that Chevrolat (Rev. Zool. 1843, p. 79) 
has published his remarks on several of the Erotyli of Fabricius and 
Olivier. It is quite correct, that E, sphacelatus and ijmifa%ciatu»j F., 

2m 



INSECTA— COLEOPTERA. 217 

belong to Spkeniscus; E, 6-fa»ciatu$, F., to D&ryphora; on the other 
hand, the autiior is in error when he considers Er, (Zoncur,) mcUcus, 
found so named in the Lnnd collection, as the real E. fasciattis, F* ; for 
first, Fabricius does not appeal to that collection, and secondlj, from his 
description of the parts of the mouth, he appears to have had before 
him a Helopia, 

The natural history of the Triplcum nigripermu (rusHca) has been 
described by Leon Dufour (Ann. d. L Soc. Ent. de Fr. zi. p. 191), the 
account of the larva is exact. It is curious, that the author will not 
acknowledge four or five black points in the situation of the eyes, as 
the organs of sight ; he found no labial-palpi (palp. lab. inyisibiles). 
He met with the larva in the Boletus kispidus ; it goes into the earth to 
become a pupa, and the nympha remained attached to the larva case 
when burst open. The beetles are frightened by light. 

The reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. 120) places Etigis in this family; 
it differs firom DcbcnCf Episcapha, and Triplatomay only in the first 
three tarsal joints having no covering of felt beneath. A new genus, 
ThaUis, difiering from EngU chiefly in the membranous lateral portions 
of the tongue being far protruded, is founded upon three new species 
from Van Diemen's Land (ibid. p. 237). Phalacrus hru/rmeus of the 
reporter is from the same place (ibid. p. 239). 

CocciNELLiDiB. — ^ Cocctnella frenata^ ScyvrvniM vmtralis, discolor^ 
stragulatus, Corylophus tfioracicus, fasdatus of the reporter are new 
species from Van Diemen's Land (ibid. p. 239). 

Endomtchidjs. — The reporter has characterized a new genus, Da/ulis 
(ibid. p. 241, t. 5, f. 5), which is most closely allied to Dapta, espe> 
cially agreeing in the form of the antennal club ; but the third antennal 
joint is not elongated, and the last joint of the labial-palpi is strongly 
thickened ; the second tarsal joint is lobed. 2>. dmiccides is from Van 
Diemen's Land. 

Lathbidii. — Redtenbacher (Quaed. Gen. et Spec. Col. Austr. p. 21) 
has described a beetle, under the name of Rhopalocerus ferrugineuB, 
as the type of a new genus, it is already known under the name of 
Monotonia Ronda/ni, Vill., and for which a peculiar genus, SpartyceruBy 
has already been established by Motschoulski, in the Bull. Mosc. 1837. 
On the remark, that this last name, if correctly spelt, has already been 
twice employed, Motschoulski altered it to Apdstus (Bull. Mosc. 1840, 
p. 186), a name which requires some improvement before its reception. 

Redtenbacher gives an excellent description of the beetle, but I cannot 
confirm his account of the tarsi being four-jointed ; I find only three 
joints, as in Monotomay to which this genus is nearly allied, although 
it difiers remarkably in the thick antennsB, and the proportion of the 
joints of the palpi. The small basal joint, which Redtenbacher de- 
scribes, is perhaps the articulating head of the first joint. Motschoulski 

261 



218 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDGCCXLII : 

(Ball. Mo0e. 1887, ▼. t. 7, f. 6) dmwt the three jomts quite eoReetljr, 
aHhongfa eat of proportum, bat his aeooimt, that the third joint ieenis 
oompoied oi two or tfavae, is at all eyents an enror. 

Bedtenbaeher'a M^notama 4^/weolahim {C6L Anat. p. 38) agiees with 
Aube's M. 4^faveolata. The latter (Ann. d. L Soc. Ent. d. Fr. 2, 6er. 1, 
p. 20, 1848) doubts the oonectnefls of Motschoulaki's aoeount, that he 
had ducoyered the same inteet (1884) in Bag^eataEO, as it was quite new 
to him when he saw it with Aube (1836). Motsbkmkki is amiojred 
that I should haye doabted his aooount (JaloMber. fur 1887, p. 208) ; 
I only placed the reqponiibility for it on its anthiCHr. L(Mridm9 
eoHatus of the reporter, is a new ^edes from Van Diemen's Land 
(Arch. 1842, i. p. 202). 

PscLATBiDJi. — The reporter has puUished a species of this ftmily 
from Van Diemen's Land, Batrimu austrulU (ibid. p. 248). Schaum 
has disooyered a Brycune in the salt lake at MansliBld, which he 
described as Br, pukhella (Gen^), (Genu. Zeitsohr. iy. p. 182), and 
afterwairds (ibid, oorrections) he remarked, that it is identical with 
Br. Hdferiy Schmidt (Diss. d. Psebph.) 



ORTHOPTERA. 

CHABFBirriER has published three new numbers of his '* Oirtfa^itera 
Descripta et Depicta." 

Siebold has giyen a list of the OrtlicpUra (in LaJ^ille's sense) which 
are found in Prussia (Preuss. Proy.-Blatt. 27 Bd. p. 548). Forty species 
haye been obseryed by him, yiz., — three For^fictUidos, three BkUke, 
three AchetidcB, eleyen LocttaHdce, twenty Acridecs. The presence of 
the Forjicula giga/ntea on the sea-ooast of the low ground at Danaig, 
from whence it was sent to our oolleotion by Professor Qrube, is de- 
serying of notice. The author giyes a yery graphic account of the 
chirping of the AcridecB and LoousHdee. The scraping of the hind legs 
of the former against the floor has been obseryed not merely in Oon^ho- 
ceruB, where each species has its own peculiar way of doing it, so that 
the indiyidual species are easily recognised by their chirping ; but alao 
in (Edvpoda and Tetrix (the latter, perhi^, moying the under wings). 
In the Locu8tid(By the author shows, that the chirping is accomplished by 
the strong ledge-like rib of the inner margin of one elytron being rubbed 
up and down on the crenated transyerse ledge of the drum of the other 
(under one). 

A yery important treatise has appeared : " Bijdragen tot de Keunis 
der Orthoptera, door Dr. W. De Haan." It is also contained in the 
Yerhandl. oyer de Natuurl. GescMed. der Nederlandsche oyerzeesche 
262 



INSECTA — ORTHOPTERA. 219 

Besittingen, Zool., Noe. 6, 7, 8, 9. In these numbei^, the familiefl Bla4tcB, 
McmUdas, PhaamidcRj AcrideoB, and Looustida, are completed, and that 
of the AehetidcB oommeaioed. The number of species described and 
figured is great, and manj of them axe new; American and African 
species aze ako added, and those of Japan are arranged in order, aeoord- 
ing to their agreemrait with those of the Netherland's India. The 
author has paid great attention to the geographical distribution. With 
regard to sjstem, we msy remark, that he considers the families named 
as genera, and the newer genera only as sub-divisions and groups; 
theiefi>re, when he oouM characterize new ones, he does not name them, 
although thej are fully defined. 

The reporter (Arch. 1842, i p. 244) has described a number of 
species from Van Diemen's Land, and, at the same time, drawn atten- 
tion to the preponderance of apterous species in that fauna. About 
one half of them showed neither traces of elytra nor under wings ; a 
fimrth had elytra but no under wings, and most of these were only 
stumps ; and only one-fourth of the species was completely winged, and 
capable of flying. 

FosncuLiDiB. — The reporter has described two new species of Farjir' 
eula from Van Diemen's Land (ibid. p. 246). The one, F, ruJUeps, 
without under wings ; the other, F, paci/icaf also wanting the elytra. 

Blattidjs. — De Haan (1. c. sup.) has described as new, among the 
BlattcB of the Netherland's India, the following : — Periplcmeta zonata, 
Hagenb., Jlavicmeta and concinnar Hagenb., from Java ; Epilampra 
maooMCMrienns, from Macassar ; Na/uphosta hilwiMita, from Java ; N, 
circumdata, from Sumatra. De Haan, in his division, has paid atten- 
tion principally to the absence and the proportionate length of the 
wings ; the reporter (Arch. 1842, L p. 245) has, on the other hand, shown, 
that like most of the Orthoptera, here also winged and wingless spe- 
cies occur in the same genus, as ServiUe veiy correctly states. Of the 
new species from Van Diemen's Land (ibid. p. 247), Peripla/net0 me- 
kmaria, atrata, and aterrima, are completely destitute of wings and 
elytra, as well as BlcUta trivittataf which approximates the BL deci- 
piene, Qerm. BL mcMrcida has wings. 

Sdls (Transact. Ent. Soc. Lond. iiL p. 103) has described the egg- 
shelk of several BlattcB from Jamaica^ 

Mamtidxs. — ^De Haan has described and figured many new species 
(1. c. 8.) : MamtU vaUda^ Hagenb., from Timor and Amboynii ; hii8aU9 
and Jlava, from Java ; tinuMnentU, from Timor and Amboyna ; herbac^y 
from Japans novoB^uinem, from New Guinea ; trifasdatay from Brazil ; 
hif€uciataf -from Cuba; heteroptera, Servilld, and tortricoidea, from 
Java. OxypUvs (the author divides this as a sub-genus from Mantis^ 
because the species are less than 1'' in length ; in the M<mtu they are 
longer ; there are, however, other characters, especially the number of 

263 



1 



220 REPORT OK ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

■pines on the anterior thighs) : phyllopus and punctata, fiwm Java^; 
iobiceps, fieom Sumatra; Ucinguiata, croMiipes, reticulata, andpla/M- 
cep$, from Jaya and Borneo. Harpax 9wmatra/fia, ftom Padang. A 
new group resembling OxypiluB, but haying lobes on the posterior 
thighs: M, oUgonewra, from Sumatra^ Jara, and the Moluccas; Jf. 
homeensis, from Borneo. BUpharU Kuhlii, Thetpis thoradca, and 
artnata, 

Charpentier (Orth. Desc. No. 5) has figured Vates nuicropteru$ (Jfont; 
tnacr., Stoll., Mant, I6bipc$, Licht., V, mocropt, and arbus, Burm., 
Theoclyt, lobipc^, Serr., EmpuM, lobipe», Qriff.); Ma/ntU cofUTtnna 
{$, M, arataria, De Oeer, M. aurantiaca, Barm., M, 4^4nctcui€Ua, 
Serv. ; $, M, eoncinna, Perty, Sery., M. tricolor, Buim.) ; Mantis an- 
nulipes, Serv., Acanthop§ tinuata (Jfont. tinuata, Kirbj, A, mortui- 
folia, Sery. (?) ; the author oonsiden M, tinuata, StolL (?), M. anffulata, 
Licht., A, eroaa, Sery. (?), A. futcifoliut, Burm., as its $) ; and A, tes- 
idata, a male similar to that of the preceding, the female of which is 
not jet known, found in Brazil. 

Westwood (Arcana Ent. L p. 161, t. 41) has figured a new and yeiy 
distinct species of the genus Toxodcra, Sery., which difiers from Ser- 
yille's species by the points of the ejes being obliquely directed forwards 
(in both without fiusettes), and yerj slightly lobed posterior thighs; 
therefore he giyes it a peculiar sub-generic name, HeUrochasta, The 
particularly large species, 2*. {H,) tenuipe$, comes from SenegaL 

De Haan (1. c. s.) has reduced the genus Deroplaty$, Westw. (Choe- 
radodit, Gu^r.), to two species, as he unites Z>. aaida, Westw., as i, 
with the 2>. lobata ; and the i figured by him, the 2>. rhowAAca, Hagenb. 
(dedccata, Gu^r.), appears to agree with D. cmgugtata, Westw. On 
the other hand, Gu^rin (Deless. Voy. dans I'lnde, ii. p. ^, t. IS) has 
enriched this genus with a distinct new species, Chosradodis truncata, 
from Singapore. 

Spbctba. — The new species of this family, described and fig^ured by 
De Haan, are as follows (1. c. s.) : — Heteropteryx (Gray) Mulleri, from 
Sumatra; Phyllium celebicum, from Celebes; Pritoput (Platytehis) 
Horgtohii, from the Cape of Good Hope ; AtceplMuma (Perlamorpha) 
ForstenU, from Celebes ; Creoxylus Jflavicomis, from Borneo^ afinig 
and viridim4irginatu8, from Jaya ; Xeroderus laceratus, from Sumatra ; 
Necrogcia (Platycrania, Gr.) acanthocephala, tpinicept, and dtocon- 
thoB, from Jaya, fuBcoawaulata, from Borneo, nigroa/nnulata, from 
Jaya, tordida and pulchella, from Sumatra, rubictmda and jularis^ 
from Jaya, nigrofasciata, from Sumatra ; PJuuma conocepluUu^in, from 
Sumatra, is a distinct unnamed f<»m, with wings as long as the abdomen, 
elytra one-fourth of the length of the wings, and a short dilated abdomen ; 
in the $, the yertez is elongated into a cone directed backwards. Tropido- 
deres Bojei, from Macassar; brachypterus, from Sumatra; Maclottii, 

264 



INSECTA— ORTHOPTERA. 221 

from Jaya; galapterum, from Stunatra; Haplopus bicutpidatut and 
bituberculatus ; Cyphocrcmia Reintv<zrdHif from New Gxdnea; Cla- 
doxera Dia/rdi, from Java ; Bacteria nematodes, from Java ; nodosa^ 
horn Sumatra; nipanemie, from Japan; Aeanthoderut japonicuSf from 
Japan ; noli-vne-tangere and phyllopuSy from JaTa ; hifoliatuB, verru- 
cosus, from Sumatra ; Pa^chymorplia coronata, from Jaya and Amboyna ; 
Bacillus Javanus, from Jaya. 

Charpentier (Qrth. Desc.) has figured Cladoxerus phyllinus (S, Phi- 
halosoma LepeUetieri, $, Cladomorpha phyllmus, Sery.), from Brazil ; 
and Phasma vinosum (Necroscia vin,, Sery.), from Borneo. 

AcHETiD^.^— Ratzeburg (Ent. Zeit. p. 267) has drawn attention to a 
sexual distinction in the abdomen of the Mole-cricket (Qryllotalpa vul- 
garis) ; in the male, all the eight abdominal segments are formed pretty 
much alike, while, in the female, the last two are remarkably small, and 
the penultimate appears to be slightly shortened, towards the sides, into 
a semicircular form, in the liying animal. The author farther remarks, 
that the female watches her eggs after haying laid them. 

The reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. 249) has described a Mole-cricket from 
Van Diemen's Land, Qryllotalpa ausPralis, which is distinguished by 
the want of under wings in the male. 

Harris (Ins. of Massachus. p. 122) mentions three species of Acheta^ 
in Massachusetts, liying in the open air: — A. aibbreuiata, identical with 
Seryille's of the same name ; A, nigra, wholly black, with yery short or 
rudimentary wings ; 6''' long ; A. (Nemobius) vittata, S-4f" long, with 
only the stumps of tegmina ; dusky brown, sometimes passing into black ; 
three black stripes on the yertez, one on the sides of the prothoraz, pass- 
ing on to the tegmina, which are generally lighter coloured ; the posterior 
thighs haye three rows of oblique black stripes on the outside. They 
are found in company, in the day time, on the meadows and roads. 

LocusTiDiB. — Numerous species haye been described, and partly 
figured by De Haan (1. c. s.) : — Hetrodes cervina, EL, firom the Cape. 
Ephippigera trilineata from Tripoli ; va^omis, IQ., from Syria ; L, 
bicolor, a peculiar apterous form, frrom Sumatra. L. novce-guineai, also 
a peculiar form. Xiphidion stramineu/m. El., from Egypt ; longipevvne 
from Sumatra ; lepidum and melamiMn, from Jaya. Pkcmeroptera chlo^ 
ris, pocefolia, ajid pa^umpunctata, from Jaya ; triticifolia fixmi, Borneo ; 
adusta, from New Guinea ; celMca, from Celebes ; quinquenervis, from 
Jaya and Japan (falcata is also cited from Japan) ; ccwicifolia, frrom 
Borneo ; pilipes, from Japan ; trichopus, frrom Jaya ; ensis, from Borneo 
and Japan ; loliifoUa, from Jaya ; hordeifolia, fix>m Timor ; S-seriata, 
from Jaya. Phylloptera crassifolia, and nitidifoHa, from Jaya; For^ 
stenii, from Celebes ; retifoUa and ca/rinata, from Jaya. Pseudophyllus 
crenifoUus, from Borneo; novas-hollcmdioB, from Sumatra and Port 
Jackson. Aprion wrcufoUa, from Sumatra ; ampullaeea, from Jaya and 

265 



222 REPORT ON ZOOLOOY, MDCCCXUI : 

Sninatra ; r^tin^hmatginata, firam Borneo ; ktifoUa, fiuee$cm$^ and 
brevifoUa, from Java. QnnihocUta^ Hagenb., a new form foanded on 
L. voratB, Stolb., difen from iifUMtottoma, bj the broad adea of the tani, 
from LiHro§e€lis, by the abort apinea of the anterior tibis and the not- 
elongated maTilbHy-palpi ; it aeema to be more nearly allied to Pro- 
chUui, BmlL 8aga mimUa, from the Gape. A peonliar unnamed 
group, which has narrow tegmina, rounded winga of the length of the 
abdomen, chink-like openings on tibe anterior tibiae ; a laxge head, with 
the vertex prodnoed forwards, the prothorax truncated poaterioiij, pro- 
sternum with two apines, and the ovipoaitor long, narrow, and curved, 
indudes L. megaeephcUat from New Ghiinea, and X. laticepg, from Am> 
bojna. Canocephaku cutpidatutf KL, from Brazil ; acanthoeeruBf of 
which the native country is unknown; fnuero, from Amboyna; pkmu- 
pina, from Java ; orattietps, from Japan. DecHeus Biirgeri, from Japan. 
LoeuBta loboemis, from New Guinea; awnatrcma, from Padang {viri- 
distkna is also found in Japan). Bapkidcphoru$ mormora^iM, cu^omimm, 
from Cuba. QryUaoru phrffganoidei, £mm Java ; fitmigaUi and Ser- 
villd, from Borneo ; podoca^$9Ui, from Java. 

The reporter haa noiioed (Arch. 1842, L p. 249) three new species from 
Van Diemen's Land ; two of them, Agrofcia laieralis, and Xiphidkun 
bilineatumy have stumps of tegmina ; the third, QrgllaerU orndf^ofis, 
is completely apterous. 

* Adam White (Gray's ZooL MisoeU. ii p. 7S) has deacribed a remark- 
able new form from New Zealand, under the name of Deincicrida 
heteracantha. He thinks it must be an An<i9toetama, Gray ; the arm- 
ing of the breast, the two strong spines of the prothorax, and two strong 
teeth of the excavated mesothorax and metathorax agree with that genus, 
the mandibles are much shorter, the labial-palpi thickened at the point, 
the maxillary-palpi very long, the laat joint slightly thickened at the 
point, the antennao twice and a half, and the hinder legs twice as long 
as the body; the posterior tibisB quadrangular, the angles armed with 
very sharp spines placed alternately ; the body brown above, yellow be- 
neath. 

Harris (L c. s. p. 126) mentions, among the species found in Maasa- 
chusetts I'—Baphidophora maculata (Oryllug nMeukUus, Harr. Catal. 
of Ins. of Massachus., whioh is apparently identical with PhebkmgoptU 
lapidicola, Burm^) living am<mg stones and rubbish ; Pla^typkyUum, eon- 
cavwm, Harr., in the EncycL Amer. vol. viii., is, as the author reasonably 
conjectures, Loe, perqdUata, F. ; Platyph/yUiMn perwp,, Serv. ; Oyrto- 
phyUiis penp,, Burm. Harris diatinguishes a species allied to the 
PhoMheropiera oblongifolia (Locusta M., De Geer), as Ph» cmgustifoUay 
by the narrower tegmina and much shorter and stronger curved ovipo- 
sitor of the female. OrckelimtMn agUe, Serv. (Loousta ag., De Geer), 
is not found in Massachusetts; but there are two new species: — 

266 



INSBCTA — OETHOPTERA. 228 

0. vulgare, allied to the species above meationed ; but it difSsrs in 
the tegmina being as long as the under wings, and the mak having two 
blaek sjpoU upon them ; it is very plentifiil in the meadows : O. graeile 
is Uke the preoeding, but amaller (its length to the tip of the wings is 
7-8''0' ^ wings projecting a litiJe ftom beneath the t^gsiisa^ and the 
male haying no bLaek spots upon them. Lastly, a spedes of Ccnoeer- 
phaJhM, which is mentioned in the CalaL of Ins. of Maasachna., under the 
name of ens^er, and appears to the author to be different firaan C, dU- 
timilis, SeiY. ; it is green, with a wMtiah head, and has the mark <^ a U 
under the tooth, whioh is directed downwards to the cone on the fore- 
head, the ovipoflitQir of the female is straight, and above 1^' long, the 
length to the tip of the tegmina 1 j-^''. 

Charp«[Ltier (1. c. s.) has figured both aezes of Phemeroptera ma- 
crapoday Bum. {dalmaHnaj Serv.); Ph. crue»ta, Bum., and a new 
German species, Locusta ca/udata, resembling the L» viridUdmaf but 
smaller, and with a longer ovipositor, and without the brown stripe on 
the head and prothorax, or the brown on the inner baee of the tegmina, 
and having a blai^ spine on the posterior thighs. 

The LocustoB occurring in Denmark have been arranged hy Schiodte 
(Krc^er Naturhist. Tideskr. iv. Xo. 3, p. 316). There are seven 
spedes. 

Siebc^ re«d his observations (m the sparmatozoa of the LocuaHdof, 
at the meeting of Naturalists at Mainz (1842). Thej are of a peculiar 
fixrm, consisting of a long flat body, which gradually passes into a long 
very tender thread, terminated by a Y-shaped appendage. This, as well 
as the body, is stiff; but the threads axe very flexible. In the simple 
receptaculum senunia <ff the flmude LqoubUb, after copulation, the semi- 
nal mass is found to be contained in several bags ; in these are observed 
peculiar filiform bodies, winding round each other witb undulating mo- 
tions. On minute examination, it was discovered, that these filiform 
bodies were composed of the spermatozoa, which attach themselves to 
each other by the V-shaped appendage. (Amtl. Bericht, Sibq, p. 223.) 

AcRiDiTBs. — Charpentier (1. c. s.) has enriched this funily with one 
new genus Sphenaaifium (Fasc. vi t. 31), most nearly allied to Pyrgo- 
morphay by its oblique fiiee, with the top of the forehead projecting for- 
wards, fourteen-jointed antennss and large daws on the hinder tarsi, but 
apterous, with small narrow stumps of tegmina, and a short thickened 
body, fusiform in the middle ; 8ph, purpuraaeena is from Mexico (a whole 
aeries of nearly allied spedes of this excellently conceived genus, and all 
from the same country, are preserved in the Berlin collection). Charpen- 
tier has also figured Tropinotus diacoideus, Serv. (t. 32), and Acridium 
toMraatfwm, Serv. (t. 22)^ both from Brazil ; Eremdbia nvuricata, QryU, 
murieatuSf Pall. (t. 23), from the south of Russia ; and E, limbata (t. 24), 
a new spedes from Turkey. 

267 



224 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

Weitwood (Arcana Entom. i. p. 66, 1 17) lias figured a gigantic new 
■peciet of Opsomala, O. gigantea, fiom Sierra Leone [O. gladiator 9 
Wettwood bas published no insect xaAet the name of O. gigantea^ and 
O. glad, is on the same plate with Bactrophara], with a new genns, Bac- 
trophora^ which has a short obtuse tooth on the prostemnm, a large head 
with a strong staff-like process on the forehead, twenty-fonr-joihted an> 
tennn a little compressed and articulated to the base of the process of 
the forehead, between and near the large projecting ejes, short fore-legs ; 
jB. cTomtnons, 3^" long : native conntry nnlmown. 

Westwood (ibid. p. 99, t. 26) has given a monograph on the genus 
Ifostcur, Perty, which approaches Proscopia hj its ascending head, and 
the fewer (perhaps onlj thirteen) jointed antennse. To the Soutii American 
species, made known by Perty and Serrille, he adds three East Indian : 
— M. apicalUy from Sumatra ; Jf . vitrea^ from Java ; Jf* guttata, ttam 
Sumatra and the Philippine Islands. 

Among the numerous AcridujB described by De Haan (L c s.) are 
the following new species : — Truaalis psittacina, from Java. OpsafncUa 
bicolor, from Java and Japan ; tceniata, from Java. PyrgMMnrpha chlo' 
ri>pus, and hannatoptera, from Java ; nowB^uineas, from New Guinea 
and Borneo ; hrachyptera, from New Quinea. Trigoncpterya punctata, 
from the Cape of Good Hope. Acridium consa/nguineum, from Macas- 
sar ; Hagmbachii, from Java. Oxya obtusa, from Java ; injuicata, from 
the Sunda Islands; dimidiata, from Amboyna; ojfims, from Sumatra; 
microptera, from Java ; wndstrigata, from New Guinea* Acridium fna- 
cula-luteat fvom Sumatra, forms a pecular type between Oxya and CEdi- 
poda, with a homed prostemuuL (Eddpoda mbfatciata, from the Island 
of Samu, near Timor ; caliginosa, from the Gape of Good Hope ; vul- 
nerata, from Java ; ^-maculata, fit>m the Cape. Mastax agrionotdes^ 
from Borneo and Sumatra ; cycloptera, from Java ; crenata, from Borneo. 
Hymenotes a/rcuatus, from New Guinea. Tetrix corwita, phyllocera, 
and Jiexodon, from Java; cepkalica, from Sumatra; grctcUis and dUc^- 
tata, from Java ; gibibotay from Japan ; hrevis and ema/rginataf from New 
Gfuinea* 

Of the reporter's five species from Van Diemen*s Land (Arch. 1842, i* 
p. 250), Truxalis viatica and Mesops pedestris are completely apterous ; 
Acridium ambuloM9 has stumps of tegmina but no wings ; CalUpta^muB 
hajuhiB and Tetrix argillacea, have the wings perfect but rather short* 

Harris (Ins. of Massachus. p. 132-155) has added many new species 
of this fiimily : — Acridium alutacewm is dark yellowish-brown, with a 
pale yellow dorsal line upon head and prothoraz ; a slightly elevated 
keel ; tegmina semitransparent and with irregular brown patches ; wings 
transparent and colourless, but with a network of dark yellow ; the 
abdomen has transverse rows of small blackish patches ; the posterior 
tibisB reddish, with yellowish white spines having black points ; If long. 

268 



INSECTA— ORTHOPTERA. 226 

Acrid, flavQvittatum ; oliye-brown, with a yellow stripe on Mch side 
from the forehead to the points of the tegmina ; the posterior tibiao 
and tarsi blood-red with black pointed spines ; it appears to be identical 
with CdloptenuB femoratuSf Burm., and is very hurtful to gardens. 
LodMta ((Edipoda) coraUina, is perhaps identical with (E, phoBnicop- 
tera, Burm. L, mcmtima ; ash-grey, the face spotted with white ; l^e 
tegmina minutely spotted with brown, semitransparent at the point ; 
wings pale yellow at the base, with a band of blackish spots in the 
middle ; posterior tibiae pale. With black tipped spines ; j-li" long : 
very abundant, but only near the coast. L. oequaUs; wings bright 
yellow as far as the middle, then haying a broad black band ; posterior 
tibias coral-red, with a white ring under the knee ; 1^'' long. L, lati- 
pennis ; wings broad, their lower half bright yeUow, then dark, with a 
regularly spotted band in the middle ; posterior tibiae bright yellow, 
with a black ring under the knee, and a broad black tip. L, ma/muh- 
rata ; grey, marbled with yellow and black ; the lower half of the wings 
yellow, the middle haying a broad black band, and the point two black 
patches ; posterior tibiae coral-red, haying a black, then a white, and 
sometimes again a black ring under the knee, and a black point ; *J-^*' 
long. X. eucerata, allied to (E, fene%traU$^ Sery., but the wings are 
yellow, not red at the base. L, nebulosa ; wings transparent, with dark 
tips and a dark brown stripe on the anterior margin ; posterior tibiae 
brown, with a broad white ring under the knee ; 8-12'" long ; yery 
common. Harris distinguishes a sub-genus, Tragocephalaf by the 
antennae, which are shorter than the prothoraz, and slightiy thickened 
towards the point, the more oblique face and the month placed nearer 
the breast. It includes Acr. viridi-fasciatum, De Oeet (Cfryll, virgi 
fWJmuSf F., ch/nfsomelaSf Gm., Acr. ma^ginattmi, 01., hemipteritm, Pall., 
Beany.) ; and two new species : Tr. %nfu9Cata ; dusky brown ; prothoraz 
finely keeled ; tegmina slightiy spotted with brown ; wings transparent, 
pale greenish-yellow at the base, with a large dusky doud towards the 
middle of the posterior margin, and a black stripe on the anterior; pos- 
terior tibiae brown with a broad whitish ring under the knee ; length f ; 
on the pasture lands of Massachusetts from May to the end of July. 
Tr, radiata; nut-brown; prothoraz keeled aboye; tegmina wholly 
brown but transparent at the tips; wings transparent, netted with 
brown and with black longitudinal yeins slightly green at the base, a 
large dark doud in the middle of the posterior margin, and a brown 
stripe on the anterior ; posterior tibiae reddish-brown, somewhat paler 
under the knees ; length aboye 1'' ; rare in Massachusetts and North 
Carolina. A second sub-genus, Chloe'alHs, with a still more oblique 
face, longer antennae, a depression in front of each eye for the reception 
of the first antennal joint, prothoraz without a keel, almost truncate 
posteriorly, and yery short wings and tegmina ; might be arranged under 

269 



226 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

€fompho€erus. It nuntaint thne new apedeB : L, CM. eongperuk ; 
reddiah-bRNni spotted with blaik, * black stripe upon the head behind 
eaeh eye, and eoatmiiad mkng eaeh side of the prothoraz ; tegmina 
nth6r oblongHyTBl, bright yellowiah-biown, with small da^k brown 
ptttdiea; wings H[" long; posterior tibkB pale zed; almost V long. 
X. CK abordva; brown; tegmina spotted, with black covering tw»- 
thiids of the abdomen; posterior tibi» ooral-ied, whitiak nsder the 
knee. Both foond an the pasture lands in^ Jolj, and distingiiished onlj 
by the ooloor. L. CK ctirt^pMints, nearl/ allied to the O. pa/raUelu^ 
Zett ; tiffliina in the male as long as the body ; wings somewhat shorter. 
Among seven spedes of the genns Tetrix^ five are new, namely: — 
T, donalii, ^-nMeulatOf bUineata, wordida^ and, with T. ortiaAaj Say, 
belong to the diviBum with firarteen-joiDted antenna, the point of the 
head projeeting before the eyes, and the prothoraz elongated over the 
end of the abdomen ; but as these species only ditiRar in oolour, it is 
possible that they may, some of them, be only varieties of each other; 
the two other spedes bekmg to the division with twenty-two-jointed 
antennsD : T. kUerolis, Say, with longer prothoraz, and T. |HSrtf^f>«i»nis, 
a new species, dijSering from the preceding by the prothoraz not being 
prolonged over the end of the body, and its much shorter wings. 

Tbbmitixa. — Qnerin has remarked, conoendiig the sezes of the 
TemUteM (Rev. 2ML p. 27S), that the malas are as yet wholly on- 
known ; for although Bumeister has characterized ih» female as entirely 
^^teroos, and all the winged individuals as males, yet he has convinced 
himself, by the anatomical ezandnatien of a great number of them, that 
every winged termite is not a male, but may be a young female. Those 
which are called workers Gnerin holds to be female larv», those eaDed 
soldiBrs he thinks must be male lame. He is certainly ri^^ when he 
considers the apterous temites as females, fi>r the greater number 
bek>ng|i to tlat sez ; but there are some among the winged individuals, 
which, by attention, can be distinguished from the common ones, and 
which are, to all appearance, males. Observation alone can show what 
becomes of the soldiers ; all assumptions on this point appear to me to 
be mere oongecture. 

Pbblariji. — The comprehensive and complete monograph on this 
fiumly by Pictet, '* Histoire Natnrdle g^n^rale et particoli^re des 
Insectes N^uroptdies, FamiUe.des PerHdes. Qendve et Paris, 1841, 
8vo., pL 53," is now completed. The near relation of these insects to the 
Orthoptera has not escaped the author, and he has veiy nearly (without 
knowing my opinion), of his own accord, determined to unite them to that 
order (p. 99). The earlier states have been ezamined with particolar 
care ; the anatomieal relations have also been regarded, without, how- 
ever, studying them in a very minute manner. Their great similarity 
in this respect to the locusts, is striking ; but there are considerable 

270 



INSECT A — ORTHOPTERA . 227 

▼ariatioD0; Perla hiphmctata has, in the mtestiiuil cooal, a ring of 
eight blind sacs at the end of the stomach, a csBcum, and nnmerons gall 
Tessels ; in other species the number of the latter is less ; in Chhrcperla 
the blind sacs are small, and reduced to six in number, the osBcnm is 
wanting, and the gall vessels axe onlj twenty, and much shortened; in 
Nemawra the blind sacs are wanting, and the gall vessels are still fewer. 
Similar variations occur in the form of the under lip, as the parts pointed 
out by me as lobes, appear to vary in their extent of development. 

Pictet has had the advantage of a very great su^ly of species, 
so tiiat this formerly small fiunily has now arrived at considerable size. 
Twenty-eight of the species described are still unknown to him; the 
number of those examined by him amount to 100, of which nearly two- 
thirds are new. Of these 100 species, twenly-seven are spread over a 
great portion of Europe; nine. are peculiar to Switzerland, six to the 
north, and nine to the south of that country. There are two Egyptian 
species ; eight from Asia, viz., — one Siberian, one from the continent 
of India, two firom the Sunda Islands, four from Japan. There are two 
species from New Holland. America has, in all, thirly-seven, viz., — seven- 
teen from the United States, five from Mexico and Columbia, three from 
Chili, ten from Brazil, and two inhabit a great part of that continent. 

Pictet recognises six genera, whioih are partly divided into sub-genera. 

I. Kollcma, new genus, with setaceous very long maxiUary-palpi, a 
very huge projecting external maxillary lobe, small mandibles, and 
large netted and veined wings. One spedes of considerable size, of 
which the native country is unknown. 

n. PUranarcys, Newm., netted and veined wings, short setaceous 
maxiUary palpi, of which the second, third, and fourth joints, are dilated 
externally. Pt. protcBug, N., and Perla retioulata, Burm., and Pt. 
thalia, regalis, and bildba, Newm. 

IIL Eu&thema, Westw., strong netted and veined wings, moderately 
long simple setaceous maxillary-palpL E. tpectabilU, Westw., from 
the Swan River. 

IV. Perlay Geof&., simply veined wings, setaceous palpL Contains the 
following sub-genera : — 1. Dictyopteryx ; the terminal part of the sub- 
marginal space crossed by transverse nerves; the longitudinal nerves 
there are often irregular, the wings rounded, the head small : P. mioroce- 
phcUa, Pict. ; and ^Ye new species. — 2, NepheUon ; the terminal part of 
the sub-marginal space witiiout transverse nerves ; but the branch of the 
sub-marginal nerve ramifies considerably, and is irregular : Isogem/us 
nubecula and frontalU, Newm., and two new species. — 3. Acroneuria ; 
wings elongated with the terminal part of the sub-marginal space crossed 
by transverse nerves ; and the longitudinal nerves are irregular ; head 
broad ; mandibles with one tooth : one new species, P. <Mreno9a, from 
North America, which perhaps may be united to P. obnormis, Newm. -* 

271 



228 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLIl : 

4. Perla ; the termiiial part of the sub-maigixial space has no transyene 
nerves, and the branch of tiie under rib without ramificationsy or with 
one or two reg^nlar bifurcations ; the maiginal cell, at .the point, has at 
least two transyerse neryes : P. hipu/nctata,marginata, and in all forty- 
two species, which are divided into seven groups, chiefly according to 
colour. — 5. Chloroperla, Newm. ; differs from Perla in the maiginal cell 
at the end being without transverse nerves, or only having a single one : 
P. virescens, Pict. ; rufes€en$, venosa, Steph. ; and three new European 
and three exotic species. — 6. Isopteryx ; small species ; almost wanting 
the anal space of the posterior wings : P,Jlava, Fourcr. ; apieaUs, Newm. ; 
and in all seven species. 

y. Ca/pnia. — Filiform palpi, long anal set® ; with two sub-genera : — 
1. Capaia ; without transverse neryes at the end of the wings : P. niffra, 
Pict. ; Sembl. pygmoBa, Burm. ; and one new species. — 2. Oripopteryx ; 
with numerous transverse nerves at the end of the wings : Semhl, gra- 
eUuy Burm., and one new species, from Brazil. 

VI. Nemf^wra, — Filiform palpi, small or rudimentary anal setse; 
with three sub-genera : — 1. TcBnopteryx ; antennal joints of equal size, 
rudimentary 3-jointed anal setae : N. nebulosa {Phryg, neb,, Lin.), tri- 
fasciata, Pict. ; in all six species. — 2. Leuctra, Steph. ; second tarsal 
joint very short ; scarcely any anal setae ; wings narrow, rolled together, 
so as to be semi-tubular: N* cylindrica, De Qeer, &c.'; in all, seven 
species. — 3. Nemoura ; wings usually lying flat, the nerves of the para- 
stigma forming an ;^, which is not the case in Leuctray with which this 
sub-genus agrees in its other characters : N. variegata, cinerea, 01. ; in 
all, eight species. AH those species are figured which are known to the 
author from personal observation. 

LepiemencB, — Gervais (Ann. d. 1. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. xi. p. 47) has 
published a new genus under the name of Nicoletia, having an oblong 
somewhat compressed scaleless body; thorax scarcely so broad as the 
abdomen, the three segments pretty equal ; three moderately long setae 
at the extremity of the abdomen ; the branchial legs on the abdomen very 
distinct. N. geophila and phytophUa ; the one found in hot houses, the 
other in the woods around Paris. 



NEUROPTERA. 

LoBW has published some excellent obseryations on the anatomical 
relations of the Neuroptera, as at present limited. (Qermar's Zeitschr. 
iv. p. 423.) 

The insects formerly referred to Neuroptera, with incomplete meta- 
morphofiiB, which I have united to the Orthdpteraf also agree, in their 

272 



INSECTA— ORTHOPTERA. 229 

internal structure, in a striidng maimer, with the Orthoptera proper. 
The other Newroptera are essentially different, particularlj in the num- 
ber of the gall vessels, of which eight at most are found, and in the sepa- 
ration of the two last plexus of nerves, which in the Orthoptera are 
joined together. In the internal structure, as weU as in other respects^ 
the three primarj divisions of the NetMroptera differ considerably from 
each other. The Pcmorpates are distinguished bj the thin bag-like 
appendages of the genital organs, which, in the Hemerdbii, are small and 
like pustules ; both agree in the simple receptaculum seminis, also in the 
form of the ovaries, which contain pectinated egg-tubes, in the compres- 
sed form of the ^sticles, the proportionablj great length of the vasa 
deferentia, and the extraordinary shortness of the ductus ejaculatorius ; 
in this last point the Phrygwneas also agree, though widely different in 
other respects. The author explains the appendages which open into the 
ductus seminis as seminal bladders ; the contents of these generally long 
and bag-shaped vessels confirm this opinion, as they correspond to the 
appendages, generally in pairs, which open into the ductus ejaculatorius. 

Hemerobii. — Lefebvre (Gu^r. Mag. d. Zool. Ins. pi. 92) has described 
and figured a new and distinct species of Aicalobphus, A, Napoleo, from 
Swan River, in New Holland, and at the same time given an arrange* 
ment of the genus. He proposes to arrange it as a group, under the 
name of AacalapMdes, which will include two sub-divisions, — Olophr- 
thalmi and Schizophthalmi. This distribution into genera is as fol- 
lows: — 

I. Olcphthahni, — The anal-nippers in the male sometimes visible, some- 
times invisible : in the former case the wings either have an appendage, 
as in Ptynx (costatuSy Burm.), or have not, as in Azesia (Napoleo^ v. s.) 
In the latter case the wings are not appendaged as in Amosa {mb^ostor- 
tu8f Burm.) 

n. Schizophthalmi, — The anal-nippers in the male are sometimes 
visible, sometimes invisible. In the former case they are partly project- 
ing, either with lateral lobes at the anus, in the female, as in Deleprocto- 
phylla (ausPralis, Lefeb.), or without them, and the anal nippers in the 
male strong, as in Procta/rrelabis {ha/matug. El., capensis, F., OMnuli^ 
eomis, Burm. ; in the first the anal nippers are forked, in the others 
simple ; a new species differs from this latter, by the wings being repand 
at the inner margin), slight and simple as in Ascalaphus, with the hinder 
wings dilated at the inner margin (A. italicus, F., longicomis, ictericuSf 
Charp, &c.), and as in Hybris, with undilated hinder wings (Ja^awus, 
Burm.) The anal-nippers are situated partly at the end of the abdomen, 
as in Acheron (one new species), with the wings projecting over the ab- 
domen, and antennas dentated at the base, on the inside. In the other 
case (anal nippers of the male not visible), the wings are either appen- 
dicled, as in Orphni (appendiculatus, ¥.), or not, as in Suhpalaaa 

273 S 



230 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

(where the wings and antennas ihow manj TariationA, the wings aie : 
a. Constricted at the base, as in macroc€ru$^ Bonn., with the antennae 
longer than the wings, and * new species in which they are scarcelj so 
long as the wings : 5. Simple, as in M<icLeaycmuB Benex, Buim., 4rp%inc^ 
tatus, Bonn., fiavipt$. Leach and others : e. The hind wings dilated and 
more or less repand at the inner margin, as in venicohr, with the an- 
teonaB longer ; and mtrinameniU, F., and others, with the antennas of the 
same length, or shorter than the wings.) Finally, the genus Puer (niger^ 
Borkh.), differing by a very wide net-work on the wings. 

HoweTer much the profonndness of this dirision may be admowledged, 
yet I cannot withhold my objection, that a part, which like the nude 
anal-nipper, is differently formed in almost eyery species, should be used 
primarily for founding genera, the yeiy nomenclature of which is also, 
for the most part, objectionable. 

A new M{inti$pa, a^pUalxB, from Rhodes, has been described by Loew 
(Germ. Zeitschr. iv. p. 433). A new genus, PtychoptiB, Newman (En- 
tomol. p. 415), has the following diagnosis : — ^* Generi Chrysopa affinis, 
at alarum nervuris aliter diapositis." The species, Pa. mtmica, from 
Adelaide, in South Australia, is certainly very distinctly represented on 
the title-page, yet not so that the generic characters can be made out 
from it. 

Lastly, I may mention here an insect, described by Westwood as 
inhabiting the Spongilla JlwviatilU (Trans. Ent. Soo. iii. p. 105, t. 8). 
It may be best compared with the larra of Hemercbius ; the antennas 
are long and setaceous, four brisUes project from the mouth as fiir as 
the antennas, approximating in pairs, one strcmger and one finer, they 
represent mandibles and maxillas ; the palpi, upper lip, and tongue are 
wanting. The first seren segments of the abdomen haye, on the 
under side, each a pair of jointed flat appendages, which are eridently 
branchias, as two vessels are easily observed in each of them. He is 
in doubt to which order this insect may belong ; he is most inclined 
to suppose it a neuiopterous larva; however, there is a possibility that 
it may be the larva of Acentropus. From its very near alliance to the 
larva of HemerMus, I have no doubt that it belongs to an insect of this 
family ; the chief distinctions of the species are, indeed, conditional on 
their abode in the water. Similar organs of respiration are also finmd 
in Sialis^ but this larva stands much nearer SemerMwi, and so I may 
ooigecture, that it is that of Simfra, Burm. Westwood, on the sup> 
position that it is a perfect insect, has given it the name of Branehw- 
toma gpongilUe. (See a paper by Qrube, in the Arch. Naturgesch. 
1843, i. p. 331, t. 10.) 



274 



iNSECTA — ^HYMENOPTEHA. 231 



HYMENOPTERA. 

SiEBOLD hu publiahed Ids lesearohes on the Beoeptaciiliim Seminie of 
the female Hymenoptera, (Qenn. Zeitchr. iy. p. 262, t 2,) 

There are two principal types shown in the formation of thi^part, 
which agree with Uie two ehief diyisions of the Hymenaptera, aeoording 
to the form of the laryie. In the/rse type, the reoeptaoolnm senunis is 
diBtingniflhed by a duotits seminalis, a capsula seminalis, and a glandula 
appendicularis. There were examined, — 1. FormiddaSf where the parts 
in question are disproportiona^y large ; 2. Apida, where they are found 
in the working bees in a yery undeyeloped condition ; 3. Andremdas; 
4. Ve9pid<B, where, in the workers, these parts are found more distinciLy 
formed than in the working bees — eyen in the PolittcB the workers are 
only distingQished ftom the egg-laying females, by the empty oyary 
and reoeptacnlum seminis; 5. Scoliadce; 6. MuHUidce; 7* CrabrO' 
nidcB; 8. Bembecida; 9. ChryHdcB; 10. Cynipid€B, where, through 
the presence of these parts alone, Hartig*s assumption of the existence 
of androgynity will be disproyed; 11. PUromalini; 12. Chelonidaf; 
13* EvumadoB; 14. Braconidce; 15. IchMumonidai, where the seminal 
capsule is always yery small. In the second type, the reeeptaculum semi- 
nis forms a simple swelling of the yagina, in which can be distLoguished 
neither ductus seminalis, nor a separate capsula seminalis, nor glandula 
appendicnlaris : to this belong the TentJiredinidoe, of which a consider*- 
able number of different genera haye been examined. The Uroceridait 
Dfyina^, and CodrincBy have not yet been examined by the author in 
relation to the parts in question. 

A periodical, " Memoria per seryire alia storia natqrale di alconi 
imenotteri del Cay. Ouis. Qen^, Plt>f. di ZooL n« r. u. di Torino, soc. att 
d. Soc Ital. d. Sdenz. res. in Modena : Modena, 1842/' contains some 
excellent obseryations on the habits of indiyidual Hymmoptera, 

Dispositio Methodica Spec. Scand. ad Fam. Hymenopt. nat. ab A. G. 
Dahlbom, Lund, 1842, is the precursor of a systematic work, of which at 
present the first number only has appeared, extending to the Linnnan 
genus 8phex, The families and genera are illustrated on synoptical tables, 
according to their characteristics, and a yiew giyen of the Swedish species. 

The reporter has spoken of the Hymenopterous Insects of New Hol- 
land (Arch. 1842, i. p. 252), and described a number of species from 
Van Diemen's Land. 

TENTHBEDiNiDiB and SiBicEs. — Saxesou has published a list of the 
TentlvredinidKB and Sirices hitherto found on the Harz (Vier Venseich- 
nisse als BeitrSge zur Kenntniss der Fauna und Fbra des Harzes, 
gedr. f. die Mitglieder des wissenach. Vereins des Harzes, 1842). It is 

275 



232 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

aooompanied by many yalnable remarks on their appearance. Lennis 
has made known a list of the TenthredinidcBf foimd in Hildesheim and 

« 

the adjoining Harz (Ent. Zeit. p. 42). 

P. Huber* (M^m. d. L Soc. d. Phys. et d'Hist. Nat. de Gen^ye, ix. 
pt. 2) has described the natural history of the larya of a Lyda, which is 
found rarely upon hazel bushes, and forms a house for itself by rolling 
up strips of the leaves. It has not arrived at its change, therefore the 
species remains undetermined. (This treatise has also been noticed in 
the Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. p. 241, and Ann. des Sc. Nat. 1843.) West- 
wood (Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. p. 376) remarks, that this larva may belong to 
the Lyda manita, of which he has given a short account in his *^ In- 
troduction" (v. 2, p. 107, f. 71, 11). This determination appears to me 
still doubtftd, as Westwood observed the larva upon roses ; and I hold it 
probable, that a similar habit may be common to the leaf-eating larvas 
of several Lydoi. 

Harris has made some interesting remarks on the natural history of 
several North American TenthredAnidcB and Sirices, in the ** Ins. of 
Massachusetts.*' Cimbex uhnif Peck (male Amenccma, Leach), lives 
on the common and American elm. A Lophyrus, L, abietis, Harris, 
lives on pines. It is very like, or identical, especially the caterpillar, 
with Z. rufus, El. Sekmdria vitis lives on the vine ; the slimy cater- 
pillar of the 8, roBOB, on the rose ; 8. cerasi (Tenthr, c, Lin., T. cetkiops, 
F.) also exists in North America upon fruit trees, especially the pear. 
Tremex columba lives in pear trees, and elms, &c. The larva is attack- 
ed by Pimpla atrata. Urocerus albic(Mmis, F., is foimd in pine wood ; 
also the new species, U. nitidua, different from U. ju/vencus, by its 
brighter colour and shorter antennas ; and U, cibdominalU, probably the 
male of the preceding, in the white pine. There are two new species of 
Xiphydriay X. albicomis and mellipes; and of Orysmis, besides the 
0. terminalis, Newm«, and 8ayi, Westw., there is a third, O. qfinis, 
Harris, which possibly may be only the male of the latter. 

IcHNEUMONiDJS. — Drcwscn has proved, by observing their pairing, 
that Icfvneumon culpatory Schr., is the true female to /. 9putator, also 
that Pimpla flavipea is the true male to P. stercorator, while Graven- 
horst has described as such the male of P. grammellce (Kroyer Natur- 
hist. Tidsskr. iv. p. 103). The reporter (Arch. 1842, 1 Bd. p. 255) has 
described several species from Van Diemen's Land : Icfmewmon peti- 

* By way of appendix, I may mention here another treatise by the same 
author (ibid.), ia which he has g^ven some pretty observations on the Cocci- 
nella globosa, 111., but which contains nothing essentially new^ as it is ah-eady 
known from other sources, that the species named^ as well as some other Coc 
ctnellcB, are plant eaters. The generic name of Subcoccinella is already the 
third proposed for the above species, which, contrary to all rule, has been 
enrolled among Saponarice (S. vor Bericht^ p. 258). 

276 



INSECTA — HYMENOPTERA. 233 

torivSy licitatoriuSf promisgorius, Cryptug (Phygadeuon) va/riegatoTy 
Ophion fuscicomU, The first species only has any peculiarity, and as 
at present several allied species are before me, wiU give occasion for the 
formation of a separate genus belonging to New Holland. The rest 
have altogether a European stamp. 

Braconidjs. — Schiodte (Kroyer Naturhist. Tidsskr. iv. p. 315) has 
remarked, that Lepton attenuator^ Zetterstedt, Ins. Lappon., is the 
insect described by him (1837) as Copimira rvmator, Zetterstedt did 
not know the. female, his description appears to apply at a Ccelinius, 
(See my Report for 1838, p. 296.) 

Helcon indAiltor of the reporter is a new species &om Van Diemen'p 
Land (Arch. 184:2, i. p. 258). 

EvANiDiB. — Spinola (Rey. Zool. p. 188) has described three new spe- 
cies of Eva/rda : facialis firom Mexico, chUevms from ChiU, crassicor- 
nis from Columbia. 

The reporter has described a new species of Megalyra : rufipes, from 
Van Diemen's Land (Arch. 1842, i. p. 258). 

CYNipiDiE. — Hartig (Germ. Zeitschr. iy. p. 395) has published his 
farther inyestigations into the natural history of the Cynips, Although 
he withdraws his former assertions (see the preceding annual report) 
concerning the internal structure of the male Cynips, still he draws atten- 
tion to this family in a physiological respect, by showing that the males 
of some species are unknown ; such are, especially, Cynips divisa and 
C ^ercuS'foUiy* which he obtained in great numbers, partly from galls 
and partly caught in the open air; he also remarks, that in the breed- 
ing of Cynips from gaUs, the absence of the male cannot be accidental; 
that moreoyer, whole genera («. g. Cynips with tweniy-eight species) are 
without males, while in the rest {e. g. AuUix and Synergus) both sexes 
of all the species are found ; and thinks, that from the comparison of the 
internal structure of the one, and both-sezed Cynipidas, something more 
certain will be discoyered. Siebold is at present busy with these inyes- 
tigations, so that we may shortly expect a solution from that quarter ; 
howeyer, it appears to me, that he should not neglect these so called 
Inquilini. Hartig has certainly expressed, in his first treatise (Germ. 
Zeitschr. ii. p. 178), that they not only liye parasitically in and on 
gtrange galls, but also on their proper inhabitants ; he has not howeyer 
added, that this is nothing more than conjecture. The constant presence 
of two forms of Cynips, in all galls, is striking, and might easily lead to 
the supposition, first made by Hatzeburg (Mediz. Zool. pt. ii. t. 21), that 
a compound sexual relation here occurs, as is also the case in other orders 

* The author mentions, that Professor Batzeburg had told him, that he was 
in possession of a male of this species. Upon farther examination, the Pro- 
fessor has informed me, that he is now conyinoed of the contrary. 

277 



234 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

of inieeta. We know, for example, that BnipUio Memnon has three dif- 
ferent forma of the female, in colour and form of the wings. And if 
Hartig separatee the InquUini, as genera, from the prodnoers of the 
galls, the likp has happened with the two forms of the female of Dytiacus. 
The most important fact against such an assunption, seems to be his 
statement, that different kinds of Ct^ips have the same InquiUni. I 
mention the above only, that the obserrer may bear in mind facts whidi 
will probably open another point of view to him. In my opinion, there 
can be no question concerning a relation in flieir breeding, as both forms 
appear together in the same gaUs, and therefore they spriiig from, con- 
temporary broods. 

Hartig, at the same time, makes an addition to the spedes, enriching 
Cynipt with fourteen, Andricus with one, Tertu with one, Aukuc with 
two, Synerffus with six, Co^umcupU with three, Figkes with one, Pdlo- 
gcLSter ¥rith two new species. Two genera are also characterized : Syno^ 
phrut, nearly allied to Dicutrophugy but distinguished by the great length 
of the first abdominal segment^ which coyers the rest both on the upper 
and under side : S, poUtug, collected by Eollar from the gall of QuercuB 
cerrU, XydUupu^ a form c(£Figite$f with a pedioeUed abdomen, doubtleas 
agreeing with Oallaspidia, Dalhb. (t. inf.) : X. kevigatus and rugews, 
both fixMn Styria. The generic name, 8cytode$^ ulretAj used elsewhere, 
the author has changed for Amblynatus, 

Dalhbom has published a little work, which, as the title shows, is a 
monograph of the two genera named, " Onychia och CaUaspidia tvenne 
for Scandinayiens Fauna nya Insekt-Slilgten, horande till GraUaple- 
Stecklames naturliga grupp, Monografisk bearbetning 2 Planch, och. 
2 Synopt. Tabell., Lund 1842.'' Onychia, Haliday, contains three spe- 
cies : O. bicolor {Figit. hie. Fonsool.) ; 0. ediogaater {Evcm, ediog^ Eob6», 
Cyn. ediog,, Pans.) ; and 0. custUeata (.F%. actU., Brebiss.) — CalUupidia, 
Dalhbom (with which the more recently recorded genus Xy<U4Mpi$, 
Hartig, agrees, vid. sup.), is related to Figites, as AmichariB, Dalm., is 
to CynipB — it has, namely, a long pediculated abdomen, and contains two 
species : C. De FcnBcohmbei, Dalhb. (Figitea notata, Fonsc.) ; and G. 
Weattffoodi, Dalhb., a new spedes discovered by the author in GotUand. 
The three tables appended give a list of the Cynipida^ natives of Scan- 
dinavia, the distinctions of whidi are partly illustrated by plates. 

Harris (Ins. of Massadius. p. 395«40O) has made some observations cm 
the North American Cynipidce. They are mostly found on oaks, the 
largest are on the leaves of the red oak, and belong to the CyiMpa can- 
Jhientus, (!) Harr. From Oynips oneratnSf Hair., originate galls on the 
small branches of the white oak, which resemble Sodom i^iples. Cynips 
nuhilipennis raises galls on oak leaves of the sise and colour of cur- 
rants. Cynipi temvnator, Harr., one of the smallest spedes, lays its 
eggs round the small brandies of the white oak, and the individual 

278 



INSECTA — ^HYMENOPTERA. 235 

lary» rest in seed-like cells, surrounded by one common gall. Upon 
foses axe found Cynips hicoior, in single galls, about the sixe of peas; 
C dichroceniB, in woody galls on the stem; C, setnipicetu, in warted 
woody gaUs on the root. 

Chalcidibjb. — Walker has oonlinued his description of the Chalci- 
didis oollected by Darwin (Ann. Nat. Hist. z. p. 113). From Valpa- 
raiso there are one Tcrymug, two Callimone, one Asa/phu, one Xom- 
protottts, one Zyr«us-»a new genus, the characters of which are not 
giyen — one PterotMUug, two Entedon^ one Euhphui, two Teir(Mtiehtu 
— a genus formed by Haliday from the Cirrospilui lycidcLs. From Yal- 
divia (p. 271) are one PachylarthruSf one IHcyclvs, three Lamprotatus^ 
one PteromaluSy one CkMerocerus, one Platygaster, one I$u>stemma, one 
Romilms; this last genus is new, but here also the characters are 
omitted. The same author (Entomologist, p. 334) has continued his de- 
eeriptions of new ChaleididcB : Isosoma ege9ta, Selimnui diorei, Pte- 
roTMUfM Bryee, PLfilgimaSj sxA BtUedon daurisei, are £rom Geneva ; 
Smura iamyruif from Mexico; 3m, pyUu, of unknown locality; 8m, 
d(Mre$j ChaXew ar9d$, Hook&ria hydwra, from Bnuril. BeUm^MM is a new 
genus, aeemingly allied to BiwrytwMi, 

CHSTsiDizxji Gudrin (Rot Zool. p. 144) has described twenty spe- 
cies of this fiunily : StUbum viride, from Madagascar; StiSmm 6-de9»- 
tatwm, from S^iegal and Algiers (the latter is not a 8tilhum^ but Chrys. 
nobilis, EL, Pyria etilboides, Spinola) ; Ch/rygis (Pyria) MouaUU^ 
OheudUf and hiapUota^ fr<em Madagascar; orientcUU, from Sumatra; 
also a curious Chrytis, with a siz-toothed point to its abdomen, Ohr. in* 
wuUuiSf from Cuba ; Chr, syrioca, with a four-tootiied point, from Syria ; 
^pmeopaiia, from CSiiii; MUgU and Orceldi {Chr. analis, Spin.), from 
Barcelona ; igniventer, frtmi Algiers (probably Chr. scutdUirU, F., sup- 
posing the blue mar^ of the end of the abdomen to be oyerlooked) ; 
Mumiiy frwn Senegal ; Chr, trwMOta, from North America {Pyria tri- 
dmMy £nc.) ; bra9iUmti%, from Brazil ; Polmieriy from S^iegal ; Chr, 
belia, from Madagascar, with a toothless point to the abdomen ; a new 
sub-genus, Heurocera, formed from a Chilian species : PL viridis, only 
differs from Chrysis in the antennas being dilated in the middle exter- 
nally, and the point of the abdomen slightly four-toothed ; lastly, Hedy- 
chmm viride, from ConstanHna. 

Ckabbonida. — Qen^ (L c. p. 29) has published his remarks on the 
Sdgmus ater ; as this small insect is abundant in Italy, he supposes it 
to be very useful, from destroying the Aphides, 

SpHBOiDiB. — ^Dalhbom (Disp. Meth. p. 2) has formed a peculiar genus, 
Pga/nymophUa, from those species of Avrvmophila which have a cme- 
jointed peduncle to the abdomen. Among the PompUidce he has eha- 
Taotericed (ibid. p. 3) a new genus, Isonotu/s, which includes the P. 
eangmnolentM, F., and which principally differs from Pompilus by the 

279 



236 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

diffeiently formed dawi. At a later period (Entom. Zeit. p. 214) he 
oonyinoed himself, that in PompiluB the daws present great varieties, so 
that I$onotus is distingaished from PampiluSf preferably, by the head 
being closely attached to the collar, and the proportionably large clypeus. 
The name has been already applied by Perty to a genus of beetles. 

Westwood (Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 53) has giren an account of an 
imdescribed New Holland Pompilus (audax, Westw.), the pupie of 
which were found at Port Lincoln ; each pupa was in a cell ; seyeral of 
these cells were attached together, and seemed formed of a succession of 
short transverse layers ; it appeared evident, that these nests had not 
been enclosed in a burrow, but were eztemad, the materials having been 
brought from a distance. In one of the cells the remains of a very large 
spider, which had evidently served as the food of the enclosed larva, 
were found. 

Bembbcida. — ^The reporter has described a new species, Bembex fwr- 
eata, from Van Diemen's Land (Arch. 184:2, i. p. 266). 

Saftgites. — Gen^ has made known some important discoveries in the 
habits of the Polochrum repcmdum. He found small black barrels in 
the nests of Xylocopa violacea, which Spinola asserted to belong to 
them, out of which he had reared the Pol, repcmdwm. Prof. Zendrini 
has made similar experiments at Pavia, so that it appears frx>m this, 
that Polochrwm repcmdwn lives as a parasite in the nest of Xylocopa 
violacea (1. c, p. 25). 

Thtnnida. — GKi^rin (Mag. de ZooL ins. pi. 99-105) has subjected to 
revision the genera of Thynnida, characterized by him in Duperrey's 
work, adding some new ones, and illustrating them all by figures. These 
investigations still leave much to be desired, and even yet, scarcely one 
of the genera is sufficiently characterized to be recognised. 

As a comprehensive monograph is expected frx>m Mr. Shuduird, it 
does not appear to me proper to go deeper into details, than to name the 
newly characterized genera and species : Rhagigaster hoBmorrhoidalis, a 
new species from Swan River ; Agriomyia marginilahris, ajfmu. West- 
woodii, abdominaliSf new New Holland species ; for the last two, with 
longer antennse and long fringes at the posterior margin of the head, the 
author proposes a generic name, Tachynomyia ; Thyn/ntM Shucka/rdiij 
JlcmlaiJbris, new New Holland species; Catocheilus, a newly charao- 
terized genus, closely allied to Agriomyia, but the labrum is quite 
concealed under the projecting clypeus, and the last joint of the maxil- 
lary-palpi rudimentary ; (7. Klugii, from Swan River, is a new species, 
of which both sexes are described ; Thynnoides mgrtpes, a new species 
from Swan River. LophocheiluBy differing from Thywnoides by the 
labrum being haiiy at the margin and truncated, short maxillaB, only 
slightly hairy at the outer margin, and especially by the lip, to which 
the tongue appendage is drawn in, and always provided with a long tuft 
280 



INSECTA — HYMENOPTERA. 237 

of hair : L, villoiuSy L. dittinctus, and L, (?) collarie, new New Holland 
tpecies. 

The reporter (Arch. 1842» i. p. 262) has described several new species 
firom Van Diemen's Land : Thywrms Olivieri, of which Myzme aptera, 
01., is the female ; Th. senilis and ferviduSt the former belonging to the 
first, the latter to the third of Klug's sub-diyisions, and Th, humilis, a 
female ; lastly, a new genus, Ariphron, has been characterized (tab. 5, 
f. 8) from an individual female, which varies from that of Thywaus by 
having simple claws, and the abdomen not being swollen, &c. The 
species is called A, hicolor. 

MirriLLAsi^. — The reporter (1. c. p. 261, 262) has described two new 
species from Van Diemen's Land, Mutilla soluta and hlcmda, 

DoBTLiD^. — Westwood has given an excellent view of this group 
(Arcana Ent. i. p. 73, pi. 20), for which the labours of Shuckard have 
laid the foundation. Labidus is enriched with several new species, viz., 
the division with a triangular pedicel to the abdomen, with L, BwrchelH 
firom Brazil, which, however, may be identical with L, Fa/rgeavii, 
Shuck. {LatreUld, Lepell.), supposing that an error has occurred in the 
account of the size (14'''). Our specimens of this insect have a dilata- 
tion on the mandibles internally below the point, which the author's figure 
does not show. Also with L, Servillei from Par&. The division, with 
a transverse quadrangular pedicel, has been increased with one small 
sub-division, viz., — such as have moderately long legs ; in this are two 
Brazilian species, L, Ha/rtigii and Esenbechiif both distinguished by 
long tufts of hair on the sides of the abdomen ; the other species of this 
division have remarkably short legs. To those described by Shuckard, 
are added X. Fonscolomhii, Oravenfiorstii, Spinolce, Walherii, Erich- 
Bonii, aU &om Brazil. The genus ^nictus has been enriched with a 
second species, ^. certus, whose native country is unknown ; Dorylus 
and RhogtMis contain only the species described by Shuckard. On the 
plates, several of the new species, and the parts of the mouth of LdbiduSt 
are figured. Westwood thinks, that the Dorylidce approach the ants by 
the separated first ring of the abdomen, and he considers them as 
belonging to the same group ; at all events, they stand nearer these than 
any other family. 

Fobmicahi^. — ^Robert has laid some observations on the habits of the 
ants before the Parisian Academy (Ann. d. Sc. Nat. zviii. p. 151, and 
Froriep, N* Notiz. zxiv. p. 113). One of them concerns the roads which 
F, rufa makes outside the nest. When the swarm is old and strong, 
ten roads run pretty regularly from the nest in the form of rays, as 
&r as the gunounding country pennits, at legulap distanoes, and only 
in very extreme cases deviating from the straight direction. The author 
could follow these roads for 47 metres; nay once, where, from the 
nature of the ground, only five were formed, for 77 metres. He explains 

281 



238 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, HBCC^XUI : 

tihe p a ro e q pce of man/ other inaecU in ants' neate, particularly the larva 
of Cetonia, by their feeding upon the rotten wood collected in the neat; 
but doubta whether they are atooeptabb to the inhabitants. 

The high ten^rature, which is found in the interior of the ante' 
neeta, does not ariae ficim the mass of inaeets themaehrea, bat :&oni the 
decompoeitiop of animal and yegetable renuuna there gathered together, 
fbr a like temperatore ia fimnd in deserted nests. This last remark 
appears to me rery important in gaining a correct view of the accumu- 
lations of the ant, and their connection with so many fellow inhabitants. 
The ants prepare for themselves a sort of boggy bed under their nest, 
and fiivour the preaenoe of other insects in it, whidi, as they feed upon 
the boggy mass, further its decomposition, and by this means tiie de- 
ydopment of heat. 

Fred. Smith (Transact Ent. Soc London, ilL p. 151) has made some 
obsenrationa on several British Ants, principally with regard to the ap- 
pearance of the different states. His account is deaerving <^ notioe. 
He states, that the ants seize upon and carry into their nest, the Aleo- 
€haroB ibund there (Myrmedania, Lomechu$a^ AjUmekM, PeUa\ and if 
they attempt to fly away, they are taken again and brought back. 

Qen^ has given an excelknt desaiption of the natural history of the 
Myrmica rediana, of which, although distributed over all Italy,- and 
living in chinks of walls and cracks in the bark of old trees, the sexes 
are not yet satisfiictorily determined (L c p. 3). 

The reporter (Arch. 1842, L p. 256) has described four new spedes of 
Formica, and diaracterized a new genus, AMby&pone, which, belonging 
to the group Ponere$y has the form d mandibles commaa to Jfyrmmo, 
F., and is distinguished by its veiy small eyes. The workers alone, of 
the single species, A. auatndii, were at that time known; the female 
has now been procnzed. 

YispABB JB. — Qen^ has made an observation on the presence cfFUaina 
in the Hom^ Vetpa crahro (L c. p. 20). He placed the wonns which 
came from the body of the insect in water, where they lived ftr a long 
while, as if in their natural element. 

AriABBiK. — Thwaites (IVoceed. Ent. Soc p. 57) beUeyes, that the 
Proiopia (Hylceus) is not parasiticaL He has reared two specimens from 
the stalks of bnunUes, the bunowa in whidi exactly agreed in width 
with the thickness of the insect, and there were no other bees sauili 
enough to hare made tiiem, and likely to be ionnd in that situation, 
except Heriodes, which do not occur in that neighbouriiood (Bristol). 
The cells lie in a row doae bdiind each other, the males fbremost, se 
that they must first creep out It is very desirable, that we duaild find 
ont upon what the larva fseds, as the bee possesses no external oontri- 
yanoe £» e»7ing ia pollen. FiT« .pecies of tl» niM gim» hare be«n 
characteriaed as new by F. Smith (ibid. p. 58) ; but with a diagnosis 

282 



INSECT A — STEEPSIPTEIJA. 239 

which is not now sufficient in a genus, so rich in species distinguished 
firom each other with difficulty. 

The reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. 267) has described several new species 
of the group And/remdoRy from Van Diemen's Land : JProaopis alcyonea, 
ffylcBus fcunUiariif Andrena ehalybeata, infima, 

QesD6 (L c. p. 21) relates, that Oamia ferruginea, Latr., which in 
the beginnuig of t^ii^ appears yery j^ntifuUj on the sea-ooast of 
Sardinia, ^rms its nest in tiie shells of hind snails, particularly Hdw 
t^emUculcUa and rhodostoma (|n<ana). 

Fried. Kodi, of Stuttgart, spoke at the meeting of Natural Historians 
at Mainz, on the sexual relations of bees, in which a new view was 
giren of the proceedings of the male> yiz., — ^that they do not unite with 
tiie queen, but deposit the seminal fluid in the cells. Mtiller of Oden- 
bach, howeyer, has disproved completely this ungrounded and indistinct 
4M8ertion (Amtl. Bericht iiber d. 20 Versamml. d. deutsch. Naturf. u. 
Arste zu Mainz in Septr. 18^, p. 196). 

^inola (Bev. ZooL p. 216) has reverted to the sexual relations of the 
Melip^nei, as he doubted my account of the fruitful fiamale (Report 
for 1840, p. 219). My expression, they were (vjelmal) '' many times" 
larger tliaa the workers, had been tranalated to him " souveat" (often). 
A^rwards (ibid. p. 267) he has asserted, that he received a female of 
M,fulv^e$, which was smaller than the workers, and many were found 
in one nest The opinion, however, that these individuals were actually 
fbmales, is not well founded. The idea newly entertained, that the indi- 
viduals of the Triffona <mgustfula usually seen are females, I mint again 
combat, for this is exactly one of those species of which the Bexiin ool- 
ledaon posseses « male, queen, and worker, takea from their nest (Vide 
Eeport for 1840, p. 209). 



STREPSIPTERA. 

SiEBOLD has cleared up the natural history of iliese insects by very 
Interesting and extensive observations, of which he gave a brief report 
at ihe meeting of Natural Historians at Mainz (1842), (Amt. Bericht, &e. 
p. 211). The most important pcunt is, that the winged individuals 
hitherto known are only males; that l^e females live, like larvae, in 
their victim ; and that the six-legged insects, formerly called parasites, 
are the young larvae, which, after they have sought out a new animal to 
dwell in, and have penetrated the posterior part of its body, lose their 
foot when they next cast the skin, and become hrvae provided with a 
mouth, but no anal opening. 

As the masteriy work of the author is oopously quoted in these 
Archives (1843» i p. 137, t. 7), I may refer to it. 
283 



240 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 



LEPIDOPTERA. 

LvFEBYBB (Ajin. de le Soc. Ent. de Fr. zi. p. 5) has anew drawn atten- 
tion to the importance of exact obseryation of the nervnres in the wings 
of Batterflies, and given many hints how their varieties are to be used 
in systematic division. He has considerably advanced our knowledge of 
this portion of their structure, as he has found out a sheath between the 
anterior and posterior nervures, viz., — a fold which stretches inwards from 
the outer margin to the middle oelL The treatise has also been abridged 
in the Rev. ZooL p. 52 : there are figures which illustrate it. 

Fischer Edl. von Bosslarstamm's excellent work, '' Abbildungen zur 
Berichtigung und Erganzung der SchmetterHngskunde, besonders der 
Microlepidopterologie,*' has, unfortunately, concluded with the twentieth 
number. On the other hand, Freyer's *' Neue Beitrage zur Schmetter- 
lingskunde mit Abbildungen nach der Natur,'' is happily progressing 
undisturbed. (The 5d-68th numbers are before me for this report.) 

Hering continues his many valuable and copious contributions to the 
Lepidoptera of Pomerania (Ent. Zeit. p. 5). 

Many observations of different collectors, on the Butterflies of Eng- 
land, are to be found in the Entomologist, p. 258, 260, 277, 283, 356^ 
357, 358, 389, 393, 394, 396, 408) ; also Ann. Nat. Hist. x. p. 365. 

Bambur has begun his labours on the Lepidoptera, for his Fauna of 
Andalusia. I have not yet, however, received the number, and its ap- 
pearance is only known to me by the judgment pronounced upon it in 
Lefebvre's treatise mentioned above. 

New Lepidoptera of West Russian Asia have been desccibed by 
Eversmann (Bull. Mosc. p. 543). 

Harris has given an excellent view of the natural history of the most 
important Lepidoptera of North America (Ins. of Massachus.), including 
much that is new ; but which I hesitate to extract. It would be well 
if one of our entomological periodicals would give a comprehensive 
abridgement of the work. 

The Butterflies of Merian have been systematically arranged and illus- 
trated by Freyer ; and are accompanied with remarks (Isis, p. 18, 327). 

Pafilionidje. — Westwood has given a critical view of the African 
species of Papilio (Arcana Ent. i. p. 145, t. 37-40). There are figured : 
P. Thersamder, F. (t. 38, f. 1, 2) ; Lalandei, God. (t. 37, f 1, 2) ; 
cyno^a, F. = Zerynthius, Boisd. (t. 40, f. 3, 4) ; BdgduvallianuSy 
Westw., new species firom Ghiinea (t. 40, f. 1, 2) ; trophonius, Westw. 
(t. 39, f. 1, 2) ; adamastor, Boisd. (t. 38, f. 3) ; a^amedeB, Westw. (t. 39, 
f. 3, t. 37i f. 3). This last is only a variety of adama%tor, with which 
it is united by many intermediate forms. The author joins P. cenea, 
StoU. (not Linn.) to the P. trophoniu^t ; but at present I do not agree 

284 



INSECTA— LEPIBOPTERA. 241 

with him, as they are strDdngly difTerent in colour, and I cannot assume 
for them a difference of sex, as the specimens in the Berlin collection 
are both of the same sex. It is to be remarked, according to Westwood, 
that P. cmtenor. Dr., an Afirican insect, as well as Agapenor, F. (not 
Boisd.) is policenes, Or., and polyxenes, Enc. ; also, that <Mitheu$y F., is 
antha/ne, Enc, and a^npenor, Boisd. ; that messalinay Stoll., is cynorUif 
Boisd. (not Fab.) ; that hippocoon, F., is Westermavmi, Boisd. ; finally, 
that P. Orestes, F., is probably an East Indian Eques, allied to the 
Nomius, Esp., perhaps with a mutilated tail. 

Westwood adds (ibid. p. 189) two new species from the Gold Coast : 
P. eha/ropus, allied to P. nireu>s, and P. hesperus. 

Many species of Pcipilio haye been described and figured. Westwood 
(Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. p. 36) has given the diagnosis of a series of new 
species from Sylhet: P. bootes, astorion, chcMra, ccutor, pollux, arc- 
tttms. The last, which is widely distributed in the Himalaya, and the 
first, are also figured (Arcan. Ent. t. 27 and 31). Doubleday has also 
described (Gray, Zool. Misc. u. 73), as from Sylhet : P. ga/nesa, P. pohf- 
eucteSf and xenocles, from Nepal and Assam, of which the first agrees 
with the P. (vrctwrus, the second with hootes, Westw. ; the third must 
be the same with polhix, W. 

Adam White has made known two new species from the island of 
Penang : P. va/runa and iswa/ra (Entomol. p. 280). 

From the same place, and from the coast of Malacca, Gudrin (Deless. 
SouY. ii. 68-71, 1. 17-19) has figured some species previously charac- 
terized in the Ker. Zool. : P. Delessertii (perhaps melcmides, De Haan), 
P. neptimius, P. sattf^ti/us (= nephelus, De Haan), P. bra/may Gu^r. 
(ibid. p. 71) = Palimt/rus, De Haan. P. ccmapus, Westw. (Ann. Nat. 
Hist. ix. p. 37), from Melville Island, is a species allied to the P. pom- 

f9U>fl. 

Westwood has figured a new species from Mexico (Arc. Ent. i. p. 67, 
1. 18), P. mantezuma; and has given upon the same plate a figure of 
P. pelaus, F., an American species whose locality is not exactly known. 

Elopsch (Arbeit, der Schles. Ges. f. vaterl. Kult.) has given some 
observations on the caterpillar of the P. podalirius. 

Pierides, — A new species of Anthocharis has been discovered by Cap- 
tain Charlon at Emsilah in Barbary, and has been made known by 
Donzel under the name of A, charlonia (Ann. d. 1. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. xi. 
p. 197, t. 8, f. 1). It is a male, allied to the Belia and Belemiajmt 
with a sulphur-yellow ground colour. 

Various new species have been described by Doubleday (Gray, Zool. 
Miscell. ii. p. 7S) : Leptalis atthis, from Mexico ; L» cydno, of unknown 
locality; IKeris thestylis, from Sylhet; P. lalage, ibid., distinguished 
by its sickle-shaped anterior wings ; P. jcmthe, from Sierra Leone, neax 
to P. hedyle, Cr., and probably only a variety of it; P. anactorie, from 

285 



242 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

South AfiricA, appean to be female of CAmwe, BoiscL ; Bh4>docm>a lyco- 
ria$, with a diflfbrent shape of wiiig ftom 8ylh4t, 

Danaides, — Dcmaw chloe, GuMn (Deless. Sout. ii p. 71) ia a new 
•pedes from the island of Penang. 

Nyn^phalidei. — Oodartia is a new genus, charaeterued by Lucas 
(Ann. d. L Soc. Ent. d. Fr. xi. p. 295, f. 12, 11). He notifies, amongst 
its characters, the rounded section of all the wiogs : O, wMMki^asca* 
riengii is firom Madagascar. 

Frejer (Beitr. 60 Hft. t. 365, p. 117) has separated a Norwegian But- 
terflj as Argyn»i$ o$»iamUf horn A. aphirape ; but it appears to me to 
be a bright coloured Tariefy of <Mphirape rather than the ossiomctf, 
Hiibn. The same author (ibid. t. 343, 385) has figured beautiful yarie- 
ties of LimeniHa populi and Apatura iri$, as well as the earlier states 
of these insects. 

Gudrin (Deless. Sout. 11, p. 72) has described ArgymUs tmalia as a 
new species from the coast of Malacca, and given a plate and exact 
description of his Vaneua eudoxia, from the same place. 

Sahfridw, — Frejer (Beitr.) has represented the earlier states of Hipp, 
phasdra (t. 373), galatea (t. 379), dt^anira (t. 391), and iMtgeria (t 403). 
He has also given a plate of J7. aristcBiu, Bon., male (t. 397), from 
Sardinia ; of Iphu, a yariety from the anterior range of the Caucasus 
(t. 367) ; and distinguished as a species H. aatyrum from H, philea. 
Hub. (Batyrum, O.) It is only a slight variety (with a broader and whiter 
band on the under side of the posterior wings, and smaller ocelli on 
ihem), to which there are sufficient transitions. 

Several new species from the Nilgherries have been described by 
Gudrin (Del. Souv. ii. p. 74, 1 24): Satyrtu (Cylh) neelgheriensii, 
very like the Sat, europa, and probably only a local variety ; &• Adol- 
phei and 8. chenu, 

Lycamides. — Freyer (Beitr.) has figured the following (partly new) 
species : Lyeama rkymnuB, Fr., dam<me, £v., cmUiroa, Boisd., from 
Russia (t. 386), and X. }>dU$, Fr., from Turkey (t. 398). GuSrin (Deless, 
Souv. ii. p. 78, t. 22, fig. 1) has figured a new spedes, Po/yomma^iM 
nyMUiy from Pondicherry. 

The history of the metamorphosis of the Th^cla %$ocrate$, has been 
described in the Transact. Ent Soc. of Lend. (ii. p. 1), in which it is 
asserted, that the caterpillars, which live in pomegranates, bore their 
way out of the fruit, and spin a web round the stalk, that the fruit may 
not fall ofi^; then creep in again and become pupse. Downes has de- 
served the same caterpillars (Calcutta Joum. of Nat Hist. ii. p. 408), and 
cannot confirm either the spinning round of the stalk, nor the becoming 
pc^sB in the fruit ; but only found, that the caterpillar came out of the 
pomegranate in which it lived, and was changed into a pupa on the out- 
side of it. He found no pupa within a pomegranate. 

286 



INSECT A — LEPIDOPTERA . 243 

Hetfperidoi. — Frejer (Beitr.) has figozed a sexies of species belongiiig 
to the genus Syrichthus, Boisd., but some of them I thmk are doubtful : 
M, crtbeUum^ Ey» (t. 349, f. 1), is not different £rom ff, teudluan, O. ; 
H. cynarce, Boisd. (ibid. f. 2), is certainly onlj a yarietj of JET. carthanU^ 
with which it is united through imperceptible traositions ; also J7. Mor- 
rvbii, Ramb., £nom Andalusia, can be hardly any thing else than a local 
variety of H, althecB. 

Heip. BrnjanUniif GruSrin (Deless. Souy. ii p. 79^ t. 22, f. 2), is a 
splendid new species from the NUghenries. 

Sphinoidje. — ^H. Doubleday (EntomoL p. 357) has related, that he 
found in his breeding cage 8mermthu$ ocellatut, male, and Sphin$e 
ligustri, female, in copula, whilst several individuals of both sezes^ and 
both species, were found at the same time in the same cage. 

Gu^rin (Deless. Souv. ii. p. 80, t. 23, f. 1) has described Deilepkila 
niffU, a new sphinx of Pondicherry, allied to the Sph. vehx, F., and 
(p. 80) a variety of the Macroglosia hylaa, from the Nilgherries. 

SEsiARiiB. — Nickerl (Ent. Zeit. p. 68) has published his observations 
in correction of Odisenheimer's account, that the caterpillar of the Se$ia 
euliciformU Hves under the bark of birch trees, and never penetrates 
into the interior of the stem, whilst that of the 8. nMUUkefornUs lives 
in plum, apricot, and apple trees, and certainly never is found in the 
interior of the stem. Freyer has also given a figure of the former 
(Beitr. 61. Hft t. 362, f. 2). The same author (ibid. f. 3, p. 132) has 
characterized a new species, 8. serratiformu, from Hanover, which seems 
to me to be identical, according to the incomplete figure, with 8. rhk^ 
gujrfarmMj O. ; also two new species, 8, iriannuliformis (!) and mMani- 
formM (! !), from Turkey (t. 404) ; and lastly, Ckkncmra orbonata, Fr. 
(t. 351), from the Steppes at Sarepta. 

Cbmlovidm. — Freyer (Beitr.) has figured Eupr^pria nmplcnia^ 
Boisd. Ind. (t. 392), but with the well-grounded remark (5 Bd. p. 16), 
that it may be only a variety of the E, niKiculosa ; similarly, in the Berlin 
collection, E. honesta, Fr. (t. 344), from Southern Russia, is arranged as 
a variety oiE, nMOulosa; E. fnatronaUs, Fr., is also only a remarkable 
variety of E, ploMtaginis. On the other hand, E. mtercUa, Fr., is a 
very marked species (already noticed by Pallas), (t. 356, with the cater- 
pillar), from the Salt Steppes of Southern Russia. 

Costa (Ann. d. 1. Soa Ent. d. Fr. xi. p. 239, t. 9, f. 7, 8) has shown, 
that Callimorpha donna is only a local variety of C. dominula ; it is 
found in Calabria ; another is found in the Abruzzi, which agrees with 
dominula in the markings on the wings, and the abdomen has the colour 
of donna* 

Qudrin (Deless. Souv. ii. p. 83) has enriched the genus Gfynautoeera 
with five new species : 0. «u»r^%7iato, from the island of Penang (also 
native to Java); nMCulariaj from MaUcca; phalana^riaf from Java 

287 



244 REPORT ON ZOOLOOY, MDCCCXLII : 

(periiap0 a yarietj of 9ph, peetinicomUy L., ttberina. Or.) ; duHncta, 
from Malaooa ; ajfinisy ibid., and Pondicheny ; also Hazis mala/yanuB^ 
firom Malaoca; Euchdia gratioia, CaUimorphaf Ma/rchaliiy Arctia 
montana, and inddcaf firom the Nilghemes. 

Bombycet, — Joly (Rev. Zool. p. 115) has given a notioe of a plague of 
caterpillan of the LipctrU ditpa/r, in the oak woods in the neighbour- 
hood of Toulouse, in the yean 1837, 38, 39. 

Frejer (Beitr.) has given figures of the earlier states of Hcwpyia 
bicuspU (t. 363), and Notodonta quema (t. 387). He has (ibid. t. 380) 
pointed out the difference between lAthona complana, griseolay ou* 
reola, luteola, helveola, and deprena, 

A new North AfrSnuT^ species, Bomb. pJUlopalut, from Constantine, 
has been described and figured by Donzel (Ann. d. 1. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. 
xL p. 198, t. 8, f. 2). 

Oudrin (Deless. Sony. ii. p. 94, t. 27) has described three new species 
fiK>m the Nilgherries, which are neaxly allied to each other: Bamb^ 
JUtvicollis, collaris, and Adolphd. 

NooTViDJi. — ^Doubleday has given a list of the NoctuidcBt natives of 
England, according to Gu^n^'s division (Entomologist, p. 297)* 

European Noctutdce, some newly characterized, and others previously 
not figured, have been figured by Freyer (Beitr.) and Germar (Faun. 
Ins. Europ.) : Cymatophora lintea, Fr. (t. 370), from Turkey ; AgrotU 
velum, Kuhlw. (Germ. t. 13), erupta, Kulhw. (Germ. 1. 15), mtmna, 
Fr. (t. 364), are German species ; A. fusca, Boisd. (Fr. t. 393), and 
cataUucaf Boisd. (Fr. t. 399), from the mountains of the south of 
Europe ; A, Heydenrekhii (Germ. 1. 14), from Dalmatia, figured by Fr. 
(t. 393) as Hadena fatidica, Hiibn. Hadena ctmentata. Germ. (t. 16), 
from Sicily ; Ontpwrgeri {dentina, var.), Boisd. (Fr. t. 394), from Swit- 
zerland; a/rctica, Boisd. (Fr. t. 394), from Lapland; Miselia fUsut, 
Germ. (t. 18), from Sicilj ; Ma/mestra cervina, G. (t. 19), from Iceland; 
Mythdmna alliacea, G. (t. 20), and Gortyna xcunthenes, G. (t. 22), from 
Sicily ; Leuca/nia fiava (Fr. 370), X. mtmidM/m, Boisd. (Fr. t. .395)» 
Z. Andereggii, Fr. (t. 395), L. zecB, Boisd. (Fr. t. 406), X. carieiB, Fr* 
(t. 401), and Xylina wax, Fr. (t. 370), from Hungary; Cleophana^ 
LaMdeti, Fr. (t. 395), from Switzerland ; Anthophila cretula, Fr.(t. 360), 
from Kagusa; A. gignalis, Fr. (t. 360), from Hungazy (Ofen). 

Bentlej (Entomologist, p. 254, 317) has given some critical remarks 
on different species of Agrotis and Ca/radrina, 

Freyer (Beitr.) has figured the following Noctuidce, with their cater- 
pillars : — N, soliMris (t. 345) ; luctuosa (t. .346), of which the caterpillar, 
having sixteen feet, differs widely from that of the former with only twelve 
feet, and agrees generally with that of the following, N, leucameloB 
(t. 347), so that the Iti^tuoaa must be removed from the genus Acontia 
to Catephia; all the three are found upon the Canvolvuli. ChtculUa 

288 



INSECT A — LEPIDOPTERA. 245 

Simtonici, Hii. (t. 357) ; N. uncmimiSf which Freyer, judging from the 
caterpillar, would remove from Apa/mea to Hadena, whilst Boisduyal 
places it in his genus Luperina (t. 371) ; Cymatophora ficmcomia 
(t. 375), Xanthia citrago (376), Triphcena Jimbria (t. 381), Eadena leu- 
^ophcsa (t. 382), EeliotkU inca/mata (t. 383), Catocala electa (t. 407). 

Brjuid (Ann. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. xL p. 37, t. 4, f. 1) has given a descrip- 
tion and figure of the caterpillar of Eriopus pteridis, which is very rare 
in France. Both the sexes of StiJbia $tagnicola have been described by 
Graslin (ibid. p. 303, t. 13, f. 1-7), with the complete history of its 
metamorphosis. It is remarkable for the weak form of the fly, and 
robust caterpillar, corresponding entirely with those of Hadena or 
Orthosia. It lives exclusively on Chrammece. He has also described the 
habits and caterpillar of Dicmthosda hiteago (ibid. 313, 1. 13, f. 8-10) ; 
it feeds on Silene infiata, the egg is laid on the outside of the plant in 
the beginning of June, the larva penetrates the nearest knots of the stalk, 
and descends gradually through the stalk to the root ; it is at its full 
growth in August, and becomes a pupa in the ground. 

Some remarks have been made on Diphthera ludifica in the 
" Entom. Zeit.," by Eosenhauer (p. 35) and Richter (p. 165). 

Many new species of the NoctuidcB of Southern Russia (or rather 
West Russian Asia) have been made known by Eversmann (Bull. Mosc. 
1842, p. 543-555), and Freyer (Beitr.) : Agrotis valeddca, Boisd. 
(Fr. t. 351), cidumbrataf Ev. (p. 543), immunda, Ev. (t. 5, f. 3), deser- 
ticola, Ev. (t. 5, f. 4), rustica, Ev. ; Hadena leucodon, Ev. (Fr. t. 359), 
ochroitigmay Ev.; Maanegtra cervina, Ev. (p. 546), infemalis, Ev. ; 
Muelia mmMuosaf Fr. (t. 351) ; Leucania alopecura, Boisd. (Fr. 
t. 359), maculata, Ev. (t. 5, f. 4), lineata, Ev. ; Ca/radrina sqiialida, 
Ev., exUis, Ev. ; Orthoda cavernoga, Ev. (t. 5, f. 3) ; Cosmia tmbufa, 
Boisd. (Fr. t. 359) ; Gortyna morio, Ev. {Apa/mea morio, Fr. t. 388) ; 
Xanthia ferrago, Ev. (Fr. t. 364) ; Cucullia rimula, cinera^ea, mixta, 
Uornata (Fisch.), Fr. (t. 352) ; BalsamitcBy Boisd. (Fr. t. 358, with the 
caterpillar) ; incana, Ev., Fr. (t. 388) ; fraadatrixy Ev. Fr. (t. 388), 
fucJmanaf Ev. (t. 5, f. 6, 0. Fuchsii, Fr. t. 388), pvstulata, Ev. (t. 5, 
f. 5), propinqua, Ev. (t. 5, f. 7) ; Pluda v/ralierms, Fr. (t. 389, PL illus- 
tris vaa*. uralensU, Ev. p. 554), macroga/imna, Ev. ; Ana/rta cora, Fr. 
(t. 389) ; HeliothAs pulchra, Ev. (t. 5, f. 8) ; AnthophUa concinnula, 
Boisd. (Fr. t. 360), pa/raXlela, Fr. (ibid.), am^imta, Ev. 

Germar (Faun. Ins. Europ.) has also figured some West Siberian Noc- 
tuidcB : Hadena ca/ncellata, Caradrma chaldadca, Cucullia argyrea, 
magnificaf and Jla/mmifera ; of these, however, the first four have been 
Already figured by Freyer, the third even earlier, by Esper, under the same 
name ; the last is the same with Cue. hiomata, Fisch., Bull. Mosc. 1839. 

lonthe, a remarkable new genus of Noctuidce, has been characterized 
by E. Doubleday (Entomol. p. 297) ; the anterior wings are narrow, the 

289 T 



246 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

posterior stronglj produoed at the anal angle, the abdomen yeiy long, 
with a thick pencil of hairs at the end; the fly has yeiy much the 
appearance of the PyraJidcB, bnt the author finds a nearer alliance to 
the genera OpMusa and Ophidere» ; the species J. uf/Jbrina^ is a new 
discovery from Sylhet. 

Qeombtbipjs. — Freyer (Beitr.) has made known several new German 
species : Qnopho$ falconaria, Fr. (t. 377), from the Alps ; Larentia 
lariciataf with its caterpDlar, which is found on larch trees (t, 366) ; and 
L, arceuthata, with its caterpillar, on the juniper (t. 372). 

NfMneria agarithariaf Dardoin, is a new French species, the cater- 
pillar of which is found on the Ulex (Ann. d. 1. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. zL 
p. 201, t. 8, f. 3, 4). 

Gu^n^ (ibid. p. 243) has observed, that in the summer-brood of 
Ennomos Ulwaaria, the male moth only is slightly sprinkled with 
atoms, and the ground colour is a yellow varying into roee-red ; on the 
under side, the brighter lines are rose-red instead of white ; the female, 
instead of grey-green, is ochre-yellow ; the lines of the under wings 
rusty-yellow, often scarcely observable, and the fringes of all the wings 
are a lively rust-yellow; both sexes also are somewhat smaller. A 
similar proportion is found in illustraria. He is inclined to consider 
dduna/riaf Hiib., as a corresponding variety of lunaaia, 

Freyer (Beitr.) has figured the following, with the caterpillars and 
pupsB : Boarmia soctona, Hiib., found on Spa/rtium acoparium (t. 348) ; 
Acidalia certcMrtia, Fr. (cervmata and certata. Hub.), on the barbeny, 
the caterpillar very unlike the A, dubitaria, Fr. {dubitata, Hiib.), the 
fly of which it closely resembles ; it lives on white and black thorns 
(t. 402) ; Acid. dUutaria (t. 408). 

Some new species from West Russian Asia have been made known by 
Eversmann (BulL Mosc. 1842, p. 556), and Freyer (Beitr.) : Ewnomas 
efrcbcta/ria, Mreptaria, Fr. (t. 353) ; Fidonia hadicLria, Fr. (t. 354) ; 
Chfiophos lapidiM/ria, Fr. (t. 353) ; Acidalia albidentaria, Fr. (t. 354) ; 
A. stramentataf appensata, aj^ectata, Ev. ; Cida/ria pulchrariaf Ev. 
(t. 6, f. 9, Fr. p. 390) ; Zerene albidata, Ev. (t. 6, f. 10). 

Zerena fasciaris and Evbolia indicaria, Gu^rin (Deless. Souv. iL 
p. 96, t. 26, f. 5, 4), are two new GeometridcB from the Nilgherries. 

Ptbalid^. — Some new species, from West Russian Asia, have been 
described by Eversmann (Bull. Mosc. 1842, p. 558) : Herminia rectalis, 
PtfraJis nocttialis, Botys languidalis, Choreutei pullulalisy PyroAMta 
atro-eangmnalis, pdtalis (t. 6, f. 11), fu/rvalis (f. 12)^ aru/ndinalit^ 
(f. 13), Hercyna scahralis. 

ToRTBiciDJB. — Fischer von Rosslerstamm (Abbild. t. 98), has given 
an exact representation of Tortrix Icevigana, W. Vz. Eversmann, 
(Bull. Mosc. 1842, p. 562) has described Totrix gilvama and hydrar- 
gyrana (t. 6, f. 14), from West Russian Asia. 

290 



INSECT A — LEPIDOPTERA. 247 

TiHSiDiB. — Frejev (Beitr. 378-384) has separated from each other the 
nearly allied species of Ypom&nmta: Ihelicella, Fr. {r&rella^ Hiib.), 
paddla, mcUinellay eognatella, wonymella. He has also (ibid. t. 404) 
figured a new species, P%cts wagnerella, from Turkey. 

Fischer von Bosslerstamm (Abbild. Ft. 20) has illttstrated Lita 
terdla, W. Vz.^ Mhituma juniperetta, "L,, Palpula rctitrdla, Hiib., 
and the fbUowing new species : LcLmpros monastricellay found on high 
hills at Vienna; Elachista treitschhiella, at Vienna, flying oyer the 
Comua mcucula ; Ypsolophus doloseHus, hinotdlus, sepa/ratellvs, impa- 
relhis, also from the neighbourhood of Vienna. 

The same author (Ent. Zeit. p. 200) has also shown, that many species 
haye been confounded under Ochsenheimeria (Pkygcu) tawrella, which 
he has carefully separated and amply described : 0. tawrella, W« Vz., 
and urella, Heyd. (new species), haye rough scaly antennae : vcicculeUa, 
Heyd. (tawrdlay Hiib. f. 188), has smooth ones ; the last has been eon-' 
founded with the true taurdlaf W. Vz*, by Tieischke, Duponchel, and 
Zeller; a fcmrth species, still more deyioting, but allied to taurella, is 
0. bubaldla, Hiib. f. 376 (erroneously 276). The earlier states of aU 
the species are unknown. 

The history of the deyelopment of the GdecIUa lapella, Linn., has 
been giyen by Loew (Entom. Zeit. p. 257)» and a yery full description 
of the fly by Zeller (ibid. p. 25&). The latter is of importance, as the 
insect yaries greatly. The fly of the same name of the Vienna Gatal.,^ 
Hiibner,. FabiiciuSy and Stephens, belongs to Tm, ganomdla, Tr^ On 
the other hand, Gd. aativdla, Mtzn., Zell., is identical with Q. lapella, 
Linn. Loew found the caterpillar in the heads of burs ; but Zeller found 
the fly in plaees where no burs were near, where, therefore, the cater- 
pillar must, in all probability^ haye had some other nidus. 

Von Heyden spoke, at the meeting of Naturalists at Mainz, upon the 
genu0 N^Hcula, Heyd., and FUcheriaf ZelL To the former belong 
T. amrdla, F., argentipeddlaf Zell., cmtifolidla, Heyd., sericopeza^ 
ZelL, socidla, Hc^.. Their caterpillars haye only two pairs of in- 
complete legs, and six pairs of abdominal props. The caterpillar of 
the N. cewHfoHdlaf already known by Degeer and Goze, has lately 
erroneously been taken for a parasitical larya. In some^ species the 
caterpillar has not arriyed at its Ml growth m autumn ; when the other 
leayes wither, these still retain their necessary nourishment, so that the 
cellular tissue in the eircumference of tiieir habitation remains green. 
The caterpillars of FUcheria are quite destitute of feet (AmtL Bericht., 
te. p. 208). 

Eyerflmann has described some new species from the west of Russian 
Asia (Buli Mosc. 1842, p. 563) : ChUo ctcutellus, Phycis 9qwdiddla, 
prapinqfudla, Adda ^Jkuarapulverella, 

Gu^rin and Perrotet haye laid before the Parisian Academy a pap^ 

291 



248 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

upon a moth, Elachitta coffeella, which is very injurious to the coffee 
plantations on the Antilles. The caterpillars mine into the leaves of the 
coffee, where, after they have fed from fifteen to twenty days, they spin 
themselves up, three or four in each leaf, and in about a week come out 
from the pupa, so that forty to forty-five days may be reckoned for one 
generation (Listitut. p. 185 ; see also Rev. Zool. p. 24, 126, 167). 



DIPTERA. 

Lbon Dufoto has published some general remarks on the internal struc- 
ture of the Diptera (Institut. p. 169). 

According to his account, the cord of nerves uniting the chain of 
ganglions, is here simple, while in other insects it is double ; he found 
the number of ganglions in Tvpula, CuleXy AgUuSf and Bombylitis, to be 
nine ; in Tabanus, StrcOiamySf and Rkagio, seven ; in Syrphus, three ; 
in Conops, two ; and in Musca, only one. 

A new work by Zetterstedt, ** Diptera Scandinaviss, 1 tom. Lund. 
1842, 8vo.," is important, partly from the considerable number of new 
species, and partly by the proposed divisions, in which he has taken a 
step well worthy of attention; however, it is rather uncertain, the 
author haying confined hi. yiew to the Scandinayian species. The na- 
tural characteristics, either of genera or families, cannot be determined, 
without examining the group in its whole extent and development. 

An '' Ubersicht der Zweiflugler Lief-und Kurlands," has been pub- 
lished by Gimmerthal (Bull. Mosc. p. 639). An appendix contains 
remarks on the recorded species, and descriptions of those newly dis- 
covered. 

'' Dipterologische Beitrage," by ZeUer (Isis, p. 807), contain excellent 
observations and descriptions of several newly discovered species. 

Macquart's Diptdres Exotiques, vol. ii. part 2^ Paris, 1842, will be 
considered. 

Le Ouillou has described the new Diptera (seven species) collected by 
him in his voyage round the world (Rev. ZooL p. 314). 

Patterson has made some observations on the appeiininoe of clouds of 
Diptera (Ann. Nat. Hist. x. p. 6). 

CuLiciDiB. — Culex australis of the reporter is a new species from 
Van Diemen's Land (Arch. 1842, i. p. 270). 

CniRONOMiDiB. — Zeller (Isis, p. 807) has given his observations on the 
habits of the Hydrobcenus lugubriSf Fries {Pdlocerus occuItoMSy Ruth., 
Chirononms occultans, Meig.) These smaU gnats appear in masses^ 
in the beginning of spring, on puddles and ditches. They sail on the 
water with their wings, but never fly. 

292 



INSECTA — LEPIDOPTBRA. 243 

CsciDOMTziD js. — Professor Henslow has drawn attention to a doubt- 
ful point in the natural history of the Ceddomyia tritici, viz., — Whether 
the larva undergoes metamorphosis in the ground, or if it remains in the 
ears of com. He was not able to rear one indiyidual of the numerous 
larvae which he procured £rom the sifting of the chaflf. (Report of the 
Eleventh Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, held at Plymouth in July, 1841. London, 1842, p. 72.) 

Edw. Herrick (Sillim. Amer. Joum. of Science, zli. p, 153) has made 
some cursory observations on the Hessian Fly (Ceddomyia destructor)^ 
and its parasites. The author is of opinion that the insect was, in fact, 
introduced from Europe ; and produces much evidence that it is found 
native there* Its parasites are small Hymenoptera ; viz., — 1st, A still 
undescribed Platygaster: 2d, Ceraphron destructor. Say, which the 
author thinlcs is a Ewrytoma ; apterous individuals are found, which are 
perhaps female : 3d, An undescribed species of Chalcididce, also having 
apterous females : 4th, An undescribed Oxywre* The first species lives 
in the eggs, the others in the nympha. 

TiFULARiDEji. — Zeller (Isis, p. 808) has given an exact description of 
the larva of the Linmobia digtinctimma. It was found in May on the 
under side of the leaves of the Anemone nemorosa, in which it eats 
oblong holes. 

Stager (Kroyer Naturch. Tidsskr. iv. p. 202) discovered the larva of 
Dixa nigra in a pond. It is brownish-grey, 2'" long, cylindrical ; the 
middle thoracic ring broader than the rest ; and a pencil of fine bristles 
projecting over the head, at the anterior projection (vorderecke) ; the 
last ring not longer and narrower than the rest, ending in two ^ely 
fring^ed lobes, between which is foimd a three jointed process, covered at 
the point with bristles ; the lobes of the tail serve as suckers ; the fourth 
and fifth rings of the abdomen have each a couple of sucking pads on the 
under side ; the larva moves by means of this sucking apparatus and of 
the mouth. The nympha is reddish-brown, which state lasts four or 
five days. 

A new genus, PterelachMus, has been characterized by Rondani (Gudr* 
Rev. Zool. p. 243 ; Mag. de Zool. 1842, Ins. pL 106) : Antennae thirteen* 
jointed, the joints from the third reniform (judging from the plate), the 
last small and spherical ; palpi as in Tipula ; the wings reduced to small 
stumps ; legs not very long. The male is unknown. Pt. BerteU is found 
in autumn on the Parmasian Hills, in the walls of old buildings. 

The reporter has described a new species fiom Yan Diemen's Land, 
Megistocera padfica (Arch. 1842, i. p. 270). 

HiBTEiDiB. — A new genus, Asthenia, has been characterized by West« 
wood (Gudr. Mag. de Zool. 1842, Ins. pi. 94). He places it near Ma* 
eropeza, Spha^romias and Hydrdbcenus ; but the large eyes, which are 
close together above, point out a near alliance to Simulium, from which 

293 



250 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDGGCXLII : 

the new genu differs by the wing-yeiiiB, elongated legs, fifteen-jointed 
antenn» and fiye-jointed palpL The repraBentation of a pair of bzoad 
dentated mandibles, serrated internally, originates in an error ; at least 
they are wholly without example in this division of the Diptera. The 
•pedes, A.fa»eia^j is from Albania. 

Zeller (Isis, p. 800) has described the larra of the PeftUhetria holoBe- 
rieea ; it is found on moist land, under the grass, fidlen leayes, &c. It 
is \l' long, black, with four rows of spines above direoted backwards, four 
rows of small adpressed spines beneath, and a black shining head ; it 
changes in April into a black spinous nympha. He has (ibid. p. 811) 
united BUbio clavipest Big. (Johawniit F., ephippmmf ZelL), aa the male 
to B, dor9cU%$ and Jlavicollia^ Mg. B. fiUviooUii^ Qimmerthal (BulL 
Mosc. 663), appears to be a yariety of this species. 

Tabanida — ^Zeller (Lds, p. 812) has made some valuable remarks on 
the speoies observed by him. He also describes seven&l new ones : jTo- 
bantM wdeUcuM^ Yery near the T. hovinuB: T. tricolor^ a very pretty 
species from South Russia ; ChrysopB pckraUelogrammuB, like the Chr, 
r€li€tu9, Zetterstedt (Dip. Scand.) has described several new Swedish 
species : Tabanua latifrom, atricomUfJlavicepSy nigricomky nigerrimui, 
m€tculi€&mi$, niblunatieomis. The reporter (Arch. 1842. L p. 273) has 
described three new species from Van Diemen's Land : Tahanu$ exulanSf 
gregariuSf gentilU, 

AsiLiDiB. — Zetterstedt (1. c.) has enriched this family with three 
new species : Laphria lappanica, formerly considered as a variety of 
the X. rufipeiy from which it differs by the black fore-legs, and in other 
respects ; from the south of Lapland. Dasypogon luteicomit, from the 
south of Sweden. Leptogwter ciUtriventru, found in Sweden and Den- 
mark. 

Lcmpria ckuipennii (1), Le Quillou (Rev. Zod. p. 314), is also a new 
species, from Triton Bay. 

MiDASiDJt. — ^Harris (Ins, of Massachusetts, p. 406) has given some 
information on the natural history of these insects. The larva and pupa 
generally resemble those of the Anli, The former ia cylindrical, nar- 
rowed anteriorly, rounded posteriorly, and lives in rotten wood. In the 
latter, the abdomen terminates in a forked point, the head has eight 
horns, and round each ring there is a series of anudl teeth, directed 
backwards, though at first they point forwards. The fly is deaoribed 
as being predatory. 

XTLOPHAOii]XB.--J)rew8en (Kroyer Naturh. Tidsskr. iv. p. 103) has 
remarked, that the larva of Xylophagui ater does not live on wood, but 
is predatory; and that the larva of I)frochroa coccmea and Tipukt^ 
especially, were attacked by it. 

Lbptidjs. — ^Zetterstedt (Dipt. Scand.) has introduced a new genus into 
this family : Ptiolina, Stag., for the species of Atherix, with the last 

294 



INSECTA — ^LEPIDOMERA. 251 

antennal joint oval, and hATing a bristle at the end, containing : A, ch- 
9cu/ra, Mg., and a new species, A, nigra, Leptis gtiffmaiica, ephippium 
t:merea, Chrysopila l^ta, are new species. 

Thereua and Pdlocephala, Zett., differing from Thereua hj the bald 
under part of face (containing Th, imberbis. Pall., eonJinU and eximia^ 
Mg., lapponieaf Zett.), he places with the Anthracidas, His Th, a/n- 
fwdata is a new species from the south and middle of Sweden. Th, 
venuita of the reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. 272) is another, &om Van 
Diemen's Land. 

BoMBYLiEDJi. — Zetterstedt (Dipt. Suec. p. 190) has mentioned a new 
species, Bombylius oUbibarbis, which is nearly allied to the B, nUnOTf 
but double the size, and distinguished by the long third joint of its an- 
t^msB and black knees. 

Westwood (Gudrin Mag. de ZooL, Ins. pi. dO) has given a short 
monograph on Systropus, Wd. To the two species described by Wiede- 
mann, he has added three new ones : S.fienoides, from Mexico ; 8. fwmi- 
pen/nis, from Brazil; 8, ewmenoides, from the North of India. The 
Berlin ooUection possesses a species from Brazil, which agrees with 8, 
fumipennis in the black anterior thighs, but the posterior are very 
thick, which is not mentioned by Westwood ; it is, therefore, probably 
dijSerent. We also possess an undescribed species from South Africa. 

HYBOTiNiDiB. — Stilger (£[r6yer Naturh. Tidsskr. iv. p. 98) has sifted 
the synonymes of the species of Ocydromia : Oc, flavipes and ruficollUt 
Mg., are $ and $ of one species, and form the genus Leptopeza, Maoq. ; 
Oc, ru/ipeiy Mg., he considers as a distinct species, of which the ^ is 
•till doubtfld ; Oe, icutellata, Mg., is only a brighi variety of the O. 
glabricula {$), Fall., to the $ of which, also, O. danalis and nigti- 
p&nwUf Mg., and fnelanapleura, Loew, are joined. 

Zetterstedt (Dipt. Scand.) has characteriEed a new species, O. mgrtpeB, 
found (mce in Oland; also of L^tcpeza^ tibialis, borealis, from Lap- 
land ; flavimwutf nigripes, from Norway* Of Hybas : infuwatus, Stag., 
from Lund. Of (Edalia : sHgmateUa, distinguished from (E, hybotina 
by the undivided margin of the mouth. Gimmerthal (Bull. Mosc. p. 665) 
has mentioned (Edalia penvuOa as a new species, which has the poste- 
rior thighs feathered on each side. 

Tachtbbomisa. — Zetterstedt (Dipt. Scand.) has characterized a new 
genus, Phyllodromia, differing from Hemerodromia only by the long 
antennal bristles, containing H. mdcmocephala, F., vocatoria, Fall., 
and aWiietaf Zett. For the greater number of the new species in this 
family, I refer to the work itself. Gimmerthal (Bull. Mosc. p. 667) has 
described Tachydromia hnmnipes as a new spedes. 

EnriDA. — A number of new species of the genera Hila/ra, Wiede- 
mam/iia, Empis, and Rhamvphom/yia, axe described by Zetterstedt (Dipt. 
3cand.) Stager (Kroyer Naturh. Tidsskr. iv. p. 102) has remarked, 

295 



252 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

that the length of the proboeeis in EmpU and Rhamphamyiay cannot, 
as is often done bj Meigen, be referred to difference of sex, as the 
membranons sheath, which surrounds the opening of the month, some* 
times bulges out in the straggles of death, by which the proboscis is 
unnatnrallj lengthened. 

DoucHOFiBA. — ^An exeellent monograph on the Danish DoUchopidcf 
has been undertaken by Stttger. The first part only has at present 
appeared (Kroyer Naturh. Tidsskr. iv. p. 1), embracing the D. lamdli- 
ferij with leaf-like appendages to the male organs of generation. The 
author, in this work, haa brought to light, and taken as a foundation, the 
admirable treatise of Stannius (Isis, 1831). Syhistroma (three species) 
and Ammobatei (three species) are each enriched with one, and Doli- 
chopus (forty-one species) with nine new species. He has given a plan 
for dividing the DolichoptdcB with filiform appendages to the male 
organs of generation (ibid. p. 340), which, as the genera are grouped 
according to the antenna! bristles, corresponds, in general, with the divi- 
sion of Macquart ; however, it is more carefully elaborated, and he has 
better sifted the genera, Argyra and Porphyropg especially. It is to be 
hoped the author will soon publish the remainder of this plan in the 
second part of his monograph. 

ZeUer (Isis, p. 831) has made some remarks on different Dolichopidas^ 
He has given the name Sciapus to the genus Pdlcpus, Meig., as Pdlopui 
and Ptilopa cannot well stand next each other. Four species have been 
more minutely examined by him ; the $ of Syhistroma nodicomiSf Mg.^ 
is described, and a new species, Dolichopus pectmifer. 

Macquart (Dipt. Exotiq.) has described a series of new extra European 
species of this family, of the genera Fgilopits. and DoUchopu$, The 
reporter (Arch. 1842, L p. 273) has also made known a new species firom 
Van Diemen's Land, Pdlopus ingenMU*. 

Stratiomydjb. — Macquart* (Ann. d. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. p. 41, t. 4, f. 2) 
has characterized a new genus, which has, in common with Berts, the 
eight>ringed third antennal joint, and with Stratiomys the long first 
antennal joint and double- spined scutellum, but is distinguished by the 
under part of face forming a strong projection, which receives the pio- 
boscis in an emargination ; hence its name, Exochogtofna. The only 
species, E, nitida, black, with yellow tibiae, blackish wings, 2f ' long, 
has been discovered in France. 

. Zeller (Isis, p. 825) has described a new species of 8a/rgus fiom 
Hungary, 8, melampogon, nearly approximating the S.formamiSf Schr., 
but distinguished by the black beard and blackish wings. 

Zetterstedt (Dipt. Scand.) has described the following new species : — 
StraHomys ruficomis^ chiefly distinguished from SU hydropota by the 
red antennsB, black only at the extremest tip ; Nemotelus notatus ; 
Packygaster tarsalis ; Ckryiomyia cyaniventru; Sargus nubeculoms, 

296 



INSECTA — LEPIDOPTERA. 263 

differing from 8. cuprarius by its smaller size and dark base of the 
tarsi, which, in the other, are yellow ; 8. nigripes, which, however, better 
agrees with 8. nitidus, Meig., than the one defined as such by the 
author, remarkably differing in size, &c. 

The larva of Clitdlaria ephippium has been found out by Zeller ; 
it is very similar to that of Sargus. (Isis, p. 826, 1. 1, f. 35.) 

The reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. 272) has described a new species itom 
Van Diemen's Land, Odontomyia stricta. 

Stbphid^. — Schummel (Arbeit, der Schles. Ges. fur Vaterl. Kult, 
1842, p. 15) has continued his list of the SyrpMdcB observed in Silesia, 
embracing the genera Pa/r<igu8, Aicia, 8phegina, Baccha, Po/r, dispar^ 
Sph. eleganSf Baccha nigricomis, are new species. 

Gimmerthal (BuU. Mosc. p. 668) has characterized two new species of 
Paragua : P. albipes and nigritu8, the former of which appears to agree 
with the i of the P. diepar, Schumm. ; also (p. 670) one new species of 
CheUoda : Ck, cUra, 

Stager (Kroyer Naturh. Tidsskr. iv. p. 320) has distinguished with 
great care and exactness the Danish species of Platychdrusy Enc. {svlb* 
genus of 8yrph%ui) &om each other. The species are, — 1. man%catu8f 
Mg.(?); 2,peltatu8,Mg.; 3, 8Cutatu8,Mg,; 4:, clyp€atu8,Mg,; 5, qua- 
dratic, Maoq. (?), the $ is recognisable by the bluish forehead, narrow 
pointed abdomen, want of the four pairs of spots, &c. ; 6. scambvs, Stag.» 
(8ccBv, clypeata, yar., Zett. Ins. Lapp.), distinguished as a species by 
its greater size, yellow anterior legs with long black bristles, fringelesa 
middle tibiae of the $ crooked and somewhat hollowed internally ; T.fuX- 
viventris, Maoq. ; 8. albimcmuSf Mg. ; 9. Ocytni, Mg. (^ lobatus, Mg.) 

Zeller (Isis, p. 830) has remarked, that the genus Doros has not as yet 
been distinguished from 8yrphuB by any character which is universally 
applicable. 

Zeller (Ent. Zeit. p. 65) has drawn evidence, from cases of mixed 
union observed by himself, in favoor of the view taken by Macquart, of 
the identity of the Volucella plumata and bomhyla/ns. The reporter 
(ibid. p. 113) has shown the same, by the description of the varieties 
found in tiie Berlin collection, of which the first (bombyla^ passes^ 
by fi>ur intermediate steps (among which is hcemorrhoidaJisy Zett.), gn^ 
dually into the sixth (plumata), which, by a seventh variation, is brought 
back to the first (bombylans). 

The history of the metamorphosis of the Volucdla tnonts has been 
investigated by Schmidt (ibid. p. 20). He found the larvsB in September 
in a wasps* nest, both in the brood-cells and in the exterior coverings. 
When the whole wasps' nest was put into a glass half filled with earth, 
the larvae went into the earth, remained in it until March, and in April 
became pupae. This larva has also been found by Gu^rin and Le^ 
pelletier in wafps' nests, but was confounded with the F. bombylant 

297 



254 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLU : 

obferred hj Reaumur in the neets of humble-bees, which, eyen as a krya, 
is specifically distinct. 

The larva of the Sjfrphui albottriaitus has been minutely described 
by Zeller (Isis, p. 828). 

Maoquart (Dipt. Exotiq.) has described a considerable number of 
extra European species, and, at the same time, characterized many new 
genera: MixogcLtUr, agreeing with Ceratopkya, Wd., in the form of the 
antennsB, but differing by haying the wing-reins and the form of body 
of C<mop8 ; the only new species, which' is from the Brasils, should 
therefore be named M. canopaidet (not conopioidcB). Under the genus 
Megatpii, E, chrytophygusy Wd., and E, crosttM, F., are separated 
from Eriitaliij on account of the size of their scutellum. Plagiocera^ 
differing from EristcUis, by the transTcrse last antennal joint, oontainiog 
MiUiia cruciger and rujlcnu, Wd., which the author considers as varieties 
of each other, and to which MaUota milenformi$, Maoq., Suit, k Buff., 
belongs, is correctly remoyed from the MilesicB and placed nearer Eris- 
tal%$. DoUchogynay with one new species, D.foidatay fi!om Chili, much 
resembles Belophihtg, but differs by tiie broader third antennal joint, the 
under part of face arched in its whole breadth, and particularly by the 
great length of the male organs of generation, to which the name refers. 
Jmatimna (a name already used by Dejean), differing from Eriitalis by 
the open marginal cells of the wings, from HelophUug by the thick cutide 
of the middle part of the body, from McUlota and Merodon by the form 
of the third antennal joint, &c., is formed from the ErxBtaUs poiticatutt 
F., and includes a new species, said to be East Indian, I, orientaUg, 

The reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. 272) has described a new species, Erii- 
talu vedculcuis, from Van Diemen*s Land, and Le Quillou (Bey. Zool. 
p. 314) another, E, tplendens, from the Solomon Islands. 

CoNOPARiD^. — ^Zeller (Isis, p. 835) has published his obseryations on 
the species of this family. 

Conopi ioleafamUi is a new species characterized by Gimmerthal 
(Bull. MoBC. p. 672). 

Von Heyden remarked, at the meeting of Naturalists at Mainz (1842), 
that the larva of Myopa lives in the body ofEtuera (AmtL B6rioht,«&c. 
p. 209). The particular species of Eueera which is referred to, as weU 
as of Myopa, is not stated. 

(EsTRACiDiB. — Some observations on the (Entridoi have been made by 
Sells, in the Transact. Ent. Soc. ilL p. 72. He does not assent to the 
assertion of Clark, that the effect of the larvn of Gatterap?Ulu9 is salu- 
tary; on the contrary, when present in abundance, they destroy the 
health of horses ; and in two cases of horses, which had died suddenly, 
the coats of the stomach were found, on dissection, to be perforated by 
these larvsB. Farther observations (p. 76) are given on (Estr%i$ 2k>vw, 
to which, as a synonyme, (E. ericetorunif Leach, belongs. 

298 



INSECTA — LEPIDOPTERA. 265 

Zeller (Isis, p. 839) has giyen a minute description of the (Egtrus 
sUnmlatar, 01., with the well founded remark, that it is identical with 
the Lapland CS, tTcmvpe^ F. 

MuscARiDiB. — ^A number of new species of different genera have been 
eharacterized by Gimmerthal (Bull. Mosc.): Sarcophaga aUnpennUf 
LucUia violacea, Pyrellia fasciata, Hylem/yia ftawetcens and o^/i- 
neata, Sapramyza d-punctata, Cephalia ^rpunctoOa, Phora guadrata. 

The species described by Guillou (Rev. Zool. p. 315), are, Ph/rissopoda 
cyanea, from Tahiti ; Scurc<^haga propinqua, from the Isle of France, 
Isle of Bourbon, and St. Helena ; CalUphora dasyophthalmay &om the 
Auckland Islands, and O. magdlamica, &om the Straits of Magellan, 
both very like the C vomitoria, but the former is distinguished by rough 
eyes, the latter by yellow cheeks and palpi with black tips; Musca 
ocecmica, from different parts of the South Sea, distinguished from 
M. corvina by yellowish halteres and the almost straight transverse 
nervures of the wings. 

Rutilia tpeciosa of the reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. 273) is a new species 
from Van Diemen's Land. 

Zeller (Isis, p. 840) has published an important contribution to our 
knowledge of the species of Oonia, He has enriched that genus with 
three new species, in addition to the O. fascUUa and <2msa, Mg. : 
O. trifaria (perhaps identical with G. capitata, Mg., but different from 
O, capitata, Deg., Fall.), O. lateralis, and G. gimpleo!, all from Silesia. 

According to a communication, made by Yon Heyden, at the meeting 
of Naturalists at Mainz (1842), the larva of Gymnosoma lives as a pa- 
rasite in Pentatoma (AmtL Bericht., &c., p. 209). 

Stager (Kroyer Naturh. Tidssker. p. 319) has distinguished three 
species, confounded xmderAtomogaster triqu^tra{Ant?iamy%a trig., Wd.) : 
A, Ma,cqu(Mrti {triquetra, Maoq.), tibialis and triquetra, Wd., Mg., 
FalL; the last differs, by shorter antennie, two spines on the middle 
thighs, and smaller size ; the others have longer antennae, and only one 
spine on the middle thighs ; the second has the anterior tibisB and the 
middle tarsi yellow. 

Waga (Aon. d. Soc Ent. d. Fr. xi. p. 277; 1. 11, f. 13-17) has cha- 
racterized a new genus, Adapgilia, which is allied to Sepedon and T^ 
tanocera ; with the former it agrees in the greater length of the second 
antennal joint, but the posterior thighs are not thickened, the abdomen 
in the $ is oval, in the $ *' compressed conical :'' A, coa/rctatay reddish- 
yellow, with brown spotted wings, was discovered at Warsaw. 

De BrSme (Ann. d. 1. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. xL p. 183, pL 7> f. 2) has cha- 
racterized a new species of the genus CeratitiSf MacLeay ; he has shown 
that C dtnperday MacLeay, is identical with Trypeta capitata, Wd., 
for which Macquart haa formed the genus Petalophoray and that the old 
species, which is found in the Canary Islands, Isle of France, and the 

299 



256 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLIl : 

Ea«t Indiei, ranst be iwin«d Ceratitit eapitata ; tiie 'tew species 
C. hitpanita, &., U from A "''■I""*, and shonld he distinguished from 
the older ipen^ bj the shorter leiigth and deeper setting of the lobed 
briatles of the forehead, which fbim the oliief chancteristicof tbegeons, 
M well is ij the black cokmr of the lobei^ which in tbe other «re 
whitish. These distinctions ^ipear to me donbtfn] ; Wiedemann giTCi 
the colour of the lobes expveaslj as black, which mj ohsravations «oi>£nn, 
and I can find no other diS^nce between C. capitata, &om the Isle of 
Fianoe, and a specimen fomi Sicilj, than that these bristles in the 
latter are somewhat shorter, and not so remarkably long as the luitlkir 
has given them ; it might be held as an individnal difference. 

Bachmann (Ent Zeit. p. 363) has made some remarks iqion Trypeta 
dgnata, Mg., the laira of whidk lires in ihe snbetance of sweet and 
bitter cherries ; and, aooording to C. Wagner's obserratitm, is firand in 
the fruit of the Lonicera xglottettm. 

Von SieboU (Oerm. Zfata^. iv. p. 389, 1. 1, f. 1-3] has remarked 
Uack protaberanees on the abdtmien of Baeiliut Rottii, which proved, 
OD more minute examination, to be the forked breathing processeB of the 
onu^e- jellow larva of a fly, 4'" long, sticking in the body ; he did not 
succeed in rearing these parasitical larvK. 

PcFiPABi. — The reporter (Arch. 1812, i. p. 274) has described a new 
spedea from Van Diemen's I^nd, Omithomyia nigrieorttU. 



HEMIFTEBA. 

A pBCDUAft ^iparatus, for connecting the anterior and posterior wingi 
in the Htmipttra, baa been discovered and described hy Asbton (Tnos- 
acL Ent Soc. iiL p. 95). In Notoaeeta glauca vte found, on the under 
ude of tbe anterior wings, at the posterior margin, two small homj 
ptojections, which together form a small tubolarchanneL A minute pro- 
jection of tbe rib-tike thickened anterior mai^pn of the posterior wings is 
bent upwards and backward, and grasped in this channel In Oentrotw* 
CMHuiwi, a small portion of thb anterior mar^ of the posterior wings, 
is turned upwaids, and frran this springs a small homj process, directed 
backwards, which fits into a recess of the posterxv margin of the anterior 
vrings, tbe edge of which, at that point, is bent down aid reflected for- 
ning a small channel for the reception of the above process. 
wooeas of tbe posteriiv wings is finely dentaled. The former 
lening, whidi is the firmer, a[q>earB peculiar to the Stterop- 
itter to the HomapUra ; in the fiumer, the position of the 
tt the union of the bomj and membranous portion of the 
in the latter at the point of tbe last nervuie of the anterior 

300 



INSECT A — ^HEMIPTERA. 267 

PcNTATOMiDA. — Schiodte (Krojer Naturh. Tidsskr. iv. p. 335) has 
explained his views on the presence of the clasping pieces in the Penta- 
tomidcB. In one, thej are only present in the male, viz., — SHretrvs, Lap., 
also Asopus, with abdominal bristles and dilated anterior tibise (OplomuSf 
Spin.), ScvMllera, Qerm., Coelogloasa, Germ., Arctoeoris, Germ* ; in the 
others, they are found in the males and the females, yiz., — JRsacasta, 
Germ., the proper Paekycori$, Barm., and the African forms of HalySf as 
H, 9errata, F., and cincta, Herr., Sch&ff. (which, as Schiodte remarks, are 
different). He has also (ibid. p. 279) illustrated the Fabrician species of 
Tetyra, contained in the royal collection at Copenhagen, by copious 
and exact Latin descriptions. The synonymy has been subjected to a 
thorough reyision. This is an excellent work, from which I can here 
only give the cursory remark, that the author rejects the generic names 
Callipha/ra and Callidea, as interfering with Calliphora, Macquart, 
and Calleida, Dej., and substitutes for them Philia, Adam White 
(Transact. Ent. Soc. iii. p. 85) has felt the same necessity, frx>m the 
similarity of the latter name to CcUUdium, and proposes to substitute 
for it Hahn's name, Chrytocoris. 

Adam White has commenced his labours on the Hemiptera, collected 
by Cuming on the Philippines, by describing the new PentatomidcB 
(Gray, Zool. Misc. ii. p. 79) : Callidea sellata with the variety 
chromatica ; C, 9pecio9a, dorsalis ; Platatpis xanthogrammaf M%mgo, 
8c^pio, The treatise here breaks off, and it is to be regretted, that the 
size of the three species of Platans is omitted, as their definition is not 
easy without it, and it would be as well to append it to the continuation 
of the work. He has also described a new species from Sierra Leone 
(Entom. p. 406), Probcenopi dramedUibrius ; it is distinguished as a new 
genus, by the protracted head, the prothorax forming a projection 
anteriorly, which may be compared to that of the Notoxui monoceroSf 
and a very broad scutellum, which covers the whole abdomen; the 
tibiae are without spines; the tarsi seem two-jointed; it is placed pro- 
visionally next Podops and Coptowma. The same author has also 
described (Trans. Ent. Soc. ilL p. 84) several new- Hemiptera, among 
which are the following : — Tectocoris Childreni, from Nepal, for which, 
and T. Drwrad, HaArdwicHi, ajffinis, &c., he founds a peculiar sub- 
genus, Pcsdlochromaf distinguished from T. Ba/nksii and cya/nipes, by 
having a shorter head, squarer in fr^nt, more compressed antennal 
joints ; Callidea (Callipha/ra) hifasciata, from an island in the South 
Sea ; pa/rentwm, from Australia (?) ; Callidea exarnvfuvns, Burch., fr^m 
South Africa ; C.fascialiBf from the East Indies ; O. Morgani, from Sierra 
Leone; Scutellera {Triganowma) interrupta, from Teneriffe, differing 
from 8c, lineataf by having only three yellow longitudinal bands on the 
prothorax, the lateral of which are shortened anteriorly. He has founded 
a new genus, ColeotichuSy for the New Holland Tetyra coetata, F., 

301 



258 REPORT OK ZOOLOOY, MDCCCXLII : 

which approximates Teiyra, Barm, (EwrygoMUr, Lap.), and Pachycoris, 
and its chief chancteriatio appears to be, that the thoracic groove 
for the proboscis, reaching to the hinder legs, gradnallj dilates pos- 
teriorl7, so that its walls extemallj pass round the trochanter. 

Another new genus, Coriplatui, White (ibid. p. 90, t. 7, f. 3), with one 
new species, O, deprumu^ from Demerara, is allied to Sciocorisy DinidoTf 
&o. It has a long scatelkun, contracted in the middle, reaching to the 
end of the abdomen, and lobed lateral margins of the prothorax. He 
has also described (ibid.) Dryptoeephalus (?) Pertyiy from Brazil, to 
which the sub-generic name, Cephaloplatus, has been given, as it differs 
from the others hj the two-lobed head and much lai^r eyes ; MHa (?) 
graeilU, from Congo, with the kmg proboscis of an Atdocera, but with 
the second antennal joint <7lindrical and not compressed; JSlia (Mega^ 
rhynchHB, Lap.) camosa, from Gambia. 

The reporter (Arch. 1842, L p. 275) has noticed the foDowing new 
species from Van Diemen's Land: — Cydoktu australis, iepulchraU$; 
AMoput nwmmiulans ; Cimeac inoultus; Atelocenu labiduSy grandiccr^ 
ni$; Rhynchocoris Ugata, 

Schiodte (Krojer, Natnrh. Tidsskr. iy. p. 237) has subjected the 
genus Cephalo€t»MM, Duf., to a very dose examination ; ocelli want- 
ing; composite eyes present, but small and divided, one part on the 
upper, another on the under side. O. kUUraideiy Duf., has been al- 
ready described by Fabrieius as Oydntw scao'ahcBoides ; this and a new 
species from Travancore, in India, 0. mdoUmthoidet, are caiefuUy 
described. 

Germar (Enl Zeit. p. 68) has more eorxectly distinguished JElia 
(Pentatoma) o^Mfimato, F., and KlugU, Hahn, and drawn attention to 
a third species, nearly allied to the font, j£t,palleiMy Kiist., which seems 
abundant in the north, and may be the real Cim. €tewnUnatu8y L. 

GoBxiDJi. — Germar (Faun. Ins. Eur. 1. 11) has figured an insect from 
Turkey, under the name of Aradus obseurus, which, however, belongs 
to tlus family, and is most nearly allied to PieudophL lobatuB, Herr. 
Sch&ff.; ha describes the proboscis as three-jointed, and the ocelli aa 
wanting, on which its generic name is grounded ; in our specimens, I 
find four joints to the proboscis, and ocelli on the bngitudinal eleva^ 
tions of the forehead directed laterally, and therefore easily overlooked, 
unless viewed from the side. He has also figured (ibid. t» 12) Phyllo- 
fnorphtu erinckceust from Turkey ; which however had been made known 
(1841), under the same name, by Herr. ScfaafEer. A new species of 
the same genus has been, pointed out by Westwood ( Arcan. Ent. i. Add. 
and Corr.), Ph* pellicula, from tropical Africa. 

Adam White (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. iii. p. 92) has described several 
new species : SpcMrtocerus (?) erythramelas from Braail (it k 8p, hicoloTy 
Herr. Schaff.) ; Sp. dartalis, from Mexico ; and Cerbus (Derepieryx) 

302 



INSECJA — HEMIPTERA. 259 

Qroflfii, and HardmcMi^ froxa Nepal. The sub-genus Derepten/x has 
the abdomen laterally dilated outside the hemelTtra ; the sides of pro- 
th<»raz much dilated and projecting anteriorly before the head. 

The reporter (Arch. 18^, 1. p. 278) has characterized a new jspeciea 
inm Van Diemen's Land, Hypselopua incamatus. 

Lyq^itbs. — Lygaim mutilatus^ Pachymerus lacertamM, tarquatas^ 
and nigrocBneus, of the reporter, are new species &om Van Diemen's 
Imd (ibid. p. 279). 

Cafsins^b. — Phytocoria varicomU of the reporter is also from Van 
Diemen's Land (ibid. p. 280). Adam White (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend. iiL 
p. 93) has described Calliprepes Chrayii, from Nepal^ a new form of 
this family, which appears yeiy aberrant ; and EucerocorU Westwoodiit 
from Sierra Leone, firom whence also E, nigricep$t Westw., has its 
origin, and whose locality has hitherto been unknown. 

AiiAmEDiB, — A new species, from Yan Diemen's Land has been 
described by the reporter, AraCkt8 cmstrcUia (Arch. 1842, i p. 281). 

ItEi>uviNi.^ — The reporter (ibid.) has enriched this family with two new 
genera : Isodemvus, with an extremely flat body, no ocelli^ and with lobes, 
for holding, between the daws, with one new species, J. pieman ; and 
Dicrotelus, resembling Pygolampk and Stenopoda, but differing, by 
dentated daws, &c., with one apterous ^pedes, D.prolixus; besides 
four new species. Nobis geniculata, Pirates fuliginomMj AtUms <mm- 
tralis, Enusa juncea, all from Yan Diemen's Land.. 

Galgulidji. — MononyoB suberoius of the reporter is from the same 
place (ibid. 285). 

FuLGosEiDA. — Gu^rin (Deless. Souv. ii. p. 66, t. 16), has giTen 
splendid plates of Fulgora Delessertii and mbocellcbtck (see Eeport for 
1839, p. 321). F. rajah, formerly diaracterized, is here shown to be 
identical with F. pyrorhyncJms, I>on. 

Westwood (Ann. Nat. Hist. iz. p. 118) has published several new 
spedes, with short but dear descriptions : Fulgora (Pyrops) Spinola, 
aJlied to the F, camdelaHa, from Mysore and Assam ; guttulata, from 
Northern India ; virescens, from India ; F. (Episcius, Spin. ?). amabilis, 
from Mexico ; EurybrOiChis insignis, from Malabar. 

. The same author (LinnsBan Transact, xix. p. 1) has published a very 
valuable paper upon the genus Derbe, F., of which previously only a veijr 
slight sketeh was given (see. Report for 1840, p. 242),, and to which he 
has now appended several additions. The generic name, Derbe, is oon£ned 
to those South American species which are of a stout form, have longex 
legs, a proboscis reaching to the middle of the abdomen, shorter antennas, 
and longer naked wings ; with them he places 2>. hoemorrhoidalis, F. ; * 

* The D, hwmorrhoidcUis, of the Berlin oolleetion, differs from the generic 
igrfio of Westwood, in the wing-veins^ &o. 

303 



260 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

D. nei'vota, of the Berlin oollection (StoU. f. 160)» and two new species: 
/>. Befnittriata and strigipennis, from BraziL 

A seoond genus, MyMta, is formed of those species from South 
America which have a slighter form, shorter legs, a proboscis not 
reaching bejond the hind legs, moderately long antennso, shorter and 
broader dusty wings. In this are D, pcUlida, ¥., Perch. ; tqtiamigera, 
eoMtalU, punetum, test€icea, nivea, F. ; and three new species : M, <ilbi- 
peimk, from Mexico (Vera Cnu) ; M. Ictctifiora and iubfcudata, from 
BraziL — Diogpolis, Westw. (formerly Lydda, Westw.), is a New Holland 
form, with a shorter proboscis, short antennas, and long anterior wings, 
yery narrow and rounded at the point : D. eUmgatay F., is the only 
species known, and is from New South Wales. — Thra^da, Westw., with 
long antennae (double the length of the head), three keels on the dypeus, 
and yery long narrow anterior wings, tnmcate at the point, is founded 
on D. sinuosa and nervota {Bohemarmiy Westw.), Bohem., from 
Sierra Leone, to which, is appended a Jayanese species, Thr, java/aica, 
'•^Phenice, Westw., comprehending D. fritiUariSf fasciolata, and std- 
lulata, Bohem.; dypeus as in the preceding ; antennas short; shorter 
anterior wings rounded at the point ; also differing from all the preceding, 
by its longish remarkably emarginated eyes ; ocelli distinct. — ^A couple 
of yery small and extremely tender insects, from St. Vincent's, in the 
West Indies, approaching the genus AnoHa, Kirby, form the genus 
Pata/ra, Westw. ; eyes large, emarginated beneath ; ocelli indistinct ; 
yery large warty second antennal joint : P, guttata and albida, Westw. 
— Cenchrea, Westw., has large eyes emarginated beneath, below them 
are distinct ocelli ; small antennas with a roundish tuberculated second 
joint: one species C. donalis, Westw. — Lastly (ibid. p. 20) Zeugma 
is characterized, which, by its wing yeins, occupies a position between 
Derbe and Mygidia^ but (judging from the plate) differs by the keels o£ 
the forehead continuing on to the clypeus, and the posterior tibiae haying 
a spine in the middle : one new spedes Z, vittata, of unknown natiye 
country. 

MEMBRACiDEiB. — Ouc ucw specics, SmUta informiSf from Brazil, has 
been characterized by Westwood (Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. p. 119). 

CicADiED^. — Eyersmann (BulL Mosc. 1842, p. 797) has giyen a 
notice on the dropping willows of Orenburg. The cause of the drops 
was the laryas of an Aphrophora, which yery much resembled the A. 
tpumaaiaf but was more oblong, and of a uniform yellow-grey. He 
names it A, lacrymans; it is, howeyer, distinguished by FaUdn, as 
A. salicia. 

The reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. 285) has described Aphrophora aUn- 
eincta, and Eurytnela hictTicta, from Van Diemen's Land. 

According to Harris (Ins. Mass. p. 184) Tettigonia vitist Harr. Amer. 
Encyd. xyiii. 43 (1''' long, pale yellow, two stripes on the head ; the 

304 



INSECTA — HEMIPTERA. 261 

posterior part of pTothorax, the scutellum, the root, a broad middle band 
and some stripes near to the blackish point of the tegmina, are red ; 
head lunate ; ocelli situated close under the ledge of the forehead), is 
yerj hurtful to the foreign as weU as natiye Tine. Another species, 
T. Fc^HB (pale green, tegmina and wings clear, the last joint of hinder 
tarsi bluish, head lunate, ocelli, on the margin of the forehead), injurious 
to the Windsor bean. 

Stmdulantes. — Westwood (Arcan. Ent. i. p. 92, t. 24, f. 1), has cha- 
racterized a new genus, Cystosoma, which differs most essentially from 
Cicadaf in the abdomen in the male being swollen into the shape of a 
bladder, and the veins of the anterior wings forming, from the middle, 
sexagonal meshes : C SoMndersii, new species &om New Holland. On 
the same plate figures are also given of Polyneura duccUis, Westw.^ 
and Hemidictifa frondoaa, Burm. (ibid. p. 97). Westwood has given 
an enumeration of the species of Cicada, with opaque anterior wings, 
and has increased them by two new species : 0. mea/rsianaf from the 
Himalayah, and G, dives, from Sylhet, which are beautifrilly figured on 
tab. 25, (See also Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. p. 118.) 

The reporter (Arch. 1842, i. p. 286) has described a new species, 
O. torrida, from Van Diemen's Land. It may be noticed, that this 
species only appears in dry summers, and seasons of great heat and 
drought ; and its song is heard during the greatest heat of mid-day. 

PsYLLiDiB. — Under the name of Diraphia, used by Illiger for Livia, 
Waga has characterized a new genus (Ann. d. 1. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. x. p. 275, 
t. 11, f. 11, 12), which is very closely allied to Livia, and differs chiefly 
by the second antennal joint, which is much smaller (about one^foiuth the 
length of antennae), and simply oval. The anterior comers of the head, 
also, are not pointed but rounded : D. linibata, m bushes at Warsaw. 

The reporter (Arch. 1842, L p. 286) has described Peylla hiteola anc^ 
mOfasciata, new species from Van Diemen's Land, 

APHiDiB. — Spence (Transact. Entom. Soc, of Lond. iii. p. 98) describes 
the ravages of these insects in the orchards of Devonshire. The injury, 
in his opinion, is done by the blossoms dying, in consequence of the 
leaves being sucked by these insects before their development. 

Hofinann Edl. von Hofroannsthal has published a work, called Die 
Caruba di Ghiidea, Vienna, 1842. A plate in it represents the gall of 
Pigtacia terebintfrna, with the Aphis which inhabits it. 

Harris (Ins. Mass. p. 190) considers the former of two Aphides found 
in Massachusetts to be Aphis ca/ry<B, Harr. ; a La>chnAis, with a soft 
woolly black body, four rows of small transverse spots on the back, black 
wing-veins and reddish-brown tibiae, ^" long ; it sucks the branches of 
the Ca/rya pordna. The other. A, saliceti; probably also a Lachrvus, 
V long, black, without spots ; the short honey-knobs, the third antennal 
joint, the. legs, and the veins of the transparent wings, tan yeUow ; i\ 

305 U 



262 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDOCCXLII : 

Urm, in mmw, on th« under nde of the bianchei of different wJllowt, 
and appean winged in October. The other speciet mentioned, seem to 
agree with the European ; at one, which liyes on the roots of plants 
(4. g» the Chinese aster), agrees with A. nidicum ; another, on peach 
trees, with A, penieas, Sols. The A, kmigera, Haosm., is also beginning 
to show itself in Ameriffl!, though not as jet rerj widely distributed* 



THTSANURA. 

Wa«a (Ann. d. L Soc. Ent. d. Fr. zL p. 264, 1. 11, f. 5^) has made 
known a new species, distingaished hj its size, under the name of 
Achorute$ hielanemii. It is a true Pockira, and is placed beside the 
P. {trmata, Nic. It is found in the low grounds of the Forest of Bielany, 
on the bank of the Vistula, near Warsaw, in great abundance. The 
author remarks, that at first the young ones have no trace of the spring- 
ing-fork, and questions whether the species of An>wrophorut (Lipara, 
Burm.) may not be the young of this genus. Paul Qerrais has made a 
new genus, Anoura, for the Achoru4e$ tuberculatui, Nic, to which he 
has added a second species, A. roiea. The characters are not giren. 
(Ann. d. 1. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. zL p. 47.) 



PARASITA. 

Tbis order has been treated of by Denny in a comprehensiye monograph, 
** Monographia Anopluromm BritannisB ;" or an Essay on the British 
Species of Parasites, Lond. 1842, Svc, with twenty-six coloured copp^^ 
plates. As the extensive researches of Nitzsch on the Epizoa do not 
seem to have been published, tiiis work not only fills up an evident gap 
in entomological literature, but will also give an impulse to the investi- 
gation of these little regarded animals. The definition of species, of 
which a considerable number of new ones have been observed by the 
author, is well illustrated by engravings. The division into genera and 
sub-genera is that of Nitzsch, only there is a new sub-genus, Nitzchia 
(N". Bwrmeiiteriy from the Swift), added under lAothewn,* Exact in-^ 
vestigations on the parts of the mouth are unfortunately omitted. The 
author has been content to give again, in PedicukiSf t&e erroneous 
figures of earlier observers. 

Qurlt (Mag. f. d. ges. Thierheilk. 8 Jahrg. 4. St. p. 409, t. 4, und 
Jalirg. 1. St. p. 1, 1. 1) has given an excellent representation of the para« 

* Nitzsoh has already long had the honour— at least it is so intended — of 
Isnding his name t^ a geatts of intestinal wwms, 

306 



INaSCTA — ARACHNIDA. 26^ 

•itie inaects liying on our domeitio fowls and mftininiilift. The plates are 
masterly, and although unooloured, far excel those of Denny. Two new 
species hare been observed by him: Ornithobitu €biM^ri$j on the goose; 
and Trichodectu$ caproe, in the goat» 



FOSSIL INSECTS, 

Ungeb has made some remarks on the fossil insects in the clay slate of 
Radoboj, in Croatia (Yerhandl. der Kais. Loop. Acad. d. Naturf. six. ii. 
p. 415). They exceed all other fossil remains of animals, in the number 
of genera, species, and individuals, accompanied also by the traces of 
very many sorts of plants ; and what is strange, fishes and their scales 
are found together with them on one and the same piece of slate; 
many of them exhibit marks of commencing putrefaction, while others 
seem as if the animal had been buried alive. Hym&noptera are most 
numerous, especially ants ; next Diptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, and 
Nev/roptera, and even the coloured wings of a butterfly have been 
found. He has given figures of several Diptera, viz., — Bhipidia 
extincta, major; Bibid Mwrchinsonis, gracilis, lignoHuSy giganteus, en- 
terodeius ; Leptogaster Hellii. There is also an Essay by Charpentier 
(ibid. XX. p. 401, t. 21-23), *' Uber einige fossile Insecten aus Radoboj 
in Croatien," in which are represented the remains of (Edipoda 
mela/nosticta, Myrmeleon hrevipennie, retictUatue ; LibdhUa plaiyp- 
tera. Sphinx atavus, Hylotoma (?) dneracea^ Termes pristinui. His 
remarks on the origin of these remains are worthy of attention, as they 
throw some light on the important geological question, what sort of ca- 
tastrophe destroyed the former creation. These insects, in the author's 
opinion, belonged to the land and air ; their tender parts are preserved 
in such a way, -Uiat the view of their having been swallowed up by a 
deluge cannot be maintained. It is rather to be assumed, that they have 
been killed by currents of air, and have fiillen down, enveloped in a 
shower of dust and ashes, or been covered by a fine shower of slime ; 
an examination of the place, and their position, may lead to a more 
certain conclusion. That they were destroyed during the catastrophe 
is probable, as dead insects, in the open air, are very soon consumed by 
other insects. 



ARACHNIDA. 

OBtnsE has given some €£ the results of his researches on the anatomy 
of the Araeh/fhida (J. MtUler's Arch. f. Anat. u. Physiol. 1S42, p. 296). 
They contain many important hints, among others, that the part 

307 



264 BEPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

nraallj called the tongae, lies above the opening of the mouth, and 
therefore may be oonridered as the upper lip; that, at least in the 
Argyroneta and Epeira, minutely investigated by him, the ring form 
of the stomach is only apparent, and that it arises from the anterior 
extremities having their points lying immediately upon each other, 
without, however, communicating with [uberzugehen] each other ; that 
the heart 6f the spiders and scorpions possesses lateral openings, and is 
surrounded by a membranous reservoir, with which it communicates 
through these openings. 

The development of the Lycosa toccata has been observed by Bathke 
(Froriep. Notiz. xziv. p. 165). A list of the AracJmida observed at 
Chusan has been published by Cantor (Ann. Nat. Hist. iz. p. 491) ; they 
belong to the genera Attus, ThonUsus, Hypoplatea^ Lathrodectus (?), 
Ulohorus, Tetragnatlia, Epeira^ and PhaloAngium, and are, with the 
exception of the Epeira faiciata, Walk., considered as new, and 
shortly characterized. 



ARANEiE. 

Blackwall (Ann. Nat. Hist. x. p. 407) has laid before the Lumiean 
Society of London his further observations on the British Spiders* 

Dhassidji. — Oraells (Ann. d. 1. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. xi. p. 205) has made 
some excellent observations on the Mahnignatte (Lathrodectus l^-guP' 
tatus, Boss, malmignatua, Walk.), partly on its habits, and partly on 
its poisonous qualities; the Mahnignatte is found principally in the 
district of Tarragona, in Catalonia, where, however, it was unknown 
previous to 1830, but became a nuisance in the years 1830, 1S33, and 1481. 
It makes an irregular net in small hollows^ by means of which, and its 
poisonous bite, it overcomes insects which are many times larger than 
itself; it also forms a neatly constructed cell) which is concealed beneath 
dry leaves, and serves as its lurking place. X» oculatus -and erebus are 
found in the same places with the Malmignatte, and are of similar 
habits. The author remarks, that the Malmignatte years were also locust 
years. 

MvoALiDiB. — Numbers four to six of the ninth volume of the Arach- 
nida, by Koich, contain only Mygalidce, viz., — if. avicularia^ L., and 
hirsutissima, a new species from South America ; M. versicolor, zebra. 
Walk., diversipei, plcmta/ris, cmth/racina, lycosiformis, detrita, from 
Brazil ; pltmiipes, from Surinam ; rosea, Walk., fr^m Chili ; IcBta, cassia, 
from Porto Rico ; drassiformis, inccma, from St. Thomas ; cafreriana, 
funebris. Walk., from South Africa; jawcmensis, Walk.» from Java; 
v/rsma, convexd, felvaa, locality unknown ; also Octinopus coffer, fr^m 
the Cape ; loricOftus frvm Mexico ; tarsalis and longipaipus from Monte 

308 



AEACHNIDA — SOLIFUG^. 265 

Video; and a new genus, Teratodes, with long strong legs, very long 
palpi (g), and a small but elevated prominence for the eyes^ on the top 
and at the sides of which they are situated ; with one new species, T, 
deprestuSy from Bra2dl. 

Dtsdbbidjs. — Hentz (Sillim. Amer. Joum. zli. p. 116) has charac- 
terized a new genus, ^ermophora ; it has the eyes in two little clusters, 
«o that three equally large stand on each side, dose to each other; the 
legs are moderately long, thin, the first pair the longest, then the fourth 
and second almost of equal length ; the mandibles short, spherical, with 
yery small daws ; it resembles Pholcua in the parts of the mouth, but 
has shorter legs, and only six eyes. Sp. meridionalis, found in 
Alabama, in dark places under rubbish ; it makes a yery loose web. The 
female makes no web ; she carries about, in her mandibles, her eggs, 
glued to each other, until the young come out. 

The genus Argyroneta, according to the excellent researches of 
Grube, approximates to the Dysderidce, and will, perhaps, require to be 
characterized as a peculiar family ; besides the pleura, it has trachese, 
which arise, pencU-Lped, from Lrt stem. opeLg behind the ^rJ, 
and haye this peculiarity, that they do not ramify (J. MtQler's Archiy. 
1842, p. 300). In a yery interesting treatise on the habits of the 
Argyroneta aquatica (Preuss. Proy. Blatter, 1S42), the same author 
adds the important fact, that in these spiders, the distribution of vessels 
is confined to the abdomen, and is not to be found in the anterior part 
Bs in other spiders, so that the tracheae in it occupy their place ; pro- 
bably the air which surrounds the spider, when it dives underwater, 
comes out of the tracheae. This air keeps off the water by a peculiar 
coating of varnish, and it disappears, according to the author's experi- 
ments, when scratched under water with a needle, and is not seen when 
the insect dives, if the varnish has been previously removed by the 
application of ether. 



SOLIFUG^. 

pHBTNiDiB. — Van der Hoeven (Tidsschr. v. Natuurl. Geschied. en 
Physiol, ix. p. 68, 1. 1) has made a careful examination .of the genus 
Phrynus, partly having for his object the external and internal ana- 
tomy of the Phrynus medius. The following remarks are made on its 
internal structure: — The intestinal canal is straight, without lateral 
branches going to the liver or the pancreas [(?) Fettkorper], as in the 
scorpions. Of the sexual parts the author 6ould give no account. The 
nervous system, so far as it lies in the cephalothorax, appeared to the 
author to consist of a large ganglion, from which radiated branches go 
off to the legs ; a chord passes backwards, which divides, in the abdomen, 

309 



266 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

into two branchet) from which filamentf go off, at acate aaglea, to the 
different parts. The respiratory organs are situated, one pair between 
the first and second, and one between the second and third poetericr 
segments of the body, and consist of about eighty folds lying dose npon 
each other. Finally, he giyes a copious and minute account of the 
species figured or described by different authors, among whom, how- 
ever, we miss Koch, who, in the eighth volume of his '< Araehnida,*' has 
figured a series of species (see Report for 1840, p. 246). It appears £rom 
this treatise, that the Berlin collection is very rich in this genus ; and 
I shall not delay complying with the desire of the author, occasionally to 
give some information concerning them. 

ScoBFiomDJi. — In the first number of the tenth volume of his '^ Araeh- 
nida,^ Koch has figured the following new scorpions: — I§chnuru$ 
melampuSf from the Cape ; OpUtophthalmu% pallipes, ibid. ; Va^ovU 
nitidulfu, from Mexico ; V, caroUnu9, from Carolina ; V. Jlavescens, 
from Braail; F. atperulus, from Mexico, probably identical with 
V, mexiccMug ; Broihea$ hanariensie, from La Plata ; Br, nxgrocinC" 
tus, locality unknown; Br. erythrodactyluSf from Bnudl; Scarpwi 
aravitzenns, from the Banat, nearly allied to 8c. hanaticus; 8c. tiou- 
pUentU, from Qreeoe, very slightiy differing from 8c. italicu8» 

Quyon (Rev. Zool. p. 17; Tlnsitut. p. 43) has reported to the 
Parisian Academy, that there are four species of scorpions found near 
Algiers, and that the effects of the sting of 8c. occitcmus are purely 
loeal, and di»ppe» within twenty-fonr hon«. In smaU uiinuds, SD«ii 
as dogs, cats, and rabbits, the consequences may prove fatal. Merits 
Wagner has given a careful account of the Algerine soQrpions (Reis. in 
Algier, iiL p. 215-221) ; he has observed five species, and given an 
exact account of them, and of the difierent strengths of their poison. 

Obisidxsji. — ^A new species, Chelifer Bravainif from Algiers, has 
been pointed out by Gervais (Ann. d. 1. Soc. £nt. d. Fr. xi. p. 46). 

Qaleodidejs. — Koch has given a systematic view of this family in 
these Archives (1842, i. p. 350), which has made known a great series of 
species, almost exclusively from the Berlin collection; they are divided into 
Ayb genera, of which the most striking variation is in the number of the 
tarsal joints : 8olpuga, Licht. ; the second and third pairs of legs have 
&ur tarsal joints, the fourth have seven besides the heel joint: ten 
species, one from Egypt, and the others from the Cape. Qaleodu, OL ; 
the second and thiid pairs of legs have two joints, the last three : seven 
species, distributed between anterior India, South Russia, and Egypt, 
JSllopus; the three pairs of legs with two joints, the hindmost with- 
out daws : one new species from South Africa. Rhcuc, Herm. ; a short 
unarticulated tarsus to all the legs, terminal joint of palpi concealed : 
four species, from Arabia and Egypt. Olutfia; longer and thinner 
lUnarticulated tarsi to all the legs, free terminal joint of palpi ; seven 

310 



ARACHNIDA — ACARI* 367 

■peeief , one from Portugal, the rest from Central America (to the latter, 
•eyeral species, figured in Ghi^r. Mag. d. Zool., are to be added). 

OPILIONES. 

Gebvais (Mag. d. Zool. 1842, Arachn. pi. 2-5) has described and figured 
two new species : Gonyleptes planters, Gu^r., from the Straits of Ma- 
gellan, and Stygnus inflaius, Gu^r., from Cayenne ; and characterized a 
new genus Phalangodes, which is nearly identical with Pach/ylus, Koch ; 
defining also the species Ph, anacosmettis, perhaps from New Holland — 
it is probably the same as P. granulatus, KolL, from Chili. There iff 
also a species of Cosmetidce added, under the name of Cosmetus fiavi- 
cinctu8. It is not a true Cosmetus, as it has double protuberances on 
the hinder part of its back ; but whether it be a FUrtea, or one of Koch's 
allied genera, is not certain, as the number of the tarsal joints is not 
noticed. It is found at Bogota, and is distinguished frx>m the other Cos- 
metida by the rough spinous hind legs. 

ACARI. 

Oi7R acquaintance with this order has been essentially increased by 
Koch's *' tlbersicht des Arachnidensystems, 3 Hft. 1 und 2 AbtheiL" 
These two numbers extend to Hyd/rcbcfjfu^idai and TromUdidcs. 

The first division of the mites is formed of the Water-iiccMriy with 
swimming feet, in two families : Biyer-acari, HygrobatideSy and Pond- 
acari, Hydrachnides, the former having two, the latter four eyes. The 
Hygrobatides consist of the genera Atase, Dug. ; Nesosa, K. ; Fiona, K., 
Hygrobates, Hydrochoreutes, K. (including the genus Spio) ; Arrhet^ 
urus. Dug. ; AtracHdes, Acereus (formerly Tiphys, K.) ; IHplodontus, 
Dug. ; Maricay K. The HydrdchrUdes consist of Limnesiay K. ; Hy-^ 
drachna, Miill. ; Hydryphantes, K. ; Hydrodoma, K. ; EuUm, Latr. 

As a second division, the author correctly separates the Marshr^acariy 
which, although living in the water, or at least in moist places, have no 
swimming feet, and therefore have not the power of swimming. These 
AoaH have a long thick proboscis, narrowed by steps [stufenweise abge- 
setzten], seven-jointed legs, of which the two anterior pairs are separated 
from the two posterior pairs by a wide space. To this group belong the 
genera LimnochareSf Latr., Tkyas, K., both living in water, and creep- 
ing awkwardly under it ; Smarts, Latr., and Alycus, K., both living on 
moist ground or under wet moss. 

The L<mdr<tcaa% form the third division (as the author has afterwards 
corrected it ; for, by mistake in the text, Ma/nh-aeari is printed), having 
seven-jointed legs, without moveable bristles on them, and a little hook 

311 



V 



268 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

on the )>omt of the mazillaiy lobes ; living on the ground. The first 
family, Trombidides, have free fiisiform palpi, the penultimate joint of 
which resembles a claw, and the terminal joint is articulated at its base, 
as an immoTeable appendage ; the eyes are on a little projection at the 
sides of the proboscis : Confined to the genus Trombidiwnf F., composed 
oi thirty-fiye species, among which T. grandisdrnvm, from the Cape ; 
T. barbatum, from Senegal ; T. Jlavipes, from the south of France ; T. 
hirsuHstimum, from Greece, are described, and figured as new. The 
second family, Bhyncolophides, the author distinguishes, by the eyes 
being placed sidewards on the back of the anterior part of the body : It 
contains the genera RhyncolophuSy Dug. ; Smaridiaf Dug. ; Eryth/rceus, 
Latr. ; Stigmceus, K. ; Caligonus, K. ; Raphignathus, Dug. ; AcHneda, 
E. ; TetromychuSf Dug. 

A fourth division, the Rtmning-^icari, is formed of such as have 
siz-jointed legs, and a small pair of nippers at the point of the maxillary 
lobes. The only family, Ewpodides, has two small, scarcely visible eyes, 
the fore and after parts of body distinctly separated from each other, 
free ^iform palpi, and a short proboscis, elongated fore-legs, serving for 
walking and feeling, and contains the genera Bryobia, Scyphdus, PentOr- 
leus, LmopodeSf Enpodes, Tydeus, K., which prefer moist places. 

Gervais has noticed various AccMri (Ann. d. 1. Soc. £nt. d. Fr. zi. p. 
46) : Holothyru» is a new genus of the family of the OribatidcB, with 
its body convex above, shield-shaped, flat beneath, marginated laterally, 
the upper surface consisting of a single piece ; no eyes, long four-jointed 
moveable palpi, legs long, and with daws : one species, H, coccinella, 
locality unknown. Dermcmysfus coriaceus, living on the wings of the 
Ve^pertilio noctula ; another Dermcmysaus was found under the scales 
of Coluber natriof. Ixodes Walkemjerif from the rhinoceros ; /. Btbroni, 
from a boa ; /. coxalis, from a New Holland sldnk, are also named. 

Gurlt has given an admirable representation of the Acctri living as 
parasites on domestic animals. (Magaz. f. d. ges. Thierheilk, ix. Jahrg. 
1. St. p. 18, 1. 1.) 

A discovery of Dr. G. Simon has attracted much attention, viz., — that 
of an AccMTUs living in the human skin (Mull. Arch. f. Anat. u. Physiol. 
1842, p. 218, 1. 11). ' Henle has also found the same animal, and given 
an account of it in the Zurich " Offentlichen Beobachter" (Dec, 1841). 
He, however, so fiir mistook the nature of the animal, as to consider it 
as an intestinal worm. At a later period (Bericht iiber die Verhandl. d. 
Naturf. Gesellsch. in Basel v. p. 191) Miescher also communicated his 
observations upon it, which confirm, in general, those of Simon, and in 
individual cases are more ample. Simon found Acari of ^^^^^ long, first 
in comedones, and soon after in healthy hair-sacs of the human skin ; 
and it was soon evident, that they might be there without being pre- 
judicial. Usually only one Acarus was found in a hair-sac, sometimes 
312 



ARACHNIDA — ACARI. 269 

two, rarely more ; but in one dilated sac, containing many hairs, a com- 
pany, of thirteen individuals was discovered. The examinations were 
mostly confined to the skin of the nose (Simon), and the external organ 
of hearing (Henle, Miescher). Simon observed three different states of 
the animal, which in many points varies remarkably &om other Acari, 
principally in the legs, which are short stumps like those of the Tardi- 
grades, furnished at the end with claws. In the most frequent form the 
body is long and narrow, linear, the abdomen much elongated, and there 
are four pair of legs. The parts of the moufh are composed of a rather 
short, prominent proboscis, which is formed by an under-lip resembling 
a myrtle-leaf, and pointed mandibles lying upon it, and a pair of two- 
jointed palpi, the little knob-shaped terminal joint of which is moveable 
in all directions. In other forms the tarsi are the same ; but the abdo- 
men is remarkably shortened and conical. A third form has the long 
but still slenderer form of body of the first, but only three pairs of legs. 
This last I consider as the youngest condition, the second the more 
advanced. It does not appear to me probable, that the development is 
concluded in these three forms, and further observation is required. 
The internal structure is as yet unknown, as also the organs of propa- 
gation. So long as this is the case, it remains doubtful whether all these 
forms may not be young states of an Acarus, perhaps of a quite different 
shape, and found in other places. With this impression, Simon has not 
given it a generic name, but only marked it as Aca/rus folliculorum, 
Miescher was not satisfied with this name, and has called it Macrogaster 
platypus. 

Another Acarus has been found four times in comedones of the 
human skin, by Prof. Erdl, and is figured in Jul. Yogel Icones Histologiae 
Pathologicse, t. 21, f. 7> It is not accurately defined ; but the figure points 
to a DermanyseuSy almost exactly agreeing with the D. avium, even to 
the longer proboscis, which considerably projects beyond the palpi. 

For some time there was much noise in England about an experi- 
ment by Crosse, who obtained, by galvanism, a peculiar species of 
Acarus, The matter was brought before the Entomological Society of 
London last year. Newport made a communication from a Mr. Wheekes, 
who had obtained Aca/ri in the same way as Crosse. Gray, on the other 
hand, stated, that Children has also instituted a series of experiments 
at the British Museum, precisely similar to those of Crosse, without ob- 
taining a single Acarus (Proc. Ent. Soc. p. 55 ; Ann. Nat. Hist. x. p. 69). 
It was afterwards mentioned in the Entomologist (p. 307), that an Ento- 
mologist in Exeter (not named) had proved the Acarus of Crosse to be a 
well-known species widely distributed in houses, and added, that Crosse 
had a whole nest of them in his house, without beiag aware of it ; and 
80 it happened, that if one of them accidentally got into his apparatus^ 
he believed that he had obtained it by his experiment. 

313 



270 REPORT ON 200L00T, MDCCCXLII : 



PYCNOGONIDES. 

This order has reoeiyed an aooession of new species from H. Goodsir 
(James. Edinb. New. Fhilosoph. Joum. zzziL p. 136, t. 3) : PhoxuMli- 
diwn globotwn (with globular swollen thighs), from Orkney ; PaUeru 
circulariSf from the Frith of Forth ; Pephredo MVsuta, from the German 
Ocean ; Nymphon John$tonii (ibid.) ; N, pellucidum and N. minutum, 
from the Frith of Forth ; N, spinoium, locality not given. The new 
genus Pephredo, has, as characteristics : daw-shaped jaws ; three-jointed 
palpi, of the length of the short cylindrical proboscis ; six-jointed egg- 
bearing tarsi ; the first tarsal joint small ; no accessory claws ; in general, 
it resembles Phanodemui co$t. (S. Archiy. 1843, 1 Bd. p. 181), but 
differs in the form of body, which is narrow and contracted like Nymphon^ 
while in the former the body is orbicular ; so that the two genera cannot 
be united. P^hredo comes nearer Nymphon. 



CRUSTACEA. 

Caktob has cursorily made known the Crtutaeea obseryed at Chusaa 
(Ann. Nat. Hist iz. p. 490). These are, — Corctnus olivaceuSf new 
species (greenish-oliye aboye ; beneath white, with a single spine on the 
anterior part of the internal margin of the femur) : Sesarma tetror' 
gona, new species (aboye green, beneath greenish-grey ; arms and claws 
red) ; 8e; quadrata, £dw. ; Pti^kenum orfuUua, OL ; Sguilla mantU, F. ; 
and an undefined Limulus. 



DECAPODA. 

Bathkb has made a contribution to the natural history of the Decapoda, 
in the Neuest Schr. der Naturf. Gesellsch. in Danzig, 3 Bd. 4 Hft. p. 23, 
which finishes the notices, cursorily made already in yol. yi. of these 
Arch. 1 Bd. p. 241, on A$tacu$ ma/rinus, Pagwrus hemhardus, Oalathea 
rugosa, and Hyai a/raneue ; and, at last, after repeated inyestigations 
into the deyelopment of the river cray-fish, he comprehends the history 
of the metamorphosis of the Decapoda under the following general 
points of view : — 

1. Thomson's important discovery of the metamorphosis of the OrtM- 
ta^ea, formerly doubted by the author, is completely confirmed. — 2, Per- 
haps no Decapod comes from the egg complete in exterior form ; even 
in the river cray-fish, in which the deviation is smallest, the want of 

314 



CRUSTACEA — DECAPODA. 271 

the four lateral leaves of the caudal fan, and the pzoportionably shorter 
and thicker thoracic and thinner caudal parts, is to be remarked. In 
the lobster, the posterior feet are wanting, and the ambulatory feet 
have appendages for the purpose of swimming ; the young of Pcbgurut^ 
OcUathea, Cro/ngon, Pakcnwn, and Hyas, have, when they leave the 
egg, neither abdominal members, posterior legs, nor gills ; the propor- 
tions of the cephalothorax and abdomen are quite different ; the former 

has often poooesses which afterwards become contracted 3. The most 

essential difference of form between the young and adult is, that the 
thoracie portion of the anterior part of the abdomen, during growth, if 
retiorded more or less in its development, and with it, also, that of the 
ambulatory legs and gills. These parts are farthest advanced in their 
development in the river cray-fish ; whilst in Po^rterus, Galathea, &c.» 
they are altogether wantmg.— 4. The equalization of these differencea 
oocors, in the lower grade, by alterations of the proportions (aa is the 
case in the river cray-fish), in the higher, by the transformation of 
individual parts, as well as of the whole body. — 5. The varieties of form 
between tiie young and adult individuals of the same species are greater, 
in. an inverse ratio, to the degree of development in which the embryo 
leaves the egg. — 6. The following are the causes of the metamorphosia 
of the Dec(ipoda: — a. Portions of the body are afterwards formed: 
d. Those already present increase in size, without essential alteration of 
form : c. Or they, at the same time, alter in form : d. On the contrary, 
other parts are retarded in their growth : e. Others, again, are entirely 
cast off. — 7. It is worthy of attention, that the river cray-fish, wheii it 
comes from the egg, can only creep, while the young of the sea Decapoda 
swim. — 8. With regard to the limbs of the Deca/poday the rule in 
general seems to be, that they divide into two branches, and as develop- 
ment proceeds, each branch takes a different form and direction, (If 
we find in Decapoda and Stomapoda, the giU-bearing members simple, 
but those without gilla deft, the conclusion is, that the gills correspond 
to the second branch of the limbs. But, according to Rathke's obser- 
vations on the lobster, the case is different; the gills are formed by 
themselves, and one branch of the ambulatory feet becomes wholly obli- 
terated). — 9. In some Cru$t<icea, the deft feet remain during life (MysU), 
— 10. However much the young lobsters resemble Schizapoda^ particu- 
larly in their organs of motion, the development in these, in general, 
goes upon quite a different plan. — 11. All the Ampkipoda, without ex- 
ception, appear very like their parents at the time they leave the egg ; 
in other orders, particularly the Decapoda and Isopoda^ great differences 
exist. 

H. Goodsir (James. Edinb. New Philos. Joum. xziii. p. 181) has con- 
firmed, in opposition to Westwood, Thompson's discovery of a change of 
the Deeepoda^ in Careinvs moenas and Pagwms bemAordus, without 

315 



272 REPORT ON iSOOLOGY, 31DCCCXL1I : 

his being aioqiiainted with what had been done on this point by German 
Zoologitti. 

Krojer hat given, in his monograph on the northern species of Hip- 
polyte, his obeerrations on the deyelopment of Hippolyte, Homarus, 
and Cymopolia. The embryo of Cymap. Caranii is distinguished &om 
the embryo of other Bnuhyura^ as only the hindmost pair of the tho- 
racic members project externally. (Dorsal and frontal spines first 
show themselves after the first exuviation.) The representation of the 
embryo of the lobster agrees essentially with that of Rathke. The 
young of Hippolyte polcMris have very large sessile eyes, inclining 
towards each other; the antennae placed under the eyes, the inner 
being three-jointed, the outer six-jointed, and with a two-jointed leaf- 
like appendage ; the foot-jaws are cleft, the outer branch of the second 
and both branches of the third pair elongated ; the ambulatory feet short 
and simple ; the members of the swimming-tail consist of one common 
basal joint and two leaflets. 

Joly (Instit. p. 239 ; Rev. Zool. p. 229) has observed the young of 
Hypolyte Deimarutiif which, as they come from the egg, have schizo- 
podouB feet, like those of Myns ; the front divided, a shovel-formed tail, 
no caudal members, three pair of thoracic feet, very large sessile eyes, 
unjointed antennal processes, and no gills. He could not completely 
distinguish the formation of the mouth in the little animal, at moat 
2^'' long, yet he distinguished the mandibles, two pair of perfectly de- 
yeloped maxillae, and a single pair of foot-jaws. The young of this spe- 
cies evidently show many deviations from that observed by Kroyer, yet, 
in other respects, the H, Desmarestii differs from the true ffippolytes. 
It is a fortunate circumstance, that observations on the development of 
the Decapoda, which is so various, are thus iucreasing. 

The Decapoda of Ireland have been enumerated, and a list furnished, 
accompanied by valuable remarks on their distribution, by W. Thompson 
(Ann. Nat. Hist. x. p. 274:). The part of this enumeration before me 
contains the Brachyura, 

Parthbnopii. — Milne Edwards and Lucas (Archiv. du Mus. d*Hist. 
Nat. ii. p. 479, t. 28) have made known two new species, one of which 
forms a new genus, called EurynolambrvSf because it unites, the charac- 
teristics of EtMrynome and Lambrus. The carapace is strongly dilated 
at the sides, covering the second and third pairs of feet ; the basal joint 
of the external antennae very large, anteriorly soldered to the front, the 
moveable portion inserted beside the groove of the internal antennae : 
the species, E. cbustraUs, is from New Zealand. The other, Oryptopodda 
a/aguloMby native country unknown, is distinguished from the Cr.fomir- 
cata, by the crenated margins of the carapace. 

Gbapsoidei. — One new species, Orapsus strigilatus, Adam White 
(Gray Zool! Misc. ii. p. 78), from New Zealand, is allied to Chr, varius. 

316 



CRUSTACEA — DEC APOD A. 273 

HoMOLii. — ^Milne Edwards and Lucas (Arclii?. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. 
ii. p. 463, t. 24-27) haye eharacterized a new species of the genus 
Lithodes : L. hrevipes, from the South Sea, distinguished by the short- 
ness of the rostrum and the legs. 

HippiDES. — The same authors (ibid. p. 474, t. 28) have founded a 
new group, called Albtmhippa, indicating its close alliance to AUmnea 
as well as Hippa ; the four antennas are of equal length, the external 
thicker, the internal deft at the point ; the peduncle of the ejes slender, 
cylindrical ; both anterior feet have double fingered daws : the native 
country of the A, tpinosaf which was unknown to the authors, is the 
coast of Peru. 

AsTACiNi. — A new sub-genus, PcMranepJvrops, has been formed by 
Adam White (Gray, Zool. Misc. ii. p. 79), from P. planifrans, a new 
species, found by DiefPenbach in the Riyer Thames in New Zealand. 
The author places it between Astacus (Potamobius) and Nephrops ; 
the eyes are large, as in Nephrops, the sides of the second section of the 
carapace haye a spine, as in Astacus (but a long series of the species of 
Astacus haye not this spine !) ; the rostrum has three teeth on the sides j 
the scale of the external antennae projecting far oyer the thickened 
joints ; the first two joints of the internal foot-jaws spinous on the out- 
side ; the middle leaf of the caudal fin of one piece ; the first pair of 
feet more slender than in Nephrops, the claws only flatly channeled 
with few rows of spines ; of the four other pairs of feet, the first is the 
shortest (in Nephrops the last), the second the longest, the last two of 
about the same length. Form that of Astacus* 

Caiudes. — ^Eroyer (yide Sel. Natury. og math Afh. ix. D.) has given a 
very exact account of the northern species of the genus Hippolyte. 
There are fourteen species described, grouped as follows : — A. The ex- 
ternal foot-jaws with one palpus, but without the whip-like appendage. 
a. Legs also without it : H. sma/rcbgdma, new spedes from the coast of 
Norway. — B. Palpi and whip-like appendage to the external foot-jaw. 
h. Whip-like appendage to the first pair of feet : H, Fahricii, from 
Greenland, c. Whip-like appendage to the first two pairs of feet : H, 
Oaimardii, Edw. ; H. gtbba, new spedes from Spitzbergen ; H, mutila, 
new spedes from the coast of Norway, d. Whip-like appendage to the 
first three pairs of feet : H. Sowerbei, Leadi (Comcer spinus, Sow.) ; H, 
macilenta, new species from Greenland ; H, turgida, new species frt)m 
the coast of Spitzbergen, Greenland, and the north of Norway; H. 
PkipptU, new species, ibid. ; H, pusiola, new spedes from Christians- 
sund. — C, Whip-like appendage, but no palpus to the external foot-jaws. 
«. Whip-like appendage to the first two pairs of feet : H. poUms, Sab., 
very abundant on the coast of Greenlaud, also found at Spitzbergen and 
the coast of Norway ; H. horealis, Owen, ibid. /. Appendage to the first 
three pairs of feet : H, aculeata, O. Fabr. {Cctnc* gronlandicus, J. Chr. 

317 



274 RBPORT OM ZOOLOGY, MDCCCZLII : 

. Fab.) ; H, mierocero$, new tpedet from QieenUuid. The same author 
(Nator. Hift Tidnkr. ir. p 217) hat illutrated the northern epecieB of 
Crang&n* He diyidet them into three genera : Argis^ Ei^ without tob- 
trom, the eyes almoet concealed under the carapace, parallel, much 
longer than thick ; branchin and second pair of &et as in Crangon ; the 
legs of the fourth and fifth pairs dilated at the point; swimming feet: 
Oran^on /or, Owen. Crangon, in its present limits, has a short ros- 
trum, free direrging thick eyes, five pairs of branchisB (no absorbed 
branchia on the foot-jaws of the second pair), the second pair of feet 
ending in daws, the legs of the fi>urth and fifth pairs pointed, ambula^ 
tory feet : Cr. horea$, Phipps ; O. nanus, small new species found in 
the South Cattegat, and Cr. vulgaris, F. 8abinea, Owen, differing from 
Crangon by six pairs of branchiss, and also by the branchial rudiment 
present on the fi>re-feet of the second pair, and by a very short second 
pair of feet without daws ; with the species 8. T-carinata, Owen ; Cran- 
gon 7'Carinata, Sabine, Edw. 

The genus Cuma, Milne Edw. (Ann. de. Sc. Nat. ziii. p. 292), and 
which was afterwards rejected by the same author (Hist. Nat. d. Crust. 
iiL p. 553), with the remark, that it is probably the larra of tk Decapod, 
has been pointed out by Eroyer (Natorh. Tidsskr. iii. p. 503. t. 5, 6. — 
Isis, 1842. p. 915), who found eggs in a female, as a perfect form and an 
independent genus, whidi is increased with four new spedes, yiz., — (7. 
Edwa/rdiii, from the South of Greenland, apparently blind ; C. Bathkii, 
nasica and lucifera, in the Cattegat. AH these spedes haye five seg- 
ments of the anterior part of body, beddes the cephalic portion, while 
Edward's C. Audouimi has only four. 

STOMOPODA. 

Cabidioides. — H. Goodsir (James. Edinb. N. Phil. Joum. zzziii. p. 17^ 
t. 2.) has described a new genus and three new species of this family. 
The new genus, TJiemisto, has a near relation with Mytis, and is distin- 
guished by the first, second, and fifth pairs of the caudal members being 
jointless and simple; those of the third and fourth pairs are more 
strongly developed ; deft feet. To this two of the new species belong : 
Th, longi^pina and hrevispina; the third is Cynthia Flemingii: aU 
three are from the Frith of Forth. 



AMPHIPODA. 

Oammakina. — ^This family has been enriched by Kroyer (Naturh. Tidsskr. 
It. p. 141.) with a number of new northern genera and spedes. Hie 
new genera are : — Opis, agreeing with Anonyx, even to the very large 

318 



CRUSTACSA — AMPHIPODA. 276 

fore-feet: O. Etchrichtii, from Oreenlaad, 4^'' long. Stegocephalus : 
eyes apparently wanting, head very large, almost concealed by the 
large shield-formed epimera, which also covers the legs ; upper antennn, 
with a rery small jointless whip-like appendage ; the mandibles with 
very short jointless palpi ; feet simple : 8t, injlaius, from Greenland^ 
V long. Phoxus; head very large, anteriorly produced and pointed; 
antennsB on its under side, the two pairs standing one behind the other; 
both have a thick pedicel ; the mandibles haye very long palpi ; tiie 
two anterior feet formed for grasping: Ph, Holbdlii and pUMno9U9, 
Pantoporeia ; the first pair of feet with claws, the third pair grasping ; 
the seventh with a shield-shaped dilated first joint ; epimera large : P. 
femorataj from Greenland. PivrdcUisca; the fourth joint forming a 
hand on the first and second pairs of legs, the fifth and sixth a daw, yet 
so that the sixth joint is elliptical and spinous at the margin ; epimera 
very small : P. etupidata, from Greenland. Promedeia ; the feet of the 
second pair small, no daW-like hand, but on the third and fourth pairs 
the two terminal joints unite into a long daw, which forms, with the 
third and fourth, a grasping hand ; epimera short, the fourth, fifth, and 
sixth pairs of the abdominal members formed for leaping : P. fasciata, 
fix>m Greenland. Ampeliica, like AmpJUtoe ; the seoond pair of feet 
simple, the third and fourth pairs have a hand, the palm of whidi is 
formed from the third, the fingers horn the fourth, fifth, and sixth 
joints : A, Eschrichtii, from Greenland. PhotU; the first two pairs of 
feet have a daw-shaped hand, the fifth is curved backwards, standing 
reversed, with rudimentary daw-joint ; the epimera very large : PA. 
Reinha/rdi, from Greenland. (Edieeros ; forehead elongated to a more 
or less pointed or blunt proboscis, whidi always sweUs into a transparent 
reddish yellow knob ; eyes apparently wanting ; the two anterior pairs of 
feet have a large claw-shaped hand, the seventh pair very long and thin : 
(E. 9a>ginatuB, not rare in the Greenland Seas, also on the north coast of 
Norway. Lafystius ; head depressed, terminating in a proboscis ; the two 
short, strong, fusiform pairs of antennas, articulated, one behind the other, 
under the proboscis ; the eyes on the upper surfiw^ of the head ; the first 
pair of feet very slender, the hand linear, the second short and strong, 
with the hand quadrate, the rest strong-dawed ; epimera of middling 
size ; L. iturionis, in great numbers under the pectoral fins of the stur- 
geon, also on the SquaL galeus; the only parasitic Amphipod yet 
known. 

The new spedes of the known genus are : — Leucothoe clypeata, firom 
Greenland; L. glacialis, from Spitzbergen; Oammarug dentatus, 
firom Greenland ; Aocmthanotus ir^flatus, from Spitzbergen and Green- 
land ; Ischyroceros cmguipss and latipes, from Qreenland ; Podocen^ 
Lectehu, living in a cuticolar tube-like Cerapui. The author remarks, 
that with regard to the form of the seoond pair of feet, the female is a 

319 



276 REPORT OK ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

Podocerus, the male an Ericthiynius, This genus most therefore be 
abolished. In the genus Anonyx, Kr., he has remarked, that in the 
male, the antennas are not only longer, but the inferior are even pro- 
vided with a number of small cuticular appendages, which probably 
•enre for laying hold of the female in copulation. To this may be added 
A, appendiculosus, of which A, lagena is the female. The same relation 
is found in the aboTe-named genera, Opist PhoxU, and Ampelisca, and is 
also present in the Amphitoes ; so Amphitoe crenulata and inermia are 
male and female of the same species, &c 

Htpbbina. — Guerln (Bey. ZooL p. 214, 1. 1, f. 1,) has made known a 
new genus, CysHsoma, with two triple-jointed antennae ; the first two 
pairs of feet small, terminating in daws, the other legs long, narrow, 
and flat, the fifth pair longest ; distinguished from Daira by the un- 
equal legs ; from Themisto by the want of the under antennas ; from 
Primno by the daws on the fore pair of feet. The species, O. NepPunus, 
of unusual size (3'' 4f"), comes from the Indian Ocean. 

Oaprellima. — ^H. Goodsir (James. Edinb. N. PIul. Joum. zxxii. p. 
183, t. 3) has described four species of Caprella^ observed in the Frith 
of Forth. 0. ^tnosa, of the author, is distinguished from O. phasma, by 
the position of the spines on the central rings of the body; C, tubercviata^ 
is probably identical with Gu^rin's species of the same name ; C, lasvist . 
of the author, seems to agree with C linearis, Hbt., and C, linearis, of 
the author, must therefore be a new species. He appends some remarks 
also on their habits and internal structure. They live in deep water on 
coral reefs, are very deliberate and slow, sit upright as they fasten them- 
selves by the hind legs, and bring small animals to their mouth with the 
antennae. They often cast their skin. The alimentary canal is simple 
and straight, pulsating irreg^ularly ; the long narrow ovaries at each 
side of the alimentary canal are also subject to this pulsation. They arQ 
each composed of a single row of eggs. 

ISOPODA. 

AsBLLOTA. — The genus Tcmais, Edw., has been increased by Kroyer 
(Naturh. Tidsskr. iv. p. 167, t. 2) with a series of new species, viz. : — 
T. Savignyi, from Madeira ; T, Edwardsii, ibid ; T. duhius, from Ba- 
hia ; T, gracilis, from Spitzbergen ; T, tomentosus, from the Norwegian 
Sea ; T. Oerstedii and T. curcuUo, from the Qresund. 



MTRIAPODA. 



4( 



Notes on Myriapoda'^ have been published by Walker (Entomol. 
p. 237, 293). They relate chiefly to the young state of several species, 

320 



ENTOMOSTRACA. 277 

without exactly defiiung tlie age of indiyiduals in qnestion ; nor is the 
development followed out. Cantor (Ann. Nat. Hist. iz. p. 493) jias 
enumerated the Myriapoda, collected bj him at Ghusan. There are 
three species : Scolopendra marntcms ; and two new ones, Polydernnm 
bicolor, and Scutigera rufipea, 

Chilognatha. — A new genus, Seolapendrella, with one pair of ocelli, 
has been pointed out bj Geryais (Ann. d. 1. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. zi. p. 47) : 
8c, notacantha, inhabits the gardens of Paris. 

Chilopoda. — Newport (Proceed. Zool. Soc. p. 177) has enriched the 
family of the OeophiUdcB with some new genera. — 1. MecUtocephahis is 
distinguished by the elongated head, and contains M.fenrugineuB, Koch ; 
M, maxiUariSy Oery. ; and three new species : M, ptmctifrons, from 
India; M. Chiildingiif from St. Vincent (West Indies); and M^py/nc- 
tildbium, habitat not known. — 2. NecrapMceophagus, sub-genus of 
OeophiluSf correi^nding to the Geaph. l&rifficomes, Gery., contains the 
O. langicomis, Leach (electricvs, Gery.) — 3. Oonibregmatus, with short 
transyerse front ; projecting, thick, folded lip, adapted for suction ; long 
body, consisting of more than 160 rings, of which the two or three last 
are dilated and tuberous ; small posterior graspers for creeping. The 
G, Oummgii, a new species, 5'' bng, is from the Philippines. The author 
supposes, that Geophilus Walkenaeri may belong also to this genus. 



ENTOMOSTRACA. 

PHYLLOPODA. 

An ample treatise on a new Entomostracony allied to the Limnadia, 
lately disooyered at Toulouse, and called Iscmra cycladioides, has been 
published by Joly (Ann. d. Sc. Nat. xyii. p. 293). Subsequently (ibid, 
p. 349) he has communicated some farther inyestigations on the allied 
animals hitherto known, from which it appears, that the genera Igcmray 
Joly, Estheriay Riipp., and Cyzicus, Audouin, come together ; and that 
iBaura cycladioideSy Joly (= Cyzic. Bravauii, And.), from France; 
Limncbdia tetracerat Erynicki, from Russia ; and Estheria dahcUacermg, 
Riipp., from Nubia; are three species of this genus, for which the author 
has retained his name Iscmra, Audouin's name has remained uncon- 
firmed, although it possesses the right of priority to tiie Estkeria of 
RiippoIL The essential characteristics of the genus consist in this, 
that the yery mollusk-like shell has projecting whorls, and that the pear- 
shaped process of the front in Lim/nadia, is wanting in this genus. 
The shell, as in many biyalye shells, has yery distinct concentric striae, 
but such, in fewer number, are also found in Limnadia^ which in this 
respect, howeyer, offers some yariety. In Isaura cycladioidesy the 
shell resembles much that of a Cyclas; it consists of a number of 

321 X 



278 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

lajen, united by animal matter, and laid above one another, but which 
can be separated bj maoeratian in caustic alkali. The alimentaiy canal 
is siviple, without cecum ; it also wants saHyarj glands and Hver. The 
vascular system, in grown individuals, is not easily examined. The 
organs of respiration appear chiefly to be the membranous feet, which 
have a great similarity to those of the seventh or ninth pairs of Apus* 
The males are distinguished by a pair of peculiarly-formed grasping- 
feet, which are situated before the branchial members ; besides these, no 
male organs could be found. The ovaries of the female resemble those 
of Apus ; but no external passages could be found. The author con- 
siders, as the brain, a flattened part, situated under the eyes, which 
sends up a thin process towards them, while the optic nerves pass 
off from the posterior extremity. The oesophageal ring and ganglionic 
chain could not be perceived. The isaura always swims with the back 
upwards, not by means of the branchial membranes, but only by their 
ramose rudder-like members, which the author calls antennae. Con- 
fervsQ were found in the intestines as nourishment. Copulation takes 
place, as the author had abundant opportunity of observing, by the male 
grasping, with his daws, the under margin of the shell of the female, 
and penetrating, with the end of his body, between the two shells. 
How the seminal fluid arrives at the egg, the author has not observed. 
The fertility is very great. He counted, in one female, a thousand eggs. 
The development of the young agrees, in a great degree, with those of 
Branckipvis and Artemia, as they come out of the egg. They have two 
pair of large rudder-shaped membranes, the second of which afterwards 
shrinks, as the branchial members develop themselves. At first neither 
blood nor circulation can be seen ; after six days, globules of blood, and 
dorsal vessels, show themselves ; and the beginning of the shell appears, 
like a horizontal membrane, upon the back. Two days afterwards, the 
shell becomes perpendicular, and encloses the little animaL The bran- 
chial members are then found so far developed, that the second pair of 
rudder-shaped members have dieiappeared ; while, on the contrary, the 
first pair have attained a greater degree of development. 

Waga (Ann. d. 1. Soc. Ent. d. Fr. xi. p. 261, 1. 11, f. 1-4) has made 
known a new species, BrcmcMpTis torvicamis, which is remarkable for 
the great hook-formed organs of the male, which are twisted, and send 
off several branches. He found it in the neighbourhood of Warsaw, 
in a deep dirty puddle. 



SIPHONOSTOMA. 

H. D. GooDSiR (James. Edin. New Philos. Joum. xxxiiL p. 178 ; Ann. d. 
Sc. Nat. xviii. p. 18S) has given some observations on the development of 
322 



CIRRIPEDIA. 279 

Caligus. The ovaries lie in the fore-part of the bodj, often even before 
the stomach ; the eggs come out first into the inner, and then into the 
outer OTiduets. The latter haye a peculiar construction, which necessi- 
tates a gradual progression of the egg. It has, namely, transrerse seg- 
ments at regular distances, which must be broken through by the ripest 
egg, before it can force itself into the next empty celL The lairsB are 
like those of Cyclops and Lemcea, 



CIRRIPEDIA. 

A NOTICE, by Hinds, is to be found in the Ann. Nat. Hist. iz. p. 256, 
that he met with, at sea, in north latitude 36^ 9^, west longitude 164°, 
Anatifa grouped together in bunches, without any marks of attachment 
to foreign substances. The water was likewise full of minute animals of 
the most lively motions. The Anatifa was present in astonishing num- 
bers, and 332 English miles were travelled amongst them. 

A notice of the presenoe of small fossil Entomostraca in Sussex, 
in limestone, has been given by John Fhilipps, in the Proceedings of 
the British Association, 1841, p. 64. They are small Cyprides, whidi 
are found in the inferior strata of limestone. Isotelus megistoa, Locke 
(Sillim. Amer. Joum. xliL p. 366, t. 3), is a huge new TrilMte. It 
differs from T. gigas, by a bristle-formed process of the posterior comer 
of the shield. 



323 



REPORT 



ON THE 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE 
ANNELIDES, DURING THE YEAR 1842. 



BY 



PEOFESSOK C. TH. V. SIEBOLD OF ERLANGEK 



Oersted has rendered much serrice to the correct knowledge 
of the Annelides, in haying described the Doraihranchiata 
of Greenland; and subjected the genus Nais to a more 
minute reyision, in regard to the species natire in Denmark. 

From his first treatise, *^ Udtog af en Beskrivelse af Groenlands An- 
nulata dorsibranchiata, Erojer, Natnrh. Tidsskr. B. 4, Hit. 2, 1842, 
p. 109/' we leam, that O. Fabricius biew twentj-seyen Dornbrcmchi- 
ata ; and Oersted haying added sixteen new ones, forty-three are now 
known in Qreenland, Of these, ten species are in common with Den- 
mark, which possesses forfy-two; and three with France, which has 
fifty-one species of these animals. In the enmneration of the species, 
Oersted has not only exactly discriminated them, and added their 
synonymes, but he has also giyen the characters of the genera. 

Of the family of the AphroditecBf fiye species are enmnerated : Xept- 
donote scabraf cirrata, and ptmctata ; Polynoe langa ; and Pholoe 
minuta. 

Of AmphiiMymeaif he mentions as new Euph/rowne horealis, Oerst., 
oorpore flayescente oyato-oblongo, segmentis 26-27, eminente capitis 
parte elongato-oyali, tentacnlo uno semigloboso, branchiis 9-10 bi-tri- 
partitis, cirro superiore nullo. 

To the Evmicece he adds the Onuphis EschrichHi, Oerst. ; corpore 
supra conyexo, subtus piano, segmentis 50-60, stria transyersa fusca 

324 



annelideTs. 281 

in quoque segmento, oims postoocipitalibus longitudinem capitis sequan-^ 
tibus, pionis (ramis) in segmentis duobns primis ezoeptis, brevissimis, 
branchiis bipartitis basi pinnarum affizis. 

Of Nereides nineteen species are eniuneirated. Oersted divides the 
genus Nereis into the sub-genera, Nereis, L., Lycoris, Say;, and Hetero- 
nereis, Oerst.; the latter principally characterized bj its anteriorly 
twisted round, and posteriorly flattened body. To Nereis pelagica, 
and diversicolor ; Phyllodoce maculata, Syllis armillaris, Eulalia 
viridis ; Eteone fia/ua and longa, and Nephtys cceca, all of which 
Fabricius has mentioned. Oersted adds the following: — Heteronereis 
paradoxa, Oerst. {Nereis longissima, Johnston ?) ; Heteronereis assimi- 
lis, Oerst. (Nereis renalis, Johnst. ?) ; and Heteronereis aretica, Oerst., 
capite elongato oonico 4-5 segmenta sequentia longitudine aequante, 
maxillis parum tortis crenulatis, parte antica corporis ez 20 segmentis 
constante lobis pinnarum partis anticse omnibus abbreyiatis rotundatis^ 
cirro superiore quater vel quinquies longiore quam lobo primo ; in parte 
postica lobo primo subacuminato, ceteris abbreviatis rotundatis, cirro 
superiore prominentiis 9-10 distinctis prsedito. 

PoLTBosTBicHus is characterized as a new genus, with the following 
diagnosis: — Corpus lineare diepreissum ex duabus partibus, anteriore et 
posteriore forma inter se discrepantibus, constans. Caput appendicibus 
tentacularibus 11 instructum, palpi duo minuti, 4 tentacula, cirri tenta- 
culares quinque. Os inferum absque maxillis. Oculi ducx In antica cor- 
poris parte pinnsB oonnatae setis falcatis prseditee, in postica pinnae 
discretae, in superiore setae compositas falcatas. Cirrus superior diversae 
formas in antica et postica corporis parte, cirrus inferior nuUus. This 
genus is represented by P, longisetosa, Oerst. {Nereis corniculata, 
Miill.?) 

Phyllodoce groenla/ndica is new ; corpore viridi depresso, capite cor- 
date paulo latiore quam longiore antice truncate, cirris tentacularibus in 
segmentis duobus anterioribus affixis, segmentis brevissimis, branchia 
superiore subrectangulari verticali, branchia inferiore subelliptica in 
mediis segmentis apice sursum versa, setis capillaribus 30-40. Another 
new species, Phyllodoce vridsa, Oerst., may perhaps serve for founding 
a separate genus: corpore viresoenti teretiusculo, capite conico duplo 
longiore quam latiore, cirris tentacularibus in segmentis duobus anteri- 
oribus affixis, segmentis mediis longitudine latitudinem corporis aequan- 
tibus subhexagonis, ceteris utramque extremitatem versus regulariter 
decrescentibus, branchia superiore subpentagona subhorizontali. 

Eteone cylindrica is mentioned as new by Oersted, with the follow- 
ing diagnosis: — Corpore tereti, capite abbreviate conico, branchia* 
superiore compressa subovali a pinna valde remota. 

Nephtys longisetosa, Oersted, is also new; lamella superiore trian- 
gulari aequo longa ac pinna, cirro superiore nullo, spatio inter pinnas 

325 



282 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

altitodiiiem pumn inferknis sabriiLoentei lamella inferiore horizontali 
breyioie pinna apioem Tenoa aoguttiore, setis capiUaribuB oonferda 
pinnia ter longioribna. 

Oerated oonaiden ^ Lwvibrieu$ eapitatus of Fabriciiia to be a 
Olycera; and he adda to thia genua a Qlyc, aeio<a,-raegmenti8 pinnaa 
geientibiia ez duobua minoribna oampositia, pinnia et dzria et lignla 
banchiali destitutia qnadrilobia elongatia (duplo longioribna qnam altia) 
tribua lobis oonida obtuaia, quarto multo breyiore rotundato, TnaTnilla 
parya in quoque latere B^gmentoruni a pinnia yalde remota, setia pro- 
ductia. 

Of Alicia, Fabriciua baa only mentioned CirratuliM barealis, Lam. 
(Luanbricus cirratuSf F.) To thia Oerated adda Ophelia bicornis. Say., 
Seolcplos amUger, Blainy., and the following new worma: — Scoloploa 
minor, Oerat. ; capite globoeo, in aegmentia anterioribua utraque pinna 
papillia inatracta, in poaterioribua pinna auperiore minutisaimo rotun- 
dato, pinna inferiore multo majore aocuminata, appendicibua caudalibua 
4 filiformibus. — Ophelia mamillata, Oerat. ; aegmentia 25-28 aingulo 
ex annulia 3 yiz conspicuia oomposito, ligolis branchialibua in segmento 
6to-14mo margine interiore duobua prondnentiia preeditia, singulia aeg- 
mentia poaterioribua duobua paribua mamillarum lateraUum inatructia, 
papillia analibua 11 minutiaaimia omnibua ejuadem longitudinia et aecundo 
quoque ejuadem latitudinis. — Arenicola piscatarwn haa alao been men- 
tioned hj Oerated aa a Greenland Annelide, 

In a aeoond treatiae (Eroyer Tidaakr. ant. dt. p. 128, Conapectua 
generom specierumque Naidum ad Faunani Danicam pertinentiuin) 
Oerated reyiewa the Daniah Naides, which he plaoea in three diyiaions, 
aooording to the number of their bundlea of briatlea: — 1. Segmenta 
omnia aetia auperioribua inatructa. In thia he plaoea hia new genua, 
LuMBRicoNAia, containing one apeciea only, yiz., — L, marina, Oerat., 
which forma a connecting link between the amall LvmbricincB and the 
Naides, — 2. Segmenta quatuor anteriora (interdum aola duo) aetia 
auperioribua deatituta. In thia Oerated arrangea Proto digitata. Ok. ; 
Stylaria paludosa, Lam. (Nais, prohosddea, Mtill.) ; and the new 
genua, Sbrpbntina, Oerat., with the under lip drawn forwarda, contain- 
ing the aingle apeciea S. quadriatriata, Oerat. (Nais serpentina, Miill.) 
The genua Naia approximatea thia, without any projectiona. To it 
belong the J^. eUnguia, MiilL, and N. harbata, MiiU., and two new 
onea, yiz. : — N. uncinata, Oerat. ; corpore ex 20-25 aegmentia oon- 
atante pellucido, aetia aub-quatemia et auperioribua et inferioribua 
uncinatia ejuadem formsB in omnibua aegmentia: and N. littoralis, 
Oerat.; corpore ex 20 aegmentia conatante pellucido, aegmentia medua 
duplo longioribna quam latia, poaticia breyiaaimia, aetia omnibua uncina-. 
tia in antioo pare pinnarum 7-8 yalde porrectia, in oeteria 3-4 pro- 
minulia. — 3. The third diyiaion of the Naides posaeaaea Choetogaster ; 

326 



ANNELIDES. 283 

segmenta omnia pinnis superioribns destitata: and Aeolosoma; setis 
capillari'bns priedita. Under the Chastogaster Oersted arranges Nats 
diaphana, Qniith. ; and in Aeolosoma the A, Ehrenbergi% Oent., which 

* may be Aeol. decorum, Ehrb. et Aeol, Hetnprichii, Ehrb. ? 

Bathke (Neueste Schr. der naturf. 6es. in Danzig. B. iii. 
Heft 4, 1842, p. 56) has published a very minute description 
of the AmphUrite auricoma, with beautiful plates. 

Rathke observed this worm alive on the Norwegian coast. The mouth 
is without jaws, and beset on both sides with a tuft of fifteen tentacles, 
capable of being much elongated and shortened, and two red blood- 
vessels shine through them. These tentacles secrete a glutinous slime, 
and are covered on their upper surface with very vibratile cilia. Close 
upon the notched fold of skin which envelopes the tuft of tentacles, there 
is found on the vertex, on each side, a transverse row of thidL golden 
yellow bristles, which are put in motion by several bundles of muscles. 
The margin between the occiput and upper side of the head, is edged by 
an indented fold of skin, which runs out anteriorly to a pretty long and 
thick cirrus ; the post-occipital segment has, on each side, a somewhat 
smaller cirrus, and the second and third rings of the body have a golden 
yellow branchia, the leaves of which glitter strongly. On the inner side 
of the tuft of bristles, and the leaf-like projections found upon them, is 
remarked, on each of the other segments of the body, a round and rough 
protuberance ; four such protuberances are situated on the mesial line, on 
the abdominal side of the first four body rings ; these rough portions of 
skin probably serve for defending the animal, when it slips out of the 
tube in which it is concealed. The anal part of the body consists of two 
halves, of which the one resembles a heart, furnished with indented 
lateral margins, while the other smaller half represents a moderately 
thick oval leaf. The anus is placed where those two parts join together. 

From the contents of the alimentary canal, Rathke concludes, that 
this animal is nourished only by the slime of the sea. As neither eggs 

* nor seminal fluid were found in the cavity of the body, it is probable, 
that it possesses separated sexual organs. How the eggs and seminal 
mass get out of the body, is not dear, and Rathke supposes, that for this 
purpose, openings are placed on the sides of the body, near the different 
bundles of bristles. A quadri-partite glandular mass, situated on the 
first and second rings of the body, on the abdominal side, with an opening 
externally in the first ring, probably serves for the secretion of a 
cement, which the worm uses in making its arenaceous tube. 

We have also, by the same author (op. cit. p. 84), the description 
of the hitherto little known Siphonostoma phimosum (Amphitrite 

327 



284 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

plumo^a. Mull.), which Kathke observed in the sliniy bottom of the sea 
on the Norwegian coast. It has sixty-fonr rings, each of which has two 
pair of bundles of bristles ; the bristles are simple, longitudinaQj striated 
on the npper surface, and furnished on the inner with moderately thick * 
transYcrse septa. The whole upper surface of the body is rough, with 
small dose set warts, which secrete slime ; the epidermis has an oliye 
green, and the corium a slight rosy hue. The four cornered opening of 
the mouth is situated at the anterior end of the body, in a short, almost 
infundibuli-form proboscis ; close upon this are found two whitish con- 
tractile tentacles, which are provided with a longitudinal Airrow ; behind 
these tentacles there are eight cirri, twisted, round, and of a greenish 
colour ; they stand in two rows behind one another. The animal can 
draw all these parts completely within the body ; when stretched out, 
they lie protected under the long bundles of bristles of the first two 
rings. The contents of the intestinal canal appeared to be an animal 
pap, mixed with earth and sand. The blood of this worm is intensely 
green. Rathke also corrects Otto's description of Siphonostoma diplo- 
chaitoBf in so fiur as to have shown, that the double mouth, which Otto 
ascribed to this animal, is only the effect of the too close approximation 
of the opposite lateral margins of the otherways simple mouth. Ck>sta 
has also corrected this error (Archiv. 1842, B. ii. p. 322). 

Mihie Edwards (Ann. des Sc. Nat. tom. xviii. 1842, p. 126) has given 
an account of the internal structure of the anomalous Per^atusjuUformis, 
from which it appears, that this creature is not a Myriapod, but should 
be correctly enrolled among the AnneUdes. 

We learn, from a minute anatomicfil investigation which Krohn has 
made of StemcLspis tJialassemoides (Miill. Arch. f. Physiol. 1842, 
p. 426) that Otto had looked at this worm in the reversed position, and 
has described ihe posterior parts as the anterior. Its proboscis, according 
to £[Tohn*s account, is an anal tube ; and the vesicula analis, mentioned 
by Otto, points out, externally, the position of the brain at the anterior 
end of the body. The little tufts, situated under the two oval marks 
(verrucsB frontales. Otto), close above the anal tube, Krohn has recog- 
nised as blood-vessels. The sexual organs lie in the posterior cavity of 
the body, and contain, in the male individuals, seminal threads, and in 
the female, distinct eggs. 

Leuckart (Zoolog. Bruchstiicke, ii. 1841, p. 104) has described an in- 
teresting Annelide, Qeoscolex mammus, which was found in loam in 
Brazil, not far fix)m Rio Janeiro. Its length was three feet three inches ; 
but when in life it must have been eight or nine feet. Preserved in 
spirits of wine, it has now a bladdsh-brown colour. It belongs to the 
setigerous AnneUdea, and stands very near LuTnbricus. Leuckart has 
characterized the genus under the name of Geoscolex, as follows: — 
Corpore lumbridformi, ore bilabiato, labiis latis, ab annuli primi mar> 
328 



ANNELIDES. 285 

gine anteriore sejunctis, intemis (protractilibiu?) ; clitello in anteriore 
corporis parte posito, parum ab orificio oris remoto ; setis in singulo cor- 
poris annulo (ditelli ftninilifl ezceptis, setis 4 tantmn instructis) octo in- 
ferioribas, in annul is anterioribus per paria approzimatis, in iis partis 
corporis posterioris sensim inter se magis remotis. Species : O, maxi- 
mfus ; oorpore annulis plnsquam 400 instructo, colore nigricante ? Lenckart 
distinguished in this worm an anterior portion, a ditellus, and a trunk. 
The anterior portion is thickest, and consists of fourte^i rings. The 
ditellus is formed of nine rings, and leaves free, as it does not quite 
surround the bodj, a furrow of ^-4i'" upon the under surface. The last 
ring of the extraordinarily long trunk is rounded obtusely ; but whether 
the opening found in it be actually the anus, is a matter of doubt, since a 
piece of the body might easily have been torn off. The first three small 
rings, of the anterior part of the body, are ribbed longitudinally ; be- 
tween the fourth and fifth rings of the cliteHus, on the under side, near 
the thickened margin of the clitellus, Leuckart discovered a small round 
elevation, in the middle of which was a small hole, evidently the sexual 
opening. On the anterior margin of most of the body rings, except the 
first thirteen of the anterior portion, and some rings of the cliteUus, there 
are two small openings on the under side, which he supposes to be 
branchial apertures. 

Hofimeister has written a very excellent dissertation on lAMnbricvMB ; 
** De vermibus quibusdam ad genus Lumbricorum pertinentibus." Bero- 
Uni, 1842. To avoid repetition, it wtil be discussed with another treatise, 
by the same author, on land AimelideSj in next year's report. 

Stein has published a short description of the sexual parts of the (re- 
genwurm) grub (Mull. Arch. 1842, p. 270). 

Loven has given an interesting contribution to the, as yet, whoUy un- 
known histoiy of the development of the Annelides (Archiv. 1842, th. 1, 
p. 302, and Ann. des Sc. Nat. t. xviii. 1842, p. 288). He caught in the 
sea, small creatures, in the form of an oval disc, and a hemisphere arose 
from the disc. The disc was beset, at the margin, with a double row of 
vibratile cilia. On the upper side, near the margin, a mouth was dis- 
tinguishable, set with cilia ; and on the top of the hemisphere was an 
opening, apparently the anus. Upon the under, slightly arched side of 
the disc, was observable an opaque spot, with two small points. The 
hemisphere became gradually elongated, divided into transverse rings, 
and the spot, above mentioned, became gradually more opaque, and 
acquired two filiform appendages ; — ^in short, the creature changed into 
a Nereid; but its last metamorphosis, unfortunately, could not be 
watched to the end. 

De Filippi has published his researches on the genus Clepdne, ^* Let- 
tere del Dott. F. de Filippi sopra TAnatomia e lo Sviluppo delle Clep- 
sine. Pavia, 1839." He has here more exactly characterized a species, 

329 



286 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

fbfmerly giTen hy him as new, Ol^dne $angu{nea. Its intestines pos- 
sess nine red lateral dose sacs, which are forked at their dosed end ; 
and its two ejes form oblong somewhat irregular spots. The spedes 
has some resemblanoe to Clepnne paludota^ but is not so pointed ante^ 
riorlj, and especially, is not so soft as it. It also differs, by its blnish 
green colour, from tiie dark green Clepnne, It has the habits of Clep- 
tine camplanata, and readily attaches itself to stones and mussels. Of 
the internal stmcture of the CUpdne, which is fuUy described, we may 
notice particularly, that De Filippi recognised a direct connection be- 
tween the digestire canal and the system of blood yessels, by whidi the 
blood sucked by the leech fiK>m the moUusca, after a short stay in the 
intestines, passed immediately into the blood-yessels ; and these animals 
thus gained their supply of blood by transfusion. The same peculiarity 
also exists in HcBmocha/rit ; but not in Sanguiaugaj HcBmopgU^ nor in 
Nephelisj whidi gorge whole animals as well as blood. 

Wahlberg has described a new leedi, which, in Sweden, supplies the 
place of the medicinal one (Froriep's Neue Notizen, Bd. 23, p. 296). 
The ground colour of its strong warty skin is black brown, with six 
broad coal-black dorsal stripes, and small white points standing round 
the body, on each fifth segment. Its egg capsule is formed like that of 
the medicinal leech. Some observations are giyen upon this by We- 
deke (Fror. Neue Notiz. Bd. 21, p. 183).* The leeches, when they wish 
to lay their eggs, leave the water, and creep many yards away, to seek a 
comfortable bed under moist loose earth. Here they emit, from their 
swollen maw, a sUmy green coherent fluid, through which they trail the 
body as &r as the sexual aperture. They lay their eggs in this yiscous 
matter, and glue, with the saliva flowing from their mouth, a paste 
round about the egg capsule, which hardens and forms the well-known 
spongy covering. When this is done, each leech draws itself backwards 
out of the egg capsule, 4ind twists its two sexual apertures together. 

The copulation of Hirvdo piscitbtn has been observed by Brightwell 
(Ann. Nat Hist ix. p. 11, and Fror. Neue Notiz. Bd. 22, p. 65). Ac- 
cording to him, a white substance was perceived in the neighbourhood 
of the sexual openings ; the eggs, which these leeches attached to the 
sides of a glass vessel, were very small, oblong oval, hard, of a reddish- 
brown colour, having longitudinal elevated ridges on the sides. In each 
egg, which was covered with a white filmy web-like secretion, was pro- 
duced one young one, with four eyes, on the thirtieth day. This was 
ascertained by detaching an egg, and keeping it in a glass by itself. 
Besides this leech, Brightwell observed, in the fresh-waters of England, 
the following : — HcBmopsis scmguisorhaf Sav. ; Sanguisuga medicma- 
lis, Sav. ; NepheliB vulgaris, Sav. ; Nephelis tess^lata, Hainv., the 
abdomen of which was covered with young to the number of 143 ; Clep- 
sine complanata and hyalina, 

330 



ANNELIDES. 287 

The following Irish Aumdides hare been ennmerated hj Thompson 
(Ann. Nat Hist. vii. p. 482) : — Nemertes grcLcilU, Johnst. ; Nem, lacti- 
florea, Johnst. ; PhylUne Mppoglom^ Lam. (Hirudo hippoglossi, Midi.) ; 
CcmneUa trilineata, Johnst. (Gordvus ctnnulatus, Mont.) ; Glosnpora 
tubereulata, Johnst. 

Rathke has added a new spedes to the rery little hiown familj of 
NemertvMB, which he has named Borlasia striata (Neuest. Danz. Schrif. 
p. 93). It was disooyered on the coast of Norway. It is about the 
thickness of a crow-quill^ and a foot in length ; the body is almost 
round, narrowed posteriorly, and marked with black stripes, alternating 
with twelve clearer ones. At the anterior margin of the body a small 
opening was found, which Rathke did not regard as the mouth, which 
lies farther down on the abdominal side, and represents a large longitu- 
dinal deft. On the right and left of the anterior end of the body is a 
boat-shaped, superficial, longitudinal furrow, to which a strong bundle 
of nerrous fibres passes firom the red ganglion of the brain, on which 
account Rathke is inclined to think these furrows are the seat of more 
acute sensation. Before them, eight or nine yery small black ooellated 
points are obseryable. The slimy thickish cuticular coyering has a num- 
ber of slight segmental ftirrows. The intestine, running out straight at 
the posterior end of the body, contained a whitish slimy fluid, ftom which 
Sathke conjectures, that this worm sucks its nourishment from other 
white-blooded animals. As a great number of small, thin, cuticular 
sacs, which were attached in a single row, behind each other, on the 
inner wall of the body of this worm, contained in some indiyiduals dis- 
tinct eggs, and in others a fine granular substance (semen), Rathke 
assumed, that it possessed separated sexes; but he could not discover 
sexual openings in these sacs. Under the dorsum runs a very long 
snow-white and spiral canal, which is very muscular, and can be bulged 
out, like a proboscis, at the opening first mentioned. He could not make 
out its use. It does not belong to the sexual parts, as very young spe- 
cimens, which had neither sexual bladders nor testes, yet possessed this 
organ. The abdominal nerve of this worm is composed of two white 
cords, which, arising from the ganglion of the braiu, run down on the 
lateral margin of the body, far separate from each other, without 
forming ganglions. Other Naturalists do not agree with this view of 
the organs. Dr. G. Johnston takes the two nervous oords for blood- 
vessels, and the cerebral ganglion for a heart. Ehrenbei^ holds the 
alimentary canal to be an egg passage, and the white spiral organ is, he 
thinks, the intestinal canal; while Huschke takes the latter for a se- 
minal vessel, and the bulged-out proboscis for the penis. The researches 
of Quatrefiiges (I'Institut. p. 427> 1841) agree better with those of 
Rathke. He describes the nervous system of Nemertes as two long 
threads, running down on both sides of the body, which arise from two 

331 



288 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

gaagliom, united by a eroM band ; four threads go to the anterior parts 
ftom these ganglions, two of whieh can be traced into the large ejes. 
Digardin also has fonnd a similar organization in another species of 
Nemertu, 

Leuckart has giyen a copious account of the remarkable genus, 
Mtzostomum, which Utos as a parasite upon the C<muitula, aud forms 
a link between the AnneUdes and Trematoda (Zool. Bruchst. iii. 1842 ; 
HelminthologiBche Beitr. p. 5). 

He characterizes this genus, founded bj himself, as follows : — Corpore 
molli, clTpeiformi ; supra depresso vel convexo, infra organis suctoriis et 
motoriis, tam acetabulis (s. bothriis) quam hamulis oomeis 10, in- 
structo; ore antico, simplice, prominente (tubuloso?) retractili. As 
Leuckart only examined specimens preserved in spirits of wine, many 
parts of the structure have remained concealed from him, so that his 
yiewB of these parasites may be incorrect. The examination which 
LoY^n has made of living individuals (Arch. 1842, B. i. p. 306, and Ann. 
d. Sc. Nat. t. xviii. p. 291, and Amtlich. Ber. uber die 19te Yersamml. 
deutscher Naturforch. Braunschw. 1842, p. 82) gives us a very good idea 
of the structure of Myzostomum, and puts us in a condition to conjec- 
ture the real use of the shrivelled-up parts seen by Leuckart. Myzo^ 
tomum cirriferum, Leuck., is furnished with the following diagnosis : — 
Corpore orbiculari, margine cirrato ; acetabulis in utroque latere 5, ha- 
mulum simplioem emittentibus ; hab. in mari septentrional!, Comatule 
euTopaeflB parasitus. Lov^n has frequently found this species on Coma- 
tula europ€Ba on the west coast of Denmark. The whole surfiice of 
the body, the margin of which is covered by twenty cirri, shows vibra- 
tile motions. On the middle of the dorsum are two slight elevations. 
On the abdominal surface is found, anteriorly, the fleshy proboscis, 
which csD. be completely drawn in ; on the sides there are five pairs of 
stumps of tarsi, and between these, four pairs of acetabula; on the 
margin of the orbicular body, on each side, are the two male sexual 
openings, and the simple vulva, together with the anus. Of the internal 
organs, Lov^n has described the nervous system, the intestinal canal 
with its appendages, the male and female organs of generation. Of the 
latter, the ovarium, with its ramifications, occupies the whole disc, and 
contains spherical eggs. Lov^n concludes, firom the lively motions with 
which the spermatozoa of this hermaphrodite animal swim about in the 
water, that its eggs become impregnated by the spermatozoa after they 
are laid ; with which supposition the reporter is inclined to agree, as 
the spermatbzoa of these hermaphrodite water-animals stiffen in the 
water. The reporter cannot' h&lp remarking, that it would have been 
most desirable, had Lov^n described somewhat more exactly, the ovary, 
and the difierent steps of development of the eggs of this animal, for the 
organ described by him as an ovarium, evidently resembles that organ of 

332 



ANNELIDES. 289 

excretion, which, in many Trematoda, discharges itself at the posterior 
end of the body, and which also pushes out its contents backwards, — 
an action often mistaken for the laying of eggs. Each stump of a 
foot consists of three parts, the last of which is furnished with fbur 
retractile horn-like hooks. By these feet, this parasite reminds us of 
the lower CrustiAceaf but it cannot perhaps be united to them, because 
the yibratile organs, which cover the superior sfu&joe. of My zogtomum are 
altogether foreign to the Crustacea, insects, and Ara^fmida. — Leuckart 
describes another species, under the name of Myz» costatum : Corpore 
depresso, ovali margine crenulata, dorso oostato; aoetabulis suctoriis 
hamuHferis separatis, aoetabulis utrinque 4 et hamnlis in utroque latere 
5 ; hab. in mari rubro, Gomatulss multiradiatsB parasitus. — A third spe- 
cies, Myz, glaibrwny has the following diagnosis : — Corpore orbiculari, 
dorso oonyexo et maiginibus glabris, infra concavo ; aoetabulis in utro- 
que latere 5, hamulum simplioem emittentibus ; hab. in man Mediter- 
raneo, Comatulae mediterranesB (europaefe) parasitus. This species varies 
from Myz. cirriferum almost only by the absence of cirri ; and Leuckart 
himself has some doubt of these two species being distinct^ since it is 
improbable, that two quite different species of a parasitic genus, should 
live upon one and the same animal in different seas. He also hazards a 
conjecture, whether the presence of cirri may not perhaps point only to 
a youthful condition. The reporter is convinced, that Myz, glahrwn 
and cirriferum belong to one species, and that the former is an indi- 
vidual in which the cirri have shrunk, or become otherways lost. He 
infers this, from a specimen which he has taken from a Comatula euro- 
pasa at Cattaro, in which, besides the ^Ye pairs of stumps of feet, he 
distinctly recognised four pairs of acetabula, which Lov^n likewise saw, 
and Leuckart had probably overlooked ; and the margin of the disc of 
which he found covered with twenty very small projections, which the 
reporter supposes may be the shrunk or cast off cirri. 

A work of Duvemoy, which, according to its title (Considerations sur 
les Animauz Articulds, sur les limites de ce type, et sur la place qu'il 
doit occuper dans les cadres de la m^thode natureUe. Paris, 1841), 
should contain only general remarks on the AnnelideSf has not yet come 
to hand. 



das 



REPORT 



ON THB 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO HE LMINTHOLOG Y, 

DURING THE YEAR 1842. 



BY 



PBOFESSOB C. TH. V. SIEBOLD OF EBLANGEN. 



An Essay has been published bj Steenstrap, *' Uber den Generations- 
wechsel oder die fortpflanzung nnd Entwickelnng dutch abwechselnde 
Generationen, eine eigenthiunliche Form der Brutpfl^e in den niederen 
ThierUassen, Copenhagen, 1842," which will create an epoch in Hel- 
minthologyf and be read hj eveiy Naturalist with the greatest interest. 
He has arranged, and attempted to point out, a series of remarkable 
phenomena, which have been disooyered in the propagation of certain 
lower animals, but which could not hitherto be explained, and haye 
therefore stood quite isolated ; that one and the same original idea is 
found expressed in them, which he designates by the name of (Gmercb- 
Honswechsel) transmutable generation. This original idea of nature is, 
that an animal bears a brood, which is neither like the mother-animal 
nor becomes so ; but this unlike-one itself brings forth a brood, which, 
in form and all other relations, returns to the mother-animal ; so that it 
again finds its like, not in its own brood, but in its successor of the 
second or third link, &c. In the orhicvlar Medusoe and bulbous Polypi, 
Steenstrup has satisfactorily followed out this generation through its 
different links. Among the Helmdnthes, the Trematoda are particu- 
larly subject to such a change, and traces of it are found in yarious 
other orders of these animals. The reporter must completely assent 
to the intelligent yiew which Steenstrup takes of the remarkable 

334 



ENTOZOA. 291 

metamoTphosis, to which the larys of Trematoda, hitherto known as 
Cercarke, are subject ; bat he cannot agree with him in assuming, that 
the generation of the CercaricB is now completely understood ; for here, 
as will be afterwards pointed out, there are considerable gaps to be 
filled up. In no single species of Trematoda is this change completely 
known : here or there several links are wanting in the chain of the me- 
tamorphosis, which must be supplied by direct observation, before we 
can look upon the cycle of the different links of any one of them as 
concluded. The reporter has no doubt, but that these gaps will be filled 
up, especially as Steenstrup's excellent idea points out a way to that 
object. In following it in order to develop these wonderful metamor- 
phoses of the Helminthes, we must not allow conjecture to slide into the 
series, and imperceptibly assume the place of approved fiict. 

The early and much misunderstood theory of equivocal generation, 
particularly as regards the engendering of intestinal worms, is now 
beginning to lose its weight with English Physicians. Dr. Watson is 
inclined to the opinion, that the Helmmthes are introduced, as germs or 
eggs, within the human body (London Med. Gaz., May, 1812, part 2. 
vol. ii. p. 231) ; and he questions, whether some of the Entoeoa may 
not be originally Ectozoa. Against the doctrine of equivocal generation 
he relates the following circumstance, told him by Abemethy: — A 
healthy flock of sheep were driven through a considerable tract of 
country, and one of them on the way broke its leg, and had to be car- 
ried on horseback. For one night the flock, with the exception of the 
maimed one, rested in a marshy meadow, and every individual was 
seized with the rot but itself; it escaped the disease, and had no liver- 
fluke. Watson asks, whether it may not be assumed, that the flock 
swallowed the eggs of the fluke with the fodder they crept from the 
moist meadow. The eggs nught then, as is the case, especially with 
HelmintheBy shut up in cavities, be conveyed by the blood to the liver. 
The reporter has often heard this opinion expressed by Physicians and 
Naturalists ; but he cannot conceive how the eggs of HelmmtheBy re- 
maining passive in the intestinal canal of an <».niniii.l^ should get into 
the vascular system, which is everywhere shut up from it. However, 
he is also perfectly convinced, that many HehnrnthM^ after throwing off 
the egg-covering, can pass, in their embryo state, through the paren- 
chyma, to the organ suitable to th^n. Hammerschmid made a valuable 
observation on the origin of Hehnmihes^ at the fourth meeting of Italian 
Literati at Padua (Berliner Vossische Zeitong, 14tii Oct. 1842), viz.,— 
that Ten^yrio molitor is afflicted with intestinal worms when it feeds 
on flesh, and is &ee fiom them when it consumes meal. 

A remark of Dr. Wolfring may be mentioned, on the geographical 
distribution of the Helminthes (Medic Corresp. Blatt bayerlsoh. Arzte, 
18^, p. 805). He described the district of Thalmessingen as a valley 

335 



292 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLIl : 

through which the Thallack flows, and snrrouiided by two rows of lofkj 
cakareoos hiUs, that fiiniish a Tory hard water, containing many earthy 
ingredients. The soil is yery damp ; and most of the buildings stand 
upon wet foundations, so that cellars are rarely to be met with. The 
food of the inhabitants is mostly meal, salted and smoked beef, and 
much pork. The disease of worms is here yery common, and has been 
so from a yery remote period. Tasnia toUwrn and Atcaris lumbrieoides 
are particularly abundant. Now, a league beyond this district, the 
disease is yery rare. 



GORDIACEA. 

Ak Essay by Berthold, published some years since, has again appeared 
last year, with additions, " Uber den Bau des Wasserkalbes (Gordius 
aqtiaticus), Gotting. 1S42," and deseryes our attention so much the 
more, as, till yery lately, our knowledge of this animal has been yery 
defectiye. When the reporter places the Oardicbcea as a separate 
order of Helminthes, he has oonyinced himself, in the most precise 
manner, by direct obseryation, of the entozootic life, which, at certain 
times, the Oordiut aquatieuB leads ; but he could not resolye to incor- 
porate it with the Nematoidea^ since it diifers remarkably in its ana- 
tomical structure. 

Berthold found the Gordius aquaticus generally in brooks and small 
springs about Gottingen. Its colour is sometimes a bright, sometimes a 
more sombre brown. The head-end forms a white, semi-transparent 
arch behind, which the dark hue makes a sort of ring, from which two 
dusky-coloured stripes run longitudinally down the whole body ; the pos- 
terior end of the body presents a horizontally lying fork, at the under 
angle of which the anus opens. The reporter must here correct Ber- 
thold's assertion, that this fork is only present in male indiyiduals ; for, 
according to his experience, there are not so many male Gordii to be 
met with as females, which possess a rounded anal extremity. The anal 
opening (which the reporter besides considers as the sexual opening) is 
found in the female, in the centre of the obtuse end of the tail. Ber- 
thold describes the cuticle of the Gordius as composed of two layers, the 
outer consisting of a reticulated tissue, the meshes being bounded by six 
unequal sides, and pores are present where the mesh-threads meet at 
the different angles. This membrane, according to Berthold, is yery 
yascular ; but the reporter could neither discoyer the yessels, nor the 
pores mentioned by him. He recognised in it only an epidermis, 
composed of an angularly-netted epithelium, the cells of which were 
arched somewhat outwardly; and probably Berthold took the calibre 

336 



ENTOZOA — aORDIACEA. 293 

of them for pores. The second outicular layer, which Berthold describes 
and figures as a tissne of meshes, composed of oblong nooses, the 
reporter could not find ; but, on the contrary, he saw a fibrous tissue 
lying under the epidermis, and connecting it with the muscular layer, 
and which might be compared with the oorium. It consists of elastic 
yellow threads, crossing each other obliquely from right to left. These 
threads He crowded together in quantity without number : each indivi- 
dual thread seems to run along the whole body of the worm without 
interruption, winding spirally either to right or left. If the cnticular 
layer be separated ftom the muscular beneath it, many threads of that 
described as the fibrous remain on the muscular layer, while more or 
less stick to the epidermis, and on its inner surface make a net-work of 
greater and smaller lozenges ; they also giye a fibrous appearance to 
the torn or cut margins of the cuticular and muscular layers. Berthold 
has certainly seen these threads ; for, in describing the cuticular system 
of the Gordius, he here and there mentions fine threads, tender little 
fibres, &c. He describes the organs of motion, quite correctly, as a 
tolerably thick muscular layer lying under the cuticle, and inclosing the 
intestines like a tube : it is composed of longitudinal fibres. He could 
not precisely determine whether these stretch along the whole body of 
the worm, or are only short, and He with their beginnings and ends, 
behind and near each other, but conjectures the latter. The reporter is 
of the same opinion, since this muscular layer, when torn across, pre- 
sents a net of longitudinal meshes. The individual colourless unstriated 
muscular fibres, according to the reporter's observation, resemble very 
thin ribbonnshaped stripes, which lie with their surfaces close to each 
other, and so form the muscular covering which glitters like satin. The 
reporter could not perceive the transverse fibres whidi should cover the 
longitudinal muscles externally ; but he has quite convinced himself, as 
well as Berthold has done, that the Gordius aquaticus, in its motions, 
keeps constantly one and the same length and thickness. Witii regard 
to the other organs of this animal, the results which the reporter drew 
from his investigations, difer so much from those of Berthold, that he 
will first premise these researches, in order afterwards to compare them 
with his own. Berthold believes that he has discovered the nervous 
system of the Gordius, to be two slender threads, not properly confined, 
running parallel beside each other under the intestinal canal. The dark 
longitudinal bands which run down the body, point out the position of 
the longitudinal vessels situated under the skin, one of which runs as an 
artery in the brown dorsal stripes, and two as veins beside each other in 
the abdominal stripe. With these vessels the above mentioned cuticulo- 
vascular net coheres ; and this, according to Berthold, is for the process 
of respiration. He had not seen traces of actual circulation of blood in 
this vascular system. The mouth of the animal is placed, eccentrically, 

337 Y 



294 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

in the white lemi-traiuptient arch. The intestiiie it a veiy thin 
■imple eanal, which nms on the abdominal side of the walls of the body, 
and ends in a Yery short doaea, oonunon to it and the female sexual 
openings. A thin vessel winds along with this intestine, which, arriyed 
beneath, discharges itself into the common canal of the two female sexual 
organs, and is looked upon by BerthoM as a testis. Extenud ozgans of 
copulation are wanting. Berthold describes, as the female sexual organs, 
two wide tubes running along the whole body, filling up for the most 
part its walls, which oommenee above and near the beginning of the 
alimentary canal, and internally are united to each other. About one^ 
Ihurth indi ftom the anus, they join into a common canal, forming a 
doaca with the end of the intestine. These oyarian tubes are only 
loosely united to the neighbouring wall of the body, and have a very 
regular articulated appearance, like the body of a tape-worm. The walb 
are composed of two cutides, the exterior (the firmer) forming the tape- 
worm-like rings, while the interior seems very loose, and presents a 
tissue of meshes like a spider's web, with very fine egg cells. These 
meshes must be vessels. Berthold has observed numerous litUe balls 
come out firom the anus, whidi are composed each of an immense number 
of eggs. In the early part of spring the Gordii contain no eggs, but a 
scanty milky fluid, composed of very small granules. 

Sudi is Berthold's account. With regard to the nervous system, the 
reporter has had as little success as he had. His longitudinal vessels 
were not to be found ; and the cuticula-vasoular net, described in con- 
junction with them, is probably nothing else but the fibrous tissue lying 
under the epidermis. The two tubes, running within the cavity of the 
body, on the abdominal side, the reporter has never missed either in 
male or female individuals : that lying next the abdominal wall was al^ 
ways much stronger than the other. Both had fleshy walls, and con- 
tamed a dear, fluid, mixed here and there with small grains. The 
reporter could not discover, either the superior origin, or the under end 
of the two simple thick-walled tubes : That one of these may be an 
intestinal canal is probable ; but the reporter cannot find a single proof 
that the otiier is a testis. The greatest part of the cavity of the body is 
filled up by a peculiar cellular tissue, which leaves firee a channel-formed 
space on the abdominal side, within which the two simple tubes just 
mentioned run ; besides, two hollow cavities stretch through the cellular 
tissue longitudinally, until they approach the posterior end of the body, 
where botii unite into one, and discharge themselves at the opening of 
the after part of the body. The reporter questions, whether the cellular 
tissue forms the two thidc-walled tubes lying dose beside each other in 
the mesial line, and passing into a common tube posteriorly. According 
to Berthold's description of the female sexual organs, such might actually 
be the case, for the double egg-tubes mentioned by him, are evidently 
388 



ENTOZOA — GORDIACEA. 295 

the cellular tissue leoognised by the reporter. We may thus ooniider 
this cellular parenchyma, as two tabes glued dose together. They are 
In the male indiTidual the testes, in the female the oyarian tubes. The 
eonstmeticm of the walls agrees generally in both sexes; but still 
there is a certain spedfie difference. The walls of the testicular 
tubes are entirely colourless, and consist of a double layer of cells, 
lying close upon each other, which Berthold held to be ^g-cells. 
Each cell has a distinct round kemeL The form of the indiyidual 
eells is always obl(mg, with rounded comers. Its thickness is only half 
its breadth. Sometimes they ccmtain a greater or less^ quantity 
of a very fine-grained mass. The cellular walls of these tubes have 
an extraordinary resemblance to the par^iehyma of a plant. The two 
cavities of the testicular tubes contain a very fine-grained milk-white 
mass, which, on pressure, oozes- out at the opening of the caudal fork. 
This may, therefore, certainly be oonddered as the sexual opening. The 
granular mass of the testes, when ynwed by the microscope, consists of 
very small cells, between which, when taken firom the lower part, oblong 
coi|>uBoles, thinned at one end, appear, of the length of 0.076''' to 0.089"', 
and are evidently spermatozoa. In the female individuals, the walls 
of the ovarian tubes are mudi thinner, consisting only of one simple 
layer of colourless oeDs. These have distinctly kernels, and here and 
there a fine-grained mass within them ; they are not obbng, but rather 
spherical. The hollow cavity of each tube contains an innumer- 
able quantity of eggs, glued together like bunches of grapes ; each egg 
has a defined nucleus. In the upper portion, the individual eggs, 
which compose the bunches, are of an oval or pear shape ; lower down, 
tiiey become more rounded, encompassed by a clear space, through which 
they again become glued together, before and beside each other, as longer 
and shorter strings of eggs; the nucleus cannot now be recognised, 
as perhaps the white granular yolky mass conceals it. At the under- 
most end of the cavity of the body, in the female, was found a thin-skinned 
bag, of two lines long, filled with a great number of oblcmg moveable 
bodies, resembling the spermatozoa of the male Chrdii, A milky mass 
oozed out, on pressure, £rom the opening found at the blunted posterior 
end of the body in the female, and which consisted of eggs and lively sper- 
matozoa, so that the bag may be compared to a receptaculum seminis ; 
but the reporter must add, that the individual eggs far exceeded in size 
the snail cells of the testicular contents, and the latter certainly are only 
undeveloped spermatozoa. 

The description which Dujardin has given of a male Oordms aquor- 
ticus agrees very well with that of the reporter (Ann. d. Sc. Nat. 1842, 
t. xviii. p. 142). 

Dujardm saw no aperture for the mouth in this worm, which was not 
the case with the reporter. It is, however, extremely difficult to find, and 

339 



296 REPORT OK ZOOLOGY, HDCCCXLII .* 

I WM nerer Me to trace a ooniiectiaii between this opening and either of 
the tubes which nm akmg the abdomen ; naj, it has sometimes appeared, 
that this mouth was nothing but a superficial deepening of the tender 
cuticle which arches the anterior end of the body. Dujardia has oor- 
zeotlj reoognised the threads of the fibrous layer situated under the 
epidermis, which cross each other in an oblique direction. He has not 
beOn able to find the small tubes on the two brown longitudinal stripes, 
held hj Charret and Berthold for abdominal and dorsal yessels. The 
muscular layer lying under the cuticular covering, he agrees with the 
reporter, in describing as composed of longitudinal fibres, which lie on 
each other in lamellae. He found the cavity of the muscular cylinder 
filled with a cellular mass, enclosing a longitudinal canal, containing a 
homogeneous white mass. Under the name of Oordius toloscmuSf Du- 
jardin describes a new species (ibid. p. 146) ; but the reporter cannot 
perceive that it difiers from Ch>rdiu8 €bquaticvs. He observed the epi- 
dermis of the female individuals with rounded caudal end, to be com- 
posed of many-cornered convex cells, while that of the males, with 
forked caudal end, had quite a difibrent construction, as here and there, 
between the cells of the epithelium, larger projecting spots (disques) lay 
scattered. The fibrous layer following on the epidermis, the muscular 
layer, and tke cellular tissue filling the cavity of the body, he describes 
in the Chwdius toloacmus, ^ and $> quite as they are in Qorddue aqua- 
Hcu8. He recognised, in the individual cells of the cellular tissue, dis- 
tinctly, the nucleus and the fine granular contents ; he also found here, 
that the cellular tissue enclosed a double canal, which was filled with |i 
homogeneous substance. It is a pity that Dujardin did not examine this 
exactly with the microscope, as his practised eye might have succeeded 
in finding out the difierence between the contents of the testicular and 
ovarian tubes. 

In this Oordius also, Digardin found the head end imperforate, and 
covered with a transparent cape ; behind the head he perceived a small 
opening. He gives the colour of this Chrdius as blackish ; the males, 
which were darker than the females, had an oblong aperture before the 
caudal fork, while the females were perforated obliquely at the rounded 
caudal end. 

The specific difference between O. aquaticus and G, tolo%a/n,us, as 
given by Digardin, is, that the latter possesses an epidermis minutely 
reticulated, and the former has no epidermis. This distinction certainly 
arises only from an error in Dujardin's observations. 

Dujardin has described another animal allied to the Oordiua, under 
the name of Mermia nigregcens (ibid. p. 129, and rinstitut. 1842, 
p. 256 ; also Archiv. G^n. de M^decine, t. xiv. 1842, p. 488). This 
worm was found veiy abundantly after rain, on moist ground, and some- 
times also after a strong morning dew, on newly delved beds. He 

340 



ENTOZOA— -aORDIACEA. 297 

belieyes that the Mermis lives as a parasite in the larva of the May-bug, 
and that the latter, when the ground in which it lives is moister than 
usual, is obliged to press its parasites out of its bodj, which also seek 
for an exit, in order to have an opportunity of depositing their eggs in 
the earth. He remarked, of a MermU which he kept above eight days 
in water, that it desired to get out, and actually did escape, and laid its 
«gg8 on a dry place ; where also it was dried up, and did not again 
revive in water. Left to themselves, they probably spend a long while 
in water, when they feel no farther impulse to the laying of eggs. 

The Mermis is 100-125 mUl. long, 0.5 to 0.6 null, thick; of a white 
colour, with a streak shining through firom its interior, out of which the 
eggs develop themselves. The body tapers anteriorly, and behind the 
head is somewhat constricted ; the head itself is truncated anteriorly, and 
has an angular appearance, in consequence of several projecting papillae ; 
the tail-end is obtusely rounded. About fifteen null, from the head is 
found a transverse cleft surrounded by padded margins, which represents 
the vulva, but it is neither connected with an uterus nor an egg-canal. The 
surface of the body seems quite smooth ; no anus could be found. With 
this account, the observations which the reporter had an opportunity of 
making on a worm of this species, found in water at Danzig, agree pretty 
closely. The cuticle of MermiSf according to Dujardin, consists of three 
different parts, — 1. A thin epidermis ; 2. A layer of fibres that cross each 
other obliquely, running spirally and uninterrupedly through the whole 
length of the body ; and, 3. A cartilage-like hollow cylinder, formed of 
from fifteen to thirty homogeneous and concentric layers. This car- 
tilaginous cylinder decreases in thickness in its passage forwards, while 
posteriorly the thickness increases. The reporter, in the MermU 
examined by him, has not been able to discover this structure, but he 
found the cylinder to be composed of two muscular layers of compressed 
longitudinal fibres and distant transverse fibres. Dujardin mentions 
the muscular cylinder of longitudinal fibres as situated under the third 
cartilaginous cuticle. On the head, five or six very small papillao are 
observable, under which are found depressions, which are connected by 
small openings with the empty space surrounding the oesophagus. A 
broad baaid runs along the inner surface of the muscular cylinder, firom 
which Dujardin supposes the eggs proceed. The reporter also obseirved 
these two bands, but cannot convince himself, that double rows of spots, 
of egg-germination, were present in them. The intestinal canal is simple, 
as from the simple mouth a narrow oesophagus passes into the dilated 
intestine, which is gradually lost posteriorly. The dusky stripe of the 
worm proceeds firom the black-coloured eggs, which the reporter found 
enclosed m a narrow bag, but which, according to Dujardin's account, 
should be ia connection with the above mentioned problematic ovaries. 
The form of these eggs is very remarkable ; each consists of a colourless 

341 



298 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDOCCXLIl : 

lonnd OAptule, from which a fibioiis fimiculiiB arises at both poles, for 
attaching them to the base of the oyaries. The xeporter saw the eggs 
with these capsules lying free in the ahreadj mentioned tabes ; some of 
them on the one side, others e^en on both sides had two separate fibred 
eords. The darkish egg-oovering enclosed in the capsule contained some- 
times aa embryo, which resembled the young Nematoidea; it had a 
bludt tail-end and a strongly thickened head-end, on which the reporter 
distingoished a protrusible prickle or bulging out oesophagus. 

Dujardin giyes the following diagnosis of this new genus : — Mermu, 
Corpore longissimo fiUformi, elastico, antioe parumper attenuato ; capite 
Bubinflato, ore terminali minimo rotundo; intestine simplice, postioe 
obsolete, ano nuUo ; vulva antica, transversa. In all respects, this worm 
is worthy of a particular genus, whidi forms the transition fixHn the 
Gordii to the NemaMMea, It has, in common with Gordiutt the highly 
characteristic fibrous layer under the epidermis, as well as the want of 
an anus ; whUe the muscular walls, with the two bands running aloog 
them, rather remind us of the NemaUndea^ although the internal struc- 
ture of this worm is stUl very enigmatical to the reporter. 

The observations hitherto made on the FilarioB of insects have beeqi 
collected t<^ther by the reporter (Entom. Zeit. 184:2, p. 146). He hap 
sought to direct the attenticm of Entomologists to this interesting subject 
in Helminthology, that a more exact knowledge may be acquired on 
these parasites of insects, which appear to differ much from the Filarial 
of vertebrated animals, for as yet almost nothing has been said of their 
internal structure; they have <mly been sometimes superficially com- 
pared with Filariay and sometimes with Oorditu, In how far this call 
has had the desired effect on Entomologists, the reporter will be able to 
mention in next year's report ; only this much may be mentioned here, 
that he has come to the conviction, that insects harbour various thread- 
shaped worms totally different from the Nemaioide^, and one species of 
which is identical with Oardiua o^aticus. 



NEMATOIDEA. 

A CURIOUS account has been given, in various periodicals (London and 
Edinb. Monthly Joum. of Med. Sc. 1842, p. 599, Froriep^s Neue Notiz. 
Bd. 24, p. 256, and Microscop. Joum. May, 184:2), of a Trichocephalfu 
ajfiniSf found in the enlarged and gangrenous tonsil of a soldier at 
Fort Pitt, after death. The identity of this worm with the whip-worm 
(peitchen-wurm), found only in ruminating animals, cannot be received 
unconditionally without a more exact description. 

Busk (Microscop. Joum. 1841, p. 33) has given a description and 
figure of the hinder part of the body of TrichocepkaluB dttpcir, which 
342 



ENTOZOA — ^NXMATOIDEA. 299 

u yesry incomplete, when eontrasted with Mayer's oopioiui work on the 
same sabject (Jahresb. 18^). 

De la Harpe (Gkirlt und Hertwig's Mag. f. Thierheilk. 1842, p. 14) 
foand, in the fatty degenerations of sheep's longs, a complication of rery 
small wonns and dusters of eggs, which, he could not doubt, proceeded 
from Strongylus fila/ria, a parasite, that, at the same time, ooTered the 
famgs in great number. 

Bayer has published an excellent paper on Wofm-aneurism and the 
StrongyluB a/rmatuB minor. Bud. (Ardiiy. de M^« Comp. par Bayer^ 
Paris, No. 1, Oct. 1842, p. 1 ; Becherches Critiques et nouyelles obser- 
Tations sur TAneuiysme Yennineuz, et sur le StrongyhM ormatM 
mmor. Bud., par Bayer ; and Froriep's Neue Notiz. Bd. 28, p. ^23). 

According to Bayer's inyestigations, the wonn-aneurism almost always 
deyelopes itself, in SoUdwnguhua animals, in the arteria mesenterioa 
anterior, and generally in adult and old indiyiduals. He found the cavi- 
ties of the aneurismal dilatations sometimes narrowed^ or quite filled up by 
a growth of fibrous layers ; in. the smaller depositions of these layers only 
few Strongyli were present, but in those of larger size, they were found 
in greater number ; they were often also met with in ike ossified arterial 
walls of the aneurism. Bayer has neyer seen the internal arterial coat of 
such worm-aneurisms perforated or ulcerated ; the worms remain between 
the layers of the fibrous deposition, never between the coats of the artery. 
Worm-aneurisms, it is believed, do not bunt, as they are always aceom- 
panied by hypertrophy of the arterial walls ; but Bay^, in opposition to 
this opinion, asserts, that the Strongyli pierce the walls of the arteries 
and so get into the cavities. He also objects to the assumption of Mor- 
gagni, Budolphi, Laennec, Otto, and others, that the tubercles in the 
walls of arteries, containing Strongyli, cause the formation of aneurism^ 
as such tubercles are only found in dogs and without aneurisms. The 
most of the Strongyli are found in the fibrous deposits, and project 
sometimes with the head, sometimes with the tail ; only a few lie free in 
the aneurismal cavities. The red colour of these worms does not proceed 
firom the blood sucked in, but firom resting upon it and being washed 
with it. The description of the worms themselves contains nothing new. 
A case of aneurism has been given by Gruby, in the coeliac trunk of a 
horse, in the cavity of which fibrous deposits and Entc^goa, resembling 
Aicarides, were found ; certainly, however, they could have been nothing 
else than individuals of Strongyku armaPiM minor, 

Leudkart found a Strongylus in the small intestine of Myoaus gUs 
(ZooL Bmchst. iii» Helminthol. Beitr. 1842, p* 38), which he has charac- 
terized as Su gracilM in the following way : — Capite eziguo, elongate, 
obtusiuscuks aloto; ore orbiculari; bursa maris ampla, oostulata, 
margine Imiter incisa; &min» parte corporis posticso crassiove, in 
mucronem (caudam) tenuiorem depressum exeunte. The colour is 

343 



300 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, IfDCCCZLlI : 

bxawnifh-wliite ; the length of female 4'", of male 2f*'. He has alsO 
diiooYered another interestmg round worm in the firontal nniu and cri- 
bfiform bone of Mugtela putariuM mnAfcma (ibid. p. 43), which appears 
to belong to Spiropteraf and has been furnished with the following 
diagnosis ; 8p. (?) ntuicola^ — Capite indiscreto, ore ovbiculari nudo; 
maris parte corporis posteriore recta, alis brerissimis, pene mediocri, 
Cauda post alas breyissima apice aculeo annata ; feminn cauda acuta, Tiz 
distincta, parum inflexa. The hinder part of the bodj in the male is not 
spiral ; the colour of these parasites is red ; the length of male 6^"'y of 
female 8-12"^ Leuckart obsenred a short pointed prickle projecting 
from the posterior end of the bodj in the male, which he considers as an 
organ ofincitement, and which, perhaps in copulation, assists in holding 
fitft the female. The digestiye canal is provided with a short oesopha- 
gus, narrow anteriorly, dilated posteriorly, which passes into a stomach 
and intestine ; the sexual parts are the same as in Asca/ris and Strongy- 
lu8 ; the females are yiyiparous. He found, Kkewise, a round worm, 
agreeing with Atcaria tncisa, enclosed in a peculiar transparent mem- 
brane, fastened to the abdominal fur of Sarex Utragonurus (ibid. p. 39). 
The worms were 5-9''' long, and no sexual organs could be distinguished 
in them, which seems to oonfirm the opinion of Creplin, that no round 
worm, enclosed in a membrane, possesses such organs. . 

Mayer (Neue Unters. aus dem Qeb. der Anat. and Phys. 1842, p. 9) 
has seen, in female individuals of Oxywris vemUcuUMrU, a very great 
number of seminal animalculae of the length of y ^^'^ ; they lay between 
the eggs, in a crooked shape, with pointed ends. 

Gluge has found the eggs of the AscmtU nigroveno$a in the lungs of 
frogs, without any trace of that entozoon in these organs (I'Institut. 
1842, p. 131, and Arehiv. G^^r. de M^d. t xiv. 1842, p. 364). He 
consequently beUeves, that these eggs were taken into the lungs in 
respiration, and looks on this phenomenon as an argument against spon- 
taneous generation. Mandl has made the same observation, and drawn 
from it the same conclusion (Froriep's Neue Notiz. Bd. 23, p. 200) ; his 
account, in fiict, agrees so exactly with that of Gluge, that one might 
suppose there was a mistake in the name of the author. 

A new case of worm-abscess, observed by Hecking at Waxweiler on 
the Rhine, is to be added to those mentioned in former reports (Preuss. 
med. Vereinsz. 1842, No. 42, p. 187). He had to poultice an in- 
flamed swelling of the navel in a girl of four years old, and when the 
tumour burst, three dead maw-worms with eggs escaped; the navel 
dosed, but after two months another painful tumour occurred, which 
went on to suppuration, and again discharged some maw-worms. 

Farther observations have been made on Entozoa in the blood of the 
vertebrata. Vogt has discovered a quantity of i^^orio-like worms in the 
blood-vessels of several frogs (MtQler's Arch. 1842, p. 189), as Valentin 

344 



EXTOZOA — NEMATOIDEA. 301 

has formerly done (▼. Arch. 1840, ii. p. 189, and 1841, ii. p. 34:2). He 
also found, like Valentin, the ooyerings of the pupae, or cysts, in the 
cavity of the body of the same frogs : many of these cysts contained 
Filaria similar to those in the blood. If the cysts in the intestine were 
whitish-coloured, they contained small Filaria, and no worms were found 
in the blood ; but if the cysts were brown, they were then without 
JPV7aWa, and the blood was full of them. Their head was truncated, the 
tail-end pointed, and in their interior, Yogt could distinguish an intes- 
tinal canal and ovary. This ovary, in the opinion of the reporter, could 
have been nothing else than the remains of the yolk, which remains for 
a longer while, as a cellular mass, in the already escaped embryos of 
the Nematoidea, Vogt found, in the abdominal cavity of a firog, two 
gross of female Filaria more than an inch long, with developed sexual 
organs, swollen with eggs and embryos. As the latter resembled the 
little worms observed in the blood, Vogt thought that the presence of 
these FUa/ria in the blood of frogs might be explained as follows : — The 
pregnant females deposit their brood in the abdominal cavity; the 
young perforate into the great vessels, circulate for a while with the 
blood, and at last become fixed to a particular spot ; they now become 
surrounded by fibrous layers, and, after attaining to maturity in their 
cysts, break through into the abdominal cavity, in order there to deposit 
their young. Whether these Filania do attain to maturity in the cysts 
the reporter very much doubts, as neither he nor Creplin have found 
encysted Nematoidea with the sexual parts developed. 

Miescher has seen the small Nematoidea described by Vogt almost 
uniformly in the blood of frogs (ibid. p. 191). 

The reporter may add, from a treatise by Charles Lee, which he has 
just seen, that a Filaria papillosa was observed in the anterior cham- 
ber of the eye of a horse at New York, which seemed to occasion no 
uneasiness to the animal, and only rendered the aqueous humour muddy. 
(8illim. Amer. Joum. vol. xxxix. 1840, p. 278.) 

Barkow (tJbers. der Arbeit, and Verand. der schles. Gesellsch. to 
vaterl. Eult. 1839. Breslau, 1840, p. 93) has hazarded the conjecture, 
that the Entozoa of those warm-blooded animals which hybemate, do 
also fall into the dormant state when the lower temperature of their 
habitation renders them less inclined to motion. He found, in the 
stomach of a hedgehog, killed during its winter sleep, several specimens 
of Physaloptera cloMsa, without any signs of life, but which became 
lively so soon as they were placed in warm water. 

Steenstrup has hinted (0^. ant. cit. p. 110) that BphoBTula/ria hombi 
(v. Arch. 1838, ii. p. 297) may perhaps be the nurses (keimschlaiiche, 
germ-bags) of certain Nematoidea, an opinion which the reporter finds 
improbable, since 8phagrula/ria possesses distinct sexual parts with real 
«gg8, which had entered on the process of evolution. 

345 



302 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

Henalow hai given leTeral notioes on the remarkable VtMo iriiici 
(Microsoop. Joorn. Lond. 1841, p. 36), which oonfinn tiie obeerrationf 
of Bauer on this worm't tenadly of life. Henslow eaw dried heaps of 
theae woims oome to life again in water, even when taken from, ears of 
wheat of six years old. Eggs and yonng Vibrione$f howeyer, when onoe 
dried, always remain dead. The worms i^pear not only in wheat, but 
also in rye, oats, and barley, when these sorts of grain are sown along 
with wheat affected by Vibrumes ; bat they do not spread oyer these 
crops in the same degree as oyer wheat. They are killed in the grain 
by scalding with hot water, which procednre Henslow proposes as a 
remedy fat the disease. 

Sdiiodte has obserred Filaria from J-^ of a line long in the stomach 
of CctrabuB elathratus and CcUoscfna sericewm (Genera og Species af 
Danmarks Elentherata. Ejobenhayn, 1840-41, i. p. 82). He fonnd 
Sniozoa only twice in Dyti$c%, although he dissected a great number of 
them (ibid. ii. p. 412). In the one case the worm was a pretty large 
Filaria, which was found in considerable numbers in the head of a 
DytiscuB marginalii ; in the other initance, the worm, of only one line 
long, with pointed posterior end, and without distinct intestinal canal, 
belonged to no genus yet characterized. This parasite lay oonoealed 
under the external muscular tunic of the crop of an AdHtu suleatus. 

Qruby , who found ^^xr»a*like worms in small sacs of the perxtonseum 
of frogs, of |. J millim. in size, also saw the eggs of Entozoa circulating 
with their blood, and in the dorsal canal (I'lnstitot 1842, p. 239. Arch. 
G^n^r. de M^dedne, t. xiy. 1842, p. 483, and Froriep's Neue Notiz. Bd. 
24, p. 136). He found, besides, Ascarides in the sheaths of the primi- 
tiye bundles of neryes, and eyen between the primitiye threads of the 
latter ; they moyed slowly, and were ^j^—^ millim. in length. They 
were surrounded in the lungs by a yellow, hard, and conyex substance. 
After Gruby had injected eggs of Entozoa^ mixed with serum, into the 
great muscular cutaneous yein of the frog, he saw them standing still in 
the capillary system of the organs, particularly of the lungs; but he 
could follow the deyelopment of the embryo in them. The eggs became 
surrounded by exhaled coagulable matter, which forms the yellow sub- 
stance in the lungs. 



ACANTHOCEPHALA. 

Stebnstkup considers most of the Eckinorhynci hitherto known as 
nurses (keimsohlaiiche) (Op. ant. dt. p. Ill) ; but in this he goes too 
far, for they possess fuUy-deyeloped sexual parts, and are, besides, of 
different sexes ; while the nurses, according to Steenstrup's yiew, bring 
forth their brood independent of oyaries, or copulation with male organs. 

346 



BNTOZOA — ^TREMATODA. 303 

That SteeuBtrup found amaU Echinorhynchi within separate . capsules 
on the mesenteTy, liver, and intestine of a plaice, is a new Toncher in 
pvoof of the nomade habit of these animals. 



TREMATODA. 

Crbplin has described a new MonoBtomum (M, expcmva/m), from the 
upper portion of the small intestine of a riyer-^agle (Flussadlers), which 
is distinguished by the fore-part of the body being extraordinarily 
flattened and broad (Arch. 1842, i p. 327). In the broad part Creplin 
observed an organ composed of granular balls ; the very small mouth had 
an acetabulum, and a still smaller pharynx, from which the oesophagus 
ran to the middle of the anterior part of the body ; from this spot, on each 
side, an intestine went down to the end of the hinder part. Two vascular 
trunks stretching down on the inner side of the intestinal tubes, which, 
in one specimen, contained in some places white coagulated masses, are 
perhaps the oigans of excretion that dischaige posteriorly, and which 
the reporter has met with in different Monostoma, The dendritic 
ovaries begin in the latter half of the flat fore-part of the body, and 
stretch on both sides to the extremity. The wide uterine canal, the 
commencement of which Creplin could not And, runs with many wind- 
ings through the anterior half of the hinder part of the body ; the end of 
the uterus must perforate a pear-shaped white knot in the posterior 
margin of the body, and then open externally on the middle of the 
abdominal side. The brown eggs of the uterus are pretty large, oval» 
with a small knot at the narrowed end. The two testes, lying behind 
each other in the posterior part of the body, have very deep indenta- 
tions, by which they seem divided into radiated, or fan-shaped branches. 
Creplin could trace only one vas deferens, and that from the posterior 
testis: it passed into two spiral seminal receptacles before it ended 
in the receptaculum cirri. It is to be lamented, that this extremely flat 
worm could not be examined when alive. 

MonoBtomwfn mutahile has been figured by Leuckart (Zool. Bruehst. 
op. ant. cit. iii. p. 35), with the remark, that Nitzsch had sent him, 
under the name of Monostomum aspersum, a parasite from the nasal 
sinus of AncbB fuligulay which was very nearly allied to the Mon, flo/vum 
of Mehlis. 

Mayer has re«)gm«»d flidcering movemente in the yaiKmlar system of 
Amphiatomum subclavatum (Neue Untersuch. ant. dt. p. 24). The 
black balls which Mayer saw in canals, forming an arch at the posterior 
part of the body, and considered as ovula, or yolk, are the ex<»«ment8 
of the excreting organ of this worm, which discharges at the hinder part 

347 



304 EEPOBT ON ZOOLOGY, MOCCCXLII : 

of the bacL Theie little balls appear blackish coloured when the lig^t 
falls through them, and white when it fidls on them. 

Diitomum hepaticum has been found bjDayal in the vena portarom, 
and its hepatic branches, of a man, to the number of five or six indiyi- 
duals, fiom 11-14''' hmg, and 4-^" broad (Gaz. Med. de Paris, 1842, 
No. 49, and Zeitschr. f. die gesammte Mediz. y. Oppenheim, Bd. 23, 
1843, p. 86.) 

A Dietamumf discoyered by Otto in the 8qualu8 grieeus, has been 
more correctly described by Greplin as Digt. veUporum (Arch. 1842, 1, 
p. 336). Its size is somewhat aboye three inches. The abdominal ace- 
tabulum lies yery fkr forward, so that the neck is only 3'" long ; on the 
middle of the latter the genital pore projects, like a little hillock. The 
excretory pore is distinctly placed at the end of the after part of the body, 
Creplin remarked, in that part of this animal, three broad bluish spots, 
situated behind each other. The two posterior eyidently proceeded firom 
the two testes, the third and foremost led from the organ of egg-geimi- 
nation, which the reporter has not yet missed in any Trematoid worm. 
The eggs of this DtBtamum are yery small, slender, roundish, oyal, and 
brown coloured. 

A new parasite has been found by Leuckart in the frontal sinus and 
labyrinth of the cribriform bone of Mustela putorius (ZooL Bruchst. 
iiL p. 33) which he has described in the following way : — Coipore 
tereti, oyato, antioe crassiore, rotundato-obtuso, postioe attenuate, acuto ; 
poris orbicularibus, poro antico parum prominente, poro yentrali 
majore ; oollo nullo. Its length was 1^'", ite colour brown. He also 
discoyered another Distomum in the kidneys of Sorex fodiens (ibid. 
p. 34). He calls it Dist. truncatiMn, and gives the following diagnosis : 
— Corpore tereti, antioe crassiore, rotundato-obtuso, postice attenuate, 
truncate-obtuso ; pons remotis, poro antico orbiculari, non prominente ; 
poro yentrali minore, apertura transyersa; oollo nullo. Its length was 
2''', and it was also of a brown colour. 

Gluge obseryed, in the Polystomv/m inUgerrinmm^ a number of cells 
with nuclei and nuoleous bodies, some of which were again enclosed in 
cells (Heeser. Arch. f. die gesammt. Mediz. 1842, p. 492) ; but he could 
not say if these cells had any relation with the deyelopment of the eggs. 

We learn from Yarrell, that twenty specimens of the rare parasite, 
Tristovn/wm, cocdneum, were found on the outer upper surface of the 
head of an Orthagoriscua mola, caught on the English coast (Hist, of 
Brit. Fishes, ii. p. 468). 

Leuckart has characterized a new genus of Trematoda, under the 
name of Diplobothrium (formerly only provisionally called Diclthoth- 
riv/m) under the following diagnosis : (ZooL Bruchst. ill. p. 13) : — Cor- 
pore molli, elongate, depresso ; aoetabulis sex anterioribus, media val- 
vula in duas foveolas divisis, lateralibus, utrinque tribus ; rostro inter 
348 



ENTOZOA — TBEMATODA. 305 

aoetfA>i]la porrecto, ore antioo, simplice. The only species was dis^ 
ooyered by Leuckart and EoUar on the branchi» of the Acipenter 
$teilatu8, PalL, and was called by the former Diplobothrium ctrmor- 
turn. It has been spedfically characterized : — Corpore postice incras- 
sato; rostro nncinato, uncis qnatuor horrido; acetabnlis pedimculatis^ 
lineatis, margine ciliatis, aculeo armatis. This worm has been already 
mentioned as Diclibothrium crasticaudatum and cMrmatum (Wiener, 
Ann. 1. p. 82), and by Nordmann as Hexacotyle elegans (Lamarck, Hist. 
Nat. t. iii. 1840, p. 600). Leuckart does not allow the species Hexaco* 
tyle Thynni, Hexathyridiwm pmguieola, Treutl., Blainy., and Hexa^ 
hothrium appendiculatum, Enh., Nordm., bnt reckons them with Poly-^ 
atomwm. The Diplobothrium is distinguished from these Trematoda 
principally by the clasping-organs at the anterior end of the body. The 
reporter, in this respect, would rather agree with Nordmann's view, and 
oonsidfir the acetabula also in Diplobothrium, as belonging to the after 
part of the body. If the two figures be compared which Leuckart has given 
of Dipldbothrium a/rmatu/m, and Octcbothrium leptogaster, to be after- 
wards mentioned, a similarity in external appearance of the two worms 
will be obTious, except that the one has six and the other eight dasping^ 
organs. In Diplobothriwn, the part furnished with the six acetabula 
IS the anterior end of the body. It must therefore strike us, that the 
same clasping apparatus, which in one animal is placed on the after 
part of the body, is, in another allied to it, on the fore part. The circnm-^ 
stance, however, of Leuckart having seen a distinct opening on the point 
between the projecting clasping-organs, makes me hesitate in agreeing 
altogether with Nordmann ; on each side of this opening, considered 
by Leuckart as a mouth, are a couple of considerable horn-like hooks, 
directed backwards. Octobothrium lanceolatum has similar hooks at the 
end of the posterior part of the body. In Dipldboth/riumf behind these on 
each side, are three clasping-grooves, between which, the body elsewhere 
thin, is somewhat broader. In each groove is found a considerable number 
of fine white transverse striae ; and from the middle projects a white 
striated membrane, like a sort of valve ; each groove is also provided 
with a projecting clasping-apparatus-like claws. Of the inner organs, 
Leuckart has observed an intestinal pouch, simple at the beginning, 
and afterwards forked. The eggs, which were noticed in the opposite 
end of the body, had an oval shape and brown colour. Leuckart has 
characterized his genus Octobothaium thus: — Corpore molli, elongate, 
depresso ; apertura oris antica, infera, simplice ; aoetabulis in utroque 
corporis partis posticsB latere quatuor. — Leuckart refers Octobothrium 
mwrUmgi, Nordm., to this genus also, although Nordmann has directed 
attention to the fact (Micograph. Beitrage, 1, p. 79)» that this parasite 
has not eight acetabula, but only eight clasping-organs unprovided with 
an acetabular apparatus. The character of the genus will, therefore, 

349 



306 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLll : 

require correetMm in this reepeet. Leockart mentions, in all, bLk specie 
of Octobothria, among which three are new, — OetcbotK leptog€uier: 
Corporii parte anteriore latiore, lanceoiala, poeterioie teiiniiwima, illi- 
formi ; aoetabnlis anterimbns nollis, poeterioribns subpediniciilatis, fibn- 
latit. Rapp found it on the branchis of the Ckkncnra monstnoMi. The 
frame of the dasping-oigans here reminds us of Diplozoon paradoscum, 
— ^Another new species was found bj Rapp on the branchiae of the 
C^adug fnolva, and described bj Leuckart as Octoboth, palmatum : — 
Corpore antioe et aoetabnla yersus attenuate, medio latiore ; aeetabnlis 
anterioribus nullii, posterioribus fibulatis, pedunculatis ; peduncolis ehm- 
gatis, utrinque pafaaas fonnam mentientibus. The double caeoam of 
this worm fonns, on each side, a beantifnl rascular net. The sexual 
opening is placed behind the mouth. The ends of the eight pedicels, 
of the after part of the bodj, haye a grooye, which can be opened and 
shut by an anterior and posterior yalye-shaped dilatation. The margins 
of these yalyes are, as xu Diplozoan, bordered by amber coloured pieces 
of horn. The eggs are proportionably large, oyal, of a brownish-yellow 
colour, and proyided with a lid. The length of the wonn is T-B''', 
and its breadth If'. — A third new species is Octoboth. tagittatum : 
Corpore antioe attenuate, postice latiore, sagittiformi ; aoetabuliB duobus 
anterioribus on prozimis, posterioribus fibulatis, sessDibus. This wonn 
is a parasite on the brandiiiB of Salmofario, and has been first men- 
tioned by Schuhze and Zahringcr, under the name of Cyelocotyh Icm- 
eeolatum. Two brown lateral ydsaels finrm the intestine, which send off 
ramifications outwardly ; "the part of the body proyided with dasping- 
organs is constricted ; the four suction grooyes, on each side, are yery 
close together; each has two yalyes, an anterior and posterior, the 
margins of which, as in Octoboth, palmatum, are bordered with seyeral 
pieces of horn. The hook which the Octchoth, kmccolatwn possesses at 
the sexual opening, could not be peroeiyed ; a canal passing anteriorly 
contains yery large eggs. The length of the animal is 3-4'''. Leuckart 
adduces O. IcMceolatum as a fourth Octobo^hrmm, and O. Bcombri as 
a fifth ; but, in my opinion, this cannot be specifically distinguished 
firom Octcboth. laneeolatwn, Octoboth. platygattcr, Leuck. (O. Mer- 
Icbngi, Nordm.), has been enumerated as a sixth species; and as a 
seyenth, the O. hvnidinaceu>m, Bartels, is left doubtfuL Of Cycloeotyle 
belones, which Nordmann and Oreplin enumerated with the Octdbotkricby 
Leuckart has mentioned nothing definite. 

From Steenstrup's ingenious work (Uber den Generatifmswechsel, p. 
50), it is now eyident that the Cercaria, hitherto placed as a separate 
genus, is only a larya-state of differ^it Trematoda, subject to trans- 
mutable generation. In this condition the Trematoda are proyided with 
a tail-like apparatus, by the serpentine moyements of which the 
pushes itself on, quiyering in the water. 

350 



ENTOZOA — TREMATODA. 307 

Steenstrup first made his observatioiiB on Cerearia eckmata, Sieb., 
from Planorbia cornea, and Lymn€^8 stagnalU, and described it so 
exactly, that the reporter knew it at once to be the Cercaria first men- 
tioned in Bnrdach's Physiology. The internal cavity, with contractile 
walls in the after part of the body, he incorrectly looks upon as the end 
of the root of the tail. This is situated not nearly so deep in the after 
part of the body of the Cercarke, and only encloses the opening of the 
cavity mentioned. According to the reporter's observation, the wide- 
extended aperture, at the root of the tail, contracts itself when that 
part falls ofP, and then represents the spot for the discharge from the 
excrementary organ. The smaller drcular speck, which is situated 
before the cavity, and looked upon by Steenstrup as an opening, is only 
a spot enclosed by the contractile walls. Steenstrup has made the fol- 
lowing remarks on this Cercaria echinata : — ^In swimming, each Cer- 
ca/ria rolls its body into a ball, approximating the head to the tail-end, 
and beats about with the elongated tail in innumerable S-shaped figures. 
These larvsd swarm for some time around the snails from which they 
have come forth, and &sten themselves, by means of the abdominal 
acetabulum, to their slimy eutide, and then stretch out the fore and 
after part of the body. After a time they begin, with leech-like mo- 
tions, to creep about upon the eutide of the snails ; when again they 
become fixed, and by wriggling strongly up and down, they endeavour 
to loosen the tail. When they have succeeded in this, it dies away, and 
the Cercaria assumes the appearance of a Distomttm. During the 
attempts to cast off the tail, an abundant secretion of slime exudes 
from the whole upper surface of the body ; and the tail being cast off, 
the worm, by manifold movements and turnings, makes for itself a cir- 
cular cavity in this slime, that graduaUy thickens into a case around it. 
Steenstrup is of opinion, that in doing this, the animal denudes itself of 
a very thin cuticle, which the reporter is inclined to doubt. The former 
grounds his opinion on this, that after the formation of this covering, all 
the internal organs of the Cerearice become more distinct; but the 
reporter would explain this fact, by the emptying of the slime-glands 
of the cuticle making the body of the animal more transparent. This 
Bistomar-Mke worm possesses, at the anterior end of its body, a sort of 
cape, which is deeply emarginate on the middle of the abdominal side : 
on this stand the simple prickles or needles, from which the Cercaria 
derives its specific name. They are situated at greater and lesser dis- 
tances, alternating regularly, in a double concentric circle, the pointed 
ends directed outwards, and the blunt ends inwards to the mouth. The 
large abdominal acetabulum is placed somewhat behind the middle of the 
body. Steenstrup next describes a large bladder-like organ in the interior 
of the CerccMricPf which begins close to the nuurgin of the cape, runs down 
to the abdominal acetabulum in the middle of the neck, and then i^lits 

351 



308 REPORT ON ZOOLOOY, MDCCCXLII : 

into two side-bnuibhes, which stretch to the end of the after part of the 
body. He considers this organ as the liyer, and conjectures, that ihe 
intestinal canal, formed conformablj to it, is situated under it. The 
reporter would here add, by way of explanation, that this series of 
cells is the intestine not yet completely deyeloped, and that it after- 
wards loses all this cellular appearance, and then represents a closely^ 
bounded, fwhed, blind canal. Steenstrup observed two spiral organs 
running along both sides of the anterior part of the body, and disap- 
pearing in the neighbourhood of the abdominal acetabulum. He does 
not give any opinion on the use of these lateral canals, which form at 
the same time a ring round the pharyngeal tube. The reporter has also 
obserred them, and diBCoyered their blind terminations near the abdo- 
minal acetabulum ; they also appeared to him to discharge themselyes 
into the bottom of the acetabulum of the mouth, so that they may perhaps 
be compared to a saliyary gland, or some other organ of secretion, e. g» 
a spinning or a poisonous organ. These side-yessels do not form meshes ; 
and if Steenstrup has seen them, they must have been meshes of blood- 
yessels, which are present in aU fully-formed Trematoda, and at times 
can be distinctly observed in the larva of many Cerca/rim. Another 
organ, which passes along the body from beneath, with two lateral 
branches, is the ezcrementary organ, and must not be confounded with 
the anterior lateral vessels. When the CercaricB have arrived at the 
point of becoming pupce, they progress so r^ipidly, that they do not wait 
till they have penetrated the body of the snail which they have 
selected for their future abode, but pass into the state of pup» upon the 
cuticle. Up to this period the habits of Cerca/rim have been long 
known; but Steenstrup has followed them farther. In the state of 
pupse they remain long in an unaltered condition ; after several months 
he found them still the same, while the anterior end of the body became 
covered by a number of small-pointed prickles. He saw such indivi- 
duals free in the parenchyma of the snail. Some had still a wreath of 
spines at the mouth, others had lost it, but in all the intestinal canal 
was very much dilated. The pore visible at the upper end of the oeso- 
phagus, mentioned by Steenstrup, can only be the head of the pha- 
rynx, which does not always lie close in the acetabulum of the mouth, 
but is sometimes observed at a distance firom it. The organs, which 
he saw filled with little balls on both sides of the body, above the abdo- 
minal acetabulum (tab. ii. fig. 8, e. and 8 f.), are the superior blind ends 
of the excrementary organ. Thus far Steenstrup's direct observation 
of the metamorphosis of the Cercaria echinata extend. How the 
small Diatonmm which comes horn this Cercaria fiirther developes 
itself, he infers only from analogy with other Treina,toda, which in 
the perfect state produce a brood of young, resembling Infusoria. From 
these young, then, as is shown by the observations of Bauer, Bojanus, 

352 



ENTOZO A — TREM ATOD A . 309 

and the reporter, the germ>pouches proceed, in which new Cercaria- 
like larrsB are deyeloped, by which this chain of metamorphoses, passing 
through several generations, is closed. Of the origin of the Cercaria 
eehmata there can be no doubt : thej ore produced firom the Konigsgel- 
ben Wurmem (Eng. king's-yellow worms), as Bojanus and the reporter 
have observed. These worms, formerly observed by Naturalists as germs 
of the CerccMfiai, Steenstrup defines as the xnatrice of the Oerccmce and 
Dutoma. He is in doubt whether they possess particular openings for 
emitting their brood of Cercarice. However, it seemed to him, that two 
openings were to be found on the constricted band of the matrice of 
Cerca/ria ecMnata, The reporter can assure him, that the matrice of 
some species has no definite aperture for emitting their brood, while 
others have a peculiar sphincter behind the opening of the mouth, 
through which they ore protruded. Steenstrup has often observed, 
in the winter months, the origin of the young matrice, which the 
reporter was seldom lucky enough to do. In this season were found 
many matrices, which c(Hitained nothing but young matrices, in the 
most various stages of development. They developed themselves like 
CerccMria, also out of round granular germs. He farther conjectures, 
that these matrices, which may equally be considered as the first 
matrices of the Cercarice, do not again proceed from matrice-like animals, 
but from the eggs of Distoma ; but, as he could not explain the chain 
of metamorphoses of Cerca/ria echinata, by direct observation, he left 
it, and appealed to the brood of Monostom/um rrmtabiU, which, accord- 
ing to the reporter's observations, consists of infusoria-like young, 
which aU contain a creature very like the matrice of the Cercaria 
echinata, Steenstrup certainly conjectured rightly, that in these 
matrice-like animals, not the larvss of Monoatotna but of Cercarice 
were developed, from which afterwards the complete Monoetoma pro^ 
eeeded ; he also referred this supposition to the Cercaria echinata, in 
order to fiU up retrogressively the gap in the series of the metamor* 
phoses of this animal, the transition fix>m the brood of the Diatoma to 
the first matrices of the Cerca/rias, The reporter cannot entirely agree 
with Steenstrup, that the Cercaria eehmata is the larva of a Diatomum 
accomplishing several metamorphoses, and only wishes that this conjee* 
tore were confirmed by direct observation ; but he cannot help remark- 
ing, that the metamorphoses of the CerccmoB to the perfect Diatom/u/m, 
could with difficulty take place in the snail itself. The reporter alsa 
doubts, if the Diatoma figured by Steenstrup, without a constricted 
throat (tab. ii. ^g, 8 e. and 8 f.), actually belong to the series of metamor- 
phoses of the Cercaria echinata ; he expects at a friture period to publish 
his grounds for this doubt in a separate essay ; but the following may be 
here remarked : — K we compare the armed Diatoma {Diat, echinatum, 
uncinatwtn, milita/re, &c.) found in the intestinal canal of water fowls 

353 Z 



310 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

with the tailless Oereofria echMata, the retemblanoe of these animals, 
espeeially of the head aad wreath of hooks, is rerj striking; and if we 
remember the interesting obsermtion of Grepiin, that the ScJmtoce- 
phalu§ dknorphui (Saw. Observat. de Entos. p. 90) first gains its 
sexual organs, after it has been transplanted from the stickleback into 
the intestinal oanal of the water fowl, we must be led to assume, that 
the sexual organs of the pupa of Cerearia eehinata do not become oom^ 
pletelj dereloped until it has arriTed in the intestines of those waters 
fowl which feed on snails, and then grows up to one of the above named 
armed Diit&ma, Steenstrup next turns to the metamorphoses of the 
Oerccbria aamata^ Sieb,, on the anterior part of the body of which he saw, 
on both sides, a serpentine organ, which, as the reporter ooigectures, 
discharges itself at the anterior end of the body, as in C«rc. eehinata ; 
perhaps the same opening senres for an exit to both those secreting 
pouches, from which the point of the prieUe of the head projects. The 
forked intestinal canal of these OerccMiaSf and the posterior excretory 
organ, haye not been mentioned by Steenstrup. He saw the shells of 
LymncBUB 8t<ignaH$ and PlanorbU eomeus, not merely surrounded by 
monstrous swarms of these Cerearia, but also their bodies thickly 
ooTered by them. The Cerea/ria creep about upon them, and penetrate, 
by means of their prickle, into the cuticle, that they may cast off their 
tail; when this takes places, the inner caudal tube is constricted, and 
reoeiyes, according to Steenstrup's account, an aperture outwards, through 
which the animal then presses out a fluid, filled with globular masses. 
The reporter does not take this view. The cavity which contains the 
granular fluid does not belong to the tail of the Qerea/ria, but is the 
very short forked excrementaiy organ, situated in the posterior part of 
the animal's body, the aperture of which is stopped up by the root of the 
taU, as in the other species of Oercama. After tibey have penetrated 
into the cuticle of the snails, they become pups, while they excrete a 
slime from their whole surface, and at once strip off their upper skin 
together with the prickle. The Cerearice remain yery long active and 
fresh in this state of pupa. We cannot help wondering how Steenstrup 
oould consider the tailless Cerectria artnata changed into a Distom/um 
quite reversed. He describes its short forked posterior excretory 
oi^;an (tab. iii. i^g. 4 f. u. g., 4 d. u. e., a. y.) as the intestinal canal; and 
the double ciBcnm, going right and left from the head of pharynx (tab. iii. 
fig. 4 f. u. g., V. X. X.), he considers as an organ for the service of propa- 
gation. The great acetabulum of the mouth (tab. iii. fig. 4 £ u. g., 4 d. u, 
e. s. t.) is to him quite a mystery ; as, misled by optical delusion, he looks 
upon the section of the muscular walls as a peculiar horse-^hoe-formed 
organ, and the proper opening of the mouth as the aperture of tl^e pos- 
terior excretory organ. A Distomumy which had slipped out of its 
covering (tab. iii. fig. 5 a.), he also got hold of in the same way reversed ; 
354 



EKTOZOA — TREMATOD A. 31 1 

be now assunee of the Cercairiob beoeme pup® and changed into Dkt<»Mtf 
ihkt thej grow strong tifteap beooming pap®, and acquire a lanceolate 
^ape, an the fore^part of the body is fltronglj eontrteted, and tiie pupal 
tevering at the same time m^ch thidJkened. The rexj thicic sidniied 
iSelminthe$y to which Steenstrup next refers, and which he has figured 
<m tab. iii. fig. 5 e. f. u. g., do not belong te tl^ series of the metamor- 
phoses of Cerccuia <Mnnata. These ffelMmthe$ are yery r^narkable 
Wr&matoda, witiiout sex, whidi tiie r^rter hail often met witii between 
the nests of Cere^arite in FkMMvhis and LynMuiBm ; the irregular net of 
canals, whidi contains a granulisff fluid, ii l^e r&f mrksh dilated exoie- 
mentary oigaa of these Hdmrnthes, and widely difi^eient firom the simple 
short fblrlced one of the Dktoma wMdi oome f^m Cev^aria armata. 
Between tiie acetabtia ^ the moul^ and abdmnen <^ these animals two 
semicirdes are obserred^ which Steenstrap considers as the broad ends 
of the caTity of digestion ; but they a;^ two openings obliquely perf(^»- 
tii^ the thick eutielej and leading to 4 groote in the paraiGhyma of l&e 
W0tin« Sfedenitrup has been more happy in pursidng the metamorphoiKB 
Of (WectrM^ rotr o g f o ssi vely; he has succeeded in recognising, in Iheir 
matrioes, whidi hare hitherto been esteemed aa immoreable simple 
poUchee, A slight Wuntaiy motion, as well ad a sort of acetabulum at 
the one end, and an opening for parturition at the other. 

In their youngest state^ they contain a cellular mAss ; in the gradual 
doTelopm^t of the Cetcttrias the motion by degrees oeaiBes. 8teen6trup, 
as well as the lep^ter, haa obs^rred the OerearkB becoming pupn be- 
foe they leaTO the maMces, and appeals to the large thick-skinned IV«- 
«iato4<iwhichhehasfinmdinthema4rice-bagB. TheaeJ7<0linfn^^hate 
alee been seen by the reporter in the matnoe^bags of the Cere* o/rfMbta^ 
as well as eeMhata^ and must» as already mentioned, be o<msidered as 
parasites not belonging to the series of metamorphoeee of these Verearios* 
Steenstrup has not hitherto been able to pefceiye the first matrices 
(GrossHunm^) of the Oerear. atVMta, tli4t is, stieh matriee-bags as 
contain young pouches; he fiirther mentions, that he obtained derttalindi- 
tiduals of one Distonmm from the liTer of a i\ijtid<n<» viviparaf whksh 
he holds for the same spedes into which the Oerc0^. aphemera^ NitMchy 
dhanges on becoming pupa. This is not likely, as the Oerear. ephemera 
wants the abd<munal acetabulum; and, accordingly, this lar?a could only 
be changed into a Monoetonrnm. Nitasch has erroneously aseribed an 
abdominal acetabulum to tiiia Oerearia* Steenstrup next describes a 
small oTul animal, which mores by Tibratile cilia, and in all. respects 
resembles the brood which comes ftem the ^ggs of Dietoma^ and first 
becomes trantmuted into a Distomo-like animal in the third generdtien. 
It lires in the mtemal organs and external slime of ilnocionia, and much 
i^BsemblesaiWaM^^ritom* The inditiduals gradually lose tiMdr vibraitile 
cilia, fix themselres, and become more parenchymatous ; aft tiiey grow^ 
a cAyity ii fdtmed in thAir interior, which becomes, by degree!, filled 

355 



312 REPORT ON. ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

with small round or oyal bodies ; these are the germs of Distomum du- 
plicatum, Baer, which Steenstnip oonld not observe becoming pupa. 
He adds to these obserrations, that the tailed Distovn. dnplicatwn is 
▼ery probably the larra of Aspidogaster eon^hicolaf Eaer. The 
reporter considers this conjecture as entirely groundless; the tailed 
Ditt(mh. dupHcatum can only change into a Ditiamum, It possesses, 
like all of them, a forked intestinal canal, and an abdominal acetabulum. 
Atpidoga$ter has not an abdominal acetabulum, and -is only fiimished 
with a simple intestinal pouch. The brood also of Atpidogaster, which 
the reporter has frequently observed, does not at all agree in form with 
those creatures of the ParcMOMciu/mAanA. from which Steenstrup asserts 
that the matrice for JDMtom. dtiplicatum proceed. Its young are pro- 
Tided with a distinct acetabulum of the mouth, under which the anterior 
end of the body projects like a moveable tongue, and already points to 
the shield-formed abdominal plate of the grown animal. Steenstrup 
correctly explains, in opposition to the assumption of Carus, that the 
pouch-like beings, which have been named Leucochlaridium paradoxwnf 
proceed, by equivocal generation, from the pajrenchyma of the Succmea 
umpMbia ; that these pouches are the nurses of certain Trematoda^ 
and, in his opinion, owe their origin to ciliated animalcules, resembling 
the Opalina ranoru/m. 

Steenstrup found, in the eyes of fishes, Trematoda, not only free but 
shrivelled up, which were fixed to the inner wall of the cornea of a pike 
(Hechtes) and of a perch (Borsches), and to which a fine granular imorga- 
nized stripe ran through from the external surface, which might be looked 
upon as the way by which the rrematocKo-like little animal got from the 
outside into the fish. As he also found such Trematoda become pupa in 
the neighbourhood of the eyes of fishes, he looks upon this to be a proofs 
that the Diplostoma, Holoitcma, and Distoma, living as parasites in their 
eyes, are different links of one series of metamorphoses. He explains the 
Diplo9t<ymMm elavatum to be the larva, Holo$tOfMtm cuticola the pupa, 
and DiploBtomum volvens the full grown TrematodiMn of one and the 
same series of metamorphoses ; with which the reporter does not agree, as 
these three Trematoda are formed differently from each other, and no 
trace of sexual organs can be recognised in the Diplo9tomum volvens. 
Whether the Trematodtim found enclosed, in the state of pupa, under 
the cuticle and in the mesentery of the Rana temporaria, be the pupa 
of Amphistonmm cla/vatum, as he imagines, would need more proof. The 
reporter has often found the same sort of capsuled Tr&matoda in &ogs ; 
but he always held them for Distoma without sex, never for Amphistoma, 

A laboured article by Streubel, on the genus Pentastonwim, in Ersch 
and Oruber's '' Eneyclopsedie 16r Theil. 1842, p. 93," which has hitherto 
contained distinguished original essays on the Helmmthes, is almost only 
a meagre extract from Diesing's Monograph of this genus. 

A very singular parasitical worm, which the reporter knows not 

356 



ENTOZOA — CESTOIDEA. 313 

where to classify, has been, described and figured by Rathke, under the 
name of Pdtogaster paguri (Neuest. Danz. Schr. Bd. iii. Hft. 4, p. 105). 
The animal liyes on the abdomen of the body of the Pagums hemr- 
hao'ditSy is &'' in length, and forms an elongated arched crooked oral, 
the thicker end of which passes into a short wide tube ; the margin of 
the aperture of this tube, which is the mouth of the animal, appears 
padded and somewhat undulated. Cirri and eyes are wanting, the epi- 
dermis is thick and colourless, and in the middle of the body there is an 
abdominal acetabulum, in the form of an amber-yellow radiated emarginate 
shield of a homy texture, on a homy longitudinal stripe. The presence 
of this acetabulum, with which the parasite is fastened to the body of the 
crab, induced Rathke to reckon it with the Trematoda. Through the 
mouth we arrive at a very wide intestinal pouch, which reaches to the 
end of the body, and is every where fastened to its walls by cellular 
tissue. The worm does not prey upon the juices of the Pagiirus, but 
sucks the nourishment which is conveyed to it out of the water. The 
intestinal pouch serves also for hatching the eggs. In young indivi- 
duals, the inner surface of the pouch, towards the back, is covered with 
soft flat masses of fibres ; in older ones these spots are occupied by some 
layers of eggs, which are united to each other, and with the intestinal 
pouch, by a transparent firm substance (a hardened secretion) ; the eggs 
contain oily drops of a copper-red colour. The ovaries are situated 
between the abdominal wall of the body and the intestine, in the form 
of two pouches, which are divided into departments by transverse walls, 
and, when swollen with eggs, fill out the whole body. Somewhat behind 
the middle of the body, a short narrow canal projects from each ovary, 
and opens into the intestine. Before these openings two others are 
found, which lead to two warty elevations of the alimentary pouch, 
probably organs of attachment for the eggs. No nervous system was 
discovered. 



CESTOIDEA. 

Mater has discovered, outside the thin intestine of a Testudo mydas, a 
great number of small greyish-white knots, of f of a line in diameter, 
(MiUl. Arch. a. a. O. p. 213. They consisted of a husk, lying under the 
peritonaeum, with cheesy contents, between which a dear oval little 
bladder, of |''' in size, with an Entozoon, was concealed. This latter 
had an oval form, and was stronger at the one end, at the other more 
slight and bent inwards. The animal was composed of an external layer 
of balls and bladders, and an internal finely granulated layer, in which 
four cord-formed sheaths lay close beside each other. These contained 
four probosces, sown over with unequal teeth, which, on the lively 

357 



314 REPORT ON ZOOLQOT, MDOCCXLII : 

moiioiui «f tbe aiWAl* w«fe boused oat and in. H« piopottM to <st^ thi^ 
worm Teir<»rkfffy}ku$ cy^UouM, or ^chmococcus coroHtUu^. J$i%s^.9}l 
events * young Tctr^i^hynchmt and on this aooonnt need aot, haiw^ beev 
anwnged in a different genn^ ; fhe q^ifie name 9elefM hj Majenc 
ahonld hare been fltting» fi>r many Tetrarh^fnci are ^nnd encyeted. 

SteenstmpdoobtB (Op. ani dt. p. 113} if a T««rar%iieiM, aoo(«ding to 
Mieeoher'a aocoont (y. Aidu 1841, iL p. 901) can proceed from a met^i- 
poipboiifl of the JV^oria jMiotufiH aa the tobnlar and dub-fihaped oover- 
ings wMob harbour » Te^arhyncu$t and whidi he has often fonnd in 
Ssam bdone^ though they certainly on the soi&ce resemble a Fikuria^ 
yet haye nothing common in stmctare with that worm. 

Daremoy has mentioned, under the name of Bothrimowu tturioniBi 
a new parasite, belonging to the Oestoiclea, whidi was found by Lesii^nr 
in the intestinal canal of the Acipemer <myrhynehu$t Mitch. (Ann. dee 
So. Nat. 1. 19, p. 123i, and Froriep's None Notia. Bd. 24^ p. 134). It 
makes a transition from Xt^uto to jBo<iWiciM#m. Thereisnomemb^vnig 
of the body, on the.nuddle of which, a ftoow funs down both sioftces ; 
in these two frrrows are situated a multitude of small eleyations, pvo* 
yided with an opening; sometimes, instead of one deya^bion* there is an 
oblong drrus-like papilla^ and dose behind it a sepoiid opeping. ThesQ 
parts, whidi Duyenioy only properly recqgpuaed v^^on <nte (the »Ma- 
minal) surfaee» are perhaps nothing but sexual povec^ and Greplin. wne 
right, when he declared the presencp oi sudi porcp on the dcwsnqi of the 
animal an illusion (Fror. Neue Notiz, Bd. 2^ p* 136). The globular 
head is furnished with two acetabular standii^ dose together, <» raiiies 
soldered to each other, which Duyemoy saw situated on the dorsal side 
of the head oi the worm ; the posterior end was bhintiy rounded or ere*- 
nated outwaxdly ; this last probably only occuxxed from an ugujy . 

A comparison has. been made by Creplin (Aroh^ 1842, L p. 315) be- 
tween Tasnia escpa/Ma and denticuliUaf and attention particulaElty. 
directed to the latter, with whidi the former has been often confounded, 
as both at the same time inhabit the intestine of bullocks. 



CYSTICA. 

In the treatise of Steenstmp, already so offcen mentioned, he emcunerates; 
also the encysted worms as animals> whidi perhaps are ge^arating 
matrices, of wludi, as yet» the complete 'animals are not known (Op. 
ant. dt. p* 111). 

R. Fnxriep, in a treatise entitled " Hydatides osdanii" has communi- 
cated a case of the presence of the Cy$ti€0rcu9' cdlulaai in the first 
phalanx of the middle fingw of a man (Fior. Chimyg. Kupfiartaf. "Hik. 87, 
1842), and also two cases of hydatids in human Ixmes ; from which he 

358 



ENTOZOA — CYSTICA. 316 

ooDoliidea, that thxee species of hydatids aze present in the b<mes» viz., 
— 1. Simple spoils c^sts ; 2. Aoephalpc^sts^ or Echinococdf that is, in- 
dependent wateiy bladders, enclosed in a fibxoiis ooyering^ which are 
sometimes present in great nambers in one and the same husk ; and 3. 
CystkercQs celkdoMS, The author has had the kindness to send to the 
reporter a preparation &om the under eoctremxtj of a casoi in which 
knotty hydatids were yery eztensiyely present^ but in which the reporter 
has only reoognised serous cysts. 

Leuc^art found, in the peritons^al parts belonging to the uterus of 
LepuB cunicuhiB domesHcuSy ten indiyiduals of a CysHcercua (Zool. 
Bruchst. iiL p. 1), which he looked xcpaa as new, and has named Cyst, 
dongatus, with the following diagnosis: — ^Capite sub-tettagono ; odilo 
nullo ; corpore mgoso, elongate, depresso ; vesica caudali gracili, elongata» 
apice acuminata, corpore parum lougiore. From a notice communicated 
to the author by Diesing, a OystUercuty found by Natterer in the 
Lepus hrasUienHsy must agree with this Cyst, elongatut. A CyiHcer- 
eus cereopitheci cynomolgi, which Leuckart found in a cjai of the liver, 
and mentions as a doubtful species, is near Cysticercus tenuicollis, 
Leuckart could not discover Ihe circle of recurved hooks in a Cfyaticercus 
piiifarmis from the liver of a house-mouse; and conjectures, that the 
hooks, as in the Tcenia, had here fidlen off from old age. It has been 
announced by Engel, that in an epileptic patient^ Cysticerci were found 
in considerable numbers in grooved deepenings of the convohitionB of 
the brain, and the muscles of the same patient were also beset with them 
(Schmidt's Jahrg. 1842, Bd. 53, p. 43). Badius obeearved a Cystieercus 
in a hydatid of the size of a walnut, in the liver of an old woman, 
which was surrounded by a cartilaginous capsule (ibid. Bd. 34, p. 269). 

Cases of convulsionc^ madness of swine occasioned by measles, have 
been rekted by Behrs (Gurlt and Hertwig's Magaz. 1842, p. 22^). The 
encysted worms^ in such swine, occupied almost m<»e space in the cavity 
of the skull than the substance of the brain. 

A view often taken of the origin of the CkmwMfM cer^brcUis, as the 
oensequence of preceding inflammation <^ the brain, has again been 
brought fcMTward by Dcmdnik (ibid. p. 83). 

According to Boeitansky's observations, aoephalocysts are rery rare 
in human bones (Handb. der pathol. Anat. Bd. 11, p. 207). They have 
been found in the humerus^ tibia» iliac bones, and tiie diploe of the 
skull, generally in consequence of wounds. Bocitamky has communi- 
cated the following case : — ^A day-labourer, forty4wo years of age, had 
in youth, suflSared from swellings <xf the gionds of the thmt and sbo 
and was afterwards severely affected by syphilis. Four years thereafter^ 
a disease of the bones supervened, with gnawing and penetrating pains, 
and in the course of a year he died. The kft ilium was changed into 
a fibrous sac, which was filled with aoephalocysts (J^cAmococcus-bladders) 
359 



316 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

the dze of millet-Beed and nuts, together with namerbiu small and kzger 
pieces of bone sticking to the inner wall of the sac ; small sacs of the 
same kind were situated on the pubis, ischium, and coccyx- The blad- 
ders were partly free and partly united, particularly the small ones, or 
seyeral were together in the dilated pores or cells of the bare and 
much shattered bone ; the head of the thigh-bone projected into an ace- 
phalocystous sac, occupying the place of the socket, which was completely 
eroded. This case has also been related by Robert (Oppenheim's 
Zeitschr. f. die Gesam. Mediz. Bd. 20, p. 92). 

Reginald James mentions the case of a man, fifty-nine years old, 
in whom the lateral section of the bladder was made for a retention of 
urine (liOnd. Med. Gaz. Oct. 1842, p. 151). A considerable quantity of 
urine escaped, without reducing the swelling of the pubis or the pain .of 
the patient. After death, a swelling was found behind and above the 
bladder, filled with hydatids of difierent size, and which had pressed it 
so dose to the pubis, that it was divided into an upper and under por- 
tion, the latter of which only had been opened in the operation. Another 
case of EchinococcuB hominis has been communicated by Koch (Ro- 
hatzsch. allgem. Zeit. f. Chiruig. 1842, No. 17). 

Schiodte has found an intestinal worm in the stomach of Opatrum 
Mbulosara of half a line long, which seems allied to the Caryophyllceui, 
and resembles the figure of a parasite, given by Leon Dufour, in the 
Ann. d. Sc. Nat. 1826, pi. 21, bis, ^g. a.-d. (Eroyer, Naturh. Tidsskr. 
Bd. 4, p. 208). That animal, therefore, certainly does not belong to 
Caryophyllceus, but to the enigmatical form of the Cfrega/rina, which 
are probably subject to a transmutable generation. . 

HELMINTHES GENERIS DUBII. 

Oebstep mentions a sagittal-shaped HelminthMf which he found in the 
intestinal canal of Lumbriconais marina, Oerst. (Kroyer, Naturh. 
Tidsskr. Bd. 4, p. 133). Although a figure is given of the animal, yet the 
reporter does not know what to make of it. Nor can he make any thing 
of another enigmatical parasite, which Eroyer discovered on the abdomen 
of Hippolyte ptuiola (Monografisk Fremdstilling af Slaegten Hippolytes 
nordiske Arter med Bidrag til Dekapodemes Udviklingshistorie. Ejoben* 
havn, 1842, p. 56). The structure is veiy simple, and points out its 
position between the LerncecB, Hirudines, and Helmmthes. 

Philippi asserts, that the Physophora harbours in its stomach, worms 
which as yet have not been dearly defined (Fror. N. Notiz. Bd. 23, 
p. 88, and Bd. 22, p. 344). 

A vermicular disease of poultry has been mentioned by Delafond, 
without exactly describing the worms (Gurlt und Hertwig's Mag. ant. cit. 
p. 115). 

360 



HELMINTHES GENERIS DUBII. 317 

Miescher has been struck hj a remarkable striped appeanmoe of the 
muscles of the trunk, extremities, throat, and face, and of those of the 
eje, and also of the diaphragm, in a house-mouse (Ber. iiber die Yerh. der 
naturf. Ges. in Basel Yom Aug. 18M) bis JuH 1842, Bas. 1843, p. 193). 
The muscles of the tongpie, larynx, pharynx, and all the inyoluntaiy 
mnsdes, were normaL The stripes were like milk-white threads, which 
were found both on the upper surface as well as in the interior of the 
muscles, and always ran parallel with the fibres; the length of each 
thread corresponded to the length of the muscle ; each individual thread 
represented a cylindrical pouch, becoming narrow at both ends, and 
was filled with granular contents, in external appearance resembling a 
FilcMria. The walls of the pouches were composed of a simple structure^ 
less membrane ; the contained grains had an oblong, reniform, or sphe- 
rical shape, and a length of 0.0034''' to 0.0054'". They did not resemble 
simple cells, but consisted of a simple membrane, which enclosed a very 
finely granulated substance. Miescher is undecided as to their use; 
they might either constitute a peculiar diseased condition of an indiyi> 
dual muscular fibre, as each pouch may have been engendered under the 
cover of the muscular bundle instead of the fibrillss, or they were pecu- 
liar parasitical formations, which here chose their habitation, and have 
pressed out &om the actual muscular substance. Neither is Miescher 
determined whether the parasite be of a vegetable or animal nature ; 
but it puts us in mind of the pouches, observed by Bowmann (Arch. 1841, 
ii. p. 296), in the muscles of an eel, which were filled with Trichma 
spiralis. 

Gluge has discovered an Entozwm in the blood of the heart of a frog 
(MiilL Arch. 1842, p. 148); it was very transparent and elongated, 
having a head and tail running to a point, and, on the right side, three 
oblong processes bulged out and in. It did not contain little balls in its 
interior, like the Hcematozoon described by Valentin (v. Miill. Arch. 
1841, p. 435), but was probably a creature allied to it. Hosmatozoa 
have also been observed by Remak in the blood of most river fish, and 
almost constantly in the pike (Cannstatt's Jahresb. 1842 ; Bericht iiber 
die Leistungen im Qebiete der PhysioL im Jahre, 1841, p. 10.) They 
were of different sizes, but aU generally twice as large as the blood- 
corpuscles. When in repose, they had an oval or pear-shaped foim, and 
they pushed out dentated processes. These processes are the consequence 
of the undulating motions of the transparent membranous part of the 
body. Nea^r one end, and more laterally, Bemak distinguished a 
thidcer oblong untransparent nucleus, from which, usually, foldings of the 
membranous part radiated out to all sides. This membranous portion 
in it ran out into two short tips at the end nearer the solid kernel ; in 
the Hoffmatozoa of the stickleback, it ran out to a hook-shaped crooked 
thin thread. 

361 



318 REPOET ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLif : 



PSEUDO-HELMINTHES. 

Matbb hat giTn hk Tiewv <m the natme of the Spermatozoa^ and ii 
still eoaTinoed that thej aie aotaaUy animals, as their peeoliaar fonn and 
<»gaaiaati(m, as well as their yolnntaiy moTements, oonespond ta the 
animal dharaoter (Nene Untemioh. p. 9). 

Krohn has shown thai the VmrtumfMU iheUdieola^ Otto, wliich, for a 
long while, has been held as a Trematodik^Sk» parasite, is not an inde- 
pendent animal ; bat that it is oanstituted from fimns whicb are only 
appendages of tilie Theli^$^ but haye certainly a frail oonnectiofn with it 
(MnIL Arch. 1842, p. 418). The reporter peroeiyee, from the Transac- 
tkms of the Meeting of Naturalists at Tnrin, that already, in 1840, 
Verani had qnestioned whether the»e appendices of the Thetyz were 
psendo-parasites (Isis, 1842, p. 252), and that Nardo had remarked, 
that the Thetyt was able to reproduce them when torn off. It fill- 
lows, therefore, that the remark of Maeri, made many years ago, who 
had correctly understood the meaning of these appendices, must be agam 
added to the description of Thet^ leporinna, yiz. : — ^Majoies appendices 
sunt membranaoeiB, oyato-obkmgo, acut», deeid^MB (Atti della reala 
aeademia della Scienze di Napoli. Vol. iL 1778, p. 170, tab. 4.) Krohn 
has distinctly peroeiyed the skin of the Thetyt to pass orer, without 
interruption, the parts which haye been named Vertwrnni; and that 
the same colour which the The^ itself has, is found again on the ap- 
pendices. The obseryations of the reporter agree completely, in the 
latter respect, with Krohn's assertions. He may add also, that one 
sees, en the first glance, that the grooye found at the anterior thick end 
of the body of the VertwtMiiy and regarded as the animal's mouth, 
cannot be an acetabulum, as it is neither ooyered by an epidermis nor 
an epithelium ; and as no where, in this grooye, is the peculiar B tr u c iur e 
of an acetabulum to be distinguished. The wide canal, whidi stretches 
from the grooye longitudinally, in the body of the VertwRMMLS, is ccm- 
nected with an innumerable multitude of larger and smaller sinuses, 
which lie buried in the other parts of the animal. The whole paren- 
chyma consists of irregular cells, with wide meshes, which can be blown 
up through the opomig in the grooye of the VtvfwwMM, like the paren- 
chyma of the lungs of an AnvphMu/m, 



362 



REPORT 



ON THB 



WORKS WHICH HAVE APPEARED DURING 
THE YEARS 1841 AND 1842, 



ON THB 



EOHINODBRMATA, ACALEPHA, POLYPI, AND INFUSORIA. 



BY 



PBOFESSOB C. TH. Y. SIEBOLD. 



ECHINODERMATA. 

Zoo]i0028T9 apd Phygioliogiste liaye, last year, diiotcied nmoh of theiir 
f#eatioa to th^ Echmodermata (apoii whioh thiere has been no import 
jn. these ArehiyeB i^poaoe 1838), so that this dass pTondses to he Bioxe 
oompletely desoribed than any other of the inyertehrata*. 

Agassiz has pijneipally distiagoiahed. himself in this departmeiit, aa 
for seyeial years he haa been sealomily publishing '' Monogiaphies 
d'Edhinoderqes yiyans et Fossiles/' of whieh four admirable liyraisona 
are now before the reporter* He haa also alieady treated of thia alaaa 
kiihia *< Non^enelator Zoologiffas^ Fasc. 1. Solodui, 1842." 

Sluirpey haapablidied an ample treatise on the internal stmctoie of 
4ie Echmodermata (Cyel<^. of Anat and Physi<^ yol. ii 1839, p. 30) ; 
and Digardi» has also laboured at lius olass« in the third yolwne of 
Lamaibk's Natural History. 

Foi^s has published an ea^oellent work <m the British Schmoder- 
mata, which is illustrated, in a truly luxurious maniier« with beautiful 
wpod^ts (A Hist(H7 of Biiti^ Stai^ish^ tmd other Ammals of the 
daas^Ediinod^emata. IfOndon, 1841). This is a proo^ that in England, 
the interest fas Zoology mi^ be more eztensiye than in Qermany. Of 
late yearn a number of beautifully illustrated mon(^gra]|^B on the British 

363 



320 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

Fauna have appeared ; while, in Qermanj, works of the same descrip- 
tion can hardly be proyided with the most necessary figures. 

Forbes diyides the Echinodermata, according to their organs of motion, 
into six orders, which correspond with the dirisions hitherto in use. — 
1. PnvNiORADA (Crincideas) : of these Comatula rosacea, L. {mediter^ 
ra/nea. Lam.), onlj is a natire of the English coast. Pentaermus euro- 
jMSus, Thomps., is nothing but a joung Comatula, — 2. Spinigbada 
(OpMurida). Forbes enumerates the following: OpJUura Uxtwrata, 
Lam. ; aUbida, Forb., which has been declared bj Miiller and Troschel to be 
OpJdolepU ciliata ; Ophiocotna neglecta, Johnst. (OpMolepia gqtuimata, 
Miill. and Tr.) ; Balliiy Thomps. ; pv/nctata, Forb. ; j/Uiformis, Miill. ; 
hrachiata, Montag.; ffrcmulata. Link; hellis, Flem. ; Goodsiri, Forb. 
(according to Miiller and Troschel, perhaps identical with Oph, Ballii) ; 
rostila, Link ; minuta, Forb. ; the last two species have been referred 
by Miiller and Troschel to Ophiothrix fragilis ; Aitrophyton scuta- 
turn, Forb., which is perhaps Agtroph, Linhii, Miill. and Tr. — 3. Oirkhi- 
ORADA (Asteriadai) : Uraster glacialis, Agass. ; ruhens, Ag. ; violacea, 
Miill.; hi8pida,Femi. ; Cribellaoculata^'Pejm.; ra«ea, Miill. ; Solaster 
papposus, L.; endeca, L.; Palmipes membranaceus, Retz. ; Asterina 
gibbosa, Penn. ; Goniaster Templetoni, Thomp. ; equestria, Gm. (Astro- 
gonium pkrygianum. Mull, and Tr.) ; Asterias awrcmtia^a, L. ; LuidAa 
fragilissima, Forb. — 4. Cibrhisfiniobada (Eckmidas) : Cida/ris papU- 
lata, Leak. ; Echinus miliaris, Lesk. ; sphcera, MiUl. ; Flemingii, Ball ; 
lividus, Lam. ; neglectus. Lam. ; Echinocyamus pusillus, MiUl. ; Echi- 
norachinus placenta, Gm. ; Spatangus purpu/reus, Miill. ; Brissus ly- 
rifer, Forb. ; Amphidotus cordatus, Penn. ; roseus, Forb. — 6, Cirrhi- 
VERMiORADA (Holotkuriadce) ,' I^kis phantapfA8,lj.', PsoUnus hrevis, 
Forb. and Goods.; Cacumaaia frondosa, Grun. ; pentactes, MtQL; 
covmmimis, Forb. and Goods. ; fusifomds, Forb. and Goods. ; hyalma^ 
Forb. ; Drummondii, Thomps. ; Hyndmani, Thomp. ; fucicola, F. and 
G. ; Ocnus hruvmeus, Forb. ; lacteus, F. and G. ; Tkyone papillosa, 
Miill.; Portlockii, Forb.; CMrodota digitata, Montagu. — 6. Vermi- 
ORADA {Sipu/nculidce) : Syrinx nudus, L. ; papUlosus, Thomps. ; Harvdi, 
Forb. ; Sipunculus hemhardus, Forb. ; Johnstoni, Forb. ; Pria pulus 
caudatus, Lam. ; Thalassema Neptuni, Gaertn. ; Echiurus vulgaris, Say. 

A. Hill Hassall has offered a contribution to the Marine Fauna of 
Ireland (Ann. Nat. Hist. iz. p. 132). He has enumerated Comatula 
rosacea, with ten species of Asteriadce, Spatangus purpureus, Echinus 
sphasra, AtnphidoPus cordatus, and Echinocyamus pusiUus, as pre- 
sent in the Bay of Dublin. 

We are indebted to Grube for a yery yaluabl^ contribution to the 
distribution of the Echinoderm^ta, in the Adriatic and Mediterra- 
nean Seas (Actinien, Echinodermen, und Wiirmer des Adriatischen und 
Mittel-Meeres, 1840, p. 14). The following Crinoidce, Ophiuridae, and 

364 



ECHINOBERMATA. 321 

AsteriadiB have been discovered by him: — Comatula mediterrcmea. 
Lam. ; OorgonocepJialus verrucMus, Lam. ; Ophiura lacertosa, Lam. ; 
pentagona. Lam. ; gqua/mmata, Lam. (Ophiolepis Ballii, from Miiller 
and TroscheVs aoconnt) ; rMmiUformis, Grub. {Ophiolepis squa/mata of 
MiUL and Tr.) ; cordiferay Delle Chiaje ; scutdlwm. Grab. {Ophionyx 
scutellumy Moll, and Trosch.) ; rasula/ria, Qrub. (OphiOfCcmtha setoaa, 
MiQl. and Trosch.) ; fragilis, Miill. ; Agterias coriacea, Orab. (Ophi- 
diaster attenuatua, Qraj, according to Miill. and Trosch.) ; mbulataf 
Lam.; seposita, Lam.; glacialis. Lam.; aiircmtiaca, L.; biqfdnosa, 
Ott. ; platyaccmtha, Phil. ; pentacanthe, Delle Chiaje ; mermbrcmaceay 
Retz. Of EchinidcB Qrabe has found the following : — Spatangus Jlave&- 
cens, Miill.; atropos and carvnatus. Lam.; Echinus saxatilis, L. ; Tieapo^ 
litomus, Delle Chiaje ; esculentus, L. ; miliarus and neglectus, Lam. 
Of Holoth/uriadce the following : — Holotlvuria regalis, Cuv. ; ScMMtori, 
Delle Ch. ; tiibulosa, Miill. ; 8tichopus cinerascensy Br. ; Sporadipus 
impatiens, Forsk. ; Stellati, DeUe Ch. ; maculatus, Br. ; Cladodactyla 
doHolmn, PalL ; Dicquemouriiy Cuv., with several species which he holds 
as new, viz. — Holothwria mummatay catcmensis, Sporadipus gldber, 
Psohis grcurmlatus, Cladodactyla syracusoma, Chiridota Chiaiiy and 
pinnata, Grabe has, at the same time, characterized two new genera. 
The one, Phyllophorus, is intermediate between the genera Sporadipus 
and Cladodactyla of Brandt. There is a single species taken at Palermo, 
Phyl,. uma. The feet of this animal are scattered over the whole body, 
and are not arranged in rows, and its tentacles are branched and arbore- 
ons, and not in the form of a shield. The other genus, called by Grube 
Hoplodactylus, is allied to Idosoma, Br., but has the tentacles not shield- 
shaped, but simply cylindrical, and is only represented by one species, 
Hopl, mediterra/ryea. Besides the SipwfMsulus wudus, L., and verru^ 
cosuSy Cuv., Grube discovered the genus defined by him Anoplosoma^ 
turn, which forms a transition from the Echinodermata to the worms, 
having a simple cylindrical body, neither furnished with tentacles, teeth, 
nor warts, nor with bristles or short pedicles to the feet ; but each end 
of the body is perforated by an opening. The only species, named by 
Grube Anopl. utriculus, was got at Palermo, and is unarticulated 
throughout, and of a pale flesh colour. 

The nervous system of the Sipu>nculus wuduSy the knotless abdominal 
cord of which, firom its position, puts us in mind of the nervous system 
of the An/nulata and of the Holoth/uria tubulosay has been described by 
Erohn. (Miill. Arch., 1839, p. 348 ; and 1841, p. 9.) 

Some observations on the remarkable power of reproduction of the 
HolothurioB have been communicated by Dalyell. (Froriep's Neue 
Notiz., 1840, p. 1.) 

A new Synapta has been found in the British Channel by Quatie- 
fiiges, and described as Syn. duvencsa with the following diagnosis : — 

365 



322 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCOXLII : 

(rimrtit., 1841, p. 896.; Ann. d. Sc Nat. t. 17, 1842, p. 22; and 
Frar. N. Notis. Bd. 21, 1842, p. 165.) I'-^Corpore molH, TennifoUDi, hie 
et OUe modo tugido, modo oomtrieto et tnutisyenim plicato ; c&ti toseola^ 
hyalina, adlimviite; Tittis qninqae ftbrosu, opacis, albis, Icmgitadi- 
ftalilmt imtrada : ore plana, dnodecim tentaculu pinnatilfidift eii««mdato ; 
ano rohmdo, iiiido, temiiialL This animal prefers the Bea-filime, and 
fteds OB the Mnd, with whidi iti whole inteftme ia 8tiif^» It re^ 
qnicklj ■eparalet the hinder part of its long Termiferm body, eithe^ 
▼olnntarily or on tondung it ; the fragments of the animal thns thrown 
off moTd about fer three or fonr dajB. The animid itself dianges its 
position by Termiform windings of its body, making use of its tentadee 
lor that purpose, which are in eonstant motion, and are at the sa&id 
time employed as grasping-organs. Although this Synapta shows sea^ 
aibility to a rety strong admiwion of light, yet it does not appear to 
possess any definite organ of sight ; it has also no peroeptkm ci sound. 
Its cutieular coTering is composed of a tender epidermis and a oorimni 
which is slightly lose-ooloured, by a transparent granulated substanoe* 
The upper surfiioe of. the body is not smooth, but ooyered by a number 
of oyal eleyations like raspberries ; these bear remarkable andior-fthaped 
angular hooks, which are toothed on the convex side of th^ two barbs, 
and haTe a small arched dentated dilatation at the upper end of the 
•talk opposite the barbs. The barbs or anchornshaped bodies, whii^ 
are about the length of t\j mill., are listened by the upper dentated 
end of the stalk, in an oblique direction, to a small perforated shields 
These parts, the anchor and shield, become dissolted with efibrresoenoe 
in acids, while they are not affected by caustic potass. The other 
elerations which do not bear anchors are covered with small spherical 
and oral bodies, some of which are striped transversely. These bodies 
can protrude from their interior a filiferm body of j^ mill, in length ; 
they are not afibcted by adds, but are dissolved by hali causticum. 
Quatrefiiges compares these Httle bodies with the nettld organs of the 
AetinicB, and believes that the anchors do not exclusively, as Eschsoh(dti 
supposes, cause the bur-like appendages and the urtication of the 
Bynapta, but that the last described bodies, principally as in the 
Actimai, work as stinging organs. The anus is opposite the mouth, 
at the end of the hinder part of the body. The five feathered tentacles 
surrounding the mouth, have a tenderer cuticulas covering than the rest 
of the body, and bear neither anchor nor shield, nor stinging otgan, 
but are Airnished with two rows of aoetabula on their inner surfeoe^ 
which are very udeM for taking the feed and in creeping forward. 
The tentacles, in which the circulation of the blood is maintained in a 
lively manner by the vibratile epithelium, also probably serve as organs 
of respiration; but at the same time a contrivaiioe by which the i^ynof^to 
can constantiy take up water into the cavity of the body, and again 

366 



ECHINODERMATA. 323 

throw it out by contraction, must abo contribute to the process of xe- 
spiration. There are found, namely, between the roots of every two 
tentacles, on a small papilla-shaped elevation, sometimes four, some- 
times fiye openings, from which canals pass in through the covering of 
the body to the cavity, giving entrance and exit to the water. With 
respect to the organs of propagation, Quatre&ges has discovered the 
Synapta duvemasa to be hermaphrodite. He could not discover any 
nervous sjrstem. 

Agassiz has turned his attention to the Echmidaf, in his manographs 
above mentio^ied. 

The first livraison of this work embraces the genus ScUema (Dkf ono- 
graphics Echinodermes, Ire livrais. contenant les 8alenies. Neuchatel, 
1838), which, containing only fossil species, we shall not analize here. 
The second contains the ScutelloB (1841.) Agassiz arranges these 
Echinodermata in that division of the Eckmidcs whicb he has called 
Clypeas^oides, and which have, as a chief characteristic, a central 
mouth and a sub-central anal opening. Agassiz holds it unsuitable 
to unite the Scutellce into one genus as later Naturalists have done ; and 
he was constrained, as he took into consideration the internal organiza- 
tion, partly again, to re-establish older genera, and partly to add new, 
by which means he makes thirteen genera, in which the position of the 
anal and sexual openings, the figure which the ambulacra form, the 
structure of the organs of mastication, and the cavity of the body, fur- 
nish the principal points for their, characters. 

The shell of the 8cutdlcB, like that of the EchmidcB, is composed of 
ten regions of plates, of which ^re rows bear ambulacra, and the ^yb 
without them He between ; each region is formed, properly, of a double 
row of plates, which are so intimately united to each other, that they 
can hardly be separated. Bound the mouth, instead of twenty plates, 
there are usually only ten or five to be counted, which form the buccal 
rosettes so called ; the spiniferous ScuUIIcb rest upon the tubercles on 
which the spines are situated, as in EchvMJts. Of these tubercles the larger 
may be distinguished as spiniferous tubercles, and the smaller as miliary. 
The ambulacra, which form a five radiated rosette on the dorsum of 
the ScutellaSy are as yet very little known. Agassiz was able to observe, 
on a veiy well preserved, although dried specimen of Lotgawwrn rostror- 
turn, that a row of lametim was situated on the inner side of the ambu- 
laeral pores, which evidently stood in connection with them. From 
this it is to be concluded, that in the ScutdlcB the same organiza- 
tion of the ambulacra occurs as in the Echini^ and that these lamellsD 
indicate the dried branchial sacs. The Scutellce are very remark- 
ably and peculiarly distinguished by the ray-like furrows going out 
from the centre and ramifying on the under surface of the sh^; in 
these furrows are also found a number of pores, which, like the pores of 

367 



324 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

the doHQiii, ftand in oonnection with ambulacra. The opening of the 
month liea opposite the email apicial rosette, which is composed of three 
different parts, namely, the madrepore-form plate, the plates containing 
the sexual openings, and those which bear the ocelli. These different 
plates are also so intimately connected to each other, that thej can with 
difficulty be separated. The spines vary in form according to the genera 
and species ; those of the upper surface are mostly clayate, those of the 
under straight and pointed ; seyeral species of MelUta and Encope have 
a third sort of spines, which are flattened laterally at the ends. These 
spines, which are organized, as in Echinus, can be moved by the Hying 
animal on all sides. The greater number of the ScutellcR are grey or 
violet coloured. In those in which the margin of the shield is entire, the 
anus appears farther from the mouth than in those the maigin of which 
is incised. The cavity in the interior of the shield is divided by many 
perpendicular partitions. The organs of mastication of the Scutellce are 
constructed much on the plan of the teeth of Echinus. The intestinal 
ouial, which winds through the cavity of the body, contains, generally, 
fragments of small corals and shell-fish. 

Agassiz divides the Scutellce into thirteen genera, which are all 
figured. The four genera. Buna, AmphiopCf Scutella, and 8cuteU 
Una, containing only antediluvian forms, are here omitted. Of the 
genus Rotula, two species are described : R, Rumphii {Scut, dentata. 
Lam.) and Augusti (Scut, octodactyla. Lam.) To the three already 
known species, MeUita quinquefora, Ag., Lam., testudinata, Kl., 
hexapora, Ag., L., Gm., Agassiz has added two new species: if. 
similis, disco suborbiculari vel subquinquangulari, lunuHs sex, basi un- 
dulata, sulcis ambulacralibus valde ramosis ; and M. lobata, disco sub- 
orbiculari, lunulis sex, lunulis ambulacralibus postids apertis, petalis 
brevibus, ovatis, subdausis, pons genitalibus ocellaribusque vere distino- 
tis. The genus Encope is represented by eleven species, of which nine 
are new, viz., — E. (Scutella) emargvnata, Ag., Lam. ; tetrapora, Ag., 
Blainv. ; micropora, perspecHva, cyclopara, cblonga, subcla/usa, Valen- 
dennesiiy Michelini, grandis, uid StokesU, Ag. To the genus Lobo- 
phora, four species are reckoned: X. (ScuteUa) hifora, Ag., Lam.; 
tnmcata, Ag. (Scutella hifora, var. 2, Lam.) ; hifissa, Ag., Lam.; aurita^ 
Ag., Blainv. (Scutella hifisMb, var. 2, Lam.) Besides Amphiope biocu- 
lata, Ag. (Scutella hifora, var. 3, Lam.), Agassiz describes a second 
species: A. perspicillata ; disco valde depresso, postice subrostrato, 
lunulis subcircularibus, petalis subovatis, acutis. — Of Echtna/rcLchniuM 
there are three species described, E. paatna, Cbray, Rumphii, Ag., 
Blainv.., and atlam,ticus. Gray; and of Arachnoides only one, A. phi- 
centa, Ag., Lam. The genus Lagcmum has twelve species, of which 
nine are described for the first time: La^gcmiwm Banani, Ag., El., 
(Clypeaster laganum, Lam.) ; depressum, decagonum. Lesson and Ag, ; 

368 



ECHINOBERMATA. 325 

tlUpHcum, dongatum, rottratum, ma/rgmale, stellatit/mf Ag. ; tonga- 
nen&e^ Qaoj -and Gaim. ; Lesueuri, Val.; orbicul<ir€f Ag., L., Gm.; 
Peronii, Ag. (Scutella orbicularis^ Lam.) Of the genus Echinocyamus, 
only two living species are described; E.puMllvs, Flem.» and amgu^ 
losus, Leske. Moulinia is the thirteenth and last genus, embracing 
the single species, M, cassidulina. 

After the third livraison of Agassiz's Monographies, which treated 
only of antediluvian EcMmdcB (1842), a very comprehensive monograph 
appeared by Valentin, on the anatomy of the genus Echiwus (Monogra- 
phies d'Echinodennes 4 e. Uvraison, oontenant TAnatomie du genre 
Echinus, par G. Valentin, 1842). He distinguishes in the shell of the 
Echiwus three kinds of calcareous plates : the largest form the principal 
mass of the shell, the two others comprehend the smaller buccal and 
anal plates. The anal plates are held together by a contractile mem- 
brane. All the plates, with the exception of the buccal, bear spines, 
which are fixed by their articulating heads in a muscular layer. The 
suckers of the ambulacra are extraordinarily contractile, and can be pro- 
jected, by the living Echitms, far beyond the longest spines, in order to 
touch with them or to move forwards ; each sucker is furnished at its 
free end with an acetabulum. Besides these long pedicelled acetabula, 
tlie Echini possess other stalked appendages, which are very abundant 
round the mouth, and were formerly supposed to be parasitic animals 
and young brood of the Echiwus, Valentin divides them into three 
kinds according to their shapes, and calls them pedicellaires gemmi- 
formeSy tridactyles, and ophiocephales. He has also very exactly de- 
scribed the Latemi of Aristotle ; and the vascular system has been sub- 
jected to a careful investigation. 

As supplementary to this excellent monograph, the works which ap- 
peared almost simultaneously on Echinus, by Erdl, Krohn, and KoUiker, 
are to be mentioned. 

Brdl*s researches have been particularly directed to the spines, ace- 
tabular and pedioelli of the mouth, as well as to the external branchisB of 
the Echinus saasaMlis (Arch. 1842, i. p. 48). Erohn's communications 
are confined to the description of the nervous system of the Echiwus and 
Spatangus (MtQl. Arch. 1841, p. 2, and Ann. d. Sc. Nat. 1. 16, p. 288). 
The separate sexual organs have been recognised by KoUiker in 
Echinus saaatilis (Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Geschlechtsverhaltnisse 
und der Samenfliissigkeit wirbelloser Thiere, Berlin, 1841, p. 39). 
Agreeably to what had formerly been pointed out on these parts in the 
Echini by Peters (MiilL Arch. 1840, p. 143, Fror. N. Notiz. No. 275, 
p. 168, and Ann. d. Sc. Nat. 1. 13, 1840, p. 196), Milne Edwards and 
Lallemand (Ann. d. Sc. Nat. 1. 13, 1840, p. 376, and Fror. N. Notiz. 
No. 300, p. 218) ; and by Valentin (Repertor. f. Anat. und Physiol. 
1840, p. 301) in Spata^us. 

369 2 A 



326 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

The AtUriadcB have, iMt year espedally, found many zoological 
labourers. Besides the already mentkmed contributioBS of Forbes and 
Chrnbe, Yarious others remain to be mentioned^ Tix., — ^Forbes on the Aste- 
riadcB of the Irish Sea, in Memoirs of the Wemerian Society, 1839, t. yiii. 
1, p. 114 ; Agassiz Notice sor qnelqnes points de rOxganization des 
Emyales, acoompagne^ de la description detail^ de I'esp^oe de la Medi- 
teran^ ; Memoires de la Society des Sciences Natnrelles de Nenchatel, 
1839, Tol. ii. ; Thompson, Ann. Nat. Hist. yoL y. 1840 ; and Gray, ibid. 
Yol. yL 1840. The reporter, howoYer, refrains from analyzing these» 
as in the admirable work on the AsteriadcBt lately published by MiUler 
and Troschel, the appearance of which must haYO been most anxiously 
expected from the cursory remarks (ArchiY. 1840) already published by 
these Naturalists for two years past, all the matter belonging to this 
dass has been as completely elaborated as can be desired (System der 
Asteriden. 1842). The descriptions of the A»teriad<e are so excellently 
giYen in this work, and the genera and the species so accurately defined, 
that it has afforded the reporter a real pleasure to arrange, with this 
book in his hand, the collection of Aiteriada belonging to the zoological 
cabinet at Erlangen. The plates, which represent only indiYidual 
portions of these Echinodermata, are distinct, and serYC to show, where 
description is insufficient, the highly complicated arrangement of the 
different parts of the outicular covering, viz., — the spines, plates, 
granules, tubercles, pedicellaria, &c. These plates accomplish their aim 
completely by their extraordinary exactness, which is a great advantage, 
as one often takes np such monographs, richly furnished with illustra- 
tions, in order to define, by their means, zoological objects, and yet, by 
the diffuse descriptions, and dazzlingly coloured plates, can only make 
out few spedes with certainty. 

Miiller and Troschel haYe prefixed an introduction to the systematic 
descriptive part of the monograph of the Asteriadce, in which their orders 
are characterized. They axe defined, generally, as those Echinodermata 
which haYe a star-shaped or polygonal, mostly pentagonal form, and, 
besides the cuticular skeleton, have also an internal one. They are divided 
into two divisions, AsteriadoB and Ophiwridce; the former haYe furrows on 
the abdominal side, and a corporeal caYity stretching from the disc to the 
arms or processes, which contains the viscera. In the Ophiwridce, with 
their two sub-divisions, OphmrcR and Ewryala^t the abdominal furrows 
are wanting, and the viscera are confined to the caYity of the disc. In 
the family of the Aiteriados, there is fr«quentiy an anus on the dorsal 
side of the disc, in scYeral genera central, but mostiy sub-central. In 
this introduction, a view of the different divisions has been given, as 
they have hitherto been characterized by authors. In the general de- 
scription of the first family of Aiteriad<B, both Naturalists have drawn 
attention to the pedicellariae, which, as small nipper-like two to three- 

370 



ECHINODERMATA. 327 

armed organs are present on all parts of the upper surface of the body. 
Thej can open and shut their arms, and resemble in some measure the 
pedioellarisB of the sea-urchin : thej are divided into two sorts, the pe- 
dieellarisB forcipatsB, with thin pointed arms, and pedioellarise yalvulatas, 
with broad flap-like imns. The former are sometimes pedided, some- 
times sessile ; the latter are always sessile. 

The Agtericd are diyided into three families ; the first comprehends 
those star-fishes which haye four rows of tentacles in each abdominal 
i\iTrow, and an anus ; to this belongs the single genus, Asteracanthion, 
with fourteen species, among which are three new. A, africwMis, pola/ns, 
and hootes. The second embraces those genera which have only two rows 
of tentacles in the fiirrows and an anus ; it contains fourteen, viz., — Echi- 
nagteTy with eleven species, of which E. crcusus, graciliB, Esckrichtii, 
Miill. and Trosch., eridanella, and Berpentarms, Yal., were previously 
undescribed : Sokuter, Forb., with two species : Choetaiter, with three 
species, among which are the two new species, Ch, Hermanni, M. and T., 
and TroscheUi, Val. : Ophddiagter, Ag., with twelve species, among which, 
O. HempricMi, diplcue, Ehrenbergii, tubercula4v>8, echmulatug, M. and 
T., and Omithopu8, YaL, are new : Scy tester ^ with siz species, among 
which, 8, zodiacaUs, wnwregukmsy and Kuhliit are new : Cukita, with 
four species, of which, C. nowj^-gyMieoRy and grex, are also new : Agte- 
riseus, with fifteen spedes, among which, A.pectemfery Dimngi, M. and 
T., cepheua and setaceus, YaL, are new : Pteraster, with one species : 
OreasteVf with seventeen species, among which, 0. aJinUf chmenm, 
tuherculatuB, verrucosus, c<Mrmatu$, oriwUcUia, M. and T., and regulus, 
YaL, are new : Astrogonium, with ten species, which contain A. magni- 
Jlcwn, astrologorum, omatum, LcmMMrchii, M. and T., and geometricum, 
as new : Gonidiscus, with nine species, two of which are new : G, plor- 
eenta, and cdpella, M. and T. : Stellaster, with two species : Asteropm, 
with four species, among which, the only undescribed species is A, ctenor- 
ccmtTia, Yal. : and, finally, Archcuter, with three species. The third 
family contains those star-fishes, which are furnished with two rows of 
tentacles on the abdominal torows and no anus ; to this belong only 
three genera; Aatropectenf with twenty-five species, of which. A, hrasi- 
lievms, ValenciennU, Tiedenuvwni, polyacantlws, curmatua, Hemprichii, 
japonicus, higpidus, hmgitpviMJts, fna^fimCiiO, <md/romeda, grcmulatus, 
M. and T., tcopariuSy gerratuSy and hyatrixy Yal., have been hitherto 
undescribed: CtenodUcug, with two species: and Lmdia, with three 
species, of which L. mcteulatay M. and T., is quite new. The generic cha- 
racters of all these are chiefly taken firam the form of the arms, whether 
they are long or short, cyUndrioal or conical ; and from the covering of 
the upper sur&ce of the body, whether covered with plates, spines, pro- 
cesses, granules, tubercles, pedioellarise, &c. ; and after the manner in 
which the difibrent parts are arranged. 

The section of the OphiuridcB, whidi want the pedicellariae and the 

371 



328 REPORT OK ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

anus, is divided into two mib-diTiaioiui, Ofhiwra and Euryala, The 
OphiwriB hare armi fitted only for walking ; their akin is either naked, 
or covered with hard scaly granules, spines, and plates ; on the ahdominal 
side of the disc are found five interbrachial shields between the roots of 
tiie arms, in which a larger one is distmguished as the shield of the 
month; a wedge-shaped ossicle projects towards the mouth firam each 
interbrachial shield as a maTilla, from which a tooth-prooees is also 
directed towards it. The margins of the fiye-cleft mouth are either naked 
or covered with papillso, which appear either simple or serrated on their 
margins. The tooth-process bears teeth in all dphiurce, and in some also 
papillflB. On the arms two rows of ventral and dorsal, and two of lateral 
plates, can be distinguished. On the abdominal aspect of the arms, on 
each side of a ventral shield, there is an opening for the passage of a 
filiform tentacle. Miiller and Troschel divide these Ophiuras into two 
families, of which the first contains such animals as have four genital 
clefts in each interbrachial space, and papiUsB on the deft of the mouth. 
To this belong the two genera, Ophioderma and OphiocnenUs ; the 
finmer with three species, of which 0. cvnerewn and Wahihergii are new ; 
and the latter with one species. The second family embraces those 
OphiurcB, which have only two genital-plates in each interbrachial space. 
The first group of this family are the OpIUurcB, which have the mouth- 
deft covered with papilhe. The genera which are clothed on the disc and 
arms with hard parts are first, — Ophiolepis^ with seventeen species, of 
which the new are, 0. cincta, 8undevall% imbricata, M. and T. : Ophio^ 
comet, with eighteen species, of which O. eriruLceuSf Wendtii, Schoen- 
leiniif dentata, pica, picta, arctica, M. and T., terpentaria, YaL, 
lineolata, Desjard., are new : Ophiarctchna, with four species, of which 
O. infemalis, gorgonia, and septem^rinoga, have not hitherto been de- 
scribed : Opfkiaca/ntha, with two species, of which O. spinulosa is new : 
and Ophiamcutw, with one species. Next follow the two genera Opkio- 
fwyxa and Ophioscolex, in which the disc and arms are naked. Each 
genus contains a single species. In the second group are placed the 
OphiurcB with no papill» on Ihe clefts of mouth. It comprehends the 
two genera, Ophiothrix and Ophiowyx, of which the former has eighteen, 
and the latter four species. The characters of the genera of the OphiiMras 
are also taken from the spines, granules, scales, and plates of the cover- 
ing of the body, according to their presence, construction, and arrange- 
ment ; and, at the same time, the drcumferenoe of the mouth, which is 
covered with spine or tooth-like papillflB, and with simple or crowded 
papillflB, afibrds additional distinctions. 

In the JEuryalce, the second sub-division of the OphiuridcB, the arms 
are grasping organs, and can be roUed up towards the mouth. They 
have no lateral spines, like the OphiurcB, but two rows of smaU papil- 
lary crests on the abdominal side of the arms. Miiller and Troschel 
first characterize a new genus, from a species hitherto undescribed, the 

372 



ECHINODERMATA. 329 

Asteranyx'Lovinif which has no branched arms, bears one madrepore- 
fixm plate on the abdominal surface, and is ooyered with pridde-lLke 
papillsB on the margin of the mouth. Next follows the genus TricJiaster, 
Agas., with one species, the arms of which branch regularly dichotomously 
towards the end, the madrepore-form plate is wanting, and the margins 
of the mouth are set with cylindrical papillsB. The genus Astraphyton, 
with eight species, is the last ; its arms are branched from the base, the 
margins of the mouth seem set with spine-like papillao, and there is one 
madrepore-form plate. In an appendix to this work, anatomical distinc- 
tions of the fiunilies and genera of the Asterke, and yarious other remarks 
on the internal structure of these Ecfdnodermata are communicated. 

Erdl has subjected the tentacles of the Astericn and OpJwurai to a 
more exact investigation (Arch. 1842, i p. 56). 

Kxoyer (Isis, 1842, p. 932) confirms the opinion of Miiller and Tro- 
schel (Arch. 1840, i p. 329), that the small individuals, of two lines in 
size, of the OpJdomfa armata, are only the young state of another Opkiu- 
ridcBf probably of an Ophiolepis which he calls 0. ciourleata. This must 
in its growth gradually lose, from the basis of the arms to the point, the 
echinulated spines and double hooks which distinguishes the genus Ophi- 
onyx, Eroyer saw, in a specimen of this OphiolepU €bculeata, one-sixth 
of an inch in size, spines which were smooth, except at the extremest 
joints of the arms, where some scattered echinulated spines and double 
hooks were present. He also observed an individual in the act of repro- 
ducing a lost arm, which had quite the construction of Ophionyx a/rmata. 
Mtiller and Troschel, however, have placed Ophionyx a/rma/ta in the 
family of the AsteriiidcBy as an independent species. Eroyer found, be- 
sides, in a Ewryale (Astrophyton) verrucosa, two young Ewryales (Isis, 
1842, p. 935), the smaller of which was only 9"' long, and from the man- 
ner of the branching of the arms, it would be considered a THchaster, 
M. and T. ; but the larger one, in this respect, was already much nearer 
the mother. Eroyer concludes from this, that the different manner in 
which the arms branch in the Euryalce is not alone sufficient for found- 
ing new genera ; but Muller and Trochel have taken into consideration 
other essential characteristics in establishing their genus Trichaster. 

Sars has made the observation (MulL Arch. 1842, p. 330), that Aste- 
rias sanffuinolenta and angulota, by a voluntary bending in of the basis 
of their rays, can form a well-dosed cavity, in which the eggs are pre- 
served; and the young harboured fora long while. They hold fast to 
this cavity by their four clasping organs, and are carried about by the 
mother. 

The separate sexes of the AsteruB and OphiwrcB have been pointed 
out by Eolliker (Beitrage, op. cit. p. 39), and Rathke (Fror. Neue Notiz. 
No. 269, p. 65). 

Muller has undertaken a work on the genera and species of the 

373 



330 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

ComahUa: (Bericht uber die zor BpiVanntmaohmig gecigneten Yeifaaad • 
Inngen der KonigL Akad. der Wiiseiuch. am Berlin, 1841, p. 179, and 
Aroh. 1841, i. p. 139). He diBtingaiihet twenty-four speciea, among 
which twelve aie found with ten anm, the otiiera are many-armed. 
Fifteen are new species, nine cxf them belonging to the many-armed. 
The CofnahUcB want a madrepore-form plate. The sexes are separate. 
Miiller never observed the cirrhi of the central taberde (cup) move. 

He has also pablished an important contribation to the more exact 
knowledge of the PentcLcriwm caput Medutce (Bericht, ant. cit. 1840, 
p. 88, and Archiv. 1840, i. p. 307). The stalk as well as the cirrhi 
of this Orinoid are withoat mnsdes, while the stalk of the jonng 
ComatulcB (Pentomfius ewropanu, Thomps.) is contractile. The arms 
and pinnulss of Pentcicrinus are furnished with mnsoles, which are 
situated on the abdominal side. The alimentaxy canal passes through 
the middle of all the parts of the skeleton. The furrows of the tentacles 
of the ComatulcB and Pentctcrini are intemallj provided with two rows 
of very small tentacles. There are genera among the Crmoidece with 
and without an anus. The arms of the CofMttuUB and Pentitcrini have 
two canals, besides the vascular one, passing through the middle, namely, 
the abdominal-cavity canal and the tentacle canal ; the five canals of the 
abdominal cavity open into it. The digestive organs lie in the disc 
under the skin ; the sexual parts, on the other hand, axe in the pinnulas 
under the ventral cuticle. In the CrinoiddBf the arm-rays always pass 
out from the dorsal part of the calix ; in the AtteriadcB, the whorls of 
the rays pass from the ventral side. 



AOALEPHiE. 

AoASSiz has given a list of the systematic names of the genera of Aca- 
lepha in the Nomendator Zoologicus (Fasc. i. 1842) ; much investigation, 
has been bestowed on this class during the past year, and the histoiy 
of their development and metamorphoses proves, that several genera^ 
hitherto recognised as distinct, are merely the young state of others. 

Currents have been observed by Patterson in the yessels, passing firom 
the stomach and ribs of the Cyddppe pcmiformis (Trans, of the R. Tr. 
Acad. 1841, p. 91). The cilia of the eight ribs were seen by him in 
uninterrupted motion ; and, therefore, he considers them not merely as 
organs of motion, but also of respiration. He could not observe phos- 
phorescence in this Medu»a, which he thought he did in Bolina htber- 
nica (ibid. p. 154). The ovaries, according to Erohn's account, are 
to be found situated under the eight ribs (Fror. Neue Notiz. B. 17, 
p. 52). 

Milne Edwards found the ribbed MeduBoe described by different 
374 



ACALEPHiE. 331 

Zoologists as Beroe ovatus, elangattu, Idya Far$kalii, and Beroe 
CMajU, very abimdaiit at Nizza, and he declares them to be nothing 
else but different degrees of age of one and the same species, which, with- 
out farther discussing the synonymes, he comprehends under the name 
of Beroe Forshalii (Ann. d. Sc. Nat. 1. 16, 1841, p. 193). In this Beroe, 
Milne Edwards remarked a red pear-shaped eye, which rested on a 
ganglion-like swelling, in a groove situated opposite the mouth, and 
contained several crystalline corpuscules. The cavity of the mouth of 
thiB MedA/aa stretches almost through the whole body, and passes at the 
base into a small cavity, surrounded by two padded lips, which may be 
compared to a stomach ; from this issue two vessels, which divide into 
eight principal trunks, and at the end of the mouth, disohaige together 
into one circular vessel, on the way anastomosing with each other, by 
means of lateral branches. In this vascular system the nourishing fluid, 
which contains colourless round corpuscules, is put in motion by vibra- 
tory dlia. The cavity of the stomach discharges also externally, by 
means of two openings in the vicinity of the eye. 

Milne Edwards has described a new Beroid, found at Nizza, under 
the name of Leeuewria vitrea. It ranks very near the genus MnenUa 
of Escfascholtz, and the genus Alcmoe of Rang. Its wide-cleft mouth is 
covered with a multitude of contractile threads ; the cavity of the mouth 
reaches to the upper third of the oval and laterally compressed body ; 
in the upper half of this cavity two double-folded lamellfe run along the 
walls, and may be considered as the ovarium. In the bottom of this 
cavity is found an opening, by which we arrive at the stomach, which is 
covered on its inner surface by a vibratory epithelium, and sends out 
four vessels, which pass through the body, and contain a colourless 
fluid, moved by vibratory cilia. In a groove found at the end of the 
posterior extremity of the body, is a red organ, similar to that which 
Milne Edwards found in Beroe, The same Naturalist discovered at 
Cetta a new discoid Medt/UBa^ which, as it stands very near the Aeqwyrea 
fortkalina and ciliata, has been called by him Aeq, viohbcea, Sevenfy- 
four canals pass from the very roomy stomach of this Mechua to the 
margin of the disc, where they unite into one circular vessel The 
sexual parts form on the under surface of the disc folded lamellsB, which 
embrace the seventy-four radial vessels, and with their under margin 
float free in the water. He observed in these lamelUs, in some indivi- 
duals, only eggs, in others spermatozoa. 

A new Medusa has been found by Forbes on the north coast of Ire- 
land, which belongs to the genua Hippoerenef characterized by Brandt 
(Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. p. 82). The Oytceis octopunctata, formerly described 
by Sars, Forbes has declared to be also a Hippocrene, the species of 
which he sums up as follows : — ff, Bugainvillii, Br. : stomachal appen- 
dages as long as the proboscis, eight, the four larger ones oblong, 

375 



332 REPORT ON ZOOLOGY, MDCCCXLII : 

yellow, with red centres; tentacoliferonf glands fonr, red and yellow, 
with pink tentacula ; umbrella in part pilose. — H, hritcmnica, Forb. : 
stomachal appendages as long as the proboscis, four, equal, yellow ; ten- 
taouliPerous glands four, red and white, with white tentacula ; umbrella 
smooth. — H. oetopwnetatat Sars. : stomachal appendages shorter than 
proboscis, four, unequal; tentaculiferous glands eight, black; umbrella 
smooth. 

Forbes had added four new species of rAaufnantuM, found in the 
British Seas, to the four species previously made known by Eschscholtz 
and Sars, tIs. : — Th. piUata : umbrella cap-shaped, oral pedunde and 
dubs of the vessels pink ; proboscis four-deft at the mouth, lobes acute ; 
eyes large, black and yeUow, on the bulbous origins of the twenty tenta- 
cula. — Th, ThompMonU : umbrella hemispherical, very convex ; proboscis 
four-deft, lobes triangular ; dubs of the vessels, proboscis, and bases of 
tentacula yellow; eyes minute, black, on the triangular bases of the 
sixteen tentacula. — Th. punctata : umbrella hemispherical, dubs and 
proboscis pink ; probosds four-deft, lobes sub-acute ; eyes large, black, 
on the bulbous bases of the thirty-two tentacula. — Th. samiea : um- 
brella henuispherical, clubs and proboscis bluish; proboscis four-deft, 
lobes acute ; -eyes ? tentacula twenty. 

Mrs. Dsvis has described a very small Medusa, under the name of 
Cya/ncBa coccinea (ibid. p. 235). She kept it for several weeks alive in 
a glass. Its form is oampanulate, tranducent, with four faint rays ; in 
the centre a red ball, with four white arms, forming a cross; at the 
margin of the disc numerous tentacula. The editor of the Annals 
regards this Medusa not as a Cya/n/oea, but rather as a species of Oceama, 
allied to 0. cacuminata, Esdi. 

Rud. Wagner has published a very interesting contribution to the 
knowledge of the structure of the Pelagia noctiluca (Tiber den Bau der 
Pelagia Noctiluca und die Organisation der Medusen, 1841). He men- 
tions also the presence ofMeduioe in the Qulf of Villafranca, the general 
vital phenomena of the Pelaffia noctiluca, their luminous and urticating 
qualities (Arch. 1841, i. p. 38) ; and holds, that all the MedusoB belonging 
to the genera Aurelia, Cyanea, Pelagia, Ocecmia, and Cassiopeia are 
bi-sexual. Separate sexual organs have also been recognised by Kolli- 
ker, in Rhizostoma Cuvieri, Ch/rysaora isoscela, and ^quorea hen- 
leana. It is rather strange, that Ehrenberg will not admit, that the 
discovery of separate sexes in the Medusa is proved (ibid, 1842, i. p. 67). 
He says, that it is a thing unheard of, that the organization of the 
male and female of an animal spedes should be the same, not merely in 
form, but even to the anatomy of the sexual parts. No one has ever 
asserted such a resemblance. The male and female individuals of the 
Medusa cmrita are neither in external form, nor in the intimate structure 
of the sexual parts, alike in the grown state. The females have a 
376 



ACALEPHiE. 333 

number of pouches in their grasping-arms, for the reception i>f the eggs 
and brood, which the males want entirely. The band-stripes, situated in 
the folds, which Ehrenberg considered as pouches, contain the female 
egg-germs imbedded in the parench3rma, to which exit is given bj the 
dehiscence of its outer covering of epithelium. In the male these bands 
contain an innumerable multitude of small, thick-walled, testicular sacs, 
which discharge on the surface of the band turned to the branchial cavity, 
and in which spermatozoa are developed from the cells, according to 
known physiological laws. When Ehrenberg thought he recognised un- 
developed eggs between masses of spermatozoa, i