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Irrjiitfftnrfll liuifties* 



VOL. XII., PT. I. 



C|^ P^eeting$ of tlje ^rcljitectunil cS'Ocieties 












(Jlfittrnl llresibent : 
Ven. archdeacon TKOLLOPE, Leasingham, Sleafokp. 

dlcneral ^ubitor : 
Rev. H. J. BIGGE, Rockingham. 









Thirtieth Report i. 

The Church of St. James, Louth, and other Churches \dsited 
by the Society on the 26th and 27th of June, 1873. By 
James Fowler, F.E.I.B.A., Architect, Louth. JV/'th 
Illustrations ., ... 2 

The Architectural Remains of Louth Park Abbey. By the 
Venerable Edward Trollope, Archdeacon of Stow, M.A., 
F.S.A. With Illustrations 22 

Louth in the Time of Henry VIII. By Edward Peacock, 

Esq., F.S.A., of Bottesford Manor ..." 26 

Louth Park Abbey. By Rev. Edmimd Venables, M.A., 

Canon Residentiary and Precentor of Lincoln 41 

Sir John Bolle and the Spanish Lady. By the Venerable 
Edward Trollope, M.A., E.S.A., Archdeacon of Stow. 
With Illusfnitini, 56 

Modern Village Churches. By G. (t. Scott, Jan., M.A., 

Architect 65 

Twenty-ninth Report xiv. 

Churches in the Neighbo\irhood of Doncaster. Xotes read 
by the Rev. George Ornsby, on the occasion of a Visit paid 
by the jNIembers of the Society on the 17th of June, 1873, 
to the neigldjourhood of T)oncaster 87 

On Stained Glass in the West Window of St. jNIartin's 
Church, Coney Street, York, set up by Robert Semer, 
Vicar, a.d. 1437 ; commonly called The St. ^Fartin's 
Window. By Rev. (i. IJow(0 With IlhistratioH 95 


Twenty-eighth Report xxiv. 

1 Jells and Belfries. A Paper ri^ad at a Meeting of the 
^U'chitectural Society of the Arclideaconry of North- 
ampton, at CoA^entry, 1873. By G. A. Poole 101 




The Right Hon. R. A. C. N. Hamilton. 

Sir J. H. Thorold, Bart. 

Sir C. H. J. Anderson, Bart. 

Sir Glynne Eakle AVelby Gregory, 

The Eev. Sir C. Macgregor, Bart. 
Sir Edward S. "Walker. 
Sir Gardner "Wilkinson. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of Lincoln. 
The "Venerable the Archdeacon of 

The Right Rev. H. Mackenzie, D.D., 

Bishop -Suffragan of Nottingham. 
The Venerable the Archdeacon of 


The Rev. the Precentor of Lincoln. 
The Rev. the Chancellor of Lincoln 

J. Banks Stanhope, Esq. 
J. Angekstein, Esq. 
H. Chaplin, Esq., M.P. 
C. Turnor, Esq. 
R. MiLWARD, Esq. 
H. Sherbrooke, Esq. 
Rev. Dr. Parkinson. 
Rev. Prebendary Beridge. 
Rev. Prebendary Miles. 
Rev. C. C. Beaty Pownall. 
J. L. Ffytche, Esq., F.S.A. 

Chairman of ffiommtttefs. 

The Venerable the Archdeacon of Stow. 


The President. 

The Patrons. 

The V^ice-Presidents. 

The Rural Deans (being Members). 

The Officers of the Society. 

Rev. Prebendary Nelson. 

Rev. S. W. Andrews. 

Rev. R. A. Cayley. 

Rev. J. M. Dolphin. 

Rev. F. H. Deane. 

Rev. C. Terrot. 

Rev. J. AVhite. 

Eev. J. Wild. 

C. C. Sibthorp, Esq. 

J. Thorpe, Esq. 

C. Kirk, Esq. 

J. Fowler, Esq. 

E. G. "Wake, Esq. 

Captain Lawson Lowe. 

^^.onovarj ^tti'ng Sftrttarp. 
Rev. G. T. Harvey, Lincoln. 

^.onovavg SLoral Serrftaitra. 
Rev. Prebendary Moore, \ 

Rev. Prebendary Maclean, I ^^^. ^j^^ Arrhdeaconry of Lincoln. 
Rev. C. Terrot, ( •' ■' 

Rev. Prebendary Gilbert, ) 

Sir C. H. J. Anderson, Bart., For the Archdeaconry of Stow. 

Chas. Baily, Esq. ") 

~ For the Archdeaconry of Xol.tingham. 

"W. Chapman, Esq., 
S. D. Walker, Esq., 


Colonel Smy'th, Welton, Loutli. 

Mr. DoNC aster. Silver Street, Lincoln. 


Arthur Trollope, Esq. 


Honorary Members. 

His Royal Higlmess the Due d'Aumale, Orleans House, Twickenham 

The Dowager Countess of Westmorland, Portniau Square, London 

Sir C. H. J. Anderson, Bart., Hon. Loc. Sec, Lea Hall, Gainsborough 

Alfred Tennyson, Esq-, Freshwater, Isle of Wight 

Sir Gilbert Scott, 31, Spring Gardens, London 

Rev. G. Aylitfe Poole, Welford, Kugby 

J. L. Pearson, Esq., 22, Harley Street, London 

M. H. Bloxam, Esq., Rugby 

Lz/e Members. 

Beridge, Rev. Prebendary, R D., V.P., Algarkirk, Spalding 

Bridges, Rev. B. G., Blanknej', Sleaford 

Brownlow, The Riglit Hon. Earl, Patron, Belton House, Grantham 

Browne, Rev. J., United University Club, Pall Mall, London 

Cliambers, Rev. W. F., North Kelsey, Brigg 

Chaplin, Henry, Esq.. M.P., V.P., Blankney Hall, Sleaford 

Close, Thomas, Esq , Nottingham 

Cooper, Rev. W., Rippingale, Bourn 

Danbney, W. H., Esq., Grimsby 

Drury, Michael, Esq., Architect, Lincoln 

Ellison, Lieut.-Col., Lincoln 

Forster, S., Esq.,jSouthend, Sydenham 

Ffytche, J. L., Esq.; V.P., F.S.A., Thorpe Hall, Louth 

Gilbert, Rev. Prebendary, Hon. Loc. Sec, Grantham 

Goddard, H., Esq., Architect, Lincoln 

Gregory, Sir G. E. Welby, Bart., V.P., Denton House, Grantham 

Guest, Merthyr, Esq., Brookes' Club, London 

Haigh, G. H., Esq., Grainsby Hall, Grimsby 

Hamilton, The Right Hon. R. A. C. N., F".>., Bloxholm Hall, Sleaford 

Huntsman, Benjamin, Esq., AVest Retford 

Johnson, T. M. S., Esq., Spalding 

Kesteven, The Right Hon. Lord, Patron, Casewick House, Stamford 

Key worth, W. D., Esq., Architect, 54, Savile Street, Hull 

Kirk, Charles, Esq., Architect, Sleaford 

Knapp, Rev. H., Swaton, Folkingham 

Lister, Rev. J. M. 

London, The Right Hon., and Right Rev. the Lord of, D.D., London 

Macgregor, Rev. Sir C, Bart., R.D., V.P., Swallow, Caistor 

Maddison, Rev. Prebendary, Richard's Castle, Herefordshire 

Mason, Rev. J., Silk Willoughby, Sleaford 

Milward, R., Esq.,2r.P., Thurgarton Priory, Southwell 

Nevile, Rev. Prebendary, R.D., Fledborough, Newark 

Newcastle, His Grace the Duke of, Patron, Clumber House, Worksop 

Parry, Thomas, Esq., Sleaford 

Penrose, Rev. .T., Exmouth, Devon 

Portland, His Grace the Duke of. Patron, Wtdbeck Abbey, Notts 

Pownall, Rev. C. C. Beaty, R.D., V.P., Milton-Ernest, Bedford 

Reynardson, Rev. J. Birch, Careby, Stamford 

Rutland, His Grace the Duke of, Patron, Belvoir Castle, Grantham 

Sliarman, W., Esq., Architect, Spalding 

Sherbrooke, H.,.Esq., V.P., Oxton Hall, Southwell 



Sibtliorp, H. W., Esq., 57, Chester Square, London 

Smyth, W. H., Esq., Elkington Thorpe, Louth 

Smj-th, Rev. J. G., Elkington Hall, Louth 

Stanhope, J. Banks, Esq., V.P.,}' Abbey, Horncastle 

Thorold, A. G.,' Esq., Weelsby House, Grimsby 

Thorold, Jliss, Montague House, Southsea 

Thorpe, James, Esq., Beaconfield, Newark 

Trollope, The Ven. Edward, F.S.A., Archdeacon of Stow, V.P., Chair inan of 

Committees, Leasingham, Sleaford 
Trotter, Theodore, Esq., Stone's Place, Skellingthorpe, Lincoln 
Wood, R. A., Esq., Crumpsall, Manchester 
Yarborough, The Right Hon. the Earl of, Patron, Brocklesliy Park, Grimsby 

Ordinary Members. 

Ainslie, Rev. Prebendary, R.D., Great 

Allison, W., Esq., Louth 
Amcotts, Weston Cracroft, Esq., 

Hackthorn Hall, Lincoln 
Andrews, Rev. S. W. Claxbj', Market 

Angerstein, J., Esq., Woodlands, 

Apthorp, Rev. Prebendary, Lincoln 
Armistead, Rev. C. J., United Univer- 
sity Club, London 
Atkinson, F., Esq., Claremont, Higher 

Broughton, Manchester 
Atteuborough, H. A., Esq., Nottingham 
Baily, C, Esq., Hoii.Loc. Sec, Newark 
Barnardiston, Rev. A., JMetheringliam 
Barrett, Rev. Prebendary, Lincoln 
Bashforth, Rev. F., 15, Campbell 

Terrace, Plumstead, Woolwich 
Baswell, Mr. G. A., Newark 
Bateman, Rev. .S., Yarborough, Louth 
Benson, Rev. Chancellor, Lincoln 
Blenkin, Rev. Prebendary, R. D. , Boston 
Blenkin, Rev. F. B., Lincoln 
Booker, AY. H., Esq., Architect, Not- 
Booker, F. R., Esq., Architect, Not- 
Boucherett, H.R., Esq.,NorthWilling- 

ham. Market Rasen 
Bradley ,,W. H., Esq., Marsden Square, 

Branston, Henry, Esq., Newark 
Bristol, The Most Hon. the Marquis of, 
Ickworth Park, Bury St. Edmunds 
Brook, Mrs. W. H., Atherton House, 

Brooke, Rev. W,,Wellingore, Grantham 

B3Ton, Rev. J., R.D., Killingholme, 

Cameron, Rev. G. T., Heckington, 

Cammack, T., Esq., M.D., Spalding 
Cane, Rev. A.G..,Ahmedabad, Bombay 
Carroll, Rev. F., Tallington, Stamford 
Cartwright, S., Esq., Louth 
Caylej', Rev. R. A., Scampton, Lincoln 
Clayton, Nathaniel, Esq., Lincoln 
Clifton, H. R, Esq., CUfton Hall, 

Cole, Rev. R. E. G., Doddington, 

Coles, Rev. H. A., Marnham, Newark 
Collins, Rev. W., Frieston, Boston 
Cordeaux,. J., Esq., CoatesMagna, Ulceby 
Cracroft, Rev. R., Harrington, Spilsby 
Dale, T. G., Esq., Lincoln 
Deane, Rev. F. H., Horsington, Horn- 
Deane, Rev. J. W., Eastcote House, 

Pinner, Middlesex 
Deedes, Rev. G. F., Heydour, Sleaford 
Dixon, Jliss, James Street, Lincoln 
Dolby, Rev. J. G., Howell, Sleaford 
Dodsworth, Rev. J., R.D., Abbey, Bourn 
Dolphin, Rev. J. M., Coddiugton, 

Doncaster, Mr., Silver Street, Lincoln 
Drake, Rev. W. T. T., Great Gad- 

desden, Hemel Hempstead 
Dudding, AY., Esq., Howell, Sleaford 
Elwes, Y. D. Cary, Esq., Brigg 
Emeris, R. AA^., Esq., Louth 
Emly, Rev. F. S., Kirkby Underwood, 

Eve, Mr. J. B., Louth 


Everard, R., Esq., Fiiluey House, 

Fane, W., Esq., Norwood Park, South- 
Falkner, E. S. Esq., Upton Hall, 

Fawcett, Rev. S.G.,Willoughbv, Alford 
Fawsett, F., Esq., M.D., Louth 
Fawssett, W., Esq., Binbrooke, Market 

Field, Rev. T., Bigby, Brigg 
Fisher, Rev. E. C, Stoke Rochford, 

Fowler, Jas., Esq., Architect, Louth 
Fowler, Rev. J., Lincoln 
Fox, T. F. Embleton, Esq., Northorpe 

Hall, Kirton-in-Lindsey 
Gahvay, The Rt. Hon. Viscount, Patron, 

Serlby Hall, Bawtry 
Garfit, Thomas, Esq., Bofston 
Gee, W., Esq., Boston 
Gleed, Rd., Esq., Donington, Spalding 
Goddard, Mr. F., Architect, Lincoln 
Greenwood, Rev. H., Beelsby, C'aistor 
Harvey, Rev. G. T., Hon. Sec, Lincoln 
Hay, Rev. F. D., Rolleston, Newark 
Heath, Rev. Joseph, New Wigtoft, 

Hemmans, Rev. Prebendary, Holbeach 
Herringham, Rev. "VV. W. 
Hine, Mrs. Sleaford, [ham 

Hine, T. C, Esq., Architect, Notting- 
Hodgkinson, Mrs., Cantilupe Chantry, 

Hodgson, Rev. E. F., R.D., Holtonde- 

Beckering, Wragby 
Hoft; Mr., Louth 
Hohlich, Rev. T. P., Linwood, Market 

Holland, Wm., Esq., Market Deei^ing 
Holmes, Rev. J., Swineshead, Spalding 
Hoyle, W. D., Esq. 
Plughes, Rev. A., Rasen Drax, Market 

Humphrey, Rev. W. T., Eastoft, Goole 
Huntley, Rev. J. T., Binbrooke, 

Market Rasen 
Hurrell, S. W., Esq., Burgh 
Hutton, Rev. G. T., Gate Burton, 

Jubb, Rev. H., Dunham - on - Trent, 

Kaye, The Yen. W. F. J., T.P., Arch- 
deacon of Lincoln, Riseholme 
Keightley, Rev. G. W., Dunsby, Bourn 
Kennedy, Rev. L. D., Theddlethorpe, 


Larken, F. R., Esq., Lincoln 
Laurent, Rev. F., Salehy, Alford 
Laxton, Thomas, Esq., Stamford 
Lincoln, The Right Rev. The Lord 

Bishop of 
Lincoln, The Verv Rev. the Dean of 
Lloyd, Rev. H. 'R., Cliffe - at - Hoo, 

Rochester, Kent 
Locock, Captain, Elkington, Louth 
Luard, G. A., Esq., Blyborough Hall, 

Lucas, L. R., Esq., Louth 
Lutt, Rev. E. K., Harniston, Lincoln 
Mackenzie, The Right Rev. H., D.D., 

V.P., Suffragan of Notting- 
ham, the Sub-Deanery, Lincoln 
Maclean, Rev. Prebendary, R.D., Hon. 

Loc. Sec, Caistor 
Marsland, Rev. G., Beckingham, 

Marshall, Rev. W. K., Wragby 
Melville, A. S.L., Esq., The Longhills, 

Miles, Rev. Prebendary, R. D. , Bingham, 

Jliles, Mrs., Firbeck Hall, Rotherham 
Mills, Mr. R. M., Bourn 
Milner, H. B. W., Esq., West Retford 
Mirehouse, Rev. J., Colsterworth, 

Moore, Rev. Prebendary, iZow.Zoc. /Sec, 

Moore, Lieut. -Col., Frampton Hall, 

Mowbray, Rev. J. H. M. de, Caistor 
Mundy,Chas. JVIassingberd, Esq., South 

Ormsby, Alford 
Nelson, Rev. Prebendary, Lincoln 
Nelson, Rev. Prebendary, R.D., Lincoln 
Nesbitt, C. M., Esq., Louth 
Nevile.G., Esq., Stubton Hall, Newark 
Nevile, Rev. H. R., AVickenby, Wragby 
Newmarsh, Rev. C. F., Leverton, 

Ostler, W., Esq., Arnold Field, Grant- 
Padley, Jas. S., Es([ , Lincoln 
Parker, AV., Esq., Hanthorpe House, 

Parker, Rev. John, Newark 
Parkinson, Rev. Dr., Ravendale, Great 

Pavey, Rev. A., Mansfield 
Peacock, Edw. , Esq. , F. S. A. , Bottesford 

Manor, Brigg 
Peake, Henry, Esq., Sleaford 



Pengelley, Rev. W. H., Great Gonerby, 

Pretyman, Piev. Prebendary R.D. , Great 

Carlton, Lonth 
Ranshaw, P., Esq., Loutlr 
Eawnsley, Rev. R.D.B., HaltouHolgate, 

Rayson, Mr. W. A., 16, Street, 

Reynolds, Rev. J. J., R.D., Sonth 

Hykeliam, Lincoln 
Reynolds, Rev. G. W., Crumpsall, 

Rowley, Rev. J. H., Walesb}^ Market 

Rowson, Rev. R.W. , Aylesby, Grimsby 
Royee, Rev. D., Lower Swell, Stow- 

on-tlie- Wolds, Gloucestershire 
Sansom, Rev. J., Adlingfleet, Goole 
Sannders, Rev. J. C. K., Thornton-le- 

Moor, Caistor 
Scarborough, Mr.John,Winteringham, 

Bo ' > at 


Seelv, Chas., Esq., M.P., BrookeHouse, 

Isle of AVight 
Sharp, Rev. J. P., Edenham, Bourn 
Sibthorp, Coningsby Waldo, Esq., Can- 
wick Hall, Lincoln 
Sibthorp, Rev. R. W., 1, Wellington 

Circus, Nottingham 
Smith, H., Esq., Horbling, Folkingham 
Smyth, Col. E„Welton-re- Wold, Louth 
Stacye, Rev. John,Shrewsbury Hospital, 

Stamford, The Very Rev. the Dean of, 

Gretford Rectory, Stamford 
Stuart, Rev. J. F., Kirton-in-Lindsey 
Sutton, J. H. Manners, Esq., Kelhani 

Hall, Newark 
Swan, Rev. C. T., Welton - le - Wold, 

Terrot, Rev. C.,B'oii.Loc.Sec.,\Visinug- 

ton, Horncastle 
Thomas, IMr. W. G., Boston 
Thompson, Rev. R., Skipsea, Hull 
Thorold, Sir J. H., Bart, V.P., Syston 

Park, Grantham 

Thoroton, Rev. C, Ranceby, Sleaford 
Todd, Rev. T., Newton, Folkingham 
Trollope, Arthur, Esq., Lincoln 
Turner, Rev. W. Y. , Bardney, Lincoln 
Turnor, C, Esq., Stoke Hall, Grantham 
Turton, Mr. T. N., Lincoln 
Tunnard, Rev. J., Frampton, Boston 
Tyssen, John A. D., E.sq., 9, Lower 

Rock Gardens, Brighton 
Usher, Rev. H., Saltfleetby St.Clement, 

Yernon, Rev. Prebendary Harcourt, 

R.D., Cotgrave, Nottingham 
Yenables, Rev. Precentor, Lincoln 
Wake, E. G., Esq., M.D., CoUingham, 

Walker, Rev. .J., Averham, Newark 
Walker, S. D., Esq., Derby Road, Not- 
Watkius, Rev. M. G., Barnoldby-le- 

Beck, Grimsby 
AVatkins, Mr. W., Architect, Lincoln 
Waj^ett, Rev. Prebendary, R.D. , Pinch- 
beck, Spalding 
Webb, Rev. J. M., Wold Newton, 

W elb}% Rev. G. E. , Barrowby, Grantham 
Whichcote, Rev. C, Aswarb}'^, Folking- 
White,Rev.J.,Grayingham, Kirton-in- 
White, Rev. F. W., Crowle, Bawtry 
White, Rev. W. S., Potterhan worth, 

Wild, Rev. J., Tetney, Grimsby 
Wilde, Rev. Prebendary, R.D., Louth 
Wilkinson, Rev. C. A., South Wil- 

lingham, Wragby 
Wilkinson, Sir iSardner, F.R.S,, V.P., 

Bryniield House, Gower, Swansea 
Winder, J. S., Esq., 4, New Square, 

Lincoln's Inn, London 
WooUey, Thus. S., Esq., South Col- 

lingham, Newark 
Wordsworth, Rev. Prebendary, Oxford 

A^ew Members. 

Allison, Wm.. Esq., Louth 

Benson, The Rev. E. W., D.D., Chan- 
cellor of Lincoln Cathedral 

Blakesley, The Very Rev. .J. W., Dean 
of Lincoln 

Brooke, Rev. W.,Wellingore, Grantham 
Cartwright, S. Esq., Louth 
Elwes, V. D. Carv, Esq. , Brigg 
Emeris, W. R., Esq., Louth 
Eve, Mr. J. B., Louth 


Fawsett, Fred., Esq., M.D., Loiitli 
Foljambe, Cecil, Esq., OUertoii, Notts 
Hotf, Mr., Louth 
Hiirrell, W. S., Esq., Burgh 
Jarvis, Rev. C. E., Hatton, Wragby 
Locoek, Captain, Elkington, Louth 

Lucas, L. E., Esq., Louth 
ILarshall, Rev. W. K., Wragby 
Nesbitt, C. JL, Esq., Loutli 
Ranshaw, R., Esq., Louth 
AVhite, Rev. F. AV., Crowle 

The Report. 

In their Report for last year your Committee had to present with regret a very 
short roll of new Members of the Society, and to record the loss of some valued 
friends whose names have long been connected with it. Happily this year, 
as will be seen from the foregoing list, a very considerable increase has been 
made in the number of Members of the Society. 

Your Committee have not to report the restoration or enlargement of so 
many Chuiches as usual during the past year : it must not, however, be .sup- 
posed that interest in the great work of Church -restoration is at all flagging in 
this diocese, but it may be safely said, that the activity of former years has 
rescued so many precious specimens of church architecture from ruin and 
decay, that each year leaves fewer and fewer churches needing repair, and less 
and less of the work to be undone with which tlie ill-directed zeal of authori- 
ties of by-gone times had disfigured our churches. 

The restoration of the Choir of Southwell Minster is still being actively 
carried on. The galleries over the choir-aisles liave been removed, the stone- 
work restored, and the floors relaid. Whilst excavating in the choir-aisles the 
woi'kmen discovered traces of ancient foundations, which upon further exami- 
nation proved to be those of the apsidal terminations of the two aisles. 
Through the kindness of the Rev. W. Glaister, Curate of Southwell, your 
Committee have been enabled to give in the present volume anastatic drawings 
of the ground-plans and elevations of the masonry thus discovered. 

The friends of the late Chancellor Massingberd being desirous of erecting 
some memorial of him, summoned a meeting of such persons as were willing 
to co-operate in the movement. A''arious forms of memorial were suggested, 
but it was ultimately determined to oft'er to the Dean and Chapter two painted 
glass windows for the Chapter House of the Cathedral. The artists employed to 
make designs are Messrs. Clayton and Bell, of London. The windows thus 
offered are, it is hoped, only the beginning of a complete series for the 
adornment of the Chapter House illustrating the history of the Cathedral. 

The Annual General Meeting of the Society for the past year was held 
at Louth, on June 26th and 27tli, and the fact that Louth was the birth-place 
of the Society attracted to that meeting a larger number of visitors than usual. 
The Society was instituted in the year 1844, at a small meeting under the 
presidency of the late Prebendary Smyth, whose lamented death occurred but 
a short time before the gatheiing at Loutli. At tliis first meeting the Bishop 
of Lincoln was elected President ; Earl Brownlow and the Duke of Rutlaiul 
Patrons ; and the Hev. Irvin EUer and Mr. James AVilson, Secretaries. From 
this small beginning sprang what is now one of the largest of the Diocesan 
or County Societies of the kind in England. 

The proceedings on June 2Gth, began with IMorning Service in the Parish 
Church, after which Mr. Fowler, of Louth, proceeded to give a very interesting 
lecture on the history and architectural features of the church. Mr. Fowler 
acted as guide to the churches on both day.s. It is to be regretted that more 


time was not allowed for examining the recentl}' excavated gronnd-plan of 
Loutli Park Abbey, whither the party went on leaving the church. Here the 
Archdeacon of Stow delivered an address on the Architecture of the Abbey. 

Louth was reached about half- past five o'clock, and at six about 100 
Members and their friends sat down to dinner in the Corn Exchange. Tlie 
Lord Bishop of the Diocese, as President of the Society, presided, and he 
was supported by the High Sheriff of the County, (Y. D. Cary Pllwes, Esq.,) the 
Mayor of Louth, Sir C. Anderson, J. L. Ffytche, Esq., T. Garfit, Esq., the 
Archdeacon of Stow, and Prebendary Wilde, and after dinner the usual loyal 
and complimentary toasts were dulj^ given and responded to. 

At the Town Hall, at eight o'clock, there was a numerous company 
present, the Lord Bishop occupied the chair. The proceedings were opened 
by the presentation of the following Address from the ]\Iayor and Corporation 
of Louth to the Society : — 

" To the President ami Members of the Lincoln Diocesan Architectural Society. 

"My Lord, Reverend Sirs, and Gentlemen, — We, the Ma3^or, Aldermen, 
and Burgesses of the Borough of Louth, desire to express to j'ou the great 
pleasure which the visit of your learned Society causes not only to those who 
from their study and knowledge of ancient architecture are well able to appreciate 
the assistance given by j'our Society, but also to those who feel, what we trust, 
is a pardonable pride, in possessing a noble Parish Church and the remains of 
an Abbey founded in the twelfth century by your Lordship's predecessor, 
Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln. 

" We believe that your Societ}' was formed in this Borough, and we trust 
that your present visit will not be less interesting than on the first occasion 
when you commenced the great work of studying and restoring works of 
architectural beauty. 

"We trust that the alterations and restorations in St. James's Church, 
effected since your last visit, have met with your approval, and that we may 
henceforth be able honestl}'^ to point to it as one of the finest specimens of 
ancient church architecture in this county, vi-sited by your learned Society. 

"In conclusion, we sincereh' offer our best wishes for the prosperity of 
your Society, and earnestly trust that the result of your labours will be the 
preservation and restoration of ancient buildings with any architectural 
beauty, and the erection of new ones worthy of the county which boasts such 
noble specimens of architecture as Lincoln Cathedral and Thornton Abbej% 

"Given under our Common Seal this 2.5th day of June, in the year of our 
Lord, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-three. 


The Address was read by the Town Clekk, to which the Archdeacon 
of Stow read the following reply from the Committee of the Society : — 

" To the Worshi'pful the Mayor, the Aldermen, and Burgcses of the 
Borovgh of Louth. 

"We, the President and Members of the Lincoln Diocesan Architectural 
Society, receive with much gratification the address you have been good enough 
to presf,nt to us. 

"Cradled, as our Society was, in your town, we gladly revisit it in its 
maturity, and trust through our present visit to add something to the 
elucidation of the ecclesiastical architecture and history of Louth and its 

" We most sincerely congratulate you on the great change for the better, 
that has been effected in vour beautiful Church of St. James's since we were 


last here, which may now in all respects justly claim to be one of the finest in 
the diocese. 

" By the aid of your respected townsman, Mr. Allison, we hope to be able 
presently to describe with accuracy the once still grander Church of Louth 
Park Abbey, as well as the character of its other buildings. 

" Besides the parish churches around Louth we are visiting, in some cases 
to admire, but in others to encourage amendment — the history of two loyal 
and gallant Knights whose fame still sheds lustre upon this district, viz. : — 
Sir Adrian Scrope, of Cockerington, and Sir John Bolle, of Thorpe Hall, will 
not f;iil to attract our attention ; besides we shall advert to the touching and 
poetical story of the Green or Spanish Lady, constantly the subject of an old 
national lay of the sixteenth century, and by means of our temporary museum, 
freely displayed to public view, we hope to offer instruction to the visitors, to 
encourage a taste for Architecture and Art, and to secure the preservation of 
objects of antiquity, which so often serve to elucidate the history of the past. 

"We thank you most cordially for your courteous reception of our 
Society, and beg to assure you of our gratitude for this mark of your respect." 

At the conclusion of this reply the President called upon G. Gilbert 
Scott, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., to read his Paper on Village Churches. The 
paper was listened to with marked attention, and the lecturer resumed his seat 
amid loud cheers. 

An interesting Paper on Louth Park Abbey, was also read by the 
Rev. Precentor Venables. 

The President in bringing the proceedings of the day to a close, con- 
gratulated the Society on the success which had attended their labours and 
researches, and also on so large an audience listening so intelligently to the 
Papers which had been read. The encouragement thus given them made the 
future look as pleasant as the past. He trusted that the work which had been so 
well begun by Mr. Allison, would be continued in the same energetic and liberal 
manner, and hoped that in continuing the excavations at Louth Park Abbey, 
the remains of the departed would be duly regarded. His lordship having 
thanked ilr. Scott for his admirable Paper, referred to the valuable service 
rendered by Mr. Ffytche, in saving a venerable City Church from being 
despoiled and desecrated, he hoped he would still further deserve the gratitude 
of the Society by erecting with the materials thus acquired something of 
interest to all. 

On June 27th, the Members left Louth on their second day's Excursion, 
which embraced the following villages : — Orimoldby, Saltfleetby Saint Peter's, 
Theddletlwrpc All Saints', Saltfleetby All Saints', Salt fleet, Skidbroolcc, South 
Somercotes, Grainthorpe, and Marsh Cliapel, [Hall at Saltfieet\. 

Of the churches visited Grimoldby, The.ddletho7-pc, Saltfleetby All Saints', 
and Grainthorpe, were the most interesting to the architect and antiquary. 

At eight o'clock another Public Meeting was held in the Town-hall, at 
Louth, which was crowded. The Lord Bishop again presided. Very interest- 
ing Papers were read by Edward Peacock, Esq., F.S.A., on Louth in the 
time of Henry the Eighth, and by the Archdeacon of Stow^ on The Green Lady 
of Thorpe Hall. The thanks of the Meeting were then offered to the authors 
of the Papers read at the two Meetings ; and also to Mr. Fowler for the excellent 
arrangements he had made for the reception of the Society, in the office of Hon. 
Secretary to the Local Committee. 

The H igh-Siieriff (V. D. Cary-Elwes, Esq.), then propo-sed a vote of thanks 
to the President, which was seconded by the Mayor (S. Cartwright, Esq.), 
and carried by acclamation. 

The Meeting was brought to a close by His Lordship pronouncing the 

The Archteological Museum, which was open at the Town-hall during the 
Meeting, was a very interesting one. Objects of great interest and value were 

vol. XII., pt. I. h 


lent for the occasion by the Archdeacon of Stow, J. L. Ffytche, Esq., W. R. 
Emeris, Esq., the Mayor, C. M. Nesbitt, Esq., James Fowler, Esq., &c. 

Below are given notices of chiirches which have been restored during the 
past year. 

St. John the Baptist, Temple Bruee. 

Once a grand circular church, built in imitation of that of the Sepulchre 
at Jerusalem, existed at Temple Bruer, for the use of the Templar establish- 
ment, on Lincoln Heath, the site of which is still marked by an Early English 
square tower of three stages, and adjoining this, the foundations and bases of 
its pillars still exist below the soil ; but it is now long since any Church was 
visible on Lincoln Heath, much to the of those dwelling on its soil. 
Feeling this want, Mr. Howard, the occupant of Temple Farm, pleaded with 
Mr. Chaplin, the owner of all the Temple Bruer lands, for its supply, and the 
result is a comely and sufficient little church, built almost entirely at 
Mr. Chaplin's cost, after plans provided by Mr. James Fowler, of Louth. 
Tlas is a simple structure of stone, built in the Early English style, consisting 
of a nave, cliancel, porch, vestrj', and wooden spirelet. At the east end are three 
lancet lights, at the west end two, with corresponding single lights in the 
side walls. 

This church has well been called after the name of the Baptist, through 
the connection of the land around it with the knights of St. John of Jerusalem, 
the successors of the Templars, and from the former desert character of the 
heath, on which it is built, although now so completely cultivated, so well 
supplied with roads, and enclosed, as to have entirely lost its original, wild 

SS. Peter and Paul, Osbournby. 

This church consists of a tower, nave, north and south aisles, south porch, 
and chancel. 

The two lower stages of the tower are Early English, of the first quarter 
of the thirteenth century ; but the rest of the fabric is of an excellent Decor- 
ated character, circa 1320, excepting the chancel arch. The porch is large and 
handsome, having double buttresses, at its outer angles, and a well-moidded 
arch giving access to a good iloorway within of similar character. The internal 
faces of the walls of this porch are adorned with beautiful arcading, having 
ogee-arched heads, and crocheted hood-moulds, terminating in foliated finials. 
The south aisle is lighted by good three-light windows, one differing in design 
from the other two, but the north aisle has been much injured by alter- 
ations, and the debased windows of this aisle contrast but poorly with those 
opposite to them. The chancel is lighted by three two-liglit windows on either 
side, of an excellent character, and by a fine east window, the destroyed 
tracery of which has just been carefully restored. 

Within, the aisle arcades consist of five bays supported by graceful 
clustered and filleted pillar.s. Here is a late Norman octagonal font, richly 
ornamented, with intersecting arcading, &c., and in the chancel are good sedilia 
of the same character as the arcading of the porch, a piscina, and an aumbry. 

This church has for many years been deprived of its original roofs, and 
their remains, cut down and covered with lead, to serve afresh, could hardly 
be seen above the walls of the nave and chancel ; but now we have the pleasure 
of announcing that new high pitched roofs have replaced tliese, much to the 
improvement of this church, although we should have preferred grey slating to 
the red tiling with which they are covered. Within, they are of a good form, 
and permit the restoration of the east window, which had previously been 
cruelly decapitated hj tlie former lowering of the chancel roof. 

The porch has been re-roofed in a similar manner, and its arcading 
repaired. The whole of the old seating, consisting of a series of trumpery 


boxes, has beenjremoved and replaced by open benches, in the construction of 
which, some especially richly carved ends, of the tinae of Henry VII., which 
fortunately were not destroyed in past times, have been replaced. 

The lower portion of the old carved oak Perpendicular chancel screen has 
been restored, and a new pulpit corresponding in design with it, stands on the 
north side. The chancel fittings and the paving of this church are new, but 
unfortunately, the tower arch still remains closed with masonry, as there were 
not sufficient funds to repair the tower, which remains in a critical condition, 
sadly out of repair, and the aisle roofs also require renovation. Sir Thomas 
Whichcote, and members of his family, have chiefly supplied the means for the 
much needed restoration of this church, and Mr. Charles Kirk was the 

Holy Trinity, Eaithby. 

Before this church was restored, its appearance could hardly have been 
more lamentable, to the deep regret of all interested in this parish and the 
condition of its house of prayer. It had a dead, deserted look within and 
without, and yet possessed some features worthj'^ of regard and retention, such 
as a fragment of the Transitional period, some good flat-headed Decorated 
windows in the aisles, and other features, including a tower of the succeeding 
Architectural period. Long had one, now gone to her rest, laboured to 
accomplish the good work, evidently so much needed in connection with this 
church, and she just lived to see it most successfully finished before she 
passed away. The architect employed was Jlr. Scott, son of Sir Gilbert Scott, 
who, judging from his treatment of tliis work alone, may be regarded as a most 
able inheritor of his fathers talents, and a strictlj^ conservative student of those 
principles that should ever guide all architects in their treatment of our old 
parish churches. In this case it was absolutely necessary to pull down the 
nave and chancel ; but in the reconstruction of tliese, the original design was 
again adopted, and every feature that could be preserved was again made 
to do service in the new fabric, such as a single circular Transitional cap, 
portions of the old piers, the aisle windows, and other features. The roofs are 
entirely new, and these are solid and comely, commending themselves to the 
eye by their simple but pleasing lines, and are covered with lead, as before. 
The whole of the fittings are also new and appropriate ; and a very beautiful 
altar-cloth forms a most attractive feature at the east end of the chancel. 

The tower has been left unrestored for the present for want of fun<ls; but 
no doubt this work also will be presently accomplished, as the Salmonby gretn 
sandstone, of which it is built, has, as usual, flaked and mouldered away to a 
great extent, whence it sadly needs reparation. 

SS. Peter amd Paul, Caistor. 

A reredos has been presented to this church by Mrs. Skipworth, the lady 
of the manor. The design is an arcade of Early English character, running 
along the east wall, and returned as far as the side windows of the sanctuary. 
The material is chiefly Ancaster and Mansfield stone. The centre ] irt, or 
reredos proper, projects, and is flanked by two buttresses, between wliich 
stands the holy table. This part consists of tliree niches, which rise consider- 
ably above the rest, and terminates in a pedimented liead. These three niches 
are lined witli dark marble, and relieved by encaustic tiles. There is also a 
shelf of red Devonshire marble beliind the altar. The arcade is supported 
by pillars of stone and marble, and ornamented with encaustic tiles. The 
windows above the reredos have been much ini])roved by the addition of hood- 
mouldings and side-shafts. The work was designed by Mr. Ikitterlield, anil 
executed by Simpson and Malone, of Hull. 


St. John Baptist, Nettleton. 

At the beginning of the present century this church consisted of a nave 
with aisles, chancel, and tower at the west end. The body of the church 
being thought too large, was at that time taken down, and a nave with an apse 
substituted. This has given place to the present building, erected mainly at 
the cost of the Rector. The internal dimensions of the nave are 50 feet by 
22 feet 6 inches ; those of the chancel are 27 feet by 14 feet 11 inches. There 
is a south porch in the westernmost ba}' of the nave. In this part of the 
church there are four windows of two lights on the north side, and three on 
the south ; their tracery is of tlie close of the thirteenth century. The 
open seats are of simple design, but are a little too high. The pulpit stands 
in the south-east angle of the nave ; it is of stone, pierced in front, and orna- 
mented with short marble columns. The middle and cross passages of the nave 
are paved with tiles of varied colours. The font is entirely new ; this is of 
fair design, but so placed as partially to obstruct the entrance, and yet to leave 
insufficient room for the officiating minister ; the proper place for it would be 
under the tower arch. The roofs throughout are of a good pitch. The chancel 
is separated from the nave by a lofty arch. There is one step here, another at 
the end of the stalls, and a third at the sanctuary railing. There are two 
stalls, with sub-seats for the choir ; these are of oak, substantial, and good. 
The holy table is of good design, but not of oak. In the east wall there is 
a window of three lights, having tracery consisting of circles ornamented 
with cusps ; it has a hood-mouhling and a string-course below, which is 
returned against the north wall as far as the credence niche. In the south 
wall there are two windows similar to those in the nave. On the north 
side is a vestry, which serves also for an organ-chamber. The floor is paved 
with Minton's tiles, those within the sanctuary being of richer character. 
The windows throughout have weather mouldings externally, and the walls 
are supported bj^ buttresses. The old tower has received no reparation 
externally. Internally the tower arch has been opened and repaired, the floor 
paved with Yorkshire stone, the bells have been re-hung on substantial oak 
frames, and beneath these the bell-chamber floor has been renewed. The 
tympanum of the old doorway in the west wall has been repaired. The 
architect is Mr. Fowler, of Louth. 

North Kelsey. 

In a distant part of this parish, and not far from the railway station, the 
Vicar has erected a chapel school, and residence for a mistress.. This building 
consi.sts of a nave, used as a school, 36 feet by 18 feet, with a small vestry and 
offices on the north side, and a chancel, 18 feet by 13 feet 6 inches, at the east 
end ; a residence for a schoolmistress being-placed at the west end of the school. 
The style is Gothic, the walls are of red brick with black bands, the window 
sills of Ancaster stone, and the labels and string-courses of moulded bricks. 
The chancel is divided from the nave by a triple arch of coloured bricks, 
supported on stone pillars with carved capitals, folding shutters being 
provided for closing the chancel when not required for service. The east 
wall is decorated \\-ith stencilling ; a brick cross, projecting from the wall, 
forming an eff"ective reredos. The roofs of the nave and chancel are 
separated by a bell-turret, and boarded inside with arched principals at 
intervals, the covering being corrugated tiles. The cost of the whole was 
£500. This building was designed by Mr. H. M. Townsend, an architect of 
great promise, at Peterborough. 

All Saints, South Elkington. 

After being closed for some mouths, during which iJeriod important 
alterations have been made, the Church of All Saints, South Elkington, was 


re-opened on June 20th. This is the second restoration this church has passed 
through within about thirty years. In 1843 the nave was re-built by the 
patron of the living, the late Eev. W. Smyth, at an expense of about £1, 400, and 
now an additional sum of about £1,200 has been expended in further enlarging 
and improving the sacred edifice. The chancel has been entirely re-built on 
an enlarged scale, and a north aisle has been added to the nave to correspond 
with the south aisle, which existed previously. A recess for the organ, and 
a vestry has also been formed by continuing the north aisle along the chancel 
to nearly its eastern extremity. A considerable increase of accommodation 
has thus been secured, and at the same time the appearance of the interior has 
been considerably enriched and beautified. The very graceful arches on the 
north side of the Ucive spring from massive circular columns M'ith beautifully 
carved capitals, and other portions of the new work are materially enriched by 
stone carving. The east window, a very handsome one, has been filled with 
stained glass, and two smaller ones on the south side of the chancel have lieen 
similarly treated. The most westernly window of the north aisle is a beautiful 
painted memorial one. These alterations have been carried out under the 
direction of Mr. Jas. Fowler, architect, Louth, by Mr. Maxey, builder, Louth, 
and on everj^ hand the resiilt is pronounced to be an exceedingly satisfactory 

St. Lawiience, Bardney. 

The church throughout is of Eectilinear character, dating probablj^ about 
1420. Some fragmentary portions of the older church — of Norman work — are 
built into the walls of the tower ; there is, however, nothing structural in the 
church of tliis date. The tower is of somewhat later date than the body of the 
church, and the chancel still later, and is built almost entirely of brick. It 
is very spacious, being 39ft. long and 22ft. wide. The chancel restoration 
■\vas undertaken by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and was re-opened by the 
Bishop of Lincoln on the 11th October, 1873. The old oak roof, with figures 
of angels on the flying buttresses, was found to be in pretty good order, and 
has been well restored. The stone altar -slab, with seven crosses, found 
buried in the floor, has been raised and replaced in its original position on an 
oaken pedestal. The chancel floor and sacrarium are laicl with Jlinton tiles, 
the work being very badly fini.shed. The stalls are of varnished deal, very 
poor and meagre in design. The noble chancel arch, much defaced, has been 
cleared of colour-wash, and the fine proportions of the arch well developed : 
this was completed at the cost of the parish. The restoration of the nave and 
tower remains to be carried out, both requiring much to be done. The esti- 
mated cost is £2,000. Great eflbrts are now being made to raise this sum, but 
the parish being very poor, much extraneous help will be needed to carry out 
the work. 





His Grace the Archbishop of York. 
The Lord Bishop of Ripon. 

'Right Hon the 




♦Right Hon. the Marquis of Ktpon. 
*Right Hon. the Earl of Effinghaji 
*Eight Hon. the Earl OF Mexborough 
Right Hon. the Earl of Scarborough 
Right Hon. Lord Fkversiiam. 
Right Hon. Lord Wharncliffe. 
*Right Hon. Lord Hotham, M.P. 
Right Hon. Lord Houghtox. 
*Hon. & Very Rev. the Dean of York. 
*Hon. and Rev. P. Yorke Saville. 

Hon. and Rev. J. W. Lascf.lles. 


*PIon. Payan Dawnay. 
•The Ven. Archdeacon 
*The Ven. Archdeacon Long. 
The Ven. Archdeacon Cuurton. 
*The Ven. Archdeacon Creyke. 
•Godfrey Wentworth, Esq. 
H. W. F. BoLCKow, Esq., M.P. 


The Patrons. 
The Presidents. 
The Vice-Presidents. 
The Rural Deans. 
Atkinson, J. B., Esq. 
Balme, E. B. Wiieatley, Esq. 
•Davis, R., E.sq. 
Foljambe, T., Esq. 
Guest, Rev. Geo. 
Haworth, Rev. W. 
Johnson, Rev. Canon. 
Jones, Ven. Archdeacon. 

Jones, G. Fowler, Esq. 
Legard, Rev. F. Digby. 
LuKis, Rev. W. C. 
LuNN, Rev. J. R. 
MiLDMAY, Rev. C. A. St. John. 
Ornsby, Rev. G. 
Palmer, Rev. H. V. 
Palmes, Rev. James. 
Philips, Rev. G. H. 
Raine, Rev. Canon. 
Randolph, Rev. Canon. 
WlGIITMAN, Rev. W. A. 


Rev. W. Haworth. 

f^onorarg Secretaries. 

For York : 
Rev. George Row^e. 

For Ripon : 
Rev. W. C. LuKis. 

For Do')icaster : 

Rev. G. H. Philips. 

For Leeds : 

Rev. John Gott. 

For Sheffield: 

Joseph Fawcett, Esq. 


Rev. W. a. Wightman. 
Rev. Robert Corbet Singleton. 

Rev. J. E. Eadon. | Rev. Geo. Guest. | J. S. Dominy, Esq. 



Honorary Members. 

Anderson, Sir Cliarles, Bart., Lea, 

Bloxam, M. H., Esq., Rugby 
Hugall, J. W., Esq., Cheltenham 
Markland, ,T. H., Esq., D.C.L., Bath 
Poole, Rev. G. A., Welford, Northants 
Papworth, W., Esq., Great Marl- 

borough-stveet, London 
Pearson, J. L., Esq., 22, Harley-street, 


Pluinptre, Rev. F. C, D.D., Master 

of University College, Oxon 
Scott, G. G., E.sq., 20, Spring Gardens, 

London, S.W. 
Thorp, Ven. Archdeacon, Kemerton, 

Trollope, Ven. Archdeacon, Leasing- 

harn, Sleaford, Lincolnshire 
Willenient, T. Esq., Green-street, 

Grosvenor-square, London 

Life Members. 

Armitage, R., Esq., Ferray Lodge, 

Bayldon, J., Esq., Horbmy, Wakefield 
Birbeck, J., Jun., Esq., Settle 
Bower, A., Esq., Ripon 
Brereton, C, Esq., Beverley 
Brook, William, Esq., Healey House, 

Hudders field 
Brooke, Charles, Esq. , Jun. , Meltham, 

Cassells, Rev. A., Batley, Dewsbury 
Chambers, Rev. J. E., Rose-street, 

Soho, London 
Chantrell, R. D., Esq., 21, Lincoln's 

Inn Fields, London 
Chapman, Thomas, Esq., 25, Bryan- 

stone-stjuare, London 
Charlesworth, S. C. D., Esq., Hatfield 

Hall, Wakefield 
Creyke, Ven. Archdeacon, Bolton Percy, 

Davies, Robert, Esq., York 

Dodsworth, George, Esq., York 
Duncombe, Hon. Octavius, Caven- 
dish-square, London 
Effingham, Right Hon. the Earl of, 

The Grange, Rotherham 
Ellis, Rev. R. N., Grimston, Malton 
Evans, Rev. J. H., Sedbergh 
Geldart, J. C, Esq., Trinity Hall, 

Hailstone, E., Esq., Horton Hall, 


Hall, R., Esq., Dean's Yard, West- 

Harris, H., Esq., Heaton Hall, Brad- 

Heald, Rev. W. M., Birstall, Leeds 

Jarratt, Uev. Canon, North Cave, 

Lawley, Hon. and Rev. Stephen W., 

Lewthwaite, Rev. George, Adel, Leeds 

Mason, Rev. J., Silk Willoughby, 

Maude, W. M., Esq., Knowsthorpe, 

Miller, Rev. M. H. 

Piatt, Rev. G., Sedbergh 

Reed, Kev. W., Caermarthen 

Rudd, J. B., Esq., Tollesby Hall, 

Russell, Lady Frankland, Thirkleby 
Park, Thirsk 

Saville, Hon. and Rev. Philip Yorke, 
Methley, Wakefield 

Sharpe, E., Esq., M.A., Lancaster 

Stillingfleet, Rev. E. W., Hotham, 

Tempest, Colonel, Tong Hall, Bradford 

Tennant, J. M., Esq., Leeds 

Walker, Rev. J., Malton 

Wentworth, Godfrey, Esq., Wooley 
Park, Wakefield 

Wilson, John, Esq., Seacroft, Leeds 

Wylie, R., Esq., Beverley 

York, Hon. and Very Rev. the Dean of. 
Deanery, York 



Ordinary Members. 

Akenhead, Rev. D.,Gate Helrasley, York 
Aldam, W. , Esq. , Frickley Hall, Don- 
Atkinson, J. B., Esq., The Mount, 

Raillie, Hon. and Rev. Canon, R. D., 

Elsdon Rectory, Nortlmmberland, 
Balme, E. B. AVlieatley, Esq., Cote Wall, 

Barnes, Edward, Esq., Sewerby Cres- 
cent, Burlington Quay 
Barnett, Rev. J. L., Boston Spa, 

Bartlett, Rev. F., St. Mary's, York. 

Bayly, Rev. Thos. , Weaverthorpe, York 
Bayly, Rev. F. T., Brookthorpe, 

Bell, W. H., E.sq., York 
Beresford, Rev. J. G., The Rectory, 

Redale. 1867 
Blanshard, Rev. H. D., Middleton-on- 

the- Wolds, Beverley 
Bland, Rev. E. D., Kippax, Leeds 
Boddy, W. J., Esq.,Holgate-lane, York 
Bolckow, H. W. F., Esq., M.P., 

Middlesboro'. 1869 
Bourne, W. A., Esq., Thirsk. 1871 
Boyd, Rev. W., Arnclitfe Rectory, 

Bradley, Mr. , Precentor's Court, York. 

Brewster, John, Esq., West Lawn, 

Middlesboro'. 1867 
Buckle, A., Esq., Blind School, York. 

Bulmer, Mr. J. B., Low Ousegate, 

York. 1867 
Burrell, Rev. Richard, Stanley Par- 
sonage, Wakefield 
Cautley, Rev. E. H., Kildale, Yarm. 

Chaloner, Admiral, Longhull,Guisboro' 

Chnrton, Ven. Archdeacon, Crayke, 

Cochrane, H., Esq., The Longlands, 

.Middlesboro.' 1872 
Crawhall, Rev. S. J., Nun Monkton, 

-York. 1873 
Croft, Rev. Canon, Hutton Buscel, 

Cussons, T., Esq., Beverley 

VOL. XII., PT. I. 

Daniel, Rev. R., Abp. Holgate's School, 

Darley, Mrs., St. Leonard's Place, 

York. 1871 
Darwen, Francis, Esq., Creskeld Hall, 

Dent, Rev. J. J. D., Hunsingore, 

Dimock, Rev. J. F., Baruburgh, Don- 
Doniiny, J. S., Esq., School of Design, 

York. 1871 
Eadon, Rev. J. E., Clifton, York 
Evers, Rev. Edwin, Newlands, Hull. 

Fallows, W., Esq., Southfield Villas, 

Middlesboro'. 1867 
Fevershani, Rt. Hon. Lord, Duncombe 

Park, Helmsley 
Flowers, Rev. Octavius, Vicarage,Sheriff 

Hutton, York 
Foljambe, T., Esq., Acomb, York 
Fowler, C. H., Esq., North Bailey, 

Durham. 1872 
Foster, L., Esq., Ogleforth, York. 

Garrett, Rev. T. W., Crake Hall, 

Bedale. 1867 
Geldart, Rev. J. W., LL.D., Kirk 

Deighton, Wetherby 
Geldart, Rev. J. W., Junr., LL.D., Kirk 

Deighton, Wetherby 
Gott, Rev. John, Leeds. 1868 
Gray, W., Esq., Gray's Court, York 
Greenhow, Rev. Edw., jun., Newton- 

on-Ouse, York 
Guest, Rev. G. W., Holgate Terrace, 

Guilding, Rev. J. M., Sowerby, Thirsk 
Hargrove, A. E., Esq., Heworth, York. 

Hargrove, W. W., Esq., St. Mary's, 

York. 1867 
Haworth, Rev. W., York. 1870 
Hey, Venble. Archdeacon, York 
Holmes, Rev. Geo. G., Vicarage, Holme, 

Holmes, Rev. Wm.R., Birkby Rectory, 

Northallerton. 1869 
Hornby, Rev. R. W. B., D.D., Clifton, 

York. 1872 
Houghton, Right Hon. Lord, Frystone 

Hall, Yorkshire 



Howard, Hon. and Rev. AV., Winston 

Rectory, Rotlierliiim 
Husband, W. B., Esq., York. 1872 
Inge, Kev. W., Crayke, Easingwold 
Jackson, Rev. Robt. D., Kilburn, 

York. 1869 
Johnson, Eev. Canon, Felixkirk, 

York. 1870 
Jones, G. Fowler, Esq., York 
Jones, Yen. Archdeacon, Bishopthorpe, 

King, AV.R., Esq., York Parade, Bever- 
ley Road, Hull 
Knowles, Mv. J. W., Stonegate, York 
Lascelles, Hon. and Rev. J. W., Golds- 
borough, Knaresborough 
Legard, Rev. F. Digby, Stokesley, 

Northallerton, York 
Londe-sborough, Right Hon. Lord, 

Londesborough Lodge, Brougli 
Long, Ven. Archdeacon, Setterington, 

Lowther, James, Esq., M. P., Bawtry 

Hall, Retford. 1867 
Lowrie, W. L., Esq., The Castle, 

York. 1868. 
Liikis, Rev. W. C. , AVath Rectory, Ripon 
Lunu, Pev. J. P., Marton, Ouseburn 
Marriott, Rev. W., Vicarage, Aid- 
borough, Yorkshire 
Mawdesley, F. L., Esq., Fulford, 

York. 1871 
Mildmay, Rev. C. A. St. John 
Mills, F. C, Esq., Bootham, York. 1874 
Monk, E. G., Esq., Mus. Doc, York 
Munby, Joseph, Esq., Clifton, York 
Needham, F., Esq., Bootham, York. 

Nelson, W. W., Esq., 11, Cardigan 

Place, Burley, Leeds 
Newenham, Rev. B. Burdett, Bilton, 

York. 1869. 
Nevvstead, Chas. T., Esq., Coney Street, 

Newman, Rev. J., Worsbro', Barnsley 
Newton, Rev. H., Hornsea, Yorkshire, 

Noble, T. S., Esq., Precentor 's-court, 

York. 1868 
Norcliflfe, Rev. C. Best, Langton Hall, 

North, S. W., Esq., Castlegate, York 
Ornsby, Rev. G., Fishlake Vicarage, 

Paley, W., Esq., M.D., Ripon 
Palmer, Rev. H.V., St. Margaret's, York 
Palmes, Rev. James, Escrick, York 

Peach, Rev. C. Cleaver, Appleton-le- 

Street, Malton 
Pearson, John, Esq., Bootham Terrace, 

Philips, Rev. G. H., Brodsworth, Don- 
Pierson, Rev. W. F., Settle 
Paine, Rev. Canon, The Crescent, York 
Randolph, Rev. Canon, Dunnington, 

York, Rural Dean 
Raven, Rev. T. M., Crake HaU, Be- 

dale. 1867 
Ripon, The Lord Bishop of. The Palace, 

Ripon, The IVIost Hon. the Marquis of, 

Studley Royal, Ripon 
Robinson, Pev. J., Clifton, York 
Robinson, Wm., Esq., Settle 
Robinson, Edw., Esq., Bootham, York. 

Ross, John, Esq., Feethams, Darlington 
Rowe, Rev. George, Training College, 

Sale, Rev. C. M., Kirby-hill Vicarage, 

Salmon, Rev. Gordon, Sliipton, York 
Scarborough, Pight Hon. the Earl of, 

Tickhill Castle, Rotherham 
Simmons, Rev. T., Dalton Holme, 

Singleton, Rev. Robert Corbet, York 
Sharp, Eev. J., Horbur}'', Wakefield 
Sidgwick, Robt., Esq., Skipton 
Spencer, Rev. Isaac, Acomb, York 
Tinkler, Rev. John, Arkengarthdale, 

Richmond. 1869 
Valentine, Rev. W., Whixley, York 
Yarley, John, Esq., Burnsall, Skipton 
Vernon, Rev. W. T., Kirk Ella, Hull 
Watkins, Rev. F., Marston, York 
Wharncliffe, Right Hon. Lord,Wortley 

Hall, Sheffield 
Wharton, Rev. Jas. C, Rectory, Gilling, 

Wightman, Rev. W. A., St.Mary's, York 
Wilkinson, Joseph, Esq., Bootham 

Terrace, York 
Whytehead, H. G., Esq., M.D., Red 

House, Wyton, Hull 
Woodd, Basil, Esq., Conyngham Hall, 

Woodford, Rev. A. F. A., Swillington, 

Wright, John, Esq., Bootham, York. 

Yeoman, Rev. H., Richmond, York 
York, His Grace the Archbishop of, 

Palace, Bishopthorpe 


The Report. 

At the close of another year, it becomes the duty of the Committee again to 
present its customary Report to the Subscribers. 

The Society has suffered many losses since the last Report was made, by 
the decease and withdrawal of Members, but still the finances shew a good 
balance in its favour. 

The illustration of the stained glass contained in the Minstrr proceeds 
but slowty, both on account of the difficulty of getting it drawn, and also of 
the expense of publishing. Your Committee authorized the publication this 
year of a Chromo-lithographic facsimile of an old piece of probably Norman 
glass, now in the Five Sisters' Window. But though it and the accompanying 
letterpress have been ready for some time, the Committee regret that it has 
not yet been presented to the Members. Thanks are due to Mr. Knowles, for 
the kind manner in which he placed his excellent drawing at the service of 
the Committee, which has considerably reduced the expense. This plate will 
be followed by others, from time to time, until there are sufficient for a volume. 

The Committee have also arranged with Mr. Walters, for a supply of his 
new work On Sepulchral Crosses in York nnd its Xcighbourhood . The book 
was to have been published during the year : it is now nearly ready, and when 
received, a copy will be sent to each Member. 

A grant of £10 was made to the Eev. J. R. Morton, of Huntington, to 
enable him to retain, in the restoration of his church, a north-eastern chapel, 
of which the remains were found on taking oft" the plaster from the chancel 
wall. The efi"ect of this has been greatly to enhance the apparent size of the 
edifice, and to secure greater variety of outline. It is to be partly used as an 

On June 17th, the Summer Excursion of the Society was made to visit 
some churches in the neighbourhood of Doncaster, — Arksey, Kirk Sandall, 
Barnby Don, and Fishlake. At the latter place, the Rev. G. Ornsby, who 
undertook the guidance of the company, most kindlj' entertained them. They 
afterwards proceeded to Hatfield, and then to Don.iaster, where they inspected 
the Parish Cliurch. As Mr. Ornsby will print his Paper on the churches 
visited in the forthcoming volume, it is not necessary to refer to them further 
in this place. 



For the, Year ending December, 1873. 


£ .a. d. £ s. d. 
Balance in Bank, 

Jan., 1873 169 10 5 

Treasurer's hands 13 

169 11 8 

Annual Subscriptions : — 

Arrears 25 10 

For 1873 53 3 4 

78 13 4 

Sale of Reports 12 6 

Interest 2 10 

£251 17 6 

26th January, 1874. 



Rent and Attendant 6 

Late Mr. Sunter's Account 

for Printing & Stationery 1 
Pickering's Account for do. 2 
Williamson, PrintingKeport 24 
Stead & Monkhouse, Litho- 
graphing Stained Glass... 19 15 
Secretary's Account : — 

Excursion £1 16 8 

Books, Postage, &c 3 13 1 







Treasurer's Account : — 
Collector's Pound- 
age 1 18 6 

Postage, &c 10 10 

5 9 9 

2 9 4 

Balance in Bank, 

Jan. 1st, '74. ..189 19 11 
In Treasurer's 

hands 18 

187 7 11 

£251 17 6 

Examined and found correct, 




Archaeological Society's Journal. Vols. 
I. — IV. ; X. ; XIII. ; xv. 

ArchsBological Institute, Proceedings 
of. 1845. Winchester. 

Architectural Publication Society : 
" Detached}'s. " 

Architectural Publication Society : 
"Dictionary." Vols, i., ii. 

Associated Architectural Societies Ke- 
ports and Papers. Vols, i., ii. 

Atthill. Collegiate Church of Middle- 
ham, Wensleydale. 

Bedfordshire, Ecclesiastical and Arch- 
aeological Topography of. 

Berkshire, ditto. 

Blackburn (E. L.). Decorative Paint- 
ing. FoL 1847. 

Blackburn. Decorative Painting. 4to. 

Boutell (C). Monumental Brasses. 
Roy. 8vo. 1847. 

Boutell. Examples of ditto. Koy. 
8vo. 1854. 

Brandon. Gothic Architecture. 2 vols., 
4to. 1847. 

Brandon. Open Timber Eoofs of Middle 
Ages. 4to. 1849. 

Brandon. English Parish Churches. 
8vo. 1848. 

Brasses, Monumental. Parts i. — x. 
(Parker.) 4to. 

Ditto. Parts ii. — iv. 

Brevis Notitia Monasterii B. V. M. 
Eboracensis, Sac. Ord. Cister. in 
Fraconia. 4to. 1739. 

Britton. Stonehenge. 8vo. 

Browne. York ]\Iinster. 2 vols. 4to. 

Buckingham.shire, Eccles. and Archaeol. 
Topography of. 

Buckler. Abbey Church of St. Albans. 
8vo. 1847. 

Builder, The. 1856. 

Bury. Wood-carving, Examples of. 

Cambridge Camden Society's Transac- 
tions. 4to. 1843—5. 

Cambridgeshire, Eccles. and Archaeol. 
Topography of. 

Carlyon. Gothic Nomenclature. 4to. 

Cave. Antiquities of York. 

Christian (E.). Account of Skelton 
Church, York. 

Christian Memorials. Fol. (Worce.ster 
Arcli. Soc.) 

Church Plate, Ancient. 1^1. (Parker). 

Collie. Gla.sgo\v Cathedral, Hist. Acct. 
of. Fol. 

Colling (J. K.). Art Foliage. Eoy. 4to. 

CottageBuilding,Noteson. Svo.pamph- 
let. (Northamp. Arch. Soc.) 

Cottingham. Henry the Seventh's 
Chapel, Westminster. Fol. 

Cottingham. Museum of Mediaeval 
Art, Catalogue of. 2 copies. 

Derick. Gotliic Church Details. 

Designs for Churches and Chapels. 
Part I. Fol. (Parker.) 1844. 

Dolman. Ancient Pulpits. 4to. 1842. 

Domestic Arcliitecture in England, 
temp. Kd. I.— Edw. II. 8vo. 1853. 

Dorchester Church, Oxford, Memoir 
of. 8vo. 1845 (Parker.) 

Ecclesiologist, The. Parts i. ; vii. -xiii. 

Essex Architectural Society, Proceed- 
ings of. Vol. I., Part. i. 

Exeter Dioc. Arch. Soc, Transactions 
of. Vols. I.— VII. 1842—64. 

Reports of ditto. 4to. 1842,3,5. 

Faweett (J. ). York City Churches.lFol. 

Ferguson (James). History of Archi- 
tecture, Vol. I. 8vo. 1865. 

Fowler. Etchings of Stained Glass, 
&c., at Selby Abbey Church 

Freeman (E. A.). Hist, of Architec- 
ture. 8vo. 1849. 

Freeman (E. A.). Essay on Window 
Tracery. 8vo. 1851. 

Freeman (F.). Remarks on Llandaff 
Cathedral. 8vo. 1850. - Painting, Hints on, by an 
Amateur. 2 vols. 8vo. 1847. 

Glossary of Architecture. 3 vols. 8vo. 

Gruner. Terra Cotta Architecture of 
North Italy. 

Halfi)enny. Fragmenta Vetusta 



Haseley, Great, Memoir of Church of, 

Herahhy, Glossary of. 8vo. 1847. 

Jameson. History of our Lord. 2 vols. 

Jameson. History of Sacred and 
Legendary Art. 2 vols. 

Jones & Freeman. History and An- 
tiquities of St. David's Cathedral. 
Parts I.— IV. 4to. 1852. 

Kelke. Church-yard Manual. 12mo. 

Kirkstead, St. Leonard's Church, Lin- 
colnshire,!Description of. Fol. 

Knaresboro' Church, Account of. 

Liverpool Archit.and Archreol. Society, 
Proceedings of. 1852. 

Lubke. Ecclesiastical Art in Ger- 
many. 8vo. 1870. 

Man, Isle of, Orkneys, &c., Ecclesias- 
tical Notes on. 

Minton. Examples of Old English 
Encaustic Tiles. 4to. 

Northamptonshire, Churches of. 8vo. 

Northamptonshire, Eccls.' and Archa-ol. 
Topography of. Parts i.— v. 8vo. 

Oxford, Architectural Guide to neigh- 
bourhood of. (Parker.) 

Oxfordshire, Eccles. and Archseol. 
Topography of. 

Paley. Baptismal Fonts. 8vo. 1844. 

Paley. Gothic Mouldings. 8vo. 
2 copies. 

Papworth. Museums, Libraries, and 
Picture Galleries. 

Petit. Architectural Character. Fol. 

Petit. Architectural Studies in France. 
Roy. 8vo. 

Petit. Principles of Gothic Architec- 
ture. 2 vols. 

Poole & Hugall. Deanery of Don- 
caster, MS. Notes on. 4to. 

Pooley. Old Crosses of Gloucester- 
shire. 4to. 

Prickett. Historical and Archfeological 
Description of Priory Church of 

Purdie. Mural Decoration. Fol. 

Pugin (A. W.). Glossary of Ecclesias- 
tical Ornament and Costume. Roy. 
4to. 1846. 

Richmondshire, Guide to. 

Rickman. Styles of Architecture in 
England. 8vo. 1848. 

Robinson. Priory and Peculiar of 

Ruskin, Lectures on Architecture and 

Ruskin. Seven Lamps of Architecture. 
Roy. 8vo. 

Scarborough, Filey, &c., Account of 
Churches of. 12mo. 

Scotland, Arch. Institute of. Transac- 
tions. Vols. I. — III. 

Scott, (G. G.). Plea for Faithful Restora- 
tion of Churches. 8vo. 1850. 

Scott (G. G.). Gleanings from West- 
minster Abbey. 3vo. 1863. 

Sharp (Archbishop). Coronation Ser- 
mon ^Q. Anne). 

Sharp (R. H.). Papers on Churches of 
Bolton-Percy and St. Peter's, Barton- 
on-Humber. 4to. 

Sharpe (E.). Architectural Parallels. 
2 vols, and Supplement. Royal Fol. 

Sharpe (E. ). Decorated AVindow Tra- 
cery. 1849. 

Sharpe (E.). Seven Periods of Archi- 
tecture. 8vo. 1851. 

Shaw (Henry.) Dresses and Decora- 
tions of the Middle Ages. Imp. 8vo., 
2 vols. 1858. 

Slymbridge, Gloucestershire, Notes on 
the Church of St. John at. 8vo. 

Stainboro' and Rockeley, Account of. 

Storer. King'sColl. Chapel, Cambridge. 

Street. Brick and Marble Architecture. 

Street (E. G.). Gothic Architecture in 
Spain. 8vo. 1865. 

Suftblk Institute of Archaeology. 

Surtees Society's Publications : — 
3. The Townley Mysteries. 

5. Sane. Dunelm et Beverlac. 

6. The Priory of Finchal. 

7. Catologi Vet. Librorum. Dunelm. 
15. The Rites of Durham. 

17. Hutton's Correspondence. 

18. Durham Household Book. 

21. Depositions and Eccles. Proceed- 

23. Latin H}Tnns of the Anglo Sax. 

27. Egbert's Pontifical. 

33. Best's Farming Book. 

35. Fabric Rolls of York Minster. 

57. TheGuild of CJorpus Christi.York. 

59. The York Missal. Vol. i. 
The Condition and Prospects of Archi- 
tectural Art. Pamph. 8vo. 1860. 



The World's Debt to Art. Pamph. 

8vo. 1863. 
Thoresby. The Churches of Leeds. 
" Tracts" on Ecclesiology- 3 vols. 
Turner ( Hudson). Domestic Architec- 
ture in England, from the Conquest 

to end of 13th century. 8vo. 1850. 
Tymms (W. E.). Art of Illuminating. 

Viollet-le-Duc. Dictionnaire Raisonne 

de rArchitecture. 10 vols. Svo. 
Viollet-le-Duc. Dictionnaire du Mob- 

ilier Francais. 5 vols. Svo. 1873. 
Walbran(R. ). Antiquities of Gunford. 

Walcott. Convents and Conventual 

Arrangement. Svo. 
Wallen(W.). Hist, of Round Church, 

Little Jlaplestead, Essex. Svo. 
Warwick, The Churches of Deanery of, 

Vol. I. (Worces. Arehteol. Soc. ) 
Warwickshire, The Cliurches of. Parts 

VIII. — X. (Parker.) 
Webb. Continental Ecclesiologj\ Svo. 


West (Bishop). Putney Church, 

Surrey, Account of. Fol. 
Wild. Lincoln Cathedral. Fol. 1819. 
Willis (Prof). Holy Sepulchre. Svo. 

Willis (Prof.). Architectural History 

of Canterbury Cath. 1845. 
Winston. Introduction to the Study of 

Stained Glass. Svo. pamph. 1849. 
Winston. Memoirs illustrative of the 

Art of Glass Painting. Svo. 1865. 

(Murray.) • 
Woodstock, Oxford, Guide to Deanery 

of. (Parker.) 
Wjmeswold, Leicestershire, Account 

of St. Mary's Church at. Fol. 1846. 
Yorkshire Architectural Society, 

Reports and Papers, with Index. 

8 vols. 1850—66. 
Yorkshire, Churches of. Parts i. — xv. 

Yorkshire, Monastic Kuins of. Parts i., 

III., v]i., viii. Roy. Fol. (Sunter.) 
Yorkshire Arch.ieological and Topo- 
graphical Journal. Vols, i., ir. 






The Lord Bishop of Peterborough. 

The Archdeacon of Northampton. 
The Earl Spencer, E.G., Lord- Lieutenant of the County of Northampton. 




The Duke of Buccleucii, K.G. 
The Marquis of Nokthampton. 
The Rev. Loud Alwyxe Compton. 
The Lord Lilford. 
The Lord Overstoxe. 
The Bishop of Adelaide. 
The Hon. and Rev. A. G. Douglas. 
The Hou. and Rev. L. C. R. Irby 
Sir Charles E. Isham, Bart. 
Sir Henry E. L. Dryden, Bart 

The Right Hon. G. Ward Hunt, M.P. 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Peter- 

The Rev. W. Wales, Chancellor of 

The Rev. J. P. Lightfoot, D.D., 
Rector of Exeter College, Oxford. 

The Rev. M. Argles, Canon of Peter- 


The Patron. 
The President. 

The Vice-Presidents. 
The Rural Deans. 

The Officers of the Society. 

Rev, F. C. Alderson. 

M. H. Bloxam, Esq. 

Rev. Lord Alwyne Compton. 

Rev. H. Crawley. 

Sir Henry Dryden. 

Rev. W. F. Goodacre. 

Rev. Dr. Gifford. 

E. F. Law, Esq. 

Rev. P. H. Lee. 

Rev. W. P. Mackesy. 

W. T. Law, Esq. 

H. 0. Nethercote, Esq. 


Rev. T. Richards. 
T. ScRivEN, Esq. 
S. Sharp, Esq. 
Rev. C. Smytu. 
E. Thornton, Esq. 
G. L. Watson, Esq. 


?^onoravg Srtrftatt'ea. 

Rev. N. F. Ligh'ifoot, Islip, Thrapston. 

Rev. Chancellor Wales, Uppingham. 

Rev. M. Gregory, Great Doddingtou, Wellingborough. 

Rev. Henex Ward, Aldwincle St. Peter's, Thrap.ston. 


Rev. Christopher Smyth. 
Rev. G. Howard Vyse. 


Rev. H. J. Bigge, Rockingham. 


Rev. R. P. Lightfoot, Wellingborough. 

SlsBt'stant iirstDrnt l,ibrartan. 

(To K'hovi all Books, Farceln, <ix., should be sent. J 
Mr. Wright, Gold-street, Northampton. 

VOL. XII., pt. i. 



Honorary Members. 

Kev. J. li. Petit, Temple, London 
Sir George Gilbert Scott, E.A., 20, 

Spiiag Gardens, London 
Professor E. L. Donaldson, Hon. Sec, 

For. Cor. of R.I.B.A. 
Sir Stephen Glynue, Bart., Hawarden, 

Edmund Sharpe, Esq., Lancaster 
W. H. Blaauw, Esq., Hon. Sec. Sussex 

Arehseological Society 
W. A. Parker, Esq., Edinburgh 
M. H. Bloxam, Esq., Eugby 

David Ehind, Esq., F.A.LS., Edin- 

Chas. Wilson, Esq., F. A.I. S., Glasgow 
A. W. Franks, Esq., British Museum 
P. A. Hardwick, Esq., Cavendish- 
square, London 
M. De Caumont, Caen, Normandy 
P. Barrow, Esq., British Consul at Caen 
Eev. Dr. Lightfoot, Exeter College, 

Miss Agnes Bleneoe, E. Walton, Lynn 
MissE. James, Theddingworth, Rugby 
Eev. G. Ayliffe Poole, Welford, Eugby 

Ordinary Members. 

(Those marked thus * are Life Members. ) 
Where the Post-tou-ii is not stated, Northampton imist he understood. 

Alford, the Lady Marian, Ashridge, 

Great Berkhampstead 
Alderson, Eev. F. C, Holdenby 
Annand, Eev. A., Roade 
Argles, Eev. Marsham, Canon of Peter- 
borough Barnack, Stamford, E.D. 
Buccleuch,TheDuke of, K.G. ,Boughton 

House, Kettering 
Baker, Eev. E. S., Hargrave, Kim- 

Barry, Eev. W., Blisworth, E.D. 
Beaimiont, Eev. F. M., Coventry 
Bennett, Eev. B. E. W., Corby, Thraps- 

Bigge, Eev. H. J., Eockingham 
Bigge, M. E., Esq., Islip, Thrapston 
Boodle, Eev. A., Little Addington, 

Bradley, Rev. G., Stretton, Oakham 
Bree, Eev. W., AUesley, Coventry 
Bromhead, Eev. A. L., AVinwick 
Brooke, Eichard De Capel, Esq., the 

Elms, Jlarket Harborough 
Broughton, Eev. H. V., Polebrook, 

Browning, Eev. T. W., Thorpe Mande- 

ville, Banbury 
Browning, E., Esq., Architect, Stamford 
Buckley, Eev. W. E., Middleton 

Cheney, Banbury 
Burnaby, Eev. H. Fowke, Bisbrook, 

Burnham, Eev. H. C, Cogenhoe 
Butlin, Eev. W., St. Sepulchre's 
Compton, Eev. Lord A , Castle Ashby 

Cape, Eev. W., Peterborough 
Campbell, Rev. A. L., Helpston, 

Market Deeping 
Carr, Eev. T. W., Barning, Maidstone 
Cartwright, A., Esq , Edgcot, Daventry 
Carpenter, H. C, Esq., 4, Carlton 

Chambers, 4, Eegent-street, London 
Cattel, James, Esq., Peteiborough 
Clarke, E. T., Esq., AVelton-place, 

Collins, Eev. W. L., Lowick, Thraps- 
Cokayne,G.E., Esq., Lancaster Herald, 

Herald's College 
Cooke, Rev. T., Brighton 
Couchman, Rev. J.j'Thornby, Welford 
Crawley, Rev. H., Stowe, Daventry 
Danby, Rev. S., Weston -by- Welland, 

Darnell, Rev. D., Walton, Daventiy 
Douglas, Hon. & Rev. A.G., Scaldwell 
Dryden, Sir H. E. L , Bart., Canons 

Ashby, Daventry 
Dalton, Rev. R., Kelmarsh 
Davys, Rev. Owen, Wlieathamstead, 

St. Albans 
De Teissier, Rev. G. F., Church 

Dolben, Mrs. Mackworth, Finedon, 

High am Ferrers 
Downes, Rev. J., Hannington 
*Drummond, Rev. H., Leckhampstead, 

Duthy, Rev. W., Sudborough, Thrap.s- 

ton, R. D. 



*Exeter, Dowager Marchioness of 
Eland, R. F., Esq., Thrapston 
Empson, Rev. J. A., Eydon, Banbury 
Francis, J. D., Esq., M.D. 
Gates, H. P., Esq., Peterborough 
Gedge, Rev. H., Brixworth 
Gifford, Rev. E. H., D.D., Walgrave 
Gilbertson, Rev. Lewis, Braunston, 

Gillett, Rev. H. H.,Wadenhoe, Oundle 
Glover, Rev. J. H., Kingsthorpe 
Goodacre, Rev. F. W. 
Gray, Rev. T. B., Crick, Rugby 
Green, Rev. T., Badby, Daventry, R.D. 
Gregory, Rev. M., Great Doddington, 

Harrison, Rev. J. H., Bugbrook 
Hamilton, Rev. F. Cole, Scaldwell 
Havilaud, A., Es<i., M.D. 
Hichens, Rev. T. S., Guilsborough 
Hill, Rev. C, Culworth, Banbury 
Hodg.snn, Rev. F. G., Pilton, Oundle 
Holdich, Rev. J., Bulwick, Rockinghaui 
*Holthouse, Rev. C. S., Helidon,Daven- 

Hunt, Right Hon. G. Ward, M.P., 

Wadenhoe, Oundle 
Huntingford, Rev. G. W., Barnwell, 

Irby, Hon. &Rev. Llewellyn, Whistou 
L'vine, Mr., Coombe Down, Bath. 
Lshani, Sir Cliarles E., Lamport 
Isham, Rev. R., Lamport 
Lsted, Ambrose, Esq., Ecton 
Ives, Rev. C, Braddon, Towcester 
James, Miss, Coombe Fai'm, Croydon 
Jenkins, Rev. J. C, Ashby St. Legers, 

Johnson, Rev. F. S., Flore, Weedon 
Jones, W. H., Esq., Uppingham 
Kemp, Rev. G. G., Rawreth, Chelms- 
Knightley, Lady, Fawsley Park, 

*Lilford, The Lord, Lilford, Oundle 
Lamb, R. H., ?]sq., Bragborougli House, 

*Langham, H., Esi]., Cotte.sbrooke 
Langley, Rev. Dr., Yardley-Hastings 
Law, E. F., Esq., Architect, North- 

Law, W. T., Esq., 29, Abiugton-st. 
Law.son, Rev. E. P., St. Peter's 
Lee, Rev. P. H., Stoke Bruern, Tow- 
cester, R.D. 
Lewis, Rev. G. B., Northaw, Barnet 
Lightfoot, Rev. N. F., Islip, Thrapston 

Lightfoot, Rev. R. P., Wellingborough 
Lind.say, Rev. H., Kettering 
Mackesy, Rev. W. P., East Haddon 
Maunsell, Rev. G. E., Thorpe-Malsor, 

Medlj^cott, Rev. H., Brington 
Mercer, Rev. J. F., Rockingham 
Morton, Rev. D., Harlestoii, R.D. 
Northampton, Man [uis of, Castle Ashby 
Northampton, Archdeacon of, Peter- 
Nethercote, H. 0., Esq., Moulton 

Newbolt, Rev, AV, H., Paulerspuiy, 

Newman, Rev. F. B,, Burton Latimer, 

*Overstone, The Lord, Overstone Park 
Oruie, Rev. F., Lyndon, Oakham 
Peterljorough, Tiie Lord Bishop of 
Petei-borough, Very Rev. the Dean of 
Palmer, Sir Geoffrey, Bart., Carlton 

Park, Rockingham 
Parker, Rev. E., Oxendon 
Paul, Rev. G. W., Finedon, Higham 

Ponsonby, Rev. F., Brington 
Porter, Rev. C, Raunds, Thrapston 
Richards, Rev, T. Hard wick, Welling- 
Roberts, Rev. J. L., Spratton 
Rokeby, Rev. H. Arthingworth 
Roughton, Rev. W., Harrowden, Wel- 
Russell, J. Watts, Esq., Ham Hall, 

Russell, D. W., Esq., Biggin Hall, 

Spencer, The Eail, K.G., Althorpe 
Spencer, The Countess 
Sandilands, Rev. P. R. D., Newton 

Scott, Mr. W., Horsemarket, North- 
Scriven, G., Esq., Castle Ashby 
Scriven, T., Esq., Northampton 
Schilling, G. E., Es([., Branq)ton Ash 
Sweeting, Rev.W. D., Peterborough 
Sylvester, Rev. G. T., Deene, Wansford 
Sharp, S., E.sq., Dallington Hall 
Shoosmith, W., Esq., liilling-road 
Smith, Rev. Barnard, Glaston,Upping- 

Smith, Rev. Sidney L., Brampton Ash, 

Market Harborough 
Smith, Rev. J. T. H., Heyford, Weedon 



Smyth, Rev. C, Woodford, Thrapston, 

Smyth, Rev. C, Little Houf^h ton, R.D. 
Spencer, Rev. C. C, Benefield 
Stobart, Rev. H., AYarkton, Kettering 
Stockdale, Capt., Mear's Ashhy Hall' 
Stopford Saekville, Mrs., Drayton 

House, Thrapston 
Stopford Saekville, S. G., Esq., M.V., 

Drayton House, Thrapston 
Sutton, Rev. Fred., Brant Broughton, 

Skeels, Rev. S., Abthorpe, Towcester 
Snape, Mr., Peterborough 
Taylor, Mr. .J., Gold-street 
Thompson, Rev. W. H., Stoke Dry, 

Thornton, E., Esq., 11, Prince's-street, 

Hanover-square, London 
Thornton, Rev. T. G., Brockhall 
Thornton, Rev. W., Dodford, Weedon 

Thring, Rev.E., The Hospital, Upping- 
Vialls, Mr. G., 15, Great James'-street, 

Bedford Row, London 
Yyse, Rev. G. S. H., Boughton 
* Watson, G. L., Esq., Rockingham 

Watson. Hon. Jlrs., Rockingham Castle 
Wales, Worshipful and Rev. C^hancellor, 
Uppingham, Hon. Canon of Peter- 
•Ward, Rev. H., Aldwinkle, Thrapston 
AVatkin, Mr. J., Builder 
Waudby, Rev.W. R. B., Stoke Albany, 

Market Harborough 
Webster, J. H., Esq., M.D. 
White, Rev. A., Gretton, Uppingham, Rev. J., Gayton 
Woolcombe, Rev. W. W., Woottou 
Yard, Rev.jT., A.shwell, Oakham 
Yates, Rev. W., Cottingham, Rocking- 


1. That the Society be called The 
Apx'hxtectural Society of the 
Archdeaconry of Northampton. 

2. That the objects of the Society bo 
to promote the study of Ecclesiastical 
Architecture, Antiquities, and Design, 
and the restoration of mutilated Archi- 
tectural Remains within the Arch- 
deaconry ; and to furnish suggestions, 
so far as_may be within its province, 
for improving the character of Ecclesi- 
astical Edifices hereafter to be erected. 

3. That the Society be composed of a 
Patron, Presidents,andVice-Presidents, 
and of ordinary ilembers, to consist of 
Clergymen and Lay Members of the 

4. That Members of the Society be 
privileged to propose new Members, 
either by letter or personally, at the 
Committee Meetings ; and that Honor- 
ary Members be elected only on the 
nomination of the Committee. 

5. That Rural Deans within the 
Archdeaconry of Northampton be e,r- 
officio Members of the Committee, on 
their signifying an intention to become 
Members of the Society. 

6. That each Member shall pay an 
Aiinual Subscription of Ten Shillings, 
to be due on the first day of January 
in each }'ear. 

7. That an)' Member may compound 
for all future subscriptions by one pay- 
ment of £10. 

8. That the attairs of the Society 
be conducted by a Committee, com- 
posed of the Patron, Presidents, Vice- 
Presidents, Rural Deans, and eighteen 
ordinary Alembers (of wlioni five shall 
be a quorum), who shall be elected at 
the Annual Meeting, and of whom six 
at least shall have been Members of 
the Committee of the ji receding year. 

9. That the Committee have power 
to add to their numbers, and to elect 
out of their body the requisite number 
of Secretaries. 

10. That the Members of the Com- 
mittee in any neighbourhood ma)' 
associate other Members of the Society 
with themselves, and form Committees 
for local purposes in communication 
with the Central Committee. 

11. That the Public ileetiugs of the 
Society be holden in the spring and 



autumn of each year, at such times and 
places as shall have been apjiointed at 
the Autumnal Meeting of the preced- 
ing year. 

12. That the Committee meet at the 
times and places which they may them- 
selves appoint, and that their Meetings 
he open to the Members of the Society 
and tlieir friends, after the dispatch 
of routine business. 

13. That the Secretaries be em- 
poAvered, on an}' urgent occasion, with 
the sanction of the Patron, to call a 
Special Meeting of the Societ,y. 

1 4. That Donations of Architectural 
Becks, Plans, &c., be received ; that 
the Committee be empowered to make 
purchases and procure casts and draw- 
ings, wliich shall be under the charge 
of the Librarian, at the Society's Room, 
Gold-street, Northampton. 

15. That when the Committee shall 
consider any Paper worthy of being 
printed at the expense of the Society, 
they shall request the author to furnish 
a copy, and shall decide upon the num- 
ber of copies to be printed, provided 
always that the numlier be sufficient 
to supply each Member with one copy, 
and the author and Secretaries with 
twenty-five copies each. All other 
questions relating to publishing plans 
and papers, and illustrating them with 
engravings, shall be decided by the 

16. That the Central C'ommittee be 
empowered to provide, at the Society's 
expense, Working Plans for any 
Member who may request them, for 
repairing anji^ Churcli in this Arch- 
deaconry with which he is connected, 

provided that the expense so incurred 
by the Society in an}' one year shall 
not exceed one-third of the funds ; 
and that no such grant shall be made 
unless the majority shall consist of 
six Members. 

17. Tliat the Central Committee 
shall every year publish for circulation 
among the Members, Transactions, to 
contain descriptions and papers con- 
nected with the objects of the Society ; 
and that the illustrations to be given 
in such Transactions, shall, for the 
present, depend on the voluntary 
donations which may be given to the 
Society for that purpose. 

18. That on application being made 
to any ilember of the Committee, or 
to the Committee collectively, for the 
advice of the Society in the restoration 
of any Church, a Sub-Committee be 
appointed (of which the Incumbent or 
Resident Minister be a Member) to visit 
the Church, and submit a report in 
writing to the General Committee. 

19. That all Plans for the building, 
enIargement,or restoration of Churches, 
Schools, &c., sent for the inspection of 
the Committee, be placed in the hands 
of one of the Secretaries of the Society, 
at least one week before the Committee 
Meeting, for the Secretary to prepare 
a Special Report thereon. 

20. That no sum exceeding Thirty 
Shillings be voted towards the objects 
of the Society, without notice being 
given at a previous Committee Meeting ; 
such notice also to be inserted in the 
circular calling the meeting at which 
the sum will be propo.sed. 

The following Resolution has been added : — 

" Tliat in future the Meetings of the General C'ommittee be held at 
" Twelve, instead of Two o'clock p.m., on the second Monday of February, 
"and of every alternate month." 

xxx. northampton architectural society. 


Read at the Annual Meeting held at Northampton, December 8th, 1873. 

The Coniniittee of the Architectural Society of this Archdeaconry liave had 
fewer phms for ehurcli building and church restoration brought before them 
during tlie past year, than during any similar period within the last decade. 
This arises in part from the circumstance noted last year, that every fresh 
restoration leaves less to restore ; and now, that happily a neglected church is 
the rare exception, instead of, as in the remembrance of most men, a nearly 
universal rule, the reports which your Committee have to give of tliis portion of 
their labours must be often meagre. AVhen, however, it is stated that, in the 
Nene valley alone, three such churches as Earls Barton, Raunds, and Rushden, 
second to none for their many points of archaeological interest, or of architec- 
tural beauty, churches in one or more of which for many a year decay has 
been permitted to creep on unchecked, are all now in the course of extensive 
and well-advised restoration, on which the advice of your Committee has been 
asked, they think that they liave not been idle. 

Rut in many other places similar works have been in progress, and 
others of the same kind are still projected. In some of these, j'our Com- 
mittee have been called on to lend a helping hand ; in others, when their 
advice has not been asked, the true principles of restoration have not been 
ignored, and the influence of architectural associations has been indirectly 
felt ; in others, they are sorrj' to report, that so-called restoration is effected 
by setting aside an ancient example of undoubted beauty, and substituting 
an inferior design in a worse material. Your Committee were called on not 
long since to inspect a Town Church in this County, in which the roofs were 
noted for their excellence ; and they found that a deal roof had taken the place 
of one of oak, and that no attempt had been made to copy the fine old details ; 
and this, notwithstanding that the roof of the corresponding aisle places the 
new work in most unhappy contrast. Even were it necessary on the score of 
economy to substitute deal for oak, there is no excuse for concealing all 
intermediate rafters, for sticking on mouldings instead of working them in the 
solid, and for omitting altogetlier the more ornamental portions of the work. 
Those who were pioneers in the ^\•ork of church restoration did a good work, 
although from the inexperience of workmen and architects, and fi'om the 
imperfect study which had then been made of ecclesiastical architecture, they 
did much work, the faults of which are now patent to every eye ; little blame 
is due to them for their defects, and gi-eat praise for their zeal ; but for men 
now to commit blunders, because they will neither copy old examples, nor ask 
advice from those who know better than themselves, is without the semblance 
of an excuse. It is not too much to say that we have been long learning how 
faithfully to restore Avhat our fathers built : it often happens, however, that 
the less we have learnt and studied, the more confident we feel in our 
mutilations of old examples ; and so we allow a rude and unloving hand 
to sweep away what a little more knowledge would retain : the more 
experienced architects of the day are commonly the most conservative. 
It is fortunate, perhaps, that the restoration of our Cathedrals has come 
last in the order of restoration. They stood for the most part but 
little changed from their original condition, at least it was in the loss of 
ornament rather than in a dilapidated fabric that the change consisted. Had 
our Cathedrals been first restored, it is probable that the work would have 
been done in a much more meagre way than at the present, but the almost 
universal restoration of our parisli churches has educated both our architects 
and our ecclesiastical leaders to a higher appreciation of artistic beauty and of 
elaborate design, than would have prevailed a quarter of a century ago, and we 


now reap the benefit of delay in gi-eater experience and in improved taste. An 
account of tlie works done to our Catliedrals in the last few years would fill a 
volume, and a very interesting record of the kind might well be drawn up by 
one who might have leisure for the task ; it would be a work of love rather 
than of profit, but of what benefit it might be by-and-bye, one may judge, who 
has seen the skilful manner in which Archdeacon Freeman has gathered from 
a few extracts from the fabric rolls of Exeter Cathedral, that this unique ex- 
ample of the Decorated period, was not so much a construction of a new chinch 
on the old site, as an entire re-modelling of the old Norman walls and arcade 
into a second pointed Cathedral of very elaborate detail. This could hardly 
have been guessed at but for the existence of the fabric rolls. Our own 
Cathedral is now undergoing very substantial repair. The dilapidated state 
of the north side has long been a subject of anxiety with the Chapter, and 
though they have no proper fabric fund, they have for some time been preparing 
for extensive repairs. On examining the foundations it was found that they were 
built upon loose rubble, thrown in upon the peaty soil on which the Cathedral 
stands, and it is clearly the subsidence of this insecure foundation which has 
caused the groining of the aisles to open to a dangerous extent. If the 
Chapter rmdertake, at their own cost, the extensive substantial repairs which 
they have now commenced, it is to be hoped that they will not shrink from 
appealing, and that they will not appeal in vain, to the Diocese at large for 
assistance in making as complete as possible the Mother Church of a district 
so marked for the beauty of its lesser churches. Of the churches mentioned 
just now, as being at present uiuler restoration, that of Earh Barton is in 
a forward state. The chancel has for some time been used for divine service ; 
an entire new roof of excellent design and workmanship has been put upon 
the nave, and the liestoration-Committee lately gave orders for such additional 
works as would sliortly fit the nave also for worship. The landowners and 
inhabitants have given very liberally to the work, but a large sum is still 
wanting to make it complete, and as the church may very well be considered 
as a national monument, your Committee would commend it to the public at 
large as an object well worthy of their lilieral aid. The expenditure at Earls 
Barton has exceeded the estimate in consequence of the architect pronouncing 
it necessary to take down and re-build the south arcade and the clerestory walls. 
The temporary removal of these walls, which acted as buttresses to the Saxon 
tower, does not seem to have caused the slightest settlement in the tower, 
which appears to be in a substantial state, notwithstanding that some of the 
lower portions have at times been somewhat tampered with. Hardly any 
church in the Archdeaconry needed restoration more than the Church of St. 
Peter at Raunds. Some years since the Yicar procured plans from Mr. (now 
Sir Gilbert) Scott, and out of the £4,000 at which the cost of restoration was 
estimated, offered to guarantee £3,000 for himself and friends in case the pro- 
prietors would raise £1,000 by rate. The olter was refused, and decay went 
on till some time in the present year, when the roofs were pronounced in a 
dangerous state, and service was discontinued. It was then determined to 
carry out, as far as the funds would allow, the plan of Sir G. Scott, and the 
work is making rapid progress under his superintendence. The Vicar has 
.subscribed £2,000, and the united landowners and landholders a few 
hundreds. The restoration is being carried out in a very substantial manner ; 
but there is a large deficiency at present in the funds, a very common com- 
plaint while such works are in progress. In under-pinning the south wall, it 
was discovered that the present wall was built partly on the old foundations, 
and partly on the loose earth Mithout any foundation whatever, so that when 
the loose earth was cleared away, the outer surface of the wall piojected over 
tlu^ foundation as much as eight or nine inches, the old foundations being 
recessed between the buttresses. Possibly the exterior face of the wall has been 
either rebuilt or refaced. There is a curious clock-face of stone, filling up the 


inner side of the tower-arch — and from about the height of the piers of the tower- 
arch there is stone gi'oining, of much Liter date than the tower, and hiding the 
beautiful two-light, deeply-recessed, first-pointed western window from the 
church. This groining has damaged the tower by its outward thrust, and 
should be removed. The clock-face marking the 24 hours of the days, and 
having beneath it angel figures, with a mediaeval inscription, is said to be 
unique. This, your Committee think, is the only reason for retaining it, as 
it entirely blocks tlie arch. Some painting of peculiar design has been un- 
covered over tlie chancel-arch. No provision is yet made for the restoration 
of tlie chancel, which has about it some very interesting features. The church 
is well worthy of a visit ; its tower and spire are perliaps the finest in the 
county, and its interior of very good proportions. The third church to 
which allusion has been made is Rushdcn, having a fine tower with crocketted 
spire, a lofty nave and chancel, with north and south aisles to nave and 
chancel, north and south transepts, seven screens, elaborately carved roofs, and 
a straining arcli across the nave. The walls were for the most part in good 
condition, one portion only of Early First-pointed date requiring to be rebuilt, 
but the roofs were found to be more defective than was at first believed. The 
parishioners have shewn much zeal and goodwill, but here again the same 
difficulty presents itself, in raising the funds which may be required for com- 
pleting the work. Plans were submitted to the Committee for reseating, and 
adding a transept to the Church of East Haddon, but the alterations have for 
the present been postponed. Strixton Cliurch, on which your Committee 
reported last year, has been nearly re-built, and no further destruction of the 
old work has taken place beyond that previously mentioned. A very interest- 
ing and successful Summer Meeting, in conjunction with the Leicestershire 
Society, was held at Coventry, on the 22nd and 23rd of July. Coventry itself 
has objects of interest enough to occupy several days of study. Its existing 
churches, its conventual reftiains, its many relics of old domestic architecture, 
all deserve a visit ; and though, with the thermometer approaching 90 degrees 
of heat, a four hours walk througli the town was ratlier laborious, the visitors 
carried away nothing but pleasarit memories of their day's excursion. Papers 
were read in S. JIary's Hall (kindly placed by the Mayor at the disposal of the 
Committee), on The Antiquities of Coventry, by Mr. Fretton ; on The Hunting 
Match at Bunchurch in 1605, by Mr. T. Tom Burgess, to whom the Excursionists 
were indebted on the following day for a description of Kenilworth ; on 
Bells and Belfries, by Mr. G. Ayliff"e Poole ; and some Short Notes on Kcnil- 
worth, were supplied by Mr. Thompson. On the following day, an Excursion, 
numerously attended, was made to Kenihrorth Castle ; Guy's Cl(fe ; Warwick 
Castle ; the Church of S. Mary, JFarwicl; with the Beauchamp Chajicl ; the 
Leicester Hosintal ; and Stoneleigh Abbey. The success of this meeting bej'ond 
the Society's limits, may lead to some similar transgression of its bounds at 
some future time. 

Your Committee were asked to visit the Church of Slapton to inspect 
some drawings in distemper, lately iincovered tliere. It is not certain -whether 
they can be preserved ; but your Committee have authorized a small expendi- 
ture in procuring the outlines of the drawings. 

An invitation was received from Sir H. Dryden, to visit Canons Ashby, 
with other places in the neighbourhood, including Fawsley, on the occasion of 
the Autumn Meeting, but through the lateness of tlie season it was tliought 
impracticable in the present autumn, but your Committee hope that it is only 
a pleasure deferred. The new railroad in that part of the county has opened 
out a new field of research. 

Several names have disappeared from the Society's List of Members by 
death ; and among them one who has been concerned in the restoration of 
more Northamptonshire Churches than any other Architect, Mr. Slater. Many 
a church bears testimony to the faithful manner in which he has reproduced 


all the old features of the buildings, as far as they could be traced ; he loved 
to restore rather than to substitute for old work some conception of his own, 
and it was perhaps mainlj' for this leason that so many of the churches of 
the count}- were entrusted to his hands. And in all that concerned the 
Church, he worked with loving heart and hand, having an ej'e to the greater 
decency and order of worship, and being impressed with the dignity of the 
work in which he was engaged. On the very many occasions in which designs 
for chureh work have been submitted by him to your Committee, they always 
found that their criticisms and suggestions were received by him with the 
greatest courtesy and consideration. Since Mr. Slater's death, another archi- 
tect, into whose hands several of the works of the neighbourhood had been 
placed, has also suddenly been taken, Mr. Buckeridge. The new church of 
Wellingborough, ilear's Asliby, Cogenhoe, and Little Houghton have been 
built or restored under his superintendence, and as he was but young in his 
profession, other works of the same kind woidd probably have fallen into his 
hands. Some very effective carving, from his design, has lately been fixed 
in Little Houghton Church, being a portion of a memorial to the late Mr. 

Your Committee have had their attention called to damage done to 
ancient stonework by driving of nails for the purposes of temporary church 
decoration. The case of a very ancient clmrch in this neighbourhood was 
brought under their notice, it having been .stated that the joints of the stone, 
new and old equally, had been injured by this process. This is not a solitary 
instance ; for it is no uncommon tiling to see the pilaster of a church greatly dis- 
figured by nail-holes over all its arches. It is desirable to decorate, and to shew 
by external signs the difference between fast and festival, but not the minutest 
part of the fabric of a church should he defaced by these means. If text and 
wreaths cannot be fixed without breaking joint and plaster, they had better be 
omitted ; for a ragged look in a church wall is ver}' offensive to the eye, as 
nail-holes are positively hurtful to the stone-dressings of arch and window. 
When decorations are extensively used, they should be attached to very small 
permanent hooks or wires, or placed only in such positions, in which they can 
be fixed without damage. 

Your Committee remarked last year, and they now repeat the remark, 
that one of the most vexed questions in church restoration is the treatment of 
the interior suifaces of cliurcli walls— whetherjjlasteror nopla.ster — decoration or 
no decoration — when decoration is to be, how to be applied. There is abundant 
room for discussion here, and \o\ir Committee would invite it from any of the 
Society's Members ; for, whichever .side of the question may first be taken, 
right principles of taste will probably be elicited from its careful and thought- 
ful consideration. 

VOL. XII., PT. I. 




For the Year endiny Se2itcmbcr SOtli, 1S73, 


£ s. d. 
Cash Balance Sept. 30th, 

1872 125 3 3 

Subscriptions and Arrears 59 
Expenses repaid by the 
Leicestershire Architec- 
tural Society ... 3 13 8 

Interest on Deposit Account 4 10 

192 6 11 

Deduct payments 77 1 5 

Btilance in hand £115 5 6 

Deposit Account ...t £150 


£ s. d. 
Secretary and Treasurer : — * 

Postage, &c 2 16 

Advertisements, &c 3 8 

Expenses of Lutterworth 

Meeting 6 6 10 

Expenses of Coventry do 7 16 6 

Arrears of Uffingham do. . . . 1 9 

Librarian : — 

Books 1 19 

Williamson for share of 

Associated Volume 31 5 8 

Wright, Rent of Society's 

Room, Insurance, Attend- 
ance, and Postage of 

Reports 14 13 9 

Cowell, Anastatic Drawings 2 6 6 

Harris, Books 3 7 6 

Donation to Saxon Churcli, 

at Bradford-upon-Avon, 

Wilts 2 

£77 1 5 

HENRY WARD, Treasurer. 

• . 1873. 


His Grace the Duke of Rutland. 
The Riglit Rev. the Lord Bishop of Peterborough. 

The Wor.shipful the Mayor of Leicester. 

The Right Honourable the Earl Howe. 

The Right Honourable the Earl of Denbigh. 

The Right Honourable the Earl of Gainsborough. 

The Right Honourable the Lord John Manners, M.P. 

Sir George Howland Beaumont, Baronet. 

Sir William De Capel Brooke, Baronet. 

Sir Frederick T. Fowke, Baronet. 

Sir Arthur Grey Hazlerigg, Baronet 

Sir Henry St. John Halford, Baronet. 

Sir Geoffry Palmer, Baronet. 

The Venerable the Archdeacon of Leicester. 

William Perry-Herrick, Esquire. 

Edward Bouchier Hartopp, Esquire. 


Edward Finch Dawson, Esquire. 

William Unwin Heygate, Esquire, M.P. 

]\Iajor Freer. 

Harry Leycrster Powys-Keck, Esq. 

Thomas Tertius Paget, Esq. 

William Ward Tailby, Esquire. 


The Patrons. 

The Presidents. 

All Rural Deans (being Members). 

All Professional Architects (being 

The Rev. 0. W. Belgrave. 
The Rev. Canon Burfield. 
Alfred Ellis, Esq. 
The Rev. T. Farebrother. 
Edward Fisher, Jun., Esq. 
The Rev. John Fisheu. 
Rev. J. H. Hill, F.S.A. 
John Hunt, Esq. 

I^onorarg Hotal Srrvftnn'fs 

Thomas Ingram, Esq. 
Lieut. -Colonel Knight. 
The Rev. W. H. Marriott. 
The Rev. W. B. Moop.e. 
Fred. Morley, Esq. 
G. C. Neale, Esq. 
G. H. Nevinson, Esq. 
T. Nevinson, Esq. 
The Rev. F. Sutton. 
James Thompson. Esq. 
Captain Whitby. 
Vincent Wing, Esq. 

Market Harhorouqli District. 
The Rev. J. H. Hill,'F.S. A., Cranoe. 

Luttcrwortlb Didrict. 
The Rev. A. Pownall, F.S.A., South 
Kilworth Rectory. 

Mclto)i, Mowhray District. 
Vincent Wing, Esq., Melton Mowbray. 

Hinckley District. 
The Rev. Ernest Towkk, Earl's 



I^onorarg ©orresponlJtng iWemter for «Sobentrp. 

William George Frettox, Esq., Coventry. 
I^onorarj Serretan'es of tfje Son'etg. 

Major Bellairs, Leicester. I Thomas North, Esq., 

I House, Leicester. 


Captain Whitby. 

The Bank 

Honorary Members. 

TheWorshipfiil the Mayor of Leice.ster. 
The Ven. Archdeacon Trollope, F.S.A., 

Leasingham, Sleaford. 
E. Levien, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., British 

M. H. Bloxam, F.S.A., Rugby. 
The Rev. Lord Alwyne Compton, 

Castle Ashby. 

Sir Henry Drydeu, Bart, Canon's 

Rev. C. Boutell. 
Rev. G. A. Poole, Welford. 
E. L. Stephens, Esq., Leicester. 
Sir G. G. Scott, R.A., London. 
The Very Eev. The Deau of Waterford. 
J. E. Weatherhead, Esq., Leicester. 

Subscribing Members. 

Adcock, Wm. Esq., Melton Mowbray 
Allen, W., Esq., Market Harborough 
Arnall, Josh., Esq., Leicester 
Agar, Thomas, Esq., Leicester 
Barnard, Thomas, Esq., Leicester 
Baker, Charles, Esq., Leicester 
Barwell, Mr., Leice.ster 
Barber, Wm., Esq., Leicester 
Barfield, Mr. S., Leicester 
Beaumont, Sir G. H., Bart, Coleorton 

Bellairs, Rev. S. G., Goadby Marwood 
Bellairs, Major {Hon. Scc.\ Leicester 
Belgrave, Rev. C.W., North Kilworth 
Bridges, Rev. F. B. H., Bruntingthorpe 
Billson, Wm., jun., Esq., Leicester 
Brooke, Sir W. de Capel, Bart., Market 

Bouskell, James, Esq., Leicester 
Broughtou, J. D. , Esq., Gloosten 
Borham, Mr. J. D., Leicester 
Burnaby, Rev. F. G., Nursling, South- 
Burdett, Mr. Chas., Lutterworth 
Bull, Mr., Leicester 
Burfield, Rev. Canon, Leicester 
Bryan, Captain, Stoke Dry 
Bryan, Rev. Hugh, Lyddington 
Clarke, E. H. M., Esq., Melton 

Clarke, Mr. Samuel, Leicester 
Campbell, Hon. and Rev., Knipton 
Chaplin, C. W., Esq., Asfordby 
Clarke, J. P., Esq., Leicester 
Cowdell, A. D., Esq., London 
Cox, Mr. S. W., Market Harborough 
Cox, Rev. T., Kimcote 
Crossley, C. R., Esq., Leicester 
Cooper, Alfred Esq., Wigston Magna 
Cooper, J. H., Esq, Potherby 
Dawson, E. Finch, Esq., Launde Abbey 
Dalby, Rev. Robt., R.D., Stanton 

Denbigh, Right Hon. Earl of, Newn- 

ham Paddox 
Deakins, Mr. Superintendent, Leicester 
Eastburn, Rev. Charles F., Medbomne 
Elli.s, Alfred, Esq., Belgrave 
Ebsworth, Rev. G. S., Croxton Kerrial 
Elmhirst, Rev. Ed., Shawell 
Faw.ssett, Rev. R., Smeeton Westerby 
Farnham, E. Basil, Esq., Quorndon 

Franks, W. F., Esq., Billesdon 
Fast, Mr. J. G., Melton Mowbray 
Farebrother, Eev. T., Leicester 
Fletcher, W., Esq., Belvoir Castle 
Fleming, Mr. Josiah, Leicester 
Fenwicke, Rev. G. C, Blastou 



Femeley, Claude, Esq., ]\[elton JIow- 

Fletcher, Rev. J. W., Leicester 
Freer, JIajor, Billesdon Coplow 
Fearou, Ven. Archdeacon, Loughboro' 
Freestone, Mr. H., Market Harborough 
Fetherstoue, John, Esq., F.S.A., War- 
Fisher, E., jun., Esq., Ashb)--de-la- 

Fislier, Eev. John, Cossington 
Firn, Mr. John, Leicester 
Footman, Wni., Esq., Lutterworth 
Foxton, George, Esq., Leicester 
Fowke, Sir F. T., Bart., Lowesby Hall 
Foster, Mr. Job, Leicester 
Fry, LncasG. , Esq., Emmanuel Col- 
lege, Cambridge 
Gatty, W. H. ,Esq. , Market Harborough 
Gainsborough. Eight. Hon. Earl of, 

Exton Park 
Gates, C. H., Esq., Lutterworth 
Green, John, Esq., Belvoir Castle 
Grimsdick, G. B., Esq., Othorpe House 
Grieveson, H. J., Esq., Holt Hall 
Goodacre, B. T., Esq., Leicester' 
Goddard, Josh., Esq., Leicester 
Gough, Mr. Fras., Market Harborough 
Grundy, Charles, Esq., London 
Hazlerigg, Sir A. G., Bart., Nosely 

Halford, Sir Henry St. John, Bart., 

Wistow Hall 
Harris, J. D., Esq., M.P., Eatcliffe 

Hartopp, E. B., Esq., Little Dalby Hall 
Hanbury, Rev. T., Church Langton 
Hassall, Eev. T., Rearsby 
Hall, Rev. T. 0., Great Easton 
Harris Eev. Josh., Sheepy 
Hayuies, Eobert, E.sq., Kibworth 
Harris, Joseph, Esq., Westcotes 
Hayter, Eev. C. F., Claybrooke 
Halford, Thos. Esq., Bitteswell 
Herrick, W. Perry, Esq., Beaumanor 

Heygate, W. U., E.sq., M.P., Eoecliffe 
Hill, Eev. J. H., F.S.A., Cranoe 
Hickson, Thos., Esip , Melton Mowbray 
Howe, Eight Hon. The Earl, Gopsall 

Ho.skyns. Eev. H. J., Blaby 
Horue, Eev. E. L., "Whissendine 
Holyland, Mr. T., Leicester 
Humfrey, Eev. Cave, E.D., Laughton 
Hunt, John, Esq., Thurnby 
Humberstone, K. H., Esq., Leicester 

Hunt, Wm., Esq., Leicester 
Ingram, Thos., Esq., Wigston Magna 
Ingram, W., Esq., Belvoir Castle 
Jackson, F., Esq., Nottingham 
Jennings, Mr. J. P., Market Harborough 
Johnson, R. W., Esq., Melton Mowbray 
John.son, Wm., Esq., Saddington 
Jones, Mr. T., Leicester 
Jones, H. S., Esq., Leicester 
Keck, H. L. Powys, Esq., Stoughton 

Kelly, W. Esq., Leicester 
Knight, Rev. G., R.D., Hungerton 
Knight, Lieut.-CoL, Glen Parva Manor 
Latham, Wm., Esq., Melton JMowbray 
Law, Mr. James, Lutterworth 
Lakin, Rev. J. M., E.D., Gilmorton 
Lefranc, Monsieur, Leicester 
Lisle, Ambrose L. M. P. de, Garendon 

Manners, Et. Hon. Lord John, M.P., 

Belvoir Castle 
Marriott, Eev. W. H., Thrussington 
Macaulay, C. A., Esq., Leicester 
Maxfield, M., Esq., Leicester 
Miles, Eoger D., Esq., Keyham 
Moore, Eev. W. B., Evington 
Mott, F. T., Esq., Leicester 
Morley, F. Esq., Leicester 
Mussou, W. P'sq., Leicester 
Mules, Rev. P., Belvoir Cattle 
Neale, G. C, Esq., Skeffingtou 
Nevinson, G. H., Esq., Leicester 
Nevinson, Thos. Esq., Leicester 
Nevile, Eev. G., Tilton 
Norman, Geo., Escp, Goadby Marwood 
Norman, Eev. Canon, Bottesford 
North, Thomas, Esq. (Hon. Sec. J, 

Ordish, F., Esq., Queniborough 
Csborn, Eev. ]\l. F., E.D., Kibworth 
Overton, Eobt., Esq., Leicester 
Palmer, Sir Geoffry, Bart., Carlton 

Paget, T. T., Esc^., Humberstone 
Paget, John, Esq., London 
Palmer, Captain, Withcote Hall 
Parker, Eev. John, Wysall 
Peterborough, Et. Eev. Lord Risliop 

of, Peterborough 
Peake, Eev. T. C., E.D., Hallaton 
Pearson, Captain, Walcote 
Piercey, Eev. J. M., Slawston 
Pliilips, Jolm, Esq., Kibwortli 
Pownall, Eev. A., K.D., F.S.A., South 

Pultcney, Eev. Ed., Ashley 


Eichardson, Eev. H. K., R.D., Leire 
Rendell, Rev. A.M., Coston 
EoUeston, J. F. L., Esq., Scraptoft 
Rutland, His Grace the Duke of, Bel- 

voir Castle 
Salt, AV. H., Esq., Kirby Frith 
Saunt, T. B.,Esq., Market Harborough 
Shaw, Geo., Esq., M.D., Leicester 
Small, Eev. N. P., Market" Bosworth 
Sankey, Eev. John, Stoney Stanton 
Sarson, Mr. T. F., Leicester 
Stafford, John, Esq.. Leicester 
Stretton, Clement, E.sq., Leicester 
Stevenson, George, Esq., Leicester 
Sheild, Wm., Esq., LTppingham 
Spencer, Mr. James, Leicester 
Spencer, Mr. C. A., Leicester 
Spencer, Mr. John, Leice.ster 
Simons, E. J., Esq., Ullesthorpe 
Smith, Mr. George, Coalville 
Smith, AVilliam, Esq., London 
Shore, H. 0., Esq., Lindridge 
South, M., Esq., Leicester 

Sutton, Rev. F.,fBrant Broughton 
Syers, Rev. H. S., Syston 
Taylor, Mr. John, Loughborough 
Traylen, J. C, Esq., Leicester 
Titley, Rev. R., Barwell 
Thompson, James, Esq., Leicester 
Thorpe, Eev. F., Burton Overy 
Tower, Eev. E.j'Earl's'Shilton 
Upcher, Eev. H. Berners, AEexton 
Warner, Edward, Esq., Quorn Hall 
Watson, Rev. J. S., Cottesbach 
Wardley, Mr. G. S., Lutterworth 
Whetstone, Wm., Esq., Coalville 
Wing. Vincent, Esq. , ilelton'Mowbray 
Whitby, Captain, Ragdale Hall 
Williams, J. H., Esq., Leicester 
Willes, Eev. Canon, Ashby Magna 
Wilson, Eev. P., Mowsley 
Wilkinson, Eev. W. F., Lutterworth 
Wright, A., Esq., Leicester 
Woodhouse, .L T., Esq., Overseile 
AVoUaston, Major, Shenton Hall 
Worswick, Captain, Normanton 


1. That the Society be called " The 
Architectural and Archaeological 
Society" of the County of Leicester. 

2. That the objects of the Society be, 
to promote the study of Ecclesiastical 
Architecture, General Antiquities, and 
the restoration of mutilated Archi- 
tectural Remains within the county ; 
and to furnish suggestions, so far as 
may be within its province, for im- 
proving the character of Ecclesiastical 
Edifices, and for preserving all ancient 
remains which the Committee may 
consider of value and importance. 

3. That the Society be composed of 
Patrons, Presidents, Treasurer, and 
Secretaries ; and honorary and ordi- 
nary Members. 

4. That Members of the Society be 
privileged to propose new Members, 
either by letter or personally, to be 
elected at the Committee Meetings ; 
and that Honorary Members be elected 
only at the nomination of the Com- 
mittee, at a general or special meeting. 

5. That Rural Deans within the 
County of Leicester be cx-officio 
Members of the Committee, on their 
signifying an intention to become 
Members of the Society. 

6. That each Member shall pay an 
Annual Subscription of Ten Shillings, 
to be due on the first day of January 
in each year. 

7. That the affairs of the Society 
be conducted by a Committee, com- 
posed of the Patrons, Presidents, Rural 
Deans, and not less than twenty ordi- 
nary Members ; of whom four at least 
shall have been Members of the Com- 
mittee of the preceding year. 

8. That Meetings of the Members be 
held the last Monday in every alternate 
month, and a General Meeting in each 
j'ear previous to the Public Meetings ; 
and that at such General Meeting the 
Committee be elected, the accounts 
be passed, and the 3'early Report pre- 
sented ; and such new rules, or altera- 
tion.s'^in the rules, proposed and made, 
as may be thought necessary. 



9. That the Committee (of whom 
five shall be a quorum) have power 
to add to their numbers, and to elect 
from the Society the requisite number 
of Secretaries. 

10. That the Members of the Com- 
mittee in any neighbourhood may 
associate other Members of the Society 
with themselves, and form Committees 
for local purposes in communication 
with the Central Committee. 

1 1. That the Public Meetings of the 
Society be holden at such times and 
places as sliall be appointed by the 

12. That the Committee meet at the 
times and places which they may them- 
selves appoint, 

13. That the Secretaries be em- 
powered, on the requisition of five 
Members of the Committee, to call a 
Special Meeting of the Society. 

14. That Donations of Architectural 
and Antiquarian Bcoks, Plans, &c., 
be received ; that the Committee be 
empowered to make purchases and pro- 
cure casts and drawings, which shall 
be under the charge of the Secretaries. 

15. That when the Committee shall 
consider any Paper, which may have 
been read before the Society, worthy 
of being printed at its expense they 
shall request the author to furnish a 
copy, and .shall decide upon the num- 
ber of copies to be printed, provided 
always that the numlier be sufficient 

to supply each Member with one copy, 
and the author with twenty-five copies. 
All other questions relating to publish- 
ing plans and papers, and illustrating 
them with engravings, shall be de- 
cided by the Committee. 

16. That the Committee may every 
year publish, or join with other Archi- 
tectxual and Archieological Societies in 
publisliing, for circulation among the 
Members, transactions to contain des- 
criptions and Papers connected with 
the objects of the Societ}'. 

17. That on application being made 
to any Member of the Committee, or 
to the Committee collectively, for the 
advice of the Society in the restoration 
of any Church, a Sub-Committee be 
appointed (of which the Incumbent or 
Resident Minister be one) to visit the 
Church, and submit a report in writing 
to the General Committee. 

18. That all Plans for the building, 
enlargenient,or restoration of Churches, 
Schools, &c , sent for the inspection of 
tlie Committee, be placed in the hands 
of one of the Secretaries of the Society, 
at least fourteen days before the Com- 
mittee Meeting, for the Secretary to 
prepare a Special Report thereon. 

19. That the Committee have power 
at any meeting to make grants towards 
the objects of the Society, provided 
that if such grant exceed 30s., notice 
be given in the circular calling the 

The Bi-monthly Meetings of the Society are held on the last Mondays in 
January, March, May, July, September, and November — the Meeting in 
January to be the General ]\leeting for the transaction of Inisiness. 

The Report. 

Report of the Committee for the year 1S73, read and adopted at the Annual 
MectivAj of Members, held in the Town Library, Guild Hall, Leicester, 
26th January, 1874. 

The Committee of the Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society 
on presenting a Report of their proceedings during the year 1873, desire first 
to congratulate the Members upon the growing taste for the study of antitpiity 
as evidenced in the reception given to Jlr. Charles Roach Smith and Sir Henry 
Dryden, Bart., during their recent visits to Leicester, when their Lectures 
before the Literary and Philosophical Society were listened to with evident 
pleasure and attention by a large number of person.s. 

This growing taste for Archaiology will undoubtedly continue to spread 
more and more as it, as a science, becomes better understood and appreciated. 


It is not the mere possession or inspection of objects of antiquity which deh'ght 
the Archreologist, but their value is in the proportion in which they elucidate 
the history and institutions of past times, aud the liabits, tastes, amusements, 
and every-day life of the people then living. 

Excavations made in Leicester during the past year have, as usual, yielded 
many antiquities, most of which have very properl}' been deposited in the 
Town Museum. Foremost among these may be mentioned three leaden coffins 
which were found in Newarke Street, and upon which a member of this Society 
has promised to read some notes. \ Roman seal or stamp of blue lias was 
found in September last, on the premises of Mr. C. Gurden, High Cross Street, 
at a depth of about ten feet. It bears what appears to be a grotesque face, 
and the inscription in two lines C PAL GRACILIS, which Professor Hlilner 
proposes to read C [AlUS] PAL [FURIUS] GRACILIS. A crucible and a 
piece of glass were found near to it. The iron frame-work and chain of a large 
Roman bucket were foTind 25 feet deep in sinking a well in Southgate Street. 
A fragment of Roman potterj'^, of a lustrous yellow marble ware, has also been 
found in Leicester and sent to the Museum. It is stamped OF. MAPOMI, 
the only instance of this peculiar and rare Roman ware bearing a potter's name 
which has come under the notice of Mr. C. R. Smith. New Street, too, has 
yielded an ampulla, bead, and Roman coins. A remarkable discovery of 
objects has lately been made at Market Harborougli — relics apparently of a 
cemetery, iised both by Romans and Saxons. Among them is a good cruciform 
fibula, two circular ones, a pot hook, a ring-fibula, and a large collection of 
pottery. Archdeacon Troll ope, F.S. A., has kindly promised to give an account 
of this discovery, illustrated at his own cost, by engravings, in the next volume 
of the Associated Societies. 

Several further portions of the ancient stained-glass referred to in the last 
Report have been exhibited during the year, at the Bi-monthlj- Meetings. They 
were accompanied by careful drawings made by Mr. Traylen, and b}^ explana- 
tory notes furnished by Mr. North. 

Mr. Llewellyn Jewitt, F.S. A., sent for exhibition at the September meet- 
ing an unique impression of an ancient seal formerly belonging to the Corpo- 
ration of Leicester, and which our member, Mr. Kelly, explained in an inter- 
esting memoir. Mr. Kelly describes it as the impression of a seal, which, from 
its architectural details, may be assigned to the reign of Edward 111. The seal 
itself, he gives good reasons for believing, was used by the ]\Iayor of Leicester 
in his personal capacity as chief magistrate, and that it formed part of the 
.spoil taken away — as is mentioned in the Town Records — bj'' the " unruly 
soldiers" after the siege of Leicester, in 1645, when it was most probably 
destroyed. * It has been proposed to adopt a copy of this seal, with certain 
necessary modifications, as the ofiicial badge of this Society. It is full of 
beautiful detail, and should the Committee for 1874 adopt it, your Committee 
think it will meet with the approval of the Members generally. Many other 
interesting objects have been exhibited at the Bi-monthly Meetings which 
Meetings depend for their attractiveness — especially to gentlemen residing at a 
distance from Leicester — upon the endeavour of every Member to add some- 
thing to the interest of such as he attends. 

The Annual Summer Meeting for 1873 was held in conjunction with the 
Architectural Society of the Archdeaconry of Northampton, at Coventry. The 
proceedings were opened at a Public Jleeting imder the Presidency of the 
Worshipful the Mayor, on the morning of July 22nd. After the formal recep- 
tion of the Societ}', Mr. Fretton (now the Honorary Corresponding Member of 
this Society for Coventry) read a ' ' General Sketch of the History and Anti- 
quities of Coventry. " The many Architectm-al features of the City were in- 
spected during the day under the guidance of Mr. Odell, Mr. Astley, and Mr. 

* It has been suggested tliat the present Mayor's seal is a copy or imitation from memory, 
or from a worn Impression of this ancient one. 

REPORT. xli. 

Frettou, assisted by Mr. M. H. Bhxxam, F.S.A., and the Rev. G. A. Poole. A 
temporaiy Museum, replete with interest and instruction, was opened in 
S. Mary's Hall. At a second Public Meeting, held in the evening. Papers 
were read, or contributed, by Jlr. J. Tom Burgess, of Leamington, on The 
Hunting Match at Dunchu7-ch, in 1605; by the Rev. G. A. Poole, on Bells 
and Belfries ; by Mr. James Thompson, on Some Items Concerning the Castle 
of Kenilvoiih ; and by Mr. Fretton, on Local Nomenclature. 

A most enjoyable excursion was made on the following day (23rd July) 
to Kenilworth Castle, Guy's Cliff, Warwick Castle, Warwick, and Stoneleigh 
Abbey. Mr. Burgess was indefatigable in his exertions as conductor of the 
partj', in explaining the salient points of the various buildings, &c., inspected. 
To him all were much indebted, as well as to the noblemen and gentlemen 
who so heartily welcomed the visitors wherever they appeared. Your Com- 
mittee must, however, again regret that so much was undertaken in one day, 
and again urges upon the Sub-Committee usually appointed to arrange the 
Annual Excursion to attempt less, and so give more time at the disposal of the 
Members at each place visited. 

It having been brought to the notice of your Society that a slab of slate 
commemorating the death of Alderman Newton, the founder of the Avell-known 
school in Leicester, was doing duty in a private dwelling-house as a salting 
trough, two Jlembers of your Committee took immediate steps to restore the 
slab to a place more fitting for its deposit. Upon enquiry, it was found that 
the slab was removed — as dilapidated — some years ago, from Alderman New- 
ton's tomb in All Saints' churchyard, Leicester, when the tomb was restored, 
or rather reconstructed in stone. This original slab gives the names of the 
Alderman's wives and children, and is now in a better condition than the stone 
one, with a copy of the inscriptions, which was substitutetl for it. The Vicar 
and Churchwardens of All Saints gave permission to place the slab inside the 
church, where it is now, and where it will, no doubt, be safel}' preserved. 

Your Committee have made during the past year two somewhat exceptional 
grants of money : viz., one to the fund for the preservation and restoration of 
the Saxon Church of .S'. Lawrence, Bradford-on-Avon, and another towards 
the preservation and restoration of such portions of the more ancient part of 
S. Nicolas's Church, Leicester, as could not well, it was thought, be under- 
taken from the general subscriptions, which are all absorbed in other necessary 
works. The ancient little church of S. Lawrence, Bradford-on-Avon, which 
has been for many years divided into two portions, and used for .secular pur- 
poses, is now clearly proved to be not only a Saxon Church, but the only 
perfect Saxon Church remaining in England. As such, it is recognized by 
Sir G. Gilbert Scott, R.A., Mr. E. A. Freeman, and Mr. J. H. Parker. The 
latter gentleman, after very careful examinations of the edifice, extending 
over a number of years, concludes that the church was built in the time of 
King iEthelwold between 970 and 975, or possibly then built of wood only, 
and re-built of stone about 1025, not later. It is, he says, the only jierfect 
example we have of that period, and forms a chapter in the national liistory. 
Several of the local Architectural Societies have subscribed to the fund for pre- 
serving a church so unique, and of which William of Malmesburj', writing at 
the latest in 1125, said "and there is to this day at Bradford a little cliurch 
which Aldhelm is said to have founded and dedicated to the Blessed S. 

With regard to >S'. Nicolas Church, Leicester, your Committee hope to 
lejjort fully hereafter. 

You are, no doubt, aware that your Committee have used, and are using, 
every proper available means to preserve the Hospital of IVilliain IFytjgecston 
in Leicester. Whether they succeed in rescuing this monument of one of 
Leicester's greatest benefactors from desecration and destruction or not, the 
Members of this Society, and the public generally, may rest assured that your 

VOL. XII., PT. I. / 


Committee have left undone nothing that can tend to avert such a proceeding. 
They are convinced that ahnost all now view it as at least an unneces-sary call 
for the destruction of a venerable building, and as a consequence for the dese- 
cration of ground hallowed by long association with religious duties and 
christian burial. They confidently assert that posterity would condemn such 
a proceeding, and they earnestly invite the co-operation of all the Members of 
this Societ}' in their endeavour to preserve the building. 

All archfeologists will join with your Committee in recording their sense 
of the gi'eat loss sustained by literature — and especially by that branch of it 
devoted to antiquarian research — in the death of Mr. John Gough Nichols, 
F.S.A. Mr. Nichols, in addition to being one of the founders of the Camden 
Society, and the Editor of several of the valuable works issued by it, was for 
many years the Editor of the GeHtlcvuin''s Magazine when that periodical was 
specially tlie organ of antiquaries and historical students. He also edited 
several works on topography and genealogy. He was one of the first 
Honorary Members of this Society, and upon more than one occasion, a 
contributor to its transactions. A.s the grandson of the Historian of Leicester- 
shire, he always evinced considerable interest in all historical or antiquarian 
subjects connected with the County. 

The Publications of the Society for the past year have been placed in your 
hands. That part confined exclusively to its own transactions, contains several 
sheets of carefully drawn illustrations of the very fine Roman glass found at 
Barrow -on-Soar, in 1867. For the preparation of these illu.strations you are 
much indebted to the artistic skill of a native of Leicester, Mr. E. Burgess, 
architect, London. 

Your Committee have added to the officers of the Societj^ an Honorarj'^ 
Corresponding Member for Coventry. Mr. Fretton, who aided so much the 
success of the late congress in that city, having kindly undertaken to fiU the 




The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Wokcester. 
The Right Hon. Lord Lyttelton. 

The Right Hon. Earl Beauchamp. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Dudley. 

The Right Hon. Lord Hampton, 

Sir E. A. H. Lechmere, Bart. 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Worcester. 

The Yen. tlie Archdeacon of Wor- 

The Rev. Canon Seymour. 

The Rev. Canon Wood. 
J. P. Brown-Westhead, Esq. 
Matthew Holbeche Bloxam, Esq. 
William Dickins, Esq. 
William Dowdeswell, Esq. 
Evelyn P. Shirley, Esq. 
H. Foley Vernon, Esq. 
G. J. A. Walker, Esq. 

5^onoravg Settftan'ea. 

Rev. G. S. MuNN. 

Rev. Herbert G. Pepys. 

J. Severn Walker, Esq. 


J. Severn Walker, Esq. 

J. NOAKE, Esq. 


The Officers of the Society. 
Rev. W. W. Douglas"^ 
Rev. H. G. Faussett / 

Osborne. /Rural Deans. 

Rev. H. J. Hastin( 
Rev. R. Prichabd 
Rev. R. Seymour 
Rev. Dr. Collis. 

NGS \ 

1 y 

Rev. T. G: Curtleu. 

Rev. R. Cattley. 

Hon. and Rev. H. Douglas. 


W. Jeffrey Hopkins, Esq. 
Edwin Lees, Es(|. 
Walker Rennick, Esq. 
R. Woof, Esq. 



Honorary Members. 

Sir Chas. H. J. Audeisou, Bait., Lea, 

Rev. Dr. Bloxam, Lower Beeding, 

W. Butterfiehl, Esq, Architect, 4, 

Adam-street, Adelphi, London, W. C. 
The Due di Castel Brolo, Secretary- 
General of the Royal Academy of 

The Rt. Hon Sir J. T. Coleridge.Heath's 

Court, Ottery St. Mary, Devon ; 26, 

Park-crescent, London, W. 
Sir Hy. E. L. Dryden, Bart., Canons 

Ashby, Daveutry. 
A. W. Franks, Esq^., British Museum, 

E.x\. Freeman, Esq., Somerleaze, Wells 
Sir Stephen Glynne, Bart., Hawarden 

Castle, Chester 
Alexander J. B. Beresford Hope, Esq., 

1, Conuaught-jdace, Loudon, W. ; 

Bedgebury Park, Kent 

John H. Parker, Esq., F.S.A., Turl, 

Rev. G. Aylitle Poole, "VVelford, North- 


Sir G. G. Scott, R.A., Architect, 
31, Spring Gardens, London, S.W. 

Edmund Sharpe, Esq. 

G E. Street, Esq., F.S.A., Architect, 
51, Russell-square, London, W.C. 

The Ven. Archdeacon Thorp, Kemer- 
ton, Tewkesbury 

The Ven. Archdeacon Trollope, F.S.A., 
General Editor to the Associated 
Architectui'al Societies, Leasingham, 

Wm. White, Esq., Architect, 30a, 
Wimpole-street, London, W. 

Prof. Willis, President of the Cam- 
bridge Antiquarian Society 

Rev. Mackenzie E. C. Walcott, B.D., 
F.S.A, Precentor and Preb. of Chi- 
chester, 58, Belgrave-Road, S.W. 

Ordinary Members, 

Allsopp, H. Esq., Hindlip Hall, Wor- 
Amphlett, Baron Sii' R. P., Wichbold 

Hall, Droitwich 
Aston, Rev. J. L. il., King's Jforton 
Atwood, Miss, Britannia-square, AVor- 

Anther, C, Esq., Albany -terrace, Wor- 
Baldwin, Alfred, Esq., Wildin House, 

Barber, ]\Irs., Sedgeberrow, Evesham 
Barkley, W., Esq., Foregate-street, 

Beauchamp, Right Hon. Earl, iSIadres- 

field Court, Great Malvern 
Bedford, Rev. W. K. R,, Sutton Cole- 
Bernard. E. W., Esq., Stourbridge 
Binns, R. W.,Esq., F.S.A. , Worcester 
Birbeck, C. H., E.sq., Worcester 
Bird, G.A., Esq., Glenthorn, Worcester 
Blew, Rev. W. J., 16, Warwick-street, 

London, S.W. 
Bloxam, M. H., Estj., Rugby, Vice- 

Boyle, Rev. G. D., Kidderminster 
(Hon. Canon of Worcester) 

Briscoe, Rev. W. K. B., Shipston-on- 

Brown- Westhead, J. P., Esq., Lea 
Castle, Kiddenuinster, Fiw-President 

Buck, Albert, Esq., St. John's, Wor- 

Cattley, Rev. R., Rose Hill Terrace, 

Chalk, T., Esq., Worcester 

Clarke, G. Row, Esq., Architect, 27, 
Great James-street, Bedford Row, 
London, W.C. 

Cocks, A. H., Esq., C.B., Dunley Hall, 

Collis, Rev. J. D., D.D. (Hon. Canon 
of Worcester), Stratford-upon-Avon 

Cookes, Rev. H., Winford, Astley 
Rectory, Stourport 

C'otton, J., Esq., Architect, 15, Temple- 
row, Birmingham 

Curtler, Rev. T. G , Bevere, Worcester 

Deighton, Miss, Worcester 

Dickins, W., Esq., Cherington, Ships- 
ton-on-Stour, l icc-Prcsidcnt 



Douglas, Hon. aud Rev. Henry, Han- 
bury, Bromsgrove 

Douglas, Rev. A- J., Matlion, Great 

Douglas, Rev. W. W., Sahvarpe, 
Droitwicli( Hon. Canon of Worcester) 

Dowdeswell, W., Esq., Pull Court, 
Tewkesbury, Vice-President 

Dudley, Right Hon. the Earl of,Witley 
Court, Stouqjort, Vice-President 

Duke, Rev. R. R., Birlingham Rectory, 
Per shore 

Fossett-Osborne, Rev. H.G., Littleton, 

Finch, Mr. E., St. John's, Worcester 

Goldingham, H. G., Esq., Worcester 

Green, Rev. John Fowler, Tredington, 

Hampton, Right Hon. Lord, G.C.B., 
Westwood Park, Droitwich, Vice- 

Haddon, H., Esq., Architect, Great 

Hastings, Rev. H. J., Matley, Worces- 
ter (Rural Dean and Hon. Canon) 

Haviland, llev. J., Fladbury, Pershore 

Hill, Rev. R. Pynder, Bromesberrow, 

Holden, Hyla, Esq., Lark Hill, Wor- 

Hone, Ven. Archdeacon, Halesowen, 

Hopkins, W. J., Esq., ConsultingArchi- 
tect to the Worcester Church Exten- 
sionSociety,andArchidiaconal Board 
of Education 

Hopkins, T. M., Esq, Worcester 

Johnstone, Lieut.-Col., Tything, Wor- 

King, Rev. T., Lyttelton House, 
Malvern Link 

Kingsford, Rev.H., Stoulton, Worcester 

Kingsmill, Rev. W. M., Bredicot, 

Lawson, Rev. R., Upton-on-Severn 

(Hon. Canon of Worcester) 
Lea, Rev. William, St. Peter's, Droit- 
wich (Hon. Canon of Worcester) 
Lees, Edwin, E.sq., F.L.S., Worcester 
Lechmere, Sir E. A. H., Bart.. Rhydd 
Court, Upton-on-Severn, J^ice-Prc- 
Locke, Mr. E., Worcester 
Loscombe, Miss, College Green, Wor- 
Loscombe, Miss L. C, College Gieen, 

Lyttelton, Right Hon. Lord, Hagley, 
Stourbridge, President 

Male, Dudley, Esq., Architect 

Mildmay, Rev. C. A. St. John, Alve- 
church Rector}' 

Masefield, G., Esq., Ledbuiy 

Munn, Rev. G. S., Madresiield, Great 
Malvern, Hon. Sec. 

Niven, W., Esq., 7, Sloane Terrace, 
Chelsea, Lontlon, S.W. 

Noake, John, Esq., Worcester 

Odell, William, Esq., Coventry 

Pakington, The Hon. J. Slaney, 
Powick, Worcester 

Parker, Rev. Wm., Little Comberton. 

Paul, Rev. J., Worcester 

Perrins, J. D., Esq., Davenham Bank, 
Great Malvern 

Pepys, Rev. H. G., Hallow Vicarage, 
Worcester, Hon. Sec. 

Philpott, Rev. T. , Bellbroughton,Stom-- 

Preedy, Frederick, Esq., Architect, 13, 
York-place, Portman- square, London 

Prichard, Rev. R., Newbold, Shipston- 
on-Stom- (Rural Dean) 

Rennick.Walker, Esq., Lark Hill, Wor- 

Robinson, Rev. E., Worcester 

Rowe, H., Esq., .Architect, Worcester 

Salt, Rev. G. C, Worcester 

Seymour, Eev. R., Kinwarton, Alcester 
(Rural Dean and Canon) 

Smith, AVm. Lea, Esq., Britannia- 
square, Worcester 

Smith, R., Esq., Brabourne House, 

Shiiley, Evelyn P., Esq., Lower 
Eatington Park, Stratford-ou-Avon, 

Stannus, Rev.j^B. W., Arrow Rectory, 

Stratford, T. N., Esq., Elmfield, Wor- 

Thorn, Rev. W., Britannia-square, 

Turner, Rev. Reginald P., Churchill, 

Vernon, H. Foley, Esq., HanburyHall, 

Bromsgrove, Vice-President 
Vernon, Rev. H. J., Eckington, Per- 
Walker, Mr. J. Sevein, Stuart's Lodge, 

Malvern Wells, Hon. Sec. 
Walker, John,Es([., Westbourne House, 



Walker, G. J. A., Esq., Norton Villa, 

Worcester, Vice-President 
Warner, Rev. C, Chin, Shropshire 
Wells, Mr. F., Foregate-st. , Worcester 
Wood, Rev. J. R. , Canon of Worcester, 

Woof, R., Esq., F.S.A., Worcester 

Worcester, The Lord of, Hartle- 
bury Castle, Kidderminster, Patron 

Worcester, The Very Rev. the Dean of, 
Deanery, Worcester, Vicc-P^'esident 

Woodward, F., Esq., Lark Hill, Wor- 

E U L E S 

1. That this Society be entitled 
" The Worcester Diocesan Archi- 
tectural Society." 

2. That the objects of the Society 
be to promote the study of ecclesiastical 
architecture, antiquities, and design, by 
the collection of books, casts, drawings, 
&c., and the restoration of mutilated 
architectural remains within the dio- 
cese ; and to furnish suggestions, so far 
as may be within its province, for im- 
proving the character of ecclesiastical 
edifices hereafter to be erected or 

3. That the Society be composed 
of a patron, president, vice-presidents, 
two or more secretaries, a treasurer, 
librarian, honorary and ordinary mem- 
bers ; to consist of clergj'men and lay 
members of the Church of England. 

4. That the Lord Bishop of the 
Diocese, for the time being, be re- 
quested to accept the office of patron. 

5. That the business of the Society 
be transacted by a Committee con- 
sisting of the patron, president, xice- 
presidents, secretaries, treasurer, libra- 
rian, the rural deans of the diocese 
(being subscribers), and not exceeding 
eighteen ordinary members to beelected 
at the annual meeting ; and that three 
do constitute a quorum. 

6. That the committee have power 
to supply vacancies in their own body, 
provisionally, until the next annual 
meeting ; and that members of the 
committee, in any neighbom'hood, may 
associate other members with them, 
for local purposes, in communication 
with the central committee. 

7. That every candidate for admis- 
sion to the Society be proposed and 
.seconded by two members, and balloted 
for at a meeting of the committee, or 
at a general meeting. 

8. That on the election of a mem- 
ber the secretaries send him notice of 
it, and a copy of the nUe-s. 

9. That each member shall pay an 
annual subscription of ten shillings, 
to be due upon the first of January in 
each year. 

10. That any member may com- 
pound for all future subscriptions by 
one payment of five pounds. 

11. That all persons holding the 
office of churchwarden in any parish 
of the diocese, be entitled, without 
payment, on the recommendation of 
the clergyman of their parish, being a 
member, to all the privileges of mem- 
bership, except that of voting. 

12. No one shall be entitled to his 
privileges as a member of the Society 
whose subscription is in arrear. 

13. That the annual meeting shall 
take place at Worcester in the autumn ; 
and that the ordinary meetings of the 
Society be held at such times and 
places as the committee may appoint ; 
and that the committee meet once a 

14. That honorary members may be 
elected, upon the nomination of the 
committee only, at a general meeting 
of the Society. 

15. That each member be allowed 
to introduce a friend at any general 

REPORT. xlvii. 

16. That all books, drawings, papers, 
and other property of the Society, be 
vested in trustees, to be appointed by 

17. That no new rnle be passed, and 
no alteration be made in any existing 
rule, unless notice of the proposed new 

the committee, and kept by the secre- j rule or alteration shall have been given 
taries for the use of members ; and that t at the preceding general meeting, 
no person ceasing to be a member of 
the Society shall have any claim upon 
or interest in its property. ' 

The Report. 

The Annual Meeting of this Society was held at tlie Natural History Society's 
Rooms, on Saturday, March 28th, 1874. Mr. G. ,T. A. Walker presided, and 
there were also present the Revds. W. W. Douglas, E. Robinson, \V. Thorn, 
T. King, H. Kingsford, and W. M. Kingsmill ; and Messrs. J. Noake, E. Lees, 
J. Severn AValker, Walker Rennick, and T. N. Stratford. 

Mr. J. Severn Walker (the Hon. Secretary) read the Annual Report as 
follows : — 

Your Committee commenced their last and nineteenth Annual Report 
by recording the loss which the Society had sustained by the deaths of two of 
its original Vice-Presidents — the late Sir T. E. Winnington, Bart., and C. Holt 
Bracebridge, Esq., and they have now to express their regret at the decease of 
anotlier Vice-President, the late Archdeacon of Coventrj', which took place in 
March, 1873, just before the presentation of the last Report. Archdeacon 
Sandford took a most active part in the formation of this Societj^ having been 
Chairman of the Provisional Committee, and frequently attending the earlier 
general meetings, especiallj' those held at Birmingham and Coventr}', when 
he delivered interesting and animated addresses. The Archdeacon's exertions 
in behalf of correct principles of architecture and church arrangement, as well 
as in providing for the spiritual and educational wants of his parishioners, 
were practically exemplified in what he, with so much zeal and success, accom- 
pli.shed with regard to "church, school, and parish," both at Dunchurch and 
Alvechurch. Nor should his zealous advocacy of the principle that all parish- 
ioners—the poorest equally with those more largely endowed with this world's 
goods — have a right to free accommodation in the house of God. 

The Society has also lost an Honorary Member by the death of Dr. Robert 
Big.sby, M.A., LL.D., which occurred at his residence, Peckham Rye, after a 
short illness, in September last. He was tlie author of a valuable history of 
Repton, and of many other works, his last being an essay on the Sjnrit of 
• Cliiralry, which was published only a short time previously to his decease. In 
recognition of his literary attainments Dr. Bigsby received a pension from the 
Civil Service List ; he had also received the decoration of the order of St. 
James of Portugal, and Avas a Knight of St John of Jerusalem, England. In 
addition to being fornaerly a Fellow of the Royal Society, and of the Society of 
Antiquaries, and he was an honorary member of many of the learned Societies 
of the Continent. 

The Annual Volume of Rrporfs and Papers for 1872 is especially interesting 
to the Members of this Society on account of its containing the valuable 
''Inventories of Church Goods mid Ccrfifiaites of Chantries, temp. Edward VI., 
in Worcestershire," copied from tlie originals in the Public Record Office, by 
the Rev. Mackenzie E. C. Walcott, B. D. 

Tlie last Annual Meeting of tlie Society was held on Saturday, March 29th, 
when the Report of the Committee was read and adopted, and the annual 
officers were elected. 


The first Excursion took place on Thursday, July 3rd, on which occasion 
the Members and their friends, having assembled at Ledbury, proceeded in 
carriages to visit the churches and other objects of interest at Preston, Ahuch 
March, Keniplcy, unADonidiigton. Mr. M. H. Bloxam accompanied the party, 
and added much to the interest of the expedition by kindly describing the 
monuments, and pointing out other noteworthy features of the above-mentioned 

Preston Cliurch is a small structure, consisting of chancel, nave, north 
porch, and bell-turret at the west end ; a south aisle being added when the 
church was restored in 1859. Within a fourteenth-century porch is a Norman 
doorway, with a carved representation of the Agnus Dei in the tympanum. 
A small window in the aisle contains some excellent thirteenth-century stained 
glass, representing the Crucifixion ; and the original stone altar slab, wliich, 
prior to 1859, formed part of the pavement, has been restored to its former 
position and use. Near the church is the Court House, a large and unusually 
lofty specimen of a timber structure, dating from the early part of the seven- 
teenth century. The front has a uniform range of six gables, and one of the 
rooms is lined with oak panelling, and contains a well-carved fire-jdace of the 

The church of St. Bartholoview at Much Marcle, is of unusual size, having 
a chancel with north chapel, nave, four bays in length, a lofty clerestory, aisles, 
south porch, and a tower between the nave and chancel, there being no 
transepts. The architecture is chiefly Early English, with later windows 
inserted, and a tower of the Perpendicular style. Mr. Bloxam has kindly 
promised to write a description of the valuable series of sepulchral effigies 
preserved in this church, to accompany an arehitectural account of the fabric 
prepared by one of your honorary secretaries for publication in the forthcoming 
volume of Reports and Papiers of the Associated Architectural Societies. 

After dining at the Walwyu Arms, Homme House was visited, on the 
kind invitation of Col. and Mrs. Money-Kyrle, in whose iinavoidable absence 
the Excursionists were politely received by Miss Alice Money-Kyrle. The 
house is chiefly of modern erection, but contains numerous works of art and 
objects of antiquity, including a carved oak fire-place from the old house, a 
chair which belonged to Sir Mathew Hale, an ebony cabinet presented to Sir John 
Ernie, Bart., by Queen Anne, an original portrait of the Man of Ross, curious 
and beautiful china, and books, &c. In the beautiful grounds is a singular 
octagonal garden-house, dating probably fi'om the end of the sixteenth century. 
Tea, coff"ee, and other refreshments having been partaken of, a short drive 
brought the party to Kempley Ch urch, which, in an archajological point of 
view, was by far tlie most interesting structure included in the day's investiga- 
tions. It is of small size, comprising Nonnan chancel and nave, an Early 
English western tower, and a later south porch of open timber work. The 
west and south doorways and the chancel-arch are excellent examples of Norman 
work ; but the twelfth-century wall paintings, which had been recently brought 
to light by the care and persevering exertions of the Vicar, the Rev. A. H. 
Drummond, are almost unique; Mr. Bloxam pronounced them to be the earliest 
he had ever seen in England. The whole interior of the chancel walls, window 
splays, and barrel-vaulted ceiling, is covered. South of the east window is a 
bishop in eucharistic vestments, a pastoral staff" in his left hand, his right 
raised in benediction. Our Blessed Lord in majesty, surrounded by a vesica- 
.shaped aureole, and the evangelistic symbols ; the heavenly host, &c., are 
represented upon the vaiUting ; and full-length figiu-es of the twelve Apostles 
in adoration on the side walls. The nave has been also similarly enriched, but 
these paintings are much less perfect than those in the chancel. The contem- 
plated visit to Dijmoclc was abandoned on account of the rain, which fell 
heavily all the afternoon. After a glance at the little Church of Donnington, 
and a .short halt at the rectory, where the Rev. J. Lander had hospitably 

PvKPORT. xlix. 

provided tea, the party returned to Ledbury in time for the 8.24 train to 

The Society's second Excursion took place on Wednesday, September 24th, 
for the purpose of inspecting the Priory churches of Great and LMle Malvern, 
and Eastnor Church. A few Members of tlie Worcester Naturalists' Field Club 
joined the party, which arrived at Malvern shortly after the commencement of 
the usual morning service, at the conchision of which the excursionists, together 
with many of the congregation, assembled at the east end of the nave to listen 
to a brief historical account of the monastery, and a short description of the 
church, by JMr. Severn Walker, one of your Hon. Secretaries. 

The visitors, having examined the various points of interest throughout 
the building, proceeded in conve3'ances to Eastnor, the well-known drive along 
the Ridgeway and through the park being unusually beautiful under the 
favourable circumstances of brilliant sunlight and a refreshing breeze. The 
churcli at Eastnor was nearly rebuilt, from Sir G. G. Scott's design, in 1852. 
It is a handsome structure in tlie Middle-pointed st3de, the solemnity of the 
interior bordering upon gloom. North of the chancel aisle is a mortuary 
chapel, with a painted east window and tomb beneath to the memory of the 
late Earl Soniers, and containing monuments to other members of the family. 
A cold collation was partaken of at the Somers' Arms, and at four o'clock a 
start was made for Liffle Jllalvcrn Priory Church, the picturesfpie remains of 
which were reached after another cliarming drive. Mr. Severn Walker gave 
an account of the small establishment which was founded here in tlie twelfth 
century, as a cell to Worcester Priory. The Norman church was rebuilt by 
Bishop Allcock, 1480 and 1482, and of this the choir, or presbytery, and tower, 
remain tolerably perfect, the transepts and choir chapels being in ruins ; and 
the nave, cloisters, &c., entirely gone. There is a well -carved rood-beam and 
screen ; also ten stalls with mutilated misereres, in the interior ; and tlie east 
window contains some remains of excellent stained glass. After admiring the 
beautiful grounds and trees of the adjoining Court House, and tlie charming 
surrounding scenery, the excursionists walked to Stuart's Lodge, the residence 
of Mr. Severn Walker, where a large collection of antic^uities and curiosities 
were arranged for inspection. Tea, fruit, and more substantial refreshments, 
were served in the library ; the majority of the party leaving Jlalvern Wells 
by the 8.7 train for Worcester. 

The Reports of 3'our Committee during the last eighteen years have almost 
invariably recorded some work of restoration as having been lately completed, 
or as still in progress, at our Cathedral. The present will probably be the last 
occasion on which they will have to chronicle anj' material reparation of the 
fabric, or any important addition to the decoration of the sacred building, 
unless it be the insertion of stained glass windows, an adornment of which the 
Cathedral is very deficient. The works now in hand are expected to be com- 
pleted in the course of a week or two, and the formal re-opening of the reno- 
vated structure has been definitely fixed to take place on the Stli of April, upon 
which, and three .subsequent days, special services will be held to celebrate the 
most important event in the annals of church restoration that has occurred in 
the diocese since the foimation of the Architectural Society, if not since the 7th 
of June, A.T). 1218, when the then recently restored Cathedral was consecrated 
anew in the presence of the young king Henry III., and a great assembly of 
noblemen, bishops, abbots, and knights, by Bishop Sylvester, who dedicated 
it to the blessed Virgin Mary, tlie Apostle St. Peter, and the SS. Oswald and 

During the past year the painting and gilding of the entire vaulting east- 
ward of the tower has been completed by continuing the .style of decoration 
adopted for the choir ceiling throughout the Lady Chapel and eastern transept. 
In the choir aisles and south chapel the vaulting is decorated with a more 
formal pattern, consisting of a diaix'r formed of the sacred monogram and a 

VOL. XII., PT. I. (/ 


cross alternating. An attempt has been made to relieve the formal monotony 
of this by the introduction of bine medallions, similar to those on the centre 
vaulting, and the ribs in the choir have been rendered more prominent by 
additional colour. Tlie effect of the whole, though somewhat feeble, is rich 
and harmonious. 

The choir screen differs considerably from those previously designed by 
Sir G. G. Scott ; for while the screen at Ely Cathedral is constructed entirely 
of oak, the one at Tichfipld of brass, and the Hereford screen of iron, with an 
admixture of brass, the Worcester screen exhibits a combination of materials — 
wood, iron, brass, and marble. The base consists of a dwarf wall of Devon- 
shire niHrble, having pierced panels filled with metal grilles ; from this rise 
triple shafts of gilded brass, supporting richly-moulded and cusped arches of 
oak — two on either side of a wider arch which forms the entrance to the choir. 
They are all surmounted by gables and a massive cornice of the same material, 
the centre gable rising to a greater height than the others, and terminating in 
a richly-enamelled metal cross, five feet high. The spandrels of the arches are 
filled with wrouglit-iron work, and along the top extends a gilt metal cresting. 
The entrance is closed by delicately-wrought iron gates, by Skidmore ; and in 
the centre gable on the west side is a statue of our Lord, a fifjure of the blessed 
Virgin occupying a corresponding position on the eastern side. Other figures 
represent SS. Peter, Paul, Jerome, Gregory, Ambrose, and Augustine. 

Tlie organ has been erected in the second arch from the tower, on the 
north side of the choir, where it occupies comparatively little space, and is 
much less obstructive than was by some persons anticipated. The elaborately 
carved oak case and the pipes are profusely enriched with gold and colour. It 
projects slightly over the stalls, and extends to the the top of the main arcade. 
It is a source of congratulation to your Committee that the present satisfactory 
arrangement of the organ has been carried out, instead of placing a portion of 
the instrument upon a double stone screen at the west end of the choir, as 
originally proposed, and strongly advocated by Sir G. G. Scott, but against 
whicli the Committee earnestly ]irotested in a former Report. 

The stalls of the Dean and Residentiary Canons are surmounted liy carved 
and crocheted oak canopies, and the Bishop's throne is likewise of the same 
elaborate character, the canopy being further enriched with statues of our 
blessed Lord and SS. Augustine and Alban. 

The sound board and other modern additions have been removed from the 
choir pulpit, Avhich is placed upon a new base of Painswick stone, the stairs 
being provided with brass hand rail. The elaborate reredos has been enriched 
bj- the application of gold and colour, so as to bring out some of the ornnmental 
details more prominently. Gilding has likewise been applied to the heavy oak 
side screens of the choir ; and the iron grilles at the back of the stalls have been 
placed in a line with the centre of the piers, instead of in front of them. 

The reparation of the stonework of Prince Arthur's Chapel, and the very 
questionable proceeding of gilding the statue of King John — the earliest royal 
effigy in England — have been carried out at the cost and under the direction 
of the Government " Board of Works." 

The costly pavement of black and white marble which has been completed 
in the nave lacks warmth and colour, and the angular key-like pattern up the 
centre is rather distracting to the eye. The Committee cannot but think that 
this pavement, as regards both material and design, is more suited for, and 
would have a far better effect in a building of classic character, than it can ever 
possess in a grand old mediaeval Cathedral. 

The magnificent nave pulpit, like the pavement, is the gift of the Earl of 
Dudh-y. It was executed by J. Forsyth, of London, and is constructed of 
marble and alabaster, with a hand rail of wrought metal work. Curved ribs 
springing from massive shafts of verd antique support the main body of the 
pulpit, around which are groups representing Scripture subjects, and single 


figures, exquisitely carved iu high relief. It is doubtful whether it htis beeu 
erected in the best position — against the second pier from the tower on the 
south sitle — as the preacher will be inaudible in Llie choir and transepts, and 
at the west end of the nave ; whereas, had the pulpit been placed in front 
of the soutli-west pier of the tower, it would have commanded the western 
portion of the choir, the north and south transepts and crossing space, and 
the nave as far as the voice would reach — about live bays. Inner vestibules 
of oak to the north and south-east doorways, and carved oak benches for the 
nave, have also been provided at the expense of the same noble lord. Tlie 
north doors are of richly-panelled oak, those at the cloister entrance being 
quite plain, but covered with elaborately-wrought iron work. Wrought-iron 
gates, by Skidmore, have been provided for the choir aisles, north porch, and 
cloister entrances. The nave will be lighted by a continuous line of gas jets 
on each side, on a level with the base of triforium ; the choir with brass 
standards. Other iittings include a brass eagle lectern, by Messrs. Hardman 
and Co. ; altar rails ; embroidered frontal and superfrontal, &c., by Helbronner ; 
oak sedilia and desk, and litany desk. 

The cloister floor has been laid with the stone and slate originally prepared 
for the nave, thus completing one of the most satisfactory sections of this 
extensive restoration. 

Some interesting remains of sculptured decoration over the dais at the 
east end of the lefrectory were discovered last June. In the centre is a digni- 
fied, though mutilated figure of our blessed Lord, within an elongated quatre- 
foil, having the evangelistic symbols in the angles. On either side ai'e two 
niches of later date, the canopies and all projecting ornaments having been 
chiij])ed oft' to the level suifiice of the wall. 

The new church of .S'. Gabriel, in the parish of Hanley Castle, erected at 
the cost of Samuel Martin, Esq., of Catterhall, on a site given by Sir E. A. H. 
Lechmere, Bart., was consecrated upon Easter Tuesday last. It is iu the 
Early Decorated style, was designed by Sir G. G. Scott, and consists of chancel, 
nave of four bays, north and south aisles, north porch, and tower at east end 
of north aisle. The five-light east window is of unusual design, and somewhat 
large for its position at the end of an ordinary sized chancel. The side windows 
are coujiled lancets, those in the chancel having a circle in the head. On each 
side of the nave are four foliated circular clerestory lights ; the west wall of 
the nave being pierced by two two-light windows, with a small opening above 
and a doorway beneath. The tower, of massive proportions, is surmounted by 
a stone spire, the lower stage opening to the chancel and north aisle, and 
serving as vestry and organ chamber. The porch is of open timber work, and 
at the entrance to the church-yard is a picturesque lich-gate. The nave is 
separated from the aisles by arcades of plain chamfered arches, resting upon 
round and octagonal piers. The nave roof is of original design and admirable 
construction. The reredos was given by Sir E. A. H. Lechmere, Bart. ; it 
contains in the centre a plain cross, within a vesica-shaped panel, on a ground 
of gokl mosaic, and having on either side incised figures representing S. Gabriel 
(to whom the church is dedicated) and S. Michael. The altar, altar-cloth, and 
credence, were presented to the church by Lady Lechmere. 

The accommodation at Holy Trinitij C'hurek, North Malvern, has been 
increased by widening the north aisle, a gabled roof being substituted for the 
former lean-to. The vestry has bueu also rebuilt on a larger scale, a doorway 
opened at the west end in place of one on the north side, a new open pulpit 
with marble shafts provided, and two stained glass windows, by Messrs. Ward 
and Hughes, erected in the chancel to the memory of tlie late Sir H. E. F. 
Lambert, Bart. Messrs. Haddon Brothers designed and superintended the 
erection of these works. 

The five lancet lights at tlie east end of S. James'is Ckmxh, West Malvern, 
have been filled with excellent stained glass, by Messrs. Hardman and Co., 
representing events in the life of our blessed Lord. 


Au organ-cliamber has been erected on tlie north side of the chancel of 
)S'. MatthiiLs' Church, Malveni Link, a few alterations being at the same time 
effected in the chancel fittings. 

The cold and cheerless-looking interior of Little Malvern Church has been 
greatly improved and brightened by covering the east wall with appropriate 
hangings, remodelling the altar-cloth, and placing au oak stall in the old 
sedile recess. 

Extensive works have been carried out at Frankley Church, under the 
direction of Mr. Preedy ; the patron. Lord Ly ttelton, defraying one-half of the 
cost. The improvements include rebuilding the north wall of chancel, new 
porch, reseating the nave with open benches, new altar, font, heating appara- 
tus, &c. 

A partial restoration of the inconveniently-constructed church oi Halesowen 
has been effected. Otlier and more important works are in progress, under 
the direction of Sir G. G. Scott. 

Moseley Chtirch has been enlarged by the erection of a new chancel, with 
organ chamber, from the designs of Mr. Chatwin, of Birmingham. A font, 
designed by J\lr. Preedy, and new free seats, have also been provided, together 
with four memorial windows in the new chancel ; the total cost of the new 
work and fittings amounted to £1,580. 

The church of S. Kcaehn, at Uj^ton Snodshunj, one of the important 
structures in that part of the country, had been allowed to fall into such a 
miserable state of dilapidation, that it was not considered safe to hold service 
therein. Under the suxjerintendeuce of Mr. Hopkins, of Worcester, a 
thorough renovation of the whole fabric has been efi'ected, with the exception 
of the massive and lofty western tower, which still needs I'epair. The debased 
arcade, clerestory, and aisle on the south side, with the greater portion of both 
nave and chancel, had to be rebuilt, and new roofs placed thereon. All the 
windows have been restored and i-eglazed, the nave and ais'e fitted with open 
seats, and a stone pulpit erected at the north-west angle of the former. The 
chancel is paved with Godwin's tiles, and provided with new altar-rails, 
lectern, and seats for the clergy and choir. The re.storation of the ancient 
rood-screen is greatly to be desired, there being no arch to mark the division 
between chancel and nave. 

Much more extensive works of church restoration have been brought to a 
conclusion during the past year in Warwickshire than in the other part of the 
Diocese. The following churches have been rebuilt : — Church Lau[ford, at a 
cost of £3,500, exclusive of tower given by the Duke of Buccleuch, and 
numerous special gifts of church furniture ; architects, Messrs. Slater and 
Carpenter ; and BishoiJS Itchincjton, cost ±'3,000 ; architect, Mr. E. Christian. 
The more important restorations include FrcuiMoii, cost £2,100 ; architect. Sir 
G. G. Scott ; Harhury, co«t £3,650 ; architect, the late Mr. Buckeridge ; St. 
Nicolas, Wanuick, cost £850 ; architect, J\Ir. F. Trepass. Amongst minor 
works the following may be mentioned : — Memorial reredos. Holy Trinity, 
Coventry, by Sir G. G. Scott ; chancel restored at Naptoii ; south aisle rebuilt 
at Stockton ; organ removed from tower arch at Arroiv ; marble pavement to 
chancel, and tiles for the baptistery, at All Saints, Emscote, given by Miss 
M. Phillips, of Leamington. 

In addition to the works above mentioned, veiy many churches have been 
adorned with stained glass windows, articles of church furniture, and minor 
decorative features, besides which the educational requirements of the present 
day have resulted in the erection and enlargement of numerous school buildings, 
alike in town and country parishes, all tending to show how greatlj' the 
interest taken in matters appertaining to the spiritual and moral well-being 
of the community at large has increased since the establishment of this Society, 
just twenty years ago. 

The Rev. W. W. Douglas said he had gi-eat pleasure in moving the 
adoption of the able and interesting Report. On these annual reports a large 

REPORT. liii. 

amount of the usefulness of the Society depended. The minute account of the 
restoration of the Cathedral was particularl}' valuable, and would be of lasting 
interest. Special thanks were due to their excellent Secretary, who, with the 
assistance of the Committee, undertook the labour of drawing up the Report. 

The Rev. T. King seconded the motion, and added that Mr. Severn 
Walker had omitted from the Report one very important matter, and that was 
the very hospitable manner in which he entertained the Members of the 
Societj', on the occasion of their visit to Malvern Wells. 

The Rfport was unanimously adopted. 

The Rev. Hamilton Kingsford moved that the Patrons, the President, 
Vice-President, and Honorary Secretary, be re-elected ; that Mr. John Noake 
be elected Auditor, and that the following gentlemen form a (Committee for 
the ensuing year : — The Rural Deans, the Revs. Dr. Collis, R. Cattley, T. G. 
Curtler, and H. Douglas ; Messrs. H. G. Goldingham (Mayor), E. Lees, W. J. 
Hopkins, Walker-Rennick, and R. Woof. Little need be said in favour of 
their re-election ; for, after the Report which had just been read, there could 
be no doubt that their re-election was a just and well-deserved compliment. 
He felt it right to make special mention of their worthy Secretary, upon whom 
devolved the duty of providing for their comfort and instruction during the 
periodical excursions. 

Mr. E. Lees had great pleasure in seconding the re-election of the Officers. 
Some of tliem were more ornamental than useful ; but Avitli regard to two of 
them, their venerated Chairman and Mr. Severn Walker, they were always at 
their posts, and a large meed of praise was justly due to them. He felt sure 
that the days appointed for their Excursions, in which they all took the greatest 
delight, were really red-letter days in the year. He could say with truth that 
the receipt of the circular announcing the tours always gave him unalloyed 
pleasure. Their excellent Secretary provided for them in the best possible way, 
not only as to the means of going over the country, but also with regard to the 
cold collations. (Laughter.) 

The motion M'as carried. 

Mr. J. Severn Walker moved that the Rev. Canon Seymour be elected 
a Vice-President. There was no member of their Society more deserving of 
the honour than the Rev. Canon Seymour. He had done so much for the 
Church ; and though he had not been able to take any active part in the 
meetings of the Society, he felt great interest in it. 

The Rev. W. W. Douglas seconded the motion, which was carried. 

Mr. Walker-Rennick moved the election of Mr. Francis Woodward as 
a Member of the Society. Mr. Woodward was a Member of the City Bench, 
and was exceedinglj' an.xious to be connected with the Society. The Revs. 
W. K. R. Briscoe, Rector of Shipston-on-Stour, and W. Lea Smith, Esq., of 
Worcester, have also been recently elected Members of the Society. 

Mr. Severn Walker seconded the motion, and it was carried. 

The Chairman proposed a vote of thanks to their worthy and honoured 
Secretary (Mr. Severn Walker), who, he considered, Avas the mainstay of the 
Society. After a gi-eat many j^ears' experience of the Society, dating almost 
from its commencement, he could truly say that Mr. Severn Walker always 
carried out most satisfactorily all arrangement.s necessary for the convenience 
of every member of the Society. 

The Rev. E. Robinson seconded the resolution, which was carried with 

Mr. Severn Walker, in acknowledging the compliment, said that it 
was a sincere pleasure to him to organize the excursions, although, owing to 
unfavourable weather, some of them liad not been so successful as the Society 
could have desired. Their meeting that day was a small one, but the only 
business was the formal adoption of the Report, which every Member would 
receive through the post. If any one had suggestions to make respecting the 



excursions, he should be glad to hear them. They had almost exhausted their 
own county, and would soon have to resort to other districts. He might 
mention that the Rev. J. E. Cheese (of Bosbury) was anxious for the Society to 
visit his neighbourhood. If they went, they could include in their visit the 
churches of Colwall, Coddington, Bosbury, and ilathan. They had already 
visited three of those churches, but all of them had been restored, and would 
be new to most of the Members. 

Mr. Walker-Rennick said they might safely leave the whole matter to 
Mr. Severn Walker, who managed those tilings so well ; but he would just 
mention a suggestion which had been made, that the first excursion should 
take place early in June. (Hear, hear.) Mr. Walker-Rennick then proposed 
that a cordial vote of thanks be given to their Chairman for his kindness in 
attending and presiding at their JMeeting, as well as in matters appertaining to 
the Society generally. 

This having been seconded by the Rev. W. Thokn, was carried unani- 

The Chairman, in responding, said that he had been connected with the 
Society for many years, and felt thankful that he had been mercifully spared 
to attend that Annual Meeting. 

The Meeting then separated. 

T K E A S U K E E ' S E E P E T . 

Deer. 31st, 1871, to Dec: 31st, 1873. 

Dr. £ s. d. 
Balance in Hand, brought 

from former account ... 2 17 6 

Subscriptions and Arrears 72 11 

Sale of Annual Volumes . 8 

Cr. £ s. d. 

J. Williamson, Lincoln — 
share of expenses of 
Annual Yolumefor 1871 16 17 10 

Ditto, 1872 13 7 6 

Subscriptions to the Arun- 
del Society for 1872-73 4 4 

Postage and Stationery ... 5 9 6 

Excursion Expenses 2 12 

Printing 2 17 2 

Carriage of Parcels, and 
other small items 

Balance in Hand .. 

£75 16 6 

J. SEVERN WALKER, Treasurer. 
Examined and found correct, 

JOHN NOAKE, Auditor. 
Ajyril 17th, 1S74. 






The Lord Bishop of Ely. 


The Duke of Manchester. 


Earl Cowper, Lord Lieutenant. 

The HioH Sheriff. 

The Duke of Bedford. 
Colonel Gilpin, M.P. 
James Howard, p]sq , M.P. 
F. Bassett, Esq., M.P. 
Lieut. -Colonel Stuart. 


Lieut. -Colonel Higgins. 
J. Harvey, Escj. 
Capt. Polhill-Turner. 
Joseph Tucker, Esq. 
n. Hurst, Esq., F.S.S. 

Jlfai/or of Bedford. 



Thomas Barnard, Esq. 


Mark Sharman, Esq. 


Rev. C. C. Beaty-Powxall, F.S.A 
A. E. BuRCH, Esq. 
Rev. R G. Chalk. 


Major Cooper Cooper. 
J. N. Foster, Esq. 

C. E. Prior, Esq., M.D. 

F. Howard, Esq. 

Eev. J. B. Lee. 

Rev. A. Orlebar. 

E. Ransom, Esq., F.R.A.S., 

Dr. Steinmetz. 

Together with the Editorial Committee and Acting Officers of the Society. 

Rev. W. S. EscoTT. 
AV. M. Harvey, Esq. 
Rev. W. Monk, F.S.A. 

ffiDitorial-ffl ommittf e. 

B. Rttdge, Esq. 
Rev. L. Spencer. 
Rev. H. J. Williams. 
With the Secretaries. 


T. G. Elger, Esq., F.R.A.S. 

I^onorarg Sftretanea. 

Rev. Canon Haddock. | J. Wyatt, Esq., F.G.S. 

Stgent anD ^ubliaf)er. 

Mr. F. Thompson. 

Honorary Members. 

Ashworth, E., Esq., Exeter. 

Barrow, Peter, Esq., Caen. 

Bath and Wells, The Lord Bishop of 

Bloxam, M. H., Esq., Rugby. 

Boutell, Rev. C. 

Brandon, Raphael, Esq., Beaufort 

Buildings, Strand, London. 
Burgon, Rev. J. W., Oriel College, 

Burney, Rev. H., Wavendon. 
De Caumont, M., Caen. 
Fitch, Rev. S. E., M.D. 

French, R. G., Esq., Sussex Gardens, 

Hyde Park, London. 
Griifith, W P., Esq., St. John's-square 
Lee, Rev. T. F., Lancaster. 
Mayer, Joseph, Esq., Liverpool. 
Parker, .1. H., Esq., C.B., Oxford. 
Poole, Kev. G. A., Welford. 
Rowe, Rev. G., York. 
Smith, C. Roach, Esq. , Liverpool-street, 

TroUope, Yen. E., Archdeacon of Stow 

Ordinary Members. 

Bedford, His Grace the Duke of, 

Woburn Abbey. 
Barnard, Thomas, Esq., Cople House. 
Bassett, F., Esq., M.P., Leighton 

Beafy-Pownall, Rev. C. C, Milton 

Ernest, F.S.A., R.D. 

Beedham, John, Esq., Kimbolton. 
Brickwell, Rev. E., Cockayne Hatley. 
Brodrick, Hon. and Rev. A., Stagsden. 
Brooks, Rev. T. W. D., Flitwick. 
Burch, A. E., Es(i., Bedford. 
Butler, Rev. C. E., Aspley Guise. 
Cowper, The Earl, Panshanger. 



Cluilk, Rev. R. G., Wilden. 

Chapman T., Esq., Arnpthill. 

Coles, Rev. E. N., Potsgrove. 

Cary Elwes, D. G., Esq., F.S.A., Bed- 

Coleman, ¥.., Esq., Bedford. 

Cookesley, Rev. W. G. , Tempsford. 

Cooper, W. C, Esq., Toddington. 

Copner. Rev. J., Bedford. 

Corcoran, J., Esq., Bedford. 

Cutclitfe, J. E., Esq., Bedford. 

Cuthbert, Mr., Bedford. 

Downes, ilr., Bedfoid. 

Elger, T. G., Esq., Bedford. 

Escott, Rev. \V. S., Carlton. 

Fansliawe, Rev. F., Bedford. 

Fernie, T. P., Esq., Kinibolton. 

Foster, J. N., Esq.. Sandy Place. 

Giddins, G. H , Esq., Islington. 

Gil])in, Colonel, M. P., Hocklifte Grange. 

Haddock, Rev. Canon, Bedford. 

Harris, Theodore, Esq., Leighton 

Harvey, J., Esq., Ickwell Bury. 

HarveV, W. M., Esq., Harrold Hall. 

Hemming, J. H., Esq., Kimbolton. 

Higgins, C. L. , Esq., 'Purvey Abbey. 

Higgins, Lieut -Col ,Picts'Hill,Turve^^ 

Howard, F., Esq., Bedford 

Howard, John, Esq., Bedford. 

Howard. James, Esq., Clapham Park. 

Hunt, Rev. W. C, Odell. 

Hurst, George, Esq., Bedford. 

Jackson, T. J., Esq., Bedford. 

Jarvis, Mr. L., Bedford. 

Jessopp, L., Esq., Bedford. 

Lamert, Rev. M. 

Lawford, ■ — , Es(p, M.D., Leighton 

Lee, Rev. J. Bond, Bedford. 
Manchester, His Grace the Duke of, 

Kimbolton Castle. 
Maule, Rev. G., AmpthilL 
Monk, Rev. W., F.S.A., Wymington. 
Orlebar, Rev. A., Willington, R.D 
Orlebar, Capt., Ciawley House. 
Pigot, J., Jun., Esq., F.S.A., F.G.S., 

flting, Maldou. 
Polhill-Turner, Capt., M.P., Howbury 

Prior, C. E., E.sq., M.D., Bedford. 
Purser, H., Esq., Willington. 
Pansoni, E., Esip, Kenipston. 
Richardson, Rev. T. P., Great Barford 
Rndge, B. , Esq., Bedford 
Scott, Jliss, 10, Eccleston-street. 
Sharinan, Mark, Esq., Bedford. 
Smart, \V. L., Esq., Eversholt. 
Smith, E. T. Leeds, Esq., Sandy. 
Smith, Rev. W. Hart, Ikdford. 
Spencer, Rev. Leigh, Renhohl, R.D. 
Steinnietz, Dr. H., Bedford. 
Stuart, Lieut. -Col., Kempston. 
Tebbs, H., Esq., Bedford. 
Thornton, Miss, 79, Chester-square. 
Thompson, Mr. F., Bedford. 
Trethewy, H., Esq., Silsoe. 
Tucker, Joseph, Esq., Pavenham-Bury. 
Tylecote, Rev. Canon, Marston, R.D. 
Usher, Mr. J., Bedford. 
Waller, J., Esq., Luton. 
Ward. Rev C, Maulden, R.D. 
Williams, Rev. H. J., Kempston. 
Wormall, Rev. Canon, Bedford. 
Wood, Rev. H., Biddenham. 
Wvatt, J., E.sq., Bedford. 
AVyatt, P., Esq., Bedford. 
Young, Rev. 1! ., Yielden, 

The Report. 

The only circumstance which calls for notice in the proceedings of the past 
year, is tlie verj- pleasant and successful Exciu'sion to St. Alban's, made on 
July 14th. The Members and their friends who joined in it, liaving first paid 
a visit to St.. Peter s Church, under the guidance of the Rector, and to 
JUirnarcVs Heath, with its earth-work.s, the leputed scene of the Yorkists' 
defeat under the Earl of Warwick, at the hands of Margaret of Anjou, in 1461, 
returned to the Clock Towin-, and then proceeded to ins]iect the famous Abbey 
Church and the newly-restored Shrine, enjoying the great advantage of being 
accompanied in their inspection by Mr. Ridgvvay Lloyd, one of the Hon. 
Secretaries of the St. Alban's Society, and by Mr. Chappie, the energetic Clerk 
of the Works. 

VOL. XII., PT. I. h 




DuKiNG the last twelve months there has been little directly connected with 
the Society upon which to report. This has arisen from the fact that the 
British Archpeological Association, from an invitation by this Society, and 
others in the town, held their annnal Congress in Sheffield this year. It was 
therefore deemed desirable to omit our usual Excursions, and we hope that 
their visit will have conduced to foster greater zeal on behalf of Local 

Upon the invitation of the Field Naturalists' Club, our Members joined 
in two excursions to Eyam and Bradfield, which proved successful. 

Financially the Society is still prosperous. We hope during the coming 
3'ear members will manifest greater interest in objects of the Society than has 
hitherto been the case. 

T E E A S U E E E ' S AC C U N T S, 

For the Year endiiu/ Drc. 12th, ISIS. 

1872. £ s. d. 


Dec. 12, Balance in hand. . 25 8 1 




Sept. 4, Subscriptions 

collected by Mr. 
Short 19 

Subscriptions and 
Arrears Y'^\^ to 
Treasurer .. 5 

J. D. Leader for 
extra copies of 
his Paper 

£50 10 7 



4. Eent of Booms ... 10 
3. Leader and Sons, 

for Printing 

21. J. D. Webster, ex- 
penses to London 
respecting visit of 
British A icha^olo- 
gical Association 4 
4. Mr. Short's Com- 
mission 1 

8. Lengand Co., Ad- 

9. J. Williamson, 
Lincoln 9 11 10 

26. Postages & Petty 


27. Leader and Sons 

Balance in hand 20 

9 6 

5 2 


. 1 4 
. 3 
I 20 9 


£50 10 


J. D. LEADER, Treasurer. 

Audited and found correct, 



The Clui.rch of St. James, Louth, and other Churches visited hy 
the Soeieti} on the 26th and '27th of Jane, 1873. — By James 
Fowler, F.R.I.B.A., Architect, Louth, 

The architectural history of Louth Church appears, at first sight, 
to be very simple, and a casual observer might be led to say, " It is 
is all fifteenth-century work ;" it does, however, possess some 
points of interest which may have possibly escaped notice. The 
first church on this site was erected in the Transitional period, 
probably about 1170. Of this building no remains are now to be 
seen ; but in the course of the restoration of this church in 1868-9, 
many fragments of that date Avere discovered in the walls, under 
the floor, &c. About the middle of the thirteenth century it under- 
went a considerable alteration, amounting abnost to a rebuilding, and 
VOL. xn,, PT. I. A 


of this work considera'ble remains happily still exist ; but the build- 
ing, as we now see it, was erected almost entirely in the fifteenth 
century. The plan of the church is a parallelogram, 182ft. Gin. from 
east to west, and 72 ft. 2 in. from north to south mthin the walls, 
with north and south porches, and a vestry on the north side of tlie 
chancel aisle. The tower is contained -within the main walls. The 
nave arcades are of five bays, having a large square pillar, and a 
wider arch at their western ends, making up the space to the tower. 
The chancel is of four bays, and the aisles extend the full length of 
the building; these are somewhat wider as far as the chancel 
extends, on account of the nave being wider than the chancel. The 
nave is 37 ft. wide from centre to centre of pillars, and the chancel 
32ft. Gin. The bays of the aisles do not correspond Avith the arches 
of the nave, as they are narrower, but agree more nearly with those 
of the chancel outside, though they are earlier ; the five bays and 
wide arch of the nave form seven bays of the aisles ; the tower 
occupying two more bays, making nine in all : the porches in 
both cases occupying the third bay from the west. The thirteenth- 
century church was not on so grand a scale as the present building, 
for, in the course of the restoration before referred to, the founda- 
tions of the original pillars of the nave were discovered about four 
feet within the present" ones, so that the nave was eight feet nar- 
rower, and the aisles much narrower than the present ones. At 
that time the church was lengfhened westward very considerably, 
as the five bays in length would be sufficient for the width. The 
builders of the present church determined in theu' new Avork to use 
up as much of the old materials as possible, hence the pillars of the 
nave, Avith their capitals and arches, belong to the thirteenth-cen- 
tury church, while the bases and first course of each pillar are of 
fifteenth century. The pillars were originally simple octagonal ones, 
the hollows on the four alternate faces having been cut by the 
fifteenth-century workrcen. The two doorAvays under the north 
and south porches are of a corresponding date Avith the pillars, &c. 
They are of large size, and CAddently belonged originally to a 
church of considerable magnitude. The Avestern arch of the nave 
on both sides, the large pillar and the responds, and the masonry 
generally, are of a difierent material to the arcades proper, and are 
doubtless a subsequent Avork. The question, therefore, arises, Avas the 
naA^e at first of five bays, its present length, Avith a detached toAver, con- 
nected AA'ith it by AAdde arches 1 and the Availing of the aisles Avest of the 
doorAvays, justify this opinion, diftering as it does from the rest of 
the church, and being considerably later than the toAver itself. One 
other point of importance should not be overlooked. The toAver has 
sunk beloAV its original level no less than seven inches, as may be seen 
both externally and internally, but particularly on the north side, 
Avhere the Avide arch is affected by this settlement. In the second 


bay from the east end of the nave, and in the wall of the sonth aisle, 
are the remains of a doorway now walled np. This was probably 
the priest's door, for originally there was no outer door to the vestry, 
and near this doorway are three statue brackets, above which was a 
mural painting, some remains of which were discovered during the 
restoration of this church, but in so mutilated a state as merely to 
afford evidence of the former existence of such a decoration in this 
portion of the church. The walls of the nave aisles above the 
stringcourse were built sloping, the batter being four inches in a 
height of twenty feet ; at the same time, it is worthy of note that 
the walls of the church aisles are built upright. The chancel arch 
is very large, and plain in character, consisting of two chamfered 
orders, but the jambs on the east side are left without even this relief 
On the south side of this arch is the staircase to the rood-loft, this 
must have been of very elaborate character, as it had no less than 
five doorways from the staircase at different levels — three on the nave 
side, two on the chancel side. We will now turn our attention to 
the chancel, which is a remarkably good specimen of late Eectilinear 
work. The pillars consist of four clustered columns, separated by 
large filleted hollows resting on high bases, and supporting well- 
moulded arches ; they are of tAvo orders, separated by a deep hollow; 
the hood-moulds have a slight ogee at the crown of the arch ; from 
the corbel heads of this moulding, columns are carried up to the 
roof corbels, forming a more definite line of division to the several 
bays. The peculiar stilting of the western arch where it abuts upon 
the rood loft staircare is deserving of notice. The east window is 
of seven lights, very large and lofty, but placed very low in the 
wall. It is divided into two portions by an embattled transom. 
The intersection of the vertical and horizontal lines of the tracery 
form a very graceful cross, extending nearly to the crown of the 
arch. The transom forming the cross-bar, &c., is embattled on the 
outside. In the south aisle are sedilia, in a very mutilated condition, 
and near them, in the east wall, is a singular quatrefoil panel, 
wliich at one time was elaborately carved, and further enriched 
with gold and colour. The windows of the aisles correspond 
in design with those of the nave aisles, but there is a marked 
difference in their effect, the former being well moulded and 
very effective, while the latter are flat and tame in the extreme : 
this is more noticeable on the exterior, where the difference in 
the style and projection of the buttresses, the character of the 
mouldings from the base to the parapet, and the general design 
of both may be readily compared. The vestry, on the north side 
of the chancel, is approached from the aisle by an arched doorway 
with a crocketed hood-inuuld, contained within a s(|uare head ; the 
spandrels of which are panelled. In the vestry are two ancient 
chests of great interest. The older one has a solid iron-bound 


frame-work, secured to a solid log of oak by iron straps or'bands, it is 
3ft. 6in. long, 1ft. Sin. wide, 1ft. 2iii. deep, and had originally five locks. 
The other is 5ft. long outside the framing, and of more artistic 
character, it has three circular-headed panels in front, carved with 
the portraits of Henry VII. and his Queen, between which is a 
shield charged with a rose, surmounted by the Eoyal Crown, with a 
lion and a greyhound as supporters ; the panels at the ends are 
carved with the linen pattern peculiar to this period. The exterior of 
the church, with the exception of the chancel and the tower and spire, 
is not particularly interesting ; but the east end is worthy of atten- 
tion for its fine design and detail. (See plate.) The main buttresses, 
with their at present empty canopied niches and crowning pinnacles, 
are well designed, and form good lateral supports to the composition of 
the gable, the pierced quatrefoil parapet of which, with its moulded 
and enriched cornice, crocketed coping and terminal cross (the latter 
wreathed with a crown of thorns), are very well designed. The 
ends of the aisles correspond in character, but have a solid parapet, 
and the windows look like insertions of a later period. The tower, 
in conjunction with its spire, is, however, the crowning feature of 
the church, and perhaps is unrivalled for beauty of outline, and 
gracefulness of proportion. Grantham and Coventry may vie with it 
in point of height, and the former has liner detail ; while the latter is 
more highly ornamented. Each, in its way, may be considered the 
best example of its kind ; Louth for beauty of outline, Grantham for 
beauty of detail, and Coventry for elaborate richness. The tower 
is 20ft. 11 in. square inside, the Avails are 7ft. thick, and the but- 
tresses project 6ft. 8in., making a total width of 48ft. Sin. at the 
base, this thickness is slightly reduced at the west window ; at the 
lower pairs of Avindows they are 6ft. 2in. thick, and at the bell- 
chamber only Sft. 9iu. ; the spire is lUin. thick for a portion of its 
height, and then is reduced to 5in. only. Externally the arrange- 
ment of the toAver is of three stages, Avith massive double buttresses, 
the lower one on the Avest being again divided into tAvo parts ; on 
this side is the main doorway ; this is deeply moulded, the outer 
member is cusped and finished Avith an ogee hood, crocketed, and 
has lateral buttresses finished Avith pinnacles. Immediately over 
this is the west AvindoAV, of five lights, Avell moulded and deeply 
recessed. The tAvo large mullions of this Avindow are 2ft, l|in 
deep and lOin. Avide. On the eastern side is a lofty arch opening 
to the nave, and on the north and south sides are similar arches, 
somewhat more than half the thickness of the Avail, and filled in 
with coupled tAVO-light AvindoAvs above the roof of the aisles, resting 
on obtusely-pointed drop arches. Above this, in the interior, is a 
triforium at a height of 5 Sft. Sin. from the floor of the church. 
The interior of the tower has a fine groined roof, the croAvn of Avhich 
is 86ft. from the floor. From this gallery the foiu" faces of the 


tower are uniform in design and arrangement, with the slight 
variation occasioned by tlie turret staircase in the south-west angle. 
The second stage has coupled windows of two lights each, on each 
face the buttresses are here reduced in size, and have crocketed 
pediments. The lower stages are perfectly plain, their division being 
marked by simple weatherings only. On the west side of the lower 
one are two statue brackets. Immediately above these windows a 
gallery of considerable width is carried entirely round the tower, 
and at this point the pinnacles assume their shape, and form a 
massive abutment at each angle. The third-stage also has coupled 
two-light windows on each face, similar to those below, but with 
crocketed ogee hood-moulds of a very bold character ; at the spring- 
ing of these windows the buttresses have a second crocketed 
pediment. They are again reduced in size, and carried up to the 
cornice, where they finish with a third pediment. At this jioint the 
pinnacles are completely developed. They are octagonal in form, 
and very massive, being 6 ft. in diameter and 52 ft. high. The flying 
buttresses spring from these and form a singiilarly beautiful con- 
nection with the spire. The parapets are pierced and embattled, 
and have three pinnacles on each side, the central one of which is 
larger than the others, and all of them rest on gargoyles. The 
cornice of the tower divides the height into two equal parts, as 
nearly as possible, the tower gutters being 147 ft. above the floor of 
the church ; the total height of the spire being 294ft. above the 
floor, and about 300 ft. above the road at the north-east corner of 
the churchyard. The spire is a very simple one, having only one 
tier of spire lights, and crockets on the angles. The walls of the 
spire are as nearly straight-sidecl as possible, a slight appearance of 
entasis being given by the crockets, which project rather more at 
about one-third of its height. The finial is a modern one, and from 
some points of view appears lop-sided, because the arms do not 
correspond Avith the angles of the spire. It may here be as well to 
notice the design of the great pinnacles. Their spiral terminations 
finish within the line of the cornice, in the same way that the spire 
finishes within its parapet, and not projecting over them, as is usually 
the case. Within the spire is a series of wood floors, built round a 
central mast, commencing at the base, and extending to the top It 
is, however, so dark within the spire, and its floors are in such an 
insecure state, as to prevent a careful inspection. Just below the 
spire is a dark chamber, in which is a large wheel called the " wild 
mare," used for winding up the bells, &c., as a tread-wheel. The 
material of this church is worthy of attention. The tower was 
commenced with a white stone from the Yorkshire quarries, similar 
to that used for the bases and first courses of the nave pillars and 
the clerestory ; whether the supply failed, or its cost was too great, 
we cannot say, but a different and better material, of the same 


character as Ancaster stone, was then used, and the building is 
almost as fresh as the day it was built. The external face of the 
chancel and the east wall inside are of the same stone. The inner face 
of the clerestory is mostly of chalk, and of the chancel aisles green 
sandstone. In this church formerly existed three chapels severally 
dedicated in honour of Our Lady, St. Peter, and St. John the 
Baptist, the latter was evidently at the west end of the church, 
from the evidence of an old account for the repair of its west window. 
The chapel of St. Peter was at the east end of the south aisle, or of the 
north aisle of the nave where there are some corbels, and that of St. 
Mary at the east end of the choir. In 1527 an account of "old date" 
was settled for carrying stone from Conyngsby. This was most pro- 
bably for the stone used in building the tower and spire. In the 
same jeaTi the gallery and staircase were closed, and lead purchased 
from the Abbot of Eevesby. In 1537 Louth Park Abbey was 
visited, and a "letter of supplicacion" was written to liis Duke's 
grace, probably a petition that it might be allowed to remain. In 
1538 the image of St. George was taken down; this had only a 
few years before been regdded at a considerable expense. In 
1546 the four Guilds were inspected ; their lands were afterwards 
seized and given to the Corporation as an endowment for the 
Grammar School in 1552. In 1548 the choir roof was repaired 
and the walls whitewashed, and in the same year the three bells 
from St. Mary's Church were sold for £26 lis. 8d. In 1549 the 
new service was introduced, and in 1550 the altars were taken 
doAvn, and 705 ounces of plate sold to a Mr. Goodrycke, of London. 

St. Leonard's, South Cockerington. 

This church has long remained in a lamentable condition, but, 
through the liberal assistance of the Eev. F. Pretymau, has now 
been substantially repaired. It is a modest structure wholly of the 
Perpendicular period, except two windows of a Decorated character 
in the south wall of the chancel, and is built of green sandstone. 
The new roof has an unpleasantly flat pitch, but exactly foUows 
the pitch of the original one, as indicated by its weathering against 
the tower. The Avindows are of the flat-headed type, common in 
the middle of the fifteenth century. On the east side of the north 
door of the nave are remains of a stoup. The south doorway is 
walled up. Within, there are seven crosses incised and painted 
upon the Avails of the nave, and also another in the chancel. Some 
of the good old benches haA^e been retained in the new seating, but 
the old oak chancel screen still requires restoration before it can be 
replaced in its right position. The chancel arch is neAV, and also 
the north porch. On the south side of the chancel is a piscina, and 
on the opposite side a statue bracket ; but the princijjal object of 


interest in this cliiircli is the monument of Sir Adrian Scrope, at 
the east end of the nave on the south side. This consists of an 
altar tomb of alabaster, surmounted by an effigy, in knightly 
armour, carved in chinch. On the front of the base are two panels, 
the one having figures of Sir Adrian Scrope and his five sons, 
kneeling before a faldstool, or desk, carved upon it. Over these is 
the legend " Similis in jy^ole remrgo" on a label. Of the sons, two 
are habited as officers, and the others as civilians. On the other 
panel is a representation of his two daughters, over which is the 
legend '' Pares et ijnjxcres." The effigy above represents Sir Adrian 
in a reclining posture, resting upon his elbow, with one hand on his 
breast, and the other touching the hilt of his sword. He is arrayed 
in armour, over which is a military scarf. His features are grave 
and comely, and he has a small beard cirt square. His helmet is 
behind him, and his gauntlets in front. At his feet is his crest — a 
coronet surmounted by a plume of feathers. 

Sir Adrian Scrope, K.B., was the eldest son of Sir Jervais 
Scrope, of Cockerington, Lincolnshire, High Slierifi" of the county 
in 1634, and of considerable wealth. On the breaking out of the 
Avar between Charles I. and the Parliament, from his loyalty to- 
wards the King, and regard for the Earl of Lindsey. he raised a 
company of foot, and placed himself and his son Adrian under the 
command of that distinguished nobleman, when, with his Lincoln- 
shire regiment, he joined the Royal army as one of its principal 

Annoyed at tlie independent action of Prince RujDert, and the 
undue favour he received at the hands of the King, Lord Lindsey 
determined to court death at the hand of the enemy. Hence, at the 
battle of Edge-hill, fought on Sunday, October 23rd, 1642, in com- 
pany with his son, the young Lord Willoughby, he became the 
leader of his regiment, instead of directing the movements of the 
Royal army as its general, in a more secure position ; and thus took 
part in the thickest of the fight that ensued. In that struggle. Sir 
Edmund A^erney, the Royal standard bearer, was slain, and the 
standard captured, although subsequently recovered by Captain 
John Smith, of Lord Grandison's cavalry regiment. Then also, 
both the Earl and Sir Jervais Scrope fell sorely wounded, and the 
first was with difficulty rescued from the enemy by his gallant 
young son, while the last remained undiscovered beneath a heap of 
slain. Subsequently, after Priuce Rupert with the cavalry had 
pursued the enemy ahnost to Warwick, he returned to setirch for the 
many missing officers and men of the Rcjyal army, in and about the 
late battle-field. There, among the stripped and left for dead, 
Adrian Scrope found his father still alive, although wounded in 
sixteen places. There he had lain from three o'clock in the after- 
noon of Siuiday until the following Tuesday evening; indebted for 



his life to tlie cold of the first night, which had served to staunch 
his bleeding ; and he subsequently recovered at Oxford, whither he 
was carefully conveyed by his son ; while the Earl of Lindsey died 
under the hands of the unskilful surgeons of his time. Subse- 
quently Adrian Scrope was severely wounded in the Royal cause, 
and at the Restoration received some acknowledgement for his 
services by being made a Knight of the Bath. 

St. Adelwold's, Alvingham. 

At Alvingham formerly existed a Priory of the Gilbertine Order, 
founded in the reign of Stephen. At the dissolution it was granted 
to Lord Clinton. A little dedication stone from this house is now 
in the possession of the present Vicar of Sleaford, from which 
the subjoined cut has been engraved. 

It is thus inscribed, " Hee ecelesia 
manihus hominum facta ad lionorem 
Scl Adelwode sit. . . . edificata,.'" Strange 
to say, the present Church of Alvingham 
and that of JSTorth Cockerington stand 
in the same churchyard, and are served 
by the same Incumbent. 

The most interesting feature of Alv- 
ingham Church is the tower, which is 
of lancet work of three stages, with an 
embattled parapet. The Avest side has 
an intersecting mullioned window of 
three lights in the lower stage, and 
similar windows of two lights in the 
upper stage, on all four sides. The in- 
termediate stage on the west face has 
a single lancet. The parapet had origi- 
nally eight pinnacles ; that on the mid- 
dle of the east side occupies a somewhat 
peculiar position on the battlement, 
being on one side of it instead of in the 

centre as is usually the case. Within, there is a very good arch on 
the eastern side of the tower, the face next the nave being well- 
moulded, while the side next the tower is simply chamfered. The 
turret staircase is at the south-east angle of the tower. There are 
two windows in the nave of Perpendicular character, and some 
remains of ancient painted glass. A reversed capital of a pillar 
serves as a base for the font, the bowl is octagonal in form and 
quite plain. The south doorway of the church is of corresponding 
character with the tower. Over the door is a shield bearing Or, a 
bar between 2 chevrons S. 


St. Mary's, ISTorth Cockerington. 

This church consists of a nave of two bays, with two arches to 
the south aisle, a chancel, and a small modern tower at the west 
end of the aisle. The whole work is rude in character. On the 
north side of the nave there is a three-light window of Lancet 
character, with widely-splayed jamhs, similar to that in the adjoin- 
ing church. The chancel arch is of similar date ; the inner rib is 
carried upon corbels with heads. The font is plain, and rests on 
the chamfered base of an old I*^orman pillar. There still exists 
another relic of that early period here, viz., the head of a narrow 
ISTorman window of the key-hole type about four inches wide, and 
part of an old stringcourse above it, on the north side of the 
chancel of this church. Within is a mutilated cross-legged effigy 
of the thirteenth century. 

St. John the Baptist's, Yarborough. 

This village is notable from the fact that it gives its name to that 
"Wapentake in which it is situated, and to the Earl of Yarborough. 
The church consists of nave, north aisle, chancel, and tower, and is 
in good order, having been lately well repaired, viz., in 1855. 

The Tower is its chief feature. This is of two stages, and has 
good base mouldings, and buttresses of six stages simply weathered. 
In the upper stage are large two-light windows with good bold 
mullions. It is surmounted by an embattled parapet, and once had 
angle pinnacles which are now gone. The staircase is in the south 
east angle. Its chief feature, hoAvever, and this is a very beautiful 
one, is its doorway. The outer member of this is adorned Avith 
boldly cut ornaments placed at intervals, such as leaves, cones, &c., 
connected together by a twining stalk ; and also a legend almost 
entirely gone. In the spandrel on the right is carved the Holy 
Lamb with a bannered cross ; and above this a cusped circlet with 
a rose in each opening ; around, shields charged with the emblems 
of our Lord's passion, viz : — a cross, spear, crown of thorns, pincers, 
hammer, nails, cord, reed, scourges, and dice. On the other spandrel 
is carved Adam and Eve l^eneath the fatal tree, with its forbidden 
fruit, the eating of which necessitated the sufferings of the second 
Adam. "Within the chancel are some good old oak benches enriched 
with the folded linen pattern and poppy-head finials. 

CovENHAM St. Mary. 

This is a very small church, consisting of a nave, chancel, tower, 
and modern south porch. It is mostly of the Curvilinear period, 
but has lost its higli pitched roofs ; their forms may, however, still 
be seen on the east face of the tower ; the corbels of the roof 

VOL. XII., PT. I. B 


remain, two on each side of the nave. The chancel arch has heen 
taken down. The east window is partly built np ; its tracery is of 
flowing character, but somewhat weak in its detail. The north 
doorway, now built up, has an ogee-head, and very massive walling 
over it. The tower arch is of early character, and has two chamfers 
on each face ; the inner rib rests on a well-moulded corbel. On the 
north side of the chancel is a monumental recess of flowing Decora- 
tive character. There are two two-light windows on each side, with 
a piscina and a low side window on the south side. Some remains 
of ancient glass still exist in the chancel window. The font is 
good, and is carved with the symbols of our Lord's passion, on 

CovENHAM St. Bartholomew. 

This church at present consists only of nave, chancel, and south 
transept, and modern porch ; but it originally had a north transept 
also, and the arch still exists. The south one was used as a 
chapel ; the piscina still remains in the south Avail. The octagonal 
bowl of the font is adorned with the following figures carved upon 
its panels, viz. : — 1. A representation of the Fhst Person of the 
Holy Trinity, and the letters W. A., perhaps the initials of William 
Askew, as the donor of this font. 2. The A^irgin Mary and Holy 
Child. 3. St. James with a sword. 4. St. Bartholomew with a 
knife and book. 5. St. Matthew with a sword and book. 6. St. 
Thomas with a spear and book. 7. St. Jude the Less with a fuller's 
bat and book. 8. St. John with Simon with ship and book. 9. St. 
Simon Avith club and book. 10. St. Philip with three loaves. 
11. St. Jude with a saw and book. 1 2. St. Andrew with a saltire 
cross. 13. St. John with pen and book. 14. St. Peter with a 
key and book. In the chancel is a large grey slab containing an 
efiigy engraved upon brass of a knight in plate armour, with a 
broad hip-belt, sword, large cufied gauntlets armed A^dth gadlets, and 
very long sollerets, resting upon a lion. Just below the hip-belt is 
an edging of mad. The top of the helmet has been restored. 
Originally there were also two shields inserted in this slab, the 
matrices of which now alone remain. From an inscription on 
another plate, we gather that this stone commemorated Sir John 
Skypwyth, who died July 15, 1415. Just outside the porch on 
the south side of this church is a similar slab once commemorative 
of another knight, but now defrauded of its brass plate. 

St. Mary's, Ludborough. 

This parish gives the name to the Wapentake or Hundred in 
which it is situated. Its fine church consists of a nave, aisles, large 
chancel, with western tower. The nave is of the Transitional 


character, the chancel Lancet, with later insertions, and the tower is 
a fine siDccimen of the Eectilinear period. The nave consists of 
three baj^s with clustred quatrefoil pillars, those on the north side 
having sqiiare abaci, and on the south side a containing circular 
one. The responds at the east end are of considerable length, and 
the chancel is very deep and well proportioned. The original 
foundation of the Transitional chancel arch still remains. The east 
end of the chancel has two lancets with a buttress between them, with 
a quatrefoil above ; on the north side are three single lancets and the 
priest's doorway. In the sill of the western Avindow will be seen 
some painting of a corresponding date in very good preservation. 
On the south side the lancets have been removed, and their place sup- 
plied by two-light windows of the Curvilinear period ; there is also 
a two-light low side window here. Within the sanctuary is a double 
piscina, one opening of which has a trefoiled head, the other is 
simply arched ; the former had a projecting bowl, the latter one 
within the wall. The tower arch is large and lofty, and on one 
side are traces of the arch of the Transitional church : close to this 
arch is an incised slab. The tower is of three stages \ the western 
side has a three-light window on the first stage ; the second stage is 
large and lofty, and has a small quatrefoil within a square on the 
north and south sides, the others being plain. The upper stage has 
two-light windows on each face, and above is an embattled parapet, 
which has unfortunately been shorn of its pinnacles. 

As this Church had become extremely dilapidated, and suffered 
serious injury from a storm in 1858, it was well restored two years 
later through the exertions of the present Incumbent, the Rev. 
Augustus Gedge. 

St. Andrew's, Utterby. 

The village of Utterby lies on the east of the old Eoman road 
now called Barton Street. Its church consists of a nave, north 
aisle, south transept, chancel, tower, and a south porch. The nave 
is of three bays and of a late Rectilinear character. The tower, 
built circa 1340, and its arch opening into the nave has three 
chamfered orders without corbel or respond. It is of three 
stages, and has a two-light window of CurA-ilinear character 
on the west side. The second stage is plain, and the third 
has a two-light Avindow on each face. The parapet has been altered 
at some recent period when its pinnacles were removed. The south 
transept has some good angle buttresses, the gabled hoods of which are 
terminated by crosses, with shields on the intersections. The south 
doorway is well-moulded and its jambs are enriched with carvings 
representing a salvage man with a monkey in a string, a monkey 
holding a baby or young child, a fox carrying olf a goose, &c. 
Above it is a crocketed hood-mould, and the old door with its 


excellent ironwork still remains. There are two other Decorated 
features in the east window of the north aisle and on the east side 
of the transept. The chancel has one two-light window on the 
north side, and two on the south side, the eastern one, within the 
sanctuary, being carried down to form a seat ; there is also a piscina, 
an aumbry, and a statue corbel. The font remains in the original 
position, west of the west pillar of the nave arcade. Some remains 
of ancient painted glass are to be seen in the windows of the church. 
The most interesting monument here is a large slab now placed up- 
right against the north aisle wall. In the upper part is a very 
deeply-cut elongated quatrefoil containing a bust of a priest in 
chasuble and amice, with the hands conjoined in prayer. Round 
the slab is this inscription — " Hie Jacet WiUemus de Cumberworth 
quonda vicarius de Utterby cui aie ppiciet Deus. Amen." The 
lower portion of the old churchyard cross still remains, and there 
was formerly one upon the village green. The ancient bridge over 
the stream below the church is very interesting ; it is of the ribbed 
arch form filled in between with smaller rough stones, and, though 
of fourteenth-century workmanship, is in very fair condition still. 

St. Edith's, Grimoldby. 

This church is most perfect in its plan, and consists of nave, north 
and south aisles, north and south porches, chancel, and tower at the 
west end ; dating from about a.d. 1380 to a.d. 1400. The tower is 
of three stages, with a parapet which has been modernized ; the 
lower stage has a doorway on the west, with a two-light mndow 
above it, the middle stage a small loop on the south and west faces, 
and the third a two-light window on each face ; the staircase is in 
the south-west angle. The church is most complete in its arrange- 
ment ; the old roofs remain on the nave, aisles, and porch, those of 
the nave and north aisle are of good character; a considerable 
quantity of old seating and screen-work also remain. The nave is 
four bays in length, and the aisle arcades have arches of two orders, 
with plain octagonal pillars and moulded caps. The chancel arch is 
similar, but the piers have no caps. The tower arch has three cham- 
fered orders springing directly from the walls. The eastern ends of 
both aisles were originally chapels, the screen-work of which in part 
remains, as does also the old rood screen, the entrance to which was 
from the north aisle. The holy water stoup remains m the north 
porch, also the base of the font on the south side of the west pillar 
of the north arcade. The windows throughout are of good character, 
and well placed in the walls, the parapets of the nave and aisles are 
embattled, and have pinnacles and well-carved grotesque ornaments. 
The chancel is two bays in length, having two windows of three 
lights on each side, and a priest's doorway on the south. The south 


chapel of the nave has two statue corbels ; the northern one a single 
corbel, and contains the staircase to the ancient rood-loft. In the 
windows of the north aisle are some remains of painted glass, and 
in the easternmost side windows of the chancel on the south side is 
a shield bearing harry of 4 arg. and g., a pastoral staff az. The 
material of which the church is built is green sandstone, from 
the wold hills, for the walls, and Yorkshire limestone for the 
windows, &c. The design of this church would afford an excellent 
model for any new one, but its present condition is most lamentable, 
with the rain coming through the roof, and its dilapidation is general, 
whence it is to be earnestly hoped that the Rector's, the Rev. Thos. 
Wood, present attempt to restore it will be soon crowned with 

St. Peter's, Saltfleetby. 

The fabric of this church consists of a nave, aisles, south porch, 
chancel, and tower at the west end. The nave is an interesting 
work of Lancet character, although now in a very bad condition, 
two of the five arches of the south aisle-arcade having been almost 
filled in with masonry, and all the pillars leaning more or less out 
of the perpendicular. The respond brackets of these arcades are 
good examples of their kind. The chamfers of the arches on the 
south side are well stopped, and on the aisle side there are some 
remains of decorative painting, which was also originally applied to 
the north aisle wall, including texts. The well-designed roofs of 
this church are now in the most wretched condition. At the east 
end of the south aisle was a chantry chapel, the foliated piscina of 
which still remains in the sill of the south window lighting it. 
Amongst the incongruous old pews now encumbering the area of this 
church, there still remain some portions of the old seating enriched 
with the folded-linen device, and one poppy head, that would serve 
as a pattern for new seating. The chancel arch is of two orders, 
chamfered and dying into the piers on either side. The tower arch 
stands on very lofty piers, and is of two orders, and the tower 
itself leans frightfully out of the perpendicular. This consists of 
two stages, the lower one being very lofty. In its western elevation 
is a well-moulded doorway, and over this a four-light window of 
very good work. Apparently, during its erection, this tower sunk 
unevenly, for the upper stage rises perpendicularly from it. In this 
is a two-light belfry window in each of its faces, and above it is a 
modernized parapet. The original angle pinnacles are gone. The 
base and other mouldings of this tower are good, and access to the 
belfry chamber is supplied by a newel staircase in its south-east 
angle. There are five bells here, one of which bears this legend, 
" Para, ■pudica. ^nci. miserere. Maria," and another the words, " In 
amorem sandce Marice." 



In the nave is a slab thus inscribed — " Maria Pornard uxor 
Willmi Pornard de Saltjieethy" and also another on which the 
following words may still be read — " Hie Jacet Michael Gros qui 
ohiit die — de — mccclxxx — cui aie x>piciet Ds. Amen." 

At the east end of the south aisle is a black marble slab flanked 
by pilasters, with a vase above and weeping angels below. It bears 
this epitaph — " J^ear this place lieth ye Body of John Williamson 
Gent, who dept this life ye 28th Day of June in ye yeare of our 
Lord 1722, Aged 67. He marryd Frances ye Eldest sister of 
"Wniiam Gonvill, late of Kettesby in this County, Esq., and had 
issue by her Mary, Thomas, and Elizabeth. Ye two last died very 
young and Mary Avas Marryd to Basil Beridge of Algarkirk, in this 
County, Clerk ; Avho out of sincere respect and gratitude to ye 
Memory of so Worthy and most Generous a Father affixed here 
this monument." 

With the Register books of this j^arish is one belonging to that of 
Saltfleetby All Saints, containing many entries connected with the 
Newcomen family. 

From a fourteenth-century brass seal, 
belonging to Thomas Bosvile, Esq., of Eaven- 
field Park, Yorkshire, the subjoined cut is 
given, representing an impression of the seal 
of a former priest of this parish. In the 
middle is a figure of St. Peter, and round 
it the legend— S. ROBERTI. D. SALT- 
FLETBY. PSBKL, or Sigdlum Roberti de 
Saltfleetby, Presbyteri. 

All Saints, Theddlethorpe. 

This is a grand and good specimen of a Perpendicular church, 
but has unfortunately suffered from time and want of taste in its 
repairs. It consists of a nave of five bays, north and south aisles, 
porch, chancel, and tower. It will be noticed that the work cor- 
responds very nearly in arrangement, character, and date, Avith that 
of Grimoldby, and it is not at all improbable that both works were 
executed at the same time. The nave and aisles have embattled 
parapets, finished Avith pinnacles and grotesques. The pierced and 
crocketed parapet of the east gable of the nave is particidarly good, 
and is similar in arrangement to that of Louth chancel, though less 
elaborate in moulding, &c. The south doorway belongs to an 
earlier church. The toAver is very broad and massive, having Avails 
four feet six inches thick. It is divided into three stages, and has 
double buttresses at the angles. In the lower stage on the Avestern 
side is the usual entrance doorAvay, above Avhich is a four-light 
window Avith intersecting tracery. The belfry stage has a large 


three-light window in each face, and beloAV them on the west side 
are small loop lights in the intermediate stage. The parapet is 
embattled, but has lost its pinnacles. The interior presents a fine 
open area, and possesses many points of interest. The eastern ends 
of both aisles were formerly used as chapels, the screen-work en- 
closing the same being of a remarkably late character, either of the 
end of the fifteenth or of the beginning of the sixteenth century, and 
partaking much of the Italian feeling then becoming prevalent. 
Two altar slabs still remain in the pavement of the north aisle and 
in front of the chaucel arch. The north chapel has a statue bracket 
and here is the approach to the staircase of the rood-loft. In the 
southern one is a large and elaborate altar recess in the east wall. The 
screen in the front of the chancel arch is a very elaborate work, and 
extends the whole width of the nave. It has seven compartments, 
the centre one being wider than the others and still retaining its 
gates. The lower panels of the two outer compartments at the 
north and south ends are higher than the others, which is in this 
case very suitable, coming as they do against a blank wall. 
The chancel has been shortened at some time, and in its eastern 
wall are two statue corbels. Much old seating remains in diflerent 
parts of the church, some of the bench ends are square-headed, 
panelled, and finished with battlemented tops ; others have had 
poppy heads, but not one of these is left perfect. The roofs of the 
nave and south aisle are of good character and workmanship, and 
possess some very interesting carved bosses exceedingly well designed 
and executed, those in the south aisle being nearer the eye can be 
more carefully studied. The font also is a noteworthy example, 
and stands in front of the tower arch. 

In this church are several shields charged with armorial 
bearings, viz., two, serving as central ornaments upon the beams of 
the nave roof. Of these, the easternmost displays s., a cross engrailed 
or, — Uflbrd, quartering g., a cross scarcelly Erm., — Bee. And the 
other, arg., 2 bars g. on a chief v. 3 bezants, — Angevine. The 
third shield on the roof displays the emblems of our Lord's passion. 
On the west screen of the north chapel is a shield bearing Angevine 
quartering — a chevron between 3 roundels, each charged with a 
mullet of 5 points. And in the south chapel these bearings impaled 
are repeated on the roof, and over the entrance through its west 
screen, quarterly. Towards the Avest end of the south aisle is a 
little piece of mediaeval carving attached to the restored portion of 
the roof of this aisle. This represents a ship with a central mast, 
surmounted by a large circular top, and having a patriarchal cross 
at its stem and stern. 

In the soiith chapel are several sepulchral slabs. The most 
interesting of these is one that still retains its brass, and com- 
memorates Eobert Hayton, who died 1424. This brass represents 


the deceased in a then old-fashioned camail of mail, instead of 
in the plate gorget then in vogue, and is remarkable as being the 
last mail camail pourtrayd on any remaining brass. Besides 
the effigy, there are two shields inserted in this slab, bearing 
vert, a lion passant or within a bordure billitee, differenced by 
4 billets in base arranged in a cruciform manner ; see Boutell's 
Manual of Heraldry, Plate xlviii.. Fig 411. Also this inscrip- 
tion — Hie. Jacet. Rohertus. Haijton. armiger qui, ohiit. xxv. die. 
mensis. Februarii. anno. Dni. millimo. cccc. viccsimo. qiiarto. cut. 
ate. ppiciet. Deus. Ame. 

In this chapel is another slab bearing the now fragmentary 
inscription, — " Jacet. Roger, de. Hagnahy. qui ohiit vii° idiis. 

Marcii, as. Dni. 31° ." The one, however, that was probably 

originally thought to be most worthy of honour, is now robbed of 
the effigies engraved on brass that once enriched it, and also of 
its inscription, for, from a shield that still remains, we fi.nd it 
commemorated one of the Angevine family and his lady, and most 
probably the founder of the chantry chapel in which this slab stiU 
remains, and whose bearings are repeated elsewhere in this church. 

All Saints, Saltfleetby. 

This church consists of a nave and chancel with south aisle 
extending nearly the full length of both, the latter having con- 
stituted a chantry chapel, a south porch, and a tower. The present 
fabric is mostly of the Lancet period, the tower and arcades being 
entirely of that date. The responds of the tower arch are pointed 
bowtels having well-carved caps, and the arch is of three chamfered 
orders. The lower stage was originally covered by a groined ceiling, 
the springer stones of which still remain ; the west window of the 
tower is a single lancet with a very deep splay inside. Access was 
obtained to the upper stages of the tower by a staircase from the 
south aisle, which is an unusual arrangement. The chancel arch, 
and a small capital to the south arcade of the chancel, and a part of 
the north wall of the nave, are of the Transitional period. On the 
south side of the chancel is a curious double arcade consisting of 
one arch immediately behind which is a slight pillar and two 
narrower arches The original windows remain in the south aisle 
of the nave and on the north side of the chancel. In the nave and 
chapel windows of Eectilinear character are inserted. The windows 
at the east end and south side of the chancel are modern insertions. 
The old screen across the nave and aisle remains, and that between 
the chancel and chantry ; the latter may be noticed for the manner in 
which it is made to fit the stonework, and on the wall of this chapel 
is painted a large crowned rose. In the east end wall of the 
chapel is a reredos niche of Geometrical character. The font is a 


good specimen of the same style, but has lost its shaft, and a later 
font reversed forms its base. The tower externally has two well 
proportioned lancets on the west face, and a smaller Avindow on 
each face immediately above the upper one. The upper stage is of 
Rectilinear work, and has two two-light -windoAvs on each face ; the 
parapet is embattled, but has lost its pinnacles. The huge masses 
of masonry at the north-west and south-west angles are a great 
disfigurement. The south doorway is Lancet character, and very 
delicately moulded ; the outer archway of the porch is Rectilinear 
work, and has heraldic badges in the spandrels, viz., one over the 
entrance arch bearing barry of 6, quartering a bend charged with 
3 griffins, and beneath it an inscription now difficult to read, but 
of which the following appears to be a part. ^' Istud sanduarium 
— John Grantham de — patron — isti ecdesue." On the right side of 
the arch is another shield charged with a crucifix, and on the left a 
third on which the emblems of our Lord's passion are carved. In 
the chantry chapel at the east end of the south aisle is a mutilated 
slab that formerly bore a French inscription, of which the words, 
" Deu de sa alme " may still be detected. The original but- 
tresses of the south aisle, five in mimber, had very small projection ; 
afterwards six larger ones were added, so that now it has eleven in 
all. When this church was first built, circa 1150, it consisted of a 
nave and chancel, with probably an aisle to the latter, and the nave 
was about two-thirds the length of the present one, as may be seen 
by the masonry on the out side. About 1240, the chm^ch was 
lengthened westward. IS'ext the aisle, chantry, and tower, were 
built much as we see them at present ; and about 1400, the north 
windows of the nave, that of the chantry, and the screen-work 
were added. Some fragments of painted glass remain in the 
■windows of this church. 

St. Botolph's, Skidbrook. 

This church consists of a w^ide nave of foiu- bays, north and 
south aisles, chancel, tower, and south porch. The nave has been 
widened from the original plan, as may be seen by the old weather- 
mould on the east face of the tower. The arcade pillars have 
peculiarly high stilted bases. The caps on the south side are en- 
riched with crisply-cut foliage, but have lost their abaci; these belong 
to a former Early English church, and have been re-used with later 
shafts and bases. The horizontal sections of these last are different, 
one being octagonal, the other circular. The chancel arch is also of 
this date, and has a square abacus. The iuner rib has the usual 
double roll mould on the two chamfer-planes ; the outer orders 
are plainly chamfered. The hood-mould has been cut away. The 
tower arch has three chamfered orders dying on the square wall, 

VOL. XII., I'T. I. c 


without any impost. In the north aisle is a square-headed window 
of Decorated character ; the others Avere altered when later tracery- 
was inserted in the framework of the original Avindows. The south 
aisle is entirely of this period, hut of somewhat earlier character. 
The south doorAvay is Early English, having tAvo chamfered orders 
with impost moulding ; the hood-mould is enriched Avith the dog- 
tooth ornament. The tower is Early English, and very large. It 
is of two stages. In the lower one, on the west, is a Avell-moulded 
doorway of Curvilinear character, and a three-hght Avindow above it 
of Eectilinear date. In the loAver part of the second stage are 
small tAA^o-light windows inserted dming the Decorated period, and 
above them on each face is a large tAvo-light Perpendicular Avindow. 
The parapet is a bold one, but has lost its pinnacles, of Avhich there 
Avere eight originally. The base moulding consists of a roll Avith a 
sloping base and a chamfered plinth beloAv it. The chancel is very 
small and narroAV for so large a church, but Avas doubtless sufficiently 
Avide before the enlargement of the church. Originally there were 
aisles or chapels on each side of it, the outliues of tAVO arches of small 
dimensions being Adsible in the Avails on the outside ; on the south 
side of the doorway is the priest's doorway. There Avere sedilia on 
the south side, Avith a piscina and an aumbry on the north. On the 
buttress at the north-east corner of the nave, and on the east waU 
outside, are remains of other arches. The pulpit is a good specimen 
of its date — temp. Charles I., and shews the lingering Avish to retain 
Gothic work. In this case, as the masonry of the internal faces of 
the Avails is composed of rough random coui'ses, it is questionable 
whetlier they should not have been re-covered with plaster, and 
certainly the dark colour and coarseness of the pointing used pro- 
duces a most startling and unpleasant effect. 

In the chancel pavement is an incised slab, bearing a cross and 

this legend — " Hie. Jacet. Johannes. etby quondam. Adcarius. 

hujus. ecclesiifi. qui. obiit. ulto. die. mensis Januarii. anno. dni. 
millesimo cccc. xiii. cuj. aie. ppiciet. Deus. Amen." 

St. Mary's, South Somercotes. 

This church consists of a nave of five bays, Avith aisles on each 
side, a chancel and western tower, and spire. The tower is very 
low, being only a few feet higher than the nave roof, the roof 
originally having been at a lower level. In this district — Avith the 
exception of — the spire is unique, as it is the only one 
to be found between Frampton on the south, and Brocklesby 
on the north — a distance of about sixty miles, and serves as a sea 
mark. The nave arcades are of Lancet character, Avith plain circular 
shafts, and double chamfered arches. The capitals are moulded, and 
are partly circular, incl uding theh abaci, partly octagonal. The chancel 


arch is of the same date and of similar character. The old screen in 
front of the chancel arch remains, together with some of its colouring; 
there also are still doing service a few of the old oak benches. The 
tower arch consists of three chamfered orders, the inner one resting 
on a corbel, and the outer one running doAvn the jambs to the floor. 
The font is a very good one, and stands at the west end of the nave. 
The tower is Early English, with a west doorway of late Perpen- 
dicular date inserted, the old plinth still remaining. The window 
above has been much altered from its original character ; the belfry 
windows are Decorated, the spire and windows of the aisles and 
chantry Perpendicular. The roof of the original church was at a 
much lower level, as may still be seen from its filleting within ; and 
with this arrangement the tower would look higher than it now does, 
which at present almost covers up the east window of the belfry 
stage. The ivy on the south side of the chancel covers the masonry 
and the priest's doorway. On the north side are evidences of the 
existence of a sacristy. 

On the panels of the font are carved — 1. A cross ragule. 2. The 
spear. 3. Two scourges. 4. Four nails. 5. Two hammers. 6. 
The seamless coat. 7. Three dice. 8. The reed surmounted by a 
sponge-cup. 9. The crown of thorns. 

On some old carved panelled work in the nave are shields. 
1. Bearing a mermaid emerging from the waves. 2. A hand couped 
at the wrist. 3. A foot couped at the ankle. 

In the chancel is a slab on which these words may still be de- 
ciphered, "Thomas Hopton frmiger — cui aie ppiciet. Over the 
entrance to the Chancel in its carved oak screen is a well cut 
helm with a mentoniere, and buckled strap below, and a man's head 
as a crest above, round which is a scarf with long ends. 

In the tower are three bells. One of these is older than the 
others, and bears the word " voco." The heaviest of the other two 
is thus inscribed, "Wills Snarri 1 moyn vocor petrus a° di Mcccxxiu." 
The third, "Dulcis cito melis vocor campana Gabrielis a° di. 

The lettering of these bells is very beautiful, and has been en- 
graved for Mr. W. A. I. D. Amhiu'st, of Didlington Hall. In one 
appears a figure of St. George and the Dragon, in a second a knight 
with a lady, in a third the bust of a bishop, and in another a satyr ; 
besides which they are enriched with foliated work and grotesque 

The same beautiful lettering occurs on some of the bells of 
Somerby Church, in this county. From this village, or from North 
Somercotes, Robert Somercote derived his name. Born towards 
the close of the twelfth century, he became remarkable for his learn- 
ing, and was eventually made Cardinal of St. Stephen's by Pope 
Gregory 9th, in 1231. At that time the English were extremely 


disliked by the Papal Court, and to the great anger of oiu' Lincoln- 
shire Cardinal, the Pope himself declared in his presence that there 
was not one faithful man in England. This adverse feeling pre- 
vented the further elevation of Eobert Somercote, for when he stood 
first of the three Cardinals for election as Gregory's successor, he 
suddenly died by poison in 1241, whilst Celestine, who succeeded 
Gregory, only sat on the Papal tlir(me for 17 days, and is thought 
to have died by the same foul means. 

St. Clement's, Grainthorpe. 

This church consists of a nave of four bays, with remarkably 
wide aisles, a chancel, tower, and south porch, and is mostly of the 
Decorated period, as will be seen by the windows. One of these, 
in the north aisle, is a very peculiar one with three Tvide lights, and 
two narrow ones on the outside, the former being 15|in. ^vide, and 
the latter only 8^ in. ; the containing arch is segmental, the jambs 
are simple chamfers, but the arch is moulded. The remnants of 
old chantry screens still exist, and from the north aisle access was 
obtained to the rood-loft. Within the sanctuary is a portion of an 
old monumental cross inserted in black marble slab. This is a 
very interesting work, but unfortunately it is partly obscured 
by the altar railing. The capitals of the pillars are of various 
characters and dates, the responds are three-quarter columns. At 
the west end of the south arcade is a stone base of the Transitional 
period. The east end of the north aisle was originally a chantrj' 
chapel ; the screen forming the same being as high as the capital 
of the pillars. The tower is a very fine work of an early 
Perpendicular date, and has four stages supported by double 
buttresses at the angles. The first stage on the west side contains 
the entrance doorway. This has an arched head within a square 
hood-mbidd, the spandrels being filled with tracery. The second 
stage has a three-light Reticulated window on the west; the third stage 
has a two-light window of small size on the north, south, and Avest 
faces. The fourth stage, or belfry, has a two-light window in each 
face, and the parapet still retains its eight pinnacles. The turret 
staircase is at the south-west angle. 

The wretched condition of this Church was viewed with much 
sorrow by the Members of the Society, and an earnest hope was 
expressed that it would not much longer be allowed to remain in its 
present discreditable state. 

St. Mary's, Marsh Chapel. 

It Avas originally not intended to have visited this church for 
want of time, so that no previous preparation for the due description 
of its features was made, whence some thought that due justice had 


not been done to its merits. I may, however, pronounce it to be one 
of the finest fabrics of the district, of the Perpendicular period. 
It consists of a tower, nave, north and soi;th aisles, south ijorch, 
and chancel of two bays, with an aisle of one bay on the north and a 
sacristy, — all in excellent condition and most refreshing to the sight 
after the melancholy condition of several of the churches previously 
visited had been sorrowfully witnessed. The nave arcades are of 
four bays, the pillars being octagonal with concave sides, their caps 
are moulded and battlemented ; the arches being of two orders, 
and are four-centered. The tower arch is lofty, and of three orders; 
those to the chancel and chancel arch are of two orders, and with- 
out caps. The tower is of two lofty stages, with double buttresses 
at the angles ; on the west side is the main doorway with a four- 
light window above it, and small loops on the north, south, and 
west sides. The belfry stage has a two-light window on each face, 
above which is an embattled parapet Avith seven pinnacles, and at 
the south-east angle a crocketed spirelet over the octagonal turret 
staircase. The north and south doorways of the aisles are well- 
moulded, and have four centered arches with ogee hood-mould in 
the spandrels of which are niches. That on the north side has a 
ribbon round it, upon which is the following inscription — " Non est 
hie alia nisi dovms Dei porta co'Ii." The niche in the south door- 
way has an angel corbel, and on a ribbon worked in the hollow of 
the arch mould is the following inscription — " Onuitilms in loco 
dimitti domine peccata." The windows are all of similar character, 
flat-headed, similar to the arcades ; the east one is of five lights, and 
the whole of those of the aisles are of three lights ; the clerestory 
has four two-light windows on each side. The whole of the rood 
are battlemented. The spacious nave is supplied with very hand- 
somely carved massive benches, through the liberality, and, I believe, 
the personal work in part of the late incumbent, the Eev. A. Floyer 
— for a time one of the Secretaries of the Society, and who devoted 
himself among other good works to the restoration of his church — 
which he lived to see almost completed. 

In this, the last church visited, the Bishop proposed to finish 
the inspection of the series visited, as it had begun, with prayer, 
and after having made this oft'ering to Almighty God, concluded 
with the Apostolic benediction. 


Tlie Archifedural Remains of Loutli Parh Abbey, — By the Veneratle 
Edward Trollope, Archdeacon of Stow, M.A., F.S.A. 

From the liistory of this ancient Cistercian Abbey, previously given 
by Precentor Venables, we have learnt who was its founder, and 
the circumstances that led to its erection near Louth; my task, 
therefore, is simply to describe the remains of its buOdings, which 
clearly betoken Irow grand these were, and especially that church 
in which its inmates worshipped. 

Until this year only a few fragments of walls remained above 
ground, so that next to nothing was known of its character and 
size ; but now, thanks to Mr. "William Allison, the present owner 
of the site on which Louth Park Abbey stood, and the extensive 
excavations he has made, in connection with the visit of our Archi- 
tectural Society to Louth, we have ascertained what was the plan 
of its church, and most of its buildings, and to some extent the 
character of their architectural features. 

When the magnificent Bishop Alexander settled certain 
Cistercian monks on this spot, after their retreat from Haverholme, 
it was absolutely necessary to supply the site of their new house 
with an abundant quantity of water ; and as this site was not, as 
usual with the Cistercian Order, dlose to a stream, water had to be 
brought to it. Hence the beautiful spring of St. Helen, rising in 
the adjacent town of Louth, was made to send its never-failing 
supply of water to the Abbey by means of a canal that still bears 
the name of " Monks dike," and thus records its monastic origin. 

When this canal reached the Abbey site, it was made to supply 
an outer and an inner moat Avith water, the remains of which may 
still be distinctly seen in Plate I. ; but this supply could at any time 
be temporarily stopped off, by means of sluice gates. A larger 
fish-pond, and a smaller one,* — E & S, Plate I., were also supphed 
with water from this som'ce, as well as the lavatory, kitchen, and 
other offices of the house. The area within the outer moat contains 
a little more than twenty -three acres. 

The Abbey buildings on the space so enclosed were ranged, as 
usual, round a central cloister court, — N., Plate I. On the north 
side was the church, dedicated, as all Cistercian houses were, in honour 
of the blessed Virgin Mary, and which slightly overlapped the build- 
ings on the east and west sides of the court. This was cruciform 

• There is a local tradition that the valuables of the Abbey were thrown into one of 
these ponds in a time of danger, perhaps at the dissolution of the house, and it is much to be 
hoped that the present possessor of the Abbey site may find them, as a reward for the valuable 
service he has rendered, through his researches on that very interesting spot. 

JJotli the Abbot aucl the Abbey of Louth Park had their 
respective seals, which are referred to in the Arclueological 
Journal , vol. xix., p. 173, Avheiice we gather there an impression 
of the lirst is attuclied to a cliarter now in the liaiieian 
CoUfdioii 44, H. 4y. A copy of an inijjression of the second 
is given in Carlisle's Grammar tScJiuoh, vol. i., p. 835, from 
which the accompanying Cut is given, whence it Avill be seen 
that its device was a representation of tlu' Blessed A^irgin Mary 
and the Infant Saviour, Avithin a latticed niche, or recess, 
haviug flowering creepers on its sides, and a trefoiled canopy 
abovr. 'J'lie inscrii)tion is, — S. COMMVNE . ALU 'IS . ET . 

Plate I. 

A . Ck'jLrcfv 

B . Soucrisiy 
C ■ Chapter Hovjee^ 
J)\ Store Becrrv 

F. Monks Farlojjf 
&■ Abbots Lojqe, 

I- Monks Re/k.c/xiry 
K, Lay Bretfvrens Do 
L. Under cr^'/i vith, 
DorTrvHoiy ouhove^ 
M. Gbcest Ho'use. 
iV^ Cloister Covri^, 
O- Lo-voUcr-y 
P- BurUxX GrouruL 
Q- Inftrmarv 
R. Larpe-Fi^ FonjdL 
S- SmAil F^hy Porvd 

Site & Pi .AN of Louih Park Abbey; 

180 Feet to an Inch 



in plan, and, from the massiveness of the pier at its crossing, 
most probably had a central tower. Its total internal length was 
25 6x6; or 71x6 longer than St. James's Church, Louth ; 46 in 
excess of Roche Abbey ; 26 of Kirkstall Abbey ; and only 6 shorter 
than the parent Abbey of Fountains, before the later addition was 
made to it by John of Kent Its nave was 61 feet wide ; and thus 
only 11 less than that of Lincoln Cathedral. Its transepts had 
aisles on their eastern sides, each of which was divided into three 
portions, constituting chapels, of which the central pair was the 

The chancel Avas 41 feet long, and 26 x 3 wide, and had a 
square end. The waUs of the nave were 7 feet thick, and those 
of the chancel 6. The materials nsed in its construction were 
Lincoln stone, sand stone, and chalk. Its orientation is not true, 
as its cord inclines considerably northward of the true east, and 
even slightly from the magnetic line of the compass. See Plate I. 
Each of the aisle arcades was supported by ten pillars, which, 
together with their responds, gave twelve bays to each aisle. 

The character and construction of one of these is given in Fig. 6, 
Plate II., on the scale of one inch to a foot. The diameter of its 
circular shaft is 7 x 10. The section of another is given in Fig. 1, 
of the same jilate, and portions of one or two other pillars, 
previously removed from their original places, are preserved in an 
adjoining garden; whence, we gather tliat they were not all alike, and 
that at least some of them had scalloped cushion caps, corresponding 
with that of one of the responds found among the remains, and 
given in Fig. 4- A section of another pier cap, at the west end of 
the north aisle arcade is also given in Fig. 5, and of its base mould- 
ing in Fig. 2. All these remains exemplify the plain, massive 
character of the buildings adopted by the Cistercians at first, when 
they were averse, as reformed Benedictines, to the use of architec- 
tural or any other ornamentation ; but, very early in the thirteenth 
century, they began to relax the severity of their taste ; and then 
the west front of this Abbey was added, just when the Transitional 
style was yielding place to the Early English. Of this, Ave can only 
now determine the character of the lower portion ; but in it was a 
grand central doorway, 6x6 wide, and a corresponding one on either 
side. The first was deeply recessed, and its jambs were enriched Avith 
four little pillars on eitlier side. See Plate III, Fig. 1, Fig. 2, giving 
a section of the base of these pillars, and Fig. 3, giving a plan of 
the moulding between them. The base-moulding of the Avail in 
which these doorAvays are inserted is represented by the section. 
Fig. Jf., and a portion of one of the doorways opening into the north 
aisle is given in Plate V., Fig. 1. This Avas 4 feet Avide. Opposite 
the third bay of the south aisle Avas a doorway of an earlier 
character, 3x4 wide, of Avhich a part remains. As this was 


intended for the use of the Lay Brothers, by giving them access from 
their dormitory, and the undercroft below it, to the church, it was 
no doubt erected as soon as possible, and rather in advance of the 
general work. A portion of the remains of this is given in Plate V., 
Fig. 3, and a section of the same in Fig. 2 of the same Plate. 
Under the north wall of the north transept part of a stone bench 
was found, also a small portion of a plain, glazed tile pavement, 
laid upon a substance like asphalt; and at other spots many 
plain floor and roof tiles, together with fragments of painted glass. 
Portions of vaulting ribs, (Figs. 4, 5, 6, Plate IV.), were also found 
among the ruins. The base moulding of the chancel is given in 
Fig. 3, Plate II. In the inner face of the south wall of the 
chancel is an arched sedile recess, 10 x 8 high, and 8x11 wide. 

The whole of the stonework in the interior of this church was 
covered with plaster. This was of considerable thickness in the 
transepts, where the masonry Avas rough, but it diminished in sub- 
stance towards the west end, where the masonry is of a much better 
character, and was only of extreme thinness about the western 
doorways, where the ashler Avork is excellent. The object of this 
use of mural plaster is demonstrated from the remains of coloured 
ornamentation appHed to it generally. The chief tints employed 
were yellow or buff, and grey, but red was used to enhven the 
pillars and other portions of the interior. From the evidence of 
the date of the foundation of this Abbey, and that of the architec- 
tural remains of its church, we may safely conclude that this last 
was built during the last 60 years of the twelfth century, except its 
western elevation, which is slightly later in style. Probably its 
erection proceeded by degrees, after the choir, transepts, and some 
portion of the nave, were built, as funds for the prosecution of the 
work were acquired. 

On the west side of the cloister court, and adjoinmg the south 
transept was the sacristy, marked B on the Plan, Plate I. jSText to 
this came the chapter-house, C, Avhich was 58 feet long, and 30 feet 
wide. It had a vaulted roof, as is clearly proved by the vaulting ribs 
found upon its floor. These were of three kinds, as pourtrayed by 
Figures 1, 2, 3, Plate IV. One of these, it will be observed, 
was enriched with the dog-tooth ornament. The chapter-house had 
a tile-covered roof,* as is proved by the number of roof tiles found 
upon its floor. Below this, two stone coffinst were found, each 
containing a skeleton with some cinders, or perhaps charcoal, for 
disinfecting purposes. The stonework of the interior of this build- 
ing was like that of the church, covered with painted plaster. This 
chapter-house, the dormitory, calefactory, and eastern side of the 

* That this was a coeval custom we gather from a record respecting the building of 
Kirkstall Abbey, which after stating that its church roof was covered with lead, goes on to 
say that its refectories, dormitories, and other buildings, were covered with tiles. 

t One of these was probably the receptacle of the mortal remains of the founder of the 
chapter-house — Abbot Richard de Durham. 

PLATE /l^. 










cloister, were built by Abbot Eichard de Durham, in 1246, according 
to a chartulary of the Abbey, as quoted by the late Mr. Harrod, in 
his Gasths and Convents of Norfolk, which chartulary has for the 
present disappeared. Next to the chapter-house were two small 
rooms, perhaps used as store-rooms, marked D and E ; and beyond 
these was a long room serving as the Monks' parlour, F ; and also 
anotlier building beyond it, perhaps the Abbot's lodge, G. 

On the south side of the cloister-court were three important 
portions of the Abbey buildings, viz., the kitchen, H, divided from 
the Monks' parlour by a passage giving access to it, and to the 
cloister-court ; and two large refectories of equal size, one for the 
Monks, I, and the other for the Lay Brothers, K. On the west side 
of the hrst remains of three tiers of stone-seats were found. 

The whole of the western side of the cloister-court was occupied 
by the undercroft of the Monks' dormitory, L, and extended consider- 
ably beyond it parallel Avith the Lay Brethrens' refectory. Project- 
ing from tlie south-western end of this was a small room, M, that 
perhaps served as a guest-house. 

In the centre of the court was a circular lavatory* that still 
retains its shape as a round hollow, having a moist, spongy surface, 0. 

The foundations of a detached building eastward of the Abbey, 
marked Q on the plan, were laid bare during the recent exploration, 
which may have been the infirmary ; and other foundations Avere 
found running away from the western face of the church, that have 
not as yet been explored. At the entrance of the Abbey precincts, 
on the west, are the remains of a raised causeway leading towards 
Louth ; and at tliis point is a large mound, marking the site of the 
gate-house, always an important adjunct of a monastic-house, and 
sometimes serving as a guest-house. Eastward of the church Avas 
the cemetery, Avhere, about fifteen years ago, several stone coffins and 
skeletons Avere discovered. 

South-eastward of the Abbey, and adjoining the inner moat, 
more human remains have been found, in a little space surrounded 
by a ditch; but these are probably of a much later period, viz., of 
the seventeenth century, and of the men who fell under Sir Charles 
BoUes' command, in the conflict which took place between them and 
Colonel Henderson's troops, on, or near to, the site of Louth Park 
Abbey ; and as two cannon balls Avere found Avith these relics of the 
dead, tliis surmise is thereby strengthened. 

A variety of masons' marks Avere found upon the stones of the 
Abbey Church and its biiildiugs, four of the most marked of Avhich 
are given in Plate IV, figs 7 , 8, 9, and 10. 

* Tlie following description of a monastic lavatory is given in tlie Ri/es of Durham 
" AVithin the cloister garth was a fine lavcr, or conduit, for the monks to wash tla-ir hands and 
faces in, being in form — round, covered with lead, and all of marble, except the outer wall, 
within which they might wash, about the laver. It had many spouts of brass, with 2 1 brazen 
cocks above it, and seven windows of stone in it, and above, a dove-cote covered with lead," 

VOL. XII., PT. I. D 


Louth in the time of Henry VIII. — By Edward Peacock, Esq., 
F.S.A., of Bottesford Manor, 

When our Secretary did me the honour of asking me to read a 
Paper at the Louth Meeting of this Society, I was in some douht, 
not as to what the subject should be, but as to the most fitting 
title to select. From the violent acts of the popes, kings, nobles, 
and people of the sixteenth century most of the political and religious 
feuds which still rend society have had their origin, and it requires 
no little wariness in a student of history, however impartial he 
may desire to be, not to wound the honest convictions of his 
hearers ; of their prejudices it would be alike idle and impossible 
to take account. 

I desired to speak on a matter of great local interest. The riot — 
rebellion, perhaps, I ought to call it — which began here in October, 
1538, and although very quickly suppressed in Lincolnshire, soon 
afterwards blazed up in the more northern parts of England into 
the fierce conflagration known as the Pilgrimage of Grace. There 
Avas, however, a great difficulty in the way ; a difficulty which I 
have found for the present to be Avell nigh insurmountable. Few 
of the records of that time have been jjrinted ; and the little we 
have has been given to the world in meagre and most unsatisfactory 
abstract. There is, it is true, an immense mass of most interesting 
evidence relating to these occurrences in Her Majesty's Record 
Office, and thither I at once betook myself, to see what could be 
done. The result was, as I feared before I set out ; the calendarers, 
who are hard at work on the reign of Henry VIII., had not got 
down so far as 1536, and, consequently, the papers I wanted could 
not be used, except by my spending many weeks in London. This, 
I trust, will be a sufficient apology for the vague title of a still 
vaguer Paper. 

It was once remarked by a person who had small reverence 
either for religion or historical knowledge, as we understand the 
terms, that local history is little more than an account of monas- 
teries and parish churches. A bitter sneer was intended ; but, as 
Christians, we have no need to be ashamed that our forefathers 
succeeded in impressing on a sceptic the conviction that the things 
pertaining to the soul occupied a chief part of their thoughts. 
Licentious, superstitious, and worldly as most of them were, it 
is still a fact that to the men of the middle ages — the men who 
built our cathedrals, our abbeys, and our village churches — the 
thought of religion, in some form or other, was the chief concern of 


their lives. Hence middle-age history, notwithstanding dynastic 
wars, and the long-continued struggle of the commons for political 
freedom, is in a very real sense ecclesiastical, from first to last. IS'o 
one can understand it — no one ought to make a pretense of under- 
standing it — until he has mastered the leading facts of church 

If I were writing a history of Louth, and not a mere sketch of 
some of the thoughts and actions of tho^e who dwelt there during a 
very short period, — around the Church — the spiritual structure not 
made with hands, and around the two ancient material churches, 
St. Mary's, that has passed away, and the beautiful church of St. 
James, which is still the glory of your town, I should be compelled 
to arrange my facts. It must be so now while I discourse on the 
very limited period I have chosen. 

When an intelligent Englishman goes on the Continent for the 
first time, the impression which comes over him when surrounded 
by new sights and new sounds is not, " How difterent these 
foreigners are to English people ;" but rather, notwithstanding all 
variations of dress and language, " Hoav wonderfully these people are 
like the good folk I have left at home." So it would be could Ave 
travel back up the stream of time, and entering Louth some day in 
April, 1509, stroll about East-gate, "West-gate, and Checker-gate, 
listening to the church bells ringing for joy at the accession of the 
popular young Prince Henry. 

Some things, no doubt, would strike us as a littte odd. Men and 
women would be dressed in clothes of a very different pattern ; as 
far as the men are concerned, much better dressed than we are. 
The different classes into which society is divided would be observed 
mingling more freely together — gentlemen of the highest position in 
the neighbourhood resorting to the same houses of entertainment, 
and joining in all the sports of their poorer neighbours. But we 
should quite understand the language that we should hear spoken 
around us. It Avould be the broad Lincolnshire vernacular of the 
Laureate's Northern Farmer ; and we should be entertained by 
observing that all the ladies and gentlemen we met spoke it, and no 
other form of English. Literature had not their become sufficiently 
powerful to make a common accent and vocabulary needful, and it 
was not considered then, as it has been for the last century and a 
half, a mark of good manners to imitate the dialect of the southern 

The church would seem strangely different to what Ave have 
knoAvn it. The beautiful spire Avas not then there, or if there at all, 
only some of the loAver courses. The Avork Avas not completed, and 
the cap-stone and Aveathercock put in their places until the fifteenth 
Sunday after Holy Trinity, 1515, Avhen grand rejoicings Avere made. 
Great as our disappointment Avould be at seeing no spire at all, or 


only the stump of one, we should be amply repaid by the beauty of 
the inside. What would be the precise nature of that which we 
should behold I Avill not venture to say, for I am not one of those 
who can elaborate history out of my own inner self-consciousness, 
and I know of no means of vividly realizing in its details what an 
English church Avas like before reforming zeal and Puritan fanaticism 
had swept away the furniture and decorations with which devout 
persons in former ages had endeavoured to honour their Lord. 
Of the general character of the internal arrangements we may learn 
something. Across the chancel arch went the screen, and on the 
screen were not only the figure of our Redeemer on the cross, with 
St. Mary and St. Jolin beside him ; but also, as is proved by the 
account books, certain chests, boxes, or hutches, as they Avere called, 
in which the most valuable treasures of the church Avere kept. 
Here, too, was an organ. I do not say the organ, for there Avere at 
this period tAvo, if not three organs in different parts of the church. 
Here, hoAvever, Avas one — that, I presume, on Avhich the organist 
played Avhen the services of the choir Avere going on. Of the size 
of this rood-loft gallery Ave have no clear eAddence, but from seA^eral 
things that crop up incidentally in the account books, it Avould 
seem that it Avas by no means a circumscribed place, but an erection 
of several stages, more than one of Avhich formed good sized rooms. 

There Avas a story current at the time of the Reformation 
which has found its Avay into more than one of the collections of 
the time, Avhich proves that some at least of the larger rood lofts 
were places big enough for a person to live in ; and at Sleaford, in 
this county, Ave have eAddence that it Avas Avide enough to be used 
as a passage.* 

That the Avindows were rich Avith stained glass, and the floor 
studded Avith scidptured and brazen memorials of the dead, is certain, 
though the glass has perished utterly, and the tombs, A\'ith trivial 
exceptions, have passed aAvay like the memory of those they Avere 
intended to perpetuate. J^ay, more utterly have they gone than 
these, for the careful accountant Avho kept the parish books for 
the churcliAvardens (they, honest men, had probably never been 
instructed in penmanship) has recorded, in most cases the names of 
the people buried Avithin the church or its porches. For burial in 
the church a fee of 6s. 8d. Avas paid ; for burial in the porch only 
half that sum Avas required. Unhappily, there Avas in those days 
a superstitious sanctity attached to being buried Avithin the sacred 
building, and all Avho could afford it seem to have striven to find 
sepulture Avithin its walls. In one year, namely 1505-6, tAventy- 
three persons are recorded to have been interred therein. 

* The return of the goods destroyed in Sleaford Church in 1566, contains the following 
entry :— " Item the rode loft taken doune all save the flor the which remayneth standing, 
which we cannot take doune for yt is a waie from one house to another so that we have no 
other passadge but that waie."— Peacock's Eng. Church Furniture, p. 1S9. 


We do not find that there Avas any relic shrine in Louth, con- 
sequently the town was sj^ared those monstrous abuses, which more 
than anything else, always excepting the spiritual tyrannj^ and 
temporal exactions of certain Italian officials, paved the way for the 
Keformation. Relics of St. James it was hardly possible they 
could have believed themselves to have, for, according to the 
popular tradition of the middle ages, the body of the Apostle had 
been carried by his disciples into Spain, and deposited at a place 
called Iria Flavia, on the borders of Gallicia. Here the Apostle's 
bones were thought to have been discovered in the ninth century. 
By order of Alphonsus the Chaste, King of Leon, they Avere trans- 
lated to Compostella, where a magnificent church was built over 
them, and a whole world of legend gathered around them as Avildly 
improbable, and in some ways more unchristian than anything to be 
found in the Arabian Nir/hts. Alban Butler, the author of The 
Lives of the Saints, says that " Cuper, the Bollandist, proves the 
truth of the tradition of the Spanish Church concerning the body of 
St. James having been translated to Compostella, and gives authentic 
histories of many miracles wrought through his intercession, and of 
several apparitions by which he visibly protected the armies of the 
Christians against the Moors." Cuper's proofs may be seen in the 
Acta Sanctorum, the sixth volume for July. The histories, though 
some of them very entertaining, seem to me the very reverse of 
authentic. They are, however, I understand, as nothing compared 
Avith the wild legends contained in the EspaTia Sugrada, a book 
Avhich I have never had the opportunity of looking into.* 

It must always be borne in mind Avhen Ave endeaA'our to bring 
before us the lives of our ancestors, before the storm of the Reforma- 
tion burst upon them, that the church — the material building I 
mean — was much more to them than it is to us. They, for 
the most part, dAvelt in mean houses, but the house of God in 
their midst Avas costly Avith silken hangings, with marble, and Avith 
gold. They had fcAV works of art to please the eye in their own 
homes, but the church was resplendent on Avail, AvindoAv-pane, 
and floor Avith pictures, sculpture, and mosaics. In those days the 
rich and the poor had alike the blessings of art shed upon their 

* The miracles attributed to St. James of Compostella, are not confined to the Iberiau 
Peninsula, or to the old world. Lord Macaulay mentions in his introduction to the Lay of 
Tlif tiattle of Lake Regillits, that " a chaplain of Cortes, writing about thirty years after the 

conquest of Mexico had the face to assert that, in one engagement 

against the Indians, St. James had appeared on a grey horse at the head of the Castilian 
adventurers Many of those adventurers were living when the lie was jn-inted. One of them, 
Honest Bernal Diaz, wrote an account of the expedition. He had the evidence of his own 
senses againt the legend ; but he seems to have distrusted even the evidence of his own senses. 
He says that lie was in the battle, and that he saw a grey horse, with a man on his back ; but 
that the man was, to his thinking, Francesco de Morla, and not the ever-blessed Apostle St. 
.James. 'Nevertheless,' Bernal adds, 'It may be that the per.son on the grey horse was 
the glorious Apostle St. James, and that I, sinner that I .am, was unworthy to see him.' " 

A better instance than the above of tlie way iu which legendary miracles have come to 
be believed, it would not be easy to furnish. 


every-day life. The church was the poor man's picture gallery and 
museum, as well as his temple for worship — a house whose doors 
were ever open to receive him Avhen heart-wearied by the cares of 
the dull world around. It would be well to remember this some- 
times in oui modern works. When Ave build or restore churches 
now, the feeling is to confine the window pictures entirely to the 
illustration of Bible hi.story. It was not so then. Secular events 
of all descriptions were freely introduced, and the church windows 
were galleries of instruction, where men learnt not only their duty 
to God, but also lessons in history and such physical science as was 
then understood. 

Many of you, I dare say, remember the curious window which 
yet exists unmutilated in York Minster, where the whole art and 
mystery of bell casting is shewn in most elaborate detail Our 
Dutch cousins ssem, even after the the Reformation, to have 
retained the old Catholic notions on this matter, for among the 
beautiful stained glass Avindows in the church at Gouda there 
are several which represent historical scenes. One particularly 
struck me as among the most curious and beautiful objects I ever 
saw. It represents the raising of the Seige of Leiden in 1573. 

For this same reason the reHc-shrines of the large churches, though 
the most childish superstitions gathered around them, were very 
useful, they became museums of art treasures and curious natural 
objects from foreign countries. The first ostrich eggs ever brought 
to England are said to have been hung up as offerings at Beckett's 
shrine in Canterbury Cathedral, and Sir Francis Palgrave used to 
tell a story how when cocoa-nuts first found their Avay into Britain 
from the East, the learned men of the day pronounced them to be 
undoubtedly the eggs of some large bird, and ordered them to be 
hung up in the church as offerings. 

As the men of Louth had no patron saint's shrine around which 
to accumulate costly and beautiful things, they supplied its place 
by an image of Saint George on horseback — Avhere it stood I cannot 
tell, but there is clear evidence that it Avas somcAvhere in the church 
— not as the author of the Nutltiae Ludce has suggested, in the 
Market-place. A curious and beautiful thing I have no doubt it 
was, and persons used to give valuable objects with Avhich to adorn 
it. In 1513 we find that the Vicar, Mr. Richard Bernyngham, 
gaA'e an image hanging about St. George's neck. The pleasure the 
people took in this effigy of the patron saint of our country did not 
decrease Avith time, for in 1533 they incurred considerable expense 
in decorating the figure. Here is the bill, as accounted for at the 
parish meeting. 


To James, tlie gylter, for hys stuti'e and labor in gylting £, s. d. 

Saynct George 2 6 8 

To Thomas Provost, for making the scaffold about Saynct 

George at the time that he was guylted 5 

To Henry deane for a bell strying to Sainct George bell 10 

For dighting* Sainct George swerde 5 

To William Assheby for 5 pares [of] bedes to Sainct 

George hede 4 

More to James the gilter for his labors and reward in 

gylting Sainct George 13 4 

These sums seem trivial when we measure them by the present 
value of money, but at the time when a penny represented much 
about the same value as a shilling does now, they were by no means 

But a few years after, when the changes in the King's opinions 
had been determined upon, and it was being carried out with all 
the sternness of his unbending character, images such as this, around 
which the devotion of the people had gathered for centuries, were 
swept away, the antiquarian and artistic feelings which would have 
moved many of us to share them, were well-nigh unknown then. 
Almost all persons, therefore, to whom images of the saints were 
not holy, desired to destroy them without remorse. The early 
Christians, when the time of triumph came on the conversion of 
Constantine, had purified the heathen temples, broken the images, 
and turned the buildings into Christian Chm'ches, and in the 
minds of most of those of the reforming party there was but a 
shade of difterence between the statues of the Greek and Eoman 
gods and goddesses, and those of the saints which had been objects 
of devotion to their fathers. 

In 1538 we find in the Louth Church books a charge of 6s. 8d. 
paid to Thomas Provost, the man who a few years before had built 
the scaffold for the gilder to stand upon. This time, however, his 
services had been required to take down the image. In 1552 we 
find that St. George's bridle was in existence. 

When antiquaries tell you they think this or that, and do not 
produce evidence from contemporary documents for what they say, 
it is commonly wise to treat their speculations as you do those of 
spirit-rappers, fortune-tellers, and other such persons whose state- 
ments cannot be tested by reason. It seems to me not at all 
improbable, however, though I have seen no proof of it, that this 
bridle owed its preservation to some superstitious rite or other, of 
which it was the medium. The worthy canons of Ripon used to 
make no little gain in those times by a thing they called St. 
Wilfrid's Brandiny Iron, with which stock used to be branded as a 

* To prepare, to set in order, to furnish. From the Anglo Saxon DihUin. " He hatli put 
hys swearde to the Uiij/itiiiff," occurs in Ezechiel, chap. 21, in the translation of 1551, where 
the present version has "to be furbished." 


most certain cure for the murrain ; and in the Forest of Ardennes to 
this day, they burn dogs with a hot key, called St. Hubert's Key, as 
a sure preventative of madness. 

The image of St. George was not the only ornament the church 
possessed, though it seems to have been much the most notable. 
We find mention, however, in the records of several other figures — 
St. Christopher, St. James, St. Eock, &c. 

I have imagined that we have strayed into the church in pre- 
reformation days, and have endeavoured to indicate some of the 
sights that would meet our eyes. If, however, we went our way 
without having an interview with the sacristan, and inducing him 
to shew us the treasures he kept under lock and key, we should 
have but a poor idea of the splendour of our mediaeval churches. 

The person who kept the Louth account book in 1.512 has care- 
fully transcribed into it an inventory made in 1486, that is, twenty- 
six years before — 
*' Of all the goodes of the Kyrke of Saint James in Louth." 

It is far too long to read at length, but the wealth it displays is 
simply amazing. The first article mentioned is a coffer of silver 
gilt, weighing 435 ounces. Then follow two silver gilt proces- 
sional crucifixes, with the images of SS. Mary and John attached 
to each, weighing respectively 111 and 80 ounces. Afterwards 
we have five silver chalices, and several pieces of the same 
metah Ivory was then at least as precious as silver, probably 
more so, for we find that although the box in which " is borne the 
sacrament to them that lyes seyke in the towne," was of silver gilt 
and weighed 18 ounces, that they had a " pix of ivery boundit with 
syluer claspys in which hengys the sacrament [over] the hey auter." 
The sensers, too, were of silver ; they had two pairs, w^eighing 
together 67 ounces. The candlesticks, the churchwarden's collecting 
plate, the Chrysmatories, also, were of the same precious metal. 
There were two silver ships, -weighing 11 ounces each, which stood 
near the high alter, in which incense was burnt. Of the vestments 
it is impossible to speak at length. There were at least twelve 
chasubles, seemingly with full suits of other things to match. One 
is described as of red velvet, embroidered with flowers of gold ; 
another as of silk, embroidered witli beasts of gold, and in the 
orfrays of the same, lambs wrought with thread of gold. Of copes 
there was at least an equal number. 

Among the vestments was a relic which, if genuine, would be 
very interesting in these days. It was nothing less, if we may 
believe the inventory maker, than an ivory comb that had once 
belonged to St. Herefrid, Bishop of Auxerre. 

There were eight altar frontals, one of red colour, embroidered 
with birds and beasts of gold. Another of silk, the colour not 
named, ornamented with " litile bestes " wrought with pearls. 


A third of red silk was also embroidered with beasts, but in the 
middle was a representation of the face of the Trinity, and of the 
Blessed Virgin jNIary. 

So great has been the destruction of old English service books, 
that it is not probable that any library in the world contains so 
curious a collection of them as was once within the vestry of this 
church. jS[ot only were there the common books, such as we find 
in every old inventory of church goods, but volumes which now do 
not exist, as far as is known, in a single exemplar. 

The " Legend of the Sayntes of the Vse of Lincoln " has as 
certainly perished, I fear, as the lost books of Livy. So, too, has 
the Hymnarium of the Lincoln use which was also there. 

Put away among the books, I suppose rather as a curiosity than 
as a thing required for the services of the church, was a pair of 
beads — a rosary it would now be called — which had been bequeathed 
to the Church by Cecil Wyom. They were of silver-gilt and coral, 
but differed in number and seemingly in arrangement from those 
now in use. As well as a crucifix there was hung from it an image 
of our Lady and another of St. (Christopher. There was also sus- 
pended to it what the inventory maker calls an image, but what we 
should perhaps not unfitly designate a charm, inscribed on the one 
side — 

"Jesus Nazavemis Eex Jiid?eorum. " 

and on the other — 

"Jasper Melchoir Balthazer." 

The traditional names of the three ^vise men who ottered the mystic 
gold, frankincense, and myrrh to the infant Saviour. The worship 
of these three kings, as they were called, was extremely popular in 
the middle ages, and the wild legend concerning them seems to have 
been known to every one. The story was that the Empress Helena 
brought their bodies from the East to Constantinople, and that they 
were removed thence to Cologne by Archbishop Eeinold in 1164. 
Their very names Avritten on a little strip of parchment was held to 
be a sovereign charm against sickness and witchcraft. We find 
them constantly inscribed on cups, tombs, book-covers, rings, and 
other personal ornaments. In the Church of St. Peter Mancroft, 
Norwich, there was a monumental brass with the follo-\\dng legend : — 

"Jasper fert myrrh am, thus Melchoir, Balthasar airrum ; 
Hoc tria qui secuiu portabit nomina regum ; 
Solvitur a morbo Cliristi pietate caduco."* 

This superstition continued in force long after the Reformation. 
So late as 1749, a convicted murderer died in Chichester gaol, on 

* See ProceeiUnrjs of HocMij of Antiqtiarif.i, '20th December, 18(10. 


■whose body was found, m a lineu purse, the followiug uonsense, 
partly in Latin and partly in French :— 

" Ye three Holy Kings, Gaspar, Melchior, Balthasar, pray for 
us now and at the hour of our death. These papers have touch'd 
the three heads of the Holy Kings of Cologne. They are to preserve 
travellers from accidents on the road, head-aches, falling-sickness, 
fevers, witchcraft, all kinds of mischief, and sudden death."* 

At Shipton, in Hamjishire, one of the church bells is inscribed — 

" ^oijannes . (t^mti . care . 
Miunau . pro . nofiis . ocare." 

And the stop between the words is formed of a full-faced human 
head, with a label round it inscribed — ■ 


It is needless to say that the traditional names of the magi have 
no place in Holy Scripture. They seem, however, to have come 
to i^orthern Europe from the East, and are not improbably " con- 
nected with certain reminiscences of the ancient Mithraic worship." 
They are explained to mean Caspar, The White One; Melchoir, 
Kinr/ of Light ; Baltazar, Lord of Treasures.'^ 

The greatest treasure, however, that the Louth Sacristan would 
have to shew us would be a new cross. They had only had it two 
years at the time of which I am speaking. It was called Sudbury 
Cross, for it was left to the church by Master Thomas Sudbury, the 
late vicar, or •' wicare,"§ as the accountant chose to spell it. The 
cross itself was of silver-gilt, and the staff was garnished with silver- 
gilt knobs, or pomels, as they Avere called, and there was a silver 
foot belonging to the same also gilded. The silver Aveighed 237 
ounces. What was the form of its beauty we cannot now tell, for 
it has long ago found its Avay into the melting-pot ; but knowing 
what the silver-smith's art then Avas Ave may Avell assume that the 
workmanship bestoAved on it was of far more value than the 
mere metal. Thomas Sudbery's desire Avas for his gift " to remain 
in the Parish Church of Louth for ever, there to be used and occu- 
pied in honour of God, his blessed Mother, St. James, and all Saints. 
And he provided especially that it Avas to be used at tlie burial of 
every brother or sister of a guild called The Lamp Li (/hi Gild. In 
rcAvard for this splendid present an obit, that is, a funeral service 
for the repose of the soul of the donor, Avas to be kept yearly in the 

* Gentleman's Mag., vol. 19, p. 88, t Lukis's Account of Church Bells, p. 75. 

X See King's Gnostics, pp. 50, 132, 134. 

§ AV is often put for V in what seems to us a most absurd manner in the writings of 

the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, e.g., " For a cord to the inile and to ye rod iiiid." 

Leverton Ch. Ace, 1592, in Archceologia xli. 356. " To John Spencer, for i wellom skyn for to 

draw the broch in, vjd." Louth Ch. Ace, 1503-4. 


Parish Cliurcli, and at this obit " the said cross with the foot " was 
to be set upon his hearse* to the intent that " the devotion of good 
people shall the rather be stirred to pray for the soul of the said 
Master Thomas Sudbery, which God pardon." 

This, as the greatest treasiu'e of the church, would, we may 
suppose, be shewn as last, and we should then stroll into the 
Market-place and look at the cross there — a work which seems to 
have been, from the incidental notices we have, of no common 
beauty. Here, as it was a holiday, we might not improbably meet 
Avith a begging friar preaching to the people a stinging discourse in 
the coarsest language. Not improbably holding the parochial clergy 
up to contempt, and loudly advocating superstitions, which they to 
their credit had done what they could to check. 

These mendicants, at first when they arose, were, no doubt, 
useful in evangelizing the people ; but they had long been the pests 
of the church, and, probably, more than any other body of men 
brought about those evils which precipitated the Eeformation. 
To them was mainly intrusted the traffic in indulgences, and to 
them, in a great measure, is due the dishonour of having invented 
the shameless falsehoods on which the notion of the spiritual value 
of those delusions was founded. England suffered little from this 
sinful inposture in comparison with some other countries, but even 
here it was the custom for some monasteries and guild corporations 
to buy the right of retailing these things. The guild of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary of Boston purchased such a privilege, and sent hawkers 
up and down the country, — to Stourbridge, Newmarket, Swafiham, 
Norwich — to sell their wares, f 

* The word Hearse, Latin, Hercia, originally meant a harrow. Sometime.s, though rarelj', 
it is to be found in this sense (see Lord Berners' Froissart, ed. 1812, I. p. \M, II. p. 501;. After- 
wards it came to mean a triangular frame, with bars crossing each other much like a harrow, 
in which candles were set during the service of Tenebine. And from its similarity to this, 
the light frame of wood, which it was customary to set over the grave of the dead to support 
the pall when funeral lites were being performed, was also called a hearse. It was a frame 
such as this that is mentioned in the text. In one of Wyclifs scorching invectives he speaks 
of persons who are " buried with many a torche with grete solmpnyte in tombes corve & 
peynte gloriously dyzt, portreied tweyne angels to berene here soules in to hevcn ; with ful 
rich heerses & grete festis after." Of Anti-Chriat and his ileynei; p 152. The mcdiseval 
funeral car differed little from the stationary hearse, except that it was on wheels. From it 
the modern liearse has been derived. In prints of the seventeenth century we find hearses pic- 
tured, differing in no important particular, except that they are not quite so repulsively ugly, 
from those now in use. Milton, who was ever rigorously particular in the selection of liis 
words, uses hearse in the modern sense — 

" Gentle lady, may thy grave 

Peace and (luiet ever have ; 

After this thy travel sore. 

Sweet rest seize thee evermore. 

Here be tears of perfect moan 

Wept for thee in Helicon, 

And some flowers and some bays. 

For thy herse to strew the ways." 

Epitaph on the March of Winchester. 
t An account of the nature of the Boston pardon, and how it was obtained, may be seen 
in Foxe's Acts ami Moninnenis, Ed., 1857, vol. V. p. 'MiX. Robert Abraham, of Kirton-in- 
Lindsey, who in 15 lit, " voluntiario sc submersit in quodam fonte," was buried with the rites 
of the church, " racione indulgencic beate Slarie Virginis de Uoston " (,'ent. Mag. vol. I., 
1864, p. 502. 


From the days of the Eeforination down to the present time it 
has been common with historians and novel writers to dwell at 
great length on the vicious lives of the unreformed clergy. As far, 
however, as the parochial clergy are concerned, I have seen very 
little contemporary evidence to substantiate such SAveeping charges. 
They, as far as I can gather, were auostly quiet, simple-minded men, 
endeavouring, according to their lights, to direct the people in the 
way of salvation. The great plague of the church was the herd of 
priests without cure of souls who wandered up and down the 
country intruding on the parishes of other people, and often while 
making the highest pretensions to piety, leading shamelessly im- 
moral lives. 

Several of these worthies are mentioned in the churchwarden's 
account books in a manner which shews that the townspeople were 
accustomed to find their presence by no means conducive to good 
order. In 1522-3 we find that the chiu'cliAvardens paid to William 
N'orthe the sum of iiii'^. for " ledyng " one of them " to Lyncoln 
Castell." In 1543-4, there is also a charge of iii®. vjl*^. for taking 
another priest to Lincoln. 

I have tried to sketch in very neutral colours something of what 
we might have seen had we visited Louth in 1509. What we should 
have felt could we, with our present knowledge, have spent some 
time with the people, and tried to enter into their thoughts, it would 
be far more difficult to say. The matter has been the subject of so 
many fierce controversies. The air is so darkened with the dust 
and smoke of theological battle that we, perhaps, really know less 
of the feelings of our forefathers in the half-century preceding the 
Eeformation, than we do of those of the Greeks in the age of 
Pericles. I myself believe morals were no lower than they are at 
present, and on some points the standard was much higher. Society 
was rougher. Gentlemen would sit with their servants drinking in 
ale-houses, and Ijoth gentle and ungentle were more ready to fight 
than we are now ; but the people were light-hearted and happy, 
fond of those innocent pastimes Avhich the Puritan spirit of later 
ages has banished for ever. Eeligious they were, too, in a most 
earnest manner. It seems certain that in those days the whole 
population attended church on holy-days, and the brethren and 
sisters of the rehgious guilds, and most people belonged to some con- 
fraternity of that sort, were bound by their rule to attend divine 
service on many festivals, besides those of obligation. That they 
were superstitious we cannot doubt, but it may fairly be said that 
the suiDerstitious that occupied their minds were not then the 
authentic teaching of the Church, but only the popular and, as yet, 
uuauthenticated commentary on that teaching. 

On these matters it would be very unfitting for me to enter ; 
but whatever our views may be, we ought not to withhold our 


sympathy from the people whose clearest feelings were outraged hy 
the changes Avhich Henry, after his quarrel Avith the Pope about 
the divorce, forced ou the country. Without paving the way 
h_y instruction — withoufany attempt to sever the tares from the 
wheat — the King at once attacked not onlj' those superstitions 
which were a disgrace to Christianity, and Avhich he as the chief 
magistrate was justified in removing, but also all the innocent 
objects of their reverence and love, the imaginative rites, half 
religious, half poetical, by which they and their ancestors had 
been in the habit of shadowing forth their hopes, their fears, and 
their aspirations. 

The brutal manner in which the monasteries were suppressed, 
accompanied in many cases by every insult that could be ottered to 
the living inmates and to the dead who slept around. The wanton 
desecration of holy objects, or at least of objects dedicated to God 
which the people thought holy, tilled men's minds with alarm. A 
king Avho had done the deeds Henry had might do anything. No 
trust could be placed in his faith. What wonder is there, then, 
that as the spoliation of the abbey churches went on, reports got 
abroad, and were fully believed, that the clergy were all to be 
plundered and turned adrift, the greater part of the churches 
pulled down, and their valuables treated as those belonging to the 
suppressed religious houses had been 1 

I am not aware that there is any evidence that the toAvnsmen 
of Louth were more religious than their neighboiu's ; though, from 
many incidental notices in the account books, I have been led to 
believe that the whole popidation took the most fervent interest in 
what is noAV called " chiu'ch work." Whether they were so or not, 
however, to them belongs the honour of having been the first to 
resist the tyrant in his measures of robbery. Their struggle, like 
many another act of patriotism, was unavailing ; but success is not 
a sure test of right and wrong. We Avho so often sympathize with 
such very questionable causes far away from home, because we think 
the people are struggling against oppression, might surely sometimes 
remember that our own forefathers have died on the battle plain, 
and by the hands of the executioner, for resisting a tyrant whose 
crimes have not been surpassed by any bad ruler of modern days. 

After the chief mass on Sundays, it was the custom to have a 
collection for church purposes- — the ofi'ertory, in fact. The proceeds 
were usually about 3s. 6d. or 4s. a Sunday. On the Seventeenth 
Sunday after Trinity, 1536, no sum is entered, but instead thereof 
we have the following sentence, speaking volumes when we knoAV 
its cause — 

" Nihil propter tunniltum populi." 

The people had been too excited that day to give alms, for news 


had come that the Bishop of Lincoln's Chancellor, and Mr. 
Heneage, of Hainton, two of the King's Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sionei-s, were coming the next morning to phinder their church. 
The little nunnery of Leghurn had been suppressed a day or two 
before, and men's minds were full of fear. They dreaded what 
came to pass too soon — that their treasures in the vestry and the 
rood-loft hutches would be invaded, and that all their valuables, 
even Sudbury's cross itself, woidd be taken from them. So terrified 
were they, that a guard was set to watch lest an attack should be 
made in the night. 

At nine o'clock the next morning ]\Ir. Heneage entered Louth, 
accompanied, as Mr. Fronde tells us, with but one servant. He 
was a well known man, who at other times would, no doubt, have 
been treated with aU that respect which Avas due to his social rank, 
but men's minds were driven mad by fear of pillage. His com- 
panion, the Chancellor, happily for himself, had been taken ill, and 
could not attend. 

As Mr. Commissioner Heneage rode up the street, the alarm- 
bell rang, and the people rushed out with their arms in their 
hands. Heneage was, very naturally, terrified. His conscience, 
we may assume, did not feel very easy while he was engaged 
in doing the work to which he had lent himself. He sprung from 
his horse, and rushed to the church for safety ; but the men 
of Louth did not hold that the right of sanctuary shoidd be 
extended to robbers of churches. There was an old maxim, 
" Ecdesia non tegit vialatores eedesice." Whether the townsmen 
had ever met with this scrap of law Latin may be doubtful, but 
they acted on it with all promptness. The Commissioner was 
dragged from his place of refuge and brought forth into the Market- 
place, where an extempore court of justice was held, such as had 
been common in more remote times, and the faint shadow of which 
still lingered in the manor courts to Avhicli they were accustomed. 
Before this tribunal he Avas made to swear, with a draAvn sword at 
his breast, that he would be true to the cornmon-'>. " Let us all 
swear ! let us all swear !" was the general cry, and an oath was 
drawn up on the spot, and every body in Louth, even strangers who 
chanced to be in temporary residence there, all swore to be faitliful 
to the King, the CommouAvealth, and the Church. 

The rioters, if we are to call them by that ill-omened name, had 
no idea of violating the law. They Avere loyal subjects of King 
Henry, but they Avere free Englishmen and good Christians as Avell. 
The abominable doctrine of passiA'e obedience to tyrants had never 
been taught them ; all they kncAV of Avas the duty of Christian 
subjection to a Christian King. When that King Avas about to 
outrage the most cherished feehngs of their hearts, they thought 


they might resist his unlawful acts without failing in any measure to 
shew due loyalty to his person, or obedience to his just commands. 

While the swearing was going forward the Eegistrar of the 
Diocese made his appearance. He was accompanying Mr. Commis- 
sioner Heneage, but it seems he had lagged somewhat behind him. 
He was instantly seized and dragged to the Market Cross. His 
books were thrown among the mob and torn leaf from leaf, and the 
fragments burnt. It was with difficulty the Eegistrar escaped with 
his life. 

The next day news came that other commissioners were at 
Caistor. jNIeltou, a Louth shoemaker, a person Avhose name is 
often mentioned in the account books, and a tailor, whose nick- 
name was " Great James," led an irregular ami}' thither to capture 
them. When they arrived there the Commissioners had fled. The 
fame of the proceedings of the Louth insurgents had gone before 
them, and a large body of horse was already gathered together for 
the purpose of rendering assistance. Aaolent measures now began 
to prevail. Some of the priests are said to have urged the populace 
to " kill the gentlemen." This statement we have in evidence 
taken after the insurrection Avas crushed. As it is, however, certain 
that great numbers of the gentry sympathized with the people, and 
some had even gone so far as to take up arms in the cause ; we should 
look on such an ascertion with grave suspicion. If there be any 
truth in it, the persons who were thus proscribed were certainly not 
the whole body of the gentry, but only those who had lent them- 
selves as willing agents to the King in his war against the Church. 

The next day all Horncastle rose, with Edward Dymoke, the 
High Sheriff at its head. Dr. Mackerell, the Abbot of Barlings, 
came in with waggon-loads of victuals. The banner of the army 
was embroidered witli a plough, a chalice and host, the five wounds 
of ^ Christ, and a Iwrn. The meaning of all the symbolism is 
obvious, except the horn. It has been suggested that this refers to 
Horncastle. I am rather inclined to think it was meant for a war 
trumpet, in allusion to the text — " If the trumpet give an uncertain 
sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle."* 

The memory of the ensign of this unfortunate rising long con- 
tinued. Many years after, wlien the Northern shires rose for the 
last time in defence of the old religion, under their natural leaders, 
the Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland, a contemporary 
ballad writer tells us that — 

"Lord Westmorland his ancyentt raisde, 
The Dun Bull he rays'd on hye, 
And three Dogs with golden collars 
Were there sett out most royallye. 

* 1 Corinth., c. xiv. v. 8. 
t Ancient ; an heraldic cnsif^n. A battle standanl. FalstafE says of his men that they 
are "ten times more dishonourable than an old-faced ancient." I. Henry IV., act IV,, ec. II. 
In the Leycester Correspondence, A.D. 1585, an order occurs for " causinge the-forsayd souldgers 
to be kept under their auncients," p 17. 


" Erie Percy there his ancyeut spred, 

The Halfe-Moone shining all so faire ; 
The Norton's ancyent had the cross, 

And the five wounds our Lord did beare."* 

It is impossible to follow the fortunes of the insurgents step by 
step. Until all the papers relating to these transactions are arranged 
and calendared anything I might say would possess little value. 
The history of the time has yet to be written. Thus much, 
however, dim as our present light is, we may discover with cer- 
tainty. Had there been forethought and good generalship among 
the leaders, even Henry, stern and self-willed as we know him to 
have been, must have made concessions. They were, however, a 
mob, not an army. The Duke of Suffolk gained a bloodless victory 
over them at Lincoln, and in process of time the Vicar of Louth, 
the Abbot of Barlings, and sundry other honest men of the county 
were hanged at Tyburn, and the King was left free to go forward in 
that career of crime, which whatever blessings it may have indirectly 
entailed, is, when viewed Avith relation to himself alone, one of the 
darkest pages in modern history. 

* Percy's Reliques I. 292, ed. 4. The version occurring in Percy's Folio Manuscript is evi- 
dently corrupt. It would seem from it that the banner oi; the five wounds was borne by the 
Earl of Northumberland, not by tlie Norton's. 


Louth Park Abbey.— By Rev. Edmund A^enablbs, M.A., Canon 
Residentiary and Precentor of Lincoln. 

In offering the following Paper to the attention of the present 
meeting, I have to commence by tendering an apology for having so 
little to tell yon concerning the Abbey which is its subject, the scanty, 
but very interesting remains of which, as brought to light by the 
archteological zeal and liberality of Mr. W. Allison, we visited this 
morning. My Paper was to have been A History of Louth Park 
Abbey. But at the outset I must say with Canning's " I^Teedy 
Knife Grinder," — 

"Story, God bless you, I liave none to tell, Sirs," 
and ask your indulgence for my inability to tlirow more than a 
feeble ray or two of additional light on the annals of the Abbey. 
When I was first honoured by an invitation from the Chairman of 
our Committees, whose word is law to us all, to prepare a Paper on 
Louth Park Abbey for this occasion, I hoped that the case would 
have been very different ; for Archdeacon Trollope told me of a MS. 
Chronicle of the Abbey, the use of which had been offered him 
but a few years since by the late Mr. Henry Harrod, the secretary 
of our sister Society in jSTorfolk. On considting Tanner's Notltia, 
I saw that he also spoke of Annals of " Louth Park Abbey" exist- 
ing among the muniments of the Corporation of JS'orwich, which 
were largely quoted both by him and Dugdale in giving the history 
of other Cistercian houses. There could be little doubt that the two 
documents were the same, and in the full belief that Mr. Harrod had 
availed himself of his residence at Xorwich to make a transcript of 
this chronicle, I applied to the Town Clerk of that city for some 
information with regard to this precious MS. But my aiiplication 
was entirely fruitless. The MS. had esca^Jed from the guardianship 
of the Corporation so long ago that no trace of it was to be found 
in any catalogue of their muniments, and they were unaware that 
it had ever been theirs. It is curious that forty years ago a similar 
disappointment was experienced by the author of the NotiticB 
Liodie. He, too, had read Tanner's notice of the MS. annals : 
*• all expectation," he also applied to a friend at Norwich for a sight 
of the treasure. But again all search was vain. It was then sup- 
posed that the MS. had been destroyed by fire. But this must have 
been erroneous, for the MS. offered by Mr. Harrod seems to have 
been the original, not a transcript, and as he refers to it in his 
Abbeys and Castles of Norfolk, as " in his possession," it must 
have been obtained by him from some unknown quarter, by pur- 
chase or exchange. What is the hiding place of the MS. now is 

VOL. IX., PT. I. V 


undiscoverable. At ]\Ir. Harrod's premature death his books and 
papers were dispersed, and no intelligence can be obtained of the 
missing document. But of its existence there can be no reasonable 
doubt, and I will not resign the hope that it will come to light 
some day when Ave are least expecting it, and that some future 
volume of our transactions will be enriched with this remarkable 

But my disappointment at Norwich was not my only one. 
Tanner's cautious words, '"'quorum apographum forsan in Bibl.Bodl.," 
excited the illusive hope that a transcri})t might exist there. But 
researches, most kindly set on foot by Prebendary Wordsworth, have 
been unavailing,'^ and I have to come before you this evening, 
having little more to say concerning the Abbey of Louth Park than 
you can already read in the pages of Dugdale and Tanner. It 
is true I have found some curious grants among the additional MSS. 
in the British Museum, and my friend jNIr. Burtt has gleaned a few 
trifling notices for me from the Public Eecord Office. But the 
additions to the existing stock, scanty as that is, are but trifling. 

With this apologetic preface I will j^roceed at once to the history 
of the foundation. 

Louth Park Abbey, as most of you are aware, was a Cistercian 
house, dedicated like all the Cistercian houses to the Blessed Virgin. 
It was an early Cistercian establishment, founded only eleven years 
later than Waverley Abbey, in Surrey, the first house of that order 
in England. Waverley was founded a.d. 1128. Three years later, 
A.D. 1131, the first foundations of the great Abbey of Foimtains 
were laid in Skeldale by the little band of enthusiastic ascetics, whom 
a desire for a more rigid discipline and a sterner law of self-denial 
had driven forth from the Benedictine Abbey of St. Mary's, York. 
The heroic struggle of these dauntless men — " penniless, homeless, 
almost hopeless," — against difficulties which would have absolutely 
quenched a less holy and deeply-seated zeal, was hardly over, and 
the young foiindation had scarcely struck its roots in the new 
soil before its innate vitality began to be evinced by its power of 
propagation. Swarm after swarm Avas sent out from the parent hive 
with a marvellous rapidity, evidencing Avhat Dean Milman has well 
called " the marvellous inward force, the reconstructing, reorganizing, 
reanimating energy of monasticism." Within less than twenty years 
Fountains had become the direct parent of no less than eight 
thriving monastic establishments, and before 1148 the grandparent 
of three others founded by the earliest of her children, Xewminster, 

* Mr. W. K, Turner most obligingly made a thorough search for the records of Louth 
Park Abbey, in the Bodlein, " but without any success." He considers it probable that if a 
copy was at any time in the Tanner collection "it must have been lost when Tanner's books 
were immersed on their way to Oxford." 


in ]*^ortlmmberland. ISTor shall we regard this fecundity as surpris- 
ing when we remember that the great saint was still alive, St. 
Bernard of Clairvaux, whose enthusiastic piety impressed on the 
Cistercian order the high unworldly tone which characterized its 
earlier period, and whose religious energy and practical wisdom 
made themselves felt throughout the whole of the foundations of 
which the Abbot of Clairvaux was the recognized head. 

The foundation of which we are treating Avas in truth one of the 
very earliest of the spiritual offspring of Fountains. Though not 
established at Louth tdl the year 1139, the colony of monks which 
formed it was originally sent forth irom Yorkshire two years earlier, 
in the year 1137, the fifth year of the foundation of the Monastery 
of Fountains. The first destination of this religious colony was 
Haverholm, near Sleaford, where Alexander, the third Bishop of Lin- 
coln, the brother of ^igel, Bishop of Ely, and nephew of Henry I.'s 
powerful Chancellor, Eoger of Sarum — who, like his uncle, was far 
more of the feudal baron than the bishop ; of the warrior than the 
churchman — " had consigned a certain place into the hands of the 
Abbot for the purpose of erecting a abbey of their order." Another 
body of monks was despatched from Fountains at the same time to 
Kirksted, near Horncastle, where a site for an abbey had been 
granted by Hugh Brito, Lord of Tattershall. Two years were occu- 
pied in raising the necessary buildings for the reception of a 
regularly organized religious society. On Candlemas Day, 1139, 
two bodies of monks were solemnly sent forth from Fountains 
to take possession of their new homes. One to Kirksted, under 
Abbot Robert of Snell, the other to Haverholm, under Abbot 
Gervase. Both of these new abbots belonged to the little band 
of Christian heroes, twelve in number, pioneers in religion and 
civiUzation, who had originally left St. Mary's at York, cheer- 
fully enduring cold, wet, hunger, and want of all things, and, 
in the words of the annalist, " in the sweat of their face planted 
that vineyard." Human nature is proverbially capricious, and 
monk nature is no exception to the rule. IJenefactors have at 
all times experienced the mortification of seeing their gifts looked 
on with coldness, if not with aversion, and what they hoped 
would be received with gratitude, rejected with scorn. This disap- 
pointment was reserved for lUshop Alexander. Haverholm Avas 
not to the taste of the new monastic colony, who, after a short trial, 
begged to be removed to a fresh locality. They foinid Alexander 
not indisposed to listen to their petition. He had this year received a 
powerful and bitter lesson of the instability of human greatness. He 
had been apprehended, together with his uncle lioger, at the 
meeting at Oxford ; both prelates had been dragged to Devizes where 
his brother Nigel, Bishop of Ely, Avas holdmg the Castle in the 


interest of the Empress Maud, and imprisoned in filthy sheds, and 
starved into submission. Roger Avas compelled to resign the castles 
he had Ijuilt to Stephen, and died before the close of the year a 
disappointed, heart-broken man, " senio et mjBrore coufectus." Alex- 
ander was only able to regain his liberty by the surrender of the 
castles of I^ewark and Sleaford, and returned to his diocese a sobered, 
and, let us hope, a wiser and better man, having learnt that there 
was another kind of building that better befitted a Christian bishop 
than the erection of military strongholds. We now find him the 
founder of monasteries, — Dorchester, Thame, Sempringham, and 
Haverholm, besides this of Louth, owing their being to his liber- 
ality — and in 1141 the restorer of more than its original beauty 
to his Cathedral of Lincoln, after it had been grievously disfigured 
by a fire. The flat timber roof had been consumed, and to guard 
against the recurrence of such a catastrophe he vaulted it with stone. 
He also erected the western towers, and the rich doorways that 
decorate the front. 

Tanner is somewhat hard upon the monks, Avhose dissatisfaction 
with Haverholm he attributes to some motive diflerent from 
the ostensible one. " They pretended" he says, " not to like the 
situation, and thereupon removed to Louth Park." " The good 
bishop," as he styles one who is described by his contemporaries, 
as " a proud man regardless of the purity and simplicity of Chris- 
tianity," " quickly disposed of the island here to the nuns and 
canons of the new and strict order of St. GUbert of Sempringham, 
who settled here a.d. 1139." But Tanner wrote at a time when 
it was safe to believe and assert anything bad of monks. The 
fouler the charge, the more likely was it to gain credit. 

I am not disposed to lay much stress on the unhealthy character 
of the proposed site of the monastery as an objection to the settlement. 
Those who had battled so unflinchingly with the hardships which 
accompanied the first foundation of their Abbey of Foiintains, were 
not men to be daunted and driven back by the damp exhalations of 
the swamp surrounding Haverholm. I am inclined to look in 
another quarter for the reason of their anxiety to remove. The 
objections were rather agricultural than sanitary. Seven centuries 
ago, the rich and well drained domain of the Finch-Hattons was 
a wide swamp, through which the little river Slea soaked its way 
in two branches, surrounding a small island known as Haverholm.* 
A marsh island like this did not suit the agricultural views of " the 
farmer-like Cistercians" — the great improvers of the cultivation 
of the middle ages. Both soil and climate were unfavourable for 
their plans. ISTor can we quarrel with them if they wished to be 

« The termination holm, in Norse, signifies an island in a lake or river, e.g., Priestholm, 
Oxenfiolm. It is used often like the A. S. Bi/e, e.g., Pevensey, Ely, Thorney, for a rising ground, 
emerging hard and solid, from a suiTounding morass. 


transferred to a more genial locality, where there would be a better 
hope of their agricultural labours being rewarded. 

The spot selected by Bishop Alexander was his own episcopal park, 
a mile and a half east of Louth. When we visited it this morning, 
we could not fail to notice the advantages of the site. The Abbey 
was placed on a tract of elevated ground, raised far above all danger 
of inundations. Water was a hrst essential to all monastic estab- 
lishments, both for the sake of the sanitary arrangements of which 
conventual builders were so careful, and also for the supply of the 
fish-ponds, which formed so essential an adjunct to their foundations. 
The river Lud flowed to the north, but, though very useful as 
turning the abbey mill, granted them by Bishop Alexander "for ever 
to possess," was too far away from the buildings for these purposes. 
So a stream was brought from the copious sjiring known as St. 
Helen's Well by a dyke formed by the monks to the east side of the 
abbey grounds. Here it was parted into two courses, one running 
along the east side, supplying two fish-ponds, one of great size, which 
fifteen years ago were full of water, and well stocked with 
fish ;* the other, along the west side, turning northwards to meet the 
first-named stream. The abbey buildings were, therefore, sur- 
rounded with water. 

The history of the foundation is thus briefly summarized by 
Leland : — 

" Alexander Episc. Line, locum quondam Haverholm nomine 
Abbati de Fontibus in usum construendi monaster, consignavit. 

Robertus de Suuella factus abbas de Kirkstede. 

Gervasius factus abbas de Haverholm. 

Displicuit patribus de Haverholm locus liabitationis sufe, et 
commutatione facta locum alteram, quem Parcum Ludaj de manu 
Episcopi receperunt."t 

"Abbat de Parco Lude, Bernard. 

Alexander Episcopus Lincoln : primus fundator. 

Annuus redditus 147 Ii."X 

Bishop Alexander's charter of foundation is not preserved by 
Dugdale, or any other monastic historian ; but the following 
translation of it is printed in Notitioi Ludce, taken from the 
Alvingham Priory Book§ : — 

" Alexander, by the grace of God, bishop, to all his successors 
sendeth greeting. It is very profitable and necessarie, consyderinge 
the malice of these dayes, and the troubles and temptations which 

* There is a tradition that the sacred vessels of the Abbey were thrown by the monks 
into the upper pond at the dissolution. 

t Leland CoHectan. Vol. IV., p. 106. 

I Ibid, Vol. I., p. n.S. 

§The compiler does not afford a hint as to where this interesting I'ccord is to be found. 
May we beg that any of our readers who may be able to direct our researches in this respect 
will communicate with the Secretary. 


dayly, through infidelity, are seene to growe, to provide some deede 
of justice and purity in this moste myserabl lyfe, which may he of 
force heforre the face of the Almightie, to helpe or procure the 
remyssion of oure synnes ; wherefore I, by the counsaile of my 
clergie and assent of my Avhole chapter of the churche of Saynte 
Marie at Linkholne, am disposed to found an abbey of moonkes of 
St. Marie, of the Fountaynes, accordinge to the order of the blessed 
St. Benedict and custoomes of (Cistercians) in my woode, namely, 
in my Parke on the south syde of my towne called Lowthe, which 
parke I have graunted wholie and free from all terrene service, to 
Almightie God and the blessed virgin St. Marie hys moother, and 
to the use of the munkes who are appointed for the service of God 
in that place. And further, I have confirmed it to their possession 
by good securitie, except that part which is called .... in 
which part notwithstanding I have graunted them all the pasture 
for their swine, as they have in their owne proper parte. I have 
given and graunted unto them also, all the laude without the parke, 
from .... unto the brinke of the water off the river in breadthe 
towards the north, as it is divided by the ditch of the Avay to the 
south, which land dothe retche in lengthe to the south parke, even 
to the bounds betAvixt Lowth and Cockerington. 

" In lyke manner I have given unto them one myll, for ever to 
possesse, upon the same water ; therfore I am purposed to gyve 
unto them this gifte, free and quit from all earthlie servitude and 
whatsoever else, for the salvation off my soule, the soule of my 
soveraigne lord King Henrie, the soule off Eoger bishop off Salis- 
burie, niyne uncle, and the souls of all my parents ; and for the 
state off the churche off our foresaid abbey, I shall give in almes by 
these letters and scale off our chapter off the churche off the blessed 
virgin St. Marie off Linkholne, and by the signe of the holie cross 
I doe confirme, in the yere off our Lorde M.c.xxxix. 

" Therefore whosoever will eyther encrease or defend this my 
almes, in true charritie for his person and abilitie, peace be unto 
hym, healthe, and the everlastynge blessinge off Almightie God. 
But whosoever shall presume cruellie to diminish it, or raslilie to 
violate it, as much as pteineth unto the episcopalle authoritie off 
our sea (excepte he dothe amende and correct that his malice, being 
admonished and forwarned by the ecclesiasticale authoritie) we pro- 
nownce unto him, for the obstinacie of his presumj^tion, the daunger 
off everlasting salvation and the losse of eternall lyfe in the 
iudgment of excommunication." 

The new site pleased the brethren, with Abbot Gervase at their 
head. They settled down on the Bishop's grant, and erected the 
extensive and stately monastery, of which the scanty remains have 
been viewed by us this morning. 


The buildings, as we saw, corresponded generally to the date of 
the foundation. They were of the Transitional Xorman style, and 
of studied plainness, as enjoined by the severe rule of the Cistercian 
order, wliich forbad anything approaching to architectural magni- 
cence. The Cistercian churches were, as a rule, destitute of a 
triforiuni, a band of plain wall, as at Kirkstall and Tintern, taking 
the place of the richly-moulded arcade seen elsewhere. Pictures 
and painted glass presentiiig any pictorial subject were not permitted. 
A marked simplicity characterized the vestments, utensils, and all 
the furniture of the church. The crosses were of painted Avood, 
micarved, and the candlesticks of iron. But, as Ave could not fail 
to remark in our survey of the remains, the church of Louth Park 
Abbey must ha\'e been of great stateliness. Of considerable size and 
excellent proportions, the Avork must also have been of the highest 
order of excellence, as is evidenced by the noble remains of the base 
of the Avest front and its doors, and of the pillars of the nave. 
Though plain, all Avas the best of its kind. IS'othing mean Avas 
deemed worthy of the service of God. They Avould not offer to 
Him of that Avhich cost them nothing. A tantalizing quotation 
from the missing Chronicle, giA^en by Mr. Harrod in his Avork already 
referred to, puts us in ])Ossession of the date of the buildings at the 
east side of the Cloister Court. These including the Chapter-house, 
and the Calefactory, or Day-room of the Monks, and the east wall 
of the Cloister, Avere the Avork of Abbot Eichard of Durham, in 
1246. The fragments of the Chapter-house as Ave saAV them, accord 
Avith this date. 

Leaving the fabric of the Abbey for the present Ave Avill return 
to the history of its temporal fortunes. Here the material at our 
disposal is but scanty. We learn from the Testa de Nevill that 
Hugh of Bayeux, Avho died c. 1196, bestoAved the Grange of Lamb- 
croft, Avith 200 acres of arable land in " pure alms," on the 
Convent. But the chief document is the charter of confirmation 
of their possessions granted by Henry III. in the eighth year of 
his reign, a.d. 1224, insjiected and confirmed by EdAvard III, 
A.D. 1336. This recites all the lands of which the House 
then stood possessed, together Avith the names of the pious 
donors. It commences Avith the "donation Avhich Alexander, Bishop 
of Lincoln, made to God and the Church of the Blessed Mary, and 
the monks of the same jjlace ; to Avit, the park in Avhich Alexander 
the Bishop, himself founded the Church and Abbey, and the lands 
he gave them and confirmed Avith his charter." The names of many 
of the donors — William of Frieston, Hugh of Scotney, Gilbert of 
Ormsby, Eudo of Grainsby, Ivo of Strubby, &c., and of the localities 
of the lands given — Tetney, Elkington, Aby, Messingham, &c., are 
interesting to the lover of local history, and shoAV hoAv Avidely the 


influence of this foundation spread through the eastern part of the 
county. The only name of a donor known to fame is Ralph, Earl 
of Chester, who gave lands in Tetney, with their adjacents, together 
with waters, salterns, marshes, and meadows. 

The Abbey possessed hardly any property outside the County 
of Lincoln. They held land in Yorkshire, valued at £2 per annum 
in the Valor of Henry VIII, at a place called Howke, or Hoke ; 
probably Hooke, near Howden. ]>ut their chief property beyond 
the county was in the Manor of Brampton, near Chesterfield, in 
Derbyshire. Abbreviated transcripts of the deeds referring to their 
estates, made by our celebrated Lincolnshire antiquary, Dr. Pegge, 
the biographer of Grosseteste, are contained among the additional 
MSS. at the British Museum. They supply many points of in- 
terest, and will be found in the appendix to this paper. The grants 
refer to land in Barley, Birley, and Brampton. The two former places 
are members of the Manor of Brampton, situated on the edge of 
the high moors. The first grant is one by Hasculus Musard, in the 
reign of Henry II., of Birley, with the common and wood of Barley, 
the moor and shepherds' houses, &c. This grant was confirmed 
by Ralph Musard, his son and heir. These Musards were of a 
Xorman family, which was largely endowed by tlie Conqueror. 
They held by his gift six lordships in Derbyshire, as many in 
Gloucestershire, including the Castle of Musarden, or Miserden, 
taking its name from them, four in Warwickshire, three in Berks, and 
one in Bucks. ISTicholas, the last male heir, died about 1300. Bramp- 
ton was a chapelry of Chesterfield, which, with its church and all its 
chapels, had been given by William Rufus to the Dean and Chapter 
of Lincoln, and about 1111 had been appropriated to the Dean. There 
was, therefore, a close and eai'ly connection between the district and 
our county ; though there is absolutely nothing to enable us to con- 
jecture Avhat circumstances induced Asculf Musard to extend his 
benefactions to the monks of Louth. The original grant was 
enlarged and confirmed by members of the family of Abbetoft, who 
appear to have succeeded on the extinction of the male line of the 
Musards. These documents contain much that is curious, and 
are rich in those local names which are so dear to antiquaries, 
e.[/., Seacoalpits, Ridgeway, Stoney Furlong, Clay Furlongs, 8hort- 
half-acre, the Monk's Dyke, &c., and give some characteristic per- 
sonal names, such as Eifwin the Redhaired, Hugh Shortneck, &c., 
together Avith topographical particulars and local boundaries. The 
most interesting fact brought out by these documents, is that 
the monks of Louth Park were iron-workers.*' Iron-stone ex- 
isted in Birley wood, Avhich Avas worked by the monks. A grant 
of Walter Abbetoft, and Walter, his son, of part of their wood of 

* From a very early period iron was produced in Derbyshire, which up to a comparatively 
recent time, 1770, was all made, smelted, and worked in small charcoal furnaces. 


Birley " in pure and perpetual alms," assigned them the right of 
having two furnaces — "duas fabricas, i.e., duos focos" — one for smelt- 
ing iron in the wood, and one for hammering and forging it in their 
court-yard -'in curta sua" — together with ivon-stoue, " minera," and 
as much dry charcoal, and green wood for making charcoal as was 
sufficient for the furnaces " per visum forestarii nostri." This notice 
is of much interest as furnishing confirmation of the fact that 
the Cistercians, whenever they had the opportunity, were great 
metallurgists. There is good reason for believing that the Cistercians 
of Kirkstead were the first who introduced the iron trade into the 
neighbourhood of Sheffield. As soon as they had got a footing in 
that district, they obtained a grant of a site for forges, and of ground 
for procuring ironstone, from Richard de Builli, the founder of 
Eoche Abbey. Mr. Stacye informs me that the building the Monks 
of Kirkstead erected still exists, and is a most curious erection 
in the Norman style. We learn from the " Privilegium " of Pope 
Alexander III, a.d. 1160, that the Cistercians of Eievaulx were 
also iron workers at Stainborough.* The closing words of the grant 
to the Monks of Louth, declare tliat this gift was made in return 
for the trouble they had taken, and the expenses they had incurred, 
in procuring the admission of two of Walter Abbetoft's daughters 
as nuns in the houses of Master Gilbert of 8empringham. This 
property could not have been considerable. At the taxation of 
Pope Nicolas, 1291, it was valued at 20s. a year, and at tlie 
Dissolution at £2 13s. 4d. 

Prom the reign of Henry III. to that of Henry VIII. the 
history of Louth Park Abbey is almost a blank. The temporal 
possessions of the Convent somewhat increased in extent, including 
lands not mentioned in the confirmatory charter of Henry III., at 
Saltlieetby, Homercotes, and elsewhere. The annual value at Pope 
Nicolas's taxation in 1291, amounted to j£246 9s. 3d. At this time 
there were 6G monks and 150 coibversi, or lay brothers. But this 
Abbey was no exception to the general decay of the lesser conventual 
estaT)lishments of our country, which, before the sweeping confiscation 
of Henry VIII., had led Wolsey and other devoted sons of the 
Papal See, to plan measures for their suppression, as institutions 
which had had their day, jjlayed their part, and whose life was over 
as far as their useful purpose was concerned. 

Such bad husbands of tiieir property had the monks bet^n, tliat 
while the worth of money had greatly increased the annual value of 
their estates had sunk from £246 9s. 3d. to £169 5s. 6^d. gross income, 
while the net income amounted to no more tlmn £147, and the 
number of inmates barely amouuted, all counted, to a dozen. So 

*"Ex dono Adam lilii Petri ... in villa qua) vocatur Stainburcli sartuin illud (jiiod 
yocutur UKgedwaith, et totnya niiiicrnjui ferri de priedicta villa et in bosco ipsius villa; matfiiatn 
et ligna ad carbones et alia quae necessaria fuerint." — Dugdalje Mon. Angl. v. 28;!. 

VOL. XII., PT I, a 


true is it, as we have been lately reminded in words of fatherly- 
wisdom, that ecclesiastical institutions are never destroyed except 
by themselves. It is not till they become cumberers of the ground, 
that the edict issues to cut them down.* 

In 1535 the monastery was dissolved. One George Walker 
was the last abbot. In Dugdale we find the returns of the value of 
its lands and other possessions from the First-Fruits Office, together 
with the return of the King's Inquisition. With these I will not 
now trouble you. 

The site of the Abbey, with its l)uildings, was first granted in 
1537 to Thomas Borough, Lord Borough, for his life. The original 
grant is printed in the appendix to Notitke Ludce. Two years later 
it was re-granted to Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, forming a 
portion of the monastic spoil with which, at no cost to himself, 
Henry VIII. rewarded his brother-in-law for the leading part he had 
taken in putting down the religious rising in Lincolnshire of 1536, 
in which, as Mr. Peacock will tell us to-morrow, Louth played a 
conspicuous part. The patent roll containing the grant still exists 
in the Rolls Office, dated 30 Hen. VIIL, a.d. 1539. My friend Mr. 
Burtt, of the Public Record Office, writes, " That grant is now before 
me, occupying an entire ' part ' of a Patent Roll. Such men 
hungered you know for such things, and devoured them wholesale. 
I have managed just to find the part relating to Louth, and it 
stands thus,—' totum domum scitum ambitum et procinctum nuper 
Abbatie sive monasterii de Loathe Parke in Comitatu Lincoln, 
autoritate Parliamenti dudum suppresse et dissolute unacum omni- 
bus domibus edificiis orreis grangiis 

pomariis gardinis terris et solo eidem domui et scitui adjacentibus et 
pertinentibus,' — with so many acres of pasture adjacent, late in the 
occupation of George Walker, late Abbot thereof, and which were 
" extended" i.e., surveyed, by John Freeman and other Commissioners 
appointed thereto." 

These grants simply conveyed a right to the skeleton of the 
buildings, and the land on which it stood. Everything of value 
in the shape of plate, ornaments, timber, lead, &c., was reserved by 
the King for his own use, and that of his courtiers. An entry 
in the parish accounts, a.d. 1544, is an evidence of this : — 
" A.D. 1544. Payd to y^ Constabylls for hyeryng liorsses for y® 
Kyng when Leede was caryed fro Louth Parke. In sekyng waynes, 
vj« iiijd." 

With the Dissolution the history of Louth Park Abbey closes. 
The buildings were gradually demolished. The noble church with 
its refectory and cloisters, &c., formed but too convenient a quarry 

*"No institution is ruined except by itself. The calamities which befell our Monastic 
orders in the sixteenth century, were due to the abuses in our Monftsteriee." — Twelve Addrestet 
by the Bishop of Lincoln, p. 22, 


for the use of the neighbourhood, to be suffered to stand entire, 
Time and the slow progress of decay helped the work of destruction 
commenced by man's violence, and, as years rolled on, the once 
stately fabric of Louth Abbey was reduced to a few fragments of 
shattered walls, without a vestige of architectural decoration, rising 
from a vast area of grass-grown heaps which bore witness to the 
size and extent of the monastery. Happily Ave have now another 
chapter to add to the history of the foundation, viz., that of its re- 
discovery, if I may so call it, for which we are indebted to the 
liberality and personal exertions, as well as to the archaeological 
zeal of Mr. W. Allison, guided by the practised eye of that accom- 
plished antiquary, his relative, the Eev. J. Stacye. On the results 
of these excavations, which have enabled us to reproduce the whole 
Abbey in ground-plan, and to determine to so large an extent its 
style and general architectural character, it is unnecessary for me to 
speak ; for, in so doing, I should be trenching on the province of 
Archdeacon Trollope, who has promised to furnish a niemoii' on the 
architectural arrangements of the Abbey, 




Pope Nicholas' Taxation, a.d. 1291, p. 67. 

£ s. d. 

Abbas de Parco Lude habet in Decanatibus Hornec' et Hille... 2 

Calswath 21 19 10 

Gryraesby 21 19 10 

Wraghorn 14 

Waliscroft 2 10 

Liithesk & Lutheburg 158 9 1 

Aslakhou 2 ^^ ^ 

Coryngham 7 10 

Manlak 17 4 6 

Summa £246 9 3 

Abbas de Luthepark habet apud Byrleye in decantu de Scar- 

vesdale imam carrucatam terre et valet per annum 1 10 

Et habet ibidem unum molendinum quod valet per annum ... 4 

Et habet ibidem de profic' stauri per annum 3 

Et habet ibidem de red' assis' per annum 6 

Summa £5 

Decima 10 0" 

. ■ (11.) 

Testa de Nevill, c. 1291. 

" Abbas de Parco Lude et prior de Alvingham tenent terciam partem 
unius feodi in Kedington de heredibus de Scotney et ipsi ut supra." — P. 311. 

" Abbas de Parco de Luda et Prior de Alvingham tenent terciam ]mrtem 
feodi unius militis de Philippe Mihiy, et idem Philippus de heredibus Willehni 
de Scotney bar' et Philippus (Willelmus ?) de domino Eege in capite de 
veteri feoffamento." — lb. 328. 

" Hugo de Baiocis fundavit grangiam de Lambercroft cum cc acris terre 
arabilis, et dedit nionachis de Parco Lude in puram elemosinam. 

"Ricardus de Sanford dedit eisdem monachis unam bovatam terre arabilis 
nKelesterna in puram elemosinam. 

" Lambertus de Scotney dedit monachis de Parco Lude xx acras de prato 
de predicti feodo in Cockrington in puram elemosinam. 

" Praidictus Thomas de Scotney heres predicti Lamberti dedit predictis 
monacliis de Parco Lude xij acras de prato in puram elemosinam de predicto 
feodo de Cocrington. " — lb. 339. 




From Brit. 3Ius. Add. MSS. 6674, [copied by Dr. Pecjge]. 

"Deeds are copied out of the Cowcher Book, p. 1, — relate to Lands lying in 
Barley, Byrley,* and Brampton." 

" Hasculus Musard gives 'Deo et Sanctcc Mar ice et Monachis de Parco 
Lude Birleijam, cum Communia' de Barleia,' et de Bosco de Barleia ad capiend. 
ad sufScientiani in omnibus necessiarijs eorum qui habitant in Birleia. Haec 
sunt divisa Predicta Brorleia, &c., here ' Oxeracha, 2 Brorleys, the More, the 
Shepherds house of Robt Musard & Hulmewell. ' 

" NB this is in puram & perpet. elemosinam. 

" Hasculus in another deed quiets ye monks in regard to ' Walterum 
Sororium et Emmam Conjugem ejus, Sororem nieam' for Barley, ye monks 
to give him 4 marks per an. Especially ' Birleia, quod est dominium meum,' 
then he goes on ' licet si morte Preventus hanc Conventionem supplere non 
potero Robtus Musard Frater meus et heres cum Fidejussoribus quos inter 
me [et] illos posui perficiet. At si ego et Robtus Frater meus non poterimus 
accpiietare illis Barleiamsicutprekcandum est tunc acquietabimus eis Birleiam 
in puram & perpetuam elemosinam.' So yt this seems Prior to the former. 

" Eadulf Musard confirms Birley to ye monks, ye Common of Barley, & 
Timber in ye wood. 

"Walt. Abbetoft Omnibus, &c., Walterus de Abbetoft et Robertus fil. ejus 
Salutem. Sciatis nos dedisse Deo et Sanctae Mariae & Monachis de Parco 
Lude in puram & per2:)et : elemos . . . quandam partem bosci nostri de 
Birleia, scilicet ab angulo Curtis suae de Birleia ex Northest parte in direct, 
usque in aquam de Buccheselider, rivnlum qui currit in predictam aquam 
adynend trcford totam terram et boscuni ex South parte aquae de Buccheselide 
usq, ad latus occidentale terrae quam dns noster Hasculus Musard dedit eis. 
Concessimus etiam eis et pecoribus suis liberos introitus et exitus in bosco 
et in campis Barleiae et communem rationabilem pasturam animalibus et 
ceteris pecoribus suis in bosco et piano iibicunque nos et homines nostri 
habemus communiam & pasnagium de porcis in tempore pasnagii et duas 
fabricas id est duos focos dedimus eisdem monachis liberos & quictos scilicet 
unam fabricam bloiiieriam in bosco praefato et unani operariam in curte sua, et 
carbonem de sicco et easdem fabricas et mineram dedimus eis ad unam fabricam 
per totum bo.scnm et ad ardendam mineram dedimus eis cum sicco viride de 
bulo et alno (sic) quantum necesse fuerit per visum forestarij nostri vel 
praepositi de Barleia, ut Forestarij et propositi nostri presentes et futuri 
affidabunt hoc tenendum absque malo ingenio. Et quando Fratres non 
operantur in labrica quae est in bosco, habebunt duos focos ad fabricand. 
in curte sua, et de arboribus quas ventus dejecerit, si truncus valet ad 
{sic^ noster erit, et reliquum erit ad carbonem ad fabricas suas et nostras, 
exceptis arboribus quae cadent in partem Thome de Barleia, et prefati 
Fratres in Barleia manentes habebunt comuniam in nostro predicto bosco 
ad edificandum et ad claustruni et ad focale sicut homines regis manentes 
in Barleia omnia habent quai snprascripta sunt dedimus predictis in perpet. 
elemos. pro duabus filiabus meis quas ipsi suis expencis fecerint esse Sancti- 
moniales in domibus magistri Gilberti de Sempringhani, &c. " 

" Robt- (Je Abbetoft gives to Monks of Louth Park, ' totam terram meam 
de feodo meo que est ex Northwest parte domus eorum de Birleia inter fos- 
satuni suum et aquam de Buccheselide,' &c. 

* This Birley is in Brampton, on ye edge of ye High Moor 


"■\Vm- de Abbetoft confirms to monks all they have of his Father or his 
Ancestors Hn tcrritorijs de Barlcia ct Birleia, sicut Carta Waltcri Patris 
mci ct Rohti- fratris viei quam indc habent testatur,' and, moreover, gives 
them 'in pnram & perpetuam eleemosinam, in territorio de Barleia totam terram 
inter insulam de Buchselider et le lligeweia a terra Eobti Fusither nsque ad 
niagnam moram cum clansnris messuagiis qiise fuerunt Eicardi fil. Simonis et 
Hugonis Barme et Elfvvini Eufi, et cum prefato rivulo et cum omnibus que 
inter prefatas divisas continentur et totam terram que fuit Leocnach {sic) de la 
Haga et totam terram que fuit Toke cum messuagio et xiij Acris terrne extra 
fossatum versus le Est culture mee, et totam culturam illam del West praefati 
niessuagii et cum o'ibus pertin . . .' 

" 'Nichol Clericus fil Haraldi de Barleia' gave ' cumpredicto patre suo in 
puram et perpetuam eleemosinam illam culturam teiTae de feodo meo qua; jacet 
ex North parte illius vie que ducit de Birleia in Barleiam et porrigitur in 
longum ab eadem via usque ad Eigwaiebrook et in latum extendit a fossato 
Monachorum usque ad terram Johannis, &c. ' 

" Wm. de Abbetofte gives in pure & perpet almoign 'totam terram 
quam habui in loco qui dicitur Threpeivodc in territorio de Barleia pro 
XXX acris et si ibi non fuerint xxx acres, quicquid ibi defuerit perficiam 
eis datum mea propinquiora eidem Threpewode que est inter Aulam Hugonis 
Schortnecke et moram .... coiiiuuem pasturam in territorio de Barleia 
omuibus ovibus et ceteris pecoribus suis. ' 

" ' Eobt de Brampton dictus coguomine de Aula filius Walter! ' gives to 
ye monks of Louth Park one bovate of land in the territory of Bramton 'illam 
scil. bovatam terre quam Simon Faber tenet cum duobus Toft and Croft ultra 
amnem que dicitur Smalc versus North cum oibus pertinentibus, et xvii acras 
in dicto territorio Scil. quatuor acras & dimid. jacentes juxta magnam Stratam 
super. ^ Stonyfurlonci .' & 2 Acr. & ^ ad Hordehow, & 2 acr. ad Scacolcpytts 
inter HoJmssic & Clay Furlonges, & 1| ex North parte de Wichems, & 5 acr. 
juxta Mirisye ex AVest parte, & 3 acr. inter terram quae fuit Willelmi fil 
Herauld et terram Dni Tliomre et dimid. Curtam Acr. ex North parte Snclloivcll 
inter predict. Willelm & Dni Thoruae. 

" This is demised by Louth Convent to Tho. Fitz-Eadulph de Brampton 
at 12s- rent & for 'dimid curtam Acr.' here it is Scliort half acre. 

" 'Thos Fitz-Eadulphi fil. Eichardi' gives to monks of Louth Park in 
puram & perpet : Elemos. ' totam terram quam habent in feodo meo in 
villa de Brampton ex dono Ebti- Fil. Walteri de Aula, ' &c. 

[" Pit}' to have no Testes copied in these sans date Deeds."] 

"Eobt. Fitz Walter de Aula* gives monks of Louth Park in pura' et 
perpet. elemos. quicquid juris habui . . .in tribus Bovatis terre in territorio 
de Wadischell Scil. ij Bovat. quas Thomas de Brampton quondam tenuit de 
me, et illam Bovatam terre quam Gilbertus de Hibernia tenuit, &c. 

" Acerus de Frappeton quit claims to Monks of Louth all ye right he 
had in a Bovate of Land which he held of them 'in Campis de Wadiscell.' 

"Pet. de Eoland quit claims to monks of Louth " iu pur. et perpet. 
elemos. pro salute anime sue & Antecessorum " a rent of 4s. wch the monks 
used to pay him yearly ' pro quadam terra que vocatur Threpewode in 
Territorio de Birleia,' this was dated, but Copyer omits it. 

* Ralph Musard the elder was a benefactor of Beauchief Premonstratensian Abbey, in 
Derbyshire. He bestowed on it the " villula de Hauley cum hominibus absque ullo retene- 
mento," also all the land which he had in the " villa de Wadeself," with the men and their 
services — (Dugdale vi. 8?7). At a later period, Gilbert, Abbot of Beauchief and the convent, 
granted " Deo et Sanctas Maria; et monachis de Parco Ludie" the service of 18d. yearly rent, 
which Robert Fitz Walter of Brampton was wont to pay thorn for three bovates of land "iu 
villa de Wadesshelff." " This," writes Pegge (the transcriber of the above documents), in his 
History of fieaitchief Abbeii, " is now called Watchill in Brampton Parish, erroneously written 
by Bishop Tanner, Waldshere."— P. 173. 


"Alanus fil. Ade Fraunceys de Barley Wodesetter quit claiDis to ye 
Monks of Louth, for a sum of money p^l- him by them, all liis right in 
' tota ilia terra quam ' Adam his father bought of ' Hugh le Heir de Barley ' 
lying in the Territory of Barley & is called 'la Threpewode.' " 



Hec Indentura facta vicesimo die raensis Februarii Anno Domini Millesimo 
quingentesimo tricesimo quinto inter Georgium Abbatem Jlonasterii Beatse 
Marine de parco Ludas et ejusdem loci conventum ex una parte et Johannem 
Chowne de Fairlane in comitatu Kancire generosum ex altera parte Testatur 
quod predicti Abbas et conventus unanimi assensu et consensu tradiderunt 
concesserunt et ad firman dimiserunt grangiam suam sive manerium suum 
de Colow cum omnibus domibus terris clausuris pratis paseuis pasturis et 
moris eidem grangiie sive manerio pertinentibus, viz., in cam pis et territoriis 
de Legesby LjMiwod et Lyssynton prout Johannes Skelton niodo occupat sive 
aliquis alius ante ipsum habuit vel occupavit Habendum et tenendum prefato 
Johanni Chowne generoso et assignatis suis a festo Sancti Micliaelis Archangeli 
quod erit in anno Domini Millesimo quingentesimo sexagesimo sexto usque 
finem et terminuua trigiuta annorum extunc proxime sequencium et plenarie 
eomplendorum Reddendo inde annuatim prefatis Abbati et conventui et suc- 
cessoribus suis ad Monasterium de Parco Ludte decern libras bon?e et legalis 
monetae Anglise solvendum ad festa Paschai et Michaelis Archangeli equis 
porcionibus et sex capones et octo gallinas precii cujuslibet caponis iij.d' et 
precii cujuslibet gallinte ij d'. solvendas et deliberandas annuatim ad monas- 
terium predictum ad festum Nativitatis Domini durante termino piedicto. Et 
si predictus redditus aretro fuerit in parte vel in toto non solutus per tempus 
vel spacium vigiuti dierum post terminos predictos quod tunc bene licebit 
prefatis Abbati et Conventui et successoribus suis de et in predicto manerio 
sive grangia et in omnibus parcellis ejusdem reintrare et possessionem suam ut 
in pristino statu suo rehabere hac indentura in nuUo obstante. Et predicti 
Johannes et Assignati sui omnia onera jiredictse grangire qiuilitercumque in- 
cumbencia facieut et supportabunt ac sufhcienter reparabunt de anno in 
annum durante toto termino predicto excepto quod predictus Abbas et suc- 
cessores sui grossum meremium invenient tamen ad cariacionem predicti 
Johannis vel assignatorum suorum. Proviso semper quod non licebit dicto 
Johanni vel suis assignatis manerium predictum sive graungiam predictam 
cum suis pertinenciis alicui alteri dimittere vel ad firmam concedere absque 
voluntate et concilio predictorum Abbatis et conventus durante toto termino 
predicto. Et similiter predictus Johannes et assignati sui durante termino 
predicto annuatim bis per annum, viz., ad duas magnas curias in predicto 
manerio sive graungia tentas vel tenendas predictis Abbati et successoribus suis 
ac officiariis famulis et tenentibus suis inveniet sen invenient ministrabit sen 
ministrabunt houesta victualia cum prebendo equorum suis proj)riis expensis 
et co.stis. Preterea predictus Johannes et assignati sui annuatim colligent 
sive coUiget omnes redditus predictorum Abbatis et Conventus in Howton 
Teryngton Lissyngton et Uleseby ac Walesby et inde annuatim reddere 
verum comi)otum prefatis Abbati et Conventui ac successoribus suis durante 
termino predicto. In cujus rei testimonium uni parti harum Indenturarum 
predicti Abbas et Conventus sigillum suum commune apposuerunt alteri vero 
parti predictus Johannes pro se et suis assignatis suum sigillum apposuit. 
Data in domo nostra capitulari die et anno supradictis. 

Seal of light red wax appended by a parchment label, round. If inch in 
diameter, the left-hand lower corner clii)ped oil'. In the centre a figure of the 
Virgin standing, holding the blessed Jesus in her arms, in an enriched compart- 
ment of Perpendicular work, with flowers and diapering at the back. At each 
side of compartment a branch or small tree. Legend : " <S" comvue Abb' is et 
Conven de Parco Lvd." 


Sir John Bolle and the Spanish Ladij. — By the Venerable Edward 
Trollope, M.A., F.S.A., Archdeacon of Stow. 

Will you hear a Spanish lady 

How she wooed an Englishman ? 
Garments gay, as rich as may be, 

Decked with jewels, she had on. 
Of a comley countenance and grace was she, 
And by birth and parentage of high degree. 

Percy's Collection of Ancient English Poetry. 

The plaint of the Spauish lady, commencing with these lines, has 
been so touchingly told, that its hero is claimed with some tenacity 
by several ancient English families as one of their members. Among 
these claimants are the Pophams, of Littlecot, Wilts, and the 
Levisons, of Trentham, Staffordshire, a noble family that has boldly 
set up Sir Richard Levison as the true English gentleman of that 
old national ballad, whom the fair Spanish lady loved in vain ; but 
without doubt, Lincolnshire may claim him as one of her honourable 
and gallant sons, and Thorpe Hall cannot be deprived of the 
interest attaching to it, as the former residence of Sir John Bolle, the 
real hero of Shenstone's poem of Love and Honour, and of the same 
story told by others under different titles. 

As Ave are now assendiled so near to Thorpe Hall, and local 
history is one of the objects our Society desires to elicit and 
put on record, I trust that a short memoir of the Spanish lady, and 
of the Englishman she loved, who once lived close to Louth, may 
be acceptable. It will be polite, and perhaps also convenient, to 
state all that we knoAV of the lady first. Her name has passed away, 
although her story seems likely to endure from its touching 
character. She was a young, wealthy, highly-born senorita of 
Cadiz, Avhen the English fleet under Essex besieged that town in 
1596 ; and after its capture she was consigned, among other 
prisoners, to the custody of Captain John Bolle, of Thorpe Hall, 
who, instead of treating her with harshness or indignity, fulfilled 
his duty with the utmost kindness and consideration.* Thus her 
fears were soon allayed, and her gratitude by degrees deepened into 
love for her custodian, so that when the English were preparing to 
evacuate Cadiz, and to release their captives, she avowed her feel- 
ings, and entreated her captor not to leave her behind, but to allow 

* By some she is said to have been the only child and heiress of a deceased Viceroy of 
Mexico ; and that on her return to Siiain, the palleon in which she had embarked was 
captured by Sir John Bolle, when he treated her with great respect, and restored her valu- 
ables and jewels on board to her when he aiTived at Cadiz ; which act of generosity on his 
part led to her love for him. But this version of the story of the Green Lady is certainly not 
the true one. 

Silt JOHN r.dl.l.K, 

Fl-dlil 'I I'dilitill'l liij ZUCHEIUJ. 


her to accompany him to England as a page. Then, however, the 
sad fact was disclosed to her that he whom she loved was married, 
so that he couhi not listen to her petition. In her bitter grief she 
determined to retire to a convent ; hut in her love for her gentle 
Englishman she loaded him with presents of great value, some of 
which she was generous enough to desire might he presented to 
his wife. These consisted of money, plate, jewels, carpets, the 
hangings of a bed embroidered by her own hands, and, above all, 
her portrait, representing her in a (jreen dress, whence her popular 
name of the " Green Lady." Then, when her beloved one had em- 
barked, the world became dead to her. and she to the world, within 
the walls of the religious house to which she retired, although the 
recollection of the Englishman she had loved so ardently was pro- 
bably never effaced from her heart. 

Happy must the meeting have been between Captain Bolle and 
his wife on his return, when, after having received the honor of 
knighthood, at the hands of his Queen, he had described his adven- 
tures, and the valuable gifts of the Spanish lady were exhibited 
as a proof of her gratitude for his kindness. Perhaps Lady Bolle, 
when she saw the beauty of the fair donor, as represented by 
the painter, had some fear lest this Spanish Senorita sliould 
find her way to England ; and especially as we gather from 
her own still existing portrait, that her features were plain ; but 
too well principled to do this, the Spanish lady never came, 
and we may hope she died peacefully in that religious retreat she 
sought and found in her own southern land. Still her coming 
was long expected, and when Sir John Bolle and his lady had passed 
away, their son Sir Charles, when such a coming could not be 
wrongly interpreted, is said to have had a cover laid daily in readi- 
ness for her, should she at any time suddenly appear at the home of 
her long-lost and loved one, even in extreme old age. Such a 
romantic story, and such a custom, may well have given rise to the 
still current belief that although the foreign lady in green, as repre- 
sented in her portrait, came not to Thorpe Hall in life, she in spirit 
haunts the spot where he whom she loved lived and died ; and that 
the rustle of her dress is sometimes heard, and her shadowy form, 
in faded green, is seen, as she flits from tree to tree close to the 
former home of her dear Englishman ; although of late she has not 
been clearly detected in this loving act by the present owners of 
Thorpe Hall, who liave hence been nnable to offer her that kind 
hospitality which she would most assuredly have received at their 

As we are in part an Archaiological as well as an Architectural 
Society, this question will now be eagerly asked — Where is the 
portrait of the Green Lady '? and unfortunately we must answer, 
" lost." It remained at Thorpe Hall, until tlie death of James Birch, 

VOL. XII., PT. I. H 


the husband of Margaret Bosvile, the Bolle heiress, when a sale took 
place during the absence of his widow, and hj accident this niost 
interesting portrait was then sold among other uncared-for articles, 
and its after fate could never be ascertained. Another full-length 
likeness in small, from nine to eleven inches long, was painted in 
one corner of Sir John Bolle's portrait, by Zucchero, probably copied 
from the original ; but this also has now been lost ; for after it had 
been removed to Bath by Mrs. Lee, daughter of Mr. James Birch, 
as it and its frame had become dilapidated, she was induced by her 
nephew, and subsequently her heir,' Thomas Birch, to have it 
redored, during whicli process it was ruthlessly cut down, and this 
last portrait of the Green Lady perished. An Eastern carpet, thought 
to have constituted one of the presents of this lady to Sir John 
Bolle, and long preserved by his descendants, has now passed away, 
and a piece of needlework, still in the possession of the family, and 
said to have been given by her, is of older date, viz., of the reign of 
Henry VII. This represents six personages in separate niches, one 
of whom is Moses, and another a Bishop, Avith his pastoral staff in 
one hand, and the model of a church in the other. But one un- 
doubted treasure, in the possession of Miss Bridget Lee, the sister 
of Thomas Bosvile Bosvile, Esq., of Ravenfield, the present repre- 
sentative of the Bolle family, still attests the value of the Green 
Lady's gifts to the gentle Sir John. This is a string of 298 pearls, 
which it is to be hoped will never be lost to her family, from their 
interesting connexion with her ancestor. Sir John Bolle, to whose 
history we will now turn. 

The first recorded member of the Bolle, or Bolles, family is Allan 
Bolle, of Swineshead, temp. Henry III. He was succeeded by his son 
Thomas, and grandson John Bolle, obiit. 6, Edw. III., who held lands 
in Coningsby, parcel of the Manor of Scrivelsby, and his lands at 
Swineshead of the Earl of Richmond. This John Bolle had two 
sons, William, Escheator of the County of Lincoln, Avhose only 
daughter, Mabel, married Sir John Woodforde ; and Godfrey, who, 
as his male heir, succeeded to the family estate at Swineshead.* His 
son and heir, John, represented Lincolnshire in Parliament in the 
29th, 38th, and 39th years of Edward III., and married Joan, 
daughter and heir of Walter Godard, of Moulton. Their son, Ralph, 
married Catherine, daughter and heir of John Pulvertoft, of Algar- 
kirk, who founded and endowed a charity in the church of that 
parish, and died in the reign of Richard II. Their son, John, 
married Mary, daughter and heir of AVilliam Aungevine, and Eleanor 
his Avife, daughter and heir of WiUiain D'iUderby. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son, William, who married Ann, daughter and heir of 
John Kyme, of Eriskney. Their son William raised the fortunes 

* Tlio sitt of the oki hall at Swinoshcaii is still calleil Call Hall, a cornnjtion of 
Colic Hall. 


of the family by his marriage with Catlierine, daughter and heir of 
Richard Haiigh, of Haugh, near Alford, and Anne, daughter and heir 
of Robert Bell, and served as Sheriff of Lincolnshire, 16 and 17 
Edw. IV. After the acquisition of Haugh, the Bolles settled there, 
whence Richard, son of John BoUe, is designated of Haugh ; but a 
younger branch lived at Gosberton, from whom the Bolles of 
Scampton were descended. Richard Bolle married Isabel, dai:ghter 
and heir of Sir Richard Nanfant. Their son Richard married Marian, 
daughter and heir of John Fitzwillianis, of Mablethorpe, by Avhoni 
he had three sons, John, Richard, and George. John married 
Catherine, daughter of Sir William Tirwhitt, and died Avithout issue, 
Avhen he was succeeded by his brother Richard. He served as 
Sheriff of Lincolnshire, 4 Edw. VI., and 11 Eliz. He married, 1. 
Jane, daughter of Sir William Skipworth, of Ormsby. 2. Anne, 
daughter of — Riseby, Esq. 3. Margaret, daughter of — Hutton, 
Esq., of Cunbest, and died 1591.* He was succeeded by his son 
Charles, termed of Haugh only, who married, 1 . Catherine, daughter 
of Edward Dimock, of Scrivelsby. 2. Bridget, daughter of George 
Fane, of Badsill, Kent, and sister of Sir Thomas Fane. 3. Mary, 
daughter of Thomas Powtrell, of West Hallam, Derbyshire. 4. 
Anne,t daughter of Thomas Dimock, of Friskney. He died February 
3rd, 1590, and was buried at Haugh. By his first wife he had an 
only son, John, eventually the famous Sir John Bolle, and tAvo 
daughters, 1. Elizabeth, who married Thomas Gilby, of Stainton, 
Lincolnshire, and died 1635. 2. Catherine, who married Sir 
Edward Carre, Knight, and first Baronet, of Sleaford. 

Sir John Bolle Avas born 1560, and appears to have been the 
first of his flimily Avho possessed Thorpe Hall. He married Eliza- 
beth, daughter and heir of EdAA^ard Waters, of Lynn, by Avhom he 
had three sons — Charles, John, and EdAvard, and five daughters^ 
Elizabeth, Mary, ]\Iartha, Catherine and Bridget. When he Avas 
36 years of age, formidable naA^al ju'eparations Avere making in the 
ports of Spain, Avith a vicAV to sending forth a second Armada against 
England, to compensate for the destruction of the first. To frustrate 
this design a counter attack on Spain Avas determined on by means 
of an army under the command of the Earl of Essex, and a fleet 
under Lord Howard of Effingham. Among the Captains employed 

* His memory is still preserved by a brass pljite in Boston Church, thus inscribed :— " Here 
lieth Bichard Bolle of Haugh in ye Couutic cf Lincolne Esquire Sone & Hcire of Richarde 
Bolle of Haugh Esquire, & of Mania his Wife, Daughter & Heire of To. Fitzwilliams of 
Mablethorpe Ksquire. He had Yssu by Jane his first wife daughter to Sr AVillm Skipwith 
of Ormesbie Knight Charles Bolle his Sone & Heire apparant, who died in his Life-tyme, 
Marrie married to Anthonie Tourney of Covenbie Esquire, Anne married to Leonard Ci-acroft, 
Gent. Gertrude married to Leonard Kirkena of Kcle, Gert, and Ursula married to John 
Kirkman, Gent. He had no Yssu by Anne his sccoml Wife. He had Yssu by Margaret his 
third Wife Richard John & Jane. He died on ye sixt Daio of Februarie l-'iitl. and in ye 85 
yore of his Age, after he had sundrie tynies had charge in France Scotlad and yls Realme, and 
had bene twice Sheriff of ye said Contie." 

t She survived her husband, and subsequently married Bartholomew Armine, of Osgodby, 
and was buried in Lincoln Cathedral, l6Ui. 


by Essex was Jolui Bolle, and the capture of Cadiz ensued, "when its 
inhabitants and their possessions fell into the hands of the victorious 
assailants. The English, generally, on this occasion behaved with 
great consideration towards the captives, and Captain Bolle was 
especially considerate towards those he had in charge, which led to 
the romantic attachment towards him of one of the ladies committed 
to his custody, as recorded in the previous memoir of the Spanish 
lady. On his return to England he received the then rarely 
bestowed honour of knighthood from the hands of the great Eliza- 
beth. Subsequently he again served under the Earl of Essex in 
Ireland, when he took part in the capture of Donolong and Lifford 
Castles, and in return for his services was made Governor of Kinsale. 
He died November 3rd, 1606, in the 46tli year of his age, and Avas 
buried in the chancel of Haugh Church, where a contemporary 
marble monument still commemorates his fame. This consists of a 
bracketed base supporting an arcade flanked by pilasters, and siu:- 
mounted by a cornice and three shields. The central one bears the 
16 quarterings to which Sir John Bolle was entitled, with a mantled 
helm, and demi boar, pierced by a broken lance, as a crest. The 
minor shield on the left bears Bolle impaling Waters, the corres- 
ponding one AVaters alone. In the arcade are the effigies of Sir 
John, his wife, his sons, and daughters, in the costumes of their 
time, all kneeling upon cushions ; below is this inscription, — " Hie 
situs est Johannes BoUe de Haugh, miles, filius Caroli Bolle e 
Brigida Fane. In uxorem duxit Elizabethan! filiam et hseredem 
Edwardi Waters, de Linne, e qua genuit Carolum filiu et hterede, 
Joannem, Edwardum, Ehjabetham, Mariam, Martham, Catherinam, 
& Brigidam. Vir varia eruditione & militari gloria clarus, qui in 
expiiguatione Gadiv Hispanic ob fortitudine equestri dignitate ornat, 
Kensalie in Hibernia pra^fectus in deducenda colonia ad Lockfoyl 
chUiarcha constitutus ; castra Donolong & Lifford expugnavit, de 
patria princpeq bene meritus. Obiit. die 3 Xovembris, mdcvi." 

Besides this effigy of Sir John Bolle, his portrait by Zuchero 
stni exists, in the possession of his descendant, T. B. Bosvile, Esq., 
of Eavensfield Park, near Eotherham, and was engraved by Basire 
for Archdeacon IlHngsworth. — Toj^ograjjhkal Account of the Parish 
of Scampton. 

This is painted on panel, the lower portion of which has been 
cut off. From it we gather that Sir John Bolle had a long face, 
high aquiline nose, auburn hair, and that he wore a moustache 
blending with a small beard. He is represented in a doublet, partly 
opened at the breast, a small falling shirt collar edged with Avide 
open lace, Vandyke edged cuffs to match, and a gold chain, or collar, 
round his neck, perhaps the gift of the Spanish lady. He is holding 
his cap with his right hand, and the other rests upon the handle of his 
sword, placed upright before him. A head of Sir John BoUe, taken 


from this portrait, is given as au illustration of this little memoir. 
Sir John's gold signet ring is also preserved by Mr. Bosvile. It is 
intended to be Avorn on the the thumb, and Aveighs 1 oz. 6 dwts. 
12 grains. It is perfectl}" plain, and on its large oval bezel is a 
shield surmounted by his initials, and having the date 1.596 on 
either side, being that memorable year when he left England with 
the Spanish expedition. Of this an engraving is subjoined on an 
enlarged scale, from which it will be seen that it bears sixteen 
quarterings, the tinctures of which are given in coloured enamels, 
Avhich quarterings do not precisely correspond with those given 
upon his monument at Haugli. 

1. Az., in 3 standing cups or, as many boars' heads arg. — Bolle. 

2. Arg., 3 buckles* s. — Pulvertoft of Algarkirk. 

3. Arg., 2 bars g. on a chief v. 3 bezants. — Angevine of 

4. Arg., a chevron between 2 escallops in chief, a cross crosslet 
fitchee in base g. — D'Alderby. 

5. Arg., a chevron between 10 cross crosslets g. — Haugh. 

6. S., a chevron between three bells arg. 

7. Per pale indented or and g. — Birmingham. 

8. S., a chevron Erm. between 3 wings arg.— K'ansfant of 

9. Arg., 3 wolves courant in pale az. 

10. Cheeky s. and or, a chief a. guttee de sang. — Coleshill of 
Bynamy Castle. 

* The Pulvertoft bearings, as formerly given in the west window of Whaplode Church, 
were arg., 3 maces s. 


11. G., a fret arg., a cauton of the last. — Hewis of Tremodnet. 

12. Arg., 3 clievrons s,, a fleur-de-lis or on the uppermost as a 
difference. — Archdeacon. 

13. Arg., a fret g. — Blanchminster. 

14. Arg., a chevron between 3 cross crosslets fitchee s., within a 
bordure of the last bezantee. — Fitzwillianis of Mablethori:)e. 

15. G., a chevron between 3 cross crosslets, in chief a lion 
passant. — Kyme. - 

16. Arg., 2 bars engrailed s. — liowse of Stockley Parva, Hunts. 

Sir John Eolle left three sons, according to the record of his 
monument. Of these, Charles, the eldest, being then a minor, 
became a Avard of the Crown, and at once succeeded to the manors 
of Haugh and Maltby in the Marsh, to which the manor of Thorpe 
HaU was added at the death of his mother, when he made it his 
home. After he was of age, he received the honour of knighthood 
from James I. at Theobalds, in 1616. During the prevalence of the 
Plague at Louth, from which he had himself twice recovered, he 
was most daring and active in waiting personally upon the afflicted, 
and endeavouring to stay the progress of that dread pestilence of 
former times. He took a prominent part in aid of Charles I. against 
the Parliament, and narrowly saved his life in a skirmish, near 
Louth, against a ParHamentary force under Colonel Henderson ; 
for, when after much loss, he was forced to fly from the site of 
Louth Park Abbey, or its vicinity, had he not crouched beneath 
a bridge on the abbey side of Louth, before the victor's horse hurried 
over it, he Avould have been most probably slain. 

Whether he subsequently sought and found shelter at Thorpe 
Hall is not now knoAvn ; but there was a secret hiding-place ready 
for his reception behind the old oak panelling of a parlour adjoining 
the hall, which, after having been long closed up and forgotten, was 
discovered in making some alterations by the present owner of that 
interesting old house. 

The same year Sir Charles received a commission from the 
King to raise a regiment of foot, dated August 1st, 1643, which 
document still remains in the hands of his descendant, Mr. Bosvile, 
This regiment consisted of 500 men, and was placed under the com- 
mand of his brother, Colonel John Bolle, Avho fouglit at its head Avith 
much gallantry at the battle of Edge-Hill, and subsequently at Alton, 
Hants, Avhere, after having advanced from Wallingford in command 
of an outpost, he Avas surrounded by the enemy under Sir William 
AValler, coming from Farnham, and suffered so severely, that he 
Avas forced to retire Avith the rest of his Lincolnshire men into 
Alton Church, in the hope that relief might be sent to saA^e him ; 
but before he had time to secure the door, the enemy Avas upon 

* Kymc of Kymo usually bore, g., a chevron between 9 cross crosslets or. 


him, and his men, overpowered by superior numbers, fell so quickly, 
that the rest asked for quarter ; this, however, he himself refused to 
receive at their hands, and fell dead, sword in hand, in that sacred 
place, and for what he deemed to be a most sacred cause. 

Long ago has Alton Church been purged from the stains of 
blood once shed within its walls, but its door still bears testimony 
to this last struggle for life, through the bullet holes with which it 
was pierced by the slayers of the brave Colonel Eolle ; this door 
having of late been loyally preserved by one of its conservative 
custodians, when a new and better one was offered, in order that 
such an interesting and atfecting reminiscence of the evil period of 
the Caroline Civil War might still continue to tell its sad tale of 
the past. This reverse is thought to have led to the loss of 
Winchester, and the death of Colonel Bolle was certainly deeply 
regretted by the King. 

The following inscription on a brass plate was subsequently set 
up in Winchester Cathedral, by one of the family, which, although 
curiously incorrect as to its sj^elling the Christian name of Colonel 
Bolle, and the year of his death, is subjoined, as it quaintly gives 
some further particulars of the skirmish in which this gallant 
member of the Bolle family fell : — 

"A Memoriall 
For this renowned Martialist, Eichard Boles of ye Right worshipful 
family of the BoUeses in Linkhorn Shire ; Collonell of a ridgment of 
Foot of 1300 who for his gratious King, Charles ye First, did 
woundors att the Battell of Edge Hill, his last Action : to omitt all 
others, was at Alton, in this County of Southampton, was sirprised 
by five or six thousand of the Rebells, which caused him there 
quartered, to fly to the church, with near four score of his men, 
who there fowght them six or seuen houers, and then the Rebells, 
breaking in upom him, he slew Avith his sword six or seuen of them, 
and then was slayne himselfe, with sixty of his men about him. 

His Gratiouse Soueraigne, hearing of his death, gave him high 
comendation in ye pationate expression ; ' Bring me a Moorniug 
Scarffe ; i have lost one of the best Comanders in this Kingdom.' 

Alton will tell you of that famous Figlit, 

"VVliieli }'e man made and bade this world good night ; 

His veiteous life feavd not Mortalyty, 

His body might, liis vertues cannot die, 

Because his bloud was then; so nolily spent. 

This is his Tombe, that Church his Monument. 

Ricardus Boles Wiltoniensis in iVit. Mag. Composuit Posuitque 
dolens. An. Doni. 1G89." " 

Sir Charles Bolle's third brother, Edward, lived in London, and 
at his death in 1680, at the age of 77, left the sum of £600 for the 


benefit of the poor of Louth, Avhich they still enjoy, A portrait 
of Sir Charles Bolle, by Vandyke, remains in the possession of Mr. 
Bosvile, his descendant, at Kavenfield Park. It represents him 
in a doublet, over which falls a linen collar edged with ver}' broad 
open lace. His head is bald, and he wears a full moustache and 
small pointed beard ; his left hand is placed upon his breast, and 
is relieved by the laced cuff of his shirt. 

Several relics of the Bolle fomily are carefully preserved by Mr. 
Bosvile, indicating the great interest its members took in the Royal 
cause. One of these is an oval neck ornament of gold, having a 
little loop at each end for the purpose of attaching it to a ribbon. 
Beneath a glass, or piece of crystal, cut in fascets, is a skull and 
cross l)ones surmounted by the royal crown, upheld by angels in 
gold, and placed upon a brown satin ground. On the back is the 
royal cipher — C. R., in white enamel on a liglit blue ground. 
Another relic is an ornament of the same kind, having a miniature 
of Charles II. in front, and an enamelled back representing the 
royal crown and cipher within a foliated border in lilac, upon a 
white ground. 

Sir Charles Bolle's eldest surviving son, John, married, 1, 
Ursula, daughter of George Bradley, of Louth, who died 1663, and 
2. Elizabeth, daughter of John Vesci, of Brampton, and widow of 
Francis Bradshaw. His eldest son, John, died without issue, and 
was buried in Louth Church, 1 732, when, as his only brother, Charles, 
had died previously without issue in 1699, his half-sister Elizabeth, 
daughter of Elizabeth Vesci, became his heir, who married the Rev. 
Thomas Bosvile, Rector of Utford. She died in 1740, and was 
buried in Louth Church, when the old family name of Bolle passed 
away. The issue of the Rev. Thomas Bosvile and his wife, the 
representative of the Bolles, consisted of three daughters, Margaret, 
married to James Birch, Esq., who died 1778 ; Elizabeth, married 
first to Alexander Emmerson, Esq., and secondly to the Rev. Stephen 
Ashton, Vicar of Louth, died 1791 ; and Bridget, married to Thos. 
Bosvile, Esq., who died 1771. 

The issue of James and Margaret Birch was Thomas Birch, Esq., 
of Thorpe Hall, the Rev. James Birch, of Wishford, Wilts, who died 
without issue, and Elizabeth, who married Robert Lee, Esq., of 
Louth. The only child of Thomas Birch, was Thomas James Birch, 
Captain in the 1st Life Guards, who, under the Avill of his cousin, 
the Rev. Thomas Bosvile, of Ravenfield Park, Rotherham, assumed 
the name of Bosvile, and sold Thorpe Hall. He died 1829. 

The issue of Alexander and Elizabeth Emmerson was Sir Warton 
Emmerson Amcotts, Bart., Alexander Emmerson, Esq., and a 
daughter, Elizabeth, married to Thomas Massingberd, Esq., great 
grandfather of the present Charles Langton Massingberd, Esq., of 


The issue of Thomas and Bridget Bosvile, was William Parkin 
Bos vile, Esq., and the Eev. Thomas Bosvile, of Ravenfield Park, 
both of whom died without issue, when that estate passed to the 
present owner, their cousin, Thomas Bosvile Lee, granclson of Eliza- 
beth Bosvile, and his wife, the Bolle heiress. 

Modern ViUcu/e Churches. — A Paper read before the Lincoln 
Diocesan Architectural Society, June 28th, 1873. By G. G. 
Scott, Jun., M.A., Architect. 

I HAD the honour last October of reading before the Church 
Congress, at Leeds, a Pajjer on Modern Town Churches. The 
subject on which I have been requested to address you to-day, 
altliough it follows naturally as a sequel, must necessarily be of 
narrower compass, and of less vivid interest. I shall, therefore, I 
trust, be pardoned if the remarks I have to make npon the present 
occasion are somewhat desultory in their character ; that they will 
also be in part somewhat technical will not, I hope, need an apology 
before an Architectural Society. 

But although the churches of our great towns form a subject of 
more exciting interest ; although the neglect from which our city 
populations are suft'ering renders the theme one of the widest prac- 
tical importance, and the opportunities which such buildings afford 
for grand effects, stimulate strongly tlie architectural imagination, 
there is yet a point of view froin which the village church has an 
interest all its own. 

The village is, next to the family, the simplest and least artificial 
of all the forms of social organisation, and it has continued through 
all the changes which religion and politics have undergone, in the 
main xmchanged. 

It still consists essentially of the same elements which constituted 
the little primitive community from which it takes its origin, and 
it forms to this day, as it did at the first, the unit of all political 

There is, moreover, as far as I know, no country in Europe 
where the village has retained so much of its importance as 

VOL. XII., PT, I. I 


in England. Nowhere has the influence of the gi'eat towns been, 
until quite recently, so little felt. The Englishman is, after all, 
essentially a countryman, and country life is not more the birthright 
of the gentleman than it is the aspiration of the successful man of 
business. It is not, therefore, unnatural that our village churches 
should be the especial pride of our national architecture. Our 
cathedrals, with some noble exceptions, are surpassed by the great 
churches of continental cities. Our abbeys, themselves centres of 
agricultural life, which were once the glory of England, have passed 
away ; but the village churches still remain, so far, at least, as the 
hand of the restorer has spared them, as the finest monuments of 
the architectural genius and the practical piety of the past genera- 
'tions of Englishmen. 

The village church has, besides, a peculiar interest of its own. It 
is the only public building which a village, as a rule, possesses. It 
is the central point of the common life, the building which typifies 
the oneness of the little community. Cities have beside their great 
churches, or their cathedral, their town halls, their market halls, 
their assize courts, their theatres, all connected in difterent ways 
with the common life to which they minister and which they sym- 
bolise, but the village has only its church and its churchyard. Here 
alone all meet on equal terms and with an equal right, as members 
of one little society of which the church forms naturally the centre. 

The Site. 

These reflections may serve to invest our subject with a proper 
dignity. They are considerations which were never absent from the 
minds of those who first founded and erected our ancient parish 
churches. They are not always, I regret to say, so prominently in 
the minds of their successors ; and this will lead us at once to a 
consideration of a very practical character, and one which is too 
much overlooked — I mean the great importance of the choice of 
site. The old builders placed their churches with wonderful skill. 
In the flattest, the least accentuated country, they always succeeded 
in giving their building something of character and importance, from 
a judicious selection of the ground. They almost always found 
some little knoll, some slight elevation, which might give to the 
church an advantage worthy of its character, and impart a certain 
amount of dignity to the simplest erection. This point is far too 
much neglected now. As a rule the Architect, the man who ought 
to be able to judge of such matters, is not called in until the site 
has been secured, and he has then to make the best he can of it. 
The site is too often some useless corner, which can be bought 
cheap, or be presented without sacrifice. The architects too, I am 
bound to say, fall in only too readily with such a system, and design 


their buildings as if every site was an absolute plane. Should the 
site possess a decided slope or any marked configuration, it is 
specified that the earth is to be removed from the elevated portions, 
and deposited to fill up the lower ground. The building so erected 
has the efiect of a toy chiu'ch, set down upon a little tray prepared 
for it. You feel that the designer woidd have set it down upon the 
level, if he could, or you may very easily fancy that the whole thing 
has been bought, as it stands, from a general dealer in ready-made 

The look of an old village church is something quite different ; 
the building and the site here belong to each other; the chu.rch 
seems to grow upon the hill side or the knoll, grasping, as it were,^ 
the ground with its great buttresses, like the spreading roots of an 
old tree. You could not readily imagine it on any other site ; it 
belongs to the place just as much as the aged yews wliich grow 
beside it. 

Much may be done by help of a Avell-chosen site, even Avith a 
poor building, and this is one point Avhich I would urge especially 
upon those who do me the favour to listen to me to-day, because the 
choice of site rests in most cases with the promoters of church 
building, Avith the clergy and gentry, rather than with the architect. 
It is perfectly astonishing what a ditference may be made by a 
judicious choice of site in the efl'ect which a building Avill produce, 
and in no case is this so important as in village churches, where we 
have no imposing dimensions to give dignity of themselves, and 
where, nevertheless, the importance of the building, as the centre 
of the whole village, renders it necessary to give to it the utmost 
accentuation that Ave can. 

The Tower. 

From the same point of vieAV the position of the toAver is the 
next most important point. It may be broadly stated that almost 
all ancient toAvers are placed in the centre line of the church, almost 
all the modern ones at the side. It is quite an exception to see an 
ancient toAver Avhich does not stand either in the centre of the 
crossing or in the centre of the Avest front ; it is quite an exception 
to see a modern toAver Avhich does not stand someAvhere at the side 
of the chancel. The tower of a new church is placed in some 
corner Avhich is Avanted for nothing else, as a pendant on plan to an 
organ-chamber or a heating apparatus. 

Of all positions for a toAver, next to that of a proper central 
toAver, the Avest end position is the noblest ; it has even some 
advantages over the central pcjsition, especially in the case of a 
small toAver. I cannot conceive Avhy a plan, Avhich gives dignity to 
the smallest church, should have been so generally abandoned. I 


think that the centre of the west front might well be assumed as 
the normal position for the tower, only to he departed from where 
there is some manifest reason for doing so, founded on pecularities 
of site, or some very special practical convenience. A west-end 
tower is comparatively easy to design, a west end without a tower 
is always difficult. It demands a great west window, and this floods 
the church with such a quantity of afternoon sunshine, as no stained 
glass can control. 

A central tower placed at the intersection of the transepts, is 
seldom advisable in a village chiuch, except where, from some 
peculiar circumstances, the monumental character takes precedence 
t)f the practical consideration of convenience. Yet that form of it, 
which is frequently found in l^ormandy, where the tower stands 
over the chancel, and the sanctuary proper lies east of it, is often 
very suitable, and is always beautiful, if only one point be attended 
to ; the eastern limb must not be too short. Indeed, our sanctuaries 
are generally made too short ; they are too often cramped to the 
minimum which the bare necessities of administrating the communion 
require, and even so the clergy, if there are several, have often great 
difficulty in avoiding an unseemly jostling. This, and many other 
faults of our modern churches, are encouraged, I am sorry to say, 
by the Church Building Societies, and until they alter their system 
and give their grants on the total area of the churches, instead of 
on the number of fixed pews which can be squeezed into them, it 
is, I fear, useless to preach improvement in this respect. It is none 
the less our duty, as architects, to protest against a system to which, 
more perhaps than to anything else, the imsatisfactory character of 
our new churches is to be attributed. 

The Chancel. 

It may be laid down as a general rule that our modern chancels 
are too short, not only for a well-proportioned architectural effect, 
but also for the proper performance of the ceremonies, and it is 
certainly the worst possible policy to curtail them still further both 
in appearance and in actual area, by adopting what is called the 
apsidal termination. 

I should be the last to deny the marvellous beauty of a complete 
chevet, with its procession path sweeping round it, and its radiating 
chapels leading up to a fine climax in the lady chapel. But there 
are several things to be borne in mind when one comes to the 
question of small apses. One is the great difficulty of roofing them 
satisfactorily. They really require groining, I do not think that 
even those French ones which have timber roofs are ever quite 
pleasing, and the attempts Avhich have been made to accommodate 
English types of roofing to apses are, in my opinion, great failures. 


Then, again, you require very much greater height to give dignity 
to the interior. The great east windows of our English type may 
spring at the level of the roof eaves, and sweep up boldly into the 
gable ; the highest point of the Avindows of the apse must be some 
way below the eaves. Unless, therefore, the height is very much 
greater, the effect cannot compare in dignity Avith that of the square 
end. The internal appearance, too, is always meagre Avhere the light 
is admitted, as it is necessarily in an apse Avitli a wooden roof, at a 
much lower level than that of the highest part of the interior. I 
knoAV that considerations of artistic effect Aveigh but little Avith 
architects Avho are thinking of the graceful SAveep of their compasses 
upon the jilan, and clients to Avhose ears " apse " and " apsidal " have- 
a pretty ecclesiological jingle ; but I think the fact that you require 
greater height, and therefore greater expense, to produce an equal 
result, ought at least to appeal to our common sense. 

It should further be remembered that in an apsidal chancel, the 
apse must be in addition to the length, not in deduction of it. The 
chancel should most certainly be as long as a square-ended one, Avith 
the apse additional. This folloAvs clearly from the admitted principle 
that the altar should stand on the chord of the apse, and not against 
its circumference. Nothing, indeed, can Avell be more aAvkAvard than 
an altar placed up against a curved Avail, giving the appearance of an 
afterthought clumsily introduced. Nothing can be much Avorse than 
this, Avhile on the other hand nothing, in its AA^ay, is more dignified 
than the altar standing free upon the chord, but this, as I have said, 
renders it necessary to treat the aj^se as additional to the length Avhich 
is required by a square-ended chancel. The continental apses are 
alAA'ays so planned, and the neglect of this obvious principle is one 
cause of the inferiority of our recent attempts in this line to their 
foreign models. Only observe that here, too, as in the matter of height, 
you must have more length and more expense to produce an equal 
result. The apse as ordinarily used in our small modern churches 
ma;^ be described as an expensive method of producing a poor effect. 

The square east end is the most marked peculiarity of our national 
church architecture. It is a tradition venerable both from its antiquity 
and its singularity. It may almost be said that there are no square- 
ended chiu'ches except in Great Britain and Ireland, and none but 
square-ended churches here. The number of churches Avith square 
east ends throughout the Avhole of Christendom, excepting the 
British Isles, is exceedingly small. It is this fact that gives to the 
imiversal prevalence of this type in our own coimtry its especial and 
unique inqiortance. The tradition is carried back to a date earlier 
than the jNIiddle Ages, by the sinall churches or oratories of Ireland, 
and the supposed British church of Perauzabuloe. I think that the 
prevalence in these isles at that early date of a type of church 
differing in a most significant manner from the types prevailing both 


in the Latin and Greek communions, is a most singular fact. It is 
the more remarkable, when we consider to what a great extent the 
existing Christianity of England is due directly to the labours of 
Latin missionaries, who brought with them, as we know by the 
accounts of the first cathedral erected at Canterbury, the basilican 
plan Avith its apsidal end. 

From the chapel at Peranzabuloe, and from the square-ended 
early Irish churches, which, whatever be their date, certainly show 
little or nothing of the Latin influences, I think Ave must infer that 
the square east end was the prevalent type in these islands before 
the overthrow of British Christianity by the Saxons. We may 
conclude from this, as from other reasons, that British Christianity 
was not so utterly enfeebled as has often been represented, and that 
its own peculiar traditions survived and leavened to a considerable 
extent the great revival which the Latin missionaries effected. 

The square-end tradition had a second great struggle for existence 
at the Conquest. The Normans naturally introduced the continental 
fashion, a fashion which the Confessor had already followed at West- 
minster Abbey. I think it probable that most of the Saxon churches 
which have apses date from his reign. The apse became almost 
everywhere the rule as long as the influence of the Norman clergy 
and nobility remained fresh and distinct ; but no sooner had the 
conqueors begun to coalesce with the conquered, and the conquest 
become gradually tided over, than the square east end began slowly 
but steadily to gain upon its rival. By the thirteenth century its 
triumph Avas complete, and although Ave have in Westminster AlDbey 
one of the most complete and beautiful specimens of the apsidal type 
in Christendom, the circumstances of its rebuilding, and the French 
tastes of King Henry, render it clearly an exceptional case. It is a 
curious fact that the language spoken in that monastery Avas, as Abbot 
Ware tells us in his Customal, neither Latin nor English, but French. 

A tradition so ancient and so remarkable, one peculiar to our 
branch of the Catholic Church, and connected, in all probability, 
Avith its very earliest origin, is deserving surely of all respect, and 
ought not to be abandoned to a mere feverisli craving after novelty, 
or to the affectations of a travelled dilettantism. 

Chancel Screens. 

Upon the same principle on Avhich I have attempted to defend 
the square east end, I shall also venture to say a fcAV Avords in favour 
of the high chancel screen. This essential feature of a mediaeval 
church cannot indeed be claimed as cxclusiA'ely English ; but Ave 
may boldly state that no Church in Christendom has sustained the 
tradition so steadily and so continuously as the Anglican. 


It is a very curious fact that, while at the Reformation the rood- 
lofts — those galleries which spanned the chancel arches of the greater 
part of our churches — were destroyed with the roods which sur- 
mounted them, especial care seems to have been taken to preserve 
the screen itself. This is, in itself, interesting, as showing how 
orderly and methodical, as a rule, was the work of the Eeformation, 
as compared with the Deformation, carried out by the Puritans of 
the next century. Not only were the existing high screens carefully 
preserved, but many new ones were erected during the reigns of 
Elizabeth, James, and Charles I. A complete list of these does not, 
as far as I know, exist ; and its want is to be regretted, as their 
erection throws great liglit upon the tone and character of the 
English Reformation. A learned living prelate upon one occasion 
stated to me, not I hope ex cathedra, that the use of a chancel arch 
was to distinguish exactly that part of the fabric of a church for the 
repairs of which the holder of the great tithes was responsible. I 
can hardly believe that this purpose alone will account for the 
erection of those rich Elizabethan and Jacobean screens which are 
the ornaments of not a few of our old churches. I do not believe 
that the spirit which could inspire such admirable work was of this 
dry practical kind. I think rather that the notion embodied in the 
rubric, " TJie chancels shall remain as they have done In times j^ad," 
Avas a real and living principle. It has borne good fruit even in dry 
and sterile days, and in these more favoured times may be expected 
to blossom again with a renewed vigour. A tradition which has 
lived through the eighteenth century, and produced many fine works 
even in those dark days, ought not to be abandoned thoughtlessly 
and from mere caprice. 

There are two distinct types of church arrangement answering 
to the two modes in which, in an ecclesiological point of view, the 
Eucharistic rite has been regarded. The one is primitive and Medi- 
iBval, the other is modern and Roman. The early and Mediasval 
idea is to withdraw the mysteries more or less from too curious eyes. 
The modern to exhibit them boldly before all. In the Primitive 
church the altar was surmounted by a Ijaldaquin, the whole intention 
of which was to support curtains, somewhat in the manner, if I may 
be excused the comparison, of a four post bedstead, by which the 
act of consecration might be shrouded from the eyes of the faithful. 
The Eastern Church, so tenacious of early customs that it may be 
said even to exaggerate them, conceals tlie whole action by a solid 
Iconastasis. The Medifcval ritualists, upon a similar principle, 
placed the altar withdrawn at the extremity of a long chancel, the 
entrance to which was fenced by a lofty lattice, which we call the 
high screen. It can, I think, hardly be (juestioned that this 
tradition has had an exceedingly strong influence upon the feelings 
of English Churchmen, and that it is still, in spite of vigorous 


attempts to supplant it by a newer development, the most firmly 
rooted, and the deepsst. 

It ought at any rate to be clearly understood that the principle 
of screens is of the essence of mediseval church architecture. Pugin 
somewhere lays it down that the man wlao says he likes Gotliic 
architecture and does not approve of high screens is simply a liar. 
The expression is forcible, but true. 

The whole notion of a mediseval interior is that every vista 
should be broken up. You ought never to be able to see from end 
to end of a Gothic church. It is the greatest mistake in the world 
to throw our long churches open from end to end. The very 
effect that the old architects aimed at producing was to make you 
wish to see it all open, to stimulate imagination ; but they knew 
very well the old truth that the half is better than the whole. The 
effect which a meditBval interior is designed to produce may be 
compared to a sunset seen through trees ; the glory of it makes you 
wisli the trees away, and you hasten forward through the copse to 
gain the open and see the whole unbroken expanse of sky ; but the 
effect is not what you expected ; it has a charm, but it is not the 
same ; you have gained a quiet placid enjoyment, but you have lost 
the keen, intense, exciting pleasure of the fu'st view. In gaining a 
new delight you have lost the first, and perhaps the higher joy; 
you have, in fact, exchanged the mediajval effect for the classical. 
Now I might fairly plead that, if we are to build Gothic churches, 
we should build them on mediaeval jjrinciples, and should not 
attempt to confuse the characteristics of the two opposed poles of 
Art. I might appeal to the many attempts wliich have been made 
to reconcile the two, and to their f;\ilure, but I prefer to take higher 
ground, and to rely upon the traditions of the English Church. 

In spite of its Eeformation, perhaps because of it, the English 
Church is the most mediaeval of all the Western churches. Dr. Neale 
has remarked in one of his essays that in no church in Christendom 
are the mediaeval offices so generally kept up. Nowhere else are so 
many hour services, essentially mediaeval, and even monastic in their 
origin, recited publicly as in England. One may add that, upon 
the whole, nowhere else have the choral arrangements of chancels 
been so carefully preserved, through generations of opposition and 
indiiference, as among ourselves, and it would be a matter of deep 
regret if traditions which have survived through years of general 
neglect and disuse should be abandoned in the tormoil and excite- 
ment of an almost unprecedented revival. 

I do not, however, wish to lay down a rigorous rule, either as to 
the exclusion of apses, or as to the absolute necessity of the high 
screen. There are, no doubt, cases in which an apse may be allow- 
able enough, and we have in England, even in the advanced periods 
of Gothic architectui-e, many beautiful examples. I may mention 


Madely in Herefordshire, the Priory of Winchelsea, the Chapel of 
the Holy Ghost at Basingstoke, and that of the Vine in the same 
neighbourhood. The High Church at Stirling is another example 
r;pon a larger scale. In most of these, however, the native love of 
the east windov/ shows itself in the greater size of the eastern ftice 
of the apse, which allows of the insertion of a central window larger 
than those of tlie sides. These examples are very well deserving of 
study, and in exceptional cases may serve as models. In the same 
way, as regards screens, there are exceptions from the general rule ; 
there are instances of low screens in some of our ancient churches, 
as at Nantwich, in Cheshire, and Chipping j^orfcon, in Oxfordshire. 
In rehtting an old church the high screen is, no doubt, more 
imperatively required than in a new building. In a new church 
convenience may often be allowed to over-ride tradition. There 
would be less objection artistically to a low screen if we were 
allowed to erect above it a rood beam and a rood. By itself, a low 
screen looks insignificant and wanting in dignity, and is but a very 
poor and enfeebled descendant of the Iconostasis and the Jube. 

There is no doubt that chancel screens had in all ages a practical 
purpose — the protection of the chancel from thoughtless or profane 
intrusion. This, too, was the purpose of the introduction, under 
Archbishop Laud, of altar rails and gates. These were ordered to 
be sufficiently close to prevent the entrance into the sanctuary of 
dogs, which, if we may judge by pictures, were as frequently to be 
seen in English churches, as they still are in some Highland kirks. 
We have almost abandoned the use of close and gated altar rails, 
and no one will regret the change, but this makes it only the more 
necessary to have an effectual fence at the chancel arch. It is not 
seemly to see, as one often does, the - sanctuary invaded by a party 
of ladies and gentlemen, however ecclesiological, criticising the 
reredos, and handling curiously the embroidery of the frontal — 
bringing to mind the line which ends " where angels fear to tread." 

The necessity of a proper fence to the chancel will become more 
felt as our churches become more used. I hope the day is not very 
far distant when it will be quite the exception to find a parish church 
locked up. It is told of Thomas a Becket that when he was with- 
drawing into his Cathedral, followed by the murderous band, the 
clang of whose armour was audible along the cloisters, a monk who 
was with him closed the door by which the archbishop had entered 
the church, and began to lock and bar it. St. Thomas stopped liim 
at once. " The church." said he, " is not a castle ; it shall never be 
barred up on my account," and ordered the bolts to be unfastened. 
Upon what trivial grounds, for what paltry considerations, is that 
too generally done noAv, which St. Thomas, even in the extreme 
necessity of self-defence, forbade. It is pleasing to observe that the 
number of churches, even in the country, Avhich are habitually kept 

VOL. XII., VT. I. K 


open is everywhere upon the increase, but it is certainly undesirable 
to leave the chancel and sanctuary wholly unprotected from careless 
intrusion or even worse. 

It is further to be hoped that the naves of churches may be 
made more and more serviceable for other purposes than those of 
direct worship. I was present upon one occasion at a missionary 
meeting held in the nave of Ely Cathedral. Every one present 
must have felt that the surroundings gave a tone of dignity to the 
assembly which a concert-hall, or the ball-room of an hotel, would 
not have supplied. And if the education of this country should 
unfortunately become separated altogether from any true religious 
teaching, I do not think that anywhere else so well as in the naves 
of our churches could the cliildrcn be assembled for that definitely 
Christian instruction which the public schools had ceased to supply. 
The influence of the place would go a long way to take off from the 
dryness of school-AVork, and would be the best set-off against the 
disadvantage of the divorce of secular and religious education. 

It is not at all uncommon in France and Italy to see churches 
so used. I remember seeing, at Milan, a very fine church occupied 
entirely on the Siuiday afternoon by what we should call the Sunday 
school. The aisles were left open as usual, but the whole of the 
nave, which was very large, was curtained oft' into many compart- 
ments, which formed, in fact, separate class-rooms. Under such 
circumstances it would be very necessary to keep the chancel and 
sanctuary distinct from the nave, and protected by effective, and 
and not merely symbolical cancelli. 

The Seatixg. 

If we should ever come, as I feel sure we shall do, to utilize our 
churches for schools, meetings, and similar purposes, it Avill be 
impossible to crowd them up with fixed seats, as is now generally 

The appropriated pew is an abuse which, unfortunately, dies 
very hard. Demolished in its somewhat venerable form of the 
high and green-baized enclosure, it has succumbed only to re-appear, 
more offensive perhaps than before, in all the affected modesty of 
the low fixed seat. One sometimes questions whether the unclean 
spirit, which has been expelled, has not been succeeded by more 
and Avorse. 

The height of the pew has nothing whatever to do with the 
principle of pews. Even doors are an evil, rather for what they 
symbolise than for what they are, and there is a moral door to 
every appropriated pew, be it ever so open. If a seat be per- 
manently assigned, Avhether a rent be paid for it or not, seems to 
me a matter of very little consequence in point of principle. If 


part of the area of a public place, be it a church or a market-place, 
is allowed to pass, niore or less completely, into private occupation, 
it seems to be rather an aggravation of the scandal that the privileged 
person enjoys his plot on a pepper-corn rent. I cannot help hoping 
that, as ■pew-renting is unquestionably dying out, appropriation, 
which has almost all the evils of the old system without its one 
advantage, a revenue, may not be allowed to vex us in its stead. 

The system of pews certainly has great vitality ; it is in accord- 
ance, we are told, with the character of Englishmen : to it certainly 
we owe the disfigurement of numbers of old English churches, and 
of the majority of our new ones. ApiH'opriation renders it necessary 
to encumber the church with fixed seats sufiicient to accommodate 
a very high percentage of the number of parishioners, whereas it is 
perfectly certain that the proportion of the ordinary attendance at 
any one service is far below the number which might conceivably 
be present. If our naves are to be used, as I have suggested, for 
many purposes besides worship and the delivery of sermons, it 
will be absolutely necessary to face this difficulty. A building which 
is to be used every day of the week cannot be occupied with 
immoveable fittings, designed only for the two principal services of 
the Sunday. 

I quite agree that in country churches there is far less evil in 
the system of appropriated seats than in town churches, chielly 
because the churches are generally in better proportion to the 
number of parishioners than is tlie case in towns. I do not see 
why it should not be alloAved to go on, to a certain extent, for the 
convenience of those Avho, but for it perhaps, would not come to 
church at all, but I think that the naves ought to be given up, I 
do not say to the poor, but to the people, to those who are content 
with what is their right, and ask for no privilege ; and if this were 
done, one of the greatest difficulties which architects find in pro- 
ducing good internal eifects would be removed. It would no 
longer be necessary to encumber our buildings with rows of seats, 
the greater part oif which are only occupied on a Sunday afternoon 
when it does not rain, and many not even then. The seating 
woiild follow naturally the requirements, fixed seats in some parts, 
as for example in the aisles, chairs and benches in others, and in 
all cases wide alleys, convenient for ingress and egress, for weddings 
and for funerals, capable, too, on special occasions, of being filled 
up with chairs to accommodate an exceptional attendance. 

Even as things now are, it seems unreasonable to sacrifice to the 
greater services all the occasional ones. In a church, bepewed as 
our new ones generally are, it is impossible, for example, to celebrate 
a wedding witli dignity, or a funeral with decency. Eor sueli rites 
a wide central alley is indispensible. In most old churches Avhich 
have been recently reseated, and in almost all new ones, the central 


passage is too narrow for two to walk together with the dignity 
Avhich a bride and bridegroom would naturally wish to assiune, and 
the position of the gentleman endeavouring with difficulty to conduct 
his lady along a narrow alley, encumbered with hot-air gratings, is 
not an enviable one. Every one, too, who has assisted at a funeral 
in a church so arranged, must have been scandalized at the dismal 
manoeuvres which are required to bring the coffin along the crainped 
gangways, and still more to effect its removal. Nothing can be 
more miserable than such a sight, wliere the feelings of the mourners 
are often cruelly shocked, and decency itself outraged. All these 
difficulties might be obviated if only we would be content with 
fewer fixed pews, and leave Avide alleys, Avhich could always be 
occupied, when required, by chairs. A chair is in its very nature a 
free seat, and it is a very great comfort on entering a church to 
know at a glance where you may place yourself without the risk of 
being turned out by the aj)propriator. 

I fully believe that if the question had been left free and un- 
fettered, it would have righted itself by this time. The number of 
people who have either no wish for an ai^proj^riated sitting, or who 
positively dislike one, has been for years steadily on the increase ; 
but the development of this feeling has not produced the effect it 
should have upon the arrangements of our naves, mainly in con- 
sequence of the action of the church building societies. These societies 
were in their early days in advance of popular opinion, and it was 
then a great point to have insisted upon low seats and reasonable 
convenience for sitting and kneeling, but they are now too often 
positively obstructive in their restrictions, and are acting, not, as at 
one time, as the leaders of church feeling, but as a drag upon its 
free development. I visited not long back a very fine church in 
Northamptonshire, which retained its original seating of very ex- 
cellent character, and all in its original position. The church has 
been lately restored by a London architect, under the direction of a 
well-known antiquary, and it seems almost incredible to state, that 
in order to conform to the requirements of the local society the 
ancient arrangements (unusually complete) were disregarded, the 
old sittings were lengtliened out with new woodwork, and the 
central passage, which was wide enough to hold with ease three 
chairs abreast, Avas reduced to the dimensions of a mere passage way. 
In my own experience, an archdeacon of a northern diocese (whose 
approval of all plans submitted the local society very properly 
required,) declined to approve of a central alley which was designed 
so as to give room for a row of three chairs, and insisted, iu spite of 
the loss of accommodation which was involved, in our adding one 
sitting to the pews on either side. He further laid down for my 
guidance the dictum that no central passage ought to exceed four 
feet six in width. I do think that these sort of questions belong 


rather to our business as architects. It would hardly become us to 
attempt to determine the proper length of an archdeacon's sermon. 
Ne sator ultra crepldam. 

The London Society has recently made a concession in this 
direction, to the extent of allowing upon the accommodation provided 
by chairs one half the amount of assistance which it allows upon 
fixed sittings. Tliis is undoubtedly a move in the right direction ; 
but it is difficult to see why a person who prefers a chair should be 
considered only half as valuable as one who demands a seat in a 
pew. It would be far better to allow such matters to follow freely 
their natural developement ; and this, I feel sure, is in the direction 
of entirel}^ free and open churches. Indeed the new plan — of 
appropriating seats Avithout demanding for the privilege a quid pr'o 
quo, a pew rent — seems to have all the disadvantages of the old system 
without its pecuniary recommendation. Even if the sittings be 
declared free after the commencement of the service, you have still 
the uncomfortable feeling of occupying another man's seat, and 
using perhaps his hymn-book and his prayer-book ; and if you are 
not an appropriator, it is a direct premium upon coming late to 

If there must be appropriated seats for the well-to-do, and free 
seats for the people, I must say that the principle laid down so 
emphatically by St. James — one, indeed, which hardly needs the 
definite sanction of a scriptural warrant, because it is of the very 
essence of Christianity itself — ought not to be so openly disregarded 
as it is. If the poor are to have their own seats, they out to be in 
the best parts of the church, not in out-of-the-way corners. I look 
forward to the time when appropriated seats, whether paid for or 
not, will be quite the exception, and when those persons who will 
not come to church unless they have their own seat and their 
familiar cushion to go to, those in Avhom, if I may so speak, the 
bump of appropriativeness is morbidly developed, Avill be relegated 
to side aisles and remote transepts. There is one noble parish 
church m this diocese — one of the very finest, indeed, in the 
country — St. Botolph's Church, at Boston — where the system I have 
been advocating is, to some extent, carried out. The whole of the 
nave is free ; the sittings in the aisles only are appropriated. 
I believe that this is not a new arrangement, but a custom that has 
always prevailed in this church. One result of the system is very 
striking. Some time before the doors are opened for the services 
the poor begin to gather round them, and the church has not been 
open long before the whole nave is filled up. The exact line of 
deniarkation between the free and the appopriated sittings is marked 
out and defined by the emptiness of the one, and the thick mass 
of people which fills the other. Here they sit in their close, quiet 
ranks, for some twenty minutes or so, flanked by the empty aisles, 


till as the hour of service draws near the respectable people begin to 
drop in and to fill, slowly and sparsely, the appropriated areas. I 
know few things of the kind more striking or more elorpient than 
the aspect which Boston church presents some twenty minutes before 
service time. The question of open churches seems pretty Avell 
decided by it. One thing is certainly enforced beyond all question, 
the poor fully justifiy, by their eager attendance, the position which, 
custom has assigned to them here, in the best part of the church, 
and if free seats were regarded as they ought to be, as the rule, and 
pews as the exception, the one as the symbol of rigorous Christian 
equality, the other, of a politic complaisance Avith worldly distinc- 
tions, the one as a glory of a church, the other as its weakness, we 
should certainly not place our appropriated pews in the most 
advantageous and conspicuous position. 

General Design. 

In planning a new church, the utmost freedom will properly be 
allowed in the choice of the type which may be adopted, even to 
the extent of a rather wide departure from any of the ancient models, 
wherever new circumstances suggest new arrangements ; for it is not 
so much the forms of our ancient architecture which we should seek 
to revive as its spirit. The one belongs to the age which produced 
it, the other is more or less for all time. We cannot, however, 
forego a careful study of our ancient models, a study to which the 
judicious architect Avill recur again and again to refresh the first 
keen impressions which, else from contact with prevailing common- 
place, become deadened and lost. It is greatly to be regretted 
that the attention which is bestowed iipon our old architecture is 
limited too often to a mere study of details. Sections of mouldings 
and patterns of traceries are noted down with some care and with 
some approach to correctness, but we do not, as a rule, take half 
enough account of the general scheme of design, of the distribution 
of the plan, and of the general proportions. The consequence is, 
that not only is it impossible to mistake, even at a distance, a new 
church for an old one — this, indeed, is not to be desired — but there 
is too often nothing at all akin to the effect of a mediaeval church, 
nothing of the spirit of the old work, nothing of that masterly poAver 
of outline, and that full and satisfying sense of proportion which 
even more than the details charm us in our old buildings. 

It is curious that some of the earliest works of the Gothic revival 
have much more of this higher quality than their more correct suc- 
cessors. With details, which are often beneath criticism, some of 
these early attempts show an insight into the essential principles of 
Gothic design which is rarely seen now, and produce at a distance a 
much more satisfactory effect than many buildings of greater know- 
ledge and of more pretension. IS"ot to speak of such works as the 


towers of St. Peter's, Cornhill, and that of the parish churcli at 
Warwick, Highgate Church, and kSt. Luke's, Chelsea, may be in- 
stanced as good examples of what proportion and outline can do, 
unaided by any beauty or correctness of detail. I am afraid that 
the falling off in this respect is to be attributed to some extent to 
Mr. Euskin's architectural works, as well as the unfortunate fashion 
which has introduced amongst lis so many spurious imitation of 
French and even Italian Gothic. However this may be, I feel 
certain that much would be learnt from the intelligent study of the 
plans, and proportions of our old churches, and that until the same 
attention is paid to the higher qualities of our mediaeval architec- 
ture, which has been bestowed upon its smaller details, little 
advance will be made. 

It must, I think, be admitted that the later styles show more 
power of dealing with proportion and mass than do the earlier, and 
perhaps purer, varieties, and this is especially true of small buildings 
such as are most of the country churches. With all the gi'eat qualities 
which the thirteenth-century work undoubtedly possesses, I still 
think that the style shows to the best advantage in buildings of a 
considerable scale, and that in smaller churches the later styles 
compare advantageously with those of the previous centuries. There 
is generally more facility and freedom in planning, a more artistic 
distribution of parts, and above all a greater economy of means. The 
early styles are rather Avasteful ; they require very massive walls ; it 
is quite impossible, as sad experience has shown us, to get the effect 
of early work with the shallowness which a reasonable economy 
generally necessitates. As the style developed, the architects gradually 
learned how to produce fine effects with more moderate means. Their 
work became more scientific, and a skilful adjustment of thrusts and 
counterpoises enables them to produce effects of wonderful elegance 
and beauty, showing great engineering knowledge, and clever 
economy of materials. I must say it is rather affectation to close 
our eyes to the real progress thus made, the more so as the conditions 
under which the later architects Avorked are so very much more 
parallel to those of our own day, than were those of their pre- 

In the smaller churches especially we see in the more developed 
style a Avonderful advance in the power of producing fine effects with 
small means. The great development of the clerestory shows a 
thorough gTasp of the true principles of internal effect. Take an 
ordinary early church with lean-to aisles of no great height, and a 
high-pitched nave roof springing from directly above the side arcades. 
The result of this arrangement is, that the light which is admitted 
almost entirely from the aisle windows, enters at a conqoartively low 
level, much below that of the roofs, and strikes upwards, a distribution 
quite inconsistent with a dignified internal effect. Such an interior, 


however large its scale, and however great its beauties of detail, jnust 
always have a somewhat unimpressive and homely character. The 
later architects, with a true perception and a real grasp of the matter, 
felt this very clearly, and what did they do 1 They carried up the 
nave wall as high, perhaps, as the ridge of the early roof, pierced 
them with windows to the utmost possible extent, and placed upon 
them, a roof either flat, or of a very moderate pitch. The new 
Avindows they filled with glass of a beautiful silvery tone, treated with 
great breadth of effect in point of colour, and with a very large pro- 
portion of white. The principle of lighting is now reversed. A vast 
body of softly toned white light admitted from above gives an effect 
at once of dignity and of space, and with no very great addition to 
the cubical contents of the building, tlie whole tone is raised from 
one of mere simple homeliness to a character that is impresive and 
even stately. Indeed, a flat roof, which it is the fashion to decry, 
has internally one of the great advantages which groined vaulting 
possesses, in that it enables the windows to run up to a level very 
little below that of the highest part of the interior, so that the whole 
building is lighted from above — a point of the liighest importance 
in internal design. 

In looking at an old church, as it now stands, we are too apt to 
think of it as made up of portions of difterent dates incongruously 
put together, and as owing that beauty of effect, as a Avhole, which 
beyond all question it possesses, to chance and happy accident. We 
forget that in the vast majority of instances it was the later architects 
who deliberately impressed upon the building the character which 
now especially distinguishes it ; that the church as it stands OAves to 
them its general outline and proportion, and that unity of effect 
Avhich makes it, in spite of all its variety of style, a complete and 
satisfactory Avhole. The changes they made Avere done deliberately, 
Avith the object of producing that result Avhich, in spite of all our 
theories, Ave instinctively admire ; and the fact that the earlier Avork 
Avliich they retained, so far from producing incongruity, concords so 
Avell Avith all the rest, only shoAvs hoAV thoroughly the later artists 
understood their Avork, hoAV Avell they had mastered the problem of 
reconciling new Avith old, and multiplicity Avith unity, and of sub- 
ordinating the variety of the parts to the harmony of the Avhole. 

Whatever style Ave may think Avell to adopt, these lessons ought 
not to be neglected. There are, indeed, many early examples in 
Avhich the same principles have been grasped. We often find, even 
in country churches of Decorated date, finely developed clerestories, 
and it is by no means necessary to adopt a later style in order to 
profit by the experience of the later architects. Let us aim not at 
mere antiquarian reproduction of any one period, but at rational 
use of the best qualities of each, Ave shall then have art instead of 
dilettanteism and architecture in place of archaeology. 


The Interior. 

There are some principles common to all periods of art which 
modern architects in mere caprice, or in fretful striving after novelty, 
sometimes venture to depart from. Ever since civilisation com- 
menced it has been the rule to finish the interior of the building 
with all possible care. Every ancient building, Avhether of Egyptian, 
Greek, Roman, or mediaeval times, was carefully faced internally 
with wrought stone, or plaster, and decorated in colour, or it might 
be, encrusted witli marbles and mosaic. The notion of leaving the 
interior of the building as rough and rugged as an exterior generally 
must be, has been from a very early date abandoned by civilized 
man. It has now been revived. The fashion to which ignorance 
and necessity obliged our rude forefathers is now adopted Ijy many 
of us by choice. This queer reaction against modern refinement 
woixld perhaps be intelligible, as a mere reaction, if it were not oddly 
enough confined to church architecture. It is very difficult to see 
why the interior of a church should be made, as it often is, to 
resemble an ancient cairn or a modern grotto. We see new churches 
■whose interiors are faced Avith rough stock brickwork, relieved per- 
haps by lines of red and black, after the manner of the so-called 
Turkish baths ; and others where the rudest rul:)ble is pointed with 
the blackest of artificial mortar, ingeniously combining the harshness 
of barbarism Avith the disingenuousness of civilisation. It is a duty 
to protest against making our churches the field for the exhibition of 
such vagaries. Let those Avho, satiated Avith feeble refinement, can 
find no relief but in still Aveaker affectation of barbarism, confine 
their tastes to their OAvn draAving rooms. Let them build their OAvn 
rooms Avitli rough brick or uncoursed rubble, if they like it, but let 
our churches be spared. 

Unfortunately the evil is not confined to neAv buildings, lumbers 
of fine old churches have been stripped internally, and reduced to a 
nakedness compared Avith Avhich Puritan AvhiteAvash is decency. I 
believe that in most cases it is not the architect but the client Avho 
is to blame, and it is on this account that I venture, upon the 
present occasion, to protest against a process Avhich has, I regret 
to say, been applied against my Avill to some churches for Avhose 
repair I have been in other respects responsible. 

It may be laid doAvn as a rule, that in common Avith the interiors 
of all buildings, at all times, our mediccval churches Avere intended 
to be finished internally Avith the best materials and the greatest 
refinement, Avhich the means available Avould alloAv. They Avere 
ahvays decorated in colour, although this Avas often of a very simple 
character. The principle is exactly the same Avith that of all previous 
ages. The Egyptian and Greek temples, the Roman villas and 
thermae, and the early basilicas were all treated simply upon the 

VOL. XII., PT. I. L 


same system which we may still see exemplified in St. Alban's 
Abbey. Even where ashlar work was used internally, it seems to 
have been employed only on account of its practical superiority, 
for the stone work, just as much as the plaster work was coated 
with a fine gesso, and relieved with coloured ornament. 

In the interiors of our houses this tracUtion has never been broken : 
we still plaster them and decorate them, either in painting or with 
coloured paper on the same principles, however badly applied, as 
those of a Pompeian villa, or a meditieval hall. But the Puritan 
movement of the seventeenth century led to the abandonment of 
colour in the interiors of our churches, and left us with Avhitewash 
as the only remaining thread of the old tradition. "Whitewash 
did not originate with the Puritans ; it was used from the earliest 
times, as the simplest mode for obtaining a ground for coloured 
decoration, in the extracts from the Liberate Rolls, published in 
Hudson Tiu'ner's Domestic Architecture, we constantly meet with 
the term " de-albnre," and I may mention that the interior of West- 
minster Abbey, which is all of ashlar work, was from the first treated 
with what is practically whitewash, the bosses of the groining, the 
diapers, and other leading features being relieved in colour and gold. 
The marvellously beautiful tone of colour which the interior now 
presents seems to be owing very much to the curious fact that the 
distemper coat of white was glazed over with a finishing coat of 
varnish — a most unusal treatment — the gradual darkening of which 
has given to the stonework that rich grey tinting which is perhaps 

We are acting therefore more upon old principles when, instead 
of leaving our rough masonry or brickwork exposed, we coat it 
simply with whitened plaster, but there seems no reason at all why 
we should not revive, even in country churches, a simple but efi"ective 
manner of coloured decoration, it does not seem to have been the 
intention of the Reformers to do away with aU internal colouring, 
for we very frequently find that where old paintings, which were 
deemed superstitious, were obliterated, the walls were decorated in 
their stead with texts, and in some cases, as at Abbey Dore, in 
Herefordshire, with figures of Old Testament worthies, for it seems 
to have been considered that saints of the old dispensation were 
beyond the suspicion of Popery, and the familiar figures of Moses 
and Aaron decorated many an altar, from which the memorials of 
apostles and martyrs had been banished in disgrace. 

These works, though not of much interest, have served at least 
to preserve the tradition of wall and panel painting in our churches, 
which we may naturally expect to see renewed and revived. 

Whatever practical difficulties may arise in an old church from 
damp, the result of centuries of decay and neglect, there ought to 
be no difficulty in building new walls sufficiently wet-proof to take 


with safety distemper painting. We find, as a rule, no great 
difficulty in constructing our house-walls so as to bear wath safety 
the application of wall papers of very fugitive tints, and there is 
no reason why churches, with their more massive construction, 
should not be rendered at least equally secure. We should then be 
able to adopt throughout some broad and simple method of decora- 
tion, which would lead up naturally to a higher class of work in 
the more important parts of the building. We possess at the 
present time in England a school of painters admirably fitted for 
such work, and it is hard if we architects cannot find them dry 
walls to work upon. 

In this climate, however, I much doubt whether we shall ever 
be able to trust works of really high art to the walls themselves — 
certainly the attempts hitherto made at the Houses of Parliament, 
and elsewhere, are not, as regards durability, encouraging. But 
there is no reason why we should not emich our churches vnth. 
pa)tel paintings by really able men. It would be wiser, in short, to 
follow the practice of uiediieval Germany and the Low Countries, 
rather than attempt to introduce the Italian methods. AVe could 
well have altar-pieces aiid such like executed upon panel, not, I 
thmk, in oil, because the depth of colouring which the oil method 
allows of is not an advantage in work, which must after all be 
mainly decorative, but in tempera painting finished with varnish, a 
method which gives cj^uite as much depth of effect as is to be desired 
in such works. The walls and roofs of the church should then be 
decorated in distemper, in a simple and broad manner, in keeping 
Mdth the tone of the principal points of decoration. 

The great thing to be kept in view throughout the internal treat- 
ment must of course be the unity of eflect. A most important 
part of this would be the stained glass, now left almost entirely 
to the caprices of the glass painters and the donors. In nine 
cases out of ten the glass painter has never so much as seen the 
window he is to fill, and knows as little, and cares as little, about 
the eflect which his window will i>roduce upon those about it, or 
upon the whole interior, as the donor himself. If the window be 
an ancient one, the old iron-work put in by the men who erected the 
window itself, to support the glass for which it was designed, and 
affording almost always some hint of the original arrangement of the 
glass, is rutldessly cut away. It is too much trouble to contrive the 
new glass so as to agree with the indications of the old treatment, 
it is handier to use some cartoons in stock, or perliaj^s the client has 
some little sentimental notion which must be brought in, and it 
won't work in with the old divisions ; anyhow the iron-work goes, 
and if in consequence the church is broken into, and the surplices 
stolen, who is to wonder ? 


The Reredos. 

In many small churches the stained glass must always be the 
principal point of the decoration, but so much is spent at the present 
day upon reredoses that it is evident that there is room for the 
introduction of higher art than glass painting admits of. The money 
which is spent upon many a reredos, even in small country churches, 
would have procured a real work of art full of instruction as well as 
of beauty, neither of wliich is generally afforded by the altar-pieces 
at present in fashion. Indeed, the aim of most reredoses seems to 
me to be to express as Httle as possible Avith as much parade as 
possible. With most of them it is as hard to describe of what they 
consist, as it is to ascertain what idea they are intended to convey. 
They are not exactly arcades and not exactly panels, not exactly 
waUs and not exactly niches. They have about them something of 
the shrine and something of the sideboard, something of a tomb and 
something of a mantlepiece. Sometimes you are surprised by a little 
bit of half Byzantine mosaic, and sometimes by an ingenious arrange- 
ment of Minton's paving tiles. N"othing comes amiss provided it 
makes a certain amount of show, does not hide any part of the east 
window, and expresses nothing in jDarticular. 

Money spent upon this sort of work is worse than wasted. If 
people's prejudice will not allow of sculpture or painting conveying 
definite ideas, if a reredos cannot be allowed to run up, as most of 
the old ones did, boldly in front of the east window, if, in short, it is 
to serve neither to edify the people nor to give dignity to the altar, it 
ceases to have any meaning, it has no longer any ralsoii d'etre at all, 
and would be better omitted. I think, however, that prejudices are 
every day weakening, and that the time has come for something 
better than those poor meaningless decorations, and Avhat is required 
is, here as elsewhere, a careful study of mediccval models. These are 
of almost endless variety, and, treated with proper freedom, Avould 
supply models suited to every possible circumstance. They form 
quite a study in themselves, into which I shall not attempt to enter. 
But this we may observe, that all of them contained works of high 
art either of painting or sculpture. Their panels furnished space for 
pictures ; their niches were receptacles for sculptui'e. They never 
consisted of mere aimless ornament, but were always the culminating 
feature in the decoration of the church. 

It is difficidt at the present day to realise what a powerful in- 
fluence the churches of the Middle Ages must have exerted upon 
the cidture of the people. The treasures of mediteval art were not 
concentrated in the picture galleries and museums of a few great 
cities for the convenience of artists and dilettani, but were scattered 
over the whole country. Every village church was a little picture 
gallery and museum in itself, filled as it was with art-work of every 


description. Painting, sculpture, metal work, woodwork, embroidery, 
jewellery, everything that now draws people of taste to the South 
Kensington Museum to stare at occasionally and to forget, was 
then to be found to a certain extent in every country church. 
The church was not only the place of worship, it was not only the 
focus of the common life of the village, it Avas also a most powerful 
instrument in diffusing artistic culture. It is impossible to exaggerate 
the refining influence which must have been exercised by this con- 
stant, we may even say daily, contact with art of all kinds, and by 
its association Avitli the most sacred of all objects. To the removal 
of this influence is due, in some measure no doubt, the uncultured 
vulgarity of our lower orders. There is at the present time only 
one art which retains something of its old position. I mean Music. 
This has not been, and cannot well be completely centralised, and 
no one can question the advantage, not only to the popidar musical 
taste, but even to the general refinement of the people, which has 
been derived from the diffusion and improvement of church music. 
The same thing may be expected to follow a similar diffusion of 
religious art. If the Church takes \ip again its old position in this 
matter, if our chiu'ches are once more adorned Avith works of real 
art in all its various branches, more will be done for the improve- 
ment of taste and of general culture than by any number of 
Mechanics' Institutes or Schools of Design. 

Nothing, moreover, will tend more eftectually to maintain and 
strengthen the position of the parish church as the centre of the 
common life of the village. It is perhaps even more important now 
than it was in earlier times to keep up this character. We must not 
get into the way of looking upon the church merely as the Episco- 
palian place of worship. Nothing would please the Liberation 
Society better, nothing would play more pleasantly into the hands 
of the Disestaljlishment party. I may say that nothing, perhaps, 
has played more etfectuaUy their game than the somewhat mean and 
petty type, which has been too generally adopted in our new churches 
both in town and country. Why, one old church has more of 
dignity, and of a certain noble self-respect about it, than twenty 
such as we now j)ut up, and I very much doubt if many of the old 
buildings wiU not long outlast our hasty trivial eflbrts. 

In those suburban villages which are springing up around all 
our great towns, the chiirches which rise with the same mushroom- 
like growth as the villas which surround them do not, I think, im- 
press one with any serious reverence for religion, nor recall very 
forcibly the great traditions of the English Church. They look 
showy and self-asserting. They are certainly genteel, and are kept 
exceedingly clean. The floor tiles are unexceptionable in their 
ingeniously niggling patterns of black and red ; the pidpit, of 
alabaster, supplied by an eminent firm ; the altar-cloth, of vivid 


crimson, embroidered in silks, which imitate gold ; the seats of 
lustrous deal, believed to resemble oak, at half the expense ; the 
comfortable cushions and pew carpets all of the same colour (that is 
a great point) ; those curious chests, half kneeler, half hat-box, 
which mark the sitting of the Avell-to-do man of business ; the little 
gig-backs raised above the general level of the seats to accommodate 
the influential but invalid ladies of the congregation ; the prayer- 
books, with gilt edges, and the hymn-books, with bold crosses on 
them, forming a somewhat too bizarre contrast with the red and black 
bricks of the walls, relieved with little patches of white stone or 
emerald green tile, and recalling more than anything else the interior 
of a Turkish bath ; these most certainly do not serve to raise the 
tone of piety among our people, or to excite a true enthusiasm for 
the Established Church. 

From these, the churches of our new suburban villages, we turn 
aside with quite a keen delight to some rude little country church, 
high pewed, perhaps, and white-washed, filled mainly Avith smock- 
frocked men and country girls, but in all its simplicity, in all its 
homehness, and all its neglect, stiU full of the grandeur of a religion 
that is world-wide, and the dignity of an ancient and national church. 
The charm of historical association our new churches cannot have, 
but if we are true to our principles, and true to ourselves, our new 
churches will breathe the same sph'it as our old ones, and will serve 
to hand down, unimpaired, to future generations of Englishmen, the 
traditions which we inherit from a great past. 


Churches in the Neighbourhood of Doncaster. — The following Notes 
were read by the Revd. George Ornsby, on tlio occasion of a 
visit paid by the Members of the Society, on the 17th June, 
1873, to the Neighbourhood of Doncaster, 


St. Oswald, King and Martyr, is ths patron Saint of this little 
church, wliich, in its original state, was of twelfth-century work. 
Portions of this work still remain, in the small and deeply-splayed 


windows at the east and west ends respectively of the south aisle, 
and in the piers and arches of the nave. 

The church consists of nave, north and south aisles, chancel, and 
a chantry of late Perpendicular work, which is the gem of the 

The nave arcade has two bays on either side, the centre pier on 
each side being octagonal. The abaci are square, as also the plinths. 
The arches are round-headed and perfectly plain. Another JSTorman 
feature exists in the plain cylindrical font, with two steps, which 
are probably coa3val with it. 

The west windoAv belongs to the middle of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, and two lights on the north side to the sixteenth century. 
You will see for yourselves that the church has recently undergone 
restoration, but whatever ancient features remained have been 
carefully retained. 

The chancel is low and poor, with a late Perpendicular window 
at its eastern extremity, and sixteenth-century windows at the side. 

The chantry chapel, which opens from the chancel under an 
obtuse-pointed arch of like date, was erected by Archbishop Eokeby, 
for the reception of his own remains, about the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. The Archbishop belonged to an ancient York- 
shire family of that name, long settled at Sandall, of which parish 
he was Eector, prior to his elevation to the See of Dublin. It 
contains many very interesting features, especially the roof, which 
is very beautiful, and the parclose work, which has survived with 
very little injury down to the present time. A canopied tomb, which 
still retains some brass scroll work with appropriate sentences, and 
which formerly had an effigy of the Archbishop, and a shield of his 
arms, stands against the north wall of the chapel. The shield of 
his arms was in existence twenty years ago, when I took a rubbing 
of it, probably the only one in existence. The shield has since 
vanished, how or when I know not. The tomb is of marble, but 
its material is hidden under thick coats of white-wash. One of the 
windows contains some very interesting fragments of stained glass, 
some of it in situ. Amongst these shattered and dislocated frag- 
ments is a portrait of the Archbishop, figures, more or less perfect, 
of female saints, and a portion of a figure which may be intended 
to represent St. Oswald. There are also portions of inscriptions. 
Our excellent Secretary, who has so deeply studied ancient glass, 
will be able to descant upon it more learnedly than I can. 

The Archbishop's body lies under a flat stone in the centre of 
the chapel, with an inscription on a brass plate. 

The glass, as far as it exists, is, I think, of very admirable design 
and workmanship, and the woodwork is especially worthy of remark. 
It is much to be regretted that the east window of the chapel should 
be walled up ; and picturesque as is the covering of ivy which 


climbs over its external walls and battlements, it is mucli to be 
feared that it will eventually tend to the loosening of its fabric, and 
the decay of its roof. 

Eaknby Don. 

This cliiirch, dedicated to SS. Peter and Paul, consists of nave, 
north and soutli aisles, and chancel. Externally and internally it 
is as charming an example of a village church of moderate size as 
one often sees. The body of the church belongs to the Decorated 
period, and has escaped all injudicious alteration. I wish as much 
could be said for the chancel, beautiful as it is in many respects. 
The windows of the aisles are all square-headed, and the tracery in 
all is original. The clerestory is of somewhat later date. There is 
a very beautiful buttress on the north side with a canopied niche, 
the crockets of which are carved with great delicacy, and I would 
particularly ask you to look at the sculpture of the folds of the 
drapery of a sitting figure on the west side of the head of the 
canopy. Tlie upper part of the figure has unhappily perished. The 
gurgoyles are also curious. 

Internally the arcade of the nave is of four bays, the piers of 
the arches being beautiful examples of clustered pillars. The 
chancel-arch is very lofty, and on its south-west side is the some- 
what unusual feature of a round turret which gave access to the 
rood. The opening on the side of the rood screen is walled up. 
It must formerly have given access to the roof, and probably termi- 
nated in a spirelet externally. 

The chancel screen has })een restored from fragments of its 
original woodwork, which Avere worked up into the old puljjit and 
other parts of the church fittings. This woodwork, as well as the 
stonework of the nave, belongs to the fourteenth century. 

There is an interesting canopied tomb of late Decorated work, 
and some brackets in the north aisle. 

The tower opens from the church under a lofty arch. It is of 
later date tlian the rest of the church, being of good Perpendicular 
character. It is so like that of Fishlake, which you will shortly 
see, that I should judge them both to be the work of one architect. 
The cross-keys of S. Peter are carved on a shield on the southern 
face of the tower. 

The chancel was restored a few years ago. It Avas in a very 
ruinous condition, and was oldiged to be taken doAvn. I wish the 
original character, of which sufficient traces remained, had been 
thoroughly adhered to. The side windows were square-headed, like 
those in the body of the church, though their tracery had vanished. 
Two on the north side were blocked up with masonry, and one on 
the south filled up with a sash window. The east window was an 
insertion, of late Perpendicular work, but this might easily hav<' 

VOL. XII., PT. I. M 


been replaced by one whose tracery should have been in accordance 
with that of the aisle windows. The sedilia and piscina, I am 
glad to say, were carefully preserved, and replaced in their old 
position. ■ The canopied buttresses at the east end of the chancel 
were also preserved, and re-erected. An interesting alniery, for the 
reservation of the Blessed Sacrament, in the east wall of the 
chancel, on the north of the altar, perished. It was between two 
and three feet high, and had a triangular head. If I remember 
right, there was a smaller almery on the other side. 

The font is octagonal, of rude workmanship. I really can 
scarcely venture to assign a precise date to it. But it is probably late 
work. One of its faces has a heart carved upon it. The corre- 
sponding one on the other side presents a shield, but the bearings, 
if it ever had any, no longer exists. 

There is an ancient alms-box of plain character, cut out of a log 
of oak, in its ancient place near the soiith door. 

An altar-stone with its five crosses remains on the floor at the 
cast end of the south aisle. In post-reformation times it has been 
made to subserve the purpose of a tomb-stone, and it now bears an 
inscription to the memory of Roger Portington, a member of a very 
ancient family at Barnby Don. 


This church, which is dedicated to S. Lawrence, is of very 
stately proportions, and is especially striking when viewed internally. 
Its plan is cruciform, with a lofty tower at the intersection of the 
arms of the cross. It has a nave and aisles, transepts, chancel, and 
spacious chantry chapels on either side of the latter. 

It is the mother-church of all that wide district which was com- 
prised under the name of Hatfield Chase. The parishes of Thome 
and Fishlake were formerly subsidiary chapelries under it, though 
each was made a distinct and separate parish at a very early period ; 
Thome probably in temp. Edward II., Fishlake somewhat earlier. 

A church would seem to have existed here in Saxon times, but 
of this no trace remains. The earliest portions of the existing 
edifice belong to the latter part of the twelfth century, and are 
prol)ably due to the Earls of Warren, the proprietors of the whole 
of the district. To this period we may ascribe the lower part of 
the west front, including the great west doorway, with its receding 
orders and shafts — a fine example of later Norman work. A narrow 
elongated lancet window at the west end of the north aisle has been 
brought to light in the course of the recent restoration. Lights of 
this character no doubt prevailed throughout the whole of the 
church as it existed in this centur}'. The south door, and part of the 
south wall, belong also to this period. The nave arcades are Tran- 
sitional, with pointed arches, and have square abaci and plinths. 


The north aisle of the church belongs to the fourteenth century, 
to which period we may also refer the massive external buttresses 
and the curious arches which are built across the aisle, doubtless 
with the view of counteracting a dangerous settlement towards the 

The tower and transepts, and the whole of the eastern portion 
of the church, together with the clerestory and the great west 
Aviudow, date from the fifteenth century, and were probably all 
built at one time. The chantry chapels are of somewhat later date, 
but are good and rich specimens of the style. The woodwork of 
the roofs, of coieval date, has happily been preserved throughout. 
JMr. Jackson, the architect of the restoration, considers the traceries of 
the windows to l)e remarkably interesting, as presenting a style Avhich 
he believes to be peculiar to the south of Yorkshire, being characterized 
by semi- circular uncusped heads to all the openings. It is with some 
diffidence that I venture to express an opinion differing from that of 
a professional architect, but I confess that I am scarcely satisfied 
that the absence of the cusping is an original feature. My reason 
is the manifestly original embattled moulding on the transom of the 
great window of the south transept, an enrichment which, I think, 
would be more consistent with the previous existence of cusping in 
the heads of the traceries. I am rather disposed to think that the 
cusping has been chiselled off, probably in the seventeenth century, 
to make re-glazing a less elaborate process. But I leave the matter 
for your inspection and consideration without giving a decided 

The general effect of the interior, as you will presently see, is 
exceedingly stately and dignified, an effect which has lately been 
greatly enhanced by the removal of a ringing floor, immediately 
above the apex of the arches which support the tower. This has 
restored to view its lantern stage, with infinite advantage to the 
integrity and harmony of its internal proportions. 

On the external face of the tower is carved a shield of arms, 
which serves to identify one, if not two, individuals as having been 
builders or large contributors to its erection. The bearings are four 
fusils in pale, with an unicorn's head for the crest. These are the 
arras and crest of Sir Edward Savage, one of the sons of Sir John 
Savage, by Catherine Stanley, sister of the first Earl of Derby. 
Sir Edward was keeper of the park of Hatfield, and master of the 
game. The same arms were used by Thomas Savage, brother of 
Sir Edward, who was promoted by Henry VII. to the Ai-chbishopric 
of York. 

There are several objects of interest in the church. The most 
curious is a Peter's-pence chest, hewn out of a single log of oak, 
studded with nails, and strongly banded with iron, with a slit for 
money in the top. There is also another chest, of very early date. 


It is possible that this may have come from the manor-house, which 
for a long time was a royal residence, and within whose walls Queen 
Philippa gave birth to her second son, who was surnamed " de 
Hatfield," by reason of the place of his birth. He died in infancy, 
and Avas buried in York Minster. I^o remains exist of the original 
manor-house. That which occupies its site is a modern building. 

I may mention also that a copy of Jewell's Apology is preserved 
in the church, chained to a desk. The desk, hoAvever, is modern. 

I must not omit to draw attention to the very interesting rood- 
screen, Avhich is of very stately proportions, and still retains its 
loft, and the bracket and mortise for the rood. It is of late date, 
and the ornament with Avhich the posts and panels are covered is 
executed like Elizabethan or Jacobean work, by sinking the pattern 
from the flat surface of the wood. 


This church is under the invocation of S. Cuthbert, whose figure 
you may observe, still uninjured, under a niche above the great west 
Avindow of the toAver. It is interesting to knoAv that a connection 
existed betAvcen Fishlake and the great .Saint of the Xorth, Avhose 
name its church bears, at a period long anterior to the erection of 
any church here. Fishlake Avas one of the places Avhere the body 
of the Saint rested during the Avanderings of those Avho traversed 
the ancient limits of Xorthumbria, Avhich formerly comprised the 
Avide district betAveen the Humbor and the TAveed, carrying Avith 
them the bones of one Avhom they justly venerated, in order to 
escajDe the violence of the heathen Danes. A list of those places 
Avas compiled by Wessington, Prior of Durham, in 1416, and 
amongst them occurs the name of Fishlake. 

Little remains of the earliest churcli Avhich stood here — nothing, 
indeed, but the A^ery interesting south doorAvay, and the priest's door 
in the chancel, Avith a small portion of rubble Availing. The general 
character of its exterior may be inferred from the head of a lancet 
AvindoAV Avhich Avas buried under the foundations of the chancel, 
and discovered Avhen they Avere underset in the course of its restora- 
tion, about tAventy years. One or tAvo corbels of early Avork Avere 
also discovered, Avliich I shall by and by have the pleasure of sheAv- 

The general aspect of the existing church, externally, is Perpen- 
dicular, Avith the exception of some A^ery late Decorated Avork in 
some of the AA'indoAvs, notably in the great east AvindoAV of the 

The toAver is a very fine specimen of the Perpendicular period, 
as is also the clerestory of the nave, the AA'indoAvs of Avhich are very 
elegant. You have already seen the Church of Barn by Don, and 


your recollection of the tower there will enable you to recognize the 
strongest possible similarity between the two. There can be little 
doubt, I think, that both are the work of one architect. On 
the southern face of the tower here you will observe two badges 
carved — a falcon and fetterlock, and a rose surmounted by a royal 
crown, on which is seated a lion affronth. The falcon and fetterlock 
were the badge of Edward IV., whose connection with the place is 
easily explained. Fishlake was part of the Honour of Conisborough, 
which was settled upon Edmond of Langley in 1.347, and eventually 
descended to the Earl of March, who afterwards reigned as Edward 
IV. The tower may therefore be assigned to his reign. The clere- 
story of the nave belongs, I apprehend, to Henry VI. 's reign, for I 
am disposed to think that the heads of a king and a bishop, which 
form the terminations of the hood-moulding of one of the southern 
Avindows, may probably represent that Monarch and Archbishop 
Scrope, whose popularity in Yorkshire is mattter of such notoriety. 

Before entering the church, I would direct your attention to a 
triplet, of somcAvhat remarkable character, at the west end of the 
south aisle. It is not, I think, in its original position, and probably 
belongs to the earlier portion of the church. I must also ask you 
to observe the interesting character of the ornamentation of the 
different members of the great south doorway of the church, the 
details of which are very remarkable, and worthy of attentive study. 
Let me remark also upon the excellent character of the cross Avhich 
terminates the eastern gable of tlie nave clerestory. The gurgoyles 
are also worthy of a passing mention. 

Internally, the church consists of nave, north and south aisles, 
and chancel, together with two chantry chapels, opening respectively 
into the chancel, under very fiat-headed arches of wide span. The 
arcade of the nave is of five bays, the piers and arches being Early 
English in character. The responds at their western extremities are 
very elegant, with three detached slender shafts, and bell-shaped 
capitals, under one abacus. The roofs, both of nave and aisles, are 
in their original state, as far as regards their main timbers. The 
portion over the easternmost bay of the nave has had coloured 
decoration, of which some traces remain. 

The most prominent object on entering the church is the font, 
Avhich is of exceedingly beautiful character. It is probably of the 
same date as the great east window, about 1370 or 1380, It is 
octagonal in form, ivith canopied niches, each containing a figure. 
One is that of S. Cuthbert, Avith a kneeling figure beside him. The 
one facing -the east has a remarkable tiara, or mitre, and bears a 
church on his right hand. Dr. liock, Avith Avhom I once had some 
correspondence respecting it, surmised that it might possibly be 
intended to represent Pope Gregory the Great, Avith the single 
croAvned regnu/n, or tiara, on his head. The others are bishops and 


archbishops, all probably northern saints ; but with the exception of 
S. Cuthbert and one other, they have no emblems. Dr. Rock sup- 
posed the one with a child at his feet to be S. Nicolas of Myra, the 
patron of children, as well as seamen. 

The chancel-arch is an Equilateral Pointed one, of lofty pro- 
portions and very beautiful mouldings, of the same date probably as 
the late Decorated east window. The chancel originally had no 
clerestory. The weather-moulding of the original high pitched roof 
is still visible. The chancel-arch, when stripped of its whitewash 
some twenty years ago, shewed distinct traces of colouring. They 
are now somewhat dim, but when hrst discovered, I Avas able without 
difficulty to make out the pattern, a drawing of which I have pre- 

The original rood-screen remains. It has been partially restored, 
as regards the lower part and the cresting, a portion of the latter 
being sufficiently perfect to enable us to carry out the design. The 
parclose screens of the chantry chapels are likewise original, with 
the exception of the cresting and the lower panels. 

A trace of the connection of the place with the House of York 
may be seen in one of the windows of the north chantry chapel, in 
the shape of a quarry or two bearing the " sun of York" upon them — 
that well known ensign of the house alluded to by Shakespeare. 

A curious fragment was turned up when the soil was disturbed 
for the purpose of undersetting the southern wall of the chancel. 
It is a piece of Limoges enamel, bearing the evangelistic symbol of 
S. John. I was untU quite lately at a loss to know what purpose 
it had served, but Mr. Davies-Cooke has most satisfactorily shewn 
me its original object. It has formed part of an altar, or proces- 
sional cross, being identical with the end of one of the limbs at the 
back part of the Womersley crucifix, of which Mr. Cooke had an 
opportunity lately of making a very careful examination. It is of 
the same date and character, and belongs to the latter part of the 
twelfth, or the early part of the thirteenth century. No other 
portion of a cross was found here. It had probably become discon- 
nected from the other portion, and had been tossed about on the 
floor of the church, and eventually hidden in the soil when some 
interment had taken place. At the same time were found two 
bronze letters, and part of a chalice, which, as is well known, was 
always laid on the breast of a priest when he was committed to the 

I shall have to direct your attention to a very curious altar- 
tomb in the chancel, which covers the remains of one of my 
predecessors, Vicar Marshall, who died early in the sixteenth 
century. It has some very remarkable sculptures on it. 


Tfest Window, fcl'". ^lart iiv's GWtcK, Coneij ^-^ York. 

THE ST. martin's WINDOW, YORK. " 95 

The only objects of interest we possess in the way of chm'ch 
utensils or furniture are a church chest of rude character, and a 
brass alms-dish with a representation of the Annunciation, which is 
probably sixteenth-century work. 

On Stained Glass in the West Window of St. Martin's Clmrcli, 
Coney-street, York, set up by Bohert Seiner, Vicar, a.d. 1437 ; 
commonly called The St. Mariin's Windmo. — By Eev, G. Eowe. 

The restoration of the Church of St. Martin, in Coney-street, was 
completed in the year 1872, and much interest was excited about 
the stained glass of which this edifice contains many fine examples. 
None of it has been so deservedlj^ admired as that in the great west 
window, which,, from its comprising subjects taken from the history 
of St. Martin, is known by the name of that saint. As giving us 
a representation of almost the complete story of the patron saint, it 
is a valuable record ; and from its bearing the date upon it, it is 
doubly valuable as an example of stained glass of the first half 
of the fifteenth century. 

It is a large window of five lights, with ordinary Perpendicular 
tracery, good of its kind, and filled with glass carrying foliage 
and angels, but having no direct relation to the .subjects con- 
tained in the body of the window. There are three pictures in 
each light, arranged under one another, so that the two lower arc 
separated by bands of inscriptions and dwarf canopies, while a 
general canopy of rich and complicated description surmounts the 
whole three, and sends its sides or supporting buttresses down past 
the lowermost. These sides of the canopies are adorned with figures 
of men, lions, and eagles, which add greatly to the beauty of the 
composition. The figure-paintings of the central light descend the 
farthest, owing to the topmost subject being larger than the others : 
and all the lower part of the window is filled with square quarries, 
bordered, and bearing the monogram, R.S., of tlie name of the donor. 
The quarries compose the background of large t^ndsted circles of 
vine-leaves, the leaves i)rojccted so as to form almost a square, which 
enclose eagles with scrolls in their mouths. The scrolls, in several 
cases, now carry sham inscriptions, or marks intended to represent 


letters, Avhich, if they are not later insertions, are an early example 
of the kind. There may originally have been some screen-Avork 
nnderneath, as in the restoration, the pinnacles of which rising up 
and partially covering the bottom of the wimknv rendered the 
artificers less particular in finishing this portion of their work. 
This quarried part is accompanied by a border in which the 
letters E. and S. occur, and the same initials are met with in two 
places among the dislocated and mutilated inscriptions. 

We now commence the description of the interesting subject- 
glass, beginning at the top of the left or southern light, and taking 
the three pictures contained in it : then proceeding with the top- 
most subject of the next light, and so on. It is hoped, that with 
the aid of the diagram, the description Avill be clear. 

1. The first picture represents 8t. Martin in his archiepiscopal 
dress on the left, approaching two other figures. These are standing 
beneath a very handsome canopy or throne, and are, the one a king 
crowned, and the other a civilian in the costume of the period, and 
■with the straight hair cut across the forehead, of the middle of the 
fifteenth century. They are holding out their hands to the bishop, 
as if receiving or congratulating him, and below the civilian is a 
portion of a church. 

2. An ecclesiastic, Avith his head surrounded by a nimbus, 
arrayed in a cope (or it may be a chasuble, for the glass is confused), 
a stole, and albe, is celebrating, and in the act of elevating AA'hat 
appears to be noAV a plain piece of bread, probably, at one time, a 
Avafer. An angel stands on the other side of the altar, and raises 
his hand as if to receive it. Above, and behind the priest, are two 
assistant angels at a desk ; and in rear of him stands an acolyte, 
bearing a very tall candle. 

3. On the left stands St. Martin in his archiepiscopal robes, 
Avith a crosier, raising a young person from the dead, Avho is 
bound Avith grave clothes and lies upon a bier, behind which stand 
two acolytes ; and to the left are tAvo other men standing. These 
have beards, and appear much interested in the miracle. The 
draAving of the person on the bier renders it uncertain Avhether it is 
a man or a Avoman. 

4. St. INIartin is shoAvn to the right, dressed as an archbishop, 
Avith his crosier, kneeling and praying. Above, to the extreme 
right, the Sacred Dove, nimbed, descends upon him, surrounded Avith 
straight rays of glory. Behind him, to the left, are seven persons 
in the dress of the former part of the fifteenth century. They have 
straight yelloAV hair, except one, Avho has curls ; another is bearded ; 
and a third is a Avoman in Avimple and veil, having her dress 
poAvdered Avith stars of 16 points, similar to a pattern found on 
quarries in this church, and Avhicli gives the date of c. 1400 to this 

THE ST. martin's WINDOW, YORK. 97 

5. On the left hand St. Martin appears in episcopal robes, 
having a red amice, with a birch in his hand. He is receiving 
from her parents a young girl, who turns away from him. She is 
richly dressed, and her parents are holding her and putting her 
forward. The archbishop stands on a dais ; and the lady has her 
hair in two wide plaits at the side of the face, as it was worn in 
the beginning of the fifteenth century. 

6. The saint is seen in front of his troops, clad in plate armour, 
of a style soniev\diat earlier than the window. He is bare headed, 
and wears a rondeau or enriclKnl circle round his head, with a heart 
in front of it. He carries in his hands his bascinet, or pointed steel 
cap. Behind him are two knights on hoisel)ack, and the heads of 
three others. The front figure is nimbed. All their armour is alike, 
and consists of bascinet and camail, cuirass and taces : roundels 
cover the arm-pits, and pointed and leaved sollerets the feet. They 
have richly wrought sword belts girt straight across the hips. 

7. A large figure of St. Martin, Avith a nimbus round his head, 
giving the benediction. He is clad in mitre, crimson chasuble with 
archiepiscopal pall, dalmatic, albe, and gloves. He also carries a 

8. In this compartment St. Martin again occurs, with two 
bishops, one on each side, having pastoral staffs. It is the enthron- 
ization of St. J\Iartin. 

9. Below is the figure of Eobert Semer, vicar, and donor of the 
window, kneeling and reading from a book which contains the first 
words of Psalm li., " Miserere 3Ie>." He is habited in a blue cope 
with amice, stole, and surplice. From his mouth proceeds a scroll 
bearing a legend of which the first words arc — " Sancfe Martine 
repelle a me . . . trlna." 

10. Resuming the subjects taken from the life of St. Martin: 
a person is lying in a bed, to which there are crimson hangings 
on a pole. Behind it is a Avoman with her hands crossed on her 
breast, and having a head-dress of the date of the latter part of the 
fourteenth century, when they wore them in shape like a grenadier's At the foot of the bed is another female figure ; and, in 
front, near the head, a third, kneeling down and praying. Before 
the bed is ako a kind of hutch or box, open. 

11. This picture represents a richly dressed cavalier, having the 
same rondeau about his head as the knight in No. G, who turns 
towards the left to a poor cripple. He has" thrown a blue cloak 
over the man, which he divides with his sword. This subject also 
occurs in the painted glass in the north-east window at the Church 
of SS. Martin and Gregory, in this city. 

VOL. XII., PT. I. N 


12. St. IMartin in a cope, and bearing a crosier^ exorcises a red, 
hairy, fearful looking fiend ; who carries a book in his left arm, anc4 
is encircled by a scroll bearing a legend. 

13. A bearded man Avith a circle round his head, but no heart 
in front, and otherwise naked, is supported by pillows in a bed. 
Above, to the left, Christ appears, and blesses him. He holds a cross 
in his left hand, on the bottom of wdiich is'a globe : and an angel 
on either side accompanies him. Below, at the foot of the bed, is 
a basin and flagon on a stand. 

14. The death of St. Martin. The saint is in bed, undressed, 
but with his mitre on, aiad nimbed. In the front is a boy holding 
a book. Behind the bed is a priest in albe and amice, with a book 
in his hands. On his right hand are two, and on his left, three 
attendant ministers. They are all singing. Behind the three, a 
wicked looking fiend raises his head. Above, two angels, clothed 
in copes, are carrying in a cloth a small human figure representing 
the soul of the dying man, surrounded with rays of glory. 

15. To the left is St. Martin, with his crosier, dressed in mitre, 
blue cope, and albe, nimbed, and in act of giving the benediction ; 
while Avith the other hand he waves off three dogs who are pursuing 
a hare. The scene is a forest, in which the trees are of a very 
conventional kind. 

Such is a description of the window, and we regret to say that 
all the incidents in it cannot yet be ascribed to any history of Saint 
Martin with Avhich we have been able to meet. It has not been 
without making search. The life of St. ]\Iartin was Avritten at 
length by his contemporary and disciple, St. Sulpicius Severus, but 
in the accounts professedly taken from this, there seem to be 
many events left unnoticed which would elucidate this windoAV. 
It is, however, the great store-house from Avhich all other Avriters 
have copied. From one of these are culled the folloAving remarks : 
St. Martin Avas born in LoAver Hungary, near the boinidaries of 
Austria and Styria, in the year 317 ; or the eleA^enth j'ear of Con- 
stantine the Great. His father having a command in the Roman 
army Avished his son to follow the profession of arms. Martin 
obeyed, but Avas soon distinguished as graver than the youth of 
his age and by giving aAvay much money in charity. Upon one 
occasion, A\hile marching into Amiens in Gaul, with some troops, 
he saAv a poor cripple, trembling Avith cold, begging alms very 
earnestly of those that passed by. jMartin, having nothing else to 
give him, drcAv his SAvord, and, amid the jeers of his companions, 
severed his cloak in tAvain, the half of Avhich he threAv to the poor 
beggar. This is the best known incident in his history ; and is 
represented in No. 11, — the centre piece of the fourth light from 
the south. 

THE ST. martin's WINDOW, YORK. 99 

"When Martin retired to rest that night he had a vision, 
in which he beheld the Lord Christ appearing to him, dressed 
in that half of his cloak which he had given to the beggar. 
Smiling on him, he asked Martin whether he knew the garment 
again. He then heard Jesus say to a troop of angels that accom- 
panied him, " jNIartiu, yet a catechumen, has clothed me with this 
garment." This event is pictm'ed in the loth subject, the topmost 
of the fifth light, in wiiich the saint lias no heart on his rondeau. 

After he had received baptism, he desired to be dismissed from 
the army. But the force he was with, having just met the Germans, 
who had invaded Gaul, his wish was ascribed to cowardice. Where- 
upon he replied — " In the name of the Lord Jesus, and protected 
not by helmet and buckler, but by the sign of the cross, I will thrust 
myself into the thickest squadrons of the enemy." It is this 
subject which, in all probability, is pourtrayed in Jfo. 6, at the 
bottom of the second light. In the sketch this has been inadvert- 
ently changed with the centre subject. 

St. Martin then crossed the Alps ; and after a time, went with 
a priest to reside in a small island oft' the coast of Liguria, now 
Genoa, near the modern town of Albenga. While here he chanced 
to eat a quantity of hellebore, so that his life was in danger. In 
this extremity he was restored to health by his prayers. This may 
be the subject of No. 10, the topmost in the fourth light. It is 
evidently the same pers(>n in the bed who is carrying his helmet 
before the soldiers in No. 6, but there are no further details of the 
incident, and it is not manifest in what way the attendants are 
concerned in it. The box, near the foot of the bed, is also 

He had long before attached himself to St. Hilary, Bishop of 
Poictiers, whom he greatly admired, and who returned his regard. 
The bishop gave him a plot of ground about two miles from the 
city, whereon he built a cell, which afterwards became the famous 
monastery of Marmoutier. The first picture may probably allude to 
this. Being absent on ecclesiastical business, he found, upon his 
return, that a certain catechumen had been taken suddenly ill and 
had died unbaptized. He was laid out ready for burial. The monks 
were in great distress, and St. ]Martin, being touched with pity, 
wept, and prayed that the dead man might live ; which thing 
happened, and in a short time he was re-stored to his friends. This 
is the subject of the third picture, the lowermost of the first light. 

In the year 371 he was chosen third Bishop of Tours ; and the 
centre light is devoted to this incident. One day, Avhile praying in 
his cell, the devil appeared to him, whom he refused to obey, and 
put to flight by his exorcisms. This is depicted in No. 12, the 
bottom subject of the fourth light. 


After having governed his diocese with great discretion for 
nearly thirty years, he foretold that his death was approaching. He 
was ohliged, at this time, to make a journey to the n(jrthern limits 
of his diocese. There he allayed the diiferences which existed, and 
having stayed a few days in the neigli1)ourhood, he set out to return. 
On the way his strength failed, and it soon became evident that his 
end was near. While listening to the offices of the church, the 
foul fiend appeared, to whom he said, " What dost thou here, cruel 
beast. Thou shaft find nothing in me. Abraham's bosom is opea 
to receive nie." Some of these words occur among the remains of 
the inscription, under No. 14, the middle subject of the fifth light, 
which represents the death of St. Martin. 

So far I have been enabled to identify the representations con- 
tained in the window. There remain, the central compartment of 
the first light, the top and bottom ones of the second light, and the 
last or loAvermost of the fifth light. My friend, Mv. Brown, says, of 
the first of these, that the acolyte bearing the candle, who stands 
behind the bishop celebrating, is St. Martin, in which case the 
bishop will be St. Hilary, but I have not been able to ascertain 
where this is mentioned. He has also placed his copies of 
the inscriptions at my disposal, but it seems that these have been 
many years in a shattered condition, and have baffled all attempts 
to decipher them. 

Of the donor, Drake in his Eboramru tells us that Eobert 
Semer was Vicar of this church in 1425, and must have died before 
1442. The legend which recorded this read, when he wrote, 
as follows : — " Orate j^t'o aninia Domini Roherti Semer quondam 

minisfri istius ecdesie et camerarii capelli Ebor. qui et 

edificavit hoc ojnis IV die niensis Odohris, Ann. Dom. mccccxxxvii, 
cnjus anime ijrop'tietur Deus." Besides giving this Avindow, he Avas 
a great benefactor to the church. 

The glass has wonderfully imjiroved in clearness and brilliancy 
under the careful hands of Mr. Knowles, who has also releaded it ; 
though much of its glittering quality is due to the excess of white 
glass which it contains, and to the uneven texture of that which is 
coloured — points which can never be too carefully regarded b}'^ 
the makers of our modern stained glass windows. 


Bells and Belfries. A Paper read at the Meeting of the Architect- 
ural Society of the Archdeacoiny of Northampton, at Coventry, 
1873.— By Eev. G. A. Poole. 

I AM afraid it will not do much to arrest your attention, if I 
confess that I have no direct architectural or antiquarian informa- 
tion to impart ahout Bolls and Belfries. Not that there is any 
lack of such matter, if it lay in my way to seek or to imi^art it. 


Indeed, I dovibt whether there is any part of our Church apparatus, 
the use and history of which might be treated at greater length, 
and with more amusing details. But it is not my object to say 
one word which shall not be practical, in so rigid a sense, as that 
it may influence the conduct of some one or other who is brought 
by his tastes, or by his possessions, or by his duties, within the 
influence of Belfries and their inhabitants. 

Bells have ahvays had a practical bearing on church architect- 
ure. Cliurch steeples have grown out of the need of an a])])ropriate 
home, raised on a solid base, high in mid-air, open to the four winds, 
for the noisy but mirthful and musical sisters. 

The steeple has been, it is true, used and redu}ilicated for its 
own sake ; as for instance, in our great cathedral and abbey 
churches, Avhose three towers are certainly not needed as a home for 
one peal of Bells ; but still we may be sure that the proper office of 
the steeple — its raison d'etre — was, and is, to raise the Bell aloft, 
that it may fill the greatest possible space with its musical vibra- 
tions. But though there are very few instances of an ancient 
detached Belfry in these Midland Counties (I can only at this 
moment recall two, that of Evesham, in Worcesterliire, and that of 
Elstow, in Bedfordshire, of which more by and bye), there seems to 
be no sufficient reason why the tower should actually form a part of 
the church ; and, indeed, the great weight of the Bells, and their 
disturbing power when rung in peal, have led to the detachment 
of the campanile in many cases from the body of the church. 
St. Paul's and Westminster Abbey had each its massive Bell-tower 
in old time. Chichester has it still. Salisbury has lost it. Many 
churches of less note have it, including many of the Norfolk 
and Hereford churches. I need not tell the citizens of Coventry, 
nor their visitors, that St. iMichael's and Holy Trinity have both 
experienced the necessit)^ of relieving their church towers of the 
Aveight and vibrations of the Bells ; that Holy Trinity has provided 
for them a separate Belfry, while St. Michael's has, perhaps 
with some misgivings, but lately returned to the old use of 
the Bells in the beautiful steeple, the tower of which is filled 
from the ground to the Bell-chamber with massive wooden frame- 
work, to sustain the vibration. Now here again, — that is, in 
the separate campanile, we are indebted to the Bells for a beautiful 
architectural feature. A detached Bell-tower can hardly help 
being a great gain to the general eff'ect of the church. It is to me 
one of the mysteries of architecture, that this feature is so 
seldom found in old churches, and that it is never attemped in new 
ones. The campanile must be just such a solid structure as to con- 
trast favourably with the lighter fabric with which it is associated ; 
and, besides this, standing out from it, and breaking its sky line 
from many difl'erent spots, and in many parts of the picture, it 


gives the eifect of air distance and grouping, so valnable to the 
artistic eye. 

But if Bells have given us church steeples, their indirect influence 
has done something to diminish the value of the steeple, as affecting 
the general character of the church. Bell-ringers and tlieir office 
have been too much ignored as a part of the apparatus of the 
church ; and for the purpose of shutting them out from the sacred 
fabric, and from the sight of the congregation, two barbarities have 
been perpetrated. The tower-arch has been closed, tliat the ringers 
may neither enter through the church, nor when employed in their 
proper work, be seen by the assembling worshippers ; and, as a 
necessary consequence, in Rectories where there is seldom an original 
west door (as there is in Vicarages), a door has been knocked out 
of the wall of the tower to admit the ringers from without. The 
closing of the tower-arch has deprived the interior of what was often 
its most beautiful feature ; and the unceremonious knocking out of a 
west door has been equally injurious to the beauty and to the 
stability of the tower. Has there been any necessity for the 
barbarous expedient ? I suppose it will be said that the ringers are 
not generally so reverential in the exercise of their office, as to 
make it seemly for them to go through the church ; and perhaps, 
to some over-refined tastes, the very act of ringing, even as seen 
from a distance, may seem distructive of solemnity. The last 
notion, if it exists at all, seems to me too absurd to deserve an 
answer : the first, on the other hand, the real or supposed irreverence 
of. Bell-ringers, is certainly too important not to demand our best 
attention ; and indeed it is to this and to its cure that I would 
devote your most serious attention. 

I fancy there is no part of the belongings of the church and its 
services, which is likely to give so much trouble to a newly inducted 
parson, Avho wishes to see all the instrnwenta Ecclesim used with 
reverence, as the Bells. He will be startled out of his usual self- 
possession if he hears a merry peal some morning, and is told it is 
for the races ; or that some favourite champion has won a prize- 
fight ; or that a balloon is to go up ; or that a popular novelist has 
married his hero and heroine in this month's number; or that there 
has being a wedding at the Eegistrar's office ; or that an obnoxious 
inhabitant is being rung out of the town. Xo one, not even tlie 
ringers who have done it will seriously stand up for this sort of 
thing. But there is a kind of sliding scale between such tilings as 
these and the church sennccs, for which, or at all events for something 
connected with which, the church bells ought in strictness to be 
absolutely reserved. The truth is that a merry peal is usually the 
most joyous music there is, that it appeals to the largest audience, 
and that at present it is scarcely to be had except from the church 
steeple. Besides, the church herself is not loth to rejoice with those 


that do rejoice ; and where the occasion is at least innocent, and of 
some public concernment, she may very cheerfully lend her voice to 
tell it out among the people. The steei)le is perhaps an exedral 
portion of the church, though consecrated with it ; and the Bells 
themselves may seem to have but a semi-ecclesiastical character and 
office, so as to touch the world on its innocent side ; though they 
cannot, except by a great and grievous perversion, be allowed to 
sympathise with profaneness, or revelry, or mammon-worship. The 
success of a townsman at an election ; the coming of age of a respected 
inhabitant ; the entrance into the town of the judge as the 
representative of majesty ; a victory for which w^e have implored the 
Divine Majesty, and for which we do not hesitate to express oiu: 
thanks in a Te Deum Laudamus : these occasions and the like may 
justify the use of the church joy-bells, though they are not directly 
connected with a church service, though, if it might be had, a civic 
campanile would more fitly lend its voices to the occasion. At all 
events it is surely wrong to use the church Bells in a spirit of spiteful 
insult or malevolent triumph : and yet it will be difficult to guard 
even against this, if it is practically left to the ringers themselves, 
and to any one Avho will ply them with beer, to ring a merry or 
mocking peal. 

In the old form of blessing Bells, which you may find in the 
Pontificate Romanum, the semi-religious office of Bells is carefully 
guarded ; as for instance in the following prayer : — " God, who 
didst command Thy servant Moses to make silver trumpets, at 
whose sweet sound the people might come together to praise !\nd 
sacrifice ; or at the blast of which they might march to the battle, 
grant, we beseech Thee, that this Bell, prepared for Thy holy 
Church, may be sanctified by the Holy Spirit, that by its tongue 
the faitliful may be called to theii; service ; that the devotion and 
faith of Thy jieople may be increased at the voice of its melody ; 
that all the snares of the enemy, the violence of the hail, the 
storm, and the whirlwind, and the force of the tempest may be 
driven afar off ; that the destructive thunder-bolt may be stayed ; 
that the wind may be kindly and healthfully tempered ; that the 
powers of the air may be defeated by the strength of Tliy right 
hand ; and that hearing this Bell they may tremble together, and 
flee before the standard of the Cross of Thy Son, which is signed 
upon it." One need not hesitate to confess that the spirit of such 
a benediction is more wholesome than the irreverence which can 
turn any church instrument to directly profane uses. But it 
may perhaps be worth while to note that, in one respect at least, 
the claim on behalf of the Bell is not borne out by experience, 
or by philosophy. So far from Avarding off the thunder bolt, the 
mass of metal in a Bell-tower attracts the lightning, and being 
detached from any continuous conductor, it renders its action 


specially dangerous. The flash, striking the spintUe of the weather- 
cock, will probably leap from thence to the Bells, and from the 
Bells to the next great mass of metal, wherever it may be — probably 
the lead of the roof ; and at each leap it will leave marks of its 
frightful power. If the Bell-ropes are wet, or even moist, they 
will become conductors, and the ringers themselves may perish ; 
as has been the case in instances enough to serve as a warning. 
It is, however, quite a mistake to suppose that the vibration in 
the air at the ringing of the Bell has any influence in attracting 
or dispelling lightning. It has simply no eftect either way. 
The attmction is the weight of metal in the Bells, and the 
danger is in the interrupted conductor. The metal, of course, we must 
have, and the remedy (and it is a perfect one) is to supply a safe 
passage for the electric current in a good conductor. 

But let us go back to the legitimate use of the Bells. 

I need not tell you that the laAv places the key of the Belfry in 
the hands of the clergyman and the churchwardens ; but it will be 
far better practically that an instinctive sense of propriety in the 
ringers should be the keeper. And this brings me to the most 
important part of my Paper — the character and qualification of the 
ringers. With regard to the ringers themselves, we want a higher 
moral standard, and in some portion of them at least (so as to afl'ord 
some security for decorum) a higher social position. And to get 
this we must have the office and the science of Bell-ringing duly 
appreciated. Some five or six generations ago Bell-ringing was a 
fashionable exercise among gentlemen. But it was not the eternal 
" round-ringing" of our villagers, but diangc-rhuiing, which is both 
a science and an art. Now, I would strongly advocate the forma- 
tion of a society of change-ringers in every parish ; and, if he is 
young and active, I Avould have the clergyman not only the prin- 
cipal authority among them, but the best ringer. With such a 
society there would be no inclination either to use the church Bells 
on improper occasions, or to let them be silent on our festivals, or 
other special church observances. 

The material of such a society might be found in most parishes 
of three or four hundred inhabitants and upwards ; and its form- 
ation would not, I tliink, give occasion of any jealousies, if the new 
members were affiliated with the old ringers. With the higher 
tone that would follow, the admission of future members would 
depend more than it often does at present on character ; they 
would of course be Churchmen, not only negatively, but positively ; 
and not only by repute, but by habit. Any glaring misconduct, 
either in the Belfry or elsewhere would involve the necessity of 
dismissal. With such a body of ringers, all secondary (questions, 
such as times of practice, occasions of ringing, scale of fees, and the 

VOL. XII., PT. I. O 


like, would right themselves ; and the Belfry woidd be as well 
filled and ordered as any puhlic office in tlie parish. 

It is hardly necessary to say that the first preparation for such 
a society would he the hrini^iug the Bells themselves, and all that 
belongs to them, into perfect working order. The ringers' chamber, 
and the access to it, ought to be made as easy and comfortable as 
possible, and it should be furnished with proper light, and with 
coat and hat pegs. The windows ought to be glazed, for the tower, 
without this precaution, is a bitter place for men who have been 
engaged in an exercise which has kept them warm for an hour or 
two ; and the little light-holes by wliich the circular staircase to the 
Belfry is lighted may well be closed with a piece of glass. The 
Bell frames will too often need repair, the gudgeons and wheels may 
have to be renewed, and the Bells themselves will most likely want 
turning ; but I would strongly advise you not too hastily to admit 
the necessity of new frames. The old oak may be very rough, but 
it is almost sure to be sufficient in strength and substance, and you 
will save some £15 or £20 a Bell by retaining it. 

And now, suppose your Bells in working order, and your 
ringers prepared by practice with the hand-bells for change-ringing, 
let me introduce them to certain associates in their work, with 
whom they need not be ashamed to take rank. 

" The Ancient Society of College Youths," whose members are 
formally enrolled by diploma, takes its local habitation and its 
name from a college of St. Spirit and St. Mary, founded by the 
renowned " Whittingtou, Lord Mayor of London Town." The 
church contained a peal of six Bells, and the youths of the neigh- 
bourhood met there as amateurs of Bell-ringing. On the 5th of 
November, 1637, Lord Brereton, Sir ClilF Clifton, the INIarquis of 
Salisbury, Lord Dacre, some of the city aldermen, and many of the 
neighboiuing gentry, formed these enthusiasts in the art into The 
Society of College Youths, which lias since that time numbered 
among its fellows several distinguislied persons. For instance. Sir 
Eichard Everard and Sir Henry Tulse, in 1649, with the professional 
celebrities, Eldridge the Bell-founder and Fabian Stedman, the 
author of a work called Campanalo(iia, and the composer of several 
well-known Peals; in 1697, the Hon. E. Cecil, the Hon. C. Cecil, 
and the Hon. G. Cecil; in 1717, Sir Watkin Williams Wynne, 
Bart. ; in 1725, Francis Geary, afterwards Admiral Geary ; in 1823, 
Mr. Powell Powell, of Quex Park, Isle of Thanet, who built in his 
park a tower with a peal of twelve Bells ; and last — not least. Sir 
Bartle Frere. The self-respect of the society was indicated by the 
ceremonies of their anniversary meetings, which were held on 
November 5th, Avhen the members went in procession, headed by 
their beadle in his livery, with his staff surmounted with a silver 
Bell, to hear divine service at Bow Church, and thence to dinner. 


'Nov were their energies exhausted in these ceremonial and festive 
observances. There are ample records of numerous celebrated peals 
rung by them in all parts of the kingdoin ; and in 1718, two Bells 
were added by them to the Bells of St. Bride's, Fleet Street, to 
make a peal of twelve. Their head-quarters have been successively 
Sir Eichard Whittington's College, which, with its church and bells, 
perished in the great iire of 1660 ; St. Martin's-in-the-Fields ; and 
St. Saviour's, Southwarlc, where they still remain. 

The rival society of " Cumberland youths" has had not quite so 
long, but perhaps not a less useful existence, or with less widely 
spread influence than the College youths ; but these two societies 
together do not embrace all the celebrated Bell-ringers of the 
Kingdom. Sir Symonds D'Ewes, Sir Matthew Hale, and Lord 
Treasurer Burleigh are numbered among the enthusiasts in this art ; 
and John Bunyan, the author of Pilgrim's Progress, gives us a very 
graphic account of his own conduct, while his Puritan conscience 
was struggling against liis passionate love of Church Bells. The 
Church Belfry already mentioned for its detached tower at Elstow, 
in Avhich there is a tradition that he rang the fourth bell, had been 
his favourite resort ; but when his conscience began to be tender lie 
thought BeU-ringing a vain practice, in other words, a sin ; yet, says 
.Southey,*" he so hankered after this, his old exercise, that, although 
he durst not pull a rope himself, he would go and look at the ringers, 
not Avithout a secret feeling that to do so was unbecoming the 
religious character which lie now professed. A fear came upon him 
that one of the bells might fall ; to secure himself against such an 
accident, he stood under a beam that lay atliAvart the steeple from 
side to side ; but his apprehensions being once awakened, he then 
considered that the bell might fall with a swing, hit the Avail first, 
rebound, and so strike him in its descent. Upon this he retired to 
the steeple door, tliinking himself .safe enough there ; for if the bell 
should fall he could slip out. Farther than the door he did not 
venture, nor did he long continue to think himself secure there ; 
for the next fancy that possessed him Avas that the steeple might 
fall ; and this so possessed him, and so shook his mind, that he 
dared not stand at the door longer, but fled for fear the toAver sliould 
fall doAvn on him. Surely Bunyan himself is as good a parable; of 
the strength and Aveakness of conscience, as any in his Pilgrim's 

Of very recent formation, and I hope Avith a future of usefulness 
and enjoyment before them, there is the " Oxford UniA'crsity 
Society of Change-ringers," the members of Avhich carry doAvn 
Avith them eacli vacation an enthusiastic attachment to their art 
which is not a little infectious. 

* Quoted from a Papei' on the Ecclesiastical Jiell, by llcv. Alfred Gatty, in A'ol. II, of 
our Reports. 


And though it is hardly to be desired that ladies should take a 
part in this exercise, yet in the lighter and more ornamental practice 
with the hand-bells, they are often great i^roiicients. 

Indeed, if any of the young gentlemen of Coventry should join 
the Oxford University Society of Change-riugers, and bring their 
Bells down with them for " the long," it is pretty certain that their 
sisters will join the " tuneful choir," and that before the vacation is 
over many a 720 will have been rung on six Bells, with their help, 
or many a touch on eight or ten Bells. 

And it is hard to say to what such things may grow. Would it 
be very wonderful if the place of Coventry Cross should be 
filled (and more than filled in use and beauty) by a campanile 
specially appropriated to civic uses. This would be a great gain in 
more ways than one ; but at present, I will only note, that it would 
solve all the difficult questions now occurring as to the fitting use of 
Church Bells. The peal in the town Belfry would of course be 
used on all such occasions as the return of a Member of Parliament, 
the receiving a Eoyal Charter, or the Knighting of a ]\Iayor. In 
Belgium a civic campanile is one of tlie first things that a toAvn 
provides, out of the abundance of its commercial wealth ; and 
individuals among the merchant princes, or great nobles of Genoa, 
or Pisa, or Florence, were not wanting to give this ornament to 
their cities ; and either an individual eftbrt or a hearty combination 
might do it here, and in many an English town, with equally good 
and grand results. 

And I will venture on a suggestion, which is quite in harmony 
with the spirit, if it is not absolutely within the assigned work of 
the Society, as a member of which I am addressing you ; for cer- 
tainly we are not precluded by the title, or by any rule of an 
Arcliitecfural Society from touching on the cedJwtic side of any 
Church work, or of any ecclesiological question. I have proposed 
parochial societies of Bell-ringers ; and why should they not be a 
iDranch of larger societies of Churchmen, pledged to attempt the 
general improvement of everything related to the Church, and its 
conduct, apparatus, and services, so far as they are visible and 
external, and can be made the tangible exponents of the church- 
manship of their members, and of the parishioners 1 There is the 
conduct of funerals, especially the funerals of the poor ; there is the 
cleansing of the idle corner, with its insolent ribaldry, which makes 
the approach to the House of God anytliing but a iva// of pleasantness 
and a path of peace ; there is the correcting and better ordering of 
that rude part of almost every village congregation, which is utterly 
beyond the control of the clergyman, and which is too much 
neglected by the churchwardens ; there is the encouragement, by 
example at least, of those Avho would give more respectful obedience 
to the rubrics directing the responses, and the proper posture of the 


worshipper in prayer and praise ; there is the choir practice, the 
marshalling of choir festivals, or other special church services, for 
the perfection of which a greater attention to external etfect than 
usual is required ; there is the decoration of the church for Christmas, 
Easter, and other holy-days ; and there is the marshalling of school- 
feasts and such like gatherings, with the manly sports of the youth 
of the parish, Avhich ought to reconcile them to the loss of wakes 
and fairs. An association of young churchmen, working not so 
much with and under, as along side of, and in harmony with, the 
parish priest, would find plenty to do in the external, or but half- 
religious work of the church, which has not only not been per- 
fectly done hitherto, but Avhich has not generally been so much as 
attempted on church principles. Their work would, of course, be 
perfectly distinct from the more directly spiritual or charitable 
machinery of a parish — visiting societies, mothers' meetings, dis- 
tribution of tracts, and the like — though these several provinces 
would perpetually overlap each other ; and perhaps some great day, 
such as the anniversary of the dedication or re-opening of the 
church, might be signalized by a friendly gathering of them all. 
But to speak only of my proposed semi-ecclesiastical association. 
They should be a sort of Guild of St. Christopher. You remember 
the special self-imposed task of St. Christopher — to direct the poor 
and wayfarers to the church, and to smooth their way ; and the very 
fact that he is but an apocryphal saint — a niyth, not a reality- — 
Avould serve as a confession that the guild called by his name pro- 
posed to its members only semi-religious duties. It is one of our 
greatest practical defects that the church puts out so few tentacles 
into the Avorld ; that church work is so little diffused among 
churchmen ; and that church workers are therefore so isolated. 
We would associate cheerfulness and pleasure with church work, 
which is a very great thing, and very centripetal in its influence. 
People cannot come together to join in a Avork which taxes indi- 
vidual energies, or exercises individual tastes, and gives pleasure 
to all, without being drawn closer round their common centre. 
Depend upon it, there is mutual gain between the church and her 
children — in every hand that has laid a stone in her wall, or set a 
flower for her in a cha])let, or sang a note in her choir, or handled 
a bell-rope in the Belfry, or even qualified himself to join in a touch 
on the Hand-bells, with a consciousness of its tending to church 


The DJoodij Iluntlncj Match at Dimrhiurh, 1605. A Paper on 
The Romantic Incidents connected with Combe Abbey, read 
at St. Mary's Hall, Coventry, on Tuesday evening, July 22, 
1873, to tlie Members of the Architectural Society of the 
Archdeaconry of l!<"orthampton, and the Archceological and 
Architectural Society of Leicester, and the Warwickshiie 
NaturaHsts' and Archaeological Field Club. — By J. Tom Burgess. 

Under the somewhat quaint and aft'ected title of " Tlie Hunting 
Match at Dunchurch," called by some older writers for distinction, 
" The Bloody Hunting Match at Dunchurch," I shall have to 
direct your attention for a brief period to one of the most remarkable 
episodes in history, to one of the wildest dreams that ever entered 
the head of an enthusiastic religionist, and which derives additional 
interest from its intimate connection Avith Warwickshire and the 
Midlands generally, and its after influence on the realm at large. 

" There are two tilings in which I disbelieve," was the remark 
made to me by a distinguished man of letters the other day, " and 
one of them is the Gunpowder Plot," and possibly it was the haze 
of doubt which hangs over this, as well as over many other incidents 
of the past, which induced the Eev. Canon Kingsley to resign his 
chair as Professor of Modern History at Cambridge. i^otwith- 
standing the many publications relating to the Gunpowder Plot 
Conspiracy, I am free to confess there have been many misrepresenta- 
tions of the event, and of the persons concerned. The facts have 
been tortured to fit certain theories, and the whole is so obscured 
by time that I must ask you to divest your minds for a brief period 
of much you have heard and read on the subject, whilst I try by 
the aid of the documentary evidence preserved, and some of it but 
recently broiight to light, to present to you a pictiu'e of the time 
and the principal actors in this strange and romantic drama. I 
will ask you, therefore, to transport yourselves to Warwickshire at 
the close of the sixteenth century, when the " Good Queen Bess " 
lay dying, and men's eyes were turned longingly and wistfully 
towards her successor. 

The proud Earl of Leycester, Robert Dudley, was dead ; and 
his brother, the " good " Earl of Warwick, had only survived him a 
year. Kenilworth had fallen into the possession of Sir Robert 
Dudley under the terms of his father's will, but he was absent from 
the country winning his spurs with the Earl of Essex at Cadiz ; and 
with him were Carew, of Clopton, and Conway, of Ragley. The 
Shirleys had leased their ancient house to the Underhills, and 
were in Persia fighting the Turks ; Shakespeare was buying property 


at Stratford ; Michael Drayton was busy with his Polyolbion ; 
Thomas Overburj'- was dreaniiiig and calculating his chances in the 
great Battle of Life ; whilst the studious Henry Ferrers, the anti- 
quary, was collecting comity pedigrees and other relics of the past, 
passing his time alternately between London and his old moated 
mansion at Baddesley Clinton. The more active spirits amongst 
the puritans of the County sought employment abroad, fighting for 
Protestantisiu in the Low Countries, whilst the Holtes, Grevilles, 
Harringtons, and Comptons, sought favour at Court, and waited 
patiently for the coming change, which they knew could not be long 

The members of the old faitli, and they were many in Warwick- 
shire at this period, brooded moodily over their many wrongs. 
Many of them had been heavily fined as recusants, and they hoped 
that the coming change of dynasty Avould bring them some relief. 
They had opened communications with James, and he had fed their 
hopes. They had seen his beautiful but unfortunate mother escorted 
across their shire by the leading county gentlemen,* on her last 
journey from Staffordshire to Fotheringay, and they longed for the 
time when at least they could worship in their own way, freely, and 
in peace. There were, however, some amongst these steadfast 
believers in the old faith whose spirits chafed at delay. They 
could not wait, and were ever ready with sword and dagger, to take 
advantage of every opportunity to assert their claim to religious 
equality, and to do Avhat they conceived to be the bidding of the 
Church, and the elictates of their priests. Amongst these restless 
men and ardent Catholics Avas Eobert Catesby, of LajiAvorth, a 
descendant of the great laAvyer and faithful minister of Eichard III., 
Sir William Catesby, who paid the penalty of his faithfulness to a 
losing cause, two days after he Avas taken prisoner in the field of 
Bosworth, and Avliose body rests in the Church of Ashby St. Ledger's, 
in Xorthants. 

Robert Catesby appears to have been a gentleman of great force 
of character. He Avas tall and stately in his demeanour. Plis 
face, " noble and expressive." A man of great possessions, not 
only in WarAvickshire, but in Oxfordshire and jS^ortliants. His 
father. Sir William Catesby, who died in 1598, had been frequently 
fined and imprisoned for recusaucy,t but Kobert appears to have 
been a Protestant at one period of his life ; and, indeed, it is iqjon 
record that all those engaged in the GunpoAvder Plot Avere converts 
to the old faith, and that Catesbj^, Ids father, and his cousins, the 
Treshaui's, OAved their conversion to Father Persons, Prefect of the 

* Sir John Harrington, Sir Thomas Lucy. Sir Fulko Groville, Sir Francis Willoughby, 
William Boughtoii, Edwaril Boughton, and John Shuckburgh (A.D. I086). 

t On the 15th November, l.'jei, (23ril EUz.) Sir William Catesby, Lord Vaux of Harrow- 
den, and Sir Thos. Tresham, were cited before the Star Chamber for harbouring Jesuits in 
their houses. 


Jesuits. Catesby appears to have been born at Lap worth m 1573, 
probably at his father's seat at Buslnvood,* which, though adjoining 
Lapworth, is in the Parish of Old Stratford. There is no entry of 
his baptism either at Stratford or Lapworth, though the name of 
his servant and fellow-conspirator, Thomas Bates, a2)pears in the 
register of the latter place. 

That Catesby was at one time Protestant would appear from his 
having married Catherine, a daughter of Sir Thomas Leigh, of Stone- 
leigh, whose other daughter Alice, married the clever, eccentric, and 
unfortunate Sir Eobert Dudley, of Kenilworth, and became in 
subsequent years Duchess Dudley, whose pretentious monument, 
erected in her life-time, yet remains in Stoneleigh Church, The 
mother of Catesby was a Throckmorton, of Coughton Court, an 
ancient "Warwickshire family of some note, and she resided in the 
days of her widowhood at the old hall of Asliby St. Ledger's. In 
his ardent zeal for the Catholic faith her son had joined the madcap 
Earl of Essex in the street fight, by which the discarded favourite 
sought to gain access to the Queen, and was wounded and captured 
in the fray. He only obtained his liberty by paying a hue of 
£3,000. Ever afterwards he was a plotter, a stirrer up of sedition, 
the bosom friend of Father Garnet, the Prefect of the English 
Jesuits, and the originator of that strange wild plot which gave 
rise to the " Bloody Hunting Match at Dunchurch." 

The old Queen died at last — on the eve of Lady-day, 1603; 
and the news was conveyed to James 1. by Sir Robert Carey, who 
appears to have been accompanied by his brother-in-law, who was a 
Warwickshire man, Thomas Berkeley, of Caludon, near the City of 
Coventry. When the news reached Warwick, the great Lent 
Assize was being held, and Sir Fulke Greville, of Beauchamp 
Court, threw up his cap and cried, " God save King James," and 
took immediate steps to proclaim the new king in the county toAvn. 
The owner of Combe Abbey, Sir John Harrington, hastened to his 
seat at Exton, in Rutlandshire, to receive James on liis progress 
from the north. Sir William Compton, of Compton Wyniates, so 
dear to ladies' hearts from his romantic courtship of the heiress of 
Canonbury, the wealthy daughter of Sir John Spencer, Avhom 
he took from Canonbury house in a baker's basket, accompanied 
Queen Henrietta from Scotland to London, and was high in royal 
favour. George Carew, of Clopton, was made governor of Guernsey, 
and was shortly afterwards made a peer. Harrington was likewise 
ennobled and entrusted with the education of the Princess Elizabeth, 
the King's eldest daughter, at his mansion at Combe. 

Wliilst these honours were being distributed, Robert Catesby 
was a disappointed fanatic, a widower, and a brooder over his 

* The house was taken down in the early part of tliis centnry. I have a drawing of it. 
The moat still remains. 


religious wrongs. The whole Catholic party were disappointed in 
James, hut the Catholic party were divided into two distinct sections. 
The old English Catholics, like the Ferrerses and the Throckmortons, 
were disposed to obey the new order of things, and to wait patiently for 
better or more auspicious times. Those Catholics who followed 
the Jesuitical teaching of the day, and believed in Spain and the 
Vatican, were anxious to show how deeply they felt the hollow 
treachery of James, and the disappointment he had caused. It was 
a time of plots ; and Eobert Catesby was a plotter. He was in 
possession of vast estates, not only in Warwickshire but in Xorthants 
and the adjacent Counties. He possessed, however, all the -wild 
imreasoning bigotry of a neophyte. He was stung by his heavy 
fine, lie saw his relations suffering in pocket, in liberty, and in 
jDosition, for the sake of the religion they professed, and as he passed 
to and from his lodgings at Lambeth to his house at Moorcroft, near 
London Wall, he could see St. Stephen's at Westminster, where the 
laws he suffered from were enacted ; and gradually the idea grew 
that he could become the saviour of his religion by striking one 
blow at King, Princes, and Lords, when they met in Parliament 
assembled, and thus rid the country of Protestant ascendancy. The 
idea was a wild one, but was not new. It had been proposed before ; 
and the King's father had been destroyed by powder. Trains, mines, 
and powder, were familiar military instruments in the Low Country 
wars. They had been used for other purposes, and here was an 
oppoi'tunity greater than any before conceived to show the power of 
the vile Ijiimstone, and the avenging hate of the Catholic people. 
It only required a strong will and helping hands, and these the great 
Warwickshire squire knew he could find. There was living with 
him at this time one Jack Wright, a master of fence, but a broken 
down scpiire from the north. He, and his brother Kit, could be 
relied on as helping hands, but active brains were requii^ed as well. 
There was Tom A¥mter, the younger son of a small Woi'cestershiro 
squire, a fellow convert, a man of quick brains and active habits, 
who had seen some service too — he would doubtless do his bidding. 
Catesby was no common man, he was one of those Avho could 
command and impress his fellows with his peculiar influence. But 
Winter hesitated. Murder on so grand a scale startled him. 
He wanted to know the result in ca'se they succeeded. He 
thought that something might be done by foreign help withoiit so 
much destruction of innocent lives. These scruples were overcome 
after some delay and negociations, and these four men, tainted with 
sedition, and suspected traitors, set seriously and earnestly to work 
to carry out their wild project of Catholic revenge and Protestant 
extermination. They had solicited foreign help ; they had tried to 
enlist the assistance of the bitter enemies of England in aid of their 
religion and cause. When these plans failed they began to perfect 

VOL. XII., PT. I. p 


tlieir plot without a thought of the resulting horror which must 
ensue if they succeeded. They had procured through Winter's 
luissiou to Sir William Stanley and Velasco, the aid of an experienced 
Sapper, named Guy Fawkes, who had been a soldier in the Low 
Countries. He was a convert, too, and was Avell known to the 
Jesuit fathers. 

These were the men, and these were the means they proposed to 
employ to gain theu' ends. They proposed to mine under the 
throne, and when the King was surrounded by the nobles and 
princes on the occasion of opening Parliament, to fire the mine by 
means of a train and bury the King, Prince Henry, and all the 
magnates of the land in one common ruin. They further intended 
to seize Prince Charles, or in default of him, the Princess Elizabeth, 
who was staying in the newly-built mansion of Combe with Lord 
Harrington. She was of royal blood, and was chosen to be the 
representative of Catholic rule in this broad land, and then to be 
married to some Catholic peer. 

To carry out this idea of a mine it was necessary to obtain 
possession of a building adjoining the Houses of Parliament. What 
house could they get ] A cautious examination showed that there 
was a small stone tenement in Parliament-place, which seemed 
suited for their purpose. It leaned against the Prince's chamber, 
then forming part of the House of Lords. It was the official 
residence of one Whynyard, a yeoman of the wardrobe, and had 
been leased by him to the great Warwickshire antiquary, Henry 
Ferrers, or " Ferris," as he is called in the old histories, and in the 
local dialect. When Bates brought this news to Catesby, the diffi- 
culty of obtaining possession seemed insurmountable. Ferrers was 
the neighbour of Catesby, It was only a couple of miles from 
Bushwood to Baddesley Clinton, and of course all Catesby's ante- 
cedents were known to Henry Ferrers. He would enquire what 
Catesby, a pardoned rebel, would require the house for, for though a 
Catholic family to the present day, the Ferrerses belonged to the 
English rather than to the foreign Catholic school. Evidently some 
fresh accomplice Avas necessary, whose character was free from 
suspicion and taint. This individual was found in Thomas Percy, 
a kinsman of the Earl of x^orthumberland, known in history 
as the " Wizard Earl." Percy had been a gallant in his youth, but 
was now a believer in the Jesuits, and had, moreover, married Jack 
Wright's sister. He felt himself slighted by the Court, and readily 
fell into the plot. 

The house was taken in his name, and as he was one of the 
band of gentlemen pensioners, he readily satisfied Henry Ferrers as 
to his motive for requiring a residence near the Court ; and on the 
24th of May, 1604,-^= the agreement was signed, whereby the old 

* The original agreement is in the State Paper Office. 


antiquary received <£20 for his lease, and the rent of £4 per quarter. 
Preparations were now made to comzuence the mine, but further lielp 
was wanted to take charge of the materials collected at Lambeth ; 
and this induced tlie conspirators to admit Kobert Kays, a reduced 
Catholic gentleman, into the plot. The mine was, after many fruit- 
less attempts, abandoned, when it was found possible to obtain the 
cellars under the Parliament House. Here the conspirators stored 
their powder, and departed into the country to raise men and money. 

A traveller from Warwick to Stratford-upon-Avon, after toiling 
up the hill of Coplow, is generally rewarded by the extensive land- 
scape which stretches across to the Edge Hills on the south, and to 
Ilmington on the west. He will have Charlecote, FuUbrook, and 
Hampton Lucy, pointed out to him, and his attention directed to 
the famous deer stealing exploits of Shakespeare. If he turns to 
the north for a moment, when he reaches the third milestone, he 
will see a bye-road leading to a lone farm-house pleasantly situated 
in the valley, amidst the undulating country of the red forest land 
of Arden. The house is a modern structure of two gables, but it 
stands on the site of an ancient moated grange or manor-house, 
known as Norbrook. The site of the moat can yet be traced. This 
was the large and strong mansion house of John Grant, an accom- 
plished bat a moody gentleman, who had been seduced by Essex's 
promise of religious toleration into joining in his ill-starred street 
expedition. In the old Queen's time the i^ersecuting spirit of the 
age had caused grief and lamentation within those moated walls ; 
and Grant had become of a settled melancholy disposition. He 
had married Tom Winter's sister, and in January, 1605, he accepted 
an invitation from Catesby, his old neighbour, to visit him at Oxford 
in company with John Winter, of Huddington, his brother-in-laAv. 
Catesby wanted money. He had already sold his patrimonial 
estates at Lap worth and Eushwood, to Sir Edward Greville, of 
Milcote, and more money was wanted to purchase the arms and 
equipment of the men necessary to seize the Princess Elizabeth, 
and to march on London when the great blow was struck. After 
some deliberation these two country squires gave in their adherence, 
and were sworn into the plot. The Lapworth serving-man, Thomas 
Bates, who had seen the mine at Vinegar house, and whose suspicions 
must have been aroused, was also admitted to a knowledge of the 
plot, and sworn to secrecy on the primer. He was the only one of 
the conspirators below the rank of a gentleman ; and even he had 
suft'ered from the religious persecutions during Elizabeth's reign. 

During the early part of the year it was found necessary to 
inform a larger circle of gentlemen of the existence of a plot than 
was at tirst contemplated. Power had been given to Percy and to 
Catesby to do tliis according to their discretion, with a view to 
obtain money and men. Thus Stephen Littleton, of Holbeech, and 


his younger brother Humphrey, were told that Catesby was raising 
a Catliolic regiment of horse for service in Flanders, with the 
Cardinal Archduke ; and the promise of a command in this regiment, 
induced Stephen Littleton to raise a troop of horse, and equip them 
for the service. Francis Treshara, of Rushton, IN'orthants, cousin of 
Catesby ; Sir Everard Digby, of Goatliurst, Bucks, and Ambrose 
EokeAvood, a great breeder of racehorses, of Coldham Hall, Suffolk, 
were induced to join Catesby through the " great love " they bore 
him. The first, promised £2,000 ; the second, £1,500 ; and the 
latter, horses, men, and money. Nothing, however, could be done 
until November; and after the disposition of the forces to be 
employed, the whole party, accompanied by the Jesuit fathers, went 
on a pilgrimage to St. Winifred's Well, in Flintshire. 

The position of the conspirators in Warwickshire was as follows : 
Grant's house at Norbrook was made the magazine and rendevous of 
the conspu'ators. The site of the powder room to the east of the 
present house is yet pointed out. Catesby, after the sale of his 
l^roperty at Bushwood, appears to have made his mother's house at 
Ashby St. Ledger's his home. Wright's family were removed from 
Yorkshire to Lapworth, a good mile from Bushwood. Sir Everard 
Digby took up his residence at Coughton Court, the seat of the 
Throckmortons, the uncle of Catesby, the representative of the 
family appears to have been a minor in 1605. Rokewood became 
a tenant of Clopton House, near Stratford-on-Avon, the seat of 
Lord Carew, who had married the heiress of the Cloptons. Cough- 
ton is now standing in nearly the same state as it was at the plot, 
and the Hall at Clopton is not much altered, though the house has 
been new fronted. On the eastern side of Warwickshire, at Shel- 
ford, John Littleton resided, and it was fondly hoped that he would 
join in the Grand Hunting Match on Dunsmore, to which Sir 
Everard Digby had invited all the Catholic gentry on November 
5th, 1605, the rendezvous being the Lion Inn, at Dunchurch, 
from whence, on hearing of the blow being struck, they were to 
march on Combe, and seize the Princess Elizabeth. There was 
much consultation, and much running to and fro amongst those 
interested in the plot, between the time of the pilgrimage, and the 
time fixed for the blow to be struck. In these movements, Father 
Garnet. Ann Vaux, and Mrs. Brooksby, the daughters of Lord Yaux 
of Harrowden, took a warm part. In the early days of November, 
the two ladies. Father Garnet, and Father Greenway, were at 

In the centre of the flourishing village of Dmichurch, on the 
southern side of the open space leading to the church, is a long 
low-gabled house with over-hanging floors. The mouldings and 
general construction point it out to be of the Tudor era ; though, 
from a date on the northern gable, it appears to have been repaired just 


prior to the Civil Wars. This was an old Packhorse Inn, called 
the Lion. Mr. Matthew Bloxam Avas fortunate enough to identify 
this house by means of some old maps as the rendevous of the 
Great Hunting Match, on Monday and Tuesday, the 4th and 5th 
of November, 1605; and thither, Sir Everard Digby, John Grant, 
and his brother Francis, with his retainers and friends, marched. 
It was known that Rokewood had placed relays of horses along the 
road to London, and, as the horses and the rider were the best, the 
news would not be long delayed Avhen the blow was struck. The 
general feeling of those not in the secret, was that of uncertainty. 
They knew that some movement was on foot, but what, they did 
not know. We have a glimpse of the means employed to muster 
the gentlemen supposed to be well-affected to the conspirators. The 
Bull Inn, at Coventry, the site of the present Barracks in Smithford- 
street, in which Henry Yll. was entertained the night after the 
Battle of Bosworth, and in which INIary, Queen of Scots, had been 
detained, was the scene of one of these gatherings. Humphrey 
Littleton, Robert Winter, Eichard York, Stephen Littleton, and a 
person named Gorven, were there hoping to meet John Littleton, 
from Shelf ord. John, Avhose hold of Shelford was not a secure 
one, did not come ; and Winter went over next morning to tell him 
that his brother had a quarrel, and wanted him at 1) unchurch. 
John replied churlishly, and would not go. Winter then rode to 
Dunchurch, where he arrived about six o'clock. The news was not 
long in reaching him and his friends on that chill JS^ovember eve, 
for he rode on Avith some of his companions to Ashby St. Ledger's, 
not farther, in a direct line, than five miles from Dunchurch. 

The leading conspirators hovered about London until the 
time Avas at hand for the " great bloAV." On the 25th of 
October, Catesby Avas at WhiteAvebbs, a house taken really by 
Father Garnet, in Enfield Chase. The house taken by Percy in 
Parliament-place, called Vinegar House, Avas inhabited by Father 
Robartes, a Jesuit ; Mrs. Gibbin's, the porter's AA'ife, being house- 
keeper. Tresham Avas in ClerkeuAvell. Guy FaAvkes Avas at his 
lodgings in Butcher Roav, near St. Clement's Danes. Tom Winter 
Avas at jMontagu Close. EokeAvood, Kay, and Kit Wright Avere 
lodging Avith a Mrs. More, at St. Giles' Fields, and Avith them, 
Percy Avas to stay AAdien he returned to town Avith the Duke of 
Northumberland's rents. Jack Wright was at the Horse Ferry, 

Lord Compton, the Lieutenant of Warwickshire, Avas in town. 
AU Avas quiet and apparently unsuspicious about the Court. The 
Lady Elizabeth Avas still at Condje. Why should the conspirators 
suspect anybody or anything Avrong 1 The famous letter Avas sent 
to Lord jNLonteagle, on Saturday, (October 2Gth, and if Cecil or any 
of the courtiers suspected any plot prior to this they have left no 


evidence whatever to sliow it. On Monday, the 26th, AVinter left 
Montagu House, in search of Father Oklcorne and Jack Wright. On 
Wednesday, the 28th, Guy Fawkes visited the vaults, and found 
everything as he had left it. Still there was a suspicion of Tresham ; 
and it was only on his solemn affirmation of innocence that the 
Northampton sqnire saved his life from Catesby's poignard, for he 
was suspected of having written the letter to Lord Monteagle. 
This Avas on Friday, and at one time it seemed as if the party was 
prepared for flight, but Percy returned to town, and laughed at 
the idea of the plot being discovered. Catesby spent Saturday 
buying arms. Sunday arrived, and yet the conspirators could see 
no outward sign that their secret was known. The Jesuits, Old- 
corne and Greenway, left on Monday for the country, with hopes of 
the successfid residt of the plot. Catesby and Jack Wright rode 
on quietly to Enfield Chase, where they were to sleep, and then 
trot quietly on to D unchurch in the morning, believing all was safe. 
Before midnight Fawkes was a prisoner, and the town alarmed. It 
was then that it was seen that flight was the only chance of 
saving their lives ; Fawkes might tell everything under the 
torture of the rack. In the early morning of Tuesday, the 5th, 
by various routes, the conspirators left London for the north. 
Eokewood was the last to leave. He started at eleven, and soon 
caught those who had started earlier. At Brick-hill he caught 
Catesby and Jack Wright, and beyond Fenny Stratford they met 
Percy and Kit Wright. Eokewood made the Avhole distance of 
eighty-one miles in less than seven hours. Percy and Kit Wright 
had to cast away their cloaks in that fearful race for life. They 
reached Ashby at six o'clock, just as Lady Catesby and her guests 
were sitting down to supper. 

A few hurried words told that all was lost. The old hall 
supplied them with arms, and they rode hurriedly to Dunchurch, so 
hurriedly that one or more of them lost their way. At Dunchurch 
they found a large company assembled, and to them they could give 
but little hope. Morgan was there, Pierson, and Dimock. There 
were Sir Robert Digby from Coleshill, and many other Catholic 
squires. It did not require any words to tell " all was lost," that 
the mysterious scheme had failed, and that every one must look for 
himself. Those who were not implicated in the plot, or otherwise 
compromised, began to depart to their several homes. One of the 
servant's of the Inn, George Prince, heard the words, "I doubt not 
we are all betraj^ed," spoken from one of the casemates of the inn, 
but what were the councils, and what the s^jeech that night at the 
old Lion Inn, we shall probably never know. A smith, Bennette 
Leeson, of Ashby, says, that on the evening of the 5th of Xovember, 
some one came to his forge, and asked the way to Dunchurch, 
ottering " to conteute him well if he would duecte him thither," 


whereupon he went and rode before him. Presently there followed 
him some twelve horseman, amongst whom was Mr. Eobert Catesby. 
He " conducted them to Uunchurcli, where they alighted at the sign 
of the Lion, at one Morrisen's house ; and he walked their horses 
about for a quarter of an hour, and had two shillings for bis pains. 
Bates, Catesby's man, came and entreated him to direct him the 
way to Eugby, which he did, and received twelve-pence. At 
Rugby they met nine more men at the Baylilf 's house, who were 
well-moimted, and returned with them to JDunchurch, where they 
saAV Catesby. They then, within a quarter of an hour of their 
coming, rode together Coventry way." 

They wanted money and men, arms, and horses, now. They 
had resolved upon appealing to the Catholics for help, to make a 
stand against the King's forces. If Warwickshire and Worcester- 
shire would not rise, the staunch Catholics of Wales would : and 
who could tell the issue of such a conflict. It was their only 
chance, though a desperate one, but then they were desperate men. 
On they rode across Bourton heath, crossing the Foss-way at 
Princethorpe, by- the old encampment at Wappenbury, beneath the 
sombre shadow of Weston, and thence to Warwick through 
Lillington, halting at last at Norbrook. There were horses at 
AVarwick ; horses at the Castle, belonging to the King ; horses at 
Mr. Beuock's, the great trainer ; and these were stolen in the night. 
But during that ride what thoughts must have passed through their 
excited brains. It was the time of the IS^ovember meteors. If 
these " fiery shapes " met their eye, would it not seem like heaven's 
judgment on their great premeditated crime. In the midst of their 
tribulation they did not forget the anxious hearts at Coughton Court, 
w'here Fathers Greenway and Garnet, with jNIrs. Brooksby and Ann 
Vaux, were waiting. Bates was despatched to them wdth a note, 
for no one else could be trusted who had a knowledge of the 
country lying between Alcester, Aston Cantlow, and Xorbrook. 
AVe have a vivid description of the consternation of the two priests 
on the receipt of the news. There is an expression recorded of 
extreme caution on the part of Father Greenway, who afterwards 
went with Bates to Eobert Winter's at Huddiugton, where he met 
Catesby, and then went on to HendUp Hall, Avhere Garnet afterw^ards 
was captured. At Huddiugton, Tom AVinter joined the party — 
Eokewood, Percy, and Morgan were exhorted to confess their sins, 
and make up their souls for death. Father Hart, a Jesuit, absolved 
them ; and the party then went northward, through Stourbridge to 
Holbeech, in Stati'ordshire ; where Stephen Littleton lived, and 
where the ruling spirit res(jlved to make a stand or die. Un their 
road thither they seized a store of arms at Hewel Grange. Here 
came to them the Nemesis which had pursued them, for in drying 
the powder before the kitchen hre, which had been wetted in 


crossing the river, a live coal fell into the platter. Catesby, Morgan, 
Grant, and liokewood, were blown from their seats, and their faces 
scorched by the powder. The end Avas at end. Sir Everard Digby, 
Bates, and Littleton, left during the night. Robert Winter followed, 
but Tom Winter resolved to stand by his fellows and defend his com- 
patriots to the last. At eleven o'clock in the day. Sir Iiichard Walshe, 
the Sheriff of Worcestershire, Avith the "posse comitatus," attacked 
the house. Tom Winter was shot through the right arm, Jack Wright 
and his brother Kit feU next, Eokewood w^as wounded, Percy and 
Catesby were slain. Eokewood and Winter, INlorgan and Grant, were 
taken prisoners. Kay, Stephen Littleton, Digby, Tresham, Bates, 
and Robert \\'inter, were also in custody ; the plot was at an end, and 
the plotters were in the hands of justice. 

In the meantime there was consternation in Warwickshire ; 
and the Avritten facts are somewhat in variance with those popularly 
received. Early on Wednesday morning, the 6th, whilst the con- 
spirators were on their w^ay to Huddington, j\Ir. Benock, the horse 
trainer, of Warwick, writes to Lord Harrington at Combe, stating 
that he fears some great rebellion is at hand, for his private horses 
had been taken away by John Grant, of Xorbrook, and asks what 
is to be done. Lord Harrington naturally thought of his charge 
the Princess Elizabeth, and enclosed the letter of Benock to Lord 
Salisbury, and asks what is to be done if a rebellion takes place. 
Later in the day he wa-ites to say that as the troubles were spreading, 
and being fearful of keeping the Princess in an unfortiiied house, he 
had sent her under the care of Sir Thomas Holcroft to Coventry, 
where the citizens were loyal, for greater preservation. We knoAV 
from the town books that the citizens accepted the charge, called 
out the civic guard, and lodged the Princess Avith Mr. Hopkin's in the 
Palace Yard, Avhich yet remains. Early on the morning of the 6th, 
WarAvick Avas in arms. Mr. Ralph ToAvnsend, the Bailiff, AA'as in 
readiness. The idea of cutting all the Catholics throats is mentioned, 
but it Avas knoAvn that old Sir Fulke Greville Avas rousing up the 
country side, and taking arms from houses where the owners Avere 
absent, and munitions of war from the other. Sentinels AA'ere placed at 
all the fords and bridges. Two Avaggon loads of trunks, and furniture 
for houses, Avere seized at Ratford. Mr. Combe, of WarAvick, Avas 
an active magistrate. Sir Richard Verney, the Sheriff, and Sir John 
Ferrers, of TaniAvorth, folloAved the conspirators. The Bailiff of 
Warwick lamented the absence of the Lieutenants of the Trained 
Bands in London, and mentions about fifty names as being Avith the 
party, whose total numbers did not reacli sixty. From the many 
documents preserved, yve knoAv that early in September Rokewood 
took possession of Clopton, after a long parley with Robert Willson 
in charge of the house. Grant and Winter vouching for RokeAvood's 
intimacy Avith Lord Carew. Catesby, Sir Edward Bushell, Mr. 


Boise, who married Mr. Grant's sister, Mr. Jolm Grant, and his two 
brothers, Mr. Wright, Mr. Winter, Mr. Thomas (a kinsman of 
Mr. Kokewood's), Mr. Kay, and his wife, Mr. Townsend, and Mrs. 
Morrison, a Lincolnshire gentleman's wife ; Morrison was rejDorted as 
having been staying at Grant's, were frequent visitors. On the 
Sunday after Michaelmas Day there was a great dinner, when many 
strangers attended, and the practising of the great horses is 
mentioned, and that Ilokewood " lived on his penny." A cloak 
bag containing " massing reliques " was captured by the Bailiff of 
Stratford. Mention is made of the capture of some of the con- 
spirators in Snitterheld bushes, and the country people yet point 
out the spot : John Wright appears to have lived at Elsham, in 
Lincolnshire, for one of " his wenches " was brought by a William 
Kyddall, who afterwards went to London with Christopher Wright, 
and left, armed, on Monday. He was arrested on Thursday, at 
Barford. The young ]\Ir. Grants — Walter, Ludovic, and Francis — 
denied all knowledge of the conspiracy. INIrs. Grant was arrested 
on the 13th, by Barth Hales, "a careful man in these uproars." She 
and her family appear to have been much respected, for the Sherifi[''s 
house was fired on the loth, to release them ; and the Sherifl' writes 
to Cecil to say that he will transmit his prisoners as soon as he could 
find fit men. The end was at hand. On the 23rd of November, 
Thos. Winter confessed. Grant confessed on the 17th Jan. The 
conspirators were hung ; and Garnet shortly followed them to the 
gallows. Then came the grasping for the plunder. Amongst the 
numerous papers preserved in the Record Office, amongst those 
found by the Historical MSS. Commissioners, and amongst the 
Burleigh papers in the British INIuseum, the letters asking for a 
share of the eflects of the conspirators, are the most sad of ail. 
The Sherifi' (the Varney of Sir Walter Scott's novel of Kenilworth), 
asked for reward ; but on July 11th, 1606, John Levingston and 
Mr. Hale received a grant of the goods and chattells of Sir Everard 
Digby, Grant, and Eokewood. On January 28th, 1607, Sir 
William Anstruther received a grant of the moiety of all goods 
belonging to Digby, Eokewood, Grant, Winter, Tresham, Catesby, 
Percy, and Garnet ; and in November, 1 60S, one Ellis Eothwell, 
presents a petition for certain rents to be granted to her out of the 
Gunpowder Treason. Thos. Lawley, the first man who entered 
Holbeech, desires to be remembered because he took Thos. Winter 
alive, and tried to revive Catesby, Percy, and the two Wrights. 
Out of this plot arose in some degree those agrarian distui-bances at 
Hillmorton a few years later. 

Of the wonderful story of the Princess Elizabeth it becomes me 
not here to relate, but I may point out that a subsequent owner of 
Comljc Abbey, William Lord Craven, became her gallant and 
steadfast friend in the troubles of her married life. She died under 



his roof, and her pictures and treasures are amongst the heir looms 
of the present Abbey. Her sons spilt the first, or nearly the first, 
blood in the Civil Wars, almost witliin sight of the early home of 
the unfortunate Queen of Bohemia, and not far from the scene of 
" The Bloody Hunt of Dunchurch." Through this unfortunate 
lady our most gracious Majesty traces her right to the throne of 
these realms ; and let us liope that free from plots, toils, and 
troubles, may she live long to reign over us. 

Covenirij and its Antiquities. A Paper read in Saint Mary's Hall, 
Coventry, at the Annual Summer INIeeting of the Leicestershire 
and ^Northamptonshire Architectural and Archaeological Societies, 
held in Coventry, July 22nd, 1873. — By W. G. Fretton, Esq. 

There are very few travellers on the London and IS'orth "Western 
Railway who have passed unnoticed this celebrated city of the 
" three tall spires," and there are not many of our ancient towns 
that will better repay a sojourn of a few hours than our well-known 
city of the midlands. Its foundation dates back far into the Saxon 
period, and there are some authorities who claim for it a still more 
remote origin. Its name of Coventry is supposed to be derived 
from convent, with the British afiix " tre," added thereto, indicating 
that it was a convent town, and such was the case, for the earliest 
associations of Coventry are mixed up with the fortunes of its nun- 
nery of St. Osburg, which, with the early Saxon town surrounding 
it, was destroyed by Edric the Traitor, in 1016. The ruinous 
condition to which it had been reduced does not appear to have 
continued for long, and Coventry owes its restoration to the 
benevolence of a lady, with whose name all the world is familiar — 
Godiva, who, with her husband Leofric, Earl of Mercia (a noble- 
man high in the favour of Edward the Confessor), founded a Bene- 
dictine Monastery here, and endowed it riclily, and further 
distinguished the house of their pious care by selecting it as the place 
of their burial. The popular legend has given this lady the credit 
of performing an act unique in the history of the middle, or, as 
some term them, the dark ages. Tennyson, in his inimitable way. 


has told the tale, the sulDstance of which is, that Leofric having laid 
sore burdens on the inhabitants in the way of taxes and arbitrary 
servitude, his amiable consort often and earnestly besought him to 
free them from the obnoxious imposts of wliich they complained. 
Not feeling the same sympathy for his oppressed people as his fair 
Countess, and wearied with her importunities, he is reported to have 
offered what he may have suj^posed to have been an impossible con- 
dition for his acceding to her Avishes — that if she Avoidd ride naked 
through the citj^, he would grant her desire. To his surprise she 
consented, and having pledged his word, there was nothing else for 
him to do but to make the best of it. Ordering, therefore, all the 
inhabitants to keep close Avithin doors on pain of death, he allowed 
his Avilful lady " to have her Avay." "Then she rode forth," attired 
in nonght save her own rich flowing tresses, and " took the tax 
away." Such is the spirit of the narrative handed down by 
MattheAv of Paris, and other Avriters ; to Avhich, in the time of 
Charles II,, another character is added, in the person of an inquisitive 
tailor, Avhose base ingratitude and Avorse manners are evidenced by 
his having had the meanness to bore a hole through his shntter to 
have a peep at the lady as she passed by ; his eyes dropping out of 
his Avicked head, Avas a very natural consequence of his indiscretion, 
and it is a matter for future historians to determine Avhether the 
name of Godiva or Peep>ing Tom Avill last longest. Unfortunately 
for the truth of the story, chroniclers living contemporaneously 
with Leofric and Godiva make no mention of this somcAvhat un- 
feminine exploit, and one of the earliest knoAvn Avriters Avho in any 
Avay alludes to it is MattheAv of Westminster, avIio flourished in the 
early part of the fourteenth century. He was a monk of the same 
order as the brethren for Avhose welfare Godiva had provided so 
handsomely, and this Avas probably his way of sounding her praises, 
in doing Avhich he clreAV largely on the credulity of future genera- 
tions as Avell as his OAvn. Dugdale retails the legend, but makes 
no mention of Peeping Tom, so Ave may safely infer that he OAves 
his existence to the period Avhen the processions in honour of 
Godiva originated, temp. Charles II., when it Avas thought desirable 
to add to the attractions of the pageant the representation of some 
*' base churl" capable of doing Avhat he should not have done. 

Let the story be Avhat it may, Godiva and her monastery Avere 
real facts, and long after its foundress had returned to her dust the 
Priory continued to flourish. In the tAvelfth century it Avas raised 
to the dignity of a cathedral, an exclusive honour it did not retain 
for many years, and until the Reformation its Prior held the position 
(if a mitred abbot, and sat in Parliament as a spiritual peer. At 
the dissolution tliis estaljlishment met the fate of most of the others, 
and noAV only a fcAV scattered fragments and foundations remain of 
the resting place of Lady Godiva and Earl Leofric. 


Close to the remains of this once noble edifice are two out of 
the " three tall spires " we see from the railway, and as it is to these 
fine landmarks that visitors first make their Avay, we will therefore 
describe them first. The church of St. Michael is the most impos- 
ing of the two ; indeed, there is no parochial edifice in the United 
Kingdom that can vie with it, either in the height of its spire or in 
its great length and lightness. It was founded in the time of 
Henry I., but no part of the original structure remains. The 
church as it now stands was mostly erected during the latter part 
of the fourteenth and beginning of the fifteenth centuries, and con- 
sists of chancel, nave, aisles, tower, and spire, and a number of 
subsidiary chapels, formerly separated from the body of the church 
by screens, but now thrown open to the church, thereby adding 
largely to its original area. The glory of St. Michael's is its match- 
less steeple rising directly from the ground at the west end, to a 
height of 303 feet, from a basement of only about 42 feet inclusive 
of the buttresses. The tower, 136 feet high, is of four stories, 
each of them highly enriched with window openings and sculj^tured 
canopies, the niches in the upper story being filled with statues of 
the saints. The buttresses terminate in richly-Avrought pinnacles, 
from which spring eight flying buttresses, supporting the angles of 
an octagonal lantern, rising from within the battlement to a height 
of over "30 feet, from the summit of which rises the spire, above 
130 feet more. The slender taper and delicate grace of the whole 
structure is in truth marvellous. Two brothers, named Botoner, 
have the credit of erecting the tower, which was completed in 1394, 
having occupied twenty-one years in building, and two sisters of the 
same family erected the spire some forty years later. When fresh 
from the hands of the builders it must have been beautiful in the 
extreme, but owing to the softness of the material with which it is 
built (the red sandstone of the district), the greater part of its 
ornamental details has disappeared, though enough remains to show 
how remarkably graceful its embellishments were. The best view 
of the body of the church is on the north side of the churchyard 
(now enclosed and planted Mdth trees). From this point the great 
length of the building may be well seen, its long row of nineteen 
clerestory windows overtopping the aisles, rich in Perpendicular 
tracery (to which style nearly the whole fabric belongs), and sur- 
mounted by an embattled parapet and pinnacles. The eastern 
extremity of the chancel terminates in a five-sided apse : this, like the 
steeple, has not yet been under the restorers' hands. The rest of the 
church has been cased with new stone within the last few years, and 
already shows signs of decay. Should the contemplated design of 
restoring the steeple ever be carried out, it is to he hoped that the 
authorities will secure the adoption of sounder material, even 
though they may have to go further for it, ere they repeat the 


mistake of reproducing the surface with such a perishable substance 
as the local sandstone. The interior of the b\iilding is peculiarly- 
light and striking; its entire length about 240 feet ; its greatest 
breadth about 120 feet ; the height of the nave being 50 feet. The 
long ranges of slender columns, supporting the arches beneath the 
clerestory, the great number of large Avindows — many of which are 
filled Avith modern stained glass, and some others with fragments of 
ancient character — the fine timber roof, the absence of a chancel- 
arch, and an unobstructed view over the whole interior, form a 
picture not easily obliterated from the memory. Within my 
recollection this fine interior was marred by galleries of all sorts 
and sizes, while the floor was occupied by pews of miAvieldly form 
and bad taste. All have been swept away, and open sittings of oak 
(the ends of Avhich are richly carved) now occupy their place, and 
the appearance of this fine building on a Sunday evening justifies 
the change ; when filled with a large congregation and illuminated 
with gas from betAveen 400 and 500 jets, the spectacle is most im- 
pressive. Without in the least deprecating the less imposing 
aspect of more humble temples dedicated to the Avorship of God, it 
is impossible to disregard the influence of such a place at such a 
time on the feelings of those Avho assemble Avithin its walls. The 
communion enclosure has, Avithin the last feAv years, been embellished 
by a fine reredos, carved in Avhite stone, the five eastern com- 
partments of Avhich are adorned Avith groups of sculpture. The 
pulpit is ncAV, of metal Avork, not quite so consistent in design as it 
might have been, but worthy of notice as a memorial of an only 
son of a wealthy parishioner. The eagle lectern is also a memorial ; 
so is the font, recently erected. The organ is a fine toned instru- 
ment, and stands at the Avest end, in a most incongruous case. In 
the toAver is a fine peal of ten musical bells, Avhose harmonious 
chimes play every three hours some lively melody or solemn hymn, 
suitable to the day. There are but fcAv monumental inscriptions of 
any importance ; perhaps the tAvo most notcAvorthy are on brass, one 
of them to the memory of a Mr Thomas Bond, a draper, Avho, as 
the plate tells us, Avas " sometime major of this cittie and founder 
of the hospitall of Bablake, Avho gave divers lands and tenements 
for the maintenance of ten poore men so long as the Avorld shall 
endure, and a Avoman to look to them, Avith many other good guifts, 
and dyed the xviii. day of March, in the year of our Lord God 
MDVI." The foundation of the charitable donor has flourished, 
and now supports above four times the number. The other brass 
alluded to bears a (quaint inscription to a Captain Gervase Scrope, 
who describes himself as an " old tossed tennis ball," who had 
served four kings in camps, but " from the CroAvn ne'er requited." 
He is stated to have Avritten his OAvn epitaph " in the agony and 
dolorous pains of the gout, and dyed soon after." This happened 


in 1705, at the age of 66, so we may di'aw an inference as to the 
dynasty which was indebted to him. 

Close by St. Michael's is the church of the Holy Trinity, and 
its loss by comparison is thus quaintly alluded to by Fuller : — 
" How clearly they would have shined if set at a competent 
distance ! Whereas, as now, such is there vicinity, that the Arch- 
angel eclipseth the Trinity." Viewed on its own merits the lesser 
church is both a fine and interesting building. In plan it is 
cruciform, unlike St. Michael's ; its greatest internal length a little 
over 180 feet, its greatest breadth about 105. The Perpendicular 
style prevails, though evidence exist of a church standing here about 
the middle of the thirteenth century, and then appropriated to the 
adjacent Priory. Restoration has been effected here also, the 
galleries removed which once disfigured it, and open oak sittings 
substituted for the old pews. The tower rises from the intersection 
of the nave, chancel, and transepts ; the interior is thrown open to 
the church and forms a lantern, the spire rising to a height of 232 
feet in the whole. The roofs throughout the church are highly 
decorated in gold and colour ; the font, which is coeval -with the 
church, is similarly illuminated. There is a fine old stone pulpit 
here, attached to the south-east pier of the tower ; and the eagle is 
a good specimen of mediaeval brass casting. A new organ was 
placed in the church a few years since, but from its very unsuitable 
position and arrangement it lias been found desirable to rebuild and 
improve it; this alteration has just been completed, and the result 
has been the production of a first-class instrument. Previous to 
the Reformation there was in this, as in the larger church, a number 
of chapels and altars ; in reference to the services held in them are 
many curious records preserved in the archives of the city and in 
the church books. There is a peal of eight bells ; these are now hung 
in a temporary wooden campanile, erected on the site of the Cathedral 
nave. On the south side of the church, and adjoining to the south 
transept, was formerly a building called Jesus Hall. On its removal 
the city jail was erected on its site ; this building, long disused, has 
lately been superseded by the new Free Library, erected by one of 
our wealthy citizens, and which, when completed, AviU be presented 
to the city — a noble gift, and forming a strong contrast to its 

On the south side of St. Michael's Church is situated St. Mary's 
Hall, a fine old edifice erected in the latter part of the fourteenth 
century, by the united fraternities afterwards known as the Trinity 
Guild. It now belongs to the Corporation, and is used by them for 
municipal purposes. The buildings are arranged round a court, the 
western side of which is occupied by the great hall, underneath 
which is a crypt extending its \vhole length. On the south side of 
the court are the kitchens, tower, &c., of earlier date than the hall ; 


on the east side is a corridor forming an approach to the great hall, 
new police courts, and other Corporate buildings ; and on the north 
the entrance gateway, adjoining which is a room formerly used as a 
place of meeting by the JMercers' Guild. Over the porch is a room 
communicating with the great hall, and known as the Mayoress's 
Parlour. This has been recently fitted up for the meetings of the 
Corporation, and its most remarkable piece of furniture is a fine old 
carved oak chair of state, originally a double one, used, it is 
supposed, by the Mayor and Master of the Guild on special and public 
occasions. A few regal and local portraits decorate the walls. The great 
hall adjoining is a noble and well-proportioned room, 76^ feet long, 
30 feet broad, and 34 feet high; its oaken roof richly carved, and light 
admitted through a series of stained glass windows of Perpendicular 
tracery on both sides and one end of the hall. Underneath the 
great north ^vindow is a celebrated piece of tapestry or arras, 10 feet 
high, and extending across the entu-e "width of the room ; there are 
six compartments in the work, which is partly historical and partly 
representative of religious characters. It is of the time of Henry VI. 
and his Queen, Margaret, both of whom are here depicted. They 
Avere great benefactors to Coventry. 

It rec_[uires but a little stretch of the imagination to re-people 
this grand old room Avith its mediaeval occupants, where successive 
generations of the brethren of Trinity Guild discussed matters con- 
nected with their interest, or feasted on their days of high rejoicing. 
Here were entertained kings and princes (for the guild numbered 
among its members royal and noble personages), and here, during 
her brief sojourn in Coventry, it is probable that the unfortunate 
Mary Queen of Scots spent some solitary hours. Later on, its walls 
reverberated Avith the sounds of revelry at the old Corporation 
banquets, and at present it is chiefly used for the holding of such 
meetings as are approved of by the Mayor for the time being, and 
tending to promote the intellectual and social Avelfare and enjoy- 
ment of the citizens. 

In the treasury at the loAver end of the hall is preserved an 
extensiA^e collection of ancient manuscripts, rich in curious cali- 
graphy, armorial seals, and merchants' marks. Some old armour 
hangs on the front of the minstrel gallery, and Ave could say much 
more of the attractions of St. Mary's if time permitted. 

Coventry Avas one of our Availed cities, and fragments of the 
massive fortifications still remain in places, testifying how Avell our 
forefathers had learned the art of substantial building. These 
Avails Avere formerly about three miles in circuit, and averaged nine 
feet in thickness. Their course Avas very irregular, unlike the 
rectangular plan observed by the Eomans. Twelve gates and 
thirty-two toAVers added to the defences, rendering the place one of 
considerable strength and security, at a period in Avhich civil strife 


was common. These ramparts were raised by virtue of a licence 
given to the citizens in the reign of Edward III., and occupied forty 
years in building. After existing for three hundred years, they 
were dismantled by order of Charles II. as a penalty upon the 
inhabitants for closing their gates against his father when he claimed 
admission to the city in 1642, just before the battle of Edge Hills. 
The most important of the isolated fragments which remain are two 
of the inferior gates on the north side of the city, and a piece of 
the wall on the south side with numerous arrow marks, near the park, 
and close by the spot where a number of martyrs in the Marian and 
previous persecutions were burnt at the stake. 

The Free Grammar School is held in the church of the dissolved 
Hospital of St. John, the buildings and revenues of which institu- 
tion were granted by Henry YIII. to John Hales, who founded a 
school here in the time of Queen Elizabeth, having previously 
commenced it at the White Friars. His intentions appear to have 
been misunderstood hj the citizens, who, claiming as a right that 
which the generous founder contemplated as a privilege conferred, 
gave him such offence that he appears to have relinquished part of 
his design, which was to have estabhshed a similar College to that 
of Eton or Westminster. The school has, however, done some good 
service in its time, and numbers on the list of its scholars some 
eminent names — George, 1 3th Lord Berkeley, Dean Ralph Eathurst, 
Sir William Dugdale (the celebrated antiquary), and many others. 
Only a portion of the church remains, which is still used as the 
school, and has been a fine building. It is in contemplation to 
erect new schools and masters' houses on a better site, but it is 
devoutly to be wished that in .such a case the old buildings will be 
spared as a tribute to the memory of John Hales, and from the 
recollections of the scholars educated here. 

A narrow street, rich in timber houses, brings us within sight of 
another time-honoured shrine of old English hospitality, the found- 
ation of Eablake, endowed by Thomas Bond, to whom allusion was 
made in the account of St. Michael's Church. This almshouse 
forms one side of a court and comprises a number of small rooms 
occupied by the old 2nen who are recipients of the charity. A 
common hall, board-room, and other offices are comprised in the 
building. Only bachelors or widowers reside in the rooms ; other 
pensioners receive their weekly dole of six shillings as out-pensioners; 
altogether 4-5 are thus provided for in their old age. The building 
is a fine specimen of timber frame work judiciously restored and 
presei-ved. The east and west sides of the quadrangle are occupied 
by the buildings appropriated as an hospital and school for poor 
boys, 70 in number, one half of whom in turn reside on the 
premises. The hospital, or boarding house of the boys and 
residence of their matron, is of timber ; the school and master's 


house on the western side is of modern erection, but harmonizes 
Avell with the rest of the buiklings. The south side of the square 
is occupied by the Church of St. John, partially restored, formerly 
collegiate, and founded by tlie brethren of St. John's Guild on a 
piece of land given by Isabella, the notorious wife of Edward II. ; 
in the grant dated at " Eisyings " she stipulates that in the services 
to be therein held, masses shall be sung daily for the soul of her 
"dear Lord Edward, late King of England," among other persons of 
her family, thereby hoping no doubt to justify herself with the 
world and satisfy her own conscience for the share she had had in 
causing him the bitter miseries which terminated at Berkeley. The 
church is mainly in the Perpendicular style, cruciform in plan, and 
has a square tower at the intersection. 

Returning to the centre of the city, the figure of Peeping Tom 
presents itself, looking out of the window of a house at the corner 
of Hertford-street. It is of oak, and represents a man in armour, in 
itself sufficient to cast a doubt on the fidelity of the tradition. At 
the lower end of the open space near here, known as Broadgate, 
stood the famous Coventry Cross, of which not a stone remains on 
the site. In Grey Friars'-lane stands another fine old timber alms- 
house, founded by a William Ford in 1529 for old Avomen. This 
beautiful specimen of Avoodwork is considered one of the richest of 
its kind in the kingdom, and John Carter, the antiquary, quaintly 
says, it deserves to be kept in a glass case. Thirty-seven receive 
the benefits of the charity, a limited number of whom live in rooms 
at the Hospital. Close by is Christ Church, the spire of which is 
all that remains of the Grey Friars' Monastery ; to this, after standing 
for centuries alone, the new church was attached in 1832. This is 
one of the " three tall spires " Tennyson saw from the railway bridge, 
from which it is not far distant. 

In close vicinity to this spu'e is all that remains of the manor- 
house of Cheylesmore, Avhich superseded the castle of the Earl of 
Chester, which was subsequently the occasional residence of Edward 
the Black Prince. Only a few traces are left, and these are incor- 
porated in modern residences ; an old archway, said to be the 
entrance to the tilt-yard, is the most noticeable portion. The park 
extended south-eastwards from the manor-house. One of the finest 
of the ancient gates of the city. Grey Friars', stood a little west- 
ward, and formed the southern entrance to Coventry. Very near to 
this gate was that terror to scolds, the ducking-pond. 

At the south-east corner of the city, just within the walls and 
near New-gate, stood the house of the Carmelites, or White Friars, 
founded by Sir John Poultney, about the year 1342, on land 
granted for that purpose by William de Engleton. A considerable 
portion of the buildings of this monastery yet remain, incorporated 
with the present House of Industry, consisting chiefly of the east 

VOL. XII,, PT. I. R 


wiiig of tlie cloisters, over which is the ancient dormitory ; in the 
centre of this range is the entrance to the Chapter-hoxise, and on 
each side of this a long vanlted room ; on the opposite side is the 
gateway leading into the cloisters, and portions of the north and 
south wings also remain. The church stood on the north side, and 
was detached from the main building ; traces of its foundations are 
still to be met with in the garden. It was in this church that John 
Hales first commenced his school, from Avhence he removed it to the 
present building, in consequence of litigation with the Mayor and 
Corporation, who owned the ground on which the church stood. 
The outer gate of the precincts still stands in Much Park-street. 

A little distance to the south-east of the White Friars, stood the 
house of the Carthusians, known as the Charter House, founded in 
1381 by William Lord Zouch. The principal remains consist of a 
portion of the outer Avail, the bridge, and some fragments worked 
up in the present dwelling. Like all the other religious houses in 
Coventry, except the Grey Friars', this little monastery of St. Ann 
is situated on the banks of the Sherbourne. 

Besides the monastic buildings and churches, Coventry possessed 
some few chapels. Only a portion of one of them remams, that of 
St. James, formerly attached to the Lepers' Hospital, near Spon- 
bridge, founded by Keveliok, Earl of Chester. The others were St. 
Nicholas, on the north side of the city ; St. Mary Magdalene, from 
which the name of Chapel Fields is derived ; St, George's on 
Gosford-bridge ; and St. Margaret's, on Gosford-green • attached to 
the latter was also a hermitage. Others existed in the immediate 
vicinity of the city, of some of which not even the sites are 

It may be readily understood that from its position, importance, 
and strength, in the middle ages, Coventry had its share in the 
struggles that took place in the unsettled periods of our national 
history. Its castle underwent a siege in the wars of Stephen. 
Coventry was selected as the scene of the intended combat between 
the Dukes of Hereford and j^orfolk in 1397, which Richard, most 
unwisely for himself, brought to such an abrupt termination. The 
citizens took an active part in behalf of Henry VI. during the 
Wars of the Roses. Two parliaments were held within the walls 
of the Benedictine Priory, the first in 1404, known as ParUavientum 
Indoctorum — the unlearned, or laymen's parliament — from its 
inveteracy towards the clergy ; and the second in 1459, known as 
Parliamentmn DlaboUcum, from the nmnber of attainders passed 
thereat against the Duke of York and his adherents. In the wars 
of the 17th century the citizens arrayed themselves on the side of 
the Commonwealth, and it was here that the first note of battle was 
sounded, at the abortive siege of Coventry, two months previous to 
the battle of Edge Hill. Within its walls many of our monarchs 


have been welcome gaests, two have been refused an entrance, and 
one poor queen of a sister country, a prisoner in her exile. The 
plag'ue and pestilence have frequently decimated its population, but 
from fire we have been remarkably free. 

One great feature of Coventry in the middle ages was the Avealth 
and influence of its numerous guilds, both religious and secular. 
To the former, in conjunction with the religious orders, we owe 
much of the celebrity of Coventry for its mysteries, or sacred plays. 
These dramatic mysteries were acted upon movable stages drawn 
through the principal streets and open places, the subjects represented 
being selected from the events narrated in the Scriptures. 
The festival of Corpus Christi was the popular day for these 
exhibitions here. Besides these, there was the play of Hock Tues- 
day, founded on the massacre of the Danes, together with pageants 
introduced on special occasions, such as on the visits of royal 
personages, &c. ; in all these spectacles the merchant guilds bore a 
portion of the expense, and no doubt derived some corresponding 

It will be seen from this slight sketch that Coventry possesses 
features peculiarly interesting to the antiquary, the artist, the 
architect, and the historical student ; its attractions in a commercial 
point of view are not by any means insignificant, its tasteful ribbon 
manufactures, as shoAvn by the beautiful book marks and other 
samples of textile industry made here ; its watchmaking, art metal 
works, &c., all indicate the occupations of a popidation possessed of 
much taste and mechanical skill. The richness of its charitable 
institutions tells a favourable story of the large-heartedness of its 
past inhabitants, and its historical associations are rich in their con- 
nexion with the busy scenes of byegone days. 

The vicinity of the city is very beautiful, and the cemetery is 
not to be surpassed by any in England for situation, natural appro- 
priateness, and the care bestowed upon it. 

One great want remains to be supplied, and one that such meet- 
ings as these may encourage the making of an effort to meet, — an 
Archaeological Society and Museum. With a city so rich in anti- 
quarian treasure and historical association, the entire absence of 
any organization for the systematic preservation of what we have 
left to us, and for the promotion of a study of our local antiquities, 
is a reproach which I trust may yet be removed from us, and that 
some step may be taken at an early opportunity to form the nucleus 
of a city museum. Had this been done years ago, we should have 
been in possession of an accumulation of interesting objects con- 
nected with our local history, now for ever lost to us ; and we are 
daily losing the opportunity of acquiring others. 

As in other matters, " it is nevi-r too late to mend," and if wo 
begin with ever so little, by all means let us begin. 



I trust that in thus endeavouring to lay before you some few of 
the leading features of this old Mercian city, I shall not have 
altogether failed in the attem^^t to register its claims on your regard 
and interest, and I hope that before our ramble to-day is brought to 
a close you may be induced to agree with me, that there are many 
things in this world far worse than being " sent to Coventry," 


Inventories of Framland Deanery, Co. Leicester. — By Mackenzie 
E. C. Walcott, B.D., F.S.A., Prsecentor and Prebendary of 
Chichester ; and communicated to the Leicestershire Architec- 
tural and Archaeological Society. 

The following Inventories transcribed from the Uncalenderecl MSS. 
of the Public Recunl Office, form an almost complete Return for the 
Deanery of Framland ; I have in one or two cases explained a 
difficulty or mis-spelt word, but I have made no attempt to give a 
glossary of terms, as they are sufficiently explained in my Dictionary 
of Sacred Archceology. 

Eyton. — 
oon challys of sylver. 
ij crosses of brasse. 

oon vestyment of grene satyn off byrgys w*. the albe. 
ij vestyments of grene brawdered over with raw grene sylke with 
ij albes. 
oon coupe of dimdamoske. 


Chapell of ffrebye a member to y** churche of Melton 6 Edw. 
VI. July 29. — i chaleys of sylver ij crossys of wod and tynne iiij 
vestyments j of blewe russells and j of grene sylke & j of say 
iij bells in the stepell ij candelstycks uppon ye alter j Cope of redde 


Wyverbe July 29. 6 Edw. VI our " sufferjnge lorde." — 
a challes & a patyn of syllver. ij bells a cope of whyte fustyn 
ij candylstykys of lede p. 


Oleby [Welby ^] G Edw VI. July 29.— 
ii bells a vestment of cremysyn saten w*. y^ awbe a vestment of 
blew lynyn clothe w*. the awbe. A cope of white fustian iij alter 
clothez ij toweles a crosse coveryd laten plato a crewet of pewter 
ij candelstyks of laten a sacrying bell. 


[Waltham on the Wolds.] 

Waltaam July 28 6 Edw. VI.— 
iiij belles and a lytell bell j cope of purpell velvett with a vestyment 
j chalice of sylver j satten vestyment j crosse of copper & gylt with 
a shafte & cloth to the same j sylke cope & ij vestymentts of sylke 
very olde j carpet of sylke that lyeth upon y^ Communion Tabell 
the wich was made of an olde silke cope, vj aulter clothez 
ii Corperassez i holy water stock of brasse. 


Abkayntnlby July 29 6 EdAv. VI. — 
j chalys of sylver j crosse of copper j coop of sattyn ij vestments 
j of red vellvytt y® other of blew stamill iij bells & a sanctus bell 
& ij handbells. In y^ chapell of Hollwell j chalys of sylver 
ij bells & j vestement. 


Saxby July 19. 6 Edw. VI.— 
i cou^^e off red damaske j vestment of red velvet j of dornyx iij 
beles & a Sanctus bell j crosse of couper j chalysse of sylver. 

[Cold Overton.] 

CoLDOVERTON July 29 6 Edw. VI. — 
j challys of syllver iij beles & a saints beU & j handbell, j cope of 
yallowe sarsnet j course cope of grene sarsnet j vestn)ent of grene 
satyn ij vestements of whyte chamlet j crosse of copper ij candyll- 
styks which dyde stande on the hyghe alter. 

[Long Clawson.] 

Claxton July 29. 3. [tharde] Edw. VI.— 
j chalis parcell gylte of sylwer iiij bells a saunce bell & ij handbells 
j crosse of tynne parcell gylte j cooppe of blewe welwytt & j of 
wytt sylke j rede sylke westement & j of gren'i sylke & ij of clothe 
j of wytt j of grene. iij alter clothes ij of sjdke & j of clothe iij 
banners of clothe i surplys & a rachyett j coppe of seytne [satin 1] 
ii candylstyks of brasse uppon y*^ alter ij tennakells fer the daykyn 
& subdayken j vestyment of crymyson vellyt ij sylke baner clothes 
j coope of lynyen clothe. 

[Burton Lazars.] 

Burton Lazars. July 29. 6 Edw. VI. Hewe Lancton Curett. — 
j chalecs of syllver & gylte j coupe of crymsing welvet j vestment 
of the same j albe perteyning to the same ij candylstykeis of 
lattyn j crosse of latyn ij handbelles & in the steple ij belles & a 
sanctes bell j surples & ij table (" auter " erased) clothes. 


[Little Dalby.] 

Lytle Dalbv. — i chalyce of sylver iij belles j sanctus bell, 
ij bandebelles ij vestemeutes of olde sattyn of byrges & a cope of 
tbe same j crosse of copper ij smalle caudylstycks one y*^ alter. 

Jo. Sanderson Vicar. 


CosTON Ken. Kiichyner Curat. — j challes of sylver iij bells of a 
Corde j cope ij vestmentes. 


SoMERBE. — iii bells w^^ a Sanctus bell j chales off syllver j veste- 
ment of red vellvet & j coope of tbe same j vestement of sylke & a 
cospe of the same j vestment of sylke & a couarsse cope off sylke to 
the same ij smalle candelstiks ij smalle hande bells j crosse of coper. 


Edmekthorpe July 29 6 Edw VI. — 
1 chalys of sylver a vestment of whyte chamlett a vestment of 
blacke chamlatt vr*. a coope and ij tunacles a cope of grene damaske 
& a vestment of the same iij belles. 


Gaudbe. — 
j chalyc of sylver w*. paten j vestment & a albe & a surples iij bells 
a cope & a alter cloth. 


Buckmynster July 29 6 Edw VI. — 
ij chalyces i of sylver parcell gylt j off tynne ii copes j ott' redd sylke 
an other of tawny sylke iij vestments j of whyte satyn an other of 
flowered sylke an other off bourdy crowel iij bells. 


Knypton July 22. Will. Branthwaite curet. — 
i challesse of sylver iij belles & a Sanctus bell & ij Sacryng bells 
j pyxe of brasse i^ j crysmateres of brasse j cerporax a case of rej^de 
say i vestment of grene sylke w*. a reyde and alble belongyug unto 
it j vestment of *diable color w*. the alble belonging unto it j cope 
of blew stammell ij towells j surplesse & ij rotchetts j crosse of 
brasse ii candylstycks of brasse belonging to the hye altare. 

Reddmj:ll. — 
ij bell j sanctus bell j challes of sylver j cross copper iij seuitts of 
vestments ij copys of olde sylke iij aulter clothes ij banner clothes 
j stremer ij candyllstycks of lattyn ij handbells. 

• The only jiarallel I know to tins is a material mentioned by Leland as musterd dyvells, 
a corrnption of a stuff made at Moustrier-Villiers. It may mean " changeable." 



Stathekne. — j sanctus Vjell j littyll bell j crosse of brasse plate 
j clialys of sylver parcell gilt J vestment of redd damaske j of grerie 
sylke j cope of gren velvet J of blakke worsted iij bells. ^ 

liALLFFE Aynesworthe parsoii. 


Estwell. — ^j small bell j Sanctus bell j crose of brasse plate 
j cballes of sylver parcell gylt j redd vestyment of sattyn of burges 
j westyment of tawney sarcenet j cope of green sylke ij handbells 
ij small candellstycks. 


Barston on the Wayll. Jas Wylson Curat July 28. 1552. — 
j chalyce of sylver j croce of lattyne ij old copes ij corporaxis 
ij westements and albes ij small candylsticks w^. stod on the alter 
ij cofers iij great bells j sanctus bell and ij handbells. 


Harbie July 29. 6 Edw. VI.— 
iij bells a Saynis bell yn y^ stepull ij litle sacryng bells & ij hand 
bells j chalice of silver & gilt a pixe of latyn with a canope and ij 
candelstycks upon y® hye alter j coope of grene silke embrothered & 
ij tynnacles ij copes of black wosted and a nother of say embrothered 
j vestement of blacke woosted w*. an albe & thappurtenaunces 
j vestement of grene silke w*. y^ albe & thappurtenaunces j veste- 
ment of whyte satyn of brygges w*. albe & thappurtenance j of grene 
satyn w^ thappurtenaunces j vestement of blacke satyn embrothered 
w*. a albe & thappurtenaunces j vestement of whyte satyn fustyan 
w*. a albe & th appurtenaunce iiij alter clothes a censur of latyn 
ij cruettes of jjeuter a cresmateri of latyn ij towells a surples & a 
rochet. Wm. Legh parson. 


MusTON Marche 29. 6 Edw VI. Tho. Willson rector.- — 
j chalis of sylver with y^ pattent parcell gylt j crosse of coper i pare 
of sensors of lattyng j cope of grene brwdkyn j cope of rede sattyng 
of bruges ij crosse clothes of sarsnet y*^ j grene y° other blew j veste- 
ment of grene bawdkyn av* y*^ awbe j vestment of whyte sattyn w* 
y^ awbe j vestment of blake warstede w* y® awbe ij corporase clothes 
w* y*^ casys iiij bells of one ryng w* a lyttell bell & ij handbells. 

[Melton Mowbray.] 

Melton Mowbrey July 29. 6 Edw. VI. — 
In the quyer over the south syde a payre of organs, ij letters 
[lecterns] to ley on bokes j vestment of whyte bustyan w* garters 


apon hytt. j vestaient of blake wosted j olde herse clothe of blewe 
sylke j vestment of (sic) w^. decon & subdecon of blewe sylke 
checerd [cJieq/ierei^ j cope w*. a vestment w*^ albes & amyses decon 
& subdecon whyt sylke j Vele of lynnyn cloth j vestment of whyt 
damaske w* decon and subdecon albes & amyses j vestment of red 
velvett w*. an albe decon and subdecon & a cope j an olde cope of 
blewe sylke j alter clothe of redd & grene j olde vestment of whyt 
damaske j canopy clothe of blewe sarcenett ij corporas cases j crys- 
mytory ot sylver vi alter clothes of whyte lynnyn j olde vestment of 
cheke {chequcij) sylke v great bells in the stepyll w* y*^ sance bell 
ij other vestments it albes j chalyce of sylver j payer of sencers & a 
sliyp & a crosse of coper j other vestment w* the albe albe & amyse. 


Sproxton July 29. 6 Edw. VI.— 
iii bells in y'^ stepyU j vestment of purpyll velvet a cope of y^ same 
j cope of blew sylke j vestment of redde wostede j chalyce of sylver 
j surplyce & a rochet. 


HoosE July 29 6 Edw. VI.— 
i Pyxt of latine a canopye & ij candyllstycks of lattine j chalyce of 
syllver iij bells j sanctus bell & a sacringe bell j cope of black 
velvytt Sz other of redde sattane j ollde grene cope of sylke j vest- 
ment of redde sattyne & ij tunacles of the same w^^. albs ij ollde 
vestments & a albe j grene vestment & j albe a surplesse & a rachett 
j blewe vestment & j albe j whyte vestment of sylke j reade vest- 
ment of sattayne withe albe j crosse of copper gylldyd j crismatorye 
of latyne ij crewytts of pewtere iiij allter close of lynyn & j towyll 
j basyn of lattyne iiij bannere cloithes. 


WYTHC0KE-i= July 29 6 Edw. VI. — 
i bell w*^ out a claper j chalys j vestment of bustyan w* the albe & 
the amys belongyng to the same j vestment of sey ij aulter clothes. 


Plungar Jidy 29 6 Edw VI.— 
i chales of sylver ij bells & i lyttyll bell ij Candylstyks y* was of 
y° auter ij vestements with the albes ij cloithes of lynnyn. 


Stonsby Elys Amyson Vicar. — 
j challes of sylver j cope of read damaske ij vestments j of satten & 
an other of dornyx. iij bells of a corde. 

* Withcote is in the Deanery of Goscote. 
VOL. XII., PT. I. S 


Wymondham July 29 6 Edw. VI. — i clialise of silver gilted 
iij grertt beylles j reide vestement vf^^ a crose of black velyit uppon 
hitt w*'^ awbe & amysse to hitt j white vestement of damaske awbe 
& amyse j coipe of white damaske a green coippe iij alter cloithez 
of lynnyn. 

[Thorpe Arnold.] 

Thorpe Arnold. — 
j challes of sjdver & gylte a crosse of copper & gylte j coope of blue 
velvytte an olde on lyke darnyckss grene a vestment of velvytt j of 
satten of brygges whitte iii bells & a Saunce bell. 


ScALFORTH July 29 Jo. Onley Vicar. — 
i chalice of silver ij copes j of tawny velvet & j off sarsenet j crosse 
of latynne a vestement of reed sarsnet w*. y*^ tynnacles for dekyn 
and subdecon for y*^ same ij vestements off redd sylke w^^ albes 
amice stoles & fannes j vestement off blue sylke j vestement off red 
sey & j off whyt fustion iij bells w*'^. a sanctes bell i hand belle 
iiij alter clothes w*^ ij toweUes. 


Garthorpe Eich. Clarke Vycar. — 
j chalys of sylver iij bells ij vestements w* ther halbys & amysys 
j cope of gren sylke Ij'ing of y® Communion Table ij alter clothes 
& ij towylls. 


Stapleford July 29. 6 Edw. VI. — 
i challys of sylver. ii copys of blewe damaske and ij tenacles. 
j vestement of grene sylke ij candylstycks grete before the altar 
[I.e., standards] i payre of censers of laytyn j lampe of laytyne. 

[Croxton Kernal.] 

Croxton Kyryall 3 Edw. VI. — (but certen boks w^. wher 
comaunded to avoyd by our ordynary as a greyle [grail'\ and other 
boks.) Ry chard Ward Prest. j chalices of sylver ungilt iiij vest- 
ments with all y® hole sute belongyng yerto, j vestment of blake 
velvet j of redde sake y^ other of grene say i coope of blew sylke 
ij awlter clothes of IjTinen & tj hangyngs for y^ same of saye 
i peyre of sensours of latyn ij corporaxes and a creuyt j crysmatory 
and ij lyttyll candy Istykes of brase iiij toweles, ij cofers i crose of 
copper iiij beUs of a ryng a sauntys bell 



Syssonby 29 July 6 Edw. VI. — i cliales of sylver ij bells 
j vestment of blew saten of bryges w* an albe j alter clothe j toweU. 

Thom. Tayler prest. 

Brantyngbe July 29 6 Edw YI. — 

a vestment & nabe [albe] j candylscyke of brase ij bells 

Leonarde Cokson Curatt. 

j challes of sylver ij of vestments j of crymysyme sylke & thother 
of whyt sylke vnth. thur albes j cope of rede damaske j serples 
ij alter clothes a towell iij bells & sainctus bell & ij handbells. 

[KiRBY Belers.] 

Kyrbe Belbr 29 July 6 Edw. VI. Jo. WyllyfFord curat. — 
i chales sylver & j parcel! gylte ij copes of rede sylke ij Vestementes 
of grene sylke & j of yalow sylke j crosse of coper w^ y® staffe 
j crosse clothe of rede sylke ij candellstycks of brasse iijj bells 
ij handbells iiii alter clothes & j serples. 


S.VLTBY Jo Vere Vycar. — 
j chalys of sylver ij vestyments j of redd velwyt & j of sey j Crosse 
of copper iij bells of a corde. 


BoTTiSFORD July 29 6 Edw. VI. — 
ij challesses of silver j pix of coper & gylt v corpris [cor2)erasses] ofi' 
silke very ould. iiij vestements w*^ albs dialiels toAvels j crosse of 
copris ij pere of senses [censers] of bras, ij candelsticks of bras 
j pere of organs v beUs. 

A MS. without heading but with the names of four Commissioners 
for the dissolution of religious houses. Cave etc. 
Plate gilte Ixvij oz parcoll gilte ccccccxl oz white ccviii oz Money in 
the hands of Syr Edmunde Peckham . clxx£. vs. vd. 

[Stonton "VVyville.] 

Stonton Wyvell* 6 Edw. VI. — 
a chalys of sylver. a cope of grene lynyn clothe a vestyment of 
Avhyte fustyon a other of blew lynnyn clothe ij albs of white lynnyii 
clothe j bell. John Whyteleg. 

stonton Wyville is in the Deanery of Garti'co. 

[The above Return comprises all the parishes in the Deanery of Framland, Leicestershire : 
excepting Barnstone, Harston, BuiTOugh-on-the-Hill, Grimstonc, Nether-Broughton, Wadnaby ' 
Caldwell, and Wykehara. 


Treasure Trove, in connection with Anglo-Saxon Coins struck at 
Leicester. — A Paper read at Leicester, before the Leicestershire 
Architectural and Archaeological Society, at their Annual Meeting, 
1873, by the Eev. Assheton Pownall, E.D., Eector of South 
Kilworth, F.S.A., Member of the Numismatic Society. 

A HOARD of Anglo-Saxon silver coins was discovered a few years 
ago at Chancton, in Sussex. It seems that upon the removal of an 
old barn, by a hedge-row in which were some large trees, when the 
big root of one of the trees was cut through to allow the plough to 
pass, a crock was found, containing coins. A few were dispersed 
in the neighbourhood, but the greater number were secured for the 
Treasury, under the exercise of the Crown's revived claim to 
" Treasure Trove." By order of the Treasury these were brought 
eventually to the medal-room at the British Museum, for ex- 
amination and selection. The precise number thus obtained 
amoimted to 1,720 ; and all of them, excepting 58 silver pennies of 
the Harold who fell at Hastings, were silver pennies of his prede- 
cessor. King Edward the Confessor, (1042-66. a.d.). In point of 
condition many of them were as fresh as the day on which they 
were struck, with the silver untarnished by oxide. Never before 
had such a rich hoard of this king's money been found, and its con- 
tents have more than doubled the specimens of King Edward's 
coinage in the British Museum. I am well aware that to all, 
excepting those who study coins, an enumeration of mints and 
moneyers would be wearisome, and, therefore, I shall only state that of 
the fifty-three mints of which Ave possess examples in this find, as 
many as twenty were new. Among these fifty-three mints occurs that 
of Leicester, but not amongst the most prolific ; for as is usually the 
case, the number of Chancton coins struck at Leicester, is small as 
compared with that issued by other towns of comparatively little 
importance now. The hoard has however contributed six Leicester- 
minted coins to the twenty-one which were already in the medal- 
room ; and it will be interesting to townsmen of this place to see 
the names of those who struck money for the king, as they stand 
imprinted on the coins themselves : — 





* See Engraving of this coin. Obv. + EDPERD REX. liev. LEOFPINE ON LEICE. 




Such are the names. Uncouth in sound, and imlike those of ex- 
isting Leicester tradesmen, they are ; but they once designated 
individuals in this old town who were men of reputation and 
importance in their day ; for the moneyer's office was one of high 
trust, if nothing more. And before the sound of their names dies 
upon the tongue, let us try to conceive what their pleasure would 
have have been, could they have foreseen, those eight hundred years 
ago, that the work of their hands would have been the subject of our 
remark to-day ; and that in an age, so remote as ours, within the 
Town Library of the Guild Hall of their own Leicester, their names 
would again be pronounced in the hearing of Leicester men. 

Of the ten well-defined types of the Confessor's money, these six 
coins exhibit three specimens. All of them, and indeed the 
Chancton coins generally, are of those varieties which are accounted 
to have been his lateat, and it is to be noted that this has been 
usually the case whenever his coins have been discoverd in this 
country ; while, on the other hand, his earhest types are most 
abundant in finds of these coins on the Continent; a circumstance for 
which the payment of the Dane-geld is supposed to account, its remis- 
sion having taken place just about half way through the Confessor's 
reign, in the year 1052 a.d. 

I desire now to turn to some thoughts of a practical kind, which 
the recovery of buried hoards of ancient money compels me to enter- 
tain, under the novel claim of the Crown to treasure trove. I call 
it the novel claim of the CroAvn, because the old claim of the Crown, 
though it may have included the new one, was something so 
different, that it looks like novelty to exercise it, as it is now being 
exercised. The old claim of the Crown demanded for the Sovereign 
whatever natural or hidden treasure might be found buried in the soil. 
Not that all treasure trove can be claimed by the Crown. Accord- 
ing to the laAV of England •' Treasure is an antient deposit of money, 
of which there is no record so as to give it an owner ; for thus it 
becomes his who has found it, because it does not belong to 
another."t Lost property^treasure lost in the sea, in a river, or 
found placed on the surface of the soil (showing an intention to 
abandon it), this becomes the property of the finder. And to 
justify the Crown's claim *' it must appear that the property was 

• This legend must be somewhat drawn out to make its meaning clear. ON is Anglo- 
Saxon for our word " in," and, drawn out, the inscription is to be thus understood :— Brunnusel * 
(the King's moneyer, struck this) in Leuester. It is curious how for a long time after the 
Conquest, in spite of the substitution of Norman-French for the English tongue in State 
documents, upon the coins this Anglo-Saxon form of legend obtained. It only disappeared 
in Edward the First's reign, 1272 A.D. 

t For this, and several other statements about the law, I am indebted to an article in the 
" Standard Library Cyclopsedia," Vol. iv,, p. 837. 


hidden, or deposited by some one, wlio at the time had the intention 
of reclaiming it." Let this be shown, and the treasure is the pro- 
perty of the Crown, or of its grantees. The old Eoman law was 
more considerate for private interests than this appears to be. "With 
the Eomans, if a man found treasure in his own ground, that 
treasure belonged to him ; and to him equally it would belong, 
supposing it were found in a place consecrated to the Dii Manes, or 
the Dii Majores. And if the treasure were found by him on land 
belonging to another man, then the o^^^ler of the soil and the 
finder divided the spoil ; and this allotment held good even if the 
owner were the Public, or a Corporation, or even the Emperor him- 
self. This equitable recognition of the finder's claim, and the 
landlord's claim, in times after the Eomans broke down before the 
claim of the Crown. It is true that in the palmy days of the 
Church, a difi'erence was made in favour of ecclesiastical bodies, but 
it was a difference of the kind which reminds us of the lion in the 
fable. The lion and other beasts went a hunting. A fiit stag was 
killed. The Hon was constituted "chief commissioner"for the division 
of the prey. Having divided it into three portions, he laid his paAv 
on the first, and said, " This I take officially, as king. The second, 
I take as my personal share in the chase ; and as for the third, let 
him take it who dares." For example, compare the laws of even 
Edward the Confessor with the old Eoman law, and the "j\is 
commune et quasi gentium " which feudality and custom have 
estabUshed, appears to assign to the Crown an undue portion of the 
prize. In the xiv. chapter of the Confessor's laws all treasure 
found ii\ the earth is declared to belong to the King, ^^ except it should 
he discovered in a church, or in a churchyard, in tchich case the 
King shoidd have the gold and one-half of the silver, the other 
moiety to be taken by the church, whether it were rich or x>oor."'^ 
This right of the Crown to concealed treasure sometimes led to 
strange proceedings. It tempted Eichard II., among other ex- 
pedients for procuring money at a time when he was very poor, to 
issue a writ for the discovery of black money and other subterraneous 
treasure "hidden of old in the county of SouthamjJton, in whosever 
hands it might be, and to seize it for the King's use."f Well, when 
gold and silver in large quantities were habitually secreted, in con- 
sequence of that general feeling of insecurity which unsettled times 
begot, it might be fruitless, but it was not unfair, for a monarch to 
cause search to be made for supposed buried treasure, that he might 
add to his revenue. The actual owners had passed away from life, 
and if he were the finder no one but the King had better claim to it, 
for in him lay the original title to the soil. So much for the old 

* Wilkins, p. 209, quoted in Ruding, p. 141, vol. i. 
t Ruding's Annals of the Coinage, Vol. i., p. 236. 


Crown claim. But within the last few years the exercise of this 
claim has taken a novel form, and the strong hand of the Crown is 
now stretched forth to get hold, not of sums which might till the 
coifers of a king, enabling him to remit taxation and to defend his 
coasts, but of sums absolutely insigniticant in relation to such 
uses. It takes possession of a few hundred old silver coins, of no 
importance as bullion, their true worth consisting in the light they 
may happen to shed on local or general history — the light which 
gives them their chief lustre in our eyes. It is urged that this has 
been done on the ground of public interest. I Avill not question 
that ; but it is precisely on the same ground I question its policy. 
Could it be shown that all discoveries of hoarded ancient money 
had been dealt with even as wisely as the one now brought under 
consideration, it might be felt that I had no case. When however 
we recollect the unhappy dispersion of a find of Eoman coins, 
described — so far as they could be described, by one of our members, 
— which occurred near Market Bosworth in the summer of 1871, 
and recall particulars I have stated as regards these Anglo-Saxon 
coins, clearly the Treasury Minute is not yet all-powerful enough to 
ensure the preservation of those which are found, still less to secure 
them in the way most likely to minister to numismatic study. To 
persons engaged therein, I need not say that the opportunity of 
examining a find of coins, in the mass, is most important. Opinions 
regarding half-settled questions can often be established by means of 
that sort of examination, and often by no other. Under the regula- 
tions now made the mere collector may, of course, be able to obtain 
specimens of a particular find, and even to fill the trays of his 
cabinet ; but any one who aspires to determine some of the undeter- 
mined points, which still cloud the numismatic history of England, 
must consent to make the attempt without the assistance a better 
system would ensiu-e. The orders issued by the Treasury were 
doubtless well intended, and their occasional effect will be to save 
from destruction objects which might otherwise have been lost to 
us ; but may we not reasonably ask for more than their preservation 
from the melting-pot of the silversmith ? Ought they not to minister 
to those investigations in which archaeology engages us, as far as 
they possibly can 1 

In my opinion a remedy for this plaint may be found, which 
would satisfy alike the ^'■jus thesauri inventi " of the Crown, and 
the reasonable interests of the public. These last I take to be 
vested in, or represented by, firstly, the National collection in the 
British Museum ; secondly, the person of the finder ; thirdly, 
the owner of the soil (whose title to some share of the plunder 
is now absolutely ignored) ; and though last-named, not least in my 
thoughts, that outsider, the coin-student, who makes it liis business 
to draw out from a heap of old English coins, facts, which in a 


humble way, may be regarded as part of the history of the country. 
I ask this, therefore, — why, as soon as the British Museum has 
made its selection, Avhy should not every find of ancient coins be 
sold by public auction to the highest bidder, iindor the authority of 
the Treasury 1 AVliatever value the coins might possess beyond their 
intrinsic value would thus be secured. Having been sold, then 
let a third of the proceeds go, of right, to the tinder ; another to 
the owner of the soil (Avith power to take some of the coins them- 
selves as part of it, by agreement Avith the purchaser) ; and lastly, 
let another be retained by the Crown, either for presentation, or to 
defray expenses incidental to the transaction. Some such plan as 
this, I believe, Avould attain the object at present held in view, as 
well as others, which, if regarded, are not attained. The coins would 
find their way at once to the hands of those who want them, and 
can turn them to account ; while interests which clearly are in con- 
flict now, would then be conspiring to a common end. 

It is much to be wished that these facts, and this view of them, 
could be brought before the authorities by some person with that 
sort of influence which is likely to gain for them a hearing. The 
Lords Commissioners of the Treasury are obviously engrossed with 
much more important business, and the disposal of such a matter 
as this is naturally left to some subordinate. About his head the 
numismatic hive may swarm and rage, but a short letter in the large 
name of " My Lords " is soon written, and 

"hffic certamina tanta 
Pulveris exigiii jactu compressa quiescent." 

Two years ago the President and Council of the Numismatic Society 
presented a memorial to the Treasury, asking for a reconsideration 
of the present usage, but the reply to that memorial, compressive 
as the " small dust," was unfavourable to the prayer of the memo- 
rialists. Perhaps any other answer was not to be expected, because 
it is only under pressure that changes are made in the practice of 
public offices, and to press successfully implies the possession of 
power. Unless, therefore, some one in power takes up the ques- 
tion, I fear things will remain as they are, " to the discouragement 
of the study of antiquities by private individuals." 


C^WEi-L^ Anastatic Pi\e^5 




Mncli Marcle Church, Herefordshire ; its Architecture and Moiia- 
ments. — A Paper by M. H. Bloxam, Esq., Vice-President ; and 
J. Severn Walker, Esq., Honorary Secretary of the ^Vorcester 
Arcliitectural Society. 

The Parish Church of S. Bartholomew, Much Marcle, possesses 
considerable architectural dignity and importance, but it is chiefly 
noted for the interesting series of sepulchral effigies and monuments 
which it contains. 

The arrangement of the ground plan is rather uncommon : a 
chancel with north chapel, a nave with aisles, a south porch, a 
modern vestry at the east end -of the north aisle, and a tower 
between the nave and chancel, quite clear of the aisles and having 
no transejit. 

The chancel and north chapel are of about equal height and 
width, and present two uniform gables to the east, each having a 
threedight uncusped window of a character very common in this 
county, the centre light extending to tlie point of the main arch 
without the intervention of tracery. These gables, and the western 
one of the chapel terminate in wheel crosses, the one on the chancel 
bearing a crucifix on its western face. It has been conjectured that 
the cross was turned in this direction during the troublous times of 
the seventeenth centiiry, in order to protect it from tlie iconoclastic 
violence of the Puritan faction. On the south side of the chancel 
is a three-light window of the Perpendicular period ; also a two- 
light Decorated window above a comparatively modern priest's 
doorway with semi-classical details. The north wall of the chapel 
is perfectly plain, but the western gable is pierced by a two-light 
Perpendicular window under a flat arch. 

The fine fifteenth-century tower, constructed of well-wrought 
ashlar, is divided into three stages by string-courses, and terminates 
in a battlemented parapet. The lower stage is of considerable 
height, and contains on its north and south sides two two-light 
windows, one above the other, and Imt slightly recessed from the 
exterior face of the wall. The middle stage is simply pierced by a 
very small trefoil-headed opening, north and south, Avith a clock 
face to the east. The belfry stage contains on each side a large two- 
light Avindow of a design very general throughout the Perpendicular 
style. Buttresses, having five or six sets-ofl", project diagonally at 
each angle up to the belfry-stage, and extend thence to the summit 



as shallow pilaster-like projections, terminating, no doubt, originally 
in pinnacles. 

The lofty high-pitched roof of the nave rests upon bold Early- 
English corbel tables. Considerable alterations must have taken 
place in the aisles subsequently to their erection in the thirteenth 
century, as the lean-to roofs now extend almost to the corbel tables 
just mentioned, entirely covering the south clerestory windows, and 
all but the arched heads of those on the north side. 

On the south side commencing at the east end, we have a three- 
light Perpendicular window ; a three-light Decorated one, with 
plain intersecting tracery ; and a porch of the same date, having a 
single trefoil-headed light on either side, and a continuously moidded 
doorway. Beyond the porch is a two-light fourteenth-century win- 
dow, and in the north aisle wall are three more of similar design, 
the lights being cinquefoiled, with a plain unfoliated opening in the 
head. The west wall of the north aisle is pierced with a narrow 
square-headed single-light window. At the west end of the nave 
is a plain pointed doorway, surmounted by a large transomed Per- 
pendicular window of four lights, with a hood-moulding terminating 
in heads. 

Descending into the church by the western entrance, the 
interior, notwithstanding the blocked-up clerestory, the ugly modern 
fittings, and other deformities, presents an unusually good effect. 
This is chiefly owing to the height of the navo, the well-proportioned 
arcades, and the lofty tower arches. 

The nave is separated from each aisle by four chamfered 
thirteenth-century arches, which spring from circular piers and 
responds, having plain moulded capitals, except the eastern 
responds and the westernmost pier on the north side, the caps 
of which are of unusual character, being ornamented with birds and 
heads, the latter having stiff foliage issuing from the mouths. The 
clerestory consists of single lancets, widely splayed internally, and 
placed over the points of the arches. 

The two tower arches, opening into the nave and chancel 
respectively, have simple hollow mouldings, which are continued 
down the jambs without the interruption of capitals. The tower, 
though the latest portion of the fabric, no doubt occupies the 
position of an earlier structure — most likely of Norman date, a 
central tower being a not unfrequent arrangement at that period, 
even when, as in this instance, there were no transepts. The font 
undoubtedly belongs to this early date ; it is of large size, 
cylindrical, encircled with a plain band, has a square base, and 
stands upon a circiUar step. 

Between the chancel and the side chapel are two Early Pointed 
arches springing from a slender round pier with an octagonal base. 
This part of the church contains no other features of interest, 


except the moniunents already referred to, which will be fully 
described by Mr Bloxam, a few pages farther on. 

The greatest structural peculiarity of this church arises from its 
following the slope of the ground towards the east, so that the 
chancel floor is lower than that of the nave ; and the eastern half 
of each arch of the nave arcades is longer than the corresponding 
western half, the piers sinking in regular gradation from west to east. 

The following particulars relating to church furniture, &c., are 
extracted from the Parish Register : — 

"There is in the steeple of Marcle Church, a Ring or sett of 5 Bells, and 
1 Tintinabulu, or Prs Bell. 

"Sir John Kyrle, ye elder, gave the Treble of ye sd ring of Bells, Anno 
Dom. 1628. And built that Fabrick adjoining to ye north side of the chancell, 
commonly called the CliappeU ; wherein he, in his lifetime, erected a fair 
monument of white and black marble, for himself and his Lady ; under which 
tomb they both lye buried, in a cemetery or vault, designed for his posterity. 
The record here of his Grandchild, Sir Jolm Kyrle, caused to be inserted in 
Marcle Register, Aprill 8th, 1663, Wm. Watts, then Vicar." 

"A Catalogue of the Sacred Furniture, Ornaments, and other benefactions 
to the Church of Much Marcle, 1717 — In the Reading Desk, a large Bible, &c. 
A large stone font, with a large pewter bason. One old thin silver Cup and 
Cover to it, without date or inscription, but branched with embroidery'd 
graving, containing near one pint. One large fair silver Flaggon, containing 
three pints, having this inscription, viz. : ' The offering to God's Altar of 
Great Marcle, of Anne Cook, the widow, relict of Ely "Walvvyn, Esq., on 
Easter Day, being the 14th of Aprill, Anno Dom., 1639.' 

" One large Silver Cup or Chalice, with a silver trencher plate for its cover, 
containing one quart, with the inscription : — 

•Walwyn {'^^iS^f '"'} Cook,' 

" 'Given by Mrs Anne Walwyn, wife of Ely "Walwjoi, Esq., to the Church 
of Much Marcle, Anno Domm. 1638.' 

"One Salver plate for administering the Bread upon, with this inscription 
underneath, viz. ; — 

"'The gift of Mrs. Anne Walwyn \ The Donor's) the widow of Ely Walwj'n, 
Esq., unto the parish church of | Arms. ) Much Marcle, in the county 
of Hereford, Anno Dom. 1641.' 

"One small silver Cup with a cover, to be used in the private administration 
of the Sacrament to sick persons, containing near one half-pint, without any 
other inscription than this date, in 1586. 

"Mrs. Margaret Noble, of Hellens, spinster, gave a silver Christening Bason 
for the use of the Parishioners of Much Marcle, September, 1763." 

There is now a peal of six bells in the tower, bearing the follow- 
ing dates and inscriptions : — 

(1) 1736 — Prosperity to all my benefactors. — A. X R. 

(2) 1804—1. Rudhall, Fecit. 

(3) 1804— R. Smith and Charles, Wardens.— I. Rudhall, Feet. 
(4)1716 — Peace and good neighbourhood. — A. X R. 

(5) 1638 — Gloria Deo in excelsis. 

(6) 1804 — Cast at Glocesterby John Rudhall. 

(Little Bell) 1675 — John Skinar, gent, — Thomas Smith. 


Sir John Kyrle could not have built " that Fabrick adjoining to 
ye north side of the Chancell," as stated in the Register, the archi- 
tectui'al details of the building belonging to a much earlier period 
than the seventeenth csntury. He probably put the chapel into a 
thorough state of repair, previously to converting it into a family 
biu'ial place, and erecting the elaborately sculptured monument, 
which stands in the centre. This Sir John, of Homme House, 
was the first Baronet of the family, and died in 1G50; his father 
having purchased the Homme House jjroperty. 

The " old thin silver Cup and Cover, without date or in- 
scription," was sold by a late vicar, the Eev. Kyrle Erlne Money, 
Avho, with the proceeds, bought a silver flagon. 

The " small silver Cup with a Cover," bearing the date 1586, is 
of iinusually small size, but precisely similar in shape to the gene- 
rality of chalices and patens — the latter forming the "cover" — ■ 
belonging to the second half of the sixteenth century. 

The " silver christening bason " is a plain massive vessel of con- 
siderable size, and is still used at ba2)tisms. 

Blount, in his MS. History of Herefordshire, says that " in the 
window of Kyrle's Chapel are the King's Arms, with these lines 
underneath : — 

The flower <le Luces lead the Kiug, 

France shews the amies, but we the King ; 

The Lyons next in order, thre, 

Present the ground of Harmcuy. " 

Efforts are being made to raise funds for the much-needed 
restoration of this fine church. It is proposed to 02Den the main 
roofs, and to restore the flat leaden roofs Avhich no doubt formerly 
existed over the aisles, so as to render the clerestory windows once 
more an important feature of the building, both externally and in- 
ternally. Whitewash and gallery will, of course, disappear, and 
appropriate fittings be substituted for the present unusually ugly 
and inconvenient pews, pulpit, and such-like furniture. 

Mr. Ewan Christian, the architect, has examined the fabric, and 
he estimates the cost of these and other desirable improvements 
at J2,000. 

Opposite the porch is a yew tree of great age and immense size ; 
and on the same side of the churchyard, but nearer to its eastern 
boundary, are the four steps, the socket, and a considerable portion 
of the shaft (all octagonal) of the ancient cross. 

A lofty mound surrounded by a moat, now dry, on the north 
side of the church, is supposed to mark the site of a castle of the 

An account of the families connected with this parish, with their 
pedigrees, &c., will be found in The Mansions of Herefordshire, 
by the Eev. C. J. Robinson, ^F.A. 




The Chxu'ch of Much Marcle contains several interesting monu-. 

Of these, the tirst Avhich requires notice is a recumbent wooden 
effigy noAv placed on a window sill in the south aisle, and said to 
have been removed hither from the neighbouring church of 
Ashperton. This effigy, which is an exceedingly interesting one, is 
that of a Civilian, a Frankelein, or Squire of about the middle of 
the fourteenth century, circa a.d. 1350. He is represented bare- 
headed, with long curly hair, moustache, and beard. About his 
neck and in front of his breast appears the capuclum, or hood, as 
generally worn, capable of being, however, drawn over the head.* 
He wears a close-fitting tunic, or coat, reaching to the knees, and 
buttoned down in front, with close-fitting sleeves, also buttoned 
from the "wrists to the elbows, timica hotonata cum manicis botoiiatis, 
round the loins is Avorn a plain girdle, buckled in front, Avith the 
extremity of the girdle hanging down. Attached to the girdle by 
a buckle is a small gipciere or purse. The legs appear in close-fitting 
chausses or pantaloons, and the feet in pointed shoes. But the sin- 
gularity of this effigy consists in the legs being crossed, the right 
leg over the left, being one of the few instances in Avhich Civilians 
are thus represented. A portion of the right foot is gone ; the feet 
rest against a lion, the tail of which curls round the left foot. The 
head reposes on a square tasselled cushion, the neck is bare. 

This effigy is six feet four inches in length from the crown of 
the head to the point of the shoes ; the length of the tunic is little 
more than five feet, and beneath this appears an inner vest, 
apparently the Camisium. 

I know but of two other sepulcliral effigies of Civilians repre- 
sented with the legs crossed ; these are, one in Thurlaston Church, 
Leicestershire ; and one in Birkin Church, Yorkshire. In Yoid- 
grave Church, Derbyshire, is an effigy which may be of this rare 
class, but this I have not as yet personally examined. Although 
sepulclu'al effigies carved in wood are to be met with from the 
thirteenth to the sixteenth century, by far the greater number are of 
the fourteenth century. Those I have adverted to are of this era. 

• An instanco of the cajmciuin or hood drawn over the head, occurs in an interesting 
recumbent effiffy, carved in wood, lying under a sepulchral arch, well-moukled and cinque- 
foiled within the head, in the north wall of the chancel of Eaton-under-Haywood Church, 
Saloj). This effigy represents a Civilian or Frankelein clad iu his stipertiuiica talaris, or over- 
coat, reaching to the feet, ynth wide sleeves ; the capuciuni or hood is drawn over the head, 
fitting close, like a scull cap. The hands are conjoined on the breast as in prayer. The shoes 
on the feet are pointed. This effigy is six feet two inches in length, and represents a tigure 
much elongated, as of a thin individual ; but tliis may have been occasioned by the niati'rial, 
a block of wood, out of which it has been carved. Like the wooden effigy at Much Marcle, it 
is of the middle of the fourteenth century, and bears a resemblance to a corpse in a winding- 
sheet or shroud. 


On the north side of the chancel is a high tomb, panelled in front 
in six compartments, with pointed arches cinquefoiled in tiie heads ; 
each compartment contains a heater-shaped shield, the armorial 
bearings on which are painted. These emblazonments may, how- 
ever, be of modern date. On this tomb is the recnmbent effigy of 
a Lady with veiled head-dress, somewhat pointed, and gorget over 
the neck and chin. Her body attire consists of a gown, close fitting 
to the waist, with ample skirts gracefully disposed ; the arms are 
covered with close-fitting sleeves, buttoned from the elbows to the 
wrists. The right hand lies on the breast, the left hand is posed 
lower down, with a string of beads, par j^^'ecwn, hanging to which 
is a pendant ornament. The feet rest against a dog. Over the 
gown is worn a mantle ; the train of which falls in ample and 
graceful folds over the front of the monnment. Over this effigy is 
a singular shaped canopy, the back forming a semi-hexagon com- 
posed of six pointed panels trefoiled in the heads, in front, and two 
similar panels on each side. From this canopy springs a cove, 
divided by small ribs, and in front three compartments containing 
the heads of pointed arches trefoiled within. Above are three 
square compartments septfoiled within, each containing a heater- 
shaped shield, Avith a bold hollow cornice moulding above, contain- 
ing rosettes surmounted by a wavy termination, as a crest. 

Very similar in design, differing only in a few unimportant par- 
ticulars to this, is a tomb with the recumbent effigy of a Lady, with 
the drapery falling over the sides of the tomb, in the neighbouring 
church of Ledbury. The same hand has evidently designed both 
these monuments, the arrangement of the drapery being peculiar, 
and such as I have not met with elsewhere. These monuments may 
be ascribed to the latter half of the foiu'teenth century. 

In a chapel north of the chancel, at the north-west corner, is a 
high tomb, the front, or south side, of which is divided into foiu' 
square compartments octofoiled, containing demi-figures of angels, 
feathered and winged, bearing shields ; between these compartments 
are three arched panels, cinquefoiled in the heads, each containing 
a shield. 

On the north side of this tomb is the recumbent effigy of a man 
in armour, his head, protected by a basinet, reposes on a tilting 
helme, the face is moustached, and over a camail or tippet of chain 
mail, with a frayed border, is a gorget of plate. Epaidieres of plate 
j)rotect the shoidders, rerebraces the ujjper arms, the armpits are 
defended by gussets of mail, and the elbows by coudes of plate, 
vambraces of plate cover the lower arms, and gauntlets of plate 
protect the hands. Over the breast-plate is worn a close-fitting 
jupon, the skirt or lower edge of which is escalloped. Underneath 
appears a vandyked-edged apron of mail, and round the hips is a 
rich horizontal bawdrick. Cuisses of plate cover the tliighs. 


genouilleres, ornamented with small pendant portions of mail, the 
knees, and jambs of plate the legs. Sollerets of over-lapping plates, 
with gussetts of mail at the insteps, protect the feet. The legs and 
feet are somewhat raised, and rest against a lion. On the right side, 
suspended by a strap from the bawdrick, is an anelace or dagger. 

On the south side of this tomb is the recumbent effigy of a Lady. 
On her head, which reposes on a square cushion, is a close-fitting 
cap, her hair is worn reticulated, with a rich wreath round the ' 
head ; on either side of the head is a feathered angel, with a hood 
or tippet about the breast. The body attire consists of a close- 
fitting gown, disposed in numerous perpendicular folds, with a stiff 
collar standing up about the neck. A rich girdle encircles the 
waist, the sleeves of the inner vest are laced and cuffed at the 
wrists, the sleeves of the gown are very wide. Over the gown is 
worn a plain mantle, connected in front by two cordons ; the feet, in 
pointed shoes, rest against two collared whelps, and the hands are 
conjoined on the breast as in prayer, whilst on the fingers are four 

This monument may be ascribed to the latter part of the 
fourteenth century. 

In the middle of this chapel is one of those fine marble monu- 
ments with effigies we occasionally meet with in the seventeenth 
century, of the school of Fanelli, and other Italian sculptors, and 
which school appears to have been studied by our own countryman, 
Nicholas Stone, the great English sculptor, who flourished in the 
first half of the seventeenth century. In these monuments the 
formality and stifi"ness of the sepulchral effigies of the Elizabethan 
age gave place to a greater freedom of composition, and to a better 
style of sculptured art. 

This monument consists of a high tomb of black and white 
marble, in which the one colour was relieved by the other. The 
sides and ends are covered with slabs of black marble within a 
framework of white marble ; on these slabs are wreaths of foliage of 
white marble, containing oval targes, surrounded with scroll work, 
and emblazoned with armorial bearings ; at either end is a targe, 
somewhat differently designed, and surmounted by mantling and 
crest. On the massive covering slab, which is of black marble and 
projects over the sides, lie the recumbent effigies of Sir John Kyrle 
and the Lady Sybilla, his wife, sculptured in white or slightly 
variegated marble, like alabaster. 

He is represented bare-headed, with long-flowing hair, his head 
resting on a square tasselled cushion. His face exhibits the 
moustache and beard, and round his neck is worn the Vandyke 
falling collar, disposed in numerous folds. His breast-plate is 
ribbed at the top, and to the skirt is attached, by hinges, tassetts 
of one piece each, worn over the trunk hose. The shoulders are 


protected by pauldrons, the arms and elbows by rerebraces, coudes, 
and vainbraces, opening by means of liinges The hands are bare 
and conjoined together in prayer, and incline upwards nearly 
vertically, and the wrists are ruffed. A military sash or scarf, 
ornamented with fleur-de-lis, crosses the body diagonally from the 
left shoulder to the right side, and is knotted and fringed at the 
extremity. The knees and legs are protected by genouilleres and 
jambs, opening by means of hinges, the feet are incased in round 
toed sollerets, affixed to the heels of which are spurs, and rest 
against the semblance of a hedgehog, with a wreath beneath. At 
the back of the effigy is a cloak or mantle, and on the left side is a 
SAVord affixed to a belt, horizontally disposed about the body, the 
sword sheath is ornamented with fleur de lis. 

The sculptured effigy of the Lady Sybiila lies on the left or 
north side of the covering slab, and beneath her head is the same 
kind of tasselled cushion as that on which the head of the effigy of 
Sir John Kyrle reposes. She is represented with a French hood on 
her head, bordered with lace, and falling down behind, a falling 
ruff, very prominent, encircles her neck, and she appears in a bodiced 
gown, the skirts of which open in front, so as to display a stiffly 
worked j)etticoat. The sleeves of the gown are full and slashed, 
with Van dyked ruffs at the Avrists. The hands are conjoined on the 
breast as in prayer, not raised vertically, but inclining upwards. 
The shoes are pointed, and rest against a paw or claw, issuing from 
a coronet, round the shoulders is worn a chain, the folds of the 
dress are sculptured angular wise, in the manner practised by 
Henry Stone, son of Nicholas ytone, on a narrow i^anel of white 
marble, which surrounds the tomb, beneath the covering slab, is the 
following inscription : — 

" Placide subtus consopiuntur Joannes Kyrle, Baronetvs, Hvivs 
Herefordia? Comitatus iterum Vicecomes : et Sybylla Yxor 
charissima : Irrupta hos ad annos 44°"^ tenuit copula : nee mali®. 
Divulsus Querimoniis supremo citius cesserat amor die." 

This monument, which is a work of art, is said to have been 
executed in Italy. Sir John Kyrle died a.d. 1650. 

In the Parish Register is the following note : — " Sir John 
Kyrle, ye elder, in his life time erected a fair monument of black 
and white marble for himself and his Lady, under wch Tomb they 
both lye buried, in a cemetry or vault designed for his jiosterity. 
The record hereof his Grandchild, Sir John Kyrle caused to be 
inserted in Marcle Eegistei, Aprill 8th, 1663." 


Irfjiitertural Inrieti^' 





Clje p!trfin£5 of tlje ^rc^itectimtl c^ocufe 












Ven. archdeacon TROLLOPE, Leasingiiam, Sleaford. 

(general ^ubrtor : 
Rev. H. J. BIGGE, Rockingham. 





List of Societies in Union for General Purposes. 

The Society of Antiquaries, incorporated 1718. Somerset 
House, London. Secretary, C. K. Watson, Esq. 

The Archseological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 
established 1844. 1, Burlington Gardens, London. Secretary, 
Thomas PurneU, Esq. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Eoyal Institution, 
Edinburgh. Secretary, John Stuart, Esq., General Register House. 

The Royal Institute of British Architects, incorporated 1836. 
9, Conduit Street, Hanover Square, London. Secretary, J. P. 
Seddon, Esq. 

The Northern Architectural Association, established 1858. 
Old Castle, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Secretary, Thomas Oliver, Esq. 

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, established 
1855. 22, Hart Street, Bloomsbury Square, London. Secretary, 
Rev. T. Hugo. 

The Oxford Architectural Society, established 1859. St. Giles', 

The Cambridge Architectural Society, established 1846. Secre- 
tary, W. M. Fawcett, Esq., 33, Trumpington Street, Cambridge. 

The Ecclesiological Society, established 1839. 

The Sussex Archaeological Society, established 1846. Lewes. 
Secretary, R. W. Blencowe, Esq. 

The Liverpool Architectural and i\jchaeological Society, estab- 
lished 1848. Royal Institution, Colquit Street, Liverpool. Secre- 
tary, J. P. Beudley, Esq. 

The Suffolk Institute of Archaeology, Statistics, and !N'atural 
History, established 1848. Bury St. Edmunds. Secretary, E. M. 

The Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, 
established 1849. Museum, Taunton. Secretary, W, A. Jones, Esq. 

The Kent Archaeological Society, established 1858. Chillington 
House, Maidstone. Secretary, T. G. Faussit, Esq. 

The St. Alban's Architectural and Archaeological Society, 
established 1845. 

The Buckinghamshire Architectural and Archaeological Society, 
established 1847. 

The Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, established 1820. 
Philosophical Hall, Leeds. Secretary, Henry Denny, Esq. 

The Birmingham and Midland Institute. Archaeological Sec- 
tion, Birmingham. Secretary, Edwin Smith, Esq. 

Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian and Archaeological 
Society, founded 1866. Kendal. Secretary, Mr. Thomas Wilson. 

The Associated Societies^ Reports are supplied 
gratuitously to — 

The British Museum. 

The Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

The Cathedral Library, Lincoln. 




Thirty-first Eeport Ixii. 

The Churches of Mansfield and other Parishes visited by 
the Society on the 23rd and 24th of June, 1874. By 
the Venerable Edward TroUope, M.A., F.S.A., Archdeacon 
of Stow. With Illustrations 153 

Bolsover Castle. A Paper by Mrs. Hamilton Gray, read at 
the Meeting of the Lincoln Diocesan Architectural Society 
at Mansfield, June, 1874 172 

On Eood Screens, Eood Lofts, and Eood Altars. By 

Matthew Holbeche Bloxam 176 

Some Notes of an Examination of the Architecture of the 
Choir of Lincoln Cathedral, with a view to determining 
the Chronology of St. Hugh's Work. By Sir G. G. Scott, 
E. A., communicated by Precentor Venables 186 

Hardwick. By the Eev. H. Cottingham, M.A., Vicar of 

Heath and Hault HucknaU, and Eural Dean of Bolsover 194 

Mansfield and its Neighbourhood. By the Eev. E. H. 

Whitworth, BUdworth 235 


Thirtieth Eeport Ixix. 

On the Churches of Lastingham and Kirkdale, in Yorkshire, 
with some Eemarks on Ancient Saxon Sundials. By the 
Eev. G. Eowe, M.A. With Illustrations 202 


Twenty-seventh Eeport Ixxiii. 

Hospital dedicated to St. John the Baptist at Northampton. 
By Sir Henry Dry den, Bart., Hon. Mem. S. A. Scot. 
With Illustrations 211 




Twenty-seventh Report Ixxx. 

Bedford Castle. A Paper read before the Bedfordshire 
Architectural Society. By Dudley Cary Elwes, Esq., 
F.S.A. With Illustrations 243 


Report Ixxxiii. 

The Rolls of the Mayors of Leicester. A Paper read at the 
General Summer Meeting of the Leicestershire Architec- 
tural and Archseological Society, held in the Guildhall, 
Leicester, on the 8th September, 1874. By James 
Thompson, Esq., Local Secretary to the Soc. Ant., Lond. 261 

Notes on the Connection of the Pate Family with Eye- 
Kettleby and Sysonby, Co. Leicester. A Paper read at the 
General Summer Meeting of the Leicestershire Architec- 
tural and Archseological Society, held in the Guildhall, 
on the 8th of September, 1874. By Thomas North, Esq., 
Hon. Sec 275 


Report Ixxxviii. 

Notes on the Cutlers' Company's Accounts. A Paper read 
before the Sheffield Architectural and Archaeological 
Society. By J. D. Leader, F.S.A. With Illustration 283 


Lastinghani, Yorkshire — The Crypt 

„ Plan 

„ Carved Stones in the Crypt 

Kirkdale Church, Yorkshire — Carved Stones in the Walls 

Saxon Sundial over South Door of Kirkdale Church 

Saxon Sundials at Edstone and Locking", Yorkshire 
Incised Tombstone at Lastingham 

St. Jolrn's Hospital, Northampton : — 

Plate I. Plan showing Hospital, Chapel, and Master'; 

Plate 11. Staircase Window in Domicile, Cap in 
Refectory, &c., &c 

Bedford Bridge, 1760 

Bedford from Speed's Map of 1610 

Arms — a Shield — in the Pate Pedigree 

Facsimile of the Charter of Thomas de Furnivall 










The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Lincoln. 

His Royal 
His Grace 
His Grace 
His Grace 
The Most 
The Right 
The Right 
The Right 
The Right 



Highness the Due d'Aumale. 
the Duke of Rutland. 
the Duke of Portland. 
the Duke of jSTewcastle. 
Hon. the Marquis of Bristol. 

Hon. the Earl of Yarborough. 

Hon. the Earl Brownlow. 

Hon. Viscount Galway. 

Hon. Lord Kesteven. 




The Right Hon. R. A. C. N. Hamilton. 

Sir J. H. Thokold, Bart. 

Sir C. H. J. Anuerson, Bart. 

Sir Glyxxe Earle Welby Gregory, 

The Rev. Sir C. Macgregor, Bart. 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of Lincoln 
The Venerable the Archdeacon of 

The Right Rev. H. Mackenzie, D.D., 

Bishop-Suffragan of Nottingham. 
The Venerable the Archdeacon of 


The Rev. the Precentor of Lincoln. 

The Rev. the Chancellor of Lincoln. 

H. Chaplin, Esq., M.P. 

J. Banks Stanhope, Esq, 

J. Angerstein, Esq. 

C. TuRNOR, Esq. 

J. L. Ffytciie, Esq. 

R. MiLWARD, Esq. 

H. Sherbrouke, Esq. 

Rev. C.\NON Beridge. 

Rev. Canon, Miles. 

Rev. G. C. Beaty Pownall. 

ffljjaivman of fflommittees. 
The Venerable the Archdeacon of Stow. 


The President. 

The Patrons. 

The Vice-Presidents. 

The Rural Deans (being Meniber.s). 

The Officers of the Society. 

G. A. LuARD, Esq. 

C. C. Sibthorp, Esq. 

J. Thorpe, Esq. 

Rev. S. W. Andrews. 

Rev. R. A. Cayley. 

Rev. J. M. Dolphin. 

Rev. F. H. Deane. 

Rev. C. Terrot. 

Rev. J. White. 

Rev. J. Wild. 

Rev. C. A. Wilkinson. 

J. Fowler, Esq. 

E. G. Wake, Esq., M.D. 

Captain Lawson Lowe. 

|!?onovavg dieting Sftutarr. 
Rev. G. T. Harvey, Lincoln. 

jonoiaig Hotal S-ftirtarifss. 

> For the Archdeaconry of Lincoln. 

Rev, Canon Moore, 

Rev. Canon Maclean, 

Rev. C. Terrot, 

Rev, Prebendary Gilbert, . ) 

Sir C. H, J. Anderson, Bart., For the Archdeaconry of Stow 

Chas. Baily, Esq., ) 

W. Chapman, Esq., ■ > For the Archdeaconry of I^ntrhnif criii 

S. D. Walker, Esq., ) 


Colonel Smyth, Elkington, Louth. 

Arthur Trollope, Esq. 

REPORT. Ixiii. 

Members elected during the year 1874. 

Rev. C. Knowlos, Winteringliam, Brigg. 

Rev. J. T. Bartlett, ]\Iaiisfield St. John. 

Rev. George Babb, Asterb}', Honicastle. 

Rev. G. Hallowes, Glapwell Hall, Chesterfield. 

Rev. A. W. Hutton, Spridliugton, Market Raseii. 

Rev. G. Liiard, Edwinstow, Ollertoii, Notts. 

F. Caldecott, Esq., Holtou-le. Beckeriug, Wragby. 

The Rerort. 

Jn presenting their Thirty-first Annual Rejjort your Committee have to 
submit to you a somewhat longer roll of new Members than they had in their 
last Report, but at the same time they have with deep regret to announce that 
they have lost by deaths several valued members and officers of the Soeietj^, 
viz : — Lord Kesteven, Sir Montague J. Cholmeley, Bart., Sir Edward Walker 
and the Rev. Dr. Parkinson, Vice-Presidents ; and, lastly, the Rev. Canon 
Gilbert, for many years one of the Honoiary Local Secretaries. 

During the past year no work of any great magnitude has been under- 
taken, but notices of restored Churches will be appended to this Report. 

The Committee appointed for the purpose of collecting funds for the 
ilemorial to the late Chancellor Massingberd, have, after much delay, selected 
designs for two windows in the Chapter House of the Cathedral. These 
designs have been submitted to the Dean and Chapter, who have accepted 
them, and the windows are now in course of execution by Messrs. Clayton 
and Bell. 

The Annual General Meeting of the Society was holdeu at JLansfield, on 
Tuesday and AVednesday, June 23rd and 24th, and commenced by Morning 
Service in the Parish Church of St. Peter. 

After service the Archdeacon of Stow described the architectural features 
of the church ; the Archdeacon's remarks on this and the other churches 
visited will be combined in a Paper which will appear in this volume. 

On leaving the church, the Members of the Society and their friends 
started on an excursion to the following ])laces : — Mansfield JFoodhouse, 
Scarldffe, Bolsovcr Castle, Ault Hucknall, HardivicJc Hall, and Teversall. 

The Evening Meeting, held in the large room of the; Town Hall, was very 
numerously attended by the clergy and gentry of Mansfield and its neighbour- 
hood, as well as by those of tlie county of Lincoln and other places. The 
chair wns occupied by the Right Rev. the Bisliop of Lincoln, who was su])- 
ported on the platform by the Archdeacon of Stow, the Kev. G. T. Harvey, 
Mr. M. H. Bloxam, and the Rev. C. Bellairs. 

orvoi On behalf of the inhabitants of Mansfield the Rev. A. Pavet, Vicar of 
St. Peter's read the following address of welcome : — To the Right Rev. the 
President, and the Members of the Lincoln Diocesan Architectural Society, 
we, the Clergy, Churchwardens, and other Inhabitants of the town of Mans- 
field, beg to assure you of the pleasure it ntibrds us to welcome you on your 
visit to our town. We trust that our Parish Church of St. Peter's, though 
unable to compete with churches in other towns visited by you, has not been 
examined without interest, and that its recent restoration meets with your 
approval. We sincerely hope that your visits to Bolsovcr, Hardwick, and 
Newstead, each of which is courteously thrown open for your inspection, will 


prove agreeable to you, and that portraits of historical and other personages 
kindly lent by their respective owners for exhibition, will increase the interest 
of your visit. It is our earnest wish that your Society may continue its useful 
work of imparting information on architectural, historical, and archaeological 
subjects, and of serving to preserve and eluijidate the valuable relics of past 
ages, as well as to inculcate correct taste in the restoration of old churches, and 
the erection of new ones, because we believe that its past labours have been 
most valuable to this diocese, and that it may be truly ranked among the first 
of such Societies. 

The Archbeacok of Stow then read the annexed address, neatly 
inscribed on vellum, which was presented to the Local Committee : — To 
the Reverend the Clergy, the Churchwardens, and other Inhabitants of the 
town of Mansfield. We, the President, and Members of the Lincohi Diocesan 
Architectural Society, beg to return you our grateful thanks for your address, 
and the kind expressions it contains. No ancient church like that of St. 
Peter's, Mansfield, is ever examined by us ■\\ithout much interest, and seldom 
without instruction for ourselves and others. We congratulate you upon the 
recent complete restoration of this Church, when mucli that was unworthy has 
been replaced by more commendable features, and nothing of au}^ architectural 
value was lost or destroyed. The historical interest, as well as the beauty of 
the country around j'our to^m, are very remarkable. It was in Sherwood 
Forest that Robin Hood so often hunted in lawless freedom. It was in this 
district that Scott found appropriate sceneiy for his beautiful story of Tvanhoc ; 
and it was here that Byron lived, and here that he found a grave. This also 
is the country where the famous Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsburj^, exhibited 
her skill in architecture, still so remarkably exemplified by the stately Hard- 
wick Hall that arose at her command. But, gentlemen, you have done more 
than supply us with an opportunity of inspecting ancient churches and ancient 
halls ; for here, on the walls of this our place of assembly, j^ou have provided 
for us a delightful sight in the portraits of historical and other remarkable 
personages displayed around us, who, though dead, still live through the 
painter's skiU, so that we can mark the very expressions of their countenances 
at this time. Encouraged by your kind words, and the loan of these valuable 
paintings, so generously and confidingly lent by their noble owners, we shall 
endeavour to make oiu- visit to Mansfield and its neighbourhood as profitable 
and agreeable to you as we can, and we trust that the Papers about to be read, 
as well as the description of the churches visited by us, will meet with your 
approbation. We beg to thank you very sincerely for the good wishes you 
have expressed in our behalf, and to assure you that we feel most gratefid 
to you for this and those other acts of kindness towards us on the occasion of 
our present visit to Mansfield. 

The Eight Reverend the Pkesidext expressed, on behalf of the Society, 
the very great pleasure it afibrded its Members to visit this town and neigh- 
bourhood, and at the conclusion of the Bishop's remarks a Paper on Bohovcr 
Castle, from the pen of Mrs. Hamilton Gray, was read in her absence, by the 
Honorary Secretary. We do not allude further to this Paper, as, by the kind 
permission of Mrs. Gray, it will be printed in extcnso. 

The Rev. H. Cottingham, Vicar of Blyth, read a most excellent Paper 
on Hardwick Hall. This also will be printed in the Society's volume. 

Cordial votes of thanks, on the motion of the Vicar of Mansfield, 
seconded by M. H. Bloxam, Esq., were unanimously given to the authors of 
these Papers. 

The Meeting broke up after passing a vote of thanks to the President for 
having occupied the chair. 

On the following day, June 24th, the visitors left Mansfield on an excur- 
sion to the following places : — Blidworth, Ncwstead Abbey, Linby, Hzichiall 
Torkard, Anncsley, Kirkby, ami Hidton-in-Ashfield. 


The Annual Dinner was lield in the evening, the Archdeacon of Stow 
occupied the Chair. After the usual toasts had been duly honoured, the com- 
pany adjourned to the Town Hall for the evening meeting. 

A most interesting Paper was read on Rood Altars, Rood Screens, and 
Rood Lofts, by M. H. Bloxaii, which was listened to with the greatest 
attention. This was followed by a Paper on Local History, by the Rev. R. H. 
WniTWORTH, Vicar of Blidworth. 

A vote of thanks to the authors of the two Papers was unanimously carried, 
being moved by the Rev. J. M. Dolphin, and seconded by the Rev. J. T. 

The Rev. J. Wild rose to complain that vast stores of information, rela- 
tive to the history of Parisli Churches in the Diocese, were locked up in the 
archives of Lincoln, in the Registry of the Diocese, and that tliey were in- 
accessible to students. He proposed that the proper authorities be respectfully 
asked to take steps with a view of unlocking those treasui'es, and throwing 
them open for inspection, subject to proper restrictions. 

Mr. Bloxam, in seconding the motion, said there were stores of knowledge 
contained in episcopal registries throughout the country, and he only wished 
they could be thrown open, under proper regulations, to scholars and gentlemen 
desirous of making investigations. 

The suggestion received the warm support of the meeting, which closed 
with a few remarks from the Archdeacon, in support of Mr. Wikl's proposal. 

In conclusion, your Committee desire to place on record their deep sense 
of the obligation they are under to His Grace the Duke of Portland, for the 
loan of an interesting series of family portraits, which contributed so much to 
the interest of the Meeting, and also for the magnificent supply of fruit and 
flowers which graced the Society's dinner ; to the Most Honourable the 
Marquis of Hartington, for his loan of family portraits of great interest, and 
for permission to visit Hardwick Hall ; to W. F. Webb, Esq., for having 
thrown open Newstead Abbey to the Society ; and to Mrs. Hamilton Gray for 
receiving the Society at Bolsover Castle, and for having prepared a Paper on 
the history of her most interesting residence. 

Subjoined will be found notices of new and restored Churches. 

St. John Baptist, Temple Bruer. 

Such a designation has been well given to this new church in the old 
wilderness of Lincoln Heath. A rebuilding of the ancient circular C'hurch of 
the Templars would, of course, liave been a far more acceptable work, together 
with a restoration of its beautiful Early English tower, which still remains, 
together with the arcading of the little cliapel constituting its basement story. 
But as its site is not so convenient as tlie one selected for the new church, and 
its rebuilding would have been very costly, the project was not entertained. 

We are most thankful, however, for this fresh addition to our churches, 
and especially as it was so much needed for the use of the scattered population 
of the Heath, now disjjersed over the large, and until lately extra-parochial 
district of Temple Bruer, or the Temple on tlie Heath. 

This good work has been accomjdished at the earnest desire of Mr. Howard, 
of Temple Grange, and chiefly at the cost of Henry Chaplin, Esq., M.P., of 
Blankney Hall. 

The architect was Mr. James Fowler, of Louth, and lie has produced a 
comely edifice, consisting of a nave, chancel, porch, and spirelct, of an Early 
English character, and sufficiently large for the surrounding pojtulation living 
on that portion of the Heath between Ashby-de-la-Laund a7id Wellingore. 

Within, the seating is neat, and the fittings simple and appropriate for 
the humble labouring class constituting the bulk of those likely to worship 
within its walls. 


All Saint's Church, Bemington. 

Tins clmrcli is a most interesting building, the internal length of which is 
144 feet. Founded originall}' in Norman times, it was consideral)ly enlarged 
and imjiroved in the thirteenth century. It was again altered and had a new 
aisle added to it in the fourteenth, and finally early in the fifteenth century 
its clerestory and tower were added. The eastern pillar of the north arcade is 
well worthy of notice, showing, as it does, a conservative spirit on the part of 
the early architects. On a level with the floor is the square base of the old 
Norman pillar. Immediately upon this is a circular one of the thirteenth 
century, and on this again is placed the pillar of the present arcade. The 
change lately etiected in the appearance of the church is most satisfactory, 
and has been approvingly mentioned bj' the Archdeacon of Stow. The whole 
of the interior has been cleared of its old cumbrous pews, west gallery, &c., 
reseated with open benches, and newly floored throughout. The walls have 
been cleansed, and repaired. The easternmost portion of the nave roof has 
been entirel)' renewed, and it is to be hoped the remainder, with those of the 
aisles will speedily follow. The fine Decorated porch has been partly rebuilt 
and re-roofed with oak, and the whole of the windows have been restored and 
re-glazed. The alteration in the chancel is, however, the most marked. 
Here a wretchedl}' low and flat roof has given place to an open timbered one 
of the original pitch, the windows have been repaired, new stalls and fittings 
provided, and a very handsome floor of encaustic tiles has been put clown. 
The chancel had originally a groined roof ; this was removed many 3'ears ago, 
but the old springer stones and corbels remain, and are very richly moulded. 
The fine old screen between the nave and chancel has been well restored. The 
pulpit is a memorial one : it is of stone, and elaborate in its detail. One 
noticeable feature in the interior is the font, which stands at the west end of 
the nave, raised upon three steps. Q'he eastern face is enriched with sculptured 
figures of the Apostles, &c. The works have been executed very creditably by 
Messrs. White and Wood, of Alford. The architect employed was Mr. James 
Fowler, of Louth. The entire cost of the work has been about £2000. The 
ceremony of re-oi^ening the church took place on the ISth of June, 1874. 

The Church of St. Thomas-a-Becket, Burtox-le-Coggles. 

The ancient and interesting Church of St. Thomas-a-Becket, at Barton-le- 
Coggles, has been for some time past undergoing restoration, and now that it 
is completed a vast improvement on its former condition is discernible. The 
walls of the chancel have been strengthened by the addition of four buttresses, 
with weatherings, in two heights ; the whitewash has been removed from the 
interior, and the walls plastered in Parian cement, to receive decoration. The 
window splays, sills, and arches, are of wrought stone, merely pointed. 
During the progress of this part of the work, it was discovered that the old 
leper's window, in the south wall, was still intact, having been walled up by 
some careful churchw irden of a bygone age. In the south wall of the chancel, 
close to the sedilia, a double piscina, in a very good state of ] reservation, was 
brought to light. The new east window is of three lights, with fine traceried 
head ; the inner arch, which is dee})l3' sunk and moulded, is carried by detached 
shafts, with carved caps. The roof of the chancel is of pitch pine, and is 
divided into five bays by arched moulded ribs, springing from carved stone 
corbels, representing angels ; the respective bays have a waggon-headed 
plastered ceiling, each divided by moulded ribs into forty jjanels, which are 
decorated by a symbolical device in distemper. The new east gable is sur- 
mounted by massive coping, and a large carved cross. Tne floor is laid with 
encaustic tiles of simple and eff"ective design. The chancel and sacrarium 
steps are of grey mai-ble, highly poli.shed. The reredos is of stone, divided 
into eight bays by moulded mullions, with quatrefoil flowers, at intervals of 
two inches the entire height ; the upper portion of each panel is finished by 

REPORT. Ixvii. 

a quatrefoil sub-panel, deeply sunk ; and the whole is surmounted by a carved 
and moiilded cornice. The prayer-desk and choir seats are prepared from 
wainscot oak ; the fronts are divided into narrow panels, decorated by the 
linen fold, and under the book-board, which itself is decorated by carved 
enrichments at intervals, are a series of sunk and pierced c|uatrefoil panels. 
The stall ends are surmounted by carved heads. These works, as well as the 
. heating arrangements of the whole church, have been carried out at the sole 
cost of the Rector, the Rev. W. T. Sandys, and his family. The nave and 
aisles have been refloored with Yorkshire stone. The church has been new 
seated with open benches of pitch pine, and the walls and arches of the nave 
have been cleaned and pointed. These alterations in the nave have been 
carried out in accordance with the intentions of the late Sir Montague J. 
Cholmeley, lord of the manor, at wliose expense they were undertaken. A 
new pulpit has been provided, of neat and elegant design. The tower arch 
has been opened, and the space thus added, forms a baptistery. The five 
windows of the chancel have been filled with painted glass by ]\Iessrs. Hard- 
man and Co., of Birmingham, at the expense of the Rector, — a woik which 
has added gi-eatly to the beauty of this portion of the sacred edifice. Edward 
Welby Pugin, Esq., of London, was the architect engaged, and the work has 
been extremely well carried out by Messrs. Rudd and Son, of Grantham. 

St. John the Baptist's, Nottingham. 

This church, built by Sir Gilbert Scott about thirty years ago, has been, 
during the past year, cleaned and repaired. It had been allowed to get into a 
very dirty condition, chiefly through the badness of the heating ajiparatus — 
an apparatus most ingeniously contrived to give the maximum of dirt and 
smoke, with the minimum of warmth. 

On the appointment of a new Vicar it was resolved to thoroughly clean, 
light, and warm the church, and a sum of £430 was raised. Tlie heating, by 
means of hot water pipes has been successfully accomplished, the church has 
been cleaned throughout (the stone work being brushed but not touched with 
water), and new gas standards have been placed in the chancel and nave. The 
mahogany-stain has been removed from the sittings throughout the church, 
the chancel floor new tiled, and a baptisteiy formed, by a raised platform, at 
the south-west corner of the church, between the south and west doors. 

Altar candlesticks were presented at the re-opening on Ascension Day. 

No new architectural feature has been added. The work was done under 
the direction of Mr. Evans, of the firm of Evans and JoUey, Nottingham. 

St. Wilfred, Kelham. 

The church of St. Wilfred, Kelham was re-opened the 20th of January, 
1874, after having undergone a thorough restoration. The nave and side 
aisles were re-roofed ; the unsightly gallery removed from the west end, 
opening to view the fine tower arch and west window. The square pews were 
taken away, and replaced by open seats of pitch pine ; the floor was re-paved ; 
the windows re-glazed ; and a new pulpit, lectern, and litany desk were added. 
The old chancel screen was thoroughly cleansed from paint, and repaired 
where necessary. In the chancel, the paces up to the altar were laid with the 
best ornamental Herefordshire tiles ; the stalls of oak were made to correspond 
with the alterations in the chancel ;-a new altar table, credence, oak reredos, 
and oak sedilia were inserted. The Grecian arch leading into the mau.solenm 
from tlie chancel has been removed, and rejjlaced by another, in harmony with 
the other features of the church. The foundations of the chancel were restored 
where deficient, and a figure of the patron .saint, St. Wilfred, placed in the 
nicli over the window outside tlie church ; two crosses have bt'cn placed 
at the east end of the nave and chancel-; the i>riest's door at the north side of 
the chancel is removed further to the west. Outside the nave and side aisles 


a turreted course of stone work was added, where doubtless it had previously 
been, but had been removed to ornament the mausoleum, which was added 
about 1720. 

St. Andrew's, Witham-on-tiie-Hill. 

The Parish Church of Witham-on-the-Hill was re-opened for divine 
worship by the Bishop of Lincoln on the 19th of May, 1874, after having been 
closed for about ten months previously, during which time extensive reno- 
vations, &c., had taken place under the guidance of G. G. Scott, Jun., f^sq., 
son of Sir Gilbert Scott. The principal restorations consist of the rebuilding 
of the north wall of the north transept, and placing therein a handsome window 
in the place of a mutilated si|uare headed one, a new chancel arch of fine 
proportions 26 feet high, re])uilding the upper part of the spire, &c., lowering 
the floor of the nave, and rebuilding two of the piers, and other extensive 
general repairs to the walls, windows, and roof ; an efficient heating apparatus, 
by Haclen, of Trowbridge, has also been placed under the floor of the north 
transept. The entire expenses may be roughly estimated at about £1600, and 
are wholly defrayed by the church and school estate belonging to the parish. 

A new organ has also been placed in the church by public subscription, 
built by Mr. Nicholson, of Lincoln, at a cost of £171. 

The south chancel wall has also been rebuilt, and a handsome oak roof 
with hammer beams has replaced an unsightly one over the chancel. These 
latter works have been done by the impropriator, A. C. Johnson, Esq., who 
is also the patron of the living. 

STATEMENT of ACCOUNTS fok the Year 1874. 

Balance in hand on 1st 

January, 1874 

Interest allowed by Messrs. 


Louth special col- £ s. d. 

lection for last 

year's Annual 

Meeting 6 16 

Ditto ditto... 7 7 

£ s. d. 

108 19 6 

2 15 

14 3 

From Rev. A. Pavey special 
donation towards Mans- 
field expenses 

Five Entrance Fees 

Subscriptions ... 22 1 

Ditto 21 10 6 

Ditto 38 8 

81 19 6 


£211 7 


To Utting, for Portrait, &c. 
and Seal 


Ditto, Seal Inscription 

Nichols, Herald and Gene- 

Carriage on 30 Reports to 

"Writing Address (to Arch- 
deacon TroUope) 

Doncaster, Rent and Salary 
^ year to Lady-day, 1874. 

Ditto, for fires two seasons 

Ditto, Trotter's account ... 

Ditto. Jackson's ditto 

Fawcett, preparing Banner 
(and P. 0. 0. &c.) 

Williamson, 1873 Report... 

Nichols & Sons 

Doncaster, Rent and salary 
1 year to Oct. 10, 1874... 

Mr. Neale, Mansfield ex- 

U^ttiug, for Engraving Seal 
for next Meeting 

Treasurer, Postage for the 

Balance in hand 

£ s. d. 

7 12 


1 8 6 

10 8 

1 10 




8 6 

13 10 

12 9 

49 6 



27 6 5 

1 4 

8 6 

99 15 6 


£211 7 





Ilis Grace the Akciibisiiop of York 
The Lord Bisiioi- of Kii'ON. 


* Right Hon. the 

VOL. XII., PT. II. h 




♦Right Hon. the Marquis of Ripon. 
*Right Hon. the Eakl of Effingham 
♦Eight Hon. theEARL of Mexborougii 
Right Hon. tlie Earl of Scarbkougii 
Right Hon. Lord Wharncliffe. 
*Right Hon. Lord Hotham, M P. 
Right Hon. Lord Houghton. 
*Hon. & Very Rev. the Dean of York. 
*Hon. and Rev. P. Yorke Saville. 

Hon. and Rev. J. W. Lascelles. 
*Hon. Octavius Buncombe. 
*Hon. Payan Dawnay. 
*The Ven. Archukacon Musgrave. 
*The Ven. Archdeacon Long. 
*The Ven. Archdeacon Creyke. 
*GoDFREY Wentworth, Esq. 
H. W. F. BoLCKow, Esq., M.P. 


The Patrons. 

The Presidents. 

The Vice-Presidents. 

The Rural Deans. 

Balme, E. B.Wheatley, Esq. 


•Davis, R., Esq. 


Guest, Rev. Geo. 

Haworth, Rev. W. 

Johnson, Rev. Canon 

Watkins, Ven. Archdeacon. 
Jones, G. Fowler, Esq. 
LuKis, Rev. W. C. 
LuNN, Rev. J. R. 
Ornsby, Rev. G. 
Palmer, Rev. H. V. 
Palmes, Rev. James. 
Phillips, Rev. G. H. 
Raine, Rev. Canon. 
Randolph, Rev. Canon. 
Wightman, Rev. W. A. 

Rev. J. E. Eadon. | 

Rev. W. Haworth. 

I^onorarg Sftretarfea. 

For York: 
Rev. George Rowe. 

For Ripon : 

Rev. W. C. LuKis. 

For Doncastcr : 

Rev. G. H. Phillips. 

For Leeds : 
Rev. John Gott, D.D. 

For Sheffield: 
Joseph Fawcett, Esq. 

Rev. W. A. Wigiitman. 


Rev. Geo. Guest. I 

J. S. Dominy, Esq. 


New Members. 

C. F. H. Bolckow, Esq., Brackenhoiise, Marton, Middlesboro'. 1874. 

Mr. John Calvert, 1, Belle Vue Street, Heslington Road, York. 1874. 

J. Demaine, Esq., 86, Micklegate, York. 1874. 

H. R. Gough, Esq., 6, Queen Anne's Gate, St. James's Park, S.W. 1875. 

Rev. H. Hassard, Stockton in the Forest, York. 

Rev. W. R. Weston, Balby, Doncaster. 1874. 

W. A. White, Esq., 13, Burton Lane, York. 1874. 

Leonard Jacques, Esq., Wentbridge House, Pontefract. 
S. Joshua Cooper, Esq., Mt. Vernon, Barnsley. 

The Report. 

At the conclusion of another year, the Committee have again to repeat that 
the number of members is satisfactory, and that the finances show, as before, 
a considerable balance. 

The drawing of glass from the Minster which was expected to have been 
published last year, was unavoidably delayed, but came out in the beginning 
of this year. It is intended to be the commencement of a series ; and will be 
followed by lithographic drawings of stained glass in the vestibule of the 
Chapter House. This is the earliest glass in the Minster after that in the Five 
Sisters' Window, and the fragments of which we have given a specimen. 
As Mr. Knowles' engagements hindered the drawing of this glass till it was 
too late in the year, it is intended to defer it till next summer. In the 
meantime your Committee decided upon publishing a reduced drawing from 
the ancient and curious paintings on the walls of Easby Church, Richmond, 
to be accompanied by a description, and to range with the occasional Papers 
put forth by the Society for circulation amongst its own Members. This has 
been some time in the lithographer's hands, but press of work has prevented 
the anticipation of the Committee, and it will be some weeks before it is ready. 

The JMembers and Friends of the Society made a very successful and 
instructive Excursion in the summer to the neighbourhood of Kirby Moorside. 
On reaching this place they were met by the Rev. D. Easterby, Vicar of 
Lastingham, Mr. Macloughlin, Agent to Lord Feversham, and Mr. G. Franks, 
the latter of whom undertook the guidance of the party. They first drove to 
Welburn Hall, and thence to Kirkdalc Cave and Chivrch. The party next 
ascended Sleightholmedale to Gillamoor Church, where they obtained a very 
beautiful and extensive view. Descending the valley they crosed the moors 
to Lastingham, where they inspected the church and crypt, and thence to 
Ap2)leton-le-Moor, where a new church has been erected to the memory of Mr. 
Shepherd, who was born here. The party then completed the circle to Kirhy 
Moorside, where an excellent dinner was provided at the King's Arms Inn. 
Having done justice to this, the IMembers next went round Kirby Moorside ; 
saw the house where the famous Duke of Buckingham died in great \vi-etched- 
ness in the year 1687 ; inspected the church, which is undergoing restoration 
at the conservative hands of Sir G. Scott ; and moimted to the site of the 
castle of the Stutevilles. 

Four years ago, Yorkshire was taken by surprise upon learning the 
dangerous condition of the south transept of the Minster. In October, the 
work of renovation was so nearly completed that the transept, which had 
long been shut off from the rest of the building, was again opened to view. 
The first thing to be done was to relieve the walls of the weight of the roof. 
To this end the whole of the interior was filled with scaffolding, upon which 
the new roof was built ; meanwhile the rebuilding of the clerestories was 
proceeded with on both sides, and ultimately the roof was lowered to 
its place. The new work is an exact recasting of the old ; the stone is 



from, as nearly as possible, the same quarry. The whole of the interior 
has been cleaned, so that the old and new work blend together. The 
new roof is of oak, with good bosses gilt and coloured. The clock has been 
replaced by an arcade of small arches ; the Purbeck marble shafts in the 
clustered columns have been renewed or repaired ; and the south transept now 
looks as well as ever it did, with a fair prospect of lasting as long as it has 
already stood. The monument of its builder, Archbishop Gray, who died in 
1255, has been cleaned ; and nothing remains to complete the work save the 
removal of the thick and lofty iron railing which prevents the sight of the 
beautiful effigy. Externally there remains much to be done, but it is expected 
to be all finished by the end of the year. The cost has hitherto been about 
£16,000, and about £4,000 in addition is required to complete the repairs. 
The energy of the Dean and Chapter displa3'ed in the collection and expendi- 
ture of this sum is beyond all praise ; and if there were nothing else 
wherewith to mark the tenure of office by the present Dean, yet his name will 
always be mentioned in future in connection with the beautiful and substantial 
restoration of the south transept. 


For the Year ending December, 1874- 


£ s. d. £ 
Balance in Bank, 

Jan., 1874 187 19 11 

Treasurer's hands 18 

Annual Subscriptions : — 

Arrears 12 10 

For 1874 51 4 

189 7 11 

63 14 

Sale of Reports, &c 17 6 

Interest at Bank 2 10 

£256 9 5 


Rent and Attendant . . . , 6 

Mr. Pickering's Account, 
Stationery, Printing, 
Binding, &c 6 

Williamson, Printing Repoi't 27 15 11 

Gi-ant to Fund for rebuild- 
ing the North Chapel of 

Huntington Church 10 

Secretary's Account : — 

Books, &c £6 2 

Excursion 4 10 4 

10 10 6 


Treasurer's Account : — 
Collector's Pound- 
age 10 

2 2 

Balance in Bank, 

Jan. 1st, '75.. .198 3 
Balance due to 

Treasurer, Jan. 

1st, 1875 3 8 2 

1 2 2 

-194 14 10 
£256 9 5 

27th January, 1875. 

Examined and found con-ect, 


The Subscription is 10s. per annum, due in advance on the 1st January. 
It may be paid to the Treasurer, Rev. W. Haworth, 10, Boothani Terrace, 
York ; or to the Society's Account at the Bank of Messrs. Swan and Clough, 
Coney Street, York. 

The keys of the Library are kept at the Society's Room, School of Art, 
Minster Yard, York. 







The LoED Bishop of Petekborough. 


The Earl Si'Encei:, K.G., LorJ-LinUamut of the Cuunty of Nofthavt2>t(m. 

The Archdeacon of NoRTHAMrxoN. 



The Duke of Ruccleuch, K.G. 
The Marquis of Northampton. 
The Rev. Lord Alwtne Compton. 
The Lord Lilford. 
The Lord Overstone. 
The Bishop of Adelaide. 
The Hon. and Rev. A. G. Douglas. 
The Hon. and Rev. L. C. R. Irby. 
Sir Charles E. Isiiam, Bart. 
Sir Henry E. L. Dryden, Bart. 

The Right Hon. G. Ward Hunt, M. P, 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Peter- 

The Rev. W. Wales, Chancellor of 

The Rev. J. P. Lightfoot, D.D., 
Rector of Exeter College, Oxford. 

The Rev. M. Argles, Canon of Peter- 


The Patron. 
The Presidents. 

The Vice-Presidents. 
The Rural Deans. 

The Officers of the Society. 

The Rev. F. C. Alderson. 

M. H. Bloxam, Esq. 

Rev. Lord Alwyne Compton. 

Rev. H. Crawley. 

Sir Henry Dryden. 

Rev. W. F Goodacre. 

Rev. Dr. Gifford. 

E. F. Law, Esq. 

Rev. P. H. Lee. 

W. T. Law, Esq. 

Rev. W. P. Mackesy. 

H. 0. Nethercote, Esq. 


Rev. T. Richards. 
T. Scriven, Esq. 
Rev. T. R. Shand. 
S. Sharp, Esq. 
Rev. C. Smyth. 
E. Thornton, Esq. 
G. L. Watson, Esq. 
Rev. T. Whitehurst. 

I^onorarr Sftrrtartrs. 
Rev. N. F. Lightfoot, Islip, Tbrapston. 
Rev. Chancellor Wales, Uppingham. 
Rev. M. Gregory, Great Doddington, Wellingborough. 


Rev. Henry Ward, Aldwincle St. Peter's, Thrapston. 


Rev. Christopher Smyth. 

Rev. G. S. Howard Vyse. 


Rev. H. J. Bigge, Rockingham. 


Rev. R. P. Lightfoot, Wellingborough. 

i^aststant HestHent iltijraitan. 

(To whom all hooks, jxircels, <tc., shoicld be sent.) 

Mr. Wright, Gold Street, Northampton. 

JVew Members. 

Barker, Rev. J. T. 
Beasley, Rev. T. C. 
Brown, Rev. T. Bentley. 
Carpenter, H. C, Esq. 
Dennis, Rev. J. P. 
Haviland, A. Esq. 
Knightley, Lady 
Loyd, Rev. Lewis H. 

Sanders, Rev. S. J. W. 
Shand, Rev. T. H. R. 
Stocks, Rev. J .E. 
Stuart, Rev. J. 
Tom, Rev. E. N. 
Urquliart, Rev. E. 
White, Rev. A. 



Bead at the Anniml Meeting holden at Northampton, Monday, December 14, 


The complaint of your Committee, made the last two or three years, must be 
repeated again to-day, that fewer plans of churches come now before them than 
in years gone by. This is necessarily the case ; the number of churches to be 
restored grows smaller ; our town population is not increasing as rapidly as 
that of some other counties ; our rural population rather decreases than other- 
wise ; and though there is hardly a neighbourhood in which there are not stiU 
some instances of increasing decay, or of unseemly arrangement, and some 
others where the injudicious work of the past has, sooner or later, to be undone, 
these works do not crowd on one another as was the case some years since : 
besides which, in frequent cases, when tlie pecuniary aid of the Church Build- 
ing Society is not asked, the plans for church restoration do not come before 
your Committee at all. They repeat the expression of their readiness to give 
their best advice on the least detail of work, as on plans of a more extensive 
nature ; and while their principle is to preserve, as much as possible, the 
ancient lines, and to recommend the doing a little well, rather than to attempt 
too much with limited means, it will commonly be found that the advice of 
your Committee leads rather to a saving than to an increase of expense. Of 
the three chief chiu-ches which your Committee reported last year as under 
restoration — Raunds, Earls Barton, and Rushden — the nave of the first has been 
reopened for divine service, though the chancel remains in the same dilapi- 
dated state as before, its repairs falling on the lay impropriator. At Raunds, 
the whole extent of the north nave wall, between the arches and the clerestory 
windows, was found covered with paintings in a very fair state of preserva- 
tion ; and there were many other paintings of smaller extent, but some 
of them of an earlier date, uncovered in the north aisle. Earls Barton and 
Rushden are nearly completed ; portions of each church having been used 
almost throughout the whole time of restoration. The works at Earls Barton 
have been more extensive than was at first anticipated, but individual 
liberality has not allowed the good work to stand still ; while at Rushden also, 
a larger outlay was found necessary as the work made progress ; increasing 
the claims of the restoration committee on those who may be able to assist 
them. In clearing the whitewash from the walls of Slapton Church, some 
paintings of interest were discovered : one being the figure of a saint holding 
in one hand a book, and in the other what appears to be a cruet. A second 
painting represents S. Francis, in the habit of his order, receiving the stigmata. 
The cross with the figure of the Saviour is not, as usual, floating in the air, 
but is supported on a large base. Behind the figure the ground is red with 
gold stars. A third subject is that of the Resurrection. Your Committee 
sanctioned the expenditure of a small sum in making tracings of these drawings. 

Considerable alterations are contemplated in the Church of East Haddon, 
including the reseating ; and the building of an organ-chamber. In this, as 
in other plans which have lately come before them, your Committee have 
adhered to their princii)le of always recommending upright, in preference to 
sloping, backs to the seats. Whenever the back is made to slope, except in 
the rare instance of very great width of seat, the ease of kneeling is sacrificed 
to the comfort of sitting, and the result is, there is more sitting than kneeling. 

Morcott Church, Rutland, is to be reseated, and the north aisle rebuilt ; 
and as some matters of detail were not shewn in the plans, a Sub-Committee 
was appointed to visit the church. The visiting Committee agi-eed, for the 
most part, with the report of the General Committee, recommending some few 
modifications of it, suggested by an inspection of the fabric. It has been 


proposed to restore also the Church of Farwell, which is at present in a very 
mean condition. Your Committee carefully examined the plans, and made 
various suggestions for the improvement of the church. They understand, 
however, that the work is now delayed for want of funds. A question having 
been submitted to your Committee whether a high-pitched roof should be 
substituted in Seaton Church for the flat roof and clerestory, they decidedly 
recommended the retention of the present form of roof. 

The fine Church of SS. Peter and Paul, at Laugham, Rutland, is also to 
be restored, and the plans were examined b)' the Committee, who recommended 
the retaining of the font in its present position ; the widening of the central 
passage ; the placing of the pulpit on the north side of the chancel-arch, as 
facing the greater proportion of the congregation ; and they further advised a 
different arrangement of chancel. 

The Church of Old, in tliis county, is also undergoing various alterations 
and improvements. Through some mistake the plans were not submitted to 
the Committee, until a great portion of the work had been done. A Sub-Com- 
mittee, therefore, which was appointed to visit the church, confined their 
remarks, for the most part, to the works still unfinished, and they off'ered 
some suggestions on the position of the font, the arrangement of the organ, 
the proportions of the east window, and on a few other matters. They also 
recommended the plastering of the rude internal walls— a vexed question, upon 
which your Committee will offer a few remarks at the end of this report. 

A sketch of a proposed vestry, and of the addition of a vrooden spire to 
the tower of Rockingham Church was approved by the Committee. 

A very pleasant excursion in the southern part of the county, beginning 
witli a visit to Bijfield, lately restored under the direction of Mr. Hartshorne, 
was made by a large party of Members, on the 9th of June. A detailed account 
of the excursion appeared in the county papers of the same week ; it will, tliere- 
fore, be only necessary here to recount the principal objects of the visit, which 
comprised Charlwelton ; Fawsleij, with its fine old hall and considerable re- 
mains of early work (though the gi-eater portion of the front is modern), the 
picturesque ruin of its l^rick dower-house, each cliimney of which is a study ; 
and the gi'and old oaks of its well undulated park ; Fau:sley Church 
too, deeply embowered in trees, and rich in monuments, some of which 
retain much of tlieir ancient colouring ; Preston Cafes, standing almost 
on a cliff" and overlooking a rich plain, a fine situation for the ancient 
encampment which existed there ; and thence on to Canons Ashhy, where the 
hearty welcome .and sumptuous hospitality of the host and hostess did not 
tend to lessen the admiration bestowed upon the ancient house and its fair- 
terraced and cedar-shaded gardens. Sir Henry Drydeu has been able, by means 
of judicious excavations, to trace out a considerable portion of the old monastic 
buildings, but little is left standing beyond the tower and the two westernmost 
bays of the Abbey Cliurch, and the wall of what is called the vineyard, now 
forming a kitchen garden. The tower is a massive square building of fine 
masonry, the lower stage ornamented with an Early English arcade, of some- 
what later date than the adjoiuing deeper arcade, which flanks the fine western 
doorway of the Church. While the gi'eater portion of the excursionists were 
compelled to wind up here a very pleasant day's ramble, a few were enabled 
to visit the neighbouring Church of Moreton Pinkney. 

Your Committee regret to say that several Members have been lost to the 
Society by death, whilst many new Members have been added to our list. 
The Leicestershire Society invited our Members to join tliem in a meeting in 
September, but as an excursion had been already made in our own county, the 
Committee thought it best to forego the pleasure they would otherwise liave 
had in renewing their brotherhood with the Leicester Arcliffiologists. The 
recollection of the very pleasant meeting at Uppingham, leads your Committee 
to hope that another excursion may shortly be organized in the County of 

EEPORT. Ixxvii. 

Rutland, where there is much to be seen which is new to our Members, and 
which will probably be made more accessible ere long by a new line of railway. 

Some additions have been made to the library, both by donations and by 
purchase of books. 

There is a probability that the plans for the restoration of several churches 
within the Archdeaconry will shortly come before your Committee ; among 
which may be mentioned the beautiful, and in some respects unique, Church 
of Warmington. There has Ijeen some talk of undertaking the work for 
several years, and a Committee of the Society visited the church some years 
since at the request of the Archdeacon, and of the then Incumbent ; but the 
common complaint of the want of funds has hindered the work hitherto. It 
is to be hoped that the efforts now being made to raise funds may be more 

Your Committee have given leave to your Secretary to make a few remarks 
in conclusion, on what they called just now the vexed question of the treat- 
ment of the internal surface of church walls. They invited last year a dis- 
cussion on the subject of plaster oi no plaster, but as no one of our Members 
has volunteered to take up either side of the subject, the following few remarks 
are offered ; not by the whole Committee, but they agree with what your 
Secretary believes to be the opinion of a large majority of its Members. 

Without travelling beyond the boundaries of our own county, we may 
find churches in abundance, in the restoration of which very liberal sums of 
money have been expended ; many portions of which have been admirably 
restored ; whose windows are richly adorned with colour, and M'here there is 
enrichment in wood, and stone, and metal, but whose wall-surfaces resemble 
the rudest barn or stable. It is said by the advocates of this treatment, that 
there is no concealment of the real construction of the walling ; that the varied 
colom' of stone is far more picturesque and warmer than plaster, and that the 
original builders did not intend to lay on thick coatings of mortar, such as are 
now commonly adopted. It is not strange that persons can see nothing to 
admire in a large unbroken surface of plaster, wliich is commonly poor and 
meagre to a degree. It is not, perhaps, strange that there should be a 
strong re-action against that universal face of whitewasli which thirty years 
ago covered wall-surface and stone-dressings alike, of almost all interiors ; but, 
surely, uniformity of whitewash may be departed from, without adopting in 
the most precious, and commonly the most costly of buildings, a treatment 
which we do not tolerate in the meanest cottage. Plaster does not always 
mean concealment, and plaster invites ornamentation of colour and design 
which is not possible in a rough wall : and the picturesque in design and tlie 
warm in colour may be obtained by some other treatment than the rude and 
barbarous. Some large town churches might be mentioned at no great distance, 
in which the interior walling is treated exactly in the same manner as an ex- 
terior wall ; the same pointing to keep out the rain, where rain can never 
come (almost as great a want of truth as some attribute to plaster) ; the external 
walling neatly and fairly dressed, and laid in even closely-jointed courses of 
selected stone ; and the internal wall of tlie rudest unharmonised material, 
laid random-ways, with large open joints, and apparently with a designed 
roughness, the better to hold the thin coating of prepared plaster, to which 
decoration was almost universally applied. 

A quotation may be permitted here from a paper printed in the last number 
of the Associated Volume, and read before the Lincoln Society by G. G. Scott, 
Esq. He says : — " There are some principles common to all periods of art 
which modern architects in mere caprice, or in fretful striving after novelty, 
sometimes venture to depart from. Ever since civilization commenced it has 
been the rule to finish the interior of a building with all possible care. Every 
ancient building, whether of Egyptian, Greek, Iloman, or Mediaeval times, 
was carefully faced internally with wrought stone or plaster, and decorated in 



colour, or it might be, encrusted with marbles or mosaic. The notion of leav- 
ing the interior of the building as rough and rugged as an exterior generally- 
must be, has been from a very early date abandoned by civilized man. It 
has now been revived. The fashion to %vhich ignorance and necessity obliged 
our rude forefathers is now adopted by many of us by choice. This queer 
re-action against modern refinement would perhaps be intelligible, as a mere 
re-action, if it were not oddly enough confined to church architecture. It is 
very difiicult to see why the interior of a church should be made, as it often 
is, to resemble an ancient cairn, or a modern grotto. We see new churches 
whose interiors are faced with rough stock brickwork, relieved perhaps with 
lines of red and black, after the manner of the so-called Turkish baths ; and 
others, where the rudest rubble is pointed with the blackest of artificial mortar, 
ingeniously combining the harshness of barbarism with the disingenousness of 
civilization. It is a duty to protest against making our churches the field for 
the exhibition of such vagaries. Let those who, satiated with feeble refine- 
ment, can find no relief but in still weaker affectation of barbarism, confine 
their tastes to their own drawing-rooms. Let them build their o^vn rooms 
with rough brick or uucoursed rubble, if they like it, but let our churches be 
sjmred. Unfortunately the evil is not confined to new buildings. Numbers 
of fine old churches have been stripped internally, and reduced to a nakedness 
compared with which Puritan whitewash is decency." 

It is ti'ue that among ourselves, decorative art in the treatment of church 
walls is far from being in an advanced state, and among those who have not 
studied the use of colour, there is often a strong prejudice against it, but it 
cannot be doubted that there is a growing appreciation of mural ornament. 
Your Secretary had the opportunity, not long since, of inspecting two experi- 
ments of different treatments of church interiors in a western county, which 
seemed very eff"ective, and he may be permitted to read here an account of those 
two experiments as they are given in an appendix to a very able paper on the 
treatment of the inner face of a church wall, written by an old friend, the 
Rev. T. A. Radford, the Rector of Downe St. Mary, and under whose ausijices 
both experiments have been conducted. 

"Since this paper was written, I have been intimately connected with 
the restoration of two churches, both under the direction of Mr. Gould, as 
architect. In both cases an attempt has been made to treat the inner faces of 
the walls in a manner that is unmistakably inside and not outside woi'k, 
although the materials used in the two, are widely different, the one from the 
other. I will say a few words on each. (1). At Winkley, Mr. Gould, after 
having seen the effect of Sgrafliato plastering, when tried on a small scale by 
Mr. Vickery, the clerk of the works, at once adopted it as most suitable to his 
purpose, painting being impracticable within the time prescribed. The process 
is briefly as follows : — First, mix with the mortar some colouring substance of 
the tint desired for the pattern of your design ; then ajij^ly a thin coat of the 
tinted mortar to the surface of the Vvall ; next, when this coat is nearly dry, 
apply on it another coat similarly prepared, but of the colour intended for the 
grounding, and then, having prepared a mould in zinc of the exact outline of 
the pattern, apply this mould to the wall, mark round its outer edge, and 
finally, with a sharp tool, cut away so much of the upper coat of plaster as 
comes within the pattern, down to the face of the lower coat. By carefully 
arranging your pattern, you may, by this method, employ a considerable 
variety of colouring, or you may even apply three successive coats of diff'ereut 
colours, cutting through sometimes one coat, sometimes two, as you wish to 
exhibit the colour of the intermediate or of the lowest coat respectively. The 
result is really bold and effective ; and, although Sgrafliato work is, of course, 
very inferior to a well painted wall, still it is, on the other hand, a vast improve- 
ment on unrelieved plaster, all of one colour. It has, moreover, two very strong 
points to recommend it. First, its safety, on account of the colour permeating 



tlie whole of each coat of plaster, from any serious injury from scaling ; 
secondly, its comparative cheapness, which would bring it within the reach 
of many to whom painting would be an impossibility ; besides, painting cannot 
be successfully applied to freshly built walls, so tliat even in cases where hopes 
are entertained of ultimately using paint, Sgi'affiato would offer a most con- 
venient present resource, for it could easil)' be so arranged as to be sufficient 
greatly to relieve the monotony of same-coloured mortar for the present, and 
.yet to leave large spaces for painting hereafter. (2.) The work on the new 
south wall of Downe St. Mary is of an altogether different character. Here 
we have endeavoured to arrange the facing stones themselves of the inner 
surface of the wall in a pattern, that shall satisfy the specific requirements of 
wall, as distinct from floor treatment. We did not attempt that kind of 
merely surface ornamentation, so prevalent at All Saints, Jlargaret Street, 
which, however costly and beautiful in itself, would be as suitable for a floor 
as for a wall surface. Ovn- object was not to gain a little artistic effect, by 
introducing here and there a mere patch of mosaic face-work, which, obviously, 
could not be structural, but rather to produce a continuous pattern on the 
wall, such as would satisfy an observer, at a glance, that it was a legitimate 
part and parcel of a vertical surface." 

If large quotations have thus been made from others, it is because one 
has exj^ressed in a very able manner the views on this subject held by many 
of your Committee ; and the other suggests very effective alterations from the 
rudeness of a bare wall. It is well known that there are architects of repute 
who commonly recommend the which is here deprecated ; but it would 
seem that, leaving alone the question what is the best mode of ornamentation 
in itself, or as applicable to this or that style of l)uilding, there must be some 
definite principles, which sliouU regulate the treatment of the insides of our 
church walls, as distinct from that which is suitable to their outer faces. 


For the Year auUng Sept. 30, 1874- 


£. s. d. 
Cash Balance, Sept. 30th, 

1873 115 5 6 

Subscriptions and Arrears 88 10 

Expenses repaid by the 
Leicestershire Architec- 
tural Society .'. 4 6 10 

Interest on Deposit Ac- 
count 4 10 

212 12 4 
Deduct Payments 50 4 1 

Balance in hand 162 8 3 

Deposit Account £150 


£ s. d. 
Secretary and Treasurer : — 
Advertisements, Postage, 

&c 4 11 

Ibb.s, for Printing 2 9 6 

Williamson, for share of 

Associated Volume 24 4 

Wright, Rent of Society's 
Room, Insurance, Atten- 
dance, and Postage of 

Reports 15 7 7 

Harris, Books 3 12 

£50 4 1 

HENRY WARD, Treasukeii. 






The Lord Bishop of Ely. 


The Duke of Manchester. 


Earl Cowper, Lord Lieutenant. 
The High Sheriff. 

The Duke of Bedford. 
Colonel Gilpin, M.P. 
James Howard, Esq. 
F. Bassett, Esq., M.P. 
C. Longuet Higgins, Esq. 

Lieut. -Colonel Higgins. 

J. Harvey, Esq. 

Capt. Polhill-Turner, M.P. 

Joseph Tucker, Esq. 

G. Hurst, Esq., F.S.S., 

Mayor of Bedford. 



Thomas Barnard, Esq, 


Mark Sharman, Esq. | 


Rev. C. C. Beaty-Pownall, F.S.A. 
A. E. BuRCH, Esq. 
Rev. R. G. Chalk. 


Major Cooper Cooper, 
J. N. Foster, Esq. 

C. E. Prior, Esq., M.D. 

F. Howard, Esq. 

D. Cary-Elwes, Esq., F.S.A, 
Rev. A. Orlebar. 

E. Ransom, Esq., F,R,A.S,, 

Dr. Steinmetz. 
Together with the Editorial Committee and Acting Officers of the Society. 

fSUitortal ©ommittft. 

I B. RuDGE, Esq. 

Rev. L. Spencer. 
I Rev. H. J. Williams. 

With the Secretaries. 


G. Elger, Esq., F.R.A.S. 
?^onoravg Setretarifs. 

Rev. W. S. EscoTT. 
W. M. Harvey, Esq. 
Rev, W. Monk, F.S.A. 

Rev. Canon Haddock. 

J. Wyatt, Esq., F.G.S. 

agent anii J^uliUisi^fr. 

Mr. F, Thompson. 

New Members. 

W. F. Higgins, Esq. , Turvey House, Bedford. 
Capt. Montresor, Bedford. 
Capt. Turton, R.N., Bedford. 
A, J, Warwick, Esq., Bedford. 

The Report. 

Advantage was taken of the facility afforded by the direct railway commimi- 
cation now established, to make Northampton the object of our annual 
excursion, which took place on July 30th. In examining the contents of the 
Museum, the party enjoyed the kind assistance of Sir H. Dryden and Samuel 
Sharp, Esq. , under whose valuable escort the churches of St. Sepulchre and 
St. Peter, the Site of the Castle and Queen Eleanor's Cross, were successively 
inspected. After having been hospitably entertained by V. Cary-Elwes, Esq., 
at Great Billing Hall, the company visited the adjacent church, the highly 
interesting CMcrch of Earl's Barton, and Little Billing Church, which com- 
pleted a most attractive programme. In order to give Members residing in 
Bedford, who are otherwise engaged during the day a better ojiportunity of 
taking part in the Society's proceedings, it has been resolved that additional 
meetings shall be held on the first Tuesday in each month, at 7 p.m. ; the 
usual meetings on the third Tuesday, at 2.30 p.m., being still continued. 


For 1874. 

Eeceipts. • 

1874. £ s. d. 

Balance 3 13 2 

Subscriptions and Arrears... 39 6 6 

£42 19 8 


1874. £ s. d. 

Mr. Thompson, account ... 2 4 5 

Mr. Timajiis, ditto 1 19 3 

Rent of Room 12 

Attendance and Fires 14 6 

Mr. Baker 16 

Expenses attending Excur- 
sion 1 18 

Share of Annual Volume 

for 1873 11 18 4 

Postage 5 9 

Balance 11 17 11 

£42 19 8 






His Grace the Duke of ParxLAND. 
The Right Rev. the Lokd Bishop of Peterborotjgh. 


The Worshipful the Mayor of Leicester. 

The Right Honourable the Earl Howe. 

The Right Honourable the Earl of Denbigh. 

The Right Honourable the Earl of Gainsborough. 

The Right Honourable the Lord John Manners, M.P. 

Sir George Howland Beaumont, Baronet. 

Sir William De Capel Brooke, Baronet. 

Sir Frederick T. Fowke, Baronet. 

Sir Arthur Grey Hazlerigg, Baronet. 

Sir Henry St. John Halford, Baronet. 

Sir Geoffry Palmer, Baronet. 

The Venerable the Archdeacon of Leicester. 

William Perry-Herrick, Esquire. 

Edward Bouchier Hartopp, Esquire. 

Major Wollaston. 

Edward Finch Dawson, Esquire. 

William Unwin Heygate, Esquire, M.P. 

Major Freer. 

Harry Leycester Powys-Keck, Esquire. 

Thomas Tertius Paget, Esquire. 

William Ward Tailby, Esquire. 


The Patrons. 

The Presidents. 

All Rural Deans (being Members). 

All Professional Architects (being 

The Rev. C. W. Belgrave. 
The Rev. Canon Burfield. 
Alfred Ellis, Esq. 
The Rev. T. Farebrother. 
Edward Fisher, Jan., Esq. 
The Rev. John Fisher. 
The Rev. J. H. Hill, F.S.A. 
John Hunt, Esq. 

^?onorarp local 

Thomas Ingram, Esq. 
Lieut-Colonel Knight. 
The Rev. W. H. Marriott. 
Tlie Rev. W. B. Moore. 
Fred. Morley, Esq. 
G. C. Neale, Esq. 
G. H. Nevinson, Esq. 
T. Nevinson, Esq. 
The Rev. F. Sutton. 
James Thompson, Esq. 
Captain Whitby. 
Vincent Wing, Esq. 


Market Harhoroiujh District. 
The Rev. J. H. Hill, F.S.A., Cranoe. 

Lutterivorth District. 
The Rev. A. Pownall, F.S.A., South 
Kilvvorth Rectory. 

Melton Moichraij District. 
Vincent Wing, Esq., Melton Mowbray. 

Hinckley District. 
The Rev. Ernest Tower, Earl's 


I^onorarj ©orrrsponUing iWembfr for Cobentvg. 

William George Fretton, Esq., Coventiy. 

?^onovarp Ibetrftaries et t\)e Sotietg. 

Major Bellairs, Leicester. ] Thomas North, Esq., The Bank, 

I Leicester. 


Captain Whitby. 

The Report. 

Report of the Committee for the year 1874, read and adopted at the Annual 
fleeting of Members, held in the Town Library, Gtiild Hall, Leicester, 
25th January, 1875. 

The Committee of the Leicestershire Architectural and Archseological Society, 
beg to present their Report to the Members for the year 1874, just closed. 

In their last Report they recorded a grant made under exceptional circum- 
stances towards the preservation and repairs of some early architectural 
features in the ancient Pai-ish Church of St. Nicolas, Leicester. They now 
have to report that the two interesting Early Norman clerestory windows on 
the north side of the nave, and the Early Norman arcade within the lower 
portion of the tower, are open to view, and are very valuable examples of the 
work of that period. 

The general summer meeting was held in licicester in September last, 
under the presidenc}' of the Worshipful the Mayor (W. Kempson, Esq.). 
Owing partly to the excessive wet weather, and partly to a shorter notice to 
the general public than usual, the attendance was not so large as in previous 
years. At a morning Meeting held in the Guildhall — the proceedings of which 
were opened by an address from the Mayor — notes were contributed by Mr. 
North upon The connection of the Pate Family with Eye-Kcttlchy and Sysonhy 
Co. Leicester. After a discussion upon this Pajjer, and upon other matters 
brought before the meeting, those present visited the ancient Churches of 
Leicester under the guidance of Mr. Thomas Nevison, and many of the 
chief points of archreological interest under that of Mr. James Thompson. 
Major Bellairs raised some interesting questions, and pointed out many features 
of interest in the chapel of Trinity Hospital. At the second public meeting, 
held in the evening, a valuable Paper by Mr. James Tliompson, The Rolls 
of the Mayors of Leicester, was read. The Rev. E. Tower also contributed 
RickardjFowke's Ephemeris, or Thoughts on every day in the year. Notes on 
the weather, d-c, <i'c., 1811 ; and the Rev. J. 0. Picton delivered an extem- 
pore address on " The Suggestiveness of the names of Places." 

The excursion on the following day was under the guidance of Mr. M. H. 
Bloxam, F.S.A., and embraced visits to the Chitrches of Syston, Rearsby, 
Gaddesby, Ashby Folville, Twyford, Queniborough, and Barkby — a cluster of 
village churches as interesting to the ecclesiastical antiquary as any in Leices- 
tershire. These churches were all described by Mr. Bloxam with his usual 

At the bi-monthly meetings of the Society, the following Papers have 
been read : — By Major Bellairs, two Paper.s, one upon some Roman Coffins 
lately found in Leicester, and another upon Trinity Hospital, Leicester. By 
Mr. North, three Papers, in furtlier explanation of the subjects depicted upon 
the ancient stained glass referred to in the last Annual Report, and some notes 
upon the Church Records of Evington. 


Among the objects of interest exhibited at those meetings may be men- 
tioned some fragments of Roman pottery and -glass — the latter of a rare 
character — found on the premises of Mr. Fielding Johnson, in Bond Street, 
Leicester, and shown Ijy Mr. Paget, architect, and some further relics from 
Barrow-on-Soar, exhibited by Messrs. Ellis. 

It will be remembered that in the year 1867, an extremely valuable "find" 
of Roman glass vessels, Roman lamp-stands, and pottery, was reported to this 
Society by Mr. Alfred Ellis, as having been turned up at Barrow. The relics 
lately found were in close proximity to those then discovered, and consist of a 
large amphoi-a, considerably damaged, but apparently as large as the fine one 
discovered in 1867. It contained, when found, charred wood and aslies, with 
some iron nails in excellent preservation. Three ampulhe (with handles) of light- 
coloured pottery in a group, and, near to them, three lamps of tlie same kind 
of eartheuAvare, one of which was internally blackened by use. Another 
ampulla without handles, and a large glass vessel, similar to tliose discovered 
in 1867, with a lead cover, and containing calcined bones, constituted the in- 
teresting "find" reported by Messrs. Ellis The whole of these relics were 
found in a cist about two feet by one foot, which occupied the centre of a space 
enclosed within a low circular wall of rubble Mountsorrel granite about 15 feet 
by 12 feet, indicating the former existence — since levelled — of a tumulus or 
barrow. This had been so much lowered in process of time, that the relics 
were found not more than two feet i'rom the present surface. The several small 
vessels were further protected, separately, by rude cists formed of thin lime- 
stone slabs. Several human skeletons were found much decayed. No coins 
were discovered. 

In their last Report your Committee referred to the eff'orts then being 
made to avert the threatened destruction of the ancient Hospital of William 
of Wyggeston in Leicester. During the past year those ettbrts have not been 
relaxed. "What has been done, and with what result, may be gathered from 
the following report of the Sub-Committee, presented to the Members generally 
at the bi-monthly meeting of the Society held in June last : — 

"The Sub-Committee appointed at a meeting of the Committee of the 
Leicestershire Aiehitectural and Archseological Society, held on the 24th of 
November, 1873, to watch the steps then about to be taken by the Governors 
of the Wyggeston's Hospital and the Town Council, tending to the destruction 
of Wyggeston's Hospital, beg to present tlie following brief report of its pro- 
ceedings : — At the meeting above named, held on the 24th November, 1873, 
the Society protested very strongly against the destruction of the Hospital, and 
the consequent desecration of the chapel. 

"Your Sub-Committee held a meeting on the 28th of November, 1873, 
which was adjourned to the 2nd of December. At this meeting steps were 
taken to procure the proposal of a resolution at tlie then next meeting of the 
Governing Body of Wyggeston's Hospital Schools for the appointment of a 
Committee of tliat body, to inquire into the possibility of repairing and con- 
verting into use, in connection with the proposed new .schools, that part of the 
Hospital lying parallel with the western side of St. Martin's churchyard 
(including the chapel) ; such Committee to be empowered to obtain evidence 
on the subject, and to report thereon at a future meeting of the Governors. 

"At a meeting of your Sub-Committee, held on the 15th December, it 
was reported that the Wyggeston School Board had appointed a Committee in 
conformity with the request just quoted ; and also th.i.t a deputation had been 
appointed by the Board to wait upon tlie Endowed Schools Commissioners, 
but with what object was not known. 

"A draft of a letter to the Endowed Schools Commissioners was read, 
agreed to, and sent. This was formally acknowledged by the Secretary to the 
Commissioners under date of 16th December, 1873. 

"On the 17th December, your Sub-Committee held another meeting, at 
which the Report of Mr. Goddard, architect, was received as to tlie present 

VOL. XII., PT. II. d 


condition of tlie Hospital. Mr. Goddard reported that in his opinion a com- 
paratively small outlay in judicious repairs would render the edifice sufficiently 
sound to last a great number of years. The meeting was then adjourned until 
the next day — 18th December — when it was resolved that a copy of Mr. 
Goddard's Re])ort be sent to the Governing Body of Wyggeston's Schools with 
an explanatory letter. This was accordingly done. 

"The next meeting of your Sub-('ommittee was held on the 5th Januarj- 
last, when the reply of the Governing Body of the Wyggeston Schools to the 
above-mentioned letter and report was read. Their clerk, writing by direction 
of the Board, said ' The Governors have come to the conclusion that it is not 
desirable to endeavour to retain the old building, and thus to disturb the 
arrangement made between the Trustees of the Hospital and the Town 
Council. ' The clerk then goes on to say that every care should be taken of 
monuments, &c. , within the chapel, and concludes with an expression of regret 
that necessity obliged the removal of the old building. 

"Such being the answer, your Sub-Committee resolved to address the 
Bishoji of the Diocese, requesting him to pause before giving his consent 
(should it be required by law) for the destruction of the Hospital, and the pro- 
bable disturbance of the interments. This was accordingly done. 

"On the 13th of January, your Sub-Committee again met, when a courteous 
reply from the Bishop of the Diocese to their memorial to him, was read ; and 
it was resolved that a memorial be presented to the Corporation of Leicester, 
requesting them to defer the widening of that part of Peacock Lane in which 
the chapel of the Hospital stands until arrangements could lie made for doing 
so on the opposite side of the street. At a further meeting held on the 22nd 
June last, it was reported that the memorial just referred to had been drawn 
up and signed by a small number of the inhabitants of Leicester ; but that 
before many signatures could be obtained, an advertisement aj^peared in the 
local papers stating that the materials of the whole of the houses and build- 
ings belonging to the Wyggeston School Board, including the Hospital, would 
be sold by auction. This being the case, it appeared that it would be useless 
to proceed with the memorial. Afterwards, however, the Hospital itself was 
withdrawn from the sale, and it was privately, but unofficially, intimated that 
if a reasonable price was offered for the Hospital (exclusive of the wing running 
westwardly), the Governors of the Schools might be induced to entertain the 
projjosal. It was therefore resolved to call a special meeting of the General 
Committee of the Society, on the 30th instant, to consider the possibility of 
making another eftbrt to save the building from destruction. 

"This meeting of the General Committee was accordingly held on the 
30th of June, at which it was resolved that an application be made to 
Wyggeston Hospital School Governors, requesting them to postpone the re- 
moval of the old Hcspital, with the view to afford this Society an opportunity 
of making an otter to them for its purchase, with or without the Master's 
House. A copy of this resolution was forwarded to the Clerk of the Governors 
of the Schools, who acknowledged its receipt, and stated that it would be 
brought before the Governors on the following Wednesday. 

" Your Sub-Committee have finally to report that your Honorary Secretary 
has received the following communication : — 

• 22^ Friar-lmie, 

' Leicester, 9t.h July, 1874. 

'Dear Sir, — I beg to enclose a copy of a resolution passed by the Gover- 
nors of Wyggeston's Hospital School, at their meeting yesterday, with respect 
to the application from the Archaeological Society. 

' Yours truly, 

' (Signed) ' A. H. Burgess, 
'G. C. Bellairs, Esq., 

' The Newarke.' 



"That the Clerk be instnicted to acknowledge the receipt of the letter 
from the Archseological Society, and inform them that the removal of the old 
Chapel, Hospital, and Master's House will not be proceeded with at present, 
but that the Governors cannot hold out any expectations of their entertaining 
an application to purchase the buildings." 

The best thanks of the Society are due to the gentlemen forming the Sub- 
Committee, whose Report your Committee have now placed before you. Sir 
Henry Dryden, Bart., having visited Leicester, and taken accurate working 
drawings of the Hospital, your Committee have, with his kind permission, 
secured correct copies for the use of your Society. Your Committee have 
finally to congiatulate you upon the continued prosperity of the Society, and 
to solicit your hearty co-operation in its objects during the coming year. 


1874. £ s. d. 

Jan. 1. Balance from last 

Account 60 7 5 

Subscriptions and 

Arrears received 

dui-ing the year... 85 11 

£145 18 5 


Jan. 1. Balance in hand... £24 16 11 

1874. £ s. d. 

Feb. Grant for Transactions 35 

Engi-aving 15 6 

Sep. Expenses of Leicester 

Meeting 12 9 6 

Do. of Coventry Meet- 
ing, 1873, in part... 4 6 10 
Nov. Williamson, for An- 
nual Volume 32 2 6 

Tomlinson, for Draw- 
ings of Wyggeston 

Hospital 8 8 

Mr. Jewitt, for "Re- 
liquary" 9 14 

Dec. Royal Archseological 

Institute 110 

Rent of Room 5 

Mr. Clarke, Printing. 5 7 6 

Advertising 5 8 4 

Postage and Sundries 18 4 

Balance 24 16 11 

£145 18 5 

Examined and found correct, 








His Grace the Lord Archbishop of York. 
His Grace the Duke of Norfolk, E.M. 
His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, K.G. 
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. 
The Right Hon. the EXrl of Scarbrough. 
The Right Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam, K.G. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Wharncliffe. 
The Right Hon. Lord Howard of Glossop. 
Hon. F. D. Stuart Wortley 
Rev. Canon Sale, D.D. 
Sir John Brown. 

Rev. J. St AC ye. 

W. Bragge, Esq. 
J. Guest, Esq. 
Dr. Hime. 
E. S. Howard, Esq. 

J. Barber, Esq. 
B. Bagshaw, Jim., Esq. 
J. D. Leader, Esq. 
Thos. Brown, Esq. 


Dr. Gatty. 

R. N. Philipi's, Esq., F.S.A. 

A. Ward, Esq. 

vC ontmittcf. 

I H. F. Criguton, Esq. 

fj. Fawcett. Esq. 
J. D. Webster, Esq. 
Edwd. Wilson, Esq, 
Newbuuld, Esq. 

J. D. Le/U)ER, Esq. 

f^onorarp Sftrfiavtes. 
J. Fawcett, Esq. | J. D. Webster, Esq. 

H. F. Crighton, Esq. 


Tlie Churches of Mansfield and other Parishes visited by the 
Society ov the 23rd and 2Jf.tli of June, 187 Jf. — By the Venerable 
Edward Trollope, M.A., F.S.A., Archdeacon of Stow. 

St. Peter's, Mansfield. 

As in the time of Edward the Confessor and William the Conqueror, 
so now there, are two churches in Mansfield, although one of these 
has only been built so recently as 185G, through the munificent 
bequest of the late Mr. Gaily Knight, viz., — that of St. John the 
Baptist. The other church, has recently undergone a complete 
restoration, which has not only served to repair the structure, 
but to remove a terrible cloud of galleries and pews that formerly 
oppressed its interior, and to exchange old things for new, so 



as to fit it for what it Avas originally intended to be, namely, 
a house of prayer for the parishioners in general, in which 
they may worship as brethren Avithout any obstruction fron^ old 
illegal but assumed rights, now hap2:)ily abandoned. The flibric 
consists of a tower and small spire, a nave Avith north and south 
aisles and porches, a chancel AA'ith aisles, and a low A^estry in an 
unusual position, viz., at the east end of the chancel. The oldest 
fragment of any church here is a vousoir of the Norman period, 
enriched A\dth the chevron ornament, now built into the outer face 
of the Avail of the southern chancel aisle near the vestry ; but the 
earliest portion of the actual fabric is the tower. This is of the 
Norman period ; its Avest doorAvay and general construction, all 
pointing to that date externally, as Avell as the plain square piers of 
the very large arch within, opening into the nave. Above this is an 
unusually large arched aperture for the use of the sacristan, con- 
nected Avith the bell-chamber, and in the north-Avest angle is the 
staircase, only indicated externally by the little slits lighting it. 
Another relic of a church of this date is the mark left by the 
weathering of its roof on the eastern face of the toAver, Avhence Avhat 
was its pitch is still distinctly seen. , At first this toAver Avas pro- 
bably surmounted by a belfry stage and plain parapet, but this has 
been replaced by a handsome one of the fourteenth century, having 
an embattled parapet, and a small spire apparently of a much later 
period, if the present lights are coeA^al Avith it, Avhich they appear to be. 
The next portion as to date is the nave Avith its aisle, arcades, origi- 
nally entirely of the Early English period, but subsequently con- 
siderably heightened. These are noAV lofty, most gracefid, and very 
delicately moulded. They consist of four bays each, and their pillar 
shafts spring from square sub-bases, and then lobated bases proper, 
having delicately wrought Avater moiddings. The caps are similarly 
treated, Avhence spring light airy arches of an admirable character. 
The chancel arch is of the same period. The Avail of the north 
aisle still retains one of its lancet lights, but in this a two-light 
windoAV, A\ath a quatrefoil above of an excellent character AA^as 
afterAvards inserted. The hood-mould terminals of this AAdndow 
are turned out and then abruptly cut short in an unusual manner ; 
there is also a modern three-light Avindow in this aisle Avail. 
Externally tAvo fourteenth-century sepulchral slabs have been used 
in the construction of the north-Avest buttress of this aisle. In 
the south aisle there are segmental arched three-light Avdndows, 
restored after an original one still remaining toAvards the west 
end of about 1330-50. Within the new porch, attached to 
the aisle, is an Early English doorAvay, and at the Avest end of this 
aisle is a small one, noAV Availed up, Avhich probably once gave 
access to a sepulchral chapel or vault. The clerestory is late Per- 
pendicular or Tudor, and the roof, Avhicli has lately been restored, 


is a comely one. The chancel aisles are Perpendicular additions 
to the church, and open into it by means of arcades of two bays 
each, now filled with good oak screens of a very pleasing character. 
There were ten chantries formerly attached to this church, the en- 
dowments of wliich were given by Queen Mary to Christopher 
Grainger, the then vicar, and the churchwardens, for the mainten- 
ance of a priest. Probably there were never as many chantry 
cltapels here, but traces of three still remain, viz., at the east end of 
the south aisle of the nave, and in both chancel aisles. The one on 
the north Avas dedicated in honour of St. Lawrence, the correspond- 
ing one on the south, noAV used as a morning chapel, in honour of 
the Virgin Mary. The jamb of a little agioscope between the 
southern chapel and the chancel is composed of an old tombstone, on 
which part of a cross, a square, and a pair of compasses are incised, 
which no doubt originally commemorated an architect or a mason. 
On the north side of the chancel is a credence, and at the east end 
of the adjoining south aisle is an ogee-arched doorAvay opening into 
a vestry that has been lately rebuilt. In the wall of the nave 
aisle on this side is an arched sepulchral recess, within which is the 
recumbent effigy of a civilian, simply attired in a tunic of a date 
about 1350. This tunic is buttoned down the front Avith many 
buttons, but slightly opiened below, and encircled at the waist with 
a strap having a long end to it. Two figures of angels support the 
head, and a Hon stands at the feet. This has long been called 
the effigy of Cecily Flogan, a benefactress of Mansfield, who died 
in the reign of Henry VIII., but both the date and sex of tliis effigy 
protest against that popular assumption. On the north side of the 
altar lies buried the body of Dorothy, the first wife of Gervase Holies, 
the antiquary, who died in childbed, and that of her infant. Frag- 
ments of a stone slab, having the incised effigy of a priest upon it, 
were found during the recent restoration of this church ; and also 
a very interesting little slab, bearing on one side of the usual cross, 
a square-headed window, and on the other an arched-headed one 
similar to some in this church, whence we may reasonably suppose 
that this slab commemorated one who had contributed towards the 
cost of these windows, or had toiled at them as a mason. 

From Gervase Holies we learn that there were, in his time, the 
following armorial bearings displayed in the windows of this church, 
viz., England, Pierrepont, Man vers, Herries, Ferrers, Darcey, and 

St. Edmund's, Mansfield Woodhouse. 

The term "Woodhouse applied to this place is most appropriate, 
for until comparatively recent times it must have been surrounded 
by the trees of Sherwood Forest, which in Leland's days reached 
to Mansfield itself ; for, after mentioning how he " rode through 


Sherwood Forest, where is great game of deer," he says he arrived 
at a little poor street "at the end of this wood." And that in days 
of old there was inconvenience from the vast forest around Mans- 
field is manifest from the fact that in the reign of Henry VI., Sir 
Robert Plumhton was holding a piece of ground in Mansfield 
Woodhouse by the service of sounding a horn to drive away the 

The church of Mansfield Woodhouse was almost entirely re- 
built about twenty years ago, and supplied with fittings of Jamaica 
cedar ; but the old tower, the south aisle arcade, and a small chapel 
of the Tudor period, on the south side of the chancel, consti- 
tute portions of the present fabric. In a Forest book written 
1520-33, is the following entry quoted by Thoro ton : "Be it had 
in mynd that the ToAvne of Mansfield Woodhouse was burned the 
Saturdaye nexte afore the Fest of Exaltation of the holy crosse, the 
yere of our Loj-d mccciiii. ; and the Kirk Stepull, with the 
belles of the same, for the Stepull was afore of tymber worke ; and 
part of the Kyrk Avas burned." This gives us the date of the 
present tower from historical as well as arcliitectural evidence, and 
fixes it at about 1306. It is a fine, large, and most remarkable 
feature, surmounted by a broach spire of coeval date. It has a 
lower range of spu'e lights of large size, boldly projecting from the 
spire, and an upper unpierced one constituting a coronal almost at 
its apex, and giving it a very peculiar appearance. The arch below, 
opening into the nave, consists of three plain chamfered members. 
In the chapel built by one of the Digby family, so famous for its 
loyalty to Charles I., on the south side of this church, is a monu- 
ment to Sir John and Lady Digby, and some remains of painted 
glass in the east Avindow. Outside is a tablet in memory of William 
Tunstall, of this place, who was taken prisoner at the battle of 
Preston, in 1715, but was pardoned by the king. In this parish 
was born George Mason, Bishop of Sodor and Man, 1780; and 
here is a beautiful little house of the time of Charles I., well 
worthy of examination. This was built by William Clarkson, in 
1631, and has a large gabled central feature, and a similar one 
projecting from the main portion of the house behind, but not 
corresponding with it. It is supplied with numerous mullioned 
windows, and in its western wing is a charming oak panelled 
room, having a deep freize, and a ceiling of highly enriched 
plaster work. On the first appears in relief a mother or nurse, 
with a child upon a pony, a shepherd chasing a fox that is 
carrying off a lamb, birds, fruit, scrolls, &c. ; and on the ceiling is 
a mermaid with a double tail, another with a glass in which her 
face is repeated in rdlef, instead of being reflected, and holding a 
comb, an eagle, a dog, dragon, griffin, &c., all worked by hand after 
the manner of the plaster work at Hard wick Hall. 


St. Michael's, Pleasley. 

It was fully intended tliat a short visit should be paid to this 
church ; but from want of time that intention was reluctantly 
abandoned. % 

It stands on a little well chosen eminence, inviting attention, 
which it deserves. Its earliest feature is its fine large Norman 
chancel arch. This springs from plain square piers only ornamented 
with little pillars at its westward angles ; but the arch itself is 
enriched with two roll-moulds, then another mould having a double 
row of billets cut upon it, and lastly a cable-mould. The nave, 
porch, and chancel are late Early English, and are deficient in base 
moulds. There are two lancets in the north wall of the nave, one 
in the south wall, and one in the north wall of the chancel. 

In the south wall of the nave are tAvo two-light mndows of the 
intersecting arch type. Besides these there is a Decorated window 
inserted in the south wall of the chancel, and towards its eastern 
end is an external structural projection, probably intended to form 
a sedUe recess, but of which no signs now remain within. Internally 
over the east window is a bold roll-mould. 

The tower is a fair specimen of the Perpendicular period, which 
gains much from the elevated site on which this church is built. 

All Saints, Scarcliffb. 

Here are some features still remaining of a Norman church, 
although this has for the most part passed away, viz., the doorway 
within the south porch, and the piers of the chancel arch. The 
first is a beautiful specimen of its period. Its jamb shafts have 
delicately carved scalloped cushion caps, its semicircular head is 
relieved by a roll moulding, and the lower part of its tympanum is 
enriched with a band of very delicate carving. 

The piers of the chancel arch have also pillars of the same 
character, from which now rises a later pointed arch. 

The greater part of the rest of the fabric, excepting tlie modern 
tower, is Early English. The aisle, of an early date in this period, 
consists of four bays having varied piUars and responds, the eastern 
respond and the first pillar have octagonal shafts, the corresponding 
features at the west end having circular shafts, and the central 
pillar a clustered one, and the nail-head ornament worked upon its 
cap. At the north-east end of this aisle is a carved statue bracket 
with a fragment of the canopy above, and here also may be seen 
the doorway of the now lost rood-loft. In the south wall of the 
nave a single lancet still remains, to which has been added a 
Decorated one containing a remnant of painted glass. In the north 
wall is a poor Perpendicular two-light window, and two other 
windows of a debased character. In the north wall of the chancel 


is another lancet with a Decorated one on either side of it and 
another at the east end. In the south wall of the chancel is a 
restored doorway, now blocked up, and a lancet window ; and in 
the north wall are two short lancets, a longer one eastward of these, 
and also a subsequently inserted Decorated window. 

On the south ?ide of the chancel arch is an aumbry, and in the 
pavement a small slab, on which is cut a fleur-de-lis in high relief. 
In the south wall, "s^dthin the sacrarium, is a piscina of peculiar 
constniction, having an horizontal channel serving as an outlet, and 
close to this is a second one of the ordinary character. 

But perhaps the most interesting object in this church is a very 
beautiful recumbent effigy of a lady and her child of the thirteenth 
century. She is represented in a long gown and mantle, upheld 
beneath her right arm, and fastened across the breast by a strap, 
which she is holding down with her hand. Her hair is arranged 
in large plaits, and a beautiful coronet encircles her head. With 
her left arm she embraces her little boy, whose feet are supported 
by a piece of conventional foliage issuing from the ground, and 
whose head rests upon a lion's tail, couched at the head of his 
mother. He is dressed in a simple plaited gown, Avith a folded 
handkerchief roimd his neck, and a strap round his waist. With his 
right hand he is represented as lovingly toiiching his mother's face, 
and with his left he holds the end of a long label, on which is cut 
the following legend in Leonine verse : — 

Hie sub hunio strata, 

Mulier jacet tumulata 

Constans et grata, 

Constancia jure vocata 

Cu genetrice data 

Proles requiescit huniata. 

Quamquani peccata, 

Capita ejus sint cumulata, 

Crimine purgata, 

Cum X'i'ole lohanne beata, 

Vivat prefata, 

Sanctorum secle locata. — Amen. 

From the dress of this effigy, and especially from the character of 
the foliage, serving as an accessory, we gather that it is a work of the 
thirteenth century, and conclude that she was a member of the 
Frechville ftxmily, and not improbably the sister of Herbert Fitz- 
Ralph, Baron of Cricke and Lord of ScardecHve (Scarcliffe), the 
wife of Geofiry de Constantine ; whence the use of the term constans 
and the name Constancia would be naturally used by the author of 
the Leonine lines serving as her epitaph. — (Pedigree of the Frech- 
ville Family in the Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica,Yol.lY.) 
But a romance respecting her has long been current that, lost in the 
forest, formerly around Scarcliffe, she eventually reached the village 
through the sound of its church bell at Curfew time, but that 


then, through her sufferings, she prematurely gave birth to an infant 
and died, after which as no one knew where she came from, nor 
who she was, her jewels were sold, and the proceeds invested in 
land, the rent of which was dedicated to the payment of a person 
for ringing the church bell for an hour during every winter's night. 

St. Mary's, Bolsover. 

This church has a striking and peculiar appearance at a distance, 
from the unusual outline of its spire, and its long and nearly 
uniform line of roof. It consists of a tower, spire, nave, aisles, 
chancel, and a sepulchral chamber. The earliest features are the 
Norman piers of the chancel arch. These are enriched with a 
central circular shaft and a subordinate one one either side, having 
scalloped cushion caps, and carry a poor arch that has been 
substituted for the original one. But the chief and most interest- 
ing portion of this church is the tower with its spire. This is a 
large solid simple structure of the Early English period, circa 1230, 
and consists of two stages, having a lancet light in its western face, 
and a staircase in its south-western angle. Above a simple string 
and a set-off rises the second stage, in the north, south, and west 
faces of which are coupled lancets beneath semicircular hood-moulds, 
and a single lancet in the remaining face. From the tower rises a 
broach spire, the angle-hoods of which, instead of running up 
gradually to the alternate faces of the spire above, as usual, are 
truncated, and then above a little moulding are gathered in abruptly, 
which gives a peculiar rounded appearance to this portion of the 
spire at a distance. Another moulding encircles this spire above. 
It is lit by two tiers of plain single lancets, and surmounted by a 
poor finial, and a weathercock. 

On the eastern wall of the tower the weathering, or water table 
of the coeval nave roof still remains, the apex of which reaches 
nearly to its summit, so that its re-erection at so high a pitch would 
by no means be desirable. Below is a good arch, which it is to be 
hoped will soon once again open into the nave, and that the injury 
done to the spire by lightning some years ago may at the same 
time be remedied. Over the priests' doorway in the south side of 
the chancel is a moulded semicircular headed iJ^orman head of a 
doorway, on the tympanum of which is carved in low relief a 
representation of Christ upon a cross of an early form, with the 
blessed Virgin Mary on one side and St. John on the other. 
Here also is a little cusped-headed low-side window surmounted by 
a square-headed hood-mould. The east window of the chancel is a 
good four-light Decorated one, and at the west end of the south 
aisle is a Perpendicular window of three lights. All the other 
windows of this church have been sadly mutilated, and deprived 
of their tracery. 


From the east end of the nave on the south side projects, in a 
transeptal fashion, the Cavendish sepulchral chamber, which from 
the blank face of its southern wall, relieved only by a dial, injures 
the appearance of this elevation of the church. It bears the 
Cavendish motto, " Cavendo tutus," just below its embattled 
parapet. The south aisle arcade, of the Decorated style, consists 
of four bays supported by clustered pillars and responds. The 
nave roof is a good one of the Perpendicular period, but the one 
covering the south aisle is Avretched. The tracery in the heads of 
most of the "s^dndoAvs of this church has been destroyed, and its 
present seating and fittings sadly require revolutionary treatment 
to make them worthy of the fine old structure they now encumber. 

Below the Cavendish burial place, before spoken of, is a vault, 
containing the remains of many of its members, and above, on 
either side, are two grand monuments. One of these commemorates 
Sir Charles Cavendish, who died 1617, and his Avife, Catherine, 
Baroness Ogle, by whom this monument was erected. Upon a 
base, their effigies lie in a recumbent position, his in armour, and 
hers in the dress of her period. 

The epitaph is as follows : — 

His posteritie 
of him 

To Strangers. 
Charles Cavendish was a man 

Knowledge, zeale, sincerity, religiovs 
experience, discretion, com-age, made valiant. 
Reading, conference, judgment, — learned. 
Religion, valour, learning, made wise. 
Birth, merits, favovr, — noble. 
Respect, meanes, charities, made bovntifvll. 
Eqvitie, conscience, office, — • jvst. 
Nobilitie, bountye, jvstice, — honorable. 
Counsell, ayde, secrecie, — a ti'usty friend. 
Love, trust, constancie, made a kind hvsband. 
Affection, advise, care, — a loving father. 
Friends, wife, sounes, made content. 
Wisdome, honor, content, 
made Happy. 

From which happiness he was translated to the better on the 4 of April, 
1617. Yet not without the sad and weeping remembrance of his sorrowful 
Lady, Katherine, second daughter to Cvthbert, late Lord Ogle, and sister to 
Jane, present Countess of Shrewsbvry. She of her piety with her two remain- 
ing sons have dedicated this hvmble monvment to his memor}', and do all 
desire in their time to be gathered, expecting the happy hour of resurrection, 
when the garments here putting off, shall be put on glorified. 

Charles Cavendish, AVilliam Cavendish, Charles Cavendish, 

Esqviere. Knight Bath. Esqviere. 


Sonnes seeke not me among these polished stones 
These only hide part of my flesh and bones 
AVhi(;h did they nere so neate or provdly dwell 
Will all be dvst and may not make me swell 
Let svch as j vastly have ovt liv'd all prayer 
Trvst in the tombes their carefnll frends do raise 
I made my life my monvment, and yours, 
To which there's no materiall that eudvres 

Nor yet inscription like it write, bvt that, 

And teach yovr nephews it to emvlate 

It will be matter lovde enovgh to tell 

Not when I died, but how I Lived,— Farewell. 

Opposite to this monument is a still grander one, erected by 
Henrietta Cavendish Holies, wife of Edward Harley, second Earl 
of Oxford, and only child of Henry Cavendish, second DiUce of 
Newcastle, and Margaret, daughter of John Holies, Earl of Clare. 
By this monument she coimuemorated her grandfather, Henry, 
second Duke of Newcastle, her mother, the Countess of Clare, and 
other members of her faniily. It is composed of Italian marbles, 
and chiefly consists of four pillars supporting a j)ediment. The 
epitaph runs thus : — 

In the vault here underneath are desposited the remains 

The Most Noble Hy. Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, who departed this life at 
his house at Welbeck, in the County of Nott., at the age of 60 years and 32 
days, upon the 12th of Aug., in the year of our Lord 1()9L 

Frances, Duchess of Newcastle, and wife to Henry, who dyed at London, on 
23rd Sept., 1695. 

and of 
Margaret, 3rd daughter and heir to the said Henry, and wife to the most 
noble Jno. HoUea, Duke of Newcastle, who was here interred on the 5th of 
January, 1716. 

In the same vault lyeth also the body of 

Charles, Lord Viscount Mansfield, eldest son to William, Duke of Newcastle. 

Within this vault doth likewise lye the body of S'- Charles Cavendish, younger 
brother to the renowned W"' Duke of Newcastle. 

To tlie memory of these, her ancestors and relations, this monument was 
erected by the direction of the Uiglit Honourable the Lady Henrietta 
Cavendish Holies Harley, Countess of Oxford and Countess Mortimer, in the 
year of our Lord 1727. 

" The only child of Henry Duke of Newcastle and Margaret 
his E)uchess, was a daughter, married in 1734 to William Bentick, 
second Duke of rortland." 

The late Duke of Portland was the last member of the family 
buried here. 




St. John Baptist's, Ault Hucknall. 

Here are considerable remains of a small IS'orman cluirch, viz., 
a portion of the tower, the north aisle and its arcade, and the 
chancel arch. In the west face of the tower is a small but very 
curious semicircular-headed doorway, now blocked up. On the im- 
post of this is carved St. Michael, holding a heater-shaped shield of a 
distinctly Norman character, in his contest with the dragon. On the 
tympanum above is a still more curious carving of a cognate subject, 
the meaning of which, however, requires elucidation. On the left 
is a centaur-like figure, half woman, half animal, in a dress having 
large open sleeves, holding a ijalm-branch in her right hand and a 
crosier in her left. On the right, and corresponding with this 
figure, is a monster, at the end of whose tail, raised above his back, 
is a small roundel marked with a cross. Behind this is a subor- 
dinate figure resembling a dog. Perhaps this strange device was 
intended to exhibit the warfare between Christ and His Church 
and Antichrist, and that the sign of the cross is placed in contempt 
at the end of the emblematical figure's tail. An engraving of this 
very curious piece of sculpture is subjoined. 

Above this doorway a good three-light Decorated window was 
inserted, 1320-50, but traces of two small Nonnan lights and a 
circlet still exist above this. At the west end of the north aisle is 
a small coeval semicircular-headed Norman light. 


The simple stepped and chamfered plinth of this aisle may be 
traced along its north side, and also at the east end. Within, is a 
coeval arcade consisting of two very wide arches, supported by an 
oblong massive central j)ier and corresponding square responds. In 
the north wall of this aisle two Tudor windows have taken the 
place of the original ones. 

The chancel arch springs from similar piers, and is enriched by 
a roll-moidd changing into chevron work at the centre, a piece of 
Avhicli is also inserted horizontally at its base on either side ; but 
elsewhere it is overlaid with human heads, and those of animals and 
birds. No doubt this has been rebuilt, which accounts for this 
peculiarity, when also a small outer sham member hi plaster was 
superadded to this fine old arch. 

The south aisle arcade of three bays is Early Enghsh, the 
easternmost portion of which constituted a chapel. 

The tower is Perpendicular, and in the coeval aisle against it is 
the bowl of an old font lately recovered from a farm-yard in 
Staveley, since the introduction of the present beautiful font that 
has well taken the place of a Avretched predecessor. 

The introduction of a good many late windows into the walls 
of this church may be reasonably attributed to the famous Elizabeth 
Hardwicke, Countess of Shrewsbury, as these are of her period. 
The chancel is small. In the south wall is an Early English 
piscina, and under an arch here is an altar-slab, still bearing its five 
crosses. Here is a saciing bell, formerly rung at the elevation 
of the host. In the pavement is a small brass plate commemorating 
Eichard Pawson, a former vicar of this parish. At the east end of 
the chantry chapel, adjoining the chancel on the south, is a marble 
monument erected in honour of Anne, wife of Henry de Ivighley, 
of Yorkshire, sm-mounted by five little statuettes of Modesty, Pru- 
dence, Charity, Keverence, and Piety. In the window above it are 
some remnants of painted glass, among Avhich are representations of 
Christ upon the Cross, St. Edmund holding an Arrow, and three 
groups of ladies kneeling in devotion before prayer-desks. 

Here also is the grave and gravestone of Thomas Hobbes, the 
doubting philosopher, commonly called Hobbes of Malmesbury, the 
author of De Cor pore Politico, Dc Give, T/ie Leviathan, (^c, who 
was tutor to the sons of the Earl of Devonshire, and died aged 91, 
in 1607. 

St. Catherine's, Tevbrsall. 

Here is an interesting relic of the Norman ])eri()d, viz., a semi- 
circular-headed NoriiKUi (l(j()rway within the })()rch, on the south 
side of the nave. This differs from the usual specimens of its time, 
because it has no jamb pillars, and simply consists of two 


chamfered orders, surmounted by a hood-moidd terminating on one 
side with an animal's head, and on the other with a small human 
figure having the hands upraised in prayer. The outer order is 
enriched with a bold diagonal decoration, for the most part, but 
curiously changing into a series of ornaments like pillar caps on 
either side below, some of Avhich are reversed, and yet hardly 
appear to be insertions. On the face of the second order is a series 
of roundels having varied borders, and differing in size, but into 
which a pointed oval is introduced containing a figure of our 
Lord, in the attitude of blessing. In these roundels are figures of 
the Holy Dove, the emblematical sacrificial Lamb, an encircled 
snake as an emblem of eternity, several crosses and other devices, 
one of which consists of three fish, or lucies. Above this doorway 
is a shield. 

The greater part of the fabric of this church is Early English, 
viz., the tower, now much concealed by ivy, the nave and chancel. 
Both the aisle arcades are of this period, although differing consider- 
ably in character. One of these has semicircular-headed arches, the 
corresponding one has higher pointed arches, and its pillar caps are 
enriched with the nail-head ornament. The chancel arch is of the 
same date and character as this last. 

Here is a valuable sjiecimen still remaining of a lord of the 
manor's stately pew of the time of Charles I. From the angle of 
its lofty oak-panelled enclosure rise t^visted oak pillars supporting 
a coved canopy j but although interesting as a relic of the past, we 
should not desire to see such structures repeated in the nineteenth 
century. In the tower is a fourteenth-century tomb-stone, on Avhich 
is carved, as usual, a stemmed cross. 

The family of Barre, or Barry, first held the manor liere from 
the time of the Conquest, after which it jDassed into the Greenehalge 
family, in the time of Henry VI., or Edward IV., through the 
marriage of Christiana, daughter of John and Elizabeth Barry, with 
a Greenehalge. 

Their grandson Eoger, by his will, desired to be buried in the 
south aisle of TeversaU Church, near the altar, and gave £60 to the 
poor on the day of his funeral, and £40 more at a month's end 
from that time, to be dispensed in charity, £20 to the Teversall 
Church, £40 for mending the parish highways, legacies to various 
poor persons, mourning to his relations and friends, and £50 to- 
wards the purchase of land for the maintenance of a free school at 
Mansfield. Over his grave, and that of his wife, Avere erected 
alabaster altar tombs. On the side of the first was a shield bearing 
a bend engrailed charged with 3 hunters' horns stringed, quartering 
Barry, and impaling Babington. On the. slab of this, wliich still 
remains, the effigy of lioger Grcnehalgh is incised, Avhich rejjresents 
him beneath a Ilenaissance canojiy, in a furred gown having a cape. 


and hanging sleeves, and Avitli round-toed shoes. His head rests upon 
an embroidered cushion, and the following legend runs roiiud the 
edge — " Orate pro anima Eoger Grenehalge, arniigeri doniinus qoda 
istius ville, qui quidem Eoger us obiit vicessimo tertio die uiensis 
Januarii a° dni milessimo ccccc° sexagesimo secildo, cui aie ppiciet 
Deus. Amen." The slab of his wife's sepulchral slab is adorned 
with a richly foliated cross, and around it the following border 
legend : — " Orate p aiab Eogeri Grenehalge arniigeri et Anne uxoris 
sue uni filia Thome Babington de Dethyk que quidem Ann* obiit 
xix° die Junii anno dni millesimo ccccc°^° xxxviii° quorum aiab 
ppieietur deus ame." Tlirough the marriage of Elizabeth, grand- 
daughter of Eoger Grenehalge, with Francis Molyneux, the Manor 
of Teversall passed into his family, which is still connnemoratecl 
here by some monuments, but is noAV the proj^erty of the Earl of 

St. Mary's, Blidworth. 

Although architecture is our peculiar study, it has been thought 
desirable to visit Blidworth, where the church is not very attractive 
in itself, on the way to JS^ewstead Abbey, because of the beauty of its 
situation and its historical interest. In the valley below is an enor- 
mous mass of conglomerate, 14 feet high and 84 feet in circumfer- 
ence, slightly hollowed, and near to it a smaller mass. These have 
been called Druid stones, but have probably been deposited where 
they now are by glacial action. In Blidworth Dale King John had 
a hunting palace, and here, tradition says, the great Elizabeth stayed 
awhile, perhaps also to enjoy some hunting at the Queen's BoAver, 
on one of her jjrogresses ; Avhilst in days when great ecclesiastics 
hunted, and even Archdeacons haAvked in going from jioint to 
point on their Visitations, the Archbishops of York, formerly the 
Lords of this manor, attended by some of the Canons of York, and 
many foresters and servants, hunted for three days about the 
time of the greater festivals ; but here also are some scenes 
perhaps more attractiA'e than all, because they are not only beautiful 
in themselves, but associated Avith one of the most popular names 
in English legendary history- — Eobin Hood, and a most delightful 
Avriter of this century — Walter Scott. Here is Fountain Dale, 
once said to have been inhabited by an early specimen of muscular 
Christianity, in the person of the Clerk of Copmanhurst, or Friar 
Tuck, but one that I hope is too far advanced for any modern 
clerks to copy exactly ; and on the confines of this parish a former 
Bishop of Hereford is said to liaA^e been comi)elled by Eobin Hood 
to dance in anytliing but a gleeful mood after the abstraction of 
his jmrsc. 

IJnfortunatel}', the nave of this church fell Sei)tember 11, 
1737, through a large internal excavation, made f(n' the purjiose of 


constructing a vault, which disturbed the foundation of one of its 
pillars, and led to the collajjse of the whole of the nave, and its 
rebuilding in 1740. In its pavement are several sepulchral slabs 
of the fourteenth century, on which stemmed crosses are mcised, 
and in some cases other objects, such as a square and mason's 
hammer, that once covered the grave of a mason, and a pair of 
clothier's shears on another. Here also is an alabaster mural monu- 
ment, in which a black marble slab is set, bearing an inscription 
said to be of a far more ancient date ; but the whole really is of 
the same date — 1608, and never commemorated any one else than 
Thomas Leake, who fell in a forest fray, not unfrequent in the days 
of Elizabeth and James I., nor altogether imknown in the present 
century, when poachers are arrayed on one side and gamekeepers on 
the other. There is also some good carved oak panelling of the same 
date in this chiirch. Two of the nave windows are filled Avith painted 
glass as memorials, by MM. Marechal et Champigneulle of Metz. 
One of these contains a large figure of Charity, and the other of 
St. Anne instructing the blessed Virgin Mary. This style of glass 
painting, prevalent in Cologne Cathedral and at Munich, is not 
wanting in artistic skill, but is not well suited for church windows. 

St. Michael's, Linby. 

Tliis church consists of a tower, nave, south aisle, north porch, 
and chancel. Its earliest feature is a Norman doorway witliin the 
porch, having a semicircular head and a plain tympanum, but the 
greater portion of the fabric is Early English. One of the original 
windows of this period remams in the south aisle wall, viz., a 
double lancet having a quartrefoil above. The aisle arcade, of three 
bays, is supported by octangular-shafted pillars, having the nail- 
head ornament worked upon their caps, excepting that of the 
western respond, which is enriched with the cable mould, and above 
this, with the billet moidd alternated with roses. 

At the east end of this aisle was a chantry chapel, as evidenced 
by a piscina there, having a shaft above it, and a perforated orna- 
ment serving as a drain in the middle of its basin. 

A good Decorated window of three lights, circa 1320-50, was sub- 
sequently inserted in the east wall of this aisle. In tliis still remain 
portions of the painted glass with which it was formerly adorned, 
such as the head of a queen and pieces of tabernacle work. 
Formerly there was a recumbent effigy in this aisle, probably repre- 
senting the founder of the chapel in which it stood ; but about fifty 
years ago it was tiu'ned out into the churchyard, where it soon 
perished ; there is, however, still a slab bearing a stemmed cross 
incised upon it, in the pavement of this aisle, and at its east end 
was an agioscope so constructed as to give a view of the chancel 


The tracery of the mnclows of this church has been almost des- 
troyed. The tower is a fair specimen of the Perpendicular period. 
The porch, of the same style, has good panelled buttresses, and a 
stone roof carried by three efiective stone ribs. Over its arch is a 
shield, bearing — paly of 6, a roundel, for Strelley, on one buttress 
another shield bearing 5 lozenges pale-wise, and on the other a 
saltire charged with a fleur-de-lis. On the left side of the pier of 
this porch is a small slit having a cusped head, the use of which can 
not be satisfactorily determined. 

The old font has been replaced by a poor modern successor. 

In the south wall of the chancel one of the original double lancet 
windows still remains next to an inserted Perpendicular light, and 
a three-light window of the same style constitutes the eastern one 
of this church. 

On a slab in the north wall of this church is the following 
curious epitaph : — 

".Tuxta hauc parietem jacet corpus WiUmi Seddon luijus EcclesifB p anos 
minister qui anhelante Eccelesia Anglicana anliellis animam Deo p Christu 
reddidit vicessimo octavo die Februari Ano Dmi 1684, a;tatis suffi 50. 

Vita vitffi movtalis est spe imortale. " 

Formerly there was a perforated panel of oak here having four 
lancets and as many pointed ovals over them, observed by Mr. S. 
Dutton Walker, in 1863 ; but this has now disappeared, which is 
unfortunate, as it was of early date, and its use can not now be 

In this parish are two striking village crosses not far distant 
from one another. The lower one rises from a large square stepped 
base built over a streamlet, as though to sanctify its waters. The 
one above has a similar base, which until lately had no stem sur- 
mounting it ; but this has now been reverently renewed as a thank- 
offering by the present Incumbent of Linby after the design of the 
other cross. 

St. Mary Magdalene's, Hucknall Torkard. 

The name of this parish was originally spelt Hockenale. Part 
of its lands Avere granted by the Conqueror to his illegitimate son, 
William de Peverill, but the greater portion of these he gave to 
Ealph de Buron, or Buran. The first of the Torkard f;xmily who 
supplied the second name of this parish Avas Geoffrey Torkard, Avho, 
with Maude his Avife, gave the Church of Hucknall and five bovates 
of land to NcAvstead Abbey. Formerly there Avere many shields of 
arms in the AvindoAvs of the church here, as recorded by Thoroton, 
but noAV only tAA'o remain, bearing — harry of 6, arg. and az., a label 
of 5, for Grey of Sandiacre. 

This church, which has lately been well restored by Messrs. 
Evans and Jolley of Nottingham, stands well upon a little 


eminence, and consists of a tower, nave, north aisle, modern south 
aisle, p(irch, chancel, and chancel aisle. The tower,- excepting 
its up])er stage, is the earliest portion of the fahiic, and was 
probably built about 1230. The walls of the second stage are 
slightly set in, and it is lighted by small coupled lancets, having 
octagonal-shafted pillars between them. The upper stage has shallow 
angle buttresses, large two-light belfry windows, an embattled parapet, 
and square crocheted angle pimiacles, of a later date. Fortunately, 
the old Early fourteenth-century porch has been jjreserved, although 
the south aisle, into which it opens, is modern. Its face is constructed 
of oak, as was often the case in the Sherwood Forest district, 
although only few of these now remain. 

Within this porch is a plain Decorated doorwaj^, and a solid oak 
door. In the south wall of the chancel is a two-light -window, 
similar to those in the upper stage of the tower, and a three-light 
ditto ; and at the east end a five-light one of the intersecting Lancet 
kind, Avith a quatrefoil in the head. 

The north aisle, rebuilt in the fifteenth century, has been lately 
lengthened, so as to overlap the tower. Its arcade consists of three 
bays, supported by octangular-shafted pillars, and this was continued 
along the chancel at a rather later period. 

In the chancel are three plain sedilia, and in the back of the 
western one is a stone on Avhich part of a foliated cross is incised, 
that once served as a gravestone, also a plain piscina and an 
aumbry. In the pavement is a gravestone, having a stemmed cross 
worked upon it, a pair of shears, and a square. A piscina in the 
wall of the adjoining aisle indicates that its eastern portion, at least, 
served as a chantry chapel. ISTew oak screens have been erected 
between the nave and cliancel, and its chancel and its aisle. 

This church is now famous, because within its walls rest the 
remains of the most brilliant of England's poets, the descendant of 
Ealph de Burun and the loyal Eichard, Lord Byron, of Rochdale, 
who, with seven brothers, faithfully served Charles I., in his time 
of need, and lived to see his son restored to the throne of his 
ancestors, as he did not die until 1679. In his honour a monument 
was erected here ; but when illustrious men of other nations 
besides our own come to visit the grave of George Gordon jSToel 
Byron in Hucknall Torkard Church, they only find an insignificant 
mural tablet commemorating his name, and nothing whatever 
to mark the spot beneath which repose his remains, brought so 
fondly all the way from Missolonghi in 1824, or those of "the 
sole daughter of his house and heart," Ada, the wiie of William, 
Earl of Lovelace, deposited here in 1852. ]\Iay the visit of the 
Members of this Society in 1874, lead to the provision of a splendid 

* In this tower is a fine old oak chest with a coved lid, and overlayed with many iron 


gravestone, rich in marble, and aught else that can enhance its 
beauty, bearing the name of Byron, and the symbol of a lyre, or a 
wreath, such as is humbly suggested by the one composed of fresh 
bay leaves, and laid above his otherwise unmarked grave to-day. 

All Saints, Annbsley. 

Soon after the Conquest the Lordship of Annesley accrued to a 
family of the same name, spelt in various forms as usual, of whom 
Ralph de Anesley, temp. Henry III., gave the church here, i.e., the 
proceeds of its endowment to the Priory of Felley. The manor 
continued in the Annesley family until 14 Henry VI., when 
AKce, the heir of John de Annesley, and Avife of George, third 
son of Sir Thomas Chaworth, succeeded to it on the death of her 
father, from whom the present owner is descended on the mother's 

The church is beautifully situated on rising ground above the 
delightful old Hall which closely adjoins it, and together constitute 
a charming sight. It consists of a tower, nave, wide south aisle and 
porch, and a chancel. 

The oldest feature is the font, now constituting the sole relic of 
a Norman Church that once stood here. This is of a deep tub form, 
which from its height does not require any stem or base. Its 
external surface is ornamented by a very bold lozenge diaper, and 
an ornamental band at the top. Ifext in date comes the Early 
English doorway inserted in the wall within the present very poor 
porch attached to the south aisle. After this is the arcade between 
the nave and the large span-roofed south aisle, commonly called the 
Felley Priory aisle. This is of three bays supported by low octa- 
gonal-shafted pillars, having well moulded and Avidely spreading 
caps needed to support the unusually thick walling above. On the 
eastern respond cap is the characteristic nail-head ornament. The 
chancel arch is of the same date, also the sedilia and conjoined 
piscina. These have well-moulded arched heads, all on the same 
level. The piscina is supported by the hgure of a dimidiated angel 
now much mutilated. Within this piscina recess the head of 
a queen and another head have been inserted, probably simply for 
their preservation. The Felley Priory aisle, or chapel, is an excellent 
feature of the Decorated period, circa 1320-50. At the east end is 
a beautiful pointed arched window having reticulated tracery, in 
the south wall three two-light scpiare-hoaded ones, and at the west 
end another of the same kind, all of th(! same period. 

The chancel is a small humble one. The tower Perpendicular 
with an embattled parapet. 

vol. xil, pt. n. c 


The north wall of the nave is supported by clumsy huttresses 
applied to uphold it, in which some early mouldings have heen in- 
corporated. It is lighted by one Tudor window, and two defaced 

In this church are several interesting monuments of various dates. 
In the chancel is a recumbent effigy in stone of a lady of the earlier 
part of the fourteenth century, with a lion by the pillow supporting 
her head, and a dog at her feet. Her hands are upraised and hold- 
ing a heart between them, suggesting the words " Sxrsum corda." 
A veil covers her head, and a gorget or -wimple her chin and neck, 
and she is clad in a kirtle, open-sided gown, and mantle. 

At the east end of the Felley Priory aisle are two more memo- 
rials. One of these consists of an alaliaster slab, on Avhich is incised 
the recumbent effigy of a gentleman of the time of Elizabeth, in the 
armour of his period, a stiff niflf above his gorget, and a sword on 
his left side. Opposite to this is another of the time of James I. 
or Charles I., of a painfid character, but then thought to be appro- 
priate, viz., an effigy in alabaster of a layman, representing him as 
dead, and clothed in grave clothes draAvn over his moiith, after the 
manner of Dr. John Donne's monument in old St. Paul's. 

Here also are some remains of painted glass, chiefly consisting 
of shields of arms Avithin roundels, among which the Annesley 
bearings are repeated several times, viz.. Paly of 6, Arg. and Az., a 
bend G., Az., 2 chevrons Or, Chaworth ; also G., 7 mascles Arg., 
a lion rampant S. G., a fesse vairy between 3 lizards' heads passant, 
3 fleurs-de-lis reversed. Vairy Or & S. Arg., one G lionels G., 
3, 2, 1. G., a cross engrailed Arg. At the west end of the nave 
the name of Patricius Chaworth is exliibited in a conspicuous 
manner in the wall plaster, and the date 1686. 

St. Mary Magdalene's, Sutton Ashfield. 

An arch vousoir enriched with the chevron ornament, found 
during the restoration of this church, indicates that a Norman 
structure once stood here. 

The present fabric consists of a tower and spire, nave, north and 
south aisles, south porch and chancel. 

Let us now, in imagination, sweep away the whole, and begin 
to reconstruct it according to the difl'erent dates of its several por- 
tions. First we must take the two circular-shafted pillars of the 
north aisle, Avhich are of the Transitional period, as declared by the 
character of their caps and square abaci, and of a date about 1180. 

After the Early English style had been adopted here, as proved 
by a slab, with an arcade of that period incised upon it, serving as a 
foundation stone of the western respond of this north aisle arcade, 


this clim'ch was lengtliened by an additional bay westward, in a cor- 
responding but rougher hishion ; and at the same time the south aisle 
arcade, of four bays, was built, together Avith the arches of both 
aisles. It will be observed that the western respond of this south 
arcade, and the two piUars nearest to it, have octangular caps, and 
the remaining pillar and other respond circular caps. 

ISText, a more elegant Early English style is exemplified here by 
the corpus of the chancel, including its arch, and the beautiful res- 
pond of the north aisle replacing its earlier semicircular predecessor. 
This has a well moulded base, a clustered shaft, and an elongated 
cap, eacli member of which has a human head cut upon it, and a 
characteristic tuft of foliage between them. 

The chancel arch has keel-shaped pier shafts, and a good bold 
roll-mould forms the chief feature of its arch, which is now crushed 
out of shape, especially on the north side. 

Of the origiual chancel windows a very pleasing double lancet, 
with a trefoil above, remains in the south wall. It has also a cor- 
responding doorway finished with a simple but effective keel- 
shaped moulding, and a lancet-headed piscina having a projecting 
bowl, but only a small shallow square hoUow for use, apparently 
■without a drain. 

A single lancet, very eflectively introduced in the west face of 
the tower, is also a relic of the same period, probably derived from 
the })receding tower. 

About 1320-50, when the Decorated style had become popular, 
the three-light east window of the chancel was erected, and the two- 
light one at the east end of the south aisle, perhaps when a chantry 
chapel Avas founded here, as evidenced by a statue bracket and a 
piscina having only a very shallow hoUow without a drain, serving 
as a bowl. 

During this period, also, the aisles were rebuilt and the cleres- 
tory added, both of Avhich have of late been largely repaired. 
The north aisle is called the Ilucknall Iluthwaite aisle. 
The tower is of a late Decorated style and has twodight belfry 
windows, with a quatrefoil above, beneath an angular head. It is 
finished Avith an embattled parapet. From the toAver springs a 
plain unpierced spire, the top of which has been clumsily restored 
some time ago, to its loss as respects its linial, and it has also been 
recently injured by lightning, the etfects of Avhich are evident. It is 
not often that Ave can get the dates of such features from document- 
ary evidence ; but from " Bishop Buckingham's Memunmdums" fol. 
379, Ave find that this toAver and spire Avero probably built soon 
after 1391, because in that year John de Sutton, senior, citizen of 
Lincoln, died, who by his Avill, made on the Monday before the 
exaltation of the holy cross, left £20 "for the purpose of making and 



completing the bell-tower of the Church of Suttoii-in-Ashfield." 
In the chancel is a sepulclu'al slab, having a hoAV and arrow incised 
upon it. 

In the churchyard a fourteenth-century 
slah, appropriately marked, as was then 
usual, with a stemmed cross. There, also, 
was lately found the private brass seal 
of William de Sutton, Priest of this 
parish in the fourteenth century, who was 
buried in St. Catherine's Priory, Lincoln, 
to which House he left XI 0, and also, 
among other becj[uests, a sapphire ring, to 
the image of the Blessed Mary at the high 
altar of the Cathedral Church at Lincoln. 
This seal is of the usual pointed oval 
form, with a loop for suspension ; but 
bears so curious a device that an en- 
graving of it is subjoined. The legend 
is " Sigillum William D. Sutton," Avhich William is represented 
sitting at his desk with the Word of God before him, and a clerk 
similarly occiipied below him, whilst a squirrel, which has climbed 
uj) a conventional branch, is throwing a shower of nuts at the learned 
student, who, by the aid of the old and new Testament, suggested 
by the sun and moon above his head, will most probably crack them. 

Bolsover Castle. — A Paper by Mrs. Hamilton Gray, read at the 
Meeting of the Lincoln Diocesan Architectural Society at 
Mansfield, June, 1874. 

Bolsover Castle, at the time of the Norman Conquest, was a fort 
belonging to Leuric, the Saxon, and so stands in Domesday Book, 
being spelt according to its then pronunciation, "Belesour." Its 
present inhabitants call it Bosor. The turf walls and deep ditch 
on the north side of the village are said to be Saxon or Danish. 
WilHam the Conqueror dispossessed Leuric, and gave the forts, with 
Peak Castle and many other manors, to his brother, William Peveril 
— from whom tlie manor courts and some of the roads about are 
named. The Peverils held it for nearly a hundred years, and dm-ing 
their time the first castle was built. They forfeited all their 
possessions to the Crown because they poisoned lianulph. Earl of 
Chester, about a. d. 1 153; and it is certain that at that date the l)eauti- 
ful kitchen storey, and the Ballium or Bailey Wall were much as 
they are now. Twenty years later, in 1 173, reign of Henry II., the 


Castle underwent extensive repairs, and still more expensive ones 

in the reign of King John. It was therefore built massively and 

strongly in the K^orman style (i.e., a square, with small square 

towers at each corner), either under William Eufus or Henry I., 

but most probably the former. It continued to belong to the 

Crown, strongly fortified and under governors, until the days of 

Edward VI., who, in 1560, gave it to George Talbot, Earl of 

Shrewsbury. Bolsover, at that day, was a market town walled 

round, and the troops were garrisoned within the walls. The 

ballium was parapeted all round, and pierced with loop-holes for 

arrows, fire-arms, or small cannon. The Shrewsbury arms may be 

seen in the star chamber. The Earl of Shrewsbury became the foiirth 

husband of the renowned Bess of Hardwicke, one of the richest 

and most energetic women in England, who believed in a gipsy's 

prophesy, that " as long as she built she should live, but when she 

ceased to build she should die." She therefore set zealously to 

work upon Bolsover Castle : then seriously dilapidated and 

neglected, because it had long ceased to be required as a place 

of strength by the Crown. Bess was an old woman, and as she 

must always be building she had the more need of a long work. 

She pulled down the fortress to its basement storey, and left only, 

besides that storey, the ballium and a secret passage from the 

ground-floor to the village, untouched. This passage leads from the 

l^resent servants' hall, underneath the garden, and is now walled up. 

It is most beautifully built, vaulted, about six feet high, and broad 

enough for two men in armour to walk abreast. As Bess was a 

great friend of Queen Elizabeth's, her building is a restoration of 

JSTorman outlines Avith Elizabethan arrangements and ornaments. I 

would call attention to the admirable masony of the east front, as seen 

from the ballium. where the joints of the stones are scarcely visible, 

and the building looks as if quarried in the solid rock. Bess built 

a very tine hall, and a dining-room (the present drawing-room), on 

the second floor, a handsome staircase leading out uj^on the wall — an 

ante-room and dramng-room (now the star-chamber), a bedroom with 

two dressing-rooms, which Avas very uncommon in those days, — 

and alwve these a dome or cupola, like a small temple, with eight 

bedrooms leading out of it. The recesses in the cupola are for 

the ladies' maids to sit in, until their mistresses clap their hands to 

summon them. There were no bells in the rooms before 1834, with 

the exception of the pillar-room (drawing-room). In 1G07, when 

the masons were busy in the upper room, a severe frost set in, and 

lasted six weeks, during which no work could be done. Poor Bess 

was then eighty-seven years old. She could not last it out, and she 

died. Bess's son, Sir Charles Cavendish, ancestor of the present 

Duke of Devonshire, bought Bolsover from his half-brother. Earl of 

Shrewsbury, finished the Castle, and built the gable-ended part of 


tlie ruins for his servants and guests. This gable was three storied, 
and its kitchen upon arches, and its banqueting-room were spacious 
and handsome. His son, William, the first Baron of Bolsover, Earl 
of Mansfield, Marquis and Duke of Newcastle, was the beloved 
and devoted friend of the unfortunate Charles the First. He 
entertained the King for several days in the Castle and in the 
wooded chase around it in 1633 ; and when the King left he told 
him that he should next year bring the Queen to partake of his 
hospitalities, and see his beautiful neighbourhood. The delighted 
nobleman upon this assembled one hundred Avorkmen, and on the 
King's return in 1634, welcomed the Queen in the regal suite of 
rooms, Avhich he had built for her. They are only one story high, 
with a walk round the roof, and the King and Queen together stood 
in the iron balcony, which still remains, and bowed to their sub- 
jects assembled in the terrace below to greet them. There also 
Ben Jon son, the poet, acted before them a masque called " Love's 
Welcome." The Queen's gallery is 220 feet long, and until very 
recently was the longest in England. Occasionally the King and 
Queen dined alone in the pillar-room, and Ben Johnson makes the 
five senses, sight, touch, taste, smell, and hearing, each utter some 
flattering remark on the occasion. Duke WiUiam added greatly to 
ornamentation of the Castle, and employed the pupils of Zuccaro to 
paint the frescoes in the hall, the star-chamber, the marble-room, 
the large bed-room, and the two adjoining dressing-rooms : one of 
which, with book shelves, was his study. All the panels in the 
oak wainscoting all over the house were painted. The star- 
chamber, with its star roof, and pictures of the early Koman 
Emperors, he fitted up in exact imitation of the unfortunate kStar- 
chamber at Westminster. Duke William was an accomplished 
horseman. He buUt the first riding-liouse for j^rivate amusement 
that was over seen in England, with a peculiarly handsome roof, 
and with a range of excellent stabling and grooms' chambers 
opposite the Bailey Wall. The ground between the wall and 
the riding-house was his tilt-yard. Finding the interior of the 
riding-house too narrow, the Duke built a second house at AVelbeck 
ten feet "vvider. Upon the fall of his friend. King Charles, he 
escaped to Antwerp, and there wrote his celebrated treatise upon 
horsemanship, wliich is still a work of authority. The Castle was 
taken in 1644, by one of Cromwell's generals, after a few hours 
resistance, and a quantity of plunder was found in it, together with 
arms and ammunition. The Kepublicans garrisoned it and mal- 
treated it for many years. The mark of one of their cannon-balls 
is to be seen near the stables. After the restoration of Charles 11. , 
the ])uke and his literary Duchess, the accomplished IMargaret 
Lucas, returned to England and to Bolsover. The marble-room 
was the Duchess's boudoii-, with marble roof, floor, and chimney- 


piece, frescoes, and tapestry ; and in this she prohahly -wrote her 
memoirs, which are full of complaints against the Republican troops, 
for the damage they did to the long gallery and the Queen's apart- 
ments. The gallery Avas seen quite perfect by Bassano in 1710, and 
he describes the pictures which then hung in the public rooms. 
Dulce William died in 1673, and was succeeded by his son, Duke 
Henry, who lived a great deal at Bolsover and died in 1691, in 
the large bed-room which has ever since been called " the Duke's 
bed-room." He is buried in the Cavendish vault, in Bolsover 
Church. Duke Henry was succeeded by his daughter Margaret, 
Duchess of J^ewcastle ; and she by her only child, Henrietta 
Hartley Holies Cavendish, Countess of Oxford ; whose daughter 
Margaret, married the second Duke of Portland, and thus carried 
Bolsover into the Portland family. The Castle was kept up 
in its entirety until 1740 : one hundred and thirty-four years 
ago. Shortly after that date there was a disastrous fire at Wel- 
beck Abbey, and the then Duke of Portland sent over his 
waggons to remove the handsome leaden roof from the Queen's 
apartments, to assist in the repair of his damaged buildings. 
Since that period the noble gallery and its adjoining rooms have 
been siiftered to perish from time and weather. In 1834, Richard 
Jackson, long churchwarden at Bolsover, related that his father — 
born in 1730 — had, as a boy, walked by the side of the waggons 
which conveyed this roof to Welbeck. About the same time there 
was a sale of the Elizabethan furniture of the Castle, and much of 
the carved oak now in it, descended to the cottagers in the village, 
from whom it was bought back, and repaired in 1834. The Castle sank 
to be a sort of farm-house, inhabited for many years by dependents 
of the Portland family, and finally assigned to the clergyman as a 
sort of compensation for his tumble-down vicarage. The living was 
given in 1833 to the Rev. John Hamilton Gray, and he restored the 
Castle to its present state, and furnished it, as far as he was able, 
in its ancient style. Bolsover Castle for two hundred and fifty 
years engaged the reputation and protection of a fair and gentle 
ghost, the Lady Arabella Stuart, whose picture used to hang in the 
star-chamber. In its most dilapidated days the terror of this lady 
prevented every evil person from daring to approach it after night- 
fall. She was the granddaughter of Bess of Hardwicke, daughter 
of Stuart, Earl of Lennox, niece to Mary, Queen of Scots, cousin 
to James I., and set up by the Roman Catholics as a claimant for 
the throne. To the dwellers in the Castle she was a better pro- 
tection than a guard of dragoons. But the Duke of Portland sent 
her picture to the great Manchester Exl)il)ition, and it has never 
been returned. There are now no ghosts in the Castle, and the 
whistlings and rattlings of Lady Arabella are no longer heard. 
She died mad in the Tower of London, 1615. 


On Rood Screens, Rood Lofts, and Rood Altars. — By Matthew 


During the first two centuries of tlie Cliristian era we liave little 
notice, owing, perhaps, to the persecutions which then prevailed, of 
material buildings, purposely erected and set apart for divine 
worship. In the early part of the third century, however, traces 
appear of distinct buildings, eKKXrja-ia, domus Dei, appropriated for 
the purpose of Christian service, and these were not few in numljer, 
though the records we have of them, are scanty. About the year 
240 of the Christian era, Gregory Thaumatergus is recorded to have 
built a ohurch, or structure, for religious worship, of more than 
ordinary proportions at Neoc^sarea. In the pseudo Apostolical con- 
constitutions or canons, written in the latter part of the third, or 
early in the fourth century, we have some slight account of the plan 
and arrangement of these sacred edifices, '' Let the building be long 
with its head to the east, with it vestries on both sides at the east 
end, and so it will be like a ship."*^ 

At the commencement of the fourth century, in the tenth and 
last general persecution, by the edict of Diocletian that the churches 
should be levelled with the ground, many were destroyed. 

Soon after the cessation of this persecution many churches were 
built, and not a few heathen temples were converted into churches. 

Eusebius, in his panegyric on the building of the churches, ad- 
dressed to Paidinus, Bishop of Tyre, by whose zeal principally the 
Church of Tyre, at that time by far the most noble of the Christian 
structures in Phojnicia, was built, after describing generally the 
plan and mode of construction of that edifice, proceeds to say, — 
" For when he (the builder) had thus completed the temple, he also 
adorned it with lofty thrones in honour of those who preside, and 
also with seats decently arranged in order throughout the whole, 
and at last, placed the holy altar in the middle, and that this again 
might be inaccessible to the multitude, he inclosed it with framed 
lattice-work, accurately -wrought wdth ingenious sculpture, presenting 
an admirable sight to the beholders." 

Thus, early in the fourth century, the distinction between the 
diiferent portions of a church, the body and sanctuary, which we 
now designate as nave and chancel, or choir, is shewn to have 

'E^' aTracri re to twv dytwv clyiov dvo'Lao'Trjpiov ev fiecroi ^ets ax9i<i 
Ktti rd^i. ws av ei'v^ rots ttoAAois ajSara, tois diro £uAoi' Treptecj^/jaxTe 
SiKTVois els aKpov IvTe^vov XeiTOvpyias l^7yo-K7;/xevois ws davjiaxriov 
TOts opwcrt TTapk)(eiv t^]v Okav. 

* Wliiston's Translation. 


In our own country (in Britain), the introduction of Christianity 
appears to have taken place at an early period, though at what 
precise time can hardly be ascertained. 

For I pass by the story of Pope Eleutherius, Avho flourished circa 
A,D. 180 to A.D. 193, and the j^seudo King Lucius, as not grounded 
either on early or credible evidence. 

We know, however, that bishops of the early British Church, 
attended at the Council of Aries held a.d. 314 ; and in the works of 
St. Chrysostom, who flourished in the latter part of the fourth 
century (he died a.d. 407), a particular allusion is made to buildings 
in this country appropriated to divine worship, for he adverts to the 
churches and altars which in his time were existing in Britain. 

Kai yap KaKel eKKX7](Ttai 
Kat OvcnacTTrjpLa TreTT-jyatnv. 

Gildas, or whoever the writer may have been whose works pass 
\inder that name, and whose work De excidio Britannice, is said to 
have been written about or soon after the middle of the sixth 
century, but before the mission of Augustine, and taking the 
authority of that work for what it is worth, tells us thau Christianity 
Avas introduced into Britain in the latter part of the reign of Tiberius. 
He also alludes to the British Christians as reconstructing the 
churches which had in the Diocletian persecution been levelled to 
the ground. 

Next, we have the church historian, Bede, who flourished in the 
latter part of the seventh and early part of the eighth century, and who 
tells us hoAV the Pagan Saxons, in their successful endeavours to obtain 
ascendancy in Britain, destroyed the churches of the British Christians 
and slew their priests at the very altars.* He also treats of the 
mission of Augustine and others from Eome to convert the Pagan 
Anglo Saxons at the close of the sixth century ; and he alludes in 
particular to one religious structure or church of the ancient Britons, 
then standing, the church of St. Martin, near Canterbury, probably 
on the site of the present church, a reconstruction of a period, I 
think, not earlier than the twelfth century, but which contains 
worked up in the Avails Eoman tiles or bricks, evidently fragments 
of an earlier structure. 

Eemains of ancient British churches are by some thought to 
have been discovered on the coast of CoruAvall, for ages hidden 
under the driftings of the sand. Of these, the old church of 
Peranzabulo is said to have been one, but I do not think the 
remains of that church to have been of an earlier period than the 
twelfth century ; and those Avho haA'e Avitnessed, as I have done, the 
action of the sands on and near that coast, may probably agree Avith 

* Ruebaiit oeflificia publica simul et privata, passim Saccrdotcs inter altaria tiucibantur 
— Bedo, Eal. Hist., 1. i., c. 15. 

\'0L. XII., PART II. D 


me, for I have seen, near Padstow, a church of so late a period as the 
tifteenth century, so completely hidden by the action of the sand, that 
a narrow passage only was kept clear round it, and over and across 
this you could step from the ground on to the roof of the church. 

I do not think, indeed, we have any churches, or remains of 
churches, in this country, earlier than the seventh century. In the 
earliest we find the present features of arrangement — tower, nave, 
and chancel. The tower, placed sometimes at the west end of the 
church, sometimes between the chancel and the nave, and sometimes 
altogether omitted. 

Now, in some of our most ancient churches the chancel arch is 
exceedingly narrow. That at Wooten Wawen, in Warwickshire, 
where the Anglo-Saxon tower is placed between the nave and chancel, 
is but four feet eight inches in Avidth, and the chancel arch of the 
little Anglo-Saxon church or chapel at Bradford-on-Avon, in Wilt- 
shire, a structure of the latter part of the tenth century, circa 
A.D. 970, is only of the width of three feet. The extreme narrow- 
ness of these two Anglo-Saxon chancel arches may be exceptive, but 
I do not think there was any screen or division of wood across this 
arch in the Anglo-Saxon churches, but the division between the 
chancel and nave was formed by a curtain or veil, and so also in some 
early JSTorman churches, where the chancel arch was narrow, for the 
early JSTorman chancel arch in Beoley Church, Worcestershire, very 
plain and single soffited, is but eight feet in width. 

. Such veil, indeed, is mentioned in an ancient Anglo-Saxon 
Pontifical, " extenso vela inter eos et popuhmi," and such is alluded 
to by Durandus, who wrote in the thirteenth century (he died 
A.j). 1296), interponatur velum aut murus infer derum et popidnm. 

The earliest wooden screen-work I know of in this country is 
that in the church of St. Nicholas, at Compton, in Surrey. Here 
the chancel is low and groined, and of iSTorman architecture of the 
twelfth century, and above is a loft opening into the church west- 
ward, and it is across the western boundary of this loft, formed by 
the Norman chancel arch of considerable width, but of no great 
height, that this screen, consisting of a series of semicircular arches 
springing from cylindrical shafts, with moulded bases and caps, is 

The only wooden screen of the thirteenth century, and the ear- 
liest chancel screen I have met with in this country, is one now 
removed, it is to be regretted, from its original position in Thur- 
caston Church, Leicestershire — Thurcaston being the birth-place of 
Bishop Latimer. This consists of plain panel-work in the lower 
part and of a series of open arches above, trefoiled in the heads, 
and springing from slender cylindrical shafts, with moulded bases 
and caps, but not annulated. In Staunton Harcourt Church, 
Oxfordshire, is a screen of a somewhat later period, of the close of the 


thirteenth, or early part of the fourteenth century ; the lower part 
of this is composed of plain and close panel-work, the upper part of 
open trefoiled-headed arches, springing from slender annulated shafts, 
with moulded bases and caps. 

Specimens of screen-work of the fourteenth century, though not 
very numerous, are more common than those of an earlier period. 
Such, or remains of such, occur in Beaudesert Church, Shotswell 
Church, Long Itchington Church, and Wolfhampcote Church, 
"Warwickshire : St. John's Church, Winchester ; Croperdy Church, 
Oxfordshire ; Norfleet, Kent ; Geddington, Northamptonshire ; and 
elsewhere. These are distinguished from the screen-work of the 
fifteenth century by the light annulated shafts Avhich support the open 
arches, or flowing tracery of open work above the plain panel-work 
in the lower division of the screen. Whenever screen-work of the 
thirteenth or fourteenth century is met with it ought to be noticed. 

In Leeds Church, Kent, the open screen-work resembles a series 
of pointed arched windows filled with mullions and tracery. This 
is the only instance of the kind I have met with in screen-work. I 
once found a high tomb— a churchyard monumeiit of the four- 
teenth century — the sides of which were covered with representations 
of Avindows with flowing decorated tracery, and fonts of the four- 
teenth centiu'y, the sides of which are worked with Avmdow tracery 
of the same period, are not uncommon. 

Chancel screens of the fifteenth century are so numerous that I 
do not think it necessary to particularize examples. They exist 
from comparatively plain to enriched and elaborate carved work, 
the uprights are moulded and support a horizontal cornice, richly 
carved with vine leaves and grapes, whilst in the lower division of 
the screen the close panels are sunk foliated in the heads, and are 
often painted with figures of saints bearing their peculiar symbols. 
Many of these are still visible on the screens of churches in Norfolk, 
and elsewhere. The open work in the u})per divisions of these 
screens is composed of carved perpendicular tracery, supported and 
divided by moulded uprights, and finished with a horizontal crest 

Where no rood-loft existed the crest of the chancel screen served 
to support the rood, or image of the crucifix, with the attendant 
images of St. Mary and St. John. 

Rood-lofts were galleries of no great width, extending over the 
chancel screen, and sometimes over the side aisles also, they are 
rarely to be met with earlier than the fifteenth century ; then they 
commonly prevailed. 

Gervasius, in his account, Dc ccnvhustione et Rcparationc Can- 
tuariensis Ecdesici', of the burning and restoration of Canterbury 
Cathedral, a.d. 1174, speaks of a pulpit, or loft, with a transverse 
beam across the church, which separated the choir from the nave, 


and which sustained a great cross witli two cherubins, and the 
images of St. Mary and 8t. John ; but I must give his own words, — 
" Pulpitum vero turrem (he is speaking of the central tower) predic- 
tam a navi quodammodo separabat. Supra pulpitum trabes erat per 
transversum ecclesiae posita quae crucem grandem et duo cherubhn 
et imagines sanctaj IMariaj et sancti Johannis Apostoli sustentabat." 
We occasionally find mention of the rood-loft in ancient docu- 
ments, as in wills. Thus, William Bruges, Garter King of Arnies, 
at London, by his will, bearing date 26 February, 1449, gave 
certain monies to be bestowed upon " the complesshying and ending 
of the church of Staunford," amongst other tilings for the making 
of '' a pleyn rode-lofte." 

John Fane, of Tunbridge, by his will dated April 6th, 1488, 
bequeathed to the high altar of the church of Tunbridge xx-^, to 
the structure of the rood-loft thereof x marks, on condition that the 
churchwardens build it withm two years. 

Joan Viscountess Lisle, widow, by will dated 8th August, 1500, 
after directing her body to be buried in the parish church of St. 
Michael upon Cornhill, — " also I will that my executors cause to be 
made and set up on the high rood-loft in the said church of St, 
Michael, two escotcheons, the one of them with the arms of my right 
noble lord and husband, the Viscount Lislie, and my own arms jointly, 
and the other of the arms of my right worshipful husband, Eobert 
Drope, and my own jointly, to the intent that our souls, by reason 
thereof, may the rather be there remembered and prayed for." 

Eichard Starkey, of Stretton, in the county of Chester, by wiU 
dated 29th May, 1526, gave as follows : — " Itm. I bequeth towards 
the making to the roode seler at BudAvorth vj^. viij<i." 

Matthew Beke, by will dated 22nd November, 1520, " I bequeth 
unto the roode seller of Manchester, when y* shal be p code xl^." 

William Walton, Priest, by will, dated 7th January, 1527, 
bequeathed his body to be biu-ied in the Churche oif Croston, undr 
the rodeceUer afore the chaunceU. 

Thurstan Tyldisley, of Wardley, by will, dated 1st September, 
First Edward VI,, " I bequeth towards y« byulding of y° church of 
Eccles, if it be not bylt in my lif, and a rodeseller made, y^ some 
of ten m'ks." 

This Avas on the eve of the great changes in our churches. Up 
to this time — the middle of the sixteenth century — of the rood-lofts 
in our churches, some were most elaborate and costly specimens of 
composition and wood-carving. Several of these still exist in various 
churches, especially in Somersetshire and Devonshire. Many rich 
rood-lofts were removed from conventual churches on their suppres- 
sion and destruction, to neighbouring churches, and there set up, A 
curious example of this may be seen in Llanwryst Church, North 
Wales, taken down, it is reported, from a neighbouring Abbey 


cliurcli (Maeuen) and here set up. And here a peculiarity, which 
may have been designed, exhibits itself, for the crest or transverse 
beam which supported the image of the crucifix, and the attendant 
images of St Mary and St. John, as appears by the morticed holes, 
has been placed eastward of the loft instead of westward. 

Besides the rich rood-lofts in large churches, even small churches 
Avere not without plain, and sometimes even enriched examples, but 
of very limited dimensions, as at Wormleighton Church, Warwick- 
shire, to which there is no apparent access ; the little church of 
Coates, near Stow, in Lincolnshire ; the little church of Patricio, 
near Crickhowel, South Wales ; and Llaneilian Church, Anglesey. 

In this latter church the rood-loft is tolerably perfect ; it has a 
coved projection on either side of the screen Avhich supports it, and 
the cornices are carved. It is seven feet in width, and the entrance 
to it is up a neAvel-staircase in the south Avail of the nave at the east 
end. It is but rarely we find in a small church like this the rood- 
loft in so perfect a state. 

Where the rood-lofts have been taken down, Avhich is the case 
in most churches, Ave often find the indicia of such in the stone 
steps in the north or south Avail of the nave at the east end, and in 
the doorAvay aloft. Sometimes, in large churches, Avhere the rood- 
loft extended across the aisles, as Avell as the nave, small turrets Avere 
erected at the east end of the aisles on the north or south side, con- 
taining newel staircases for ascending to the rood-loft. 

Altars appear to have been occasionally appended to rood-lofts ; 
they Avere, indeed, in the middle ages appended to every part of a 
church. We find them, or the indicia of their former existence, 
piscinae, or drains, in porches, as at Melton MoAvbray, Leicestershire ; 
in crypts, as in Bedale Church, Yorkshire ; and in the chapel of the 
Pyx in the crypt at Westminster Abbey ; beneath the toAver of a 
church, as at Gumfreston Church, near Tenby, South Wales ; in 
vestries, as at Adderbury Church, Oxfordshire ; at the east end of 
aisles, Avhere they commonly prevailed ; annexed to sepulchral monu- 
ments, as in Arundel Church, Sussex ; in chantry chapels annexed 
to churches ; in the Domus inclusi, or Anchorites cell, as at Patricio ; 
in lofts over the chancel, as in Compton Church, Surrey ; and, lastly, 
beneath, and on rood-lofts. 

Of the latter, the notices I have been able to meet Avith are not 
numerous. Gervase, in his account of the destruction and reparation 
of Canterbury Cathedral, in the latter part of the tAvelfth century, 
has a passage Avhich, L think, alludes to one of these, the altar of 
the cross, Avhen he says, "Pidpitum vero turrem predictam (he speaks 
of the central tower) a navi quodammode separahaf, et ex, parte 
navis in medio sui altare sanctm cnicis hahcbat." 

BroAvne Willis, in his Survey of the Cathedral Oh arch of St. 
David, South Wales, Avritiug of liichard de CareAV, Bishop of that 


Sec, from a.d. 1256 to a.d. 1280, tells us that he was buried m his 
own Cathedral near the altar of the holy rood, on the south part. 
This must have been under the rood-loft, near the door leading from 
the nave into the quire ; and Leland, in his Collectanea, informs us 
that this Bishop was buried near the altar of the Crucifix, — Nomina 
episco])oi'um se^jultorum in Meneven : eccl : — Ricardus Uarew prope 
altari crucijixi. 

The only rood-loft altars I have met with as yet existing in this 
country, are two beneath the rood-loft of the little church of 
Patricio, to which I have before alluded, one placed on each side of 
the entrance into the chancel, westward of, and against the screen 
supporting the rood-loft, both of these altars are of plain masonry, 
with the usual thick projecting covering slabs, or altar stones, each 
marked -with the five crosses, and the underpart of each slab cham- 
fered, as we usually, though not invariably, find them. 

In the church of St. Jaques, at Antwerp, I noticed, in the 
autumn of 1873, two rood-loft altars in the same position as those 
in Patricio Church, but of no great antiquity ; not earlier, I think, 
than the commencement of the last century. 

In the account of the Lancastrian Chantries, published by the 
Chetham Society, we find a few ref(irences to these altars. 

Parish church of Croston, "The Chantrie at the roode alter 
within the aforesaid church." 

Parish church of Standyche, " The Chauntire at the rode alter 
within the p'oclie church biforsayde." 

" The Chauntire at the alter of the cruciiiae w%in the p'oche 
church of Preston." 

Of altars formerly existing in or over rood-lofts I may now 
notice the indicia. 

At Burg Church, Herefordshire, in the south wall, high above 
the rood-loft, is a jiiscina, indicative of an altar appended to the 

At Wigmore Church, Herefordshire, on the south side of the 
nave, high up in the wall, is a piscina. 

At Maxey Church, Northamptonshire, in the south wall of the 
clerestory is a piscina. 

At Deddington Church, Oxfordshire, in the east wall of the 
nave, south of the chancel, is a piscina. 

At Eastbourne Church, Essex, in the south wall of the nave, is 
a piscina.* 

What I now consider to have been an ancient stone altar I 
noticed many years ago in Daglingworth Church, Gloucestershire ; 
it was over a Norman arch, in a very unusual position at the west 

* For notices of several of the above described piscina placed high up in the wall, I am 
indebted to my friend J. Severn Walker, Esq., Honorary Secretary to the Worcester Diocesan 
Architectural Society. 


end of the nave, the underpart of the stone slab or table was 
chamfered, and it was supported in front by two small iS'^orman 
shafts resting on a projecting plinth, like a Norman string-course, 
and chamfered both on the upper and under part. The meaning 
of this stone table, thus placed, sorely puzzled me, and I could not 
at the the time comprehend it ; I now believe it to have been a loft 
altar. I have recently been informed this altar has been removed 
from its original position, a circumstance I much regret. 

In Gloucester Cathedral there is, I believe, a stone altar some- 
where aloft. 

In a recent visit to Bolton Church, a small structure situate near 
Bolton Castle, Yorkshire, I found in the south wall at the east end 
of the nave, a)id beneath where the rood-loft had been apparently 
placed, as there were projecting brackets which supported a soller, 
a piscina, indicative of an altar under the rood-loft, as at Patricio. 

Besides the usual chancel screens of wood, we sometimes meet 
with them of stone. 

At Totness, in Devonshire, is a stone screen, over which is the 
rood-loft, the access to which is up a stone staircase on the north 
side. In the churches of Culmstock, Awlescombe, and Bideford, 
in the same county, are also stone chancel screens of the fifteenth 
century, of more or less elaborate workmanship. In the Devonshire 
churches, indeed, the screens both of stone and wood are numerous, 
and in several instance more or less of the rood-lofts are remaining. 

I have now to treat of the demolition of the rood-lofts. I have 
been miable to find any injunction expressly on that subject during 
the reign of Edward VI., but from the general destruction at that 
period of the rood-loft images, that is, of the crucifix, or rood, St. 
Mary and St. John, it is probable many of the rood-lofts may then 
have been taken down. 

And this indeed appears to have been the case, for in the suc- 
ceeding reign, that of Mary, in Articles of Visitation by Bonner, 
Bishop of London, a.d. 1554, one is as follows : — " Item whether 
there be a Crucifix, a Rood-loft, as in times past hath been accustomed, 
and if not, where the Crucifix or Eood-loft is become, and by whose 
negligence the thing doth want." 

Such continued till early in the reign of Elizabeth, when, in 
1560, we find an entry in Machyn's Diary as follows: — "The ij 
year of the queen Elizabeth was all the rod-loftes taken down in 
London, and wrytynges wrytyne in the sain phase." 

In Dr. Harding's Confutation of the Apoloijy of the CJinrch of 
England, imprinted at Antwerp in 1565, allusion is matle to the 
removal of the rood-loft images thus : — " Is it the word of God that 
contrary to the good example of the Queues maiestie besyde the 
amies of the realme setteth up a dogge and a dragon in the place of 
the blessed virgine Mary mother of God, and S. John the evangelist. 


which were wont to stand on either side of the signe of Christ 
crucitied !" This is the earliest notice I have met with of the royal 
arms set up in our churches. 

In the Visitation Articles of Archbishop Parker, a.D- 1569, we 
find enquiries were to be made, whether, in each Parish Church, the 
rood-loft Avas pulled down according to the order prescribed ; and 
if the partition between the chancel and church was kept 1 This is 
explanatory of the fact why, when the rood-lofts were in most 
churches taken down, the screens beneath them, separating the 
chancel from the nave, were left undisturbed. 

Among the articles enjoined to be inquired of within the 
province of Canterbury by Archbishop Grindal, a.d. 1576, one is 
" whether your rood-lofts be taken down and altered, so that the 
Tipper part thereof with the soller or loft be quite taken down unto 
the cross-beam, and that the said beam have some convenient crest 
put upon the same 1" 

In Upminster Church, Essex, is a screen of the fifteenth century, 
surmounted by a crest or entablature of classical design of the latter 
part of the sixteenth century, apparently in accordance with the 
above inquiry, and this entablature supports a device of scroll-work 
containing a shield. 

Of the rood-loft images, out of the general destruction in the 
reigns of King Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth, I knoAv of one 
set only now existing. These are in the little church of Bettys 
Gwerfyl Goch, near Corwen, North Wales, where the images of 
the crucifix of St. Mary and St. John, rudely carved on a wooden 
panel in low relief, and formerly on or in front of the rood-loft, 
are still preserved, and placed as a reredos over the holy table. The 
panel, four feet and three-and-a-half inches wide, by two feet three 
inches in height, is divided into five compartments, each from seven- 
and-a-half to eight inches wide The central divisioii contains a 
rude representation, in low relief, of the crucifix, the figure of which 
is very indistinct ; on the sides of the head of the cross are the 
words '^Ucce Homo ;" on the compartment on the one side, next to 
the crucifix, rudely carved in low relief, is the effigy of the Blessed 
Virgin in a veiled head-dress, a nimbus over the head, and the 
hands folded on the breast ; by her side, in the outward compart- 
ment, are represented the pincers, thorns, and nails. In the 
compartment on the other side of the crucifix, St. John is represented 
holding his right hand to his head, and in the compartment beyond 
this are carved the hammer, reed with hysopp, like a club, and spear. 
The whole is a specimen of rude carved work of the fifteenth century. 

On the floor of the tower of Collumpton Church, Devon, there 
is, or recently was, carved in Avood, a representation of rock-work 
with scuUs, a calvary, the base of the rood with the socket or mortice 
hole in which the crucifix was fixed. 


Dinelej^ in " an account of the Progress of Ilis Grace, Henry, the 
First Duke of Beaufort, through Wales, 1684," mentions having 
seen in Lhiurwyst Church the wooden image of the crucifix belong- 
ing to the rood-loft there, but which had been removed, and though 
kept concealed in the church, was not generally shewn. The 
following are his words : — " Over the Timber. Arch of the Chancell, 
near the Rood Loft, lieth hid the ancient figure of the Crucifixion, 
as bigg as the life. This, I suppose, is shewn to none but the 
ciu'ious, and rarely to them." 

Post-reformation chancel screens are not uncommon. I need 
adduce a few examples only. I do not treat of those which have 
been erected of late years. 

In St. Margaret's Church, King's Lynn, is an Elizabethan chancel 
screen of the date 1584. 

In the Church of Walpole St. Andrew, JSTorfolk, is a Caroline 
chancel screen. 

The chancel of Passenliam Church, Northamptonshire, was re- 
edified by Sir Robert Banastre, at his own expense, a.d. 1626. The 
internal fittings consist of stalls arranged choir-mse, and over these 
are the efiigies of the Twelve Apostles. The chancel is separated 
from the nave of the church by a screen of carved work of Jacobean 

In Rug Chapel, near Corwen, ISTorth Wales, which, though 
externally restored so as to look like a modern building, contains 
internally the fittings of the early part of the seventeenth century, 
A.D. 1637, which are very interesting; the chancel screen is of 
Jacobean, or early Caroline design. 

The internal fittings of Monington Church, Herefordshire, of 
the dates 1679-1680, are good, but plain specimens of the age. 
The chancel screen is composed of })lain panel-work below, and open 
semicircular arches supported on twisted columnar shafts above. 

Of late years, in the refitting of our churches, many chancel 
screens have been restored or constructed, and this is in accordance 
with " The order for morning and evening prayer," in which this is 
enjoined, ^^ And the chancels shall remain as theij have done in timp 



Some Notes of an Examination of the Architecture of the Choir of 
Lincoln Cathedral, with a vieiu to determining the Chronology of 
St. Hugh's Work. — By Sir G. G. Scott, E.A., communicated 
by Precentor Venables. 

The following Paper contains the results of a careful examination 
of the Choir and eastern transept of Lincoln Cathedral, made in the 
month of July, 1874, by Sir Gilbert Scott, J. H. Parker, Esq., C.B., 
Mr. J. L. Pearson (the consulting architect of the Dean and 
Chapter), and myself, with the view of settling some controverted 
points connected with the architecture of those portions of the 

It will be remembered that the Cathedral, first raised on the 
present site by Bishop Remigius, which was ready for consecration 
at his death in the year 1092, and subsequently repaired and 
vaulted in stone by the warlike Bishop Alexander, after the 
disastrous fire of 1141 or a little later, was found substantially un- 
changed by Bishop Hugh of Avalon, when, in the year 1186, sorely 
against his will, he was forced to obey his royal master's behest and 
exchange his quiet Carthusian monastery of Witham, for the episcopal 
government of the wide spreading Diocese of Lincoln.'" The year 
before Bishop Hugh's consecration, 1185, the Cathedral church of 
Lincoln had received serious damage from the earthquake which, on 
the 15th of April, had convulsed nearly the whole of England. 
Whether from the fabric having been so much shattered as to 
render its rebuilding a matter of necessity, or simply from a desire to 
replace the rude Norman work of his predecessors with the graceful 
architecture which had just blossomed out of the Transitional style. 
Bishop Hugh had scarcely taken his episcopal seat when he began 
to plan the reconstruction of his Cathedral church. The work began, 
as it always did begin in our cathedrals and abbey churches, at the 
east or altar end. The first stone of the new Choir was laid in 1192. 
The work was prosecuted with vigour for eight years, under the 
personal superintendence, and sometimes with the manual assistance 
of the Bishop, by his architect Geoffrey of N"oyers, and his band of 

* The Diocese of Lincoln comprehended at this time no fewer than nine counties, viz., 
Lincohi, RutUinci, Northampton, Huntingdon, Bedford, Buckingham, Oxford, Leicester and 
Hertford. The county of Cambridge liad been removed from it on the foundation of the See 
of Ely in A. D. 1109. This huge diocese remained undimished till the Reformation, when, in 
1541 and 1.542, the Dioceses of Peterborough and Oxford were formed, and the counties of 
Northampton, Rutland, and Oxford placed under the new bishops. In i-^.W the archdeaconry 
of St. Albans, comi)rising the county of Herts, was placed under the See of London. No 
further diminution of the area of the diocese of Lincoln took place till 1 837, when the counties 
of Bedford and Huntingdon were placed under Ely ; that of Buckingham under Oxford ; and 
that of Leicester under Peterborough. At the same time, however, Nottinghamshire was 
taken from the See of York and added to that of Lincoln. 


skilled workmen. On St. Hugh's death in 1200, the Choir and 
eastern Transept were completed, the foundation of the great or 
western Transept had been laid and a portion of its eastern walls 

A peculiar interest attaches to these portions of our Cathedral as 
the earliest known example of pure Gothic architecture, entirely free 
from any lingering trace of Eomaaesque influence, not in England 
only but in Europe. It would be rash to assert that it was the first 
work executed in the Early English style. Eut we can accurately 
determine the dates of many of the chief examples of that style, 
and the Choir of Lincoln is the earliest of them all. It is not 
surprising, therefore, that there are few architectural works in England 
which have received so much attention from the most competent 
investigators, and that chiefly with the view of determining, first, 
whether the design is of French or English origin, and, secondly, 
whether what we see in the Choir and eastern Transept is all of St. 
Hugh's time, or whether the design received later moclifications and 
additions in the Early English period. 

The first of these questions has been completely set at rest 
by the investigations of Mr. J. H. Parker, Mr. E. A. Freeman,'" 
Prebendary Dimock, and Mr. Edmund Sharpe. The remarks of 
the two last named gentlemen in their papers on the Architecture, 
and on the Documentarij History of Lincoln Cathedral, printed 
in the Societies' Volume for 1868, in addition to those of Mr. Parker 
in his edition of Eickman's Gothic Architecture (p. 233), the 
Archceologia (vol. xliii), and elsewhere, render any fiu'ther discussion 
of this question needless. It has been satisfactorily proved that, 
for once, the highest English architectural authority, whose death 
we have so recently been caUed to lament. Professor Willis, was in 
error when he so confidently asserted the French character of the 
design, and that its architect, in spite of his foreign name, instead of 
being " a mad Frenchman," as, in allusion to the singularities and 
eccentricities which mark his work, he styled him — " may well 
have been a thorough born and bred Englishman, with three or 
four generations of English parents before him."t The first French 
authority, M. Viollet le Due, from whose verdict on questions of the 
architecture of his country there is no appeal, has pronounced most 
unhesitatingly that all the work of the Choir of Lincoln is thoroughly 

* St. Hugh of Lincoln and the Early English Style.— (?e«//t'm(r«'« Magazine, 
November, 1860. This paper is anonymous, but internal evidence indicates its writer beyond 
question. The author remarks, " St. Hugli's stylo . . . may be the personal invention of Huph 
himself or of his architect, Geoffrey of Noiers. But it so it is clear that it was only in England, 
and indeed only in part of England that the invention took root. It may have been actually 
devised by French or Burgundian brains, but it was devised beneath the air of England, and 
bore fruit nowhere but in English soil . . . Hugh and Geoffrey and their followers boldly cast 
off all liomanesque trammels and caiTied Gothic architecture at once to the ideal perfection 
of its earlier form. England accepted their gift and clave to it." 

t Rev. J. F, Dimock. Recorded IlUtory of Lincoln Cathedral, Architectural Societies' 
vol., for 1868, p. 196. 


Englisli work, ■without any trace of French character to be seen 
anywhere about it.* 

The EngHsh origin of the building being thus established beyond 
controversy, the chief point which presents itself for consideration 
is, whether the lolwle of the church and eastern transepts, as we 
see them now, formed one design, or whether any, and what 
additions and modifications were made during the progress of the 
work, or shortly after its completion. This question has chief 
reference to the double decorative wall-arcades, and the stone 
vaulting of the choir and its aisles, and the flying and other 
buttresses which support it. 

It will be borne in mind that the lower compartment of the 
aisle walls beneath the windows, in St. Hugh's Choir and transepts, 
is ornamented with a double arcade ; an outer arcade of trefoiled 
arches standing in front of one of pointed arches, the latter being 
ornamented with a dog-tooth moulding, t Each set of arches is 
supported by shafts with foliated capitals ; the shafts of the 
outer range vertically bisecting the arches of the inner range 
behind them. Each of these arcades is independent of the other, 
and the inner arcade is as carefully finished in those parts which 
are concealed by that in front of it, as if they had been intended 
from the first to be seen. The shafts that support the vaulting of 
of the aisles also stand quite clear of both arcades, completely 
detached from the walls, so that in the angles of the building we 
actually have three shafts in front of and partially hiding each 

The vaulting of the central space likeAvise springs from shafts 
almost clear of the walls behind them, and offers singularities of 
construction which have claimed much attention. The chief 
peculiarity of this vault may be thus described. 

In ordinary quadripartite vaulting, as is well known, the vaidt- 
ing cells, within which the clerestory windows are set, are formed 
by the diagonal ribs of the vaulting parallelogram. The cells con- 
sequently meet in the central ridge of the vaulting, and the two 
sides of each cell are exactly equal in size and curvature. In the 
choir of Lincoln Cathedral, by a singular whim of the architect, 
which we may rejoice has found no imitators, a diff'erent plan has 
been followed. The usual diagonal ribs are Avanting. The 
vaulting cells do not meet in the centre. But the length of the 
central rib being divided into three equal spaces, each marked 

* Gentleman's Magazine, May 1861, p. 551. 
t This double arcade is also found in the triforium of Beverley Minster, c. 1230. There, 
as at Lincoln, the trifoliated arches stand in front of the plain pointed arches, which latter are 
much shorter than at Lincoln. Our intelligent Clerk of the Woi'ks, Mr. J. J. Smith, has 
called my attention to the fact that in the doul)lc arcade in the chapel of the noi-th ti-ansept 
of Lincoln, where St. Hugh's work suddenly breaks ofE, the pointed arches stand in front, the 
trefoiled behind. In the corresponding chapel iu the south transept the usual design is 


by a boss, the bounding ribs of the southern vaulting cell meet in 
the eastern, those of the northern in the western boss. This 
arrangement gives a twisted effect to the vaulting Avhich cannot be 
said to be pleasing. This singular vaulting plan is found in the 
crossing, and the three eastern bays of the choir. The western- 
most bay, which must have suffered more than any other by the 
fall of the tower in 1237, is a later reconstruction, and is sexpartite. 
Whether this was the original plan we have no means of determin- 

The outward thrust of such stone vaidts as those of the Choir 
and aisles of our Cathedral is very great, and needs careful con- 
structive aids for its resistance. These aids are supplied for the 
Choir vaidt by external flying buttresses to the clerestory, and in- 
ternal arch buttresses ivithin the triforium gallery ; and for that of 
the aisles by a series of massive Avail buttresses with pedimented 
heads, dividing the bays from each other, and slenderer buttresses 
of less projection between the windows, bisecting each bay. 

Mr. J. H. Parker, who has made Lincoln Cathedral the subject 
of careful study for many years, has expressed his opinion in 
several of his valuable publications* that the peculiarities above 
described are due to successive alterations in the design, especially 
those necessitated by the fall of the central tower in 1237. The 
special points to which he invited consideration were — 

(1), Whether the double arcading beneath the windows of the 
aisles did not indicate an addition of some nine inches to the 
thickness of those walls, and whether it was the original intention 
that the aisles should be vaidted in stone "? 

(2). Whether the stone vaidting of the Choir may not have been 
a later addition, and not at first intended ; the building having 
been originally designed for a timber roof alone 1 

(3). Whether the cross arches of abutment within the tri- 
forium gallery, and the flying buttresses of the clerestory, were not 
also later additions, introduced to resist the jjressure of the stone 

These suggestions received the respectful attention which can 
never fail to be accorded to any expression of opinion proceeding 
from one to whom the history of architecture is so largely indebted, 
and whose field of observation is so wide. After very careful con- 
sideration, however, of the building itself, and the arguments 
adduced by Mr. Parker, the following conclusions were arrived 
at by Sir Gilbert Scott and Mr. Pearson, and received on the whole 
the acquiescence of Mr. Parker himself. 

I. Double Wall Arcade. — The two systems of wall arcades 
although distinct, and although their arrangement is so irregular 

*'AUmipl lo Discrimitiale the Styles of Architecture in En fjlaml, Parker's Edition, 
p. 233. The English Origin of Gothic Architecture, Archteologia, toI. xlii. p. 87-UO. 


that they present quite a medley of perplexities, still form part of one 
and the same original design. The grounds for this conclusion are 
(1), that the separation between the two planes of decoration does 
not rise higher than, or even quite reach to the string course beneath 
the window sills; (2), again, if the outer arcade were a subsequent 
addition, it Avould disarrange the setting out of the responds and 
piers, which is not the case ; and (3), it would follow that the walls 
were at first of a thinness very unusual in works of that date, and 
of such magnitude ; (4), besides, in one place, much concealed from 
view,* both the iiuier and outer arcades are left unmoulded, shewing 
a coincidence of intention which indicates that the work was con- 
temporaneous. (5) That the aisles Avere always intended to be 
vaulted is shewn by the existence of a fully developed triforium. 
The irregularities in the two arcades which are by no means small, 
and are very perplexing, are probably attributable to the workmen not 
fully understanding the intentions of the master mason as to how 
the two arcades were to come together. The independence of the 
arcades is due to the fact that the separate mode of construction, 
though a rude expedient, was found to be the easiest way of work- 
ing them. 

II. Vaulting. — An examination of the vault of the Choir left 
little doubt of its being of a date subsequent to St. Hugh's time, 
but Sir Gilbert Scott and Mr. Pearson were convinced that it had 
not only ])eeu always intended, but in all probability was erected, 
as the completion of the original design, though afterwards damaged 
by the fall of the central tower, and consequently to a considerable 
extent reconstructed. The singularity of the plan of the vaulting 
already spoken of has been ascribed to a desire to adapt the groining 
to the timbers of an already existing roof, constructed with a view 
to a boarded ceiling. This is in the highest degree improbable, 
and there can be little doubt that the eccentric arrangement of the 
vaulting cells is due to the original designer of the Choir. 

The vaulting of the eastern transepts, sexpartite in plan, adapted 
to the double lancets of the clerestory, is certainly of the original 
work unaltered, except in the southern bay of the southern arm, 
Avhich has been submitted to an extensive reconstruction. If the 
transept was vaulted from the first, it is difficult to believe that the 
Choir Avas allowed to remain destitute of a stone roof.t 

III. Ahutments. — Passing from the vaulting to its abutments and 
supports, it was decided that the arches crossing the triforium 
gallery transversely, between the aisle vaidt and its roof, were 

* This will be seen at the north-east corner of the Dean's Chapel, 
t Mr Sharpe has subsequently called my attention to the fact that the groining ribs of 
the Choir are similar in section to the undoubtedly original ribs of the transepts, though 
deprived of the toothed ornament. This would suggest the idea that the Choir vaulting was 
rcconstructal after the disaster of 1237, upon the still remaining springers oMIugh's work, 
following his mouldings, but omitting their enrichmeuts,— G. G. S. 


prepared for and intended from tlie first, but Avero not actually 
constructed till somewhat later, and then of a reduced thickness. 
This accounts for the appearance, mentioned by Mr. Parker, of "arch- 
buttresses having been introduced against the old flat buttresses 
which were sufficient to carry the old timber roof, but not to carry 
the new vault."* 

The flying buttresses of the clerestory, and the upper portions of 
the buttresses connected with them, were decided to be, as Mr. 
Parker has pointed out, later additions. 

A careful examination of the exterior of the Choir aisles, 
and eastern face of the chapels of the great transept, of which 
rather more than one bay is of St. Hugh's work, proves beyond 
question the correctness of Mr. Parker's view, that the small thin 
buttresses bisecting each bay are very early additions, not contem- 
plated in the original design, but found necessary to resist the 
pressure of the intermediate ribs of the vault of the aisles, Avhich in 
these bays is quinquepartite, adapted to the coupled lancets which 
light them. The drip moulding of these lancets is supported on 
three shafts, one between the two windows, and one on either 
side. Of these, as far as St. Hugh's work extends, the central shaft 
is built against and concealed by this intermediate buttress ; but as 
soon as we pass beyond St. Hugh's work in the chapel wall of the 
transept, the arrangement of the shafts is altered. There are four 
shafts instead of three, one being set on either side of the inter- 
mediate buttress, which is thus shewn to be no intrusion, but to 
belong to the design as then modified in conformity with the 
experience gained in building the Choir. This fact is of very great 
importance in fixing the approximate date of the aisle vault ; for it 
shews that a knowledge of the necessity for these small buttresses, 
which is simply due to the thrust of that vault, and their introduc- 
tion in the design was anterior to the continuation of the work of 
the eastern transept suspended at St. Hugh's death. In the 
metrical life of St. Hugh, printed and edited by Prebendary 
Dimock, these transepts are described as fully complete, even to 
the great round windows in the north and south fronts and the painted 
glass which filled them. This biography was written in the life- 
time of the second Bishop Hugh, him of Wells, (brother of Bishop 
Jocelin, the chief builder of Wells Cathedral), i.e., before the year 
1235, and thus the building of the transepts is fixed very early in 
that century, and the vaulting of the Choir aisles earlier still. 

A doubt arose as to whether the greater buttresses of the aisles 
had not been made to project further than was originally designed. 
On closer examination, however, the appearances which led to this 
suggestion were found to be due to extensive repairs in modern 

* Archaologia, u.s., p. 90. 


times, which have obliterated the details of the lower portions of 
these buttresses. 

rV. Transeptal Toioers. — There is reason to believe that it was 
the intention of St. Hugh's architect to have erected a tower 
over the extreme bay of each limb of the eastern transept, thus 
producing an arrangement analogous to that seen at Exeter 
and Ottery St. Mary's. The increased thickness of the main walls 
at this part, the transverse wall cutting off the last bay of the 
northern limb, the arrangement of the windows, and other indica- 
tions lead to this conclusion. To the north this design was simply 
discontinued at the height of the transept walls, and the whole was 
terminated with a gable. But in the southern transept not only 
was this done, but the transverse walls and arches of the intended 
tower were taken do^vn, and the whole of the rude internal walls 
thus exposed to views were riclily faced in the later Early English 
style of the middle of the thirteenth century. A comparison of 
the mouldings and foliage of the two adjacent bays in this south- 
east transept, as well as of the great northern and southern gable 
ends, affords a very instructive architectural lesson. 

Another reconstruction which deserves attention is that of the 
great angle piers of the eastern transepts. These were taken down 
and rebuilt to a considerable height by the builders of the presbytery 
or angel choir, c. 1256, only one of the four original Early English 
capitals remaining, that at the south-west angle. 

V. Minor alterations. — Many other alterations effected from time 
to time in the earlier work may be observed : among which may be 
specially noticed the reconstruction of the triforium of the western 
bay, and the casing and strengthening of several of the clustered piers 
of the aisles after the fall of the central tower, as well as the shortening 
and corbelling of the vaulting shafts of the Choir, on the introduc- 
tion of the stalls, erected by Treasurer Welbourn between 1362 and 
1376. These shafts originally rose from the floor, where their bases 
still exist beneath the flooring of the upper row of stalls. 

To sum up the general results of this examination of St. Hugh's 
work, Mr.Parker's two leading questions were — (1), whether the 
aisles were from the first intended to be vaulted ; (2), whether the 
same was the case mth the central space. 

On the first question it was felt that there was no room for 
doubt. The argument from the existence of a triforium, it is true, 
is not absolutely conclusive, as Mr. Parker remarked that a level 
timber floor and ceiling may have been intended. Such a finish, 
however, to an aisle surmounted by a triforium is nowhere met 
with in England, and is very unfrequent elsewhere. The strongest 
argument in favour of the aisles having been intended for vaulting 
from the commencement is, that in churches of the first class, 


among which that of Lincoln must certainly take a very high place, 
from Edward the Confessor's Abbey at Westminster downwards, 
the aisles were invariably vaulted. To suppose that St. Hugh or 
his architect propesed to omit so essential a feature would be to 
attribute most markedly retrogressive ideas to one whom we 
properly associate with one of the most mighty onward steps ever 
taken in the architecture of our country. 

As to the central space, there is no doubt that in many large 
churches this continued unvaulted, but not to mention the vaults 
of St. Cross, the Choir of Canterbury, and the Cathedral of Durham, 
the whole of this very Cathedral had received a stone vault from 
the hands of Bishop Alexander, half a century before St. Hugh 
commenced his reconstruction, and it is difficult to conceive that 
in this instance also, the designer of a fabric evidently intended 
to surpass all existing architectural works should have taken a 
step backwards and intentionally deprived his church of so essential 
a feature, and one with which the Bishop must have been so familiar 
in the churches of his native land. In Sir Gilbert Scott's words, 
" St. Hugh's great work may be supposed to have been on the 
very crest of the wave of progress, and accordingly, we find its 
transept to have been vaulted, and its Choir desgined in strict 
conformity with it." 

If any further proof is needed of the existence of a vault over the 
central s})ace of the Choir, the words of the author of the Metrical 
Life are decisive. 

Nam ([uasi penuatis avibus testudo locuta 
Latas expandens alas, similisque volauti, 
Nubes oti'endit, -solidis innisa columnis. 

Whatever the precise meaning of the writer's not very intelligible 
metaphors may be, one thing at least is clear that the " testudo," 
or vaulted roof, formed part of the original design, and that St. 
Hugh finished it himself " and did not, like so many other mediaeval 
builders, leave it to be added (or not added) by another generation."* 

* Gentleman's Magazine, November, 1860, p. 463. 

VOL. XIL, TT. n. 


Hardtolch. — By the Eev. H. Cottingham, M.A., Vicar of Heath 
and Hault Hucknall, and Rural Dean of Bolsover. 

The learned and classical Gray when writing to his friend, Dr. 
Wharton, made this remark : " I have only time to tell you that 
of all the places which I saw on my return from you Ilardwick 
pleased me the most." I know not what may have been your 
feelings to-day on visiting it, connected as it is with so many 
associations which carry the mind back through generations of 
noble and distinguished men who have been the possessors of it. 
I readily assume that you were gratified with your inspection of 
Hardwick, although the time allotted to it was unfortunately so 
short. And if, by anything I may be enabled to say as to its 
history and architecture, the objects of interest which it contains, 
and the persons who have been especially connected with it, the 
pleasing impressions Avhich have been made to-day should be 
confirmed, I shall rejoice ; but not without regret that the gentle- 
men who were first invited to read a Paper on the subject declined 
to do so, and that only at the eleventh hour the duty has fallen 
into hands so unequal to it as are mine. 

Of its early history it may be enough to say that the Manor of 
Hardwick was granted by King John to Andrew de Beauchamp. 
Afterwards, William de Steynesby held it of John de Savage by 
the annual render of 31bs. of cinnamon and one of pepper. The 
Hardwicks then held it for six generations, and from the rent-roll 
now in the muniment-room at Hardwick they must have had 
large possessions in the county. Elizabeth, the third daughter 
and co-heiress of John Hardwick, Esq., brought the estate to her 
second husband. Sir William Cavendish, from whom it has descended 
to the present noble owner. Of this remarkable Avoman, Queen 
Elizabeth said, " There ys no Lady yn thys land that I better love 
and lyke." 

The two buildings, surrounded on all sides hy a beautifully 
undulating and well-timbered Park, present both in the distance, 
when a first glimpse of their bold outline is gained, or when viewed 
from nearer points, a striking feature in the landscape. The more 
ancient of them was once an imposing edifice, and from the style 
of its architecture was probably not built (at least some portions of 
it) any great length of time before the present mansion. Of the 
founder of this building — undoubtedly one of the Hardwicks — we 
have no account ; but the central part is the oldest, and vestiges 
remain among the ruins which are of the date of Henry the Eighth 


ard were an addition. It still i-emains, gray with the hand of time 
and almost overgrown with ivy. One stately room can yet be seen, 
which, from two colossal figures in Eoman armour that stand over 
the chimney piece, has acquired the name of the " Giant's Chamber," 
and has long been considered by architects a good specimen of grand 
and beautiful jiroportion ; and for this we have the authority of 
Eishop Kennet who says, " That it was, on that account, thought 
fit for the pattern of a room in the palace of Blenheim."* This 
fabric was standing entire until the time of William the Third, 
when much of it was pulled down, and the timber then and 
subsequently used at Cbatsworth. 

At the distance of a stone's throw from this house, in which the 
Countess was born, and which she left standing, "as if she intended 
to construct her bed of state close to her cradle," is the other house, 
a magnificent relic of the pomp and splendour of the Elizabethan 
age, and the erection of which was commenced about the year 1576, 
and not finished until after 1607. The exterior is extremely im- 
posing : and it is built with such exact proportions that at first 
sight its size does not appear to be so great as it is, and only on 
examination do its really gigantic dimensions become apparent.t 
When approaching it the eye is confused by the singular ornaments 
Avhich crown its lofty towers ; but on a nearer vieAV, that which 
looked confused becomes harmonious, and, as some one has 
expressed it, "the blue sky shines through a range of E.S's supported 
by bands of waving stone, forming an elegant parapet on each of 
the six towers Avhich guard the majestic pile." 

In explaining the style of architecture which prevailed in the 
last years of Queen Elizabeth, and the first of James I., Horace 
Walpole selected Hard^\ack as an example. He remarked that, 
"in ancient times the mansions of the nobility were built for 
defence and strength rather than for convenience. The walls thick : 
the windows pierced wherever it was necessary for them to look 
abroad, instead of being contrived for symmetry, or to illuminate 
the chambers. To that style succeeded the riclmess and delicacy 
of the Gothic. As that declined, before the Grecian taste was 
established, space and vastness seems to have made up their whole 
ideas of grandeur." 

The house at Hardwick, erected in the reign of Elizabeth by the 
memorable Countess of Shrewsbury, is exactly in this style. The 
apartments, especially the Entrance-hall, the Presence-chamber, and 
the great Gallery, the latter extending nearly the whole length of 
the eastern side of the house,;}; are large and lofty. The windows, 

* The proportions of the Giant's Chamber are .55 feet 6 in. by AO feet 6 in., and 24 feet 
6 in. high 

t The length of tlie house is '210 feet, the width InO feet, and tlie height 9t! feet. 

t The length of the gallery is 109 feet 4 in., the width 22 feet 2 iu., and the height 2G feet. 


filled with small diamond-shaped panes of glass, letting in floods of 
light, so that, as Lord Bacon remarked Avhen speaking of this pecu- 
harity, " one cannot tell where to become to be out of the sun or 
cold," are so numerous, that the old saying in the neighbourhood, 

" Hardwick HaU, 
More glass than wall," 

is literally true : and nothing can present a more fairy -like ajjpear- 
ance than Hardwick does, when the setting sun throws its golden 
rays upon it and lights it up with its splendour. 

To identify the name of the architect who designed the plan, 
and superintended the building of the house is, in tlio absence of 
positive proof, no easy matter. But Huntingdon Smithson, who 
was afterwards engaged as the architect of the Castle of Bolsover, 
as well as of Wollaton Hall, has a probable claim to this monument 
of great architectural genius. The works of this and other archi- 
tects of the jjeriod, though vast and magnificent, become eclipsed 
by Inigo Jones ; and the intermediate period between the disuse of 
the Tudor and the introduction of the Palladian style was passed 
over with neglect, so far as regards any information of the architects 
or their Avorks. 

The house at Hardwick was built of stone quarried from the 
rock on wliich it stands : and so much less valuable was timber 
than workmanship when it was erected, that where the staircases 
are not of stone they are formed of solid oaken steps : such is the 
one leading from the second, or state story, to the roof, whence on 
clear days, the towers of Lincoln Cathedral are said to be in the 

You doubtless observed to-day that the chimney pieces in almost 
every room at Hardmck, as at Bolsover Castle, are very fine, being 
larger, as a rule, and of better execution than those in the old hall. 
The one in the dining-room is much decorated ; and in letters of 
gold we are admonished that — 





In the drawing-room are the Hardwick Arms, supported Ijy 
stags, and surmounted by an Earl's coronet, with this inscription 
underneath : — 



In the presence-chamber are the royal arms, which seem to indicate 

that when the house was built the Countess intended to receive 


the Queen in one of her royal progresses. Above the fire-place in 
the library is a piece of sculpture, the subject being Mount Parnassus 
with Apollo and the Muses : over the figures on one side are the 
arms of Queen Elizabeth, and on the other her initials, E.R., in a 
knot and crowned. This fine group, found not many years ago in 
the cellar at ChatsAvorth, is supposed to have been presented to the 
Countess of Shrewsbury by Queen Elizabeth, and it has, therefore, 
been appropriately brought to Hardwick and placed in its present 

I Avould now call your attention to the beautiful tapestry, which 
is the glory of Hardwick, and is not, perhaps, excelled by that iu 
any other house in the kingdom. The tapestry in the great hall 
and on the grand staircase, the subjects of which are mostly taken 
from Eubens and Snyders, and part of which tells the story of Hero 
and Leander, is of comparatively modern date. But in other parts 
of the house there are more ancient specimens of it. The walls of 
the chapel are covered with painted hangings depicting scenes in the 
life of St. Paul ; and on the ceiling, in tapestry, is a copy of Titian's 
picture of " Our Lord with the two disciples at Emmaus." In the 
drawing-room, above its wainscotted jianels, the tapestry represents 
the story of Esther and Ahasuerus ; and in adjoining apartments 
we have events in the life of Abraham ; and also the Judgment of 
Solomon. The presence-chamber is hung with tapestry of a date 
anterior to the building of the house, and representing the history 
of Ulysses ; and the long gallery has tapestry still more ancient, 
bearing the date of 1428. The oldest of all, however, is on the 
staircase, which, judging from the costume of the figures and treat- 
ment of the subject, is probably of an earlier date, and is very rare. 
The ladies who are present may expect me to say something of the 
specimens of needlework, which are spread in profusion through the 
whole of the house : but, distrusting my own judgment in such 
matters of taste, I will refer to the account given of them by Miss 
Stuart Costello, who says, " Much of the embroidery still preserved 
is marked Avith the Countess's name and arms, and is of the richest 
gold thread, intermixed with silver and gold spangles, garnets, and 
foil. The patterns are very tasteful and elegant ; by no means in- 
ferior to any of the present day, and far more costly than coidd now 
be afforded. The Avork, which bears the oft-recurring initials of 
Mary Stuart, is extremely fine ; and a favourite subject is the fables 
of J^sop, and a representation of the Virtues, Avith fanciful attri- 
butes. All this is precious to the last morsel, and gives rise to 
endless sjieculations as to the fair Avorkers of these once gorgeous 

The next subjects to enlist our attention are some other of the 
antique treasures of Hardwick, the high-backed and Tudor chairs, 
the splendid cabinets, the curiously carved and inlaid chests, one 


having the initials G.S., showing tliat it belonged to George, Earl 
of Shrewsbury. The chairs have been carefully restored, both in 
their framework and upholstery ; a few of the cabinets and tables 
have been drawn and published in Shaw's book of Specimens of 
Ancient Furniture, and they deserve a careful inspection. But the 
object of greatest interest is a long table in the presence-chamber, 
inlaid with representations of musical instruments, playing-cards, 
chess and backgammon boards, and music marked with scrolls with 
the notes familiar to those who possess the black letter editions of 
Sternhold and Hopkins. In the centre between two shields bear- 
ing quarterings of the families of Hardwick, Cavendish, and Talbot, 
is this curious motto : — 


The same motto was to be found on the ornamented chimney- 
piece of the drawing room in the other house. These specimens of 
old furniture and tapestry, as well as the curious door leading into 
the presence-chamber, with its highly wrought and quaint lock, 
probably the work of some Xurendjerg artist, formed part of the 
decorations of the older mansion. 

I will now briefly notice the pictures at Hardwick, which are 
chiefly portraits of members of the family of the noble owner, and 
of other persons of historical interest. They comprise works by 
Holbein, Sir Antonio More, Zucchero, Mirevelt, Vandyck, Sir Peter 
Lely, Sir Godfrey Kneller, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Gainsborough, 
Wright of Derby, Sir M. A. Shee, Sir Francis Grant, and many 
others but of less note. The pictures to which the most interest 
may be said to be attached are of the period of the Countess herself. 
Here is one of the unfortunate Mary Stuart, who, for the long period 
of seventeen years was in the custody of the Earl of Shrewsbury. It 
is a full length in a mourning habit, with a Avhite cap peculiar to 
her, and a veil of white gauze. It is dated 1578, the 3Gth of her 
age and the 10th of her captivity. It has been asserted that Mary 
Stuart never was at Hardwick, and I am not prepared to say that 
she spent any length of time there : but that she loas at Hardwick 
with the Earl and Countess, I fully believe, and there is strong 
presumptive evidence of it. The author of Vitruvius Britannicus 
has devoted much of his work in an attempt to jDrove this to be 
impossible : and he gives as a reason that, during her captivity, the 
first house at Hardwick was nearly dilapidated by the removal of 
many of its materials to Chatsworth, which the Countess had rebuilt. 
But unfortunately for his theory the old house at Hardwick 
remained intact until the reign of William the Third, when, as I 


have said before, it was partly taken down, the timber being used 
in the buildings at Chatsworth. 

There are several pictures of the Countess taken at different 
periods of her life. In one she is represented in a black dress, with 
the accompaniments of ruffs and ruffles, and over it hang five or six 
rows of pearls of great size. This celebrated lady, on the death of 
her brother, became sole heiress of the estates of her family. She 
was four times married, and only by her second husband. Sir 
William Cavendish, had she any family. Her last husband was 
the Earl of Shrewsbury. To him was committed the custody of 
the Queen of Scots, a circumstance which probably was the cause 
of much unhappiness between him and his wife. At first all was 
sunshine and peace. " My dere," he writes, " of all joys I have 
under God, the greatest is yourself : to think T possess so faithful, 
and one that I know loves me so dearly, is all and the greatest 
comfort that this earth can give. Therefore God give me grace to 
be thankful to Him." This was in 1571. By and bye a cloud 
came over the scene, and dissipated the fair appearance of peace. 
False friends fanned the flame of discord between them. And we 
have the Earl thus writing in 158() to Secretary Walsingham, " My 
trust is that she may be banished the Court as a woman not fit for 
that honourable place. It may be that with her money she will 
buy friends at Court to speak in her behalf, but to them I wish no 
other revenge than to have such a wife." At length the sorrows 
and troubles of the Earl of Shrewsbury came to an end, and he 
died at Sheffield in 1590. The Countess, thus left for the fourth 
time a widow, spent the latter part of her long life in building, and 
it is marvellous how much work she accomplished, as is indicated 
by the original accounts which have been inspected to-day, and 
which show that not a penny was expended on her buildings with- 
out the sanction of her own signature. 

Building, indeed, was a passion with her ; and Horace "Walpole 
mentions a jirediction believed in the neighbourhood, " That the 
Countess would not die so long as she continued to build." 

In an old parchment-roll of the events which occuiTed in the 
County of Derby there is this record : " 1607 — The old Countess 
of Shrewsbury died about Candlemas — a great frost this year." So 


the masons could not Avork, and then the end came. She died at 
Hardwick, and was buried in the church of All Hallows, Derby ; 
and a line mural monument with recumbent figure, erected in her 
life-time, is to be seen there. There is also a monument of her, 
which still exists in Derby, testifying her sjanpathy with the poor 
in the endowment of a number of almshouses for twelve poor men 
and women. 

Another interesting character, whose early life was spent at 
Hardwick, is the unfortunate grand-daughter of the Countess of 
Shrewsbury, the Lady Arabella Stuart. The Countess, unknown 
to her husband, had married her favourite daughter, Elizabeth 
Cavendish, to Lord Lennox, the younger brother of the murdered 
Darnley, and consequently standing in the same degree of relation- 
ship to the Crown. The Queen, in her consternation, ordered the 
old Countess to the Tower, from which she was afterwards released 
only to meet with another grief. The young Lady Lennox, while 
yet in all her bridal bloom, died in the arms of her mother, and left 
an infant daughter, Arabella Stuart, whose picture is at Hardwick, 
exhibiting her at the age of two years with a doll in iier hand. 
There is no evidence that Lady Shrewsbury indidged in any 
ambitious schemes for this favourite grandchild, "her dear jewel 
ArbeU," as she terms her. On the contrary, she superintended 
her education, and kept her in seclusion lest the Queen should rob 
her of her treasure. In a letter to the Countess of Shrewsbury, 
dated the 8th of February, 1587, this "jewel Arbell" addresses 
her as " Good Lady Grandmother," and says, " I have sent your 
Ladyship the endes of my heare which were cut the sixt day of the 
moon on Saturday last and with them a pot of gelly which my 
servant made." In the course of time, the Lady Arabella became 
attached to Sir WiUiam Seymour, the second son of Lord Beauchamp, 
and grandson of the Earl of Hertford, and she decided to unite 
her destiny with his. In a happy hour for their love, but a fatal 
one for their future happiness, they took the dangerous step, and 
from that moment the doom of Arabella was sealed. She was 
shortly afterwards imprisoned, and died a maniac in the Tower. 

The last person the history of whose life is bound up with that 
of Hardwick, and who has a claim on our attention this evening, is 
Thomas Hobbes, of Malmesbury, the friend of Gassendi, of Dr. 
Hervey, the poet Cowley, and the learned Seldon. The portrait of 
him at Hardwick, taken in his 89th year, is most characteristic, 
conveying the idea that it must be a truthful likeness of the great 
Philosopher. He became tutor to the Earls of Devonshii-e when 
twenty years of age, and was domesticated witli them for the rest of 
his life. His first, and probably his best work, was his translation of 
Thucydides : his greatest, the Leviathan, which was censured by 
Act of Parliament for its political tendencies. Although the author 


of many books ho was a professed enemy to reading, on which 
subject he was accustomed to say, that " if he had read as much as 
otliers, he should be as ignorant as thej^ were." Towards the close 
of his hfe he was unwilling to be loft alone : and his patron, the 
Earl of Devonshire, removing from Chatsworth to Hardwick, the 
old man, though extremely ill at the time, requested that he might 
be carried with him. He bore the journey without much incon- 
venience, but in a few days afterward he lost the use of speech 
and of his right arm ; and in December, 1679, he died in his 91st 
year, and was buried in the adjoining parish church of Hault 

Warned now that the time permitted me for reading this paper 
is expired I will )io longer dwell upon the history of Hardwick, 
blended with which are so many beautiful and solemn associations 
of by-gone days, and into which the more we enter, the more points 
of interest does it present to our consideration. But I am unwilling 
to conclude without saying how greatly Hardwick is indebted to 
the Duke of Devonshire and his family for the many improvements 
which have recently been effected there, No one, previously 
unacquainted with Hardwick, can have any idea of the changes 
which have, with excellent taste, been accomplished ^vithin the last 
twenty-five years. Very recently the whole of the roof has been 
renewed, and the outside walls are being recased with stone. Year 
by year this great work of restoration is going on ; and the present 
noble owner, inheriting the feelings of his ancestors, willingly at all 
times opens the interesting old house and extensive park to the 
public, who in countless numbers visit this attractive scene with a 
freedom which almost makes the place their own. 



On the Churches of Lastingham and KtrMale, in Yorkshire, with 
some remarks on Ancient Saxon Sundials: — By tlie Rev. G. 
liowE, M.A. 


The village of Lastingham is situated on the south edge of the 
Yorkshire IMourland, and is defended on the south hy a ridge of 
hills which overlook the Rye Valley. The church stands on rapidly 
sloping ground, lower than the roads by which it is usually 

?J*V4 ;a;^ ' ' ■»»> »" 'j .j )» ^aM'-il'* 

>^ ^*..'■V^?^^"^^';tl^^>-' ' *• '^'^ 


approached. It was always a lovely spot, and would be still more 
sequestered and silent, in ancient times, when woods were more 
plentiful than they are at present, and would cut it off from 
intercourse with Eyedale. The broad moore, purple or brown, were 
almost an equal barrier on the north. Here, it is supposed, Avas 
very early placed a monastery, of which the church alone remains. 
Nov is the present one the first that has been built : for probably 
the old stones, preserved in the crypt, belong to some older fabric 
on the same site. 

We have now a small church, consisting of apsidal chancel, 
nave, aisles, and tower. It was originally a Norman ftibric : the 
date of which will be c. 1160. This Norman church seems, from 
the square, massive character of the central piers, and some perpen- 
dicular angles in the stonework above, which are carried into the roof, 
to have had a tower, to the west of them. What are now responds, 
go comjDletely through the western wall, and shew externally as 
clustered Norman piers. Inside, on the base of the northern one, 
is a curious chain moulding. Further west, have been discovered 
the foundation of other piers, proving that the Norman nave was 
prolonged in that direction. There are Norman doorways yet 
remaining on both sides of the church ; and a round-headed lancet 
exists at the east end of the north aisle, lighting, what is called, the 
Founder's Chapel, now used as a vestry. In the floor of the nave, 
under the original tower, is an oblong trap-door (similar to that 
leading to the so-called Wilfrid's Needle, in Eipon Minster), 
disclosing a flight of steps by which the crypt is reached. This 
extends beneath the apse, and is a complete little church, of nave, 
aisles, and apse, lighted only by lancets from the east, where it is 
wholly above ground. There are three narrow bays, with low piers, 
having heavy capitals and bases. The caps have a kind of classic 
volute beneath the abacus, which is uncommon, and would give an 
early date, but that they are accompanied by interlaced arches and 
stiff foliage. ]\fassive square-sectioned circular arches connect the 
piers, transversally as avcII as longitudinally, and the intermediate 
vaulting is Avhat Dr. Whewell called "quadripartite."* On the 
north side of the crypt is a staircase which apparently led east- 
ward. + 

The apse above is all but entirely concealed. There are 
five lancets, but the three central are stopped up, two of them by 
monumental stones, and the third by a picture of Christ in the 
Garden, by Jackson, a native of Lastingham. 

Some terrible visitation happened to the church, not long after 
it was built, which destroyed the central towiT, and injured the 

* Notes on Oerman Churches, 1S42, p. (U. 
t By the kiiKliicss of the Rev. D. Easterhy, Vicnr of Ljistiiighani, mid of A. C'lawfora, Esq., 
architect, Leeds, I am enabled to give a drawing and \>\a,x\ of the apse.; 


eastern bay of the nave. These parts were accordingly rebuilt in 
Early English times, when the four-clustered, bowtell piers were 
added, and the whole of the nave arcade, of pointed arches, with a 
very solid section, was built. This was about the year 1 200 a.d. 

The Decorated period saw the insertion of a large window in 
the east end of the south aisle : and Perpendicular times, the lancets 
of the Norman or Early English period in the aisles replaced by 
larger windows ; and the addition of a south clerestory. Some of 
these were filled with stained glass, for two fragments of this date 
yet remain in the Decorated windows before mentioned. At this 
time also was erected the tower, a plain building of two stages, and 
containing three bells. 

The windows in the south aisle, and some in the clerestory, have 
since been added, perhaps in 1825, when also the south doorway 
underwent restoration from a design of Jackson's. A large organ- 
loft completely fills the west-bay, and a screen beneath it, separates 
the doors and font (which is jDlain) from the church. 

The first impression on entering the nave is that of extreme 
surprise : then one almost forgets that it is a church at all. It has 
been so completely turned into a gallery for " the pictiu-e." The roof 
of the apse has been elevated into a glass lanterU; with what effect 
outside may be imagined. This is glazed with maize-coloured glass, 
in order to give a kind of artificial light. The apse itself is converted 
into a circular temple, by the introduction in front of it of tall 
Avooden piers, mth imitation Norman capitals, so as to form a dark 
frame to the painting. Between these the communion rails extend. 
No doubt, the author of these alterations thought that he was 
beautifying the House of God, and forgot, or overlooked, as was 
then not unusual, the purpose for which it was erected. But this 
will not justify the present generation in doing the same. In the 
somewhat distant view of a restoration of the church, it may be 
suggested that the picture (which is said to be a copy) should be 
placed at the end of the north aisle before the vestry. 

Returning to the crypt we Avill describe the most interesting of 
the stones preserved there. 

That which is probably the earliest is a small rectangular slab 
about two feet in length, and bearing a plain incised Latin cross. 
It may be the memorial of one of the first inhabitants of the 
monastery, beautiful by reason of its humility and faith. The 
next is also very early, and has perhaps been placed on the moor 
to point out the way to the sanctuary. In Cornwall, we have 
found such plain crosses used with this object, directing the 
traveller to some oratory or church. 

Fig. 1 is the centre of the upper portion of a large cross. It 
measui'es 3 feet 8 inches in height, and is 10 inches in thickness. 
There are holes in the sides and top by which the ends of the cross 

■ ^^%, 





' ' ^V(-. 

Ful 1. 

' t 


I. -■ 

/ ^/'i 

vV4. Sx^ ^^ if 

F^Q. 4. 

Carved Stones, in Crypt of Lastingham Yorkshire. 

G. R 


were fastened on. This cross must have been a large one, at least 
10 feet high, unless indeed it were sessile on its base, as there is 
some reason to think was sometimes the case. It is adorned with the 
cable-moulding at all its corners, and remains of complicated and 
irregular interlaced work on its front surface. 

Fig. 2 is the bottom part of a large cross, which has been 
fixed in a base. It is very rudely worked all over with incised 
lines, and apparently the ornamentation is unfinished, for one 
angle has what was afterwards termed the cable-moulding, which is 
wanting on the rest. There are, as it were, the first attempts at 
the zig-zag and embattled mouldings of the j^orman period. If 
this is not mere accidental coincidence, might there not be some 
monk of foreign proclivities who remembered and strove to imitate 
what he had seen abroad 1 

The next to be described is but a fragment, but of very beautiful 
design and workmanship. It is only 1 foot 4 inches high and 
9 inches wide, and is, like the first mentioned, the centre part of a 
cross. The ornamentation of the back is essentially classical, being 
formed of little else than lines gracefully curved, and an approxima- 
tion to a wheel window. The front presents examples of finely 
"wrought interlaced tracery of the same intricate pattern as occurs 
on the stem of the cross in Hawkswell churchyard, near Eiclimond.* 
Both sides have circular holes in the centre for the reception of a 
piece of coloured stone or glass, Fig. 3. 

Another carved stone is almost cubical, about 8 inches each way. 
All the upper and lower angles are ornamented with two small 
spirals, similar to those which occur on some early fonts. Each of 
the sides has two panels with jilain backs. In the top of this stone 
is a cup-shaped depression, 4 inches deep. The only conjecture 
concerning it is that it is a stoup for holy water. It is of Caen 
stone, and has a very foreign appearance, Fig. 4- 

There remain two coffin slabs of comparatively late date. The 
first is apjjarently of Early English work, but the cross has been 
obliterated, and the only evidence is the ornamentation of the stem 
of it, and the character of the letters. It is traditionally known as 
commemorating John de Spaunton. The hamlet of Spaunton lies 
among the hills, about a quarter of a mile to the west. The second 
is a much later incised cross slab, of somewhat plain character, with 
the monogram of the sacred name ii)C on it. Fig. 11. 

The foundation of a monastery here by Cedd, the brother of St. 
Chad, was never questioned till a few years since, when a plea was 
made out for Kirkdale, at a spot near the church. Bcde came to 
the monastery to hear the account of its foundation, and gives it in 
his liistory.t Erom this it appears that the plot of ground which 

* Sue the engraving in Archocological Juurnal, vol. iii. p. 25t). 
tBedeiii. 23. 


Ethelwakl, King of Deira, gave to Cedd, was at Lajstingau. This 
word has been variously translated to mean " home of the Laestings," 
" water of the Loestings," and " tlie lasting home " of those who 
lived and died here. Without the means of testing these intrepre- 
tatations, the present writer may, nevertheless, say that there appears 
no proof of any family named the Lastings ; and if there did, there 
is a good deal more water in the stream at Lastingham than 
in Hodge Beck, at Kirkdale. Lastingham was certainly the last 
resting place of those who were buried there, but it is a forced 
etymology that seeks so to explain the term. Meanwhile, a church, 
largo and beautiful even among the sumptuous edifices reared after 
the Norman conquest, was built at Lastingham, in such a place 
as woidd have been chosen for a monastery ; which has always 
been supposed to have belonged to one, and of which we can 
give no other account. We shall, therefore, still think that here 
the saintly minded Cedd and the holy Chad, its two first abbots, 
ruled a house of monks, and that the fountain named Cedd's 
Well is not so called by accident, but because he lived here, and 
was buried, as Bede says, " by the right hand of the altar." 


There is not now a house within some distance of the church 
of Kirkdale ; but it is situated at the entrance of a romantic valley 
of the same name, which it changes in the higher part for Sleight- 
holme Dale, and higher still, for Brand's Dale. The boundary of 
the grave-yard on the east is formed by Hodge Beck, on the other 
side of which is the quarry wherein was the famous Kirkdale Cave, 
discovered in 1821, and explored by Dr. Buckland at the time. 
The part in which he found so many bones has since been worked 
away, and the chance of meeting Avith any more is very small, 
though some occasionally still turn up. 

The ground plan of this modest little church consists of the 
usual chancel and nave, north and south aisles, south porch and 
and west toAver ; all the })arts being exceedingly plain. 

The fabric is originally of Early English construction. This is 
proved by the nave piers, which are distinctly Early English, with 
the exception of the eastern respond, which has a late Norman cap 
upon a tall shaft ; the windows, wherever left, are Early English 
lancets : the font is of the same date, and has a plain circular cup- 
shaped bowl on a cylindrical stem ; very similar to that in the 
church of All Saints, North Street, York. There is a piece of very 
early stained glass in the east window. The south door is round 
headed, and Transitional. This evidence gives a date early in the 
style, or of circa 1200 a.d. The piscina and adjacent aumbrye are 
also Early English ; an hagioscope, now blocked, is very plain, but 
probably built at the same time ; and a low side-window on the 
south is one of the lancets before mentioned. 

.M^ .». .».. » <^5jf5L- - ■ ■< ■ *<rf( t— 







,^ J^::- 

-*-i*i?r'»*s»>-^sS^** 5^5 --"' 

/'i'y, .^ 

,>**^lfc^^^-"- -SSJSSfr^^ 



: -,-■:".. 

)<"'• ' ;.;.:- 


/f J a^f^! 

i^Z/^ (^, 

^'S^i^*^'''^^m^ '^^ 

/^^f . 7. 

Carved Stones, in the Walls ofKirkdale Church Yorkshire. 



There is some Perpendicular work of a very plain kind among 
the windows ; but these are mostly repairs in recent times, with 
nothing to recommend them but that the apertures admit light. 

In a field to the south of the church, where the valley enters 
the open country beyond, are low mounds which jDrobably represent 
the foundations of buildings of some sort. They may fix the site 
of the habitations which formerly supplied worshippers to the church, 
a supposition encouraged by the position of the low side window ; 
they may have been flirm-buildings ; and lastly they may mark the 
place where a monastery once stood. This theory is advocated 
in the neighbourhood, but is apparently unsupported by any proof. 
The idea of a monastery has been invented to account for the pre- 
sence in the church of some carved stones which seem too important 
to have formed part of any structure which preceded the present 
fabric. These stones are now all built into the wall, in a horizontal 
direction. Some of them have been removed from other parts of 
the church Avithin memory.* They are, putting them at their 
apparent relative age, — 

1. A stone about five feet long, cut above into the form of a 
cross. Upon the cross is a rude and very early figure of the Saviour, 
with his arms extended into those of the cross, and his head reach- 
ing nearly to the top. His two feet are seemingly separated, and 
scarcely approach the bottom of the cross-part. The lower portion 
of the stone has been covered with carving, but all, except a few 
traces of it are lost. With it may be compared a cross-stone at 
Sancreed, in the west of Cornwall. Fi(j. 7. 

The next two are of later date than the last. 

2. The first is also a cross-stone, cut off at the arms, and broken 
below. It is very much worn, but exhibits some peculiar interlacing 
work on its surface. 

3. A solid rectangular slab, apparently broken towards one end, 
about 4 feet long and 21 inches broad, and entirely covered with 
finely cut interlacing work of a very complicated kind. The pattern 
is not composed of broad straps, as in most work of the kind ; nor 
is it formed by a sunken line, but by a narrow raised line, now all 
Uut worn away by the weather. Fig. 6. 

4. Another rectangular stone of the exact breadth, and, curiously 
enough, broken off at one end, at the same length as the last 
mentioned. This coincidence naturally suggests some common use, 
as the two sides of a monument ; but the one now before us appears 
of an older date, and by a different hand, the pattern being more 
regular, and the execution as well. We are almost inclined to 
ascribe this stone to foreign workmanship, so beautiful and singular 
in the ornamentation, partaking, as it does, too, of classical forms. 
It consists of a cross, surrounded on all sides by scroll-work, in 

• Mr. G- Franks, 


which tho principal line is wavy, with the foliage alternately on 
either side. In the centre of the cross, which is almost straight- 
lined, is a circular depression which formerly held a coloured stone.* 
Fig 5. 

It should he compared with a part of a cross now at Lastingham, 
of heautiful and delicate workmanship, and shewing at the back an 
nnmistakeahle imitation of classical ornamentation. Also, Avith a 
cubical bowl, whether stoup or font, of Caen stone, which has a 
decidedly Roman look about it, and may have come from abroad. 
This is now in use as a font for private baptism in the hamlet of 
Hutton-le-Hole, where it has been brought from Lastingham crypt, 
and is in the custody of the schoolmaster. One other journey of 
similar length would bring it to Kirkdale. In this way the carved 
stones may have been brought : or they may have come from 
Keldholme Priory, about two miles off, beyond Kirby Moorside. 

There is, however, another slab of even more direct interest 
than any of those we have yet mentioned. Over the south door is 
an old Sundial with an inscription continued on both sides of it, 
so that it is an oblong stone about seven feet in length. Its general 
form will be seen by consulting Fig. 8. It is remarkable that 
the lines which mark the hours divide the day into eight parts 
instead of twelve.t Above and beneath the radiating lines is this 
inscription, — - 

The first letter is th, thus the whole will be, — " This is dteges 
solmerca a^t ilcumtide ; — This is the day's sundial at every time." 
The other portion of the inscription, iDcginning on the left side, is 
continued on the right, and then returns to the centre compartment, 
as may be seen by the double cross, which is used as a reference 
mark. Having taken up too much space in the first word of this, the 
writers were compelled to put the last word in a contracted form 
above tho line. It reads thus : — 

+ OEM • GAMAL • _ 












* In the angles of the cross, the Rev, D. H. Haigh says, there once were runes, of which 
he took impressions, and which he reads Cyniug jEthilwald. I looked for them in all lights, 
but could find no traces of anything resembling letters or runes. 

t This will make the times distinguished, 6 a.m., 7J, 9, lOj, 12 ; IJ p.m., 3, 4J, 6. 




•;^;>..- .(^ 











^> I 



• U ^. 

p ML PRO ''ry^' / 

viRit\\iy^.i.v^: :^^^ 

I -h ■_ \ 



h'b(^. 9. 

Saxon Sundial, at [dstone Yorkshire 

1 K>, / 

/ ; h\ 

i^7.^ 10. 


AT Locking, Yorkshire 


Incised Tomb STONE, 
Lastingham, Yorkshire 

G R 


Which is translated into modern English thus, — " + Orm, the 
son of Gamal, bought the minster of St. Gregory, when it was all 
to-hroken* & to-fallen ; and he it let make new from the ground, 
to Clirist & 8t. Gregory ; in the days of King Edward, in the days 
of Earl Tosti : and the priests Hawarth and Brand wrought me." 

This dial, then, was made when Edward was King of England, 
and Tosti, the brother of Earl Harold, was Earl of JN'orthumberland 
and Mercia. The earldom of Tosti being the smallest limit, it 
reduces the time to between the years 1055 a.d., when he succeeded 
Si ward, and 1065 a.d., when Tosti was banished by his subject 

The word, "minster," employed here, is also found on a Latin- 
Saxon inscribed stone at St. Mary's, Castlegate, York, which still 
lacks an interpreter. It was used in old times for smaller ecclesias- 
tical buildings, as Avell as for tthe minster of Galmanho, in which 
Earl Siward was buried, afterwards the abbey of St. Mary's, York. 
In a book of Alliterative Poems of the fourteenth century, the poet, 
speaking of the heavenly Jerusalem says, that — 

" Kirk ther-iniie \vats not yete, 

Chapel lie temple that ever wats set, 
The al-mygty wats her mynster mete, 
The lombe the saker-fyse ther to reget. "J 

May not this stone have commemorated a Saxon church built 
upon the site of the present one. This is almost certainly the case 
with a smaller one at Edstone, three miles to the south, where it is 
now placed over a door, which, with a lancet and the old font, prove 
the fabric to have been of Early English date. Fig. 9. The 
inscrijition on this dial, Avhich is also divided into eight parts, is — 

+ LODAN ME PROHTEA. — "Lothan me wroght;" 
and immediately above the dial, in very indistinct characters, is 
probably, — 


The lettering is precisely similar in lioth instances, except that the 
Kirkdale inscription has the letter " U " made diamond-shaped 
instead of circular. 

There exists another Sundial of probable Saxon date in the wall 
of a cottage, in the village of Lockton, six miles north of Pickering. 
In this case there is no inscriptit.ii, but the dial is divided by lines 
into eight spaces, which are again sub-divided by shorter lines. § 
Fig. 10. 

* There is a remnant of the use of " to " as a prefix, in Judges ix. 53, " And all to-break 
his scull." 

t Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, under years 1055 and 1065. 
1061.— Published by the Early English Text Society : Trubner, London. 
5 I am indebted for a knowledge of tliis to the kindness of its discoverer, Mr. G. Franks. 
There is another Saxon dial at Old Byland. 



Also at Aldborough, in Holdnerness, is a Sundial witli this 

inscription, " ITlf caused this church to he made for the souls of 
Hanuni and Gunthard." The dial is cUvided into eight spaces, and 
is now in the south aisle of the church. The Ulf, here named, is 
said to he he whose carved drinking horn of ivory is still preserved 
in York Minster. 

We must for the present rest satisfied with having put upon 
record the existence of these Sundials. They all have one 
peculiarlity in common, which is, that they are divided by eight 
hour-lines. The ordinary sources of information have been 
searched without throwing any light upon this singularity. If 
the Saxons really divided their day into eight instead of twelve 
parts, the fact ought to be mentioned by some author who has 
treated of times and seasons among the Saxon nations : if 
they did not thus divide the day, what can be the explanation 
of these dials 1 At present we can only conjecture that they 
are all ecclesiastical, and that the lines are intended not to 
denote secular time, but the hours of prayer. Some of the lines 
in the Edstone and Kirkdale dials are marked with a small cross- 
line, and one, that for 7.30 a.m., with a St. Andrew's cross. This 
lends, indeed, some colour to the idea ; but there we must leave it. 
Perhaps some more of these curious remains of ancient art may be 
discovered among the Yorkshire dales, and by their differences give 
a clue to the mystery. 


Hosjntal dedicated to St. John the Baptid at Northarnptvn. 
Sir Henry Dhyden, Bart., Hon. Mem. S, A. Scot. 


The term "Hospital" now bears a different signification from that 
which it had from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century. Down 
to recent times a Hospital was for the continuous sustenance and 
relief of poor and impotent persons, and not for the temporary cure 
of diseases. 


The Mediajval Hospital resembled the alms-house of modern 
days, but with a more ecclesiastical character. It was often termed 
a Bede-house (i.e., Prayer-house), and sometimes " Maison Dieu." 

Hospitals constitute a class of establishments in some respects 
like the monastic establishments and the colleges of secidar priests. 
The word " hospes," from which our term is taken, means a guest or 
stranger, not necessarily poor j and in the monasteries the "hospitium" 
was the place of reception of strangers. 

The Hospitals existing at the time of the Reformation were 
allowed to retain their endowments when the properties of the 
monastic houses were resumed by the Cro^vll. 

In some cases new charters were granted them, and encourage- 
ment to found such establishments was given to the benevolent by 
the 39th of Elizabeth, and the 21st of James I. The monasteries 
had so much contributed to the relief of the poor, that after the 
dissolution, poor laws became necessary, and the present system of 
poor laws is referred to the 43rd of Elizabeth. 

In the introduction to the work on The Hosjntals, ^c, of the 
Middle Ages in England, by F. T. Dollman, 1858, 4to., four 
arrangements of the building are described : — 

" The component parts that appertain to nearly all of them -will 
be found to consist of an audit room, occasionally with a muniment 
room adjoinmg ; a suite of apartments, more or less extended, for 
the master or chaplain ; an infirmary for the sick ; a common hall ; 
a suite of living-rooms for the immates ; and lastly, a chapel, which, 
with becoming significance, was always more ornamental in character 
than the other buildings. In the relative position of these, four 
principal kinds of arrangement present themselves. The first, and 
that of Avhich the characteristics are, perhaps, the most definite, is 
to be found in those instances where the abodes of the inmates 
were all under one sj^acious roof, the area being sub-divided into 
small dwelling-rooms or dormitories. The hall communicated directly 
with the chapel beyond, from which it was only separated by an 
open screen, thereby afibrding an opportunity to the sick and aged 
of hearing the recital of the church's offices, from which, supposing 
the chapel to be a distinct building, they would otherwise have been 
debarred. The " motif " of this wise and thoughtful arrangement 
may probably have originated with the ancient monastic infirmaries, 
and among the examples will be found the Bede-houses at Stamford 
and Higham Ferrers, and St. IMary's Hospital at Chichester. The 
second kind is where the dwelling-rooms for the inmiates were, 
as before, under one roof, but the chapel, though immediately 
contiguous to the hospital, was a distinct building, and entered 
without ; an example of this kind is found at St. Jolm's Hospital, 
Northampton. A third variation is where the abodes of the immates 


formed one continuous suite of buildings, sometimes within a quad- 
rangle, but not like the foregoing, included under one roof, the 
church or chapel being altogether distinct, but connected with the 
Hospital buildings of an ambulatory or cloister, or by a short 
covered way only. Examples of this kind exist at St. Cross, near 
Winchester ; Ewelme, in Oxfordshire ; and Cobham, in Kent. A 
fourth mode of arrangement differing somewhat from the foregoing, 
is to be met with in the case of Ford's Hospital, at Coventry, where 
the plan consists of a central open court, on each side of which are 
the almoner's abodes, at one end of the quadrangle, the common 
hall of the Hospital, and facing it, at the other end, the chapel." 

The part of the following Paper, which relates to the Master's 
house, was read at the Annual Meeting of the Architectural Society 
at Uppingham in 1871. 

The Master's house was pulled down iii the spring of 1871, to 
make way for the construction, carrying the Midland Station. 
Probably, in a few months from this time (February, 1875), the 
other two buildings will be destroyed. Plans of all the buildings 
are placed in the collection of the Architectural Society. It is not 
possible to illustrate this pajier eli'ectually by 8vo. plates, so that 
the reader must refer to the large drawings to understand the 

The chapel and domicile are partially illustrated in Dollman's 
Domestic Archittxfnre, and the Master's house is partially illustrated 
in Parker's Domestic Archltcctarc, vol. i., p. 155. 

It is much to be wished that the Associated Societies would 
publisli, from time to time, illustrations of Buildings destroyed, on 
half Imperial paper. 

The Hospital of St. John is on the east side of Bridge Street, 
within the antient wall of tlie town, and near the site of the south 
gate. The buildings consisted of a chapel, hospital, or alms-house, 
and master's house, which latter is now destroyed. The inclosure 
in which these are, or were, is 3-^ acres, bounded on the south by 
the town wall and meadows beyond, on the north by St. John's 
Lane, on the cast by various houses and gardens, and on the west 
by Bridge Street. 

The Hospital i)ro})er (domicile) is a i)arallelogram standing east 
and west. The west end conies up to Bridge Street. The cliapel 
is attaclied by its south-west corner to the north-east corner of the 

The Master's house was east by north of the cliapel. distant 
about 182^ 


Before proceeding to the description of the buildings, I will 
briefly give the history of the establisliment. The reader can refer 
for other particulars to the — 

History of the Count ij of Northampton, Bridges. 

Notitia Monastica, Tanner. 

Monasticon Anglicanum, Dugdale. 

The Itinerary of J. Leland, Hearne's Ed. 

Rej)ort of (Jommissioners on Charities. — Vol. xxxi., p. 792-816, 

Antient Domestic Architecture, DoUman. 

Domestic Architecture in England, Parker. 

This Hospital, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, was founded 
about 1137, for the maintenance of infirm poor, by a person who is 
stated to have been Archdeacon of jS^orthampton, but it is not clear 
whetlier his Christian name was William or Walter, nor whether his 
surname was St. Clere or St. Liz. 

The Bishop of Lincoln has been, from the foundation, the patron 
of the Hospital, and has appointed the master. 

The original deed of endowment is not now extant, but appears 
to have been so in 1G30, as will be seen. 

There was a deed of confirmation by King Henry II., between 
1157 and 1162. It is not extant, but its former existence is shown 
by a deed of King Edward I. in 1307. 

Constitutions were given to the Hospital between 1235 and 
1254 by Robert Grostete, or Greathead, Bishop of Lincoln, but this 
dociunent has disappeared. Its former existence is shown by the 
document of 1395, given hereafter. 

In 1307 a deed of inspeximus was granted by King Edward I., 
as mentioned before. The following is a translation : — 

" For the Brethren op the Hospital of St. John of 

" The King to all those to whom these letters shall come, sends 
greeting. We have inspected the Charter of the Lord Henry, 
formerly King of England,* our progenitor, which he made to the 
Brethren of the Hospital of St. John of Northampton, in these 
Avords — Henry King of England, and Duke of Normandy and 
Aquitaine, and Earlf to Andrew, Bishop of Lincoln, and to all the 
barons, justices, sherifi's, and ministers, and to all his faithful 
(subjects) in Northamptonshire (sends) greeting. Know ye that I 
have conceded and confirmed to the brethren of the Hospital of St. 
John, of Northampton, Avhatever they reasonably and justly have 
acquired, and whatever they reasonably and justly shall acquire 
in gifts and reliefs,;}: and in alms. Wherefore I Avill and firmly order 

* Henry II. t Comes. 
X Accatis, reliefs, payments to Lords of Mauors. 


that they may hold and have all the aforesaid goods, both in peace 
and freedom and quiet in the town and outside, in Avood and plain, 
in ways and paths, in waters and mills, and in all places, with the 
liberties and free customs appertaining to their lands and things. 
And I prohibit lest any one should after this do injury or contumely 
to them. Being witnesses, Thomas * Chancellor, Henry of Essex, 
Constable, Gosec de Baillol at Mindestud in the Forest. 

Which charter, however, on account of its age, and broken weak- 
ness of the seal attached to the said charter, we have caused to be 
exemplified word for word. Witness the King at Lanercost + on 
the 28th day of January." 

Subsequently, John Dalington, clerk, granted to this Hospital 
funds to maintain eight poor people, at 2d. a-day each, which grant 
was confirmed by Henry Burghesh,| Bishop of Lincoln, in 1340. 

Injunctions of Bishop Buckingham. 

( Translated from the Latin.) 

In the time of Lord John Buckingham, formerly Bishop of 
Lincoln, who began to preside over the Catholic Church in that 
place A.D. 1363. 

" John, by divine permission, Bishop of Lincoln, to our well 
beloved sons the Masters and Brethren of the Hospital of St. John 
the Baptist, at Northampton, of our Diocese, health, grace, and 
blessing. It is fitting that those who wear a religious dress should 
be professors of some regular observances, otherwise the dress is 
deceitful, its sign does not at all correspond to that of which it is 
the sign, and they have the appearance of piety, but deny its truth, 
shewing themselves to be like to whited sepulchres, which appear 
outwardly to be clean to men, but are within full of filth. But 
since we, otherwise proceeding on our lawful progress, have lawfully 
visited your house in chief and in members, and have found some 
things in it requiring correction ; all these things we enjoin you to 
reform in the following manner, together with a more perfect 
observance of a rule of life to be fulfilled : — So, namely, that before 
all things, having continual love amongst yourselves, without which 
nothing at all helps to our salvation, you should profess and keep 
these three things, without which no religion exists, obedience to 
your superiors and continence to be observed and life led without 
property. And that abstaining from much talking, in which sin is 
hardly ever absent, you should keep silence in the church and 
dormitory, and do the same in the refectory when there are no guests 
present. And when they are present, when occasion requires, you 

* Thomas a'Bccket. 
t Lanercost Priory, in Cumberland. 
X His name is also founii as Burgherst ami Burvvash. The village in Sussex anciently 
Burgherst is now Burwash. Lower's Sussex, i. 91. 


may he allowed to speak, for edification, or honesty, or friendship, 
to be kept, briefly and in low modest voice, and in it you may eat 
together and rest in the dormitory, and if there is no lawful impedi- 
ment that you, as well the master as the brethren, attend divine 
offices at the accustomed hours, Avithdrawing yourselves from them 
only for some just cause intervening, and then without pretence 
being feigned, and that you have a uniform and humble dress of 
one colour with a black cross upon it, for the future going as little 
as possible outside the walls of the said Hospital, except in this 
dress marked with a cross. We enjoin you to abstain from revellings 
and drinking parties held in private chambers and in the town, and 
from going into it without leave and without the dress, and especially 
from eating and drinking at all after complines ; from conversing 
and talking with women stopping within the walls of the Hospital, 
except for just reasons and in the presence of j^rojier persons, and 
then with an honourable female companion, and that when com- 
plines are said, as is the custom of other religious bodies, that you, 
the brethren, go to the dormitory, and that you keep and observe 
a proper interval between vespers and complines. And because 
human frailty is known to be prone to fall, that you confess your 
sins devoutly as you ought ; and that every week a chapter be held, 
at least once, and that in it excesses and crimes be humbly and 
reasonably corrected and reformed, Avithout respect of persons, and 
without severity, hatred, affection, or favour. We also ordain, 
and decree, that there shall be elected by the ]\Iaster and 
Brethren two receivers every year, who shall receive all things, 
as well rents as moneys, and other profits belonging to the 
said Hospital, giving faithfully and fully to the same master 
and brethren a description and account of their annual receipts and 
expenses : besides, we desire and enjoin that a brother, to be 
deputed to collect proceeds of indulgences in the country, shall 
swear on the sacred Gospels that, within three days after his 
return to the said Hospital, he will faithfully reveal to the said 
master and the co-brethren, deputed for this purpose, and cause to 
be Avritten between them in the manner of an indenture (a statement) 
concerning the precepts given, permitted or allowed whether it 
consist in money, corn, or any other thing : besides, we enjoin and 
ordain that, for the future, every year the master and aforesaid 
quaestor,* also the chamberlain and cook, give a full account of the 
receipts, through them in the chapter. But the master is not to 
presume, to take in hand, any important business concerning the 
said Hospital, without the consent alike and assent of his co-breth- 
ren, or of the greater part of them, having held a deliberation of 
the chapter, and that, for the future, he is to make no important 

* One who collects, " Quicsta," proceeds of sale of indulgences. 


transfer, or contracts, or lettings of manors, churches, lands, or 
portions,* except with the solemnity of the law, and that he is not 
to put up for sale, nor to give, or distribute, at least, in any 
considerable quantity, to any of his relations or friends, any 
underwood or timber belonging to the said Hospital ; but that 
corrodiest are not to be sold for the future, without our Hcense or 
that of our successors. Let our common seal be kept under three 
keys. Also the same master is not to support his parents from the 
provisions of the aforesaid house, without the leave of the co- 
brethren. But that the master and others of his co-brethren do 
theij bounden and necessary diligence to recover the rents and rights 
taken away from the said Hospital, and for this they shall duly and 
earnestly insist with their lords and friends. Besides, we ordain 
that the constitutions of our Lord Eobert Grostet, of happy memory 
for the future, shall be read over twice a year, before the master 
and the co-brethren, so that the contributions of this character may 
be able to come to the full knowledge of each of them, and that 
these constitutions may be faithfully observed. Also we ordain 
and decree that no novice at all be received into the said Hospital, 
unless he shall have been carefully examined in reading before the 
master and co-brethren, and be found by them fit for sustaining the 
burden of the choir. Also that the master and co-brethren of the 
said Hospital, who are appointed professors in the priesthood, shall, 
for the future, f;xst in the 40 days,| and other fasts appointed by 
the church, unless they can be excused for a legitimate cause, and 
by an approved right. Also we ordain that the master shall 
treat his co-brethren kindly and affably, and without opprobrious 
or quarrelsome words, and especially in the presence of seculars, that 
tlie said brethren shall be submissive and obedient, to the aforesaid 
master, and shall reverence him both in gesture, and word, and 
work ; we bid you strongly in virtue of your obedience, and under 
pain of greater excommunication, to observe, inviolate, all our 
injunctions as far as they regard each and all of you ; decreeing, 
that once a month, in the presence of you all, being assembled in 
your chapter chapterwise, our recited ordinances and injunctions be 
publicly read and published. In testimony whereof our seal is set 
to these presents. Given in our castle at Sleaford on the first day 
of the month of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand three 
hundred and ninety-five, and in the thirty-second of our con- 

This document gives us a good idea of the establishment as it 
then existed. The term " bretliren " is not applied, as in subsequent 
times, to the two chaplains, but to the whole body, except the master. 

* PoriioH.— Allowance to a vicar out of a Kectory or Impropriation, 
t Corrody. — Money due in lieu of aliment from a religious house to the King, or person 
authorized by liim to claim it. 

t Of Lent. 
VOL. XII., I'T. 11. 1 


They had a coramoa dormitory and refectory, in which latter 
guests were often present ; they were to use a special dress, to 
abstain from drinking parties in the town, and from talking to 
women within the Hospital ; to attend service at the proper hours, 
to |hold chapters, to have two receivers, a quaBstor, chamberlain, 
and cook. 

The master and brethren were to use diligence to recover the 
rights taken away from the Hospital. ]S"ot to appoint any one to 
the Hospital who could not read and sing ; and several of them 
were to be priests. 

We do not get any statement of the number of brethren, nor of 
the residence of the master. Probably no women were participators 
in the charity. 

If we are rightly informed as to the nature of the foundation, 
it is evident that before 1395 the class of inmates had much altered, 
and that the Hospital possessed considerable wealth, although it had 
been deprived of some rights. 

Perhaps these injunctions did not apply to the poor relieved by 
John Dalington's bequest. 

Between the date of these injunctions, and 1535, a great change 
had taken place in the nature of the establishment. It had appar- 
ently returned to a state more like its original state. 

In the report of the Charity Commissioners is an extract from 
the Valor Ecclesiasticus, p. 316. 

£ s. d. 
In 1535 the revenues from lands, quit-rents, and 

oflferings were 100 3;^ 

The payments of dues, officers' salaries, alms in general, 
and the allowances to eight poor in the Hospital, 

were 56 19 5 

The remainder was in hand, and no use assigned for it. Repairs 
of buildings, &c., could have come out of it. 

At this time the establishment consisted of a master, two 
chaplains, and eight poor people — three men and five women. The 
master and two chaplains received annually £15 between them. 
The salaries are not given separately. The eight poor received 
weekly Is. 2d. each — ^d. in bread, |d. in service,* and Id. in flesh 
or fish daily. This dole to the eight poor is stated to be from the 
foundation of John Dalington. 

Therefore, in 1535, no poor were kept out of the main income 
of the Hospital ; but only the eiglit out of the additional bequest. 
The main income was taken up with repairs, officers' salaries, &c. 

* I am not able to state the exact nature of the " service," 


In 1546, in a survey of Hospitals, &c., it is stated that St. John's 
Hospital was founded to find one master, two priests, and eight 
poor folk, and to keep hospitality ; all which number were at that 
time full. 

The annual value of the lands was £80 10s. 2|d. The poor 
folk were allowed only Is. a-week, instead of Is. 2d. as before. 

"And so remaineth to the master for his wages, and the main- 
tenance of hospitality, £11 9s. Od." The nature of this hospitality 
is not given. 

In 1583, the payment to the poor was reduced to 8d. each 

In 1630, a grant was made by King Charles I. to the Hospital, 
and this, the Commissioners state, " in the absence of the original 
endowment must be considered the governing charter at the pre- 
sent day." 

The folloAving is the official ti'anslation of it, which has been 
kindly furnished by Messrs. Becke and Green, the solicitors to the 
Bishop of Lincoln in this matter : — 


First part of the Patents of the sixth yeah of the reign 
OF King Charles. 

Of a Grant to the Hospital of \ 

Saint John the Baptist in \ The King to all to whom &c. 
the Town of Northampton j greeting. "Whereas William for- 
to them and their Successors. ) merly Archdeacon of Northampton 
did by his deed give and confirm to God and the Blessed Mary 
and the Blessed John the Baptist and John the Evangelist and to 
Brother Wymond of the Hospital of the Blessed Mary Magdalene 
his chaplain in free pure and perpetual alms his Hospital in 
Northampton with the whole area to him belonging and the rent 
of five shillings of ordinary gift to build and found a Hospital 
House for the reception and refreshment of poor infirm persons, 
and orphans for ever (the languid and leprous excepted) and 
appointed the same "Wymond Master and Warden of the Hospital 
of the said Archdeacon and his co-brethren in time to come, firmly 
enjoining so far as he could to him and his successors that to the 
infirm poor there resoi'ting carefully should be shewn the comforts 
of humanity that they might diligently pray for the said Archdeacon 
and his parents and benefactors and all the faithful living and dead 
and that he should be careful humbly to obey the said Archdeacon 
Wilde he should live and after his death to obey the Lord Bishop 
of Lincoln and his successors as the true and perpetual patron of 
the aforesaid Hospital as by the record of the deetl aforesaid more 
fuUy appears. And whereas the Bishops of Lincoln aforesaid 


from time to time hitherto from the time of the death of the aforesaid 
Archdeacon (the said place being void) have nominated and 
appointed the Master and Warden of the Hospital aforesaid. And 
whereas divers other lands tenements rents and hereditaments 
have been from time to time aforesaid given and granted to the 
Hospital aforesaid and now are or lately were in the government or 
possession of the Master or Warden of the said Hospital to be 
disposed of to the uses and intents aforesaid. And whereas of the 
lands tenements rents or hereditaments which Avere given to the 
same Hospital or with the same used in some parts (as we are 
informed) were given and intended for superstitious uses and were 
so used by reason or pretext Avhereo^ the whole Hospital aforesaid 
and all the lands tenements rents and hereditaments of the same 
Hospital were seized or pretended to be seized into our hands by 
virtue or color of the statute made and passed for the dissolving of 
colleges chantries hospitals and other such like given granted 
limited or appointed to superstitions uses. We considering how 
pious and wholesome it is to increase and establish good and 
Christian works (all superstition and abuse removed) the Hospital 
aforesaid and all things to the same belonging according to the 
charitable intention of the first founder and other benefactors of 
the same have decreed to continue and confirm or newly to create 
and establish the same. Know ye therefore that we of our special 
grace and of our certain knowledge and mere motion have willed 
ordained granted constituted ratified and confirmed and by these 
presents for us our heirs and successors to will ordain grant consti- 
tute ratify and confirm that hereafter for ever there may and shall 
be in the town of Northampton in our County of Northampton a 
Hospital for the reception and refreshment of poor infirm persons 
and orphans for ever (the languid and leprous excepted) and that 
the aforesaid Hospital of the aforesaid William formerly Archdeacon 
of Northampton in the aforesaid town of Northampton be and shall 
be a Hospital for the reception and refreshment of poor infirm persons 
and orphans (the languid and leprous excepted) for ever to continue. 
And the Hospital aforesaid we do for us our heirs and successors 
erect found make ordain create and establish ratif}^ and confirm by 
these presents and tliat the Hospital aforesaid be and shall be 
called the Hospital of Saint John the Baptist within the town of 
Northampton of the foundation of King Charles. Also Ave Avill 
and by these presents for us our heirs and successors do constitute 
and ordain that from henceforth for ever there be and shall be one 
discreet man and a graduate in form beloAA^ mentioned in these presents 
to be ciiosen ordained and appointed who may and shall be and shall 
be called the Master or Warden of the Hospital of Saint John the 
Baptist Avithin the town of Northampton of the foundation of 
King Charles. And which said Master or Warden from time to time 


may and shall have the possession rule and government of the 
Hospital aforesaid and of all the lands tenements revenues and 
hereditaments of the Hospital aforesaid according to the manner in 
times past and the true intent of these presents. And whereas 
the Eeverend Father in Christ John now Bishop of Lincoln by his 
deed sealed with his episcopal seal bearing date the seventh day of 
this present month of June admitted his beloved in Christ William 
BosAvell Master of Arts to the Hospital of Saint John the Baptist 
within the town of Northampton then lawfully and of right void 
and the said Hospital to the same William (by the intuition of 
charity) collated him INIaster Rector and Warden of the said 
Hospital with all the rights and appurtenances which same for the 
the term of his life according to the manner in time past to be 
governed possessed and had ordained made and constituted. We 
the admission collation ordination and appointment aforesaid hold- 
ing firm and valid the said place or oiSce of Master Eector and 
Warden of the Hospital aforesaid to the same William during his 
life do ratify approve and confirm by these presents. And also of 
our special grace and of our certain knowledge and mere motion we 
do for us our heirs and successors give and grant to the aforesaid 
William Boswell the place or office of Master or Warden of the 
Hospital of Saint John the Baptist in the town of Northampton 
of the foundation of King Charles with all its rights members and 
appurtenances. And him the said William Boswell Master and 
Warden of the aforesaid Hospital of Sair.t John the Baptist within 
the town of Northampton of the foundation of King Charles with 
its rights members and appurtenances to do and execute all and 
singular the things which to the Master and Warden there belong 
according to the manner in time past and true intent of these 
presents. We do for us our heirs and successors nominate make 
ordain and appoint by these presents to hold to the same William 
Boswell during his natural life and for the better execution of our 
intention aforesaid of our more ample special grace and of our 
certain knowledge and mere motion Ave have given granted and 
confirmed and by these presents for us our heirs and successors do 
give grant and confirm to the aforesaid William Boswell the 
Hospital aforesaid situate Avithin the aforesaid town of Northampton 
in the county of Northampton aforesaid with the whole area (or 
yard) to the same belonging and the aforesaid yearly rent of five 
shillings and all the lands tenements rents tithes revenues and 
hereditaments Avhatsoever of what kind nature or sort soever or by 
whatsoever names they are knoAvn taken called or acknowledged 
and wheresoever situate lying or arising to the said Hospital or to 
whatsoever uses or intents to the Master or Warden of the same 
noAv or heretofore belonging or appertaining given or granted or 
with the same Hospital heretofore had or used or by the master or 


warden of the same heretofore occupied let or demised with all 
their rights members and appurtenances. And also the reversion 
and reversions of the same and all and singular rents and yearly 
profits out of or for the same or of or from any or either of them 
issuing or reserved to hold to the same William Boswell and his 
successors Masters or Wardens of the Hospital aforesaid for ever 
to be holden of us our heirs and successors in pure and perpetual 
alms. IS^evertheless we Avill and by these presents for us our heirs 
and successors do constitute and ordain that these our Letters 
Patent or anything in the same contained shall not in anywise 
extend to give power or authority to the aforesaid William or any 
of his successors to give grant demise or assign the aforesaid lands 
tenements or hereditaments above mentioned by these presents to 
have been granted or any or either of them to any person or persons 
in use possession or reversion for any greater or further estate or 
estates term or terms than for the term of three lives or twenty 
one years in possession anything in these presents contained or any 
use custom thing or matter whatsoever to the contrary thereof not- 
withstanding. And that all and singular the fines rents issues 
revenues and profits of the said lands tenements and heredita- 
ments shall only be converted and disposed of for the reception 
and refreshment of poor infirm persons and orphans (the languid 
and leprous excepted) and other necessary charges and expenses 
of the Hospital aforesaid according to the true intention of 
the first founder and benefactors of the same conformably to 
the manner of time past and to no other intents or purposes. 
Moreover that the oiJice or place of Master or Warden of the 
Hospital aforesaid may perpetually be supplied with honest 
men fit to execute the same. Of our special grace and of 
our certain knowledge we have given and gi-anted and by these 
presents for lis our heirs and assigns do give and grant and also 
ratify and confirm by these presents to the Bishop of Lincoln and 
his successors Bishops there for the time being power and authority 
from time to time as often as the same place or office shall happen 
to be void to nominate elect promote and admit any person whom- 
soever being a graduate and able and fit to the office or place of 
Master or Warden of the Hospital aforesaid to do and execute all 
and singular things to the same belonging according to the true 
intent of these presents to continue in the same office during his 
natural life unless in the meantime for bad government or other just 
and reasonable cause he shall be removed by the Bishop of Lincoln 
for the time being. Also we will and by these presents for us our 
heirs and successors do constitute that every Master or Warden of the 
Hospital aforesaid from time to time to be chosen before he be 
admitted to execute the same office shall take his corporal oath upon 
the Holy Evangelists of God before the Bishop of Lincoln for the 


time being or some other person by bim to be therefore appointed 
well and faithfully to execute the same office according to the true 
intent of these presents. And the oaths by the laws and statutes 
of this realm provided as well for acknowledging the royal supre- 
macy as for allegiance and fealty to us our heirs and successors to 
be fulfilled to which Bishop and other person by him so as afore- 
said to be appointed. We do for us our heirs and successors give 
and grant full power and authority to give and administer such 
oaths as aforesaid to every Master or Warden of the Hospital afore- 
said by these presents without further warrant or commission in 
that behalf to be procured or obtained. Although express mention 
of the true yearly value or of the certainty of the premises or any 
of them or of other gifts or grants by us or by any of our pro- 
jenitors or predecessors heretofore made to the aforesaid William 
Boswell is not made in these presents or any statute act ordinance 
provision proclamation or restriction to the contrary thereof here- 
tofore had made passed ordained or provided or any other tiling, 
&c. In witness the King at Canbury the sixth day of Jidy. 
By writ of Privy Seal, &c." 
Translated from a Latin copy having first been examined 

with the enrolment upon the Patent Poll j^reserved in 

Chancery by 

Charles Devon, 

Queen Square, Bloomshury, 
Feb. 1850. 

By this charter it appears that in 1630, the original deed of 
foundation, or a copy of it, was existing, and this charter " imports 
to have been made in accordance with the original foundation deed." 
The two chaplains, or co-brothers, are not mentioned in the charter, 
but we may infer that they existed at the time, and were assumed 
to be part of the establishment, for they were existing but a 
short time previous to the charter, and were existing a short time 
after it, and there is no passage in the charter which implies that 
they were to be discontinued. As matter of fact they were not 
discontinued. The charter of 1630 is the first existing document 
in which " orphans " are mentioned. 

An expression in this charter has given rise to much dispute. 
The Hospital is stated to be " in recepcionem et recreacionem i:>au- 
perum infirinorum ac orphanornm perpetuo, languidis et leprosis 
exceptis," and further on, " in recepcionem et recreacionem pauperum 
infirmorum ac orphanorum (languidis et leprosis exceptis) perpetuo 

It is doubted for what exact class of persons the Hospital is in- 
tended, and to what exact class the term " languidis " is applied. 
" Infirmus " is opposed to " languidus," 


Tlie former appears to mean what is now called " infirm," but 
not in need of medical treatment, and the latter to mean " diseased," 
and in need of medical treatment. 

Within about a century after the grant of the foregoing charter, 
laxity had crept into the establishment, and the masters had become 
non-resident ; for in the middle of the last century Sir Thomas 
Humble was tenant of the Master's House, and resided in it. The 
co-brethren were also non-resident. 

In 1837, the establishment consisted of a master (non-resident), 
two co-brethren, seven women, and one man who acted as clerk. 

Bridges gives a list of the Masters, as far as known, down to 
his time. The Commissioners give those who have held the office 
from that time down to 1837. 

These were appointed by the Bishop of Lincoln, and instituted 
by the Bishop of Peterborough. 

The last Master was the Eev. E. Pretyman, son of the Bishop 
of Lincoln, Canon and Precentor of Lincoln, &c. He was appointed 
in 1816, and up to 1836 (the date of the Eeport) he had received 
between £60 and £70 a-year from rents, but from fines an average 
of £128. 

This gentleman, of course, never lived in the Masters' House, 
and allowed it to apj^roach ruin. 

At last it was let to Mr. Mold, builder, who laid out some money 
on it aad made part of it habitable, and used the earlier portion for 
a timber store. 

The Commissioners, in 1836, state that several outbuildings of 
the Masters' House had recently been pulled down. 

The Midland Eailway Company have lately got powers to com- 
pel the sale of part of the Hospital property. The officers of 
Chancery, utterly disregarding the old buildings, compelled the 
company to buy the whole. 

The Eev. E. Pretyman died in 1866, and the office has not been 
filled up. The second co-brother has not been replaced. There is 
now one co-brother, who has a salary of £ yearly, for which he 
officiates in the chapel, and eight women pensioners, who have 
lodging, firing, and 2d. a-day each. 

Although the charter of 1630 is taken to be the governing 
charter, yet it has been decided by the Attorney-General that this 
is not a Church of England charity — that is, that the recipients 
need not be of that persuasion. Here we have no positive order 
that they shoidd be so ; but in the early times they were to attend 
divine service at the regular hours, and since 1630 the Bishop was 
to be patron and visitor ; there were to be two co-brethren or chap- 
lains ; the chapel still formed part of the buildings, and the master 
was to be a graduate, which involved his being of the Church of 
England. It is difficult to see how any one can come to any other 


conclusion than that the master and inmates onght to be of the 
Church. According to the new doctrine, the chaplain might have 
no one to officiate for. 

Master's House. 

The house is a parallelogram, facing south, with a porch attached 
to the south face, and a wing to the north. The south wall is 3° 
to north of east and south of west, assuming the variation of the 
needle to be 22*^ west. The total external length is 87^., and the 
external width of the main building at the west end is 26 ^ 1\, and 
at the east end is 24 ^ 7\ The average height to the eaves is about 
21*. The architectural history of the house is very complicated 
and puzzling. It has been shortened, lengthened, and added to on 
both faces. It has had additions at top, and under-pinnings at 
bottom ; insertions and alterations of various extents, and contains 
work of every century, from the thirteenth to nineteenth. The 
material is sandstone, chiefly red. 

The main parallelogram consists of four portions vertically (not 
taking into account the nineteenth-centmy divisions) ; but, when 
the west portion was added or at some subsequent time, the 
previous west wall was taken away so that the lower part of the 
two west portions were in one, in recent times. The west and 
the two central jDortions of the house have a ground story and 
one story above it; but in the east portion the main floor is 7^ 
above the ground floor of the other portions, and has under it a 
cellar, the floor of which is about 10^. below the same. In the roof 
of this part is an attic. 

In the cellar is a well, and there is another close to the west 
end of the house. 

The porch is attached to the second compartment from the east, 
which formed a hall of 26^. 3\ x 19^. 2^. inside, previous to its 
division in the eighteenth century. On the west of this hall are 
a kitchen, pantry, stairs, &c. On the east of it ; but, as before 
mentioned, at a higher level, is a room 26*. 6^ x 19*. 2\ inside. 

The chief interest of the building is in this east portion, and 
the roof of the three eastern portions, comprising 5|^ bays of roof. 

In the south wall of the last-nientioned room are two elegant, 
pointed arches with tre foiled hea'ls and detached shafts (one gone), 
and hollows in the heads, forming an internal arcade in front of a 
recess, — like sedilia. It is evident that there were originally, at least, 
three of these arches, but that to the west has been partly cut away. 
Perhaps the outer face of the wall opposite those arches has been 
altered, but nearly opposite one of them is an opening of a peculiar 
form, which will be mentioned further on. 

In its original form, the space between jambs and shafts Avas 
2*. 4*., and between shafts was 2*. 2^ The height from the top of 



cap to the bottom of base is 5^ 11\, and from the face of the arcade 
to the back of the recess is 2 ^. 2^\ 

The hood-mould of these is of the boat-form. We cannot 
ascertain the height of the floor which was cotemporary with this 
arcade, and consequently, the distance between the floor of the room 
and the base of tlie arcade ; but, if the floor was at the same level 
as recently, Avhich is probable, this distance Avas 2^ 10-|i. 

The use of this recess may be a matter of doubt, and depends 
on the use of the room. Perhaps it was a lavatory. The base or 
sill of this recess is too high from the floor to allow of its being 
sedilia. Its later use is mentioned fui'ther on. 

The portion of the south wall on the east side of this recess 
contains two windows, originally of two lights with a shaft attached 
to a mullion in the middle. The base of one remains. The exterior 
jambs and arches are gone, but the interior arches and jambs 
remain. These arches are two centred, obtusely-pointed with 
angular imposts. 

The moidding, Avhich forms the hoods over these windows inside, 
runs horizontally between the mndows and beyond them on each 
side. It terminates to the west over the apex of the first trefoiled 
arch before mentioned, and to the east at 2^. 8^ beyond the angle 
of the window jamb. 

It is of the common roll-form. Over these windows outside 
was formerly a similar moulding, and at the same height as to the 
impost, but the parts forming the hoods are destroyed. A small 
portion (an important one) remains near the south-east angle, and 
the section is the same as inside — a roll. 

The external heads of these Avindows were probably pairs of 
lancets, like a window in Dallington Church, the spandril inside 
"being solid. 

Close over the point of the hoods inside is a stone cornice, and 
outside a stone eave-course — the tops of the two being level. 

In the eighteenth century lintels were placed across the internal 
arches at the imposts, the spandril was filled up, and a wooden 
window-frame with a mullion and transom, inserted in each. 

The north wall of the room, together with the portion of wall 
on the north of the two central portions of the building, is evidently 
of the same date as the south wall, and has a cornice and eave- 
course as on south, but no windows. This portion may be assigned 
to the fourteenth century. 

The jamb wliich divides the recess, before mentioned, from the 
window next it, is clearly (except the upper 2^ 2^. of jamb) of 
the date of the trefoil arches, and it appears that the builders of 
the windows accommodated their work to the earlier part which 
contained the recess, but left only that scrap of the thirteenth 
century work. Although so little remains by which we may judge 
the date of the supposed fourteenth-century work ; yet the form of 


the jamb before mentioned, and the hood-moulding over the 
"windows clearly distinguish the one work from the other. The 
wall to the west of the recess is of much later date. 

Over this room, and over the two central portions of the building, 
is a fine oaken roof of 5^ bays, constructed with tie beams and 
king-posts. Each king-post supports a collar-beam. Principal 
rafters 6 \ x 6 i. are tenoned into the beam, and curved ribs inserted 
between beam and collar-beam, so as to make a semicircle. The 
king-posts have 4 struts, and a longitudinal girder runs from the 
top of one king-post to the next. This member is stated by Mr, 
Parker to exist at Charney and otlier places. The king-posts are 
well moulded. In each bay are six rafters 6^x6^ with collar- 
beams and curved ribs. The feet of these rafters, and of the lower 
ribs, are tenoned into horizontal pieces which, like the ends of the 
beams, lie on the eave-course and cornice, and clip two parallel 
plates, 4|\ X 3i. The lower points of the beams, and rafter feet, 
overhang the wall 1^., and the underside of them is boarded, to 
close the openings to the interior. The curved ribs and middles of 
the rafters are chamfered, which shows that no internal casing of 
boards or plaster, as frequent in Devonshire churches, was intended 
below the collar-beams, nor is there any sign of boards or plaster 
on the collar-beams. Probably the whole was smoothly and thickly 

No whitewash or colour was used on the timbers. The cover- 
ing is of CoUyweston slates, graduated. The lower ones measured 
about 2^. Qi. x2*. 3\, and weighed about lbs. each, and the 
upper ones measured about 8\ x (iK 

Evidently the roof at lirst covered one room, not less than 
67 ^ long X 19^ 2'. inside. This old roof does not reach to the east 
wall by one rafter, nor does the string, forming the hood-mould 

The east wall is evidently modern. 

The roof extends westward to the junction of the west portion. 
It is not certain that it extended no farther, for it is possible that 
original building once occupied the place of the west portion, which 
apparently is of the sixteenth or seventeenth century. 

The use of this large room is not certain. It was evidently not 
for the sole use of the master, and we must seek for some other use 
for it. It was apparently of fourteenth-century work, and hence 
constructed not far off the date of the Injunctions in 1395. At the 
time of the Injunctions there were a chapel, dormitory, and refectory, 
separate. It was not the chupeJ, for the east window of the chapel 
is apparently of the fourteenth century, and so not very different 
in date from the roof. It was not tlie dorm if or//, for the two large 
windows and the trefoil arches are not suitable to a dormitory, and 
the west end of the present domicile is apparently of the fourteenth 


century, which shows that a building, probably for the same use as 
the| i)resent, existed where the present domicile is, and attached to 
the same west wall. 

It seems, then, nearly certain that this large room was the 
refectory in 1395. We have no information of the residence of the 
master at that time. In the fifteenth, or perhaps the sixteenth 
century, a portion was parted off this large room to the east by 
building a wall across it containing two fire-i)laces, back to back, 
with two chimnies. 

At this time, doubtless, the whole building, or at least this east 
part, was appropriated to the use of the master, and it has been 
noticed that by 1535 the establishment had relapsed into a con- 
dition much more humble than in 1395, so that a refectory of the 
former scale was no longer needed. 

One tie-beam and king-post had to be cut away to accommodate 
the chimney. The room thus parted off on the east of the chimney 
is 20^. X 19*. 2\ Then a very ornate flat wooden ceiling of four 
compartments Avas formed under the old tie-beam. The ceiling 
beams are well moulded. Each of these four compartments is again 
divided into four. The ceiling is of thin feather-edged oak boards — 
six boards in a compartment. The sixteen angles, the sixteen junc- 
tions of the small ribs with the beams and the four crossings of 
small ribs, are adorned with well cut flowers, but the intersections 
of the large beams and cornices or plates have not flowers. 

For distinction this room may be called the parlour.* 

Standing at the east end of the parlour, and looking west, in 
the centre is the large fire-place 6*. wide, with obtuse arch, and on 
each side a doorway with four-centred obtuse-pointed head. The 
doorway on the north leads to a stair with stone newel, leading up 
to the attic over the ornate ceiling. 

The doorway on the south leads into a small closet or pantry. 
The wall containing this doorway was run into the recess before 
mentioned, and filled up part of it, the other part of the recess being 
in this closet. 

One shaft was taken away to make room. The siU, or floor of 
the recess, was lowered 1\ inches, and a drain made in the recess. 
The small window of one light was probably made at the same time, 
and the little apartment formed a pantry. 

In the north wall of the parloiir is a four-centred obtuse-pointed 
doorway, like the two before mentioned, which communicates with 
the other part of the house by an adjunct. This adjunct is modern, 
and probably at first there were steps outside the doorway in the 
open air. 

In moie modern times a door was broken through the west wall 
of the pantry which gives access to the room west of the parlour 

• One king-post, two capitals of the recess, and a set of the flowers of the flat ceiling are 
in the Northampton Museum. 































and over the hall. The floor of this room is 3*. 3^ higher than the 
floor of the parlour, so that the floors of the two fire-places difiered 
that much. 

At a later date a ceiling was made just under the old tie-beams 
throughout the house. But there was a fresco-painting on the 
west face of the wall containing the two fire places in such a 
position as to prove that at one period after the building of the 
wall the room to the west of it reached to the roof, as at first. 

The lower part of the painting had long been destroyed, and the 
height of the floor at the time of the painting coidd not be ascer- 
tained. It is possible that the fire-place on the west had been 
transposed to a level 3^. 3\ higher than its first position ; but this is 
not probable, because at the other end of the room is a wall ap- 
parently of about the same date as the former, which has in it a fire- 
place and door at the same level. This wall was inserted through 
the old roof, and is evidently posterior to it. The doorway in this 
wall is near its north-west angle, and is apparently of the same date 
as the two fire-places. 

We now come to a very curious change. In the south wall, 
outside, is a remarkable upright break in the masonry a little to the 
west of the small window in the recess, and nearly in a line Avith 
the fresco-painting. The wall (or at least the outer face of it) to the 
west of the said break, was in the sixteenth century or beginning of 
the seventeenth century, taken out from the eave-course to the 
ground, and a new wall or face built, with a plinth at bottom, and 
containing windows with \ circle jambs, and mullions and labels of 
the style of 1580. The plinth was also inserted under part of the 
older work to the east of the break. An entrance doorway, with 
obtuse pointed arch, was made in the south wall, and soon afterwards 
a porch was added, but not cotemporary Avith the inner doorway, for 
the plinth passes through the walls of the porch, Avhich walls are 
not bonded into the main wall of the house. The fire-place in the 
parlour, and the two doorways of the porch are not four-centred 
but two-centred arches ; the part between the curves joining the 
imposts and the apex being straight lines. 

The plinth continues eastward to 33^. 3^. from the cast Avail of 
the porch, and AvestAvard to 11^ 2\ from its Avest Avail, Avhere it ends 
at a buttress. In the wall which forms the west Avail of the hall 
are the remains of what appears to have been a buttery-hatch. 

Again an alteration was made — the west wall (endl) Avas pulled 
down and the kitchen enlarged by an addition on the Avest added 
to the former kitchen. This compartment has no plinth, and has a 
different eave-course, and all the AvindoAvs in it have \ circle mould- 
ing outside, and a hollow chamfer inside, a form rarely to be met 
with. In this added part a large kitchen fire-place Avith Avooden 
lintel was made. Probably at the same time the Aving on the north 


was built, the windows in which have miiUions and jambs of hollow 
chamfers. As the west end is 1*. 6\ wider than the east end, the 
wing, which is rectangular, is thrcwn askew. 

At this time, and for many years afterwards, the access from the 
entrance hall to the parlour was by a stair on the north, but the 
old doorway from the parlour to the attic was built up and a new 
entrance to stairs made, and wooden stairs made over the stone 
ones. Many divisions in more modern times were made upstairs 
and down. 

At a subsequent period the parlour was disused : the stair on. 
the north was taken out, and the space used as a cellar. 

The old roof did not extend over the west addition, the roof 
of which was cotemporary with the walls below. The eave-course 
was slightl}'^ different from the rest. This part was covered with 

Each gable has a coping 1^ 2^. wide, and on the east one a 
saddle-stone with four small gables. 

The upper part of each chimney is of brick, and probably not 

At a later date the window of the small room over the porch 
was taken out and a large sash Avindow inserted. Various other 
mutilations took place at different times. 


The chapel is a parallelogram 50^. 1^. east and west x 20^ 1^\ 
north and south outside. The bearing of it is 1 1° 30' north of 
true east and south of true west, assuming the variation to be 22° 
west. The east wall is 2^, 11^^, the west wall 3^., and the north 
and south walls 2^. 1\ in thickness. The Avails are of the red sand- 
stone of the district, and the west doorAvay, and the west and east 
windows of oolite. Considerable repairs and restorations were 
made by the Charity Commissioners in 18 — . At that time the 
whole south wall was rebuilt. The present windows are said to 
have been indicated by fragments found in the wall, but the win- 
dows in the south wall, previous to the rebuilding, were round- 
headed single lights of the seventeenth or eighteenth century. The 
present south doorAvay is probably in the original place, but the 
form of the previous one is not now known. 

The main entrance is in the Avest end. 

The north Avail has no door or Avindow in it. The east wall has 
in it a three-light pointed AvindoAv, Avith tracery in the head, and 
hood-mould, rather late in the Decorated style. 

The cross on the east gable is modern. 

The west front is complete, and is a \^ery good example of 
Perpendicular. It had double buttresses at the north-west and 
aouth-Avest angles, Avith a set-oflf in the middle and a plinth. Those 


on the north-west angle remain intact, though partly inclosed in the 
kitchen of a public-house ; but those on the south-west angle were 
almost entirely destroyed when the north-east angle of the domicile 
was attached to the chapel. 

The west doorway is 4^ S|-i. Avide, and has a two centred 
pointed head, almost a half-circle, under a square hood-mould. The 
spandrils contain deeply-sunk quatre-foils with square flowers. The 
jambs and arch are of mouldings of rolls and hollows which die 
into a plain chamfer The original double doors remain. Each door 
contains one arch sub-divided by a mullion and transom. Each sub- 
division has a pointed arch in the head filled with tracery, and a 
half-circular one below the transom, also containing tracery ; qiiatre- 
foils being the principal ornament. The top of the hood-mould of 
the door is part of a string which is carried across the west front. 

Above this doorway is a fine five-light window, 12 ^ 3^. wide 
between the angles of jambs, and 11^. 1^^. high from the bottom 
of the splay to to the impost of the main arch. 

The head is a four-centered arch under a hood-mould. The five 
lights are of equal width, and each is subdivided in the head. The 
heads of the main lights are sept-foils, and of the sub-lights are 

On the gable above is a j)atriarchal cross (four arms), which is 
stated to be original. 

The roof is entirely new, and is framed in five compartments, 
with tie-beams, collar-beams, and curved braces, which descend 
below the tie-beam, and rest on modern corbels of heads. I have 
not ascertained what the previous roof was in form, but probably 
cotemporary with the debased windows in the late south wall. The 
covering is of slates. There is a modern wooden turret for one bell. 

The west end is 5^ 8|^i. wider than the body of the chapel, 
reckoning from out to out of the buttresses which project west, and 
three solutions of the oddity may be suggested. It is doubtful 
whether the north wall is, and the late south wall was, original. Either 
(Istly), they are nearer together than the original walls which cor- 
responded with the width of the west end ; or (2ndly), the west end 
took the place of an earlier end of the width of the present chapel, 
and of the style of the present east window, decorated, and was 
made wider than the walls in preparation for a wider chapel, which 
never was built ; or (3rdly), the north-east and south walls are of 
sixteenth or seventeenth century, and the east window re-used. 

The north-east and south-east angles have no buttresses, which 
would in most cases have been attached at the date of the east 
window, and tlie plinth of all but the west end is a mere set-off" 
without moulding or chamfer, whilst the plinth of the west end is 
of oolite and sloped. 


The springers of the coping of the west gable are in the proper 
position for the existing roof Therefore, if the west end was in 
preparation for a wider chapel, the springers were left to be put into 
the proper position when such wider chapel was built ; or if the 
chapel was made narrower after the building of the west end, the 
springers were moved to suit the new side walls. 

On the whole, it seems probable that the chapel once agreed in 
width with the west end, and that the whole of the north, south, 
and east walls were rebuilt on a narrower plan, leaving the west end 
as it was, and re-using the east window. 

See further reference to this oddity under the account of the 

In the east window are remains of stained glass. 


This is a parallelogram, except that the west end is askew to 
accommodate itself to the direction of the street. 

It is 26^. 9^ north and south, 63^. 7^ on the north, and *. \ 
on the south, outside. 

The north-east angle is joined to the chapel. 

The whole is of red sand-stone. It consists of a ground story 
and an upper story. 

The west end is apparently of the fourteenth century. A sunk 
pointed arch fiUs a large part of it, within which is the entrance — 
a doorway with pointed arch and good moulding. Over this door- 
way is the remains of a niche for a statue. 

Over the apex of the large arch is a circular window of four pairs 
of lights, each three-foiled, radiating from a four-foil. The four 
spandrils between the pairs of lights are cusped in six-foils. A 
hood-mould encircles the whole, and dies into the hood-mould of 
the large arch. 

The buttress at the north-west angle is of the same date as the 
part of the north Avail joining it, and later than the west end. 

In the middle of the south wall is the staircase window, which 
is of three lights, each five-foiled in the head, and under an obtuse- 
pointed arch with hood-mould. The jambs are of two hollow 
chamfers. In it are considerable remains of coloured glass contain- 
ing parts of figures, &c., much mutilated. The words " Ric Sherd " 
occurs in several places on a scroll. He became master in 1474, 
and, probably, this window and the whole south wall were built by 
him, on the site of an older wall. The whole of the wall, however, 
except this central part was rebuilt about 1700, or 1750. Rectan- 
gular windows with wooden frames were made above and below. 

The east wall is of the same date. 

From the west door is a passage 4^ wide, to the east door. 


On the north of the passage at the west end is a coal-room lit 
by a two-light mullioned window ; a scullery, with a small pointed 
doorway to the court, and a two-light mullioned window ; a hall lit 
by two windows of three-lights, evidently by the same builder as 
the staircase window ; and to the east a kitchen, which is lit by a 
two-light mullioned window on the north, and a wooden-frame 
window on the east. In the kitchen is a large fire-place, to accom- 
modate wliich a projection is attached to the north wall 11^. 8^^ x 

Although the division of the hall and kitchen is apparently 
modern, and the situation of the large fire-place in the kitchen (close 
to the partition) favours that notion, yet the construction of the 
frame of the roof over the centre of the hall looks as if that frame 
alone was open to the hall. Possibly then the large fire-place in 
the kitchen, and the projection for it, are not so early as the two 
hall windows, and there was at first a partition in the position of 
the present one. 

It is not probable that if a partition existed in the present posi- 
tion, that the fire-place would have been placed so close to it, 
without any reason for such.a position ; but it may have been so 
placed to give room for a two-light mullioned window on the east of 
the large fire-place, and on the west of the chimney is a set-off, which, 
perhaps, indicates a luidening of the fire-place in that direction. 

There is, however, a reason why the fire-place may have been so 

The east wall of the domicile is of the date of the south wall. 
Evidently the domicile, at one time, was shorter, and did not join 
the chapel as it now does, for the buttresses at the south-west angle 
of the chapel were once complete. 

The upper part of one still shews above the domicile roof, and 
in the east upper room are traces of alterations, as if the buttresses 
had been cut away. 

The reason for the east frame of the roof so close to the east 
wall is not explicable, unless for an extension of the building. 

The hall and staircase windows are more modern than the west 
end of the chapel, which is more modern than the west end of the 

The upper and lower windows on the east of the chimney did 
not co-exist with the south-west buttresses of the chapel and the 
original east end of the domicile. 

■ It appears, then, that the only remains of the domicile in its first 
state, is the west end — that the west end and the parts of the west 
and south walls containing the arched windows, and perhaps that 
containing the north doorway, are the remains of the domicile in 
its second state — that the east end was lengthened, and the 
muUioned windows on the north built to form its third state, and 



that, in addition, the main part of the south wall and the east end, 
as now existing, form its fourth state. 

Probably the roof is cotemporarj' with the arched windows. 

On the south side of the passage is a flight of stairs north and 
south. Just under the sill of the south window, before mentioned, 
is a landing, from which two flights of stairs, east and west, lead to 
two upper chambers, which are said to have been the rooms for the 
two co-brethren, but long disused for that purpose. On the south 
side, on the ground, are seven bed-rooms for the inmates. 

The roof is framed in six compartments, and a small piece 
between the east frame and the east wall. Each frame has a tie- 
beam and collar-beam, but the struts diff'er. The second and fourth 
frames from the west end form parts of stud partitions, which 
descend to the floor of the upper rooms. 

The west room is the whole width of the building, and 24*. 
long on the south wall. It is lit by two mullioned windows on the 
north, and two wooden-frame windows on the south, and by the 
circular window in the west end. It has a fire-place in the south- 
west angle. It reaches to the roof, and appears never to have had 
any ceiling or casmg of boards. It occupies two bays of roof. The 
third and fourth bays of roof are over the hall, and the frame 
between them has queen-posts and curved studs chamfered. 

The fourth frame from the west forms part of a stud partition. 

The east room is of the whole width of the building, and 20*. Q\ 
long. It is lit by one two-light mullioned window on the north, 
and by two wooden-frame windows on the south. 

In the north wall is a fire-place with moulded jambs and wooden 
lintel. The room reaches, like the west room, to the roof 

The covering of the roof is of Collyweston slates graduated. 

The gable crosses are modern. 

In making a cellar, in 1874, at the house on the other side of 
the street from the west front of the domicile, the workmen found 
a skeleton in proper position, and over and around it, mixed in the 
soil and rubbish, were fragments of encaustic tiles, stained glass, 
ancient pottery with green and brown glaze, tobacco pipes of the old 
form, &c. On one of the tiles is a cross pattee in a circle, and on 
another part of a coat of arms. A fess charged with three quatre- 
foils between six cross-crosslets three, two, and one. Another tile 
has plain yellow glaze. 

Note.— In consequence of illness, the writer has been unable to supply some omissions 
in the foregoing article, and to give a fuller description of the coloured glass. It is hoped 
that in the succeeding Part these deficiencies will be supplied. 


Mansfield and its Neighhourhood. — By the Eev. R. H. "Whitworth, 


Somewhat do I marvel, and much more am I abashed, to find 
myself here standing to address the Lincoln Diocesan Architectural 
Society, or their hosts, the right merrie men of Mansfield. Nor is it 
without protestation of mine own humility herein, and that it is not 
of self-will or commandment that I who am only an outsider, or in 
their own forest parlance, as far as Mansfield is concerned, a " mere 
purley-man,"t presume to offer discourse of their local history. 
Would that to describe the Manor of Mansfield and its entourage 
there were here one to the " manner born " — to gather up the traces 
of byegone romaunt and chivalry, some one of local habitation and 
name, whose happy fortune it hath been from earliest youth to revel 
in its rich heritage of historical tradition. With how much more 
fitness might Mansfield tongues tell to their guests of to-night of 
their old neighbours of name, which some of our proudest of line- 
age and kin yet delight to call their ownl There are many of 
ancient degree who might be fit subjects for such a tale, John de 
Sutton and Eichard de Sutton, " knyghts that ben ded," Piers of 
Pondifoote, and Ealphe of Crumwell, John de Montgomerie, and 
Hugh de Ehadmanthwaite, and Jhon de Anneslie — men who trooped 
over the green lawn-like turf of bright Sherwood to the Porest 
Courts held almost on the very spot on which we now are, there to 
do good homage to the King his Justiciary of the Forests beyond 
Trent, or otherwise with a belle and joyeuse companie of gentle 
ladees, with pages attendant, and not a few churchmen, and with 
hawke and faucon belled and hooded, and all but unslipped, Avho 
assembled with the King hys Verderer and Eegarder, to make 
journaie and Eegarde. William de Vesci, in cir. 1289 a.d., and other 
Eegarders were the Sovereign impersonate, and beside " y*^ Kyngis 
business to see y* neither vert nor venison were ahurt," there was 
much of merrie jest, and many a brilliant song was trilled under 
the Blidworth Eed Oak and along the slanting glades. There 
must have been courtly chroniclers on these occasions — Proissarts 
and Monstrelets — whose historical truth w^as lit up by their bright 
fancy. Why has not their mantle descended upon some Mans- 
field man to tell the form and complexion of the old worthies we 
have named, as they came here to do suit and service at the courts 

* By a mistake of the printer, this Paper is inserted out of its proper order. It should 
have been with tlie other Lincoln Papers. 

t " Purley-man," a well known forest expression, i e., pur-lieu-man, living on ground clear 
of trees, uncovered. It was applied to lands outside the bounds of the forest, as well as to 
the numerous liberties which were alike exempt from the laws and privileges of forest 
dwellers. A considerable contempt is implied in the general use of the term. 


of "William de Vesci, Eadiilphus de ]N"eville, Jhon de Bristowe, and 
others 1 In such defaute we will picture them. AVere they models 
to him, who has photographed the good and true knights of his 
day as — 

"Loving chevakie 

Trath and honour, freedom and courtesie ? 

Full worthy were they in their lordis warre. 

And therto had they ridden none more ferre 

As well in Christendom as in Hethenesse 

And ever honored for their worthinesse ? " 

As a churchman myself, I may not forget some links in the chain, — 
the long chain of Vicars of Saint Peter. Peace to the soids of 
William de Cossall, of Philip de Willoughbie and Ealph Mayn, 
the clerkes. We will hope they were — 

' ' True good men of religion, 
Pious and poor, the parson ns of the towne ; 
Eich were they in holy thought and work, 
Each a right learned man — a clerk 
That Christ's pure gospel would sincerely preach, 
And his parishioners devoutly teach." 

for the touch of some graphic thought-awakening hand to unravel 
the once pictured windows of St. Peter's Church ! Why, on those 
windows, did the light stream through traces of the Mamiers, 
Pierreponts, Herryz, D'Eyncourts 1 How many a goodly procession 
has swept round that ancient tower ! How many knees have bent 
beneath yoiu' broad J^orman arch ! We would like to know some- 
thing of the numerous chauntries under that roof, and of their 
cantarists. For whose souls' benefits, and for what good or bad 
deeds done, was mass sung 1 An interesting scene might be painted 
of the pomp and ciixumstance in Mansfield Market Place, on the 
31st March, a.d. 1603, when "James the Sixt of Scotland was 
solemnly, at the Market-cross, proclaimed King of England, by 
Sir John Byron, Knight, Mr. Ayscoughe, Highe Sheriffe, Mr. 
Henry Chaworth, Esquire, Mr. George Chaworth, Esquire," 
and they caused the bells to be rung for joy, and — was it the 
measure of their joy 1 — gave the ringers 2s. 6., i.e., 3|d. each ! 

1 fear the " goodlie golden chain of chivalry " was somewhat gone. 
I do not find that James came to Mansfield en route to the south — 
Perhaps it is as well he did not, for at Newark he hanged a pick- 
pocket, and an alderman talked Latin, and I suppose we should 
have cared as little to see the one thing as to hear the other. 
Somewhat more gravely, too, for we should be ten years older, 
might we listen to the prophesying or exercise set up in St. Peter's 
Church by the authority of Toby Matthew, Archbishop of York, of 
which Dr. Snowdon, Prebendary of Southwell, was moderator, 
and of which Mr. Haynes, the Vicar of Blidworth, and Mr. Tuke, 
the Vicar of Heath, were members. Who will tell why Gervase 


Hollis, whose famous name has authenticated one of the most 
remarkable ghost stories in being, brought his first wife and child 
to lay them to sleep at St. Peter's altar 1 We would like to know 
something of the Sternes, the Chappells, the Mompessons, who 
should never want a tribute ui a Mansfield audience. Then, too, 
there is that right loyal subject, whose executors gravely tell us on 
her brass that her cup of human felicity was crowned by being 
permitted to die on the same day as her beloved sovereign, Queen 
Anne. Dear facinating old soul ! Who wouldn't have gone far to 
know that woman 1 

I am not proposing to venture upon a precise history of this 
town and neighbourhood, but simply to glance at si;ch tojDics con- 
nected as, I think, may prove acceptable to the Lincoln Diocesan 
Architectural Society. 

Probably the name of Mansfield is derived from " Mann, or 
Maun," the river on which it stands, and '* field," or a space cleared 
of trees by which it was once covered. 

This locality was certainly occupied by the Romans, from the 
evidence of the remains of a villa with the several tessellated pave- 
ments at Mansfield Woodhouse. 

Subsequently a mighty king, renowned as well in ecclesiastical 
as in secular history, trod this soil, viz., — Edwin, whose name is 
enshrined in Edwinstowe hard by, who was associated with Paulinus 
in the evangelisation of these parts — Edwin, that good man for 
whom his servant, Lilla, even dared to die, and whose vigour and 
activity at one time ruled over a dominion that stretched from the 
Humber to the Tweed. Perhaps the standard of the lineal measure 
of the forest was first fixed in his time, which was set up in the 
Churches of St. Mary at Edwinstowe, St. Mary at ^Nottingham, and 
in that of St. Mary at Newstead. At an early period the Bouings 
settled at Sutton Bonington, the Edingas at Edingaley, the Collingas 
at Collingham, and the Coedlings at what is now Gedling. Here 
Edward the Confessor indidged in that only amusement which 
William of Mahnsbury says was the sole relaxation he allowed him- 
self, where, when on his road to Lincoln, he is said to have cured a 
blind man with miraculous power. Here the Conqueror, who loved the 
red doer as if he were their father, and was hardly likely to overlook 
Sherwood Forest, had on his manor of Mansfield thirty-five villains, 
two carucates of land, two churches, and two priests, which his 
son Rufus gave the Church of St. Peter, and its lands to the Blessed 
Mary of Lincoln. In the troublous times of Stephen, the mar or of 
Mansfield passed to Ranulph the Great, Earl of Chester, and here 
kings and nobles, Saxon, Norman, Plantaganet, and Stuart held 
court and hunted, and the manor of Norton Cuckney was granted 
to the Fauconbridges on the service of safely shoeing the royul 
palfreys. Here Isabella, she-wolf of France, leaving her gentle 


Mortimer, had view of frank-pledge and emendation of bread and 
ale. Once, too, the Comyns, Lords of Buchan, held the manor, and 
afterwards it was granted by Henry VIII. to the Duke of iJforfolk, 
on his victorious return from Flodden Field. 

But if we may not tarry with these great ones, who throng and 
people the realms of the historical past, still less may we pause to 
recount the story of the King and the miller of Mansfield, or any of 
those charming legends with which every glint and glade of merrie 
Sherwood rings, many of which are connected with Eobin Hood, 
whom Fuller describes " not for his knavery, but his gentleness," and 
whom William Camden has entitled "the gentlest thief that ever 
was." Others, in other places, must tell at large how not three 
miles from Mansfield he exercised his gentle craft and mystery on 
the Bishop of Hereford ; for, alas ! he loved not Holy Church nor 
churchmen. How, at Fountain Dale, he and the curtal friar 
carried each other, after blows hard and sharp, over the moat to 
the shades of Copmanhurst ; how Robin roamed over Blidworth 
and Mansfield Forests, wooing the fair Maid Marion ; how he 
tressed her flowing hair with the pride of the forest, the beautiful 
stag's horn moss, and at last, won by her gentle and faAvn-like spell, 
was off and away to St. Marie of Edwinstowe to receive Holy 
Church's benison on their wooing. In the time of Queen Elizabeth 
we are told by Sir Henry Spelman, that there were more than seventy 
forests in England, but, probably, few of these were forests in the 
sense in which Sherwood was a forest, and the chief value of his 
assertion is to show how large an area was covered with trees, and 
was to all purposes, save of the chase, what Doomsday Book caUs 
sUva inutilis. Some will tell us, therefore, that a forest is merely 
the remnant of the ancient aboriginal condition of this island, and 
in support of this view, point to the words Berroc, as m Berkshire, 
Arden, Weald, &c., &c., all having a cognate signification. Such 
tracts were subjected to a gradually introduced process of natural 
selection, some parts becoming permanently pasture or arable, and 
others remitted to game. " There is a touch of the savage in the 
noblest man," and so we find this portion the chosen and delight- 
some haunt and play-ground of a lordly class. Here kings mingled 
with nobles and churchmen, and when the severity of forest laws 
was somewhat relaxed, all these shared in hunting, a pastime ever 
dear to all Englishmen, and especially in such a beautiful district as 
Sherwood Forest. As to the King's prerogative to make such a 
forest wherever he chose, we have only to consider how much is 
implied in the terms " afforestation " and " disafforestation " to 
understand by how technical and precise a course land was thus 
brought under the King's hand, or was remitted to its ordinary and 
prior condition. We need hardly allude to the mutilation of the 
" canis leporarius," or to the loss of limb or life for the hurt or 


slaying of the deer, which for so many centuries form a dark back 
ground to the bright romantic aspect of Sherwood, nor to the fre- 
quent and suggestive nomenclature of " Hanging Hill," and kindred 
terms, to suggest that all was not pleasant here in days of old, and 
that it may be well not to hft the veil that overhangs the past too 

In the various etymologies of the word forest there appears one 
common underlying idea pointing to expansion, extent, &c. The 
first syllable has been held identical with "for" or "fur" in " forth" 
and " further." Connect with this the old verb goresta, to lie open, 
and gorest, an expanse, a waste, as well as the Latin foras and foris. 
It was a something lying outside the ordinary condition and con- 
stitution of society which it only touched at certain pouits, and it 
was certainly in its laws, privileges, and social arrangements, an 
imperium in imperio. The forest dwellers were united by a strong 
community of interest in their privileges. They stood aloof, as 
well by inclination as geographical position, from the inhabitants of 
the towns for whom, in many respects, they entertained that kind 
of contempt which the gipsy race has for those who sleep beneath 
a roof. Hence, if we examine, for instance, the nomenclature of 
Mansfield and the neighbourhood, we shall find a remarkable 
absence of words implying, enclosure, or appropriation. Of forty- 
five places in the hundred of Broxtowe,* in which Mansfield is 
locally situated, as engraved in a county map of a.d. 1620, there 
are but five ending in ton, one of which is a royal residence of 
John, one only in borough, one in "worth," and none in "ham." 
Now let me here note a very delicate appreciation of this sufiix 
" ham " or ' home.' In words really Saxon it never designates indi- 
viduals, but alwajs fajnilies, and in its conspicuous absence from the 
old vernacular of the district, the wandering undomestic character 
of the ancient forest dwellers, is strongly exemplified. Their con- 
tact with the outer world was through the higher and nobler classes 
who came to them for the chase, and the comparative simplicity of 
their manners, acquired a touch of polish which is yet remarkable. 
One particular set of usages deserves mention, that of assart and 
liberties. An assart was made when a licence was obtained from 
the superior lord to disafforest a certain portion of better land which 
was cleared of trees, and so said to be exertum, or ploughed exaratum, 
or more probably ad sarculum, i.e., brought under the harrow. Such 
grants were made principally to villagers. But the system of 
" liberties," many of which remain, was of much grander proportion. 
"We have yet immediately around us the Liberty of Newstead, on 
which Henry II. erected his monastery, the Liberty of the King's 
Manor of Lindhurst, which was for " the sustentacyon of the King 
his CasteUum at Notyngaham," and also the Manor of Heywood 

* Brortowe, i.e., the place of the badger. 


Oaks. These approach the proportion of estates, and were in many 
instances royal grants to deserving or undeserving favourites, and 
constantly accretory. A vast portion of the business of a Regarder 
was the reducing of them within their proper limits. I cannot but 
think, however, that in some cases many of these " liberties " are of 
very ancient origin, and that they are identical with some of those 
ancient British strongholds within the dense forest that overspread 
our island, of which we read in Cresar and in Strabo, and that they 
are memories of the enclosures within which people and property 
were protected. 

But now it must be confessed that, in point of imagination, 
Sherwood of to-day contrasts unfavourably with Shirewood of 250 
years ago. "Further within," says an old writer, "Sherwood, 
which some call the bright, and some the famous wood, has for 
ages overshadowed everything with its trees, and the intermingling 
boughs have so overarched the woods that the footpaths are almost 
impassible even single-file. It is becoming more open," is his testi- 
mony, and as you have seen to day, the forest is in one sense a 
thing of the past, and that by a process of rapid extinction. Within 
the last two years I have conversed with an old man, now dead, who 
used to boast of two things — the one that he had known Lord 
Byron, and was at a supper givenon his coming of age ; and the 
other, that he had heard his father say that in his boyhood so dense 
and large were the trees, that he had walked from Mansfield to 
Nottingham on Midsummer-day without getting into sunshine. 

On Mansfield Moor, a locality now difficult to fix, but probably 
near Sheerwood Hall, there was an eremitage, or hermitage, sur- 
rounded by a rood of ground ; and to this Thomas Beck, " some- 
tymes Bushopp " of St. David's, and of Lincoln, is said to have 
retired ; but he probably only visited it. 

Strict watch was kept over the royal property, as evidenced by 
the following warrant to permit the felling of three oaks sufficient 
to make a beam. " Therefore to you (the verderers) we command 
that the aforesaid carpenters three oaks ye suffer to have, not letting 
for this time of fauning, but them they may have, them they may 
carry and lead away, first making to you an oath that the deare of 
Lord and King and his faunes be not hurt, and soe be ye busy 
about it both ye and your foresters, and do ye espy and attend them 
both you and your foresters that in any manner of wise they do no 
trespass." Let me adduce another ; it is from a report made, — 
" They say also that of gosshawks, morves, and faucons if they be 
found they belong to the King, — and as for forge and mines there 
be none — and as for havens of the sea there be none — as for hony it 
belongeth to the King — and as for bowes and arrows, and arrow 
balists, brakes, grayhounds, dogs, or any Ingion to hurt the King 
of his venison they be disallowed." 


West of the Eicket Lane, at Blidworth, is the Druid's stone, a 
vast mass of conglomerate 1 4 feet high and 48 feet round, and partly- 
hollowed, which was once surrounded by attendant similar masses 
of rock unknown in the district. 

The name of Papplewich, through which we passed, is curious. 
Papil is the Norse form of the term which yet designates the clergy 
of the Greek Church, and is familiar to us in the word pope. In 
this form it is equivalent to " hermit." As a prefix, it is found a dozen 
times in the north of Scotland. Southward it occurs only in Cam- 
bridge and N^ottinghamshire ; and Wick means abode, or together, 
"hermits' abode,"-distinctivelyso as that of some Christian instructor, 
humble indeed, but one whom even a barbarous people had learnt to 
reverence as their father and teacher. Dense and migratory churls 
were they at first, the bee-churls, the hog- wards, the bracken-ers. Then 
in Kirkby, or Church village, we have a name expressive of a more 
expanded and settled form of Christian worship, eventually perfected 
by the greater monastic houses, such as that of N'ewstead Priory. 
But still long after the erection of stately churches, hermitages were 
numerous throughout this district, such as that formerly in Foun- 
tain Dale, the character of whose occupant, in the reign of Richard I., 
as described by Scott, was probably an exceptional one, if true at all. 

We must now return to Mansfield once more, to note a great and 
grand Forest Court held there before William, Marquess of New- 
castle, on the 25th February, 1684, at which the following 
magnates were present, viz. : — The Most Rev. the Archbishop of 
York ; George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, represented by his 
attorney, as castellan of the Castle of Nottingham and its appurten- 
ances ; William, Earl of Devon, and his wife, Christiana, Countess 
of Devon ; Arthur, Earl of Essex, represented by his attorney 
Patrick, Viscount Chaworth ; John, Viscount Clare ; William 
Holies; Lord Houghton; Henry Howard, son of the Earl of Arundel 
Sir William Savile, Bart., of Ruflford Abbey; William Pienepont 
William Willoughby, John Mazine, John Masters, Robert Sher 
brooke, and William Curtis. Some clergy also were present at this 
court, viz., Michael Honey wood. Dean of Lincoln, and certain 
Canons of Lincoln ; John Chappell, Vicar of Mansfield, and 
Michael Buxton, Vicar of Blidworth. 

We might tarry at this great court, but that we must hurry into 
a presence even more august. Of the ten years of the leign of 
Richard I., one, I believe, was spent in England. Of that one, 
Sherwood Forest had the greatest share. John had, we know, his 
hunting seat at Langton Arbour and Queen's Bow(;r at Blidworth, 
often in dis})ute with the Arclibisliops of York, who, with their 
canons claimed to hunt at l>lidworth Forest three days at Christmas, 
three at Easter, and three at Whitsuntide. John's hasty parliament 
under the Parliament Oak at Clipstone, at which the Welsh hostages 



in Nottingham Castle were condemned to be hanged, is well known. 
But within three weeks of his landing in England, Eichard I. was 
at Nottingham to receive surrender of his castle, for the repair and 
sustentation of which you must remember the neighbouring Manor 
of Lindhurst was apportioned. Nottingham had been the only 
fortress that offered him resistance. There a council had been held, 
which granted him a large subsidy. 

Of the greater ecclesiastical houses around Mansfield we may 
name the Augustine Priory of Worksop ; the Premonstratensian 
Abbey of "Welbeck, whose canons long disputed about forty acres 
of ground, which the King's verderers and regarders alleged they 
had unjustly appropriated ; and the Priory of Thurgarton, each of 
which is designated as the probable sedes of a Suffragan Bishop 
of Nottinghamshire by Henry VIII. Besides these, there are the 
grand and beautiful Collegiate Church of Southwell, the great Abbey 
of Rufford, founded and endowed by kings, whose inmates quarrelled 
with the Archbishop of York as to the limits of their respective lands, 
when a boundary stone was erected, known as the Abbot's stone ; 
the Priory of Newstead, the ?iovus locus of Henry II., dedicated 
like so many of the Nottinghamshire churches and forest foundations 
to the Virgin Mary. Overlooking a little bend of the Trent was the 
Convent of Shelford. 

Some old names of the Mansfield district are also worthy of 
note, such as Piers Pondifoote, Piers Montiford, John de Mont- 
gomerie, Walter the Wolfhunt, Paganus of Pinkeston, John at the 
water, Robert on the hill, Eichard of dog in the fields, and Eichard 
the brackener. Much might be said of forest-folk lore ; much on 
other points connected with Mansfield and its vicinity ; but time 
presses, and I must needs bring this paper to a close, in the hope 
that such points as I have touched upon may be more fully dwelt 
upon hereafter, by other members of our Diocesan Architectural 
Society, whose present visit to Mansfield is so highly appreciated, 
and gives good promise of leading to very valuable results. 





Bedford Castle. — A Paper read before the Bedfordshire Architec- 
tural and Archa'ological Society. By Dudley George Gary 
Elwes, Esq., F.S.A. 

The grand old mound at the back of the Swan Hotel invites atten- 
tion to its probable history ; this must be my apology for pre- 
suming to inflict my views on your notice in what, I fear, may be 
a dull Paper. However, to proceed ; — 

First. What is the mound 1 

Secondly. How did it come where it is 1 


Thirdly. "^^Taere did the enormous quantity of earth, requii'ed 
to make it up to its present size, come from 1 

Before dealing with these inquiries in detail, we have to prove, 
that in very early times there was a fort of some importance here 
(possibly, on the same site as the later and more renowned 
castle), and we may well believe that this fort derived its importance 
either from its connection with the passage of the river, or possibly 
from being a stronghold to command and secure the possession of 
what must at all times have been a rich, valuable, and attractive 
country, the natural vale of Bedford. Be this as it may, we have 
direct testimony to the existence of a fort in a.d. 510, e.r/., Eichard 
Cirencester. " Anno gratite [quingentesimo] octogessimo, Ceanlinus 
Eex "West Saxonum cepit, castellum Bedeanforde, qviod modo Bede- 
forde nuncupatur, cum aliis, videlicet, Lienberi, Alesbury, Beissin- 
tone, Hemesham, Gloverniam, Cirencestrian, et Bathoniam. Et 
magnificatum est nomen ejus vehementer." The above infers that 
there was a castle here at this early period, or at least a fort or 
stronghold of some kind, (though the word castellum does not 
necessarily rise to the height or dignity of castle in our modem 
acceptation of the word). There is a reference to Matthew of 
Westminster, p. 197, and Roger Wendover at p. 86, on the same 
subject : the marginal note in the printed copy says, " Ceaulin, King 
of Wessex, takes Bedford and other towns." It seems he took them 
from the Britons, for in the next entry, a.d. 584, it is recorded that 
Ceaulin and his brother gave battle to the Britons at Frithonlea, where 
he was defeated and killed, the Angles taking to flight. This almost 
points to a fact that a castle was built here by the Britons. 
Eichard de Cirencester is the only one of the old chroniclers 
who actually state " a castle." These authors, I suppose, are not 
independent authorities, but only give the same facts, and the possi- 
bility that there was one built here even by the Britons receives 
support, from a possible derivation, which finds favour with some, 
from the word Bedean, supposed to mean to fortify, making the 
name Bedeanforde, a derivation to which, however, I do not attach 
much importance. There is also a statement, that Edward the Elder, 
in 919, built a town, or fort, on the south side of the river ; but as 
this raises some other questions of topography, it is sufficient for my 
purpose to notice the statement, without dwelling on it here. 

To the first query in this paper, three or four different answers 
will suggest themselves, (1) it was a barrow of the Early English 
before the Eomans entered England, (2) it was a mark of burial 
of some great Eoman or other chieftain, (3) a place of refuge, not 
only from a human enemy, but from the sudden swelling of the 
river Ouse, which in former days appears to have been subject to 
very sudden floods, one in 1256, mentioned by Mat. Paris, another 


in 1570, another Aug. 19, 1672 ;* (4) and more likely, the mound 
may have been found when the castle was built by the Normans, 
as it is generally reported to have been by Paganus de Beauchamp,t 
who obtained the barony of Bedford from William II. The date 
of his, i.e., Paganus', death, I have been unable to discover, but as 
he is said to have been succeeded by his son Simon, who died in 
1207-8, and the reign of "William II. (Eufus) extended from a.d, 
1087 to 1100, a period of only thirteen years, it seems clear that 
there is some inaccuracy or confusion here, the time being long 
enough to cover one or two intermediate generations, and it would 
be worth while to look into it a little more closely if we would get 
the real succession of owners (of the castle) in exact chronological 
order. However this may be, we come to the query ; was this 
castle built during the reign of William II., or that of Henry I., the 
latter of which extended from 1100 to 1135 ? Now, if this mound 
was made at that time simply for a place of observation against an 
approaching enemy, and placed in the outer ballium, as was the 
custom in erecting Norman castles, it was probably taken out of the 
bed of the river, in which, almost exactly opposite to this mound, 
is, what I believe to be, an artificial island, and whereon, I suspect, 
the barbican mentioned, in the words of a contemporary % writer, 
quoted by Camden, as being "ivomie in the first assault," was situated. 
This would answer the third question with which I commenced 
this Paper, and also the second, and I suspect that it is not far from 
the correct solution of the problem. It may not be out of place to 
notice here the building said to have been made by Edward, in 
919, above alluded to ; if he really built on the srmth bank of the 
river, we cannot well suppose tlw mound to have been already ex- 
isting on the north side ; but if, on the contrary, lie built his fort on 
the north bank, we have to face the question, whether he called it 
Mihe's-gate, or whether at least Mikesgate, of which no vestige 
remains, either to explain the name or determine the position, can 
have had anything to do with this reputed fort of Edward ! The 
following important passage from Roger de Hovenden, Anno 912 
{sic for 916): — "Hex invictissimus Edwardus ante festivitatem 
Sancti Martini Bedefordam adiit, et eani cum habitantibus ejus in 

* The old Cambridgeshire proverb mentioned by Fuller, " The BayHffe of Bedford is 
coming," alludes to the inundations. " The river Ouse running by, is called The Bayliffe of 
Bedford, who swelling with rain, snow water, and tributary brooks in the winter, and conies 
down on a sudden aiTesteth the lie of Ely with an inundation." Another extraordinary 
freak of this river is mentioned by Fuller in 13!»9. At Harles-wood, commonly called Harrold 
in this county, the river of Ouse, Anno 1399, parted asunder, the water from the Fountain 
starding still, and those towards the .Sea giving way, so that it was passable over on foot for 
three miles together, not without the astonishment of the beholders. It was an Ominous 
Presage of the sad Civil IKcrr* between the two houses of York and Lancaster."— /^j/potaffma 
p. 163. 

t May not this country have been the origin of the name of Beauchamp, for certainly it 
is, and must always have been a fine country around here, of which they were lords. 
X Chronicle of Dunstable. 


deditionem accepit, ibidemque per xxx, dies moratus urbem in 
Australi plaga amnis Uspe condi prajcepit," would, however, lead 
to the inference that the fort already existing stood on the north 
side, when he distinctly states that the King caused the toicn 
to be built on the south side of the river, for which it is not difficult 
to suppose reasons, of military or other convenience. Supposing 
that Edward built a citadal on the so%(ih bank of the river, it is most 
improbable that this mound was already in existence on the 
north bank, for why should he build a town to be overlooked 
by such a " point d' appui " as this would have been 1 The curious 
name Mikes-gate may possibly be connected with MiMe, equiva- 
lent in Scot, to hig or great, Anglo Saxon mucel, equivalent to the 
great way or road, a supposition, wliich I think, not at all impro- 
bable, as we can hardly doubt that there was a Avell worn Koman 
road, and probably before that a British track, right through 
what, from its situation in the midst of a rich grazing country, must 
have been a most important station, ^vitll probably in those days a 
ford across the river at Bedford. Of the etymology of the latter 
name, I reserve some notice for an ajDpendix, only remarking in 
passing, that to determine the exact origin of the name to the satis- 
faction of every one, is more than I venture to hope for myself, or 
expect ever to see done. Having said something about the mound 
of earth, generally (but as I think wrongly) called " The Keep," we 
proceed to tread on firmer ground. 

Paganus de Beauchamp (second son of Hugh de Beauchamp, 
who had forty-three lordships in Bedfordshire, granted to him by 
the Conqueror), is generally said to have built this castle. He 
married Rohais, daughter of Alberic de Vere by Adeline, daughter 
of Eeginald de St. Valerie, the date of his death is uncertain, and 
indeed an uncertainty seems to extend to the whole family of 
de Beauchamp at this period, for, whereas Banks, Vol. I. p. 27, states 
" that Simon, Paganus's son, was his successor, who had divers sons, 
wliich held the castle against King Stephen, because they heard the 
King had given their sister in marriage (with the whole barony of 
Bedford,) unto Hugh (afterwards surnamed the Pauper), brother to 
the Earl of Leicester," he [i.e., Simon de Beauchamp) died 9th John, 
1207-8. On the other hand, the same writer states, p. 29, in his 
account of the de Beauchamps, of Eaton, in County Beds, " that Milo 
de Beauchamp, a younger son of Hugh de Beauchamp, who came 
in with the Conqueror, was one of those who held out the castle 
of Bedford against King Stephen, it being then a very strong 
fort environed with a mighty rampire of earth, and a high wall, 
within which was an impregnable tower ; so that the King, unable 
to take it by assault, after a long siege, at length obtained it by 
surrender, — Milo and his folloAvers marching out on honourable 
terms." From this latter account, it would appear, that it was not 


the sons of Paganus who held the castle against the King, hut their 
uncle Milo. Another version of this siege is, that it was against 
the Scots,* and not against the De Beauchamps at all ; and that it 
came to he garrisoned by the Scots in the following manner : — 
Bedford, as appertaining to the earldom of Huntingdon, had been 
given to Henry, son of David, King of Scotland, ^vith whom 
Stephen was at war. It has been mentioned by several writers that 
the barony of Bedford became part of the earldom of Huntingdon, 
and I think, I can explain, how this happened — 

Hugh de Bellomontjt brother to Robert, Earl of Leicester, we 
know, was created Earl of Bedford in 1150, 16th Stephen, now 
David (son of Malcolm, third King of Scots, and brother to King 
Alexander) lived in England, and married Maud, Countess of 
Huntingdon (eldest daughter and co-heir of Waltheof, Earl of 
Northumberland and Huntingdon, and of Judith his wife, niece 
of William the Conqueror) ; her first husband was Simon St Liz, 
Earl of Northampton, and they had a son, Henry, who was created 
Earl of Huntingdon during his father's life-time by King Stephen 
in 1138, and his wife was Adama, or Ada, daughter of William, the 
second Earl of Warren and Surrey, sister of William the Younger, 
Earl of Warren and Surrey, and sister, by the mother's side, of 
Robert, Earl of Leicester, — thus, I suspect, that this Henry claimed 
the earldom of Bedford through his wife as heir to her brother, 
Hugh the Pauper. This Henry died in 1152, and his widow in 
1178. There is some probability of the latter being in fact the 
case from the follomng extract from Mat. Paris : — 

J " Of the abominations which the Scots committed in England 

in the year of the Lord 1138, Stephen, King of the English 

in Christmas week (in diebus Nataliciis) besieged the Castle of 
Bedford, saying that at no time should peace be granted to the 
enemies. But before the castle surrendered to him, the King of 
Scots led an army into Northumberland, and committed dreadful 

Taking into consideration the above accounts, I cannot help 
thinking, that there must have been two sieges of Bedford Castle 
during Stephen's reign ; the first one against the Beauchamps before 
1138, and one in 1138 against the Scots : however this may be, I 
fear it will always remain in obscurity. Dugdale gives the story of 
the brothers. Camden simply states that Stephen was the first who 
took the castle with great slaughter. Holinshed, that during the 
war with David, King of Scotland, Bedford, which had been given 
to David's son, Henry, as appertaining to the earldom of Hunting- 
don, was garrisoned by the Scots ; and that after being besieged, for 

* Holinshed. 

t Milles, Catalogue of Honour, 904-5. 

X Matthei Parisiensis, Historia Angloruin, Sir F. Maddcn's edition, vol. i., p. 207. 


thirty days together, by Stephen, who every day gave an assault or 
alarm, it was at length won by him by pure force and strength. 

Milles, in his Catalogue of Honour, 1610, gives the following 
account (although he does not state the source from which he 
obtained it) in a history of King Stephen's life, which is possibly 
not very generally known : — 

" And whereas Geffrey, Earl of Anjou, in right of his wife the 
Empresse, demanded the whole Kingdom of England, hee (Stephen) 
agreed with him for a yearly pension of five thousand Marks : with 
which composition the earle held himselfe right well contented. 
And so having well disposed of his affiiires in Normandy, and pro- 
vided for the surety of that Countrey, he returned into England." 

" But hee was no sooner arrived there, but that he was advertised 
that David King of the Scots, under the colour of the Oath by 
him made unto Maud the Empresse made daily inroades into 
England, to the great hurt of the English people. Wherewith King 
Stejihen not a little moved, forthwith set forward with his Arniie 
toward the North, and by the way besieged Bedford, belonging to 
the Earledome of Huntingdon, before given to Henry sonne to King 
David, and then kept by a Garison of Scots ; which place King 
Stejjhen after thirtie dales siedge, and many an boat assault in the 
meanetime thereunto given, at length by playne force won. Whereof 
King David hearing, and being then in the field, with fire & sword 
entered into Northumberland, sparing neyther Man, Woman, nor 
Child, but killing and destroying all before him as hee went." 

It is curious that Milles makes no mention of Milo de Beauchamp 
at all ; and here I must notice Mr. Hartshornc's Paper on Bedford 
castle, in Bedfordshire Notes, in which he states, (I imagine on the 
authority of the author of Gesta Stej^hani, whoever he may have 
been) that, " It (i.e., the castle) was held against him {i.e., Stephen) 
by Milo de Beauchamp, on behalf of David, King of Scotland, 
who was Matilda's uncle, because Stephen was desirous of taking it 
out of his hands, and conferring the governorship on some one else, 
in whom he could place more dependance." 

Now this seems to me to be quite contrary to the reading of the 
history of the Beauchamp family, and not at all likely to be the fact ; 
if David, King of Scotland, had a garrison in Bedford castle at all, 
it was on the strength of his son, Henry, having had the earldom 
of Huntingdon, of which Bedford was, rejmted to he, a dependancy, 
granted to him ; now I do not at all think it probable that one of 
the de Beauchamp family to whom the barony of Bedford had been 
granted, and one of whom was, there is hardly any doubt, the builder 
of the castle, would fight for it on the behalf of another family. 
Mr. Hartshorne further quotes from the same authority, "that the 
King, having held his court with becoming splendour at Dunstable, 
summoned Milo de Beauchamp to surrender the fortress, to this he 


replied, that ' he was willing to serve the King as his true knight, 
and obey him, if he did not attempt to deprive him of the 
possessions that hereditarily belonged to him and his heirs. But if 
it was the King's intention to drive him out by force, as Henry I. 
did in 11S2, he must endeavour to bear his displeasure to the iDest 
of his power, but he Avould never yield up the castle till he was 
driven to the last extremity.' " 

Now this last paragraph to my mind entirely does away with 
the supposition of the former one, viz., that INIilo was fighting for 
the Scotch King ; it also points to another fact, that in 1132 there 
was probably a siege of this castle by Henry I. Another 
difficulty raised in my mind is, who was Milo de Beauchamp ] Are 
not all the old authorities wrong in their pedigrees ? Should it not 
run, first, Paganus de Beauchamp, who built the castle, after him, 
his son and heir, Milo (this redoubtable one), and after him, his son 
and heir, Simon, who died 9th John, 1207-8^ I cannot help 
thinking that this is the right version, and the true order of the 
succession : instead of the obviously difficult and unaccountable 
statement that Simon, Avho died in 1207, was son and successor of 
Paganus, who built the castle in the reign of Eufus between 1087 
and 1100. ~My. Hartshorne also mentions later on " a certain Roger, 
who was created Earl of Bedford"; now this must certainly mean, 
according to all other historians, Hugh, not Roger, de Bellomonte, 
brother to Earl of Leicester, who was the cause of the de Beauchamps' 
anger against the King, the latter having granted him the barony of 
Bedford, with their sister in marriage. All this part of the history 
of the castle wants much clearing up before anything quite satisfac- 
tory can be made of it. 

Erom the Pipe Eolls, 2 Henry II., 1155-6, Bedfordshire, we 
find that the lands of Simon de Beauchamp were in the King's 
hands, and a Hugh de Beauchamp is mentioned ; also that " The 
Burgesses of Bedford owe 20 marks, because they were in the 
castle against the King. 

In the rolls for the next year there is notliing for Bedfordshire, 
the account being lost. 

In i Henry II., 1157-8, "The Burgesses of Bedford render 
account of 20 marks of silver, because they were in the castle against 
the King. Into the Treasury <£10 and they are quit." 

29 Henry 11. , 1182-3, [The Sheriff had expended] "in repair 
of the castle of Bedford 12/. by the King's writ, and by the view of 
Aszelin Fitz Stei^hen and Walter Fitz llawisa." 

34 Henry IL, 1187-8, [The Sheriff had expended] "in the 
works of the bridge of the castle of Bedeft)rd and of the postern 
towards the water (Posticii versus aquam) U. and %s. by the King's 
writ, and by the view of Eichard Eitz Maurice and William Fitz 



Folebricht." In this roll mention is made of " Solomon and Jacob, 
Jews of Bedford, as owing 40*"., &c., &c." 

In 6 John, 1204-5, "The borough of Bedeford renders account 
of 40/. for of the farm of the *farm of the borough." 

We have now arrived at a few probable facts — -first, that Paganus 
de Beauchamp built the castle, that it was built between the years 
1087 and 1132, as in the latter year Milo de Beauchamp mentions his 
being driven out by Henry I. by force, that in 1138 (according to 
Mat. Paris), the castle was besieged by King Stephen, by some said 
to be, 1136-7, in the second year of his reign; and this difference 
of dates makes me hazard the conjecture already mentioned, that 
there were two sieges of this castle by this King, one in 1136, 
according to Mr. Hartshorne, another in 1138 according to M. Paris ; 
and it does seem to me very possible, for it was about this date that 
Stephen granted to Henry (King David's son), the earldom of 
Huntingdon ; and what more probable than that having just 
deprived Milo de Beauchamp of Bedford castle, and not having 
much use for it himself, he should grant it to go with the earldom 
of Huntingdon, which there can be no doubt that it did for a time. 
Mr. Hartshorne in his Paper, says of Milo de Beauchamp, that 
subsequently we hear frequently of his exploits, &c., &c. "He 
aided in reduction of Hereford, and suhsequently bore the title 
of its earldom." But here is clearly again an error, into which 
Mr. Hartshorne appears to have been led by the name Milo, 
which has caused him to confuse two individuals, which is easily 
explained by these passages, viz., " King Stephent gave to Robert de 
Bellomonte (who had married Amicia, niece and heir of Roger the 
last earl,) the countj'^ and borough of Hereford ; he is not called 
therein Earl of Hereford, but the county, borough, and castle, are 
granted to him, ' cum quibus Guil. fdius Osbern unquam melius vel 
liberius tenuit.' " 

Milo de Gloucester,^ created Earl of Hereford by the Empress 
Matilda, " Domina Anglorum," by patent dated at Oxford on the 
Feast of St. James the Apostle, 25th July, 1140, who died in 1143, 
was the son of Walter, Constable of Gloucester, and not a 
Beauchamp at all ; he was succeeded in the earldom of Hereford 
by his son, Roger, who died s.p. 1154, but where Mr. Hartshorne 
derived any proof of Milo de Beauchamp, ever having been the 
Earl of Hereford, I am at a loss to know ; such Avas undoubtedly 
not the fact, and the above appears to me to be the explanation of 
Mr. Hartshorne's mistake. 

This may explain the mistaken mention of a "i?6>r/er, created 
Earl Bedford," noticed a little way back. 

* Probably au error for the fee. 

t Courthope's Historic Peerage, p, 246. 

X Milo Fltz-Walter. 


In 1150 Hugli de Bellomonte was created hj Stephen Earl of 
Bedford, but whether he was actually married to the sister of the 
Beauchamps I have not been able to discover, nor by ancient his- 
torians is he allowed a place amongst the Earls of Bedford, Ingel- 
ram de Courcy being generally the first earl quoted, who was so 
created, by Edward III. in 1365 ; but to keep to the history of the 
castle of Bedford, we must " hark back " to the year 17 John, which 
extended from 28th May, 1215, to 18th May, 1216, and it is well 
to bear these dates in view if we wish to keep our minds quite 
clear as to what was happening, for my idea is, that as historians, 
we should try to carry ourselves back to the times we treat of, and 
as nearly as possible, account for each day's progress. In Close 
Roll, 17 John, 3rd March, 1215-16, is a mandate to Walter de 
Beauchamj), " to cause Falkes de Breante to have the manor of 
Seldeleg, which is of the honor of Bedford, because the King has 
given the castle of Bedford ^\'ith all the honor and their appurten- 
ances to the same Ealkes." 

Now this arose from the de Beauchamps who held the castle 
and barony of Bedford having opened their castle to the rebel 
barons, M. Paris says, vol. ii., p. 156 (Sir E. Madden's edit.), 
A.D. 1215, "The Barons elect Kobert Eitz Walter their leader, 
besiege Northampton, and being unsuccessful there, they marched 
to Bedford castle, where they were ' reverently ' received by 
WilHam de Beauchamp, and where they received a secret messenger 
from the citizens of London, inviting them to enter London, Avhich 
they did ; shortly after, John granted the Great Cliarter." 

It would perliaps be well to give a short account of this 
William de Beauchamp, who seems to have played an important 
part in the history of those times. In 9 John, on the death of his 
father Simon, he gave 500 marks and six palfreys, for livery of 
the lordship of the barony of Bedford. In 13 John he was with 
the King's army in the expedition to Scotland, and in 16 John, m 
that to Poitou ; he seems directly after to have deserted the royal 
cause, and to have entertained the rebellious barons at his castle as 
above stated. For this. King John sent Ealco de Breante to summon 
him to surrender his castle, which he seems to have done at once, 
without fighting at all, and King John rewarded Ealco with the 
castle ; and it was during the latter's tenure of it tbat its most 
important siege took place, when it was utterly demolished.* But 
to foUow the fortunes of WiUiam de Beauchamp. After this he 
was one of the barons who was excommunicated by name, and in 
May, 1217, he was taken in arms by the royal forces at the siege of 
Lincoln. Befn-e October in that year he made his peace, and had 
restitution of his lands; and in 1221, after the destruction of tlie 

* Viz., under reigii of Henry III. 


castle of Bedford, he had the site restored to him with part of 
the materials to erect a mansion there. In the year before this, 
7 Henry III., he was present with the exiDcdition to Wales, for his 
support in which he had a grant of the scutage of the tenants of 
his different possessions, which were situate in eight counties. — 
{Close Rolls I., 325, 826, 571, 632, 65 J, ; II., 23). He was again 
engaged in that country in 1233, and was present when Eichard, 
Earl Marshal, surprised the King at the castle of Grosmunt, when 
he and many of his barons narrowly escaj)ed with their lives. In 
the following summer, 6th July, 1334, he was assigned to sit at the 
Exchequer " tamquam baro ; " and his attestation appears tliree 
years after that date in that character (Madox II., 54, 317). In 
19 Henry III. he was constituted Sheriff of Bedford and Bucking- 
ham, which he held for the next tAvo years. (Fuller). He lived to a 
good old age ; the fine roll containing an entry of his lands being 
seized on his death as usual into the King's hands on August 21st, 
1262. He had, five years previously, settled his estates on his son 
"William, who, for the King's confirmation of them, paid a fine of 
500 marks. {Excerpt, e Rot. Fin. II., 25 4, 381.) He had three 
wives; the 1st was Gunnora,+ sister to William de Lanwallei, 
receiving with her the town of Bromley ; 2ndly, Ida, with whom 
he had the manor of Newport,' in Buckinghamshire; and 3rdly, 
Ainicia, to whom, soon after his death, the manor of Belcham Avas 
committed in tenancy. {Ibid. II., 383.) Both his sons, William and 
John, dying without issue, his property was ultimately divided 
among his daughters. (Dug. Bar. I. , 223, R. de Wendover, III. SflV. )* 
And now having made this someAvhat long digression, which, I 
hope, Avill not be thought an altogether uninteresting one, and 
Avhich all helps to make complete the history of Bedford castle 
and its OAvners, Ave arrive at the most celebrated siege of which 
Mr. Hartshorne has given such an able account that he leaA'es 
very little ground for a future historian to tread on. I can only 
supplement his account by draAving attention to instances where 
I tliink he has rather AATongly translated the originals. In speaking 
of the circumstantial account of the capture of Bedford castle, 
written by a cotemporary writer, he translates "on the eastern 
side there Avere placed a petraria, and two mangonels, which 
daily harassed the lieep." Now, if you turn to the original, which 
Mr. Hartshorne himself gives in an appendix, you Avill find the 
Avord turrim used (page 17), "■ Ex parte orientah fuerat una petraria, 
et dua maggunella, C[UiB cotodie turrim infestabant." Noav, I think, 
this does not mean the keep, but the cower ; if it AA^as the former, the 
Avord used would surely have been " career ; " again, he translates — 
" Besides these, there were two engines made Avith workmanlike art, 

* From Poss's Judges of England. 
t Charter Roll, 167. 

i'v';<<<^iUxxf~,»<'^^ "v^ •<» Nv» Ox 5 s 2 :r ;*■ it's J>'a 


erected above the height of the keep, and the castle, for the use of 
the cross-bowmen, and lookers out ; " the original runs — " Pra^ter 
hajc erant ibi duai machinas ligne^ arte fabrili super eniinentiam 
turris et castri erectre, ad opus balistoriorum et exploratorum." j^ow 
this, I take simply to mean the height of the tower generally. I 
shall not, I fear, be able to add any new Hght to Mr. Hartshorn e's most 
able paper. I have mentioned the idea about the keep, because I 
imagine that Avhen people see a mound of earth in connection with 
the reputed site of some ancient castle, and procceed at once to call 
it the keep (as they so often do), they are nearly always wrong, for 
these mounds were usually in the outer ballium, whilst " the keep, 
or what I believe was really meant by the word, " the dungeon," was 
generally seated in the most inaccessible part of the castle possible. 
To fix the several parts such as buildings, &c., of the castle and 
their positions is of course a most difficidt matter, but to my mind 
they must have covered a great deal more ground than the conjec- 
tural plan given by Mr. Hurst in his Paper on the castle, read at 
one of your Annual Meetings, JSTov ember 11th, 1851, would cover; 
neither do I think the square-shape of the suggested moat is quite as 
it shoidd be, for a writer* in 1835 mentions that, " a few years ago 
the site of the castle was very plainly to be seen," that " it was at the 
rear of the Swan Inn, its shape being a parallelogram divided by a 
lane." In Speed's most valuable map made in 1610, of which I 
produce a tracing, the site is plain enough, and would be some- 
w^here about where the Swan Hotel is now situated ; we also know 
from the Close EoU, 8 Henry III., part 2, m. 7 dorse, which I 
shall give in extenso (as it maybe considered of interest), that the 
ancient tower was towards St. Paul's, and that it was by this one, 
that the besiegers eventually procured their entry into the castle, as 
Camden in liis account of the taking of the castle tells us from 
evidently the same authority that Mr. Hartshorne does, viz., a Monk 
of Dunstable : — 

" Noio loas this castle taken hy fou7' assaults. In the first was 
the harhlean wonne, in the second the out haillie. At the third, fell 
the \oall downe neere the old Toivre by the meanes of the miners ; 
where hy the helpe of a chinke or breach, ivith great danger they 
became p)0ssessed of the inner baillie : At the fourth, the miners put 
fire under the toivre, so that the smoke broke forth, and the towre 
was rent asunder in so much as the clifts and breaches appeared 
wide, and then the enemies yeelded themselves.'"^ 

The Close Poll I have mentioned above, runs as follows: — 
" Eex Vicecomiti Bedeford salt. Pvidimus ex consilio nostro quod 
turris Bedeford usque ad terram de piano prosternatur, fossatumq 
quod illam circuit cum pavimento in planam terram reducatur, 

• Penny Cyclopedia, " Bedford." 
t Translated by the Rev. T. Field, B.D., Rector of Bigby, County Lincoln. 


balllium vero forinsecum siniiliter prosternatur usque in terrain, 
ej usque fossatum immo et omnia ejusdem castri fossata cum 
pavimentis impleantur et in planam terram reducantur. Muri vero 
minoris ballii usque ad meclietatem eorum minuantur desuper, et 
prosternantur, et remaneant sine kernellis, quos liceat dilecto et 
fideli nostro Willo de Bello Campo crestare, et infra illos, mansiones 
sibi construere si voluerit, et tres quarterii turris veteris versiis 
Scmctum Paidum usque in terram prosternantur. De lapidibus vero 
tuiTis et murorum obrutorum Priori et Canonicis de Newenham et 
similiter Priori de Caldewell, et similiter jDerfectioni operis ecclesiae 
Sancti Pauli Bed, et similiter praedicto Willo de Bello Campo in 
auxilium doniorum sibi construendarum, portiones assignentur. 
Set ( % ) amplius et liabundantius Priori et Canonicis [de] Xewenham 
in recompensationem lapidum quos nobis habere fecerunt ad petrarias 
et mangunellos nostros. Tibi igitur prreuipimus quod baec omnia 
sicut superius dictum est, absque omni dilatione plene et sollicite et 
prudentar exequeris sicut te ipsum diligis." 

" Teste Eege apud Bedford. 20 die Aug." 

" Eex eidem salutem. — Praecipimus tibi quod muros minoris 
baillii castri Bedford non aliter prosterni facias quam eo modo quo 
per literas nostras tibi precepimus. Cum autem prostrata fuit mota 
in forma qua eam alias prosterni prtecepimus, tunc permittas 
Willelmum de Bello Campo locum ipsius mot^e muro claudere, 
videlicet, de altitudine muri minoris ballii cum prostratus fuerit in 
forma pra^dicta. Murumque ilium videlicet circa locum motse cum 
ipsum fieri fecit eidem Willelmus crestari permittas absque Kernell 
sicut tibi pra3ceptum est fieri, de praedicto muro minoris ballii. 
Medietatem vero maeremii* liorrei et maeremii similiter quod in- 
ventum fuerit in turre, eidem Willo habere facias de dono nostro, 
' aliamque medietatem ad opus tuum reserves." 

" Teste Rege apud London 25 die Aug." 

Rex Archidiacono Bedeford et Henrico de Braybroc et Vicecomiti 
Bedeford, salutem. " Mandamus vobis quod petram de muris castri 
Bedeford obrutis et de mota ejusdem castri distribui faciatis prout 
tibi Vicecomiti Bedeford alias per litteras nostras prtecipimus ita 
quod nullus alius ad eam manus apponat." Teste ut supra. 

The following translations, from the Close Rolls of the time, 
may prove of interest, and I do not think have been noticed before, 
and they also give a pretty distinct outline of the King's movements 
at the time. — : 

8 Henry III., m. 11. — Mandate to the Sherifi' of Oxfordshire 
" That he do cause W. Earl of Salisburyt to have the timber of Colin 
de Lintot, who is in the Castle of Bedford against the King ; the 

• Query, what is the true reading of this word ? 
t William de Longespee, natural son of Henry II. : he died 1226. 


King having given it to the Earl for the repair of his houses at 
Berencestre." * 

Witness the King at Bedford, the 1st day of July, 1224. 

Another, 8 Henry III., part 2., m. 10. d.— The King to the 
Sheriff of Stafford and Salop, 'Talk de Breante," the King's enemy, 
after many injuries done to the King by him and his (associates), 
on account of which it became necessary for the King to besiege 
the castle of Bedford, betook himself to the parts of Wales, that he 
might " establish enmities" with certain powerful men against the 
King. Bu.t as lie did not succeed he is returning privily to England, 
and the Sheriff" is ordered to pursue him " with horn and clamour," 
&c. Dated at Bedford, 10th July, 1224. 

Another one, 8 Henry III., m. 6. — The King to the Sheriff of 
Bedford. To cause John de Standon, the King's miner (mineator), 
so long as he shall be engaged in mining the walls of the castle of 
Bedford, to have 5c?. a day for his livery, and each of his three 
fellows 4|<i. He is also to pay the carpenters " stancionantibus," 
the walls so mined. Dated at Bedford, 19th Aug. 

On same membrane. — The King to the Constable of St. Briavels. 
To assign to John de Standon, the King's miner, 12 acres of land 
near Sitegrave, without the cover of the Forest of Dene, and to 
each of his three fellows (named) 8 acres. 

Dated at Kemeston, 19th Aug., 1224. 

Another, 8 Henry III., m. 7. — The King to the Barons of the 
Exchequer, ordering them to make allowance to the Sheriff of 
Bedford of 39s. lOd., which he had expended, by the King's precept, 
in buying corn for the King's works in the siege of the castle of 
Bedford; also 9s. lid. for charcoal (carbon) for the same works; 
and 8s. for the wages of smiths for the same works ; and 4.s. for the 
repair of the bridge of Rideham.t 

Dated at Dunstable, 20th August, 1 224. 

On membrane 6, from which I have already given two transla- 
tions, are also the following of a later date : — The King to the 
Sheriff of Bedford. To deliver all the " quarellos," which remained 
in the castle of Bedford, to Gilbert de Greinvill, and to find carriage 
for them to London. Dated at St. Albans, 21st Aug., 1224. 

On same membrane. — The King to his Treasurer and Chamber- 
lains. To deliver to the Abbot and Monks of Wardon every year, 
20 marks, until the King provides them with £10 of land, for the 
damages which they have suflered in their woods near Bedford and 
others in the siege of the castle of Bedford. — Same date as the 
last one, 

* Probably Bicester, 
t Query, wliat bridge is this ? 


From the above we gather a very clear idea that, in the month 
of July, King Henry was present himself at the siege, and probably 
was so up to the 19th August, on which day he evidently moved to 
Kempston, for on that day he was certainly at both Bedford and 
Kempston ; on the 20th August he was at Dunstable and also at 
Bedford, and on the 21st at St. Albans; on the 25th he was in 

There is an entry touching eight acres in Bedford, which Talk 
de Breante held. Also an entry touching the " pretarias," " man- 
gonell, and " berefredum," which the King left behind at his 
departure from Bedford, and which are to be delivered to the 
Sheriff of Northampton. 

By another Close EoU, 8 Henry III., m. 4. The King granted to 
Richard, his brother, half a carucate of laud in Diuneweton,* which 
belonged to Henry de Pageham, who was against the King in the 
castle of Bedford. 

But to get back to the probable shape and situation of the build- 
ing, &c.. Speed's map points to a site about where the present Swan 
Inn stands, or even nearer stiU to St. Paid's church, and he makes 
the ruins appear of an oblong shape, agreeing Avith the writer in 
The Penny Cydopedia,\; we also know that the ancient tower was 
towards St. Paid's, and it was in the third assault, that by breaking 
clown the wall near to this old tower, the breach they made gave 
the besiegers possession of the inner badlie ; now this all seems 
to point to the main entrance to the castle being on the south 
side and across the river. I suspect that the road approaching it 
came up opposite to the island, and Mr. Tacey Wing has informed 
me that his workmen have come across the foundations of a road 
that would have just about done so ; this (as I have said before) 
I believe to be an artificial one, and that the barbican won in 
the first assault, was situated on it, with a drawbridge to the 
south bank of the river, and that the wall in the bed of the 
river, which Mr. Hurst thinks was for the purpose of damming 
up the water to fill the moat, was really a causeway or bridge 
from the island to the castle [the castle bridge is mentioned in 
Pipe EoU, 34 Henry II., 1187-8), and was, possibly, the only xoay 
across the river into the town. The stone with which the castle 
was built was probably brought from Sandy, and some of it is no 
doubt in St. Paid's church now. It seems a strange thing that there 
is no certainty whatever to prove whether William do Beauchamp 
ever built a mansion on the site of the castle or not, though from 
the Close Ptoll, 8 Henry III., pt. 2, m. 7 dorse, 25 Aug., 1224, we 
have seen that he was permitted to shut in the place of his moat 
with a wall. The ruins that Speed gives on his map, and which 

* This probably in County Sussex. 
t Art. " Bedford," 1835. 


Camden mentions as hanging over the river in his time, were pos- 
sibly the ruins of a mansion that he had built, and, as his family- 
became extinct in the male Kne almost immediately after, viz., at 
the battle of Evesham, 1265, when his son John was killed fighting 
against the King, his daughters became his co-heu's. These had all 
married men of rank and possessions, who probably did not care 
for a residence in Bedford, mostly having castles of their own. 

We noAv have a barbican, an outer ballium surrounded by a 
moat, and the castle itself surrounded by a moat, and an inner 
ballium, round which WiUiam do Beauchamp appears to have made 
a moat immediately after this siege : now this might be the oblong 
site mentioned by the ■writer in 1 835, and it probably ran from the 
mound along the banks of the river towards the present bridge, also 
a castle bridge and a postern-gate towards the water. Having in- 
troduced a bridge, we may diverge a little here, for the old bridge 
(the precursor of the present one) Avas reputed by tradition to have 
been buQt out of the stone of the ancient castle ; if so, it is curious 
that it is not mentioned in the King's grants ; but still it may have 
been the fact for all that, as in the Close Eoll, pt. 2, m. 7 dorse, the 
second division of it, dated at London, 25th Aug., 1224, ends with 
the gift of half of the store-house, &c., found in the tower, to the 
Sherifi" of the County, for his own use ; and what more likely than 
that the bridge into the castle being destroyed, he, knowing the 
necessity of some communication across the river, should devote his 
share of the stone to such a good and necessary Avork as building a 
bridge ? Mr. Rudge has very kindly reproduced for me a vieAV 
of this ancient bridge, from Grose's Antiquities, as I think it 
ought certainly to find a lodging-place amongst some of the Archaeo- 
logical Papers of Bedfordshire, I noAv produce them, though, as a 
matter of fact, they have little to do Avith an account of the castle, 
further than the probability of some stone of the castle being em- 
ployed in the erection of the bridge. 

I have no more to say, but that I believe the strength of the 
castle Avas all towards St. Paul's church, that the momid of earth, 
now the boAvling green, Avas really situated in the outer balliimi, 
and was not " the keep " of the castle at all, and, I think, the 
foundations of the different parts of the buildings have yet to be 
discovered, and they Avill probably extend very nearly to St. Paul's 
church-yard, right across the present High Street ; indeed, I think, 
it not impossible that the church itself Avas included within the 
outer Avails of the castle ; it was evidently knocked about, or Avhy 
should it require the stone Avhich the King granted at the termination 
of the siege — " perfectioni operis ecclesicc Sancti Pauli Bed." 

VOL. XII., I'T. II. 



Etymology op Bedford. 

TiiE etymology of tMs name has given rise to much controversy ; it would be 
amusing to collect all the different versions together. 

(1). "Is the name Celtic, Saxon, or Danish ? 

" Had we any proof of a large tumulus, like that at Marlborough, having 
existed there, we might reasonably suppose the name to be British, Bcdd-fordd, 
i.e., Barrow Ford, the name of a village in Lancashire. If Saxon, Bedc-ford 
would point to a chapel at the ford. Two totally different meanings may be 
found in the name if Danish, Bcdc signifjdng a wdlicr (as in Wetherby and 
Wetherstelt), and also 'to bait,' in the sense of stopping for refreshment, 
Bedc-stcd signifjing a halting-place." — Notes and Queries, 4 s., v., 532. Cutis, 
Risely, Beds, June, 1874. 

(2). " This name, which Ferguson refers^and without doubt correctly — 
to Goth, hadu, A.S. heado (war, conflict), is of very frequent occurrence. He 
asserts, also, that ' Cutis ' would be perfectly safe in assuming that the name 
was given. by one in whose tongue /o/y? was still a living word — in other words, 
by a Saxon. He will be nearly equally safe in assuming that the prefixed 
Bede is not only a man's name, but the name of the man by whom, or after 
whom, the ford was named." — J. C. Atkinson, Danby in Cleveland, July, 
1874. Notes and Queries, 4 s., vi., 52. 

(3). " Admitting, as I willingly do, that 'the name was given by one in 
whose tongue /orfZ was a living word,' I doubt the correctness of the inference, 
' in other words, by a Saxon, ' inasmuch as ford is as good Celtic as Saxon. " — 
Cutis, August, 1874. 4 s., vi., 124. 

(4). " In Anglo-Saxon, the word Bedican means to fortify, or defend with 
earth-works ; and Die is of the same meaning, and con-esponds with our 
English word Dyke. The German philologists explain it as an earth-work 
raised for the purpose of defence." 

"Bedicanford is, tlierefore, a ford, defended by earthworks. "We cannot 
reasonably withhold our assent to the conclusion, that Bedford must be a cor- 
ruption of Bedicanford, and that it means a defended ford." — Bedfordshire 
Etymologies. — Rev. W. Monkhouse, B.D., F.S.A., 1857. 

(5). "Bedford, supposed by some a Roman town, — the Lactodorum of 
Antoninus. Two capital reasons against it. 1st, stands on no Roman road. 
2nd, no Roman remains ever found in its vicinity. Undoubtedly a consider- 
able town at a very early period. A British name also given it — I/cttuydur, 
nearly answering to the word Bedford, signifying beds, or inns on a ford. This 
again, considered only a modern forgery. Its Saxon name imdoubtedly was 
Bedicanford, or Bedanford, which signify the Fortress on the Ford, or river, an 
expressive and appropriate appellation. " — Parry, Illustrations, <L-e., A.c. 1827. 

(6). "By the Great Alfred, this county was called Bedfordshire ; probably 
from the name of its chief town, which the Britons are said to have named 
Lcttidur, in English Bedford. Lettuy, signifying public inns, and Dur a ford, 
and by an easy transition Beds on a Ford. Such is the ti'uly ridiculous 
etymology some writers have given us of this name." 

Our account is a more rational one. " Supposed by some writers to have 
been the Lactodorum of Antoninus ; but this, as Camden observes, is unlikely 
(reason given above, No. 5). Under Saxon dominion called Bedanford, or 
rather, according to Dr. Salmon, Bedician forda ; words signifying the Fortress 
on the Ford ; and derived from the fortifications established on the banks of 


the Ouse, wliicli flows through the town, and divides it into two parts." 

"The Danes, in the reign of Edward the Elder, having phmdered and des- 
troyed the town, that prince repaired and united it to Mikes-gate, a little village 
on the ojii^osite bank. Since that time both ^^laces have been called by the 
general name, I5edford." — Beeiuties of England and Wales, 1801. 

(7). "On this river (the Ouse), about the middle of its windings, stands 
the ancient town of Bedford, which gives the name to the county. The 
Saxons called it Bepanford, and Redicanford, and the later Britains, 
Lettidur, which is a translation of the English Saxon name, and signifies much 
the same with Bedford, i.e., Inns, or Fublic Lodgings at the Ford." — Magna 

(8). "A large number of chief ancient centres of population, such as 
London, Winchester, Gloucester, Exeter, Lincoln, York, Manchester, Lan- 
caster, and Carlisle, iiear Celtic names, while tlie Teutonic town-names, such 
as Buckingham, Reading, and Derby, indicate by their suffixes, that they 
originated in isolated family settlements in the uncleared forest ; or like Staf- 
ford, Bedford, and Chelmsford, arose from the necessities of traflic in the 
neighbourhood of some frequented ford." 

" Notluug shews more conclusively the unbridged state of the sti'eams 
than the fact that where the great lines of Roman road are intersected by 
rivers, we frequently find important towns bearing the Saxon suffix — ford. 
At Oxford, Hereford, Hertford, Bedford, Stratford-ou-Avon, Stafford, 
Wallingford, Guilford, and Chelmsford, considerable streams had to be 

' ' Attempts have been made to identify the spots selected by other less 
distingiiished settlers, the results are, of course, highly conjectural, to say the 
least, but perhaps sufficiently curious to justify the insertion of a few specimens 
in a note. " Amongst others, the following : — 

Personal Name, Ancient Local Name, Modern Local Name, 

Bedca. Bedan-ford (Saxon Chronicle). Bedford. 

Word^ and Places, Isaac Taylor, 1873, pp. 162, 169, 211. 

Since writing this Paper, I inserted in Notes and Queries, 5th s., iii. 48., a 
query concerning the etymology of Bedford which has produced an amazing 
number of replies, and if I may be permitted to do so, I will produce exti'acts 
from the two last ones, which, I think, are perhaps the most valuable, one 
by Ml'. James Wyatt, of Bedford, the other by Mr. C. Faulke-Walting, 
which occur in Notes and Queries, .'ith s., iii., 430-2. 

(9.) " Allow me to suggest to your correspondents who assume that the 
first portion of the name Bedican is a Saxon patronymic, some arguments in 
favour of a Celtic etymology ? 

" If they examine critically the phraseology of the first entry in the Saxon 
Chronicle which mentions the name, they will notice that, in five battles which 
the Saxons fought against the Britons, tliey were only successful in four ; and 
the fair inference is that the Britons maintained their position at Bedicauford." 

' ' Let me propose that the name is a Celtic compound of Bedd-ceanu- 
fford — the grave-mound at the head of the ford ; and I think that all who 
know the locality will admit, at all events, that this name describes it perfectly." 

" This was a British town without doubt, numerous relics found here 
giving sufficient evidence on that point ; and although there is no proof on 
record that this was a Roman camj), it ^cas occupied by Roman settlers, as the 
numerous examples of pottery and coins testify." 


" There was also a mint in Bedford for a long period. 1 have some speci- 
mens of Saxon coins struck here." 

" The earliest is a penny of Eadwig (a.d. 955), and my list contains notes 
of many pennies struck in the reign of Eadger (955), Edward (Martyr 975), 

&c., &c 

The coins of Eadwig have on their reverse the name in the abbreviated form 
"Beda" ; those of Eadger have "Bedafor," as have also some of Edward the 
Martyr and iEthelred II., some being abbreviated to " Beda" ; those of Cnut 
have "Bedef ;" some of Harold I. and Edward (Confessor) have " Bedef", but 
others of the latter king revert to the old form of " Bedafor." In the subse- 
quent reigns of Harold II., William I. and II., and Henry I., the "Bedef" 
form chiefly prevailed." 

"From all the evidence I have been able to glean, it would appear that 
the first entry of the Saxon Chronicle gives the name of the place whilst it 
was a British fortress, and that after the Saxons conquered and took it, they 
retained the name, subject to the slight modifications shown on their coins. " 

"At the earliest period of their coinage, the Saxon "moueyers " adopted 
a conti'acted form of Bedicanford ; later on the name became abbreviated to 
Bedeford, in which form it appears in the Domesday Sm-vey ; and the c in the 
middle of the name was di-opped in the reign of Henry VI., as appears by a 
deed in my possession. " — James Wyatt, Bedfoid. 

(10). " The fact that bedican is not the past participle of ?)C(Kc2«7i. is perhaps 
the least important of the objections which might be urged against the deriva- 
tion of Bedford from that verb ; while the strongest point in favour of such a 
derivation is that the place is said to be identical with the Lettuydur of the 
late British period, which name, I believe, has the same signification as bedician." 

" It remains for me to say a few words in support of the view I take of 
the derivation of Bedford. Place-names compounded of such forms as Bed, 
Bad, or Bath, are scattered over the whole field of the dispersion of the Aiyan 
races througliout the old world, extending from Hindostan to Ireland. Very 
many of these places are associated with the presence of water." .... 

"My princijml reason for believing that the " Bed " in Bedford, &c., may 
be traced to the same root, is that in Anglo-Saxon it frequently convej's in 

composition the idea of shallow water or marsh}' land. " 

"And I cannot help thinking that all the facts, taken together, point to some 
primary Aryan root, which will suggest an infinitely more satisfactory deri- 
vation for Betlford than the name of a person who may or may not have 
existed, &c., &c 

C. Faulke-Watling, Temjjle Club. 

(11). I will conclude with a rough note that I had from the Rev. Thomas 
Field, B.D., (already mentioned), to whom I am indebted for much good aid 
in preparing this Paper. 

"Lactodorum is veiy likely indeed only the Roman rendering of the 
British name Lettuydur — if the latter really is the old name of the place 
Bedford, it woidd go a long way to prove it a Eoman tovm — then, Bedford, 
the succeeding name, has to be traced independently, and no doubt is rather 
Saxon than British. " 

I consider this last note the most valuable of all that I have as yet receivd. 


Tlie Rolls of the Mayors of Leicester. — A Paper read at the General 
Summer Meeting of the Leicestershire Architectural and 
Archaeological Society, held in the GuildhaU, Leicester, on the 
8th of September, 1874. — By James Thompson, Esq., Local 
Secretary to the Soc. Ant., London, Author of a History 
of Leicester from the Time of the Romans to the End of the 
Seventeenth Century, and of An Essay on English Municipal 
History, etc. 

At the time of the I^orman Conquest this town was occupied by 
a population numbering fewer probably than three thousand. 
When the Conqueror besieged it, two years after the battle of 
Hastings, there were not more than three hundred and fifty houses 
in the place. If as many as ten persons formed each household, 
there would be three thousand five hundred inhabitants ; if five 
persons formed each household, then there would be seventeen 
hundred and fifty persons here dwelling : but as it is likely there 
would not be so many as ten in each house, and probably more than 
five, it may be concluded the popidation was about two thousand 
five hundred. In this respect Leicester was only a village. But 
in other respects it was far different. It was not a mere coUectiou 
of scattered dweUings, whose tenants were united by no political 
tie : it was a walled town, whose indwellers constituted an organized 
society — a municipal community. The defences had been erected 
by the Eomans, of that kind of masonry which is still exemplified 
in the venerable fragment known as the Jewry Wall ; that was, 
in fact, then the western gateway. The mural boundaries were 
massive, high, and complete ; rendering the townspeople secure 
against attack from marauders or a more formidable enemy without. 
Their confederacy within the walls enabled them to present an 
unbroken phalanx in opposition to any invader or assailant who 
sought to enter their borders or overthroAV their power. This 
confederacy was called "the Guild" — the Merchants' Guild or 
Chapman's Guild. As the derivation of the word suggested, the 
institution was of Anglo-Saxon origin. It was composed of in- 
dividuals who, on their admission, bound themselves to be faithful 


to the body, and obedient to its officers — who paid a certain sum as 
an entrance fee — and^who were called onto contribute, according to 
their respective means, to the public necessities — and as nearly all, 
enjoying pasturage rights, kept a cow, they paid a certain sum j;?-o 
tauro (as the Latin phrase expresses it). Each member of the Guild 
was obliged to find two securities for his good behaviour and the 
fulfilment of his obligations. No one but a member of the Gudd 
was eligible to fill^^any public office, that is, to be at its head, or to 
be on its coimcil. There was doubtless a class below that of the 
Guild, unprivileged and untaxed, and ineligible for public office. 
The Guild itself, however, was the germ which has by successive 
developments become the Town Council and burgesses of to-day, and 
its members were the legal predecessors of the " freemen " of more 
modern times. 

I have spoken of the CouncU of the Guild. jS'ow it appears 
this consisted of twenty-four persons, who were elected by the 
whole body, and very probably chosen yearly, with another who 
was at their head, called the Alderman or Older Man — seniority 
either of years or of office being always regarded as the prime 
qualification for public functions by our Anglo-Saxon forefathers. 

The institution of the Guild was in operation in the time of 
"William the Conqueror, as we learn from a charter granted by 
Eobert, Earl of Mellent, to his merchants of Leicester, in the time 
of Henry the First ; and had been long before, as we may fairly 
infer from the fact of its recognized existence in the reign of the 
Conqueror. It is therefore one of the most ancient — if not the 
most ancient — of our local institutions, and indicates the existence 
of self-government in this locality for at least a thousand years. 
Its proceedings were temporarily interrupted when the Conqueror 
captured the place, and Idlled its defenders, and destroyed their 
dwellings, in the 5'ear 1068 ; but before the close of his reign the 
surviving inhabitants had returned and resiuned their occupations 
and avocations, and the town was thus again populated. For a 
hundred years after, the inhabitants remained undisturbed ; but 
once more, in the year 1175, the descendants of the Saxons, who 
had felt all the miseries and sustained the injuries of Norman 
cruelty and oppression, were dragged into the midst of them — the 
Lord of Leicester, Eobert with the White Hands, having taken part 
with the rebellious sons of Henry the Second against their father, 
at the instigation of Queen Eleanor. Once more, in consequence, 
the townspeople were robbed and plundered and slain, and expelled 
from earth and home, by the royal soldiery under Richard de Lucy, 
and the place lay abandoned and desolate for fifteen years. 

At the close of the twelfth century, when liicliard Coeur de Lion 
and King John ruled in England, the town was once more resusci- 
tated. Then people sought once again the shelter of its walls, and 


"were tempted thereto probably by the promises of liberties, im- 
munities, and privileges, made to them by the earl who resided in 
the castle — Eobert Fitzparuel. The records of the Guild begin 
with this revival, and in them we meet for the first time with the 
mention of an Alderman, In the year 1209 William Fitz-Leviric 
is styled the " Alderman of the Guild," and his name reappears in 
that capacity in 1214. On subsequent occasions Simon Curlevache 
and John Fitz- Warren were jointly Alderman of the Guild. In the 
eighteenth year of Henry the Third, it is distinctly recorded that 
William of St. Lo was elected an Alderman to act in conjunction 
with Simon Curlevache. In the year 1251 the term " Alderman," as 
a designation of the chief officer in the borough, was finally disused, 
and, instead, the word "Mayor" Avas employed. 

From this application of the word we learn that it was synony- 
mous with " Alderman." It was of French origin, having been 
introduced into this country from the other side of the Channel in 
the reign of King John, when the " Barons " of the metropolis 
were by his charter empowered every year to choose from among 
themselves a " Mayor." It had been known in France (as we learn 
from the Lettres sur VHistoire de France, by Augustin Thierry) more 
than a hundred years before ; a clause in the charter of Beauvais, 
dating in the year 1100 or 1102, having this passage directly refer- 
ing to the matter : — " Thirteen peers shall be elected by the Com- 
mune, from whom, after the vote of other peers and of all those 
who shall have been sworn to the commune, one or tvro shall be 
created Mayors (Majeurs)." Literally, the word means major, 
" the greater," there being often two Aldermen appointed, of whom 
the senior was the Major or Mayor — on the same principle, perhaps, 
that even now a Mayor, and a Deputy Mayor, are chosen. But 
after the date when the chief officer in Leicester was called Mayor, 
only one person was named on the list. Thirty-five years after the 
adoption of the title in London, it became " naturalized " in this 
town, and has been ever since retained. 

To keep a record of the name of these functionaries would 
appear to be an appropriate proceeding, in order that due honour 
might be paid to them, and that events dating in their respective 
years of office might be didy assigned in public documents. There 
are three lists of the names of the Mayors of Leicester which have 
come under my notice. One is preserved among the Archives of 
the Borough. It furnished the basis of the list which appears in 
the History of Leicester, published by me in the year 1849. It 
would appear to have been either originally compiled or continued 
in the year 1686 by an anonymous author. A second was forwarded 
to me by a friendly hand, still unknown to me. It commences with 
the year 1233. A third has been kindly lent to me by Wm. Perry- 
Herrick, Esq., of Beau Manor Park, and it is the most interesting 


of the three : in fact, the receipt of it, lately, led me to prepare 
this Paper to lay before you this evening. I call the three docu- 
ments respectively, for the sake of distinction, the Town EoU, the 
Private List, and the Herrick Eoll. 

The last-named is the best written and most carefully got up, in 
point of pemnanship, of the set. It is thus endorsed at the back 
of the uppermost part of the first skin : — 



" Oethe [oAvneth] this role wiche was written the iiijth day of 
January in the yeare of o'r Lorde a thousand v hundreth seventye 
iiij and the xviit year of the Eeigne of o'r Soveraine Lady Qvene 

At the commencement of the roll is inserted a list of the Kings 
of England, w^ith a statement of the length of each reign ; con- 
cluding with Elizabeth, who, says the compiler, " hathe reigned and 
doth nowe write xvii years, wiche is now the yeare of o'r Lord 1574 
when this was Avritten, whose reign the Lord long continewe in 
health, welth, and myche felicitie." "With a large flou.rishing initial 
T the roU commences — " The names of the Maiores of Leicester 
that hathe bene synce the yeare of our Lord 1266." It begins some 
years later than the Town Eoll and the Private List. 

Before entering upon the details of each, however, let me refer 
to the nature of the Mayor's position and authority. As far as may 
be ascertained, they appear at the early date under notice to have 
been these :— The Mayor (like the Alderman before him) was the 
chief officer of the borough. He was the representative of the 
sovereign, and, like the Sheriff or Shire-reeve of the county, was 
the person bound to see the sentences of the law carried out and 
legal processes enforced. At the same time he was the head of the 
Merchants' Guild, over all the meetings of which he presided. He 
was also, in case of need, the captain of the armed men who manned 
the walls and defended the gates of the town ; carrying his mace, 
not as a mere ornamental symbol of authority, but as a formidable 
weapon, by means of which he could break the helmet or smash 
the armour of an opponent, as one would crack the shell of a lobster 
with a hammer. He was doubtess selected because he was a man 
possessing personal courage and bodily strength, Avith intelligence 
and force of character. It is very probable he was chosen in an 
open meeting of the Guddsmen, held in their old hall, once standing 
near the church of St. Nicholas ; and in the mind's eye one sees 
the ancient apartment, open to the roof, the burgesses in their rough 
tunics of woollen cloth seated on wooden benches, and discussing 
in the vernacular the merits of the men named for the Mayoralty. 
Not coveting the post — for it was not honorary, but involved serious 


and dangerous duty — the eligible men -would prefer to be passed 
over in the selection. There were few men who possessed the 
requisite qualifications for the office, and hence the same person of 
necessity was frequently re-elected more than once — sometimes 
several years in succession. As soon as he was appointed, he took 
an oath to fulfil all the duties of his office — to do justice to rich 
and poor alike, and so forth. He was obliged to present himself to 
the earl, seated in the hall of the castle, or to his deputy, for his 
approval ; the earl having a veto on the appointment — this being 
an innovation brought into existence probably after the Norman 
Conquest. The day of election was the day of St. Martin (Noy. 10), 
and, the day after, the presentation to the earl took place. The 
term of the Mayoralty dated from the 10th of November in one 
year to the same day in the year following. 

At the period when these early elections of Mayors took place, 
the distinction between Norman and Saxon — between the men 
descended from the Conquerors and the men descended from the 
subjugated people — was generally insisted on ; as appears from the 
names borne by the chief officers. Thus, we meet with the names 
of William Fitz Leviric, William of St. Lo, Simon Curlevache, Peter 
Fitz Roger, Henry de Roddington, Alexander Debonair, Thomas 
Gumfrey, Geoffrey Mauclerk, and others — all of which indicate the 
Norman origin of their possessors. The " Fitz " was the Norman 
word signifying " son of." Hence, William Fitz Leviric meant 
the son of Leviric or Leofric, Peter Fitz Roger meant Peter the son 
of Roger or Rogerson. William of St. Lo, commonly knoAvn as 
William of Senlo, had either come from the place of that name in 
Normandy, or his forefathers had, and ho retained the appellative, 
" Curlevache " is apparently Norman-French ; though its meaning 
now eludes discovery, ''Debonair," in allusion to the gay and 
genial character of its first possessor, is traceable to the same lan- 
guage ; as is " Mauclerk," Avhich, I think, literally means " Bad 
scholar." Henry de Roddington was, perhaps, a younger member 
of a Norman family owning landed property at a place so called. 
" Gumfrey " is a Gallicised form of a Teutonic prenomen. Akin in 
race to the Norman barons dwelling in the castle, the Mayors and 
principal men of the Guild Avere more likely to do their bidding, and 
maintain their authority, than if of Euglish descent. They also spoke 
French, and coidd therefore converse with the earls, while the mass 
of the townspeople spoke English only. It may be inferred, then, 
the Mayor and members of the Guild Council constituted a town 
aristocracy at this date — an aristocracy of race, language, and 

Returning to the Herrick Roll, it commences with the name of 
Henry Roddington, 1266, which is continued in 1267 ; while in 
1268, Jordain Wardestoue'a name occurs. In the Private Roll, the 

VOL. XII., PT. II. p 


first name (as Alderman) is that of William Feynlocum — a mis- 
spoiling for Seynlocum — the Latinized form of Senlo (St. Lo). 
This name is set opposite the years 1233 and 1234. Then comes 
Simon Curlevache, for the thirteen following years. In 1248, Peter 
Fitz-Eoger (the first who was designated Mayor) enters on the scene, 
and continued in the post nine years. Then, for one year (1257), 
Bartholomew of Dunstable held the Mayoralty. In 1258 he was 
succeeded by Henry of Eoddington, who continued in office until 
the year 1269 — a lease of twelye years. Alexander le Debonair 
(so known ia contemporary documents) is by an error of the copyists 
of the rolls erroneously styled "Dalemar" and ''Bond" in the 
Private Poll, and "Boorne" in the Herrick PoU. In 1270 he 
entered on office, according to the former, and held it until 
1275, when one Walter le Braye is named his successor. In 1269 
and until 1273 Debonair, alias Boorne, was Mayor, according to 
the Herrick Poll. On the same authority, John Alsy took office in 
1274, and William Leffe or Leefe in 1275, and until 1277; his 
term expiring, of course, in 1278. The Private Poll records 
WiUiam Leefe as Mayor in 1276, 1277, and 1288. Following 
Leefe came William L'Engleys, Engles, or English — whose name 
implies that among these men of IS'orman descent he was the first 
Englishman who was Mayor after the Conquest. He held office in 
five years between 1278 and 1301 inclusive. Thomas Gumfrey's 
name appears first in the list as Mayor in 1281, and again in nine 
years between 1282 and 1300 inclusive. Geoffrey Mauclerk was 
Mayor in 1285, and Adam Marlow in 1296. The name of John 
Alsy appears ten years between 1289 and 1335 ; authorizing the 
assumption that the father was followed by his son, of the same 
name, in the Mayoralty ; as sixty one years elapsed between the 
first entry of the name and the last. Lawrence Mellers was Mayor 
in 1291. Palph Jonyk in 1295. Peter Omfrey, or Humphrey, in 
1296, 1297, 1298, and 1299. 

I pause in the midst of this recital of dates and names to observe, 
that we have now arrived at a period when the borough, hitherto 
ignored in the transaction of national affairs, was called on through 
its representatives to take part in them. But it was not, as yet, those 
representatives were permitted to speak or to vote on great questions ; 
they were simply present in the assembly of knights, citizens, and 
burgesses, as dumb figures, imless when called on to give informa- 
tion as to what amount of taxes the inhabitants coidd afford to pay 
into the royal exchequer. Although by the influence of Simon de 
Montford, Earl of Leicester, an assembly of Parliament had been 
convoked, at which burgesses from boroughs were present, in the 
year 1264, it was not until the year 1294 that a representative was 
sent from Leicester — an oversight which the inhabitants probably 
greatly appreciated ; as compliance with the usages rendered 


necessary considerable expense, personal inconvenience to the 
townsman who was delegated to appear, and an inquisitorial process 
in connection with the affairs of all his neighbours. The expense 
was incurred in paying the wages of the unhappy burgess who 
reluctantly left liis wife and family to travel on horseback to London, 
York, or Oxford, or elsewhere, with the possibility of being way- 
laid, and robbed and maltreated, on his journey to those places ; 
and the cost of the horse, and of the footboy who accompanied it, 
to attend to it and his master. On a comparison of the names of 
the Parliamentary burgesses with those of the Mayors, it appears 
that the same man who had occupied one office occasionally filled 
the other. One of these was a tavern keeper, and a payment for 
refreshments had at his house, on one occasion, on his return from 
Parliament, when he related what had taken place concerning the 
affairs of the community, shows the homely, matter-of-fact, nature 
of the whole proceeding of Parliamentary representation in its origin. 
Another of these early members was a mercer. 

It would weary the listener, were I to embarrass his memory 
with a mass of names and dates in connection >vith all the persons 
who filled the Mayoralty between the years 1300 and 1574, just 
three hundred years ago, when the Herrick Roll terminates. I must 
therefore epitomize the particulars, selecting only salient points for 
exjjlanation and comment. 

The fourteenth centiuy was an era of national prosperity, in 
which Leicester shared. In that age, the towns became rich, and 
there was a possibility for tlirifty and enterprizing men to succeed 
in trade and to accumulate property. The towns accordingly 
attracted from the rural districts the more industrious and energetic 
portion of the population. As serfs, they aspired to become 
freemen — as poor, they desired to become worth something — as 
active in intelligence, they craved for the social and political 
excitement which larger communities, comparatively free, afforded. 
Let them only be harboured for a year and a day in a borough, 
without being claimed by their feudal lords, and then they were 
emancii^ated from feudal thraldom. In this way, many men rose 
in the world from a position of slavery to civic independence. 
When they first entered the town, they became the servants of 
members of the Guild for a specified period, Avorking for them in 
requital of their assistance in makiug them free, and being ultimately 
admitted into the Guild themselves. Such men had no other name 
than that given by tlie priest at the font on baptism— a mere 
personal appellation — that is, the Christian name, as John, WiUiam, 
Eoger, Richard, Heniy ; the Christian names of the Kings being 
then, as now, very commonly given to male children. These alone 
might serve well enough in a family or hamlet ; but Avlien the 
bearers of them entered a town, the number of Johns, WiDiams, 


and so forth, became a source of confusion, unless a distinguishing 
name was added. It then became convenient to call a man by the 
name of the village or district he had lived in before settling in the 
borough ; so he was designated Eobert of "Willoughby, Jolm of 
I'Cnightcote, WiUiam of Humberstone, Eoger of Eelgrave, Peter 
from Kent, William of the Lindridge, John of JSTorton, Eobert of 
Stretton, and so forth. In some cases, the surname is a corruption 
and abbreviation of the father's name, added to the Christian name ; 
as John Alsy, which is John, the son of Alcitill. In other cases, 
the man took his surname from the place where he dwelt ; as John 
of the Waynhouse, or "Waggon-house, where, it may be, the waggons 
used in the public service were kept. These appellations became 
applied not ordy to those originally indentified by them, but 
eventually to their families and successors. 

It illustrates the operation of the influences already described 
upon our town life, when one glances at the names of the Mayors 
occuring on the list between 1300 and 1400. Although there are 
here 100 years, there are not more than 41 names ; as English, 
Palmer, Willoughby, Cadge or Cage, Cellar, Alsy, Busley, Knightcote,