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J^tttwgs %ttm$ th §mtxntni, 

I2^T iser— 'es. 




Kansas Pacific Railway 


San Francisco and San Diego. 


DECEMBER 1st, 1868. 

I ^•» ■ 





w *- *' *. 


• • • 


• • 

3 9> 

John D. Perry, Esq., 

President Uniorf, Pacific Railway Co.y Eastern Division: 

Sir : — I have the honor to submit a report of the surveys 
made for the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, 
across the western half of the continent, during* the fifteen 
months ending September 30, 1868. Their object was to 
ascertain the best general route for the extension of the com- 
pany's road from the end of the track, near Fort Wallace, in 
Western Kansas, by a southern parallel, through New Mexico 
and Arizona, to the Pacific Coast. 

These surveys were begun at Fort Wallace, early in July, 
1867, by three well-organized parties of engineers, under 
General W. W. Wright, by whom they were completed to the 
Rio Grande, at Albuquerque and Fort Craig, about the 1st of 
October. At that time two additional parties, under Colonel Wm. 
H. Greenwood, were sent out, increasing the corps to five parties, 
of about 100 men, besides the military escort, teamsters, &c., 
and the general charge of the survey Avas placed in my hands. 

West of the Rio Grande the surveys W|re extended by these 
five parties on two main routes — the 35th and 32d parallels — 
(the latter better distinguished as the "Gila route") — to the 
Sierra Nevada in California, and thence to the ocean at San 
Francisco and San Diego. On the 35th parallel they were 
conducted by three parties, under charge respectively of J. 
Imbrie Miller, H. R. Holbrook and Howard Schuyler, Division 
Engineers ; the whole under the direction of Colonel Wm. H. 
Greenwood, as Chief Engineer. The survey of the Gila Route 
was made by John Runk, Jr., and Leonard H. Eicholtz, Division 
Engineers. It was extended instrumentally to the mouth of 
the Qan Pedro, in Arizona, and thence by reconnoissance of Mr. 
Eicholtz, by way of Fort Yuma, to San Diego and San Bernar- 
dino; and of Mr. Runk, through the San Gorgonia Pass to 
the Los Angelos Valley, thence by the San Fernando Pass 
and Soledad Canon recrossing the Sierra Bernardino to the 

^reat Basin, and along the eastern slope of the Sierraa to Teha- 
'^^arpd Pass. Here this line intersected that of Colonel Green- 
• -wood on the S5th parallel. 

The instrumental survey of the monntain passes from this 
point of junction to San Francisco was made bj Messrs. Runk 
and Eicholtz; the parties on the 35th parallel having been 
reduced to one, and sent back overland to Kansas, nndcr charge 
of Ilolbrook and Schuyler, by whom additional inHtrumcntal 
aurfeys and explorations were made io returning, disclosing at 
several points a considerable improvement in the line. 

A successful reconnoissauce was also made of a route con- 
necting the 35th parallel west of the Colorado River with San 
Diego, by way of the Morongo and San Gorgonia Passes; and 
another by Dr. W. A, Bell, of a route through Southern Ari- 
zona and Sonora, connecting the surveyed line of the 32d 
parallel with Guaymas. 

Colonel Greenwood, to whoso professional ability and con- 
scientiousness, and indefatigable energy in exploration, the 
success of the route along the 35th parallel is mainly due, has 
also been engaged with a small party during the past spring 
and summer in making further surveys for the Company, 
partially instrumentaJ, in New Mexico and Southern Colorado, 
the results of which are included in this report. 
I The preliminary report of General Wright, showing the 
character of the lines surveyed by him east of the Rio Grande, 
and the preliminary and final reports of Dr. John L. Leconte, 
Geologist, exhibiting a view of the physical geography, and the 
mineral and other resources of this division of the route, have 
already been published. But as other explorations have aioce 
been made of this division, the present report will, for conve- 
nience, take up the line at the commencement, and carry it 
through to the Pacific, treating the subject as a whole, and 
weighing the relative advantages and disadvantages of each 
route or line. 

Want of space prevents the publication herewith of the 
Report of Col. Wm, H. Greenwood, Chief Engineer, and only 


a few extracts can be given from the report of Dr. C. C. 
Parry, Geologist and Naturalist, of the Survey on the 35th 
parallel. The full reports of these officers, together with the 
journals of each party, contain a large amount of scientific 
and practical information concerning the topography, climate 
and resources of the vast belt of new territory, crossed and 
examined by them, which will be made public, should a final 
and complete record of these extended explorations be hereafter 

It should be remarked, furthermore, that although much of 
the country covered by these surveys had been previously exa- 
mined with great fidelity by topographical engineers of the 
army, those explorations — made with barometer and viameter 
— could not, of course, claim the accuracy of measurements 
made with the chain and level. Besides, many developments 
have been made throughout this region, in the fifteen years 
that have elapsed since the period of the Oovernment Surveys 
for a Pacific Railroad, which throw new light upon the ques- 
tion of routes in every respect. Once a terra incognita^ there 
is now no longer any necessity for vague estimates or surmises. 
An amount of carefully gleaned information has been obtained, 
sufficient to admit of correct deductions upon all points of im- 
portance. Our own surveys have extended over every season 
of the year — crossing the most mountainous regions in the 
coldest and warmest, and the most arid plains in the dry as 
well as the wet season; while the alternate lines and side 
explorations cover a belt wide enough to acquaint us with the 
topography and resources of a large extent of tributary 

Only a general summary can, of course, be given of this 
experience, and even of the topographical data, especially that 
obtained on the survey of the " 32d parallel,*' or " Gila Route." 
As will be shown in this Report, the results along the 35th 
parallel proved to be of such a favorable character that, with 
its great advantage in distance and accessibility from nearly 


every section of the Union to start with, its claims have been 
found decidedly to outweigh those of the extreme southern line. 
Believing that the chief benefits of a Pacific Railroad are 
to arise from the opening up and development of the resources 
of a now unoccupied half of our continent, I consider it 
especially fortunate that the route toward which nature has 
been the most generous in the distribution of her favors, being 
in climate and soil the most attractive to population, should 
have proven satisfactory in all other respects. 

St. Louis, December 1st, 1868. 



Manager of Surveys. 



General Description of Routes Surveyed, (36th Parallel,) 7 

Grades, ** 64 

Rise and Fall,— and. Working Grades,. . .. " 72 

Character of the Work, ** 76 

Timber, " 83 

Coal, " 90 

Water, «« 96 

Building Material, " 106 

Climate, " 109 

Agricultural Resources, «« ...•^, 117 

Mineral " «« I35 

Manufacturing '* «< 1,'9 

Route of 32d Parallel, and how it compares with the 35th, 151 

Sources of Traffic, Route of 35th Parallel, 166 

Summary of Report of W. J. Palmer, 181 

Why the Government Should Aid, 187 

Extracts from Reports of Dr. C. C. Parry, Geologist and 
Naturalist to the Survey : 

Preliminary, 193 

Botanical, 213 

Mineral Districts of Central and Western Arizona and 

Southern California, 221 

Comparative Advantages of Railroad Routes along the 

32d and 35th Parallels, 229 

Grand Canon of the Colorado, 232 

Report of Military Committee of Congress, ... 937 

Distribution of Troops along the Surveyed Routes, 240 

Distribution of Indian Tribes along Surveyed Routes, 242 

Continuous Table of Distances and Elevations by Kansas 

Pacific Railway and 35th Parallel, 243 

Distances and Elevations by Kansas Pacific Railway and 32d 

Parallel, 246 

Grades on 32d Parallel—Approximate Statement, 248 





IN 1867-'68, 




Route extending the KANSAS PACIFIC RAILWAY 
to the Pacific Coast at SAN FRANCISCO 



Boginning at tlie great bend of the Missouri River near 
Kansas City, and at the mouth of the Kaw, where two great 
Railroad systems — from St. Louis and from Chicago — meet — 
this point being 275 miles from St. Louis, 

488 *' Chicago, 

1318 " New York, 
and having an elevation, at the State line between Missouri and 
Kansas, of 604 feet above tide, the line follows, in a general 
westerly course, the Valleys of the Kansas River and Smoky 
Hill Pork for a distance of 405 miles to Sheridan. 

This point, near Fort Wallace and not far from the boundary 
line between Kansas and Colorado, is the present terminus of 
the completed portion of the Road. 



From the Track at Sheridan^ in Kansas, to the Rio Grande, 

near Albuquerque. 


The instrumental survey of this line was made by Gen. W. 
W. Wright, in the summer of 1867. Subsequent reconnois- 
sance has disclosed improvements at a few points. 

Sheridan, the end of the track, is 2957 feet above tide. 
The line extends thence, south- westwardly, across a rolling 
plain — dry and timberless, and worthless for any other purpose 
than grazing — to the Valley of the Arkansas River at Fort 
Lyon, a distance of 120 miles. 

At "Denver Junction,*' 65 miles from Sheridan, it crosses 
the divide between the Smoky and Big Sandy, at an elevation 
of about 4420 feet. This is the highest point reached between 
the Smoky and the Arkansas Rivers. The Valley of the Big 
Sandy is 4192 feet — the divide between this and the Arkansas, 
at *'Colton*s. Spring,'* about 4350 feet — and the Arkansas 
Valley at Fort Lyon, 3725 feet above the ocean. 

What may be considered the least valuable country on the 
whole route to the Pacific is ziow passed. We strike the water 
courses flowing from the Rocky Mountains and their spurs, and 
come into an inhabitable and productive country. 

The Arkansas River is here 500 feet wide. Crossing it near 
Fort Lyon, at a point about 130 miles below where it emerges 
on the plain from an immense canon in the first range of the 
Rocky Mountains, the line ascends, still south-westwardly, the 
narrow but fertile Valley of the Purgatoire. This is a tributary 
of the Arkansas, heading near the Spanish Peaks and the inter- 
section of the Raton Mountain with the main chain. Near the 
foot of the Caiion of the Purgatoire, 50 miles from Fort Lyon, 
at an elevation of 4266 feet, the line deflects to the southward, 
in order to follow by a gradual ascent the Valley of the Che- 
quaco to the base of the Raton Mountain, a long, easterly spur 
of the Rocky Mountains, which puts out nearly 100 miles into 
the Plain. . The line crosses the point of Raton Mountain at an 
elevation of 6166 feet, at Cimarron Pass, 40 miles from the 
mouth of the Chequaco. Near thia Pass, the mountain has its 



I eastern termination — being aucceeded by a high volcanic table- 
I'land, known as the "Mesa del Maie," through ivhich the heade 
1 of the Cimarron River break by deep and tortuous caiiona. 

A reconnoiasaiico made by Col. Greenwood in September, 
1 1867, showed the country to be impracticable for a distance of 
t ftt least 50 miles east of the Cimarron Puss, and careful esami- 
I nation made by Gen. Wright for 60 miles westward, and by 
\ Mr. Schuyler, Engineer of Division, still farther westward, dis- 
1 but one other practicable Pass through the Raton Moan- 
[ tain, in all this distance. This was the Trinchora Pass, of 
Iwhicb the elevation at summit was found to be 7079 feet — over 
|-W)0 feet higher than the "Cimarron." For this reason, and 
I ;l>ecau8e of the easier approach from the Purgatory, the latter 
L pass was preferred by Gen. Wright. 

Crossing the waters of the Cimarron, which head in the eastern 
i of the Raton Mountains, and produce a very difficult coun- 
try for some 20 miles beyond, the line emerges on the rolling 
plains of New Mexico. These it traverses in a south-westerly 
jjiirection to Las Vegas, a distance of 120 miles — during which 
3 parallel to, and at an average distance of about 15 miles 
&om the eastern base of the first main ridge of the Rocky 
In 61 miles from Cimarron Pass, the line crosses the Red 
£ of the Canadian River at an elevation of 5634 feet above 
s; in 51 miles more it passes Fort Union, the principal mili- 
ary post and depot of the Plains, which it leaves seven miles 
a the westward; 15 miles beyond, it crosses at an elevation of 
F6718 feet the divide which separates the waters of the Missis. 
Fsippi from those of the Rio Grande — here represented by the 
^Canadian and the Pecos — and in 7 mile* more, reaches Las 
Vegas, 350 miles from the end of track in Kansas, and 6233 
^et above the ocean. 
Four miles south of Las Vegas, the line strikes the foot-hills 
" the Rocky Mountains — ^indieated here hy a timbered ridge 
iffi 300 to 800 feet high, which separates two tributaries of 
! Pecos River — the "Gallinas" and the "Tecalot^." In a 
istance of 50 miles, north and south of Vegas, thia ridge— ■ 


known as the "Chupaynas," has but two good passes. At one 
of these, "Priest's Gap," the line cuts through the Chu- 
paynas Ridge with scarcely an alteration in the grade, and 
after passing a low summit, descends to and crosses Tecalot^ 
Creek, and in 26 miles from Vegas, reaches the Pecos River — 
next to the Rio Grande, the most considerable stream of New 
Mej^ico. This crossing of the Pecos, is called "Billendante" 
or Peddler's Ford. It is 10 miles above Anton Chico, has an 
elevation of 5406 feet above tide, and is 376 miles from Sheridan. 

Somewhere in this vicinity, is the most natural point of con- 
nection for a line coming from Fort Smith, Arkansas, and 
Shreveport, Louisiana, by the Valleys of the Canadian or Red 
River, which will place the Southern States in communication 
with this Pacific Railroad system. 

The distances to the Pecos, near Anton Chico, by Whipple's 
survey, were as follows : 


From Fort Smith, on the Arkansas border, - - 745 
" Memphis, - 1060 

By the line of the Kansas Pacific, above described, the dis- 
tances are 


From Kansas City, 781 

. '* St. Louis, 1055 

So that Memphis and St. Louis appear to be about equidistant 
from this junction. 

The distance from Shreveport, La., is about the same as from 
Kansas City — and that of Chicago very nearly the same as from 
New Orleans. 

Here is the proper base of the Rocky Mountains, of whose 
Easterly Range — which for convenience we have called the 
" Spanish Range *' — the line now begins the actual ascent, 
reaching the summit at Canon Blanco Pass, 6917 feet above 
tide, in a distance of 30 miles from the Pecos Crossins:. This 
summit is about 40 miles south-east of Santa Fe, and 60 miles 
east of the Rio Grande. The Valley of the latter, where the 
surveyed line strikes it at "Pajarida," 6 miles south of Albu- 
querque, is 4833 feet above tide water — the descent from Canon 


Blanco Summit being principally effected by the Tijeras Canon, 
(or Carnouille Pass,) a gorge in the San Dia Mountains, which 
overlook the Rio Grande on the east, and rise on their higher 
summits to an elevation of 11,000 feet. 

The Rio Grande, near Albuquerque, by the line described, is 
466 miles from Sheridan in Kansas, 411 miles from Cheyenne 
Wells, and 871 miles from Kansas City. 


For an extension westward on the 35th parallel, a great im- 
provement in grades and character of work on the above line, 
between Can an Blanco Summit and the Valley of the Rio 
Grande, was disclosed by a careful reconnoissance made by Mr. 
Holbrook, engineer in charge of the return party, showing that 
the long Valley of the Galisteo may be advantageously used 
to make this descent. 

The line followed from Canon Blanco Summit on a west 
course, 4 miles over a rolling country, to the head of the south 
branch of Galisteo River, and down this branch and the main 
stream to the Rio Grande at the Indian town of San Felipe, 57 
miles from Canon Blanco Summit. San Felipe is 30 miles 
north of Albuquerque, and is one of the best bridging points on 
the whole river. By our levels, it was ascertained to be 5042 
feet above tide. It is 463 miles from Sheridan, and 868 from 
Kansas City. 


This was also reconnoitered by Mr. Holbrook. The object 
was to avoid a portion of the southerly deflection between Las 
Vegas and the Rio Grande, and obtain a more direct route 
across the Spanish Range to the Galisteo Valley. 

A practicable line was found, leaving Gen. Wright's route 
near the crossing of Tecalot^ Creek, 11 miles north-east of 
Billendante, and thence passing by way of Bernal to a good 
crossing of the Pecos River, one mile above San Miguel, and 
thence to the summit of the Range, two miles west of Pigeon's 
Ranche. From this summit, the line followed down the main 
valley of Galisteo Creek, 50 miles to the Rio Grande at Saa 


Felipe — the last 32 milea being common with the "Galisteo 
Route" above described. 

By the "Sau Miguel Ciit-OflT," Mr. Holbrook reports the 
distance from the point of divergence near Tecalote Creek to 
San Felipe, on the Rio Grande, to be 90 miles — a saving of 
only 7 milea ou the route by Caiion Blanco Pass, while the 
grades, as will be hereafter seen, are so much heavier as to more 
than overcome this advantage, 

4. — ABO rAS3 ROUTE. 

This offers still another line of daacent to the Valley of thff 
Rio Grande, and was inatrumentally anrveyed by Mr. L. H. 
Eicholta, of Gen. Wright's corps. Hi3 line began at the Lagu-' 
nag, near Carion Blanco Summit, and extended to the Rio 
Grande at La Joya, between Albuqnerque and Fort Craig, pass- 
ing through the Oi'gan Rmgc at Abo Pass. It proved to be a 
very cheap roate, with better gradients than by the Tijftraa 
Canon, and 5 milea shorter to Fort Craig. Bat being availabla 
only for the 32d parallel, it need not be further discussed here. 
A reconnoissance was also made of the Canon Inferno, a pass 
through the Ban Dia Range, a few miles sonth of the Tijerag 
Canon, and of the Valley of the Tnerto, north of Tijeras Canon; 
both were found inferior in grades, and raoro costly. 


This is the shortest by which Albuquerque can be reached 
from Kansas City, and topographically the best. It is the old 
wagon route to New Mexico, and its general features are well 
known. It has also been reconnoitered by Col. Greenwood, 
for nearly 200 miles of the least favorable portion. This line 
would diverge from the track in Kansas, in the vicinity of Fort 
Harker, and crossing in 40 miles to the Arkansas, near the 
point of its great northerly bend — would follow up that valley 
for about 100 miles south-westwardly, to a point of crossing the 
Arkansas above Fort Dodge, It would then traverse the Great 
Plains in a very direct, south-west course for 300 milea, and 
intersect the Raton Mountain Line near Fort Union. 

This Route aavea over 72 miles of distance on the surveyed 


ine first above described — avoids entireljr tbe Raton Mountains, 

[ extends the section of the Pliiins with the diatinguisbing 

Mturea of light grades and long straight lines, to the foot-hilla 

f the Rocky Mountains near Laa Vegas. 

But it traverses for 300 miles, from the crossing of the Ar- 

i to Fort Union, a dry and inferior country, probably 

633, except for grazing, and does not follow the line of 

IBttlements, and of mineral, arable and timber wealth — in other 

., the line of future local growth and development in Sontb- 

1 Colorado and Nortb-Eastcrn New Mexico. If not adopted 

at, it must be built eventually, to economize the transpor- 

1 of through Passenger and Freight traffic — including all 

ia,i will originate west and south of Fort Union. The distance 

D be constructed from Fort Harker to Fort Union Junction, 

! 443 miles, against 328 milea from Sheridan to the same 

^int by the Raton Mountain Line — a difference of 115 miles 

p favor of the latter; but the total distance from Kansas City 

i Rio Grande, near Albuquerque, is 799 miles by the 

marron Route, against 871 by the Raton Mountain. 

t h possible that the Cimarron Line, instead of intersecting 

r Fort Union, would be improved by passing entirely to the 

kuth of the Chupaynas Ridge, striking the Pecos River nearer 

iton Chico — or that a route nearly as short and level, and 

Wversing a better country than the " Cimarron," may be found 

Stween the Arkansas below Fort Dodge, and Anton Chico, on 

! line or in tbe vicinity of the Fort Bascom Wagon Road, 

kit more extended surveys will be required to determine these 


between the "Cimarron" and the "Raton Mountain 

I." It has not been instrumentally surveyed, but has been 

ially reconnoitered by Col. Greenwood, and its general 

latures arc pretty well known, from its having been for some 

me a favored line of travel to New Mexico. On the recon- 

ioiBsance made in October, 1867, and heretofore mentioned, to 

■certain if the Raton Mountain could be turned by any prac- 

loable line, Col. Greonwood demonstrated that the high volcanic 


table, known as the Mesa del Maie, and the deep Canon of the 
Cimarron, presented an impassable barrier for 50 miles east of 
the ''Cimarron Pass" — rendering it necessary to deflect as far 
east as the Aubrey Route, in order to avoid those obstacles. 

This Route would diverge from the operated track in Kansas, 
near or- east of the 100th meridian, cross the Arkansas River 
at or near Aubrey, 76 miles west of the Cimarron Crossing, 
and 88 miles cast of Fort Lyon, and intersect the Cimarron 
Route about 54 miles north-east of Fort Union. 

It is about 37 miles longer than the Cimarron Route, and 
somewhat inferior in grades to that, and more expensive to 
build — but it traverses a country better watered and nearer to 
timber, and the distance to construct to a common point would 
not greatly exceed that on the Raton Mountain Line. 


This was instrumentally examined by Mr. J. Imbrie Miller, 
Division Engineer, under direction of Gen. Wright. It deflects 
from the Riton Mountain Line at Fort Lyon, and follows up 
the Valley of the Arkansas and its tributary — the Huerfano — 
to the summit of the " Spanish Range" at the Sangre de Christo 
Pass, 141 miles from Fort Lyon — thence 50 miles south- west- 
wardly to the Rio Grande, which it intersects near the mouth 
of the Culebro, at a point about 33 miles below Fort Garland, 
and thence down the Rio Grande to Albuquerque. The instru- 
mental examination terminated on reaching the Rio Grande, 
where the elevation was found to be 7301 feet above tide — that 
at the summit of Sangre de Christo Pass being 9186 feet. 

The "Mosca Pass" was also surveyed by Mr. Miller, but he 
reports both that and the Sangre de Christo to be impracticable 
within the Congressional limit of grade, (116 feet per mile,) 
and there is the additional objection of heavy winter snows. 

The line by the Sangre de Christo was found to be 20 miles 
longer from Fort Lyon to Isletta, on the Rio Grande below 
Albuquerque, than by the Raton Mountain Route, but 19 
miles shorter than the latter to San Felipe — (assuming the Ga- 
listeo Valley to be used.) It runs mainly through a good 



This uses the Arkansas Valley for 190 miles above Fort Lyon, 
to the northern base of the Puntia Pass, then crosses in 25 
miles the neck which connects the Spanish Range with the 
main chain of the Rocky Mountains, and reaches the San Luis 
Park — thence follows down this Park and the Rio Grande Val- 
ley for 193 miles southward to Albuquerque. It was recon- 
noitered during the past summer by Col. Greenwood, and an 
instrumental survey was made of the Puntia Pass. 

This Route is reported by Col. Greenwood to be practicable 
throughout. It avoids the Raton Spur, concentrates all the 
heavy grades at one point — the fall of the Arkansas averaging 
less than 16, and that of the San Luis Park and Rio Grande 
less than 20 feet per mile — avoids all intermediate summits, 
strikes good coal and timber sooner than by any other route, 
and occupies by far the most productive country. Its objections 
are, that it is 35 miles longer than the Raton Mountain Line to 
San Felipe, and 71 miles longer to Isletta — reaches an eleva- 
tion of 8600 feet above tide, at the summit of Puntia Pass, 
where there will be some snow, and is off the route of Govern- 
ment posts and transportation. It has the great merit, however, 
of being best situated, not only to reach and develop the great- 
est amount of immediate wealth, but also for extensions west- 
ward, both in Colorado and New Mexico, as mining develop- 
ments advance. 

By adopting a more direct route from the end of the track 
in Kansas to the mouth of the Arkansas Canon than that by 
Fort Lyon, this difference in distance may be reduced 15 or 20 

It will be seen from the above description, that four general 
routes have been wholly or partially examined, by which Albu- 
querque may be reached from the Company's track in Kansas. 
The following tables will show the distances between the va- 
rious points on eich of these lines, and the elevations of such 
as are known. 



No. 1. 

From thb end of the track in Kansas to the Arkansas River at 

Fort Lyon. 

Blevation above 

tide water. 


Distances from 







Kansas Citj. 


• 2957 

Sheridan. Kansas 



• •• 




To Fort Wallace 


t' 3126 

Pond Creek 


Ghevenne Wells. Colorado 



Denver Junction 



Ble Sandv 


Col ton's SnrinfiT 



Fort Lyon, Colorado 


No. 2. 

Eaton Mountain Line. 

Elevations above 
tide water. 








Distances fii^m 

Fort Lyon, Colorado 

To Mouth of Chequaco 

Cimarron Pass (Point of Raton Mtn) 

Cimarron River 

Capulline Summit 

Vermejo , 

Red River Cro88ing,(45 fromCap. Smt 

Fort Union Depot, (Kroenig's) 

Divide between Canadian and Pecos. 

Las Vegas 

Priest's Gap 

Chupaynas Summit 

TecaIot6 Crossing 

Pecos River, (Biyendante) 

Capot6 Pass 

Caoon Blanco Summit 


Zuni Timber , 

Monte Largo 

Aguaji Colorado 


Rio Grande at Albuquerque 

Kio Grande at Pajarida 

Rio Grande at Isletta 













11 ' 











Kansas City. 




Remarks. — Summit of Trinchera Pass from Fort Lyon. 

" " " Elevation. 

Foot of Flagstaff at Fort Union, Elevation. 

Fort Craig, from Pajarida 




.lUX miles. 

6Sf73 feet. 

....6613 feet. 
....103 miles. 
4361 feet. 



No. 3. 
Galisteo Route. 

Elevations above 
tide water. 

Distances irom 







From From 
Kansas City. Kansas City, 
via Raton mt via Cimarron 

Mila. MUes. 


Canon Blanco Summit 

To HeadofS'thF'k of GaUsteo 

Forks of Galisteo 

Santa Fe Depot 

Anthracite Coal Mine, 
(Placier Mountain) 

San Feline 







836 * 




• 796 


Distances by "San Miguel 

To Tecalot6 Intersection 















Pecos Crossing, (1 mile 
above San Miguel) 

Summit of Spanish Range 
(2 miles west of Pigeon's 

Galisteo Town 



Forks of Galisteo 


San Felipe 


No. 4. 

CiMABBON Route. 

Elevations above 
tide water. 



Distances from 

Fort Harker 

To Fort Zara, (Arkansas River) 

Fort Lamed 

Fort Dodge 

Upper Cimarron Crossing of the 
Arkansas ~ 

Sand Creek 

Lower Crossing of the Cimarron 

East Side of 8 Mile Ridge 

Middle Cimarron Spring 

Head of 12 Mile Valley 

Crossing of the Cimarron 

Upper Cimarron Spring 

Cold Spring , - 

Cedar Spring .* 

Sim's Spring 

Rabbit Ear Creek 

Whetstone Creek 

Rock Creek 

Point of Rocks 

Red River 

Fort Union Depot, (Kroenig's) 

Las Vegas 

Pecos River above Anton Chico 

Canon Blanco Summit 

Rio Grande at San Felipe 

" at Isletta 















Kansas City. 






No. 5. 
Huerfano Boutb. 

Slerations above 

tide water. 


Distances from 








Kansas City. 



Fort Lyon, Colorado - 

To Bent's Fort 









Hnerfano Junction 



Union Cross Roads 



Santrre de Christo Summits 



Fort Garland 



Rio Grande at Taos Cason 



San Feline. 



Albnaueraue » 








JSonarJk.— MoBca Pass, Elevation 

" Distance from Fort Lyon. 

..9577 feet. 
.158 miles. 

No. 6. 


Elevations above 
tide water. 


Distances from 








Kansas City. 



Fort Lvon. Colorado 

• •• 





To Bent's Fort 


Fort Revnolds 




CaBon Citv 


McCandless Park 

' 665 

Pleasant Vallev 



Forks of the Arkansas 


. Point of leavins Arkansas^ 



Summit of Puntia Pass «. 


Sahwatch, (East) 



San Juan 



San Feline 











* Barometer. 


THE Geeat Colorado, 580 Miles. 

For a line desceniJing from the East by Tijeraa Canon, the 
beat crossing of the Rio Grande was found to be at the Indian 
town of Isletta, 12 miles south of Albuquerque. The approach 
to the river bank at this point is not as good from the east, 
but it is a much better bridge site, and affords a far better 
route for crosaing the higb ridge west of the Rio Grande than 
at any point between Isletta and Albuquerque. 

An attempt was made to cross this ridge by a line — which 
waa run by Mr. Miller — westward from Pajarida to the 
Puerco, but it was found in consequence of its greater height 
it would be necessary, to obtain the same grades, to increase 
the distance to an extent that would make this line as long as 
that by way of Isletta, while the work would be exceedingly 

At Isletta, the river is 1,000 feet wide, between banks of 
hard cemented drift, which can readily be protected from wash. 
These bluffs are 23 feet high on the west and 38 feet high on 
the east side, above low water — the river rising 6 feet in the 
highest flood. The fall of the Rio Grande Valley at Albu- 
querque and Isletta was found to be about 5^ feet per mile. 

If our line should reach the Rio Grande, by the Galisteo 
Valley, no better bridge site could be desired than that found 
nt San Felipe, 30 miles north of Albuquerque. Tho river is 
here 273 feet wide; the western bank 5 feet and the eastern 
bank 11 feet above the highest water known; and the banks 
of hard gravel that appear never to have been disturbed by 
the action of the river. Two spans of 140 feet each would be 
required, and the bridge would be at right angles to the stream 
— but in leaving tho Rio Grande near the mouth of the Jemez 
there would be one mile of heavy and expensive work including 
a short tunnel through the spur of the Mesa, about 1,000 feet 
long. Westward from this, to an intersection with the eommoa 
line, the San Felipe route was found inferior in respect of dis- 
tance, grades, alignment and cost, to that from Isletta. Further 
examination is needed in this country, especially north of the 

San Mateo Mountain — to ascertain if a favorable route can he 
had from San Felipe direct to Navajo Pass, where, on the Sierra 
Madre, in 100 miles from the Rio Grande, it would intersect 
our surveyed line. Our information and the general structure 
of the country point to the exiatence of such a route. 

Leaving the Rio Grande at laletta, where the elevation at 
low water is 4,803 feet above the sea, the line first referred to 
crosses a volcanic ridge 400 feet high, and in 21 miles from 
laletta descends to the valley of the Puerco, a branch of the 
Rio Grande which it follows northwestwardly 6 miles to the 
mouth of a small tributary called " El Rito." 

From this point the valley of the El Rito 13 followed westerly 
— past the Mexican towns of El Rito and Cubero and the 
ancient Indian town of Laguna — for a distance of 95 miles, 
with a uniform rise of less than 22 feet per mile — to the sum- 
mit of the Sierra Madre at Navajo Pass.* The El Rito Valley 
has a width of from one half to three miles, and drains the 
eastern slope of the Sierra Madre, the north side of some broken 
volcanic table lands, and the south side of San Mateo Mountain. 

At the summit in Navajo Pass, at an elevation of 7,177 feet 
above the sea, is found the crest of the continent upon this 
parallel. It is almost due south of, and nearly 7° latitude distant 
from the point at which the Union Pacific Railroad crosses the 
same crest in AVjomiog Territory. 

We are now upon the waters of the Gulf of California, and 
find their first representative in the Puerco of the west — wbos^ 
name, for distinction, we have changed to "Navajo Creek." 
The valley' of this creek — dry in November as wo passed down 
it — is followed by our line southwestwardly, with an average 
descent of less than 19 feet per mile, for 118 miles to its 
junction with the Little Colorado. Here the elevation is 
4,998 feet. The Little Colorado is about 200 feet wide, and 
easily bridged ; our line crossed it at the mouth of Navajo Creek, 
and followed westwardly down the left bank for 35 miles, to 
" Sunset Crossing," where this river makes its great northerly 
bend to turn the Mogoyon Range. 


The valley of the Little Colorado has an averitgo width in 
this part of its course of about three miles— and an average 
fall of less than 7 feet to the mile, its elevation at Banset 
Crossing being 4,765 feet. 

We have now reached a point 275 miles from the Rio Grrande, 
and find it impossible to follow the Little Colorado for any 
considerable distance longer — both because it deflects too much 
to the northward, and because in 40 miles below Sunset Cross- 
ing, it enconnters rapids, having nearly a perpendicular fall of 
seventy-five feet — and then enters a canon which gradually deep- 
ens until at the month of the river, it is as deep as the Grand 
Cation of the Colorado into which it has its outlet. Numerous 
side caiions also prevent further advance. 

It is therefore necessary, from Sunset Crossing, to turn 
westward and cross the Mogoyon Range, a long and formidable 
chain of mountains, which traverses Arizona and New Aloxico 
in a northwest and southeasterly direction — separating in the 
greater part of its course, the waters of the Gila on the south 
and west from those of the Little Colorado on the north and 
east. Our surveyed line crossed this range at " Tonto Pass," 
immediately south of a high extinct volcano, known as the San 
Francisco Mountain — hut whose name, for distinction, we 
changed to "Mt. Agassiz." At Leroux Summit, in Tonto 
Pass, our line finds its highest elevation on the entire route, 
7,510 feet above which the snow-crowned peak of Mt. Agassia 
towers to an additional height of 5,000 feet. 

It was found best in crossing the Mogoyon Range, to hug up 
close to the foot of Mt. Agassiz, both in order to avoid the 
deep and abrupt depression of the Verde River west of the 
Range — the valley of which is less than 3500 feet above tide 
near the mouth of Clear Creek — and also because the crest of 
the Range was found to be lower at the immediate base of the 
great crater than farther south. In crossing at Tonto Pass, the 
southward flowing tributaries of the Verde, all of which form 
impracticable canons before reaching the main stream are 
aroided entirely, east of Leroux summit — and even on the 
west side, it is more likely that the waters found flowing south- 


ward across our line, sink in the numerous Parks of this region, 
than that they cut their way through the high precipitous wall 
which faces the Verde on the north continuously, from its great 
bend westward to the Bill Williams mountain. Our examina- 
tions proved that the waters of Leroux, Antelope and San 
Francisco Springs, heretofore considered among the sources of the 
Verde, are entirely cut off from any outlet in that direction, 
and that they sink in the wet season, in a basin 7 miles north- 
east of Antelope Springs, where the course of their drainage 
is eastward towards the Little Colorado. 

The ascent of 2745 feet from Sunset Crossing of the Little 
Colorado to Leroux Summit is made very uniformly in 67 
miles. The line is very direct and crosses four canons, viz. : 
Canon Diablo, Pine Canon, Cottonwood Caiion and Padre Canon 
— varying in depth from 100 to 240 feet. None are over 200 
feet wide or present any serious engineering difficulty, except 
the last, which has a width of 800 feet at the grade line and 
240 feet depth, and will require a suspension bridge. 

The region which we enter upon at this canon, 49 miles 
from Sunset Crossing, and in which we continue for over 60 
miles, is one of as great natural beauty as any I have ever seen. 
The summit of the Mogoyon Range at this Pass is 342 miles 
from the Rio Grande and 238 from the Great Colorado. To- 
wards the latter, we now commenc3 a descent, which is broken 
at but five points, to wit : . 

1st. — At Whipple Pass, where the rise is about 150 feet. 
2d. — In crossing the divide between Cedar and Partridge Creeks 

— 100 feet in height. 
3d. — In ascending the Val de Chino from the mouth of Part- 
ridge Creek Valley to the summit of Beale's Pass, in 
which the elevation to be overcome is less than 400 feet, 
4th. — In skirting the west side of Aubrey Valley from Beale's 
Pass to a higher summit, at Yampa Pass — the rise being 
114 feet. 
5th. — In following the Wallapi Valley south-westwardly from 
Peacock Springs to Wallapi Pass — where the total ele- 
vation to be overcome is 303 feet. 


^ -tmrl 

The last may bo avoided and a level grade adopted, if desired, 
by increasing the distance. 

Excepting at these points, the descent of about 7000 feet 
from the crest of the Mogoyon Range — which it is imposBible 
to avoid — to the navigable waters of the Great Colorado, ia 
constant and extraordinarily uniform. 

The first part of this descent, from Leroux Summit to the 
Val de Chino, 78 miles, is made through an exceedingly 
broken and difficult country in which the southward flowing 
tributaries of the Gila, represented by the branches of Part- 
ridge Creek ; and the waters flowing northward into the grand 
'(^on of the Colorado, represented by the branches of Cedar 

id Lava Creek, are found constantly interlacing. The line 

.tinues from Leroux Summit through a country of alternate 
^arks and pine forests, past Park Spring and New Year's Spring 
to the summit of Whipple Pass. This ia a depression at the 
western foot of Mt, Whipple, 20 miles from Leroux Summit, and 
having an elevation of 7206 feet. A more rapid descent now 
ensues — and crossing Park and Cedar Creeks and the divide 
separating the latter from the east fork of Partridge Creek, the 
line strikes the valley of the latter at a point 38 miles from 
Leroux Summit and about 6000 feet above tide — and thence 
continues down Partridge Creek Valley with an average fail of 
from 20 to 30 feet per mile, for 40 miles to its mouth in the 
Val de Chino. 

Partridge Creek drains the western slope of the Mogoyon 
Range between the Black Forest and the Laja Range. The 
Va! de Chino ia an extensive grass-covered valley, 100 miles 
long and 10 miles wide — having a north-west and south-east 
direction, which here drains and divides the Aztec Range on 
the west, and the Laja and Black Forest Ranges on the east. 
Although without any running water course except in the wet 
season, it is the real bead of the Verde River, a branch of the 
Gila. It constitutes one of the moat noticeable topographical 
features of Central Arizona, and evidently forms in connection 
with a similar large basin, which we called "Aubrey Valley," 
lying to the northward and separated from it by a low neck at 


Beale's Pass, the "great valley" which Aubrey followed in his 
early exploration of this country, and from the use of which he 
anticipated so great an advantage to a Pacific Railroad Route 
on the 35th parallel. 

From the mouth of Partridge Creek Valley, where our line 
has an elevation of 5088 feet, it deflects northwestward — in 
order to turn the Aztec Range — and descending in 8 miles to 
a level of 4748 feet on the slope of the Val de Chino, then 
begins the ascent of that valley and a westerly fork thereof, which 
it continues for 20 miles, to the summit of the divide between 
Val de Chino and Aubrey Valley, at Beale*s Pass. Here the 
elevation attained is 5127 feet — the rise having been less 
than 20 feet per mile. 

Aubrey Valley is a great depression, lying north and south, 
resembling, in many respects, the Val de Chino, but having its 
drainage to the north and westward, by Yampa Creek which 
heads in this basin. 

At points, Aubrey Valley is 20 miles wide — is covered with 
gramma grass, but by no means so luxuriantly as the Val de 
Chino — and in the first part of its course, like that Valley, 
separates the Aztec from the Laja Range. Subsequently, how- 
ever, the Aztec unites with the Aquarius Range lying still 
farther west — and our line which from Beale's Pass has followed 
northwestwardly the eastern slope of the former, overlooking 
the Aubrey Valley — now skirts in a westerly course the north- 
ern foot of the connected group until it reaches Yampa Creek. 
It then follows this drainage through Yampa Gap 25 miles 
from Beale*s Pass — where by a canon it cuts through the north- 
ern end of the mountains referred to, and passing between the 
Peacock and Music mountains at Truxton's Spring, emerges 
into a third great elevated valley also drained northwardly 
into the Yampa, and called the Wallapi Valley. 

Wallapi Valley is enclosed between, and drains the slopes, 
of the Cerbat and Wallapi Ranges of mountains on the south 
and west and the Peacock Mountain (of the Aquarius group) on 
the east — and is about 10 miles in width and covered with grass 
except in the dry season. Our line, emerging from Truxton'a 


Canon, strikes it at ia.n elevation of 3170 feet near Peacock 
Spring, and follows it southwestwardly for 14 miles in order to 
turn two precipitous and formidable ranges of mineral moun- 
tains which still separate us from the Colorado River. 

The first of these is the Wallapi Range — which is turned on 
the south at the "Wallapi* Pass" — where a very low neck of 
volcanic rock alone connects it with a still higher Range, the 
Cerbat Mountains, on the south. The summit at Wallapi Pass 
is 3473 feet above tide — the ascent from Peacock Springs 
having been 303 feet in 14 miles and very uniform. 

The second Range is known as the " Black Mountain," and 
rises like a great wall from the east bank of the Colorado River. 
It terminates about 2^ miles south of Fort Mojave, and at this 
point our line following from Wallapi Pass southwestwardly 
down the uniform slope of a fourth great valley, turns it at 
" Mojave Gap." This fourth valley is 15 miles in width — sepa- 
rates and drains the Wallapi, Black Mountain and Cerbat 
ranges — and we named it the Cerbat Plain. It was destitute of 
all vegetation except that peculiar to the desert. The shallow 
"Wash" which drains it, cuts through a low terminal spur of the 
mountains at Mojave Gap, 27 miles from Wallapi Pass — and 
following the banks of this Wash with an almost unbroken uni- 
form descent, our line reaches, 22 miles farther, the Great 
Colorado River. 

The point of crossing the Colorado is about three miles north of 
the "Needles" and 25 miles south of Fort Mojave. It is a 
very favorable site for a bridge over a navigable stream — the 
banks and bed being of a hard diluvial conglomerate 78 feet high 
at low water. The distance between the bluffs, to be bridged is 
1000 feet. The river is 12 feet deep when low, 300 to 400 
feet wide, and rises 21 feet in summer, from the melting of the 
snow near its sources. This is besides a favorable point for the 
departure of the line westwardly across the Great Basin of 

* Rail Road Pass. 


Alternate Routes surveyed or reconnoitered between the Bdo 

Grande and the Great Colorado. 

^ 1st. — " Lacuna 6ut off/' — An instrumental line was run by 
Mr. Holbrook between the Rio Gra,nde at San Felipe, and a 
point 4 miles east of Laguna in the Valley of El Rito, where it 
intersected the main route 52 miles west of Isletta. The ob- 
ject was to connect the best line east of the Rio Grande — that 
by the Galisteo Valley — with our surveys west, without making 
the detour down the Valley of the Rio Grande to Isletta. A 
practicable line was obtained 78 J miles in length, but the grades 
were ,heavy and the general alignment so bad that the saving 
in distance was found to be only 16 miles over a line from San 
Felipe to Laguna by way of Isletta. Trom Canon Blanco 
Summit (east of the Rio Grande) to Laguna, the distance was 
18 miles longer by San Felipe and Holbrookes line than by the 
Tijeras Canon and Isletta. 

There are many reasons to believe, however, that the Route 
which has been spoken of, passing to the north of San Mateo 
Mountain, and intersecting our line of survey at Navajo Pass 
in the Sierra Madre, will be found much superior to the La- 
guna line. This will reduce the distance from San Felipe to 
Navajo Pass to about 100 miles — and the distance from Canon 
Blanco to Navajo Pass to 157 miles, a saving of 25 or 30 miles 
on the route by Tijeras Canon and Isletta. The line here in- 
dicated is one of the most important of those yet requiring ex- 
amination. It approaches near to large pineries and to coal 
— and is reported to traverse some good country, especially in 
the vicinity of " Valles Grandes.'* 

2d. — ZuNi Pass Line. — An instrumental line was run by 
Mr. Miller from the " Remances'' in the Valley of El Rito 78 
miles west of Isletta, by way of the Agua Frio and Zuiii Pass 
to an intersection with the main route at Signal Hill on Na- 
vajo Creek. The length of this loop was 119 miles, and the 
saving in distance over the line by Navajo Pass, 8 miles. The 
country it traversed was also better and contained more abun- 
dant timber. But the summit of the Sierra Madre at Zuni 


Pass was found to be 7926 feet above tidewater against 7177 
feet i^t Navajo Pass — and the requirement of a tunnel of three 
fourths of a mile, with grades rising to 105 feet — and heavier 
work and grades throughout, more than counter-balanced the 
slight reduction of distance and the other advantages named. 
It need not therefore be further considered. 

3d. — The CAi5f0N Gallo, lying between the Zuni and Na- 
vajo Passes was reconnoitered by Col. Greenwood, who found it 
to be very little shorter than the Zuni Pass and decidedly in- 
ferior to it in respect of gradient. 

4th. — Ascent of the Mogoyon Range. — Two additional 
lines were instrumentally surveyed between Sunset Crossing of 
the Little Colorado, »nd the summit of this Range at Tonto 
Pass — and a reconnoissance made of a third around the north 
side of Mt. Agassiz. 

The first of these is the Comino Line, It was run by Mr. 
Miller and had for its purpose the avoiding of Padre Canon 
and the other canons found on the direct route first described, 
before the latter was discovered to be practicable. Deflect- 
ing at Sunset Crossing, it followed down the west bank of the Lit- 
tle Colorado for 33 miles to the mouth of Canon Diablo, where 
it began the ascent of the Range, and passing, in 26 miles, by 
Cosniiio Caves, intersected the main line at a point 6 miles west 
of the caves. Its total length was 65 miles, and the increased 
distance 13 miles over the Padre Canon route — the grades were 
also heavier, and it had nothing to recommeiid it in comparison 
with the more direct route. 

The Sunset Gap Line, had also for its object, the turning 
of these cailons. It diverged at Sunset Crossing, turned south- 
westwardly and ascended in 32 miles to '* Sunset Gap," and then 
having reached the plateau at whose edge most of the canons 
leading to the Little Colorado start, it followed a north-west 
course to an intersection with the main line near Antelope 
Springs. Its length was found to be 80 miles — or 13 miles 
longer than by the canon line. As it also required heavier 
grades it has been thrown out, together with a modification by 
which it was thought the ascent of the Mogoyon plateau might 

be made more gradually, choaply and in less distance, bj leav- 
ing the Little Colorado near the mouth of Navajo Creek and 
completing the ascent at a point near Sunset Gap. But it 
proved unfavorable, if not impracticable, in consequence of the 
interposing canona of " Big Dry" and " Chevelooa" forks, 
which could not be crossed within reasonable limits of cost and 

MoQOi Pass Line. — The reconnoissance around the north side 
of Mt. Agassiz was made by Mr. Schuyler, who considers it at 
least 500 feet lower at the summit than Tonto Pass, and prob- 
ably much more. The distance thereby from Sunset Crossing to 
Cradlcbaugh's Tank, a common point on the west slope of the 
range, is 105 miles — being 10 miles longer than the route by the 
south side of the mountain. The work will be less expensive, 
but the grades probably about the same. 

This line should receive a careful instrumental examination, 
as it appears to have some notable advantages which may more 
than compensate for the increase of distance. Beside, if tha 
" White Mesa Line" be adopted for the descent of the western 
slope of the Mogoyon Range, this route by "Moqui Pass" may 
prove the shortest as well aa the best way to the Mesa Gap. 

5th.— The Verde Line. — Reconnoissance was made by my- 
self of the country south of the San Francisco Mountain (Mt. 
Agassiz), lying between the Little Colorado and the Val do 
Chino near Prescott. The object was to shorten the line from 
Sunset Crossing by avoiding the detour to the northward — to 
find a lower summit than Tonto Pass (Leroux) at which to sur- 
mount the Mogoyon Range — to keep entirely out of the snow 
belt, and to approach nearer to the rich mining districts of 
Central Arizona. 

To accomplish these desirable results, a pretty thorough 
examination was made of the intervening country from Tonto 
Pass southward for 50 or 60 miles, to the mouth of Clear 
Fork, and westward to "Postles" and "Hell Canon." In conse- 
quence of the interposition of the Verde River and its tribu- 
tary caHons, the whole of this region was found to be of the 
most impracticable character for a rail road and it evidently 



continued the same for a. long distance southward. ■ The crest 
of the Mogoyon Range was not found to be materially lower 
(if indeed as low) to the southward, as at Tonto Pass, while the 
Verde cuts in deep and abruptly at ita western base, being by 
my estimate from 3000 to 3500 feet only above tide at the mouth 
of Clear Creek, while the Mogoyon crest exceeds 7000. 

The slope or base of the San Francisco mountains parallel to 
and north of the Verde could not be followed because of 
numerous impaaaable caRons and spurs, while even had it been 
possible to descend to the Verde from the eastward, the plateau 
of the Tonto Buttea, 2000 feet above the river, presented itself 
on the west side, it not being practicable to follow up the valley 
of the Verde to the Val de Chino because of its shutting up 
into long and tortuous caiions. 

The northern slope of the Tonto Buttes was' also found too 
difficult for an outlet. 

So the idea of getting across this range by a more southerly 
line had reluctantly to be given up. Fortunately the excellence 
of the line by Leroux Summit and the beauty of much of the 
country through which it runs, and the extent of the timber 
growth, served partially to compensate for its increased length 
and comparative remoteness from the Preacott mines. 

6th.— Alternate Routes Descending thg West Slope op 
THE Mogoyon Range. — Two of these (besides the "Whipple 
Pass Line" already described) were in strum en tally run, and 
one other reconnoitered. This complicated country, the most 
formidable portion of the whole route to the Pacific, was pretty 
thoroughly examined, both by our outward and returning par- 
ties. While very great improvements will be made on location, 
it is doubtful whether any other general line can he found than 
those which are here described. On the north, the field of 
investigation was terminated by the Grand Canon of the Colo- 
rado, and on the south by Bill Williams Mountain with its 
apurs and the great gulf of the Val de Chino. 

Still south of this a line was proposed by Whipple and Camp- 
bell, leaving our surveyed route east of Leroux Summit, and 
^teraecting the Val de Chino south and east of the mouth of 




Partridge Creek — on a more flirect route to the Colorado by 

way of Bill Williams Fork. But an exploration from Antelope 
Springs to " Hell Caiion " and Prescott did not encourage ma 
to expect any thing from such a line. The Val de Chino fall* 
to the eastward, so that the amount of descent from the Mogo*; 
yon Range h increased, while the distance afforded for its 
complishmcQt ia lessened. This might he to some extent co 
terbalanced by the saving of a portion of the elevation at 
Leroux Summit, but that the easterly spuraiof the Bill Williamff. 
Mountain present a formidable barrier, apparently at least at 
high as Leroux Summit itself, to any approach from that di- 
recti on. 

What ia really wanted, after ascertaining that tho crest of 
Mogoyon Range does not materially diminish in altitude south 
and east of the'Tonto Pass, ia to obtain distance for the westero 
descent — and, as the Verdo and Val de Chino are tdbutariea of' 
the Gila, this can manifestly be accomplished best by keeping 
to the northward — and other things being equal, the best topM 
graphical line would be that which vould flank this aouCliwar^ 
drainage entirely. 

The line which comes nearest to doing this is the WJi^' 
Mesa Line, which was discovered and reconnoitered by Cols 
Greenwood, and instrumentally run by Mr. Holbrook. It 
diverges from the main route at Park Spring, 15 milea west of 
Leroux Summit, and intersectB it again at Yampa Gap, a dis- 
tance of 95 miles. It crosses the Great Colorado Plateaa, 
through which, 20 miles to the northward, tho famous Grand 
Cafion winds; and turning the north end of tho Laja Ra 
and skirting the extreme upper border of an easterly prong of 
the Val de Chino, descends at the " Mesa Gap " into Aubrey 
Valley, which it crosses to Yampa Gap. It saves 17 miles 
over the Partridge Creek Jine, if the crossing of the Colorado 
Riyer, near Fort Mojave, be the objective point. 

This saving may be increased to 32 miles, if a modification, 
suggested after a reconnoissance by Mr, Schuyler, be found sat- 
isfactory. This is the Laja 0-ap Line. It would diverge from 
the former at the Crossing of Cedar Creek, and avoiding the 



"northern detour by the "Blue" and "White Mesas," would 
cross the Laja Ilauge at Laja Gap, (descending into and crossing 
the above mentioned eastern prong of the Val de Chino,) and 
intersect the " White Mesa Line " at the summit of Mesa Gap. 

The objection to these lines is that they traverse a dry, bar- 
ren country, which we called the " Dismal Plain," in which no 
mineral wealth has yet been disclosed, and that they are from 
30 to 60 miles more distant from the rich Prescott district, than 
the route by Partridge Creek. 

The Park Creek Line was instrumontaliy run by Mr. 
Miller, It diverges to the right from the Whipple Pass Line at 
Park Spring, and is common with the White Mesa Line as far 
as the western rim of the Spring Valley Park, 15 miles. Here 
it keeps to the southward, and crossing the waters of Cedar 
Creek and the divide between these and Partridge Creek, de- 
scends tho north fork of the latter, and is joined by the " Whip- 
ple Pass Line" of Schuyler at the forks of Partridge Creek, 37 
miles from Park Spring. Although very heavy work was en- 
countered, the grades were lighter than by Whipple Pass and 
the country in the vicinity of and north of this line (which liea 
& little northward of the Beale Wagon Road) probably offers 
the best topography for a route to reach the Val de Chino by 
Partridge Creek. The distance is very nearly the same as by 
Whipple Pass, 

The Picacho Line was instrumentally run by Mr. Holbrook. 
It diverged to the right from the Partridge Creek route at Rue-* 
Bell'a Tank, 7 miles south of the forks of this creek, and crossed 
ibe Laja Range north of the Picacho. Here it descended into 
the Val de Chino (at a point about 30 miles north of the mouth 
of Partridge Creek), and crossed tho same to Beale'e Pass 
where it intersected the main route. It was run to avoid the 
southern detour by the mouth of Partridge Creek — and saved 
17 miles, but the grades were too heavy in crossing tho Laja 
Range to warrant its further consideration. 

It will be seen that of the above lines, tbose by the month of 
Partridge Creek, flank the Laja Range on the south, and that by 
the " White Mesa," flanks it on the north — while the two inter- 


mediate ones, the "Picacho" and *'Laja Gap" lines, cross it, 
The White Mesa line heads the Val de Chino or nearly so — while 
all the rest cross it or descend into and follow it to one of its 

To this scope of about 60 miles of latitude, the detailed ex- 
aminations for the western descent of the Mogoyon Range may 
be confined when the line comes to be located — provided it is 
desired to strike the Colorado River where it is navigable. 
Otherwise it would be worth while to ascertain if the Grand 
Canon be at any point narrow enough to admit of being 
spanned by a suspension bridge, and whether the country west 
thereof in the vicinity of the Mormon trail and the neck divid- 
ing Soda Lake from Death Valley can be advantageously 
reached from such a crossing. 

7th. — The Aztec Pass Line. — West of the Val de Chino, an 
instrumental line was run by Miller and Schuyler, across the 
Aztec (or Juniper) Range at Aztec Pass. 

This was the route adopted by Whipple. The Aztec Pass 
was found to be practicable with 80 feet gradients, but sharp 
curves and heavy work were required in making the ascent 
from the east, while on the western slope some heavier grades 
were found to be necessary, and the maximum of 116 feet per 
mile was required in following the caiion of White CliflF Creek, 
through the Aquarius Range and across the Big Sandy to 
Wallapi Valley. Of course the long southern detour made by 
Whipple on this line by the Valley of Bill Williams Fork, 
could not be thought of. 

On the Aztec Pass line, the work as well as the grades were 
heavier throughout, and as it proved to be about 10 miles longer 
than the line up the Val de Chino, this route need not receive 
further attention. 

Summary. — Generally it may be said in regard to alternate 
routes ^yest from Mt. Agassiz : — 

1st. — That without reference to any other consideration than 
through traffic^ if the vicinity of Fort Mojave or any point 


north thereof be selected as the best crossing of the Great 
Colorado River, the "White Mesa line*' or its modification 
by Laja Gap, should be preferred. 

2d. — If it be desired to follow or skirt a richer and better 
watered country, one more tempting to agricultural occupation, 
as well as to approach nearer to the existing settlements 
and developed mining region of Central Arizona, the Part- 
ridge Creek line is the best, even should it subseq^uently ascend 
the Val de Chino to Beale's Pass, in order to reach the Colorado 
near Fort Mojave. This line approaches within about 55 miles 
of Prescott at the mouth of Partridge Valley. 

3d. — But if the mouth of the Bill Williams Fork or its 
vicinity be selected as the point of striking the Colorado River, 
and a favorable route be found thereto from the Val de Chino, 
turning the south end of the Aztec Range, then the Partridge 
Creek line is pre-eminently the best for the descent from 
Leroux Summit. 

The richness and abundance of the auriferous copper ores 
of the Bill Williams River, the greater proximity to the Pres- 
cott, Wickenburg and Le Paz mines and the centrality of 
position in reference to this whole mineral territory suggest 
the importance of a more southerly route from the Val de 
Chino to the river than that by the Canon of the Yampa and 
Wallapi Pass — especially if it can be found of as favorable a 
character topographically as the latter. 

Before location, therefore, a careful examination should be 
made, beginning at the mouth of Partridge Creek, following a 
southerly tributary of the Val de Chino to its head in the 
low neck connecting the Black Mountain near Prescott, with 
Mt. Hope of the Aztec Range, and thence descending the 
waters of the Santa Maria or Date Creek to the Bill Williams,* 
and thence to the Colorado. 

If this examination should prove satisfactory, it should be 
continued westward to ascertain if a favorable outlet may be had 
from the Colorado River, either by the Chemeuevis Valley and 

* Part of this route was suggested by Whipple. 


Perry Basin, turning the south end of the Providence Range; 
or by the Morongo basin direct to the Mojave River and Teha- 
chapa Pass. 

Such a line would considerably shorten the route to San 
Diego, and if found not materially to increase it to San Fran- 
cisco, would offer some important advantages. 

There is but little doubt, it would be more expensive to con- 
struct than our surveyed line. 

f5th. — Only one other route of approach to the Colorado sug- 
gests itself as worthy of examination, for which a rapid recon- 
noisance would probably suffice. That is from the vicinity of 
Peacock Springs at the north end of Wallapi Valley, down 
Yampa Creek (wholly or partially) to the Colorado above 
Fort Mojave, and thence westward to the neck dividing Death 
Valley from Soda Lake. Thence to the Mojave River or direct 
to Tehachapa Pass. 

The examinations here suggested should be thoroughly made, 
before the point of crossing the Colorado River, or the line of 
descent from the crest of the Mogoyon Range are decided upon. 



Tci^iles showing distances and elevations between the Rio Grande 
cind the Colorado River. 

No. 1. 

Tibs; P&inoipal Line, {via Navajo Pass, Whipple Pass, Partridge Creek 


Elevations above 





Distances from Isletta. 12 miles south of 

Isletta (low water in Bio Grande) to 
Bio Puerco Summit 

MaiUh of El Rito 

Sheep Springs 

El Rito 

Laguna intersection 



Remances (Picket Post) 

Near Ft. Wingate 

Aguo Aeul 

Navajo Pass (Summit of Sierra Madre) 

Carizo SpringH 

Old Ft. Faunileroy (New Ft. Wingate) 

Zuni and Ft. Defiance Road * 

Canon of Navajo Creek - 

Near Navajo Springs 

Signal Hill 

Little Cbtorodo (Mouth of Navajo Cr'k) 

Sunset Crossing 

Gabion Diablo 

Cottonwood Canon 

Padre Caiion 

Near Antelope Springs 

San Francisco Apring 

San Franci8C<\Ridge 

Near Leroux Spring 

Tonto Pass ( Leroux Snm't Mt. Agassiz) 

Bald Peak (unnecessary summit) 

Park Spring '. 

Whipple Pass (summit) 

Forks of Partridge Creek 

Russers Tank 

Mouth of Partridge Creek Valley 

*(Cro88ing of Tal de Chino) » 

Beale^s Pass 

Tampa Gap (entrance to Yampa can.) 

Truxton's Spring 

Peacock Spring 

WaUapi Pass (Railroad Pass) 

Mojave Gap 

Colorado River (above the Needles and 
25 miles south of Ft. Mojave) 























Isl etta. 


























From the Rio Grande to the Colorado by "White 
Mesa Line" 

From the Rio Grande to the Colorado by "Laja Gapf 

From the Rio Gr-tnde to the Colorado by fproposed 
Route'north of San Mateo Mountain, and Partridge 
Creek Line 

From the Rio Grande to the Colorado by Route 
north of San Mateo Mountain and *'Laja Gap 

* Line keeps 100 feet higher on east side of valley, 
f Estimated. 








No. 2. 

Laouna Line. 

Eleyations abore 



1 Distances from San Felipe, on Rio Grande, 
10 miles nortli of Albuquerque. 




Distance from 

San Ftrlips. 


50 i2 

iSan Iklipr, (Rio Gr*nde,) to Mouth of 




Mouth of Salt Creek 


Rio Paerco Summit 


Rio Putjrco 


San Antonio Summit....... 


OJo de Cbamisa 



IfOauna interatction 



No. 3. 

White Mesa Line. 

Elevations aboTe 
tide -water. 

Distances from 




Distance from 

Park Springs. 






Park Spring (357 miles from IsKtta) to 
Junction with Park Creek Line 






Cedar Creek Canon (Crossing) 



Point of Wliite Mesa 



Point of Blue Mesa 



Summit between Yal de Cbino and Cata- 
ract Crock 



Tampa Gap — Summit 



Crossinff of Aubrey Vallfv 



Junction with Principal line near Yampa Gap.. 


No. 4. 

Laja Gap Limb.* 

Elevations above 






Fark Spring (357 miles from' Isletta) to 

Lcua Gap (Summit) 

Val de Chino 

Mesa Gap 

Yampa Junction 

* Estimated. 

No. 6. 

CosNiNO Caves Line. 






Distance from 

Park Springs. 




Elevations above 
tide- water. 


From Lsletta. 








To Snnset Crossius 





Month of Canon Diablo 


Cosnino Caves 

Junction with Padre Canon Lino 


Being 13 miles longer than from Sunset Grossing to same Junction by Canon Line. 



No. 6. 

Aztec Pass Line. 

lilleTatioDB abore 
tide- water. 






From Isletta 

To Park Spring, 

Juuction of "Park Creek" with 

'♦White Mesa" Line 

In Dry Canon 

In bed of Cedar Creek 

Summit bet. Cedar and Patridge Cr. 
Junction of "Park Creek" with 

"Whipple Pass" Line..... 

To same point via "Whipple Pass Line," 

Pearl Spring 

BasBol's Tank 

Month of Partridge Valley , 

Junction with Yampa Line 

Crossing of Yal de Chino 

Turkey Creek 

Connection of Miller and Schuyler..., 

Summit of Aztec Pass 

Anvil Rock 


South of Cross Mountain 

Divide between Caoun Creek and ForC 

Rock Spring 

North of Fort Rock Spring 

Divide between White Cliff and Canon 


End of Line 

















393 8- JO 






We now enter the State of California, and traverse the " Mojave 
Desert,"' 235 miles by the windings of our line, to the eastern 
foot of the Sierra Nevada. This range is crossed at Teha- 
chapa Pass, 50 miles fi'om foot to foot, the line then entering 
at its head, a great north and south valley called the '* Tulare 
Valley,'' which separates the Sierra Nevada from the Coast 

The Tulare Valley is 70 miles wide, and in connection with 
the San Joaquim Valley, which forms its northern extension, is 
300 miles long, the drainage from the upper part being into a 
fresh water basin, ** Tulare Lake," and from the lower part 
by the San Joaquim River into the Sacramento. From the 
western foot of Tehachapa Pass, the line may either follow 
down the east or west side of Tulare Valley, a distance of 
about 300 miles, to the navigable waters above San Fran- 
cisco, the valley having an average fall of less than two feet 
per mile ; or, secondly, it may intersect near the lower end of 
the valley the Western Pacific Railroad, and enter San Fran- 
cisco by that line, through the Coast Range at Livermore's 
Pass; or, thirdly, it may take a more direct route to San Fran- 
cisco, by crossing the Tulare Valley from Tehachapa to the 
west side, and making the transit of the Coast Range at one of 
five other passes. 

In the last event, after crossing this Range, it will follow 
down one of the rich but narrow valleys west thereof, until at 
Gilroy it connects with the Southern Pacific Railroad* of Cali- 
fornia, now completed to that point from San Francisco. 

But let us trace the route more in detail. 

1st. The Mojave Desert, — We have seen that the site pro- 
posed for the crossing is near the ''Needles," about 25 miles 
below Fort Mojave, where the elevation of low water was 

*San Francisco and San Jose Railroad. 


Irimind to be 358 Teet above tide. Thia point ia 250 miles by 

■the river above Fort Yuma ; 40U miles above its mouth, at the 

"iead of the Gulf of California, and 100 milea below Caltville 

the actual head of navigation below the foot of the Grand Uaiion. 

Being a navigable stream, the bridge seat should be at least 75 

feet above the water, for which the bluffs are favorable. This 

will give the line an elevation of 433 feet above tide, froca 

whieh it starts northwestwardly to make the ascent of the 

_Piute Mountains. In 40 miles, by following the " Piute Wash," 

) Sacramento Springs, and thence the west branch of that 

, it reaches the summit at Piute Pass, 2,579 feet above the 

le ascent is remarkably uniform. Piute Pass is five miles 

dth, and partakes of the general character of all the passes 

D thia desert, being merely a broad swell at the summit of 

two long, gravelly or sandy valleys, which slope in opposite 

SBlrections, and lie between granitic or volcanic mountains, that 

B from one to three thousand feet above their bases. 

From Piute Pass, the line follows south west ward ly, with 

t unbroken uniformity, the long slope of Schuyler Valley. 

forSG milea, to its mouth, at" Chomeuevis Pass," where itentei-s 

"Perry Valley," at an elevation of 675 feet above the aea. 

Chemeuevis Pass is an opening between two detached nioun- 

1 ranges, and Perry Valley is one of the largest of those 

nerOEB valleys which constitute the sole receptacles of the 

j^rainage of those desert plains and mountains. It lies at the 

^Boutbern end of the Providence Range,) apparently an cstcn- 

Ci^on of the Wahsatch Range, of Utah,) and is larger than 

)da Lake, being 40 to 50 miles long, and an average of 20 in 

Our lino skirts the northern margin of this basin for 20 miles 

"Volcanic Point," rising slightly from Chemeuevis Pass, 

although the " sink" proper, (10 milea in diameter, and lying 

Q the left of the line,) is but 630 feet above, the sea. In the 

itiok is a recent extinct volcano, 200 feet high, very aymmetri- 

1 in shape, with a crater 75 feet deep, whose streams of lava 


surround its base, and extend in various directions for several 
miles. The line then ascends northwestwardly another 
broad and gently-sloping valley for 25 miles to ^' Squaw 
Summit," where the elevation is about 1,700 feet above tide. 
15 miles west of this point it crosses the summit of " Crater 
Pass," about 2,100 feet above tide, and descends therefrom in 
10 miles to a smaller basin lying nearly due south of Camp 
Cady, which we called " Malpais Sink." 

The elevation of this sink, which also contains an extinct 
volcano very similar to the first, is about 1,900 feet. The line 
crosses it, and follows for 25 miles a westward course, skirting 
the northern foot of the Ellet Range of mountains, being for 
this distance nearly parallel to, but gradually approaching the 
Mojave River, which it finally crosses near the Great Bend of 
that river. 

The point of crossing is between the" Grapevine "and" Cotton- 
wood,"about70mileswestof Soda Lake,and 170 miles by our line 
from the crossing of the Colorado River, and has an elevation of 
about 2,375 feet above the sea. The distance thence to the east- 
ern foot of the Sierra Nevada is 65 miles: the direction a very 
little north of west, over a gently rolling plain of sand and 
gravel, without vegetation, except the artemesia and yucca, and 
a thin and scattered growth of grass. 

2d. The Sierra JVevada. — Tehachapa Pass, about 40 miles east 
and north of Tejon, was found to be the best at which to cross this 
great range, which is not here, by any means, the formidable 
barrier that it is further north. The elevation of our line at 
the summit is 4,008 * feet above tide, while at the Donner Lake 
Pass, east of Sacramento, where the Central Pacific Railroad 
crosses the same range, the altitude exceeds 7,000 feet. The line 
through Tehachapa Pass was run by Mr. John Runk, Jr., Division 
Engineer; from an elevation of 3,080 feet, at the eastern foot 
of the mountain, it reached the summit in 15 miles, with a 
gentle inclination over a smooth surface. The summit is 
a broad, smooth park, crossing which, in four miles, there 

* Barometer eleYation. 


"begins a precipitous descent to the westward, the fall in the 
succeeding 31 miles being 3,045 feet to the western foot on the 
Tulare Plain. The gorge is narrow, crooked and steep, but 
the mountain slopes are favorable to supporting the grade. 

We are now at the head of Tulare Valley, 795 feet above 
tide-water, towards which a broad way presents itself to the 
northwestward without the necessity of crossing a single inter- 
vening summit. 

3d. But to reach San Francisco by a more direct line, it is^ 
necessary to cross the coast or " Monte Diablo " Range. Four 
passes were examined in this range, (one instrumentally,) 
which were found to rank in order of merit, increasing from 
north to south, as follows : 

1st. " Vachzcos^^ the most difficult of all, though practicable. 
The distance from the western base of Tehachapa Pass to San 
Francisco, following the east side of Tulare Lake by Visalia 
and Pachecos Pass, is 325 miles. 

2d. The " Panoche Grande/^ distance 285 miles, instru- 
mentally run by Mr. Eicholtz. 

3d. The '^ Sun Benito^' Pass J reconnoitered by Col. Green- 
wood, distance 290 miles. This is the shortest good line to San 
Francisco, and has much to recommend it as a " through route." 

4th. The *• Chalamay^' which was found to be a very excel- 
lent pass, and decidedly the best of those examined. It was 
reconnoitered by Mr. Eicholtz, who reports the distance from 
the* western foot of Tehachapa Pass, across Tulare V"alley, to 
the summit of the Coast Range at Chalama Pass, to be 82 
miles ; to the terminus of the Southern Pacific Railroad at Gil- 
roy, 228 miles, and to San Francisco, 308 miles. It is 18 miles 
longer than by San Benito, but superior in every other respect. 

Of these, the ^'Panoche Grande" was the only Pass instru- 
mentally surveyed. As our levels were not carried west of the 
Perry Basin, in California, except at the mountain Passes, the 
height of the Coast Range above the sea cannot be positively 
stated, but at Panoche Grande Pass the elevation of the sum- 
mit above the eastern base, at the head of the Canon, was 


found to be 1,593 feet, and as the Tulare Lake, hy barometer, 
is 398 feet, the summit of this Pass may be estimated at less 
than 2,200 feet above tide. 

The summit at Chalama Pass, which lies west of the south- 
ern end of Tulare Lake, is apparently lower, and we estimate 
its altitude at between 1,500 and 2,000 feet. Prom this sum- 
mit the line of reconnoissance followed by easy gradients down 
" Chalama Creek," to the Estrella, and the Estrella, Salina and 
^Pajaro Valleys, to Gilroy, from which point the Southern 
Pacific Railroad is completed, via San Jose, to San Francisco, 
a distance of 80 miles. 

Generally, it may be affirmed, that if the main purpose be to 
obtain the largest amount of local traffic, the line down the 
east side of Tulare Valley, developing the pastoral and agri- 
cultural resources of this Great Basin, and of the rich Saa 
Joaquim Valley, and afi*ording access to the mines and forests 
of the Sierra Nevada, should be adopted. But if the interests 
of a through route to San Francisco predominate, the line 
should evidently cross the Coast Range at the San Benito Pass, 
Chalama Pass, (or a pass south of the latter, known as the 
Estrella, which may possibly prove superior to the Chalama, 
but which time did not permit us to examine,) and thence 
follow down the fertile, but more confined valleys of the Salinas 
and its tributaries. 

As the Tulare and San Joaquim Valleys may be so readily 
and advantageously tapped by a branch from Stockton or 
a point between Stockton and Livermore's Pass, on the West- 
ern Pacific Railroad, it may be preferable, even from local 
considerations, to adopt a route for the Southern Continental 
line, which will the sooner open up and populate the fertile 
valleys west of the Coast Range, while saving from 40 to 50 
miles in distance between Tehachapa Pass and San Fran- 
cisco. • 



211 Miles Long ; or, from the Colorado River ^ below 

Fort Mojave, 287 Miles, 

A reconnoissance was made bj myself from the Crater, in 
Perry Basin, about 80 miles west of the Colora(Jo crossing, 
south westward to San Bernardino, which disclosed the existence 
of a favorable route for connecting our surveyed line of the 
35th parallel with San Diego. 

The outlet from Ferry Basin is by the ''San Diego Pass," 
a smooth pass of long and uniform grade, whose entrance is 10 
miles, nearly due southwest, from the crater, between Gashed 
Mountain on the right or west, and Mt. Baird on the left. 

The entrance may be reached either from the Chemeuevis 
Pass, by a line 20 miles long, running westwardly across Perry 
Basin ; or from a point on the main line, a few miles northwest 
of the crater, which would shorten the branch and avoid a por- 
tion of the descent into the sink, but at the expense of an 
increase in the through distance to San Diego. 

Starting from an elevation of about 600 feet above tide in 
Perry Basin, at the moutli of San Diego Pass, the line runs 
west and south, through ** Lucky Gap," for 17 miles, to the 
summit of the Bullion Range, where it attains an estimated eleva- 
tion of 2,000 feet above tide, the inclination being uniform and 
between 80 and 90 feet per mile. Thence it descends in 10 
miles by a uniform slope to the Morongo Basin, estimated at 
1,500 feet above tide, and follows tiiis long depression west- 
wardly by a very gradual ascent for over 20 miles, with an 
almost imperceptible inclination to the summit of Morongo 
PasSf where it attains an estimated elevation of 2,300 feet. 
The line then descends in 3 miles to the head of Morongo 
Canon, which it follows southward for 7 miles, emerging in the 
Coahuilla Valley, south of the Morongo Eani>e, at a point 
about 11 miles northeast from the mouth of San Gorgina Pass. 

The ** San Gorgina " is the best pass known in the whole range 
of the Sierra Nevadas, north or south of its junction with the 
Coast Range. It is from 3 to 5 miles in width, and of a 

44 ROUTE OF 35th parallel, branch to SAN DIEGO. 

remarkably uniform surface. At its eastern base it has an ele- 
vation of 1,101 feet and 22 miles west therefrom, at the sum- 
mit, 2,808 feet, as ascertained bj Lieut. Williamson — the average 
ascent being 78 feet per mile, and the descent to the westward 
the same. Prom the San Gorgina summit it is about 100 miles 
southwestward to San Diego. Mr. L. H. Eicholtz, Division 
Engineer, who made the reconnoissance of this last portion of 
the line, reports that the diflSculties presented by the numerous 
streams flowing from the Cordilleras to the ocean will probably 
compel the adoption of a coast route. 

On this branch, from the route of the 35th parallel to San 
Diego, no grade exceeding* 90 feet per mile will be required; 
and as far as the San Bernardino Valley, 120 miles from the 
diverging point at Chemeuevis Pass, the work will be inexpen- 
sive, or rather such a large portion of it will be so that the 
few points at which any cutting or filling occurs will not raise 
the average above a low rate. 

For the remaining 90 ©r 100 miles to San Diego the work 
will be much more costly. In crossing the Great Basin, except 
for one mile on the Morongo slope of the Bullion Range, near 
the summit of the San Diego Pass, the line passes over hard 
sand, not changeable by the wind. Some precautions may 
be necessary in crossing the alkali sink of Perry Basin if that 
route be adopted. 

The great importance of this branch, in placing the fine har- 
bor of San Diego, and the rich valleys of Southern California 
within reach from our main line, without sacrificing in any 
respect the interest of the latter as a route from the Mississippi 
Valley to San Francisco, will not fail to be appreciated. 

By it the Pacific Ocean is reached at San Diego, in 288 miles 
less distance than San Francisco, and at Los Angelos (Wil- 
mington) in more than 300 miles less distance. 

The total distance from Kansas City to San Diego is only 
1,G46 miles, and from New York, via Kansas City, to San 
Diego, 2,964 miles. 

*See Chapter on Gradients. 



The topographical features of the " Great Basin " are so 
strongly marked, that once given the point of crossing the 
Colorado River, there remains but little room for the considera- 
tion of alternate routes by which to reach the Sierra Nevada. 

The Providence Range was explored by our parties for a 
distance of 60 miles, north and south, without offering what 
we regarded as a practicable pass. To the northward, where 
Whipple's line crossed it, the summit was nearly 5,000 feet above 
the sea, and the descent in 47 miles westward, into Soda Lake 
Basin, nearly 4,000 feet. This summit might, indeed, have gone 
far toward condemning the whole route of the 35th parallel, 
had it been found impossible to avoid it. But our line turns 
the whole range, on the south, at Perry Basin — the highest 
elevation attained being 2,579 feet at Piute Pass, and the 
lowest 675 feet at Chpmeuevis Pass, and ascends by easy grades 
and long straight lines to the Mojave River, at a point most 
favorable for crossing it, on a good route to the base of the 

The passes of the Sierra Nevada had ^ been so thoroughly 
examined and reported upon by Lieut. Williamson, that it was 
evident two of them in this vicinity, the " Canada de las CJvas " 
and ** Tehachapa Pass," had such undoubted superiority as to 
render it useless to examine the others. 

Our instrumental line was, therefore, run through ** Teha- 
chapa/' with the best results, as will be seen under the 
head of grades, although the Canada de las Uvas (the new 
** Tejon Pass") was reconnoitered by Mr. Runk's party. 

The only lines that suggest themselves for further examina- 
tion in California are as follows : 

1st. The Estrella Pass, through the Coast Range. — This is 
at the head of the main fork of the Estrella Creek, a branch of 
the Salinas, and lies about 70 miles southeast of the Chalama 
Pass. It is referred to favorably by Lieut. Parke, who did not, 
however, make more than a rapid reconnoissance of it ; and 
may possibly prove to be superior to the " Chalama," although 


we couid Lear nothing to recommend it from the settlers, an 
the distance would evidcntlj be longer. Time did not perm 
us to examine it. 

If tlio line crosses the Coast Range at all, the choice < 
location will lie limited between this pass, the " Chalama," 
the " San Benito" — depending upon the policy of the Compan 
in reference to throngh and local traffic 

2d. If the line heretofore suggested in Arizona, as followii^ 
down Yampa Creek, wholly or partially from the north ead ^ 
Wallapi Valley to the Colorado River, above Fort Mojave 
should prove meritorious, a reconnoissance should be mad 
west of the river in California to ascertain if a 
can be had thence across the desert to the neck dividing Sod 
Lake from the Armagosia, and so on to the Mojave River 
direct to Tchaehapa Pass. 

Such a line would be considerably longer, both to Ban Fraa 
Cisco and San Diego, than the one we tave surveyed, wonli 
also encounter the disadvantage of crossing the Colorado froi 
50 to 100 miles higher up than the "Needles," (but still at t 
point below the head of navigation,) and would seem altogethei 
to have very little to recommend it. But this part of tt^ 
Great Basin presents such a confused alternation of " ' 
Mountains," denuded ranges, and basins of great variation in 
altitude, that until it has actually been explored, as that portion 
has been by our parties southward along the Providence t 
and into the Moiongo Basin, it is not wise to prononnce againsC 
such a route. 

The only improvements possibly to be expected from it are; 

1st. A more constant and regular descent from Peacook 
Spring to the Colorado River, avoiding the rise of 300 feet ia 
crossing the Wallapi Valley on our surveyed line, 

2d, A greater altitude at the Colorado River of from 200 
to 300 feet, in consequence of striking it higher up. 

3d. Possibly a lower summit than Piute Pass, west of the 
river, which is doubtful; and lastly, a higher elevation thao 
Ferry Basin, in getting Irom this summit to the I 
Tehachapa Pass, which is pretty certain. 


It would reqiLii-e very great superiority in the last two par- 
ticulars to counterbalance the di sad vantages which have been 

3d. In this connection it may also be repeated, that if the 
Grand (Jafion cf the (Jolorado, which Ives found at points to be 
not over 50 yards wide at the bottom, with very precipitous 
walls, should be ascertained to be narrow enough at the top to 
be spanned by a suspension bridge at any point on the (Jolorado 
Plateau, in Arizona, that can be reached from the vicinity of 
the " White Mesa Line," Aubrey Valley, or the Yampa, the 
temptation of a possible saving of 5,000 feet of rise and fall would 
warrant a reconnoissance westward in California, to ascertain if 
this point of crossing could be favorably connected with Teha- 
chapa Pass. The innumerable side canons, of great depth, 
which this plateau everywhere in the vicinity of the 
i Canon " appears to be furrowed, might, in any event, 
ider Buch a line impracticable. But if it should prove 
Berwise, although the distance would be increased, both to 
a Francisco and San Diego, and the river could not, of course, 
► reached for purposes of navigation, yet the saving of the 
lat plunge into the Colo ado Vaile} may possibly be consi- 
red as going far toward compensat ng for these drawbacks. 

the Valley of the "An igos a s probably very low, 
8 sink, in Death Valley, be ng con de ed beneath the level 
f the sea,) it would apparently be nnecessary to examine the 
mntry north of the old Mormon trad, or south of it, as Soda 
lAke is known to be but 1,000 feet above the ocean. 

If the line suggested, east of the Colorado, striking it 
t or near the mouth of Bill Williams' Fork, should prave 
^Torable, there is but little doubt that a good line exists across 
ftedesert westward, skirting the southern base of "Old Dad's" 
Ind " Old Woman's " Mountains, and entering by a pass at its 
eastern end, the Morongo Basin, whose estimated altitude is 
tetween 1,300 and 1,500 feet above tidewater; thence 50 miles 
restward along this basin to an outlet by a long mesa to the 
e ftiver, at a point about 20 miles above the Point of 
lockB, and thence direct to Tebachapa Pass. 


From what I saw with Mr. Spears, in a reconnoissance of 
the Morongo Basin, I believe such a route to be practicable. 


It would, however, be somewhat longer to San Francisco, 
(although considerably shorter to San, Diego,) and the portion 
in Arizona more expensive to construct than our surveyed 
route. Strong local attractions in the way of rich developed 
mines in Arizona might excuse this detour, but it is not very 
likely that the descent from the Val de Chino to the Colorado 
would be any more uniform than by the excellent line through 
Beale's Pass and the Canon of the Yampa. 

5th. It is also possible, but not very probable, that a shorter 
route, with a lower summit than Piute Pass, may be found 
from our surveyed line in Arizona, near the south end of the 
Black Mountains, to Perry Basin, in California, by following 
the Colorado below the ** Needles," and thence striking west- 
ward from the Chemeuevis Valley. 

6th. Consulting solely the interests of a line to San Diego, 
it might be found best to leave the Colorado River at some 
point at or north of Le Paz, so as to avoid the Morongo Basin, 
and reach the San Gorgonia Pass by a line keeping to the south 
of the Halfway Mountains and the Morongo Range. 

Now that this desert region is becoming better known, its 
bare, rugged mountains, and sandy basins, once so formidable, 
are found to present but few real obstacles to the cheap con- 
struction of a railroad, with reasonable grades, in various direc- 
tions across it. The main difficulty is scarcity of water, but suffi- 
cient experience has been had, in about as dry a region farther 
north in Nevada, to demonstrate that this can be removed by 
sinking wells. The material for the road-bed is generally of 
the very best, and very little drifting sand will be encountered. 




* TABLE No. 1. 



above Tide, 

allow water. 





! 1,700 
2 375 

From the Colorado Biver, near the Needles, (1451 
miles from Kansas City, by Raton Moantain 
route ; 1379 miles from Kansas City by Cimarron 
route. I 353 feet above Tide, at low water ; 428 
feet above Tide, at Bridge-seat 

To Sacramento Springs, 

Piute Pass, (Summit.) 

Chemeuevis Pass, ^Entrance to Perry Basin,) 

Sink of Perry Basin, 

Crater Station, 

Yolcanic Point, 

Squaw Summit, 

Crater Pass, (Summit.) 

Malpais Sink, 

Mojave River, (Cros ing near Giapevine,) 

Desert Lake 

East Foot of Sierra Nevada 

Teharhapa Pass, (Summit of Sierra Nevada,) 

Bird Point, 

Tulare Plain, (Western Foot of "Sierra Nevada,).. 

Buena Vista Oil Works, 


Summit of Coast Range, (San Benito Pass,) 


San Jose, 

Sart Francisco, 

# Line does not descend to level of Sink, 
f Estimated. 

TABLE No. 2. 






the Colorado 










• •• 


































Elevations | 
above Tide. I 

Distance from 


4.008, Summit of Tehachapa Pass, 
2,020 To Bird's Point,. 

R- R. com- 
pleted, '68. 

Western Foot Sierra Nevada, 

Buena Vista Oil Works, 

Chalama Pass, (Fummit of Coast Range,) 

Forks of Estrella, 

Mouth of Estrella, 

San Benito Ranch, (at lower end of canon and 

head of Salinas Valley,) 


Head of Pajaro Valley, 


San Jose 

San Franc'seo, 

Miles. , 








* Estimated. 



TABLE No. 3. 



above Tide. 







Tide- water. 

Tehachapa l^ummit, 

To Bird Point 

Western Foot of Sierra Nevada, 

Point of Buena Yista Lake, 

North Point of Talare Lake, 

Posey China Creek, 

Panoche Grande Creek, 

Panoche Grande Pass, (Summit of Coast Range,) 



San Jose, 

San Francisco, 





from Colo- 
rado River. 

• •• 
























# Estimated. 

TABLE No. 4. 



above Tide. 




Tehachapa Summit^ > 

To West Foot of Sierra Nevada^ 

Kern River, , 

Posey Creek, 

White River, 

Deer Creek, 

Tule River, 

Outside Creek, 

Deep Creek, 

Packwood Greek, 


Stockton f 

San Francisco, 













from Colo- 
rado River. 




To King's River, 


San Luis Rancbe, (Eastern Foot of Pacheco Pass,) 

Summit of Pacheco Pass 

HoUenback's, (Western Foot of Pacheco Pass,). 


San Francisco 

■ ■• 
















* The line would be shorter, more cheaply constructed, and less liable to interruption 
from floods on west side of Tulare Yalley, but would not develop local resources as well— 
he west side being dry and unattractive to settlement. 



TABLE No. 5. 



above Tide. 















Chemeuevis Ptus^ Cal., (Junction of San Francisco 


To Crater, (Sink of Perry Basin,) 

Mouth of San Diego Pass., 

Porphyry Butte, 

Lucky Gap, 

Quarts Point, 

Summit cf Bullion Rang4, (San Diego P<u«,).>. 

Morengo Basin, 

<Morongo Sink, estimated elev. 1,300 to 1,500 ft.) 

Antelope Ridge, 

Bunch Grass Mountain, 

Morongo Pass, (Summit,) 

Head of Morongo Canon, 

Foot of Morongo Canon, {Coahuilla Valley,) 

Mouth of San Gorgonia Pass, 

San Gorgonia Fcma, (Summit,) 

San Diego, (distance, estimated on straight line, 
is 80 miles,) ! 















from Colo- 
rado River. 




Difltance from (3clorado River to San BernardinOj 213 miles; elevation 1,118 feet above 
tide. (Valley of Santa Ana ) 

* Estimated. 



The grades and other characteristics, including the resources 
of the country on the principal lines above described, as far as 
they have been ascertained, are given in the ensuing chapters. 
It is not the purpose here, more than has already been done, 
to go into a discussion of their comparative merits. At cer- 
tain points, as has been stated, additional reconnoissance is 
needed; and in a few others, detailed surveys, such as are 
impracticable on a preliminary exploration, must be made, to 
determine which are best among the lines ; and the selection 
must at last depend largely upon questions of general policy. 
All the facts that have any important bearing are given in this 
report, as far as known, and, where additional data is necessary, 
it has been so stated. 

The following general table will exhibit the distances from 
Kansas City and Sheridan, and from New York, St. Louis and 
Chicago to the Pacific Ocean, both at San Francisco and San 
Diego, and to prominent intervening points upon the route of 
the 35th parallel by the several principal lines that have been 
referred to.* 

* For detailed table of stations and elevations on Route of S&tb parallel, from Kansas 
Citj to San Franci. eo and San Piego, see page 243. 




lit IRe 








. 5? 







I To BherWiD. 61 

S» ortMciiK.p.ii. 

to Gilrof, (snd 
of Tr.rk So allien 




Even on the hasty preliminary line these nowhere exceeded 
the maximum limit fixed by Congress, of 116 feet per mile; 
and with the exception of 18 miles in descending the western 
slope of the Sierra Nevada in California, may all be reduced 
on careful location to 90 feet. It is, indeed, quite practicable 
to descend this range with a 90 feet grade, or less, by winding 
along the northern slope of the Sierras at the head of Tulare 
Valley, and without increasing the distance if the valleys 
west of the crest of the Coast Range be selected for the route 
to San Francisco; but the work would be much more expensive, 
and it may be deemed better to employ a shorter length of the 
maximum grade. Heavy work, including a long tunnel, would 
also be required at the head of Canon Blanco on summit of the 
Spanish Range of the Rocky Mountains, to avoid the use of the 
maximum gradient for from 3 to 5 miles in attaining that sum- 
mit, on a line to the Galisteo Valley. 

There is no point on the route where a curve exceeding 6 
degrees per 100 feet will be necessary. 

The following approximate table, prepared by Col. Green- 
wood, will show at a glance the general character of the line in 
. reference to gradient : 

jSpproximate Table of Grades from End of Track at Sheridan, Kansas, io San 

Francisco, by Route of 35/A Parallel. 




Maximum Curvature, 6 deg. 

Veetper Mile. 



Feet per Mile. 


Oto 20 
20 to 40 
40 to 60 
OOto 80 
80 to luO 
100 to 116 








Oto 20 
2Uto 40 
40 to 60 
60 to 80 
80 to 100 
100 to 116 







No grade over 00 feet required 
by avoiding Raton Mountain 
using Valley of. Galisteo for 
descent to Rio Grande, and 
following northern slope of 
Sierra Nevada, at head of 
Tulare Valley, Cal., and fol- 
lowing down Tulare Valley, 
instead of crossing Coast 




Total distance, 1,621 miles. 

The above is on the least favorable of the routes examined. 


In other words, in a total distance of over 1,600 miles, there 
are, in going west, but 226 miles that have a grade exceeding 
40 feet per mile ; and going east, 287 miles, which exceed that 
rate ; or 107 miles going west, and 118 going east, that exceed 
60 feet per mile. Farther along, it will be seen, that the 
heavy grades are favorably distributed for economical trans- 


On the line in operation from Kansas City to Sheridan, 405 
miles, the principal grade is 30 feet per mile ; there are 50 
miles of level, and 9 miles exceeding 60 feet — the maximum 
being 75 feet. The company has commenced the reduction of 
all grades to 52 jS, feet per mile. There are 329 miles of 
straight line on this section. 

From Sheridan to the Arkansas River, at Fort Lyon, 120 
miles, the grades are usually light — maximum being 52 ^^^ feet. 
This section is common to the " Raton Mountain," the " Huer- 
fano," and the " Puntia Pass" routes. 

Raton Mountain Line — From Fort Lyon, up the Purgatory, 
to the mouth of Chequaco Valley, 50 miles, the grade does not 
exceed 15 feet per mile. 

Thence to the northern foot of the Raton Mountain, at 

Cimarron Pass, 36 miles, the average grade is 42 feet per 

nrile — the maximum, 52 j®^ feet, except for about 6 miles in 

approaching the mountain, where it will gradually rise from 

52 to 90. 

In crossing the eastern point of the Raton Mountain Range, 
for 25 miles, the grades on General Wright's preliminary line, 
as reported by Mr. Eicholtz, the Division Engineer who ran 
it, were as follows : 

From northern foot of mountain to summit of Cimarron 

Pass, ascending grade of 95 to 100 feet per mile for.. 4 miles. 

From summit to the Valley of " Cimarron," undulating 

grades of from 60 to 75 feet per mile for 13 " 

Thence to northern foot of Capulline Hills, ascending 

grade of 95 to 100 feet per mile for 4 " 


Ascent to summit of Capulline Hills, grade of 100 feet per 

mile for 2 miles. 

Descent to Hay-marsh, grade of 75 feet per mile for. ... 2 " 

Total 25 « 

General Wright reports that no grade exceeding 95 feet per 
mile will, in his opinion, be required in crossing this range. 

From the southern base of the Raton Mountain Range, to 
the crossing of the Pecos River, above Anton Chicoj 140 miles, 
the grades are light — maximum 52 j®^ feet. 

This is the foot of the first or " Spanish Range '' of the 
Rocky Mountain, from which to the summit in Canon Blanco 
Pass, 30 miles, an ascent must be made of 1,511 feet. It is 
accomplished by a grade of 90 feet per mile for 4 miles in 
rising from the Pecos to the table land east of the Capote, and 
by the use of the maximum grade (116 feet) for about 5 miles 
in rising out of Canon Blanco to the summit, which is 6,917 
feet above the ocean. The intervening grades are light, and at 
considerable expense the summit grade may be reduced to 90 

In making the descent of 2,084 feet from Canon Blanco 
summit to the Rio Grande, a distance of .60 miles, Gen Wright 
reports that it will be necessary to use the maximum grade for 
about 3 or 4 miles in getting down to the plateau lying south 
of the Galisteo, and for about 15 miles in descending the San 
Dia Mountains by the Tijeras Canon. 

Galisteo Route, — Bj using the valley of the Galisteo, a 
southerly branch of which heads within 4 miles of Canon Bla.nco 
summit, to descend to the Rio Grande, a vast improvement is 
made on the above grade's. As reported by Mr. Holbrook, 
Division Engineer, they will not exceed 75 or 80 feet per mile, 
and that for only 3 miles; the remaining grades decreasing 
gradually from 60 to 25 feet, and the average for the whole 
distance of 57 miles, from the summit to the Rio Grande, (as 
shown by actual levels at each cud of the line,) being less than 
36 feet per mile. 


The Cimarron Route, — From the general level character of 
the country on this route across the Great Plains, and what 
was ascertained by Col. Greenwood^s reconnoissance, although 
it has not been instrumentally examined, it is pretty certain 
that no grade exceeding 52 j®^ feet per mile will be required, 
and that but for limited distances. Maximum curvature on 
this line 6°, (between the Pecos and Rio Grande.) In connec- 
tion with the Galisteo Valley, there is every reason to believe 
that this route would enable the eastern range of the Rocky 
Mountains to be crossed, and the Rio Grande to be reached 
from Kansas City, without resorting to any grade over 52y®j 
feet, except for 15 miles of the common line between the Pecos 
-River and the head of the south branch of the Galisteo, and where 

ft^cm 80 to 90 feet would be required, and possibly for a very 

sliort distance between the Arkansas and Red River, between 

^old Spring and Cedar Creek, where an 80 feet grade may be 


On the Aubrey Route^ as far as it is a divergence from the 

** Cimarron," the grades are estimated to be slightly heavier 

"tlian on the latter. 

Huerfano Route. — From Fort Lyon, on the Arkansas, to the 

Summit in Sangre deChristo Pass, 141 miles, the grades for 

1 13 miles of the distance were light, varying from 8 feet to 55 

^*^et, with 11 miles of 65 feet per mile. 

Thence, for lOj^^ miles to the summit. Mr. Miller, Division 

^^ngineer, reports the grades as follows : 

^K'or 1.9 miles . .105.3 feet per miles. 

« 4.7 « 170.2 " « « 

« 4.2 « 260.9 « « « 

The summit being 9,186 feet above tide. 

In the Mosca Pass, about 20 miles north of Sangre de 
Christo, the grades ascending from the east were as follows : 

3.79 miles of 90 feet per mile. 

8.52 « 148" " « 

1.42 " 239" « « 

0.95 « 576" " « 

Reaching a summit of 9,577 feet. Neither of these Passes 


was considered practicable, within the Congressional maximum 
of grade, at any reasonable cost. 

Puntia Pass Route. — By barometrical observation made by 
Col. Greenwood, during the last summer, the elevation of the 
summit at this Pass (agreeing closely with that of Gunnison) 
was ascertained to be about 8,600 feet above the sea 

On this assumption, his instrumental survey through the Pass 
made the elevation, at the forks of the Arkansas, 6,500 feet, 
which is 2J75 feet higher than our surveyed line at Fort 
Lyon: as the distance is 180 miles, this gives an average 
inclination to the Arkansas Valley of less than 16 feet per 
mile. Col. Greenwood reports that no grade exceeding 25 
feet per mile will probably be required on this division of the line. 

From the forks of the Arkansas to the summit of Puntia 
Pass, 25 miles, a grade of about 80 feet per mile will be 
required for the first 10 miles, and not exceeding 100 feet per 
mile for the remaining fifteen miles, with heavy work. By 
increasing distance, it could be reduced to 90 feet. 

From this summit southward to Albuquerque, 200 miles, the 
average descent, following the San Luis Park and the Rio 
Grande, is less than 19 feet per mile, without an intervening 
summit. The first 5 miles will require a grade of 75 feet, 
which may be reduced to 52 ^s^, (if found sufficiently important 
to the economical operation of the line,) by increasing the dis- 
tance and supporting the grade along the mountain slopes at 
the head of San Luis Park. 

Across this Park, for 100 miles, the line may be straight, and 
the grades exceedingly light, and the valley of the Rio Grande 
may thence be followed to Albuquerque, probably at the natural 
grade of the stream — about 17 feet per mile. 



T'ables shoioing Approximate Grades on Different Recites of Survey of Kansas 

Pacific Railway, east of Rio Grande, 

1^0, 1. F&OM End of T&ack at Sheridan to the Arkansas Riter, at 

Fort Lton. 





Mazimnm Cnrvature, 5 deg. 



Feet per Mile. 




Oto 20 
20 to 40 
40 to 60 


Maximum grade not to exceed 
52 8-10 feet per mile. 




Total distance, 120 miles. 

o. 2. Raton Mountain Route, from the Arkansas Riter at Fort Lton^ 

TO the Rio Grande at Isletta. 




Westward . 

Maximum CarTature, 9 deg. 



Feet per Mile. 




Oto 20 
20 to 40 
40 to 60 
60 to 80 
80 to 100 


By using Galisteo Valley, all 
grades may be avoided that 
exceed 95 feet per mile. 




Total distance, 846 miles. 

^0. 3. PuNTiA Pass Route, prom tAe Arkansas Riyer at Fort Lyon, to 

the Rio Grande at Isletta. 





Maximum Curvature, 9 deg. 



Feet per Mile. 







Oto 40, 
40 to 60 
60 to 80 
80 to lOU 



All grades exceeding 52 8-10 
feet per mile, are concentrat- 
ed at Puntia Pass. 




Total distance, 420 miles. 



In crossing the low divide between the Rio Grande at Isletta- 
and the Puerco River, (a distance of 21 miles,) the maximum 
grade on the preliminary line was 60 feet per mile on the 
eastern slope, and 50 feet on the western. Mr. Miller, who 
ran the line, reports that it need not exceed 50 on either. 

From the junction of the El Rito and Puerco, to the summit 
of the Sierra Madre, at' Navajo Pass, a distance of 95 miles, 
the average ascent is 22 feet pier mile, and very uniform. 
The grade of the railroad, following the valley of the El Rito 
for the whole distance, need not exceed this rate, except at 
^wo or three points, where, for very short distances, in cross- 
ing bends of the creek, and avoiding streams of lava, it rises 
to 50 feet. For 20 miles east of the summit of this range, the 
grade is at the rate of 31 feet per mile, rising in the last mile 
at the summit to 50 feet. 

From the summit of the Sierra Madre. (water shed of the 
continent,) to the Little Colorado River, 118 miles, the average 
grade is that of the descending valley of Navajo Creek, 18 
feet per mile. Ij'or the first 14 miles west of the summit it is 
at the rate of 34 feet per mile ; one mile at the summit being 
70 feet. In the lower course of the valley, the grade does not 
exceed 13 feet per mile. 

From the mouth of Navajo Creek, down the Little Colorado 
River, to Sunset Crossing, 35 miles, the grade is that of the 
valley — about 7 feet per mile. Thence to Carion Diablo, 28 
miles, the maximum grade is 52 feet per mile. 

We have thus reached a point on the 35th parallel, 303 miles 
west of the Rio Grande, without encountering a grade over 
52 feet per mile. As far as Sunset Crossing, 275 miles, Col. 
Greenwood reports that it need not, on location, exceed 40 
feet ; yet on this section we have crossed the crest of the con- 

In crossing the Mo2:oyon Range from Canon Diablo to its 
western base in the Val de Chino, heavier grades are met. 


The ascent of the eastern slope to Leroux Summit, 39 miles, is 
effected within 90 feet per mile. The average ascent is 57 feet 
per mile, the elevation at Canon Diablo being 5,294 feet, and 
that at Leroux Summit, 7,510 feet. On the rapid preliminary 
line, one intervening summit, "San Francisco Ridge," was 
ODCOuntered 5 miles east of Leroux, but it is merely a spur 
from Mount Agassiz, and the line can turn it, or, by a tunnel 
of 2,000 or 3,000 feet, cut through it. 

On the route to the north of Mount Agassiz the reconnoissance 
would indicate that no grade exceeding 75 feet per mile will 
be required. 

From Leroux Summit, descending westward to the Val de 
Chino, at the mouth of Partridge Creek Valley, 78 miles, the 
fall is 2,422 feet, which, after allowing for the two low inter- 
vening summits, (150 feet at Whipple^s Pass, and 100 feet at 
the divide between Cedar and Partridge Creeks,) gives an 
average descent of 35 feet per mile. That portion between 
Whipple^s Pass and the forks of Partridge Cre3k, 32 miles, 
has an average fall of 56 feet per mile ; and from the forks of 
Partridge Creek to the mouth of the same valley, it is under 20. 
The grade nowhere exceeds 90 feet per mile, except at two 
points, viz : For 7 miles descending westward from Whipple's 
Summit, where it is 100 feet per mile; and at the mouth of 
Partridge Creek Valley, where for one mile it is 105 feet. 
The latter is clearly unnecessary in a line intended for Beale's 
Pass, and the former, with heavy work, may be reduced to 90 
feet, should the general route by Partridge Creek be adhered 
to, by changing the line to the vicinity of the "Park Creek 
Eoute " of Mr. Miller. 

From the mouth of Partridge Creek Valley, a further 
descent of 338 feet is made in 8 or 10 miles northwestwardly to a 
lower slope of the Val de Chino, at an elevation of 4,750 feet. 
The grade may be made nearly uniform throughout. Thence 
up the Val de Chino, 18 miles, to the summit of Beale's Pass, 
at the head of a west fork of that valley, the average ascent is 
about 20 feet per mile. The grade will be uniform, rising at 

'or Umm 

the rate of ^^i% feet per mile in the six miles nearest H 
summit; that of the last mile being 34 feet. I 

From Kealo's I'ass to Yampa Gap, at the entrance of fi 
canon of Yampa Creek, 22 miles, the line, following along 4 
slope of tho Juniper and Aquarius Bangea, on the west side i 
and overlooking the Aubrey Valley, has an undulating gra^ 
which rises at a few points to 52^6. feet per mile. The slo] 
of the surface for the first mile west of Beale'e Summit was i 

From this summit down the Yampa and its canon, for 47 
miles, (of which distance tiie Yampa is followed for 37 miles,) 
to the Wallapi Valley at Peacock Spriog, the fall ig 2,071 feet, 
equivalent to 44 feet per mile. On the preliminary line the 
grade did not exceed GO feet per mile, except for-8 mil 
which, for 6 miles, it was between 60 and 80 feet, and for 
remaining 2 miles 90 feet per mile. On location, the 1; 
will be reduced to 80. , 

From Peacock Springs to Wallapi Pass, at the head of the 
Wallapi Valley, 14 miles, the valley is followed with an average 
ascent of about 22 feet per mile. By diverging from the 
Yampa line before reaching Peacock Springs, a level grade, or 
one nearly so, may evidently be attained between these poictB 
to no very great increase of distance and cost. 

A cut of 40 feet at the summit, gives a descent fram SVallapi 
Pass to the tiridge-aeat, at the crossing of the Colorado River, 
of 3,005 feet. The distance being 49 miles, the average fall 
is, thci-cforc, about 61 feet per mile. On the preliminary line 
there was no grade exceeding 60 feet, except for a distance of 
14 miles, and on these, for 9 miles, it was less than 90 feet, and 
for 5 miles between 90 and 105 j*j,. For the 22 miles nearest 
the river the grade was 50 feet per mile. In the descent of 
this remarkably uniform slope, all grades over 70 feet per mile 
are concentrated at the summit, and the maximum may be 
reduced to 90 feet by heavy work, if found best for the eon* 
Tcnient operation of the road. 




This brings us to the Great Colorado, 580 miles from the 
Rio Grande, having passed the most broken part of the route 
of the 35th parallel without encountering any necessary 
gradient over 90 feet per mile, in either direction ; and, except 
for 17 miles of the entire distance going west, and 42 miles 
going east, no grade exceeding 60 feet, while on over one-half 
the line it is less than 30 feet per mile. 

The following tables, prepared by Col. Greenwood, will show 
these gradients in a condensed form. 

'Sjtproximaie Tables of Grades on Route of S5th Parallel, between Rio Grande 

and Colorado Rivers, 580 Miles. 

N'o. 1. General Statement from Rio Grande, at Isletta, to Colorado 




«'•*•• "^rr.i7 

Maximum, 6^. 





Feet per mile. 
to 20 
20 to 40 
40t« 60 
60 to 80 
80 to 105 6-10 


No grade over 90 ascending 
westward, and those going 
eastward can be reduced to 90 
feet per mile on careful loca- 




Total distance, 580 miles. 

-Ko. 2. Detailed Statement from Rio Grande to Sunset Grossing, 



Westward . 


Westward . 





Feet per mile. 
Oto 10 
10 to 20 
20 to 30 
30 to 40 
40 to 52 8-10 


All grades can be reduced 
to 40 feet per mile, without 
heavy mountain work. 




Total distance, 2T5 miles. 

^«0M Sunset Grossing to Forks of Partridge Greek, across Mogoton 

Range, of Arizona. 









Feet per mile. 
Oto 20 
20 to 40 
40to 60 
60 to 80 




All grades can be reduced to 
90 feet per mile, if desired. 

By taking route north of Mt. 
Agassi z, no ascending grade 
over 76 feet probably re- 




Total distance, 118 miles. 



From Forks of Partridge Greek to Truxton Springs, Arizona. 









Feet per mile. 
Oto 20 
20 to 40 
40 to 60 
60 to 80 
80 to 100 




All grades above 52 8-10 ar^^ e 
near Truxton Springs. 


35 ! 

62 1 Total distance, 103 mifes. 

From Truxton Springs to Grossing op Colorado River. 






; Feet per mile 
I Oto 20 

20 to 40 

40 to 60 

60 to 80 

80 to 105 6-10 






All grades above 70 feet are 
concentrated at Wallapi Pass 
and can be reduced to 90 feet,, 
if deemed advisable. 

) Total distance. 83 miles. 


On the " White Mesa line," 80 miles long, there are undulating grades for 60 miles 
from Cradlebaugh's tank westward to the Mesa Gap, mainly light, but rising at som 
points to 80 and 85 feet per mile. At the Mesa Gap, a grade descending west, of 105 6-10 fee 
per mile for over 7 miles, with a tunnel nearly 5,000 feet long, will be required. Thene 
to the connection with Partridge Creek line, near Yampa Gap, 11^ miles, a very ligh 
ascending grade is had, except for 1]4 miles, of 80 feet, in crossing a ridge 7 miles wee 
of mouth of Mesa Gap- 
On the *'Laja Gap line " the grades are same as above, except east of Mesa Gap 
where they are estimated by Mr. Schuyler, in crossing Val de Chino, at not over 45 fee 
per mile, and in crossing the Laja Range, not over 75 feet, with a tunnel of 3,000 feet, 
whence eastward not to exceed 50 feet per mile to intersection with Partridge Creek 
line at Cradlebaugh's tank. 





We now enter the State of California, and find before us, to 
the base of the Sierra Nevada, a stretch of 235 miles of desert 
country, not very unlike the State of Nevada, and filled, like 
it, with mineral-bearing mountains. 

The ascent of 2,151 feet from the level of the bridge-seat at 
the river to Piute Summit, a distance of 40 miles, was made 
on the preliminary line with a nearly level grade for 12 miles, 
following the west bank of the river, thence up the Piute 
«' Wash," with a uniforna grade of 75 feet, for 10 miles, to Sacra- 
mento Springs, and thence up the west fork of Piute to the 


sammit, 18 miles, with grades rising from 75 to 90. The 
surface being very smooth, and the pass 5 miles wide, no grade 
exceeding 75 feet is necessary in making this ascent. 

From Piute Summit, the descent of 1,902 feet westward, to 
the inlet of Perry Basin, a distance of 36 miles, is made by a 
straight line at the natural inclination of the valley, which is 
followed, viz : • 

For the first 2 miles about 20 feet per mile. 

For the next 26 « « 50 << « « 

And the remaining 8 miles from 60 to 65 feet per mile. 

The average for the whole distance being 53 feet. 

Thence, for 34 miles, in skirting the northern margin of this 
basin to Volcanic Point, in which distance a total rise is made 
of 522 feet, the grades arc from level to 40 feet, ascending 

In the next 25 miles, rising out of Perry Basin to the summit 
of *« Crater Pass," (2,100 feet above tide,) the maximum is 50 
feet per mile. 

From Crater Summit to the crossing of Mojave River, SS 
miles, the descent in the first 10 miles to the level of "Mal- 
pais Sink" is 300 feet, and the maximum grade 5^j%', thence 
to the river crossing the grade is level, or gently ascending, 
a.t no point exceeding 25 feet per mile. 

On reaching the Mojave River we are pretty much out of 
"tlie region of detached ranges, and have nearly a straight line 
presented to the eastern foot of the Sierra Nevada, 65 miles, 
i n which an ascent is made of about 700 feet. The grades are 
light, the maximum being 52^®^. 

A careful survey was made of Tehachapa Fass, from the 
eastern to the. western base of the Sierra Nevada, a distance of 
SO miles. The ascent from the Great Basin, on the east, made 
in 15 miles, was found to be only 928 feet ; the descent, on the 
\eest, into Tulare Valley, in 35 miles, was 3,215 feet. 

The summit is 4,008 feet above tide, 250 miles from the Colo- 
rado River, 325 miles from San Francisco, and nearly on the- 
35th parallel. 


The following are the grades on the line as run by Mr. Runk, 
Division Engineer : 


For 8 miles from eastern base, through 
a deep ravine, i mile wide, to Teha- 

chapa Sinks, grade from 80 to '83 feet per mile.* 

(Which can be reduced on location to 75 feet.) 
For 3.6 miles from Tehachapa Sinks, over 
a plateau from 1 to 3 miles in width, 

grade of 19 feet per mile. 

For 1.13 miles over same plateau, grade of. 61 3-10 " « « 
« 0.89 " " " « " 23.6 « « « • 

" 1.00 '* across the summit of the pass. Level. 
Average grade ascending, 66 feet per mile. 


For 1.4 miles over wide plateau, grade of . . . • 34.6 feet per mile. 

« 1.0 « " " « 55 " « « 

" 0.9 " « « « 72 « « « 

« 2.6 « " « « 116 « « « 

« 11.6 " on mountain slope, (South Side,) 
overlooking narrow and precipitous 

gorge, grade of 116 " « « 

For 0.5 miles on mountain slope, (South Side,) 
overlooking narrow and precipitous 

gorge, grade of .39 <* « <« 

For 3.9 miles on bench of mountain to Bird 

Point, grade of 39 " " « 

For 9.53 miles from Bird Point, following outer 

side of North Spur, grade of. . . .. ...116 « « « 

For 0.7 miles crossing Allen's Creek Level. 

« 0.7 miles along the foot hills, north of 

Pass, grade of 14 feet per mile. 

« 1.23 miles crossing Walker's Creek Level. 

« 1.5 « grade of 30 feet per mile. 

« 13 « »« 51 ^« « « 

reaching the Tulare Plain at an elevation of 795 feet above tide- 

Average grade descending from summit to Tulare Plain, 80 feet 
per mile. 

Instead of using in the westward descent from the 
head of ravine, the grade of 116 feet per 

mile for 11.6 miles, 

And that of 39 feet per mile for 4.4 « 

There may be substituted 116 feet per mile for.. . 8.7 " 
And 75 feet per mile for. , , 6.8 " 

* And on the eastern slope the grade may be improved, and 
the distance shortened by tunneling from a point near Ihe head 
of ravine, east of Halt Lake, through to Oak Creek, where the 
elevation at the eastern base is much higher than at the mouth 
of the pass on the line surveyed, and the approach from the 
desert more gradual. 

By this excellent Pass the formidable Sierras are crossed, 
with only IS,'g miles of the masimnm gradient, the remaining 
grades being witliin.TS feet permile. It is deemed practicable 
to reduce this maximum to 90 feet, by following t!io northern 
slope of the range around the head of Tulai-e Valley, toward 
the mouth of Tejon Pass, but the work would be considerably 
more espcnsive and the distance greater. 

The proper adjustment of the grades, in crossing this range, 
inTolves the consideration of routes thence to San Francisco, 
■whether by Tulare Valley or Gilroy; of the character and 
direction of the ti-affic, including the relative magnitude of 
local and through trade; of the proper division of tho general 
lire into sections for convenient operation; and other questions 
that need not here be discussed. 

From the western foot of the Sierra Nevada, at Tehachapa 
-f ass, by the line of easiest grades to San Francisco, the Tulare 
Valley would be followed, the average descent of which is less 
tlian 2 feet per mile, and probably no grade exceeding 30 feet 
"Would be required. 

By the direct route to San Francisco, the Tulare Valley is 
fint crossed from the foot of Tehachapa to the eastern base of ' 
the Coast Range, with grades from level to 25 feet per mile. 
On the line to " Chalama Pass " this distance is 62 miles, strik- 
'Hg the range at a point about half way between the Uuena 
"V" lata Oil Works and Alamo Solo, from which the ascent of the 
ttioimtain is reported by Mr. Kicholtz, who made the recon- 
Iciasance of this route, to be very gradual, following a broad 
and smooth Canada at a rise of 40 feet per mile, until within 
\ 4 miles of the summit. From this point across the summit, 
I "Which is a smooth and easy divide, to the western foot of the 


range in the Valley of the Chalama, a distance of 7} miles, the 
surface grade is about 100 feet per mile. 

Thence, down Chalama Creek to the Estrella, 11 miles, the 
grade does not exceed 40 feet ; and along the Estrella, for 18 
miles, to the Valley of the Salinas, 30 feet per mile. The fall 
of this valley, which is followed for 88 miles, appears to be 
about 15 or 20 feet per mile. 

Leaving it, the line passes by the San Miguel Canon into 
Pajaro Valley, 12 miles, with grades estimated as follows: 

50 feet per mile for • 6 miles. 

80 " " « <^ -. 3 « 

And light, undulating grades for 3 << 

To the Pajaro Valley. 

Thence it is 13 miles, with light grades, to Gilroy, the present 
terminus of the Southern Pacific Railroad, 80 miles from San 
Francisco. The grades on the other routes examined across 
the Coast Range will be shown in the annexed tables. 


From the junction with main line at Chemeuevis Pass, Cali- 
fornia, across Perry Basin, to San Diego Pass ; 20 miles, level 
to 40 feet per mile. 

From mouth of San Diego Pass to 
summit of Bullion Range 17 miles — 80 to 90 feet per mile. 

Summit of San Diego Pass to south- 
ern foot, in Morongo Basin. ... 10 " — 50 " " «« 

Thence westward, along Morongo 
Basin, to eastern foot of Morongo 
Pass , 24 « —level to 25 ft. per mile. 

Eastern foot to summit of Morongo 

Pass...... 1 « — 80 to 90 « « « 

(Slope of surface 175 feet in li miles.) 

* Summit of Pass, descending to 

head of Morongo Canon 3 to 4 miles — 90 feet per mile. 

* With ttinnel of 1 mile at summiti and heavy cutting. 


Average, 68 feet per mile. 

Head to foot of Morongo Canon • 7 miles. 

Descending — 4 miles of 60 feet ' 

i « " 65 " 

H « « 90 « 
S'oot of Canon to eastern foot of 

San Gorgonia Pass 10 miles — level to 40 ft. per mile. 

£ astern foot to summit of Sierras, 

San Gorgonia Pass 22 " — 60 to 90 feet per mile ; 

average 78. 

Western descent of Sierras 18 " — 72 to 80 feet per mile ; 

average 78* 
Thence, for 82 miles, to San Diego, — nothing over 80 feet* 

The above grades are estimated across Ferry and Morongo 
Basins, and from western base of Sierras to San Diego. Those 
at San Gorgonia were instrumentally ascertained,* and those 
at the San Diego Pass and the Morongo Pass and Canon, were 
taken with pocket level. 

By Lieut. Williamson. 



Table of Grades from Crossing of Colorado River to San Francisco, {JRoute of 

B5lh Parallel,) 

No. 1. Consolidated Table bt Ghalama Pass Route, Approximate. 





From Colorado River t« 
San Francisco. 







Feet per mile. 
Uto 20 
20 to 40 
40 to 60 
60 to 80 
100 to 116 








Maximum eurratare, 6^. 
# Reduced to 18j|^ miles. 




Total distance, 693 miles. 

No. 2. From Colorado Riyer to Piute Summit. 










Feet per mile. 
Oto 20 
20 to 40 
60 to 80 
80 to 90 


All grades can be reduced to 
75 feet. 

There should be no descend- 
ing grade. 

' 41 


Total distance. 45 miles. 

No. 8. From Piute Summit to Eastern Foot of Sierra Netada. 








Feet per mile 
Oto 20 
120 to 40 
40 to 60 








Total distance, 193 miles. 

No. 4. Across the Sierra Netada at Tehachapa Pass. 









Feet per mile . 
Oto 20 
20 to 40 
40 to 60 
60 to 80 
80 to 100 
100 to 116 



All grades can be reduced to 
90 feet, if found advisable. 

# May be reduced to 18 2>]0 
miles of 116 feet, and 6.8 miles 
of 75 feet. 




Total distance, 50 miles. 



No, 6. F&OH Western Foot op Sierra Nevada across Tulare Valley 
TO Eastern Foot op Coast Ranqe, Approximate. 







Feet per mile 


20 to 40 


On Sau Benito Itne grades 
abont the same. Distance, 112 




Total distance, 62 miles. 

No. 6. Across Coast Ranqe at Chalama Pass, Approximate. 








Feet per mile. 
20 to 40 
80 to 100 


On San Benito line the grades 
are somewhat heavier, and work 
more expensive, with long tun- 
nel at summit. 



Total distance 34 miles. 

No. 7. From Western Base op Coast Range at Chalama Pass to San 
Francisco, approximate, (bt Salinas and Pajaro.) 










Feet per mile. 

20 to 40 
40 to 60 
60 to 80 





Grades are a little better on 
this section of 8an Benito line. 
Distance 175 miles. 




Total distance 212 miles. 

The Grrand Panoche Pass had on' the 38 miles, from Tulare Plain 
across the Coast Range to Tres Pinos Valley, 7 miles of 106 feet 
per mile, (ascending westward,) and 6 miles of 116 feet per mile, 
(descending westward,) and the remaining 25 miles varying from 50 
to 85 feet; the work heavy for 20 miles, remainder light. 



Counting all undulations that exceed in altitude 200 feet, 
gives a total rise and fall upon the entire route by the 35th 
parallel to San Francisco, of 41,113 feet. 

This estimate will 'be increased 1,000 feet if the Raton 
Mountain be crossed, and diminished about as muclj^^ to reach 
tide- water, if the Coast Range be avoided. 

The rise and fall is about the same, in proportion to the 
length of the line, as on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, on 
which the cost of transportation for last year is stated to have 
been but little over one cent per ton per mile. 

The rise and fall from Kansas City to San Francisco, on our 
line of survey and exploration, by the route of the 32d parallel^ 
including only the undulations over 200 feet, was found to be 
41,538 feet, which is very nearly the same as by the 35tlL 
parallel, although the distance is 263 miles longer. The 
amount of rise and fall due to the minor undulations would 
probably not differ materially on the two routes. Should it be 
found practicable, of which I have little doubt, to reach the 
Sierra Nevada at Tehachapa Pass, from Fort Yuma, by a. 
'* Desert line," avoiding the two crossings of the Cordilleras into 
and out of the Los Angelos Valley, the rise and fall on the 
route of the 32d parallel to San Francisco would be reduced 
probably from 3,000 to 5,000 feet, but the waterless and timber- 
less character of the country, for 300 or 400 miles on such a 
modified route, would not offer many temptations to railroad 

To the Pacific Ocean, at San Diego, the rise and fall from 
Kansas City, by the route of the 35th parallel, is very nearly as 
great as to San Francisco ; but by the 32d parallel it is one- 
fourth less. 

While the total rise and fall on the route from Kansas City 
to San Francisco somewhat exceeds that from Omaha to San 



Francisco, by the line of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific 
Railroad, the working grades are not believed to be heavier. 
Reference may be had to the following table ; in which the 
grades on the line from Omaha have been derived from Gen. 
Dodge's oflScial report of surveys and the known grades on the 
Central Pacific line. The former have no doubt been consider- 
ably dimished on location, as those on the Kansas Pacific Route 
will undoubtedly be. 



Ocnaha to San Francisco, 

Kaxisas City to San Francisco, 

Grade exceeding Grade exceeding 
100 feet per mile. 8U feet per mile 

51 miles. 


198 miles. 
106 " 

Grade exceeding 
60 feet per mile. 

304 miles. 
225 « 


The increased rise and fall on the 35 th parallel is due to the 
in terpositign of the deep Valley of the Colorado, in the heart 
le mountains of Arizona and California. It may be deemed 
a compensating advantage, however, • to strike a navigable 
ri vr^r nearly 600 miles east of the Pacific terminus. If it were 
concluded to waive this benefit, by bridging the canon of the 
Colorado,* the total rise and fall would probably approximate 
Pi^^tty closely to that on the Union Pacific line. 

The inequality caused by the Coast Range is probably nearly 
^s great on the northern line as the southern ; although the pass 
IS xnuch lower, the eastern base is about 700 feet higher on the 
la.t.ter. ^ 

The practical efibct of the grades upon the cost 'oi transport- 
ing passengers and tonnage will, of course, depend very mate- 
^**^lly upon their distribution over the line. This is quite favor- 
^t>le on the route under consideration. 

Without discussing this question in detail, a general idea 
^oy be given by stating the fact that, upon the line from Kan- 

*Ives reported the Grand Canon, where he visited it, near the mouth of Diamond 
^iver, to bo only 50 yards wide at the bottom, and about 3,000 feet deep, with very 
*'«€3) walla. 


sas City to San Francisco, the heaviest passenger train may be- 
run with the same sized engines as those in use on the east and 
west trunk lines, at an average rate of 30 miles per hour, from. 
the Missouri River to San Francisco, with assistant locomotive 
power at four points, to wit: 

1st. In ascending the Spanish Range of the Rocky Mountains^^ 
from the Fecos River to the summit, 30 miles, of which 11 
miles will have a 90 feet grade. 

2d. In ascending tlie Mogoyon Range in Arizona, from Canoa^ 
Diablo to the summit, 39 miles, of which ten miles will have a^ 
grade as high as 90 feet. If the route to the north of Mt- 
Agassiz be adopted, this grade may not exceed 75 feet. 

3d. In ascending from the Colorado River to Piute Summit, 
in California, 30 miles, where the grade will be from 70 to 75 
feet per mile continuous. 

4th. In ascending the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada- 
to Tehachapa Sinks, where, for 10 miles, the grade (on Oak 
Creek Route,) will be 70 feet. 

To these must be added, if the Raton Mountain be crossed 
at Cimarron Pass, 23 miles, of which 12 will have a grade 
of 95 feet, and if the Coast Range Route be adopted, 4 miles 
at Chalama Pass, of 90 to 100 feet grade. The latter may 
possibly be reduced to 75 feet. 

Over the whole of the same line westward, with assistance at 
the points named, a thirty ton engine can draw 20 freight cars, 
each loaded with 10 tons, at the rate of 12rmiles per ho«r; 
and on five unbroken divisions of the line, each from 150 to 
200 miles long, respectively, it can draw 50 loaded cars. 

Going eastward^ such a passenger train would require help 
at the following points: 

1st. In ascending the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, 
at Tehachapa Pass, for 33 miles; where, for 25 miles, the grade 
will be from 75 to 116 feet per mile. 

2d. In crossing the neck of the Cerbat Range, immediately 
east of the Colorado River, at Wallapi Pass, where, for 10 
miles, there will be a grade of from 70 to 100 feet. 


3d. In ascending the Canon of the Yampa, in Arizona, where 
the grade is from 70 to 80 feet for 8 miles.* 

4th. In ascending the western slope of the Mogoyon Range, 
Arizona, from the valley of Partridge Creek to Whipple Pass, 
24 miles, where the grade for about 12 miles is from 70 to 100. 

5th. In ascending from the head of Galisteo Valley to the 
summit of the Rocky Mountains east of the Rio Grande, where, 
for 4 miles, the grade is from 70 to 80. 

On the Coast Range Route, assistant power would probably 
also be needed at Chalama Pass, where the surface grade for 
3 miles is 100 feet per mile. But this grade may possibly be 
reduced to 75 feet. 

The size of the freight train would have to be reduced going 
eastward to 12 or 15 loaded cars on three of the four operating 
divisions of the lino between the Sierra Nevada, of California, 
and the Mogoyon Summit, in Arizona. East of that summit, 
50 cars could be hauled on three long divisions ; 20 to 40 cars 
on the remainder, with assistance for 4 miles, from the head of 
the Galisteo to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. 



Over the larger portion of the line which has been described, 
the work of construction would not be called heavy, in a set- 
tled country. Its cost will be due rather to the remoteness^ 
and wildness of the country, the absence of supplies, high cost 
of labor and risk from Indians, than to any serious Gngineering- 
obstacles. The latter are confined to a comparatively few 
points in crossing the more formidable ranges of mountains, 
and in following the natural drainage of the country through 
certain rocky and tortuous canons. 

Fortunately, the great extent of comparatively light work 
will enable large sums to be expended at these points in order 
to obtain a short line of favorable grades and curvature. With 
heavy grades and sharp curves, (even within the limit fixed 
by Congress,) a line could be built much more cheaply — but at 
the expense of a future tax upon every ton and passenger trans- 
ported over it. The traffic of the road will undoubtedly be so 
large that it would be very unwise to economize in the first 
construction, which, in the particulars named, at all events, 
should have the highest standard of which the topography of 
the country will admit. 

A general idea of the character of the work may be obtained 
from the description which has been given of the topography 
of the route, and the summary here appended of the more diffi- 
cult points. 


On the " Raton Route " — 1st. Very diiO&cult and costly work will 
be encountered for twenty-five miles at Cimarron Pass, in crossing 
the point of the Raton Mountain, the deep breaks of the Cimarron 
River, and the detached mountains between this and Red River. 

2d. For five miles, in rising from the Pecos River, above Anton 
Cbico, to the table land of the Spanish Range, some difficult rock 
cutting will be met. 


^^K Sd. For BIX or eight miles, in crossing the summit of this range, 
^^K Cuaon BlaDco Pass, tbe work will be rery difficalt, to obtain 
^Brades witbin tbe limit of 90 feet. 

^^m 4tb. In descendlDg tbe San Dia Mountains by the Tijeras Canon, 
^HB-tbe Rio Grande — fifteen milea of very difficult and expensive work. 
5tb. There are three important bridges on this aeetion. That over 
tbe Arkansas will be 800 feet long by 25 feet high ; bed, quicksand ; 
although tbe rook may probably be found witbin a depth of 2U feet. 
That over the I'eooa will be 300 feet long, crossing a rocky canon 
75 or 100 feet high. The bridge over tbe Rio Grande, if at Isletta, 
will be 1,000 feet long, between bluffs of hard cemented drift, 20 to 
40 feet high, and probably similar foundation. If at San Felipe, it 
can be crossed with two spans of 140 feet each, witb excellent banks 
and foundation. If crossed elsewhere, it must be much longer, and 
require epeeial provision for protection of the low banks — and tbe 
bed is qniobsand. 

On the GaUsfeo Route, Ihe extraordinary diffioulties io Tijeras 
Canon are avoided, and the descent made to tbe Rio Grande, with 
the much lighter expense dne to fallowing tbe aide of the Galiateo 
Bluffs for 21 miles, or turning the stream to avoid bridging. 

Tbe " San Miguel Cut-off " is more expensive than the Canon 
Blanco line, requiring heavy work for one mile east of Bernal, a deep 
cut or tunnel of three-fourths of a mile at tbe Rocky Mountain Sum- 
mit, and a tunnel of 1,50U feet in the cafion of the Galisteo, six miles 
vest of Summit ; also, more or less difficult work for 23 miles, in 
cutting through spurs between San Miguel and tbe Summit. 

On tbe Cimanvn Route the difficult points would bo the same as 
the above, except that the Raton Mountain is avoided. One hun- 
dred and fifteen miles more of road would have to be constructed, 
■er, to connect at the most favorable point with the Company's 
in Kansas. 
On the Jlubrey Route the work would be more expensive than the 
Cimarron," but the distance to build about 75 miles less, and 40 
lies more than by the " Raton Route." Tbe Raton Mountain is 

lided — the remaining difficulties being tbe same. 
Col. Greenwood reports that on the Punlt/i Pass Line tbe diffi- 
Ities are found at the following points : 
lat. In traversing the " Big Canon " of the Arkansas Kiver, Si 


miles long. For the first Si miles the walls are sloping, and the line can 
wind along their face without particularly heavy work. In the next 
mile the walla are nearly perpendicular, and the cauon so crooked 
that the line cannot bo kept on the slopes, and a tunnel of 1,200 to 
1,500 feet is necessary at the big liend, and some deep cuts at otber 
projecting points. The next i miles are about like the first. This 
oanon could be avoided, but only at the expense of heavier grades 
and a longer line. 

2d. From upper end of Big Canon to forks of the Arkansas are a 
number of smaller canons, or otber points where some henry work 
will be required, and several crossings of the river maybe neoessary; 
at these, single spans of truss bridge will answer. 

3d. At Puntia Pass there will be pretty costly work for 20 miles, 
in crossing from the Valley of the Arkansas to San Luis Park. 

4th. In degeeoding the Rio Grande three canons of that river are 
followed. 1st. The " Tads Canon," 10 miles long ; the line can be 
carried along the slopes within abont 15 feet of the usual stage of 
water, and crossing the river at the sharp benda, where truss bridges 
of 150 feet span each will answer. The work will be expensive and 
curves sharp, but tho grade only 20 feet per mile. 'Id. The 
"Erabnda Canon," of same character as the Taoa, but 15 milea 
long. Both these canons may be avoided by crossing the Eio Orando 
above the upper one, and passing along the broad smooth slope on 
the west side, returning to the river near mouth of Ojo Calicnte. 
The work would be much easier and the alignment improved, but the 
grades not near as good. 3d. The"Sante F6 Cauon," 14 milea 
long and very rugged ; the line can be laid on the slopes with no 
very heavy cutting, and no fill of over 10 feet. The river will be 
crossed once, or it may be better to cross it three times ; single span 
of 150 feet truss. This canon cannot be avoided ; it will cost more 
to go around it. 

Although exceedingly heavy work is encountered at the points named 
on the " Puntia Pass " route, such a large proportion of the whole dis- 
tance may be so very cheaply constructed that Col. Greenwood esti- 
mates it lo cost less per mile than the Raton Mountain route, even with 
theOalisteo modification of the latter. There are, however, from 35 to 
I to build, (depending on route adopted for western 
descent from Caiiou lllaneo.) 




With the exception of some heavy cutting, to obtain 50 feet grades 
in crossing the summit of the volcanic ridge, immediately west of 
the Rio Grande, the work may be called light to the base of the 
Mogoyon Eange, in Arizona. Here, within a distance of 114 miles, 
from Canon Diablo to the Val de Chino, occurs, perhaps, the most 
expensive work on the whole route. 

1st. In making the ascent of the eastern slope there are four 
canons to cross, three of which may be spanned by a single truss of 
150 feet, but the fourth, Padre Canon, will require a suspension bridge 
of 800 feet span, which will cost about $250,000. A tunnel of 2,500 
feet will also probably be required through the San Francisco Ridge, 
and some heavy rock cutting for nearly half a mile at the summit. 
The Cosnino line is more costly than the •' Canon line," besides being 
longer and with heavier grades. The line north of Mount Agassiz 
will probably be found cheaper than either. 

2d. Descending the western slope we find, on the " Whipple Pass 
line" very difficult work for 25 miles from the summit of Whipple 
Pass, in descending the waters of Cedar Creek, crossing its branches 
and reaching the Valley of Partridge Creek, including two bad 
canons which are followed. The first of these is 4,800 feet long, and 
the second li miles; both so crooked that short tunnels from 100 to 
500 feet long will be required through some of the projecting points. 
On the " Park Creek line " the work on the line run would be even 
heavier to reach a common point at the forks of Partridge Creek, but 
can be improved by modifying the location so as to cross the canon 
of Cedar Creek below the junction of one of its branches, and fol- 
lowing up that branch to the summit. 

3d. At mouth of Partridge Creek, to obtain good grades into the 
Val de Chino, heavy work will be required for from three to five 
miles, where the line must be supported on slopes of the Laja foot 

On ** White Mesa line^" although the country is pretty badly cut up 
for eighteen miles by branches of Cedar Creek, most of the heavy 
work is concentrated at " Mesa Gap," where, for eleven miles, it is 
very expensive — involving a tunnel of 5,000 feet, a summit cut ave^ 
raging 75 feet for 1,200 feet, and some heavy cuts and fills in cross- 
ing branches of Val de Chino, east of summit. This route is less 


expensive, however, than the Partridge Creek Route, besides savings 
seventeen miles. 

The " Laja Gap line''* has the same heavy work, from summit to 
western base of Mesa Gap, as the White Mesa line, but is probably 
cheaper than the latter, considering that it saves seventeen or 
eighteen^iles. It requires a crossing of Cedar Creek 700 feet long^ 
at a point where it is 150 feet deep, and a heavy cut or tunnel of 3,000 
feet at the summit of Laja Kange. 

On the common line west of the junction, from Yampa Gap to the 
Colorado River, the only difficult work is — 

1st. In traversing the canon of the Yampa, which is crooked, andL 
for two miles will require heavy work, with some short tunnels 
through projecting points : two miles more of heavy work near Trux — 
ton's Springs. 

2d. At « Wallapi Pass," where the immediate descent to the Colo — 
rado begins. Here, for five miles the work will be heavy — extremely 
so, if the grade should be supported on the foot hills of the Cerbat> 
Range, so as to get down on a grade of eighty-five or ninety feet. 


1st. The bridge over the Colorado, above the Needles, will bo 
1,000 feet long, and 75 feet above usual stage of water. Banks and 
foundation both favorable. The water rises 21 feet here in the sum* 
mer. Some heavy work will be required west of the crossing. 

2d. The Mojave River will require a truss bridge 300 feet long, 
for which there will probably be no difficulty in finding a good foun- 

3d. The Sierra JSTevada at Tehackapa Pass* — Nearly all the diffi- 
cult work between the Colorado and San Francisco is found in 
descending the west slope of this range. A tunnel through from 
Oak Creek at the eastern base would, however, much improve the 
grades in ascending from the desert. 

Mr. Runk, who surveyed this Pass, reports that on the western 
slope — 1st. From the head of gorge for twelve miles in following 
down the slopes of the mountain on west side of Tehachapa Creek, 
and crossing the spurs that put out from the main range, the work 
will be expensive — requiring high embankments, deep cuts, one tun- 
nel of 1,600 feet, 3,100 feet of trestling, and several small culverts. 


2d. That a tunnel of 2,200 feet will be required east of Bird Point 
^0 modify the grade to 75 feet on that portion of the line, and, 

3d. That for 15 miles from Bird Point, descending to the Tulare 
IPlain, the line winding along the foot hills that close in the mouth 
of the Pass, and crossing Allen's Creek, (at 50 feet above low water,) 
and Walker's Creek, will be very expensive — consisting of alternate 
<3uts and fills, with much rock excavation ; one tunnel of 2,000 feet 
and another of 1,000 feet; 750 feet of permanent bridging and 8,400 
:feet of trestling. The replacement of the latter by permanent struo- 
~tures will make this portion of the line costly. 

4th. From the base of this range to San Francisco, the line could 
l>e constructed much more cheaply down the west than the east side 
of the Tulare Valley, by reason of the numerous streams which put 
out on the latter from the Sierra Nevada, and^ in the rainy season, 
or when the snow melts rapidly on the mountains, are much swollen. 
This is much the best side, however, for local traffic, and the work 
is nowhere expensive. 

5th. On the Coast Range Route, by Chalama Pass, the only diffi- 
cult work required is for four miles in the canon of the Salinas, where 
there is heavy side cutting; in following the San Miguel Canon for 
six miles through the Gavilan Range, where some heavy cutting, (50 
feet deep at summit,) is required through the sand ridges, and for 
several miles in the canon of the Pajaro, below the mouth of the San 

Col. Greenwood reports the route from Tehachapa Pass to San 
Francisco, by the San Benito Pass^ to be an easy one throughout, 
excepting that a long tunnel is required to obtain favorable grades 
at the summit of the Coast Range. 

(The Panoche Grande Pass was unfavorable, Mr. Eicholtz reporting 
very heavy work for 3 miles in the Panoche Canon, besides 5 miles 
additional of very heavy work in ascending the east slope, and 6 miles 
in descending the Tres Pinos on the west slope.) 


1st. In crossing the sink of Perry Basin, California, for a few 
miles some precautions may be necessary, as the bottom is alkaline. 

2d. A heavy cut through gravel drift will be required in crossing 
the crest of the Bullion Range, and perhaps some rock cutting 


through a point of the mountaiD putting out south into Morongo 

3. A tunnel of one mile, with a heavy cut at western portal, will 
be required in Morongo Pass, with six short tunnels from 60 to 250 
feet long, amounting in all to 1,135 feet through projecting points of 
rock in the Morongo Canon, and three crossings of the creek in the 
same canon, each of 50 feet span. 

From the point of divergence, near Perry Crater, to the Los 
Angelos Valley, including the crossing of the Sierras at San Gor- 
gonia Pass, where the treslling or bridging of the water-courses is 
about the only work required — most of the San Diego line is so cheap 
that the Company could afford to expend a large sum at Morongo Pass 
and in the Morongo Canon to avoid heavy grades and curvatures. 
But from the San Gorgonia Pass, for 100 miles to San Diego, more 
or less difficult work will be encountered almost continuously in 
crossing the streams that flow from the Cordilleiras into the Pacific 
and the intervening ridges. 

These obstacles will probably force the line near to the coast to 
obtain favorable grades within a reasonable cost. 

It remains to speak of the other characteristics affecting the 
construction or operation of the line, and the resources of the 
country available for its support. 



The Raton Mountain Route is perhaps the best timbered 
of all the route close to the line of road. 

At the crossing of the Arkansas, during the warm months 
of the year, all the timber needed for cross-ties and bridging 
can be floated down very cheaply from the Pinery, near 
Canon City. Otherwise, in the valley of the Purgatoire, cedar 
and pignon of sufficient size can be obtained to tie this portion 
of the road in its first construction, and an abundance for fuel. 
Near the head of the Purgatoire, above Trinidad, and adjoining 
the Spanish Peaks, there is a large extent of fine pine timber, 
but this will scarcely be available for construction. 

The Raton Mountain has no timber fit for ties where it is 
crossed, but thence to Fort Union, the line is sufficiently close 
to the foot hills of the Rocky Mountains on the west, to obtain 
^U that is needed. 

From Fort Union to the Rio Grande, 140 miles, the route is 
^ell timbered, the supply being either directly on the line, or 
within easy access. It approaches to within 15 miles of the 
Rio Grande, in Tijeras Canon; and in the Placer and San 
I^ia Mountains occurs in the greatest abundance, extending 
southward for the whole extent of the Organ Range. The 
timber, pine, Douglass spruce, oak and cedar, is of fine quality. 
It "will furnish a large traffic to the road. 

On the Gralisteo Route^ for 50 miles, there is no timber fit for 
Construction, although there is enough cedar and pignon for fuel, 
*f "Wanted, but pine can be obtained in abundance from Canon 
■Blanco Pass, and also from the Placer and San Dia Mountains, 
t>y hauling some 10 to 15 miles. This maintains the supply 
Nearly to the Rio Grande. 

In the Sante Fe Mountains, 25 miles north of the Galisteo 
▼ alley, the timber is of large size and abundant. 


On the Cimarron Moute, there is very little timber as far as 
Fort Union, and it must either be transported along the road 
from the eastern end in Kansas, or floated down the Arkansas 
from the Rocky Mountains. The last would probably prove 
the cheapest and speediest method. 

The Puntia Pass Route, while not possessing as many locali- 
ties where timber lies in immediate proximity to the road, as 
the ''Raton Mountain Route,**, is, perhaps, the most advan- 
tageously situatedj of all, in reference both to an immediate 
and future timber supply. 

It has along it, near Cafion City, the nearest important 
pinery to the end of the track in Kansas, (250 miles distant.) 
Thence to the head of the Arkansas, Col. Greenwood reports 
the timber exceedingly fine and abundant, and a fair amount 
is found adjacent to the Puntia Pass. 

For 100 miles, in following the San Luis Park, good timber 
can be reached at any point on one side or the other of the 
valley, at distances varying from 5 to 30 miles, and thence 
southward along the Rio Grande, it may be obtained very 
cheaply, and in any desired quantities, by floating it down this 
river, and its branch — the Chama — from the splendid pineries 
at the mountain sources of these streams. 

If the line should follow the Rio Grande below San Felipe, 
it can also be obtained by floating it down the Jeniez, at the 
proper season, and by hauling it from the San Dia Mountains 
which bound the Rio Grande on the east, south of the Galisteo. 

On the whole, this route opens up a more extensive supply of 
timber, than the Raton Mountain line, and has, besides, the very 
great advantage of admitting, for most of its length, of the use 
of large streams, for the economical transportation of timber 
to the points at which it may be required. 

In the valley of the Rio Grande south of Albuquerque, the 
only timber consists of occasional scanty groves of Cottonwood. 
There is timber in the Manzano or Organ Range on the east 
side of the river, and in Mount Madelaine, 10 miles west of 


Socorro. The latter range bears thence southwestward, and 
contains large pine and pignoreal. 


From Isletta to El Rito, 48 miles, there is no timber except 
some cedar brushes on the Puerco. The cedar thickets that 
Whipple found on the Puerco, in 1853, have all been swept 
away for fuel, by the Rio Grande settlements. The con- 
struction timber for this section, must come by rail from the San 
Dia Mountains east of Albuquerque, an average haul of 45 
miles. For fuel, the coal of Sarocino Cailon exists close to the 

From El Rito to the "Remances," (30 miles,) an abundance 
of large pine timber can be obtained from the spurs of the San 
Mateo, a wagon haul of 12 or 15 miles. Near the Remances 
it is but 4 miles distant in the canons. 

And from the Remances, to Navajo Pass, (44 miles,) parallel 
with the Sierra Madre, the splendid forests of that range are 
only from 4 to 12 miles distant. This timber is pine and spruce, 
of fine quality and apparently inexhaustible. The whole of this 
range south, nearly to the route of the 32d parallel, is believed to 
be covered with a dense growth of large timber. In connection 
with the supply on the San Mateo spurs, it will furnish all the 
construction wants of the road as far west as the Little 
Colorado, and give it a large commercial traffic. 

On the " Zufii Route," Miller's line ran through or closely 
adjacent to timber, from Fort Wingate nearly to Zuni vil- 
lage, a distance of 65 miles, west of which, cedar and pinon 
continued the supply for fuel purposes to Farewell Ridge, 25 
miles further. 

On the San Felipe Line, Schuyler found pine abundant and 
large enough for ties, a few miles north and west of " Moquino,*' 
and a good growth of pine in the mountains, within 6 to 10 
miles of Zia, ( 14 miles from the Rio Grande,) on the Jcmez 
River. So that on this route the timber supply begins much 
nearer the Rio Grande than on the Isletta line. At San 


Felipe an abundance of timber can be got by floating it down 
the Jemez or Rio Grande during the high water of early 

On or near the proposed line, north of San Mateo Mountain, 
good pine is undoubtedly abundant. 

West of the Sierra Madre along Navajo Creek, there is 
enough pinon and cedar for fuel, but it will not be needed, as 
coal will be used here. Construction timber will come from the 
slopes of the Sierra Madre. 

The valley of the Little Colorado has nothing but groves of 
Cottonwood, but an abundance of large pine can be floated 
down this stream and the intersecting canons on the south side, 
from the continuous forests of the Mogoyon Range. We saw 
,much drift pine along its banks, which had made this trip. 
This business can be carried on upon a scale sufficient to fur- 
nish a heavy traffic to the road. 

This brings us to the base of the Mogoyon Range, at Canon 
Diablo, 63 miles from the junction of Navajo Creek with the 
Little Colorado. 

Thence for 60 miles west, in crossing this range, (at the im- 
mediate base of Mt. Agassiz,) we find the best timbered por- 
tion of the entire route. The trees are of immense propor- 
tions; some of them 200 feet high and 10 feet in diameter; 
pine and Douglass spruce, in forests which will furnish a per- 
manently large traffic to the road. There is certainly no pinery 
in the interior portion of the continent superior to this. For 
the supply of the mining districts of Arizona and western New 
Mexico, and the arable plains and valleys east and west of this 

range, it will be invaluable. The line on the north side of Mt. 
Agassiz would not run so completely through this timber as 
that on the south side, (Tonto Pass.) 

Descending the western slope of the Mogoyon, 10 miles 
beyond Park Spring we leave the main body of pine, and enter 
thickets of cedar and pinon, (with some pine on the higher 
ridges,) which are scattered thence to the Yampa, a distance of 
130 miles. Sufficient of the pinon is large enough for cross- 


ties, and the cedar will furnish an inexhaustible supply of cheap 

The "Black Forest'' occurs on this section, and the Aztec, 
or Juniper Range, whose slopes are covered with thickets of 
juniper, and the summits with pine. 

On the "White Mesa" and "Laja Gap" lines, cedar and 
pinon are equally abundant. 

!From near Truxton's Springs, on the Yampa, to the Colora- 
do River, about 100 miles, timber does not occur on the 
immediate line of the road, but the extreme summits of the Pea- 
cock, Wallapi, and Cerbat Ranges are covered with timber, 
which, on the latter, is abundant and of good quality, and ex- 
tends the supply to Wallapi Pass, within 50 miles of the Col- 

The Valley of the Colorado contains, near where the line 
strikes it, an extensive growth of cotton-wood and mesquite 
trees, both of which will furnish an excellent supply of fuel 
antil coal, from the canons near Callville, is substituted. This 
cotton-wood is said to be superior to that of colder climates, 
ft'Tid grows very rapidly from the warmth and length of the 
season, so that in four years it is fit to cut again. Enough 
cx^css-ties can be obtained here, without diflSculty, for the first 
^Construction of the road eastward to the Wallapi Pass, where 
^li. 6 supplies of the Cerbat Range will be met. Drift timber 
<^oines down the Colorado from the distant sources of Green 
^>:id Grand Rivers, but it is so bruised in passing through the 
Grxeat Canon, that it is not available for purposes of construc- 


In crossing the Great Basin no timber is found, except a scanty 
growth of pinon on Mt. Edgar, of the Providence Range. 
Some scattering cotton-wood grows along theMojave, and small 
^taesquite, willow and paloverde trees in the long " washes," 
^Which are so characteristic of the desert. Timber for this sec- 
tion must come from the Cerbat Range, 50 miles east of the 


Colorado, and from the Sierra Nevada, 235 miles west of the river- 
Enough good cotton-wood, however, can be obtained in th 
Colorado Valley to tie the road, if desired, for 50 miles west o 
the river (in addition to the same distance eastward.) 

It will depend on whether this division is built entirely fro 
the coast end, or also from the Colorado westward — which o 
these sources of supply will be used. It will probably all com^ 
from the Sierra Nevada, which is covered with the finest tim- 
ber, in inexhaustible quantities, extending along its entiro 
course ; chiefly pine and large red cedar, that will furnish an 
extensive trafiic to the road, for transportation into the Tulare 
Valley, and to the mines of the desert eastward. 

Covering the summit and the western slope at Tehachapa 
Pass, is an abundance of large sized oak, which may be pre- 
ferred for ties, &c. 

On the direct route to San Francisco there is pine on the 
Coast Range, and excellent forests of red-wood on its spurs, ex- 
tending to the vicinity of Gilroy. On the Chalama Pass Route 
the Coast Range supply is much less than it is farther north, 
on the routes by Panoche Grande and San Benito. 

There is no timber in the Tulare Valley, except oak, of 
which there is a great abundance near Visalia, and south 
thereof — of large-size, but inferior quality. An abundance of 
good pine and large red cedar can readily be obtained by float- 
ing it, in the winter and spring, down the Kern, Tule, Posey, 
Deer, and other rivers, from the inexhaustible supplies in thp 
Sierra Nevada — parallel to whose base the Tulare line would 
run. Early in February of this year I saw very large pine 
and cedar trees in Kern River, within a few miles of Tulare 
Lake, that had recently drifted down from the mountains. I 
believe a large timber business may be furnished to the railroad 
in this way. 

On the San Diego line there is no timber, except the desert 
willow, small mesquite, &c., from Perry Basin to the San 
Gorgonia Pass. Here there is an abundance on the San 


acinto and San Bernardino Mountains, which will maintain the 
"upply to San Diego. 

Thus it will be seen that one of the most noticeable features 
of the route we have surveyed is the amount of timber which 
3S found at numerous convenient distributing points along it. 
"Whipple and Beale have dwelt especially on this feature, 
l)oth pronouncing it to be the best supplied of any route across 
the continent. The language of our geologist. Dr. Parry, 
may most fittingly sum up the case : 

" It would be diflScult to conceive of a more convenient dis- 
tribution of these pine forests for railroad construction, or 
transportation, than that presented on the line of the 35th 
parallel. Along the entire route, located at convenient dis- 
tances for transportation, and directly available for the supply 
of adjoining treeless districts, is an abundant source of this 
necessary article, not only amply sufficient for all prospec- 
tive needs of railroad construction, but also furnishing a ma- 
terial for profitable transportation to adjoining mineral and 
agricultural districts.'* 

90 COAL, 


Coal exists in great abundance on both the " Raton Mountain' * 
and "Puntia Routes," and probably also on the "Cimarron." 

In the Raton Mountain, and on both sides of it, in company 
"with Dr. Leconte, geologist, I saw as many as twenty expo- 
sures of coal in at least a dozen different veins, the best of 
which, in reference to the purposes of the road, was found in 
the canons of the Vermejo and its branches, about 20 
miles from the line, where were two beds of ten feet thickness, 
each admirably situated for cheap mining, and of great purity 
in respect of slate and sulphur. This coal, which is bituminous, 
is hauled in wagons 70 miles, for the use of the Government, 
for blacksmithing purposes at Fort Union. Apparently, it is 
as good as the Westmoreland Coal of Pennsylvania. The 
distance from Sheridan to this coal is 260 miles. It is more 
particularly described in Dr. Leconte's report. 

In the Valley of the Galisteo, 4 miles from the " Old Placer 
Mines,'* two veins of anthracite coal, each from 3 to 4 feet 
thick, occur. This deposit lies within a short distance of our 
line, should it follow the Galisteo Valley. 

In the Tijeras Canon, 1 J mile northeast of the town of Tijeras, 
a vein of bituminous coal, 4J feet thick, was seen and traced 
by Mr. Holbrook, Division Engineer, for a distance of 2,000 
feet, by sinking small shafts along the vein. 

It seems highly probable that the anthracite near the " Old 
Placer Mines '* will be found to be bituminous coal, at some 
distance from the porphyritic dyke which adjoins it at the 
mine, and that this and other beds will be found elsewhere in 
the Galisteo Valley. A valuable seam has, indeed, been recently 
discovered near San Felipe, within 12 miles of the Rio Grande. 

Many small or otherwise inferior veins of coal were also 
found by our parties at different points along the line sufficient 


^0 indicate the wide-spread diffusion of this mineral, and to 

^empt further exploration. But having traced the existence 

of enough coal of good quality to operate the road and furnish 

it a large traflSc, for hundreds of years, we left the subject for 

future prospectors. We have reports of coal on the Purga- 

toire, 30 miles south of the Arkansas, which is represented as 

being of workable size and good quality; and there is said to 

be a vein on the first tributary south of Fort Lyon. It is, of 

course, of the greatest importance to obtain good coal as 

near as possible to the end of track in Kansas ; and these points, 

as well as the northern base of the Raton Mountains, should 

be examined for the company, to ascertain whether coal cannot 

be had before crossing that spur. 

Coal is also reported in the Pecos Valley, 5 miles above 
Anton Chico, and on the eastern slopes of Chupaynas Ridge, 
near Las Vegas. 

On the Cimarron Route Dr. Steck states that with Gen. 
Carleton, he saw on Rabbit Ear Creek, 4 miles below the 
Wagon crossing, a large vein of coal, apparently 14 feet thick. 
Should this deposit, of which I have heard from other sources, 
prove satisfactory, it will go far to offset a serious drawback in 
the almost entire absence of timber along this route. 

On the Huerfano Routes Dr. Parry reports that he met with 
Ho workable coal. 

On the route by ''Puntia PasB,*' coal quite equal to, if not 
Superior to that of the Vermejo, was seen by Col. Greenwood 
at Canon City. It occurs in two veins, from 4 to 10 feet 
thick, and the deposit extends at least 20 miles down the Ar- 
kansas Valley, below Canon City. This brings it to within 90 
tniles of Fort Lyon, or 204 miles from Sheridan, being the 
nearest certain supply of good coal to the present end of track 
that we know of. The quality is admirable, and the quantity 
apparently inexhaustible. Major Calhoun, of our party, 
estimated the size of the deposit between Hard Scrabble 
a.nd Canon City to be 100 square miles. In the Wet Moun- 
tain Park the deposits are represented as equally good. 


Major Calhoun also .discovered a thin vein in the Puntia, 
Pass, near the head of Puntia Creek, of no value except as 
indicating that such veins exist in that vicinity. It may per- 
haps lead to the discovery of larger beds. Accessible to this 
route, in the mountains wegt of the Rio Grande, coal is also 
reported to have been found. 

Accessible to the Rio Grande valley, from the mouth of the 
Galisteo southward to El Paso, a large amount of coal is found. 
The following are the localities reported, of which those on the 
Puerco, in Tijeras Canon, and near Don Pedro, are the only 
ones that have been actually examined by any of our parties. 

1st. Near San Felipe, thickness and quality reported good. 

2d. 6 miles east of Algodones, reported very good. 

3d. In Tijeras Canon, already referred to, 4 J feet thick, qual- 
ity at outcrop not very good; expected to improve when opened. 

4th. West of Las Lunas on the Puerco, of fair quality — has 
been used in Government shops. 

5th. Near La Joya, on east side of river. 

6th. In the Sierra Madalena, west of Socorro. 

7th. North of Fort Craig, 8 miles east of Don Pedro, vein 
6 J feet thick. Dr. Leconte, geologist of the expedition, 
examined this bed, and reports it of good quality, and that it 
may be worked for many years. 

8th In the Caballo Mountains, on east side below Craig. 

9th At Robelodo. 

10th. Abundantly near Donna Anna and Mesilla, on both 
sides of Rio Grande, 3 feet thick of good bituminous coal. 

In reference to the branch from Albuquerque to El Paso and 
Chihuahua these deposits along the Rio Grande assume great 
importance. They will furnish a large traffic to the road, 
besides enabling it to be operated cheaply. They are a-lso 
invaluable to the mines of silver, gold, copper, lead and iron, 
which line both sides of the Rio Grande almost continuously, 
enabling these ores to be cheaply produced and smelted; and 
they will furnish fuel to the large agricultural population which 
will before long fill up this unwooded valley. 



Deposits of coal are known to extend as far west as the 
Moqui villages, more than 300 miles from Albuquerque, 
where Newberry saw a bed 12 feet thick. This is some 50 
miles north of our surveyed route on the Little Colorado. 

The most westerly deposit reported by our geologist, Dr. 
Parry, was on the Zuni Pass line, 15 miles east of the Indian 
town of Zuni, where he saw a bed 4 feet thick, near Pescado 
Springs, at a good elevation in the bluffs for mining, and to all 
appearances sufficiently extensive to be valuable: in quality 
rather slaty at outcrop, but likely to improve as opened. There 
were also other beds, the outcrop showing along the bluff 
for several miles. This is 140 miles west of the Rio Grande. 
In the Sarocino Canon, about 30 miles west of the Rio 
Grande, and within 3 miles of our surveyed line on the El Rito, 
are 3 distinct seams of coal, averaging 3 to 4 feet in thickness ; 
one of these is 4 feet thick and apparantly without any in- 
cluded slate veins. It dips about 40° and the quality is not 
very good at the omtcrop, but it may improve at greater depth. 
The extent of the deposit remains to be proven, but as we 
hear of coal existing north, south and west of this locality 
at intervals over long distances, there is a reasonable prospect 
of finding an abundance of fair coal. 
The localities referred to are : — 

1st. On the Puerco near Pueblazion, 15 miles north of Hub- 
"bel's Ranch, (thought to be Cannel.) 

2d. In Cailada of Ojo Hedionda, 8 miles northwest of Hub- 
bel's bridge. 

3d. At Ciboleta. 

4th. Near Le Xara Springs, 50 miles south of the El Rito. 
Dr. Parry found near Accoma, 60 miles from the Rio 
Grande, and 8 miles south of our line, cannel coal in veins as 
thick as 20 inches, which the Indians use for jet ornaments, 
and very good coal at San Jose, 7 miles west of Cubero, in 
three veins, of which the total thickness was three feet — the 
thickest seam being 20 inches. 


On the San Felipe line, near the Gavilan Pass, 20 miles from 
the town of El Rito, our engineers found a good vein of coal of 
workable thickness. And on the same line, near San Pedro, 
on the divide between the Puerco and the Jemez, Mr. Holbrook 
reports having seen a vein of fine cannel coal, two feet thick, and 
nearly everywhere indications of an abundance of cannel coal; 
this was 60 miles west of the Rio Grande by his line. We 
were informed of numerous veins of coal, two to four feet 
thick, and covering an area of 40 miles, existing about 18 
miles north from our line at Agua Azul, but did not see them. 
Dr. Wizlezenus saw coal near the village of Jemez. Good coal 
is found immediately west of the Sierra Madre, near Fort 
Defiance, and is reported to extend to within a few miles of 
our surveyed line at Campbell's Pass. 

The proposed line from San Felipe, north of San Mateo 
Mountain, will probably lie nearer to extensive deposits of 
good coal than those farther south. Several localities of coal, 
in thick beds, are reported in that country, between Jemez 
and the Sierra Madre; and Simpson saw coal in the Canon de 
Chaco, near the 36th parallel, almost due north of San Mateo. 

Nearly 450 miles west of Zuiii, coal is found on the Great 
Colorado River, about 40 miles below Callville, and 150 miles 
north of Fort Mojave. We did not see it, but heard, on good 
authority, of its occurring in a vein of workable size, and of 
its having been used by the miners at El Dorado Canon. Its 
position along the immediate bank of the river, enabling it to 
be boated down cheaply to all points below, will make this 
deposit exceedingly valuable, should it prove of good quality. 

From the Colorado River westward to San Francisco, we 
met no coal and heard of none. The only deposit actually 
known in this distance is the rather inferior one at Monte 
Diablo — not far from the last named city. 

On the San Diego line I heard of coal on the Rio 
Santa Ana, 20 miles above Anaheim, reported to be a good 
workable vein, but did not see it. At San Diego, Captain 
Colton, of our party, reports the probable existence of good 


cjoal. " On the shore, just west of the light-house, indications 
^ere observed about 12 years ago by the Mormons, and 
8ome work was done, but before this was completed, the 
invasion of Utah by the United States troops took place, 
and Brigham Young ordered all the faithful to Salt Lake 
City — so the work was abandoned and has not since been 
resumed. A blacksmith, who had used the coal, pronounced 
it of good quality, burning freely with no sulphur, (some- 
thing rare on the Pacific coast;) that it welded well and 
left a very little (white) ash. The stratum was 4J feet thick 
at the bottom of a shaft 86 feet deep." 

Several veins of coal are also reported on the coast at the 
mouth of the Soledad Creek, 12 miles north from San Diego. 

Enough has been shown to prove that a large amount of good 
coal is found on this route between the Arkansas River and 
the Pacific, sufficient not only to answer all the purposes of 
the road and the resident mining, manufacturing and farming 
population, but to furnish a large traffic for transportation to 
less favored districts. 

The coal trade will, in all likelihood, be one of the largest 
sources of business the road will have. It remains to be as- 
certained whether the varieties found are as well adapted to 
the reduction of iron, as they undoubtedly are to locomotive 
use. If so, the supplies at Canon City, on the Vermejo, near 
the Placer Mountains, and along the Rio Grande, will prove 
of the greatest value, in consequence of their occurring in 
connection with rich beds of iron ore, and close to limestone. 
And, before long, we may expect this country to be filled 
'With furnaces and rolling mills like the rugged mountains 
of Wales. 

96 WATER, 


From Sheridan, the end of track in Kansas, to the Arkai^ 
sas, at Fort Lyon, water can be obtained in abundance in th^^ 
Smoky Hill River and its tributaries. Pond Creek and Goos^^ 
Creek, as far as Cheyenne Wells, 65 miles. Thence for 65 
miles, to Fort Lyon, the following are the only permanent sup- 
plies of water : 1st. The Big Sandy, (15 miles,) where the 
water runs in the sand and can always be obtained by sinking 
a few feet. 2d. Coltoria Spring^ (15 miles from Big Sandy,) 
which appears to be permanent, and will afford a sufficient 
amount for railroad purposes. 

Thence to Fort Lyon, (35 miles,) water can only be obtained 
from wells ; but, as the Santa Fe Stage Company have found 
water (although poor in quality) on this divide, by sinking 
from 35 to 75 feet, no practical difficulty to a railroad need be 
anticipated from this source. 

The water of the Arkansas River is sweet and abundant. 

Between Fort Lyon and Albuqurque, on the '* Raton Moun- 
tain routed' there is no scarcity of water, except from the mouth 
of the Chequaco to the northern foot of the Raton Mountains, 
(36 miles,) where there is no surface water in the dry seagon ; 
and between Caiion Blanco and Tijeras Canon, (40 miles,) on 
the high plateau of the Rocky Mountains, south of Santa Fe. 

In the Chequaco Valley, water will be obtained either by 
sinking or by leading it down five to eight miles from the foot 
of the Mesa del Male, on the east, where there is permanent 

From the Raton Mountains to the Pecos River, there is an 
abundance of good and permanent water in the frequent 
branches of the Cimarron, Canadian and Pecos, which the line 
crosses not far from where they emerge, sweet and copious, 
from the canons of the Rocky Mountains. 

After crossing the Pecos, the supply is less reliable. How- 


ever, in the Canada de los Diegos, 15 miles from the Pecos, is 
a. permanent spring, or, should it fail, an abundance of water 
can be had by sinking in this deep valley. For moat of the 
year, there is also a natural reservoir filled with water on the 
BUTumit of the Capote Mountain, above the line, called "Lake 
Escobel," from which the water can be led down. It can 
readily be made permanent by a little care. 

Thence for 17 miles across the summit of the Rocky Moun- 
tains to the "Lagunas," we saw no water in September when 
We passed over this country ; but in the Caflon Blanco, for 10 
roiles of this distance, no difficulty will be found in obtaining 
a. good supply either by wells or tanks. 

At the " Lagunas" water is found in six or seven small lakes, 
a-ud is permanent, except in very dry seasona. The supply can 
readily be increased, artificially, to meet any demands. From 
the best information, these lakes have not been known to go 
entirely dry but once in the last 12 years. 

West of the Lagunas, 17 miles on the same elevated plateau, 
IS the Chorro Spring, which is called permanent. Should it 
Qot prove so, it will be necessary to form an artificial tank or 
oasin, like the Lagunas, into which the water can be drained 
m the wet season and stored for use. The conformation of the 
Surface on this plateau, favors the cheap construction of such 

From Chorro to permanent water in the Tijeras Cailon, or 
* Carnouille Pass," is 17 miles. Thence to the Rio Grande, 
tliere is sufficient water.. 

It will be seen that almost the sole important water scarcity 
'^n this route exists between Canon Blanco Summit and the 
Rio Grande. This can be avoided entirely by taking the Gal- 
^Bteo Route, on which there is an abundant supply in the south 
l>ranch of the Galisteo, 15 miles from that summit, and thence 
tile line follows a small stream of running water to within 15 
•oiles of the mouth. From this point to the Rio Grande, water 
Can at any time be readily had by sinking a few feet, and occa- 
sionally it rises to the surface. The Galisteo water is some- 

l oionaily it rises 


what alkaline in places and in dry seaaona, but not to a seri* 

The Oimarron Route is sufficiently well watered between Ha 
ker and the point of leaving the Arkansas, 153 miles, but thei 
to Fort Union, 300 miles, it ia poorly watered. However, fro] 
the best information, there are springs or creeks along it, fro) 
6 to 15 miles apart, where sufficient water can be had for rai 
road purposes, except at two points, to wit : from the " lower 
to the "middle Cimarron" spring, 28 mUes, and from the 
kansas River to Band Creek, 52 miles. The first is probaW 
not too great a distance to run a train {over light gradei 
if it be found difficult to obtain water in the interval by wd 
or artificial reservoirs. On the second Jornada, a supply mi 
be retained by proper appliances at the " Old Battle ground; 
20 miles from the Arkansas, or other similar depresaio 
where it accumulates in wet seasons. Elsewhere on the Ji 
nada, wells or tanks must be adopted. 

The Puntia Pass Route is well watered all the way, the onl 
portion of the line not occupied by the Arkansas or its tribab 
ries and the Rio Grande, being the San Luis Park, which i 
occupied by numerous streams whose sources are in the mom 
tains on either aide. 


We passed over this section, including western New Mexii 
and the whole of Arizona, from the middle of October to t£ 
middle of January, the dryest season of the year. 

From the Rio Grande to the Puerco, 21 miles, there is n 
surface water ; but it can be had at the eastern foot of the ridj 
by sinking, and also on the summit, where Mr. Miller repof 
that a large area of country has its drainage into lakes, whiij 
if properly excavated and lined with cement, would furnish 
never failing supply. 

In the Puerco water is permanent about eight months of tb 
year, and can be made permanent by sinking or dammin, 

From the Faerco to the summit of the Sierra Madre, tb 


valley of the El Rito from ita mouth, 73 miles, to the Agua 
A z ul, (a fine permanent spring between the Sierra Madre and 
San Mateo Mountain,) will afford a sufficient supply of water 
for railroad purposes, and at many points it Is used for irriga- 
tion by the Mexicans and Pueblo Indiana. 

J'rom Agua Azul it ia 'lb miles to a basin or laguna at Carizo, 
axid 10 miles more to the Ojo del Oso, a spring in Navajo Pass. 
Trom this Pass to the Little Colorado wo have the valley of 
Navajo Creek, (Puerco of the west,) which, being dry part of 
the year, will require tanks or shallow wells. These will un- 
doiibtedly furnish all the supply needed. 

The Little Colorado is sometimes alkaline, bat furnishes 
abundant permanent water to the Ca3on Diablo, at the base of 
tl»€ Mogoyon Range, 

These mountains, better known here as the "San Francisco 
Mountains," are well watered. They have the summer rains 
ttr temporales of New Mexico, besides the winter rainy season 
of California. Even at Fort Whipple, which is much lower 
a-nd dryer, there were 86 rainy days from December 1, 1866, 
to December 1, 1867 ; and 19J inches of rain fell in that year. 
The water occurs in the San Francisco mountain country in nume- 
rous springs, and is also found emerging from the base of the lava 
Walla or beds of the caflons and valleys. Dr. Parry has shown 
how these lava-coated valleys thus serve the purose of cov- 
ered acequiai to convey the fertilizing water precipitated in 
the mountain ridges to the lower fertile valleys. By being 
thus covered, the water is preserved from evaporation. 

These cailons, which are very numerous, and of all sizes, 
caa be made available in the dryer region, west of Mt. 
-A.gassiz, as natural reservoirs, to increase the supply of water 
*U the dry season. It is only necessary to construct dams 
Across them, which can be done very cheaply, and thus the 
a.buiidant supply of water with which they are filled in the 
rainy seasons is maintained all the year round. This can 
GTen be done to a sufficient extent for irrigation where re- 
^luired, and for limited water power. 


^B "Leri 

^B water 

In the Val de Chino, which drains long ranges of higb moun-' 
tains, abundant water can be obtained, without doubt, by -wellB. 
of no great depth. It may also be obtained from tbe ir 
tains on either side by forming reservoira, and leading the 
water down therefrom. 

The same in Aubrey Cove. 

From Truxton'a Spring there are springs at convenient' 
distances to the Great Colorado — except between Wallapi Pass 
and the River, (50 miles,) on which part of the line water mast 
be obtained from the adjacent Cerbat Range or Black Moua 
tains, and from the Pass itself, and led down to the line. 

A very different state of affairs from that on the outward 
march existed when our return party passed over this country 
in March, April and May, (1^68.) Indeed, they found every- 
where too much water — and nowhere a dearth. Mr. Schuyler 
reports that on I7th of March, Partridge Creek, at its monthf 
was pouring a large stream out into the Val de Chino. On 
the "White Mesa," which had before been so dry, there was » 
great abundance, and the "ground was thoroughly saturated." 
Oa March 24th, "Stormy Hollow," instead of being a dry 
ca2on, was a torrent, 50 feet wide and three feet deep. Oi 
the western slope of the Sierra Mogoyon "every gulel 
and hollow had its running stream, and the ground was every- 
where full of springs. No one could easily imagine that there 
could be any scarcity of water at any season." Near Mt.' 
Sitgreaves, March 26th, all the ravines contained clear run- 
ning streams. In Cedar Creek, Mr, Holbrook reports "a 
fine running stream large enough to run a small steamboat. 
Leonard's Tank, near Cataract Creek, contained 1,000 barrels 
of water, (this was evidently permanent water.) On March 
28th, the warm weather was melting the snow very rapidly, 
and in every ravine there was a clear, sparkling rill running 
down the hillsides, and in Patk Creek a stream varying froM 
100 to 2,000 feet wide, and two feet deep. On March 31,: 
Leroux Park was a lake, covered with about three feet oS 

*' Antelope Park, a great lake and swamp." 

•'Antelope Creek full of water." 

" Through the valley east of San Franciaco Ridge a small 
stream of water running." 

•' Waterpool Canon, filled by a atream half as large aa the 
f^ansaa, rushing through it." 

•'Along Secretary Valley every little ravine contains a 
running stream, and lakes from one-fourth to two miles in 
diameter are frequent." 

"Engineer Lake, 5 miles wide, and 7 to 10 miles long; 
no apparent outlet; supplied during the spring rains and 
tliawa; apparently permanent." 

"Padre Canon, full of water, boiling, roaring, atumbling, 
like all the rest." 

" Canon Diablo, a torrent like every other valley and eaiion 
in. the country; water eight feet deep, and running very swift." 

This was on the south aide of Mt, Agassiz, On the north side 
' ' Trog Canon " had a pool of water 75 feet long, 30 wide, and 
5 feet deep ; water permanent : and between Mt. Kendrick and 
Falls of Little Colorado, Schuyler found five or six large tanks, 
fVcni 100 to 200 feet diameter, circular, and apparently 5 or 
Q feet deep, constructed by the Indians. They probably con- 
tain water all the year. One in particular, sheltered by pine 
tr«es in a beautiful valley, had been enlarged by a dyke or 
^Jaibankment thrown up across its outlet, and appeared to be 
SXjpplied by springs. Its depth was estimated at 10 to J2 feet. 

"Thence to the Little Colorado, littiotrickiingatreams flowed 
***. every ravine." 

April 1, 1808. Mr. Holbrook reports "immense bodies of 
"^ater running down the aides of Mount Agassiz, where, in De- 
*iemher laat, there was not a drop." 

April 10. "Signal CaSon is a fine running stream." 

The Mogoyon Plateau, on Sunset Gap line, was dotted over 
■^ith small lakes, from one quarter to half mile in diameter, 
Slaving outlets towards the Colorado River, and in nearly every 
Ravine was a clear, sparkling rill. 

•• • 



• • « 


• • • 


• • 

April 18. ^^ A fine stream of running water in Rancheria 

East of the San Francisco Mountain^ on April 24, the "Dry 
Fork," a tributary of the Little Colorado, was a stream 100 
feet wide and 20 feet deep. In May the Puerco had a fine 
stream of muddy water ten feet wide and three feet deep, where 
the San Felipe line crossed it. 

The Jemez, May 21, was 600 to 800 feet wide, and from six 
inches to a foot deep, and water good. 

June 7. " A stream of fine water in the main Galisteo, 
nearly to its head/' 

June 5. Tecolote Creek now has a stream of water 75 to 
100 feet wide, and the Pecos 100 feet wide, six to ten feet 
deep, and running at " Billendante " with extreme velocity. 

Evidently, where such supplies as these exist, there will be no 
difficulty in a country of cafiions and natural basins, in obtain- 
ing by a little care an abundance of water throughout the 
year. Besides these winter or spring supplies, in Central Arizona 
there are summer rains as in New Mexico, which begin about 
middle or 20th of July, and continue with showers every after- 
noon for perhaps a month. This rainy season lasts from about 
the middle of July to the last of September. With Capt. Beale, 
in 1859, it began about July 1st, at the Colorado River. This 
indefatigable and intelligent explorer, who appears to have 
made the trip between the Rio Grande and the Colorado, on 
the 35th parallel, at every season of the year, reports that he 
always found sufficient water; and Whipple remarks "that 
this route is particularly favored by rain, and that the Zufii 
region, the vicinity of the San Francisco Mountains, (Mogoyon 
Range,) and the Aquarius Range, have evidently a large supply 
of precipitated moisture.'' 


In crossing the Great Basin, from the Colorado River to the 
base of the Sierra Nevada, 235 miles, there is but one permanent 
stream, the Mojave River, parallel to which our line runs 
for 25 miles. For most of this distance the level of the 


river ia above that of the line, which occupies a long basin, 
separated from the river by a low ridge of sand. There is, 
indeed, but one place on the entire line from the Colorado to 
the Mojave River, Piute Summit, which is as high as the last 
named river where our line crosses it, and the difference in this 

I case is but 200 feet, 
r This suggests a plan by which, should it become necessary, 
later may be cheaply supplied to any point along the greater 
(ttrt of the line on this desert, by conveying it in pipes from 
the Mojave River. 

The detached basioa which we cross, however, constitute the 
drainage of such extensive mountain districts, (Perry Valley, 
o£ some 2,000 square miles,) that there is scarcely a doubt 
but water can be obtained in them anywhere by wells of 
moderate depth, especially as cemented layers, apparently 
impervious to water, are common in the drift, where seen on the 
banks of the Colorado and Mojave, and elsewhere on the 

This cannot be considered speculative, since, in crossing 
the Great Basin, further north, from Virginia City to Salt 
Lake, we found that the overland stage road relied, with some 
exceptions, for nearly 500 miles, for water on wells sunk in 
similar basins in a very arid country. They are about twelve 
miles apart, and water is usually obtained at a depth of from 
10 to 100 feet. One or two wells are as deep as 400 feet, but 
in all cases water had been obtained except one. 

Furthermore, in the high mountains which everywhere border 
our line in crossing the desert, we discovered, during the 
survey, several springs heretofore unknown, also natural tanks 
in the rocky canons. And I have no doubt but that, when 
the desert is more fully explored, these supplies will be found 
sufiGciently abundant to answer all necessary purposes. The 
!Piute Indians, who occupy these mountain fastnesses, evidently 
tave no diESculty in obtaining water, even to the extent of 
irrigating occasional small patches of land, where they cultivate 
corn and pumpkins. 

We were told that it would be impossible to explore for a 
line on the desert because of scarcity of water, but we spent 
over three weeks almost entirely off the traveled route, (which 
crosses the highest summits,) and, although frequently pressed, 
eventually found water, more or less permanent, within prac* 
tie able distances. 

On this subject, the geologist of the survey, Dr. Parry, 
states that, "the same condition of things which allows tlie 
existence of natural springs would also warrant the opinion 
that an aqueous substratum underlies all the depressed basins 
or valleys; hence, by digging at sufGeieot depth to reach an 
impervious layer, water will no doubt be found in sufficient 
quantity for railroad purposes." Prof. Blake, of Captain 
Whipple's survey, expresses the same opinion. 

But even if wells should fail, the line could be supplied 
between the Colorado and Perry Valley by leading down water 
from the several springs in the Providence and Piute Moun- 
tains, on the north of the line ; which, in connection with the 
Sacramento Springs, at Iritayba Gap, would adequately supply 
this part of the line. i 

From Perry Basin to the Mojave the line could be watered 
in the same way from springs or cafions in the adjoining moun- 
tains, or by pipes from the Mojave River, as above suggested. - 

Still another plan would be, to form reaervoira in the siuke 
or "washes" to receive the water that drains into them at 
certain seasons, which must aometimes be large, as we fre-'J 
quently found driftwood in them. i 

Between the Mojave River and the base of the Sierra Nevada, ' 
65 miles, there is no difficulty iu obtaining water. The^ 
line crosses or skirts a large lake, about half way, sometimes 
dry, called Williamson's Lake, which is 10 miles in diameter,' 
besides numerous small sinks, all of which contain water in the 
rainy season. These supplies are chieBy fed from the eastern 
slope of the Sierra Nevada on the left, down which an immenfle. 
amount of water pours, from rain or melted snow, by numerouftj 
streams which Sow a greater or less distance out iato th», 

desert, but finally sink. In February, this whole country, 
for 30 miles out from the base of the Sierras, was a net-work 
of lagoons, and saturated with water. It is evident that these 
supplies may be made permanent at no great expense, or that 
by BtDkiog wells, the drainage, which is underground in the 
dry seasons, may be tapped and brought to the surface. 
In crossing the Sierra Nevadas at Tehachapa Pass, there is 
an abundance of permanent water, and thence to San Fran- 

■ Cisco by any route, no difficulty exists on this account. 

The only permanent water we found in a hasty rcconnoia- 
Bance, until we reached the Agua Blanca, at the eastern foot of 
San Gorgonia Pass, was in the Morongo CaHon, about 70 miles 
from the point of divergence from the main line in Perry Basin. 
But we found two other temporary watering places, and the supply 
could be made permanent iu the same manner as proposed for 
the San Francisco line, the country being favorable thereto. 
Through the San Gorgonia Pass and thence to San Diego, 

(the country is sufGciently well watered, 
t Generally, it may be said, in regard to the water question 
On the line, across the California Desert, as well as on other 
poorly watered divisions of our route, that, at the very worst, 
a larger supply than is required for all possible railroad pur- 
poses may be obtained at a less cost than that of bridges and 
Culverts, had the country been " wel! watered " with running 
streams, and the consideration of water should not be allowed 
to affect the location of the line across tho "Great Basin" at 
all; or seriously anywhere along the route, except aa it may 
affect the comparative inhabitable qualities of the country. 



Timber has already been specially noticed. There is a great 
abundance distributed at convenient points along the route for 
purposes of construction. 

There is no point in the entire distance where cross-ties will 
require to be transported nearly as far as has been done for the 
existing track on the Plains of Kansas. 

There is no point where cotton-wood need be used for ties, 
except temporarily, to facilitate construction for 50 miles east 
of the Rio Colorado, in order to reach the Cerbat Pinery and 
obtain material for tlie Colorado Bridge, with ties for the line 
across a portion of the California Desert, 

The quality of the pine in New Mexico and Arizona is not 
always very good; but in the dry climate of this elevated pla- 
teau it will probably endure as long as the best varieties o 
wood in the Atlantic Slope, and will answer for bridging an 
all other purposes. The Douglass spruce of the San Di 
Mountain, Sierra Madre and Sierra Mogoyon is excellent. 

Timber can be floated down the Arkansas and the Rio Grande ^»^ -j 
with its tributaries, during the summer rise, from the mountaiiM^i^i 
supplies to the points of crossing. The experience of th 
Union Pacific Railroad on the Laramie and other rivers 
the Rocky Mountains upon their line during the past year, h 
demonstrated how readily and cheaply this can be done. 

Timber can likewise be floated down the Little Colorado an 
its tributarje3 from the Mogoyon Range during the sprin 
thaw; and down the Kern and numerous other rivers in th 
Tulare Valley from the forests of the Sierra Nevada in winter 
and possibly in winter down the Mojave from the San Bema 
dino Mountain, for the supply of the line on the desert. The las 
at all events, could have been done at the time of our surve; 
in January, 1868. Drift pine comes down the Colorado, b 
is found to be too much injured by its long passage over roc 
beds to be usefuL 



The whole line is well supplied with building stone, limestone, 
&c. Ea%t of the Rio Grrande there is the wood-colored sand- 
stone of Fort Wallace, the quarry at Fort Lyon, of excellent 
sandstone, which extends up the valley of the Purgatoire farther 
than our line follows it; the eruptive rocks of the Raton 
Mountain ; good sandstone and limestone thence to the Pecos 
River; other sandstone not so good in crossing the Canon Blanco 
Summit; granite and limestone in the San Dia Range, and 
extensive deposits of limestone between these and the Placer 

Between the Rio Chrande and the Colorado occur the exten- 
sive sandstone beds which line the El Rito Valley ; the superior 
Jemez marble; the indestructible lava rocks, which are abundant 
all the way to the Sierra Madre, and will be very useful for 
many purposes of construction and especially for ballasting; 
the El Rito gypsum, whose prepared material will be useful in 
bridging, lining of tanks, acequias, &c. ; the granite and car- 
boniferous limestone of the Sierra Madre ; and the cretaceous 
sandstones between this range and the Mogoyon, of which Dr. 
Parry says: "Although mostly unfitted for the purposes of 
railroad construction, yet, in the arid climate where they are 
mainly located, they will furnish an unlimited supply of cheap 
material, easily worked, and sufficiently durable for storehouses 
and stations.'* Gypsum is also found in the Little Colorado 
Valley on this section. 

In crossing the Mogoyon Range we find the greatest quantity 
of superior building stone — the thick beds of magnesian lime- 
stone in Cafton Diablo, Pine and Cottonwood Cafions, the 
granite of Padre Cafton and the Summit; and lava rock every- 
where and in all varieties. 

At the western base of this range. Col. Greenwood reports 
the lime rock of Partridge Creek and the flat sandstone of the 
Laja Range, bordering the Val de Chino, to be very good — the 
latter "as good a building stone as I ever saw." 

Next we have the good limestone and sandstone of " Trux- 




toa's CaSon," and Whipple's party found granite in the Aqua- 
rius Range. 

Wo did not observe any but ordinary building stone near the 
Colorado River, but the facility of water transportation here 
throws open an extended area in which to obtain a supply 
from along its banks. 

West of the Rio Colorado the coarse granitic and por- 
phyritic rocks of the desert mountains will furnish a building, 
stone that will answer for ordinary purposes. Better granite 
and some marble arc found along the Mojave, and there 
is a wide-spread diffusion of lava rocks from the Colo- 
rado to the Sierra Nevada as indestructible as could be 
wished. There is also, on most of the route across the desert,, 
an inexhaustible quantity of the finest gravel ballast, which 
will enable the road-bed, once made in tbia dry climate, to.' 
remain permanently in a superior condition with the slighteHt; 
work. It may also be transported to other less favored sefi^ 
tions of the line. 

In the Sierra Nevada, Mr. Runk, division engineer, report* 
an excellent granite, easily quarried and accessible to tbe lin^ 
at Tehachapa Pass. 

On the iSan Diego line granite occurs in the San Bernardino 

On this subject Dr. Parry, the geologist of the survey, states 
in genera] terms : - 

"Other crude material connected with the work of econo- 
mical railroad construction, such as building stone, lime, cemen^, 
gypsum, clay, &c., are located along the line of the road, at 
fluch distances that they can be conveniently employed in pro- 
cesses of first construction and repairs, and also afford mate^ 
rial for transportation. In this class is especially noticeably 
the superior quality and great abundance of rock suitable fot^ 
buildings or heavy masonry, wbieh, in different varieties of! 
texture and composition, adapt them to a great variety of spe^ 


The experience of our engineer parties has covered, in going 
tLTkd returning, nearly every season "of the year, giving U3 a 
la.xge amount of exact information on this subject ; and we have, 
besides, the results of the experience of previous explorers — 
Wlipple, Eeale, Aubrey, Willis, Chavez, Leroux and others, 
^bo have traversed the route, or a portion of it, in different 
years. Altogether, these observations cover such an extended 
period, that we may say there is very little to learn about the 
alimate of this route, aa it may affect railroad construction or 
travel, or the adaptation of the country to settlement. 
A^lthough a vast new region, inhabited for the most part solely 
t*y Indians and game, we have such a mass of information on 
tlais subject, including the records of the military posts, that 
**"« can feel entirely confident of the practical deductions that 
**a ay be made from this data. 

The route throughout is singularly favored in the matter 
•^^ climate. The people of the eastern half of our conti- 
**«nt have scarcely a conception of the physical pleasure of 
**i.ere existence in the pure air and fine weather of this elevated 
Southern plateau. For healthfulneaa, it is conceded to have no 
^■«aperior. In our engineer parties, numbering, with attaches, 
^ome 150 young men, and exposed to numerous hardships, there 
~*v-as not, either going or returning, a single case of real aick- 
*Xe8s, and all came home much heartier and more robust than 
"*vhen they started. This covered a winter in the mountain 
*"€gions of Arizona. Our experience, in this respect, agrees 
"Vvith that of Beale, .who eaya ; " During the entire winter (of 
'X.858-9) my men were exposed night and day to the open atmos- 
t»liere — some not using for the whole journey their tenta, and 
Others but very rarely, yet not one of them had occaaion to 
Complain of the slightest sickness during the journey." 


The observations taken by Dr. Parry, and the records which 
he obtained from the various government posts, show a remark- 
able uniformity of temperature throughout most of the route. 

For railroad purposeSy the climate is unexceptionable. I 
am satisfied that on no portion of the line will there be any 
greater liability to interruption of trains from snow or other 
winter obstacles, than there is, for instance, on the Pennsyl- 
vania Central Railroad. 

Personally, I passed over the entire mountain country west 
of the Rio Grande — including the Sierre Madre, two crossings 
of the San Francisco Mountains, (highest summit on the line,) 
and the Sierra Nevada — in the winter season^ from the middle 
of October, 1867, to the middle of February, 1868, without 
encountering but one snow storm, or seeing any snow lying 
on the ground, except at one point. This was a fall of two 
inches, at Fort Wingate, New Mexico, which had disappeared 
from the summit of the Sierra Madre by noon of the following 

During this period the days were uniformly mild and plea- 
sant, and, although the nights were sometimes cold, I rarely 
used a tent on the journey. 

Our wagon trains made this long winter march through the 
mountains without difficulty, the mules and the herd of beef 
cattle, which was driven along from the Rio Grande nearly to 
the Colorado, finding an abundance of gramma and bunch 
grass even on the highest summits. 

Our party, on the return survey, encountered several storms 
of snow in Arizona and Western New Mexico, but it melted 
rapidly, and did not prevent the animals from thriving on the 
constant 'good grass. 


On the great plains of Kansas and Southern Colorado, a fall 
of sometimes as much as 18 inches of snow takes place about 
the middle of December, but is rarely troublesome. During 


January and February there is generally no snow. There is 
^pt to be a considerable storm of snow about the last of March 
or first of April, but it does not drift, and usually disappears 
in two or three days. 

In the valley of the Arkansas, as high up as Fort Lyon, 
probably never over six inches of snow falls. Average yearly 
temperature at this post, about 64°, On the Raton Mountain 
there is more snow than at any other point on the entire route 
to the Pacific. It sometimes falls here in the spring to a depth 
of 2J feet. Where our line crosses it at " Cimarron Pass," the 
elevation is not sufficient in this latitude to permit it to lie 
long enough to give trouble. Stock is driven in numbers to 
winter in the canons intersecting this range. 

On the range of the Rocky Mountains, east of the Rio 
Grande, (the Spanish Range,) snow is said to fall occasionally 
to a depth of one or two feet, but it lies but a few days, and 
there are no points on the line into which it can drift to cause 
any trouble. 

At Santa Fe, twenty to forty miles north of the line, citizens 
say the heaviest falls of snow they have seen do not exceed 
fifteen inches, and these are extremely rare, and in all 
cases disappear rapidly, sleighing never lasting more than two 
or three days at a time. 

In the Valley of the Rio Grande, at Albuquerque, snow 
rarely falls, and at Mesilla winter is scarcely known, figs being 
cultivated with great success. 

On the " Cimarron Routes* south of the Arkansas, very little 
snow falls, and that quickly melts. 

On the '' Puntia Pass" route the only snow of consequence 
is at the Pass itself, where, for a distance of twelve miles, in 
crossing the Rocky Mountain Summit, there would be much 
snow; but, owing tp the open character of the Pass, and the 
fact that the storms are all from the east, and are broken by 
the mountains before reaching the Pass, and also owing to 
the fact that this neck intervenes between the deep warm Valley 


of the Arkansas on one aide, and the broad open Park of San -m 
Luis on the other, it ia not probable that there would be as ^ 
much practical obstruction to travel as on New England roads; ^ 
while the distance within the snow belt is very abort. 

At Fort Garland, which is higher than the San Luia Park, 
the yearly mean temperature for five years, from 1859-' 
inclusive, was 43° 14'. 


But little auow falls east of the Sierra Madre. On the aum— 
mit of that range, at Navajo Pass, (7,177 feet,) there was a(m 
snow early in November, 1807, when our parties crossed it_ 
There had been, on October SI, a fall of two inchea, wbicla 
disappeared the next day. Whipple met none there late ii»_ 
November, 1853. Chavez met a very little in crossing thi^ 
range December 21, 1863, but it was thawing December 25— 
Our return party, under Mr. Holbrook, encountered a severs 
anow storm on the 5th of May, at Agua Fria, in this ranges 
but it only lasted two hours, and melted almost immediately^ 
Navajo Pass is a broad smooth plateau, from three to ten milel 
wide, which would not give trouble even if considerable aooif 
should fall, which is not the caae. There may be very rEirel;^ 
a fall as deep as eighteen inchea, but it melts rapidly. Atll 
Fort Wingate, the yearly mean temperature, from 1863— '6 
inclusive, was 52". 

From the Sierra Madre to the Great Colorado, the only 
place where snow falls in any quantity ia on the Mogoyon Range^^ 
(San Francisco Mountains,) where our line finds its highest 
summit between the two oceans, (7,510 feet.) I crossed thift 
summit twice, about the middle of November and again abou& 
the middle of December, without finding any snow. On thoa 
first occasion there was none even on the top of Mt. Agaasiz, < 
12,000 feet above the ocean. On the middle of December Mt;^ 
Agassiz bad a silvery crown, which extended aa far down oaW 
the slopes as a point about 2,000 feet above our heads, tha J 


days were warm, and even the nights not unpleasantly cool for 
the bivouac, while our animals found the finest grazing every- 
where. On the inarch thence westward to the Colorado River 
I saw no snow even on the highest mountains, and the climate 
was the finest I had ever experienced. 

At Fort Whipple, adjoining Prescott, from Decemher 1, 
1866, to December 1, 1867, the number of snowy days were 
nine ; the total fall of snow, in the year, 32 J inches; the mean 
winter temperature 41°; the mean summer temperature 78°; 
and the mean yearly temperature 57°. 

On the San Francisco Mountains, about the first of the year 
(1854,) Whipple found eight inches of snow, but he states that 
it was nowhere drifted ; did not form suflScient obstruction to 
prevent his mules from faring well upon the gramma grass, and 
that this winter was exceptionally severe. He adds that 
Leroux, for three previous winters, had seen these mountain 
peaks devoid of snow. 

Col. E. W, Willis, who established Fort Whipple, informs 
me that he has had a personal experience in the San Francisco 
ISlountains during three winters, 1863, '64 and '65, and a 
somewhat further one from reports of parties of troops under 
his command. That he has never seen, himself, any snow there 
except on the high peaks, and only knows of two occasions when 
liis parties found any of consequence — once when he sent a 
j>arty across late in January — they reported a fall of ten inches, 
\>jit it did not cause them to lose their animals although they 
"were without forage. Again, a government train was snowed 
in three or four days; they reported twenty inches of snow; 
tliis was an unexampled winter in New Mexico and Arizona. 
He adds: "I believe, from all my knowledge, that the winter 
fall of snow will not average more than four inches per 
annum, and that, at no time, does it lie long. In the summer 
the climate is delightful, the summer rains falling daily in 
showers during the hotter months, making it all that is desirable 
as a climate." 

General E. F. Beale'a testimony is even stronger. He 
states, in a letter tome: "I was employed by the War Depart- 
ment, about four years, in the exploration and location of a 
wagon road on that line, (35th parallel,) and passed two winters 
on it. During that time, I do not recall a single day in which 
we ceased work or travel on account of the snow, or from the 
rigor of the climate. I passed the latter part of the month 
of January about the summit of San Francisco Mountains, 
and the 4th of February, 1858, on it, where I found the deepest 
snow, and in fact almost the only snow I have ever seen on the 
line west of the Rocky Mountains. It was on the level about 
six inches deep, and up to the knees in drifts, and covering 
over six miles. / traveled with imj camp fully twenty miles 
during that day. On all the southern exposures there waa no 
snow, and after crossing the summit I halted my men and 
turned out the mules to graze for an hour before proceeding to 
Leroux Spring, because the grass on the southern hillsides was 
so good. In all my experience in that country, I repeat that 
I never laid up a day between Albuquerque and the Colorado 
on account of snow, or in fact anywhere on the line, nor havo 
I ever seen snow deep enough on it to impede travel." 

There only remains to add the experience of our return parties 
in the spring of 1868. The spring is evidently the only eea- 
8on in which snow of any consequence occurs. On the 23d of 
March, on the west slope, they reported that it snowed all the 
afternoon, but soon disappeared. On the 27th of March, at 
the Moqui Pass and the summit north of Mt. Agassiz, there 
was no snow on the ground. On March 29th, near the summit, 
on the south aide, there was a snow storm for two hours; San 
Francisco Mountain was covered with snow. Early in April 
there was a little snow to be seen in sheltered places (between 
Antelope and Leroux Parks, near the summit of the range. On 
the 4th and 5th of April, it snowed at intervals, but little fell. 
■On April 12th, a blinding snow storm occurred in Secretary 
Valley, and on the Mogoyon Mesa, from six to eight inches 

lying on the grouad, but the next day the snn came out with a 
warm breeze, and all traces had disappeared by the 14th. 

If there is to be the slightest particle of obstruction, even 
the most temporary, from snow, anywhere west of tho Rio 
Grande, it will be in this range! Hence, the evidence in regard 
to it has beea carefully collected, and it covers so many winters, 
and all seasons of the year so thoroughly, that there is no 
room left for the slightest apprehension on this subject. 

In Western Arizona, between the Mogoyon Range and the 
Colorado, which was reached about the middle of January, 
1868, none of our parties saw any snow on the outward march. 

Whipple reports a fall several inches in depth in the Aztec 
B.aiige on the 18th of January, 1854 ; but says four days after- 
■wards it had disappeared; and after leaving this range, he saw 
no more indications, except near a few mountain summits. 
In the Black Forest and Val de Chtoo "nature Lad put forth 
spring flowers and green herbage." 

Our return parties encountered, in March, 1868, several 
snow storms between the Wallapi Valley and Mogoyon Range, 
usually in the afternoons and at night, the mornings being 
clear and warm. These storms did not, however, prevent the 
mules from "picking up" on the march, the grass being fresh 
and green early in March. The fall never exceeded two 
inches, and usually melted all away the following morning or 
same day. 

^^ery \ 


Valley of the Colorado, on the thirty-fifth parallel, ia 
'ery warm during the whole summer; the thermometer rising 
to 110°, and being rarely under 90° at night. Frost occurs 
only in December and January, and there have been two 
winters in the last four at Fort Mojave during which there was 
no ^rost at all. Snow and hail are unknown. The trees in 
1867 were out in full leaf early in February, and about De- 
cember 31, 1867, when we passed, their foliage was still green, 
as were the water-melon, cucumber and tomato vines, and the 


^B ooreu 


cotton was in blossom. The Indians were selling water-melons 
aa we passed the fort. Tlio first froat for this winter, at Fort 
Mojave, was January 6, 1868. 

The Mormons raise sugar and cotton 150 to 200 miles north 
of this, at their settlements on the Virgin and its tributaries. 

The temperature of the Colorado River, on Christmas day, 
was 58°; of the air, 67°. On the 10th of January, on thi 
higher summits of the Providence Mountain, there was a snoi 
storm, which lasted an afternoon and night, some two or threi 
inches lying on the ground; but it did not extend as low dowi 
as Piute Pass, the most elevated point on that part of our line., 
I met no snow thence to San Francisco, and foand the weathei 
generally very mild. 

There was no snow on the summit of the Sierra Nevada, 
Tehachapa Pass, the 7th of February, when I crossed this 
snowy range. I learned that there had been as much as sic 
inches of snow there during the winter. There was a beautiful 
rich prairie, with a fine oak grove and farm houses, {Tehachap» 
settlement,) at the summit, and the grass and flowers were 
springing up. Descending westward into the Tulare Valley, 
the plain was covered, as far as the eye could reach, with 
beautiful Sowers new to us, and we found ourselves in the. 
paradise of a California spring. 

On the route to San Francisco, we saw a little anow on the 
higher crests of the Coast Range, which is said to be extra- 

After I had left Tehachapa, Mr. Hunk, Division Engineer^ 
reported that two inches of snow fell, in all, on the Sierra 
Nevada during the month of February, lying but a few hours. 

On the route of the branch to San Diego, there is scarcely 
ever any snow. Even on the summit of the Cordilleras, at San 
Gorgonia Pass, were fine vineyards, and orchards, and live oak 
trees. On the Slst of January the grass was green, and the'cli- 
late like May, and in the Los Angelos Valley, two weeks before, 
our engineers had been luxuriating, after their long march, upon 
oranges which they gathered from the trees in the open air. 



The rich yalleya and plaiDs of Eaatern Kansas are sufficiently 
■^ell known. 

From the end of the track at Sheridan to the Arkansas at 
E'ort Lyon, a distance of 120 miles, the country is adapted to 
grazing for migrating flocks and herds — probably 'worthless for 
a.ny other purpose. 

From the Arkansas, by the Raton Mountain Itoute to the 
Hio Grande, is a good grazing country all the way, the vicinity 
<:>f the Raton Mountains and the Cimarron CaHons being unsar- 
jjasaed in the United States. No attention is required for 
stock in the winter. Even the summit of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, where the line crosses it, is covered with good grass. 

Throughout this entire country, cattle, sheep, and mules 
<3aTi be raised so abundantly and so cheaply that the road 
-^ill enjoy an immense business from their transportation, and 
^C^hat of wool and hides. That this is not imaginary is shown 
t>y the large Texan cattle trade which the road already has, 
^3*,moiintiog recently to about 16,000 head per month. 

Arable wealth of this section. — Dr. Leconte, Geologist of the 
^Survey, sums up his report by saying: "It is, therefore, 
apparent that from the Arkansas River to Fort Craig, the 
agricultural resources of the country are not only ample for 
the supply of a large population, but that one of the products, 
, may be made a source of revenue to the road beyond the 
Umands of local traffic." 

Let us see more in detail where and what these resources 

WB. We have — 

Ist. The valley of the Arkansas, cultivated by irrigation, 

Lbnt exceedingly fertile. It will undoubtedly furnish a large 

i flnrplus of breadstufFs, fruits, &c., to be carried east, west, north 

I tnd south, Eifty bushels of excellent wheat are raised to the 

wre in the valley above Fort Lyon. 


2J. The valley of the Purgatory, which the line follows for, 
50 milea, and which is rich and readily irrigated. Dr. LeconU 
reports that it yields 80 bushels of Sonora wheat to the acre, anj' 
that 60 bushels of oats are not unusual. This valley contains 
good arable land, capable of irrigation for 100 miles above 
where the line leaves it, and produces at Trinidad, 100 i 
from its mouth, good crops of corn, wheat and oats. There, it 
is about one mile wide, with bottom land a quarter of a mile 
in width. 

3d. Both slopes of the Raton Mountain. Along the northern 
foot, from Trinidad eastward to Cimarron Pass, a distance of 
50 miles, the country is rich and beautiful, and contains s 
number of ranches. It is exceedingly healthy, and althouglt 
the land requires to be irrigated, this is very conveniently anct 
cheaply done in consequence of the abundance of mountain 
creeks. I counted five of these, with valleys averaging thre^ 
quarters of a mile in width, and enclosed between long, loiT 
spurs of the Haton Mountains, in riding from Trinidad east- 
ward to Trinchera, 35 miles. In four of these I was informed' 
that the water never fails. In the fifth it does not fail new 
the source. I saw a few fields of wheat aad other crops, an<| 
very large herds of cattle and sheep. 

4th. From the R^ton Mountain to the Pecos River, i 
Anton Chico, 160 miles, the numerous little valleys watered by 
the tributaries of the Cimarron, Canadian, and Pecos, which 
head in the mountains on the west, make the entire countrj 
productive and inhabitable. 

Irrigation only is necessary, and this is readily accomplislietl^ 
by proper appliances, as for instance, at Kroenig's, near Fort 
Union, where the waters of the Moro are led into a large arti- 
ficial lake one-eighth of a mile in diameter, and 20 feet d 
which serves to keep under cultivation 2,500 acres, on wliicli 
are raised excellent crops of all kinds of grain and vegetables, 
(except potatoes.) The valley of the Moro is cultivated for 3 
miles above Kroenig's, and 13 miles below. Along the foot 
of this range, (Spanish Range,) is a cordon of small Mexican 



settlements, which extend from the Raton Mountain to the 
Pecos River, whose inhabitants cultivate the fertile valleys o 
the "Dry Cimarron," the Vermejo, the Ponaro, the Cimarron, 
the Ocate, the Moro, the Gallinas, Spring Hollow, the Teca- 
lote, the Pecos, and others, which the line of survey crosses. 
Besides Las Vegas, which has a population of 2,300, there 
are Anton Chico and 18 other towns in the Valley of the 
Pecos alone, within 20 miles of our crossing, which contain a 
population ranging from 200 to 1,000 each. 

This population, which lives entirely by raising sheop, cattle, 
horses, mules, and producing corn, wheat, oats, melons and- 
vegetables, is kept in a state of constant alarm and uncer- 
tainty by the fears of incursions of the Navajoes and Apaches. 
In the Valley of the Pecos, near Anton Chico, grapes, 
peaches, and other fruits are raised, and the valley is cultiva- 
ble for 90 miles below to Fort Sumner, and wherever there is 
bottom land, for 90 miles above Anton Chico. 

5th. Between the Pecos River and the Rio Grande, 90 
miles — in crossing the eastern range of the Rocky Mountains, 
there is very little land cultivated, or perhaps cultivable, by 
reason of the scarcity of water — except in the narrow valleys 
of the San Dia and Placer Mountains. 

I saw some thriving cornfields, however, in the Diegos 
Canada, near the summit ; and Cafion Blanco may be culti- 
vated throughout by artificial irrigation. 

6th. The valley of the Rio Grande, for 200 miles north and 
south of Albuquerque, has an average width of five miles, and 
appears to be formed of a highly productive loam, frequently 
covered by a drift of sand, that does not, however, seem to 
affect its fertility. Everything grows luxuriantly in this 
soil by irrigation — for which the water of the river is used 
cheaply and extensively. Wheat yields over 50 bushels, 
and corn 80 bushels to the acre, and the finest grapes are 
grown in the greatest abundance all along the valley, whose 
climate and soil are, without doubt, as specially adapted to the 
vine culture as the pasturage of the elevated mountain val eys 


and mosas, or table lands, of New Mexico ia to the cheap] 
raising of good etock. 

Of thia valley, Dr. Leconte says : " It presents a. belt of land I 
rom three to ten miles in width, which by a well-contrived « 
system of irrigation will produce moat abundant crops. For | 
vineyards it is particularly applicable. The grapes, all of I 
which belong to European species, are superior to any of our I 
own hot-house varieties. Fruits of the temperate zone, cereals i 
and ordinary garden vegetables, (except potatoes,) are easily I 
raised in the irrigated parts of the valley. Cotton is also | 
grown to a small extent south of the Rio Puerco." 

The valley is studded on both sides of the river with small 
villages, averaging a few hundred souls each. There are some 
forty or fifty such towns, from the mouth of tho Galieteo south- - 
ward to Fort Craig, 160 miles. 

On the Cimarron Route as far as it is a divergence from tho- 
above, the agricultural resources are very limited. From thai 
valley of the Smoky Hill to the Arkansas, 40 miles, the countrj 
is poor although it has some good grazing. For the next 100- 
miles along the Arkansas Valley the soil is very rich, th^^ 
climate genial, water for irrigation abundant, and everything 
that is planted grows abundantly. The valley is broad and_ 
level with very little alkali visible. South of the Arkansas, o 
the creeks, there is also said to he some good country. But for 
300 miles of this route, between the Arkansas near Fort Dodj 
and Fort Union, the only resource is grazing, and that ioil 
inferior. Thence to the Rio Grande the route is common t»| 
that by the Raton Mountain, above described. 

On the Puntia Pass Route, we have — 

\st. The fertile valley of the Arkansas, averaging from. . 
Lyon to Oaiion City, (130 miles,) a width of two or three miles^ . j 
with a great abundance of sweet water, and the mildest climata ] 
of any portion of Colorado. This, with the intersecting valley* 
on both sides, the Purgatory, the Apishpa, Huerfano, Cuchara, J 

, Charles and Greenhorn on the south, and the Fountain, 


■ - ■ - ■ , _ — _ __ — 

Turkey and Eight Mile Creek on the north, comprise a very 
large extent of rich arable land, the garden of Colorado. 

2d, Above the Big Canon are numerous smaller valleya 

and parks along the river, which, except when cut off by canons, 

continue to the forks of the Arkansas, 50 miles above Canon 

City ; and for 40 miles above the forks, are cultivated by the 

miners. These are only inferior to the valley below the Big 

Canon, by reason of somewhat greater altitude. South of 

these is the "Wet Mountain Park,'* 60 miles long by 80 wide. 

3rf. Crossing the range at Puntia Pass we enter the well 

watered San Luis Park, 5 to 40 miles in width, which the line 

traverses for over 100 miles, and which produces all the 

smaller grains, besides having superior value for pasturage, ex- 

celUng the best grazing lands of Texas. 

4fA. South of the San Luis Park, are numerous branch val- 
leys, the Taos, the Embuda, Cafiada Tesique, the Chama, Ojo 
Caliente and others, which join the Rio Grande, and furnish in 
connection with the valley land immediately along that stream, 
between its canons, a considerable sum total of arable district, 
filled with the small towns and settlements of unenterprising 
Mexicans and Pueblo Indians, but capable of supporting a 
large population of Anglo Saxons. 

Below the Santa Fe Cafion to Albuquerque, the Rio Grande 
tas a broad fertile valley, such as has been heretofore des- 
cribed, occupied by cornfields, vineyards and orchards. 

5th. West of the upper Rio Grande and the San Luis Park, 
there is a tempting field, which will be eventually penetrated 
&om this line, the somewhat famous San Juan country and 
other districts, across to which the Cochetopa, Chama and other 
Passes lead. 


Of this section, on the route of the 36th parallel, Dr. Parry, 
Naturalist to the Survey, says : " SuflScient is now known to 
characterize it as at least self-sustaining in an agricultural point 



of view, and capable of immense production for export n ^ 

animal products from the proper development of its pastora I] 
resources. A large section of this country is naturally adaptec^3 
to fruit, of which the various surface exposures may be suite«c3 
to different varieties." 

Whipple's rough estimate of the area of cultivable soi^, 
woodland and pasture on this division of the route vithin 1 ^ 
miles on each side, was as follows : 

Cultivable soil, 953 square milea 

Woodland, 2,193 

Prairie and pasture, 11,008 



Total, - . 14,154 

There was not as much known then of the country to f 
right and left of the line, and I regard his estimate of cultiva- 
ble soil as entirely too low; and of course a much wider belt 
than 15 miles would be rendered accessible by the coostro.*- 
tion of a railroad — perhaps 100 miles on each aide. 

But let us see what there ia: 

3st, The table land between the Bio Grande and the Puerto 
— which is nine miles wide from crest to crest ; it is cover«^ 
with excellent gramma grass, but without water. It makes * 
good sheep country. 

2d. Then ensues the north and south valley of the Pueir«i>i 
three miles in width, whose soil is very rich and only requi*^* 
irrigating, which can be done, as there is plenty of wateK" '" 
the channel for eight months of the year. 30 miles ab*^*^ 
the mouth of El Rito the valley is one mile wide ; our par 'tis! 
found it covered with luxuriant grass and the soil very ferti ilfli 
a portion of which the Mexicans had under cultivation. 

Several attempts have been made to cultivate the valley :*»'" 
ther south, but the Indians drove off the men. Even stc^"''' 
raising ia unsafe in consequence of these incursions, 

3d. Theneo we have the valley of the El Rito, which ^^^ 
line follows for 75 miles to the base of the Sierra Madre. '^ 
is from one-half to three miles wide — above Fort Wiii^*'* 
much wider — and there are several fertile intersecting vall^J^- 


It ia cultivated for 4 miles below the town of El Rito by 
the Mexicans, and by the Accoma and Laguna Indians for 10 
miles above Lagnna, and at the foot of San Mateo Mountain, 
near Cubero, by the Mexicans. The Laguniana brought our 
party melons. We found an abundance of corn in this valley. 
The Indiana raise 40 bushels to the acre, with very rude culti- 
vation. They also raise large herds of cattle. It might be 
tilled for its whole length, except in the six mile caHon, if 
proper meaaurea were taken to economize iha water, or to 
increase the supply by artesian wells. 

There is much to discourage farming, however, as in 
A.pril, while our return party was passing, 14,000 head of 
sheep, and large numbers of horaes and mules were driven 
^■way from the country about Cubero by a single band of 

4th. Both slopes of the Sierra Madre are rich, and tolerably 
"Well watered. On the west side, north of El Moro, Beale saw 
& country of " uncommon beauty," with numerons aprings and 
Crater courses. 

Fifty miles west of the summit, we found the ZuBi Indians 
cultivating the soil extensively without irrigation, and having 
large crops of corn and wheat, while every house in the town 
was filled with dried peaches of excellent quality. Dr. Parry 
says of this ZuHi Valley: "It posseaaes an inexhaustible fer- 
tility, which it still maintains, after the lapse of centuries far 
teyond the historic period." This is at an elevation of 7,000 
feet above the sea. We alao saw theae Indiana driving up their 
flocks and herds, which were very large. 

The slopes of this range I regard as far superior, in every 
way, to those of the Wahsatcb Range, which the Mormons 
have strewn for several hundred miles with a population 
amounting to 100,000, converting that so-called desert into 
plantations and orchards. 

5th. In the Valley of Navajo Creek we akirt the aouthern 
edge of the "Navajo country," where General Canby'a troops 
found immense herds of stock, and very numerous fields of 


corn, and peach orchards, the driving ofiF and destruction of 
which were the only means by which these intelligent and war- 
like Indians were finally reduced. Colonel Willis, of the Cali- 
fornia Column, who accompanied us on the survey, states that 
he assisted in destroying some of these corn fields as low down 
as the vicinity of Navajo Springs, and that the corn was as 
high as his head. Even in the dry country, near Jacob's Well, 
we saw traces of an ancient irrigating canal. 

6th. The Valley of the Little Colorado is next reached, and 
is followed by the line for from 25 to 60 miles, depending on 
the route adopted. In this distance it is from one to three 
miles wide, with a rich alluvial soil and plenty of water for 
irrigation. We found the grass in the valley excellent. The 
upper valley of this river, above the cafion at the mouth of 
the Zuni, is said, by Colonel Willis, to be very beautiful, 50 
miles long, and from 3 to 5 miles wide, and the Sierra 
Blanca country, in which it heads, is noted for its beauty and 
fertility, as well as for its attractive deposits of gold, which 
the Apaches have prevented all explorers from remaining long 
enough to develop. 

The numerous little sheltered cafions leading into this river 
above and below "Sunset Crossing," where our line leaves it, are 
especially adapted to fruit culture, also to wheat. There is a 
vast extent of attractive country in the heavily timbered Mo- 
goyon Mountains, south from this part of the surveyed route. 

7th. For the next 100 miles, in crossing the Mogoyon Range, 
we have the finest country met with, perhaps, on our entire 
route. It is the famous San Francisco Mountain country, 
magnificently timbered, well watered, and covered winter and 
summer with the most nutritious gramma grass. Its soil, 
black and rich from the decomposition of the lava that has 
been ejected in immense quantities from the extinct crater of 
Mt. Agassiz, will produce, without irrigation, wheat, barley, 
oats and potatoes, in the heaviest crops. The summit and 
slopes of this range are dotted everywhere with beautiful little 
grassy parks, openings in the virgin forest of gigantic pines 


which cover the mountain. On all sides rise tall volcanic 
peaks, emulating the central figure of Mt. Agassiz,* whose 
crown, far above the timber line, seemed to be just topped with 
snow, as late as the middle of December, when we made the 

This is the country of which Beale declares: "It is the most 
beautiful region I ever remember to have seen in any part of 
the world. A vast forest of gigantic pine, intersected fre- 
quently by extensive open glades, sprinkled all over with moun- 
tain, meadows, and wide savannahs, filled with the richest 
grasses, was traversed by our party for many successive days.*' 
And Dr. Parry says: "We have in these elevated districts 
a climate favoring the growth of trees, a more equable distri- 
bution of rain and precipitation of dew throughout the year, 
especially adapted to the production of nutritious grasses and 
the cultivation of grain without resorting to expensive pro- 
cesses of irrigation. These desirable climatic features are 
especially noticeable along the elevated slopes of San Fran- 
cisco Mountain, where magnificent pine forests are agreeably in- 
terspersed with beautiful grassy valleys and parks, numerous 
springs, and a delightfully invigorating atmosphere." 

The most attractive place of summer resort on the line of 
the road will be here on Mt. Agassiz. It has every attraction ; 
l^ealth, scenery, sky, water, elevation, climate, and proximity 
to the greatest natural curiosity known on this continent — the 
** Grand Cafion *' of the Colorado River, from which it is dis- 
tant some 40 or 50 miles. 

8th. In descending the lower slope of the Mogoyon Range 
^n the west, we enter a drier and more sandy country, pretty 
"^611 covered with thickets of cedar and pinon, to which the 
gi'eat pine forests give way. The soil, however, is rich, and 
^lily requires irrigation, which can be readily secured by 
damming the numerous canons with which this district is filled, 
^iid thereby preserving the supply of water, of which, as our 
Return party found, there is an infinite quantity in the spring, 
f ^s also during the summer rains.) 


The grazing is perhaps equally fine on this section as highi 
up on the slopes of the Mogoyoii,in the beautiful region wh 
has Just been described. 

9th. The Val de Ghino, which we now enter, is a spleni 
meadow, 10 miles in width, lying between the Aztec Rai 
and Black mountains, on the south and west, and the Li| 
Range, Black Forest and Tonto Buttes on the east and nc 
It extends southeastward beyond the lino of Preseott, 
northward by one of its prongs to within 20 miles of 
grand canon of the Colorado. This distance ia conaideraH 
over 100 miles. ' 

Throughout it is covered with the finest gramma gru 
which gives the name to the valley. On the 0th of Man 
last, in returning, Mr. Holbrook reports that his animals wi 
thriving on the green grass in this and other valleys. The t 
is rich, and only needs water to enable the breadstuffa of 
empire to be raised here. Whipple thought irrigation m^ 
no more be necessary here than in the Zuili Valley, but it 
impossible to try the experiment, as the Wallapi Indians in£i 
the country. 

The average elevation of this great valley is about 4,500 
feet above tide. Tributary to it are various small but rich 
mountain valleys, on some of which ranches have been atari 
Such are Pueblo or Walnut Creek, Turkey Creek, Partri( 
Creek, Round Valley, Williamson's Valley, Granite Cn 
&o., most of which, in the rainy season, and when the 
melt, pour down large volumes of water into the valley. 

There is very little doubt but that all of the water needi 
both to supply the ordinary wants of a population, and to 
irrigate, if found necessary, may be obtained by artesian wells 
of no great depth, or by forming basins in the canons and 
creeks at the foot of the mountains on either side. 

The Val de Chino is the proper head of the Verde Ri' 
along which, north and east of Preseott, lies much 
irrigable land, in the open valleys between the numerous impi 
able caflons of this stream. The " upper valley of the Verdi 


which I visited, is about 45 miles long, and an average of 5 
miles in width. The soil is rich, water permanent, (without 
alkali,) and sufficient for all purposes of irrigation — the eleva- 
tion being only 3,000 to 3,600 feet above tide. Snow is un- 
known, and the valley having a deep sandy soil, richer than 
the Rio Grande, and being, like the latter, formed chiefly of the 
wash of lava deposits, and being admirably sheltered by moun- 
tain walls on each side, 1,200 to 2,400 feet high, is especially 
adapted to producing wine and fruits.* Wild grapes are every, 
where abundant. The few settlers near Camp Verde informed 
me they had raised 75 bushels of corn to the* acre, without irri- 
gation ; also, wheat and barley. All vegetables, except pota- 
toes, flourished in the greatest abundance. 

The grazing is excellent, water clear and pure and abun- 
dant, both in the Verde and in little ca&ons all along the base 
of the Ton to Buttes, while the mountains on each side are 
covered with a large supply of good sized pine timber. 

In this valley, even to a greater extent than in the valley of 
the Little Colorado, on the Mogoyon Range and in the Aztec 
Mountains, we met constantly the broken pottery, ruined foun- 
dations and abandoned caves which indicate the former exist- 
ence of that populous semi-civilized race, which, for want of 
a better name, are called " Aztecs." 

Below the upper valley, but separated from it by a rugged 
and tortuous canon, is the lower valley of the Verde, 25 miles 
long, and equally rich and filled with Aztec ruins and pottery. 
These sheltered Verde valleys are, without doubt, well adapted 
to cotton. 

There is much good arable country around Prescott also, and 
at the heads of the Agua Frio and other valleys leading south- 

* "A soil derived from the decomposition of lava is known to be especially adapted 
to the growth of fraits, and the deyelopment of wine-producing grapes, the juices of 
which are largely impregnated with the salts of potash, which, in the process of fer- 
mentation« are deposited in the lees constituting the cream of tartar of commerce. It 
is therefore natural to infer that a large section of country in Central Arizona is 
Mpeoially adapted to this department of agriculture." — Db- Pabbt. 


ward to the Gila, and numerous ranches have been established 

10th. Crossing the divide at "Beale's Pass/' we find in 
Aubrey Cove, a similar valley to the Val de Chino, but much 
dryer, and with poorer grass, although it was green and good, 
and there was an abundance of water in March as our party 
returned. We found thrifty peach trees on the Yampa. 

Thence by Truxton*s Springs to Wallapi Pass, the slopes of 
the Aztec and Aquarius Ranges, and of the Peacock, Cerbjit 
and Wallapi Mountains contain occasional spots adapted to 
cultivation. Farther south along the western slope of th^ 
Aztec Range, and enclosed between that and the Aquarius 
Range, along varioiis tributaries of the " Bill Williams,'* the goocE- 
land is quite extensive, and sufficiently well watered. Crops 
of wheat, barley, oats and all vegetables,^ can be raised here in 

Whipple speaks of the marl bottoms of the Big Sandy Fork 
as luxuriant with vegetation in January. On the 28th of Feb- 
ruary, as our party passed, the young grass was springing up 
fresh and green in Yampa Valley. The Wallapi Valley was 
then likewise a fine meadow, although it contained but little 
grass in December. 

From Wallapi Pass to the crossing of the Colorado River, 
(50 miles,) the country is an arid, cactus desert, except for an 
occasional scanty growth of grass in some canon or pass where 
a spring breaks out from the bare, rocky mountains. 

11th. The valley of the Great Colorado, into which we now 
descend, is wide and fertile. Whipple pronounced the soil far 
superior to that of the Rio Grande. Of course, the climate has 
much more of a tropical character — the elevation above the sea 
being less than 400 feet — snow being unknown, and the winter 
sometimes passing without any frost. Both climate and soil 
fit it for cotton, tobacco, hemp, castor beans, rice, and even 
sugar — to which rarer semi-tropical products all the valley 
land will, perhaps, be devoted — ^leaving the cereals to be brought 


down from the higher valleys of Arizona, or eastward from the 
slopes of the Sierra Nevada, and the Tulare and San Bernar- 
dino Valleys of California. 

The Mormons raise a great deal of cotton at their settle- 
ments on the Virgin and its tributaries, 150 miles north of 
Port Mojave; they have several cotton factories in operation, 
and are building more. They also raise some sugar. 

At present the Mojaves, Chemeuevis, and other populous tribes 
of Indians that inhabit the valley of the Colorado, raise corn, 
wheat, beans, melons and squashes; and a large amount of 
hay is cut for Fort Mojave and the mining operations near 
Hardy ville. Wheat ripens in April; barley harvest takes 
place in May. There is as yet no artificial irrigation; the 
valley being inundated annually by the river, which rises 25 
feet in summer, from the melting of the snow at its mountain 

We found some stalks of fine Sea Island cotton growing here 
liear Hardy's Mine, about 1,000 feet above the river, and 
Dielons were brought in by the Indians on Christmas week. 

From the head of navigation at Callville, for 60 miles down 

to Cottonwood Valley, there is no bottom land. In this stretch 

occur "Black Canon*' and "Painted CaSon." In Cottonwood 

Valley, which is from 1 to 5 miles in width, there are about 

20 square miles of arable land, which the Mormons talk 

of occupying for cotton plantations. Thence the river flows 

for 25 miles through "Pyramid," and other lesser canons, 

to a point 3 miles above Fort Mojave, where the bottom widens 

out on both sides of the river, and in some places to 10 

^Ues, and so continues to where our line crosses it 8 miles 

above the "Needles." This is the "Mojave Valley," and is 

^ich, and contains about 100 square miles, of which over one- 

Wf is covered with Cottonwood and mesquite trees. Below our 

crossing occur the "Needles," where the projecting spurs of 

the Mojave Mountains, that wall in the Colorado on either side, 

inapinge for probably 6 to 8 miles directly on the river. 

Then comes the Chemeuevis Valley, about 5 miles wide, and 



very similar to the Mojave Valley. Below the mouth of Bill 
Williams Fork there are occasional narrows, with wide and 
long stretches of bottom land; sometimes, as at La Paz, 30 
miles wide. This alternation continues nearly to Fort Yuma. 
Whipple estimated the Great Colorado Valley to contain, 
from Fort Mojave south, 1,660 square miles of arable land, 
without including the Southern Desert — that part of the 
Great Basin lying .south of the Morongo Range. I do not 
regard it as an over estimate. 

Of the section of the route under consideration. Dr. Parry 
says: "In point of fact, without taking into consideration the 
undeveloped mineral wealth locked up in her granite mountains, 
Central Arizona comprises as large an extent of habitable and 
productive country as any other section west of the agricultural 
basin of the Mississippi." 


From the Colorado River to the eastern foot of the Sierra 
Nevada, 235 miles by the windings of our line, we* cross the 
Great Basin, which here, as on every other route across it, is 
very much of a desert. Farther north, at Salt Lake, it is 
three times as wide, but everywhere it is a vast, irregular plain 
of sand and gravel, more or less mixed with clayey sediment, 
lying between the Sierra Nevada on the west, and the 
Wahsatch Range (represented by the Providence Mountains on 
this Southern route) on the east. In Central Nevada the 
Great Basin has an average elevation of perhaps 6,000 feet 
above the sea — here on the 35th parallel it does not probably 
exceed 1,500 feet. It is filled with irregular and detached 
granitic and volcanic mountain ranges, of the true alpine ap- 
pearance, more or less continuous, and rising from 1,000 to 5,000 
feet above their bases, around the ends of which sweep long 
gravelly valleys, called "washes,** of uniform, but variable 
slope. On the higher of these ranges, pignon and cedar tim- 
ber occurs — sometimes abundantly. 


The drainage from the Sierra Nevada on the west, the 
"Wahsatch Range on the east, and of all these included moun- 
tains, is into detached basins or "sinks** that vary greatly in 
eize and elevation above the sea. 

Great Salt Lake is the largest of these. It is a little over 
-4,000 feet above the sea. Soda Lake, the sink of the Mojave 
Hiver, is about 1,000 feet; Morongo sink, about 1,500 feet; 
Perry Basin, which drains some 2,000 square miles of these 
desert plains and mountains, 530 feet; Williamson's Lake, 
2,388 feet; the sink of the Armagozia River, in Death Valley, 
north of our route, is supposed to be 275 feet below the sea: 
with the exception of Great Salt Lake, these basins are dry, 
except in the wet seasons. 

When the snow melts on the Sierra Nevada and Wahsatch 
Mountains, an- immense volume of water pours down their 
slopes, and flows by numerous rivers and channels a 
greater or less distance out into the Great Basin, but finally 
sinks. Thus the Mojave River, at the time we crossed the 
desert, was emptying a rapid torrent into Soda Lake, over 
100 miles from the base of the Sierras. 

This wJter and all the other drainage probably finds its way 
by underground channels into the Gulf of California, of which 
estuary the Great Basin was apparently at one time the northern 
continuation. The drainage has perhaps been disturbed by the 
eruption of the numerous mountain ranges, and the dry climate 
and sandy soil, the result of the interposition of high moun- 
tain ranges between this tract and the moist* currents from the 
sea, have not favored the formation of long and continuous river 
channels. Agriculturally, this basin will not probably be valu- 
able within our day. Although there are many patches of 
good soil, requiring nothing but water to make them produc- 
tive, and although, in the mountain valleys, as for instance, 
on Piute Creek and elsewhere, we find good grass, and small 
tracts of rich soil, where the Indians have cultivated wheat and * 
Corn ; yet as long as so much good land is to be found on both 
sides of the basin, equally accessible, this forbidding region will 


not probably be sought during our generation by any but miners, 
the richest gold, silver and copper veins being found abundantly 
in these desert mountains. 

There must be excepted from these remarks : 1st, The val- 
ley of the Mojave, which has a narrow fringe of rich soil, 
that can be irrigated from the river, and which produces 
well, and from its source to a point as far east as Camp 
Cady, is especially adapted, both from climate and soil, to 
the culture of cotton and other semi-tropical products. 2d. 
The foot-slopes of the Sierra Nevada, which can be irrigated 
from the mountain creeks, and possess a good soil. They 
are covered with grass, which extends during the wet seasori 
for 50 miles out into the desert. We saw there everywhere the 
well-marked paths of cattle, which had wandered out to graz©^ 
from the large herds kept at the base of the mountain. 

3d. On the Virgin and its tributaries, and farther north on- 
the slopes of the Wahsatch Range in Utah, a considerable 
agricultural section exists, where the Mormons are already^ 
raising cotton and sugar. This section, and a good part oC 
Utah, will naturally have its outlet to the coast by our line,, 
especially if the San Diego branch be made. In these south- 
ern settlements of Utah there are estimated to be 40,000 

Dr. Parry supposes the Yucca, or Spanish bayonet, with 
which this desert is abundantly covered, and which is. also 
found abundantly throughout New Mexico and Arizona, will 
come into value for the manufacture of ropes, mattresses, &c., 
for which I believe it is already considerably used in California, 
The manufacture of mescal and pulka will also probably be 
carried on in Arizona, where this plant is so abundant. 

At the foot of the Sierra Nevada, coming from the Great 
Basin, we meet farming settlements at " Tehachapa Sinks," and 
Oak Creek, and on the summit of the range in Tehachapa 
Pass, where there is a beautiful park with groves of oak. The 
soil is excellent from base to base. Thence to San Francisco, 
about 300 miles, our route lies entirely through a productive 


country, with splendid pasturage and good soil, whose value is 
enhanced by the mildness of the climate. 

In the Tulare and San Joaquim Valleys, which are 75 miles 
wide, an immense body of land, half as large as Pennsylvania, 
will be opened up, together with the timber and mines of the 
Sierra Nevada. If the line follows the east, the west side 
will be given communication with the road by steamboats 
plying on Tulare Lake. 

If the more direct route to San Francisco should be adopted, 
the road will traverse the excellent coast valleys of the Salinas, 
tile Pajaro, San Juan and Santa Clara, where wheat and 
barley grow almost spontaneously, enabling the mining State of 
California, as we have seen in the past two years, to command 
th^ breadstuff markets of the world. The very fact that east of 
th.o Sierra Nevada lies a great stretch of mineral desert^ only 
adds to the value and importance of these rich valleys, to the 
^ocessity of having a communication which shall develope the 
^oalth of both districts and to the prospective traffic of this 
J^ighway when made. 

On the^San Diego line we enter at the San Gorgonia Pass 
^I>on the charming valleys of the southern coast of Calfornia, 
* oountry of the vine, the olive, the pomegranate and the palm, 
^Ixere winter is only known from the crown of snow on the 
^"V^crlooking peaks of San Bernadino, San Gabriel and San 
•^ ^.cinto. Here, also, we leave behind all our old friends of the 
^^sert and the plain, the artemesia, the Spanish bayonet and the 
^^•ctus, and are ushered through groves of live oak into fertile 
**-^lds of wheat and barley, well watered meadows, vineyards, 
^^*^d orange orchards. 

To sum up this branch of our subject it may be said: 

1st. That while the western half of the continent is not an 

^-^ricultural paradise, yet, certainly on this route, it is far from 

'^^ing a desert as many have ignorantly called it. That it has 

t>^en shewn to be almost continuously inhabitable, and that 


there are frequent and extensive districts of great attraction 
to the farmer ; while to the grazier, except on the California 
Basin, it presents one vast uninterrupted belt of uniformly 
superior pasturage, extending from Kansas to the Pacific 
Ocean, on which horses, mules, cattle and sheep can be raised 
in countless herds, as cheaply, perhaps, as anywhere in 
the world. 

2d. That the mildness of the climate on this parallel greatly 
enhances the value both of its arable and pastoral resources, 
enabling • more than one crop to be raised in a season, permit- 
ting stock, without care, to fare as well in winter as summer, 
and adding the vine, cotton, and other semi-tropical fruits or 
products, to those of our temperate latitudes. On the survey 
we drove our beef cattle along in the winter season, and always 
found for them and for the mules of our train abundant nutri- 
tious grazing on the highest summits of the line, equally with 
the deepest valleys. 

3d. That although, for nearly the whole of this distance, 
irrigation is resorted to, yet by more thorough cultivation it is 
likely that, at many points, this will not be necessary. Besides, 
irrigation is not necessarily a drawback, since it enables the far- 
mer to a great extent, to be independent of the seasons, serves 
to enrich his ground by the constant sediment with which the 
water is charged, and with a properly organized plan is not 
costly, while the crops are made to yield much more bounti- 
fully, as a general thing, than in the Mississippi Valley. The 
quality of the wheat grown in these elevated valleys and dry 
atmosphere, is superior, especially for transportation. 

4th. That if this country had been continuously rich in an 
agricultural view, there would not have been as much neces- 
sity for a channel of communication, nor as much promise of 
traflBc as under the circumstances existing — the country being 
one of alternate rich and poor belts, mineral mountains and 
highly productive valleys. 



Coal has already been separately referred to. It is very 
abundant, diffused over a considerable extent of the line, and 
M^ill furnish a heavy traflSc for the supply of the timberless 
districts of the Plain, and the mines and mills in the moun- 
tains — the latter trade being in proportion to the extent of the 
<ioYelopment of the mines of precious ores and those of iron, 
hopper, lead, &c., which we shall now proceed to consider. 

Raton Mountain Route. 

1st. Iron Ore. — The deposits are numerous, extending from 
^Ixe Raton Mountains to the Placer and San Dia Mountains, 
Overlooking the Rio Grande. It is found of excellent quality 
^ear Las Vegas, where Dr. Leconte and myself traced two 
"v^iens, one of magnetic oxide, 4 feet thick and very rich, and 
"tte other of specular iron ore, also rich, and 6 feet in thickness ; 
£i.t the Placer mines, south of Santa Fe, where are three viens, 
6 to 10 feet thick, of rich magnetic iron ore ; also, on the 
3Vf axwell Grant ; in the Apache Hills, north of Fort Union ; and 
in the Raton Mountain. 

Many of these deposits being quite near to coal and lime- 
stone, their value is greatly enhanced for manufacturing pur- 
poses. Such is the case in the Raton Mountain, at the Placer 
^Mountains, and with those reported at MaxwelFs. At the 
l^lacer Mountains, south of Santa Fe, there is sufficient tim- 
ber, within a radius of 10 miles from the Tuerto ore, to smelt 
o. half million of tons — even if the coal should not answer. 

2cZ. Gold^ silver^ copper^ lead^ gypsum^ CMna clay^ salt. — 
^11 these have been developed in great abundance on this 
xoute, between the Arkansas and the Rio Grande, in the Rocky 
Mountains and their foot hills. The localities may be briefly 
xiamed : 


Placier and quartz gold at the Moreno mines, 18 miles from 
Maxwell's — where about 2,000 miners are at work. 

Also, at the Placer Mountains, south of Sante Fe, which 
have been worked a long time, and are very rich. Here the 
New Mexican Mining Company have 40 stamps at work, and 
expect to take out $200,000 of gold the coming year. The 
number of productive veins in this Placer Mountain district is 
extraordinary — 20 having been shafted upon in the San Lazaro 
Mountain alone. These mines alone will furnish a heavy 
traflSc to a railroad, and attract a large population, but they com- 
prise only one of the numerous similar localities in New 

Gold bearing quartz is also found in the San Dia Mountain, 
where Captain Colton visited two veins near Tejon. And gold 
dust is reported in nearly all the arroyos near this mountain. 

At the base of all the Placer Mountains the drift is impreg- 
nated with gold, and it is proposed to lead water from the Pecos 
River, 68 miles distant, by a ditch, at an estimate cost of 
$250,000, for the purpose of washing it. 

Gold is found in the range east of the Rio Grande, in New 
Mexico, to a large extent — for 100 miles south of Santa Fe, 
and northward for 120 miles to Sangre de Christo. 

Silver and Lead. — The San Dia Range, 18 to 26 miles from 
the Rio Grande, which it adjoins on the east, is the great 
repository of argentiferous galena in New Mexico, and its 
mines have been extensively worked in former times by the 
Spaniards — using the Pueblo Indians as slaves. 

Captain Colton and Dr. Bell visited a number of mines in 
this district, and report them apparently rich, as also the veins 
of argentiferous galena in the Placer Mountains. Both are 
described in detail in Captain Colton's report. The San Dia 
Mountains are the great "Organ Range" of New Mexico, 
which extend from the Galisteo southward for over 200 miles, 
and in which are found throughout lodes of silver and copper, 
many of which were worked by the old Spaniards before the 


Pueblo Indians rose and drove them out, filling up these 

Silver lead is also found in the Moreno mining district on 
Maxwell's grant, and in Turkey Mountain, north of Fort 
Union, but has not been developed as yet in either locality. 

Copper, — The beds of auriferous copper ore on this route, 
which are very numerous and rich, will probably be found to fur- 
nish the most profitable business of all to a railroad. Many of 
these ores in the Placer Mountain district will bear a freight 
charge of $50 dollars per ton, and yield a handsome profit to the 
miner and smelter. This would pay 6 cents per ton per mile 
to Kansas City. For some time, until labor becomes cheaper 
and capital more abundant, it is probable that a large amount 
of these, as well as of the silver ores, will be transported to 
the Missouri or Mississippi — there to be smelted — especially as 
the road can afford for several years, while the process of 
building up this country is going rapidly on, to carry ores as 
return freight, at a very low charge. They must eventually 
all be reduced here where coal abounds. 

Q^hese copper ores are found on the Maxwell district; in 
-f'u.Tkey Mountain, north of Fort Union; and on the San Dia 
fountains, adjoining the Rio Grande; along the whole extent 
^^ the Organ Range; and in abundance in the Placer Moun- 
tains, south of Sante F6, where we visited several good veins, 
^^■^^ of which was over 20 feet thick at the Ramirez mine, and 
^^p)orted to contain from 15 to 26 per cent, of copper, and also 
*^ be rich in gold. 

On the San Ysedro Mountain, in this district, there are 
'^'^merous lodes of copper, as well as silver and gold, which 
"^ ^re worked many years ago — before the memory of the oldest 
^^tabitarit. The ruins of numerous furnaces and arastas are 
^^ be seen. 

On a rich vein, recently opened in Tijeras Canon, on the 

^^n Dia Mountain, one mile from the town of Tijeras, and 

^lose to our surveyed line, (east of the Rio Grande, the 

staft has been sunk about 200 feet — the vein being 3 feet 


thick, and improving as the mine deepens. A large quantity 
of good ore had been taken out, as our return party passed the 
locality in June last, and a -cmelting furnace was erected 
close by. 

We saw good veins of very pure China clay in the Placer 
Mountains ; and gypsum, which the Mexicans use as plaster, 
for window lights, &c., is very abundant along the route from 
the Purgatory Valley to and into the San Dia Mountains, 
where, at the towns of Tejon and Uni de Gata, quite a business 
is carried on by the people, who make plaster and sell it at 
Santa Fe and along the Rio Grande, for $1 per bushel. It 
may be expected to furnish a considerable local business. 
Near Tejon, Captain Colton rode over an extensive bed of 
gypsum, crystalline and opaque, which was three miles long, 
300 yards wide, and 10 feet deep, and on Tecalote Creek it 
was equally abundant. 

Salt — On the great plateau of the Rocky Mountains, southwest 
of Canon Blanco summit, are the Salinas, which furnish an un- 
limited quantity of good salt. A large part of New Mexico is 
supplied herefrom, it being wagoned to Sante Fe, Las Vegas, 
to the towns along the Rio Grande, and even to Chihuahua. 
The only cost is that of transportation. 

A bed of alum, three to four feet thick, is also reported in 
the canon of the Purgatory, eight miles above Red Rock. 


as far as it is a divergence from the above, there is no 
mineral wealth, unless we except the large vein of coal reported 
to exist on Rabbit Ear Creek. 

The chief value of this line is, of course, as affording a direct 
and cheap avenue for transportation of " through business" and 
local traffic originating south and west of Fort Union ; but it 
is proper to state that the distance which it saves, if put into 
branches, would tap and develope a considerable proportion of 
the mineral, arable and timber wealth of the Raton Mountain 



On the "Puntia Pass ** route the mineral resources are great- 
est of all. We have : 

ILst. Approaching the base of the Rocky Mountains, at Canon 
City, deposits of magnetic ore, in connection with fine coal, and 
an. unlimited amount of water-power. 

IPetroleum is also found in the Arkansas Valley, about three 
miles northeast of Canon City,. where the wells are worked to 
siipply the local demand. 

One of the richest, if not the richest, gold quartz regions of 
Colorado lies along the Upper Arkansas, and is tapped by this 
roxite; and at the head of this valley an excellent pass has been 
discovered, by which, with grades of only 75 feet per mile, and 
a tunnel of one half a mile, the Rocky Mountains can he 
crossed at a single summit, and whatever mineral and other 
w^ealth there may be on Grand River and in western Colorado, 
may be advantageously reached. 

The mineral and other resources of the South Park are also 
host opened up by this line, with the remarkable salt deposits near 
th.ehead of Trout Creek, and others 20 miles above the forks of 
the Arkansas. 

There is coal and gold in the Puntia Pass, also rich copper 

In the volcanic elevations of San Luis Park are said to be 
^^posits of good iron ore. 

East of the San Luis Park and Rio Grande Valley, in the range 
^^ the Rocky Mountains, which we have called the " Spanish 
^ange,'' occurs a large portion of the mineral wealth, already 
^^scribed in connection with the Raton Mountain route. And 
^^ese deposits (as well as the timber) are nearly as accessible to 
^^o line on the Rio Grande as to that on the Plains east of 
this range — but the coal does not appear on the west side. 

Placer mining is carried on at Sangre de Christo. 

The Moreno mines are but 35 miles eastward of the line of 
exploration. And even the rich Placer Mountain and San Dia 
districts are almost as near this line as the other. 


Finally, there is approached by this line, the tempting region 
of the Sierra Madre, west of the San Luis Park and Rio 
Grande, to which the Cochetopa, Conejos, Chama, and other 
passes lead — the San Juan district and others, as yet unde- 
veloped, but in which enough prospecting has been done to 
prove the existence of great mineral wealth, the natural and 
best outlet of which, will be eastward into the Valley of the 
Rio Grande. 

Accessible to the Rio Grande^ south of Albuquerque^ lyi^^g 
in the mountain ranges which bound this valley on either side 
for nearly its entire length, are extensive deposits of mineral 
wealth, waiting for the capital, skill and labor to develope 
them. This development, but just started, will begin in ear- 
nest as soon as the road reaches Albuquerque, but will be 
greatly accelerated by the construction of the proposed branch 
down this valley to El Paso and on to Chihuahua. These may 
be briefly itemized as follows : 

1st. In the range east of the Rio Grande, known in different 
parts of its course as the Manzano, Jicarilla and Organ Moun- 
tains, but called generally in connection with the San Dia 
Mountain, the ''Organ Range," are found veins of silver and 
copper (many of which were formerly worked by the Spaniards) 
almost wherever it has been explored. This range lies from 18 
to 25 miles from the river. 

2d. On the same side of the Rio Grande, north of Fort 
Craig, occur the excellent coal of Don Pedro, and veins of 
copper, galena, and iron ore. 

3d. On the east side of the river is a range formed of spurs 
from the Sierra Madre, which are called at different points the 
Miembres, Madelaine, Ladrones, San Mateo, and (north of 
Albuquerque) the Jemez and Abique Mountains. In this 
range, whose north and south extent is over 250 miles, rich 
lodes of copper are numerous. It is found at certain localities 
almost in its pure state, and at others combined with gold and 
silver. There are two copper mines at Jemez — one large, of 
virgin ore, and heretofore extensively worked. There is a 


large mine in the Madelaine Mountains, west of Socorro, of 
copper, with a large per centage of silver — new developments 
of ^vhich, made within the last few months, are exceedingly 
promising. There are two mines of auriferous copper at Pinos 
Altos, which are extensively worked. 



On or accessible to our surveyed route of the 35th parallel, 
wo have, 

1, The deposits of coal in the valleys of the Puerco, the El 
Rite, the Jemez, and north of the San Mateo Mountain, which 
ha^'e been already referred to. 

2. A fine marble quarry, close to our San Felipe line, on the 
Rio Salada, a branch of the Jemez, about 25 miles west of 
the Rio Grande. Mr. Holbrook, assistant engineer, reports the 
quality equal to that of the celebrated Rutland quarries, and 
that the deposit is very large and accessible. Large quantities 
of gypsum were seen near this point, and also on the Jemez, 
south of the junction of the Salada, where our p^-rty saw more 

8. Near Jemez, about 30 miles west of the Rio Grande, 
Dr. Steck has recently found serpentine of great beauty, easily 
Quarried, in any sized blocks. 

4. Very extensive beds of gypsum immediately adjoin our 
^iie near El Rito, 40 miles west of Albuquerque. They are 
reported , by the Geologist, Dr. Parry, to be of a very pure 
C[uality, lying in regular strata, presenting a continuous bluff 80 
to 100 feet thick. They are amorphous and fibrous. The value 
^f this material in its crude form as a fertilizer is well known, 
^lid may eventually give rise to an extensive demand for distant 
t^'ansportation. In other respects it will prove valuable in a 
P^'epared form, and can be extensively used in different pro- 
cesses of building, &c. 

On the eastern slope of the Sierra Madre, near Agua Frio, 
*^i*. Parry says: "The exposed granite shows occasional indi- 


cations of quartz veins, traversing it from north to south, and 
would probably, on diligent search, exhibit gold-bearing lodes.'* 
No developments have been made yet, however. 

5. On the western slope of the Sierra Madre, 18 miles north- 
west of El Moro, Beale found in two localities extensive 
deposits of rich copper ore. Sixteen miles west of El Moro is 
the coal of Pcscado Springs ; farther north, and still nearer 
to our line, is the coal near Navajo Pass and Fort Defiance, 
and 60 miles further the mineral region of the San Juan. 

6. Gypsum is found abundantly in the hillsides which bound 
the Little Colorado. 

. South of this lies the Mogoyon Range, in which, near the 
Sierra Blanca, (50 miles distant,) and elsewhere, is found, by 
the united testimony of all explorers, a very rich gold district, 
from which the Apaches have as yet succeeded in excluding the 
miners. It was here that Aubrey reported meeting Indians 
with golden bullets. " They are of diflFerent sizes, and each 
Indian has a pouch of them. We saw an Indian load his gun 
with one large and three small gold bullets to shoot a rabbit. 
They proposed exchanging them for lead, but I preferred trading 
other articles.'* 

7. In crossing the Mogoyon Range, at the base of the extinct 
crater known as Mt. Agassiz, the slopes and basins are covered 
over a great area with volcanic debris, ashes and scoria; in 
reference to which, both as occurring here and elsewhere. Dr. 
Parry says: "An interesting question arises, whether, in cer- 
tain forms, they may not be utilized as fertilizers, and thus be 
rendered fit for profitable transportation. It has been generally 
noticed that where this class of rocks occupy the surface, the 
natural grass product is most abundant, and of the most nutri- 
tious quality. Might it not therefore be profitable to transport 
the loose scoriaceous material, so abundant on the volcanic 
slopes, to the lower sandy valleys as a fertilizer ? 

"Still further, and connected with the same general subject, 
it is known that the fertilizing character of recent lavas is due 
mainly to the presence of salts of potash, the supply of which 


article for commerce has been heretofore mainly derived from 
wood ashes by the wasteful process of wood burning, rendering 
this article continually scarcer and more costly. Could, then, 
same cheap process be devised for extracting potash from lava 
and. volcanic ashes, an inexhaustible supply might be here ob- 

On the western slope of the Mogoyon Range, our surveying 
parties found traces of gold in all the canons on Upper Cedar 
Creek, and some silver. The Indians have prevented any 
miners from visiting this region. 

8. From the San Francisco Mountains to the Aquarius 
Range, 75 miles east of the Colorado River, our line lies north 
of the ascertained and developed mineral wealth which is abun- 
dant in that extensive section of Central Arizona, of which 
Prescott is the mining capital. This is, however, readily reached 
l>y a branch of easy grades, 60 miles in length, that can be 
cheaply built down the Val de Chino, and a fork can be ex- 
tended therefrom to the Wickenburgh mining region. Both 
these districts were visited by Dr. Parry, whose report upon 
them is appended hereto. 

9. Near the surveyed line in the three ranges of mountains 
lying east, and within 75 miles of the Colorado River, the 
-A^quarius, Wallapi, Cerbat, and the Black Mountain Ranges, 
^^.luable lodes of gold, silver, lead and copper have been found — 
Silver, however, principally. They are included in the ''San 
"'^I'ancisco,'' "Sacramento** and Wauba Yuma" districts, in 
*U of which some mining has been done, but the Indians 
having recently killed several parties of miners, we found 
^U operations stopped except, at the "Southern Cross" mine 
^f Mr. Hardy, 9 miles east of Fort Mojave, which is rich 
^^ silver. Of this section Dr. Parry reports: "All the geologi- 
^^1 indications point to it as a natural extension of the rich sil- 
^^f lodes of Nevada, in their prolongation southward into 
-'^lexico. Recent discoveries to the north, (Belmont and White 
*iue,) giving results of almost fabulous richness, show that 


this entire region only needs the facilities afforded by railroads 
to develope a vast and permanent mining interest/' 

South of this line, the geologist of Whipples' party, 
reports having found veins of iron ore in '' Striped Caiion*' of 
Bill Williams Fork ; also of the specular variety in the Cerbat 
Range, and on Walnut Creek in the Aztec Pass. 

10. On both sides of the Colorado River, north and south of 
Fort Mojave, are mines of gold, silver and copper, the value 
of which is greatly enhanced by their proximity to this stream, 
which will thus serve as a most valuable feeder to the railroad. 
Of these, the best known are the copper mines of the Bill 
Williams, of which Ross Brown says: "There are 50 good 
mines of rich copper, black and red oxides, siliates and car- 
bonates, all of a character that can be readily smelted by heat 
alone. The ores average 40 per cent. Many of these ores 
are also rich in gold, for which mills have been erected.*' 

These mines were visited by Dr. Parry in December, who 
reports that they were shipping all ores of 40 per cent, and 
over to San Francisco, by an uncertain and circuitous water 
channel nearly 2500 miles long, and that the main bulk was 
thence transported by way of Cape Horn to Swansea, Wales. 

Dr. Parry also visited the mining region in western Arizona, 
south of the Bill Williams, of which he reports : "At several 
points gold has been successfully worked, yielding in a few 
instances rich returns from the rudest processes of dry wa%hing. 
Quartz viens crop out in wonderful abundance in several iso- 
lated localities, especially noted 10 to 15 miles west of Le 
Paz. Rich deposits of silver and copper ores are also known 
to exist, and have been partially worked, but in nearly 
every instance mining enterprise has been forced to succumb 
to insurmountable diflSculties, and in not a few cases to actual 
loss of life.'' 

11th. From 10 to 40 miles north of Callville, which is 100 
miles above Fort Mojave, on the Colorado, are the famous 
Salt Mountains, where there is an inexhaustible quantity of 
pure rock salt very accessible. At one point there is a face of 


70 feet, clear as a crystal. For several miles square the 
formation is reported as being almost exclusively of this crys- 
talline salt. There is a little sloop of 25 tons running from 
Mojave to Callville, which takes up merchandize, and brings 
back salt, potatoes, and other produce. 

Between Fort Mojave and Callville, near the mouth of 
Yampa Creek, Aubrey reports finding rich gold placers. 



1st. In the outliers of the Piute Range, lying immediately 
west of the Colorado, and through or close to which our 
line passes, are several copper and silver mining districts — 
the Iritayba, Silver Hill, Rock Spring, &c. For the usual 
reasons, mining is not now carried on in any of them. The 
steamboat company charges $60 per ton transportation from 
Sstn Francisco to Fort Mojave. A railroad could carry freight 
between the same points for $28. 

In the Rat-tail Mountain, 40 miles west of the river, adjoin- 
mg the line, our party found specimens of silver ore, which 
looked favorable, and traced the lead 50 or 60 feet on the side 
^f the mountain. 

2d. Entering the Great Basin, we found that promising mines 
*^B.d been discovered in the Providence Range, but that the 
-Piute Indians had driven off the miners before they could do 
^ore than prospect. 

Twenty-five miles southwest of Perry Basin, Mr. Spears and 
Myself saw a quartz lode containing gold, in the Bullion Range, 
'^hich looked well. , 

North of the Mojave River, on the Mormon Road, the 
* Armagosa mine'' was formerly worked by a California Com- 
pany, and a considerable amount of rich ore taken out ; but 
distance was against it. Various mines of the precious metals 
^re also known in the ^^ Slate Range,'* north of our line, 
t>etween the Mojave and Sierra Nevada, and at various other 
points on the desert. The well-known and rich " Puhranagut^" 


district of southern Nevada would also have its outlet to omr 
road; and eventually, by a longer branch, the recently discovered 
" White Pine '* mining region — probably the richest depository of 
silver yet known in the United States. In fact there can scarce! 
be a doubt but that the silver region of southern Nevada extenl 
at least as far south as the portion of the Great Basin crosse 
by our line. And, although the hostility of the Piute Indiarij 
lack of water, and remoteness from fuel and supplies, have, 
yet, prevented any succe3sful mining, it is certain the mineral*! 
wealth is here, and will be developed when these diflSculties 
are overcome by a railroad, cheapening transportation, driviD g 
out the Indians, and affording facilities for the constructio 
of reservoirs and the sinking of wells. 

It may even be found that this desert, requiring the trans- 
portation to its mines of almost everything necessary to exii3- 
tence, from the Sierra Nevada, the western valleys of California? 
and from the Colorado Valley, paying for the same in its ric^l^ 
subterranean treasures, may prove to be a more valuable cor^' 
tributor to the business of the road than those districts exteX*' 
nally most favored by nature. 

3d. We have now reached the Sierra Nevada — the gre^* 
mineral-bearing range of California. At Tehachapa Pas^? 
where we cross it, the mountain abounds in gold, silver ai»-^ 
copper. Gold placers are worked here. 

On the Tulare side, not far distant, is the Kern River Minii».^ 
District. From this, northward, as far as the range exteni^j 
mining operations are carried on, more or less extensively, cf^ 
both slopes of the Sierra Nevada. Those on the east side, wi^^ 
the Owens River and Mono Lake Districts, will be tapped by" * 
branch line from the foot of Tehachapa Pass, running along tl»^ 
margin of the desert northward until it meets a similar branch 
extended southward from the Central Pacific Railroad on tb-^ 
Truckee. The two roads are here about 400 miles apart. 


The mines of the western slope will be supplied from the 
main line on its way to San Francisco — if it follows the Tulare 
Valley — otherwise by a branch. 

4th. Near the summit of the Sierra Nevada, in Tehachapa 
Pass, is a salt lake, about three miles in length by one mile wide, 
from which more or less salt is taken annually, of a pearly- 
white color and excellent quality. 

South of Tehachapa Pass, mines of the precious metals are 
worked, in the Cordillera Range, at the San Francisquito Pass, 
in the Soledad Cafion, on Mt. San Gabriel, and in the San 
Bernardino Mountain, and ttere is magnetic iron ore in the 
Soledad Cafion and tin ore in the Temescal Mountain, south 
of San Bernardino ; all these mines, with the coal at Anaheim 
and San Diego will be developed by the main line and the San 
Diego branch. 

6th. The only mineral deposits that remain to be mentioned 
are on the direct route from Tehachapa Pass to San Francisco, 
as follows : First: The supply of bitumen at Buena Vista Lake, 
ui Tulare Valley, of which there seems to be an extraordinary 
<luantity, as it crops out for a distance of 20 miles. There are 
^orks erected here for its utilization. It will apparently yield 
* considerable traflSc to a railroad. Second. The quicksilver 
^ues of New Idria, at the eastern base of the Coast Range, 
^ear our surveyed line, and those of New Almaden, overlook- 


*^g the Santa Clara Valley, near San Jose, at each of which 
*lH)ut 1,000 men are employed. 

From the above necessarily hasty repertoire, which follows 
^^iisecutively along the route, it is clear that the hills and 
fountains over this extended range contain an amount of 
mineral wealth of all kinds, the useful as well as the precious, 
^hich may be considered practically inexhaustible. Further- 


more, that these subterranean treasures are not confined to 
a few localities far apart, but have a remarkable diffusion along 
the route. Indeed, from the Arkansas River to the western 
spurs of the Coast Range, near San Francisco, a distance of 
1,500 miles, the mountains, which one is never out of sight 
of, may almost be said to possess continuous deposits of 
one kind or another of valuable mineral, which, beginning 
with the coal and iron of Colorado, end only with the quick- 
Bilver of New Almaden. 

When it is remembered how little and how carelessly thi 
vast territory, the home of savage Indians, has been ezplor< 
by white men, and that, even in the small and old-settled dis- 
trict of Cornwall, where mining was carried on before th( 
Christian era, and where the earth has been burrowed for ag( 
at a great depth, new discoveries are still made of tin ani 
copper lodes, we may well wonder at the amount of hiddc 
treasures which the few disclosures above enumerated woul^^ 



Along the route there are numerous points where water power 
can be used to great advantage for the manufacture of wool, 
the stamping and reduction of ores, &c. 

In the canons of the Arkansas River, by which this stream 

breaks through the easterly wall of the Rocky Mountains and 

obtains an outlet to the great plains, there is an unlimited 

^•inount of water power, fully equal to the best in New England, 

and which will create at these points, especially near Canon 

City, very large manufacturing and metal reducing works. 

The Purgatory and Pecos Rivers also furnish, where they 

^<^nony admirable positions for water power; and the three 

^afions of the Rio Grande, between the mouth of the Santa Fe 

^iver and the San Luis Park, can scarcely be surpassed for 

this purpose. 

The woolen mill at Kroenig's, near Fort Union, is highly 

West of the Rio Grande, as well as east, there are numerous 
suialler canons in the Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Madre, the 
^gcyon range, the Sierra Nevada and Coast range, where, 
^y the construction of dams, a portion of the immense volumes 
^^ ^vater which pour down these mountains inithe rainy season, 
^^d during the melting of the snow, may be economized and 
applied to running, on a limited scale, grist and saw mills, 
stamping machinery, &c. The canons of the Little Colorado and 
^-he Verde, may be used on a much larger scale, while the grand 
^^tton of the Colorado probably presents facilities that are with- 
out limit, if they can be made available. 

If our line should follow one of the routes suggested, north 
^f Mount Agassiz, it will skirt the falls of the Little Colorado, 
^bere this river enters a canon 100 feet deep and 200 feet 
^id.e, affording, it is estimated, from 4,000 to 6,000 horse- 


power in low water, and suggesting the site for a considerable 
manufacturing place. There is the greatest abundance and 
variety of mountain timber adjacent ; the altitude is medium, 
say 4,500 feet above the ocean ; the valley above the falls fertil 
and extensive; the climate exceedingly healthy, and thepositio 
otherwise advantageous as being immediately at the base o 
the highest range on the route. Here may be the great cabine- 
shop of the plains. 

Manufacturing will also be -carried on at various points alooj 
or accessible to the line, where coal is found abundantly, or i 
connection with desirable accessories. For instance, on thL^ 
Arkansas, below the Great Canon ; south of the Raton Moue:*. - 
tain, near Maxwell ; near Las Vegas, in New Mexico — ^if tbi- o 
beds of coal should prove to be thick enough ; at the easteraa 
base of the Rocky Mountains, near Anton Chico; at numeroLXS 
localities on the Rio Grande, on the slopes of the Sierra Madr^, 
and most probably on the Great Colorado River. At suoli 
points, in addition to coal, we find attractive positions Cot 
settlement — good land, abundance of water, timber, and a 
healthful and genial climate. 

Several of these localities appear to offer superior inducemeix'ts 
for the manufacture of iron for the many purposes of a miniin^g 
country, and to supply the wants of the railroad at centrrSLl 
points, that will save the burthen of the present lengthy tracz^^s- 




The surveys upon this route were made by John Runk and 
Leonard H. Eicholtz, division engineers. Their reports, in 
connection with those of Capt. W. F. Colton and Dr. Bell, upon 
the characteristics and resources of the country traversed by 
the line, and of the adjoining Mexican State of Sonora, have 
given the Company very full information. The results can 
only be referred to here in the most general manner. 

As far as topography was concerned, an excellent route was 
found from the valley of the Rio Grande to the western side of 
the California Cordilleras, in the Los Angelos Valley. There 
was no grade encountered exceeding 65 feet per mile to the 
eastern base of the Cordilleras, except in passing through 
Cook's Mountain at Cook's Spring, in New Mexico, where an 
80 feet grade is required for three miles on each side of the 
summit ; in crossing the Santa Catarina Mountains from the 
San Pedro via Granite Spring to Saccaton, (to avoid the detour 
of 40 miles by the mouth of the San Pedro, and the very heavy 
work throughout the " 12 mile canon,") where a long grade of 
at lesCst 75 feet per mile will be required ; and in crossing the 
Maricopa Mountain, at the great bend of the Gila and the spurs 
of the Sierra Colorado along the lower Gila, where grades of 
70 feet per mile are necessary. A 60 feet grade for 12 miles 
was found necessary in ascending the western slope of the 
Peloncillo Mountains, and a 65 feet grade for 20^^^ miles in 
descending the western slope of the Calitro Mountains to the 
San Pedro Valley. 

The grades in this distance of 850 miles, from Isletta (near 
Albuquerque) to the foot of San Gorgonia Pass, are uniformly 
lower than on the 35th parallel. The tables annexed will show 
the route of exploration* that was followed, and the elevation 

* See also page 246. 


of ruling points thereupon, with a summary of the grades on 
this route. The passage of the Cordilleras is made at " San 
Gorgonia," the best Pass in the whole range, with no grade 
exceeding 90 feet and scarcely any work. Indeed, from the point 
of divergence near Albuquerque through to the Los Angelos 
Valley, the amount of excavation and embankment required is 
comparatively light. But here the troubles begin. To reach 
San Francisco, the coast route being exceedingly diflScult, and 
objectionable in other respects, the Cordilleras have to be recrossed 
to the eastward, which is done by the San Fernando Pass and 
the Soledad Canon to the Great Basin, and a third time crossed, 
westward, at Tehachapa Pass, in order to reach the great 
valley which divides the Sierra Nevada from the Coast Range. 
By the necessity of these three passages of the great moun- 
tain chain of California to reach San Francisco, the topogra- 
phical superiority of the route of the 32d parallel is done away 
with, while it is from 263 to 281 miles longer than the 35th. 

It has not heretofore been deemed possible to reach Tehachapa 
Pass from Fort Yuma without first crossing the range near San 
Bernardino to the coast slope. During our reconnoissance for 
a San Diego Branch from the line on the 35th parallel, how- 
ever, we discovered a good pass, with a grade of 60 feet per 
mile, in the Morongo Range, about 60 miles west of the Colo- 
rado River, by which I believe the desert can be followed from 
Yuma to Tehachapa. After crossing the Morongo Range at 
the "Yuma Pass'* northward into the Morongo Basin, such a 
line would continue northwestward across the Mojave River to 
Tehachapa Pass. Or it is entirely practicable to cross from 
the Colorado desert northward to the Morongo Basin at the 
Morongo PasSy and thence, I believe, to reach the Mojave 
River, and, of course, Tehachapa Pass. 

The distance from Fort Yuma to the eastern foot of Teha- 
chapa Pass might thus be reduced probably about 60 miles. 
But the entire route would lie in the great desert, through a 
timberless, unwatered waste, presenting so few attractions for a 



railroad, that even at the expense of the increased distance, it 
would, in all probability, be preferred to carry it by the Los 
Angelos Valley. 

As a through line merely to San Diego, the route of the 32d 
parallel has decided advantages in gradient, particularly if a 
detour be made by San Gorgonia Pass, (both Warner's and 
Jacumba Pass, on the more direct route across the Cordilleras, 
being very difficult, and requiring long stretches of very heavy 
grade.) From San Gorgonia Pass the line would follow pro- 
bably near the coast for 100 miles southward to San Diego. 
But by this circuitous route, San Diego is made from 108 to 147 
miles longer from a common point, Isletta or San Felipe, near 
Albuquerque, by the 32d parallel, than by the 35th. 

Hven by the shortest line across the Cordilleras — the Jacum, 
or Jacumba Pass, near the Mexican boundary — which we have 
Hot examined, but which Lieut. Williamson, who did, pronounces 
"utterly impracticable," the route is no shorter than by the 
35th parallel to San Diego, while, of course, this would entirely 
rule out San Francisco. By Warner's Pass it would be from 
40 to 79 miles longer than by the 35th parallel, but the grades 
Would be so much lighter on a great part of the distance by 
the 32d parallel, that this might be considered the best route 
from Albuquerque to San Diego merely^ but for the inferior 
character of the country, climate and timber supply. 

The relative distances by the two routes are shown by the 
following table : 

By 35th ParaUel. (on Shortest 
Proposed Route.) 

By 32d Parallel, (on Shortest 
Proposed Route.) 



by 35th 




From Kansas City via San 
Gorgonia Pass, to San 


^'•om Kansas City to Sau 



* O San nip^fi 


^clll J^lCgVj. ........... 

To San Die^o, via San Gor- 
fifonia Pass ..•■••..... ..., 


To San Diego, via Warner's 
Pass • 


To San Diego, via Jacumba 
Pass, if practicable, 

— 8 


Our surveys show, moreover, that the 32d parallel, beside 
the fact that it is so poor a route to San Francisco, beinj 
probably 281 miles longer thereto ; and at the very best n« 
shorter, and in all probability 108 miles longer to San Diegc 
has relatively the following additional disadvantages. 

1st. It runs through a country in which, for nearly 900 mile 
from Albuquerque to the summit of the Cordilleras, in Calif ornis 
timber^ either for construction or fuel, is exceedingly scare* 
According to the reports of our engineers, a limited quantit 
of Cottonwood can be procured at intervals from the banks ^ 
the Rio Grande, San Pedro and Gila, and perhaps enoug 
mesquite in Arizona to tie 20 miles of road altogether. Bi 
for most of that distance the supply of cross-ties and oth< 
timber necessary both for original construction and subsequei 
repair and improvement, can only be kept up at great co 
by transporting it over the railroad itself, upon which such ca 
riage would constitute a serious and permanent tax. 

Between the Rio Grande and the San Pedro, 209 miles, M 
Runk reports such a complete absence of timber that the: 
would not be sufficient for the working parties during the co 
struction of the road. The VaHey of the San Pedro woul 
perhaps, furnish enough cottonwood for first temporary co 
struction, and the mesquite and ironwood on the sides of t^ 
adjoining mesa might answer for fuel for a few years. T- 
Gila Valley has a slender growth of cottonwood, only fit £ 
tieing the roadway in a temporary manner. The timber £ 
trestling, bridging, and permanently for tieing being requir 
to be carried by rail, (or, if found practicable,) floated dc* 
from Central Arizona by the Hassayampa and other streanc 
On the desert, from Fort Yuma to the Cordilleras, there 
no construction timber. 

The great dearth of timber upon this route is not only 
serious drawback as increasing the first cost, and cost of msbi 
tenance of a railway, but chiefly because it discourages sett 
menty upon which a railroad depends for business. 


2d. Again, the amount of arable land, from the Rio Grande 
to the mountains in California, on this route, is very small, and 
even along the Gila, where most of it lies, the climate is too 
hot to suit an Anglo-Saxon population. 

3d. To put the Southern States in connection with the Pacific, 
this route, descending the Rio Grande from Albuquerque, 
vonld require the junction (with a line across Texas,) to be made 
near El Paso, making a longer and more costly separate line, 
through a part of Texas, topographically and agriculturally 
inferior, with one more crossing of the Rocky Mountains, (repre- 
sented here by the Guadaloupe and Huecos Mountains,) at an 
elevation of 2,000 feet above the Rio Grande, and an additional 
bridge over the Rio Grande, than if said connection were made 
on the 35th parallel. In the last event the junction would be 
on the plains, near Anton Chico, at the eastern base of the Rocky 
Mountains, west of which one trunk road would answer for all 
sections across the mountains. The last named junction would 
also avoid the necessity of a great southerly detour to reach San 
Francisco for that important belt of Southern States represented 
by the Memphis system of railroads, while even from New 
Orleans, by a branch northwestward from Shreveport it would 
give the Gulf States by far the shortest and best communi- 
cation with San Francisco, and a not much longer one to San 

Rightfully considered, it is to the interest of the Southern 
States, to as great an extent as the middle and northern, that 
^he 35th parallel should be selected. This is true, whether 
^ San Diego or San Francisco — the New York of the Pacific 
coa%t-^\}Q the objective point, but especially if it be desired to 
^each both termini with the least sacrifice in distance to one to 
gain the other. 

It has been seen that the 35th parallel has the advantage of 
"oing comparatively well wooded, there being, from the Rio 
Grande nearly to the Great Colorado, 580 miles, supplies of 
Piiie or spruce, with pinon, cedar, juniper, and cottonwood, 


either close to the line or within reach, almost continuously, 
(besides the forests of pine, cedar and red-wood on the Sierra 
Nevada and Coast Range, and on spurs of the latter on the 
route to San Francisco.) These supplies are valuable, not only 
as furnishing the requirements of the railroad permanently, 
and at cheap rates, but also because they will meet all tie 
wants of a large population, and furnish an extensive and 
profitable traffic to the road. 

From Fort Mojave to the Sierra Nevada, timber is, of course, 
very scarce, as on the Great Basin, wherever crossed. 

It has also been seen that there is a large amount of arable and 
inhabitable country on the 35th parallel, west of Albuquerque — ■ 
with a genial and remarkably healthy climate, which, while 
free from any liability to cause winter obstructions to travel, is 
much better adapted to attract a vigorous American emigra^ 
tion than the almost tropical belt of lower altitude, nearly three 
degrees southward. As Dr. Parry has shown, the general sixr- 
face being much more elevated, a larger amount of moistuxe 
is precipitated from the condensation of the warm southern 
currents against the higher slopes, favoring not only the 
growth of trees, but especially of nutritious grasses and the 
cultivation of grain, without resorting to irrigation. Here, 
for instance, we see the Zuni Indians of New Mexico culti- 
vating all the cereals, and many fruits,- for 40 miles out froia 
the base of the Sierra Madre, without irrigation. And at 
Prescott, Arizona, the register at the military post of Foit 
Whipple, shows a rainfall of 20 inches in the year, while ev^^ 
this is exceeded in the San Francisco Mountains. 

All explorers have dwelt upon these characteristic features 
of the 35th parallel. Whipple, one of the most careful a#xid 
conscientious observers, sums up, " among the advantages o^ 
this route," "its temperate and salubrious climate ; its freedoxn 
from heavy snows ; the large amount of timber and fuel upon 
its extremities and interior portions ; the convenient distribtt" 
tion of stone for construction ; the general plentiful supply of 


^water ; the comparatively great extent of arable valleys along 
"fcte route, and frequency of spots adapted to settlements." 

" It will be perceived that the parallel of 35 degrees is par- 

"ticularly favored by rain. The valley of the Canadian, the 

2uai region, the vicinity of the San Francisco Mountains, and 

"the Aquarius Range, have evidently a large amount of precipi- 

i;ated moisture. The arid deserts, between the Mississippi and 

the Pacific coast, are here contracted to their narrowest limits ; 

consequently upon this route there are more springs, more 

streams, and more woodland than can be found upon lines 1 

have traversed further south.'' 

" Fuel is believed to be more abundant upon this route than 
upon any other known from the Mississippi to the Pacific." 

And Beale, who has been a dozen times on various routes 
across the continent, and is remarkably well acquainted with 
the great interior plateau, says of the 35th parallel ; " It is the 
shortest, the best timbered, the best grassed, the best watered, 
* * * * of any line between the two oceans with which I am 
acquainted." "It is well watered; our greatest distance with- 
out water at any time being 20 miles ; it is well timbered, 
and in many places the growth is far beyond that of any part 
of the world I have ever seen; it is temperate in climate, 
passing for the most part over an elevated region ; it is 
salubrious; it is well grassed, my command never having 
made a bad grass camp during the entire distance until near 
the Colorado ; it crosses the great desert (which must be crossed 
by any road to California) at its narrowest point ; it passes 
through a country abounding in game ; it is passable alike in 
winter and summer." "The country over which we passed 
was one of the most attractive description. Nature has sup- 
plied it most bountifully with the great requisites for an over- 
land road — ^wood, grass and water. Our work, although ardu- 
ous, has been rendered pleasant by the beautiful character of 
country through which we have passed, and the sialubrious 
nature of the climate. I rely upon the concurrent testimony 


of all who have traveled the road, and compared it with other 
trans-continental routes, who agree with me that it is habitable 

In a word, all those features which we recognize as making 
a country attractive to a population, exist to a much greater 
extent on this route, between the Rio Grande and the Sierras, 
than on the 32d parallel, and there is no comparison between, 
them in this respect west of the Great Basin ; from the easte 
foot of the Sierra Nevada to San Francisco, 335 miles, th 
Tulare and Coast Valleys will support a dense population, an 
furnish a large surplus of agricultural products to supply th 
barren mining districts of the desert. 

In regard to mineral wealthy there is as much alread; 
developed east of the Colorado, along one route as the other 
and the great bulk of the precious ores yet discovered, lyin 

between the two routes, is at least as accessible either by wagoarr^i 
road or cheap railroad branches, with easy gradients, from th^^^e 
35th parallel as from the 32d. But we%t of the Colorado RiyeiM:^ ar 
the advantage is overwhelmingly in favor of the 35th, becaus^^ -^ 
of the extension southward through this part of the Great^— «it 
Basin, of the mineral bearing ranges of Nevada, and because Jse 
of the gold placers, and leads of the Sierra Nevada, and th^ -e 
quicksilver mines of the Coast Range. I believe every otheET -«r 
source of local traffic exists also to a greater extent on the rout^ -e 
of the 35th parallel. 

Several claims of another character are made, however, o 
behalf of the 32d parallel — 

1st. That it aflfords a better opportunity for a branch Xo 

* See Dr. Parry's report on this subjeCti pace 229. Itli 


This is true ; but Guaymas is not a large enough harbor — 
possessing an area of only one-half square mile of water over four 
fathoms in depth, and is, besides, at too great a distance from the 
real Pacific Coast, (1,500 miles around to San\Francisco, and 
nearly 1,000 to San Diego,) to permit it to be an entrepot for a 
great through Irade; while, for local purposes, a line from the 
neighborhood of the San Pedro or Tucson, (apparently the only 
way of reaching Guaymas from the north, because of formidable 
mountains,) would pass through the worst instead of the best 
part of Sonora; one in fact in which there is very little to 

If a railroad be required to open up Sonora — a province 
almost entirely cut off from the remaining States of Mexico by 
the high range and spurs of the Sierra Madre — the best way, 
is to build it from Guaymas inland through the rich districts 
of southern and eastern Sonora. It is true, such a line, by 
reason of mountains, might not be able to penetrate to the 
United States ; but there would probably be nothing lost by 
delay in constructing a long line of road through an unpro- 
ductive part of Sonora, the only effect of which would be 
*o take a certain amount of trade a short instead of a long 
distance over the road, away from our own country and harbors 
^o a port now foreign, and even if otherwise, not valuable 
^Hough for great results. 

The idea of the superiority of Guaymas, in respect of dis- 
tance, is greatly exaggerated. The reconnoissance — made for 
this Company by Dr. W. A. Bell — showed that the length of a 
V>ranch from a point near the San Pedro, Arizona, (east of which 
lio good route was presented,) on Runk*s surveyed line of the 32d 
parallel, by the most practicable route to Guaymas, via Tubac, 
Calabasas, Los Nogdales, Imuris, La Magdalena and Hermosilla, 
^ould be 335 miles, making the distance from New York to 
Guaymas 2,812 miles, against 2,935 from New York to San 
Diego by the route of the 35th parallel, a difference of but 123 
miles in favor of Guaymas. 


The following table will give the distances in detail bjp% 
shortest routes: 

By 32c? parallel to Guaymas — 


New York to Kansas City, 1,318 

Kansas City to Kio Grande, (between 

Albuquerque and Isletta,) 799 

To Fort Craig, 102 

Kailroad Pass, 204 

San Pedro Crossing, 46 

Tubac, 58 

Calabasas, 13 

Los Nagdales, • 8 

Imuris, 49 

La Magdalena, , II 

Hermosilla, • • . 110 

Guaymas, • . • • • 86 


By 35th parallel from New York to San Diego,* 2,927. 

2d. In the case of Chihuahua the circumstances are different • 
This city is the Capital and entrepot of the rich Northorn. 
States of Mexico — Durango, Chihuahua, &c., — cut off by 
the mountain chain from the sea coast, but mo9t easily reached 
from New Mexico by a railroad line of easy gradients and 
cheap cost. The natural market and outlet of this section 
is the Mississippi Valley, as it actually was in former times — 
(by wagon trains from St. Louis.) It is not shut off by high 
ranges, over which the only communication is by pack-mule, 
from the rest of the Mexican Republic, as is the case with 
Sonora. The branch referred to can be extended whenever 
the trade will warrant it, so as to penetrate and open up the 
larger part of Mexico, producing many desirable commercial 
and political results, and this in a far greater degree than if the 
main line had been deflected to run for nearly 700 miles close 
to and parallel with the frontier of two isolated Mexican States, 
whose productions naturally tend to their own coasts, on which 
they have good local harbors. But this Chihuahua connection 
is readily made from the 35th parallel, the branch down the 

* See table on page 53. 


Rio Grande from near Albuquerque being only 175 miles longer 
than from the 32d route, for the same branch, without requiring 
a sacrifice of 260 to 280 miles of distance on the main line to 
San Francisco, and of the other important features that have 
been mentioned, to effect it. 

3d. Tt is claimed that Fort Yuma is the natural and actual 

distributing point for all Arizona and contiguous parts of Utah, 

i^evada and New Mexico. If this be true, there is not as much 

use or inducement for a railroad to cross the Colorado at that 

point as farther north, where the water navigation is not as 

good. But it is not true, since the military posts at Tucson 

and elsewhere in southern Arizona are partially supplied from 

GuajTnas or Libertad, and those of middle and northern Arizona 

from Fort Mojave and Le Paz. 

The truth is: 1st. That from Fort Yuma around the Cali- 
fomia Peninsula to San Francisco is nearly 2,000 miles, or 
farther than from the Missouri River, overland, to San Fran- 
cisco, and freights are higher by that long route than they 
would be by a railroad even from San Francisco to Yuma, 727 
miles. And 2d. While the Colorado is navigable even for 100 
miles above w^here the route of the 35th parallel crosses, I do 
not think it will prove a valuable and extensive outlet to tide- 
water for Arizona, Utah and Nevada. It is shallow and irregu- 
lar, and enters the Grand Cafion which has been recently proven 
to be impracticable before arriving within striking distance of 
Utah or Nevada. The mineral and other resources of the 
southern and central parts of the Q-reat Basin can be much, 
more readily and cheaply tapped by means of branch lines 
from the route of the 35th parallel in California and Arizona, 
whence direct transportation can be had to the coast at San- 
Diego or San Francisco than by any practicable improvements 
of this long water route. 

The river will, however, prove valuable as a local feeder 
conveying mineral and agricultural products from hundreds of 
points along its shores to the railroad, and supplies of all kinds- 

in return to the mines and plantations. For cheap development 


of the country, both in Arizona and in southern and centra/ 
Nevada and Utah, and the basin in California, it is evidently 
better that the road should cross the Colorado on a line as 
central as possible to these resources, which would take it as 
far north as the "Bill Williams" or Fort Mojave. Thus, the 
mines and cultivable lands of the Great Basin, which cannot 
be reached by water because of the Colorado canons, are 
approached and benefited, while those of Arizona and southern 
California, between the 32d and 85th parallels, are attainable 
by river, which will convey their products cheaply to the rail- 
road, or in some cases to the sea. 

4th. It is claimed that there is an excellent bridging point 
at Fort Yuma. Both having been examined by our engineers, 
it is found that this crossing, taking everything into considera- 
tion, is no better than that near the Needles, where our surveyed 
line of the 35th parallel crosses the Colorado. 

5th. It has been claimed further, that this route "affords 
decided advantages for the delivery of railroad material at 
several points on the line, thus expediting and cheapening the 
work of construction, and, while through business is going on, 
enables the road to consult all interests in its location through 
the State to San Francisco.** The points referred to are, San 
Diego and Fort Yuma. Iron rails and other supplies are deli- 
vered at San Francisco much more cheaply than at San Diego, 
because of the certainty of return freight, while it is not likely 
they would cost at Fort Mojave, on the 85th parallel, more than 
$10 or $15 above the cost at Fort Yuma, 280 miles lower on the 
same river. 

It is highly improbable that a Pacific Railroad would be built 
to San Francisco by way of San Diego. 

6th. It is also urged that, "were a road built on the 35th 
parallel, a route on the 32d would be only a question of time 
and means — (the interests demanding it already exist) — whereas, 
if the latter route be adopted, its grandeur and success will 
defy competition.'* 

As far as this is concerned the interests demanding a route 


n the 35th parallel really exists to a greater extent than for 
he 32d, and were the trunk line now to be built on the 
atter, a line from Memphis, by the valley of the Canadian, 
crossing at Albuquerque, and continuing westward by the 35th 
parallel to San Francisco and to San Diego, is not only a 
}uestion of time and of means, but it would have such ad- 
vantages in distance, profitable local trade, &c., that the other 
(fould, I think, be unable to compete for the transportation of 
through traffic — even from the Southern States. It most 
certainly would not be able to compete to San Francisco. 
If the route of the 35th parallel be now adopted, the con- 
Jtruction of a road down the Rio Grande and along the 32d, 
srill be a gradual process to more fully open up and supply the 
Qoineral districts of southern Arizona, the rapidity of which 
»rill depend on the character of these developments ; and, finally, 
it will reach the Pacific when the through trade demands an 
additional southern route. 

Lastly, it has been urged that the line should go to San 
Diego, and leave San Francisco out. There is no question as 
to the value of the harbor of San Diego. It is admirably 
sheltered ; will admit vessels drawing 22 J feet of water ; has 
two square miles of water over foul* fathoms in depth, and 
is, next to San Francisco, the best harbor on the California 
coast. It is four times as large as Guaymas. By turning San 
Diego River, the sand of which is encroaching upon the excel- 
lent entrance of the harbor, into " False Bay," which can be 
lone at no very great cost, a permanently valuable harbor 
^ay be insured. There is also a favorable site, with ample 
Jpace at the "New Town" — the hills rising gradually for an 
^definite distance to the eastward — to build a large city. The 
JouDtry back of San Diego is capable of furnishing an ample 
'upply of fruits and vegetables, and meat of all kinds, while 
he cereals can come in by railroad from the San Bernardino 
Galley, and the valleys south of that. Water, adequate to the 
^ants of a very large population, can readily be obtained by 
wringing in the San Diego River, from a point 10 or 12 miles 


above its mouth, where it is sweet and permanent ; and the 
exceedingly healthy and equable character of the climate, the 
temperature never falling below 40° or rising above 82°, as 
shown by the register kept at the military post for a number of 
years, adds an additional attraction. 

The fact that this harbor is almost 300 miles nearer by rail- 
road, to New York, than San Francisco is, either by the 35th 
parallel or by Omaha, is so important, especially in its bear- 
ing upon the question of the oriental trade, that if the Gila 
route were the only one by which San Diego could be advan- 
tageously reached — one might hestitate before giving prefer- 
ence to the 35th parallel. It has been shown, however, that 
the latter affords a good route to San Diego, 106 miles shorter 
than by the 32d parallel, and requiring the construction of a 
branch of but 211 miles in length, from a point west of the 
Colorado River, by the Morpngo Basin and Pass and the San 
Gorgonia Pass, skirting the rich valley of San Bernardino, 
and thence extending to San Diego. 

This branch could be built in 18 months, whenever the in- 
terest demanding it should frove sufficiently important to war- 
rant its construction by private capital, a result that might 
occur even before the completion of the main line, and it is not 
impossible that its shortness and cheapness of transportation to 
the Pacific may eventually cause it to become the main line- 
But at present this is all mere speculation. San Francisco i^ 
already the New York of the Pacific coast, with such a head- 
way, that, as far as we can see, within our life-time iirade and 
travel will tend to its wharves as naturally as they do to it^ 
great exemplar on the Atlantic, while it should be remem.^ 
bered that even if the general route of the 32d paralte*- 
were selected, a branch of at least 100 miles in length, froif- 
San Gorgonia Pass, would still be necessary to reach S&^^ 
Diego, unless (the idea of building to San Francisco bein^ 
abandoned entirely) the difficult passes of Warner's or Jacuir^-' 
ba should prove practicable. The only difference in this respect^^ 
therefore, is, that a branch 111 mile% longer would be requir©^ 


from the main line of the 35th parallel to reach San Diego, 

than from the 32d. 

Evidently what is wanted is, as far as it can be done, to get 

the best line for through traffic without sacrificing the local ; to 
enjoy the advantages of a mild climate without the infliction of 
intense heat ; to consult economy of first construction without 
impairing the future usefulness of the line; to jpive favorable 
gradients and curves, so that tonnage may be transported 
cheaply without overlooking the distance that it will be neces- 
to carry it ; the important elements of fuel and timber, and the 
vital question of whether there will be as much freight and as 
many people to carry on olie route as the other; to accommo- 
date the interests of the Gulf States, without losing sight of 
those of the middle or central South ; to be near to the Mexican 
border without sacrificing thereto any of those more important 
considerations for which this railroad is wanted ; and finally, 
if possible, in the matter of ternfinus, to gain present certainties 
without giving up the possibilities of the future ; in other words, 
to reach both San Francisco and San Diego. 

The route which approaches nearest to this standard I believe 
to be that by the 35th parallel.* 

* See, also, Report on this subject by Dr. Parry, Naturalist to the Survey, who hai 
been over both routes. Page 196. 



What business will the road have when built? 

This is on^f the most interesting questions in reference to 
existing or proposed lines across the Continent. It is admitted 
generally that they are of great economy to the Government 
in the transportation of troops and mails, and in doing away, 
to a great extent, with the necessity for any military transpor- 
tation ; that they virtually solve the Indian problem ; that they 
assume great national importance by binding more closely 
together widely separated portions of the country, protecting our 
borders and Pacific States and Territories from foreign aggres- 
sion, and peacefully working out our "destiny" in reference to 
the rest of the Continent without filibustering. But many 
people have doubts in regard to the extent of the eommercuil 
traflBc, and think the Government may have to maintain the lines 
for the sake of these important national advantages. 

A glance at the chapters of this report, which describe, in 
general terms, some of the mineral, arable, pastoral, timber 
and manufacturing resources of the country immediately along 
this surveyed route and accessible thereto, will convince those 
who have seen the marvelous growth of once wild and inaccessible 
regions of country east of the Missouri River, that the traffic 
of a railroad traversing the territory surveyed by this Company 
between Kansas and the Pacific Ocean must undoubtedly bo 
large at first, and increase with wonderful rapidity. 

Indeed, it may happen that the western half of this Conti- 
nent, differing in so many respects from the eastern, and as yet 
barely touched and scarcely known, will, nevertheless, within 
the period of a single generation in this busy age, exhibit a 
rapidity of growth exceeding anything heretofore seen, even in 
the United States. 


California affords an index. Had it remained a Mexican 
colony, it would doubtless have been to-day like Chihuahua or 
Sonora, which there is every reason to believe surpass it greatly 
in resources of mineral wealth, and are not far behind it agri- 
culturally. But, thrown open to the energy and industrial im- 
provements of Americans, it has, in 20 years, become a rich, 
powerful and populous State. No one in the. early history 
of California would have conceived that it would become 
famous for the possession of anything but mines of the pre- 
cious metals, yet now it exports breadstuffs to New York, and 
its production of mineral is inferior to that of its agricultural 
wealth. I believe that results equally surprising may be had 
in New Mexico, Colorado and Arizona, if the Indians be con- 
trolled, and cheap and- ready access furnished. • 

The building up of 1500 miles of country, which, within 3 J 
years on this route, may be penetrated by a railroad, and made 
known and accessible, cannot fail to afford a heavy immediate 
traffic to the road. The experience of the Company on the 
finished part of the line in Kansas, where, during the last year, 
the business amounted to nearly $5,000 per mile, per annum, 
most of the country being perfectly new, is a sufficient demon- 
stration of this fact. But this is in a purely agricultural dis- 
trict. In a mixed agricultural and mineral region the results 
would be much greater ; a mining population has more wants, 
is more migratory, more luxurious, besides requiring more 
appurtenances for carrying on its business. All this requires 
more transportation per capita, and more in proportion to the 
amount of wealth produced. 

The character of the country from the Missouri River to the 
Pacific Ocean on this route is especially favorable to a large 
railroad traffic for the above, but also for another reason. There 
is a much greater inequality and variety in the distribution of 
the different elements of industry and wealthy than there is in 
the Eastern half of the continent. 

There are vast stretches of unwooded prairie, and there are 


mountains at intervals covered with dense forests of timber 
there are rich mines in rocky ranges, and elsewhere extensiv^ 
fertile valleys and numerous rich but scattered basins aa_ 
canadas. There are deep valleys adapted especially to cor 
melons and vineyards ; and elevated parks where wheat, barfej 
and the other small grains thrive abundantly. There are so- 
called deserts, like Southern Nevada, filled with rich miner^al 
mountains, but otherwise valueless ; and slopes and valleys lite 
those of California, which can raise all the breadstaffs 
needed, besides semi-tropical fruits; extended rolling plains 
covered with the most nutritious grasses, where horses, 
cattle and sheep may be raised wonderfully cheap and 
in wonderful abundance; and canons whose water-power is 
available to reduce the ores to metal and convert the wool into 
clothing. Perhaps the largest portion of the country is badly 
off for fuel; but, at points, there are beds of very pure coal, 
practically inexhaustible, and, at many more, large pineries and 
stretches of cedar forest. There are some sections, especially 
in the Great Basin, west of the Colorado River, that are very 
badly watered, but, until this is remedied by improved artificial 
means, suggested by experience, the ores of those mountains 
will be carried to water. 

Now these are precisely the conditions which are most favor- 
able to the business of transportation. A railroad thrives in 
the proportion that one portion of its line lacks that which 
another has a great facility for supplying. As has been stated, 
if the whole line from the Missouri to the Pacific had traversed 
a good agricultural country, there would evidently be neither 
the same necessity for a railroad, nor the same promise of traffic, 
as under existing circumstances. 

In this connection, it is a noticeable feature that on this 
route the line penetrates one latitude from another, and along 
the 35th parallel itself the differences in elevation between 
the valleys and mountain plateaus, and of climate between 
the Pacific and Atlantic slopes, produce all the effect of * 


variation in latitude, which, by favoring the growth of variable 
products, promotes still further this exchange, upon which 
railroads live. Thus, we pass from the middle state pro- 
ductions of Kansas to the country of the vine and of semi- 
tropical fruits, from the bracing summits of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, Sierra Nevada and Mount Agassiz, to where winter is 
rarely known, in the Valley of the Rio Grande, and never in 
the Valley of the Colorado, to cotton and sugar in the latter, 
and oranges and pomegranates on the western foot-hills of the 
Sierra Nevada. It may be repeated that the value of the grazing, 
and of general agriculture is greatly enhanced by the mildness 
of the climate. The grass is nearly as good in winter as in 
summer, and the animals of our surveying party were taken 
through and returned over the most elevated and mountainous 
part of the route from October till May, finding everywhere 
an abundance of the best grazing. 

But this remote country has been carelessly charged with 
being a desert, and unfit for extensive settlement. It has 
been said that the western tide of emigration in the United 
States must stop somewhere in the vicinity of the 100th meri- 
dian, and make one leap across to the coast of California. 
This was natural when the country was so little known. The 
question of its future capabilities, as deduced from a scientific 
view of its characteristics, is so ably treated by the geologist 
of the expedition, Dr. Parry, in his report attached hereto,* 
that it is scarcely necessary to add anything thereto. It may 
be pointed out, however, that it so happens that nearly all 
the tribes of Indians on this route, the Navajoes, Zunians, 
Moquis, Mojaves, and even the Piutes and Apaches, to a 
greater or less extent, cultivate the soil. The Zuni Indians 
had plenty of corn and dried fruits to sell us as we passed their 

The country has looked with wonder on what has been 


* See page 196. 


done by the Mormons in Salt Lake Basin on the slopes of the 
Wahsatch Range. But the slopes of the Sierra Madre will, 
when this line crosses it, build up numerous larger settlements 
than those of Utah, within five years after the completion ol 
the road ; and the parks of Mt. Agassiz, to which the Mormonf 
are already talking of emigrating from Southern Utah, will, 
independently of any mining interest, attract and support 
very large agricultural and mining population. We have 
indeed, on this route, a continuous extent of comparativel; 
elevated country, which affords the moisture that makes tlu^^ 
country inhabitable and attractive, and gives timber growtlfer] 
and when the line descends it is into great valleys with lar^^g 
streams like the Rio Grande, the Great Colorado, Little CoL.^^- 
rado and Tulare Valleys. 

It should also be remembered, in connection with ttxis 
question, that on a portion of this route, and accessible there^fco, 
a considerable population already exists — 110,000 in N^w 
Mexico, over a 1,000,000 in the Northern States of Old 
Mexico, which will be supplied from this line, 50,000 in Colo- 
rado, without mentioning the smaller but energetic India^n- 
harrassed settlements of Arizona, and the rapidly increasixig 
population of Southern California. The Santa Fe trad^ is 
already large, and even on the present basis, a railroad wo«W 
find considerable business in supplying the wants of this popii' 

The mere fact that mining can be carried on at all ^ 
New Mexico and Arizona, under all the discouragements ^^ 
costly transportation, Indian attacks and remoteness from "fcl® 
conveniences of life is, to the thinking mind, strong evidet*^^ 
that, with these drawbacks removed, through the agency of * 
railroad, the development of mining industry would be enlarg^^ 
in an extraordinary degree. While only the larger and rict*^^^ 
veins can now be profitably worked, when the cost of tra^^^^' 
portation is reduced to one-fifth and the risk to property ^^^^ 
life removed by the settlement of the Indian question, capi** 


\ — 

win find it advantageous to open up the smaller and less pro- 
luctive veins; and as these are much more abundant and wide- 
jpread than the richer ones, the field of mining industry will 
ihus at once be much more than proportionably enlarged. 

It is not alone the resources of the country immediately tra- 
rersed that will contribute to the trade of the road, but those 
)f districts even somewhat remote from the line, which will be 
mmediately rendered greatly more accessible than at present, 
ind will gradually be put into direct communication by branches. 
Thus, as a legitimate and certain efiect of the construc- 
tion of the trunk line, without . further aid from the govern- 
ment, private capital will hasten to use various points along 
the route, each as a new base from which to strike in order to 
tap new and distant sources of wealth and trade. Thus, almost 
immediately a branch will be constructed from Cheyenne Wells 
to Denver, reaching, by the shortest practicable route, the gold 
and silver mines of the Clear Creek region — the farthest north 
of any discovered mineral wealth in Colorado — and the coal, 
iron ore, and manufacturing facilities at Golden City and 

Another branch will, at an early day, be extended up the 
easy grade — less than 20 feet per mile — of the Arkansas Valley 
^ the coal, timber and iron ore at the base of the Rocky 
Mountains, to the unexampled manufacturing facilities at the 
■Big Canon, to the mines of gold and silver, and the arable 
parks and valleys, and the unrivaled pastures of Southern 
Colorado, and to that most promising reservoir of the precious 
naetals near the head of the Arkansas, and in the South Park. 
As mining developments advance, this line will be pushed on west- 
Ward over the great Continental Divide at Arkansas Pass, (which 
can be crossed with a grade of 75 feet per mile) to the waters 
of Grand River, and so on eventually through Western Colorado 


into Utah. A southward prong of this line will be extended 
from the Arkansas across Puntia Pass to the San Luis Park, 
traversing that beautiful basin for its whole length, and open- 


ing up an extensive mining region in the Spanish Range, o 
the east, and the San Juan Mountains, on the west. This lin< 
by gradual extension, southward along the Rio Grande, tappi 
the Abique and Jemez Copper Mines en route, will finally aga^^ 

intersect the trunk road near Albuquerque — the whole rou : 

being through a country with good resources, and, except z3! 
crossing the Puntia Pass, the grade nowhere exceeding 20 fe«/ 
per mile. 

A third branch will be very early constructed from Albu- 
querque down the Valley of the Rio Grande, 250 miles to E/ 
Paso, traversing all the way, by a grade from 5 to 10 feet per 
mile, a broad, productive valley and vineyard, (where enough 
good wine can be raised to supply the United States ;) and opening 
up the mines of argentiferous galena and copper in the Organ 
Range, which encloses the valley on the east'for the whole dis- 
tance, and of gold and silver and copper in the Ladrones, 
Socorro, San Mateo and Miembres Mountains on the west; the 
coal near Fort Craig; and the extraordinary rich deposits of 
copper and gold at Pinos Altos, with the agricultural wealth of 
the Mesilla Valley. This branch will be extended from El 
Paso, 200 miles more across a gentle mesa to the City of 
Chihuahua, the capital of the rich Northern States of Mexico, 
which have produced an amount of gold and silver compared 
with which the production of California and all our other 
mineral States and Territories is, as yet, but a trifle; where 
in a single small mining district, that of "Santa Eulalia," 
more than 200 mines were formerly worked in a space of two 
square leagues, 50 of them to a depth of 600 feet, and where 
a census, taken in 1833, showed that 430 millions of dollars 
had, up to that time, been taken from the mines in this single 
limited district. But, aMiough the population of the City of 
Chihuahua, adjoining Santa Eulalia, then 76,000, has dwindled 
to 12,000, and very few of the mines are now, by reason of bad 
government, and its result, insecurity from the Indians, 
worked at all; yet great wealth is still there to reward those 


who are to extract it under the new and stimulating influences 

of railroad communication. 

This Chihuahua branch may be extended to Durango, and 

eventually to the City of Mexico, opening up a trade with 

7,000,000 of our neighbors from the best direction to benefit 

the people of the United States. 

This is, in many respects, perhaps, the most important branch 
of all, and the rich traflBc that it promises will induce its con- 
struction promptly after the main line reaches the Rio Grande. 
The supplies of Chihuahua, Durango,* Zacatecas, and other 
Mexican States which are cut off" from the ocean by high moun- 
tain barriers, are now wagoned from the coast in Texas, and were 
formerly wagoned from Missouri. This trade will be at once 
restored to its ancient' channel, and vastly enlarged when 
the track reaches Albuquerque. The people of Chicago 
and St. Louis, and of the cities of the Mississippi Valley, 
south of the latter, will then be found competing for the 
supply of clothing, machinery, groceries, &c., to the Mexican 
States as they now are to the miners and rancheros of Colo- 
rado, Montana and New Mexico. The silent but certain poli- 
tical efiect of this influence is not less notable than the stimu- 
lus to trade. 

The ores of Pinos Altos, west of the Rio Grande, in Southern 
New Mexico, are very rich, and now pay for wagoning supplies 
over 900 miles from the Gulf of Mexico at Indianola. What a 
development will be seen in such a region with the railroad 
finished to Albuquerque, or, still better, with the Rio Grande 
branch constructed, and the Apaches fully disposed of. 

In Western New Mexico, branches will be constructed from 
the thirty-fifth parallel northwestward and southeastward along 
the slopes of the Sierra Madre. 

There will be two important branches in Arizona: the first 
from Mt. Agassiz along the Mogoyon Range southeastward, 
(or from the mouth of Navajo Creek up the Valley of Little 
Colorado) to the rich mining district and beautiful parks of the 


Sierra Blanca; the second (unless the main line should itsel _ 
take that general course) from the mouth of Partridge Creek i 
or other point of striking the Val de Chino, southward, with on*- 
prong to the mines, ranches and timber of the Prescott an» 
Verde country and Central Arizona, and the other following 
the low country between the Aztec Range and the Black Moui^ 
tains to Wickenburg, with an ultimate extension to the GiL^ 
and the mines of Southern Arizona. 

The banks of the Great Colorado being interrupted hf 
occasional precipitous canons, it is not likely that railroad 
branches will soon be constructed up and down that valley, 
nor will they be so necessary as elsewhere. The river, although 
not a superior navigable stream, will at all seasons of the year 
act as a valuable feeder to the business of a railroad crossing 
it, carrying cheaply thereto the products of the mines and 
plantations along its course, and taking back the necessary 
supplies. Thus, both up and down, but especially from above, 
(for 200 miles,) as far as the mouth of the Grand Canon, the Salt 
Mountains and the gold and silver mines of the rugged ranges, 
which line this valley on each side, will be afforded an outlet 
much cheaper than by the present long, inferior and uncer- 
tain water circuit, by way of the Gulf of California, to San 
Francisco. Thus the rich auriferous copper ores of the Valley 
of Bill Williams, (if the main line does not follow that route,) 
will be reached, and supplies for these mines furnished from 
the railroad. 

There will be three principal branches in California, and 
perhaps a fourth. 

The first, to San Diego, has already been referred to. It is 
rather an extension of the main line from the Colorado River 
westward to another terminus, than a branch, and should be 
built very soon. It will open up the mines of the Bullion 
Range and other mountains in the Great Basin, also of San 
Bernardino Mountain and the Cordilleras, the tin mines of 
Temescal, the charming semi-tropical Valleys of San Bernardino 


and Los Angelos, with their fine vineyards and orange groves ; 
and reach, by crossing the best pass in the whole range of the 
Sierra Nevada, the second best port on the coast of California, 
(with water for vessels drawing 22 J feet,) in 300 miles less dis- 
tance than to San Francisco. 

The second branch is from the eastern base of Tehachapa 
Pass northward along the foot of the Sierra Nevada, and the 
margin of the Great Basin, to Owens River, and as far north 
as may be required to develop the almost continuous mines of 
the Sierra, which are the most readily reached from the 
eastern slope. A prong from this branch may be extended 
through the valleys dividing the silver-bearing Mountains of 
Nevada to Reese River, Austin and Belmont, giving this pro- 
ductive mining region a connection with the coast, and with 
the agricultural valleys west of the Sierra Nevada, by a line of 
easier gradients than the Central Pacific, and free from snow. A 
branch may also be extended southward from Tehachapa Pass 
along the easterly foot of the Sierra Nevada to the Cajon as 
mining developments advance. 

The third branch will deflect at the western foot of Tehachapa 
I^ass, and follow down the eastern side of Tulare Valley and 
"the San Joaquim Valley, traversing a good agricultural and 
pastoral country of immense extent, and affording access for 
Over 200 miles to the mines and pineries of the Sierra' Nevada, 
"^lich are the most easily reached from the western slope. 

If the main line should take this route, then the branch will 
<5ro88 the Coast .Range to the Salinas Valley and so on to the 
t^ajaro and Gilroy, opening up the good valleys and the forests of 
^ed wood between that range and the coast. 

Perhaps a fourth branch may be constructed from the 
vicinity of the Piute Pass, theMojave River, (or from the Yampa 
"Valley, in Arizona, northward by the Virgin,) into Utah and 
Western Nevada to the Pahranagut Mines, the White Pine 
Region, and along the line of Mormon settlements. The existing 
principal outlet and route of supplies for the Mormons is 
southwestward to the Mojave, and thence to the coast at Los 


Angelos, to and from which they wagon their goods and surplvz^s 
products, in order to avoid the passage of the snow-covers <f 

By these various branches which, with one or two exceptions, 
all follow strongly-marked natural routes, great lines of 
drainage, long mountain plateaus, extended basins or lines of 
depression, or the base of mountain ranges, a vast extent of 
territory, rich in natural resources, is opened up and made to 
pay tribute to the Continental line. The system thus indi- 
cated would develop nearly everything of value in our ovm 
territories, (and in the Border States of Mexico,) south of Den- 
ver, and the southern boundary of Nebraska; and this is done 
without material divergence of the main line from that which 
is the shortest, and cheapest, and most reliable route of trans- 
portation between the Middle States and San Francisco. 

Can a doubt remain that there will be a paying traffic? The 
road is successful already, and yet it is running through what 
may be regarded by itself as the least productive section 
of the whole line, and it is without a pound of through traflSc, 
or a single through passenger. One coal company in Western 
Pennsylvania, the Westmoreland Coal Company, pays the 
Pennsylvania Central Railroad nearly one million of dollars 
yearly freight upon its mineral product alone, without including 
the freight upon the supplies for the miners and the business 
that is created by the mines. This may afford some slight indi- 
cation of what the mineral traffic merely of this continental 
line will be, when the mines of coal, iron, copper, lead, salt, 
gypsum, besides gold, silver and quick-silver, which have been 
described, are fairly opened up. 

But let us itemize the different sources of traffic in general 
terms and see what they are. 

There will be to carry: 

1st. From the Mississippi Valley westward as far as the Colo; 
rado River, all the mining and other emigration which will flock to 


these Territories, with the supplies, machinery and plant of 
all kinds, including certain kinds of lumber, required for this 
increase of population, and for that already existing. 

2d. From the Pacific Coast and the valleys of California 
eastward, as far, probably, as the Sierra Madre in New Mexico, 
there will be a similar emigration, with manufactured articles 
and supplies of all kinds to carry. 

3d. There will be the Northern States of Old Mexico to fill 
up and to supply in the same way from the Mississippi Valley. 
4th. There will be a very large health and pleasure travel, 
from the cities of the Mississippi Valley to the elevated plateau, 
t;lie numerous hot and other medicinal springs, and the magni- 
ficent scenery of the Rocky Mountains. The favorite places 
of summer resort for the people west of Ohio will undoubtedly 
jbe in these ranges, and this trade is large and profitable. 
T?here will be a similar travel eastward from the California 
csities, but there the mountains approach much nearer to the 

5th. The transportation of the mails, troops and munitions, 
s^nd Indian goods and supplies for the Government westward 
snd eastward. Although this will be greatly reduced by the 
^construction of the road, it must continue to a greater or less 
extent for many years, and the mails, of course permanently. 

The return traffic from the interior outward to the Missis- 
sppi Valley, and to the California Coast, will be — 

1st. Bullion. 

2d. The richer and more refractory silver and copper ores 
zni "mat" from Colorado and New Mexico, eastward to the 
Mississippi; the same from Arizona and Southern California 
westward to the Pacific. I have seen, during the last summer, 
the silver ores from Black Hawk, in Colorado, loaded for ship- 
ment by wagon 160 miles to Cheyenne, thence to go by railroad 
nearly 2000 miles to New York, from which they were to be 
carried by ocean to Swansea, in Wales. 



3d, Wool and Lidea, horaea, mules, cattle and alieep, (esL 
cially when breeds are improved,) in enormous quantities, ^r^i 
the furs and skins of wild animals, game, &c. 

4th. Wines and semi-tropical fruits from the Rio Grande aumd 
other valleys, eastward; cotton and sugar from the Valleja «/ 
the Colorado, the Mojave, the Gila and the Verde weatward. 

5th. Coal and certain kinds of lumber from the Eocij' 
Mountains eastward to supply the great plains as far as tbe 
Missouri River, 

Then, locally, there will be transported both ways along ths 
line largely — 

1st. Passengers — no population being so nomadic aa a mining 

2d. Fuel, both wood and coal, to the minea, reducing worki 
and ranchca. This will be a very large trade, aa there isn 
general diffusion of fuel in the western half of the Continent 

3d. Timber, lumber, iron, &c., to the mines and mills; 
fabrics of clothing, pottery, kc, as soon as the nativi 
manufacturing reaourcea are utilized, which will be very aooBJ 
In the face of all existing discouragements, they have, indeed 
already been started — witness the pottery works at Golden OitJ 
the blanket mills near Fort Union, and the numerous manufail 
toriea of the Mormons. 

4th. Ores in large quantities to favorable local points whet 
they will be reduced by water power or steam. The produo 
of placer mines (where rich) from dry localities to water. 

5th. Live stock from the pastoral uplands to the mines aaj 
arable valleys ; brcadstuffs, vegetables and fruits from the v 
leys and parks to the mines and table lands; volcanic i 
and tufa for manures; gypsum for the same and for plaster 
cement, moulds, &c. ; marble, serpentine, granite and othe 
bailding material; coal oil from Cailon City and the hei 
Tulare Valley; even the yucca for ropes and mattresses, noi 
extensively used in California; mescal and pulka, and innumeP 
rable other materials that enter into the necessities or luxurie( 



aF of American life, and new products peculiar to the combination 
^ of latitude and elevation. 

Lastly, the "througt trade," whatever it may prove to be. 
It is not as reliable as the local traSSc, but we can be certain, 
at all events, of — 

Ist. The through passenger travel, because this ia already 
large by steamer, and very few people will take three weeks to 
go by Panama to New York, when they can go in six days by 
rnjlroad with so much greater safety, and at a less cost, than ia 
now paid by water. Besides, it must be remembered that a 
large proportion of the travel, both to and from California, ia 
from or to the Western States, and St. Louis is but four daya 
removed by rail from San Francisco, while it is twenty-three 
or twenty-four days distant via. New York and Panama. 

It is estimated that, during the year 1868, the passenger 
baainess between California and our eastern seaboard, by 
steamer, both ways, has been at the rate of 70,000 per annum, 
and that the number overland, and by sailing vessels, will 
increase it to 100,000, or about 300 daily; so that this through 
passenger trade already amounts to an averaged sized train 
load each way daily, and it will be almost immediately doubled 
oy emigration, tourist travel, and by the visits to their old 
"Ome3 in the States of a large number of Californians who 
have never yet been able to spare the time for an ocean trip, 
*Dd of their friends to them in return. This large and profit- 
able source of travel is therefore certain. 

2d. Of course the mails and expresses will be certain and 
permanent, and a greater or less amount of troop and other 
"ansportation for the government. 

3d. What the "through freight" will be, is as yet a matter of 
^Peculation. It is estimated at present, both ways, at 400,000 
'ons. A large proportion of this will probably continue to go 
"y water, but all the lighter, and more valuable articles, that 
•^an bear a high freight, will go by rail ; and the tendency of 
'Modern business is to attach so great importance to the element 



of time, that every day the ability of water coraraunicatiott to 
ootnpete with rail, even for heavy goods, is diminishing, J( 
must be remembered also that the Mississippi Valley, which js 
ruptdly becoming the centre of population and wealth io thi^ 
country, is already one-third of the way across the Continent 
and is proportionately removed from the effect of ocean co[»> 
petition. It can scarcely be doubted also that the constrctctiiHi 
of the Pacific Railroads will create many sources of throagi 
freight trafBc, which are now unthought of. 

4th. Finally, there is the wonderful Oriental trade, of whioi 
so much has been expected. The teaa, druga, silks, cloths, tiiB 
many natural products peculiar to that climate and longitidd, 
and the innumerable fabricated articles of taste and fancj 
which will start new sources of trade when our communication; 
with this distant and busy people, numbering over one-third rf 
the entire population of the globe, becomes more intimate. 

Then, in return, the supply of machinery, and all the articl* 
and fabrications peculiar to our civilization, which mnat fi 
the opening up of close commercial relations with these Oriental 
hives, may be expected to swell the traffic of the road to a vi 
round number of tons. 

But all this is speculative. While we believe the courae i 
trade around the world will he changed, it will not do to bnil 
upon such a fancy. The local trade is that of which we o 
feel sure, and enough has been shown to prove that this will bi 
very large and very remunerative. It is chiefly for this, aptfi 
from political and military considerations, to build up oar intfl 
rior territories — the whole western half of the Continent — am 
add this vast new trade to that which our people already h 
that Pacific Railroads should be built. Then the " through CuB 
tinental traffic" and the Oriental trade, whatever they may tnH 
out to be, will be so much clear gain ; the profits of which if 
permit the reduction of the charges of transportation c 
tonnage to a minimum. 




lat bae been demonstrated may be aummed up as follows: 
rt. That four practicable and good general routes exist 
from the completed track of tliia railroad in Kansas, southwest- 
wardly to the Rio Grande iu New Mexico, in the vicinity of 
Albuquerrjae, to wit: the "Puntia Pass," "Raton Mountain," 
"Cimarron" and "Aubrey" routes; of which, the Puntia Pass 
lonte goes through the beat country for local traffic, and, next 
to the "Cimarron," has the best grades, uaes the completed 
line in Kansas for its entire length, but is the longest of all 
u a through route from Kansas City to Albuquerque. The 
"Raton Mountain route" starts also from the present terminus, 
tia the shortest distance to build, and ranks second in refer- 
ence to local trade, but has the heaviest grades, will cost the 
moat per mile, and, next to the Puntia Pass route, is the 
longest between Kansas City and the Rio Grande; the 
"Cimarron route" gives the shortest line, the best grades 
KHt the least per mile, and is altogether the most advantageoua 
for through business, but it goes through the least productive 
country, and has the moat new track to build, using the finished 
road only as far as Fort Harker; the Aubrey route uses the 
eompleted line in Kansas as far as Fort Hayes or the 100th 
Meridian, has but little more distance to build than by the " Raton 
ttomitain," ranks next to the "Cimarron" in through distance, 
dient and cost per mile, while it goes through a better 
1 the latter. 
1st westward from the Rio Grande a good route exists 
■wco, lying, as far as the Sierra Nevada, between 
i parallels, and after crossing that range (at 
jiaas known in its whole extent,) folbw- 
Ich divides the Coast Range from the 
' e fertile vaUeys west of the Caa.'ii 
hat, diverging from this line a(J 


point in California, on the Colorado or between the Colors^ 
and Mojave Rivers, a good route exists thence to Los Anger~~ 
and San Diego, crossing the Cordilleras at " San Gorgoni^^ 
the best pass in that range. 

3d. That the summit of the eastern range of the Ro^^t 
Mountains (Spanish Range) is crossed at CaHon Blanco Pa™ 
southeast of Sante Fe, at an altitude of 6,917 feet above th 
ocean ; the Sierra Madre, or water shed of the continent, at 
Navajo Pass, northea.'it of Zuni, New Mexico, at an elevation- 
of 7,177 feet ; the Mogoyon Range, or divide between thi 
waters of the Gila and Little Colorado, at Tonto Paaa i 
Arizona, northeast of Prescott, at an elevation of 7,510 feetj 
the Providence Range (southern extension of the Wahsatcl^; 
at Piute Pass, 40 miles west of the Colorado River, at an el» 
vation of 2,579 feet, and the Sierra Nevada of California, ij 
Tehachapa Pass, north of Tejon, at an altitude of 4,008 fefl^ 
That on the least favorable route examined the grades ven 
found to be approximately as follows : For throe-fourths el 
the whole line, from the present end of the track, in I 
to San Francisco, less than 52y*j, feet per mile; 119 milM 
between 60 and 80 feet per mile ; 85 miles between 8 
100 feet per mile, and 21 miles from 100 to 116 feet per milei 
which last, on location, may be reduced, if desired, to i 
per mile, 

4th. The distances, as measured, (via the Raton MonntaiBt 
line,) were found to bo as follows : 

From Kansas City, on the Missouri River, to San 

Francisco ^ 2,026 milM. 

To San Diego 1,738 " 

Of which 405 miles, from Kansas City to Sheridan, are oomplaW 
and in operation. 

The more recent surveys and examinations of alternate liw 
at various points, made during the past year, indicate th**( 
with a considerable improvement in grades, these distanoes W 
location will, most probably, he reduced to the following 



From Kansaa Citj to San FranoiBoo.. . ., 1,934 mileB 

From KaTiaas City to San Diego 1,646 " 

Ab the distanoe from New York to Kansas Citj, by 

railroad, is 1,318 " 

Tho total from New York to San Fanciaoo is 3,252 " 

And from New York to San Diego . . . ,.„ 2,964 " 

San Francisco is thus reached from New York in a leea dis- 
tance tlian by way of Omaha: and the ocean (at San Diego) 
in over 300 miles lesa distance than from New York, by way 
of Omaha to San Francisco. 

5th. That the climate is unexceptionable for railroad tran- 
sit, as shown by the fact that our surveying parties crossed all 
the high mountain ranges in the fall and mid-winter, and again 
in the early spring, without encountering any anow sufficient 
to prevent their animals from obtaining, at all times, an abun- 
dance of good grass ; and from the additional facts cited out 
of the experience of Whipple, Beale, and other explorera, cov- 
ering a period of some ten winters, and showing that the season 
was not an exceptional one with us. 

6th. That the route ia unusually well timbered; has along it 
large deposits of coal, much of which is of superior quality, 
extending at intervals from the Arkansas River to the eastern 
border of California, with deposits also at San Francisco and 
San Diego; that it .has an abundance of good stone and other 
building material, and although, as in the caae of every route 
across the western half of the continent, not abundantly pro- 
vided with aurface water, yet it ia sufficiently well watered to 
meet all the requirements of a railroad, and to supply the 
wants of a large population. 

7th. That while thus reaching the Pacific by a line quite 
favorable in respect of distance, gradients, climate, fuel, and 
other important characteristics, for cheap and reliable trans- 
portation of through passengers and traffic, the line occupies 
for the most part a country rich in the elements of a great 
local trade, which will bo stimulated by the fact of its possess- 
ing a climate attractive to population. That for a distance of 
1,500 miles from the spurs of the Rocky Mountains, in 



southern Colorado, to the western base of the Coast Bar 
near Siin Francisco, the line is immediately contiguous 
or within easy access of mineral -bearing mountains — in whi- .^ 
veins of gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, quicksilver, or otl*_ f, 
mineral products of some kind and value, have actually hte-^A 
opened, and are worked by the miner or have been traced Tj^ 
the prospector, and that in many localities these deposits mxa 
known to be exceedingly rich. 

That with the exception of a belt of 100 miles between (lie 
Smoky Rill and the Arkansas, and of 280 miles from the bqdi- 
mit east of the Colorado River, in crossing the Great Basin, lo 
the foot of the Sierra Nevada, (and even here intervene tlia 
fertile valleys of the Colorado and the Mojave,) the country 
occupied by the surveyed route, for its whole extent, is excellent 
grazing land ; and that besides this, Jive-eightha of the entirs 
line has a rich soil, and sufficient water to make it productiva 
and inhabitable for arable purposes, the mildness of the cliraat» 
greatly increasing its value in these respects, and adding intli9 
lower valleys numerous semi-tropical products and fruits to the 
grains and vegetables of the temperate zone. That as a result 
of the great diffusion of coal, iron and timber, and still more of' 
the existence of fine water-power, cheaply available in the numer-' 
ous confined cations of Southern Coloradq, New Mexico and-, 
Arizona, manufactories will spring up and be extensively c 
ried on along the route as soon as labor and capital can be 
trod need. 

8th. That in all the respects, and for all of the porposes 
above enumerated, including gradients, the route of the 
parallel was demonstrated to be decidedly inferior to that by 
the " thirty-fifth," to reach San Francisco, and the superiority of 
the former in gradients as a line to San Diego was not 
marked as to offset these other drawbacks. 

0th. That while the surveyed route of the 35th parallel tbu4 
presents great inducements to the middle and northern StatM 
of the Union therehy to seek communication with the Faoifie^ 
and with our rich southwestern mineral territories, and the ad 


joining States of Mexico, through the extension of the Kansas 
Pacific Railroad, it has the important additional feature of 
enabling the " South " to realize the same advantages hy a con- 
laection of her lines from Fort Smith, Arkansas, and Shreve- 
port, Louisiana, with the trunk line at the eastern base of the 
Rocky Mountains, near Anton Chico, in New Mexico. That 
there is hereby insured to this section of our country an early 
communication with the Pacific Ocean by a route which is by 
far the beat for all of her people and all of her trade to reach San 
Franciaco ; and for most of them the shortest and best to reach 
San Diego ; and that the general system thua indicated occu- 
pies the best route to open up and develop all the resources of 
tJie western half of our continent, south and west of Central 
Kansas, together with those of Northern Mexico. 

10th. Many of the advantages above claimed for the route of 
fie 35th parallel have long been admitted by those who have 
studied the subject of a Southern Pacific Railroad. They have 
been urged and confirmed by Whipple, Beale, and all explorers 
Wtlo have gone through this country. But by many it was 
tliought that important as they were conceded to be, they 
covild not be gained without too great a sacrifice in the particu- 
la-ra of gradient and cost of construction. Our instrumental btit- 
^eys have established the fallacy of this notion. The worst 
features on the line run by Whipple, to wit, the detour from 
ttie Lead of the Bill Williams River to the Colorado Crossing, 
'<id the transit of the Aztec and Aquarius Ranges in Western 
*-rizona have been entirely avoided, while west of the Colorado 
R-Wer a summit of 2,500 feet has been substituted for one of 
"■early .5,000, encountered by Whipple in crossing the Provi- 
dence Mountains.* The total rise and fall on the line to San 
'^ >'ancisco has been shown to be no greater than by the route 
^f the 32d parallel, and about the samo in proportion to dis- 
tance as on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, while the work- 
^'^g grades are very favorable for a greater part of the dis- 


tance, and even in crossing the more formidable ranges, ne< 

not, with proper work, rise above 90 feet to the mile. Thefe ^e 

limits of gradient are only obtained at certain points, b- 
expensive construction; but this amounts to but a small pr< 
portion of the cost of the additional length of road required 1^^ 
the route of the 32d parallel, while the latter traverses 
inferior country. 

It must be apparent, also, that the line obtained by our par- 
ties on a hasty survey for a practicable general route, without 
time being aflForded to thoroughly explore the country, can ce^ 
tainly be much improved on actual location. 


But the question is asked, with so many advantages and 
such a large promise of traflSc, why should not this line be 
buih entirely by private capital ? AH extensions of the rail- 
road system anywhere throughout the country, it is admitted, 
benefit all sections. Why should the Government be called 
upon to assist in this case more than in others? For various 
reasons : 

1st. Because the Government, as an organization^ is inter- 
ested, and is the largest party interested. It is both natural 
and in accordance with custom that a Railroad Company should 
apply for a loan to aid in building its line to the party which 
owns nearly all the land, and carries on most of the business 
that is done in the country traversed by that line. 

2d. Because of the direct pecuniary saving to the Gov- 
ernment in carrying on this business, which is chiefly to fight 
Indians, protect settlers and emigrants, guard the boundaries 
of the nation, transport mails and Indian goods, &c. Large 
expenditures have always been^ and are now, constantly being 
made for these purposes. They are essential and cannot be 
avoided, unless the whole country be abandoned. One hun- 
dred and four companies of infantry and cavalry* are now sta- 
tioned along this general route, or within such distance as to 
be supplied therefrom — not including those at either terminus. 
They are maintained at an average cost of over one million 
doUars per regiment. 

It is certainly a proper subject of enquiry, whether the ex- 
pense of maintaining this military force, of transporting the 
mails, &c., can be reduced. The Military Committee of the 
House of Representatives has considered this question, and 
has reported (see page 237,) that the saving in these items due 
to the substitution of railroad for wagon transportation in those 


remote districts, is so large that it would extinguish in a very 
few years the principal and interest of any loan required from 
the Government to aid the road, through to the Pacific, besides 
doing away rapidly with the necessity of maintaining any troops, 
in consequence "of the growth of self-protecting settlements 
along the line. ' ' The estimates for the erection of new buildings 
at the single minor post of Fort Lamed, on the Arkansas, for last 
year, were one and a half millions. The structures at Fort Riley, 
Fort Union, &c., have cost heavily, and are kept up at great 
expense. The 1,400 Yutes and Apaches at "Maxwell's" in 
New Mexico, now, and for the last five years, fed by the 
Government, to prevent them from going to war, are no light 
burden. The 8,000 Navajoes, just sent back from the reserva- 
tion at Fort Sumner to their own country, have cost the Govern- 
ment a great deal to feed them in the last four years, but 
they will probably cost much more in the next four years to 
fight them, unless they are allowed free license to steal the cat- 
tle, horses and sheep, of the settlers, and to depredate upon 
emigrants. Wood for fuel, at Fort Wallace, in Western Kansas, 
during the last year, cost the Government between $30 and 
$40 per cord. With a railroad to the mountains they could 
have coal at $8 per ton. New Mexico alone, according to 
Senator Sherman, has cost the Government one hundred millions 
of dollars to take care of it, since its acquisition. A guarantee 
of half the sum, not a penny of which would it ever have been 
necessary to pay, would have insured the construction of a rail- 
road from the Missouri River, through this territory, to the 
Pacific ocean, and saved the necessity of nearly all further cost 

Is it not time to inquire whether these resultless expendi- 
tures can be stopped, and some revenue be obtained from 
this country, filled, as it is, with resources of wealth ? 

3d. Because the railroad is the only reasonable plan that 
has been proposed for a final settlement of the Indian questiony 
which, apart from the cost, is a problem of great concern to 

tlie nation — affecting ita honor and conscience, aa well as its 
growth. Build the road and the tribes of the Plains and moun- 
tains will give no further trouble than the Indians now do in 
eastern Kansas and in California. In truth, except on the 
Plains, they will be employed in large numbers by the road itself, 
in construction, and subsequently in operation, and In furnishing 
supplies. Not only the Pnebloa, Chemeueris and Mojaves, but 
the Navajoea, and even the Wallapis, for they are all more 
or less accustomed to labor in cultiyating crops and orchards, 
in taking care of stock, and in digging irrigating canals. Give 
tbem the constant opportunity for labor, at fair wages, and with 
'be deprivation of their hunting grounds, I believe they will 
Cease roving and stealing and take to steady work, 

-ith. Because it will not do to give up this country, and yet 
'■lis is seriously what it appears to be coming to. 

^11 the settlements of New Mexico may be said to exist 
oily on sufferance of the Indian. The towns along the Pecos, 
tt»-<3 Rio Grande and the El Rito, are kept in a state 
<*^ constant alarm and uncertainty — thousands of head of sheep 
**i-d cattle are annually driven off by the Indians; several 
^"t tempts had been made to cultivate the Valley of the Puerco, 
'*'-».t the Indians rendered it impossible. We found the miners 
'*^^ving Arizona in large numbers, unable to hold their own 
*- .gainst the Apaches. As wa passed through the country we 
^^d constant evidence of the fact of this unceasing assassi- 
"^ ^tion and depredation. Mail riders, herders, teamsters, 
■^'Tkuriera, travelers, officers moving from post to post, mining 
E***o specters, emigrants, rancheros, were the victims. The 
^^»,me story met us at every fort and settlement; some one had 
J >a.3t been brought in dead or wounded from an Indian ambush, 
*-**• a miner or farmer had recently had his animals stampeded, 
^-*id was left without the means of carrying on business. At 
'-^tie post in New Mexico we were informed that all the horses 
"^t a company of cavalry had been driven off while grazing 
**-xder guard within a stone's throw of the fort. At Prescott, 


Arizona, tlie Indians occasionally committed tlieir outrage! 
BO boldly as almost to enter the streets of the town. The effort 
to develop the silver lead mines in the Wallapi Range, east of 
Fort Mojave, hud but recently terminated by the massacre of 
tho Willing party, Ehrenburg had been killed in the Le Pa* 
gold district; a party who had endeavored to open the n 
the Providence Mountains, on the desert of California, were 
driven away by tlie Piutes. Very few in the east have any ide* 
of the extent of the drain upon a population from this persistenk 
warfare. A reliable hunter in Arizona told me eighty of hifl 
personal acquaintances had been killed in the last four yeai* 
in that Territory. Col. Lally, at the Santa Rita mines ia 
southern Arizona, lost twenty-two of his miners and laborersj 
who were killed in the three years during which he was mai 
ing those mines. It is a wonder that any enterprize whatevo^ 
is carried on in the face of such obstacles. 

The country along the surveyed routes, for a thousand mUe^ 
was found filled with the scattered pottery, ruins and othei 
indications of a race that had evidently been populous, &ai 
that scarcely lives, perhaps, even in the traditions of the oldesi 
Pueblo tribes, whose towns of Zuni, Accoma, Laguna, Moqui, an^ 
others, by or near to which the line was run, are thought to be th< 
last strongholds of this ancient Aztec civilization. Such as the 
country is now, in general appearance and population, it appearr 
very nearly to have been when the Spanish explorers, Coronado 
and Baitconcelee, traveled over it in search of gold and 
adventure, nearly one hundred years before the Pilgrims landedaki 
Plymouth Kock. The story of the semi-civilized Aztec cannot 
yet be told, but his experiment to effect a permanent lodgment 
in this country, at all events, failed — possibly from inability 
to cope with the fierce tribes of nomadic Indians, which then, u 
HOW, evidently roamed over it, forcing the towns to be boi 
upon elevated and defensible sites, where most of the rains w 

The Spaniards, like the industrious Aztcca, found it ii 



ble to gtand guard all the time, and although a match for the 
-A.j»aclie3 in actual battle, were forced gradually to retire to the 
moat acceaaible valleys, where their deacendanta are even to-diiy 
disputing every inch with the savage. Our race ia now respon- 
sible for the future of tiiis region. So far, our attempt to settle 
xixLd develop it has proven a lamentable failure. The Apaches, 
■^vho have waged for 200 years a relentless war against all white 
men, and even against the industrious tribes of Pueblo Indiana, 
have harried our miners, and those who go to supply their 
^vaiita, until steady industry has become almost impossible. 
The chances of life throughout New Mexico and AriEona 
are less than those of the operatives in a powder mill, and the 
risks to property are so great as simply to forbid enterprize or 

Some plan other than the present inadequate but terribly 
expcDsive military protection must be adopted, or in a few years 
there will not remain as many traces of American existence in 
the whole of that country aa arc now to be found of Aztec 
civilization within a few miles along the valleys of the Little 
Colorado or Verde. Just aa the Mexicans have diminishedj 
from 120,000 to 80,000 in Sonora since the "Gadsden pur- 
chase," and are gradually receding toward the coast, in con- 
sequence of the iucuraions of the Gila Apaches, so our hardy 
pioneers must utterly give way in New Mexico, Arizona and 
Colorado, unless some plan, founded on reason and experience, 
oe adopted for their relief, aud for the encouragement of emi- 
gration. In short, unless this country be penetrated by a rail- 
road, it must practically be abandoned. 

It will be singular if our people, ready as they arc to pro- 
tect the person of a single citizen abroad, if need be by a war 
Costing hundreds of millions, should continue to gaze with indif- 
ference upon the yearly murder, by a barbarous enemy, of thou- 
sands of her hardy western pioneers, when assured by the lead- 
ing military commanders that there is a way, and an economical 
■fay, to atop it — that way being the construction of a railroad 



through these territories.* The incomicg President has de- 
clared, as a fundatnental article of his political code, that every 
American shall bo protected in hia life and rights throughout 
the leogth and breadth of this country, as well as abroad. If 
that pledge is to be carried out in Arizona by the use of troops, 
it will cost more than a foreign war. But as the same officer 
has declared, in his report as Secretary of War, that "the com- 
pletion of the railroads to the Pacific will go far toward a per- 
manent settlement of our Indian difficulties," and that it will 
also "materially reduce the cost of maintaining troops in that 
section, as well as the number of men to be kept there," it 
must surely be that he is in favor of redeeming hia pledge in 
the more economical of the two ways. 

5th. The Government should give its assistance, becanse-a 
railroad is the cheapest and most efficient means of defence to 
our southern border, until Mexico becomes a part of the United 
States. Again, because the connection with our own Pacific 
States should not be allowed to depend on the vicissitudes to 

"Tbie road (EEiDSae PiiciSc) almost Bubstan 
moral.eSeot which it oiaroisea over the Indiai 
military in oontrolling them." — Major Gen. P. H- Shehidan.— 

uad (Kansas Paciflc) \ 
T to extend the road froi 
lommittoe have hud Eatixfactorr evido 

my in the public servieo would be effected by the aubstitu lion of railira.:^ 
laportalion, with a reanlt of an aqniLlly certain payment of the inlort^w 
D of the principal of the sOToroment aid bma prior to ilt jnalnrUt" 
Sepori of Uititartl (bmmitttt of Sotue vf Sepraenlaiicei, Hay 2&. I86S. 


'which one line of great length, easily cut, and traversing a 
"wintry climate, is liable. 

6th. Because the amount of capital required is too large to 
l>e obtained from private sources, and however important for 
the Government, it is natural that capitalists should hesitate at 
the idea of investing heavily in a country which is substantially 
at war. By the gradual westward extension of the railroad 
systems from the Mississippi River, they might, perhaps, in 
50 years, succeed in spanning the continent. But why wait 50 
when it can be done in three and a half — ^with a positive money 
gain to the Government from the day it starts. 

7 th. Because it will expedite the payment of the national 
debt by greatly stimulating the production of specie, and of all 
forms of taxable wealth, enlarging an hundred fold, by one act, 
the field of industry and production. 

To achieve all these benefits, the cost — a loan of the nation's 
credit — seems absolutely puerile. It will be repaid every year, 
in direct and indirect gains to the public treasury. 

This is no new policy. Nearly all other civilized nations have 
granted aid in much larger amounts to railroads. England has 
Voted over 400 millions of dollars to the cotton railroads of 
Iiidia. France, Belgium and Russia have given or guaranteed 
mimense subsidies. Everywhere the experience is found to be 
the same — that the governments are never called upon for a 
Potiny; the traffic of the railroads being sufficient to meet and 
^Gpay all loans and guaranties. So far, on this Pacific Rail- 
road, the same result has been achieved, and it will be 
greatly exceeded when the mineral mountains of New Mexico 
^Ud Arizona are reached. The United States is but just upon 
the threshold. The total amount of aid to all lines it has yet 
Authorized is less than sixty millions of dollars. 

Can our Government afibrd to disregard the experience of 
-European nations? This is a contest for wealth, power and 
prosperity ; the shaping of the course of the world's trade. 
Can we fall behind, especially when we have so many stronger 
^^easons than other nations ? Besides those given above, there 


is the fact that the vast extent of our country almost renders 
it imperative for the success of the fundamental principle of 
its institutions that the various parts should be closely bound 
together by lines of cheap and rapid commnnication, thereby 
preventing the growth of sectional interests and policies. No 
other country has such a vital concern in this matter, and none 
has 80 large an area. When, moreover, the aid of the Govern- 
ment is confined to cases where it has already a large and 
indispensable outlay, so that the requisite subsidies come rather 
as a change in the form of an existing expenditure, than the 
creation of a new one, it is difficult to resist the conclusion that 
it is wise to grant them, and to grant them immediately. 

One great route to the Pacific is now nearly completed. It 
crosses the water shed of the continent nearly seven degrees of 
latitude north of the surveyed line of the 35th parallel, reaching 
an altitude of 8,242 feet at the summit of the "Black 
Hilla," and 7,042 feet on the Sierra Nevadas. It in no wise 
benefits the vast territory whose resources have been described 
in this report. If the Pacific railroad is needed chiefly to' 
insure speedy and reliable communication with the western 
ocean, this southern line should certainly receive favor, because 
of its freedom from snow, and its shorter distance by 300 miles 
to that coast from New York. If the main object be to open 
up and develop the western half of the continent, hitherto a 
waste, this line is a necessity, because, owing to the topo^ra- 
phioal character of the country, and the great intervening dis- 
tance, New Mexico, Southern Colorado, Arizona and Southern 
California cannot be favorably tapped by branches from tlie 
other road. In truth, it is needed for both purposes, as well 
as to insure a healthful competition. 

We have seen somewhat in detail what treasures lie in the 
extensive domain acquired by the treaty which followed the 
Mexican war. They have scarcely yet been touched, and even 
their existence is unknown to all but those whoso attention has 
been especially attracted in that quarter. But a rich and per- 
manent market here awaits the producers, manufacturers and 



traders of the Mississippi Valley, the northwestern Lakes, and 
of our whole country, and it is of the highest moment to 
every section that it should be placed in communication 
with this new field of wealth within a period that will enable 
the present generation to enjoy its benefits. There is no reason 
why we should wait fifty years or a century for the realization 
of this picture. As has been already said, the process is not 
necessarily a slow one. If California had belonged to the 
Mexicans it would probably have been to-day in the condition 
of Sonora. Owing to the facility afibrded by the intersection of 
the navigable Colorado, the mildness of the climate, in 
permitting work to be done throughout the winter, and by the 
availability of tie existing population of Mexicans and Indians 
as laborers on its construction, this line can be completed in 
three and a half years, and we shall be brought face to face 
with what would otherwise be deemed only the possibilities of 
the next century. A trade of wonderful extent and richness 
"'^ill spring up; great States will be rapidly created out of 
the present Indian-ridden territories, and a third of a continent 
^e redeemed from waste and barrenness in a single decade. 

The South promised her adherents the re-opening of the 
A^frican Slave Trade, and held up to the imagination of her 
poor men great prosperity and wealth from this source, but the 
^^stored nation may increase the real prosperity of every Ameri- 
^^n citizen by a measure which will re-open the rich mines 
that were closed by the Pueblo slaves when they rose and drove 
Out the Spaniards; re-populate the valleys and plains, now strewn 
^ith Aztec pottery, and open up innumerable avenues of 
health, as well in the creation^of local trade as in the diversion 
and vast enlargement of that generous stream which, from time 
iiximemorial, has flowed by other routes from and to the Orient. 

Respectfully, Wm. J. Palmer. 

Office of the Union Pacific Railway Co., 
Eastern Division, 
St. Louis, December Ist, 1868. 




To Gen. Wm. J. Paljcek, 

In Charge of Surveys, Kansas Pacific Railway : 
Sir: — The extensiye railroad surveys recently complete 
tinder your direction, extending to the Pacific Ocean, at Sai 
Francisco and Han Diego, have furnished a large amonnt ( 
reliable data for determining the natural resources and habr 
able character of a wide scope of country heretofore imperfect! 
known, and which has a direct bearing on the question of rat 
road extension across t!ie continent, now so deeply intereatinj 
the public mind. 

In anticipation of a more full and detailed report on tlii 
Geology and Natural History of the country covered by tb 
surveys of the pa8taeason,and in accordance with yourinatrw 
tiona, I submit the following condensed report of the genera 
features and natural resources of the district, more eapeciall 
that part extending from the Rio Grande to the Pacific, bavin 
particular refereuce to the comparative advantages of this a 
continuous railroad route across the continent: 


The gradual and continuous slope of the " Great Plair^s, 
as indicated by the general course of the rivers draining thi 
wide section of country is to the east, and its compai-ativel 
smooth surface offering no obstruction to the sweep of the a1 
mospheric currents, presents the aspect of a wide open countrj 
covered with a fine alluvial soil, and sapporting a growth l 
tough-rooted perennial plants and grasses, such as gives its p 
culiar aspect to this WE;ll-known section of country. Only i; 
the river bottoms, where the necessary superficial moisture a 
shelter can be afl'orded, do wo meet with a tree growth, con 
fined mainly to the cottonwood and willow. 

All these features are abruptly changed on reaching the grea 
barrier constituting the eastern outlier of the Rocky Mountais 
Range; instead of uniform slopes, the elevations exhibit abrup: 
rocky declivities ; the valleys are cut deeply through the rock] 


ntrata, forming chasms and prolonged canons; the sheltered 
[ recesses, irregular character of soil, and more abundant mois- 
^4are, favor the growth of trees and shrubbery, while the variety 
of rock exposures, including volcanic, nietamorphic and sedi- 
mentary, serve still, farther to vary the general features of the 
On crossing this first range of mountains near the line of the 
' 35th parallel, at an elevation of about 7000 feet above the sea, 

■ we descend into the valley of the Rio Grande, 2000 feet lower, 

■ ftnd from this point westward to the Colorado, a distance of 
■[.'£75 miles, the principal drainage is to the south, the interven- 
Llng water-sheds between the different valleys presenting ridges 
Waf moderate elevation, aa exhibited in the general profile of the 

■ The region under special consideration comprises three very 
v^iBtinct sections, which may be briefly referred to in regular 
Birder, proceeding westward from the Rio Grande. 

Mf Ist- From the Rio Grande to the Colorado of the West. 

■ 2d. From the Colorado to the summit of Tehachapa I'ass in 
B'tiie Sierra Nevada. 

m 3d. The western slope of the Sierra Nevada, descending 

■ into the Tulare Valley, and thence over the California coast 
I 'lange or down the Tulai-e and Sau Joaquim valleys to the Pa- 

K 1. From the Rto Grande to the Colorado of the West the 
•sonntry presents the character of a vast upland, crossed by a 
Kflaceession of mountain ridges, and basin-shaped valleys, inter- 

■ nipted by the product of recent volcanic eruptions in the form 
^of extinct craters, cones, and streams of lava, which have 
J*Terfiowed and buried up the lower sedimentary rocks. The 
Pjlrincipai mountain axes exhibit a granitic nucleus, which, at cer- 
vteio points, is exposed to view in irregular mountain ranges, 
I freading northwest and southeast, and constituting the general 
ft frame-work of the country, as exhibited in the Sierra Madre, 

■ the Mogoyon Range and the Finaleno Mountains of Central 
KA-rizona. Intermediate to these is the great table-land or 
K^nesu formation of Western New Mexico and Eastern Arizona, 
■Comprising the sedimentary strata of triassic and cretaceous 
Ipocke, which spread out into broad uplands, abruptly termi- 
Kttated by steep mural declivities, bounding valleys of erosion, 
m-OT presenting isolated butcs and fantastically castellated rocks, 
nMiat serve to give a peculiar aspect to the scenery. The prin- 
H^al foci of extinct volcanic action are represented by the ele- 
Hnted cones of San Mateo, and San Francisco, attaining an 
Blavation of over 12,000 feet above the sea, whose alpine 


slopes, reaching above the timber line, present in their cc 
iDg of snow, the ooly wiDterj feature pertaiQing to Uua 

It is in the eastern peetion of this district that we meet with 
the most populous and 8ourishing of ttie interesting tribea 
known as Pneblo Indians; here they secure not only defen- 
sive po^aitions for their towns on the tabled summits of isolated • 
hills, but also fertile valleys adjoining, suited to their mda' 
agriculture, and a wild scope of grazing country, limited only 
by the necessity of protection from the thievish and roving 
Navajo and Apache. 

What is known as the Xavajo country, extending still fnr- 
ther to the west and north, comprises a similar character oC 
broken country with fertile valleys, grassy slopes, and deeply 
sheltered canons, especially adapted to their mode of life as 
nomadic and at the same time partially agricultural ; atill beb< 
ter suited, however, to the wants of an energetic civilized com- 
munity, who can properly appreciate the advantages of i 
healthful climate, combined with a ut^el'ul variety of soil, and- 
that picturesque beaut}' of scenery, which adds such a charm 
to rural life. 

In passing to the valley of the Colorado, wo descend by a^ 
Buccession of irregular mountain rangea and basin valleys, be-^ 
coming more arid as they reach a lower elevation, and finally,; 
passing into the valley of the Colorado, characterized by its 
bare mountain ranges, desert uplands, and broad alluvial bot- 
toms, supporting their peculiar semi-tropical vegetation. 

II. From the Colorado to (he lummit of Tthacha-pa Pass in- 
the Sierra JVevada. — After leaving the valley of the Colorado, ■ 
and crossing the (irat range of mountain?, bounding the valley 
on the west, we come upon that peculiar section of country ^ 
properly characterized as the southern continuation of the 
Great Basin. In all its external features of isolated mountaiai 
ridges, separated by stretches of deiiert plain, and valleys witli. 
intermittent flowing streams, terminating in saline or fresli. 
water lakes or sinks; in its numeraus dry water-eonrsef 
washes, which convey the product of summer rains, in sudden 
floods, to the lower plains, it is an exact counterpart of the set- 
tled mining districts of Nevada, characterized, however, by 
milder winters and greater summer heats. It is also much, 
narrower in its eastern and western extension, the entire,' 
desert tract being comprised within little over 200 miles, the.i 
valley of the Mojave occupying iu its easterly course more thaao 
half of the distance. 


On reaching the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada, here 
•r^ziuch reduced in elevation, and affording a number of practi- 
«iable railroad passes, we reach a well-watered country with 
^ff~requent springa and small water-courses flowins from the ad- 
3^ning mountains; and towards the dividing ridge, good graz- 
■■ ng and agricultural lands are interspersed with groves of tim- 
"fcner, preseatiDg all the desirable features of an habitable 

III. Tht toeslern slope of the Sierra JVevada, descending 
•mnlo the Tulare Valley, and thence across the coast range of 
California, or down the Tulare and San Joaquin valleys to 
ihe Pacific. — This section of country comprising the southern 
extension of the great valley of Ualifornia, is too well known 
to require any detailed description. It includes the rich min- 
ing and timbered district of the Sierra Nevada, the charming 
pastoral region of Tulare Valley, espociiiUy adapted to winter 
grazing; a fine belt of agricultural and timber lands, abun- 
dantly walered by the percnuinl streams flowing from the high 
snowy ranges ; a second extensive timber district included in 
the Coast Range, and the Red-wood forest adjoining the coast, 
all combining with a delightful mild climate, to favor perma- 
nent settlement, whenever made accessible by railroad cou- 

In order to arrive at certain definite views in reference to 
the particular items comprised under the general head of 
Phyaical Geography, it would seem advisable to present the sub- 
ject under the following heads, viz; 
J, Ist. (Jlimate. 
»2d. Supply of water. 
\iA. Native vegetable products. 

, Adaptation to agriculture and grazing. 

Jth. Mineral products. 

iBth. Facilities for connected Railroad Extension to reach 
the different districts, naturally tributary to the 
main line. 
|7th. A general recapitulation comprising Ihe habitable fea- 
tures and special wants of this section of country. 

1st. — CUMATB. 

■^The general ele ration of the interior district, extending from 
the Rio Gramle to the Colorado, averaging over 5,01)0 feetabove 
tjie sea. and rising at several points on the higher peaks to 
12,000 feet, insures that purity of atmosphere and coolness, such 


as characterizes all elevated regions. Another important fea- 
ture is also connected with the general southerly slope of the 
country, which, while it serves to interrupt and weaken the 
force of the cold northern currents, admits the warm winds 
from the south to precipitate their moisture on the higher 
slopes in the form of summer rains and winter snows. Hence, 
we have in these elevated districts a climate favoring the 
growth of trees, a more equable distribution of rain and pre- 
cipitation of dew throughout the year, especially adapted to 
the production of nutritious grasses and the cultivation of grain 
without resorting to expensive processes of irrigation. These 
desirable climatic features are especially noticeable along the 
elevated slopes of San Francisco Mountain, where magnificent 
pine forests are agreably interspersed with beautiful grassy 
valleys and parks, numerous springs, and a delightfully invigo- 
rating atmosphere. In passing south along the natural course 
of drainage, we encounter at lower elevations, numerous fertile 
valleys, interrupted by rocky ridges and deep canons, where 
the climate is milder, the summer heat more intense and the 
severities of winter, such as are experienced within short dis- 
tances in the higher elevations, are unknown. There is, how- 
ever, sufficient rain in these lower districts to support a rank 
vegetation, and the copious water-courses oflFer every facility 
needed, in the way of irrigation, to mature late-growing crops. 
These sheltered valleys and irregular rocky slopes, now resort- 
ed to by the murderous Apaches for hiding places, will oflFer 
to their future civilized inhabitants comfortable winter quar- 
ters, where their flocks and herds can be safely sheltered dur- 
ing the inclement season, and kept in good condition till the 
higher mountain slopes again invite them to their rich summer 
pasturage. In these favorable climatic conditions, we can safely 
determine the future location of the populous district of Central 
Arizona and New Mexico, which, very fortunately for railroad 
enterprise, occupies this central continental position, where ex- 
tensive virgin forests, rich pastoral and agricultural lands are 
nearly connected with vast undeveloped mineral resources to 
complete those desirable features, that will invite and retain a 
permanent population. 

In going westward from this elevated district, a gradual de- 
scent towards the valley of the Colorado is indicated by greater 
aridity in the atmosphere ; the pine forests give place to cedars ; 
instead of the uniform grassy sward of the mountain valleys, 
bunch grass occupies the plains and mountain slopes ; the agave 
and dasy lirion, with their tough fibrous leaves, make their 
appearance, and with the singular shrubbery of the uplands of 
the Colorado Valley, give their peculiar aspect to the scenery. 


-A more rapid descent to the alluvial bed of the Colorado, after 
j)a8sing the last range of bare rugged mountains, brings to view 
the regular desert features of this section of country indicated 
lay arid soil, stunted shYubbery, a prevalence of cacti, and other 
leafless plants. It is in this district that summer rains, in the 
ibrm of thunder storms, bursting on the steep mountain slopes, 
occasion deluges which rush in sudden torrents to the lower 
valleys, marking their course by the dry water-beds, character- 
istic of all this section of country. 

Along the course of the Colorado Valley, which at diflFerent 
points expands into wide alluvial basins, the climate is charac- 
terized by mild winters, with occasional frosts, sufficient to 
check growth, and intense summer heat giving a tropical charac- 
ter to the vegetation. Very little rain falls in this section, 
and the main reliance for cultivation is on the overflow of the 
river, which occurs with considerable regularity, being depend- 
ent on the melting of the snow at its extreme sources in the 
Rocky Mountains. 

Westward from the Colorado, the ascent to the desert up- 
lands is not of sufficient elevation to insure a precipitation of 
moisture froin the warm southwesterly currents, which are 
mainly cut off by the continuous range of the Sierra Nevada 
to the west and south ; hence over the greater part of this dis- 
trict, only scanty showers fall, mainly in the summer months, 
while the high mountain ridges occasionally receive a slight 
covering of winter snow. Along its western edge, however, 
the elevated mountain slopes come within the limits of the rainy 
season of the Pacific coast, and winter rains combine with mel- 
ted snow to supply running water to limited valleys, which 
terminate at a greater or less distance in the basin plains below. 
Of these valleys the most extensive is that of the Mojave, 
which usually presents the character of a dry bed, while at other 
seasons it is a wide stream, bedded with quicksand and very 
difficult of passage. All this arid district is marked by mild 
winters, and intensely hot summers, giving it a semi-tropical 

The western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, extending through 
the Tulare Valley, and across the coast range to the Pacific, 
comprises the district characterized by a rainy season, extend- 
ing through the winter months, occurring in the form of deep 
snows on the high mountain ranges, and frequent rains in the 
lower valleys, favoring the growth of a rich winter pasturage. 
In the summer season the gradually melting snows continue the 
flow of water down the lower valleys, thus extending the sup- 
ply through the dry warm season, and presenting favorable 
conditions for forest growth on their sheltered slopes. 


2d. — Sdpply op Water. 

The natural supply of water over the district under considerar 
tioQ.ia essentially dependent on the climatic featuraa abora: 
alluded to, and will necessarily vary according to the peculiar 
conditions of each particular section. Wherever mountaiq 
ranges reach a sufficient elevation to present a cool condensing 
mirface on the track of moist southerly currents, there we sha' 
invariably find a more or less copious precipitation, either i 
the form of rain, suow, or dew, jriviug origin to the nnmerou 
mountain streams, which unite to form the principal waters 
valleys of the lower distrieta. 

The extent of this precipitation will necessarily depend upoft 
a variety of circumstances, including the season of the year, 
(determining the general direction of winds,) the proximity .(^ 
distance from the ocean, as welt as the general topographies" 
features of the country in obstructing or favoring the flow c 
atmospheric currents in certain directions. The high elevatioi 
of the Rocky Mountain Range, west of the great plains, i 
sarily insures an ample source of water to supply the exti 
valleys to the east, which also passing through a district a 
ject to sammer rains, continue the supply unwasted by evapo^ 
ation along their lower courses. Passing westward from tb 
valley of the Rio Grande, the heights of the tiierra Madre, an) 
the volcanic ridges of the San Mateo, give origin to numeroo 
valleys which, though they do not present the character of cod 
tinnons water-courses, contain water at different points i" 
their line of drainage, either breaking out in the form of spring! 
or to be reached by superficial wells along their dry beiJs. 
the recent volcanic districts, where overflows of lava have ( 
cupied the beds of valleys, wo find the flowing water penetrat 
ing the deep fissures and porous rocks, to appear at sudde^ 
breaks in tlie lower course of the valleys, by which arraaga 
ment in following their deep subterranean courees, they afl 
protected from loss by evaporation. The same character 9 
hidden water-courses is also exhibited on the slopes of the Sa 
Francisco Mountain, where there are few running Btreams. ba 
numerous springs at different points, and where copious eappliei 
of water can undoubtedly be reached by boring through tit) 
superincumbent rocks. The valleys of the Pnerco of the We^ 
and the Colorado (Jhiquito, will also furnish abundant supplien 
either in the form of running water passing over shallow rockj 
beda, or to be reached by wells along their course. 

Along certain sections of country lying south and west c 
■ I Mountain, where the volcanic eruptiom havi 

been estensiye and lOD^-continued, covering up the underlying 
sedimentary strata with heavy accumulations of trap and ba- 
F<al[ic rocks, the valleys assume at different points the charac- 
ter of deep canons, through which the ordinary drainas!;e of the 
coDntry is effecled. It is along the course of these canons that 
natural caves and tanks retain the products of rain, and fur- 
nish the ordinary supplies of water. These natural supplies 
can be increased to any desired extent by the construction of 
artificial einhanbmentB, taking advantage of narrow gorges, 
where extensive basins miijht be retain the wateraccu- 
■Dulated during the rainy season, sufficient not only for the or- 
dinary wants of travel, hut also for purposes of irrigation in 
tile lower alluvial basins, or even for limited water-power. 

Westwai-d towards the valley of the Colorado, recourse 
DiUat be had to springs, or wells, located either in the lowest 
depressions of the basin vallej^s, or at the foot of inclined 
rocky ridges. In the latter position, artilicial tanks might also 
be constructed to receive the drainage of the bare mountain 
■lopes where the occasional rains are not absorbed by a depth 
of porous soil. 

In the desert region west of the Colorado, springs are fre- 
quently met with on the steep slopes of mountain ridgoa, or 
issuing from beneath the broken ledges of metaraorphic rocks. 
The flow of these springs is soon lost in the deep sandy layers 
of the lower plains, but might be extended by pipes or covered 
ditches to a longdistance, if required to reach convenient rail- 
road stations. The same condition of things which allows the 
existence of natural springs would also warrant the opinion 
that an aqueous snbstratum underlies all the depressed basins 
and valleys which would naturally be selected as affording the 
easiest grade for a railroad route. Hence by digging at suffi- 
cient depth to reach an impervious layer, water will no doubt 
be found in sufficient quantity for railroad purposes. Such 
supplies would be quite superficial along the line of such an 
extensive water-couree as the ilojave, and would also bo 
copious and abundant towards the base of the Sierra Nevada, 
where the numerous streams fram the snowy range lose them- 
selves in their deep sandy beds, or go to form the extensive 
" dry lakes " of that district. 

The deep sandy Ia3-ers here answer the same purposes as the 
porous lava rock of the volcanic districts, in protecting the es- 
sential supplies of water from loss by surface evaporation. 

The well-watered region of the Sierra Nevada and coast 
Talleys, does not present any practical question in reference to 
supplies of water for railroad purposes. 


3d. — Native Vegetabi^ Products. 

The peculiar character of the natural vegetation of any 
region is dependent on the combined inflaence of soil and 
climate, and often affords the best means of determining their 
general features on a limited and imperfect view. Thus, a cer- 
tain degree of moisture in the atmosphere, absence of extreme 
heat, and a sheltered location, combined with a coarse soil, 
and superficial rock exposure are most favorable to the growth 
of pine forests, and wherever on our route these peculiar con- 
ditions exist, there we find them exhibited in the greatest per- 
fection. The true pine belt of this interior portion of the 
continent, ranges between 6,000 and 10,000 feet above the 
sea ; here it secures the needful moisture in the form of rain, 
dew, or winter snow, and is also naturally associated with the 
protruded granite rocks that form the central nucleus of the 
higher ridges. It would be difficult to conceive of a more con- 
venient distribution of these pine forests for railroad construe- 
tion or transportation^ than that presented on the line of the 
35th parallel. Intercepting first the high pine clad ridges o 
the Rocky Mountains, it skirts for some distance their eastern 
base, thus rendering accessible the great bulk of timber pro- 
ducts to supply the treeless wastes of the great plains ; and by 
means of the passes leading to the valley of the Rio Grande, 
furnishes that extensive agricultural district with the material 
for building, bridging, and railroad construction, of which this 
valley is remarkably deficient. 

Still further westward the high ridges of the Sierra Madre, 
while offering everything desired in the way of satisfactory 
railroad passes, presents on the higher adjoining ridges, in- 
cluding the elevated volcanic peaks of San Mateo, a magnifi- 
cent growth of untouched forests especially adapted to the 
supply of treeless districts to the east and west. Beyond this 
again the valley of the Colorado Chiquito, with its scattering 
growth of Cottonwood, is within accessible distance of the pine 
region of the Sierra Blanca or Mogoyon Range to the south ; 
while westward on the direct line of the railroad survey, are 
the unequalled pine forests of the San Francisco and the ele- 
vated mountains beyond, whose timber product will continue 
the supply to the valley of the Colorado, to meet still further 
west the inexhaustible pine region of the Sierra Nevada of 
California, an^ the Pine and Redwood of the Coast Range and 
its spurs. Thus it will be seen that along the entire route, 
located at convenient distances for transportation and directly 
available for the supply of adjoining treeless districts, is an 


abundant source of this necessary article, not only amply suffi- 
cient for all prospective needs of railroad construction, but 
dlso furnishing a material for profitable transportation to ad- 
joining mineral and agricultural districts. 

At certain lower elevations where the aridity of the soil 
fitud atmosphere is unfavorable to the growth of pine or oak 
^►dapted to building purposes, there is a more atunted growth 
of pinon and juniper, which covers extensive niountain tracts, 
^nd is especially suited for fuel. These occur over districts 
i*emote from coal deposits, and will furnish the necessary ma- 
terial for locomotive use, or manufacturing and domestic pur- 
Jmses. In certain portions of the valley of the Colorado and 
adjoining desert tracts, we find several varieties of hard wood, 
including Mesquite and iron-wood which, makes an excellent 
t)harcoal, especially adapted to smelting operations. 

Besides these timber and fuel products, the desert region 
adjoining the Colorado and extending to the base of the Sierra 
Nevada, aflfords a variety of vegetable fibrous products, derived 
from the wild flax^ the Agave and the Ft^cca, which will event- 
ually come into extensive use and may furnish material for 
profitable transportation. Other articles in the way of dye- 
stuffs, or tanning material, and medicinal drugs may also be 
reasonably expected to enter in to the natural vegetable re- 
sources of this region, when properly examined and developed. 

4th. — Adaptation to Agriculture and Grazing. 

The variable conditions of climate and soil necessarily de- 
termine the character of agricultural capacity or adaptation 
for grazing. We have seen that a certain degree of elevation 
in this medium latitude of 35° is necessary to secure atmos- 
pheric moisture, favorable to the growth of trees or nutritious 
grasses. Districts thus elevated are especially adapted to the 
growth of small grain while the lower alluvial valleys deriving 
their main supplies of water from these higher sources, are 
best suited to the growth of corn, fruits, and other staples re- 
quiring a higher temperature and longer growing season. 
Hence, the mountain districts and higher alluvial slopes pre- 
sent a well-marked district adapted to the growth of timber, 
small grain and summer grazing, while the lower valleys sup- 
ply farming lands suitable for corn, vineyards and orchards, 
and offer desirable locations for permanent settlement. Over 
all this section of country, except the more arid tracts, the up- 
lands are occupied with a peculiar growth of grasses and 
shrubbery, especially adapted to stock raising. The great va- 


riety of these different expoaurea, according to thoir elevation <x 
geological structure, occasions a prominent difference in thw; 
relative capacity for Bupporting animal life. 

Thus certain desert tracts, on which, during the greater _ 
ol'tlie year, no animal could live on accoant of absence < 
water, and scarcity of grass, during a short rainy season ms 
be clothed with a verdure capable of sustaining immense herd 
Again the lower valleys, which in the winter season afford she 
ter and pasturage for stock, which can be kepi in good couditioi 
on the refuse of agricultural fields, become parched and opprei 
sirely warm in the sutoiner season, so that the fresh pastures 
of the high monntain ridges is preferable. Hence, successf 
stock raising in this central district will naturally he more ( 
less of a roving character and be carried on by a class of ehej 
herds and herdersadapted to the nomadic mode of life, Whe 
thus regulated, agricultural and pastoral pui-suits pro&tabl] 
complement each other and both unite to sustain the larges 
population and yield the greatest amount of surplus product 
of which this section is capable. Sufficient ia now known of tb 
central section of country now under special consideration. i 
characterize it as at Uasf self-sustaining in an agricuUura 
■point of view, and capable of immense prndnction for expof\ 
of animal products, from t/te proper developvient of its pt» 
taral resources. In the valley of the Colorado the semi-troja 
cal character of the climate adapts it to the growth of Rtaplt 
products pertaining to warm countries, including especiall; 
cotton, hemp, tobacco, and sub-tropical fruits, while the milt 
winter seasons admit the successful growth of wheat whid 
may be harvested before the period of river overflow, to I 
succeeded the same season by a late maturing corn crop, . 
large section of this country is naturally adapted to fruit,! 
which the various surface exposures may be suited to differenl 
varieties. The cultivated grape has long been succeasfally 
raised in the alluvial bottoms of the Jlio Grande, and also seeml 
particularly adapted to sections where Tolcanic rocks are eS 
posed on the surface, the decomposition of which, supplies i 
large percentage of potash, necessary to perfect the rich vinoo 
juices adapted to wine making. Peaches are extensively raise* 
by the Pueblo Indians in the sheltered valleys and caflons < .' 
the district they inhabit, where, without any special care ol 
resort tu irrigation, they produce abundantly and attain T 
great age. The native fruits, including especially the Oactf 
have an agreeably, acid fliivor, and might by cultivation be stf 
improved as to add an important item to the wholesome dieto' 
this region. They are already much used and esteemed in 1: 
Dora, mnaloa, &c. 


In the California valleys west of the Sierra Nevada we en- 
countered the moist winter climate and abundant supplies of 
L Trigatini^ water, which insure the successful growth of the 
i^ich agricultural products pertaining to that favored region 
and especially adapted to supply the more barren mining dis- 
tricts to the east. 

5th. — Mineral Products. 

The mineral products of this region in their particular rela- 
tion to railroad enterprises, may be best considered under two 
^istincts groups, viz: 

1st. Such as are directly connected with the construction or 
operation of railroad work. 

2d. Such as are calculated to yield renunerative business in • 
the supply of local or through freight. 

Under the first head of material required for direct use, in 
the matter of railroad construction and working, the most im- 
portant are coal and iron. 

These two minerals are generally associated together, or 
more properly stated, the widely spread ores of iron are gen- 
erally met with in connection with workable coal beds, and 
their value depends in great measure on this connection. 

After leaving the coal beds of the Missouri Valley belong- 
ing to the regular carboniferous rocks, of the geological series, 
a more recent formation underlies the country forming the sub- 
statum of the great plains, and reaches continuously to the 
Rocky Mountains, where its upturned edges are exposed in 
contact with metamorphic and igneous rocks. The principal 
thickness of this, is made up of the cretaceous formation, char- 
acterized by a succession of sandstones, marls and clays of 
more or less coherence, easily recognized by its peculiar fos- 
sils. Still above this, and occupying original basins of depres- 
fion in the lower series, we occasionally encounter tertiary 
strata, with their peculiar fossils and variable lithological 
characters. In both of these formations, coal is found in the 
form of lignite beds of greater or less thickness, generally ex- 
posed in nearly horizontal layers, except where they have been 
subjected to dislocation by subsequent disturbance of the en- 
closing strata. Recent extended examinations seems to show 
that the largest and most valuable of these recent coal deposits 
are connected with the tertiary strata, such being the forma- 
tion in which the thick beds of carbonaceous deposits are met 
with, along the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, extend- 
ing from the vicinity of Long's Peak to the western tributaries 


of the Arkansas, the Cimarron, the Canadinn, aud the Pecos.. 
The coal on llardaci'abble Creek, near Canon Citi% probably. 
belongs to this formation, and on the direct line of the prO;' 
poRed railroad route the extensive beds of the Raton Mouih 
taina are of the same character, so that these may be regarded 
as the productivo coal measures of the district adjoining tfaq 
eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. A description of thesQ 
veins and the quality of the coal, is contained in the report o 
Dr. J. L. Leconte, Geogolist to the same survey, according 6 
whose examinations the coal here met with, is much superior b 
the same class of coals found ii: Europe. 

Uut besides these well-determined beds so conveniently lo 
cated for railroad purposes, we meet with other deposits in thfl 
valley of the Rio Grande, the Puerco of the west, the Sai 
. Jos& and Ojo Pescado, showing an extension of the coal de 
posits fully two hundred miles west of the Rio Grande. Tb6 
precise character of these deposits is not yet fully determined; 
most of the beds here exposed consist of thin irregular seam^ 
widening out at points to a workable thickness, and at othec 
times associated with igneous protrusions that have converted 
them into anthracite. The most promising of these beds anc 
those connected with the Puerco coal basin, which may prove 
to be tertiary ; thoy present a succession of beds from two t' 
five feet in thickness, generally steeply inclined aad associatei 
with shales and sandstones, containing frequent bands of ira^ 
ore. To determine satislactorily the precise character and 
actual value of these deposits would require detailed examioi 
tions and extensive excavations, which can be more advai 
tageously effected in the process of railroad construction. 1 
the meantime the large extent of country over which these d( 
posits are found, warrants a reasonable expectation, that whfi| 
thoroughly examined the coal product of this section will b 
ample to meet the requirements of railroad faol, and affon 
freighting material for transportation to destitute districts. 

Other crude material connected with the work of econonw 
cal railroad construction, such as building-stone, lime, cemen^ 
gypsum, clay, etc., are located along the line of the road al 
Huch distances that they can be conveniently employed in pro* 
cesses of first construction and repairs, and also afi'ord materiaJl 
for transportation. In this class is especially noticeable tbft* 
superior quality and great abundance of rock Buitable foP, 
buildings or heavy masonary, which in difl'eront varieties c" 
textui'e and composition ailapt them to a great variety c 


Gold and Silver. 

The precious metals which generally constitute the first op- 
jects of search in a new country, are everywhere associated 
with those altered rocks which in the process of metamorphism 
have been not only changed in structure , but are necessarily 
disturbed in position, and are thus brought to view in the most 
irregular and rough outline. Wherever this class of rocks are 
met with there we find the outcropping of mineral veins of 
greater or less richness. No section of country presents a wider 
extent or more favorable geological indications of rich min- 
eral veins than that traversed along the line of the 35th par- 
allel. From the easternmost range of the Rocky Mountains 
[ on the east to the Sierra Nevada on the west, both inclusive, 
this class of metalliferous rocks is more or less exposed to view, 
forming the high gigantic ridges of extended continental ranges, 
or the sharp crests of isolated desert mountains. Over all this 
district, prospecting reveals the presence of placer gold, which 
could be profitably worked whenever sufficient supplies of 
water can be furnished, and the outcropping quartz veins 
everywhere show the original source of supply available for 
increased production whenever the proper appliances in the 
way of machinery, can be reasonably procured. Silver is very 
generally associated with the ores of lead and copper, and also 
occurs in the form of chloride and black oxide, associated with 
more or less gold. These precious metals require railroad fa- 
cilities, not so much for conveying their products to market in 
the form of bulky ores, as the cheap ti-ansportation of supplies, 
heavy machinery and fuel to reduce them on the spot to small 
dimensions for convenient handling, or to the still more con- 
centrated form of bullion or metal. The advantages of safe 
^nd rapid transportation for treasure will, moreover, always 
insure large remuneration in proportion to the actual weight 
carried, and by giving increased safety to regular transmission, 
^ill, to the same extent, stimulate production wherever, as in 
this region, the abundance and richness of mineral veins are 
capable of unlimited developement. 


Lead and Copper. 

The very extensive deposits of lead and copper met with at 
Various points near the proposed railroad line, occur in the 
form of ores of variable degrees of richness, frequently asso- 
ciated with a small amount of gold and silver. Owing to the 
gi'eat cost of living and transportation, only the richer ores, 


containing 30 to 50 per cent, of metal, can be profitably mined 
and transported to the sea-board. But with the increased fa- 
cilities of transportation and the cheap procuring of supplies, 
thns diminishing the co3t of production, the lower grade 
ores can be profitably mined, and will thus afford remunerative 
freight to a railroad, and at the same time stimulate production 
and mining industry, to assist materially in the development 
of a large scope of mining country which would otherwise lie 
dormant. At the present time only the rich copper deposits 
of Williams' Fork are successfully worked, the ore being care- 
fully assorted and transported by the tedious and expensive 
route of the Colorado River and the Gulf of California to 
San Francisco ; thence the main bulk is shipped by way of Cape 
Horn to Swansea, Wales, where it is finally reduced and put 
into a marketable form as metallic copper, the small percentage 
of gold and silver being also extracted for the sole benefit of 
the foreign metallurgist. Could the same ore, or a much 
poorer quality, be rapidly transported by rail to the sea-board, 
or to the coal district eastward and there reduced, the immens*^, 
saving of time and the regularity of the supply, would sooi^^ 
serve to build up in our own country, this profitable branch o^^ 
metallic reduction, while at the same time it would directlj ■ 

stimulate mining developments, not only in the original local 

ity from which the ores are taken, but also in the coal regioi^cm 
to which they may be transported. 

In general terras it would be safe to assert as the result o ^f 
our observations over this entire mineral region, extendin^^^ 

from the eastern base of the Kocky Mountains to the Pacifi c 

coast, that the proper railroad facilities comprise all that ^^3 
necessary to induce capital and labor to enter into this new fiel i 
of mining industry, and develop to the fullest extent its pri 
ductive resources. 

6th. — Faciutieb for Connected Railroad Extension ' 
Re-ich the Different DidTRicTS, Naturally Tribdtae 
to the Main Line. 

Only one other examination as above stated is necessary 
complete our general view of the comparative advantages 
this proposed railroad route across the continent, near the 3S^u 
parallel. Its intersection, as above noted in its western ^si- 
tension, with a general southerly slope of the country crossS ng 
the great interior valleys of the Rio Grande and the Colora«3o, 
will naturally connect it with a subsequent extension 
branches north and south, to meet the wants of these access/- 


We districts. This will insure an ultimate connection between 
the mining and semi-tropical region of Northern MexicoT, and 
the pastoral, agricultural and timbered districts of New 
Mexico and Arizona. 

Further westward on reaching the eastern base of the Sierra 
Nevada, it will accommodate the trade, naturally seeking an 
outlet from Southern Utah and Nevada to the sea-board, bv 
avoiding the inaccessible heights of the northern extension of 
the Sierra and seeking the low passes by which it is directly 
connected with the fertile plains of Tulare or the rich valley 
of Los Angelos and San Bernardino. The extension of these 
branches will naturally follow the building of a main trunk, 
and will be a process directly proportioned to the wants of the 
adjoining regions, and will be only limited by the complete 
development of the same in all their peculiar interests, as min- 
ing, agricultui*al or manufacturing districts. 


The general comparative advantages of this trans-conti- 
nental route along the 35th parallel may be thus briefly 
summed up : 

^ A salubrious climate favorable to health and activity, acces- 
sible to the moist southerly currents, while at the same time 
protected from the severe northern blasts, receiving along the 
higher elevations precipitation of rain and snow sufficient to 
fiivor the growth of natural forests and upland grasses, with- 
Out forming any obstruction to winter travel. 

A pleasant variety of atmospheric temperature, connected 
With difiFerences of elevation or exposure in closely adjoining 
districts, which can be selected to suit the requirements of the 
Season, or the particular taste of individuals. 

An agricultural capacity that in its proper development can 
be made ample to supply the prospective wants of this region, 
^nd in the production of fruits and garden vegetables, can 
afford the delicacies that enter into the essential wants of 
civilized communities. 

A pastoral region unequalled in the extent or quality of its 
grasses, which, in adjoining districts, keeps up a constant sup- 
ply of nutritious fodder through the year, requiring oMy the 
Ught labor of herding to secure the remunerative returns of 
this branch of industry. 

A raining region yet undeveloped but sufficiently known to 
be characterized as second to none on the continent in the ex- 


tent and variety of its mineral products, only waiting for the 
facilities of railroad transportation to invite and retain perma- 
nent capital and industrious labor. 

A location of route which presents the special advantages 
of a main trunk line in being naturally connected with adjoin- 
ing rich districts that will thus seek an oulet by branch roads 
to central commercial points. 

All these several conditions combine to present those habi- 
table features which render the constructioa of a continuous 
railroad route not only highly desirable, but as a matter of 
speedy development, essentially necessary. 

Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) C. C. PARRY, 

Geologist and Naturalist of the Survey. 

Washington^ April 3d, 1868. 


Extract irom Dr. Parry's Detailed Report. 

Botany of the region along the line of the TJmon P&ciflc Eailwaj, Eaatem 
Di™ion. witU a list of tlie Plants collected on the SnrvejB in 1867i 
through Kansas, Golorado, New Mexico, Arizona and Oolifomia. 


The native Tcgetation, which is the moat prominent external feature 
ttit first attracts the eye of the observing traveler in a. new country, 
is found, on a more careful examinatioQ, to afford the most direct 
means of arriving at those peculiarities of soil and oHmat^ that indi- 
cate its capacity for agricultural productiveness, as well as it adapta- 
tion for desirable civilized habitation. Hence, lists of plants, especially 
in regions that have not been subjected to long experience or modi- 
fication in the pursuits of agricuUure, are valuable as indicating the 
particular class of vegetable products to which they are best adapted, 
or whether they are unfit to reward human industry by profitable 

The unguarded and loose use of the term " desert," as employed 
Hot only in popular writings, hut also in soientific descriptions, has 
given origin to wrong impressions in reference to a large portion of 
OOP Western Territories, that hold with remarkable persistence, both 
08 the popular and scientific mind. Thus, althgugh to a certain 
cjtent the desert wastes of our old geographies are contracted, or 
pQahed farther west into unexplored districts, the prevalent idea 
i^mains, that much of the Continental region, beyond 100° of west 
longitude, is unproductive and unfitted for human habitation. 

The readiest means of correcting this wrong impression would be to 
«xiibit the plants which naturally grow on these supposed desert 
Wastes; or, to one somewhat versed in the nomenclature of botany, a 
'ist ef the native plants of such a district would serve at once to 
^iapcl this old and cherished illusion. Thus, let the intelligent travelei 
pass through central Kansas, in the month of September, and note the 
Eigantic weeds and sunflowers that all but obstruct his view along the 
beaten road, and it will not be difficult to convince him, that where 
KOoh rank annual vegetation can secure nourishment, there corn and 
other useful agricultural products can be raised in perfection. Or, 
Oil the great plains beyond, let him see the broad uplands, bedded with 
Nutritious grasses, and he will not be slow in arriving at the conclusion, 
^bat, if only partially adapted to agriculture, it certainly possesses 
great pastoral capacities. Still farther west, where mountain slopca 
bound rich alluvial valleys, well watered, and displaying a luxuriant 
Vegetation, familiar in many of its aspects to what he has been aacus- 
^med to in cultivated Eastern countries, he will have no hesitation 
; that, with ordinary facilities for working the soil, still 




greater retunia will reward his toil from the virgin sod, unezbaustcd by 
protracted culture. Again, where nalural forests abound, there we 
may reasoDably expect to fiad all the conditions of successful tree or 
fruit culture: and oven where niaay of these inaications are wanting, 
a soil rich in mineral ingredients for the growth of plants, but exposed 
to the intense aridity of a raiuleas sky, may be restored to fertility by 
processes of artificial irrigation. Thus, according to paat experionc 
die real danger to be guarded against in estimating the product! 
oapacity of an undeveloped country, ia an undue depreciation of ita 
real value, and where deSnite knowledge of natural products is sub- 
stituted for easy ignorance, the deserts disappear from our geograpbio 

The list of plants herewith presented, is a contributioo from ( 
the latest and moat complete railroad surveys ever aonduoted on tbia 
eoQtinent, to our knowledge of the natural vegetation of the far West. 
Without aiming to be complete, it is at least sufficient to show, that 
along the entire length of the railroad aurvey, extending from Kansas 
through south-eastern Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona, to the 
Pacific, there is an extent of habitable couutry , which only needs to 
be made easily accessible froui the populous districts of the Mississippi 
Valley, and the western seaboard, to support and maintaia a prosperous 
and civilized population. 

Commencing with central Kansas, we note the rank vegetation per- 
taining to rich alluvial distriots; the bottom lands are occupied with , 
a heavy growth of forest trees, including elm, black walnut, haokherry, . 
ash and cottonwood ; the uplands support rank prairie grasses aod a— 
variety of plants, exbibitiog a strange mingling of north-western a 
more aoulhern forms, corresponding to the peculiar mixed clirai 
which characterizes this section. Proceeding westward a gradually 

increasing atmospherio aridity is evidenced by the gradual disappear 

ance of forest growth, which Is confined to the moist margins of con -" 

Btant streams, or water-courses dry during the summer season, and i-^^ -^ 
represented only by the persistent cottonwood, bos-elder and willow. Oi«^-^^ 
the uplands buffalo grass and gramma take the place of the rank prairi^^*'-' 
sod, and are characterized by a short curly growth and dense fibrous*-* 
roots, often growing in clumps, and penetrating deeply into the dry thought::* i' 
still nutrition a soil. Still farther west we find the depressed basins -^^ 
and valleys, eshibiting a white saline efflorescence, due to the intens^^^' 
evapOTBtion which, in the dry season, concentrates the saline iDgre-^^* ' 
dienta derived from the washed soil of the uplands, on the saturates =^^ 
bottoms overflowed in the season of rains. With this peculiar oon^:^ *' 
dition of things we meet with a class of saline plants, many of thee* ^ 
identical with such as are found along the seashore, or in connectio^:!^-^ 
with salt marshes. Here the uplands aoquire more distinctly an arif "^^ 
feature, to which, however, the term of desert cannot be properE'":^', 
applied, as, although iu a great measure unfit for ordinary agricultui- ^^Kx^ 
they still support a oloae growth of peculiar grasses whioh, in tr~- — '■^'^ 
: rainy season, assume a dull verdure, and in the suoceedi= ng 

dry season beoome aoDTerted iato a nutritious hay, the saccharine and 
organized juiocs being oon centra Ceil Id tbe dried pereuaidl steu and 

On the upper alluvial benobea of tbe priaoipal valleys ne encounter 
denae inooriah growths of "wild aag«," (artemeaia,) sarctAaiia, and 
obione, or greoae-wood, well kuowu to all westera explorers. 

The oonditioas essential for timber growth, viz : saperficial mois- 
tare, and shelter from iierco wind^, are bera coofined to the deeper 
valleys and constant large water-courses, where cottonwood and willow 

tracts along the Arkaaeas and the Kepublioao, while elsewhere tbe 
couutry presents a treeless and open waste. 

Tiie idea frequently suggested by those unaoquainted with the true 
physical features of this section of ounntry, of plaaiiog trees, and 
thus securing ebelter and an increased precipitation of moisture, will 
by no ineaD>t stand the test of a cotuuion sense view, when tbe objects 
to be gained are precisely such as the country docs not naturally 
admit uf; and, furthermore, its perfect adaptation to grazing is so 
manifest, that any other view of its application to useful production 
is not even to be desired. 

Before reaching that point of extreme aridity, which a continuous 
open and level country would no donbt eventually reach, deserving 
the name of a true desert, (and which u actually realized further 
south in the staked plains of Texas,) wo encounter the abrupt eleva- 
tion presented by the Rocky Mountain Range, with its ateup broken 
slopes, and irregular rocky spurs. This at once changes the whole 
upect of scenery ; its elevated ridges and snow-clad peaks, presenting 
a oool condensing surface, on which the warm moist currents of air 
Ue deposited in the form of summer rains and winter snows. These 
ueesaarily give rise to perennial streams and springs, wbiob send 
their watery tributes io tbe arid plains below, and maintain verdure in 
the lower valleys, which are thus adapted to cultivation by processes 
of irrigation. 

This obvious change from increasing aridity to sufficient moisture is at 
Once oharacterized by a great profusion of vegetation, including trees, 
shrubbery, and a variety of plants, either identical or similar to snob 
«a ftre met with in well watered mounlain districts to tbe east. Where 
« Bafficiont elevation is attained to insure a constantly cool atmosphere, 
forests abound, consisting mainly of evergreen pines, spruce and fir, 
Int also including a scattering growth of scrubby oak, maple, birob, 
QOt ton wood and willow. 

The principal valleys that penetrate this mountain district, includ- 
ing the Arkansas, with its numerous branches, as the Huerfano, Pur- 
gatory and Greenhorn, comprise sections of great natural fertility, 
abundantly watered, and conveniently located for supplying adjoining 
Knioing districts with their surplus agricultural products. Henoe thay 
xepresent the main populous districts, which, combining all the agree- 
able aooessories of a tioe salubrious climate, and oonvenienoes for 



buildiDg, and fuel, will invite and retsin a permanent population, ' 
devoted to the mixed pursuits of agriculture and grazing. Id the 
aceompaoying list of plants, those referred to as occurring in the 
valley of the Huerfano and Sangre de Cbristo, will serve to represent 
the natural vegetation of this peculiar niountaio district. 

Id pasaiug down iulo the valley uf the Upper Kio Grrande we 
encounter a. flora very distinct in its general features, inoludiog a 
number of peculiar plants and strange shtubbetj, having a Mexican 
type. The river here, hemmed iu along a ^eat portion of its upper 
course by dark igneous and basaltic ronks, flows in deep inaccessible 
canons, which opeo out below into wide sandy basins. The Sao Luis 
Valley, lying above this caiioued portion of the valley, presents a wide 
alluvial basin, including extensive tracts of fertile soil lying along 
the course of the numerous tributary streams Sowing down from the ' 
high mountain ridges on either side of the main valley. This seotioQ 
is particularly adapted to the growth of cereals and root crops, and 
in its cool atmosphere, abuodanoo of grass and clear flowing water, ]b 
eminently a dairy region. In these respects the two portiona of the 
main valley, designated by the Mexican population as the Upper and 
Lower River, maintain the natural distinction in their products — the ^ 
former bc'Ug adapted to small grains, potatoes, butter and cheese, .^ 
the latter to corn and fruits. In this condition of things an exchange ^ 
of produets would prove of mutual advantage, and afford profitable — ^ 
business in the woy of transportation in both directions. 

The natural supply of fuel, for all this region, is furnished in the i^^ 
exiensive forests of I'inon and Cedar, which occupy adjoining rocky — "^ 
and barren ridges, while the higher mouniain ranges will sup pi j ^m 
lumber and building material to any desired extent. 

TiiO lower portion of the valley of the Rio Grande includes the^ E3 
district generally referred to as New Mesieo. Here we find tha^^s 
valley spread out into wide alluvial or sandy bottoms, bounded b y ^ 
bluffs of gravel and occasional rocky deolivitiea capped with buaalt—— — 
The flora here includes the plants referred to in the acoompanj ingj^J 
list as New Mexican. Owing to the more porous nature of the soit^^ 
and the greater summer heat, the general aspect of vegetation i^v 
characterized as arid. There is a scarcity of tree growth, confiaed ttw 
the coitonwood and willow, which occupy the moist bottoms or direct:^ 
margins of the river. The grass of the valley ia coarse and frequently 
saline, and on the adjoining uplands it is scant, though of a nutritions 
quality. The low bottom lands, susceptible of irrigation, are well 
adapted to the growth of corn, vines and peaches, being subject to 
irregular overflows, wbioh, when moderate in extent, and occurring at 
the proper season, help to maintain the natural fertility of the aoU, 
but are occasionally very destructive, in flooding growing crops, or 
undermining and transporting large tracts of fertile soil, leuving in its 
place the coarse sandy layers of the changeable river bed. At other 
points of the valley ihe prevalent westerly winds gather up the light 
drifting sands of the adjoining blufls and deposit them in ohaDgable, 


lipple-marked dunes, on the fertile bottoms, thus consigning them to 
an hopeless sterility as well as obstructing the ordinary roads by their 
deep sandy beds. Still further south, in the neighborhood of Socorro, 
sub- tropical shrubs, including •^cacta,J^e5^t/e and Larrea make their 
appearance, marking the northern limits of the Mexican flora. 

On the uplands west of the Rio Grande, near the 35th parallel, 
west longitude, we meet with a great variety of surface exposures. 
These are exhibited in extensive mesas^ or table land, composed of 
light-colored porous sedimentary rocks, bounding with abrupt mural 
&ces, valleys of erosion ; these strata are interrupted at various points 
by igneous protrusions, and overflows of basalt and lava, serving to 
diversify in a remarkable manner the external features of scenery, 
and modify the texture and composition of the overlying soil. This 
is especially noticeable in the character of the native vegetation, which 
is directly adapted to these variable conditions. Thus, on the dry 
Qplands and Tnesas we find a scattered growth of grammay interrupted 
with occasional growths of cedar and pinon. On the more elevated 
moantain ridges we meet with dense forests of Rocky Mountain pines, 
spruce and fir, intermingled in favorable locations with oak and aspen. 
The lower valleys, adapted to agriculture, support a growth of coarse 
grass and shrubbery, interrupted by occasional bare saline flats. In 
Certain sections of this district deep canohed valleys conceal from view 
olear running streams in which the vegetation is rank and luxuriant, 
while at other points the valleys expand into wide grassy basins, 
where, during the dry season, running water disappears from the sur- 
face, or is exhibited only in brackish springs. This character of 
oountry comprises the favorite home of the roving Navajo and Apache, 
find, in certain defensive positions, has been occupied since the earliest 
liistoric periods by the industrious and contented Pueblo Indians. It 
extends with slight variations, through western New Mexico and 
northern Arizona, the surveyed rail route on the 35th parallel 
traversing the most desirable portions. Being passed over, by the 
surveying parties during the late fall and winter months, only an 
imperfect view of its botanical features could be obtained, but the 
£aded vestiges c^f floral beauty were manifested on every hand to testify 
to the luxuriant richness of its summer dress. 

The uplands of the Valley of the Colorado, and the desert stretches 
leyond, extending to the foot of the Sierra Navada, comprise a singular 
»nd very interesting flora, the general features of which, though not 
tihoroughly examined, are still fairly represented in scientific collections. 
Here arborescent Cadi and tree Yuccas form a conspicuous feature in 
the landscape, and desert forms exhibit the neat evergreen Larrea, with 
its myrtle-shaped leaves, together with a host of thorny MimosecB, dull- 
colored Ohione^ or grease-wood, and prevalent ArtemisiaSy all serving 
to give a faded aspect to the vegetation. 

The annual growth is hero exceedingly rapid and evanescent, and 
consists mainly cf delicate grasses and tender-foliaged plants, which 
expand quickly with the early spring rains, and disappear as suddenly 

ooroliing saa liaka up the superSaial iBoislare, leaving no 
trace of their previous esistQQoe, save the diminutive aeeda buried 
from sight in the light drifting sand or gravelly aoi1> lu the dry 
water-QouTsea of Ibis distriat we meet very constautly t!ie Cercidium 
Jloridum, or " green-barked Aeacia," the arborescent Dalea, {Dalea 
spinosa,) with its silvery leafless branohee, and the valuable "Iron- 
wood," [Olnega tcssta.) The Ckilopsis linearis, allied to Cainlpa, ia 
also abundant, being known under the ccimmon name of the " Desert 
willow," its long slender branches being used by the Indians for 
basket work. In the river bottoms we meet with luxuriant growths 
of mesquiit and "sorew bean," the former furnishing a very durable 
wood, affording esoejlent fuel, oooasionallj of suffioient size for tail- 
load ties ; the screw bean ia the principal relianoe for feeding mules 
aud cattle as a substitute for grain. 

Most of the plants of this district, including especially the.^rfent)'- 
sias and other shrubby composiia, are sugared with a resinous varniiih, 
whiob gives out a pleasant stimulating aroma, noticed by nearly all 
desert travelers. It is quite probable that some of these plants 
possess valuable medicinal (jualitiea, or are adapted for dies or var- 
nishes, presenting a subject well worthy of investigation. 

In reaching the Pacific slope of the California Mouutains, the rich 
vegetation of this district is brought forcibly to view, in contrast with 
the desert forms before noticed. In the moist humid soil of the moun- 
tain valleys we here meet with those gigantic monsters of the forest 
met with nowhere else. Broad spreading oaks, both evergreen find 
deciduous, nourish in their leafy shade delicate plants and vigoroua 
shrubbery, while the open valleys and hilly slopes present a patch- 
work of flowers rivaling the colors of the rainbow. This riob botani- 
cal field, which has already given many choice plants to euricb eastern 
gardens, is not yet cshausted, and new diaooveries are being made- 
every year by the zealous botanists connected with the- California Statar. 
Geological Survey, A regular flora of this region is now in course ^ 
preparation by Prof. W. H. Brewer, under the able assistance of Prof. 
Gray, of Cambridge, Mass. 



TIlo iniportanee of the tree product near the line of the sarveye^ 4 
railroad route, both as regards suppliea of fuel and purposes of con- 
struction and repairs, are of sufficient importance to receive i 
special notice in a general botanical report. 

After leaving the wooded district of eastern Kansas, which acaupiea 
the principal valleys with belts of timber of variable extent, vhiah 
diminish rapidly to the west, we at length near the 100°, west longi- 
tude, enter upon a treeless district, extending for over 5°, and reaching 
to the foot of the Rooky Mountains. Here, with an increase of eleva- 
tion, and condeosation of moisture, we encounter the piae forests of ' 
eastern Colorado. A very remarkable outUei of this pine growth 

i>ocupies an elevated dietnot, south-east of Denver, which, not pro- 
perly pertaiaiag to the Rocky Moantaiu Range, in the ahsence of 
S^'anitic or metamorphic rocks, ia comparatively smooth in its general 
^^Atline and easily accessible. The forest growth is here almost excla- 
^i"vely confined to the Rocky Mountain yellow pine, {IHnus ponderosa,] 
■^lieh, from its durable quality, regularity of growth, and facility for 
■^W'orking up into the different qaaliiiea of lumber, is probably the 
t«»ost valuable of any wealern pine. When growing singly thia pine 
1^ ftpt to assume a bracohing ahape, with an irregular oval outline ; 
l>i]E, in estensive forests, it preseuls a more uniform trunk, less knotty, 
n.iid better suited for boards and dimension lumber. The interior 
'^ood, being to a considerable estent impregnated with reain, renders it 
<ilurable and well adapted for railroad ties. Thia ia the prevalent pine 
tree which is met with on all the elevated mountain slopes extending 
'fxom the eastern Rocky Mountains to the Sierra Nevada. 

Farther to the aouth of the Denver pine region, along the different 
lines of the aurveyed railroad rouce through aouthern Colorado and 
ffew jMexico, a very different and peculiar pine makes its appearance 
^long the foot-hills of the Rooky Mountains, clothing the low rocky 
ledges with patches of dark green, as seen in a distant view, Thia is 
■•he Dut pine, or Pinon of the natives, Pinus tdulis of botaniata. It 
IS generally of a low branching habit, its abort stocky trunk dividing 
'Xiear the surface of the ground into branching arma, giving it a globular 
outline. When growing in large bodies ita straggling bronobes inter- 
'twine to form almoat Inextricable thickets. It is generally associated, 
at loner elevations, with a cedar, [Juniptrus occidentalis,) of a similar 
iggling habit, which further west gives place to the Arizona Juniper, 
funipenis pac/ii/p/ilaa,ToTr.) These treea are all well adapted for 
hel, burning when dry, with a clear intense flame, which is prolonged 
Bid steady, especially suited for steam purposes. In some sections the 
Winon pre.scnts a wore upright growth, and baa short uniform trunks, 
kiitable for railroad lies. The wood is durable but knotty, and with 
I twiated fibre, so that it ia un&tted for other purposes of oonstrnotion. 
The distiibution of the piuon and cedar forests are particularly 
piTorable for convenient supplies of railroad fuel, being scattered 
long the line of the route, easily accessible, and ia inexhaustible 
mount, the range titending through New Mexico, northern Arizona, 
^d to the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada in California. 

D the higher create of the Rocky Mountaina, the Sierra Madre, 
a Francisco, and the Sierra Nevada, we meet vrith other varieties 
t pine and spruce, occasionally forming estenaive forests, and afford- 
ig material for the various uses to which different tree products are 
uipted. Of these we may specify the Pino real, (Pintis conlor/a,) 
■hich is noted for its slim regular growth, particularly suited for 
wegraph poles and crosa-tiea ; the Douglas spruce, or mountain hem- 
bek, affording a very durable and tough wood; Menziea apruoe and 
tSbies Engelmanni, the latter furnishing a light soft wood, well 
idapted to inside work. Besides these, on the high alpine ridges 


we meet with Pinus flexilis and Pinus aristata, which extend to the 
extreme limits of tree growth on the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra 

It will be noticed that hardly any mention has been made of hard 
wood, as oak, ash or walnut, in this central mountain region ; while we 
have representatives of each of these, they are so comparatively rare, 
or of such insignificant growth, as not properly to enter into the 
account in any economical view of our central mountain forests. In 
certain sections of the Rocky Mountains, and the lower valleys of the 
San Francisco Mountains, we meet with a deciduous-leaved white oak, 
sometimes of fair size, and suitable for railroad and timber, but generally 
of scrubby grdwth, and not fit for any useful purposes of construction. 
The same is true of the occasional scattering growths of walnut and 
ash, which are rarely of sufficient size or quantity to attract attention. 

But, on reaching the Sierra Nevada Range, in California, we meet 
not only with a great variety of peculiar pines and firs, but also large 
oaks, forming extensive forests, and well adapted to all the required 
uses of hard wood in eastern countries. Of those deserving of special 
notice is the white oak, (Qtiercus lobata,) found along the eastern 
tributaries of the Tulare Valley; these present perfect giants of 
vegetable growth, and cover extensive tracts of country. Besides 
this there are several varieties of live-oak, occupying the interior and 
coast ranges, which, though not generally durable, and of a stocky 
growth, are no doubt applicable to a variety of useful purposes. 
Then we have the redwood forests of the Coast Range, the timber of 
which is highly prized for its durability and facility for working. The 
peculiar qualities and distribution of the California forests would 
require a long special report to do justice to the subject, and will no 
doubt eventually receive attention when the railroad interests of that 
section call for definite information. For other items of information 
in regard to the botany of the region connected with the railroad 
survey, reference may be had to the following list of plants : 

(This list has been compelled to be omitted.) 



Extract firom Dr. Parry's Geological Report 



The prolongation of tbe Pineleno Range of Mountains, extending 
from the south to the. north-west, through central Arizona, exiiihits, 
J>articular]j in it? northern eslenaion, a well defined ajjis of metamor- 
Jiliic granite. In the mining district to the south and east of Pres- 
cott, tbia axis spreads out into varioua di.stinct spurs, forming a very 
broken water shed at the head of the Hassayampa and Agua Frio 
"Valleys. It is particularly along tbe slopes of these different spurs 
'tbat mineral-bearing ledges crop out, showing a very uniform direo- 
'tion of lodes in tbe separate districts, and maintaining a very similar 
«:hariicter of mineral contents, evidently pointing to a common origin. 
^long the flanks of this main axis there is a more or less extensive 
T)rotrueioii of igneous roclts, serving to isolate tie mineral formation 
3Dto separate basins, some of which, aa at Wickenhurg and along the 
course of tbe Colorado, are quite rich over a limited area. Over all 
tbis district tbe placer gold washings derived from natural denuda- 
tion are what are significantly termed " spotted," being at certain 
points quite rich, and again, in apparantly equally favorable locations, 
anproductive. It must, however, he constantly borne in roind, that 
the great natural impediments in tbe way of mineral exploration, 
arising from Indian hostilities, diflScultics of transportation and 
Hcarcity of wat«r, have prevented a proper development of mining 
industry, and the actual wealth of this mineral diatriot remains yet 
to be brought to light. 


The different mineral veins, though varying considerably in width 
and extent, show considerable uniformity in direction, dip and mineral 
composition in the same district, so much so that an experienced 
person can generally determine the locality to which they belong 
from average hand specimens. All of these veins vary along different 
points of their exposure ; rich mineral streaks traversing the quartz 
matrix, showing occasional expansions termed "pockets" and "chim- 
neys," or again, " pinched up," and giving place to the ordinary vein 

Id the Big-bug, Hassayampa and adjoining districts the surface vein 
exhibits a decomposed honeycomb appearance, being stained by iron 
rust, and showing at certain points spangles and filaments of free 
gold, visible to the naked eye. At a variable depth of from 30 to 
50 feet, (being below the action of atmoapberie influence,) the mineral 


contents assume the form of crystalised Bulphurets of lend and ii 
?till oontaiuing, according to aeaajs, a workable amount of precionB 
metal, but. not capable of beiog estracled bj the ordinary stamp pro* 
cesa. Hence, many of the best paying lodex have been abandonej 
after reaching the Bulphureta, and a. large amount of capital ini 
in machinery and mills now lies idle, waiting for more improved priy 
cesses, by which the refractory ores can he made to yield tbeir ritA 
ingredients of gold and silver. 

Moat of the mineral veins show a well defined wall on either sidft 
sometimes composed of clay or talc, furming a smooth lining know] 
as " slicken&ides ;" in many other eases the wall material is more o 
leas intermixed with the vein, forming irregular lines of division, am 
occasionally reducing the origiual vein to unproductive dimeDsioDi^ 
Some of these veins can be traced by the eye for a long dis 
the line of outcrop, crossing over spurs and valleys of denudation, am 
frerjuently sending off small lateral spurs. The vertical depth ( 
these mineral veins has not been as yet sufficiently tested, very fei 
shafts or lower side tunnels having penetrated lower than 50 to 8| 
and too feet in depth. Hence, the question of permanence or cRaug 
of mineral contenta at great depths, remains a question that as yfl 
can only he answered on theoretical grounds. Most of tbe facts n 
the case favor the view of mineral depositions from aqueous aolutioi 
above, rather than injection from below ; and, in the case of eopper 
the basin form of the beds, and tbe character of deposition as 
precipitate, clearly point to this origin of their mineral contents. 

As most attention has been naturally given at first to gol^ 
producing lodes, those containing the precious metals in smallei 
quantities, associated with lead and copper, have beeu in a grea^ 
measure neglected. It is probable, however, that eventually thea* 
less valued deposites will prove most profitable, and in their mon 
bulky form, as raw or partially reduced ores, will afford materaJ tm 
railroad transportation. The various specimens oollected on tli^ 
survey will aSbrd the most satisfactory means of ascertaining tht 
prospective mineral wealth of this district. I append herewith a, liat, 
as complete as my means of information furnished, of the diSerenl 
mineral lodes disoovcred and partially worked in this district, derived 
partly from personal observation and otherwise from tbe most trust 
worthy sources. 


^_ urn vaiiaui.u 

^L Chase Lotl 

■ feet. Yields 

Of/fTi Lode.— Width of vein, 2 feet ; depth of shaft, GO feet. YieldS; 
by assay, $200 per ton. 

Montgomery Lode. — Width of vein, 18 inches, containing a tit 
pay streak, 4 to 8 inches wide. Yields, by assay, $117 per t^jn. 

Vntpqua Lode. — Width of vein, 6 feet; depth of shaft, 
Ore variable in quality, containing gold, silver and copper. 

Chase Lode, — Recently opened by Noyes & Co. Width of vein, 
feet. Yields a large per cent, of free gold from picked apeeimena. 


Senator Lode, — Width of vein, 3 feet. Worked by a tunnel 100 

Chance Lode. — Width of vein, 4 feet. Contains samples of native 

Sterling Lode, — Width of vein, 5 feet ; depth of main shaft ; 50 
feet; several tannels. Yields, by assay, $100 per ton. 


United States Lode. — Width of vein, 4 feet ; depth of shaft, 25 
feet. Yields, by assay, $130 per ton. 


Ticonderoga Lode. — Picked ore from the surface quartz is said to 
liave yielded $1,000 to 7 tons of ore. 

Dividend Lode. — llange of vein, E. N. B. and W. S. W. ; width, 
-4 to 5 feet ; (out-crop decomposed quartz showing free gold ;) depth 
of shaft, 50 feet. Exblbitlog bright sulphurets in a hard, white 
cjuartz matrix. Now worked by G-ray & Co. 

Galena Lode. — Range E. N. E. and W. S. W. ; width of vein, 2\i 
\x} 5 feet ; dip nearly perpendicular. Yields, by assay, $196 per 

Eugenia Lode. — Range E. N. E. and W. S. W. ; dip nearly per- 
pendicular ; width of vein, 5 to 7 feet; upper wall " slickensides." 
Out-crop decomposed rusty quartz, changing below to bright sul- 
phurets, in a dense quartz matrix — vein showing along its course 
several distinct streaks, with rich ^^ pockets*^ of "jjay dirtJ*^ 

walker's district. 

Accidental Lode. — Width, 2 feet. Yields, by assay, $100 per ton* 
Pine Mountain Lode. — Width, 4 feet. A large percentage of sil- 
ver associated with the gold. Now worked by Arastas. 

Titi Lode. — Vein narrow, but rich. Now worked by Arastas. 
Dead Wood Lode, — Width, 4 feet. Prospects well. 
Eureka Lode. — 80 feet shaft, in rich sulphurets. 

turkey creek district. 

Bully Bueno Lode. — Width of vein, 4 to 7 feet ; considerable work 
done by shafts and tunnels. Yields $20 per ton. 

Goodwin Lode. — Width, 4 feet ; shaft, 50 feet. Contains a large 
per cent, of silver. 

walnut grove district. 

Wabash Lode. — Width of vein, 2i feet. Shows free gold. 

Big Rebel Lode. — Width, 4 feet j worked by tunnel, 80 feet. Rich 


Josephine Lode. — Width, 2 feet ; shaft, 80 feet. Yields, by assay, 
$200 per ton. 



Forks Lode, — ^Yields, by assay, $70 per ton. 
Hope Lode. — A branch of Forks Lode — vein 3 feet wide. Yieldj 
by assay, $100 per ton. 

Uno Lode. — Another branch of Forks Lode. 
White Swan Lode. — Prospects rich. 
Black Swan Lode, — « " 

JSTopal Lode. — Now worked by Mexicans. 
Valencia Lode. — Now " " " 


Minnehaha Lode, — Width, 2 feet ; worked by a shaft 80 feet i 
depth. Assays $80 per ton. 

Clinton Lode, — Width, 2 feet ; shaft 50 feet. 

Silver Mountainy in this district, comprises an extensive minera^ 
ledge, exhibiting at several points a width of 25 feet, and separatin 
into several distinct lodes, that have only been partially prospected ^ 
but thought to indicate an exceedingly rich mineral deposit. 


Vulture Lode. — ^This mineral vein, located in the desert region 
near the sinks of the Hassayampa, is instructive as showing the possi- 
bility of a successful development of the mining interests of this sec- 
tion, under a combination of serious difficulties. It is located 15 
miles east of the town of Wickenburg, where the stamp mills are 
located, and occupies a low, isolated knoll of rock, rising not over 75 
feet above the surrounding desert plain. The crest of the ridge shows 
a distinct out-cropping of dark, weathered quartz, and the debris of 
the mining operations are scattered in the vicinity in the form of vast 
piles of refuse ore and wall rock. On the exposed surface we see 
fairly opened to daylight the mineral vein, showing two very distinct 
divisions, ranging in a parallel line 10° north of west, (magnetic.) 
This can be traced for a long distance along the line of out-crop, tra- 
versing the main ledge till it unites with a cross ridge, ranging north 
and south. The vein has a dip of about 60° to the north, and the 
lower or southern vein lies on a distinct foot-wall of talcose slate, 
having an average width of 8 feet. Resting upon this, on the north 
slope of the hill, is an irregular mass of rock, streaked with quartz 
veins, about 20 feet in thickness, and separating the lower from the 
upper vein. The latter does not exhibit a distinct wall, being irre- 
gularly mixed with the enclosing rock, and is worked on an average 
thickness of 10 feet. 

Both of the veins, including the intervening " horsehack^^ are made 
up of a series of veins of greater or less richness, the most produc- 
tive showing a redish, rusty or greenish stain, honey-comb in texture, 
and often exhibiting a brilliant network of free gold. 

The mining is conducted by open cuts, following down the out-crop 
of the vein, and sloping with the natural incline, leaving occasional 


pillars of support. Shafts have been sunk oatside the line of dip to 
reach the vein at a lower depth. The nearest of these shafts is located 
30 feet north of the out-crop, on the line of working, and a second 
shaft, 100 feet in depth, is situated 50 feet farther — the two shafts 
being connected by a tunnel. Neither of these shafts appear to have 
fairly struck the main vein, but show, at the lowest points reached, 
several streaks of mineral-bearing quartz and talc partings. It is 
thought that the vein may have thinned out at that depth, or that 
the dip of the vein may have become more perpendicular, so that the 
main mineral deposit has not yet been reached by either shaft. A 
better test would be to carry down the incline on the lower vein to 
strike one of the shafts, and thus ascertain the variation which the 
vein exhibits at lower depths. They have at present (December, 
1867,) about 75 men employed at the mine, (mostly Mexicans,) the 
amount of ore raised per day being from 40 to 50 tons. The ore is 
divided into two classes — the richer yielding $45 per ton in the 
stamping process, while the poorer quality averages about $20 per 
ton. Some of this second class ore is mixed with the richer in the 
stamp mill, so that the average yield of the ore used is $30 per ton. 

The general appearance of the mine is very promising — the greatest 
drawback being the want of water for milling purposes, requiring the 
ore to be transported 15 miles to the reducing mill, involving an 
expijense of $10 per ton — the return freight wagons bringing back all 
the water required at the mines. 

The followiog is a statement of the operations of the Vulture Mine, 
at this place, as kindly furnished by the proprietors : 


Monthly Expenses, 

Pay roll, $9,000 00 

Incidentals, 3,520 00 

Hauling ore, 864 tons, at $10, 8,640 00 

Fuel, 720 .00 

Interest on capital invested, 875 00 

Total monthly expenses, , $22,755 00 

Monthly Returns. 
864 tons, yielding $30 per ton, $25,920 00 

Net monthly profit, $3,165 00 


In the intervening country lying west of the mining district of 
central Arizona, extending to the Colorado River, there are extensive 
tracts of desert uplands, interrupted by irregular mountain ridges, 
which, on account of the inhospitable character of the country, diffi- 
culties of transportation and subsistence, and especially Indian 


hostilities, have been but very partially esplored. At several poinl 
io ihis district placer gold has been suceearfully worked, yielding, i 
a few inatanoes, rich returns from the rudest processes of '/ry waa/itTtg, 

Quartz veins crop out in wonderful ahitndancc in several isolato 
localities especially noted, 10 to 15 miles west of La Paz. KuA 
deposits of silver and copper ores are al^io known to esist, and ha'n 
been partially worked, but in nearly every iustanoe mining enterpru 
has been furced to succumb to insurmouutable difficulties, and, i^ 
not a few caaes, to actual loss of life. Ebrenburg, the distingubfae 
mining engineer, who had spent years in a special ezaiuination 4 
this mining seetion, and 10 which he gave the preference over ^ 
others prefioualy examined by him, here met with a sad fate, beili 
killed by hostile Indians, while engaged in his researches, in 1"" 
His frequently published reports on the mineral wealth of this re 
show the views of an intelligent, educated explorer, who, havioj 
enjoyed superior advantages for extensive exploration, alway 
OKpreBsed the most unbounded confidence in the ultimate develop 
ment of the rich mineral treasures here partially brought to light. 

At present the only successful working of mines in this diatriot i 
that of the copper lodes on Williams' Fork, in regard to whtob th 
following items, derived from personal examination, are submitted : 

The location of those mines is at a point on the south side of WU< 
liams' Fork Valley, about 12 miles from Aubrey City, at the jnnodoi 
of this stream with the Colorado, being the shipping point for ore an 
supplies by the circuitous route of the Colorado Kiver and the Old 
of I. alifornia to San Francisco and Europe. The lodes here workei 
include the Planet and ^skhy, also a newly opened vein called thi 
Eliza. Of these the former is best known from regular shipment q 
ores to the San Francisco market. Owing to the cost of transportai 
tion, aiid the unuertainly and length of time required for sbipinenti 
only the higher grade ores, realizing 40 per cent, of metallic coppei 
can he profitably shipped. These picked ores are sold in the Sal 
Francisco market according to average assays made of each cargQ 
and are thenoe mostly shipped from that point to Swansea, Wales 
for final reduction. With all these drawbacks, acting direct!; 
adverse to the mining interests of this section, the great richness a 
the ore has secured profits that, under more favorable oircumstaaces 
would prove highly remunerative. The actual permanence aai 
extent of the mineral veins is still a matter of dispute - but occapyiug, 
as they do, such an extensive scope of country, where the superficial 
deposits have proved so rich and productive, there is every reason 
to believe that, with proper facilities for mining and shipment, and 
consequent encouragement to mining enterprise, this class of o " 
would enter largely into the productive wealth of a wide scope ( 
ig country, especially adapted t " ' ' ' ' ' 


i very extensive supply of mining industry, which, farther north, or 
in the high luountain regiona, ia obliged to aaspend labor during the 
inclement winter seasOD. 

In the vicinity of Fort Mojave, including the miniag districts of 
Mojave, Sacramento and Wauba-Yuma, considerable prospecting haa 
been done, and aoine estensive mining operations commenced, mainly 
in search of ailver. The most promising ores consist of various 
qualities of chloride of silyer, aod different grades of argentiferous 

falena. None of these have been as yet sufficiently developed to 
etermine their actual value, but all the geological indications point 
to thi^ region as a natural extension of the rich silver lodes of 
Nevada in their prolongation southward into Mesioo. 

Recent discoveries to the north, giving results of almost fabulous 
richness, abon tb^t this entire region only needs the facilities afforded 
by railroads, to develop a vast and permanent mining interest. The 
eKperienae heretofore gained in other similar districts, will here be 
at once available in this new field. Considerable work baa been 
already done, especially on the Moss and Parsons Lode, in the vici- 
nity of Hardyville, but the cost of transportation and uncertainty of 
supplies, baa deterred all but the moat sanguine from a prosecution 
of their costly though promising undertakings, in developing their 
several mining claims. Alt of these are now absolutely dependent on 
the construction of railroads, or the improvement of navigable waters, 
for a successful prosecution of their various enierpriaea. It would 
bo a source of unfeigned regret if such energetic men aa W. H. 
Hardy, of Hardyville, abould, for want of such facilities, be forced 
to abandon their mining enterprises where so much has been already 
expended in preparing the way for valuable returns, and that this 
promising region should thus again revert to its native wildness. 

In the isolated mountain ranges, which traverse the desert country 
lying between the Colorado Kivar aod the Sierra Nevada of California, 
thereiaacontinuationof the geological features that elsewhere aooom- 
jiany the preaenoe of productive mineral ledges. Thus the higher 
lidges exhibit a granitic nucleus flanked by more or leas metamor- 
jihoaod strata, and interrupted everywhere by igneous protrnsions, 
either recent or more ancient, including, with fresh vesicular lavas, 
porphyritio rocks of every variety of texture and composition, and 
necessarily equally varied in their different associated minerals. The 
exte,nsive colleotiona of the California State Geological Survey over 
this region, exhibit, in a very striking manner, this variety of mineral 
constituents, aod all explorations hitherto made, unite, in the opinion 
that a vast store of mineral wealth lies here waiting development. 

We can already see the natural process by which this development 
is being worked out in the gradual extension of raining enterprise 


from the more aeoessible distriets adjoining the Sierra Nerada, as in 
Holcomb Valley, extending southward on the eastern flanks of the 
San Bernardino range, and in the Owen RiTer mines, lying directly 
east of the highest culminating points of the Sierra Neyada. From 
these accessible points, mining prospectors are gradually working 
their way eastward over the desolate region, including Death Valley, 
the sinks of the Mojave and Providence Mountains, till they will 
eventually connect with the extension of settlement from Salt Lake 
Valley, Central Nevada and the Colorado mining districts, thus occu- 
pying the whole of the great interior basin, and replacing on our map 
the unsatisfactory title of " unexplored^^ with successful minin 
camps, to be succeeded by more or less permanent civilized accesso^ 
ries, till we know }u»t what this whole country is capable of pro^ 


Geologist to the Survey, 


Comparative Advantages of Railroad Routes along 
the 32d and 35th Parallels of North Latitude.* 


The different surveying parties along the lines of the 82d and 35th 
parallels, both working at the same time of year, in the late fall and 
winter months of 1867-'68, brought to light the comparative advan- 
tages of each route, which may here be briefly summed up from a 
soientific point of view. While the surveys in the matter of grade 
and alignment show both to be entirely practicable for a railroad route, 
vvith a reasonable outlay of expense of construction, there are other 
naanifest differences that should be taken into the account in according 
a. preference to either. Both routes may be safely regarded as 
t^ra verging a region prospectively rich in minerals ; both comprise a 
certain proportion of desert uninhabitable country ; along both lines 
«ire to be found excellent grazing lands on the higher mountain slopes, 
sind limited fertile valleys; both are subjected to moderate and 
desirable winter climate. 

As far as can safely be judged from the limited mining development, 
"^e may note that the prospected mineral district on the 35th parallel 
%i much the widest in its horizontal extension westward, stretching 
over the entire line from central Arizona to the Sierra Nevada of 
Oalifornia. To compensate for this, in a certain measure, we have, 
on the 32d parallel, a more eastern development of mining country 
«t Pinos Altos, in the Sierra Madre ; also apparently equally rich 
mining indications in central southern Arizona, which, however, give 
place farther west to unproductive desert regions. The high moun- 
tains of the Mogoyon Range are mainly situated on the 34th parallel, 
and are, therefore, most accessible from the upper line. Though as 
yet very imperfectly explored, it is known to contain extensive forests, 
fine grazing lands, and undoubtedly rich mineral deposits, which would 
be directly tributary to the line of travel along the 35th parallel. 

The greater general elevation of the northern line, on 35th parallel, 
insures a much more desirable summer climate, cool and invigorating, 
in place of sultry and oppressive ; a more copious precipitation of rain 
and dew during the growing season, extending the period of vegetable 
growth so as to dispense in a great measure with the necessity for 
irrigation in agricultural operations, and still more especially favoring 
the growth of pine forests, which are met with but rarely on the lower 

*Dr. Parry, as Geologist and Nataralist, has accompanied surveying parties on both 
of these routes. 

^B centr 

^M on a. 
■ I 

^ft to th< 


route, nod id no case in eufficient abuodaDcc to afford material for 
cxlensive ruilroad coDGtruclion or distDiit trausportatioti, in vhial^ 
respect ibe 35th parnlli!! baa cvcrylLiiig tliat could be desired. 

Tbe variety and Daturnl atlraciiooB of scenery are much more 
gpicDons on the 35th parallel. Thus there are greater elevation, 
diversitioa of surface, giving rise lo differeucea of climate over 
areas of connlrj, a greater display of vegetation, and more extended 
views. The deep cajii ns of the larger water-courses present some i ' 
the wildest afipects cf scenery to be met with on ihe conlicenl. Thi 
all these varied features will comhiue to attract pleasure travel, i 
afford a field for adventurous discovery. 

Along the line of the 35th parallel the remaina of the ancient civili- 
zation, DOW partially exhibited in tbe semi- civilized Pueblo Indians^ 
are most abundantly represented, showing in former times a capacity 
for sustaining large popuIatioDs, and now offering a most attractivB 
field for anti<|UBrian reecarch. 

The very abrupt and eioesBivolj broken character of (he mouDtaa 
region eoutb of tbe 35th parallel, exteoding to the upper oourse ol 
the Gila River, bas afforded stroDgboIds and places of secure retreal 
for the thievish and murderoua Apache tribes that have, from fhfl 
earlieat hialorical records, desolated ibe frontiera of northers MesicOi 
and hindered the progress of mining, pastoral and agricultural p\ir- 
Buita over the entire region adjoining. Tbia aerious obstacle in the 
nay of civilized development can only be effectually removed, and tba' 
wild Indian trihea brought under subjection, by the fncijities which fti 
through railroad route across the contiDcnt would offer in building up 
penuBDent settlementa, and allowing rapid and ayatematio inilitM] 
movemeutB. In all these respects the 35lh parallel offers tbe moal 
desirable and coovenieat location for securing these essential cooditiont 
of civilized progress. 

In a geographical point of view, the line along the 35th paralld' 
seema to combine many of the advantages both of a northern and >, 
southern route, while at the same time, it is free from some of th« 
most objectionable features pertaining to either of the other rival 
lines, 'rbua its lower latitude gives it a manifest advaotago over anj 
other northern route, in being unobatructed by snow, and at the samai 
time free from those severities of winter climate that binder perm» 
nent settlement, and put a check upon industrial out-door pursuHj 
during a considerable portion of the year. Again, its greater gener& 
elevation gives it a superiority over a more soutbern and lower Uno & 
the comparative freedom from oppressive sunimer beats and long 
continued droughts. 

Still further, in its intermedials position, lying on the most dirag: 
line for a trans-continental route from the populous districts of it* 
central and southern States, it can he brought to the Pacific seaboui 
on a shorter line than any other now projected, while it also intersect 
atill nearer ihe navigable waters of the Colorado of the West, extondin) 
to the California Gulf. 


It crosses the desert region bordering the Colorado at its narrowest 
extension, where it is conveniently intersected by the Mojave Valley, 
and crosses the Sierra Nevada of California at its lowest gap. Thence 
traversing the rich Tulare Val'ey, it is accessible to the mining and 
timber district of the western Pacific slope, and the redwood forests 
of the Coast Range, till it strikes tide^water at the great commercial 
emporium of San Francisco Bay. 

C. C. Parry, 

Geologist U, P. R, FT., Eastern Division. 
Davenport, Iowa, Nov. 11th, 1868. 



Acfxmnt of ike Pamage of the Oreat Canon of the Colorado, front 

above the moufh of Oreen River to the head of Steamboat iVatiti 

gallon at Cat/vUle, in the months of August and September, 1867)' 

by James White, now living at CallvUle. 

To Gen'l Wm. J, Palmer, 

Director of Surveys, Kamas Pacific Jtnilway. 
Sia: — The railroad survey now in progress under your direotion 
has affordod many opportunities for acquiring valuable additioc 
our geographical knowledge of the onesplored regions of the far West^ 
from original sources not accessible to ordinary map compilers. 

Miniog profpeators withia the last twenty years, more Bdveaturoof 
eveB than the noted trappers of the Rocky MoantaiDs, have hardlj 
left a mountain slope unvisited or a water-course unexamined over thi 
wide expanse extending from the Mississippi River to the Pactfid 
Ocean. Could the varied and adventurous experience of these moan- 
tain men be brought into an acceHsible form, y/e fthould know Dearly 
as much of these western wilds as we now do of the old settled por- 
tions of our country. 

Among the geographical problems remaining for the longest tinia 
unsolved was the actual character of the stupendous chasms or oa~ 
through which the Colorado of the West cleaves its way from it*-; 
anowy sources to its exit into the California Gulf. Within the last tear 
years public attention has been frequently directed to this subject, and 
various Government expeditions have imparted reliable informatioa il 
reference to the upper and lower course of this remarkable river 
Lieut. Ives, in 1857-'8, made a satisfactory esploralion of the xtm-^ 
gahie portion of the Colorado, extending from its mouth to the T' 
Canon, and since then a regular line o*f light draft boats have beeS 
successfully traversing these inland waters. Still, the Great CaSoa 
remained a myth ; its actual length, the character of the stream, f 
nature of its banks, and the depth of its vertioat walls, were subjects 
for speculation, and afforded a fine field for exaggerated description 
in which natural bridges, cavernous tunnels and fearful cataraoti^ 
naturally formed a prominent feature. Now, at last, we have a p4 
fectly authentic account of the character of this Great Canon of tt 
Colorado, derived from the lips of a man who actually traversed i_ 
formidable depths, and who, fortunately for soience, still lives tdl 
detail his trustworthy observations of this most remarkable voyageij 
Happening to fall in with this man during my recent stay of a fe# 
days at Hardyville, on the Colorado, I (Jrew from hiui the following 
connected statement, in answer to direct questions carefully written 
at tlie time. 


James White, now lining at Gallville, on the Colorado, formerly 
from Kenosha, Wisconsin, was ioduoed to join a small prospecting 
party in searoh of goM wasbiDgs, in the San Juan region, wc»t of the 
Rooky Mountains. The original parly was composed of four men, 
under the comniand of a Capt. Baker. This small party left Fort 
Dodge on Ihe IBth of last AprU, and after orossing the plains, com- 
plettd their outfit for the San Juan country in Colorado City, leaving 
that place on the 20£h of May. Proceeding by the way of South Park 
and the Upper Arlianaaa, they crossed the Rocky Mountains, passing 
round the head waters of the Rio Grande, till they reached the ^ni- 
fnag branch of tho San Juan River, Here their prospecting for gold 
oomnienced, and being only partially sucoessfnl, they continued still 
liirther to the west, reaching the Dolores and Mancos branches. The 
latter stream was followed down to the main valley of the San Juan, 
when they crossed over to the left bank, and followed down tho valley 
2O0 miles. At ibis point the Saa Juan River enters a canon, to avoid 
*bich they again crossed to the right bank, and struck across a moun- 
tain range for the Colorado. In a distance of fifty miles, over a very 
•^gged oonntry, they reached this latter stream, or rather Its main 
eastern branch, Grand River, being still above the junction of Green 
River — the united waters of which two streama go to form the Colo- 
f^tlci proper. At the point where they first struck the river, its steep 
Weky banks were inaccessible, and they accordingly followed np the 
stream in search of a place where water could be procured. At aa 
estimated distance of twelve miles they came upon n side oafion, down 
^bich they succeeded in descending, with their animals, and procuring 
a supply of water. They camped at the bottom of this ravine on the 
night of the 23d of Aujnist, and on the morning of the 24th started 
•o ascend the right bank to the table land above. In making tbis 
Moent they were attacked by Indians, and Captain Baker being in 
advance was killed at the first fire. The two remaining men, James 
" hite and Henry Strole, after ascertaining the fate of their comrade, 
foaght their way back into the cation, and getting beyond the reach 
"> t:he Indians, hastily unpacked their animals, seonring their arms and 
• Small stock of provisions, and proceeded on foot down the canon to the 
banks of the Grand River, Here they constmeted a raft of dry cotton 
*ood ooojpoaed of three sticks ten feet in length and eight inches in di- 
ameter ; these were securely tied together by lariat ropes, and having 
atowed away their provisions and arms, they embarked at midnight on 
weip adventurous voyage. The following morning, being the 25tb of 
■^'"gust, they made a landing, repaired their raft by some additional 
pieces of light cedar, and continued on their eoBrse. 

The river here was abont 200 yards wide, flowing regularly at a 
'ate of two and a half to three miles per hour. At this estimate they 
■Cached the mouth of Green River, and entered the main Colorado 30 
"iJlea from the point of starting. Below the junction the stream 






Account of f/ir I*., 
above the inunfl 
qation at i\ti!> 
by Jamoi 117/' 

ToGen'l \Vv. 

Sir:— Tlu 
has affords" 1 
our geo;rraj 
from ori^'iii 

Mini Hi: 
even tlirs. 
left a mil 
vido (•> 
tain ti • 
as ni> 




^suiicular rocky walls, gralually 

.^aced distance of 40 miles from 

..-dcu the mouth of the San Juan, 

. J by perpendicular walls. From 

•« vich ouly occasional breaks formed 

..c9«ib-e with the main chasm. Still 

. .'ontinuing their voyage and were 

.a reaching the settlements on the 


^^h day of their journey, they encoun- 

. : .'adding one of which Henry Strole was 

... .piH)l below. The small stock of pro- 

.M V liite emerged from the foaming rapids 

^v *c any provisions, and with gloomy pros- 

. ^^ \iia adventurous journey, ilia course 

. .ii'ion, and was a succession of rapids 

^<£, over which his frail raft thumped and 

uopt the precaution of tying himself fast 

1 vad^ing over one of the rapids hb raft 

. J iold on to the fragments by main strength 

^ .u»v>w in a shallow eddy where he succeeded 

i. s.abrced again. The mouth of the Colorado 

i ao 4th day, in the evening, the general 

^. Aiucularly noticed, as he was here entangled 

. > lil rescued, as he says," by the direct inter- 

rho course of the river was noted as very 

. ..>^ .iio view on every side being shut in by the 

. . k "white sand rock." These walls presented 

^ x;.u-uoe above the water level, and showed a 

.^.cr mark 30 to 40 feet above the stream. 

,.»vmo height of the cauon was o,000 feet, the 

.14 cd out about half way from the bottom, thus 

.v»i. The last two days in the cauon, dark- 

^ vvk the place of the white sandstone, which 

,^. ucaks on either side, till he reached a more 

...^ small patches of bottom land. Here, for the 

..,.^ .10 encountered Indians, from whom he suo- 

h scanty supply of mesquite bread, barely 

,v* ull he reached Callville, on the 8th of Sep- 

^ iviu the time of starting, during seven of which 

. ;v*»cription. 

^ ^»%i ho presented a pitiful sight ; emaciated and 

his bare feet and legs literally flayed from 

.ccitching from water, and the scorching rays of 

roason almost gone. Being, however, of a 

.H^ou, he soon recovered his usual health, and 

,o<** W^^^J msLU, His narrative throughout bears 

«»iLV reliability, and is sustained by collateral 

s • 

* "^^ 


evidence, so that there ia no room to doubt that "he aotuallj aocom- 
plishsd the journey in the manaer and withia the time mentioned by bim. 


The following may be summed up as eoine of the new facts to be 
derived from this romariiibie voyage as additiooa to our previous 
geographical knowledge of the hydrography of the Colorado River ; 
let. The actual location of the mouth of the San Juan, 40 inilea 
below Green River junctioD, and its entrance by a canon, continuous 
^pitb that of the Colorado, above and below the point of junction. 

2d, From the mouth of the San Juan to the Colorado Chiquito, 3 
days travel in the snifest portion of the current allowing a rate of 4 
zuiles per hoar for 15 hours, or (30 miles per day, would f;ive an esli- 
sinated distance of 180 miles, including the uioat inacocEsible portions 
of the great canon. 

3d, From ('oloradg Chiquito to Callville, 10 days travel were ex- 
I>ended. Aa this portion of the route was more open, and probably 
<30inprised long stretches of atiil water, it would not be safe to allow a 
distance of more than 30 miles per day, or 300 miles for this interval. 
Thus the whole distance traveled would amount to 550 miles, or acftne- 
thiog over 500 milon from the Green River junction to the head of 
steamboat navigation on the Colorado. 

4th. The absence of any distinct cataracts or perpendicular falls 
-^onld seem to warrant the conejusion that in time of high water, by 
proper appliances in the form of boats, good resolute men, and pro- 
^vision secured in water-proof bags, the same passage may bo safely 
isnade, and the actual course of the river mapped out, and its peculiar 
geological features properly esamined. 

5tb. The construction of bridges, by a single span, would be 
Tendered diffieult of esccatioo, on account of the usual flaring shape 
of the upper summit ; possibly however points might be found where 
the high mesas come nearer together. 

6th. The estimated average elevation of the cailon at 3000 feet, is 
less than that given on the authority of Ivea &, Newbery, but may be 
Dearer the aetual truth as the result of more continuous observation. 
7tb. The width of the river at ita narrowest points, was estimated 
at 100 feet, and the Hoe of high water mark, 30 to 40 feet above the 
*Verage stage in August. 

8th. Tlie long oorstioued uniformity of the geological formation, 
(termed 'white sandstone, probably cretaceous,) ia remarkable, but 
Under this term may have been comprised some of the lower 
stratified formations. The contrast in reaching the dark igneous rocks 
■Was so marked that it eould not fail to be noticed. 

9tb. Any prospect for useful navigation up or down this oaiion 
^luring the season of high water, or transporlation of lumber from the 
Vipper pine regions could not be regarded as feasible, considering the 
long distaQoo, and the inaccessible character of the river banks. 



10th. No other satisfactory method of exploration, except along the 
course of the river, could be adopted to determine its actual course^ 
and peculiarly natural features, and James White, as the pioneer of this 
enterprise, will probably retain the honor of being the only man wh(^ 
has traversed through its whole course, the great canon of the Colorado ^ 
and lived to recount his observation on this perilous trip. 

Kespectfully yours, C. C. Parry, 

Geologist of the Survey, 

Haedyyille, Arizona, January 6, 1868. 



House op Representatives, May 25, 1868. 

r*Ae Committtee on Military Affairs, to whom was referred a 
letter from the Secretary of War, inclosing a letter of Lieu- 
tenant-Oeneral Sherman^ dated March 4, 1868, recommending 
Government aid to extend the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern 
Division, as a " military necessity, ^^ and a measure of public 
economy, beg leave to report : 

That they have carefully considered the statements therein 
naade, and have found them confirmed by the following facts, 
drawn from official record : 

The cost to the Government for tran3po;rtation 
on the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division, 
in 1867, was $511,908 24 

tf the military supplies had been wagoned, and 
the mails carried by stage, and the troops 
inarched, (taking the average rates at which 
the Government made its transportation con- 
tracts for that year, as shown by certificates 
of the Departments of the Quartermaster- 
General and Postmaster-General,) the cost 
would have been 1,358,291 06 

Saving to the Government in 1867, $846,382 82 

Jit this rate of saving all the United States bonds issued in 
i*d of this roady principal and interest, would be extinguished 
*'^ less than four years. 

These are the results of the use by the Government of the 
^fhished portion of the road in Kansas in the last year. 

In regard to the extension of the road beyond the point in 
Klansas at which its subsidy ends, the committee find that there 
^re three regiments of troops in New Mexico, (two of infantry 


and one of cavalry,) nearly all of the supplies for which 
wagoned from the end of the Kansas 'Pacific Railway at a ccm: 
of $1.28 per 100 pounds per 100 miles. At the present frei| 
rates of .the railway, as shown by their printed schedule, 
saving in transportation on these supplies to Albuquerque, 
the Kio Grande, a central distributing point in New Mexx t 
would be, per annum, $851,880. We have ascertained tilj. 
the additional saving to the Government in the transportatioi 
to Albuquerque of the mails, troops, and Indian supplies, wo^j^j 
be $231,992. Total annual saving, $1,083,872. 

But there is another consideration of economy in the public 
expenditure as the result of constructing the road. Lieutenant. 
General Sherman has testified that one-half of the niilitarj 
force in New Mexico could be dispensed with if the road was 
constructed, owing to the greater mobility of the remainder, 
and the growth of self-protecting settlements on the line of 
the road. As his estimate of the cost of maintaining the two 
regiments of infantry and one of cavalry was about four mil- 
lions of dollars a year, the committee find that an additional 
saving to the Government, of two millions annually, would 
thus be effected by the road. This saving, added U) the saving 
in the transportation of the diminished military force that 
would be left in New Mexico, and of the supplies to maintain 
them, including the carriage of the mails and Indian goods and 
supplies, would, in less than six years, reimburse the erUin 
loan necessary to extend the road from its present terminus to 

the Rio Grande. 

The committee have had satisfactory evidence presented to 

them that west of Albuquerque, and through Arizona and Lower 
California, the same or even larger proportionate economy i^ 
the public service would be aflFected by the substitution of rail- 
way for wagon transportation, with the result of an equally 
certain payment of the interest and extinction of the principal 
of the Government aid long prior to its maturity. 

The committee have also had before them the written recom- 
mendation of Major-General Philip H. Sheridan that the 

[report op military committee. 239 

Government at once continues its aid to the Kansas Pacific Rail- 
way, in the course of which he says : 

« It almoist sabstantially ends our Indian troubles, by the moral effect 
which it exercises over the Indians, and the facility wtiich it gives to the 
military in controlling them. ♦ ♦ • • No one, unless he has personally 
visited this country, can appreciate the great assistance which this road gives 
to economy, security, and effectiveness in tbe administration of military 
affairs in this department." 

The committee make no recommendation to the House, but 
merely report the facts which they have ascertained in the 
consideration of General Sherman's letter, and ask that the 
same be printed and referred to the Committee on Pacific Rail- 
road, and that the accompanying detailed statements, docu- 
ments and official certificates be referred to the same committee, 
'without being printed. 



n of Troopt in the Department of the Mi«- 

Fort Dodgo, 

End of ffoiwnimssf md. 

Fort Wallace, KanBns, 

Fort Lyon, Colorndg. 

Cedar Point, " 


Muiwell'i Ranob, N. M., 

Foit Ruynolda, " 


Fort UnioD, Xen Heilo, 

Fort Miiroy. Santa Fo. N. M. 

Fort BasQom, Nu<r Mexico, 

Fort Sumnar. 

Fort Oar land, Colorado, 

Fort B;vyard, Now Mexico 


















3d Inf. and Ileadquartera. 

lUth Cavftlrr! 
lUtlkCav ■ ■■ ■ 
lUth Cat 
4th Ai 

lOth Cav.. 3d and 38tli Inf. 

lOth Car. and ii lofan^. 

5th Infantry- 

38th Inf.inlry. 

7th Cav.,3d and 37th Inf. 

Tlh Cavalry. 5tli Infantry. 
7th Car., 3d and 37th In£ 
37th Infantry. 

th Cayalry, 5th Infantry. 

3d Cavalry. 

3d Cavalry- 

" I Cavalry A 5th Infantry. 
I Cavalry. 

I Cavalry, 38th Infantry. 

37th Inf. k H 

In the field, en route in the Department, 

Total, 17 Companies— (ao 

I in the above list.) 


n Kansas, atpoala. 

Snnthern Colorado 



-JF^osition and I>i8tribution of Troops in Arizona and Southern 
California^ with distances as authorized by Quartermaster^ a 

Oa,mp Wright, California, 
*' Cady, 
** Rock Spr'gs •* 
•• Indep'dence" 
JL^riim Barracks, " 
Sa-r^ Diego, 
* ox-t Mojavo, Arizona, 
ge«.le'8 Spring, " 
^o*~t Yuma, California, 
^r^^XKip Willows, Arizona, 
^Jl «».x-icopa Wells, 
Vj^-^^ip McDowell, 
^o»-t Whipple, 
>!;»«. Hap Grant, \ 
>i:,».Xiip Lincoln, 
-*^ ox-t Barrett, 

^- Lovell, 
^^ * Bowie, 
^^.laip Goodwin, 
;* Wallen, 
* McPherson, 


Mile« from! No. Companies 

SJan Fran 





















of Troops. I To what Regiments belonging. 









9th Infantry. 
14th " 

1st Cav. and 9th Infantry. 
14th Infantry and recruits. 

8th Car., 9th and 14th Inf. 

14th Inf. and Headquarters. 

1st Cav., 14th and 32d Inf. 
8th Cav. and Headquarters. 
14th and 32d Infantry. 

14th Infantry. 
1st Cavalry, 32d Infantry. 

32d Infantry k Headquarters. 

1st Cavalry and 32d Infantry. 
14th Infantry. 

^^tal number of companies of troops in the Department of California along the 
S'eneral route of Kansas Pacific Railway, 33 


Q^ Troopt along the general rorUe of the Kansas Pacific Raihoay^ December 16, 1867, and 

that are, or will he, supplied therefrom. 

Co'soflnf. Co'sofCav. 
Kansas, • 15 14 

Southern Colorado, 4 4 

^ew Mexico, 8 10 

In the field in Dep't of the Mo., chiefly in New Mexico, 10 7 

Arizona, 19 8 

Southern California, 5 1 

Total of each class, 61 44 

^aUirtg the whole number of companies of both infantry and cavalry , lOS 

Note. — The entire military force stationed between the Missouri River and the 
I*acific Coast inclusive, from the British Possessions south to Mexico, is two hundred 
stud forty companies, so that it will be seen that nearly one-half of that fo'rce is along 
the route of this Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division. 



Extract from the Report of the Secretary of the Interior to the /Sfenocs 
April 13, 1867, showing Population of Indian Tribes in the couni^=^ 
penetrated by the Kansas Pacific Railway, 

Superintency and Asrency. Tribes. Pop'n. To^ii 


Arrapahoe, Cheyenne and Apache, Arrapahoe, Cheyenne and Apache, 4,000 

Kiowa and Camanche, Kiowaa and Camanche, 2,900 

Ottawa, Ottawas, , 200 

Kickapeo, Kickapoos, 242 

Kansas, Kansas or Kaws, 670 

Delaware, Delawares 1 064 

Shawnee, Shawnees, 660 

Osage River, ~ Miamas ~ 127 

Peorias, Pinkeshaws, Kaskaskias, 

and Weas, 230 

Pottawatomie, Pottawatomies, 1,992 



Denver Grand River and Uintah Utes, 2,500 

Conejos, Tabequache Utes, 2,500 

New Mexico. 

Bosque Redondo, Navajoes at Reservation 6,500 

Nava.ioes at large, 1,200 

Pueblos, « Pueblos, 7,010 

Abiqui, Capote Utes, 350 

Webinoche Utes 700 

Cimarron Maquacho Utes, 600 

Jicarilla Apaches, 800 

Mescalero Apaches, Mescalero Apaches, 550 

Mimbres Apaches, 200 

Captives held in peonage, 2,000 


Papagoes Papagoes, 5,000 

Pimas and Maricopas, 7,500 

River Tribes, Tumas, Mojaves, etc., 9,500 

Apaches, 10,000 

Moquis, 2,500 

Southern California. 

Tule River, Owens River and Tule River, 725 

Mission Indians, Various bands, 3,300 

King River and other bands, 14,900 

Coahuillas and other tribes, • 4,400 


Total number of Indians along the general route of the Kansas Pacific • 

Railway, 94,729 

out of a total population of Indians in the United States, as estimated 

by Secretary of Interior, of. 306,415 





TiMI|Wlltpvl« P-H, rSammlt,}.. 
Ull'rarkor Pmrtriilgi Cr««k, ... 

( jejIjMoBtliof P.rlrld(B -T.11V,... 
4T4S Tal do Chins, (Crouliu.) 
B1il BhIs'i Pm<, (Sniumlt,) ..^7.. 
£^41 l->DipmGBp,(Eiiliui»ti>l 

aj»3 T rni ton ■« Spring 

3113; Wollanl Pbi 

12»e Mujmve Gip, .... 


Ihei'NBBdltt,") 22 I lUl I 

prlngn, M 1 1«3 / 

■(Summit I 18 ! 1491 i: 

in, [eatuneftoPflrry I 

Diego Junction, M ' 16!7 ■ " 

(oppdaile.) U i 1641 

srrpE'siK"':'""-"'' - 1 


"JK;..",""';..'".'™' "»'; 



Ka.tBr., fool of Si,f,. NovdC'Tr 
Trhaehapm Pan, (Sniuiull or 


WHleru Tout <ir Siecn Neiadi. i 
Bueiu Vi.l. Oil Work., ' 

• 21U0 

Summii CMit Sings, (Sin ienilo 

sioj-i :' :..,:.:::;::::v;:::;;:; 

.. 8>n FraneUeo.... 
Thl. dlntansa (o Sbd FhqsIb^ 
lit. Bfueliig'o«llS«o7,i|,jM 
|2[L. By uilofi Giliit^o'T'^Ua; 
bd. AyuainiiOdJBleoVBlleyiiii 



Elevations abow€ 



FVom Kiansas Vit^f vm 


, Miles. Miles. Miles. Miles 


675 Cliemeiie'vls Pass, (janeVn with 
Main Line 76 m. west of Colorado. 

600 Mouth San Diego Pass, ' 20 

*2000 Sammtt dan Diego Pass I 17 

♦ 1500 Morongo Basin, 10 

*2327 ^ Smninlt Morongo Pass, 22 

#1201 1 Mouth of Morongo Canon, ! 10 

1101 ' Eastern foot San Gorgonia Pass, 10 

~ ~ 22 

f 2SU8,Saininlt Sam Gorgomla Pass, 


San BernardlmOy. 
Los Amgelosy 


Ssin DloffOf 

This distance to San Diego saaj be 

reduced, as follows : 
1st. By using Galisteo Valley and San 

Mateo line to 

2d. By using Galisteo Yalley, San 

Mateo and White Mesa line to.. 

3d. By using Gab'steo Yalley, San 

Mateo and Li^jaGap line to 


1527 , 
1547 ' 
1564 ' 



. 1512 
' 1529 
• 1539 
; 1561 
I 1671 
I 1581 



1738 ; 1629 

1738 1812 I 1703 







1716 ; 1646 


# Estimated. 

f Baroneter. 


By Knnsai Pacific Sailroad and Thirl^/'Hecond Parallel. 




(1318 milai from Now York) 


■3 '■=. 

1=; 1^ 
II l| 

g" 1 g'H 
1 II' 







I eel. 


v ;-, If fe, 







[•letta, (below AlbaquerquB ) 

ttomli of £nta Barbara Canon 

jummit West of Rio Orande 
Kaat foot of Cook's Moantan 
«aminl( of Cooli'a Bloaniala 

tfoBtfoot Of Cook's Mountain 
North ond of Sierra Bedondo 

Summit at ood of Burro Mountain 
B^fo'Tof Pelon"ilioUounta n 

East Foot of Railroad Pasm (Obirioa 




























H'. 1 











H 1 "^ 


Pima Villwta 

Marinopa Wellj. ^™ 

Port Vuma, (75 feetaboTe the river 

Wcet foot of San Ooigon a Pam 






San /;ancl..o 


ThiB distam^D I^om Kansas C tv to Ian 
Franoiaco may be redacod \y est 

Srd'1!'ao^''ji^-of''?rm',roe T '"'^ 





N^York to Saa Francisco, (msasured.) 






* Barometer elevatiana. 





















To Fori Ittmm flboYE the liTBi 7S ft. 














I Lust water in Cariso Ctflek, ~ 



To San DiSBO by S«o Qorgonia Paaa,-| 



Puss, i 








JfBUf yni-fc to San Dlrgo by Bor- f 
Tered line nnd San Gorgonia Pasa, I 

Surveyed lipe and Warner's Pm!. 

Shnrlcil Ilna and San Qotifonia Pms.- 








Kemark. — On the portion of the route by the 32(i par&IIel, 

not instrumentaily surveyed, several important summits occur, 
which are not included in the above table, to wit: in crossing 
the Great Bend of the Gila, where the ascent is 558 feet; in 
crossing the dividing ridges that separate the waters west of 
the Sierra Bernardino — the Santa Ana, San Gabriel and Loa 
Angelos, and elsewhere. In crossing the Colorado Desert, the 
line is at points below the level of the ocean. 



Approximate Statement of Grades on Route of 32c? Parallel. 

Ist. From Albuquerque down the Rio Grande to Fort Craig, 
103 miles, the grade need not exceed 10 feet per mile. 

2d. From Fort Craig, on Rio Grande, to Fort Grant, on the 
San Pedro, distance 345 miles. 

Grade per Mile. 

Grade per Mile. 

No. of Milos. 




• 14.6 

9 feet. 


35 feet. 


40 " 


6 " 


60 " 


24 " 


6 " 




50 " 


19 " 


75 " 


77 •• 


27 " 


28 '• 


30 " 


12 " 


40 " 




50 " 


59 feet. 


14 " 


54 " 


30 " 




50 " 


60 feet. 



20 " 

3d. From Fort Grant to mouth of San Pedro, 11 miles — ^ 
average grade 21 feet per mile. 

From mouth of San Pedro down Gila to Saccaton, 69 miles 
— average fall of river 12 feet per mile. 

[This is through the " 12 mile canon'* of the Gila, where the 
line could not be run because of flood. The work through this 
canon would be very heavy. The line to avoid it, (from Fort 
Grant, by Leech's old trail to Saccaton,) saved 20 miles of dis- 
tance, but required a grade for 12 miles of 150 feet per mile, 
ascending from Grant; then 3 miles of undulating grades to 
" Cottonwood Springs ; thence 12 miles of descending grade 
to "Round Valley," and thence 9 miles, to the Gila, at 80 feet 
per mile, and 30 miles, of 10 feet per mile, to Saccaton. This 
was, of course, impracticable. In order to avoid the detour, by 


the mouth of San Pedro and the " 12 mile canon" of the Gila, 
the only probable route is to leave the San Pedro, as suggested 
by Mr. Runk, about 25 miles above Fort Grant, and coLtinue 
the line through the Santa Catarina Mountains via Granite 
Springs to Saccaton, on the Gila. It would undoubtedly re- 
quire grades of at least 75 feet per mile for a long distance, 
and heavy work in crossing the Santa Catarina Mountains, but 
would save 40 miles on the Gila Canon Route.] 

4th. From Pima Villages to Maricopa Wells, 12 miles along 
the Gila, grade of 8 to 10 feet per mile. 

5th. From Maricopa Wells to summit of Maricopa Moun- 
tains a rise of 280 feet in 5,^^ miles; then for 14 miles com- 
paratively level; then ascend 273 feet more in 2 :j®^ miles to 
summit of Gila Bend Mountains; then descend 368 feet in 
2y% miles; then descend 33 feet per mile for 6 miles; then 
descend very gently for 6 miles to the Gila at its south bend. 
(Grades of at least 70 feet per mile are required in crossing 
the Great Bend of the Gila, as. above shown.) Then from 
*'Gila Bend*' down the Gila, 18 miles, to Sierra Colorado, 
grade of 8 to 10 feet per mile. 

6th. In crossing the Sierra Colorado, (3f miles,) the rise is 
101 feet in 1.10 miles to summit ; then level for 1.1 miles, and 
then falls 87 feet in 1.5 miles to river bottom. 

7th. Thence to Fort Yuma, 108 miles, the average fall of Gila 
Yalley, which is followed, is about 6 to 8 feet per mile. 

8th. In crossing the Colorado Desert, from Fort Yuma to 
base of San Gorgonia Pass, 154 miles, the grades are generally 

9th. In ascending the Sierras at San Gorgonia Pass, 22 
miles, grade is from 60 to 90 feet per mile; average, 78 feet 
per mile. In western descent of San Gorgonia Pass, to San 
Bernardino Valley, 24 miles, grade is for 6J miles 45 feet per 
mile, and for 18J miles average of 78 feet per mile. (No 
grade over 80 feet per mile required.) 

10th. From western foot of San Gorgonia to eastern base 


of Sierra Nevada, at Tchachapa Pass, heavy grade will be 
required for a considerable distance in crossing the Cordilleras 
by the San Fernando and Soledad Passes, rising to 100 feet 
per mile. From western foot of San Gorgon ia to San Diego, 
maximum grade 80 feet per mile for considerable distances. 

11th. From Fort Yuma to San Diego, by Warner's Pass, 
200 miles, a long extent of very heavy grade, probably maxi- 
mum, will be required in crossing the Cordilleras. 






(650) 723-9201 

All books are subject to recall. 

J^>2 6 2001 

OCT l<%,2003-(t- - 


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