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Full text of "Report to the secretary of state for the colonies of the committee appointed to consider the measures to be taken for settling within the empire ex-service men who may desire to emigrate after the war"

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EMPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE. 



REPORT 



TO THE 



SECKETARY OF STATE FOR THE COLONIES 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE APPOINTED TO CONSIDER THE MEASUEES 
TO BE TAKEN FOE SETTLING WITHIN THE EAIPIEE 
EX-SEEVICE MEN WHO MAY DESIEE TO EMIdEATE 
AETEE THE WAR. 



Prcscnkd to both Houses of PdrHamcnt bv ConHiinnd of His IDaicsH 

Aiu/usf, 1917. 




LONDON: 
PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE. 



To be puicliased tlivough any Bookseller or directly from 

H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE at the followins- addresses: 

Imperial House, Eingsway, Londox, ■\V.C.2, and 28. ABixGiKm Stheet, London, S.W.I; 

3T, Peter Street, Manchester; 1, St. Andrew's Crescent, Cardiff; 

28. Forth Street. Edinbuhgii ; / 

or from E. PONSOXBY. Ltd., 116. Grafton Street, Dublin; / 

or from the Ao'enr-ies in the British Colonies and Dependencies, / 

the United States of America and other Foreip'n Countries of 
T. FISHER UNVVIN, Ltd., Londo.v, W.C. 



191T. 



[C(1. 8072.] Price S),l. Net. 



11 






CONTENTS. 



PRELIMINARY NOTE 

REPORT— 

I. INTRODUCTION 

II. LAND SETTLEMENT OF EX-SERVICE MEN 

Government Schemes 

Private Schemes 

III. OTHER OPPORTUNITIES FOR EX-SERVICE MEN IN 
DOMINIONS 



THE OVERSEA 



IV. THE QUESTION OF TRAINING 

V. THE QUESTION OF THE DISABLED 

VI. WIVES AND FAMILIES OF EX-SERVICE MEN ... 

VII. HOW INFORMATION SHOULD BE MADE ACCESSIBLE TO THE TROOPS 

VIII. THE QUESTION OF TRANSPORT 

IX. THE QUESTION OF FINANCE 

X. CONSTITUTION OF A CENTRAL AUTHORITY 

XI. CONCLUSION 

Summary op Conclusions and Recommendations 



Page, 
iii 



2 

3 
11 

13 
13 
14 
15 

18 

19 

20 

23 

27 
2S 



APPENDICES— 

I. Memorandum by Mr. P. Lyttelton Cell on the Finance of Empire Land 
Settlement ?•■ 

II. List of Witnesses 

III. Answers of the Oversea Representatives to Questions Drawn Up ry 
THE Chairman 

IV. List of British Steamship Companies Carrying ['assencjers from Great 
Britain to the Oversea Dominions 

INDEX TO REPORT 



33 
36 

37 

GO 
61 



^ 



Ill ■,,•.. 

PRELIMINARY NOTE. 



The following were the members of the Committee : — 

The Right Honble. Lord Tennyson, G.C.M.G. {Chairman). 

The Right Honble. F. D. Acland, M.P. (representina; the Board of Agricultm-e and 

Fisheries). 
Mr. W. Clive Bkidgeman, M.P., Parliamentary Secretary, Ministry of Labour. 

LOKD BUBNHAM, K.C.V.O. 

Mr. H. H. Fawcett, Assistant Secretary, War Office. 

The Right Honble. Andrew Fisher, High Commissioner for the Commonwealth of 

Australia. 
Mr. p. Lyttelton Gell (representing the British S(Kath Africa Company). 
Sir H. Rider Haggard. 

Mr. John Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia. 
Commissioner D. C. Lamb, Salvation Army. 
The Honble. Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria. 

The Honble. Sir Richard McBride, K.C.M.G., Agent-General for British Columbia. 
The Honble. Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for Tasmania. 
The Honble. Sir Thomas Mackenzie, K.C.M.G. High Commissioner for New 

Zealand. 
Mr. T. C. Macnaghten, Colonial Office. 

Mb. J. L Macpherson, M.P., Under Secretary of State, War Office. 
Major-General The Honble. Sir Newton Moore, K.C.M.G., Agent-General for 

Western Australia. 
Mr. J. O'Grady, M.P. 

Sir S. Olivier, K.C.M.G., C.B., Secretary of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries. 
Lt. Colonel P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec. 
Sir Owen Philipps, K.C.M.G., M.P. 
Mr. J. A. Reid, Agent-General for Alberta. 
Lt. Colonel The Honble. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario. 
Mr. G. H. Roberts, M.P., Parliamentary Secretary, l)oard of Trade. 
Major Sir Thomas Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent-General for Queensland. 
The Honble. Robert Rogers, Minister of Public Works, Dominion of Canada. 
The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, K.C, C.M.G., High Commissioner for the 

Union of South Africa. 
Sir a. D. Steel-Maitland, Bart., M.P., Under Secretary of State for the Colonies. 
The Honble. E. G. Strutt, C.B. 



(«) Page 6, paragraph 29, line 4, should read "lots of 100 
acres at $30 (£6) jjer 100 acres." 

[b] On Page 39, second column, last paragraph but two, fourth 
line, the first sentence should read " The price is §30 (£6) per 
100 acres." 



J90010 



\ 



EMPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE. 



REPORT 



TO THE 



RT. HON. W. H. LONG, M.r., SECRETARY OE STATE EOR 

THE COLONIES. 



L— INTRODUCTION. 

Sir, 

1. We were apjiointed by you to be a Committee with the following terms of 
reference : — 

" To consider and report on the measures to be taken for settling within the Empire 
ex-soldiers who may desire to emigrate after the War. 

To collect and prepare for distribution to intending emigrants of this class infor- 
mation which shall show clearly the nature of any facilities afforded by the Governments 
of the Dominions and States. 

To advise as to the best methods of making this information accessible to the troops. 

To make recommendations as to the steps which should be taken by His Majesty's 
Government in concert with the Governments of the States and Dominions for the consti- 
tution of a Central Authority to supervise and assist such emigration." 

We commenced work in April, 1917, and have now the honour to present the 
following Report. 

Interpretation of Terms of Reference. 

2. We may begin by stating shortly our interpretation of various points in the terms 
of reference set out above. 

• First of all we were informed that the term " ex-soldiers " meant ex-service men 
from both the Navy and Army, and included their wives and children. We also felt 
that vv'e were at liberty to consider the case of their widows and orphans and of women 
who had carried out war service, such as nurses and munition workers. 

Secondly, we understood that our main object was to find out what openings and 
facilities there were on the land and otherwise in the Oversea Dominions for ex-service 
men and women (including those partially disabled), and to put them in the way 
of taking advantage of these openings. 

Thirdly, we conceived that, though it was our business to collect the information 
required as to openings overseas, it was not desired that we should ourselves prepare 
posters, pamphlets, etc., for publication, that being rather the duty of the proposed 
Central Authority. 

Fourthly, we felt that, whilst we were at liberty to suggest methods of dissemina- 
tion of information, we should naturally be guided by the opinion of the Departments 
of the Home (government concerned as to the time at which this information should 
be made accessible to the troops. 

Lastly, we regarded our work as part of the general inquiry now proceeding as to 
the problems of reconstruction likely to arise on demobilisation, and in making our 
investigations have been careful to keep in touch with the Reconstruction Committee 
and other bodies engaged on this great task. 

Procedure. 

3. As our numbers we're somewhat large for carrying out the normal procedui-e of 
a Government Committee, \\'e ajjjaointed two iSub-Committees at our first meeting. 

The first — a General Purposes Committee — undertook the main inquiry as to the 
opportunities for the settlement of ex-service men in the Oversea Dominions. The 
second was ap^winted to consider the inducements for ex-service men to remain in the 

1H77 A 



2 EMPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE : 

United Kingdom after the War in connection -with agricultural settlement and industrial 
opportunities, and their relation to the counter inducements held out by the Oversea 
Governments. 

Both these Committees have held meetings for the examination of witnesses ; a list 
of those who gave evidence, other than the rejiresentatives of the Oversea Dominions, 
will be found in A])pendix II. to this Report. Most of the Oversea representatives 
answered a series of questions drawn up by the Chairman on various matters affecting 
our enquiry. The questions and answers are printed as Appendix III. 

4. We wish to take the opportunity of thanking these various witnesses for the 
time and troid)le spent in assisting us. We appreciate it the more because the work 
has often — in fact generally — been <loue in spite ot the heavy pressure of other duties 
connected with the War. 

Change of Outlook Towards Emigration. 

5. In the course of our investigations we have been greatly struck by the profound 
change which has taken place recently in the attitude of the people of the United 
Kingdom towards emigration. Not long ago it was regarded as more or less a necessary 
evil, which, during times of stress resulting from unemployment, was tolerated as a 
National convenience. Small account was taken of the fact that to it was largely due the 
rise of those Dominions and Colonies which to-day constitute the British Empire. If a 
subject of the Crown ch ise to leave these shores, it was a matter of comparative 
unconcern to the Home Government whether he settled elsewhere under the flag or 
in some foreign counti*y. As a result millions of men of British birth or parentage have 
become citizens of other lands. Only within the last few years have the problems of 
po{)ulation begun to be stmlied in the light of Imperial necessities. 

6. Since the outbreak of war, I'rom every part of the Empire the children or grand- 
children of those whose enterprise or needs caused them to leave the United Kingdom in 
past years have rallied to the support of the f.mpire in this day of decision and struggle 
for existence. They have risked their fortunes with those of the Mother Country. 
They have shed their blood with her blood. They have shown that, though seas separate 
the Empire, and, in some resjiects, the interests of one part may differ from those of 
another, it is still one and indivisible ; that together we stand, or together we fall. 
In short, it has come to be understood that the man or woman who leaves Britain is not 
lost to the Empire, but has gone to be its stay and strength in other Britains overseas. 
The only risk of losing such an one is when the new home is shadowed by some 
other flag. 

7. In our opinion, henceforward no part of the Empu-e must consider emigrati(jn 
strictly from the point of view of its own interests and needs. The Mother Country 
may not wish to lose its men and women ; it will naturally prefer to retain them, if it 
can provide them with suitable means of livelihooil. But, if the men and women wish to 
go, and if (»])portuiiities are lacking at home, the Home Government shouM helj), not 
hindei', them on their v/ay to other parts of the Empire. So, too, the Dominions should 
not desire to ])ursue a policy calculated to deiuidc the Mother Country of the popu- 
lation whicih she needs. But they will welcome those whom she is able to spare, and 
give them every chance of success in a new and wider life. Barf icniarlv, we are sura, will 
they rejoice to receive the men who have fought the Empii-e's battles in this war, who 
are the best of the British race. No settlers could be more d(>sirable, both as rco-ards 
themselves and their progeny, which may well be of priceless worth in the now unpeopled 
districts of the Empire overseas. 

8. It has seemed to us, then, that a new departure in our emigration system is needed, 
if it is to be looked at, as it ought to be, from the standpoint of the Empire as a whole. 
Individual interests nmst be subordinated, and eo-openitive action is needed. We iiave 
tried throughout this Report to study how this co-operation can best be achieved. 



II.— LAND SETTLEMENT FOR EX-SERVICE MEN. 

9. We proceed at once to consider tiie opporttuiities offering to ex-service 
for settlement on the land. We do not consider that it is correct to regard 
opportunities at home and in the Oversea Dominions as in anv wav antagonistic. 
They are really parts of the one great policy for settlement within tlie Empire, not 
two different and opposing schemes. 



nu^n 
~ueh 



EEPORT. 



GOVERNMENT SCHEMES. 
United Kingdom. 

10. We have been greatly impressed with the evidence given to us by all those 
acquainted with ovei'sea conditions as to the interest taken by the Self-governing 
Dominions and States in the development of agricultural settlement at home. It is 
true that, in times past, town-bred emigrants have shown a capacity and adaptability 
for agricultural life overseas which has proved of the highest value, and we see every 
reason to suppose that this happy state of alFairs will continue. The fact remains that 
the Dominions still look largely to the agricultural districts of the United Kingdom 
for the supply of emigrants of the type they require. They recognise that before 
the War the available resources were dwindling and they are anxious to see them 
replenished : they feel themselves, therefore, to have a direct interest in the new agri- 
cultural policy now being thought out by the Home Clovernment, and they would 
welcome well considered measures taken to increase the agricultural population of these 
Islands. It is in the interests of the Ovei'sea Domininns that the Empire should not be 
weakened at the heart, and that the Mother Country should continue to provide the stock 
from which their future citizens should be drawn. We feel it our duty to emphasise this 
point, as it is one perhaps not generally realized. 

11. The plans for the employment and settlement of ex-service men on the 
land in England and Wales are, in brief, as follows : — 

So far as employment is concerned, the only proposals so far disclosed ai'e : 

(«) The establishment of a minimum wage of 25s. per week for agricultural 

labourers. 
{b) The guarantee of a minimum price for wheat and oats from 1917 to 1922. 

These are embodied in the Corn Production Bill now before Parliament. 

It may be assumed, however, that if grass land to anything like the extent of 
the 3,000,000 acres desired is ploughed up, there ' will be a demand for agricultural 
labourers, both skilled and unskilled, largely in excess of the numbers employed before 
the War. 

12. As regards settlement, legislation has been passed* enabling the Board of 
Agriculture and Fisheries to acquire land for a small number of experimental small- 
holding colonies in England and Wales up to a maximum of 6,000 acres in all. These 
colonies are intended primarily for ex-service men.f Up to the present land has been 
obtained for two such colonies, 1,600 acres at vSunk Island, near Patrington, in 
Yorkshire, and 1,000 acres near Holbeach, in Lincolnshire. The remaining sites have 
still to be selected. When the scheme is complete it is expected that provision will 
be made for 240 men or (including their wives and families) 1,200 persons. Preference 
will be given to those whose wives and daughters have, as the result of their employ- 
ment on the land either before or during the War, acquired proficiency in milking or 
other farming operations. 

13. Selected applicants without previous experience will be given preliminary 
trainino- on a central farm under the supervision of the Director of the colony, receiving 
a fair living wage until they are considered capable of taking up land for themselves. 
The Government do not propose to make direct advances of capital to men desirous of 
taking up holdings, but endeavours will be made to establish a system of co-operative 
credit. Cottages will be built for the settlers, and the rent paid for the small holdings 
will be calculated accordingly. 

14. The experimental scheme is on a very small scale, and it is not expected, 
under present conditions, that it will be self-supporting. We are informed, however, 
by the Board of Agriculture that they have in view proposals for obtaining land for the 
settlement of ex-service men on a large scale. 

15. In Scotland the Board of Agriculture for Scotland are empowered under the 
Act already mentioned* to acquire an aggregate area of 2,000 acres of land suitable for 

* 6 and 7 Geo. V., Ch. 38. 

I We desire to make it clear that these colonies are not, as is often supposed, primarily intended 
for disabled men. 

1U7T A'2 



4 EMPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE : 

experimental small -holdings colonies, primai-ilv intended for ex-service men. Of this 
area, three-fourths are to consist of arable land. The Board are now making enquiries 
as to suitable land. 

The Board are also considering a suggestion for utilising rural villages where small 
areas of suitable land are available for intensive cultivation and satisfactory building 
accommodation already exists. 

The Duke of Sutherland has presented to the nation the farm of Borgie. in the 
County of Sutherland, with the buildings thereon. The disposition of the property will 
be under the Board of Agriculture for Scotland. 

A condition of the gift is that the farm should be used for the settlement of sailors 
and soldiers wlio have volunteered without compulsion and have a good record of 
foreign service.* One half of the holdings are to be allotted to sailors. 

The farm extends to about 12,200 acres, of which 200 acres are arable or can be 
reclaimed. It is proposed to form 20 holdings, each of an arable area of 6 acres, with an 
outrun and a common pasture. 8,000 acres are reserved for afforestation. 

Canada. 

16. It is essential to make it clear at the outset, that there are several Government 
authorities dealing with Crown lands in Canada. The Dominion Government 
controls such land in the Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, and in a 
portion of British Columbia. Elsewhere Crown lands are under the control of the 
respective Provincial Govermneuts. The Dominion and most of the Provincial Govern- 
ments maintain immigration machiner}' of their own both locally and in the United 
Kingdom. 

17. For the most part the schemes so far preparcl for the settlement of ex-service 
men are inde)>endent of one another. We are officially informed, however, that it is 
the intention of the Dominion Government to render the financial assistance described 
in ]\aragraph 19 below to approved ex service men located on other than Dominion 
lands in any Province in the Confederation. 

DOMINION LANDS. 

18. It is well known that, for many years past, the Dominion Government 
has been opening up the land in the Prairie Provinces (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and 
Alberta) by the system of " homesteading," i.e., by the grant, in the majority of 
cases, of 160 acres of land free of cost, subject to certain conditions as to occupation and 
improvement. In order to provide for ex-service men the Dominion Government 
proposes to reserve large areas of land in the three Provinces in question, for settlement 
on similar lines but under special conditions. 

19. These conditions may be summarized thus : — 

The administration ot the reserved hinds will be in the hands of a Settlement 
P)oard consisting of three members possessing an intimate and [mictical knowledo-e 
of Western Canada and its farming conditions. It is intended to grant to suitable 
and approved ex-service men 160 acres of Crown lands each, free of charge. The classeis 
entitled to partiin])ate include hnnouraljly discharged ex-service men from the Forces of 
Canada, the United Kingdom, and any of the Self-governing British Dominions, and 
the widows of sailors and soldiers from those parts of the Empire whose iuisbands 
died while on active service. The Settlement Board will be empowered to graiif a loan 
of .$2,0(10 (.i!-100) to each approved ap])licant, to be spent in erecting a house, purchasino- 
implements anrl stock, and generally in preparing the land for settlement. This loan will 
be a first mortgage ui\ the homestead. It will be advanced at a low rate of interest 
(5 per cent.) and will have to be rej)aid within tiftcen years. The first repayment may be 
defended for two or three years alter the settler has entered upon (he land at the 
discretion of the Settlement Boai-d. 

20. It should be clearly understood that applicants for land or loans nuist have previous 
farming experience before they can be consiclered iTigible. Intending settlers amono-st 
ex-service men who do not already ])ossess such experience can, however, be tilaced for 
training u])on the Demonstration Farms of the Dominion or IVovincial Governments or 
they can be placed with selected and approved farmc rs through the existing organisation 
of the Governments. In cither ease they would be employed at the current rate of wao-es. 



* Preference ia to be given to men in good physical condition ; but partially disabled men will 
not be altogether excluded from consideration. 



KEPORT. a 

It is auticipated that in two years they wouhi obtain sufficient practical knowledge of 
agricultural methods to enable them to apply with success to the Settleraent Board. 

21. The Prairie Provinces are muinly noted for wheat cultivation. Mixed farming, 
however, is on the increase. 

NEW BRUNSWICK. 

22. Legislation was passed by the New Brunswick Parliament in the session of 
1916,* authorising the Provincial Government to take the necessary steps to develop a 
comprehensive system for settling upon suitable lands in New Brunswick residents of the 
Province who have served overseas, and also residents of the United Kingdom who have 
served the Empire in the present War. The scheme is to he carried out by the Farm 
Settlement Board of the Provincef working in conjunction witli an Advisory (Settlement 
Board appointed for the purpose. The present intention is to establish community 
settlements, for which purpose an area of ^0,000 acres has already been set aside near the 
National Transcontinental Railway ; further areas will be set aside if required. 

23. In the centre of each of the settlements, which are intended to accommodate from 
100 to 250 families, there will be a Demonstration Farm managed by the Provincial 
Government, where teams and implements will be available for hire, and where a church, 
public hall, school, etc., will be erected. Radiating from this centre will be farms varying 
in size from 10 to 100 acres accordino- to the distance from the centre. The cost of these 
farms will vary : if thev ai'e on Cro^m lands, the price will be governed l:)y the actual cost of 
improvements (i.e., clearing, boring a well and the erection of a small house, &c.) 
estimated at from $500 to $1,500 (iBKH) to £300) ; if they are on lands resumed by the 
Government, the cost of resumption must be added. 

24. In both cases 10 per cent, of the cost must be paid on application, and the 
balance may be spread over twenty years. Settlers must reside on their farms for at least six 
months of each year, and cannot transfer their rights without the approval of the Advisory 
Settlement Board. Ex-service men intending to join one of these settlements must make 
application to the Secretary of the Farm Settlement Board, St. John, New Brunswick, 
stating inter alia what previous experience and what capital they possess. The possession 
of capital of .$500 to $1,500 (£100 to £300) is very desirable if the sertler is to succeed, 
though not essential. Until the scheme is developed, ex-service men desirous of 
participating can obtain employment in preparing the holdings. 

25. Ex-service men possessing capital of their own who wish to settle in New 
Brunswick, but not to join in a community settlement, can purchase a farm in other parts 
of the Province from the Farm Settlement Board. A capital of $1,500 to $2,000 (£300 
to £400) is desii-able. Employment could also be found for men without capital on 
farms in the Province. 

26. Dairying, fruit-growing, and potato cultivation are the main branches of the 
agricultural industry in New Brunswick. Pastoral industries also are being developed. 



27. 



NOVA SCOTIA. 

No special legislation has yet been passed by the Nova Scotia Parliament to deal 
with the settlement of ex-service men from Canada or other parts of the Empire. It is 
understood, however, that the Provincial (xovernment is prej^ared to give the matter 
further consideration when the policy of the Dominion Government has developed. A 
special pamphlet has been prepared entitled " What Nova Scotia Offers Returned Soldiers." 
From this it appears that, whilst most of Nova Scotia has long been settled, and there is 
comparatively little Crown land available, there are a large number of farms owned by 
private persons which are now being offered for sale. The prices of these farms vary 
from $600 to $15,000 (£120 to £3,000). A minimum capital of $1,500 (£300) is 
thought necessary to enable a returned soldier to succeed as a farmer in Nova Scotia, and 
agricultural experience is advisable. The Government will assist in the selection of a 
farm, and will also advancej to those possessing the necessary qualifications up to $2,500 
(£500) on the appraised value secured by mortgage. The Government will also assist 
returned soldiers without agricultural experience to obtain employment on farms in the 
Province. 

• 6 Geo.' v., Ch. 9. 

t Appointed under 2 Geo. V., Oh. 28. 

X Under the Act for the Encouragement of Settlement on Farm Lands. 

1147T A 3 



6 EMPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE '. 

28. Farming in Nova Scotia is of a mixed character, including fruit-growing, 
dairying, and stock raising; oats, hay, and roots are also largely grown. 

QUEBEC. 

29. -In Quebec also no legislation has been passed for the settlement of ex-service 
men from Canada or other parts of the Empire, but the facilities available under the 
ordinary law would be open to them. In this Province, land is (jffered to the settler in 
lots of ] 00 acres at $30 (£6) per acre. Payment has to be made in five years, during which 
time the settler must reside on his holding, build a house (which must be completed in 
the first eighteen months), put up a barn, and clear 15 acres. The land in the Province most 
easily accessible for settlement is on, or near, the new National Transcontinental Line. 
Much of it, however, is heavily timbered, and, generally speaking, it is thought that its 
clearing and development are better entrusted to native-born Canadians than to 
emigrants. The Government would help new arrivals in obtiiining work on farms, so that 
they can get accustomed to the climate and acquire the necessary experience. 

ONTARIO. 

oO. The main part of Ontario now open for settlement is what is known as the 
" Clay Belt" in the northern jiart of the Province, lying near the line of the National 
Transcontinental and the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Ptailways. Under the 
"Public Lands Act" a free grant of 160 acres can be obtained in this area, subject to 
certain conditions as to clearing, cultivation, and residence. Under an Act passed in 
1916* bona fide settlers can obtain assistance up to $500 (.£100) by way of a loan 
from the Provincial Government. This bears interest at 6 per cent, and is repayable 
within ten years. Ex-service men from the Canadian Forces, as well as those from 
the United Kingdom and any of the Self-governing British Dominions, who possess 
the necessary agricultural experience, can obtain the benefit of those provisions. 

31. For those who have not such experience it is proposed to provide training and 
community settlements on the following lines : — 

The men will be sent to an agricultural training depot established on the 
Government Experimental Farm at Monteith. There they will be provided with living 
accommodation and lioard whilst being instructed, and will also be paid a reasonable 
wage. When a sufficient number have been trained, a farm colony will be estal)lished 
along the line of one of the railways, to which the men will be moved. They will at 
first be housed in the Central Community, and their labours will be directed to clearing 
the land and preparing it for cultivation. Then each mim will be given, free of charge, 
an 80-acre farm (of which 10 acres will be cleared), and will be lent up to $500 (£100) 
for machinery, stock, &c., to be repaid in twenty years. The co-operative method will 
obtain in carrying out the work connected with the colony, and the social side of life 
will be jirovided for. Provision will be made at as early a date as possible for married 
men to have their families with them. The possession of some capital is desirable, 
though not absolutely essential. 

S2. A considerable portion of the Ontario Clav Belt is timbered, but in most 
cases the proceeds of the sale of the timber cover the cost of clearing. Ro(,t crops 
and hay are mainly grown. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

3."). Li British Cohnnbia an Act was passed in 191 ()f making s|)ecial |)rovision for 
the settlement of ex-service men who have lived in liritisli Columbia and have seiwed 
in the Canadian Forces, or the Forces of any other |)art ol' the Empire, iiiid return to a 
domicile in British Columbia, including the widows of men who, if tlicv had liveil, would 
have been entitled to the benefits of the Act. 

3-4. On duly ord, 19 16, the then Prime Minister of British Columbia wrote to 
Sir Rider Haggard informing him that the Government was ])repared "to extend to all 
United Kingdom ex-service men and their families advantages as rcards hiiid settlement 
and otherwise simdar to those we give to our returned Canadian soldiers." He added 
that he would be prepared to introduce at the next session of the I.egislature such 
measures as might be necessary in this r(s|„ct.J Since the date of this letter a new 



• Act No. KM) of r.tlC. 

t G Geo. v., Ch. 5i). 

j See p. 28 of Sir R. Haggard's lii^Hni to iln. Koyal Colonial Institute. 



REPORT. i 

Government has come into office. We were informed, however, by the Acting Agent- 
General for British Columbia that he understood it was still the intention to introduce 
legislation on the lines indicated to Sir Rider Haggard, though he was not aware of any 
such legislation having been passed. 

35. Under the Act to which we have referred, ex-service men can obtain on the 
payment of $10 (.€2) a pre-emption claim to land, the area of which, and the provisions 
as to residence, will be fixed by regulation ; it will be free of all taxation except school 
taxes. Provision is also made for the establishment of a fund from the sale of Crown 
lands, which will be available for making loans to returned soldiers to be used in making 
improvements on their pre-emptions, etc. This fund will be administered by the 
Agricultural Credit Commission of Bi'itish Columbia. 

36. A large part of the land in British Columbia is timbered. There is, however, an 
extensive fruit-growing industry, and, in certain parts, mixed farming on a considerable 
scale. 

Australia. 

37. The Crown lands in Australia, with the exception of those in the Northern 
Territory and the Federal Capital site, are all under the control of the State Governments, 
which also maintain immigration machinery of their own, lioth locally and in the 
United Kingdom. On the other hand, the Commonwealth Government has an organisation 
in the United Kingdom for making Australia known as a field for immigration, and it 
has also certain specific powers with regard to immigrants generally. 

At successive Conferences between the Commonwealth and State Authorities, the 
first steps have been, taken towards the establishment of a comprehensive scheme to 
enable ex-service men to take advantage of the offers of land made by the States, and 
we are informed officially that the Commonwealth and State Governments have decided 
to give exactly the same facilities for British soldiers as for Australian soldiers desiring to 
settle on the land. 

38. The scheme has not yet been fully matured, but the idea is, in a word, that 
the Commonwealth will find the funds (estimated at £22,0(30,000 in all\ and the States 
the necessary lauds, whilst a joint Board, consisting of a Mmister for each State and 
a Commonwealth Minister, will supervise operations. " The Board will recommend 
advances of money to soldier settlers ; decide upon the purposes for which such advances 
may be made ; fix the rate of interest and method of repayment ; and deal generally 
with matters concerning the scheme. The advances will be made at reasonable rates ; 
each settler will be allowed an ndvance up to the full value of his improvements. In 
this way the capital which each settler must possess of his own will be reduced to a 
comparatively small figure. 

39. The facilities offered by each State must now be considered independently 
of, but subject to, the above proposals. 

NEW SOUTH WALES. 

40. In New South Wales, legislation was passed in 1916* for the settlement of 
returned Australian soldiers on the land, and with this object in view certain areas of 
Crown land have been made available, and a number of privately-owned estates resumed. 
The State Government has promised to extend that legislation, under certain limitations, 
to discharged British soldiers, and has already undertaken to provide 1,000 farms in the 
Yanco Irrigation Area on the Murrurabidgee River for which British soldiers, who have 
been engaged in the War, will be given preference. 

41. These 1,000 farms will vary in size from 2 to 250 acres, although the average 
size would be about 50 acres ; the land is suitable for fruit-growing, dairying, and mixed 
farming. The tenure is perpetual lease, the rent being 2,^ per cent, of the capital value, 
besides water rent, and carrying with it the hope of conversion to a freehokl. Advances 
may be made by the Government up to three-quarters of the holder's interest in the 
improvements for the purpose of (I) paying off debts due to the Crown, (2) paying off 
encumbrances upon the land, (3) building a house, or making other improvements on 
the holding. During the initial stages of settlement, before the land has become 
productive, the Government is empowered to suspend the payment of rent and other 
charges. The possession of capital, though very desirable, is not absolutely essential ; 

• Act No. 21 of 1916. 

11*77 A 4 



8 EMPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE : 

the possession of £50-100 shoul<1, with the assistance of a loan from the State, place a 
man in an assured position. But previous experience on the land, for a period of six 
months, at the least, is necessary ; ex-service men can obtain this either by going to 
private farms or by working at the (Tovernment farm at Griffith in the Yanco Irrigation 
Area, or otiier Government establishments. At Griffith they will receive pay whilst 
gaining experience ; at present, hoM'ever, the scheme is in its infancy, nnd oulv offers 
accommodation for a limited number of persons. 

VICTOKIA. 

42. In Victoria the facilities which will be offered to ex-service men in connection 
with the land have not been finally decided upon ; but a Bill which indicates generally 
the policy of the Government has been introduced into the State Parliament, and action 
is already being taken on the lines which the measure lays down. All the advantages 
which the State gives to returned Australian soldiers as regards land settlement will be 
extended to ex-service men from the United Kingdom, provided they have been selected 
in England in an approved manner. 

43. Under the proposed scheme, land, chiefly in irrigation areas, will be offered. 
For such land the settler must ordinarily pay a deposit of o per cent. on. the capital 
value, and make subsequent payments at the rate of 6 per cent, per annum for thirty-one 
and a-half years to cover interest and purchase money. In the case of ex-service men, 
however, no payment of deposit, rent, or fees will be required for the first three 
years. Advances on improvements, repayable over a long ])eriod on easy terms, will 
be made up to 70 per cent, of their value, with a maximum of jBoOO ; and in special 
cases a house may be built for a settler, the cost being included in the advance. 

44. An experienced agriculturist desiring to obtain an irrigated flirm of 40 to 
50 acres should possess at least £oOO. A limited number of ex-service men will be 
admitted to a course of training at the Dookie Agricultural College ; others must 
obtain employment on farms so as to acquire the requisite agricultural experience under 
local conditions before taking up land. 

QUEENSLAND. 

45. In Queensland the "Discharged Soldiers Act of lit 17*" jirovides facilities as 
regards land settlement for " Discharged Soldiers " — that term including ex-naval and 
military men from the United Kingdom, and in certain cases their widows, mothers, 
sisters and children. Crown lands and lands resumed by the Government for the 
purpose will be ottered for selection by them on the " perpetual leasehold " system. 
No deposit will be paid, and no rent for the first three years ; after that the survey fees 
will be payable by ten annual instalments, and rent will be paid. In the case of Crown 
lands the rent will be 1 J per cent, of the capital value of the land (which ranges from 
10,s. to nOs. per aci'e with an average of 25,9.) ; in the case of acquired land the value will 
depend on the amount paid by the Government for resumption. At the end of the 
fifteenth year, and of each subsequent fifteenth year, the rent will bo determined by the 
Land Court. The lease will contain provisions as to residence and the making of 
improvements. The size of the farms will depend on circumstances. For poultrv farms, 
10 acres will be sufficient ; for fruit farms, 25 acres ; for general farming, 100 acres ; 
for dairy farms up to 1,280 acres. 

46. For pn^pai'ing and stocking a farm and erecting buildings a sum not 
exceeding £500 will be necessary ; advances to that amount can l)(! obtained from the 
Government Savings Bank, repayable by instalments spread over ibrtv years. In the case 
of Crown lands the rate of interest for the first year is 8 per cent., during the second 
year 4 per cent., and increases ^ per cent, each succeeding vear until the limit of 
5 per cent, is reached. Any money spent by the Government in eliecting permanent 
improvements will b(> inclndetl in that sum and treated as money borrowed by the settler. 
Previous experience will be necessary. This can be obtained cither at "the ti-aining 
farms which the Government intend to set up on the \arious .settlements, or by <>oiny 
to work on other farms for a year or two. 

47. Upwards of 60,000 acres have already been set apart for group settlements of 
discharged soldiers. Further areas will be set a])art as required,' but much of this 
will necessitate the construction of railways to make it available, and this work cannot be 
undertaken until after the War. 



No. a-J of 1'.I17. 



REPORT. 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



48. In South Australia an Act was passed iu 1915,* making provision for returned 
Australian soldiers who wished to settle on the laud. Since then, the State has joined the 
joint Coninionwealth and State scheme referred to in paragraph 38, under which ex- 
service men from the United Kingdom and other parts of the Empire may equally benefit, 
and, to give effect to this, further legislation is proposed. 

49. The Government has already set apart for ex-service men two large blocks of 
land situated north of Adelaide, the Mount Remarkable Estate near Melrose, and the 
Mount Crawford Estate near Gawler. These had been repurchased for closer settle- 
ment and are suitable for wheat and fruit-growing and for grazing. Some irrigation and 
swamp lands on the banks and flats of the River Murray are also ready for inunediate 
settlement by ex-service men ; other such lands in considerable areas can be made available 
if the State is able, on the conclusion of the War, to obtain at reasonable rates the loan 
money required for preparing these lands for settleuient. This remark also applies to con- 
siderable areas of rich lands in the south-eastern portion of the State, which only require 
to be drained to enable them to support a successful settlement. The Government has 
established farms on the repurchased land and the irrigation areas for the training of 
ex-service men who have not had previous experience. There are also very large areas of 
ordinary Crown lands, suitable for wheat-growing, which can be purchased on very easy 
terms both as regards purchase money and interest. For the successful occupation of 
these lands, it is very desirable for the would-be settler to gain suitable experience by 
working for some time on a farm comprising similar land. Some capital is desirable in 
all cases. 

50. Liberal advances will be gi\'en in respect of improvements effected such as 
clearing, buildings, &c., and the repayment will be spread over a great number of years. 
The piu'chase money for the land will be payable on similarly easy terms. The 
settlers' h(jldiugs will vary from a few acres upwards, according to the purpose for which 
the laud is suitable. 

WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

51. In Western Australia, the Government are specially reserving land in the 
" Wheat Belt " (betweeu Geraldton and Albany, east of the Darling Ranges) and in 
the " South West'' (between Perth and Albany) for selection by all persons who have 
been on active service in His Majesty's Naval or Military Forces, and their dependants. 

52. As to the land in the " Wheat Belt," an intending settler may select 160 
acres, subject only to the payment of the survey fee, and any money the Government may 
have expended on prelimniary improvments (the rej^ayment of which may be spread over 
a period of thirty years,). He may also purchase 840 acres at 15s. per acre— -1,000 acres 
being considered the minimum size for a wheat farm. For such a farm a capital of £500 
is advisable, but some of this can be borrowed from the Agricultural Bank. The settler 
must reside on his holding, and execute certain improvements each }ear. 

53. As to the land in the " South West " (which has a low summer temperature 
and a good rainfall) here also an intending settler may select K'O acres, on the same 
terms, but much of the land is timbered, and a part of it will be cleared before allotment, 
so as to enable the settler to make a living whilst carrying on further improvements. 
The land is suitable for fruit-growing, grass, feed crops, and intensive culture. It is also 
proposed that settlements should be formed in this area of about 50 settlers, each having 
a tiolding of 40 acres. At each settlement a depot will be established where settlers can 
obtain a practical training in agriculture whilst improving the land which will be theirs. 

54. Some capital is desii'uble in both cases, but the assistance to settlers legislation 
in this State has been so framed, and is so administered, as to provide every 
possible facility to those desirous of settling there. 

Men wishing to find employment on the land in Western Australia can usually 
obtain employment on tiirms the moment they arrive, and are thus able to support 
themselves whilst obtaining local experience. 

TASMANIA. 

55. In Tasmania, facilities with regard to land settlement for ex-service men are 
provided under the "Returned Soldiers Settlement Act, 1916."-j- These are generally 

* No. 1226 of 1915. 
t 5 Geo. v., Chap. 20. 



10 EMPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE^: 

available for all persons who have been in the Naval or Military Forces of the United 
Kingdom, or in the Australian Foi-ces, but no free grants of land are made to any 
but men previously resident in Tasmania.* 

56. The land offered can be acquired either by purchase or on lease. First class 
land may be bought up to 200 acres at £l per acre ; of second class land a larger area 
can be obtained at lO.s. per acre ; and of third class land a still larger area at 5s. per 
acre. The payment may be distributed over a period of fourteen years. A sum of £300 
may also be advanced for buildings, improvements, implements, etc., to be repaid by 
instalments. Residence is necessary according to the provisions of the Crown T>ands 
Acts, No rates or taxes will be payable for four years after the sale or commence- 
ment of the lease, and in the case of leased land no rent will be charged for the first year. 

57. Seme previous experience will be necessary. An ex-sei*vice man intending to 
take up land must in his application state what previous experience and what capital he 
possesses. Experience can be acquired either at the State Farm at Deloraine (which 
has accommodation for a limited number) or, in some cases, by working with a farmer. 

58. Much of the best land in Tasmania is still heavily timbered. There is a good 
deal of mixed farming, and fruit-growing is rapidly increasing ; the land suitable for 
the latter is not heavily timbered. 

New Zealand. 

59. Tn New Zealand the Discharged Soldiers Settlement Act was passed in 19]5,f 
and an amending Act in 1916, J with a view to settling on the laud those returned soldiers 
who might desire to take up farming. Provision is made in the Acts for setting apart 
areas of land for selection by discharged soldiers, and facilities are given whereby the 
holdings may be acquired on easy terms. Advances may be made to selectors for clearing 
and improving the land, erecting buildings, and purchasing stock, etc. Preference is also 
given to discharged soldiers at the ordinary land sales and ballots. Arrangements are 
also being made for training on the State farms a limited number of men with no 
previous experience of agriculture. 

60. These [)rovisions, however, apply only to officers and men belonging to the 
New Zealand Forces and I'esidents in the Dominion who have served during the 
present War in some other portion of His Majesty's Naval and ^Military Forces. They 
have not vet been extended to other ex-service officers and men, no doubt because the 
New Zealand (lovernment desires, in the first place, to be in a position to gauge the 
demands likely to be made by residents in the Dominion. 

61. In this connexion it must, of course, be borne in mind that New Zealand has 
not by any means vast areas of land still awaiting cultivation, as is the case in Canada 
and Australia. 

Union of South Africa. 

62. In the Union of South Africa the presence of native labour makes the 
immigration of unskilled labour for agincultural purposes almost im])racticable. Further, 
the vacant Crown lands are to a large extent situated in remote and waterless regions 
and require opening up in order to ])repare them for settlement. The IJiiion Government 
take the view that it will not be possible to absorb on the land any considerable number 
of ex-service men from other parts of the Empire ; in fact, it is anticijiated that making 
provision for the members of the South African contingent will considerably tax the 
resources of the (jovernnient. We understand, however, Ihal il is likely that the 
Government will shortly frame a scheme for the settlement of a limited number of 
ex-service men of special qualifications. 

63. There are intleed openings already for settlers who wish to take up undeveloped 
irrigation holdings, or small fruit farms. But for such cases a capital of not less than 
£1,000 is essential, and also either jn-evious experience or ])reliminary training on 
the spot. 



* It is understood that thr i)n)iuisc iiuido to Sir Rider llatfirard ou April 7th, I'.tUi, that the 
Tasmaniau Government would be .fflad to i)rovide land, and orj,'anise the settlement of at least .'iOO 
]5ritish soldiers in oreharding and a.ffricultnral areas, muist be read in the light of this legislation. 
(See P. 11 of Sir R. Ilagyard's Report to the Roval Colonial Institute.) 

t 6 Geo. V. No 15 

i 7 Geo. V. No. 12. 



i 



REPORT. 



11 



Newfoundland. 



64. We have not heard o£ any special scheme for the settlement on the land in 
Newfoundland of ex-service men from the Colony or from other parts of the Empire. 
It must be remembered, of coarse, that the main industries of the Island are other than 
agricultural ; they depend upon the fisheries, the forests, and the mines. 

There is, we" understand, a large amount of uncleared land which could be bought 
at a very low price by ex-service men desirous of settling in the Colony, but at 
present farming is generally cumbined with some other form of occupation, especially 
fishing. 

Rhodesia. 

65. In Rhodesia, as in the Union of South Africa, the existence of native labour 
militates against the immigration of unskilled labour from the United Kingdom. The 
most ])romising o[)enings connected with the land are for the sons of substantial F)ritish 
farmers wJio seek a larger career than is open to them at home and for adaptable and 
intelligent men of the middle classes who have won commissions in the new armies, men 
Avho are accustomed not only to work hard themselves, but to direct the work of others. 
Each should connuand a capital of about .€1,000. Previous agricultural experience is 
desirable, but not essential, as prospective settlers should in any case study local conditions 
on farms in Rhodesia before taking up land for themselves. 

(if!. The British South Africa Company offer 500,000 acres, half in Northern and half 
in Southern Rhodesia, free of cost, except for the payment of a small annual quit-rent, 
for providing farms for ex-service men from the United Kingdom and other parts of the 
Empire, who have the x-equisite amount of capital, and have shown themselves during 
a course of local training likely to be successful farmers. Some knowledge of horses and 
livestock and also of the handicrafts required upon a farm is extremely valuable, especially 
for the dii'ection of native labour. 

67. Rhodesia is largely a ranching country, but maize and citrus fruits thrive well. 
Dairy and pig industries are increasingly productive. 

Other Parts of the British Empire. 

68. It will be seen from the foregoing account, that most of the opportunities 
available for the settlement of ex-service men on the land, are in parts of the Empire 
where the white man is the workman, not the overseer. The Union of South Africa 
and Rhodesia form exceptions to this general rule, and, on a limited scale, there are no 
doubt often openings, as for example in East and West Africa, in the West Indies, aad 
in the Eastern Colonies, for men of the educated class who will do the work of 
supervision, and thus assist in the development of the products of the more tropical parts 
of the Empire. We have not thought it necessary, however, to extend our investigations 
in order to ascertain what detailed openings there are of this kind. 

SCHEMES OF PRIVATE COMPANIES, ETC. 

69. We come next to the facilities for land settlement in the Oversea Dominions 
available for ex-service men from the United Kingdom, other than those offered by the 
various Governments. As to these, we have not received much evidence. No doubt, 
before the period of demobilisation comes, many such offers will be made, some of which 
may be very valuable. But we suggest that ex-service men should not be encouraged 
to avail themselves of them uutil each offer has been carefully investigated, either by the 
Central Emigration Authority or by the (Tovernment of the place to which it refers. 

The following are the principal offers as to which we have received e\'idence :-- 

Canada. 

?0. In the Prairie Provinces the Canadian Pacific Railway C'ompany offers land 
for selection as " Improved Fai'ms " or " Assisted Colonisation Farms," maijily in 
the Pi'ovince of Alberta (north of the Company's main line, and east of Calgary), but 
some also in Saskatchewan. The offer is ojaen to all those who have served in the 
Canadian Oversea Force, or the British Aroiy or Navy, provided they are of good 
moral character and physical fitness, married, and have had previous experience as 
farmers or farm labourers. 



12 KMPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE : 

71. At present, intending settlers have to be examined in Calgary, Alberta ; but the 
question of examining ex- service settlers from the TTnited Kingdom in England will be 
considered. 

7_. Of ''Improved Farms" oidy a limited number will be available. Such 
farms will contain about 160 acres (if non-irrigable) or SO acres (if irrigable). The 
price will be about $45 (£9) per acre, which will include improvements to the value of 
$3,000 (£600). The improvements provided l)y the Compiinv are as follows : — the 
erection of a Iiouse, barn and shed, fencing, making a well or tank, breaking up 40 
acres nur] ploughing a lireguard around the Iniildings. The ])rice of the improve- 
ments will be about So, 000 (£600). Livestock, implements, seed, etc., to the value of 
$1,000 (£200'l will, when rerpdred, be provided by the Company at a charge of 6 per 
cent, per anmun. The payment for laud and improvements will commence at the end 
of the third year, and may l)e extended over a period of tweury years. A settler should 
possess at the very least £oO. Central control farms, the superintendent of which will 
supervise the settlers' operations, will be established ; at tliese will be kept supplies of 
farm implements, etc., for the use of the colonists. 

73. Of " Assisted Colonisation Farms " there are a very large number. Each 
farm will contain not more than 320 acres. The Comj)any will advance "money for 
buildmg, fencijig, providing li\'estock and equi[)ment. The land will be sold at list j^rice, 
on the basis of a twenty-year term, with interest on deferred payments at 6 per cent, per 
annum. No interest will be charged during the first year ; and the first payment will 
become (hie two years from date of contract. 

74. In both kinds of farms, advances may, in certain circumstances, he made to 
settlers for living expenses during the first year. The interest payable to the Company 
will be 6 per cent. 

75. We also made enquiries of the Grand Trunk and Canadian Northern 
Railwiiy Conq)anies. The former are not a landdiolding Company. The latter stated 
that they were not able to ofter any special inducements in respect of ilieir lands, as the 
lands were mortgaged and sales were subject to a nnniinum of $15 (£3) per acre. 

76. In Xova Scotia certain private comj)anies are acting In conjunction with the 
Government in regard to the land settlement of ex-service men from Nova Scotia. 
Possibly some of their offers will be available also to men from the United Kingdom. 

77. In Oiilniio there may be some facilities ottered, but no particulars are as yet 
available. 

Australia. 

78. In Western Australia the principal otlers are as follows : — 

(1) Mr. Neil McNeil made an offer through Sir Rider Haggard in 1916 to hand over 
to the Government of Western Australia his estate of some 10,000 acres in the fruit- 
growing district of Mount Barker, in the South- West, for the sum it originally cost him 
(including, of course, the money spent by him in developing it). Sir Rider Haggard 
visited the property and reported that the existing orchards would probably in a year or 
two bring in a revenue of about £11,000 a year ; and that the whole property when fully 
cleared and planted would afford a good living for from 300 to 400 ex-soldier families, if 
settled in up-to-date* villages (-onnected with the State Railways by tramways. The 
Agent-General for Western Australia, was unable to inl'orm us whether the offer had yet 
been accepted. 

(2) The Mi<lland Railway of Western Australia, which \v:is constructed on the l;iud 
grant system, is selling portions of its land as ready-made farms of from 400 to 600 acres 
each. The cost of a fiwm riuis to about £2,000, of which 10 per cent, must be paid at 
once and the remainder in eipial amuial instalments extending over twenty years, the balances 
carrying interest at 5| per cent, per annum. It is understood that the Company is 
(!ommunicating with the (xovernment of Western Australia with a view to co-operating 
in the Government scheme for returned Australian soldiers. The Company, however, 
informed us that it would be imable to assist in giving special facilities to ex-service men 
from the United Kinmloin. 



f^ 



o 



Union of South Africa. 

79. The Cape Sundays River Settlements, Limited, near Port Elizabeth, is under- 
stood to be willing to sell laud suited for the growing of citrus and other fruits and 

• See p. 20 of Sir R. Haggard's Report to The Royal Colonial Institute. 



REPORT. 1 3 

lucerne as well as for the raising and fattening of stock, dairying, poultry farming, etc., 
at a cost of .about sB50 jier acre. In addition to this the annual charge for water rates 
will be about 10s. per acre. A farm should be from 20 to 40 acres. If a settler can give 
security to the Company's Bank for the payment of interest for the first five years, none 
of the purchase money need be paid until the end of that period, after which it will be 
payable by instalments. It is recommended that a purchaser should, also possess at least 
£10 per acre for working capital. The agreement would include an undertaking as to 
residence, etc. The district offers special climatic and social attractions. 

80. The South African Settlers' Information Committee, the .London branch of 
whose organisation is at 54, St. Mary Axe, will be happy to give advice to intending 
settlers and to facilitate their passage to South Africa. 

Rhodesia. 

81. We understand that there is much good land in the hands of Companies, who 
offer it for sale to ex-service men at special rates. 



III.— OTHER OPPORTUNITIES FOR EX-SERVICE MEN IN 
THE OVERSEA DOMINIONS. 

82. With regard to openings for ex-service men apart from land settlement, it 
is very difficult to make any general remarks. The number and character of such 
openings will depend on circumstances and feelings which may vary from time to time, 
and in different part of the Empire. In some places there is a strong political feeling 
against immigration of general labour ; in others the opposition is limited to the 
immigration of artisans, or of some particular class. It is certain that there would 
be strong opposition to an influx of immigrants on such a scale as to disorganise 
local conditions of labour, and it is imperativ^e that this point should be made 
perfectly clear. 

We can only suggest that ex-service men who desire to go to one of the 
Oversea Dominions in order to obtain employment of a special kind should make 
careful enquii'ies through the Central Emigration Authority, and the office of the 
Oversea Government concei'ned. 

83. Throughout the Dominions generally, if, as may well be anticipated, there 
should be a large increase in railway construction and other public works after 
the War there will probably be a demand for ex-service men suitable for such work. 
Thus in Canada, the Canadian Pacific Railway Company are large employers of 
labour, skilled and otherwise, and prior to the War the whole of their Western 
Railway Police system was composed of ex-service men. The mining and other 
industries in the Dominions which have been in the habit of importing labour for the 
purpose from Europe, would probably be glad to secure the services of a number of 
ex- service men. It is well known, too, that the fisheries of the various Oversea 
Dominions are largely undeveloped, and as time goes on this potential soui'ce of 
wealth should provide employment for a large number of men. In particular, the 
witness for Nova Scotia informed us that there might be at once openings con- 
nected with the fishing industry for ex-service men who possess experience either in 
coastal or deep-sea fishing, and also in shipbuilding. Lastly, there may, of course, be 
various opportunities in connexion with the Government service. The Government 
of New South Wales has already stated that with regard to securing employment 
generally in the Government service, ex-soldiers from the United Kingdom will be 
offered equal opportunities for securing work with the ex- Australian soldier. 



IV. -THE QUESTION OF TRAINING. 

84. The opinion of the witnesses from the Dominions has been that the trainiuo- for 
a man who wishes to take up land should, as a rule, take place in the country where he 
means to live ; and that it can be best obtained either by going to a training farm or 
working on another farm, according to circumstances. 



14 EMPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE : 

We do not think it expedient for the Government to establish in the United 
Kingdom special training farms for intending emigrants. 

85. It has, however, been pointed out by some of the witnesses that an ex-service 
man who intends to emigrate, but is delayed in doing so by the lack of accommodation 
on ships, can best employ what would otherwise be his idle time by getting some 
elementary knowledge of agricultural work in this country ; and it is urged further that 
such a course might be valuable as a test ; for a man who had an inclination for the life 
of a farmer might find after experience that he was not suited to it, and could then turn 
his attention to some other calling. 

Several existing institutions (such as the Young Men's Christian Association, the 
Church Army, and the Salvation Army) either already have farms, or contemplate 
establishing liirms, to which ex-service men could go for the j^urpose ; besides that, they 
hope to get into touch with suitable farmers who might take ex-service men as pupils. 
Pi'ivate individuals have also expei'imented in the establishment of training farms on a 
small scale. We think that it would be well that the attention of the men who wish to 
settle on the land in the Oversea Dominions should be drawn to this point. 

86. Some of the witnesses have reconunended that the Home Government should 
institute vocational training (such as instruction in carpentering, building, etc.) for 
soldiers whilst they are awaiting demobilisation. We attach considerable importance to 
the idea, as there is no doubt that such training is useful if cii'cumstances permit. We 
realise that difficulties may be experienced, arising from the rapidity at which, having 
regard to the general conditions and the wishes of the armies themselves, demobilisation 
m.ay take place, but we hope that some steps may be taken to institute facilities for the 
instruction which we have in mind during whatever time may be available, and for 
the greatest possible number of men, at home or abroad, capable of deriving benefit from 
such assistance. 



v.— THE QUESTION OF THE DISABLED 

87. In relation to ex-service men the expression "disabled," lakeu in a wide 
sense, will include the three following classes :— 

(1.) Men who are so injured and broken in health that they are unable to earn 
their own living, and must be dependent on other sources for their maintenance. 

We desire to make it perfectly clear that men from the United Kingdom of this class 
should not be encouraged to emigrate to any of the Oversea Dominions. 

(2.) Men who are so far disabled that they cannot undertake certain of the 
occupations which are open to able-bodied men, but who will be able to earn their own 
livelihood in other callings. 

This is a (|uesti(.n of degree, and will vary in each case. Thus a man who has 
lost one or twt) fingers may be unable to work the particular machine on which he 
was employed before tlie War, but may be (juite competent to ])erform most other kinds 
of labour, including labour on the land. On the other hand, a blind man may be able to 
make baskets, but be useless for ordinary work. 

For some of the less disabled ex-service men of this class from the United Kingdom, 
there may be a few, liut not niany, openings in the Oversea Dominions. Most of the 
Oversea Governments will be fully occupied with finding employment for men belonging 
to their own Forces who are suffering from similar disabilities. 

We are of o[)iiuon that, whenever a partially disabled ex-service man from the 
United Kingdom wishes to emigrate in order to make a livelihood in one of the Oversea 
Dominions, the circumstances of his case should l)e laid hei'oi-c the Central Emio^ration 
Autiiority, and the advice of that body obtained. The Authority would, of course, be 
guided by the representative in London of the Government or Governments concerned. 

In suitable cases all jiossible facilities in the way of advance of pension for payment 
of passage money, and conimutation of pension, sliould bo arranged for sucli men in 
consultiition with the Ministry of Pensions, whicsh, we understand, will need the consent 
of the Treasury on the question of commutation. 

(.'^.) Men whose health makes it advis;ible for them to seek another climate. 

This also is a question of degree. Some of the most successful men in the Oversea 
Dominions have been those who had to leave Furope on account of ill-health. 

On March ;^rd, 191(i, the Minister of the Interior of the Union of South Africa, 
on behalf of the Union Government, assured Sir Rider Hajrirard that the leo-islation 

DO O 



REPORT. 



15 



in force as to prohibited immigrants would not be used to prohibit the entry of ex-soldiers 
and sailors of the white race who were citizens of the Empire, and especially such of them 
whose health had been impaired while on military service during the War.* 

Following this undertaking the Union Government have in particular cases waived 
the operation of their regulations against immigrants of the class above described, and 
some have already taken advantage of the opportunity. 

The rest of the Oversea Governments have not as yet granted any similar concessions 
to ex-service men who liave suffered in health. 

With regard to this class of men we make the following suggestions : — 

(a) Where ex-service men from the United Kingdom who have suffered in health 

in consequence of the War wish to emigrate but fear tliere may be some 
risk of their non -admission to any of the Oversea Dominions on medical 
grounds, they should make application to the Central Emigration 
Authority. 

(b) In cases recommended by the Authority the Oversea Governments might 

be asked to waive the operation of their Immigration Regulations, 
((j) Where permission is given, the facilities as to pensions referred to above 
should be made available. 



VI.— WIVES AND FAMILIES OF EX-SERVICE MEN. 

88. The question of the emigration of women is a most important one. We need 
only refer to the analysis given in the Final Report of the Dominions Royal Commission 
as to the results of disproportionate emigration of the sexes in the past.f It is certain 
that the excess of women in the United Kingdom will be increased by the losses during 
the War, and there will probably still remain a majority of men in the Dominions as 
a whole. 

We have to consider the question in connexion with — 

(1) The wives of ex-service men, with whom may be taken the children ; 

(2) The widows and orphans of such men ; 

(3) Other women relatives and the fiancees of those engaged to be married ; 

(4) Women displaced at the end of the War who may desire to go to the oversea 

parts of the Empire. 

"Wives and Children. 

89. Thei'e was. a general expression of opinion amongst our witnesses that, in any 
schemes for the settlement of ex-service men in the Oversea DominioTis, a preference 
should be given to married men. With this we agree. Questions as to the satisfactory 
settlement of the wives and families of ex-service men therefore arise at once. 

90. The general practice in the past has been for men desirous of settling on the 
land overseas (and, as we have shown, most of the opportunities are on the land) to go 
out by themselves first, and for the wife and family to remain temporarily in the United 
Kingdom until the man is settled on his holding. 

The reasons for this practice are as follows : — 

(a) A man who wishes to take up laud must first acquire " Colonial experience." 

This is best obtained by going to a training farm, or (moi-e often) by 

working for a farmer for a year at least. 
{b) On farms overseas, however, there is seldom adecpiate accommodation for a 

manned labourer. Moreover, the pay which a man receives whilst under 

training is not large. J 
(t:) In some cases, a man wlio has been in a State or Dominion for a short 

period can obtain reduced passages for his wife and family as nominated 

immigrants. 

To these general considerations has to be added the fact that, in the case of ex-service 
men, the difficulty as to transport of wives and families will be lessened by delay. 

' See P. 7 of Sir R. Haggard's Report to the Royal Colonial Institute. 

t Par. 94 ff. of [CVl. 8462]. 

j We recognise, of course, that if the wife is a thoroughly competent woman, and if the family 
is not large, the man and wife can often obtain a situation as "married couple" on a farm or the 
woman may be able to find employment of s^me other nature. In such cases no diiBculty arises. 



16 EMPIRE SETTLEMENT C0-\1MITTEE : 

Facilities will increase as time goes on. We fally realize the drawbacks to separating a 
man from his family — drawbacks which apply with double force in the case of men 
married just before or during the War, where both husband and wife have gone through 
the strain of the campaign. These are so obvious that we need not elaborate them. 

91. On the whole, however, we have come to the conclusion that, solely on account 
of the ]»ractical difficulties, an ex-ser\'ice man should not take his wife and family with 
him when he first euiigrates, unless he has received from the representative of the Oversea 
Government concerned, who has approved him as an immigrant, encouragement before 
starting that arrangements can be made for their support until he is settled on his ht)lding. 

92. We have been much impressed with the work which was done before the War 
by emigration societies and similar institutions in taking an interest in the wnves and 
families of men left behind in the United Kingdom, and in making arrangements for them 
to go out to the Dominions later on. We suggest that the Central Emigration Authority 
will have much scope for seeing that similar work is done in connexion with the waves 
and families of ex-service men. It need not necessarily act directly in the matter ; 
probably, indeed, such work is done best by private agencies. It will be essential, how- 
ever, to secure that in some way the ties are maintained, and that every etfort is made to 
unite the family as soon as is reasonably possible. 

9o. As a practical method of effecting this object we suggest that married men who 
proceed overseas in advance of their wives and families should be encouraged to allot a 
certain proportion of their earnings towards the maintenance of their dependants in the 
United Kingdom and towards the cost of passage money. 

Widows and. Orphans. 

94. In the case of widows and orphans we are faced with difficulties of another kind. 
In sonip cases (as is shown in Part II of this Report) the v idcjws of sailors and 
soldiers will be entitled to the same benefits with resfard to land settlement as their 
husbands would have received if they had been living. In many cases, also, the openings 
for them overseas will be better than any which they could secure at home. 

It is essential, how^ever, in all cases for the Oversea Governments concerned to be 
satisfied that the jn-oposed immigrant of this class is one whom they would welcome. 
The question is, how can an assurance on this point best lie obtained ? 

95. We suggest : — 

, (d) Tliat the Central Emigration Authority which keeps the record of ex-service 
men who desire to go to the Oversea Doramions should also keep the record 
of the widows of ex-service men who have the same desire. 
(h) That, in testing the suitability of these widows, the Central Authority should 
take advantage of local committees working under the ilinistry of Pensions, 
and also of the machinery of the societies specializing on the emigration of 
women. 

96. The three societies represented by the Joint Council of W(.)meu's Emigration 
Societies — iiamely, the British Women's Emigration Association, the South African 
Colonization Society, and the Colonial Intelligence League — have always maintained a 
high standard of selection as to health, moral chai'acter, and suitability ; and they have 
definitely stated to us that they will not lower their standard in the case of the widows 
of soldiers antl sailors. Any selection they make would probably be acce[)ted as a 
sufficient guarantee by the Representatives of the Oversea Governments. No doubt 
other societies concerned with women's emigration would be willing to give similar 
pledges. 

97. In connexion with the emigration of widows, we would call attention to the 
comprehensive scheme recently elaborated by the Salvation Army for female (smigration 
generally. They have been promised a gi-ant of £50,000 from the Prince of Wales's Finid 
for this scheme ; 75 per cent, oi' this and of the other moneys which thcj- expect to receive 
will be devoted to widows (including the widows of ex-service men) and 25 per cent, 
may be devoted to single women. The high character of the work of the Salvation 
Army gives aderpiate assurance that the scheme will be carefully cari-ied out. We 
suggest, however, that in the future similar grants should only be given after consultation 
with the Central Emigration Aulhoritv, and that all grants for purposes of this kind 
should be administered under the supervision of that Authority. 



RKPORT. 17 

98. With regard to the orphan children of sailors and soldiers, there is no doubt 
that in many cases it is the happiest thing for them to be sent out to the Oversea 
Dominions whilst they are still young, so that they maj' grow up in their new homes ; 
this plan is in fact already being can-ied out by various philnnthmpic societies. It is also 
certain that children sent out in this way are amongst tlie most valuable immigrants that 
any part of the Empire can receive. In fact, so great is this value that, in our opinion, 
the part of the Empire receiving these children would be well advised to encourage this 
class of immigration. Every facility should be given by the Home Authorities in putting 
the Dominion Governments in touch with those immediately responsible for the orphans 
of ex-service men. 

Other Women Relatives. 

99. To the mothers, unmarried sisters, and other women relatives of ex-service men, 
many of the remarks already made apply. Particularly in the case of the fiancees of 
ex-service men, it is desirable that arrangements should be umde for them to be sent out 
as soon as their new homes are ready for tliem, and special consideration may be necessary 
in the case of women who, since the outbreak of war, have become engaged to men 
in the Oversea Forces. These men, as a rule, will have homes ready in the Dominions. 

100. We may mention that there are other societies than those already referred to 
which ai-e specially suited to take charge of cases of this kind, for example the Young 
Women's Christian Association and the Girls' Friendly Society. These societies have 
hostels, etc., in many of the towns and cities overseas where girls and women going out 
can be looked after, and can stay temporarily, and to which they can return, if out 
of a situation. 

Women Displaced at the End of the War. 

101. The question of the displacement of women at the end of the War is, like so raanj 
of the questions which we liave investigated, one of great uncertainty. An enormous 
number of women are now emplr.yed in posts held by men before the War and 
in munition works, etc., and the recent extended employment of women in agriculture is 
of particular importance in this connexion.* Of these women some, no doubt, will be re- 
tained in their present positions. Others will go back to their former employment, or 
obtain work for which they have found that they are specially suited. Others again, are 
women with private means or home duties who will be glad to retire from outside work. 
Probably, however, there will lie many who will wish to emigrate to the Dominions 
and be most suitable members of the community. Here the arguments in favour 
of female emigration as the essential foundation of all effective Empire Settlement 
come in with full force. 

102. The evidence of the large majority of our witnesses representing the Dominion 
Governments is that there are few vacancies for women overseas except for domestic 
service. And, in fact, apart from the grant of nominated ]iassages, most of the 
Dominions specifically restrict their encouragement of the immigration of women to those 
who have qualifications for domestic help, though they recognize that very often, after 
a few months' experience these women exchange this career for others which offer 
brighter prospects. 

lOo. On the other hruid some of the representatives of the societies specially con- 
cerned with the emigration tjf women toM us that the demand for educated women such as 
nurses, teachers, etc., has lately been increasing, especially in the Union of South Africa, 
and there is similar evidence as to Rhodesia, where vacancies also exist in public ami 
commercial offices for women clerks from the Mother Countrv. It must also be borne 
in mind that the employments in which some women have been engaged during the 
War — such as nursing, motor driving, gardening, and working on farms — make them 
more suitable for life in the rural districts of the Dominions than women who went out 
in former years. 

104. We have onl}- to remark on the subject of the emigration of women of 
this class that full advantage should be taken of the machinery of the societies par- 
ticularly concerned with the emigration of women. Such emigration has special 
difficulties and needs special expei'ience, and it is essential, we thiidc, to utilise the 
knowledge of those who ha\e made it their study. 

* Note. — Special attention may be directed to the Register of women employed, and willing to 
he employed, in each County in farm and dairy work, etc., which is kept by the Board of Agricnltnre 
and Fisheries, the number of women engaged in, and available for. different branches of 
agricultural labour being separately recorded, 

11477 B 



IS KMPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE : 

Government Assistance to the Emigration of Women. 

105. We deal in Part IX of this llcpurt with the question of financial assistance on 
the part of the Home Government to the emigration of ex-service men generally, and we 
think that the princijilc there suggested, viz. : that the ])olicy of granting or withholding 
assistance should depend mainly on the circumstances which actually arise when the tune 
comes for demobilisation, should be followed in the case of women as well as in the case 
of men. We may say here, however, that, in our view, there would be far greater 
justification for the grant of monetary assistance towards the emigration of the wives, 
families, and other relatives of ex-service men than thei'e would be for such assistance 
tf)wards the emigration of the men themselves. 

lOfi. We mav add that, in the case of the widows and oi'phans of ex-service men, 
the Hriancial difficulty is not likely to be so great as in other cases. Pi'ovision is made, 
in detail, foi- the grant of pensions to them under the Royal Warrant and Order in 
Council for the Pensions of Soldiers and Sailors.* We suggest that, in suitable cases, 
arrangements should be made in consultation with the Central Emigration Authority by 
the Ministry of Pensions, which, we understand, will need the coiisent of the Treasury, 
for (a) commutation of part of the pensions of widows and orphans of ex-service men ; 
(b) advances of such pensions for the purpose of paying passages ; (e) payment of such 
pensions through tlie Oversea Governments in cases where it is thought desirable to 
fainlitate their settlement overseas. 



VII.-HOW INFORMATION SHOULD BE MADE ACCESSIBLE 

TO THE TROOPS. 

Time. 

107. As we said at the beginning of this Repoi't, we felt bound to be guided by 
the opinion of the Depai'tments of the Home Government concerned as to the time at 
which the information available as to the openings offered to ex-service men overseas, 
should be made officially accessible to the troops. We, therefore, consulted the War 
Office and the ^linistry of Labour, as being the Offices jirimarily interested. Both 
expressed the opinion that the proper period for disseminating information will be that 
between the date of cessation of hostilities and the time when men are granted fiu'loiigh 
previous to being discharged. 

Methods. 



o 



ION. When the ])n)])er time comes for disseminating information, the following 
points must be borne in mind : — 

(a) An outline of information as to openings in the Oversea Dominions should be 

supplied to ex-service men generally. 
{/>) More detailed information on the subject should be available for those 
whose minds are turning in tlie direction of emigration. 

109. The Emigrants' [iiformation Office have put to us the fijllowing suggestions 
on this subject, with which we agree : — • 

(1) Posters should be ]>re2)ared summarizing the s])ecial opportunities offering 
to ex-service men in the Oversea Dominions generally. These ])osters must contain 
clear, but greatly ej)itomized, information. They should include references to leaflets 
setting out fuller particulars, and should also contain a brief statement of the advantages 
ol' settlement in the Em])ire in ]irefereuce to foreign countries. 1'liey should be 
available for His Majesty's shi])s, all Military units, all Naval and Mililarv Dispersal 
Stations, JMnploynicnl Exchanges, Post Offices, V.M.C.A. and oilier Huts and 
Hostels, etc. 

(!') One Ol' more leallets should be prepared setting out, in considerable detail, 
jiarticulars of these special opporl unities. 'i'lie leaflcits aln^a^dy drawn up by the 
lioyal Colonial Institute on the subject would be valuable for this ])iirpose, and the 
inforn.ation set ont in Part 11 of this l{e])ort should Ix' kept ii]) to date, and utilized, 
'i'he leaflets, when issued, might wvM nisemble the valuable jiamphlets ahxiadv issued 
by the Emigrants' Information (jffice.. They shoidd be circulated to those interested 
i)y the Authoritv publishing them, and also made available by the means dc!scribed 
in paragraph IIU (2) below. 



' Sep. [Ca. 8-i8o.] 



RKPOBT. 19 

Distribution of Information. 

110. We pass on to the machinery needed to ensure that the men are adequately 
advised. It is understood that, accordino- to jn'esent ideas, 

(a) each man will receive, before demol)ilisation, a form on which inter alia he 
will state his wishes as to future employment. 

{h) Local demobilisation committees will be appointed in connexion with the 
Employment Exchanges to advise the men on the various kinds of employment 
available. 

On the assumption that these ideas will still hold good at the end of the War, we 
make the following suggestions intended to secure that the men shall have adequate 
means of ascertaining the opportunities for settlement overseas : — 

(1) The form which each man receives should be drawn up in such a way as 
to enable those men who so desire to indicate their preference for employment in 
the Oversea Dominions of the Empire. 

The names of those who expi'ess this preference, together with all other relevant 
particulars concerning them, should be sent for record to the Central Emigration 
Authority. 

(2) OflScers of the Employment Exchanges will, it is understood, be the 
secretaries of the local Demobilisation Committees to which reference is made above. 
For the special duty of conveying advice to men as to the various opportunities overseas 
they should be in direct correspondence with the Central Emigration Authority, which 
would issue the necessary literature and full instructions. Representatives from 
the Central Authority should also visit, and attend meetings of, the local Demobili- 
sation Committees in as many important centres as possible. We think it would 
also be of advantage if, wherever possible, men well acquainted with oversea affairs 
could be nominated by the Central Authority as permanent members of the local 
Committees. In several cases, gentlemen who would be willing to give their services 
for work of this kind have already comnuinicated with us. 



VIII.— THE QUESTION OF TRANSPORT. 

111. The (|uestion of transport after the war to the Oversea Dominions is necessarily 
very obscure. It is quite uncertain how many ships will be available ; and those which 
are normally engaged in the passenger service to Canada, Australia, Xew Zealand, and 
die Union of South Africa will almost certainly be taxed for many months to their 
utmost capacity in taking back the Oversea Contingents to their homes. In fact, all the 
availal)le indications point to the probability that, for a considerable time after the cessation 
of hostilities, the British shipping available will be quite insufficient to acconunodate any 
large nuiiiln'r of ex-service men who may <lesire to emigrate. 

112. We made en(|uiries of the leading shipping companies* as to the transport of 
ex-service men fi"om the United Kingdom desirous of settling overseas, asking whether 
they had considered the question of making any concession in the way of I'educed feres, etc., 
for such men, their wives, widows and families. The replies received were in most cases 
sympathetic ; but the companies pointed out that most of their ships were at present 
engaged in the transport of troops or on other Government service under the direction 
of the Shipping Controller, and that the condition of affairs after the War was so uncertain 
that it was imjiracticable for them to form any decision now as to the coiu'se which the^■ 
woulil then take. 

llo. It is possiltle, however, that while British ships may not be available to convey 
emigrants to the Oversea Dominions during the first few months after the War, there might 
be no lack of other shipping which would offer opportunities for trans])ort to foreign 
destinatifins. We could not contemplate with equanimity a poNition of this kind. The 
jiolicy of all the British Governments after the War will undoubtedly be the promotion of 
migration M'ithin the Empire. Whilst, therefore, we should have no objection to ex-service 
men proceeding to foreign destinations to resume posts which they held before the War, or 
to take up assured employment, it seems to us most advisable to discourage general 
emigration to foi-eion countries while i'acilities are wantino- for migration within the 
Empire. 

* The list is set out in Appendix IV. 
11477 B 3 



20 E.MPIRK SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE : 

IX.— THE QUESTION OF FINANCE. 

114. The mail) rjucstioii witli which eiich Grovernment will be faced on (leinobilisatii)n 
will be the absorption of its own sailors and soldiers in the varions branches of civil 
life, and each Government will lie under the strongest obligation to see that those who 
fought for the Emjjire shall have a reasonable chance in the future of earning a good 

livelihood within the Empire's limits. 

t 

1 1 n. So far as the United Kingdom is concerned there is, however, a very general 
impression that, owing to the vast number of men involved, and the changed economic 
conditions due to the War, there will be so much difficulty in finding employment for 
ex-service men, munition workers and others, that it will be essential to find a new home 
for many overseas. Time must prove whether this surmise is correct or not. Some 
oi' those who have studied the suliject carefully are of opinion that the capacity for 
absorption of labour in the United Kingdom in industrial pursuits after the AVar is likely 
to be very great, and nmeh larger than is generally anticipated. Some experts, indeed, are 
sanguine that the period of dislocation will be comparatively brief, and it is stated that 
there is little apprehension amongst employers of a shortage of capital for reconstruction 
work. It is, however, impossible at present to form any accurate forecast. 

Classes of ex-service Men who may wish to Emigrate. 

IKi. In any case it seems certain that a considerable number of men will wont to 
]iui'sue their career in the Oversea Dominions. We may instance in particular : — 

(1) Youths who have joined the Army on reaching the age of US, and have had 

])revioiisIy no fixed employment. 

(2) Men ])reviously accustonied to an indoor life, who have made up their minds 

not to i-eturn to sedentary employment after their exjteriences of open-air 
campaigning."* 
(o) Officers who, during the War, have risen to connnissioned rank by their 
]»rowess and ca]»acity for command. 

r>esides men in these three categories there will, doulitless, be a considerable number 
who will be attracted by the account given them ])y their comrades in arms from overseas 
of the advantages and freedom of life in the Dominions, 

117. The(piestion before us is, — What financial aid is necessary to help these men to 
attain their desire ? Several aspects of the matter need consideration ; first, the cost of 
transporting the ex-service man, with possibly his wife and family, to some place in the 
Oversea Dominions where work awaits him ; secondly, the cost of settling upon the land 
men who desire to take up farming life ; thirdly, the creation of employment of ex-service 
men overseas by public ex])cnditure upon industries of local and national im|)ortance. 

Financial Position of such Men. 

lis. It is often assumed that ex-service men wishing to emigrate will have practically 
no money of their own, but ligures which \\e have collected show that this is by no 
means the case. 

119. Thus Officers of the New Armies will, as a rule, on cessation of enijilovment, 
receive a gratuity amounting to 121 days' pay for the first year and 62 days' pay for 
every subserpu'Ut year of service. f Again, those Officers who have been specially 
promoted from the ranks of the Old Kegular Army since the beginning of the War 
will also recei\(', if tliey retire, a s])ecial gratuity varying from ,l.'20() to .ill, 000. | 

120. The men also will receive on discharge a not inconsiderabk; sum, in addition to 
any credit li.alaiices in their accounts (which may vary from nothing to .tl,') or more) 
lijr pav unissued during service abroad. 

The sum jiayable to a, soldier on demobilisation comprises pay and ration allowance 
and, if he is entitled, separation allowance for a furlough of 2S days ; a service gratuit\- 
(if he is not entitled to pension) of U" 1 for each year or part of a year, with a mininnun 
of oO.v. ; and a special war gratuity at a rate not yet fixed, if he has served in a s])here 



* The number in this class is, however, purely a matter of conjeclure, and the conjectures which 
have heuril are strangely variant. 
t Pay Warrant, Article 4'.I7. 
i Pay Warrant. Article .072 A. 



REPORT. 'J. I 

o£ active operations. Thus the miuiiuuin sum to be received at the end of the War 
will be about £10, in addition to any credit balance in the soldier's account.* 

In a good many cases also, sailors and soldiers will be entitled to long service 
pensions of a considerable amount. 

Assistance by the Home Government. 

121. It has been su^o-ested that the Home Gt)vennnent miiiht assist ex-service 
men who wish to settle in the Oversea Dominions in two ways : — • 

(«) By the payment of passage money. 

(b) By the advance of capital by way of loan or gift, for schemes of settlement 
overseas. 

We take these in order. 

PAYMENT OF PASSAGE MONEY. 

122. As regards the payment of passage money we found opinion divided. Some 
of the Emigration Societies have advanced money on loan for passages, and have been 
successful in recovering the whole or a large part of the amount ; which shows how 
often men who were at the time unable even to pay their own passages have proved 
valuable settlers. On the other hand, many of our witnesses expressed the opinion that, 
in ordinary times, the best emigrant was the one who paid his own passage, and several 
applied this argument to the case of ex-service men. 

123. We do not think that this latter contention is really applicable to the case of 
ex-service men. The conditions are entirely exceptional. We should be glad, indeed, 
to see the principle accepted that a soldier or sailor who has served in the present war 
might, within a reasonable time, claim free transport to any part of the Empire where 
he wishes to settle. We are bound to recognise that administrative and economic 
considerations may make this course difficult, but the following stiggestions occur to 
tts : — 

(a) If ships are found to be available for men whilst they are waiting for 
demobilisation in France or the United Kingdom, the Home Clovernment 
might well pay their passages in lieu of maintenance, provided that the 
Oversea Governments are ready to receive the men. 

(A) Under Indian regulations, a man is entitled, on discharge, to conveyance 
at Government expense either to the United Kingdom or to the nearest 
port in anv ihitish Colony in steam commimication with India. We 
think it would be of advantage if a similar practice could be adopted 
in the case of officers and men who, when peace is declared, are on extra- 
European stations, and wish to settle in the Oversea Dominions. At 
some of these stations the retention of the existing garrisons may be 
necessary for a time until it is possible to find reliefs. It seems jH-obable 
that any such arrangement would be of limited application, and would 
not interfere with the arrangements ot the Oversea Governments for the 
demobilisation of their own contingents. 

(c) We suggest that the ([uestion should be considered by the Depiirtments 

concerned of retaining, in approved cases, the amount due to a sailor 
or soldier on his going on leave prior to discharge and, with his consent, 
keepina' it for him for payment of passage to one of the Oversea 
Dommions. 

(d) We also suggest that every facility should be given, in the case of men 

with long-service pensions, for an advance on the pension for payment of 
transport to one of the Oversea Dominions. This practice was, in fact, in 
force before the War. 

124. It is probable, however, that a great many men will want to remain in the 
United Kingdom for a time, and will not make up their minds till later whether they 
desire to find a new home overseas. For the majority of such men, the suggestions 
which we have already made will not provide. 

12."). Whether the Home Government (or indeed, the Oversea Governments), should 
then contribute towards the passages of men of this class, must, we think, entirely 



'* It is also likely that, in many cases, the men may have money invested in War Loan. 
Exchequer Bonds, etc. Special facilities have been given them for such investments. 

11477 B :i 



•^M 



EMl'lRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE 



depend upon the exi<(encies of:' tlie time, und, in particular, upon the capacity of the 
United Kinudoni, after demobiHsation, to absorb her own ex-service men. 

12G. We can only suggest that the Home Governmeut should regard the emigration 
of ex-ser^'ice men as one of many ways of benefiting them, and should not hesitate to meet 
tlic necessary expenditure if occasion should so recjuire, and if openhigs were available for 
such men in the Oversea Dounmons. 

ADVANCE OF CAPITAL. 

127. AVe pass on to the question of expenditure of large sums of money by the Home 
Go\ernment, by way of advances of capital, or otherwise, for the settlement of ex- 
service men overseas. 

128. No doubt land settlement is a very expensive process. Some of the Oversea 
Governments, however, as appears from the schemes already descril)ed, are willing to face 
this expenditure for the settlement of their own ex-service men, and also of men from the 
United Kingdom and other parts of the Empire. 

Others, however, point out that the cost involved is such that, whilst they are 
willing and anxious to help, they cannot do more, in the near future, than. provide for 
their own ex-service men unless they have further facilities for I'aising loans on the 
I'ritish market, and, in some cases, have the co-operation and enlist the credit of the 
imperial Government. 

With this view we have much sympathy. At the same time, it would be idle not to 
recognise that the calls upon the Home GoA-ernment after the War on account ot capital 
and other expenditure are likely to be very heavy, and that its first attention will naturally 
be devoted to absorbing men in agTiculture and industry in the United Kingdom. 

The ((uestion before us is, whether any solution of the diffirulty is })racticable which 
will not impose an undue financial burden on any ]>artof the Empire. 

129. It will be remembered that at the recent Imperial War Conference the following 
resolution was carried at the instance of Sir K. Borden* : 

" Having regard to the experience obtained in the present War, this Conference 
recor<1s its opinion that the safety of the Empire and the necessary develop- 
ment of its component parts, require prompt and attentive consideration, as 
well as concerted action, with regard to the following matters : — 
(^1) The production of an adequate food supply and arrangements for its 
trans] lortation when and where required, luider any conditions that may 
reasonably be anticipated. 

(2) The control of natural resources a\ailable within the Emjiire, especially 

those that are of an essential character for necessary national [)urposes, 
whether in peace or war. 

(3) The economical utilization of such natural resources through [)rocesses uf 

manufacture carried on within the Empire. 
The Conference commends to the consideration of the Governments summoned 
thereto the enactment of such legislation as may assist this purpose.'' 

130. We believe that it should be possible to further the development of the 
Empire in certain directions by the enqjloyment of ex-.service men, and we venture to 
make the lollowing suggestions as a means ol' gi^'ing ett'ect to the Resolution in 
i] uestion. 

131. Any of the Oversea Governments which is prepared to draw u|) a specific 
srhenie (a) For the development of its natural resources, ;nid {b) coucui-rently for the 
I'lnploynient and settlement of its own ex-service men and those from ihe United 
l\iiig(lom and other ])a.rts of tlie !']uq)ire, but is hampered by laek of fumls, might 
;irrangc for sucli a scheme to be jirepared and submitted for the consideration of the 
Home ( >o\eriunent. 

l-">2. It is not dillirult to suggest, in piMnci|)le, schemes directed towards both 
lliese ohjeets. Leaving aside schemes ol actual land settlement, one instaiiee would 
be tiie construction of a railway through an undeveloped area. Another would be the 
extensiun uf existing, or the initiation of new, irrigation schemes. Many other 
directions for (levelo])nient ari' indicated in the recently issued Final licimrt of tln' 
Dominions Royal Connnission.')' 



• .SV-e p. fi (,f [C(l. S.'-iC.fi]. 
t [Ctl. «-16;i.] 



REi'Okt. 23 

l;!;:). The sclieiues prepared loctilly uoukl, of eourne, need to set out fully details 
of the work proposed, including — 

(1) The estimated cost. 

(2) The number of ex-service men from the United Kingdom and othei 

parts of the Empire for \vhf)m it is contemplated to provide. 

These details would he essential from the point of view of the Home Government. 
Then- local preparation and discussion would also ensure that the existing labour 
mai'ket was adequately guarded, and other similar considerations taken into sufficient 
account. 

134. The Home Government would not necessarily be bound to advance capital 
to the Oversea Government for schemes of the kind ^vhich we have indicated. This 
ctiuld hardly be expected unless financial and labour conditions at home rendered 
such a policy acceptable. If, however, it were jiroved that circumstances were 
favourable to a loan, the credit of the Home Government, under suitable conditions 
and safeguards, might well be used for the purpose. 

135. At the same time we do not disguise the fact that difficulties may be encountered 
in carrying out the above proposals. The provision of British credit for schemes 
of development must remain under the control of the British Parliament so long 
as the constitution of the Empire remains what it is at present. Such control involves 
criticisms of individual schemes, and estimates of their soundness financially and 
otherwise, and such criticism may lead to friction. In this connection the analogy of 
such cases as that of the Uganda Railway is instructive. In that instance the administra- 
tion of the territory affected and the |)rovision of credit lay with the same Government. 
In the schemes now contemplated, however, the initiation and management of the 
scheme will be with one autonomous part of the Empire and provision of credit for that 
scheme with another. This being so, the Parliament of the United Kingdom not only 
might require schemes to be scrutinised to which its credit was to be given but would be 
right in so doing. On the other hand an Oversea Dominion or State might resent a severe 
criticism of its plans for internal development, particularly if such criticism involved 
a comparison with, or preference over, those of others. The root of the whole difficulty 
lies, of course, in the fact that the ideal here contemplated is development by the Empire 
as a whole of those parts of it which possess the greatest possibilities, and yet that at 
present the only constitutional authority available for the purpose is a Parliament in 
which only the United Kingdom is represented. Unless and until, however, some con- 
stitutional rearrangement is effected, the above arrangement alone is jJossible. Moreover, 
in most cases possibilities of trouble do not in fact materialise. In view, therefore, of 
the very real need for Empire development, we are of opinion that the risk should be 
taken. 

136. We do not propose to elaborate the idea further.* It would have to be 
submitted to the Governments concerned and their approval obtained to the princi})le 
involved. We put it forward because the experience of the present War has shown 
how man-power can be diverted to that part of the British Empire where it is most 
urgently needed at the time. If this is so, is it not possible, in times of peace, to make 
a start with the scientific application of the capital and population available within the 
Empire ? 



X.- CONSTITUTION OF A CENTRAL AUTHORITY. 

137. We now come to the last ])art of our terms of reference — viz., our views as to 
the constitution of a Central Authority to supervise and assist the emigration of ex-service 
men. In previous parts of this Report we have had occasion to refer to various duties 

* We call special attention, however, to a Memorandum prepared by Mr. Lyttelton Gell, 
printed as Appendix 1., in which he has sketched out a plan for financing Empire Land Settlement 
on a large scale. 

11477 . B 1 



^4 E.MriRE SETTLKMENT UU.M.MITTEE : 

whieli Tliis Antliority should perform. We now dci^ire to plit I'orward tlie following 
projMjsitioiis concerning it : — 

(1) It is undesirable to set up an Authority to deal with the emigration and 

settlement of ex-service men which would be independent of any existing 
or pr()8pecti^•e Authority concerned with emigration generally. 

(2) The Oversea Governments should be closely connected with any new 

Authtjrity. 

(3) Such Authority should be in working order before the War is over. 

(4) It should be so constituted as to be capable of carrying out any policy as 

regards emigration which may be decided upon by the Home Government 
in consultation with the Oversea Governments. 

We may explain these propositions in somewhat greater detail. 

(1).— Unification of Emigration Machinery in the United. Kingdom 

];)H. We do not think that the emigration of ex-service men after the War should 
be in any way divoi-ced from the general (juestion of emigration. 

In our opinion, the sooner ex-service men, after the War, are absorbed into the 
general life of the various ])arts of the Empire, the better it will be. Except, therefore, 
in so fai- as machinei-y is necessary to enable ex-service men to obtain information as to, 
and to take ad\anrage of, the special facilities offered to them in the Oversea Dominions, 
they should be treated in the same way as other members of the connnunity desiring to 
en li "'rate. 

139. As to the necessity for the creation of a new Authority in the United Kingdom 
to deal with emigration matters generally, we need only say thar we are in entire 
agreement with the recommendations made in the Final lleport of the Dominions 
Royal Commission* that an Authority should be set up which would absorb the 
present Emigrants' Information Office and concern itself with the following matters : — 

(d) The licensing of passage brokers and passage brokers' agents ; 

(/)) The licensing of emigration societies ; 

((■) The general dissemination of information as to the openings in the Oversea 
Dominions ; 

(c/) The task of reporting annually upon (piestions connected with Imperial 
migration. "j" 

(f) Such duties in regard to the snpcr\ision of ihc eniigriition i<\' Poor Law 
children and cliihhxMi from Industrial and lieforniatoi'v scliools as may be 
assigned to it. 

We also agree with the lloyal ("ommission that it will U; necossary for the new 
yVutliority (o advist; upon :i,ll matters coiuiected vvith the acconunodation for emigrants on 
board sliip, and other (|ueslions affecting their lieallh dm'ing the N'oyage. 

11(1. In our opinion ilie |)ro|(osed new Anlhoril \' should also he I'uipowered to deal 
with the eiuigiMl ion oi' ex >er\ic(; men, their wives, families, and relalives. 

(2).— Constitution of Central Authority, and Relation of Oversea 

Governments to it. 

111. file |)onlinion^ liu\al t'oninhssion reeoinmeiided ihat ihere should he a 
Cenl,ral Authorilysel up. whieh would he a I )eparlment. or Sub- l)e|iarlnienl, ol the Home 



■ *» .S'rc Chapter VliLdf [(Jil. S K;2]. 
t 111 this cuiuu'.Kiun it wouUl be necessary Cor th(! Ilonii' OlTice. tlio Hoard of Trade, and the 
Authority to arrange jointly as to tlie form ol return upon which statistics of emigration and 
inuiiiLi'ralidii are based. 



liEFORt- 25 

Goveriimeni:, tmd that a Consultative Board should be appoiuted, on which the Oversea 
Dominions and others should be represented, to advise the new Authority, and secure the 
necessary co-operation between the Home and Oversea Governments with regard to 
matters of mi2:ration. 

142. We agree entirely as to the necessity for such co-operatiou, but we ourselves go 
further than the Royal Commission. In our opinion representatives of the Oversea 
Domini<jns and others should be connected with the new Authority, not in an advisory 
but in an executive capacity. 

148. It is, of course, axiomatic that, whatever the machinery set up for controlling 
emigration from the United Kingdom, a Minister of the United Kingdom, who can answer 
to Parliament for it, must ultimately be responsible for its work. 

Subject, however, to that ultimate responsibility, we suggest that the actual executive 
duties should be entrusted to a Board, to be forthwith constituted, made up on the 
foUowino- lines : — 



'& 



A Chairman, who should be able to devote his whole time to the subject, appointed 
by the Minister of the Crown responsible for the work of the Board. 

Five representatives of the Home Government, one to be nominated by each oi 
the following Departments: — 

Colonial Office. 

War Office (temporarily). 

Board of Trade. 

Local Government Board, 

Ministry of Labour. 

Four i-epresentatives nominated respectively by — 

Tiie Government of the Dominion of Canada. 
The Government of the Commc>nwealth of Australia. 
The Government of the Dominion of New Zealand. 
The Government of the Union of South Africa. 

One of the Agents-General for the Australian States. 
One of the Agents-General for the Canadian Provinces. 
Five unofficial members, of whom two should be women. 

144. It would be understood that the two Agents-General were appointed as re- 
pi'esenting their colleagues on all matters other than those where State or Provincial 
interests were specially inNolved. Care should be taken to ensure that, wherever the 
interests of any Australian State or Canadian Province was involved, the Agent- 
General concerned should be consulted formally by the Chairman, and, where he 
considered it necessary, sununoned to attend a meeting of the Central Authority and to 
vote in respect of those interests. 

Representatives of other parts of the Empire, such as Newfoundland and Rhudesla, 
and of other Departments of the Home Government, such as the Board of Agriculture, 
should be similarly consulted and invited to attend with similar voting powers whenever 
their interests were involved. 

14.5. It will be essential for women experienced in emigration matters to be 
associated with the practical task of dealing with the wives and families of ex-service 
men, and generally with problems connected with the emigration of women and girls. 

14G. We do not contemplate any alteration in the various organisations which the 
Dominion and State Governments maintain. These would go on as before, and would, 
of course, have the final voice in the selection of ex-service men to participate in their 
own special settlement schemes. But we feel confident that representation of the 
Oversea Dominions and others interested in emigration on the Central Authority would 
add to the smoothness oi its working, whilst such representation would also tend to 
obviate overlapping of effort. 



26 EMl'lRE SETTT-EMENT COMMITTEE : 



(3).— Necessity for creation of the New Authority before the 

Conclusion of the War. 

1 17. So fill- :is tlie geiienil control of iMuiijTation from the United Kingdom is 
con'jerned, it is obvious that the present is an une(jaalle(l opportunity for effecting a 
chansre. Emij-Tatioii is at a standstill. Such vested interests as ijreviously existed 
have practically vanished. Now is the time to take action m the way or carrying out 
a muL-h needed reform of methods. 

So far as the emigration of ex-service men is concerned, it is obvious that unless 
the machinery for distributing information is i-eady before the War is over, and made 
(•;i])iil)le of adaptation to tlie pace of demobilisation, the (Tovernments concerned will be 
o|)en to the charge of having neglected an important side of reconstruction work, and 
there will be grave danger of men drifting away outside the Em])ire. 

We would, tiierefore, lay stress upon the necessity for the ])rompt creation of a new 
Authorily. In our opinion the matter will brook no delay. 



(4).— Nature of "Work Needed and Provision for Expansion. 

1 IN. W hat the i)usitiou will be at the end of tlie VVar few would care to jn-ophesy. 
It is certain that the United Kingdom will be faced with a National Debt at least five 
<:r six times as large as that before the War. It is equally certain that its working 
po])ulation at the ages most impcjrtant for industry will be seriously dejjleted througli the 
havoc caused by death and disablement. Without taking into account the diminished 
industrial efficiency caused by disablement, the reduction in the malc^ population owing 
to deaths due to mihtary and naval casualties will be serious. It is officially estimated 
that, by April 1918, if the War lasts so long, not only will the whole of the natural 
increase of the male po]nilation of England and Wales between the ages 20 and o5 since 
lull have disappeared but there will actually be a considerable tlecrease of the male 
population between those ages.* 



Other factors in the position which are still undecided at present are :— 

{(t) The size of the Army which will be needed after the War. 

(b) The nature of the obligations which will be required by the Home (jovernmiat 
from men of military age, and 

(<■) The reciprocal obligations between the .Mother (Viuntry and the Dominions 
with regard to an Imperial .Vrmy. 

I 111. On llic other hand there is at least the possibility that there will he di tfi(ailiies 
and distress in the United Kingdom after the War caused by the dislocatii)!! of industry, 
the dis|)lacement of labour, etc., which properlv directed emigration might, under certain 
(Conditions, relieve. It has also to be remendiered that thert; has been ])racticallv no 
emigration from tlie I'nited Kingdom during the War, so that the Domin.ions will liavi' 
b(!en de])ri\ed ol theii- normal How of inuuigrants. So far as women and children are 
concerned, the jiopidation oi' the United Kingdom a\ailable for emigration has pn: tantu 
increased. 



Note. — It Hliould he n()(c<l, in this conuexidii, dial tlio (Iccrease in Mic l)ir(li rate of tlio Ihiileii 
l\iiit,'(l(ini, whicli lK'fj;an in hSTll, comnu'iiced several yoacs sooner than the decrease in the doath rate 
in (lie tirst year of life and in the early years of life. * Consequently there has been of recent; years a 
rctUiclion in the niimber of males and females entering the period' helween the a.ijes 1 ')-;'() (,syv Final 
lleport of Dominions Royal (Jonunission, p. <S7 of [(M. (S4l'>'J]. i 

It should also b(^ noted that in l!)i;') it was estimated that tlie net eungration of males rnmi Ilie 
United Kingdom between tlio ages lS-:',() was greater than the normal increase by growth of 
pdinilation. in the ease of Scotland and Ireland, the net emigration between these ages was more 
than double the natural iucreaee. ([Cd. 8402] loc. cit.) 



REPORT. 27 

150. We ineutioii tliese considerations and counter-coiisiderations aa showing how 
impossible it is, in the present circunistances, to offer any decided opinion as to the 
extent of the activities of any new Authority set up to deal with emigration from the 
United Kingdom. 

We can only say that the arrangements must be extremely elastic. The Authority 
should be ready to deal at once with essential matters. Thus it must be in a position 
to supply trustworthy information to ex-service men ; to record the names and careers of 
those who desire to emigrate ; and to transfer their cases, after preliminaries have been 
completed, to the office of the Dominion or State of their choice. It must also be 
prepared to deal immediately with various matters affecting emigration generally, such 
as the control of passage brokers, passage brokers' agents, and Emigration Societies. 

It should further be capable of quick expansion so as to be able to encourage and 
aid emigration more actively if experience proves such a course desirable, in order to 
relieve congestion in the ITnited Kingdom and should opportunities in the Oversea 
Dominions be proved concurrently tt) exist. 

151. The actual arrangements for setting up the new Authority are, of course, 
matters of administrative detail into which we need not enter, Ijut we may offer the 
following observations on this aspect of the question : — 

(a) The Central Emigration Authority should be housed in a buildino- in a 
central and easily accessible locality. , We do not think that the present 
quarters of the Emigrants' Information Office are suitable for the new 
Authority. 

{b) During the time when the Authority is dealing with in(juiries from ex- 
service men in large numbers it will obviously need a staff with special 
qualifications. 

The existing staff of the Emigrants' Information Office will, no doubt, 
be transferred to the service of the AutlKirity, but we should like to 
see added to them men who 

(1) have themselves served in tho Forces and 

(2) have had actual experience of life in the Dominions. 

These qualifications would enable them to give far better practical 
advice than others. 



XI. CONCLUSION. 



152. A considerable advance has already been made in the subject to which our 
main attention has been ilevoted — namely, the plans for settling ex-service men on 
the land in the various parts of the Enq)ire. We think that much credit is due to 
those who have spent their time and energy in maturing schemes. In particular, we 
feel that a deep debt of gratitude is due to the Royal Colonial Institute for their 
foresight in taking up the inqjortant subject of the Enquire settlement of ex-service men 
after the War ; to Sir Uider Haggard for travelling round the world in an honornry 
ca[)acity and asking the aid of the various (governments in carrying it out ; and still 
more to the Oversea Governments throughout the Enq)ire for their liberal offers — 
which are valuable not only for their generosity, but also for the way in which they 
have been made. L'he action of the Dominions in sending their men to fight shoulder 
to shoulder with the men from home has done much to consolidate the Empire ; their 
action now in placing the men from home on the same footing as their own men in land 
settlement will tend still further to that consolidation. 



28 EJiriKE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE : 

Summary of Conclusions and Recommendations. 

\.')?). We, now set out the various couclusious at which w(! liave arriveil on the 
(juestions referred to us, and the reconnnendatious which we wish to make. 

(1.) FACILITIES FOK LAND SETTLEMENT PRUVIDEU AND CONTEMPLATED. 

154. These are set out in Part II. of this Report (paras. 11-81). 

It is quite impossible to form an estimate of how many ex-service men might be 
accommodated under all the schemes taken together, beyond saying that the numbers 
will amount to tens of thousands. For instance, in the Prairie Provinces of Canada, 
a large number of men who have previous experience can take uj) land at once ; and 
besides tliese, o\' men without agricultural experience who should go to work on other 
farms until they are competent to take up land, Mr. Bruce Walker estimates that in 
the first three years after the War the country could absorb !:)U,000. In Queensland, 
the preliminary scheme for soldier settlements provides for nearly 20,000 men. The 
witness for A\'estern Australia estimates that in three years that State could absorb 
more than 14,000 in agricultural pursuits. In New South Wales the Yanco scheme 
will provide 1,000 farms and besides that, there are large areas, both in that State 
and elsewhere, which at present are without railway comnuinication and are not ready 
for productive settlement. If increased facilities can be obtained for the securing of 
loan moneys for development pur|>oses in the near future, the area available for settlement 
would be very greatly increased in the course of a few years. 

15.5. In some cases the schemes to which we have referred are incom])lete, as they 
have not yet been thought out in detail. In other cases we are informed that the 
Governments concerned intend to formulate further plans for which legislation will 
be necessary. We trust that these m;itters will have so far advanced before the cessation 
of hostilities that when the time comes the Central Emigration Authority may be able 
to explain each scheme with etpial clearness to intending settlers. 

(2.) MAinUED MKN, THEIR WIVES AND FAMILIES, AND OTHER WOMKN EMIGRANTS. 

l.')G. We are of o))inion that in all arrani-ements for the settlement ot ex-service 



III 



en in the Oversea I)omini(jns a preference should be given to miirried men (para. 89). 



157. Owing to the need of preliminary training and other reasons, the practice 
hitherto has been for a man who wishes to settle on the land to go first and for his wife 
and family to join him after an interval. In the case of ex-service men transportation 
difiiculties [)rovide an additional reason for this course. We lay great stress, however, on 
the need for facilitating the emigration of the women relatives of ex-service men and of 
the fiancees of those engaged to be married, and suggest various means to this end 
(paras. 8y-!)3 and 99-100). 

15,S. We also make jiroposals as to the steps to be taken to facilitate the emigration 
to ihe Oversea Dominions of the widows and orphans of ex-service men. We further 
refer to the case of other women who may be displaced at the end of the War for wlmm 
openings might be iound. We have dwelt on this at some length as we consider female 
emigration to be the essential foundation of all ertective Empire settlement. We are 
strongly in favour of the utilisation for this pur[iose of the assistance offered by the 
societies which have specialised in the emigration of women (])aras. 94-98 and 101-104). 

(o.) NEED FOR CATITAL AND EXl'lORIIONCE. 

159. The cjipital stated to be required varies from a very small sum in the Prairie 
Provinces of Canada, Ontario, and New lirunswick, to ,i:i,000 or .£1,500 in the Union of 
South Africa and Rhodesia. It is true that in some cases the land is a free grant, iiik! that 
in most cases the piiyment for liie kind is distriliiitcd over ;i number of vears. further. 



REPORT. 29 

the Governments or the Agricultural Credit Banks are ready to advance money for 
imiH-ovements at a moderate rate of interest ; hence the amount of capital required is 
smaller than at first sight appears. This remark particularly applies in the case of 
Canada and Australia, where, in addition to the assistance offered by the Provincial and 
State Governments, fiu'ther financial help may be provided b}^ the Central Governments. 

160. Again, the evidence as to the necessity of pi-evious agricultural expei'ience is 
unanimous. All the witnesses agreed also in saying that it should, in general, be ac(juired 
locally. In a limited number of cases, training farms and similar institutions have been 
established in the Dominions at which such experience can be obtained ; those who do not 
wish, or are unable, to go to sucli institutions are strongly advised to obtain situations on 
other farms. 

161. TJie net result of the evidence, accordingly, is that all intending settlers, 
wliether ex-service men or others, should, on arrival, rather take up farming employment 
for a time than seek to obtain holdings of their own at once. It is essential that this 
should be clearly understood, and that ex-service men should realise that they ought to 
make their arrangements accordingly. 

(4.) GROUP SETTLEMENTS. 

162. In many cases, as large numbers of contiguous holdings will be offered for selec- 
tion by ex-service men, it will be possible for a party of friends to arrange to be near 
together. In a few, such as New Brunswick and Ontario, "community" or "group" 
settlements will be formed. We believe that this is an idea which will meet the 
views of many ex-service men who will wish to be amongst friends from the same naval 
or military unit in their new homes. We suggest that arrangements should be made 
whereby men, before leaving the United Kingdom, should be able to form themselves into 
groups, who would go through their training together with the object of forming 
special settlements. 

163 In this connection we may remark that, although previous experience of special 
colonies has not been happy (as was pointed out in the Report of the Departmental 
Committee on Agricultural Settlements in the British Colonies in 1906)* the Regulations 
for ''community " or "group" settlements made by the Governments concerned, which 
are before us, seem to have been so framed that there is ever^- reason to hope that the 
causes which led to the failure of earlier attempts will be avoided. 

(5.) TRAINING IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. 

164. We do not think it expedient to establish Government farms in the United 
Kingdom for training ex-service men who desire to settle on the land in the Oversea 
Dominions. The requisite training, as explained above, is best obtained in the Dominions 
themselves, on either Government or private farms. On the other hand, work on a 
farm in the United Kingdom is often a good means of testing a man's aptitude for 
oversea life. If, therefore, ex-service men who intend to emigrate are delayed in doing 
so by the lack of accommodation on ships we think that it would be well to call their 
attention to such facilities for elementary training as have been provided b}' existinu- 
institutioDS, &c. (paras. 84-S6). 

(6.) THE QUESTION OF THE DISABLED. 

165. There are few opportunities in the Oversea Dominitms for even partially 
disabled ex-service men from the United King-dom. 



ft" 



We recommend consultation with the Central Emigration Authority which we 
propose in cases where opportunities offer. If the diflficulties which arise in any pai'ticular 
cases can be overcome, we consider that every facility should be given in the way of 
advance of pensions, &c. (para. 87). 



[Cd. 2978.] 



no EMPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE : 



(7.) llnw INFORMATION SHOTLD BE MADE ACCESSIBLE. 

1()(). The pro])er perioil lor making officiiil infonniitioii as to openings overseas 
accessible to tlie troops is that between the cessation of hostilities and the time wlien 
men are granted furlough ])revious to being discharged. We outline a scheme for the 
purpose of distributing such information by means of ])osters and leaflets, and by 
utilising the local c; )nimiltees which, it is understood, will be set uj) on demobilisation 
(paras.' 107 110). 

(8.) MEIMCAL EXAMINATION. 

167. We think tliat, in all cases of oversea settlement, arrangements should be 
made wdiereby ex-service men who wish to participate in the schemes of the Oversea 
Governments may be officially assured, before they leave the United Kingdom, that 
they will not be rejected, on arrival, on medical or other grounds. 



('.).) TTIK (QUESTION OF TRANSPOUT. ' 

IGS. The question of facilities for transport is extremely obscure ; lint all the 
available indications point to the ])robability that, tor a considerable time after 
the cessation of hostilities, the l>ritisli shipping available will be (juite insufficient to 
accommodate any large number of ex-service men desirous of emigrating from the 
United Kingdom (para. 11 f). • 



(10.) THE QUESTION OF FINANCE, 

169. We make various suggestions for facilitating the passage to the Dominions of 
ex-service men who may have an opjiortunity of settling there tluring the period 
immediately following the termination of hostilities. Whether the Home or Oversea 
(xovernments should afterwards contribute towards the passage of ex-service men who 
wish to emigrate must, we think, entirely depend upon the exigencies of the time 
and, in particular, upon the capacity of the United Kingdom, after demobilisation, to 
absorb her own ex-service men (jiaras. 122-6), 

170. We think, however, that the conclusion of th(> War will afford an unequalled 
o])])ortunity for attempting to apply scientiticaJly the cajiital and man power a-.ailahle 
wirhin the Empire for the develojmient of its component i)arts. We have drawn up the 
outlines of a scheme directed towards this object and particularly for encouraging the 
settlement of ex-service men in those jiarts of the Empire wliciv' tlic extent of the 
development possible is depemlent upon greater facilities lui- olitaininii' ctiiiital 1j\- loan 
(paras. 127 l.SG). 

(11.) CONSTITUTION OF A CENTRAL Alllloi; I IV. 

171. We make detailed i'ecoinmen<lations as to the conip(jsition and duties of a 
Central i''migration Autb.ority to dc^al with the whole question oi' (inigrntion, and in 
|)artieular with the emigration of ex-service men. It should eoiUain re]>resentatives 
of both the Home and ()\(!rsea ( Jos'ennniMits, and also ;i liniiled uuinher ut' un(j|lieial 
members. 

Tn our opinion it is inqierati\"(' that this AuthoritA' should lie set up without delav 
(paras. 1 '.'>7 I .") 1 ). 

172. We desire to express our appreciation of the zeal and a1)ilit\' with which 
Mr. Hardini;' and Dr. Ueiniefather lia\'e fullille(| tluir duties as seei'e'taiies. Their 



REPORT. 



31 



knowledge of the Dominions and the attention which they have paid for many years to 
the ([uestion of emigration have been invahiable. 

We have the honour to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servants. 



TENNYSON {Chairman), 

F. D. ACLAND, 

WILLIAM C. P.RIDGLMAN, 

BUliNHAM, 

H. H. FAWCETT, 

ANDREW FISHER. 

P. LYTTELTON (rELL. 

H. RIDER HA(rGARD, 

.]. HOWARD, 

DAVID C. LAMB, 

PETER McBRIDE, 

JOHN McCALL, 

THOS. MACKENZIE, 

T. C. MACNAGHTEN, 

IAN MACPHERSON, 

NEWTON J. MOORE, 

P. PELLETIER, 

OWEN PHILIPPS, 

JOHN A. REID, 

R. REID, 

GEO. H. ROBERTS. 

T. B. ROBINSON, 

ROBERT ROGERS,* 

W. P. SCH REINER, 

ARTHUR STEEL-MAI'lLAND, 

EDWARD G. STRIITT, 

A. V. SYMONDS, 

J. H. TURNER, 

C. G. WADE, 

J. BRUCE WALKER,* 

FIJED. W. YOUNG 



E. J. Hardino, 

Sfcrefar;/. 

V. W. Pennefather, 

Assista nt See reh i ri/ . 



London, 2Sih July, !'.>; 



As authorised by telegram. — TENNYSON, 



Ai'I'KNDlX I. 33 



APPENDIX I. 



Memorandum by Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell. {See parag-raph 136.) 



THE FINANCE OF EMPIRE LAND SETTLEMENT. 



In view of ilie ;uliii)ti(iii ul Sir 1{. Jjdideii's lU-solutioii liy llie liuiioriiil (.'oui'erciice. 
followiug- Tipoi) tlie conchisiu)i.s of the Doniiiiioiis Koyal Commission, we may assume as the 
basis of future Imijeiial policy that the prosperity and increase of the white popuhition 
throu<>liout the Empire is to he recognised as the common interest alike of Great Britain and 
of all other Dominions of the Crown. The acceptance of this policy involves (anunigst other 
factors which are beyond our reference) the regulated migration of British subjects for whom 
no oiieuings are available in one territory to other territories in which they are not only 
needed but can thrive. The settlement of ex-soldiers as cultivating landowners can only be 
regarded as a stage in this policy. 

The Committee has recognised that there may be employment foi- ex-soldiers on still wider 
|)i()jects of imlustrial develojiment which await the attention of His Majesty's (jovernnients 
throughout the J'lmpire; but in dealing with finance, this Committee can only consider the 
limited, though not inconsiderable, pr(d)lem involved in the settlement of ex-soldiers with 
little or no capital, upon the lands olfered to them by the Dominions. 

The information submitted shows that most of the Oversea Dominions seeiv to give imme- 
diate effect to the policy of Empire Settlement, and have prepared liberal and well-considered 
schemes based upon agricultural training and the use of State credit, which will offer to 
industrious and competent men and their children every prospect of eventual prosperity, and 
thus augment the productive power and population of the whole Empire. All these schemes, 
however, are dependent upon the provision of large sums — 

First, to prepare land for settlers by roads, houses, fencing, irrigation, &c. 

Secondly, to assist the settler temporarily at the outset with the guidance and the 
capital required to accelerate his production and ensure his early success. 

It is, on the other hand, an important factor in the finance of these schemes that, in 
return for the support given by the State's assistance, each settler is under obligation to 
jiroceed with the improvement and the development of his holding and may be displaced if 
he i)roves unsatisfactory ; further, in due course he must repay with interest by easy instal- 
ments the capital sunk in establishing him; his land remains the State's security for its advances 
xintil this is accomplished. Doubtless there will always be a certain proportion of loss, which 
must fall upon the general revenue of the. particular State, but experience jjroves that if the 
orijimal ncJwme is sound this wastage is not serious. Thus, the protection and guarantee of 
ultimate rejiayment afforded to the capital advanced for land settlement distinguishes the 
financial risks from those involved in general enterprises of Imperial development. There is 
in the improved land specific security for any public loan raised for settlement, and early 
redemption is assured by the settler's repayments. 

The capital required for the most careful schemes of settlement is large. Apart from the 
actual cost of migration — a comparatively small factor, which the Committee has already 
considered — £300 to £700 a man (i.e., per family) must be provided by the State or the indi- 
vidual before a properly equipped farm and homestead can be established in a new country. 
Assuming that we aim at the eventual establishment of only 100,000 ex-s(ddiers unprovided 
with capital, an expenditure of £50,000,000 must be contemplated. On the other hand, this 
expenditure, large as it appears, is amply justified in a new country by the accelerated increase 
of population and production which it creates, and the augmented revenue from taxation and 
railways. In short, each established settler with his family may be regarded as a source of 
substantial strength and income to the State in perpetuity. Thus, on a productive and healthy 
soil, and under experienced guidance, the temporary advance of capital to establish capable 
settlers on the land is a thoroughly profitable and secure investment for both the Old Country 
and the New — assuming, as all parties do, that the unity of the Emjjire is as indissoluble a^i 
that of England and Scotland. • 

It is also in evidence that, whilst in most cases the Dominion Governments desire to con- 
tribute without stint or distinction to the settlement of all ex-soldiers by the free offer of 
well-chosen land, together with experienced guidance and supervision, their efforts, even for 
their own returned men (who obviously must have the first claim) will be largely dependent 
upon loans which must be raised hereaftei' in London. But the resources and borrowing powers 
of the Dominions are not unlimited, an(l in offering the same advantages to ex-soldiers of the 
Old Country it is assumed that the cajiital temporarily recjuired to establish the latter must 
be provided by Imperial credit. 

11477 C 



34 EJiriKE SETTLEMENT COJLMITTEE : 

Thus, unless land settli'uieiit tijKiiue is xiuitwl and CMjusdlidated from the outset, the capital 
which is immediately leciuiied is liliely to he raised under expensive and inconvenient con- 
ditions; each State will compete with the others and with Great Britain lor new loans on the 
London ilarket, or Great Britain will he called upon to laise the capital required and to 
je-lend it lo tiie Dominions. In cither case the funds borrowed would not he specifically ear- 
marked for Empire Settlement; and therefore would not have the advantag-e of the sjjecific 
swurity which is available to provide for the early repayment of capital. Again, reliance 
upon the Home Government will leave the local Governments dependent upon appeals to the 
British Treasury, and u])ou the incalculable alternations of British party jjoliticiaus — (some 
adverse to the whole Imjjerial policy) — at a time when there will be an immense and not 
unreasonable pressure iijion the House of Commons to reduce War Debt and taxation. 

In view of such ditticulties it is su<i'<>-ested that the Finance of Empire Settlement should 
be sei)arated from the " ^'ational Debts " of (ireat Britain and the Dominions, and be based 
upon the principle assumed at the outset — i.e., that rcfiulated migTution within the Emjjire 
is the common interest of all Dominions of the Crown. I'his implies that the capital required 
siiall be jirovided by a single and separate " Empire Settlement Loan," I'aised ujion the joint 
credit and cum-intee of (ireat Britain and of each Dominion wliich desires to jjarticipate in 
the general scheme. There would be a jjrivate covenant between the guarantors under wliicli 
ca(di State would be responsible to Great Britain oidy for the repayment at due dates of the 
ca])ital actually assigned to it and the interest thereon, the British Treasury accepting respon- 
sd)ility for the default ui any State, shcjuld the contingency arise. Ea(di State would guarantee 
that all payments made by settlers shall be remitted to the Baulv of England to provide for 
the interest and redemi)tion of the Loan and that it would make good their arrears oi; deficiencies 
out of its general revenues. Since no interest is usually ])aid l)y the settler for the first three 
or four years (though it is accumulated to his debit), it would be legitimate that interest on 
the Honds should be paid out of capital for the same period. 

The nominal interest would depend upon the future vahie ut money, but su(di a loan 
slumld be issued in Bonds with cou|ioiis and would be, in fact, a guaranteed mortgage, repay- 
ment being made by annual diawiugs, which would commence at an early date (say in seven 
yeai's) and carry a ])remiuni on I'edemption. This would ensure a market value at or above 
]iar, and facilitate the issue of a later series of Bonds as recjuired at a lower interest. The 
expendituie would be gradual, and the amount issued at the outset need not exceed the require- 
ments then in sight. Such an issue would not hamper any lai-ge operations of the Treasury 
for the reduction or conversion of War Debt. It would establish the imity and solidarity 
of lnn)erial resources in matters of Imperial concern, while the short currency (say 25 years) 
and the steady rediudion of these "Empire Settlement Bonds" would protect the British 
Treasury from any appreciable risk in respect of its guaiantee. 

There is a further reason for treating- separately Empire Settlement Finance. While the 
Committee endorses the policy of employing ex-soldiers in the judicious develoiiment of Imperial ' 
resources, this i)olicy implies the provision of large funds, not immediately remunerative, by 
loans running for at least 50 years. Interest on these will necessarily impose a charge upon 
taxjiayers for many years, and the financial ariangements for this will require far more serious 
considerati(jn than is necessary in a land settlement scheme which provides for the interest 
and the early redemption of the Ijonds. The latter, in fact, is a pioneer ex])erinient in Imperial 
Finance which is devoid of serious risk, whilst the former involves the creation of a joint 
Imjjerial Treasury, a proposition far outside the scope of tin's Committee. 

It may, however, be desirable to note that the British Treasury cannot now prudently 
accept responsil)ility single-handed for raising long-term loans required for general Imperial 
develo])ments outside (jreat Britain, nor impose ujjon British taxpayers alone the sole liability 
for such id)ligatious. It must not be forgotten that whilst our financial relations with Ireland 
are uncertain, the tax-jjroducing population of (jireat ]3ritaiu can scarcely be reckoned higher 
tlian 4'!, 0(1(1, ()()(), with little room for a prosperous increase, while the War is estimat(>d io 
extinguish at least £^1, 000. 000, 000 of accumulated savings which have been hitherto available 
lor investment. In addition, the annual income'hitherto brought into the country from abroad 
liy interest on investments and the expendituie of foreigners residing in (Jieat Britain will 
lie greatly reduced (say by £150,000.(100). Thus (unless Germany ('ontributes to our War 
Debt) wc shall find oui-elves with reduced resources and hampered l)y high taxation, which 
will diminish savings and re])el foreign ca]>ltal, foreign business, and tdieign residents, and 
lca\c as to meet gigantii- obligations out of a greatly reduced national income. Fnder sucli 
cimililions it is obvious that Great Britain's cunimand of caiiital must be seriously restricted. 

On the other hand, the population and wealth of the Dominicms will increase rapidly. It 
seems inevitable that children now alive will live to see the popnlations of the Dominicnis 
\':w more numerous, i)i(d)ably more lightly taxed, with a greater revenue, and j)ossibly com- 
manding better credit, than the Uld Country. 

In view of these considerations it is evident that Great Britain can only incur p<'rmaiiont 
liabilities foi' geneial scdiemes of Empire development provided (he>- ;nc shared by the 
Dominions, whose rccjurces must hereafter exceed her own. 

Fimilly. as regards the allociition of Empire Settlement Funds. The meihods of the I-ocal 
lioaiis Comniissioners offer a. ns(dul precedent. A special fund, distinct from the Nati(Hial 
Dtdit, is raised for local expenditure on jniblic works by tlie issue, as required, of " TA)cal 
Loans Stock." Public bodies re(|uiring' c;i|iital submit their ])i'o.jects. |)laiis, ^mil csiinnites. 
with ilctails as Id the sources of revenue which would be assigned for the interest and redemii- 
(iiin III the loans. 11, upon eNaminati(Mi , the ))roject is found to be well considered and the 
security olfered is sat isfactoiy . the loan is authoi'ised and chea]) capital is thus pidvided withoul 
increasing the Naticnial Debt, ami wiihont the exjiensc and incon\ cniciicc ol issuing small 
local loans ujion the niaikcl. 

F(dh)wing such lines, it might be arranged that a small expert Financial Committee (say 
five)_ .should he attached lo tin- pnqiosed Emigraliini .Vutlnn-ily. One member should be 
nominated liy the Treasury, ancidiei- a linaiicial exjieit — by the |{aiik of I'higland : amdher 



APPENDIX I. OO 

by the Hi<>h Commissioners; anotlier by tlie Agents-General; and one, at least, should have 
experiejice in Colonial Land Settlement. 

To such a Committee applications for funds would be submitted by the representative in 
London of any Dominion,' State, or Province, with all ijecessary details, valuations, and 
estimates; the dates at which instalments of cajiital would be required, and when repayments 
would accrue. Unless the experts on the Committee should find cause for believing that the 
scheme required reconsideration the loan would be granted. The borrowing State would 
contract to pay interest and instalments of capital at agreed dates; the rate of interest would 
be fixed to cover the nett cost (including premixim) at which the loan has been raised, and a 
trifling percentage would l)e added for necessai'y exjjenses of management. The local Govern- 
ment would bear the whole responsibility for the soundness of thf\ scheme su])mitted, for the 
administration of the money advanced, and for the reiiayment of the agreed sum at due dates, 
whatever its own arrangements with the settlers. 

To sum up, it is urged that a separate " Empire Settlement Loan," guaranteed by Great 
Britain and the Dominions which participate in it, is expedient upon the following grounds: — 

(1) Land settlement is the common interest of all British Dominions, and therefore all 

Dominions participating in a united scheme should accept a proportional liability 
for the temi)()rary expenditure involved. Such an anangenient will oifer an 
experiment in joint Imperial Finance which is limited in duration and free from 
serious risk. 

(2) The immediate settlement of ex-soldiers being regarded as only a special stage in a 

]iernianenT movement, the financial arrangements should provide for continuous 
develoiiment in the future. 

(3) It is imdesirable that the provision of capital should depend upon competing issues 

of various States, or upon their applications to Great Britain for advances which 
will hamjier the reduction of War Debt. 

(4) Loans for Lai\d Settlement being based upon specific im]noving security which 

l^rovides for early redemption, should not be merged in the general public debts 
of various States, or in a general long-dated Empire Loan for Imjierial develop- 
ments — if such should be contemplated. 

(5) Funds required specifically for Empire Settlement can "ba raised, as and wheiij 

needed, by the issue of giuiianteed " Empire Settlement Bonds," redeemable 
after the first few years by annual drawings at a premium, and there would 
be every prospect that the rate of interest could be reduced as the scheme develops. 

(G) The Fund would be managed by a small Committee in Lon<lon, and, subject to 
certain conditions, would be allocated to specific schemes prepared by the States 
applying, each State being responsible for the proper administration of the capital 
advanced to it, and ior the payment of the agreed interest and instalments of 
capita] at due dates. 

P. Lttteltox Geil. 
June 30th, 1917. 



1I47T 



86 EMPIIiK SETTLEMENT COMMITTKK: 



APPENDIX II. 



List of Witnesses {see paragraph 3). 



(rt.) General Purposes Committee. 

Sir H. Rider Hat,'^Mi'(l. 

Colonel H. E. Rawson, C.B 1 Representing the Standing Emigration Committee of the Roj-al 

Mr. F. Morris i Colonial Institute. 

Sir .John Tavernei-, K.C.M.G. ... \ Representing the Empire Land Settlement Committee of the 

Mr. Christopher Turnor Royal Colonial Listitute. 

Mr. A. R. U. Corbett I ^ 

The Hon. Mrs. Evelyn Cecil ) Representing the Joint Council of Women's Emigration 

The Hon. Mrs. Norman Grosvenor ... ) o„„;„Moa 
Miss Vernon ) 

Mrs. N. Smith Carrington \ 

Miss Wingate I Representing the Young Women's Christian Association. 

Miss Wood ... J 

Mrs. Challoner Chute Representing the Girls' Friendly Society. 

Mr. Chamberlain ) Representing the Young Men's Christian Association. 

Mr. Pilkington J ' 

l}'''l^r<J'\^^'^^'T ■■ ] Representing the Church Army. 

Mr. W. W. .Jemmett j ^ 

Mr. Herbert Easton Hon. Secretary, British Immigration League of Australia. 

Mr. T C. Macnaghten | Representins; the Emigrants' Liformation Otlice. 

Mr. Malcolm Jones J ^ '^ ° 

Commissioner Lamb ... ... ... Representing the Salvation Army. 

Major-General Sir Ronald Lane,K.C.P>. "j 

Mr. G. Fiennes ... ... ... ... ■ Repiesenting the Naval and Military Emiaration League. 

Mr. E. T. Scammell j 

Mr. F. R. Jones Acting Secretary of the Overseas Club. 

Lieut.-Colonel G. Maclaren P>rown ... Representing the Canadian Pacific Railway Company. 

The Hon. W. A. Holman ... ... Premier of New South Wales. 

In addition, most of the Oversea rei^rosentatives on the Empire Settlement Committee gave 
evidence in reply to a list of questions drawn up by the Cliairman. Their answers are printed as 
Appendix III. 

(I).) SUB-COMMITTEE. 

Mr. C. F. Rey ... ... ... ... Director of Employment Exchanges, Ministry of Labour. 

Mr. D. C. Barnard ... ... ... Small Holdings Commissioner, ]k)anl of Agriculture and 

Fisheries. 

Mr. Vaughan Nash, C.B., C.V.O. ... Secretary of the Reconstructtnn Committee. 



APPENDIX 111. 



.">( 



APPENDIX III. 



Answers by the Representatives of the Oversea Dominions to questions drawn 

up hy the Chairman {see paragraph 3). 



QUESTION I. 

Are the facilities mentioned in the last edition 
of the Emigrants' Information Office Hand- 
book— 

(a) as regards settlement on the land; and 
(6) as regards other openings for emigrants, 
still in force, as regards your State? 

Are there any other handbooks of general in- 
formation which you recommend for ex-service men 
intending to emigrate to your State? 

ANSWERS. 

Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg. — Yes; they are still in force. 
it.Tnv excellent handbooks dealing with agriculture 
have been issued both by the Dominion and Provin- 
cial Governments. 

I recognise the good work which is being done by 
the Emigrants' Information Office ; but I think it 
should be in a more prominent place, and should 
receive more encouragement from the Colonial Office. 
Also, it should issue small handbooks referring to 
separate >States and Provinces. 

Mr. W. R. Bowder, of the New Brunswick 
Government Office. — Yes. AVe have several hand- 
books, but they will of course have to be revised after 
the war. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia.— 

(a) and (h). Yes; and tiiey have lately been 
extended. 

The handbook I six^cially recommend is " WTiat 
Nova Scotia offers Returned Soldiers." Many other 
books and Government publications may also be 
recommended. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec— 

Yes. There are also at my office for distribution 
several kinds of handbooks for general information. 

Lt.-Col. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario.— 

(a) Yes. 

(6) Yes. 

More detailed information is contained in the 
Ontario Handbook and "Hint.s to Settlers in Northern 
Ontario." 



Australia. 

Major-General Sir Newton Moore, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia.— (a) and (b) 
As far as I know, all the provisions and facilities 
i-eferred to are still in force, with the exception that 
certain amendments of the Land Act have been made 
with a view to offering special facilities for the settle, 
ment of ex-soldiers. 

Hojuibooks. —New copies of the latest edition of 
the Selector's Guide are coming to hand and will be 
available for general information. 

Mr. F. W. Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia. — Yes: they are stiU in force, but owing to 
the prevailing war conditions are at present inopera- 
tive. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 

Tasmania.— Yes ; they are still in force. Other hand- 
books of general infoi'mation can be obtained by ex- 
service men from the Tasnianian Government Office. 

Sir Peter McBride, Ageut-General for Victoria.— 

Yes; they are still in force, but owing to the prevail- 
ing war conditions are at present inoperative. 

Several bulletins dealing with land settlement in 
Victoria can be obtained at the Office of the Agent- 
General. 

Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 
Wales. — Yes, they are still in force, but immigration 
on a large scale has been completely suspended since 
the commencement of the war 

There is a handbook giving general information 
with regard to the Murrumbidgoe Area. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland. — All the facilities referred 
to are still in force. Other publications dealing in 
detail with various industries can be obtained from 
the office of the Agent-General. 

South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 
Africa. — Yes ; the position is substantially the same. 
A pamphlet entitled " Land Settlement in South 
Africa," prepared by the South African Settlers' 
Information Committee, can be specially recom- 
mended . 



QUESTION II. 

What special facilities are being offered by 
your Government to ex-service men from your 
own State — 

(a) as regards settlement on the land; and 
(h) as regards other openings? 
How far are these facilities available for ex- 
service men from the United Kingdom and other 
parts of the Empire? 

What special qualifications, if any, are thought 
necessary or desirable as regards— 
(a) capital, and 
(6) previous experience? 

ANSWERS. 

Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg. — In order to promote emigration 
and thus develop the natural resources of Canada by 
increasing vastly her productive power, the Dominion 
Government proposes to continue its active propa- 
ganda for general emigration, while at the same 

(11477) 



time offering special and exceptionally favourable 
inducements for ex-.service men of the King's Military 
or Naval Forces, of good physique and character. 

The Canadian Minister of the Interior will reserve' 
large areas of suitable Dominion lands in the Prairie 
Pi'ovinces for the settlement of ex-service men. The 
administration of these reserved lands, so far as they 
relate to the settlement of ex-service men. will be in 
the hands of a Settlement Board consisting of three 
members posse.ssing an intim.ate and practical know- 
ledge of Western Canada and its farming conditions. 
It is proposed to grant to suitable and approved 
ex-service men 160 acres each of Crown Lands. The 
following persons will be entitled to participate in 
this free gift of land : — 

(a) Honourably discharged soldiers or sailors who 
enlisted for active service in the Military or 
Naval Forces of Canada in the present war.- 
[h) Honourably discharged .soldiers or sailors who 
were domiciled in Canada at the outbTeak 
of the said war or subsequent thereto and 
who were afterwards engaged in active ser- 
vice in the Military or Naval Forces of 
Great Britain or of one of her Allies in' 
said war. 

D 2 



38 



K.MPIUE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE 



(f) Honourably discharged soldiers or sailors who 
were not domiciled in t^aiiada at the out- 
break of the said war and who were en- 
gaged ill active service in the Military or 
Naval Forces of Great Britain or of any 
of the Self-governing British Dominions in 
said war. 
((/) Widows of the three above-mentioned classes 
whose husbands died while on active service. 
In addition to the 160 acres referred to above, the 
Settlement Board will be empowered to grant a loan 
of $2,0U0 to each suitahle and ajiproved person 
entering for a grant of land, such sum to be expended 
as the Settlement Board may see fit to direct. It is 
intended that this advance shall cover the cost ot 
erecting a house and barn, purchasing the necessary 
implements and stock (which .shall be obtained under 
favourable conditions) and otherwise preparing the 
allotment of land for successful settlement and cul- 
tivation. 

It is intended that the above loan of !f2,000 shall 
constitute a first charge on the homestead. The 
amount will be advanced at a low rate of interest, 
and the repayment is not to exceed fifteen years, 
though first payment may be deferred for two or three 
years after entering upon the land, as may appear 
expedient to the Settlement Board. 

There is much available land to the east, west and 
north of Edmonton, right up to the Peace River, 
some of which would require a certain amount of 
clearing. 

For the purpose of growing grain, a railway within 
from 12 to 15 miles makes it profitable. 

There is also land in the Hudson's Bay Railway 
District; but that requires clearing; and it is un- 
necessary to enter into that question as there is 
plenty of prairie land available for which clearing is 
not required. 

Persons applying for the land or loan above men- 
tioned must receive the approval of the Homestead 
Settlement Board. It is imperative that all appli- 
cants for land or loans shall have sufficient farming 
experience or training before being considered eligible 
for such laud or loan. Canada already possesses a 
consideralile orgaiiisaticui in Western Canada for 
training inexperienced agricultural workers by plac- 
ing' them upon the available demcmstratiou farms of 
the Dominion or Provincial (ioveruments or by placing 
them with .selected and approved farmers where they 
can receive a practical initiation into and thorough 
experience of the methods of Western cultivation, 
while working as farm employes at the current rate 
of wages. It is inteufled to extend these facilities 
as may be found requisite. In ordinary years the 
C^anadian Government Kmployment Bureau at Win- 
nipeg can place between 3(),(HH) and 10,0(10 men, with 
little or no practical experience in farmwork, with 
progressive farmers. In two years they can obtain 
practical knowledge of successful agricultural methods 
that would enable tlielii to apjiear before the Settle- 
ment Board as ai)]ilicants for the grant above referred 
to, with every chance of succeeding in their under- 
taking. 

Experience has taught us that training by means 
of employment at the curivnt late of wages is the 
most effe<-tive way of bringing inexperienced settlers 
to a knowledge of our conditions and methods. At 
the demonstration farms above mentioned, which are 
.•scattered over the West, practical work will be pro- 
vided for large numbers, and as in the course of time 
those trained during the first two years will pass out 
of the training (piarters into farming on their own 
account, it may ue assumed that there is ])ractically 
no limit within reason to the opiiortunities for train- 
ing inexperiencinl men who are physically fit and 
who desire to learn farniing in Western Canada. 

It is intended that the reservation of Crown Lands 
■ " lapse after three years, but it is also intended 



I should add that the financial assistance referred 
to above will be rendered to ex-service men located 
on other than Dominion lands in any Province in the 
confederaticui. 



nildll illM.-,f llllt^i lIliT-T- y,-. «!.-,, I»H^ i I. i.T nin,/ 111,-, liviv,, 

to encourage the |iros|iective Cana<liaii fanner to 
make entry for his homestea<l as soon as he places 
himself under tuition, so that his interests will be 
protected during the period of his apprenticeship. 

In the case, however, of thoroughly practical 
farmers who are able to satisfy the Board of their 
reasonable ability to <'nter upon the land at oiK'e 
and to undertake to conduct operations succe.ssfully, 
either becau.se of their experience in the Vnited 
Kingdom or (!anada. arrangements will be made to 
proceed with the settlenient without delay. 



Mr. W. R. Bowder, of the New Brunswick 

Government Office.— Legislation was passed by the 
>;ew Brunswick Parliament in the se.ssion of 1916 
authorizing the Provincial (loverninent to take the 
necessary steps to develop a comprehensive .system for 
settling upiui suitable lands in New Brunswick resi- 
dents of the Province who have served overseas, and 
also residents of the United Kingdom who have served 
the Empire in the present war. 

The scheme is to be carried out by the Farm Settle- 
ment Board of the Province working in conjunction 
with an Advisory Settlement Board ap[.oiiited for 
the purpose. 

The present intention is to establish community 
settlements, f<.r which purpose an area of 20,000 acies 
has already been set aside near the National Trans- 
c(mtinentai Railway; further areas will be set aside 
if required. 

Each of the settlements is intended to accom- 
modate from 100 to 250 families. 

The following are the Regulations- governing the 
.settlements as approved by the Advisory Settlement 
Board:— . , , ^ , 

That a suitable village or town site be selected, 
with due consideration to future water and sewerage 
requirements, either on the railway or as convenient 
to same as possible, and that 160 acres be reserved 
in the centre for this purpose, to be used in the first 
instance as a demonstration farm run by the Govern- 
ment, where t«ains and implements will be available 
U) hire for the use of the settlers not able to buy 
for themselves, and where employment would be given 
to the settlers. At the cross roads in the centre of 
this lot would be located the .school, church, store, 
creamery, &c. Seed grain and fertilizer will be pro- 
vided at cost for cash <u- sold on six months' credit, 
interest to be charged, or grain taken in payment in 
the fall at market price. 

That farms 40 rods wide b.> laid out on each side of 
the four roads radiating from this centre and abutting 
on a line running diagonally from the four corners 
of the central site, as per plan attached. The first 
farms adjoining the village would be one-eighth (|) 
of a mile long, containing about 10 acres, gradually 
increasing to the maximum length of Ij miles and 
containing 100 acres, but not more than 50 acres 
will be sold to any applicant the first year, but he 
may have the option of purchasing the remaining 
acres of his farm at a price per acre to be deter- 
mined bv the Farm Settleiiient Board and approved 
by the "Advisory Board. In this way al)Out 100 
families can ]>e accommodated in a radius of two miles. 
7>,;,.,.._Tliese farms t<i be sold at a price 
governed by the actual cost of improvements, where 
Crown Eaiid is utilised or the actual cost of land 
when purchased from private parties, improvements 
—including a small house 1(> x 16, 3 rooms, barn 
IS X 20, clearing and ploughing of land, fencing, 
boring well, &e., &c.. estimated to cost from $500 

to ^hrm. 

Trrm.s.— All initial payment of 10 per cent, to be 
paid by the applicant ' in cash when accepted or 
before 'taking possession, the balance to be paid in 
twenty years .semi-annually with interest, but. the 
settler lias the privilege of paying for this liand in 
full at the end of ten years, but in no case will deed 
be given before that time. 

A i)ulilic hall and school will be proviiled on the 
Central Farm. 

The whole community will l>e connected with tin; 
Central Farm bv telephone. A public square near 
the hall will be free f(U- all village sports, and social 
amenities will be encouraged to the utmost. Women's 
institutes will be organised fiu- the benefit of the 
settlers' wives. 

Co-operative system of maiketing and Imying will 
be encouraged tiinuigh the Resident Superintendent. 

•Settlers must reside <ui the farm at least six months 

of the year. , , i . c 

That a card index svstem and record be kept ot 
everv settler regarding' his recei|its and expenditure 
by the local sui)ervisor, and reports made quarterly 
to the Board of Management. 



APPENDIX ni. 



39 



The Board to control the oharacier of all buildings 
erected on Government land, the purpose for which 
they are erected. 

Any and all applicants for any farm or lot under 
this Act must be approved by the Board of Manage- 
ment and the Minister of Department. 

To lease land to approved applicants for agricul- 
tural purposes with the privik'ge of erecting their 
own buildings with option to purchase at a price to 
be fixe<l by the Board of Management and the Minisiter 
of tlie Department. 

Upon a settler showing cause, transfer of agreement 
may be made on approval of the Board. 

Any applicant for land qualified under Act who 
desires to become an applicant for land set apart for 
the purpose shall first apply to the Secretary of the 
Farm Settlement Board on a pre.scribed form, stating 
his qualifications, as follows: — 

(a) The name and address of applicant. 
(h) Occupation before enlisting. 

(c) His experience at any class of farming. 

(d) The lot for which appliaation is made. 

(c) The amount of capital available for expendi- 
ture by the applicant in connection with 
the land. 
(/) The nature and estimated amount of assistance 
(if any) that the applicant will require to 
enable him to work the land .successfully. 
(y) Such other particulars as the Board may 

require. 
(h) All applications shall be dealt with by the 
Farm Settlement Board. 
The title to the said lands so purchased by, or 
granted to, the said Board, as aforesaid, shall remain 
in the said Board until the purchaser has made all 
payments required by the agreement of purchase. 

In the ca.se of default bj- any purchaser in making 
the payments agreed upon, or in fulfilling any con- 
ditions that may be agreed upon, the said Board 
shall be at liberty to take possession of the lands of 
any purchaser so in default, on giving the said pur- 
chaser one month's notice in writing of its intention 
so to do, or if the purchaser cannot be found, by 
posting said notice on the dwelling house or other 
conspicuous place on the premises of such defaidting 
purchaser, and on s-o taking possession of any premises 
under this section, the Board may deal with the said 
lands so repossessed as it might have done in the first 
instance. 

In case the said Board shall sell any personal pro- 
perty to any lioiid fide settler so purchasing lands 
from it under the Act, the price of which is not paid 
at the time of the sale and delivery of said personal 
property, but is to be paid by instalments, the title 
to said personal property shall remain in the .said 
Board until the price agreed to be paid therefor is 
fidly paid; and in case of default by the purchaser 
in making payments according to agreement, the .said 
Board shall be at liberty to take possession of the said 
per.sonal property and resell the same. 

It will be seen from the above Regulations that the 
cost of the farms will vary: if they are on Crown 
Lands, the price will be governed by the actual cost 
of improvements (i.e.. clearing, boring a well and the 
erection of a small house, itc), estimated at from 
Sp.jOO to $1,.500 (£100 to £300); if they are on lands 
resumed by the Government, the cost of resumption 
must be added. 

The possession of capital of !i<oOO to ^l ..'jW (ClOO 
to £300) is very desirable if the settler is to succeed, 
though not essential. Until the scheme is developed, 
ex-service men desirous of participating can obtain 
employment in preparing the holdings. 

K.x-service men possessing capital of their own who 
wish to settle in New Brunswick, but not to join in 
a community settlement, can purchaso a farm in other 
parts of the Province from the Farm Settlement 
Board. A capital of !fl,.j()0 to |'2,000 (£30(1 to £400) 
is desirable. Employment could also be found for men 
without capital mi farins in the Province. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia.— 

Nova jScotia luis long been a settled country and 
nearly all the laud has pa.ssed into private jios.session. 
Of the Crown lands i-emaining (about 9(11), 000 acres) 
comparatively little is suitable for agriculture but 
rather for mining and lumbeiing, for which purpo.ses 
leases from the Crovvn can be a]i]ilied for relating to 
unoccupied tracts. With regard to tlie land privately 
owned, there are about 1,000 established farms which 
can be acquired. These aveiage in size about 100 
acres and varv in price from £120 to £3,000 accord- 

11477 



ing to location, extent, and fertility. The principal 
reason why these farms are now available is that 
over 20 years ago the inducements offered to settlers 
in Western Canada attracted a large number of our 
young men away from their farm homes. Although 
many of them returned, the majority of the farmers, 
whose sons had left, felt the effect of advancing years, 
and having brought up their families and acquired a 
competency with no one to succeed them, the pro- 
j erties came into the market. The great increase in 
industrial activity in our towns has also been respon- 
sible for many men leaving the land. There are so 
many callings in the Province whereby a good living 
can be earned, that it is not surprising that the 
fanner, never, perhaps, having originally a very great 
love for the land, is often tempted to engage in 
fishing, mining, or lumbeiing and their allied indus- 
tries, where tlie returns for his labours are more 
immediate and definite. 

Farming in Nova Scotia usually takes the form id 
fruit-growing, oats, hay, and roots ; besides dairy and 
poultry farming. P'or economic reasons not much 
wheat is grown, although conditions are favourable 
for its cultivation and only two Provinces exceed its 
yield per acre in this. The advantages and possi- 
bilities for dairy fanning are nowhere excelled in the 
Dominion and Nova Scotia has been favourably com- 
pared to Denmark in this connection. Poultry fann- 
ing is a paying industry — good local markets existing. 

The Government is in possession of the principal 
facts about the farms offered for sale. A settler 
(whether an ex-service man or not) who is anxious 
to purchase a farm, would have the assistance of the 
Government agent in making the selection and the 
bargain, and in the completion of the conveyance. 
Besides that, the Government would grant a loan to 
an approved purchaser up to 80 per cent, of the 
apprai,scd value of the property selected (the maxi- 
mum advance being £500) which would be secured by 
a mortgage the repayment of capital and interest 
being spread over a period of years. 

As to the other openings, sec my answer to Ques- 
tion 6, infra. 

The Nova Scotia Government has not yet stated 
what special facilities it is prepared to offer to ex- 
service men from other parts of the Empire. It is 
waiting for the Doiiiiniou Government to define its 
policy in this matter. After our own men have been 
provided for, no doubt any similai- facilities existing 
will be extended to newcomers. 

it is desirable that men taking up agriculture or 
horticulture should be possessed of capital, if possible 
about £400 to £500, the more the better, in order to 
make a satisfactory start on a suitable property which 
the Government is prepared to select for thein. 

Adequate previous experience is generally necessary 
for a man who desires to take up a farm. See my 
answer to Questions 9 and 10, infra. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec— 

So far as I know, no special legislation has been 
passed in Quebec for the settlement of ex-service 
men from Canada or other parts of the Empire, 
though the f:;cilitic.« availalile under t^he ordinary 
law are open to such men. The matter is, of course, 
one of policy, but no scheme was put forward in the 
session of Parliament last autumn. 

In Quebec the i-«>licy of granting land free was 
found to be a mistake. Most of the Government land 
is timbered laud, and men receiving a free grant 
used to fell and sell the timber and then clear off, 
leaving the land u.seless. The Government accord- 
intdy fixed a small price for land with conditions as 
to occupation, c<instruction of a house, &c., their 
object being to attach settlers to the land. 

Land is ofliered to the settler in lots of 100 acres ; but 
in the case of a family in which there are four children 
under 16 yeaps of age another 100 acres is allowed. 
The price is $30 (£6) per acre. Payment has to be 
made in 5 years, during which time the settler must 
reside on his holding, build a house (which must be 
completed in the first 18 months), put up a barn, and 
clear 15 acies. 

The land in the Province most easily accessible for 
settlement is on, (jr near, the new National Trans- 
continental Line. Much of it, however, is heavily 
timbered and, generally speaking, it is thought that 
its clearing and develo])ment are better entrusted to 
native-uorn Canadians than to emigrants. 

The Government would help new arrivals in obtain- 
ing work on farms, so that they can pet accustomed 
to the climate and acquire the uece.ssaiy experience. 

D 3 



40- 



EMPIRE SETTLEMENT CUMMITTKE 



Lt.-Col. R. Keid, Agent-General for Ontario.— 16. The social side uf lite at the colony will iie 

'J'he main part of Ontario now open tor settlement provided for, and ample provision will he made to 

is what is known as the " Clay Belt" in the northern make lite enjoyahle and comfortable at headqnarters 

part of the Province, lying near the line of the A proper public buildin 



■National Transcontinental and the Temiskaming and 
Northern Ontario Railways. 

Under the " rublic Lands Act" a free grant of 
160 acres can be obtained in this area, subject to 
certain conditions as to clearing cultivation and resi- 
dence. Under an Act passed in 1916* bond fide 
settlers can obtain assistance up to $500 (£100) by 
way of a loan from the Provincial Government. This 
bears interest at 6 per cent, and is repayable within 
10 years. Ex-service men from the Canadian forces, 
as w^ell as those from the United Kingdom, and any 
of the self-governing British Dominions, who possess 
the necessary agricultural experience, can obtain the 
benefit of those provisions. For those who have not 
such experience, it is proposed to provide training, 
and community settlements according to the follow- 
ing scheme: — 

1. All soldiers wlio wish to go upon the land, and 
are desirous of obtaining some practical instruction 
in farming, and learning something of the conditions 
in Northern Ontario, will be sent to an agricultural 
training depot now being established on the Govern- 
ment Exiierimental Farm at Monteith. 

2. At this depot they will be provided with com- 
fortable living accommodatitni and board during their 
period of instruction. 

3. The institution will be under the direction of 
competent men who have a practical knowledge of 
agricultural methods, and particularly the conditions would be negligible. The period of training 



here both religious anU 
secular gatherings may be held, will be provided. 
A schoolliou.se and educational facilities will be pro- 
vided . 

17. Buying and selling will be done upon a co- 
operative basis, and every assistance possible will be 
rendered to liasten the day when the soldier may be 
established upon a prosperous and independent 
footing. 

18. Provision will be made at as early a date as 
possible for married men to have their families with 
them, and to the fullest extent practical returned 
soldieis with experience will be employed to direct 
the affairs of the colony. 

19. Soldiers who may desire to go into friiit^faiiii- 
ing and chicken-raising, or other like agricultural 
pursuits will be given free instruction at the public 
institutions of the Province. 

The possession of some capital is desirable though 
not absolutely essential. 

Previous experience also is not essential since 
training is provided by the Ontario Government; 
nevertheless, it is desirable. What is essential is that 
the men shall be suitable, i.e., able to adapt them- 
selves to the new work and environment. There is, 
I suppose, no one factor by which this suitability can 
De determined, but the experience of the Government 
representatives ensures that the number of failures 



and needs in Northern Ontario. 
. 4. As soon as a sufficient number of men have 
accumulated at the institution, whom the superin- 
tendent is satistied know sufficient of farming require- 
ments to enable them to succeed as settlers, a larm 
colony will be established along the line of railway, 
to which these men will be moved. 

5. The colony will be in charge of a competent 
superintendent, under whom the men will proceed 
to do whatever clearing may be necessary, erect the 
necessary buildings, and do such other work as may 
be essential to the establishment of ft central com- 
munity. The men will be housed and cared for m 
the central community, and their labours wiU be 
directed to clearing and preparing for cultivation 
the lands of the colony. 

6. Farms containing not more ihan 80 acres will be 
laid out in such manner as to bring the different 
farmlioitses as close together as possible. The woik 
of the men will be directed to clearing on the front 
of each farnv an area of 10 acres. 

7. As soon as a soldier tiesires to go upon a lanii 
and work for himself, an 80-acre lot with a 10-acr3 
clearing will be allotted to him. He will be supplied 
with the necessary machinery and tools, and such 
cattle, pigs, poultry, Ac, as competent authority 
may determine, up to the value of $500. 

8. The 80 acres, with 10 acres of clearing, will be 
given the settler free of charge. 

9. For each day's woi-k that is done from the time 
he enters the training school at Monteith until he 
goes upon his clearing, he will im paid a reasoaible 
wage. 

10. All advance up to $500 will be made to cover the 
cost of stock, implements, equipment, and any assist- 
ance in building that may lie given, for which a 
lien will be taken against the settler's holding and 
chattels. 

11. The lien will be iciiayabic in 20 years, at 6 per 
cent., but no payment on account of either principal 
or interest shall be requiied until after the expiia- 
tiiiM of three years. 

\'2. At, the expiration u\ fi\'c years from the settler 
locating upon his land, and u|Xmi the due perform- 
ance of certain conditions in the meantime, he will 
bo entitled to receive a patent from the Crown. 

13. The community .system will apply with rcgiud 
to the siipjilying of horses and iitlier stock and ini]>le- 
meiits. 

14. An ample supply of these will be kept at head- 
quarters for the use of the settlers upon generous 
terms. 

15. The cxi-operative luctlind will oblain in the 
carrying out of the work in connect inn with the 
colony. 



nild 
enable the farm superintendent to form a very good 
(ijiinion as to whether or not tlie man would succeed. 

Australia. 

Major-General Sir Newton Moore, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia.- In the 

recent Land Aot Amendement Bill introduced 
by the Minister for Lands, it was stated that the 
(jovernment intended to spend £500,000 on improving 
Crown land that was being specially reserved for 
leturned soldiers. The Bill provided that the Govern- 
ment might declare any C'rowii Land open for selec- 
tion by persons who had been on active service in His 
Majesty's Naval or Military Forces, or by their 
dependents. 

Full <let-ails of the scheme have been given in tiie 
" West Australian " for the 24th March last, and will 
no doubt be published by the Government in an 
easily accessible form. The main outlines may ' .■ 
summarized as follows : — 

The soldier settlers will be -given the best land, 
near to railways and other means of transport. 

Schemes for laud settlement for soldiers would 
take precedence over other proposals. 
The land for selection can be divided into three 
classes : — 

(a) The Wheat Belt^suitablc tor wheat, sheep, 

and pigs. 
(/;) The wet South-West — suitable for dairying, 

trait, infc;nsive culture, and pigs. 
{(■) Land near towns — suitable for poultry farms 
and pigs. 
As to (a). This wheat land is situated between 
Geraldton in the north to within 50 miles of Albany 
to the south, and is all east of the Darling Range. 
Soldiers will be allowed to select 160 acres as a free 
grant, subject only to the payment of survey fee 
(whicii is not likely to exceed £8 Is.). If the Govern- 
ment have executed arry ]ireliniinary improvements, 
the settler will be debited with the cost, but repay- 
ment w ill be spread over a pc-riod of 30 yeara. 

I'be settler may also purchase a further area up to 
810 acres, at a price not exceeding 15s. per acre, 
which will be spread over a period of 20 or 30 years. 
1 .000 acres is consider-ed the minimum size for a farm 
in the wheat-gr-owiug distr-ict to sup])oi-t a family. 
For such a farm a man slionid have a capital of £500. 
1 do not say that the possession of that amount is ;', 
condition precedent to his taking up such a farm. 
As the title is freehold and the jiaynients ar-e dis- 
tributed, if the settler has capital eiroucb for tiro 
improvenrents, he cair borrow the rest from the Agri- 
cultural Bank. Of c(urr'se 1 assirme that the settler 
is a competeirt agricultural labourer. ' 



Al'i'KNDIX 111. 



-11 



In regai'd to existing regulations I should explain 
also that if a man does not reside on his holding for 
a period of six mouths in each of the first five years 
or carry out the required improvements the land is 
forfeited. Under Section 74 of the " Land Act " the 
expenditure for improvements on homestead farms 
must be equal to 4s. per acre during the first two 
years, a further 64-. per acre during the next three 
years, and 4s. per acre durin-; the last two years, 
making a total of 14s. per acre in seven years. 
Fencing of half the boundaries in the first five years, 
and the whole in seven years. 1'30 of the expenditure 
on a habitable house is allowed towards the amount of 
improvements required. 

The expenditure on improvements on the grants 
of land up to 1,000 acres must equal the purchase 
money but need not exceed £1 per acre, at the rate 
of one-fifth of the purchase nuniey every two years 
from date of lease; one-half of the land must be 
fenced within five years, and the whole within ten 
years. 

The work of improvement can best be done by the 
settler himself, under the supervision and with the 
assistance of the Agricultural Bank. 

As to (6). This land is situated between Perth and 
.\lbany and, generally speaking, is heavily timbered. 
Here also 160 acres will be granted free. This land 
wiU be improved befoi-e allotment so as to enable the 
settler to make a living whilst carrying on further 
improvements, for which he will be able to obtain 
some advance from the Agricultural Bank during the 
first two years. 

In the south-west it is pioposed to make 40-acre 
holdings, which would provide for 5 acres apples, 
15 acres grasses, 1-5 acres feed crops, and 5 acres in- 
tensive culture (potatoes, &c.). 

It is proposed that settlements should be in groups 
of from 10 to .50 settlers, a competent Inspector being 
appointed to advise each 50 .settlers. Depots will be 
established in convenient centres, designed t<i provide 
practical training in agriculture, whilst at the same 
time affording the soldier-settlers an opportunity of 
improving land which will event ualh- become their 
(.'wn. Part of the soldier-settler's time will be devoted 
io farming operations on the depot farm and part 
to the work of clearing, fencing, &c. It is proposed 
that 20 acres be cleaied before being taken over by 
the settler. The whole of this will then be broken up 
by him, and 10 acres should be sown with fodder 
crops. Fruit trees should not be planted on any por- 
tion of the first 20 acres. 

It is difficult to say how much capital \Miuld be 
required for a fruit farm. On the one hand, such a 
farm does not produce any return to speak of for about 
seven years; on the other hand, these small farms are 
very often in districts where a man can obtain some 
other employment in the meantime, .such as working 
for a Road Board. His wife and children work on the 
fruit farm, cultivating between the trees and so get 
some return. Perhaps I should say that a man in- 
tending to start fruit farming should possess some 
hundreds of pounds. 

As to (r). Here the land has to be repurchased, .so 
the settler has to pay the cost of repurchase, plus 
improvements. This form of settlement is under the 
direction of the Federal, not the State Government. 

With reference to other openings, it is difficult to 
forecast what policy may be adopted after the war, 
but it is unquestionable that, provided money is avail- 
able, very many avenues of employment will open up. 
It goes "without saying that capital and previous 
experience are certainly valua')le assets to start with 
in a new cr)untry. Whatever facilities are offered to 
Australian soldieis will also, I suppose, be available 
to soldiers of the European race from other parts of 
the Emjiire. 

Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia. — South .Vustrali.i lias joined in the Austra- 
lian Land Settlement Scheme agreed to at the Con- 
ference between the Commonwealth and State Premiers 
in January, 1917. Prior to the Premiers' meeting, 
when that scheme was adopted. South Australia had 
limited its consideration to returned Australian .soldiers, 
in whose intere-sts a special Act of Parliament was 
passed. An amendment of this Act will be lequired to 
make it agree with the Australian Land Settlement 
Scheme. ITnder the more limited scheme, the South 

11477 



Australian Government had acquired, by purchase, 
" The Mount Remarkable Estate " near Melrose, con- 
taining 44,0(X) acres, of which 2-5,000 were first-cla.ss 
agricultural land, the remainder being very good graz- 
ing country. They had also acquired the " Mount 
ClrawfordEsitate '_' near Gawler, containg 7,000 acres 
suitable for grazing, cultivation, and fruit-growing. 
The latter estate does not come into the Governmemt's 
possession for some two years. These estates were 
purchased primarily for the settlement of ex-soldiers, 
and, accordingly, at the Mount Remarkable Estate, 
a training farm has been established for those who 
have had no previous experience. It would probably 
be very easy to considerably extend this training farm 
for largei- numbers. The area of blocks would prob- 
ably be 300 to 500 acres. 

Apart from repurchased lands, there are consider- 
able areas on the River Murray, capable of intense 
settlement when equipped for irrigation. This, of 
course, involves the expenditure of large sums of 
money, and probably any considerable further develop- 
ment depends ujjon the consumm.ation of the great 
locking scheme, which has been agreed upon between 
the States interested and the Commonwealth Govern- 
ment. The ompletiou of that scheme, and the finding 
of money for irrigation plants and works, nece.ssarily 
postponed for a considerable time the availability of 
much of this land for the settlement of ex-soldiers. 
Some reclaimed swamp areas are available, and have 
been set aside for soldiers, and probably the Lake 
Bonney irrigation area will be completed in the near 
future. Being one. of the most extensive irrigation 
schemes, it would provide holdings for a considerable 
number of ex-soldiers and, like most irrigation swam)) 
settlements, offers the most attractive life to the 
settler; in fact, they offer the possibility of community 
settlements, and the smallness of the holdings would 
eliminate that loneliness which is associated with other 
farm life in Australia, 

There are some areas on the River Murray capable 
of being developed into very large irrigation settle- 
ments, and it occurs to me that if the Imperial Govern- 
ment would, by some means, enable the South Austra- 
lian Government to obtain the necessary loan money 
at very reasonable -terms, the preparation of the 
settlements can be taken in hand under some arrange- 
ment by which the land, or a portion of it, is marked 
tor ex-Imperial soldiers, and so that the work of 
preparing the settlement might be undertaken by the 
soldiers at current rates of wages. This would have 
the effect of enabling the ex-Imperial soldiers to make 
a living whilst becoming familial- with conditions in 
South Australia, and would give the Board of Control 
a splendid means of judging each individual soldier'. 
Irrigation and swamp areas are allotted in blocks 
ranging say from 10 to 50 acres. It is easy to work 
them on the co-operative pj'inciple as I'egards the 
purchase of supplies and the sale of products, and it 
is a policy of the Government to establish experi- 
mental and educational blocks for the guidance of 
settlers, and by the means of expert officers to give 
the settlers the fullest advice and guidance. 

South Australia has about 2,000,000 acres of 
ordinary Crown lands surveyed and ready for allot- 
ment, but the completely satisfactory occupation of 
much of this land depends upon the provision of a 
good water supply. It is, generally speaking, what 
we call Mallee country, and is covered with a light 
timber of the Eucalyptus species which is fairly 
easily cleared. This class of country is hardly ideal 
for ex-soldiers, as its successful occupation largely 
depends upon considerable experience in similar classes 
of country. 

The other direction in which land settlement is 
likely to extend in South Australia, is in what we 
call our S.E. District, immediately N. and N.W. of 
Mount Gambler. There is a large extent of rich land 
subject to a considerable rainfall, but from which 
the surface waters, which accumulate in great quanti- 
ties, do not readily escape. Where drainage has been 
effected, the land has proved to be amongst the most 
productive land of the State, and of recent years the 
Government has undertaken very large main drainage 
schemes, which, when completed and aided by the 
necessary subsidiary private drainage, will render 
large areas of this land suitable for compar.atively 
close and very profitable settlement. Here again the 
land is not immediately available for ex-Imperial- 
soldiers, and probably the completion of the drainage 

D i 



i'i 



EMPIRE iSEl'Tr.EMENT COMMITTEE 



schemes may be delayed for want of necessary loan 
monies, and the Imperial assistance in raising these 
monies might hasteii the scheme. 

In connection with ordinary land settlement, the 
State offers a very generous assistance to settlers by 
State advances on improvements, but as regards ex- 
soldiers, the assistance under the repatriation scheme 
will be even more generous, inasmuch as, so far as 
I can judge, they expect in cases to provide the 
necessary cajiital up to say ,'J.">0(1, and apparently will 
not necessarily require ex-soldiers to j)rove the posses- 
sion of any capital. This advance, of course, would 
have to be repaid, but under very easy conditions: 
that is, repayment spread over a great number of 
years, and, of course, any land purchased would also 
have to bo paid off under easy conditions. I am not 
at all sure whether the Australian Governments pro- 
]iose tn extend advances out of their proposed Re- 
patriation Fund to ex-Imperial soldiers. Although 
mainly raised on taxation, the fund is somewhat in 
the nature of a reward to soldiers for their great ser- 
vices to the country, and I inuigine that, under the 
extraordinarily ea.sy terms, it is quite expected that 
a fair lu'oportion will be lost. This c<intingency the 
taxpayer might face in his desire to nuike a return to 
.Vustralian soldiers who have risked their lives, but it 
seems to me to be somewhat open to question whether 
they would feel themselves respcuisiblo for similar 
generous treatment (}f ex-Imperial soldiers. They 
might easily say that the hitter's reward shiuild come 
from the Imperial Treasury. When the Premier of 
South Australia wrote to Sir Rider Haggard on the 
20tli May, 1916, on the question of assisting ex- 
Imperial soldiers, that the Government of South 
AiKstralia was willing to extend t<i ex-service men of 
the United Kingdom advantages as regard land settle- 
ment and employment similar to those it will offer to 
returned Australians, I venture to suggest that he 
had not in mind any such proposals as are contained 
111 the present Scheme. I quite agree that this 
question should be definitely settled. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 

Tasmania.- ((() Certain facilities «ilh regard to land 
.settlement are being offered by the Government cjf 
Tasmania under the " Returned Soldiers' Settlement 
Act, 1916." These are generally available for all pei- 
sons who have been members of the Naval or Military 
Forces of the I'nited Kingdom, as well as for menibers 
of the Australian Forces; but no free grants of land 
are made to any but discharged soldiers who have, 
prior to their becoming such, resided in Tasmania for 
at least two years. 

Land will be offered for selection either by sale or 
lease. What is known as " first-class " land may be 
selected to the extent of lOt) acres; of " second-class " 
land a larger area; and of " third-class " laud a still 
larger area. The facilities offered to soldiers consist 
of the remission of survey fees, and, in the case of 
former residents in Tasmania, of the price fixed for 
the land ; and certain other advantages. The price of 
the land will usually be £1 per acre for first-class 
land, lO.s. per acre for second-class, and G.s. per acre 
for third-cl.ass. The payment may be distributed over 
a period of about 14 years. Besides tli.nt, a sum up 
tc] i.'.')Ofl may be advanced for the erection of buildings; 
and, when needed, a further sum for clearing, fencing, 
draining, irrigation, and general im|uovcnient of the 
land ; also for the purchase of implements, stock, 
seeds, &c. 

With respect to rositlence, the soldier (or his de]ien- 
dants) must fulfil the obligations requiied of ordinary 
settlers who take up land under the existing Crown 
Lands Acts. 

No rates or taxes will be ]inyable for the first four 
y<>ars fi'om the date of sale. 

Where land is leaseil to a discharged soldier, no rent 
shall be payable by him therefor for at least the first 
year granted by the terms of the lease, and no rates 
or taxes will be jiayable for the first four years from 
the comniencement of the lease. 

A soldier taking land cm lease may obtain the same 
advances as on(> purchasing land. 

A soldier intending to lake up laiiil cither by |iui- 
eliase oi' on lease must, in his applic.itioii, state what 
previous experieuci' and what capital he |)osse.sses. 

Romp previous experience is essential, 

(li) T do not know of any special facilities olFered 
by the GoveriiBient oilier than tho.se regarding settle- 
ment on the land, wliiili would be available for ex- 
servico men from the I'niteil Kingdom. 



Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for 'Victoria.— 

A Bill to make provision for the settlement of ex- 
service men was before the State Parliament last 
session, but time did not admit of its being finally 
dealt with. The measure, which provides, inter alia, 
for the establishment of training farms and for rents 
or instalments being jiostponed for the first three 
years of occupation will, in all probability, be re- 
introduced shortly. In the meantime settlement is 
])roceeding under existing legislation. 

The foDowing report, which has recently been 
received from Victoria, shows the present condition of 
affairs: — 

Land Skttlilmkni Fon Dischahged Soldiers. 

The following are the cimditions under which dis- 
diarged soldiers are being de.ilt with in Victoria, in 
ies])ect to land settlement- — 

Mcmfirrs of the Aiistrulian Imperial Force. 

1. The Discharged Soldiers' Settlement Bill was in- 
troduced in the Legislative Assembly by the Minister 
of Lands during last session of Parliament, and will, 
it is anticipated, be dealt with early in the ensuing 
session. 

This Bill indicates generally the polfcy proposed by 
the Government, and action is already being taken, 
broadly speaking, on the lines which the measure lays 
down, in anticipation of legislative sanction. Over 
100 discharged soldiers have already been settled on 
the land. 

2. The Qualifications Committee, provided for by 
Clause 7 of this Bill, has been ajipointed, and is now 
regularly dealing with applicants. 

3. In dealing with lands available, the State Govern- 
ment is extending to qualified soldiers preference over 
other applicants having no military service. 

4. Free railway tickets are granted to enable them 
to inspect lands offering. 

5. For irrigable and other lands available under 
!)rovisions of the Closer Settlement Acts, ordinary 
I'onditions required a deposit of 3 per cent, of the 
capital value of the land with subsequent payments 
at the rate of 6 per cent, per annum to cover interest 
and purchase money. In the cases of soldiers, how- 
ever, no payment of deposit or rent or fees on the 
laud is required for the first three (3) years. 

6. Advances on improvements (at present up to 
70 per cent, of their value) are being made, up to a 
maximum of £500, and the Board, in .special cases, is 
prepared to erect houses for settlers, on their blocks, 
the cost being charged against this maximum advance 
of ,1;.500. The terms generally provide that repay- 
ment of these advances may extend over a period of 
twenty (20) years with interest at 3^ per cent, for the 
first year and increasing by i per cent, in each succes- 
sive year until the current rate of interest then 
operating is reached. 

7. The Qualifications Committee may recommend 
apjilicants for purpose of training in agricultural pur- 
suits, &c., prior to settlement, and trainees have 
already been received at Dookie Agricultural College 
and elsewhere. 

Ex-Serviie Men fnmi Ike i'nited Kimjiloin . 

8. The foregoing conditions Inn e licen adopted and 
are being applied with reference to members of the 
A.I.F. The State (iovernment has, however, under- 
taken to extend to all United King loni ex-service men 
and then families the same advantages as regards 
land settlement as are given to leturned .Australian 
•soldiei's, provided that the men to be .settled upon land 
shall be selected in Kuglanil in an apprcjved manner, 
and also subject to the condili(Ui that patiiotic funds 
subscribed in Australia for Australians will not be 
av:iilable. 

9. 'I'bc wbdli' subject u.is, however, further con- 
sidered at the Premiers' Conference held in Mel- 
bourne in .Liniiary last, when consultations also took 
jilace between the Premiers and the Prime Miuistei- 
of the Commonwt'alth and the Trustees of the Austra- 
lian Repatriation Fund. A resoluticui was adopted by 
the Conference that lirilish rlischarged soldiers should, 
ill regard to land settlements, be i)laced in all respects 
on the same fooling and receive the same facilities 
and jirivilegos as Australian soldiers. To give effect 
to this agreement, however, legislation by the States 
will be required. 



APPENDIX in. 



43 



The amount of capital necessary depends on the area 
taken up and the ability and experience of the settler. 
For instance, e.xperienced agriculturists who desire to 
obtain 40 or 50 acre irrigated farms should have at 
least £300 capital, whilst applicants without agricul- 
tural knowledge desiring to acquire irrigation farms 
should possess at least £400. 



Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 
Wales.— By the New South Wales Act No. 21 of 191G 
provision is made for the settlement of returned 
Australian soldiers on Crown lands or on private lands 
which have been resumed by the Crown. The areas 
to be set apart provide for agriculture, mixed farm- 
ing, and irrigation farms. 

The State Government is also providing cash for 
immediate requirements of Australian soldiers, and 
is making such liberal provisions in other ways for 
them that no man, whether incapacitated or not, 
unless he wilfully negloits opixirtunities, need be 
reduced to begging for subsistence. 

A promise has been made by the State Government 
to extend the machinery of Act No. 21 of 1916, under 
the following limitations, to discharged ex-British 
soldiers : — 

In consequence of Sir Rider Haggard's appeal, the 
State Government agreed to make every effort to 
further develop the Yanco Irrigation Area on the 
Murrumbidgee River. By that means, provision will 
be made for 1,000 farms, and for these, British sub- 
jects who have been engaged in the war will, if other- 
wise suitable, be given preference. The possession of 
capital, although desirable, will not be essential ; the 
possession of £200 would, with the loan policy of the 
State, place a man in an assured position. But 
previous experience on the land is a condition 
precedent ; and this should be gained in that part of 
the Dominions in which he decides to settle. English 
training is of little value, because — 

(1) The conditions of ploughing, sowing and 

harvesting are quite different ; 

(2) Climatic conditions have no similarity ; 

(3) A period of at least four months will be neces- 

sary to acquire English experience, yet 
another period of equal length will be re- 
quired for training after arrival in 
Australia ; 

(4) In 1908, during my term as Premier of the 

State, I stipulated that emigrants to New 
South ^\'ales must possess pi'evious experi- 
ence of farming life before landing. Objec- 
tion was then taken that owing to the 
expense and other reasons this work could 
not be carried out satisfactorily in Great 
Britain. In extreme cases, no doubt, where 
there is delay in transportation, an intend- 
ing emigrant might be usefully employed 
in some form of rural training; but 
generally speaking, after reaching New- 
South Wales, every emigrant should under- 
go a term of working experience on a farm 
before taking up land. 
In January, 1917, the Prime Minister of the Com- 
monwealth and the Premiers of the various States 
drew up an extensive scheme with regaid t<j ex-serviee 
men, and agreed that it should be submitted to each 
vState for confirmation. As it has not yet been con- 
firmed, it is of no use to go into the details of the 
scheme now. 

Failing such confirmation, the oftVr by the New 
South AVales Goveinment of the 1,000 farms above 
referred to holds good, and may be regarded as the 
minimum of the intentions of the Government. 

So far the Yanco Settlement has not wholly answered 
expectations. It is 'not as yet a paying proposition, 
nor will it Ije so for some years. It was thought that 
the land would produce lucerne throughout, but it mjw 
appears that in a considerable part of the area there 
is a day band close to the surface. This has to be 
perforated tjefore lucerne jilants can properly expand. 
The result has been that it has been found necessary 
to divide the land into first, second, and third-class 
land, and the fii'st-class (that is, that suited for 
lucerne growing) only covers one-third to one-fourth 
of the whole area. The rest of the land is, of course, 
suited for other crops. Fruit docs well throughout. 

Arms. — The farms vary in size from 2 to 2-50 acres. 
Those from 2 to 15 acres may be occupied by farm 
labourers and vegetable growers, and areas in excess 
of 15 acres for dairying purposes. 



Tenure. — Perpetual lease, with the probability of the 
light to convert into freehold. 

Cost. — Rent of land, 2i per cent, of capital value; 
water rent to be added. 

Uesidciice Cunditions. — Residence conditions attach 
to each holding. Transfer of holdings permitted, with 
approval of Commissioners, after 5 years' residence. 
The holding may te used for purposes of fruit-grow- 
ing, dairying — including butter and cheese making — 
bacon curing, the raising of fat lambs and ostrich 
farming. 

Facilities. — On the area are factories for butter and 
cheese making, bacon curing and fruit canning, all 
conducted under the supervision of the Government. 

Conccssivns. — The Commissioners may suspend, for 
not more than 4 years, payment of money due for 
(a) rent; (b) water charges; and (c) improvements. 

.idvanres. — The New South Wales Government 
Savings Bank will advance money — 

(a) To pay off an existing encumbrance on the 

land ; 
(6) To pay off a debt due to the Crown ; 
(c) To carry out improvements; 
(rf) For building homes. 

Advances are made to the extent of three-quarters 
of the value of the interest of the holder in the per- 
manent or prospective improvements. 

As regards general employment. New South Wales 
has promised equal opportunities for British and 
Australian soldiers seeking Government employment. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland.— By the " Discharged 
Soldiers Act of 1917," certain facilities as regards 
settlement on the land are offered to " discharged 
soldiers." The term includes men who have joined 
the Naval or Military Forces of the United Kingdom 
and have received an honourable discharge from ser- 
vice ; also the dependants of any such s«>Ildier in the 
event of his death before he hxs received his disoharge, 
or within 12 months after it. The word "dependant" 
means the widow, mother, sister or child of such 
soldier if such person was at any time during the 
12 montlis prior to his enlistment wholly or in part 
dependant upon his earnings. 

I5y tliis Act the Government are empowered to 
acquire by agreement or compulsioai any land, whether 
country, town or suburban, which may be required. 

No free grants of land will be made ; but the 
Government may from time to time set apart any 
Crown Land, or land so acquired as aforesaid, for 
seleotion as Perpetual Leasehold Selections by dis- 
charged soldiers. The soldier applying for such land 
nee<l not deposit any money by way of rent or ineital- 
meiit of survey fee. No rent will be demaudetl for 
the first three years ; after thtit, the survey fee will 
be payable in 10 annual in.stalments. From the 4ith 
to the 15th year the annual rent will be Ih per cent, 
of the capital value of the land. The aunuali rent for 
each succeeding period of 15 years will be determined 
by the Land Court. 

The Minister has power to remit the rent for any 
period or may postpone payment for any time he 
thinks fit. 

The capital value for Crown Land will range from 
10s. per acre upwards. The average will pix>bably be 
about 25.S. per acre. On resumed areas the value will 
depend on the amount of compensiation paid to the 
original owner. Only land of first-class quality with 
a good rainfall will be offered for .selection; and care 
will be taken to ascertain beforehand the kinds of 
crops for which it is best suited. 

The lease will be subject to the condition of personal 
residence, and will contain restrictions as to mtortgag- 
ing or transferring during the finst ten years. The 
Land Court has power to suspend the condition as to 
pensonal residence for a period of six monthE in any 
year for good reason. If the seleotor so desires, lie 
need not commence to personallly reside on the land 
for a period of two years from the conimencemeat 
of the term. Within five years he must enclose the 
land with a good fenci'. or make improvements equal 
in value. He must commence to make the improve- 
ments noit later than 12 montlis fromi beginning of 
term. 

It is estimated that for clearing and fencing the 
land, and providing water, buildings, plant, .stock, 
&<-., a sum not exceeding £.500 will be ]ieces,sarv in 
the case of each settler. Advances up to that amount 
can ibe obtained from the Government Savings Bank. 
Moneys expended by the State for clearing the land 



4i 



KMl'IKK SKTTLKMENT C(_).\l MITKE 



or effecting penrianent improvements wilL be included 
in that sum and treated as having been borrowed 
liy the seittler. 

Money so borrowed will be repayable by iin.st<aliments 
spread over 40 years. In the case of C5i-ofln Lands 
the interest will be at the rate of 3^ per ceiift. for 
the first year, increasing A per cent, each succeeding 
year up to a rate not exceeding 5 per cent. ; in tlie 
case of land acquired by the Crown for the purposes, 
at a rate not exceeding 5 per cent, from the firsit. 

For building his house the settler can also, if he 
wish it, Ijorrow a further sum under the Workers' 
Dwellings Acts. A very simple house is, however, all 
that a settler usually requires. 

The size of tlie holdings varies according to locality 
and suitableness for the particular purpose foa' which 
the land is set aside. For ins-tance, poultry farms up 
to ten acres, fruit farms 25 acres, land for general 
farming 80 to 100 acres, and dairy farms from 320 
to 1,280 acres. 

South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 

Africa. — No special scheme has been framed, owing 
to econoniicali and political oonsidera.tions, but pro- 
vision is made l)y legislation in connection with the 
general land settlement scheme. Capital of not less 
than £1,000 is required, and previous experience is 
necessary. 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 

Company. — I sho\dd explain that the scheme of the 
British iSouth Africa Company is devised primarily 
to facilitate the settlement nf newcomers — a somewhat 
different point of view to that of the other Over.sea 
Governments. Probal>ly most of the men who liave 
joined the F<uces from Rhodesia have their own farms 
to which they will return. Those who have not got 
their own farms have presumably pursiu'd other 
avooation.s' — especially mining — and are not attracted 
to farming life. Tlie rapid increase of the |iermaiiont 
British population is a matter of the gi'ea;test Impenal 
importance. Our primary object, therefore, is to 
attract ex-sei-vice men from the United Kingdom and 
other parts of the Empire to settle on the land, but 
the British South Africa Company is also considering 
the question of offering to ex-service Rhodesians who 
do not yet hold any land, facilities similar to those 
offered to other ex-service men. These latter fa<-ilities 
are as follows: The company has offered to grant 
free of co.st, except the payment of a sm.aM annual 



quitrent, towards any scheme for the sertAlement o' 
ex-service men from overseas, 500,000 acres of land, 
half in Northern and half in Southern Rhodesia. 
All ex-service men from overseas will be eligible who 
have the requisite amount of capital and have, after 
a period of tuition with a local farmer, proved them- 
selves likely to make a success at farming. 

Title will be granted after a prescribed period of 
continuous personal occupation, and on completioa 
of a prescribed amount of development work. 

Every possible encouragement will be given to 
friends or men who have served t.ogether to settle 'n 
proximity to each other, and co-operate working 
partnerships offer obvious advantages. As regards 
qualifications, the men most wanted in Rhodesia are 
strenuous, adaptable, intelligent, hard workers of t!he 
officer class. At any rate, they must be accustomed 
not only to direct and control, but to .stick seriously 
to their work. We have our eye particularly on men 
of education who have got their commissions by merit 
during the war. but we should be glad to have some 
of the N.C.O.'s and Warrant Officers of the Old Army 
who were s,pecially selected for commissions at the 
luitbreak of war, and wiho are likely to retire at ^he 
end of it with a gratuity ranging from £200 to 
£1,000. All the men who come to Rhodesia must, 
however, have practical ability and readiness to work 
if thei' are t*! do well, and they mu.st also possess a 
moderate amount of capital. We put this, as a rough 
e.stimate, at a minimum of £1,000. Pre^aous farm- 
ing experience is not essential, but is desirable. 
Arrangements will tie made for ju-ospective settlers to 
gain same experience in the handling of native labour 
and local conditions of climate, soil, &c.. and llocai 
methods of farming, with established farmers, before 
being allowed to take up holdings of their own. 

As regards danger to stock from disease, Rhodesia 
has suffered in the past like the r(>st of South Africa, 
but epidemics are now understood and controlled by 
the strong Veterinary Department whi<'h has grown 
up, as.si,sted by the steady extension of fenriug and 
the inoculation and quarantine of all imported stock. 
" Horse sickness" is i:he only formidable disease wihich 
still eludes veterinary .science. 

Tlje company will enquire into the qualifications 
(if candidates for the fa^-ilities offered before they 
bave England, just as it now selex'ts men for posts as 
Assist.ant Native Coiiimis.sioners. B.S.A. Police, &c. 

As regards other ojienings, a local Committee has 
licen formed to assist Rhodesian ex-soldiers to find 
suitable employment. 



QUESTION 

special facilities 



III. 



What special facilities are being offered by 
private companies or individuals in your State to 
ex-service men from your own State— • - 
(") as regards land settlement; and ■ 
(b) as regards other openings? 
How far are these facilities available for ex- 
service men from the United Kingdom and other 
parts of the Empire? 

-. : ANSWERS. 

Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg.— riieie are facilities oifeied by 
tile C.P.K. lit which ex-service men niiglit avail 
tiiemsclvcs. .\ , regards land, (hey are mainly iif two 
kinds : (1) The Assisted Colonisation Scheme, for 
supplying " ready-made" farms--tliat is, tlie railway 
erect the houses, dig wells, cfec. ; and (2) Coloiiisatiou 
Farms, where the Kailway Company [uovide the land 
and advance up to $100 worth of stock. 

As to other openings, the answer is more diflicuK. 
The (Jovei-nment offer facilities for the introduction of 
unskilled farm labourers, for whom there are a large 
number ol (ipeiiiugs; for instance, last year 50,000 
men were br-ouglit into the Pi'airie Provinces. We 
have in some cases placed men in railway offices, ware- 
houses, &c., but that is not our work; we desire to 
place men in the iMuutry and to ayoiil as far as 
possible the drift iulo towns, ll is not tbe Jiolicy 



of the Government to offer inducements for- skiller' 
labour; that can take care of itself. And as t<,' 
openings offered by private companies or individuals 
1 do not wish to express an oiiinion. 

Mr. W. R. Bowder, of the New Brunswick 
Government Office.— None that 1 know of. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia. 

<u) Certain private companies are acting in conjunc- 
tion with the Government in regard to the land settle- 
ment of ex-service men from Nova Scotria ; and 

(b) Others are prepared to give such men the refusal 
of positions in their business already waiting for 
them, and these are likely to increase in number owing 
to greater' tradi^ activity afler the nar. 

All the-c remarks would probabh apply to ex- 
service men from the United K.ing<lom. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec. 

None that i know of. 

Lt.-Col. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario.— 

I''u!! information on tliis point is not availalilc. 

Australia. 

Major-General Sir Newton Moore, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia, en \n otfer 

has luMMi made by .Mr. .Neil McNeil. .1.1'., to hand over 
his splendid estate of .some 10,000 aci'cs in the well- 
known fruit-growing di.strict of Mount Barker in the 
Soulh-West for the exact sum which it originally cost 
him (including, of course, the moiu>y s|)ent by him in 
develo])ing itl. It is now a V(M'v valuable property, 
[irodncing iiiagnificent fruit. 



Al'l'ENDlX 111. 



45 



The Midland Railway, which was coustriuted on the 
land grant system,- is selling its land for ready- 
made farms. The farms range from 400 to 600 acres 
and the scheme provides for the erection of a house, 
sheds, and outhuildings on each farm, the clearing and 
getting ready for the plough one-third of the land 
and the fencing of the whole and the provision of a 
water supply before purchase. 

The coat of the farms runs to about t;2,000 each and 
they are offered on the following terms; — 10 per cent, 
cash deposit and the balance in equal annual instal- 
ments extending over 20 years, balances carrying in- 
terest at 5-\ per cent, per annum. 

The Company's representative in London (Win- 
chester House, Old Broad Street, E.C.), could give 
further evidence if required. 

(b) As regards other openings, I do not know of 
any special facilities which private companies or indi- 
viduals are offering to ex-service men as such. 

Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 
Australia. — I am not aware of any special facilities. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 
Tasmania. — I do not know of any facilities offered by 
private companies or individuals in Tasmania. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria.— 

So far no advice of any special facilities being offered 
by companies or individuals has been received. 

Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 
Wales. — No particulars are available, but estates will 
probably in the future be privately subdivided and 
made available on satisfactory terms. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent 
General for Queensland.— No information is avail- 
able. 



South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 

Africa. — Onlv one private settlement scheme (Sun- 
days Kiver) " is ready. The other opportunities are 
barely sufficient for South African soldiers. But if 
\acancies and opportunities occur, employers would 
take other returned soldiers. Although 'i-3,000 men 
from the Union are now serving, there is )io shortage 
of labour — owing to poor whites having taken up 
manual work in industrial centres, and to native 
labourers who can take up artizan work. 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 

Company. — A number of companies owning land in 
Uliodesia are prepared to interest themselves in any 
scheme for the settlement of ex-service men to the 
following extent : 

(1) offers 217 farms, aggregating 12,450 acres of 

land, free of purchase price, situated near 
railway, and suitable for mixed farming. 

(2) 65,000 acres of land, ranging in value from 

4s. tid. to 10s. per acre, is offered at 20 per 
cent, below valuation; payment to extend 
over five years. 

(3) 20,000 acres of land, within 20 miles of rail- 

way, at -50 per cent, below pre-war prices, 
which would average 3s. an acre. 

(4) 20/22,000 acres of land within reasonable dis- 

tance of tlie railway, ofpered at a reduction 
on valuation, and would work out at 3s. to 
6s. per acre. 

(5) 14,000 ivcres of land, near railway and 

township, is offered at 50 per cent, below 
pre-war prices, and would )ie 16s. to 16s. 6d. 
per acre. 

(6) Three other companies offer good land on most 

liberal terms as regards price and extended 
terms of payment. 



QUESTION IV. 

Does your Government contemplate any special 
settlements for ex-service men from the United 
Kingdom and other parts of the Empire ; or settle- 
ments for which such men will be eligible;' 

If so, can ex-service men who are friends arrange 
to be near together; or could arrangements be 
made for officers and men from the same com- 
pany, battalion, or battery to be together? 

ANSWERS. 

Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg. —The Dominion Governnient does 
nut propose to establish any " special settlements " 
for ex-service men; what it proposes to do is to offer 
certain areas of land to them which are not thrown 
open for settlement to others. In these areas, ex- 
service men can arrange to be near together in the 
sense that they can select adjoining homesteads, and 
can build their houses close to one another. 

Mr W. R. Bowder, of the New Brunswick 

Government Office.— 'I'he cmditions in the special 
^settlements which the New Brunswick Governnient 
proposes will be the same to all ex-service men. 
Yes. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia.— 
Sn- my answer to Question 2. Arrangements no doubt 
could be made for friends who wished to be near one 
another to purchase farms in the same neighbour- 
hood. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec- 
Ex-service men who are friends may arrange with the 
Government to take up land so as to be near togethei . 
Lt.-Col. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario.- 

^ Yes the idea is a very good one. Ample facilities 
will be a aiUible for friends or officers and men from 
the same company, battalion, or battery to be to- 

;> ether. 

'=' Australia. 

A^j^asiof^snuSs.^'^^^' 

i^^^^^^^Lients.. roitedKingom^erv^ 
mran:;:rt' Qi::Xr2, E what are practically 



'■ special settlements " are to be formed in the south- 
west, for which all ex-service men would be eligible; 
and if a number of friends wished it, no doubt they 
could arrange to be near together in one of these. 

All the men, their wives and families would have to 
be examined and approved by an official of the West 
Au.stralian Government. This could be done before 
they leave England; both the Federal and the State 
Government have medical officers here. 

Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia. — I do not know of any special settlements 
for ex-service men from the United Kingdom and 
other parts of the Empire; but see my answer to 
Question 2. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 
Tasmania. — The Government of Tasmania does not 
contemplate the formation of any " special settle- 
ments ' ' ; but when land is taken up by ex-service men 
according to the system 1 explained in my answer to 
Question 2, friends could arrange to be near together. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria.— 
In the measure to be known as the " Discharged 
Soldiers' Settlement Act " (sec answer to Question 2} 
power is taken to acquire land lor purposes of the 
Act. It should, therefore, be possible for the Govern- 
ment to set aside certain areas for the settlement 
of ex-service men from the United Kingdom, but 
this will be determined, to a great extent by the 
number of ex-memliers of the Australian Imperial 
Force requiring land. 

Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 

Wales.— Yes, on the Mnrrumbidgee areas. Srr 
answer to Question 2. The 1,000 farms mentioned will 
probably be ready in about 2 years. No difficulty 
should be experienced in placing friends in the same 
district. 

Maior Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland.-Only as explained in 
answers to Questions 2 and 5. There is no doubt 
that arrangements can be made lor group settlements 
by officers and men from -the same company, battalion, 
or battery. 

South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 
Africa >'" answer tu Question 2. 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 

Company.— ''>cc answer to Question 2. 



46 



EMPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE 



QUESTION V. 

As regards Government schemes for land settle- 
ment in your State, how much land is available— 
(o) without development work ; and 
(b) with such work;-' 

Is such land near a railway or a town:-" Has it 
a water supply? 

ANSWERS. 

Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg.- -All the land leffTrr,! t(i ill my 
answer t(i Qiiesticm 2 is iirairie land, wliicli entails 
very little clearing or the like; when fenced it can be 
cultivated at once; hut the Government has no cuUi- 
vated land to offer. 

Mr. W. R. Bowder, of the New Brunswick 

Government Office.— 20, 0(IM acies are now .set ajKirt 
for the special scheme proposed ; more, it needed, could 
be jjrovided. 

Yes. The first settlement is proposed to be near 
Moncton on the National Transcontinental Railway. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia.— 

Sec my answer to Question 2. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec— 

On the 30th June, 1910, there were 7,236,097 acres of 
land sub-divided into available lots for settlers, and 
those more especially accessible are in the " Clay 
Belt " through which the Natioiml Tiauscontinenlal 
Railway runs. Good water supply. This land is 
likely to be settled mainly by French Canadians 
because it is right at their doors. Men from the 
United Kingdom are not trained for the hard work 
of clearing, &c., involved There are, however, a 
good many Biitish settlers, and they will receive 
exactly the same advantages as the French Canadians. 

The lands now offered for settlement in the Province 
are as f oUow s : — 

Gatineau Valley, County of Ottawa. Soil : Clay 
loam, adapted for cultivation of all cereals and 
vegetables. Conditions for development of dairy 
industry very good. 

Ahitihi Be<jion, situated at the Western extremity 
of the Province. Soil: Blue clay, very fertile, 
specially adapted for the growing of cereals and 
vegetables. Good stock raising country. 

TemiscamiiKj, about 314 miles we.st of Montreal. 
GtMjd .soil for cultivation of corn and other cereals, als(j 
vegetables. Conditions for stock raising and dairy 
■industry unequalled. 

LnhcUc, situated between tlie cities of Montreal and 
Ottawa. Soil somewhat rocky, but rich and will grow 
all cereals and vegetables. Conditions for stock rais- 
ing and development of dairy industry veiy good. 

Lake St. John Itcfi'ion, situated alicnit 190 miles 
north of Quebec. Soil is of a loamy iiatuie and very 
fertile. Corn, cereals and vegetable,s of all kinds can 
be grown successfully. Good for stock raising. 

Temisruiiata, situated on the south side of the St. 
Lawrence River. Soil tirst-class quality and adapted 
for the growing of all cereals and vegetables. 

Biiiwuski, Matanc, (lasjir, (ind lloiKivcnlurc. The.se 
regions are situated at the extienie eastern part of the 
Province on the south side of the Gulf of the St. Ijaw- 
rence. Their .soil is well drained, free from roc-k and 
easily worked. Cereals and vegetables of all kinds can 
be grown successfully. 

Lt.-Col. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario. 

330.000 scpiaic miles, all luit o per cent, of which is 
undeveloped. Most of the land is wooded. The gross 
cost of clearing averages !iil2 to $20, but may run up 
to $50 to $(iO. In the majority of cases, the pro- 
ceeds of the sale of timlier cover the cost of clearing. 
Ten acres of each holding will lie cleared before the 
soldier takes possession. The land set apai't for sjiccial 
setliement liy the Ontaiio Government is well served 
by raihvays, ncai' to towns, and a good water supply is 
available. 

Australia. 

Major-General Sir Newton Moore, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia. It is diffi- 
cult to appniNiinate tile .■iiiioniit of land that is avail- 
able in Western Australia for this class of settlement, 



but when it is realized that in the south-west alone 
there are hundreds of thousands of acres available for 
closer settlemeift, provided money is available for the 
preparation of the land, it will be seen that areas 
are available for many thousands of settlers. Of 
course, the cost of development varies greatly; some 
land in the .south-west costs 1'20 an acre to clear, and 
land for fruit-growing even more. 

The general policy is only to throw lands open for 
settlement that are within reasonable distance of a 
railway, and this policy has been adopted with a very 
great deal of success, with the I'esult that, while in 
190.") Western Australia h.id 2,4.52,9.38 acres under cul- 
tivation, she now has 7,54S,708 acres under cultivation. 

Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia.- Sn- my answer to (Question 2. 

Sir John McCalJ, M.D., Agent-General for 

Tasmania. — As regards the Government schemes foi 
l.ind settlement in the State, I cannot say how much 
land is available, but the Government may buy pro- 
]ierties for sub-division as well as allowing Crown 
Lands to be selected. There is no difficulty about water 
supply. The lands, I understand, will be near a 
railway. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria.— 

The unalienated Crown Lands (agiicultural and 
grazing) total 8,000,000 acres. Of this area, .5,000,000 
acres are Mallee land in the north-west part of 
Victoria, the balance being distributed throughout 
the State. A large proportion of these lands will not 
be available without developmental work, and to 
enable this to be carried out to the fullest extent, 
the financial assistance of the Imperial Government 
will be necessary. 

Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 
Wales. — The possiliilities as to land settlement are 
very great, but they are limited by the condition 
that, to be successful, farms should be within about 
15 miles of a railway ; and there is not much land left 
n-hich at present fulfils these conditions. The area of 
land which is suitable for agriculture is being in- 
creased every year. Some 15 years ago the 20-inch 
lainfall was considered the farthest limit of profitable 
wheat-growing. To-dny, wlieat-growdng has piovel 
a success in areas where the rainfall is not more than 
17 inches, and with improved methods of cultivation 
and more .scientific farming it is calculated that large 
areas, if the nuiximum rainfall is not more than 
14 inches, will yield satisfactory results. 

In many parts of the States the construction of 
lailways has been sanctioned, and until recently 
developmental works representing £'10,000,000 were 
under construction at one and the same time. Owing, 
however, to the exigencies of war finance it has been 
necessary to curtail the amount of money borrowed 
for developmental purposes and restrictions are placed 
by the Home Government on the raising of loans by 
tile States on the British market. Under these cir- 
cumstances the construction of many railways which 
had been sanctioned has been unavoidably sus- 
pended until the European outlook is more favour- 
alile. When the necessary railways have been com- 
pleted there will be of Crown lands alone alwnt 
1,500.000 acres of slightly timbered land in the area 
boindcd liy IIillst«n, Ciidgellic •, Wyalong, and Nirroll ; 
also much heavily timbered land in the I'illiga Scrub; 
the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area may be extended 
both north and south of the river; and irrigation 
areas formed on the Murray. 

Besides that, there are large areas of private lands 
which the (iovernment could resume along the route 
of new railways, and which would be available for 
mixed farming" in farms of >^00 to 1,000 acres; coa.stal 
dairying farms, of 40 acres each; and irrigation settle- 
ments, of from 15 to 100 acres. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland. The amount ol good land 
a\ailablc tov scttlcimn t in Queensland is enormous, 
and 95 per cent, of it IjcUings to the Crown. 

The preliminary sclicme for soldier settliMucnt shows 
an area of 4,031,107 acres, capable of settling 19,288 
men and their families. The Bcerburnim area 
(00,(H)0 acres), I'ikedalo (4,308 .acres), and Innisfail 
(!57,:!50 acres) have alieady In'en set apart for group 
sttf ItMiient of soldiers. For these three areas — 
231, 71H acies in .all — it is estimated that a sum of 
£147,740 will be required for railway communication, 



APPENDIX Iir. 



47 



the construction of roads, aivl compensation for 
lesnmption. For the total area to which tlie scheme 
applies (4,031,107 acres) a sum of £2,093,017 will be 
required. This does not include the £500 per settler 
necessarj' for preparing and equipping the farms, 
to which reference was made in the answer to 
Question 2. 

Of course, much of this land will not lie ready 
until railways have been constructed. This cannot 
be done during the war, and probably not for .some 
little time after it is over. Srr answer to Question 6. 

A settler need not possess any considerable amount 
of money, as capital can l>e borrowed. It is not well, 
however, for a man with no ca]iital, unless he is 
of remarkable capacity and energy, to take up land 
immediately on his arrival; it may safely l)e said 
that the more he possesses the better ; a man without 
experience or without capital should avail himself of 
the training offered or obtain employment on a farm 
at first. There is a very efficient system of I/alxnir 
Bureaux. See answer to Question 10. 

Besides the area referred to, nearly the whole of 
the ea.stern coast of Queensland is suitable for close 
settlement ; it is estimated that some 8,000,000 acres 
are adai)ted for agricultural pursuits, and will be 
capable of supporting at lea.st 50,000 farmers and 
their families. The greater part of this area will 
be given communication liy the North Coast Railway 
now in construction; and a large proportion will 
have water communication. 

South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 

Africa. — There are large areas of vacant Crown 
lands, but mostly situated in remote and waterless 
regions, and requiring opening up to prepare them 
for settlement. The construction of irrigation works 
is usually undertaken under a system of State 
financial assistance and professional control by co- 



operative associations of farmers or by individual 
farmers. Some State irrigation schemes are in pro- 
gress, but none will l)e ready for a considerable time. 
For competent agi-icultural immigrants with small 
capital there would be good openings on the larger 
co-operative irrigation schemes in the Province of 
the Cape of Good Hope. An endeavour will be made 
by the Government to formulate a plan, in collabora- 
tion with the owners of the schemes, whereby land 
within such areas could l>e sold in holdings of a 
suitable size and on reasonable terms to ex-service 
men experienced in such farming. 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 

Company. — The whole of the 250,000 acres in 
Southern Rhodesia Ijeing ottered free by the British 
South Africa Company and the land which is being 
offered by private companies for settlement to ex- 
service men is undeveloped virgin land. 

The land offered by the British South Africa Com- 
pany is of " fair average quality " such as is now 
being sold. It has been selected as promising ■i-ood 
results to ex-soldiers. Broadly speaking, it is the 
fact that much of the best land has already been 
alienated and is now in the hands of private owners 
or big development companies. 

Only 14,000 acres of land offered by a private com- 
pany is in close proximity to a township (Gwelo). 
The rest ot the land is situated within accessible 
but varying distance from the railway, the maximum 
distance being approximately 25 miles. 

This distance, however, is not excessive for successful 
farming, especially as regards cattle, which thrive 
well. Maize is often grown at a profit 2-5 miles from 
a railway, and milk is lirougbt in for long distances 
to the creamery at Gwelo. 

Most of the land has a surface supply of water. 
Where no surface .supply exists, ample s\ipplies can 
nsuallv be secured at comparatively shallow depth 
by sinking bore-holes or wells. No ex-soldier wou'd 
be placed on waterless land. 



QUESTION VI. 

Apart from land settlement proper ('.'.. farming) 
what openings are there for ex-service men from 
the United Kingdom and other parts of the 
Empire in your State - ;/.. for fruit-growing, the 
fisheries, irrigation, afforestation, railway woris, 
mining, or other employment suitable to artisans.-' 

How, in your estimation, would the immigration 
of ex-service m.en for such purposes be regarded 
by Labour opinion in your State i" 

ANSWERS. 
Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg.— In answering this I mu.st refer 
to niv answer to Question 3. It must be remembered 
that'fruit-growing requires special knowledge; much 
the same might be said as to fisheries ; it is true that 
sailors might become fishermen, but probably they 
would find other occ\ipations which wovdd suit them 
bettei-. Afforestation comes under the head of agri- 
culture. Railway work necessarily varies in amount. 
Mining again is a scientific trade— in fact it is rather 
an " artisan's work." The Government would not 
encourage the immigration of miners as such. I do 
not say that skilled mechanics who wish to come to 
Canada would be rejected; such men may come if 
they wish; but the Government does not otter any 
special facilities for them. 

As to the " labour opinion," I do not think the 
party would object to the immigration of agricul- 
turists, nor to miners in the sense of men coming 
to search for gold ; but they would oliject to the intro- 
duction of coal miners. 

Mr W. R. Bowder, of the New Brunswick 

Government Office.-There are gocKl oi>en,ngs tor 
,-,uit-gro«iug, .shipbuildings. &c., in New Brunswick, 
but the Provincial Government only encourages the 
immigration of agriculturists, unless it is specially 
asked to assist other classes. 



So far as agriculture is concerned, there would be 
no objection on the part of labour organisations. As 
regards other occupations, I cannot say. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia.— 

I inilude fruit-giow iiig under farming. 

The fisheries at present employ upwards of 30,000 
men and yield about 25 per cent, of the total value 
of the Dominion fisheries. Most of the men employed 
in fishing .are men bcnn in Nova Scotia, as it is not 
an occupation which ne.vcoiners often take to. But 
the fishing industry is capable of much development, 
and if any ex-service men possess experience either 
in coastal or in deep-sea fishing or fish-curing, I think 
they would find occupation without difficulty, and 1 
should be glad to know if there are any of such men 
who wish to go to Nova Scotia. 

Railway work is a matter which rests practically 
with the Dominion Government, the Canadian Pacific, 
and the Canadian Northern Railways, who between 
them own the principal railways in the Province. 
With increase<l trade development, many openings 
will doubtless arise for employment. 

The iron and steel plants produce about .500,000 tons 
of pig iron yearly and give employment to a con- 
siderable number of men. In addition, new undei- 
takings have been org.uiised for the production ot 
munitions, and after the war these will be devoted 
to trade manufactures and will undoubtedly require 
mechanics and labourers. 

As to mining. The coal-mining industry is very 
extensive; at present it emjiloys 15,000 men, and pro- 
duces more than 50 |ier cent, of the total output of 
Canadian coal. The luily coal mines situated on the 
Atlantic seaboard of the American continent are those 
in Nova Scotia. The mines are worked by companies 
who, previous to the outbreak of the war, had then- 
own agents in this country and made their own 
arrangements tor securing ade(|uate labour, subject 
to GoVernment regnlaticuis. They h.ave introduced 
many men from Wales and Scotland, also from Bel- 
gium and Northern France. Ex-service men who h.ave 
had previous experience as miners would douljtless 
obtain employment 



u 



EMPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE 



Besides these, otlier undertakings, such as lumber- 
uig, shipbuilding, car manufacture, woodworking;, 
woollen and textile mills, and subsidiaiy industries 
connected with the by-products of coal and steel, could 
profitably accommodate both skilled and unskilled 
labour. 

I think the demand for Nova Scotia products will be 
so great that there will be no occasion for labour 
apprehen.sion. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General lor Quebec- 
Work of all kinds can be jj:ot. but specially farming 
hands are wanted, not men who will drift into the 
towns. There is no irrigation in Quebec. 

There are few labour unions in Quebec. 

Lt.-Col. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario.— 

There are splendid ojienin^s in Ontario for ex-service 
men in fruit-growing, the fisheries, and mining. Tli re 
are, however, no coal iiiiuen. SiUlicis wlm may ilesiie 
to go into fruit^farming and chicken raising or oth.-r 
like agricultural i!:ii>'>.its will be iiiv.'ii free iiistiu(- 
tion at the public institutions of the Province 
There are no opportunities in irrigation, and labour 
for afforestation is already available. Until further 
railway construction is underlaken in Ontario, the 
opportunities in this work are not many. 

If the immigration of ex-.service men had the effect 
of lowering wages or reducing employment, it would 
not be favourably regarded by laboui- opinion. The 
emigration of ex-soldiers, who are also ex-miners, 
would need to be regulated according to the demand. 

Australia. 
Major-General Sir Newton Moore, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia.— At this 

stage, with 3UU,Ul)U Australians out of ,\ustralia, this 
is a very difficult question to answer; but it niu.st 
follow that a country of so many and varied resources 
as Western Australia should afford employment for a 
very large number of men. more particularly in the 
timber and mining industries 

I have always found the L.abour Government in 
Western Australia reasonable to any proposed scheme 
which did not involve the creation of an " unem- 
ployed " difficnltv; and notwithstanding the fact th.at 
during the thre4 years 1910, 1911, and 191'2, .'W.OOO 
people were sent out from Great Britain to Western 
Australia, no labour difficulty of any kind was created. 

Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia. — Ajiart from land settlers, opeiiiiigs in 
South Australia are not important. Political feeling 
is strong against immigration of general labour. A 
considerable number of skilled labourers was brought 
in during the three years prior to the war, and these 
met the then rather acut-e shortage. As regards thi^ 
future, any farther immigration in this direction will 
depend upon developments. We are mainly a 
country of primary production, but, of course, with 
further land developments, development in other 
occupations ensues. The development of zinc and lead 
smelting at Port Pirie under the scheme of handling 
all Broken Hill oies in the British Dominions should 
undoubtedly mean a great extension of the industrial 
activity of that port, and .should call for a considerable 
increase of labourers. \ further increase of the 
smelting industry no doubt would affect the manu- 
facture of artifit'ial manures, but I may say that we 
.already manufacture a great proportion of our needs, 
and T' am not able, off-band, to say to what extent 
tbeiv wt;ul(l be .in oiiening at Po-.t Piiie to provide 
f(]r tlic manure rec|uirenients of Australia generally. 
It is a very inteiesting and practical (jiiestiiui. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 

Tasmania,, Ap-nt fnun land settlement iirojiev (that 
is, farming, including fiuit-growing) at the present 
time employment coubl b.' fonnd for a nuiiibiM- of ex- 



service men; bLit, of course, I cannot say what the 
conditions wili be after the war. As to fishing, it 
must be remembered that capital and experience are 
required. 1 cannot say th.at there are likely to be 
openings for artisans. 

I do not anticipate that there would be any objec 
tion on the part of labour organisations in the State. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria. 

In most callings the Icjcal supply of artisans meets all 
requirements. Ex-service men. however, who are 
competent to take up fruit-growing or irrigated farln- 
ing W(juld be welcome. The fishing industry is i:ap 
able of expansion, and afforestation will, as time goes 
by, receive more attention. 

Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 
Wales. — There are openings for ex-service men cap- 
able of engaging in fruit-growing and gardening, 
iiiigation, afforestation, ifcc, but, as a general rule, 
artisans are not advised t<3 emigrate. 

The Labour Government, which came into power in 
1910, carried on an active immigration policy until 
the outbreak of the war. There is, however, always 
an undercurrent of opposition to immigration on the 
part of the labour organisations, caused partly by the 
uncontrolled operations of passage brokers and passage 
brokers' agents in the past, partly by the tendency of 
certain private emigration societies to se'nd unsuitable 
people, and partly by an unfounde.l fear that it will 
cause a surplus of labour and a consequent reduction 
in the rate of wages. 

Immigration of persons who would compete in the 
skilled trades or in mining would be opposed by the 
lalxiur organisations. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.O.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland.— Apart from farming, 
there will probablv lie some openings for ex-service 
men in fisheries, irrigation, &c.,'but I am at present 
not in a position to state the policy of the Queensland 
Government as regards the immigration of ex-soldiers 
for purjioses other than land settlement. 

I may add, however, that after the War, when 
matters' have returned to their normal condition, and 
rails and other materials are obtainable, Queensland 
will probablv resume the construction of railways on 
a large scale. That would offer opportunities for 
Government as regards to immigration of ex-soldiers 
accustomed to such work. 

Labour opinion in Queensland is not hostile t<i 
immigration ; and is not likely to regard the immi- 
gration of ex-service men with disfavour unless they 
arrive in such numbers that the labour market 
becomes disorganised. 

South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiuer, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 

Africa. — ■'''■'' answer to Question .3, above. 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 
Company.— With the exception of fruit-growing 
i especially oranges) and some other industries such as 
the cultivation of tobacco, fibres, and oil, which all 
require a considerable amount of capital, there 
are practically no such openings. There are 
none in fisheries, irrigation, and afforestation, and 
only a verv limited prospect for artisans in railway, 
mining, or other emplovment. It has to be remem- 
bered that all the un.sk'illed labour of the country is 
performed bv African natives, and that it is only the 
skilled supervisory posts that are filled by white men. 
The question of Labour opinion as regards immigra- 
tion hardlv arises though there is a certain amount of 
opposition' to land settlement schemes on a largo scale. 
Some existing fanners are afraid of prices for produce 
falling. 



QUESTION VII. 

Do you think it likely that your Government 
would welcome partially disabled ex-service men 
from the United Kingdom and other parts of the 
Empire y 

If so, can you tell me of any official or private 
institutions which would help such men? 



ANSWERS. 
Canada. 
Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg.— I do not see how the Dominion 
(Joverunient could give them employment; we shall 
have so many men of that kind of liur own to deal 
with. And I do not know of any societies which 
could help. 



APPENDIX III. 



49 



Mr. W. S. Bowder, of the New Brunswick 
Government Office.— I lannut say without hist 
coiisultiMK tilt' New Briiiiswicli Goveniiiieut, but 
I thiuii they would be quite willing to accept 
such men provided they were physically fit and able 
to support theInselve^^, and willing to accept agri- 
cultural employment; but not for other occupations 
and trades unless applications were received for such 
men. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia.— 
Yes, if such men were physically fit, capable of earn- 
ing a livelihood, and would accept such employment 
as was found for them. The Department of Indus- 
tries and Immigration offers to put newcomers in 
touch with employers of labour. Local patriotic 
organisations have been formed to look aft«r the wel- 
fare of our returned soldiers, as well as the depen- 
dents of those on active service, and doubtless their 
operations would be extended, if possible, to the men 
in question. I presume that, according to the extent 
of the demands made upon the Technical College and 
lechnical Schools by our own injured men, the avail- 
able facilities will be freely extended to other disabled 
"■^T?u''\'l''!'''"S training for industrial employment. 

Ihe JMilitary Hospitals Commission has a ijranch or 
branches, in Nnva Scotia, where partially disabled 
men are being instructed in trades most suitable to 
their condition. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec— 
1 can t tell. 

Lt.-Col. RReid, Agent-General for Ontario.- 

Yes, It tlieir disability is not sucii as to prevent them 
from being self-supporting. It is to be noted that 
Untano will have to make provision for a large number 
of her own disabled men who will be unable to sup- 
port themselves, and that further numbers of partially 
disabled men will have to be trained before they can 
.'support tbeiiLselves in even a slight degree because 
they will be unfit to return to their previous occupa- 
tion, and it is obvious that the admission of further 
partially disabled men would need to be in limited 
numbers and under careful control. If it could be 
shown that the United Kingdom and the other parts 
of the Empire could not make provision for their own 
partially disabled men, then I feel sure the Ontario 
Government would make every effort for their accom- 
modation. 

The admission of partially disabled men would, of 
course, be dependent on the regulations of the 
Dominion Government. 

The Military Hospitals Commission and the Soldiers' 
Aid Commission are helping to place out disabled 
soldiers, but very few so far have gone on the land. 

Australia. 

Major-General Sir Newton Moore, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia.— I cannot 
answer this question. It is intended to provide blocks 



of from 5 to 30 acres near town for injured and sick 
men, but that only refers to Australians. 

Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 
Australia.— -I do not consider that my Government 
would feel itself called upon to welcome partially dis- 
abled ex-service men, who, in my opinion, are not 
suited for the strenuous and sturdy life of a new 
country. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 
Tasmania.— I do not think that at present the State 
Government would welcome partially disabled ex- 
service men from the United Kingdom or other parts 
of the Empire, as it seems probable that there will be 
more than sufficient of these belonging to our own 
forces. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria.— 
Many returned Australian soldiers have been fully or 
partially disabled, and for them adequate provision 
must be made. The Victorian Government will, there- 
fore, not welcome ex-service men from the United 
Kingdom who have been similarly incapacitated. The 
Commonwealth Government cabled in November, 1916, 
to the High Commissioner for Australia, London, in 
the following terms: — 

" With reference to your telegram of the 28th 
October, disabled ex-soldiers or sailors not pre- 
viously domiciled Australia would be debarred 
admission if likely become public charge or danger 
to community. Desirable deal with each case on 
merits." 

Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 
Wales. — Australia will have more than enough of her 
own disabled men for whom provision mii.st be made. 
Disabled ex-service men not previously domiciled in 
Australia would be debarred admission if likely to 
become a public charge. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland.— It is not likely th.nt the 
Queensland Government would be able to iirovide for 
any number of very seriously or permanently disaliloil 
ex-service men from the United Kingdom. 

South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
.High Commissioner for the Union of South 
Africa. — The Government are anxious to assist, but 
openings are few and not equal to the demands of 
returned South Africans. The Governor-General's 
^official) Fund, and the South African Settler's In- 
formation Committee would, doubtless, aid. 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 

Company. — Yes, provided they have sufficient capital 
to establish themselves on the land and are capable of 
developing it. But it must be admitted that the 
number of men fulfilling these conditions must be very 
small. No institutions exist in Rhodesia for helping 
disabled men from other parts of the Empire. 



QUESTION VIII. 

Generally speaking, how many ex-service men 
from the United Kingdom and other parts of the 
Empire do you think your State could absorb 

(a) during the first year, 

(i>) during the second year, 

(r) during the third year, 
after the termination of the War? 



ANSWERS. 
Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg. — Limiting my aiisuer to unskilled 
larni labour — that is, men who would go to work with 
fanners, I should say that we could absorb — 
20,000 men in the first year, 
30,000 men in the second year, ami 
40.000 men in the third year. 
That is, besides women and children. It is also in 
addition to men with pj-evious experience who could 
take up land at once. There are many farmers now 
who would cultivate more land if they could get more 



labourers. Besides, it must be remembered that immi- 
gration creates more work; railways, waterworks, &c., 
have to be constructed as population increases. 

Mr. W. R. Bowder, of the New Brunswick 

Government Office. — I cannot say definitely until 
our own men are settled, but the demand from farmers 
has hitherto always exceeded the su]iply. 1 think it 
would be a low estimate to suggest that New Bruns- 
wick could absorb about 3,000 immigrants after the 
war per annum, including a proportion of ex-service 
men. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia.- 

Judging from statistics I estimate tliat after the 
war Nova Scotia could probably absorb — 

(a) In the first year, 5,000 souls (in<luding their 

families). 
(6) In the second year, 5,000 souls (including their 

families), 
(c) In the third year, 3,000 souls (including their 
families). 
Preference wcnild be given to ex-service men. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec. 

Any amount of bond fiih settlers who wcnild like to 
take up farms could be absorbed, but men without 



50 



EMPIRK SETTLKMENT COMMITTEE 



experienre who take up farms at oiire are not likely 
to succeed. Wp could place, say, about 500-600 iiiei, 
per annum with farmers, for whom they would work 
whilst getting acclimatised. 

Lt.-Col. R. Eeid, Agent-Geneial for Ontario.— 

This is at present under the consideration of the 
Government and I e.xpect to receive a close estimate 
in the near future. 

I think Ontario might absorb — 
((/) 8,000 in the first vear. 
(/<) 12,000 in the second year, 
(r) 16,000 in the thii'd year. 

These numbers include all ex-seivice men, i.e., those 
from Canada as well as those from tlie United King- 
dom, &c. 

Australia. 

Major-General Sir Newton Moore, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia.— 1 .should 

tbiidv it quite safe to say that Western Australia could 
absorb the fullowiiig numbers of ex-service men from 
the United Kingdom and other parts of the Empire 
(that is, exclusive of returned Australiar'.s) : — 

(a) In the fir.st year, 3,350; that is, 3,000 on 
wheat and mixed farming lands and 350 on 
lands suitable for dairying, fruit-growing, 
and intensive culture. 

(h) In the second year, 5,500; that is, 5,000 on 
wheatlands and 500 on lands suitable for 
dairying, &c. 

(c) As to the third year, I cannot give any defi- 
nite number; but I tliink it probable that 
Western Australi.a could in the third year 
absorb more than in the second. 

By that time matters will have settled down. The 
State Government will be able to supply full in- 
formation when the time draws near. 

T consider that this estimate is moderate, inasmuch 
as in normal times 30,000 per.sons, including at leasit 
10,000 men have been placed on the land in thi'ee 
years. Hut it is. of course, dependent on the anvount 
of money available for development. A farmer is not 
likely to succeed if his farm is more than 15 miles 
from a railway. But, although this is the number 
which the land could absinb, I .should explain that, 
in view of tlie ditficidty that must be experienced in 
finding transport, even for our own returned soldiers 
(who, of course, would h.ave first claim), it would not 
appear likely that any but Australian soldiers could 
be settled on the land during the first, or peihaps 
even the second year after the war. 

Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia. — I am unable to give any satisfactoiy esti- 
mate of the numlier of ex-soldiers we could absorb 
from year to year during the next few years. 



Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 

Tasmania. — I lannot answer this question. But with 
respect to the capacity of Tasmania generally, I may 
say that it is larger than Belgium; at present it has 
a population of about 200,000, and 1 think there is 
land enough for 500,000 agriculturists (including 
fruit growers), not to speak of men engaged in other 
occupations. 

Perhaps when our own troops have returned, the 
Tasmanian Government might be able to say how 
many ex-service men from the United Kingdom could 
be absorbed in the year or two following. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria.— 

At present it is impossible to estimate the number 
of ex-service men from the Uiiited Kingdom who 
could be absorbed within one, two, or three years of 
the termination of the war. As far as land settle- 
ment in particular is concerned, it will, as before 
stated, depend greatly on the number of returned 
Au.stralian soldier.-i who desire to take up land. 
Twelve months ago enquiry cards were sent to 
Victorians on active service, and 22,064 were returned 
up to 31. st December, 1916. Of these, over 5,000, say 
25 per cent., expressed their desire to settle on the 
land. In addition, over 3,t)00 wish to resume agri- 
cultural work as employees. 

Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 

Wales. — Ni) intoiniati(ui is yet available. In the 
years 1911-13, 29,400 immigrants arrived, mostly from 
the United Kingdom; these included farm labourers 
and their families, domestic servants and persons 
nominated by previous immigrants with a guarantee 
of emiiloyment. These were absorbed without diffi- 
culty. As developmental work is carried out, thus 
making more land available, a still larger number 
could be absorbed in rural occupations. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland. It is liard to say. It will 

in part depend on when mcu'e i-ailways are constructed, 
whicli in its turn will dei^end (m how soon we shall 
be able to get the materials, such as rails. 

South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 

Africa. — Ni '■ answers tii t,hii-stii>ris .'i and 7, above. 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 

Company. — So far as cimcerns the men who can be 
settled on the land which is being granted free, the 
numbers must necessarily be small — say 500. They 
are limited by the numbers for whom training 
facilities can be provided. 

We could take, say, 25 at once if occasion arose. 
Rhodesia is a very young and small community. The 
total white population is only 32.0t)0. and the number 
of established farmers who could liel]i is limited. In 
any case, we prefer " i|uality " to " quantity." 



QUESTION IX. 

Has your Government established, or does it 
contemplate establishing, training farms or similar 
institutions — 

CO for ex-service men from your own State ; or 
('') for ex-service men from the United King- 
dom and other parts of the Empire-^ 
If so, how large are the training farms likely to 
be>^ How many ex-service men would they accom- 
modate' How long otight ex-service men to stop 
at themr" 

What arrangements is it proposed to make with 
reference to the finance and control of such train- 
ing farms;-' 

ANSWERS. 

Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg. — Strictly speaking, there are no 
tiiiiiiiiiii jiiiiiis: l)ut there are crprrlmrntal farms 
belonging to b<itli the Dominion and the Provincial 
Governments; and tbc Governinent might put special 
teachers at these, so that they would be available for 
ex-service men to receive their training at. But I 
consider th.at the best form of training for them is 
to go and work as farm lahourns on farms. Men sent 



t<i work on such farms could be sure of winter work; 
the Government would see to that. Of course wages 
fur 12 months are lower than those for eight; but a 
man could get from $20 to .f30 a month with boar<l 
and lodging. 

Mr. W. R. Bowder, of the New Brunswick 

Government Office. Each special scttbuni'iit in .New 
Brunswick will liave its own training farm. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia.- - 

A Training College of Agriculture, with farm 
attached, 1ms been established iov many years at 
Truro. Nova Scotia. The College is thoroughly 
cquipp(>d, and staffed by competent men, and affords 
full instruction in all branches of agriculture and 
horticulture. Special classes will be given to ex-,ser- 
vico men who wish to avail them.selvcs of this oppor- 
tunity. Tlie instruction is free, the only cost to the 
student being his board and lodging. As the College 
is non-residential, this can be obtained at a re.ason- 
able rate in the town of Truro. Government experi- 
mental farms have also been established at \appam 
and Kentville, where practical instruction can be oli- 
tained liy the newcomer. There is also a Technical 
College at Halifax, where up-to-date instruction in 
Metallurgy, Mining, Chemical and Klwti-ical Engi- 
neering is provided. Tecbnical schools have been 
establishtvl in industrial districts. 



APPENDIX in. 



51 



^Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec. 

ihls ((iiestiOTi liMN not vet I.eeii dehnted. At J)ieseiit 
we iKive ill Queliee ciiilv agiKultiii al Cdlleges and ux- 
pei-inii'iital farms, not traipiiig farms. 

Lt.-Col. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario.— 

Tlie traiiiiii- farm at .Monteitli is .some (i(l() acres 
111 extent, but only part of this is at present under 
cultivation. If the necessity arises further trainimr 
farms will be established and are likely to be between 
300 and 500 acres in extent. The ijeriod of trainiiur 
will vary: the men without experience will probably 
require at least three months. 

The finance and control of the Government trainini' 
farm are provided by the Ontario Government, and 
this will be the case should an\ farms lie established 
in the future. 

The Agricultural C.llege at Cuelph is one of the 
best known in the Empire, liut tlii> demand for admis- 
.sion there isgreater than the accoiiimodatinii available. 

Australia. 

Major-General Sir Nev;ton Moore, K.C M G 
Agent-General for Western Au.'-tralia. A srheme 
for the training of men in poultr\-farmiim is alreadv 
in existence ,ind is controlled by tlie local War Councii 

Schemes are also under consideration for the estab- 
lishment of experimental farms which will give oppor- 
tunities to farmers of obtaining good stock, but 
nothing has as yet been decided. 

Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia. — Sir particulars given in aiis»er to Ques- 
tion 2 as to the training farm on the iMouiit Beniark- 
able Estate. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 

Tasmania. — The Government have a State farm at 
Beloraiiie, where practical training in farming is 
given. I believe that it would accommodate about 
50 men I have no doubt that it will be made pos- 
sible for ex-service men from the T'nited Kingdom to 
go there. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria.— 

The Discharged Scildiers' Settlement Bill (s. « answer 
to Question 2) provides for the estalilishnient and 
maintenance of training farms, which would also be 
open to ex-.service men from the United Kingdom. 
Already some returned soldiers are undergoing train- 
ing at the Dookie Agricultural College, which has an 
area of 5,91.3 acres. 

Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-'General for New South 

Wales. — The Training Centres available at 
are as follows : — 



(2) 



present 



■inricuUural F„rmi, for dairying, wheat-grow- 
uig and mixed farming. On the.se— about 7 
in all— practical farming is conducted, and 
there would be room f(u- a limited number of 
immigrants. 
(3j Erpriiinciitiil F(7M„.s.— These are numerous, 
but would not accommodate a very large 
number of men. '^ 

(4) Stctr 2'Vr»is— that is. wheat farms conducted 
on a large scale under the control of the 
Stats^-have been started, but so far with 
(uily partial success. If they are extended, 
a number of immigrants might obtain em- 
[iloyment on them. 

(5) I'ltt Town /''firm —This has been utilised in 

giving preliminary experience to youths 
brought out under the •■ Dreadnought 
System." After from three to six months 
on this faim. they find emplovment with 
farmers. This farm might be extended. 

(6) An area has been reserved at Griffith on the 

Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area, and bar- 
racks erected capable of holding about GO 
men. It is intended to employ .soldiers on 
probation for six months on initial woi k 
preparing what will afterwards be then- 
farms. They will receive 5.v. a dav and will 
be kept by the Irrigation Commission. 
Instruction will be given there, and will be 
continued after the soldiers have been 
placed on their blocks. Similar centre.s 
might be established. Friends may thus 
.settle together, obtain preliminary experi- 
ence, and work on the land which is to be 
their home.^, whilst receiving wages from 
the commencement. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland.— The Queensland Govern, 
ment is setting up training farms on the various 
settlements for the benefit of those requiring instruc- 
tion. In the fruit-growing areas canning" factories 
are being arranged for to prevent a glut of green 
fruit, and with a view to preparing the producrs for 
export, thus securing for the men the full return for 
their labour. 

There are also training farms for vouths, which 
might be available. 



(1) The Hairlceslnif!/ .irjiirultural CnUcijc, both 
scholastic and practical, chiefly availalile 
for voiing students. 



South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 
Africa. — There are small training farms, being part 
of tile Land Settlement Scheme referred to in answer 
to question 2 above, 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 

Company.- -Xo: but .srr above under 2 and 4, and 
below, under 10. 



QUESTION X. 

Can arrangements be made whereby ex-service 
men from the United Kingdom and other parts of 
the Empire who do not go to Government farms in 
your State, or for whom such farms are not avail- 
able, can be sure of obtaining situations on other 
farms where, while supporting themselves on their 
earnings, they can acquire Colonial experience? 
For how many ex-service men from the United 
Kingdom and other parts of the Empire could 
accommodation of this kind be fotmd in each year- 

ANSWEKS. 

Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg. -VcN. Ni < my answer to Ques- 
tion 0. 

Mr. W. R. Bowder. of the New Brunswick 

Government Office. There is plenty of farm em- 
I ioyineiit. S< •■ answer to Question 3. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia.— 

Yes, through the De),artmeiit of Industries and Immi- 
gration at Halifax, who wuukl be prepared to place 

1U7T 



men on farms in the Province. There are many 
excellent openings for farm workers. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec- 
Farmers' hel])iiig hands can get employment and good 
wages and acquire experience for themselves. See 
answer to Question 8. 

Lt.-Col. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario.— 

Yes, but these situations are only a\ailalile in the 
older and more settled parts of Ontario. 
5,000. 

Australia. 

Major-General Sir Newton Moore, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia.— I do not 

think that there would be any difficulty in agricul- 
tural labourers obtaining employment ijirectly they 
arrive ; and I consider that the best way for tiiem t\> 
acquire local experience. The system hitherto — I 
mean, of course, before the war — has been that the 
Government advertise that a .sliip with immigrants i^ 
coming. P'armers come and interview the men who 
wish to work on farms; and ladies c(uue and intervievv 
the women who are going into dome.stic service; the 
demand always exceed.s the sujiply. 

E 



62 



K.MPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE 



Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia. — Vcn, tor a carefully coiitnilled iiiimbei-. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 

Tasmania. A limited inunljer ciiuld olitaiii Muli posi- 
tiiins witli fanners; and I think that i.s the best way 
for a man to acquire the necessary experience. But 
I must warn you that Tasmanian farmers are not very 
keen about taking inexperienced men wlio have lately 
arrived in the State; they say that a i;ood man at 
£1 a week and all found is cheaper to them than a 
newly arrived immigrant <if the ordinary type for 
nothing at all. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria.— 

Rx-service men from the T'nited Kingdom suitable for 
agricultural wurk and desirous of aiquiring Colonial 
experience would have no difKculty in obtaining em- 
ployment on farms. 

Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 

Wales. — Farm labour is very .scarce at liarvest time, 
but work caniu)t be guaranteed all the year round. 
We already have a system of placing men out on 
farms (sfr answer to Question 9). but it must be 
lemembered that we have not, as Canada has, large 
contiguous areas oi something the same general type. 



Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland. — It will no doubt be pos- 
sible ior men not a\'ailing themselves of these training 
tarms to find employment on other farms in order 
t(i gain expei'ience. In fact, we always consider the 
most advisable course for a man who wishes to take 
u]) land is to go and woi-k on a farm first, for a year 
or two. It is hard to say how many men could 
obtain situations; at any rate, up to the piesent 
time, none who have i-ome have had any difficulty in 
doing so ; vacancies are continually occurring. 

South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 
Africa. The poor-white population of the Union 
needs to be settled; and from this class such openings 
are generally filled. 

Mr. P. Lyttleton Gell, British South Africa 

Company.-- Knquiries ail- being made for established 
farmers to take pros|iective settlers as pupils; in the 
majority of cases faimers will make a maintenance 
chai-ge of about £5 :i month. It is not yet po.ssible 
to say how many fainiers will agree to take pupils. 



QUESTION XI. 

Do .you think it would be a good thing if the 
Imperial Government were to start training farms 
in the United Kingdom for ex-service men 
desirous of emigrating" Do you consider that such 
farms would be useful for boarding and training 
these men whilst they are waiting for ships to 
take them out:" Should such farms, if established, 
be managed by men from the Dominions with 
previous farming experience-' 

.ANSWERS. 
Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruc3 Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg.— I regard the training at such 
farms as su]>crfirial. But with regard to ex-service 
men wlio wish to lx>come agriculturists in the 
Dominions, if it is nece.ssaiy to letain them in England 
for a year or so after deiuobilisation, perhaps the Iiest 
place for them would be a training farm where they 
could learn how to manage horses and cattle and to 
milk; and could accustom themselves to the use of 
farm implements .such as are used in Canada. But 
there are two things to bear in mind: (1) Even if a 
man has gone through a course of training in England 
he has still much to learn when he arrives in Canada, 
as the climate, soil, manner of cultivation, and social 
conditiims are all different. Putting a man on the 
land in Canada without ]iievious colonial experience 
I regard as in most castjs madne.ss. Of course, if a 
man has experience acquired elsewhere, and capital 
of his own — at the very least, £300 — he can take U)i 
land for him.self at once if he wishes to do .so, and in 
certain circumstances he may succeed ; but T do not 
say more than that. (2) A training farm in England 
must be regarded as a dead expense to the Govern- 
ment, as the men must leave the country as soon as 
they are trained ; in Canada the Government is train- 
ing men to supply an exi.sting local want. 

Mr. W. R. Bowder, of the New Brunswick 

Government Office.— Not much use. Conditions are 
so different in the ('Tiited Kingdom fi-om what they 
are in Canada. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia.— 

Yes. Pcrha|>s I .im led to s)ieak move stTdiigly in 
favour of this than the representatives of otlier parts 
of the Oversea Dominions do, as the sy.stpm of agri- 
I'ldture in Xo\ a Scotia more nearly r&semble,s that of 
the Old Country than that of other parts of the 
Empire does. The Hon. R. Guinness established a 
training farm in England, the manager of which was 
a graduate of the Agricultural College at Guelph in 
Ontario, and the men trained there have done well 
in Nova Scotia. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec- 
Yes. I should welcome the establishment of a train- 
ing farm in the T'nited Kingdom if, on account of 



tianspoit dithculties, men who wanted to come to 
Canada had to wait about befcue there w.as an oppoi- 
I unity to start. A Dominion ;nanager would be 
better, I should think, because agricidtnial ccniditions 
m Canada differ on certain ]ioints from those in the 
I nitcd Kingdom 

Lt.-Col. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario.— 

Only if there is likely to be ronsiderable delay in 
ol>t.iiiiing transport. If such training farms are estab- 
lished in the riiited Kingdom, the training should 
lu'oceed along Canadian lines, and the farms shoiilt'. 
be managed by Canadian farming experts. 

Australia. 

Major-General Sir Newton Moore, K.C.M.G.. 
Agent-General for Western Australia. I thmk that 

the estabiisbment of training f.irnis in the Vnited 
Kingdom, managed by men with ]ire\ ions ex|)erience 
not only in England but ]M-eferably in the Dominions, 
would be of very considerable value. 1 may mention 
that there is at present a scheme under consideration 
for finding employment ■ for Australian soldiers m 
England whilst waiting to return to Australia; per- 
haps there are .some of them who could be utilised as 
instructors. The men could receive instruction in 
such matters as rough carpentering, which would be 
useful to them in Australia. But J only recommend 
this in case the men are delayed in starting; otherwi.se 
1 think that they had better go to Au.stralia and 
acquire their experience there. 

Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia. — The establishment of training institnti(jiis 
in the United Kingdom is not a proposition which of 
it.self particularly appeals to me. I prefer the lu- 
1 ending settlers to olitrin their exjjerience under the 
new conditions, and always advise them to spend some 
time as farm labourers. However, it will take a con- 
siderable time for the Australian soldiers to return to 
Australia after peace, and Imperial emigrants will 
very probably be held up in this country for that 
reason, and also during the time of gradual de- 
mobilisation. During tlii.s enforced period it seems 
to me that the ex-lmpeiral soldier can most profit- 
ably u.se the time on suitable training f.arms, where 
he would become familiar with the handling of stock, 
and, of course gain a considerable amount of valuable 
information, useful on land the whole wcirld over. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 

Tasmania. — I do not think that traiiiing farms in the 
tinited Kingdom would serve the purpose of the 
proper training of men for agricnUure or horticulture 
in the State. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria. — 

With a view to ascertaining snit;ibility, a shcnt course 
of training in the I"nited Kingdom would a]ipear to 
be desirable. The selected men could then be drafted 
to other farms to await sailing. Whilst it wcnild lie 



Al'i'KNDlX III. 



53 



adrantageuus if such fainis were managed by peisuus 
who have alsu had some oveisea farming experience, 
it must be borne in mind that conditions vary con- 
siderably thronehoiit tlie Dominions. 

Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 

Wales. — In extreme eases, where there is a delay in 
transportatiini, intending emigrants might lie nsefnlly 
employed in some form of rural training in England. 
But English training is of little value to men intend- 
ing to go to Australia ; the climate and conditions of 
work are too different. Australian wheat farms are 
about 1,000 acres in extent; ploughing and harvestintj 
are done by machinery. No man should start farming 
in .-Vustralia without at least six months' local 
experience. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland.- Yes. We have had some 
experience in (Queensland (jf the advantage of such a 
system. A nuinber of lads have been sent out by the 
Church Army who have had a three months' course 
of preliminary training on the Church Army farm in 
Essex : and that training, elementary as it has been, 
has been of great value to them. J may here remark 
that the system of sending out these lads has been a 
thorough success: they do well on farms: I have 
known cases in which even in 12 or 18 months' work 
a lad has saved enough monev to lu'ino: his parents 
out. 



Of course, as regards ex-soldiers, the question some- 
what depends on the amount of time demobilisation 
takes. If the men have to remain soldiers for a con- 
siderable period, but have nothing to do, they might 
be well employed in learning farming: or, if it is 
necessary for them to remain in barracks, they might 
be taught trades, such as blacksmithing, which would 
be useful to them when on the land. But if training 
farms for soldiers desirous of emigrating are estab- 
lished in England, they should be managed by men 
from the Dominions with agricultural experience. 

South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 

Africa. — It would uudoul)tedly lie very useful. 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 

Company. — Yes. Men from the Dominions with 
fanning experience should be associated with the 
management. As regards not only Rhodesia, but 
other countries, I trust that the Committee will 
emphasise the importance to settlers of acquiring in 
advance some handiness in the use of to<ils, and in 
the rudiments of carpentering, ooustruction, brick- 
laying, masonry, plumbing, smiths' work, farriery, 
&c. Settlers must lie prepared to build for them- 
selves, and to repair buildings, ini|ileuu>nts. itc. — 
however rough their work. 



QUESTION XII. 

Do you think that if any special facilities are 
available in your State for ex-service men from 
the United Kingdom and other parts of the 
Empire preference should be given to those who 
are married? 

ANSWEKS. 

Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg.- IViMHuilly, I vhuuld favour 
giving preference to siniitc men. ] admit that you 
may call that selfish: and I admit also that in view 
of the desirability of an increase of population the 
necessity may overweigh the inconvenience. But 
what I mean is that whilst a wife in good health with 
not more than two young children is an advantage, 
a delicate wife or mine than two young children is 
an inconvenience to the farmer with whom the man 
IS working; accommodation is limited, and the wife 
has no spare time to assist in the work of the house. 
fn the Eastern Provinces there are sometimes old 
farmhouses which are .-ivaihilile for marripil hibouiers. 

Mr. W. R. Bowder, of the New Brunswick 

Government Office. — Yes. Married men would be 
preferred. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia. — 
Yes. 
Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec— 

Yes, if thev have uinney to su[i])ipit themselves the 
first years. It is impo.vsible for a man who has a wife 
and family to support to get a living from the laud 
straight off, and there is a difficulty in getting farmers 
to take families in. 
Lt.-Col. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario.— 

Preference should be given to married men in the older 
sections of Ontario. Tliere is greater difficulty in 
arranging for the accommodation of married couples, 
particularly those with large families, than in the 
case of single men, as many Ontario farmers do not 
possess houses other than the farmhouse, and it is 
not alwavs convenient to allot living accommodation 
for married people there. Moreover,' women with 
more than two young children to look after have not 
much time to .attend to other duties. On the other 
hand, the married man is likely to remain in his posi- 
tion longer th.in the single .nan, and, when farmeis 
have accommodation tliey in many cases prefer mar- 
ried men for this reason and also because the wives 
are able to assist in house work, milking, &c and the 
children are very useful in doing light work as, for 
instance, picking the small finits. It will te seen, 
therefore, that married couj^les with families are_ wel- 
come when housing accommodati.m is available, but t 
do not think their numbers should exceed 20 per cent. 
• if the total emigr-ation of ex-service men. 



Australia. 

Major-Generai Sir Newton Moore, E.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia.— As to this I 

cannot speak with authority: but my personal opinion 
IS that preference should be given to married men, 
and I think that the Government would take the same 
view. Of c<jurse mueh would depend on the ages of 
the children accompanying the settler: but, generally 
speaking, I may say that families are always welcome, 
and the more c'hildreu there are the better. They can 
find employment at an early age, especially on dairy 
farms. 

Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia. — .Sentimentally one favours the idea of 
preference to those who are married, but unfor- 
tunately in a new i/ountry, the accommodation is not 
always available for a man and familly and during 
the period whilst a man is gaining experience and 
becoming accustomed to the conditions, he naturally 
would not receive full wages. Such accommodation 
as there is on the farms for married men would 
naturally be taken tip by the married farming 
labourers already in Australia. A practical plan, m 
my opinion, is for the man to go out alone, gain his 
ex]5erience, obtain his block of land, prepare his own 
little homestead and then bring out his wife and 
family. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 

Tasmania. — I tliink preference sliould be given to 
men \\\\n are married. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria.— 

No. Except in occasional instances where a husband 
and wife are especially suitable for and willing to take 
.1 " married couple's " position on a farm, it would 
be inadvisable for women to acc-ompany their husbands 
unless sufficient capital to cover cost of maintenance 
for a reasonable period is available. They sltoukl, as 
a general rule, be nominated for assisted passages by 
their husbands after the latter have made a satis- 
factory settlement. ^Yhel■e there are children, this 
course is particularly desirable. The passage money 
rates to Victoria for nominees are very low. For 
example, wives £4, children under IS £2. 

Mr. C. G. 'Wade, Agent-General for New South 

Wales. — Yes: if proper arrangements are made for 
the maintenance of the wife and' children whilst th« 
man is being trained. See my answer to Question 14, 
infra. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland. — It is ])iobable that 
ineference would be given by the Queensland Govern- 
ment to men from the Tn-ited Kingdom who are 
married. 



54 



EMPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE 



South Africa. 
The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 

Africa. — Ouiiif; tn the war, uunilnTs (if Sciiitli 
Airifan women and girls have taken up nursing, 
clerical work, &v., and these conditions will prolialily 
continue after the war. There is a shortage of 
teachers, hut onlv in the coiintiv centres (often far 



removed from railway communications) and liilmgnal 
fjualifications (Knglish and Dutch) are essential. In 
the g<ivei'ning circumstances the Government is re- 
gretfullv unaMe to encourage immigrants of the 
classes covei'ed ^^" (juestions 12 to 16, 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 
Company. -Yes, 



QUESTION XIII. 

Do you think that ex-service men with small 
families would be more welcome than those with 
large ? 

ANSWERS 
Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg. -Si r answer to Question 12, 

Mr. W. R. Bowder. of the New Brunswick 

Government Office. — It dl uurking age huge families, 
but if very young ihildrcn sni:ill families m the 
majority of ca.ses, 
Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia.— 

No. tlic laiger the tainily 1 lie in-ttei ror the Pnivince. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec- 
No difference isi, . Ii[n\evei. iinsv\er tn QuestidU 12). 

Lt.-Col. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario. — 

See answei' to Question 12. 

Australia. 

Major-General Sir Newton Moore, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia. -->'. answer 
to Question 12. 



Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia.—,^'' ansuer til Qucstiim 12. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 
Tasmania. — 1 do not think that men with small 
families would be more welcome than those with 
large. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria.— 

Scr answer tn Question 12. 

Mr. C. G. WadBj Agent-General for New South. 
Wales.— Once a man is established in his holding, 
the larger his family is the more help it is to himself. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland. It all (le])eiids on circum- 
stances. A large family of small children is an 
encumbrance; but in a large family there are usually 
several of working age. for whom there is always a 
demand in Queensland 

South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.O., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 

Africa. ~Si) answer to Question 12. abnve. 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 
Company.— No, 



QUESTION XIV. 

Can arrangements be made for the support of 
the wives and children of ex-service men whilst 
the men are being trained at Government training 
farms or working on other farms' 

ANSWERS, 

Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg. — Ve^. ll am speaking now of 
supporting the wive-, a lid children of ex-service men 
who are w<iiking nn (pthei farms.) 

Mr. W. R. Bowder, of the New Brunswick 

Government Office. — Women and children would be 
able til find employment if their husbands were at 
work fur farmers. I can't say what facilities there 
will be for wives and children on the special settle- 
ments, 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia. 

I have no advice from the Government on this pc.int. 
and should have to refer it to the Premier. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-Geperal for Quebec— 

I can't an^wc 

Lt.-Col. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario.- 

For the men who are to be trained on the (ioveinment 
farm it is contemplated liy the (ioveriimeut that they 
will proceed to Ontario first and arrangements would 
be made for their families to follow as soon as houses 
could lie built. Arrangements for the immediate con- 
struction of houses are now being made. In the case 
of men working on other farms, it will be possible in 
the majority of cases for the wives and children lo 
proceed with the men, as housing accommoilation will 
be available, and the wives' services, and in some casts 
the children's will be remunerated. In the newer 
settlements men are employed for the stiinmer season 
only, and either the high wages they then obtain will 
enable them to kee)) going through the winter, or they 
can sometimes obtain winter work elsewhere. In siT:h 
cases single men are jneferaiilc. In the older settle- 
ments, however, men are engaged by the year, and 
for those |ilaces nririied men are better for reasons 
already stated. 

Australia. 
Major-General Sir Newton Moore, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia. As to this I 

cannot answer 



Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia. --''^■' I answer to (,)iie>tion 12. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 

Tasmania. — 1 do not think that the Government of 
Tasmania would undertake any iiecuniary liability as 
to this, or that it ought to be asked to do so, I con- 
sider that it performs its duty by taking care of its 
own soldiers, and that all the cost as to men belonging 
to the Imperial Forces should be borne by the Imperial 
Government, If the Imperial Government cannot 
find employment for them at home, it should pay the 
cost of sending them to, and starting them in, some 
nther ]iart of the Kmiiire. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria.— 

No. (N( r answer to Question 12.) 

Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 

Wales. — I do not think so. In fact, my opinion ;s 
tliat, except in s|:iecial cases where husband and wife 
are suitable and u illing to take a '■ married couple's " 
position on a farm, it is not advisable for women to 
accom]>aiiv their husbands, unless they have sufficient 
capital to cover the cost of maintenance for a reason- 
able period. Wives should, as a rule, remain behind 
until their husbands have made a satisfactory settle- 
ment (that is, for six months at the very least) and 
then be nominated by them. ' M'liere there are 
children. that is ]>art icularly desirable. When 
nominations are made by the agriculturists, the 
jiassage money rates are very low ; prior to the war 
thev were for wives, £6; and foi- children under 12, 
i'.t. The nomination system li.is been lariiely availed 
of and been very successhil 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland. Tliat Is a diffimlt ipicsihm 

to answer generally. So mncli would depend upon 
tlu' age and composition of the families, Kach case 
would Inne to lie considered on its merits. 

South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 

Africa. >'■ an-.wfi to Question 12. alio\c 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 

Company. .\i i.ingciueiits could lu' made, but only 

al i-onsiderable cost. It wmild be better that the 

wives and cliihlren should remain at home during thi> 
trainini,: period. 



APPENDIX III. 



00 



QUESTION XV. 

Is there in your State any demand for— 

(a) the widows, and 

(h) the orphans, 
of ex-service men from the United Kingdom and 
other parts of the Empire — e.g., boys and girls 
between the ages of 5 and 15? 

If so, how would they be dealt with on arrival 
and afterwards r' 

ANSWERS. 
Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg.— (a) There is an unlimited 
demand for widows and spinsters up to the age of 
40 or 45 years for domestic service; wages are high, 
and situations can be found either in towns or m 
ihe country. But special schemes for the immigration 
of soldiers' widows are not regarded with favour in 
certain parts of the Dominion. 

(6) As to children — whether boys or girls — I am 
authorized to say that Canada has made excellent 
arrangements for their supervision. After the war, 
Canada can absorb about 10.000 in the fir.st year, and 
the same number in llie second. Although the care 
of girls involves more difficulty than the care of boys, 
it would be immaterial wliich sex predominated. 

Dr. B.irnardo's agenc}-, the Waifs and Strays, the 
Quarrier's Homes, and other organisations of the 
same sort have emigrated very many boys and girls 
with great success. Of course there have been some 
failures, bnt I doubt whether they have been more 
than 1 per cent; whenever one goes w-rnng, a fuss is 
made, but nothing is said about the large number who 
go straight. But though many have come, the 
demand has alw.ays exceeded the supply. We want 
young children, who can be placed with foster parents 
who will take care of them in childhood, and then be 
obliged to pay them wages when they come to a wage- 
earning age." No objection is made on the ground 
that such adolescent labour leads to sw^eating. 

Mr. W. R. Bowder, of the New Brunswick 
Government Office. — Only for women and children 
suited for domestic service. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia.— 

(o) Widows, if capable and prepared to undertake 
domestic work and assist on a farm, could be placed 
in suitable positions. 

(h) A limited number of orphans of ex-service men 
could no doubt be accommodated at the Middlemore 
Home, Fairview, Halifax County, in Nova Scotia, 
which takes charge of the children on arrival, and 
finds homes for them, where they are under careful 
supervision of the officials of the institution. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Ageut-General for Quebec— 

Not that I know of. Before the war tliere was no 
great difference between the numbers of males and 
females in the Province of Quebec. There is in the 
city of Sherbruoke a Home which takes charge of 
orphan boys coming from England. 

Lt.-Col. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario.- 

(a) Yes, but only if they are prepared to take up 
domestic work. 

(/)) The Children's Emigration Societies, such as 
Dr. Barnardo's Homes, have, for many years, been 
en-^aged in sending children to Ontario, with good 
results. The orphans of e.K -service men could be pro- 
vided for in a similar way. There is a f ein-and for 
them on the farms of Ontario. They could be dealt 
with through the Children's Aid Societies. There aie 
11 Distribution Homes in Ontario for juvenile emigra- 
tion and in 1914 the number of children receive.! m 
five 'of these Homes was 348, and 2,416 applications 
were received from farmers and others for children. 
It will be seen, therefore, that there is a good demand. 
It will probably be found desirable to establish 
separate homes for the reception of the orphans of 
soldiers. As instancing the care taken by the Govern- 
ment in connection with juvenile emigration, these 



children are visited by officials during the year, and 
every precaution is taken to see they are properly 
treated. 

Australia. 

Major-General Sir Newton Moore, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia.— So far we 
have never encouraged widows or very young settlers, 
18 being our minimum age unless they are members 
of a family. Three parties of boys have been sent 
out and have been placed satisfactorily ; but the ques- 
tion of sending out young girls presents some diffi- 
culties. 

Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia. — (a) For some time there is likely to be 
a fair demand for women emigrants as domestic ser- 
vants, and also for school teachers. The general 
servant is the one mostly required. 

(6) I think that satisfactory emigration of boy 
orphans of ex-service men can be arranged, and there 
is in existence a statute, which I had the pleasure 
of introducing into Parliament, wdiicli places immi- 
grant boys under the care and guardianship of the 
State, and under conditions which offer the fullest 
protection to the boy, and aim to secure thriftiness 
on his part, so that bo may save money and be able 
to take up a block of land quite early in his life. 
Apart from the small amount of pocket money, his 
wages are paid to the Government, who keep a .s(U-t 
of banking account for the boy whose deposits earn 
interest. The Act covers boy emigrants between the 
ages of 14 and 18 and, under the scheme, it is f|nito 
possible for any reasonable boy at the age of 21 to 
have a banking account amounting to about £150. 
Experience under the Act was cut short by the war, 
but, so far as it went, proved very satisfactory. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 

Tasmania. — fo) The widows of soldiers, if suitable, 
could find employment in domestic service like other 
women. 

(h) There is a demand for boys and girls over school 
.age; but there is no custom in Tasmania of providing 
for juvenile immigration as there is in Canada. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for 'Victoria.- 

(o) Up to the present there has been no deniand, but 
it is anticipated that a limited number of widows with 
one child, if domesticated and willing to accept 
country positions, would be welcome. 

(b) Whilst it is probable that a number of children 
over 12 could bo satisfactorily placed, it will be neces- 
sary to obtain a special report from the Government 
before making any pronouncement on the subject. 

Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 

Wales. — Yes, if willing to undertake domestic service, 
for which there is a great demand. Before the war 
many widows, each with one child, were satisfactorily 
placed by the New South Wales Immigration Depart- 
ment. As to orphans, I cannot speak definitely ; but 
perhaps some children over 12 could be placed with 
advantage. I think there might be objection made 
to a large number coming. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland.— (a) There will be openings 
for widows, without children, m domestic service. 
Also, as stated in answer to Question 2, some of the 
widows of ex-service men will be eligible to select 
land. 

(?)) There is no deniand for children under 15. The 
lads to whom reference was made in the answer to 
Question 11 are all above that age. 



South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 

Africa. ^Vc answer to Question 12, above. 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 
Company.— No. 



1H77 



5G 



EMPIRE SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE 



QUESTION XVI. 

Do you think that openings can be found in 
your State for women immigrants other than the 
wives and daughters of ex-service jnen; '.;/., for 
those who have been working during the war as 
nurses, or at munitions, or have been filling tem- 
porary vacancies on farms in the United Kingdom ; 
or for qualified teachers who have taken up war 
work ? 

ANSWERS. 

Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg. — Then' miv I ]i<'niiigs for any 

except tor domestic servants. As to tlieni, .s-cp answer 
to Question 15. 

Mr. W. R. Bowder, of the Nev/ Brunswick 
Government Office. — Tlic only jj:o(id openings foj- 

women are foi- lioiisewnrk. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia.-— 

Women immigrants, if domesticated and willing to 
take positions as general servants, or assist on a farm, 
could be satisfactorily settled in situations, there being 
a good demand for this class of vporker. By an 
arrangement with prospective employers the ocean 
fares can be advanced tor approved domestic appli- 
(^ants, such advance to be repaid by instalments frouj 
their wages. And in our well-settled country 
domestic service is not so arduous as in the newer 
[larts of the world. I could not say for how many such 
women vacancies could be found at once, but I think 
\\i: could commence with TiO. 

But with regard to openings for women other than 
domestic farm service I could not speak with any 
confidence. Before any .steps are taken, even in the 
way of advising such women to come out, I think it 
would be well to ask the opinicui of the Nova Scotia 
Oovernment. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec- 
There are very few openings e>a'e|it for domestic .ser- 
vants. A few nurses and teachers may bo wanted in 
the townships. There would be no vacancies for ex- 
munition workers. 

Lt.-Col. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario.— 

Nurses : Very few ofjenings ; and it is estimated that 
the large number of Ontario women who have become 
trained nurses during the war will be adequate. 

Munition workers: Could be found positions in fac- 
tories, but in limited numbers. 

Women farm workers: Genevnllv speaking fe^ 
openings, but scope for competent dairy workers. 

Teachers: The local supplj' is .•idequate. 



Australia. 

Major-General Sir Newton Moore, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia. Our policy 
in the past h.as been to encourage the immigration of 
domestic servants only. As to any further answer to 
the question, T can only say that it is a matter to 
which con.sideration might be given by the Govern- 
ment when matters have more or less resumed their 
normal condition, but not until then. 

Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia. N''' :niswei' to (,)uestioii 1.5 (<i). 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 

Tasmania. — Sre my answer to Question 15 (a). There 
are openings for dome.stic servants, but I cannot say 
that there are any others. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria.— 

Only experienced domestics are required in Victoria. 
Some months ago t!ie question of '' after the war " 
emigration of women engaged in agricultural work in 
the United Kingdom was brought under the notice of 
the Government, but the reply received was adverse. 

Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 

Wales. — At ].>resent (jnly e.\perienecd_ domestic ser- 
vants are required in New South Wales." Many women 
now engaged in clerical work will be displaced at the 
end of the war. They would scarcely welcome any 
ivho would increase the competition. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland.— So far as I can state at 
present the only women, other tlian the wives and 
daughters of ex-service men, that could he absorbed 
are tho.se suitable far domestic service. 

South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 

Africa. — N''*' answer to Question 1'2. above. 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 

Company. — There is a steady demand f(U- women, 
not only for domestic service, but for educated women 
to work as clerks, teachers, governesses, lady-helps, 
itc. But women should not be sent out without 
secured positions to go to. The trained nurses sent 
out to the hospitals in Rhodesia have formed a most 
valuable addition to the white population of the terri- 
tory. Thev make admirable settlers' wives. The 
V.A.D. workers, and the women war-workers in 
uardens and farms should supply most useful settlers 
ill Rhodesia and elsewhere after the War. 



QUESTION XVII. 

What do you estimate would be the cost per 
head of the transport of ex-service men, their 
v;ives and families, from the United Kingdom to 
your Stale- By whom, in your opinion, should 
such cost be paid? 

ANSWERS. 

Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg.— To \Viinii|)eg, .f'.O second class; 
and less than that steerage. 

Of course the Imj^erial Government may pay the 
passages if it desires to do so, but my expei'ience is 
that the cost had better be liorne by the man himself. 
A man who will do so thereliy gives evidence that he 
is a thrifty man who will suecoed as a settler. T 
have not heard of any iirojiosal for the transport of 
ex-service men being ])aid f(U' by the Pomiiuiui 
(lovernnieiit, citlier wholly or in ]i;ivt . 

Mr. W. R. Bowder. of the New Brunswick 
Government Office. — To St. .John (tbii-d class) 

1:7 \0s. per adult. 

The immigrant, as a rule, slmuld pay the cost. 



Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia.— 

The cost of the transport of adults from England 
to Nova Scotia would, at the present third-class rate 
of ocean fares (£7 5s.), be about i9. This cost should, 
in my opinion, l)e borne by the Imperial Government. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec— 

About £1L) was the average cost per adult before tlie 
war. In my opinion the cost should be paid by ths 
emigrant or some society. The Quebec Government 
found it, as a matter of policy, disadvantageous to 
p.av passages. The persons assisted too often went off 
at <ince to the Western Provinces. 

Lt.-Col. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario.- 

1 do not know if spciial .irrangements are contem- 
plated by the British Goverumeut for the transpcut 
of ex-service men and their families. The pre-war 
rate from London to Toronto was — 

Adults: i "■ </. 

Third class mininmm ... ... 7 15 8 

Second class minimum ... ... 11 15 8 

Children : 

Between I and 12 <in steamer (third 

ela.ss) :i 

On rail uji to 5 Free 

On rail from 5 to 12 ( third class) U 17 10 

Steamer (second class) 5 

Rail (second class) 1' 10 



APPENDIX III. 



57 



I think this is a matter for anaiigeiiient between 
ihe Imperial and Ontario Governments, bnt, on the 
whole, men who pay their own passages make the best 
settlers. 

For some years the Ontario Government has 
advanced loans to agricultural labouiers and domestic 
servants. The maximum amount was £4, repayable 
in instalments. This arrangement might be extended. 
92 per cent, of the sums advanced were collected. 

Australia. 

Major-General Sir Newton Moore, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia.— The cheapest 

passages in formei- times cost £14; what the cost per 
head of the transport of ex-service men in the future 
will be, I cannot say. As to the payment, that is 
purely a matter of policy; but, personally, I think 
that, if the settlers are granted land at a nominal 
cost, with financial assistance, by the Government of 
West<'rn Austialia, the cost of the passage should be 
defrayed by the Im|ierial Government. 

Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 
Australia. — Before the war, the cost of transporting 
emigrants was £14 per head under contract, lliis 
nuiy be somewhat increased after the wai-. For that 
amount emigrants used to pay up to £7 according to 
whether the emigrant was a man, woman, or child, 
the rate for women and children being considerably 
lower. 1 am of opinion that some sucli a.ssistance 
would be continued and that it ought to be uniform 
throughout the States. Pi'obably further assistance 
would be recjnired. and this should, I think, come from 
the Imperial Government as the scheme is something 
more than an emigration scheme, being rather an 
Imperial demobilisation .scheme. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 

Tasmania. — The cost per head of the tra)isport of ex- 
service men with their wives and families from the 
United Kingdom to the Australian States woidd prob- 
ably be about £14 per head; but, of couise, it would 
be impossible to say with certainty what the con- 
ditions will be after the war. 

I think that the cost should be defi'ayed by the 
Imperial Government for the reason I have given in 
my answer to Question 14. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria.— 

At present £1-1 per adult is paid to the shipping com- 
panies. The Victorian Government has decided to 
grant assisted passages at the C8 rate to ex-service 
men who are considered suitable for agricultural 
work, such amount to be paid in full prior to 
embarkation. 



Mr. 0. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 

Wales. — For some years past, tile shipping companies 
have conveyed assisted and nominated immigrants 
from London to Sydney for £14 per adult (open berth 
accommodation) as against £19, the amount payable 
by ordinary passengers. The New South Wales 
Government have not yet decided to regard inex- 
perienced ex-service men as assisted passengers. It is 
certainly preferable that the passage moiiey be paid 
by the emigrant. If he is unable to do so, then so 
far as the emigrants are ex-service soldiers, the cost 
of their transport should lie borne by the British 
Government. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland. --The cost of transpmt from 
the United Kingdom to Queensland before the war 
was £14 per adult. 

As to the question of who should pay the cost, the 
position of things is as follows: The people of Queens- 
land generally favour an immigration policy ; the 
public spirit which they have shown in taxing them- 
selves for the purpose proves this. But the immigra- 
tion of ex-service men will probably be on such a large 
scale that it would lie unreasonable to call on the 
people there to pay for it; and, Iicsides, it is not to 
lie regarded as a sclieme devised for the benefit of the 
State of Queensland, liut as a matter of Imperial 
necessity. For these reasons it should be wholly or 
mainly borne by the Imperial Government. 

South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 

Africa. — It is difficult to say, in the present dis- 
turbed conditions and shortage of shipping. 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 
Company. — The minimum second-class fares from 
England to liliodesia for new settlers are: — 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

Via Cape Town ranges from 2.3 10 to 30 

Via Beira 26 ,, 34 

Third Class : 

Via Cape Town- 11 ,, 18 

Via Beira 13 0.. 20 10 

per adult. Children l/16th of the abov(^ fares for 
each year of their age. Failing financial as.sistance 
from Ilis Maje.sty's Government, or some other outside 
source, the cost" would have to be paid by the ex- 
service men themselves. 



QUESTION XVIII 

Can special arrangements be made, and, if so, 
what, for the reception of ex-service men, their 
wives and families, on their arrival in your State? 

ANSWERS. 

Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg.— Excellent arrangements for tlie 
reception of immigrants are already in existence in 
all parts of Canada, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 
There are Homes provided by the Dominion Govern- 
ment which are well appointed and are regularly 
inspected. The immigrants can stay in these until 
they obtain employment (provided of course that it 
is seen that they are reallv looking out for it). Ihe 
Winnipeg Home, for instance, has accommodation for 
1,000 persons. All such facilities would be open to 
ex-service men. 

I should here mention that at present there is a 
medical examination of all immigrants on then- 
arrival in Canada. The reason for this is that the 
Dominion Government is of opinion that the examina- 
tion conducted by the Board of Trade befiuc emigrants 
leave England is not sufficiently searching. 1 suggest 
that an arrangement should be made between the 
Home and the Dominion Governments for a thorough 
medical examination being made in the case of ex- 
service men before embarkation, so that the neces- 
sity for a further examination may be avoided. 



I am also of opinion that the entire examination 
as to the fitness in all respects of ex-service men and 
I heir wives and families who intend to go to Canada 
should, by arrangements between the two Govern- 
ments, be made before embarkation. 

Mr. W. R. Bowder, of the New Brunswick 

Government Office.— Immigration halls are avail- 
able if necessary, but most immigrants get 
placed on the day "of arrival. 1 should like to see 
ex-service men from the United Kmgd.nn for the 
special New Brunswick settlements, recommended by 
the Agent-General in London to the Advisory Com- 
mittee in New Brunswick, so that the men may be 
sure of getting a place in the settlements on arrival. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia.— 

The Industries ami Immigration Department at 
Halifax arrange to meet immigrants on arrival and 
supervise them until they are suitably placed ; there 
are hostels at Halifax for women and shelters for 
men In many cases situations have been found for 
them before their arrival. But it must be remem- 
bered that there should be no indiscriminate immi 
ovation into Nova Scotia; it is already the most 
Thickly populated part of the Dominion, except Prince 
Edward Island, and therefore not so capable as other 
parts of quick absor,jtion without temporary con- 
oestion. It is. therefore, advisable to make in advance 
arrangements for new settlers to be placed imme- 
diately on arrival. This the Department m question 
is prepaied to undertake. 

F 2 



58 



J';M I'l HK SF/I'TLE.MENT 'C(>MMITTEK 



Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec— 

'I'lio liini]ii;r;iti()ii OHiceis at (Jiiehec or Montreal will 
receive them. 

Lt.-Col. R. Keid, Agent-General for Ontario.— 

Yes, aiK>C|uate ariiuiiieiiieiits; will be made. The 
Ontario Gove? niiieiit has sju'cial arrangements for 
linding employment for farm labourei's and domestic 
servants. Help is also to be expected from private 
si.'cietics. 



Australia. 

Major-General Sir Nev/ton Moore, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia.— In former 
times we had Immiy;rants' Homes, where those newly 
arrived were maintained for 3 days free of cost. 
With reference to the women, the matron of the Home 
befriended them, assisted the-n to get situations, and, 
when possible, kejit in touch with them afterwards. 
Of course all this is now in abeyance, but the system 
will probably be revived after the wai-. 

Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia. — Satisfactory arrangements could easily be 
made. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 

Tasmania. — There are no special arrangements in 
existence at present; as for some time previous to 
(he war immigration was on the nominated system, 
and immigrants had their own friends to go to. And, 
of course, during the war immigration lias l)een in 
abeyance. But the building, which was used as an 
immigrants' home in former years, is still available , 
and I hope that arrangements will be made in due 
time for the recejition of ex-service men with their 



wives and families on their arrival in the State. 1 am 
writing to my Gorvernment on the subject. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria.— 

All ex-service men approved in the United Kingdom 
will be met on arrival in Victoria and placed in 
employment. 

Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 

Wales. — All ex-service men who have been ai)proved 
in the United Kingdom could be met on arrival in 
New South Wales and placed in employment. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland.- At each of the principal 
ports of Queensland immigration depots were estab- 
lished under tJie control of an Immigration Agent, 
where immigrants were received and maintained for 
a reasonable time until settled. Immigration being 
in abeyance during the war, the depots are now closed ; 
l)ut they can, and no doubt will, be re opened when 
the war is over. 

South Africa. 

The Right Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 
Africa. — The Governor-General's Fund will, it is 
Ijelieved, arrange for the reception of v^turned South 
the reception of settlers by the Company's representa- 
ing answers, there is not likely to be much scope fiox' 
others. 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 

Company. — Airangements could easily be made for 
the reception of settlers by the t'ompauy's representa- 
tives at Cape Toavu. and liy its officers at Bulawayo 
or Salisbury in Rhodesia. 



QUESTION XIX. 

What, in your opinion, should be the relation of 
the Central Executive Committee on which the 
Empire Settlement Committee is asked to advise— 

(a) to a Central Emigration Authority, if con- 

stituted as proposed in Chap. VIII. of 
the Final Report of the Dominions Royal 
Commission ; 

(b) to the general machinery in the United 

Kingdom for finding employment for ex- 
service men on demobilisation; 
(<■) to the immigration machinery of the over- 
sea Governments and their existing 
agencies for dealing with discharged 
soldiers. 

ANSWERS. 
Canada. 

Mr. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of Immi- 
gration, Winnipeg.— (aj I have read the recom- 
mendations on tliis point given in Chap. Vlll. of the 
Final Report of the Dominions Royal Commission, 
and I agree with them all — on the understanding that 
they do not mean that dilBculties should ever be put 
in the way of British subjects who wish to go from 
one part of the Empire to another, and with the 
reservation that I doubt whether restrictions as to 
men going to foreign countries would be of prac- 
tical use, as they could not be enforced. I consider 
that the right way to prevent men from doing so is 
to offer them better inducements A\'ithin the Empire. 
I think that the Central Organisation in England 
should have theory subordinated to practical know- 
ledge ; that it should be an extension of the Emi- 
grants' Information Office, with representation of the 
Colonial Office, the Board of Trade, and the Ministry 
of Labour, who would represent the Home Govern- 
ment; ako a large representation of the Oversea 
Governments. I am stronglj in favour of the idea 
that all passage brokers and passage brokers' agents 
should be under the direct control of the Govern- 
ment by a form of licensing or otherwise. I think 
that the present Committee might be absorbed by such 
a body as I have just described. 

(/)) Speaking as a Canadian representative, it would 
be hardly fair for me to offer an oi)inion on this point 
at the present time. 

(c) I think that the immigration machinery of the 
Over.sca Goveriimc^its should go on as at present. 



Mr. W. R. Bowder, of the New Brunswick 
Government Oi£ce. — The cpiestion is one of policy 
and 1 would rather nut express an opinion. 

Mr. J. Howard, Agent-General for Nova Scotia. — 

As the matter is one of policy I should prefer to give 
no decided opinion on the proiiosals in Chap. VIII. 
of the Final Report of the Dominions Royal Commis- 
sion. I' am of opinion that passage brokers' agents 
should be made responsible to the Government, just as 
passage brokers now are, but I should not be in 
favour of restricting their operations too much, as 
the Government looks to them largely for its supply 
of immigrants. 

Lt.-Col. P. Pelletier, Agent-General for Quebec— 
I am not prepared to express an opinion on the 
recommendations in Chap. VIII. of the Final Report 
of the Dominions Royal Commission. Any Central 
Authority should communicate with the Ministry of 
Colonization, Province of Quebec, Quebec. 

Lt.-Col. R. Reid, Agent-General for Ontario.— 

1 agree in the opinions expressed by Mr. Bruce 
Walker. There shoidd be a large representation of the 
Dominions on any Central Emigration Authority. 

Australia. 

Major-General Sir Newton Moore, E.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Western Australia.— (The witness 

did not answer this question.) 

Mr. Frederick Young, Agent-General for South 

Australia. — Theie are, no doubt, many useful func- 
tions which the Central Executive Committee can 
fulfil, but I venture to say that the emigrants will 
have to filter through the hands of those who manage 
the emigration affairs of the Australian Governments 
in London. They have the specific information, are 
able to give suitable advice, and are best able to deter- 
mine whether the particular individual is such a one 
as can be absorbed into a new community to its, and 
his, advantage. 

Sir John McCall, M.D., Agent-General for 
Tasmania. — With reference to this question I should 
like to say that ] have no objection to a Central 
Imperial Authority being established for all the pur- 
poses intended in the Dominions Royal Commis- 
.vioners' Report, but at the same time I am satisfied 
that the names of all proposed emigrants to the States 
of Australia should be submitted to the representa- 
tives of the States for approval. Probably the Cana- 
dian and New Zealand representatives would take the 



APPENDIX III. 



59 



.s;iiiie view whioli I hold is held bv the Australian 
representatives. 

Sir Peter McBride, Agent-General for Victoria.— 

(«). Cj), (c) The relation of the Central Execntive 
Committee should be that of a Consultative Board, 
whilst that of the proposed Central Emigration Autho- 
rity should be that of a clearing house. 

Mr. C. G. Wade, Agent-General for New South 

Wales.— I believe ui one central body for the purpose 

(1) Controlling, or, in appropriate cases, absorbing 

private emigration societies. 

(2) Regulating and licensing all passage brokers 

and passage brokers' agents. 

(These two causes have been productive 
of much friction in the past in New South 
Wales.) 

(3) To improve generally shipping facilities. 

(4) Establishing a uniform system of publicity. 
The function of this Committee would be pre- 
liminary to the practical work of selecting emigrants. 
It would serve the purpose of popularising emigration 
and co-ordinating the machinery. I refer to " popu- 
larising " emigration because I assume that the basis 
on which we are working is that there will be a 
number of men after the war who will wish to go 
abroad from the Tnited Kingdom, and that our busi- 
ness is to direct them elsewhere within the Empire. 
Constitvtion of the Committee. 

1. Generally an expansion of the Central Emigra- 
tion Authority. 

2. Representation on the Committee of: — 
(a) Private emigration societies. 

(6) Board of Trade, 

(c) Representatives of those portions of the 
Dominions that are interested in immi- 
gration. 
Tile work of practical immigration should be kept 
distinct. Canada and Australia arc in ci>inpetition. 



Several of the Australian States are in competition 
amongst themselves. Four States offer wheat-growing, 
two or three apple culture, all want domestic servants. 
Accordiug to urgency of position, each State offers 
.special inducements in respect of capital, iinance, 
passage money, or land. 

At one time it was thought the Commonwealth 
could and should control the whole of immigration. It 
was found to be impracticable, each State claiming a 
free hand and declining to be bound by the decision 
of an outside body as to methods of fulfilling a matter 
of State policy. Nowadays the Commonwealth opera- 
tions are confined chiefly to the general work of pub- 
licity. Each State is uncontrolled in the matter of 
securing emigrants. 

Major Sir T. B. Robinson, K.C.M.G., Agent- 
General for Queensland.— I think that the establish- 
ment of such a body would be beneficial. I siiggeSit 
that it should contain a certain number of Imperial 
members, but that the majority of the Board should 
be composed of representatives of the Dominions. 
The Imperial members would deal with the l)road 
principles of policy, as to which no doubt the others 
would be led by them ; but it is so important that 
such a body should be in close touch with Colonial 
opinion that it would be necessary to have a large 
number of members connected with the Oversea 
Dominions. 

South Africa. 

The Eight Honble. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G., 
High Commissioner for the Union of South 

Africa. — My opinion is that the Dominions should 
certainly be represented on the Committee. 

Mr. P. Lyttelton Gell, British South Africa 
Company. — My own opinion is that the Oversea 
Doniiuious as well as the Mother Country must be 
strongly represented on any Committee. 



60 



APPENDIX IV. 



APPENDIX IV. 



List of British Steamship Companies carrying- Passeng-ers from Great Britain to 
the Oversea Dominions (sre paragraph 112). 



Dominion. 



Canada 



Australia (via Suez) 



Australia (via Cape) 



New Zealand (via Suez) ... 
New Zealand (via Cape) ... 

New Zealand (via Panama) 
Union of South Africa 



Newfoundland 



Line. 



Head Office. 



Canadian Pacific and Allan 
Lines. 

Cunard Line 

White Star-Dominion . 

Peninsular & Oriental S.N. Co. 
Orient Line 



Blue Funnel Line 

White Star Line 

Shaw, Savill & Albion Co., Ltd. 

Aberdeen Line 

Peninsular & Oriental P)ranch 
Service 

Peninsular & Oriental S.N. Co. 

Shaw, Savill & Albion Co., Ltd. 
Federal & Shire Lines... 

New Zealand Shipping Co. ... 

Union-Castle Line 
Natal Direct Line ... 

Harrison-Rennle Line 

Ellerman & Bucknall S.S. Lines 

Allan Line 



Canadian Pacific Ocean Services, Ltd., 
8, Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, Lon- 
don, S.W. 

Water Street, Liverpool. 

30, James Street, Liverpool. 

122, Leadenhall Street, London, K.C. 
Anderson, Andenson & Co., 5, Fen- 
church Avenue, London, "E.C. 

A. Holt & Co., India Buildings, Liver- 
pool. 

30, .James Street, Liverpool. 

34, Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 

Geo. Thom])son & Co., 7, Billiter Street, 
London, E.C. 

32, Lime Street, London, E.C. 



122, Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 

34, Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 

2, Fenchurch Avenue, London, E.C. 

138, Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 

3, Fenchurch Street, London, EC. 
Bullard, King & Co., 14, St. Mary Axe, 

London, E.C. 

T. & J. Harrison, Billiter Street, Lon- 
don, E.C. 

f) & 6, Billiter A venue, London, E.C. 

Canadian Pacific Ocean Services, Ltd., 
8, Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, Lon- 
don, S.W. 



INDEX TO REPORT. 



61 



INDEX TO REPORT. 



Agents-General, 143, 144. 

Agricultural Experience, 1(50, Ifil. And see Land 

Settlement. 
Agricultural Settlements Committee, Report of 

I6;s. 

Agriculture, Board of, 12, 14, 15. 
Alberta, 16, 18, 70. 

Australia, 37-58, 78, 111, UX 141. And see 
Land Settlement. 



Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, 12, 14, 15, 144 

Board of Trade, 139, 143. 

Borden, Sir R., 129. 

Borgie, 15. 

British Columbia, 33-36. 

British South Africa CompanA-. See Rhodesia. 

British Women's Emigration Association, 96. 



Canada, 16-36, 70-77. 83, 111, 14.3, 144. And see 

Land Settlement. 
Canadian Northern Railway, 75. 
Canadian Pacific Railway, 70-74, 83. 
Cape Sundays Ri\er Settlements, 79. 
Capital, Government advance of, 127-136. 
Capi'al required for settlers, 159. And see Land 

Settlement. 
Central Emigration Authority, 1, 2, 69, 82, 87, 92, 

95, 97, 106, 110, 137-15], 165 171. 
Children, emigration of, 139. 
Children of e.K-service men, 2, 45, 88-^'8, 140, 157. 
Church Armj-, 85. 

Classes of men who wish to emigrate, 87, 116. 
Colonial Intelligence League, 96. 
Colonial Office, 143. 
Committee, Reconstruction, 2. 
Committees, Demobilisation, 110; 166. 
Commonwealth of Australia, 37, 'M. Aitd see 

Axistralia. 
" Community " Settlements, 22-24, 162. 
Corn Production Bill, H. 



Deloraine, 57. 

Demobilisation Committees, 110, 166. 

Disabled Men, 87, 165. 

Distribution of Information, 110. 

Dominions Royal Commission, 132, 139, 141, 142, 

148. 
Dookie, 44. 



East Africa, 68. 

Eastern Colonies, 68. 

Economic conditions after the War, 115, 134, 

148-150. 
Emigrants' Information Office, 109, 139, 151. 
Emigration, change of view as to, 5. 
Emigration, figures as to, 148. 
Emigration Authority. See Central Emigration 

Authority. 
Emigration Societies, 96, 103, 104, 122, 139, 150, 

158. 
Employment Exchanges, 109, 110. 
England, Land Settlement in, 10-15, 114. 
Experience, Agricultural, 160, KJl. And see 

Land Settlement. 
Ex-soldiers, Meaning of term, 3. 



Female Emigration. See Women, Emigration of. 

Finance, 114-136, 169, 170. 

Financial Aid. See Government Assistance. 

Financial position of ex-service men, 118-120. 

Fisheries, 83. 

Foreign Countries, Emigration to, 5, 113. 



Gel], Mr. Lyttelton, Memorandum, 136. 
Girls' Friendly Society, 100. 
Government Assistance — 

To emigration of men, 117, 121-126, 169. 

To emigration of women, 105. 
Grand Trunk Railway, 75. 
Griffith, 41. 
Group Settlements, 22-24, 162. 



Haggard, Sir IL Rider, 34, 78, 87, 152. 
Holbeach, 12. 
Home Office, 139. 



Imperial War Conference, 129. 
India. Soldiers Discharged in, 123. 
Industrial Schools, 139. 
Invalids, 87. 

Information : how to be made accessible, 107-110, 
166. 



.Joint Council of Women's Emigration Societies, 
96. 



Labour, Ministry of, 107, 143. 
Land Settlement : — 

Advance of Capital for, 127-136. 
General considerations as to, 154-163. 
Government schemes, 10-67. 
Australia, 37-58. 

New South Wales, 40, 41, 154. 
Queensland, 45-47. 
South Australia, 48-50. 
Tasmania, 55-58. 
Victoria, 42-44. 
Western Australia, 51-54, 154. 
Canada, 16-36. 

British Columbia, 33-36. 
New Brunswick, 22-26, 159, 162. 
Nova Scotia, 27, 28. 
Ontario, 30-32, 159, 162. 
Prairie Provinces, 18-21, 154, 159. 
Quebec, 29, 154. 
Newfoundland, 64. 
New Zealand, 59-61. 
Other parts of the Empire, 68. 
Rhodesia, 64-67, 159. 
Union of South Africa, 62, 63, 1:)9. 
United Kingdom, 10-15. 
Private Companies, &c., schemes of, b.i-81 
Canadian Pacific Railway, 70-74. 
Cape Sundays River Settlements, 79. 
McNeil, Mr. N., 78. 
Nova Scotia, 76. 
Ontario, 77. 

Western Australia, Midland Railway, 78. 
Loans, Imperial and Colonial, 128-131., 170. 
Local Government Board, 143. 



62 



INDEX TO REPORT. 



McNeil, Mr. R., 78. 

Manitoba, 16, 18. 

Married Men, Preference to, 1.56. 

Medical Examination of Emigi'ants, 167. 

Mining, 83. 

Ministry of Labour, 107, 143. 

Monteith, 31. 

Mount Barker, 78. 

Mount Crawford, 40. 

Mount Remarkable, 49. 

Munition Workers, 2, 101. 



New Brunswick, 22-26, 159. 
Newfoundland, 64, 144. 
New South Wales, 40, 41, 83, l.'')4. 
New Zealand, .59,-61, 111, 143. 
Nominated Immigrants, 90. 
Northern Territory of Australia, 37. 
Nova Scotia, 27, 28, 76, 83. 
Nurses, 2, 103. 



Opportunities other than T.aiid Settlement, 82, 83. 
Ontario, 30-32, 77, 159. 

Orphans of ex-service men, 88, 94-98, 106, 158. 
Other parts of the Empire, Land Settlement in, 

68. 



Passage Brokers, 139, 150. 

Passage money, 122, 169. .Ind see Government 

Assistance. 
Patrington, 12. 
Pensions, 106, 120, 123, 165. 
Pensions, Ministrv of, 106. 
Perth, 51. 

Poor Law Children, 139. 
Population of England and Wales, 148. 
Prairie Provinces, 16, LS-21, 70, 154, 159. 
Prince of Wales' Fund, 97. 
Private Companies, Land schemes of, (V,t-81. 



Quebec, 29. 
Queensland, 45-47, 154. 



Reconstruction Committee, 2 
Reference, Terms of, 1, 2. 
Reformatories, 139. 
Rhodesia, 65-68, 81, 103,, 144, 159. 
Royal Colonial Institute, 109, 152. 



St. John, New Brunswick, 24. 

Salvation Army, 85, ',t7. 

Saskatchewan, 16, 18, 70. 

Scotland, Land Settlement in, 15. 

Ship-building, 83. 

Shipi)ing Companies, 112. 

South Africa. See Union of South Africa. 

South African Colonisation Society, 96. 

South African Settlers' Information Committee 

80. 
South Australia, 48-50. 
Sub-Committees, 3. 



Tasmania, 5.5-58. 

Terms of Reference, 1, 2. 

Training of Ex-service Men, 84-86, 164. 

Transport, 111-113, 168. And see Government 

Assistance. 
Tropical Colonies, 68. 



Uganda Railway, 135. 

Union of Soutli Africa, 62, 63, 68, 79, 80, 87, 103, 

111,143, 1.59. 
United Kingdom, Land Settlement in, 10-15, 114. 



Victoria, 42-44. 
Vocational Training, 86. 



Wales, Land Settlement in, 11, 12. 

War Conference, Imperial, 129. 

War Office, 107, 143. 

West Africa, 68. 

Western Australia, 51-54, 78, 154. 

West Indies, 68. 

Widows of ex-service men, 2, 19, 45, 88, 94-97, 

106, 158. 
Wives of ex-service men, 2, 88-9.3, 140, 145, 157, 
Women, emigration of, 2, 88-106, 157, 158. 
Women on Emigration Board, 143, 145. 



Yanco, 40, 41, 1.54. 

Young Men's Cliristian Association, 85, 109. 

Young Women's Christian Association, 100. 



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