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New York Society 



REPORT 

( ) F BOARD OF M A N A G E R S . 




December 3, 1903 



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To the New York Society, 

Sons of the Revolution: 

The Board of Managers, in accordance with the duty devolved upon it 
by Section X of the By-Laws, makes this its report for the year 1902-3. 

Eight meetings of the Board have been held, at which there has been an 
average attendance of twelve. 

At the first meeting of the year Mr. Talbot Olyphant was re-elected 

Historian. Rev. Dr. F. Landon Humphreys, Assistant Chaplain and Major 

John B. Holland, Marshal. 

Messrs. Marcius D. Raymond, 
Howard R. Bayne, 
Townsend Wandell. 
Asa C. Warren, and 
James William Beekman, 

were appointed an Historical Committee, and 

Philip Livingston, 
William Bunker, 
Frederick S. Woodruff, 
Paul Gibert Thebaud, and 
Henry Gansevoort Sanford, Stewards. 

The wisdom of these appointments has been abundantly demonstrated. 

The Society has been edified and delighted with the high class of papers 
read at its stated meetings, enjoyable gatherings where the social features of 
the organization are most charmingly accentuated. 

On January 17th of this year the one hundred and twenty-sixth anni- 
versary of the Battle of Kings Bridge, the Hon. George C. Holt, now 
Judge of the District Court of the United States, delivered a most scholarly 
address on " The Secret Obstacles in Washington's Career." 

Professor Henry Phelps Johnston, Registrar of the Society was listened 
to with the closest attention at the April meeting, held in honor of the one 
hundred and twenty-eighth anniversary of the Battle of Lexington, as he 
read a paper on " The Men of the Revolution as Constitution Makers,'' 
illustrated with stereopticon views. 

He was good enough to favor us again on the one hundred and twentieth 
anniversary of the Evacuation of New York by the British, by giving a most 



enjoyable and instructive history of " Colonel Benjamin Tallmadge and his 
special services in the War of the Revolution." This made a fitting prelimi- 
nary to the reception tendered his distinguished grandson, who, as Presi- 
dent of the Society, combining the courtly dignity of a gentleman of the 
old school with a wonderfully genial and kindly manner, has won the affec- 
tionate regard of the entire membership, and who has with rare ability, far- 
sightedness, sound judgment, and unswerving devotion to its best interests, 
piloted the Sons of the Revolution through the many difficulties that have 
attended its establishment as the foremost of the Patriotic Societies. 

Tributes were paid to the President by Mr. John C. Tomlinson, Rev. 
Charles E. Brugler, Mr. Frederic J. de Peyster, Governor-General of the 
Society of Colonial Wars, and Colonel Asa Bird Gardiner, and congratula- 
tions innumerable were offered to Mr. Tallmadge on the recovery of his 
eyesight by the many members of the Society present. 

The Stewards have a part in every meeting, but their best efforts are put 
forth in preparation for and management of the Annual Banquet on Wash- 
ington's birthday. 

The last banquet was more than usually successful and Delmonico's Ball 
Room was crowded to its limit with the members of the Society and their 
guests, notwithstanding the increased cost of the dinner made necessary by 
the expense of the Souvenir, a reproduction in miniature of a MacMonies' 
statue of Nathan Hale. After all expenses had been met, the Stewards 
returned to the Society's Treasury more than two hundred dollars of the 
amount appropriated to their use. 

The speeches at the banquet were especially notable. Dr. Thomas 
Edward Green, the Chaplain-General, electrified the audience with his 
eloquent tribute to General Washington. Dr. Hamilton W. Mabie earned 
anew his reputation as one of the best after-dinner speakers in New York, 
taking for his subject " Then and Now," and Colonel George E. Pomeroy 
gave an interesting account of Washington's Influence in the founding of 
the Great State of Ohio. 

The small attendance of the members at Saint Paul's Chapel last year in- 
dicated the wisdom of generally using an uptown church for the Annual 
Service. The Brick Presbyterian Church, Fifth Avenue and 37th Street, 



was therefore selected, and on February 22d the Society gathered there in 
large numbers and listened to an eloquent sermon by the Pastor, Reverend 
Dr. William Rogers Richards on " Honor to Whom Honor is Due." 

The service, as usual, was in charge of Mr. Talbot Olyphant and his very 
efficient Aisle Committee, consisting of 

William Philips Baker, Samuel Ver Planck Hoffman, 
James Franklin Barker, M.D., S. Vernon Mann, 

Birney Blackwell, Philip Rhinelander, 

Benjamin W. B. Brown, Arthur S. Schermerhorn, 

William Bunker, Edward Gibert Schermerhorn, 

Banyer Clarkson, Charles Hitchcock Sherrill, 

Robert Grier Cooke, Louis Gross Smith, 

Henry Russell Drowne, Clarence Storm, 

Alanson Trask Enos, William Gordon Ver Planck, 

William B. Osgood Field, Frederick Sanford Woodruff, 

With Major John B. Holland, as Marshal, and 

William Graves Bates, Horace Clark Du Val, 

James Wray Cleveland, De Witt Clinton Falls, 

Albert Delafield, Francis Laurens Vinton Hoppin, 

George Elsworth Dunscombe, Robert Kelly Prentice, 
William Moore Stilwell, Jr., as Aides. 

The presence of a Guard of Honor from the Veteran Corps of Artillery 
added to the patriotic character of the service. 
Delegations were also present from: 

The Society of the Cincinnati. 

The Military Order of the Loyal Legion, 

The Aztec Club of 1847, 

The Society of Colonial Wars, 

The Society of the War of 1812, 

The Military Order of Foreign Wars, 

The Daughters of the Revolution, 

The Colonial Dames of America, and 

The Colonial Dames in the State of New York. 

Later in the year on May 10th, Mr. Olyphant with practically the same 
assistance, on behalf of the Sons of the Revolution, took charge of the Church 



Service of the Daughters of the Revolution held in connection with their 
Triennial Convention. This was in return for special courtesies extended 
to our own General Convention in Denver. 

The Membership Committee, 

Charles Isham, Chairman; 
James Betts Lockwood, Jared Weed Bell, 

Henry Douglas Parmelee, Frederic E. Underhill, 

Silas Wodell, William E. Van Wyck, 

Wyllys Terry, Charles Palmer Robinson, 

Landreth H. King, Frank H. Lord, Secretary, 

have been exceedingly faithful and painstaking in the discharge of its duties. 
We record, with regret the recent death of Mr. Lockwood, an old and tried 
member of the Society. 

Seventy-nine members have been elected during the year. 

Twenty have resigned. 

Twenty-two have been dropped for non-payment of dues. 

Five have been transferred to other Societies. 

Thirty-five have joined the great majority. 

The Necrological list is contained in the Historian's report. The other 
lists are appended to this report. 

The Society's library has been benefited by many gifts of books and 
pamphlets, a list of which is attached. 

It would be gratifying if every member would show an active interest in 
increasing the library which is consulted constantly by members and others 
desiring information about the period of the Revolution. 

The Essay Committee does its work quietly but efficiently and the thanks 
of the Society are due to 

Rev. Charles Edward Brugler, Chairman ; 
Major Henry Waters, Charles R. Huntington and 

William Herrick Griffith, Richard Henry Greene. 

The Essay Competition for the medals offered by the Society to the High 
Schools and Colleges, resulted in an award for the High Schools of the 
gold medal to Arthur A. Allen, of Buffalo Central High School ; the 



silver medal to Louis C. Audette, of Jamestown High School ; the bronze 
medal to Bennett Davis, of Masten Park High School, Buffalo, N. Y. 

And for the colleges, the gold medal to Henry C. Moses, Jr., of College 
of the City of New York; the silver medal to Leonhard Felix Fuld, of 
Columbia University ; the bronze medal to Abraham Rockmore, of College 
of the City of New York. 

The subject for the Colleges was : " The Indebtedness of Europe to the 
American Revolution." That for the High Schools: "The Burgoyne Cam- 
paign.'' 

The Board has now offered a gold medal for a play to be written by a 
student of Columbia University founded upon Columbia's part in the War 
of the Revolution. This offer is coupled with the condition that the play 
be sufficiently meritorious for approval and adoption by the " Kings Crown " 
for performance at the Annual 'Varsity Show at Columbia. 

A Supplemental Year Book, the first published by the Society since 
1899, containing as many of the recent addresses delivered before the 
Society as could be obtained, has been issued and distributed to the 
members and principal libraries of the country. 

Not the least of the achievements of the Society during the year has 
been the reduction of the mortgage on the Society's property on 55th 
street. The Society is indebted to Mr. James R. Hay for his excellent care 
of this property, for which he makes no charge. This amounts to a contri- 
bution from Mr. Hay of about $220 per annum. 

The wisdom of the purchase is indicated by the quotations and sales of 
other similar property in the neighborhood which show a value of not far 
from $90,000 for our lots. 

Arrangements have been made with Messrs. Annin & Co. for the manu- 
facture of miniature copies in silk of the Society's standard. These small 
flags will prove very useful for decorative purposes. Orders for them may 
be obtained from the Secretary. 

The Society has been the recipient of many courteous invitations from 
sister Societies and has been represented at banquets given by the Societies 
of Colonial Wars, Order of Foreign Wars, War of 1812, Friendly Sons of 
Saint Patrick and Mayflower Descendants, also at the 250th Anniversary of 



the Establishment of Municipal Government in New Amsterdam ; the 
Church Service of the Pennsylvania Society, and the unveiling of a window 
in St. Marks Chapel in the Bowery in memory of Peter Stuyvesant, given by 
the Daughters of Holland Dames. 

Delegates attended the Annual Meeting of the Connecticut Society, Sons 
of the Revolution, at the Nathan Hale School House, at East Haddam, 
given by this Society to the Connecticut Society in 1900. 

By invitation the Society took part on June 27th, in the Dedication of a 
Monument erected at Freehold, N. J., to commemorate the Battle of Mon- 
mouth, and in the unveiling on September 8, 1903, of the Monument erected 
by the Society of Colonial Wars to commemorate the Battle of Lake George 
in 1755. 

This battle had a special interest for our Society on account of its in- 
fluence on the Colonists in demonstrating the military possibilities of the 
Provincial forces in combat with old world regulars. 

The laying of the corner stone for the New York Historical Society's 
new building on November 17th was an occasion of interest to us and our 
flags and banners with those of the Society of Colonial Wars, by special 
request, decorated the hall where the exercises were held. 

Invitations have also been received for the Thirty-seventh Annual En- 
campment and Reunion of the Grand Army of the Republic in San Fran- 
cisco, celebration of Flag Day by the Colorado Sons and Daughters of the 
Revolution, the banquet of the Massachusetts Society Sons of the Revolu- 
tion on the anniversary of the Evacuation of Boston by the British forces ; 
the banquet ol the Virginia Society of Sons of the Revolution on Wash- 
ington's birthday, the District of Columbia Society's Church Service on 
Washington's birthday, and smoker on the following evening, various 
entertainments given by the Pennsylvania Sons of the Revolution, and 
many others too numerous to mention. 

The Chapters, of which we have six in this State, are all doing efficient 
work. 

The Philip Livingston Chapter held its Annual Banquet at the Hotel 
Ten Eyck in Albany on January 15th, and listened to Army Reminiscences 
by Major Hoppin, U. S. A. on October the Twenty -second. 

6 



The William Floyd Chapter held a commemorative service in the State 
Street Methodist Church in Troy on February 22d, when a sermon was 
preached by the Reverend Andrew Gillies on " The Personality of the 
Revolution." 

It also held a smoker at the Troy Club, having for its guests the members 
of other patriotic societies in Troy and Albany, on May 25th. An address 
was delivered on the life and services of Brigadier-General Hazen, U. S. A., 
who died in Troy in 1804. 

The Records of over 150 revolutionary soldiers resident in Rensselaer 
County have been obtained from the Court Records of the Old Common 
Pleas and the Surrogate Court and tabulated and filed in the Archives of 
the Chapter. 

Pictures have been taken of the old breast-works erected by order of 
General Schuyler in 1777 at the mouth of the Mohawk by Kosciusko and 
also of the headquarters occupied by General Schuyler on Van Schaick's or 
Haver's Island during the summer of that year, for the purpose of preserv- 
ing the same in the records of the Chapter. 

The Chapter owns the only oil painting of Colonel Albert Pawling the 
first mayor of Troy which it obtained from the Bird family of Buffalo, and 
it is now trying to obtain the original oil painting of General Burgoyne 
owned by a family in Troy. 

The Chapter has acquired a number of historical works for its library 
and is now arranging to co-operate with the Hoosick Historical Society to 
obtain aid from the State to properly mark the battle-ground of what is 
called the " Battle of Bennington," which battle was fought entirely within 
the confines of the County of Rensselaer at a place called Walloomscoick. 

The Treasury contains considerably over $200, and tire Chapter is there- 
fore in good financial condition. 

The Buffalo Association has had several social meetings at which interest- 
ing papers have been read by Mr. Henry R. Howland on " The Old Caneadea 
Council House and its Last Council Fire," by Frank R. Severance on "The 
Back of the Revolution," and by Hon. Hugh Hastings, State Historian, on 
" Sir William Johnson." 

The Buffalo Association has had the honor on several occasions of acting 



for the Societ}' in the distribution of prizes for essay contests, the Buffalo 
High Schools having been fortunate in securing a large proportion of the 
medals offered by the Society. 

The Association has also been active in the erection of memorial tablets, 
working in connection with the Niagara Frontier Landmark Association. 

The Fort Schuyler Chapter at Utica is expending its energies on the 
acquirement of portraits of important characters in the Revolution. It has 
already secured a portrait of Baron Steuben and another of Colonel Ben- 
jamin Walker, his aide-de-camp, which are placed temporarily in the Oneida 
Historical Building. 

This Chapter is also making an effort to mark the graves of Revolution- 
ary heroes in Oneida County, using the markers provided by the Sons of 
the Revolution. 

It held a banquet on Washington's Birthday at the home of its Regent, 
Mr. Thomas R. Proctor. Interesting addresses were made by General 
Darling, Rev. Dr. N. L. Andrews, President of Colgate University; Hon. 
Henry J. Cookinham, Right Rev. Charles T. Olmstead, D.D., Bishop Co- 
adjutor of the Diocese of Central New York, and Edmund Wetmore. 

The Jamestown Chapter has done most important work in the decora- 
tion of the graves ot Revolutionary Soldiers which it has been diligently 
seeking out throughout the County. This work has created a new interest 
in the Society throughout the entire region. 

In June a banquet was held in commemoration of the successful expedi- 
tion under Colonel Brodhead from Fort Pitt against the hostile Iroquois who 
occupied the headwaters of the Allegheny and Genesee rivers. This 
expedition was organized by General Washington to co-operate with General 
Sullivan's expedition up the Susquehanna. 

Jamestown, from which the Chapter takes its name, is located near 
where an Indian village was destroyed on this expedition. 

The Chapter is in a very flourishing condition. 

By frequent correspondence and interchange of notices of the monthly 
meetings of the Board of Managers, the Society keeps in close touch with 
all of the State Societies Sons of the Revolution. 

Occasionally members of other societies meet with our own Board of 

8 



Managers, and the Regent of every Chapter is always invited and warmly 
welcomed when he can make it convenient to be present. 

The Society was fortunate enough to secure some interesting relics from 
the Old Hall of Records when it was pulled down to make room for the de- 
mands of the modern city, among other things, a piece of the lintel over 
the door of the dungeon where Ethan Allen was said to have been confined. 

The manufacturer of the Nathan Hale statuette, Mr. C. B. Wilkinson 
has presented the Society a copy in bronze. The Society of Colonial Wars 
has given us a bronze medal struck in honor of the celebration of Lake 
George. 

The attendance of the Society's meetings has been larger than ever this 
year, showing a gratifying interest among the members. The growing 
necrology indicates, however, the necessity of replenishing our ranks. We 
are glad to welcome all worthy descendants of Patriot lines, but we should 
especially see to it that every son among us follows in the footsteps of his 
father and becomes enrolled as a Son of the Revolution, as soon as he attains 
manhood. 

The detail work of the Secretary's office is evidenced by the fact that 
there have been written more than seventeen hundred letters ; that more 
than thirteen hundred notices of Board and Committee meetings have been 
sent out and more than thirty-two thousand notices and other enclosures 
to members, requiring the addressing of upwards of twenty thousand 
envelopes. 

For the Board of Managers, 

MORRIS PATTERSON FERRIS, 

December 3D, 1903. Secretary. 



APPENDIX. 



Members Admitted. 



Charles Witford Reynolds, Petersburg, N. Y. 

Waldo Putnam Russell, New York City. 

John J. Phelps, New York City. 

Henry Hedden Whitehead, New York City. 

James Burtus Van Woert, New York City. 

Charles Merritt, Jr., Yonkers, N. Y. 

George Watson Haines, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Benjamin Rush Lummis, New York City. 

George Sullivan Sweet, New York City. 

Thomas Little, New York City. 

William Ferguson Leggett, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Paul Fitz-Gerald, Newark, N. J. 

Louis Victor Urmy, New York City. 

Lewis Parsons Cook, New York City. 

Frederick Wells Haines, Flushing, L. I. 

Percy Van Duzer Gott, New York City. 

John I. Brooks, Jr., New York City. 

Herman Clarence Fisher, New York City. 

Israel Newton Terry, Utica, N. Y. 

John Riley Livermore, New York City. 

William Rogers Richards, D. D., New York City. 

Richard Malcolm Montgomery, Jr., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Shepherd Knapp, Rev., New York City. 

Austin Flint, M. D., New York City. 

Webster Cummings Estes, Morristown, N. J. 

Samuel Hobbs Ragland, New York City. 

Lucius Tuttle Rossiter, New York City. 

John Erskine Ward, Pine Bush, N. Y. 

Frederick Douglas Underwood, New York City. 

Frederick Tollington Leigh, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

John Edward Carpenter, White Plains, N. Y. 

William James Ackerley, Jr., White Plains, N. Y. 



10 



Smith Wooley Conklin, Patchogue, N. Y. 

George Farnham Fish, New York City. 

Edwin Wesley Hammer, East Orange, N. J. 

Edward Bronson King, New Brighton, N. Y. 

William Gifford Reynolds, Albany, N. Y. 

Harold Maturin Livingston, Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

William Stiger Richards, New York City. 

James Spafford Gilbert, New York City. 

Frederick Welchman Pope, New York City. 

Frank Walker Hadley, New York City. 

Clark Williams, New York City. 

Thomas George Hall, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Edwin Augustus McAlpin, Ossining, N. Y. 

Benjamin Brandreth McAlpin, New York City. 

Aaron Ogden Fitz- Gerald, Newark, N. J. 

John Driscoll Fitz-Gerald, Newark, N. J. 

Laurence La Tourette Driggs, New York City. 

Charles Samuel Hall, Binghamton, N. Y. 

Belmar Clarence Harlow Shepley, U. S. N., New York City. 

Alonzo Coggeshall Wall, Scranton, Pa. 

Guy Phelps Dodge, New York City. 

Gibson Tenney Williams, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Henry Brooks Knight, Goshen, N. Y. 

Alfred Hayes, Jr., New York City. 

Wessel Ten Broeck Van Orden, New Baltimore, N. Y. 

Henry Clay Duryea, Goshen, N. Y. 

Roswell Carpenter Coleman, Newburgh, N. Y. 

Edwin Jay Dikeman, Goshen, N. Y. 

Abram Vedder Brower, Utica, N. Y. 

Abram Giles Brower, Utica, N. Y. 

Augustus Lord Hyde, New York City. 

Henry St. John Hyde, New York City. 

Prentice Strong, New York City. 

William Bradley Frear, Troy, N. Y. 

Henry Gilbert Woodruff, St. George, S. I. 

Charles G. Elliott, Goshen, N. Y. 

Henry Harmon Noble, Essex, N. Y. 

Charles Edwin Potts, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Preston Lea Talley, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



ii 



Robert Field McChain, Flatbush, N. Y. 
M. Angelo Heath, New York City. 
Edgar Ketchum Betts, Troy, N. Y. 
George Wallace Rand, New York City. 
John Howard Rand, West Chester, N. Y. 
Roswell Wilcox Chamberlain, Chester, N. Y. 
John Howard Carpenter, New York City. 
Howard Marshall, New York City. 

Delinquents. 
Anson C. Bangs, 
James R. Burton, 

Robert A. Center, address unknown, 
Henry W. Downe, 

Henry Wolcott Gilbert, address unknown, 
Manning Hasbrouck, 
Frank Holman, 
Raymond N. Hyde, 
William V. Judson, 
Edwin D. Merriam, 
William H. Paddock, 
Charles G. Palmer, 
William E. Pentz, 
Henry E. Pickford, 
William J. Pinckney, 
Alexander F. Popham, 
Henry M. Robertson, 
Cyrus M. Strong, 
Herbert H. True, 
Francis P. Webb, address unknown, 
Fred D. Weed, 
John Powell Wilson, M.D. 

Transfers. 

Frank A. McCullough, M. D., to Colorado Society, 
Francis A. Winter, M. D., U. S. A., to Missouri Society, 
Louis J. Sands, to Massachusetts Society, 
Rev. Charles W. Stocking, D. D., to Indiana Society, 
Charles Van E. Gallup, to Massachusetts Society. 

12 



Resignations. 



Gustavus Edward Rollins. 
Frederick E. Haight. 
Frank Clarence Loveland. 
Franklin D. Bowen. 
William S. Thomas, M. D. 
Henry J. Warren. 
Warren F. Rollins. 
George T. Goldthwaite. 
James M. Gray. 
Henry G. Hanchett, M. D. 
Edward J. Willis. 
Charles R. Denyse. 
August F. Babcock. 
William A. Mitchell, M. D. 
William S. Johnson. 
John Wells King. 
John McG. Woodbury, M. D. 
John I. Howe, Jr. 
Thomas Jewett Hallowell. 
E. C. Miller. 



List of Books and Pamphlets Received. 

title. donor. 

Report of American Numismatic and 

Archaeological Society of New York 

City, 1903. J. Kensett Olyphant. 

Holland Society, Year Book, 1903, Theodore M. Banta. 

Proceedings Pennsylvania Society, Sons of 

Revolution, 1902-3, Ethan Allen Weaver. 

Address on Flags and Banners, Ethan Allen Weaver. 

Sketch of Captain Gustavus Conyngham, Ethan Allen Weaver. 
Pennsylvania Society, Sons of Revolution, Ethan Allen Weaver. 
Iowa Society, Sons of Revolution, Year 

Book, 1903. Edward Seymour Hammatt. 

Rhode Island Society, Sons of Revolution, 

Year Book. Wm. G. Ward, Jr. 

13 



Report of Canadian Archives, 1902, 
Report of Official Exercises in the Celebra- 
tion of the 1220! Anniversary of the 
Signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, 
Copy of Monroe Calendar, 
Bound Copy of the Publications of the 
California Society, Sons of the Revo- 
lution, 
Report of the Department of Parks, 
Mary Mattoon and Her Hero of the Revo- 
lution, 
Ecclesiastical Records of the State of New 

York, 
Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the 

Revolution, Vols. X and XI, 
Report of the Aztec Club of 1847, 
Register of the Order of Founders and 

Patriots, 
Register,Military order Loyal Legion, State 

of Ohio, 
New York State Library Bulletin, Nos. 57 

and 58, 
High School Report, No. 9. 
College Department Report No. 4, two 

vols., 
Missouri Society, Menu Cards, etc., 
Register, Washington Society, Sons of the 

American Revolution, 
Memorial of William Allen Butler, 
Historical Military Powder Horn, 
An American Sea Captain of Colonial 

Times, 
William Herman Wilhelm, 
Charles Frederick Tiffany Beale, 
West Virginia Society Sons of Revolution, 

Year Book, 1902, 
Army List and Directory, 1903, 
History of the Schenck Family, 



George F. O'Halloran. 



Dr. Marcus Benjamin. 
Dr. Marcus Benjamin. 



Holdridge O. Collins. 
Hon. William R. Wilcox. 

H. L. Bridgman. 

Hon. Hugh Hastings. 

William M. Olin. 
Macrae Sykes. 

Robert B. Cone, 

W. R. Thrall, 

Melvin Dewey, 
Melvin Dewey, 

Melvin Dewey, 
Henry Cadle, 

Walter B. Beals. 
Hon. George C. Holt. 
Frank Bird Smith, 

Frank Bird Smith, 
Frank Bird Smith, 
Frank Bird Smith. 

Frank Clay Cox, 

Col. A D. Schenck, U. S. A., 

Col. A. D. Schenck, U. S. A., 



14 



Matthew Thornton of New Hampshire, a 
Patriot of the American Revolution, 
Public Papers of George Clinton, Vols, i, 

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
Bulletin of Bureau of Rolls and Library, 
Documentary History of the Constitution 

of the United States, Vols, i, 2, and 3, 
Makers of the American Republic, 
Register, Society of Colonial Wars, 1902, 

Ohio Society, 
Society of Colonial Wars, General Register, 
Council of Appointment, Vol. 1-2-3-4, 
State Commission in Lunacy, 10th Annual 

Report, 
Memorial of Col. Benjamin Tallmadge, 
Continental Album of Yorktown and Rich- 
mond, 
Bishop Potter's address at the Centennial of 

Washington's Inauguration, 
Copy of Magna Charta, 
Reproduction of Col. Shepard's Certificate 

of Membership in the Cincinnati, 
Manual of the Pennsylvania Society. 
Year Book of the Pennsylvania Society, 

1903, 
Bulletins N. Y. Public Library Circulars 

and Notices from the various State 

Societies of the Loyal Legion. 

ALSO THE FOLLOWING PICTURES : 

The Defensores of the Liberty of two 

worlds, Samuel P. Avery. 

Arms and Great Seal of the United States, Smith E. Lane. 



Charles T. Adams, 

Hon. Hugh Hastings, 
Dr. Marcus Benjamin, 

Dr. Marcus Benjamin, 
E. B. Treat. 

Charles T. Greeve. 
Walter L. Suydam. 
Hon. Hugh Hastings. 

Hon. Goodwin Brown. 
Henry R. Drowne. 

Henry R. Drowne. 

Henry R. Drowne. 
Henry R. Drowne. 

Henry R. Drowne. 
Barr Ferree. 

Barr Ferree. 



[L6046] 



15 




New York Society 



REPORTS 



OF BOARD OF MANAGERS 
AND HISTORIAN. 



December 3, 1904. 



To the New York Society, 

Sons of the Revolution : 

The Board of Managers places before you the record of another year. 

The saddest record is that which chronicles the taking away of one who, 
leading the Society almost from its birth, has guided it skillfully to the first 
place in numbers, work accomplished and wealth among patriotic Societies. 

The failing eyesight of Frederick S. Tallmadge, our beloved President, 
was long a source of worriment to him. It deprived him of the ability to move 
about with freedom, and for several years, being unable to read even the news- 
papers, he was relegated to the large fund of information stored away in his 
mind and made available by his marvellous memory. 

He was very patient under his great affliction. Surrendering all other 
active interests, his devotion to the "Sons of the Revolution" was if anything 
increased, and while he was with difficulty persuaded at the last two elections 
to remain at its head, he loved it as his child and was ever ready to assist the 
management with helpful suggestions. 

A series of operations a year ago on his remaining eye (he lost his other 
many years ago) was so successful that for a time he saw almost as well as 
ever. No incident connected with his recovery gave him more pleasure than the 
reception tendered him by the Society on the anniversary of Evacuation Day, 
1903. He was able to look upon the faces of old friends once more and saw 
for the first time many whose voices had become familiar to him at the Society's 
meetings. The warm greetings he received found a reciprocal response and 
were often referred to by him with pleasure. 

That was the last meeting of the Society Mr. Tallmadge attended, although 
he was able to be present with the Board several times. 

His death on the 20th of June was a great loss to the Society. He loved us 
and we loved him. 

His funeral, attended by a goodly number of the "Sons of the Revolution," 
took place at "St. Marks in the Bowerie," on June 23rd, 1904. The Rev. Dr. 
Morgan Dix, assisted by Rev. Dr. George S. Baker, Rev. Dr. F. Landon Hum- 
phreys, conducted the service. The pall bearers were Edmund Wetmore, John 
Hone, Robert Olyphant, James William Beekman, Morris Patterson Ferris, 



Arthur Melvin Hatch, Charles R. Henderson, Dallas Bache Pratt, Asa Bird 
Gardiner and William Warner Hoppin, all of whom had served in the Board 
of Managers with Mr. Tallmadge. 

Committees have been appointed by the Board to erect a monument to our 
late President in the Vanderpool plot, where he lies buried in Litchfield, Con- 
necticut, and to place a window in "St. Marks in the Bowerie" to his memory. 
Both of these projects are well under way. 

Expressions of profound sorrow and sympathy with the New York Society 
have been received from many sister Societies "Sons of the Revolution," and 
from many historical and patriotic organizations. 

The New York Society has been called upon to tender its sympathy in turn 
to the District of Columbia Society upon the death of its distinguished Presi- 
dent, Rear Admiral Henry C. Taylor, on the 26th day of July, 1904. 

The minutes of the earliest meetings of the Society and of the Board of 
Managers record Mr. Tallmadge's keen interest in the possession of a house 
by the Society, and Fraunces' Tavern was the first aspiration. 

The difficulties in procuring a perfect title made other plans necessary. 

It was to Mr. Tallmadge's impassioned appeal to the Board of Managers 
at the May meeting in 1901 that we owe the acquirement of our 55th Street 
property. The site was not historic, but it gave promise of a home and was a 
most excellent investment. Later there seemed a possibility of purchasing the 
Morris, or Jumel Mansion, which had some associations with Washington, but 
efforts made by a Committee at Mr. Tallmadge's solicitation, proved futile on 
account of the high price demanded by the owner, the City having been induced 
to condemn the property for Park purposes. 

At the March meeting of the Board, Mr. Tallmadge made a final appeal for 
Fraunces' Tavern. Mr. Thompson, who was then appointed to ascertain the 
feasibility of its purchase, reported favorably at the next meeting, and a Com- 
mittee consisting of Messrs. Tallmadge, Olyphant, Montgomery, Thompson and 
Ferris was promptly appointed to negotiate with the owners. An offer was 
made and accepted and Mr. Tallmadge on his deathbed was able to affix his 
name to the contract for the purchase of Fraunces' Tavern, his last official act. 
An act of incalculable gratification to him and a fitting climax to his labors for 
the Society. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. John L. Cadwalader and of his firm, the 
Society not only has in its possession this original contract, but also the deeds 
on parchment of the property from the de Lancey ownership in 1762 through 
the holdings of Oliver de Lancey, Samuel Fraunces, George Powers, Nicholas 
Romayne, and John S. Moore, to that of Thomas Gardner in 1801. 

A most unusual collection of Parchment deeds. 



2 



The action of the Board in making this purchase was most enthusiastically 
approved at a special meeting of the Society in June, 1904. 

A Committee consisting of 

Frederick S. Tallmadge, William H. Ford, 

John T. Terry, Chairman, Eugene K. Austin, 

Edmund Wetmore, David Cromwell, 

Dallas B. Pratt, Walter P. Warren, 

Samuel V. Hoffman, Albert L. Smalley, 

Clark Williams, Arthur M. Hatch, Treasurer, 

Jeremiah Richards, Joseph T. Low, 

Marcius D. Raymond, Clarence Storm, 

William Piatt Rudd, Richard H. Greene, 

Frederick W. Seward, Frederic E. Underhill, 

Samuel P. Avery, Charles E. Brugler, 

A. Coolidge Warren, Charles B, Wheeler, 

William Bunker, Willis E. Ford, 

was appointed to raise money for the completion of the purchase, but the death 
of Mr. Tallmadge and the heat of summer seemed to paralyze the work and 
only about $4,500 has been subscribed by sixty-nine persons. 

The title to the property was taken on the 29th day of July, 1904, money 
being borrowed on both Fraunces' Tavern and 55th Street to accomplish it. 

A few of the subscribers to the fund gathered in the Long Room on Novem- 
ber 25th to celebrate Evacuation Day; Mr. Morris K. Jesup, President of the 
Chamber of Commerce, founded there in 1768, was present as a guest, and 
rejoiced with us over the ownership of the Tavern by our Society. 

Arrangements have been made with the tenants so that hereafter the United 
States Flag and the Society's Standard will hang side by side from the windows 
of the Historic Long Room ; a large United States Flag floating from the top 
of the building. 

Mr. Tallmadge's affection for the Society was further shown in the very 
generous provision made for it in his will. 

Besides his valuable library, he bequeathed many relics. 

A partial inventory discloses the following among these treasures: 

The Library, some 1,500 to 2,000 volumes, including a very valuable col- 
lection of Shakespeareana. 

The celebrated Fischer Collection of "Shakespeare Houses" which were 
exhibited in London in 1723. 

(All this matter pertaining to Shakespeare was purchased by Mr. Tall- 
madge at the Burton sale in i860.) 



The celebrated Tea Caddy made from the Mulberry Tree, once the prop- 
erty of Garrick. 

The magnificent Gold Repeater presented by Napoleon to Thalma. 

The original Death Mask of Cromwell. 

The Yale College Certificate and all the Continental Commissions of Col- 
onel Benjamin Tallmadge. 

Several Washington letters. 

A number of valuable Autograph letters. 

The Sharpless Portrait of Washington, which was presented to Colonel 
Tallmadge by Washington. 

The Large Gold Repeater carried by Colonel Tallmadge at the execution of 
Andre. 

Revolutionary Orderly Book of Colonel Tallmadge. 

The original Mss. of the Memoirs now being printed. 

A pair of Spurs, Sword, and other personal relics of Colonel Tallmadge. 

General George Clinton's Sword. 

The Large Loving Cup presented to Mr. Tallmadge by the Sons of the 
Revolution on February 2.2, 1902. 

He also devised to the Society the House and Lot No. 23 Gramercy Park 
for its occupancy and use as a museum. It was in the judgment of the Board 
inadvisable to accept this devise, coupled as it was with conditions and limita- 
tions, and it was rejected. 

Mr. Tallmadge's sister and residuary legatee, Mrs. Mary S. Seymour, 
mindful of Mr. Tallmadge's wish to benefit the Society and of his desire that 
the Society should own Fraunces' Tavern, after the devise had been rejected, 
most generously came to the rescue and conveyed the property No. 23 Gramercy 
Park to the Sons of the Revolution, freed from the conditions in the will, with 
the request only that it be sold and the proceeds used in liquidating the debt in- 
curred in the purchase of Fraunces' Tavern, and that Fraunces' Tavern should 
be made a memorial to her brother, who would himself have made it such had 
he lived to change his will. 

In commemoration of the long and faithful service rendered by Mr. Tall- 
madge to the Society and of his very generous and noble gifts the Board of 
Managers has set apart January 24th, Mr. Tallmadge's birthday, for special 
honor to his memory, to be known as "Tallmadge Day." The Society will 
meet hereafter on this day instead of on the anniversary of the Battle of Kings- 
bridge. 

Another legacy may be mentioned here, the first ever received by the So- 
ciety, the sum of $500, which came under the will of Mr. Jacob Cox Parsons, 
an old and valued member, who died early in the year. 



The large increase in the Real Estate owned by the Society has made 
desirable the careful supervision of a Committee, and the Board has appointed 
Messrs. Olyphant, Henderson, Ferris and Hatch as such Committee. To this 
Committee has also been referred the very important question of the handling of 
Fraunces' Tavern, both in its restoration and occupation. 

Since its purchase Mr. James R. Hay, of the Society, has generously taken 
charge of the 55th Street property without compensation. Hereafter he will 
receive a commission. 

In the latter part of December, 1903, the Colonial Dames of America re- 
quested the assistance of the Sons of the Revolution in procuring from the 
Board of Park Commissioners the custody of the Jumel or Morris Mansion. 
They asked this upon the ground that they were the first Society of women 
formed for patriotic purposes after the organization of the Sons of the Revolu- 
tion, although wisely assuming an essentially different name, and that their early 
efforts to purchase the property had been unsuccessful, as had been those of the 
Sons of the Revolution on account of the determination of the Sons and Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution to compel the City to pay a high price for the 
property to the then owner, a member of the latter, and whose husband had been 
a member of the former Society. 

The Board of Managers voted to approve the application and rendered 
such assistance to the Dames as was feasible, deeming their organization the 
one best fitted to develop the property on historic lines and to make it a monu- 
ment to Washington rather than a free club house for the Sons and Daughters 
of the American Revolution. 

By authorization of the Board of Managers a most sumptuous reprint of 
the Memoirs of Col. Benjamin Tallmadge, prepared by himself for the benefit 
of his family, with notes by Prof. Johnston, Registrar of the Society, and 
beautifully illustrated, has been published. Three hundred and fifty copies only 
have been printed. In response to the first circular one hundred and twenty- 
two copies were subscribed for. The price has now been raised to $10 in order 
to meet a greater expense of publication than was at first contemplated. 

During the year copies of Stuart's Washington, suitably framed and in- 
scribed have been presented to Public School No. 186, 145th Street and Amster- 
dam Avenue, New York City, Rev. Charles E. Brugler making the presenta- 
tion on behalf of the Society, and to the Essex, New York High School, the 
presentation being in charge of Mr. Henry Harmon Noble. 

Dr. Charlton T. Lewis, representing the Mutual Life Insurance Company, 
early last fall requested the co-operation of trie Society in the dedication of a 
tablet to be erected on the site of the old Peter Livingston Sugar House in 
Liberty Street, used as a prison during the Revolutionary War. 



Dr. Lewis' death soon after caused a postponement, but Mr. Robert A. 
Grannis has assured the Board that the Mutual Life Insurance Company in- 
tends to carry out the project and the dedication will undoubtedly take place 
during the coming year. 

The Annual Church Service this year was held at St. Thomas' Church, 
Fifth Avenue and 53rd Street. The sermon was preached by Rev. Dr. Ernest 
M. Stires, and was a most eloquent tribute to the Manhood of Washington. 

A very large attendance of the Society and the friends of the members was 
efficiently handled by the Aisle Committee under Mr. Talbot Olyphant and 
the Marshals under Major John Butterfield Holland. The Veteran Corps of 
Artillery acted as Guard of Honor. There was the usual representation of 
affiliated Societies. 

The Society of the Cincinnati, 

The Military Order of the Loyal Legion, 

The Aztec Club of 1847, 

The Society of Colonial Wars, 

The Society of the War of 1812, 

The Military Order of Foreign Wars, 

The Daughters of the Revolution, 

The Colonial Dames of America, and 

The Colonial Dames in the State of New York. 

The Annual Banquet on Washington's Birthday taxed the capacity of 
Delmonico's ball-room to the utmost and was a brilliant success. 

The toasts were : 

"George Washington, 1776- 1904," 

Responded to by Hon. Charlton T. Lewis ; 

"Sailors of the Revolution," 

Responded to by Captain Casper F. Goodrich, U. S. N., 
Commandant, Navy Yard, Portsmouth, N. H. ; 
"The Day We Celebrate, What it Commemorates and its Influence," 

Responded to by John Canfield Tomlinson, Esq. 

Mr. Tallmadge was not able to preside, although he had prepared the 
list of toasts and invited the speakers, and his genial, cordial, whole-souled 
and eloquent greeting was missed. 

An interesting feature of the dinner was the presentation of the Cocked 
Hat, the badge of office, to Rev. Dr. F. Landon Humphreys, who acted as 
Toast Master. 

Headed by the Stewards bearing the beautiful Silk Flags and Banners of 
the Society with large baskets of flowers following, presented by the Colonial 



Dames of America, the Colonial Dames of the State of New York and the 
Daughters of the Revolution, the Cocked Hat was carried on its cushion to 
the dais by Gen. Francis E. Pinto, a veteran of the Mexican War and the 
War of the Rebellion, and John L. Hill, whose fathers were soldiers in the 
war of the Revolution, and who are the only living "Sons" on the Society's 
rolls. The speech of presentation was made by Mr. Hill. 

The Souvenirs for the banquet were engravings of Lafayette and Steuben, 
and by the kindness of Mr. Avery there was added to the menu card an 
engraving of the medal designed by Dupre, presented to John Paul Jones by 
Congress in 1787. A sketch of John Paul Jones' life was added. 

In addition to the speakers of the evening, there were seated at the Guest 
table Mr. George W. Olney, representing the Rhode Island Cincinnati ; Hon. 
James Fitz-Gerald, President of the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick ; Mr. William 
G. Davies, representing the Society of Colonial Wars ; Mr. Robert Webb Mor- 
gan, representing the Military Order of Foreign Wars ; Mr. Oliver Hazard 
Perry, representing the Society of the War of 1812 ; Mr. Barr Ferree, repre- 
senting the Pennsylvania Society in New York ; Mr. Henry L. Bogert, repre- 
senting the Holland Society; Rev. Dr. Roderick Terry, President of the May- 
flower Society ; Gen. J. Fred Pierson, representing the Military Order, Loyal 
Legion ; Mr. Charles B. Whittlesey, representing the Connecticut Society, Sons 
of the Revolution ; Mr. Samuel V. Hoffman, President of the New York His- 
torical Society ; Hon. Smith Ely, Mr. Robert H. Kelby, Prof. Henry P. John- 
ston, Charles Hornblower Woodruff, Esq., John L. Hill, Esq., and General 
Francis E. Pinto. 

Of those who contributed to the success of this banquet three have joined 
"the great majority" — Mr. Tallmadge, Mr. Avery and Dr. Lewis. 

The work of the Essay Committee has been most painstaking and thor- 
ough as usual. It is no small task to read through the numerous essays sub- 
mitted, and many of them must be read again and again. The Committee, 
consisting of 

Rev. Charles Edward Brugler, Richard Henry Greene, 
Charles R. Huntington, Dr. James F. Barker, and 

Frank W. Thomas, 

found none of the High School Essays of sufficient merit to earn the first prize, 
but awarded the other medals as follows : 

To the Colleges : 

First Prize, Samuel G. Nissenson, 
College of the City of New York. 



Second Prize, Abraham Rockmore, 

College of the City of New York. 
Third Prize, Jacob Salwyn Schapiro, 

College of the City of New York. 

To the High Schools : 

Second Prize, Franklin R. Brown, 

Buffalo Central High School, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Third Prize, Reginald H. Burdick, 

Syracuse High School, Syracuse, N. Y. 

The Society has been the recipient of many courteous invitations for 
banquets and other functions, at most of which it has been represented. 

Annual Dinner of the Veteran Corps of Artillery, Military Order of the 
War of 1812, January 8, 1904. 

Pennsylvania Society, December 12, 1903, at Waldorf-Astoria. 

Society of Colonial Wars, January 12, 1904, at Delmonico's. 

Pilgrims of the United States, January 29, 1904, Delmonico's. 

Miltary Order of Foreign Wars, New York Commandery, February 8, 
1904, at Metropolitan Club. 

Buffalo Association, Sons of the Revolution, at the home of John W. Crafts, 
February 18, 1904. 

Sons of the Revolution in the State of Colorado, February 22, 1904. 

Sons of the Revolution, State of Massachusetts, February 22, 1904. 

Sons of the Revolution, State of Pennsylvania, February 22, 1904. 

Sons of the Revolution, State of Missouri, February 22, 1904. 

Buffalo Association, Sons of the Revolution, at home of Joseph T. Cook, 
March 31, 1904. 

Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick, March 17, 1904, at Delmonico's. 

Sons of the Revolution, State of Kentucky, April 5, 1904. 

Military Order of Loyal Legion of the United States, Commandery of 
the State of New York, May 4, 1904, at Delmonico's. 

New York Historical Society, November 22, 1904, at Delmonico's. 

Daughters of the Revolution, November 30, 1904, at Hotel Astor. 

There have been ten meetings of the Board of Managers during the year, 
with an average attendance of twelve. 

The Board has been much gratified to have present at several of its meet- 
ings, Regents of the Chapters. 

The Chapters are all doing good work. 



The Buffalo Association reports four meetings at which papers on His- 
torical subjects have been read. This Chapter has done much to stimulate 
interest among the public schools of Buffalo in our Essay Competition. 

The Buffalo High Schools take very many of the Essay Medals. 

The William Floyd Chapter held a Church Service on February 21st, com- 
memorative of the birthday of George Washington, and on the following day 
held its annual meeting for the election of officers. Papers were read by Dr. 
R. F. Benson and Frank W. Thomas. 

On the 28th of May a Clambake was held in the Revolutionary Breast- 
works located at Peobles Island. The Chapter entertained many distinguished 
guests, including the officers from the United States Arsenal at Watervliet. 
General Lloyd and staff of the Third Brigade, N. Y. N. G., and Colonel Lester 
and staff of the 2nd Regiment, N. Y. N. G. Mr. Thomas read a paper on the 
Breastworks of Haver Island. 

On the 25th of June the Regent of the Chapter, Col. Walter P. Warren, 
entertained the members at his house, Frank W. Thomas, Dr. R. F. Benson 
and E. W. Douglas discussing the Battle of Bunker Hill and Col. Arthur 
MacArthur giving a history of the Van Rensselaer family. 

The Fort Schuyler Chapter, at Utica, confines its celebrations to the ob- 
servance of Washington's Birthday. 

Its annual meeting in the afternoon was followed by a banquet and a 
public meeting in the evening, at which an address was delivered by Dr. Wm. 
Mechlenberg Polk on "Oriskany and Kings Mountain," and a portrait of 
Baron and Major General Frederick William Steuben was presented to the 
Oneida Historical Society by the Chapter. 

The Philip Livingston Chapter met with a great loss in the death of John 
De Witt Peltz in the month of May, 1904. Mr. Peltz was Vice-Regent at the 
time of his death and had been active in the work of the Chapter since its 
formation. 

The Jamestown Chapter has done most excellent work in marking the 
graves of ' Revolutionary Soldiers within its jurisdiction, using the bronze 
marker prepared by the General Society Sons of the Revolution. The Chapter 
proposes to continue this work until all of the graves of Soldiers of the Revo- 
lution in its vicinity are so marked. 

The Chapter celebrated Washington's birthday with a banquet. 

The appointments of the Board of Managers have followed the lines of 
previous years, recognizing efficient service. 

Mr. Talbot Olyphant was made Historian for the ninth consecutive term, 
and Dr. Humphreys was chosen Assistant Chaplain. 

The Stewards were re-appointed, with the exception of Mr. Thebaud, who 
declined to accept a reappointment, and was replaced by Mr. Clarence Storm. 

9 



The Historical Committee remained unchanged until the death of Mr. Asa 
Coolidge Warren, one of its number, on the twenty-second of November, 1904. 
Mr. Warren had previously served two years on the Board of Managers, one 
year as Treasurer and two years as Registrar. 

The death of Mr. Tallmadge was soon followed by that of Samuel P. Avery, 
who was serving his fifth year on the Board, having declined a nomination for 
the Vice-Presidency. He was a most valuable friend and adviser, and his 
death has caused a vacancy which cannot well be filled. His interest in the 
Society was strong and his gifts constant and liberal. 

The Membership Committee has met eight times and has carefully scrutin- 
ized and investigated the applicants and applications for membership. 

The work of this Committee is thorough, as it should be, not with the 
wish to add to the difficulty of admission to the Society, but with a view to 
maintaining our membership upon the high plane that was early established. 

The application blanks themselves have been made more complete. 

In the report of last year it was suggested that members of the Society 
should bring in their Sons. The Board of Managers has set a good example. 
There have been admitted this year, John Adams Dix, Robert Morrison Oly- 
phant, Jr., Frederic Hart Wilson, M. D., and James Mortimer Montgomery, 
Jr. More are promised for next year. 

The Society has had the pleasure during the year of listening to three 
very interesting papers. 

The first, on January 16th, the anniversary of the Battle of Kingsbridge, 
by Miss Mary V. Worstell, on Nathaniel Greene, Man and Patriot, illustrated 
by stereopticon views, was none the less interesting as being the first paper 
read before the Society by a woman. Miss Worstell's lecture was excellent and 
well delivered, and the pictures admirably selected. 

April 19th, the One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Anniversary of the Battle 
of Lexington was celebrated by a large gathering at Delmonico's. Mr. Clarence 
W. Bowen delivered an address (illustrated) on "Unpublished Papers of Baron 
Von Closen, Aide to Count Rochambeau." 

The Hon. Hugh Hastings gave, as usual, great pleasure, when on Novem- 
ber 25th, the One Hundred and Twenty-first Anniversary of the Evacuation of 
New York by the British Troops, he read an able paper, prepared at Mr. 
Tallmadge's special request, on "The Day We Celebrate." 

These Historical meetings are a great source of entertainment and pleasure 
to the members of the Society and are always well attended. 

The report of the Treasurer shows the financial condition of the Society 
to be prosperous. This report is, of course, founded on established figures. 

10 



If, however, we may estimate the value of the real estate by the returns upon 
it, and by the judgment of reliable experts we may conclude that our Fifty- 
fifth Street property would probably bring $90,000, and No. 23 Gramercy Park, 
$60,000. Fraunces' Tavern is priceless. 

The membership of the Society has fallen behind the numbers of last 
year, and the suggestion of the report of 1903 is repeated that we should all 
see to it that our sons are made members as fast as they come of age. 

Eighty-one members have been elected, thirty have resigned, twelve have 
been dropped for non-payment of dues, seven have been transferred to other 
State Societies, and forty-three have joined the great majority. 

A list of the more important Committees is appended. 

Many gifts have been received during the year and gratefully acknowl- 
edged, a list of which is appended. 

The Secretary's office has made its small contribution to the United States 
Mails with 1,500 letters, 2,124 Board and Committee notices, and in addition 
over 26,000 envelopes addressed and containing 46,000 enclosures have been 
sent out, and 2,200 Supplemental Year Books. 

There are on hand addressed and in process about ten thousand five hun- 
dred stamped envelopes ; seven thousand two cent stamps and about five dollars' 
worth of stamps of other denominations. 

Arrangements have been made with Annin & Co., flag makers, to supply the 
members of the Society with miniature silk Standards of the Sons of the Revo- 
lution. Orders may be obtained from the Secretary. 

December 3rd, 1904. 

For the Board of Managers, 

Morris Patterson Ferris, 

Secretary. 



11 



Minute of the Board of Managers on the Death of Frederick Samuel 
Tallmadge, President of the "Sons of the Revolution" in 

the State of New York. 

The Board of Managers of the "Sons of the Revolution" in the State of 
New York, deeply regretting the death of the late President of the Society, Mr. 
Frederick Samuel Tallmadge, enter this tribute to his memory in their minutes : 

Mr. Tallmadge identified himself with the Society of the "Sons of the 
Revolution" in the State of New York at its very inception. His interest in its 
purposes and plans and faith in its possible happy influence in the community 
as a patriotic institution moved him to appear as one of its original incorpora- 
tors and thereafter to enter actively into its life and further its good fortunes 
to the day of his death. His title to the honor of being a founder and his 
claim to membership in the Society, rested on his descent from a distinguished 
Revolutionary ancestry. The names of two of his forbears on his paternal side 
are conspicuously associated with both the civil and military events of Seventy- 
six. His great-grandfather, Colonel William Floyd, of Long Island, was one 
of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, and his grandfather was 
Colonel Benjamin Tallmadge, of the second Continental Light Dragoons, whose 
services in the field were varied, important and continuous for seven years. 
The Board expresses its gratification that the first volume of its Revolutionary 
publications is a reprint of the rare and valuable "Memoirs" of this well known 
officer and friend of Washington. Mr. Tallmadge's father was Frederick 
Augustus Tallmadge, who for many years was identified with the public ser- 
vice of this City, State and Nation, as Recorder, Judge, and Representative in 
Congress. 

President Tallmadge was born in New York City, January 24, 1824; grad- 
uated from Columbia University in 1845, ne entered the legal profession and 
was long a member of the law firm of Tracy, Tallmadge & Noyes. As a 
member of many clubs and societies, the Century, Union, Metropolitan and 
Players Clubs, the New York Historical Society, the New England Society, 
the Society of the Sons of the Revolution, the Order of the Cincinnati and 
Military Society of the War of 1812, his acquaintance and associations in the 
community were large. He died June 20th, 1904. at his residence, No. 20 West 
17th Street, in the eighty-first year of his age, surviving his wife, Julia Louise 
Belden. who died in t8qi, leaving no issue. Of his family, one sister remains, 
Mary Floyd, widow of the late Judge Edward W. Seymour, of the Supreme 
Court of Connecticut. 

12 



The funeral services of the deceased took place at St. Marks Episcopal 
Church, June 23rd, 1904, when the Rev. Dr. Morgan Dix, Chaplain of the 
"Sons of the Revolution," conducted the services. 

The Board of Managers recall with grateful feelings and a saddened 
pleasure the twenty years of spontaneous and faithful services rendered by 
President Tallmadge to the "Sons of the Revolution." To no Society was he 
more devoted. For this one his attachment seemed to grow in his later years 
into a personal affection. He filled the duties of his office, to which he had so 
often been re-elected with gratifying unanimity, with promptness, dignity and 
efficiency. He was present to preside over nearly every meeting and Banquet 
of the Society and at the unveiling of the Society's Memorials ; and on these, 
as on all occasions, he never failed to inculcate the impressive lessons of the 
Revolution in the true spirit of the Constitution of the Society. His noble 
bequest to our treasures and resources was the final and natural expression of 
his hopes, his best wishes and love for the "Sons." 

The Board of Managers are keenly susceptible of the loss of President Tall- 
madge as their Chairman ; his personality, counsel and unfailing interest in the 
management of the Society's affairs won their esteem and regard, and in his 
death they became a memory to be cherished. 



Minute of the Board of Managers on the Death of Samuel Putnam 

Avery, Member of the Board of Managers of the "Sons 

of the Revolution" in the State of New York. 

Samuel P. Avery, art connoisseur and litterateur, was born in New York, 
March 17, 1822. He was educated at the public schools and early displayed a 
taste for art. He started his life work as a letter engraver with a bank-note 
company, but soon took up engraving on wood, being employed by Harper 
Bros, and other publishing houses. Mr. Avery varied his labors by compiling, 
illustrating and publishing books. He manifested a great interest in an Ameri- 
can School of Art, and materially assisted its growth. In 1876 he was ap- 
pointed Commissioner in Charge of American Fine Art Department at the 
Paris Exhibition by Secretary of State Wm. H. Seward. On his return to 
New York the following year he commenced to deal in art works, with which 
business he was connected for nearly a quarter of a century. He was also identi- 
fied with the general progress of art throughout the United States. His fre- 
quent visits abroad put him on intimate relations with celebrated European 
artists, and he was able to place many of their finest productions in American 
galleries. In 1887 ne retired from active business and devoted himself to the 

13 



various organizations with which he was connected. Mr. Avery was Secretary 
of the Art Committee of the Union League, which called the meeting which 
resulted in the foundation of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in 1870, of 
which he later became trustee and chairman of the Art Committee. The 
Avery Architectural Library at Columbia College was founded by him in 
memory of his son, Henry Ogden Avery. Mr. Avery was the author of the 
articles on "Progress of the Fine Arts in New York during Fifty Years," in 
Lossing's History of New York. He was trustee of the Lenox, Astor and 
Tilden Libraries, and was one of the committee for the erection of the Bartholdi 
Statue. 

He was President of the Grolier Club, a Gentleman of the Council of the 
Society of Colonial Wars and was prominent in very many other clubs and 
societies. Mr. Avery became a life member of the Sons of the Revolution in 
1894. In 1900 he was chosen a member of the Board of Managers and re- 
mained a member until his death. During all that time no member was more 
faithful in his attendance at meetings. He was nominated for the Vice-Presi- 
dency last year, but could not be persuaded to accept. He always took a great 
interest in the work of the Society, and his gifts were many and valuable, and 
unostentatiously made. 

Mr. Avery left a widow, Mary Ogden Avery, who has joined in many of 
his benefactions, and one son, Samuel Putnam Avery, Jr., also a member of the 
Society. 

The Board of Managers records its deep sorrow and the sorrow of every 
member of the board in the loss of a valued counselor, sincere friend, noble, 
unselfish and patriotic citizen. 



M 



Members Admitted. 

George Albert Wingate, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

William Watt Smith, New York City. 

William Chauncey Crosby, New York City. 

John Day Talley, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

George Schermerhorn Seward, New York City. 

Charles Whittingham Fash, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Alexander DuBois Schenck, Lt. Col. U. S. A., Washington, D. C. 

Henry Edwin Cleveland, New York City. 

George H. Squire, New York City. 

William Osborn Remsen, Port Chester, N. Y. 

Frank Howard Douglass, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

John Sinclair Roberts, New York City. 

Herbert Julius Pease, Utica, N. Y. 

Wadsworth Leach Goodier, Utica, N. Y. 

Elliott Lockwood Brown, New York City. 

James Albert Hawkins, New York City. 

John Adams Dix, New York City. 

Richard H. Clarke, Jr., New York City. 

Andrew Anderson, M. D., St. Augustine, Fla. 

George Herbert Lesley, Spuyten Duyvil, N. Y. 

William Wyx Seeley, New York City. 

James Shepard Dennis, Rev., New York City. 

Frederick William Bliss, New York City. 

Cort Roadside Hincken, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Walter Farley Roberts, Utica, N. Y. 

Herman Isaiah Johnson, Utica, N. Y. 

Horatio Seymour, Utica, N. Y. 

Samuel Raynor, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Charles Cowing Zacharie, White Plains, N. Y. 

Thomas Porter Goodrich, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Paul Manning Goodrich, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Warren Curry Rowley, Utica, N. Y. 

Henry Waite Rowley, Utica, N. Y. 

Marshall Winslow Greene, New York City. 

John Winthrop Comey, New York City. 

15 



Joseph Douglass Mead, White Plains, N. Y. 
Edwin Stanley Bender, Glens Falls, N. Y. 
Walter Channing Burbank, New York City. 
James Bartlett Whiton, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Emerson Howe, New York City. 
Francis Craft, Rev., East Stroudsburg, Pa. 
Welles Catlin Waring, West New Brighton, N. Y. 
Charles Henry Sheldon, New York City. 
Edmund Howard-Martin, New York City. 
Lewis Leland Pierce, New York City. 
Charles Woodruff Halsey, New York City. 
Lewis Frederick Pilcher, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Chester Griswold, New York City. 
LeGrand Cannon Griswold, New York City. 
Max De Motte Marsellus, Essex Falls, N. J. 
George MacDuffie Shoemaker, Albany, N. Y. 
Robert Morrison Olyphant, Jr., New York City. 
Frederic Hart Wilson, M. D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Horace Chester Moses, New York City. 
Daniel Lewis Van Antwerp, Troy, N. Y. 
James Clark McGuire, New York City. 
Louis Hollenbeck Soule, New York City. 
Richard Lewis Howell, Rev., Washington, D. C. 
Beverley Randolph Robinson, New York City. 
John Howard Abeel, New York City. 
David Bowdoin Plumer, Briarcliff Manor, N. Y. 
Herbert Latham Fordham, New York City. 
Richard Fitch Hall, Troy, N. Y. 
Gano Sillick Dunn, New York City. 
Harris Ashton Dunn, New York City. 
Alexander Noel Blakeman, Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 
John Selby Primrose, New York City. 
Joseph Bridgham, Providence, R. I. 
Edward C. Miller, New York City. 
Frank Holman, New York City. 
Horatio H. Gates, New York City. 
Chester Guild Cutter, New York City. 
Champe Seabury Andrews, New York City. 
James Dudley Perkins, New York City. 
Charles Spencer Holcombe, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



16 



Lebbeus Harding Rogers, Jr., New York City. 

James Mortimer Montgomery, Jr., Cambridge, Mass. 

Charles Norris, M. D., New York City. 

Lucius Noyes Palmer, New York City. 

Elbridge Romeyn Hills, Lieut. Col., U. S. A., Washington, D. C. 

Edward Pearsons Newton, Rev., New York City. 



Resignations. 



Dr. Austin Flint, 
Capt. Charles F. Crain, 
Warren P. King, 
D wight Samuel Richardson, 
William W. Childs, 
Garret Brodhead, 
Edwin C. Larned, 
Jacob Washburn. 
Chauncey P. Williams, 
Charles Albert Spear, 
Alfred S. Brown, 
Clayton E. Bailey, 
Dr. H. C. Baum. 
Edward B. Brooks, 
George G. Brooks, 



George C. Kobbe, 
Major Harry O. Perley, 
James B. Ryer, 
Murray H. Strong, 
Henry Y. Wemple, Jr. 
Augustus Pruyn, 
Frank A. Babcock, 
J. Oliver Williams, 
Charles Davis, 
Cole L. Harwood, 
George H. Stover, 
Everett V. Abbot, 
John H. Swartwout, 
William C. Briggs, 
Rov Irvine Stearns. 



Delinquents. 



Dr. Ezra A. Bartlett, 
Frederick A. Boutelle, 
Herman C. Brewster, 
Murray O. Giles, 
Rufus Hatch, 
Livingston S. Kasson, 



Dr. Albert G. Root, 
Roscoe C. Sanford, 
John H. Swartwout, 
Edward A. Tobey, 
Frank J. Wilkins, 
Robert D. Williams. 



17 



Transfers. 

W. D. Griswold Smith, to Missouri Society, 

Rev. Alvah G. Fessenden, to California Society, 

J. M. Whittemore, to Connecticut Society, 

Brig.-General Charles L. Cooper, to Colorado Society, 

Lieut.-Com. W. J. Sears, to Pennsylvania Society, 

Brig.-General William F. Spurgin, to District of Columbia Society, 

Clarence G. DeGraw, to Colorado Society. 



List of Pictures, Books and Pamphlets Received. 



titles. 

Engraving of Paul Jones, 

Grolier Club Catalogue of Engraved Por- 
traits of Washington, 

Artotype of Emanuel Leutze's Painting of 
the Battle of Monmouth, 

Flatbush Past and Present, 

Missouri Society, Sons of Revolution, Reg- 
ister 1901-1903, 

Washington's Farewell to His Officers, 

Historical Register and Dictionary of the 
United States Army, 2 vols., 

Key to Lady Washington's Reception, 

Record of Captain John Hall, 

Decennial Report, Connecticut Sons of Rev- 
olution, 

Washington Society, Sons of Revolution, 
Year Book, 

St. Nicholas Society, Constitution, By- 
Laws and list of members, 1904, 

Union League Club Book, 1904, 

The Orderly Book, Kept by Jeremiah Fogg, 
siege of Boston, 1775- 1776, 



DONOR. 

Samuel P. Avery. 

Samuel P. Avery. 

Mrs. Anna Howe Booth. 
Stephen W. Giles. 

Henry Cadle. 
Samuel P. Avery. 

Hon. Thomas C. Piatt. 
Charles R. Huntington. 
H. M. LaMont. 

Charles B. Whittlesey. 

Wm. R. Redfield. 

Charles Isham. 
Henry W. Hayden. 

Howland Pell. 



18 



TITLES. 
Hero of Carillon or Fort Ticonderoga, in 

1777, 
The Year's Doings of the Daughters of the 

Revolution, State of New York, 

Historical Sketch of Major General Joseph 
Spencer, 

Bulletin of the Society of Mayflower De- 
scendants in the State of New York, 

Memoirs of General William Heath, 

The City Club of New York, Constitution, 
etc., 

The Hamilton Club, By-Laws, list of officers, 
etc., 

Union Club List for 1904, 

Pennsylvania Sons of the Revolution, Annual 
Proceedings, 1903- 1904, 

32nd Report of the Trustees of the Fair- 
mount Park Art Association, 

Park Commissioners' Report, 1903, 

Plolland Society Year Book, 1904, 

Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the 
Revolutionary War, Vol. 12, 

Still's Life of Major General Anthony 
Wayne, 

New York Genealogical and Biographical, 
Record, Vol. XXXV., No. 4, 

District of Columbia Society, Sons of the 
Revolution, 1904, 

Report of Canadian Archives, 1903, 

Proceedings of Annual Meeting of Daugh- 
ters of the Revolution, 1904, 

Piece of Charter Oak, 

Piece of Bark from Hamilton Trees, Con- 
vent Avenue and 142nd Street, 

An Episode of the Sullivan Campaign and 
its Sequel, 

The Fac-Simile of General Washington's 
Commission, 

Collection of Valuable Americana gathered 
by the late Moses Polock, 



DONOR. 

Howland Pell. 



Mrs. D. Phoenix Ingraham. 



Charles B. Whittlesey. 

Linus E. Fuller. 
William Abbatt. 

City Club. 

Hamilton Club. 
Franklin Bartlett. 

Ethan Allen Weaver. 

Leslie W. Miller. 
William R. Willcox. 
Henry L. Bogert. 

Wra. M. Olin. 



N. Y. Gen. & Biog. Society. 

Charles L. Gurley. 
Geo. F. O'Halloran. 

Mrs. D. Phoenix Ingraham. 
Thomas H. Morrison. 

Miss Buttolph. 

Samuel P. Avery. 

Samuel P. Avery. 

Samuel P. Avery. 



19 



TITLES. 

Engraved Portraits of Gen. Washington, 
Tuckerman's Life of Gen. Philip Schuyler, 
The Storming of Stony Point, by Prof. 

Henry P. Johnston, 
The Character of Washington, by Timothy 

Dwight, D.D., 
Lake George in History, by Elizabeth Eg- 

gleston Seelye, 
Commemorative Oration on Major General 
Alexander Hamilton, by Dr. John M. 
Mason, 
The Stone Records of Croton, by Emily S. 

Gilman, 
The Capture of Ticonderoga, by Hon. L. E. 

Chittenden, 
Catalogue of the Hampton L. Carson Col- 
lection of engraved portraits of Jef- 
ferson, Franklin and Lafayette, 
Our National Flag, by Major General Schuy- 
ler Hamilton, 
Diary of Dr. Ezra Green with letter from 

Robert Hay, 
Catalogue of Rare and Scarce American 

History, 
Life of Captain Jeremiah O'Brien, 
Phil. Carver, a romance of the War of 1812, 
Catalogue of the Alfred S. Manson Col- 
lection of American Portraits, 
Diary or Orderly Book of Sergeant Jona- 
than Burton, 
Documents and letters signed by, 
George III of England, 
George IV of England, 
Louis XIV of France, 
Louis XV of France, 
Louis XVI of France, 
With Portraits. 
Military Papers of Daniel D. Tompkins, 

Vols. II and III, 
Scharff's History of Westchester County, 2 
vol., 20 



DONOR. 

Samuel P. Avery. 
Samuel P. Avery. 

Samuel P. Avery. 

Samuel P. Avery. 

Samuel P. Avery. 



Samuel P. Avery. 
Samuel P. Avery. 
Samuel P. Avery. 



Samuel P. Avery. 

Samuel P. Avery. 

Samuel P. Avery. 

Samuel P. Avery. 
Samuel P. Avery. 
Samuel P. Avery. 

Samuel P. Avery. 

Samuel P. Avery. 



Warren C. 
Warren C. 
Warren C. 
Warren C. 
Warren C. 
Warren C. 



Crane. 
Crane. 
Crane. 
Crane. 
Crane. 
Crane. 



Hugh Hastings. 



OFFICERS. 

President : 
♦Frederick Samuel Tallmadge. 

Vice-President : 
Edmund Wetmore. 

Secretary : 
Morris Patterson Ferris. 

Treasurer : 
Arthur Melvin Hatch. 

Registrar : 
Henry Phelps Johnston. 

Chaplain : 
Rev. Morgan Dix, D.D., D.C.L. 

Assistant Chaplain : 
Rev. Frank L. Humphreys, S.T.D. 

Historian : 
Talbot Olyphant. 

Board of Managers : 
Robert Olyphant, Joseph Tompkins Low, 

Frederic A. Guild, Philip Livingston, 

Stiles Franklin Stanton, Alexander Ramsay Thompson, 

Charles R. Henderson, Dallas Bache Pratt, 

Henry Applegate Wilson, Lewis Rutherford Morris, M.D., 

*Samuel Putnam Avery. 

Membership Committee. 

Morris P. Ferris, Chairman ; 
Silas Wodell, William E. Van Wyck, 

Wyllys Terry, Charles Palmer Robinson, 

Landreth H. King, Rev. Charles Edward Brugler, 

Jared Weed Bell, Richard Augustus Wilson, 

Frederic E. Underhill, Frank H. Lord, Secretary. 

15 Deceased. 

21 



Chapters. 

Buffalo Association, Charles B. Wheeler, Regent. 
Philip Livingston Chapter, Wm. Piatt Rudd, Regent. 
William Floyd Chapter, Col. Walter P. Warren, Regent. 
Fort Schuyler Chapter, Willis E. Ford, Regent. 
Orange County Chapter, Dr. Fredk. W. Seward, Regent. 
Jamestown Chapter, Rev. Dr. Alhert Lucius Smalley, Regent. 



Historical Committee: 

Marcius D. Raymond, Townsend Wandell, 

Howard R. Bayne, "Asa C. Warren, 

James William Beekman. 



Philip Livingston, 
William Bunker, 



Stewards : 

Frederick S. Woodruff, 
Henry Gansevoort Sanford, 
Clarence Storm. 



Aisle Committee 



Talbot 

Williams Phillips Baker, 
Benjamin W. B. Brown, 
Oliver Grant Barton, 
William Bunker, 
Banyer Clarkson, 
Robert Grier Cooke, 
Henry Russell Drowne, 
William B. Osgood Field, 
John Clarkson Jay, Jr., 
Francis Griswold Landon, 
S. Vernon Mann, 
Richard M. Montgomery, Jr 
Charles King Morrison, 



Olyphant, Chairman. 

Edward Lawrence Purdy, 
Henry Gansevoort Sanford, 
Arthur Frederic Schermerhorn, 
Edward Gibert Schermerhorn, 
Charles Hitchcock Sherrill, 
Louis Gross Smith, 
Sydney Leighton Smith, 
Prentice Strong, 
William Gordon Ver Planck, 
Herman Knickerbocker Viele, 
Clark Williams, 
., Charles H. Woodruff, Jr., 

Frederick Sanford Woodruff. 



"'Deceased. 



22 



Marshal. 
John Butterfield Holland. 

Aides. 

William Graves Bates, Devvitt Clinton Falls, 

James Wray Cleveland, Francis Laurens Vinton Hoppin, 

Albert Delafield, Benjamin B. McAlpin, 

Horace Clark Du Val, Robert Kelly Prentice, 

George Albert Wingate. 

Essay Committee: 

Rev. Charles Edward Brugler, Chairman ; 
Richard Henry Greene, Dr. James F. Barker, 

Charles R. Huntington, Frank W. Thomas, 

Fraunces' Tavern Committee: 

Robert Olyphant, Alexander R. Thompson, 

Charles R. Henderson, Morris Patterson Ferris. 

Real Estate Committee: 

Robert Olyphant, Arthur M. Hatch, 

Charles R. Henderson, Morris Patterson Ferris. 

Publication Committee: 

*Samuel Putnam Avery, Charles Isham, 

James M. Montgomery, Morris Patterson Ferris. 

Auditors : 
Clark Williams, William G. Bates. 

Tallmadge Estate and Monument: 
James M. Montgomery. 

Tallmadge Window Committee: 

James M. Montgomery, Arthur M. Hatch, 

Morris P. Ferris. 
* Deceased. 

23 



REPORT 



OF 



HISTORIAN 



25 



In flDemoriam 





DIED. 




ADMITTED. 


William Edgar Findley, 


September 18th, 


1903. 


1892. 


reported January 4th, 1904. 








Thomas Jefferson Van Alstyne, 


October 20th, 


1903. 


1897. 


reported May 21st, 1904. 








Edward Francis Moody, 


November 27th, 


1903. 


l8&> 


reported December 24th, 1903. 








Edward Marsh Brown, 


December 1st, 


1903. 


1899. 


Henry Stanton, 


December 5th, 


1903. 


189I. 


reported October 22nd, 1904. 








John Henry Van Antwerp, 


December 14th, 


1903. 


1893. 


Oren Milton Beach, 


December 22nd, 


1903. 


I9OO. 


George W. Rand, 


January 19th, 


1904. 


I903. 


Edgar Underhill, 


January 23rd, 


1904. 


189O. 


Henry Lyle Smith, M. D., 


February nth, 


1904. 


I9OO. 


Rodney Strong Dennis, 


March 7th, 


1904. 


1897. 


John Schuyler Anderson, 


March 17th, 


1904. 


1 89I. 


George H. Butler, M. D., 


March 28th, 


1904. 


1889. 


Franklin Harper, 


March 28th, 


1904. 


1887. 


Jesup Wakeman, 


April 3rd, 


1904. 


1893. 


George Danforth Tooker, 


April 10th, 


1904. 


1895. 


Jacob Cox Parsons, 


April 15th, 


1904. 


1 89I. 


Frank Weidner Sabold, 


April 1 6th, 


1904. 


I9OO. 


Ashbel Parmelee Fitch, 


May 3rd, 


1904. 


1893. 


John De Witt Peltz, 


May 7th, 


1904. 


189O. 


George Clinton Genet, 


May 9th, 


1904. 


1883. 


Charlton Thomas Lewis, 


May 26th, 


1904. 


1896 


Henry Francis Barrows, 


May 26th, 


1904. 


1893. 


Walter Steuben Carter, 


June 3rd, 


1904. 


1895. 


Daniel Hazeltine Post, 


June 3rd, 


1904. 


1894. 


Frederick Samuel Tallmadge, 


June 20th, 


1904. 


1883. 


Edward Wilberforce Lambert, M. D., 


July 17th, 


1904. 


1897. 


Ernest Kempton Adams, 


July 21st, 


1904. 


I9OO. 


Samuel Putnam Avery, 


August nth, 


1904. 


1894. 



26 



Eugene V. N. Bissell, 

Clinton Wheeler Wisner, 

Fred Alfred Bentley, 

William Henry Collins, 

William Shrady, 

John Van Schaick Lansing Pruyn, 

George Seymour Conant, M. D., 

William Jay Fish, 

William Holt Averell, 

William Wotkyns Seymour, M. D., 

Edward Schermerhorn Henry, 

John Rogers Thayer, 

Asa Coolidge Warren, 

Alfred Cutler Barnes, 



DIED. 




ADMITTED. 


August nth, 


1904. 


1889. 


August 2ISt, 


1904. 


1893. 


August 24th, 


1904. 


I902. 


September 7th, 


1904. 


1897. 


September 20th, 


1904. 


1884. 


September 22nd, 


1904. 


1888. 


September 23rd, 


1904. 


1889. 


October 2nd, 


1904. 


1897. 


October 13th, 


1904. 


1895. 


October 18th, 


1904. 


1892. 


October 25th, 


1904. 


I902. 


November 15th, 


1904. 


1896. 


November 22nd, 


1904. 


1883. 


November 28th, 


1904. 


1890. 



Respectfully Submitted, 

Talbot Olyphant, 

Historian. 



27 



ft 




New York Society 



REPORTS 



OF BOARD OF MANAGERS 
AND HISTORIAN. 







December 4, 1905. 



To the Society of Sons of the Revolution 
in the State of New York : 

The Board of Managers makes the following report for the year last past: 

There have been ten meetings of the Board of Managers during the year. 

One of the earliest resolutions was for the appointment of a Committee to 
consider Amendments to the Constitution to provide additional Vice-Presidents 
and members of the Board. For the latter an urgent appeal was made by the 
Philip Livingston Chapter, with the idea of having a representative on the 
Board for each one hundred members. 

Upon the favorable report of the Committee a series of Amendments to 
the Constitution and By-Laws were approved by the Board and presented to the 
Society with such approval at a special meeting held on April 15, 1905. They 
have been notified to the Society for consideration and action thereon. 

Early in the year attention was drawn by the Secretary to the fact that the 
work of the Society had so increased in volume that it demanded practically 
the entire time of a competent official, and asking that suitable compensa- 
tion should be made him. This resulted in a resolution fixing the Secre- 
tary's compensation for the year at $3,500. 

The library of the Society has been largely increased by the liberal gifts 
of Mr. John Austin Stevens and other members, and the five cases in the 
office are now filled with good material relating to the Revolution. 

The Tallmadge books reserved by the Society have not yet been moved 
to the office. 

Contributions of books and pamphlets are desired from members, bearing 
on the Revolutionary War, biographies of participants, genealogies and books 
on old New York. General literature must necessarily be excluded as the 
library grows. 

A catalogue has been made, and may be examined at the 
office. The number of persons using the library has been greater than ever 
before and the Secretary has been able to render considerable assistance to 
those making out papers, and has been able to develop some new lines which 
ought to give increased membership. 

A few copies of the Tallmadge Memoirs remain to be disposed of. The 
price ($10.00) has been fixed so that the entire expense of publication may be 



covered when all have been sold, the Society in the meantime having advanced 
the necessary funds. 

The first observance of Tallmadge Day, on January 24th, 1905, was made 
impressive by the beautiful tribute of the new President to his predecessor. 
Remarks were also made by Rev. Mr. Brugler and others. 

An illustrated paper on Old New York preceded the other exercises. 

Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart, of Harvard University, read a most interesting 
paper on the Privateers of the Revolution at the April meeting. It is to be 
regretted that he declined to allow the paper to be published. 

The Portraits of Trumbull furnished the topic for the November meeting. 
Prof. John F. Weir, Dean of Yale University Art School, delivering an able 
address illustrated by stereopticon views. 

The Annual Banquet of the Society took place as usual on the anniversary 
of Washington's Birthday. 

Eloquent responses to the toasts were made: 

"George Washington," by Woodrow Wilson, LL. D., Litt. D., President of 
Princeton University. 

"The Principles Established by the Revolution," by James M. Beck, 
L. L. D. 

"Our Flag; Yesterday, To-day and To-morrow," by William D. Murphy, 
Esq. 

"The Army," by Brig.-Gen. Frederick Dent Grant. 

A stenographic report of these speeches was arranged for, but the notes 
were so faulty as to be worthless for publication. 

The number in attendance was larger than usual, although the price per 
plate was increased to $6.00 to provide for the valuable souvenir. 

The Banquet was presided over by Mr. Wetmore, the President of the 
Society. 

After the coffee had been served, the Society's flags were brought in in 
procession followed by large baskets of flowers which were presented to the 
Society on behalf of the Colonial Dames of America, the Colonial Dames of 
the State of New York, and the Daughters of the Revolution. The President 
was duly invested with the Cocked Hat, the badge of office, by General Francis 
E. Pinto, whose father was an actual participant in the War of the Revolution, 
and who was himself a veteran of the Mexican and Civil Wars. He has since 
been called to his fathers. 

The souvenir, planned for the dinner, was a bronze medal, having upon its 
obverse the head of our late President and benefactor, Frederick Samuel 
Tallmadge, and upon the reverse Fraunces' Tavern. The cutting of the dies 
was placed in the hands of Victor D. Brenner, an acknowledged expert, now 

2 



residing in Pans, France. The dies for the head of Mr. Tallmadge were 
approved in July. It was not until the latter part of June that the Board of 
Managers was able to determine upon the picture of Fraunces' Tavern to be 
used on the medal. This has made an unavoidable delay in the striking and 
delivery of the medals. Those entitled to them will be promptly notified when 
they are ready. 

An additional souvenir in the form of a gun metal pocket match safe, with 
the seal of the Society stamped upon it, was given to the diners. A limited 
number of these still on hand can be purchased from the Secretary. 

The Board of Managers has procured a supply of the Society's ribbon, 
the new golden buff and blue. This can be purchased by the members at the 
Society's office. 

Mr. Smith E. Lane, one of our members, furnishes the following explana- 
tion of the heraldic reasons for using the golden buff instead of the lighter 
color heretofore adopted. 

In Heraldry where the colors upon the shield of arms are "or" (gold) 
and "azure" (blue) and these colors are employed in the costumes of retain- 
ers and elsewhere, the buff or drab is substituted for the gold. In the same 
manner, in the costumes of the soldiers of the Revolution the buff was used 
for the gold as the color of the cloth. In silk for the ribbon and rosettes of 
the Sons of the Revolution it is possible to return to the richer golden buff. 
This change also makes it possible to distinguish at a distance between the 
rosettes and ribbons of our Society and those of another Society which has 
endeavored to imitate our original rosette as nearly as possible without actual 
reproduction. 

The topics for the essay contest were for the Colleges: 

"The Stamp Act — Its passage and repeal considered as factors in precipi- 
tating the Revolution. Relative importance among the Causes of the War." 

For the High Schools: 

"General Montgomery and the attack on Quebec." 

To read carefully the many essays offered is no light task. It was well 
performed by the Committee, all very busy men. 

The awards were made in February as follows: 

To the Colleges : 

Gold Medal to Louis Friedlander of the College of the City of New York. 

Silver Medal to William Almon Wolff, Jr., of New York University. 

Bronze Medal to Abraham A. Freedlander of Cornell University. 

In the case of the High Schools the presentation of the medals was made 
the occasion of a function of the Chapters. 

The Philip Livingston Chapter took charge of the Gold Medal awarded 
Miss Florence R. Haines of the Albany High School, and it was presented by 

3 



the Regent, Mr. Samuel L. Munson, at the School on June 8th, a large number 
of the Chapter members being in attendance. 

Mr. Charles H. Williams, Regent of the Buffalo Association, officiated in 
like manner in presenteing the Silver Medal to the winner, Maurice D. 
Cooper, of the Buffalo Central High School. 

The essay competition heretofore has been largely confined to the High 
Schools in the upper part of the State. This year the bronze medal was won by 
a scholar of the Mt. Vernon High School, and the medal was presented to Miss 
Florence E. Wood, the successful contestant, by Mr. R. Russell Requa, of the 
Essay Committee, in connection with the School's Commencement exercises 
in June. 

The work of the Chapters has as usual been efficiently handled. 
The Philip Livingston Chapter at Albany has had numerous meetings 
where papers have been read. 

In January, Rev. Dr. William F. Whitaker gave a talk on Holland, illus- 
trated with lantern slides. In April Rev. William Elliot Griffis, D. D., Litt. D., 
recounted "Sullivan's Expedition against the Indians" with stereopticon views. 
Prof. Warren, of the Albany Boys' Academy, gave a talk on the campaign 
of General Greene and the events that led up to and the capture of Cornwallis 
at a recent meeting of the Chapter at the University Club. 

The Buffalo Association has also entertained its members with historical 
papers. 

The William , Floyd Chapter was entertained by Mr. Edgar Ketchum 
Betts on June 16th and has had other meetings. 

The Fort Schuyler Chapter held its annual dinner and meeting on Feb- 
ruary 22, 1905, addresses were made by Rev. Dr. George E. Merrill, President 
of Colgate University, Col. William Cary Sanger, Hon. H. J. Cookinham 
and others. 

The Board of Managers has had the pleasure of seeing at several of its 
meetings Col. Walter P. Warren, of the William Floyd Chapter, and Mr. 
Samuel L. Munson, of the Philip Livingston Chapter. 

No special reports have been received from the other Chapters, but their 
correspondence indicates a lively interest in the work of the Society. 

The most important work of the year has been the determination of the 
form of the restoration of Fraunces' Tavern. A most exhaustive search was 
prosecuted by the Secretary among old print collectors and in the libraries to 
discover some picture of the Tavern in the time of Washington or some 
authentic description which would throw light upon the subject. In the course 
of the investigation, by the kind permission of the tenants, the side wall of a 
room on the fourth floor and southerly side of the building was uncovered 
and the exact line of the old roof disclosed, the old bricks on the lower side 



of the diagonal line being met by bricks of a larger, more modern type above. 
The investigation further developed the fact, which seemed to have been forgot- 
ten, that in the year 1852 a very disastrous fire occurred in the tavern starting in 
a paint shop where the barber shop now is and rapidly reaching the top of the 
house, making it impossible for the tenants to use the stairway in making an 
exit and some of them lost their lives. The result of this fire was the demolition 
of most of the old wall on the Pearl Street side. The line of the fire is still 
discernible, making a sort of ragged V which has left a triangle including the 
westerly corner of the second and third stories, the two westerly windows on 
the second story and one on the third story and on the easterly side a part of 
the most easterly pier. There is much in the second and third stories of the 
house which has been preserved so that restoration there may be easily made. 

It is an odd coincidence that in January of this year a fire was discovered in 
the same room where was started the disastrous fire of 1852. The promptness 
of the tenants and the efficiency of the Fire Department confined it to within 
a few feet of its origin. 

By the partial destruction of a wooden partition there was disclosed a dan- 
gerous condition, a rusty smoke pipe hidden behind the partition and in the 
midst of a large accumulation of rubbish. The repairs made were thorough 
and were covered by the amount received from the insurance companies. 

William H. Mersereau, the Architect who had charge of the restoration of 
the Old Sleepy Hollow Church at Tarrytown, "Sunnyside," the old home 
of Washington Irving, and much other work of a like character, has been 
selected to take charge of Fraunces Tavern. 

In January he submitted his first report showing the present condition of 
the structure, measurement, ground plans, etc. This was followed by a sketch 
prepared to show his ideas of the possibilities. Finally in July he presented 
a proposed elevation and interior plans which met with great commendation 
from the Committee and the Board and were adopted by the Board subject to 
such modifications as the Committee might later deem necessary. From the out- 
set in dealing with the many suggestions presented for the restoration there have 
been two fixed propositions constantly in mind; first, adherence to historic 
accuracy, and second, the production of a thoroughly fire-proof receptacle for 
the treasures of the Revolutionary period which might through the generosity of 
our members and others ultimately find lodgement there. Both of these condi- 
tions have been well conserved in the plans of the Architect. Under the direc- 
tion of the Committee, a contract having been made with him for the work, he 
is now preparing more accurate detail drawings. 

The cost of the restoration, estimated by competent material men and 



mechanics, including the thorough fire-proofing of the building, will be from 
$30,000 to $35,000. 

This amount ought to be easily raised among our two thousand members. 
Every member of the Society ought to contribute at least enough to purchase a 
brick and identify himself with this great work. 

Fraunces Tavern is not only the oldest building in New York, having been 
erected about 1700, when Etienne de Lancey received the land on which it 
stands, then at the edge of the beach fronting the river, as the marriage portion 
of his wife, Anne, the second daughter of Stephanus van Cortlandt, but the 
association of the building with the founding of the Chamber of Commerce and 
other important events prior to the Revolution and more than all else its asso- 
ciation with Washington make it to New York what Independence Hall is to 
Philadelphia, and Faneuil Hall to Boston. 

There is little to be said about the other real estate owned by the Society be- 
yond the fact that it is continually rising in value. All is rented, and this year, 
after the payment of all repairs, interest on mortgages, insurance, commissions 
on collections and on rentals, etc., brought in a net income of $7,898.31. 

Eighty thousand dollars was borrowed for the purchase of Fraunces' 
Tavern, ten thousand dollars was paid in July and the interest on $30,000 
of the loan reduced to four per cent., the new mortage tax law making it im- 
possible to do more, although the amount borrowed is only two-fifths of the 
value of the security. 

No. 23 Gramercy Park, devised by Mr. Tallmadge, is held at $60,000, 
a value indicated by the prices paid for the Columbia University Club on the 
southwesterly corner of Irving Place and 20th Street and the old Tilden 
property by the National Arts Club. 

The property is offered in conjunction with No. 22 Gramercy Park and 
No. 84 Irving Place, owned by Mrs. Seymour, Mr. Tallmadge's sister. The 
entire plot having a frontage of fifty-three feet on Gramercy Park with a 
depth of one hundred and thirty-four feet and an ell on Irving Place twenty- 
five feet in width. 

The Triennial Meeting of the General Society of Sons of the Revolution 
took place in the Senate Chamber of the Old State House at Annapolis, Mary- 
land, on April 19th, 1905, the one hundred and thirtieth anniversary of the 
Battle of Lexington. 

The delegates, who made their headquarters in the New Willard, Wash- 
ington, with a large number of members of the Society from New York and 
elsewhere, were conveyed on a train provided by the General Society. March- 
ing in procession from the railroad station headed by the flags and banner 
of the New York Society, the long column was most impressive. 

At the State House the delegates were welcomed by Governor Warfield, 

6 



who dwelt upon the leave-taking of General Washington when he resigned his 
Commission in the same place where the Governor stood, December 23rd, 1783. 

After the business of the Convention had been transacted, including a re- 
port from the General Treasurer showing a cash balance of $4,193.07 and 
securities worth over $3,100, and the announcement of the General Society that 
the resolution providing for representation of the State Societies in the Gen- 
eral Society in proportion to the number of their members, the delegates and 
other members adjourned to the Gubernatorial Mansion where they were charm- 
ingly received by the Governor and Mrs. Warfield. 

Following this reception a lunch was served at Carvel Hall. 

At three o'clock, an exhibition drill by the Cadets of the U. S. Naval 
Academy tendered through the courtesy of Captain Brownson, Superintendent, 
was thoroughly enjoyed. The occasion was utilized for the presentation of a 
Silver Cup to the Cadets by the General Society, Sons of the Revolution, to re- 
main in the custody of the Academy and to have inscribed thereon each year 
the name of the Cadet most successful in heavy gun practice. The speech 
of presentation was made by the Rev. Dean Lee of Kentucky. 

On Thursday, April 20th, an excursion was made by trolley to Mt. 
Vernon, and a short address and prayer was offered by the Rev. Dr. Green, the 
General Chaplain at the tomb of Washington. 

On the return trip by special invitation of the Mayor and Aldermen of 
the city, a stop was made at Alexandria. Under escort of the authorities, 
Christ Church, where Washington worshiped, Braddock House, Washington 
Masonic Lodge and other places of interest were visited. 

The banquet in the evening at the New Willard was a most successful 
climax. The enthusiastic reception tendered the President of the New York 
Society was particularly gratifying. 

The efforts of the New York Society for the reduction of railroad rates 
met with favor among the delegates from a distance and a promise of a 
largely increased attendance at the next convention. 

The New York Society, in common with all others present, was in- 
debted to the General Secretary and the Assistant General Secretary for the 
admirable manner in which every detail of the function was arranged. 

The printed roll book of the Society which has been in use since 1899, 
by reason of changes and additions, became finally unfit for use. A new roll 
book was authorized by the Board of Managers and has been printed. 

It is very difficult to keep track of changes of address. After a comparison 
with the Treasurer's book last summer and a supposed adjustment of addresses 
there were so many differences that a notice was sent by the Secretary to 
every member recently, requesting a reply, giving the house and business ad- 
dress, and a statement of preference for the sending of notices. 



A slight change has been made in the application blanks so as to provide 
for an additional generation. 

During the year about four hundred sets of application blanks have been 
issued, and while these have not all borne fruit in additions to the Society's 
membership, there are to-day very gratifying indications of large accessions 
during the coming year. 

There have been admitted this year one hundred and one new members. 
After deducting the number of those who have died, resigned, been transferred 
to other State Societies or have been dropped for non-payment of dues, the net 
gain for the year is twenty-four, as against a net loss last year of eleven, out 
of a total of eighty-one elected. 

Several framed copies of Stewart's Washington have been presented to 
High Schools in New York City and elsewhere in the State. 

A suitable monument to the memory of Mr. Tallmadge has been erected 
in the Van der Poel plot in Litchfield, Connecticut, where his remains are 
interred. 

Arrangements have also been made for the dedication of a memorial 
window to Mr. Tallmadge in St. Mark's Chapel, on February 18th, 1906, when 
the Annual Church Service of the Society will be held there. 

There were many books and Shakespearean relics in the collection, 
bequeathed by Mr. Tallmadge to the Society, which it was deemed inadvisable 
to retain, as they had no bearing on the history of the Revolution. These 
books and models of the houses of Shakespeare, Anne Hathaway, etc., were 
sold by the Anderson Auction Company on the evenings of November 2d and 
3d. The sale produced a gross result of $6,284.93, the expenses of sale were 
$1,870.60, leaving a balance of $4,414.33 for the Society, which may be sup- 
plemented later by the sale of a few books which were not offered at the 
Anderson sale. 

One of the most attractive Church Services the Society has ever held 
was held this year in Grace Church. The flags and banner of the Society 
furnished a most beautiful coloring against the white background. The 
Church was completely filled with the members and their guests. As usual 
representatives of the Colonial Dames of America, the Colonial Dames of the 
State of New York, the Daughters of the Revolution, the Cincinnati, Astec 
Club, War of 1812, Colonial Wars, Foreign Wars and Loyal Legion were in 
attendance. The Society of the War of 1812 furnished a uniformed escort. 
The Sermon was preached by the Rev. William T. Manning, D. D., Vicar of 
St. Agnes Chapel, Trinity Parish. 

By resolution of the Board special seats were set apart for the use of Mrs. 
Edward W. Seymour, Mrs. Samuel P. Avery and Mrs. Jacob Cox Parsons as 
a tribute to the memory of the members who have done so much for the Society. 

8 



In the conduct of the business of the Society there have been written 
during the year twenty-five hundred letters, in addition to some nine hundred to 
Committees. Eight hundred and fifty Board and Committee Notices have been 
sent. Nearly twenty-two thousand notices of meetings, including forty-four 
thousand enclosures. Twenty-five thousand envelopes have been addressed. 

It is the practice of the Secretary to keep on hand several sets of addressed 
envelopes to have them ready for sending out notices without delay. 

A list of the more important Committees is appended. 

Considerable progress has been made in preparing indices of the Society's 
records and of a card index of all the members admitted. 

The Society has been the recipient of many courteous invitations to take 
part in patriotic functions and dinners. The following is a partial list of these, 
at most of which the Society has been represented: 

Pennsylvania Society of New York, 

Military Order of Foreign Wars, 

New Hampshire Society, Sons of Revolution, 

Colonial Order of Acorn, 

Pennsylvania Society, Sons of Revolution, 

Daughters of the Revolution, 

Military Order of the War of 1812, 

Society of the Cincinnati, 

Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick, 

New York Historical Society, 

Society of Colonial Wars, 

Saint George's Society, 

Holland Society, 

Ohio Society, Sons of Revolution, 

Illinois Society, Sons of Revolution, 

Massachusetts Society, Sons of Revolution, 

Saint Andrews Society. 

Ohio Society in New York. 

At our own Banquet we were pleased to have with us George W. Olney, 
Esq., representing the Society of Cincinnati; M. J. Drummond, Esq., of the 
Friendly Sons of St. Patrick ; Edward Stalker Sayres, Esq., of the Sons of the 
Revolution, Pennsylvania ; Gen. James M. Varnum, of the Society of Colonial 
Wars; Oliver Hazzard Perry, Esq., of the Society of the War of 1812; Hon. 
Daniel Nash Morgan, of the Sons of the Revolution, Connecticut ; Marcus Ben- 
jamin, Ph.D., of the Sons of the Revolution, District of Columbia ; Col. William 
G. Bates, of the Order of Foreign Wars ; Barr Ferree, Esq., of the Pennsylvania 

9 



Society; Hon. Garret J. Garretson, of the Holland Society; Robert Frater 
Munro, Esq., of the St. Andrews Society; Edward F. Darrell, Esq., of the 
St. George's Society; Samuel V. Hoffman, Esq., of the N. Y. Historical 
Society ; Fordham Morris, Esq., of the Colonial Order of the Acorn. 

Information has been received of a legacy of $200, given by the will of 
Edward Greene, a valued member of the Society. By reason of a contest over 
his will, which has now been settled, the legacy has not yet been paid. 

Arrangements have been made for the erection of a tablet in the Historical 
Museum of the College of the City of New York which stands on the site 
where the American troops were encamped at various times during the Revolu- 
tion and where several skirmishes took place. A very beautiful tablet designed 
by Albert Weinert is nearly ready to be placed in position. Mr. Weinert is 
also at work upon a tablet to be erected on the grounds of the New York 
University to commemorate the old Revolutionary Forts which were located 
at that point. This will complete the series of tablets on the College buildings 
within the City of New York. 

For the Board of Managers, 

Morris Patterson Ferris, 

Secretary. 



The President's Tribute to Frederick Samuel Tallmadge. 
On Tallmadge Day, January 24, 1905. 

This evening's meeting is held in commemoration of the birthday of our 
late honored President and our benefactor, Frederick S. Tallmadge. 

His term of service was so long, his interest in our welfare so deep, his 
parting gifts so generous, his embodiment of the spirit that we aim to promote 
so complete, that the promptings of our own hearts lead us to come together 
in order to give this united expression of respect for his character, and regret 
for his loss, and to pay the due tribute of love and honor to his memory. 

Others will speak of Mr. Tallmadge's traits and acts as they knew him. 
I would say a word concerning something that the thought of his long connec- 
tion with this Society suggests, and that is the elevating influence that comes 
from a sincere interest in the work of an association, the object of which is 
purely to promote the general good. 

Mr. Tallmadge for many years was a successful lawyer and a man of 
affairs, he had the innumerable calls upon his time and energies that are incident 
to an active life in this great city, and that fill both days and nights so full of 
matters of direct personal concern that little time is left for anything else. But 
he had the tastes of a scholar, a love for his country's history, an honorable 
pride in his ancestry, and all these made his membership in our Society a source 
of peculiar interest and pleasure that increased as time went by. As one by 
one, life-long ties were severed by death, and the home, circle diminished and 
old friends passed away, our meetings, our plans, the consultations with our 
managers, the intercourse with our members, the hopes of our future, gave 
employment for his thoughts, kept alive his enthusiasm and saved him from 
falling into the loneliness and isolation that betoken the slowly descending 
shadow of old age. As other objects of interest faded he renewed his youth 
with us. Well can we remember the earnestness and fire of his speeches when 
any subject vital to our welfare was before us. His enthusiasm was inspiring. 
His voice caught an echo of the ringing tone that came down to him from the 
continental trooper. Of all his associatons beyond and outside those of his 
home and his intimate friendships, I believe we were the first in his heart as 
we were among the last in his thoughts and his remembrance. And when the 
end came and darkness was gathering, like the tender light of the sunset when 
night is softly falling, must the thought have come to him that we should find 

11 



his unspoken farewell in the noble provision he had made to enable us to fulfill 
our cherished designs. 

And the thought I would utter is that the feeling aroused by such an 
attachment as Mr. Tallmadge had for our Society is an ennobling influence. 
He never, for a moment, regarded his place as a means of personal distinction 
for himself, or had a selfish thought concerning it. His feelings came purely 
from sincere patriotism, from belief in the objects of the Society, from loyalty 
to his fellow members. And whoever cultivates that spirit will reap the benefit, 
not only of the good he does to others, but the good he will receive himself. 
Most of us lead laborious lives, of very necessity we must give the best of our 
years and time to private interests, but whoever bestows that share of his 
attention which he can fairly give to the noble object for which we are united, 
thereby steps, for the time being, out of the dust of a conflict, where there is 
so much that is selfish and sordid, into a clearer air. He cannot join in a work 
that is for others, that is more than money, more than personal distinction, and 
not be himself the better man for it. 

And as we pronounce our eulogies on one who well exemplified this truth — 
we can feel that the badge that we bear on our breast takes upon it a deeper 
significance — inspires a more constant purpose and confers a greater dignity. 



12 



Members Admitted. 

Charles Adriance Mead, Upper Montclair, N. J. 

Homer Phelps Beach, New York City. 

Wakeman Fenton Reynolds, New York City. 

Alfred Jerome Brown, M. D., New York City. 

Morris Ketchum Jesup, New York City. 

Norman Henderson, Morristown, N. J. 

Cleveland Arthur Dunn, New York City. 

Carl Reinhold Werner, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Robert Burr Hanford, New York City. 

William Floyd, New York City. 

Frederick Gregory Reynolds, New York City. 

Walter Vernoy Reynolds, New York City. 

Louis Annin Ames, New York City. 

Frederick de Figaniere, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Franklin Cantor Haven, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Benjamin Jerome Sands, M. D., Port Chester, N. Y. 

Thomas Nast Fairbanks, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Morris Douw Ferris, New York City. 

Joseph Stuyvesant Woodhouse, New York City. 

John Edward Lounsbery Davis, New York City. 

William Henry Deming, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Joseph Eliot Hill, Flushing, N. Y. 

Warren Rosecrans Hedden, New York City. 

Walter Robarts Gillette, New York City. 

John Holmes Johnston, New York City. 

Samuel Fowler Phelps, New York City. 

Clarkson Crosby Thompson, New York City. 

Harry Rogers Forbes, New York City. 

Walter Buchanan McCulloch, East Greenbush, N. Y. 

James Gilbert White, New York City. 

Robert Andrews Granniss, New York City. 

George Elliott Fleming, New York City. 

Walter Richards Wheeler, New York City. 

Albert Jay Potter, North Stamford, Conn. 

13 



Frank Kaile Warren, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Richard Aldridge McCurdy, New York City. 

Robert Andrews Granniss, Jr., New York City. 

Zelah Van Loan, New York City. 

Phineas Prouty Chew, South Orange, N. J. 

William Fullerton White, New York City. 

Faxton Eugene Gardiner, Utica, N. Y. 

Albert Cromwell, New York City. 

James Kent Mason, New York City. 

Newton Lloyd Andrews, Hamilton, N. Y. 

Abram Dunn Gillette, New York City. 

Robert Stewart Sutliffe, New York City. 

Alfred Rutgers Whitney, Jr., New York City. 

George Edmund Van Guysling, New York City. 

Charles Longstreet Poor, New York City. 

Harriman Neilson Simons, New York City. 

Charles Dewar Simons, Jr., New York City. 

Edward Henry Harriman Simons, New York City. 

George Staples Rice, New York City. 

George Elmer Gorham, Albany, N. Y. 

Paul Babcock Munson, Albany, N. Y. 

Samuel Lyman Munson, Jr., Albany, N. Y. 

William Albert Swasey, New York City. 

Edward Harleston Simons, New York City. 

Thomas Darlington, M. D., New York City. 

Frederic Lathrop Colver, Tenafly, N. J. 

Allen Merrill Rogers, New York City. 

Henry Smith Pyle, Wilmington, Del. 

Alexander Dallas Bache Pratt, New York City. 

Henry Kirke White, New York City. 

John Edgar Leaycraft, New York City. 

John Jay Reynolds, New York City. 

John McKeon Walker, Alexandria City, Va. 

Rt. Rev. James Henry Darlington, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

John Robert MacNeille, New York City. 

John Abeel Weekes, New York City. 

John Hancock Servoss, New York City. 

Claude Wesley Jester, New York City. 

Eugene Jackson Koop, New York City. 

Frederick Randolph Roberts, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



14 



William Wellington Atwood, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Charles Robert Spence, New York City. 

John Van Derpoel Wilson, Troy, N. Y. 

John Hudson Peck, Troy, N. Y. 

John Stockton, Hoboken, N. J. 

William Barker, Jr., Troy, N. Y. 

Irving Hayne Barker, Troy, N. Y. 

Giraud Foster, Lenox, Mass. 

Daniel Strang Horton, Jr., New York City. 

McPherson Kennedy, Jr., New York City. 

Frank Huron Hill, Tenafly, N. J. 

Frederick Myers Dearborn, M. D., New York City. 

Arthur de Vere Ferguson, New York City. 

Ralph Wait Parsons, M. D., New York City. 

John Christie Giles, Jr., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

John Reynolds Totten, New York City. 

Albert James Sheldon, New York City, 

George Howard Betts, East Orange, N. J. 

Walter H. Lyman, Mount Kisco, N. Y. 

Richard Cutts Shannon, Brockport, N. Y. 

Horace Joshua Campbell, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Joseph Ferris Simmons, New York City. 

William Tod Helmuth, M. D., New York City. 

Ralph Peters, Garden City, L. I, 

David Seymour Brown, Jr., New York City. 

John Perry Rodgers, Weenen, Natal, So. Africa. 

Samuel Reading Bertron, New York City. 



Resignations. 

Leonard Wyeth, Jr., Frank L. Montague, 

Kenneth Robertson, William P. Eddy, 

James V. Davis, Frank Holman, 

Edward Elsworth, Charles H. Styles, 

Frank B. Field, J. Albert Hawkins, 

John M. Crouse, Edward B. Dickinson, 

Walter F. Carter, George T. Strong. 
Irving C. Bull, 



15 



Transfers. 

Rukard Hurd, to Minnesota Society, 
Walter B. Warren, to Massachusetts Society, 
George C. Warren, to Massachusetts Society, 
Julian V. Whipple, to Colorado Society, 
Frank L. Eldridge, to Connecticut Society, 
Rev. Dr. S. D. McConnell, to Maryland Society, 
Harry Francis Payne, to Illinois Society, 
Albert L. Pope, to Connecticut Society. 



List of Pictures, Books and Pamphlets Received. 



titles. 

A Christmas Reminder, 

Lafayette en Amerique, 2 vols., 

Report of Librarian Cornell University, 

The Elwoods, 

Connecticut Historical Society Collec- 
tion, Vol. X, 

Genesis and Revelations of Former So- 
ciety Sons of Revolutionary Sires, 

Gavel from Stairway Timber from the 
Morris Mansion, 

Colonial Dames of America, 1890, 

Catalogue of Eightieth Annual Exhibi- 
tion, National Academy of Design, 

Account of Fraunces Tavern, 

Vermont Rolls of Soldiers in the Revo- 
lutionary War, 1775-1783, 

Motherland, 

Year Book, Society of Colonial Wars, 
District of Columbia, 

Archives, State of New Jersey, 13 vols., 

Menu, Church Service, Prize Essay, Mis- 
souri Society, Sons of Rev., 

Proceedings of New Hampshire Histori-f 
cal Society, Part 3, Vol. 4, 

33rd Annual Report Board of Trustees, 
Fairmount Park Art Association, 

Memorial Minute of George Kilbon Nash, 



DONOR. 

Aaron Bancroft. 
Samuel P. Avery. 
George W. Harris. 
Dr. Charles S. Welles. 

Albert C. Bates. 

H. O. Collins, 

E. B. Treat. 

Colonial Dames of America. 

W. H. Watrous. 

Mrs. M. P. Ferris. 

Governor John G. McCullock. 
Mrs. J. T. Powers. 

Walter C. Clephane. 
Henry A. Wilson. 

Henry Cadle. 

John C. Ordway. 

Leslie W. Miller. 
Francis M. Applegate. 



16 



Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, Charter and" 

Constitution, John J. Lenehan. 

Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, 120th Anni- 
versary Dinner, John J. Lenehan. 
New England Historical and Genealogical 

Society, Register, Sup. to April No 

1905. George A. Gordon. 

Members of Society of Cincinnati in the 

State of New Jersey July 4, 1904, Henry A. Wilson. 
Roster of North Carolina Continental 

Officers, Marshall De L. Haywood. 

Photos of Scenes of Triennial Convention 

in Washington, 1905, Townsend Wandell. 

Life of Governor Tryon, Marshall De L. Haywood. 

History of the Monument to Joseph 

Warren, R. H. W. Dwight. 

Report of Publication Committee, 1896, 

War of 1812, Charles Isham. 

Roster of Corps, War of 1812, 1899, 1901, 

1902, 1903, Charles Isham. 

Leaflets in reference to Records of North 

Carolina, Marshall De L. Haywood. 

Colonial Order, Year Book, 1905-6. C. W. Throckmorton. 

Mayflower Desendants, Constitution and 

By-Laws, 1905, James A. Hawes. 

165th Regiment New York Volunteers, 

2nd Duryee Zouaves, John A. Vanderbilt. 

Census of Pensioners of Revolution in 

1840, Frank W. Thomas. 

Nev.- York State Historical Association, 

Report, Vol. 3 and 4, R. O. Bascom. 

Union Club Book, 1905, Franklin Bartlett. 

Annual Proceedings Pennsylvania So- 
ciety, Sons of Revolution, 1904-5, Ethan Allen Weaver. 
Editorials and Resolutions in reference 

to Samuel P. Avery, Samuel P. Avery, Jr. 

George Clinton Papers, Vols. VII, VIII, Hugh Hastings. 
Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the 

Revolutionary War, Vol. XIII. William M. Olin. 
Last Days of Knickerbocker Life in New 

York, Charles W. Dayton. 

17 



City Club, Constitution, By-Laws and 
House Rules, 1905, 

Life and Letters of Major-General Sam- 
uel Holden Parsons, Continental 
Army, 

Spanish War Record, 

A Rebellion in the Colony of Virginia, 

Daniel Claus Narrative, 

Copy of Original Massachusetts Muster 
Rolls, 

Addresses at the Tenth Annual Banquet, 

The Second Capture of Louisburg, 

The Year Book for 1905, 

Genealogy of the Cutts Family and the 
Shannon Genealogy, 

Partial Genealogy of the Ferris Family, 

Delta Kappa Epsilon Association of New 
York City, 

Picture of Timothy Warren, of Chelms- 
ford, Mass., 

Asa Warren, of Boston, Mass., 

Picture of Mount Vernon, 

Picture of Marietti Washington, 

Washington Pitcher, 

New York Historical Society Medal, 

Numerous Notices, 

Bulletins, 

Toby, used at Fraunces Tavern Lunch, Dec. 
4, 1883. 



City Club. 



Charles S. Hall. 
Society of Colonial Wars. 
Society of Colonial Wars. 
Society of Colonial Wars. 

Society of Colonial Wars. 

Society of Colonial Wars. 

Society of Colonial Wars. 

Society of Colonial Wars. 

Richard Cutts Shannon. 
Antonio Rasines. 

James Anderson Hawes. 

Miss Lillie E. Warren. 
Miss Lillie E. Warren. 
Samuel P. Avery. 
Samuel P. Avery. 
Samuel P. Avery. 
Acosta Nichols. 
Order Loyal Legion. 
N. Y. Public Library. 

Henry R. Drowne. 



From John Austin Stevens. 

Sparks. 

Colonial Dames of America. 

Welles. 



Correspondence of the Revolution, 4 vols., Sparks 

Letters to Washington, 5 vols., 

History and Pedigree, Washington Fam- 
ily, 

President Reed Life and Commissions, 2 
vols., 

Col. Samuel B. Webb Reminiscence, 

Long Island Campaign of 1776, 

History of United States Artillery, 

18 



Adj. Gen'l U. S. Cont. 
Mil. Sec'y to Washington. 
Johnston. 
Birkheimer. 



Sir John Burgoyne, Political and Military 
Hist., 

Benedict Arnold, Life of, 

Franklin in France, 

Diary of Jacob Hiltzheimer, 1765-1798, 

Historical Collection, State of New York, 

Joseph Brandt, "Thayandoncqa," 

Trumbull Papers, Vols. Ill and IV, Mass. 
Historical Society. 

Jefferson Papers, 

Heath Papers, 3 vols., 

History of Negro Race in America, 2 
vols., 

Beaumarchais and his times, 

Banquet to Guests of Nation, 1801, 

Lives of the Signers, 

City of New York in 1789, 

Battle of Harlem Heights, 

Centennial Oration, July 4, 1876, 

Saratoga, Reminiscences, 

Battle of Harlem Plains, Com. 1876, 

The Burgoyne Campaign, 

The Yorktown Handbook, 1781-1881, 

History, New York Chamber of Com- 
merce, 

Nathan Hale, 1776, 

Historical Collection, State of Pennsyl- 
vania, 

Financial History of United States, 

History of the United States, 4 vols., 

History of the City of New York, 

History of the United States, 

Peace Negotiations, 1782- 1783, 

Battle of Harlem Heights, 

Major-General Philip Schuyler, 

Major-General Philip Schuyler, 
Saratoga Battle Ground, 
Benedict Arnold at Saratoga, 
German Soldiers at Newport, 
Siege of Newport, 

19 



Fonblanque. 
Isaac N. Arnold. 
Hale. 

Howe. 

W. L. Stone. 

Mass. Hist. Society. 
Mass. Hist. Society. 
Mass. Hist Society. 

Williams. 

Lomenie. 

Chamber of Commerce. 

N. Dwight. 

T. E. V. Smith. 

Johnston. 

Sheffield. 

Stone. 

N. Y. Hist. Society. 

John Austin Stevens. 

John Austin Stevens. 

Charles King. 
Johnston. 

Day. 

Bolles. 
Hildreth. 
Booth. 
Schouler. 
John Jay. 

Erastus C. Benedict. 
Geo. L. Schuyler and 

S. G. Bancroft. 
John Watts de Peyster. 
Ellen H. Walworth. 
Isaac N. Arnold. 
Rosengarten. 
Mrs. Almy's Journal. 



Boston Tea Party Centennial, 
John Cochran, Letter to Society of Cin- 
cinnati, 
Centennial of Society of the Cincinnati, 
Centennial of Yorktown Surrender, 
Centennial Oration at Yorktown, 
Our French Visitors in Boston, 1881, 
History, Yorktown Surrender, 
First 1 1 Peace, Description of Pict^ri, 
The Braddock Campaign, Washington's 

Acct., 
Libels on Washington, 
Saratoga Monument, 
Memoir of William Kelby Librarian, N. 

Y. Hist. Soc., 
New Windsor Centennial, Washington 

Headquarters, 
Washington Statue, N. Y. Unveiling, 
Newburg Headquarters, Catalogue of 

Relics, 
Washington Headquarters, Cambridge, 
Washington Monument Orntion, 
Constitution of the State of New York, 
Old Streets of New York under the 

Dutch, 
Henry White and his family (Cortlandt 

House) , 
Progress of New York in a Century, 
Battle of Harlem Plains Ceremonies. 
Numerous other pamphlets, notices, 
scraps in relation to Fraunces Tav- 
ern, pictures and documents. 



Mass. Hist Society. 



Winthrop, 



Scribners. 

George H. Moore. 



John Austin Stevens. 



Geo Wm. Curtis. 



Charles Deane. 
Robert Winthrop. 
Ca. O'Conor. 

J. W. Gerard. 

J. A. Stevens. 
John A. Stevens. 
N. Y. Ti; s t. Society. 



20 



OFFICERS. 

President : 
Edmund Wetmore, 34 Pine Street. 

Vice-President : 
Robert Olyphant, 21 Cortlandt Street. 

Secretary : 
Morris Patterson Ferris, 146 Broadway. 

Treasurer : 
Arthur Melville Hatch, 96 Broadway. 

Registrar : 
Henry Phelps Johnston, 17 Lexington Avenue. 

Chaplain : 
Rev. Morgan Dix, D.D., D.C.L., 27 West 25th Street 

Assistant Chaplain : 
Rev. Frank L. Humphreys, S.T.D., Morristown, N. J. 

Historian : 
Talbot Olyphant, 21 Cortlandt Street. 

Board of Managers: 

Charles R. Henderson, 24 Nassau Street. 

Henry Applegate Wilson, 141 Broadway. 

Joseph Tompkins Low, 34 Pine Street. 

Philip Livingston, 992 Fifth Avenue. 

Alexander Ramsay Thompson, 15 Wall Street. 

Dallas Bache Pratt, 52 William Street. 

Lewis Rutherford Morris, M. D., 60 West 58th Street 

John Hone, 58 New Street. 

August Belmont, 23 Nassau Street. 

John Canfield Tomlinson, 15 Wall Street. 

Charles Francis Roe, 280 Broadway. 

Membership Committee. 

Silas Wodell, 149 Broadway, New York City, and Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Wyllys Terry, 50 Pine Street, New York City, and 12 Remsen Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

21 



Landreth H. King, Room 526, Grand Central Station, New York City. 
Frederic E. Underhill, 94 Chambers Street, New York City. 
William E. Van Wyck, 36 Beekman Street, New York City. 
Charles Palmer Robinson, 31 Nassau Street, New York City. 
Richard Augustus Wilson, 499 Monroe Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Robert Grier Cooke, 307 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 
Josiah Culbert Palmer, 27 William Street, New York City. 
Rev. Charles Edward Brugler, Secretary, Port Chester, N. Y. 

Chapters. 

Buffalo Association, Charles H. Williams, Regent. 
Philip Livingston Chapter, Samuel Lyman Munson, Regent. 
William Floyd Chapter, Col. Walter P. Warren, Regent. 
Fort Schuyler Chapter, Frederick T. Proctor, Regent. 
Orange County Chapter, Dr. Fred'k W. Seward, Regent. 
Jamestown Chapter, Rev. Dr. Albert Lucius Smalley, Regent. 

Historical Committee. 

Rev. Charles E. Brugler, Howard R. Bayne, 

Henry R. Drowne, Richard Henry Greene, 

Augustus Floyd. 

Stewards. 
Clarence Storm, Chairman, Herbert Barry, 

Waldron P. Belknap, John Adams Dix, 

William B. O. Field. 

Aisle Committee. 

Talbot Olyphant, Chairman. 
Banyer Clarkson, Edward Lawrence Purdy, 

Robert Grier Cooke, Arthur Frederic Schermerhorn, 

John Jay Clarkson, Jr., Edward Gibert Schermerhorn, 

Henry Russell Drowne, Henry Gansevoort San ford, 

Joseph L. Edmonds, Sidney Leighton Smith, 

Morris Douw Ferris, Prentice Strong, 

George Hewlett, William Gordon Ver Planck, 

Duncan McRa Livingston, Herman Knickerbocker Viele, 

S. Vernon Mann, Clark Williams, 

Richard Malcolm Montgomery, Jr., Charles Hornblower Woodruff, Jr., 

Frederick Sanford Woodruff. 

23 



William Graves Bates, 
James Wray Cleveland, 
Albert Delafield, 
Horace Clark Du Val, 



Marcius D. Raymond, 
Townsend Wandell, 



Marshal. 
John Butterfield Holland. 

Aides. 

De Witt Clinton Falls, 
Benjamin Brandreth McAlpin, 
Robert Kelly Prentice, 
Charles Hitchcock Sherrill, Jr. 
George Albert Wingate. 

Essay Committee. 

R. Russell Requa, 
William P. Rudd, 
Walter P. Warren. 



Fraunces' Tavern Committee. 



Robert Olyphant, 
Charles R. Henderson, 



Alexander R. Thompson, 
Morris Patterson Ferris. 



Robert Olyphant, 
Charles R. Henderson, 



Real Estate Committee. 



Arthur M. Hatch, 
Morris Patterson Ferris. 



Publication Committee. 



♦Samuel Putnam Avery, 
James M. Montgomery, 



Charles Isham, 

Morris Patterson Ferris. 



Auditors. 

Clark Williams, William G. Bates. 

Tallmadge Estate and Monument. 
James M. Montgomery. 

Tallmadge Window Committee. 

James M. Montgomery, Arthur M. Hatch, 

Morris P. Ferris. 
♦Deceased. 



23 



REPORT 
c 

HISTORIAN 



An flD£moriam 





DIED. 




ADMITTED. 


John D. Parsons, Jr., 


December 16th, 


1904. 


189O. 


William Alexander Tennille, 


January 10th, 


1905. 


1895. 


Joel Ellis Fisher, 


January 10th, 


1905. 


1899. 


Henry Bliss Pierce, 


January 17th, 


1905. 


1896. 


Richard Somers Hayes, 


March 2nd, 


1905. 


1886. 


James Oliver Carpenter, 


March 6th, 


1905. 


1892. 


Henry Norcross Munn, 


March 9th, 


1905. 


1896. 


Edward Cromwell Cockey, 


March 15th, 


1905. 


1894. 


James Oliver Arnold, 


March 16th, 


1905. 


189O. 


Henry Lake Woodward, 


March 20th, 


1905. 


I90I. 


James Wisner, 


March 23rd, 


1905. 


I893. 


Thomas Grier Evans, 


March 28th, 


1905. 


1885. 


George Norman Williamson, 


April 27th, 


1905. 


1892. 


Joseph Warren Scott Dey, 


May 4th, 


1905. 


1892. 


William Minott Whitney, 


May 10th, 


1905. 


I895. 


Crowell Hadden, Jr., 


May 13th, 


1905. 


1893. 


William Bedloe Crosby, 


May 27th, 


1905. 


1884. 


Charles William Darling, 


June 22nd, 


1905. 


189O. 


Brig.-Gen'l, U. S. V., 1863-1865. 








Louis Joseph Allen, 


June 29th, 


1905. 


1892. 


Rear-Admiral, U. S. N. 








Selah Elliott Strong, 


July 9th, 


1905. 


1898. 


John Van Boskerck Clarkson, 


July nth, 


1905. 


1885. 


Ludovic Benet, 


July 1 2th, 


1905. 


189O. 


Francis Effingham Pinto, 


July 17th, 


1905. 


1888. 


U. S. V., Mexican War. 








Edward Lyman Short, 


July 30th, 


1905. 


1887. 


James Henry Jenkins, 


August 1 6th, 


1905. 


1894. 


William Stiger Richards, 


August 1 6th, 


1905. 


I903. 


Charles Hathaway Webb, 


September 3rd, 


1905. 


1892. 


George Dow Farrar, 


September 10th, 


1905. 


1893. 


Alexander DuB. Schenck, 


September i6th, 


1905. 


1904. 


Lieut.-Col., U. S. A. 









26 



Frank Reynolds, 
James Lynch Montgomery, 
Edward Adams Treat, 
William Alexander Duer, 
Frederic Henry Betts, 
Henry Frank Weed, 
John Godfrey Schumaker, 



DIED. 




ADMITTED. 


October 22nd, 


1905. 


1893. 


October 25th, 


1905. 


189O. 


October 25th, 


'1905. 


1902. 


October 27th, 


1905. 


189O. 


November nth, 


1905. 


1890. 


November 15th, 


1905. 


189O. 


November 23rd, 


1905. 


1896. 



Respectfully submitted, 

Talbot Olyphant, 

Historian. 



■ 



A. \ 




New York Society 



REPORTS 



OK BOARD OF MANAGERS 
AND HISTORIAN 






December 4, 1906 




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To the Sons of the Revolution 

in the State of New York : 

The Board of Managers submits the following report for the year ending 
December 4th, 1906: 

There have been ten meetings of the Board of Managers during the year. 

At the last Annual Meeting the Amendments to the Constitution, provid- 
ing for additional Vice-Presidents and members of the Board of Managers, 
were adopted; also Amendments to the By-Laws authorizing the Board to 
appoint an Assistant Chaplain and to deal with members, in arrears, and pro- 
viding for the retirement annually of either five or six members of the Board 
of Managers, and the appointment of six Stewards, two to be retired and two 
appointed each year. 

The proposed Amendment of the Preamble to the Constitution, as to the 
wording thereof, and the date of the Annual Meeting, together with the 
Resolution that the Board of Managers arrange for an excursion every Spring, 
for the Society, to some point of historic interest, and that preference be 
given to steamboat transportation, was referred to a Special Committee of 
five to report on at the next meeting of the Society. 

The General Secretary, Mr. Montgomery, reported that hereafter, at the 
Triennial Convention, each State Society will have two delegates and one 
additional delegate for each hundred members or major portion thereof, and that 
each delegate present at a meeting of the General Society shall be entitled to 
one vote. Under this new rule the New York Society will have twenty-two 
delegates instead of five. 

The President tendered the hearty congratulations of the Society to Mr. 
Montgomery for the result of his efforts. 

Since the Annual Meeting the Rev. Frank Landon Humphreys, S. T. D., 
has been elected Assistant Chaplain and Mr. Talbot Olyphant, Historian, and 
an Executive Committee of three members of the Board of Managers with 
the President, Secretary and Treasurer, ex-officio, has been instituted by the 
Board to act on all questions, relative to the management of the affairs of 
the Society, during the interval between the meetings of the Board, and to re- 
port at each meeting. Messrs. Hone, Low and Bates were elected to serve on 
the Committee. 



The resignation of Mr. Morris P. Ferris as Secretary was duly accepted, 
and it was moved that a proper expression of the Board's appreciation be 
prepared and sent to Mr. Ferris. 

.Mr. Henry Russell Drowne was elected Secretary of the Society to fill the 
vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. Ferris, and Mr. Louis B. Wilson was 
appointed Managing Clerk of the Secretary's office. 

The second celebration of Tallmadge Day on January 24th, 1906, was 
observed by the reading of a paper, by Mr. Francis W. Halsey, on "The fight 
for the Hudson Valley in the Revolution," illustrated with stereopticon views. 

The Special Meeting on this date was adjourned to the next stated Meeting 
on April 19th. 

At the April Meeting, to celebrate the anniversary of the Battle of Lex- 
ington, the Society listened to an interesting lecture by Mr. William Ordway 
Partridge, the sculptor, on "Nathan Hale, Our National Hero." 

This was preceded by the Special Meeting, and the report of the com- 
mittee of five, appointed at the Annual Meeting to amend the Preamble to the 
Constitution and Section XV of the By-Laws, as to the date of the Annual 
Meeting, was presented by Col. Asa Bird Gardiner and, on motion, the 
resolutions were carried unanimously. 

The change in the Preamble strikes out the word "formal" before the 
word "Evacuation", and also the words "on the third day of December, 1783 
as a relinquishment of territorial sovereignty." 

The first paragraph of Section XV of the By-Laws, entitled "Annual and 
Special Meetings," was amended to read as follows : 

"The Society shall hold an Annual Meeting in the City of New York on 
the fourth day of December in every year, the Anniversary of Washington's 
Farewell to his Officers at Fraunces' Tavern, at which a general election of 
Officers and Managers, by ballot, shall take place, except when such date 
shall fall on Sunday, in which case the meeting shall be held on the following 
day." 

An amendment to the By-Laws adding Section XXIV relative to Proxies, 
was presented. 

At the November Meeting, celebrating the Evacuation of the City of New 
York by the British troops, an interesting address was delivered by Mr. 
Francis W. Halsey on "The Indians of New York and their Famous League". 
A brief Special Meeting preceded this to act on the amendment to the By- 
Laws, adding a new Section, XXIV, relative to proxies. 

The Annual Banquet of the Society took place on February 22, 1906, the 
Anniversary of Washington's Birthday, and was presided over by Mr. Edmund 
Wetmore, the President of the Society. 



The following invited guests were present: Major-General Frederick 
D. Grant, U. S. A., representing the Army ; Capt. Joseph N. Hemphill, U. S. N., 
the Navy; Michael J. Drummond, the Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick; Gen. 
John T. Lockman, the Saint Nicholas Society; Charles A. Schermerhorn, 
Society of the War of 1812; Major-General Charles F. Roe, Society of 
Colonial Wars ; Henry L. Bogert, the Holland Society ; Edward F. Darrell, the 
Saint George's Society; Robert Frater Munro, Saint Andrew's Society; Cort- 
landt S. Van Rensselaer, Colonial Order of the Acorn ; Gen. Stewart L. Wood- 
ford, Order of Foreign Wars ; Hon. Bayard Stockton, New Jersey Society, 
Sons of the Revolution; Walter Collyer Faxon, Connecticut Society, Sons of 
the Revolution ; Lombard Williams, Massachusetts Society, Sons of the Revo- 
lution ; Samuel V. Hoffman, New York Historical Society ; Rev. Loring W. 
Batten, Ph.D., D. D., Rector of St. Mark's Church ; and were escorted to the 
table by members of the Society. 

The toasts were eloquently responded to as follows : 

"George Washington," by Henry St. George Tucker, Esq., of Lexington, 
Va. 

"Benjamin Franklin," by Albert H. Smyth, LL.D., of Philadelphia, Pa. 

"The South in the Revolution," by Breckenridge Castleman, Esq., of Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

After the coffee the Society's flags were brought in with drum and fife 
accompaniment, followed by large baskets of flowers presented on behalf of the 
Colonial Dames of America, the Colonial Dames of the State of New York, 
and the Daughters of the Revolution, and the President was duly decorated 
with the cocked hat. 

The attendance at the Banquet was larger than ever before, 438 seats being 
provided. The souvenirs were appropriate to the Franklin Anniversary, being 
a silk-covered box with a portrait of Franklin and a miniature Franklin Stove 
in bronze, bearing the seal of the Society. 

The Annual Church Service of the Society, commemorative of the birth of 
George Washington, was held on Sunday, February 18, 1906, at St. Mark's 
Church, Tenth Street, near Second Avenue, at 4 P. M. It was conducted by 
Rev. Morgan Dix, S. T. D., D. C. L., D. D., Oxon., Rector of Trinity Church 
and Chaplain of the Sons of the Revolution, assisted by Rev. Loring W. Batten, 
Ph.D., D. D., Rector of St. Mark's Church, and Rev. George S. Baker, D. D., 
Rev. Pelham St. G. Bissell, M. A., A. K. G, Rev. A. A. Brockway, Rev. Henry 
Barton Chapin, D. D., Rev. James S. Dennis, Rev. William N. Dunnell, D. D., 
Rev. Edward Octavus Flagg, D. D., Rev. William Irvin, D. D., Rev. Robert 
Morris Kemp, Rev. James Tuttle-Smith, D. D., Rev. Frank L. Humphreys, 



S. T. D., Assistant Chaplain of the Sons of the Revolution. The sermon was 
delivered by the Rev. Loring W. Batten, Rector of the church. 

A special feature was the unveiling of the Tallmadge Memorial Window, 
erected in loving remembrance of our late President and benefactor, with an 
impressive presentation address by President Wetmore. The church was beau- 
tifully decorated for the occasion. 

Representatives were present from the Colonial Dames of America, the 
Colonial Dames of the State of New York, the Daughters of the Revolution 
and the Societies of the Cincinnati, Colonial Wars, War of 1812, Foreign Wars, 
Aztec Club and Loyal Legion ; and, as usual, the Society of the War of 1812 
furnished a uniformed escort. 

The procession, thanks to the courtesy of the New York Historical Society, 
assembled in their audience hall. 

The Board of Managers empowered the Real Estate Committee to sell 
the Tallmadge residence, 23 Gramercy Park, for $55,000, the proceeds to go 
toward the purchase and restoration of Fraunces' Tavern, in accordance with 
the expressed intention of the Society. 

A new and better die was authorized to be made for the Insignia of the 
Society, which hereafter will be issued to members at a cost of $20. 

In addition to the bronze medals for members, two copies of the Tall- 
madge-Fraunces' Tavern Medal were ordered struck, one in gold and the other 
in silver, the gold medal to be appropriately engraved on the edge "Presented 
to Mary Floyd Tallmadge Seymour by the Sons of the Revolution, February 
22, 1905," and the silver medal for the collection of the Society. 

The Stewards were authorized to provide themselves with a staff to be 
used at the Annual Banquet of the Society. 

The Essay Committee having recommended discontinuing the prizes for 
colleges, the money that had been used for this purpose, amounting to about 
$150, was appropriated for the City History Club. 

The proposition to place a boulder and tablet in honor of Col. Marinus 
Willett, of the Continental Army, in Washington Park, in the City of Albany, 
was approved, and the Secretary authorized to send out a request for sub- 
scriptions for this purpose. 

The question of remedial legislation as to taxes on Fraunces' Tavern has 
been referred to a committee for consideration, with power to prepare and 
introduce a bill in the Legislature if advisable. 

The bill to prevent the mutilation of the National Anthem, the "Star 
Spangled Banner," was approved, and a resolution to that effect duly adopted 
and forwarded to Senator Brackett, who had the matter in charge. 

Possession of Fraunces' Tavern was obtained about May 10, 1906, and the 



Real Estate Committee was authorized to proceed with the restoration, in 
accordance with estimates and plans submitted, at a cost not to exceed $55,000, 
subject to such changes and modifications as may be necessary. 

It is proposed to send out an appeal in the near future to the members 
of the Society for the raising of funds for this worthy project. 

Mr. John Austin Stevens proposes to write a history of Fraunces' Tavern 
for the Society. 

A report of the Real Estate Committee is herewith annexed. 

At the suggestion of the California Society a memorial has been prepared 
requesting that Congress have printed certain Revolutionary archives heretofore 
unpublished. 

It is recommended that Section V of the By-Laws be changed to read as 
follows : 

"The Treasurer shall collect and keep the funds and securities of the 
Society ; and as often as those funds shall amount to one hundred dollars they 
shall be deposited in some bank in the City of New York, which shall be 
designated by the Board of Managers, to the credit of the Society of the 'Sons 
of the Revolution,' and such funds shall be drawn thence on the check of the 
Treasurer for the purposes of the Society only. Out of these funds he shall 
pay such sums as may be ordered by the Society on the recommendation of the 
Board of Managers, or by the Board of Managers, and shall perform such 
other duties as the Society, or Board of Managers, or his office, may require 
of him." 

The resignation of Mr. Alex. R. Thompson, as a member of the Board of 
Managers was accepted, and Mr. Levi C. Weir was elected in his place. 

The work of the Chapters has been most efficient. The Philip Livingston 
Chapter at Albany held its Annual Meeting on January 22, 1906, and elected 
officers for the year. April 19th, "Lexington Day," was celebrated at the 
University Club. The Rev. Dr. Demorest, President of Rutgers College, N. J., 
read a most interesting paper on "The Colleges of the Revolution," and the 
Hon. Joseph I. Lawson gave a short address on "The duties of American 
Citizens and of Patriotic Societies." At the Quarterly Meeting on October 
25th Major Charles Jay Buchanan and Capt. O. D. Robinson read interesting 
papers. 

The Buffalo Association held three business and social meetings during the 
year at which lectures were delivered on patriotic subjects. On January 10th 
a banquet was held at the University Club, and on Washington's Birthday a 
special service was held at Trinity Church. A reception was given to the 
Association by its President, Mr. Charles H. Williams, at his residence, to meet 
one of the staff of Admiral Togo, who was with the Admiral in the memorable 



battle of Japan Sea, and gave a graphic description of the destruction of the 
Russian fleet. The Association suffered a severe loss on March 6th in the 
death of its former President, Nathaniel Rochester. Appropriate resolutions 
were adopted at a special meeting and spread on the minutes. 

The William Floyd Chapter of Troy, N. Y., held its Annual Meeting for 
the election of officers on May 28, 1906, at the Troy Club, where a paper was 
read on "The Clergy of the Episcopal Church and the American Revolution," 
by the Rev. Edgar A. Enos, D. D., Rector of St. Paul's Church. Divine service 
was attended by the Chapter as a body on Sunday, February 25th, at the State 
Street Methodist Church. 

The Fort Schuyler Chapter held its Annual Meeting and election on Feb- 
ruary 22, 1906. 

The Orange County Chapter held its Annual Meeting and election on 
June 22, 1906. 

The Jamestown Chapter held its Annual Meeting in August for the elec- 
tion of officers. The occasion was chosen as the time for the Annual Banquet 
of the Chapter which was given at the Country Club at Lakewood-on-Chau- 
tauqua. The Hon. Obed Edson, Historian of Chautauqua County, delivered 
an address upon the expedition of a detachment of the "King's Eighth," a 
British regiment from Canada, which, with a band of Indians, passed through 
Chautauqua County in July, 1782, and destroyed the frontier settlement of 
Hannastown, near Fort Pitt, in Pennsylvania. The Chapter also took part in 
the celebration of the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of Benjamin 
Franklin. 

An interesting feature during the year was the unveiling, on June 4th, 
of the tablet on the New York University at Morris Heights, placed there to 
commemorate the old Revolutionary forts. 

The presentation address was made by the Hon. Hugh Hastings, the 
acceptance by the Rev. H. M. MacCracken, D. D., L. L. D., Chancellor of the 
University, and a patriotic address by Mr. John C. Tomlinson. A large number 
of members were present, escorted by a Company of the 22d Regiment, 
N. G. N. Y., and the 71st Regiment Band. 

A delegation of our Society, on invitation of the Secretary of the Navy, 
participated in the ceremonies in commemoration of the Revolutionary hero. 
John Paul Jones, held at the Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland, on April 
24, 1906. 

Members were also present at the dedication of the Putnam Cottage, June 
14, 1906, on the invitation of the ladies of Putnam Hill Chapter of the Daugh- 
ters of the Revolution, of Greenwich, Conn. 

In accordance with a wish expressed at the Annual Meeting, circulars were 



sent out for a day's excursion by steamer to West Point on the 13th of October, 
19C6, and arrangements made for a most enjoyable day, but owing to the 
limited number of acceptances the project had to be abandoned. It is to be 
hoped that the trip can be attempted again at some future time, as the Super- 
intendent at West Point has expressed the desire that we will come, and 
assures us of a hearty welcome. 

The topic selected by the Essay Committee was "History of the Boston 
Port Bill — Why passed by Parliament and its effect in America," and the 
awards were made as follows : 

Gold Medal to Jeanette A. Stern, Masten Park High School, Buffalo, 

N. Y. 

Silver Medal to Sarah Lurie, Buffalo Central High School, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Bronze Medal to Lawrence Prescott Van Slyke, Geneva High School, 
Geneva, N. Y. 

Mr. Charles H. Williams, President of the Buffalo Association, made the 
presentations with appropriate ceremonies. The prize essays are printed in 
full at the close of this report. The subject announced for next year is "Robert 
Morris and his Financial Services in the Revolution." 

There have been admitted during the year, seventy-seven new mem- 
bers. Deducting those who have died, resigned, been transferred to other 
Societies or been dropped for non-payment of dues, the net gain for the year 
is three, and our membership now comprises a grand total of two thousand 
and nine. 

The Society has during the year received courteous invitations, from 
Societies, to the following banquets : 

Society of the Cincinnati, 

Colonial Wars, 

Colonial Order of the Acorn, 

Military Society War of 1812, 

Military Order of Foreign Wars, 

Holland Society, 

Saint Nicholas Society, 

Saint George's Society, 

Saint Andrew's Society, 

Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, 

Pennsylvania Society, 

District of Columbia Society, Sons of Revolution, 

Massachusetts Society, Sons of Revolution, 



The Evacuation Day Luncheon of the Daughters of the 
Revolution, 

and to celebrations as follows : 

The Rhode Island Citizens' Historical Association to the Exercises commemo- 
rative of the 130th Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence by 
the Colony of Rhode Island. 

The Pennsylvania Society of the Sons of the Revolution to participate in a trip 
to Revolutionary Forts on the Delaware River. 

The Washington Headquarters Association of New York to the City Celebra- 
tion on Washington's Birthday. 

Mr. Jefferson M. Levy to the unveiling at the City Hall, New York, of a large 
replica of David d'Anger's bust of Washington. 

President of Marietta College to Ohio Company Celebration at Marietta, Ohio. 

President of the Park Board, City of New York, to unveiling of tablet by City 
History Club at McGown's Pass. 

The Colonial Dames of the State of New York to the unveiling of a tablet on 
Castle Philipse at Tarrytown, New York. 

The Daughters of the Revolution to the unveiling of a tablet at Sterlington, 
New York. 

The Church Service — Pennsylvania Society of the Sons of the Revolution ; 
and 

Church Service of the Loyal Legion. 

The Edward Greene legacy of $200 mentioned in last year's report has 
been duly paid. 

It has been arranged to have a Tallmadge Tablet placed on the exterior 
of Fraunces' Tavern, which is to be designed by Mr. Albert Weinert, and in the 
masonry behind will be placed a copper box containing memorials, photographs 
and records of the Society. 

The Tallmadge-Fraunces' Tavern medals, which were authorized for the 
Banquet of 1905, have been received and distributed, as far as possible, to those 
who subscribed to the Banquet at that date. Those not called for will be 
retained at the office of the Society, where they may be obtained by those enti- 
tled to receive them. 

We still have on hand a limited number of the Tallmadge memoirs, the 
price of which has been reduced by the Board of Managers to $6 a copy. As 
only three hundred and fifty copies were printed this will soon become a scarce 
book. These valuable writings of Col. Benjamin Tallmadge of the Second 
Regiment Continental Dragoons were privately printed in 1858, but have be- 
come exceedingly rare. An appendix with notes prepared by Prof. Henry P. 

8 





TALLMADGE FRAUNCES' TAVERN MEDAL, 



Johnston, Registrar of the Society, has been added, based upon original material 
in the State Department at Washington and Tallmadge's own unpublished 
letters. The work contains more than twenty illustrations, several in colors, 
including the Sharpless portrait of Washington, presented by him to Tallmadge. 

We have also a limited supply of the bronze match boxes bearing the seal 
of the Society, price 25 cents, which can be purchased at the Secretary's office, 
as also the beautiful Tallmadge-Fraunces' Tavern bronze medal, price $3. 

Bearing in mind the growing needs of the Society and increased facilities 
we should enjoy when we take up our home in the historic Fraunces' Tavern 
it would seem desirable that a Library Committee be appointed with the view 
of increasing our library, who would ask for contributions of new publications, 
and solicit donations of old ones ; and that the members of the Society be 
appealed to for duplicates relating to the Revolutionary War and the partici- 
pants therein. A little effort in this line might secure many additions to our 
collection of historical literature. 

A committee should also be appointed to promote increased membership, 
and in the near future we should have a House Committee who would take into 
consideration the furnishing of Fraunces' Tavern with appropriate and inter- 
esting material of historical interest. 

The Secretary, through the active and efficient help of his assistant, Mr. 
Wilson, hopes in the near future to introduce a card index of the ancestors 
of our past and present members, and following this a card index to our library. 

For the Board of Managers, 

Henry Russell Drowne, 

Secretary. 



Fraunces' Tavern 



The Real Estate Committee, in whose charge the restoration of Fraunces' 
Tavern has been placed, have been diligent during the past year in the dis- 
charge of their duties, making monthly reports of the progress of their work 
to the Board of Managers. After further very careful search during the early 
part of the year, it developed that it was impossible to discover any print of the 
Tavern, as it existed during the years of the Revolutionary War. The print in 
Valentine's Manual of 1854, was proven by investigation of the old building 
not to have shown the roof as it existed during those years, and, therefore, 
following as a basis Fraunces' own description of his house as it was in 1776, 
contained in the advertisement for its sale, which read as follows : "The Queen's 
Head Tavern is three stories high with a tile and lead roof, has fourteen fire- 
places, a most excellent large kitchen, fine dry cellars, and good and convenient 
offices, etc.," the Board of Managers finally adopted the plans as submitted 
by the Real Estate Committee, prepared under the supervision of William H. 
Mersereau, Architect, and at a special meeting held on June 28, 1906, directed 
the Committee to proceed with the work, and on the 16th and 19th of the fol- 
lowing July, contracts were signed by the Chairman of the Committee, including 
the Architect's fees, amounting to $54,875.10. The work is now proceeding 
as rapidly as possible, considering the intricacy of a restoration of this nature. 
The Committee desire, through the Board of Managers, to call the attention 
of the Society to the fact that the amount of new work that had to be placed 
in the course of the restoration was caused by the fact that twice this building 
has been almost destroyed by fire, especially in the year 1854, after which the 
fourth and fifth stories were added ; that fifteen years ago, when the late tenant 
assumed possession, he tore out the entire first story, barring only one pier 
on the Pearl Street side, and the old hewn oak beams of the floor of the first 
story on the Broad Street side were sawed off inside, and the entire floor 
lowered level with the sidewalk. The old staircase had long since disappeared ; 
the one found in the building was constructed of junk vard refuse, 
and many of the old chimneys with their fireplaces had been cut out. On the 
other hand, all the old oak beams remaining in the house have been preserved, 

10 



including those holding the floor of the Long Room upon which Washington 
trod when he took leave of his officers, and those over this room that held the 
ceiling of the same. Every brick and every piece of lumber as far as possible 
of the original building, has been left in place, and with infinite trouble, bricks 
from Baltimore to match the originals on the Pearl Street side, and hand-made 
buff brick from Holland to match those on the Broad Street side have finally 
been secured, and will probably be in place before this report is issued. 

It is hoped that the members of the Society will appreciate the fact that 
every effort has been made to restore the building in every particular to, as 
nearly as practical, its appearance during the Revolutionary period, at the 
same time preserving in place every bit of old material possible. 



i i 



MEMBERS ADMITTED 

James Callbreath Gulick, 2nd, New York City. 
Robert Matthew Codd, Jr., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Perry Belmont, New York City. 
Franklin Eugene Stevens, Montclair, N. J. 
William Brock Shoemaker, New York City. 
Charles Edward Greenough, New York City. 
Rev. Laurence Thomas Cole, New York City. 
Arthur Chalmers Benson, Brooklyn N. Y. 
George Frederick Ralph, Utica, N. Y.. 
Clarence Wilbur Smith, New York City. 
Alfred Ethelbert Smith, Bronxville, N. Y. 
Alexander Ostrander Burnham, New York City. 
Clarence Henry Eagle, New York City. 
James Foster Milliken, New York City. 
Gardner Cotrell Leonard, Albany, N. Y. 
John Veeder McHarg, Albany, N. Y. 
Richard Cutts Shannon, 2nd, Brockport, N. Y. 
Frank Brewster Highet, New York City. 
John S. Jacobus, New York City. 
George Tuttle Brokaw, New York City. 
Robert Willis Jameson, Yonkers, N. Y. 
Tom S. Wotkyns, Troy, N. Y. 
Henry Rowland, New York City. 
Allan Hurst Sutliff, Albany, N. Y. 
Arthur William Hurd, M. D., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Charles McClellan Clarke, Buffalo. N. Y. 
William Milliken Richards, New York City. 
Samuel Dwight Brewster, New York City. 
Charles W. Dayton, Jr., New York City. 
Augustus Springer Brandow, Albany, N. Y. 
Henry Vane Rutherford, New York City. 
Charles Jackson Lynn, Tenafly, N. J. 
Granville Forbes Sturgis, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Rufus George Shirley, New York City. 

12 



Townsend Pinkney, New York City. 

Benjamin Covel Sparks, New York City. 

George Washington Carpenter, New York City. 

Charles Whitney Carpenter, Jr., New York City. 

Octavus B. Libbey, New York City. 

Edgar G. Youngs, New York City. 

John Thomas McCaffrey, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Arthur Piatt Howard, New York City. 

Walter Sands Mills, M. D., New York City. 

Thomas R. Horton, New York City. 

Ralph Lincoln Spencer, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Joseph H. Spencer, Toronto, Ont. 

Thomas Alexander Sperry, Cranford, N. J. 

Joseph Austin Sperry, Cranford, N. J. 

Alanson H. Scudder, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Joseph Board, Chester, N. Y. 

Grenville Phillips Vernon, New York City. 

David McCandless McKell, Lieutenant, U. S. A., Fort Ethan Allen, Vt. 

George Leal Genung, New York City. 

Edward Gurdon Aldrich, M. D., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Clarence Eugene Brown, Sussex, N. J. 

Winfield Urmy, Tompkinsville, S. I. 

Guernsey Price, New York City. 

Jacob Frank Howe, M. D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

William Henry Ketchum, Montclair, N. J. 

Walter Scott Allerton, New York City. 

George Peabody Montgomery, New York City. 

George Albert Taylor, Albany, N. Y. 

John Peter Failing, Albany, N. Y. 

Oren Milton Beach, Jr., Rye, N. Y. 

Cornelius Wagstaff Remsen, New York City. 

William Walter Streeter, Jersey City, N. J. 

Plimmon Henry Dudley, C. E., Ph.D., New York City. 

Herbert Stanly Lounsbury, Port Chester, N. Y. 

George Chamberlain Harding, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

William Rand, Jr., Rye, N. Y. 

Wilford Seymour Conrow, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Ray Everett Nimmo, Troy, N. Y. 

Joseph Orton Board, Chester, N. Y. 

13 



Borden Hicks Mills, Albany, N. Y. 

Murray Olyphant, Englewood, N. J. 

Charles Clinton Marshall, Milestone Millnook, N. Y. 

Thomas E. Satterthwaite, M. D., transferred from the New Hampshire Society. 



RESIGNATIONS 

Herbert W. Bowen, Albert R. Parsons, 

Henry Bright, John S. Pierson, 

George Mairs Bull, Col. Henry G. Sharpe, U. S. A. 

Capt. James Robb Church, U. S. A. George G. Shelton, M. D., 

Albert Crane, Osgood Smith, 

Richard Piatt Dodge, Henry V. W. Wickes, 

Frank N. Doubleday, William H. Wildey, 

James W. Green, Lewis S. Wisner, 

Edward C. Miller, Charles A. Whitney, 

Isaac H. Odell, 

TRANSFERS 

Charles S. Byington, to California Society. 
Albert J. Sheldon, to Pennsylvania Society. 
Major Eugene L'H. Swift, to California Society. 



LIST OF BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, ETC., RECEIVED 

TITLES. DONOR. 

Holland Society, Year Book, 1905, Henry L. Bogert, Secretary. 

Saint Nicholas Society, Genealogical Record, Charles Isham, Secretary. 

New Hampshire Historical Society Proceed- 
ings, Part 4, Vol. 4, John C. Ordway, Secretary. 

New England Society, One Hundredth 

Anniversary Celebration, George Wilson, Secretary. 

Society of the Cincinnati, Roll 1902-1905, Henry R. Drowne. 

Society of the Cincinnati, Triennial Meeting, Henry R. Drowne. 

Pamphlet, Declaration of Democracy, Henry R. Drowne. 

Pamphlet, Address at Fort Griswold, Henry R. Drowne. 

The Lute and Lays, Charles Stuart Welles, M. D. 

Les Combattants Francais, Marcus Benjamin. 

14 



TITLES. 

Mayflower Descendants, Bulletin, 1906, 

New Jersey Society, S. of R. Year Book, 
1906, 

Pennsylvania Society, S. of R. Year Book, 
1906, 

Address on Gen. Seth Pomeroy, 

United States Club Register, 

Union League Club, Year Book, 1906, 

Fencers Club, Year Book, 1906, 

Union Club, Year Book, 1906, 

Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the 
Revolutionary War, Vol. XIV, 

New York Genealogical and Biographical 
Society, Year Book, 1906, 

Spalding Memorial, 

Canadian Archives, 

Library of Congress, Report 1905, 

University of the State of New York Re- 
port, 

Laws of New York, Miscellaneous Corpora- 
tions, 

Bulletin New York Public Library, 

Calendar for April, 

Album, 165 th Regiment New York Volun- 
teers, 

Reception de la Statue de Thomas Jefferson, 

New Jersey Archives, 26th Vol., 

The American Numismatic and Archaeologi- 
cal Society of New York City, 48th 
Annual Meeting, 1906, 

Edwin D. Morgan, Memoriam. 

Pamphlets and old documents, 

Notices, 

City History Club, Annual Report, 

Russell Genealogy, 

Lieut.-Col. Samuel Ward, Memoir, 

Narrative of the Ravages of British and 
Hessians at Princeton, ijj6-ijj7, 



DONOR. 

Linus E. Fuller. 

Wm. Libbey, Secretary. 

Ethan Allan Weaver, Secretary. 
George E. Pomeroy. 
Dockham Publishing Company. 



Wm. M. Olin. 

Henry R. Drowne. 
Richard Cutts Shannon. 
Hon. Geo. F. O'Halloran. 



Alex. R. Thompson. 

Charles H. Russell, Secretary. 

Central High School, Buffalo. 

Miss Frank E. Buttolph. 
Jefferson M. Levy. 
Henry A. Wilson. 



William Poillon, Curator. 

Henry R. Drowne. 

Samuel P. Avery. 

Military Order-Loyal Legion. 

Mrs. Datus C. Smith, Secretary. 

Henry R. Drowne. 

Henry R. Drowne. 

Howland Pell. 



15 



MISCELLANEOUS DONATIONS, 
PICTURES, RELICS, PROGRAMMES, Etc. 



TITLES. 

Painting, Washington at Valley Forge, 
Picture, Washington and his Generals, 
Missouri Society, S. of R. Programme, 

Essay and Menu, 
A Song of New York, 
Ohio Society, S. of R. Menu, 
Cosmos Club of San Francisco, Menu, 
California Society, S. of R., Menu, 
Society of Colonial Wars, California Regis- 
ter, 
Colonial Wars. Lake George Statuette, 
John Paul Jones, Programme of Cere- 
monies, 
Washington Centennial, Programme of 

Ceremonies, 
Pew railing, North Dutch Church, New 
York, erected in 1767, 



DONOR. 

Robert M. Olyphant. 
John Morgan Howe, M. D. 

Henry Cadle, Secretary. 

Mrs. Horace See. 

Jackson W. Sparrow, Secretary. 

Holdridge O. Collins. 

Holdridge O. Collins. 
Clarence Storm. 

Talbot Olyphant. 

Talbot Olyphant. 

Henry R. Drowne. 



16 



OFFICERS 

President : 

Edmund Wetmore, 34 Pine Street. 

First Vice-President: 

Philip Livingston, 992 Fifth Avenue. 

Second Vice-President : 

Morris K. Jesup, 195 Madison Avenue. 

Third Vice-President : 

Hugh Hastings, Albany, N. Y. 

Secretary : 
Henry Russell Drowne, 146 Broadway. 

Treasurer : 

Arthur Melvin Hatch, 96 Broadway. 

Registrar : 

Henry Phelps Johnston, 17 Lexington Avenue. 

Chaplain : 

Rev. Morgan Dix, D. D., D. C. L., 27 West 25th Street. 

Assistant Chaplain: 
Rev. Frank L. Humphreys, S. T. D., Morristown, N. J. 

Historian : 
Talbot Olyphant, 32 Nassau Street. 

Board of Managers: 

Henry Applegate Wilson, 240 West 23d Street. 
Dallas Bache Pratt, 52 William Street. 
Lewis Rutherfurd Morris, M. D., 155 West 58th Street. 
John Hone, 58 New Street. 
August Belmont, 23 Nassau Street. 
John Canfield Tomlinson, 15 Broad Street. 
Charles Francis Roe, 280 Broadway. 
Robert Olyphant, 17 Battery Place. 

17 



Clark Williams, 26 Nassau Street. 
William Graves Bates, 128 Broadway. 
Charles R. Henderson, 24 Nassau Street. 
Samuel L. Munson, Albany, N. Y. 
Rev. Charles E. Brugler, Port Chester, N. Y. 
Joseph Tompkins Low, 34 Pine Street. 
William W. Ladd, Jr., 20 Nassau Street. 
Charles F. Darling-ton, 206 Broadway. 
Levi C. Weir, 59 Broadway. 

Executive Committee. 

John Hone, Chairman, Joseph T. Low, 

William G. Bates, 

President. Secretary and Treasurer ex-officio. 

Chapters. 

Buffalo Association, Buffalo, N. Y., Charles H. Williams, Regent. 
Philip Livingston Chapter, Albany, N. Y., Samuel L. Munson, Regent. 
William Floyd Chapter, Troy, N. Y., Walter P. Warren, Regent. 
Fort Schuyler Chapter, Utica, N. Y., Frederick T. Proctor, Regent. 
Orange County Chapter, Goshen, N. Y., Roswell W. Chamberlain, Regent. 
Jamestown Chapter. Jamestown, N. Y., Dr. William M. Bemus, Regent. 

Stewards. 

Clarence Storm, Chairman, John C. Jay, Jr., 

William B. O. Field. Charles H. Woodruff, Jr., 

Julien T. Davies, Jr., Eugene K. Austin. 

Marshall. 
John Butterfield Holland. 

Aides. 

James Wray Cleveland, Robert Kelly Prentice, 

Albert Delafield, Talbot Root, 

De Witt Clinton Falls, George Albert Wingate. 

Membership Committee. 

Silas Wodell. Chairman, 149 Broadway. 
Wyllys Terry, 60 Wall Street. 

Landreth H. King, Room 526, Grand Central Station. 

)8 



Edward L. Parris, 239 Broadway, 

George De Forest Barton, 150 Broadway. 

Nathaniel B. Hoxie, 5 Nassau Street. 

Richard A. Wilson, 499 Monroe Street, Brooklyn. 

Alfred B. Robinson, 206 Broadway. 

Dr. Benjamin J. Sands, Port Chester, N. Y. 

Caldwell R. Blakeman, 107 Front Street., 

Historical Committee. 

Howard R. Bayne, Chairman, David Cromwell, 

Capt. John R. Totten, Frank W. Jackson, M. D. 

Samuel V. Hoffman, 

Essay Committee. 

Marcius D. Raymond, Chairman, Richard H. Greene, 

R. Russell Requa, Rev. Howard Duffield. 

Henry Holt, 

Aisle Committee. 

Talbot Olyphant, Chairman. 

Arthur Frederick Schermerhorn, Henry Gansevoort Sanford, 

Banyer Clarkson, Charles Hitchcock Sherrill, 

John Clarkson Jay, Jr., Prentice Strong, 

S. Vernon Mann, Herman Knickerbocker Viele, 

Charles King Morrison, Charles Hornblower Woodruff, Jr., 

Frederick Sanford Woodruff, Richard Malcolm Montgomery, Jr., 

Benjamin W. B. Brown, William Gordon Ver Planck, 

Erskine Hewitt, Charles Elliott Warren, 

Robert Grier Cooke, Edward Kemp, Jr., 

Joseph L. Edmonds, Benjamin Brandreth McAlpin, 

Edward Gilbert Schermerhorn, George Hewlett, 

Morris Douw Ferris, Duncan McRa Livingston, 

Sidney Leighton Smith. 

Real Estate Committee. 

Robert Olyphant, Chairman, James M. Montgomery, 

Charles R. Henderson, Henry A. Wilson, 

Alexander R. Thompson, Arthur M. Hatch. 

19 



Publication Committee. 

♦Samuel Putnam Avery, Charles Isham, 

James M. Montgomery, Henry Russell Drowne. 

♦Deceased. 

Auditing Committee. 

Charles R. Henderson, Chairman, Robert Olyphant. 

Joseph T. Low, 

Tablet Committee. 

James M. Montgomery, Chairman, Dallas Bache Pratt, 
Henry Phelps Johnston, Henry Russell Drowne. 

Alexander R. Thompson, 

Excursion Committee. 

James M. Montgomery, Chairman, John B. Holland. 
Clarence Storm, William G. Bates, 



20 



REPORT 

OF THE 

HISTORIAN 



Hn fIDemodam 



Amos Henry Cropsey, 

William Green, 

Morris Cooper Foote, Brigadier-General, 

U. S. A., retired, 
Thomas Aldridge Reynolds. 
Cyrus Strong, 
John Benjamin, 

Frank DeWitt Ramsey, Captain, U. S. A. 
James Servis Johnson, 
John Henry Van Wyck, Major, N. Y. 

Volunteers, 1 861-1865, 
Andrew Goodrich Hammond, Major, 

U. S. A., 
Nathaniel Rochester, Major, N. G. N. Y., 
Augustus Floyd Ireland, 
Cyrus Baker Kitchen, 
Wilmot Moses Smith, 
George Albert Halsey, 
Francis Pharcellus Church, 
John Riley Livermore, 
Henry Herschel Adams, Col., N. G. Conn., 
Morton David Bogue, 
Charles Augustus Meigs, 
Joseph Nelson Walker, 
Paul Richard Brown, Surgeon, 

U. S. A., 
George Metcalfe Root, A. M., 
Jeremiah Richards, 
Donald McLean Barstow, M. D., 
William Brock Shoemaker, B. A., 
Alfred Warner McMurray, 





ADMITTED. 


DIED. 




1896 


March 3rd, 1905. 




189I 


August 31st, 1905. 


eneral, 








1889 


December 6th, 1905, 




I902 


December 8th, 1905. 




1897 


January 5th, 1906. 




1888 


January 13th, 1906. 


. S. A. 


189I 


January 18th, 1906. 




189I 


January 24th, 1906. 



Major, 



1899 



January 29th. 1906. 



1892 


February 21st, 1906 


1891 


March 6th, 1906. 


1899 


March 14th, 1906. 


1894 


March 27th. 1906. 


1902 


March 29th, 1906. 


1899 


April 1st, 1906. 


1891 


April nth, 1906. 


1903 


May 1st, 1906. 


1894 


May 6th, 1906. 


1894 


May 6th, 1906. 


1888 


May 6th, 1906. 


1902 


May 13th, 1906. 


1894 


May 31st, 1906. 


1893 


May 31st, 1906. 


1892 


June 8th, 1906. 


1895 


June 9th, 1906. 


1905 


June 2 1st, 1906. 


1898 


July 23rd. 1906. 



23 



Charles Palmer Robinson, 
Henry Clay Duryea, 
William Boyd Coughtry, 
Abraham Van Wyck Van Vechten, 
Frederick Diodati Thompson, 
Howard Sumner Robbins, 
Henry Douglas Parmelee, 
George Turtle Gould, Col., N. G. N. J., 
William Winton Goodrich, 
Charles Lytle Lamberton, 
Tared Kirtland Myers, 
Philip Schuyler, Brig. Gen'l, U. S. A., 
1861-1865, 

Respectfully submitted. 



1890 August 13th, 1906. 
1903 August 14th, 1906. 

1892 August 26th, 1906. 
1888 August 28th, 1906. 

1891 October 10th, 1906. 

1893 October 13th, 1906. 
1898 October 25th, 1906. 
1893 October 27th, 1906. 
1893 November 2 1 st, 1906. 
1890 November 25th, 1906. 
1895 November 26, 1906. 

1890 November 29. 1906. 



Talbot Olyphant, 

Historian. 



24 



THE PRIZE ESSAYS 



ON THE 



History of the Boston Port Bill— Why passed 
by Parliament and its effect in America 



First Prize : jeanette a. stern, 

Masteu Park High School, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Second Prize : sarah lurie, 

Buffalo Central High School, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Third Prize : Lawrence prescott van slyke, 

Geneva High School, 

Geneva, N. Y. 



First Prize Essay 



I. Introduction. 

II. Body. 

i. The relation of Boston Port Bill to other events, shown by giving 
a brief outline of succession of events from 1765 to 1775. 

2. Political situation and claims of colonists previous to sending of 

tea. 

3. The Boston Tea Party. 

a. Object of sending tea. 

b. How received. 

4. First intimation of punishment to Boston. 

5. The text of the Boston Port Bill. 

6. Passage of bill through Parliament. 

7. Contents of Penal laws. 

8. Edmund Burke's appeal for repeal of Port Bill. 

9. Reception in America. 

a. How other colonies regarded Boston. 
10. Result of Boston Port Bill. 

a. First Continental Congress. 

b. Second Continental Congress. 

III. Conclusion. 

How can this law be justified? 
After result. 

THE BOSTON PORT BILL 

We have always been taught that the principles of the American Revolu- 
tion were of slow growth, starting with the commencement of colonization in 
America; yet certain events undoubtedly hastened the outbreak, and these 
events fell thick and fast from 1765 to 1775. The course of the American 

27 



colonists may be compared to a long, toilsome road upleading to the Revolu- 
tion, with here and there steps which hastened the way to the summit, and 
shortened the distance. Not the smallest of these steps, nor the least important, 
may be represented by the Boston Port Bill, and close behind this is that mark- 
ing the Boston Tea Party. 

A brief survey of these successive steps may give a better idea of why the 
Boston Port Bill was the last and greatest indignity and why, after its passing, 
conciliation became impossible. Possibly the first deviation from the level, up- 
ward road was the Stamp Act passed in 1765. Its repeal followed closely in 
1766, but the Declaratory Act more than compensated for the repeal. In 1767, 
duties were imposed on glass, paper, paints and tea, all of which were subse- 
quently abolished, (1770) except that on tea. This was followed in 1768 by the 
quartering of troops in America, which led directly to the Boston Massacre 
in 1770, and the destruction of the "Gaspee." In 1773 came the attempt to 
enforce the tax on tea, which was resisted by means of the Boston Tea Party. 
In retaliation, Parliament passed the Boston Port Bill. This was the final in- 
dignity. The people would stand no more, and at the Continental Congress 
of 1774 demanded the right to levy all taxes. Not long after this, actual hostili- 
ties broke out. 

Since the Boston Port Bill was a retaliatory measure for the events of the 
Boston Tea Party, an account of the sending of the tea is necessary for the 
understanding of its consequences. The colonists of America refused to pay 
taxes on all articles, on the plea that they were not represented in Parliament, 
and thus were being taxed without being represented. This England denied, 
saying Chester, Durham and Manchester had not been represented, and yet had 
been taxed, and also that they were virtually represented. Edmund Burke re- 
plied that because the English constitution was not reformed in these cases, 
formed no reason why America should not be represented. To avoid the tax 
on tea, the Americans smuggled tea from Holland, and no British force had 
been able to prevent it. At this time intercolonial committees of correspondence 
had been formed, and matters were in a very unsettled condition in America. 
The colonists were in a state of irritation against England ; yet, perhaps, had 
she ceased all methods, except by conciliation, to subdue the colonists, the 
decisive steps toward the Revolution might have been stayed for a long time. 

Instead, George III, then King of England, took this inopportune time to 
renew the question of the tea tax, and thus raise an issue upon which the 
opposition of the colonists would be unanimous and tend to a union for self- 
defense and protection. England did not seem to realize that Americans were 
fighting for a principle and not for dollars and cents. So His Majesty, 
•George III, thought of an ingenious scheme by which the colonists could buy 

28 



English tea cheaper, although there was a duty of three-pence per pound on it, 
than they could smuggle it from Holland. The tea trade was at this time 
under the control of the East India Company, which was considered then barely 
solvent, owing to the stoppage of the American tea trade. England decided to 
aid the company and incidentally entrap the Americans into the acknowledg- 
ment of the principle of taxation, by allowing a drawback of all duties paid in 
England when the tea arrived from China. In 1773 cargoes of tea were 
shipped to Charlestown, Philadelphia, New York and Boston. Philadelphia 
sent her tea back. In Charlestown the tea was landed and allowed to spoil in a 
damp cellar. Boston endeavored to follow Philadelphia's example, but the 
Governor refused to write a pass allowing the vessel to leave the harbor. 
Rather than have the tea landed, as a last resource, when all means of law 
could "do nothing more to save the country," Boston Harbor was converted into 
a teapot into which three hundred and forty-two chests of tea were emptied. 
"Had the tea been landed," wrote Gorden, "the union of the colonies in oppos- 
ing the ministerial scheme would have been dissolved, and it would have been 
extremely difficult ever after to have restored it." 

This open act of disobedience occurred in December, 1773. Early the fol- 
lowing year the disturbances in America became the leading subject in Parlia- 
ment, and especially the proceedings of that "nest of locusts," Boston, were dis- 
cussed. The King urged the adoption of measures to command obedience to 
the laws and end disorder. Lord North at this time was Prime Minister of 
England and an obedient disciple of the King. At the instigation of the King 
he asked and obtained leave to bring in a bill relative to the removal of the 
custom-house officers from Boston, and the closing of that port to commerce. 
William Bollan, an agent of Massachusetts, begged to be heard in defense 
of that port, but his motion was laid on the table. 

On March 18th, 1774, Lord North brought in the Boston Port Bill. It 
was entitled, "An Act to discontinue, in such manner and for such time as- 
are therein mentioned, the landing and discharging, lading or shipping of goods, 
wares and merchandise, at the town and within the harbor of Boston, in the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay in North America." Following this the bound- 
aries of the harbor and the time when it would take effect, (June 1st, 1774) 
were specified; then succeeded ten articles, the substance of which was as 
follows : 

I. No material shall be shipped from Boston to the other colonies or else- 
where, under penalty of forfeiture of goods and boat. 

II. Any person shipping or unshipping such goods shall forfeit treble the 
value thereof. 

29 



III. If any vessel is sighted within one league of Boston, any British 
commissioned officer may compel it to go to some other port, and if the order 
be not obeyed within six hours, the vessel shall be forfeited. 

IV. This must not be construed as referring to His Majesty's ships, and 
supplies may come to Boston, if holding a pass, and if searched at Marblehead 
in Salem, and if an English officer accompany it. 

V. Any prosecution caused by these laws must be made by the King's 
officers, and if any of the King's officers shall either allow goods to be shipped 
or landed, he shall forfeit the sum of five hundred pounds. 

VI. (This article referred to the prosecution and the recovery of penal- 
ties). 

VII. Any bill of lading made after the first of June, 1774, for the Port of 
Boston, shall be void. 

VIII. All the privileges of Boston will be renewed as soon as the King 
is satisfied that for the future it will obey the laws. 

IX. If goods are shipped or landed at any place not expressly mentioned, 
the same forfeiture will apply. 

X. These measures are to be continued also until Boston shall indemnify 
the East India Company and the merchants of England. 

The bill at its first reading before the House of Commons was received 
without any opposition. At its second reading only one, George Bynge, cried 
"no." At its third reading, though several opposed it, it was passed without 
division, and the journal declares "unanimously." The same condition pre- 
vailed in the upper house, and the King signed it the day following its success- 
ful passage. 

Several other penal measures were passed at about the same time, which, 
conbined with the Boston Port Bill, provoked the civil war which followed. 
These acts, known in America as the Intolerable Acts, were as follows : 

1. The Boston Port Bill, providing for the change of the seat of govern- 
ment of Boston to Salem until Boston should indemnify England and submit 
to the King. 

2. Regulating Act, which annulled the charter of Massachusetts. 

3. Administration of Justice Act, which provided for trial in England 
of English officers indicted in the colonies. 

4. An Act removing all legal obstacles to the quartering of troops in 
America. 

3° 



5. Quebec Act, extending Canada to the land northwest of the Ohio 
River and establishing the Roman Catholic Church. 

Parliament also decided not to repeal the Stamp Act. 

When the "Grand Penal Bill" was returned to the Commons, Edmund 
Burke delivered that masterpiece of English literature, his "Speech on Concili- 
ation with America." When pleading for the repeal of the Boston Port Bill, 
Burke said, "Independently of the dangerous precedent of suspending the rights 
of the subject during the King's pleasure, this bill was passed irregularly. 
First, because Boston was not allowed to defend itself; second, because she 
alone suffered, although other towns were as guilty." He also said that it was 
passed "through the back door of Parliament." 

To enforce the Penal Laws, General Gage was commissioned to supersede 
Governor Hutchinson, and was sent with four regiments to Boston without 
delay, in April. On June first, he was to enforce the Boston Port Bill, and 
since no town could carry on its business, in those days of no railroads, without 
its harbor, and since a cessation of business means a stoppage of all intercourse, 
Gage was to starve the town of Boston into submission. The direct and imme- 
diate result was a convention at Faneuil Hall, which adopted the plan of send- 
ing a circular letter to the colonies asking for encouragement and cooperation. 
Each colony then held a convention which agreed to support Boston, and sup- 
plies were received overland from the most distant colonies. Copies of the 
odious acts of Parliament were publicly burned, and the first of June was ob- 
served as a fast. Marblehead, the new port of entry, offered Boston merchants 
the use of its wharves and all the seaports refused to receive any gain from 
Boston's misfortune. Throughout the country Boston was considered a martyr, 
and a universal sympathy was shown for her. 

As a result of the Boston Port Bill the colonists began to realize the neces- 
sity of some method to obtain concerted action, when needed. Through the 
action of the Sons of Liberty of New York, seconded by those of Virginia, 
a Continental Congress was proposed, and Massachusetts received the honor 
of appointing time and place. The first Continental Congress met in September, 
1774, and there adopted the Declaration of Rights. Fifty-five delegates were 
present, and all the colonies except Georgia were represented. It was decided 
to meet again in May, 1775, and at that time troops and money were raised for 
war. 

So by successive acts of Parliament war was always brought nearer, its 
approach never retarded. Yet throughout, the British showed a lack of adapta- 
bility to understand the American people and the ever-increasing political needs 
of the people. By unofficial acts we know that they were willing to conciliate, 

31 



if they could have done so without hurting their pride, but they would not yield 
one iota if, by so doing, they seemed to withdraw from a position which they 
had taken. In reviewing these five acts of Parliament we are amazed. It does 
not seem possible that England, which has always stood for enlightenment, 
progress and freedom, could have passed these laws, so contradictory to every 
principle she has maintained. She had conquered Canada from the despotic 
rule of France, yet here she was placing her own colonies under a still more 
despotic rule. She had always been the staunchest defender of self-govern- 
ment, yet by these acts she opposed, nay, even forbade, self-government. How 
can these self-contradictions be explained? John Fiske has said, "only by 
the short-sighted Tory policy of George III." But these laws were as un- 
successful as tyrannical, for after the first of June, 1774, no recession was 
possible, and all led irresistibly forward to the Revolution, from which evolved 
a free people and a glorious nation, the United States of America. 

Jeanette A. Stern. 



32 



Second Prize Essay 



The year 1770 marks the beginning of the time often designated as the 
"Crisis" by writers of American History; for the years 17701774 wit- 
nessed the events which exhausted the forbearance of the American people and 
led directly to the War of Independence. 

Lord North had recently taken the place of Charles Townshend as Prime 
Minister of England. He was willing to be led by the King, and, therefore, 
continued the work of his predecessor, which had consisted in trying to make 
the Americans acknowledge that taxation did not necessarily mean representa- 
tion. George III, determined "to be King," acted like a man blind-folded. 
He did not foresee the ultimate results, brought about by trying to trample 
upon the rights of a liberty-loving people. The Stamp Act proceedings had 
not been a lesson emphatic enough for the stubborn head of the King. 

Samuel Adams's humble petition to give the colonists the rights granted to 
them by the Bill of Rights was received with silent contempt, or, to put it in 
the words of the ardent patriot, "was spurned by the royal foot." The people's 
peaceful meetings to protest against the unjust measures were regarded as 
declarations of rebellion ; and, as a final answer to the petition, troops were 
sent to America to subdue King George's seditious subjects. 

But he little knew the temper of the people. The love of liberty was pre- 
dominant in the heart of the poorest as well as the richest. To preserve their 
rights, those people were ready to give up the luxuries, and even what would 
be deemed the necessaries of life. They resolved not to import from England 
any article upon which a duty had been levied. Thus the English people 
suffered by the loss of trade. 

This fact caused Lord North to think it expedient to take off the duties on 
all articles previously taxed, with the exception of tea, upon which a small 
duty was left to keep up the principle of taxation. 

But the Americans were not struggling against excessive taxation. They 
were struggling for the principle that "taxation without representation is 
tyranny." Although the tea could be bought very cheaply, as the price of the 
tea sent to America had been purposely lowered, the colonists resolved not to 
be beguiled by this, as Fiske calls it. "purely political trick." 

33 



Ships laden with tea were therefore sent back whence they came. This 
determined refusal of the Americans to land tea sent from any port of Great 
Britain led to one of the most momentous events in the history of the world — 
the Boston Tea Party ; and this caused the passing of the most tyrannical meas- 
ure of all, a measure which threatened the very existence of Boston, King 
George's and his friends' device for revenge, the Boston Port Bill. 

The Boston Tea Party had clearly shown that the American people were 
ready to fall back on the laws of self-preservation if written law failed to 
restore their rights to them. But the vain, stubborn King and his friends in 
Parliament did not take the hint. When news of the action reached them, their 
anger against the colonists was excited to the highest degree. The most strin- 
gent measures were urged to be taken to punish the riotous Bostonians. One 
member of Parliament, Mr. Venn, in his wrath against the offenders, declared 
that the town ought to be knocked about their ears in order to have the nest 
of locusts destroyed. Heedless of all the arguments brought up by the clear- 
sighted members of Parliament, or of the eloquent speech of Burke, five unjust 
measures were passed March 31, 1774. 

One of them was the Boston Port Bill. This measure declared the port of 
Boston closed until indemnity for the tea was paid to the East India Company. 
It was a most unreasonable, tyrannical measure, and as Burke declared, pun- 
ished the innocent as well as the guilty. The indemnity required was fair, but it 
was not the money but the submission to the King which they, who once had 
borne the motto, "Don't tread on me," on their standard, resented to give. 

When the news of the measure reached Boston the anger of the people 
rcse to the highest pitch. England had robbed thousands of them of their 
employment. The bill was pronounced a cruelty, a tyranny, a murder. It was 
burned by the common hangman in the public place upon a scaffold forty-five 
feet high. The neighboring towns of Dorchester, Cambridge, Lynn, Charles- 
town, Brookline, Newton and Lexington sent committees to the convention 
held at Boston in Faneuil Hall, May 12, 1774. At this meeting, the act was 
denounced and the idea of paying the indemnity was spurned. The con- 
vention adopted a circular letter prepared by Samuel Adams to be sent to 
the other colonies, asking for sympathy and cooperation. 

The first effect of the unjust measure was that it revealed the fact that 
the colonists regarded themselves as people of one country and that country 
was America ; and, that as it was declared at a meeting in Virginia, an attack 
on one colony was an attack on all. The appeal which Boston had sent to the 
colonies brought responses which left no doubt that the people were ready 
to make use of the truth that in "Union there is Strength." 

The enemies of America had three objects in mind when thev advocated 

34 



the passage of the bill. One was to frighten the Bostonians into submission; 
another to warn the other colonies against disobedience to his majesty King 
George III. The third purpose was to let the other sea-ports profit by Boston's 
misfortune and thereby secure their good will and their approval of England's 
measures. 

They miserably fooled themselves. It was from those very sea-ports 
which could mostly profit by the stoppage of Boston commerce, that the unfor- 
tunate city received the most help and the sincerest expressions of sympathy. 
The people showed their Christian spirit. Salem averred that it would be 
lost to all feelings of humanity, were it to raise its fortunes on the ruins of its 
neighbors. Marblehead offered the use of its wharves to the Boston mer- 
chants; Newburyport went farther and voted to cease all trade with Great 
Britain. Connecticut, while appealing to the Almighty for Boston, at the same 
time gave a fresh supply to its cannon and military stores, indicating that they 
would be ready to use physical force if need be. From all parts of the country 
money and supplies were sent to Boston. Everywhere the acts of Parlia- 
ment were denounced, and resolutions were passed, declaring that no obedience 
was due to the late measures of the English government, and that the inhabi- 
tants of the colonies should use their utmost diligence to learn the art of using 
arms. 

All these uprisings of a people, who asked for nothing but the rights be- 
longing to them as British subjects, proved only futile attempts to force the 
King and his party from the stand they had taken. The five measures were 
not repealed. The King and his ministry had not yet given up the absurd idea 
that the Americans could be frightened into submission. Governor Hutchinson 
of Massachusetts, who ought to have been well acquainted with the character 
of the Puritan stock, told the King that the Americans could never resist a 
regular army. No wonder then that George III smiled when he learned from 
the Governor that Boston had refused to comply with his commands. 

An army, then, was thought of as the means for quieting those, as King 
George called them, rebellious uprisings. General Gage thought that four 
regiments would be enough to settle the business. Lord Sandwich said that 
the Americans were a set of undisciplined cowards who would take to their 
heels at the first sound of a cannon. 

General Gage was commissioned to supersede Governor Hutchinson, and, 
together with four regiments, was sent to Boston to close its port July first, 
and thus starve the people into submission. Ships were sent to block the port 
and the four regiments and a train of artillery were encamped on the commons. 

The colonists immediately saw that mere expressions of sympathy would 
not be available and the time for united and decisive action had arrived. In 

35 



New York, the Sons of Libert}- were the first ones to propose to bring the 
people together by calling for a Continental Congress. The members of the 
Virginia Legislature immediately took up this proposal, sitting in convention 
at a Raleigh tavern after the Governor had dissolved them as a Legislature, 
and Massachusetts was invited to appoint the time and place for the Congress. 

The Massachusetts assembly met at Salem, June 7, 1774. Samuel Adams, 
after locking the door and putting the key in his pocket, introduced his re- 
solves on the Congress. The Tory members, pretending to be sick, were 
allowed to leave. They instantly informed Governor Gage of the proceedings. 
Gage sent his secretary with a writ dissolving the assembly, but, finding the 
door locked, he had it read to the people outside. The assembly passed the 
resolves, delegates to Congress were elected and measures for the relief of 
Boston were passed. All the other colonies with the exception of Georgia, 
agreed to accept the proposal and chose delegates either through their assem- 
blies or through special conventions. 

The Continental Congress assembled at Philadelphia on September 5, 1774. 
At last the whole country had united to oppose England's act of oppression. 
After four weeks of deliberation, they agreed upon a declaration of rights, claim- 
ing for the people the right to be governed by the power of the provincial assem- 
blies in all cases of taxation and polity. A call was made for the repeal of 
eleven acts of Parliament which had deprived them of certain rights. An 
association to insure commercial non-intercourse with Great Britain was 
formed. Addresses were sent to the King, to the English people and to the 
people of British America. The tenth of May was appointed for the meet- 
ing of another Congress, at which the final preparations for the struggle were 
made. 

Such were the direct results of the Boston Port Bill. It had been passed 
with the purpose of forcing a people dominated by the spirit of liberty, under 
the yoke of kingly oppression. It had failed in its purpose. It had aroused 
this spirit and led the people to actions by which they completely broke the 
bonds that tied them to Great Britain. 

Sarah Lurie. 



36 



Third Prize Essay 



On the fourteenth of March, 1774, Lord North rose in the House of Com- 
mons to present the first of the well-known "Intolerable Acts," which were 
intended by the Administration to crush America to the earth. The Boston 
Port Bill was designed by its originators to punish Boston for its "Act of High 
Treason," as Mansfield called the Boston Tea Party, and to force her to obey 
the "laws" made for her by Parliament. What the Port Bill really did shows 
what poor statesmen most of the ministers were. 

The port-act provided for the closing of the harbor of Boston to all com- 
merce until the town should have indemnified the East India Company for 
their tea and "should have otherwise made it appear to the king that it would 
hereafter show a spirit of submission." The board of customs was by the act 
transferred to Marblehead, and the seat of government to Salem. The act was 
to go into effect on the first of June, 1774. 

This idea of stopping the commerce of Boston probably originated among 
the American Tories. Hutchinson, in letters to Mauduit and Bernard, written 
in the spring of 1773, advised such an act. The measure soon became a favor- 
ite with George the Third, so that it was pretty sure to become a law sooner or 
later. The king did not have to wait long for a good reason to have the bill 
introduced in Parliament, for, on January 27. an official report of the de- 
struction of the tea in Boston harbor was received by the Government. This 
news gave the desired opening, and not long after the Port Bill was introduced. 

After introducing the bill, Lord North opened the debate by urging every 
man of whatever party or rank to maintain British authority throughout the 
empire. The bill was strongly defended by the enemies of the colonies, and 
even more powerfully attacked by the friends of the colonies ; on the side of 
the Government were the weaker minds in Parliament, while, ranged against 
the bill, were the greatest statesmen in England. "The town of Boston," said 
Venn, one of the most violent of the enemies of the colonies, "ought to be 
knocked about their ears and destroyed. You will never meet with proper 
obedience to the laws of this country until you have destroyed that nest of 
locusts." Fox declared that there was no good plan that did not embrace the 
repeal of the taxes. "The North x\mericans," said Rose Fuller, "will look 

37 



upon this bill as a foolish act of oppression." Johnstone, ex-governor of West 
Florida, predicted that the bill would produce a confederacy and end in a 
general revolt. Yet, in spite of this strong and sensible opposition to the bill, 
no division was necessary, and the vote entered on the Journal was unan- 
imous. 

On the twenty-ninth, the Port Bill was debated in the House of Lords. 
Rockingham, Richmond, Camden and Shelburne proved in their speeches that 
the measures proposed in the Port Bill were useless and oppressive. Mansfield 
declared that the sword was unsheathed, that retreat was impossible, and that 
a unanimous passage of the bill must force submission in Boston. The House 
went with him, and no division was taken. On the thirty-first, the Boston Port 
Bill was signed by the king and became law throughout the British Empire. 

The first question that presents itself to the mind of the reader, studying 
the history of this port-act, is how the intelligent representatives of a free people 
could thus trample under foot the liberties of their fellow-citizens across the 
water. They thoroughly believed that they were in the right in enslaving their 
kinsmen in the colonies. The ministers that guided the country in its actions 
were neither stupid nor wicked. What, then, was it that could lead them to 
transgress many of the principles, not only of Saxon liberty, but also of brother- 
ly love? 

Perhaps the most important of the causes of the passage of the port-act was 
the position of the king. He hated the colonies because they refused to 
acknowledge him as their absolute ruler; he hated Boston especially, because it 
seemed to him the leader in rebellion against his authority. This hatred he was 
able in some measure to satisfy, for at this time he was the central point of the 
government, and controlled everything. He had chosen a weak ministry, that 
he might be able to have his own way. and controlled by corrupt means a large 
part of Parliament. Therefore, when the Boston Tea Party gave him a chance 
to punish Boston, he was able to get the Port Bill through Parliament in spite 
of all resistance. If the king had not had this power, the voice of the wise and 
great would probably have prevailed in Parliament, and the Port Bill would 
never have passed the House of Commons. 

Another of the causes of the passage of the port-act was the mistaken ideas 
regarding America prevalent in England, which were, of course, most impor- 
tant when found among the ministers and in Parliament. In the first place, 
the exaggerated reports of the governors in the colonies had led Parliament 
to believe that the Americans were disloyal, rebellious and lawless. If we 
take this into consideration, we will see that the treatment of the colonists 
was very much better than their reputation in England demanded. In the 
second place, Parliament failed to perceive the spirit of the colonists, their stead- 

38 



fast adherence to the principles of liberty. They could not appreciate the 
high ideals of the colonists, who were really more civilized than their oppress- 
ors. It was their failure to appreciate the Americans that made Parliament 
think that by the tea tax they could be tricked into admitting the principle of 
taxation, for they thought that the colonists were more attached to their pocket- 
books than to their freedom. Then when the Boston Tea Party caused the utter 
failure of the tea tax, they thought that the boldness of the "Bostoneers" would 
cause a reaction among the other colonies, which would bring about the isolation 
of Boston in the struggle with England. Therefore, the Boston Port Bill was 
brought forward, which, it was expected, would effectually separate the rest of 
America from the little Town of Boston. 

Therefore, at this time in English history it was very natural that England 
should follow a course of oppression towards her American colonies. As she 
then was, she could hardly have done otherwise. Circumstances were so 
ordered that she had to help indirectly in bringing about the independence and 
freedom of America. 

Accordingly the Boston Port Bill went forth on its mission of war and 
bloodshed and woe ; for it was the three penal measures of which this was the 
first that "dissolved the moral connection between the two countries, and began 
the civil war." It was destined to bring about far greater results than any 
previous act of oppression on the part of Parliament, for it was destined to 
"make straight the way" to revolution and independence. On the manner of 
its reception in America hung the fate of liberty in the New World. 

On the tenth of May, only three weeks before the day when the act was to 
go into effect, the Boston Port Bill reached the brave little town of Boston. 
As soon as the act was read, a meeting was called of the committees of corres- 
pondence of Boston and eight of the neighboring towns to meet in Faneuil 
Hall on the twelfth of May. The men that gathered there, knowing the im- 
portance of their every action, met the port-act with the courage of freedom, 
and voted unanimously that the act was unjust and cruel. Parliament had, 
without just cause and without a hearing, accused, tried, and convicted Boston 
in a case in which Parliament was both complainant and judge. The committee 
voted this as their opinion, refused to pay for the tea, and sent out a circular 
letter to the other colonies, in which they stated their case clearly and proposed 
as a means of resistance the general cessation of trade with England. They 
hoped and trusted that the continent would support them in their distress, and 
not leave them unaided in their struggle for the liberties of all. On the thir- 
teenth a large town meeting voted the port-act "repugnant to law, religion, and 
common sense." Measures were taken for the support of the laborers, whose 
means of sustenance were taken away by the act. The people bound themselves 

39 



"to suffer in the common cause,"' and begged their sister colonies to help them in 
the fight. Such was the attitude of Boston, and it determined that of all the 
thirteen colonies. 

In a very short time after Boston's action, the port-act and Boston's cir- 
cular letter were carried from end to end of the continent, bringing with them 
the spirit of determined resistance. In some places the act was defied and cried 
about the streets as a murder; in others, it was printed on black-bordered 
mourning paper, or solemnly burned in the midst of an assembled throng. The 
first decided action was taken by the Sons of Liberty of New York in proposing 
in a circular letter "a general congress." Though this idea of a continental 
congress had long been in the minds of the patriots, New York first gave it 
form and substance. Pennsylvania advocated the congress proposed by New 
York, but refused to cease commerce with England. Rhode Island, Maryland, 
Virginia and the Carolinas sent especially strong encouragement to Boston. 
From New England to Georgia, the Port Bill was read with indignation and re- 
sentment. 

Throughout America, the first of June was kept as a day of fasting and 
mourning, for on that day the blockade of the harbor of Boston began. For 
Boston it was indeed a day of gloom, since the loss of its commerce meant the 
ruin of its citizens. Those of Boston's inhabitants who had not laid up money 
would have starved, during the blockade, had it not been for the generous gifts 
sent from towns in all parts of the colonies. Food and clothing were supplied 
in abundance, so that Boston, having sacrificed itself for the good of the con- 
tinent, was richly rewarded in its time of need by the support of the other 
colonies. 

When Lord North introduced the Boston Port Bill, he little expected from 
it such adverse results as those above narrated. He sent it forth as a means 
of subduing the colonies by subduing their leader, Boston. Instead, besides 
widening the breach between the colonies and the mother country, it became in 
America a mighty power in drawing the colonies together into a union capable 
of effectually resisting oppression. The concrete embodiment of that union, 
the continental congress of T774, was the direct result of the Boston Port Bill. 
It was this congress and its successors that made possible the final glorious 
outcome of the Revolution, so that the very measure designed to crush the 
patriots helped materially the cause for which they were struggling. The 
Boston Port Bill, therefore, was one of the agencies by which Providence 
advanced the cause of freedom in the New World and in the Old, and was one 
of the steps by which the United States, the leader of the nations, and the great 
representative of freedom and righteousness, rose to life and liberty. 

Lawrence Prescott Van Slyke. 
40 




New York Society 



REPORTS 

OF BOARD OF MANAGERS 
AND HISTORIAN 



December 4, 1907 




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New York Society 



REPORTS 

OF BOARD OF MANAGERS 
AND HISTORIAN 



December 4, 1907 



Report of the Board of Managers. 



To the Sons of the Revolution 

in the State of New York : 

The Board of Managers submits the following report for the year ending 
December 4th, 1907. 

Nine meetings of the Board of Managers have been held during the year. 

At the last annual meeting December 4th, 1906, the President, Mr. 
Edinund Wetmore, called the meeting to order, a prayer was offered by the 
Rev. Dr. Henry Barton Chapin, General Chaplain of the Society of the 
Cincinnati, and the Secretary read the Report of the Board of Managers and 
of the Nominating Committee. 

Messrs. Josiah Hedden, William H. Kuper and Dr. Frederick H. Wilson 
were appointed as tellers by the Chair. 

The report of the Treasurer was presented by Mr. Arthur M. Hatch, and 
the report of the Historian by Mr. Talbot Olyphant, during the reading of 
which the members rose and remained standing. Mr. Robert Olyphant read 
the report of the Real Estate Committee. 

The regular ticket for Officers and Board of Managers of the Society was 
duly elected , the tellers announcing that eight hundred and five ballots had 
been cast. 

Since the Annual Meeting, the Rev. Frank L,andon Humphreys, S. T. D., 
has been elected Assistant Chaplain, Mr. Talbot Olyphant, Historian, and 
Messrs. John Hone, Joseph Tompkins Low and Col. William G. Bates as 
members of the Executive Committee. 

Various committees have also been appointed by the President, a list of 
which appears at the close of this report. 

At a Special Meeting of the Society held on January 23rd, 1907, Section V 
of the By-Daws was amended to read as follows : — 

" The Treasurer shall collect and keep the funds and securities of the 
Society, and as often as those funds shall amount to one hundred dollars, 
they shall be deposited in some bank in the City of New York which shall be 
designated by the Board of Managers, to the credit of the Society of the 



"Sons of the Revolution," and such funds shall be drawn thence on the 
check of the Treasurer for the purposes of the Society only. Out of these 
funds he shall pay such sums as may be ordered by the Society on the 
recommendation of the Board of Managers, or by the Board of Managers, and 
shall perform such other duties as the Society, or Board of Managers, or his 
office, may require of him. He shall keep a true account of his receipts and 
payments, and at each Annual Meeting render the same to the Society, when 
a committee shall be appointed to audit his accounts. For the faithful per- 
formance of his duty, he shall give such security as the Society, or Board of 
Managers in lieu of its action thereon, may from time to time require." 

The following resolution, presented by Hon. Asa Bird Gardiner, was, on 
motion duly carried : Resolved, that in the opinion of this Society the one 
week's notice required to be given by publication in two daily newspapers in 
the City of New York of time and place of annual or special meetings, as 
required by Section XV of the By-Laws, is a notice to be inserted but once 
in each of two such daily newspapers at least one week beforehand, of the 
time and place of the particular annual or special meeting. 

A Stated Meeting to celebrate the birthday of Frederick Samuel 
Tallmadge, late President of the Society, followed the Special Meeting, and 
was observed by the reading of a paper by Mr. Albert Bushnell Hart, 
Professor of History at Harvard University ; subject : ' ' New Light on the 
Treason of Benedict Arnold." 

President Wetmore read the following telegram from John Austin Stevens, 
the founder of the Society, who had just celebrated his eightieth birthday : 

"Thanks to the Managers for the congratulations. Please convey to 
the Society my best wishes to each and all, and my sympathy with them in 
to-night's commemoration of the birthday of our old friend, President and 
benefactor, Mr. Tallmadge. In love and comradeship. 

John Austin Stevens." 

' ' Sons of the Revolution : — Thousand thanks for your kind remem- 
brance. I am with you in spirit. 

John Austin Stevens." 

At the meeting April 19th, 1907, to celebrate the one hundred and 
thirty-second anniversary of the Battle of Lexington, the members of the 
Society listened to a very interesting lecture by Mr. Gherardi Davis, on "Regi- 
mental Colors in the War of the Revolution." This was beautifully illus- 
trated by colored pictures of the banners used by the American, French, 
English and Germans during the war. 



At the close of the lecture, Hon. Asa Bird Gardiner related some very 
interesting incidents and historical facts regarding the French and Irish 
regiments which fought for our cause. 

At the Stated Meeting held on November 25th, 1907, in celebration of 
the evacuation of the City of New York by the British troops, an illustrated 
address was delivered by Mr. Reginald Pelham Bolton on "Relics of the 
Revolution on Manhattan Island." 

The Annual Church Service of the Society, commemorative of the birth 
of George Washington, was held on Sunday, February 17th, 1907, at the 
First Presbyterian Church, Fifth Avenue and Twelfth Street, at 4 p. m. It 
was conducted by the Rev. Morgan Dix, S.T.D., D.C.L,., Oxon., Rector of 
Trinity Church and Chaplain of the Sons of the Revolution, assisted by the 
Rev. George Alexander, D.D., Pastor of the University Place Presbyterian 
Church ; the Rev. Howard Duffield, D.D., Pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church; Rev. William Reed Huntington, D.D., Rev. Edward Pearson 
Newton, Rev. William N. Dunnell, S.T.D., Rev. George S. Baker, D.D., 
Rev. Henry Barton Chapin, D.D., Ph.D., Rev. James S. Dennis, Rev. James 
Tuttle-Smith, D.D., Rev. Edward B. Coe, D.D., Rev. Robert Morris Kemp, 
and Rev. Frank L,. Humphreys, S.T.D., Assistant Chaplain of the Sons of 
the Revolution. The sermon was delivered by the Rev. George Alexander, 
D.D., Pastor of the University Place Presbyterian Church. The church was 
beautifully decorated for this occasion. 

Representatives were present from the Colonial Dames of America, the 
Colonial Dames of the State of New York, the Daughters of the Revolution, 
and the Societies of the Cincinnati, Colonial Wars, War of 1812, Foreign 
Wars, Aztec Club, and Loyal Legion, the Society of the War of 1812 furnish- 
ing a uniformed escort. 

The Annual Banquet of the Society took place in the large banquet hall 
at Delmonico's on February 22nd, 1906, the anniversary of Washington's 
Birthday, and was presided over by Mr. Edmund Wetmore, the President 
of the Society. 

The following invited guests were present: Major-General J. Franklin 
Bell, U. S. A., representing the Army; Rear- Admiral Joseph B. Coghlan, U. 
S. N., the Navy; Stephen Farrelly, the Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick; Col. 
Dudley Evans, the Society of the War of 1812; Col. Stephen Henry Olin, the 
Society of the Colonial Wars; John R. Van Wormer, the Holland Society; F. 
E. Grote Higgens, the Saint George's Society; Rev. David G. Wylie, D. D. 
the Saint Andrew's Society; Lieut. Clinton E. Braine, the Military Order of 
Foreign Wars; Russell Duane, the Pennsylvania Society, Sons of the Revo- 
lution; Rev. Hamilton Schuyler, the New Jersey Society Sons of the Revolu- 



tion; Walter L,. Wakefield, the Connecticut Society, Sons of the Revolution; 
Fredric W. Huidekoper, the District of Columbia Society, Sons of the Revo- 
lution; Samuel V. Hoffman, the New York Historical Society; Rev. Howard 
Duffield, D. D., Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church; Rev. Richard L,. 
Howell; and all were escorted to the table by members of the Society. 

Prayer was offered by the Rev. Frank L,. Humphreys, S. T. D., Assist- 
ant Chaplain of the Society. 

The banquet hall was appropriately and tastefully decorated and an 
orchestra was furnished for the occasion. After coffee had been served the 
Societies banners were brought in with drum and fife accompaniment, fol- 
lowed by beautiful baskets of flowers presented on behalf of the Colonial 
Dames of America, the Colonial Dames of the State of New York, and the 
Daughters of the Revolution, and the President was as usual duly decorated 
with the historical cocked hat. 

President Wetmore made some eloquent and appropriate remarks as to 
the occasion we were celebrating, and the toasts were responded to as 
follows: 

" George Washington," by Talcott Williams, D. L. D. of Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. 

" Institutions as National Safeguards," by William B. Hornblower, Esq., 
of New York . 

"The Army," by Major-General J. Franklin Bell, U. S. A., Chief of the 
General Staff, Washington, D. C, 

"The Navy," by Rear-Admiral Joseph B. Coghlan, U. S. N., Com- 
mandant of the Navy Yard, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

An interesting feature of the occasion was the singing of the "Star 
Spangled Banner " by Mr. John C. Dempsey, director of the music in St. 
Mark's Church, New York. 

There were 318 members and guests in attendance at the Banquet and it 
was generally admitted to have been one of the most enjoyable that the 
Society has ever held. 

Among the more important committees appointed were the following: 
For the raising of funds for Fraunces Tavern; a Library Committee to have 
charge of the library and all historical relics that are now owned, or may 
hereafter come into the possession of the Society, and to arrange for their pres- 
ervation and exhibition in Fraunces Tavern; Committee to take charge of the 
inaugural ceremonies incident to the formal opening of Fraunces Tavern on 
December 4, 1907. 

Resolutions to the Legislature of the State of New York were adopted 
setting forth the desirability of having a suitable museum building on the 
grounds of Washington's Headquarters at Newburgh, New York, 

6 



At the solicitation of the General Historian of the Sons of the Revolu- 
tion, Mr. Holdridge O. Collins, resolutions were adopted appealing to the 
Congress of the United States to cause to be published the records and docu- 
ments of the several Continental Congresses, and the official correspondence, 
muster rolls of troops, sailors and marines, orders and returns, and other pub- 
lic documents relating to the War of the Revolution — hitherto unpublished — 
as same are in danger of being effaced by age, lost or destroyed. This was 
also transmitted to each Senator and Representative from the State of New 
York, requesting their efforts to secure enactment. 

Steps were taken to endeavor to secure the exemption from taxation of 
Fraunces Tavern, the home of the Society. 

Ten illustrations were furnished to illustrate the History of the General 
and State Societies of the Sons of the Revolution, at the request of the Gen- 
eral Secretary, Mr. James Mortimer Montgomery. 

On June 30th, 1906, the members of the Sons of the Revolution, belong- 
ing to the Union Club of New York City, formally presented to the Club, a 
copy of the Yale University portrait of George Washington, painted by Col. 
John Trumbull in 1792. The reproduction was the work of Mr. Samuel 
Isham, N. A., and has been placed in a large panel in the front reading 
room of the Club House. 

An attractive flag card notice was issued to the members stating the 
holidays when the American flag should be displayed and the proper manner 
for so doing. The days designated were as follows: 

Lincoln's Birthday, February 12th, 

Washington's Birthday, February 22nd, 

Battle of Lexington, April 19th, 

Memorial Day, May 30th, 

Flag Day, June 14th 

Battle of Bunker Hill, . June 17th, 

Independence Day, July 4th, 

Battle of Saratoga, October 17th, 

Surrender at Yorktown, October 19th, 

Evacuation Day, November 25th. 

During the year just past, the Real Estate Committee have dilligently 
supervised the restoration of Fraunces Tavern along the lines laid down in 
their last report to the Society. So far as the reconstruction is concerned, the 
work is done. How well and how satisfactorily it has been accomplished, is 
for the members to judge. Fraunces Tavern is restored, and on the afternoon 
of the day of the reading of this report, it will have been dedicated as a per- 
petual monument to the memory of Washington and his associates. 



The Essay Committee recommended sending out the notices on the first 
of October, with the request that the essays be handed in by the first of 
March, and instead of gold, silver and bronze medals, for the first, second and 
third prizes respectively, bronze medals were offered in each case, with $50 
for the first and $25 for the second. 

As a result of these changes sixty nine essays were received, as compared 
with twenty-nine the previous year, and forty-three schools were represented. 
The subject selected was " Robert Morris and His Financial Sendees in the 
Revolution," and the winners of the prizes were: first Otto J. Schultes, of 
the Buffalo Central High School; second, E. Richmond Sartwell of the same 
school, and third, Lynn G. Goodnough, of the Cornwall-on-Hudson High 
School. 

The Society has during the year received courteous invitations to ban- 
quets as follows: 

Society of the Cincinnati. 

Colonial Wars. 

Military Society of the War of 1812. 

Military Order of Foreign Wars. 

Holland Society. 

Friendty Sons of St. Patrick. 

Saint Andrew's Society. 

Society of Mayflower Descendants. 

The Evacuation Day Luncheon of the Daughters of the Revolution, and 
to celebrations from: 

President of the Park Board, City of New York, to celebration at Wash- 
ington's Headquarters, Feb. 22nd, and Loan Collection of Revolutionary 
Relics, May 28th. 

Lafayette Post, G. A. R., Unveiling of tablet, " Washington at Prayer," 
on the Sub Treasury New York. 

Colonial Dames of America, Dedication of Memorial Gates at Jamestown 
Island. 

Woman's Club of Richmond, Ya., Reception. 

National Society of Colonial Dames, Presentation of the first church to 
Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. 

Virginia Society of Colonial Dames, Trip on Steamer Pocahontas to 
Jamestown. 

Daughters of the American Revolution to Transfer of their Memorial 
Building to Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. 

Joint Committee of Patriotic Societies; Reception in Commemoration of 
the Sendees of Patriot Sons of the City of Boston. Church Service of the 



Pennsylvania Society, Sons of the Revolution; Church Service of the Military 
Order of the Loyal Legion, New York. 

The Society was also asked to send a representation to the unveiling of 
tablets in the Hall of Fame at the New York University, and to unveil the 
tablet erected to James Madison. This service was performed by Mr. 
Howard R. Bayne, who delivered an address. 

Resolutions of regret were adopted by the Board of Managers on the death 
of our fellow member, Charles R. Henderson, and the Secretary was directed 
to have same suitably engrossed and sent to his family. 

The recommendation of the Nominating Committee was approved, that 
they be authorized to renominate one of the Vice-Presidents, if deemed 
desirable. 

The work of our Chapters for the year 1907 has been most efficient. 

The Philip Livingston Chapter at Albany, New York, held its Annual 
Meeting and Banquet at the Fort Orange Club, Albany, on the evening of 
January 22nd, 1907. Regent Munson was toastmaster and speeches were 
made by Governor Hughes, Kdmund Wetmore, President of the New York 
Society, Sons of the Revolution, Mr. Joseph A. Lawton, Lieutenant Governor 
Chanler and Senator Alfred R. Page. 

The exercises attending the Dedication of the Memorial to Colonel 
Marinus Willett in Washington Park, Albany, N. Y. were held on Thursday, 
October 31st, 1907, at 3 p.m. The members of the Chapter and their guests 
marched to the boulder and the tablet was unveiled by Miss Amy T. Munson, 
daughter of the Regent. Delegates were present from the Board of 
Managers of our Society, and also from other kindred societies. Regent 
Munson conducted the ceremonies. Edgar C. Leonard delivered an address, 
giving a history of the work of the committees and the difficulties encountered 
in their work, and Mayor Gans accepted the Memorial on behalf of the City 
of Albany. The gathering then adjourned to the First Presbyterian Church 
nearby, where the Rev. Dr. Whittaker made an address on "The Honor of 
Heroism. ' ' At the conclusion of the exercises a luncheon was served at the 
Fort Orange Club. 

The Buffalo Association held four meetings during the } T ear, at each of 
which meetings papers on patriotic subjects were read. On September 18, 
1907, the members met at the Central High School to award the prizes given 
by the " Essay Committee," of our Society. 

The William Floyd Chapter of Troy, N. Y., held its annual meeting in 
January, 1907 at which the annual election was held. On this occasion the 
flag of the Society was presented to the Chapter by the Regent, Col. Walter 
P. Warren, and a speech was made by Frank W. Thomas. Following this 

9 



the Right Reverend John Walsh delivered an address on " Religious Tolera- 
tion expressed in the Constitution of the United States." 

On June 17, 1907, the members visited Van Schaick Island, where the 
last council of war was held prior to the Battle of Saratoga. Addresses were 
made by Hon. Hugh Hastings and Mr. F. W. Thomas, and resolutions were 
adopted appointing a committee to preserve this historic spot from vandalism. 

The Chapter has also given three cups to local companies of the New 
York State Militia as an incentive to encourage their interest in military 
matters. 

The Fort Schuyler Chapter of Utica, N. Y., held its annual banquet at 
the Fort Schuyler Club in Utica on February 26, 1907. 

The Orange County Chapter of Goshen, N. Y., will soon hold its annual 
meeting. 

The Jamestown Chapter presented a handsome silk American Flag to 
Camp Porter, of the Spanish-American War. The presentation was made by 
Dr. William M. Bemus, the Regent, who delivered an eloquent address, at 
the Armory of Company E, Sixty-fifth Regiment, National Guard, State of 
New York. In accordance with its usual custom the Chapter also presented 
two prizes to the students of the Jamestown High School for the best essays 
on the subject of " The Significance, Importance and Effect of the Settlement 
at Jamestown, Virginia." 

The office of the Secretary of the Society was moved to Fraunces Tavern 
on May 1, 1907, and the Board of Managers held their first meeting there on 
May 20, 1907. 

The ground floor and basement have been leased to Mr. Emil Wester- 
burg, who will run a restaurant on the premises, for ten years from May 1, 
1907 at an annual rental of $4,000. Arrangements have also been made for 
him to act as superintendent of the building. All of the floors above the street 
are to be used by the Society. 

On June 1, 1907, the Secretary was authorized to notify the members that 
the Society was in possession of the building and the fourth floor dining room 
was then opened to all who had membership cards, which could be had on 
application. 

An appropriate bracket sign on the corner of the building has been 
designed by Mr. Charles Isham. In the " Eong Room ' an historical tablet 
has been placed reading as follows: 

"FRAUNCES TAVERN." 
1719. Erected. 
1762. Queen's Head Tavern. 
1768. Chamber of Commerce founded here. 

10 



Headquarters of Committee of Fifty-one, 1774. 

December 4, 1783, This room was the scene of the "Farewell of General 
Washington to his Officers." 

December 4, 1883, Sons of the Revolution reorganized here. 

1904. The property purchased by the Sons of the Revolution in the 
State of New York. 

December 4, 1907. Formal occupation taken by the Sons of the 
Revolution. 

A tablet commemorative of the purchase and reconstruction of the build- 
ing by the Real Estate Committee has been placed on the fourth floor. 

The Tallmadge Memorial Tablet, bearing his portrait, has been designed 
by Mr. Albert Weinert, and will be in place to be unveiled on December 4, 
1907. Behind it in the masonry is a copper box which will contain memori- 
als, photographs and records of the Society, the selection of which has been 
assigned to the General Secretary, Mr. James Mortimer Montgomery. The 
furnishing of Fraunces Tavern was referred to the Real Estate Committee to 
which was added Mr. Charles Isham. 

The " L,ong Room" has been furnished with twenty mahogany chairs, 
reproduced from one made about 1770, which belonged to Col. Benjamin 
Tallmadge, of the Revolution, and was presented to the Society by Mrs. 
Mary Floyd Tallmadge Seymour, sister of our late President, Frederick S. 
Tallmadge. The long table occupying the centre of the room was constructed 
from the original oak floor beams which were obtained by the Society in 1890 
when alterations were being made to the building. A handsome green rug 
covers the floor. 

The museum room on the third floor has been filled with handsome 
mahogany show cases for exhibition purposes. We will be pleased to hear 
from those who have relics or documents relating to the War of the Revolu- 
tion which they desire to contribute to the Society's collection. It is to be 
hoped that ere long the cases may be filled with interesting and desirable 
historical material. 

It is proposed in the near future to issue an illustrated historical pamphlet 
descriptive of the Tavern. 

Permission has been given the Society of the War 18 12 to hold their 
meetings in Fraunces Tavern, and on our invitation the Daughters of the 
Revolution made use of rooms in the building on the 25th of November 1907, 
for their annual luncheon, in celebration of " Evacuation Day". 

The Committee appointed to make arrangements for the formal opening 
adopted the following preamble and resolutions: 

11 



Wheras, it is proposed to take formal possession of Fraunces Tavern on 
December 4, 1907, the anniversary of Washington's farewell to his officers, 
and of the organtzing of the Sons of the Revolution. 

Resolved, That the President be requested to invite the President of the 
United States, and those whom he may wish to designate to accompany him, 
to declare that Fraunces Tavern, having been acquired by the Sons of the 
Revolution and reconstructed, is now a historical monument, and, as such, is 
opened by the Sons of the Revolution. 

Resolved, That the Officers and Board of Managers of the Sons of the 
Revolution request the honor of the company of the President of the United 
States with his party at a reception to be tendered to him at the Chamber of 
Commerce on the afternoon of the da} r on which he opens Fraunces Tavern 
as aforesaid. 

Resoeved, That to defray the expenses of the reception and collation 
given to the President at the Chamber of Commerce on December 4, the 
charge for tickets to members will be fixed at $3.00 each. 

Mr. Morris K. Jesup, President of the New York Chamber of Commerce 
offered the use of the Chamber of Commerce to the Society for the reception 
on December 4, 1907. 

The President of the United States, the Governor of the State of New 
York and the Mayor of the City of New York, were invited and have expressed 
their intention to be present if possible. 

Committees to take charge of the various necessary arrangements have 
been duly appointed. 

There have been admitted during the year eighty-one new members, and 
the Society now numbers two thousand and twenty-two, a net gain of 
thirteen. 

The Secretary desires to express his thanks to his assistant, Mr. Louis B. 
Wilson for his faithful and efficient help during the past year. 

For the Board of Managers, 

Henry Russelx Drowne, 
Fraunces Tavern, New York City. Secretary. 



12 



OFFICERS 1907. 

President : 
Edmund Wetmore, 34 Pine Street. 

First Vice-President : 
John C. Tomlinson, 15 Broad Street. 

Second Vice-President : 
August Belmont, 23 Nassau Street. 

Third Vice-President : 
Dallas B. Pratt, 52 William Street. 

Secretary : 
Henry Russell Drowne, Fraunces Tavern. 

Treasurer : 
Arthur Melvin Hatch, 96 Broadway. 

Registrar : 
Henry Phelps Johnston, 17 Lexington Avenue. 

Chapeain : 
Rev. Dr. Morgan Dix, 27 West 25th Street. 

Assistant Chaplain : 
Rev. Frank I,. Humphreys, S. T. D., Morristown, N. J. 

Historian : 
Talbot Olyphant, 32 Nassau Street. 

Board of Managers : 
John Hone, 52 Broadway. 
Charles Francis Roe, 280 Broadway. 
Robert Olyphant, 17 Battery Place. 
Clark Williams, 26 Nassau Street. 
William Graves Bates, 128 Broadway. 
Charles R. Henderson, 24 Nassau Street. 

13 



Samuel L,. Munson, Albany, N. Y. 

Rev. Charles E. Bragler, Port Chester, N. Y. 

Joseph Tompkins Low, 41 Liberty Street. 

William W. Ladd, 20 Nassau Street. 

Philip Livingston, 992 Fifth Avenue. 

Hugh Hastings, 31 Chambers Street. 

Levi C. Weir, 59 Broadway. 

Clarence Storm, 100 Broadway. 

Lorillard Spencer, Newport, R. I. 

Henry D. Babcock, 17 Broad Street. 

Frederic W. Jackson, Westchester, N. Y. 

Chapters. 
Buffalo Association, Buffalo, N. Y., George A. Stringer, Regent. 

George W. Comstock, Secretary, 124 Lexington Ave., Buffalo, N. \ 
Philip Livingston Chapter, Albany, N. Y., Samuel L- Munson, Regent. 

William A. Wallace, Secretary, 199 Lancaster St., Albany, N. Y. 
William Floyd Chapter, Troy, N. Y., Walter P. Warren, Regent. 

William Barker, Jr., Secretary, 7 Hawthorne St., Troy, N. Y. 
Fort Schuyler Chapter, Utica, N. Y., Henry J. Cookinham, Regent. 

William L. Watson, Secretary, 240 Genesee St., Utica, N. Y. 
Orange County Chapter, Goshen, N. Y., Roswell W. Chamberlain, Regent. 

Edwin J. Dikeman, Secretary, Goshen, N. Y. 
Jamestown Chapter, Jamestown, N. Y., Dr. William M. Bemus, Regent. 

Frank H. Mott, Secretary, Fen ton Building, Jamestown, N. Y. 

Executive Committee. 
John Hone, Chairman, Joseph T. Low, 

William G. Bates, 
President, Secretary and Treasurer ex-ofncio. 

Real Estate Committee. 

Robert Olyphant, Chairman, James M. Montgomery, 

Charles R. Henderson, Henry A. Wilson, 

Alexander R. Thompson, Arthur M. Hatch, 

Charles Isham. 

Membership Committee. 

George DeForest Barton, Chairman, 150 Broadway. 

Silas Wodell, 149 Broadway. 

Wyllys Terry, 60 Wall Street. 

Landreth H. King, Room 517, Grand Central Station. 

14 



Edward L,. Parris, 239 Broadway. 

Richard A. Wilson, 499 Monroe St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Alfred B. Robinson, 206 Broadway. 

Caldwell R. Blakeman, 107 Front Street. 

Benjamin W. B. Brown, 18 Wall Street. 

Talbot Root, 52 Broadway. 

Historical Committee. 

Howard R. Bayne, Chairman, David Cromwell, 

Capt. John R. Totten, Frank W. Jackson, M. D. 

Samuel V, Hoffman. 

Essay Committee. 

Marcins D. Raymond, Chairman, Rev. Howard Duffield, D.D 
R. Russell Requa, Augustus Floyd, 

Richard Henry Greene. 

Ljbrary Committee. 

Capt. John R. Totten, Chairman, Prof. Henry P. Johnston 

Beverly Chew. 

Tablet Committee. 

James M. Montgomery, Chairman, Dallas Bache Pratt, 
Henry Phelps Johnston, Henry Russell Drowne, 

Alexander R. Thompson. 

Stewards. 

Eugene K. Austin, Chairman, Rufus I. Shea, 

John C. Jay, Jr., William Floyd, 

Charles H. Woodruff, Jr., Charles E. Warren. 

Marshall. 
John Butterfield Holland. 

Aides. 

James Wray Cleveland, Robert Kelly Prentice, 

Albert Delafield, Talbot Root, 

DeWitt Clinton Falls, George Albert Wingate 

Francis L,. V. Hoppin. 

15 



Annual Church Service. 

Aisle Committee. 
Talbot Olyphant, Chat? man. 
Benjamin W. B. Brown, Charles King Morrison, 

Banyer Clarkson, Alexander Dallas Bache Pratt, 

Robert Grier Cooke, Henry Gansevoort Sanford, 

Joseph N. Lord Edmonds, Arthur Frederick Schermerhorn , 

Morris Douw Ferris, Edward Gibert Schermerhorn, 

George Hewlett, Charles Hitchcock Sherrill, 

John Clarkson Jay, Jr., Prentice Strong, 

S. Vernon Mann, Herman Knickerbocker Viele, 

Benjamin Brandreth McAlpin, Charles Elliott Warren, 

Richard Malcolm Montgomery, Jr., Charles Hornblower Woodruff, Jr. 

Frederick Sanford Woodruff. 

Publication Committee. 

James M. Montgomery, Charles Isham, 

Henry Russell Drowne. 

Excursion Committee. 

James M. Montgomery, Chairman, John B. Holland, 
Clarence Storm, Col. William G. Bates. 

Auditing Committee. 
Charles R. Henderson, Chairman, Robert Olyphant, 

Joseph T. Low. 

For Raising Funds for Fraunces Tavern. 

Morris K. Jesup, Col. William G. Bates, 

Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Joseph T. Low, 

George C. Buell, Charles H. Williams, 

Daniel N. Crouse, Frank E. Tilford, 

George C. Rand, Henry B. Barnes. 

Committee on Formal Opening of Fraunces Tavern. 

Edmund Wetmore, Chairman, Robert Olyphant, 

John Hone. James Mortimer Montgomery, 

Henry Melville. 



16 



MEMBERS ADMITTED. 

Frank Demoth Eaton, New York City. 
James Rowe Stewart, New York City. 
Fred Kingsland Dodd, New York City. 
Harry Horton Benkard, New York City. 
Rev. Frank Warfield Crowder, New Brighton, N. Y. 
Charles Lewis Parmelee, New York City. 
Morris Miller Davidson, Firthcliffe, N. Y. 
Frederick Howard Wells, Albany, N. Y. 
Robert Leonard Ide, New York Cit j^ . 
Charles Cumberson Boyle, M.D., New York City. 
Charles Percy Letting, Jr., New York City. 
William Arnold Bradley, Pleasantville, N. Y. 
Harry Van der Veer DeHart, Paterson, N. J. 
Nathan Gross Bozeman, M.D., New York City. 
Oscar Theodore Barck, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Peveril Meigs, Jr., Flushing, N. Y. 
Edward Hyde Wells, Albany, N. Y. 
Charles Gray Shaw, New York City. 
Lawrence Eugene Sexton, New York City. 
John Noble Stearns, Jr., New York City. 
George Woodbury Bunnell, Jr., Plainfield, N. J.- 
Herbert Wallace Todd, New York City. 
George Jones Bailey, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Perry Curtis Todd, New York City. 
Raymond Dart Whitmore, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Henry Fletcher, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Louis Wright Simpson, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Robert Hart Rountree, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Arthur Howland Brett, Albany, N. Y. 
Frank Blair Rathburn, Utica, N. Y. 
Henry Clay Colver, New York City. 
Frederick Melvin Crossett, New York City. 
Edwin Van Deusen Gazzam, M.D., Utica, N. Y. 
Elias Ogden Ross, Troy, N. Y. 

17 



Robert Hal lam Thompson, Troy, N. Y. 

Arvin Wood Harrington, Jr., Troy, N. Y. 

Rev. Berry Oakley Baldwin, Scarborough, N. Y. 

William Henry Porter, M.D., New York City. 

Valentine Everit Root, New York City. 

Richards Kellogg, Troy, N. Y. 

Edgar Hayes Betts, Troy, N. Y. 

Rev. David Otis Mears, D.D., Albany, N. Y. 

Austin Kent Muzzey, Utica, N. Y. 

Fenimore Daniel Beagle, Albany, N. Y. 

Morris Henry Brown, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Edwin Welles Kellogg, M.D., New York City. 

George Abijah Mosher, Troy, N. Y. 

Robert Eliot Foote, Troy, N. Y. 

James Thomas Edwards, Randolph, N. Y. 

Robert Hynson Van Court, New York City. 

Horace Holley Dall, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Charles Webb, New York City. 

Charles Greer, Rye, N. Y. 

Edmond Brockholst Walker, Nyack, N. Y. 

Gilbert Van Evera Schenck, Rensselaer, N. Y. 

John Calvin Griswold, New York City. 

Norman Lawrence Bates, Oswego, N. Y. 

Alain Campbell White, New York City. 

Harvey Klapp Lines, Flushing, N. Y. 

Francis Sherman Bacon, New York City. 

James Rhodes Pierson, New York City. 

Emerson Chamberlin, Summit, N. J. 

Rudolph Herbert Fischer, New York City. 

Robert Weld, New York City. 

J. Edward Weld, New York City. 

Sidney Schieffelin Schuyler, Plainfield, N. J. 

Frank Brookrleld, New York City. 

Andrew James Gilmour, M. D., New York City. 

Gilbert Wesley Strong, Sherman, N. Y. 

Schuyler Brush Knox, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Benjamin Richards, New York City. 

Laurence Alexander Mack. New York City. 

Lieut. Sherburne Whipple U. S. A., New York.'City 

Dudley Hunt Walbridge, New York City. 

18 



Frederick Coffin Pollard, New York City. 

Rev. Edwin Walter Colloque, Mohegan, N. Y. 

Philip Louis Watkins, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Robert Abraham Burbank, New York City. 

Chester Hughes Kirk, transferred from Pennsylvania Society. 

Gerardus Clarkson, Transferred from Pennsylvania Society. 

Daniel Ellis Woodhull, Transferred from New Jersey Society. 

RESIGNATIONS. 

Charles M. Dennison Jr. Worthington C. Ford, 

George W. Johnston, Percy Van D. Gott, 

George S. Ryer, Samuel I. Perry, 

George E. Throop, William Skinner, 
Francis G. Wood. 

TRANSFERS. 

Charles J. Lynn, to Indiana Society. 

Arthur Mathewson, M. D. to District of Columbia Society. 

Isaac H. Piatt, M. D. to Pennsylvania Society. 

Rt. Rev. James H. Darlington D. D. to Pennsylvania Society. 

LIST OF BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, ETC., RECEIVED 

TITLES DONOR 

New York in the Revolution and Supple- 
ment, Wm. W. Atwood. 

Canadian Archives, 1905, Vols. 1, 2, George F. O'Halloran, Archivist. 

Daughters of the American Revolution, 

8th Report, 1904-1905, Dr. Marcus Benjamin. 

Missouri Society, S. of R. Register 

1904-1906, Henry Cadle, Secretary. 

James Mitchell Varnum, Sketch of Life, Genl. James M. Varnum. 

Joseph Bradley Varnum, Sketh of Life, Genl. James M. Varnum. 

Colonial Wars, Supplement to General 

Register, 1906, Henry G. Sanford, Secretary, 

Halfway Brook, in History, James Austin Holden. 

Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors, 

Vol. XV, Wm. M. Olin. 

New York State Historical Association, 

Vol. VI, Robert O. Bascom, Secretary. 

Library of Congress Report, 1902-1903, Herbert Putnam, Librarian. 

19 



TITLES 
Les Combattants Francais de la Guerre 
Amerieaine, 

The Varnums of Draycutt, 
Pennsylvania Society S. of R. Year 

Book i 89 i, 
Pennsylvania Society S. of R. Register 

1895. 
Massachusetts Society, S. of R. Register 

1893. 
New Jersey Society, S. of R. Register 

1892, 
Colonial Wars, The Great Swamp Fight 

Monument, 
District of Columbia Society, S. of R., 

Year Book, 1907, 
"The First American Soldiers", 
New Jersey Archives, Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 

10, 18 and Index, 

Song "Motherland", 

Union Club Book 1907, 

The Great Swamp Fight Monument, 

Pennsylvania Archives, 5th series, Vols. 

1 to 8 inclusive, Pennsylvania 

State Library, 
California Society, >S. of R., Report 1907, 

Colonial Wars in the State of California, 

Report 1907. 
Commemoration of the Fourth Centenary 

of the Discovery of America, 

Madrid Exposition, 

Pennsylvania Society, S. of R., Proceed- 
ings, 1906-1907, 

Department of Education, Report 1905- 
1906 and Supplement, 

Loyal Legion, Announcements, 
Society of the Cincinnati in Virginia, 

Pamphlets, 
Colonial and Revolution Events, 
New York Historical Society Publica- 
tions, 32 Vols. 
St. Nicholas Society, Year Book 1907, 
Register for Secretary's Office, 



DONOR 

Rufus I. Shea. 

Genl. James M. Varnum. 

Talbot Olyphant. 

Talbot Olyphant. 

Talbot Olyphant. 

Talbot Olyphant. 

Henry G. Sanford, Secretary. 

Dr. Marcus Benjamin, Secretary. 
Spencer P. Mead, L. L. B. 

Henry A. Wilson. 
Mrs. Jennie T. Powers, 
Franklin Bartlett, Secretary. 
William C. Greene. 



Thos. L. Montgomery, Librarian. 
Holdridge O. Collins. 



Holdridge O. Collins. 



Rear Admiral Stephen P. Luce, 

U. S. N. 

Ethan Allen Weaver, Secretary. 

Andrew S. Draper, Commissioner. 
Col. W. R. Smedberg, Recorder. 

Heth Lorton. 
Hudson Riley. 

Clarence Storm. 

Charles Isham, Secretary. 

Unz & Co. 



20 



TITLES 



DONOR 



Regimental Colors in the War of the 
Revolution, 

Mead Family, Index to Genealogy,! 

Report of Hearing on Bill to Preserve 
State House, Boston, 

Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, 123rd 
Anniversary Dinner, 

Genealogy, Branch of Edward's Family, J. H. Edwards. 

Society of Colonial Works Year Book 

1 906- 1 907, Henry G. Sanford, Sec'y. 



Gherardi Davis. 
Spencer P. Mead. 

Hazard Stevens. 

T. F. Conway, Secretary. 



From John Austin Stevens. 



Authors. 



Chamber of Commerce Report , 1 900- 1 90 1 , 
Minutes of the Common Council, of the 
City of New York, 1675-1776, 8 
Volumes, 
Massachusetts Historical Society, Pro- 
ceedings, 6 Volumes, 1879-1881, 
1894-1895, 1903-1905, 

History of Dong Island, 2 Volumes, 

Calendar of Wills, 

Colonial Records of the New York 
Chamber of Commerce, 1768-1784, 

Centennial Celebrations of the State of 
New York, 

The Flag of the United States and other 
National Flags, 

The Writings of George Washington, 1st 
Edition, 12 Volumes, 

Centennial Celebration of the Evacuation 
of New York, by the British, 

Portrait Gallery of the Chamber of Com- 
merce , 

The Magazine of American History, 
Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 

Complete History of the United States, 

History of New York during the Revolu- 
tionary War, 2 Volumes, 



Benjamin F. Thompson. 
Berthold Fernow. 

John Austin Stevens. 

Allen C. Beach. 

Rear Admiral George Henry Preble, 

U. S. N. 

Jared Sparks. 

John Austin Stevens. 

George W. Wilson, Secretary. 



J. A. Spencer, D. D., and Bensoa 
J. Dossing, D. D. D. 

Thomas Jones. 



21 



TITLES 

Memoirs of the Administrations of Wash- 
ington and Adams, 2 Volnmes, 
English Colonies in America, 
Life of Benjamin Franklin, 3 Volumes, 

Annals of Trinity Church, Newport, 

R. I., 2 Volumes, 
Reunion of the Sons and Daughters of 

Newport, R. I. 
Daughters of the Revolution and Their 

Times, 

Heroes of the Navy in America, 

An Express of '76, 

Margaret Moncrieffe, 

In the Shadow of the Lord, 

In Old New York, 

The Half Moon Series: 
The Bowery, 

Old Greenwich, 

Old Taverns and Posting Inns, 

New Amsterdam Family Names and 
their Origin, 

The Battle of Harlem Heights, 

Old Wells and Water Courses of the 
Island of Manhattan, 



DONOR 



George Gibbs, 

J. A. Doyle, M. A. 

John Bigelow. 

George C. Mason. 

George C. Mason. 

Charles C. Coffin. 
Charles Morris. 
Lindley M. Hubbard. 
Charles Burdett. 
Mrs. Hugh Fraser. 
Thomas A. Janvier. 

E. R. Hewett and Mary A. Hewett. 
Elizabeth Bisland. 
Elizabeth B. Cutting. 

Berthold Fernow. 

Wm. R. Shepherd, Ph. D. 

George E. Hill and George E. 
Waring, Jr. 
American History Magazine, Sept. 1907. 

A History of the Schnectady Patent, Robert Ezra Huntington Terry, 

New York as it was During the Latter Part of the 18th Century, Address by 

Wm. Alexander Duer, L. L- D. 
Catalogues of Rare American Prints, Engraved Portraits and Authograph 

Letters. 
William Smith's, History of New York. 
Osgood's American Colonies. 
De Peyster's Influence of Library. 
Hale's, Round About Jamestown. 
Brook's, Conciliation with America. 
T. A. Emmett's, Battle of Harlem Heights. 
Neilson's, Burgoyne's Campaign. 
Races and Immigrants in America 



22 



MISCELLANEOUS DONATIONS, 
PICTURES, RELICS, PROGRAMMES, Etc. 



TITLES 
Copy of Miniature Portrait, • Captain 

Bezaleel Howe, 
Sons of the Revolution and ^New York 

Historical Society, Programmes, 

Menus, etc., 
Share New York Historical Society Pub- 
lication Stock, 
Photograph of Revolutionary Flag, 
Photograph of Painting by Philip Dadd, 

"A Procession of Ancestors, 
Photograph of Banquet, 
Photograph of George Washington 

Peachy , 
Bronze Medallion of Washington, in 

Frame, 

Picture, Elizabeth Grace and Rachael 

Martin, 
Picture Israel Putnam, 
Officials of the Chamber of Commerce, 

1768-1783. 
Photograph of Painting of Benjamin 

Franklin, 
Photograph of John Austin Stevens, 
Pictures of Revolutionary Officers, 

(nine in three frames.) 



DONOR 



Dr. J. Morgan Howe, 



Robert J affray. 

Clarence Storm. 
Gherardi Davis. 

Charles Benjamin Miller. 
George R. Lawrence & Co. 

Holdridge O. Collins. 

John Hone. 

EdmundJHo ward-Martin. 
Rev. Chas. E. Brugler, 

John Austin Stevens. 

John Austin Stevens. 
John Austin Stevens. 

John Austin Stevens. 



23 



REPORT 

OF THE 

HISTORIAN 



In flDemortam 



ADMITTED. 

Alonzo Coggeshall Wall, 1903 

Edwin Stanley Bender, 1904 

Alfred Wild Gardner, M. D. 1893 

Samuel George Fitzhugh Towsend, A. 

B., E. E. 1894 

William Watt Smith, 1903 

Francis Edward Doughty, M. D., 1900 

Hon. Ernest Howard Crosby, 1894 

James Albert Hay den, 1898 

Gilbert Ogden Fowler Nicoll, 1892 

George Rutledg Gibson, 1887 

Mc Laurin Jameson Pickering, 1901 

Hon. Horatio Seymour, C. E. !904 

Frank Sherman Benson, 1894 

Orson Desaix Munn, 1896 

Benjamin Franklin Lee, L. L. D., 1889 

John Nicholas Coyne, 1st Leut. N. Y. 

Vols. 1861, 
Lyman Rhoades, 
Nathaniel Blossom Hoxie, Jr. 
Hon. James M. Varnum, N. G. N. Y., 

formerly Paymaster & Surrogate, 

N. Y. County 
Cort Roadside Hincken, 
Henry DeWitt Joy, M. D. 
Joseph Edwin Potter Lord, 
George Curtis Rand, 
Brig. Gen. Henry Stuart Turrill, U. S. 

A. (Retired) 
Rev. Albert Lucius Smalley, D. D. 
Stiles Franklin Stanton, 
George Mandeville Van Saun, 



1893 
1892 

1893 



1883 
1904 
1894 
1900 
1894 

1891 
1900 
1890 
1900 



DIED. 

July 17th, 1906. 
December 5th, 1906. 
December 10th, 1906. 

December nth, 1906. 
December 28th, 1906. 
December 28th, 1906 
January 3rd, 1907. 
January 22nd, 1907. 
January 29th, 1907. 
February 6th. 1907. 
February 20th, 1907. 
February 21st, 1907. 
February 28th, 1907. 
February 28th, 1907. 
March 3rd, 1907. 

March 4th, 1907. 
March 6th, 1907. 
March 23rd, 1907. 



March 26th, 1907. 
April 1 2th, 1907. 
April 15th, 1907. 
May 1st, 1907. 
May 12th, 1907. 

May 24th. 1907. 
June 9th. 1907. 
June 15th, 1907. 
June 30th, 1907. 



27 



Col. Mason Whiting Tyler, Mass. Vol. 

1862. 1885 

Richard Henry Derby, M. D. 1890 

George Rowland, C. E. 1893 

Charles Hastings Coon, 1897 

Robert Barclay Macpherson, 1902 

Octavus Bailey L,ibbey, 1906 

Halsey Haines Cheney, 1897 

Richard L,ounsbury Purdy, 1895 

John Lowe Salter, 1893 

Charles Rapallo Henderson, 1894 

Abram G. Brower, M. D. 1903 

Charles Joseph Nourse, 1895 

Charles Roberts, 1890 

William Nathan Belcher, M. D., 1897 



July 2nd, 1907. 
July 4th, 1907. 
July 7th, 1907. 
August 9th, 1907. 
August 28th, 1907. 
August 30th, 1907. 
September 22nd, 1907 
September 25th, 1907. 
October 24th, 1907. 
October 27th, 1907. 
November 8th, 1907. 
November 18th, 1907. 
November 19th, 1907. 
November 20th , 1907. 



Respectfully submitted, 

Talbot Olyphant, 



Historian . 



28 



THE PRIZE ESSAYS 



ON 



Robert Morris and His Financial Services in 

the Revolution 



First Prize: otto j. schuxtes, 

Buffalo Central High School, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Second Prize: E. Richmond sartweix, 

Buffalo Central High School, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Third Prize: lynn g. goodnough, 

Cornwall-on-Hudson High School, 

CORNWALL-ON-HUDSON, N. Y. 



First Prize Essay 



ROBERT MORRIS was born in Liverpool, England, 1734. When 
thirteen years old, Morris came to America. Two years later he was placed 
with Charles Willing to receive a commercial education. At the age of 
twenty Morris entered into partnership with Thomas Willing, and at the 
opening of the Revolution was probably the best known, most respected and 
richest merchant in the colonies. 

The financial services of Morris fall naturally into two periods, those 
rendered before 1781 and those rendered as Superintendent of Finance. The 
former are chiefly in the shape of gifts, loans and petty financial work 
performed in Congress. The latter are those services which he rendered by 
managing the American finances in the last years of the war. 

Morris, always liberal with his wealth throughout the Revolution, 
frequently gave valuable gifts to the cause. A few days after the victory of 
Trenton, Morris, on his personal credit, borrowed $50,000 for Washington, 
thus preventing the army disbanding. During the period of 1779-80, when 
there were no cartridges, he gave the ballast of one his ships, consisting of 
ninety tons of lead, to be used in making the needed cartridges. At his own 
expense, he fitted out privateers, and often the spoils of war obtained by 
them were turned over to the army. In a similar manner throughout the war 
Morris donated monetary and other supplies pressingly needed, in some cases 
donating entire shiploads of clothing, food and arms. 

Not only, however, did he aid his country with gifts, but even before his 
appointment as Superintendent of Finance, he interested himself in the 
financial affairs of Congress. Early in his career in the Continental Congress 
he had been commissioned to negotiate bills of exchange with himself as in- 
dorser. He bought supplies for public use in his own name, thus obtaining 
them much cheaper than if purchased directly by the government. Being 
appointed a member of the Committee of Finance, he acted as agent for the 
Committee, and advanced his personal credit to the service of his country. 
In other ways he was often called on to manage the fiscal concerns of Congress. 

But chief of all of Morris' work during this period was the establishment, 
with other patriotic citizens of Philadelphia, of a bank in the year 1780. 
Subscriptions were raised among the citizens to the amount of ,£315,000, 
Morris himself heading the list with ,£10,000. The subscribers were obliged 
to pay their subscriptions when it became necessary to fulfill the bank's 



3i 



engagements. The sole purpose of the bank was to supply the army, money 
being borrowed on the bank's credit for this purpose. 

In 1781, Robert Morris was appointed Superintendent of Finance. It 
was a time of greatest distress. The army was without supplies and on the 
Terge of starvation; the finances were in a deplorable condition; the paper 
currency was totally depreciated, the treasury exhausted and about two and 
one-half millions in arrears, the government credit almost destroyed and the 
financial and commissary departments thrown into great confusion because 
of former mismanagement and extravagance. At such a time, under such con- 
ditions, Robert Morris was called upon to manage the Department of Finance. 

Good results were obtained, however, as soon as Morris took charge of 
the financial department. The affairs of the department were placed in order; 
economy took the place of extravagance and this economy enabled supplies 
to be more cheaply and exactly bought by means of contracts. Public 
deficiencies began to vanish. Through Morris' exertions funds were provided 
and engagements kept. Military operations were no longer detained by a 
lack of supplies, because Morris pledged himself personally, when necessity 
demanded, for absolutely necessary supplies. Thus this citizen supplied, to 
some extent unaided, food and munitions to maintain an army. 

One of the first important operations of Morris as Superintendent of Finance 
was the establishment of the Bank of North America. Needing money badly 
and being able to borrow little directly on the government credit, Congress' 
best means of obtaining funds was through the medium of a bank. So, 
through the efforts of Morris, the Bank of North America was established with a 
capital of $300, 000. Within six months after the establishment, it had advanced, 
for the use of the government in carrying on the war, the sum of $480,000. 
By means of this bank, public confidence was increased, the bank notes 
formed a reliable currency and new vigor was given to trade, a large amount 
of money long concealed, but now deposited, being put into circulation. 

General Green, during his heroic struggle in the south, was greatly 
aided by Morris. The financier employed an agent to accompany Greene's 
army. When Greene was in the direst extremity, the agent was authorized 
to advance small sums of money. While Morris desired to do much more, he 
could not, for the reason that many of the Southern States made no requisitions 
to Congress whatever. He did all he could, however, at one time sending 
Greene ^1,000 in gold, at another time the proceeds from the sale of a ship's 
cargo. Often Greene drew notes on the financier, which were always honored, 
though Morris had sometimes to pay them from his own pocket. It would not 
be too much to say that Morris was one of the chief means by which Greene 
was enabled to continue his wonderful struggle. 

32 



"In the capture of Cornwallis (the campaign decisive of the long and 
doubtful struggle) the energy, perseverance and financial talents of Morris 
united with the wisdom and bravery of Washington in deciding the fate of 
the Union." Suddenly forced to change his plan of action, Washington 
needed cannon, supplies and money to make his campaign against Cornwal- 
lis successful. All depended on these which Morris, was to furnish from an 
empty treasury. But Morris, with the zeal of a true patriot, raised every 
cent he could command, Uhing all his ready wealth, borrowing from his 
friends, and pledging his own credit by issuing personal notes to the amount 
of $1,400,000. Had it not been for Morris the campaign at Yorktown could 
never have been carried out. 

Though he did not believe in a paper currency, Morris made strenuous 
efforts to secure a reliable one. The depreciation of the paper issued by 
Congress and the want of a solid circulating medium were the chief causes of 
public and private distress. To remedy these wants, Congress, at the 
suggestion of Morris, made the notes of the Bank of North America a currency 
with which taxes, duties, etc., might be paid. To keep these notes from de- 
preciating in value, Morris established a private bank. Here, where a 
great amount of gold and silver coin was displayed, all bank notes were 
promptly paid in gold or silver. The effect of this was to establish a confi- 
dence in the notes, thereby introducing a more reliable currency, than hither- 
to and giving a new vigor to trade. Again, Morris did his utmost to raise 
the value of the Pennsylvania currencj'-, for it had been given to Congress as 
a fund from which to purchase specific supplies. To raise its value, Morris 
sold bills of exchange, receiving in payment Pennsylvania paper, which he 
paid out at a lower rate of depreciation. Finally, towards the last of his 
administration, being greatly in need of money, he signed and put into cir~ 
culation personal obligations to the amount of $581,000. 

The exertions of Robert Morris to establish a solid credit for his country 
were stupendous. Though the government credit was almost totally destroyed 
at the time of his appointment as Superintendent of Finance, he nevertheless set 
about to build it up. He abolished all fraud and false dealing. He complied 
faithfully with every engagement he made, thereby restoring public confidence 
and making contractors eager to sell supplies to the government, since they 
knew they would receive payment. He advanced his personal credit to the 
use of his country. So high was the credit which Morris tendered freely to 
his country, that supplies were furnished without question if he pledged him- 
self for their payment, and the American Minister to France said that the 
good consequence of the appointment of Robert Morris as Superintendent of 
Finance was evident with regard to the rising credit of the United States and 

33 



the value of American bills. Thus one might say that it was not so much the 
credit of Congress as the credit of the financier that furnished the supplies 
throughout the last years of the war. 

But all his efforts proved unavailing. Nearly the only source of revenue 
was the requisitions of the States. These requisitions were shamefully paid. 
A large portion of Morris' time was spent in eloquently urging, pleading, 
praying the States to make their required contributions. But all without avail. 
Morris, besides various supplies, received only $100,000 from the States. 
Without revenue the public debt remained unfunded and unpaid. Finally, 
not even enough revenue was obtained to furnish necessary supplies. A five 
percent, impost on imports and prizes, suggested by Morris, failed because a 
few States would not agree to it. In November, 1784, having for a time 
carried on the financial affairs solely on his own credit, Morris was forced to 
resign his position. 

For any single one of the services which Morris rendered, a country should 
have been filled with boundless gratitude. For introducing currencies much 
better than those ever circulated before, for the establishment of two banks with 
which to bolster up the country's failing credit, for the many times when he 
saved the country by furnishing supplies from his own wealth, preventing the 
army disbanding, for aiding Greene's army, for making possible the victory 
at Yorktown, for almost entirely on his own credit supporting a costly war for 
three long years; for these and other splendid services any country should 
have been grateful. For these, however, Morris was allowed to linger in a 
debtor's prison and die, in 1806, penniless and almost friendless. 

What Washington was in the guidance of the American armies, what 
Franklin was in American diplomacy, all that was Morris in the management 
of the American finances. Only Morris could have done that which Morris 
did. Only his credit could supply the armies during the last terrible years of 
the war. Only his talents could plan the expedients and manage the finances 
of a country almost without revenue and yet engaged in an expensive war. 
Only a man of his type could have given his wealth so freely and so willingly 
to aid his struggling country. And only a man of his character would have 
the endurance, the energy, the perservance, the courage necessary to bear the 
weight of a Department of Finance, receiving practically nothing and yet forced 
to expend twenty million annually. Without Morris, all the physical force 
of the country would have been unavailing, and, as an Italian historian said: 
"Americans certainly owed, and still owe, as much acknowledgment to the 
financial operations of Robert Morris as to the negotiations of Benjamin 
Franklin, or even to the arms of Washington. 

Otto J. Schultes. 
34 



Second Prize Essay 



The outbreak of the Revolutionary War produced a social and economic 
upheaval in the United States, which like all other violent changes, was the 
source of a' number of varied and contradictory effects. While the ultimate 
tendency of these changes was of an advantageous character, their immediate 
effect was most depressing. The state of mind of a people released, suddenly, 
from the control of a powerful government, and placed under an authority, 
whose power emanated from themselves, was of necessity weak and vacillating, 
The responsibilities of government were not fixed and the entire social fabric 
was chaos and disorder. 

The Continental Congress was the nominal head of the country, but it 
was practically powerless. The members derived their authority, unstable as 
it was, from the state assemblies which elected them. The assemblies, far 
from being sovereign, legislative bodies, acted by means of recommendations 
to the town which disposed of them in town-meetings. Thus, the real power 
in matters of political interest seated with the individual in the petty local 
assemblies. 

The fear of unpopularity and the dread of an averse public opinion were 
ever before the men who held the administrative and legislative offices of the time. 
This fear caused them to hesitate when action, however imperative or neces- 
sary, was contemplated, which might operate to prejudice them in the minds 
of the small local groups which each of them represented. 

This condition instead of disappearing grew more pernicious as the war 
advanced. The much heralded benefits of freedom did not at once materialize. 
The Utopian dreams of the rights of men, prompted by the pre-Revolutionary 
debates, failed of their fulfillment. 

Congress was at the mercy of public opinion. It labored under the influ- 
ence of the popular prejudices as to civil liberty and personal rights, whicn had 
developed in the course of colonial existence. It was also imbued with the 
administrative ideas which had characterized colonial government among 
which was the device of doing the executive work of the government, by means 
of committees, thus withholding the executive power from any single man. 

While this device succeeded in limiting the power of the executive govern- 
ment, it lost a more vital attribute of governing power, the sense of respons- 
ibility. 

35 



The effect of all this was demoralizing to the whole executive depart- 
ment; most of all, however, it demoralized the department of finance. As we 
look back to-day, we wonder how, in the face of these unfortunate conditions, 
the financial support for the conduct of the war was provided. We think of 
the weakness and irresponsibility of the executive power, and we marvel that 
the earnest patriots at the head of the army, did not give up the struggle in 
despair. But, against the background of waste, negligence and extravagance 
which characterized those trying years of the republic, there stands out one 
man, a prudent merchant, an ardent patriot who devoted all of his intense 
energy, his never failing resources, to the support of the country, and who by 
his single efforts enabled the army to remain in the field when all looked dark 
and dismal. To him is due the thanks and praise for the successful conduct 
of the war. That man was Robert Morris. 

Robert Morris was born in Liverpool, England, January 31, 1734. He 
was sent to Philadelphia when he was 14 years of age. There he later engaged 
in the mercantile business with Thomas Willing, and at the outbreak of the 
Revolution in 1775 was a prominent and successful merchant. In that year 
he was elected to the Continental Congress by the Pennsylvania Assembly. 

The trials of Congress in the early part af 1775 were greatly lessened by 
the substantial aid which Morris, as a member of Congress and as an American 
merchant, gave to the government. He sent his own ships on voyage the 
object of which was to exchange American products for the arms and ammu- 
nition so seriously needed. He was also employed by Congress as a banker, 
buying and selling bills of exchange. 

In the year 1776 the aspect of the war was very unpromising. The Brit- 
ish army under Howe, despite the efforts of Washington's vastly inferior force, 
had penetrated New Jersey, and there threatened Philadelphia, then the seat 
of Congress. The close proximity of the British caused Congress to adjourn 
to Baltimore where they would be safe in the event of the capture of Phil- 
adelphia. They left a committee behind, however, to attend to affairs in that 
city. This committee was simply Morris as, of his two colleagues, one left 
the city and the other assumed no responsibility. During the December of 
1776 and the January of 1777, Morris was the practical head of the continent. 
He attended to all of the foreign correspondence, at that time so important; he 
managed the marine affairs, and prepared the ships then belonging to the 
government for sea, to avoid their capture; he informed Washington as to the 
supplies at his disposal, and forwarded them to the army. In fact he carried 
on all of the work which should have been done by Congress. 

At this time occurred the first and perhaps the most important of the three 
crises of the war; the attack on Trenton. Congress was beyond the reach of 

36 



communication of the army, and Washington relied entirely on the support of 
Morris in Philadelphia. The history of this campaign, while it stamps Wash- 
ington as a great strategist, shows that the heart and soul of Morris were in 
the cause and devoted in the ultimate success. We find him after exhaust- 
ing all the sources of public credit to enable Washington to make the famous 
passage of the Delaware and the subsequent attack, going forth, in response 
to Washington's appeal, and pledging his own private credit to the extent of 
$50,000, to enable the army to keep the field and follow up the brilliant 
success. 

During that terrible winter of 1777-8, spent by Washington and his wretched 
half-clothed and starving army at Valley Forge, Morris again came forward. 
He protested against the party divisions in Congress, and against the system 
of executive committees which he maintained were productive of waste, negli- 
gence and extravagance, when every iota of strength should have been 
devoted to the vigorous prosecution of the war. He even personally visited 
the army at Valley Forge, and encouraged the commanders in their efforts to 
keep the rapidly decreasing force together. 

Shortly before this time, Congress, lacking the power of taxation, had 
issued paper money, or notes drawn on the different states. As the states had 
no hard money with which to redeem these notes, their value rapidly depreci- 
ated. This depreciation continued until the year 1779, the Continental paper 
currency was worth two cents on the dollar. 

Then Congress unable to collect cash, on the paper money, saw the error 
of the system which they had used. They saw that the defective administra- 
tion of the financial department resulted in the reckless expenditure of the 
small sum of money obtained. These conclusions and the earnest solicitations 
of the men at the front of public opinion forced Congress to supersede the 
board at the head of the department of finance by one capable man. 

At this supreme crisis, the whole country looked to Robert Morris. He 
was regarded as the one man, with the ability, experience and devotion to 
undertake this important office. Congress therefore appointed him Super- 
intendent of Finance with full power over that important department. He 
assumed the duties of office in June, 1781. 

Morris had a clear perception of the situation and saw just what would be 
necessary to overcome the conditions. He proposed that Congress levy an 
import tax; that the expense of the government be retrenched, and in the 
meantime he relied on European loans to support the government until these 
other measures brought returns. The first two were not accomplised, during 
the war, and he was forced to provide subsistence for the country from the last. 

37 



When he entered office, the sole resources at his disposal, were bills of 
exchange upon the European envoys of the United States, and as the envoys 
were unable to collect money, the payment of these was rather doubtful. 

It was at this point that Washington proposed to attack the British in 
New York. This Morris opposed as too expensive an undertaking. There- 
upon it was decided to march south and attack Cornwallis in Virginia. 

The whole brunt of this culminating campaign of the war fell upon 
Morris. It was he that advanced the money to pay Washington's dissatisfied 
soldiers; it was Morris that transported the army that obtained supplies for the 
combined French and Continental armies; it was Moms who did everything 
except direct the maneuvers, and to make this possible Morris raised upwards 
of a million dollars on his personal notes. He patched up the threadbare 
public credit with his own integrity he borrowed from his friends and 
acquaintances, left and right, to provide funds for that last campaign. 

After the battle of Yorktown and the practical close of the war, Morris 
was kept busy supplying the demands of the army for pay. The disbandment 
of the army, after three years of mutiny and revolt, was due solely to Morris, 
who paid off the soldiers with notes involving his own personal credit to the 
extent of $750,000. 

In 1782 Morris had founded the Bank of North America, which assisted 
him greatly in those trying years, after the revolution. The bank continued 
in existence for some time. 

After leaving the public service, Robert Morris became involved in 
speculation in the wild lands of the United States. He continued to speculate 
until 1796 his finances became embarrassed. 

On the 16th of February 1798, he was cast into a debtors' prison by his 
creditors. It is indeed touching to think of this old man, grown grey in the 
service of his country, distressed in mind and body, worn by the cares of public 
office, and private business, ekeing out a scanty existence in a prison cell. 

He was liberated, however, in 1801, and went to live on his wife's 
annuity of $1500. He died in 1806. 

Underneath a plain granite slab in a damp, dark corner of the church- 
yard of Christ Church, Philadelphia, lies the body of Robert Monis, the 
inscription on the stone gives the information that he was financier of the 
United States during the Revolution. But there is another inscription graven 
on the hearts of every American citizen that does full justice to a man who 
stood a tower of strength beside "The Father of his Country ", through his 
greatest trials, and that inscription is, "ROBERT MORRIS, PATRIOT". 

E. Richmond Sartwell, 
38 



Third Prize Essay 



Robert Morris, the venerable father of American finance, was born 
January 31st, 1734, at Liverpool, England. His father, who was a Liverpool 
merchant engaged extensively in the American trade, emigrated to America 
when Robert was fourteen years old, settling on the eastern shore of Chesa- 
peake Bay, and dying in 1750. The father's estate, personal property of 
which amounted to nearly $7,000, was mostly willed to his son, whose 
personal history forms the topic hereafter. 

Arriving in America, Robert was employed by the Philadelphia mercantile 
firm of the Willings until 1754, when the business house of Willing and 
Morris was organized. 

Their youthful energy and thrift brought them marvelous success 
throughout the thirty nine years of their partnership. 

February 27, 1769, Morris married an accomplished Philadelphia belle, 
named Mary White, this proving a happy and congenial union. 

The first link of the momentous chain of events, which binds Robert 
Morris to all American hearts, was forged when he signed the Non-Importa- 
tion agreement in 1765. About this time he was one of a committee of 
citizens who forcibly prevented the royal stamp distributer of Pennsylvania 
from performing the duties of his office. In June, 1775, Morris was appointed 
a member of the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety, its prime object being 
the importation of arms and ammunition in secret. In this capacity as a 
committeeman, he was particularly effective, owing to his mercantile connec- 
tions. He was elected a member of the Assembly of the Province in October 
of this year. 

In November, the Assembly delegated him to the Continental Congress. 
Congress placed him upon the Committee of Secret Correspondence and the 
Secret Committee. And now, as during the first years of the war, did Robert 
Morris render valuable services to the American cause by the junction of 
his position as a merchant and banker with his public interests. 

Mr. Morris did not believe it the opportune time for the Declaration of 
Independence, voting against it on the second of July, but, seeing that "the 
Rubicon was crossed", he signed it on August 2nd, 1776. 

59 



The following November witnessed his election to the first Pennsylvania 
Assembly under the new constitution. In Decemcer of '76, General Howe 
threatened Philadelphia, causing Congress to flee from the city. During their 
absence, Morris, at the head of a committee, superintended governmental 
affairs for two months. 

After the battle of Trenton, December 26, 1776, the enlistments of fourteen 
hundred soldiers, chiefly eastern militia, expired within the month. In such 
severe straits was Washington, that, not knowing how he could fulfill his 
agreement, he promised each man a bounty of ten dollars in specie provided 
they remained in service six weeks longer. The government being penniless, 
Washington appealed to Morris for aid. Knowing not where to apply for 
funds, immediately upon receipt of the application, Morris accosted a wealthy 
Quaker neighbor, making known the predicament and requesting a loan. 
"Robert, what security canst thou give?", inquired the Friend. "My note 
and my honor", replied Morris. "Thou shalt have it", was the quick 
response, and accordingly the sum changed hands. Fifty thousand dollars in 
cash were dispatched by Mr. Morris to the banks of the Delaware, enabling 
Washington to satisfy his soldiers, and thus strengthened, to turn upon the 
Redcoats and win the brilliant victory at Princeton, January 3rd. 1777. 

At the expiration of his Congressional term, November first, 1778, Morris 
was elected to the State Assembly, having an important part in the winter's 
session. Worrying newspaper attacks combined with troublesome connections 
with a dissipated half-brother made the year 1779 a trying one for Mr. Morris 
and in the fall, owing to the anti-Morris sentiment, he was not re-elected to the 
Assembly, the only year of the Revolutionary period he was not occupied by 
public service. 

During this time he entered largely into privateering, securing mammoth 
gains. An anecdote is related to the effect that the enterprising merchant 
was so accustomed to the success of his privateers, that, if on a Sunday he 
seemed more serious than usual, the conclusion was drawn that no prizes had 
arrived the previous week. 

A French traveler, writing at this time, estimated Morris's wealth at one 
and a half or two million dollars; an enormous fortune for that time. 

One incident which commands our attention most strongly to the colossal 
financial credit and stability of Mr. Morris is the fact that while paper money 
issued by the government was almost valuless, his notes were circulated as 
cash throughout the continent, acceptable even in payment of taxes. 

Morris was again elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly in October, 1780, 
taking a prominent part in its affairs. Throughout his public career he was 

40 



conservative and moderate in his views. He was an opponent of legal tender 
laws, embargoes, and the harsh treatment meted out to the Tories. 

Realizing the necessity of centralization for efficient administration, 
Congress wisely concluded to place the reins of financial government in the 
hands of a single capable individual. Above all others, they considered 
Morris necessary to the successful operation of the financial system, so, on 
February 25th, 1781, Congress elected him Superintendent of Finances, fixing 
the salary at $6,000 per year. After the details were arranged, he accepted, 
resigning his seat in the Pennsylvania Assembly, but agreeing to procure 
Pennsylvania's specific supplies required by Congress. September 8th, he 
accepted the office, Agent of Marine, to save expenses to the United States. 

The Financier, as Morris was generally termed, had a clear idea of what 
was required, what could and should be done, and the vast responsibility 
attendant. He proposed three methods for obtaining means: first and 
paramount, taxation upon imports; second, he wished retrenchment; and 
third; he relied upon loans and subsidies from France. Two conditions were 
favorable to Morris, viz., the Articles of Confederation had been adopted in 
March, 1781, giving a constitutional regulation to the union, which was 
absolutely essential to his plans; and the wave of paper money, which had 
overspread the country, was just declared void by Congress. 

Mr. Morris's most distinguished achievement in office, also office which 
places him as the leader of all public financial officers this nation has ever had, 
lay in providing means for the greatest campaign of the war, the expedition which 
captured the famed British general, Cornwallis, and his forces. Washington 
wrote to Morris, requesting transportation facilities at either Philadelphia or 
Baltimore, to carry the soldiers down Chesapeake Bay; also one month's pay 
for the troops before starting southward; and five hundred guineas for secret 
service. Do you wonder that Morris was not sanguine as to success, when, 
as the Board of War said, " We haven't money enough to send and express 
rider to the army." In the discharge of his important share of the work, 
Morris displayed most astonishing executive ability, affording an excellent 
representation of the adage, "Where there's a will there's a way." 

Upon his private account, Morris borrowed from the French general, 
Rochambeau, twenty thousand dollars in hard money. This, with all other 
available, and the five hundred guineas for secret service, he turned over to 
Washington. Some authorities state that Morris advanced $1,400,000 for the 
equipage and maintenance of Washington's army, which was in time repaid. 
As a result of this campaign, England recognized the impossibility of humbling 
the invincible spirit of the colonists, and the war came to be, upon her part, 
purely defensive. These memorable services, rendered by Morris to his 

4i 



country, should cause his memory to be revered and honored for all time 
by every true American patriot. 

Marshall says : "If Morris was not entirely successful, he certainly did 
more than could have been believed possible and it was due to him that the 
Yorktown campaign was not frustrated by lack of means of transportation 
and subsistence. ' ' 

A notable undertaking, instituted by the Financier, as an aid to the 
disordered finances, was the establishment in 1781 of the Bank of North 
America, the first of its kind, subscribing ,£10,000 himself, and inducing 
others to swell the amount to ,£300,000 for capital. Other instances, than 
these mentioned, are known where Morris braced the strained finances by 
advancing money to the government. 

In 1784, the Financier retired from office, after having safely weathered 
the worst storm in United States financial history. 

Robert Morris, as a delegate for Pennsylvania, was one of the influential 
members of the Constitutional Convention in 1787. Washington offered 
Morris the portfolio of Secretary of the Treasury in his first cabinet, but the 
veteran financier refused, magnanimously recommending Alexander Hamilton 
as more competent. He was United States senator, representing Pennsyl- 
vania, from 1789 to 1795. This closed his interesting and varied career as 
a public man, leaving him not half so rich, in money as when he commenced 
his national duties. 

We now reach the sad part of our story, the placement of Robert Morris 
in jail for a mere pecuniary debt. He became complicated in a stupendous 
and chimerical land speculation, known as the scheme of the "North American 
Land Company," organized in 1785; he being one of the heaviest stockholders. 
Washington advised against the project, and Morris's reply seems indicative 
of his life's work, he must "be either a man or a mouse". The plan proved 
an utter failure, leaving Mr. Morris financially ruined. To the everlasting 
shame of the American people, he, now an elderly man, was thrust into the 
debtor's apartment of the Walnut Street prison in Philadelphia. To his 
unjust country's will Morris meekly bowed with the nobleness and fortitude 
of a martyr. The Republic can never atone by monuments or memorials for 
the deep wrong inflicted upon its benefactor. 

The following burning words from Whittier's poem. "The Prisoner For 
Debt," seem most applicable : 

" What has the gray haired prisoner done ? 
Has murder stained his hand with gore ? 
Not so, his crime's a fouler one; 
God made the old man poor ! 

42 



For this he shares a felon's cell, 
The fittest type of earthly hell." 

In 1798, Washington arrived in Philadelphia to superintend his last 
army. Unmindful of his brilliant welcome, he hastened first to visit the 
prison of Mr. Morris. Robert was esteemed by Washington as his heart's 
friend in sunshine and in gloom. The prison doors were finally unfastened 
in 1802, and Morris regained his rightful freedom by the passage of the 
National Bankrupt Law. 

The remaining years of his life are unimportant; and in obscurity, at 
Philadelphia, upon May the eighth, eighteen hundred and six, passed to the 
Great Beyond, our Robert Morris, of whom the historian, Botta, truthfully 
said: "Certainly the Americans owed, and still owe, as much acknowledg- 
ment to the financial operations of Robert Morris, as to the negotiations of 
Benjamin Franklin, or even the arms of George Washington". 

LYNN G. GOODNOUGH. 



43 




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FRAUNCES' TAVERN TABLET 

To THE MEMORY OF PRESIDENT FREDERICK SAMUEL TaLLMADGE, THROUGH WHOSE INTEREST AND MUNIFICENCE 

I HI. BUILDING WAS SECURED FOR PRESERVATION 




Sons of the Revolution 



IN THE 



STATE OF NEW YORK 



REPORTS 

OF THE BOARD OF MANAGERS, 
TREASURER AND HISTORIAN 



December 4, 1908 



Object of the Society 

CONSTITUTION 
preamble 

Whereas, it has become evident from the decline of proper celebration of 
such National holidays as the Fourth of July, Washington's Birthday, and the 
like, that popular interest in the events and men of the War of the Revolution 
is less than in the earlier days of the Republic ; 

And Whereas, this lack of interest is to be attributed not so much to 
lapse of time as to the neglect on the part of descendants of Revolutionary 
heroes to perform their duty of keeping before the public mind the memory 
of the services of their ancestors, and of the times in which they lived, and 
of the principles for which they contended ; 

Therefore, the Society of the "Sons of the Revolution" has been 
instituted, to perpetuate the memory of the men who, in military, naval or 
civil service, by their acts or counsel, achieved American Independence; to 
promote and assist in the proper celebration of the anniversaries of Washing- 
ton's Birthday, the Battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill, the Fourth of July, 
the Capitulations of Saratoga and Yorktown, the Evacuation of New York by 
the British Army, and other prominent events relating to or connected with 
the War of the Revolution; to collect and secure for preservation the 
manuscript rolls, records and other documents and memorials relating to that 
War ; to inspire among the members and their descendants the patriotic spirit 
of their forefathers; to inculcate in the community in general sentiments of 
Nationality and respect for the principles for which the patriots of the Revo- 
lution contended ; to assist in the commemorative celebration of other great his- 
torical events of National importance, and to promote social intercourse and 
the feeling of fellowship among its members. 



"> 



General Society 

(Organized at Washington, D. C, April 19, 1890.) 

OFFICERS, 1 908-191 1 

General President, 
Hon. John Lee Carroll, LL.D., 

Of the Maryland Society. 

General Vice-President, 

Edmund Wetmore, LL.D., 

Of the New York Society. 

Second General Vice-President, 

Wilson Godfrey Harvey, 

Of the South Carolina Society. 

General Secretary, 
James Mortimer Montgomery, 

Of the New York Society. 

Assistant General Secretary, 
Prof. William Libbey, D. Sc, 

Of the New Jersey Society. 

General Treasurer, 

Richard McCall Cadwalder, 

Of the Pennsylvania Society. 

Assistant General Treasurer, 

Henry Cadle, 

Of the Missouri Society. 

General Chaplain, 
Rev. Edward Everett Hale, S.T.D., LL.D., 
Chaplain of the United States Senate, 
Of the Massachusetts Society. 

General Registrar, 
Walter Gilman Page, 

Of the Massachusetts Society. 

General Historian, 
Capt. William Gordon McCabe, LL.D., Litt.D., 

Of the Virginia Society. 



Sons of the Revolution 



IN THE 



State of New York 



Instituted 

Reorganized 

Incorporated 



February 22, 1876. 
December 4, 1883. 
May 3, 1884. 



FOUNDERS 

John Austin Stevens, 

John Cochrane, 

Austin Huntington, 

George H. Potts, 

Frederick Samuel Tallmadge, 

George Washington Wright Houghton, 

Asa Bird Gardiner, 

Thomas Henry Edsall, 

Joseph W. Drexel, 

James Mortimer Montgomery, 

James Duane Livingston, 

John Bleecker Miller, 

Alexander Ramsay Thompson. 



OFFICERS, 1908 

President: 
Edmund Wetmore, 34 Pine Street. 

First Vice-President: 
Robert Olyphant, 17 Battery Place. 

Second Vice-President: 
Joseph Tompkins Low, 41 Liberty Street. 

Third Vice-President: 
William Graves Bates, 128 Broadway 

Secretary: 
Henry Russell Drowne, Fraunces Tavern. 

Treasurer: 
Arthur Melvin Hatch, 71 Broadway. 

Registrar: 
Henry Phelps Johnston, College of the City of New York. 

Chaplain: 
*Rev. Dr. Morgan Dix, 27 West 25th Street. 

Assistant Chaplain: 
Rev. Frank L. Humphreys, S.T.D., Morristown, N. J. 

Historian: 
Talbot Olyphant, 32 Nassau Street. 

Board of Managers: 

John Hone, 5 Gramercy Park. Clarence Storm, 100 Broadway. 

Clark Williams, 293 Madison Avenue. Henry D. Babcock, 17 Broad Street. 

Samuel L. Munson, Albany, N. Y. John C. Tomlinson, 15 Broad Street. 

Rev. Charles E. Brugler, Port Chester, N. Y. Dallas Bache Pratt, 52 William Street. 
William W. Ladd, 20 Nassau Street. John Clarkson Jay, Jr., 71 Broadway. 

Philip Livingston, 992 Fifth Avenue. *Franklin Butler Lord, 49 Wall Street. 

Hugh Hastings, 31 Chambers Street. Frederick D. Underwood, 50 Church Street. 

Levi C. Weir, 59 Broadway. Ralph Peters, Long Island City. 

William Rand, Jr., 63 Wall Street. 
Frederick Sanford Woodruff has been elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of 
Franklin Butler Lord. 

* Deceased. 



Chapters of the Society : 

Buffalo Chapter, Buffalo, N. Y., George A. Stringer, Regent. 

George W. Comstock, Secretary, 124 Lexington Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Philip Livingston Chapter, Albany, N. Y., Samuel L. Munson, Regent. 

William A. Wallace, Secretary, 199 Lancaster Street, Albany, N. Y. 

William Floyd Chapter, Troy, N. Y., Walter P. Warren, Regent. 

William Barker, Jr., Secretary, 7 Hawthorne Street, Troy, N. Y. 

Fort Schuyler Chapter, Utica, N. Y., Henry J. Cookinham, Regent. 
♦William L. Watson, Secretary, 240 Genesee Street, Utica, N. Y. 

Orange County Chapter, Goshen, N. Y., Roswell W. Chamberlain, Regent. 
Edwin J. Dikeman, Secretary, Goshen, N. Y. 

Jamestown Chapter, Jamestown, N. Y., Dr. William M. Bemus, Regent. 
Frank H. Mott, Secretary, Fenton Building, Jamestown, N Y. 

Executive Committee: 

John Hone, Chairman, William G Bates, 

Joseph T. Low, 

President, Secretary and Treasurer ex-officio. 

Real Estate Committee: 
Robert Olyphant, Chairman, James M. Montgomery, 

Alexander R. Thompson, Henry A. Wilson, 

Charles Isham, Arthur M. Hatch. 

Membership Committee: 
George DeForest Barton, Chairman, 150 Broadway. 
Silas Wodell, 149 Broadway. 
Wyllys Terry, 60 Wall Street. 

Landreth H. King, Room 517, Grand Central Station. 
Edward L. Parris, 239 Broadway. 

Richard A. Wilson, 499 Monroe Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Alfred B. Robinson, 206 Broadway. 
Caldwell R. Blakeman, 58 West 38th Street. 
Benjamin W. B. Brown, 18 Wall Street. 
Talbot Root, 52 Broadway. 

Historical. Committee: 
Howard R. Bayne, Chairman, David Cromwell, 

William Evans Rogers, Frank W. Jackson, M.D., 

Samuel V. Hoffman. 

* Deceased. 

7 



Essay Committee: 
Marcius D Raymond, Chairman, Augustus Floyd, 

R. Russell Requa, Richard Henry Greene. 

Library Committee: 
Capt. John R. Totten, Chairman, Prof. Henry P. Johnston; 

Samuel P. Avery. 

Museum Committee: 
Beverly Chew, Chairman, Charles Isham, 

Clarence Storm. 

Tablet Committee: 
James M. Montgomery, Chairman, Dallas Bache Pratt, 

Henry Phelps Johnston, Henry Russell Drowne, 

Alexander R. Thompson. 

Stewards: 

Eugene K. Austin, Chairman, William Floyd, 

Charles H. Woodruff, Jr., Benjamin Rush Lummis, 

Rufus I. Shea, Bryce Metcalf. 

Marshal: 
John Butterfield Holland. 



Albert Delafield, 
Horace Clark Du Val, 
DeWitt Clinton Falls, 
Francis L. V. Hoppin, 



Aides: 



Robert Kelly Prentice, 
Talbot Root, 
John Noble Stearns, Jr. 
George Albert Wingate. 



8 



Annual Church Service 
Aisle Committee: 

Talbot Olyphant, Chairman, 
Banyer Clarkson, Robert Morrison Olyphant, Jr., 

Cullen Van Rensselaer Cogswell, Murray Olyphant, 

Robert Grier Cooke, Alexander Dallas Bache Pratt, 

John Francis Daniell, Edward Lawrence Purdy, 

Joseph N. Lord Edmonds, Arthur Frederick Schermerhorn, 

Morris Douw Ferris, Edward Gibert Schermerhorn, 

Charles Edward Greenough, Charles Hitchcock Sherrill, 

George Hewlett, Prentice Strong, 

S. Vernon Mann, Herman Knickerbocker Viele, 

Richard Malcolm Montgomery, Jr., Alfred Rutgers Whitney, Jr., 

Charles King Morrison, Charles Hornblower Woodruff, Jr., 

Frederick Sanford Woodruff. 

Publication Committee: 
James M. Montgomery, Charles Isham, 

Henry Russell Drowne. 

Excursion Committee: 
James M. Montgomery, Chairman, John B. Holland, 

Clarence Storm, Col. William G. Bates. 

Auditing Committee: 
Philip Livingston, John C. Jay, Jr. 

For Raising Funds for Fraunces Tavern: 
Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Joseph T. Low, 

George C. Buell, Charles H. Williams, 

Daniel N. Crouse, Frank E. Tilford, 

Col. William G. Bates, Henry B. Barnes. 

Committee on Formal Opening of Fraunces Tavern: 
Edmund Wetmore, Chairman, Robert Olyphant, 

John Hone, James Mortimer Montgomery, 

Henry Melville. 



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Report of the Board of Managers 



To the Sons of the Revolution 

in the State of New York : 

The Board of Managers submits the following report for the year ending 
December 4th, 1908 : 

Ten meetings of the Board of Managers have been held during the year. 

At the last Annual Meeting, December 4th, 1907, the President, Mr. Ed- 
mund Wetmore, called the meeting to order, a prayer was offered by the 
Rev. Charles E. Brugler, and the Secretary read the report of the Board of 
Managers and of the Nominating Committee. 

The President read the following telegram from Mr. John Austin Stevens : 
"Congratulations to the Sons of the Revolution. They have made history," 
— and a letter from him, which had been printed and distributed to the mem- 
bers, was read by Mr. Frederick S. Woodruff, and on motion ordered spread 
upon the Minutes. 

Mr. Alexander R. Thompson offered the following resolution: 

Resolved, That the Nominating Committee be authorized, when in their 
judgment the best interests of the Society will be promoted thereby, to renomi- 
nate one of the Vice-Presidents as Vice-President. 

This was amended and adopted as follows : 

Resolved, That the original resolution as to the nomination of Vice-Presi- 
dents for the Board of Managers at the end of their term shall continue to be 
in force as to one of the Vice-Presidents. 

Messrs. William H. Kuper, Frederick W. Haines and Harvey K. Lyons 
were appointed as tellers by the Chair. 

The report of the Treasurer was presented by Mr. Arthur M. Hatch, and 
the report of the Historian by Mr. Talbot Olyphant, during the reading of 
which the members rose and remained standing. 

The regular ticket for Officers and Board of Managers of the Society was 
duly elected, the tellers announcing that eight hundred and twenty-seven ballots 
had been cast. 

Since the Annual Meeting, the Rev. Frank Landon Humphreys, S.T.D., 

ii 



has been elected Assistant Chaplain, Mr. Talbot Olyphant, Historian, and 
Messrs. John Hone, Joseph Tompkins Low and Col. William G. Bates as 
members of the Executive Committee. 

Various committees have also been appointed by the President, a list of 
which has been printed with this report. 

A Stated Meeting to celebrate the birthday of Frederick Samuel Tall- 
madge, late President of the Society, was held on Friday evening, January 
24th, 1908, and was observed by an address made by Mr. Alexander R. Thomp- 
son, who paid an appropriate tribute to the memory of President Tallmadge, 
which was followed by the reading of a paper by Miss Mary V. Worstell on 
"The Signers of the Declaration of Independence," illustrated with stereopti- 
con views. 

On Saturday evening, April 18th, the one hundred and thirty-third anni- 
versary of the Battle of Lexington, a Stated Meeting was held, at which 
Mr. Howard R. Bayne read a most interesting paper on "The Origin and 
Application of the Monroe Doctrine," which is printed in full on pages 55 
to 71. 

At the Stated Meeting held November 25th, to celebrate the Evacuation 
of the City of New York by the British troops, Mr. Reginald Pelham Bolton 
gave an illustrated address on "Fort Washington." 

The Annual Church Service of the Society, commemorative of the birth 
of George Washington, was held on Sunday, February 16th, 1908, at Calvary 
Church, Fourth Avenue and Twenty-first Street, at 4 p. m. It was conducted 
by the Rev Morgan Dix, S.T.D., D.C.L., Oxon., late Rector of Trinity 
Church and Chaplain of the Sons of the Revolution, assisted by the Rev. J. 
Lewis Parks, S.T.D., Rector of Calvary Church, the Rev. George Stuart Baker, 
D.D., Rev. Pelham St. George Bissell, Rev. Albert Alonzo Brockway, M.A., 
Rev. Charles Edward Brugler, Rev. Henry Barton Chapin, D.D., Ph.D., Chap- 
lain of the Society of the Cincinnati, Rev. Edwin Walter Colloque, Rev. Frank 
Warfield Crowder, Rev. James Shepard Dennis, Rev. William Nichols Dun- 
nell, S.T.D., Rev. William Reed Huntington, D.D., Rev. William Irvin, D.D., 
Rev. James Tuttle-Smith, D.D., and Rev. Frank Landon Humphreys, S.T.D., 
Assistant Chaplain of the Sons of the Revolution. The sermon was delivered 
by the Right Reverend Thomas F. Gailor, D.D., Bishop of Tennessee. The 
Church was beautifully decorated for this occasion. 

Representatives were present from the Colonial Dames of America, the 
Colonial Dames of the State of New York, the Daughters of the Revolution, 
and the Societies of the Cincinnati, Colonial Wars, War of 1812, Foreign 
Wars, Aztec Club, and Loyal Legion, the Military Society of the War of 1812 
furnishing a uniformed escort. 

12 



The Annual Banquet of the Society took place in the large banquet hall 
at Delmonico's on February 22nd, 1908, the anniversary of Washington's 
Birthday, and was presided over by Mr. Edmund Wetmore, the President of 
the Society. 

The following invited guests were present : 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Ludlow, U. S. A., representing the Army ; 
Stephen Farrelly, the Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick; 
Oliver Hazard Perry, the Society of the War of 1812 ; 
John Francis Daniell, the Society of Colonial Wars ; 
F. E. Grote Higgens, the Saint George's Society ; 
Robert Frater Munro, the Saint Andrew's Society ; 
Henry A. Bostwick, the Military Order of Foreign Wars ; 
Professor William Libbey of Princeton University, the New Jersey 

Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 
Edward Hart Fenn, the Connecticut Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 
Samuel V. Hoffman, the New York Historical Society; 
George Wilson, the New York Chamber of Commerce ; 
Rt. Rev. Thomas F. Gailor, D.D., Bishop of Tennessee; 
Rev. J. Lewis Parks, S.T.D., Rector of Calvary Church. 

Prayer was offered by the Rev. Frank L. Humphreys, S.T.D., Assistant 
Chaplain of the Society. 

The banquet hall was appropriately and tastefully decorated and an 
orchestra was furnished for the occasion. After coffee had been served the 
Society's banners were brought in with drum and fife accompaniment, fol- 
lowed by beautiful baskets of flowers presented on behalf of the Colonial 
Dames of America, the Colonial Dames of the State of New York, and the 
Daughters of the Revolution, and the President was as usual duly decorated 
with the historical cocked hat. 

President Wetmore made some eloquent and appropriate remarks as 
to the occasion we were celebrating, and the toasts were responded to as 
follows : 

"George Washington," by the Hon. John C. Spooner, ex-United States 
Senator from Wisconsin. 

"Lafayette," William Milligan Sloane, LL.D., Professor of History at 
Columbia University. 

"Liberty and Law," Hon. James Fitzgerald, Justice of the Supreme Court 
of New York. 

There were two hundred and ninety members and guests in attendance 
at the Banquet, which was greatly enjoyed by those present. 

13 



On May 28th, 1908, the Society participated in the ceremonies in New 
York City incidental to the removal of the remains of Governor George Clinton 
from Washington, D. C, to Kingston, N. Y. A large delegation of our mem- 
bers assembled at Fraunces Tavern at 9 a. m., and, accompanied by the Sev- 
enth Regiment Band, proceeded to Washington Street, near the Battery, where 
they joined in the parade, escorting the remains to the New York City Hall. 

On October 28th, 1908, at 8:15 p. m., the members of the Society and 
guests assembled in the large hall of the College of the City of New York, 
where exercises were held in connection with the unveiling of the bronze 
tablet which had been erected by the Society in the Historical Museum of the 
College. On this occasion the presentation was made by the President of the 
Society, Mr. Edmund Wetmore, and the acceptance by John H. Finley, LL.D., 
President of the College. Addresses were also made by Mr. Edward M. Shep- 
ard, Chairman of the Board of Trustees, and Mr. John C. Tomlinson, of the 
Sons of the Revolution. Music was furnished by Professor Samuel A. Bald- 
win, of the College Department of Music, organist, and Miss Maud Morgan, 
harpist. 

At the December meeting of the Board of Managers, Mr. Robert Olyphant 
presented to the Society, as his contribution to the "Long Room" of Fraunces 
Tavern, an engrossed copy, appropriately framed, of Col. Benjamin Tall- 
madge's account, taken from his diary, of the Farewell of Washington to his 
Officers, December 4th, 1783. 

A Museum Committee was appointed, consisting of Beverly Chew, Chair- 
main, Charles Isham, and Clarence Storm. 

Mr. Louis B. Wilson was appointed Curator of the building. 

The Buffalo Chapter of our Society called attention to the Lake Champlain 
celebration, which is to take place in July, 1909, and asked that the Society 
take some action to advance the project. This was referred to the Executive 
Committee, and, at the January meeting, the Committee recommended that 
the Board of Managers memorialize the Legislature with a view to obtaining 
a suitable appropriation for the purpose, which was adopted. 

A Committee was appointed to collect Songs of the Revolution, consisting 
of the Hon. Hugh Hastings, Dr. Frank Landon Humphreys, and Messrs. Henry 
Russell Drowne and F. Murray Olyphant. 

At the January meeting the Library Committee were authorized to pur- 
chase a stack of mahogany bookcases, to be designated as the "Founder's 
Case," which would contain the books donated to the Society by Mr. John 
Austin Stevens, and bear a silver plate engraved with an appropriate 
inscription. 

14 



At the February meeting a design for a tablet to the Committee in charge 
of the Restoration of Fraunces Tavern was adopted, and it was decided to 
place the tablet in the vestibule, to the left of the entrance. 

On the recommendation of Mr. Requa, of the Essay Committee, it was 
decided to send letters of commendation to those whose essays were deemed 
worthy of special mention, in addition to the three prize winners. 

Mr. Philip Livingston tendered as a loan to the Society, for the Museum, 
the gold watch which formerly belonged to Philip Livingston, the Signer of 
the Declaration of Independence, and the same was accepted with thanks. 

Mr. Olyphant announced the death of Mr. Franklin B. Lord, one of the 
Board of Managers, and an appropriate resolution of regret was adopted. 

At the March meeting it was decided to hold the Annual Meeting of the 
Society in Fraunces Tavern on the afternoon of December 4th, 1908, at 
3 :30 o'clock. 

Attention having been called to the fact that guests are brought to the 
Stated Meetings of the Society, on motion the following was adopted: 

Resolved, That each member of the Society be allowed the privilege of 
bringing to the Stated Meetings of the Society one guest: Provided, that 
previous to such meeting he purchase a guest ticket of the Treasurer. Such 
guest tickets to be sold for not less than two dollars each, and must bear the 
name of the guest so invited and the member introducing him, and are not 
to be transferred. 

Furthermore, That a gentleman shall not be entitled to attend more than 
one of the Stated Meetings during the year as a guest of any member. 

On motion of Professor Henry P. Johnston, the following resolutions 
were adopted with regard to the proposed erection by the State of a State- 
prison on the site of Forts Clinton and Montgomery: 

Resolved by the Board of Managers of the Sons of the Revolution in 
the State of New York, That a committee be appointed to appear before the 
Governor and Legislative Committees at Albany, and protest against the pro- 
posed erection of a prison on the site of Forts Clinton and Montgomery, on 
the Hudson. 

Resolved, That such committee be requested to present the Revolutionary 
associations of the spot, where, in 1777, American troops (under Governor 
George Clinton of New York, and his brother, James Clinton) opposed the 
advance of the British and nobly sacrificed their lives in defence of the country; 
and further, to urge that, in view of the conspicuous situation and rare beauty, 
the selection of the site as a State Historical Park would be more acceptable 
to the people of our State than its purchase for the purpose intended. 

15 



On behalf of the Philip Livingston Chapter of the Society at Albany, the 
following was adopted : 

Resolved, That the Board of Managers of the Sons of the Revolution 
cordially approve of the action of the Albany Chapter in introducing a bill in 
the Legislature providing for the erection, in the Capitol grounds at Albany, 
New York, of a statue of Major-General Philip Schuyler, the hero of Saratoga. 

Mr. Frederick S. Woodruff was elected a member of the Board, to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. Franklin B. Lord. 

At the April meeting the Board authorized the placing of a tablet to John 
Austin Stevens, the founder of the Society, in the "Long Room," with the fol- 
lowing inscription: 

"Sons of the Revolution — founded February 22, 1876, 

by John Austin Stevens. 

New York Historical Society Library. 

Organized December 4, 1883, in this room. 

Incorporated April 29, 1884 — esto perpetua. 

Erected by the Board of Managers." 

A Committee consisting of Mr. James Mortimer Montgomery and Pro- 
fessor Henry P. Johnston was appointed to ascertain what portraits of Revo- 
lutionary Officers, additional to those of Washington and Clinton, should be 
represented in the "Long Room" at Faunces Tavern. 

A special meeting of the Board of Managers was held May 1st to take 
action on the death of Dr. Morgan Dix, the Chaplain of the Society. 

The following was unanimously adopted, and ordered entered on the 
Minutes : 

"It is with deep regret that record is made of the death, on April 29th, 
1908, of our venerable and beloved associate and Chaplain, the Rev. Mor- 
gan Dix. 

"Dr. Dix has been a member of this Society for nearly twenty years, and 
during the last nine years filled the office of Chaplain. His hereditary and 
sincere patriotism, his wise counsel and unfailing interest in the Society have 
been a constant encouragement and inspiration in the work in which we have 
been engaged. We here record our sorrow for his loss, our appreciation of 
his services, and our estimate of his life and example to his fellow country- 
men as placing him among those whose memory it is the object of our Asso- 
ciation to perpetuate." 

It was unanimously resolved that the above minute, appropriately en- 
grossed, be transmitted to Mrs. Dix, and the Board decided to attend the funeral 
in a body. 

16 



At the May meeting the President, Mr. Edmund Wetmore, presented th* 
Society with a duplicate of the silver punch bowl which was made by Paul 
Revere for the Sons of Liberty, and on motion the thanks of the Society were 
tendered to President Wetmore for his generous gift. 

Mr. James E. Kelly, the sculptor, offered the loan of his recently com- 
pleted bronze statuette of Paul Revere about to mount his horse on his famous 
ride, which was on motion accepted with thanks. 

At the October meeting Mr. Montgomery announced that some three hun- 
dred volumes, from the bequest of our late President, Frederick Samuel Tall- 
madge, had been added to the Library of the Society. 

The William Floyd Chapter requested the co-operation of the Society in 
their efforts to secure the erection of a monument or memorial to Colonel 
Albert Pawling of the Revolution, and it is proposed to take the matter in 
hand at an early date. 

At the November meeting Mr. Talbot Olyphant announced that the Annual 
Church Service will be held at St. Bartholomew's Church, New York, on 
Sunday, February 21st, 1909. 

The usual notice for essays to scholars of the two upper grades of th* 
High Schools in the State of New York was sent out about the first of Sep- 
tember, offering $50 and a bronze medal for the first prize, $25 and a bronze 
medal for the second, and a bronze medal for the third; essays to be on the 
subject: "The Story of Arnold's Treason." 

The change to cash prizes, instead of gold, silver and bronze medals for 
the three prizes respectively, recommended by the Essay Committee and 
approved by the Board of Managers, has had the effect of greatly increasing 
the number of essays. One hundred and seventeen were received this yea*, 
representing fifty-six schools, compared with sixty-nine last year and twenty- 
nine the year before. 

The Committee also recommended that honorable mention be given to 
those, other than the prize winners, whose essays were particularly worthy of 
merit ; and in accordance with this suggestion, the following awards were made: 

First Prize: G. Raynolds Stearns, Jr., Lafayette High School, Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

Second Prize : Alwin Thaler, Commercial High School, Brooklyn, N. Y, 

Third Prize : William A. Bird, IV, Masten Park High School". Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

Honorable Mention: 

Lingard Loud, Lafayette High School, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Charles S. White, Binghamton High School, Binghamton, N. Y. 

John C. Post, East High School, Rochester, N. Y. 

17 



Edna Louise Hall, Drum Hill High School, Peekskill, N. Y. 
J. Bowen Griffith, Lafayette High School, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Clifford Stone Cooley, Ithaca High School, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Charles D. Isaacson, Commercial High School, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Theodore W. Hanigan, Schenectady High School, Schenectady, N. Y. 
Mary Hart, Schenectady High School, Schenectady, N. Y. 
Abraham J. Seltzer, Manual Training High School, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

In one school one hundred and eighty-six pupils wrote essays, of which 
only the five best were sent in, in accordance with our rule, as stated in the 
circular, that only five will be received from one school. 

The Committee have recommended that the circulars be sent to the pre- 
paratory departments of Colleges and Normal Schools, that the number of 
words in each essay be limited to not over 1,700, and that only the three best 
essays be received from each school, which recommendations have been 
approved by the Board of Managers. 

The Society has during the year received courteous invitations to banquets 
of the 

Society of the Cincinnati, 

Colonial Wars, 

Military Society of the War, of 1812, 

Military Order of Foreign Wars, 

Holland Society, 

Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, 

Saint Andrew's Society, 

Massachusetts Society Sons of Revolution, 

Colonial Order of the Acorn, 

Saint George's Society, 

The Evacuation Day Luncheon at Fraunces Tavern of the Daughters of 
the Revolution of the State of New York, 

Nathaniel Woodhull Chapter, D. A. R., Luncheon, 

Washington Continental Guard Luncheon, 

And to celebrations from : 

President of the Park Board, City of New York, to Loan Collection of 
Revolutionary Relics, May 28th, at Washington's Headquarters, 

250th Anniversary of the Founding of the City of Kingston. 

Annual Meeting of the Connecticut Society Sons of Revolution, in the 
Nathan Hale Schoolhouse at East Haddam, Conn., 

Unveiling of Statue of Major-General Anthony Wayne at Valley Forge 
by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 

18 



Anniversary Celebration at Washington's Headquarters at Rocky Hill, 
N. J., by the Washington Headquarter's Association, 

Unveiling of Monument at New Paltz, N. Y., by the Huguenot Memorial 
Association, 

Laying of Corner-stone of the Memorial Arch in Stony Point Park by 
the Daughters of the Revolution of the State of New York, 

125th Anniversary of the Erection of the New Utrecht Liberty Pole, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., Liberty Pole Association. 

Flag Presentation to Chinese Mission, Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, 

Church Service of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion, New York. 



Our Chapters have been active during the year and have done good 
work. 

The Philip Livingston Chapter of Albany, New York, held its Annual 
Meeting on January 15, 1908. On February 22d the Chapter celebrated 
Washington's Birthday by a reception and lecture at the Ten Eyck Hotel. 
The special guests of the evening were the members of Gansevoort Chap- 
ter, Daughters of the American Revolution, and Mr. William W. Ells- 
worth delivered an illustrated address on the "Personal Washington." 
Ten meetings of the Executive Board, and quarterly meetings of the Chap- 
ter were held at the University Club, as follows: On April 21st in celebra- 
tion of the Battle of Lexington; June 17th, Bunker Hill; and October 19th, 
Saratoga. At the October meeting, Mr. Frank W. Thomas, of the William 
Floyd Chapter, read a paper entitled "Van Schaick Island." 

The Buffalo Chapter held several meetings at the residences of mem- 
bers, where papers on patriotic subjects were read; and a banquet was 
given on the evening of January 3, 1908, at the University Club. The Chap- 
ter also made the presentation of the essay prizes of our Society, awarded 
to pupils of the Lafayette High School and the Masten Park High School 
of Buffalo, with appropriate exercises. President Stringer read an instruc- 
tive paper on "What Can be Gained from an Active Study in History," and 
other addresses were made. 

The William Floyd Chapter of Troy, New York, held its Annual Meet- 
ing on February 22, 1908. An address was delivered by the Rev. James 
Caird, Rector of the Church of the Ascension, Troy, New York, on "Ben- 
jamin Franklin," and this was followed by a collation. One of the most 
important works of the Chapter was the restoration of the Van Schaick 

IQ 



burial plot, which contains the remains of Colonel John Gerritse Van 
Schaick. This historic spot on Van Schaick Island, which was the meet- 
ing place of General Schuyler and General Gates, and was a camp site of 
the Continental Army, was turned over to the Chapter by the Van Schaick 
heirs with appropriate ceremonies. Many of Colonel Van Schaick's descen- 
dants and the local Company of the National Guard of the State were pres- 
ent. Mrs. Ellen L. Van Schaick, widow of Anthony Gerard Van Schaick, a 
grandson of John Gerritse Van Schaick, had the little cemetery graded 
and enclosed with a simple iron fence. Mr. A. P. Van Schaick presented 
the ground, on behalf of his mother, and also gave the Chapter a facsimile 
of the original American flag. Mr. Edgar K. Betts, on behalf of Regent 
Walter P. Warren, who was unable to be present on account of illness, 
accepted these generous gifts ; and interesting historical addresses were 
made by Mr. Frank W. Thomas and the Rev. Edgar A. Enos, D. D., rec- 
tor of St. Paul's Church, Troy, New York. After these exercises refresh- 
ments were served at the club house of the Island Golf Club. The Chap- 
ter is now working on the project of erecting a monument to Colonel Albert 
Pawling, a Revolutionary officer. 

The Fort Schuyler Chapter of Utica, New York, held its Annual Meeting 
during the day of February 22d, 1908, and the Annual Banquet in the evening 
at the Fort Schuyler Club. Responses to toasts were made by the Right Rev. 
Charles T. Olmsted, D. D., Bishop of the Diocese of Central New York ; Lieu- 
tenant W. G. Mayer, Dr. Willis E. Ford and Dr. N. L. Andrews. 

The Chapter suffered a severe loss in the death of its Secretary, Mr. Wil- 
liam L. Watson. Mr. A. Vedder Brower has been elected to fill the vacancy. 

The Orange County Chapter of Goshen, and the Jamestown Chapter of 
Jamestown, New York, held their usual meetings and celebrations. 

During the past year the Society's library has received many important 
and valuable accessions, as shown in the list at the end of this report, and 
our museum has acquired, both by donation and loans, a number of inter- 
esting historical relics relating to the Revolutionary War. 

Fraunces Tavern is being constantly visited by a great many people, 
and the "Long Room" and museum are objects of especial interest. 
Arrangements have been made so that these rooms are practically open to 
the public at all times during the day. 

We call the attention of our members to the facilities and convenience 
offered by the dining room on the fourth floor. This room is also used on 
special occasions by patriotic and kindred societies for meetings, lunches, 
etc. 

One hundred and thirty-five new members have been admitted during 



20 



the year, and the Society now has on its roll two thousand and eighty-eight, 
being a gain of sixty-six. 

The Secretary desires to express his thanks to Mr. Louis B. Wilson, the 
Curator, for his assistance during the year. 

For the Board of Managers, 
Henry Russell Drowne, 

Secretary. 

Fraunces Tavern, New York City. 



21 



REPORT 



OF THE 



TREASURER 



SONS OF THE REVOLUTION 

Treasurer's Report, 



REC? 1PTS . 

Real Estate— 

Balance November 18, 1907 $878 43 

Fraunces Tavern— Rents and Return Premium. 4,033.53 

West 55th Street— Rents 7,183.80 

Initiations 1,^90.00 

Interest on balances 44.01 

Tallmadge Medals and Souvenirs 63.15 

Awnings . . 1-50 

Tablets— 

Balance November 18, 1907 $326.95 

Interest on balances 10.09 



Paid at Unveiling at "if orris Heights $'0 00 

«■ •< " *« College, City of N.Y. 155 00 



General — 

Balance November 18, 1907 

Dues — 

Insignia, Rosettes and Ribbon 

Interest on balances 

Sales of Tallmailge Memoirs 

Sales of Match Boxes, $5 75; Franklin Stoves, 
$9.75; Stewards' Badges, $6; Pocket Book, 
§1.14; Hale Statuettes, $4; Red Jacket 
iM edals, $6 

Application Papers 

Year Books and Annual Reports 

Grave Marker — Gen. Goosen Van Schaick 

Telephone — Kebate on Contract and Calls. 

Collections on Checks 

Real Estate— 

Deficiency supplied by other Funds , 



$337.04 



$165.00 



$99 35 
10,479.36 

769. 1 3 
46.22 
42.15 



32.64 

10 00 

9.50 

5.00 

4.05 

.45 



Real Estate. 



$13,494.42 



General. 



$172.04 



578.50 



$14,072.92 



11,498.35 



$11,670.39 



E. & O. E. New York, November 18, 1908. 

24 



IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK 

November 18, 1 907, to November 18, 1908. 



DISBURSEMENTS. 

Real Estate — 

West 55th Street— Interest, $1,425; Taxes, 
§1194.40; Insurance, §68.25; Agreement as to 

Extension, $15 $2,702.65 

Fraunces Tavern— Interest, $1,462.50; Taxes, 
$484.22; Insurance, §153 45; Janitor, $6i»0; 
Water, $31.30; Title Guar. & Trust Co, $2; 
Globe Wernicke Co., §316; Wood Mosaic Co., 
$35; E. A. Jackson & Bro.. §19.20; B. H. Eidel, 
$5.43; Kimball Elect. Co., $8.28; Repairs, §5.25; 
Cleaning Tablet §12.50; Stern Bros., $4.55; 
Srhmitt Bros , $7; C. W. Hoffman Co., §9.80; 
John Wanamaker, §1.10; Am. Wood Working 
Co., §4.50; Fyricide Mfg Co, §9; Van Praag 
Florist Co., §ln; Porter Screen Mfg. Co., §90.10; 
Chester Mantel & Tile Co., §7.50; T. J. Lock 
& Son, §13.60; C. Webber, *2.5<»; J. Curran 
Mfg. Co , 818.35; J. Dillon's Sons. §3.76; Cassidy 
& Son Mfg. Co. , $2.75 ; Fire Extinguishers, $2l). 3,339.^4 

Restoration of Fraunces Tavern 2,730.11 

Loan Returned, §5 000; Interest, §222 5,222 00 

Storage and Insurance, 102 Front Street 78.52 

General— 

Treasurer — Postage, Printing, Auditing, Clerical, 

Collecting Dues and Sundries 880.61 

Secretary — Printing, Stamped Envelopes, Cura- 
tor, Coal and Wood, Clerical, Stationery, Tele- 
phone, Petty Cash, Light and Power and Sun- 
dries 3,915.62 

Appropriations to Chapters 538.00 

General Society Dues 507 50 

Death Notices 268 35 

Insignia Rosettes and Ribbon 706. < 5 

Opening Fraunces Tavern 880.49 

Stated Meetings. $1 769.85; Banquets, §126.55; 

Church Services, $345.50 2,241.90 

Triennial Meeting, §162.60; George Clinton Par- 
ade, §21'.). 17; Souvenirs, §33 75 415.52 

Manager's Report, §303 75 ; Storage, §37 340.75 

Memorial Wreaths and Memorials 120.00 

Rent of Safe Deposit Kox 10.00 

Prize Essays, $75 ; Medals and Postage and Print- 
ing, §57.30 132 30 

Grave Marker, Gen. Goosen Van Schaick 2.50 

Census of 1790, §10; Steward's Badge, $2.75. . . . 12.75 

Balances — Tablets 

General Fund 



Real Estate. 



§14,072.92 



General. 



$14,072.92 



$10,972.34 
172.04 
526.01 



$11,670.39 



ARTHUR MELVIN HATCH, Treasurer. 



25 



SONS OF THE REVOLUTION 



Balance Sheet, 



ASSETS. 

Real Estate — 

Nos 146 and 148 "West 55th Street (co 


st 1902) 




$62,000.00 
146,014.82 






$80,000.00 
66,014.82 




Reconstruction Fund to date 












Less Cash Deficiency 




$208,014.82 
578.50 








$172.04 
526 01 

8,000.00 
600.00 
500.00 
348.00 
642.00 
289 00 
71.40 

209.19 

200.00 


$207,436.32 


General Fund— 

Balance Tablet Subscriptions 




Balance Cash 






Office Furniture and Fixtures 






Six Silk Flags and One Banner 






Tallmadge Medals 






Tallmadge Memoirs 






Insignia, 5 @ §11 and 13 @ $18 






Rosettes, 510 @ 14 cts 






Insignia Ribbon, 276 yards of wide 
yards of narrow (cost 1905) 


and 33 




Initiations unpaid, 6 ) 

Dues " 50 ^ Estimated... 




11,557.64 




$218,993.96 



E. & O. E. New York, November 18, 1908. 



26 



IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK 



November 18, 1908. 



LIABILITIES. 

Real Estate — 

West 55th Street— Balance Mortgage $30,000.00 

Interest 487.50 

Fraunces Tavern — Balance Mortgage 30,000.00 

Interest 487.50 



Assets $218,993.96 

Liabilities 60,975.00 

Net assets $158,018.96 



$60,975.00 



ARTHUR MELVIN HATCH, Treasurer. 



27 



REPORT 



OF THE 



HISTORIAN 



In Memoriam 



Henry Clinton Carter, 

Samuel Grey Courtney Pinckney, M.D., 

George Howe Vose, 

John Hollenback Pumpelly, 

George Hancock Servoss, N. Y. Vol., 1861, 

Richard Leland Sweezy, 

Albert Cromwell, 

Richard Wisner, 

William Tibbits Salter, Sergeant, N. Y. Vol., 

1861, 
Charles Wadsworth Whitney, 
Dudley Hunt Walbridge, 
Morris Ketchum Jesup, 
Franklin Butler Lord, 
Henry Tomlinson Warren, 
Thomas Benjamin Balch, 
Edward Du Bois Woodhull, M.D., 
Daniel Bennett St. John Roosa, M. D., 
Richard Nelson Young, 
Edwin Holden Smith, 
Jeffrey Amherst Wisner, 
William Randall Heath, 
Hosmer Buckingham Parsons, 
George Starr Scofield, 

Brig.-Gen. Alfred Lacey Hough, U. S. A., 
Retired, 

The Rev. Morgan Dix, S.T.D., D.C.L., D.D., 
Oxon., 

James William Walsh, 

William Livingston Watson, A. B., 

Townsend Wandell, 

Frederic Wendell Jackson, 

31 



Admitted. 

1895 
1893 
1897 
1890 
1905 
1900 
1905 
1893 

1890 
1898 
1907 
1904 
1892 
1889 
1894 
1901 
1885 
1895 
1895 
1893 
1894 
1897 
1902 

1891 

1891 
1894 
1900 
1896 
1890 



Died. 

August 19th, 1905. 
September 20th, 1906. 
June 30th, 1907. 
December 6th, 1907. 
December 10th, 1907. 
December 27th, 1907. 
December 31st, 1907. 
January 3rd, 1908. 

January 8th, 1908. 
January 8th, 1908. 
January 19th, 1908. 
January 22nd, 1908. 
January 27th, 1908. 
February 17th, 1908. 
March 7th, 1908. 
March 8th, 1908. 
March 8th, 1908. 
March 10th, 1908. 
March 17th, 1908. 
March 22nd, 1908. 
March 24th, 1908. 
April 14th, 1908. 
April 15th, 1908. 

April 28th, 1908. 

April 29th, 1908. 
June 3rd, 1908. 
June 24th, 1908. 
June 27th, 1908. 
June 28th, 1908. 



Admitted. 

Col. George Bliss Sanford, U. S. A., Retired, 1891 

The Rev. Israel Newton Terry, D.D., 1903 

Theodore Dimon, Ensign, U. S. V., 1898, 1902 

Williston Benedict Lockwood, 1893 

George Albert Ellis, 1899 

James William Beekman, 1893 

George Morris Popham, 1885 

James Hedges Crowell, 1895 

Elihu Russell Smith, 1901 

Edward Malcolm Watson, 1894 

John Aycrigg Hegeman, 1897 

Frank Squier, 1886 

Henry Denton Nicoll, M.D., 1888 

George William McLanahan, 1891 

Walter Robarts Gillette, M.D., 1905 

Martin Hawley Stafford, 1889 

Edgar Ketchum Betts, 1903 

James Burtus Van Woert, 1902 

Clarence Melville Hyde, 1892 

William Henry Jackson, 1886 



Died. 

July 13th, 1908. 
July 16th, 1908. 
July 19th, 1908. 
July 20th, 1908. 
July 31st, 1908. 
August 7th, 1908. 
August 11th, 1908. 
August 12th, 1908. 
September 11th, 1908. 
September 12th, 1908. 
September 23rd, 1908. 
September 25th, 1908. 
October 26th, 1908. 
November 3rd, 1908. 
November, 7th, 1908. 
November 15th, 1908. 
November 15th, 1908. 
November 21st, 1908. 
November 23d, 1908. 
November 24th, 1908. 



Respectfully submitted, 



TALBOT OLYPHANT, 



Historian. 



32 



Fraunces Tavern Opening Ceremonies. 

December 4th, 1907. 

Fraunces Tavern Committee: 

Edmund Wetmore, 

John Hone, 

Robert Olyphant, 

James Mortimer Montgomery, 

Henry Melville. 

The Committee issued the following invitation : 

The Sons of the Revolution 

in the State of New York 

have the Honor to request the Presence of 

at the Ceremonies attending the formal opening of Fraunces Tavern 
on the Broad Street at the corner of Pearl Street in the City of 
New York on Wednesday, the fourth day of December, A.D. One 
Thousand Nine Hundred and Seven, at Three forty-five o'clock 

in the afternoon. 

The Officers of the Society and the following invited guests assembled 
at the Tavern : 

Major-General Frederick D. Grant, U. S. A. ; 

Rear-Admiral Caspar F. Goodrich, U. S. N. ; 

Brig.-General Theodore A. Bingham ; 

Ex-Governor John Lee Carroll, General President, Sons of the Revolution ; 

W. Hall Harris, Assistant General Secretary, Sons of the Revolution ; 

Robert Frater Munro, President, Saint Andrew's Society ; 

Stephen Farrelly, President, Friendly Sons of St. Patrick ; 

Frederic de Peyster Foster, President, New York Society Library ; 

J. Edward Simmons, President, New York Chamber of Commerce ; 

Cornelius N. Bliss, Vice-President, New York Chamber of Commerce ; 

John Crosby Brown, Vice-President, New York Chamber of Commerce; 

33 



Seth Low ; Vice-President, New York Chamber of Commecce ; 
James G. Cannon, Vice-President, New York Chamber of Commerce ; 
George Wilson, Secretary, New York Chamber of Commerce ; 
Francis Key Pendleton, Vice-President, Society of the Cincinnati ; 
Rev. Morgan Dix, D.D., Commandant, Veteran Corps of Artillery, consti- 
tuting the Military Society of the War of 1812; 
Samuel V. Hoffman, President, New York Historical Society ; 
Ex-Senator John C. Spooner. 

Ogden G. Budd, President, New York Consolidated Stock Exchange ; 
Albert Weinert, Sculptor ; 
William H. Mersereau, Architect ; 
Charles Henry Jones ; 
S. A. McGuire, Builder; 
Rev. Storrs O. Seymour, D.D. ; 
Walter Gilman Page, General Registrar; 
Edward Trenchard; 

John P. Sanborn, Rhode Island Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 
John Wolf Jordan, Pennsylvania Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 
William Libbey, New Jersey Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 

E. H. Fenn, Connecticut Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 

F. P. Garrettson, Rhode Island Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 
H. W. Wessels, Connecticut Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 

E. G. Ballord, Iowa Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 
E. F. Thompson, Massachusetts Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 
C. S. Hammatt, Florida Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 
R. W T . Smith, Maryland Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 
Rev. Henry E. Hovey, New Hampshire Society, Sons of the Revolution; 
Reginald Pelham Bolton ; 
Gherardi Davis ; 

Frank H. Carruthers, Massachusetts Society, Sons of the Revolution; 
Henry Oliver Thompson, Maryland Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 
Copeland Morton, Maryland Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 
Commander R. E. Peary, U. S. N. ; 

Ethan Allen Weaver, Pennsylvania Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 
Henry Dexter Warren, Massachusetts Society, Sons of the Revolution ; and 
Officers of the New York Consolidated Stock Exchange : 

E. R. Grant, R. H. Reid ; 

C. H. Badeau, Rudd Huben 

W. E. Power, Valentine Mott, 

W. R. Bogert. 

34 



The Veteran Corps of Artillery, constituting the Military Society of the 
War of 1812, of which the following members were present, acted as Guard 
of Honor : 



Adjutant Howland Pell, 
Paymaster Charles Isham, 
Surgeon Malcolm McLean, 
Commissary Clarence H. Eagle, 
Ordnance Officer Paul G. Thebaud, 
Sergeant-Major Bryce Metcalf, 
Guidon Sergeant Norman G. Gardiner, 
Quartermaster John Du Fais, 
Corporal James Mortimer Montgomery, 
Corporal Mortimer Delano, 
Corporal Lyman Rhoades, 
Private B. W. B. Brown, 



Private W. F. Cushman, 
Private L. H. Dos Passos, 
Private G. B. Elmendorf, 
Private Loyal Farragut, 
Private F. T. L. Lane, 
Private Donald McLean, 
Private H. B. Montgomery, 
Private Albert Ross Parsons, 
Private Chandler Smith, 
Private Rufus Shirley, 
Private T. J. O. Rhinelander, 
Private A. C. Zabriskie, 



Private Oliver Hazard Perry. 

Mr. Edmund Wetmore, the President of the Sons of the Revolution in 
the State of New York, called those present to order, and Mr. Robert Olyphant, 
Chairman of the Real Estate and Fraunces Tavern Restoration Committee, 
spoke as follows : 

"Mr. President — On the 16th day of July, 1906, the contracts for the 
restoration of Fraunces Tavern were signed by the Chairman of your Real 
Estate Committee. To-day it is my pleasure to turn over to you the com- 
pleted building, in which every arch, stone, brick and timber that it has been 
possible to preserve has been retained. The same oak beams that supported 
General Washington on the 4th of December, 1783, are beneath your feet; the 
same oak beams are over you that were over him on that memorable occasion. 

"I ask your acceptance of this structure as a memorial worthy of Wash- 
ington and his associates." 

President Wetmore responded: 

"On behalf of your fellow members of the Sons of the Revolution, we cor- 
dially appreciate the well directed labors of your Committe through which this 
time-honored building has been so carefully and so completely restored. We 
should not have been able to accomplish this work, except for' the munficence 
of our former President, Mr. Frederick S. Tallmadge, of this City; and in 
commemoration of this event, I will ask those here to join us in unveiling the 
tablet on the outside of the building that shall mark this historic spot, and also 
serve to perpetuate the memory of Mr. Tallmadge as a citizen who deserves 
well of his country." 

35 



In the meantime, the members of the Society assembled at the New York 
Consolidated Stock Exchange, the use of which building had been courteously 
extended by the Officers of the Exchange, and, preceded by the Seventh Regi- 
ment Band and a platoon of mounted Police, marched to the Tavern. 

Immediately following the exercises in the Tavern, the Officers and guests 
assembled at the Broad Street front of the building, where the Bronze Tablet, 
erected by the Society in recognition of the long services and munificent bequest 
of its late President, Frederick S. Tallmadge, was unveiled by Mr. James Mor- 
timer Montgomery. 

The parade was then formed by Col. John Butterfield Holland, Grand 
Marshal, and David Banks, Jr., John A. Barnard, Harry H. Benkard, Anthony 
J. Bleecker, John F. Daniell, Albert Delafield, John A. Dix, J. De Witt C. Falls, 
George C. Heilner, Francis G. Landon, Pierre F. Macdonald, Benjamin B. 
McAlpin, Charles S. Richards, Robert Thorne, Charles E. Warren, Charles 
H. Sherrill, J. Wray Cleveland, George A. Wingate, R. Kelly Prentice, John 
N. Stearns, Jr., Frederick T. Leigh, Nathaniel B. Thurston, Charles W. Furey, 
John A. Wilson, Henry De W. Hamilton, Horace C. Duval, Arthur F. Scher- 
merhorn and Clarence F. True. Aides, in the following order : 

1st — Platoon of Mounted Police, in command of Inspector Schmittberger. 

2nd — Seventh Regiment Band. 

3rd — Veteran Corps of Artillery, under command of Adjutant Howland 
Pell. 

4th — The following guests, in carriages: Major-General Frederick Dent 
Grant, U. S. A., escorted by Mr. Edmund Wetmore, President of the Soci- 
ety; Rear-Admiral Caspar F. Goodrich, U. S. N., escorted by Hon. John Lee 
Carroll, General President of the Society; Hon. W. Hall Harris, Assistant 
General Secretary of the Society; Mr. J. Edward Simmons, President of the 
Chamber of Commerce, escorted by Hon. Hugh Hastings. 

5th — Members of the Society. 

On arriving at the Chamber of Commerce, the Veteran Corps of Artillery, 
in their striking uniforms, formed to the right and left of the grand staircase 
while the members of the Society and guests passed through to the hall, the 
Veteran Corps following, where an address of welcome was made by the 
Hon. J. Edward Simmons, President of the Chamber of Commerce, who said: 

"It is a privilege to look into the faces of the gentlemen who have founded 
this great and patriotic organization, the Sons of the Revolution, and it is 
fitting for the Chamber of Commerce to throw open its doors and welcome you 
to its hall. In behalf of the Chamber, and as President of the Chamber, I 
welcome you all on this day which is so interesting and important to your- 
selves. 

36 



"This old organization has its birth in the old Tavern, which, through your 
efforts and labor, has been restored to its pristine glory and importance. It is 
a great service to the patriotic citizens of New York to have the Sons of the 
Revolution restore an old landmark which will always be an illustration of 
patriotism. 

"Permit me, on behalf of the Chamber of Commerce, to again welcome 
you, and to wish you God-speed in the patriotic purpose with which you are 
animated." 

Mr. Edmund Wetmore, President of the Society of the Sons of the Revo- 
lution, replied : 

"Fellow members of the Society of the Sons of the Revolution and our 
honored guests : We have assembled to celebrate the restoration of that ancient 
building, Fraunces Tavern, and its dedication as a historic monument to serve 
as a continual reminder of the patriotic times with which it was associated 
and of the events in our country's history with which it is connected. It is 
particularly appropriate that we should hold our celebration in this place, for, 
in the days preceding the Revolution, at a time when the British Parliament 
was renewing its efforts to tax the Colonies and the Colonies had raised a 
storm of protest throughout the land, the merchants of this City assembled in 
the "Long Room" of Fraunces Tavern in anxious deliberation over the crisis 
then impending, and then and there, in 1768, founded the New York Chamber 
of Commerce ; and from that day to this, in every crisis of our country's his- 
tory, that organization has shown that, among the liberal and enlightened 
business men of our great metropolis, the spirit of commercialism is but the 
hand-maid of the spirit of patriotism. 

"But the Chamber of Commerce is not the only one of our associations 
connected with the early days of Fraunces Tavern, for within its sacred halls 
used to meet the members of patriotic societies who date their origin back 
before the days of the Revolution : the Saint Andrew's Society and the 
Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, who brought the heather of Scotland and the 
shamrock of Ireland to be bound up with the wreaths of victory that crowned 
our struggle for independence. There, too, many a time, met the Sons of 
Liberty, those turbulent democrats that pulled down the statue of George III 
in the Bowling Green, who were the first to demand a Continental Con- 
gress, and who led the triumphant crowds that greeted John Adams and his col- 
leagues when they were on their way to the Congress ; they were there for 
nearly a week, as guests, at the old Tavern. And then the history of the 
Tavern is a blank for seven long years, when our City was in the possession 
of a British army, until one November day the windows in the "Long Room" 

37 



rattled to the sound of drums coming down Broad Street, the shrill notes of 
the fife, the trampling of horses, and the shouts from the crowds on the side- 
walks; and, as the last of King George's Redcoats pushed off from the Bat- 
tery, General Washington dismounted at Fraunces Tavern and re-took posses- 
sion of the City for the United States of America. When, a few days 
thereafter, on the 4th of December, 1783, one hundred and twenty-four years 
ago to-day, in that same "Long Room" — standing as it now stands, and looking 
as it now looks — he said farewell to his assembled officers as one by one they 
came up and took him by the hand : their task finished, the victory won, their 
country free, the time for separation came, the love of comrades who have 
gone together side by side through years of hardship and danger overcame 
every other thought, and the deep silence of their commander — habitually 
repressed by the weight of the cares of the nation resting upon him — broke 
through all restraint, and only a man's rare tears and silence expressed what 
words could not utter. As we look upon a scene so impressive and one that 
touches our sympathy so closely, it almost seems as if we could feel the pres- 
ence of that majestic spirit that presided over the creation of the Republic, 
and of these, the companions of his labors, as they grasped him by the hand. 
If they could return and assemble again and respond to our words of honor 
for their memory and of gratitude for their deeds, what would be the message 
that they would give to us ? Would it not be never to lose faith in our country, 
and never to lose faith in ourselves? They, under different conditions indeed, 
had to meet the same difficulties and dangers that we have to meet to-day. 
They had their own weaknesses, they made their own mistakes, and suffered 
from them. They had to struggle against the forces of ignorance, folly, sel- 
fishness and weakness, as we are compelled to suffer and struggle to-day. 
They had the temptations of poverty, we have the temptations of wealth; but 
under both conditions the good is really the stronger and must prevail. They 
started with a bankrupt treasury, and re-established the nation's credit upon 
the firm foundation of the nation's honesty, and we, within the past month, 
have seen the wealth that was feared as a menace poured out as a flood enabling 
the country to successfully stem the torrents of National calamity. 

"As our forefathers prevailed over evil in their days, so can we and so 
shall we prevail over it in ours. They won for us this free country, and he 
is not worthy of the privileges of his citizenship who for a moment permits 
himself to doubt that we shall have the strength and the virtue to preserve it. 

"The President of the United States has evinced great interest in our 
undertaking and its progress, but he was under such pressure of public duties 
as to be unable to attend, and has sent us this letter: 

'My dear Mr. Wetmore : — I wish I could be present at the celebration of 
the restoration of Fraunces Tavern, for every American must feel a peculiar 

3* 



interest in the anniversary of Washington's farewell to his officers. It is a 
fine thing that we have institutions interested in the commemoration of such 
incidents, for we can base views on problems of the nation's present, if we 
know something of the nation's past. Therefore, I congratulate you upon 
celebrating in a dignified and proper manner an occasion of such patriotic 
interest. 

'With all good wishes believe me, 

'Sincerely 

'Theodore Roosevelt.' 

"The Governor of the State of New York, Governor Hughes, expected to 
attend, but the pressure of his public duties is such that he has been unabla 
to do so, and has been compelled to send his regrets. The Mayor of the City 
could not come this afternoon for the same reason, but he has sent to repre- 
sent him and the City of New York a member of one of the governing depart- 
ments and also a member of our Society. 1 do not need to introduce to you 

the Honorable Hugh Hastings." 

Mr. Hastings responded: "Mr. President and Gentlemen — While it is a 
matter of sincere regret that a sense of devotion to official occupation has denied 
us the pleasure of the presence of our honored Mayor to-day, it is a cause for 
true felicitation that the Sons of the Revolution of the State of New York 
and the Chamber of Commerce of the City of New York should unite in fra- 
ternal rejoicings over the restoration of an ancient structure whose entity is 
inseparably connected for all time with the names of the moral giants of those 
days of abnormal values, personal, political and financial ; it is extremely grati- 
fying to realize that through the labors and patriotism of the Sons of the 
Revolution, Fraunces Tavern has been saved from the hands of the despoiler 
and restored as one of the hallowed landmarks of this City. 

"The Society is to be congratulated for the public spirit shown by its mem- 
bers, and the City itself is to be congratulated in the preservation of an his- 
toric building through the generosity and patriotism of private enterprise." 

President Wetmore then stated: 

"We have great pleasure in having with us the President General of our 
entire Society, Governor John Lee Carroll of Maryland, and I am going to 
ask him to say a few words." 

Governor Carroll replied: "Fellow Members and Sons of the Revolution 
— I came here only as a spectator and a listener, but I do not think I was the 
only one in this room who was delighted in listening to the speech which has 
just been delivered by the President of the Sons of the Revolution of New 
York. In the organization of this Society, we, who come from other 

39 



States, which were also Colonies during those dark and trying days of our 
history, have always had our hearts and our eyes turned upon New York, not 
only because New York was first in population and first in wealth, but first 
in everything that we desired to see go hand in hand with the progress of 
this great City ; and so we organized, first as Chapters of the State of New 
York, and now as one great body of the Sons of the Revolution of the 
United States. 

"But, my friends, I know, and you know too, that wherever we go in this 
land of ours to attend the Triennial Meetings of the Sons of the Revolution, — 
whether we go to towns that are far distant on the frontiers of this land, or 
whether we go to cities that are nearer to us, — we have close and constant rela- 
tions with the heroes of the Revolution. We know that it is of no consequence 
to foreign people who come here to make their living and to prosper among 
us, that it is of no consequence, practically, to them; but we have found that 
with one accord all lands and all people are with us whenever we praise or 
talk of the glories of the American Revolution. 

"It is essentially the part of the native-born citizen to keep these Societies 
up ; and while we have hordes and hordes of people, sincere people, who come 
here from every land to cultivate our soil, to help us build railways, and to 
become citizens of this vast nation of ours, we know that it is the gift of our 
forefathers. Those who are born upon the soil should take charge of this 
Government, and it is their duty to instruct the foreigner how he is to conduct 
himself. 

"There is always liberty, but there is liberty without license ; there 
are always people, but there are people who must conduct themselves properly, 
and we hold no powers as special police. I say to you again, gentlemen, that 
there is no part of our land to-day, where, when the Sons of the Revolution meet 
— who trace back their descent from the early days of our forefathers, who 
fought and died for the freedom of our country — a man can be found who 
does not do honor to our cause, whether he be a foreigner or a native citizen. 

"Now, we have not only the foreign people who are ready to become 
enthusiastic in our cause, but here we are to-day, for the first time assembled 
in this venerable Chamber of Commerce, — this venerable Chamber which has 
always been filled with men of high purpose and high thinking ; and whenever 
there is trouble, national, political or financial, we find assembled in this hall 
the strong and powerful men of this great City of yours, who, whether they 
have made their fortunes or inherited them, come here to take the part of 
reasonable people and stand before all, in defence of their Government and their 
rights. It is a great honor to us, my friends, that we are allowed to come and 

40 



stand in this hall to-day and speak our opinions with a feeling and an interest 
which would be seconded by every man in this great commercial City. 

"I thank you for listening so patiently to me." 

After the ceremonies, the guests and members of the Society assembled 
on the third floor of the Chamber of Commerce, where refreshments were 
served by Delmonico, and remained in social intercourse until 7 o'clock p. m. 



Committee in Charge of the Restoration of Fraunces Tavern 

Robert Olyphant, Chairman, Arthur M. Hatch, 
Charles R. Henderson, Henry Applegate Wilson, 

Alexander R. Thompson, Charles Isham, 

James Mortimer Montgomery. 



41 



Donations 

Books, Pamphlets, &c, Received 

TITLES DONOR 

New Jersey Archives, 1st Series, Vols. 

XXVI and XXVII, New Jersey Historical Society. 

New Jersey Archives, 2nd Series, Vols. 

I, II and III, New Jersey Historical Society. 

Library of Congress Report, Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Con- 

gress. 

Journals of the Continental Congress, Vols. Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Con- 

X, XI and XII, gress. 

Naval Records of the American Revolution, Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Con- 

1775-1783. gress. 

Miller Geneaology, Charles F. Miller. 

Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the 

Revolutionary War, Vol. XVI, William M. Olin. 

Regimental Colors in the War of the Revo- 
lution, Gherardi Davis. 

Register Military Order of the Loyal 

Legion, Lt.-Col. John P. Nicholson. 

Register of the Commandery of Pennsyl- 
vania, Lt.-Col. John P. Nicholson. 

Reports of the Valley Forge Commission, 

1894, 1896, 1900, 1902, 1904, 1906, Lt.-Col. John P. Nicholson. 

The Unknown Dead of the War of 1812, 

Address, Walter B. Camp. 

A Princess and Another, a story of New 

York Revolutioinary history, William S. Lyon. 

Life and Times of Stephen Higginson, James J. Higginson. 

Genealogy — Hill, Finch, Dean, Austin, 
Pinckney, Barker, Rhoades, Louns- 
bury and Smith Families, Uriah Hill, Jr. 

Daughters of the Cincinnati Year Book, 

1908, Mrs. James A. Glover, Secretary. 

Society of Mayflower Descendants Year 

Book, 1907, Clarence E. Leonard, Secretary. 

Poem, "Amerekanisches Nationallied," William F. H. Kruger. 

John Paul Jones Commemoration at Annap- 
olis, Md., April 24, 1906, J. Van Vechten Olcott. 

43 



TITLES 
Rochambeau, Dedication of Monument and 
Commemoration, Washington, D. C, 

Boundary Controversy between Pennsylva- 
nia and Virginia, and Minutes of 
Court, 

Transactions of the Oneida Historical 
Society, 5 Volumes, 

One Hundred Years of Trinity Church, 
Utica, 

District of Columbia Society, S. of R., 1908, 

Captain David Perry, Biography, 

Remarks Suggested by Three Autograph 
Letters, 

New England Society Anniversary Celebra- 
tion, 1907, 

Daughters of the Revolution, Proceedings, 
1907, 

A Memorial in Behalf of the Architect of 
our Federal Constitution, 

Massachusetts Society, S. of R.; President's 

letter, pamphlet, picture of tablet, 
Michigan Society, S. of R., 1896-1908, 
City Flags of Pennsylvania, Address, 
Sentiment as a National Asset, Address, 
Poverty and Patriotism of the Neutral 

Grounds, Historical Sketch, 
Union Club, Year Book, 1908, 
Society of Colonial Wars in the District of 

Columbia; 
Dedication Service, Cathedral Grounds, 
Society of Colonial Wars in the District of 

Columbia; 
Dedication of Braddock Boulder at Wash- 
ington, D. C, 
Pennsylvania Society, S. of R., Proceedings, 

1907-1908, 
Holland Society, Year Book, 1906, 
Life and Character of Stephen Decatur, 
Register of Colonial Wars in Minnesota, 
Sanders Family Geneaology, 

Resetting of New Utrecht Liberty Pole at 
New Utrecht, N. Y., May 10 ,1899, 

44 



DONOR 
J. Van Vechten Olcott. 

Carnegie Museum. 

W. M. Storrs, Cor. Sec'y. 

W. M. Storrs, Cor. Sec'y. 
Albion K. Parris, Jr., Secretary. 
Mrs. John F. Alden. 

James T. Edwards. 

George Wilson, Secretary. 

Miss Wandell, Secretary. 

Dr. Marcus Benjamin. 

Frank H. Carruthers, Secretary. 
H. G. Post, Secretary. 
Barr Ferree. 
Barr Ferree. 

J. C. S. Hamilton. 
Franklin Bartlett, Secretary. 



Dr. Marcus Benjamin. 



Lewis C. Clephane, Sec'y. 

Ethan Allen Weaver, Secretary. 

Henry L. Bogert, Secretary. 

John Somerindyke. 

Charles P. Noyes. 

Dr. Charles W. Sanders. 

Hudson Riley. 



From John Austin Stevens 



TITLES 
Handbook of American Indians, Part I, 
The Quebec Battlefields, 

The American Colonies in the 17th Century, 
Vols. I, II and III, 

History of the late Province of New York 
to 1762, Vols. I and II, 

The Birth of the Nation, Jamestown, 1607, 

The Executive Departments of the United 
States at Washington, 

Conciliation with America, 

The Constitution of the United States, 

Races and Immigrants in America, 

Round About Jamestown, 

Burgoyne's Campaign, 

Influence of Libraries and Social Progress, 



AUTHORS 
Frederick Webb Hodge. 
G. F. Matthew. 

Herbert L. Osgood, Ph.D. 

Hon. William Smith. 
Mrs. Roger A. Pryor. 

Webster Elmes. 

Edmund Burke. 

(William Hickey.) 

John R. Commons. 

J. E. Davis. 

Charles Neilson, Esq. 

Frederic de Peyster. 

Thomas Addis Emmet, M.D. 



The Battle of Harlem Heights, 

New York Historical Society, 50th Anniversary, 1854. 

New York Historical Society, 53rd Anniversary, 1857. 

Collection of Engraved Portraits of Washington. 

Collection of Engraved Portraits of Officers in the Army and Navy in the War of 
the Revolution. 

The Proud Papers, Catalogue. 

The Century Magazine, April, 1889.: Washington's Inauguration. 

Pamphlets on Various Subjects, 



From Clarence Storm 

33 Volumes of New York Historical Society Publications. 



Bequest of Frederick S. TaMmadge 



TITLES 
Alhambra, 

American Citizens' Manual, 1840. 
Aaron Burr, Life of, 
Abraham Lincoln, 

Andre, Maj. John, Life and Career of, 
Astoria, 

American Angler's Guide, 1857. 
Annapolis, Annals of, 



AUTHORS 
Washington Irving. 

J. Parton. 
Norman Hapgood. 
Winthrop Sargent. 
Washington Irving. 

David Ridgely. 



45 



TITLES 

American Scenery, 
America, First Impressions. 
Arctic Explorations, Vols. I and II, 
American Institute, 15th Annual Report, 
1856. 

American Gazetteer, 2 Volumes, 

American Military and Naval Heroes, 

American Historical Register, November, 
1894. 

American Conflict, The, 1862-1865, 

Artemus Ward, Speech, 1814. 

American Magazine, 1788. 

Adventures of Capt. Bonneville, 

Banquet given by Cyrus W. Field, 1872. 

Block Island, History of, 

Bracebridge Hall, 

Butterfield, Genl. Daniel, 

Battles of the United States, Vols. I and II, 

Brainerd Geneaology, 

Burgoyne, Sir John Fox, Military Opinions 

of, 
Bancroft's History of the United States, 

Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 

Buchanan's Administration. 

Benjamin Tallmadge, Speech, 1809. 

Civil War in America, Vols. 1, 2, 3, 

Civil War: Second Year, 

Civil War: Third Year, 

California, Early Days in, 

Christopher Columbus, Vols. 1, 2, 3, 

Crayon Miscellany, 

California and Its Resources, 

Charlotte-Augusta, House of Brunswick, 
Memoirs, 

Conquest of Peru, Vol. 1, 

Connecticut, History of, Vol. 1, 

Clay: Life and Times of Henry Clay, 
Vols. 1, 2, 

Clay: Henry Clay Obituary Address, 1852. 

Congress: Address of Members to Constitu- 
ents, 1812. 

46 



AUTHORS 



N. P. Willis. 



Elisha Kent Kane. 



Jedidiah Morse. 
Thomas Wilson. 



Horace Greeley. 

Washington Irving. 

Rev. S. T. Livermore, A.M. 
Washington Irving. 
Julia L. Butterfield. 
Henry B. Dawson. 
Rev. David D. Field., D.D. 

George Wrottesley. 
George Bancroft. 



Benson J. Lossing. 
Edward A. Pollard. 
Edward A. Pollard. 
Stephen J. Field. 
Washington Irving. 
Washington Irving. 
Ernest Seyd. 

Thomas Green. 
William H. Prescott. 
G. H. Hollister. 

Calvin Colton. 



TITLES 
Dramas and Poems, 
Emott: Speech of James Emott, 1811. 
Emott: Speech of James Emott, 1813. 
Eminent Americans, 
Episcopal Church in Virginia, 
England, Constitutional History, 
Ekkoes from Kentucky, 
East Boston, History, 
Fiske: Essays, Vols. 1, 2, 
Farragut and Our Naval Commanders, 
Franklin: The Many Sided Franklin, 
Franklin: The True Benjamin Franklin, 
Fairmount Park Report, 1878. 
Federalist on the New Constitution, 1788, 
Field Family, 

Field: David Dudley Field, 
Grant and His Campaigns, 
Granada, 

Goldsmith: Oliver Goldsmith, Biography, 
Gerard: Memorial of James W. Gerard, 

Great Exhibition, Crystal Palace, Illustrated, 
Vols. 2, 4. 

Georgian Plantation, 1838-1839, 
Greenfield Hill, A Poem, 1794, 
Gaston: Speech of William Gaston, 1814. 
Goodrich: Recollections of a Life Time, 
Vols. 1, 2, 

Grant and Sherman's Campaigns, 

Homes of American Statesmen. 

Hubbard, N. T. Hubbard, Autobiography. 

Home of Washington, 

Horse of America, The, 

Hilhouse, James Hilhouse, Memoir, 

Harrison, Life and Times of William Henry 
Harrison, 

Herkimer County and Upper Mohawk 

Valley, 
Harper, Speech of Robert G. Harper, 1814. 
Internal Taxes, Repeal of, 
Judson, William Francis Judson. 

47 



AUTHORS 



Hamilton. 



John Livingston. 
Francis L. Hawks. 
Henry Hallam. 
Petroleum V. Nasby. 
William H. Sumner. 
John Fiske. 
J. T. Headley. 
Paul Leicester Ford. 
Sydney George Fisher. 

Hamilton Madison Jay. 
Henry M. Field. 
Henry M. Field. 
Henry Coppee, A.M. 
Washington Irving. 
Washington Irving. 
N. Y. Bar. 



Frances Anne Kemble. 
Timothy Dwight. 



S. G. Goodrich. 
J. T. Headley. 



Benson J. Lossing. 
William H. Herbert. 
Rev. Leonard Bacon, D.D. 



S. J. Burr. 



Nathaniel S. Benton. 



Griswold. 



TITLES 

Johnson, Sir William Johnson, Bart., 
Vols. 1, 2, 

Juvenile Annual, 1869, 

Jefferson, Joseph Jefferson Autobiography. 

Jones, John Paul, Vols. 1, 2, 

Knickerbocker, 

Knickerbocker Life in New York, 

Kingsley, Lectures Delivered in America, 

Lewis, Francis and Morgan Lewis, 

Living Men and Women of the Revolution, 

Lettres a un Ameriquain, Parts 1, 2. 

Long Island, History, 

Long Island, History, Vols. 1, 2, 3, 

Mahomet, Vols. 1, 2, 

Morris, Life of Gouverneur Morris, 
Vols. 1, 2, 3, 

Mount Vernon and Its Associations, 

Metropolitan Fajr, U. S. Sanitary Commis- 
sion, 1864. 

Manuals of the Common Council, New 
York, 1841-2, 1843-4, 1845-6, 1852, 
1853, 1855, 1856, 1858, I860, 1863, 1864, 
1865, 

Manual of the Legislature, New York, 1863, 
1864, 1865, 

Mexico, Prescott's Conquest of Mexico, 

Middletown, Conn., Centennial Address, 

Maclay: Journal of William Maclay, 1789- 

1791, 
National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished 

Americans, Vols. 1, 2, 3, 
New York, 1827, 

New York Historical Society Publications, 

1869, 1870, 1871, 1872, Vols. 2, 3, 4, 5. 
National Hymns, 

New York Historical Collections, 
New York, History of, Vol. 2, 
New York Politics, 30 Years, 
New York, Old New York, Aug., Sept., 

Oct., Dec, 1889, Jan., 1890, 
New York, West End Plateau, 

48 



AUTHORS 

William L. Stone. 
D. Appleton. 

August C. Buell. 
Washington Irving. 
Abram C. Dayton. 
Charles Kingsley. 
Julia Delafield. 
Benson J. Lossing. 

Benjamin F. Thompson. 
Peter Ross. 
Washington Irving. 

Jared Sparks. 
Benson J. Lossing. 



D. T. Valentine. 

Chauncey M. Depew, Sec'y of State. 
William H. Prescott. 
David D. Field. 

Edgar S. Maclay, A.M. , 

James Herring. 
James Hardie, A.M. 



Richard Grant White. 
John W. Barber. 
William Dunlap. 
Matthew P. Breen, 

W. W. Pasko, 
Egbert L. Viele. 



Titles 

New York Annual Register, 1837, 

New York, Topography and Hydrology, 

New York, Early Houses, Part I, 

New York, Old Streets, 

New Windsor Centennial, 1883. 

New Amsterdam, 

Newport Illustrated, 1854. 

Names, Family and Christian, Derivation, 

Poets of America, 

Plymouth, Guide to, 

Political Works, 

Pilot, The, 

Puritan in Holland, England and America, 
Vols. 1, 2, 

Potomac and Rapidan, 1861-1863, 

Printers and Printing in New York, 

Paris in America, 

Poets and Poetry of America, 

Prose Writers of America, 

Potomac, Seat of War, Map. 

Pickering, Hon. Timothy, Speech, 1814. 

Pitkin, Speech, 1814. 

Paine: Robert Troupe Paine Memoir, 

Prairie, The, 

Quincy, Josiah, Oration, 1813. 

Rebellion Record, The, Vols. 1-11, Supple- 
ment to 1st Vol , 

Rip Van Winkle, 

Rights of Man, 

Rural Affairs, 1858, 

Red Jacket, Life and Times, 

Romance of the Revolution, 

Revolution: Diary of the American Revo- 
lution, Vols. 1, 2, 

Sheridan: With Genl. Sheridan in Lee's 
Last Campain, 

Stockbridge Church, Pastors, In Memoriam, 
Stryker, William Scudder, Memorial Meet- 
ing of the Society of the Cincinnati. 



AUTHORS 
Edwin Williams. 

Egbert L. Viele. 

William S. Pelletreau, A.M. 

James W. Gerard. 

Professor A. Davis. 

William Arthur, M.A. 
George B. Cheever. 
William S. Russell 
Thomas Paine. 
James Fenimore Cooper. 

Douglas Campbell, A. M. 
Alonzo H. Quint. 
Charles R. Hildeburn. 
Edward Laboulaye. 
Rufus W. Griswold 
Rufus W. Griswold. 



His Parents. 

James Fenimore Cooper. 



Frank Moore. 
Joseph Jefferson. 
Thomas Paine. 
J. J. Thomas. 
William L. Stone. 
G. G. Evans. 

Frank Moore. 

A Staff Officer. 
Nathaniel H. Eggleston. 



49 



TITLES 



Salmagundi, 



Sherman and His Campaigns, 

Sketchhbook, The, 

Story of the Great March (Sherman's), 

Sketches of the Secession, 

Signers of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, 
Slavery, 
St. Mark's Memorial, 1799-1899, 

Scott, Autobiography of Lt.-Gen. Winfield 
Scott, Vols. 1, 2. 

Story of an Old Farm, 

Sherman, Memoirs of Genl. W. T. Sherman, 

2 Vols. 
Slavery, The Suppressed Book, 1857. 

Sumner, William H. Sumner, Reminiscences. 
Sumner Family, 

Tribute to the Fair, Poems, 
Traveller's Guide, 1840, 
Travels in America, 100 Years Ago, 
Treaty of Washington, Negotiation, &c, 
Tour Around New York, 
Traveller, 

Trumbull's Poetical Works, Vols. 1, 2, 
Tanney: Roger B. Tanney, LL.D., Memoir, 
Tarrytown, Revolutionary Soldiers' Monu- 
ment Dedication, 1894. 
Thermometer Record, 1840-1850, 
Trenton Falls, 

United States, Constitution and Documents, 
1789-1847, 

Virginia, Historical Recollectioins of, 

Virginia, Notes on, 

Washington, Life of, Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 

Washington, George, 

Wolfert's Roost, 

Williams College, Biographical Annals, 

Williams College, History of, 

Washington City, Hand Book, 1875, 

50 



AUTHORS 

Wm. Irving, J. K .Paulding and 
Washington Irving. 

Col. S. M. Bowman and Lt.-Col. 
R. B. Irwin. 

Washington Irving. 

A Staff Officer. 

W. G. Brownlow. 

Rev. Chas. A. Goodrich. 
William E. Channing. 
The Vestry. 



Andrew D. Mellick, Jr. 



Wm. H. Sumner. 

U. S. Sanitary Commission. 

G. M. Davison. 

Thomas Twining. 

Caleb Cushing. 

Felix Oldboy. 

Washington Irving. 

John Trumbull, LL.D. 

Saml. Tyler, LL.D. 



Delatour. 

N. Parker Willis. 

[W. Hickey.] 
Henry Howe. 
Thomas Jefferson 
Washington Irving. 
Woodrow Wilson. 
Washington Irving. 
Rev. Calvin Durfee, D.D. 
Rev. Calvin Durfee, D.D. 
Dr. B. Randolph Keim. 



TITLES 
Washington Irving, Life and Letters, Vols. 

1, 2, 3, 4, 
Washington, The Home of, 
Wish-Ton-Wish, 
Wyandotte, 

Washington Inauguration Centennial, 
Washington Centennial Address, 
Washington, George, 
Webster, Daniel, 
White Mountain Guide, 1867, 
Webster, Speech of Daniel Webster, 1814. 



AUTHORS 

Pierre M. Irving. 
Benson J. Lossing. 
J. Fenimore Cooper. 
J. Fenimore Cooper. 
Sub. Com. on Army. 
Melville W. Fuller, LL.D. 
Norman Hapgood. 
Samuel L. Knapp. 
Edson C. Eastman. 



Miscellaneous Donations 

Pictures, Relics, Programmes, etc. 



titles 

Relics from Fort Ticondegora, 
Photograph of Washington's Headquarters 

at Rocky Hill, N. J., 
Souvenirs Pennsylvania Society Dinner, 

1907, 
Engrossed Extract from Tallmadge Diary, 

framed, 

Copy of portrait of Washington, 
Copy of picture, Battle of Lexington, 
Relics from Fort Ticonderoga, 
Commission of First Lieutenant, John J. 

Fonda, 
John Paul Jones Medal of the American 

Numismatic Society, 

Picture of Fraunces Tavern and receipt of 
Saml. Fraunces, 

Box which belonged to Raleigh Chinn, 
Bank bill showing minute engraving of 
Washington, 

Three early New York State Commissions, 
Colonial Currency, 1773-1776, 
Colonial Currency, 1776, 
Grape-shot from Fort Ticonderoga, 

5i 



DONORS 
Howland Pell. 

Miss Kate E. McFarlane. 

John C. Jay, Jr. 

Robert Olyphant. 
Charles W. Burrows. 
Charles W. Burrows. 
F. B. Richards. 

Abram Wakeman. 

Henry Russell Drowne. 

Bryce Metcalf. 
Joseph I. Keefer. 

Oscar T. Barck. 
Beverly Chew. 
Roland Burbank Swart. 
George Washington Close. 
Glenn D. Easton. 



TITLES 
Picture of Washington and Long Room, 
Meat Dish used by Sir Henry Clinton, 
Four tiles of Trinity Church, Newport, 

Four pictures of residences of Revolution- 
ary Officers, 

Statement of dinner to Washington, 1783, 

John Paul Jones, facsimile of Peale painting, 

Silver punch bowl, copy of original made 
by Paul Revere for Sons of Liberty, 
Souvenir spoon, Sons of the Revolution, 

Two early insignia of the Sons of the 
Revolution, 

Case for the New York Historical Society 
publications, 

Surrender of Burgoyne, Water Color copy 
of Trumbull's painting in the Capitol 
at Washington, 

Brick from Fort Frederick, Lake Champlain, 
N. Y., 

Brick from Fort Montgomery, N. Y., 

Powder House, 
Silk picture of Betsy Ross making the Flag, 
Gilt Eagle and Silk Flags, 

Copy of delineations on Gen. Israel Put- 
nam's Powder Horn, 

Photograph of Rochambeau tablet at New- 
port, 

Pewter Mug dug up in Shakespeare's gar- 
den, 

Wood of Paul Revere House, 

Wood of Frigate Constitution, 

Photograph of Doorway of Fraunces 
Tavern, 

Picture of home of Asa Pollard, the first 
man killed at Bunker Hill, 

Table at which the Society was instituted, 
in the rooms of the New York His- 
torical Society, cor. Second Avenue 
and 11th Street, on February 22nd, 
1876, by John Austin Stevens and 
others, 

Foot-warmer from old St. George's Church in 
Beekman Street, 

52 



DONORS 
W. L. Andrews. 
Jed Frye. 
John Austin Stevens. 

John Austin Stevens. 
Hugh Hastings. 
Edward Trenchard. 

Edmund Wetmore. 
Miss Edith M. Drowne. 

Clarence Storm. 

Clarence Storm. 

Byam K. Stevens. 

Miss Wandell. 

Miss Wandell. 
Miss Wandell. 
Miss Wandell. 

Waldo Putnam Russell. 

John Austin Stevens. 

Tallmadge bequest. 
Henry W. Lawton. 

Henry W. Lawton. 
William H. Mersereau 
Frederick C. Pollard. 



New York Historical Society. 
N. W. Brown. 



Presented by Miss Elizabeth Root, of Geneva, N. Y., 
through Mr. Beverly Chew 

Box made by soldier in Washington's Army at Valley Forge. 
Two sheets of Continental money containing 32 bills, 1776. 

Diary of Lieutenant Matthew Gregory, containing account of surrender of York- 
town. 

Commissions of Matthew Gregory, dated 1777, 1778, 1780, 1783, 1793. 

Poem entitled "British Taxation in America." 

Hymns and Ode, "Funeral Honors to the memory of La Fayette." 

Bill of Fare at "Public Festival in honor of the completion of Bunker Hill Monu- 
ment," 1843. 

Badge to commemorate death of Genl. Andrew Jackson, June 8, 1845. 

Badge to the memory of De Witt Clinton, Feb. 11, 1828. 

Badge of Washington Benevolent Society. 

Badge of the Army of the Revolution, dated July 4, 1776. 



Loaned by Chandler Smith 

Commissions of Henry Burbeck, Esq., as follows: 

Second Lieutenant signed by Joseph Warren, May 19, 1775. 
First Lieutenant signed by John Hancock, Jan. 3, 1776. 
Captain signed by Henry Laurens, Jan. 2, 1778. 
Captain signed by Samuel Huntington, April 21, 1780. 
Major signed by George Washington, March 19, 1793. 
Lieutenant-Colonel signed by John Adams, March 29, 1799. 

Master Mason's certificate of Henry Burbeck, St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 82, dated 
June 23rd, 1777. 

Certificates of the Society of the Cincinnati, representing membership of Henry Bur- 
beck, Wm. H. Burbeck and Chandler Smith. 

Commission of Robert Ritchie, First Lieutenant, signed by Thomas Jefferson. 



Loaned by Philip Livingston 

Gold Watch which formerly belonged to Philip Livingston, the Signer of the Dec- 
laration of Independence. 



53 



THE ORIGIN AND APPLICATION 



OF THE 



Monroe Doctrine 



BY 



Howard R. Bayne 



A Paper read before the New York Society 
of the Sons of the Revolution, 
April 1 8th 1908 



THE ORIGIN AND APPLICATION 



OF THE 



Monroe Doctrine 



Of nothing do we hear so much in the world of diplomacy, as the Monroe 
Doctrine. It has been criticised and ridiculed, but not despised; denounced, 
but never defied; bombarded with the artillery of adverse argument, but, in 
the practical administration of public affairs, universally respected and allowed. 
Behind it, stand the power and majesty of the American People, ready to 
enforce it by war with any nation manifesting a purpose to violate it. 

James Monroe, whose name is imperishably connected with this great 
principle, was born in the County of Westmoreland, Virginia, on the 28th day of 
of April, 1758. In the same County were born George Washington, James 
Madison, and those brilliant statesmen and soldiers of the Lee family, Richard 
Henry Lee, Francis Lightfoot Lee, "Light Horse" Harry Lee, of the elder 
generation, and Robert E. Lee of our times. 

Upon this kindly soil James Monroe, the son of a planter of good estate, 
grew to manhood, in an atmosphere of patriotism and public spirit. His boy- 
hood was passed amid the heated controversies over the Colony's relations 
to the Mother Country, and the indignant protests against her unjust and 
irritating policies. Great issues, involving fundamental principles of social 
order, arose in those times. They gave a tone and strength to men's minds. 

When, in 1774, at the age of 16, young Monroe entered the ancient Col- 
lege of William and Mary, we may suppose that the earnest spirit of the time, 
and the just opinions of the people among whom he was reared, had educated 
him in the school of patriotism, far beyond the learning of an uneventful and 
quiet boyhood. John Marshall was one of his classmates, and, in 1776, these 
two were the first from the College to join the Army under Washington in 
New York. Wounded in the Battle of Trenton, serving through two cam- 
paigns, as an aide to Lord Stirling, he "maintained in every instance," said 
Washington, "the reputation of a brave, active and sensible officer." The dis- 
placement of his regiment, in the difficulties of recruiting, brought about his 

57 



retirement from active service in the Continental Line. Thereafter, during 
the remainder of the War of the Revolution, his services were confined to the 
defense of his native State. Studying law under Jefferson and inspired by 
the example of that notable man, Monroe fitted himself for public station. 
He first became a member of the Virginia Assembly, then a member of the 
Executive Council, delegate to the Congress of the Confederation, member of 
the State Convention that adopted the Constitution of the United States, and, 
under it, a member of the Senate. In 1784, Monroe was one of the Com- 
missioners to deliver to Congress Virginia's royal gift, a deed to the Northwest 
Territory, now comprising the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and 
Wisconsin. He introduced, as a member of the Virginia Assembly, a bill by 
which that State confirmed the ordinance of 1787 prohibiting slavery within 
the limits of this vast domain. While in the Senate of the United States, he 
was appointed Minister to the recently established Republic of France. There 
was, at that time, no representative of any other nation recognized by France. 
Monroe was the first to be received. Upon his recall from France, he was 
elected Governor of Virginia. He was next sent by Jefferson to France on a 
special mission to negotiate, along with Robert R. Livingston, who for two 
years had been the resident minister, for the purchase of Louisiana, and, with- 
in a month after his arrival, he and his colleague reported the success of their 
negotiations. By this stroke of diplomacy the United States acquired, for the 
sum of $15,000,000 that vast territory from the Mississippi west to the Pacific 
Ocean, now including the States of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, one-third 
of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and the Indian Territory. 

Then followed his mission to England to secure a treaty disposing of the 
irritating questions between the two countries relating to the impressment of 
seamen, blockade and search of American vessels. A convention was agreed 
to, but it did not receive the approval of Jefferson, who directed Monroe and 
Pinkney to re-open negotiations. But the time was not ripe and Monroe was 
compelled to return home without accomplishing the purpose of his mission. 
His disappointment was alleviated by his election a second time to the highest 
office in the gift of his fellow citizens in Virginia. 

In 1811, he became a member of Madison's Cabinet, as Secretary of State. 
This was a most trying period. The Wars of Napoleon Bonaparte had involved 
all Europe in a series of acrimonious disputes and continuous collisions, render- 
ing neutrality on the part of our Government exceedingly difficult to maintain. 
Bonaparte sedulously sought to involve us in a war with England. Great Britain, 
with equal persistence, fomented open rupture with France. Madison, the 
most pacific of Presidents, bore with great patience the insults and injustice 

58 



inflicted by both these powers. Forced on by public opinion, he advised Con- 
gress to declare war on England, which was speedily done June 18, 1812. 

In this conflict there is little in which Americans can take satisfaction 
beyond the operations of our Navy. But Monroe's part in the War was most 
energetic, courageous and helpful. In addition to his duties in the Department 
of State, he assumed those of Secretary of War, and from that time a new 
spirit was infused into the prosecution of hostilities from North to far South. 

The War of 1812 had the most remarkable concomitants of any in history: 
First, the cause of war — the orders in council establishing embargoes, etc. — 
was removed the day before war was actually declared ; then, while over- 
whelmingly in favor of war, Congress refused to vote the means to carry 
it on ; next, its greatest battle, that of New Orleans, was fought after the 
Treaty of Peace had been signed ; finally, that treaty made no mention of 
the cause of the war. 

On March 4th, 1817, at the age of 59, Monroe succeeded Madison in the 
Presidency. Daniel D. Tompkins, a resident of Staten Island, was Vice-Presi- 
dent during both terms of Monroe. Among the men of the times were Jeffer- 
son and Madison, ever friends and advisers of Monroe ; John Adams, whose 
son, John Quincy Adams, entered Monroe's Cabinet ; Andrew Jackson, the 
hero of New Orleans, fast looming up into a "presidential possibility" ; Henry 
Clay, a leader for several years past in the House of Representatives ; Daniel 
Webster, for two terms a member of Congress, but thinking now of retiring 
to the emoluments of professional life ; Thomas Benton, emerging into promi- 
nence ; Richard Rush, erelong to be Minister to England, and to take honored 
part in the proclamation of the Monroe Doctrine; John C. Calhoun, now 
become Secretary of State ; and William Wirt, the prosecutor of Aaron Burr, 
Attorney-General. 

Monroe's Administration marked the change between the old and the new 
order of things : the passing away of the elder statesmen, and the coming on 
of the new, full of confidence, capacity, vigor, and enthusiasm. Old questions 
had been settled, or ceased to interest. New issues were coming to the front 
and engaging men's minds. The cessation of hostilities between Napoleon 
and the Allied Powers of Europe, following the end of war between Great 
Britain and our Government, furnished the opportunity and stimulated the 
pursuit of commercial relations with all parts of the civilized world. Ships 
laden with foreign goods sailed into every American harbor and took back 
the products of our farms and forests. The formation of new States greatly 
enlarged commercial intercourse, domestic and foreign ; and our merchant 
marine, expanding with opportunity bestowed by the least shackles upon trade, 
brought wealth to American merchants and introduced the advent of the 

59 



"era of good feeling," as Monroe's presidential terms were called. So that 
when, after his first term, the question of his successor arose, the country was 
so heartily in favor of his re-nomination that he received all the votes of the 
Electoral College save one, cast for John Quincy Adams. 

The chief subjects engrossing Monroe's attention while President were 
the defense of the Atlantic Seaboard, Internal Improvements, the Seminole 
War, the acquistion of Florida, the Missouri Compromise, and resistance to 
the interference of European Powers in American affairs, with which we are 
now more directly concerned. 

His second term began in 1821. His constitutional advisers were John 
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State ; Calhoun, Secretary of War ; Wm. H. 
Crawford of Georgia, Secretary of the Treasury ; Clay was speaker of the 
House. 

From 1817 to 1825, Richard Rush was Minister to Great Britain. He was 
the son of the distinguished Philadelphian, Dr. Benjamin Rush, a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence, a patriot of rare public spirit during the 
Revolutionary War, and one of the principal supporters of the new Federal 
Constitution. His son, Richard, born in 1780, was graduated at Princeton. 
After holding the offices of Attorney-General of Pennsylvania, Comptroller of 
the Treasury, Attorney-General under Madison, temporary Secretary of State 
under Monroe, he rendered his most conspicuous service as Minister to the 
Court of St. James. 

During the period in which we are specially interested, George Canning 
was in charge of the Foreign Office under Lord Liverpool, nominal head of 
the English Government. Canning was born in London in 1770. His father 
had been bred as a lawyer, but, abandoning that profession for literature, was 
hardly able to make a decent livelihood for his wife and only child. Dis- 
appointed in his hopes, he died a year after the birth of his son. 

Educated by a wealthy uncle, at Eton and Oxford, young Canning came 
back to London and, under the patronage of Pitt, entered Parliament at the 
age of 23 years. He began life a Liberal, in sympathy with Fox and Sheridan. 
The excesses of the French Revolution, as shown in the Reign of Terror, seem 
to have turned him, in the outset of his public career, from the Whigs to the 
conservatism of the Tories. 

In a gathering of the greatest orators and statesmen of his time, he took 
front rank. To the natural advantages of a commanding figure and a musical 
voice he added great fluency and skill in language, quickness of perception 
and keenness of wit. Many of the reverses suffered by Bonaparte were due 
to Canning, who never ceased to withstand the principles and policies of 
Napoleon. Perhaps to no one man was the downfall of that great military 

6o 



genius of France more due than to Canning, who, courageous and fearless, 
competent and unconquerable, ever sought to encourage opposition and effect 
combination against the merciless conqueror of Europe. 

Much study has been given to the career of the marvelous Corsican, and 
while it is probably true that the full mission of Bonaparte, in all its propor- 
tions, yet remains undiscovered, the career of this remarkable man certainly 
quickened the sense of liberty in the world and disseminated a clearer concep- 
tion of popular rights and governmental obligations. 

The growth of liberal ideas on these subjects among all classes of Conti- 
nental Europe was so apparent, after the fall of Napoleon, that the monarchs 
of Russia, Prussia and Austria felt the need of co-operation in stemming the 
tide, and restoring the old idea of the Divine Right to rule without reference 
to the will of the people. And so, not long after the Battle of Waterloo, Alex- 
ander, Czar of Russia, induced Frederick William, King of Prussia, and 
Francis, Emperor of Austria, to form a League which Alexander called the 
"Holy Alliance," for the purpose, ostensibly, of "manifesting to the world their 
unchangeable determination to adopt no other rule of conduct either in the 
government of their respective countries, or in their political relations with 
other governments, than the precepts of that holy religion, the precepts of jus- 
tice, charity and peace." Nevertheless these monarchs did not hesitate to 
announce themselves as "delegates of Providence to govern so many branches 
of the same family and establish human institutions and remedy their imper- 
fections." 

All the other Christian Powers of Europe were invited to join the Alli- 
ance. England held aloof. The Kings of France, Spain, Naples and Sardinia 
accepted the invitation, and so, in the language of a recent historian, "the era 
of Christian politics was supposed to have opened." 

The sinister purpose of this combination is denied by some historians and 
asserted by others. But all agree that whatever was its original design, the most 
effective and frequent use to which it was put was to suppress, by united 
effort, popular uprisings and constitutional governments within the jurisdiction 
of each signatory monarch. 

In Monroe's second term, the Holy Alliance was exercising its benevolent 
intervention in the affairs of Spain. 

That people had driven their monarch from the throne and had estab- 
lished a constitutional government. Of this the Holy Alliance did not approve 
as according with the will of God, and so, entering Spain, they succeeded by 
force of arms in restoring the banished ruler and abolishing the new order of 
things. 

For many years the Spanish colonies in South America had been in revolt, 

61 



but had not been able to make good their independence by the acquiescence of 

the Mother Country. A long warfare, desultory and desolating, had been in 
progress. The trade of England had been much impaired by it, and, aside 
from the interruption of their commercial relations, the sympathies of the 
people of the United States had for many years been aroused in favor of the 
revolted colonies. Our Government had gone as far as safe diplomacy allowed 
of, in acknowledging a state of war and maintaining a strict neutrality between 
the combatants. Public opinion throughout the country demanded an acknowl- 
edgment of independence and the establishment of diplomatic relations with 
the struggling Americans. At the instance of Monroe, this occurred in the 
spring of 1822. 

Events seemed so shaping themselves as to indicate that the Holy Alliance 
would not content itself with establishing order in Spain, but that, deeming 
this finally impossible without subduing her South American subjects, would 
ultimately direct its energies to that end, and by the shot and shell of the 
allied armies, sent over the ocean, insure peace under the beneficent doctrine 
of Divine Right, and, incidentally, the overthrow of independence and liberty 
in Spanish America. 

The legions of the Alliance, once firmly planted on South American soil, 
might content themselves with the professed purpose of intervention and sim- 
ply restore the colonies, with their spirits crushed, to their cruel Mother; or 
they might, under the alleged inspiration of Divine Providence, divide up those 
fair provinces among the members of the Holy Alliance themselves. It had 
happened before, in the history of the world, that under the direction of mani- 
fest destiny and a species of benevolent assimilation, the wolf at a convenient 
opportunity had eaten up the lamb. And the devotion of the Holy Alliance to 
the will of God, was so single and so sheer that Canning in London, and 
Monroe in Washington, had no great difficulty in seeing the Powers of Conti- 
nental Europe erelong in full possession of the Southern half of the American 
Hemisphere. 

The contemplation of this result was as displeasing to Great Britain as 
to the United States. From the English standpoint, it meant the weakening 
of British influence by increasing her commercial, military and naval isolation, 
and the magnifying many times the power of the Allies, and their opportunities 
for commercial and colonial supremacy in the New World. To the North 
American statesmen, the introduction and prevalence of the principles and 
practices of Continental Europe, enforced by her innumerable phalanxes, 
threatened the peace, prosperity and safety of the United States. 

With this interesting situation of the several pieces on the chessboard, 
Fate, the Master-player, began to move on the game. 

62 



In August, 1823, Canning had an eventful interview with Rush, the 
American Minister. He stated to Rush. that Spain's recovery of her revolted 
colonies in South America was hopeless, that recognition of their independence 
was inevitable, that while England was committed to the policy of non-inter- 
ference, she could not see, with indifference, the transfer of any of the Spanish 
colonies to any other Power. 

Under the circumstances, Canning suggested that England and the United 
States should unite in making a declaration to the Holy Alliance of the dis- 
approbation with which they would view any project looking to the transfer of 
any of the Spanish colonies to a European Power. Rush, in reply, expressed his 
deep regret that he had no authority to commit his Government to such a 
declaration, but he believed the United States shared the feelings of Canning 
on the subject, and that his Government would regard as highly unjust and 
fruitful of disastrous consequences any attempt by any European Power to 
take possession of the colonies by cession or otherwise. Rush urged Canning 
to acknowledge the independence of the colonies, but the latter replied he was 
not in position to do so. 

Rush transmitted to John Quincy Adams, Monroe's Secretary of State, 
what had occurred between himself and Canning, and asked for instructions. 

Later in the same month Canning called the attention of Rush to the meet- 
ing of the Powers on Spanish affairs shortly to occur, and stated that it was 
expedient on this account that Great Britain and the United States should 
promptly come to an understanding. Rush replied that though he was still 
without instructions on the subject, yet he was so well apprized of the general 
views of his government, that if England would acknowledge the independence 
of the colonies, he would assume the authority of uniting with her in the 
declaration suggested by Canning. But the Foreign Secretary wisely thought 
that if Rush had not the authority, his action would be unavailing, and their 
co-operation embarrassing, and perhaps ridiculous. 

In the discussion Rush referred to the traditional policy of the United 
States in abstaining from meddling with European affairs. But Canning 
argued that it was not a European, but an American question. 

Stating that the United States wished to see the independence of the Span- 
ish provinces permanently maintained, and would view as unjust and improper 
any attempt on the part of the Powers to encroach on that independence as 
well as any interference unsolicited by the provinces themselves, and that any 
action by the Powers contrary to these views would endanger the tranquility 
of the world, Rush added, with remarkable forecast of Monroe's famous 
declaration: 'The United States could never look with insensibility upon 
such an exercise of European jurisdiction over communities now of right 

63 



exempt from it and entitled to regulate their own concerns unmolested from 
abroad." 

By the time Rush heard from his Government occurrences on the Conti- 
nent had relieved the apprehension of Canning and reversed his attitude. But 
his fateful suggestion went marching on. 

When the interesting dispatches of the American Minister reached Mon- 
roe, that wise and prudent President forthwith laid them before his old friends 
Jefferson and Madison, and sought their counsel as to his proceedings. These 
great statesmen, called up from the quiet pursuits of extreme old age, con- 
curred in advising that the time was propitious for the promulgation of a policy 
upon which the foreign relations of our country should forever rest. 

To Jefferson, Monroe transmitted dispatches received from Rush con- 
taining two letters from Canning, "suggesting," wrote Monroe, "designs of 
the Holy Alliance against the independence of South America and proposing 
a co-operation between Great Britain and the United States, in support of 
it against the members of that Alliance. The project aims, in the first in- 
stance, at a mere expression of opinion, somewhat in the abstract, but which 
it is expected by Mr. Canning will have a great political effect by defeating 
combination. First, shall we entangle ourselves at all in European politics 
and wars on the side of any power against others, presuming that a concert 
by agreement of the kind proposed may lead to that result. Second, if the 
case can exist in which a sound maxim may and ought to be departed from, 
is not the present instance precisely that case? Third, has not the epoch 
arrived when Great Britain must take her stand, either on the side of the 
monarchs of Europe or of the United States, and in consequence, either in 
favor of Despotism or of Liberty ; and may it not be presumed that, aware of 
that necessity, her Government has seized on the present occurrence as that 
which it deems the most suitable to announce and mark the commencement 
of that career? 

"My own impression is that we ought to meet the proposal of the British 
Government and to make it known that we would view an interference on 
the part of European Powers, and especially an attack on the Colonies, by 
them, as an attack on ourselves, presuming that if they succeeded with them 
they would extend it to us. I am sensible, however, of the extent and 
difficulty of the question and shall be happy to have yours and Mr. Madison's 
opinion on it. I do not wish to trouble either of you with small objects, 
but the present one is vital, involving high interests, for which we have so 
long and so faithfully and harmoniously contended together. Be so kind as 
to inclose to him the despatches, with an intimation of the motive." 

From his beautiful home at Monticello the aged Jefferson on October 

24th, 1823, wrote Monroe : 

64 



"The question presented by the letters you have sent me is the most 
momentous which has ever been offered to my contemplation since that of Inde- 
pendence. That made us a nation, this sets the compass and points the 
course which we are to steer through the ocean of time opening on us. And 
never could we embark on it under circumstances more auspicious. Our 
first and fundamental maxim should be never to entangle ourselves in the 
broils of Europe. Our second, never to suffer Europe to intermeddle with 
Cis-Atlantic affairs. America, North and South, has a set of interests dis- 
tinct from those of Europe, and peculiarly her own. While the last is labor- 
ing to become the domicile of despotism, our endeavor should surely be, to 
make our Hemisphere that of freedom ; I could honestly, therefore, join in 
the declaration proposed, that we aim not at the acqusition of any of those 
possessions, that we will not stand in the way of any amicable arrangement 
between them and the Mother Country ; but that we will oppose, with all our 
means, the forcible interposition of any other power, as auxiliary, stipendiary, 
or under any other form or pretext, and most especially, their transfer to any 
power by conquest, cession or acquisition in any other way." 

Thus fortified by the cordial endorsement of both Jefferson and Madison, 
Monroe sent to Congress his celebrated message of December 2nd, 1823. 

After referring to the important subjects claiming the attention of the 
new Congress, the need of devotion to duty and patriotism, and the value of 
candid information in dealing with the people, Monroe in this message pro- 
ceeds to relate the negotiations with the British Government, respecting the 
boundary line between the territories of the United States and Great Britain 
on the north. He then refers to similar negotiations with Russia as to the 
respective rights and interests of the two nations on the northwest coast of 
the continent. 

In this connection occurs the following announcement: 

"In the discussions to which this interest has given rise and in the 
arrangements by which they may terminate, the occasion has been judged 
proper for asserting, as a principle in which the rights and interests of the 
United States are involved, that the American continents, by the free and 
independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth 
not to be considered as subjects for further colonization by any European 
powers." 

After noting the progress of the Commissioners of Arbitration on claims 
of our citizens against Russia, the meeting of the Commissioners under the 
Treaty with Spain, the proceedings to suppress the slave trade and to 
abolish privateering in time of war, the inauguration of diplomatic rela- 
tions with the South American Colonies, the refusal of the Commander of 

65 



the French Squadron to allow our Minister to Spain to land at Cadiz, then 
in blockade, the favorable condition of the public finances which showed a 
prospect of a surplus of nearly $9,000,000 on January 1st, 1824, the improve- 
ment in the military and naval establishments and the advancement of fortifi- 
cations, hostile demonstrations by the Indians, the fever epidemic at Thompson 
Island, the suppression of piracies in the seas about Cuba and Porto Rico, 
the condition and progress of the post office department, the foreign trade and 
the need of additional protection by increasing the tariff, the value of a canal 
between the waters of the Chesapeake and the Ohio and other internal im- 
provements, the President then proceeded to take up the subject which, more 
than any other, engrossed his attention. 

Introducing a reference to "The heroic struggle of the Greeks" for 
independence, for whose success he expressed the most ardent wishes, and 
to affairs in Spain, Portugal, and Great Britain, Monroe proceeded : 

"The citizens of the United States cherish sentiments the most friendly 
in favor of the liberty and happiness of their fellow-men on that side of the 
Atlantic. In the wars of the European powers in matters relating to them- 
selves we have never taken any part, nor does it comport with our policy so 
to do. It is only when our rights are invaded or seriously menaced that we 
resent injuries or make preparation for our defense. With the movements 
in this Hemisphere we are of necessity more immediately connected, and by 
causes which must be obvious to all enlightened and impartial observers. 
The political system of the allied powers is essentially different in this respect 
from that of America. This difference proceeds from that which exists in 
their respective Governments, and to the defense of our own, which has been 
achieved by the loss of so much blood and treasure, and matured by the wis- 
dom of their most enlightened citizens, and under which we have enjoyed un- 
exampled felicity, this whole nation is devoted. We owe it, therefore, to candor 
and to the amicable relations existing between the United States and those 
powers, to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend 
their system to any portion of this Hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and 
safety. With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power 
we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the Governments 
who have declared their independence and maintained it, and whose indepen- 
dence we have, on great consideration and on just principles, acknowledged, we 
could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them or con- 
trolling in any other manner their destiny, by any European power in any other 
light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United 
States. In the war between those new Governments and Spain we declared 
our neutrality at the time of their recognition, and to this have adhered, and 

66 



shall continue to adhere, provided no change shall occur which, in the judg- 
ment of the competent authorities of this Government, shall make a correspond- 
ing change on the part of the United States indispensable to their security. 

"The late events in Spain and Portugal show that Europe is still unset- 
tled. Of this important fact no stronger proof can be adduced than that the 
allied powers should have thought it proper, on any principle satisfactory to 
themselves, to have interposed by force in the internal concerns of Spain. To 
what extent such interposition may be carried, on the same principle, is a 
question in which all independent powers whose governments differ from 
theirs are interested, even those most remote, and surely none more so than 
the United States. Our policy in regard to Europe, which was adopted at 
an early stage of the wars which have so long agitated that quarter of the 
globe, nevertheless remains the same, which is not to interfere in the internal 
concerns of any of its powers ; to consider the government de facto as the 
legitimate government for us ; to cultivate friendly relations with it, and to 
preserve those relations by a frank, firm, and manly policy, meeting in all 
instances the just claims of every power, submitting to injuries from none. 
But in regard to these continents circumstances are eminently and conspicu- 
ously different. It is impossible that the allied powers should extend their 
political system to any portion of either continent without endangering our 
peace and happiness ; nor can anyone believe that our southern brethren, if 
left to themselves, would adopt it of their own accord. It is equally impossible, 
therefore, that we should behold such interposition in any form with indiffer- 
ence. If we look to the comparative strength and resources of Spain and 
those new Governments, and their distance from each other, it must be 
obvious that she can never subdue them. It is still the true policy of the 
United States to leave the parties to themselves, in the hope that other powers 
will pursue the same course." 

This momentous message closes with a brief survey of the actual state 
of the Union, which the President found most encouraging. 

"At the first epoch," said he, "our population did not exceed 3,000,000. 
By the last census it amounted to about 10,000,000, and, what is more extra- 
ordinary, it is almost altogether native, for the immigration from other coun- 
tries has been inconsiderable. At the first epoch half the territory within our 
acknowledged limits was uninhabited and a wilderness. Since then new 
territory has been acquired of vast extent, comprising within it many rivers, 
particularly the Mississippi, the navigation of which to the ocean was of the 
highest importance to the original States. Over this territory our population 
has expanded in every direction, and new States have been established almost 
equal in number to those which formed the first bond of our Union. This 

67 



expansion of our population and accession of new States to our Union have 
had the happiest effect on all its highest interests." 

An analysis of Monroe's declaration demonstrates that he intended to 
bar forever three policies from American soil. 

First : Further colonization by any European Power. 

Second: The extension of the European system of Government on the 
American continent. 

Third: The interposition of any European Power in the affairs of any 
American Government for the purpose of oppressing it, or controlling in 
any other manner its destiny. 

Our policy in regard to Europe was declared by Monroe to have been 
long since adopted, "not to interfere in the internal concerns of any of its 
powers." 

The message brought instant acquiescence and universal satisfaction to 
every American citizen. It was received with acclamations of delight in Span- 
ish America whose cause it ensured. It created great excitement in London. 
It met the disapproval of Canning, who, like the fearful Pandora, looked with 
consternation upon the evil genius he had himself called up and set loose in 
the world of diplomacy. In Continental Europe the message was read with 
emotions of dismay mingled with resentment. But nevertheless the Holy 
Alliance quietly dropped the matter of putting down the insurrections in the 
Spanish colonies and freedom breathed freer and happier in the world. 

Such was the Monroe Doctrine in its entirety and in its purity. 

Such were the actors upon the stage in the great play that produced it. 
Such were the historic events that foreran it. And such was the fateful occa- 
sion that called it forth and made it a pillar of American diplomacy. 

A few words more upon the application of the Doctrine since Monroe's 
time. 

It was first afterwards recognized as a fixed principle by John Quincy 
Adams in his special Message of December 26, 1825, to the Senate, nomin- 
ating Richard C. Anderson, of Kentucky, and John Sergeant, of Pennsylvania, 
to be envoys extraordinary and ministers plenipotentiary to the Assembly of 
American nations called to meet at Panama and "deliberate upon objects im- 
portant to the welfare of all." In recommending the project, Adams said: 
"An agreement between all the parties represented at the meeting that each 
will guard by its own means against the establishment of any future European 
colony within its borders may be found advisable." But Congress failed to 
grant the appropriation necessary to make the nominations effective, and the 

68 



gathering at Panama, not receiving the support and guidance of our Govern- 
ment, came to nothing. 

In 1842 President Tyler applied the same principle to the Sandwich 
Islands. Emphasizing the remoteness of them from European jurisdictions 
and the special interest of the United States in these Islands in the pathway 
of Pacific trade, Tyler declared that their proximity to us and our intercourse 
with them could not but create dissatisfaction and decided remonstrance on 
our part at any attempt by another power to take possession of these Islands, 
colonize them and subvert the native government. 

James K. Polk, in his first annual message, December 2, 1845, communi- 
cated to Congress at considerable length the history and failure of the nego- 
tiations with Great Britain to settle the northwest boundary. Ardent Ameri- 
cans had claimed parallel of latitude 54° 40', as the dividing line, while the 
British insisted upon the parallel of 49°. 

The campaign slogan of Polk's supporters, "Fifty-four forty or fight," 
had swept the country. But the failure of negotiations pointed more to 
"fight" than "Fifty-four forty." Lately some of the European Powers had 
broached the subject of a "Balance of power" in this continent. In reference 
to this and in the face of the difficulty over the boundary of the Oregon terri- 
tory Polk said: "The United States, sincerely desirous of preserving rela- 
tions of good understanding with all nations, cannot in silence permit any 
European interference on the North American continent, and should any such 
interference be attempted, will be ready to resist it at any and all hazards." 
Referring specifically to the Monroe Doctrine, he said: "This principle will 
apply with greatly increased force should any European power attempt to 
establish any new colony in North America. In the existing circumstances 
of the world the present is deemed a proper occasion to reiterate and re- 
affirm the principle avowed by Mr. Monroe and to state my cordial con- 
currence in its wisdom and sound policy." 

In a few months the Oregon boundary was fixed to the satisfaction of 
Mr. Polk. 

That pertinacious President applied the Doctrine in his message of 
Dec. 7, 1847, to the territory of California, then nominally vested in Mexico, 
and in the fullness of time that incomparable region passed under the JEgis 
of the Eagle. 

In his message of April 29, 1848, Mr. Polk recommended the applica- 
tion of the doctrine to the Peninsula of Yucatan, on the ground that if we did 
not annex it, some power in Europe would, but Congress esteemed the propo- 
sition too bold. And so Yucatan is not yet one of our possessions. 

Mr. Buchanan in 1860, referring to the failure of Congress to adopt 

69 



his recommendation as to Mexico, said : "European Governments would 
have been deprived of all pretext to interfere in the territorial and domestic 
concerns of Mexico. We should thus have been relieved from the obligation 
of resisting, even by force should this become necessary, any attempt by these 
Governments to deprive our neighboring Republic of portions of her terri- 
tory, a duty from which we could not shrink without abandoning the tradi- 
tional and established policy of the American people." 

When the Civil War was taxing the utmost strength of the Government 
of the United States no attention could be given to the occupation of Mexico 
during that period by France, but when once that great conflict was over 
and Andrew Johnson required the withdrawal of the French troops under 
a threat of serious consequences, Louis Napoleon withdrew his legions and 
left the unfortunate Maximilian to meet his sentence of death, and his lovely 
Carlotta to close her unhappy life in the gloom of a disordered mind. 

In his message of May 31, 1870, President Grant said: "The doctrine 
promulgated by President Monroe has been adhered to by all political parties, 
and I now deem it proper to assert the equally important principle that here- 
after no territory on this continent shall be regarded as subject of transfer to 
an European power." On this account he advised the annexation of San 
Domingo. But, as in the case of Yucatan, Congress would not go to that 
length. 

The most recent declaration of the doctrine was made by Mr. Cleveland 
in his message of Dec. 17, 1895, on the dispute between Great Britain and 
Venezuela as to the boundary line of British Guiana. He had requested the 
British Government to submit the question to arbitration, but the arguments 
of Mr. Olney, the Secretary of State, and the persuasive powers of Mr. 
Bayard, our Ambassador, had no effect on Lord Salisbury, who resolved to 
establish by force the English view of the line. Thereupon Mr. Cleveland, 
with unmistakable earnestness of purpose, asked Congress for an appropria- 
tion for the expenses of a commission to report upon the true boundary. 
"When such report is made and accepted," said the President, "it will, in my 
opinion, be the duty of the United States to resist by every means in our 
power, as a willful aggression upon its rights and interests, the appropriation 
by Great Britain of any lands or the exercise of governmental jurisdiction 
over any territory which, after investigation, we have determined of right 
belongs to Venezuela." 

In justification of his position, and replying to the declaration of Salis- 
bury that the Monroe Doctrine was not applicable to the state of things in 
which we live at the present day, or at least it had not been accepted as part 
of the International Law, Mr. Cleveland said : "The doctrine upon which we 

7o 



stand is strong and sound, because its enforcement is important to our peace 
and safety as a nation, and is essential to the entirety of our free institutions 
and the tranquil maintenance of our distinctive form of government. It was 
intended to apply to every stage of our national life and cannot become obso- 
lete while our Republic endures. It may not have been admitted in so many 
words to the code of International Law, but since in international councils 
every nation is entitled to the rights belonging to it, if the enforcement of the 
Monroe Doctrine is something we may justly claim, it has its place in the 
Code of International Law as certainly and as securely as if it were specifi- 
cally mentioned, and when the United States is a suitor before the high 
tribunal that administers international law, the question to be determined is 
whether or not we present claims which the justice of that code of law can 
find to be right and valid." 

This trenchant message was received with the greatest enthusiasm by all 
parties in Congress and $100,000 was instantly appropriated for the expenses 
of the commission recommended. That commission was immediately appoint- 
ed and proceeded speedily to discharge its duties. But the people and the 
press of Great Britain overwhelmingly favored a peaceful settlement of the 
controversy. Salisbury bowed to the popular will, and consented to an arbi- 
tration. The commission stopped its investigations ; the American people 
were mollified and appeased ; and the war cloud, breaking away, vanished in 
a rainbow of peace and goodwill. 



7i 



THE PRIZE ESSAYS 



ON 



The Story of Arnold's Treason 



First Prize: G. raynolds stearns, Jr., 

Lafayette High School, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Second Prize: alwin thaler, 

Commercial High School, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. City. 

Third Prize: william a. bird, iv., 

Masten Park High School, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 



First Prize Essay 



The life of Arnold is one of the most awful, sad and inexplicable in history. 
His early manhood was a steady succession of stirring deeds, whose very names 
thrill us. Ticonderoga, St. Johns, Maine, Quebec, Valcour Island. Ridgefield, 
Fort Schuyler, and, last and best, Saratoga, are a few of the evidences of his 
bravery and great ability. To think that the man who could do these things ; 
who loaned £1,000 to Colonel Lamb for raising troops; who gave hundreds of 
dollars toward the education of the children of his one time friend, Warren ; 
who had a mother, sister and wife, each a model in her way ; who was adored 
by his soldiers ; and who enjoyed the great friendship and esteem of such men 
as Warren, Livingstone, Chase, Schuyler, and, above all, Washington : to think 
that this American gentleman could turn about, putting private injuries above 
public duty, and sink to such depths as did Arnold, seems so absolutely incredi- 
ble that only the stubborn cold facts of history make us believe them. 

The Saratoga monument with its empty niche, saying mutely : "This is 
Arnold's place, but he has forfeited it," reveals our feelings toward the traitor. 

Fate seems to have had more to do with him than any other man on earth. 
From the time he successfully marched his men through the terrible wilderness 
of Maine, to his recovery after a compound fracture of the thigh, at Saratoga, 
his life was an almost continuous record of miraculous escapes, by which he 
was refused the honor of death on the battlefield rather than death years after- 
ward at the end of a dishonored life. But Providence stepped in and retrieved 
herself by bringing Washington back from Hartford two days earlier than 
expected, and so in one sense lessening the inexpiable crime. 

Space forbids going into the causes of his treason, since that would necessi- 
tate the retelling of his whole life. From the time of the sending to Crown 
Point, of the Massachusetts Committee to inquire into his "spirit, capacity and 
conduct" just after he had captured St. Johns, until Congress ordered him to 
be publicly reprimanded after his venial crimes at Philadelphia, Congress itself 
was trying just as hard as it could try, to ruin Arnold and unintentionally to 
drive him to do some desperate thing which would require a man, as brave 
mentally as Arnold was physically, to resist. It has been truly said, "Had 
Washington possessed the power of appointing and promoting the officers of 
his army, from the beginning to the conclusion of the war, Arnold's treason 



would never have been committed." As it was the proud, haughty nature of 
Arnold gave way to temptation and revenge, and he turned traitor to the 
country for which he had given all but his life. His treason was unpardonable 
no matter what the cause. Washington, Morris, and Schuyler were examples 
of abominable treatment by the Government, and yet they never for an instant 
thought of treason. The time of Arnold's treachery makes it all the blacker, and 
the betrayal of the trust of Washington was the blackest and makes it indelibly 
contemptible — "This was the most unkindest cut of all." 

This narrative will begin where he had already given himself entirely over 
to impulse rather than principle, and started on a career which would link his 
name, wherever and whenever mentioned, with the awful word "traitor." 

The treasonable correspondence was begun by the British, probably by 
Colonel Beverly Robinson, in the spring of 1779. Arnold signed his letters 
"Gustavus." Sir Henry Clinton entrusted the answering of the letters to Major 
John Andre, who wrote over the signature of "John Anderson." 

At Arnold's special request, Washington gave him the command of West 
Point, the most important military position in the Colonies. This command 
included all the American forts in the Highlands, and here was stored, as in 
the safest place on the continent, a large quantity of supplies. England greatly 
desired this place, as its capture would put a stop to the projected co-operation 
of the Americans and French against New York City ; and it would also sepa- 
rate the Colonies and open up a free communication between New York and 
Canada, their greatest wish since Burgoyne's invasion. Arnold had resolved 
to surrender West Point; and when, on September 18, Washington was on 
his way to Hartford to consult with Rochambeau, Arnold decided that the 
time was ready for the final details and so informed Clinton. 

The attempt for an interview on September 11, had failed, but on Septem- 
ber 20, Andre embarked from New York and that evening reached the Vulture, 
at anchor in Haverstraw Bay. Meanwhile boats had been filled with soldiers 
in New York, ready to start at the moment the plans were completed. 

On the night of the 21st, Joshua Hett Smith, with two others, rowed out 
to the Vulture and brought Andre back to a secluded point at the foot of a 
shadowy mountain, called the "Long Clove." There, at midnight, the two 
conspirators met and arranged the necessary preliminaries. But as the dawn of 
day drew near and the conference was not over, Andre was persuaded to accom- 
pany Arnold within the American lines to the house of Smith, where they 
breakfasted and completed the negotiations. Sir George Rodney was to com- 
mand a flotilla, having on board a large land force, and was to ascend the 
Hudson to the Highlands. The garrison at West Point was to be scattered so 
as to destroy its efficiency, and the fort surrendered by Arnold under pretext 

76 



of insufficient force to offer resistance. Andre concealed in his boots plans 
and statistics of the works. In the evening he changed his dress Both these 
actions were against the positve orders of Clinton. Arnold then — in case Andre 
could not reach the Vulture, as the latter had been cannonaded and compelled 
to drop down stream by Colonel Livingston — furnished him with a horse and 
also a pass in the name of John Anderson. About noon Arnold returned to 
his headquarters, Robinson House, opposite West Point. Andre set out for 
New York that night by land. It is not necessary to relate the familiar details 
of his capture and later execution. Let it suffice to say that Andre was brought 
to Lieutenant Jameson, Commander at New Castle, by his three captors. Jame- 
son immediately sent the papers found on Andre by express to Washington. 
Jameson ordered Andre to be taken to Arnold, but Major Tallmadge remon- 
strated, and so the former was kept a prisonor at Old Salem; yet a letter was 
permitted to be sent to Arnold, saying that John Anderson, though having a 
pass, was a prisoner. 

Meanwhile Washington, two days before he was expected, was riding with 
his staff towards West Point to inspect the defenses. He sent a messenger 
ahead to say that he would breakfast with Arnold the next morning, Septem- 
ber 25. The next morning, however, Washington turned aside to visit some 
defenses, and sent Colonel Hamilton to request Mrs. Arnold not to wait break- 
fast for him, as he would be late. In accordance with his request, they all sat 
down to breakfast. Arnold was grave and thoughtful, as well he might be. 
Washington had arrived two days before he had planned, and this was the very 
day on which the post was to be surrendered. While still at breakfast, a horse- 
man galloped to the door. It was Lieutenant Allen with the letter from Jameson, 
saying that John Anderson was a prisoner and his papers forwarded to Wash- 
ington. Without a change of countenance, Arnold excused himself from the 
table, ordered his horse, and going to Mrs. Arnold's room sent for her. He 
explained in a few words the circumstances. She fell senseless at his feet ; but 
he hurried out and went again to the dining-room, where he explained that 
some of the details for the reception of Washington at West Point had yet to 
be finished. He then sprang on his horse and dashed down a steep hill to the 
pier. He dismounted, jumped into his barge and ordered the crew to row 
rapidly for Teller's Point. As the boat passed Verplanck's Point, the Vulture 
was sighted. Arnold raised a white handkerchief and, cocking his pistols, 
ordered the men to row straight to the vessel. Arriving at the Vulture, he 
sprang on board and was safe from pursuit. 

Washington arrived at the Robinson House an hour after Arnold's flight. 
He breakfasted and then, supposing that Arnold was awaiting him at West 
Point, proceeded with his staff across the river to the garrison. Colonel Lamb 

77 



met them and apologized for not giving them fitting ceremonies, saying that 
Arnold had not been there in two days. Washington stayed and inspected the 
fortifications and then went back to the headquarters. Here Hamilton, who 
had just received the papers found on Andre, informed Washington of Arnold's 
treachery. Some authorities say there were tears streaming down Washing- 
ton's cheeks when he called to Knox and Lafayette and briefly told them the 
news. His succeeding calmness was terrible. He exclaimed, sadly, "Whom 
can we trust now ?" The greatest blow of the Revolution to Washington was 
not the idea of the treason, but the fact that Arnold was the traitor. 

Washington at once took every precaution to guard against an attack. 
Hamilton, who had been ordered to ride with all haste to Verplanck's Point 
to try to capture Arnold, returned without accomplishing his mission but 
brought with him a letter, sent ashore from the Vulture, from Arnold to Wash- 
ington which showed the innocence of Mrs. Arnold. 

The same evening the Vulture set sail and reached New York the next 
morning. Arnold then informed Clinton, the first news that officer had re- 
ceived, of Andre's capture. 

Although no part of the conditions on his side had been fulfilled. England 
gave Arnold £6,315 in recompense for the loss of his property in America, the 
rank of a Brigadier-General, and an elegantly furnished house to live in, rent 
free ; while a little later, Mrs. Arnold was voted a pension of £500 per annum 
and each of the children £100. 

No person will ever be a traitor because of the example set by Benedict 
Arnold. The retributions of Nemesis equaled the heinousness of his crimes. 
He was hated and despised by every one, American and English alike, even by 
members of his own family. His life in London, though merited, was incon- 
ceivably, pitiably miserable. His conversation with Talleyrand, his changing 
his motto from "Mihi Gloria Sursum" to "Nil Desperandum" show the horrors 
of his mental suffering. At last, his iron constitution giving way under constant 
remorse and repeated disappointments, he died of nothing but a broken heart ; 
and passed away in his uniform of a Major-General of the Continental Army, 
and wearing the epaulettes and sword-knot given him by Washington as a 
proof of the latter's great friendship and appreciation of his valor and ability. 
These Arnold had kept ever since his crime, and it is said that his last words 
were, "Let me die in my old American uniform, in which I fought my battles. 
God, forgive me, for ever having put on another." 

G. Raynolds Stearns, Jr. 



7« 



Second Prize Essay 



Benedict Arnold ! The mere name suggests a series of momentous events 
that made history for our nation, — events which, in their gradual progression, 
earned for Arnold a temporary glory and everlasting shame. 

Among the shadows of these events that flit across the mind as the ear 
catches the name of Arnold, appears a young captain of guards who is leading 
his company from New Haven to join the ranks of patriots at Cambridge, 
leaving them there to throw himself further into the conflict, to begin his mili- 
tary career at Ticonderoga and Crown Point. The picture changes. Colonel 
Arnold is leading a resolute body of men through the wilderness to Canada, 
urging, encouraging, leading them on, showing himself courageous, daring, 
resourceful, — a commander of men. Bravery, however, cannot make up for 
lack of numbers and retreat becomes inevitable. The project has failed, yet 
Arnold and his men are acclaimed heroes by their countrymen. Another 
change, and again we see Arnold adding fresh laurels to his fame — when sud- 
denly there comes a reverse. Congress has unjustly promoted others less 
deserving than he ; the National Legislature has aroused the opposition of a 
man whose passions are stronger than himself : it is the beginning of the end. 
Again the picture changes. Arnold is now at Saratoga. We see him flashing 
along the front, half-crazed by anger over being deprived of his command by 
Gates, urging the men forward by mere force of example — without a com- 
mand, yet commanding all — turning a great defeat into a greater victory. The 
vision fades, and one of darker, more sinister aspect appears. Arnold's original 
resentment, stimulated by injustice, has grown to its final stage, making this 
the picture of treason. 

The ugly spectacle progresses rapidly, the plans are carefully laid, the 
traitor has prepared to deliver to the enemy his trust, his honor, and his fame ; 
he is about to succeed when his project is discovered. He has escaped capture, 
but he has not escaped infamy and shame. The heroic tints of the former 
pictures have been swallowed up in the blackness of the last; the acclamations 
of his countrymen have turned into maledictions and curses ; his former bravery 
is forgotten in his present disgrace. 

The inherent faults of Arnold's character may be held largely responsible 
for the treacherous act which marred his life; nevertheless, a fair investigation 

79 



of the causes whch brought it about shows clearly that no matter how proud, 
how vengeful, how unscrupulous he was, he would not have acted as he did 
had not injustice aroused his passions and induced him to seek revenge. So 
far then, as bringing about his treason, Arnold's enemies in Congress are 
equally as culpable as he. He alone, however, actually committed the crime, 
and posterity, while condemning those indirectly responsible, despises him only. 
And it is but just that it should do so, for whatever the provocation, treason 
cannot be justified. Had Arnold been born two centuries earlier, brave, daring, 
and thoroughly unprincipled as he was, he would have swept the Spanish Main 
or become another Tilly, commander-in-chief of mercenaries ; as it was, he was 
neither as good as his age nor his cause. Principle for him did not warrant 
the sacrifice of self: thus he became a traitor. 

In 1775 Arnold, who, though early showing the distinguishing marks of 
an extraordinary character, had hitherto lived the life of a peaceful trader, 
was suddenly called forth by the guns of Concord and Lexington into the real 
sphere of his activity. With every instinct of his fighting blood aroused, 
Arnold, who was then captain of a company of militia, collected his men, forced 
the faltering selectmen of his town to give him ammunition, and marched to 
Cambridge. This was his opportunity; here was conflict, strife, and a chance 
to gain fame, and thus satisfy every fundamental craving of his nature. 
Accordingly, as soon as he reached Cambridge he began planning to distinguish 
himself, and immediately brought himself into notice by proposing to lead an 
expedition to capture Ticonderoga. His proposal was accepted. He himself 
was commissioned Colonel and was given full authority to secure men and 
supplies. A quarrel that arose between Ethan Allen and Arnold, upon the 
latter's discovery that Allen was already on the way with the same point in 
view, threatened disaster, but was settled in time to insure the success of the 
expedition. After the fall of Ticonderoga Arnold, having meanwhile pro- 
tested his grievances to the Legislature of Massachusetts, was successful in an 
attack upon Crown Point. His arrogant bearing in the dispute concerning his 
command did not help him and finally led into further trouble, as a result of 
which he resigned his commission. Not long after Arnold's return to Cam- 
bridge, Washington appointed him to lead an expedition through the Northern 
wilderness into Canada, for the purpose of winning that vast territory for the 
United States. Arnold's execution of this commission passed into history as 
a wonderful exhibition of boldness and sagacity in the face of extreme diffi- 
culties, and served to establish his fame as a soldier and general. Arnold again 
distinguished himself on the retreat from Canada, after a withdrawal had been 
forced by the superior numbers and position of the enemy. 

At this time, in the winter of 1777, while the country was ringing with 
his praises, one of the direct causes of Arnold's treason came into being. 

80 



Congress, overlooking his just claims for recognition, appointed five Major- 
Generals without including him in the number. The effect of this injustice, 
ascribable as it was merely to personal jealousy and party spirit, upon the 
temperament of a man like Arnold may be easily imagined. As a matter of 
fact, Washington's intercession, and promise to see that justice was done, was 
the only influence which kept him from resigning. 

His grievances, however, had not as yet taken such a hold upon him that 
he could not lay them aside when there was fighting to be done or honor to be 
gained. Accordingly, before long he again brought himself into prominence, 
this time by gallant conduct in an engagement at Ridgefield, Connecticut. 
Congress now gave him the title of Major-General, but at the same time refused 
to place him upon an equal basis of seniority with those officers who had been 
previously promoted. Thus all the bitterness of his passion was again aroused 
and the impending catastrophe was brought still nearer. Arnold's fall, how- 
ever, was preceded by a rise to his greatest fame as a soldier and patriot, 
universal honor being accorded him for his brilliant support of Gates in the 
memorable struggle against Burgoyne. Not long after his arrival in the North 
he succeeded in raising the siege of Fort Scuyler, and a month later was 
fighting in the first battle of Saratoga. His success in this contest aroused the 
jealousy of Gates and involved the two generals in a quarrel, which ended with 
Arnold being deprived of his command on the eve of the second battle. Almost 
maddened by his unjustly enforced inactivity while needed at the front, Arnold 
on the day of the battle, all orders to the contrary, threw himself into the midst 
of the conflict and took immediate charge of affairs. Although he himself was 
seriously wounded during the battle, the inspiration of his presence and example 
brought about an American victory and Burgoyne's subsequent surrender. 

When again ready for duty, Arnold was placed in command of Philadel- 
phia which shortly before had been evacuated by the British. The execution 
of his functions as military commander made him highly unpopular with the 
people of Philadelphia, and brought on a controversy with the State authori- 
ties which reached its climax when the latter charged him in Congress with 
abuse of his powers. The report of a Congressional investigation committee 
vindicating Arnold was unjustly laid aside, and the matter was referred to 
Washington, who called a court martial to consider it. As a result of their 
investigations the charges as a whole were dismissed, but Arnold was found 
guilty of imprudent conduct in the discharge of his duties, and was sentenced 
to be reprimanded by the Commander-in-chief. Washington performed his 
unpleasant duty tactfully and delicately, but Arnold was not the man to take 
the reprimand in the spirit in which it was given. Choosing to regard this act 
the culmination of a series of wrongs and injustices done him, he finally deter- 
mined upon revenge and treason. 

81 



His subsequent marriage into a loyalist family on his return to Philadel- 
phia, and his threatened ruin due to financial embarrassments, caused him 
to hasten the execution of his project. With the intention of making his treason 
as useful as possible for the English, he now set himself to get command of 
West Point, a stronghold of the utmost strategic importance, the surrender of 
which to the English would have been an invaluable advantage. By making 
use of all his influence, he succeeded in gaining his end. Having thus a definite 
basis to work upon, his previously opened negotiations with the British com- 
mander soon became definite, and it was finally agreed that Arnold was to 
receive as payment for his treason a Brigadied's commission in the British 
army, together with a sum of money. The final stage in the tragedy had been 
reached. 

While matter stood thus, a personal interview between Arnold and a 
representative of Sir Henry Clinton was deemed necessary to settle the details 
oi the affair. Major Andre, an intimate friend of both Clinton and Arnold, 
was chosen for this purpose, and, after several unsuccessful attempts, succeeded 
in meeting Arnold. Andre's attempts to return to his own lines after the 
meeting, his various mistakes ending in capture by three American scouts, the 
negligence of the American officers in permitting him to warn Arnold, the lat- 
ter's escape and Washington's discovery of his treachery, — these incidents fol- 
lowing each other in rapid succession, — furnish the climax of Arnold's unenvi- 
able career. 

Washington's presence secured the safety of West Point and probably has- 
tened the execution of Andre, who, after the failure of all efforts to save him, 
met death like a brave and honorable man. Arnold, in the meantime, was 
being rewarded for his treason by the gratitude of his new associates and the 
execration of his countrymen. He vainly attempted to justify his act, and 
later on endeavored to demonstrate the sincerity of his postion by a malicious 
display of cruelty and inhumanity towards those unfortunates who fell into 
his power. Although he was officially well received in England after the end 
of the war, his life was made a continual reminder of his disgrace. Arnold 
lived for twenty years, continuing to show the characteristics which had 
brought about his downfall, until, at the age of sixty-one, death ended his 
career. 

Arnold's story inspires more than the hatred and contempt due the mem- 
ory of a traitor ; it inspires charity and pity for the shortcomings of a man, — 
a man who labored under the defects of character which he was powerless to 
control, — a man who could command others, but not himself. 

Alwin Thaler. 
82 



Third Prize Essay 



There are good reasons to doubt whether a fair judgment of Arnold can 
be drawn from the simple story of his career. The tendency to reduce life to 
a mathematical problem, and man to a calculating machine, has made its im- 
press upon our judgment to such an extent that account of individual charac- 
teristics is perhaps too often lost sight of in the administraton of what we 
consider justice. Our old maxim that "all men are created free and equal" 
has stood the durability test remarkably well, considering its evident falsity; 
since we all know that no two men were ever created equal, and some of us 
doubt if any man was ever born free. 

An inheritance of turbulent and impetuous spirits caused Arnold to for- 
sake the unromantic calling of the tradesman for that of the soldier. His 
military career began with a Colonelcy in the Massachusetts militia, in which 
position he aided Ethan Allen at Ticonderoga. In the autumn of the same 
year (1775), he commanded in a long expedition against Quebec, showing rare 
generalship in the arduous march through the virgin forest. For his services in 
this march and the succeeding attack, he was rewarded wtih the rank of 
Brigadier-General. 

In October, 1776, in command of a small squadron on Lake Champlain, he 
exhibited remarkable skill in an engagement with a greatly superior force. 
The following spring Congress raised five of his juniors to the rank of Major- 
General ; and while he was shortly afterwards similarly promoted, the five still 
remained above him. 

In September of the same year he distinguished hmself for gallantry at 
Freeman's Farm,* but General Gates neglected to so much as mention his name 
in his report of the engagement. This led Arnold — somewhat indiscreetly — 
to resign his command, but three weeks later he took the field without Gates' 
permission and directed a division at Stillwater. It appears that his reward in 
this instance was somewhat more than he deserved, and was probably a con- 
ciliatory measure ; for though his personal courage was beyond impeachment, 
he was totally without authority, and in direct disobedience of orders. 

Upon his appointment in June, 1778, to the command of Philadelphia, his 
prodigal nature led him into such financial straits — followed by other irregu- 
larities in an attempt to cover-up — that his court martial was ordered. This 

*Some authorities deny his presence in this engagement, but most of them unite i» 
the belief that I have assumed. 

83 



tribunal sentenced him to a reprimand, which Washington gave in an almost 
apologetic tone, but it had its effect on Arnold's resentful nature. He was 
already holding treasonable intercourse with the enemy ; perhaps the hopeless- 
ness of his financial condition had induced him to take the step. He now 
sought and obtained command of West Point, the most important strategic 
point in the United States. 

This was early in 1780, less than a year from the beginning of the treas- 
onable correspondence with the British Major, Andre. Begun through Arnold's 
wife, though without her knowledge, it was carried on under the assumed 
names of "Gustavus" (Arnold) and "John Anderson (Andre). Letters were 
exchanged for a year and a half, keeping Clinton informed of the plans and 
movements of the American army. But when Clinton began to perceive that 
Arnold contemplated a more extensive treason, a personal interview became 
necessary. Andre was chosen by both Arnold and Clinton to meet the Ameri- 
can General, since he was best acquainted with the preliminary correspondence. 
It should be remembered that Clinton had preserved such secrecy regarding 
the plot that only one other British officer was aware of the proceeding, Col- 
onel Beverly Robinson, a Tory leader ; and it is safe to assume that Arnold 
had no confidants. As Robinson lived directly across the river from the 
Point, it was first thought that an interview, ostensibly upon some question of 
civil law, could be arranged wth him ; but Washington, whose permission had 
to be obtained, thought the interview unnecessary, and this necessitated Andre's 
participation. 

Andre left New York with definite instructions from Clinton, to wit: not 
to go within the American lines, to assume no disguise,, to accept no papers. 
In each point, it will be seen, he disobeyed. An appointment was made between 
Andre and Arnold's messenger to meet at Dobbs' Ferry, after an unsuccessful 
attempt had been made to pass Andre through the lines as John Anderson. 
Andre, for once remembering his orders, did not remain at the Ferry, but went 
on board H. M. S. Vulture, lying just above Sing Sing. 

It must not be imagined that these extensive preliminary negotiations had 
proceeded without suspicion. It was a common rumor that some vague "irregu- 
larity" existed in the camp of the General, and while gossip had not yet hit 
upon the truth, it caused Arnold some discomfort. There was need of a quick 
adjustment of the last details, a sudden consummation of the plot. Added to 
the reason above stated were military considerations ; Washington and his 
advisers were in consultation : at any moment the scheme might be defeated 
by an unexpected move. 

Major Andre was impatient. He contrived to send a pseudo-official com- 
municaton to Arnold, countersigning it "John Anderson, Secretary." 

On the following night came quietly alongside the Vulture a boat, whose 
owner, a certain Joshua Hett Smith, announced that he was hired to convey 

84 



to the shore Colonel Beverly Robinson. Andre was disappointed at Arnold's 
not boarding the Vulture, as he had asked; here, on the other hand, was a 
chance to go ashore, in disobedience of Clinton's mandate, but with little chance 
of capture. Accordingly, he concealed his uniform with a long overcoat and 
was rowed to a point on the shore where Arnold waited. This step was taken 
against the advice of Colonel Robinson and of the Captain of the Vulture. 

The conference in the bushes, at the foot of Long Clove Mountain, lasted 
until the approach of day made it impossible for the boat to return to the 
Vulture. This had probably been foreseen by Arnold, as he now sent Andre 
to Smith's home, three miles distant, the family having been sent away a few 
days before on Arnold's advice. Arrived here, while in a comparatively safe 
position, he was seized with vague misgivngs, and asked to be again rowed 
to the Vulture. This the frightened Smith refused to do, which made it neces- 
sary for Andre to return to New York on horseback. 

Arnold supplied a paper to "permit Mr. John Anderson to pass the guards 
to the White Plains" ; in addition to this Andre carried documents pertaining 
to the plot, and assumed a disguise. The journey was begun at night, Smith 
accompanying the Major as far as Pine's Ridge, on the east side, they having 
crossed at Verplanck's Point. It was now morning. Andre had heard the 
night before that the Cowboys, a band of Tory marauders, were on or near 
the Tarrytown road, and accordingly he changed his course from the White 
Plains road in order to fall in with these men. The scene that followed is 
familiar. Near Tarrytown he is stopped by three men, apparently of the Cow- 
boys. He hopes they are "of the Lower Party," which they do not deny. He 
confidently informs them that he is a British officer — their actions soon show 
him his mistake, and he produces Arnold's pass. But their suspicions are 
aroused; he is searched, and the tell-tale papers are found in his boots. His 
attempts at bribery fail, and he is turned over to Col. Jameson at North Castle. 

Jameson failed to discern the import of the event. He had, quite natu- 
rally, no thought of high treason in his superior officer — and that suspicion 
would have been the only clue to a correct solution. He sent the prisoner to 
Arnold, together with an account of the circumstances of his capture. The 
receipt of the message would be, of course, a timely warning to the traitor to 
make good his escape. 

But Major Tallmadge, of Jameson's regiment, had a little more discretion 
than his Colonel. He urged that the prisoner be brought back, and the mes- 
sage to Arnold recalled. The first Jameson was persuaded to do — the second 
he saw no reason for, and the message went on to its unwitting damage. 

Arnold was seated at breakfast with some members of Washington's staff 
on the morning of September 25th, three days after Andre's departure, when 
the news of the unfortunate spy's capture was delivered to him. He quietly 

85 



excused himself, went to another room and informed his wife, and mounting 
a horse at the door, rode to where a boat was moored. He was quickly rowed, 
under a truce-flag, to the Vulture, safe from the vengeance of those he had 
betrayed. 

Of Andre's end it is necessary to speak but briefly. Attempts were made 
to excuse him under the contention that he had the protection of a flag ; the 
disguise, and the superfluous pass of Arnold, readily refuted this pretense. 
The next argument was that he was betrayed into a false position. The ab- 
surdity of this contention defeated itself without the necessity of formal refu- 
tation. He had voluntarily entered into privy consultation with a traitor, had 
voluntarily accepted treasonable papers, had voluntarily assumed disguise, and 
what was alone sufficient, had passed inside the lines without claiming the 
protection of a flag. His trial was short but thorough — it left no ground for 
doubt, reasonable or fancied, and Andre was hanged. 

As to Arnold, there is no absolute judgment for him. It is easy to pardon 
on the grounds that treatment he received from his country seemed unjust, 
and that his peculiarly perverted mind believed in treason against traitors ; 
some think that Arnold always believed himself justified — and is not a man's 
conscience his God? Or, one may condemn him as readily — it may be argued 
that the law against treason is absolute, and its violation can never be justi- 
fied. For it is well known that laws are made for the average man, and will 
seem unjust to some, but must be observed by all for the sake of the common 
good. 

It was foreseen that the effect of this treason would be a general shaking 
of faith on the American side. The news came, too, at a most inopportune 
time, just after the report of Gates' defeat in South Carolina. Without the 
courage that comes from man's faith in his fellows, the States would be di- 
vided, and the British could pursue with comparative ease their plan of crush- 
ing separate States, thus accomplishing the sundering of the Union, without 
which there was no strength on the American side. Considering this state of 
affairs, it is indeed remarkable that the advantage gained by the English was 
so small — the faith among the States so enduring. So near was the American 
cause to utter ruin, so near the American ideal to final overthrow, that its 
ultimate salvation without human forethought gives us a satisfying belief in 
the Divine approval of our principle that liberty is the one God-given law. 
"For heathen heart that puts her trust 

In reeking tube and iron shard, 
All valiant dust that builds on dust 

And guarding, calls not Thee to guard, 
Nor frantic boast and foolish word — 
Thy mercy on Thy people, Lord !" 

86 William A. Bird, IV. 



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88 



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89 



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90 



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Denny, Thomas 
De Peyster, Wilson 
Dering, Sylvester 

De Russy, Isaac D., Brig. Genl. U. S. A. 
Deshler, James 
Devereux, Nicholas E. 
Devereux, Walter 
De Wart, Harry M. 
Dewey, Charles O 
Dewey, George, Admiral U. S. N. 
Dewey, George E. 
Dewey, Hiram S. 

deWindt, John P. H. 

De Witt, Andrew H. 

Dexter, Stanley W. 

Dey, Anthony 

Dey, Richard Varick 

Dickerson, Edward N. 

Dickinson, Andrew G., Jr. 

Dickinson, Charles C. 

Dickinson, Dwight, M. D. 

Dickinson, Horace E. 

Dike, Norman S. 

Dikeman, Edwin J. 

Dimock, William DeW. 

Ditmars, Edward W. 

Dix, John Adams 

Dodd, Fred K. 

Dodge, Edward L. 

Dodge, Guy Phelps 

Dodge, Rev. James W. A 
Dodge, Walter P. 
Dominick, Bayard 
Dominick, George F. 
Dominick, Henry B. 
Dominick, Marinus W. 
Doty, Arthur L. G. 
Douglas, Charles H. 

92 



Douglas, Edward W. 

Douglas, Harry- 
Douglas, William C. 

Douglas, William E., M. D. 

Douglas, William H. 

Douglass, Frank H. 
*Dowling, J. Ivimey, M. D. 
^Downing, Augustus C. 

Draper, Charles A. 

Draper, T. Wain. Morgan, Capt. U. S.A. 

Driggs, Elliott F. 

Driggs, Laurence L. 

Drowne, Henry R. 

Dudley, Plimmon H., C. E. 

du Bois, William M. 

Du Fais, John 

Duffield, Howard, D. D. 

Duncan, David B. 

Dunmore, Watson T. 

Dunn, Cleveland A. 

Dunn, Gano S. 

Dunn, Harris A. 

Dunnell, Rev. William N., S. T. D. 

Dunning, Charles T. 

Dunscombe, George E. 

Durell, David M. 

Duryee, Harvey H. 

Dutton, William D. 

Du Val, Horace C. 

Dyer, Fdward T. 

Dyer, George R. 

Dyer, Henry L. 

Eager, William P. 
Eagle, Clarence H. 
Eames, Francis L. 
Eastman, John M. 
Eaton, Charles B. 
Eaton, Frank D. 
*Eddy, William S. 
Edmonds, John W. 
Edmonds, Joseph L. 
Edson, Jarvis B. 

Edwards, Arthur M., Maj. U. S. A. 
Edwards, James T. 
Ehlers, Edward C, M. D. 
Eldredge, Robert L. 
Eldridge, Frederick L. 



Eldridge, Henry F. 
Elliott, Charles G. 
Elliott, Frederic B. 
Elliott, Richmond B., Jr. 
Ellis, William D. 
Ellsworth, William W. 
Elmendorf, Dwight L. 
Elmendorf, John B 
Elmendorf, William B. 
Elseffer, John H. 
Elsworth, Edward 
Ely, Alfred 
*Ely, Augustus G. 
Ely, Smith 
Emerson, John W. 
Emery, Livingston 
Enos, Alanson T. 
Enos, Frank 
Esler, Peter C. 
Esterbrook, Richard 
Estes, Webster C. 
Evans, Dudley 
Everett, Henry W. 

*Fahys, George E. 
Failing, John P. 
Fairbanks, Adolphe St. A. 
Fairbanks, Charles M. 
Fairbanks, Thomas N. 
Fairchild, Benjamin T. 
Fairchild, Samuel W. 
Falls, DeWitt C. 
Fargo, James F. 
Fargo, William C. 
Farlee, Robert D. 
Farman, Elbert Eli. 
Farnam, Charles H. 
Farrand, Oliver M. 
Fash, Charles W. 
Fash, Hobert C. 
Featherstonhaugh, George W 
Ferguson, Arthur deV. 
Ferguson, Frank C. 
Ferree, Barr 
Ferris, Morris Douw. 
Ferris, Morris P. 
Field, Augustus B. 
Field, Thomas P. 



93 



Field, William B. O. 

Findley, William L. 

Finney, Robert S. 

Fish, George F. 

Fish, Hamilton W. 
*Fish, Henry Van C. 

Fisher, H. Clarence 
♦Fisher, Oliver L. 

Fischer, Rudolph H. 

Fisk, Willard C. 

Fiske, Harrison G 

Fiske, Lyman O. 

Fitch, Ashbel P. 

Fitch, Francis E. 

Fitz-Gerald, Aaron Ogden 

Fitz-Gerald, John D. 

Fitz-Gerald, Paul, M. D. 
♦Fitzpatrick, John T. 

Flagg, Rev. Edward O., D. D. 

Fletcher, Henry 
♦Fletcher, Robert S. 

Floyd, Augustus 

Floyd, Nicoll 

Floyd, William 

Floyd-Jones, George S. 

Foote, George B. 

Foote, Gilbert F. 

Foote, Robert E. 

Forbes, Rev. Elmer S. 

Forbes, Harry R. 

Forbes, Henry H., M. D. 

Ford, Edwin L. 

Ford, William H. 

Ford, Willis E., M D. 

Fordham, Herbert L. 

Foster, Edward W. 

Foster, Frederic De P. 

Foster, Giraud 

Foster, Pell W. 

Foulke, Bayard F. 
♦Fouquet, Morton L. 

Fowler, Edward S., Col. U. S. A. 

Fowler, Robert L. 
Fowler, Thomas P. 
France, Marshall M. 
Francis, Charles S. 
Frear, Charles W. 
Frear, William B 



Freeborn, James L. 
French, Harlan P. 
Frisbie, Gen'l John B. 
Frisbee, Orlando C. 
Frissell, Algernon S. 
Frost, Benaiah Y. 
Frothingham, Charles F. 
Frothingham, Samuel 
Frye, Jed 

Fuller, Howard N. 
Fuller, Linus E. 
Fuller, Waldo E. 
Fuller, William A 
Furey, Charles W. 
Furman, Harry A. 

*Gale, Noel 

Gallatin, Frederic 

Galusha, Henry 

Gamage, Frederick L. 

Gardiner, Asa Bird, LL.D. 

Gardiner, George N. 

Gardiner, George N., Jr. 

Gardner, Faxton E., M. D. 

Gates, Horatio H. 

Gawtry, Harrison E. 

Gawtry, Lewis B. 

Gaylord, Irving C. 

Gazzam, Edwin Van D., M. D. 
*Geer, Danforth 
*Geer, Olin P. 

Geer, Walter 

Genung, George L. 

Gerry, Elbridge T. 

Gibbons, Willard Smith 

Gibson, Charles L., M. D. 

Gibson, Henry P 

Gifford, Frank Edward 

Gilbert, Charles P. H. 

Gilbert, Henry W. 

Giles, John C, Jr. 

Giles, Stephen W. 

Gilfillan, W. Whitehead, M. D. 

Gillette, Abram D. 
♦Gilley, William C, M. D. 

Gillis, Frederick S. 

Gilmour, Andrew J., M. D. 

Glenney, William P. 



94 



Goldsborough, Washington L., Capt. U. 
S. V. 

Goldsmith, Alden M. 
*Goodier, James H. 

Goodier, Wadsworth L. 

Goodrich, George S. 

Goodrich, Paul M. 

Goodrich, Thomas P. 

Goodridge, Edwin A., M. D. 
♦Goodwin, Clifford C. 

Goodwin, Edwin P. 

Goodwin, James J. 

Goold, Clarence W. 

Gordon, George C. 

Gorham, George E., M. D. 

Gott, Joseph W. 

Gould, Edwin 

Gould, Frank J. 

Gould, George J. 

Gould, Howard 

Graff, Edwin D., Capt. U. S. V. 

Graham, Malcolm 

Granniss, Robert A. 

Granniss, Robert A., Jr. 

Grant, Francis E. 

Grant, George M. 

Gratwick, Frederic C. 

Gratwick, William Ff. 
♦Green, Arba R., M. D. 

Green, Ashbel 
*Green, Crawford R., M. D. 
*Green, Lansdale B. 

Greene, Charles A. 
*Greene, Donald 

Greene, Marshall W. 

Greene, Richard Ff. 

Greenleaf, John T., M. D. 

Greenough, Charles E. 

Greenwood, Isaac J. 

Greenwood, Langdon 

Greer, Charles 
*Greer, Rt. Rev. David H., D. D. 

Gregory, Franklin U. 

Gridley, Edward M. 

Gridley, Horace W. 

Griffin, Francis B. 

Griffin, Henry A., M. D. 

Griffith, Charles G. 



Griffith, William H. 
Griswold, Chester 
Griswold, Frank G. 
Griswold, John C. 
Griswold, Le Grand C. 
Groo, Byron 
Groo, George W. 
Groo, Sidney 
Groo, William J. 
Guild, Frederic A. 
Gulick, Horace M. 
Gulick, John C. 
Gulick, James C, 2d 
Gunther, Clarence E., M. D. 
Gunther, Franklin L. 
Gunther, William L. 
*Gurley, William F. 
Gwyer, Fred. W., M. D. 

Hackstaff, William G. 
Hadley, Frank W. 
*Haight, Russell W 
Haines, Frederick W. 
Haines, George W r . 
Hale, Edward W. 
Hall, A. Mitchell 
Hall, Alexander Mitchell, 2d. 
Hall, Charles S. 
Hall, Dudley 
Hall, E. Spencer 
Hall, Frederick J. 
Hall, George A. 
Hall, Richard F. 
Hall, Thomas George 
Hall, W. Hunt 
Hallam, Frederick W. 
Hallowell, Thomas J. 
Halsey, Charles W. 
Halsted, John F. 
Halsted, Samuel H. 
Hamersley, Andrew S. 
Hamilton, Henry De W. 
Hamilton, Schuyler Van C. 
Hamilton, William G. 
Hamilton, William P. 
Hamlen, Arthur B. 
Hamlen, George D., M. D. 
Hammer, Edwin W 



95 



Hammond, Graeme M., M. D. 

Handy, Parker D 

Hanford, Robert B. 

Harding, George C. 

Harmon, Benjamin S. 

Harrington, Arvin W., Jr. 

Harriot, Samuel C. 

Harriot, Samuel J. 

Harriot, Samuel W. 

Harris, Henry S. T., Major and Surgeon 

U. S. A. 
Hart, Henry G. 
Hartley, Wilfrid 

Harts, William W., Maj. U. S. A. 
Harvey, Leon F., M. D. 
*Harwood, George A. 
Hasbrouck, Dudley C. 
Hasbrouck, Frank 
Haskell, Frederick A. 
Haskin, William L., Genl. U. S. A. 
Hastings, Hugh 
Hatch, Arthur M 
Hatch, Henry P. 
Hatheway, Curtis R. 
Haven, Franklin C. 
Hawes, Charles F. 
Hawes, Gilbert R. 
Hawkins, Rush C, Brev. Brig. Genl. U. 

S. A. 
Hawley, Benjamin A. 
Hawley, Irad 
Hay, Charles C. 
Hay, James R. 
Hay, Louis C. 
Hay, Silas C. 
Hayes, Alfred, Jr. 
Hayes, Charles W., D. D. 
Hayes, Francis M., M. D. 
Hays, Daniel 
Hazeltine, Abner 
Hazen, Henry C, M. D. 
Healey, Jacob F. 
Healey, Warren M. 
Heath, George G. B. 
Heath, M. Angelo 
Heaton, Charles A. 
Hebert, Henry B. 
Hedden, Josiah 



Hedden, Warren R. 

Hegeman, Adrian G. 

Hegeman, John R., Jr. 

Heilner, George C. 

Helmuth, Wiliam T., M. D. 

Henderson, Norman 

Henry, Charles S. 

Henry, Douglas 

Henry, Philip W. 
*Henry, William T. 

Hepburn, Leonard F. 

Herrick, Charles W. 

Herrick, Frank C. 

Herzog, Adrien B. 

Herzog, Edward H. 

Hewitt, Erskine 

Hewitt, Fred. W. 

Hewlett, George 

Higgins, Eugene 
*Higginson, James J. 

Highet, Frank B. 

Hill, Charles B. 

Hill, Frank H. 

Hill, John L. 

Hill, Joseph Eliot 

Hill, Robert C. 

Hill, William B. 

Hill, William S. 

Hills, Elbndge R., Col. U. S. A. 

Hine, Francis L. 

Hinman, Edward 

Hinman, Matthew 

Hitchcock, Bradford W. 
*Hobbie, George S., M .D. 

Hobson, Henry D. 

Hodges, Alfred. 

Hoe, George E. 

Hoe, James C. 

Hoe, William A. 

Hoes, Rev. Roswell R., U. S. N. 

Hoff, John Van R., Col. and 
Surg.-Genl. U. S A.. 

Hoffman, Alexander W. 

Hoffman, Samuel V. 

Holbrook, Levi. 

Holden, Frederick C, M. D. 

Holden, James A. 

Holland, John B. 



Dept. 



96 



Hollister, Henry H. 

Holmes, Artemas H. 

Holmes, Edwin T 

Holt, George C. 

Holt, Henry 

Holt, Roland 

Hone, John 

Hone, John, Jr. 

Hoppin, Francis L. V. 
*Hoppin, Hamilton L. 
*Hoppin, Samuel H. 

Hoppin, William W. 

Hopson, Francis J. 

Hornblower, William B. 

Horton, Daniel S., Jr. 

Horton, Thomas R. 
*Hosmer, James Ray, Col. U. S. A. 

Hotaling, George P. 
*Hotaling, George R 

Hotchkin, Walter B. 

Hotchkiss, Henry D. 

Hotchkiss, Lucius W., M. D. 

Houghton, Rev. George Clarke, D. D. 

Houghton, Owen E., D. D. S. 

Howard, Arthur P. 

Howard, Ora 

Howard-Martin, Edmund 

Howe, Emerson 

Howe, Jacob F., M. D. 

Howe, John M., M. D. 

Howell, Edwin A. 

Howell, Francis B. 

Howell, Henry W. 

Howell, Richard L. 

Howell, Rev. Richard L. 

Howland, Henry R. 

Hoyt, Albert E. 

Hoyt, Gerald L. 

Hubbard, Grosvenor S. 

Hubbard, Ralph K. 
*Hubbard, Walter C 

Hubbell, Charles B. 

Hughes, Charles W. 

Hull, George H. 

Hull, Joseph T. 

Humphreys, Edward W. 

Humphreys, Rev. Frank L., S. T. D. 

Humstone, Walter C. 



Huntington, Charles R. 
Huntington, Frederick J. 
Huntington, Henry 
Huntington, William R., D. D. 
Hurd, Arthur W., M. D. 
Hurd, Frank B. 
Hurlburt, Percy D, 
Husted, Albert N. 
*Husted, Chester 
Hutchinson, Cary T., Ph. D. 
Hyatt, Abram M. 
Hyatt, Frank S. 
Hyatt, George E. 
Hyatt, Herbert R. 
Hyde, Augustus Lord 
Hyde, Benjamin T. B. 
Hyde, Clarence R., M. D. 
Hyde, Edwin F. 
Hyde, Elmer W. 
Hyde, Frank H. S. 
Hyde, Frederick E., M. D. 
Hyde, Henry St. John 
Hyde, Herbert M. 
Hyde, William H. 

*Ide, James M. 

Ide, Robert L. 

Imlay, W. T. B. S. 

Ingalls, Harvey H. G. 

Ingersoll, Chandler G. 
*Ingraham, Phoenix 

Innis, Hasbrouck 

Ireland, John B. 

Ireland, John De C. 

Irvin, Rev. William, D. D. 

Isham, Charles 

Jackson, Ernest H. 
Jackson, Ezra T. 
Jackson, Frank W., M. D. 
Jackson, John D. 
Jackson, Joseph C. 
Jackson, Joseph C, Jr. 
Jackson, Oswald 
Jackson, Stuart Wells. 
Jackson, William H. 
Jacobus, John S. 



97 



Jaffray, Robert 

Jahne, Henry C. 

Jameson, Robert W. 

Jay, John C, M. D. 

Jay, John Garkson, Jr. 

Jay, William 
*Jeffery, Oscar W. 

Jenkins, E. Fellows 

Jenks, Robert I. 

Jennings, Albert G. 

Jester, Claude W. 

Johnson, Bradish 
♦Johnson, Carlton P. 

Johnson, Frederick M. 

Johnson, Herman I. 

Johnson, John Q. A. 

Johnston, Prof. Henry P. 

Johnston, John Holmes 

Jones, Meredith L. 

Jones, Paul E. 

Judson, Albert L. 

Judson, William David 

Judson, William Pierson, C. E. 

Kasson, Henry R. 
Keegan, Dermot W. 
Keep, Henry V. 
Kelley, Frank M. 
Kellogg, Edwin W., M. D. 
Kellogg, John M , M. D. 
Kellogg, Richards 
Kemp, Edward 
Kemp, George W. 
Kemp, Rev. Robert M. 
Kennedy, Elijah R. 
Kennedy, McPherson 
Kennedy, McPherson, Jr. 
♦Kennedy, Theodore T. 
Kent, George H. 
Kent, Halsey Wing 
Ketchum, William H. 
Kimball, Harold C. 
Kincaid, Frederick W. 
King, Edward B. 
King, Landreth H. 
Kingman, William L. 
Kingsbury, Howard T. 
Kingsbury, Jerome, M. D. 



Kinnan, Alexander P. W. 
Kirk, Chester H. 
Knapp, Harry K. 
Knapp, Rev. Shepherd 
*Kniffin, Sidney L. 
Knight, Charles H., M. D. 
Knight, Erastus Cole 
Knight, Henry B. 
Knowlton, Miner R 
Knox, John M. 
Knox, Schuyler B. 
Koop, Eugene J. 
Kunkel, John A. 
Kunkel, Robert S. 
Kuper, William H. 

Ladd, William W 

Laimbeer, Francis E. 

Laimbeer, John, Jr. 
*Lamb, Charles R. 

La Mont, Herbert M. 

Landon, Francis G 

Landon, Henry H. 

Lane, Edward Van Z. 

Lane, Francis T. L. 

Lane, Smith E. 

Lathrop, Francis. 

Latting, Charles P. 

Latting, Charles P., Jr. 

Latting, Walter S. 
*Lawton, Daniel L. 

Lawton, Edward P 
*Lawton, George P. 

Lawton, William M. 

Lawyer, George 

Leavitt, Sheldon 

Leaycraft, John E. 

Leggett, Edward H. 

Leggett, William F 

Leigh, Frederick T. 
*Leland, Arthur S. 

Leland, Charles H. 

Leonard, Clarence E. 

Leonard, Edgar C. 

Leonard, Gardner C. 

LeRoy, Frederick G. 

LeRoy, Henry W. 

Lesley, George H. 
Lewis, Thompson H. 



98 



Lincoln, Frederic W. 

Lindsay, John D. 

Lindsley, Henry W H. 

Lines, Harvey K. 
*Lines, Theodore T. 

Little, Arthur W. 

Little, Thomas. 

Livingston, D. McRa 

Livingston, Harold M. 

Livingston, Phifip. 

Lloyd, Francis G. 

Lloyd, Henry A. 

Lloyd, Henry D. 

Lloyd, Herbert DeN. 

Lloyd, Isaac F. 

Lockwood, Henry B. 

Lockwood, Isaac F. 

Lockwood, W. T. 

Long, Isaac S. 

Loomis, William H. 

Lord, Frank H. 

Lorton, Heth. 

Lott, Erskine H. 

Loudoun, Wood D. 

Lounsbery, Henry H. F. 

Lounsbury, Herbert S. 

Love, Henry M. 

Low, Abbot A. 

Low, Joseph T. 

Low, Joseph T., Jr., M. D. 

Low, William G., Jr. 

Lowrie, Charles N. 

Luce, Robert Lee 
*Ludlow, Henry S. 

Lummis, Benjamin R. 

Lummis, Charles A. 

Lummis, William. 

Lyman, Robert M 

Lyman, Walter H. 

Lyon, Amos M. 

Lyon, Eldorus D., M. D. 

Lyon, William S. 

MacArthur, Arthur. 
*MacArthur, Charles A. 
Macdonald, Pierre F. 
Macdonough, George H. 
MacHarg, Martin, M. D. 



Mack, Laurence A. 

Maclay, Augustus W., M. D. 

Maclay, Isaac W. 

MacNeille, John R. 

MacNulty, Alexander C. 

Malcolm, Philip S. 

Malcolm, Richard L. 

Mann, S. Vernon. 

Mann, S. Vernon, Jr. 

Manson, Thomas L. 

March, Alden. 

Marsellus, Max de M. 

Marshall, Charles C. 

Marshall, Hermann Le Roy 

Marshall, Hermann Le Roy, Jr. 

Marshall, Howard 
*Martin, Ferris B. 

Martin, George F. 

Martin, William V. 

Marvin, Robert N. 

Mason, A. Livingston 

Mason, James K. 

Mattes, William F 

Mayhew, Zeb. 

McAlpin, Benjamin B. 

McAlpin, Edwin A. 

McCaffrey, John T. 

McCandless, Gardiner F. 

McChain, Richard F. 

McClellan, George B. 

McClintock, Emory. 

McClure, William 

McCulloch, Walter B. 

McCurdy, Richard Aldrlch 

McCurdy, Robert H. 
*McEwan, Walter S. 

McGowan, John, Rear Admiral U. S. N. 

McGuire, James C. 

McHarg, John V. 

McKell, David McC, Lieut. U. S. A. 

McKesson, George C. 
*McKown, William J. 

McLanahan, George X. 

McLaughlin, Edward T. 

McLaughlin, George E., M. D. 

McMurray, Charles B. 

McMurray, Clarence F. 

McNamee, Charles ; 



99 



McNamee, Theodore H. 
McWilliams, Howard 
Mead, Charles A. 
Mead, Charles L. 
Mead, E. Russell. 
Mead, James H. 
Mead, Joseph D. 
Mead, Spencer P. 
Mead, Walter H. 
♦Mead, Zachariah, Jr. 
Mears, Rev. David O., D. D. 
Meeks, Robert T. 
Meigs, Peveril, Jr. 
Melville, Henry 
Meredith, William T. 
Merrall, Frank R. 
Merrill, John L. 
Merriman, Harry M. 
Merritt, Douglas 
Merwin, Berkley R. 
Metcalf, Bryce 
Middleton, George W. 
Miles, William B. 
Miller, Charles B. 
Miller, George W. 
Milliken, James F. 
♦Milliman, Myron C. 
Mills, Borden H. 
Mills, Charles H. 
Mills, Isaac N. 
Mills, John F. 
♦Mills, Philip O. 
Mills, Walter S., M. D. 
♦Milne, Clyde 
Miner, Frank D. 
Minor, Charles W. 
Mitchell, Clarence B. 
Molleson, George E. 
Montgomery, George P. 
Montgomery, Henry E. 
Montgomery, James M. 
Montgomery, James M., Jr. 
Montgomery, Richard M. 
Montgomery, Richard M., Jr. 
Moore, Charles A. 
Moore, Dwight 
Moore, Frank L. 
Moore, Thomas C. 



Moore, William C. 
Moorhead, John, Jr. 
Moran, Charles 
Morfit, Clarence 
Morgan, Rev. Brockholst 
Morgan, Edwin D. 
Morgan, Junius S. 
Morgan, William R. 
Morris, Lewis N. 
Morris, Lewis R.. M. D. 
Morris, Newbold. 
Morris, Robert C. 
Morris, Robert S., M. D. 
Morris, Robert T., M. D. 
Morrison, Charles K. 
Morrison, George A., Jr. 
Morrison, Thomas Hamblen 
Morse, Waldo G. 
Morton, Henry H., M. D. 
Moses, Horace C. 
Mosher, George A. 
Mott, Frank H. 
Mott, Lewis Camp 
♦Mott, Walter W. 
Munson, George S., M. D. 
Munson, Paul B. 
Munson, Samuel L. 
Munson, Samuel L., Jr. 
Murphey, Elijah W. 
Murray, Charles H. 
Murray, Russell 
♦Murray, William 
Muzzey, Austin K. 
Myer, Albert J. 
Mygatt, John Tracy 
Mygatt, Otis A. 
Mygatt, William R. 

Nathans, John A. 
Nathans, Thomas A. 
Neilson, Henry A. 
Nellis, William J., M. D. 

Nelson, Dean 
♦Nelson, James W. 

Nesmith, Henry E. 

Nesmith, Howard M. 

Nevius, Theodore M. 

Newcomer, George M. 

IOO 



Newkirk, Warren B. 
Newman, Charles 
Newman, John L. 
Newton, Rev. Edward P. 
Nichols, Acosta 
Nichols, George L. 
Nichols, James A., M. D. 
Nichols, William E. 
Nicholson, Chrystie F. 
Nimmo, Ray E. 
Norris, Charles, M. D. 
Norvell, Duncan R. 
Norwood, Lewis M, 
Noyes, James A. 

Oakley, Robert H. 
O'Connor, James. 
O'Connor, Robert K. 
O'Connor, William S. 
Oddie, Orville, Jr. 
Odell, Charles M. 
Ogden, Louis M. 
Olcott, J. Van V. 
Olcott, Richard M. 
Olds, Frank W., M. D. 
*01msted, Rt. Rev. Charles T., D. D. 
Olmsted, Edward 
Olney, George W. 
Olyphant, Frank M. 
Olyphant, J. Kensett 
Olyphant, Murray 
Olyphant, Robert 
Olyphant, Robert M. 
Olyphant, Robert M., Jr. 
Olyphant, Talbot 
Osmer, John A. 
Ostrander, George N. 
Otis, A. Walker 
Otis, George Ford 
Owen, Rev. William H., Jr. 
Owens, William W. 

Paige, Edward W. 
Palmer, Ernest, M. D. 
Palmer, Francis S. 
Palmer, Josiah Culbert. 
Palmer, Lucius N. 
*Palmer, Peter 



Park, Roswell, M. D. 

Park, William G. 

Parker, Daingerfield, Gen. U. S. A. 

Parker, Frederick S. 

Parker, Samuel E. 

Parmelee, Charles L. 

Parris, Edward L. 

Parsons, Samuel. 

Parsons, William D. 

Partridge, Frank H, 

Patterson, Edward L. 

Patterson, John H., Brig. Gen. U. S. / 
Patteson, Herbert L. 
*Payne, Harry F. 

Peabody, Charles A. 
*Peabody, Rushton 

Pease, Herbert Julius 

Peck, Guy D. 

Peck, John H. 

Peckham, Thomas Proctor 

Peet, John N. 

Peck, William E. 

Pell, Frederick A. 

Pelletreau, Robert S. 

Pendleton, Edmund 

Perkins, Charles E. 

Perkins, A. Erickson 

Perkins, James D. 

Perkins, Joseph F., M. D. 

Perrine, William W. 

Perry, A. J., Brig. Gen. U. S. A. 
*Perry, William Barker 

Perry, William Sumner 

Peters, Andrew 

Peters, Ralph 

Phelps, John Jay 

Phelps, Samuel F. 

Phillips, Edgar J. 

Phillips, Wendell C, M. D. 

Phisterer, Karl J. 

Pierce, Charles H. 

Pierce, George W. 

Pierce, Lewis Leland 

Pierrepont, Henry E. 

Pierrepont, John Jay. 

Pierson, James R. 
*Pierson, Henry L. 

Pinkerton, Charles 

Pinkney, Townsend 



IOI 



Pinto, William Albert 

Piper, Alexander R., Capt. U. S. A. 

Piper, Robert A. 

Plum, David B. 

Plum, Frederick A. 

Plumb, James I. 

Plumer, David B. 

Plympton, Gilbert M. 

Polk, William M., M. D. 

Pollard, Frederick C. 

Pomeroy, George E. 

Pond, Charles H. 

Poor, Charles L. 

Pope, Frederick W. 

Popham, George M. 
*Porcher, Charles M. 
*Porter, Augustus D. 

Porter, Thomas W. 

Porter, William H., M. D. 

Postley, Sterling 

Potter, Albert J. 

Potts, Charles E. 

Potts, William Rockhill 

Poucher, John W., M. D. 

Prall, John H. 

Pratt, Alexander, D. B. 

Pratt, Dallas B. 

Prentice, Robert K. 

Prentice, William S. P. 

Prentiss, Evarts L. 

Prentiss, Nathaniel A. 

Price, Alfred B. 

Price, Guernsey 

Prime, Edward 

Primrose, John S. 

Prince, Benjamin 

Proctor, Frederick T. 

Proctor, Thomas R. 

Proudfit, William Henry 

Provost, David 

Pruyn, Foster 

Pruyn, Robert C. 

Pumpelly, Raphael 

Purdy, Edward L. 

Pyle, Henry S. 



Quinlan, Charles S. 



Raborg, Thomas M. T. 
*Radford, Harry V. 

Ragland, Samuel H. 

Ralph, George F. 

Rand, John H. 

Rand, William, Jr. 

Rankin, Egbert G., M. D. 

Raser, William H. 

Rasines, Antonio 

Rathbun, Frank B. 

Raymond, Marcius D. 

Raymond, William L. 

Raymond, William O. 

Raynor, Russell 

Raynor, Samuel 

Rea, Thomas B. 

Read, Harmon P. 

Redington, Lyman W. 

Reed, Dayton F. 

Reed, Frederic Holly 

Reed, Henry B., M. D. 

Reed, Lewis B. 

Reed, Theodore F. 

Reeve, Willis A. 

Remsen, Cornelius W. 

Remsen, Phoenix 

Remsen, William O. 

Requa, Isaac 

Requa, James M. 

Requa, R. Russell 

Revere, Augustus L. 
♦Reynolds, Alonzo P. 

Reynolds, Alvah L. 

Reynolds, Charles W. 

Reynolds, Frederick G. 

Reynolds, John Jay. 

Reynolds, Rev. Joseph 

Reynolds, Wakeman F. 

Reynolds, Walter V. 

Reynolds, William B., Major U. S. A. 

Reynolds, William G. 

Rhinelander, Philip 

Rhinelander, T. J O. 

Rice, Edward R. 

Rice, Frederick H. 

Rice, George S. 

Rice, William G. 

Rich, William T. 



I02 



Richards, Benjamin 

Richards, Charles S. 

Richards, Edward O 

Richards, Frederick B. 

Richards, Hamilton C. 

Richards, William M. 

Richards, Rev. William R., D. D. 
♦Richards, William W. 

Richardson, Samuel W. 

Riker, John J. 

Riker, John L. 

Riker, Samuel, Jr. 

Riley, Robert H. 
*Ripley, John W. 

Robbins, Rowland A. 

Robbins, William A. 

Roberts, Erastus T. 

Roberts, Evelyn P. 

Roberts, Frederick Rudolph. 

Roberts, John S. 

Roberts, Nathan B. 

Roberts, Thomas B. G. 

Roberts, Walter F. 

Robeson, Henry B., Rear Admiral U. 

Robinson, Alfred B. 

Robinson, Beverley R. 

Robinson, Charles D. 

Robinson, John M. 
*Robinson, Myron W. 

Robison, William 

Roby, E. Willard 

Rochester, De Lancey, M. D. 

Rochester, Montgomery 

Rockwood, George G. 

Rodgers, John P. 

Rodgers, Robertson 

Roe, Charles F., Gen'l. 

Roe, Frank O. 
*Roe, Jesse G. 
*Roe, Leonard I. 

Rogers, Allen M. 

Rogers, Archibald 

Rogers, Chas. B. 

Rogers, John B. 

Rogers, Lebbens H., Jr. 

Rogers, William E 

Rollins, Edward A. 

Romer, Alfred 

Root, Arthur G., M. D. 



S.N. 



Root, Talbot 
Root, Valentine E. 
Ropes, Albert G. 
Ross, Elias Ogden 
*Ross, William 
Rossiter, Lucius Tuttle 
Rountree, Robert H. 
Rowland, Charles B. 
Rowland, Henry 
Rowland, Thomas F., Jr. 
Rowland, William 
Rowley, Henry Waite 
Rowley, Warren Curry 
Rucker, William J. 
Rudd, William P. 
Rundall, Clarence A. 
Russell, Waldo Putnam 
Rutherford, Harry V. 
Rutherford, Robbins S. 
Rutherfurd, John A. 
Rutherfurd, Walter 
Ruxton, Philip. 
Ryer, Elmer LeRoy 

Sabin, Charles D. 

Salisbury, Richard L. 

Salter, Jasper C. 

Sands, Benjamin J., M. D. 

Sands, John A. 
*Sanford, Edward B. 
*Sanford, Frederic H. 

Sanford, Henry G 
*Sanford, James E. 

Sanger, William Cary. 

Sard, Grange 

Satterlee, F. Le Roy. M. D. 

Satterthwaite, Thomas E., M. D. 

Sawyer, Philip 

Saxe, Henry W. 
*Saxton, Harold N. 

Schanck, George E. 

Schenck, George E. P. 

Schenck, Gilbert Van E. 

Schermerhorn, Arthur F. 

Schermerhorn, Charles A. 

Schermerhorn, Edward G. 

Schermerhorn, George S. 

Schley, James M., M. D. 



103 



♦Schley, Robert M., M. D. 
♦Schuyler, Philip Van R. 

Schuyler, Sidney S. 

Scott, Alfred 

Scott, Alfred Irving 

Scott, Walter I. 

Scudder, Alanson H. 

Scudder, Rev. Henry T. 

Scudder, Willard 

Seabrook, Harry H., M. D. 

Seaman, Alfred P. W. 

Searing, Peter J. L. 

Sears, Clinton B., Brig. -Gen. U. S. A. 

Seaverns, Francis 

Sedgwick, Cyrus S. 

See, Horace 

See, Joseph E. 

See, Milton 

Seeley, William Wyx 
♦Selkirk, Frank E. 
♦Sewall, Rev. Charles G. 

Sewall, Frederick Beach 

Seward, Frederick W., M. D 

Seward, Frederick W., Jr., M. D. 

Seward, George F. 

Seward, George S. 

Seward, William H., Gen'l. 

Sexton, Lawrence E. 

Shannon, Richard C. 

Shannon, Richard C, 2d. 

Shaw, Charles G. 

Shea, Rufus I. 

Shehan, Dennis Thomas 

Sheldon, Charles Henry 

Sheldon, George R 

Sheldon, Henry K. 

Sheldon, Ralph, M. D. 

Sheldon, William C. 

Shelton, William A. 

Shepard, Charles Taylor 

Shepley. Behmar, C. H. 

Sherman, Benjamin P. 

Sherman, Charles A. 

Sherrill, Charles H. 

Sherry, Arthur G. 

Sherry, Norman Burt 

Shirley, Rufus G. 

Shoemaker, George MacDuffie 



Shoemaker, Henry F. 
Shoemaker, James D. 
Shrady, Jacob 
Shrady, John, M. D. 
Shurtleff, Roswell M. 
Sicard, Montgomery H., M. D. 
Sill, Francis Livingston 
Sill, John T. 
Sillcock, John J. 
Sillcocks, Henry 
Sillcocks, Warren S. 
Simmons, Joseph F. 
Simons, Charles D. 
Simons, Charles D., Jr. 
Simons, Edward H. 
Simons, Edward H. H. 
Simons, Harriman N. 
Simpson, Frank Bradford 
Simpson, Louis W 
Skinner, James H. 
Slade, George T. 
Slade, Henry L. 
Slade, William G. 
Slingerland, Cornelius H. 
Slocum, Herbert J., Capt. U. S. A. 
Smedberg, Edmund M. 
Smith, Alanson Page. 
Smith, Alfred E. 
Smith, Andrew H., M. D. 
Smith, Chandler. 
Smith, Clarence Wilbur 
Smith, Edward R. 
Smith, Floyd Robinson 
Smith, Gilbert L. 
Smith, Guy C. 
Smith, Henry Cole 
Smith, Henry E. 
Smith, J. Agustus 
Smith, J. Augustus, Jr. 
Smith, Rev. Dr. James Tuttle 
♦Smith, L. Bertrand 
Smith, Leonard B. 
Smith, Leonard K. 
Smith, Lewis B. 
Smith, Louis G. 
Smith, Sydney L. 
Smith, Thomas E. V. 
Smith, Thomas Guilford. 



104 



Smith, Thomas W. 

Smith, W. D. Griswold 

Smith, William A. 
*Smyth, Douglas G. 

Snimn, Elisha 

Snow, John L. 

Soule, Louis Hollenbeck. 

Southard, J. Bennett 

Spafford, Joseph H. 

Sparks, Benjamin Covel 
*Spears, Harry D. 

Speir, Archibald W. 

Speir, Gilbert MacMaster 

Spence, Charles R. 

Spencer, Joseph H. 

Spencer, Lorillard 

Spencer, Ralph L. 

Sperry, Joseph A. 

Sperry, Thomas A. 

Sperry, William M. 

Squire, George H. 

Staats, Edward P. 

Staats, John H. 

Stackpole, George F. 

Stafford, William F. 

Stanton, F. McM. 

Stanton, John R. 

Stanton, Walter 

Starr, Peter De B. 

Starr, Walter D. 

Stearns, John Noble 

Stedman, Francis W. 
*Stedman, Robert L. 
♦Sterling, William C 

Sterry, John De Witt 

Stevens, Alexander H. 

Stevens, Byam K. 

Stevens, Franklin E. 

Stevens, John A. 

Stevens, John B. 

Stevenson, Clinton, M. D. 

Stevenson, Richard W. 

Stevenson. William P. 

Stewart, Douglas H., M. D. 

Stewart, Henry P. 

Stewart, William D. 

Stickney, Herbert Whiting 

Stillings, William E. 



Stillman, Thomas B., Ph. D. 
Stillwell, William M. 
Stockton, John 
Stokes, William E. D 
Stone, Charles F. 
Stone, Charles F., Jr. 
Stone, John K. 
Stoneback, Charles H. 
Stoneback, Frank A. 
Storer, Albert H. 
Storer, Ebenezer 
Storm, Clarence 
Storrs, William M. 
Story, Henry G. 
Story, Joseph G. 
Stover, George H. 
Stow, George G. 
Stow, William L. 
Stratton, Albert Elbridge 
Stratton, Frank Lawrence 
Stratton, Gerald 
Stratton, Philip G. 
Streeter, William Walter 
Stringer, George A. 
Strong, Alan H. 
Strong, Gilbert W. 
Strong, James R. 
Strong, John R. 
Strong, Lewis B. 
Strong, Prentice 
Strong, Theron G. 
Strong, Wilson B. 
Stryker, Thomas H 
Studwell, Edwin Augustus 
Studwell, Edwin Francis 
Studwell, George Augustus 
Studwell, George Washington 
Sturgis, Granville F. 
Sturgis, Wm. P. 
Sutliff, Allan H. 
Sutliffe, Robert S. 
*Sutphen, John S. 
Suydam, John R. 
Suydam, Walter L. 
Swan, Edward H., Jr. 
Swasey, William A. 
Sweet, George Sullivan 
Swift, Edward L. 



105 



Swift, Edwin E., M. D. 
Swords, Henry C 

Taggart, William R. 

Talbot, Charles N. 

Talley, John Day 

Talley, Preston Lea 

Tallmadge, Henry O. 

Talmadge, Edward T. H. 

Tapp, Edward W. 
*Tappan, J. B. Coles 

Tappin, Lindsley 

Taylor, Edgar A. 

Taylor, George A. 

Taylor, Howard A 

Taylor, Joseph F. 

Taylor, Moses W. 

Taylor, Sutherland G. 

Taylor, W. Irving 

Taylor, William A 

Tennille, George F. 

Tennille, William A. 
*Terhune, Harold L. 
Terhune, Nicholas 

Terry, John T. 
Terry, John T., Jr. 
Terry, Robert Ezra Huntington 
Terry, Wyllys 
Thayer, Francis A 
Thayer, Stephen H. 
Thebaud, Paul G. 
Thorn, Williamm Benjamin 
*Thomas, Aaron S. 
Thomas, Allen M. 
Thomas, Frank W 
Thomas, Frederick C. 
*Thomas, John F. 
Thomas, Theodore 
Thompson, Alexander R. 
Thompson, Clarkson Crosby 
Thompson, Hobart W. 
Thompson, Robert H. 
Thompson, Von Beverhout, M. D. 
Thompson, William L. 
Thompson, William P. 
Thornall, Edward V. 
Thorne, Joel W. 
Thome, Robert 



Throckmorton, Charles W. 

Thurston, Nathaniel B. 

Tilden, John N. 

Tilford, Frank 

Tillinghast, Gen'l Charles W., 2d 

Tinker, Arthur L. 

Tinker, Charles A 

Todd, Herbert W. 

Todd, Judson Scott 

Todd, Perry C. 

Tolles, Brainard 

Tomlinson, John C. 

Tompkins, Hamilton B. 

Tostevin, William L. 

Totten, John R., Capt. U. S. A. 

Towle, Harry F. 

Townsend, David C. 
*Townsend, Eugene D. 

Townsend, Rev. Frank W. 

Tracy, Ira Otis, M. D. 

Treadwell, George C. 
*Treadwell, Munson H. 

Treat, Edwin C. 

Treat, Erastus B. 

Treat, Payson Jackson 

Tremain, Henry E 

Trevor, Henry G 

Trott, James P. 

Trowbridge, Samuel B. P. 

True, Clarence F. 

Trull, William Evans, Jr. 

Tucker, Gilman H. 

Tucker, William A 

Tucker, Willis G., M. D. 

Tufts, Walter B. 

Turner, Thomas M. 

Turner, Thornton F. 

Tuttle, Ezra B. 

Tuttle, Frank D. 
Tuttle, Winthrop M. 
*Twiss, Charles V. 
Tyler, Henry W. 

Underhill, Francis T. 
Underhill, Frederic E. 
Underwood, Frederick D. 
Urmy, Louis Victor 
Urmy, Winfield 



106 



Vail, Floyd 

Valentine, Benjamin E. 

Valentine, Samuel H. 

Vanderbilt, Charles H. 

Van Antwerp, Daniel Lewis 

Van Court, Robert H. 

Vander Veer, Edgar A., M. D. 
*Vander Veer, James N., M. D. 

Van Dyk, James 

Van Dyke, Henry, D. D. 

Van Guysling, George E. 

Van Iderstine, Augustus 

Van Lennep, Frederic 

Van Loan, Zelah 

Van Ness, William P., Major U. S. A. 

Van Orden, Wessel Ten Broeck 
*Van Pelt, John V. 

Van Saun, Henry R. 
♦Van Schaick, Arthur P. 

Van Tuyl, George C, Jr. 

Van Volkenburgh, Thomas S. 

Van Winkle, Edgar B. 

Van Woert, James Burtus, Jr. 

Van Wyck, William E. 

Varnum, Robert T. 

Vedder, Maus R., M. D. 

Vernon, Granville P. 

Ver Planck, William G. 

Viele, Charles D., Brig. -Gen. U. S. A. 

Viele, Herman K. 

Viele, Sheldon T. 

Voorhies, Gordon 

Wade, Alfred B. 
Wade, Daniel T. 
Wade, Herbert T. 
Wade, William D. 
Wadhams, Frederick E. 
Wagner, Charles G, M. D. 
Wagstaff, Cornelius D. 
Wainwright, John H. 
*Wainwright, John W., M. D. 
Wainwright, William P. 
Wait, William B. 
Wakefield, Rev. Wilson F. 
Wakeman, Abram 
Wakeman, Wilbur F. 
Walbridge, Robert R. 



Walden, Franklin 

Walden, Lienau 

Walker, Edmond B. 

Walker, I. Henry 

Walker, John McKeon 

Walker, William Macy 

Wallace, William A. " 

Wallis, Harrison P. 

Walsh, Samuel A. 

Warbasse, James Peter, M. D. 

Ward, Edwin C. 

Ward, Franklin W 

Ward, Henry G. 

Ward, Jacob E. 

Ward, John Erskine 

Ward, Reginald H. 

Ward, Rodney A. 

Ward, Sylvester L. H. 

Waring, Welles Catlin 

Warren, Charles E. 

Warren, Edward S. 

Warren, Frank Kaile 

Warren, John B. 

Warren, Walter P. 

Warren, William Y. 

Washburn, John H. 

Washburn, William I. 

Washington, Wm. De H. 

Waters, Henry 

Watkins, Philip L. 

Watson, John S. 

Weatherbee, Edwin H. 

Webb, Charles 

Webb, William E. 

Webster, Frank D., Capt. U. S. A. 

Weed, Lewis M. 

Weed, Samuel R. 

Weekes, Henry H. 

Weekes, John Abeel 

Weeks, Anson H. 

Weeks, Bartow S. 

Weeks, Frederick E 

Weeks, William H. 

Weeks, William Raymond 

Weir, Levi C. 
*Welch, Ashbel R. 

Welch, Samuel M. 
*Welcher, Lester G. 



107 



Weld, DeWitt C, Jr. 

Weld, j: Edward 

Weld, Robert 

Welles, Charles E. 

Welles, Charles S., M. D. 

Welles, Edgar T. 

Welles, Lemuel A. 

Welling, Richard W. G. 

Wellington, Walter L. 

Wells, Edward H 

Wells, Frederick H. 

Welsh, Henry B. 

Wemple, Harry Y. 

Wemple, Henry Y. 

Wemple, John R. 

Werner, Carl Reinhold 

Weston, Albert T., M. D. 

Weston, Charles W., Jr. 

Wetmore, Edmund, LL.D. 

Wetmore, Edward W., A. M., Pd. D. 

Wheeler, Charles B. 

Wheeler, Edward J., Ph. D. 

Wheeler, Walter R. 

Whipple, Henry B. 

Whipple, Napoleon D. 

Whipple, Sherburne, Lieut. U. S. A. 

Whitaker, Rev. William F., D. D. 

White, Alain C. 

White, Erskine N., D. D. 

White, Henry Kirke 

White, James G. 
*White, Matthew, Jr. 

White, William F. 

Whitehead, Henry Hedden 

Whitlock, Herbert P. 
*Whitmore, Arthur E. 

Whitmore, Raymond D. 

Whitney, Alfred R., Jr. 

Whitney, Drake 

Whitney, Howard F. 

Whitney, Warham 

Whiton, James Bartlett 

Whiton, Louis C. 

Whittemore, George, Jr. 

Whittemore, Henry 

Wicker, Cassius M. 

Wilcox, Reynold W., M. D. 



Wiley, William M. 
*Wilkes, William D. 

Willard, David S. 

Willard, James Le Baron 

Williams, Charles H. 

Williams, Charles S. 

Williams, Chauncey P. 

Williams, Clark 

Williams, George L. 

Williams, Gibson Tenney 

Williams, Henry D. 

Williams, James B 
*Williams, Joseph 

Williams, Leonidas C. 

Williams, Richard H. 

Wilson, Charles R. 

Wilson, Frederic Hart, M. D. 

Wilson, Henry A. 

Wilson, John A. 

Wilson, John V. 

Wilson, Richard A. 

Wilson, William 

Wiltsie, Lawrence Warren 

Wingate, George Albert 

Winne, Charles K., Col. U. S. A. 

Winne, Willis Alvin 
*Winter, Henry Lyle, M. D. 

Winthrop, Grenville B. 

Wise, Charles F. 

Wisner, Charles 

Wisner, Horatio S. 

Wisner, Percy 

Witherbee, Frank S 

Wodell, Silas 

Wood, George W. 

Wood, John H. 

Wood, William S. 

Woodhull, Daniel E. 

Woodhouse, Joseph S. 

Woodhull, Jesse C. 

Woodruff, Charles H. 

Woodruff, Charles H., Jr. 

Woodruff, Frederick S. 

Woodruff, Henry Gilbert 

Woodruff, Lewis B. 

Woodruff, Timothy L. 

Woodworth, Abel Milton 



1 08 



Wotkyns, Tom S. 
♦Wright, Albert M. 
Wright, Charles J., Brevet Col. U. S. A. 

Yeager, James M., D. D. 
Yeaton, Albert S. 
York, Edward Palmer 
Young, Andrew M. 



Young, John V. D., M. D. 
Young, Thomas S. 
Young, William H. 
Youngman, Harry V. 
Youngman, Vreeland H. 
Youngs, Edgar G. 

Zacharie, Charles Cowing, M. D. 



TRANSFERS. 

Joseph S. Frelinghuysen, to New Jersey Society, 
James R. Stewart, to District of Columbia Society. 



109 




Sons of the Revolution 



IN THE 



STATE OF NEW YORK 



REPORTS 

OF THE BOAED OF MANAGERS 
TREASURER AND HISTORIAN 



December 4, 1909 



Object of the Society 

CONSTITUTION 

Preamble 

Whereas, it has become evident from the decline of proper celebration 
of such National holidays as the Fourth of July, Washington's Birthday, and 
the like, that popular interest in the events and men of the War of the 
Revolution is less than in the earlier days of the Republic ; 

And Whereas, this lack of interest is to be attributed not so much to 
lapse of time as to the neglect on the part of descendants of Revolutionary 
heroes to perform their duty of keeping before the public mind the memory 
of the services of their ancestors, and of the times in which they lived, and 
of the principles for which they contended ; 

Therefore, the Society of the "Sons oe the Revolution" has been 
instituted, to perpetuate the memory of the men who, in military, naval or 
civil service, by their acts or counsel, achieved American Independence ; to 
promote and assist in the proper celebration of the anniversaries of Washing- 
ton's Birthday, the Battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill, the Fourth of 
July, the Capitulations of Saratoga and Yorktown, the Evacuation of New 
York by the British Army, and other prominent events relating to or con- 
nected with the War of the Revolution ; to collect and secure for preservation 
the manuscript rolls, records and other documents and memorials relating to 
that War ; to inspire among the members and their descendants the patriotic 
spirit of their forefathers ; to inculcate in the community in general senti- 
ments of Nationality and respect for the principles for which the patriots of 
the Revolution contended ; to assist in the commemorative celebration of 
other great historical events of National importance, and to promote social 
intercourse and the feeling of fellowship among its members. 



General Society 

(Organized at Washington, D. C, April 19, 1890.) 

OFFICERS, 1908—1911 

General President, 

Hon. John Lee Carroll, LL.D., 

Maryland Society. 

General Vice-President, 
Edmund Wetmore, LL.D., 
New York Society. 

Second General Vice-President, 
Major Wilson Godfrey Harvey, 
South Carolina Society. 

General Secretary. 

James Mortimer Montgomery, 

New York Society. 

Assistant General Secretary, 

Prof. William Libbey, D. Sc. 

New Jersey Society. 

General Treasurer, 

Richard McCall Cadwalader, 

Pennsylvania Society. 

Assistant General Treasurer, 

Henry Cadle, 

Missouri Society. 

General Chaplain, 

*Rev. Edward Everett Hale, S.T.D., LL.D., 

Massachusetts Society. 

General Registrar, 

Walter Gilman Page, 

Massachusetts Society. 

General Historian, 
Capt. William Gordon McCabe, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D. 
Virginia Society. 
*Deceased. 



Sons of the Revolution 

IN THE 

STATE OF NEW YORK 

Instituted February 22, 1876. 

Reorganized December 4, 1883. 

Incorporated May 3, 1884. 



FOUNDERS 



John Austin Stevens, 

John Cochrane, 

Austin Huntington, 

George H. Potts, 

Frederick Samuel Tallmadge, 

George Washington Wright Houghton, 

Asa Bird Gardiner, 

Thomas Henry Edsall, 

Joseph W. Drexel, 

James Mortimer Montgomery, 

James Duane Livingston, 

John Bleecker Miller, 

Alexander Ramsay Thompson. 



Officers, 1909 



President: 
Edmund Wetmore, 34 Pine Street. 

First Vice-President: 
Robert Olyphant, 17 Battery Place. 

Second Vice-President: 
John Hone, 5 Gramercy Park. 

Third Vice-President: 
William W. Ladd, 20 Nassau Street. 

Secretary: 
Henry Russell Drowne, Fraunces Tavern. 

Assistant Secretary: 
Eugene K. Austin, 257 West 74th Street. 

Treasurer: 
Arthur Melvin Hatch, 71 Broadway. 

Registrar: 
Henry Phelps Johnston, College of the City of New York. 

Chaplain: 
Rt. Rev. David H. Greer, D.D.. 7 Gramercy Park. 

Assistant Chaplain: 
Rev. Frank L. Humphreys, S.T.D., Morristown, N. J. 

Historian: 
Talbot Olyphant, 32 Nassau Street. 

Board of Managers: 

Philip Livingston, Metropolitan Club. Frederick S. Woodruff, 165 Broadway. 

Clarence Storm, 100 Broadway. Joseph Tompkins Low, 41 Liberty Street. 

Henry D. Babcock, 17 Broad Street. William Graves Bates, 128 Broadway. 

John C. Tomlinson, 15 Broad Street. Edgar C. Leonard, 472 B'way, Albany, N. Y. 

Dallas Bache Pratt, 52 William Street. John B. Holland, 65 Broadway. 

John Clarkson Jay, Jr., 71 Broadway. Charles Isham, 27 William Street. 

Frederick D. Underwood, 50 Church Street. Beverly Chew, 49 Wall Street. 

Ralph Peters, Long Island City, N. Y. William Floyd, 84 William Street. 

James Mortimer Montgomery, 102 Front St. 

6 



Chapters of the Society: 

Buffalo Chapter, Buffalo, N. Y., Henry R. Howland, Regent. 

George W. Comstock, Secretary, 124 Lexington Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Philip Livingston Chapter, Albany, N. Y., Edgar C. Leonard, Regent. 

Borden Hicks Mills, Secretary, 44 Tweddle Building, Albany, N. Y. 

William Floyd Chapter, Troy, N. Y., Walter P. Warren, Regent. 

William Barker, Jr., Secretary, 7 Hawthorne Street, Troy, N. Y. 

Fort Schuyler Chapter, Utica, N. Y., Frederick W. Kincaid, Regent. 

A. Vedder Brower, Secretary, 306 Genessee Street, Utica, N. Y. 

Orange County Chapter, Goshen, N. Y., Roswell W. Chamberlain, Regent. 
Jamestown Chapter, Jamestown, N. Y., Winfield Scott Cameron, Regent. 
Frank H. Mott, Secretary, Fenton Building, Jamestown, N. Y. 

Executive Committee: 
John Hone, Chairman, Joseph T. Low. 

William G. Bates, 
President, Secretary and Treasurer ex-officio. 

Real Estate Committee: 
Robert Olyphant, Chairman, James M. Montgomery, 

Alexander R. Thompson, Henry A. Wilson, 

Charles Isham, Arthur M. Hatch. 

Membership Committee: 
George DeForest Barton, Chairman, 150 Broadway. 
Silas Wodell, 149 Broadway. 
Wyllys Terry, 60 Wall Street. 

Landreth H. King, Room 517, Grand Central Station. 
Edward L. Parris, 45 Broadway. 

Richard A. Wilson, 499 Monroe Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Alfred B. Robinson, 206 Broadway. 
Caldwell R. Blakeman, Coffee Exchange. 
Benjaman W. B. Brown, 18 Wall Street. 
Talbot Root, 52 Broadway. 
Chandler Smith, 68 Broad Street. 
Nathaniel A. Prentiss, 120 Broadway. 
Robert Thorne, 30 Broad Street. 

Historical Committee: 
Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Chairman, George B. Class, 
David Cromwell, Norman F. Cushman, 

Samuel V. Hoffman, Talbot Olyphant, Ex-officio. 



Essay Committee: 

Marcius D. Raymond, Chairman, Richard Henry Greene, 

R. Russell Requa, Augustus Floyd, 

Herbert L. Bridgman. 

Library Committee: 
John R. Totten, Chairman, Henry Phelps Johnston, 

Henry Holt. 

Museum Committee: 
Beverly Chew, Chairman, Clarence Storm, 

Charles Isham, William Bunker, 

William G. Low, Jr. 

Tablet Committee: 

James M. Montgomery, Chairman, Henry Russell Drowne, 

Henry Phelps Johnston, Alexander R. Thompson, 

Pierre F. Macdonald. 

Stewards: 

Benjamin R. Lummis, Chairman, Warren S. Banks, 

Rufus I. Shea, Charles E. Warren, 

Henry B. Barnes, Jr., Montgomery H. Sicard, M. D. 

Marshal: 
John Butterfield Holland. 

Aides: 

Eugene K. Austin, Robert Kelly Prentice, 

Albert Delafield, Talbot Root, 

DeWitt Clinton Falls, Arthur F. Schermerhorn, 

Francis Laurens Vinton Hoppin, Clarence Wilbur Smith, 

John Noble Stearns. 

Publication Committee: 

James M. Montgomery, Chairman, Charles Isham, 

Henry Russell Drowne. 

8 



Annual Church Service. 

Aisle Committee: 
Talbot Olyphant, Chairman, 

Banyer Clarkson, Robert Morrison Olyphant, Jr., 

Cullen Van Rensselaer Cogswell, William Rockhill Potts, 

Robert Grier Cooke, Edward Lawrence Purdy, 

John Francis Daniell, Philip Rhinelander, 

Gano Dunn, Henry Gansevoort Sanford, 

Joseph N. Lord Edmonds, Arthur Frederic Schermerhorn, 

Morris Douw Ferris, Edward Gibert Schermerhorn, 

S. Vernon Mann, Charles Hitchcock Sherrill, 

Richard Malcolm Montgomery, Jr., Joseph Ferris Simmons, 

Murray Olyphant, Frederick Sanford Woodruff. 

Excursion Committee: 

James M. Montgomery, Chairman, Edward P. Casey, 

Clarence Storm, John C Gulick, 

William G. Bates, J. Wray Cleveland. 

Auditing Committee: 
Joseph T. Low, Dallas B. Pratt. 

For Raising Funds for Frounces Tavern: 

Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Chairman, William G. Bates, 
George C. Buell, Frank E. Tilford. 

Daniel N. Crouse, Joseph T. Low, 

Hudson-Fulton Celebration Committee: 

James Mortimer Montgomery, John C. Gulick, 

Chairman, J. Wray Cleveland, 

Clarence Storm, Robert Olyphant, Ex-officio, 

William G. Bates, Eugene K. Austin, Ex-officio, 
Edward P. Casey, Secretary of Committee. 

Committee on Constitution and By-laws: 

Edmund Wetmore, Chairman, William G. Bates, 

William W. Ladd, Frederick S. Woodruff. 



Report of the Board of Managers 



To the Sons of the Revolution 

in the State oe New York : 

The Board of Managers submits the following report for the year ending 
December 4th, 1909 : 

Ten meetings of the Board of Managers have been held during the year. 
At the last Annual Meeting, December 4th, 1908, in the absence of the Presi- 
dent, Mr. Edmund Wetmore, the meeting was called to order by Mr. Robert 
Olyphant, the First Vice-President, who made a short address, welcoming 
the members to the first Annual Meeting that had been held in Fraunces 
Tavern for many years, and congratulating the Society on its flourishing con- 
dition. 

In the absence of the Secretary, Mr. Edwin Pinckney Collins was ap- 
pointed Secretary pro tern. The Chairman read a communication from Mr. 
John Austin Stevens in regard to the formation of the Society, and also the 
following telegram : "Congratulations to the Sons at this their quarter-cen- 
tennial anniversary. — John Austin Stevens." 

The reading of the reports of the Board of Managers and of the Treas- 
urer was dispensed with, these reports having been printed for distribution 
to the members. 

The Historian's report was presented by Mr. Talbot Olyphant, during 
the reading of which all the members rose and remained standing. 

The amendment to the Constitution as to the wearing of the Insignia 
proposed by Mr. Levi Holbrook was finally adopted, making Paragraph 5 of 
Article X to read as follows : 

"The Insignia shall be worn by the members, on all occasions when they 
shall assemble as such, and may be worn on any occasion of ceremony, only 
on the left breast except as hereinafter provided. Members who are Officers 
or Ex-Officers of the General, or of the State Society, may wear the Insig- 
nia suspended from the regulation ribbon around the neck. The Insignia 
shall not be worn as an article of jewelry, nor shall the use of it be allowed 
to any person not a member. The rosette must not be displayed at the same 
time with the Insignia." 

11 



Mr. Edgar C. Leonard gave notice that at the next Annual Meeting he 
would move to amend the above Article of the Constitution by inserting the 
words "and Chapter Regents," before the words "may wear the Insignia, etc." 

The Chairman announced that Mr. Townsend Wandell, a late member, 
had left the Society by bequest, one thousand dollars. 

Mr. Storm made a short address calling attention to the Museum and 
asking for relics either as donations or loans. 

Messrs. Talbot Root, John H. Wood, Warren S. Banks and J. Edward 
Weld, were appointed Tellers. 

The polls were kept open from 3 :30 to 5 :oo p. m. and the regular ticket 
for Officers and Board of Managers was duly elected, the Tellers announcing 
that eight hundred and eleven ballots had been cast. 

Since the Annual Meeting Col. Eugene K. Austin has been appointed 
Assistant Secretary ; the Rev. Frank Landon Humphreys, S. T. D., Assistant 
Chaplain ; Mr. Talbot Olyphant, Historian ; Col. John B. Holland, Marshal ; 
and Messrs. John Hone, Joseph Tompkins Low and Col. William G. Bates, 
as members of the Executive Committee. 

Various Committees have also been appointed, a list of which is printed 
with this report. 

A Stated Meeting was held at Delmonico's, New York, on Monday 
evening, January 25th, 1909, to celebrate the birthday of Frederick Samuel 
Tallmadge, late President of the Society, and was observed by an address 
made by Mr. Robert Olyphant, who recalled how much the Society was in- 
debted to President Tallmadge. This was followed by a lecture, illustrated 
with stereopticon views, by Austin Baxter Keep, A. M., of Columbia Uni- 
versity on "The Library in Colonial New York." 

On Monday evening, April 19th, 1909, the one hundred and thirty- 
fourth anniversary of the Battle of Lexington, a Stated Meeting was held 
at Delmonico's, New York, at which Mr. Charles Winthrop Sawyer delivered 
an address, illustrated with stereopticon views, on "Fire Arms of the Ameri- 
can Revolution." 

At the conclusion of the meeting Col. William Graves Bates, gave an 
account of the proposed Hudson-Fulton Celebration to take place in the 
early fall. 

At the Stated Meeting held on November 26th, 1909, at Delmonico's, 
New York, to celebrate the Evacuation of the City of New York by the 
British troops, Mr. Clarence Storm read a paper on Revolutionary Powder 
Horns, which was illustrated with stereopticon views. 

12 



The Annual Church Service of the Society, commemorative of the 
birth of George Washington, was held on Sunday, February 21st, 1909, at 
St. Bartholomew's Church, Madison Avenue and Forty-fourth Street. 

It was conducted by The Rev. R. S. W. Wood, Assistant Minister of 
St. Bartholomew's Church, assisted by The Rev. George Stuart Baker, D. D., 
The Rev. Berry Oakley Baldwin, The Rev. Pelham St. George Bissell, 
M. A., A. K. C, The Rev. Albert Alonzo Brockway, M. A., The Rev. Henry 
Barton Chapin, D. D., Ph. D., The Rev. Frank Warfield Crowder, The Rev. 
James Shepard Dennis, D. D., The Rev. Howard Duffield, D. D., The Rev. 
William Nichols Dunnell, S. T. D., The Rev. William Reed Huntington, 
D. D., and The Rev. James Tuttle-Smith, D. D. 

Representatives were present from the Colonial Dames of America, the 
Colonial Dames of the State of New York, the Daughters of the Revolution, 
and the Societies of the Cincinnati, Colonial Wars, War of 18 12, Foreign 
Wars, Aztec Club, and Loyal Legion, the Military Society of the War of 
1812 furnishing a uniformed escort. 

The Annual Banquet of the Society took place in the large banquet hall 
at Delmonico's on February 22nd, 1909, the anniversary of Washington's 
Birthday, and was presided over by Mr. Edmund Wetmore, the President of 
the Society. 

The following invited guests were present : 

Hon. Horace White, Lieut. Gov. State of New York ; 

Rt. Rev. David H. Greer, D. D., Chaplain of the Sons of the Revo- 
lution ; 

Major General Leonard Wood, U. S. A., representing the Army ; 

Rear Admiral Francis J. Higginson, U. S. N., representing the 
Navy; 

Dwight W. Morrow ; 

Robert Frater Munro, Saint Andrew's Society ; 

McDougall Hawkes, Society of the Cincinnati; 

William Temple Emmet, Friendly Sons of St. Patrick ; 

Edward K. Beddall, St. George's Society; 

Oliver Hazard Perry, Society of the War of 1812; 

Samuel V. Hoffman, New York Historical Society; 

Evert Jansen Wendell, The Holland Society ; 

Hon. James H. Codding, Pennsylvania Society, Sons of the Revo- 
lution ; 

Hon. Gilbert Collins, New Jersey Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 

13 



Herbert Messinger Leland, Massachusetts Society, Sons of the Rev- 
olution ; 
Frederick Dwight, Society of Colonial Wars ; 
Capt. James M. Andrews, Military Order of Foreign Wars ; 
Capt. George T. Langhorne, U. S. A. ; 
Rev. Robert S. W. Wood. 

Prayer was offered by the Rt. Rev. David H. Greer, D. D., Chaplain of 
the Society. 

The banquet hall was appropriately and tastefully decorated and an or- 
chestra was furnished for the occasion. After coffee had been served the 
Society's banners were brought in with drum and fife accompaniment, fol- 
lowed by beautiful baskets of flowers presented on behalf of the Colonial 
Dames of the State of New York, and the Daughters of the Revolution, and 
the President was as usual duly decorated with the historical cocked hat. 

President Wetmore made some eloquent and appropriate remarks as to 
the occasion we were celebrating, and the toasts were responded to as fol- 
lows : 

"George Washington," by the Hon. Horace White, Lieutenant Governor 
of the State of New York. 

"The Army," Major-General Leonard Wood, U. S. A. 

"The Navy," Rear Admiral Francis J. Higginson, U. S. N. 

"The Revolution," Dwight W. Morrow. 

There were two hundred and ninety-one members and guests in attend- 
ance at the Banquet, which was greatly enjoyed by those present. 

The Society took an active part in the Hudson-Fulton Celebration in 
New York City, September 25th to October 2nd. 

A large stand was erected in 59th Street for the accommodation of mem- 
bers and their guests for the several parades, and two floats for the His- 
torical Parade were assigned to the Society, one representing "Washington's 
Farewell to his Officers at Fraunces Tavern," and the other "Marinus Willett 
Taking Arms from the British." 

Some hundred or more members, led by First Vice-President Robert 
Olyphant and preceded by the 71st Regiment Band, with men in Continental 
uniform carrying the banners and flags of the Society, participated in the 
Historical Parade on Tuesday, September 28th, 1909, as an escort to the 
floats. 



The steamer Shinnecock was chartered for the Naval Parade on Fri- 
day, October ist, 1909, to Newburgh and return, and some four hundred 
members and guests passed a most enjoyable day and evening on the Hud- 
son River. Music and meals were provided on the boat. 

A special loan exhibition at Fraunces Tavern was also gathered by the 
Museum Committee for the Celebration. 



At the December Meeting of the Board of Managers, the Committee on 
the "Year Book" submitted estimates and were authorized to proceed with 
the publication in commemoration of the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the 
reorganization of the Society. A special Committee on revision and print- 
ing of Constitution and By-Laws, was appointed, consisting of President 
Wetmore, Col. Ladd, Col. Bates and Mr. Woodruff. Attention was also 
called to the workmanship of the present Insignia and a resolution adopted 
requesting the First Vice-President to communicate with the Bailey Banks 
and Biddle Co., of Philadelphia, requesting that the work be improved and 
a new die made. 

At the request of Col. H. L. Scott, Superintendent of the United States 
Military Academy at West Point, the Society endorsed the appropriation of 
$3,210.00 by the National Government for the preserving and marking of 
Revolutionary forts, redoubts and other historic sites within the West Point 
Military Reservation. 

At the January Meeting the Treasurer reported receipt of bequest of 
Townsend Wandell of $1,000.00 and on motion a vote of thanks was extended 
to the executors of the Estate. Mr. Montgomery reported that the Commit- 
tee on Portraits for the "Long Room" expected to receive a portrait of Gen- 
eral McDougall. 

At the request of Mr. Henry K. Bush-Brown, the Society endorsed the 
appropriation bill before Congress for the improvement of the light house 
grounds at Stony Point adjacent to the grounds of the State Park. 

At the March Meeting it was resolved that the Society participate in 
the ceremonies incident to the Hudson-Fulton Celebration by taking part in 
the Historical Parade on September 28th, 1909, and chartering a steamboat 
for the Naval Parade on October ist, 1909. 

It was also resolved that the First Vice President and the Assistant 
Secretary be added to the Excursion Committee, ex-ofncio. 

At the April Meeting the following resolution, presented by Col. Ladd, 
was adopted by a unanimous and rising vote : "Resolved, that the members 

IS 



of the Board of Managers of the Sons of the Revolution in the State of New 
York, have heard with great sorrow of the loss sustained by their beloved 
associate, James Mortimer Montgomery, in the death of his eldest son, James 
Mortimer Montgomery, Jr. Taken suddenly at the very threshold of man- 
hood, they are profoundly impressed with the great grief that has come to 
his parents, and they tender to them the assurance of their affectionate sym- 
pathy in this their great sorrow." 

The Society offered to assist the South Carolina Society of the Sons of 
the Revolution, should they deem it appropriate work to restore the grave of 
General Marion in the town of St. Stephen, S. C. 

Certificates were authorized to be issued to the High School pupils who 
received honorable mention for their essays. 

The Board of Managers accepted with thanks the courteous invitation 
of Mr. William Floyd to visit and partake of luncheon at the old mansion 
of General William Floyd of the Revolution at Mastic, L. I., on May ist, 
1909, and also Mr. Ralph Peters' kind offer to provide a special train on the 
Long Island Railroad for their use on this occasion. 

At the May Meeting the Museum Committee was authorized to request 
the loan of portraits and relics of the period of the Revolution for exhibition 
in Fraunces Tavern during the Hudson-Fulton Cc'cbration. 

Mr. Talbot Olyphant, for the special Committee on the Golden Hill Tab- 
let, read a report on the site of the '"Battle of Golden Hill" by Professor 
Henry P. Johnston, which located the fight of 1770 on Golden Hill Street, 
now John Street, from William Street east to Pearl, and the tablet has been 
ordered to be placed on the Phelps, Dodge & Co. Building, 99 John Street. 

An invitation was received from the William Floyd Chapter of Troy, 
N\ Y., inviting the Officers, Managers and Members of Committees to Troy 
for Bunker Hill Day, June 17, as guests of the Chapter. 

A resolution was passed, authorizing a contribution, equal to fifty cents 
for each member of the Society, to the fund being raised by the General 
Society of the Sons of the Revolution for a monument to be erected at An- 
napolis, Md., in memory of the French soldiers and sailors buried there who 
lost their lives in the Revolution, and the Secretary was authorized to have 
a circular prepared and sent to members requesting that contributions in 
amounts not to exceed $5.00 be sent to the Treasurer of the Society. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. John B. Riley, of Platts- 
burg, N. Y., Commissioner of the Lake Champlain Tercentenary Celebra- 
tion, for his gift of a piece of the "Royal Savage," Arnold's flagship in the 

16 



Battle of Valcour, October n, 1776, and Mr. Talbot Olyphant was author- 
ized to have a gavel made from a portion of the wood, and the remainder 
placed in the Museum with a suitable inscription. 

The Essay Committee reported ninety-four essays received from fifty 
schools on the subject, "The Services of Commodore John Paul Jones in the 
Revolution," and that prizes and honorable mention have been awarded 
as follows: 

First Prize : Sherman Merritt Smith, Brockport State Normal School, 
Brockport, N. Y. 

Second Prize : Glendon Austin Schubert, Oneida High School, Oneida, 
N. Y. 

Third Prize : G. Raynolds Stearns, Jr., Lafayette High School, Buffalo, 
N.Y. 

Honorable Mention. 

Bessie R. Schwartz, Washington Irving High School, New York 

City. 
Harold A. Grotke, Buffalo Central High School, Buffalo, X. Y. 
Rose M. Levy, Buffalo Central High School, Buffalo, N. Y. 
A. Howard Aaron, Buffalo Central High School, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Louise M. Lawton, Skaneateles High School, Skaneateles, N. Y. 
Olga Rosenquist, Yonkers High School, Yonkers, N. Y. 
Ethel Lennox, West Seneca Union School, West Seneca, N. Y. 
Calvin P. Vary, Newark High School, Newark, N. Y. 
Edmund R. Pendleton, Schenectady High School, Schenectady, 

N. Y. 
Laura Adelia Cook, Ithaca High School, Ithaca, N. Y. 

A letter from Mr. William M. Wiley, of Holly, Colorado, was read, 
calling attention to the dilapidated condition of historic buildings at York- 
town, Va., and on motion was referred to the Virginia Society, Sons of 
the Revolution, with an offer to co-operate in their preservation. 

The Society during the year has received courteous invitations to the 
following banquets: 

Holland Society, 

Naval and Military Order, Spanish-American War, 

Military Order of Foreign Wars, 

17 



Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, 

Society of the Cincinnati, 

South Carolina Society, Sons of the Revolution, 

Society of the War of 1812, 

Society of Colonial Wars, 

Saint Andrew's Society, 

and has also received the following invitations : 

Reception at Fraunces Tavern; Knickerbocker Chapter, D. A. R. 

Reception to Admiral Evans; Navy League of the United States. 

Centenary of birth of Edgar Allen Poe ; Bronx Society of Arts and 
Sciences. 

Meeting at the Colony Club, New York; Daughters of the Cin- 
cinnati. 

Exhibition of Pictures ; Architectural League. 

Celebration at Washington's Headquarters, New York City ; Presi- 
dent of Park Board. 

Memorial Continental Hall Completion, Washington, D. C. ; Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution. 

Luncheon at Fraunces Tavern, New York ; Dixie Club. 

Thomas Paine Centenary Celebration at New Rochelle, N. Y. ; The 
Paine Historical and Memorial Associations. 

Unveiling Tablet, and Luncheon at New Rochelle, N. Y. ; Hugue- 
not Chapter, Daughters of the Revolution. 

Lake Champlain Tercentenary Celebration; Lake Champlain Com- 
mission. 

Annual Meeting at the Nathan Hale School House, East Haddam, 
Conn. ; Connecticut Society, Sons of the Revolution. 

Tablet Unveiling at Baton Rouge, La. ; Louisiana Society, Daugh- 
ters of the Revolution. 

Unveiling and presentation of Memorial Arch at Stony Point 
Park ; New York Society, Daughters of the Revolution. 

Presentation to the City of New York of the Hudson Memorial ; 
Colonial Dames of America. 

Unveiling of a Memorial; Washington Heights Chapter, Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution. 

Dedication of Tablet to Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolution ; 
Ohio Society, Sons of the Revolution. 

Church Service ; Military Order of the Loyal Legion, New York. 

18 



Church Service ; Pennsylvania Society, Sons of the Revolution. 
Church Service ; Society of Colonial Wars, New York. 
Memorial Service to Washington Irving, Tarrytown, N. Y. 
Evacuation Day Exercises; City History Club, New York. 
Unveiling of Marker, site of Old Charles Town, S. C. ; Charles 
Town Chapter, Children of the American Revolution. 



Our Chapters, in the State of New York, have been actively engaged 
during the year, and report as follows: 

The Philip Livingston Chapter of Albany, N. Y., held its Annual 
Meeting at the Fort Orange Club on January 14th, 1909. Officers were 
elected for the new year and the annual dinner enjoyed. The speakers on 
this occasion included Hon. James W. Wadsworth, Rev. Charles A. Rich- 
mond, D. D. ; Rev. William F. Whitaker, D. D., and Mr. James F. Barker. 
On February 21st the Chapter attended a Washington's Birthday Service at 
the State Street Presbyterian Church. The sermon was preached by Rev. 
Charles C. Sewall. The William Floyd Chapter of Troy and various other 
patriotic societies attended as guests of the Chapter. On April 19th a 
meeting was held at the University Club, when Hon. Curtis W. Douglas 
delivered an address on "Some Phases of the Politics of the Revolutionary 
Period" and Hon. John A. Howe, Jr., gave patriotic readings. The Chapter 
has devoted much time and work to secure the enactment of laws to provide 
a more sane and safe celebration of the Fourth of July. On June 14th a 
meeting was held at the Albany Historical and Art Society, when a paper 
was read by Hon. Victor H. Paltsits on "The Commissioners for Detecting 
and Defeating Conspiracies in the State of New York during the American 
Revolution." On this occasion the members of the Albany Historical and 
Art Society and the Mohawk and Gansevoort Chapters, D. A. R., were 
guests of the Chapter. On October 8 the Chapter paraded at the head of 
the Patriotic Societies Division of the Hudson Fulton Parade, in Albany. 
The Chapter has held six meetings and there have been thirteen meetings 
of the Executive Board. Total membership, 122, being a gain of 11. 

The Buffalo Chapter, Buffalo, N. Y., has held a series of meetings for 
social intercourse, and the reading of papers on patriotic subjects. Atten- 
tion is called to the loss by sudden death of their beloved member and 
former President, Mr. Charles H. Williams, who had been a leading spirit 
in the Chapter. As a mark of love and respect to his memory a suitably 
engraved bronze tablet has been erected in Trinity Church, Buffalo. On 

19 



September 16th they met in a body at the Lafayette High School to present 
the Prize Essay medal, when several speeches were made, and the affair 
was of great interest. Total membership, 45. 

The William Floyd Chapter of Troy, N. Y., held its Annual Meeting 
at the Troy Club on February 22d, 1909. After the election of officers 
Mr. F. W. Thomas delivered an able address on Col. Albert Pawling, a 
Revolutionary soldier and friend of Washington. The Regent, Col. Walter 
P. Warren, suggested the desirability of honoring Col. Pawling by a 
monument, and a committee was appointed to take up the matter. Col. 
Arthur MacArthur, Chairman of the Upper Hudson-Fulton Celebration, 
then outlined the proposed work of the celebration. The following mem- 
bers of the 'Chapter did excellent work on the various committees during 
the celebration: Col. Arthur MacArthur, John H. Peck, Eugene Bryan, 
J. C. Cowee, E. W. Douglas, George W. Daw, W. B. Frear, Hon. C. S. 
Francis, W. F. Gurley, L. B. Green, A. W. Harrington, J. M. Ide, H. S. 
Ludlow, A. G. Sherry, Gen'l C. Whitney Tillinghast, II, Capt. W. Leland 
Thompson, Col. Walter P. Warren, Tom S. Wotkyns and William Barker, 
Jr. In May the Chapter was invited by Mr. William Floyd of New York 
to visit the home at Mastic, Long Island, of Gen'l William Floyd of the 
Revolution, from whom the Chapter takes its name. Quite a delegation 
had the pleasure of seeing this most interesting spot, where they were met 
by the officers of the New York Society and spent a most enjoyable day. 
On Bunker Hill Day, June 17th, the Chapter received as guests a number of 
the officers of the New York State Society, who, after a ride through the 
city, were taken to the Watervliet Arsenal, and from there to Van Schaick 
Island, after which all enjoyed lunch at the Island Golf Club. For October 
9th the Chapter chartered the steamer Quackenbush and participated in 
the celebration to welcome the arrival of the Half Moon and Clermont at 
Troy. The death of two valued members — Frederick Augustus Plum and 
Henry Galusha — has occasioned great regret. Eleven new members were 
elected in 1909 and the roster now contains 69 names. 

The Fort Schuyler Chapter of Utica, N. Y., held its Annual Meeting 
on the morning of February 22d, 1909, and in the evening the Annual Ban- 
quet was held at the Fort Schuyler Club. Hon. Henry J. Cookinham, the 
retiring Regent of the Chapter, acted as toast-master. Responses to toasts 
were made by the Reverend Ralph Brokaw, D. D. ; Thomas R. Proctor, 
Frederick T. Proctor, Dr. Willis E. Ford and Justice Wright of 
Oswego, N. Y. 

The Jamestown Chapter of Jamestown, N. Y., held its Annual Meet- 

20 



ing and election on July 5th, at the Country Club at Lakewood, on Chau- 
tauqua Lake. In April, on the anniversary of Paul Revere's ride and the 
memorable incidents attending it, the Regent, Col. Winfield S. Cameron, 
entertained the members by giving a dinner at his residence, which was a 
delightful social event and stimulated interest in the Chapter. The guest 
of the occasion was the Hon. Obed Edson, the venerable historian of the 
county, who spoke eloquently of the services of Samuel Chattuck, who as 
a mere lad had served in the French and Indian War and later in the War 
of the Revolution with great credit. Prizes as usual were offered by the 
Chapter to the students of the High School for essays. The subject for 
this year being "The Mohawk Valley in the Revolutionary War." 

The Orange County Chapter of Goshen, N. Y., reports progress. 

The Library of the Society has grown steadily during the past year 
and our Museum has received a great many very important and desirable 
accessions. At the present time it is unusually attractive, for many of 
the interesting documents and relics relating to the Revolutionary War 
loaned for the Hudson-Fulton Exhibition are still in the cases. At the time 
of the celebration hundreds of strangers visited Fraunces Tavern, and 
during the year the building and the "Long Room" have been practically 
open to the public at all times. 

The members' dining room on the fourth floor should be more gen- 
erally used than it has been during the past year, for it is not only very 
attractive, but it offers the members every facility and convenience. 

The suggestion has been made that if a lunch club could be formed 
among our members it would be a desirable feature and do much to 
promote acquaintance and social intercourse. 

One hundred and thirty-six new members have been admitted during 
1909, and the Society now has on its roll twenty-one hundred and forty-two 
being a gain of fifty-four. 

A great deal of time has been devoted to the correction and prepara- 
tion of the new "Year Book," which will shortly be issued, and it is antici- 
pated that all will be more than pleased with its attractive appearance and 
valuable historical data. 

The Secretary desires to express his thanks to Mr. Louis B. Wilson, the 
Curator, for his very efficient assistance during the past year. 

For the Board of Managers, 

Henry Russeix Drowne, 

Secretary. 
Fraunces Tavern, New York City. 

21 



Sons of the Revolution, General Society 

Triennial Meeting, 1908. 

The Regular Triennial Meeting of the General Society, Sons of the 
Revolution, with the accompanying exercises, was held in the City of 
Washington, D. C, on Monday and Tuesday, April 27th and 28th, 1908. 

The headquarters of the General Society was at the New Willard Hotel 
and the itinerary was as follows : 

On Monday, April 27, members and guests of the General Society left 
Washington by special train for Annapolis, Md., and were received by the 
Governor of Maryland, at the Government House, after which an oppor- 
tunity was afforded to visit the Senate Chamber of the State Capitol, in 
which Washington resigned his commission as Commander-in-Chief of the 
Continental Army, and other points of interest in the City of Annapolis. 
Luncheon was served at Carvel Hall and afterwards a special drill and 
dress parade by the Brigade of Midshipmen of the United States Naval 
Academy was tendered to the General Society through the courtesy of 
Capt. Charles T- Badger, U. S. N., Superintendent of the Naval Academy. 

After the ".lose of the exercises a special train was provided for the 
return to Washington. 

On Tuesday, April 28th, the Triennial Meeting of the General Officers 
and delegates was l/eld at the New Willard Hotel at 10 a. m. Through 
the courtesy of Majoi General Frederick D. Grant, U. S. A., commanding 
the Department of the East, Col. Charles N. P. Hatfield ordered a special 
drill in the riding hall at Fort Myer, Virginia, of the Thirteenth Cavalry 
and a battery of artillery, at 3 p. m. At 7 o'clock in the evening the General 
Society entertained its members and guests at a banquet at the New Willard 
Hotel. 

Addresses on this occasion were delivered by Hon. Edmund Wetmore, 
Ambassador Jusserand, Attorney General Bonaparte, Major General Bell, 
Ex-Secretary Hilary A. Herbert and Mr. John Canfield Tomlinson. One 
of the most pleasant events of the evening was the presentation to the 
General Secretary, Mr. James Mortimer Montgomery, of a service of 
silver as a testimonial of appreciation of his many years of active work 
for the Society. 

22 



The Delegates and Alternates appointed to represent the New York 
Society at the Triennial Meeting were as follows : 



Edmund Wetmore, 
Robert Olyphant, 
Joseph T. Low, 
William G. Bates. 
Henry Russell Drowne, 
Arthur M. Hatch, 
Samuel L. Munson, 
William W. Ladd, 
Philip Livingston, 
Hugh Hastings, 
Dallas B. Pratt, 



Delegates. 



Henry D. Babcock, 

Talbot Olyphant, 

Alexander R. Thompson, 

John B. Holland, 

Rev. Frank L. Humphreys, S. T. D. 

Charles H. Sherrill, 

Rev. Charles E. Brugler, 

Frederick De P. Foster, 

James M. Montgomery, 

John C. Tomlinson, 

Judge Alphonso T. Clearwater. 



Alternates. 



Col. Eugene K. Austin, 

Frederick S. Woodruff, 

Robert Kelly Prentice, 

George DeForest Barton, 

James B. Van Woert, 

J. Morgan Howe, M. D. 

Alfred Ely, 

Reese Carpenter, 

Brig.-Genl. Daingerfield Parker, 

James Van Dyk, 

Elliot L. Butler, 



T. Guilford Smith, 
Henry G. Woodruff, 
Charles D. Belden, 
Edmund Pendleton, 
Wm. L. Cowan, 
Edmund Howard-Martin, 
Rev. Wm. W. Atterbury, 
Col. J. Wray Cleveland, 
Col. A. Noel Blakeman, 
Gilbert Livingston Smith, 
E. Fellows Jenkins. 



Quite a number of our members were also present. 



*3 



REPORT 



OF THE 



TREASURER 



SONS OF THE REVOLUTION 

Treasurer's Report, 



RECEIPTS 

Real Estate — 

Fraunces Tavern — Rents and Return Premium. $4,040.06 
Use of Dining Room, Jan. 12 and 25, Feb. 
13 and 23, $54; E. Westerburg, bis 

share of painting, 1908, $50 104.00 

West 55th Street— Rents 4,038.72 

Fire loss adjustment 93.00 

Legacy— Estate of Townsend Wandell 1,000.00 

Initiations 1,230.00 

Interest on balances 52.77 

Tablets — 

Balance Nov. 18, 1908 $172.04 

Interest 4.63 

General — 

Balance Nov. 18, 1908 $526.01 

Dues : 1907, $5 ; 1908, $155.75 ; 1909, $10,674.97 ; 

1910, $15 10,850.72 

Insignia, Rosettes and Ribbon 887.76 

Sales at Secretary's Office : Match Boxes, $5.75 ; 
Canes, $79 ; Tallmadge Memoirs, $36 ; Tall- 
madge Medals, $21; Red Jacket Medals, 
$13; Hale Statuettes, $160; Supplementary 

Year Book, $3 ; Applications, $47 364.75 

Interest on balances, $111.20; check replaced, 
$5 ; guests at meetings, $12 ; collection on 
checks, $0.50; N. Y. Telephone Co., Rebate 
on Contract, $12.60 ; Banquet ; Souvenirs, 

$81, balance from Stewards, $3.07 225.37 

Hudson-Fulton Celebration 5,680.45 



Real Estate. 



$10,558.55 



General. 



$176.67 



18,535.06 



$10,558.55 



$18,711.73 



E. & O. E. New York, November 18, 1909. 

26 



IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK 

November 18, 1908, to November 18, 1909 



DISBURSEMENTS 

Real Estate — 

Deficiency, November 18, 1908 

Fraunces Tavern — Interest, $1,500; Taxes, 
$503.41; Tax Registration, $2; Insurance, 
$198.27; Flags, $126; Watchman's Clock, 
$15; Mantel, $35; Mantel Clock, $65; Jan- 
itor, $600; Painting, $413; Carpets, $55.32; 
Air Valve, $1 ; Window Flowers, $4.50 ; Glass 
Knobs, $1.75; Repairs, $111.41; Picture 
Framing, $7.50; Notary, Wandell Legacy, 
$1; Visitors' Book, $13.75; Water Supply, 
Gas and Electricity, $36.50; N. Y. Edison 
Co., $37.80 $3,728.21 

West 55th Street— Interest, $1,500; Taxes, 

$1,241.74 ; Insurance, $432.24 3,173.98 

Insurance on Archives 14.09 



Genebal — 
Treasurer — Postage, $100.59; Printing and 
Stationery, $64.40; Auditing, $40; Clerical, 
$732.S0; Collecting Dues, $17.50; Collec- 
tions on Checks, $9.80; File and Repairing 

Stamp, $1,15 ; Safe Deposit Box, $10 $976.24 

Secretary—Printing, $617.90; Coal, $250.63; 
Clerical, $2,329; Petty Cash, $235; N. Y. 
Telephone Co., $110.60; N. Y. Edison Co., 
$202.90; Binding Applications, $8.50; Hang- 
ing and Removing Awnings, $4.50 ; Repair- 
ing Flags, $5.50; Replenishing Flowers in 
Boxes, $5 ; Leather Cases, $11 ; Leather 

Boxes, $7 ; Wood Boxes, $2.32 3,789.85 

General Society — Dues 518.50 

Appropriations to Chapters 541.00 

Death Notices 250.25 

Insignia, Rosettes and Ribbon 684.40 

Annual Meetings— 1908, $247.43 ; 1909, $67.75. . . 315.18 

Stated Meetings, $1,286.37; Banquet, $171.76; 

Church Service, $187.42 1,645.55 

Manager's Report, $394; Salary of Exam- 
iner, $300 694.00 

"First Census," $2; "Journal of Continental 

Congress," $10 12.00 

Triennial Meeting Reports, $89 ; N. Hale Statu- 
ettes, $105 ; Greer Genealogical Work, $65 ; 
Insignia Rev. Francis Craft, $20; Prize Es- 
says, $75; Printing same, $57; Medals for 
same, $21; Memorial Wreaths, $75; French 
Monument, Printing, $27.50; Canes, $89; 
Canes to State Societies, $27.09; Stewards' 
Badges, $11; Checks returned, $10; Dues 
overpaid and returned, $5; Year Book, 
Printing, $12.75 ; Insurance on Portraits for 

same, $6.12 695.46 

Hudson-Fulton Celebration 6,593.50 

Balances — Real Estate ~ 

Tablets $176.67 

General Fund 1,819.13 



Real Estate. 



$578.50 



6,916.28 



3,063.77 



$10,558.55 



General. 



$16,715.93 

1,995.80 
$18,711.73 



ARTHUR MELVIN HATCH, Treasurer. 

27 



SONS OF THE REVOLUTION 



Balance Sheet 



ASSETS 

Real Estate — 
Nos. 146 and 148 West 55th Street (cost 1902) . . 

Fraunces Tavern (cost 1904) $80,000.00 

Reconstruction Fund 66,014.82 

Cash 

General Fund — 

Balance Tablet Subscriptions $176.67 

Balance Cash 1,819.13 

Books, Pictures and Relics 8,000.00 

Office Furniture and Fixtures 600.00 

Six Silk Flags and One Banner 500.00 

Tallmadge Memoirs 612.00 

Tallmadge Medals 333.00 

Nathan Hale Statuettes 36.00 

Rosettes, 363 @ 14 cents 51.02 

Insignia, 2 old @ $11 and 12 new @ $18 238.00 

Ribbon, 297% yards @ 71.18 cents 

(imported 1905) 211.86 

Initiations unpaid, 5 -> ^ J .. . „ „^„ M 

Dues " 41 } Estimate d 200.00 



$62,000.00 

146,014.82 
3,063.77 



$211,078.59 



12,777.68 



$223,856.27 



E. & O. E. New York, November 18, 1909. 



28 



IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK 



November 18, 1909 



LIABILITIES 

Real Estate — 

West 55th Street— Balance Mortgage $30,000.00 

Interest 445.83 

Fraunees Tavern — Balance Mortgage 30,000.00 

Interest 445.83 



Assets $223,856.27 

Liabilities 60,891.66 

Net assets $162,964.61 



$60,891.66 



ARTHUR MELVIN HATCH, Treasurer. 



29 



REPORT 



OF THE 



HISTORIAN 



In Memoriam 



Admitted 
Maj. William Butler Reynolds, U. S. A., 1892 

Rev. Charles Wells Hayes, D. D., 1894 

Oliver Grant Barton, 1894 

George Bradley Culver, 1894 

Joseph Fleming Perkins, M. D., 1893 

Charles Benjamin Miller, 1888 

Herman Knickerbacker Viele, 1900 

Henry Broughton, 1908 

Lewis Barton Strong, 1892 

Isaac Walker Maclay, 1893 

Edwin Albro Howell, 1900 

William Gray Park, 1893 

Benjamin Prescott Sherman, 1891 

Frederic Van Lennep, 1889 

Smith Edward Lane, 1892 

Robert Newland Marvin, 1895 

Duncan Robertson Norvell, 1891 

Harry Saltonstall Babcock, 1889 

Charles Hornblower Woodruff, Jr., 1894 

Rev. William Irvin, D. D., 1900 

Charles Howard Williams, 1891 

William Madison Cole, 1890 

Frederick Augustus Guild, 1884 

James Mortimer Montgomery, Jr., 1904 

Henry Hutchinson Hollister, 1891 

Franklin Bartlett, 1895 

Edward Piatt Staats, 1899 

John Blackman Frisbie, 1893 

Thomas Sears Young, 1893 

Cyrus Clark, 1891 

Clarence Eugene Gunther, M. D., 1901 



Died 

January 25th, 1908. 
November 29th, 1908. 
December 6th, 1908. 
December 6th, 1908. 
December 8th, 1908. 
December 8th, 1908. 
December 14th, 1908. 
December 19th, 1908. 
December 21, 1908. 
December 29th, 1908. 
January 2nd, 1909. 
January 19th, 1909. 
January 20th, 1909. 
February 1st, 1909. 
February 1st, 1909. 
February 7th, 1909. 
February 13th, 1909. 
February 17th, 1909. 
February 17th, 1909. 
February 22nd, 1909. 
February 27th, 1909. 
March 5th, 1909. 
March 13th, 1909. 
April 6th, 1909. 
April 10th, 1909. 
April 23rd, 1909. 
April 26th, 1909. 
May nth, 1909. 
May 21 st, 1909. 
May 24th, 1909. 
June 12th, 1909. 



33 



John Lawrence Riker, 

Frederick Augustus Plum, 

James Bogart Williams, 

Rev. William Reed Huntington, D. 
IX. D., D. C. L., L. H. D. 

Douglas Smyth, 

Eugene Bissell, 

Peter de Baun Starr, 

Henry Galusha, 

Charles Henry Farnam, 

Edward Flint Brown, 

John Jones Sillcock, 

Herman Isaiah Johnson, 

Francis Lathrop, 

Richard Lord Annesley, 

Charles Felter Hawes, 

William Lightner Cowan, 



D. 



Admitted 


Died 


1890 


July 6th, 1909. 


1895 


July 20th, 1909. 


1892 


July 26th, 1909. 


1896 


July 26th, 1909. 


1909 


July 31st, 1909. 


1889 


August 28, 1909. 


1896 


September 10th, 1909. 


1898 


September 14th, 1909. 


1897 


September 24th, 1909. 


1889 


September 26th, 1009. 


1886 


September 30th, 1909. 


1904 


October 14th, 1909. 


1886 


October 18th, 1909. 


1808 


October 24th, 1909. 


1894 


October 30th, 1909. 


1894 


November 24th, 1009. 



Respectfully submitted, 

Talbot Olyphant, 

Historian. 



34 



Donations 

Books, Pamphlets, Etc. 



TITLES 

Descriptive Book on Glens Falls, 
Program of Ceremonies, Prison Ship, Mar- 
tyrs Monument, 
Hall of Fame, Unveiling of Tablets, 
Vol. 17th Mass. Soldiers and Sailors, 
Washington's Farewell Address and Let- 
ter to Madison, 
Report of Librarian of Congress, 
Pamphlet "The Mayflower Flag," 
Tremain Genealogy, 
Bryant Park, Brochure, 
By-Laws, North Carolina Society, S. of. R., 
Address on Gov. Alexander Martin, 
Baker's Itinerary of Gen'l Washington, 

1775-1783, 

Bulletin of Brown University, 

Banquet, Church Service and Essays, Mis- 
souri Society, S. of R., 

Roster Cincinnati in Virginia, 

List of Benjamin Franklin Papers, 

Naval Records of the American Revolu- 
tion, 1775-1778, 

Papers of James Monroe, 

Vernon-Wager Manuscripts, 

Claflin Family, Genealogy, 

Paper on Major-General W. B. Franklin, 

Booklet, Green's Retreat, 

N. Y. State Historical Association, Vol. 
VIII, 

Letters and Recollections of George Wash- 
ington, 

Washington in His Relation to the Na- 
tional Idea, 

Catholic Footsteps in Old New York, 

Preserving the Health of Soldiers, 

History of Newton, Massachusetts, 



DONOR 



J. A. Holden. 



Aaron Bancroft. 
H. M. MacCracken. 
Wm. M. Olin. 

Wm. Scott Lyon. 

Herbert Putnam, Librarian. 

Jas. Le B. Willard. 

Henry E. Tremain. 

Republican Club. 

M. de L. Haywood, Secretary. 

M. de L. Haywood, Secretary. 

Geo. H. Coutts. 

Rev. Thos. D. Anderson, D. D. 

H. Cadle, Secretary. 

Heth Lorton. 

Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress. 

Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress. 

Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress. 

Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress. 

Chas. H. Wight. 

Gen. Joseph C. Jackson. 

John Selby Primrose. 

Robert O. Bascom. 

H. B. Barnes, Jr. 

Hampton L. Carson. 
Benjamin R. Lummis. 
Andrew J. Gilmour, M. D. 
Wm. M. Noble. 



35 



TITLES 

Fraunces Tavern, 

National Register 1909 Military Order of 
Foreign Wars, 

Pennsylvania Society, S. of R., Proceed- 
ings, 1 908- 1 909, 

California Society, S. of R., 1903- 1907, 

California Society, Colonial Wars, 1903- 
1907, 

Journals of the Continental Congress, 1779, 
Vol. XIII, XIV and XV, 

Lake Champlain Tercentenary Programme, 

David Sprout and Naval Prisoners, 

Whitemarsh, Address by Charles Henry 
Jones, 

Poem, Salutation to our United States Flag, 

Memorial, Oliver Grant Barton, 

Year Book, 1908-9, 

Memoirs of Major-General Charles Lee, 

Our Flag, Illustrated Pamphlet, 

Pocket Register, Commandery of California, 
Loyal Legion, 

Speeches Delivered and Year Book, 1908- 
1909, 

Reception to Officers of the Atlantic Fleet 
by California Society, S. of R., 

Romance and History of Eltweed Pome- 
roy's Ancestors, 

Constitution and Register, General Society, 
War of 1812, 

Year Book 1909 Ohio Society, Sons of the 
Revolution, 

2 Vols., New York Historical Society Pub- 
lications, 

Dorrance Inscriptions, 

Minutes of Commissioners for Defeating 
Conspiracies in the State of New- 
York, 2 Vols. 

Nathan Hale of '73, a Drama, 

A Century of Population and Growth in 
the United States, 1790-1900, 

The Hungry March, a paper read before 
the Society of Colonial Wars, 

Journal of American History, 

Calendar of Sir William Johnson Manu- 
scripts, 

36 



DONOR 

Mrs. Julia E. Bates. 

J. H. Morgan, Sec. Gen'l. 

Ethan Allen Weaver, Sec'y- 
Holdridge O. Collins. 

Holdridge O. Collins. 

Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress. 
Education Department. 
James Lenox Banks. 

E. A. Weaver, Secretary. 
Dr. Wm. F. H. Kruger. 
Geo. DeForest Barton. 
Empire State Society, S. A. R. 
Valentine Everit Root. 
H. C. Brown. 

Bat. Lieutenant-Colonel W. R. Smedberg, 
U. S. A. Recorder. 

Society of Colonial Wars. 

Holdridge O. Collins. 

A. A. Pomeroy. 

J. E. Burnett Buckinham, Secretary. 

Jackson W. Sparrow, Secretary. 

Clarence Storm. 
Emma Finney Welch. 



Victor Hugo Paltsits, State Historian. 
Henry B. Barnes, Jr. 

Philip L. Watkins. 

Gilbert Ray Hawes. 
Gilbert Ray Hawes. 

Education Department, N. Y. 



Miscellaneous Donations 



Pictures, Relics, Etc. 

TITLES DONOR 

Photograph of tablet "Edenton, N. C, Tea 

Party," J. S. Primrose. 

Picture of house in New Utrecht, L. I., 

where Genl. Nath'l Woodhull died, 

Sept. 30, 1776, Nath'l Woodhull Chapter, D. A. R. 

Badge, Prison Ship Martyr's Monument, Stephen W. Giles. 
Engraving, "Washington's Adieu to his 

Generals," John N. Golding. 

Engraving, "The Surrender of Cornwallis 

at Yorktown," John N. Golding. 

Wood and coins from British frigate 

"Charon," Wm. L. Cowan. 

Paper cutter from shingle of Washington's 

Headquarters, at Morristown, N. J. H. R. Drowne. 
Cannon ball from British frigate "Hussar," J. Augustus Smith. 
Portrait of Washington. J. Augustus Smith. 

Piece of beam of "Royal Savage," John B. Riley. 

Piece of Railing, Manor Hall, Yonkers, 

N. Y., Mrs. Mary E. Berthof. 

Photograph of Statue of Gen'l Anthony 

Wayne, H. K. Bush-Brown. 

Engraving, "Baron Steuben at Valley 

Forge," Augustus G. Heaton. 

Letters of Col. Sidney Berry, Sept. 11 and 

Dec. 28, 1776, Sidney J. Cowen. 

Major's Commission of Daniel Delavan, 

Oct. 19th, 1786, Marinus W. Dominick. 

Lieutenant Colonel's Commission of Daniel 

Delavan, Feb. 1, 1792, Marinus W. Dominick. 

Letter to Governor George Clinton from E. 

Benschoten, June 18, 1781, Marinus W. Dominick. 

Washington Badges, H. Russell Drowne, Jr. 

37 



TITLES DONOR 

Cup and Saucer, Souvenir of the Centen- 
nial Celebration in Rhode Island of 

the Burning of British Ship "Gaspee," Mrs. Mabel W. Drowne. 

Bust of Samuel Adams, Charles D. Burrage, President Mass. 

Society, S. of R. 

Photograph of Steamboat "Shinnecock," Benjamin R. Lummis. 

Two Revolutionary powder horns, Benjamin R. Lummis. 

Letters patent from Gov. Clinton to Wil- 
liam Floyd, William Floyd. 

Loaned to the Society 

By Chandler Smith 

Masonic Jewel presented by the First Masonic Lodge in America to Gen. Burbeck's 

father, Lt.-Col. William Burbeck, in 1756. 
Hat, epaulettes, swords and belts of Gen. Henry Burbeck. 
Miniatures of Gen. Henry Burbeck and his wife, Lucy Elizabeth Burbeck. 



By Henry Russell Drowne 

Papers and letters of the French Officers in Newport during the Revolution. 

Hat and sword of Dr. Solomon Drowne, surgeon of the Revolution. 

Bayonet case of Capt. William Drowne, 1775-1778. 

French Officer's pistol of the Revolution. 

Brass pistol of the Revolutionary period. 

Revolutionary fife from Bemis Heights, near Saratoga, N. Y. 

Revolutionary spontoon. 

Lock from Officer's trunk and pocket knife found at Bemis Heights. 

Piece of one of the booms of the West Point chain across the Hudson River. 

Revolutionary bayonet from the Arnold Homestead, Warwick, R. I. 

Sergeant's sword of the Revolution from the Arnold Family. 



By Joseph H. Adams 

Commission of John Adams of Andover. 

By Edgar G. Youngs 

Portrait of Daniel W. Gantley. 

By Alexander R. Thompson 

Enlistment certificate and dagger of Lt. Alexander Thompson, 1779-1783. 

38 



By J. E. Kelly 

Revolutionary sword, canteen, and flint-lock gun. 
Bronze placque of Gen. Anthony Wayne. 

By A. Murray Young 

Silhouettes of Col. William De Hart, Elizabeth Bleecker De Hart, Mr. Genet and Mr. 

Pennant. 
Invitation to Dancing Assembly, New York, 1791. 

By William Floyd 

Sword and scabbard of Gen. William Floyd. 
Spoon mold, shot mold and two powder horns. 

By Leonard Irving 

Flint-lock gun of Beverly Knapp, one of Washington's body guard. 

By William L. Calver 

Sleeve links, buttons, badge of bonnet piece, British belt plate, and belt plate of the 
Cold Stream Guards. 

By Morris P. Ferris 

Engraving of Washington at the age of 18. 

Gazette of the United States, April 15th, 1789. 

Letter of Gen. George Washington to Major Benjamin Tallmadge, July 27th, 1779. 

By George H. Coutts 

Mortar and pestle of Captin John Hampton, 1745-1822. 



39 



Members Admitted, 1909 



Frederic Gregory Mather, Stamford, Conn. 
Charles Freeman Fishbeck, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Morris Simpson Daniels, Suffern, N. Y. 
John Mears, M. D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Harry Tucker Crissey, Troy, N. Y. 
Theodore Faxton Gardner, Le Vesinet, 

France. 
Harry Harrison Bissell, Fort Mackenzie, 

Wyoming. 
Arthur Delano Weekes, New York City. 
Ralph Waldo, M. D., New York City. 
Lawrence Lewis Gillespie, New York City. 
Homer Thrall Joy, M. D., New York City. 
James Barnes Bouck, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
George Castor Martin, New York City. 
Zeb Mayhew, Jr., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Walter Ewing Hope, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Edward S. Kaufman, New York City. 
Harrison Wright, New York City. 
Edward Simmons Hall, New York City. 
Darwin Pearl Kingsley, Riverdale-on-Hud- 

son, N. Y. 
Henry Titus Hodgskin, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
William Leonard Benedict, New York City. 
James Spencer Hedden, New York City. 
Arthur Du Puy Chambers, East Orange, 

N.J. 
Richard William Brass, Albany, N. Y. 
James Whitney Wilson, Geneva, N. Y. 
Mortimer Fargo, Yonkers, N. Y. 
Ezra Parmalee Prentice, New York City. 
Irving Piatt Withington, M. D., New York 

City. 
Douglas Smyth, New York City. 
Henry Woodward Sackett, New York City. 
Rolfe Floyd, M. D., New York City. 



James Henry Ottley, New York City. 
Francis Winfield Collins, New York City. 
Francis DeMilt Jackson, New York City. 
Arthur Cowee, Berlin, N. Y. 
Russell Benedict, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Frederick Howard Cookinham, Utica, N. Y. 
Henry Jared Cookinham, Jr., Utica, N. Y. 
Albert Eliphalet Mitchell, New York City. 
Robert Rennie Atterbury, Wyckoff, N. J. 
Harison Williams, New York City. 
Calvin Eugene Nichols, M. D., Troy, N. Y. 
Lindley Murray Franklin, Jr., Flushing, N. Y. 
George Wheeler Meacham, New York City. 
Charles Howard Piatt, New York City. 
Henry Theodore Kellogg, Plattsburg, N. Y. 
George Casper Kellogg, Plattsburg, N. Y. 
Carol Dater Stone, New York City. 
Henry Aspah Stone, New York City. 
William Herman Hopkins, Albany, N. Y. 
Isaac Henry Vrooman, Jr., Albany, N. Y. 
Joseph Morton Sheridan, New York City. 
John Pierre Frothingham, Troy, N. Y. 
Frederick Grayston van Antwerp, Montclair, 

N. J. 
Henry Hutchinson Hollister, Jr., New York 

City. 
Buell Hollister, New York City. 
John Fred. Pierson, New York City. 
James Cole Hancock, M. D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
William Henry Class, New York City. 
William Hathaway Class, New York City. 
Walter Whipple Batchelder, Albany, N. Y. 
A. L. Benedict, M. D., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Henry St. Claire Whithead, Port Chester, 

N. Y. 
Willard Louis Caler, Norfolk, Va. 



41 



Lyman Tiffany Dyer, New York City. 

George Jones Dyer, New York City. 

Marion McMillan, M. D., New York City. 

Stanley Lyman Otis, New York City. 

Charles Hepburn Class, New York City. 

Louis Stanislaus Burdett, New York City. 

Henry Wickes Goodrich, New York City. 

Francis Joseph Vernon, New York City. 

Harold Standish Bradford, Glen Ridge, N. J. 

John Jay Barker, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Edgar Patterson Redfield, New York City. 

Archibald Alexander Campbell, Jersey City, 
N.J. 

Henry Emerson Dean, New York City. 

Isaac Henry Vrooman, Albany, N. Y. 

Thomas Fatzinger Patterson, New Bright- 
on, S. I. 

James Henry Elmore, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Augustus George Heaton, New York City. 

Jacob Charles Edgar Scott, Albany, N. Y. 

Roclif Brinkerhoff Smith, Albany, N. Y. 

Andrew Douglas Salkeld, New York City. 

Edwin Willard Deming, New York City. 

Robert Brockway Reeves, New York City. 

William Henry Warren, Troy, N. Y. 

Walter Phelps Warren, Jr., Troy, N. Y. 

Chester Ingersoll Warren, Troy, N. Y. 

Clifford Webster Estes, New York City. 

Joseph Beecham Estes, Princton, N. J. 

Frank A. Palmer, M. D., Mechanicville, 
N. Y. 

Curtis Noble Douglas, Albany, N. Y. 

Varick Dey Martin, New York City. 

Ithamar Whitney Copeland, Troy, N. Y. 

William O. Bartlett, New York City. 

Everett Abbott Brett, New York City. 

David Burger Young, Huntington, N. Y. 

Edward Ewing Williams, Richmond 
Hill, N. Y. 

Charles Anderson Williams, Richmond Hill, 
N. Y. 

Paul Alexander Larned, Lt. U. S. A., Platts- 
burg, N. Y. 

John Verner Henry Nott, Albany, N. Y. 

Russel Headley, Albany, N. Y. 



Harry Roberts Wheeler, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
William Bowen Boulton, Jr., New York City. 
George Knowles Swinburne, M. D., New 
York City. 

Edward Franklin Weld, Richmond Hill, 
N. Y. 

Hugh Henry Lansing, Watervliet, N. Y. 
Nathaniel C. Robbins, Pelham, N. Y. 
John Walter Benson, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Horace Secor, Jr., New York City. 
James Francis Upham, Troy, N. Y. 
Leonard House Giles, Troy, N. Y. 
Louis Frederick William Wallace, New 
York City. 

Douglas Campbell, Cherry Valley, N. Y. 

Clifton Otis Smith, New York City. 

Harvey Roberts Kingsley, Rutland, Vt. 

Howard Randall Butler, Jersey City, N. J. 

Rev. Albert Richard Allen Bradford, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Kenneth Johnston, New York City. 

George Abbott Stevens, New York City. 

William Arthur Whitcomb, New York City. 

Howard Valentine Smith, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

William Earl Lowther, New York City. 

Henry Hunt Romer, Pleasantville, N. Y. 

George W. Van Boskerck, Plainfield, N. J. 

Edward Cohman Delafield, Riverdale-on- 
Hudson, N. Y. 

Albert Vander Veer, M.D., Albany, N. Y. 

Allan Beach Arnold Bradley, New York City. 

Daniel Richards Bradley, New York City. 

Frank Orlando Manning, M.D., New York 
City. 

Hunter Brooke, Jr., transferred from Penn- 
sylvania Society. 

James May Duane, transferred from Penn- 
sylvania Society. 

Julian Van Ness Whipple, transferred from 
the Colorado Society. 

Edward Butler Pillsbury, transferred from 
Massachusetts Society. 

Philip Max Miller Phelps, transferred from 
Illinois Society. 



42 



Edwin J. Dikeman, 
Henry B. Hebert, 
Henry Yates Wemple, 
Ray Everett Nimmo, 
Montgomery Rochester, 
Wilson F. Wakefield, 



Resignations 



Richard McCurdy, 
Dr. W. C. Douglass, 
Richmond B. Elliott, Jr., 
Herman L. Marshall, 
Edwin Van D. Gazzam, 
James E. Dean. 



Transfers 



Brig.-Gen. Clinton B. Sears to Massachusetts Society. 
George X. McLanahan to District of Columbia Society. 
F. Howard Lewis to Massachusetts Society. 
Gerardus Clarkson to Pennsylvania Society. 



43 



George Washington 

Address by 
Hon. Horace White, Lieutenant-Governor, State of New York, 

Before the Sons of the Revolution in the State of New York, 
Washington's Birthday, Monday, February 22d, 1909. 

Sons of the Revolution: 

In our studies of great men, we are confronted by two theories, put for- 
ward to explain their eminence. On the one hand, we are told that a career 
of greatness is the product of environment, acting on a responsive mind and 
character. On the other hand, we are assured that the achievements of 
eminent men are due to their native qualities, for which environment merely 
provides a theater of action. The history of Washington might readily be 
used in support of either theory. There we perceive remarkable natural 
qualities and a succession of extraordinary opportunities. Without those 
opportunities, he would doubtless have been a prosperous colonial planter, a 
contented British subject, and would, we may assume, have kept his seat in 
the Virginia House of Burgesses, and commanded on different occasions the 
provincial militia. Yet, as often as he was challenged to a supreme test of 
power, his countrymen felt that he was the one man in America that could 
meet it. 

In a sense it is true of every man that the life which he lives is unique, 
and no other person could live that life; but in the case of Washington, 
Americans agree that none other could have created the armies of the 
Revolution, directed the campaigns, combined the sentiments of the colonies, 
controlled the mind of Congress, compelled the respect of Europe, and, when 
the military power was most exalted, most conscious of invincible strength, 
have planted the civil authority above it, and laid the wreath of victory at 
the feet of a free republic. 

Nathaniel Greene was a master of campaign operations and field tactics. 
Baron Steuben had the ability to drive masses of untrained recruits into a 

45 



disciplined body. Philip Schuyler was familiar with all the detail necessary 
to the formation, equipment and maintenance of a military organization. 
Benjamin Franklin could enlist the interest of foreign courts and ministries. 
Washington, uniting the knowledge and skill of soldier and councilor, was, 
beyond all this, the one leader who could establish the federal principle 
among the jealous, contentious colonies, and gain their acceptance for a 
government clothed with all the attributes of nationality. 

The man who possessed these gifts doubted his fitness to lead the 
American army. To the Continental Congress, which called him to the chief 
command, he said : "I beg it may be remembered by every gentleman in 
the room that I, this day, declare with the utmost sincerity, I do not think 
myself equal to the command I am honored with." Yet no burden was ever 
laid upon him which his strength was inadequate to bear. As the country 
grew, he advanced in mental and moral stature. And here the secret of his 
greatness appears. From the day when he received his commission from 
Congress to the day on which he penned his Farewell Address to the People 
of the United States, he was the absolute embodiment of the American idea. 

He was not of the company of agitators and political prophets. Neither 
was Abraham Lincoln. Before the engagement at Lexington, few repre- 
sentative colonists desired separation from England. The most active and 
outspoken demanded only the rights of English freemen, and in that demand 
were supported by liberal men in the older country. It is true that, if the 
pretended right to tax the colonies had not been exercised, American longing 
to possess the vast and fertile region of the Northwest, American impatience 
at the restrictions which the policy of the crown cast around the purchase 
of Indian lands, and the long-smothered resentment at navigation laws and 
repression of colonial manufactures must have provoked rebellion ; but the 
appeal to arms would not have been heard in the time of Washington, 
Franklin and Jefferson. Washington was not an agitator, I have said ; nor 
was he a professional warrior, eager to draw the sword, nor an ambitious 
statesman, seeking an arena ample as his powers. He was a patriot, 
American to the core, loving his country, as the outlines of that country 
emerged before him from the smoke of conflict, with the strength of feeling 
possible only to those deep, calm natures of which he was the world's best 
type. 

During the five years between the Boston massacre and the battle of 
Bunker Hill the sense of nationality developed remarkably in the breasts of 
the colonists. It was stimulated by such coercive measures as the Boston 
port bill, the Massachusetts acts, enlarging the power of the king, while 

46 



annulling the political and personal rights of the subject, and by the appoint- 
ment of a military governor over the province where the spirit of resistance 
flamed highest. In a letter to Joseph Reed, written at Cambridge, February 
10, 1776, he said: "I have never entertained an idea of an accommodation, 
since I heard of the measures, which were adopted in consequence of the 
Bunker's Hill fight." Washington understood the challenge which these 
arbitrary acts conveyed. Already he felt the men of the North as well as 
the men of the South, of Massachusetts no less than Virginia, to be his 
countrymen. Under the hammer strokes of tyranny he saw a new system 
of constitutional freedom beaten into shape. The decisive stroke was the 
order which sent the British regiments up the slope of Bunker Hill. 

After that memorable engagement, Britain might have saved her 
colonial empire by receding from her position. But neither the monarch 
nor his ministers understood the temper and resources of the colonies. They 
were blind to the tokens of military and political greatness in the English- 
speaking men of the New World. So they devoted themselves to the 
subjugation of rebellious subjects ; while the patriot chief devoted his energies 
to the reduction of Boston, and the creation of an army out of the raw 
material of the farm and frontier. 

During these labors and those that followed, the elements of Washing- 
ton's own character were forged into unity and shape. Long Island, Harlem 
Heights, White Plains, Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, Germantown, 
Valley Forge, Monmouth, West Point, Morristown, Yorktown, Newburgh, 
all abound in that interest which attaches itself to brave deed, heroic suffering 
and the conquest of iron circumstance. When character is forming at the 
white heat of trial, it is hardly conscious of itself ; and Washington was not 
of the type of men who are given to self-examination. At the close of the 
Revolution, he was easily the foremost man of his day — not, perhaps, the 
most eminent in arms, yet illustrious as a soldier, and in moral stature over- 
topping any that might be brought into comparison with him. Still the same 
modesty which made him dumb, when, at the close of the French war, he 
received the thanks of the Virginia House of Burgesses, mingled with the 
dignity and force of his personality. The proposal to make him the first 
President under the Constitution did not fall upon a willing ear. He was 
not easily persuaded that his selection was necessary to the successful 
inauguration of the national union, nor ready to believe that the expectation 
of his election had contributed to the adoption of the Constitution by the 
states. If ever a man sacrificed private inclination to public interest, George 
Washington did, when he turned from the pleasures of a dignified retirement, 

47 



the agricultural pursuits to which he was keenly attached, put in peril his 
immense popularity and accepted the chance of a temporary eclipse of his 
enduring fame. Yet, when it was made manifest that his work would not 
be complete until he had guided the ship of the republic through the initial 
dangers of its course, he was again the servant of the people. 

It has been well said by George Ticknor Curtis : "The idea of reward- 
ing Washington, of remunerating him by this grand, new dignity of the 
presidency for what he had done and what he had been, never entered into the 
imaginations of the people. * * * The people saw before them the 
creation of a supreme magistracy, and the fitness of uniting it with the 
highest virtue was all that occurred to them." 

Let us consider the circumstances under which Washington became 
President. The meeting of the Constitutional Convention early revealed the 
presence of two parties, which may be described as the party of state rights 
and the party of centralized government. How to combine their ideas, 
abate their jealousies and create the fabric of nationality was the problem. 
The difficulty cannot well be exaggerated ; and, when the Constitution had 
been approved by nine states, the two rival parties existed, alert, jealous, 
aggressive. Their hostilities would have wrecked an administration less 
capable, impartial and patriotic than that of Washington, and less entrenched 
in popular confidence. The contentions of Hamilton and Jefferson were a 
cause of distress to their chief, but never of prolonged hesitation. Leaning 
more to the positive and constructive policies of the great Federalist, still he 
saw in the powers reserved to the states and in the powers committed to the 
general government, guarantees, alike valuable, of the independence which 
he had helped to achieve and the prosperity which he was striving to create. 

If Hamilton and Jefferson represented conflicting ideas in domestic 
affairs, not less did they embody antagonistic views of foreign policy. 
Jefferson's idea seems to have been to keep out of war but to favor France 
as much as possible in her struggle with the European monarchies. Hamil- 
ton's idea was to observe neutrality, and put the nation in a strong position, 
repelling with vigor all assaults upon its honor. Here also Washington 
was more in sympathy with Hamilton than with his rival, but he would have 
no war while there remained an honorable resource for the preservation of 
peace. Under the next administration the country came into armed collision 
with France; and it is pathetic to remember that Washington was sum- 
moned once more from retirement, and his last public service was reorganiza- 
tion of the army. 

Why pause to ponder the various achievements of the first President's 

48 



administration, or the poise and calmness of his bearing under injury and 
insult? He had withstood the Conway cabal during the Revolution and its 
attempts to supplant him with Gates ; he had endured the insolence of 
Charles Lee, and suffered the treachery of Arnold. He could not, then, be 
moved by the newspaper attacks of Freneau or the bitter opposition of 
Minister Genet. He had learned patience in other schools; and was not to 
learn anew that men are sometimes fickle and ungrateful. Yet it is pleasing 
to remember that the first President, like the commander-in-chief of the 
Continental armies, was never separated from the popular heart. The 
people recognized in him the best expression of that which was in themselves. 
He knew no boundary line between colonies or states. In the campaigns in 
which he had engaged, Washington had commanded troops in Massachu- 
setts, New York, Jersey and Pennsylvania, as well as in his own state, and 
directed their operations in other territory. Thus it was that his sentiments 
of Americanism were nourished by the common sufferings in which he 
shared and the sacrifices which made up the price that was paid for our 
liberties. 

If we would realize how Washington loved the Union, we must reflect 
once more on the words of warning which he uttered in his Farewell 
Address — warning against influences which might imperil its perpetuity. 
The warning was forgotten less than fifty years ago; but its meaning was 
mastered, through great tribulation, to be forgotten, I trust, nevermore. 
On the ground made sacred by the last campaign for independence, the 
peninsular campaign of 1862 was conducted; and Yorktown and Williams- 
burg took on new significance. Yet the later struggle, like the earlier, was 
necessary to the working out of the great democratic experiment on this 
continent. On the soil of the state which gave to us Washington, the battle 
for liberty and union was twice fought and won. 

In the address of which I have spoken, these words are found : "In 
contemplating the causes, which may disturb our union, it occurs as matter of 
serious concern, that any ground should have been furnished for characteriz- 
ing parties by geographical discriminations, Northern and Southern, Atlantic 
and Western; whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that 
there is a real difference of local interests and views." The tendency which 
the Father of his Country deplored, aggravated by the passions which the 
slavery contest kindled, culminated in the War of the Rebellion ; and many 
times in subsequent political contests we have seen an approach to sectional 
division, and heard the appeal on the stump and in the press to the prejudices 
and antipathies of section. It is a part of the splendor of Washington's 

49 



renown that he had risen out of the sectional view and spirit to the lofty 
altitude and serene atmosphere of nationality. It is only by a particular act 
of reflection that we realize that he was a Virginian, a slaveholder and 
planter, with the tastes and interests of his class ; for the state and sectional 
elements in his life were so grandly overshadowed by those large features 
which make up his real personality and his fame. 

If Washington's fealty to his country was complete, transcendent, the 
sympathy and support accorded him by his countrymen were equally gener- 
ous. It is good to reflect that the generation to which he belonged was 
worthy of him. A great leader and a great people came together. In a 
free country statesmanship of a high order seems to be impossible without 
the co-operation of the public man and the people. While Washington was 
at the head of the Continental forces, although envy, jealousy, hatred con- 
spired against him, working with the instruments of detraction and deprecia- 
tion, the whole-hearted devotion of the people made him its object, and their 
faith rested unwaveringly in him. They questioned neither his capacity 
nor his integrity. They suffered when he suffered, waited when he waited, 
struck when he struck, triumphed when he triumphed, drinking with him 
the cup of humiliation and the cup of rejoicing. It is this ability to work 
with the people, in crisis and trial, that makes the success of national leaders 
and creates in them the conquering mind. The type of statesmanship which 
he established remains the only successful model under institutions like 
ours. The leaders who have followed him have reaped permanent success 
exactly in the measure in which they have imitated his behavior ; and like 
him they have felt, in hours of trial and danger, the warm, life-giving throb 
of the popular heart. 

In dwelling on those features of Washington's personality in which 
his essential greatness consists, we often overlook his genial human traits. 
Many have discovered with surprise and delight that Washington had 
humor, and keenly enjoyed a comic incident. He was fond of manly sports — 
leaping, riding, hunting. He danced with ease and grace, and excelled in 
the accomplishments of society. His correspondence is sometimes marked 
by pleasantries. Attendance at the theatre was a favorite diversion, from 
which he did not entirely abstain during the Revolution. A picture of the 
times is afforded by the action of the Continental Congress concerning cer- 
tain amusements, including theatrical representations. October 16, 1778, it 
adopted a resolution declaring "that any person holding an office under the 
United States, who shall act, promote, encourage or attend such plays, 
shall he deemed unworthy to hold such office, and shall be accordingly 

50 



dismissed." The president of Congress gravely sent a copy of the resolu- 
tion to Washington, who of course submitted. To a very late period in 
his life he seems to have attended "the play" very frequently, finding a 
relief from the intense strain of the burdens which he bore. 

Not a philosopher, like Ben Franklin, still Washington had grasped the 
fundamental principles that make the success of nations. They were the 
principles by which he lived, and by which he governed men, and, when 
uttered by him, they had all the weight and impressiveness which his own 
example could give. There may be those among us, at the beginning of the 
twentieth century, who will maintain that the problems of the present 
would be above the reach of Washington's powers, were he living now. They 
imagine that the simple principles by which he directed his personal con- 
duct and his public policy would break down, if applied to the political 
and commercial questions of our day. I do not share that opinion. The 
questions which trouble us are complex and vast; but, if they are solved, as 
I believe they will be, it must be because the Americans of the present time 
attack them in the spirit and with the principles of Washington. 

It was the testimony of Pitt that the men of the first Continental 
Congress, judged by their proceedings and papers, were the equals in dignity, 
firmness and wisdom of the great senates of the ancient world ; and it was 
the opinion of Patrick Henry that the wisest councilor in that resolute body 
was Washington. Let us not doubt that he would approach our problems 
and perils with the same insight and breadth of view which he displayed in 
the great crises of the revolutionary and constructive periods, and with the 
same success. 

To the founders of states mankind has always offered extraordinary 
honors. Washington was the foremost figure in the group of great men 
who carved the foundations of the American commonwealth, and sketched 
the plan of its structure. As the pillars of liberty and justice rise from 
generation to generation, sheltering larger and larger segments of humanity, 
the work does not transcend the design of the founders. We shall not fall 
into error, if we dwell on their deeds with gratitude and reverence; for 
thereby we draw inspiration from the past, and are, ourselves, uplifted as 
citizens and as men. 



51 



The Prize Essays 

ON 

The Services of Commodore John Paul Jones 

in the Revolution. 



First Prize Essay 

by 
SHERMAN MERRITT SMITH, 

of the 

Brockport State Normal School 
Brockport, N. Y. 

There are at least three requirements necessary in order that a man 
may be of the highest degree of service. These are capability, willingness 
to serve, opportunity. A naval writer of to-day has said, "Where strength 
of head and of heart meet, only opportunity is wanting to bring things to 
pass." 

John Paul Jones was equipped for service by his inborn fighting genius 
and early life. His tastes, ambition, and sense of justice inspired his zeal. A 
great opportunity came to him but once, and then not in proportion to his 
qualities ; but that event has caused his name to be written in the annals 
of fame as the greatest naval hero of the Revolution. Who can say what 
would have been the glorious achievements of our infant navy had he had 
the opportunity he deserved? 

The services which Paul Jones rendered this country were of three 
kinds — advice, service in arms, diplomacy. 

Among the first to see the need of a navy was Paul Jones. Great 
Britain's navy was the "right arm of English puissance," our navy did not 
contain a single vessel. Hers could ravage our long unprotected coast with- 
out molestation and was indispensable to the land forces, for at Saratoga 
and Yorktown, her armies were forced to surrender when cut off from com- 
munication with the fleet. Our government, on the contrary, had little 
money for building ships and no plans for doing so if it wished to. 

By letters to Congress, Jones, now an experienced seaman and naval 
authority, gave his opinions concerning the construction, equipment, and 
manning of war vessels. Besides, he used his rare judgment and experience 
in inspecting vessels offered for sale, so that the little money forthcoming 
was applied to the best advantage. 

But the great service of Paul Jones and the one in comparison with 
which all others seem but naught, was that performed by actual fighting 
upon the sea. 

This began with his appointment as lieutenant of the Alfred, Com- 
mander Ezek Hopkins' flagship, in the first expedition under our flag. Here 

55 



he raised with his own hands the first flag hoisted from an American battle- 
ship. Although New Provincetown in the Bahamas was captured and there 
was an engagement with the Glasgow, the cruise was not a success.- 

In his next voyage as commander of the Providence his work consisted 
in ravaging the coast of Nova Scotia; burning the shipping in the harbor 
of Canso, Nova Scotia ; and capturing sixteen prizes. Though this cruise was 
of little practical importance it was the first really effective one in the war. 

The next cruise, in which Jones commanded both the Providence and 
Alfred, was planned for the purpose of liberating prisoners of war who were 
being worked in the coal mines of Nova Scotia, injuring the British com- 
merce, and intercepting supply ships. The most important capture was the 
Mellish, a supply ship laden with clothing for the British forces. The im- 
portance of this capture will be understood when we say that the clothing 
was transferred to Washington's ill-clad and shivering army on the Dela- 
ware. 

Jones' work in American waters was now practically completed. The 
value of his services up to this point was in inspiring confidence at home and 
raising our prestige abroad. 

On October 31, 1777, he received command of the Ranger, then in 
Boston harbor, for a voyage to France, the purpose of which was to carry 
the news of Burgoyne's surrender, enlist the sympathies of the French and 
harass the English. This news, carried with incredible speed, brought about 
the French Alliance and won for Jones the first salute ever offered our flag 
by a foreign nation. 

On April 10, 1778, he sailed from Brest on a daring voyage right among 
the British Isles, intending to teach England a lesson concerning her cruel 
marauding policy in Virginia. During the first descent at Whitehaven, dis- 
covered before the work of burning was completed, he kept at bay with 
two pistols an infuriated mob while he and his men escaped. The next 
attempt was to carry off as hostage against future depredations in America 
the Earl of Selkirk. Unable to find the Earl the sailors plundered his castle 
of its silver plate. The next encounter was with the English ship Drake, 
with which the Ranger had previously fallen in off Carrickfergus. The 
struggle lasted one hour and four minutes, when the Drake struck. "It was 
the first instance in modern naval warfare of the capture of a regular British 
man-of-war by a ship of inferior force. It announced to mankind the advent 
of a new sea power." 

The effect of this cruise in general was that it alarmed the English 
people, caused them to spend large amounts of money in providing defences 

56 



for their harbors ; raised the rates of insurance on English vessels enor- 
mously, and filled the French with enthusiasm for their new found ally. 

After putting into Brest with six prizes, besides the Drake, he turned 
the Ranger over to his subordinate, Simpson, and secured from the French 
government, by a personal interview with the King, the Bon Homme 
Richard, after months of waiting. 

Thinking a squadron better adapted to his purpose he gathered about 
him one, consisting of his flagship, the Richard; the Pallas, Captain Cot- 
lindan; the Vengeance, Captain Ricot, and the Alliance, Captain Landais. 
But being compelled to sign a "Concordat" he virtually lost control over the 
other ships. 

On August 14, 1779, began the cruise, which, even if Jones had accom- 
plished nothing else of importance, would have made him unquestionably the 
greatest naval hero of the war. 

The first important capture on this memorable cruise was that of the 
Union, containing supplies for the army in Canada, and called the second 
most valuable prize captured during the war, since its loss probably caused 
the abandonment of the invasion from Canada. 

After sailing around west and north of the British Isles the fleet made 
an unsuccessful attack on Leith, port of Edinburgh. 

Soon afterward there was sighted, off Flamborough Head, the Baltic 
fleet, containing lumber, and convoyed by the Serapis and the Countess of 
Scarborough. The details of the fight which followed are well known : how 
the Serapis and Richard contended, first, with broadsides, then lashed to- 
gether by ropes from the Richard; how an explosion destroyed the lower 
guns of the Richard; how its gallant commander replied, "I have not yet 
begun to fight," when asked if he had struck; how the treacherous Landais 
repeatedly fired into the Richard; how the British prisoners, unwisely lib- 
erated, became a menace but were put to work at the pumps; and how, 
finally, the Serapis struck her colors to a sinking ship. 

What, now, were the conditions under which this remarkable victory 
was won? The Serapis with 320 well-trained men was a new and fast 
vessel ; the Richard, old and rotten, might have been considered a beaten 
ship from the beginning. For it had to struggle against the perfidy of the 
best ships of the squadron, an ill fortune manifested in the bursting of the 
cannon, fire, water, and the liberated English prisoners. The fight was 
won in the first place by the crew of the Richard; the fighting strength of 
that crew consisted mainly of her 149 Americans, and these, in turn, were 
encouraged and personally directed by their intrepid commander. There- 

57 



fore, we say, the battle was won by the downright fighting endurance of 
John Paul Jones. 

Of this battle the moral effect was greater than the practical, since the 
United States navy had electrified and won the respect of Europe by vic- 
tory over the maritime power to which all Europe was then opposed because 
of troubles growing out of the "Armed Neutrality." 

Transferring the wounded and putting into a port of safety the fleet 
soon arrived at the Texel, belonging to Holland. Here, by skillful diplo- 
macy, Jones succeeding in causing the Dutch government to face the ques- 
tion of recognizing the independence of America and thus in embroiling 
Holland in war with England. 

The later services of Paul Jones may be enumerated briefly. After a 
period at the French capital, marked by popular flattery and royal favor, 
he sailed for America on the Ariel and reached Philadelphia in February, 
1 781. For fourteen months after the following June he was engaged in 
superintending the construction of the America at Portsmouth, New Hamp- 
shire, and protecting it from the British. 

Three years more were then spent in diplomatic service for the country 
in Europe. This was mainly in collecting prize moneys in France and Den- 
mark. 

To sum up, now, what John Paul Jones accomplished directly we may 
best quote a writer in Harper's : "He fought 23 battles on the sea ; made 
seven descents on Great Britain or her colonies ; snatched from her navy, 
by conquest, four large ships and many tenders, store-ships, and transports ; 
constrained her to fortify her home ports, to desist from cruel burnings in 
America, and to change her barbarous policy of refusing to consider cap- 
tured Americans prisoners of war." 

We may judge by the treatment Jones received that his services were 
held in high regard at that time. For he was lionized at the French court ; 
received the Decoration of the Military Order of Merit and a gold sword 
from the King; was given a vote of thanks and granted one of six medals 
given to Revolutionary heroes, by Congress. 

Then, for a time, his signal services were somewhat forgotten. He 
died in obscurity in Paris. But now, we are glad to say, there is a revival of 
interest and admiration in the deeds of the great hero, as is evidenced by 
the removal of his body to America in 1905. 

To-day, while our mighty navy is circumnavigating the globe, winning 

58 



respect and admiration everywhere, let us not forget that it was cradled 
during the perilous years of its infancy by the military genius and fighting 
endurance of that greatest of Revolutionary naval heroes, John Paul Jones. 

Sherman Merritt Smith. 



59 



Second Prize Essay 

by 
GLENDON AUSTIN SCHUBERT, 

of the 

Oneida High School, 
Oneida, N. Y. 

Of all the great men brought forth during the Revolution, few did 
more for their country, none were more unique, and none will be remem- 
bered longer than John Paul Jones. At a time when our country, striving 
for liberty, resembled greatly an infant, struggling almost vainly for some- 
thing dear to its eyes, Paul Jones furnished one of the baby arms — the 
navy. Later, he gave that arm utility by providing it with a hand — his own 
brilliant daring and ability. 

John Paul, Jr., was born July 6th, 1747, in the southwestern part of 
Scotland. Entered at the age of twelve in the West India trade, he ad- 
vanced rapidlly and at twenty was captain himself of his employer's finest 
ship. At the age of twenty-seven, he gave up the sea — for a time. He went 
to Virginia to take up the fine estate his brother William left him. He now 
assumed the name Jones, and under the illustrious name of John Paul Jones, 
he rendered such invaluable services to his adopted country. 

At this time he had developed his self-education so far that he was 
master of English and French and was fairly proficient in Spanish. It is 
also doubtful if there was one man of his age in the British navy who was so 
well versed in naval history or the theory of tactics as was Paul Jones. 

About two years afterwards — June 14th, 1775 — Congress appointed a 
"Marine Committee." Jones was immediately requested to assist this 
committee. 

He at once showed them the undesirability — the almost impossibility — 
of Congress's making ships of the line. Instead, he advocated making pow- 
erful frigates. For this end, he altered the plans of the strongest thirty-six 
gun frigates, so as to increase their cost but little, while their effectiveness 
was increased one-half. 

Six ordinary frigates were built at once, and later the Alliance and 

60 



Indien were built on the lines of Jones' enlarged frigate. His service in 
purchasing ready-built ships was, moreover, almost invaluable. 

Without Paul Jones, it would be difficult to imagine what kind of navy 
we should have had. At that time there was no man, living in this hemi- 
sphere, so competent in naval affairs as he. Without his organizing genius, 
the story of our naval successes and adventures in the Revolution — if, indeed, 
we should have had any — would have been a sorry tale. 

In the middle of December, 1775, Congress commissioned five captains 
and thirteen lieutenants, with Paul Jones the senior lieutenant. 

Though, in the spring of 1778, on the return from its first enterprise, 
our little squadron resolved itself into a series of court-martials, votes of 
censure and dismissals from service, it showed Congress — too weak to 
adopt in the beginning, Jones's excellent list of qualifications for officers — 
the competent men. Thus Jones, hereafter, was given separate commands, 
and was always ranking officer on his own station, reporting direct to Con- 
gress. 

He now made two short cruises, in little sloops, taking in all twenty- 
one prizes. One prize, on account of its almost invaluable military stores, 
was the salvation of the starving and freezing American army, and thus, 
perhaps, the salvation of the American Revolution. 

The main value of all these operations was to convince Congress that 
commerce destroying, directed against unprotected ports, where all the 
shipping could be destroyed, rather than against fleets under convoy, when 
only a few ships could be captured at best, was, as Jones had repeatedly 
urged, the only efficient means of our affecting the enemy. 

At this time the British destroyed Jones's plantation. He had been 
living on its revenue and had drawn from Congress but "£50 for expenses in 
enlisting men." He had not received and did not obtain for years his pay 
or allowances. From now on, he had to live himself and even, at times, 
pay for the up-keep of his ship and his men out of what cash he had left, or 
could borrow on his personal credit. 

In June, 1777, Jones was given command of the Ranger 18, then build- 
ing at Portsmouth, N. H., to proceed to France, refit, and do what com- 
merce-destroying he could in the British Isles. 

With the glad tidings of our victory over Burgoyne, and with valuable 
state papers, he started for France before daybreak of November 1st. The 
news and the papers he carried did much to clinch the nails that Dr. Frank- 
lin and his colleagues had been trying to drive through the vacillating French 

61 



Ministry so as to hold it to a treaty. The preliminary articles were signed 
January 17th, and the final "Treaty of the Alliance," February 6th, 1778. 

When Jones left America, he was promised the Indien, then building 
at Amsterdam. But England suspected that the ship was intended for 
America, and complained to Holland. Before war broke out between 
France and England, the former purchased the Indien, but as France was 
then a neutral we were no better off than before. So Jones had to be con- 
tent with the Ranger, as he had been sent to stay in these waters and there 
was no other ship available. 

Sailing from Brest, April 10th, 1778, he made for the Irish Sea to de- 
stroy the shipping along the coasts. His descent on Whitehaven failed 
through an insubordinate lieutenant, but of its ultimate results Jones said : — 
"Its actual results were of little moment, for the intended destruction of 
shipping was limited to one vessel. But the moral effect of it was very great, 
as it taught the English that the fancied security of their coasts was a myth, 
and thereby compelled their Government to take expensive measures for 
the defence of numerous ports hitherto relying for protection, wholly on 
the vigilance and supposed omnipotence of their navy. It also doubled or 
more the rates of insurance, which in the long run proved the most grievous 
damage of all." 

As for the "omnipotence of their navy" he shattered that idea the next 
day, April 23d, by taking the Drake 20 with his inferior Ranger 18. This 
battle, one of the most famous in naval history, placed the United States 
firmly before the near-sighted eyes of Europe and gave us the significance 
of a new and mighty power. "The little ships were lost sight of in the 
colossal fact that England and Englishmen could be conquered on the sea ; 
a new fact, before unknown." 

As these coasts were getting too hot for him, he returned with the Drake 
and his other prizes to Brest. 

Now came a most discouraging period: his drafts on the American 
Commissioners were returned, dishonored for lack of funds : he was with- 
out a ship, as he had let the Ranger return to America in expectation of 
the ship — or ships — the French Ministry kept promising him. The French 
having purchased the Indien, flatly refused it to Jones, and gave it, with all 
their new ships, to their own importunate officers. Finally after a personal 
appeal to the King, a rotten old East India trader was bought. The ship 
was hardly worth refitting, but she was all that he could have. 

Jones renamed her the Bon Homme Richard, and after much delay 

62 



sailed August 14th, 1779, from the Isle de Groaix, accompanied by the 
Alliance 36, Pallas 32, Cerf 18, Vengeance 12. The Alliance was American, 
but the others were French, owned under American commissions. His being 
compelled to sign the "Concordat" reduced his authority as leader to a min- 
imum. He much resembled his own Congress — each was at the head of a 
league of self-sustaining units, any of which obeyed its leader as it suited 
its interests. 

Every schoolboy knows the cruise of the Bon Homme Richard and 
her wonderful fight with the Serapis, her superior by one-third after the 
first broadside. It is so thoroughly known that lack of space will well 
forgive its omission. 

When he reached his appointed destination, the Texel, October 3d, he 
was only plunged into fresh difficulties. As Holland was a neutral, the 
English ambassador, Sir Joseph Yorke, demanded that Jones leave the 
Dutch territory immediately — and fall into the overpowering English squad- 
ron outside. Jones refused, and in the diplomatic duel that followed came 
off best. He knew that if he could stay long enough, he would arouse the 
Dutch people, who were strongly for America, to demand a recognition of 
the independence of the United States. Although he had to transfer all 
the ships, and prizes even, except the Alliance, to France, and finally ship 
out in that ship, his end was accomplished. His action soon put the Dutch 
common people, instead of the aristocrats, in the legislatures and thus gained 
official recognition of and favor for the United States. 

He returned to France and as the war was nearly over, soon went back 
to America. Here he was enthusiastically and thankfully received. 

Before long, as claim agent for prize money due America, he was 
again sent to Europe. After settling this successfully, he entered the Rus- 
sian service. His country had no further use for his sword and he had to 
accept the good chance offered him, as he had lost his estate for his country's 
sake and had not the money to build it up again. 

Thus passed from American service John Paul Jones. For that coun- 
try he fought twenty-three battles on the sea, taking by conquest from 
England's navy, four large ships and many tenders, store-ships, and trans- 
ports : he made seven descents on her or her colonies, forcing up the rates 
of insurance, constraining her to fortify her ports, to desist from cruel 
burnings in America, and to change her barbarous policy of refusing to 
consider captured American seamen as prisoners-of-war, and of torturing 
them in prisons as "traitors, pirates, and felons" ; and above this, he forced 

63 



Europe to a recognition of America as a power and impressed upon her the 
fact that this power could conquer England on sea, as well as on land, an 
unheard of thing before. 

These things John Paul Jones did for his country. "The fame of the 
brave outlives him; his portion is immortality." 

Glendon Austin Schubert. 



64 



Third Prize Essay 

by 
G. RAYNOLDS STEARNS JR., 

of the 
Lafayette High School, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

The motto, "Stand with anyone that stands right, but part with him 
when he goes wrong," was the spirit of John Paul Jones' life when, though 
a Scotchman by birth, he fought against the tyranny of Great Britain, and 
became so true an American in thought and deed that few of American 
blood have equalled his splendid record and still fewer surpassed it. 

Since early boyhood he had had experience on the sea and had earnestly 
studied everything concerning naval affairs. And so, because of this great 
knowledge, he was called from the life of a Virginia planter, which he 
loved, to hurl himself into the cause of the American Revolution, and to 
start his wonderful career by being made first lieutenant of the Alfred, and 
being the first man to raise an American naval flag, with its rattlesnake 
and the words which later became so true of himself, "Don't tread on me." 

The Alfred was one of the first ships composing the American navy, 
which had to cope with England's mighty fleets, manned by eighty-seven 
thousand seamen and marines. 

Paul Jones' participation in the capture of the forts at New Provi- 
dence, and his later safe convoying of ships along the coast, in spite of 
English blockade, were valuable exploits for America and were so recog- 
nized, when, in August, 1776, he received his commission as captain. He 
was now commander of the Providence, and his escape soon after from 
the frigate Solway, and his capture of twelve British vessels at Canso and 
Island of Madame, showed his great ability. At Canso he destroyed the 
fisheries and brought away three heavily laden prizes. He captured eight 
more vessels before he returned to Newport. On his next cruise, near 

65 



Louisburg, he captured two very valuable ships containing enormous quan- 
tities of clothing which later proved so useful to Washington's army. 

Paul Jones spent the winter at Boston, and there, and in the spring 
at Philadelphia, he rendered valuable service by his worthy suggestions 
concerning naval affairs. Congress appointed him commander of the 
Ranger. From her deck, Paul Jones was the first man to raise the Stars 
and Stripes to a masthead. He carried this flag, on the Ranger, soon after 
to France, and there at Brest, through his able management, he secured 
for it the first national salute ever awarded to America by a foreign power. 
From Brest, Jones, with only the Ranger, started for England on a cruise 
which terrified the British coast. His attack on Whitehaven and his ex- 
ploits there of spiking the guns, locking up two garrisons, burning part 
of the shipping, and holding the populace in check, were wonderful. 
Failing in his attempted capture of Lord Selkirk for a hostage, Jones con- 
tinued his cruise and the next evening met and, after an awful battle of 
over an hour, defeated the English frigate Drake. This, and the later 
battle with the Serapis, were turning points in naval history. The pecuniary 
loss was almost nothing. England had hundreds of frigates to replace them, 
but in "moral significance" it ranks only with the ancient battle of Sphac- 
teria. It was the first time a regular English man-of-war had been cap- 
tured by an inferior ship and was the greatest disgrace since Tromp and 
his broom. Paul Jones had given America her naval name with the 
powers, and the news flew over Europe. 

After his arrival at Brest, he was compelled to remain there under 
trying conditions because America could not pay his sailors. He had given 
seven thousand dollars for the war when he left America, and now only 
by personal credit was he able to provide for his crew and prisoners. 
Louis XVI finally appointed him commander of the Duras, which Paul 
Jones renamed Bon Homme Richard. 

Accompanied by the Alliance and two other vessels, the Richard first 
convoyed merchant ships and then drove English cruisers from the Bay of 
Biscay. The fleet soon after returned to L'Orient, where they remained 
some time before starting on Jones' second great cruise of the English 
coast. 

Within a short time after they had again set sail, the little fleet had 
captured sixteen vessels. Then occurred, between the magnificent fifty-gun 
Serapis and the old, made-over merchantman Richard, that battle which, 
in its awful fierceness of over three hours' indescribable havoc, has no 
naval parallel in history. The great spirit of Paul Jones, "I have not begun 

66 



to fight yet," brought him success, and no further detail is needed for this 
world famous engagement. 

After the victory Jones sailed to Texel with his two prizes and five 
hundred captives, which later, through Franklin, were able to be exchanged 
for Americans. Having delivered up his prizes, he sailed for France in the 
Alliance, and after a miraculous escape from forty British frigates, reached 
L/Orient. Statistics show the result of Jones' victories. "The number of 
vessels leaving Newcastle for foreign trade that year was little more than 
half the number in 1777. The coasting trade diminished almost as much." 

Four hundred thousand dollars' worth of stores were now to go to 
America, and with this care Jones acted nobly. The Ariel was at last loaded 
and he set sail. He reached Philadelphia after an absence of three years, 
in which he had toiled so hard for his country. He received the greatest 
honors the nation could lavish upon him, including three separate thanks 
of Congress and appreciative letters from Washington and other great men. 
Nor were these undeserved, for he had fought "twenty-three sea battles 
and was never vanquished. He made seven successful descents upon towns 
and he captured two ships of equal size as his own and two far his superior 
in armament and strength." England now unintentionally honored him by 
offering ten thousand guineas for his body dead or alive. 

He was unanimously appointed by Congress to superintend the build- 
ing and become commander of the America, For sixteen months he de- 
voted himself to making this the finest ship possible. And yet, after great 
labors, he received news that Congress had, on account of the loss of the 
MagniUque, presented the ship to France. His spirit was never so severely 
tested and never so magnificently shown. He continued superintending 
the building just the same, and when the America was launched "the best 
judges pronounced her a model of naval architecture." 

He now joined the French fleet leaving Boston for an expedition against 
Jamaica, but before any great engagement took place they received the 
welcome news of peace. Paul Jones had been stricken with a serious fever 
in this voyage, but almost before he had recovered Congress appointed him 
their agent to collect the money in the French Treasury received from the 
sale of his prizes. This work involved the most delicate complications, and 
Paul Jones, by his life of study, was the only living man capable of per- 
forming this stupendous task. After two years of trying, patient labors, 
he accomplished his work and obtained for America from France one hun- 
dred and eighty-one thousand lires. 

67 



He then attempted a somewhat similar mission to Denmark, but in 
spite of earnest efforts he was unable to carry out his hopes. 

Paul Jones was now deeply interested in the question of the American 
sailors enslaved in Algiers, and so, as America was at peace, when Queen 
Catherine requested him to become rear-admiral in the Russian navy, which 
was fighting the Turks and Algerians, he willingly accepted. Here the 
account of his great services to America must end, because after his 
worthy deeds on the Black Sea he returned to Paris, and there, from the 
effects of his former exposures and hardships, he died, even before the 
commission arrived by which Washington, as President of the United 
States, had appointed him consul to Algiers. 

His troubles have been mentioned very briefly, if at all, in this account, 
such as the utter destruction of his plantation and the disappointments re- 
sulting from the frequent failures of promises commanding splendid ships. 
Very incompetent and insubordinate under officers, as Hacker at Louis- 
bourg, Wallingford at Whitehaven, Simpson with the Drake, and especially 
the diabolical "niddering" Landais, made his life almost miserable and ruined 
many of his brightest hopes; while terrible storms often entirely destroyed 
his well-made plans, as at Canso, Whitehaven, Lochryan and Leith. These 
troubles were not exactly services, but his rising from them and making 
the best use of what little he had were services, and were the only means 
by which he was able to perform his magnificent achievements. It was 
this phase of his life of which Napoleon must have been thinking when, 
after the news of Trafalgar, he said he wished Paul Jones was alive so 
that he might send him against Nelson. 

John Paul Jones, called a pirate and a gentleman, a traitor and a 
patriot, is acknowledged by all, American, French and English, a wonderful 
man. His trials and disappointments were surpassed only by those of 
Washington, and his devotion to his country after these troubles was worthy 
of Morris. In great bravery and reckless daring he resembled Wayne and 
Arnold, and yet his love of peace and humanity put him in a class with 
Penn. He coupled the diplomacy of Franklin with the courtesy of Lafayette. 
Add to these traits of character his life-long perseverance in studies, which 
made him the best informed man on all branches of naval affairs of his 
time and then, with his deathless grit and inexhaustible energy, it is truly 
said, "Nature gave him the genius and he supplied the industry." 

And now the great American Republic has, after one hundred and 
thirteen years, brought another of its heroes home to rest in the land for 
which he did so much. Paul Jones had difficulty in receiving a salute of 

68 



four guns less than his, in 1778, but in 1905 the French squadron willingly 
thundered forth a glorious salute to General Horace Porter and the funeral 
fleet, in appreciation of the exploits of our great Commodore. 



AUTHORITIES. 



Life of John Paul Jones, 

Life of John Paul Jones, 

Life of Commodore Paul Jones, 

The History of Our Navy, 

Great Men and Famous Women, 

American Naval Heroes, 

New International Encyclopaedia, 

History of the United States, 



Buell. 

J. S. C. Abbott. 

C. T. Brady. 

J. R. Spears. 

C. F. Home. 

J. H. Brown. 

Gilman, Peck, Colby. 

Bryant and Gay. 

G. Raynolds Stearns, Jr. 



69 




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Sons of the Revolution 



IN THE 



STATE OF NEW YORK 



REPORTS 



AND 



PROCEEDINGS 
1909-1910 



December 4, 1910 



Object of the Society 

CONSTITUTION. 
Preamble 

Whereas, It has become evident from the decline of proper celebration 
of such National holidays as the Fourth of July, Washington's Birthday, 
and the like, that popular interest in the events and men of the War of the 
Revolution is less than in the earlier days of the Republic ; 

And Whereas, This lack of interest is to be attributed not so much to 
lapse of time as to the neglect on the part of descendants of Revolutionary 
heroes to perform their duty of keeping before the public mind the memory 
of the services of their ancestors, and of the times in which they lived, and 
of the principles for which they contended ; 

Therefore, The Society of the "Sons oe the Revolution" has been 
instituted to perpetuate the memory of the men who, in military, naval or 
civil service, by their acts or counsel, achieved American Independence ; to 
promote and assist in the proper celebration of the anniversaries of Wash- 
ington's Birthday, the Battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill, the Fourth of 
July, the Capitulations of Saratoga and Yorktown, the Evacuation of New 
York by the British Army, and other prominent events relating to or con- 
nected with the War of the Revolution ; to collect and secure for preserva- 
tion the manuscript rolls, records and other documents and memorials re- 
lating to that War; to inspire among the members and their descendants 
the patriotic spirit of their forefathers ; to inculcate in the community in gen- 
eral sentiments of Nationality and respect for the principles for which the 
patriots of the Revolution contended; to assist in the commemorative cele- 
bration of other great historical events of National importance, and to pro- 
mote social intercourse and the feeling of fellowship among its members. 



General Society 

(Organized at Washington, D. C, April 19, 1890.) 

OFFICERS, 1908-1911 

General President, 

Hon. John Lee Carroll, LL. D., 

Maryland Society. 

General Vice-President, 

Edmund Wetmore, LL. D., 

New York Society. 

Second General Vice-President, 

Major Wilson Godfrey Harvey, 

South Carolina Society. 

General Secretary, 

James Mortimer Montgomery, 

New York Society. 

Assistant General Secretary, 

Prof. William Libbey, D. Sc, 

New Jersey Society. 

General Treasurer, 

Richard McCall Cadwalader, 

Pennsylvania Society. 

Assistant General Treasurer, 

Henry Cadle, 

Missouri Society. 

General Chaplain. 

* Rev. Edward Everett Hale, S. T. D., LL. D.. 

Massachusetts Society. 

General Registrar, 
Walter Gilman Page, 
Massachusetts Society. 

General Historian, 
Capt. William Gordon McCabe, M. A., Litt. D., LL. D. 

Virginia Society. 



Deceased. 



Sons of the Revolution 

IN THE 

STATE OF NEW YORK 

Instituted February 22, 1876. 

Reorganized December 4, 1883. 

Incorporated May 3, 1884. 



FOUNDERS 

• John Austin Stevens, 
John Cochrane, 
Austin Huntington, 
George H. Potts, 
Frederick Samuel Tallmadge, 
George Washington Wright Houghton, 
Asa Bird Gardiner, 
Thomas Henry Edsaj.l, 
Joseph W. Drexel, 
James Mortimer Montgomery, 
James Duane Livingston, 
John Bleecker Miller, 
Alexander Ramsay Thompson, Jr. 



Officers, 1910 

President: 
Edmund Wetmore, 34 Pine Street. 

First Vice-President: 
Robert Olyphant, 17 Battery Place. 

Second Vice-President: 
Philip Livingston, 115 East 61st Street. 

Third Vice-President: 
Henry D. Babcock, 32 Liberty Street. 

Secretary: 
Henry Russell Drowne, Fraunces Tavern. 

Assistant Secretary: 
Eugene K. Austin, 15 William Street. 

Treasurer: 
Arthur Melvin Hatch, 71 Broadway. 

Registrar: 
Henry Phelps Johnston, College of the City of New York. 

Chaplain: 
Rt. Rev. David H. Greer, D. D., 7 Gramercy Park . 

Assistant Chaplain: 
Rev. Frank L. Humphreys, S. T. D., Morristown, N. J. 

Historian: 
Talbot Olyphant, 32 Nassau Street. 

Board of Managers: 

Johx Clarkson Jay, Jr., 71 Broadway. Beverly Chew, 49 Wall St. 
Ralph Peters, L. I. R. R. Co., 7th Ave. William Floyd, 84 William St. 
and 32d St. John Hone, 5 Gramercy Park. 

Frederick S. Woodruff, 165 Broadway. William W. Ladd, 20 Nassau St. 
Joseph Tompkins Low, i W. 51st St. Benjamin R. Lummis, 28 W. 33d St. 
William Graves Bates, 43 Cedar St. John Adams Dix, 25 Broad St. 

Edgar C. Leonard, 472 B'way, Albany, N.Y. Walter L. Suydam, 5 E. 76th St. 
John B. Holland, 65 Broadway. James May Duane, 59 Wall St. 

Charles Isham, 27 William St. Hon. Charles W. Dayton, County Court 

House, Manhattan. 



Chapters of the Society: 

Buffalo Chapter, Buffalo, X. V., Henry R. Howland, Regent. 

George W. Comstock, Secretary, 124 Lexington Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Philip Livingston Chapter, Albany, N. Y., Edgar C. Leonard, Regent. 

Borden H. Mills, Secretary, 44 Tweddle Building, Albany, N. Y. 
William Floyd Chapter, Troy, N. Y., Walter P. Warren, Regent. 

William Barker, Jr., Secretary, c/o William Barker Co., Troy, N. Y. 
Fort Schuyler Chapter, Utica, N. Y., Sylvester Dering, Regent. 

A. Vedder Brower, Secretary, 306 Genesee Street, Utica, N. Y. 
Orange County Chapter, Goshen, N. Y. 
Jamestown Chapter, Jamestown, N. Y., Winfield Scott Cameron, Regent. 

Frank H. Mott, Secretary, Fenton Building, Jamestown, N, Y. 



Executive Committee: 

John Hone, Chairman, Joseph T. Low, 

William G. Bates. 
President, Secretary and Treasurer Ex-Officio. 



Real Estate Committee: 

Robert Olyphant, Chairman, James M. Montgomery, 

Alexander R. Thompson, Henry A. Wilson, 

Charles Isham, Arthur M. Hatch. 



Membership Committee : 

George DeForest Barton, Chairman, 150 Broadway. 

Silas Wodell, 41 Park Row. 

Landreth H. King, Room 517, Grand Central Station. 

Edward L. Parris, 45 Broadway. 

Richard A. Wilson, 499 Monroe Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Alfred B. Robinson, 206 Broadway. 

Caldwell R. Blakeman, Coffee Exchange. 

Benjamin W. B. Brown, 52 Wall Street. 

Talbot Root, 52 Broadway. 

Chandler Smith, 68 Broad Street. 

Nathaniel A. Prentiss, 120 Broadway. 

Pierre F. Macdonald, 45 Vestry Street. 

Charles A. Coe, 117 East 57th Street. 

Historical Committee : 

David Cromwell, Chairman, George B. Class, 

Norman F. Cushman, Wilbur F. Wakeman, 

Talbot Olyphant, Ex-Officio. 



Essay Committee: 

Richard Henry Greene, Chairman, R. Russell Requa, 

Herbert L. Bridgman, Henry Cole Smith, 

Rev. Albert A. Brockway. 



Library Committee : 
John R. Totten, Chairman, Henry Phelps Johnston, 

Museum Committee: 

Beverly Chew, Chairman, John DuFais, 

Clarence Storm, William Bunker, 

William G. Low, Jr. 

Tablet Committee: 

James M. Montgomery, Chairman, Henry Russell Drowne, 

Henry Phelps Johnston, Alexander R. Thompson, 

Pierre F. Macdonald. 

Stewards: 



Warren S. Banks, Chairman, 
Charles E. Warren, 
Montgomery H. Sicard, M. D., 



James A. Burden, 
Lawrence L. Gillespie, 
Francis G. Landon. 



Marshal: 

John Butterfield Holland. 

Aides: 



Eugene K. Austin, 

Albert Delafield, 

De Witt Clinton Falls, 

Francis Laurens Vinton Hoppin 



Robert Kelly Prentice, 
Talbot Root, 
Clarence Wilbur Smith 
John Noble Stearns. 



Publication Committee: 

James M. Montgomery, Chairman, Charles Isham, 

Henry Russell Drowne. 

8 



Annual Church Service. 



Aisle Committee: 



Talbot Olyphant, Chairman, 
Frederick Sanford Woodruff, Vice-Chairman. 



Worcester Bouck, 

Banyer Clarkson, 

Cullen Van Rensselaer Cogswell, 

Robert Grier Cooke, 

John Francis Daniell, 

Joseph N. Lord Edmonds, 

Morris Douw Ferris, 

Henry Van Cortlandt Fish, 

Schuyler Brush Knox, 

Charles Percy Latting, Jr., 

George Peabody Montgomery, 



Richard Malcolm Montgomery, Jr., 
Murray Olyphant, 
Robert Morrison Olyphant, Jr., 
William Rockhill Potts, 
Edward Lawrence Purdy, 
Philip Rhinelander, 
Henry Gansevoort Sanford, 
Arthur Frederic Schermerhorn, 
Edward Gibert Schermerhorn, 
Joseph Ferris Simmons, 
Alfred Byers Wade. 



Excursion Committee: 

James M. Montgomery, Chairman, Edward P. Casey, 

Clarence Storm, John C. Gulick, 

William G. Bates, J. Wray Cleveland, 

Robert Olyphant, Ex-Officio. 



John B. Holland, 



Auditing Committee : 

Joseph T. Low, 
Frf.df.rick S. Woodruff. 



Committee on Constitution and By-Laws. 



Edmund Wetmore, Chairman, 
William W. Ladd, 



William G. Bates, 
Frederick S. Woodruff. 



General Philip Schuyler Statue Committee: 
Edgar C. Leonard, Chairman, 



Samuel L. Munson, 
Arthur G. Root, M. D., 



William G. Bates, 
Robert C Morris. 



9 



Report of the Board of Managers 



To the Sons of the Revolution 

in the State of New York: 

The Board of Managers submits the following report for the year end- 
ing December 4th, 1910: 

Nine meetings of the Board of Managers have been held during the 
year. The Annual Meeting was held at Fraunces Tavern, December 4th, 
1909, at 12:30 P. M., Mr. Edmund Wetmore, President of the Society, 
presiding. 

The polls were declared open for one hour and a half, the following 
tellers having been appointed by the President : Messrs. Talbot Root, 
Varick Dey Martin, Harrison Wright and Chandler Smith. 

The reading of the reports of the Board of Managers and of the 
Treasurer was dispensed with, these reports having been printed for dis- 
tribution to the members. 

The report of the Historian, Mr. Talbot Olyphant, was, owing to his 
absence, read by Mr. Walter L. Suydam, during the reading of which all 
the members rose and remained standing. 

The amendment to the Constitution as to the wearing of the insignia, 
proposed by Mr. Edgar C. Leonard and amended by Mr. Alexander R. 
Thompson, was adopted, making Paragraph 5 of Article 10 to read as 
follows : 

"The insignia shall be worn by the members on all occasions when they 
shall assemble as such, and may be worn on any occasion of ceremony, 
only on the left breast, except as hereinafter provided. Members who are 
officers or ex-officers of the General or of the State Society, and such other 
members as may be authorized by the Board of Managers, may wear the 
insignia suspended from the regulation ribbon around the neck. The in- 
signia shall not be worn as an article of jewelry, nor shall the use of it 
be allowed to any person not a member. The rosette must not be dis- 
played at the same time with the insignia." 

1 1 



The meeting then took a recess until 2 :$o for luncheon, which was 
served in the fourth floor dining room, and on being again called to order, 
Mr. Talbot Root reported for the tellers that 897 votes had been cast, of 
which 792 were by proxy, and that the regular ticket had been elected. 

Since the Annual Meeting, Col. Eugene K. Austin has been appointed 
Assistant Secretary; the Rev. Frank Landon Humphreys, S. T. D., Assist- 
ant Chaplain; Mr. Talbot Olyphant, Historian; Col. John B. Holland, 
Marshal ; and Messrs. John Hone, Joseph Tompkins Low and Col. William 
G. Bates, members of the Executive Committee. Various committees have 
also been appointed, a list of which is printed with this report. 



A Stated Meeting was held at Delmonico's, New York, on Monday 
evening, January 24, 1910, to celebrate the birthday of Frederick Samuel 
Tallmadge, late President of the Society, and was called to order at 8:45 
P. M. by the Third Vice-President, Col. William W. Ladd. Mr. Marcius 
D. Raymond, of Tarrytown, New York, an old member of the Society, 
who had been a personal friend of Mr. Tallmadge, made a brief address in 
eulogy of the late President, giving interesting reminiscences. Mr. Hop- 
per Striker Mott then delivered an illustrated lecture on "The Blooming- 
dale Road." Mr. Edward Demarest Butler loaned to the Society the key 
of old Fort Stanwix, of the Revolution, near Rome, N. Y. 

On Tuesday evening, April 19, 1910, the one hundred and thirty-fifth 
anniversary of the Battle of Lexington, a Stated Meeting was held at Del- 
monico's, New York, at which Mr. Charles William Burrows delivered an 
illustrated lecture on "The First Flying of the Stars and Stripes in Battle 
and the Burgoyne-Saratoga Campaign." 

At the Stated Meeting, held Friday, November 25th, 1910, at Del- 
monico's, New York, to celebrate the evacuation of the City of New York 
by the British troops, Mr. Austin Baxter Keep delivered an illustrated lect- 
ure on "Libraries in Pre-Revolutionary America, Their Founders and 
Patrons." 

The Annual Church Service of the Society, commemorative of the 
birth of George Washington, was held at the Collegiate Church of St. 
Nicholas, Fifth Avenue and Forty-eighth Street, New York, on Sunday, 
February 20th, 1910, at 4 o'clock P. M. 

It was conducted by the Rev. Frank Landon Humphreys, S. T. D., As- 
sistant Chaplain of the Society, assisted by the Rev. George Stuart Baker, 
D. D., the Rev. Pelham St. George Bissell, M. A., A.K.C., the Rev. Albert 

12 



Alonzo Brockway, A. M., the Rev. Henry Bartin Chapin, D. D., Ph. D., the 
Rev. Edward Benton Coe, D. D., the Rev. James Shepard Dennis, D. D., 
the Rev. William Nichols Dunnell, S. T. D., and the Rev. James Tuttle- 
Smith, D. D. 

The sermon was delivered by the Rev. James I. Vance, Minister of the 
North Reformed Church of Newark, New Jersey, and is printed in full in 
this report. 

The Military Society of the War of 1812 furnished a uniformed escort 
on this occasion. 

The followiing representatives of Societies were present : Society of 
the Cincinnati : Talbot Olyphant, Dr. Thomas M. L. Chrystie, Dr. W r illiam 
Sturgis Thomas and Dr. Paul Ernest Tieman ; Military Society of the War 
of 1812: Asa Bird Gardiner, Dudley Evans, George W. Olney, Charles A. 
Schermerhorn and George L. Nichols ; Colonial Wars : Dallas B. Pratt, 
Frederick Dwight, Edward Trenchard, Edward N. Crosby and Benjamin 
R. Lummis ; Daughters of the Revolution, State of New York: Mrs. Zeb 
Mayhew, Mrs. Ashbel P. Fitch, Mrs William H. Hotchkin, Miss. Katherine 
J. C. Carville and Mrs. John H. Abeel ; Colonial Dames of America: Mrs. 
William Warner Hoppin, Mrs. Henry Gansevoort Sanford, Miss Effie Beek- 
man Borrowe, Miss Elizabeth L. Gebhard and Miss Katrine Woolsey 
Carmalt; Colonial Dames of the State of New York: Mrs. Robison, Miss 
McAllister, Miss Dudley, Mrs. Chauncey and Miss Stimson ; Aztec Club of 
1847: Dr. John W. Brannan, Loyal Farragut, H. Fitzjohn Porter, Dr. 
William M. Polk and William M. Sweeney. The Military Order of Foreign 
Wars and the 'Loyal Legion were also represented by delegates. 

The Annual Banquet took place in the large banquet hall at Del- 
monico's on February 22nd, 1910, the anniversary of Washington's Birth- 
day, and was presided over by Mr. Edmund Wetmore, the President of the 
Society. The following invited guests were present: 

The Rev. Henry van Dyke, D. D. ; 

The Rev. James I. Vance, D. D. ; 

Rear Admiral Joseph B. Murdock, LI. S. N., representing the Navy ; 

St. Clair McKelway, LL. D. ; 

The Hon. Joseph T. Orme ; 

Capt. Walter C. Cowles, U. S. N. ; 

George W. Olney, Society of the Cincinnati ; 

William M. Macbean, Saint Andrew's Society ; 

William Temple Emmet, Friendly Sons of St. Patrick ; 

!3 



Floyd B. Sanderson, Saint George's Society; 

Paul G. Thebaud, Society of the War of 1812; 

Samuel V. Hoffman, New York Historical Society ; 

Henry L. Bogert, The Holland Society. 

John F. Daniell, Society of Colonial Wars ; 

Amory S. Carhart, Military Order of Foreign Wars ; 

Herbert M. Leland, Massachusetts Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 

Edward Hart Fenn. Connecticut Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 

Bayard Stockton, New Jersey Society, Sons of the Revolution. 

Major General Leonard Wood, U. S. A., who was to represent the 
Army, sent regrets on account of illness. 

Prayer was offered by the Rev. Frank L. Humphreys, S. T. D., As- 
sistant Chaplain of the Society. 

The banquet hall was appropriately and tastefully decorated and an 
orchestra was furnished for the occasion. After coffee had been served 
there was the usual flag procession in the following order : Fifer and 
Drummer in continental uniform ; the Stewards ; flags and banners of the 
Society ; the cocked hat carried on a cushion ; and a handsome basket of 
flowers from the Daughters of the Revolution in the State of New York. 

Mr. William W. Hoppin in presenting the President with the cocked 
hat, spoke as follows : 

"Mr. President, we bring you no jeweled crown to-night. We bring 
you the cocked hat, which represents the patriotism of our forefathers, and 
reminds us that they created a Nation and that we are to preserve that 
Nation. 

"We ask you to put it on your head, for we like to see it upon you, 
Sir, for we love you and we recognize you as a distinguished representative 
of all the sentiments of loyalty that adorned the character of our fore- 
fathers." 

The hat was received by President Wetmore, who put it on with ap- 
propriate remarks. 

The Stewards then brought in the loving cup, which had been sub- 
scribed for by the members of the Society, as a testimonial to Mr. Arthur 
M. Hatch, who has been its Treasurer for twenty-two years. 

Mr. Wetmore presented the cup in the following words : 

"Mr. Hatch, you have been the Treasurer of the Society for nearlv 
the full term of twenty-five years. During that period all our funds, from 

14 



the very small amount at the beginning to the very large amount at the end, 
have passed through your hands. To your care, your watchfulness, your 
accuracy and your unfailing attention do we owe it, that all those funds have 
been faithfully received and all faithfully spent. 

"Grateful for your continued care for their interests, your friends and 
fellow members in the Society have commissioned me to present to you this 
loving cup, as a token of their appreciation for what you have done. 

"Please take it with our best good wishes and the good wishes of all 
of us, that you may live long to enjoy this proof of the estimation in which 
you are held." Three cheers were then given for Mr. Hatch. 

In receiving the cup Mr. Hatch said : 

"Mr. President and members of the Sons of the Revolution : When 
my friend Montgomery told me that I was to be presented with a memento 
of my twenty-two years' service as Treasurer of this Society I was some- 
what disturbed. In facing such an audience as this I find it is a difficult 
task for me to express adequately how deeply I appreciate this exquisite 
gift. I am not unmindful of the thought which prompted this very tangible 
recognition of my services ; that you should be moved to give expression to 
your approval, not only in words, but in an offering of such beauty, af- 
fords me the greatest gratification. 

"During my term of office our Society has prospered. When I assumed 
my duties, nearly twenty-three years ago, our cash balance amounted to less 
than $500. To-day our assets are $163,000. This is all very satisfactory, 
but I have been more impressed with the fine purposes which have animated 
the men who have served this Society as officers and managers ; they have 
never faltered in their allegiance, nor lost sight of the high aims for which 
this Society was founded. It has been a rare privilege to be associated with 
them in the pursuit of my duties, and I beg that you will accept the as- 
surance of my deepest gratitude for this beautiful gift." 

All then joined in singing heartily "For He is a Jolly Good Fellow" 
and "The Star Spangled Banner." 

President Wetmore made some eloquent remarks, suitable to the oc- 
casion and read a telegram which was received from Mr. John Austin 
Stevens, the Founder of the Society, and was as follows : "Congratula- 
tions to the Sons on this their thirty-fourth birthday." 

The orchestra then played the historic tune, to which the British 
marched out of Yorktown, entitled, "The World Turned Upside Down" or 
"The King Shall Get His Own Again."' 

The toasts were responded to as follows : 



15 



"The United States of America," in silence, all present rising. 
"George Washington," Rev. Henry van Dkye, D. D. 
"The Navy," Rear-Admiral Joseph B. Murdock, U. S. N. 
"The Revolution and Civil Service," St. Clair McKelway. 
All these speeches are printed in full in this report. 

In the absence of Major-General Leonard Wood, who was to have 
responded to the toast, "The Army," but was prevented from attending by 
illness, all present rose and drank to his health with an expression of best 
wishes for his speedy recovery. 

Mr. Wetmore then introduced Mr. Joseph T. Orme, of Atlanta, a 
member of the Georgia Society, who made a humorous impromptu speech 
which closed the events of the evening. 

There were three hundred and sixteen members and guests in attend- 
ance at the banquet, which was greatly enjoyed by those present. 

During the year the Society has met with the loss of its Founder and 
first President, Mr. John Austin Stevens, who had not only always main- 
tained a deep interest in the welfare of our Society, but had also been a 
liberal and constant contributor to its collections. 

In consequence of his death the following notice was issued : 

"The Board of Managers of the Sons of the Revolution in the State 
of New York announce with the deepest sorrow the death of our honored 
Founder and first President, John Austin Stevens, at his residence in New- 
port, R. I., on Thursday, June 16, 1910. The funeral services will be held 
in St. Paul's Chapel, Broadway, corner of Vesey Street on Tuesday, June 
21 st, at 3 130 P. M. 

"Through the courtesy of the Rector, the members of the Society will 
meet in the hall on the third floor of the Parish House, 29 Vesey Street, 
at 3:10, wearing the insignia. 

Henry Russell Drowne, Secretary." 

The services on this occasion were most impressive and were conduct- 
ed by the Rev. Frank Landon Humphreys, S. T. D., Assistant Chaplain of 
the Society, assisted by the Rev. William Montague Geer, D. D., Vicar of 
St. Paul's Chapel, the Rev. George Stuart Baker, D. D., the Rev. Charles 
Daniel Trexler, the Rev. William Nichols Dunnell, D. D., the Rev. George 
Clarke Houghton, A. M., D. D., the Rev. Pelham St. George Bissell, A. M., 
A. K. C, the Rev. Henry Bartin Chapin, D. D., the Rev. James Tuttle- 
Smith, D. D., and the Rev. Berry Oakley Baldwin, B. D. 

16 



The Veteran Corps of Artillery headed the procession and acted as 
escort. The pall bearers were Mr. Edmund Wetmore, Mr. William W. 
Hoppin, Mr. Robert Olvphant, Mr. Arthur M. Hatch, Mr. James Mortimer 
Montgomery, Mr. Samuel V. Hoffman, Mr. Sereno S. Pratt, of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce, Colonel Asa Bird Gardiner, Mr. Robert H. Kelby and 
Mr. Alexander R. Thompson. 

Representatives were present from the Military Society of the War 
of 1812, the Daughters of the Revolution, the Chamber of Commerce, the 
New York Historical Society, etc. The procession was conducted by 
Colonel John B. Holland, Marshal of the Society. Many of our members 
were present. 

An Excursion to West Point, N. Y., to celebrate the anniversary of 
the Saratoga Campaign was arranged for October 8th, 1910. About five 
hundred persons, including members of the Society, their families and 
guests, went and had a most enjoyable time. 

The steamer "Albany" started from the foot of West 42nd Street at 
10:00 A. M., and West 129th Street at 10:20, arriving at West Point about 1 
o'clock. Luncheon was served on the steamer on the way up, and dinner 
on the return trip. 

Major-General Frederick D. Grant, U. S. A., commanding the De- 
partment of the East, was the guest of honor of the Society and as he 
stepped on the boat, the Major-General's Flag was unfurled and the cus- 
tomary call was sounded by the bugler. 

On arriving at "the Military Academy, after witnessing a brief drill, 
our First Vice-President, Mr. Robert Olvphant, on behalf of the Society, 
made a brief address and presented the Cadets with a large silver cup, in- 
scribed as follows: "Presented by the Sons of the Revolution in the State 
of New York, October 8, 1910, to the Corps of Cadets U. S. Military 
Academy as a trophy on which to inscribe each year the name of the Cadet 
having the highest military efficiency." 

Mr. Olvphant made the presentation in the following words : 

"It is with great regret that I have to speak for our beloved President. 
Edmund Wetmore, who is unfortunately detained at home by illness. On 
behalf of the Sons of the Revolution in the State of New York, it gives me 
great pleasure to present, through you as their Commandant, to the Corps 
of Cadets of the U. S. Military Academy, this cup, to be held as a trophy, 
on which to inscribe each year the name of the Cadet of the graduating 
class having the highest military efficiency. 

"In giving this cup we also desire that it may serve as a token of the 

17 



loyalty of our Association, as a patriotic Society, to the regular army and 
our appreciation of the services rendered to that army by this famous 
academy. The history of our country has been largely shaped by its gradu- 
ates, and, on more than one occasion, it has owed its salvation to their skill 
and valor. Under despotic and imperial governments the army is regarded 
as a menace to the people. In our country we feel and know that the art 
and science of warfare, so perfectly taught here, are among the surest 
guarantees of our national security and peace. And the young men of our 
land can have no higher standard of honor set before them than the 
standard that always has been and is maintained here of what constitutes 
a gentleman and a soldier. The cup is accompanied by our warmest wishes 
for the continued prosperity of the academy, and we wish to give to you 
and your fellow officers the assurance that as far as civilians may, our As- 
sociation will always be ready to do all that lies in our power to promote 
the welfare of the Army and to give respectful attention to the counsels of 
its officers as to the best mode of advancing its interests. 

"I now. Sir, commit the cup to your keeping." 

Lieutenant-Colonel W. S. Sibley, U. S. A., Commandant of Cadets, 
received the cup on behalf of the United States Military Academy and said : 

"I feel greatly honored at having been designated by the Superintendent 
of the United States Military Academy to accept in the name of the Corps of 
Cadets this beautiful cup from the Society of the Sons of the Revolution 
in the State of New York. 

"This trophy will be placed among others heretofore presented to the 
United States Corps of Cadets and will have engraved upon it the name 
of the cadet of each graduating class who has shown the highest military 
efficiency during his four years at this Academy. 

"It is especially appropriate that such a trophy should be presented by 
the descendants of the noble men who so heroically fought for and achieved 
the independence of this Xation to the young graduate about to enter upon 
his career as a soldier whose duty it will be to defend this liberty so hardly 
won by our ancestors. 

"I thank you in the name of the Corps of Cadets." 

At the December Meeting of the Board of Managers in accordance 
with the amendment to the Constitution regarding the wearing of the in- 
signia. Chapter Regents and members appointed by the President to for- 
mallv represent the Society at banquets, were given the same privilege as 
State Officers with regard to wearing the insignia suspended from a rib- 
bon around the neck. 

18 



l« 



<r 




CUP PRESENTED BY THE SONS OF THE REVOLUTION IN THE STATE OF NEW 
YORK, OCTOBER 8, 1910, TO THE CORPS OF CADETS OF THE UNITED STATES 
MILITARY ACADEMY. WEST POINT. N. Y.. AS A TROPHY ON WHICH TO INSCRIBE 
EACH YEAR THE NAME OF THE CADET HAVING THE HIGHEST MILITARY 
EFFICIENCY. DIMENISIONS 16 INCHES HIGH. 9 INCHES DIAMETER, 



At the January Meeting an invitation was accepted to a Memorial Serv- 
ice for the Rev. Dr. William R. Richards, and a committee was appointed 
to draw up a resolution which was adopted at the next meeting, and is a? 
follows : 

"Resolved, That the Board of Managers of the Sons of the Revolution 
have heard with sorrow of the death of the Rev. Dr. William R. Richards 
and record this minute of their appreciation of the loss sustained. Long 
and actively identified with the Society and its objects, he was a valued 
member, ever ready to do whatever lay in his power to advance and further 
its interests. By his death this Association has suffered an abiding loss." 

At the February Meeting the petition of the General Society requesting 
that the Government print all the unpublished official records of the Revo- 
lutionary War, together with transcripts from the records of the original 
Thirteen States relating to Muster Rolls of Officers, Soldiers, Sailors and 
Marines not embraced in the government collection was endorsed, and the 
Secretary was instructed to so inform Senators and Representatives from 
this State with the request that they use their influence to further this 
project. 

Mr. Talbot Olyphant handed to the Chairman a silver mounted gavel 
and a block of wood from the "Royal Savage," Arnold's Flagship, in the 
Battle of Valcour. Fake Champlai.n, X. Y.. October n, 1776, the wood for 
which had been presented to the Society by Mr. John B. Riley, of Platts- 
burg, N. Y. 

At the March Meeting the following resolution was introduced by Mr. 
PMgar C. Leonard, of Albany, and adopted : 

Resolved. That Senator George B. Agnew be asked to introduce in the 
Senate, and Assemblyman Clarence Mac Gregor, in the Assembly, a bill to 
provide for the erection by the State of Xew York of a statue of General 
Philip Schuyler in the City of Albany, X. Y., where he resided and laid 
the plans for the successful capture of General Burgoyne's Army in 1777. 

Mr. Leonard also reported for the Committee that had been appointed 
to consider the observance of the 4th of Jul)', that the Committee believe 
Xew York should have a restrictive ordinance in relation to the use of 
heavy explosives, and offered the following' resolution which was adopted : 

• Resolved, That we notice with approval the action of the Sons of the 
Revolution at Albany where, through their efforts, the city has adopted an 
ordinance forbidding the use of the heavier and more dangerous forms of 

19 



explosives and we believe a similar ordinance would be wise in tbe City 
of New York. 

Tbe following resolutions were also adopted: 

Resolved, That the Board of Managers of the Sons of the Revolu- 
tion in the State of Xew York approves the purpose of legislation proposed 
in the 'Legislature concerning the better care of the public records of the 
State and respectfully petitions the Judiciary Committee of the Assembly to 
recommend favorably such a bill as will advance this object. 

Resolved. That the Excursion Committee be requested to take up the 
advisability of a trip to West Point during the Autumn of 1910 and take 
all steps necessary to ascertain the views of the Society regarding the mat- 
ter and further resolved that the Committee consider whether on this trip 
it would not be advisable to allow members to bring ladies. 

At the April Meeting, Mr. Arthur M. Hatch tendered to the Society 
the balance remaining of the "Hatch Testimonial Fund" for the purpose of 
placing in the "Long Room" at Fraunces Tavern a suitable tablet com- 
memorating the names of the Founders of the Society. On motion thi= 
offer was duly accepted with the thanks of the Board. 

The inscription on the tablet is as follows : 

Sons of the Revolution 

in the State of New York 



Instituted 




Incorporated 


1876 


Founders 


1884 



John Austin Stevens John Cochrane 

Austin Huntington George H. Potts 

Frederick S. Tallmadgc George IV. Wright Houghton 

Asa Bird Gardiner Thomas Henry Edsall 

Joseph W. Drcxel James Mortimer Montgomery 

James Duanc Livingston John Bleecker Miller 
Alexander R. Thompson, Jr. 

At the May Meeting Mr. Talbot Olyphant reported for the Special 
Committee on the Golden Hill Tablet, recommending that the matter be 
dropped as the Golden Hill Riot occurred in 1770, which was before the 

20 



Revolution ; further that the present tablet erected on the building at the 
corner of Ann and William Streets be taken down and not renewed. 

The recommendation of the Committee was adopted. 

Mr. Wetmore reported that a delegation of six, officers and members of 
the Board of Managers, had paid a visit to the Buffalo Chapter, leaving on 
May 13th and returning on the 15th, and that through the courtesy of Mr. 
Ralph Peters the party had the use of his private car for the trip. They 
were received with great cordiality by the members of the Chapter and con- 
ducted to many interesting places around Buffalo and to Niagara Falls. 

At the June Meeting an invitation was received from Colonel George 
A. Wingate for the Society to participate in the parade on the Fourth 
July and a reply sent regretting that the Society would be unable to parade 
as the members were so generally out of town at that time. 

At the October Meeting, a project of the Sons of the Revolution in the 
State of New Jersey, for marking the spot where Washington crossed the 
Delaware by a park of about four hundred acres on the New Jersey side 
of the river and a similar park on the Pennsylvania side, connected by a 
monumental bridge of artistic design to be built by the National Govern- 
ment, was endorsed and the Secretary instructed to so inform the Senators 
and Representatives from New York State and the Hon. Frank O. Briggs, 
United States Senator from New Jersey. 

A letter was received and read from Mrs. Stevens and the Misses 
Stevens expressing their appreciation of the funeral services in New York 
City for the late Mr. John Austin Stevens, the Founder and first President 
of the Society. 

The Essay Committee reported one hundred and twelve essays re- 
ceived from sixty-three schools on the subject, "General Steuben's Services 
in the Revolutionary War.*' and that prizes and honorable mention had been 
awarded as follows : 

First Prize — Dorothy Thorne, Yonkers High School, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Second Prize — George Burnett Overhiser, Montgomery High School, 
Montgomery, N. Y. 

Third Prize — James Moffatt. Buffalo Central High School, Buffalo, 
X. Y. 

Honorable Mention. 

Henry Coe Place, White Plains High School, White Plains, N. Y. 
Ralph Bowen Gage, Forestville High School, Forestville, N. Y. 
C. Hubert Bonsall. Haverstraw High School, Haverstraw, X. Y. 

21 



Alice V. B rower, Mount Vernon High School, Mount Vernon, X. Y. 
Inez Marie Rogers, North Tonawanda High School. Xorth Tona- 
wanda, X. Y. 

Edna Johnson, Binghamton High School, Binghamton, N. Y. 
Francis H. Phipps, Mount Vernon High School, Mount Vernon, X. Y. 
Grace M. Malcolm, Lafayette High School, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Susie Adelaide Depew, Oakside High School, Peekskill, NV Y. 



The Society during the year has received courteous invitations to the 
following banquets : 

Military Order of Foreign Wars, 
Society of the War of 1812, 
Holland Society, 
Colonial Order of the Acorn, 
Society of the Cincinnati, 
Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, 
Society of Colonial Wars, 
Saint Andrew's Society, 

and has also received invitations to the following functions : 

Reception to the President of the United States : Military Order of 
Foreign Wars. 

Reception to State Regent; Daughters of the American Revolution. 

Meeting; Daughters of the Cincinnati. 

Twenty-fifth Annual Exhibition of the Architectural League. 

Exhibition of Relics, Washington's Headquarters. 

Celebration on Steamer George Washington ; Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, State of New York. 

Luncheon at Fraunces Tavern, New York ; Xew York State Society, 
Daughters of the Revolution. 

I Fnveiling of Monument marking birthplace site of the State of New 
York at White Plains ; White Plains Chapter, Daughters of the American 
Revolution. 

Unveiling of the Tablet in Claremont Viaduct, New York ; Knicker- 
bocker Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution. 

Unveiling of Tablet on Schooner "Polly," foot of 50th street, Xorth 
River, Xew York; United States Daughters of the War of 1812. 

22 



Church Service, Military Order of the Loyal Legion, New York. 
Church Service ; Pennsylvania Society, Sons of the Revolution. 
Memorial Service at Governor's Island, Society of the War of 1812. 
Two hundred and fiftieth Anniversary of the Collegiate Church of 
Harlem. 



The Secretaries of our Chapters give the following reports for the year : 

PHILIP LIVINGSTON CHAPTER, Albany, N. Y. 

During the thirteen months ending November 1st, 1910, the following 
events have taken place, which are of peculiar interest to this Chapter : 

At the Regular Quarterly Meeting of the Chapter, held at the Uni- 
versity Club on November 10th, Mr. Russell Headley read a highly inter- 
esting and most carefully prepared paper on "The Last Cantonment of the 
Revolutionary Army," which was greatly enjoyed by the members. 

At the Annual Meeting, held at the Fort Orange Club on January 
19th, the following officers were elected for the ensuing year : Edgar Cot- 
rell Leonard, Regent ; William Addison Wallace, Vice-Regent ; Borden 
Hicks Mills, Secretary ; Herbert Whiting Stickney, Treasurer ; Edward 
Willard Wetmore, Registrar ; George Elmer Gorham, M. D., Historian ; 
Rev. Charles Grenville Sewall, Chaplain; Edgar Albert Vander Veer, M. D., 
Marshal; Walter Stuart McEwan, Curator. 

The meeting was followed by the Annual Dinner, at which the speak- 
ers were the Hon. John C. Tomlinson, of the New York State Society ; Hon. 
Frederick M. Davenport, State Senator from the Oneida District ; Hon. 
James B. McEwan, Mayor of the City of Albany, and the Rev. J. Valde- 
mar Moldenhawer, Pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church of Albany. 

Largely through the efforts of the Chapter an anti-high-explosives or- 
dinance was passed during the year by the Albany Common Council, and 
thereafter an Albany Independence Day Association was formed, partially 
officered by members of the Chapter, which was highly successful in con- 
ducting an Independece Day celebration along safe and sane lines. This 
Association has become a permanent organization. 

The Chapter held no Church Service during the year, but a number of 
the members accepted the invitation of William Floyd Chapter, of Troy, to 
attend the services held by them in commemoration of the Birthday of 
Washington. 



At the Quarterly Meeting, held at the University Club on April 20th, 
1910, a paper on "Modern Tendency" was read by Colonel M. W. Larned. 
U. S. A., of the Faculty of the United States Military Academy at West 
Point. 

Through the efforts of Douglas Campbell, Esq., of Cherry Valley, a 
member of the Chapter, a marker has been erected during the year to desig- 
nate the site of the Revolutionary fort at Cherry Valley, the same being 
inscribed: "Site of Fort on the Land of Colonel Samuel Campbell, main- 
tained for the defense of the Inhabitants of Cherry Valley, Newton-Martin, 
Springfield, Unadilla, and the Old English District, 1777- 1778. Erected by 
Philip Livingston Chapter, Sons of the Revolution, 1910." 

The marker consists of a pyramidical stand of shells, donated by the 
Ordnance Department of the United States Army, and the inscription is 
carried on two marble tablets sunk in the concrete base of the pyramid. 

At the October Quarterly Meeting, held at the University Club on Oc- 
tober 27th, 1910, papers were read by Mr. Frederick B. Richards on "The 
Black Watch at Ticonderoga," and by Borden H. Mills, Esq., on "Old Al- 
bany in Revolutionary Days," and an address was delivered by the Rev. 
Charles G. Sewall on "Historic Lake Champlain ; a Resume of the Recent 
Trip of the New York Historical Association." 

During the past thirteen months the Chapter has held four meetings, 
one Annual Meeting and three Quarterly Meetings. During the same pe- 
riod the Executive Board has held nine meetings. The average attendance 
at Chapter meetings has been 40 and the average attendance at Board 
Meetings has been six. 

Albany, N. Y., Nov. to, iqio. Borden Hicks Mills, 

Secretary, Philip Livingston Chapter, 
Sons of the Revolution. 

BUFFALO ASSOCIATION, Buffalo. N. Y. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Buffalo Association, Sons of the Revo- 
lution, the following officers were elected: Henry R. Howland, President; 
Charles R. Wilson, Vice-President ; George W. Comstock, Secretary and 
Treasurer. 

Four meetings were held during the year and on January 27th, 1910, a 
dinner was given at the University Club at which a large number were 
present. 

The Chapter also entertained a visiting delegation from New York on 
May 13th. which included President Wetmore and five members of the 

24 



Board of Managers. A special trolley car was chartered for a trip to Ni- 
agara Falls, the Gorge, Queenstown and Lewistown and the delegation was 
accompanied by a goodly number of members of the Chapter. A dinner was 
also given at the Prospect House, Niagara Falls, and the trip was a most 
enjoyable one. 

It is proposed during the coming winter to hold meetings about once 
a month. The Chapter is in a live and flourishing condition. 

Buffalo, N. Y., Nov. 9, 1910. George W. Comstock, 

Secretary Buffalo Association, 
Sons of the Revolution. 

FORT SCHUYLER CHAPTER, Utica, New York. 

The Annual Meeting of the Fort Schuyler Giapter, Sons of the Revo- 
lution, was held at their offices in the Second National Bank Building, 
Utica, N. Y., on the morning of February 22nd, and the following officers 
were elected : Sylvester Dering, Regent ; Warren C. Rowley, Vice-Regent ; 
A, Vedder Brower, Secretary ; J. Francis Day, Treasurer ; Rt. Rev. Charles 
T. Olmsted, Chaplain ; William M. Storrs, Marshal ; Wadsworth L. Good- 
ier, Historian ; Thomas R. Proctor, Willias E. Ford and Egbert Bagg, 
Trustees. 

On the evening of that day, according to the custom of the Chapter, 
the Annual Banquet was held at the Fort Schuyler Club. In the absence of 
the retiring Regent, Frederick W. Kincaid, the newly elected Regent, Gen- 
eral Sylvester Dering, presided. Covers were laid for sixteen. The table 
decorations were flags and red and white roses. The speakers of the evening 
were Doctor Charles H. Baldwin and the Rev. J. Howard Hobbs, the 
latter speaking on George Washington. 

On Columbus Day, October 12th, the Fort Schuyler Chapter, Sons of 
the Revolution, acting in conjunction with the Oneida Historical Society, 
the Daughters of the American Revolution and the Children of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, unveiled a granite boulder to mark the site of old Fort 
Schuyler. This historic fort stood at what is now the intersection of Park 
Avenue and Main Street, in the city of Utica. Twenty-five years ago the 
Oneida Historical Society built a foundation on this site upon which it was 
proposed to erect a monument. It also placed field pieces at the corners 
of the foundation, but here the work stopped. It remained for the present 
Societies to complete the monument. The base is of Barre granite and is 
six feet and two inches square. This is surmounted by a boulder, also of 
granite, measuring three feet and three inches across the face and four feet 

25 



and four inches in height. It is two feet and two inches in diameter. The 
whole stands about five feet above the foundation. On one side of the stone 
is inscribed, "Old Fort Schuyler, 1758." and on the other side a bronze 
tablet bears this inscription : 

"The Historical and Patriotic Societies of Utica Place This Stone to 
Mark the Site of One of a Chain of Forts Built to Protect the Northern 
Frontier from the French and their Indian Allies, and to Guard the Great 
Ford Across the Mohawk River. 

Oneida Historical Society, 

Daughters of the American Revolution, 

Sons of the Revolution, 

Children of the American Revolution. 

Utica, October 12, 1910." 

The unveiling occurred at 2 130 in the afternoon. General Sylvester 
Dering, Regent of the Fort Schuyler Chapter, Sons of the Revolution, pre- 
sided and stated the object of the gathering. Prayer was offered by the 
Reverend Octavius Applegate, after which the company sang "America." 
The stone was then unveiled by Philip Van R. Schuyler, of Utica, a de- 
scendant of the family for whom the fort was named. The flag was raised 
by Miss Catharine Jewett, a descendant of the Bleecker family, who with 
the Schuyler family originally held joint title to the property on which old 
Fort Schuyler was erected. As the Stars and Stripes waved over the spot, 
the people sang the "Star Spangled Banner." The company then adjourned 
to the Munson-Williams Memorial, where an historical address was deliv- 
ered by William Pierrepont White. The exercises closed with music and 
a reception tendered by the ladies of the Oneida Chapter, Daughters of the 
American Revolution. 

Utica, N. Y., Nov. 10, 191 o. Abram Vedder Brower, 

Secretary, Fort Schuyler Chapter, 
Sons of the Revolution. 

WILLIAM FLOYD CHAPTER, Troy, N. Y. 

The Annual Meeting of the William Floyd Chapter, Sons of the Revo- 
lution, was held at the Troy Club on February 22nd, 1910, and resulted 
in continuing the old officers, which are as follows : Col. Walter P. War- 
ren, Regent; Dr. Russell F. Benson, Jr., Vice-Regent; William Barker, Jr.. 
Secretary ; D. B. Plum, Treasurer ; Henry F. Boardman, Historian. 

After the election a paper entitled, "Human Nature in the American 

26 



Revolution," was read by Francis T. Joslin, editor of the Troy Record, and 
this was followed by a collation. 

Three new members were elected during the year and the Chapter lost 
one member by death, Mr. D. L. Van Antwerp. 

It has now 73 active members. 

Troy, N. Y., Nov. 10, 1910. William Barker, Jr., 

Secretary, William Floyd Chapter, " 
Sons of the Revolution. 

JAMESTOWN CHAPTER, Jamestown, N. Y. 

During the present year two new members, Theodore Zador Root and 
Edward Robert Bootey, have been admitted to the Jamestown Chapter, 
Sons of the Revolution. 

The Chapter awarded a prize of ten dollars to the high school student 
having the best essay on the subject, "The Assistance of France in Our 
Revolution ; its Basis, Effect and Result." The prize was awarded to 
Harry D. Churchill. Albert T. Underwood received favorable mention. 

Jamestown Chapter actively co-operated with the Daughters of the 
American Revolution and with the Chautauqua County Society of History 
and Natural Science in an appropriate celebration of the 100th anniversary 
of the settlement of Jamestown. 

The officers of the Society are : Major Winfield S. Cameron, Regent ; 
Doctor Morris N. Bemus, Vice-Regent; Frank H. Mott, Secretary and 
Treasurer ; Hon. Abner Hazeltine, Archivist. 

Jamestown, N. Y., Nov. 8, 1910. Frank H. Mott, 

Secretary, Jamestown Chapter, 
Sons of the Revolution. 



In the early fall the new Year Book of the Society, giving a com- 
plete roster of members to December 31st, 1909, with the records of the 
services of their ancestors, was issued. This book is larger and more beau- 
tifully illustrated than any we have heretofore published and meets with 
very general approval. 

The Library of the Society is growing steadily. Among the more im- 
portant works recently added is "The History of the United States," pub- 
lished by Burrows Brothers, of Cleveland, Ohio. 

Our Museum is also being constantly increased by gifts, as well as by 

27 



the loans, of interesting relics and documents, so that we have a valuable 
lot of historical material now on exhibition. 

Out of town members, when visiting New York, should avail them- 
selves of an opportunity to see Fraunces Tavern and our collections. Mr. 
Emil Westerburg conducts the restaurant on the premises and the mem- 
bers' dining room on the top floor offers splendid facilities to those who de- 
sire to rest and recuperate. During the past year fifty-nine hundred and 
twenty-two visitors registered in the "Long Room" of Fraunces Tavern. 

One hundred and four members have been admitted during 1910 and 
the Society now has on its roll two thousand, one hundred and thirty-eight. 

The Secretary desires to express his thanks to Mr. Louis B. Wilson, 
the Curator, for his very efficient assistance during the past year, as well 
as to the Assistant Secretary, Colonel Eugene K. Austin, for attending to 
the numerous duties of his office during his long-continued illness. 

By order of the Board of Managers, 

HENRY RUSSELL DROWNE, 

Secretary. 

Fraunces Tavern, 
New York City. 



jS 



REPORT 

OF THE 

HISTORIAN 



In Memoriam 



William Hopkins Young, 

David Marks Durell, 

Horace See, 

Poster Abel Kimball Bryan, 

John Henry Washburn, 

Rev. James William Armitage Dodge, A.M., 
D.D., 

Homer Phelps Beach, 

Robert Hudson Riley, 

William Henry Class, 

Rev. William Rogers Richards, D.D., 

Rev. Richard Lewis Howell, 

Thomas Benjamin Griggs Roberts, 

Leonard Bacon Smith, 

William Tompkins Lockwood, 

Edmund Pendleton, 2nd Lieutenant, 4th N. 
Y., V., H. Art. 1863-4. 

Charles Samuel Hall, 

Pred. Dayton Alexander, 

Prancis Emory Fitch, 

Dudley Evans, 

Levi Candee Weir, 

Richard Esterbrook, 

Archibald W. Speir, 

Albert Sullivan Yeaton, 

Andrew Heermance Smith, A.M., M.D.. 
LL.D., Captain and Assistant Sur- 
geon, Brevet Major. U. S. V., 

Elbridge Romeyn Hills, Colonel, U. S. A. 
(Retired), 

Charles Prancis Stone, 

Henry Belt. M.D., 

Prederic Tilden Brown, M.D.. 

Augustus Le Pevbre Revere. 

Clarence Morfit. 

Charles Courter Dickinson, 

Charles Henry Sheldon, 

Wessel Ten Broeck Stout Imlay, 

George Livingston Baker, 

John Austin Stevens, 

Joseph Bensel, 

William Gilbert Davies, 

Zeb Mayhew, 

Henry Percival Butler, 

Sylvester L'Honimedieu Ward. 

Gilbert MacMaster Speir. 

Daniel Lewis Van Antwerp. 

Alfred Scott. 

Linus Elisha P'uller. 

Clarke Winslow Crannell. A.B.. 

George Frederick Seward, L.L.D.. 



Ad 



mitted 


Died 


1894 


December 1st, 1900. 


1896 


December 8th, 1909. 


189/ 


December 14th, 1909. 


1894 


December 21st, 1909 


T892 


December 23rd, 1909. 


1901 


December 24th, 1909 


1904 


December 26th, 1909. 


1893 


December 30th, 1909. 


1909 


January 4th, 1910. 


1903 


January 7th, 1910. 


I904 


February 1st, 1910. 


1891 


February 16th, 1910. 


1895 


February 17th, 1910. 


1891 


March 12th, 1910. 


1893 


March 14th, 1910. 


1903 


March 16th, 1910. 


T908 


March igth, 1910. 


1889 


March 19th, 1910. 


1806 


March 27th, 1910. 


1895 


March 28th, 1910. 


1897 


March 29th. 1910. 


1896 


March 30th, 1910. 


1889 


April 2nd, igio. 



1890 April 8th, 1910. 

1904 April 14th, ■ 1910. 

1895 April 27th, 1910. 
iSgs May 6th, 1910. 
T907 May 7th, 1910. 
1887 May 20th, 1910. 
1886 May 22nd, 1910. 
1899 May 24th, 19 10. 
1904 June 1st, 1910. 

1886 June gth, 1910. 

1891 June nth, 1910. 
1876 June 16th, 1910. 

1890 July 2nd, 1910. 

1 89 1 July 26th, 1910. 
1899 July 30th, 1910. 
t8qo October 17th. 1910. 

1887 October 25th, 1910. 
1901 October 26th, 1910. 
1004 November rst, 1910 
T895 November nth. 1910. 
tqoo November t3th. toio. 
1898 November 13th, 1910. 

1896 November 28. tqto. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Talbot Olyphant, 



Historian 



31 




JOHN AUSTIN STEVENS 
1 881 



John Austin Stevens 

Founder of the Sons of the Revolution 



2£ 



John Austin Stevens 

Founder 
Sons of the Revolution 

Founded in the rooms of the New York Historical Society, 

February 22nd, 1876. 

Reorganized in Fraunces Tavern, Dec. 4th, 1883. 

First President of the Society 

1 883- 1 884 

"Exegi monumentum acre perennius." 

(Prepared by a member of the family.) 



Mr. John Austin Stevens, the only surviving son of John A. Stevens 
of New York, and Abby Weld of Boston; and grandson of 'Lieut.-Colonel 
Ebenezer Stevens, a distinguished officer of the Continental Artillery, was 
born in the city of New York, on the twenty-first day of January, (St. 
Agnes' Eve,) 1827 in St. John's Square and died at his residence "Pleas- 
aunce," Newport, Rhode Island, on the sixteenth of June, 1910. 

Mr. Stevens was of purely English origin, his ancestors being among 
the earliest of the Puritan-Pilgrims. Colonel William Perkins of Boston, 
who in 1775 was a Captain in Knox' Artillery, was Mr. Stevens' great 
grandfather, as was also Judge John Ledyard, prominent in the history of 
Connecticut, and Deputy for many years to the "Colonial Assembly" of the 
Hartford Colony. Mr. Ledyard was the father of Colonel William Ledyard, 
who commanded Fort Griswold at Groton, opposite New London; so 
treacherously murdered by the British Commander Bloomfield, after he had 
honorably surrended the fort, on Sept. 6th. 1781. The paternal grand- 
father of Mr. Stevens; Ebenezer Stevens. 'Lieutenant-Colonel of Artillery 
in the Continental Army, son of Ebenezer Stevens and Elizabeth Weld of 
Roxbury, Mass., was born at Boston in 1751. 

Young Ebenezer Stevens had just completed his fourteenth year, when 
the first tree of Liberty was christened in the Stamp-Act days, and was 
hardly twenty when the Boston massacre startled the continent. He inher- 

35 



ited the military taste of his ancestors, and while still a vouth joined Pad- 
dock's Company of Artillery in the "Train" and with them took part in the 
celebrated Boston Tea Party. Pursued, in Dec. 1773, by Hutchinson the 
Tory governor, for his share in this transaction, he fled to Providence, R. I. 
When the news came of the Lexington fight he abandoned his business, 
and took active part in enlisting the Artillery Company, which marched 
with the Rhode Island Army of observation in May 1775, under Col. 
Nathaniel Greene to the American camp at Cambridge. On the disband- 
ment of this temporary force he passed into the Massachusetts regiment 
and remained in active service to the close of the war. 

Ordered by Washington to reinforce the American Army in Canada, 
he was promoted at Ticonderoga, Major in command of the Northern De- 
partment 1777, and fought at Stillwater, Bemis Heights, and the battle of 
Saratoga. He was present at the surrender of Burgoyne, Oct. 1777. 
Breveted by Congress with special thanks for his services, he was promoted 
Lieut.-Colonel, and transferred to Col. John Lamb's regiment New York 
Second Continental Artillery. He then served under Lafayette in Virginia 
and in 1781, was as Lieut.-Colonel one of the three Commanders of Artillery 
at the Siege of Yorktown. The person of Colonel Stevens has been admir- 
ably portrayed by Trumbull, in the large painting of the Surrender of 
Burgoyne in the Capitol at Washington, and he is again introduced, in 
the picture by the same artist, representing the Surrender of Cornwallis. 

Colonel Stevens, was one of the military escort of General Washington 
on his triumphal entry into New York City on the day of the British 
Evacuation, Nov. 25, 1783. Settling here, he was the founder of the New 
York branch of the family. One of the original founders of the Cincinnati, 
Colonel Stevens was one of Washington's pall bearers, at the memorial 
service in St. Paul's Chapel, 1799. 

After the Revolution, he superintended, in 1800, the building of the 
fortifications on Governor's Island, New York harbor, and during the War 
of 1 81 2, as Major-General of Militia, had a part in the defences of New 
York. 

He was twice married, first in 1774, to Rebecca Hodgdon by whom he 
had two children; a son, Horatio Gates Stevens, later Major-General of 
the New York Militia. His wife dying in 1783, General Stevens married in 
the following year, Lucretia, daughter of Judge John Ledyard, of Hartford, 
and widow of Richardson Sands, by whom he had a numerous family. 

John A. Stevens, the elder, 1795- 1874 was the fifth son of Lieut.-Col- 
onel Ebenezer Stevens, and Lucretia Ledyard. He graduated from Yale 

36 



College in 1813 and in 1824 married Abby Weld, daughter of Mr. 
Benjamin Weld of Boston of the "'Lexington Alarm," later attached to the 
Commissary Department during the War of the Revolution. 

Mr. Stevens left one son, John Austin Stevens, the subject of this 
sketch, who was born as we have stated elsewhere, in New York, and 
educated in private schools in that city, receiving his early training at the 
New York Grammar School and at the famous French Academy of Mr. 
Peugnet, laying in youth, the foundation for the splendid education which 
he later acquired. In 1842, at the early age of fifteen, he entered Harvard 
being graduated therefrom in 1846 with no special distinction in 
classics, but with proficiency in mathematics, logic and literary com- 
position and thoroughly versed in English, French and Spanish literature. 
Among his classmates were the late Senator George F. Hoar and three 
eminent Harvard professors Francis J. Childs, George Martin Lane and 
Charles Eliot Norton. Mr. Edward Everett, was at this time President of 
the faculty. 

Mr. Stevens writes, "It is interesting, in connection with my college 
days to cite that my first visit to the sacred grounds of Bunker Hill, (where 
at the time of the fight my grandfather was stationed at Boston Neck with 
his guns to control that narrow passage) was, when I was marched there 
with my class in 1843, to listen to the memorable address of the immortal 
Webster, whose matchless oratory, made things glorious, more glorious 
than they were before, gilding them with an ore as brilliant as their own, 
which time cannot corrupt or stain ! It was fitting that he, whose impas- 
sioned words at the laying of the corner stone had awakened busy Boston 
to the duty it owed to the martyrs whose blood sanctified this historic field, 
should stand again at the completion of the great monument to their mem- 
ory, and give his benediction to the structure he had christened, and so long 
as the tall granite shaft shall stand, so long shall the names of the fathers 
who founded the nation, and of that statesman of heroic mould who was 
its great defender, be inscribed together on the roll of fame." 

On his return from college in 1846, Mr. Stevens entered the office of 
Spofford and Tileston, then one of the largest houses in the city, where he 
was charged with their entire correspondence, and was for many years 
their cashier. In 1852 Mr. Stevens formed a partnership with Mr. John 
Storey of Cuba, with which island they carried on extensive importations. 
This connection was closed with the breaking out of hostilities in 1861. 

In 1855, Mr. Stevens married Miss Margaret Morris, the daughter 
of William Lewis Morris of Morrisania, and great grand-daughter of 

37 



Richard Morris the old Chief Justice ; his home in Fifteenth Street, a feu- 
doors from Fifth Avenue and the New York Club of which he was a mem- 
ber, where he spent the next few years, being the scene of notable gather- 
ings of distinguished men during the War time, and the repository of his 
rare and beautiful library, to him a delight. 

In the panic of 1857, Mr. Stevens was secretary of the Exchange Com- 
mittee, appointed by the banks of New York to purchase produce bills. 
He also raised the special fund which enabled Dr. Hayes to carry with him 
the facilities for photography on his voyage to the Artie Seas. It was dur- 
ing these years that Mr. Stevens spent much time and thought in familiar- 
ising himself with the details of the struggles of his native land for freedom 
and progress. That he made this study his specialty throughout his long 
life, was due to a marked intent for such research, and a worthy pride in 
the share his ancestors had taken in founding and establishing the govern- 
ment of the city and nation upon a sound and enduring basis. 

Mr. Stevens came early into prominence through his father, who, hold- 
ing many positions of trust, and being one of the leading bankers of the day, 
frequently employed his son in matters connected with his business, who in 
this way, formed the acquaintance of many of the influential men in New 
York, Philadelphia and Washington. Among these, Mr. Salmon P. Chase, 
the distinguished Secretary of the Treasury, whose masterly talent for 
finance carried the Treasury Department safely through the Civil War. 
Attracted by Mr. Stevens' brilliant intellect, handsome person and courtly 
address, Mr. Chase soon formed a sincere attachment for the gifted young 
man, who had already shown a positive genius for grappling with the 
problems of the times. 

In the autumn of i860, he organized the great meeting on the steps of 
the Merchants Exchange, over which his father presided, which rallied men 
of all parties in New York to the support and election of Mr. Lincoln. Also, 
the meetings at the Cooper Institute, in that political campaign at which 
Grew, Thad Stevens, Doolittle, and Doubleday and other leading statesmen 
from outside the State spoke in turn. 

Mr. Stevens brought the influence of the people to bear upon the ad- 
ministration in a novel manner. Drawing up a short document, he called 
upon the people to associate themselves into a Loyal National League, 
pledging themselves to unconditional loyalty to the government of the United 
States, to an unwavering support of its efforts to suppress the rebellion, 
and to spare no endeavor to maintain unimpaired the national unity, both 
in principle and territorial boundary. This appeal he had posted on the 

38 



newspaper buildings throughout New York, inviting signatures, where- 
upon nearly ten thousand persons affixed their names. Those who signed 
the pledge were invited to a monster meeting at the Cooper Institute on the 
evening of March 20th, 1863. At the time appointed, masses of the sturdy 
loyalty of the city steadily marched in until the large hall was densely 
filled. At eight o'clock an immense roll handsomely mounted with the 
national colors and containing over five thousand names (a part only of the 
headings having been returned and several hundred of them being still 
outstanding) was rolled in, placed upon the de^k in front of the audi- 
ence and greeted with great applause, and thus the Loyal National League 
was formed, which soon had branches all over the country. Probably no 
man of his age did more to bring about compact and efficient organization 
among the men of the North than young Mr. Stevens. 

He was also the manager and general director of the Loyal Publica- 
tion Society, was secretary of the National War Committee which succeeded 
the Union Defence Committee, and received the thanks of Secretary Stanton, 
and General Halleck for timely service. The plan of depot camps suggested 
by him received the approval of the War Department. In 1862 he managed 
the expedition for the relief of Texas, and was confidential secretary of 
the Treasuary Note Committee. That committee managed the great loan 
of 1862 to the government of one hundred and fifty millions in coin, which 
enabled it to carry on the war. He was secretary of the committee which 
raised a very large sum (over two hundred thousand dollars) for the 
relief of East Tennessee, personally raising the fund. At the appeal of 
General Gilmor, Mr. Stevens sent him at Charleston, (again raising the 
fund), the calcium lights, which secured the desertion of Fort Wagner 
by the rebels. 

In 1861 Mr. Stevens took under his special charge the recruitment of 
the 51st Regiment, N. Y. State Volunteers, sending it to the front, main- 
taining it, and keeping it in the field from the beginning to the close of the 
war. Contributing liberally towards its support himself, and by personal 
solicitation, securing the necessary fund for an extra bounty from our 
liberal citizens. It was purely a New York regiment. Mr. Stevens shared 
with others in the movement to recruit the Ninth Army Corps, for the 
conquest of the Carolina coast under Burnside. Mr. Stevens was with 
General Stoneman at Poolsville, when his lines were turned by the rebel 
cavalry under Stuart, and rode as his aid to White's Ford in pursuit of the 
retreating column. 

He was a member of the Arms and Trophies Committee of the 



Sanitary Fair. He was also offered the positions of Consul-General to 
Paris, Commissioner of Internal Revenue and Registrar of the Treasury. 
Air. Stevens was with Mr. Lincoln on the morning- of the day of his 
assassination, having visited Washington with a delegation to request the 
President in the general interest, to name a day of national rejoicing over 
the peace. 

In 1862 Mr. Stevens was chosen Secretary of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, serving in that capacity till 1868, during which time he presented 
valuable statistical reports and many interesting memorial papers. In 1867 
he compiled the Colonial Records of the Chamber from 1768-1784 with 
biographical and other notes, making a valuable addition to the history of 
New York. While secretary he founded the large gallery of portraits 
which now adorn its walls, and in 1868 organized the celebration of the 
one hundredth anniversay of the founding of the Chamber of Commerce, 
resigning his position in the same year to join his family abroad. On his 
retirement, Mr. Abiel A. Low in offering the resolutions of the Chamber 
said, "whatever influence this Chamber has exerted there has been a very 
great increase of labor on the part of its members, and perhaps no one 
connected with the Chamber has contributed so much to its usefulness as 
our retiring secretary." 

In 1868 Mr. Stevens joined his family in Europe for an extended tour, 
and during his five years' sojourn abroad witnessed many stirring events. 
He saw the downfall of the French Empire, and the proclamation of the 
Republic in 1870. Forced to leave France that autumn on account of the 
Franco-Prussian war, he visited Belgium and Holland, spending some 
months at the Hague, where he became intimate with the Prince of Oranee 
and the gentlemen of his household. The winter of the ever memorable 
siege of Paris 1 870-1 871 he spent at Wiesbaden, Germany, where his draw- 
ing-room was nightly the rendezvous of the French officers of General 
MacMahon's staff, captives of Sedan and Metz. Among these the dashing 
Colonel Henri Lasalle, who in 1871 led the Versailles Troops to the 
deliverance of Paris from the Communists. 

Receiving notification from the Chamber of Commerce of his appoint- 
ment on the commission to distribute its contributions to the relief of Paris 
after the siege Mr. Stevens entered the city by the first train, but at the in- 
sance of Minister Washburn, waived his action in favor of Mr. Riggs, who 
had been conected with the ambulance corps during the siege, remaining 
in Paris to the close of the Commune. He was with General Sheridan at the 
Westminster Hotel, at the time of the affair of the Place Vendome. After 

40 



the Commune Mr. Stevens resided for a year in London where he was the 
agent for Messrs. Jay, Cook and Co., in connection with the Northern 
Pacific Railroad, and in 1872 made a tour of Alsace and Lorraine, to ex- 
amine into the feasibility of an extensive emigration from these captured 
provinces. 

In 1873 Mr. Stevens returned to New York to resume his interest in 
public affairs, and financial matters. He found the business world convulsed 
with the agitation for the resumption of specie payment, the government 
on the verge of a serious financial crisis. He contributed to the New York 
Times, September and October, 1873, a series of financial articles under the 
signature of "Knickerbocker," on the resumption of specie payment by the 
government. These articles attracted widespread interest, and in 
1875 Congress passed a law that specie payment should be resumed in 1879. 

In 1874 Mr. Stevens was a delegate on behalf of the Chamber of 
Commerce, to the Convention of Boards of Trade at Baltimore, and de- 
livered an address at their request on the national finances. In the same 
year he visited Washington to procure the repeal of the odious Moiety Law, 
and remained at his post, until the law was repealed. 

Mr. Stevens was a liberal contributor to the history of his country, and 
to him more than any other man, belongs the credit of the movement to 
create an interest in American History. "In his articles, it was difficult to 
decide what one should most admire, the vigor and sweep of his thought, or 
the purity and power of his style. His mastery of English was superb; he 
had all the resources of the language at command, and the result was a 
lucidity of style that made clear the subtle calculations of philosophy, the 
sophistry of politics, the enigma of historical episode, the abstruse theories 
of high finance, and the delicate fancies of the poetic muse. A powerful 
thinker and master of style was he — acquirements which won him recogni- 
tion far and wide as a scholar — even unto the pages of the "Encyclopedia 
Britannica" which hands down to posterity the achievements of the most 
notable of mankind. 

The sacred fire the patriots had kindled on the altar of liberty in 1776, 
had smouldered a century, their heroic deeds almost forgotten, when the 
approach of the one hundredth anniversary of the battles of Lexington, 
Concord and Bunker Hill, awakening sleeping memories, caused it again to 
burst into flame. All the patriotism, that had been inherited from the 
fathers of those battles, being poured out into the greatest demonstration 
ever witnessed in this country. The enthusiasm of the people having grown 
to a state of expectation difficult to describe. 

4i 



Keenlv interested in the coming national events Mr. Stevens' feelings 
at this time are best described in the following letter: "A grandson of a 
founder of the Cincinnati, I felt it rather hard that I and those in my case. • 
could take no recognized part in the Philadelphia Centennial. Remembering 
that a few years previously the Cincinnati had opened their gates I wrote 
President-General Fish, to know if they intended making any provision for 
the descendants of other than elder sons of founders. This was in the 
summer of 1875. I was answered No." It was then in December of that 
year, that Mr. Stevens conceived the idea of forming a patroitic society, on 
the order of the Cincinnati, yet more democratic in its plan admitting the 
descendants of those who served in the military, naval and civil services. 

In planning this organization Mr. Stevens consulted with Mr. William 
Kelby, Librarian of the New York Historical Society and one of the best 
informed students of the history and events of New York, Major Asa Bird 
Gardiner, then Professor of Military Law at West Point, and others. 
With this end in view Mr. Stevens sent out the following circular letter, in- 
viting a meeting at the New York Historical Society, February 22nd, 1876: 

"SONS OF THE REVOLUTION. 

The Socety of the Cincinnati founded at West Point by the officers of 
the Army of the Revolution in 1783, originally limited its membership to 
descendants of officers in the elder branch, and, with a temporary and short 
variation from the rule ever since maintained its restriction. 

The approach of the Centennial Anniversary of American Independence 
is an appropriate time for the formation of a Society on a broader basis 
which may include all descendants of those who served in the Army of the 
Revolution. 

The undersigned have formed themselves into a Society under the name 
of 

"SONS OF THE REVOLUTION." 

and invite the membership of all who like themselves are descendants of 
officers or soldiers of the Revolutionary Army. 

The object of the Society is to take part in the Centennial Exhibition at 
Philadelphia. 

A meeting will be held for organization at the rooms of the New York 
Historical Society on the morning of Tuesday the 22nd of February next 
( 1876) at 12 o'clock. 

All persons having a right and desire to become members may send 

42 



their names and the names of those they represent to the undersigned (Box 
88, Station "D," New York Post Office.) 

John Austin Stevens." 
'The Call' which led to the formation of the Society, which has spread to 
31 states in the Union and was the origin of the Sons of the Revolution." 
There was not enough interest to proceed further then, but the celebration 
of Evacuation Day, showed Mr. Stevens what a great latent interest there 
was in such matters. 

In 1876 Mr. Stevens was elected librarian of the New York Historical 
Society, which position he held for two years, his deep interest in the history 
of his native city leading him to prepare and deliver before the Society in 
1876 an historical address on the Progress of New York, in the Century 
1776-1876. He read papers before the Society on the "Stamp-Act in New 
York 1775," and on ''New York in the Continental Congress;" he organized 
the celebration of the centennial anniversary of the Battle of Harlem Plains 
and in the fall of 1877, the meeting at the Academy of Music in commemor- 
ation of the one hundredth anniversary of the adoption of the Constitution 
of the state of New York; on Sept. 19th. 1877 he delivered an address, "The 
Burgoyne Campaign," on the centennial celebration of the Battle of Bemis 
Heights, on the battle field where a century before his grandfather Colonel 
Ebenezer Stevens of the Continental Army, had commanded the Artillery 
of the Northern department. Mr. Stevens was for sixty-two years a member 
of the Historical Society, his love for historical research leading him to 
contribute at different times many valuable documents to its archives. 

In 1877 Mr. Stevens founded the Magazine of American History, 
which he edited for several years, many of his finest articles appearing in 
its pages, among these: "The French in Rhode Island," "The Southern 
Campaign," "Gates at Camden," "The Allies at Yorktown," and "The Duke 
de Lauzun." Mr. Stevens was ably assisted by his son, young John Austin 
Stevens Jr., who at the time was under twenty. 

At the approach of the Yorktown Centennial, and the laying of the 
corner stone of the monument, voted by Congress to perpetuate the mem- 
ory of the victory, and the alliance with France, invitations were extended 
to the French Government, to be represented on this occasion, and also to 
the descendants of the Marquis de Lafayette. Mr. Stevens was appointed 
one of the state commissioners for the reception of the French delegation 
and at the beautiful banquet given by the Chamber of Commerce on the 
evening of Nov. 5th, 1881 to the guests of the nation, responded in French 
to the toast "La Ville de Paris." A trip to West Point on the Vandalia and 

43 



Kearsage, a handsome ball and the princely gift of Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt. 
of a special train to Niagara Falls, were among the notable features of this 
historic event. 

The centenary Celebration of the Evacuation of New York by the 
British, Nov. 25th, 1883, will long be remembered in the annals of the city, 
as a day of festivity and general rejoicing. Mr. Stevens who had a per- 
sonal interest in this event was elected chairman, taking an active part in 
the affair and being in fact its prime mover. The great procession in which 
the Old Guard in Continental uniform and Washington's coach wreathed 
in flowers figured, were among its most attractive features. In carriages, 
heading the procession were President Arthur, Governor Cleveland, Gen- 
eral Grant and Mr. Stevens and his son. Dinners in commeration of the 
event were given that evening by societies and clubs throughout the city, 
the subscription banquet at the Brunswick, at which the lineal descendants 
of the Whigs and Tories (old New Yorkers, but not of Revolutionary 
descent were represented) being arranged by Mr. Stevens, who deemed it 
fitting that they should have their share in the festivities. The outcome of 
this dinner was the Society of '83, which for some years had its annual 
meetings on Evacuation Day. 

It was originally planned that Fraunces Tavern, the old Revolutionary 
hostelry, should share in the honors of this celebration and be thrown open 
for the entire day; but the saloon keeper although offered a large price, 
declined, saying "he could make more money with his saloon." Disappointed 
Mr. Stevens writes, "in the use of the Tavern on Evacuation Day, it was 
under my management that that ancient body, in commemoration of the 
founding of the Chamber of Commerce, gave a memorial lunch in the Long 
Room, Fraunces Tavern on the 4th Dec. 1883, and it was at a turtle feast 
arranged by me also, on the evening of the same day that The Sons of the 
Revolution (whose birth was at the "New York Historical Society," Wash- 
ington's Birthday, 1876) was here organized. It will be remembered 
by our older members that we held our annual meetings here for many 
years. The day will be long remembered as the occasion of a feast which 
began at noon and ended at midnight of that ever memorable "Centennial 
Day." Let us step back into the past and join the sixty gentlemen assembled 
at Fraunces Tavern, to commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of 
Washington's Farewell to his officers, on this Tuesday evening Dec. 4th, 
1883. The old room substantially the same as it stood a hundred years ago, 
is papered in blue and white willow tiles. A bright fire glares and splutters 
in the hearth just as it glared and spluttered in the days of Washington. 

44 



The room is decorated in honor of the occasion with a profusion of flags 
which hang- in fancifully draped folds about the picture of the father of his 
country, and float from the windows facing Broad and Pearl Streets. 
Bunches of holly with shining red berries and long garlands of green, are 
tastefully arranged along the walls. Down the centre of the room runs a 
long table, crossed at the lower end by smaller tables on which are placed 
the memorial plates and bowls. The feast provided for the guests is one 
for which the old tavern was famous ; turtle soup, stilton cheese, sherry and 
madeira wines, and arrack punch, served in two beautiful large punch bowls 
with borders of blue and gold, lettered in red, a medallion of Washington 
in the centre. The waiters wear old fashioned English black coats, with blue 
neck cloths ; long pipes are provided for the guests, and speech and song 
follow in quick succession ; and when the continentals in buff and blue, 
strike up the old march, to the fife and drum, Mr. Stevens sings the accom- 
panying words ? : "We are the troops, That ne'er will stoop, to wretched 
slavery" midst peals of applause; and thus the Society of the Sons of the 
Revolution was organized, the Spirit of 1776 walked abroad that night. 
Those present were : 

John Austin Stevens, Henry C. Lockwood, Ingersoll Lockwood, How- 
ard Lockwood, John Wilkinson Forbes, James W. Hale, Charles Baumann 
Marsh, C. Van E. Gallup, James Duane Livingston, George W. W. Hough- 
ton, William H. Crosby, Asa Bird Gardiner, Winslow S. Pierce, John 
Cochrane, Wiliam H. Sloan, Robert E. Livingston, Frederick S. Tallmadge. 
J. Bleecker Miller, Paul W. Burdge, M.D., Samuel Chase Coale, James 
Mortimer Montgomery, G. Willett Van Nest, Alex. R. Thompson, Jr., S. H. 
Shreve, James M. Varnum, F. A. Burrall, G. Wotherspoon, Jr., James B. 
Townsend, George C. Genet, George Wilson, Richard H. Greene, Marcus 
Hunter, Floyd Clarkson, W. W. Greene, Asa C. Warren, George P. Bar- 
rett, William H. Barrett, Jesse W. Page. John Merchant. Frederick J. 
Huntington, Austin Huntington, Frank S. Bolton, William Kelby, Thomas 
H. Edsall. George H. Sharpe, John Austin Stevens, Jr., Gilbert R. Hawes, 
John Fitch, John C. O'Connor. 

At the reorganization meeting held December 31, 1883, New Year's 
Eve, the following were present : 

John Austin Stevens, Henry C. Lockwood, Ingersoll Lockwood, How- 
ard Lockwood, John Wilkinson Forbes, James W. Hale, John Austin 
Stevens, Jr.. Charles Baumann Marsh, C. Van E. Gallup, James Duane 
Livingston, George W. W. Houghton, William H. Crosby, Asa Bird 
Gardiner, Winslow S. Pierce, John Cochrane, William H. Sloan, Robert E. 

45 



Livingston, Frederick S. Tallmadge, J. Bleecker Miller, Paul W. Burdge, 
M.D., Samuel Chase Coale, James Mortimer Montgomery. G. Willett Van 
Nest, Alex. R. Thompson, Jr., S. H. Shreve, James M. Varnum, F. A. 
Burrall, G. Wotherspoon. Jr.. James B. Townsend, George C. Genet, George 
Wilson, Richard H. Greene, Marcus Hunter, Floyd Clarkson, W. W. 
Green, Asa C. Warren, George P. Barrett. William H. Barrett, Jesse W. 
Page, John Merchant. 

The history of Fraunces Tavern in connection with the Sons of the 
Revolution, is too well known to dwell upon it here. The Chamber of 
Commerce, the earliest mercantile body in the colonies was founded here 
in 1768. And it was at the time of the contennial anniversary of that event, 
that Mr. Stevens, then Secretary of the Chamber, searched out the mystery 
of the old building, in his own words, "rediscovered it" and inducted it in 
his notes of the "Colonial Records of 1868." 

It has been seen, how at the turtle feast, the long cherished plan of a 
patriotic society, on broader lines than the Cincinnati was presented and 
adopted, and how the reorganization of the Society founded in 1876 (the 
first of the hereditary societies), was carried out on the evening of Dec. 4th, 
1883, by Mr. Stevens when he was elected its first president. The Society 
in ensuing years had as it will be remembered, its vicissitudes, but thanks 
to the judicious judgment and firm determination of Mr. Stevens, and the 
co-operation of the board of managers, triumphed over all obstacles, grew, 
and prospered. 

At the Centennial Celebration in 1889, of the inauguration of George 
Washington as first president of the United States, the Sons of the Revolu- 
tion figured prominently, holding a commemorative service at St. Paul's 
Chapel on Tuesday April 30th, and again the following year, Dec. 14th, 
1899, a memorial service on the death of his Excellency, General George 
Washington. For over twenty years it has been the custom of the Society 
to hold an annual service on the Sunday nearest to the date of Feb. 22nd, 
and there is no doubt that through this class of religious observance of 
the day the Society has won a strong hold on the hearts of the religious part 
of our community. 

On this centennial occasion Mr. Stevens, a member of the general en- 
tertainment committee of the Chamber of Commerce, took an active part 
in all the ceremonies. 

In Sep. 1898, Mr. Stevens in appreciation of his labors, was presented 
by the Society of the Sons of the Revolution with the Founder's badee a 
beautiful medal artistically wrought and inscribed. The gift was accom- 

46 



panied by a letter from the president, Mr. Tallmadge, who in closing said : 
"The noblest tribute that can be paid to your partiotism is the fact that the 
Society organized by you now numbers over two thousand members, that, of 
itself, is the proudest monument you could ask for to your energy and 
patriotism." 

On Feb. 22nd, 1900, at the request of the president, Mr. Tallmadge, Air. 
Stevens delivered an address before the Society on ''The Past, Present and 
Future of the Sons of the Revolution," together with an open letter, a sum- 
mary of its history, conditions and prospects. 'T will not further allude," 
said Mr. Stevens, "to the struggles we have had in the past to maintain 
our identity, struggles, only put an end to by the determined resistance of 
our earlier members, and their declared intention to cling to our charter, 
our name and our colors, although but a corporal's guard remained to hold 
the fort ; but it is pleasant to remember that there was no bitterness in that 
contest, and there is none now, but only the best feeling in our organization 
towards each and all of the patriotic societies of both sexes, which have been 
formed on our lines. The past is secure, our present is one of which we 
may well be proud ; we are a public, not a private society, gentlemen ; Sons 
of the Revolution, I greet you one and all with a pride in your prosperity 
beyond expression, and in the profound belief that it will endure." 

On June 1st, 1904, Mr. Stevens went to New York to attend the 
meeting of the Sons of the Revolution, called to ratify the recent purchase 
by its managers, of Fraunces Tavern. In this same month, Mr. Tallmadge. 
the honored president of the Society for twenty years, died, leaving it a 
large bequest, which later made possible the restoration of the old building. 

On Dec. 4th, 1907, with much formal ceremony, Fraunces Tavern 
enshrined in sacred memories, and hallowed by the unseen presence of the 
immortal Washington, passed forever into the keeping of the Sons of the 
Revolution. "Prevented by distance and age," writes Mr. Stevens, "from 
being with you in the flesh at your festivities on this interesting anniversary, 
yet I am with you in spirit. For to-day one of my dearest wishes for more 
than thirty years has come to a perfect fulfillment, of which I never 
dreamed — the establishment of our Society, not only in a home of its own, 
but in the very building in which it was instituted." 

On the evening of that day Mr. Stevens received the following tele- 
gram : "John Austin Stevens, Newport, Rhode Island : 'Six hundred Sons 
of the Revolution, assembled at Fraunces Tavern, tender to you the founder 
of the Society, their sincere congratulations, and regrets that you are not 
present at the dedication of this historic building," James Mortimer Mont- 
gomery." 

47 



That night, Mr. Stevens sent this answer : "Congratulations to the 
Sons of the Revolution ; the}- have made history." 

At the April meeting 1908, the Board of Managers authorized the 
placing of a tablet to John Austin Stevens in the Long Room, with the 
following inscription : 

"Sons of the Revolution — founded February 22, 1876, 

by John Austin Stevens. 

New York Historical Society Library. 

Organized December 4, 1883, in this room. 

Incorporated April 29, 1884 — Esto perpetua. 

Erected by the Board of Managers." 

Over the large fire place in this same room, hangs the Fraunces Tavern 
tablet and on either side the portraits of Mr. Stevens and Mr. Tallmadge. 

Mr. Stevens' relations with the Society of the Sons were to him for 
well nigh thirty years, a source of pride, and pleasure ; one might almost 
say his greatest interest. His long and friendly intercourse with its Presi- 
dent, Mr. Tallmadge, and with Mr. James Mortimer Montgomery (whom 
he loved as a son), bringing him both satisfaction and delight. 

In 1882 Mr. Stevens wrote the Life of Albert Gallatin for the States- 
man's Series. In 1883 he prepared an article upon New York State, which 
appears in the ninth edition, 1884, of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

He was also the author of a revolutionary play, "Colonel Beverly," 
and an historial novel, "The Major's Quest" (a tale of three cities in 
1783) (unpublished), also a translation of "Taine's Notes on Paris." 

In addition to contributing frequently to historical publications, Mr. 
Stevens published many addresses, books, pamphlets and papers, among 
others, "The Expedition of Lafayette against Arnold;" "Yorktown Hand- 
Book;" "Battle of Harlem Plains;" "Birth of the Empire State;" "The 
Merchants of New York, 1765, 1775," and an exhaustive work on the 
"Progress of New York in a Century 1800-1900." This history he looked 
upon as the crowning of his literary labors, his desire being to leave within 
the archives of the New York Historical Society a complete and accurate 
account of his native city. 

In 1893 on the four hundredth anniversary, of the discovery of America 
by Columbus, an appropriation was made by a special committee of the 
Chamber of Commerce, of which Mr. Stevens was the Secretary, for the 
reception, and entertainment of the lineal descendants of Columbus, His 
Grace the Duke of Veragua, Lord High Admiral of Spain, and his family. 

48 



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From the beginning to the close of these celebrations, viz : The address 
of welcome to the Duke of Veragua by the three institutions the Chamber 
of Commerce, the New York Historical Society, and the American Geo- 
graphical Society, the grand reception of the Duke and his family at the 
Hotel Waldorf, the banquet to the foreign and United States naval officers, 
the ball to the gutsts of the city, at the Madison Square Garden, and the 
shore parade of the foreign and United States sailors from the banks of 
the Hudson to the City Hall, each, and every one, was carried out by Mr. 
Stevens and his son. 

For the next twenty years of his life Mr. Stevens made his home at 
Newport, Rhode Island, where he continued his literary labors, contributing 
many chapters to "Baylis' History of Newport County," and also to Gen- 
eral James Grant Wilson's Memorial History of New York City. In 1895 
he wrote the History of the Newport Artillery, and on July 5th, 1897, de- 
livered an address, "Rhode Island in the Revolution," before the Society 
of the Cincinnati, in the Senate Chamber of the State House. He was for 
years a prolific writer on the leading topics of the day, sending many articles 
to the columns of the Newport papers, and "New York Sun," he loved his 
home and his garden, giving much attention to the cultivation of roses. 
Washington's Birthday and the Fourth of July were never allowed to pass 
unnoticed ; these National holidays being the occasion for festive gather- 
ings, at which he delighted to welcome his friends. 

Mr. Stevens retained to the end of a long life his remarkable health; 
and vigor, and it was not until after the death of his only son, in 1909 
(to whom he was devotedly attached), that he began to fail. He passed 
away on the morning of June 10th, 1910, in the home he had christened 
"Pleasaunce." surrounded by those he loved. 

Funeral services, were held on the afternoon of June 18th, at his 
residence on Rhode Island Avenue, where a large number of friends 
gathered to pay a last tribute to one of Newport's most prominent citizens. 
The Rev. Dr. Emory H. Porter (rector of Emmanuel Church and honorary 
Chaplain of the Rhode Island Society of the Sons of the Revolution), 
officiating. 

Final honors were paid Mr. John Austin Stevens by the New York 
Society of the Sons of the Revolution at the funeral, services held by them 
in St. Paul's Chapel, New York City, en the afternoon of Tuesday, June 
21st. 1910, services in which the Chamber of Commerce and the New York 
Historical Society, corporations with which Mr. Stevens had long been 

49 



identified, joined; the cortege forming at the Chapter House where the 
remains of Mr. Stevens, which had been brought to New York, rested. 

The funeral procession which had a military setting, wound its way 
through the old church yard, to the sound of fife and drum ; led by a de- 
tachment of the Veteran Corps of Artillery of the War of 1812 consisting of 
Charles Elliot Warren, Adjutant in Command ; Lt. Clarence H. Eagle ; Lt. 
Paul G. Thebaud; Sergt. -Major Brvce Metcalf ; Lt. Frank L. Humphreys, 
Chaplain ; Sergt. James Mortimer Montgomery ; Sergt. Norman B. Gardiner ; 
Sergt. I. Henry Walker ; Corporal Walter L. Suydam ; Corporal Mortimer 
Delano ; Corporal John B. Elmendorf ; Corporal Harrison Williams ; Cor- 
poral Frederick S. Woodruff ; John R. Delafield ; Chandler Smith ; Colonel 
Asa Bird Gardiner ; Four Musicians ; in black and gold uniform and Napol- 
eonic shakos wearing mourning badges, their sword hilts tied with crepe. 
The corps was preceded by standard bearers, the colors veiled in crepe, the 
field music in scarlet and gold. Major Holland was chief marshal of the 
ceremony. Next followed the pall bearers : 

Mr. Edmund Wetmore ; Mr. Robert Olyphant ; M r. Samuel Ver Planck 
Hoffman, President of the New York Historical Society ; Mr. Sereno E. 
Pratt, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce ; Colonel Asa Bird Gardiner ; 
Mr. Alexander R. Thompson ; Mr. Robert H. Kelby, Librarian of the New- 
York Historical Society ; Mr. Arthur Melvin Hatch ; Mr. William Warner 
Hoppin; Mr. James Mortimer Montgomery. 

The coffin, borne on the shoulders of six bearers, was wrapped in the 
American flag, and the silken banners of the "Sons of the Revolution," and 
surmounted by a superb cross, and wreath of blue corn-flowers and the 
golden coreopsis, tied with the colors of the Society, a farewell tribute of 
the Sons of the Revolution to their Founder. At the church door the 
Veteran Corps was drawn up, and stood while the procession filed into the 
church (later occupying the front seats). Directly following the coffin 
were Mr. Stevens' two daughters, and other members of his family. Then 
came the Sons of the Revolution, and the delegations from the Chamber of 
Commerce, Historical Society, and other Patriotic Societies. The services 
were conducted by the Rev. Frank Landon Humphreys, S. T. D., Assistant 
Jhaplain of the Society ; assisted by the Rev. William Montague Geer, D. D.. 
Vicar of St. Paul's Chapel ; the Rev. George Stuart Baker, D. D. ; the Rev. 
Charles Daniel Trexler ; the Rev. William Nichols Dunnell, D. D. ; the Rev. 
George Clarke Houghton, A. M., D. D. : the Rev. Pelham St. George 
Bissell, A. M.. A. K. C. ; the Rev. Henry Barton Chapin D. D. ; the Rev. 
James Tiittle-Smith, D. D. ; and the Rev. Berry Oakley Baldwin, B. D. ; 

50 



ifo 




Only the Episcopal burial service was read, but a full choir sang the music 
prepared as a requiem for King Edward the Seventh. It included the 
anthem "Blest are the departed" from Spor's last Judgment, the choral 
"O God our help in ages past," and Tschaikowsky's great Revolutionary 
march. 

At the close of the impressive ceremony, Dr. Humphreys read a letter 
from Bishop Greer, Chaplain of the Society regretting his inability to be 
present, in which he said : "The career of John Austin Stevens has been 
a notable one. In all of his activities, which have been many and varied, 
he has been actuated by the highest and noblest motives. In the best, and 
truest sense of the word he was a patriot, devoted to the welfare of his 
country, and desirious in every way to promote it. 

It was this unselfish quality, which inspired him to establish the order 
of the "Sons of the Revolution," as a Society which would represent and 
cherish the best traditions of the American Nation." 

The beautiful colonial church, was filled to its utmost capacity, the 
chancel decorated with the numerous wreaths and flowers, sent by friends 
and patriotic societies of both sexes. 

The funeral procession viewed by uncovered thousands, moved down 
Broadway to Beaver Street, on its way to Broad and Pearl ; passing Fraun- 
ces Tavern, which draped in black stood a silent touching tribute, to one 
who in evoking her from out the shadowy past had restored her to old time 
dignity, and prestige. 

The interment was in the family vault in Greenwood Cemetery, where 
the old Revolutionary general lies. 

Telegrams of sympathy, and regrets at their inability to be present, 
were received by the Society of the Sons of the Revolution, from the Gen- 
eral President, the Hon. John Lee Carroll, of Maryland ; from Mr. Richard 
M. Cadwalader, President of the Pennsylvania Society; from Mr. William 
Libbey, of the New Jersey Society; from President Burrage, of the Massa- 
chusetts Society; from Mr. E. Hart Fenn, of the Connecticut Society; 
and from Mr. Albion Keith Parris.Jr., of the District of Columbia Society. 

To Mr. James Mortimer Montgomery, is due the perfecting of the 
arrangements which made of the services at St. Paul's, an inspiration ; to 
the exquisite taste of Mr. Arthur Melvin Hatch, the choice and selection 
of the lovely flowers. 

The history of Mr. Stevens' eventful life, which alone would fill a 
volume, has been only half told ; that he was endowed with mental powers 
of the highest order, will not be questioned, and that he was possessed of 

51 



that rarest quality in the human mind, the organizing- faculty, is also be- 
yond doubt. As a historian he had won for himself a world wide reputation, 
his ability as a financeer has been shown. 

Born to a position of wealth and affluence, idleness and luxury had 
no charm for him ; lie threw himself early into work for work's sake with 
the cherished ambition that some day his talents might be applied to the 
public weal. 

Patriotism, the key note of his noble life, dominated all his thoughts 
and actions; those who in later years knew him best hardly realizing the 
extent of his services to the government, services, rarely alluded to, since 
he had deemed them his privilege. 

His love of country might here be likened to that of the gallant Mont- 
rose for his dear and only love, in-as-much "that he not only made her 
glorious by his pen. 

"But served her in such noble ways 

Was never heard before. 
He crown'd and deck'd her all with bays, 

And loved her more and more." 



52 



Members Admitted, 1910 



Samuel Marvin Kookogey, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Eugene Klapp, Wyckoff, N. Y. 
Edwin Nesbit Chapman, Greenwich, Conn. 
Frederick Heber Eaton, Xew York City. 
William Wilson Jefferies, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Frank Stuart Smith, New York City. 
William Toan Mills, Montclair, N. J. 
Henry Snow Giles, Troy, N. Y. 
Clifford Albert Wiltsee, New York City. 
Guy Frederick Swinnerton, Wynantskill, N. Y. 
John Nixon Drake, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
George Carleton Dominick, M. D., N. V. City. 
Ernest Michael Fuller, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
William Richmond Peters, New York City. 
Francis Elbert Du Bois, M. D., Plainfield, N. J. 
Roscoe Darwin Addis, Haworth, N. J. 
Horace Thurber Aplington, New York City. 
Charles Sumner Withington, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Edward Gilbert Williams, New York City. 
Henry Rudolph Kunhardt, 3rd, New York City. 
Noel Bleecker Fox, New York City. 
Matthew Linn Bruce, New York City. 
Eldridge Warren Estes, Jersey City, N. J. 
Edward Garry Munson, Albany, N. Y. 
Edward Stanley Atwood, New York City. 
Eugene Pintard Bicknell, Woodmere, L. I, 
Lyndon Peck Smith, Piermont, N. Y. 
William Henry Falconer, New York City. 
Bruce McLean Falconer, New York City. 
Alexander Selkirk, Albany, N. Y. 
John Packwood Tilden, New York City. 
Charles P. Brett, Albany, N. Y. 
Herbert Wheaton Congdon, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
William Van Brunt Findley, New York City. 
Edward Warner Allen, New York City. 
Harry Lincoln Snyder, Montclair, N. J. 
Rev. Charles Daniel Trexler, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
John Oscar Wade, East Orange. N. J. 



Charles Fearing Swan, New York City. 

Walter Luce Hutchins, Albany, N. Y. 

Charles Landon Jones, New York City. 

Julian Park, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Clark Harold Foster, Troy, N. Y. 

Charles Davies Brewer, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

William Gardner Lottimer, New York City. 

P. Hubbard Bancroft, New York City. 

Francis Colgate Dale, New York City. 

George Homan Furman, Patchogue, N. Y. 

Norman Joseph Coudert, New York City. 

Benjamin Tappan Fairchild, Kingsbridge, 
N. Y. City. 

George Doubleday, New York City. 

Henry Rowland Mygatt, New York City. 

Dwight Smith, Port Chester, N. Y. 

Leonard Bacon Smith, Jr., New York City. 

Charles Fish Howell, New York City. 

John McKeon Hecker, New York City. 

Walter Huntington Bond, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Howard Lansing Waldo, M. D., Troy, N. Y. 

Guy Henry Witthaus, New York City. 

John Jesse Lapham, New York City. 

Theodore Denton Mills, M. D., Middletown, 
N. Y. 

Benjamin Garrison Demarest, Ph. D., New- 
York City. 

Alanson Trask Enos, Jr., New York City. 

John Seymour Gardner Best, New York City. 

William Merriam Chadbourne, New York City. 

John Howe McClurkin, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Edward Staats Luther, New York City. 

Benjamin Fowler Hall, New York City. 

John Peter Haines, New York City. 

Thomas Staples Fuller, New York City. 

Franklin Selleck, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Edwin Sheldon Whitehouse, New York City. 

Samuel W r etherill, Cranford, N. J. 



53 



Floyd Melvin Horton, New York City. 
Matthew Corry Fleming, New York City. 
Elles Willard Leavenworth, New York City. 
Raymond Weeks, New York City. 
Jay Herbert Pearsall, Westfield, N. J. 
Herbert Roome Mann, Troy, N. Y. 
John Henry Elliott Valentine, New York City. 
Herbert X. Rothenmeyer, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Lydig Hoyt, New York City. 
Oliver Edwards, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas. 
Elmo Neale Pickerill, New York City. 
Edward Hinman, Jr., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Floyd Swallow Leach, New York City. 
Charles Porter Wagoner, Albany, N. Y. 
Charles White Nash, Albany, N. Y. 
Melvin Thomas Bender, Albany, N. Y. 



Edward R. Bootey, Jamestown, N. Y. 
Theodore Zadoc Root, Jamestown, N. Y. 
Samuel Herbert Mapes, Ramapo, N. Y. 
Landon Ketchum Thome, New York City. 
Morton Kiah Maynard, Albany, N. Y. 
Frederic Rose Keator, New York City. 
Ex. Norton, New Brighton, S. I. 
John Charles Fremont Gardner, N. Y. City. 
Frederick William Stoneback, Orange, N. J. 
Charles Edward Crowell, Jr., New York City. 
Benjamin Tredwell Van Nostrand, Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 
Louis Leland Robbins, Nyack, N. Y. 
Alexander Wallace Perry, Washington, D. C. 
De Witt Clinton Jones, Jr., Elizabeth, N. J. 
Franklin Delano Wiliams, New York City. 



Resignations 



Richard L. Malcolm, 
George M. Grant, 
John W. H. Bergen, 
Samuel B. P. Trowbridge, 
Perry Curtis Todd, 
Edwin L. Ford, 
Ferris B. Martin, 
Howard Marshall, 



Horace H. Brockway, 
Frederic C. Gratwick, 
James P. Warbasse, M. D., 
Cyrus S. Sedgwick, 
Lawrence D. Alexander, 
George H. Betts, 
William J. Groo, 
Theodore T. Lines, 



Transfers 



Donald Green to Missouri Society. 

George Castor Martin to Pennsylvania Society. 

Albert J. Potter to Connecticut Society. 



54 



Donations 

Books, Pamphlets, Etc. 



TITLES 

Register of Members, Sons of the Revolution 
in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 

Register of the Sons of the Revolution in the 
State of Missouri, 1907-1909, 

Catalogue of the Works of Art belonging to 
the City of New York, 

Governor Abner Nash, 

Poems, 

Among Rhode Island Wild Flowers, 

Botanical Note Book, 

Regimental Colors in the War of the Revolu- 
tion, Supplement, 1910. 

The Heraldic Assembly of America, 

Year Book, Society of Mayflower Descen- 
dants, 1910. 

Program of Church Service and Menu of 
Banquet, Missouri Society, S. of R., 

The Army and Navy of the United States, 

Adjutant General's Report, 

Vols. 36 and 37, New York Historical Society, 

The Yorktown Campaign, 

Amos Richardson of Boston, 

Union League Club Year Book, 1910, 

Military History of Gen. John Green Ballance, 

Pennsylvania Society, S. of R., Proceedings, 
1909-1910, 

Journal of Larocque, 

University Club Annual, 1910, 

Bulletin, 

A Trip to Alaska and British Columbia, 

Baron Steuben, Drill Master of the Revolu- 
tion, 

California Society, S. of R., Dinner and Re- 
ception to Naval Officers, 1908, 



DONOR 

Edwin Birchard Cox, Registrar 

Henry Cadle, Secretary. 

The Art Commission. 
Marshall DeL. Haywood, Secretary. 
VVm. Whitman Bailey, LL.D. 
Wm. Whitman Bailey, LL.D. 
Wm. Whitman Bailey, LL.D. 

Gherardi Davis. 
Mortimer Delano. 

E. S. Atwood, Secretary. 

Henry Cadle, Secretary. 

Charles A. Greene. 

N, H. Henry, Adjutant General. 

Clarence Storm. 

Prof. Henry P. Johnston. 

Roswell L. Richardson. 

George H. Taylor, Secretary. 

Holdridge O. Collins. 

Ethan Allen Weaver, Secretary. 
George F. O'Halloran, Archivist. 
University Club. 
New York Public Library. 
William H. Raser. 

Richard Spillane. 

Holdridge O. Collins. 



55 



TITLES 



DONOR 



Unveiling Statue of Gen. Lew Wallace, Pro- 
ceedings, 

The American Flag, 

Commissioners for Detecting Conspiracies, 
Vol. Ill, 

Jersey City of To-Day, 

Down Town Association Year Book, 

Proceedings, New York State Historical As- 
sociation, 

Military Documents in Canadian Archives, 

History of St. Andrew's Society of the State 
of New York, 

Chamber of Commerce Bulletin, 

New York State Historical Association Pro- 
ceedings, 

Maryland Club, Year Book, 

The Hill School, Pottstown, Pa., Register, 

Tercentenary of the Landing of the Popham 
Colony, 

The Wadsworth-Longfellow House, 

History of Col. Edmund Phinney's Regiment, 

Col. James Scammon's Regiment, 

Journal of American History, Vol. IV, Num- 
ber III ; Nine Centuries of Pomeroy 
Blood in History, 

Oneida Historical Society Year Book, iqio, 

The Palisades of the Hudson, 

Northfield, N. Y., Celebration 4th of July, 
1876, 

Addresses : The Paul Revere of the West, 
Amusements in Detroit in Colonial Days, 
Patriotism, 

Fitchburg Soldiers of the Revolution. 

Saint Nicholas Society Year Book, 

The Ticonderoga Expedition of 1775, 



Hon. Albert J. Beveridge. 
Education Department. 

Victor H. Paltsits, State Historian. 
The Board of Trade of Jersey City. 
George G. Haven, Jr., Secretary. 

F. B. Richards, Secretary. 
George F. O'Halloran, Archivist. 

William M. Macbean, Secretary. 
Miss Stevens. 

James A. Holden. 
George May, Secretary. 
Allen D. Hopper, Secretary. 

Maine Historical Society. 

Maine Historical Society. 

Maine Historical Society. 

Maine Historical Society. 



George E. Pomeroy. 

William M. Storrs, Cor. Secretary. 

Lyndon P. Smith. 

Sidney F. Rawson. 



C. M. Burton. 

Fitchburg Historical Society. 
Clarence Storm, Secretary. 
F. B. Richards. 



Miscellaneous Donations 



Pictures, Relics, Etc. 



ARTICLES 



Bronze Plaque, the Colonial Washington, 
Two Bowls and Plate used at Turtle Feast, 

December 4th, 1883, when the Society 

was reorganized. 
Souvenirs of the Holland Society of N. Y., 
Copy of Advertisement of Samuel Fraunces 

and Deed of Stephanus Van Cortlandt, 
Pictures of Washington's Headquarters at 

Cambridge, Mass., Gov. George Clinton, 

St. George Tucker and James Mc- 

Henry, 
Old Maps of New York, 
Picture of Fraunces Tavern, 
Picture of Washington taking leave of his 

Officers, 
Five Photographs of Paintings of Colonial 

and Revolutionary Scenes by E. L. 

Henry, 
Mountings and Frames, 
Picture of The Long Ferry Tavern, 
Picture, Washington at Dorchester Heights, 



DONOR 

Society of Colonial Wars. 

Estate of George Wilson. 
Henry L. Bogert, Secretary. 
John Austin Stevens. 



John Austin Stevens. 
N. W. Browne. 
William S. Eddy. 

William S. Eddy. 



E. L. Henry. 

Rev. George S. Baker, D.D. 
George H. Coutts. 
Herbert M. Leland. 



57 



Loaned to the Society 

By Edward Demarest Butler 

Key of Old Fort Stanwix, Rome, N. Y. 

By Robert L. Eldredge 

Saber used by Private John Oilman, Middlesex County, N. J., Militia in the Revolution. 

By Henry Russell Drowne 

Prints of the Revolutionary Period. 

By Walter F. Bullard 

Relics from Battle Field of Saratoga: 
Two Cannon Balls. 
Hand-made Military Button. 
Three Rifle Balls. 
Tomahawk Head. 
Canteen. 
Door-knocker. 
Adze. 

By Henry Metzinger 

Ten Frames containing Washington's Mother's hair : Martha Washington's hair at 68 
and when a girl, Anthony Wayne's hair, Aaron Burr's hair, Benjamin Franklin's 
hair, Benedict Arnold's hair, Israel Putnam's hair, George Washington's hair, 
Lafayette's hair, Clara Pollock's hair, Hair Braclets worn at Washington 
Reception. 

Land Bounty Certificate signed by Patrick Henry; Writing and Signature of Lafayette; 
Paper signed by John Hancock. 

Compass, a Relic of the Revolution. 

Napoleon Portrait with his and his Parent's hair. 

By Frederick L. Colwell 

Bowl and Saucer which was at Colonel Ludington's House, where General Washington 
breakfasted and from which he ate his porridge. 

By Henry K. Bush-Brown 

Statuette of General Anthony Wayne. 



58 



Catalog 

of 

Relics in Museum 

1910 



Catalog of Relics in Museum 

1910 



Case 1. 

Deeds of Fraunces Tavern dated and signed respectively: January 15, 1762, Oliver 
DeLancy and wife, Beverly and Susanna Robinson, and James Parker; April 3. 
1785, Samuel and Elizabeth Fraunces ; April 13, 1795, George and Anne Pow- 
ers ; June 24, 1800, Nicholas Romagne. 

Muster Roll of the 6th Company, 3rd Regiment, Connecticut Militia, October 7, 1782. 

Autograph letter of Lafayette. 

Return of the 2nd Pennsylvania Regiment, Philadelphia, April 9, 1777. 

Old prints of the Revolutionary Period. 

Case 2. 

Six commissions of General Henry Burbeck, 2nd Lieut, to Lieut. Col., 1775-1709, 
signed respectively by Joseph Warren, who was killed at Bunker Hill ; John 
Hancock, Henry Laurens, Samuel Huntington, George Washington and John 
Adams. 

Master Mason's certificate of Henry Burbeck in St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 82 F. & 
A. M., June 23rd, 1777. 

Masonic jewel presented by St. Andrew's Lodge to General Burbeck's father, Lt. 
Col. William Burbeck, 1760. 

Miniatures of General Henry Burbeck and his wife, Lucy Elizabeth Burbeck. 

Photograph of General Henry Burbeck. 

Hat, belt, epaulettes and swords of General Henry Burbeck. 

Robert Richie's commission as 1st Lieutenant, signed by Thomas Jefferson. 

Society of the Cincinnati Membership Certificates of Major Henry Burbeck and his 
successors in the same line, Win. H. Burbeck and Chandler Smith. 

Case 3. 

Official Bulletin of the French Army in Providence, R. I. 

Autograph of Viscount De Noailles. 

Picture of Count Alexis de Noailles . 

Official Bulletin of the French Army in Newport, R. I., 1780-1781. 

Agreement of the Army of Rochambeau with Dr. Solomon Drowne, of Providence, 

R. I., to maintain and care for the sick soldiers unable to return to France with 

the Army, December 2, 1782. 

6l 



Copy of letter of Chevalier De La Lucerne, July 9, 1782. 

Cards obtained in Paris, France, 1785, by Dr. Solomon Drowne. 

Letter of Dr. Solomon Drowne, praising the generosity of Louis XVI, of France, 

December 18, 1783. 
Dr. Solomon Drowne's appointment as Surgeon, Aug. 3, 1780. 
Receipt for passage to New York on the King's Ship, Le Courier de L'Orient, signed 

by Genay, June 30, 1785. 
Autograph of De Bourgainville. 
Letter of Lieutenant General Mathiew Count Dumas, Aid-de-Camp to Rochambeau, 

1780-1781. 
Transportation of Dr. Drowne, apparently signed by Gen. Dumas, June 15, 1785. 
Letter of Due de Perigord. 

Letter of Petibeay to Dr. Solomon Drowne, December 3, 1781. 
Letter (copy by) Dr. Solomon Drowne, August 31, 1780. 
Letter of Gen. Custine, who was guillotined at Paris in 1793. 
Letter of M. Lanfrey Delisle, June 13, 1784. 
Letter of Beaulieu, September 6, 1780. 

Autograph of Le Gardeur De Tilly, Vice-Admiral of the French Fleet, 1780-1781. 
Letters of De Silly, Chevalier, 1780-1781. 
Letter from Miss Sally Drowne to her sister-in-law, describing presence of Lafayette 

and the French soldiers in Providence, R. I., August 6, 1778. 
Autograph of Count de Rochambeau, Commander-in-Chief of the French Army in 

America, 1780- 1782. 
Louis XVI, King of France, showing the approval of the King, in his own hand- 
writing, of a plea addressed to him, April 3, 1785. 
Picture of Louis XVI, King of France. 
Picture of Marie Antoinette. 
Picture of Bourgainville. 

Pictures of Luzerne, Du Portail, Rochambeau, Viomenil and De Grasse. 
Autograph of Gen. Lafayette, March 14, 1778. 
Picture of the death of Louis XVI. 
Picture of De Custine. 
Picture of Rochambeau. 
Two pictures of Lafayette. 
Autograph of Lafayette in the book, "Tragedy of Elizabeth of France, Sister of 

Louis XVI." 

Case 4. 

Box made by soldier in Washington's Army at Valley Forge. 

Two sheets of Continental money, containing thirty-two bills. 

Diary of Lieut. Matthew Gregory, containing an account of the surrender of 

Yorktown. 
Commissions of Matthew Gregory, dated respectively 1777, 1778, 1780, 1783, 1793. 
Poem entitled "British Taxation in North America." 
Hymns and ode, "Funeral Honors to the Memory of La Fayette." 
Bill of fare at "Public Festival in honor of the completion of the Bunker Hill 

Monument," 1843. 

62 



Badge to commemorate death of Gen. Andrew Jackson, June 8, 1845. 

Badge to the memory of De Witt Clinton, February 11, 1828. 

Badge of the Washington Benevolent Society. 

Badge of the Army of the Revolution. 

A piece of the hulk of the "Morning Star," a privateer sunk in New York Harbor 

by explosion of powder which she carried, August 7, 1778. 
Coins from the British Frigate "Charon." 
A piece of the British Frigate "Charon." 
John Paul Jones— A water-color facsimile after the original painting by Charles 

Wilson Peale. 
A piece of one of the "Hamilton trees." 
Gavel made of wood from the Jumel Mansion. 
Gavel made from a piece of teak wood taken from the wreck of the "Christobal 

Colon." 
Gavel made from belfry of Middle Dutch Church, New York. 

Paper cutter made from shingles of Washington's Headquarters at Morristown, N. J. 
Copy of miniature of General George Washington. 
Tallmadge — Fraunces Tavern Medal. 
John Quincy Adams Medal. 
George Washington Medal. 
Medal to commemorate inauguration of George Washington as first President of 

the United States of America at New York. 
Cane made of wood from Middle Dutch Church, New York. 
Case of Washington Medals. 
Medal of the Society of Colonial Wars. 
Pintard-Benson Medal. 
John Paul Jones Medal. 

John Paul Jones Medal in case of wood taken from wreck of frigate "Alliance". 
Commodore Bainbridge Medal. 
Washington Medal. 

Piece of pew railing in gallery of North Dutch Church, New York. 
Badge of Prison Ship Martyrs, Monument Association, Brooklyn, November 14, 1908. 
Washington head from an Itaglio-Cornelian cut by Harris of London about 1800. 
Colonial and Continental Currency. 

Case 5. 

Benjamin Tallmadge, Yale College Diploma, September 9, 1778. 

Benjamin Tallmadge, Captain's Commission, December 14, 1776. 

Benjamin Tallmadge, Appointment as Adjutant, June 20, 1776. 

Benjamin Tallmadge, Major's Commission, December 18, 1779. 

Discharge from 2nd Regt. of Light Dragoons (Tallmadge's) of Private Abraham' 

Bartholemew, signed by General George Washington. 
Letter from General George Washington to Major Benjamin Tallmadge, July 27, 1779. 
Letter of George Washington to Major Benjamin Tallmadge, October 9, 1779. 
Revolutionary powder horn which belonged to Col. Benjamin Tallmadge. 
Epaulet and spurs of Col. Benjamin Tallmadge. 

63 



Cannon-balls and bullets found on battle-field of Saratoga. 

Hand-made military button found on Schuyler farm. 

Indian tomahawk head. 

Door-knocker of the Revolutionary period. 

Adz of the Revolutionary period. 

Revolutionary canteen. 

Bayonet point from battle-field, Fort Ticonderoga. 

Grape-shots from battle-field, Fort Ticonderoga. 

Part of hinge from barracks, Fort Ticonderoga. 

Sword from Fort Ticonderoga. 

Iron from Fort Ticonderoga. 

Button from Fort Ticonderoga. 

Revolutionary cannon-balls. 

Cannon-ball from British frigate "Hussar". 

Photograph of Webb's 3rd Connecticut Regiment flag used during the Revolutionary 

War. 
Picture of flag of 3rd New York Regiment of the Revolution. 
Button from Fort Erie — 26th Regiment, Foot. 
English penny of the time of George II, Fort Ticonderoga. 
Gun flint from Fort Ticonderoga. 
Charcoal from French Army, Yorktown, N. Y. 
Button, naval officer, English, from Fort Ticonderoga. 
Button, Anspach Regiment, Hessian, from Fort Ticonderoga. 

Section cut from last of "Washington Elms" in St. Paul's Churchyard, New York. 
Letters patent to William Floyd, April 13, 1787, signed by Governor George Clinton. 
Official Medal of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration. 
The Colonial Washington (after Peale). 
Revolutionary powder horns. 



Case 6. 

Soldier's hat and shoulder straps, 1812. 

Revolutionary canteen. 

Section of Charter Oak. 

Brick from old Powder House of Fort Montgomery, N. Y. 

5219— Gal 3-A VEBER, Nov 17 

Stone from Hall of Records, New York. 

Wood from Frigate "Constitution". 

Wood from Paul Revere House. 

Block of wood from the "Royal Savage," Arnold's Flagship, Battle of Valcour, 
Lake Champlain, N. Y. 

Saber used in the Revolution. 

Sword of Governor George Clinton, 1777. 

Flint lock gun of the Revolutionary period. 

Cane cut from one of the joists of the building in which the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was written. 

Cane made of wood from the galley "Congress". 



64 



Bark from the "Hamilton elms". 

Piece of railing of the Manor Hall, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Copper spike and brick taken from Fraunces Tavern in 1890 when alterations were 

made. 
Brick and piece of stone from Fort Frederick, Lake Champlain, N. Y. 
Wood and original latch from the Nathan Hale School House, East Haddam, Conn. 
Revolutionary sword found at Harlem Plains. 
Plates from which invitations were engraved to the formal opening of the restored 

Fraunces Tavern, December 4, 1907. 
British canteen of the Revolutionary period. 

Certificate of enlistment of Alexander Thompson, February 7, 1777. 
Sword carried by Lieutenant Alexander Thompson, 1779-1783. 

Case 7. 

Bank bill showing minute engraving of Washington in the corner. 

Regulations for Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States, 1779. 

Letter to Governor George Clinton from E. Benschoten, June 18, 1781. 

Picture of house in New Utrecht, Long Island, where Gen. Nathaniel Woodhull died, 

September 30, 1776. 
Photograph of document signed by George Clinton, appointing several judges. 
Drawing of delineations on Gen. Israel Putnam's powder horn. 
Copy of the announcement of the General Peace, March 25, 1783. 
Letter written by Alexander Hamilton. 
Portrait etching of Samuel Putnam Avery. 
From the John Trumbull Collection — Hair of George Washington, Washington's 

mother, Martha Washington, Nellie Curtis, Lafayette, Benjamin Franklin, Israel 

Putnam, Anthony Wayne, Aaron Burr, Benedict Arnold. 
Compass, a relic of the Revolution. 

Photograph of Ordinance closing the Broad Street Ditch, May 9, 1696. 
Land Bounty Certificate signed by Patrick Henry. 
Writing and signature of Lafayette. 
Note of Nathaniel Minor witnessed by John Hancock. 
Below the case — 

Iron bars from a cell in the Hall of Records. New York. 

Lintel taken from entrance to Ethan Allen's cell in Hall of Records, New York. 

Case 8. 

Souvenirs from banquets, insignia, badges, etc. 

Gavel, handle from Old Dutch Church of Sleepy Hollow, and head from U. S. 

Frigate "Kearsarge". 
Picture of Boston Massacre. 
Photograph of Washington's commission as Commander-in-Chief of the Army, signed 

by John Adams, July 4, 179S. 
Picture of inauguration of General George Washington as first President of the 

United States of America. 
Old receipts, bills, etc. 

65 



Case 9. 

Sharpless portrait of Washington. 
Philip Livingston's watch. 

Watch presented to Talma, actor and artist, by Napoleon Bonaparte. 
Colonel Benjamin Tallmadge's watch, that timed the execution of Major Andre. 
Souvenir spoon, Sons of the Revolution. 
Copy of Paul Revere punch bowl. 

Loving cup presented to Mr. Frederick S. Tallmadge by the Sons of the Revolution, 
February 22, 1901. 

Case 10. 

Mortar and pestle which belonged to Captain John Hampton of the Revolution. 

Print of Washington at the age of 18. 

Picture of old Court House at Poughkeepsie. 

Picture of old Senate House at Kingston, N. Y. 

Tiles from Trinity Church, Newport, R. I. 

Mug dug up in Shakespeare's garden. 

Foot warmer from old St. George's Church in Beekman Street, New York. 

Souvenir of the Centennial Celebration in Rhode Island. 

Bowl and saucer from which Washington ate his porridge. 

Copy of Portrait of Washington by John Trumbull. 

Picture of Vernon House, Newport, R. I. — Headquarters of Rochambeau. 

Picture of the Odell House — Rochambeau's Headquarters, Westchester County, N. Y. 

Dish used by Sir Henry Clinton. 

Case 11. 

Cards of Turtle Feast held at Fraunces Tavern, December 4th, 188,3, when the So- 
ciety of the Sons of the Revolution was instituted. 

Things used on that occasion. 

Box which belonged to Raleigh Chinn, who married Esther Ball, sister of Mary 
Ball, Washington's mother. 

Washington pitchers. 

Original call issued by John Austin Stevens for the organizing of the Sons of the 
Revolution, February 22, 1876. 

Photograph of Washington's instructions to Captain Howe. 

Case 12. 

Gazette of the United States, April 15, 1789. 
Frederick S. Tallmadge, Diploma of Columbia College. 
Frederick S. Tallmadge, two Columbia College certificates. 

Frederick S. Tallmadge, certificate of admission to Court of Chancery, July 3, 1847. 
Frederick S. Tallmadge, certificate of membership in Sons of the Revolution, August 
20, 1892. 

Case 13. 

Flag and banner of the General Society of the Cincinnati. The flag is a facsimle of 
the one designed by Baron Steuben after the Revolution. 

66 



Case 14. 



Sons of the Revolution flag. 

United States flag. 

Thirteen star flag. 

Colonial flag. 

Harlem Heights flag. 

French flag, Revolutionary period. 

Saratoga flag. 

Sons of the Revolution banner. 



Case 15. 



Portrait of Napoleon with his hair and his parents' hair. 

Letter of Major-General William Heath to Brigadier-General Nixon. 

On Wall. 

Picture of the home of Asa Pollard, the first man killed at Bunker Hill. 

Picture of the Wythe House, Washington's Headquarters at Williamsburgh, Va. 

Picture of the residence of Major-General Philip Schuyler. 

Two letters of Col. Sidney Berry, dated September n, 1776, and December 28, 1776. 

Washington entering New York, December 4, 1783. 

Washington arriving at the foot of Wall Street, New York, 1789. 

The Old Mount Vernon, by Eastman Johnson. 

Portrait of Captain Bizabel Howe with copy of his instructions from Washington. 



67 



u 



The Faith of Our Fathers" 



A Sermon by the Rev. James I. Vance, D. D. 

Minister of the North Reformed Church, Newark, N. J. 



Preached in 

The Collegiate Church of St. Nicholas, 

New York City, 

on 

Sunday, February 20th, 19 10. 



The Twentieth Annual Serine e 

of the 

Sons of the Revolution in the State of Nezv York, 

in commemoration of the 

One Hundred and Seventy-eighth Anniversary 

of the birth of 

George Washington 



69 



"The Faith of Our Fathers 



55 



Text, "Whose are the fathers'' — Romans ix : 5. 

Paul is announcing an asset. He is not declaring a disability. He is 
registering the wealth of his nation, not its poverty. He is proclaiming 
Israel's glory, not its shame. He is calling the roll of the things which have 
made his nation great. He begins at the bottom and ascends. lie names 
matters of minor importance first and gradually climbs to a sublime climax. 

He begins with adoption, when God picked up a lonely man out of a 
strange nation and made him His Son, and packed into his blood the hopes 
and destinies of a chosen people. He follows adoption with glory, and 
speaks of that august hour when the Shekinah became a national asset 
and the Divine Presence took up its residence in the nation. He speaks of 
the covenants, of those solemn compacts in which the destiny of the nation 
was tied up to God-hood. He refers to the giving of the law, the service 
of the sanctuary, and the promises of Jehovah. Surely a nation with such 
assets as these may hold its head high among all the nations of the earth in 
the long files of time. 

But the writer has not finished. He reaches his climax and crowns the 
list with that "name which is above every name." He speaks of the Savior 
of the world, and says, "Of whom was Christ according to the flesh, who is 
over all; God blessed forever." Then next to that name which is above every 
name he writes, "Whose are the fathers." Just under the personality of the 
Son of God, above adoption and divine immanence and the covenants, he 
proclaims the wealth and glory his country possesses in a faith handed 
down from sire to son along a godly line. 

Blessed Israel ! "whose are the fathers". Shall we say "Blessed Amer- 
ica! whose are the fathers"? What is our estimate of the faith of the men 
who founded this Republic? Do we regard it as their glory or their shame? 
Do we think of their faith as an infirmity or a virtue? Does the piety of our 
fathers excite in us pride or pity? Did they worship God because they 
had great souls or because they were so ignorant they did not know better? 
How would we read this text today, with our faces down and our mouths 



filled with apologies, or with heads erect and brows wearing a look of hon- 
est pride and voices of mingled reverence and song? 

In our worship this afternoon we would reverence the memory of the 
founders of this nation and thank God for that dim heroic line we summon 
from the vistas of remembrance into our Hall of Fame ; and whose names 
make the hero roll of America. Foremost among them towers the tall, 
sun-crowned figure of our immortal Washington, whom Mr. Greene, in his 
Larger History of the English People, declares to be the noblest figure that 
ever stood in the forefront of a nation's life. Along with Washington, 
around him and in the shadows behind him, are the faces of the men and 
women who made possible this Republic in the W r estern world. 
"They were a glorious company, 

The flower of men to prove, 

A model for the mighty world, 

And be the fair beginning of a time." 

What shall we say of their faith ? Shall we reverence it or repudiate it ? 
Does it come to us clothed with authority or devoid of power? Is it worth 
anything in this modern day of the nation's life or is it like an old-fashioned, 
worn-out piece of furniture, too frail for use and too sacred to destroy, 
which must be kept a while longer with the rubbish in the attic until we can 
get our consent for its journey to the junk shop? 

Whatever we may think of the faith of our fathers, it was good enough 
for them. 

It cost them something. They paid for their faith with a great price. 
For the sake of it they unhesitatingly sacrificed position, property, home, 
friends and all earthly comforts and prospects. There was a day when men 
went to prison for their religious convictions, when they went to the block 
and the stake singing hymns and repeating the name of the Savior. How 
far away it all seems now ! How strange and unreal in this cheap age of 
dollars and gluttony ! Our fathers did not talk heroism, they practiced it. 

If you would know something of their heroism, read the story of those 
old days of religious struggle in Holland and Scotland and France. Take a 
single instance — the long siege of Leyden in the Thirty Years' War, when the 
city was reduced to such straits that the only food the people had left con- 
sisted of dogs and cats. In great derision their Spanish foes called them 
"dog and cat eaters." Hear the old burghers' defiant reply: "As long as you 
can hear the mew of a cat or the bark of a dog, know that the city holds ; 
and when these fail us, we will devour our left arms, retaining our right to 
defend our homes and our churches ; and when all has failed us, we will with 

72 



our own hand set fire to the city and perish — men, women and children to- 
gether — rather than see our churches defiled and our homes violated." That 
was the spirit of the people who fled to America ; and the people who sur- 
vived those days of religious persecution founded this nation. The modern 
day American who can read the story of those days without a thrill, without 
some spark of heroism flaring up into flame in his own soul, is only dead 
freight. 

Yes, the faith of our fathers was good enough for them. It made them 
what they were. Before all else, they were a people of ideals. Religion was 
the dominant note in their lives. They fled hither, not so much to make a 
fortune as to find a refuge where they might worship God unmolested. They 
had convictions. They had not outgrown the supernatural. They were 
the product of faith in the supernatural. That faith sustained them. Their 
courage, their heroism, their hardy independence was wrought out in their 
religious experience. 

Yes, it was good enough for them. It enabled them to play a great part 
in the world's affairs. They were not perfect; they made mistakes; some- 
times they were narrow, fanatical, bigoted and intolerant; but they were 
pioneers, and the wilderness was no place for softness. They worked in the 
dark. They faced not only the perils of the frontier, but did original work 
in nation building. This Republic which has come down to us with its hopes 
and aims, its perils and possibilities, is their legacy. It is the product of their 
faith. The difference between North and South America is not so much a 
difference in the natural resources of these countries as it is in the people 
who created the two nations; and the difference between the people was a 
difference of faith, of ideals, of convictions. Our fathers had a faith that 
made them virile. What they thought about God they built into their 
country ; and wherever our flag flies to-day it proclaims a freedom by a 
race that towered tall enough in stature to touch the feet of God. 

The faith of our fathers was good enough for them, but is it good 
enough for us? Times have changed. Have we not outgrown their creed? 
Their world was a simple story compared with the complexity of modern 
life. America is no longer a little Eden of refuge in the wilderness, 
whither the oppressed may flee from tyranny and despotism. It is a great 
world power. The conditions of life have changed. The last century 
has witnessed a revolution in thought and government. We are out of the 
kindergarten forever. Science has given us a new theory of ourselves and 
a new view of life. We no longer think in the old terms. We live in a new 
world economically, politically, industrially. Social questions, not even men- 

73 



tioned in the forefathers' curriculum, now hold the centre of the stage. Per- 
haps it was well enough for people one hundred and fifty years ago to read 
the Bible and go to church and pray and try to keep the Sabbath holy, but 
is there any sense in our doing it? Is religion still a power to control the 
present and to mould the future, or is it merely a withered tradition that 
has lost all its red blood and survives by force of habit? 

The modern man is no pigmy. He is not what he is going to be. He 
has some things to forget and much to learn. Mr. Thomas A. Edison, in a 
recent magazine article, is reported as saying, "We are only animals. We 
are just emerging from the dog-stage, and getting a glimpse of our en- 
vironment. We don't know ; we just suspect a few things. It will take an 
enormous evolution of our brains to bring us anywhere." There may be 
some truth in all of this. If so, it is the truth uttered in a finer way a long 
time ago by one who wrote by inspiration and who said, "It doth not yet 
appear what we shall be." 

But for all that may characterize the present as the dog-age of the 
world, there is abundant evidence of the fact that man is not degenerating. 
The people who are pessimistic over the present and who imagine that all 
greatness is behind us, are short on facts. The modern man is the finest 
of his kind in the annals of the race. He is doing things which his an- 
cestors in the dead centuries did not so much as dream of. 

It is a day of great things in subduing and controlling the forces of 
nature. The earth, the sea, and even the prince of the powers of the air, 
are all subject to this modern man. He discovers the North Pole. He digs 
a ditch across the Isthmus and connects the waters of two world oceans and 
divides the Western Hemisphere into two vast island continents. He hangs 
his messages on the wireless currents of the sky and sends them to the ends 
of the earth. He pushes his adventurous bark out on the wide ether sea 
and reports the progress of events on the moon and makes a map of the 
geography of Mars. Nothing is too daring or too difficult for him 

It is a day of great things in the battle with disease. Already some 
dreadful scourges, like small-pox and diphtheria have been disarmed of 
their terrors. Tuberculosis has had to yield its fearful secret and it is only 
a question of time when the great white plague will be numbered with the 
dead. What is it men are not doing in the interests of sanitation and health ? 
No cost is too great, no sacrifice is too severe. The story of the conflict 
of modern medical science with the enemies of health is one of the wonders 
of the world. 

It is a day of great things in finance, in philanthropy, in education, in 

74 



art, in exploration. Wherever man turns his face and to whatever he sets 
his hand with grim determination, there is achievement. Nothing seems 
impossible. Let but the undertaking be mentioned and somewhere there 
will be found a brain big enough and a heart bold enough. Some day we 
shall warm our houses and cook our food with imprisoned sunshine, and 
some day we shall run our factories and do our work with power captured 
from the tides of the restless, resistless sea. The modern man is a giant! 

Has he reached a stage in his development, in his mighty onward prog- 
ress, where he can dispense with God? Is it not possible in these modern 
days to get along quite comfortably without the Bible or the church? Has 
not the time arrived for laying aside a useless garment ? True, some still 
go to church, but does it have any effect on their lives? Some continue to 
pray, but do they receive a reply? As a matter of fact, is not Christianity 
unnecessary so far as many people are concerned? They do not subscribe 
to its teachings nor conform to its practices, and yet they tell us that they 
are not conscious of missing anything. 

If it be true that we have outgrown the faith of our fathers, one of two 
things follows. Either we have reached the point where we can do without 
religion altogether, or the time has arrived for a new and better religion. 

Have we reached the point where we no longer need a religion? Pro- 
fessor James, the author of Pragmatism, divides people into "the tender 
and the tough." The tender are those who are not yet sufficiently evolved 
to dispense with all help from the outside. The tough are self-sufficient. Has 
the modern-day American become so "tough" that he can do without God? 
Does the human heart no longer cry out for the Infinite? Does human 
nature no longer need the restraints of religion? Go ask that question, at 
the prison cell, of the poor wretch inside, branded by his crimes and 
damned by despair. Ask it of the victim of some enslaving habit. Ask the 
soul that is despondent and discouraged. Ask those who are broken-hearted, 
who are victims of remorse. No, no! Man has not yet reached the point 
where he can do without a Savior. 

When Mr. Kipling was so ill in this country a few years ago, at the 
crisis of his illness, the nurse saw his lips moving, and thinking that he was 
asking for something, bent over to hear what he might say. She discovered 
that he was praying, and drawing back, said: "Forgive me, Mr. Kipling; 
I thought you wanted something." He said, "I do. I want my Heavenly 
Father. He only can help me now." And not only in that last hour, but 
all through the journey of life do we need our Heavenly Father. The soul 
ever cries out for God as a child for a mother's love. "God has made us 

75 



for Himself," as Augustin says, "and our hearts are restless until they rind 
rest in Him." 

If we are to give up the faith of our fathers, we must find a better 
religion. Where shall we find it? Men criticise the Bible, but where will 
you find a better book? They' criticise the Christian's hope, but where will 
you find a more glorious vision of destiny ? Sometimes they criticise Christ, 
but where will you find a kinder, tenderer, truer friend? 

Some years ago when the Parliament of Religions was being held at 
Chicago, Puck issued a cartoon, which represented the little god of love 
standing on the steps of a hall where the Parliament was to be held, hold- 
ing in his arms a bundle of his magazines, on the front page of which was 
printed in bold type, "Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you do 
ye even so to them." To each representative, as he appeared, Puck would 
hand a copy, saying, "Gentlemen, this is the best religion." He was right. 
There is no better religion than Christianity. There never will be a better 
religion than Christianity, for there is nothing beyond Christ but Christ. The 
trouble is not with Christianity, but with our poor treatment of it. 

If we will put the faith of our fathers to a fair test, we shall find it 
good enough for us. We should give it a chance. There is where failure 
breaks in on our program. Yonder on the wall hangs a stout sword. It 
has fought a score of battles through to victory. Today we call it a poor 
blade. It is rusting in its scabbard. Its day is over. Ah, but the trouble is 
not with the blade. Its steel is as stiff and its edge as true as ever. The 
trouble is the old sword has lost the arm that once wielded it. Give the blade 
back that good right arm and you will see it again sweep the battle front. 
It is not our father's faith that is bad. I fear the trouble is we do not man 
the faith as in the old days. Let us give that faith the old-time devotion, 
the ancient enthusiasm, the forefathers' reverence and earnestness, and we 
shall find it as potent for the battles of the modern world. 

I am not pleading for a slavish imitation of the past, even in so sacred 
a matter as religion. I am not saying that this age should be in bondage 
to the dogmas and forms of an age that is gone. Faith is something more 
than dogma. Religion is life. Life clothes itself in a variety of garments. 
I am not advocating a sectarian view of religion, although every man who 
has any depth to his religious experience must be something of a sectarian, 
yet he who would trammel religion with sectarian bands would strangle the 
life out of it. 

I am pleading for the faith of our fathers, not their dogmas ; for their 
idealism. One may change his theological view without changing his faith, 

76 



just as one who draws nearer a mountain changes the picture of the moun- 
tain in his mind. Neither the mountain nor his eye has changed ; he has 
simply gotten a better view. It would be strange if living toward God for 
some hundreds of years, the race should not get a clearer conception of his 
plan and person. What we need is not necessarily the old dogma and not 
necessarily the new dogma, but the changeless faith in a changeless God. 
The glory of America is and has always been its idealism. It is not our 
trade that makes us great, not our expanding commerce, not the rapid 
growth of our cities, but the fact that we are a nation with ideals. What we 
need for the present and the future, to meet our problems and win battles, 
is conviction. The war is not over. We have still to fight for the rights 
of man, and we will win only as we believe the rights of man are God- 
given. We have still to fight for constitutional government, and we will 
win as we have faith in a government of law and order handed down by the 
God of nations. 

This faith of our fathers has been tested. It has seen service. It is 
no experiment. It has a right to recognition. It comes to us wearing a 
worn uniform, blood-stained, gun-shot and saber-scarred. 

It is our priceless legacy. As a people we are proud of our treasures 
of art, of our old pictures and of the relics of our wars. We build houses 
where these things may be preserved and to which succeeding generations 
may come as to a shrine and receive inspiration for the duties of life. What 
more precious and inspiring legacy than the faith of a people. 

Our fathers' faith is likewise an obligation. We owe something to 
the present and to the future, but do we not also owe something to the 
past? He is a base ingrate who dishonors a great name. It is something 
for a man not to be ashamed of his ancestors, but is it not also something for 
one's ancestors not to be ashamed of him ? 

Shall we give to our posterity as glorious a legacy of faith as our 
fathers gave to their posterity? When two hundred years hence some one 
arises to speak of the faith of the fathers, will he find it necessary to pass 
over our heads as over a stretch of sterile, barren desert, and go further 
back for materials and inspiration for his theme? Are we making it easy 
or hard for the next generation to be religious, to reverence the Bible, to 
love the church? Sons of the Revolution, are we handing down to those 
who come after us a positive faith and a reverence for sacred things, or 
will our children need to build anew their temple of worship? 

Whose are the fathers! May we never fall so low as to shame them! 

77 



May we never drift so far from the truth as to feel that their God was 
false and their faith a lie ! 

"God of our fathers, known of old. 

Lord of our far flung battle line. 
Beneath whose sovereign hand we hold 

Dominion over palm and pine. 
Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet, 

Lest we forget ! Lest we forget ! " 



78 



Addresses 

at the Annual Banquet of the 

Sons of the Revolution in the State of New York 

Delmonico's 

TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 22, 1910, 

in commemoration of the 
One hundred and Seventy-eighth Anniversary 

of the birth of 

GEORGE WASHINGTON 



79 



George Washington 

Address by the 
Rev. Henry van Dyke, D. D. 



Mr. President, and brethern of the Sons of the Revolution : We 
are met here to-night to honor the memory of Washington, not because 
he was the first American, for his father and mother were before him, not 
because he was the only great American, because this land has not been 
unfruitful in noble manhood; but because George Washington was the 
first American whose greatness was acknowledged by all the world. 

There has been an impression abroad that Washington was the only 
great man that America has produced. I came across a curious illustration 
of that the other day in one of Byron's poems, his Ode to Napoleon Bona- 
parte, written in 1814, "The Days of Elba." He says, asking where we shall 
look for unselfish greatness : "Yes, one. The first, the last, the best, whom 
envy dared not hate, bequeathed the name of Washington to make man 
blush, there was but one." 

That is a fine sentiment and a fine tribute, but we cannot join in it, be- 
cause the glory of Washington to my mind, lies in the fact that his greatest 
achievement was in leaving a standard of manhood to this country to which 
Americans have always looked up, and towards which they have walked 
and striven — the greatest of them. 

We are inclined to believe nowadays that Washington belonged to an 
extinct type, which is not true ; we are inclined to accept the statement 
nowadays that the American character has changed, and that America is 
now composed of a melange of foreign emigrants who have come in here 
and who have absolutely taken possession of the Republic. That is not 
true. Do you know, gentlemen, that we have never had a President of 
these United States, except one, whose ancestors did not come to this coun- 
try before the Revolution. It was James Buchanan, the only man who sat 
in the Presidential chair in the United States, whose ancestors did not i-ome 

81 



to this country before the Revolution, and his father came in 17P3, and he 
was a Scotch-Irishman, and of course he was an American before he 
came. 

This year our attention has been fixed by orators upon the great 
change that has taken place in American ideals and characters, as illustrated 
by the contrast between Washington and Lincoln. The change from the 
stately pillared mansion of Mount Vernon to the Kentucky log cabin; the 
change from the silver buckles and silk stockings to the cowhide boots of 
the rail-splitter ; the change from the great landed proprietor to the country 
lawyer — quite a striking change, externally. There are some who regret 
it, but their regret reminds me of what one Irishman said to another after 
they had heard Bryan's speech in Madison Square Garden after his return 
from Europe. Patrick said, "Ah, Bryan is not the man that he used to 
be," and Michael said, "No, and he never was, either." 

And there are some who rejoice in this professed change and con- 
gratulate themselves upon it. Their gratulation reminds me of what a 
New England farmer said, who borrowed from Emerson a copy of his 
Plato, and when the farmer brought it back again, he said, "I kind of Hke 
that Greek fellow ; he has got some of my ideas." 

But neither the regret nor the gratulation was justified, for really the 
change from Washington to Lincoln is not a change, only on the surface, 
and not in essentials. There is a continuity between the two men that if 
they could have seen each other, would have made them stand together in 
whichever crises their life had fallen. 

So Washington was not the last American, nor was Lincoln the first 
American, though Lowell said so. Franklin was an American and Alex- 
ander Hamilton was an American, and Philip Schuyler was an American, 
and John Jay was an American. And every one of these men who had 
spirit enough to take his heritage from England or Scotland or France or 
Ireland and lay it on the shrine of liberty and equal rights, was an 
American. 

Washington and Lincoln were rooted in the same soil of fundamental 
justice, they expanded their manhood in the same hour of liberty. Thev 
were like the stately silver pine and the gnarled black oak, growing on the 
same hillside, and throwing abroad their branches for the shelter of man- 
kind. 

I am struck, not by the difference in their dress, but by the resem- 
blance in their hearts. They lived by and for the same aims ; they hitched 
their wagon to the same star. 

82 



It was Washington who saw most clearly the necessity of union, and he 
did most to make it possible, and durable ; and it was Lincoln who met the 
dangers which Washington had predicted for that union and saved it from 
disaster and shipwreck. 

It was Washington who first gave to America the lesson of toleration, 
and forgiveness, by his treatment of those who had calumnied and con- 
spired against him in the Revolution; "forgiving all," he said, "for the sake 
of the common cause." And it was Lincoln who wrote the words of peace 
and reconciliation upon the firmament, when the lurid clouds of Civil War 
had rolled by, so that Jefferson Davis said of him, "Since the fall of the 
Confederacy, the South has suffered no loss so great as the death of Abra- 
ham Lincoln." 

It was Washington who saw the inconsistency and the shame and the 
peril of slavery, and it was Lincoln who ended it. 

Washington was a soldier who fought for the supremacy of just and 
peaceful law. And Lincoln was the lawyer who invoked the sword to de- 
fend a supreme equity. Both were too great for personal jealousy, were too 
noble for personal revenge ; too great for personal affectation, whether it be 
reputation or self-sacrifice ; too sincere for personal concealment. Neither 
of them had any secrets from their country. They served her as a whole 
with a clean and glad heart and they asked no greater reward than simply 
to serve America. 

You know very well that neither of these men was what is called in 
ordinary terms, a great orator; and yet both of them were magnificently 
eloquent. Washington used long words, Lincoln used short words ; and 
yet both of them used words for the same purpose ; namely, to speak to the 
hearts of Americans — and they did. 

And throughout the speeches of both there run these three things ; 
never a speech made by one of these men that does not have these three ele- 
ments in it : first, a recognition of the nation's dependence upon the Al- 
mighty God ; second, a strong emphasis upon the necessity of union and 
the sacrifice of factional differences and sectional disputes ; and third, a 
strong insistence upon moral ideas, not commercial ideas, and moral ideas 
as a foundation of the nation's greatness. 

These are the three elements you will find in every speech made by 
either one of these two men. They were not c keptics, they were not cynics ; 
they were believers. They were enthusiasts ; they were not plaster of paris 
saints, thank God. 

Washington had the power of indignation which at times led him to 

83 



express himself in language which was not fit to print. Lincoln had a 
sense of humor which made him occasionally tell stories whose latitude 
was greater than their longitude. And for both of them — for Washington's, 
you may say, decorative and explosive English, and for Lincoln's exuberant 
and sometimes eccentric humor — we may find in both of these things the 
effort of a profoundly serious man to relieve himself at the moment of a 
burden which weighed upon him too heavily to be borne. And that is the 
truth ; that is the simple truth. At heart they were both profoundly serious 
men; they were not triflers, they were not jesters, they were men in earnest. 
"When I die," said Abraham Lincoln, and he never said anything more 
beautiful, "I want it said of me by those who knew me best, that I always 
plucked a thistle and planted a flower, where I thought a flower would 



grow. 



"If I know my own heart," w 7 rote Washington from Valley Forge — this 
cold dignified English squire that some of the historians have presented to 
us — "if I know my own heart," said Washington, "I could offer myself a 
living sacrifice to the butchering enemy, provided that would contribute to 
the people's aid and peace." And I leave it to you, gentlemen, to say wheth- 
er the key-note of both these sayings is not precisely the same. The love, 
the love of humanity, the sentiment of brotherhood that makes a man willing 
to give his life for those who are bound to him. 

I am tired of the talk which makes of Lincoln a rude, ungainly, 
jumping-jack jester; I am tired of the talk that makes of Washington a 
proud, self-satisfied British squire. One of those men was great enough to 
refuse a crown, and the other was great enough to accept the cross for his 
country's sake. 

Let us learn to recognize in both of them the representatives of the 
true spirit of America. Let us learn to understand that Americanism does 
not reside in dress, or in manners or in accent; Americanism resides in the 
heart, it is devoted to the ideals of justice and liberty and truth and human 
brotherhod, and so beneath the sunlight which has fallen for these 1 1 1 years 
upon America from the celebration of Washington's birthday, we profess 
our creed, and celebrate our heroic chiefs — Washington who lived to create 
the union, Lincoln who died to save it ; we celebrate a republic which be- 
longs neither to the classes nor to the masses, a republic which has room for 
the selfish aristocrats, as w-ell as for the noble democrats ; a republic which 
speaks of self-reliance, fair play, common order, self-development ; and a 
country which belongs to all, from Washington to Lincoln, to Cleveland, to 
Roosevelt, to Taft. 

84 



The Navy 

Address by 
Rear-Admiral Joseph B. Murdock, U. S. N. 



Mr. President and Sons of the Revolution : I fully appreciate the honor 
of being" asked to respond to The Navy before such an audience as this, 
an audience whose hospitality and appreciation of a national service, I have 
no doubt, has called upon its representative to respond to throughout the 
34 years you have been in existence. If that be so, I as its 34th representa- 
tive may appeal to you that I am ignorant of what the other 33 may have 
said, and I trust I shall not make it any harder for the 35th. 

The history of the Navy, of course, must be associated with the his- 
tory of the Revolution. The Navy started in the Revolution, had its ups 
and downs, as everybody else did who entered into that struggle. It ended 
up the contest with a very clean record and nearly everything it had cap- 
tured. But this is what could not but have been expected otherwise under 
the circumstances. 

There are one or two things, however, that are connected with the Navy 
in that war that I like to think of. One of the men of whom we have heard 
a great deal recently was John Paul Jones. John Paul Jones had a very 
queer habit of claiming whatever he wanted, and he had an equally fortu- 
nate habit of getting a great many of the things he claimed. Among his 
claims is that he hoisted the first American flag. I think it is a matter of 
history that he did, on the Alfred, hoist the first Continental flag, but he also 
claims that he hoisted the first stars and stripes on the Ranger. In the 
Ranger he obtained the first salute to an American flag from a foreign 
power, from a French Admiral. He also fought the first action under the 
American flag. 

These statements I find — I have seen them in several places, but my 
present authority where last I have seen them is in Preble's History of Our 
Flags. And he states that in April, 1778, that Jones in the Ranger fought 

S5 



the British sloop-of-\var Drake, and he specifically mentioned that it was 
fought under our present flag. 

The flag I think was shown the year previous to the surrender of Bur- 
goyne, but there is no evidence that it was actually shown in any of the 
engagements of the year 1777. 

I think we of the Navy have a right to appreciate such things as these, 
that go back so far. 

The Army and the Navy were abolished after the Revolution ; they are 
not the same organization we have today. They are a very different or- 
ganization in character; they are chronologically different. The Navy and 
the Army both went out of existence and did not come into, — were not re- 
vived until long afterwards, after the present national government was 
formed. 

I want to speak briefly to-night. I feel that I am before a sympathetic 
audience ; I want to speak of one or two peculiarities which inhere in both 
services. 

We are not a military nation. We must depend in these days of what 
you may call specialized warfare, in k which wars are short, sharp and sud- 
den, upon existing forces. The time has gone by when we can raise volun- 
teers and have time to train them. The volunteer will be as good in the 
future as he has been in the past, provided he has time to get his full 
training. That time will, however, be lacking, and the Army and Navy 
must perforce be military institutions. We must keep up a strict military 
organization, military discipline and military thought and military action. 
This leads us into a very different frame of mind from that which must per- 
vade other portions of our citizenship. While we are under the civil law 
we are also under the naval law. If a blue-jacket is so unfortunate 
as to. commit any offense, in the city of Brooklyn, he can be 
brought up on either side of the Navy Yard gate ; he can offend against the 
municipal law, he can offend against the United States law, and either one 
of them can get hold of him. We have, of course, a great many offenses 
under this military law which are absolutely unknown in civil life. We are 
restricted from the right of free speech. The articles of war forbid muti- 
nous language or words. We are restricted in our rights and we have to be 
very careful that we recognize our officers, and it is a very dangerous pro- 
ceeding if that man happens to be your superior officer. A great many 
other things could be brought up besides this, but I only allude to this to 
show the difference of what that organization must be. 

Now the Army and Navy are the two combined armies of our national 

86 



defense to-day. In order to be efficient they must be kept under strict mili- 
tary control. I am sure that the people are getting to understand this more 
every day. We find less interference ; there is less of the political element 
entering into our program of existence now than there was formerly. In 
the Navy we have been particularly fortunate that on the outbreak of a war, 
we have never had a dozen congressmen who wanted to command battle- 
ships. The Army has not been equally lucky. Quite a number I think 
raised regiments during the Spanish war. It may be that this differentia- 
tion operates at once to our advantage ; it certainly puts it up to us very 
clearly that we are directly responsible to the country for an efficient con- 
dition as we are left alone to work out our own salvation. 

The fact, however, that the Navy is a military organization makes us 
the butt or the subject of considerable adverse criticism. I think at one 
time the Army bore the brunt of this criticism. After the Civil War the 
Army was called upon sometimes to interfere in elections in the Southern 
States. It has been called upon to interfere on a few occasions lately in 
strikes, in inter-state strikes, railroad strikes, and things of that kind, and 
it gets itself unpopular among certain classes of this nation in upholding the 
authority of the government. The Navy, I think lately, however, has 
cropped out in the minds of a certain class of our citizens as the represen- 
tative of the warlike spirit in that it possesses a certain definite number of 
battleships. Now, the battleship is a very useful institution. To some 
minds, however, it seems to represent everything in the line of despotism, 
blood and warfare. 

I would like to ask you in this connection to hark back in your mem- 
ories, and decide this: Is the United States to-day with a good Navy any 
more bellicose — any more liable to get into trouble? Are we seeking war- 
fare any more than we ever did when we had no Navy? We have been 
through one foreign war and it was just Providence that gave us a few 
ships to fight the war with. It was hardly well-concerted effort. 

In 1884 we commenced building our present ships ; the nation was peace- 
ful ; the nation remained peaceful until 1898. I think that no one who has 
studied up the conditions which existed in those times will not agree to the 
idea which is common in some quarters that the war of 1898 was in no de- 
gree one of aggression on our own part. 

From my own experience I spent four months in Cuba in 1872 and I 
made up my mind then that unless there was a change in the method of the 
administration of that island, that there would be sooner or later war be- 
tween the United States and Spain, in Cuba. The conditions were apparent 
even then. 

87 



I have tried to think of certain occasions in which we have indeed pos- 
sibly shown a quarrelsome spirit, and I can only think of the one in 1895 
when President Cleveland sent in his Venezuelan message. In 1895 we 
had no Navy to speak of. There was nothing in our ability to carry on a 
war which should have in any way provoked, a message, such a message 
which Cleveland sent in, and I had a rather interesting experience with that 
message. I had, the day before the message was published, dined with the 
Governor of Gibraltar. I happened to be in port as a navigator of ship and 
as a matter of courtesy the Governor extended us an invitation to dine, and 
we had a very pleasant occasion. The next morning, however, the news 
came of the Venezuelan message of President Cleveland, which had been 
sent in, and that message was certainly a most remarkable document. And 
its effect was remarkable in Gibraltar. The officers of that ship who the 
day before were only the officers of a Yankee cruiser, were the day after 
the representatives of a nation that dared defy England ; and I really think 
that from that day the English so respected and appreciated the spirit 
shown by President Cleveland, as shown in that message, and the stand 
taken by Congress in supporting him in it, and by the people at large, I 
really think that from that date commenced the relations which exist to-day 
between England and the United States. 

Now this matter of a warlike spirit which a Navy would create is not 
one that is associated directly with us. It is our business, having the tools 
put in our hands, to do what we can with them. There is no tool in the 
world today more complex than a battleship fleet. There is nothing that 
will call for harder drill, for keener and closer study to develop and bring 
out all there is in the capacity of a squadron of vessels of that kind, and we 
should be very derelict if we did not by every means in our power keep up 
the military spirit and military discipline by hard work and doing all that 
we can to develop that fleet, we should be very derelict if we adopted any 
other course. And yet doing this subjects us to the criticism that we are 
preparing for war. 

Peace is one of the greatest blessings — the greatest blessing a nation can 
possess. But there are only two ways of getting it. The first thing is to 
have a desire for peace, and the second thing is to have the ability to 
command it. 

If you have only the desire for peace you may frequently go begging 
for it. If you have only the ability to command it, you may get a peace, 
but it will not be a permanent one. The peace which is imposed by force 
alone is more or less unstable, and will sooner or later result in further 

88 



trouble. There is no question about our desire for peace in all things. I 
think it pervades all of our nation ; it pervades every class of our society, 
it runs in the heart of every one of our citizens, and we have shown that we 
do have this desire. There is no nation on the earth that has taken so 
prominent a part in arbitration as has the United States. We have gone 
further in the discussion of The Hague Tribunal for the prevention of war 
than any other nation in the world. Now, arbitration appeals to us all, but 
back of arbitration there must be something else. International law is not 
like the criminal law ; there is nothing behind it excepting an agreement. 
If certain nations agree to refer all their difficulties to The Hague Tribunal 
the decrees of the tribunal would be useless unless there is some way of 
enforcing them, and I think if you follow up the possibilities of The Hague 
Tribunal far enough you will find it lands probably in the creation of an in- 
ternational army and navy to enforce its decrees. 

You take a court which did not have a sheriff behind it and it would be 
of very little use in settling any troubles. And arbitration itself, if car- 
ried on to its logical termination, the agreement of other nations to sub- 
mit their difficulties must be associated with something stronger than moral 
force to render those decrees binding. 

Situated as we are, it seems as though there was a great chance for the 
struggle still to go on. The lion and the lamb have not come to lie down 
together yet. If, in spite of all that can be done to preserve peace, and no 
one wants peace more than the officers and men of the Army and Navy, 
then the only thing to do of course, the only thing- we can ask for is that if 
war does come in spite of everything, then the only thing remaining is 
to fight it out to a finish and get a peace that will be permanent, based on 
righteousness and equity, and that is the only thing that we are training for 
in the warlike question. It is the last thing and one that may never come 
to the country — one that we may all hope never will. But in the meantime, 
as long as the country upholds the Navy and the Army, and cultivates the 
spirit — cultivates in itself a desire for peace — it will render our work, rigid 
and untiring as it may be, lacking still the supreme fruition of war; and to 
that I hope we will all look forward as the attainment of lasting peace from 
which there can be no reversion into further trouble. 



89 



The Revolution and Civil Service 

Address by 
St. Clair McKelway, LL. D. 



My friends, one of your members asked me the other day 
by telephone, "What will you speak about," and I telephoned back to 
him, "About ten minutes." He said to me, "No, I would like to have your 
subject." "Well," I said, "I will say something about George Washington." 
He said, "You can't do that — he has been foreclosed by Henry van Dyke." 
Then he said, "Now give me a title that will do for our program." Well, 
I did so with a conscientiousness that he did not appreciate. He thought I 
would give him a title and come here and talk about something else. But 
eventually and venturesomely I told him I would talk about George Wash- 
ington and the Civil Service Reform. What his thoughts were were ex- 
plosive and hard to express, but what his thought was I do not know be- 
cause communication was suspended by the impatient nymph at the end of 
the inter-communicating office. Then I was put to it. What could I say 
about Washington and the Civil Service Reform? 

It occurred to me to go back to that moral, though often underrated 
philosopher, Samuel Pickwick. Not that I intend to speak to you in a Pick- 
wickian sense ; not that I intend to suggest to you that the fathers of the 
Revolution were Civil Service reformers in a Pickwickian sense, but you 
will remember that Mr. Pickwick on a notable occasion asked the stage- 
driver how two entomological steeds, with that highly rheumatic and over- 
laden vehicle could keep going at the pace they maintained, and the driver 
said to him, he had difficulty in starting them, but after they were started, 
and his whip got to cracking, they had to go, for fear the coach would run 
over them. And you will remember on another occasion that the scholarly 
Frenchman, speaking English at a difficulty, said to Mr. Pickwick on a 
social occasion, "Politics surprises by itself." W T ell I made up my mind if I 
might bring here a statement of Washington's relation to Civil Service Re- 

90 



form, my address if it did not comprise novelty of statement, would sur- 
prise those who listened to me, or I feared that they might disgrace me like 
too many committee bills towards the close of legislative sessions put 
through to the third reading without the fact of a first reading and en- 
tered by title only. But there was another occasion in Mr. Pickwick's his- 
tory at the dinner of Mrs. Leo Hunter. She introduced Mr. Pickwick to a 
distinguished author and said that that author had written for an encyclo- 
pedia a learned installment upon Chinese Metaphysics. Mr. Pickwick 
expressed his surprise that the man knew anything about the Chinese, or 
the Chinese knew anything about metaphysics ; and he asked him how he 
got up his paper and he said he gathered all that he could learn about 
China and all that he could learn about metaphysics, and then he combined 
the information. 

Now I know something about Civil Service Reform. I have lived into 
the present stage of it from its feeble beginnings in the early Congresses 
after the war of which I was a spectator. 

I have also learned something about the patriotic fathers or the fathers 
of our Revolution, and I have made up my mind that by combining my in- 
formation I can pass the ordeal of the gentleman who on behalf of this 
organization interrogated me by telephone until he found a substitute for 
profanity in the sweet mouth of the communicating lady at the distributing 
end silencing him and setting me to thinking. 

Now, the combination idea is not a bad idea outside of matters of rapid 
transit and trans-continental railroads. 

I have discovered of our patriot fathers that while they knew little of 
Civil Service Reform as a name, they knew much about the evil as a thing 
and much about how to neutralize it in their narrower time. They learned 
these abuses when our thirteen states were only crowned colonies. Nearly 
all the great places were filled by appointments from Great Britain. Nearly 
all the small places were filled by appointments by those elevated to those 
great places. To the colonies was given a privilege of choosing colonial 
legislatures, but to the colonial governor was given the power to veto the 
every act of the legislature, and the power to dissolve the legislatures them- 
selves at will. That brought about abuses. Under those abuses reform 
was impracticable, redress impossible, revolution a necessity. It was a ne- 
cessity that knew no law ; the kings or colonial governors could execute or 
impose on men determined to be free. 

Our reverend fathers knew the spirituality of liberty and restraint, for 
they had tried both, and they achieved liberty and at first in the period be- 

9i 



tween Yorktown and the confirmation of the Constitution they reveled in 
liberty, they quarreled about liberty, they schemed and dreamed concerning 
liberty, and with a recurrence of sanity they organized a federal govern- 
ment for others as a check on license and as a check on themselves. The 
Revolution as it came into life was a free-for-all war. It had a single ob- 
ject. The object was to win liberty from the Spoils System. The Spoils 
System had been illustrated by all crown patronage and imposition of tax- 
ation without representation. It was declared by our Revolutionary fathers. 
tyranny — it was tyranny. They threw up that tyranny by seven years' war. 
Then as already suggested, they toyed with a loose jointed and wrangling 
federation for long years after Yorktown until they evolved equality in 
statehood and nationality under a common constitution of which they made 
Washington the national executive. They achieved freedom. Afterwards 
they combined their experience of freedom and license as Mrs. Leo Hunter's 
guest did his information, with the result of an indestructible union, or an 
indivisible union of indestructible states. 

You wall tell me the fathers said nothing about the merit system as 
such. Well, they had overthrown that system on the battle field. It did 
not occur to them after the Revolution to jump on the corpse of an abuse 
which they had shot to death. Their case was stated in the Declaration of 
Independence ; their case was won at Yorktown ; they did not have to re- 
state it in the Constitution. That, my friends, is a body of tissues, not a 
glittering tissue of declarations. 

The cured patient rarely rhapsodizes about dress or drugs ; he seeks to 
get to work as soon as he can. The fathers should, however, perhaps have 
been sentimentalists as well as state builders and constitution makers, but 
they, your ancestors, as your presence signifies, were filled with Anglo- 
Saxon ideas and the Anglo-Saxon is not addicted to rhapsody or to reitera- 
tion, and very often hardly addicted merely to historical review. Curiously 
enough, however, the merit system of appointments and promotions, which 
is now done by law, is just what Washington did without law and without 
the need of law. Law is necessary now. The government is larger ; the of- 
ficers are infinitely more ; the states and population have greatly increased ; 
the tasks of administration have stupendously multiplied. The formation of 
parties was not thought of until nearly the close of Washington's second 
term. Parties now are as plenty as blackberries. 

There are forty-six states where there were thirteen ; there are to be 
more still ; there are ninety millions of people where there were scarcely four 
millions; the limits of home government then were east of the Mississippi, 

92 



now they are the Pacific and Alaska. Colonial government then, there was 
none ; it now edges on Asia, it acquires a protectorate over, or stepmothers, 
Cuba; it dominates the Isthmus, and, as Richard Olney, said, "Is dream- 
ing of all to the south of us." A government could not be produced and 
cannot be imagined to-day, with the orderly simplification of appointment by 
merit, which does not hark back to the volunteer example of Washington, 
actualized by his own option of the merit system, which his successors 
legalized in all our infinitely expanded jurisdiction and through our infinitely 
augmented population, and the powers which Civil Service Reform gives 
go back to him and to his colleagues, just as the secrets of the terrestrial 
order go back to gravitation. 

As the flower is in the seed, as the harvest is in the kernel, as the 
forest is in the acorn, as religion is in the decalogue, so is harmony of lib- 
erty with justice, the fitness of men to functions, inherent in the method, 
exalting to a government of the people, which Washington pursued. The 
order of his mind and the exaltation of his character established our 
Constitution and government in the very beginning. The very grounds 
of his efforts and the non-partisanship of his service established the incen- 
tive and the hope of civilization around the world. 

Not less signal in the long run of the centuries is his militant might or 
his administrative wisdom in the services he rendered and the example he 
set of the merit system in government ; it was only the outworking into a 
public trust of the merit system dominant in his just and illustrious mind 
and in his colossal soul. 



93 



The Prize Essays 



on 



General Steuben's Services in the 
Revolutionary War 






First Prize Essay 

By Dorothy Thorne, of the Yonkers High School 

Yonkers, N. Y. 



Steuben. Baron Friedrich von Steuben. What does that name call to 
the mind of the average reader? Probably to most people it brings only 
a dim recollection that Steuben was a German who figured in the American 
Revolution. To those who study United States history the name means 
much more. It calls up the image of a man who came in the hopeless winter 
of Valley Forge and drilled our troops till they were able once more to cope 
with, and finally to conquer the splendidly trained British army. But to 
very few does it mean much more than that, although it ought to mean much 
more to every American who is capable, as every one should be, of realizing 
the vast importance of Steuben's service in the cause of American inde- 
pendence. 

How well fitted he was for that great service may best be judged, per- 
haps, from the fact that in education and experience he was considered one 
of the finest officers in the world-famous army of Prussia. This is not sur- 
prising, for military blood ran in his veins. Besides his more remote an- 
cestor who had been famous in the history of Magdeburg, Steuben's birth- 
place, his father had served for forty years in the engineer corps, while he 
himself, it is said, took part in the siege of Prague at fourteen, and at 
twenty-two became a member of the staff of Frederick the Great. How- 
ever, in spite of distinguished service throughout the Seven Years' War, 
Steuben left the army when the war was over and remained in private life 
until 1777. 

In the spring of that year, while in Paris, he was persuaded to offer his 
services to the United States. This was the result of his meeting Benjamin 
Franklin and certain French officials who were then secretly considering 
the alliance which materialized the next year, and who realized that Steu- 
ben with his scientific military training could be of great use in America. 

97 



So the fall of 1777 found him in the United States and already learning to 
love the country which he was finally to adopt as his own. 

After presenting himself to Congress, who gladly accepted his ser- 
vices, Steuben went at once to Valley Forge, where the American army was 
in winter quarters. He was received with the greatest distinction by Wash- 
ington, who even supplied him with a bodyguard, and when he reminded 
the Commander-in-Chief that he was simply a volunteer, Washington (to 
quote Steuben himself) "replied in the most courteous manner that the en- 
tire army took pleasure in protecting such volunteers." Steuben continues : 
"My services as a volunteer lasted no longer than five weeks during which I 
drilled the army and made various dispositions in it which met with such 
approbation that I received my commission as major-general on the 26th 
of April. This was also accompanied at the same time with another com- 
mission of inspector-general of all the armies of the United States." 

During the months of drilling at Valley Forge, Steuben made a new 
army out of the ragged, disheartened troops he found there. Through his 
tireless energy the camp became a veritable military school where every one 
worked enthusiastically, and where the zeal, industry and scientific knowl- 
edge of Steuben formed the vitalizing influence. Day after day, from morn- 
ing till night, the energetic baron taught military tactics. He did not con- 
tent himself with standing off and giving commands, but went through the 
various manoeuvres himself, shouldering a musket or doing whatever else 
was called for. 

The readiness with which the men learned astonished Steuben, but 
nevertheless he sometimes resorted to lusty swearing when his orders 
needed to be especially emphasized. It is said that after exhausting his own 
vocabulary of German and French oaths, he would call loudly for assistance, 
not content till his aide had supplied satisfactory English. Apparently it 
had a good effect because the change which came over the army as a result 
of the winter's work was nothing short of marvelous. 

Steuben had found the soldiers using their bayonets, if at all, to cook 
their meat on, but he taught them how effective a weapon it was when 
properly used. The battle of Stony Point bears witness to how well this 
lesson was learned. Another correction which he made was in regard to the 
loss of muskets. The administration had been so lax that recruits on 
leaving the army had been allowed to carry home their weapons, thus caus- 
ing a yearly loss of from five to eight hundred muskets. In the first year of 
Steuben's control, however, the loss of muskets amounted to less than 
twenty. In all, the reforms instituted by General Steuben saved the gov- 

98 



eminent more than eight hundred thousand livres. Another reform of 
somewhat different character but perhaps equally important, was brought 
about when Steuben showed the necessity of a staff for the Commander-in- 
Chief. "Before the end of the war," says Fiske, "Washington had be- 
come provided with a staff that Frederick need not have despised." 

It was thus, by faithful and untiring labor, that Steuben raised the 
army from its discouraging condition to a compact, well-disciplined body 
of troops, with splendid military bearing and ability to perform difficult 
manoeuvres with speed and dispatch which must have astonished outsiders 
no less than it delighted Washington. 

The battle of Monmouth, June, 1778, afforded a splendid opportunity 
for the results of Steuben's work to be shown. And they most certainly 
were shown to advantage. The traitor Lee ordered a retreat from a won- 
derfully advantageous position and the retreat soon became a flight. The 
peculiarity of the situation, the narrow causeway, the leader — apparently 
either insane or a dastard — combined to throw the army into disorder. 
Fortunately Washington came up in time to save the situation, but even 
his presence, a few months before, could not have put the fleeing soldiers 
into fighting order in time. Victory would have been impossible had not the 
recent training of the soldiers enabled them to form quickly even though 
under fire, and so stop the British advance. 

Steuben himself was present at this engagement. Coming up from 
the rear with three brigades in response to Washington's order, he met Lee, 
who had just been sent from the field. The traitor tried to prevent Steuben 
from carrying out his orders, on the ground that they had been misunder- 
stood, but the German was not of Lee's calibre. 

The training of the army, great as it was, was not the only service 
which Steuben rendered his adopted country. In spite of his many duties 
during the winter of 1777-8, he prepared a manual of infantry and cavalry 
tactics which was printed and immediately put into use in the army. In it 
were combined the results of Steuben's experiences in both Prussia and 
America, and the results proved valuable on both sides of the Atlantic. 

At the close of the war Steuben retired to country life near Oriskany, 
where he remained until his death in November, 1794, on a sixteen thousand 
acre farm which the State of New York had presented to him in recognition 
of his services. Congress, also, voted him an annuity of two thousand five 
hundred dollars, but although these attentions were doubtless much appre- 
ciated by the generous baron, they were by no means a requital for all he 
had done. For not only had he given the nation the benefit of his ex- 

99 



perience, his knowledge and his toil, but he had spent the whole of his 
private fortune for his soldiers. And all this for an adopted country ! Surely 
we who reap the benefit of his work should remember this generous, faith- 
ful man, and realize the full importance to ourselves as well as our fore- 
fathers, of General Steuben's services in the Revolutionary War. 

Dorothy Thorne. 



ioo 



Second Prize Essay 

By George Burnett Overhiser, of the Montgomery High School 

Montgomery, N. Y. 



Among the most important of all the foreign officers who helped win 
our independence was Frederick William Augustus, Baron Steuben, a Ger- 
man of noble and respected lineage. Trained in the Seven Years' War un- 
der Frederick the Great and a member of his staff, the Baron became one 
of the best educated and most experienced soldiers of Germany. In the 
spring of 1777, when on a visit to the French Court, he met Franklin, and 
became greatly interested in America. At that time the American Alliance 
was under contemplation, and the French Ministry, knowing that the 
American armies needed nothing so much as organization and discipline, 
finally persuaded Steuben to go to America and offer his services. Pleased 
with the chance for action again, the Baron, having arranged his affairs, 
did accordingly, and in December of that year appeared before Congress 
with his offer. That body wisely accepted him and ordered him to repair 
immediately to Valley Forge to train and discipline the troops. Thus were 
the services of one of Europe's most skillful soldiers secured for our cause. 

Having conferred with Washington upon his arrival at Valley Forge, 
Steuben immediately began his work. He found officers and men generally 
ignorant of discipline and unskilled in the use of arms, poorly equipped and 
weakened by prolonged hunger and exposure. Lack of organization, shorr 
terms of enlistment and impolitic promotions of inexperienced officers by#a 
meddling Congress heightened the confusion and hampered his work. Un- 
daunted he labored on, toiling incessantly, sparing no pains, and gradually 
from the confusion of men came forth an army, strong and effective. This 
army, which he found so crude, so ignorant of all things military, a few 
weeks later at Monmouth, in the confusion of retreat, hard pressed and 
under heavy fire, rallied about Washington, formed into battle line and 
drove the British from the field. This army not many months later, which 

101 



lie found so unskilled, in one of the most spirited bayonet charges of his- 
tory, without a shot, stormed the works at Stony Point. Thus from its win- 
ter of intense suffering and bitter deprivation the army came forth better 
trained and better able to compete with the polished British regulars than 
ever before. 

After three months of such efficient work Steuben, through the in- 
fluence of Washington, was appointed Inspector-General of the army. Then 
began reforms as beneficial as they were sweeping. No more did supplies 
waste along the road while men starved and froze ; no longer did the sick 
die from lack of care ; the annual loss of about five thousand muskets 
dwindled the first year to twenty ; ended was the useless waste, the indiffer- 
ent extravagance ; each man became accountable — the soldier for his traps, 
the officer for his men, the chief for his department ; gone was the black con- 
fusion, the bitter deprivation, and in their places reigned order and plenty. 
So effectual were these reforms that in one year with the men better 
equipped and provisioned than ever before, the country was saved eight 
hundred thousand French livres. 

Between Valley Forge and Camden stretched a period in which Steuben 
greatly advanced the army. He was sent much about the country organ- 
izing and drilling troops or giving advice. Thus he was twice in Rhode 
Island, first with Sullivan, then with Gates, assisting them by advice and 
service. In 1780 he was in Philadelphia, concerting with Congress regard- 
ing the coming campaign. A few weeks later he was at West Point or- 
ganizing and drilling troops. While there he was a member of the court 
which convicted Andre. Between these principal excursions he was kept 
exceedingly busy in the main army. At this period the Baron rendered one 
of his greatest services to this country. The different divisions of the army, 
except those immediately under himself, were trained with no uniformity of 
discipline. Thus" when thrown together confusion resulted, a serious con- 
dition in time of battle. On the request of Washington and the Board of 
War, Steuben wrote a manual of arms, modeled after the Prussian system 
but adapted to our needs. So good was it that it met with Washington's 
hearty approval, and after being adopted by Congress it remained the Blue 
Book of the army until a late date. Thus by hard drilling, by supplying im- 
portant advice and by his manual of arms Steuben slowly brought the army 
up to the British standard. 

Following the disastrous battle of Camden, Greene was appointed to 
command in the South. Steuben accompanied him as far as Virginia, where 
he was left to protect the State and to raise reinforcements and supplies 

102 



for the Southern army. With the -greatest difficulty the Baron forced the 
necessary troops and supplies from the reluctant, war-ridden people. These 
were of great service to Greene, but before long a series of invasions 
checked the good work. The first under Arnold and the second under Phil- 
lips were minor, but the third under Cornwallis was of graver moment. Its 
purpose was the capture of Virginia as a basis for another southern cam- 
paign. Advancing steadily through the State he met with little open re- 
sistance for Lafayette, who had been sent south, and Steuben, with their 
meagre forces, dared not offer battle. However they incessantly harassed 
him, and by stirring up the natural hostility of the people, made it im- 
possible for him to successfully use Virginia as a basis of operations, and 
before long he began that retreat which ended in Yorktown, his ultimate 
surrender and practically the end of the war. Steuben accomplished his pur- 
pose for he both greatly aided Greene and though buffeted about kept his 
hold on Virginia. 

With the ending of the war Steuben retired to his estate near Utica, 
New York, given him by that State. There on an annuity of twenty-five 
hundred dollars finally granted by Congress, he passed not unhappily the re- 
mainder of his life in the country for which he had sacrificed so much, and 
which he had grown to love. 

Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter. What were Steuben's 
services and were they truly of value ? He found the army in disorder, lack- 
ing organization and ignorant of discipline, little better than a mob. By 
constant and untiring drilling and by his manual of arms he reduced this 
army to a strong, well-trained, homogeneous mass, able to outflank and 
capture one after another the great British armies. By his work as inspector- 
general he brought forth order from the confusion, eliminated the misery 
and want, provided each soldier sufficiently and saved the country vast sums. 
These were Baron Steuben's services. Were they truly of value? What, 
think you, would have been the lot of those glorious campaigns had there 
been no unselfish hard-working Steuben? Could the day have been saved 
at Monmouth? Could the works have been carried at Stony Point? We 
cannot tell, but each has his own secret opinion. But you say, "There were 
others who could have done the work". If so, where were they? Why did 
they not come forth ? But hold ; oh doubter, wait ! There is one last testi- 
mony to their value, the strongest and best of all, a letter which reads : 

"Although I have taken frequent opportunities in public and private 
of acknowledging your great zeal, attention and abilities in performing the 
duties of your office, yet I wish to make use of this last moment of my pub- 

. 103 



lie life to signify in the strongest terms my entire approbation of your con- 
duct, and to express my sense of the obligations the public is under to your 
faithful and meritorious service. George Washington." 

George Burnett Overhiser. 



lu-i 



Third Prize Essay 

By James Moffatt, of the Buffalo Central High School 

Buffalo, N. Y. 



The success of a modern drama is not always due to the mere abilities 
of those who portray it to us ; more often it is the result of the untiring ef- 
forts on the parts of the unseen managers, the men who rehearse the actors 
in their respective parts, who organize the companies into well drilled and 
smooth running bodies, who attend to the vexatious but vitally important de- 
tails of costume and properties, who do all, in fact, that is possible to afford 
the players the best of opportunities, and then receive themselves the small- 
est share of the public applause. So it is in the great tragedy of war. Men 
there are, unknown and unrenowned, slaving from morning to night; or- 
ganizing, drilling, planning — paving the paths on which the others may rush 
to glory, only to be forgotten, if ever known, not many years after their 
death. So it was in our Revolutionary War and the men, and particularly the 
man, who without the impetus and excitement of the battle but with all the 
miseries and hardships of warfare, did more to win our independence than 
most of our much-flaunted heroes. Today, that man stands alone, obscured 
and forgotten. The man? Baron Steuben. 

In the year 1777 the American Revolutionary army had won several en- 
gagements, some of great importance, in consequence of which the confidence 
of the nation rose to its highest pitch. Xow it was vitally necessary that it 
should stav there, for without enthusiasm, without the exhilara- 
tion of success in face of the constant reinforcements of the 
enemv, it might have gone very badly with us. Our army was 
indeed nothing but a mob, a dreadfully earnest and purposeful 
mob, but a mob just the same. It had the most rudimentary organization, 
had absolutely no ideas of important and necessary evolutions, was pitifully 
clothed and indifferently paid. Were the spirit to be taken out, a last de- 
spairing attack defeated, then nothing but disaster would result. All this 

10=; 



was apparent to several discerning statesmen who determined to anticipate 
it by drilling the army under capable and experienced men. Europe of- 
fered the only field, hut an exceedingly rich one, since the Seven Years' 
War had just come to a close. Among the men invited was this Baron 
Steuben, a former officer under Frederick the Creat, well known in court 
circles and situated in comfortable circumstances. The inducements held 
out to him were scarcely alluring' ; a foreign land, cause, language, with no 
definite arrangements for remuneration, indeed no prospect of any sort 
save that of the struggle itself. While, on the other hand, he already enjoyed 
position, friendship, income and renown at home. Yet to the man with the 
spirit of war, "formed in infancy, cherished through boyhood and accepted 
in manhood as the chief spring of action," the chance of entering once more 
the old atmosphere of powder and conflict proved too much and on De- 
cember ist, 1777, he landed on American soil. 

Coming auspiciously from France with the rank of lieutenant-general 
he was heartily welcomed, but from the first he indicated the whole-hearted 
determination to do things that characterized his entire service and refusing 
all offers to winter in Boston, he pressed Congress for admittance to the 
ranks as a volunteer, and on being successful, set out immediately for head- 
quarters, Valley Forge. Here he obtained his first glimpse of the American 
army and a sorry one it was : some 17,000 men encamped in cold, comfortless 
huts, half clothed, less than half fed, without any signs of medicine, devoid 
of any discipline, variously armed with muskets, fowling-pieces and rifles, 
dispirited and infested with disease; a very sorry sight indeed. But he was 
not the man to despair. Having gained the respect and admiration of Wash- 
ington he was soon invested with sufficient authority to commence his work 
and began at once his "Plan of Inspectorship." 

This plan embodied the great principle of co-operation, or perhaps 
rather of multiplication, as every soldier under its rulings became volun- 
tarily an apostle of reform. To begin with he created a squad of a hundred 
or two hundred men, drafted from every company in the camp, and drilled 
them personally each day until they were able to perform the most intricate 
manoeuvres, until they became proud of their profession, enthusiastic, con- 
fident, until they were the envy of the regiment, and then with their aid he 
reorganized the entire division. No man was considerd above any task bene- 
fitting the whole, officers were taught to see the wisdom of drilling the men 
themselves ; the men, to obey in every particular. 

But his reforms went deeper than this; they went right to the heart of 
the internal administration and found it to be a mockery. Great confusion 

106 



reigned everywhere as a result of the enlistment contracts ; terms ranging 
from six months, or even less, to twelve, were the usual assignments. This, 
of course, meant a tremendous loss every year as 5,000 or 8,000 men, having 
served, were dismissed with equipages. A musket was worth $18.00, so 
these alone amounted to over $126,000. Then again no trouble was taken 
by the officers in charge to strike the names of the absent members off the 
pay-rolls, so that long after a man had ceased to serve his wages were still 
being extracted from the treasury. Now, such loose methods as these could 
scarcely do else than demoralize, that is evident, for of all things necessary 
in warfare, economy ranks the foremost. "An army poorly equipped, and 
an army ill fed is an army half beaten," so it is said, and it is specially true 
in this case, for the army was unstable and untrained and there was no hope 
of any possible organization since the men were no sooner trained than their 
terms expired and they returned home. The first step, therefore, in reme- 
dying this state of affairs was to lengthen the term of enlistment. The 
next, to install a system of inspection which made it necessary for every man 
to have every article given him by the government on hand, or accounted 
for, at any moment. The third, to enforce a somewhat similar system of 
minute reports extending throughout the whole army and embracing every 
department. The fourth, to divide the regiment into battalions and the 
battalions into companies having in each body a definite number of men. 

In view of all this it is scarcely surprising, then, to find that after a 
few weeks a new spirit had entered into the camp, that it "exhibited the 
regularity of a scientific disposition," that the reviews displayed in officers 
and men a familiarity with complex evolutions and that the "harmony of 
movement which gives to thousands the appearance of a single body under 
the control of a single will," was at all times apparent. As for his value to 
the treasury it is only necessary to state that in one year of his inspector- 
ship but three muskets were missing, and those accounted for. 

His "Plan of Inspectorship," while a great undertaking, was not his only 
occupation, however, as he found time to render two other services of great 
importance. One world-wide in its influence and the other more domestic. 
The first of these was his invention of the light infantry, by which the 
enemy had only a very scattering front to charge upon or shoot at, and the 
skirmishers (as those in the infantry were called) themselves were allowed 
a greater freedom and use of arms. His second consisted in a work known 
as the "Blue Book", which he had determined to produce when first he be- 
came acquainted with the American army. It aimed to do away with the 
practice in vogue of having every brigade and company under a different 

107 



system of its own, by setting forth a complete treatise of martial laws as he 
had known them in Europe, adapted to colonial conditions. This was au- 
thorized by Congress and became the standard in our army for many years, 
indeed until quite a recent date. 

As an active soldier, meaning a combatant in the strict sense of the 
word, he is not often mentioned, for his was the less brilliant career of 
the "unseen manager." Yet he did conduct several engagements or cam- 
paigns with great credit. The first was more like his accustomed work, in 
the raising of an army for Greene, but immediately on accomplishing this 
he commanded a detachment himself and succeeded in forcing Arnold to 
retreat, thus preventing great damage to the country in the vicinity and 
probably the nation in general. His second campaign was the siege of 
Yorktown which with the co-operation of Lafayette and others, he brought 
to a most satisfactory close, thus playing a leading part in the last real act 
of the drama which his zeal had so materially assisted towards a successful 
conclusion. 

To-day the name of Frederick William Steuben is practically unknown. 
This seems incredible, but it is true. This man who* left home and country 
for a war in a foreign cause, who created a well-organized, disciplined and 
confident army out of a horde of half-starved and pain-racked men, who 
placed the treasury in such a position that it was able to render twice the 
value of its former services to the furtherance of independence, who origi- 
nated the effective and now widely known formation of light infantry, who 
bound together all the American armies under the common rulings of his 
book of martial laws, who was instrumental in the victorious results of the 
last few decisive encounters ; this man is but rarely remembered ; and the 
men, who having the advantage of well-trained soldiers, lead them, in- 
spired with the recklessness and bravery of the battle, to great and glorious 
goals, these men are the only ones enshrined in our halls of fame. It is not 
right, it is not just, and we ought not to rest quiet until the name of Baron 
Steuben is as indelibly printed in our hearts and halls as are those of the 
other patriots whom we immortalize in verse and eternalize in stone across 
the length and breadth of our fair land. 

James Moffatt. 



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Sons of the Revolution 



IN THE 



STATE OF NEW YORK 



REPORTS 



AND 



PROCEEDINGS 



19 10-1911 



December 4, 1911 



Object of the Society 



CONSTITUTION. 

preamble 

Whereas, It has become evident from the decline of proper celebration 
of such National holidays as the Fourth of July, Washington's Birthday, 
and the like, that popular interest in the events and men of the War of the 
Revolution is less than in the earlier days of the Republic; 

And Whereas, This lack of interest is to be attributed not so much to 
lapse of time as to the neglect on the part of descendants of Revolutionary 
heroes to perform their duty of keeping before the public mind the memory 
of the services of their ancestors, and of the times in which they lived, and 
of the principles for which they contended ; 

Therefore, The Society of the " Sons of the Revolution " has been 
instituted to perpetuate the memory of the men who, in military, naval or 
civil service, by their acts or counsel, achieved American Independence ; to 
promote and assist in the proper celebration of the anniversaries of Wash- 
ington's Birthday, the Battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill, the Fourth of 
July, the Capitulations of Saratoga and Yorktown, the Evacuation of New 
York by the British Army, and other prominent events relating to or con- 
nected with the War of the Revolution ; to collect and secure for preserva- 
tion the manuscript rolls, records and other documents and memorials re- 
lating to that War ; to inspire among the members and their descendants 
the patriotic spirit of their forefathers ; to inculcate in the community in gen- 
eral sentiments of Nationality and respect for the principles for which the 
patriots of the Revolution contended ; to assist in the commemorative cele- 
bration of other great historical events of National importance, and to pro- 
mote social intercourse and the feeling of fellowship among its members. 



General Society 

(Organized at Washington, D. C, April 19, 1890.) 

OFFICERS, 1911-1914 

General President, 

Edmund Wetmore, LL. D., 
New York Society. 

General Vice-President, 

James Mortimer Montgomery, 
New York Society. 

Second General Vice-President, 

Hon. John W. Weeks, 
Massachusetts Society. 

General Secretary, 

William Libbey, D. Sc, 
New Jersey Society. 

Assistant General Secretary, 

W. Hall Harris, Jr., 
Maryland Society. 

General Treasurer, 

Richard McCall Cadwalader, 
Pennsylvania Society. 

Assistant General Treasurer, 

Henry Cadle, 
Missouri Society. 

General Chaplain, 

Rev. Randolph H. McKim, D. D., 
District of Columbia Society. 

General Registrar, 

Hon. George E. Pomeroy, 
Ohio Society. 

General Historian, 

Marshall Delancey Haywood, 
North Carolina Society. 



Sons of the Revolution 

IN THE 

STATE OF NEW YORK 

Instituted February 22, 1876. 

Reorganized December 4, 1883. 

Incorporated May 3, 1884. 



FOUNDERS 



John Austin Stevens, 

John Cochrane, 

Austin Huntington, 

George H. Potts, 

Frederick Samuel Tallmadge, 

George Washington Wright Houghton, 

Asa Bird Gardiner, 

Thomas Henry Edsall, 

Joseph W. Drexel, 

James Mortimer Montgomery, 

James Duane Livingston, 

John Bleecker Miller, 

Alexander Ramsay Thompson, Jr. 



Officers, 1911 

President : 
Edmund Wetmore, 34 Pine Street. 

First Vice-Presidcn t : 
Robert Olyphant, 17 Battery Place. 

Second Vice-President: 
Ralph Peters. L. I. R. R. Co. 

Third Vice-President: 
Frederick S. Woodruff, 165 Broadway. 

Secretary: 
Henry Russell Drowne, Fraunces Tavern. 

Assist an t Secretary : 
Eugene K. Austin, 15 William Street. 

Treasurer : 
Arthur Melvin Hatch, 71 Broadway. 

Registrar: 
Henry Phelps Johnston, College of the City of New York. 

Chaplain: 
Rt. Rev. David H. Greer, D. D., 7 Gramercy Park. 

Assistant Chaplain: 
Rev. Frank L. Humphreys, S. T. D., Morristown, N. J. 

Historian: 
Talbot Olyphant, 32 Nassau Street. 

Board of Managers: 
William Floyd, 84 William St. Walter L. Suydam, 5 E. 76th St. 

Beverly Chew, 49 Wall St. James May Duane, 59 Wall St. 

Edgar C. Leonard, Albany, N. Y. Henry D. Babcock, 32 Liberty St. 

John B. Holland, 65 Broadway. Samuel E. Hoffman, 258 Broadway. 

John Hone, 5 Gramercy Park. Francis L. Hine, 2 Wall St. 

William W. Ladd, 20 Nassau St. Parker D. Handy, 22 Pine St. 

Benjamin R. Lummis, 28 W. 33d St. Benjamin T. Fairchild, 74 Laight St. 

John Adams Dix, 25 Broad St. George H. Coutts, 273 Broadway. 

I. Wray Cleveland, 176 Broadwav. 



Chapters of the Society: 

Buffalo Chapter, Buffalo, N. Y., Robert M. Codd, Regent. 

George W. Comstock, Secretary, 124 Lexington Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Philip Livingston Chapter, Albany, N. Y., Edgar C. Leonard, Regent. 

Borden H. Mills, Secretary, 44 Tweddle Building, Albany, N. Y. 
William Floyd Chapter, Troy, N. Y., Walter P. Warren, Regent. 

William Barker, Jr., Secretary, c/o William Barker Co., Troy, N. Y. 
Fort Schuyler Chapter, Utica, N. Y., Sylvester Dering, Regent. 

A. Vedder Brower, Secretary, 306 Genesee Street. Utica, N. Y. 
Orange County Chapter, Goshen, N. Y. 
Jamestown Chapter, Jamestown, N. Y., Winfield Scott Cameron, Regent. 

Frank H. Mott, Secretary, Fenton Building, Jamestown, N. Y. 



Executive Committee: 

John Hone, Chairman, Joseph T. Low. 

William G. Bates, 
President, Secretary and Treasurer Ex-Offioio. 



Real Estate Committee: 

Robert Olyphant, Chairman, James M. Montgomery/ 

Alexander R. Thompson, Henry A. Wilson, 

Tohn Hone. Arthur M. Hatch. 



Membership Committee : 

George DeForest Barton, Chairman, 150 Broadway. 

Landreth H. King, Room 4020, Grand Central Station. 

Edward L. Parris, 45 Broadway. 

Caldwell R. Blakeman, Coffee Exchange. 

Benjamin W. B. Brown, 52 Wall Street. 

Talbot Root, 52 Broadway. 

Chandler Smith, 68 Broad Street. 

Nathaniel A. Prentiss, 120 Broadway. 

Pierre F. Macdonald, 45 Vestry Street. 

George P. Lawton, 14 East 60th Street. 

Edward C. Delafield. 25 Broad Street. 

William B. Hill, 160 Broadway. 

Edmund Howard-Martin, 160 West 59th Street. 

Historical Committee: 

David Cromwell, Chairman, George B. Class. 

Norman F. Cushman, Wilbur F. Wakeman. 

Talbot Olyphant, Ex-Ofhcio. 



Essay Committee: 

Richard Henry Greene, Chairman, R. Russell Requa, 

Herbert L. Bridgman, Rev. Berry Oakley Baldwin, 

Alfred Ely. 



Library Committee: 

John R. Totten, Chairman, Henry Phelps Johnston, 

Henry Cole Smith. 



Museum Committee: 

Beverly Chew, Chairman, William Bunker, 

Clarence Storm, William G Low, Jr., 

Charles Wisner. 



Tablet Committee: 

James M. Montgomery, Chairman, Henry Russell Drowne, 

Henry Phelps Johnston, Alexander R. Thompson, 

Pierre F. Macdonald. 



Stewards: 

Charles E. Warren, Chairman, Robert M. Olyphant. Jr., 

Montgomery H. Sicard, M. D., Philip Rhinelander, 

Lawrence L. Gillespie. Phoenix Ingraham. 



Marshal: 
John Butterfield Holland. 

Aides to the Marshal : 

James Wray Cleveland, Henry De Witt Hamilton, 

Albert Delafield, Henry Melville, 

Charles Whipple Furey, Talbot Root, 

Clarence Wilbur Smith. 

Publication Committee: 

James M. Montgomery, Chairman, Charles Isham, 

Henry Russell Drowne. 

8 



Annual Church Service 
Aisle Committee: 

Talbot Olyphant, Chairman, 
Frederick Sanford Woodruff, Vice-Chairman. 



Warren Sanford Banks, 

Worcester Bouck, 

Banyer Clarkson, 

Cullen Van Rensselaer Cogswell, 

Robert Grier Cooke, 

John Francis Daniell, 

Gano Dunn, 

Joseph N. Lord Edmonds, 

Morris Douw Ferris, 

Schuyler Brush Knox, 

Charles Percy Latting, Jr., 

George Peabody Montgomery, 



Richard Malcolm Montgomery, Jr., 
Murray Olyphant, 
Robert Morrison Olyphant, Jr., 
William Rockhill Potts, 
Alexander Dallas Bache Pratt, 
Edward Lawrence Purdy, 
Arthur Frederic Schermerhorn, 
Edward Gibert Schermerhorn, 
Rufus Ingalls Shea, 
Joseph Ferris Simmons. 
Landon Ketchum Thorne, 
Alfred Byers Wade. 



Excursion Committee: 

James M. Montgomery, Chairman, Edward P. Casey, 

Clarence Storm, John C. Gulick, 

William G. Bates, J. Wi:ay Cleveland, 

Robert Olyphant, Ex-Officio. 



John B. Holland, 



A uditing Committee : 

Frederick S. Woodruff, 
Walter L. Suydam. 



Committee on Constitution and By-Laws. 



Edmund Wetmore, Chairman, 
William W. Ladd, 



William G. Bates, 
Fredfrick S. Woodruff. 



Report of the Board of Managers 



To the Sons of the Revolution 

in the State of New York: 

The Board of Managers submits the following report for the year 
ending December 4, 1911 : 

Seven meeetings of the Board of Managers have been held during the 
year. The Annual Meeting was held at Fraunces Tavern, December 5, 
1910, at 3.30 P. M. In the absence of Mr. Edmund Wetmore, President 
of the Society, Mr. Robert Olyphant, the First Vice-President, presided. 
In the absence of Mr. Henry Russell Drowne, the Secretary, Col. Eugene 
K. Austin, the Assistant Secretary, officiated and read the call for the meet- 
ing. 

The polls were declared open for one hour and a half, the following 
tellers having been appointed by the Chairman : Messrs. Talbot Root, Varick 
Dey Martin, Harrison Wright and Chandler Smith. 

The Rev. Frank L. Humphreys, S.T.D., Assistant Chaplain, offered 
the prayer for the Sons of the Revolution contained in the printed order of 
service of the Society. 

The reading of the report of the Board of Managers was dispensed 
with, same having been printed for distribution to the members. The Chair- 
man stated that the Treasurer's Report would also be distributed later. 

Mr. Talbot Olyphant, Historian of the Society, read his report, during 
the reading of which all the members rose and remained standing. 

The Assistant Secretary read the report of the Nominating Commit- 
tee. The Chairman announced the names of the new Stewards appointed 
and read the preamble to the Constitution as prescribed, after which, the 
Rev. Henry Barton Chapin, D.D., one of the General Chaplains of the So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati, offered prayer, and a recess was taken until five 
o'clock, during which, refreshments were served in the fourth floor dining 
room. 

11 



On being again called to order the tellers reported that 850 of the reg- 
ular proxies had been received and 100 proxies of the Albany Chapter, which* 
with 100 members present, made a total of 1,050 votes for the regular ticket, 
which had been duly elected. 

Since the Annual Meeting, Col. Eugene K. Austin has been appointed 
Assistant Secretary; the Rev. Frank Landon Humphreys, S.T.D., Assist- 
ant Chaplain: Mr. Talbot Olyphant, Historian; Col. John B. Holland, 
Marshal ; and Messrs. John Hone, Joseph Tompkins Low and Col. Willam 
G. Bates, members of the Executive Committee. Various committees have 
also been appointed, a list of which is printed with this report. 

A Stated Meeting was held at Delmonico's, New York, on Tuesday 
evening, January 24, 1911, to celebrate the birthday of Frederick Samuel 
Tallmadge, late President of the Society, and was called to order at 8.40 
P. M., by the First Vice-President, Mr. Robert Olyphant. The Chairman 
made a brief address giving a sketch of the life and service of Frederick 
S. Tallmadge and speaking of the interest which he took in the Society and 
his bequest, making possible the purchase and restoration of Fraunces 
Tavern. The speaker of the evening, Mr. Reginald Pelham Bolton, M.E., 
was then introduced and delivered a lecture on " Naval Engagements on the 
Waters of New York City in 1776," illustrated with stereopticon views. 

On account of the Triennial Meeting at Washington, D. C, the Battle 
of Lexington was celebrated on Wednesday evening, April 26, by a Stated 
Meeting at Delmonico's. President Wetmore called the meeting to order 
at 8.45 o'clock and made a short address on the historical event. He also 
gave an account of the Triennial Meeting and the unveiling of the monu- 
ment at Annapolis to the memory of the French Soldiers and Sailors, and 
closed his address by urging all the members of the Society to use their ef- 
forts to increase its membership and to establish societies in those States 
which have none at present. Mr. Aaron Bancroft, a venerable member of 
the Society, then gave a short account of an enthusiastic meeting in Bermuda 
to celebrate Washington's Birthday, after which, Mr. Clarence Storm, the 
speaker of the evening, was introduced, and read a most interesting paper 
comparing the City of New York to-day with the City as it existed seventy- 
five years ago, illustrated with stereopticon views. 

At the Stated Meeting held at Delmonico's on Saturday evening, No- 
vember 25, Mr. Albert Bushnell Hart, Professor of Government in Har- 
vard University, delivered an instructive lecture on " Benjamin Franklin as 
an Upbuilder of the American Constitution." 

The Annual Church Service of the Society, commemorative of the birth 
of George Washington, was held at the Church of the Heavenly Rest, Fifth 

12 



avenue and Forty-fifth street, New York, on Sunday, February 19, 1911, at 
4 o'clock P. M. 

It was conducted by the Rt. Rev. David H. Greer, D.D., Bishop of 
the Diocese of New York and Chaplain of the Sons of the Revolution, as- 
sisted by the Rev. Frank Landon Humphreys, S.T.D., Assistant Chaplain, 
the Rev. George Stuart Baker, D.D., the Rev. Pelham St. George Bisseil, 
M.A., A.K.C., the Rev. Albert Alonzo Brockway, M.A., the Rev. Henry 
Barton Chapin, D.D., Ph.D., the Rev. William Nichols Dunnell, S.T.D., 
and the Rev. Floyd Swallow Leach, B.D., Ph.D. 

The sermon was delivered by the Rev. Herbert Shipman, Rector of 
the Church of the Heavenly Rest, and is printed in full in this report. 

The Military Society of the War of 1812 furnished a uniformed escort. 

The following representatives of Societies were present: Society of 
the Cincinnati : Talbot Olyphant, F. K. Pendleton, Dr. Thomas L. M. Chrys- 
tie, Dr. William Sturgis Thomas and Dixon Gedney Hughes; Military So- 
ciety of the War of 1812: John F. Daniell, John Adams Dix, George N. 
Gardiner, John Hone and Col. John Van Rensselaer Hoff ; Colonial Wars . 
Edward Nicoll Croshy, Frederick Dwight, William Henry Folsom, Herbert 
T. Wade and Dr. Faneuil Suydam Weisse; Daughters of the Revolution, 
State of New York : Mrs. Clarence S. Bleakley, Mrs. Zeb Mayhew, Mrs. 
Ralph Waldo, Mrs. William J. Harding and Mrs. George W. Hodges ; Col- 
onial Dames of America: Mrs. George A. Lung, Mrs. Edwin B. Sheldon, 
Miss Elvira L. Sistare, Miss Sara Arden Cheesman and Miss Kathrinc 
Woolsey Carmalt ; Colonial Dames of the State of New York : Mrs. William 
B. Beekman, Mrs. Elihu Chauncey, Mrs. Benjamin W. Franklin, Mrs. F. F. 
Thompson and Miss Wells; Aztec Club of 1847: Dr. John W. Brannon, 
Loyal Farragut, Dr. William M. Polk, H. Fitz-John Porter and William M. 
Sweeney; Military Order of Foreign Wars: Amory S. Carhart, William G. 
Bates, Dr. J. H. Claiborne, Clinton E. Braine and A. J. Bleecker ; Military 
Order of the Loyal Legion ; General George P. Borden, William S. Cogs- 
well, Munson B. Field, L. H. Gein and Henry M. Davis. 

The Annual Banquet took place in the large Banquet Hall at Del- 
monico's on February 22, 1911, the anniversary of Washington's Birthday, 
and was presided over by Mr. Edmund Wetmore, the President of the 
Society. The following invited guests were present : 

Hon. John Alden Dix, Governor of the State of New York ; 
Major-General Frederick D. Grant, U. S. A., representing the 
Army ; 

13 



Rear- Admiral Francis J. Higginson, U. S. X.. Retired, represent- 
ing the Navy ; 

William Verbeck, Adjutant-General of the State of New York ; 

Lieut. Eckford C. de Kay, Military Secretary to the Governor; 

The Rt. Rev. David H. Greer, D. D.. Chaplain of the Society; 

The Rev. Frank Landon Humphreys, S.T.D., Assistant Chaplain; 

George Lawyer, LL. B. : 

Judge Almet F. Jenks ; 

Hon. Hugh Gordon Miller ; 

Oliver Hazard Perry, Society of the Cincinnati ; 

David Mitchell Morrison, St. Andrew's Society ; 

Frank H. Cauty, St. George's Society ; 

Paul G. Thebaud, Society of the War of 1812 ; 

Samuel Y. Hoffman, New York Historical Society ; 

Judge Alphonso T. Clearwater, the Holland Society ; 

Amory S. Carhart, Society of Colonial Wars ; 

Col. William G. Bates, Military Order of Foreign Wars ; 

Herbert M. Leland, Massachusetts Society, Sons of the Revolution ; 

Hon. Giarles W. Parker, New Jersey Society, Sons of the Revolu- 
tion. 

• 

Prayer was offered by the Rt. Rev. David H. Greer, D.D., Chaplain of 
the Society. 

The banquet hall was appropriately and tastefully decorated, and an 
orchestra was furnished for the occasion. After coffee had been served 
there was the usual flag procession in the following order : Fifer and Drum- 
mer in continental uniform ; the Stewards ; flags and banners of the Society ; 
the cocked hat carried on a cushion ; and two handsome baskets of flowers 
from the Colonial Dames of the State of New York and the Daughters 
of the Revolution. 

The Hon. Alphonso T. Clearwater, in presenting the President with the 
cocked hat, spoke as follows : 

I am happy to present to you the hat as worn by General George Wash- 
ington. It is presented to you, sir, because of the great similarity of char- 
acter between yourself and the Father of his country. It is presented also, 
sir, because you chose as your profession, that calling which is renowned for 
its adherence to unalterable truth. Every man in this room, sir, recognizes 
and realizes the significance and the appropriateness of this presentation, 
and this, sir, is the proudest moment of my life, to present to the representa- 
tive of Washington the hat of the forefather of his country. 

14 



The hat was received by President Wetmore, who put it on, with the 
following remarks : 

You have deprived me, sir, of the power of expressing my thanks. 
When General Washington was called upon to make a speech he stammered 
and could say nothing, until the speaker said, " Sit down, sit down, Mr. 
Washington ; your modesty is as great as your valor, and that is beyond the 
power of man to express." 

I am obliged to you, sir, for all that you have said. I feel a great deal 
more like taking my own hat off in the presence of this assembly than I 
do like putting any man's hat on ; not only on account of our distinguished 
guests, but because I am facing the members of one of the first patriotic 
societies in our land. It is an honor as great as to look like General Wash- 
ington, to belong to it and still a greater honor to be chosen as its Presi- 
dent. No man can be more conscious than I am of my shortcomings in re- 
gard to the difficulty of putting on this hat. 

All then joined in singing heartily : " My Country 'Tis of Thee," and 
President Wetmore made the following introductory address : 

Gentlemen, we are here to keep our annual festival and to renew our 
pledges of loyalty to the memory of our forefathers and to draw closer the 
ties of brotherhood that unite us in our cherished Society. We are here to 
eulogize the deeds of the makers of the nation — and before all. of him whose 
birthday we keep and who led the country through the perils of war, and 
the still greater perils of peace until the foundation of the government was 
laid so broad and deep that for more than a century it has proved sufficient 
to fulfill the exalted purpose of its creation. It has promoted the general 
welfare and secured the blessings of liberty to the generations of our fellow- 
citizens who have gone before, and it is left us. charged with the solemn 
duty of seeing to it that unshaken and unimpaired it shall continue to secure 
those blessings to ourselves and to our posterity. 

Mr. Lincoln said at Gettysburg that the world would little note nor long 
remember what they said there, but could never forget yvhat was done 
there ; but we come here in the hope and faith that what we say here and what 
year after year we repeat here, may do something towards turning the 
thoughts of our fellow-townsmen and of our fellow-countrymen to whom 
our words may reach, lest they do forget what was done here. 

We would recall the things that have happened within the circle of our 
own island, the places it still holds, the scenes it once witnessed. We would 
have them remember, when they cross the Brooklyn Bridge and look down 
on the waters below, that one misty night in the year 1776, right from the 
front of a victorious enemy, and almost under the guns of a hostile fleet, 

15 



Washington, after forty-eight hours in the saddle, by a masterly retreat, 
silently withdrew the whole of his shattered army right across those swirling 
waters we see below, himself the last man over, and when he set foot on the 
New York shore he could thank God that he had saved his army, which at 
that date and hour meant that he had saved his country as well. 

We would have them remember, when the trolley takes them up on the 
east side of town, that the spot now crowded with houses, between First 
avenue and the East River, near the foot of Forty-fifth street is the very 
spot where Nathan Hale yielded up his young life with the immortal regret 
from his lips that he had but one life to give for his country. 

We would have them remember, when they pass the beautiful grounds 
and the stately buildings of our Colleges and Universities that adorn and 
dignify the upper part of our Island, that it was over this region that our 
raw and untrained forces were hardened by the rough discipline of defeat 
into the Continental Army, that born with the flag, carried it to final and 
triumphant victory; or we would have them pass through the doors of our 
own home at Fraunces Tavern, and there stand in the very room, where, 
with feeling too deep for words, and that reached the fountains of men's 
rare tears, his companions in arms, after suffering the perils and triumphs 
of eight years of warfare, assembled and bade farewell to their beloved 
chief. And then — then we would have them remember that these were 
but some of the scenes of the great drama, the theatre of which was the 
whole country, the actors in which were a whole people, and the theme 
of which was the duty, in the last resort, and where all other means had 
failed, to fight for a principle that it would be criminal to surrender and 
base to compromise. 

We would forget all animosity to our ancient foe and bury it deep and 
erect a lasting monument to peace and friendship over its grave, as we have 
done, but at the same time we would not forget the lesson of our Revolution, 
that matters of principle that touch and should touch the national conscience, 
lie outside the jurisdiction of any court of arbitration, and that as long as 
human nature is what it is, war at any time may become a duty, and such a 
war and its sufferings and struggles are one of the conditions of human prog- 
ress, and it is the cultivation of the primitive and hardy virtues, the re- 
ligion and morality of our early days, that can alone save our latter days from 
degeneracy, but this is a time for faith and not for fears. Neither now, nor 
at any time, would we falter for one moment in our belief that the same 
virtues and patriotism that sustained our government thus far constitute the 
great reserve force that is sustaining it to-day and will sustain it in the 
time to come. The child of the Revolution — it has become the heir of the 

16 



ages and the hope of humanity ; we rejoice that we live under it and with 
hearts devoutly thankful for its blessings, let us join in our first toast: " The 
United States of America." 

All present thereupon rose and drank the toast standing, after which 
the " Star Spangled Banner " was sung. 

The rest of the toasts were responded to as follows : 

" The State of New York," His Excellency, the Governor of the State 
of New York, Hon. John Alden Dix. 

" George Washington," George Lawyer, LL.B. 

' The Army," Major-General Frederick Dent Grant, U. S. A. 

' The Navy," Rear-Admiral Francis J. Higginson, U. S. N., Retired. 

' The Bench," Almet F. Jenks, Presiding Justice Appellate Division 
Supreme Court. 

" Lincoln, the Preserver of the Union," Hon. Hugh Gordon Miller. 

All these speeches are printed in full in this report. 

There were 362 members and guests in attendance at the banquet which 
was greatly enjoyed by those present. 

During the year the Society met with the loss of its General President, 
the Hon. John Lee Carroll, formerly Governor of Maryland, and at the Feb- 
ruary Meeting of the Board of Managers the following minute was adopted 
and a copy sent to Governor Carroll's family : 

' This Board have learned with profound sorrow of the death, this day, 
at Washington of John Lee Carroll, the General President of the Society of 
the Sons of the Revolution. 

" A direct descendant of Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, Governor of 
Maryland, in the Centennial year of 1876, and the first General President 
of the Society, which office he held for twenty-one years, Governor Carroll 
was widely known and regarded for his abilities, his public spirit and his 
attractive personal qualities. The Society during the time that he has been 
at its head has grown and prospered. He was devoted to its interests and 
eloquent in its behalf. A worthy representative of the men who stood in 
the forefront in civil affairs during the era of the Revolution ; he inherited 
their patriotism, and their earnestness and zeal, set off with the gracious 
manners of the generation to which they belonged. 

" The loss the whole Society has suffered in the death of Governor Car- 
roll is one we all share and keenly feel, but while we record our sorrow for 
that loss and the respect and love we bore him, we also record our thankful- 
ness that he died full of years and full of honors after such a life as was be- 

17 



fitting the head of our Society and won him the lasting esteem of his fellow 
countrvmen." 

The Board also lost two of its members, the Hon. Charles W. Dayton, 
Justice of the Supreme Court of New York, and Mr. James J. Higginson. 
The following minutes were adopted : 

" Resolved, That the members of the Board of Managers of the Society 
of the Sons of the Revolution in the State of New York desire to record this 
expression of their sorrow for the loss which has befallen them, since their 
last meeting, in the decease of their colleague, Judge Charles W. Dayton, 
who died in this City upon the 7th of December, 1910. 

" Judge Dayton was a valued member of this Board. He rilled many 
offices of public trust and, as an able and impartial magistrate and a faithful 
and efficient officer in the discharge of the public duties with which he was 
entrusted, he showed the qualities that made him a faithful and loyal mem- 
ber of this Society. In his intercourse with ourselves he was invariably 
courteous and considerate. His counsels were wise and moderate and his 
patriotism earnest and sincere. We lament his loss as that of a friend and 
brother and, as fellow workers, in a common cause, pay this token of lasting 
respect to his memory. 

" Resolved, That this resolution be entered in our minutes and a copy 
sent to his family to whom we tender our most respectful sympathy." 

'Mr. James J. Higginson, a member of this Society, was elected one 
of the Board of Managers at the Annual Meeting, held on the 5th day of 
December, 1910. Before the first meeting of the Board to which he had 
been elected, and on the 5th day of January, 1911, he died, after a few days' 
illness. We have never therefore had the advantage of his counsel and com- 
panionship as one of our colleagues, and those who best knew him can best 
appreciate the loss we have thus met. His acceptance of the office was a 
pledge for the faithful performance of its duties and an honor to the Society; 
for Mr. Higginson, for his philanthropy, his generosity, his patriotism and 
noble character occupied a high position in this community and was esteemed 
and beloved by his fellow citizens, not only within but far and wide outside 
the circle of our own members. We here record our respects for his 
memory and our profound sorrow for the loss which has befallen ourselves, 
and the whole Society in the ending of so honorable and useful a life." 

Mr. George H. Coutts was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the 
death of the Hon. Charles W. Dayton, and Col. J. Wray Cleveland to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. James J. Higginson. 

18 



At the January meeting of the Board Mr. George H. Coutts presented 
the calendar of the Title Guarantee and Trust Company, giving a picture 
of the capture of General Nathaniel Woodhull, stating that at present there 
is no tablet erected to his memory, and suggesting that one be erected. The 
matter was referred to the Tablet Committee and a tablet, designed by Mr. 
Albert Weinert, will be placed on one of the school buildings in Jamaica, 
Long Island, and unveiled in the spring with appropriate ceremonies. 

At the February meeting the special committee appointed to work for 
the erection of a statue in Albany to the memory of General Philip Schuyler, 
consisting of Edgar C. Leonard, Chairman, Samuel L. Munson, Arthur G. 
Root, M. D., William G. Bates and Robert C. Morris, were instructed io 
use their efforts to secure the passage of a bill before the Legislature for 
the purchase by the State of the historic Schuyler Mansion. The bill has 
since been passed and the mansion acquired for the purpose of a museum, 
so that it will be preserved. 

A letter was read from Captain G. de Grasse Catlin suggesting that the 
Society present to Battery D, 5th U. S. Field Artillery, formerly Alexander 
Hamilton's Battery, a guidon flag, to replace the one presented to the Battery 
by the descendants of Alexander Hamilton twenty-nine years ago, which 
is now in a very dilapidated condition. The matter was referred to Mr. 
James Mortimer Montgomery with power, and at the Banquet of the Gen- 
eral Society in Washington, a handsome flag was" presented to Major-Gen- 
eral Leonard Wood, U. S. A., for the Battery, who expressed the thanks 
of the Battery to the Society. 

At the May Meeting of the Board, Mr. Beverly Chew, the Chairman of 
the Museum Committee, reported that Mr. Edmund Wetmore, the Presi- 
dent of the Society, had presented to the Society a plaster cast of Houdon's 
bust of Admiral John Paul Jones, the Founder of the United States Navy, 
with a suitable bracket, which has been placed in the Museum. 

At the same meeting Mr. John Adams Dix presented to the Society the 
insignia of his father, the Rev. Dr. Morgan Dix, for the use of its Chaplain. 
The insignia was acepted with thanks and has since been put in perfect con- 
dition and presented to the Rt. Rev. David H. Greer. Chaplain of the So- 
ciety. 

A letter has been received from Bishop Greer offering the use of the 
Cathedral of St. John the Divine for the next Annual Church Service of the 
Society and expressing the hope that he will be able to accept the invitation 
of the Society to preach on that occasion. 

At the October meeting of the Board, the Committee on Constitution 
and By-Laws recommended amendments to the By-Laws, as to the duties 

19 



of Officers and Committees, which were endorsed by the Board, and the 
Secretary of the Committee, Mr. Frederick S. Woodruff, was instructed to 
present them at the Annual Meeting and to give notice of a motion to adopt 
at a future meeting. 

At the same meeting the following resolution with regard to grave 
markers was adopted : 

Resolved, that the Tablet Committee be authorized to procure grave 
markers to be made of bronze metal of the present design but with a suffi- 
ciently large rim or margin to permit of the insertion of the soldier's name 
and corps of organization, with authority to place markers on the graves 
of all Revolutionary soldiers within this State that have no descendants to 
pay for the same, and the committee is further authorized to supply such 
markers at cost to persons who desire to erect them and to send out a cir- 
cular to members of the Society to this effect. 

At the November meeting of the Board President Wetmore appointed 
Messrs. William W. Ladd, James May Duane, William G. Bates, James G. 
Cannon and Alexander R. Thompson as the Finance Committee. 

The President stated that a letter had been received from Commander 
W. C. Cole, of the Navy, calling attention to the dilapidated condition of 
the naval battle flags and requesting the endorsement by the Society of a 
bill to be presented to Congress for their preservation. 

It was resolved to send out a circular letter on the subject to the mem- 
bers of the Society and to enclose a copy of Commander Cole's letter. 

A delegation of the Board of Managers, headed by Mr. Frederick S. 
Woodruff, the Third Vice-President, accepted an invitation to visit the 
Philip Livingston Chapter of Albany on January 14, 1911. The party was 
received with great courtesy and hospitably entertained at the Fort Orange 
Club. They were also taken to many places of historic interest. 

The Triennial Meeting of the General Society on April 18 and 19, 1911, 
was one of special interest on account of the unveiling on Tuesday, April 
18, of the monument at Annapolis, Maryland, erected by the Sons of the 
Revolution to the memory of the French soldiers and sailors who sacrificed 
their lives in the Revolution. The ceremonies consisted of the presenta- 
tion of the monument to the custody of St. John's College, Annapolis, by 
Mr. Edmund Wetmore, General President of the Sons of the Revolution ; 
unveiling of the monument by Miss Amelie de Pau Fowler, a descendant 
of Count de Grasse, and the Count de Chambrun, a descendant of Marquis 
de Lafayette; acceptance of the custody of the monument by Dr. Thomas 
Fell, President of St. John's College; Address by His Excellency, William 
H. Taft, the President of the United States ; Address by M. Jean J. Jusser- 

20 



and, Ambassador of France; Benediction by the Rev. Frank L. Humphreys, 
S. T. D., Assistant Chaplain of the Sons of the Revolution in the State of 
New York. At the conclusion of the ceremonies a special drill was given 
by the cadets of the Naval Academy. 

The Triennial Meeting was held at the New Willard Hotel, Washing- 
ton, D. C, on the morning of Wednesday, April 19, the following delegates 
representing the New York Society: Messrs. Edmund Wetmore, Robert 
Olyphant, Frederick S. Woodruff, Henry Russell Drowne, William W. Ladd, 
Talbot Olyphant, John B. Holland, Harry D. Spears, Robert M. Codd, Ed- 
win E. Swift, M. D., J. Wray Cleveland, Benjamin R. Lummis, J. Morgan 
Howe, James Van Dyk, John H. Prall, Talbot Root, Benjamin W. B. Brown, 
William B. Davenport, Warren S. Sillcocks, William A. Fuller, F. Murray 
Olyphant, William W. Owens, Levi Holbrook and Emerson Chamberlin. 

On Wednesday afternoon the Society went to Fort Meyer, Virginia, 
where, through the courtesy of Frederick D. Grant, U. S. A., commanding 
the Department of the East, a special drill was ordered by Colonel Joseph 
Garrard, U. S. A., commanding the 15th Cavalry. In the evening of the 
same day the General Society entertained its members and guests at a superb 
Banquet in the New Willard Hotel. 

The Society accepted an invitation to participate in the Fourth of July 
Celebration at the City Hall, New York City, serving as escort to the Mayor 
and joining in the Parade of Nations. Although the day was intensely hot 
about fifty members of the Society paraded from Fraunces Tavern under 
the leadership of President Edmund Wetmore and headed by a fifer and 
drummer and seven flag bearers dressed in Continental uniform and carry- 
ing the handsome silk flags of the Society. Of the members who took part, 
Mr. Joseph L. Delafield was Secretary of the City Hall Celebration Com- 
mittee ; Col. John B. Holland, Marshal of the Parade of Nations ; and Col. 
Eugene K. Austin, Marshal of the Sons of the Revolution delegation. The 
others were William W. Atwood, Frederick H. Brooks, Nathan G. Boze- 
man, M. D., Henry J. Brightman, Edward D. Butler, Alexander O. Burn- 
ham, John W. Benson, Henry S. Colding, D. D. S., Wallace D. Chace, 
Horace J. Campbell, Edward P. Casey, James H. Elmore, Charles W. Fash, 
Morris P. Ferris, Theodore W. Frink, William C. Gilley, M. D., Edwin 
D. Graff, Stephen W. Giles, Clinton B. Hale, Floyd M. Horton, Henry C. 
Jahne, Samuel M. Kookogey, Clarence E. Leonard, C. Percy Latting, Jr., 
William W. Ladd, Harvey K. Lines, Richard M. Montgomery, Jr., Frank 
L. Moore, Henry R. Mygatt, Edward L. Parris, Peter Palmer, Charles E. 
Perkins, Henry Cole Smith, Robert L. Stedman, Andrew D. Salkeld, Fred- 
erick H. Sanford, Preston L. Talley, Zelah Van Loan, John H. Wood, Al- 

21 



bert T. Weston, AI..D., Louis F. W. Wallace, Philip L. Watkins, John W. 
Wainwright, M. D., and Abram Wakeman. There were also in the proces- 
sion three prospective members of the Society, Frank D. Hale, Jared B. 
Moore and Edward B. Idell, a brother, son and grandson of members, and 
Cecil F; Colton, a member of the Rhode Island Society, Sons of the Revo- 
lution. 

The Essay Committee reported one hundred and seven essays received 
from seventy-two schools on the subject, "The Assistance from France in 
Our Revolution — Its Basis, Effect and Result," and that prizes and honor- 
able mention had been awarded as follows: 

First Prize— George A. Neubauer, Buffalo Central High School, Buf- 
falo, N. Y. 

Second Prize Winifred Fisher, Schenectady High School, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y. 

Third Prize — Marjorie Hunt, Girls High School, Borough of Brook- 
lyn, New York City. 

Honorable Mention. 

Harold B. Allen, Albion High School, Albion, N. Y. 

Sidney B. Pfeifer, Buffalo Central High School, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Thomas Haven Ross, Jr., Cato High School, Cato, N. Y. 

Hazel M. Bailey, Oneonta High School, Oneonta, N. Y. 

Myron Blumenthal, Stuyvesant High School, Borough of Manhattan, 
New York City. 

W. A. Hanft, Flushing High School, Flushing, Borough of Queens, 
New York City. 

Thyra M. Jerennassen, Ithaca High School, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Herbert W. Schneider, Boys High School, Borough of Brooklyn, 
New York City. 

The three prizes essays are printed at the close of the reports, speeches, 

etc. 

The Society during the year has received invitations to the following 

banquets : 

Military Order of Foreign Wars, 

Society of the War of 1812, 

Holland Society, 

Society of the Cincinnati. 

Friendlv Sons of St. Patrick. 

Society of Colonial Wars. 

Saint Andrew's Society, 
and has also received invitations to the following functions : 

22 



Reception to the President of the United States : Military Order 
of Foreign Wars. 

Reception: Daughters of the Cincinnati. 

Reception: Pennsylvania Society, Sons of the Revolution. 

Reception to the Honorable Richard Bartholdt on Steamship, 
George Washington, Hoboken, N. J. : Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution. 

Church Service: Pennsylvania Society, Sons of the Revolution. 

Unveiling of Tablet to Anne Hutchinson in Pelham Park, N. Y. : 
The Colonial Dames of the State of New York. 

Unveiling of Tablet to Lafayette in Public School Number 3, New 
York City : John E. Wade, Principal. 

Exhibition of Antiques and Heirlooms : Kings County Historical 
Society, Borough of Brooklyn, New York City. 

Laying of corner stone of a memorial and historical building, 
Topeka, Kansas : Kansas State Historical Society. 

Annual Church Service of The Veteran Corps of Artillery of the 
State of New York and Military Society of the War of 1812 in the 
Chapel of Saint Cornelius the Centurion, Governors Island, N. Y. 

The Secretaries of our Chapters give the following reports for the 
vear : 



BUFFALO ASSOCIATION, Buffalo, X. V. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Buffalo Association, Sons of the Revo- 
lution, the following officers were elected: Robert M. Codd, President; 
Louis W. Simpson, Vice-President; George W. Comstock, Secretary and 
Treasurer. Three meetings were held during the year, at each of which 
papers were read of an interesting character, on Revolutionary topics. A 
fourth meeting was abandoned owing to the death of the venerable mother 
of the President. 

A series of meetings for the coming year is now being arranged for. 

There have been no deaths among the members of the Association dur- 
ing the year. 

Buffalo, New York, October 16, 1911. 

George W. Comstock; 
Secretary. 

23 



PHILIP LIVINGSTON CHAPTER, Albany, N. Y. 

The past twelve-month has been one of which the Chapter may well 
feel proud. Increasing activity along the lines laid down in our Institution, 
and constantly growing membership, have borne witness to the prosperity of 
our organization. 

The following is a resume of the year : 

The Annual Meeting of the Chapter was held at the Albany Country 
Club on the evening of January 14, 1911, at which the following officers 
were unanimously chosen for the coming year : Regent, Edgar Cotrell Leon- 
ard ; Vice-Regent, Howard Newton Fuller ; Secretary, Borden Hicks Mills , 
Treasurer, Herbert Whiting Stickney ; Registrar, Edward Willard Wet- 
more; Historian, George Elmer Gorham ; Chaplain, Charles Grenville Se- 
wall ; Marshal, Edgar Albert Vander Veer; Curator, Isaac Henry Vroo- 
man, Jr. 

Following the meeting, Fifty-four members of the Chapter and eight 
guests partook of the Annual Dinner. The speakers on this occasion were 
Hon. William P. Rudd, Justice of the Supreme Court, and a former Re- 
gent of the Chapter; Dr. George B. Stewart, President of Auburn Theo- 
logical Seminary, Frederic G. Mather, of the New York Society, and Fred- 
erick S. Woodruff, Vice-President of the State Society. 

The Chapter had been active throughout the year in support of the 
movement looking to the purchase of the Schuyler Mansion by the State, 
and largely on account of a hearing given to the Chapter by the Governor 
on March 22, the bill authorizing the purchase of this historic landmark be- 
came a law on that date. Our Regent, Mr. Edgar C. Leonard, was later 
named by Governor Dix as a member of the Commission which will have 
the management of the Mansion. 

Prof. Edward Willard Wetmore, a Charter Alember of our Chapter 
and for many years its Registrar, passed away on the same day, and in his 
death the Chapter in particular and the Society in general, suffered a dis- 
tinct loss. 

The Quarterly meeting of the Chapter was Held at the University Club 
on March 29, on which occasion the members were entertained in a most 
delightful and interesting manner by Dr. Oscar D. Robinson, Principal of 
the Albany High School, with a paper on " The Vicksburg Campaign " 
and by Mr. Isaac Henry Vrooman, Jr., Curator of the Chapter, with a dis- 
sertation on " When Was the Schuyler Mansion Constructed, and by 
Whom?" 

24 



On Wednesday, April 19, in celebration of the 136th Anniversary of the 
Battle of Lexington, public announcement and award was made of the prizes 
previously offered by the Chapter to students of the secondary schools of 
Albany for essays on subjects connected with the Revolutionary history 
of Albany, as follows: First Prize, to Miss Inez C. Bentley, of the Albany 
High School, for essay on "Historic Landmarks of the Revolution in and 
about Albany " ; Second Prize, to Miss Edith M. Bell, of the Albany High 
School, for essay on " The Schuyler-Gates Controversy," and Third Prize, 
to Miss Alice E. Cassidy, of St. John's Academy, for esasy on " Old Albany 
Customs of the Eighteenth Century." 

A large number of highly creditable essays were received in the com- 
petition, great interest was shown by the pupils of the schools generally, 
and it is probable that the Chapter will make the contest an annual feature 
of its work. 

At the Quarterly meeting held at the University Club on the evening of 
May 24, Mr. Borden H. Mills read a paper on " Captain Jonas Hubbard's 
Company in Arnold's Quebec Expedition." 

The program for the October Quarterly meeting included a paper on 
"Benedict Arnold " by Rev. Charles G. Sewall, and one on "The Science 
of Military Surgery during the Revolution " by Dr. Albert Vander Veer. 

A Committee has been appointed by the Chapter to undertake the rais- 
ing of a fund for the purpose of erecting a marker on the Battlefield of 
Saratoga to commemorate the services of General Abraham Ten Broeck 
and the New York troops who served under him at that battle, and is now 
actively at work. 

The Executive Board has held thirteen meetings during the year. Eigh- 
teen candidates for membership have been elected on their preliminary ap- 
plications, two members of the State Society have been received into Chap- 
ter membership, and eighteen candidates recommended by the Chapter 
have been elected to membership by the Board of Managers. 

Mr. Charles Francis Bridge has been elected Regent by the Executive 
Board to fill the unexpired term of Mr. Edgar C. Leonard, who resigned, 
and Mr. Peter Gansevoort Ten Eyck was elected Curator in place of Mr. 
Bridge. 

The present active membership of the Chapter is 150, a net gain over 
last year of sixteen — the largest in the history of the Chapter. 

Albany, N. Y., November 14, 1911. 

Borden H. Mills, 

Secretary. 

25 



FORT SCHUYLER CHAPTER, Utica, N. Y. 

The Chapter held its annual meeting- at Utica, N. Y., on the 22d day 
of February, 1911, the Regent, General Sylvester Dering, presiding. Offi- 
cers were duly elected for the ensuing year. 

The Treasurer, J. Francis Day, reported a balance on hand of $340.2^. 

The Historian, Wadsworth Leach Goodier, chronicled the deaths of 
William Livingston Watson and Herman Isaiah Johnson and read a most in- 
teresting narrative of their lives. 

He also gave an account of the ceremonies participated in by the Fort 
Schuyler Chapter in connection with the unveiling of the granite monument 
to mark the site of old Fort Schuyler on Columbus Day, October 12. 1910. 

Several interesting donations were received and the thanks of the Chap- 
ter extended for same. 

The Annual Banquet of the Chapter was held in the evening. The 
speakers on this occasion were the Hon. Thomas W. Bacot, of Charleston, 
S. C, Prof. N. L. Andrews and the Rev. Octavius Applegate. They were 
followed by the Rev. Dana W. Bigelow, D. D.. who made an address on 
Samuel Kirkland, the Missionary Patriot. 

A meeting of the Chapter was held on July 6, 1911. 

Utica, N. Y., November 14, 1911. 

Abram Vedder Brower, 

Secretary. 

The Fort Schuyler Chapter has published its Reports and Proceedings 
for 1911. with the names of its thirty-seven members and a list of donations 
received, etc., which makes a very creditable showing. 



JAMESTOWN CHAPTER, Jamestown, N. Y. 

Jamestown Chapter, Sons of the Revolution, at its annual meeting 
elected the following officers : Regent, Major Winfield S. Cameron, James-: 
town, N. Y. ; Vice-Regent, Gilbert W. Strong, Sherman, N. Y. ; Historian, 
Abner Hazeltine, Jamestown. N. Y. ; Secretary and Treasurer, Frank H. 
.Mott. Jamestown, N, Y. 

The Society participated with other patriotic organizations in an ap- 
propriate celebration of Washington's birthday, February 22. 1911, which 
was held at Institute Hall, in Jamestown, N. Y. 

The Chapter offered a prize of $10.00 to the young man of the High 
School passing the best examination on the subject of Alexander Hamilton. 



26 



There were seven contestants and the prize was awarded to J. Russell Rog- 
er son. 

Wednesday evening, April 19, last, the members of the Chapter were 
entertained at dinner by Captain Fred W. Hyde. 

Jamestown, N. Y., Oct. 20. 1911. 

Frank H. Mott, 

Secretary. 

WILLIAM FLOYD CHAPTER, Troy, N. Y. 

The annual - meeting of the William Floyd Chapter, Sons of the Revo- 
lution, was held at the Troy Club on February 22, 1911, when the follow- 
ing officers were elected: Colonel Walter P. Warren, Regent; Dr. Russell 
F. Benson, Vice-Regent; David Banks Plum, Treasurer; William Barker, 
Jr., Secretary. 

After the election the Rev. Charles M. Nickerson delivered an address 
which was followed by a collation. 

Three new members were elected during the year, making a total mem- 
bership of seventy-six. 

Troy. N. Y, November 20, 1911. 

William Barker, Jr., 

Secretary. William Floyd Chapter. 

Sons of the Revolution. 



During the year a very complete card index of members and ancestors, 
with the sons and grandsons of members, has been compiled. It was found 
on its completion that there are about thirteen hundred of these juniors, of 
whom about five hundred and fifty are of age at the present time. A cir- 
cular has already been sent to the fathers of those who are of age, asking 
them to impress on their sons the desirabilitv of joining this Society, and 
offering to prepare application papers from their fathers' on file with the 
Society. As more of the younger sons become of age we will send a simi- 
lar letter to the fathers, and it is thought, in this way, the membership of 
the Society can be largely increased. Members who have not already done 
so are requested to send in the names with dates of birth of sons, grand- 
sons and nephews, so that they may be included in our card index, and 
to see that they become members of the Society, so that the work may be 
carried on in perpetuity. 

27 



The Library of the Society is growing slowly and surely and our Mu- 
seum has received a number of important additions, among which it seems 
desirable to mention an interesting old 'bowl having on it the portrait of 
Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Clinton, K. B. 

For the historic " Long Room " we have received a fine oil painting of 
Major-General Alexander McDougall, a gift from Hon. McDougall Hawkes. 

The two following portraits have also been promised : Alexander Ham- 
ilton, by William Pierson Hamilton, a member of the Society ; and Major- 
General Philip Schuyler, by Howard Townsend. 

Our members should not fail to visit Fraunces Tavern and see the 
" Long Room " and inspect our collection of interesting relics and docu- 
ments in the museum. At the same time should they desire any refreshment 
they will find a fine restaurant on the lower floor, as well as the members' 
dining room above. 

There have been sixty-three hundred and twenty-five visitors registered 
in the "Long Room" for 1911. 

During the past year there have been one hundred and nineteen mem- 
bers admitted, fifty-one died, one transferred, nine resigned and seventeen 
dropped for non-payment of dues. The Society now has on its rolls 
twenty-two hundred and six members. 

The Secretary desires to express his thanks to Mr. Louis B. Wilson, 
the Curator, for his very efficient assistance during the past year, as also to 
the Assistant Secretary, Col. Eugene K. Austin. 

By order of the Board of Managers. 

Henry Russell Drowne, 

Secretary. 
Fraunces Tavern, New York City. 



2cS 



REPORT OF THE HISTORIAN 



In Memoriam 



Admitted. 

Collins Lawton Balch 1891 

Charles Jefferson Wright, Brevet Colonel, 

N. H. V. Inf., 1861-5 1893 

Frederick Lines Bradley 1892 

Hon. Charles Willoughby Dayton, Justice Su- 
preme Court, New York 1889 

Henry Edwin Tremain, A.B., LL.B., Brevet 

Brigadier-General, U. S. V., 1861-5 1886 

George Clifford Buell, A.B 1895 

Rev. James Tuttle-Smith, D.D 1888 

Augustine Banks 1891 

Alexander James Clinton 1890 

Benjamin Covel Sparks 1906 

Evelyn Pierrepont Roberts 1890 

Eugene de Kay Townsend, Captain 71st N. Y. V. 

Inf., 1898 1908 

Charles Arthur Greene 1891 

James Jackson Higginson, Captain and Brevet 

Major, 1st Mass. V. Cav., 1862-5 1908 

Henry Burr Barnes, A.B., A.M 1890 

John Lindsay Hill 1885 

Jarvis Bonesteel Edson 1902 

Harold Chandler Kimball 1896 

Edward Elsworth 1888 

Theodore Frelinghuysen Reed 1885 

John Jesse Lapham 1910 

Rev. Erskine Norman White, D.D 1891 

James Bird 1896 

Wilson de Peyster 1901 

David Banks 1891 

Frederic Stark Gillis, LL.B 1899 

Edward Willard Wetmore, A.M., Pd.D 1890 

James Dudley Perkins 1904 

Charles Stedman Bull, A.B., A.M., M.D 1891 

George W. Van Boskerck 1909 

29 



Died. 
September 24th, 1910. 

November 6th, 1910. 
December 4th, 1910. 

December 7th, 1910. 



December 
December 
December 
December 
December 
December 
December 



9th, 1910. 

17th, 1910. 

18th, 1910. 

19th, 1910. 

26th, 1910. 

27th, 1910. 

30th, 1910. 



December 31st, 1910. 
January 3rd, 1911. 

January 5th, 1911. 
January 12th, 1911. 
January 16th, 1911. 
January 26th, 1911. 
February 1st, 1911. 
February 2nd, 1911. 
February 2nd, 1911. 
February 11th, 1911. 
February 13th, 1911. 
March 5th, 1911. 
March 7th, 1911. 
March 11th, 1911. 
March 20th, 1911. 
March 22nd, 1911. 
March 27th, 1911. 
April 17th, 1911. 
April 21st, 1911. 



Richard Church 

Samuel William Richardson 

William Alexander Smith 

Edward Reuel Smith 

Paul Eugene Jones 

Smith Ely \ 

William Edward Stillings 

William Rogers Morgan 

William Henry Jackson 

Rev. William Wallace Atterbury, D.D.. 

Rev. Edward Octavus Flagg, D.D 

Charles Frederick Wise 

Richard Fitch Hall 

Henry Pierce Stewart 

William Rowland 

Roswell Wilcox Chamberlain 

Robert Manley Lyman 

James Farwell Cowee 

Henry Evelyn Pierrepont, A.B., A.M .... 

Henry Edwin Cleveland 

John Neilson Carpender 

George Stevens Bell 



Admitted. Died. 

1893 May 8th, 1911. 

1895 May 10th, 1911. 

1890 May 31st, 1911. 

1896 June 16th, 1911. 

1897 June 17th, 1911. 

1891 July 1st, 1911. 
1897 July 11th, 1911. 
1899 July 25th, 1911. 

1890 July 27th, 1911. 

1894 August 6th, 1911. 

1894 August 24th, 1911. 
1899 September 5th, 1911. 
1904 October 1st, 1911. 

1892 October 17th. 1911. 
1896 October 22nd, 1911. 

1903 October 24th, 1911. 

1893 October 27th, 1911. 
1908 October 31st, 1911. 

1891 November 4th, 1911. 

1904 November 20th, 1911. 
1888 November 21st, 1911. 

1895 November 25th, 1911. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Talbot Olyphant, 

Historian. 



30 



Members Admitted 

January 1, 1910 — December 1, 1911. 



Members. 

1910 — Addis, Roscoe Darwin, 
Haworth, N. J. 

1911— Alexander, Charles Beatty, 
New York City. 

1910— Allen, Edward Warner, 
New York City. 



1910 — Aplington, Horace Thurber, 
New York City. 

1910 — Atwood, Edward Stanley, 
New York City. 

1911— Bagg, Egbert, 3d., 

Utica, N. Y. 

1910— Bancroft, P. Hubbard, 
New York City. 

1911— Barden, William Alfred, 
New York City. 



1911 — Beck, James Montgomery, 
New York City. 

1910— Beckwith, Nathan, 

Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 



1910 — Bender, Melvin Thomas, 
Albany, N. Y. 



Ancestors. 

Asa Davison (1736-1824), 

Private, Connecticut Line. 

William Ferguson (1752-1791), 
Captain, Pennsylvania Artillery. 

Archelaus Allen (1749-1828), 
Private, Connecticut Militia. 

Aaron Hall (1760-1839), 

Private, Connecticut Line. 

Daniel Piatt (1738-1826), 

Captain, Connecticut Militia. 

Joshua Webster (1750-1830), 
Sergeant, Connecticut Line. 

David Atwood (1758-1817), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

Daniel Bagg (1697-1784), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

John Lay (1737-1813), 

Private, Connecticut Line. 

William Few (1714-1828), 

Colonel, Georgia Militia. 
John Bush ( 1779), 

Lieutenant, South Carolina Line. 

Eliakim Darling. 

Private, New Hampshire Militia. 

Sylvanus Beckwith (1742-1839), 
Private, New York Militia. 

Josiah Gale (1742-1798), 

First Lieutenant, New York Militia. 

Christian Bender (1732-1808), 
Sergeant, New York Militia. 



31 



Mkmbers. 



Ancestors. 



1911 — Benson. Arthur Davis, 
New York City. 

1910 — Best, John Seymour Gardner, 
New York City. 

1910 — Bicknell, Eugene Pintard, 
Woodmere, L. I. 



1910— Bond, Walter Huntington, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1910— Bootey, Edward Robert. 
Jamestown, X. Y. 



1911— Booth, Walter Cowles, 
New York City. 

1911 — Bouck, James Barnes, Jr. 
Brooklyn, X. Y. 



1911 — Brainard, Charles Green, 
Waterville, X. Y. 



1910— Brett, Charles Porter, 
Albany, X. Y. 

1910 — Brewer, Charles Davies, 
Brooklyn, X. Y. 

1911 — Brower, Charles Coffin, 

Mt. Vernon, X. Y. 

1911— Brown. Walter Backus, 
New York City. 

1910 — Bruce. Matthew Linn, 
New Y<>rk City. 

1911 — Bryan, Robert Townley, 
Xcw York City. 



Benjamin Benson (1732-1779), 

Private, New York State Militia. 

Joel Champion (1755-1846), 

Private, Xew York Militia. 

William Constable (1751-1803), 

Major, Aid-de-Camp to General 
Lafayette. 

Alpheus Bigelow (1757-1847), 

Gunner, Massachusetts Regiment of 

Artillery. 



Jonathan Gardner (- 



-1824), 



Private, Massachusetts Line. 
Hendrick Strunk, 

Private, Xew York Militia. 

Samuel Richards (1753-1841), 

Lieutenant, Connecticut Line. 



Johannes Bouck (1720- 



-). 



2d Lieutenant, Xew York Militia. 
Eldad Worcester (1763-1853), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

William Brainard (1746-1820), 
Ensign, Connecticut Militia. 

James Green (1745-1817), 

Private, New York Militia. 

George Brett (1751-1833), 

Private, Xew York Militia. 

Jacob Brewer (1744-1815), 

Private, Xew York Militia. 

John Gustin (1760-1830), 

Private, Xew Jersey Militia. 

Cornelius Van Yeghten (1735-1813), 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Xew York 
Militia. 

James Linn (1760-1838), 

Private, Pennsylvania Militia. 

Caleb Kimball (1744 ), 

Captain. Massachusetts Militia. 

Jonathan Foster (1747 ), 

Private, Xew Hampshire Militia. 



32 



Members. 



Ancestors. 



1911— Burdett. Cyril Herbert, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1911 — Burhans, Samuel, 

Westfield, N. J. 

1911— Byron, Charles Ely, 

Albany, N. Y. 

1911 — Cannon, James Graham, 
Scarsdale, N. Y. 

1911 — Cardoze, Frederic Theodore, 
Albany, N. Y. 

1910 — Catlin, George de Grasse, 
Captain, U. S. A., 

Fort Snelling, Minn. 

1911— Catlin, Isaac Swartvvout. 

Brigadier-General, U. S. A. (Re- 
tired), 
Fort Snelling, Minn. 

1910— Chace, Wallace David, 
New York City. 

1910 — Chadbourne, William Merriam. 
New York Citv. 



1911— Chase, Arthur Booth, 

New York City. 

1910 — Congdon, Herbert Wheaton, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



1911— Cook, Paul, 

Troy, N. Y. 

1911 — Cooke, Henry David, 

Lieutenant, U. S. N., 
Washington, D. C. 

1910 — Coudert, Norman Joseph, 
New York Citv. 



Samuel Gilchrist (1754-1834), 

Private, Rhode Island Continental 
Infantry. 



Samuel Burhans (1755- 



-), 



Private, New York Continental 
Regiment. 

Daniel Beckley (1758-1843), 

Private, Connecticut Militia. 

Joseph Enos Goodrich, 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

Dirck Wynkoop (1732-1796), 

Member, New York Assembly. 

Daniel Shoemaker (1752-1836), 

1st Lieutenant Pennsylvania Militia. 

John McDowell (1714-1779), 

Ensign, Pennsylvania Battalion. 

John Decker (1735-1805), 

Major, New York Militia. 



Solomon Southwick (1731-1787), 
Deputy Commissary, R. I. 

Simeon Chadbourne (1750-1846), 

Sergeant, Massachusetts Continen- 
tal Regiment. 

Samuel Lancey (1760-1837), 

Private, Massachusetts Line. 

Jonathan Greenleaf (1723-1807), 

Member, Massachusetts Provincial 
Congress, 1775. 

Moses Greenleaf (1755-1812), 
Captain, Massachusetts Line. 

Ellis Cook (1732-1797), 

Colonel, New Jersey Militia. 

Asher Humphreys (1759-1826), 
Private, Connecticut Militia. 

Samuel Edmonds (1760-1826), 
Ensign, New York Troops. 



oo 



Members. 

1911 — Cowec, Harvey Denison, 
Troy, N. Y. 



1911— Cowdin, Winthrop, 

Mt. Kisco, N. Y. 

1°11— Crofts, Clarence Livingston, 
Little Falls, N. Y. 

1911 — Crofts, Frederick Sharer, 
New York City. 

1911 — Crooks, John Strickland, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1910 — Crowell, Charles Edward, Jr. 
New York Citv. 



1910 — Dale, Francis Colgate. 

New York City. 

1911— Davis. Dudley, 

New York City. 



1911 — Davis, Pierpont, 

New York City. 



ANCESTORS. 

James Cowee (1727-1801), 

Colonel. Massachusetts Militia. 
Abner Holden (1722-1805), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 
Edward Jackson (1739-1830), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 
Samuel Merriam (1723-1804), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

Thomas Cowdin (1720-1792), 

Captain, Massachusetts Militia. 

Peter R. Livingston (1737-1794), 
Colonel, New York Militia. 

Peter R. Livingston (1737-1794), 
Colonel, New York Militia. 

John Crooks (1755-1822), 

Corporal, Massachusetts Militia. 

William Popham (1752-1847), 

Major, Delaware Continental Regi- 
ment. 

James Ferris (1734-1780), 

Member of Committee, New York. 

Daniel Lyman (1756-1830), 

Colonel, Massachusetts Militia. 

Aaron Davis (1709-1777), 

Colonel, Massachusetts Militia. 
Moses Davis (1744-1823), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 
Benjamin Baker (1753-1830), 

Private, New Hampshire Continen- 
tal Regiment. 
Jesse Davidson (1758-1800), 

Private, New Hampshire Militia. 
Silas Whitney, (1758-1838), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

Aaron Davis (1709-1777). 

Colonel, Massachusetts Militia. 
Moses Davis (1744-1823). 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 
Benjamin Baker (1753-1830), 

Private, New Hampshire Continen- 
tal Regiment. 
Jesse Davidson (1758-1800), 

Private, New Hampshire Militia. 
Silas Whitney (1758-1838), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 



34 



Members. 



Ancestors. 



1910 — Demarest, Benjamin Garrison, Ph.D., 
New York City. 

1911— De Meli, Henry Gabriel Diophebo, 
Rosebank, N. Y. 

1911— Diefendorf, John Edwards, 
Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

1911— Dix, John Alden, 

Thomson, N. Y. 

1911 — Dominick, Henry Blanchard, Jr., 
New York City. 



1910 — Doubleday, George, 

New York City. 

1911 — Duane, Richard Bache, 
New York City. 



1910— Du Bois, Francis Elbert, M.D., 
Plainfield, N. J. 



1911 — Durston, Harry Cranston, 
Manlius, N. Y. 

1911 — Eaton, Edward, Cornelius, Jr., 
Albany, N. Y. 

1910— Edwards, Oliver, 

Captain, U. S. A., 

Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 

1911 — Elder, Thomas Lindsay, 
New York City. 



1910 — Enos, Alanson Trask, Jr., 
New York City. 

1910 — Estes, Eldridge Warren, 

Jersey City, Ni" J. 



Ebenezer Wood (1729-1810), 
Private, New York Militia. 

Simeon Draper (1765-1848). 

Private, Massachusetts Line. 

John Jacob Diefendorf (1747-1839), 
Private, New York Militia. 

Ozias Dix (1750 ), 

Private, Connecticut Militia. 

George Dominick (1739-1832), 

Captain, New York City Militia. 

James Cock (1746-1801), 

Adjutant, New York Militia. 

Seth Doubleday (1761-1836), 
Private, Connecticut Line. 

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), 

Signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. 

Cornelius C. Wynkoop (1732-1796), 
Captain, New York Militia. 

Peter Sylvester (1734-1808), 

Member, New York Provincial 
Congress, 1775-1776. 

Joseph Edwards, 

Sergeant, Connecticut Militia. 

Samuel Eaton (1732-1820), 

Sergeant, Massachusetts Militia. 

Oliver Edwards (1755-1829), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 



Robert Elder (1751-1837), 

Private, Pennsylvania Associators. 
Robert Orr (1744-1833), 

Captain, Pennsylvania Militia. 
Thomas Whitesides ( 1805), 

Captain, Pennsylvania Militia. 

Lawrence Taylor (1744-1785), 

1st Lieutenant, New Jersey Militia. 



Benjamin Estes (1761- 



-), 



Private, New York Militia. 



35 



Members. 

1910 — Fairchild, Benjamin Tappen, 

Kingsbridge, N. Y. City. 



1910 — Falconer, Bruce McLean, 
New York City. 

1910 — Falconer, William Henry, 
New York City. 

1910— Findley, William Van Brunt, 
New York City. 



1910 — Fleming, Matthew Corry, 
New York City. 

1910— Foster, Clark Harold, 
Troy, N. Y 

1910— Fox, Noel Bleecker, 

New York City. 



1911— French, Elston Marsh, 
Plainfield, N. J. 



1911 — Frink, Theodore Wimple, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1911 — Fuller, George Washington, 
Potsdam, N. Y. 

1910 — Fuller, Thomas Staples, 
New York City. 

1910 — Furman, George Homan, 
Patchogue, N. Y. 

1910 — Gardner, John Charles Fremont, 
New York City. 

1911 — Gossett, Thomas Henry, 
New York City. 

1911 — Graves, Charles Edwin, 
Albany, N. Y. 



Ancestors. 

Thomas Elwood, 

Lieutenant of Marines on frigate 
" Alliance." 

John Falconer (1747-1831), 
Ensign, New York Militia. 

John Falconer (1747-1831), 
Ensign, New York Militia. 

William Findley (1741-1821), 

Captain, Pennsylvania Militia. 

William Amberson (1755-1838), 

1st Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Line 

John Fleming (1731-1814), 

Captain, Pennsylvania Militia. 

William Foster (1834-1825), 

Ensign, Connecticut Militia. 

Anthony Lispenard Bleecker (1741- 
1816), 
Major, New York City Militia. 

David French (1747-1838), 

Private, New Jersey Militia. 

Lewis Noe (1760-1838), 

Private, New Jersey Militia. 

Peter Low (1750-1820), 

Captain, New Jersey Militia. 

Asa Day (1760-1853), 

Private, Massachusetts Line. 

Jones Fuller ( 1815), 

Private, North Carolina Militia. 

Joseph Homan (1757-1846), 
Private, New York Militia. 

Latham Gardner (1760-1803), 
Served on the " Ranger." 

John Gossett, 

Private, Virginia Line. 

Samuel Shirts (1752-1782), 
Private, New York Line. 



36 



Members. 



Ancestors. 



1911 — Graves, Guy Anthony, 
Albany, N. Y. 

1911— Groo, Scott, 

Boise, Idaho. 

1911— Groo, Virgil Mair, 

American Fork, Utah. 

1910— Haines, John Peter, 

New York City. 

1911— Hale, Clinton Baker 

Jersey City, N. J. 



1910 — Hall, Benjamin Furber, 
New York City. 

1911— Handy, Cortlandt Waite, 
New York City. 

1911 — Harrington, Harry Garfield, 
Newark, N. J. 

1911 — Harrington, Joseph Washington, 
Newark, N. J. 

1911— Hawley, Cornell Smith, 
Albany, N. Y. 

1911— Hay, Woodhull, 

New York City. 



1910— Hecker, John McKeon, 
New York City. 



1911— Hill, William Ely, 

New York City. 



Samuel Shirts (1752-1782), 
Private, New York Line. 

Samuel Groo (1755-1825), 

Private, Connecticut Line. 

Samuel Groo (1755-1825), 
Private, Connecticut Line. 

John Stagg (1732-1803), 

Member of Assembly, N. Y. 

Moses Field (1722-1815), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 
Richard Woolworth (1717-1802), 

Corporal, Massachusetts Militia. 
Shubael, Baker, Jr., 

2d Lieutenant, Massachusetts Mil- 
itia. 
Seth Allen ( 1838), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

Samuel Lancey (1760-1837), 

Private, Massachusetts Line. 

Samuel Sloane (1740-1813), 

Captain, Massachusetts Militia. 

William Vanhorn (1754-1826), 

Private, Pennsylvania Militia. 

William Vanhorn (1754-1826), 
Private, Pennsylvania Militia. 

Jehiel Bouton (1731 ), 

Ensign, New York Militia. 

Samuel Chamberlain (1724-1802), 

Member of House of Representa- 
tives, N. H. 

John Woodhull (1719-1794), 

Member of Committee, N. Y. 

Ashbel Martin (1760-1833), 

Private, Connecticut Militia. 

Josiah Winslow Wentworth (1752- 
1841), 
Private, Connecticut Continental 
Infantry. 

Samuel Sloane (1740-1813), 

Captain, Massachusetts Militia. 



37 



Members. 

1910 — Hinman, Edward, Jr., 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1911 — Hodges, George Winthrop, 

Pelham Manor, N. Y. 

1911 — Holcombe, Charles Spencer, 
Cape Vincent, N. Y. 

1910— Horton, Floyd Melvin, 
New York City. 

1910— Howell, Charles Fish, 
New York City 



1910— Hoyt, Lydig. 

New York City. 



1911 — Hughes, James Rowland, 
New York City. 

1911 — Humphreys, Frederic Erastus, 
New York City. 

1911— Hurd, Charles Russell, 
New York City. 

1910— Hutchins, Walter Luce, 
Albany, N. Y. 



1910 — Jones, Charles Landon, 
New York City. 

1910— Jones, De Witt Clinton, Jr., 
Elizabeth, N. J. " 



AXCESTORS. 

Benjamin Hinman (1720-1810), 
Colonel, Connecticut Militia. 

Joseph Hodges (1752-1810), 

Captain, Massachusetts Militia. 

Abner Holcombe (1752-1839), 
Private, Connecticut Militia. 

Thomas Horton (1724-1778), 
Captain, New York Militia. 

Charles Howell (1741-1797), 

Ensign, New Jersey State Troops. 
William Garrison (1742-1785), 

Captain, New Jersey Militia. 

Morgan Lewis (1754-1844), 

Colonel, N. Y. Militia. 
Francis Lewis (1713-1802), 

Signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. 

Isaac Anderson (1758-1829), 

Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Militia. 

Asher Humphreys (1759-1826), 
Private, Connecticut Militia. 

Oliver Edwards (1755-1829), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

William Hutchins, 

Captain, Vermont Militia. 
Peter Snell (1730-1804), 

Private, New York Militia. 

Dr. Samuel Cobb (1717-1781), 
Member of Assembly, Conn. 

James Clinton (1738-1812), 

Brevet Major-General, Continental 
Army. 
Ebenezer Crosby (1753-1788), 

Surgeon, Washington Life Guards, 
Massachusetts. 
William Floyd (1734-1821), 

Colonel, New York Militia. 
John Neilson (1745-1833), 

Brigadier-Genera], New Jersey Mil- 
itia. 
Samuel Jones (1734-1817), 

Member of Committee, N. Y. 



38 



Members. 



Ancestors. 



1911 — Jones, Walter Rysam. 

New York City. 

1910— Keator, Frederic Rose, 
New York City. 



1911— Keller, William Brodhead, Jr., 
New York City. 

1911— Kellogg, Andrew Hyde, 
New York City. 

1910— Kunhardt, Henry Rudolph, 3d, 
New York City. 

1910— La Fetra, Edward Burrough, 
New York City. 

1910 — *Lapham, John Jesse, 

New York City. 

1911 — Latting, Emerson, 

New York City. 

1911— Lawson, Joseph Albert, 
Albany, N. Y. 

1911 — Lawton, Jenkins Mikell, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1910 — Leach, Rev. Floyd Swallow, 
A. B., A. M., B. D., 
New York City. 

1910— Leavenworth, Ellis Willard, 
New York City. 

1911 — Lent, Frank Andrew, 

New York City. 

1910 — Lottimer, William Gardner, 
New York City. 

1910— Luther, Edward Staats, 
New York City. 

1911— McCahill, Thomas Jay, Jr., 
New York City. 



Ezekiel Mulford (1727-1819), 
Captain, New York Militia. 

Peter Roggen (1752 ), 

2d Lieutenant, New York Conti- 
nental Regiment. 
John More (1745-1840), 

Private, New York Militia. 

Daniel Gore (1746-1809), 

Captain, Connecticut Militia. 

Thomas French (1752-1822), 

Captain, Massachusetts Militia. 

Daniel Ingalls (1758-1832), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

Thomas Little (1741-1810), 

Captain, New Jersey Militia. 

Micah Vail (1730-1777), 

Captain, Green Mountain Boys. 

Daniel Hopkins, D. D. (1734-1814), 
Chaplain, Massachusetts Militia. 

Isaac Lawson (1760-1839), 

Private, New York Militia. 

Joseph Maybank (1735-1783), 

Colonel, South Carolina Militia. 

Jabez Leach, 

Private, Connecticut State Troops 

David Leavenworth (1738-1820), 
Captain, Connecticut Militia. 

Isaac Lent (1764-1849), 

Sergeant, New York Line. 

Elisha Wells (1750-1836), 

Private, Connecticut Line. 

Philip Staats (1754-1821), 

2d Lieutenant, New York Militia. 

George Reid (1733-1815), 

Lieutenant-Colonel, New Hamp- 
shire Line. 



39 



Members. 

1910— McClurkin, John Howe, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1910 — Maires, Samuel Evans, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1910 — Mann, Herbert Roome, 
Troy, N. Y. 

1910 — Mapes, Samuel Herbert, 
Ramapo, N. Y. 

1911 — Matthews, Thomas Anson, 
New York City. 

1911— Mattice, Paul Brown, 

Middleburgh, N. Y. 

1910 — Maynard, Morton Kiah, 
Albany, N. Y. 

1911 — Merwin, Horace Willard, Jr., 
New York City. 

1910— Mills, Theodore Denton, M. D., 
Middletown, N. Y. 

1911 — Moore, Allen Henry, 
Albany, N. Y. 

1910 — Munson, Edward Garry, 
Albany, N. Y. 

1910— Mygatt, Henry Rowland, 
New York City. 

1910— Nash, Charles White, 
Albany, N. Y. 

1911— Newman, Henry, 

Albany, N. Y. 

1910— Norton, Ex, 

New Brighton, S. I. 

1911 — Ott, Harrison Worthington, 
New York City. 

1910— Park, Julian, 

Buffalo. N. Y. 



Ancestors. 

Matthew McClurkin (1761-1847), 
Private, South Carolina Militia. 

George Anderson (1751-1839), 
Captain, New Jersey Militia. 

Michael Mann (1745-1823), 
Private, New York Line. 

Henry Mapes (1735 ), 

Private, New York Militia. 

Richard Thorne, 

Major, New York Militia. 

Conrad Mattice (1744 ), 

Private, New York Militia. 

Nathaniel French (1760-1834), 
Private, Massachusetts Line. 

Jacob C. Van Hoesen (1756-1809), 
Private, New York Militia. 

Daniel Bailey (1757-1841), 

Sergeant, New York Militia. 

Luke Moore (1736-1836), 

Sergeant, Massachusetts Militia. 

Stephen Munson (1759-1824), 

Private, Pennsylvania Militia. 

Eli Mygatt (1742-1807), 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Connecticut 
Militia. 

John Nash (1747-1815), 

Sergeant, New York Militia. 

James Lyman (1748-1804), 

Lieutenant, Massachusetts Militia 

John Green (1730-1793), 
Colonel, Virginia Line. 

John Hart (1708-1780), 

Signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. 

Roswell Park (1758-1847), 

Private, Connecticut Militia. 

Loami Baldwin (1745-1807), 

Colonel, Massachusetts Continental 
Infantry. 



40 



Members. 

1911 — Parris, Edward Lowden, Jr., 
New York City. 

1911— Peabody, Marshall Gralfs. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1910— Pearsall, Jay Herbert, 
Westfield, N. J. 

1911 — Perry, Alexander, 

New York City. 



1910 — Perry, Alexander Wallace, 

Captain, U. S. A. (Retired), 
Washington, D. C. 



1911 — Phelps, William Learned Marcy, 
Albany, N. Y. 

1910— Pickerill, Elmo Neale, 

New York City. 

1911 — Prescott, George James, 
New York City. 

1911 — Raborg, Paul Christopher, 
2d Lieutenant, U. S. A., 
Washington, D. C. 

1911 — Rawson, Sidney Fuller, 

Port Richmond, S. I. 

1911— Reed, Henry Budd-Stockton, 
New York City. 



.Ancestors. 

Josiah Parris (1760-1856), 

Sergeant, Massachusetts Militia- 
Richard Peabody (1731-1820), 

Captain, Massachusetts Militia. 

Thomas Terry (1724-1776), 

Colonel, New York Militia. 

Christopher Raymond Perry (1761- 
1818), 
Midshipman, Continental frigate 
" Trumbull." 
William Hull (1753-1825), 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Massachusetts 
Line. 

Christopher Raymond Perry (1761- 
1818), 
Midshipman, Continental frigate 
" Trumbull." 
John Thatcher (1740-1805), 

Captain of galley " Washington," 
Lake Champlain. 

Amos Adams ( 1775), 

Chaplain, Massachusetts Continental 
Regiment. 

John Phelps (1758-1812), 

Lieutenant, Connecticut Militia. 

Samuel Pickerill (1757-1850), 

Drummer, Virginia State Regiment 

Jeremiah Prescott (1741-1817), 

Captain, New Hampshire Militia. 

Christopher Raborg (1750-1815), 
Private, Continental Infantry. 

Simeon Rawson (1753-1834), 

Fifer, Massachusetts Continental 
Infantry. 

Jacob Reed (1730-1820), 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Pennsylvania 
Militia. 

James Fitz-Randolph (1735 ), 

Member, Woodbridge, New Jersey 
Committee of Observation, 
1775. 



41 



Members. • 



Ancestors. 



,1911 — Revere, Herbert Eugene, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



1911 — Rhoades, John Harsen, 
New York City. 

1911 — Risley, John Franklin, 

New York City. 



1910 — Robbins, Louis Leland, 
Nyack, N. Y. 



1911 — Robinson, Rev. Millard Lyman, 
New York City. 

1911 — Rogers, Henry Livingston, 
New York City. 

1910— Root, Theodore Zadoc, 

Jamestown, N. Y. 

1911— Ross, William, Jr., 

Hastings-on-Hudson, N. 

1910 — Rothenmeyer, Herbert Norris, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

1911— Sayres, Gilbert Barker, 

Richmond Hill, N. Y. 

1911 — Seabrook, Raymond, 

New York City. 

1911 — Seabnry, William Marston, 
Phoenix, Arizona. 

1910— Selkirk, Alexander, 

Albany, N. Y. 



Paul Revere (1734-1818), 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Massachusetts 
Militia. 
Paul Revere, Jr. (1760-1813), 

Captain-Lieutenant, Massachusetts 
Militia. 
Solomon Peirce (1742-1821), 

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts 
Militia. 

Samuel Rhoades (1737-1823), 

Private, Massachusetts Continental 

Infantry. 

John Hubbell (1745-1808), 

Lieutenant, Connecticut Militia. 

Isaac Hadley (1752-1836), 

Sergeant, New York Levies. 



Jonathan Robbins (1742- 



-). 



Sergeant, Massachusetts Line. 
Alden Burrill (1753-1831). 

Private, Artillery Artificers, Mass. 

Issachar Robinson (1753-1833), 
Private, New York Militia. 



William Thompson (- 



-1794), 



Adjutant, Pennsylvania Line. 

Jasper Marsh (1760-1841), 

Private, Massachusetts Line 

John Addoms (1737-1823), 
Major, New York Militia. 

Nicholas Keller, 

Private, New York Militia. 

Isaac Sayres (1762-1842), 
Fifer, New Jersey Line. 

Thomas Seabrook (1735-1805), 
Lieutenant-Colonel, New 
State Troops. 



Jersey 



Leonard Lispenard (1715-1790), 

Member New York Provincial Con- 
gress, May 22-November 4, 1775. 

James Selkirk (1757-1820), 
Sergeant, New York Line. 



42 



Members. 



Ancestors. 



"1910— Selleck, Franklin, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

1911 — Sherman, Charles Fayerweather, 
Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

1911 — Simpson, Francis Fielder, 
Matawan, N. J. 

1910— Smith, Dwight, 

Port Chester, N. Y. 

1911 — Smith, Rev. Edmund Banks, 
Chaplain to U. S. Army, 
Governor's Island, N. Y. 

1911 — Smith. James Reuel, 

New York City. 

1910 — Smith, Leonard Bacon, Jr., 
New York City. 

1911— Smith, Rev. Milford Hale, 
Albany, N. Y. 

1910— Smith, Lyndon Peck, 

Piermont, N. Y. 



1911— Smith, William Harvey, Jr., 
Mamaroneck, N. Y. 

1911— Smith, Wilmot Moses, Jr., 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1911 — Snow, Elbridge Gerry, 
New York City. 

1910 — Snyder, Harry Lincoln, 
Montclair, N. J. 

1911 — Stanford, Charles, 

Albany, N. Y. 



Joseph Mather (1753-1840), 

Ensign, Connecticut Militia. 

Chauncy Downs (1743-1814), 

Sergeant, Connecticut Militia. 

John Clark (1750-1806), 

Express Rider, New Jersey State 
Troops. 

Uriel Smith (1743-1818), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 



David Banks (1751- 



-). 



Corporal, Connecticut Militia. 

Joshua Smith (1744-1793), 

Corporal, Massachusetts Militia 

Richard Montague (1729-1794), 

Adjutant, Massachusetts Continen- 
tal Regiment. 

Dr. Jacob Ruback, M.D. (1740-1809), 
Surgeon, Vermont Rangers. 

Solomon Bigelow (1742-1808), 

Corporal, Massachusetts Continental 
Regiment. 
John Boynton (1736-1825), 

Captain, Massachusetts Militia. 
Thomas Leland (1760-1830), 

Private, Massachusetts Line. 
Joshua Martin, Jr. (1751 ), 

Lieutenant, Massachusetts Militia. 
Ephraim Sherman, 2d (1734 ), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

Ebenezer Lockwood (1737-1821), 
Major, New York Militia. 

Theophilus Wood (1752-1793), 
Private, New York Militia. 

Jonathan Coe (1742-1824), 

Sergeant, Connecticut Militia. 

Aaron Benedict (1745-1841), 

Lieutenant, Connecticut Militia. 

Abner Stanford (1747-1821), 

Corporal, Massachusetts Line. 



43 



Members. 



Ancestors. 



1911— Stewart, Rev. George Black, D.D.. 
Auburn, N. Y. 

1911— Stickney, Herbert Whiting, Jr., 
Albany, N. Y. 

1910 — Stoneback, Frederick William. 
Orange, N. J. 

1911 — Sutherland, John Edgar, 
Cornwall, N. Y. 

1910 — Swan, Charles Fearing, 
New York City. 



1911— Taft, Henry Waters, 

New York City. 

1911 — Ten Eyck, Peter Gansevoort, 
Albany, N. Y. 

1911 — Thomas, Clarence Proctor, 
New York City. 

1910 — Thorne, Landon Ketchum, 
New York City. 

1910 — Tilden, John Packwood, 
New York City. 

1910 — Trexler, Rev. Charles Daniel, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1911 — Tuckerman, Bayard, 

New York City. 



1911 — Underwood, Harry Gregory, 
Glens Falls, N. Y. 

1911— Upham, Moses Allen, Jr., 
Troy, N. Y. 

1910— Valentine, John Henry Elliott, 
New York City. 



Nicholas Hill (1766-1856), 
Sergeant, New York Line. 

Abraham Stickney, Jr. (1733-1803). 
Lieutenant, Massachusetts Militia. 

Daniel Springer (1744-1825), 

Captain, Pennsylvania Militia. 

Samuel Brewster (1718-1802), 

Member, New York Provincial Con- 
gress. 

Samuel Swan (1750-1825), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

Joseph Lamson (1728-1789), 

Corporal, Massachusetts Militia. 

Jonathan Holman (1732-1814), 

Colonel, Massachusetts Militia. 

Jacob C. Ten Eyck, 

Member Albany, N. Y. Committee 
of Safety, 1775. 

Samuel Thomas, Jr. (1748-1839). 
Captain, Rhode Island Militia. 

Jacobus Van Schoonhoven (1744-1814). 
Colonel, New York Militia. 

Ebenezer Tilden (1757-1823), 

Private, Connecticut State Troops. 

Peter Trexler, Jr. (1748-1828), 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Pennsylvania. 
Militia. 

Edward Tuckerman (1740-1818), 

Disbursing Officer, Massachusetts 
1779. 
Oliver Wolcott (1726-1797), 

Signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. 

Jonathan Underwood (1744-1801), 
Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

Nathaniel Upham (1745-1833), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

Edward Briggs (1741-1824). 

Member Westchester County New- 
York Committee of Safety 
\776-7. 



44 



Members. 



Ancestors. 



1911 — Van Buren, Howard. 
Nyack, N. Y. 

1910 — Van Nostrand, Benjamin Tredwell, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1911 — Vinton, Thomas Maclntire, 
New York City. 

1911— Vorse, Albert Ogden, 

Ardmore, Penn. 



1910— Wade, John Oscar, 

East Orange, N. J. 

1910 — Wagoner, Charles Porter, 
Albany, N. Y. 

1910— Waldo, Howard Lansing, M. D.. 
Troy, N. Y. 

1911— Walker, Amasa, 

Scarsdale, N. Y. 

1911 -Walker, John Baldwin, M. D., 
New York City. 

1910— Weeks, Raymond, 

New York City. 

1911 — Westerfleld, Randolph Foss, 
Manhasset, L. I. 

1910— Wetherill, Samuel, 

Cranfcrd, N. J. 

1910 — Whitehouse, Edwin Sheldon, 
New York City. 

1911— Willcox, Orlando Blodgett, 
New York City. 



Peter Swart (1752-1829), 

Ensign, New York Militia. 

Reuben Curtiss (1751-1816). 
Private, Connecticut Militia. 

Pelatiah Vinton (1738-1798), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

James Fowler (1756-1826), 

Private, Pennsylvania Line. 
John Adam Shafer (1757-1840), 

Private, Pennsylvania Rifle Regi- 
ment. 
Charles Byer (1757-1830), 

Private, Pennsylvania Line. 
Stephen Flanagan (1757-1832), 

Private, Pennsylvania Navy. 

Jonathan Wade, Jr. (1749-1801), 
Sergeant, New Jersey Militia. 

Oldham Gates (1759-1843), 

Corporal, Massachusetts Militia. 

John Waldo, M. D. (1750-1786), 

Surgeon, Connecticut Continental 
Infantry. 

John Comey ( 1746-1825 L 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

Gideon Walker (1738-1793), 
Ensign, Vermont Militia 

Jonathan Weeks, Jr. ( 1778). 

Volunteer, killed in action at 
Wyoming. 

Jacob Bennet, 

Private, New York Line. 

David Cowpland (1700-1778), 

Member of Committee, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Job Sheldon (1758-1832), 

Sergeant, Rhode Island Line. 

John Willcox (1760-1811), 
Private, Connecticut Line. 



Members. 

1910— Williams, Edward Gilbert, 
New York City. 



1910 — Williams, Franklin Delano, 
New York City 

1911 — Wilson, Kenneth Tucker, 
New York City. 

1910 — Withington, Charles Sumner, 
Brooklyn. N. Y. 

1910— Witthaus, Guy Henry, 

New York City. 

1911 — W T ood, Rawson Lyman, 
New York City. 

1911 — Woodburn, Lewis Henry, 
Elmhurst, L. I. 

1910 — Woodworth, William Lewis, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

1911— Young, William Ashley, 
Xew York City. 



Ancestors. 

Ebenezer Williams (1759-1819), 

Private, Connecticut Continental 
Infantry. 



Richard Godfrey (1711- 



-), 



Member of Committee, Massachu- 
setts. 

Abraham Dow Fonda (1733-1799), 
Major, New York Militia. 

Jeremiah Wood, 2d (1713-1797), 
Private, New York Militia. 

John Gowen (1740-1800), 

Private, Massachusetts Militia. 

Nathaniel Fuller (1747-1797), 

Sergeant, Massachusetts Militia 

George Woodburn (1722-1802), 
Private, Connecticut Line 

William Burns (1760-1820), 
Private, Connecticut Line. 

John Youngs (1745-1801), 

Private, New York Militia. 



Transfer 



Charles D. Viele to California Society. 



46 



Donations 

Books, Pamphlets, Etc. 



TITLES DONORS 

Proceedings, New York State Historical Associa- 
tion, Volumes VII. and VIII James A. Holden. 

Proceedings, Society of the War of 1812, in 

Pennsylvania, 1908-10 J. E. Burnett Buckingham, Secretary. 

Gilbert Thompson, Memorial Paper Dr. Marcus Benjamin. 

Annals of Iowa Historical Department of Iowa. 

Report of Librarian of Congress, 1910 Herbert Putnam, Librarian. 

The Harvard Graduates Magazine, September, 

1910 Miss Mary M. Stevens. 

Register of the Society of Colonial Wars in the 

State of California, 1910 Holdridge O. Collins. 

Collins Genealogy Holdridge O. Collins. 

Personal Narratives : My Boyhood at West 

Point William Whitman Bailey, LL.D. 

The Quarterly Publication Historical and Philosophical Society 

of Ohio. 

Annual Report, 1910, Volumes II. and III New York State Education Depart- 
ment. 

Executive Council Minutes, Volumes I. and II... Victor H. Paltsits, State Historian. 

Washington Birthday Hymn Mrs. Joseph Tottenham Cook. 

Francis Adrian Van Der Kemp Mrs. Charles P. Fairchild. 

Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the 

Union and Confederate Armies Society of Mayflower Descendants.. 

A Memorial Tablet at Ticonderoga Ticonderoga Historical Society. 

Menu, Church Service, etc., Missouri Society, 

Sons of the Revolution Henry Cadle. 

Holland Chapter, Michigan Society, Sons of the 

Revolution Hoyt G. Post. 

New England Historical and Genealogical Regis- 
ter Supplement Charles Knowles Bolton. 

A Funeral Oration of the Death of George 

Washington, January 1, 1800 L. Bayard Smith. 

Annual Report and Essay on Lincoln Chicago Historical Society. 

Proceedings, Rhode Island Historical Society, 

1908-9 and 1909-10 Rhode Island Historical Society.. 

Verplanck Colvin, Biographical Sketch Verplanck Colvin. 

47 



TITLES DONORS 

Hudson-Fulton Celebration, Volumes I. and II. .. Henry W. Sackett, Secretary of the 

Hudson-Fulton Commission. 

Pomeroy Number, Journal of American History. George E. Pomeroy. 

Address Book Daughters of the Revolution. 

A Writer's Inkhorn Dr. Plimmon H. Dudley, C.E. 

Indiana Society, Sons of the Revolution, Consti- 
tution and By-Laws William Allen Wood. 

Union League Club Year Book George H. Taylor, Secretary. 

List of Officers, etc., California Society, Sons of 

the Revolution Holdridge O. Collins. 

Connecticut Historical Society Collections, Vol- 
ume XII Albert C. Bates, Secretary. 

Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Volumes 

XL, XIIL, XIV., XV Thomas L. Montgomery, State 

Librarian. 

The American Flag Free Public Library, Jersey City. 

The Battle of Groton Heights L. M. Randall, Curator of Monu- 
ment House. 

Catalogue of Kings County Historical Society 

Exhibition Stephen W. Giles. 

Catalogue, Kings County Historical Society 

Exhibition Charles A. Ditmas, President. 

The Battle of Fort Moultrie, Address by 

D. E. H. Smith Henry Russell Drowne. 

Programme, Triennial Meeting, Society of the 

Cincinnati, June 21, 22, 23, 1911 Henry Russell Drowne. 

National Year Book, Sons of the American Rev- 
olution, 1910 Teunis D. Huntting, Registrar. 

Year Book, Empire State Society, Sons of the 

American Revolution, 1911 Teunis D. Huntting, Registrar. 

The Black Watch at Ticonderoga New York State Historical Asso- 
ciation. 

Major William Ferguson Charles B. Alexander. 

Sketch of the Author's Life General Isaac S. Catlin, U. S. A. 

Proceedings, Twentieth Annual Meeting Daughters of the Revolution. 

Memorial Address to Memory of Captain Solo- 
mon Peirce Herbert Eugene Revere. 

Military Service of Amherst, Belchertown and 

Granby Herbert L. Bridgman. 

Historical Address, Centennial Celebration in 

Easthampton, Mass Herbert L. Bridgman. 

Public Papers of George Clinton, Volume IX James A. Holden, State Historian. 

Orderly Book and Journal of Major John HawksSociety of Colonial Wars. 

University Club Annual University Club. 

Proceedings, New York State Historical Asso- 
ciation, Volume X James A. Holden. 

George Mills — Genealogy of His Descendants. .. Borden H. Mills. 

4S 



TITLES DONORS 

Fort Schuyler Chapter, Sons of the Revolution, 

Reports and Proceedings, 1911 A. Vedder Brower, Secretary. 

Catalogue, 1905 Litchfield Historical Society. 

Catalogue, 1906 Litchfield Historical Society. 

Semi-Centennial Litchfield Historical Society. 

Society of American Wars Year Book, 1911 Rufus G. Shirley, Recorder. 

St. George's Church, New York, Year Book, 

1911 The Rev. Hugh Birckhead, D.D., 

Rector. 

History of the New York Society Library The Trustees. 

Chancellor Robert R. Livingston and His Family. Joseph Livingston Delafield. 



49 



Miscellaneous Donations 

Pictures, Relics, Etc. 

ARTICLES DONORS 

Pocketbook and Continental Money of Sergeant- 
Major Homer Phelps Mrs. Homer Phelps Beach. 

Pocket Wallet, 1752, carried through the Revo- 
lution Clarence W. Goold. 

Oil Painting of Major-General Alexander 

McDougall McDougall Hawkes. 

Engraving of Washington Henry D. Babcock. 

Engrossed Verses on Long Room Mrs. Dudley Evans. 

Cane from Wood of Dr. Spring's Brick Church, 

New York Warren C. Crane. 

Head of Newell-post, George Washington House, 

No. 1 Cherry Street Warren C. Crane.. 

Piece of Cornice from Brick Meeting House, 

New York Warren C. Crane. 

Brick from Middle Dutch Church, New York. . .Warren C. Crane. 

Stone from Middle Dutch Church, New York. . .Warren C. Crane. 

Impression from an intaglio cameo of Lafayette. Edward Trenchard. 

Bark taken from the tree under which General 

Mercer was killed George H. Coutts. 

Photographs of General Isaac Huger and His- 
torical Manuscripts Georgia Society, Sons of the Revo- 
lution. 

Picture of Washington's Inauguration Archibald A. Campbell. 

Bust of John Paul Jones Edmund Wetmore. 

Medals, Kings County Historical Society, 

Borough of Brooklyn, New York City Stephen W. Giles. 

Copy of Order from General Washington to 

Captain Amos Diller G. F. Matthew. 

Medal, Kings County Historical Society Charles A. Ditmas, President. 

Pistol, Mexican War Period Dr. H. G. Steinmeyer. 

Original Brick of Fraunces Tavern William H. Mersereau. 

Brick imported from Holland used in the resto- 
ration of Fraunces Tavern William H. Mersereau. 

Historic Maps, Letters, etc Samuel P. Avery. 

Revolutionary Cannon Ball from Philadelphia, 

Pa Elmo N. Pickerill. 

Revolutionary Cannon Ball from 180th Street 

and Broadway, New York A. Maynard Lyon. 

Silhouette — Photograph of Samuel Foster Edward W. Foster. 

Document, the Committee of One Hundred, 1775. L. Bayard Smith. 

50 



Loaned to the Society 



By Fellowes Davis 

Wineglass that belonged to General William Heath. 

By Walter F. Bullard 

Nails from burned Schuyler Mansion at Schuylerville, New York. 

Pieces of Indian pottery found on bank of the Hudson River, New York, 

Buckle found on Saratoga Battlefield, New York. 

Part of shell found on Saratoga Battlefield, New York. 

Piece of canteen found on Saratoga Battlefield, New York. 

Piece of elm tree under which the British laid down their arms after the Battle of 

Saratoga. 
Pieces of tile used in Saratoga Monument, New York. 



51 



Sermon by the Rev. Herbert Shipman 

Rector of the Church of the Heavenly Rest 

New York City 



Sunday, February 19, 191 1 



The Twenty-first Annual Service 

of the 

Sons of the Revolution in the State of New York 

in commemoration of the 

One Hundred and Seventy-ninth Anniversary 

of the birth of 

George Washington 



In the old Chapel of the United States Military Academy at West Point, 
just above the eagle and the Stars and Stripes at the Chancel end, these 
words from the Book of Proverbs are written : " Righteousness exalteth a 
nation, but sin is a reproach to any people." The words are appropriate 
to the place. They link together the two factors which count most for the 
welfare of any nation — Religion and Patriotism. 

You, the Sons of the Revolution, are here to-day I take it, because 
you believe that this link is a real one. We have brought our Patriotism to 
Church, not only because a Church is a convenient place for such a gather- 
ing, but because we believe that God had something to do with the great 
life we honor here to-day ; because we believe that Religion is concerned not 
only with the saving of our own individual souls, but in some real way with 
the saving of our country and our national soul. It is good that this is so. 
In this day of ours we make much of money and of other material things. 
Time and time again we are tempted to put the gospel of external comfort 



DO 



and " getting on " first and the gospel of service second; to think, if not to 
say: " My power and the might of my hand have gotten me this wealth." It 
is good, therefore, to shift the emphasis, as this occasion does shift it, to the 
fact that Almighty God and Religion are still considerable factors in the 
life of America to-day, and that character is quite as much a national asset 
as trade, or commerce, or bank deposits. 

" Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity," 
said Washington in his Farewell Address, " Religion and morality are in- 
dispensable supports. * The mere politician, equally with the pious 
man, ought to respect and cherish them. * * :|c And let us with caution 
indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without Re- 
ligion." * * * 

Whatever may be true of other forms of Government, under our form 
of Government the character of the people is the supremely important thing. 
We can make all kinds of mistakes and live them down ; we can now and then 
put the wrong man in a place he doesn't fit, and still survive it. But we 
cannot live without honesty and uprightness, morality that is, in the hearts 
of our people. And — let us remember it — the moral life of the people is not 
made or preserved merely by passing laws. W T e can shut up a man in jail 
if he steals contrary to the law, but the law has not yet been framed, nor 
ever will be, that will, of itself, make him an honest man. We can legislate 
against Child Labor and disease-breeding factories — to control congestion 
and dangerous trades and all the rest, but we cannot by law alone make a 
man care one iota more for his brother man than he did before, nor prevent 
his exploiting him to the very margin of safety, if he can do it without being 
caught. Unless our law has close behind it the conscience of the people, our 
law simply does not count. i 

The moral life of the people must be fed by springs whose source is 
higher than any legislative assembly ever gathered here on earth. Like all 
life — and in every man, believer or unbeliever — it comes from God, and only 
God can make it and keep it pure and strong. 

Therefore, to show God to men, to build Religious conviction and prin- 
ciple into the fibre of our common manhood and womanhood, to make men 
hear behind the call to every right thing, the divine Amen ; and over the 
temptation to every mean and false and wrong thing " Thou shalt not !" as 
though the very Reality of life had spoken- — to do this is just as much your 
duty and mine as loyal citizens, as it is our duty to vote or to volunteer for 
service in time of need. 

I am perfectly conscious that all this has been said before. I 
am saying it again because it is true, because this occasion suggests it, 

54 



and because we men of to-day need to realize and emphasize the 
fact that it is true. Our great men — and chief among them the great 
man whom we honor ourselves by honoring here — were men of strong 
convictions, of clear-cut principles, of faith and vision. They not 
only did great things ; they saw things greater still. They were prophets as 
well as builders. From them to us has come a trust that is sacred and which 
we are in honor bound to administer as sacred ; from them to us has come 
the message which was the heart of all they did — that the moral life of the 
people, based upon Religion, is the secret and safeguard of our national 
welfare. And of that message we men of to-day, for the needs and con- 
dition of our time, are the appointed and commissioned messengers. 

That is one reason for emphasizing here the link between Patriotism and 
Religion. There is another. All of us appreciate the influence of service 
of Washington as a soldier, as a statesman, as a man of lofty and unblem- 
ished character. Not quite so generally, I think, do we realize and appre- 
ciate his influence upon the religious life of to-day. It was an influence real 
and far-reaching none the less. Through Washington and those who thought 
and acted with him, the spirit of democracy was released and given here 
the most splendid opportunity it has ever had or ever can have to prove and 
justify itself. And what is democracy? Most of us think of it as a form 
of political government and nothing more. It is a great deal more than 
that, however. It is the assertion of a fact that touches every part of human 
life. It is the assertion of the fact that Demos — man as man, has divine 
rights. It is the emergence and growth of humanity, the coming of age in 
its father's house, the world. It is the spirit of sonship under one Father, 
even God, breaking through every barrier; it is the proclamation that the 
common people — which is only another name for people as God originally 
made them — reign under God, in all the departments of life. Not in one, 
but in all the departments of life ; not in government only, but — to go di- 
rectly to the point — in religion as well and by the self-same spirit. That 
is the spirit which Washington, and those we call " the fathers," set free 
upon the greatest and most promising stage it ever had to work upon. 

If it be revolutionary, as some are saying — this emergence of the demo- 
cratic spirit through religion — it is a revolution backed by high authority, 
and such an one as was foretold with divine approval — for it means, " the re- 
moving of those things that are shaken as of things that are made, that those 
things which cannot be shaken may remain." 

If it be a reaction as others are saying, it is a reaction to the ideal — a 
reaction that carries us back, of the days when the church became sick with 
longing for temporal power, and to gain it, poured its democratic organiza- 

55 



tions into the molds furnished by Imperial Rome — back of those days the 
democratic spirit carries us to the day when One taught men, rich and poor r 
small and great alike, to kneel side by side and say: " Our Father "; taught 
them that the essence of life is not competition, but brotherhood ; taught them 
that the secret of success is not in place or wealth or rank, but in service 
only. 

Whether one thing or the other — revolutionary or reactionary — the spirit 
that is moving in our religious life to-day is the spirit of democracy, claim- 
ing and defining religion, as well as government, in the words of that other 
incomparable American, as " of the people, by the people, for the people." 

In spite of those who cry the danger of it, its coming is inevitable, and 
the thought of it is a joy to ever-increasing numbers of men who believe — 
believe in all their hearts — that they hear in its voice the very voice of God. 

" Of the People!" Is Religion that? Let us believe it. We have been 
taught long enough that it is a foreign product, imposed upon us by some 
power outside ourselves, rather than a thing born in us. natural to us and 
only supernatural as we ourselves are supernatural. 

Long enough have we been looking for authority in Religion from an 
infallible Church, an infallible Book, and infallible Man, and meantime 
neglecting the example of Him Who spoke with authority because He dared 
to trust in the conscience of men — the common people who heard Him 
gladly. He did not convince by argument; He did not overwhelm with 
proof ; He did not appeal to any external court for backing or support ; He 
held up the truth before men and they responded; out of their very hearts 
and through all the centuries since, has come the cry : " That is Truth ! ,r 
He held up righteousness before men, and ever since their wills have been 
shouting back to Him : " That is Righteousness ; that must we do !" He lifted 
up Himself before men and said: " I came forth from God; I am man, as 
God meant every man to be!" and out of the very heart of human nature — 
broken, blundering, blinded, falling — out of its very heart and all across the 
world, has gone up the cry to Him : " Thou earnest forth from God ; Thou 
art I, as God meant that I should be! Help me. Lord, to reach unto myself!" 

If Jesus Christ was right, the spirit of democracy is right. Religion is 
" of the people," and what we need is to learn not only to trust in God, but 
to trust in men, to believe that " He that doeth righteousness is righteous,"" 
because back of all, he is a son of God. 

' By the people!" Is Religion that? When one thinks of the stupend- 
ous fabric of the Mediaeval Church, lifting itself high and holy before the 
faith and imagination of the world, laying its strong hand upon the heart 

56 



and mind and will of king and peasant alike, commanding the voice of indi- 
vidual judgment to be dumb before it, dominating a whole world which 
otherwise had no single cohesive element — when one thinks of this, the ques- 
tion whether or not the democratic principle — " By the people," has a place 
in Religion and the Church, seems an idle one. There is the answer. No! 
But it was not so that Religion, the Religion we profess, began. It began 
among the common people. Its first officers were, as regards the only 
ecclesiastical organization then existing, laymen. They were charged to 
call no man Master upon earth, because they all were brethren. They were 
rebuked because of their undemocratic desire for place and position, and the 
spirit of democracy was given expression in the words : '' So shall it not be 
among you ; but whosoever will be great among you, shall be your minister ; 
and whosoever of you will be the chief est, shall be servant of all." 

The voice of the laity, that is, of the people, backed by the spirit of de- 
mocracy, is speaking more plainly and more potently to-day than in any 
age since the very first. To-day we are realizing that the Church, like the 
Sabbath, exists for men and not men for the Church ; that it is not a bodi- 
less abstract thing, floating in the air, from which the Christian man may 
dissociate himself and impersonally criticize, refusing all responsibility for it, 
and thanking God, perhaps, that he is not responsible for it ; but — as in the 
days when Peter and James and the others were the Church, as in the days 
when little groups of men and women scattered here and there were the 
Church — so to-day, the Church is mainly you- — its successes are your suc- 
cesses, and its failures are your failures. 

To-day, in this communion at any rate, no man may be set apart to the 
office of deacon, priest or bishop, no legislation may be enacted without the 
participation and consent of you — the laity. It is the emergence, again, of 
the democratc principle that authority in religion is " by the people." The 
result is bound to be that the ministry, and the laity will be drawn closer 
together, and that we shall realize at last that there is only one standard of 
service and of stewardship, only one standard of morality for both alike. It 
will demonstrate the fact that God's work is not my work, the priests' 
work, for the support of which a contribution may be asked from your work 
— but that it is our work, the whole of it ; it will demonstrate the fact that 
one man can no more hire another man, called a clergyman, to serve God 
for him, than he can hire another man to love God for him. 

If it seems to strip from the priest something of his time-worn vest- 
ments of professional sanctity, at any rate it clothes him in the garments of 
manhood, it acknowledges that he is doing a man's work, and it honors him > 
when he does it like a man. 

57 



If it imposes upon the laity a heavier burden of responsibility and holds 
them to a standard which is nothing short of the very highest that they 
know, it is because the responsibility belongs there ; it is because standards 
are not things simply to be admired or to measure other people's failures 
by, but things to be lived toward ourselves ; because vows and ordination do 
not make a man God's servant, but only clinch the truth that he is God's 
servant, and bound to be about His Father's business. 

The spirit of democracy is right, Religion is by, as it is of, the people. 

And then — "For the people.'-' Is religion that, too? Not only for 
the saint; not only for the individual soul on its journey heavenward; not 
only for the righting of wrongs and the vindication of justice in the world to 
come; not only that, but is Religion for the whole great mass of men and 
women, struggling, suffering, doubting, hoping, searching, here and now 
in this present world ? Is it for them ? That is what the spirit of democracy 
is demanding of Religion in this day of ours. Certainly the very dream 
that is stirring the hearts and minds of men to-day was in the heart and 
mind of God when He sent His Son, with the vision of the Kingdom of 
Heaven before His eyes, not merely to point to it, but to establish it here on 
earth. Certainly it was to that dream and vision that the early Church 
realized that it was pledged. It had a Gospel — a good news — and news is 
announcement, not prophecy — for those to whom it spoke, and not merely a 
spiritual telescope through which, while remaining still in their present 
misery, they might see far, far off, the blessedness which they might some 
day know. It had a gospel, a good news, for the present misery. It told 
the poor, the weak, the oppressed, the unfit of every kind, that in the King- 
dom of their Father they were going to get justice and to have a fair chance, 
that they would not be forever driven and exploited by the strong because 
they were poor and weak and unfit, but would receive the treatment a brother 
gives his weaker brother whom he loves. And then, it turned upon the 
strong, the favored, the world's elect, the Life of Jesus Christ, the one abso- 
lutely successful life the world has ever seen — the life which had risen out of 
humiliation and disaster and seeming failure, vindicated and justified in its 
principles — it turned that life upon the strong and told them to look squarely 
at it, and in its light to readjust their views of what it means to succeed and 
what it means to fail. 

That was the Gospel of the early Church, and with that Gospel it won. 
It was a vision worth working for and waiting for. Then came the tragedy 
of the Church's history. She learned worldly wisdom. She learned to 
think, if not to say: " This and that is impossible to God, because I do not 



58 



see how it can be done." She still prayed, " Thy Kingdom Come," but she 
no longer believed as she had once believed, that it would come, and that to 
make it come constituted her reason for existence. She adopted a program 
of postponement, of putting off, and set herself the dreary, uninspiring task 
of patching up, of pointing men to the world beyond to see accomplished 
the will of Him she continued to call Almighty God. 

The spirit of to-day, the democratic spirit, is out of all sympathy, out 
of all patience with this makeshift program. It is tired of it. It is demand- 
ing something more and better of Religion. It is demanding that if it 
really be alive, it demonstrate that important fact by entering the field of 
living issues, by coming out of the Churches and getting into the streets, 
into the homes and factories and slums, by throwing its weight without fear 
of consequence or favor to any class on the side of right and justice. 

The parish priest of Austerlitz 

Climbed up in the high Church steeple, 
To be nearer God, that he might hand 

His word down to His people. 

In sermon, script he daily wrote 

What he thought was sent from heaven, 
And dropped it down on the people's heads. 

Two times one dav in seven. 

In his age God said, " Come down and die," 

And he cried out from the steeple 
' Where art Thou, Lord?" and the Lord replied, 

" Down here among My people." 



God has not been, but Religion as we have taught it has been too often, 
like the parish priest, in the steeple. The spirit of democracy is calling 
it to come down, not to die, but to live. It is demanding of it a gospel, not 
only for the next world, but for this, for the regeneration of society, as well 
as for the salvation of the individual. It is asking of it an unequivocal and 
convincing answer to the question, " Am I my brother's keeper ?" and to that 
other question, "How much is a man better than a sheep?" and to that 
other question, " What shall it profit a man though he gain the whole world 
and lose his own soul?" 



59 



The voice of God, it seems to me, is speaking very plainly to us to- 
day, above all to us men ; and if our churchmanship, our religion, our patriot- 
ism are more than words, we must listen to His Voice. 

" In the years that have been I have bound 

Man closer to man, 
And closer woman to woman ; 

And the stranger hath seen in a stranger his brother at last,. 
And a sister in eyes that were strange. 
In the years that shall be, I will bind me 

Nation to nation, 
And shore unto shore," saith our God. 

" Lo ! I am the burster of bonds, and the breaker of barriers ; 
1 am He that shall free," saith the Lord, 
" For the lingering battle, the contest of ages is ending, 
And victory followeth me !" 

The call that comes to us who are men, through our Religion, and that 
which comes to us through the needs of the State, is one and the same call — 
it is a call to bind our patriotism and our faith together and with them make 
a lever strong enough to lift the standards of our social morality, where they 
belong and where they ought to be. It is a call for effective righteousness — 
for the efficient to be righteous and for the righteous to be efficient. All 
too often in the past there has been a divorce between the two. We need 
them brought together, and the twain made one. We need the man who 
can grasp opportunity and resist temptation ; who can command the wider 
vision and eliminate himself from the nearer foreground ; who can win suc- 
cess and keep his own soul. We need the man of economic knowledge who 
will do away with prejudice and indifference, those misbegotten children of 
their mother Ignorance. We need the man of moral enthusiasm — not the 
too common enthusiasm for righteousness in other people, but the enthusi- 
asm which bears fruit in personal consecration, sacrifice and service. 

And — we need the man of Religious faith ; faith to believe that all 
the relations of human life may be filled with the purposes of God ; faith to 
believe that God is among us now, that no miracle of moral regeneration was 
wrought in little Palestine two thousand years ago, that may not be repeated 
in big America to-day ; faith to believe that as John and Andrew and Peter 
and Matthew were called then, so men are called to-day, and more especially 
you and I are called, to our respective ministries. 

60 



These are the things — knowledge, goodness, faith — that make for effec- 
tive righteousness. From these are the springs of life in the democratic 
state and the democratic Church alike. 

With these " the fathers," won, and with these alone can we, their 
sons, hope to win to-day? 

It is for us to do more than build their tombs and remember them with 
the service of our lips. It is for us to carry on their work, to see their 
vision and to weld it solid into the life of America to-day, that here, under a 
Government "of and by and for the people," inspired and guarded by a 
Religion " of and by and for the people," the people may go forward into 
the full freedom of the Sons of God, establishing as they go the one king- 
dom for which America was made, which it will ever tolerate, looking as 
they go, and hasting toward the coming day of the one King to whom it 
-will ever bow. 



61 



Addresses 

at the Annual Banquet of the 

Sons of the Revolution in the State 

of New York 

Delmonico's 

WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 22, 1911 

in commemoration of the 
One Hundred and Seventy=ninth Anniversary 

of the birth of 

GEORGE WASHINGTON 



George Washington 

Address by 
George Lawyer, LL. B. 

Mr. President, Guests and Members of the Sons of the Revolution in 
the State of New York: 

xA.s members of this noble order, we are met once again, appreciative of 
the sacrifices of the fathers, to certify our reverence for the central figure 
of our national independence, and we are not alone, for Republics are not 
always ungrateful, and throughout the length and breadth of this land and 
wherever true Americans shall gather, this day, the inspiration of every loyal 
heart, shall be the memory of Washington. 

Lord Rosebery, in his late masterly review of the life of Chatham, ob- 
serves that in the estimation of the country's heroes we are apt to ignore the 
shadows and to make ideals and to see stars, for it is an illuminating worship, 
but high achievement always obscures the shadows and a nation must 
guard its heroes. Favored are we then, that in commemoration of this 
day there are few flaws to count, and it is enough for us to consider the 
virtues of the man who helped lay the foundations of the Republic. 

The country has been generous at all times since the age of Washington 
in its appreciation of his character and not only in appreciation of his char- 
acter and services, but in the affection the American people have retained 
for the place of his life residence at Mt. Vernon, and for a moment I wish 
to ask permission to digress because of the exigency of a matter which is 
now pending before the State Legislature, and which I am sure will interest 
every member of this Society and every patriot who has at heart the preser- 
vation of monuments of national history. 

Next to Mt. Vernon, the abode of Washington, the residence of Major- 
General Schuyler, in the City of Albany, is said to be the only building now 
existing that has been kept in its original identity, according to the plans and 
specifications originally laid down, and this building we are bound to con- 
sider at this time of serious importance to us who favor proper recognition 
on the part of the State and its people for the preservation of those monu- 

65 



ments of our history which are really as much a part of us and concern us 
as much as the lives of the men whom we commemorate. 

The residence of Major-General Schuyler is historic. It is situated in 
the City of Albany, easily accessible to the main thoroughfares, and for 
many years it has been the property of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Al- 
bany. It has been used as an Orphanage. During this time the building 
has not been changed in any of its proportions or in any of its details, so 
that for all practical purposes the house is the same house that Schuyler left, 
the same house where Alexander Hamilton was married, the same house 
where Burgoyne, after his little unpleasantness at Saratoga, was guest. 

The exigency arising is because of the necessity of the Diocese for larger 
quarters, and it has been made known within the past few weeks by the 
Catholic Bishop of Albany, that he is willing to dispose of this shrine to 
the State of New York for a consideration expressed at forty thousand dol- 
lars, but that immediate action is necessary for, because of the pressing 
necessity, unless something is done at once, the building will be torn down 
to be replaced by one better fitted for the uses for which a building is re- 
quired. In conformity with this information, a bill has been introduced in 
the Legislature providing that the State shall take over this. property at the 
price stipulated by the authorities in control, and that the State shall be and 
shall remain the custodian of the building, to be used as a repository for 
Revolutionary relics and be for all time continued in its present proportion 
and details. 

It is a matter to be considered now, for if action is not taken the build- 
ing will be demolished during the coming summer. My injunction then, is 
this, that if this Society and the several members of it are interested in 
this project, it would be eminently fitting that immediate request be made of 
your representative in the Assembly or in the Senate to favor this Bill, that 
it may become a law, and that this building may not be torn down, that we 
may have another shrine of American liberty to which we may turn, as we 
turn to Mt. Vernon. 

Now you will pardon, I know, this momentary digression from the sub- 
ject. Washington was entertained at this building at least once and prob- 
ably more than once during his command of the American Army and for 
its owner, Major-General Schuyler, he expressed the highest opinion, both 
as to his character as a man and his capacity as a militarv officer. Let us 
see to it that this enterprise is carried out and whatever we may do, shall 
be done. 

The early life of him whom we commemorate to-night foretold little 
of the subsequent achievements which were to follow. Like Lincoln, his 

66 



greatness was evolved out of the responsibilities that weighed upon him and 
the manner in which he met them. Almost his first public appearance in 
1754 as a soldier of his King was a disaster, and on the 4th of July, 1754, 
twenty-two years to the day before the signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, he became a prisoner of the French ; but to him defeat was but 
the incentive to higher endeavor. He was passing through a great school 
that was to fit him for the undertakings and accomplishments of his life, and 
how well he met the occasions that presented themselves we are here to- 
night to certify in his memory. 

Sometimes it is observed that Washington was the favored child of for- 
tune, and that in a certain sense at least he should have succeeded where he 
achieved great results. Still, let us not forget Washington's early life w T as 
barren of accomplishments to fit him for those things that came after, either 
in military science or in the great field of statesmanship, in which he stands 
as a great example to succeeding administrations and to succeeding genera- 
tions. It has seemed to me that Lincoln, himself, came to the Presidential 
Chair with a better equipment to discharge the duties of that office than did 
Washington. 

Lincoln was a lawyer in active practice for many years. He had been 
a member of Legislative bodies, had framed bills, and was a politician in 
touch with the sentiment of his time. Washington had none of these sup- 
ports to sustain him in the great undertaking that he assumed as Chief 
Magistrate of a free and a united people and whatever opinion we may enter- 
tain as to the military accomplishments of the man, and no one will doubt 
his military genius after the British were driven out of Boston in 1776, 
still it is as Chief Magistrate of many sovereignties, with conflicting inter- 
ests, that furnishes us so great an inspiration as a people. 

During the first administration of Washington, at the very outset were 
perplexing questions enough to baffle the most astute politician, but he met 
them with a judgment which John Marshall described as being supreme, for 
judgment was his accomplishment and not genius, and how T well he brought 
together the warring elements of his Cabinet and the conflicting interests of 
the Colonies, the Union afterwards fully demonstrated. 

Because of his success as a statesman, his insight and his honesty in 
dealing with every matter that was presented to him he obtained the con- 
fidence of the people, and it is in the confidence of the people that the strength 
of the Executive always lies, despite partv affiliations. 

It was evidenced more than once, even before Washington was called 
to the Chief Magistracy. How well did the confidence of the people serve 
him in the Gates-Conway cabal, when it was intended that he should be 

67 



retired, and if such a calamity should have occurred, the army of independ- 
ence would have been ruined. Perhaps the war would have been successful, 
but the day of our freedom would have been postponed. 

And again, during the first and second terms of his Presidency, this 
same confidence of the people in which he gloried, and for which he cared 
most, stood him well in hand. 

His suggestions for Legislation were spurned, his appointees for office 
were rejected, until the trust of the people in the unselfish ambition of the 
man, who was not only brave but honest, overcame all opposition and upon 
an unwilling Congress measures were forced that were manifestly neces- 
sary for the preservation of the weak and struggling States. Surely this 
was statecraft of the highest order. 

Because he was a lover of righteousness Washington believed in the 
diplomacy of truth, and it seems to me among the very greatest accomplish- 
ments of this man his ability as a diplomat is foremost. How well in hand 
did he manage the warring Cabinet, bringing together the two great leaders 
of the future political parties, harmonizing existing differences at a time 
when harmony meant everything to the preservation of the feeble Union, 
for he saw, with the foresight and the vision of a prophet, that if disintegra- 
tion occurred at the outset, the perpetuity of our institutions was in danger, 
and at the end of his second administration the establishment of government 
had become so complete, the perils from party faction and sectional strife 
were not strong enough to shake its foundations. 

It is the general idea that a diplomatist must be one that is artful and 
dexterous in negotiating with foreign people, and that he must not main- 
tain a weakness, even if that weakness is right, if it should shield his people, 
but Washington believed in truth and in his negotiations with France and 
England during the perilous times of his administration, it was truth and 
the facts that he demanded, and like the statesman he was he marshaled 
facts against facts and then demanded the judgment to which he was entitled, 
and which he secured at the hands of the American people. 

And the last words of this man, his message to the people, after all is 
done and over, after the Government is founded, after it is secured, after 
there is a guaranty for its perpetuation, has been a beacon to subsequent 
administrations. When we have followed his chart we have outrun the 
storms and we have trembled with fear when the pilot has lost the light. 

Washington believed in his fellow-men. He did not suffer so much 
from exposure during the war, or from the grievous labors to which he 
was put, as he did from the falseness of some of the men in whom he trusted 
most. He had a large heart, magnanimous in everything and to those who 

68 



played him false surely he was unforgiving; he was a man of passions, but 
his passions never biased him in his judgment. He was fair, he was judi- 
cious, and he was a lover of peace. They who know what war is, are always 
lovers of peace. It is usually those who have never tasted conflict who are 
always ready for arms, but he believed in a peace that was honorable and 
just, and in his farewell address, that classic which we should read and re- 
read to understand the principles of our American Government and the pur- 
poses for which it was planned and established, he admonishes us that to 
secure peace a sufficient preparation must be made. The peace that Wash- 
ington believed in was a condition in which nothing else but peace could 
exist and that, forever, it seems to me, must be the policy of our country, 
and the time to make preparation for such a condition certainly is not amid 
the excitement of impending conflict, but when the public mind is judicious, 
discreet, sober yet determined. 

The legacy of Washington was, the United States, an aggregation of 
many sovereignties, of many peoples, of many nationalities, of many inter- 
ests. That legacy was handed down to us, as your worthy President has 
stated to-night, pure and unsullied. May it be our hope to transmit it, as 
we have received it, in all its integrity and in all its purity, this fair and 
priceless fabric of the Republic. 



69 



The State of New York 

Address by 

The Honorable John Alden Dix 

Governor of the State of New York 



Mr. Toastmaster and Sons of the Revolution: I want to assure you 
that it is with great pleasure I have the opportunity of being with you, because 
I like to be in the company of such men. I think in a way I am entitled 
to become a Son. I come from the County of Washington, from a little 
hamlet called Thomson, named after a descendent of Charles Thomson, 
who gave to Washington his commission when he went forth as Commander- 
in-Chief of the Army. In the vicinity of Thomson is the Town of Schuy- 
lerville. It was the summer home of General Schuyler. All about the 
fields in the vicinity of his home are earth-works, mounds and evidences of 
efforts that were prepared to prevent the oncoming of another army. At 
my home at Thomson Burgoyne's army camped for a period of time. It 
crossed the river at that point, and just below Schuylerville it met with the 
defeat which secured the peace of these United States. That battle is mem- 
orable as one of the seventeen great battles of the world. The battlefield is 
now composed of several farms, and I trust that as time goes on this great 
State of New York will appreciate and procure what is known as the Free- 
man Farm, that it may be forever preserved as a monument to the struggle 
that occurred on that ground. 

I would like to concur with all that Mr. Lawyer has said about Schuy- 
ler's home at Albany, but perhaps, unfortunately, I cannot. It might be in- 
terpreted as an attempt to coerce the Legislature, and I am on record against 
that. But seriously, I think that monument should be preserved for future 
generations. Recently Miss Schuyler called on me at the Executive Cham- 
ber, very much interested that that monument should be preserved and as- 
sured me that a great many relics that belonged to Schuyler would be given 
to that home if it can be obtained and possessed by this State of New York. 
as a fitting tribute for the scenes that occurred in that home. 

70 



Schuyler was known for his cordiality and his hospitality. Burgoyne 
visited there. He went to Schuyler's home at Schuylerville. Together they 
walked over the battlefield, and together they visited the very spot where 
Burgoyne camped, so that in the vicinity of Schuyler's summer home are 
many scenes that should be witnessed, I think, by more people. Unfor- 
tunately that place is inaccessible. I hope the State of New York will do 
something to make it more easily visited because it is one of the more inter- 
esting places that we have. 

The State and the Nation have erected at Schuylerville a noble shaft 
in commemoration of that surrender. I daresay that but few people visit 
there. It is worthy of your thought and your attention, and T assure you 
it is worthy of a visit. 

Being associated with those things and breathing the atmosphere of 
history, I will mildly suggest to you that if Mr. Lawyer's wish is carried 
out I will not be opposed to it. 

Patriotism means dedication of one's self to a cause. It means devo- 
tion to an ideal. In Washington we have a personification of patriotism. 
His equipment came through his experience, his contact with the wilderness. 
It sharpened his wits ; it made him keen to meet conditions and methods. 
When we gather in memory of his birthday — of his birth, and what he gave 
to this Nation, we should pay a fitting tribute to that memory. For that 
reason we have gathered here to honor the memory of a great man who was 
devoted, who was dedicated to the cause of liberty, who helped weld to- 
gether the thirteen original States as a foundation upon which was con- 
structed our Constitution crowned with a court composed of nine men not 
answerable to the people, but in that structure, mind you, is co-ordination ; 
the three co-ordinate branches of this Government have been maintained be- 
cause the structure was built permanently and upon the foundation of those 
colonies. The same Constitution which welded together thirteen colonies 
has welded together all the States of this Union. 

There was a crisis in the world ; the Aryan race had been moving 
westward — history records the wrecks of their empires, but when this 
country was developed, the human race could go no further. This is the 
end of the journey. These United States bounded by the two oceans, is the 
end of the journey, and here in the United States must be worked out suc- 
cessfully human endeavor. The trip around the world is finished. Races 
have moved forward, seeking new fields to conquer, but here on this conti- 
nent, must be worked out that problem, and if that problem is successful we 
must concede that the Constitution of the United States is not only the in- 
centive but is the means. 

71 



It is fitting that we should recall here the deeds of those who dedicated 
their lives for the cause of liberty, for the cause of human freedom and in 
commemorating, as we do to-day, let us not forget that at a time when it 
seemed hopeless, Washington came forth and met those conditions. He 
made his impress not only upon this country, but upon the world, because 
he established the very thing that human life was seeking — liberty. 



72 



The Army 

Address by 
Major=General Frederick Dent Grant, U. S. A. 



Mr. President and your Excellency, the Governor and Friends, Sons 
of the Revolution : I assure you of my great appreciation of your courtesy in 
asking me here this evening to celebrate the birthday of our Washington. 
I did not suppose that I would have anything to say or that I would be 
called upon to speak to you, as I have addressed this audience before, and 
believe it a very intelligent set of people, and generally speaking, an intelli- 
gent audience never asks me to speak a second time. 

This morning in reading one of the journals I saw that I was to answer 
to the toast of the Army, and I set to work to try to get out something new 
on that subject, but found it very difficult to compose anything that I had not 
said before, and consequently I took a paper that I had written for a recent 
celebration on the Army, and I brought it here to-night to read to you, mak- 
ing some few changes. I think there are some here that have heard it be- 
fore, but if they will forgive me I will give you that paper. 

The Army is a human machine t>y which peace is maintained, and when 
war is brought on through influences of outside parties and varied inter- 
ests, the Army is the instrument to restore peace to the country as quickly 
as possible, and at the same time maintain national honor. 

The Army is a means to an end, that end being peace, so that if by 
arbitration courts or by Hague Conferences, peace can be assured, the Army 
might be dispensed with, so far as its being a necessity for national defense 
against outside aggression, but if this happy condition could be perfectly ac- 
complished, the necessity of an Army would still exist for our protection 
against internal disorders and dangers. The records of history do not indi- 
cate that the day has yet arrived when harmonious international inter- 
course, which depends entirelv on the good will and justice of man, may be 
safely counted upon between the rich and prosperous nations. 

The strength of the United States Army has varied greatly from time 
to time. It has been increased or diminished according to the fears or con- 

73 



fidcnce of the American people with regard to our country's safety. The 
unwise policy of keeping our regular army down to a minimum strength, 
which is in the belief of the majority of our people the lowest limit which 
insures safety, has been the cause of the enormous expenditures of the 
United States in blood and treasure. 

At the time of the Revolution, for instance, if the United Colonies had 
organized and maintained a regular Army of twenty-five thousand men, cer- 
tainly the Revolutionary War would not have lasted long, nor wo.ild it have 
cost such a great number of lives, nor expenditure of money as was neces- 
sary, nor such great human suffering. 

The War of 1812 also would have been of short duration and would 
have cost much less in human life and money, and in the victories won far 
greater credit would have redounded to our country, had the United States 
Government before then maintained a regular thoroughly trained army of 
twelve or fifteen thousand men. In fact, if our Army had been sufficiently 
large the War of 1812 would never have occurred. 

The battles of the Mexican War were practically all fought by our 
regular troops, except the Battle of Buena Vista. The Mexican War was 
short and peace was insured in two years' time, which was an honor to our 
nation. 

J f the United States Government in 1861 had at its disposal fifty thou- 
sand regular soldiers, that terrible strife, so expensive in blood and treasure, 
the great Civil War would have been but a flash in the pan and quickly over 
and the attending disorders would not have been heard of longer than a 
year. 

This point has been disputed, but I can say that if we had had an in- 
creased army we would have had troops stationed in the various places that 
became of importance. Two batteries of artillery stationed at Charleston, 
at the beginning of the War. would have enabled Anderson to have held Fort 
Moultrie and also Fort Sumter. The probabilities are that we would have 
been able to maintain those and we would not have been practically driven 
out of that place. 

A battalion of regulars, had it been at the battle of Bull Run and in sup- 
port of the regular battery there that was successful and driving the Con- 
federates back at the time when their reserve gave way — a battalion of 
regulars would not have given way against the force that was brought against 
it — the battle of Bull Run would have been to the Union's credit instead 
of to the Confederates' credit, and the loss of the battle of Bull Run would 
have dampened the Confederate cause to such an extent that the war would 
probably have fizzled out after that. 

74 



During the interval between the time of the Civil War and the Spanish- 
American War the United States regular troops protected the Western 
frontiers of our country. American citizens, being thus protected from the 
attack of Indians, were enabled to cultivate and bring into productiveness 
a larger area of land, three or four times over, than had ever been brought 
into human use before during the same period of time. 

In the year 1898, at the beginning of the Spanish- American War, the 
United States had an army of twenty-five thousand men, seventeen thousand 
of whom were mobilized and sent to Cuba, where, after a short and quick 
campaign, they were victorious. Santiago was captured and peace was 
honorably, and I trust, permanently secured. 

The Spanish-American War resulted in the territory and influence of 
the United States being greatly extended, and in placing our country in the 
foremost ranks of commercial nations. 

Subsequently the necessity has now arisen for the maintenance of that 
instrument, the Arm}-, which can uphold the strength and dignity of our 
country in the eyes of other nations, who must respect us, realizing our in- 
fluence and power. 

Until within a few years the weapons of warfare were of a compara- 
tively short and high trajectory. Battles were formerly fought at close range, 
with slow firing. Great individual training was not essential, except for 
officers of high rank. Troops fighting in close order were directed by their 
lieutenants and captains, good discipline, with bravery, was ail that was 
needed. Now, however, with our long range and quick-firing arm, the 
skill, discipline and character of each and every individual, from the pri- 
vate to the commanding general, must be developed along every line. 

That army which in all details is the most thoroughlv trained from the 
highest to the lowest in rank is the most efficient and effective one. And a 
comparatively small, but thoroughly efficient, trained army, can easily over- 
power any mass of men untrained, however numerous or brave they may be. 

The military rifle in general use now throws its projectile to a distance 
of three and one-quarter miles. It can be discharged from thirty to forty 
times a minute. Opponents are subjected to its effective fire at any distance 
when they can be discerned by the human eye. Troops are now considered 
to be within pointblank range who are seven or eight hundred yards distant. 

Guns of the field artillerv can be fired now with aimed shots, in fact, 
accurately aimed shots are required from these guns at intervals of ten sec- 
onds and rapid firing can be increased to seventeen shots a minute. One bat- 
tery of our present gun is more effective than all the artillery on both sides 
that was used at Gettvsburo-. 

75 



Light three-inch field guns are constructed to be effective now at six 
thousand five hundred yards and the heavier guns, such as the o.S and the 
4.7 inch guns, are effective at a much greater distance. 

The cannon and ammunition for them now are so perfect that it would 
be difficult for troops, not thoroughly trained and disciplined, to approach 
or to protect themselves against these cannon while within three to seven 
miles of a trained army. 

The regular army of the United States is the custodian of all war 
records and traditions of the past. The officers and men are now students, 
and the army has evolved into a great school of instruction to prepare young 
patriotic men to be of service to their country when necessity arises. Our 
regular army as it is, without being increased, is not large enough to meet 
any one of the military nations of the world, but we are educating soldiers 
who, in case of war, would become instructors and commanders of the patri- 
otic American citizens who surely will always come into the ranks to defend 
their country. This instruction is broad in its scope. Soldiers now must 
not only learn to shoot, but must have experience in all details nnd a thor- 
ough knowledge of hygiene and of sanitation. Soldiers must learn and 
understand the business of transporting men and supplies and the prepara- 
tion of their food. They must know how to protect themselves on the field 
of battle, and at the same time to do the most efficient work against their 
enemy. The range of education in the army, in fact, is on the highest pos- 
sible plane, and includes everything pertaining to the development of human- 
ity and the protection of life. The man carrying his gun for the protection 
of the nation must be able to keep himself in the finest possible physical con- 
dition to effectively do the most in defense of his country against its foes. 

The modern army must contain trained efficient engineers, electricians, 
mechanics, veterinarians, medical men, as well as trained cavalry, artillery 
and infantrymen. 

At the present time the regular army of the United States consists of 
fifteen regiments of cavalry, aggregating twelve thousand seven hundred 
and seventy-five men ; six regiments of field artillery, aggregating five 
thousand two hundred and twenty men; the Coast artillery Corps, aggre- 
gating nineteen thousand three hundred and twenty-one men ; thirty-one regi- 
ments of infantry, aggregating twenty-five thousand eight hundred and eight 
men, or a total of sixty-three thousand, one hundred and twenty-four men. 
This limited number represents the fighting line of the United States 
Army, which is augmented by technical troops, Philippine scouts, etc., so as 
to bring the total number of officers and soldiers to the number of eighty- 
two thousand six hundred and forty-four. This number could be extended 

76 



in the case of war by adding trained men who had served in the army and 
are now in civil life, to probably one hundred and twenty-five to one hundred 
and thirty thousand men. 

Any call for a greater number of soldiers than this must be answered by 
citizens who lack military experience and training, however brave and patri- 
otic they might be. 

It is now the policy of the United States Government to augment its 
military strength by the militia or State Troops, and under the Dick Bill the 
National Guard now forms part of the first line of National defense. Great 
effort is directed to the instruction of the militia, and I am happy to say 
that these troops are very earnest in their endeavors to become efficient 
soldiers. The greatest improvement in the effectiveness of the militia has 
developed during the last five or six years, and the National Guard, as a 
body, are now far more valuable as defenders of their country than they 
were a few years ago. 

One difficulty in the system is that these militia troops are citizens, 
busily engaged in their own pursuits, and therefore can give but little time 
to the study of the art of war and to training in the use of arms. While 
they have improved greatly, it is very difficult for militia troops to keep up 
in the great and complicated science of modern warfare. 

I have endeavored to give an outline of the Army of the United States, 
but beg you will divorce from your minds the idea that the American Army 
is an instrument of aggression, ready to involve the American people in war. 
On the contrary, a regular army is, as I have said, for the maintenance of 
peace. Wars are brought on through political or commercial questions and 
strife, in which the Army has no word whatsoever. 

Recent Conventions have assembled and Commissioners been appointed 
to promulgate sentiments of peace. They earnestly hope and are working 
for arbitration between nations and people. No one more heartily joins 
with these Commissioners and their earnest followers in their desire for peace 
than I do, as do all other military men, hut, alas, as long as men live with 
human frailties, selfishnesses and weaknesses, it is probable that perfect peace 
will not exist, and that the rich nations, lacking military strength, may find 
themselves the prey of covetous and aggressive people. 

Some enthusiastic Commissioners, in their worthy and earnest zeal for 
peace, have gone so far as to discourage the maintenance of armies for pur- 
poses of defense and have criticized those who are interested in the military 
profession, men who I claim do more than all others in upholding peace 
between nations and in preserving order at home. Ideas upon this line have 
been expressed by a Japanese in a speech, which I read lately and which 

77 



runs as follows : ' For two thousand years Japan kept peace with the world 
and was known to the nations only by the exquisite handiwork of her artists 
and her artisans. We were treated as barbarians and called heathen. In- 
sults were heaped upon us, and we were oppressed until our condition became 
intolerable. We raised armies to kill men and asserted our rights. We 
are now recognized as a civilized people by all Christendom." 

In ending, gentlemen, I hope you will believe that our United States 
troops, a band of students and patriots, are fitting themselves at great per- 
sonal sacrifice to be of service to our country when it may be in trouble, or 
if it ever be involved in war, which I trust will not be soon. No one hopes 
for peace more than do the officers of the army. Please keep in mind that 
the United States troops stand ever ready to bare their breasts to the storm 
of battle and to risk their lives when necessary to secure to our great and 
beloved nation harmony at home, the respect of foreign people, and to main- 
tain in our country glory, honor and peace. 



7S 



The Navy 

Address by 
Rear=Admiral Francis J. Higginson, U. S. N., Retired 



Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Society: It gives me pleasure to be 
with you here to-night to answer to the toast of the Navy, because I 
feel sure that vou are interested in that branch of our national armament, 
and I feel that you realize, as I do, that in the problems which are coming 
to us in the present century, the navy is destined to perform no unimportant 
part. You all know — those of you who survived the Revolution and lived 
down to 1861 — how reluctant the people of the North were to realize that 
the political difficulties of that time would end in war, and it was not until 
the actual gun was fired on Fort Sumter that the people of the North 
realized that they were in for a struggle. It only goes to show the limited 
horizon of temporary vision, which is sometimes, even within that limit, 
obscured by mental fogs of passion and prejudice, so that it is unwise, al- 
though the sky is clear, to predict that the future will not bring forth its 
trouble. 

I read in the papers — I cannot vouch for the truth of it — that on a cer- 
tain Saturday in 1898, some peace advocates called on President McKinley, 
who was also a peace advocate, and they were assured by him that, Cuba 
having accepted the ultimatum of autonomy and other legislative reforms 
in Cuba, there would be no war. On the following: Sundav he was waited 
upon by some elder statesmen of the dominant party, and as a result of that 
conference on Monday he sent a warlike message to Congress and war was 
declared, and these instances go to show that, however clear the sky may 
appear, from some unexpected direction and from some causes unknown a 
nation may suddenly be called upon to exert its strength. 

Now there is a popular opinion, a kind of happy optimism in this coun- 
try that great wealth and numbers are sources of strength in warfare and, 
while it is true, that wealth as a factor in warfare has a certain potentiality, 
which to the unthinking mind may appear a conquering force, it is in fact 
only secondary. Wealth, however limitless, can only buy arms and am- 

79 



munition and stores and transportation and pay salaries. It cannot buy 
valor or self-sacrifice or endurance or discipline or military knowledge. Gold- 
furnished heroism is only the dream of the nation sunk in commercialism. 
Opulence in a nation is not always strength, for opulence breeds arrogance 
and arrogance regards dollars and trade and mortgages and industries as 
sources of power superior to armies and navies. 

To be perfectly equipped for the battle as a world power there should 
be a certain co-ordination between the industrial strength of a nation, and 
the military strength, and without that while certain results may be accom- 
plished, we do it at great sacrifice of life and enormous sacrifice of treasure. 

The Civil War was a war of volunteers, and while as the previous speaker 
has said very truly, we look upon pictures of daring, pictures of glory, 
splendid examples of self-sacrifice and ideal heroes, there are shadows to 
the picture which it is not pleasant to contemplate, but which should be 
considered. 

For instance, during the Civil War, under the first impulse of the preser- 
vation of the country, men sprang to arms with an enthusiasm which was 
ready for any sacrifice, but when the serious phase of that war began, volun- 
teering ceased and drafts and conscripts and bounties were resorted to, and 
nearly two hundred millions of bounties were paid during the Civil War, and 
there were riots, as you had here in this city. I am informed between '61 
and '65 there were more officers discharged from the army for the good of 
the service than were killed in battle, and during that same period there were 
two hundred thousand desertions. Now while it is true that that war was car- 
ried through, it was under a system which was bad and false and which, if 
the result is properly taken to heart, we should not in this generation pass 
along to our successors, because while a kind Providence has so far exer- 
cised a benign charity over our unpreparedness, and in our struggles put us 
up against weaker powers, we are now, as a world power and with the ex- 
pansion following the Spanish War, occupying a position which brings us 
in contact with and causes our line of expansion to converge towards more 
powerful nations and nations more worthy of our steel. 

When the people of a nation sit down to consider their military prepara- 
tion, it should be as a business man does when he sits down and reckons up 
his liabilities and his assets and determines upon what expenditure and 
upon what lines he must continue, and in considering the military problems 
of this country I beg and beseech that it may be done upon the merits and 
considering the liabilities we have to deal with. 

To excite a desire for armaments by impugning the motives of a nation 
at peace is, I think, an unworthy argument. We should look to what we 

80 



have to cover and adjust our resources and our powers to that alone. If 
we do that in this country we find that we have four liabilities of primary 
importance. 

The first is the Monroe Doctrine, which is an adopted child, having 
originated in England, but we have adopted it and taken it to our heart. It 
is in itself a gigantic proposition. 

Second, we have our oversea possessions, commencing first with Alaska 
and later with the Spanish War possessions, the Philippines, Hawaii, Guam, 
Samoa and Porto Rico. 

Third, we have the guarantee of neutrality of Cuba and a guarantee of 
neutrality requires just as much force behind it as an actual possession. 

Fourth, we have the Panama Canal, on which this nation is spending 
such an enormous amount of money and which it behooves us to see is pro- 
tected both by sea and by land. 

Now, anyone of these are serious enough, but taking them all together 
they would cause any thinking man to consider the best way of maintaining 
them, and if you are going to maintain them at all you must maintain them 
with a sufficient force. A weak navy is no better than none at all ; it is simply 
a waste of money, and the same with an army. We are a little more for- 
tunate than some nations, because, being a continental nation, if our first 
line of defence, the navy, is destroyed, we fall back on our second. Insular 
nations like Japan and England are not so fortunate. Their first line is 
their only line, and when that goes their country goes. 

We have during the last century, not counting the Indian wars, five for- 
eign Wars and one Civil War. 

The early wars of that century, principally clue to outrages on our com- 
merce, are not likely to occur to-day, because we have no commerce, and also 
because we are stronger and therefore they would not be attempted, even 
if we had. I hope also there is, as General Grant has referred to, a spirit 
of peace and an arbitration board which may change the method of settling 
difficulties which has been maintained in the human race ever since its begin- 
ning, but you cannot expect to change the habit of centuries immediately in 
one generation. 

Now, the advocates of peace are fond of decrying military expenses. 
They want to abolish battle-ships, but you do not destroy a tree by plucking 
its fruit ; you must take it up by the roots and the battle-ship in a naval 
sense is the fruit of the war tree and that tree has its roots in the hearts 
and passions of the people, and when we shall become a people that instead 
of looking to the sword to settle their difficulties, would prefer to settle them 
by arbitration, why the battle-ship falls of its own weight ; you need not cry 

81 



against it ; it will become non-existent ; but as long as the present idea of 
the settlement of difficulties by the sword exists and passions exist in the 
minds of the people, the tree will produce the battle-ship. 

Treaties of arbitration are certainly excellent things. They enable a 
statesman, when the hysterical passion of the nation cries for war, as it did 
in this nation in 1898, to retire behind the bulwarks of his arbitration treaty 
and say to the nation, " Gentlemen, if that which you say is true perhaps 
we ought to resort to the sword, but we have with our antagonist a solemn 
treaty of arbitration, and before we proceed to the length .of actual warfare 
we must in accord with that treaty submit this cause to a tribunal ; and while 
that is being done, unless the nation tears up the arbitration treaty in its 
passion and will have none of it, the chances are that the passion ot the na- 
tion will subside before the arbitration is ended. 

Now a tribunal of arbitration where two opposing nations come before 
it with their difficulties will, as a court, decide upon the merits of the case 
and award to one or the other of the contestants the victory. If the defeated 
nation accepts that, there is no more to be done. If it does not accept it, 
if it says, " This is a question of honor, and our honor is our life and we 
will die before we will submit," then we come finally to a resort to force, 
even under a system of arbitration, because, unless the tribunal and the na- 
tions composing that tribunal can enforce their decree, they might as well 
not exist. If every nation composing the tribunal assembles its quota of 
armed forces, whether the army or navy, and forces the compliance with its 
decrees, in the final analysis of all the peace advocates ask for, you still 
come down finally possibly to a resort to force. That ha? this advantage, 
that while the aggregate of that force, the tribunal's force, may be large 
and overpowering, and the more overpowering the better, it requires from 
each nation only a small military establishment, because all they have to do 
is to furnish a quota instead of, as it is now, furnishing the whole force, 
and therefore military expenses can be very materially reduced among all the 
nations of the earth. We have not arrived there yet, but we are trying 
to do so. 

Now, a word in regard to the navy. I beg to inform you that it is still 
afloat and more powerful and more efficient than ever. We have to-day. in 
commission, building and in reserve thirty-five battle-ships. They are of 
varied capabilities. The early ones of ten thousand and twelve thousand 
tons are not to-day able to keep up with the modern line of battle, because 
they have not the speed. They are not useless by any means, but for sea per- 
formance, a fleet must be homogeneous as regards speed and guns, because 
the speed of the fleet is equal onlv to the speed of its slowest ship. But 

82 



these ships that are not able to keep up with the first line may very well 
form a second line among themselves or they may be very useful in harbor 
work, covering mine fields and torpedo channels with their guns in the day 
time and with their search lights at night. 

This go-as-you-please building which is now going on among the nations 
is a terribly extravagant thing. Our earliest battle-ships, as I said, were 
ten to twelve thousand tons ; then we went to fourteen and to sixteen thou- 
sand, and then to eighteen arid twenty and twenty-one, and our last ones are 
twenty-six and twenty-seven thousand tons, and the price of battle-ships has 
gone up from five million to twelve. All this is in consequence of no restric- 
tion as to tonnage. I said a while ago that it was impolitic to prevent 
the building of battle-ships, but at least one thing can be done in that direc- 
tion, and that is to have an international limit of tonnage, so that all nations 
can build the best and the most powerful ship within that limit. It would 
put nations upon a fair and square basis of building, because now when one 
nation wishes to get ahead of another they simply throw in more tonnage, as 
a railroad corporation might throw water into the stock. Of course we can 
do anything on more tonnage in that way, because more tonnage means 
greater speed, greater armament, more powerful guns, a larger unit, and the 
navy is not different from commercial life in that evolution towards large 
units ; as railroads now use 100-ton locomotives where they used 50-ton ones 
some time ago ; but if we could get at least a limitation of tonnage, what- 
ever you put it at, twenty-six, twenty-seven or thirty thousand then at least 
we would know among all the nations how far we could go in that direction, 
and no nation could take advantage of another nation, except ns to num- 
bers which would be regulated by her wealth. 

I wish that proposition could be brought before the Hague Tribunal 
and something done about it in that way. We are coming now slowly to 
that. 

Congress gives us about two battle-ships a year, which we put into shape 
and make as efficient as possible. There has been wonderful advance in the 
gunnery of the navy. The records of our target practice have exceeded the 
expectations of even our experts and the rank and file of the navy, splendid 
young men, between twenty and twenty-five, boys from the West of unim- 
peachable character, are making records as gun pointers in those turrets — • 
ten bulls-eyes out of ten shots — that is most satisfactory to naval officers. 

We shall go on — I don't know that any limit has been put to the fleet 
exactly — my own idea is that every State in the Union should be represented 
in the line of battle. That would mean forty-six battle-ships, and with 
those divided between the Atlantic and Pacific we would have a basis at 

83 



least to go upon. Of course our problems are principally, or will be, in the 
future, in the Pacific, and while our possession of the Philippines has made 
our expansion converge towards the nations of Asia, I trust that the near- 
ness of possessions will not change the friendly relations which have always 
existed between the United States and China and Japan. 



84 



The Bench 

Address by 

The Honorable Almet F. Jenks 

Presiding Justice of the Appellate Division 

of the Supreme Court 



Mr. President and Gentlemen: While I appreciate the compliment of 
this invitation, for your sakes I regret that I was not scheduled to speak be- 
tween the Army and the Navy, because the old Latin maxim is " Inter arma 
silent leges." 

We speak of the attractions of gravitation, but we never speak of the 
attractions of gravity, and yet tradition says that the Bench must be taken se- 
riously ; hence I feel that where you want not antidote, but anecdote, the 
place of the Bench at such a dinner as this is to be simply a lay figure, and if 
this company were not so respectable and so eminent I would understand the 
function of my office was to add dignity and silence, not verbosity and flip- 
pancy, to such a meeting as this. As the old negro, who was brought before 
the Justice and accused of carrying concealed weapons, said, when he was 
charged with carrying a razor, " Well, it is only a safety razor." ' Well, 
what is the difference ?" ' Why, I simply carry that for the moral effect." 

A Judge has very little practice in public speaking. If he sits at trial 
term and opens his mouth he is always met with an exception, and if he 
sits on the Appellate Court, he is regarded as impertinent when he makes 
an interruption, and the only excuse that he gives is a lie to the proverb of 
the Chinese that " Inattention is the highest form of politeness." So when 
I come to speak to-night, not with the glib tongue of the orator from Albany 
or the poised periods and polish and precision of the Army and the Navy, 
I feel very much in the situation that the negro clergyman in the South 
described as the condition of that dead attendant of his church whose life 
was famous for his misdeeds, for when he came to the funeral service he 

85 



paused and said : " Brevern, we very much fear that he am where we hope 
he ain't." 

Now the toast of the Judiciary or the Bench has been exploited hun- 
dreds of times. It may he described in venalities or in beatitudes; but it 
has been described in polished periods time and time again, and there is 
nothing that I can say touching its function as a governmental agency that 
every school boy does not know and that every school boy could not repeat 
in better words than mine. If I were to indulge in these platitudes which 
you know so well, I would be very much subject to the criticism that the old 
negro made of the Episcopal Church when asked how he liked the service 
and he said, " Well,' the trouble with it is they take up so much time in read- 
ing the minutes of the last meeting." 

Of course, like the katy-did, I can say an undisputed thing in a very 
solemn way. I can say the same thing over again, as in the story of a little 
girl, the daughter of a clergyman, who, on being asked whether her father 
repeated the same sermon often, said, " Yes, but he hollers 'n different 
places."' 

This is not the time for oracular expression or the time for auricular 
confession. I might interest you in the biography of the members of the 
Bench; " The world knows nothing of its greatest men," the poet said a id 
yet another poet says : " On their own merits modest men are dumb,'' and 
there we are confronted with a classic quotation. The old familiar line of 
Goldsmith, " Remote, unfriended, melancholy, slow," describes the condi- 
tion of the Bench. They may not be remote; they may not be unfriended; 
they are often slow and always melancholy; they are as lonesome as the 
graveyard at midnight; or the Desert Sahara under the mid-day sun; they 
are the hierarchy of hermits; they are the isolation of individuals; they do 
not add to .the gayety of nations, but they increase the gravity of the indi- 
vidual ; they cannot subscribe for press clippings ; they do not support an 
advertising agency ; they cannot caper before the public and they cannot 
bawl typewritten interviews in the pubic ear ; there is no reciprocity in 
the friendship of a judge; there is no retaliation in the enmity of a judge; 
he is the only public officer that cannot stab an enemy or aid a friend ; he is 
not the searchlight that throws the glare of publicity upon public events ; 
he is not the sunlight which gives life and joy and hope ; he is nothing more 
than the miserable X-ray of the body politic. 

One man out of every two and he only meets two men at a time, is 
his enemy, the man he decides against. He is regarded as irrelevant, incom- 
petent and immaterial always by the defeated suitor. The defeated suitor 
does not remember that the Judge is not the Cadi at the gate, seeking to gain 

86 



truth with a bastinado, but that he is a man who is attempting to apply rea- 
son on the doctrine of general average and on the principle of the greatest 
good of the greatest number. And then a judge must be fearless. The fear 
of God is the beginning of wisdom, but the fear of man is the end of it. He 
cannot dash aside the bitter cup of unpopularity ; he cannot seek the intoxi- 
cant of public applause ; he can only hope for the popularity that Lord Alans- 
field described as the popularity that follows, but which is not pursued. Oh, 
gentlemen, uneasy is the head that wears a gown for a just judge is just a 
judge and nothing more 

The cowboy out West upon being told the story of the prodig-al son said 
that was not right; he would have killed the boy and raised the calf. That 
shows how dangerous it is to project a specialist into decisions on broad, 
equitable principles. 

No, law is a science, and it is the science of applying rules, regulations, 
judicial decisions, to that combination of circumstances which daily arise in 
the kaleidoscope of life, and so you will pardon us if some of us devote our 
lives to it. for after infinite struggle and perseverance, all we have to ask 
for is charity at your hands. The great power of the court is the power of 
repression, not of expression, but repression ; the repression of public opinion. 
That power comes in what we call the pronouncement of the unconstitu- 
tionality of law, but we do not condemn a law, we of the Judiciary, because it 
is against the fundamental organic law of the people. The Executive acts 
because he must act, and is called upon to act; the Legislature acts because 
it is the People of the State of New York in Senate and Assembly assembled 
and must act, but the judge stands at gaze, impossible of action until he is 
invoked by the individual and that is really the secret of the strength and 
harmony of our government after all. If the Judiciary should set itself up 
against the people and say, " This is wrong or that is wrong as an abstract 
principle," how long would it stand the veto power? But the Judiciary does 
not say that the Legislature has done something that it does not ap- 
prove of : it calls the Legislature back to its sober second senses. 
It says, ' This thing is repugnant to the law that you have put upon 
yourselves," for the Constitution is organic and founded on judg- 
ment with broad principles and no private interests behind it and legisla- 
tion springs from socialism or humanism or communism or collectivism. It 
may represent the tyranny of the majority, the mere fancied panacea of the 
hour, and yet the Court does not rise, as if an independent branch of the 
government, to say, " So far shalt thou go and no farther," but it says, 
' Your law has offended John Smith or Richard Jones and the people have 
done an injustice to the individual." and thus it is preserving individual rights 

87 



when it pronounces a law unconstitutional, and hence that beautiful expres- 
sion of Lord Bacon, where he says, " The questions of meum and tuum 
often rise to the dignity of a State." 

Historians you know are apt to trace the causes of wars and revolutions 
to occult things. Rice says that the great turning point of the War of the 
Revolution is hardly realized by any student of history except himself. He 
says it was the guns of DeGrasse at Cape Charles which made Yorktown 
possible ; that it cut England from control of the sea. 

Well, I am going to tell you what I found the other day in history, for 
it is of application so far as the Judges are concerned. You know that in 
the year 1700, by the Act of Settlement the Judges, who had been the cor- 
rupt slaves and the fawning sycophants of the Stuarts, were assured not only 
their salaries, but their tenure of office so long as they should behave them- 
selves, but in 1772, 72 years after the settlement, the King of England sent 
word to Hutchinson, the Governor of Massachusetts, that the salaries of 
the Judges in the Colonies henceforth should be paid by the Crown, and 
then it was, and it is all history, Sam Adams rose in his might and called a 
meeting and asked that letters might be sent to all the Towns of the Colonies 
and they called on Governor Hutchinson to ask him whether he intended 
to obey the order of the King, and they called upon the Governor to call 
the Assembly of Massachusetts together that they might meditate upon this 
thing and protest against the action of the King, and Hutchinson declined, 
but in a year eighty towns of that colony and in a year and a half all through 
the country there sprang up the correspondence of committees brought into 
action and roused into life by this attempt to suborn the Judiciary ; which 
was the origin, the beginning of the Continental Congress, and so it is that 
we poor Judges happen to have been — or our predecessors rather — the cause 
of the creation of the system which has made the fabric of this nation. 

Gentlemen: I have about done. I have detained you too long. You 
remember that Webster comments on the great wisdom of Washington, 
shown in his careful selection of the judges, but it did. not need Webster to 
tell us the twice told tale, even in his own day, that neither State nor nation 
can live nor long endure without a fair, honest and clean Judiciary. We 
need the support and the kindness of all good men; we ask you to be jealous 
of us, that we may be zealous for you and we ask you to keep us out of party 
politics, lest the judges at the cry of the majority should be degraded, not to 
expound the law, but to declare a policy. For any party, however great and 
strong it may be, that would seek to degrade the Judiciary to become a mere 
instrument of the party shibboleth or cry, welcome the stroke that hurls it 
down to dusty death. 

88 



Then may the temple of justice stand — stand like the temple in Greece, 
tranquil, serene, calm and beautiful, as the Parthenon stood, the bright gem 
of the City of the Violet Crown. As another has said, " The Courts may end 
and the Judges may die, but justice lives and though she sleep a while, she 
will awake and must be satisfied." 



89 



Lincoln, the Preserver of the Union 

Address by 
The Honorable Hugh Gordon Miller 



Mr. President and Soias of the Revolution : In the presence of the dis- 
tinguished presiding Judge of the Appellate Division of our neighboring 
department and of the representatives of the Army and of the Navy and 
all of these other distinguished guests, you can scarce expect one of my 
age to speak in public on this day, especially at such an hour as this. 

The actual sons and fathers of the American Revolution may have lost 
New York temporarily in 1776, but the daughters of the Revolution re- 
captured it shortly thereafter, and they have held it very well ever since; 
held it so well that all these brave soldiers and admirals are very willing 
captives indeed, and the position of the American woman in American na- 
tional patriotism is -well illustrated by the fact that of the two greatest monu- 
ments in America, one is to Washington and the other, standing at the gate- 
way of the Republic, with her torch, uplifted, pointing to the heavens, is 
the figure of a woman. From that we can very well estimate woman's posi- 
tion in the Republic, with women of the stamp of Martha Washington, 
Betsy Ross and others. 

I cannot take up much of your time and before you conclude I wish to 
offer a toast to Martha Washington and the daughters of the Revolution. 

It is impossible for me, at such an hour, to launch into an address. It 
is impossible, for an ordinary man like myself, at least, to think of anything 
new to say upon this occasion — to make an address on Washington's birth- 
day after all the material has been threshed over for so many years, is very 
hard and I find my mind drifting in self-defense into poetry, as Judge Jenks 
has done before me. This occasion recalls to my mind the words of Sir 
Walter Scott, when he inquired if, after all, 

" Breathes there the man with soul so dead 
Who never to himself hath said, 
This is my own, my native land ! 
Whose heart hath ne'er within him burn'd 
As home his footsteps he hath turned 
From wandering on a foreign strand? 

90 



If such there breathe, go, mark him well! 
For him no minstrel raptures swell ; 
High though his title, proud his name, 
Boundless his wealth as wish can claim — 
Despite those titles, power and pelf, 
The wretch, concentered all in self, 
Living, shall forfeit fair renown, 
And, doubly dying, shall go down 
To the vile dust from whence he sprung, 
Unwept, unhonored and unsung." 

While I know you would not bear with me to make an address, I cannot 
refrain from answering to the roil call of the Sons of the Revolution, to 
speak, even if it be but a word or two, of the heroism not only of those 
heroes of the Revolution about whom we have listened tonight, but of the 
heroism of the Anglo-Saxon race throughout the battles from Agincourt 
to Bunker Hill, Yorktown and Gettysburg; the heroism of the race that 
wrested the Charter of English liberty from King John at Runnymede; 
that took this countrv from the --Indians, carved it from the wilderness, and 
at last, stilling its own tumult, conquered itself and its own internal revolu- 
tion ; of the heroism of the race that has in this twentieth century carried 
the Stars and Stripes with its message of liberty and life around the world ; 
that saw Admiral Sperry of the Navy with his fleet at Tokio welcomed 'by 
ten thousand Japanese ghildren singing "America " in English, while the 
very angels in heaven, it seems to me. must have sung " Glory to God in 
the Highest ; on Earth Peace and Good Will to Men." 

After all, what constitutes a State? Let us ask ourselves once again 
for a moment. 

" Not high-raised battlement or labored mound, thick wall, or moated 
gate. No, — men, high-minded men." 

We are very much given to celebrating great events in our country. 
We love to celebrate and with great enthusiasm we celebrate each year espe- 
cially the birthdays of Lincoln and Washington. We have celebrated the 
Declaration of Independence, the purchase of the Louisiana Territory, the 
first permanent settlement of America ; we will soon celebrate the opening of 
the Panama Canal and at Washington, at the Capital of this country, we 
have erected in memory of Washington a monument of marble, granite 
and stone towering higher than the pyramids of Egypt; higher than St. 
Peter's dome, but never before, in all the countries of the world, was the 
memorv of any mortal man celebrated with such unanimity of feeling as 

91 



we of the North and the South and the East and West celebrated two years 
ago the hundredth anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln. As your 
distinguished president and toastmaster, the leader of our Bar, has said, I 
am a native of the South. I have lived for some years in New York City. 
I hail from down 

" By the flow of the inland river ; 

Whence the fleets of iron have fled, 
Where the blades of the green-grass quiver 

Asleep are the ranks of the dead : 
Under the sod and the dew. 

Awaiting the judgment day; 
Under the one the Blue, 

Under the other the Gray." 

1 have no apology to make for the fact that on this Washington's birth- 
day, as 1 answer to the roll call of the admirers of Abraham Lincoln, I say 
that my father was a Confederate soldier, but 1 am prouder of the fact that 
I am, as you are tonight, thanks to Abraham Lincoln and his supporters, 
first and above all an American citizen. 

I do not believe in forever dragging over or raking up some phases 
of the past ; in some respects the dead past might better be allowed to bury 
its dead, but the nation which fails to honor its heroes, the memory of its 
heroes, whether those heroes be living or dead, does not deserve to live, and 
it will not live, and so it came to pass that in 1909 nearly a hundred millions 
of people from the St. Lawrence to the Rio Grande and from ocean to ocean 
and far out into the islands of the sea were singing the praises of Abraham 
Lincoln. 

I shall not attempt tonight to go over the life of Abraham Lincoln. 
You have read all about him that I could possibly re-tell. Two years ago 
ten thousand tongues, made eloquent by as great a theme as ever inspired 
the mind or tongue of man, were singing the praises of the Great Emanci- 
pator. For me to attempt at this late day and hour to paint that picture over 
after those great orators and statesmen have spoken, would be like the ruth- 
less, reckless stroke of some amateur artist across the face of some master- 
piece of Raphael or Michael Angelo, hanging upon cathedral walls to point 
the souls of men towards heaven ; for surely such a picture, the picture of 
Abraham Lincoln, is one of the masterpieces of His image of the Almighty 
artist and architect of this earthly world. 

Permit me also, before I conclude, to trespass upon your time to say, 
as the son of a Confederate soldier, and T say it because T know that my 

92 



father, if he lived and were here, would have me say it in this presence, 
and I believe that Abraham Lincoln, if he lived, would have me say it too, 
because he was a just and a generous man and he would wish no tribute to 
him that did not carry with it a tribute to the great captain of his armies, 
and I say, therefore, as the son of a Confederate soldier, that when Ulysses 
S. Grant at Appomattox entered into that unparalleled stipulation which 
told the Confederate soldier, the soldier of the armies that had been fight- 
ing him and slaughtering his followers, that they could go merely upon their 
parole of honor ; when he bade my father and his comrades keep their side- 
arms and their war horses that had just been treading the blood of his men, 
to go home and plow up the soil ; that Ulysses S. Grant, an American soldier. 
rose to a further height of greatness and glory than did even Caesar or 
Charlemagne or Frederick the Great or Napoleon Bonaparte or Wellington. 
Ulysses S. Grant placed himself that day upon a higher plane than did ever 
any warrior who ever rode to battle and to victory in all the annals of the 
wars of the world. 

Plato dreamed of the republic of love ; Moore wrote out with elaborate 
care a charming Utopia. Bacon dreamed in imagination of a beautiful 
New Atlantis. Montesquieu discoursed of the perfect democracy. All 
these were far in advance of their time, but it remained for the American 
Commonwealth to put together all of the best theories of those great men, 
those imaginative geniuses, into a concrete form of government ; those ideals 
which with those men had been merely poetic creations. It is that govern- 
ment founded by Washington and preserved by Abraham Lincoln and his 
supporters that we enjoy, with one strong common government under one 



flag. 



' Your flag and my flag, and how it flies today, 
On your land and my land and half a world away; 

• Rose red and blood red its stripes forever gleam, 
Snow-white and soul white, the good forefathers' dream. 
Sky-blue and true blue, with stars that gleam aright. 
The gloried guidon of the day, a shelter through the night, 
Your flag and my flag, and oh ! how much it holds, 
Your land and my land, secure within its folds ; 
Your heart and my heart beat quicker at the sight. 
Sun-kissed and wind-tossed, the red and blue and white ; 
The one flag, the great flag, the flag for me and you, 
Glorified all else beside, the red. the white and blue." 



93 



The Prize Essays 



on 



The Assistance from France in Our 

Revolution 

ITS BASIS, EFFECT AND RESULT 



First Prize Essay 

By George A. Neubauer, Buffalo Central High School 

Buffalo, N. Y. 



There is an ancient proverb which says "A friend in need is a friend 
indeed." This is as true when applied to nations as when referring to indi- 
viduals, and the United States can give eloquent testimony on this point 
when it recollects the aid received from France during the Revolution. 
That this assistance from a European nation had an important 'bearing upon 
the successful issue of that struggle, is vouchsafed by all historians, and in 
considering the topic from this point of view, we will first glance at the 
conditions in the colonies during the early days of the war and briefly re- 
view the means through which France gave assistance to the patriots. Then, 
with these facts in mind, a more detailed explanation of the grounds upon 
which this help was given will be made, together with its effects and final 
results. 

When the " Minute Men " gathered at Lexington and Concord on that 
April morning and sent their leaden protests into the British ranks, they 
were not fighting for independence from the Crown ; only for their rights 
as Englishmen. It was not until early in the following year, 1776, that it 
dawned on the patriotic leaders that reconciliation with the mother country 
wns beyond hope, and that thereafter the war must be one of independence. 
After a survey of the country's resources, even the most sanguine members 
of Congress saw that unless help from some outside source was received, 
the situation of the patriots was desperate, if not hopeless. The people 
were divided, many being opposed to the war. They could not manufacture 
their own supplies and they were fighting a rich, determined nation with 
practically unlimited resources in money and men. 

With a full realization of the desperate straits of the country, Congress 
decided to call upon France for aid. Inquiries had quietly been made as to 
how such an appeal would be received, and so favorable were the indica- 
tions that Silas Deane was sent across as a commissioner to negotiate with 

97 



the French Government. He arrived in Paris in July, 1776, where he was 
later joined by Arthur Lee, and both immediately entered upon their mis- 
sion of gathering supplies for the Continental army. So successful were 
they that late in the same year Congress decided to send out Benjamin 
Franklin, the " Grand Old Man" of the Revolution, in the hope that he 
could persuade Louis XVI. to openly espouse the cause of the United States 
and join in the war against England. 

While Franklin was negotiating with the French Government for an 
alliance, France had been secretly giving aid to the Colonies. Even before 
the Declaration of Independence was signed, the great Beaumarchais threw 
himself heart and soul into the task of raising money to buy arms and am- 
munition for the patriots. He importuned the French Government for funds 
but was told that, being a neutral nation, France could not openly aid the 
revolutionists. Beaumarchais then organized a company under the fanciful 
name of Roderique, Hortalez and Company, ostensibly to act as a commer- 
cial agency in promoting business projects, but in reality to assist the strug- 
gling Colonies. Beaumarchais collected nearly five million livres, and it was 
from this company that Silas Deane received cannon, muskets, ammunition, 
clothes and boots sufficient to equip an army of twenty-five thousand men. 
The news of Bunker Hill and the heroism displayed by the raw soldiers 
had reached Europe and evoked untold admiration from the French to whose 
love of adventure and romance it appealed all the more strongly because 
the struggle took place in a land beyond the sea. These tales of heroism 
induced Lafayette, Segur and Dumas to leave France and cast in their lot 
with the revolutionists. They fought because they believed the cause of 
the Colonies to be the cause of humanity. The name of Lafayette is as 
familiar to every school boy as is Valley Forge. He not only led, but 
equipped and paid his own soldiers. Then there were Rouerie and Fersen, 
men who, tired of the monotonous routine of army life in times of peace, 
went to America to secure a change, but nevertheless did good service in 
drilling the raw farmer boys and transforming them into soldiers. Still 
another type of warrior sent here from France were Rochambeau, D'Estaing: 
and De Grasse, professional fighting men, who came because their monarch 
ordered them and who looked upon war as a duty to their king. These last 
were sent by Louis XVI. after the news of Burgoyne's surrender, which 
leached Paris in December, 1777, had finally induced the French Govern- 
ment to accede to Franklin's request for an alliance against England. Two 
treaties were made ; one of amity and commerce which recognized the United 
States as an independent nation, and one of alliance whereby France agreed 
to join in the war until the independence of the United States was assured. 

98 



As a result of these treaties Rochambeau with four thousand men was sent 
across to join the patriots, and also D'Estaing and De Grasse, each with a 
formidable fleet to operate against the British in American waters. France 
also opened her ports to Paul Jones, Wilkes, Johnson and Nicholson, those 
daring sea-rovers who terrorized the British Channel for many months, 
and also sent stores to the Continental army from the royal arsenals. 

Now, why did France grant this assistance? There were several rea- 
sons. Louis XVI. and his nobles had not yet recovered from the bitter hu- 
miliation of the Seven Years' War, which had terminated so disastrously for 
fair France. The efforts of a century of exploration and colonization were 
nullified by the Treaty of Utrecht, when France gave up practically all claim 
to North America. The artistocracy smarted under the shame and disgrace 
resulting from this war; their pride was humbled and their valor questioned. 
Then, again, France saw in the new nation an open market for her goods, 
a market which had long been monopolized by England. From the United 
States she could get directly many things she could not produce herself — 
tobacco, corn and raw materials for her manufactures. The question of 
commerce has always been an important, if not the important one in interna- 
tional relations, and France saw her opportunity to open up a field which 
would add vastly to her prestige. About this time, also, the germ of discon- 
tent was just beginning to appear among the French peasantry. They were 
becoming weary of the yoke of an oppression placed around their necks by 
the ruling aristocracy. The struggle for independence which was taking 
place in America appealed to their sense of brotherhood, to their sympathy, 
because they could feel as none others could the wrongs which had prompted 
the Revolution. It was because of that intangible force, more power- 
ful than the greatest of armies, more subtle than the shrewdest of statesmen, 
public opinion as voiced by the aristocracy, the merchant class and the 
peasantry demanded intervention, that France, secretly at first, then openly, 
gave aid to the United States. 

Its effect can hardly be overestimated. The supplies obtained by Deane 
filled a much needed want in the ranks of the Continental army. The com- 
ing of Lafayette and his aides encouraged the raw soldiers comprising the 
patriot army because it showed them that their efforts were not in vain, that 
their valor had attracted the attention of one of the proudest nations in 
Europe and had evoked sympathy. It also caused apprehension in England 
because the British had already tasted of the fighting qualities of the un- 
trained farmer soldiers and feared what these same troops might do when 
drilled by the skilled soldiers of France. But all this was as nothing, com- 
pared to the furor created in America by the news that France was to join 

99 



the revolutionists in their fight for freedom. It had seemed as though the 
war was practically over and the patriots must yield. New York, Philadel- 
phia, Newport and Savannah were all held by the British. The Continental 
army had never fully recovered from the horror of that terrible winter at 
Valley Forge. But with the news of the coming of Rochambeau and his 
army and the fleets of D'E9taing and De Grasse a new life was put into the 
men, new hope into the cause. 

The first result of this news was Lord North's third plan of reconcilia- 
tion. Then Clinton decided to evacuate Philadelphia and march to New 
York. The patriots renewed the war with increased vigor, regained the 
South and besieged Cornwallis at Yorktown. It was here that the French 
gave splendid assistance in one of the critical periods of the war. De Grasse 
repulsed a British fleet bringing reinforcements from New York, blockaded 
the Chesapeake and landed 3,000 French troops. Lafayette and Rocham- 
beau joined Washington in drawing the net around the British. The sur- 
render of Cornwallis foreshadowed the end. England realized this, and after 
making several half-hearted attempts to regain lost ground, finally acknowl- 
edged the independence of the United States. 

It is doubtful whether the American colonies could ever have won their 
independence without the help of France. From the first they had the 
moral support of the French as a nation, together with such secret aid as 
could be given, without openly violating the laws of neutrality. 

Then came the glorious news of Saratoga which resulted in the alliance. 
The news of this God-sent help put new life into the worn-out patriots, re- 
vived their drooping hopes and imbued them with a determination to fight 
until England acknowledged their right to exist as an independent nation. 
Asa result victory followed victory for the Continental blue, and after Corn- 
wallis's surrender at Yorktown England saw the handwriting on the wall. 
After a desultory continuance of hostilities, King George III. finally admit- 
ted defeat, and by the Treaty of Paris acknowledged the independence of 
the United States. Thus a new nation was born to give to the world new 
ideas in political and social life — a new interpretation of the word " govern- 
ment." Whatever credit is due to the patriots and their indomitable leaders, 
we cannot overlook the part taken by France and the aid she rendered at 
the eleventh hour. 



100 



Second Prize Essay 

By Winifred Fisher, Schenectady High School 

Schenectady, N. Y. 



The keynote of the assistance from France in our Revolution was the 
world-old cry for freedom, which found emphatic voice a few years later in 
that most wonderful of all political movements, the French Revolution. 
King-ridden France awoke to the realization that thirteen Colonies on the 
Atlantic seaboard of North America were struggling for independence from 
a tyrannical king, who transgressed their liberty-loving wishes. And 
France, tired of her long degradation and suffering, aroused herself to the 
assistance of the cause of humanity, and, throwing herself into the balance, 
decided this struggle between republicanism and monarchism. 

But a less noble, though perhaps more potent motive, seems to have 
actuated the king and ministry. France and England had long been im- 
placable enemies; wars and treaties had followed in such rapid succession 
that it was often difficult to tell whether hostile or peaceful relations existed. 
And at this time, though nominally they were at peace, the same old hatred 
existed between the two nations. England was superior to France, having 
almost entire control of the high seas, and monopolizing commerce to a 
degree very distasteful to her European observers. So it was with a joyous 
welcome that the French Minister, Vergennes, greeted the opportunity of 
simultaneously humbling England and advancing the interests of France. 
And the French people as a whole received gladly this chance for revenge. 
Surely this was the time to blot out their disgraces and defeats ; and the 
French heart laughed at the thought of England's discomfiture, should she 
lose these valuable and treasured colonies. 

As early as the passing of the Stamp Act the attention of France seems 
to have been directed toward America ; for at that time she sent to the Col- 
onies Baron de Kalb, for the purpose of ascertaining their attitude toward 
the mother country. From this time interest increased, until, at the Declara- 
tion of Independence, France decided to take an active part in the struggle. 
However, since selfishness was the motive, extreme caution was observed 

101 



throughout that no public step should be taken until success was reason- 
ably sure. 

In 1776 Congress sent Silas Deane to France to interest that country in 
the cause of American Independence. When Deane arrived, he found 
affairs in a very promising condition. A friend of Franklin's. Dr. Duborg, 
had already mysteriously secured 15,000 stands of arms from the royal arse- 
nals, for the assistance of the Colonies. And Baron de Beaumarchais, a 
great favorite at Court, was urging the king to send aid to America. The 
French Minister, Vergennes, desired to lengthen out the war for another 
year at least; his idea was that if this could be accomplished, the Americans 
would be so embittered by their sufferings that they would abandon all pos- 
sible thought of concession, and gladly accept almost any terms of treaty 
from France, rather than conciliate with England. Yet everything had to 
be done secretly, to prevent complications with England if America should 
fail. 

About this time Beaumarchais conceived the brilliant scheme of carry- 
ing on a mercantile business under the name of " Hortalez & Co.," nominally 
to be under the control of a Spanish banker, trading with the United States 
on a purely commercial basis. In reality, however, the capital was to be 
largely furnished by the government, and leniency exercised in demanding 
payment. In return for the arms and provisions which the Americans were 
to receive, Deane promised cargoes of tobacco and other native products. 
But English warships unfortunately blocked the harbor, preventing the sail- 
ing of ships, and Deane and Beaumarchais were involved in hopeless diffi- 
culties. 

Vergennes and Beaumarchais also persuaded Louis to grant the Colonies 
a subsidy in this year, though at every turn they were obliged to cajole or 
bully the king to action. Louis was by no means an intellectual monarch, but 
he did have perception enough to see the inconsistency of an absolute mon- 
arch's assisting rebellious colonies to independence. And had Vergennes 
guessed what a world-wide revolution he was helping to bring about, his 
zeal would have been likely to abate. But he did not guess, and it was 
largely through his efforts that the Commissioners obtained help. 

The next year after Deane's commission, Congress decided that more 
than one man was needed to uphold the interests of America in France. Ac- 
cordingly, Arthur Lee and Benjamin Franklin were sent to join Deane, with 
instructions to secure subsidies, loans, and supplies ; and to conclude if pos- 
sible, a treaty of alliance with France. When Franklin arrived in France, 
he was received with unbounded enthusiasm and respect by the whole peo- 
ple, with the exception of Louis XVI. Lee, however, occupied himself in 

102 



making as much trouble as possible for everyone, and succeeded admirably 
in becoming a wholesale nuisance to the American cause and to France. 

Shortly after the Commissioners arrived, a subsidy of 2,000,000 livres 
was granted, and in 1781 Franklin again managed, with Vergennes' assist- 
ance, to extract from the unwilling king a gift of 6,000,000 livres. Between 
1777 and 1783 Franklin was almost continually begging Vergennes for 
loans, and secured during this time $6,352,000, to be replaced after the war. 

Another great advantage came through Franklin. He, by dint of much 
persuasion and scheming, induced Vergennes to allow American privateers- 
men to sell their prizes and refit their ships in French ports. Without this 
privilege that sea-warfare along the coast of England which contributed so 
much to American success would have been practically impossible. 

But the English Ambassador Stormont repeatedly demanded the dis- 
missal of the American Commissioners, and looked with growing suspicion 
and disfavor on their presence in France. Vergennes, however, diplomat- 
ically avoided the necessity of dismissing them. But when, in 1777, the 
case began to look almost hopeless for America, the French became 
even more cautious, and Franklin was almost on the verge of despair. Then 
suddenly came the great tidings of Saratoga, spreading swiftly through 
France. America had 'at last proved that she was capable of defending 
herself. Vergennes was alarmed lest she should make peace, and France's 
chance be lost. Accordingly, he hastily sought an alliance. On December 7 
Franklin was informed that the King was ready to acknowledge the inde- 
pendence of the United States. A treaty was soon drawn up, and signed on 
February 6, 1778; the provisions of this agreement guaranteed an immediate 
and public compact of friendship, and an ultimate and secret alliance, " to 
take effect only in case England should make war upon France." France 
acknowledged the independence of the United States, and guaranteed sov- 
ereignty and whatever possessions she should have at the end of the war. 
The United States guaranteed to France her possessions in America. Com- 
mercial reciprocity was to exist between the two; and neither was to make 
peace with England without the consent of the other. The alliance was 
formally communicated to England on March 13, as an informal declaration 
of war. And three months later hostilities began. 

From this time France became more active in assisting America. Sup- 
plies increased ; and fleets were sent at various times. The first, under 
D'Estaing, was prevented, by ill-fate, from usefulness ; those under De 
Barras and De Grasse made Yorktown possible. French troops arrived, and 
under Lafayette did good service in Virginia ; these troops, together with 
those under Rochambeau, did good service at Yorktown also. In fact, 

103 



Cornwallis would never have been compelled to surrender, had not French 
troops helped to overcome him by land, and a French fleet shut him off 
from aid or escape by water. 

It is impossible to estimate the value of the personal assistance from the 
officers who came here from France. Late in 1777 the French Govern- 
ment sent over Baron Steuben, a German noble, who had received his train- 
ing under Frederick the Great. He found the army at Valley Forge almost 
ignorant of the proper methods of warfare; but left them in the spring, " as 
good soldiers as could be found among the British regulars." His serv- 
ices along this line were invaluable. 

The Marquis de Lafayette came at the age of nineteen, in a ship fitted 
at his own expense, and offered his services without pay. His bravery, 
shrewdness and devotion to the cause soon made him one of Washington's 
valued officers. Several Polish officers came with Lafayette, among whom 
Kosciusko is especially noticeable for his engineering work. These all felt, 
with Lafayette, that " The wefare of America is closely bound up with the 
welfare of mankind," and delighted in giving their lives for the cause of 
liberty. 

The extent of the assistance from France is easily seen ; but what did 
this assistance accomplish ? The immediate effects are plainly perceived. In 
the first place, Yorktown was made possible, and through Yorktown the suc- 
cessful termination of the struggle. We, as Americans, dislike to admit a 
possible defeat ; but it is nevertheless true that, without foreign aid, the issue 
of the Revolution would have been extremely doubtful. The news of a 
French Alliance came near being disastrous, for the country at once decided 
that no further action was necessary on its part. But when the people did 
once more awake, the alliance brought them great encouragement. 

The loyalists were throughout the war one of the most fruitful causes 
of trouble. And this alliance with a Roman Catholic power added a great 
number to their overcrowded ranks. They thought that the new country 
had done wrong in seeking a foreign alliance — and perhaps she had. But 
we, as American citizens, although we regret the necessity for any for- 
eign alliance, can hardly condemn that act which makes us to-day an inde- 
pendent nation, "the first in war, the first in peace." 

The alliance caused great consternation in England, and if it had had 
no other result, would have been worth while as causing Parliament to 
acknowledge that its policy had been both unwise and unjust. But it also 
drew England into wars with half of Europe, absorbing a large part of her 
attention at home, and so allowing America a better chance. 

Of course the most outstanding result was the success of America, and 

104 



the loss of England's power in this country. But the results of this result 
have influenced largely the subsequent history of the world. Encouraged 
by American success, the oppressed of France came to hope that they, too, 
might find freedom. Had this war not been fought, the French Revolution 
would certainly have been greatly retarded, perhaps, even, might never have 
occurred. 

The Colonies had already outgrown the Mother Country, and a con- 
tinuance of her control would have harmed, not helped, them. Their loss 
left England free for expansion in other countries where her civilizing influ- 
ence was needed ; and perhaps without this that splendid work in India and 
elsewhere might never have been accomplished. This blow also had a most 
beneficial effect upon England herself; for it aroused her to a sense of her 
own needs and defects. 

But above all other results one stands out with surpassing importance. 
The assistance from France in our Revolution, bringing about, as it did, the 
success of America, gave the United States a chance to prove to the world 
that republicanism is a practical reality, and not a vague ideal ; and that all 
governments may be, as ours is, " A government of the people, for the peo- 
ple and by the people." 



105 



Third Prize Essay 

By Marjorie Hunt, Girls' High School, Borough of 
Brooklyn, New York City 



Although some of the causes of the success of the American Revolution 
are still a matter of dispute, the assistance of France is acknowledged to be 
an important factor, and must therefore be carefully considered in studying 
the war. This aid was not based on an impulsive decision on the part of the 
French Government to befriend a liberty-loving people and help the new 
nation to get on its feet. It was, rather, a policy adopted as the result of 
careful consideration of the different courses which might be pursued and 
the probable advantage to France from each. Hence it is necessary to give 
some attention to the state of affairs in France. 

Contradictory as it may seem, the French and Indian War, in which the 
Americans fought against the French, was one of the most important causes 
of the alliance. By this war England seized French possessions, humbled 
French pride and aroused in all patriotic Frenchmen a desire for revenge 
and for the re-establishment of the power of France. Watching for an op- 
portunity, they soon came to believe that a blow to Great Britain could be 
struck through her Colonies. The great minds of France were divided, 
however, as to the best way of striking this blow. Comte de Vergennes, 
the head of the Ministry, believed that the independence of the Colonies 
would cause the greatest loss to England, and that France should therefore 
give them all possible aid. Turgot, another Minister, believed that the 
greatest advantage to France would be derived by keeping the Colonies sub- 
ject to England, as much of her strength would then be required to control 
them. He believed it unwise to attempt to render any great assistance, ow- 
ing to the state of the French finances. 

Until now, France had merely kept herself informed by means of an 
agent in America and her Minister to England concerning the growing dis- 
content. Now, learning from Baron de Beaumarchais, who had made in- 
vestigations in England, that war was imminent, Vergennes sent Bon Vou- 
loir to America to find out whether the Americans wished for French inter- 
ference, without making any statement with regard to France. Bon Vouloir 

106 



soon came into communication with the Secret Committee of Correspond- 
ence, appointed in November, 1775. The committee divined that he was 
not simply a traveler and decided to send an agent to France to discover 
whether aid could be obtained from that nation, and to arrange for the pur- 
chase of arms and supplies. 

In March, 1776, Silas Deane was chosen for this mission. He was in- 
structed to purchase a full equipment for thirty thousand troops and twenty 
pieces of field artillery, promising payment when Congress should be able, 
and to inquire of Vergennes whether aid might be expected from France if 
the colonies declared their independence. Vergennes refused to commit 
himself, referring to the expense France was under and to existing treaties 
with England. Deane came into communication with Beaumarchais, who 
established a commercial house under a fictitious name for the purpose of 
furnishing arms and supplies to the Colonies. The money for this enter- 
prise was furnished him by the government, which also loaned the Colonies 
one million livres and obtained for them a similar loan from Spain. Through 
the enthusiastic efforts of Beaumarchais the entire equipment was ready for 
shipment in November, 1776. 

There had been much discussion in Congress as to the advisability of 
making foreign alliances. Franklin thought we should wait until our inde- 
pendence was established, when other nations would seek alliances with us. 
The majority in Congress sided with Adams, who wished to make treaties 
with all the European nations. In September, 1776, a plan for a treaty 
with foreign powers was adopted, and a commission, consisting of Frank- 
lin, Deane and Arthur Lee, was sent to France. In December the Com- 
missioners reached Paris. The work practically devolved upon, Franklin, 
for Deane had not sufficient knowledge for the task, and Lee was continu- 
ally casting suspicion on his associates and inconvenienced them greatly. 
Negotiations dragged, for, although at the news of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence France had been ready for open warfare, the news of the defeat 
on Long Island had changed her plans, and now she was awaiting devel- 
opments, meanwhile furnishing the colonists arms and supplies. The news 
of Burgoyne's surrender changed the attitude of France; the Americans 
had shown themselves capable of maintaining their independence, and it 
seemed safe to acknowledge them. Work on the treaty was immediately 
begun, and the Commissioners decided to- make a political as well as a com- 
mercial treaty. Terms were soon agreed upon, and the two treaties were 
signed on February the sixth, 1778. 

The commercial treaty was practically the same as the plan drawn up 
by Congress. It gave careful lists of contraband merchandise, prohibited 

107 



the searching of ships of either nation by the other, gave each nation the 
right to take into the ports of the other the prizes of its privateers, forbade 
the ports of either to captors of prizes from the other, and established free 
West Indian ports. By the treaty of alliance the independence of the 
United States was recognized, joint military movements were provided for, 
the existing territory of both parties was guaranteed, probable conquests 
were divided, and the consent of both nations was made necessary for the 
conclusion of peace. 

The first military aid sent by France was in the July following the 
treaty (Lafayette, who had been serving enthusiastically for a year, had 
come of his own accord and without troops). Vice-Admiral Comte D'Es- 
taing left Toulon with a powerful fleet, purposing to shut the British fleet 
in the Delaware, but when he arrived off the capes of Delaware in July, 

1778, he found that the fleet had sailed for New York. His coming was, 
however, hailed with joy, and there was a good deal of discussion about 
the best way to use his fleet. It was decided to employ it, in connection 
with the land forces, in blockading New York. This plan was abandoned, 
as the channel was not deep enough to afford entrance to the larger vessels. 
The next plan was to attack Newport, the land and naval forces uniting. 
Troops had been landed from the French fleet when the English fleet ap- 
peared. The French immediately re-embarked and put to sea to meet them. 
After two days of manoeuvring both fleets were scattered by a storm, and 
several French ships were disabled. D'Estaing, thinking it unsafe to attack 
them, sailed to Boston for repairs. Later he sailed away to the West Indies, 
leaving behind him a feeling of dissatisfaction and distrust, due to his re- 
peated failures. 

During D'Estaing's campaign in the West Indies the war continued in 
the South, with great loss to the Americans. He returned in September, 

1779, to aid in the siege of Savannah. The first attack was unsuccessful, 
owing to the re-enforcement of the British while they delayed. D'Estaing, 
fearing the approach of the fall storms, would not wait for another attack, 
but left for France, and the troops under General Lincoln were repulsed. 
This, of course, increased the. ill-feeling toward France. In July, 1780, the 
other fleet which had been promised by France and eagerly awaited by the 
Americans arrived at Newport under De Ternay, with six thousand troops 
under Comte De Rochambeau. After a year of practical idleness the army 
began its march southward. Washington and Rochambeau planned to attack 
New York, with the co-operation of the strong French fleet then in the West 
Indies under Comte De Grasse. After considerable delay they learned that 
the bar which had prevented the entrance of the other fleet to the harbor 

108 



would again cause trouble. About this time Washington received word of 
the campaign in the South and the present cooped-up position of Cornwallis 
in Virginia. He decided to march south, keeping the English under the 
impression that New York was the abjective point. This it was possible to 
do for some time, since the march into New Jersey might indicate an at- 
tempt to occupy Staten Island as a vantage point for the siege of New York. 

Meanwhile Cornwallis had occupied and fortified Yorktown. Grasse's 
fleet, arriving from the West Indies, was joined by De Ternay's, which had 
escaped from the British blockade at Newport. The British fleet followed, 
attacked them unsuccessfully and withdrew. The French fleet blockaded 
the harbor and cut off Cornwallis's hope of escape in that direction. La- 
fayette, who with a small force had annoyed Cornwallis all summer and 
finally forced him into his present position, now stationed his troops so as 
to prevent his retreat by land. 

The army reached Williamsburg on September 26. Two days later 
the combined forces moved on Yorktown. The French were very enthu- 
siastic all through the siege, vying with each other in deeds of bravery. 
Cornwallis, after keeping up the defense until October 17, was obliged 
to acknowledge it was useless and accept Washington's terms. On the 19th 
the British laid down their arms before the combined forces of France and 
the United States. The French evidently left soon after this, for they are 
not recorded as taking part in any subsequent fighting. Negotiations were 
soon opened, for France and England both felt the need of peace. In spite 
of considerable antagonism between the Americans and the French, the 
treaty was at last arranged to the satisfaction of both and was signed at 
Versailles by representatives of all three nations on the third of September, 
1785. 

In conclusion we may say that the negotiations with France form the 
most important part of the diplomatic history of the war, and are connected 
with the greatest statesmen of that time ; and that the aid from France in 
furnishing us with money and arms, which enabled us to carry on the war 
when our own resources would have been insufficient, in supplying us with 
a navy with which to resist the attacks of the British navy, in sending us 
an army that made possible the decisive victory at Yorktown, was, with the 
exception of the character of the Americans and the condition of England, 
the most important cause of the success of the American Revolution. 



109 




,', A S - 



C N 



I- FT OF THE FRENCH = E = _ 3 _ C TO ~ - E EC". = I- THE REVO ¥ DN 

FEBRUARY 2 2 1912 




Sons of the Revolution 



IN THE 



STATE OF NEW YORK 



REPORTS 

AND 

PROCEEDINGS 



1911-1912 



December 4, 1912 



V 



Object of the Society 

CONSTITUTION. 

Preamble 

Whereas, It has become evident from the decline of proper 
celebration of such National holidays as the Fourth of July, Wash- 
ington's Birthday, and the like, that popular interest in the events 
and men of the War of the Revolution is less than in the earlier 
days of the Republic ; 

And Whereas, This lack of interest is to be attributed not so 
much to lapse of time as to the neglect on the part of descendants 
of Revolutionary heroes to perform their duty of keeping before 
the public mind the memory of the services of their ancestors, and 
of the times in which they lived, and of the principles for which 
they contended ; 

Therefore, The Society, of the "Sons of the Revolution" has 
been instituted to perpetuate the memory of the men who, in mili- 
tary, naval or civil service, by their acts or counsel, achieved 
American Independence ; to promote and assist in the proper cele- 
bration of the anniversaries of Washington's Birthday, the Battles 
of Lexington and Bunker Hill, the Fourth of July, the Capitula- 
tions of Saratoga and Yorktown, the Evacuation of New York by 
the British Army, and other prominent events relating to or con- 
nected with the War of the Revolution; to collect and secure for 
preservation the manuscript rolls, records and other documents 
and memorials relating to that War; to inspire among the mem- 
bers and their descendants the patriotic spirit of their forefathers ; 
to inculcate in the community in general sentiments of Nationality 
and respect for the principles for which the patriots of the Revolu- 
tion contended ; to assist in the commemorative celebration of other 
great historical events of National importance, and to promote 
social intercourse and the feeling of fellowship among its members. 



General Society 

(Organized at Washington, D. C, April 19, 1890.) 
OFFICERS, 1911-1914. 

General President, 

Edmund Wetmore, LL. D., 
New York Society. 

General Vice-President, 

James Mortimer Montgomery, 
New York Society. 

Second General Vice-President, 
Hon. John W. Weeks, 
Massachusetts Society. 

General Secretary, 

William Libbey, D. Sc, 

New Jersey Society. 

Assistant General Secretary, 

W. Hall Harris, Jr., 

Maryland Society. 

General Treasurer, 

Richard McCall Cadwalader, 
Pennsylvania Society. 

Assistant General Treasurer, 

Henry Cadle, 
Missouri Society. 

General Chaplain, 

Rev. Randolph H. McKim, D. D. 

District of Columbia Society. 

General Registrar, 

Hon. George E. Pomeroy, 
Ohio Society. 

General Historian, 

Marshall Delancey Haywood, 
North Carolina Society. 



4 



Sons of the Revolution 

IN THE 
STATE OF NEW YORK 

Instituted February 22, 1876. 

Reorganized December 4, 1883. 

Incorporated May 3, 1884. 



FOUNDERS. 

John Austin Stevens 

John Cochrane, 

Austin Huntington, 

George H. Potts, 

Frederick Samuel Tallmadge, 

George Washington Wright Houghton, 

Asa Bird Gardiner, 

Thomas Henry Edsall, 

Joseph W. Drexel, 

James Mortimer Montgomery, 

James Duane Livingston, 

John Bleecker Miller, 

Alexander Ramsay Thompson, Jr., 



OFFICERS, 1912 

Presiden t : 
Edmund Wetmore, 34 Pine Street. 

First Vice-President: 
Robert Olyphant, 17 Battery Place. 

Second Vice-President: 
John Hone. 5 Gramercy Park. 

Third Vice-President: 

William W. Ladd. 20 Nassau Street. 

Secretary: 

Henry Russell Drowne, Fraunces Tavern. 

Assistant Secretary: 
Eugene K. Austin, 15 William Street. 

Treasurer: 
Arthur Melvin Hatch, 71 Broadway. 

Registrar: 
Henry Phelps Johnston, College of tlie City of New York. 

Chaplain: 
Rt. Rev. David H. Greer, D.D., 416 Lafayette Street. 

Assistan t Chapla in : 
Rev. Frank L. Humphreys, S. T. D., Morristown N. J. 

Historian: 
Talbot Olyphant, 32 Nassau Street. 

Board of Managers: 

John Adams Dix, 25 Broad St. Ralph Peters, L. I. R. R. Co., 7th 

Walter L. Suydam, 5 E. 76th St. Ave. and o'2nd St. 

Benjamin R. Lummis. 25 W. 33d St. Frederick S. Woodruff, 165 Broadway. 

James May Duane, 59 Wall St. William G. Bates, 43 Cedar St. 

George H. Coutts, 273 Broadway. Charles F. Bridge, 13 N. Pearl St., 

Henry D. Babcock. 32 Liberty St. Albany, N. Y. 

Samuel Y. Hoffman. 258 Broadway. Norman S. Dike, County Court House, 

J. Wray Cleveland, 176 Broadway. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Parker 1). Handy. 22 Pine St. John It. Delafield, 27 Cedar St. 

Benjamin T. Fairchild, 74 Laight St. Philip Livingston, 115 E. 61st St. 

6 



Chapters of the Society: 

Buffalo Chapter, Buffalo, N. Y., Robert M. Codd. Regent. 

George W. Comstock, Secretary, 124 Lexington Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Philip Livingston Chapter, Albany, N. Y., Charles Francis Bridge, Regent. 
Borden H. Mills, Secretary, 44 Tweddle Building, Albany, N. Y. 

William Floyd Chapter, Troy, N. Y., Walter P. Warren, Regent. 

William Barker, Jr., Secretary, c/o William Barker Co., Troy, N. Y. 
Fort Schuyler Chapter, Utica, N. Y., Sylvester Dering, Regent. 

A. Vedder Brower, Secretary. 306 Genesee Street, Utica, N. Y. 

Orange County Chapter, Goshen. N. Y. 

Jamestown Chapter, Jamestown, N. Y., Abner Hazeltine, Regent. 
Frank H. Mott, Secretary, Fenton Building, Jamestown, N. Y. 

Real Estate Committee: 

Robert Olyphant, Chairman, James M. Montgomery, 

John Hone, Henry A. Wilson, 

Arthur M. Hatch. 

Membership Committee: 

George Deforest Barton, Chairman. 150 Broadway. 

Landreth II. King, Room 4020, Grand Central Station. 

Edward L. Parris, 45 Broadway. 

Caldwell R. Blakeman, Coffee Exchange. 

Benjamin W. B. Brown, 52 Wall Street. 

Talbot Root, 52 Broadway, 

Chandler Smith, 68 Broad Street. 

Nathaniel A. Prentice, 2 Rector Street. 

Pierre F. Macdonald, 45 Vestry Street. 

George P. Lawton, 14 East 60th Street. 

Edward C. Delafield, 27 Cedar Street. 

William B. Hill, 160 Broadway. 

Edmund Howard-Martin, 160 West 59th Street. 



Committee on Speakers: 

William B. Hornblower, John A. Dix, 

David Cromwell, Horace Barnard, 

Edmund Wetmore. 



Essay Committee: 

Richard Henry Greene, Chairman. R. Russell Requa, 
Herbert L. Bridgman, Henry R. Howland. 

Alfred Ely, 



7 



Library Committee: 

John R. Totten, Chairman, Nathaniel B. Day, 

Douglas Campbell, Henry Cole Smith, 

Howard T. Kingsbury. 



Museum Committee: 

George B. Class, Chairman, William Bunker. 

Robert R. Atterbury, William G. Low, Jr., 

Charles Wisner. 



Tablet Committee: 

James M. Montgomery, Chairman, Henry Russell Drowne, 
Henry Phelps Johnston, Pierre F. Macdonald, 

Junius S. Morgan. 



Stewards: 

Philip Rhinelander, Chairman, Phoenix Ingraham, 

Lawrence L. Gillespie. George P. Montgomery, 

Robert M. Olyphant, Jr., Pierpont Davis. 



Marshal: 

John Butterfield Holland. 

Aides to the Marshal: 

Eugene K. Austin, Robert Kelly Prentice, 

Albert Delafield, Talbot Root. 

De Witt Clinton Falls, George Albert Wingate. 

Publication Committee: 

James M. Montgomery, Chairman, Henry Phelps Johnston, 
Henry Russell Drowne, Charles Elliot Warren, 

Talbot Olyphant, Historian. 

Committee on Church Service: 

Talbot Olyphant, Chairman. Frederick S. Woodruff, Secretary. 

Arthur Frederic Schermerhorn, Robert Grier Cooke, 

S. Vernon Mann. 
Rt. Rev David H. Greer. D. D., Rev. F. Landon, Humphreys, S. T. D., 

Chaplain. Asst. Chaplain. 

8 



Aisle Committee: 



Charles Adams, 
David Banks, 
Henry Burr Barnes, 
Waldron Phoenix Belknap, 
Frederick Melvin Crossett, 
John Francis Daniell, 
Charles Francis Darlington, 
Joseph N. Lord Edmonds. 
Morris Douw Ferris, 
Lindley Murray Franklin, Jr., 



Marshall Winslow Greene, 
Frederick Erastus Humphreys, 
Richard Malcolm Montgomery, Jr., 
Charles King Morrison, 
Murray Olyphant, 
Robert Morrison Olyphant, Jr., 
Henry Gansevoort Sanford, 
Edward Gibert Schermerhorn, 
Prentice Strong, 
Alfred Byers Wade, 



Reynold Webb Wilcox, M. D. 



Excursion Committee: 



William G. Bates, Chairman, John C. Gulick, 

Edward P. Casey, J. Wray Cleveland, 

Benjamin B. McAlpin. 



Finance Committee: 

William W. Ladd, Chairman, James G. Cannon, 

James May Duane, Alexander R. Thompson, 

William G. Bates. 



Committee on Memorial Decorations: 

Charles R. Lamb, Chairman, Walter P. Warren, 

Robert Thorne, David Cromwell, 

John C. Fremont Gardner. 



Auditing Committee: 

Warren M. Healey, Chairman. Elbridge G. Snow, 

John N. Peet. 



Committee on Constitution and By-Laics: 



Edmund Wetmore, Chairman, 
William W. Ladd, 



William G. Bates, 
Frederick S. Woodruff. 



Committee on Washington Memorial Building: 

Philip Livingston, Chairman, Arthur M. Hatch, 

Charles F. Bridge. 



Report of the Board of Managers 



To the Sons of the Revolution 

in the State of New York : 

The Board of Managers submits the following report for the 
year ending December 4, 1912 : 

Eight meetings of the Board of Managers have been held during 
the year. The Annual Meeting took place in Fraunces Tavern, 
Dec. 4, 1911, at 3 :30 P. M., Mr. Edmund Wetmore, President of the 
Society, presiding.The Secretary read the call for the meeting and 
the polls were declared open for one hour and a half, the following 
tellers having been appointed: Mr. Talbot Root, Chairman, and 
Messrs. Chandler Smith, Varick Dey Martin and Harrison Wright. 

The Rev. Henry Barton Chapin, D.D., General Chaplain of the 
Society of the Cincinnati, offered prayer. 

The reading of the report of the Board of Managers was dis- 
pensed with, the report having been printed for distribution, and 
the Treasurer, Mr. A. M. Hatch, read his report. 

Mr. Talbot Olyphant, Historian of the Society, read his report, 
during the reading of which all the members rose and remained 
standing. 

Mr. Robert Olyphant, Chairman of the Real Estate Committee, 
announced that during the year the mortgage on Fraunces Tavern 
had been reduced from $30,000 to $25,000 and the rate of interest 
from five to four per cent. 

Mr. Frederick S. Woodruff gave notice of amendments to the 
Constitution to be acted on at the next meeting of the Society, 
and the Secretary read the report of the Nominating Committee. 

The General Secretary, Col. William Libbey, called attention to 
the report at the last Triennial Meeting of the Committee on the 
proposed law punishing desecration of the American Flag, and the 
following resolution, offered by Col. William W. Ladd, was 
adopted: 

Resolved, that a Committee of three be appointed to secure 
such action as may be necessary on the part of the State Legisla- 

11 



hire and the National Congress, to prevent the desecration of 
either the United States Flag or the State Flag of New York, by 
their use for advertising purposes or any other purpose not con- 
sistent with their dignity as National or State emblems. 

The General Secretary also called attention to the following 
report of the Committee upon the proper wearing of the ribbons 
and the insignia of the Society : 

1. The rosette should be worn in the left lapel of the coat, but 
never in the overcoat. Where members belong to several orders 
or societies having rosettes, choice should be made of one rosette ; 
more than one should never be worn at a given time. It is proper 
to wear rosettes with ordinary house or street dress. No rosette of 
any order or society should ever be worn at the same time with the 
insignia. 

2. Members of the Society may wear the insignia on the left 
breast as prescribed in the Constitution. But it is recommended 
that when the insignia of this Society is used together with the 
insignia of other orders or societies the regulations of the United 
States Government for army officers be understood as applicable to 
civilians also, as follows : "The badges are to be worn on the left 
breast of the coat, the tops of the ribbons forming a horizontal 
line, the outer end of which shall be from two to four inches (ac- 
cording to the height of the wearer) below the upper line of the 
shoulder." It may be added for information, that the Govern- 
ment regulations further provide that "the ribbons be suspended 
from a bar of metal passed through the upper ends, and attached 
to the coat." 

3. Persons who are or have been State officers are entitled 
to wear the insignia suspended from ribbon around the neck, and 
are recommended for the dignity of the Society to so wear it, and 
this ribbon should be used only with a dress suit or dress uniform. 
In the case of a dress suit the insignia should be drawn up to within 
an inch of the tie. In the case of a uniform it should hang close to 
the opening of the military collar. 

4. Persons who are or have been General officers or who hold 
or have held the office of President or Vice-President of a State 
Society, are entitled to wear the broad ribbon across the breast, 
and are recommended for the dignity of the Society to wear it. But 

12 



this ribbon should be used only with a dress suit or dress uniform. 
In the case of a dress suit, it should be worn under the waistcoat ; 
in the case of a uniform, it should be worn over the coat. It is 
recommended that the neck ribbon should not be used at the same 
time with the broad ribbon. When the latter is worn, the insignia 
may be suspended from the left breast, or appended to the broad 
ribbon where the latter crosses the hip. 

5. The prestige and influence of the Society of the Sons of the 
Revolution depend largely upon the loyality of its members. It is 
therefore deemed especially important that every member should 
possess and should use on all suitable occasions the emblems and 
insignia of the Society. It is hoped that members who may not 
have procured insignia as yet will do so as soon as possible. Finally 
it is recommended that on all public patriotic occasions the officers 
and members of our Society shall urge that proper recognition 
be given to the representatives of the Society of the Sons of the 
Revolution. 

Col. William W. Ladd offered the following resolution which 
was adopted: 

Resolved that this Society endorses the action of the General 
Society upon the subject of the proper wearing of the Society rib- 
bons and insignia, and recommends that its members wear them 
in accordance with the action therein proposed, and that the report 
upon this matter be incorporated in the By-Laws of the Society 
for the future guidance of its members. 

Col Libbey called attention to the following motion of Mr. 
Henry Cadle, the Assistant General Treasurer for the amendment 
of Section 8 of the Constitution of the General Society: 

Resolved, that Section VIII of the Constitution of the General 
Society be amended by adding one Vice-President for each State 
Society and adding two more General Chaplains so that the Section 
as amended will read as follows : 

VIII. 

At the regular meeting a General President, General Vice-Presi- 
dent, General Second Vice-President, and one Vice-President for 
each State Society, Secretary, Assistant Secretary, Treasurer, 
Assistant Treasurer, Registrar, Historian and three Chaplains, 
shall be chosen by a majority of the votes present to serve until the 

13 



next regular general meeting or until their successors are duly 
chosen. 

The following resolution offered by Col. Ladd was adopted : 

Resolved that this Society adopt the resolution proposed at the 
last General Meeting of the Society : That Section VIII of the Con- 
stitution of the General Society be amended by adding one Vice- 
President for each State Society, and adding two more General 
Chaplains. 

Mr. Alexander R. Thompson, one of the founders of the So- 
ciety, called attention to two beautiful punch bowls used on the 4th 
of December, 1883 — the Centennial Anniversary of Washington's 
Farewell to his Officers in the "Long Room" of Fraunces Tavern, 
on which occasion the Sons of the Revolution was reorganized — be- 
queathed to the Society by its founder, John Austin Stevens, and 
to two handsome mats for the bowls presented by Mrs. and Miss 
Stevens. 

Mr. Thompson spoke as follows: Mr. President, and Sons of 
the Revolution, I have been asked by our dear friend, Montgomery, 
to call your attention to these beautiful punch bowls, and mats upon 
which they stand, and to give you a bit of their history, how we 
came to have them. The bowls were given to us by the will of 
John Austin Stevens, and the mats are presents from Mrs. and 
Miss Stevens. 

Twenty-eight years ago, on Tuesday, the 4th of December, a 
goodly company of patriotic Americans of Revolutionary descent 
assembled in the Long Room in Fraunces Tavern, to celebrate 
the centennial anniversary of Washington's farewell to his officers. 
It was a memorable evening. These beautiful bowls had been 
made for Mr. Stevens for that occasion. The dinner was good, the 
punch made in accordance with a Revolutionary recipe was de- 
lightful, the speeches were bright, witty and eloquent. To some, in 
the cold, gray dawn of the morning after, came a feeling of wonder 
at the capacity of their ancestors who could drink thirteen toasts of 
that beautiful punch. But, with all the good fellowship and elo- 
quence of that meeting, there was a sub tone of earnestness. The 
host and presiding officer, John Austin Stevens, a courtly gentle- 
man of the old school, a learned historian, an ardent patriot, with 
the fire of his eloquence lit a beacon light of patriotism that burns 
brightly at this place to-day, and I believe will burn brightly here as 
long as the tides ebb and flow in the bay and rivers at our doors. 

14 



For then and there came the reorganization of the Sons of the 
Eevolution; and then and there were built the foundations upon 
wYLch this magnificent institution has been erected. They builded 
well, better than they knew. There were but a score or two present 
on that occasion, a mere handful, and yet look at the result of the 
work they started, not only this great organization, but all others, 
organized in co-operation with it, or in imitation of it. — This insti- 
tution with its magnificient roll of membership, its large property 
interests, maintaining Fraunces Tavern at its own cost, with its 
museum of Revolutionary relics, and this "Long Room" to which 
come thousands and thousands of people every year; erecting that 
beautiful statute of the young hero, Nathan Hale, in our City Hall 
Park, who could say, before he was hung, that his only regret was 
that he had but one life to give for his country — and doing this 
not in a spirit of self-advertising or of self-aggrandizement, but to 
perpetuate the memories and principles of those heroic men who 
won for us and for our descendants and for our beloved country 
the inestimable blessings of civil and religious liberty. Looking 
back over those twenty-eight years there cannot but come to me a 
feeling of sadness. As I scan the faces in this room and in these 
corridors, I see so few, so few of the men who were present in the 
early days, those patriotic comrades of ours, and co-workers, to 
whom we owe so much. But let us put away any such feelings of 
regret, and let me read to you the brave words written by Mr. 
Stevens in 1904, on his 77th birthday : 



Fill high the bowl ! the festal bowl ; 

I toast the wan ins years ; 
When Time has run its measure full, 

The hour's for joy, not tears. 

I care not what the days to come, 
Hold in their closed hands ; 

The joyous pleasures of the past 
Are still at my commands. 



The friends of old have left the shore, 
And crossed the silent stream ; 

Yet their loved spirits linger here. 
And living still they seem. 

Then hang bright wreaths above my door, 
And deck the walls with flowers ; 

With fairies' dance and sirens' song, 
I'll while away the hours, 



While Memory's candle brightly burns. 
What shadows need I. fear? 

I keep the dear past, in my grasp 
Nor waste an idle tear, 



Thus in the classic way of old, 

When Sappho turned the lyre ; 

The parting hour was mirthful made 
With all Love could inspire. 



On what the future has in store 

Of sorrow or of pain. 
The days of yore are with me still ; 

Though they come not again. 

"Pleasaunce," 
Newport, R. I. 



Now fill once more, fill high the bowl ! 

I toast the passing day ; 
I'll drain the foaming goblet dry, 

And toss the glass away. 

JOHN AUSTIN STEVENS. 



15 



Col. Asa Bird Gardiner offered a resolution, M That the thanks of 
this Society be tendered to the family of the late Mr. John Austin 
Stevens for the presentation of these two punch bowls, which are 
received not only with gratitude, but with feelings of love and affec- 
tion for the memory of the donor. ' ' Colonel Gardiner then gave an 
account of his meeting John Austin Stevens at the New York His- 
torical Society, December 18, 1875, when the Sons of the Revolution 
w r as organized. 

The resolution was then amended to include the mats, and 
adopted as amended. 

The President called attention to a letter which had been re- 
ceived from the Commandant of the Naval Station at Annapolis, 
which had been printed for distribution to the members of the So- 
ciety, in reference to the preservation of the flags captured by our 
Navy, mostly in the War of 1812, for which an appropriation has 
been asked of Congress, and stated that the Commandant desires 
members of the patriotic societies to use their influence in Con- 
gress to forward the project. 

Mr. Lyndon P. Smith, of Piermont, N. Y., called attention to the 
Andre Prison at Tappan, and the desirability of taking some steps 
towards its preservation. 

The First Vice-President, Robert Olyphant, read the preamble 
to the Constitution as prescribed, and Dr. Chapin pronounced the 
benediction, after which a recess was taken until 5:15 o'clock. 

On being again called to order the tellers announced that 1115 
votes had been cast, of which 1009 were by proxy and 106 by mem- 
bers present, and that the regular ticket had been unanimously 
elected. 

Since the Annual Meeting Colonel Eugene K. Austin has been 
appointed Assistant Secretary; the Rev. Frank Landon Hum- 
phreys, S. T. D., Assistant Chaplain; Mr. Talbot Olyphant, His- 
torian, and Colonel John B. Holland, Marshal. Various committees 
have also been appointed, a list of which is printed with this report. 



A special meeting of the Society was held at Delmonico's, New 
York, on "Wednesday evening, January 24th, 1912, at 8:30 o'clock, 
when the amendments to the Constitution of which Mr. Frederick 
S. Woodruff gave notice at the Annual Meeting, were adopted as 
follows : 

16 



Section IV, referring to the duties of the Secretary, striking 
out the words, "He shall have charge of all printing and publica- 
tions directed by the Society or by the Board of Managers." 

Section VIII, duties of the Historian, changing the sentence 
"and he shall edit and prepare for publication such historical ad- 
dresses, essays, papers and other documents of an historical char- 
acter other than a register of members as the Secretary may be 
required to publish" to read "as may be authorized." 

Substituting for Section XXI, relating to the Commitee on His- 
torical Documents, the following : 

Section XXI. Committees. The Board of Managers may from 
time to time appoint such standing and special committees as in 
its judgment seems wise and may prescribe their duties and the 
manner of filling vacancies therein. The terms of office of mem- 
bers of such committees shall extend to the next annual meeting 
of the Society and until their successors are appointed. Eligibility 
to membership on such committees shall not be limited to members 
of the Board of Managers, but shall extend to all members of the 
Society. 

Section XXII, referring to Stewards and Marshals, striking 
out the words "who shall have charge of the banquets of the So- 
ciety," and inserting at the end of the Section the words "the 
Stewards shall perform such duties as the Board of Managers may 
from time to time prescribe." 

The Special Meeting then adjourned and the members were 
called to order for the Stated Meeting to celebrate the birthday 
of Frederick Samuel Tallmadge, late President of the Society. 

President Wetmore made a brief address commemorative of 
our former beloved President and benefactor, who, in dying, left 
to the Society a noble gift which was devoted to the restoration of 
Fraunces Tavern, our historic headquarters, and out of respect 
to whose memory we gathered once a year to record our lasting 
and grateful remembrance. 

He then alluded gracefully to Franklin, the French Alliance 
and Lafayette, and introduced the lecturer of the evening, Miss 
Lida Rose McCabe, who addressed the Society on "Madame de 
Lafayette." The lecture was illustrated with stereopticon views 
and presented a most interesting account of the history and per- 

17 



sonality of this remarkable woman, who was referred to as 
"America's forgotten friend." 

A Stated Meeting was held at Delmonico's on Friday evening, 
April 19th, 1912, at 8:45 o'clock, to celebrate the one hundred and 
thirty-seventh Anniversary of the Battle of Lexington. First Vice- 
President Robert Olyphant presided. 

The Chairman made a few remarks as to the importance of the 
event the Societv met to celebrate and also stated that President 
Wetmore was sick and unable to be present. 

William Elliot Griffis, D. D., L. H. D., was then introduced, who 
delivered a lecture on "Washington's Strategy: a Bird's-Eye View 
of the Revolution," which was illustrated with stereopticon views. 

A Stated Meeting was held at Delmonico's on Monday evening 
November 25th, 1912, at 8:45 P. M. to celebrate the one hundred 
and twenty-ninth anniversary of the Evacuation of the City of 
New York by the British troops. First Vice-President Robert 
Olyphant presided. Mr. Edmund Wetmore, General President of 
the Sons of the Revolution, and President of the Society in the 
State of New York delivered an address on "The Birth of the Con- 
stitution." At its close three cheers were given for the President 
and Col Bates moved that the thanks of the Society be extended 
to him for his very interesting and instructive paper and that it be 
printed in pamphlet form and distributed to all the members of 
the Society, the officers of the General Society, and the various 
State Societies. There was a very large attendance of members 
at the meeting. 

The Annual Church Service of the Society commemorative of 
the birth of George Washington was held at the Cathedral of St. 
John the Divine, Cathedral Heights, Amsterdam Avenue and 111th 
Street, New York, on Sunday, February 18th, 1912, at 4 o'clock 
P. M., conducted by the Rt. Rev. David H. Greer, D. D., Bishop of 
the Diocese of New York and Chaplain of the Sons of the Revolu- 
tion, assisted by the Rev. Frank Landon Humphreys, S. T. D., 
Assistant Chaplain, the Rev. George Stuart Baker, D. D., the Rev. 
Pelham St. George Bissell, M. A., A. K. C, the Rev. Albert A. 
Brockway, M.A., the Rev. Howard Duffield, D. D., the Rev. William 
Nichols Dunnell, D. D., the Rev. Floyd Swallow Leach,Ph. D., the 
Rev. William Henry Owen, Jr., B. D., the Rev. Millard Lyman 
Robinson, S. T. B., of the Sons of the Revolution and the Rev. 
Canon Douglas, the Rev. Canon Voorhis and the Rev. Canon Jones 

18 



of the Cathedral Clergy. The sermon was delivered by the Very 
Eev. Dean Grosvenor, D. D., Dean of the Cathedral, and is printed 
in full in this report. 

The Military Society of the War of 1812, furnished a uniformed 
escort. 

The following representatives of Societies were present: So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati : Talbot Olyphant, Hon. Francis K. Pendle- 
ton, Francis B. Hoffman, Edward Wright Tapp and Dr. Thomas 
M. L. Chrystie ; Military Society of the War of 1812 : Beverly Chew, 
Major-General Frederick Dent Grant, Major John Hone, Augustus 
Lord Hyde, Captain Herbert Satterlee, Hon. Nathaniel A. Prentiss, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Nathaniel B. Thurston, and Captain Andrew C. 
Zabriskie; Colonial Wars: Edmund Howard-Martin, Frederick 
Dwight, Herbert T. Wade, Prof. Lea M. Luquer and George E. 
Koues; Daughters of the Revolution, State of New York: Mrs. 
Clarence I. Bleakley, Mrs. Zeb Mayhew, Mrs. Ralph Waldo, Mrs. 
William J. Harding and Mrs. George W. Hodges ; Colonial Dames 
of America : Mrs. T. Matlack Cheesman, Mrs. Ira Davenport, Mrs. 
Arthur T. Sutcliffe, Miss Mary B. Williamson and Miss Clara L. 
Cheesman ; Colonial Dames of the State of New York : Mrs. F. F. 
Thompson, Mrs. William M. Kingsland, Mrs. Robert T. Emmet, 
Mrs. William Robison and Mrs. Hamilton Fairfax; Aztec Club of 
1847 : Dr. William M. Polk, H. Fitz- John Porter, Dr. John W. Bran- 
non, Loyal Farragut and William M. Sweeney; Military Order of 
Foreign Wars : Talbot Root, Captain De Witt Clinton Falls, Cap- 
tain George Perrine and David Banks ; Military Order of the Loyal 
Legion: Major J. Langdon Ward, George DeF. Barton, General 
Gilbert H. McKibbon, Colonel William S. Cogswell and Colonel 
Henry L. Swords. 

The Annual Banquet took place in the large Banquet Hall at 
Delmonico's on February 22nd, 1912, the anniversary of Wash- 
ington's Birthday, and was presided over by Mr. Edmund Wet- 
more, the President of the Society. The following invited guests 
were present: Lieutenant-Commander Benoist d'Azy, Naval At- 
tache to the French Embassy ; the Rt. Rev. David H. Greer, D. D., 
Chaplain of the Society; the Rev. Harry Emerson Fosdick, the 
Rev. John Calvin Goddard, Hon. Job E. Hedges, Dr. John Wilson 
Poucher, Society of the Cincinnati ; George Austin Morrison, Jr., 
St. Andrew's Society; Charles W. Bowring, St. George's Society; 
Oliver Hazard Perry, Society of the War of 1812 ; Hon. Edward 

19 



E. McCall, Friendly Sons of St. Patrick ; Samuel V. Hoffman, New 
York Historical Society; William L. Brower, Holland Society; 
Colonel Eugene K. Austin, Society of Colonial Wars; Amory S. 
Carhart, Military Order of Foreign Wars; Herbert M. Leland, 
Massachusetts Society, Sons of the Revolution. 

The William Floyd Chapter of Troy, N. Y., engaged one of the 
tables and had ten members present. 

Prayer was offered by the Rt. Rev. David H. Greer, D. D., Chap- 
lain of the Society. 

The Banquet Hall was appropriately and tastefully decorated, 
and an orchestra was furnished for the occasion. After coffee had 
been served there was the usual flag procession in the following 
order : Fif er and Drummer in Continental uniform and Stewards ; 
flags and banners of the Society; the cocked hat carried on a 
cushion, and two handsome baskets of flowers from the Colonial 
Dames of the State of New York and the Daughters of the Revolu- 
tion. 

The cocked hat was presented to the President by Mr. William 
W. Hoppin, and was received by Mr. Wetmore who read the fol- 
lowing original poem : 

You may boast of your derbies, your auto-fur caps, 
Your Panama straws, and your shiny silk hats, 
But none can compare, though you search the world o'er, 
With the three-cornered hat that our ancestors wore. 

We 've nowhere its equal in beauty or style, 
(Just think of George Washington wearing a tile !) 
While this, graced the bow that swept down to the floor, 
The elegant hat that our ancestors wore. 

It matched the lace ruffles and black velvet suit, 
It had no brim to hinder the lovers' salute, 
In the rich squire's hall, by the cottager's door, 
Hung this versatile hat that our ancestors wore. 

They carried it jauntily through the quadrille, 
They danced till the daylight and kept it up still, 
Then cocked it on tipsily — hindside before — 
This jolly old hat that our ancestors wore. 

20 



In the hot summer's sun, in the winter's cold damp, 
In the smoke of the battle, the frost of the camp, 
In fight or in foray, it waved at the 'fore, 
This gallant old hat that our ancestors wore. 

Then greet it with reverence, guard it with pride, 
'Tis the symbol of days when brave souls were tried ; 
We hold it in honor and all it stands for, 
The noble old hat that our ancestors wore. 

Mr. Wetmore expressed the thanks of the Society to the Col- 
onial Dames and the Daughters of the Revolution for the flowers, 
and read the following telegram from the Honorable John A. Dix, 
Governor of the State of New York : 

"Sons of the Revolution Banquet, New York: 

"An unexpected situation, connected with public business, 
makes imperative my presence in Albany to-day and to-morrow. I 
profoundly regret that it will be impossible to enjoy the hospitality 
of the Sons of the Revolution, and to join them in doing honor to 
the memory and deeds of George Washington. Patriotism and 
good citizenship require that we should ever keep fresh the inspir- 
ing recollection of the noble sacrifice and unexampled achievements 
of the great General of the Revolution and his compatriots. 

"JOHN A. DIX, 

Governor of the State of New York. ' ' 

All present then rose and drank to the first toast, "The United 
States of America," at the same time singing "The Star Spangled 
Banner." 

The President made the following remarks introductory to the 
speeches of the evening : 

And now, brethren, we approach the serious period of these pro- 
ceedings for some of our guests, for uneasy sits the head that 
carries a speech. But it is a joyous occasion for the rest of us, for, 
in the matter of speech making, it is more blessed to listen than to 
deliver. But in order to aid the delivery as much as I can on this 
occasion, I will, while these gentlemen are saying over to themselves 
their opening lines, break the ice ; that is to say, I will give a help- 
ing hand to what is to come out of their heads, by saying, for just 

21 



a minute or two, whatever comes into my own. And the first thing 
that comes into my own, is this: What are we here fori 

The one desire of the present time is for something new. The 
constant cry is, ' ' Give us something new ! ' ' And yet we come here, 
year after year, to give to ourselves and those wiio will listen to us, 
something old ; to tell, over again, an old story told many times, the 
story of our Revolution, the wondrous story of our country's birth. 
And yet we never tire of it. Why I Not because of its picturesque 
or dramatic incidents, for those are as familiar to us as the pic- 
tures that used to hang on the walls of our boyhood homes, but for 
the inspiration we draw from it, for our own lives and characters 
and conduct in this day and hour. Therefore, w T e no more tire of it 
than we tire of the springs and the cool mountain lakes upon the 
w T aters of which we depend to keep us alive. And the source of that 
inspiration lies in this: That story shows to us what a faithful 
minority may do in a free republic. I say "minority," because 
our Revolution w T as won by those who were faithful to the cause, 
not only when they were part of a large and enthusiastic majority, 
but when, from discouragement, from the weariness of suffering, 
from love of ease, from the longing for peace, that majority fell 
away and they were left without means, without revenue, without 
adequate support, in the darkest hour of the struggle, to alone up- 
hold the fight. 

The instruction that that gives us is this: These men whose 
constancy accomplished the great work of founding this nation, 
were no demigods. They were our ancestors, mortal men, such as 
you and I, and, like ourselves, prone to weakness and error. They 
made many blunders, they often mistook the road and took the 
wrong turning, they yielded to temptation, they sometimes let their 
vanity get the better of their judgment, they intrigued and quar- 
relled over the distribution of offices, and yet they won. Why? 
Because, having chosen what they believed and felt and knew to be 
the right side, they kept on, and sometimes coming splendidly up 
to the mark, and sometimes falling and failing and stumbling and 
getting into holes, and scrambling out as best they could, they 
nevertheless stuck to it. There was one thing they never did do; 
they never lay down and gave up. 

And what they did we can do. We are living in the midst of a 
greater war than the Revolution, the war against ignorance, the 
war for justice to all, not only for the many, but for the few, not 

22 



only for those whose rights it is popular to exaggerate, but for 
those whose rights it takes courage to defend, the war for the pre- 
servation of representative government, which was what our 
fathers fought for, the war to save from, mischievous intermeddling, 
and to perpetuate the Constitution that we have received from our 
fathers. And in that war we will never surrender, and never lay 
down our arms. The power that must prevail in the end is the 
power of public opinion, and to that mighty force each and every 
one of us, by his words, by his actions, by the sincerity of his pa- 
triotism, whether in the shady walks of private life, or in the full 
glare of publicity, according to the powers that God has given him, 
can lend his share. And by our constancy and standing together, 
we can do as much for ourselves and our posterity as our ancestors, 
whom we are here to honor to-night, did for us. 

Therefore, we turn from the contemplation of their deeds, with 
confidence and joy. If I might frame a simile in the eighteenth 
century style, in which they themselves would dress it if they were 
here, I would say that from the flowing spring of memory, we fill 
high the crystal goblet of hope — hope for the future, faith in our 
country, faith in ourselves, and with thankfulness that we have such 
a pledge to offer, such a life to revere, and such an example to fol 
low; I give you the toast peculiarly our own, to the memory of 
George Washington. 

He then introduced the Reverend Harry Emerson Fosdick, who 
responded. 

Following this address the Stewards brought in the Houdon bust 
of Washington presented by the French Republic, escorted by the 
flags of the Society while the company assembled sang "My Coun- 
try 'Tis of Thee" and "The Marsellaise." 

The President introduced Lieutenant-Commander Benoist 
d'Azy, Naval Attache of the French Embassy at Washington, in the 
following words : 

Brethren, last April at Annapolis, we dedicated the monument 
which we had caused to be erected there in memory of the French 
soldiers, who, far away from their own country, and in behalf of 
ours, there laid down their lives at the Seige of Yorktown. In 
graceful recognition of this act, as evidencing our desire to keep 
alive our gratitude for what was done for us by France in our 
Revolution, the French government has sent this fine reproduction 
of Houdon 's bust of Washington, and we have the great happiness 

23 



of having with us now a representative of that government, to 
whom we give our heartiest welcome. I present Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Benoist d'Azy, of the French Navy, and the Naval Attache 
of the French Embassy at "Washington. 

Lieutenant-Commander d'Azy as the representative of France 
made the presentation, speaking as follows : 

Mr. President, Gentlemen: His Excellency, Mr. Jusserand, re- 
grets having been prevented from coming here to-day. An en- 
gagement made prior to the receipt of your invitation has kept him 
away. It is a great honor for me to have been delegated b