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Full text of "Report to the mayor and City Council of the city of Davenport, Iowa on city planning for Davenport"






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H, J. I.KMiVI, PRINTKR 



DAVENPORT, IOWA 



CITY OF DAVEiNPORT— 191G 

Mayor John Berwald 

City Clerk Hugo Moeller 

Aldermen 

At Large Wm. H. Gosch 

At Large Christ. D. Kuehl 

First Ward Julius Jehring 

Second Ward Wm. Moeller 

Third Ward Arthur Meyer 

Fourth Ward John Knostman 

Fifth Ward B. M. Raben 

Sixth Ward Chas. L. Lindhohu 



CITY OF DAVENPORT— 1918 

Mayor CM. Littleton 

City Clerk Hugo Moeller 

Aldermen 

At Large John G. Wolters 

At Large E. R. McAdam 

First Ward George J. Peck 

Second Ward Walter Bracher 

Third Ward Hugo P. Eckmann 

Foui'th Ward Chris G. Dehrens 

Fifth Ward George White 

Sixth Ward A. E. Hallow 

Board of Public Works 

John W. Crowley Roscoe E. Sawistowsky John Heeney 

F. W. Friedholdt, Clerk 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

City Officers 1916-1918 2 

City Planning for Davenport 7 

Population 8 

Streets 12 

Street Standards 16 

Proposed Street Plan in the New Territory 18 

Diagonal Streets 24 

Traffic Way up Goose Hollow 24 

Cost and Method of Procedure 26 

Size of Lots 28 

Limiting the Percentage of Lot to be Built Upon 32 

Building Lines 32 

Districting or Zoning 38 

Subdivision of Land 40 

Hickory Grove Road 44 

Kirkwood Boulevard 44 

Miller Avenue 50 

Apportionment of Assessments for Street Openings 50 

Excess Condemnation 54 

Finance TS 

Transportation 60 

The Grouping of Public Buildings 62 

Bathing Beach 64 

Another Bridge Needed 66 

Parks and Playgrounds GG 

Appendix 73 



ILLUSTRATIONS AND DRAWINGS. 



PAGE. 

Map Showing Growth of the City of Davenport 9 

Population Curve and Tables 11 

Original Plan of Washington, D. C 13 

Recommended Street Widths 15 

Old and New Street Plan Philadelphia 17 

Map of the Older Part of London 19 

Hillcrest Avenue, McClellan Heights 21 

McClellan Boulevard 21 

Radial Highways Leading into Davenport 23 

Traffic Way from Eighth and Harrison to Division and Locust 

Streets 25 

Unsightly Conditions Existing Where Houses are Faced on Alleys. 27 

Map Showing Houses Located on an Alley 29 

Plats Showing Percentage of Areas Built Upon 31 

The Development of a 50 ft. Street Through the Establishment 

of Building Lines 33 

The Development of a 60 ft. Street Through the Establishment of 

Building Lines 35 

Recommendations for the Establishing of Building Lines on Streets 

of Various Widths 37 

Map Showing Present Building Distribution 37 

Residential Property Values Destroyed by the Disregard of the 

Natural Building Lines 39 

Map of Portion of New York Showing Building Restrictions 41 

Argument for Locating Sewer, Water and Gas Mains in Alleys. . . 43 
Plan for Extension of Kirkwood Blvd., Brady to Harrison Streets. . 45 

Views of Kirkwood and McClellan Boulevards 47 

Street Section Kirkwood Blvd. and Proposed New Bridge 49 

Plan for the Extension of Kirkwood Blvd. from Christie street to 

Jersey Ridge Road 51 

Plan for Opening of Miller Ave. from High St. to Campbell Ave. . 53 

Diagrams Showing Indebtedness of Cities in Iowa 59 

Main Lines of Communication 61 

Plan for Playgrounds and Bathing Beach on River Front 63 

Wading Pool, Vander Veer Park 65 

Map Showing Portion Unused by Parks and Playgrounds 67 

Sunken Garden Fejervary Park 69 

Plan for Park at Tenth and Sylvan Avenue 71 

General City Plan Map Back 



THE NECESSITY OF CITY PLANNING. 

Good planning for cities and closely built towns and 
villages is not primarily a matter of aesthetics, but of econ- 
omics. The main object is to prevent or remedy the phys- 
ical and moral evils and losses which accompany congestion 
of population. To effect this object, it is necessary to pre- 
vent the corruption of the air the people breathe night and 
day, of the water they drink, and of the foods they eat; 
and to this end well-ventilated dwellings, shops and fac- 
tories, a pure and abundant water supply and a safe sewage 
disposal, and rapid ti'ansportation and prompt delivery foi 
foods are all indispensable. 

There must also be pi'ovided rapid transportation for 
passengers and all sorts of goods into and out of the city, 
else the population will not be spread over a sufficient area, 
and the industries v\-hich support the people will not be 
carried on advantageously. 

The laying out of most American cities has been casual 
and thoughtless of future needs. The common rectangular 
lay-out, without any well-considered diagonals, causes a 
great daily waste of human and animal labor and of fuel; 
while high buildings, narrow streets and lack of open spaces 
make it impossible to keep the cities well aired and v/ell 
sunned. 

To improve, or reform, the lay-out of most American 
cities is, therefore, a great public need, not only for beauty's 
sake, but for the sake of the health, efficiency and happi- 
ness of their people. — Charles W. Eliot. 



6 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

Davenport, Iowa, Feb, 9, 1918. 

TO THE HONORABLE, THE MAYOR AND TIIE MEIVI- 

' BERS OF THE CITY COUNCIL. 

Gentlemen : — On every hand we see the utmost effort at 
increased efficiency, the conservation of food, money, re- 
sources, time and labor. We are told that every saving we 
make in national resources and supplies will hasten the end 
of the war. It is, then, at a very opportune time that we 
take up City Planning in Davenport. 

"City Planning is City Conservation." Its chief func- 
tion is to see that there shall not be waste in the manner 
and the order in which our city shall develop, and those 
principles of orderly planning which will secure the maxi- 
mum of efficiency with a minimum expenditure of energy 
and the minimum of waste, are precisely the principles 
which at this time, of all times, we need to observe and put 
into action. 

On February 21, 1917, your Honorable Body passed the 
following resolution : 

"Resolved, By the City Council of the City of Daven- 
port, that the City Engineer prepare a Comprehensive Plan 
for the orderly development and extension of the street 
system of the City of Davenport, containing suggestions 
for the correction of mistakes where the present plan is 
considered defective, and recommendations for controlling 
the platting and development of tracts within and con- 
tiguous to the City Limits, minimum size of lots, limitation 
of number of houses to the acre, and establish building 
lines, residential, retail and manufacturing districts, and 
containing other matters pertinent to such plan, same to 
be submitted to the City Council for approval and adoption. 

"Resolved, That the City Engineer be authorized to hire 
any extra help that may be necessary in compiling this 
plan." 

As a result of my study, I have the honor to submit tiie 
following conclusions, recommendations and suggestions. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ROSCOE E. SAWISTOWSKY, 

City Engineer. 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT. 



A City seeking- to incorporate that which is most essen- 
tial to its efficient, sightly and orderly growth, should have 
a comprehensive plan, for the development and the laying: 
out of such streets, public places and parks, as will l>est 
serve the health, safety and convenience of the people. 

City planning regulates the use of land, so that all land 
owners may enjoy adequate sun, light, air and convenience 
of access. City Planning is constructive — it pays because 
it saves the costly process of correcting mistakes. City 
Planning is the application of business principles to ilie 
growth of our Cities. No one would undertake a business 
enterprise, even of minor importance, without a thorough 
study of the problem, and plans for meeting the conditions 
successfully as they arise. But the building of a City, our 
most important enterprise, has generally been conducted in 
a spasmodic fashion, without preparation for change, or ex- 
pansion. The development of one section has generally 
been carried on independently of its relation to the City as 
a whole. 

Davenport was founded in 1839 — 79 years ago, which, 
for an individual, would not be considered a great age. But 
because Davenport has outlived the allotted life of man, — 
"three score years and ten" — it does not follow that as a 
City, it is near its end. It is only just, beginning to grow. 
During that short space of time, since Antoine LeClaire 
founded the City of Davenport on the Iowa shore of the 
Mississippi river, directly across from Rock Island, then a 
town of several thousand people, its growth has been steady 
and sure. Today, with a population of over 50,000 people, we 
have as yet no serious traffic congestion, no slums to eradi- 
cate and no serious problems of sanitation, 96 9r of the pop- 
ulation Ijeing provided A\ith sewage facilities. What parks 



8 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

we have are excellent, but we need more small parks and 
playgrounds, located so as to be of easy access to all our 
population. Parks should be placed within one-half mile 
of every residence. This interesting subject is taken up 
later under ''Parks." 

The congestion of traffic on the Government Bridge de- 
mands the attention of your honorable body. The three 
cities, Davenport, Rock Island and Moline, situated as they 
are, with a frontage of several miles on either side of the 
Mississippi River, virtually one community, and with only 
one means of communication, a narrow bridge allowing only 
one line of traffic each way, presents an economic prob- 
lem. One slow-moving, horse-drawn vehicle can hold up 
thirty or more faster vehicles, at a great loss of time and 
money. With the increased activities on the Arsenal, sev- 
eral thousand more men are employed there. The conges- 
tion of traffic caused by the flow of this large number of 
men and vehicles going to and from work, delays other in- 
ter-city traffic 10 to 20 minutes each way 



POPULATION. 

The population of the City of Davenport at the present 
time is estimated at 51,044 (see illustration on Page 7) dis- 
tributed in the several wards as follows: 

POPULATION AND AREA TABLE. 

Area Approximate Estimated No. of 



ai'd 


Acres 


Per Cent 


Population 


People 






Inhabited 


1918 


Per Acre 


1 


1207 


50% 


6809 


6 


2 


957 


85% 


8990 


9 


3 


800 


75% 


9017 


11 


4 


561 


95% 


8178 


15 


5 


799 


85% ■ 


9475 


12 


6 


1300 


60% 


8575 


7 


Totals 


5625 




51044 


9 



CITY PLANNING FOF DAVENPORT 




10 CITY PLANNING OF DAVENPORT 

It is not to be supposed that this wonderful growth will 
cease. On the contrary, all indications point to a further 
development which will far excel the record of the past. It 
is safe to assume that in twenty-five years our population 
v/ill double. Streets that are now ample to take care of the 
traffic of a City of 50,000, will be wholly inadequate to care 
for a City of 100,000. Many streets will have to be wid- 
ened. More parks and playgrounds will be needed. Also 
rapid transportation, to enable the workman to reach his 
home in the suburbs quickly, which will be twice as far 
from the central district as at present. These, and many 
other problems will have to be solved. 

Many plans for Cities have miscarried and failed of 
accomplishment because of their impracticability. 

The first consideration in City Planning should be the 
economic, and then the aesthetic; not the reverse, as has 
been the case in many elaborate plans prepared for other 
Cities, wholly impossible of accomplishment, from the econ- 
omic standpoint. 

The first thought in laying out a City Planning scheme 
should be given to that which will make the City, as a City, 
a better place to work and live in. The blocks, lots, streets, 
parks and water-front should be so designed as to save 
time and money to the property owner and citizen; to in- 
crease the convenience, comfort, speed and economy with 
which they can go from their homes to their places of busi- 
ness or recreation. 

The present day demand is one essentially to do with 
time. We must get from one place to another quickly, and 
to do this our way must be free from the encumbrance of 
congestion and excessive grades. If our forefathers had 
only had the wisdom to provide a certain number of radials 
from the heart of the town to the City Limits, our problem 
for the readjustment of our street system would have been 
a comparatively easy one. But consider now what it would 
cost to wipe out blocks of the most valuable property in 



CITY P[.ANNIN(i OF DAVENPORT 



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12 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

order to provide these radials! So let us very seriously 
consider the costly lesson of the past, and be almost ex- 
travagantly liberal in providing for what we feel will in 
the future become important lines of travel. There can be 
no doubt of the statement that Washington, being our only 
city of importance that v.-as built upon a comprehensive 
plan, is the only one with an adequate system of thorough- 
fares. George Washington, as a surveyor and civil engin- 
eer, recognized the value of proper planning for the Na- 
tional Capital, when he employed Major L'Enfant, a young 
French engineer, to prepare a plan. It is acknowledged to 
be the most admirable design, with its system of diagonal 
avenues radiating from small parks. 

The narrow street needs little comment. They are just 
as necessary from an economic standpoint as broad sti'cets. 
We cannot all afford homics fronting on boulevards, nor can 
we all have places for earning a living on a wide business 
street. But, on the other hand, we must try to design or 
rearrange our neighborhoods, whether residential or com- 
mercial, so that the narrow street will not receive more 
traffic than it is able to care for. 

Davenport has everything to gain by making itself at- 
tractive. Not only does a good looking City attract busi- 
ness from the outside, but it has a marked moral effect on 
the whole citizen body, not only in making them keep their 
private grounds looking better, but in creating in them, 
through a pride of their City, a better citizenship and sense 
of responsibility for the care of the City. 



STREETS. 

The City's streets present a problem of the first magni- 
tude. How few realize that it is more than a passage-way, 
more than a common street where the children play, or 
through which the milk wagon drives. Few realize that a 
street system might be so poorly constructed as to abso- 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



13 




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ORIGINAL PLAN WASHINGTON, D. C. 
By Major L'Enfant. 



14 CITY PLANNING FOR ]:)AVF.NPORT 

lutely prevent development, or that, on the other hand, a 
street system could be so intelligently designed as to meet 
all the requirements for many years to come. 

The dominating thought is the bigness of the subject, 
its importance, its grip on the urgent things or life. Ail 
the currents of a City's life flow unceasingly along its chan- 
nels. All grades of society are affected by the problems 
it includes. The comfort or hardship of urban existence, 
its efficiency or failure, are vitally influenced by the wisdom 
or thoughtlessness with which the streets are planned. 
Unless streets are planned for the convenience and comfort 
of the individual home owner, and to facilitate the trans- 
action of his business, they have failed in their purpose. 

Reduced to its essentials, a street is a thoroughfare for 
passing from one place to another, a means of access to 
buildings and grounds facing upon them. They are open 
spaces to admit light and air to adjacent buildings. They 
provide a place for the construction of sewers, water-pipes, 
gas mains, steam heating mains and various conduits — 
essentials to modern city development. The street system 
is the framework for the whole City structure. 

The street system of Davenport represents its largest 
single financial investment, with $3,751,166.74 invested in 
pavements and another million in sidevvalks. 

In the Original Town of Davenport, the area occupied 
by streets and alleys was equal to 66% of the area of build- 
ing lots, or 40% of the total area of the land subdivided. 
Approximately 1510 acres, or 27% of our total area, is laid 
out in streets and alleys. It is very important, then, that 
the proper width of streets be judicially determined. Ex- 
cessive street widths in business or residential districts, 
as in Salt Lake City, mean more scattered houses and a 
greater distance to be traveled between business and resi- 
dence districts, with a corresponding loss in time ana 
money. 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



15 




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RECOMMLNDEl) STREET W IDTUS. 



16 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

STREET STANDARDS. 

Streets vary greatly as to the percentage of the total 
population using them, and can be classed under three 
heads : 

1. Main Traffic Streets are streets which carry great 
numbers daily and hourly, to and from centers of business. 

2. Secondary Thoroughfares are the ordinary business 
streets. 

3. Residential Streets, both major and minor. No hard 
and fixed rule can be established as to the proper width of 
any one of them. Recommended widths for Davenport 
are as follows: 

Main Thoroughfares or Trafficvvays. 

Double street car tracks 20 feet 

4 lines of vehicles, 2 on each side of tracks, 9 feet 
each 36 

12 lines of pedestrians, 6 on either sidewalk, 2 feet 

each 24 

Total 80 " 

Secondary Thoroughfares. 

Single car track 8 feet 

4 lines of vehicles, 2 on either side of track @ 8 ft. 

gj^cn ^^ 

8 ft. sidewalks and 2 ft. grass space on each side. .20 

Total 60 - 

Residential Streets. (Minor). 

3 lines of vehicles @ 8 f t 24 feet 

13 ft. boulevard on each side, including sidewalks . . 26 

Total 50 '' 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



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Old Plan of South Philadelphia showing street system and Railroad lines in 
1913. New Plan shows raised jtieet syste-ii and lelooatcd K. R. l.incas il- 
v'iscd by ordinance, Feb. 14, 1914. 



18 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

Proposed Street Plan in the New Territory. 

The plan for the streets in the new territory is recom- 
mended for adoption as the plan to be conformed to in the 
laying out or condemning of new streets. 

In presenting this plan for the proposed location of 
streets in the unplatted territory within the proposed City 
Limits and adjacent thereto, it is not claimed that this 
sreet system will fulfill every requirement for all time to 
come. "City Planning is never finished." No one man, or 
group of men, can foresee all the changes that are apt to 
take place. Cities are continually outgrowing the plans 
that were designed for them years ago. A plan that is 
ample for present day needs will be inadequate in the near 
future. Unforeseen changes will take place; new methods 
of transportation and new discoveries will materially affect 
the social fife of the community, and the plan, where still 
susceptible to change, will be modified to meet the nev.- 
conditions as they arise. 

It should be possible to make amendments to the plan 
as proposed, when needed. New conditions, now unforeseen, 
may arise in certain sections, which will make it advisable 
to change this or that street, and where the change is 
minor, and does not affect or disarrange the plan as a whole, 
it is proper that such change should be made. It is highly 
important, however, that the main traffic streets, up ra- 
vines, be not changed. They provide easy grades for traffic, 
and make possible the utmost development of the land for 
residential purposes. By placing streets in ravines there 
is no waste in the subdivision of the land into the most 
desirable lots for building sites. We have plenty of the 
results, within a few blocks of our City Hall, of the total 
disregard of the principles as outlined above. 

According to the principles of City Planning, the main or 
business section of Davenport, which extends six blocks back 
from the river, was well planned. Beyond this, the streets 
were continued to complete the checkerboard system, re- 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



19 




Map of the older i)art of London, showing tlic lack of loniiiuinity and 
directness in the street system. 









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After the great fire of 1666 this plan was prepared. It wa-^ con'-idercd too 
ladiral at the liiuc Init is iio^''' an ackno'AJcdgcd model. 



20 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

gardless of deep gullies or hills. Streets were cut through 
at a great expense, making it extremely expensive to fill 
up the ravines for building sites, and today we have over 
fifty acres of this unusable property in the heart of the 
City, wholly impossible to utilize, except at a prohibitive 
expense. This could all have been avoided by adjusting 
the street plan to fit the ground. An excellent example in 
our City of the application of the correct principles of City 
Planning to hilly ground, is the high-class residential sec- 
tion, known as "McClellan Heights." 

There are several large draws, or ravines, draining froni 
the north to Duck Creek. There is running water in them 
practically the year 'round, and to destroy this natural 
scenic beauty by the construction of large and costly storm 
drains, would be unwise. Main traffic streets are proposed 
in these draws, providing easy grades for all vehicles, and 
the maximum development of the land for residential pur- 
poses. 

One of the prettiest examples of this type of develop- 
ment is the Country Club district of Kansas City. The 
creek lies to one side of the paving, and is spanned by small 
foot-bridges for pedestrians, and at all street intersections 
by artistic concrete or stone arch bridges. 

The General City Plan at the back shows the proposed 
plan for the extension of the street system through the 
unplatted territory that it is now proposed to annex to the 
City of Davenport at the regular City election to be held 
April 6, 1918. 

The laying out of new additions in this territory will 
then be subject to the approval of the City Council, and 
the streets through any proposed addition will have to 
coincide with the streets as shown on the General City 
Plan for the extension and development of the streets. The 
City Council can then demand that the streets and alleys 
he graded to the established grade before accepting same. 
This item alone will save the City hundreds of thousands 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



21 




HILLCREST AVE., McCLELLAN HEIGHTS 
An example of a street well laid out to fit rough topography. 




MlCLELLAN boulevard, MlCLKI.LAN in'KJ J 11^ 



22 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

of dollars, where previously the City has had to grade the 
streets. The City, however, has not the power to prevent 
a land owner from erecting buildings within the lines of 
the platted but unopened streets. The power to plat and 
thereby hold property in statu quo, is essential to original 
platting and effective City Planning. This power can easily 
be secured by State constitutional amendments, as is now 
in force in England, in some of the provinces of Canada, 
and in Pennsylvania. The wording of the Pennsylvania 
Act of 1891, which has been repeatedly upheld by the Su- 
preme Court of Pennsylvania, and has also been upheld by 
the United States District Court, can readily be recast in 
the form of constitutional amendments, either granting 
the legislative authority to confer such power on cities, or 
giving the power to cities directly. The Act (Act of Penn- 
sylvania of May 16, 1891, Section 12, P. L. 79) is as fol- 
lows : 

"Every municipality shall have a general plan of its 
streets and alleys, including those which have been or may 
be laid out but not opened; which plan shall ))e filed in the 
office of the engineer or other proper office of the munici- 
pality, and all subdivisions of property thereafter made 
shall conform thereto. No streets or alleys, or parts there 
of, laid out and confirmed, shall afterwards be altered with- 
out the consent of councils; and no map or plot of streets 
or alleys shall be entered or recorded in any public office 
of the county in which said municipality is situated until 
approved bj^ councils. No person shall hereafter be entitled 
to recover any damages for any buildings or improvements 
of any kind which shall or may be placed or constructed 
upon or within the lines of any located street or alley, after 
the same shall have been located or ordained by councils.'' 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



23 




• tJADIAL- H IGHWAV5 • 
•LEtACIMG • IA1TO- CAVtMPOOT- 

TO • ACCO^^PAnN BtPOHT- 
CITY PLAAin inG HODPAVEtMPODT- 

•Doacott.SAWlSTOWSKV- ClT-* EtMGI htfrtrO.- 



24 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

Diagonal Streets. 

The ideal City Plan is not unlike a cobweb in general 
appearances, with radiating- avenues leading from the cen- 
ter of town to the outlying districts, and a system of cir- 
cumferential streets, and the intervening spaces filled with 
secondary streets. 

The most admirable design for a city is that made for 
Washington by Major L'Enfant in 1791 at the request of 
George Washington, and while it was ridiculed at the time, 
it has long been acknowledged to be a magnificent and 
inspiring design, worthy of the Capital of a great nation. 
The plan is too well known to need a description — the sys- 
tem of diagonal avenues radiating, has provided small parks 
and sites for innumerable monuments and great buildings. 
The plan, as a whole, would not do for anv other city, but 
I believe all cities should have a few radial streets. The 
ground plan for a city should provide for radial streets. 
Diagonal streets are time savers, and to the extent thai 
they save time in transportation of people and merchan- 
dise, they lengthen the lives and increase the profits of 
the people. 

Traffic Way Up Goose Hollow. 

Plans and estimates for a traffic way up one of the deep 
ravines have been prepared. The construction of this diag- 
onal street could be easily accomplished at a moderate ex- 
pense. The property immediately adjacent to this ravine 
is well built up, but fortunately no important improvements 
have l)een made in this ravine. The expense of cutting 
through this traffic way would be justified, and the saving 
in time to the people using it, would soon pay for it if we 
could apply that method of paying for the expenditure. 
The distance would be shortened more than one-half mile. 
(See accompanying plat) . An easy gradient would be pos- 
sible, not exceeding 4%. 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



25 



^ cnan nst=] cz: CD cz] ciD 



]D 



inn ncJm □ cd □ 



I I I 



[ 




26 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

The proposed boulevard or traffic way up Goose Hollow, 
from the intersection of Eighth and Harrison Sti-eets to 
connect with Hickory Grove Road at the intersection oi 
Locust and Division Streets, would be an immense time 
saver. 

The distance between these two points being- 7600 feet, 
a saving of 2700 feet, or a little more than one-half mile 
over the length of the routes now necessary to follow in 
going from the one point to the other. It is safe to esti- 
mate that this street would be used by as much, if not 
more, traffic than Second Street is. 



Cost and Method of Procedure. 

The City Assessor's valuation of the property to be 
taken for this street is $105,500. Adding 50% to this for 
undervaluation, would bring the damages to property to 
$158,250. Under our present State Laws appraisers would 
be appointed to assess damages and benefits upon street 
opening for the specific land to be used for street purposes. 
It is roughly estimated that under this method of proced- 
ure, only approximately 409^, or $63,000, could be assessed 
upon the district as benefits, and the balance would have 
to be borne by the City. 

Now, if we had the power of Excess Condemnation, the 
City could take not only the specific strip of land needed 
for the street opening, but it could take all the fragments 
of lots left; also adjoining property, such as is necessary 
for the joining together of the fragments of lots into suit- 
able building lots. Then, after the improvement has been 
made, these lots can be sold at a greatly enhanced value, 
due to their frontage on this main traffic street. There 
is no question but what the City would break even on the 
deal. The City would be paying a fair price to the property 
owner, and then, after the impi'ovement was completed, 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



27 




Unsightly conditions existing where houses are faced on the alley 
Alley between Fifth and Sixth Streets, Scott to Ripley Streets, 




House facing alley in \\'est Davenport. 



28 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

the City would reap the benefit due to the improvement, 
and not the individual property owner. 

The City would have to erect three bridges of 80' spans 
each, to carry Gaines, Brown and Warren Streets over this 
proposed traffic way, at an estimated cost of $60,000. 



Size of Lots. 

It is highly desirable that a standard niinmiurii .size of 
lots be adopted for residence properties. The evils arising 
from the platting of lots 20 and 25 feet wide, are apparent 
at a glance. Luckily, the several additions so platted have 
not been extensively developed as j^et, and the houses al- 
ready erected have been built upon two or more of these 
lots combined. If this practice was permitted to continue, 
and the price of the lots such that a workingman could 
not afi'ord to buy more than one for his home, conditions 
would become quite congested. The development would 
be monotonous, as the type of architecture obtainable on 
a 25-foot lot cannot be as pleasing as that on a wider Ijuiid 
ing site. 

The street will be most attractive, where the space 
between houses is sufficient to give plenty of light and air, 
and provide ample room for simple planting. It is highly 
desirable, therefore, that if the size of Icis is to be de- 
creased, it should be done by shortening tlie depth of the 
lot and not the width. 

The width of lot should not be less than 45 feet, and 
preferably 50 feet or more, and the depth not less than 
100 feet. The recommended minimum standard size for 
lots is 50 feet by 100 feet. The size of lots in the "High- 
lands" addition is 50x125. This is a splendid type of de- 
velopment for the workingman's homo. Statistics com- 
piled of 16 cities from various parts of the United States 
show that the size of lots vary all the way from 15x50 feet, 
as the average for Philadelphia, to 200x200 for Syracuse. 
The general tendencies for most of the cities was an average 
lot 50x150. 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPOK l" 



29 



f-OUQTM ST. 





J_4 



li 



THittD sn. 



PLAT 



BLOCK BtrTWtE-n 3"- & 'V"'^ ST5 
CE-DAQ AHD HOWtLL ST S 

SHOfcOlflQ TtMDtMC>( TO tafcCT HOUSE'S OH 
on -TMt atAR OF- U03S l« lltSlPfrMTlAV. StCTlOM 



TO ACCOA-IPAMV QePOClT TO THt 
/^ANOa AMP THE- tlTN COUMCIL 

QobcoEr t. Samistowsk>< Citv tnotncca 



30 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

Where the lots are too long, the tendency is to erect 
houses on the rear of the lot, fronting- on the alley. We 
have only a few instances of this practice in Davenport, 
but as the property value increases, the property owner is 
tempted to increase his revenues by building on the rear 
of his lot. This, no doubt, v/ill become a serious problem 
here, as it has elsewhere. The buildings in the rear tend 
toward congestion and improper building conditions. The 
only remedy is to make the lots shorter, so that the amount 
of money invested in land and improvements will be less. 
There should be lots available for the workingman who 
cannot afford to buy a large lot to l)uild his cottage on. 

Plat on Page 29 shows several houses built on the rear 
of the lots in the block between Cedar and Howell, 3d and 
4th Streets. 

The building of a cheaper class of dwellings on the 
alleys causes an unsanitary condition of affairs that is not 
only prejudicial to the physical, but to the moral healtli 
of localities in which it exists. The shortening of lots will 
no doubt have a tendency to widen them without unduly 
increasing the cost of the land. More streets for frontage, 
combined with fewer and narrower cross, or connecting, 
streets, would enable the land owner to do this without a 
burden on the purchaser, and we would have districts that 
would more nearly retain their value. 

Under present conditions, where a block has been built 
up, we invariably find the same uninviting passages which 
have a depressing effect on property values, as they impel 
Lhe residents to abandon their undesirable houses and move 
out into newer sections. This causes great economic wa.ste, 
it reduces the income of the property owner, and reduces 
the City's revenue from taxation, and svc soon h;Tve, if not 
a slum, at Idst a most uninviting section that is always 
retrogressing-. 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



31 



•TvpicAL ■ e>us\nfcss • pistcict- 

•f-Oun.TH ■ ST.- 




SeCOMO 5T 



TVPICAL DtSlDtnTIAL- BLOCK- 



•Al/-(SUIOaTM ST 



• pLAT^. 
•SHOWI/iG ACEtAS built- UPOAT 

■ IMTHt-BLOCKS IMTHC- BUSl/ltSS • St-CTlOrt APP [}0»\M A-lt- 

LV-aS-^ 0»--TMt LOTIS- BO I LT upon-. CJHILErlrl-IMfc-- 
•at a VDfc-MCt-- OISTtt\CTOMV.^ABO0TZO<^\6'»UlL-T- UPOM.- 



32 CITY PLANNINC; FOR DAVENPORT 

Limiting the Percentage of Lot to Be Built Upon. 

The l^est method of regulating the above conditions 
would be to limit the percentage of the lot the residences 
are to cover, as is done elsewhere. New York has pi'ovided 
that in the residential sections no building shall cover more 
than thirty per cent of the lot from a point eighteen feet 
above the curb. On the lower level it may cover fifty per 
cent of the land with its porches and extensions; above 
that, only thirty per cent. 

The houses on a typical residence l)lock in Davenport, 
where lots are 45x150, cover approximately only 20% of 
the lot area. In our business district the buildings occupy 
an average of 95 per cent of the lot area, as shown on 
Page 31. 

Building Lines. 

We need a law enacted giving Davenport power to es- 
tablish building lines on streets. There are several thor- 
oughfares of importance in Davenport of inadequate width 
to carry the inevitable increase in traffic that will come in 
the near future. While it is undesirable and impracticable 
to widen such streets at the present time, it is highly im- 
portant to prevent the existing open space adjacent to the 
street from being oljstructcd by new l)uildings. 

The establishment of set-bnck lines, or building lines, 
as it is more commonly known, secures a uniform set-back 
of buildings from street lines. That is, the owner must 
locate his building a certain number of feet back from the 
street line. lie may use this front of his lot for any pur- 
pose he may wish, but he cannot ))uild upon it. Some of 
the advantages of establishing a building, or set-back line, 
are: 

In a private residence section a uniform set-back from 
the street line increases the attractiveness of the section 
and adds to the health and comfort of the inhabitants. It 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



33 




PWtLLI AHGHOUat • STAGt- 







j---2o'-;-j;-aH — 2■^■-- 



•APARTntMl MOUSE: STAG Er- 





j-'>-J...,o:l5-r. ..30.-- 





• BUS I/HE-S5 -STAGt • 




TM^ PtVtLGPE-A1tAiT•FDGAl• 
A 50 -f^T QtSIPtAICEr ■ STDfrE-T- 
TG A 90-f-~(BUS\A^l'S3 ■ 5TC C- tT• 
U)^THGUT■tXP^A^St•-T0THL -CITY- 
F-GD- STCE-tTWlD t/MI/MG■THDOUCH• 
-y^^p.^STABLISWI/^G•OF- DUILPI/^G•Ll^^E-■ 



34 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

improves light and air conditions ; makes possible the front 
lawn with trees and shade; removes the dwelling further 
from the noise, fumes and dust of the street. 

Where residences are uniformly set back from the street 
without the establishment of a legally binding building 
line, each owner is at the mercy of his neighbors. A vol- 
untary building line of this kind is often worse than no 
building line at all. A single owner, by disregarding the 
building line may ruin the entire block. It is important 
that the building line be established by ordinance. 

This may not be the same on every street, its distance 
from the street line depending on the character of the 
neighborhood, the depth of the lots and class of buildings. 
A study should be made of the ultimate probable class of 
buildings in each block or district. 

Blocks which are destined to be used for business should 
have no building line restrictions. Other blocks which are 
now residential, and where it is desirable to preserve the 
present uniform set-back, or building line, should be so 
established by ordinance. 

Local residence streets having a building line can be 
permitted a narrower width than could otherwise be al- 
lowed. This reduces development expenses, not only in its 
economy of land, but more markedly in the decreased out- 
lay for paving. With a 10-foot set-back, a standard 60-foot 
street might be reduced to 40 feet. This might be adequate 
for streets under 800 feet in length if developed with single 
family houses. If, later, the single family houses were 
replaced by three or four-story apartments, the street could 
easily be widened to 60 feet to meet the increased traffic 
requirements caused by the more intensive housing. 

Th existence of the building line will permit the eco- 
nomical widening of traffic arteries whenever traffic needs 
require. It introduces a measure of adaptation and elastic- 
ity in ^iirect de,yigi] that io of immense importance in view 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



35 



•PwfrLLI/HG HOU5tST^Gt- 



=^7.^ 




APADTMe-MT- HGUS t STAG t • 



IM 



TT 



o o 






BOSIAitrSS STAGt- 




2JJ- 



THfcPtV EtL GP£-/^b/iT-PDOM- 
■A- 60-F-T- C ErSlPErMCfc STQE-tT- 
•TGA-lOO-f-lBUSlyMtSS- 5TDeE-T- 
•W ITHGUTErXP t/MSE- TGTHErClTY- 
•P0a-3TD.E-E-T- WlDt/HlMG- THBGUGH- 
•THt-E-STABLlSHIMGO?-BUILPIHGLIHt- 



36 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

of the almost prohibitive expense of widening a street once 
laid out and improved. 

The establishing of the building line now is the only 
practical method by which the widening of many traffic ar- 
teries can be secured in the future when greater width vvill 
assuredly be required. These arteries are now i-esidence 
streets. When, however, traffic has so increased that the 
street must be widened, it is more than likely that the 
street v;ill no longer be desirable for private residence pur- 
poses and the private dwellings will be replaced either by 
apartments or by business buildings. 

For example: It is recognized that the ultimate widen- 
ing of Brady Street will be a necessity, from Eighth Street 
to the city limits. Brady Street is 80 feet wide up to Eighth 
Street, narrowing from 70 feet wide at the north side of 
Eighth Street, to 47 feet at Pleasant Street. The time is 
coming when the increased traffic will necessitate a wider 
street, and if buildings are permitted to be erected on the 
present street line, the cost of widening the street at that 
time will be well nigh prohibitive. Steps should be taken 
now to insure for the future the widening, at the least ex- 
pense, ])y establishing a building line of at least 20 feet, be- 
yond which no new Ijuildings should be allowed to extend. 

The few buildings that are now l)uilt out to the street 
line, when they are replaced or reconstructed in the future, 
. would also be required to be set back to the established 
building line. In this way, the expense to the City would 
be at a minimum and the widening made possible, whereas, 
if valuable and expensive buildings are allowed to be built 
fliish with the present street lines it would be prohibitive 
and practically impossible to widen the street. 

If there was an objection to a wholesale establishing of 
a building line all over the City, the property owners on a 
street, wishing to protect themselves, could bring in a peti- 
tion asking for the establishing of a building line on their 
street, and in that way the City government would not l)c 



I 




r' 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 







■v^' .'^i \ ^ 




, S»-20- -B--13- — 



-2.'\ -.- li-ir- - -20- .| 




;• SO-f-T -StnttT- 

•- 20-BU1LD1AK3 Ll/~ie- 









4L 




,-*----23--->---15- 



---<»- 15 -"«• e S- 







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■25'BOILDIAHG LIAit- 



31 



DtCOAIMErHDATlGH- F-GQ.- fc STABLI SH IMG GF 
DUlLPIA1GGI2SE-TE>ACK-LI/ME-S-GAiSTDE-L-T3 

•Gt^VAD.I0U3-U!»PTU3- 
(^ITV-PLA/iAil/IG •^a-"' pAVtnPOCLJ^ 



38 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

taking away what might l)e considered by some as their 
rights and privileges. 

The council should estaV)lish a building line on the more 
important thoroughfares, regardless of the sentiment of 
the property owners, where it is necessary for the future 
widening of the street when tlie traffic so demands, or when 
it is deemed necessary to preserve the attractiveness of a 
street for the good of the City as a whole. 

A proposed law to be passed by the State Legislature, 
authorizing the establishment of l)uilding lines, is shown in 
the appendix. 



DISTRICTING OR ZONING. 

The advantages derived from a reasonable districting of 
the City are many. Every citizen of Davenport would gam 
in health, comfort and convenience, and have the perman- 
ency of his home protected, and, if his business or factory 
is located here, he can be more sure of the value of his 
property, if, as it is legally possible, by securing enactment 
of proper laws by the State Legislature, the City were ]-ea- 
sonably divided up into lestricted building districts. Prop- 
erty values would be conserved, and the City's revenue from 
taxation would not decrease in certain areas, as has been 
the case here in Davnport, where the property values in a 
residential section have been destroyed by the intrusion of 
business establishments. 

"Generally speaking, a building is appropriately located 
when it is in a section surrounded by buildings of similar 
type and use. The maximum land values and the maximum 
rentals are obtained where this segregation and uniformity 
are most complete." Reasonable districting is essential to 
the proper development of Davenport, and for the protec- 
tion of the property owners and citizens who have a right 
to demand thai; adeciuate light, area and occupancy regu- 
lations be imposed throughout the City. 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



39 




Property \alues destroyed by the projection of a building 
bevond the natural hui'ding line. 




Residential i)r(ii)citv \ alues dc^tioycd by the cir K-;;ard ottiie natural 
building line in a block. 



40 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

Berkeley, California, has recently passed a Districting 
Ordinance, creating a basis of classification by means of 
which the City of Berkeley may be divided into districts 
within some of which it shall be lawful, and within others 
of which it shall be unlawful to erect, construct or main- 
tain certain buildings, or to carry on certain trades or call- 
ings. There are twenty-seven different classifications of 
buildings and industrial districts defined. 

The last General Assembly of Iowa enacted a law giving 
cities of the third class authority to establish a restricted 
residence distjict upon petition of 60 9r of the property 
owners residing in said district. Advantage of this Act 
was taken ni Davenport recerjtly, when an Oil Company 
was contemplating erecting an automobile filling station on 
one of our main residence streets. Upon advice, the prop- 
erty owners petitioned that their street be established as a 
restricted I'esidence district. This was done much to the 
consternation of the Oil Company, 

At any time, if the growth of the City should demarid 
it for business purposes, the district, upon petition of 60% 
of the property owners, can have the restiictions set aside. 
A copy of the Act will be found in the Appendix. The ap- 
pendix also contains a copy of the Laws of New York au- 
thorizing the districting and zoning of cities. 



Subdivision of Land. 

The subdivision of land into streets and building lots 
presents the greatest problem of the subdivider. Certain 
principles must be followed to obtain the most desiraiDlo 
lots for building sites. The lightest grades for traffic, as 
well as directness are the essentials governing the street 
lay-outs. Subdividers are united in preferring lots with 
east and west fronts, in preference to north and south 
fronts. 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



41 



^T^h-^^ffi^ 




nrfnrifr 



irl| 



MAP OF PORTION OF NFAV YORK 

Sliowing Building Restrictions. 



42 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

The g'leater number of streets should lead toward the 
heart of the City and not crossways. This big mistake was 
made in laying out New York. The greater numl^er of 
streets were run east and ^^est, assuming that the greatest 
ti'aflic would be from liver to river, whei'eas the opposite 
has happened, most of the traffic being north and south. 

Another important piinciple that should govern a street 
lay-out in hilly topography, is to run streets wherever pos- 
sible, at right angles to the contours of the land and not 
parallel with the contours. A street run parallel with the 
contours along the side of tiie hill, gives poor building' sites, 
one side being \^ay up in the air, and the other side con- 
siderably lower than the street. The most appropriate 
lay-out for streets is where they run at right angles to tiie 
contours of the land. The lots on each side will be approx- 
imately the same elevation, in reference to the street, and 
with a little leveling they provide very desirable building 
sites, each house being a little higher than its neighbor, and 
separated bj' terraces, as they go up the hill. 

In planning the location for the streets in the unplatted 
territory to be annexed, the foregoing has been kept in 
mind. The great majority of the lots will have east and 
west fronts. The north and south streets, leading towards 
town, are planned to be more +'iequent, as they will ))e the 
line of maximum travel, and the east and west streets, 
being spaced farther apart, not to exceed 660 feet, or eight 
blocks to the mile. Where possible, the streets running 
nortli and south have been spaced 16 to the mile, which will 
give a block standard of 270 feet by 600 feet, which, with 
a 20 foot alley through the center longitudinally, will give 
a lot depth of 125 feet, a very desirable depth for a lot. 

Existing streets and rough topography w^ere also con- 
trolling points, to a considerable extent, in planning tiie 
proposed lay-out for the streets in this unplatted section. 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



43 



ARGUnt/^Tf-Oy^'LOCATI/IG St-UtR^- 
CJATtR- AMD•G^5•A1/\lA1<5■\n•THt•^L\-t^<5■ 
■lA15TtAD Of-\AtTHt-6TRttT^- 

THEr P\STArtCt F-OOM THE- RtAQ Of- THt AVE-Q^Gt HOUSfc TO THt 
CtMTE-D LIMfc- Of^ ALLfcV l« THt BIG /iAJOCITV OF CA3Er3 Btl/iG 
SHOCTfe-Q THAM TO THt CtHTfc-n HMEr OF STDttT. 

THt COST OFCOrlMErCTIOrt WOULD THE-OtFORtr Bt COAISID&B- 
ABU^ L t S 3 . 



KH^&^ 



5eu)E-a-^ 




^""-/ 



•stwm I 






■^vtn^Gt LccATto noust 

■0/1 A LOT IZO-f^T OtC P 

c > TV e/Hdi/itm's o^nct 



44 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

Hickory Grove Road. 

This street should be widened to 100 feet and parked 
with a boulevard in the center, similar to Kirkwood Boule- 
vard, +jom Duck Creek to Locust Street, to connect with 
proposed Traltlc Way, running through Goose Hollow to 
8th and Harrison Streets. 



Kirkwood Boulevard. 

Kirkwood Boulevard comes to an abrupt ending- at Brady 
Street. This should be extended straight through to con- 
nect with Sixteenth Street, west of Harrison Street. (See 
illustration on Page 45. 

If the City had the power of excess condemnation this 
project would be perfectly feasi})le as well as profital^le for 
the City of Davenport. Under our present statutes, the 
improvement would cost the City thousands of dollars, 
whereas if we had the proper laws, the City would have the 
power to obtain possession of all the property for one-half 
block either way, at the present value of the property. 
They could then proceed to make the improvement, move 
the houses around to front on the new boulevard, and sell 
them at a greatly enhanced value, due to the extension ot 
the boulevard. This w^ould then give a direct drive through 
what would be a high-class residential section, from Mar- 
quette Street to Fulton Avenue and Jersey Ridge Road, a 
distance of 21/^ miles. 

In the improvement of Kirkwood Boulevard, the oppor- 
tunity for obtaining one of the finest drives in this City is 
presented. 

Kirkwood Boulevard, as now laid out, extends from 
Bradj^ Street to Jersey Ridge Road, a distance of 8,0B0 feet, 
or 1 7-10 miles. Less than one-half of this street is im- 
proved. The portion from Bridge Avenue to Jersey Ridge 
Road, a distance of 4,600 feet, is unimproved. From Brady 



CITY PLANNINCJ FOR DAVENPORT 



45 



•J, 9 



iS 



J.S 







-H«: 



Aavti«a 



l^ 




fi 


O. r^ H, 


U 


So 


lO' 


O 


o 


7- 


O 


^ 


O 


Q. 


y 


V) 


O 


rv 


tt 


S 


S 


5 



Kiivn 



NosiaavM 



46 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

Street to Bridge Avenue, Kirkwood Boulevard is 100 feet 
wide from property line to property line. The parking- in 
the center of the street is 20 feet wide, with a strip of brick 
paving- 20 feet wide on either side, leaving a distance of 20 
feet from curb line to property line. The sidewalks are 
located two feet from the property line, leaving- a wide 
boulevard for planting between the walk and curb. 

It is proposed that the same section (See illustration 
on Page 49), as now constructed, be extended through to 
Jersey Ridge Road. This will necessitate widening- Kirk- 
wood Boulevard, which is now platted, 80 feet wide from 
Bridge Avenue to Eastern Avenue, by acquiring- approxi- 
mately 10 feet on either side to make it a width of 100 
feet. At all angles, curves of ample proportion should be 
used. It is understood that the property owners on both 
sides are willing to deed the City this 10-foot strip, or 
whatever is necessary on either side, to properly widen 
the boulevard to 100 feet. Parcels shaded should be ac- 
quired by the City as soon as possible, before costly im- 
provements are made, and before the land increases in 
value. To bring this street to g-rade ready for paving wiil 
require, approximately, 62,200 cubic yards of filling-. 

The estimated cost of paving Kirkwood Boulevard Is 
$59,166.30, to be either assessed according to our present 
method of distributing the cost over abutting property and 
non-abutting property not exceeding 300 feet, or by creat- 
ing- a special improvement district to cover an area extend- 
ing from Fulton Avenue to Locust Street. In Des Moines 
recently, the Courts upheld the action of the City in estab- 
lishing an assessment district for the opening of a new- 
boulevard similar to Kirkwood Boulevard. 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



47 

















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BOULEVARD IN McCLEF.LAN Ill'-ICHTS 



48 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

RECAPITULATION COST TO CITY. 

62,200 cubic yards filling- @ 30c $18,660.00 

Acquiring- property by condemnation between 

Christie St. and Jersey Ridge road 13,270.00 

Cement sidewalk intersections 432.00 

Total cost to City $32,362.00 

Cost to Property Owners. 

Paving $59,166.30 

Planting trees, etc 1,000.00 

Sidewalks 4,800.00 

Total cost to property owners 64,966.30 

Total cost of impi'ovement 97,328.30 

At present, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad 
crosses Kirkwood Boulevard with a wooden trestle 96 feet 
long. The proposed grade for Kirkwood Boulevard will al- 
low ample clearance below the present railroad grade, which 
will not need to be disturbed. 

Illustration on page 49 shows a suggested treatment of 
the proposed fifty foot girder spans as flat concrete arches. 
When the time comes, the City should require that the de- 
sign and length of spans should be essentially as shown on 
plan. A series of shorter spans would greatly obstruct the 
view aiound the curve which starts on the east side of the 
railroad. 

Illustration on page 47 shows the proposed location of 
Kirkwood Boulevard from Christie Street to Jersey Ridge 
Road and the properties to be condemned. 

The Assessor's assessed values of the properties abut- 
ting along the proposed improvement of Kirkwood Boule- 
vard show a total of $120,160 present assessed value, from 
Vv'hich the City receives taxes on fifty per cent, which would 
be, approximately, $1,200.00 per year taxes. A conserve- 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAXENI'ORT 



44 



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50 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

tive estimate of the enhanced value of these properties 
after improvement would mean an additional revenue to 
the City in taxes of not less than $6,000.00, and this per- 
tains only to the enhanced value of property aljutting, 
whereas such an improvement would enhance value of ail 
property, more or less, confined within the area from Fulton 
Avenue on the south, to Locust Street on the north; from 
Bridge Avenue on the west to Jersey Ridge Road on the 
east. 

It is reasonable to assume that within a period of not 
to exceed ten years, properties within said area would be 
improved and developed and would increase in value bO 
that the City should be receivmg in revenue $10,000 per 
year in taxes. 

As shown in report, the approximate cost to the City 
for improvement outlined is, approximately, $32,000, and 
by investment of this amount as shown by report, the City, 
by receiving the increased revenue derived from such im- 
provement would be reimbursed for same in a short period 
of years, as well as the l^eautifying and improving of a 
lai'ge area of territory. 



Miller Avenue. 

This street opening from High to Henry Streets is 
badly needed in this section, and since the property is not 
built up and only one small house in the road, tiie cost to 
the City would not be large at this time, whereas such 
might not be the case aftei- buildings are built along the 
land to be taken. 



Apportionment of Assessments for Street Openings. 

The proportion (»i' cost in any street widening or exten- 
sion, which should be borne by the City and by the prop- 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



51 




52 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

erty owners, differs according to individual improvements. 
The following is from a paper by Nelson P. Lewis, chief en- 
gineer of the Board of Estimate and Apportionment of 
New York City. 

"We must determine to what extent the benefit will be 
strictly local, m what degree it will extend to a larger trib- 
utary^ area, and again, how much it will mean to the entire 
city or metropolitan district. In the case of residential 
stieets, the puipose of which is to give light, air and access 
to the developments located upon them, the benefit will be 
entirely local, and the entire cost can properly be imposed 
upon the abutting property. When a highway is given a 
more generous width in the expectation that it will be called 
upon to accommodate a certam amount of through traffic, 
the l:)enefit is more extended and the assessment in such 
a case may be prolonged to a line midway between it and 
the next street or more than residential width. The major 
part of the cost, however, should be confined to the abut- 
ting property, so that the cost to it should be somewhat 
more than that of the narro\\er streets. In the case of 
arterial thoroughfares, or in that of the first street to be 
opened through an undeveloped territory, the effect of 
which will be to give access to, and to stimulate the devel- 
opment of a large area, the district of benefit will be corres- 
pondingly enlarged. Again, in the case of thoroughfares 
of exceptional width, ^^'hich it is proposed to treat as boule- 
vards, the entire city or metropolitan district will be sub- 
stantially benefited and should bear a proportion of the 
expense. In fact, the State itself may derive an advantage 
\\hich would justify its assumption of a portion of the 
cost, but the disposition to recognize such an obligation 
on the part of the Commonwealth is exceedingly rare, even 
though a great city within its limits may, through its large 
taxable values, contribute the larger part of the State's 
revenues by which its rural liighway system is maintained. 

In the case of parko, thiu ^amc principle might be ap- 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



53 




niGM 



5T- 



PLAT- 



HI LLtRAVBhUt' 

FROM 

MIGM -ST- To-MICMOLAS- AVE- 
•PROPOStP-OPtMlMGA^D-WIPEA^IAlG- 



ROSCOtr- t SAWISTOWSKY- 



CITY fc-nAiMt-tn- 



54 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

plied. Some small parks are of strictly local benefit, and 
their cost could properly be placed upon the district m 
which they are located. 

In the case of street widening or the cutting- through 
of new streets, the local advantage is less marked, though 
it will always follow. The mere fact that a widening or 
extension is required to accommodate traffic is conclusive 
evidence that the street has assumed more than local im- 
portance. The width of the roadway as widened is not an 
index of its local or general importance. There may be 
cases where the opening of a new street of a width com- 
monly given to local streets and extending for a very short 
distance would, on account of its strategic position, l)e of 
very great general and of little local benefit." 



EXCESS CONDEMNATION. 

Davenport needs badly the power of "Excess Condem- 
nation." This would require an amendment to the State 
Constitution and the passage of proper laws by the State 
Legislature giving cities and towns the power of "Excess 
Condemnation." 

At present we are limited in opening or widening any 
street or boulevard to the precise land needed for the spe- 
cific public improvement. "Excess Condemnation" is the 
taking of more land than is needed for a public improve- 
ment and later the surplusage sold at a profit, due to the 
increased value of the land al)utting on the improvement. 

In the opening or widening of streets there are more 
or less small tracts, or I'emnants left, many of them of such 
shape and size as to be entirely unsuited for the erection 
of proper buildings unless, and until, these remnants hare 
been united with the adjoining properties, generally with 
those in the rear, which are thus enabled to extend out to 
the new line. This re-arrangement is seldom ell'ected, due 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 55 

to the conflicting- interests of the property owners. It is 
often difficult to assess many of these irregular lots, or 
remnants, for benefits, though they often sell for more 
than the original value of the lot. 

* "Excess condemnation is the acquisition through con- 
demnation proceedings by the governing agency, for ex- 
ample, a city, of more land than is actually needed for a 
public improvement, such as boulevard, park, street or 
playground, in order to meet the expense of this improve- 
ment later bj^ the sale or lease of the surplus. The taking 
of too great a surplus of abutting land or property is pro- 
hibited and the subsequent re-sale or lease of such parts 
as are not needed is carefully guarded by restrictions for 
the protection of the improvement, such as regulations de- 
fining the size and shape of lots to be re-platted and the 
type of buildings to be erected thereon. 

This purpose, for which the city claims the land named 
is needed, must be one which will manifestly promote the 
convenience, health, prosperity and general welfare of the 
whole community, in the long run. The demand must not 
be made to serve the interests of a special section or a spe- 
cial class. It must be plainly based on the public welfare, 
interpreting that phrase in the light of the conditions of 
community life at the time. 

By the application of the principle of excess condemna- 
tion, owners whose property is condemned receive full value 
for their property at the time of condemnation, but not the 
improved value. The latter, representing a normal increase 
on an investment of the entire city, accrues to the city, thus 
frequently relieving the taxpayer from any assessment for 
the impi'ovement. 

Excess condemnation not only enables the city to make 
improvements, such as opening new streets, at practically 
no expense to the taxpayer, it also insures the success of 

*City Planning for Newark. 



56 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

the improvement by the proper treatment of the abutting- 
property. Instead of a medley of handsome residences, 
ramshackle tenements and unsightly stores fronting a beau 
tiful boulevard, there are buildings which, by their corres- 
pondence with the whole scheme, ensure its natural devel- 
opment and permanence. In other words, under excess 
condemnation, the improvement is treated as a unit, not 
as an accident. 

Excess condemnation implies, therefore, the city's right 
to profit by its own investments in preference to its exploit ■ 
ation by a few individuals ; permanent l^enefit to the entire 
commiunity with injustice to none; utilization of small and 
irregular plats which otherwise cannot be successfully 
treated; the development of the improvement as a unit 
instead of as a series of unrelated accidents. Excess con- 
demnation is the first and essential step in city planning, 
and the sine qua non of its success. 

In Europe excess condemnation has had a long history. 
By the application of this principle, Paris built the Avenue 
de L"Opera, Vienna the Ringstrasse, and London has car- 
ried through a long series of street improvements dating 
from the completion of Garrick Street in 1861, when 72 9^ 
was realized through the sale of surplus land, to the present 
time. The most notal^le of these achievements was the 
completion of the Kingsway in 1905. This magnificent 
highway, cutting through some of London's most cor.- 
gested districts, connects North and South London through 
the great commercial centers of Holborn and the Strand. 
It was evolved from a "chaos of rookeries," at a cost of 
over $25,000,000, and is likel>- to involve no financial burden 
whatever to the taxpayers, according to the statement of 
the London County Council. This is particularly significarxt 
as it involved the expense of re-housing a large number oi:' 
people of the laboring class. 

This policy of realizing at least a part of the cost of the 
improvement from the sale of surplusage is known as "re- 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 57 

coupment." In all the street improvements initiated by 
the London Council, a varying- per cent of the cost has been 
met by the application of this principle. In one instance, 
the improvement of Northumberland Avenue completed in 
1876, the city made an actual profit of nearly $600,000 over 
the cost of land and improvement. 

New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio 
and Virginia have statutes permitting the exercise of this 
power. Hartford has incorporated a clause in her new 
charter authorizing the practice. In Wisconsin, cities of 
the first class have the right to purchase excess land, but 
not to acquire it by condemnation proceedings. 

Excess condemnation seems not to have been practiced 
in this country, except in the case of the acquisition of 
remnants, and even then always with the pi'opei'ty owner's 
consent. A successful example of the application of rem- 
nant taking was the acquisition by New York City of rem- 
nants of property condemned for the construction of the 
Center Street subway at Canal Street. After building the 
subway and retaining the necessary space for entrances, 
the city sold the property at auction, subject to the ease- 
ment and reserving the space needed for entrances, at a 
price so near the original purchase price that the easements 
and the space for station entrances involved almost a nom- 
mal expense. 

"Constitutional Amendment No. 1, adopted by the voters 
of the State of New York by substantial majority at the 
recent election, makes possible in all cities of the state the 
power of excess condemnation. It reads: 

"The Legislature may authorize cities to take more land 
and property than is needed for actual construction in lay- 
ing out, widening, extending, or relocating- parks, public 
places, highways or streets; provided, however, that the 
additional land and property so authorized to be taken shall 
be no niorc than sufficient to foi'm suitable building sites 
abutting on such park, pul)lic place, highway or street. 



58 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

After so much of the land and property has been appropri- 
ated for such park, pubhc place, highway or street as is 
needed therefor, the remainder may be sold or leased," 

This is based upon the recent Massachusetts Constitu- 
tional Amendment, and will be of tremendous assistance 
in readjusting street systems, constructing adequate bridge 
and other approaches, and in the expansion of parks and 
playgrounds. 

One case in Davenport the street was to be widened by 
the taking of 12 feet off of the front of the lot. A house 
worth $800.00 projected two feet out over the new pro- 
posed street line. Appraisers allowed the owner damages 
of $800.00, the City to take the house and dispose of it by 
auction. If we had had the power of excess condemnation 
the City could have taken the whole property for about 
$1,000.00, had the house moved back on the lot at a small 
expense, and then the City could have probably I'esold the 
property for more than the cost appraised. In the above 
case the City paid $800.00 for the house and sold it at auc- 
tion for $25.00 to a man who moved it onto another lot, 
the property owner getting $800.00 and retaining the lot, 
on which he intends erecting a modern dwelling. 

The following is an example of what occurred in New- 
York: There was property 100 feet deep valued at $11,000. 
The City took 30 feet off of the front of the lot. The owner 
was allowed $11,000 damages. He later sold the remainder 
of the lot for $12,000 after the improvement was com- 
pleted. 



FINANCE. 



The funds required to meet all improvements are neces- 
sarily provided for in one of two ways; either by taxes or 
by borrowing money and issuing bonds. Both of these 
methods have their limitations ; the amount of the bonds is 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



59 



PIAGCAM-SHOWIMG- Atet • l/iPt DTt PAlt SS-OhCITltS INIOWA- 
•ATTHeCL03eOf-- 1916- 

ClAGDA/^-lA^PIC ATE-3/ME-T- IM PtBTeP/HeSSPtHC APIT A,- 



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,20 £5. 




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IHIOWA — 1916- 

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60 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

limited by the statutes establishing the debt limit, and in 
most cases there is a limit placed on the rate of tax. 

Comparing Davenport's bonded indebtedness with othei' 
lov^a cities, we find it is relatively small. 

The present bonded indebtedness of Davenport, includ- 
ing $243,000.00 of Levee Bonds, is only $803,500.00, or 
$16.67 per capita. The limit of legal indebtedness allowed 
is 5% of the total assessed value of taxable property — in 
the City of Davenport, $50,502,860.00. So it would be pos- 
sible for the City to go into debt for public improvements 
to the extent of $2,525,000.00 or an increase of $1,721,- 
500.00 over the present indebtedness. 



TRANSPORTATION. 

Thoroughly economic and satisfactory transportation 
facilities will not be provided in any City until the street 
planning and street railway authorities work hand in hand 
in planning extensions and improvements. Some difference 
in opinion exists among city planners as to which is of 
greater importance, the street or the railway, but it does 
not seem that any City would make much progress if it did 
not have both, and as both are undoubtedly essential, they 
should be considered as directly related and interdependent 
in any scheme of town planning. Street systetms have ex- 
panded more or less arbitrarily without any consideration 
for their practical availability for purposes of general trans- 
portation, and the rapid transit engineers are everywhere 
confronted with extraordinarily complex and costly work in 
providing the transportation facilities now demanded by the 
public. A street car system should not only keep pace witli 
the growth of the City, but it should also keep in advance 
of it. 

Good street car service means not only a sufficient num- 
ber of cars in service, but also the use of the right streets 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



61 




62 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

to give good connections, and that will provide the mini- 
mum points of interference. For rapid transportation there 
should be as few curves as possible. 

There were 14,558,000 paid fares on all the street car 
lines in the City of Davenport in 1917, and 12,827,078 in 
1916. 

It will only be a short time when the City authorities 
cmd the street car company will have to consider plans for 
extending materially the car lines within the City of Dav- 
enport. 



THE GROUPING OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

For economy of administration and no less for civic dig- 
nity, pride and public convenience, a City's public and 
semi-public buildings should usually be grouped around a 
common center. This not only may provide a fine open 
breathing- spot with restful shade and refreshing fountains, 
but vrill give proper perspective to each building-, and while 
providing for concentration of city business, effectually pre- 
vents congestion. 

Realizing in addition that such orderly and dignified ar- 
rangement, while stimulating civic pride, has proved of vast 
commercial value, many cities are paying large sums to tear 
down whole blocks to accomplish this purpose in a worthy 
manner. 

Our present City and County buildings, Postoffice, etc., 
ai'e of ample size for manj^ years to come, so it is not 
deemed necessary at this time to suggest a plan for the 
grouping of Public Buildings, as the construction of new 
buildings is not contemplated. 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



63 




64 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

BATHINC; BEACH. 

In a City the size of Davenport, it is surprising that no 
successful effort has been made to provide a bathing beach. 
Situated on the bank of the mighty Mississippi River yet 
we have absolutely no facilities for this form of sport and 
recreation for the people of Davenport, The so-called bath- 
ing beach at Suburban Island is a poor imitation, badly lo- 
cated down-stream, the water being polluted by the many 
sewers flowing into the river above. Many sicknesses have 
been reported as coming directly from bathing there. Aside 
from the filthy condition of the water, it is dangerous be- 
cause of the swift current, and is unsatisfactory due to 
varying stages of the river. 

The nearest natural bathing beach is at Campbell's Is- 
land reached after a one and one-half hour, ten-mile trolley 
ride. The time and trouljle necessary to reach this place 
makes it unpopular with the majority of Davenporters. 

A bathing beach could easily be constructed down on 
the levee front between Gaines and Scott Street at a nomi- 
nal expense, which would be of easy access to all the people 
of Davenport. This beach, if operated by either the Levee 
Commission or the Park Board, as is done in other cities, 
would be a source of revenue, and would pay for itself in 
two years, if necessary. 

To anyone who has witnessed the activities at the wad- 
ing pools in either Vander Veer or Fejervary Parks, on a 
hot day, it need not be argued that a bathing beach for the 
grown-ups would be populai'. The problem will be to pro- 
vide one that will be big enough to accommodate the 
crowds. 

The cost is estimated at about $50,000, or one dollar 
per capita — a small sum to spend for such a worthy cause. 



66 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

ANOTHER BRIDGE NEEDED. 

The three cities, Davenport, Rock Island and Moline, 
situated as they are, really one unit with opposite frontage 
of several miles on the Mississippi River, and with only one 
way of communication, a narrow bridge allowing only one 
line of travel each way, will need, if not now, in the near 
future, another bridge. An ideal location to best serve the 
business districts of both cities would be from the foot of 
Ripley Street in Davenport to Fifteenth Street in Rock Is- 
land. 

As a general proposition, drawbridges should be so close 
together as to virtually operate as one bridge, or they 
should be so far apart as to permit of a boat or tow ma- 
neuvering between the two bridges, in order to make land- 
ings at Davenport or Rock Island. 

A High Bridge, with long approaches would be the less 
objectionable to navigation interests, and would do away 
with any delays to traffic over the bridge occasioned by 
boats passing through the draw. 

A tunnel under the river bed through solid rock, would 
be feasible, and no doubt less expensive than a bridge, 
which, exposed to the elements, needs constant inspection 
and repairs. 



PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS. 

Davenport has at present eight City owned parks valued 
at $1, 007,500.00 distributed as shown on accompanying map. 
The total area of parks at present is 107. 15 acres, or, ap- 
proximately, one aci e of park for every 500 inhabitants. 

"Study of the sul)ject of piivk ai'eas has led experts to 
announce as a hand "rule of thumb" that the subdivided 
portions of a city ought to have neighborhood parks, if pos- 
sible, not more than one-half a mile from any residence, and 
that this area ought to be equal to 5 per cent of each divi- 
sion of the city. ■ Probably in no city are the parks so dis- 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



67 



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68 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

tributed because too often the acquisition of parks is left 
until the only available land is far from the densely popu- 
lated districts of the city." 

Our present city area is 5625 acres. According to the 
above rule, five per cent of this area for parks would be 281 
acres, or one acre of park for every 200 inhabitants, so at 
the pi'esent date our park area is below the standard. The 
Board of Park Commissioners has well under way the con- 
demnation of Suburban Island for park purposes. This is- 
land has an area of 271.5 acres, and when acquired, the 
total acreage in City Parks will be 378.95 acres, making one 
acre of park for every 140 people, which will compare very 
favorably with other American cities. 



TABLE OF PAPJvS IN OTHER CITIES. 

Population Population per 
Name of City. 1910. acre of parks. 

Kansas City, Mo 248,381 120 

Seattle, Wash 237,194 371 

Denver, Colo 213,381 205 

St. Louis, Mo 734,667 268 

Hartford, Conn 98,915 147 

Lynn, Mass 89,330 84 

Memphis, Tenn 131,105 134 

St. Paul, Minn 214,744 153 

The only criticism of our present Park System is that 
they are not sufliciently scattered, or of sufficient number, 
to serve the whole city. Experts have agreed that one-half 
mile is the distance adults will walk for recreation and 
pleasure, and one-quarter mile the limit that children will 
walk to public playgrounds. 

Using this as a basis two-thirds of the City of Daven- 
port is unserved by park facilities. (See Map). Every 
residence should be within one-half mile of a public park 



70 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

01- open space. Suburban Island will make a beautiful park, 
but it is out of walking distance. Practically everyone that 
will visit this park will have to go by either street car or 
automobile. We should have more small parks scattered 
so as to be within easy walking distance of all our citizens. 

The proposed park along Duck Creek, as suggested by 
John W. Alvord, would add about 340 acres more for park 
purposes. The following is from his report to the City 
Council on the Duck Creek Sewage problem: 

"One of the large problems confronting the City of 
Davenport today is how it may best provide for the rapid 
development of the Duck Creek District; that is, the area 
north of Locust Street and extending across Duck Creek for 
half a mile or more. 

This area is the logical district for Davenport to expand 
into next; it has a beautiful rolling topography and is the 
nearest to the center or business district of any undevel- 
oped area around the outskirts of Davenport. There is no 
doubt but that if it is supplied with sewers and properly 
laid out, this area will quickly become one of Davenport's 
residential communities. 

The town planning of such an area should ))e done after 
a well defined, carefully thought out, and conscientiously ex- 
ecuted general design ; it should not be left to the mercy of 
a large number of incoordinated real estate promoters' 
plans, which would only result in a series of rectangular 
layouts to secure a maximum number of lots without re- 
gard to accessibility, traffic, topography, or the cost of 
drainage or sewage construction. The future more than 
the present should be kept in mind and be the governing 
factor for which improvements should be planned. 

This area presents an unusual oppoi'tunity in street 
planning, and a study of its possibilities shows that pro- 
visions for a long narrow park ^vjth drives and lagoons can 
be usefully laid out on land otherwise valueless for residen 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 



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72 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

tial development on account of frequent flooding from fresh- 
ets in Duck Creek. 

Duck Creek is a typical meandering- prairie stream hav- 
ing flat slopes and ordinarily low velocities of flow. During 
flood it overflows its banks and flows over a flood plain sev- 
eral hundred feet wide. In a plan of development for this 
area, it is evident that attention must be given to the prob- 
lem of handling the flood flows so that the elevation of the 
flood water may be lowered and the flood plain confined to 
a narrow belt along the creek. 

It is impiacticable at this time at least, to build a con- 
duit to carry the flow, and the proV)lem, therefore, reduces 
to how to carry the flood water with the least injury to the 
property and with as little expense as possible. It is be- 
lieved that the creek should be straightened, and in that 
way a steeper grade secured, but even with this increased 
capacity, overflowing of the low land will occur, and it is 
suggested that the city purchase and dedicate a strip along 
the creek about 600 feet in width for park purposes. 

If the city does not purchase this strip of land for park 
purposes, the creek will never be straightened, and grad- 
ually the property owners will encroach upon the flood plain 
until an unusual freshet occurs with consequent loss of 
property and perhaps life. Now is the time for Davenport 
to seize this opportunity. 

It would be practicable to build low dams in the creek, 
which would create lagoons, and with drives flanking the 
creek on either side, a beautiful parkway would be reserved 
for public use. The land cannot be safely used for residen- 
tial purposes, owing to its danger of flooding, and an ex- 
penditure of $50,000 at the present time in this manner 
will enable the City of Davenport to start an outer boule- 
vard and pai'k system which will be a large asset to the 
future residents of this district." 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 73 

APPENDIX. 
PROPOSED LAW AUTHORIZING THE ESTABLISH- 
MENT OF BUILDING LINES. 

An Act, to Authorize the EstabHshment of Building- Lines 
on Streets in Cities Which Now Have, or May Hereafter 
Have 30,000 or More Inhabitants, and to Provide the 
Manner in Which Damages and Benefits May Be De- 
termined and Paid. 

Be It Enacted by the General Assembly of the State of 
Iowa, as follows: 

Section 1. The word "street," as used in this Act, 
means any public highway, esplanade, boulevard, park- 
way, square or street, or any part or side, or part of the 
side, of any of the same. 

Section 2. It shall be lawful for any city now having, 
or which may hereafter have, 30,000 or more inhabitants, 
to provide by ordinance for the establishment of buildin^i- 
lines on any public street or highway. Such building line 
shall be established by the same procedure as that provided 
by law in such city for the acquiring of land for the opening 
of streets. After the establishment of any such line no 
building or other structure shall be erected, I'econstructed 
or substantially repaired, and no new buildings or other 
structure or part thereof shall be re-erected within said 
lines so established. 

Section 3. Whenever and wherever a building line shall 
be established as aforesaid, all structures extending within 
such building lines shall be required to conform to the new 
line within a period of not more than 25 years from the 
time of establishing said lines; such time to be provided in 
the ordinance providing foi- the establishment of such line. 
At the expiration of the time limit in which all structures 
are so required to conform to the new building line, the 
proper municipal authorities shall proceed in the manner 



74 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

then provided by law relating- to condemnation proceedings 
by such cities to remove all structures then within such 
line; provided, however, that all owners of property so 
affected shall receive due notice and hearing in the manner 
then provided by such law in the determination of the addi- 
tional damages sustained by the removal of such structure 
then within the building line. 

Section 4. In payment for the real estate, improve- 
ments and easements to be taken and acquired for the es- 
tablishment of such building lines as are herein provided 
and of the damages sustained thereby, benefits shall be 
assessed and collected in the same manner as provided by 
law in proceedings in any such city for the acquiring of 
lands for the openings of streets. 

Section 5. This Act shall not limit or abridge any 
power now or hereafter conferied by law on such cities to 
estal)lish building hues, or take any property or any intercut 
therein by eminent domain. 



PROPOSED CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT GRANT- 
ING POWER OF EXCESS CONDEMNATION. 

Submitting to the Qualified Voters of the State of Iowa an 
Amendment to the Constitution Thereof Granting to 
the State, Municipal Corporations and Other Political 
Subdivisions of the State, the Power of Excess Condem- 
nation. 

Section 1. Providing for excess condemnation by the 
State, municipal corporations and other political subdivis- 
ions of the State. Be it Resolved by the House, the Senate 
concurring therein: At the general election to be held 

an amendment to the Constitution 

of Iowa shall be submitted to the qualified voters of the 
State in the following words: Whenever the State, a mu- 
nicipal corporation or any political subdivision of the State 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 75 

authorized by law to take private for public use, shall ap- 
propi-iate or condemn any private property for any public 
use whatsoever, or when the State, a municipal corporation 
or any political subdivision of the State authorized by law 
to take private property for public use in furtherance of 
such public use, shall provide for any public work or im- 
provements which shall damage or benefit private property, 
the State, municipal corporation or any political sul)division 
of the Stale authorized by law to take private property 
for public use, may provide for the appropriation in fee by 
the State, municipal corporation or other political subdi- 
vision of pi'ivate property, or any easement or use therein 
in excess of that actually required for such specific purpose, 
under such conditions as shall be prescribed by the Legis- 
lature or General Laws of the State, or as prescribed by 
the ciiarter and ordinance provisions of any such municipal 
corporation operating under special charter, and such ex- 
cess property, or right therein, so acquired by the State, 
municipal corporation or other political subdivision, may 
be sold, leased or otherwise disposed of by it, under such 
terms and conditions as may be prescribed by the laws of 
the State and the charter and ordinance provisions of any 
municipality, corporation oi' other political subdivision, and 
this right of the State, municipal corporation, or other 
political subdivision to acquire and sell such excess prop- 
erty, is hereby declared to be a pul:»lic use; provided, how- 
ever, that such excess shall be condemned, and compensa- 
tion therefor ascertained in the same proceeding, and in 
the same manner as near as may be, as the private prop- 
erty, easement or use actually needed, as aforesaid; and 
provided, further, that the value of such excess shall be 
paid for by the State, municipal corporation, or other polit- 
ical subdivision, as the case may be. 



76 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

PROPOSED LAW AUTHORIZING CREATION OF CITY 
PLAN COMMISSION. 

An Act to Provide for City Plan Commissions in Cities, 
Towns and Villag-es of This State, Which Have a Popu- 
lation of 10,000 or More, Providing Funds for Same, 
and Defining the Powers of Such Commissions. 

Be It Enacted by the Senate and General Assembly of the 
State of Iowa: 

1. That any city, town or village having a population 
of 10,000 or more is hereby authorized to appoint a City 
Plan Commission. 

2. The City Plan Commission shall consist of six citi- 
zens, all of whom shall reside in such municipality, and 
who shall be appointed by the Mayor, each for a term of 
three years; the Mayor, City Eng-ineer and Commissioner 
of the Board of Public Works to be ex-officio members of 
the Commission; provided, however, that in the first in- 
stance two of the appointments shall be for three years, 
two for two years and one for one year. Appointments Lo 
fill vacancies shall be for the unexpired term only. 

3. Such Commission shall serve without pay, and it 
shall be the duty of such Commission to prepare, from time 
to time, plans for the systematic development and better- 
ment of such municipality as a place of residence or for 
business. It shall have the power and authority to employ 
clerks and a secretary, and to pay for their services, and 
to pay for such other expenses as such Commission may 
lawfully incur, including the necessary disbursements in- 
curred by its members in the performance of their duties 
as members of said Commission. 

The said City Plan Commission may consider and inves- 
tigate any subject matter tending to the development and 
betterment of such municipality, and make recommenda- 
tions as it may seem advisable concerning the adoption 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 77 

thereof to any department of the municipal, government, 
and for any purpose make, or cause to be made, surveys, 
plans or maps. 

Before final action shall be taken by any municipality 
or department thereof on the location and design of any 
public building-, statue, memorial, park, parkway, boule- 
vard, playground, public grounds or bridge, such question 
shall be submitted to the City Plan Commission for investi- 
gation and report. 

4. All plans, plats or re-plats of lands laid out in lots 
or plots, and the streets, alleys, or other portions of the 
same intended to be dedicated to public or private use, shall 
first be submitted to the City Plan Commission and ap- 
proved by it, before it shall be recorded. Such plan, plat, 
or re-plat having indorsed thereon the approval of the 
City Plan Commission shall then be submitted for action 
to the Mayor and City Council. It shall be unlawful to 
receive or record such plan, plat or re-plat in any public 
office, unless the same shall bear thereon, by indorsement 
or otherwise, the approval of the City Plan Commission, 
and the Mayor and City Council. The disapproval of any 
such plan, plat or re-plat by the City Plan Commission shalj 
be deemed a refusal of the proposed dedication shown 
thereon. 

5. The City Plan Commission may prepare a plan for 
regulating by districts the height, bulk, area and use of ail 
buildings in the municipality, in the interests of public 
health, safety and general welfare. 

6. It shall be lawful for the board or body having 
charge of the finances of any city, town or village, as afore- 
said, to appropriate money for the expenses of such Cit^ 
Plan Commission. 

The board of estimate and apportionment shall have 
power to regulate and limit the height and l)ulk of l)uildings 
hereafter erected and to regulate and determine the area 
of yards, courts and other open spaces. The board may 



78 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

divide the City into districts of such number, shape and 
area as it may deem best suited to cany out the purposes 
of this section. The regulations as to the height and bulk 
of buildings, and the areas of yards, courts and other open 
spaces shall be uniform for each class of buildings through- 
out each district. The regulations in one or more districts 
may differ from those in other districts. Such regulations 
shall be designed to secure safety from fire and other dan- 
gers, and to pi'omote the public health and welfare, includ- 
ing, so far as conditions may permit, provision for adequate 
light, air and convenience of access. The board shall pay 
reasonable regard to the character of buildings erected in 
each district, the value of the land, and the use to whicli 
it may be put, to the end that such regulations may pro- 
mote public health, safety and welfare and the most desir- 
able use for which the land of each district may be adapted 
and may tend to conserve the value of buildings and en- 
hance the value of land throughout the city. The board 
shall appoint a commission to recommend the boundaries 
of districts and appropriate regulations to be enforced 
therein. Such commission shall make a tentative I'eporc 
and hold public hearings thereon at such times and places 
as said board shall require before submitting its final re- 
port. Said boai'd shall not determine the boundaries of any 
district, nor impose any regulation until after the final le- 
port of a commission so appointed. After such final report, 
said board shall afford persons interested an opportunity' 
to be heard at a time and place to be specified in a notice 
of hearing to })e published for ten consecutive days in the 
City Record. The board may from time to time after pub- 
lic notice and hearing amend, supplement or change said 
regulations or districts, but in case a protest against a pro- 
posed amendment, supplement or change be present, duly 
signed and acknowledged by the owners of tv/enty per 
centum or more of the frontage proposed to be altered, or 
by the ov/ners of twenty per centum of the frontage imme- 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 79 

diately in the rear thereof, or by the owners of twenty per 
centum of the frontage directly opposite the frontage pro- 
posed to be altered, such amendment shall not be passed 
except by a unanimous vote of the board. 

The board of estimate and apportionment may regulate 
and restrict the location of trades and industries and the 
location of buildings designed for specified uses, and may 
divide the city into districts of such num})er, shape and 
area as it may deem best suited to carry out the purposes 
of this section. For each such district, regulations may be 
imposed designating the trades and industries that shall 
be excluded or subjected to special regulations and desig- 
nating the uses for which buildings may not be erected oi 
altered. Such regulations shall be designed to promote the 
public health, safety and general welfare. The board shall 
give reasonable consideration, among other things, to the 
character of the district, its peculiar suitability for particu- 
lar uses, the conservation of property values, and the direc- 
tion of building development in accord with a well consid- 
ered plan. The board shall appoint a commission to recom- 
mend the boundaries of districts and appropriate regula- 
tions and restrictions to be imposed therein. Such commis- 
sion shall make a tentative report and hold public hearings 
thereon before submitting its final report at such time as 
said board shall require. 

Said board shall not determine the boundaries of any 
district, nor impose any regulations or restrictions until 
after the final report of a commission so appointed. After 
such final report said board shall aflford persons interested 
an opportunity to be heard at a time and place to be speci- 
fied in a notice of hearing to be published for ten consecu- 
tive days in the City Record. The board may from time Lo 
time after public notice and hearing amend, supplement or 
change said regulations or districts, but in case a protest 
against a proposed amendment, supplement or change be 
presented, duly signed and acknowledged by the owners of 



80 CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 

twenty per centum or more of the frontage proposed to be 
altered, or by the owners of twenty per centum of the front- 
age immediately in the rear thereof, or by the owners of 
twenty per centum of the frontage directly opposite the 
frontage proposed to be altered, such amendment shall nor 
be passed except by a unanimous vote of the board. 



ACT OF IOWA STATE LEGISLATURE AUTHORIZING 
RESTRICTED RESIDENCE DISTRICTS IN CITIES. 

An Act, Authorizing Cities of the First Class, Including 
Cities Under Commission Form of Government, and 
Cities Under Special Charter, to Designate and Estab- 
lish Restricted Residence Districts and to Prohibit the 
Erection, Alteration, and Repairing of Buildings There- 
on, and Therein, for Certain Prohibited Purposes. 

Section 1. Restricted Residence Districts — Petition. — 
Cities of the first class, including cities under commission 
form of government and cities under special chai'ter may, 
and upon petition of sixty per cent of the owners of the real 
estate in the district sought to be affected, residing in sucii 
city, shall designate and establish, by appropriate proceed- 
ings, restricted residence districts within its limits. 

Section 2. Ordinance, Scope of. — In the ordinance des- 
ignating and establishing such I'estricted residence district, 
every such city is hereby empowered to provide and estab- 
lish reasonable rules and regulation for the erection, recon- 
struction, altering and repairing of l)uildings of all kinds, 
within said district, as well as the use and occupation of 
such buildings; and to provide that no building or other 
structure, except residences, school houses, churches, and 
other cimiliir structures shall thereafter be erected, altered 
or repaired, or occupied without first securing from the city 
council of such city a permit therefor, such permit to be is- 



CITY PLANNING FOR DAVENPORT 81 

sued under such reasonable rules and regulations as may in 
said ordinance be provided. 

Section 3. Ordinance — Violations. Any Iniilding or 
structure erected, altered, repaired or used in violation of 
any ordinance passed under the authority of this act, shall 
be deemed a nuisance, and every such city is hereby em- 
powered to provide by ordinance for the abatement of such 
nuisances, either by fine or imprisonment, or by action in 
the district or municipal court of the county in which such 
city is located, or by both ; such action to be prosecuted in 
the name of the city. 

Section 4. Publication Clause. This act being deemed 
of immediate importance, shall take effect and be enforced 
from and after its publication in the Des Moines Register, 
and the Des Moines Capital, both newspapers published in 
Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa. 



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