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Full text of "Report of the transactions of the Pennsylvania state agricultural society .."

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FOURTH ANNUAL 



REPORT OF THE TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



nmmmik state ACRMmiAi mm, 



^--v _ , V. 



FOR THE YEAR 1856. 




VOLUME IV. 



HARRISBUK6: 
A. BOTD HAMILTON, 8TATB PBIHTEB. 



1867. 



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APRIL 24, 1867. 

riVS BUNPESD EZTIU COPUS OHI^BKID TO BE PEIHTED BY TBE 0E2f ATE. 



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NOTICE. 



The Senate of our State has authorized the publication of the reports con- 
tained in this volume, thus placing the State Agricultural Society under re- 
newed obligations to that body for enabling it to preserve a record of its 
transactions. The papers here presented exhibit a progressive interest in 
Agricultural knowledge and enterprise, and the addresses before the State 
and county societies contain many hints of great importance to the Farmer, as 
well as high mental culture and attention to the great interest of the country, 
on the part of the gentlemen by whom they were delivered. 

The fostering care of the Commonwealth to this society has been acknow- 
ledged by its donation of Ten Thousand dollars to the Farmers' High School, 
located in Centre county, which, with the aid extended to that institution by 
the Legislature, places it on a permanent basis, from which much good is 
expected, and it may be supposed with reason much will flow, to invigorate 
the eflforts of those who hold that Science, in combination with Agriculture, 
will cause two blades of grass to grow where one grew under a less enlight- 
ened system. 

The correspondence and interchange of reports between other Societies and 
our own has been enlarged ; and the efforts of the Executive Cogimittee and 
care of the Librarian have formed, at the office of the Society, in Harrisburg, 
th^ nucleus of a Library upon Agricultural subjects which will exert a benefi- 
cial influence on our operations, and the interests it is our special duty to fos- 
ter, in the future. 

ROBERT C. WALKER, 

Recording Secretary. 

Harrisburg, July 1, 1857. 



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OFFICERS FOR 1857. 



PR£SID£^*T• 

David Taggorty Northumberland, Northumberland county. 

VICE PRESIDENTS. 

Ist Con. Dist. — George W. Woodward, Philadelphia. 

2d " A. T. Newbold, Philadelphia. 

3d " Charles K. Engle, Bustleton, Philadelphia county. 

4th ** Joseph Yeager, Philadelphia. 

5th ^^ Thomas P. Knox, Norristown, Montgomery county. 

6th " A. R. MUlvaine, Brandywine Manor, Chester county. 

7th << Adrian Cornell, Newtown, Bucks county. 

8th ^' George M. Keim, Reading, Berks county. 

9th *^ John Strohm, New Providence, Lancaster county. 

10th *^ John P. Rutherford, Harrisburg, Dauphin county. 

11th '' Amos £. Kapp, Northumberland, Northumberland county. 

12th " E. W. Sturdevant, Wilkesbarre, Luzerne county. 

13th '' Asa Packer, Mauch Chunk, Carbon county. * 

14th '* William Jessup, Montrose, Susquehanna covnty. 

15th «< . H. N. M'Allister, Bellefonte, Centre county. 

16th . '< Jacob S. Haideman, New Maricet, York oounty. j 

17th '< William Heyser, Chambersborg, Franklin county. ( 

18th <^ EliasB^er, AltOona,.BllLir ^unty. 

19th " John MTariand, Ligonier, Westmoreland county*. .< : 

20th " Joshua Wright, Findleyville, Washington county. 

21st « John Mmrddok, Jr., Pittsburg. ^^ 

22d " William Martin, Sr., Allegheny city. -^ 

23d <' William Maxwell, Mercer, Mercer county* - /I 

24th « William Bigler, Clearfield, Cl^rfield county. 

25th ^< James Miles, Girard, Erie county. 



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6 PENNSYLVANIA. STATE 

ADDITIONAL MEMBERS OF THE EXECXmYE COMMITTEE. 

Frederick Watts, Carlisle, Cumberland county. 
James Go wen, Mountairy, Philadelphia county. 
Augustus O. Hiester, Harrisburg, Dauphin county. 
Is»ac O. M'Kinley, Harrisburg, Dauphin county. 
John C. Flenniken, Waynesburg, Greene county. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

A. Boyd Hamilton, Harrisburg, Dauphin county. 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 

Kobert C. Walker, Elizabeth, Allegheny county. 

TRBASXTRER. 

George H. Bucher, Hogestown, Cumb^land county. 

CHEMIST AND GEOLOGIST. 

Professor S. S. Haldeman, Columfbia, Lancaster county 

LIBR^RLAJr. 

Henry Gilbert, Harrisburg, Dauphin county. 



Lira MEMBERS. 

James Gow^n, Mountairy, Philadelphia county. 

Peleg B. SaiFery, Philadelphia. 

C. B. Rogers, f^iiladelphia. 

S. C. Stambaugli, Lancaster. 

Algernon & Koberts, Philadelphia. 

Charles AuguvtuB Luckettbm^h, Nortfasn^on county. 

H. N. M'Attkter, fielfefonte, Centre county. 

Jacob S. Haldeman, New Market, York county. 

Simon Cameron, Harrisburg. 

A. O. Hiester, Harrisburg. 

George H. Bucher, Hogestown, Cumberland county. 

George Walker, Montrose, Sosquehaima county. 

P. R. Freas, Germantown. 

Wiliinm Sergeant, Pluladelphia. 

Craig Biddle, Philadelphia. 



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Frederick Watts, Carlisle. 

George Boalj'Boalsbturg, Centre oouaty. 

William Marshall, Bellefonte, Centre cetintjr* 

John Thompson, Half Moon, Centre county* 

Jacob Struble, Zion, Centre county. 

Robert Bryson, Carlisle. 

J.' Pemberton Hutchinson, Philadelphia. 

J. Lacy Darlington, West Chester. 

Robert C. Walker, Elizabeth, Allegheny county. 

W. O. Hickok, Harrisburg. 

James M. Meredith, West Chester. / 

Isaac 6. M'Kinley, Harrisburg. 

James Miles, Girard, Erie county. 

John P. Rutherford, Harrisburg. 

M. W. Baldwin, Philadelphia. 

A. R. M'llvaine, Brandy wine Manor, Chester coittaty. 

Amos E. Kapp, Northumberland oou&ty. 

William F. Packer, Williamsport, Lycoming county* 

Jacob Frantz, Mount Hope, Lancaster county. 

William Hacker, Philadelphia. 

John Rice, Philadelphia. 

William Rice, Philadelphia* 

Isaac Roberts, Norristpwn. 

Anthony T. Newbold, Philadelphia. 

William Penn Brock, Philadelphia. 

Harry Ingersoll, Philadelphia. 

John M'Gowan, Philadelphia. 

Robert Wood, Philadelphia. 

Chalkley Harvey, Chadds Ford, Delaware county. 

Philip Kramer, Philadelphia. 

Edward K. Snow, Philadelphia. 

(George M. Keim, Reading. 

Joseph Waterman, Philadelphia. 

Richard E. Eli, Philadelphia. 

Atlee G. Davis, Philadelphia. 

Borrodale Prichett, Frazer, Chester county. 

Richard Wister, Philadelphia. 

Joseph W. Sharp, Philadelphia. 

John Curwen, Harrisburg. 

Andrew R. Chambers, Philadelphia. 

W. S. Perot, Philadelphia. 

H. T. Grout, Philadelphia. 



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PSNNSTLTANIA STATE 

John Jordan, Jr., Philadelphia. 

John Longstreth, Bristol, Bucks county. 

John Hazeltine, Philadelphia. 

Erans Rogers, Philadelphia. 

Ward B. Hazeltine, Philadelphia. 

William H. Hart, Philadelphia. 

Stephen G. Fotterall, Philadelphia. 

Thomas P. Hoopes, Philadelphia. 

John M. Gries, Philadelphia. 

Alexander Biddle, Philadelphia. 

George H. Brown, Philadelphia. 

William C. Rudman, Philadelphia. 

Henry F. Dettry, Philadelphia. 

William H. Knight, Philadelphia. 

A. Boyd Hamilton, Harrisburg. 

.George Boldin, Philadelphia. 

Edwin Milford Bard, Philadelphia. 

Isaac B. Baxter, Philadelphia. 

George M. Lauman, Hamsbnrg. 

William Stavely, Lahaska, Bucks county. 

Samuel Pennock, Kennet Square, Chester county 

George Thomas, Belvidere, Chester county. 

Richard Thatcher, Marsh, Chester county. 

Isaac W. Van Leer, Wallace, Chester county. 

E. V. Dickey, M. D., Oxford, Chester county 

H. P. Robeson, Furnace, Berks county. 

Charles Toppan, Philadelphia. 

John Murdock, Jr., Pittsburg. 

Hon. James Burnside, Bellefonte, Centre county 

David Evans, Philadelphia. 

Johannes Watson, Philadelphia. 

H. W. Hoffman, Harrisburg. 

Frank. T. Foster, Philadelphia. 

Jacob M. Haldeman, Harrisburg 

D. Haddock, Jr., Philadelphia. 

Alex. Benson, Philadelphia. ' 

Stephen Kimball, Philadelphia. 

Daniel Smith, Jr., Philadelphia. 

G. S. Benson, Philadelphia. 

Thomas Smith, Philadelphia. 

Joseph B. Myers, Philadelphia. 

Gideon Scull, Philadelphia. 



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AGMccimijuUi sooary. ^ 



Fairman fiodgers, Philadelphia. 
N. B. Thompson, Philadelphia. 
S. J. Christian, Pipladelphia. 
A. J. Derbyshire, Philadelphia. 
H. B. Tatham, Philadelphia. 
P. L. Laguerenne, Philadelphia 
Hugh Campbell, Philadelphia. 
Creorge Fales, Philadelphia. 
Thomas Pratt, Philadelphia. 
Wm. A. Rhodes, Philadelphia. 
Thomas Mellor, Philadelphia. 
Enoch Durar, Philadelphia. 
Joseph Kipka, Philadelphia. 

A. H. Simmons, Philadelphia. 
Robert Neilson, Philadelphia. 
Isaac Starr, Philadelphia. 
John L. Pomeroy, Philadelphia. 
Robert K. Neff, Philadelphia. 
Dennis Kelly^ Philadelphia. 

Charles Kelley, Kelleysville, Delaware county. 
John Dallett, Philadelphia. 
John Devereux, Philadelphia. 
Auguste Peyson, Philadelphia. 

B. A. Shoemaker, Philadelphia. 
W. L. Schaffer, Philadelphia. 
John Origg, Philadelphia. 
James R. Campbell, Philadelphia. 

George Smith, Upper Darby, Delaware county. 

Thomas Mellon, Philadelphia. 

John Warner Grigg, Philadelphia. 

James Devereaux, Philadelphia. 

Gen. Robert Patterson, Philadelphia. 

Thomas P. Remington, Philadelphia. ' 

John B. Austin, Riiladelphia. 

Gen. George Cadwallader, Philadelphia. 

James Magee, Philadelphia. 

Joseph Yeager, Philadelphia. 

J. B. Lancaster, Philadelphia. 

Thomas Allibone, Philadelphia. 

Daniel Deal, Philadelphia. 

C. Colkil, Philadelphia. 

Owen Sheridan, Chestnnt Hill, Philadelphia^ 



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10 PBKK8YLVANIA STAHtL 

Hugh Craig, Philadelphia. ^ 

Joseph Swift, Philadelphia. 

George W. Carpenter, Grermantown, Phila^eipfaia countjr. 

Hod. Thompson Campbell, San Francisco, Galifbmia. 

Francis G. M'Caoly, Philadelphia. 

William Struthers, Philadelphia. 

Joseph A. Cassiday, Philadelphia. 

Vincent L. Bradford, Philadelphia. 

Edward S. Clark, Philadelphia. 

Josiah J. Allen, Philadelphia. 

Richard Ronaldson, Philadelphia. 

William A. Edwards, Philadelphia. 

Christopher Fallon, Upper Darby, Delawvre comty. 

William Ellis, Philadelphia. 
Emlen Physick, Philadelphia. 

(Jeorge G. Presbury, Jr., Philadelphia. 
John A. Brown, Philadelphia. 

William Welsh, Philadelphia. 

John Welsh, Philadelphia. 

C. P. Relf, Philadelphia. 

H. Messchart, Philadelphia. 

H. P. M'Kean, Philadelphia. 

Alfred Slade, Philadelphia. 

J. Anspack, Jr., Philadelphia. 

James B. Billings, Philadelphia. 

Greorge H. Martin, Philadelphia. 

William H. M'Crea, Philadelphia. 

George H. Stuart, Phtbdelphta. 

George N. Tatham, Philadelphia. 

Alex. F. Glass, Philadelphia. 

David S. Brown, Philadelphia. 

Samuel Welsh, Philadelphia. 

John Evans, York. ^ 

Samuel Small, York. 

Peter M'lntjrre, York. 

Samuel Oarmalt, Friendsville, Susquehannia cdunty. 

William H. Towers, Philadelphia. 

John C. Cresson, Philadelphia. 

Dendy Sharwood, Philadelphia. 

Robert M. Carlisle, Roxborough, Philadelphia. 

George W. Woodward, Philadelphia. 

John M'Farland, Ligonier, Westmorekud <)omity. 



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AOMOtrtTOfiAL SOGffitY. ^ll 



KiaB BtBLker, Altoona. 

Alextttder Youtig, Phikidelphiti. 

Dtti4d t^ggatt) Nbtthumberland. 

John C. Flenniken, Waynesburg, Greene county. 

Hewry Sontheir, Ridgway, Etk ctfnnty. 

John Taggatt, Northumberiand. 

Daniel Brautigam, Nbrthnitibepland. 

S. M. felton, Philadelpfaia. 

Kathanied B. fitowne, Philadelphia. 

Jaeiob B. Ghitber. 

A. L. Elttryn, Philadelphk. 



AN ACT 
To incorporate the PennsylYania State Agricaltural Society. 

SscTioi9 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and Home ^ Hqn-eieHtativee of the 
CammoTiweaUh of Pennsylvania in General Jluembbf nut, and it tt Airdy 
enacted hythe authority of the same^ That Greorge W. Woodward^ Jamaa imti, 
£• A. Thon^>6eB, Frederick Watts, T. J. Bighatt, and otbera, vrbo .haYe stb^ 
«eribed the oonatitiirtion lately adopted by a eonveation asaemfafed at Hamr* 
tailg, to naprove the eondition of agrienltiirei horticalture and the iMMiaeholA 
MXUs be and they «re hereby dreattd a body ^politic and eorpornte ib law, by 
the name of <^The Praneylvania State A^icnlttval Society," and by that 
Baine shall have perpetual succession, aad have capacity to sue and be sued, 
and may have a common seal, which at their pleasure tsay alter or wmew$ 
di9y may take by gift, grant, devise, bequest or otherwise, lands an4 tetie- 
ments, goods and chattels, necessary for all the purposes for which the 
society was instituted : Provided^ The annual income therefrom shall iiiOt 
exceed ten thousand dollars, independent of annual contributions by members, 
and the aame to convey, lay out, apply and dispose of, for the benefit of the 
said society, as they under their charter and by-laws may direct. ' 

Section 2. That the members of the said corporation shall have power to 
make and enforce such constitution and by-laws as may be necessary for the 
good government of the society, and the same frotn time to time to revdfie, 
alter and amend, as they may think proper : Provided, That the same shall 
not be inconsistent with the Constitution and laws of this State. 

Section 3. That the sum of two thousand dollars, out of any moi;|ey in the 
Treasury not otherwise appropriated, be, and the same is hereby appropriated 
to said society^ and annually hereafter a sum of equal amount to that paid 



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12 WENN8TLVANIA STATE 

by the members thereof into its treasury, affidavit of Which: fiact, and the 
amount so raised by the Treasurer of the society, being first filed whh the 
State Treasurer : Provided^ Such sum shall not exceed two thousand dollars 
in any one year. 

Section 4. That when any number of indiFiduals shall oigsMe themselves 
into an agricultural or horticultural society^ or any agrici^tujal or, bprticul- 
tural society now organized within any of the counties of thk. Common- 
wealth, shall have adopted a constitution and by-laws jbr tbeix gpyernment, 
elected their officers, and raised annually, by the voluntary contribution of 
its members, any sum of money, which shall have been actu^ly paid into 
their Treasury, for the purpose of being disbursed for the promotion of agri- 
cultural knowledge and improvement, and that fact be attested by the affidavit 
of their President and Treasurer, filed with the commissioners of the county, 
the said county society shall be entitled to receive annually a like sum from 
the Treasurer of their said county : Provided^ That said annual payment out 
of the county funds shall not exceed one hundred dollars : Provided further^ 
That but one such society in any oodnty. diall be entitled to receive such ap- 
propriation in any one year, under this act. 

Sbction 5. That the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural So- 
lely, who shall receive or expend any of the moneys hereby appropriated, 
^shall, annually, on the first Monday of January, transmit to the Governor of 
the Commonwealth a detailed account of the expenditure of all the mone3rs 
-wluch shall come into his hands under this act, and stating to whom and for 
"what purpose paid ; and a copy of the said report shall be transmitted to the 
Legislature at as early a day as practicable, and the original ehidl be filed in 
the office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth. And the presidents of the 
several county agricultural societies shall annually transmit, in the month of 
December, to the Executive Committee of the Pennsylvania State Agricnhu* 
ral Society, all such reports or returns as they ate required to demand and re^ 
twelve from applicants for premiums, together with an abstract of their pro- 
ceedings during the year. This act shall at all times be within the power of 
Ike Legislature to modify, alter or repeal the same. 

JOHN CESSNA, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, 
BENJAMIN MATTHIAS, 
< •' ' Speaker of the Senate. 

Approved — The twenty-ninth day of March, A. D. one thousand eight hun^ 
dred and fifty-one. ' 

WM. F. JOHNSTON. 



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AOmCVLTURAL BOOtETlT. 1^ 

CONSTITUTION OF THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE AGRICULTCJBAL " 

SOCIETY. 

The name of the society shall be the Pennsylvania State Agricultural So- 
ciety, ^fht olijects of this society arcto foster and improre agrieultnre, heir- 
ticnftora and iint diomestie and household arts* * ' 

- Section 1. The society shall consist of all such persons as i^all pay to the ' 
Treasurer not less than cue doHat, and anntmlly ihefeafter not less thtin one 
dttllar, and also of honorary and corresponding members^ the names of Ihe ' 
n rt m beJ i to be Tecorded by the Secretary. 

The officers of cotinty agricnhnral societies in this State, or delegatkniB 
therefrom, shall be members tx-affido of this society. 

The payment of ten dollars shall constitute Mfe membership, and exempt ' 
the members so contribnting flrom all annual piiyments. 

Sbction 2. The officers of the society shall be a President, a Vice Presi- 
dent from each Congressional district, three-fonrths of whom shfeH be pracli- 
cai agriculturalists or horticulturalists, a Treasurer, a Corresponding Secretary, 
a Recording Secretary, a Librarian, an Agricultural Chemist and Greologist, 
and such assistants as the society may find essential to the transaction of its 
business; an Executive Committee, consisting of the above named offieeis 
and five additional members. 

DUTIES OF THE OFFICERS. 

Section 3. The President shall have a general superintendence of all the 
aflkirs of the society. In case of the death, illness or inability of the Presi- 
dent to perform the duties of his office, the Executive Committee shall select 
a Vice President to act in his stead, who shall have the same power and per« 
form the same duties as the President, until the next annual meeting. 

VICE PSSSmXNTS. 

It shall be their duty to take charge of the afifairs of the association in their 
several districts; to advance all its objects; to call upon farmers to report as 
to the condition of agriculture in their neighborhood ; to ask for information 
as to the modes of cultivation adopted by different farmers; and as far as in 
their power to make known the resources of their districts, the nature of its 
soil, its geological character, and all such matter as may interest farmers in 
every part of the State. 

THEASITBER. 

The Treasurer shall keep an account of all moneys paid into his hands, and 
abaJil pay UUs wjb#n audited and approved by the Executive Committee; each 



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order for payment must be signed bjr the President or chairman of the Ezecv* 
tire Committee. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

. The d«ljr of tbia eSStsmt AM bo to in^lo ar cOYreapaodniaeiitith aJUiperaoB^* 
interested in agriculture, whethev m th^ State of Peiwiiylinuuai #r ah airhai % 
bwjn mp^/mllf mtk owF oensaia in fonaifo. coantries, dint aaiir 6eed% Tegtia- 
lllm^ Of Un^ tftonfc aiay be intvodoeed, and theur filnesa for onltivation and; 
Pfcopagfitiaa i# wm climate be teated. At each rtalod meatitig of the society* 
he shall read his correspondence, whidi shall, eidier tW whole or each parta 
aa nmj bO' aeleated b^ thet soisiety, foim n pcnrtion of the tnuisactians. 

He shall also correspond with the pvesidottt ox other officers of each Sta^ 
sfioiatgr in the United States, at leaat twiice in the yeae, for purpoaea of cov- 
bined and mutual action, and to be ipform^ of the resaU and progress of 
eadi Othav'a eflbrts; also, to inrite meohanica to forward modeU or imple* 
ments^for ezamUiatioii and triaL 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 

t 

The Recording 'Secretary shall keep the minutaa of the society and of the 
EMOvtiFe Committee; at the close of each year he shall prepare for publics^ 
tion such parts of the minutes and transactions of the society ns may be de* 
signated. 

LIBRARIAN. 

. The Librarian shall take charge of all books, pamphlets, &c., belonging to 
the society, and shall act as curator to preserve seeds, implements, or what- 
ever property the society may poesess. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

The Executive Committee shall transact the business of the society gen« 
erally, and shall appoint annually, at their first quarterly meeting, a Record- 
ing Secretary and Treasurer, fix their salaries, and require security from the 
Treasurer, if they deem it necessary; shall superintend and direct the publi- 
cation of such of the reports and transactions as they may deem proper, and 
shall designate the time and places for annual exhibitions, regulate the expen- 
ditures, examine all accounts, and keep such general charge of the affairs of 
the society as may best promote its interests. 

They shall select their own chairman, and meet quarterly, and at any other 
time when convened by the President; five members shall form a quorum. 

They shall call special meetings of the society when necessary. 

tBBOTioN 4. The society shall meet annually, on the third Tuesday of Janu- 
. a#y, at Harriaburg, when all the officers of the society, not otherwise ap* 



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iwtoed^ itmU be el^oted I9 UIk»t for Ihe ^mwg y«Mi aad natit mmoAei 
^lacliDn. Tbey: shall niao hoU % genera^ I9«e^ing M tb^ tune of tbe aomiftl ex- 
Ubitioi^ end; «peeiM meetings wheftey«r caavolfjod l^ tba ^jwe^tiyo Ciw- 
miitee. 

Fifteeo. sMmhers.sJudl faima qi^^^rum fox the tra«eeqtioft of bHeuvesf^ bji^ 
na M<rnihif m» wnpeacs ^IiaU be eoiit^d to tihe j^viiegafr of t)i0 soeiety. 

SMCTio» i. TMie ciMidiiWipB mny he elteiad 01 amei^toi, at ibe nmvftl 
meetings in Jaaaary, by a vote of two-thisd^ (^ $k» neoibeEt i» atlmAiBOft^ 



SIXTH ANNUAL MINTING OF THE raNNSYLVANIA STATE 
AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

^ Habrisbubg, Tmtdti^f imwry Stt, 1857. 

The members of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society met this day, 
(the third Tuesday of January,) in the Hall of the House of Representatives. 
James Qowen, Prefeident of the society, not being present, the meeting was 
organized, on motion of H. N. McAllister, by calling John Murdock, Jr., to 
the chair. ' 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

A. O. Hiester, chairman of the Committee on Field Crops, made the fol- 
lowing report, which, on motion, was adopted : 

* FIELD CROPS. 

The Committee on Field Crops respectfully report : That as heretofore, there 
are but few competitors for the premiums offered by the society. At the re- 
commendation of the two successive committees, the Ust was very considerably 
increased and the premiums enlarged. In easting about for a ree[soB for the 
apparent apathy, we think we find it in the almost universal want of exact 
system in keeping the accounts and memoranda of the daily work upon* the 
farm, and want of conveniences for making the experiments with the exady 
ness required (and properly so) by* the society. 

They flatter themselves they see an improvement in this respect opening up 
before them. The agricultural schools now in progressf of erection in several 
of the adjoining States, and the Farmers' High School of our own, which it is 
the design of the trustees, shall be of the first class, will do much toward 
fostering a habit in early life of making exact observations upon growing 
crops and correctness in keeping of memoranda. 

Thb mass of very important information contatned in four or five hundred 
commumealioiis to the Agricultural I>e]»artaieiit at Washington, by aqme pf the 



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1§ . WSIWSYLVAKIA STATE 

moat ittt^ilig^t arid bbs^nrhig men ef the nation, both praetical and acientiic, ' 
with regnird to the cnltmre, the growth and yield of cropa, and which are being 
dlatributed hroad^cast over the land, in the reports of the Psittent Office, ar»' 
doing much to extend a spirit of inquiry and experiment ; and the distriba* • 
tion of sirty thousand padcages per annum of new seeds, beside cnltibgs and 
roots, gathered from every portion of the globe and distributed over our land, 
must all add to the interest and valtie of our agricultural productions, and 
foster a taste for close observation as to the results. 

There are but two entries for premiums : Jonathan F. Ckrrard, of Allegheny 
county. Pa., for five acres of wheat, and one half an acre of sugar beets. 

The committee submit, as part of their report, the statement of Mr. Garrard, 
as to the mode of cultivation and the yield per acre. 

; The statement and certificates all accord in all respects wjth the rules of the 
society. 

The committee award to Jonathan F. Garrard, of Allegheny county, a pre- 
mium for crop, of wheat, of $20. 
For the one half acre of sugar beets, a premium of $10 00. 

A. O. HIESTER, 
J. B. RUTHERFORD, 
SAMUEL GILLILAND, 
WILLIAM MARTIN, Sr., 

Committee. 



REPORT ON WHEAT CROP. 

Sharpsbubg, January 3, 1S57. 
To ihe Hon, Committee on Field Crops : 

Sirs : — ^In compliance with the request />f the Pennsylvania State Agricul- 
tural Society, I herewith produce a statement of the mode of cultivation and 
the kind of seed used in the foregoing five acres of wheat. 

' The land on which it grew is naturally poor, and before it came into my 
possession, six years ago, I have known two crops out of three to be an entire 
failure, the weeds being sufiered to grow up, thereby literally filling the ground 
with seeds. I broke up this land deep and thoroughly, planted it with com, 
next spring with oats, and sowed it down with clover and timothy, pastured 
it three years. The summer of '55 being very wet, the weeds grew in abun* 
dance, and when fully in blossom, 1 thought if I could plough them under, 
they would prove a good fertilizer. It was principally smart weed^ very thick 
on the ground, and from four to five feet high. To plough such a mass of 
wieeds under was no small task. I selected one of the largest iron ploughs with 
a heavy log chain attached, to bend down the weeds, but this proved insuffi- 



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AOHlGtILtltAAL SOCIEtt. It 

cient. The bulk was too great to be buried by this mefliod. I thiii flkotight 
1 would try Messrs. Hall & Spear's deep Hlkr and sttrjuct plough^ whibh I had 
been using the previous fall to break a piece of rery hard, sterile gfotmd, 
which with four horses 1 managed to break Up fourteen inches deqj. Wil!h 
this plough and three horses abreast, 1 found myself adequate to the task. 
The small surface plough being two*thirds as wide as the main plough, cutting 
the sod one or two inches deep, rolled it owr witk the weeds on to the edge of 
the furrow-shire, the main plough following six inches deep, p«ilvevized the 
gromid bompl^ely) burying all vegetable matter. I am under the impression 
that no other kind of a plough would have succeeded as well, and, therefore, 
recommend it as well adapted for turning under dover or any other vegetable 
matter, as well as for deep tillage. After harrowing the ground once in a 
place, I drilled on six pedes of Wkke Etrurum iohtai^ commonly called hlut 
stem. 

It Was thought by many who saw the crop growing, there would be forty 
bushels per acre, but the season was unfavorable, especially on that dry^ sandy 
soil. Quantity grown was X33i bushels. 

Respectfully, your obedient, &c., 

JONATHAN F. GARRARD. 

Allegheny County, ss : 

Z, Patterson being duly stvorn, says he is a surveyor, that he su^Vtsyed with 
chain and compass, the land on which J. F. Garrard raised a crop of wheat 
the past season, and the quantity of the land is five acres and no more. 

Z. PATTERSON, 

Surveyor, 

Sworn to before me, this 24th day of December, 1856. 

J. G. COMSTOCK, 
Justice of the Peace, 

Allegheny County , ss : 

Jonathan F. (Jarrard being duly sworn, says that he raised a crop of wheat 
the past season, upon the said land surveyed by Z. Patterson, and that the 
quantity of grain raised thereon, was one hundred and thirty-three and one- 
fourth bushels, measured in a sealed half bushel, and that he was assisted in 
harvesting and measuring said crop, by Timothy Reilly, and that the state- 
ment annexed, subscribed by this deponent, as to manner of cultivation, &c., 
is in all respects true to the best of his knowledge and belief, and that the 
sample of gr^in exhibited, is a fair average sample of the whole crop. 

JONA. F. GARRARD. 

Sworn to before me, this 25th day of December, 1866. 

Z. PATTERSON, 
Justice of th^Pt^ 



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1» FENNSTfLVANlA STATE 

^lUghmy Countyy 9S : ' 

Timothy £«illy being duly 8worn5 says that he assisted J. F. Garrard in 
harye^ting, getting out and measuring his crop of wheat referred to in the 
affidavit; that the quantity of grain was one hundred and thirty-three and one-, 
foorth bushels, as stated in the affidavit of J, F. Garrard, 

TIMOTHY BEILLY. 

Sworn to before me, this 2dd day of December, 1856. 

Z. PATTERSON. 

Justice of tk$ Peac€k 



REPORT ON BEET CROP. 

Shabpsbueg, January 3, 1857. 

Dear Sir : — ^Thc following is the mode I pursued in cultivating the forego- 
ing crop of sugar beet. After breaking up the ground deep, I harrowed it 
well, so as to thoroughly pulverize it. I then drilled up the land about thirty 
finches 'from centre to centre, and put in at the rate of forty cart loads of good 
barn-yard manure per acre, and covered it. I then flattened down the drills 
with an iron rake, made a small crease with the corner of a hoe on the mid- 
dle of each drill, into which I dropped the seed, at the rate of three pounds 
per acre, then covered it with the rake. 

After-culture was performed with cultivator and hand-hoe, thinning out the 
plants from eight to ten inches apart, keeping the ground as level as possible, 
it does not answer to throw up earth around the roots with the plough, as we 
do for potatoes. The kind of seed used was the Silician, and white French sugar 
beet. The Silician or red striped beet did best with me, although 1 do not 
know that they contain as large a quantity of juice as the latter. Quantity 
grown was 168 bushels. 

Respectfully yours, &c., 

JONATHAN F. GARRARD. 

•Allegheny County , ss : 

Z. Patterson being duly sworn, says he is a surveyor, that he surveyed with 
chain and compass, the land on which Jona. F. Garrard raised a crop of sugar 
beet the past season, and the quantity of land is one half acre and no more. 

Z. PATTERSON, 

Surveyor. 

Sworn to before me, this 24th day of December, 1856. 

J. G. COMSTOCK, 

Justice of the Peace, 



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AGWCDLTUEAL SOCIETT. If 

^Uegheny Cotmiyj $9 : 

Jona. F. Ganard being dulj sworn, says that he raised a crop of sugar beet 

the past season, upon the land suryeyed by Z. Patterson, and that the quantity 

of sugar beet raised thereon was one hundred and skty-eight bushek, nieasuted 

in a sealed half bushel, after the tops were taken off and the beets drewedy 

and that he was assisted in taking up and measuring said crop by Timothy 

Reilly, and th^t the statement annexed, subscribed by this depenent as to the 

manner of cuItivatioB, dee., is in all respects true to the best of his knowledge 

and belief, and that a sample of said beet was exhibited at the late fair heU 

at Pittsburg. 

JONATHAN F. GABKARD, 

Si0«^m to before me, this 23d day of December, 1856. 

Z, PATTERSON, 

JtLStice of the Peace. 

Jlllegheny County^ as : 

Timothy Reilly being duly sworn, says he assisted J. F. Garrard in taking 

up and measuring his crop of sugar beets referred to in the affidavit ; that the 

quantity of sugar beet was one hundred and sixty-eight bushels, as stated in 

the affidavit of J. F. Garrard. 

TIMOTHY REH^LY. 

Sworn to before me, this 23d day of December, 1856. 

Z. PATTERSON, 

Justice of the Peace. 



Robert C. Walker, Recording Secretary of the society, then made the fol- 
lowing report, which on motion was adopted : 

To the members of the Pennsylvania State JjgrictUtural Society : 

The Executive Committee for the past year have held their regular quar- 
terly meetings in accordance with the Constitution, and have discharged those 
duties which devolved upon them in their official capacity. At these meet- 
ings the various subjects of business appertaining to the society, were duly 
discussed, and the execution of the work allotted to the proper officers and 
sub-committees. At their first quarterly meeting a committee of five was 
appointed, to receive proposals and ^x the place for the sixth annual exhibi- 
tion, who upon learning that the citizens of Pittsburg were desirous of secur- 
ing the State Fair at that place, upon their paying a liberal contribution to 
the society, repaired thither, and on the 25th of April last they received the 
guarantee of ^ve responsible citizens of Pittsburg, that the sum of two thou- 
sand dollars would be duly paid to the Treasurer of the State society, upon the 
condition of their holding the annual exhibition there. The committee deem- 



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20 FENNSTLTANIA STATE 

ing the guarantee a proper security for the payment of the mdney^ determined 
«pon and gave notiee tliat the fiixth aniraai exhiUtion 4>f the Peni^ylvania 
State Agrienltaral Society would be held at Pktdburg, at the time previonriy 
tf^wed upon, namely, on the 30th of S^tentber, and the Ist^ 2d and 3d dayn 
of Octobev. The committee hanng the mibject in charge^ viewed the gioimda 
of the Allegheny County Agricultural Soeiety, ai^ an agreement with the 
offices thereof was entered into far the «se of nid grounds £ot thm ai^nua) 
faiir. At the next quarterly meeting of the Ezecutiine Cooiaiittee, held on the 
15th day of July, the Committee en the Loeattoa of the Fair made report of 
their proceedings, which was duly accepted. A committee of three was then 
appointed to invite a suitable person to deliver the annual address. At this 
meeting the Secretary of the society reported, that he had been subpcenaed by 
an attorney of the society, as a witness in the case of Thomas Curtis against 
the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society, and that he had appeared before 
the district court of Philadelphia, on the 23d day of May preceding, and was 
present until the close of the trial, and that the case had been decided by a 
verdict from a jury in favor of the society. This case was an action where 
suit was brought against the society by an exhibitor, for damages sustained 
from rain, while exhibiting his goods in a building of the society during the 
State Fair at Harrisburg, in 1855. 

At this meeting a Committee of Arrangements for the exhibition at Pitts- 
burg, was appointed, and the premium list for the same adopted, of which 
fifteen hundred copies were ordered to be printed in pamphlet form. Soon 
after their appointment, the Committee of Arrangements convened upon 
the grounds of the Allegheny County Agricultural Society, and determined 
upon the erection of the additional buildings and improvements, that wo«ld 
be necessary io accommodate the purposes of the State Exhibition. At an 
early day the workmen and laborers were busily engaged in enlarging and 
embellishing the grounds, and in seasonable tiipe the whole was completed, 
and every thing in readiness for the approaching fair. The Committee of Ar- 
rangements, composed as it was — a majority of whom being members of the 
Allegheny County Agricultural Society, and living in the immediate vicinity, 
were probably better qualified to discharge their duty to the State society, 
than persons living at a greater distance, although members of the State insti- 
tution. 

All the arrangements were made under the supervision of the committee, and 
all contracts that were susceptible of specification, were allotted to the lowest 
bidder, after proposals had been duly invited. Every care was taken by the 
committee, not only to avoid extravagance, but to pursue a course of economy 
in all things not inconsistent with the character and dignity of the society. 

The expenses of preparation for every annual exhibition, are necessarily 
iieavy, and to the casual observer more than might be warranted by a hasty 



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AGiaCULTOHAL SOCTETT. 21 

f kaee a€ Ae eo&TanieneM md imppoTements made. As long as the society 
cfaaages ks loeation from year to year, these necessary outlays will naturally 
CsHew* It is quettionaUe whether tket corvespondlng benefits arisiBg from a 
ofaaage of location,^)ec»nianly considered, will be equal to the outlay inci* 
dent to eueh diange. 

On Sttlurday night preceding the late State Fair, nearly all the arrangementi 
were completed, many of the employees discharged, and some articles for ex* 
MWtbn were Inroug^ within the enclesure ^ expectation was en tip-toe f^r an 
jMspicieue opening of the approaching week — hut Monday morning came and 
with it a drenching rain, which had set in the night before, and which by 
iBOf sing had beconae gie«entl for a hundred miled around. Thus the week 
was ushered in, and the rain came down without interruption until after mid- 
night on Tuesday. Wednesday throughout was very cold and unpleasant, 
and this being t^ second day of the exhibition, only a few hundred people 
with 8tou€ hearts and robust constitutions ventured upon the field. 

Disappointed expectations were to be seen upon every face 5 and those of 
the committee who had looked forward to this '^gala^' week for a realization 
fyf those hopes which would be a recompense for the anxiety and labor they 
had endured on duty, looked pitiable indeed. At this time of the week the 
prospect for a successful fair was almost a forlorn hope, and as but two days 
yet remained, it would have been unreasonable to expect as many visitors 
under the most favorable circumstances, as wotild pay the premiums. How* 
ever, the two remaining days of the exhibition were pleasant, and the fine 
weather brought out a large concourse of people ; still the time was too short 
to make up for the many that had been kept away by the bed weather of the 
previous days. Firom the large amount of premiums oflfered, and the many 
inducements held out to exhibitors, and from the general publicity that was 
given of the exhibition throughout the State, it was confidently expected that 
it would equal any of its predcessors. Whatever want of success there may 
have been, may be attributable altogether to bad weather. As it vi^s, there 
vms a large number of fine horses and cattle on exhibition, together with one 
of the largest displays of fine sheep and swine ever brought together in the 
State. The machinery and manufactures of Pittsburg were in great variety, 
and did much credit to the enterprizing citizens of that famed community. 
The article of Pittsburg ploughs was a striking feature of the exhibition, and 
eontnbuted to the general interest by their immense numbers and the diversity 
of their make and pattern. The ploughing and harrowing match which came 
ofifat the appointed hour, attracted great attention from a large and respectable 
number of spectato];s. 

There was a fine exhibition of the speed and training of horses, upon a large 
apd coitunodions ring prepared for the purpose. As to the number of entries, 
and articles nxiA miv^i^ on exhiUtion, they would compare favorably with 



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22 PENNSYLVANIA OTATE 

any of our former dii^lays. On Friday afternoon the Hon. G«orge W. Wood- 
ward, who had been invited for the purpose, delivered the annual address in 
the presence of a large concourse of ladies and gentlemen. At the close of 
tbe address, on motion of William Waugh, it was resolvfd that the thanks of 
the society be tendered to the Hon. George W. Woodward, for Jus ahle and 
practical addre.5S, and that one thousand copies be printed Car the nee of the 
society. , 

The awards of the judges were then read, and the nsual number of oopies 
ordered to be printed, when the Sixth Annual Exhibition was duly declared 
dosed. 

A large amount of silver plate, as ofiered by li»6 premiosi liat, was awarded 
by the judges at this exhibition, together with over one hundred and fifty 
silver and bronze medals, and some hundred and fifty diplomas. The amoant of 
iponey awarded and paid for premiums, as shown by the report of the Tiea- 
surer, is quite large, and which has been liberally distributed to ike fcurmers 
and others in various sections of our State. The managers have endeavored 
to confine the workings of the society to its strict object and design, and with 
a dignified regard for the legitimate pursuits of a State institution, which has 
been incorpoAted to '< foster and improve agriculture, horticulture, and the 
domestic and household arts," they have thus far kept it aloof from the many 
catch-penny performances that are of late too frequently resorted to by so* 
cieties of a similar kind, for the purposes of making money. At the forming 
of the programme for each succeeding exhibition, the subject of lady equestri* 
anism, and other performances equally foreign to the promotion of agriculture, 
have been strongly urged as a part of the proceedings and as often properly 
rejected. Thus it is a source of congratulation, that while the society has 
been kqpt in the path of its proper duty, it has never failed to distribute annually 
a large amount of valuable premiums for laudable and legitimate purposes. 
The third volume of Transactions as authorized by a resolution of the Senate, 
has been duly published under the superintendence of the Secretary. This 
volume embraces all the reports of the County Agricultural Societies received 
for the year, together with the transactions of this society, and other interest- 
ing matter. 

The first annual report of the President of the Board of Trustees of the 
Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania, embracing the report of the Treasurer 
thereof, has been duly received from the Hon. Frederick Watts, and is hexe- 
with presented. 

Caklisle, December 3, 1856. 

To Jamea Gowen^ Esq.^ President of 6 tote JSgricultural Society z 

By the act which incorporates the "Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania," 
it is made the duty of the Board of Trustees "to make out a Aill and detailed 



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AGHlCULtUilAL SOCIEtY. 23 

account of the operations of the institution for the preceding year, and an 
4icecimt of its reeeipts and expenditures, and report the same to the State 
Agricultural Society." 

The operations 4>f the institution bare been to accept the gratuitous con- 
veyance of Gen. Irvin, of two hundred acres of land in Centre county, with a 
ieaae of two hundred acres a(yoining> and the privilege of purchasipg the 
same at any time Within five years, at sixty dollars an acre. This ground has 
been laid out with 4t view to the erection of permauent Imildings; hedges 
and orchards have been planted, a large barn, farm-house and cisterns have 
been erected, a contract hae been entered into for the erection of a school 
edifice and the work is progressing. . I. send to you herewith printed plans and 
specifications of the school edifice and of the barn, the former of which has 
been allotted to Turner &-Natcher, for fifty^five thousand dollars, ^d the 
latter to Bernard McLean, at three thousand five hundred dollars* You have 
herewith also a detailed account of all the receipts and expenditures of the 
institution since its. organization .until the present .date« 
I have the honor to be your obedient servant, 

t FREDERICK WATTS, 

Presifknt qfFarm^f^ High School of^ejmsylvania. 



£. C. HuMts, Treasurer J in account with Farmers^ High School^ Pennsylvania. 

DR. 

1856. To Bundry receipts ss follow, vis t 

AprU 1. Amount advanced by H. N. M'AlKster, being proceeds of $1,000 note 

ht 60 days ;.;.; $969 17 

2. Amount advanced by same. 500 00 

19. State Agricultnral Society order (James Gowen, Pres.) on G. H. 
Bncher, Treasurer, for which the following was taken in payment 
by Hon. F. Watts, ss per his letter dated May 10, 1856, viz : 

Tour bonds Cailisle borongh, $1,000 each $4,000 00 

One bond Hasleton coal company $500 00 

Do do do ...; 1,500 00 



2,000 00 

Four bonds Harrisbnrg, Lancaster and Mount Joy rail- 
road company, $1,000 each, at $98, proceeds being.. . 8, 720 00 
Cash, per Judge F. Watts 280 00 



10,000 06 



Oct. 81. Gash received fh}m H. N. McAllister, 'dn acconnt of 

Centre county subscription 262 50 

Cash received of Wm. M. Mnndy, on same ; 1, 920 25 

Kov. 4. Cash received of F. 3. Wilson, on same • 25 00 

7. Cash received at Moses Thompson, on same 574 75 

Cash received of H. K. McAllister, on same 288 88 

Cash received of Irvln, M' Allister snd Curthf, gnarsntors 

6f Centre county subscription 1 , 978 67 

First instahnent Centre county subscription . ; ; . . • 5, 000 00 

8. Cash received of Hon. F. Wfttts, s^ months hiterest on three $1,000 

Carlisle Ibot^ngh bonds......... ;^ ; 00 00 

L' 16,879 17 



^. 



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24 . fmimhYAfikf^ ^Am 

Nov. 8. To balance in ^nds of treasarer, including tiiree $1,000 Garlisle 

borough lH3«£Uli0ld by Jadge Wattd.. ••.... »••«...,., $6^i^U 

CR. 

1(866 • By sundry pi^ymants as foUowy as per carders <|rawn l^ bnlldinj; C01&- 
mittee, agreeably to resolution of January i, 1656, viz : 

April 1. TbompfM)!, M'Ooy&Qo..... « No.l.... 80 00 

Bernard M'ClaIn « 2.... 100 00 

S. James Antis (c 8.... 650 00 

2B. Bernard K'ClaiQ.... « 4.... 500 OD 

Hay 2. James Antis '• cc 5..., 500 00 

10. James Antis « 6.... 48 8l 

88» H. Jjr. M'Affisteri (V)an) « «.., 5(00 00 

Wm.G. Warring.... « 7.... 46 00 

Do .do...* « 8.... 44 61 

Do do • p « 0..,. 162 66 

John Herman « 10. . . . 78 94 

. a.A. Jacobs *< 11.... 208 12 

21. Bernard M'Clain :.. « 12.... 50 00 

June 1. Do do "18.... 1,000 00 

8. H.N. McAllister, (loan) , "14.. , 1,000 00 

9. IrYin,M'Goy&Cfo... " WJ... 26188 

26. John Herman « 16..., 25 W 

80. Bernard M'Clain « 16.... 400 00 

July 4. Hezekiah Blair «« 17.... 4 00 

Anthony Gallaher.... ...••• << 17.... 8 62 

14. Bernard M'Clain " 18.... 200 00 

John^Hermaa. « 19 ... . 26 00 

22. Do. ...do « 21..., 98 87 

81. Turner and Nateher « 22. . . . 500 00 

Aug. 4. Bernard M'Glain << 28.... 800 00 

27, John Herman, for H « 24,... 29 OQ 

John A.Miskey « 26.... 2i 00 

28. DavidRalston , « 26.... 8 00 

80. Daniel Sowers « 27.... 27 56 

JohnQuinn « 28.... 22 10 

Kabelloand Bayard << 29.... 5 60 

He^sekiah Blair, (<br Quinn) << 80.... 8 00 

Do do...(forHarman).l << 81.,., 11 00 

Sept.lS. Turner and Natcherii: ..J......:;:... « 82.... 400 00 

16. Behiard M'OiOn..:.. <f 88.... 200 00 

Do. .....do..,.. « 81..., 800 00 

16. Joseph Scott ..••.. " 86.... 16 50 

AiKlrew Whitehni « 86 9 75 

24. Henry Gilbert.:. « 87.... 86 26 

Turner and Katcher ...;:.... « 88.... 100 00 

Do do ..:.... «< 89.... 50 00 

26. C. W, Lambert «« 40..., 20 00 

27. JohD Herman, (Btttterf.) << 41..., 20 00 

Nicholas Hillibish.: « 42.,.. 79 89 

Oct 16. John Herman. ..;,.. :;.;.... :.; '. << 4S...: 109 00 

17. Bernard M'Claln.. ......,..^ << 44..,. 100 00 

L.Bathurst : « 46.... 8 00 

Bernard M^Clain:. ,. « 46.... 50 00 

Do. .....do...... « 47.... 150 00 

JohnQuinn......; " 48.... 28 12 

Bond Valentine.... :.....,..: « 49..., 108 00 

John RoWen..: ; « 60.... 85 26 

18. Jai^s Welch , « 61.... 47 00 

22. Foresman Wilson :::., ;..... " 62..., 12 50 

26. Bernard M'ClaiQ..: 1 « 63..., 142 76 

Do do... ;.......;..: « 64.... 100 00 

27. C.W.Lambert...;.:..:......./;....:.::; « 66.... 20 00 

29, William Wagner « 66.,.. 16 00 

Ge9i|;o B. Weaver. « , , » 67.,., 1 50 



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AQfliecnLTDBAL SOCIETY. 9p 

1856. 

Oct. 80. John Parsons : No. 68.... $14 25 

Timier«aa Ijrgtotor ...• ** 69.... 60QiX) 

81. Do do « 60,,.. 70000 

Bo do • "61.... 665 00 

Bernard M'Glain .,, ^ 6d.,«* 1^6 00 

Nov. 1. Do 4o « « 62. .^« 15 00 

4, J.T. Johwi^n <« 64...* 18 00 

5. E. G. Hnmea £( Brother , ,..^. ..,•.• « 66...« 6 T^ 

7. TLompson, M'Coy & Co « 66..,. 2^2 96 

Bernard M'Clain... .^.. ........ ^ 67.... WOO 

Do do « 68.... 70 41 

8. Po do « 69.... 800 00 

R. Lovett, Jr « 70.... 10 26 

F.Gardner <^ Tl.... II 60 

E.Beatty.. « 72,... 28 00 

Balanee , '. 6,04« 41 



16,679 17 



To the Trustees oftlU Farmers* High School of Pennsylvania : 

Edward C. Humes, Treasurer, most respectfully reports the foregoing ac- 
count, showing his receipts and disbursements. 

The $989 17 is the proceeds of a thousand dollar note at sixty da^s, belong- 
ing to H. N. McAllister, discounted for the use of the Farmers' High School, 
which advance was refunded at the maturity of the note, 3d June, 1856, as 
per voucher 14. The $500 advanced by H. N. McAllister was repaid 23d 
May, 1855, as per voucher 6i. 

These advances were required to meet payments due on contracts for lum- 
ber, to which the money was applied, as per vouchers 1, 2, 3 and 4. 

The f 10,000 is the appropriation made by the Pennsylvania State Agricul- 
tural Society, received in bonds, &c., as stated in the account. The two 
bonds of the Hazleton coal company, the four bonds of the Harrisburg, Lan- 
caster and Mt. Joy railroad company, and one of the Carlisle borough bonds 
were by Judge Watts negotiated at the same rate at which they had been re- 
ceived. The remaining three Carlisle borough bonds still remain in the hands 
of Judge Wfttts unconverted. 

The $5,000 is the first instalment of the subscription by the citizens of Cen- 
tre county to the Farmers' Hi^h School, made on condition the institution 
should be located on the land donated by General Irvin, due 1st October, 1856. 
The remaining instalment of $5,000 will fall due 1st May, 1857. 

The orders are either on account of specific contracts, or are accompanied 
by bills showing specific items. The vouchers will of course be retained until 
the account is audited. Jill which is respectfully submitted. 

EDWARD C. HUMES, 

T;reamrpt F, ff. JS.^ Pa. 

Belleponte, Jffov, 8^ 185$, 

The Treabi^rer of the society being prevtbted from {getting to the meetjng 
on accQupi; of Uu^ ipfiji^ssable stfite pf tbe vpftclei yȤ 40t praseftt to wake bi9 



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S6 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

animal report. It was announced that at a meeting of the Executive Commit- 
tee held in the morning, a committee had been appointed to audit his account, 
with instrbctions to report at the next meeting of Executive Committee. 

The nomination of offieere being next in order, 

Robert H. Kerr nominated James Gowen, of Mountairy* The Secretary 
Aen said he had a letter from Mr. Gowen, declining a re-election, which being 
read, his name was. withdrawn. The letter is as follows: 

MoiTNTAiRY, January 16, 1856. 

Deae Sir: — I regret to inform you that 1 find myself so. in disposed by the 
severe cold that for some days past has annoyed me, that I am compelled to 
relinquish all thoughts of being able to attend the annual meeting of the 20th 
4D0t. This to me will be a grievous disappointment, because, having been de- 
tained from the annual meeting of last year, in attending to the matter of the 
bequest by the late Elliot Cresson, I had not the opportunity when re-elected 
President to return thanks for the renewed expression of confidence and re- 
spect with which the society then honored me ; and that at the forth-coming 
meeting, 1 shall likewise be debarred the pleasing duty of making my ac- 
knowledgments in a manner suitable to my inclinations. But I hope the 
society will take the will for the deed, and accept this brief assurance in ac- 
quittal that to the present I hold in greatful recollection, the honor it did me 
on that occasion. 

It is also a matter of regret that 1 cannot be present to participate in the 
business that will be brought before the meeting, and that 1 shall not have the 
pleasure to explain verbally the reasons why I have determined to decline a 
re-election. Of this determination you, and most of the active members of 
the society, have been apprised for some time back, and I now request that it 
be formally announced to the society, when met at the proper time. 

Apart from the demands of private afl^airs upon my time, which require 
more attention than I can bestow upon them consistently with the discharge 
of official duties, the propriety of a change occasionally in the Honorary offi- 
cers of the society, would alone be suflicient to induce me to decline a re- 
election. Rotation in office will be found I think to work as well in the so- 
ciety as rotation of crops upon the farm. That the change now to be made 
in the Presidency, may prove highly beneficial to the society, is the ardent 

wish of 

Very respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

JAMES GOWEN. 
• K. 0. Walker, Esq., 

Secretary of Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society. 

K. H. Kerr then nominated the Hon. William Wilkins, who, being present, 
acknowledged the honoi tendered, but most respectfully and peremptorily 



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AGRfCULTUHAL SOCIETY. 



27 



declioed being a candidate. His name being withdrawn, Samuel Gilliland nom- 
inated David T aggart. The several nominations for Vice Presidents, additional 
meoibers of the Executive Committee, Corresponding Secretary, Chemist and 
Creologist, and Librarian were then made. On motion it was resolved that 
the meeting proceed to an election by ballot in accordance with the Constitu- 
tion. After the election had proceeded until all who were entitled had voted, 
on motion of James Irvin, the polls were closed at half-past four, P. M. After 
duly registering and counting the votes, the Tellers reported that the follow- 
ing named persons had received a majority of all the votes polled ; whereupon 
the Chair announced that the following persons were the duly elected officers 
for the ensuing year, and until another election : 

PRESIDENT. 

David Taggart, Northumberland, Northumberland county. 

VICE PRESIDENTS. 



1st Con 
. 2d 
. 3d 

4th 
, 5th 
. 6th 

7th 
.8th 

9th 
10th 
11th 
12th 
13th ^ 
14th 
15th 
16th 
nth 
18th 
19th 
20th 
21st 
22d 
23d 
24th 
25th 



Dist. — George W. Woodward, Philadelphia. 

« A. T. Newbold, Philadelphia. 

< Charles K. Engle, Bustleton, Philadelphia county* 

Joseph Yeager, Philadelphia. 

Thomas P. Knox, Norristown, Montgomery county. 

A. R. M'llvaine, Brandy wine Manor, Chester county. 

Adrian Cornell, Newtown, Bucks county. 

George M. Keim, Beading, Berks county. 

John Strohm, New Providence, Lancaster county. 

John P. Rutherford, Uarrisburg, Dauphin county. 

Amos E. Kapp, Northumberland, Northumberland county. 

E. W. Sturdevant, Wilkesbarre, Luzerne county. 

Asa Packer, Mauch Chunk, Carbon county. 

William Jessup, Montrose, Susquehanna county. 

H. N. M'Allister, Bellefonte, Centre county. 

Jacob S. Haldeman, New Market, York county. 

William Heyser, Chambersburg, Franklin county. 

Elias Baker, Altoona, Blair county. 

John M'Farland, Ligonier, Westmoreland county. 

Joshua Wright, Findleyville, Washington county. 

John Murdock, Jr., Pittsburg. 

William Martin, Sr., Allegheny city. 

William Maxwell, Mercer, Mercer county. 

William Bigler, Clearfield, Clearfield county. 

James Miles, Girard, Erie county. 



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38 . PKNNSTLVANU STATE ; 

ADDITIONAXi M1&MB5RS OF THS £X£GFTIYE COMMITTER. 

Frederick Watts, Carlisle, Cumberland county. 
Ja^qs Gowen, Moujitairy, Philadelphia county. 
Augustus O. Hiester, Harrisburg, Dauphin county. 
Isaac G. M'Kinley, Harrisburg, Dauphin county. 
Johp C. Flenniken, Waynesburg, Greene county. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETART. 

A. Boyd HaimltOB, Harrisburg, Daaphi» county. 

CHEMIST AND GEOLOGIST. 

Professor S. S. Haldeman, Columbia, Lancaster county. 

LIBRARIAN. 

Henry Gilbert, Harrisburg, Dauphin county. 

On motion of A. O. Hiester it was unanimously 

Resolvedj That hereafter persons wishing to vote for officers of this society 
at the annual meetings, will be required to produce either a certificate of mem- 
bership thereof, or that their name be found of record on the Secretary's books 
kept for that purpose, and that the Secretary shall hereafter annually prepare 
an alphabetical list of the names of the members of this society, which he is 
required to arrange in a book and have present at each annual meeting. 

R. H. Kerr offered the following resolution, which w^is unanimously adopted: 

Resolvedj That the members of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society 
tender to James Gowen, their grateful thanks for his able and efficient dis- 
charge of the duties as President of this society; and that in his retirement 
from office he carries with him the best wishes and kindest regards of the 
members, collectively and individually. 

On motion of James Irvin, it was 

Resolved^ That the Secretary be required to publish the proceedings of this ^ 
meeting. 

On motion of John P. Eutherford, a vote of thanks was tendered to the 
Chairman of the meeting, for the prompt and able discharge of his duties a? 
presiding officer of the day. 

On motion the meeting adjourned. 



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AGRlCULftJRAL SOCIETT. 29 

George H. Bucher, Treasurer^ in account with the Pennsylvania State ^Agri- 
cultural Society, 

1866. 
Jan. 14. To Balance in Treadniy, M pet seCtlement' tBls d&y « $1, 423 22) 

15. Membership fee of J. Strbhni and £. W. Hamlin 2 00 

81. Life membersbfp fee of Jacob B. Garber « . 10 00 

April 16. Five life membership fees paid by James Gowen « 60 ^0 

May 10. Fonr bonds Carlisle borough, each $1,000 $4, 000 00 

Two bonds Hazleton coal company, one of $1,690, and 

one one $600, making together 2,000 00 

14. Four bondi Harrisbnrg and Lancaster railroad of $1 ,000 

each, sold at $980 8,720 00 

9,720 OO 

One l)ond Phlladelphfa cify of $1,000, sold net at 917 60 

July 8. One bond Harrisbnrg and Lancaster railroad $1,000, sold net at. • 890 00 

Interest on investments to 1st inst 60 66 

Ang. 22. Life membership fee of Alexander Young • 10 00 

Cash received for lumber sold, (fair ground) Harrisbtirg. 86 OO 

Oct 29. State appropriation for 1866 It, 000 00 

Deo. 9. Membership fee of M. Thompson, John Irwin, William Foster lind 

Robert M. Foster, (per H. N. M'AUlster) 4 00 

16. Life membership fee of Dr. A. L. Elwyn 10 00 

Cash received at Pittsburg fkir, September and October, and sale 

of membership andMngle tickets, &c • &|947 89 

Kent of restaurant to John Price 66 00 

Do to David Johnson $60 00 

Twenty-three dinner tickets deducted off. 9 20 

4080 

Part of the $2,000 promised by citizens of Pittsburg towards the 

expense of fair, collected and credited • . . . • 1, 760 00 

Part of the subscription of J. S. Espy, towards expenses of fair 

at Harrisbnrg in 1866, settled with R. 0. Walker 40 00 

Premiums paid by diplomas $4, and entering fee of Darregh and 

Brown $2 ^ 6 00 

1867. Interest on investment January 1st 80 00 

Jan. 5. Deposit of J. M. I^impson with N. Holmes & Son 10 00 



26,007 ilj 



■ The Sodety have invested one thousand dollars in bond of Harrisbnrg and Lancaster 
nAroad coin|>any, six per cent, interest, due January 1 and July 1. 



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30 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

CR. 

By Premiums awarded on field crop $20 00 

Bills for priatiog and advertising No 1 to 5, inclusive. 844 57 

Medals awarded at fair of 1855, (more than offered) No. 6 . . . • 78 00 

Bill of Conrad Bard & Son « 7..,. 996 00 

Do.. William Buehler « 8.... 300 00 

Do.. William Colder « 9..,. 66 00 

Expenses of Executive Committee, April 15 «< 10. . . . 85 00 

Postage to J. H. Brant, to March 81 "II..., 4148 

Paid to Edward C. Humes, treasurer Farmers* High School. ... «< 12..., 10,000 00 

Do..couDsel fee, Curtis vs, Pennsylvania State Agri. Society. . . << 18. . . • 25 00 

Do..Wm. J. Stee8,fbr book case in office « 14. . . . 50 00 

One year's rent of office to Mrs. Lescure to October 81 " 15tol7 100 00 

J. R. Snowden, Esq., U. S. Mint, medals for fair of 1856 " 18 . . . . 608 00 

SalaryofR. C. Walker, Secretary, one year « 1,000 00 

Do....Greorge H. Bucher, oneyear « 850 00 

Bills Adams express " 19to20 6 12$ 

E.C. WilHams, tents for Pittsburg fair « 21..., 450 00 

Allegheny County society, rent of fair ground, as per agreement, « 22 . . . , 2, 000 00 

Peter Dalhis, rent of plowing ground « 28 . . , . 12 00 

Bills of lumber from No. 24 to 82, inclusive 1,180 00 

Hard-ware, i^ails, &c.. No. 88, 84 81 86 

Thomas Lacy, blacksmith No. 85 8 56 

O. P. Shiras, General Superintendent " 86. . $147 00 

Paid by Wm. Martin « .... 44 82 



BOI of Wm. S. Haven, stationery and printing ; t . . . .No. 87 . . ,, 

R. Ander;}on, postages at Pittsburg « 88 ... . 

Expenses of business office, paid 24 persons " 89 ... • 

Paid John Price « 40. . . . 

Expense of Committee of Arrangement, &c., No. 41 to 50, inclusive 

Hay, straw and forage master. No. 51-2 

Carpenter work ^, 

N. Young's band and wagon 

Hauling, No. 57 to 64, inclusive 

Maffit,01d, and Bailiff and others, No. 65 to 79 

Bills for printing and advertising. No. 80 to 103 

Twenty-four bills paid by Wm. Martin, Sen., as chairman of Committee of 

Arrangement, in part, No. 104 

Paid Marshals Chalfant, Hall, Bissell and Murdock, No. 105-6 

Paid police, day and night, 51 persons. No. 107-8 

Paid gate-keepers, laborers, &c.. No. 109 to 129, inclusive 



102 18 


228 88 


47 79 


492 00 


224 00 


586 78 


850 81 


148 92 


180 00 


84 74i 


168 75 


478 86 


545 OOi 


24 00 


265 00 


318 48 



21,882 92| 

Amount of cash premiums awarded and paid at Pittsburg 8, 580 50 

Balance in hands of Treasurer 543 99 



26,007 41i 



Audited and approved at Harrisburg, March 16, 1857. 

A. BOYD HAMILTON, 
H. N. M'ALLISTER, 
A. R. M'lLVAINE, 

jiuditing Commutee* 



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AttlUODLTURAL SOCJIETY. 31 



LIST OP PBEMI1J3^S ij. WARDED AT TQE SIXTH ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF 
THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY AT PITTSBURG, 
1856. 

CATTLE. 
No. 1. — Short Uobns. 
To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society: 

The uadersigned appointed a Committee on Class No. 1, Short Horn Dur- 
ham. Cattle, respectfully report, that thej^ examined all the cattle entered in 
said class, and have awarded the following premiums : 
To Josiah Brinker, Westmoreland county, best Durham bull, four 

years old, first premium 6f • • ,.• $20 00 

To Wm. Reynolds, Westmoreland county, bull " Prince Albert," five 

years old, second premium of. • , , . .., •••••• 15 00 

1*0 James Kelly, Allegheny county, bull three years old and upwards, 

third premium of , .•••,••• 8 00 

To John S. Goe, Fayette county, cow three years old, first premium of, 20 00 
To James M'Kelvey, Allegheny county, cow " Diana," three years 

old, second premium of. .,., ...... , .^^ « 10 00 

To Matthew Hall, Allegheny county, cow three years old, third pre- 
mium of • .^ 6 00 

To Mrs. Harmer Denny, Pittsburg, bvill two years old, first premium of, 15 00 
To James M'Kelvey, Allegheny county, bull two years old, second 

premium of 8 00 

To Andrew Russell, Washington, Pa., bull two years old, third pre- 
mium of. ..... . 4 00 

To John S. Goe, Fayette county, bull between one and two years old, 

first premium of • ^. • 10 ^0 

To Jonathan F. Garrard, Allegheny county, bull one year old, second 

premium of . • . • • • ...•••.••. « 5 00 

To John S. Goe, Fayetta county, bull calf ten months old, first j^te- 

mium of. ^•.. ............ «.»^«^ 5 00 

To Andrew Russell, Westmoreland .co.unty^ bull .calf four tnonths 

old, second premium of. ««^.......«^«,.....^^.. «.••.•,. 3 00 

To John Su.Goe, Fayette county, heiifer. two.y^ars old, first premium 

of ^....i $10 00 

To Levi Campbell, Allegheny county, heifer two years old, second 

premium of ....«• • • • 5 00 

To John Seott, Allegheny coanty, heifer two years old, third pre- 

niua^f. , , 2 00 



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30 MNNSYLVAKIA STATE 

To Mrs. Harmer Denny, Pittsburg, heifer calf seven months old, first 

pTenritiiD of .•••...•• .••••••••.•.'••»•«»•.•.. 5 00 

To John S. 6oe, Fayette county, heifer calf ten months old, second 

premium of. . « • ...^^ ■• .«. -• 3 00 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

JOHN HilRSHEY, 
JOHN HODGSON, 
JOHN COOK^ 
JOHN THOMPSON, 
HUGH JOHNSONy 

Sommitie$^ 



No. 2. — Devons. ^ 
To the Prerideni of the Pennsylvania Siaie Agricultural Society •• 

Tour Confimittee oi^ Devon Cattle respectfully report, that no thorough bred 
Devon cattle were exhibited, and hence no awards of premiums could b^ 
made for stock of thiis bteed. Tour committee would recommend, however, 
the folio wing discretionary premiums for grade animals of Devon stock : 
To H. B. Vanvoorhies, for his glrade Devon cow, special premium of $S 00 

To Robert Woods, for his do bull. , , • • .do 5 00 

To Jonathan F. Garrard, for hit; ..do. ••...cow do 5 00 

ADRIAN CORNELL, 
in behalf of the Committee, 



No. 3. — Heeefords. 
To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

Th^ Committee appointed to report upon Hereford Cattle, make the follow- 
ing awards : 
To Thomas Aston, of Lorain county, Ohio, for best Hereford eow, 

first premium of ..• • •.•-• • • > •.^.^ • • • •.«.• » ,»».,, . « • •.•^ • • • • $20 00 

To H. B.- Vanvoorhies, of Washington county, Pa., for bull between 

two and three yetan. • . . • • .^ ... • •• • 8 00 

To same, for do.. . ..... . ... • .....^. • 6 00 

To samo) for heifer. . ♦ ...^ i ...*.. .^^ ^...^.. . . . . .^ S 00 

Which is respectfully submitted. 

JOHN WALLACE, 
JOSHUA WRIGHT, 
JAMES F. GABBT, 

CMisiiiir«e. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 33 

No. 4. — Ayrshiee. 
To the President of the Pennsylvania State •Agricultural Society : 

The undersigned Committee of Judges, appointed by the Pennsylvania 
State Agricultural Society, upon Ayrshire Cattle, for the sixth annual exhi- 
bition of said society, held at Pittsburg in 1856, make the following report : 

To David Dickson, of Mercer county, for best Ayrshire bull • , $20 00 

To H. B. Vanvoorhies, of Washington county, for best Ayrshire cow, 20 00 

To same, for best Ayrshire heifer. •..••• ••- .^^ . . 15 00 

To same, for Ayrshire bull thirteen months eld , 10 00 

Which is respectfally submitted. 

W. E. FKAZER, 
GEO. A. BAYARD, 
JAMES CAROTHERS, 

Cinnmittee, 

No. 6. — Aldeenbt. 
To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

The undersigned Committee of Judges upon Aldemey stock, at the sixth 
annual exhibition of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society at Pitts- 
burg, in 1856, make the following awards : 
To Mrs. Harmer Denny, for best Alderney cow " Lucy,'* three years 

and upwards. • • • • • • • • $20 00 

To Capt. Thomas J. Breerton, for second best Alderney cow, three 

years and upwards •••••• •••#•• ....•^ • 15 00 

To Mrs. Harmer Denny, for third best Aldemey cow " Susan," three 

years and upwards. . « . . • ... • • • • •••.••• 6 00 

To Mrs. Harmer Denny, best heifer « « .., • • , , • • • • ..•••< 15 00 

To same, for second best heifer • . • 8 00 

To same, for best Alderney bull " Nicholas," three years and up- 
wards 20 00 

To same, for bull " Davy," between one and two years • , 10 00 

To same, second best bull, between one and two years 5 00 

To H. B. Vanvoorhies, for best calf under ten months. . . • •• « 5 00 

Which is respectfully submitted. 

ROBT. M. CARLILE, 
R. L. ALLEN, 
PAUL A. WAY, 
H. G. MASSEY, 
SAML. ALEXANDER, 

Committee* 
3 



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3^ PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

No. 7. — Natives oi Grades. 
To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

The Committee^ No. 7, for examining Natives and Grades, respectfully re- 
port, that they have devoted much time and attention to the duties of- their 
appointment, and have come to the conclusion to award the following pre* 
iQiums : 

To Jas. Naley, for buJt' three years old and upwards, firet premimn of ^12 00 
To Wm. P» & J. Shaw, for bull between two ainl three years old, first 

preipium of ....•...•.....'..• - 10 00 

To Thomas Reiliy, for bull between one and two years old, second 

premium ofr. -^ ., . • . * . . .^ 6 00 

To John roung, Jr., do., second premium of. . . ^— ^ 4 00 

To Wm. Baaksj for bull calf, first premium of ^ , 3 00 

To James Valy do. . ..second premium of 1 00 

To H. B. Vanvoorhies, for cow three years old and upwards, first pre- 
mium of. 12 00 

To George D. IVPClintock, do., second premium of. 10 00 

To Robert Douglass, do., third premium of « , —^ , . , 8 00 

To Thomas Reilly, heifer between one and two years old, first pre- 

miuni of. ..... • • • 6 00 

To B^jamin Sleigh, do., second premium of , , 4 00 

To Wm. C. & J. Shaw, do., third premium of. 2 00 

Dc^ heifer calf, first premium of 3 00 

All of which we respectfully submit. 

SAMUEL GILLILANI>, 
LEVI EDMONDSON, 
HENRY KERR, 

Committee, 



^^, 8.— WORKPNG OXEX. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State •Agricultural Society : 

The undersigned having been appointed to examine and report upon VVork^ 
ing. CXxen, for the sixth annual exhibition of said society at Pittsburg, 1856, 
respectfully state, that they have carefully attended to their duty, and make 
the following award : 

To John K. Foster, for best yoke of oxen, first premium of $20 00 

ISAAC WICOFF, 
LEVI EDxMONDSON, 
W. H. TOWERS, 

Committee. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 35 

No. 9. — Fat Cattle. 
To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

The undersigned, Judges of Fat Cattle, respectfully report that they have, 
in obedience to their appointment, carefully attended to the duty as&igned 
them, and make the following award : 

To Eli Cope, of Fayette countyj Fa., for best pair fat oxen :,^-, $15 00 

ISRAEL PAINTER, 
; ^ WILLIAM METZGER, 

JOHN TOMER, 

Committee. 



No. 10. — Milch Cows. 
To the President of the Pennsylvania State Jlgricultural Society : 

The undersigned Committee, or Judges, on Milch Cows, appointed at the 
State Agricultural Society of Pennsylvania, held at Pittsburg this first day" 
of October, 1856, respectfully report, that there being only one cow entered 
for premium, " Lady of Forest Grove," by Capt. John Young, Jr., and taking 
the evidence appended, as presented, would award the premium of twenty 
dollars to Capt. John Young, Jr. 

ROBERT M. CARLILE; 
CHRISTIAN SJNIVELY, 
JOHN LOGAN, 

Committee. 

"Lady of Forest Grove." 

This cow's dam was a thorough bred short horn ; her sire was the celebrated 
Alderney bull, imported by Gen. Harmer Denny. She is between three and 
four years old ; she had a calf at the age of two years ; she had her second 
calf on the twenty-fifth day of last April. 

On the 24th of May, 1856, 1 commenced to test her qualities for milk and 
butter, and continued the trial for thirty, consecutive days, weighing the but- 
ter after dressing at each churning, which footed up at the close of the thirty 
days of trial, forty^three pounds and* one ounce, avoirdupois. About the 
twenty fifth day of trial, curiosity led me to weigh the milk sh? produced ill 
one day, which 1 found to be thirty-eight pounds. 

JOHN YOUNG, Jr. 

I certify that I milked and charned the milk produced by the above named 
cow, and that the above stdtem^nt is just and true. 

ABIGAIL B. YOUNG. 



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36 PENNSYLVAN[A STATE 

Mlegheny County, ss : 

Before me, Christian Snively, a justice of the peace in and for said county, 
personally came the above named John Toung, Jr., who being duly sworn 
according to law, did depose and say that the above statement is correct and 
trae, according to the best of his knowledge and belief. 

JOHN YOUNG, Jr. 
Sworn and subscribed the first day of October, 1856, before me. 

C. SiNIVELY. 



No. 11. — Foreign Ibiportid Cattle. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State .Agricultural Society : 

The Committee on Foreign Imported Cattle respectfully report, that there 
was but one animal exhibited, embraced within the classes assigned to this 
Committee, the imported Hereford bull <* Curley," two years old and upwards, 
owned by Thomas Aston, of Loraine county, Ohio, to whom was awarded a 

diploma and : $20 00 

WILL. A. STOKES, 
THOMAS WOODS, 
L G. UPDEGROVE, 
Committee, 



No. 12. — Herd Cattle. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society: 

The undersigned} to whom was referred the duty of examining the different 
herds of cattle on exhibition, at the sixth annual fair of said society at Pitts- 
burg, in 1856, report, that they Hward the following premiums: 
To John S. Goe, of Fayette county, Pennsylvania, for best herd of 

cattle... ..^.•.«.^^^ $50 00 

To James M'Kelvey, of Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, for second 

best. ..••....- -^ ..-.^H.- . . 30 00 

The committee viewed with pleasure the respective herds of Jonathan F. 

Garrard and John Hodgson, and also that of Mrs. Harmer Denny, all of Alle- 
gheny county. 

The herd of Mrs. Denny was not entered for premium in this class. 

JAMES SLOCDM, 
JOHN H. EWING, . 
ROBT. HAKE POWELL, 
Committu. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 37 

No. 13. — Staluons and MiJiss foe. all wosk. 

To the Prtsidmt of the Pennsylvania State .Agricultural Society: 

The undersigned Committee, Judges on No. 13, of Class No. 2, beg leave 
to make the following report, to wit : That they have awarded premiums to 
the following named persons, viz : 
To the Fayette Connty Morgan Horse company, for the best stallion, 

for all work, "Young Black Hawk". . . .^.^ . • • • • . $30 00 

To Daniel Waller, for second best, , « « •-• • « • • 15 00 

To James Floyd, for the third best « • ».^^ • • • • • • • ••• 5 00 

To William Gabby, for the best brood mare, with colt, for all work,. . 30 00 

To John Bovard, for second best. •.••••*••••'• • . *.• •.•^■. 15 00 

ToM.M'Junkin, for third best ^^ . ...,.^ 5 00 

For Heavy Draught. i 

To William Thompson, for the best stallion «• • • • 30 00 

To A. J. Stewart, for second best • 15 00 

To Joseph Stevenson, for third best • . 1 ..^ 5 00 

To James M'Kelvey, for the best lurood mare . . . ^^ • , ♦ . ...., --• 30 00 

'To Samuel Nixon, for the second best do .« « ••.•^^ 15 00 

To David M'Bride, for third best 5 00 

For Quick Draught. 

To S. B. Hays, for the best stallion, << Black Hawk Morgan'\ . . • . . 30 00 

To D. R. Galway, for second best ..^^ 15 00 

To Stephen Smith, for third best. • «.«.«.»^ 5 00 

To John Wiley, for, the best nwre ...»^ • . . • • 30 00 

Dot/\... .do. .second best 15 00 

To R. L. Allen, for the third best » • • 5 09 ^ 

For Draught, 

To Henry Lemon, for the best stallion • • • • • • • • • • « 30 00 

To O. H. M'Konar & Co., for the second best * ..^^^ . . 15 00 

To S. H. Viles, for the third best • 5 00 

To Stephed Fisher, for the best mare. , . ..-• ..•.•-• . ,.,.^. 30 00 

To James Donaldson, for the second best. •■• ...•••.••• ••• 15 00 

To Jameson Beatty, for third best ••.. / •.•.•^ 5 00 

Three Years Old. 

To John Wiley, for the best stallion « »^ 30 00 

To J. W. Forester, for second best •• • 15 00 



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38 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

To Hugh R. Logan, for the third best ••..«,••..... $5 00 

To H. D. Gill, for the best mare 30 00 

To Samuel M'Causlin, for second best • • « « » « • • • . 15 00 

To James H* M'Nawl, for third best 5 00 

TtDO Years Old. 

To Wm. Thompson^ for the best stallion.. •«• 30 QO 

To John Young, for second best. . ••. ,.*••• 1 15 00 

To.Jolbn k. Foster, for third best. *. . • . 5 00 

To James F. Gabby^, for the best mare colt ^ ••••.. • 3Q 00 

To James Gilmo^e, for second best • « • • .^ # . . . . 15 QO 

To J. Beatty, for third best., k • , ' 5 Qp 

One Year Old. 

To J. Goehring, for the best colt • . 15 00 

To Milton M'JunViQy for the second be«t 10 00 

iTp.BeterRpw, fprth^ third. beat ^^. .,.-.^. 5 00 

-Tp Henry MonipgQr, for thp best.fiUey • ♦^^-. ^ 15 00 

^p Samuel Nixon, for the second best. • • ^ • ».*^ 10 00 

Tp James Gilmpre, for the third .be^t 5 00*- 

Tour committee take great pleasure in being able to say that the exhibi- 
tion in every department of horses, was highly creditable, and in many in- 
stances the competition so close that it was difficult to discriminate, and in 
0pn|e case^ th^y may have dedded erroneously. The diaplay of two years 
pjbi.cplts, was yejy large apfl fipe, and they regret that tbe limited nuaaber 
(4 fitemiuft^s prey^nt^d them from, conferring premiami on a number of ani* 
p^}^ well worthy pf pptic^. Xpur cpmmittee would recorjniend to this «o^ 
l^ty, that.previpv^.tp tbe.pext exhibition that different grades 8h<^:ild be 
^tal>lishe^ fqr tiyp.i^nd jhr^e ypjir? oJd animals, which would give an oppor^ 
tnnity to extend the number of premiums, which they have no doubt, would 
have a salutary influence. 

Respectfully yours, ^c.^ 

JAMES IRVIN, 
G. V. LAWRENCE, 
JAMES FENLON, 
J. C. M'ALLISTER, 
T. ADAMS. 

Committee, 



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Agricultural society. ^9 

JNo. 13|. — Matched and Saddle Horses, Single Maess, jAC]^,,j£ifNiES'A^ 

Moles. 

To the President of tkt Ptfmsylvanta Si^te ^^ieultuml'Society : 

The display inthis Bepartment of the State' Society's Exhibition was un- 
usually large H&d highly creditable to the taste and enterprise of the exhibi- 
tors.* The tDmin1ttefe'ei£(rtiit»6d one hundred and seventy-eight horses; ov^'r 
twenty jacks, jemrys and muled; and from so large a collection, owing fp 
the crowd of attetvdantd and others" on the ground, it was with much diJB- 
culty that the* tommittee Were enabled to make such examination as thqy 
desired, or was due to the exhibitors. They present these awards as the re- 
sult of their judgment t 

Best pair matched horses, to Hiram CoUins • • , $30 00 - 

Second best, to John Kulp «. 15 00 

Thind best, to Samuel M'Cahen ^. -.• 5 00* 

For the best matched mares, to James G. Strain, of Washington, 

Penn'a 20 00 

Second best, to Alexander M'Gowan, Washington county, Pennsyl- 
vania 10 00 

*For the best pair of mares, to J. M. Ji, Snodgrass, of Allegheny 

county •• • *^ •..«•«. •««.»^.t 15 00 

For the best draught or farm horses, to Edward Cherry ..^ 30 00 

Second best, ta L. L. Barton «.-.^. ...•.• .15 00 

Third bftst, to fiawiiel M'Qakeo..«*. «... ^-^ 5 00 

AudiacaDe^ionarjr pieauum to.a fittd paiir efUack «tallioiiB,i€xhiiiiied . i 

' by E.G. Stewart ^.. .....^ ^;. Sa «# 

(For the bout fiufiUy faofse, tfk Joto il'Kelvy. « «: .^ . «• m^ • . • lAM 

For the ht^ iraagbt gilding, to J, U. Shoeaboi^ec.. .;..«.. .^^ .^ . « M4» 

:Seo(md best, (oJAipeiKQwau.....^. .,»«•.«•»«. ......»......»..•.•.« 7 00 

Third beat, to W. W. Martin .....*..... ..i ^.... 5^ 

For the best geMing /or the saddle, to J. G. Ckrk. ....... ,^ •« .^ . • 10 00 

jBflcandheBt, toS.P. Shriver ...».^. ...^.^ .. ...^ ......... • 700 

Third beet, to Jofaa Le«ch ^.. ...,„ 5 0# 

For the beat gelding for harness, to William K. Sterling « 10 00 

Second best, to TluMnas Fanrow ^. • 7 Od 

*Hiir4 beat, to H- B. Vanvoorhies ., • 5 OO 

For the best single mare for harnesg) Saniuel M'Kelvey 10 00 

Second best to John Danwer. , , 7 00 

Third best to P. M'Namee. .-, 5 00 

For the best aaddle mare, to Daniel Carroll 10 00 

Second best, to Thomas B. Log«n 7 00 

Thiffl beet, to L. D. Sunderland 5 00 



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40 PENNSYLVANIA STATB 

For the best pair of mares for draught, to Dayid M'Bride $15 00 

Second best, to James Gilvray • . • • • # . . . . 10 00 

Third best, to Samuel Nixon •••••^ 5 00 

For the best family mare, to David Rogers 6 00 

Second best, to A. King....,^ 5 00 

For the best Spanish jack, to William S. Duncan • • • . « 20 00 

Second best to William J.Linn ^.. « 10 00 

For the best jenny, to H. B. Vanvoorbies . . • «.•- 20 00 

For the best mule, to Hesleller & Smith. . • • • . ^.^^ • • • ••■• • • . .Silver medaL 

For the best pair mules, Joseph Stevenson .^^., ^..^ $10 00 

The committee also assign a premium to John Aitken, for a fine pair 

draught horses. ••••••• • • ..^ « •.•.«.«4 10 00 

Also, to H. H. Ryan, excellent pair grays. • • • .. ...- ^« 7 00 

JOHN H. EWING, 
WILLIAM COLDER, J»., 
A. BOYD HAMILTON, 
DAVID J. UNGER, 
JOHN S. KREPPS. 

Committee. 



No. 14. — Thorough Bred Horses. 
To the President of the Pennsylvania State Jlgricultural Society : 

The undersigned, your Committee appointed to decide on the merits of 
thorough bred Stallions and Mares, beg leave to report as follows, that we 

mward the , ^ 

'First premiom to Nelson Campbell, of Allegheny city, beet stallion, $30 00 
Second premium, to M. Darragh, of Beaver county, second best sCal- 

lion...*. .^^ >....^. ♦...••.^^.•••^.^.... «) 00 

H. B. Vanvoocbies baa a horse of fine appearance, but not exhibited on 
account of iameness, designated as ^^Sleepy John," recommended 

to favorable notice. •. • ••Diploma. 

First premium, to Capt. John Young, Jr., for best two year old stal- 
lion, recommended for a special premium DipIoi]|ia. 

Firs(t premium to John Jordan,, for best brood mare $30 00 

Secand premium to Capt. John Young, Jr., second best brood mare, 20 00 
Respectfully submitted. 

S. MILES GRERN, 
ROBERT H. PATTERSON, 
WM. J. ANDERSON, 
J. H. SHOENBERGER. 

Commimi^ 



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AGEICULTUfiAL SOCIETY. il 

No. 15. — Sbxbp and Wool. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

The Committee on Sheep, Class 3, No. 15, respectfully report, that the en- 
tries of sheep was very large and of superior quality, far exceeding any 
thing shown here on a previous occasion. After a careful examination they 
award the following premiums : 

Spanish Sheep. 

To James Slocum, best buck. • ...t^ $10 00 

To James G.,StreiD, second best.. , 6 00 

To James Slocum, beat pen of ewes •. ••«.«.•., ••• 10 00 

To James G. Strein, second best , . • • ^.^ •.• .^ •....••• • 6 00 

To George H. Crawford, best pen of lamba (foar) ^ • . . • • 10 00 

To James G. Strein, second best • • ••«•«••••»•• v^^. • • • 6 00 

Middle Woolkd. 

To Robert Hare Powell, best buck . . .-^ .^ . . • .-^ • • 10 00 

To N. Davis, second best 6 00 

To Robert Hare Powell, best pen of ewes (four) . . ,.,. ••• 10 00 

To Alfred A. Tangey, second best ., . •-•^ .- 6 00 

Do .best pen of lambs « *^- • • . 10 00 

Second best — none ofiered. 

Long Woolled. 

To Robert Hunter, best buck 10 00 

To N. Davis, second best ^ 6 00 

Do best pen of ewes (three). •••••• .^..^ . . • • 10 00 

To Thos. Aston, second best (three) v........ 6 00 

To John Hodgson, best of lambs ^^. 10 00 

Second best — ^none offered. 

Merinos. 

To Daniel Kimball, best buck 10 00 

To Gen. J. S. Goe, second best « ^n*-^^-* 6 00 

Do .beat pen of ewes (three) .•■••«« , ,. 10 00 

To Daniel Kimball* second best (three) 6 00 

To George H. Cravfofd, best pen of lambs. . .. «^ • «... • • 10 00 

To Oen. J. S. Goe> second best .,...•. .••^..t.H.^ 6 00 



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^ PENNSyLVANU STATB 



Si 



To Joshua Wright, best buck. $10 00 

To James G. Strein, second best 6 00 

Do ...,.« . best pen of ewes (three) lO 00 

To Joshua Wright, second best 6 00 

Do best pen of lambs (four) ^ ... . 10 00 

Second best — none offered. 

Cross Bred Sheep — Bred for the Wool. 

Tp Jio$hu^ Wright, .be^t b.ucV» a.crpss of Spanish and Saxony 10 ,00 

I?p......^^,^ecQOd.best do.^ .do 6 00 

Do*. .... «be8t pea of ewes (three) do 10 00 

. Do ^.second. best. ..*..... do 6 00 

. Do.*^* .^ .best pe^i «f lambs (four) do 10 00 

4Seo)0nd bestr^-^none offered « 

Cross Bred SMep — Bred for Mutton. 

To Rob't Hare Powell, best buck, a cross of Cot§waldand {^eice^ter, 10 00 

Do. ,., best pen of ewes do .,(io. ... 10 00 

Ti^e committee has seen proper to divide the cross bred sheep and grao^ 
premiums on the two families— one for wool and the other for mutton. 

GEORGE S. HAYS, 
SAMUEL J. KKEPPS, 
BERON HUNTER, 
THOMAS WOOD, 

Committee. 



JSPf JjS.rr-FoEBIGN ImPOBTED ShSEP. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State .Agricultural Society : 

Your Committee award the first premium 
To Robert Hunter, of Chippewa, Wayne county, Ohio, for Cotswold 

buck...^-. - $10 00 

And second premium to Dr. A. H. Gross, for Cotswold buck. ...... 8 00 

To Dr. A. H. Gross, of Allegheny county, first premium for three 

Cotswold ewes. ,.«.•...«...«.... •• lO 00 

To Thomas Aston, of Lorain county, Ohio, second premium* for three 

Cotswold^wes.^... ..«»-. . 8 OO 

To Daniel Kixob^U, of Rutland,. Vermont, first premium for a'French 

. hncV0 ••^^..••t 4......^ ..«« •. ......;...•.... 10-00 



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AfiRICULTUHAL SOCIETY. 43 

To John S- Goe, second premium for a French bucjf . ; •....• /t^ . 00 

To Daniel Kimball, of Rutland, Vermont, first premium on French 

Merino ewes JO 00 

Your committee also examined a lot of Shanghai sheep, belongn^g Jo Dr. 
A. H. Gross, but do not esteem them adapted to this country. 

JAMES G. STRBA^^, 
WILLIAM EBHEAET, 
JAMES EWING, 
JOHN BAIBD, 



No. 17.— tFat Shebf and Wool. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

The^ Committee on 'Fat ShjBep and Wool, award the following : 

To Eli Cope, best three fat sheep. . • ,. $6 00 

To G. W. Evans, second best fat sheep, five 5 00 

To John Hodgson, one fat sheep, third best ., 3 00 

To John M'Elvey, best three fat sheep, under two years old # . 6 00 

To James G. Strean, of Washington, Pennsylvania, best three fleeces 

of Saxony wool • 5 00 

To James G. Strean, best two fleeces of Merino wool . . • • • • . 8 00 

To Joshua Wright, of Washington county, Pennsylvania, best Shep- 
herd dog ...•.••.•.•...*-. . .^^ 3 00 

^ Which is respectfully submitted. ^ 

JOHN KICHEY, 
WILLIAM BABKJEB, 
JACOB TOMEB, 

Committee, - 



No. 18. — SwiNB. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

The Committee on Swine respectfully report, ^hat haying oarefu^ly (uam* 
^lued all the swipe e};hibited, they ^ward as folio we : « 

There being no boars over iw^ y^%rs old, they proceeded to iipxt ojfiw. , . 
To N. Davis, of W^sj Chjesf^r^ IfipX .l^^r g^^ ye£|r pld, a C^estier 

white, a paf^mium of. •• • ^. .. .•••#•# $10 OP 

To Andrew M|C]?^(Jy,. .of i^i^tsb.ivgi §cicpjt\d Me^t> bow Qne year old^ 

an Irishgr^^r,ji.pnepQiarnof. ».,•• «••.. «• $ Op 



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44 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

To Evans C. Green, of West Chester, best boar under one year and 

over six months, a Chester white, a premium of « . ...^ • . . $10 00 

To Benj. L. Wood, of Penningtonville, Chester county, second best 
boar under one year and over six months, a Chester white, a 
a premium of ^••.^•...« 5 00 

To John Hodgson, of Allegheny county, best breeding sow, one year 

and over, a Chester white, a premium of. . -...^^ • •• 10 00 

To William Duckham, of Lawrenceville, Pa., second best breeding 

sow, one year and over, a Bedford cross, a premium of * 5 00 

To Benj. L. Wood, of Penningtonville, Chester county, best sow, six 

months and under one year, a Chester white, a premium of. . . . 10 00 

To N. Davis, of West Chester, second best sow six months and under 

one year, a Chester white, a premium of , 5 00 

To Thomas Wood, of Penningtonville, Chester county, best lot of 
pigs not less than five, under six months, Chester whites, a 
premium of . . • • # • 10 00 

I^r. Wood being one of the judges, he withdrew during the examination of 
the class of pigs in which his competed, and the other judges called to their 
aid Mr. John Jones, of Lancaster county, who agreed with us in this* award. 

WILL. A. STOKES, 
L G. UPDEGKOVE. 

To James Gowen, of Mount Airy, Philadelphia county, second best 
lot of pigs not less than hve^ under six months, white Berk- 
shires, a premium of « «^ • •••.••,.••••.•• $5 00 

Snail Breeds. 

To Dr. A. H. Gross, East Liberty, Allegheny county, best boar one 

year old and upwards,^ Suffolk, a premium of. • 10 00 

To Dr. A.H. Gross, East Liberty, Allegheny county, second best boar 

one year old and upwards, Essex, a premium of ......... • . • • • '5 00 

To Dr. A. H. Gross, of East Liberty, Allegheny county, best boar six 

months old and not one year, Suffolk, a premium of 10 00 

To Capt. H. Eaton, of Pittsburg, second best boar six months old and 

not one year, Windsor, a premium of. . . • • 5 00 

To Dr. A. H. Gross, East Liberty, Allegheny county, best breeding 

sow one year andiupwards, Suffolk, a premium of 10 00 

To Edward Gilliam, second best breeding sow one year and upwards, 

Windsor, a premium of • • • . « • ••, • • . • 5 00 

To Dr. A. H. Gross, for best Suffolk sow, six months, and under one 

year, a premium of •••••.••. •«.• 10 00 

To Dr. A. H. Gross, second best Essex, a premium of. ,•••».. ,... • 5 00 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 45 

To Dr. A. H. Gross, for best lot of Suffolk pigs, (not less than ^ve,) 

and under six months, a premium of $10 00 

To Dr. A. H. Gross, second best Essex, a premium of . , , , 5 00 

There were several hogs exhibited, to whij^h your committee would hare 
been glad to award premiums, but which was forbidden by the limitations 
prescribed 5 among which maybe mentioned Edward Gilliam's large breed- 
ing sow, A. A. Tanguy's Chester County white sow, John H. Ewing's 
Cheshire and Suffolk pigs ; and of these we desire to make honorable mention. 

THOMAS WOOD, 
WILLIAM A. STOKES, 
I. G. UPDEGROVE, 

Committee. 



No. 19. — Poultry 

To the PresiderU of the Pennsylvania State •Agricultural Society : 

The undersigned Committee award the following premiums on Poultry : 

Bast Buff Shanghais, over one year, John S. Walker. « • .^ • « « $3 00 

Second best do Dr. A. H. Gross 2 00 

Best Buff Shanghais, under one year, Charles C. Cook •••••• 3 00 

Second best ^^^ do John S. Walker 2 00 

Best Grey Shanghais, over one year, Dr. A. H. Gross ••» .^ »....•• • 3 00 

Second best. • • • .do . « .^.^ none • .^ • • . . 

Best Grey Shanghais, under one year. Dr. A. H. Gross • 3 00 

Second best , .do ,••... Edward Gilliam. .••,•• • 2 00 

Best White Shanghais, old, John S. Walker 3 00 

Do. . . .do young, John S. Walker • 3 00 

Best Game fowls, old, Jonathan Dor wart 3 00 

Second. . do «.,..... do do 2 00 

Best. . ..do young.. •••. do • 3 00 

Second, .do. ...••do. .Dr. A. H. Gross 2 00 

Best Black Spanish, old, Jonathan Dorwart ......*^ • . • • • 3 00 

Do. . . .do. ....•.« .young do t..*^ ^^ .... 3 00 

Best Polands, old, E. Gilliam ..-^^ 3 00 

Second ..... .do. .C. Berringer. • • • • ...^ • • . 2 00 

Best Polands, young, C. Berringer. • • • • • •• « « •.•h. 3 00 

Second do. ..Joseph Ager ....• • 2 00 

No thorough hred Hamburgs were on exhibition. A few Silver Pencilled 
or Bolten Greys, were shown by Mr. Dorwart, but not of a quality to meet 
the approbation of the committee. 



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46' PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Best Bunties or Tailless fowls, Jonathan Dorwart • • • « $3 00 

Second. . ..do ..do C. Berringer «•.,... • ..•......,..•.• 2 00 

Best Silky fowls, Jonathan Dorwart. . . — • 3 00 

Second, .do do 2 00 

Best Frizzled fowls, C. BerringA 3 00 

Best Seabright Bantams, J. Dorwart 3 00 

Best other Bantams, Dr. A. H. Gross ..^^ 3 00 

Second, .do E. Gilliam 2 00 

No genuine Wild turkies. 

Best Domestic tnrkies, Joseph Miller, •.,...•••••••••.•..• 3 00 

Second do ...... J. liorwart 2 00 ' 

Best Hong Kong geese. Dr. A'. H. Gross 3 00 

Second . . ..... . .do J. Dorwart ...^ • 2 00 

Best Bremen geese, Dr. A. H. Gross ^^ . . , ,.,., 3 00 

Best Common geese, J. Dorwart • 3 00 

Best Wild geese. Dr. A. H. Gross. 3 00 

Best Musk ducks, J. Dorwart • 3 00 

Best Rouen ducks, E. Gilliam 3 00 

Best Aylesbury ducks, Dr. Gross 3 00 

Befet Common. • . .do. .A. Bennet. .; •..••«..,.•....••..... 3 00 

Best Polaiwl do. .John Crider 3 00 

Beit Guinea fowls, J. Dortviart 3 00' 

Second. . . ,do; ; .. .Dr. Gross ^-.-. 2 00 

Best lot of pigeons, E. C. Fraleich 5 00 

Best pair imported fowls. Dr. Gross • .Silver cup. 

Best lot of poultry, Jonathan Dorwart, Lancaster $10 00 

Largest selection of poultry, Jonathan Dorwart. 10 00 

A discretionary premium, of four dollars, is also awarded to Harvey Van- 
voorhies, for fahcy coop^. The committee, however, would recommend fill- 
ing them, hereafter, with a more reliable lot of birds. Two batches, appa- 
rently from the same cock and hen, were made to represent White Shanghais 
and White Dorkings, the former of which they resemble slightly^ the latter 
not at all. Mr. J. S. Walker exhibited a trio of long legged mongrels, as 
Grey'Dorkings, which looked like a mixture of every known blood except 
Dorking. In view of the bad weather, and other unfavorable circumstances, 
the show of poultry was quhe respectable. Mr. Dorwart's collection num- 
bered onehandred and eighty-five speclfriens. Dr. A. H. Gross, Mr. John S. 
Walker and others, also exhibited largely. 

DAVID TAGGAKT, 
CHARLES K. ENGLE, 
JAMES S. NEGLEY, 



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AGKICULTURAL SOCIETT. 4T 



No. 2D. — Ploughs. 



To the President ofths Pennsylvania Stote ^grietthtiral Society: 

The Committee on Ploughs and the Ploughing Match report that they harcf 
attended to the duties assigned them. 

The number aftd variety of ploughs were greater than at any ptevioas ex*- 
hibition, there being one hundred and fortysix entries, and the committee' 
were gratified with the marked improvement since the exhibition of 1859, in 
the style and finish- and the manner of setting them. 

The committee feel that they have a delicate duty to perform in deeiding^ 
upon the relative naerits of ploughs without an opportunity of seeing them 
tested, when to the naked eye there is so much similaiity in shape and fitish, 
and with the limited number of premiums at their disposal, many possessing' 
merit and worthy of premiums must be passed over. 

They feel gratified that the Committee oti Agricultural Implements will fol- 
low them with more extensive powers, who will do justice to all. 

They award the premiiims as follows : ; 
To J. S. Hall, of Pittsburg, for the best plough for all work, being 

plough No, 18, the first premium Silver medal. 

The superiority of this plough consists in itis convenient size and adapta^ 
tion for work in both sod and stubble, and in the mould board being neither 
ccnvex nor concave, and that the friction of the furrow slice being equalised 
from the point of the shear to the rear end of the mould-board; and in the 
depth of the furrow being regulated by. the raising and lowering of the beam 
by means of a segmental slat at the rear end of the beam, and of the hindles ' 
working on the same principle. 
To Messrs. Hall & Spear, of Pittsburg, for second best plough. No. 

10, patent iron centre plough ♦ •-. • .Bronze medal. 

The committee had difficulty in deciding as to the relative merits of this 
plough, and that to which the first pemium was awarded. 
To J* A. Speer, for third best plough, No. 17, patent iron centre with 

coulter , $5 00 

To R. Hall & Co. of Pittsburg, for No. 7, fourth best 3 00 

To J. A. Speer & Co., for best single horse plough. No. 12, patent iron 

centra, built on some principle as No. 18, two horse plough. Silver medal. 
To Hall & Speer, for second best, built on same principle as No. 10, 

two horse plough ...^^ Bronze medal. 

To Hall & Speer, first premium for best sub-soil or trench plough, 
double mould boafd, patent iron cutter and steel surface 
plough ^...^^ • . ..Silver medal. 

This was the only plough, built upon that principle, exhibited, which the 
committee regret, as they consider it correct, and the plough worthy the at* 



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iS PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

tention of agricultarists for breaking up sod — ^being an imitation of the 
Michigan plough. 

To J. A. Speer & Co., for second best sub-soil plough, No. 2 — Bronze medal. 
To J. S. Hall, first premium for best corn plough.. Silver medal. 

The mould boards of this plough are so constructed in the hinges that 
when they expand the mould boards rise behind, and when a smaller drill is 
required they drop in proportion. 
To J. A. Speer 6c Co., second premium for second best corn 

plough ..•..• • « .Bronze medal. 

To Hall Sc Speer, first premium for best side hill plough. No. 1 1 — Silver medal. 

This plough has iron beam and handles^ and is worthy of notice not only 
as a hill side, but as a level land plough. It has two shears which point in 
opposite directions i the mould boards work on hinges and can be changed 
from right to left, thus making aright or left plough. The beam which is of 
wrought iron, turns on a pivot on the centre of the cap, and is firmly secured 
by a stirrup from the beam which loops under the cap and is firmly secured 
by a rod extending from the stirrup^ to the end of the handles, thus being 
under the control of the ploughman. The draft of the beam is entirely re- 
lieved from the pivot by the stirrup. 
To J. A. Speer Sc Co., second premium for second best side hill 

plough « . ...^^ • • Bronze medal. 

The committee recommend a discretionary premium to Messrs. Hall Sc Speer 
for their beautiful sieel mould board plough, No. 4 — Diploma. 

They also recommend a discretionary premium to J. W. Gibbs, of Canton, 
Ohio, for cylinder plough — ^A Diploma. 

The committee make honorable mention of the imported Irish drill plough 
exhibited by Messrs. Hall & Speer, so constructed as with facility to take off 
either mould board, and thus make it a right or left plough, or take off both 
and use it as a sub-soil, or leave on both and expand them and use it as a 
drill plough. 

The committee also recommend a discretionary premium of a diploma for 
Grourley's patent harrow and clod breaker, exhibited by the Rev. John Wine- 
brenner of Harrisburg, being an excellent implement and one that has long 
been needed for breaking clods in limestone and stifi'clay soils. 

A. O. HIESTER, 
WM. MARTIN, Sr., 
S. PERKINS, 
ROBERT GIBSON, 
JACOB REEL, 

Committee, 



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AGSICULTUHAL SOCIETY. 

No. 20 i.— Ploughing Match. 



I 



To th% President tf the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society: 

The Committee on the Ploughing Match report that they have attended to 
their duties. 

They are gratified at being able to testify to the excellent behaviour of the 
large crowd of spectators, and the perfect order upon |he ground ; and although 
comparisons are sometimes declared odious, the improvement in this particu- 
lar was so marked, that we feel constrained to notice it. 

There were twelve entries, and the committee are unanimous in saying 
they have never seen better ploughing. 

It was the wish of the committee to have tested the draught of the plougha' 
with a denominator. One of peculiar construction, and the committee thipjk. 
well adapted to the purpose, was upon the ground, after the close of the 
match, but want of time prevented, the hour for the presentation of the 
reports having^rrived before we closed our labors. 

We award to William Stephenson, of West Manchester, Allegheny county, 
Pennsylvania, the first premium of $15, for best ploughman^ (with J. S. Hall's 
plough. No. 18.) It is perhaps due to Mr. Martin, one of the committee, to 
say, that as Mr. Stephenson is his workman, that he did not interfere in the 
disposition of this premium. 
John Sleigh, of Sharpsburg, Allegheny county, Pa., (^ith plough, 

No. 17, J. A. Speer,) the second premium of $10 J 

To Martin Cleven, of Robinson township, Allegheny county, (Hall & 

Speer's plough, No. 4, left hand,) the third premium of 5 00 

vTo James Brown, of Upper St. Clair township, Allegheny county, 

(Hall & Speer's plough, No. 10,) the fourth premium of 3 00 

To Alexander Wichell, boy of thirteen years old, of Indiana township, 
Allegheny county, (Hall & Speer's plough. No. 5,) first pre- 
mium for boys, of •.......• IQ 00 

To Martin Grubb, of M'Candless township, Allegheny county, Pa., 

(Hall & Speer's plough, No. 5,) second premium cf 8 00 

The steel plough, No. 14, manufactured by J. A. Speer & Co., was tried 
after the close of the match, and the committee were much pleased with the 
work of the plough, the easy management of it, and the lightness of draught* 

The Excelsior steel sod plough, manufactured by Hall ds Speer, was also 
tested by the committee, and did its work well. 

The committee recommend a special preraiom of a silver medal to Jona- 
than F. Garrard^ who ploughed with Speer & Hall's deep tiller, (double 
mould-board,) which, from the difllerence in principle from all the other 
ploughs tried, was not in competition, he having evidenced great skill in the 
management of the plough. The committee also bear their unanimous testis 



4 



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mony to the excellence of the work done by the plough, bringiDg up the fliib^ 

soil and thorougly pulverizing it. 

A. O. UI£»T£R, 
WM.MAKTIN,Se».. 
S. PERKINS, 
BOBEfiT GIBSON, 
JACOB REEL, 

Committer* 



HARBOWt AND Ha&K0WIN6« 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

The undersigned having been appointed to decide on Harrows and Harrow* 
ing, beg leave to report that they have performed that duty, and give a pre- 
mium of a silver medal for the best harrow and harrowing to K. Hall & Co.^ 
of Pittsburg, for their double square hinged barrow. 

The second premium of a bronze medal to Kev. John Winebrenner, of 
Harrisburg^ for Gourley's patent harrow and clod crusher. 

The third premium of three dollars to J. F. Garrard, for one pair of har- 
rows and harrowing. 

Respectfully, 

J.P.RUTHERFORD, 
WM. G. HAWKINS, 
I. G. UPDEGROVE, 

Committee. ^ 



No. 21.— HoiLLERS, CULTIVATORS, Grain Dkills, Plahtsrs and Sowsrs. 

To the President of thelPennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

Your Committee on Rollers, Cultirators, Grain Drills, Planters and i^wett, 
repectfuUy report, that having carefully examined all the implements on ex- 
hibition, under the above head, award as follows : 

For the best cultivator for general purposes, to Messrs. R. Hall 6c Co., 

of Pittsburg • Silver medal. 

For the second best cultivator for general purposes, to Messrs. Hall . 

'& Spear, of Pittslnirg. , • • Bronze medal. 

For the best corn cultivator, to R. Hall ic Co., Pittsburg Silver med«l. 

For the qeoond best corn cultivator, to Hall & Spear, Pittsburg, Bronze oaedaL 

For the best corn harrow, to J. A. Spear, Ss Co., Pittsburg.. . Bronze n^al. 

For best horse oorn planter, to Gr«orge M« Ev^ns, Pittsburg. . . Silver medak 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 51 

This is a new implement, and the only one on exhibition. In our jud|^ 
ment, it is a good one. 
For the best hand corn planter, to S. L. Dumey, of Penning- 

tonville t Stiver medal. 

For the best grain drill, to Hunt's patent, exhibited by Messrs. t 

A. K. & G. K. Bowers & Co., of j^ancaster . • . «• t • « « t.*^ Silver medd. 
For seeond best grain drill, to M. M. Faxon, of M'Veytown, Bronze medal « 

Broad-cast sowers, James Wardrop, and Messrs. Holmes & Collins, tAth ex- 
hibit specimens of Wells^s patent. We take pleasure in recommending them 
to the farming public, as a superior and very useful implement, but do ttOI 
think ourselves justified awarding premiums, Dot having been exhibited by thm 
manufacturer. 

JOHN FL£MING, 
D. CORNELIUS, 
;JH. N, M'ALLISTEB, 
^UMES KELLY, Jb., 

Committer. 



No. 22. Wagons, Carts, Rig<hhgs, Hand Cabs and Babbows. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

The undersigned Committee would respectfully report, on Class No. 22, 
that they have awarded the following premiums : 

To Joseph Fisher, of Allegheny city, for best farm wagon.* • «m Silver medal. 

To Robert Gray, of Turtle Creek, second best- . . .do $5 00 

To Henry Ingram, of Pittsburg, best hay rigging .^ . .-.^- .... 10 00 

Mr. F. Aeschleman has on exhibition one pair of large timber wheels, and 
one sugar cane wagon ; also, one iron wagon. These articles are of superior 
woricmanship, and we would recommend a special preitiium to Mr. A. for 
each of the above articles, as they are not named on the list of premiumr*^^ 
Diploma to each. 

ALEXANDER SPEBR, 
EDWARD INGRAM, 
JONATHAN SAMPSON, 
Committee* 



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52 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

No. 23. — Fanning Mills, Separators, Threshing Machines, Hay, Stra#, 
Stalk and Vegetable Cutters. 

. To the Prtitdent of the Pennsylvania Statt Jlgricultural Society : 

The uDdersigned Committee on Class No. 23, consisting of Threshing 
■ Machines, Fanning Milk, Hay, Straw? Stalk and Vegetable Cutters, submit 
. the following report : 

•To Emery, Brothers, of Albany, N. Y., for the best thresher and 

cleaner. •«•• •••..••.•'.... .Silver medal. 

> To Wardrop, Stout k Williams, for second best thresher Bronze medal. 

' To Emery, Brothers, Albany, N. Y., for the best separator and win- 
nower • Silver medal. 

To Bolleman & Ganison, Pittsburg, second best separator and win^- 

nower. . • • • • « # Bronze medal. 

To James Wardrop, Pittsburg, for best (anning ipill, (Reeler's 

patent.) . . . • • Silver medal. 

To J. J. Noss, Beaver county, for second best fanning mill. . . .Bronze medal. 
To J. S. Shipler, Beaver county, for the best hay, straw and stalk « 

cutter Silver medal. 

To Holmes & Collins, Pittsburg, for second best hay, straw and stalk 

cutter. . • , • Bronze medal. 

To James Wardrep, Pittsburg, for the best corn stalk cutter. . . .Silver medal. 
To James Wardrop, Pittsburg, for second best corn stalk cutter, (Pro- 
peller) ....»,.♦■< • Bronze medal . 

To James Wardrop, Pittsburg, for best vegetable cutter. . . • • • .Silver medal. 
.To Holmes 6c Colljns, Pittsburg, for second best vegetable cutter,Bronze medal. 

To James Wardrop, Pittsburg, for best hand grain mill Silver medal. 

To Holn^es & Colljns, Pittsburg, for second best hand grain mill, Bronze medal. 

To James Wardrop, Pittsburg, best sausage cutters Silver medal. 

To James Wardrop, Pittsburpr, second best sausage cutters. . . .Bronze medal. 
To James Wardrop, Pittsburg, for best sausage stufier. ....••• .Silver medal. 
.To James Wardrop, Pittsburg, second best sausage stufier. . . .Bronze medal. 
To C. W. Carroll, Pittsburg, the committee recommend a premium for 

a four horse threshing machine and power combined, of a. . .Diploma. 

P. B. SAVEKY, 
J. M. BRADENj 
J.H.WATSON, 
H. CALKINS, 
JAS. PATTON, 

Committee 



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AORICULTUHAL SOCIETT. 93 

No. 24. — Corn Shellees and Crushees. 

To the Presideni of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

The undersigned Committee on Class 24>, consisting of <<Corn Sbeirers^' and 
^^Cob Crushers," submit the following report: 
To R. D. Granger, Philadelphia, for best one horse power Magic corn 

.cob mill ,. . .^Silver medal. 

To James Wardrop, Pittsburg, Little Giant corn cob crusher. . .Bronze medal. 
To H. £. Smith, Philadelphia, for best horse power corn sheller. Silver medal. 
To James Wardrop, Pittsburg, for second best horse power corn 

sheller, Reading mill «»...«.«-• • • . .Bronze medal. 

To J. P. Smith, Hummelstown, Pa., for best hand power patent corn 

sheller .Silver medal. 

To James Wardrop, Pittsburg, for second best corn sheller, hand 

power. Bronze medal. 

To Ebenezer Robinson, Green Castle, Franklin county, your com- 
mittee would also recommend a special premium, for corn shel- 
ler and vegetable grinder combined, of a ^.Diploma. 

P. B. SAVERY, 
J. H. WATSON, 
r H. CALKINS, 

J. M. BRADEN, 
JAS. PATTOxV, 

Committee. 



No. 25. — Reahng and Mowing Machines, Hohse Powees and Ibiplbments. ' 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Jlgricvltwral Society : 

The undersigned Committee on No. 25, Reaping and Mowing Machines,- 
Horse Powers and Implements, make the following awards: 
For the best reaper, which combines with it a raker, the first pre- 

mium to James Patton, for Atkin's reaper • « Silver medal.' 

For the best combined reaper and mower, the Chautauque Compa- 
ny, for Manny's combined reaper and mower, the first pre- 
mium •-• Silver medal. 

For the best single mowing machine, the first premium to E. Ball, Silver medal.* 
For the best portable cider mill, the first premium to Wm. O. 

Hickok « Silver medal. 

For the second best portable^ cider mill, second premium to James 

Wardrop, for Grouse's portable cider mill Bronze medal. 

For the best railroad horse power, to Emory k Brothers Silver medal. 



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5* WSmwrLVAIflA STATE 

For the second best do., Wardrop, Stout 6c Williams « • Bronze medal* 

For the best washing machine, to Cole & Walton $5 00 

For the second best, do., to Andrew Ralston ^ 3 00 

For the best hay and cattle scales to LiFingston, Copeland &; Co.. . Silver medal. 
For the machine for gathering, threshing and cleansing clover seed, 

your committee recommend a premium to M. S. Kahle, of^, « . . $10 OQ 
For A steam furnace exhibited, your committee recommend a pre- 

n)ium of the second class to Scott 6c Hedges . ^ Bronze medal* 

jPor a double self actings pump, the first premium is awarded to Kun- 

yan& Holster Silver medal' 

Your committee recommend a premium to G. W. Betson, for his por- 
table self-supporting fence , , . . $5 00 

For best and most numerous collection of agricultural implements to 

James Wardrop, a diploma and ,. 25 00 

Your committee desire to say that the reapers and mowers exhibited, re- 
quire a more special notice. Atkin's combined reaper, raker and mower is 
not manufactured in a manner which the ingenuity of the machine entitles it 
to f on the contrary, the work is so badly done, and the materials so inferior, 
that whilst we heartily commend it. as a near approach to excellence, in point 
of design and mechanical plan, we could hai|e no assurance that a machine 
80 badly made will continue to work well, beside we are impressed with tly 
idea that it requires an improvement in another particular. The rake should 
be made to work faster, that it m»y be enabled to take off very heavy grain, 
whi^ we think it will not now do. 

Manny's reaper and mower is an excellent implement, mechanically well 
constructed, and diflers from Atkin's in this, that it does not cut so wide a 
Bwath, and the grain most be taken from the platform, with a fork, requiring 
the labor of a man, who stands in a position in which he does not exert his 
strength advantageously to himself. We speak of these two machines with 
a^me ptaetieal experience with both. 

With regard to <' Ball's patent mower," no one member of the committee 
has any practical knowledge of it. But judging from our experience with 
other like ipachines, we cannot doubt that this one will do its work in a 
Boperior manner. The construction of the mowing beam, by which it adapts 
itself to the surface of the ground, and that the lateral draft is almost en* 
tirely obviated by the fact that the machine is operated by two driving wheels, 
renders thin^ in our judgment, a most superior implement. 

FRED'K WATTS, 
ELIAS BAKES, 
JOHN M'FARLANDj 
JAMES £. M'QAB«, 



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ASfKKOiTUfiJLL SOCaSIT* W 



No. 25. — Machinery. 

To iht Pfisichnt of the Pennsylvania StaU ^Agricv/lural Svcieij : 

The uftdersigned, members ef Geiuiiiittee, No. d6, oa Machtnefyi itfi^peet^ 
Mljr fubmk the foUowing report : 

To Messi^.' Cridge, Wadsworth & Go., for the best portable steam 

engine, we award the first premium of a diploma and $20 00 

To Mr. Hugh Wightmari, for the decOitd best portable stfcftta engine, 

we award a • • . Bronze ihedal. 

To Mr. W. W. Wallace, for the best portable grist mill, we atvard a 

diploma atid........ |20 06 

To Alexander Rafsto^, for the be^t machinery for diurning, adapted 

to dog power, we award a Silver medal. 

To Mr. R. J.King, for the best shingle machine, We award a.^. ..Silver medal. 

To D. Drawbach, for the second best shingle machine, a Bronze medal. 

To Mr. James Wardrop, for a portable saw tnill, we awdrd a Diploma. 

Mr. A. S. Gopeiand exhibits a very ingenious model of a portable steam 
saw mill, which embodies a number of novel contrivances. We have awarded 
to him a diploma. 

The steam fire engine of Mr. J. L. Lowrie, deserves especial notice. It is 
a production highly creditable to its ingetiioud maker, as a machine of great 
public utility and as a specimen of strong, simple and efficient consttuctioli* 
The committee have awarded to him a silver medaK 

GILLI\HD DOCK, 
J. S. HALL, 
BENJ. ESHELMAN, 

Committu, 



No. 27. — Farm and SIomestio Tools* 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society :' 

The Committee on Farm and Domestic Tools make the following awards^ 
with the remark that they have not seen any thing superior in the workmkh- 
ship, and nothing new in iaventioii in the spechnens brought to their notice. 
We make the following awards : 

P Savery & Co., Philadelphki, for m display of enamelled {iaa* fM 

preserving cream, ^e. . • . •-.>•.• »•.#••«•••,««% « t^ •«•»•• Bi\t€t medal. 
Several ehuni» were brought to our fiotiee^ none of thenl iist iftiff^ attkles 



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»6 . nsumhYAXiA vtMta 

J. S. Shipler, Betyer county, Clement's churn Bfonxe medal. 

J. F. Garrard, Allegheny county ,[ barrel revolving churn. • • • Diploma. 

James Wardrop, Pittsburg, thermometer churn Diploma. 

Wm. Mann 6c Co., Lewistown, fine axes «... .Diploma. 

Hohafls dc Co.) Pittsburg, axes. •••••••• * « . « .^^ • » • .Diploma. 

John Bl'C-owin, Darlington, rotary churn. . « • • • . .Diploma. 

H. Cadwalader, East Fairfield, Ohio, very fine brooms ^..Diploma. 

Brozser & Keiver, Middletown, Pa., useful and improved horse 

rake «h Silver medal. 

Bobert Staley, Kittanning, set of horse shoes Diploma. 

W. S. Jackson, Pittsburg, set horse shoes, superior article. • « .Bronse medal. 

T* Montgomery, Kittanning, grain cradle. • • .^-t Diploma. 

Wm. Rowan, Darlington • .do. • •• .Diploma. 

Charles Sloan, Tyrone, Pa., sausage cutter .Diploma. 

A. Megown, Findleyville, Pa., patent cast steel grass scythes Diploma. 

T. W. Shaw, Etna, Pa., sickles • .^ • • Bronze medal. 

KatOBi Bailey 6c Co., display of buckets and tubs Silver medal. 

Cole 6c Walton, New Brighton, cooperwork, buckets, tubs and wash 

boards , • Bronze medal. 

D. L. Ziegler, New Castle, double and single trees .Diploma. 

Holmes 6c Collins, dairy and farm implements. • • •..••••• .Diploma. 

There was not a single shovel or spade, fork or rake, hoe or basket, flour 

barrel or utensils for the kitchen exhibited. This in the midst of the most 

.active manufacturing popnUition in the country, does not do justice to its 

producing capabilitieSi and is not the sort of publicity Pittsburg should give 

the world of ils enterprise in the manufacture of farm and domestic tools. 

A. BOYD HAMILTON, 
EDWAKD GREGG, 
ROBERT LYTLE, 

CommitUe, 

\ 



No. 28. — ^Pittsburg MANUFACTuaBs. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State •Agricultural Society : 

The undersigned Committee on Class 28^ Pittsburg Mannfaeturea, reapeot-^ 
fully submit the following report of their awards : 

To J. Mathews 6c Co., Pittsburg, for variety^ of common washing and 

family 8oap0«...«.....«».»^^ .•..••^. . .. «..^^^ •••«#.. ... Diploma. 

To £. Bovme, Plttahucgi for handsome display of plumbing and hy* 

draulics •••••. • •«• • . • .Silver medal 



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AJ9IU0ULTURAL fSOCiETY. 57 

To B. CX Ic T. H. Sawyer, Fitttubarg, for assortment of soape and 

candles ^.. ««•••• «.«•«.....• i. * •««• • .Silver medal. 

To Payne, Bisseli & Co», Piitsburg, for display of stoves, rangiea, gnrates 

and fenders • ^ ^•••-tSilver medal. 

To E. Daily, Pittsburg, for display of hosiery • • .Silver medal. 

To T. Wilson & Co., New Brighton, Beaver county, three smith bel- 
lows 4 Bronze medal. 

To A. A. Mason k Co., Pittsburg, for display of ladies' silk bonnets, 

cloaks, &c Silver medal. 

To H. H. Ryan, Pittsburg, for display of cabinet furniture Silver medal. 

To Shorten & Brother, Pittsburg, for display of leather trunks, fine 

articles • . Silver medal. 

To Wardrop, Stoat &; Williams, Pittsburg, for display of agriei||tural 

machines, Pittsburg manufacture f. Silver medal. 

To A. M'Tight, Pittsburg, for display of cloaks and mantillas. {Bronze medal. 

To Mitcbel, Herron k Co., Pittsburg, for display of cooking ianges, 

grate fronts and fenders • • .^ • .... « Bronze medal. 

To Samuel Kennedy, Allegheny city, for display of children's car- 
riages and parlor seats Diploma. 

To Cole& Walton, New Brighton, display of tubs, buckets, &c.. Silver medal. 

To K. Hall & Co., Pittsburg, for display of ploughs, cultivators, har- 
rows, &c. « • • .Bronze medal* 

To J. A. Speer & Co., Pittsburg, for display of ploughs*..,.. Bronze medal. 

To James R. Reed & Co., Pittsburg, engineering and surveying instru- 
ments, fine display •^^. •••■•^. . ..Silver medal* 

To W. &; D. Rinehart, Pittsburg, case of manufactured tobacco, Brohze medal* 

To Josiah Ells, Pittsburg, one case patent revolving pistols, . . .Silver medal. 

To G. P. Wertz, Pittsburg, Grecian and Venitian blinds Bronze medal. 

To A. Fulton, Pittsburg, for display of bells Silver medal. 

To Holmes &; Co., Pittsburg, for display of axes, adzes, hatchets, 

&c. ..Silver medals 

To Hall & Speer, for display of ploughs .^ .Silver medal. 

To Jesse Spencer 6c William Smith, Pittsburg, sample of wrought 

and horse nails Bronze medal. 

To A. Mitsch, Allegheny city, sample of small files • . .Bronze medal. 

To A. Mitsch, Allegheny city, recut files Diploma. 

To Poor 6c Reed, Pittsburg, sample of nail kegs Diploma. 

To Singer, Hartman 6c Co., Pittsburg, fine display of vices, axels, 

sheer cast steel, &c . . • • .Silver medal. 

To Wm. B. Scaife, Pittsburg, for display of Francis's life boats, life 
preservers, hair felt, cooking staves, globe furnace, refrigera- 
tors, water coolers, portable forges, self sealing cans, 6cc, .Silver medal. 



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58 PENTVSYLVANU STTATB 

To LivingfltoB, Copeknd ic Co., Pitmburg, for dispUy of locks, lateh- 

€8, platforin and counter scales. ••.....«..••••.• Silver meda . 

To Wood, Morefaead k Co., Pittsburg, for superior samples of gaivan* 

ized sheet iron, and imitation Russia sheet iron. Silver medal & Diploma. 
To Cridge, Wadswerth & Co., Pittsburg, for display of oscillating 

steam engines*. ««^. « Silver medal. 

T# John England, Pittsburg, for display of files » Silver medal. 

To George Weyman, Pittsburg, for case of cigars , .Diploma. 

To P. A. Heisley, Pittsburg, for grading machine Bronze medal. 

To Gborge W. Uubley, Pittsburg, for display of block-tin ware and 

bird cages Bronze medal. 

. HENRY GILBERT, 

\ SAMUEL WALKER, 

\ C. M. REED, 

J JOHN HALL, 

^ ROBERT M. CARLILE, 

Committtt 



No. 29. — Leather and its Manufactures. 

To the President of the Pennsyhania State Agricultural Society: 

The undersigned appointed on Committee, No. 29, Leather and its Manu- 
factures, respectfully submit the following awards : 

To Stevenson &; Thompson, Pittsburg, for shoe polish, first premium, Diploma* 

To M. Delange, Pittsburg, for display of finished leather Diploma* 

To W. M. Davis, Allegheny city, for Alligator boots. . • .Diploma* 

To William Blair, Washington, Pa., for best single harness. • • .Silver medal* 
To Isaac Walker^ Heimersburg, Clarion county, second best single 

harness, . ^..^ .Ti • * • Bronze medal. 

To John South, Allegheny city, for one hide enamelled leather,. .. .Diploma* 

To George S. Adler, Philadelphia, for display of morocco Diploma* 

To John W. Sim & Co., Pittsburg, for best wagon whips $5 00 

To John W. bim Be Co., Pittsburg, for best stage lashes, carriage and 

riding whips, each a. • ••• .•• ••« Diploma. 

To Sanmei Keys, Pittsburg, for case of ladies' shoes Silver medal* 

THOMAS SAMPLE, 
CONRAD HEEL, 

Committee, 



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A0KK3CiLTU«AL SOdETT. S» 

No. 30. — Dairy, Sugxr and Honey. 

To i&€ Prmdmt of the Pet^Mylvania State jSgricultural Soeiety : 

The undersigtied, to whom was assigned the duty of examining and re- 
porting on the various products of the Dairy, Sugar and Honey, exhibited at 
the present fair, for premiums, respectfully report : That they have examined 
the several articles presented, with as much care and attention, as time and 
circumstances would admit, and that they have awarded the following pre- 

Best lot of butter made in thirty consecutive days, from five cows, 

ten pounds exhibited, first premium, Mrs. Job Hayes, a. . Silver cream pot. 

Second premium, Mrs. Mary H. Wilson ; Salver cop. 

Best lot made in 1856, twenty pounds exhibited, first premium, Mrs. 

Mary M'Gullough ^Silver goblet. 

Second premium, Miss Jane M. Wilson Silver cop. 

Best lot of ten pound made at any time, first premium. Miss Phcebe 

Clark Silver goblet* 

Second best, do., second premium^ Mrs. Mary M'Cauly,.. Silver cup. 

Best firkin qC butter, first premium, Mrs. J. F. Garrard.. . . •* • .Silver goblet. 

Second best.'. • .do., .second premium. Miss Jane H. Wilson Silver cup. 

Best lot of butter by girls under twenty-one years of age, first pre- 
mium, Frances L. Garrard. Silver goblet. 

Second best, do., second premium, Harriet Mary Hayes Silver cnp. 

Best lot of five pound, do., first premium, Miss Rachel E. Gar- 
rard. • , Silver teaspoons. 

Second best, second premium, Miss Lizzie P. Simpson, Silver butter knives. 
The committee beg leave to recommend diplomas, or other complimentary 

notice to the articles in this division, presented by Misses Anna H. Young, 

Eleanor M^Cormick, Mary Torrence and Kate Cope, as exhibiting a degree 

of skill and care worthy of more than honorable mention. 

Salt. 

Best barrel for dairy, first premium, Kipp, Lockhart & Co $3 00 

Do., .'.do. .packing ..-•^^ do. do do 2 00 

N. B. — Another barrel of superior dairy salt was on the ground, but not 

being found in the list, your committee hesitated in awarding a premium in 

this case. There was no other competition. 

Cheese. 

Beit cheese, one year okt, first premium, Mrs. Job Hayes Silver medal. 

Beet cheese, less tkan one year old, first premium. Miss Hannah 

Mary Haye»« ^.^^ «-•.•••••»» .Silver »eia!. 



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60 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Best Dairy from any county, three cheese, first premium) Job Hayes, 

of Chester county. . « ^^ $2 00 

N. 6. — The cheese exhibited as over one year old did not weigh fifty 
pounds, as required by the published list, but as there was no competition, 
and the cheese exhibited had unquestioned merit, your committee recommend 
the premiums in this case. 

H<mty. 

Best ten pound honey, first premium, W. C. Harbeson & Bro's $5 00 

Second premium, R. J.Cooke ^.t . .• .•«•*•• •• 3 00^ 

Third. . . .do Dr. S. Jones 2 00 

Best fire pounds, first premium, Thonuis Thornley • • . • 5 00. 

Second premium, P. J. Mahan •••«••... # 3 00 

N. B.— Bee hives were presented by Messrs. Mahan and Thornley, respec- 
tively, that seemed to demand further notice and examination than your com*. 
mittee had time to give, but from the hasty examination bestowed on them,' 
are of the opinion they possessed considerable merit. 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. WAUGH, 
J. P. RUTHERFORD, 
CommittM. 

The following are the certificates furnished by exhibitors, to the foregoing 
committee. 

October 1, 1856. 

We, the undersigned, do hereby certify that we assistd in milking five cowa 
of the dairy of Job Hayes, Chester county, for thirty consecutive days, and 
that they produced one hundred and eighty-eightand a half pounds of butter, 
and that they had their calves in May and June, on grass, no extra feed. 

J. R. HAYES, 
E. D. BROWN. 

Sarah S. Hayeses receipt for making Butter. 

When the milk is drawn from the cows, it is placed in pans and let stand 
thirty-six hours, then churned twice a week; it is then worked and saked 
with good dairy salt, with about half an ounce to the pound. 

SARAH S. HAYES. 

Job Hayes and family^ 8 receipt for making Cheese. 

When the milk is drawn from the cows, it is put in a tub and about balf a 
pint of rennet added to twenty gallons milk, let stand until it curds, then 
broken up fine and salted to please the taste, nnd pressei in a lever- press 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 61 

forty-eight hoars with a. pressure of about six hundred weight pressure. The 
rennet is prepared by steeping one rennet in a gallon of water with a sufficient 
quantity of salt to preserve it. Dairy consists of twenty-five cows. 

JOB HAYES. 

We, the undersigned, certify that this crook of butter is a sample of one 
hundred and sixty-one pounds, six ounces, made of five cows in thirty con- 
secutive days, commencing in the latter part of May, 1856, and ending in 
June. 

We also certify that four of the cows above referred to, calved in the month 
of January last, and the fifth in the month of April. 
Given under bur hands and seals. 

JOHN YOUNG, Jr., [l. s.] 
A. H. YOUNG, [L. s.] 
A. B. YOUNG, [L.S.] 
FoRBST Grove, September 29, 1856. 

HbMFHILL, KEAE GRESIfSBURO, > 

Westmoreland county^ Sept. 29, 1856. \ 

I do hereby certify that the ten pounds of butter exhibited by my daughter 
.Kate, are a part of the product of three cows, (the milk being drawn from 
.them by my daughters, one pf whom is only nine years of age,) within six 
days of the past week. The cows are all grade Durhams, and belong to me. 

F. J. COPE. 

I certify that I assisted in milking the above cows, and making the above 
lot of ten pounds of butter. 

KATE E. COPE. 

Sharpsburg, September 30, 1856. 

We do hereby certify, that our five cows, viz: Dairymaid, Lily, Laura, 
Rosa and Jessamine, yielded seventy-seven pounds and foiigqunces of butter 
in thirty consecutive days, commencing August 30th, and ending September 
28. Ten pounds of which we here exhibit. 

It is necessary here to remark, that four of the above cows^iave been in 
profit since early in the spring, and our grass through the dryness of the sea- 
son has been very poor. The milk was skimmed after standing twenty-four 
hours, and the cream churned while perfectly sweet. 

(Signed) E. C. GARRARD, 

JON'A F. GARRARD, 
T. REILLY. 



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M PENKSYLVANU STATE 

Proeue ef abiaining Hcmeg. 

We use Week's hive, improved by a mode of access to the main body of 
the hire, so as to investigate if any thing is deficient, and to correct. The 
hive contains a chamber above, to which the bees have free access through 
apertures for that purpose, over which we place drawers or boxes, or jars as 
the apiarian wishes. When full we removo them to a distance, turn them 
bottom upward, when in a few hours the bees will leave them and return to 
the hive, thus obviating the necessity of destroying any portion of the bees. 
We usually place two drawers, or four jars in each chamber at one time. 
Very respectfully, 

W. C. HARBISON & BRO., 

Shenango^ Lawrence co,^ Pa' 



No. 31. — Flour and Corn Meal. 
To the Pretidem of the Pmmyhania State ^gricukural Society : 

The Committee, No. 31, beg leave to report as follows : 
For best barrel flour, to W. C. & J. Shaw, of Pine Creek, Allegheny- 
county, a Silver medal. 

For second best, to James Raney, of Lawrence county, a. . • • . .Bronze medal. 

For third best, to George Brenard, of Turtle Creek . . .^^ $3 00 

For best barrel corn meal, to James Raney, of Lawrence county, a Silver medal- 
For best corn farina, to Mrs. Jonathan F. Garrard, of Allegheny 

county , $2 00 

For best smut machine, to Jacob Benner, of Allegheny county, a. .Silver medal. 
The committee take great pleasure in recommending this smut machine 
as the best that has ever come under their notice. 

ROBERT LYTLE, 
WM. S. MELLIXGER, 
DUTTON SHANNON, 
GEO. W. ALLEN, 
CHARLES PORTER, 

Committee, 



No. 32. — Grain and Seeds. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

Tour Committee on Grain and Seeds, beg leave to report that they found 
on exhibition, samples of very fine wheat entered for premiums by Capt. 
John Young, Jr., Joseph Miller, James Neeley, Robert Wilson, William 



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A^WCIILTOBAL SOCIETY. M 

Smith, A. A. Tanguy, Jonathani F. Qgrrard and William Nicholson, whieh 
we found very hard to decide on, hut have seen fit to award premiums as 
follows : 

WAUe Wheat. 

First premium, Capt. John Toung, Jr., » $3 00 

Second. ..do. ..James Neeley • «. 1 09 

Mediitrranean Wkeai. 

First premium, Robert Wilson ^ 3 Of 

Second. ..do.. .Joseph Miller 1 00 

Red Wheat. 

First premium, Wm. Smith, (no competition). •. .^^ 3 00 

Rye. 

First premium, Robert Wilson • 3 00 

Seoood. ..do. ..Andrew Russell.. ••• 1 00 

Oats. 

First premium, L. M. C. Larimer • 3 QO 

Second. ..do.. .David Geesler • 1 00 

Gourd Seed Corn. 

First premium, Joseph Miller 3 00 

Second, .do. ..John Gormley •...»••.• •«•....• 1 00 

Mixed Com. 

First premium, Wm. Martin.. ..^^ •••••# 3 00 

Second. ..do.. .Alex. Negley , ^..-.^.^ . . 1 00 

Spring Barley. 

First premium, Andrew Russell, (no competition) .•••«.. 3 00 

Timothy Seed. 

First premium, R. G. Cook. .♦ . ^ .^.^-^ . • • • 3 00 

Second. ..do. ..Andrew Russel. 1 00 

Irish Potatoes. 

Firsit premium, John Gormley*. . . . . • • • . . • • 3 00 

Seoond. .Zo». .Robert Gnmrniiigr, .,., <..««.^ • 1 00 



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64 PENNSYLVANIA STATB 

Sweet Potatoes. 

First premium, Robert Philips • $3 00 

Second, .do. ..Robert Cummings. • 1 00 

Sugar Beet. 

First premium, Jonathan F. Garrard •••••• •••%.••< 3 00 

Second, .do . James Jackson ,. ... 1 00 

Superior French Sugar Beet. 

First premium, Jonathan F. Garrard ••..•• 3 00 

Carrots. 

First premium, Robert Cummings, (no competition) 3 00 

Parsnips. 

First premium, Robert Cummings, (no competition) 3 00 

We found several, samples of superior corn, but all of last year's crop, 
which we did not admit in competition with this year's crop. This we sub- 
mit as our report. 

J.P.BROWN, 
JACOB WISH, 
A. M, WORK, 
GEORGE BRENNER, 

Committee. 

P. S. — Your committee also find a fine sample of peach blossom potatoes, 
entered by Robert Cummings ; also, a sample of pink eye potatoes, entered 
by Robert Philips, which we think worthy of a creditable notice. 



No. 33. — Vegetablbs. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State .Agricultural Society : 

The undersigned, Committee on Class 33, consisting of Vegetables, submit 
the following report: 

To John Hughes, Allegheny city, for best twelve stalks of celery. . . $3 00 
To James Jackson, Lawrenceville, Allegheny county, for second best 

twelve stalks of celery • ...^ ....«•« 2 00 

To Robert Cummings, W^est Manchester, Washington county. Pa., for 

six best heads of cauliflower , .^ « • 3 00 

To John Hughes, Allegheny city, for twelve best white table turnips, 3 00 

To John Hughes, Allegheny city, for twelve best carrots « • • . • 3 00 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 65 

To Alex. Negley, Wilkins P. O., Allogbeuy county, Pa., for twelve 

second be»t carrots • • • • v-*^ • $2 00 

To Robert Cammings, West Manchester, Pa., for twelve best beets, 3 00 
To William Martin, Sen., Allegheny city, for twelve second best do., 2 00 
To William Cammings, Lawrenceville, Allegheny county, for twelve 

best parsnips. ..,»•. # . • • »^» • • • » • • • 3 00 

To John Scott, Pittsburg, for twelve second best parnips. • • • • 2 00 

To Alex. Negley, Wilkina P. O., Allegheny co., twelve best onions. . 3 00 
To William Cummings, Lawrenceville, Allegheny county, for twelve 

second best onions •••..« ••••••••• 2 00 

To Joseph Muse, Pittsburg, for six best heads of cabbage # . • • • 3 00 

To Jerome Jones, West Manchester, Allegheny county, for six second 

best heads of cabbage. • « • • 2 00 

To Alex. Negley, Wilkins P. O., Allegheny county, for six best heads 

of brocoli • 3 00 

To Jacob Mish, Harrisburg, for twelve best tomatoes ««• -.^ ..»•»•• • 3 00 

To Jacob Mish, Harrisburg, for twelve second do • « . 2 00 

To Mrs. Kliza Mo wry, Pittsburg, for two best purple eg^ plants. • • • 3 00 

To Jacob Mish, Harrisburg, for one second best .•^. do. ...••«. • 2 00 

To Alex. Negley, Wilkins P. O., Allegheny county, for twelve best 

sweet potatoes. • ..^ 3 00 

To William Cummings, West Manchester, Allegheny county, for 

twelve second best &weet potatoes » ..^ • 2 00 

To Jacob Mish, Harrisburg, for best half peck lima beans 3 00 

To John Hughes, Allegheny city, for second best do • • • • • 2 00 

To Mrs. Matilda B. Thomas, West Chester, for best bunch of double 

parsley .^ 2 00 

To James Jackson, Lawrenceville, for second best bunch of double 

parsley ...- '. . . 1 00 

To Jacob Mish, Harrisburg, for three best garden squashes. . • , 3 00 

To Joseph Jones, Arsenal P. 0., Allegheny county, for three second 

W best garden squashes, ..••.•••#... • . . • 2 00 

To Robert Cummings, West Manchester, Chester county, for best 

large squashes • 3 00 

To Jacob Mish, Harrisburg, for second best large squaslies , 2 00 

To James Jackson, Lawrenceville, Allegheny county, for best three 

sweet pumpkins 3 00 

To John Scott, Pittsburg, for second best three sweet pumpkins. . . • 2 00 
To Thomas Sample, Cross Cut P. O., Lawrence county, for three best 

large field pumpkins , r • • 3 00 

To Jerome Jones, West Manchester, for second best three large field 

pumpkins. ••••••• !•.«••••• • • 2 00 

5 



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66 PENNSYLVANIA STATO 

To Wm. Martin, Sr., Allegheny city, for twelve best ears yellow com, f3 M 
To Wm. H. Simpson, Cross Cut, Lawrence co., for second best do... 2 00 
To Jacob Mish, Harrisburg, for twelve best ears of white corn. . . , • 3 00 
To Thomas Sample, Cross Cut, Lawrence co., for second best do. . . 2 00 
To Alex. Negley, Wilkins P. O., Allegheny county, for best twelve 

seedling potatoes. ;••••«. .^^ * « 3 00 

To Jacob Mish, Harrisburg, for second best twelve seedling potatoes, 2 00 

Do do for best display of table vegetables 10 00 

To fiobert Cummings, West Manchester, for second best do « 5 00 

Your committee would call the special attention of the officers of the so- 
ciety to a plant called Discorea Japonica, exhibited by N^gl^ ^ Co.^ it being 
a rare specimen of the species of potatoe. Your committee would recom- 
mend a special premium of $5 00. 

Your committee would also further recommend special premiums to the 
following articles, viz : 
To Jacob Mish, Harrisburg, for three long neck pumpkins exhibited at 

the State Fair at Harrisburg, 1855, also on exhibition here.. .Diploma. 
To John Scott, Pittsburg, for one doz. stalks of Chinese sugar cane, Diploma. 
To James Raney, Cross Cut, Lawrence county, for three Valparaiso 

squashed. ••••^ Diploma. 

To Thomas Sample, Cross Cut, Lawrence county, for one California 

cucumber . . — ^^ ^ . . Diploma. 

To Alex. Negley, Wilkins P. O., Allegheny county, for best variety 

of seedling potatoes; also two plants of ocrea -.^ . . . .Diploma. 

To Thomas Sample, Cross Cut, Lawrence county, for one vine of 

infant gourds ; also one of nest egg gourds Diploma. 

To Jacob Mish, Harrisburg, fox Ave varieties of fine cucumbers Diploma. 

To Jacob Wagdler, Lawrenceville, Allegheny county, for two speci- 
mens of winter radishes, one weighing U pounds and the other 

If pounds ; Diploma. 

To David Geisler, Wilkins P. 0., Allegheny county, for a fine lot of 

under ground onions, and three plants of red pepper in pots, Diproma. 

To John Scott, Pittsburg, for one stalk of Brussells sprouts Diploma. 

JAMES SUTTON, 
H. CALKINS, 
JOHN A. REILY, 

Committee. 



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AGKIOULTURAL SOCIETY. 67 

No. 34. — Domestic and Household Manufactuees, 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

The subscribers appointed Judges of Domestic and Household Manufactures, 
report the following as the result of their investigations in the matters sub- 
mitted to them, and adjudicate the prizes in their department as follows : 

Sponge Cake. 

First premium, Miss Maggie Martin , $3 00 

Second premium, Mrs. Eliza G. Walker 2 00 

Mrs. Thomas, Pittsburg • Diploma* 

Rachael Johnson • * • • • • • « • • ...^.v • # •• # «f.«Diploma. 

Gingerbread. 

First premium, Miss Kate Coale • $3 00 

Second premium, Mrs. Tanguay • • • • • « 2 00 

Miss Mary* Shaw. • ••. •■ .•• ..•••••• ,« .Diploma. 

Pound Cake. 

First premium, Mrs. Job Hayes. • « « •-• . . , ., • • $3 00 

Second premium, Mrs. J. G. Strain « ..^^. •»..•••.••• 2 00 

Mrs. Wright . . . -..• ...• ^^ ^ • .^^. ..•^^^ Diploma. 

Bread — Homemade. 

First premium, Miss Maggie Martin .Silver cup. 

Second premium, Mrs. Job Hayes « •.«..• •••« $3 00 

Miss Cameron . . . , « , .....^ ^.«^^ • • . .Diploma. 

Miss Moore • * .Diploma. 

Mrs. Bucher , ..Diploma. 

Mrs. Mary Collins • .^ .•••■• Diploma. 

Preserves. 

Fim premium, Mrs. Eliza G. Walker • •-• • • • . . .Silver cup. 

Second premium, Mrs. Job Hayes • « « » .^^^ $3 00 

Mary E. Anderson. . • ••».•• .^^ .. . .Diploma. 

Mrs. Dr. Sample ,»...<♦ •« ^ .Diploma. 

Miss Kate Coale's collection of preserves and jellies were excellent, 
and arranged with unusual taste, for which she deserves com- 
mendation and a t • « • • • . « • .^..^ Diploma. 

Fruit Jellies. 

First premium, Mrs. J. F. Garrard • • • • • Silver cup. 

Second premium, Mrs. John Young • •.« $2 00 



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«8 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

* Tomato Preserves. 

First premium, Miss Goale »••««• r^^ ••••• • » • ^Silver cup. 

Second premium, Mrs. M'Lean . • ...^ $3 00 

Homtmade Soap. 

First premium, Mrs Job Hayes ^ .« 3 00 

Second. . ,do. . .Mrs. Mary H. Wilson. • .^ • 2 00 

Mrs. John Young. . . • ••.• • . • ••^ . . . — • Diploma* 

, Tomato Figs. 

w 

First premium, Mrs. Summy •••••,. $5 00 

Second, .do. . .Miss Hannah Hayes • • • . 3 00 

•dppU Preserves. 

First premium, Miss Ooaie.., «••••• Silrer cup. 

Second, .do. . .Miss Ellen B. Williams $3 00 

Pickles. 

First premium, Mrs. Williams • 3 00 

Second, .do. ..Arthur Ballou ^t. ......' • 2 00 

Scalded Peaches. 

First premium. Miss Goale Silver cup. 

Second, .do. . .Mrs. M'Gabby.. $3 00 

Quince Butter. 

First premium, Mrs. J. Wright, ••- 3 00 

Second., .do. . .Mrs. M'Clay. ..•••,...,. .^ 2 00 

Peach Butter. 

First premium, Mrs. Sarah H. Miller 3 00 

Second, ^do. . .Mrs. John Young. • • » • • • . • • 2 00 

Jlpple Butter. 

First premium. Miss Snodgrass • 3 00 

Second., .do. . .Mrs. W illiams. 2 00 

Mrs. Garrard, very fine sickle pear butter •••••• ^« • Diploma. 

Mrs. J. F. Garrard, apple pie worthy of notice. ••..•• Diploma. 

Mrs. Job Hayes, recommended to especial notice, for largest collec- 
tion and greatest variety of excellent household manufaetures, Diploma. 



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AGRICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 69; 

Silk OocoMs^ 

First premium, Mrs. HaDnah Summy • . • • ••••#•••• tSilver cap« 

Second. ..do. ..JosiaK^umi^y. ..,• ,.. %• •««.«^.« •••• (^ 00 

Raw SWc. 

FmA prenium,. Mr9. JosiaK Summy. ..,*• ^ *• ^ > ^ •••••••*«* • .Silver eop^ 

Reel Silk. 

First premium, Mrs. Hannah Summy. « , -..• • . « . . .^^ • • • • •• tSilver cap. 

Sewing Silk. 

First premium, Mrs. Hannah Summy. •«•«•••••*«««• «.^.«^« • .. .Silver €iqi« 

Silk Stockings. 

First premium, Mrs< Hannah Summyt .. r*. •••.•• • ••••**• ^^ $9 Od 

Shawl, 

First premium, Mrs. Johnson • ..^ 5 00 

Woollen Blankets. 

First premium, Mrs. G. H. Bucher • • , « t.^, . • • « ••■« . . • • • «.».• Silver cup. 

Second. . . do. . . Mrs. Eleanor M'Cormick .«.• * • « $5 00 

Third;. ..do.. .Miss M. H. Hayes , «...«^ . « • . 3 00 

WooUen Carpet. 

First premium^ C« H.. Morton, fifteen yard$ . ••.••.••.•,»« r. •« « .SUver cup« 
Second. . .do*. .Miss Cecilia Miles. ^^..^^^ « • ...^^ •.•.«.«^ $^ 00 

Hearth Rug. 

First premium, Miss Rosa.Byan.. . •«.. • . . • ...^ • • « « .Silver €«p. 

Second, .do. . .Miss Mary A. King . » .^. .« . «.•.., |& 0(^ 

Third. . .do.. .Miss E. Jones ...^ 3 00 

Rag Carpet. 

First premium, Mrs. John M'Corabs, fifteen yards .,.« ••.,••• t.*^ 5 00 

Second, .do. ..James Packer. ......«.«^ .......* 8 00 

DouMe Coverlets 

First premium, Mrs. C. A. Morton ^^ »•.■•...• 5 00 

Second. ,do. • .Mrs* Sarah K. MiUer .•.^. .^ • • . .^^ . • « •..•• 3 00 

Third. . .do. . .Mrs. E. M'Cormick. ^ • ... • «^ . . « * • .^^. 2 00 



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70 TENNSYLVANIA blATE 

Woollen Knit Stockings. 

First premium, Miss Mary Shaw • «. $3 00 

Second. ..do. ..Mrs. Gabby. .....^ — j^. 2 00 

Third. • . .d6. . .Mrs. C. A. Morton , 1 00 

Miss Ann Cooke. . • • • . . . .^.. Diploma. 

MisiiE. Blanchard .•. Diploma 

Miss Mary Glendenning. « ..^.^^ • • . t-*^ • « .Diploma. 

Woollen Knit Half-hose, 

First premium, Mrs. C. A. Morton . .....^^ » $3 00 

Second. ..do.. .Miss Jane Miller. •••.« *..••* 2 00 

Third. ...do.. .Miss Shaw ..^^ ••...— ..•• 1 00 

Woollen Mittens, 

First premium, Mrs. M. B. Thomas. . » 2 00 

Second. ..do. . .Mrs. Benj. Blackburn • • 1 00 

Homemade Skirt* 

First premium, Mrs. Job Hayes .^^^ « 5 00 

Second. ..do. ..Mrs. M'Clay , 3 00 

Barred Flannel. 

First premium, Eleanor M'Cormick, twelve yards .• .Silver cup. 

Barred Linen. 

First premium, Mrs. Mary M'Caully, ten yards Silver cup. 

Plain Linen. 

First premium,«Mrs. Job Hayes, ten yards. • • • •«.... Silver cup. 

Second., .do. ..Miss H. Hayes ..«.« ..a** -^ $3 00 

Third. . . .do. . . Mrs. K. M'Clay ^^ 2 00 

Linen Diaper. 

First premium. Miss H. Hayes, ten yards • . . . .Silver cup. 

Second., .dp. ..Mrs. M. Densmore «• • $3 00 

Third... .do. . .Mrs. Eleanor M'Cormick ^^ 2 00 

Ornamental Needle-work. 

First premium, Mrs. Sarah F. Kiackerly. « . .^. • .^.« • . . • 5 00 

Second. ..do.. .Miss Kate A. Baum • 3 00 

Third . . . .do . . . Miss Mary Barr «^ . • . «. .» 2 00 



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AfiRKJULTUBAL SOCIETy. 71 

Ottoman Coven. 

First preminm, Mrs. John M'Combs. • ^ ».• • $3 00 

Second. ..do. . .Miss M. E. M'Kelvy 2 00 

Miss £. Moald. ..•••.. •••«.•••••. , ..Diploma. 

Table Cover. 

First premium, Miss Catharine JRicher . • ^. •.•.••••.. $3 00 

Second. ..do.. .Mrs. E. S. Bell 2 00 

Artificud Flowers^ 

First premiam, Mrs. Thomas • • 3 00 

Second, .do.. ..Mrs. S. R. Vance 2 00 

Variety Worsted Work. 

FijMlpreinium^.N.B. Coffin....* .••..f... 5 00 

Second. . .do.. .Miss Stewart • • 3 00 

Silk Quilt. 

First premium, very good, no name attached * Silver cup* 

Fancy Quilt. 

First premium, Mrs. Blackburn. . . , .Silver cup. 

Second. ..do. • .Mrs. Vance... ..^*-. , . . . : -.-^ $5 00 

Third.... do. ..M. E.M'Kelvy 3 00 

Plain White Quilt. 

First premium, Mrs. £. M'CIay .• .Silver cap* 

Second.. .do« .^N. Gallaher. ...»«• .%•»« ....«•• »«*••'••«..«•• «...*«^ ' $5 00 

Counterpane. 
First premium, Eleanor M'Cormick ••••...•.••. 3 00 

Lamp Stand Mat. 

First premium, Mrs. Winecooper 3 00 

Second. ..do. ..Mrs. Harriet Summy ..t^.. 2 00^ 

Ornamental Shell Work. 

. First premium, Mrs. Thomas..... ^,.. .«.«.^..^^.4.«. • 3 00 

Wax Flowers. 

First premiom^ Mrs. S. S. Vance.. ^. , 3 001 



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72 PENNStLVTANIA STATE 

Artificial iFitAoers of Human Hair. 

First premium, Miss Eliza Sheias Moore, one boquet « • $2 00 

Second. ..do. . .Miss Mary F. Swain, one wreath • • • 2 00 

White Embroidery. 

First premium, Mrs. W. C. Wagley * « • 2 00 

Second. ..do. ..Miss Susan ti. Sears ^«^ .• • •« ■% 2 00 

Third. ...do. . .Mrs. S. R. Vance • • ., 2 00 

Mrs. Duncan, very fine collection and rariety of embroidery, worked 

'by herself. •» ...••.• • .Diploma. 

Mrs. Johnsbee, beatitiful collection of Chinese and other embroide- 
ries, executed by herself and pupils, both teachers, deserving 

recommendation •..*•• •••••••• .Diploma. 

Best collection of white embroidery. Miss Susan G. Sears, recom- 

mended for a; ••••»•»>«••••«• • • t , • • •.«^ « ...^ Diploma^ 

Crochet Window Blinds. 

First premium. Miss Mould, recommended • • • $2 00 

Ornamental Work. 

Of the fancy quilts, we would especially notice the Fremont Star, 
composed of 6, 64>2* pieces, by Mrs. Miller, very ingenkmsly 
wrought and; beautiful .•.••..••...••••....•• ^ • • .Diploma. 

Alsa a very- neat patchwork quilt, by Mrs^ Hugh M. Speedy. , .^ • » » Diploma. 

First premium, woollen coat, knit by Martha Dufishafier, very excel- 
lent $2 00 

QrnanuBntaL vroik, of featjxers, Mrs. Charlotte Simpson, reoamraended 

for a..» »%•«« «« .^^ I •<.•»»•*••.»•••«« » t* « — ^^ • . • •••Diploma. 

Miss Mary Ann Grier, also fancy feathers, very beautiful.. Diploma. 

, Linen Thread. 

Premium, Mrs. S. K. Vance, excellent. ..••••.,« ••...•• • • • ••.• « • .^^^ $2 00 

Crochet Work. 

Fhsl premium^ Mrs. Matilda B. Thomas, best collection ««.*^.« 2 00^ 

Second., .do. . . Mist Caroline War^ • • . • ••.• Diploma. 

Exceedingly fine crochet collar and work-baskets, by Mary Ann 

£ckart««.».^^ •»•••<• .^v***-*^ •-•-•«« •««^4.. ••••••• »^.*. •» •^.•Dtpldma^ 

Miss Hunter, aged twelve, and Miss M. Hunter, aged seven years. .Diplomas. 

Miss Mary Maitland, children's clothing . . ...^^ • . • « • . ••• • • No. 1. 

Miss Fah^e9tock9 .very beautiful child's^ jembroidarad dreis* •••*...» .Difilosaii. 



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AOEICULTUIMl. SOCIETS. 73 

Mrs. S. R. Vanee, shookLor bnoes. •.««.,.•••• ^ •• • « ,>.»♦ Diploma. 

Very excellent crochet qaik, wrought by Mra* S. S., aged 81 years, 

recomiQendfld for a prize or« •••••« • «..- • « Diploma. 

Fine Crochet Work, 

By blind girl in Bayardstowa, Miss Mathilda Knapp, first premiiuD. . $2 00 
Mrs. M. C. Root, collection of very beautiful ladiea' bonnets, great 

variety, deserves recommendation. • • • -^ • • • «^^^ Diploma. 

Mrs* /ane Kale, very fine shirt wade entirely by hand, 20,400 atitobes * 

^counted as mad^« »•••••••««• • • • •-• Diplonuu 

Mrs. Marthens, cornucopia quilt. ••• ••• •••««,.«^.«. «*«.^4 , tDiptUnMu 

Patchwork quilt, executed entirely by an eld lady, 75 yei^s of age^ 

no name given«... • Diploma* 

Miss Margaret Stevensoa, fine patchwork quilt, care of Milton M'CleU 

land • .^^^ •••••#• .Diploma. 

Fancy Quilts. 

Catharine Brown • ^ « ,^^^ • .Diploma. 

Mrs. Susan Mathews Diploma. 

Miss Alice Jackson « • • • f Diploma* 

Fruit in Air-tight Cases. 

Wells k Provost, Pearl street, New York, awarded a Diploma. 

CHARLES SHALER, 
MRS. MARTHA M. LOOMIS, 
MRS. MARTHA M'MASTERS, 
MRS. ELEANOR HODKINSON, 
MISS ELLEN R. MDRDOCK. 
Pittsburg, October, 1856, Committee. 



No. 35u — Manufactvbss othbr than Domsstic 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State •Agricultural Society : 

The Committee appointed to examine No. 35, /' Manufactures other than 
Domestic," have attended to their dut^, and beg leave to report : 

Porbeat bleached . CQtton. shirting, A. & A^ Miison^of Pittsburg, are 

entitled to< receive. a • . « • »^ « . ^^^ ..» ^ .••••,•••.•»••• 4.. t .Diploma. 

Fee 'bon bleaobed cotton. sheetiBg, A. & A> Maaon, are entitled to 

receive a « ...••• •.••.«•....•• ^^.,^^ . ». .Silver mftdal*. 

For best Amtriean. shawjs,. A. Sc A. .Ma«0D, axe entitled to re- 

caive' a« «•••««»•, »•«.«« ^^ .•.•.•.•«.«••*.««••.•... Silver flaedaLf 



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n PENNSYLVANIA STATB . 

Be«t piece woollpn carpet, W.D.fclL M'CoUum, rf PittslMurgf, are 

entitled to receive a • . .Diplonuu 

Various specimens of foreign made carpet, Brussels, ingrain, hearth rugs, 
three plies, &c., were exhibited by the Messrs. M'CoUum, all deserving of 
honorable notice and a diploma. 

W.'M'Clintock, of Pittsburg, had entered a large variety of carpets and 
mats, for which we award a diploma. 

Mr. John Adair, of Elizabeth, Allegheny county, Pa., entered one black 
cloth c<)at, made by himself, and exhibiting very superior skill and workman- 
ship. The committee have fiot been able to find that a premium was o^ered 
for such an article, but they earnestly recommend that a silver medal be 
awarded to Mr. Adair, as he is certainly entitled to some . honorable mark of 
approbation. 

VVM. EICHBAUM, 
J. G. BLAINE, 

Committee, 



No. 36. — Carriages, Cabinet Ware, &c. 

To thi President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 
The Committee on Carriages, Cabinet Ware, &c.. No. 36, Class 8, make the 

following report : 

That they award to Bigelow & Co., the first premium for a two horse 

carriage ••••.•• «•• .Silver medal* 

To John South, the second psemium, for a two horse Rockaway car- 
riage • Diploma. 

To John South, the first premium for the best two horse buggy. .Silver medal. 

To Bigelow & Co., the second premium for the second best two horse 

buggy • ..••#••••. .Diploma. 

To John South, for the best one horse buggy, with top Silver medal. 

To Bigelow & Co., for the second best one horse buggy, without top. .Dfploma, 

To Bigelow & Co., for the best spring wagon 4 . — Silver medal. 

To Bigelow & Co., for the best display of carriages, buggies, spring 

wagon, &c. .•••••••••••••••• t • • ..» a^ ••*••••••• .Silver medal. 

To John South, for the second best display Diploma. 

Messrs. Bigelow 6s Go. exhibited a child's carriage, of beautiful design and 

workmanship, and by John South a sulky was exhibited, both of which are 

entitled to notice, but no premiums were offered for either, * 

Mr. R. Uunsecker .exhibited a buggy with Nicum's patent hub, which in the 

judgment of your committee, is deserving of the highest oommendatioD. The 



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AGEICULTDEAL SOCIETT. W 

baggy is well made, and the committee call attention to it on account of the 
iDgennity and originality of the construction of the hub, and we hereby 
award to it a diploma. 

To Wm. E. Stevenson for wardrobes, secretaries, so(a, chairs and ta- 
bles, a • . • • . • •••..••••• • • • • Silver medah 

To Frank Paschel, a diploma, for a secretary, being a beautiful specimen of 
cabinet ware, a single and the only article exhibited by Mr. Paschel, does not 
fall under the description of a display of cabinet ware. 

WILLIAM WILKINS, 
H. HEPBURN, 
F. L. WILKINSON, 
ROBERT H. PATTERSON, 
EDWARD CAMPBELL, Jr., 
Committee. 



No. 37. — Musical Insteuments. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

The Committee on this branch of the exhibition, found no instruments to 
compete with those of Mr. John H. Mellor's, who exhibited a very superior 
soft toned piano, of the manufacture of Chickering, with three lower priced 
articTes. The melodeons and organ harmonium,*>were well fiuished, sweet 
toned and superior instruments. We therfore award 

To John H. Mellor, for best piano • • • • Silver medal. 

Do do for best collection of musical instruments. .Silver medal* 

Do do.. • , .an additional premium for exquisite work- 
manship, a,...«^ Diploma* 

JAS. REED, 
JNO. C. MOWRY, 
GEO. B. AYRES, 

Committee, 



No. 39. — Feuit and Flowees. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

The undersigned. Committee on Class 10, No. 89, Fruit, respectfully submit 
the following report of their awards : 
To J. L. Darlington, West Chester, Pa., for the best six fall varieties 

of apples, five of each $4 00 



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76 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

To W. C. HarbefDB & BrodMM, SbecmBgo, Pa«, for aeeond best six 

fall TariatMS of appka^ ^v^ of eaeh. « $S 0^ 

To Miss Mary Shaw, LawreDceville, Pa., for third best six fall varie- 
ties of apples, five of each 2 00 

To Janes A. Nelson, Mercer, Pa., for the beet three winter varieties 

of apples, five of each* • • >,>,tt 3 00 

To W. C. Harbeson 6c Brothers, Shenaago, Pa^, for second best three 

winter varieties of apples, five of each • 3 00 

To James M'Cully, Pittsburg, for third best three winter varieties of 

apples, five of each • • .^t • • • • •• t • • • • • • • . • ..« • •.••••••. 1 00 

To James A. Nelson, Mercer, Pa., for the best and largest collection 

of apples . • ...^ ^ • .^.. Silver cup. 

To W. C. Harbeson 6c Brothers, Shenango, Pa., for the second best 

and iai^rest collection of apples .^ • « . • • $6 00 

To J. L. Darlington, West Chester, Pa., for the third best and largest 

collection of apples, fifty-one varieties 4 00 

Among the apples shown by Mr. Nelson were some Boston russets, of the 
growth of 1855, and a number of New England varieties of great promise. 

Mr. Summy, of Manheim, Pa., exhibited a fine collection, inclnding sum* 
mer rambo, smoke-house, &c., and a new seedling worthy of being submitted 
to the ad interim committee of the American Pomological society. 

Jacob Mish, of Harrisborg, showed very fine Pittsburg pippins, and other 
varieties. 
David Torrence, of Sargent's Hill, Pa., exhibited some handsome fruit. 

Jerome Jones, of Pittsburg, showed the President apple, Ohio nonpareil, 
and others. 

The Alexander apples, of Messrs. Harbeson, were extremely large and 
beautiful, and their handsome collection was very neatly and distinctly 
labelled. 

The show of apples was large, and included many sorts worthy of the 
attention of fault growers generally, but owing to loss of the lists, furnished 
by the exhibitors, we are unable to specify. 

To Miss Harriet Summy, Manheim, Pa., for the best peck of cran- 
berries $8 00 

To Jno. M. Summy, Manheim, Pa., for the best twelve ripe figs, 

grown under glass • • 2 00 

To Josiah Summy, Manheim, Pa., for the best twelve ripe figs, 

grown out of doors ••« »••••»•« « 3 00 

To Wm. Martin, Sen., Allegheny city, for the best half peck of Isa- 
bella grapes •«••••• 1 1 «•• t « t •»«•••«#•#«••• • 3 00 



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A€HaCULTDHAL SOdETT. 77 

To Wm. Martin, Sen., AUegbeny citj, fov the -bMt half peek of Ca- 

tawba grapea. . . • t ^ • . . • t • $3 00 

To C. F. Spang, Pittsburg, for the best collection of foreign grapes. .Silver cop. 
To Wm, Martin, Sen., Allegheny city, for the best sample of grape 

training. ••,... ...^ ••••««....^ •• •• Silver cup. 

To G. F. Spang, for the best collection of foreign grapes grown in 

pots — in frnit •.•...«•••»••# $6 00 

To G. F. Spang, for the best banch of Uack Hamburg groyn in hot- 
house. • .•;....•..•.« — . •-•^ , • 2 00 

To James Lamont, gardener of J. H. Shoenberger, for second best 

bunch of Hamburg grown in hot-honsb •.«....««••••••• 1 00 

To G. F. Spang, for the best bunch of any variety, (for Muscat filanc 

Hatif)^..^- •^•^^ .^^ 2 00 

To James Lament, for second best bunch of any variety, (for Franken- 

thai) --...^.-. : I 00 

To G. F. Spang, for best bunch of black Hamburg grown in cold 

vinery.,.. •. .^^^^ ♦... 2 00 

To C. F. Spang, for second best bunch of black Hamburg grown in 

cold vinery. , 1 00 

To C. F. Spang, for best bunch of any variety gown in cold vinery, 

(Muscat of Alexandria) 2 00 

To C. F. Spang, for second best bunch of any variety grown in cold 

vinery, (Gambridge Botanic Garden). ..«.•..• 1 00 

Seventeen varieties of foreign grapes were shown by Mr. Spang, all ex- 
tremely fine 5 the immense clusters of White Duretto, and the beauty of all, 
attracted much attention. Mr. Martin's specimen of grape training afforded 
an excellent illustration of his successful practice. 

To Wm. Martin, Sen., for the best three largest water melons |2 00 

To Jacob Mish, Harrisburg, for the second best do. • • • 1 00 

Do for the best three varieties, one each • 3 00 

To Wm. Martin, Sen., for second best do. . « .do « . , .^^ 2 00 

To Wm. Cummings, West Manchester, for the best six green fleshed 

citrons, musk variety • • ••^ • , • • .^ . • 2 00 

To Kobert Gummings, West Manchester, for the second best six green 

fleshed citrons, musk variety . • . • « • . • • 1 00 

Mr. Mish's collection included a fine melon of the orange variety. 
To John M. Snmmy, for the best six summer or fall varieties of pear, 

three each — (Shenk's, Sickel, Barlett, old Bergamot, Senzinger 

and Angouleme — all best) 3 00 

To John M. Summy, for the best three summer or fall varieties, three 

each — (Sylvange, Prince's, Bergamot and Hausen) i 3 00 

To Jas. M'Gully, for second best do ... .^ • 2 00 



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78 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

To John M. Summy, for the best and largest collection of pears. .Silver cup. 
Very fine Sickel pears were shown by Mr. Martin i also, by D. Rahanser, 
Lawrenceville. 
To Mrs. Capt. Schindly, Pittsburg, for the best and largest collection 

of peaches •....• ••••••••••.... «.• ..t^* • . • • • .Silrer cup. 

To James M'Cully, for the best twelve quinces of one variety $2 00 

To Jacob Mish, for second best..... .do do •• 1 00 

To Miss Harriet Summy, for the best general assortment of fruit of 
all kinds-^a larg<s collection, including plums, peaches, nuts, 

oranges, &c) Silver cup worth 20 00 

To Josiah Summy, for the second best do. 15 00 

To John M. Summy, for the third best do 10 00 

To James M'Cully, for the fourth best do 6 00 

To R. L. Allen, Pittsburg, for the best home made sparkling wine, 

(J. D. Parke's Catawba) .^-. • • ..^ Silver cup. 

To R. L. Allen, Pittsburg, for the second best sparkling wine, (Zim- 

merman, successor to Long worth & Co.) , , ..^^ $3 00 

To J. M. Summy, for the best home made wine (still Catawba, light- 
ly pressed). ..... .^,. • » 3 00 

To Miss Harriet Summy, for the second best do., (Raspberry) 2 00 

To Miss Nancy Youdan, West Elizabeth, third best, do., (Currant,) 2 00 
To Mrs. Dr. Sample, Wilkinsburg, for best home made cordial, (Peach) 3 00 

To J. M. Summy, for the second best. . . •do do. (Blackberry,) 2 00 

To Miss Kate Cope, Greensburg, for the best blackberry wine. 2 00 

To R. S. Allen, Pittsburg, for the best native brandy, (Catawba, J. D. 

Parke's) 2 00 

To John S. Walker, Elizabeth, for the best cider in bottles, kept sweet 

one year, (with mode) .Silver cup. 

To Arthur Ballou, Pittsburg, for the best barrel cider vinegar. . . .Silver medal. 
The cider shown by Mr. Walker was quite sweet. He describes his mode 
thus: ^* Strain off the sediment and let stand four days, then boil for two 
hours, and strain again while hot; bottle when perfectly cool." 

Specimens of Hostetter's celebrated bitters were shown to the committee 
by Hostetter and Smith, of Pittsburg, which though not admissible for a pre- 
mium, we consider well entitled to commendatory mention and diploma. 

Considering the general destruction of tendey fruit trees in all parts of our 
country, excepting in the few spots, and far between, which were sheltered by 
the vapors from flowing and unfrozen water, the exhibition of fruit was 
large and fine, and we are glad to see that fruit growers are not disheartened. 
Such a winter may not occur again for a generation. Your committee found 
much difliculty in arriving at decisions, but after constant investigation and 
comparison, until the latest moment, they hope their awards are as nearly 



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AGEICULTUHAL SOCIETY. 7» 

just as is possible, where sach a variety of excellent objects are to be com. 

pared. 

WM. G. WARING, 
JAMES REED, 
W. MAXWELL, 
WM. S. BISSELL, 

Committee. 



No. 40. — Flowers, Plants and Designs. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

The Judges on Flowers, Plants and Designs, beg leave to make the follow- 
ing report : 

Plants in Flower. 

To John M'Closky, first premium for the best three varieties of achi- 

menes $3 00 

To James Lamont, second premium for the second best 2 00 

To Negley & Co., first premium for the best six varieties of fuchsias, 4 00 

To A. Bennet, second premium for the second best six varieties of 

fuchsias. . . , •.•• ^....^^ «..«•••••••••.•• • • • . 3 00 

To Negley & Co., first premium for the best four varieties of helio- 
trope. ..V • 3 00 

To A. Bennett, second. premium for the second best four varieties of 

heliotrope , .— •..^ 2 00 

To Negley & Co., first premium for the best collection of geraniums 

• and pelargoniums •••.... 3 00 

To James Lamont, first premium for the twelve best varieties of spe- 
cimen plants .•••••.. • • 4 00 

To J. M'Kain, second premium for the second best twelve varieties 

of specimen plants • 3 00 

To Negley & Co , third premium for the third best twelve varieties 

of specimen plants 2 00 

To James Lamont, first premium for the best six varieties of speci- 
men plants • • 3 00 

To John M'^Closky, second premium for the second best six varieties 

of specimen plants •• • ••. ^ ' ^ 2 00 

To A. Bennett, third premium for the third best six varieties of 

specimen plants 1 00 

To Negley & Co., first premium for the first best new variety, not 

shown before, specimen plants ...••• « • • •. 3 00 



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«0 PENNSYLVANIA STATO 

To James Lamont, second j^femium for the second best speohnen 

plants..... ..^ |2 00 

'To James Lamoht, first premium for the best collection of variegated 

leaf plants 10 00 

To Negley & Co., second premium for the second best collection of 

variegated leaf plants ••«•.•••••.• .^ 5 00 

To Negley & Co., first premium for the best collection of roses 10 00 

To A. Bennett, second premium for the second best collection of 

roses ••• • •« 8 00 

To J. M'Kain, first premium for the best twelve varieties of verbenas, 3 00 
To Negley & Co., second premium for the second best twelve varieties 

of verbenas. . . ..•.« • • • •^•« *••••.« 2 00 

To Negley & Co., first premium for the best six varieties of verbenas, 2 00 

To James Janet, first premium for the best variety of tuberose 2 00 

To Negley & Co,, first premium for the best bedding and out-door 

decoration for the garden collections 5 00 

To Negley & Co., first premium for the best nurseryman's collection, 12 00 
To J, M'Kain, second premium for the second best nurseryman's col- 
lection 10 00 

To A. Bennett, third premium for the third best nurseryman's col- 
lection. . . . .^ . . . .--. . • 8 00 

To James Lamont,for the best amateur's collection, a silver cup and 10 00 
To John M'Closky^ second premium for the second best amateur's 

collection 20 00 

Cut Flowers. 

To Negley & Co., first premium for best twelve varieties of dahlias. . 3 00 
To Mrs. Thomas, second premium for the second best twelve varie- 
ties of dahlias / ...•....- 2 00 

To Negley & Co., first premium for the best six varieties of dahlias.. 2 00 

Do..^ . .do... .first premium for the best collection of dahlias. . . 3 00 

Do do... .first premium for the best six varieties of phloxes, 2 00 

Do do... .first premium for the best collection, not less than 

ten varieties, of phloxes. 3 00 

Do do.. ..first premium for the best six perpetual roses.. . . t 00 

Do do.. ..first premium for the best six Bourbon roses 2 00 

Do do.. ..first premium for the best collection of roses. . . • • 5 00 

Do do... .first premium for ^he best collection of verbenas. . 5 00 

* Designs aad Bouquets* 

To Negley & Co., first premium for the best decorative^ original de- 



sign. 



10 00 



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AGRICULTUKAL SOClETT. 81 

To John M'CIosky, second premium for the second best decorative, 

original design . • • • • • $8 00 

To J. M'Kain, first premium for the best floral design. . . . • 10 00 

To Jno. Hughes, second premium for the second best floral design ... 5 00 
To Mrs. Thomas, first premium for the best basket with flowers .... 5 00 
To James Lamont, second premium for the second best basket with 

flowers.. •... 4 00 

To Negley & Co., first premium for the best vase with flowers 3 00 

To James Lamont, second premium for the second best vase of 

flowers ;.... 2 00 

To Jno. Murdoek, Jr., first premium for the best pair round hand 

bouquets , 3 00 

To Negley &; Co., second premium for the second best pair round 

hand bouquets .« 2 00 

To John Murdoek, Jr., first premium for the best flat hand bouquet, 3 00 
To Jno. M^CIosky, second premium for the second best flat hand 

bouquet 2 00 

To J. M'Kain, first premium for the best bridal bouquet 3 00 

To Jno. Murdoek, Jr., second premium for the second best bridal 

bouquet. 2 00 

To Jno. Hughes, first premium for the best round table bouquet. . . • 3 00 
To Wm, K. AJricks, second premium for second best round table 

bouquet • , 2 00 

In addition to the above, the judges find it their duty to award the follow- 
ing special premiums. 
To Negley & Co., for a remarkably fine seedling verbena, a special 

premium of $3 00 

To J. M'Kain, for six well grown specimen plants • 3 00 

To Negley & Co., for a veryfine display of green house, hot-house 

and out-door plants, a • .....# ♦ . »^. . . Silver cup. 

A. H. GROSS, 
JOHN MARSHEL, Jr., 
A. REINEMAN, 
G. M'HATLY, 

Committee, 



No. 41. — Stoves* 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

We, the undersigned, on Committee No. 41, make report of the following 

awards : 
6 



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8$J PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

To Payne, Bissell & Co., for the best cooking stoves for wood, first 

premium. . r. . •. ••....••«. • .Silver medaL 

For the best cooking stoves for coal, first premium. • • • , • Silver medaT. 

Do . . . • .^t .do. . , .range, first premium. «. . • r .Silver medaL 

Do do. . . .ornamental stove, first premium. Silver medaL 

For the second best hall stove^ second premium. , • • .Diploma. 

ToGrafr& Co., Pittsburg, for the second best cooking stoves for wood, 

second premium $5 00 

For the second best cooking stove for coftl, second premium, .••••• r 5 00 

Do do. . ..ornamental parlor stove, second premium. ...... 5 00 

For best ball stove, first premium. . . ..^^ ,. .Silver medal. 

To C. Dodge, Pittsburg, for the best heating aparatus^ first pre- 
mium ....^ *..r«.....«....r..* r , . SilvcT medal. 

To L. O. Cameron, Pittsburg, for a superior galvanized baker or porta- 
ble oven * •• ,.. Silver medal. 

To Wm. B. Scaife, Pittsburg, for fine sheet iron steamboat stove, . ..Diplonui. 
To Mitchell, Herron, & Co., Pittsburg, for second best cooking range, 

second premium • • .Diplonaa and $5 00 

To VVm. W. Wallace, Pittsburg, for the best marble sculptured man- 
tles, first premium. . . • ,. ...•••..•••« Silver medal* 

To Geo. W. Windsor, Pittsburg, for the second best sculptured nwir- 

ble, (female figure,) second premium <- • |r5 00 

To John M^Ca^rgo, Pittsburg, for fine sample sculptured marble, 

(monument). . .. r ."^ • Diploma. 

To Matthew Lawton, Pittsburg, for fine marble bust of Col. M'Cand- 

less , , Diploma. 

To Williams & Allen, Pittsburg, for second best heating apparatus, 

second premium , Diploma and $5 00 

JOHN B. SHERIFF, 
GEO. M. EVANS, 
WM. YOUDAN, 
S. H. HARTMAN, 

Committtt, 



No. 4-2. — GIass and Glass Ware. 
To the President of the Pennsylvania State jjgricultural Society: 

Your Committee, who was duly appointed to award premiums to those per- 
sons which are entitled to them, beg leave to make their report to the society. 
We extremely regret to state that the Pittsburg manufacturers have scarcely 
any articles on exhibition, for which your committee were appointed, espe- 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 83 

cially the article of glass ; therefore, we have not much to report on. How- 
ever, we report as follows : 

£dward Redman, samples of ornamental glass, a • • • • • Silver medal. 

James W. Wallace, for plain glass ware Silver medal. 

Kobe& Albeity,. .^, , .do do. . . .entitled to a • Diploma. 

To Conrad Bard 6c Son, Philadelphia, for best silver ware adapted for 

premiums, a « • Silver medal 

GEO. W. M'CALLA, 
MOSES CHESS, 
ROBERT M. RIDDLE, 
ADAMS GETTY, 

Committee. 



No. 43. — Bacon and Hams. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

Your Committee, No. 43, make the following report : 
We arward the first premium on best two cured hams to Job Hayes, 

of Chester county |8 ) 

Second best two cured hams to A. A. Tanguy, Chester county 6 00 

Best boned turkey, to Marion M'tMillen, of Pittsburg, cook at Judge 

Wilkins's, recommended for special premium ...Diploma. 

Respectfully submitted by 

WM. J. ANDERSON, 
ROB'T H. PATTERSON, 
F. M. HUTCHINSON, 
DAVID R. GAL WAY, 

Committee, 



No. 44. — Inventions. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

The Committee, No. 44, Class 1*2, had under consideration a great variety 
of useful inventions and manufactured articles not enumerated in other classes. 
In fact, out of seventy articles offered and inspected, but one was enumerated 
upon the prize list. The committee have endeavored to exercise a just dis- 
cretion in the award of premiums, but it would be manifestly improper after 
so many exhibitors hud been induced to offer articles for exhibition, not to 
stimulate competition and invention, by a liberal, though discriminating dis- 



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84 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

tribution of premiums. The exhibition was gratifying to the committee and 

creditable to the exhibitors. 

Patent bow setter for buggy tops, Morgan Hays, Washington, Pa. . . .Diploma. 

A useful and ingenious machine, well arranged for the purpose designed. 
Eevolving last holder, Frederick Mertz, Allegheny city, Pa Diploma. 

Furnishing great facility for placing lasts (and in the opinion of the com- 
mittee) other articles for mechanics, in a convenient position for working 
upon. 
Machine for creasing, edging and creasing-marking leather, John 

Shepbard, Pittsburg, Pa Diploma. 

This invention is one of those simple machines, increasing the facility of 
doing work and improving the quality of work. 
Patent hot pressed nuts and washers, Knap & Carter, Pittsburg. .Silver medal. 

Nuts and washers formerly hammered or punched out by hand, by a labo- 
rious and tedious process, are by improvements brought almost to the price 
of the material. The committee deem these, for variety, finish and cheap- 
ness of price, worthy a premium. 
Portable farm'gate, Kinney Goff, Allegheny city. Honorable mention. 

To the farmer, valuable for the facility with which it <5an be erected for 
temporary purposes and removed again. 
Brick machine model, with sample of pressed brick, Isaac Gregg, 

Pittsburg, Pa .,.- Silver medal. 

The committee deemed this invention one of such obvious improvement 
over other machines, and so important to agricultural and architectural pur- 
poses, as to be worthy a first premium. 
Tile and gravel roof, Joha Koppitz, Pittsburg, Pa , • Diploma. 

A roof prepared upon Mr. Koppitz's plan is superior to the ordinary gravel 
roof, by the use of tile, which protects the paper and pitch. The tile having 
been previously rendered impervious to moisture. 
Iron tie for hay, hemp or cotton bales, David M*Comb, Shelby coun- 
ty, Tennessee Silver medal. 

This machine in its exceeding simplicity and obvious adaptability to the 
purpose for which it is Intended, so commends itself to every observer, that 
it needs no extended notice from the committee. As an evidence of their 
appreciation of the invention, it is unanimously awarded a silver medal. 
Model of slate roof apd slate, Alexander Laughlin, Pittsburg, Pa.. .Diploma. 

The committee considered the specimens of slate exhibited by Mr. Laugh- 
in, of very superior quality, and the fire proof roof a great improvement over 
the ordinary mode of laying slate roofs, on account of decreased weight, 
greater strength and security from fire. 

Model of slate roof, five hundred pounds of roofing slate, two slate black- 
boards for schools, Thomas Arnold, Pi^sburg, Pa $3 00 



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( 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 85 

One pair double action blinds, C. P. Wertz, Pittsburg, Pa Diploma. 

Trotts's patent oil globe or cup, for steam engines, Moses F. Eaton, 

Pittsburg, Pa • , . . . •Diploma. 

An obvious and well knowB improvement. 

Hopper's patent veneer plane, by the same exhibitor Diploma and $5 00 

Towers^s patent clothes clamp or pin, by the same exhibitor Diploma. 

Holt's patent hand stamp, by the same exhibitor .Diploma. 

A cheap and ready mode of stamping cards, labels, &;c., &;c. 
Hayes's locomotive lard lamp, by the same exhibitor. ••..••.... k . .Diploma. 
Patent projectile ball for smooth bore and rifle, Thomas Smith, Pitts- 
burg, Pa Silver medal. 

Adapting the screw principle to smooth bores, manifestly an important in- 
vqntion for projectiles. 
Patent head blocks for saw-mills,' J. S. Snyder, Fairfleld, 

Ohio .* Dip. & Bronze medal. 

A machine by w^)ich logs can be set and guaged by one man with the great- 
est facility and accuracy. 

Patent wagon bed, for farm use, by the same exhibitor. Honorable mention. 
Wrought iron parallel vice, David A. Morris, Pittsburg, Pa. . .Bronze medal. 

A majority of the committee deemed this the superior vice exhibited at 
the fair, for the miscellaneous uses of mechanics, and far superior to the old 
spring vice j and the fact that it can be manufactured and sold as cheap as 
the old style of vice, commends it to the attention of machinists and manu- 
facturers. 
Six iron parallel vices, R. M. & D. Davis, Yellow Springs, Q. .Dip. & $5 00 

A diversity of opinion in regard to the comparative merits of wrought iron 
and cast iron vices existed in the committee, but the committee were unani- 
, mous in the opinion that the many excellent qualities of this vice would be 
highly appreciated by mechanics generally, as they certainly were by the 
committee. The style of finish of the cast iron vices was worthy of espe- 
cial note, showing great mechanical ingenuity. 
Two wooden parallel vices, by the same exhibitors. Diploma. 

Of the merits of the adaptation of the same parallel principle as in the 
cast iron vices, to the wooden vice, there could be no question, and the com- 
mittee unanimously awarded it a first premium. 

Husking thimbles, J. H. Gould, Alliance, Stark county, Ohio Diploma. 

Match machine, L. Thomas, Allegheny city. Pa. . • Diploma. 

Patton's self- balancing sash raiser and lock combined, James Patton, 

Harrisburg, Pa «.« ...^ Diploma. 

Patent felloe machine, J. Adams & Sons, Amherst, Mass.. Diploma* 

Valuable for speedy and true execution of the work, combined with a high 
state of finish when completed by the machine. 



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86 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Patent railroad signal, J. 6. Ki]y, Philadelphia, Pa Diploma 

Two universal chucks, Michael NeckerrAan, Lawrenceville, Allegheny 

county. Pa • Silver medal. 

The machinist will understand and appreciate the value of this piece of 
mechanism, when it is stated that turning a single screw will bring the bear- 
ings simultaneously towards the centre, greatly increasing the facility of 
chucking ; or the bearings can be moved separately if desired. The com* 
mittee were satisfied of the importance of this invention; and unanimously 
awarded a silver medal. 

Galvanized irod for roofing, Wood, Moorhead & Co., Pittsburg, 

Pennsylvania •••..•• Silver medal. 

For durability of material, strength, lightness, imperviousness to water, 
security from fire, and comparative cheapness of construction, the committee 
were unanimous in awarding the first premium. 
One set of buggy wheels, J. B. Hayden Sc Co., Cleveland, Ohio... .Diploma. 

A great improvement over the common hub, the spokes forming their own 
hub, and self-supporting. 

Kotary ore washer, J. B. Carter, Marietta, Lancaster, Pa «. .Diploma. 

Self-feeding shingle machine, D. Bullman, Plainfield, N. J., a Diploma 

and 3 00 

The common cutting arrangements very perfectly arranged, combined with 
a self-acting feeder. 

Dynamometer, J. W. Gibbs, Canton, Stark county, Ohio Diploma. 

• For measuring the draught or amount of force developed in drawing ploughs 
and other implements — valuable to agricultural societies. 

Wheelwrights' guide mandrel, J. Sykes, Mercer, Mercer county, Pa.<~ 
Honorable mention. 
Two life-preservers, Wm. B. Scaife, Pittsburg, Pa Diploma. 

Distressing experience has taught the committee the unreliability of many 
kinds of life-preservers, owing to their so soon getting out of order on board 
the steamers. Cork chips, however, if properly secured, like the present, in 
well painted canvass, are always reliable. 

One life-boat, same exhibitor • Diploma. 

Three water coolers, same exhibitor. Honorable mention. 

One piece of hair felt, same exhibitor Diploma. 

A valuable invention for the protection of steam, water and gas pipes, to 
prevent the radiation of heat. 

Circular interest tables, Lewis Cornell, New York, N. Y. . . . • Diploma. 

Lot of culinary utensils, galvanized iron, Wood,^Moorhead & Co., 

Pittsburg, Allegheny county. Pa Diploma. 

Lot of galvanized iron pipe, Williams & Allen, Pittsburg, Pa. Diploma- 



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AGRICULTXJRAL SOCIETY. S7 

Can he exposed to moisture without rusting, valuable for water, steam, 
{[as, &c. ; valuable on account of strength, comparative cheapness, and dura* 
bility. i' 

Patent baggy hub, H. Nycum, Washington, Pa. Bronze medal. 

Glass preserving jars, A. Stone 8c Co^ Philadelphia Diploma. 

JOHN SNOWDEN, 
D. H. WILLIAMS, 
WM. G. PRICE, 
ISAAC WIKOFF, 

Committee* 



No. 45. — Miscellaneous Articles and Fine Arts. 

To the President of th^ Petmsylvania State ^Agricultural Society : 

The undersigned Committee on Miscellaneous Articles and Fine Arts, after 
ti careful examination of the articles in Class 45, respectfully offer the follow- 
ing report : 

To Robert Munroe, Allegheny city, best Ambrotypes .Silver medal. 

To A. W. Phipps, New Castle, fine collection of Ambrotypes Diploma. 

To R. M. Cargo, Pittsburg, best collection of Daguerreotypes Diploma. 

To Mary Wray, Allegheny city, best piece of pencil drawing .,.••• $3 00 

To Miss Mary Ogden^ Pittsburg, best pastel portrait Silver medal. 

To Miss Hulda Johnston, Michigan, colored crayon Diploma. 

To E. Oudry, Pittsburg, mechanical drawing ••••.... Diploma. 

To Miss Mary Shaw, Pittsburg, by P. &; J. Davis, best landscapes in oil $3 00 

To E. Foerster, Pittsburg, female portrait, in oil 15 00 

To W. Rhodes, Pittsburg, male portrait, in oil » 15 00 

To J. N. Glogger, Pittsburg, display of oil paintings * 5 00 

To Miss Hulda Johnston, Michigan, best water color sketches 2 00 

To George Hetzal, Pittsburg, vegetable oil painting 15 00 

To R. J. Cummins & Bro., Pittsburg, papier mache work Silver medal. 

To William J. Barker, Greensburg, map of Indiana county Diploma. 

To W. S. Schuchman, Pittsburg, best animal lichographing Silver medal. 

To Krebs Sc Bro., Pittsburg, second best. • • .do Diploma. 

To W. S. Schuchman, Pittsburg, best lithography Silver medal. 

To Krebs & Bro., Pittsburg, second best, .do Diploma. 

Cooper & Cowley, Pittsburg, (entered by F. W. Jenkins,) best pen- 
manship ^.. Silver medal. 

Cooper & Cowley, Pittsburg, (entered by F. W. Jenkins,) best pen 

drawing • Diploma. 

To P. Duff, Pittsburg, best pen drawing lithographed Diploma. 



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88 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

To P. Duffy Pittsburg, best spread eagle, executed with pen, by a 

pupil. ••••••••• *#••.••• • • • • Diploma. 

To P. Duf*, Pittsburg, best system of book-keeping Silver medal. 

To Meyer, Stout & Morganroth, Pittsburg, best plaster busts and 

sKetches in clay Silver medal. 

To David Rice, Pittsburg, best fancy table $3 00 

To Mrs. Mary Ann Green, Allegheny city, best feather flowers 3 00 

To Mrs. M. Duflkhafer, Lawrenceville, best ladies' caps and woollen 

coat ^.. 2 00 

To J. S. Hall, Pittsburg, best dynamometer Diploma. 

Megargee Bros., Philadelphia, (entered by J. R. Weldin & Co., Pitts- 
burg,) binder's boards. ••..... • Diploma. 

To M'Coy & Miller, Pittsburg, best assortment of paints Diploma. 

To F. Beese, Pittsburg, European leeches, raised in Pittsburg $3 00 

To Dr. C. Vonh Bonnherst, Somerset, best specimen dentistry. .Silver medal. 

To John Carpenter, Pittsburg, tailor's protractor $3 00 

To P. Seibert^ Pittsburg, carved oak eagle 3 00 

To C. & A. Oyer, Pittsburg, display of segars Diploma. 

To Dawes & Cheley, Pittsburg, splendid grain doors. . • • •• .^.^ • Silver medal. 

To John Fry, Ligonier, two rifles. • • • • « . ^^^ ....•.••• ...^^ Diploma. 

To H. Overington, Pittsburg, display of corks • . • . • .Diploma. 

To Adam Nay lor, Allegheny, Allegheny blacking Diploma. 

S. Hamilton, Allegheny, fine specimen cannel coal • • • « Diploma. 

To William Diller, Lancaster, case-hardened axles ••• • • .Silver medal. 

1p J. W. Tim & Co., Pittsburg, best canes and umbrellas .^^ Diploma. 

To Eleanor M'Cormick, Remington, fine broom corn $2 00 

To H. H. Simpson, Cross Cut, Lawrence co., specimens sugar cane, 2 00 

To Leah Barner, ISlSharpsburg, ornamental leather picture frame 1 50 

To Campbell & Pollock, Pittsburg, one lot imitation rosewood pic- 
ture frames. m-« • • • • • Diploma. 

To Mary Swain, Allegheny, half dozen gold fish 1 00 

To Butler & Parr, Cincinnati, Ohio, merchants' and bankers' writing 

fluid .,. • • • . .Silver medal 

To Capt. W. Alexandier, Pittsburg, Vigilant fire engine Diploma. 

The above report comprises every article entered in class No. 45, except 
one lot of one year old sausage meat, entered by William C. Brownlee, of 
Washington, and a case of domestic segars, entered by Barnet Stevensoa, 
which, after the most diligent search, we were unable to find. 

J. R. REED, 
J. B. MONTGOMERY, 
SOL. SCHOYER, Jr., 

Cammiitet* 



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AGBICULTURAL SOCIETY. 89 

No. 46. — Farm Bthldings. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Jigricultural Society : 

The CommJttee on Farm Buildings, organized by the appointment of Theo- 
DORB Adams, of Dauphin county, to supply the vacancy occasioned by the 
absence of Simon Cameron, Efuraim Banks and Thomas Bomgardner, most 
respectfully report : 

That but two plans of farm building were submitted to the consideration 
of the committee — the one entered by Benj. L. Wood, the other by Thomas 
Wood, and they regret that neither of the plans are entitled to thtir approval. 
That injustice may not, however, be done to the competitors for these pre- 
miums, the committee have hereto attached the plans and descriptions, that all 
who choose may be afforded an opportunity of exercising their own judg- 
ment. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

H. N. M'ALLISTER, 
WM. DILWORTH, 
THEODORE ADAMS, 

CommiUee, 

. As there were no cuts accompanying these plans of farm buildings, the 
plans cannot be shown as designated by the committee. 

R. C. W. 



No. 47. — Horse Shoeing. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society: 

The undersigned Committee, appointed to judge of the best Horse Shoeing, 
beg leave to award the first premium of ten dollars to William S. Jackson. 

ROBT. H. PATTERSON, 
S. B. HAYS, 
S. S. BOGGS, 
WM. J. ANDERSON, 

Committee. 



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90 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

ANNUAL ADDRESS 

Delivered by the Hon. George W. Woodward, before the Pennsylvania State 
■ ^Agricultural Society^ at its Sixth Annual Exhibition at Pittsburgh October 
3, 1S56. 



Mr, President and Fellow-Citizens : — 

A plain man who has had no experience in farming that deserves to be 
mentioned, having been honored with an invitation to address the Farmers of 
Pennsylvania on this interesting occasion, is somewhat at a loss for topics of 
discourse, which are at once fitted to his auditory and to himself. 

It has happened to him, however, to be in circumstances for many years, 
that have compelled him to travel much in this his native State, and have 
permitted him to mingle largely with its rural population, and having been 
not altogether an inattentive observer of men and things, he knows no better 
way of improving the present occasion than to speak of the wants of Penn- 
sylvania Farmers. 

And now some man is ready to exclaim, the wants of Pennsylvania Far- 
meis ! Why, are they not the most independent citizens on our soil, engaged 
in supplying the wants of all other classes'! Do they not dwell in comforta- 
ble houses, and sit at boards spread with the choicest productions of the gar- 
den and the farm, and sleep in beds, every feather of which, home produced, 
they know to be good 1 Do they not inhabit a State lying in the choicest 
latitudes of the hemisphere, with a soil beneath their feet so diversified in its 
capacities as to invite and reward every form pi industry and enterprise 1 Do 
they not look with laudable pride to a territory stretching from the Delaware 
to Lake Erie — traversed in all directions with navigable rivers, turnpikes, ca- 
nals and railroads, sustaining a commerce immense now, and to whose future 
growth the boldest imagination has undertaken to assign no bounds — a terri- 
tory so rich in minerals that had it^not an acre of arable land would still be 
one of the yvealthiest districts on the continent — a territory that maintains 
the most important relations to the other members of our glorious confederacy, 
constituting it, by universal consent, the very Keystone of the Federal Arch — 
with a population renowned for all the solid virtues of manhood, and which 
is swelling into millions of happy, prosperous and enlightened citizens ; what, 
what, in Heaven's name, can be said of the wants of such a people % No, no ; 
speak rather of the wants of the down-trodden, overworked, ill fed, and half* 
clothed millions of other lands, or of those classes in our own country who 
produce nothing, but trade upon or consume the productions of others : let 
not a public discourse turn upon so unreal a theme as the wants of Farmers of 
Pennsylvania, 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 91 

Pardon me, my friends 5 I know that the lines have fallen to you in plea- 
sant places; that you seem to be full of blessings, wanting nothing; that 
these cattle, crops, and trophies of skill which surround us to-day, speak 
rather of attainments than of wants 5 of what you have achieved, than of 
what you lack. Be it so. Let them speak your eulogy. They are more 
eloquent than any words of mine. I will undertake the humbler and more 
ungracious task of telling you of wants, which, whether felt or not, I believe 
to be real. 

First then it seems to me there is too little interest among Farmers in gen- 
eral in these organized movements in favor of agriculture. The State and 
County Agricultural societies are not as generally patronized as they ought 
to be. 

Five years ago last winter a large body of citizens assembled in Conven- 
tion at Harrisburg and formed this State Agricultural Society, which the Leg- 
islature incorporated. In these few years of its existence it has done what it 
could for the agriculture of the State. It has encouraged the formation of 
county societies and the founding of an Agricultural School ; it has main- 
tained annual exhibitions of the various industrial arts, and distributed large 
sums of money in premiums ; it has excited to a considerable extent a gener- 
ous'emulation in the arts of an improved husbandry; it records its transac- 
tions for the benefit of the present and coming generations; it promotes cor- 
respondence and social intercourse between distant citizens who else had 
lived and died as unsympathising strangers ; it demonstrates, in many ways, 
the necessity that exists for a higher agricultural education and literature, 
and thus leads the way in the establishment of schools, which, elevating the 
intelligence and refinement of Farmers, will by necessary consequence im- 
prove their habits of husbandry, and enhance the value of every acre of 
land in Pennsylvania. 

All this, and more, is the society whose annual fair ha» brought us together 
designed and endeavoring to do. This Pennsylvania of ours has many insti- 
tutions of which she is justly pround, but she has none, not one, which ad- 
dresses itself so directly to her material prosperity as this. Whatever 
advances the industrial interests of the State promotes her true glory. 

And yet it is true, though sad to say, that the interest which is manifested 
in the operations of the society is, by far, too limited and partial. The great 
agricultural masses are not moved, nor even touched yet. Some Farmers in 
every part of the State, 10 their honor be it spoken, have identified them- 
selves with the fortunes of the society, and are doing a great public service 
in aiding and directing its movements, but many more whose co-operation is 
needed neglect it entirely. If they come to the annual fair, it is to gaze at 
\he productions of others, rather than to exhibit their own. if impressed 
with what they see, the improved modes employed are not learned, or if 



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92 PENNSYCVANIA STATE / 

learned are not practiced. No matter how palpably a better culture may be 
demonstrated, they go on in ^heir old ways as if the customs inherited with 
the farm were incorrigible conditions of tenure, or else too sacred for reform. ' 

This is not as it should be. Whether they will believe it or not, I tell the 
Farmers of Pennsylvania plainly that an organization so well calculated to 
promote the interests of agriculture is worthy of and ought to have their 
universal sympathy and support. These fairs, besides furnishing many valu- 
able hints in regard to field crops and cattle raising, afford to Farmers an 
opportunity to examine, compare, and test the various improved implements 
of husbandry which the mechanical ingenuity of the day is supplying. It 
is to be expected that an age so fertile in inventions as the present will be 
distinguished by some valuable discoveries in the application of machinery to 
the various arts of agriculture, and by the multiplication of implements that 
are not worth possessing. And the fact corresponds with the expectation. 
There are improvements, more or less valuable, in every customary imple- 
ment of the farm — inventions, such as the drill, the reaper, and the thresher, 
which lighten and facilitate the labors of the Farmer — whilst there are new 
implements, and modifications of old ones, that promise fairly, but fail in the 
performance — that excite hopes only to disappoint. 

[[ a Farmer shuts himself up in the solitude of his own home, the agent 
of the worthless machine is sure to find him out and to impose on his igno* 
ranee. Then comes the vehement denunciation of the Yankee cheat, and 
the indignant rejection of all applied machinery. If that Farmer had attended 
the last fair and observed the different patterns of instruments — witnessed 
and compared their practical operation, and heard from others the testimony 
of experience, he could not have been imposed upon ; would have been saved 
the fruitless waste of money and of wrath, and would have gone home, if 
not with an improved tool, with improved ideas no less valuable. 

The agricultural fair tries every man's work, of what sort it is, and enables 
the Farmer to prove all things and to hold fast that only which is good. It 
is the cure of empyricism and imposture. 

The wages of labor are so high, and are still so advancing, that the Farmer 
must depend more and more on labor-saving machines. And let him not 
think it an evil that wages have advanced. As the friend of the Farmer, I 
rejoice at it. It indicates the prosperity of our mining and manufacturing, 
and these enlarge the Farmer's market. High wages promote the inde- 
pendence of the laborer and the happiness of his family. If the cost of 
breadstufis have increased in proportion to wages, which I doubt, other 
necessaries have not, but have declined, so that the working man can 
now clothe his wife better, and give his children more education than at any 
former period of our history. He can also afford to consume more of the 
productions of the farm than formerly. Besides these incidental advantages 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. • 93 

the direct effect of high wages on agriculture must he favorable in the end, 
for they will compel the Farmer to practice a more careful husbandry. When 
he shall have to pay forty or fifty dollars a month for common labor, he can- 
not afford to let his manures go to waste, his fields run to brambles and weeds, 
and his cultivated land produce less than half of what it is capable of yield- 
ing. Two dollars and a half a day for harvest hands will make clean glean- 
ing. Every spear of grass and every kernel of grain will be thought worth 
preserving then. Out of this necessity, already felt, for more expedition and 
exactitude in the operations of the farm, is growing the increased demand for 
machinery, which is exciting the inventive genius of our country and furnishing 
increased employment to Mechanics, whilst agricultural machinery releases 
more and more of common laborers to other pursuits which can afford, better 
than farming, to pay them the high wages they deserve. For these reasons I do 
not believe the high prices of manual labor will prove detrimental, either to 
laborers or to agriculture. But to what extent mechanism can supply the 
place of manual labor on the farm 5 whether the steam engine, that greatest 
power of modern times, can be subjugated to the purposes of the Farmer ; 
whether electricity can be applied to fertilize soils, and to stimulate germina- 
tion ; or whether, indeed, mechanical ingenuity has already done its utmost 
for the Farmer, are questions which will solve themselves in the progress of 
events, and on which present speculations would be more curious than use- 
ful. One thing, however, is certain — that the more the forces to which I 
have adverted drive the Farmer into improved culture, and the employment 
of labor-saving machines, the more will he need the counsel and assistance 
of agricultural societies — of that sort of knowledge and experience which he 
can acquire better from them than from any other source that will be open to 
him. When, therefore, 1 tell Farmers, they take too little interest in the do- 
ings of the society, and counsel more sympathy, more participation, more 
patronage, I point them in the direction in ^which, sooner or later, they will 
find their best interests to lie. 

Another want of Farmers, of which I am now to speak, is Agricultural 
Schools. I do not mean schools in which our sons are to have their heads 
filled with fanciful conceits and expensive theories of agriculture, but schools* 
where solid learning shall be imparted in connection with practised agricul- 
ture — where the principles of science shall be taught, not as abstractions, but 
with applications to every department of the farm, 

I said this society had encouraged the founding of one such school. A 
wealthy and public spirited citizen of Centre county, has given a valuable 
farm, in that beautiful valley which bears the name of the venerable founder 
of our State, and by means of contributions from various sources, suitable 
buildings have been begun and will be ready, itvis hoped, for the opening of 
the school during the next year The trustees, who are men of sagacity 



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M m PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

and prudence, are managing their limited means with strict economy, and if 
properly sustained by an enlightened Legislature and community, wilJ make 
the college all it ought to be. » 

In the minds of some of the best friends of this enterprise, serious objec- 
tions are entertained to the location of the school, but it is believed these 
will gradually give way. Centre county contains some of the best farm land 
and some of the best Farmers in Pennsylvania. No where are better crops of 
wheat and corn produced than in Nittany and Penn's valleys ; and in one of 
the most healthful and beautiful portions of the latter is the Farm School to 
be planted. It was the generosity of the donor which determined the loca- 
tion. The objections have reference principally to the want of water and 
the distance from railroad communication. The first of these objections I 
am assured can and will be obviated, and as to the latter I have never felt its 
force. The school will be some twenty miles from the Central railroad, and, 
in my judgment, that is near enough. Boys had better be away from the 
temptations and annoyances peculiar to railroads, whilst acquiring education. 
And surely they can travel twenty miles without steam, in pursuit of such 
advantages as this school is to offer. 

But the best way to obviate objections, whether real or fancied, is not to 
oppose this school but to build up others. 

Similar schools are needed in other parts of the State. There ought to be 
one in the east and one in the west immediately. There is unemployed capital 
enough in the two great cities, at the extremities of the State, to found and 
endow such schools, and there are unemployed boys enough to fill them. 

It is a mistake to suppose that our Common Schools are sufficient for the 
agricultural classes. They are taught, for the most part, by young men and 
women who have had no experience in either practical or theoretical agricul- 
ture, and who have not mastered those natural sciences on which the art of 
agriculture rests. And these schools are overrun by crowds of children, who 
rush in for the winter months, to learn something of the very rudiments of a com- 
mon English education, and who return, with the lengthening days of spring, 
to the workshop and the farm, to pursue a round of duties, as ignorant as 
ever of all the philosophy which is peculiar to their work. The reading, 
writing and cyphering of the Common Schools are, indeed, indispensable at- 
tainments, but I would have the future Farmers of Pennsylvania go on from 
these first principles to higher attainments — such as are worthy of their im- 
mortal natures and of the great art they are to practice. Not but that farm- 
ing can be done without a knowledge of chemistry and natural philosophy — 
nay, without even a knowledge of the alphabet. The principles of practical 
agriculture, which may all be comprised under the selection of breeds of 
plants and animals, the improvement of the soil and sub- soil, the culture or 
movement of the soil, the improvement of the local climate by shelter and 



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AGKICULTURAL SOCIETY. 95 

drying, and the succession of crops, may be learned by experience and tradi- 
tion, and have been successfully practiced by many a man who could not 
read his Bible or write his name. The Komans understood them well, and 
taught them to every nation they subjugated, however rude and barbarous. 
They carried them into Britain, and the ^axon and Norman Farmer went on 
without an iota of agricultural literature, until Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, one 
of the Judges of the Common Pleas, in 15d4«, published a treatise called the 
*' Book of Husbandry," and another in 1539, entitled ** The Book of Sur- 
veying and Improvement." I claim it as an honor to the judiciary that he 
was the first person on record who attempted to enlighten our English an- 
cestry by writing on the art of-agriculture, and 1 plead the fact in bar of the 
objection sometimes urged, that judges and lawyers ought not to meddle 
with agriculture. If you would judge o^ the soundness with which this 
quaint old judicial Farmer wrote, take the following extract from his work of 
husbandry: '^And over and beside all this work, I will advise the young 
Farmer to rise betime in the morning and to go about his closes, pastures, 
fields, and specially by his hedges, and to have in his purse a pair of tables, 
and when he seeth anything that would be amended to write it in his tables, 
for a man always wandering or going about somewhat, findeth or seeth that 
is amiss and would be amended. And when he cometh home to dinner, sup- 
per or at night, then let him call his bailiff, or head servant, and shew him 
the defaults, that they may be shortly amended. And when it is amended 
then let him put it out of his tables." I am not sure but that many of the 
hints of the sixteenth century would be useful to the agriculture of the 
nineteenth. 

But back of these principles of practical agriculture, underlying the whole 
operations of the farm, are great natural laws which it is the business of 
physical science to interpret and explain. These laws can not be taught 
without competent professors and appropriate apparatus, but they can be best 
taught in schools thus furnished, which connect themselves with practical 
agriculture and horticulture. Hence the idea of agricultural schools and 
colleges. They have been successfully tried in Europe, and movements are 
on foot in several of our sister States for their organization, though I am not 
aware that any are yet in operation. If Pennsylvania shall lead the way, in 
a sound and enlarged agricultural education, as she did in building turnpikes, 
bridges, and railroads, it will constitute another claim to the honored title of 
the great Pioneer in the arts of civilization. 

The character of.the instruction to be given in such schools, has been well 
sketched by Prof. J. B. Tdrner, of Illinois, in a paper which may be seen in 
the Patent Office Report of 1851, at page 37. His plan comprehends the 
study of the nature, instincts and habits of all animals, insects, trees and 
plants — of the nature, composition, adaptation and regeneration of soils — of 



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% PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

political, financial, domestic and manual economy in all industrial processes— 
of the principles of national, constitutional and civil law, and especially 
the laws of vicinage and comity between neighbors, and of book-keeping and 
accounts. Chemistry, mineralogy and natural philosophy must necessarily 
enter largely into such a course of education, and there ought to be added, 
it seems to me, a course of history and something of the classics. Survey- 
ing, drawing, and landscape gardening, would also be appropriate accom- 
plishments. 

This seems like a formidable array of studies for a young Farmer to en- 
counter, but as the lion in the pilgrim's path proved only a shadow when 
approached, so* will all difScuhies vanish b^ore the resolute and earnest 
minded boy, who prosecutes with diligence these delightful studies, in a 
school fitted for his advancement. ' 

Fellow citizens — Farmers of Pennsylvania — these things are not unworthy 
of your sons to learn ; but if you would have them learned, you must, out of 
your abundance, aid in the endowment and support of agricultural schools. 
Say not that your sons can farm without all this knowledge. They belong 
to a country and an age that are bounding onward with unprecedented power 
toward the sources of all light, and they must advance with others and 
everything around them. The probleni to be solved is, not how ignorant a 
Farmer may be, and yet plough and plant successfully, but how much he 
may learn of those laws and principles of nature which touch his occupa- 
tion. If unable fully to penetrate the arcana of nature — if life and death 
are hidden in recesses too profound and mysterious for human eye to ex- 
plore, there is still a vast field of truth spread out before him, on which 
new light is every day being poured, and into which the highest instincts 
of his nature bid him to enter and occupy. 

it is sometimes objected that the cultivation of the mind unfits the man for 
the labors of the farm, and doubtless it is the great fault of some systems of 
education to do so, but it need not be so, and in our farm school it will not 
be. Muscle is to be developed as well as mind — the hand is to be guided as 
well as the head — and we hope to send out full proportioned and well 
balanced men, as capable to work as to think. The cultivation of the intel- 
lect need not weaken the arm. Our sons shall be as strong to labor, when 
they shall have learned the properties of soils and manures, and all that a 
Farmer need to know, as they are now. Ignorance qualifies for nothing. If 
knowledge be power, you increase the eflTectiveness of labor when you increase 
its intelligence. The blind man cannot farm as well as be who has eyes. 

And when we shall have begotten a generation of educated Farmers-*-actual 
tillers, who know what they do and why they do it, we shall have elevated 
and dignified our agriculture, refined our rural population, and have added 
value to every rood of ground within our borders. More. We shall have a 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 97 

race of Farmers fitted to adorn any of those many stations in civil government 
to which, ander our h/ppy constitutions, they are liable at all times to be called. 
I love to sec Fanners in our legislative halls and our executive offices. The 
sound sense which the farm begets, serves the public a good purpose in repressing 
the vain imaginations of mere theorists. But when that sound sense, nowise 
weakened or obscured, shall be enlarged, enlightened and refined by such an 
education as 1 advocate, the educated Farmer will be armed and equipped for 
any intellectual conflicts to which his country may call him, and shall be 
able to guide the afifairs of State with the same discretion as the afifairs of the 
farm. We want agricultural schools. 

Next, we want smaller farms. As a general rule, Pennsylvania farms are 
too large. If a man have capital enough to stock and carry on a large farm 
properly — that is, so as to make it yield up to its full capacity, and at the same 
time to be growing better — there can be no just objection to his adding field 
to field, and farming largely. And there are some advantages peculiar to large 
farms, such as a greater diversity and a more systematic rotation of crops, 
which the man of large means has a perfect right to purchase to himself. But 
generally speaking, the capital employed in carrying on farms is very small, 
and the size of farms i« out of ail proportion to the means invested. It is a 
distressing sight to see fields half tilled. Such farming is pernicious as an 
example, it corrupts, and finally kills the soil, and degrades the cause of agri- 
culture. It is not for me to say how many acres a Farmer ought to cultivate, 
but I will say that he ought to attempt no more than he can cultivate 
thoroughly and well. If, instead of hurrying his sons off to the west, as 
they grow into manhood, he would divide his farm of two or three hundred 
acres among them, until each of them and himself should have but fifty acres 
apiece to cultivate, it would not surprise me to hear that he and each son had 
found fifty acres properly cultivated, more productive than the whole had 
been before. The Romans illustrated the importance of thorough tillage by 
the following apologue: A vine-dresser had two daughters and a vineyard 5 
when his eldest daughter was married, he gave her a third of his vineyard 
for a portion, notwithstanding which, he had the same quantity of fruit as 
formerly. When his youngest daughter was married, he gave her half of 
what remained, and still the produce of his vineyard was undiminished. This 
resulted from his bestowing as much labor on the third part left, after his 
daughters had received their portion, as he had been accustomed to give to 
the whole vineyard. My impression is, that Pennsylvania Farmers might 
repeat, with great success, the experiment of the old Roman. The large ideas 
which are so striking a characteristic of us as a nation, and in general so 
honorable, have taken an unfortunate direction in dictating the size of our 
farms. 1 do not know how large a farm Cincinnatus cultivated, but I think 

it did not exceed three acres. When Dmo landed on the coast of Africa, the 
7 



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98 PENNSYLVANIA bTATE 

inhabitants, disposed to be hospitable and generous, gave her as much land 
as a bull's hide would cover, and when, with a woman's wit, she cut the hide 
into small slips and enclosed a larger portion of ground than was intended, 
she had less territory for the magnificent city and state of Gartharge than 
most Pennsylvania Farmers possess and occupy. And, nowadays, in the 
densely populated districts of Europe, five acres are considered an ample 
field and verge enough for the industry of a family. 

With the increase of population in Pennsylvania, and under the influence 
of our intestate laws, which i trust may be perpetual, our future tendency 
will necessarily be to smaller farms. I would hasten and increase that ten* 
dency by a sound public sentiment. If you have not children to endow, sell 
half of your land and employ the proceeds in improving the rest. 

Small farms will enlarge the basis of our agricultural population — will 
bring in a careful and exact husbandry — will increase production, and enhance 
the value of land. The more dense the population of a rural district, the 
better roads you will have — more social relations — more schools — more 
churches. These are all great State objects, not to be sought, indeed, by 
legislation which would restrict farms to a given measure, but to be promoted 
by a sound public opinion founded on observation an<^ experience. 

More care of manures is another want among Pennsylvania Farmers. On 
this point, as on all others, I speak in a general sense. 1 rejoice to know 
that there are some Farmers, of whom he of Mt. Airy, the esteemed President 
of this Society is an illustrious example, who take all care of every substance 
that can rot, as a thing of value. Nothing goes to waste on a farm thus 
managed. The compost heap is ever at hand to receive the droppings of 
cattle and whatever can be of use no longer elsewhere. Hence the stables 
and the cattle yard are kept absolutely clean, and in that prepared heap, the 
ammonia fixed and retained 5y a little plaster of Paris daily sprinkled, are 
maturing the powers and properties that are to quicken and enrich the soil 
and to make the corn laugh and sing. But I have seen many a brave 
barn, situated on the brow of a hill, with a yard stretching down the 
slope 'to the public road, the accumulations of the winter scattered here 
and ther^ all over the hill side, sometimes frozen, and then thawed — now 
drenched with rains, and now dried in the sun — every particle of virtue 
crushed out beneath the iioofs of uncomfortable beasts, and washed down 
to fertilize the ditch of a turnpike for half a mile. When the Farmer 
takes the exhausted remainder — mere husks and shells^-on to his fields, 
and calls that manuring them, he allows himself to expect a good crop, 
but disappointed, he concludes his land is worn out, sells it at half price and 
goes off to the west to repeat the impoverishing process there. The fault is 
not in his land, it is in himself. He has allowed the fertilizing properties of 
the barn yard to be washed away, or to evaporate into thin air, and whilst his 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 99 

fields would have rewarded him if he had given them their daes, neither the 
atmosphere nor the turnpike thank him for what they have got. 

You must not deem this a fancy sketch, nor an isolated case. Such indif- 
ference to manures may be seen in almost every farming district of the State, 
as if we had amongst us disciples of Jethro Tcll — he who introduced into 
England the drill system of husbandry, but who repudiated all manures, and 
taught that rotation of crops and careful tillage would supply their place. I 
have known one citizen to be indicted and convicted as for a public nuisance 
in suflfering the leechings of his barn yard to distil into a spring which sup* 
plied a neighboring town with water. Is it not strange that a man should 
wait for the criminal law to teach him better husbandry 1 

With our matchless barns there is no excuse for waste of manures. The 
Pennsylvania barn is worthy of all commendation. It deserves almost the 
rank of an institution. It is a magnificent symbol of economy and humanity. 
In traveling through the rich prairies of the west, and observing the mise- 
rable provision made for crops and cattle, often mere hovels, thatch covered, 
and always inadequate in size and arrangement, the mind recurs with plea- 
sure and pride to the stately edifices that dot our farms, that shelter our 
horses and cows from the pelting of the pitiless storms, and that preserve our 
crops from winds and rains. Let our Farmers add only, at small expense, a 
shelter for their manures, ana systematic habits in the preservation of them, 
and they will be a light set upon a hill for the illumination of agricultural 
classes throughout all our country. 

When manures come to be appreciated as the great fountain of fertility and 
wealth, and some day not long distant they will be, the carelessness of our 
day in the«r preservation and management will be looked back upon with 
amazera,ent and incredulity. The time is coming when every bone, from that 
of a chicken to an ox — when every dead dog— *the offal of every kitchen and 
the ashes of every hearth, as well as each decaying leaf and plant will be 
cared fpr, garnered, and used to fertilize the land. It will be time enough for 
us to seek out pigeon roosts in distant islands of the sea for manures when 
we shall have exhausted the resources at hand. We often overlook th^ bless- 
ings we have, in quest of some distant good. Let us learn to prize, preserve 
and use the fertilizing agents that abound around us, before we tax ourselves 
for foreign manures or condemn our lands as sterile and unprofitable. 

Again, we want better breeds of horses and horned cattle, and better 
breeding. 

I wish this Society would take measures to ascertain how much money 
goes annually out of Pennsylvania to pay for cattle and horses. The obser- 
vations 1 have made on this subject incline me to believe that the aggregate 
would astonish every Farmer. I dare not hazard an estimate ; but suppose it 
is only half a million of dollars, can any roan give a tolerable reason why 



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100 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

that sum should be paid to Farmers and graziers in Ohio, Kentucky and 
Canada, instead of being distributed among our owul Doubtless our lime, 
stone valleys are better adapted to raising the cereal grains than live stock- 
and yet every Farmer in them, if he would introduce better breeds, could 
turn off a first rate horse, and pair of bullocks, every year for the market. — 
But we have large districts — several counties — whose soil and grasses are 
exactly adapted to cattle raising, and nothing is wanted but a larger outlay 
of care and money in selecting breeds, and more skill and pains in feeding 
and rearing. These cattle shows ought to convince the most skeptical that 
the selectest stock can be raised in Pennsylvania, and the state of the market 
proves that the business, pursued in proper localities, and in approved modes, 
would pay. I would encourage our upland Farmers to procure the best of 
stock and to rear it carefully. Whether they be hogs or sheep, horned cat- 
tle or horses, let them be of the best breeds, cost what it may to obtain 
them. If means are small, buy few, and means will inctease. If at a loss as 
to the best modes of rearing, consult the experienced breeders, who will al- 
ways be found at these fairs, or read the transactions of this and other agri- 
cultural societies, recorded and published for the instruction of all who are 
seeking the better ways. Well bred horses, and good beef and mutton, are 
decisive of a high state of civilization, whilst bad beef and unsavory mutton 
are a reproach to any people. 

There is one thing of great importance to Farmers, not wanted by those of 
Pennsylvania, for they are in the full enjoyment of it, but which it is of the 
utmost importance to them to preserve. 1 mean good markets. Without 
these, agriculture can indeed exist, for, unlike all other human employments, 
it is self-supporting, but without good markets it cannot prosper aYid flourish. 
What, then, are the constituent elements of a good market for the Farmer % 
I answer, manufacturing, com\nerce, and currency. 

In a State where timber, coal, and iron ore are so abundant as in ours, and 
whose geographical position and internal improvements afford such facilities 
for obtaining raw materials which we do not posseps, and for exporting the 
prodi/bls of our shops and factories, manufacturing is an obvious necessity. 
Were we the dullest people on earth we should be driven into it by force of 
our position and condition. We have not progressed in this form of industry 
as fast and as far as our natural advantages would have justified, but still oar 
manufactories are numerous, various, and increasing. Philadelphia and Pitts- 
burg are, I believe, the most manufacturing towns on the continent. — 
Around every blast furnace and rolling mill, every cotton or glass factory, 
every workshop and coal mine, the Farmer finds consumers for his surplus. 

Production makes commerce. Until a people have produced more than 
will supply their own wants, there is nothing to sustain commerce; for, 
however they may want what their neighbor's produce, they cannot obtain it 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 101 

till they have furnished themselves with the means of exchange. If the ex- 
change is to he made in money, that don't grow spontaneously, and must he 
ohtained from those who have it, by giving them some production which 
they want more than money. But when agriculture and manufacturing have 
produced more than the producers consume, then comes commerce, and with 
it the merchant, the factor, the navigator and the transporter, to be consumers 
themselves, and to help others to consume the productions of the farm. It 
was a beneficient appointment of Providence that thus linked together, and 
made mutually dependent, these great occupations of society. Hostility be« 
tween them is as unnatural as between members of the human body. As 
well might the hands say to the feet I have no need of you, or the eye to the 
ear L have no need of thee, as that agriculture, manufactures, or commerce 
should attempt to dispense with each other. " What God has joined together, 
let not man put asunder." In that indissoluble relation appointed for them, 
these great interests are all necessary to the civilization and happiness of the 
race — they must all flourish or decay together. 

It seems to me, then, that when government undertakes to tax one of these 
interests, and especially that one which is most fundamental and important, 
for the benefit of others, it violates the order of nature and perpetrates a 
great wrong. To taxation, reasonably and justly imposed for the necessary 
support of government, there can be no valid objection. Such burthens 
are more than compensated by the peace and good order whicl^ govern- 
ment maintains; and since agriculture pays directly, large taxes to gov- 
ernment, and, by supporting all other industry, enlarges continually the 
basis of taxation, bounties and appropriations out of the public treasury, 
in aid of agriculture, are for the common weal, and quite justifiable. — 
But all legislation for the protection of one branch of industry, at the ex- 
pense of others — all interference between the producer and consumer, with 
demand and supply — is as unnatural as it is ruinous to the Farmer's markets. 
Let the Farmer have the markets of the world — the middleman if he wants 
him — and the best price he can get for his productions. The magnetism of 
the plough, if unobstructed, will draw to it the loom and the anvil, and they 
will freight the ship, the canal boat, and the rail car. Weights and measures 
are well enough prescribed by law, as inducing uniformity and preventing 
imposition, but see to it, Farmers, that bad legislation do not spoil your mar- 
kets. To whom you shall sell, when you shall sell, and at what price, are 
questions for you, and not for government 5 and if you are not as free to 
come home with the price in your hand as you were to go out with your 
product, you lose half of your market. In the glowing words of Patrick 
Henry, I would say : " Fetter not commerce, sir. Let her be as free as air. 
She will range the whole creation, and return oil the wings of the four winds 
of Heaven to bless the land with plenty." 



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102 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

The subject of Currency is too large to be fully treated ia an occasional 
address like this. It is currency which measures the yali:ie of everything 
that labor produces, and regulates exchanges. Of course its healthfulness is 
indispensable to the Farmer's market. I remind you that the Constitution of ^ 
the United States, under which it is our unspeakable privilege to live, gives 
to Congress, representing the people in every district of the Union, the ex- 
clusive power to coin money and to regulate the value thereof. This power 
has been exercised, and we have a metallic currency, reasonably pure, with 
its decimal value plainly stamped, and admirably adapted to facilitate ex- 
changes. The four hundred shekels of silver, current money with the mer- 
chant, which Abraham gave for a burial place for Sarah, had to be weighed to 
Efhron in the presence of all the people. The brass coinage of the Romans 
and the iron money of Lycurgus, were clumsy instruments of exchange. — 
We are more fortunate. We have the precious metals so coined that aiy 
child can tell their value — they can be counted as fast as thought — and the 
chosen emblems of our liberty, union, and independence, mingle in our busi- 
ness transactions and repose among our choicest * treasures. That these 
coins are abundant enough for all purposes of Farmers, is proved by the 
fact that the general government, the largest dealer among us, uses no 
other currency. They are of uniform value— 'not subject to those spasms 
which afflict a paper currency. The value of a bank note depends on i\^ 
ability of the bank to redeem it, and that depends on the number of notes 
issued. Gold and silver need no redemption. They redeem everything else. 
A paper currency, sometimes redundant — sometimes scarce — and always 
more or less insecure, keeps all value unsettled and markets unsteady. If 
Farmers would preserve their markets unhurt by the fluctuations of such a 
currency, let their large influence be exerted for the maintenance and exten- 
sion of the metalic currency — the coined money. 

Hitherto, Mr. President, my observations have been addressed to Farmers 
as a class. Before I close, 1 wish to leave a few thoughts on the minds 
of other classes — Mechanics, Merchants, Capitalists, Professional men — all 
men and women who eat bread. 

I have hinted at the intimate relations which the various occupations of 
society sustain to each other. Have we duly considered them % Do we realize 
how they all depend on agriculture 1 

Look at a great city. What manifestations of wealth and power on every 
hand ! The multitudes who throng those well built streets, how eager and 
active they are in the pursuits of business or of pleasure ! How diversified 
the employments of those that work, and how various and abundant the pro- 
ductions of industry. The Farmer, and that higher Providence from whom 
come the seed time and harvest, are forgotten in that gay and busy crowd. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 103 

ETen the market house comes to be considered as a mere urban institution. 
All instinct with life, they feel all the resources of life within themselves. 

But let crops fail for a few successive seasons ; let Farmers be visited with 
drought, or mildew, or caterpillar, or any of God's messengers of wrath, and 
the heavens shall be pierced by the wail that goes up from a famished city ; 
the din of industry is hushed ; those busy streets, deserted of their throngs, 
are desolate now, and twin spectres. Famine and Pestilence, stalk alone 
through the marts of trade and the mansions of wealth. 

<< The great city hath do sound nor tread, 
And ships are drifting with their dead 
To shores where all is damh." 

No foreign foe has invaded it, but the forgotten fountain of its life has been 
Couched, and it is desolate. 

fiehold a great army, as it marches on, conquering and to conquer ; — how 
terrible its engines of destruction, how resistless its sweep of power ; and yet 
let the Farmer withhold his bread, and its bravest battalions are as grasshop* 
pers. What more than the titular dignitaries of the chess board were those em- 
battled hosts lately assembled in the Crimea, except as the Farmer fed them 1 
Aye, it was the Farmer, the instrumental Providence on earth, who lent courage 
to their hearts and sinews to their arms. It is even so. The wealth of cities — 
the power of armies and of navies — the greatness of nations — the force and life 
of society — all things above mere savage existence — are built on agriculture. 
No other foundation can man lay than that. It is the art preservative of all 
arts. Humble as are its appointments, it resembles, nevertheless, the work of 
creation — the grandest display of God's power, and deserves to rank among 
the sublimest achievements of human genius. To make two blades of grass 
grow where but one grew before, what is that but to mimic creative power 1 

Yet such is the misjudgment of the world, we honor this, the only heaven- 
appointed employment of man, the least of all others. Our sqns pant for the 
short-lived dignities of professionaUlife, or for the excitements of trade and 
commerce, and turn away from agriculture as from a loathsome drudgery. 
Even war, whose work is destruction, is accounted more honorable than ag- 
riculture. What pains do we take to celebrate the victories of the sword, 
whilst we disregard those of the ploughshare ! As if fighting were worthier 
than farming, and " Thy Kingdom be destroyed," a better prayer than " Thy 
Kingdom come." 

Friends and follow citizens : We should strive, each one in his appropriate 
sphere, to cultivate a better sentiment, a sounder philosophy i to realize our- 
selves and to make others realize the deep, deep stake we all have in agriculture. 
Let us remember, day by day, our daily bread. All are not to turn Farmers — 
that were to mar the fair proportions of society 3 but all can encourage the efforts 



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10* PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

which are made for the advancement of this great fundamental interest. Id 
one way or another every man can do something to aid agricultural societies 
and schools, and these, the chief agencies in agricultural reforms, will pour 
the horn of plenty all over the land, and pay back, through an improved hus- 
bandry, all they receive and more — good measure, pressed down and running 
over. 

And when wants and deficiencies shall be all remedied— rwhen our agriculture 
shall have reached that point of perfection that is perfectly practicable — ^when 
hill and valley shall be spread over with a yeomanry thoroughly enlighten- 
ed — when education shall become universal — and a sound morality, such as 
usually associates itself with the farm, shall be difi*used throughout all 
classes — our land yielding its increase according to its full capacity — our 
political institutions still firm and strong to protect and bless our multiplied 
millions, we shall enjoy, in all the realities of a living experience, that glo- 
rious vision of Israel's wrapt Minstrel — 

« That our sons shall grow up as young plants, 
That our daughters shall he as comer-stones. 
Polished after the similitude of a palace ; 
That our garners shall he ftill, 
AflTording all manner of store. 
That our sheep shall bring forth thousands. 
And ten thousands in our streets, 
That •nr oxen shall be strong to labor. 
And that there shall be no complaining in our streets.^' 

With all the unction of the Psalmist we may add : — 

« Happy is that people that is in such a case." 



MExMORIAL OF THE COMMITTEE ^F THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
OF THE FARMERS' HIGH SCHOOL OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania in General Assembly met : 

The undersigned, a committee appointed by the Board of Trustees of the 
Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania, to solicit from the Legislature of 
Pennsylvania an appropriation of fifty thousand dollars, in aid of the object 
of the institution, respectfully represent, that the Farmers^ High School of 
Pennsylvania was incorporated on the 22d day of February, 1855, at the 
instance, and under the auspices of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural So- 
ciety. The trustees met at Harrisburg on Thursday, the 14th day of June, 
1855, and proceeded, in accordance with the provisions of the act of incor- 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 105 

K 

poration, to organize the institution, by the classification of the trustees, the 
appointment of Frederick Watts, president, and Robert C. Walker, secretary 
of the board. The first important duty devolving upon the trustees, was "the 
selection of the most eligible site within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 
for the location of the institution." 

A proposition by James Miles, of Erie county, and a proposition of James 
Irvin, of Centre county, to donate each two hundred acres of land to the 
Farmers' High School, on condition the institution should be located thereon, 
were laid before the board, together with several propositions to sell land to 
the institution on favorable terms. To enable the trustees to act intelligently, 
and to afibrd the citizens of every county in the Commonwealth an oppor- 
tunity of competing for the location of the institution, further propositions 
were solicited, and Governor Pollock, Frederick Watts, of Carlisle, A. L. 
Ehvyn, of Philadelphia, were appointed a committee to examine the different 
sites, with a request to any of the trustees^ who could make it convenient, to 
accompany the committee. 

The committee in discharge of the duty assigned them, and several of the 
trustees, met at the Spruce Creek station, on the Pennsylvania railroad, on the 
26th day of June, 1855, at which place they received a proposition from Elias 
Baker, of Blair county, offering to donate two hundred acres of land situate 
in Blair county, on condition the institution should be located thereon. The 
committee, accompanied by the other members of the board, proceeded to the 
land offered by James Irvin, situate in Centre county 5 thence by Bellefonte, 
Lock Haven and Wiliiamsport, to the land offfered by James Miles, situate on 
the banks of lake Erie, in Erie county ; thence to a tract of land situate on 
Youghiogheny river, in Allegheny county, which George A. Bydrd proposed 
to sell to the institution on favorable terms, and thence to the land oflfered by 
EUas Baker, situate on the Pennsylvania railroad, west of Altoona, at which 
place they separated. To a meeting of the trustees, held at Harrisburg on 
the 18th day of July, 1855, the committee reported what they had done, de- 
scribing the situation, quality and advantages of the several tracts of land 
which they had visited, and submitting the selections to the board. At this 
meeting a proposition was received from Hezekiah Easton, of Franklin county, 
proposing to donate a valuable tract of land situate in Franklin county, on 
condition the institution should be located thereon. The trustees again ad- 
journed until the 12th day of September, 1855, having instructed the commit- 
tee to visit the land oflfered by Mr. Easton, and report to the next meeting, at 
which it was resolved the site should be selected. On the 12th day of Sep- 
tember, 1855, the committee having viewed the land oflfered by Mr. Easton, 
reported its situation, quality, etc. At this meeting a more definite proposi- 
tion was received from James Irvin, oflfering not only to donate the two hun- 
dred acres of land, but also to lease to the institution two hundred acres 



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106 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

adjoining, all under cultivation, for the term of five years, at a rent of six 
hundred dollars per annum, with the right to call upon him at any time within 
the term to convey the same to the institution, in fee simple, clear of all in- 
cumbrances, on the payment of twelve thousand dollars, one- half in hand, and 
the residue in two equal annual instalments. 

A subscription of ten thousand dollars, by the citizens of Centre county, to 
the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania, on condition the institution should 
be located on the lands offered by James Irvin, one-half payable 1st of Octo- 
ber, 1856, the residue 1st of May, 1857, the payment of which was guaran* 
teed by responsible citizens of Centre county, accompanied the proposition. 
A proposition was also received from citizens of Blair county, offering to pur- 
chase from Elias Baker, for the use of the institution, two hundred acres ad- 
joining the two hundred acres which Mr. Baker proposed to donate, and also 
to guarantee the payment to the institution of ten thousand dollars, on con- 
dition the institution should be located upon the land offered by Elias Baker. 
A proposition was also received from citizens of Franklin county, offering to 
contribute several thousand dollars, on condition the' institution should be lo- 
cated on the land offered by Mr. Easton. A proposition was also received 
from David Blair, of Huntingdon county, offering to donate two hundred acres 
of land, on condition the institution should be located thereon. After very 
careful consideration the offer of Gen. Irvin, in connection with the subscrip- 
tion and guarantee by the citizens of Centre county, being deemed the most 
beneficial to the institution, was accepted. The land is all in cultivation, ex- 
cept about forty acres. It is beautifully situated at the junction of Nittany 
and Penn valleys, with a gentle declivity to the south-east. The soil is a lime- 
stone clay, slightly intermixed with sand. It can be broken up to any depth, 
is susceptible to the very highest degree of cultivation and improvement, and 
is adapted as well to horticulture as to agriculture. 

The erection of suitable buildings for the accommodation of the students, 
the principal and professors, barns and stabling for the protection of the crops 
and the housing of cattle, was the next important duty devolving upon the 
trustees, who are unanimous in their desire to construct the same with due 
and equal regard to economy, permanence and good taste. Believing that two 
hundred students can be profitably employed at the institution, all the time 
which it would be judicious to require them' to labor, the trustees are desirous 
to erect buildings for the accommodation of that number, with as little delay 
as possible. 

The college buildings must necessarily be large. The structure upon the 
plan adopted is composed of three distinct buildings, four stories high, inde- 
pendent of the basement, showing a continuous front of 230 feet. The centre 
building being 110 feet by 50 feet, and the wings each 110 feet by 50 feet. — 
The basement, which will be above ground in front, and under ground back, 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 107 

will be occupied by the dining-room, kitchen, bake-room, wash-room, ironing- 
room, milk, vegetable, kitchen and coal cellars, and furnace rooms. The first 
floor of the centre building by a public parlor, library and recitation room's, 
rooms for geological and mineralogical collections, ect. ; thirty feet on each 
end of the fourth floor of the centre building for society rooms ; the horth 
end of the first and second floors of the east wing, for the private dwelling of 
the principal j the first floor of the east wing, south of the principal's house, 
for the daily assemblage of all the students ; the first, second and third floors 
of the north end of the west wing for the private dwelling of one of the pro- 
fessprs ; the second and third stories of the west wing, south of the profes- 
sor's house, for a commencement hall, and all the remaining rooms, which are 
nine by seventeen feet in the clear, after the accommodation of the domestic^, 
to be occupied by the students. The outside walls to be constructed of blue 
limestone. 

Beside these buildings, which would be required for the accommodation of 
two hundred students at any other literary institution, numerous buildings 
peculiar to this institution, such as barns, sheds, tool houses, &c., must be 
erected. 

A legacy left by the late Elliott Cresson, to the Pennsylvania Agricultural 
Society, in trust for this institution, ten thousand dollars appropriated by the 
Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society, and the ten thousand dollars sub- 
scribed by the citizens of Centre and Huntingdon counties, are the only funds 
at the disposal of the trustees, and they are wholly inadequate to the erection 
of the buildings required. 

The objects of the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania are so important, 
and seem to commend themselves so directly to public favor, that the trustees 
come to the Legislature with perfect confidence that the people's representa- 
tives will afi!brd the aid required to place the institution in actual operation. 
Other and younger States have made appropriations to similar objects. Why 
should Pennsylvania, with her vast agricultural resources, developed and un- 
developed, remain inactive 1 

This institution proposes, by uniting the acquisition of knowledge with daily 
toil, to impart interest to the one and add dignity to the other. 

It proposes to remedy an evil which exists at every literary institution in 
the Commonwealth. That evil is the low repute in which manual labor is 
held by the student. We have had, it is true, farms connected with some of 
our colleges, upon which those of the students who choose might lessen the ex- 
penses of acquiring their education by manual labor. Those who wrought 
npon the form were, by those who did not labor, esteemed poor; and like the 
poor man^s children^ educated at public expense under the act of April 4, 1809, 
[5 Smith's Laws,. 734«,] they became a distinct class cut off from the society 
of those who, by the very distinction thus created, were led to believe their 



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108 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

parents rich. It is thus that manual labor is degrading in the eyes oj the youtfi 
of OUT colleges to such an extent, that in nine instances out of ten they are 
graduated with an utter distaste and abhorrence for the pursuits and occupa- 
tions of their fathers, whether in the field or the shop. The association of 
manual labor with slavery^ which is but an extension of this same prejudice, 
rests like an incubus upon the sunny lands and fertile fields of the south. 
There thousands of families endure poverty and want rather than degrade 
themselves by manual labor, 

. Our present common school laws, placing the children of the poor and the 
rich upon one common platform, it is esteemed honorable in all to acquire 
knowledge at the public expense. 

The Farmers' High School proposes to require such amount of manual labor 
as shall be found beneficial and proper, of every student, as one of the con- 
ditions of his admission to, and of his continuance in the institution. The 
ambition of students, thus placed upon a perfect equality, with no standard 
but advancement in learnings and skill in labor to elevate or degrade them, will 
soon bring into active exercise energies of mind and of body, which, but for 
this incentive to industry, might have laid dormant. 

The profits arising from the labor of the students are to go into the treasury 
of the institution, to lessen the expenses of their education. It has been esti- 
mated that after the institution shall have been put in operation, with suitable 
buildings, four hundred acres of such land as that which has been secured and 
free from debt, the necessary expenses of the student, inculding boarding, 
washing and tuition, will not exceed seventy-five dollars per annum. 

It is not proposed to teach the dead languages. If deemed by any essential 
to a good education, they should be acquired prior to the age at which pupils 
can be admitted into this institution. 

With this exception it is proposed to afiford the student, in a four years' 
course, as complete and thorough an education as can be .acquired at our best 
literary institutions — an education which, though not less scientific^ shall be 
rendered more practical by the daily operations and illustrations in the field 
and the shop. 

One great and leading object of the institution is to so lessen^ by manual 
labor, the expenses as to bring the acquisition of a scientific education within 
the reach of the farming community. How many farmers can afibrd, out of 
the net profits of the farms, to give their sons a collegiate education at an ex- 
pense of not less than three hundred dollars a year? How few could not afford 
it at an expense of seventy-five dollar si At this rate, each son could receive 
an education, returning at the expiration of the course to supply upon his 
father's farm the place of the younger brother^ whose turn had come to enjoy 
the advantages of the institution. How soon would the son, thus restored to 
the farm he had left but a few years before, work an entire change upon the 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 109 

yard — the garden — ^the orchard — the field 1 How much would he done during 
hours which in former years had been spent in idleness^ to ornament and beau- 
tify^ 

As an experimental farm^ this institution will greatly benefit the agricultu- 
ral community. 

Experiments in the introduction of new seeds, grains, roots, modes of cul- 
ture, farm implements, &c., are generally too troublesome and expensive to be 
often tried or fully tested by the individual farmer. At this school, however, 
which will be in correspondence with agricultural institutions in every part 
of the civilized world, experiments can be made with great facility and cer- 
tainty, and at a comparative trifling cost, and the results be made known to 
all the citizens of the Commonwealth without charge. 

The cautious farmer will await the result of experiments and tests con- 
stantly going on at the institution, and introduce upon his farm only such 
seeds, grains, plants and roots, and such modes of cultivation as experience 
has shown to be adapted to his soil and climate, and su^h machines and im- 
plements of husbandry as have stood the test of actual trial. 

Situate, as the institution will be, in the geographical centre of the State, 
within about twenty miles of the Spruce Creek station on the Pennsylvania 
railroad, and within eight or ten miles of the Lock Haven and Tyrone rail- 
road, which will probably be completed by the time students can be admitted, 
it will be readily accessible to all the citizens of the Commonwealth. 

The Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania is emphatically W State institu- 
tion. The Governor and Secretary of the Commonwealth, and the President 
of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society, are ex-ojjicio members of the 
Board of Trustees. Three of the nine remaining members of the board are to 
be elected annually by the Executive Committee of the Pennsylvania State 
Agricultural Society, and three representatives from each county agricultural 
society in the Commonwealth. The advantages of the institution will, there- 
fore, be secured equally to the citizens of every county in the State. 

The Trustees have invited proposals for the erection of the college build- 
ings and one barn, agreeably to plans and specifications adopted. The letting 
of the college buildings has been postponed from the 7th of February to the 
13th day of March next, and will take place at that time at the office of the 
Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society in Harrisburg. It is difficult to esti- 
mate the cost with accuracy ; but this the committee feel warranted in saying, 
that the whole cost of putting the Farmers' High School in operation, with 
all the necessary buildings, improvements, dec, cannot fall short of one hun- 
dred thousand dollars. 

We therefore pray the honorable bodies to appropriate to the Farmers' High 
School of Pennsylvania the sum of fifty thousand dollars, to be paid in such 
manner and at such times as, in their wisdom, shall be deemed meet and pro- 



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110 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

per for the furtlierance of the objects of the institution; and they will ever 

pray, &c. 

H. N. M'ALLISTER, 

A. O. HIESTER, 

ROBT. C. WALKER, 

Committee. 
Office Penn'a State Agr'l Society, 
Harrisburg, 1857. 



REPLY TO A RESOLUTION OF INQUIRY FROM THE HOUSE OF 
REPRESENTATIVES, MARCH 18, 1857. 

To the Honorable the House of Representatives : 

Gentlemen : — In reply to a resolution of your body of the 18th inst., the 
undersigned beg to state that they comply with great pleasure, and with all 
the promptness in their power. From the nature of the duties of their offices, 
they have but a very limited connection with the financial affairs of the Penn- 
sylvania State Agricultural Society, and the statement herewith submitted 
cannot • be rendered so clear, or so full, as if the interrogatories had been ad- 
dressed to the financial officer of the society, or its Executive Committee. They 
submit it, however, as not only a full but clear exhibit, made in a spirit of fair- 
ness, and wim a sincere desire to comply with the requirements of the reso- 
lution. They have confined themselves entirely to the terms of the resolution, 
except in stating the sum disbursed for premiums, which amounts to twenty- 
three thousand seven hundred and one dollars and seventy-eijg'ht cents, or nearly 
four thousand dollars per year since the organization of the society, to further 
the legitimate objects of agriculture, and ten thousand dollars toward the en- 
dowment of the Farmers' High school, which, together, make an aggregate 
of over five thousand six hundred dollars per annum. Showing an amount of 
good in behalf of the cause which the society was incorporated to promote, 
not surpassed by any similar one in the country. 

To the first interrogatorji: — " That the President and Recording Secretary of 
the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society are hereby requested to inform 
this House, on or before Tuesday next, what amount of appropriation, in 
money, said society has received from- the State since its incorporation," we 
answer : 

That the books of the society agree with those of ^he State Treasurer, and 
that the sum received is twelve thousand dollars, being two thousand dollars 
per year for the six years the society has been in existence. 

Ten thousand dollars of this sum has been appropriated, and was paid on 
the 19th of April, 1856, to the Farmers' High school, located in Centre county. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. Ill 

To the second interrogatory : — " What amount of money, or its equivalent, 
said society has had in the hands of the Treasurer or otherwise, at the end of 
each year since its incorporation 1" 

We reply, that for the reason stated in our preliminary remarks, we are 
unahle to give exact data, but refer to the accounts of the Treasurer printed in 
the Transactions of the society, the volumes of which have been annually dis- 
tributed among the members of the Legislature. * 
Vol. 1, page 33. — Balance in Treasurer's hands at the close ^f the 

year 1851 - $578 54 

Vol. 1, page 53. — ^Balance in Treasurer's hands at the close of the 

year 1852 2,011 74 

Vol. 1, page 444. — Balance in Treasurer's hands at the xslose of the 

year 1853 6,058 64 

Vol. 2, page 21. — Balance in Treasurer's hands at the close of the 

year 1854 3,640 48 

Vol. 3, page 20. — Balance in Treasurer s hands at the close of the 

year 1855 1,423 22 

The account of the Treasurer for the year 1856, not yet published in the 
Transactions, having only been audited and approved on the 17th day of this 
present month, shows a balance in the Treasurer's hands of five huQdred and 
forty-three dollars and ninety-nine cents. 

To complete this branch of the subject, we here reply to the fourth inter- 
rogatory, leaving the third for a future paragraph, thus avoiding the confusion 
which a strict following of the resolution of the House would have involved 
the matter. 

The fourth interrogatory : — "And also what amount (if any) has been lost 
by said society during the last two years, and how said loss was sustained 1" 

We can think of no other mode of answering this, than by stating what ap- 
pears from the published accounts of the Treasurer, which show the largest 
amount invested to have been nineteen thousand dollars; of which, 

To the Farmers' High school $10,000 00 

Loss on bonds disposed of for the above and other purposes 472 00 

Cash on hand at the close of 1856 543 99 

Investments on hand 1,000 00 

Showing a loss (if that can be called a loss which tended so greatly to the 
cause of agricultural improvement) sustained by unsuccessful exhibitions at 
Harrisburg in 1855, and at Pittsburg in 1856, both of which were rendered un- 
profitable by a want of attendance, to be ascribed to wet weather in these two 
instances, and a growing apathy on the part of the masses to witnessing agri- 
cultural exhibitions in localities where fairs are common. 

While upon this branch of the subject, it might ^ot b# improper to mention 
that the history of State Agricultural societies shows, that they all have their 



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112 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

days of prosperity and adversity, and that no single instance can be shown 
where a State society has existed for a number of years, that can be cited as 
an exception to the general rule. Agricultural societies are dependent upon 
various contingencies for their success ; even a cloudy day and political cam- 
paign have their effect upon their receipts, and bad weather, and the breath of 
an epidemic, have been known, to entirely deplete their treasuries. 

To the third 'interrogatory : — " What amount has been paid to the officers 
annually, as a regular salary ; and also what amount (if any) has been paid 
to the officers, or any of them, over and above their regular salaries 5 and to 
whom said salaries, or other money or moneys were paid 1" 

We reply, that Robt. C. Walker, of Elizabeth, Allegheny county, and Geo. 
H. Bucher, of Silver Spring, Cumberland county, have been the only salaried 
officers of the society ; the former as Recording Secretary, the latter as Trea- 
surer. They have held their present positions since its organization. The 
Recording Secretary has received from January, 1851, to January, 1857, a period 
of six years, in salary and appropriations, four thousand six hundred dollars. 
The first year having received no compensation. 

The manner of appropriations is as follows : 

By appropriation of Executive Committee at Lancaster, October 
22, 1852, upon the resolution of James Gowen, he received. . . . $300 00 

By appropriation of Executive Committee at Harrisburg, Decem- 
ber 10, 1852, upon the resolution of A. O. Hiester 300 00 

By resolution of a committee appointed on the subject of salaries, 
composed of Frederick Watts, Algernon S. Roberts and A. O. 
Hiester, at Harrisburg, March 7, 1853 100 00 

By appropriation of Executive Committee, upon the resolution of 

Algernon S. Roberts, at Philadelphia, September 29, 1854- 300 00 

By appropriation of Executive Committee, upon the resolution of 

William Martin, Sr., at Pittsburg, October 3, 1856 200 00 

He received the anK>unt of salary, fixed by the Executive Committee, 

for the year 1853 400 00 

Also the amount of salary fixed by the Executive Committee on 
the 14th of March, 1854, for that year, upon the resolution of 
A. R. M'llvaine 1,000 00 

The salary for 1855 1,000 00 

The salary for 1856 1,000 00 

Total receipts and appropriations 4,600 00 



The Treasurer received since the organization in January, 1851, to January, 
1857, a period of sijT years, in salaries and appropriations, one thousand six 
hundred dollars. The first year having received no compensation. 



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AGRICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 113 

The manner of appropriations were as follows : 
By appropriation of Executire Committee, upon the resolution of 

A. O. Hiester, January 17, 1853, he received $200 00 

By resolution of committee appointed on salaries, March 7, 1853, 100 00 

Fixed salary for 1853 - • 250 00 

Do for 1854 350 00 

Do for 1855 ^^ 350 00 

Do. . . . .for 1856 * 350 00 



Whole amount of appropriations and salary .••...••• 1^600 00 



All of which is respectfully sulmiitted* * 

DAVID TAGGART, President. 

ROBT. C. WALKER, Recording Secretary. 

Office Penn'a State Age*l Society, > 
Harrisburgy March 19, 1857. ' J 



« 



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PROCEEDINGS 



OP THB 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, 



FBOH 



OCTOBER 8, 1856, TO JUNE 9, 1857. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



Minutes of the Executive Committee of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural 
Society from October^ 1856, to June^ 1857. 

MONONGAHELA HoUSE, PiTTSBUBG, ) 

October 3, 1856. J 

Tke fourth quarterly meeting of the Executive Comimttee of the Penni^i- 
vania State Agricultural Society met here li^is day pursuant to notice. 

Members present — ^Messrs. James Gowen^ John P. Eutherford, John H. 
Ewing, John M'Faiknd, John Murdoch, Jr., Wm. Martin, Sr., A. O. Hiester, 
A. Boyd Hamilton, George H. Bucher and Robert C. Walker. 
On motion, 
James Gowen was called to the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 
The reports of the Judges of the premiums awarded at the exhibition, which 
closed this day, being under consideration for adoption or amendment, 

On motion of A. Boyd Hamilton, it was 
Resolved, That the said reports be and they are hereby adopted without al- 
teration, and that in all cases where the judges have recommended a discre- 
tionary premium, the Secretary is authorized to furnish a diploma in each 
instance for such recommendation. 

On motion, it was 
Resolved, That Robert C. Walker, George H. Bucher and Wm. Martin, Sr., 
be appointed a committee to revise said reports for publication. 

On motion of John H. Ewing, it was 
Resolved, That a committee consisting of the Secretary and Treasurer be 
appointed to adjust and pay all bills. 

On motion of William Martin, Sr., it was 
Resolved, That the Treasurer be and he is hereby instructed to pay the ex- 
penses of the committee appointed at the meeting in April last, to visit Pitts- 
burg relative to making arrangements, and receiving proposals for the annual 
exhibition. 



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118 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

On motion of A. Boyd Hamilton, it was 
Resolved, That the necessary expenses of all special conmiittees appointed 
on the business of the society, which have or shall hereafter involve absence 
from their places of residence, be paid by the Treasurer of this society, upcm the 
rendition of their accounts to him. 

On motion of William Martin, St., it was 
Resolved, That the Treasurer be and he is hereby instructed to pay Robert 
C. Walker, Secretary, the sum of two hundred dollars, as additional compen- 
sation for expenses and services rendered. 

On motion of John P. Rutherford, it was 
Resolved, That the thanks of the Pdnnsylvania State Agricultural Society 
be tendered to the mayor and citizens of Pittsburg, for their attention to the 
interests of this society during our late exhibition, and to the Committee of 
Arrangements, marshals and judges, and to the county board of the Allegheny 
Oounty Agricultural Society, for the faithful dischafge of the duties ineum- 
bent upon them during their respective connections with the late ^tate Fair. 

On motion, it was 
Resolved, That the Treasurer be ai}t}ii»iMd to pay Messrs. Coale Ic Co., of 
New Brighton, three dollars. 

On motion of A. Boyd Hamilton, it wa^ 
Resolved, That the Treasurer be and he is hereby authorised to pay Wm. 
Martin, Sr., the sum of fifty dollars, for extra services as a member of Com- 
mittee of Arrangements. 

On motion, 
The committee adjourned. 

ROBT. C. WALKER, Secretary. 



HARHISBURG, Monday, January 19, 1857. 

Executive Committee met — ^Members present, Messrs. Jacob S. Haldeman, 
Henry Gilbert, A. Boyd Hamilton and Robert C. Walker. 

On motion of A. Boyd Hamilton, 
Jacob S. Haldeman was called to the chair, and there not being a quorum 
oi members present. 

On motion, 
The committee adjourned to meet to*morrow morning at eleven o'clock. 

ROBT. C. WALKER, Secretary. 



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AOfilCULTURAL SOCIETY. U9 



HARRISBUKG, Tuesday, January 20, 1857. 

Executive Committee met pursuant to adjournment. 

Members prespnt — ^Messrs. A. O. Hiester, Isaac G, M'Kinley, Henry Gilbert, 
A. Boyd Hamilton, H. N. M'Allister, John Murdock, Jr., John S. Is^tt, Wm. 
Martin, Sr. and Robert C. Walker. 

* On motion of A. Boyd Hamilton, 
H. N. M'Allister was called to the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were rea4 and approved* 

The following bills wete then consid^ed, and ordered to be paid : 

Worth and Rheinold,* (Lebanon Courier) ..^ ••••••• $100 

Plow, Loom and Anvil, to July, 1857 - 6 00 

Henry Gilbert — , . ..^^ , , . ....,' 88 

P. R. Freas, advertising.. • ..^ .••.... • • 4 50 

Catharine Lescure, for rent to 31st January, 1857 » 25 00 

John H. Brant, postage to 31st December, 1856 » « ^^. • • • 18 53 

W. B. Lemon, advertising , , . . „^^ .-•-•^^ •••«•.•• 2 50 

J. R. Reed & Co., engraving ^•^^-, . .• *. .•.-^.. 12 25 

Jasper Harding, pfir James Gow^, for printing for the society 12 00 

Do do do...... 3 75 

Philadelphia Ledger do do « . ..-^ 2 40 

On motion, it was 
Resolved^ That the Treasurer be and he is hereby directed to pay James 
Gowen, the retiring President, for stationery, postage, &c., the same amount 
as allowed Frederick Watts, for similar purposes. 

A bill of the Pennsylvania Inquirer^ for advertising in 1855, being un4er 
consideration. 

On motion. 
It was referred to the Treasurer, with instructions to pay the same, pro- 
viding it did not exceed the amount of the bill paid the Pennsylvanian, or 
the United States Gazette and North American, for the same advertising. 

On motion, it ^vas 
Resolved, That the Treasurer be directed to give notice to the Plow, Loom 
and Anvil, to discontinue sending this society that periodical* 

On motion, 
William Martin, Sr., Isaac G. M'Kinley and John S. Isett were appointed 
to audit the account of the Treasurer, who was prevented making his report 
to this meeting in consequence of the impassable state of the roads. 



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120 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Robert C. Walker submitted a statement of money disbursed by him for the 
use of the society, which statement was referred to the abore committee for 
approval. 

On motion of Henry Gilbert, it was 

Resolvedy That three hundred copies of the third volume of the "pransactions 
of this society be purchased for use, at a price not exceeding that paid by the 
State for the same work. 

A letter was read from Isaac B. Baxter, declining a reflection as a Vice 
President of this society. 

On motion, it was 

Resolvedy That Henry Gilbert, the Librarian, be directed to purchase for the 
Library of this society, the back bound numbers of the following periodicals, 
viz: • 

The Pennsylvania Farm JoumM« 

The Working Farmer. 

The CJountry Gentlemen. 

The Ohio Cultivator. 

The Horticulturist. 

On motion, 
The committee adjourned. 

ROBT. C. WALKER, Secretary. 



HAKRISBURG, Friday, February 27, 1857. 

r 

A special meeting of the Executive Committee of the Pennsylvania State 
Agricultural Society was held this day, pursuant to a call of the President. 

Members present — ^David Taggart, James Miles, William Martin, Sr., John 
P. Rutherford, George H. Bucher, Amos E. Kapp, John C. Flenniken, Henry 
Grilbert, Thomas P. Knox, H. N. M'Allister, William Heyser, Abraham K. 
M^Ilvaine, A. Boyd Hamilton, J. Murdock, Jr. and Robert C. Walker. 

On motion of Robert C. Walker, 
David Taggart, President of the society, was called to the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The subject of an annual exhibition for 1857, being under consideration, 

On motion of Abram R. M'M'Ilvaine, it was 
Resohedy That it is deemed expedient to hold an annual exhibition of the 
society this fall. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. J21 

On motion of H. N. M'Allister, it was 
Resohedy That a committee 'of five be appointed by the chair, to receive 
proposals for holding the next annual exhibition, whose duty it shall be, if 
necessary, to proceed to such places as they may deem advisable, and to 
accept the proposition which they shall think best calculated to promote the 
interests of the society, and report their action to the next meeting of this 
committee. 

Whereupon, 
The chair appointed the following the said committee: H. N. M'Allister, 
John C. Flenniken, A. £. Kapp, A. R. MUlvaine and John P. Rutherford. 

On motion of H. N. M'Allistcr, 
The days for the next annual exhibition were declared to be Tuesday, Wed- 
nesday, Thursday and Friday the 29th and 30th days of September, and the 
Ist and 2d days of October next. 

On motion of A. £. Kapp, it was 
Resolved^ That a committee of five be appointed to arrange a premium list 
for the year, and report the same for adoption or amendment at the next 
meeting of this committee. 

The chair appointed the following said committee : 
A. £. Kapp, Henry Gilbert, Thomas P. Knox, Frederick Watts and William 
Heyser. 

On motion of A. Boyd Hamilton, 
The meeting appointed David Taggart chairman of each of the two com- 
mittees last above named. 

On motion of H. N. M'Allister, it was 
Resolvedj That a committee of three be appointed, whose duty it shall be 
to examine into and report to the next meeting of this committee, upon the 
subject of further checks upon tickets, &c., at the annual exhibitions. 

The chair appointed the following the said committee: H. N. M'Allister, 
George H. Bucher and A. Boyd Hamilton. 

H. N. M'Allister remarked, that as this was the first quarterly meeting of 
the Executive Committee, it devolved upon the Board at this time to proceed 
to the appointment of Secretary and Treasurer, in accordance with the consti- 
tution. 

The chair then explained that this meeting was not the regular quarterly 
meeting, but that it was a special one, called by himself, for specific purposes, 
and not to transact any business that properly belonged to a stated meeting. 

Then in order to bring the subject properly before the Board, H. N. M'Al- 
lister moved, that in the opinion of the members present this meeting be con- 
sidered the first quarterly meeting of the year of the Executive Committee. 



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m PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

At this stage of the proceedings the chair called John C* FlennikeQ to pre^ 
side, and proceeded to show, that in accordance with the letter and spirit of 
the constitution of the society, the suhject of the motion could not be acted 
upon at this time. 

After considerable discussion the mover of the motion withdrew it. 

Whereupon, 
David Taggart resumed the chair. 

H. N. M'Allister offered the following resolution, which was unanimously 
agreed to: . 

Resolvedj That for the purpose of definitely fixing the regular quarterly 
meetings of the Executive Committee, that hereafter they i^mll be held at the 
following stated times: 

The first to be on the third Tuesday of March ; the second to be on the second 
Tuesday of June ; the third to be at the time of the annual exhibition in the 
fall, and the fourth to be at the time of the annual meetings of the society in 
January. 

On motion of A. Boyd Hamilton, it -was 

Resolved, That David Taggart, the President of the society, be authorized 
to invite a suitable person to deliver the annual address, 

H* N. M'Allister moved that the salary of the Secretary be reduced to the 
sum of six hundred dollars per annum. 

The chair ruled the motion out of order, upon the ground that the consti- 
tution of the society required that the salaries of officers should be fixed at 
the first qulirterly meeting. 

William Martin, Sr., and John S. Isett, being present, and who bad been 
appoiht^ at the last meeting, two of a committee of three to audit the ac- 
count of the Treasurer, ofiTered their resignations upon said committee, which 
were accepted. 

Whereupon, 

On motion of A. Boyd Hamilton, it was 

Resolved, That the chair appoint a committee of three, whose duty it shall 
be to audit the account of the Treasurer, and report to the next meeting of 

this committee. 

* . . . 

The chair appointed the following the said committee : — A. Boyd Hamil- 
ton, H. N. M'Allister, Abram R. M'llvaine. 

A supplement to the act to incorporate the Pennsylvania State Agricultural 
Society being read. 

On motion, it was 
Resolved, That it be amended so as to read as follows ; — That the words 
<< by the members thereof be stricken from the third section of the act to 



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AOHICULTURAL SOCIETY. 123 

whieh this is a snppletnent, and thtt the Legislature be requested to pass the 
supplemeot as amended. 



On motion, 
The Committee adjourned. 



ROBT. C. WALKER, Secretary. 



HARRISBURG:, Tuesday, Jifarifh 17, 1867. 

Executive Committee met this day* 

Members present — Messrs. David Taggart, A. Boyd Hamilton, Henry Gil- 
bert, John MTarland, Elias Bak^r, John C* Flenniken, Joseph Yeager, Jan^es 
Gowen, Thomas P. Knox, John P. Rutherford, James Miles, Abram R. M'Tl- 
vaine, S. S. Haldeman, Charles K. Engle, John Strohm, A. £• Kapp, William 
Martin, Sr., Joshua Wright, Adrian Cornell, John Murdock, Jr., George H. 
Bueher, J. S. Haldeman, Frederick Watts, H. N. M'Allister and Robert C. 
Walker. 

On motion, 
David Taggart, President of the society, was called to the chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

Communications were read from James E. Gt>wen and Pasohail MorriA, 
which were filed. '^ 

H. N. M'Allister, chairman of the committee appointed at the last meeting 
on the subject of further checks upon tickets, dec, for the annual exhibitionB, 
made the following report : 

To tht Executive Committee of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural SotdUy t 

The undersigned, committee to whom was referred the subject of the further 
guards and cheeks required in the administration of the affairs of the society, 
with instructions to report such rules and regulations as they should deem ne* 
cessary and proper, most respectfully report, that they believe that the Execu- 
tive Committee have fallen into error in devolving too much labor and re- 
sponsibility upon the Secretary and Treasurer, without providing checks and 
bakmces necessary alike for the security of the society, and the protection of 
its officers from injurious, unjust and unfounded accusations. 

The powers and duties of the Secretary, as prescribed in the constitution, 
are few, plain and simple ; the powers exercised numerous, complicated and 
difficult, many of which would seem to have been assumed from want of 
other adequate provisions. 



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m .Pl£NNSrLVANIA STATB 

The Secretary would seem to have made many, if not most of the coatracts; 
to have ordered tickets at such times, and in such quantities, as his judgment 
dictated, taking charge of them when printed, and handing them over to dis- 
tributing agents without supervision or control. Your committee most respect- 
fully recommend that the Secretary and Treasurer confine themselves strictly 
to the discharge of the duties the constitution devolves upon them, and such 
other duties as may be expressly assigned them by the Ej^ecutive Committee, 
and that the business of the society be done as much as possible through com- 
mittees. Let there be a committee on printing ; a committee on silver plate, 
medals. Sec; a conmiittee on construction and arrangements i a committee on 
gate-keepers, clerks and police, together with such other committees as the 
necessity of the case may require. Each of these committees to consist of 
at least three members of the Executive Committee, together with an equal 
number of the Executive Committee of the Agricultural Society of the county 
or eity in which the exhibition shall be held. The Executive Committee to 
determine the number and character of the tickets. What we suggest shall 
be as follows, to wit : 

Exkilntors* tickets, one of which shall be delivered to every exhibitor at the 
time of the entry of his article or articles, on his paying one dollar. The 
name of the exhibitor to be written upon the ticket, and entered in a book 
provided for the purpose. 

Attendants* tickets^ one of which shall be delivered, without charge, to 
every person necessarily employed by exhibitors to take care of their stock, 
implements, &c. The names of the attendants to be then written and entered 
in ftie book, in connection with the name of the exhibitor. 

Membership tickets to be furnished those who specially desire the same, and 
pay one dollar therefor. The name of the member to be written upon the 
ticket, and recorded in the book provided for the purpose. 

Admission tickets to be printed or stamped in this style, (Pennsylvania State 
Agricultural Society, 1857,) with a device, if deemed necessary, to be issued 
at twenty-five cents each. All the above tickets to be retained, and to entitle 
the legal holders thereof to admission during the exhibition, except the last, 
which are to be taken up by the gate-keepers, cancelled by tearing ofi* one 
' corner, and delivered thus cancelled to the Secretary, who is to receipt for the 
same. The printing committee to have the tickets struck, and deliver them 
to the ticket agent to be appointed by the Executive Committee, taking his 
receipt for the same from time to time as delivered. The ticket agent to 
sell the tickets, and pay over the proceeds as received to the Treasurer, taking 
his receipt for the same. The difference between the ticket agent's receipts, 
in the hands of the printing committee, and the Treasurer's receipts, in the 
hands of the ticket agent, will show his liability, to be discharged either in 



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AGRICULTDRAL SOCIETY. 125 

money or by uncancelled tickets. The money in the hands of the Treasurer 
will correspond with the lists of exhibitors and members, and the cancelled 
tickets in the hands of the Secretary. At the close of the exhibition an exact 
account to be taken of all the memberships and other tickets on hand, the 
same to be delivered to the Treasurer, who shall receipt to the Elxecutive Com- 
mittee for the same; and on the settlement of his account, report the number 
of tickets still unsold, charging himself with the difference, if any, between 
the number of his receipt and the number on hand. 

Your committee woi^d also recommend that no compensation for extra 
services be allowed any salaried officer, except by direction of the Executive 
Committee, at a regular quarterly meeting, when at least fifteen members of 
the committee are present ; and that, in all such cases, the yeas and nays be 
called, and the names of the members voting be recorded in the minutes of 
the meeting. The committee further recommend the appointment of a com 
mittee to report by-laws for adoption by the Executive Committee at the next 
quarterly meeting. * 

All which is most respectfully submitted. 

(Signed) H. N. M'ALLISTEK, 

A. BOYD HAMILTON, 
GEO. H. BUCHER. 
Which being read, 

A motion was made by James Gowen, 
To postpone the adoption of the report until the next meeting. 
Which was not agreed to. 

On motion^ 

The report was then adopted. i 

A. Boyd Hamilton maved that the committee proceed to the eketwn of a 

Secretary. 

A. R. M'llvaine moved to amend by voting by ballot. 

Whkk w«t agreed to. 

And the motion as amended was adopted. 

JcJm C Flenniken and David Taggart were appointed tellers to conduct the 
cdectmn. 

The nomination for Secretary being in order, 

Charles K. Engle nominated • .Robert C. Walker. 

A. R. M'llvaine -• do Hon. A. O. Hiester. 

John C. Flenniken ...•'....».. .do. ...»••.,. .Andrew Gr^fg. 

After the election had jNroceeded until all had voted, the tellers reported 
that they agreed in their tallies, and that Robert C. Walker had received fif- 
teen votes, and A. 0. Hiester ten votes. 



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It6 PENNSyLVANIA STATR 

Tlie ehair tlieu aniioiliiced that Robert C. Walker faaviiif^ wwirei the 
biglM«t timber of votes, was therefove elected SecOf ding Seoretavy for the 
WMiAg y0ar. 

On motion of A. Boyd Hamilton, it was 
Resolved^ That George H. Bucher be and he is hereby unanimously elected 
Treasurer of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society for the ensuing 
year. 

A. Boyd Hamilton, chairman of the committee appointed to audit the account 
of the Treasurer, made report, that the committee had duly attended to their 
duty, and that they found tfie account to be correct, and that they had passed 
and approved the same. 

The Treasurer's account, as approved this day, shows the receipts 

for the year 1856 to have been , $26,007 41 

Disbursements -. «• •••«.^ • • .. 25,463 42 

Balance in hands of the Treasurer ^ « « 543 99 

iBvestrnents. — One thousand dollars in bond of Harrisburg and Lancaster 
railroad company, at six per cent. 

The following bills were approved and ordered to be paid; 

G. P. Wiestiing, for coal 

Andrew Hopkins, for printing $2 50 

J. J. Clyde, for printing 2 50 

Conrad Bard & Son, Philadelphia, for silver plate medals, engrav- 
ing, &c 1>288 25 

On motio^ of S. S. Haldeman, it was 
RiBolvedj That the Treasurer be au^rized to negotiate the bond of the 
Harrisburg and Lancaster railroad company. 

On motion of A. Boyd Hamiltoa, it was 
Reaolvedj That the committee on the premium list be ioetnided td «f*et no 
plate as premiums. 

A communication wa3 read from the Secretary of the Indiana State Agri- 
cultural Society, proposing to exchange fifty copies of their TransactioBncMr an 
many of the Transactions of this society for the year 1855. 

The communication was referred to the Librarian, to answer at his dis- 
cretion* 

A. E. Kapp moved to proceed to fix the salaries for the year. 
Whereupon, 

A. JL mivake moved that the salairy of the Seefc'etary be fixed at the mttt 
of five hundred dollars. 



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AGRICtrLTtlRAL SOCIETY. 127 

A. Boyd Hamilton oflfered the following protddo: 
Provided^ That the foregoing salary shall not be reduced to the atnottnt 
mentioned, unless there shall not be sufficient funds in the Treasury to defray 
the expenses of the yeaXy and tfaat if the receipts of the society for ihe present 
year are sufficient to meet the said expenses, then, in that case, the salary is 
to remain the same as fix6d for the last year. 

On motion of Jam^s Gowen, 

The motion, together with the amendment, weire pds^ned. 

Japob S. Haldeman offered the following preamble and resolution, which 
were not agreed to : $ 

^jVhereas, The Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania has deceived teh 
thousand dollars from the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society ; therefore 

Hesohedy That said Farmers' High School be requested to furnish this com- 
mittee a detailed statement of the expenditure of the said ten thousand dol- 
lars; also, the estimated amount required to complete, successfully, the con- 
templated buildings, improvements, &c., for said school ; and also, such other 
information as would be interesting to this committee. 
On motion. 

The committee adjourned. 

ROBT. C. WALKER, Secretary. 



PHILADELPHIA, Tuesday, June 9, 1857. 

The second quarterly meeting of the Executive Committee met this day. 

Members present — ^Messrs. David Taggart, James Gowen, Adrian Cornell, 
Isaac G. M'Kinley, Jacob S. Haldeman, Thomas P. Knox, Joshua Wright, 
John Strohm, Arnos E. Kapp, A. Boyd Hamilton, John P. Rutherford, Joseph 
Yeager and Robert C. Walker. 

On motion, 
David Taggart, President of the society, was called to the chair. 
The mimrtes of the last meeting wer^ read and approved. 

David Taggart, chairman of the committee to whom was referred the sub- 
ject of receiving proposals for the location of the next annual exhibition, made 
report, that he had teceived Ao definite proposition from any place, and that 
he understood Lancaster city had raised the sum of two thousand five hundred 
dollars, as a hontts to be paid to this society in case their exhibition was helct 
at that place. He also stated, that he was informed that certain getitlemen irl 



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128 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Philadelphia were making an effort to procure a bonus of three thousand dol- 
lars, from the citizens thereof, to offer to this society to hold the exhibition 
there, 

Mr. John Eice, a citizen of Philadelphia, being introduced, offered to the 
society a gruaranty that he would raise the sum of one thousand dollars towards 
the banusj in case the exhibition was held at Philadelphia. 
Whereupon, 

The guaranty of Mr. John Rice was accepted, and the following resolution 
was adopted: 

Reaolvedj That Philade]|phia be fixed as the place for holding the next annual 
exhibition of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society: Provided^ The 
sum of twenty-fire hundred dollars be guaranteed by the citizens of said elty 
toward defraying expenses for that purpose, and that David Taggart, Robert 
C. Walker and Jacob S. Haldeman be appointed a committee to accept and 
determine upon the same. 

Mr. Aaron Clement, President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting 
Agriculture, being introduced, on behalf of said society, tendered to the com- 
mittee the use of their agricultural rooms while attending to the business per- 
taining to the exhibition of the State society to be held in Philadelphia this 
fall. 

Amos E. Kapp, chairman of the committee to whom was referred the sub- 
ject of preparing the premium list, made report, that he had amended the list 
of last year in accordance with the views of the Executive Committee as 
designated to him at the time of his apppointment. 

After some time spent in perfecting the report, the premium list and regu- 
lations as amended were adopted as follows : 

Regulations and Arrangements for the Exhibition to be held at Philadelphia^ 

1857. 

Any person can become a Member of the Society for one year by the pay- 
ment of ONE DOLLAR iuto its Treasury. 

All the members of the Society whose dues are paid, and all who shall be- 
come members previous to or at the Fair, will be furnished with tickets of ad- 
mission. 

Secbetjolt^s aud Business Office, until the 28di day of Septraaber, will be 
at the Rooms of the Philadelphia Society for promoting Agriculture, Chesnut- 
street, below Seventh, city of Philadelphia. 

Tickets of admission will be furnished at the office, in Philadelphia, at any 
time after the first of September, and by the Treasurer, at his office on the 
Exhibition Ground during the exhibition. The members' cards are certifi- 
cates of membership for the year, and are not to be given up at the gates. 



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AGIIICULTURAL SOCIETY, x 129 

* Single tickets for one admittance, price twenty*five cents, will be reAdy 
at the Office on the grounds, on Tuesday, the 29th of September. 

Carriages will he allowed to enter the grounds, but no hacks or other public 
conveyances will be permitted to enter. 

TO EXfllBITOBS — ENTRIES. 

The Book of Eatries will be open at the office, on and after the Jhrst day of 

The days of the Fair are Tuesday^ Wednesday^ Tkursdayand Friday^ the ^)A$h 
w/hd 30f A of Sq^ttmhery and Ist and 2d days of October. 

(p^ Exhibitors most become membera of the Society, and hare theur aitir 
oles and animals entered on the Secr^ary'a books on or before Tuesday eve&- > 
ing the 29th of September \ and all arlieles and animab, (except horsett,) minrt 
be brought within the enclosure as early as Tuesday noon, in order that they 
may be suitably arranged for examination by the Judges on Wednesday morn- 
ing. Horses will be received on Wednesday morning, but must be entered 
previously. 

The Executive Committee do not intend to assure any exhibitor who 
neglects these requirements, that his articles can be passed upon by the Judges. 
While every effort will be made to secure the examination and proper notice 
of every article on exhibition, justice to those who comply with the rules of 
the Society, requires that they shall^ in all casesy first receive attention. 

Articles and animals for exhibition can be entered on and after the first of 
September, at the office of the Secretary, in Philadelphia, until the first day 
of the exhibition, when an office for entry will be opened upon the ground, 
where entries can be made, only during that day. 

Articles or animals removed from the grounds before the close of the exhi- 
bition, (except by permission of the President,) cannot receive a premium, 
though awarded. 

HI/* On Tuesday, the grounds will be opened to the public, and continue 
open for Toxm days. Single admission, twenty-five cents — ^Members' cards, 

ONE DOLLAR. 

THE ADDBESS. 

The Annual Address will be delivered by Edwin C. Wil»on, Esq., at 2 
o*clock, P. M., on Friday, the 2d of October ; and immediately after the Ad- 
dress, the reports of the Viewing Committees or Judges will be read, and the 
Premiums awarded and distributed. 

competition without the state. 

The Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society makes.the fidd of competition 
co-extensive with the United States, and cordially invites the eitixens d* other 
States to compete with us for our prizes. 



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jaq PENNSYLVANU STATE 

Animals and articles entered for exhibition will have cards attached, wkh 
the number as entered at the business office ; and it is required that exhibitors^ 
in all cases, shall obtain their cards of number and class, previous to placing 
their articles on the grounds. 

All persons who intend to exhibit Horses, Cattle, Sheep or Swine, or who 
intend to offer Stock for sale, should notify the Secretary of such intention, 
on or before the 20th day of September, and leave with bim a list and full de- 
scription of such Stock, in order that proper arrangements may be made for 
their accommodation. 

Applicants for premiums are particularly requested to pay attention to the 
directions attached to the li9t of premiums for Jot Cattle, fai Sheep, Buttery 
Okeesty &c., and the statements required from exhibitors of those articles 
must be lodged with the Secretary before the 25th of September. 

INSTRUCTION FOR THE JUDGES AND FOR THE SUPERINTENDENTS OF THE DIFFERENT 

DEPARTMENTS. 

The Judges are requested to report themselves to the President on their ar- 
rival at the Business Office, at the show grounds ; they are desired to meet 
at the Society's tent, on the grounds, at 4 o'clock, P. M., on Tuesday the 29th 
of September, when the vacancies will be filled ; and on Wednesday morning 
at 9 o'clock, at the same place, they will be furnished with the books of en- 
tries, when they will proceed to deckle upon the merits of the different ani- 
mals and articles entered for premiums. 

The Judges on all animals will have regard ta the symmetry, early matu- 
rity, size and general qualities characteristic of the breeds which they judge. 
They will make due allowance for age, feeding and other circumstances, on the 
chaaracter and condition of the animals. 

They will not give encouragement for over-fed animals. They will not 
award premiums for Bulls, Cows or Heifers which appear to be fattened for 
the butcher i the object being to have superior animals of this kind for breeding. 

No person whatever will be allowed to interfere with the Judges during 
their adjudications. 

No animal or article can take more than one premium. All productions 
placed in competition for premiums, must be the growth of the competitors. 

When there is but one exhibitor, nithough he may show several animals in 
a.cil|S6 or sub-division of a class, only one premium will be awarded to one 
animal ; that to be tbje firdt, or otherwise, as the merit of the animal or article 
may be adjudged. A nd a premium will not be awarded when the animal or 
article is not worthy,though there be no competition. In any case the person 
to whom a pecuniary premium may have been awarded may elect to accept a 
diploma instead thereof. 

The reports of the Judges will be published by the Society as soon after the 
Fair as practicable. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 131 

And also ordered^ that any person to whom a premium of not less than ten 
dollars has been awarded, may elect to receive a silver medal, 

NOTICE TO EXHIBITORS. 

Reception of Articles jw Exhibition. — The Society will give attention to 
all articles, stock or manufactures, intended for exhibition, and hare them con- 
veyed from the various railroad depots or wharves to the exhibition grounds 
free of charge, at the owner's risk, upon notice to that effect left at the busi- 
ness office of the Society one day pre^ous to the opening of the Exhibition. 

All articles intended for exhibition and not accompanied by the exhibitcy^, 
may be directed to the "State Fair, Philadelphia." 

The Executive Committee will take every precaution in their power for the 
safety of stock and articles on exhibition, after their arrival and arrangement 
upon the grounds $ but will not be responsible for any loss or damage that 
may occur. They desire exhibitors to give personal attention to their articles 
and animals, and at the close of the ^air to attend to their removal. 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

It is expected that the Superintendents will take particular direction of all 
articles in their respective departments, and see that all such articles are ar- 
ranged, as near as may be, in numerical order, for easy approach and exami- 
nation. 

PLOUGHING MATCH. 

The Ploughing Match will take place on Friday, the 2d of October, at 9 
o'clock, A. M., in a field adjacent to the place of Exhibition. 

Persons competing in the Matches are requested to have their teams hitd^ 
and ready to move off at the appointed hour. 

HAY AND STRAW. 

Hay and straw will be furnished gratis for all animals entered for premiums, 
and grain will be provided at lowest cost price for those who desire to pur- 
chase. 

PORM OF AFFIDAVITS FOR SURVEYOR, APPLICANTS AND ASSISTANT, FOR WINTER 

CROPS. 

County^ ss : 

A. B., being'duly [sworn,] says he is a surveyor; that he surveyed with chain 

and compass the land on which C. D. raised a crop of the past season, 

and the quantity of land is ...... acres, and no more. 

A. B., Surveyor. 
Sworn to before me, this .... day of ... • . #, 185. .. 

• f, Justice, 



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132 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Cotsatj/j ss : 

C. D., being duly [sworn,] says that he raised a crop of the past sea- 

son upon the land surveyed by A. B., and that the quantity of grain raised 
thereon was . . • • bushels, measured in a sealed half bushel ^ and that he was 
assisted in harvesting and measuring said crop by E. F. ; and that the state- 
ment annexed, subscribed by this deponent, as to the manner of cultivation, 
&c., is in all respects true, to the best of his knowledge and belief; and that 
the sample of the grain exhibited is a fair average sample of the whole crop. 

^ CD. 

•Sworn to before me, this . • . . day of , 185. .. 

• J Justice. 

4 County J 8S : 

E. F. being duly [sworn,] says that he assisted G. D. in harvesting, getting 

out and measuring his crop of , referred to in the affidavit, that the 

quantity of grain was .... bushels, as stated in the affidavit of C. D. 

E.F. 

Sworn to before me, this .... day of ., 185. .. 

, Justice. 

PAYMENT OP PREMIUMS. 

Cash premiums will be paid by the Treasurer, during the whole of the wedc 
after the Exhibition, at the office of the Philadelphia Society, Chesnut street, 
below Seventh. 

(p^ Persons to whom cash premiums have been awarded, are informed that 
unless they call for them at the place and time specified above, application 
must be made by letter to the Treasurer, Gbobge H. Bucheb, at Hooestown, 
Cumberland county, with whom the Book of Awards will be left. Persons to 
whom Medals and Diplomas have been awarded, will please furnish their names 
to the Recording Secretary. 

I/*' The Recording Secretary will forward the Diplomas awarded, in such 
manner as may be directed by the persons entitled to receive them. 



LIST OF PREMIUMS. 

The Society will tak^ great care in the selection of its Judges, and confi- 
dently hope that all who shall be named will attend. The names' of the Judges 
will be announced and published at least one month before the exhibition, and 
gentlemen designated notified by mail of their appointment. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 133 

CLASS No. I.— CATTLE. 

No. 1. — Short Horn. 

Bulh. 

For best Bull, 3 years old and upwards • • $15 

Second best do do ..., ^ 10 

Third best do .do ..•••• ...^^ • ••• 5 

Best Bull between 2 and 3 years • , 10 

Second best • .do. . . • • .do. . • • • • • ..^ . . • ..^ 5 

Third best do -.do 3 

Best Bull between 1 and 2 years. . . — • • . » . 8 

Second best • .do. . • • t^do. •• •..••••••• 4 

Third best do do • 2 

Best Bull Calf under 10 months , .... 3 

Second best do. ••• ..do t^,, 2 

Third best do do 1 

Short Mom C&wi, 

Best Cow, 3 years old and upwards ^ . . • . • • 10 

Second best do. .....do. ..•••. 5 

Third best do do , , . 3 

Best Heifer between 2 and 3 years old , , .^ 10 

Seeotidbest do do ,., '. . ,. 5 

Third best .do do. . . • • '. , 3 

Best* Heifefr' between 1 and 2 years , 5 

Second best do do, ....-» • , , 3 

Third best do do , 1 

Best Heifer Calf under 10 months ^ . • • . • .^, 3 

Second best. do do. 2 

Third best do do 1 

No. 2. — ^Dbvow, 

jBulh. 

For best Bull, 3 years old and upwards ..••••• 15 

Second best do .do ......# 10 

Thiri best do. ... . .do , 5 

Best Bull between 2 and 3 year» -.- ,-,* iD 

Second best. ^ . ^... ^ ,do. do. • . . . . 6 

Third best .do. . . . . .do. ^ 8 

Best Bull between 1 and 2 years. , . ...... . . /. , , , . , ^ 

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134 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Second best Bull between 1 and 2 years $3 

Third best do do. 2 

Best Bull (Jalf under 10 months 3 

Second best do do - 2 

Third best do do 1 

Devon Cows. 

Best Cow, 3 years old and upwards « 10 

Second best do ...... do. 5 

Third best .do do 3 

Best Heifer between 2 and 3 years 10 

Second b^st do do. \ 5 

Third best do do 3 

Best Heifer between 1 and 2 years • 5 

Second best do do 3 

Third best do do. 1^ 

Best Heifer Calf under 10 months 3 

Second best .do. .... .do 2 

Third best do do 1 

No. 3. — Herbford. 

Btdh. 

For best Bull, 3 years old and upwards 10 

Second best do. .... .do. 5 

Third best. do do 3 

Best Bull between 2 and 3 years 10 

Second best do. .. ..ndo ^ € 

Third best.... do do 3 

Best Bull between 1 and 2 years 5 

Second best. do. .....do « 3 

Third best .do ^do 2 

Best Bull Calf under 10 months \ 3 

Second best do -tdo ^ 2 

Third best do do 1 

Hereford Cows, 

Best.Cow, 3 years old and upwards 10 

fSecoAd best. ..... ..do do. • ••.. 5 

Third best;-/ do .dp.. 3 

Best Heifer, between 2 and 3 years 10 

Second b^st. • do do 5 

^Thir4 best do. . . • . ..do 3 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETT. 135 

Best Heifer between 1 and 2 years • t $5 

Second best. . .* do. ... . .do • ••• .. ^t. • 3 

Third best. do do 1 

Best Heifer Calf under 10 months 4 

Second best do do 2 

Third best do .do •..•... 1 

No* 4. — ^Ayeshibe. 

Butts. 

For best Bull, 3 years old and upwards -. 10 

Second best do. ....• .do. 6 

Third best do do 3 

Best Bull, between 2 and 3 years.. • 10 

Second best do do.. 6 

Third best do. .... .do j 

Best Bull, between 1 and 2 years § 

Second best .do do • 8 

Third best do do 2 

Best Bull Calf under 10 months.. .••• « 3 

Second best do. ... • .do. . .••• • t ♦. ... . 2 

Third best,. do .do. • 1 

Ayrshire Cows, 

For best Cow, 3 years old and upwards. . . • • • # 10 

Second best do. ..•••do. .«•• ^ 5 

Third best do do ♦.... 3 

Best Heifer, between 2 and 3 years. « «••....••«••..>•• 10 

Second best do do « ......••« 6 

Third best. . . ^ do do • - 3 

Best Heifer, between 1 and 2 years. « •-* ~ 5 

Second best do do. ••••...••• 3 

Third best do do. . . . ^..... 1 

Best Heifer Calf, under 10 months • .., ..^t. ..• 4 

Second best. ..do. .....do «.<«.••.•...«•«..... .\ 3 

Third best do do ^ 1 

No. 5. — HOLSTEIN. 

Butts. 

For best Bull, 3 years old and upwards -^ . . • • .^ 10 

Second best. • ..^ , .sdo.^>«.«do. .«•••...•••...••«. ..••«• ...•«#.... S 

Third best* ..do do ,«.^.««.. i 



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136 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

^8t Bull, between 2 and 3 years. .......»•» * %W 

Second best. do do » . • 6 

Third best do. . . . . .do ^ 3 

Best Bull, between 1 and 2 years » • , • 5 

Second best do do. 3 

Third best .do do • « 2 

Best Bull Caif, nnder 10 months ^ 3 

Second best. . ..«. ..do do • 2 

Third best , . .do .do 1 

Holstein Cows* 

for best Cow,- 8 years old and upwards 10 

Second best do. . •« • .do ..••••••••f. 5 

Third best. do .do 3 

"Best Heifer, between'2 and 3 years 10 

Second' best. ...;..'. do*. '..••; do*. ,..*.•'• • • • _. • 5 

i:hirdbest ...do .do....; .....h- 3 

Best Heifer,- between 1 and 276^5. . ; 5 

Second best. ...... .do. .....do ; ; . ..; 3 

"Third best... .do. ....-do 1 

Best Heifer €alfy under K) monliis \ ■. 4 

Second- best. ....... -.do. .... .do .....#..... , , • • 2 

Third best do do 1 

No. 6. — Alderney. 

Stills, 

for best bull 3 years old and upwards. . . .....«.,.•.• 10 

Second'best. ...... .do . • • • .do , , • .-^ 8 

Third best. ;...... ;do do ; 5 

Best ball between 2 and 8- years.. ; , 8 

Second'best. ...... .do. . . . . .do. 5 

Third best. .do. .... .do. . . . .^ 3 

best bull betweenl and 2 years 5 

i^econd-best: ;. . ..v .do; ... ; ;do; ; 1. 3 

Third best. ;;..,.. .do. .... .do. ; 2 

best Bull' Oolf, under 10 months i 

Second best do. .... .do • 2 

Third best do do 1 

Jildertuy Cows. 

For bQaut.Cow,.3 years .old.andjupwarda...^., i*»»«««,«»., »^ Id 

Second beat«.«.«,.. do. «••• .do. ..«.«. ••«.^..»^..^.^*.».4... fi 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCaBTT. 137 

Thii4 be«t Cowy 3 years <Ai a»d upwarAn ....•*♦. • $8 

Befet Heifer, between 2 and 3 years. . . . w ••..•.....• 10 

Second. best. ..do do. ....••,•.••... 5 

Third best... ..•-.. do do .> • -^ 3 

Best Heifer, between land 2 years , 8 

Second best... ^,... do •do * 5 

Third best.« do ^do * ...••..•••» 2 

Best Heifef Calf, under 10 months. ..^.m. ...<•..;«....•.•• 5 

Second best do. .....do 3 

Third best do do 1 

No» 7.— Native oe Qeadb. 

Bulls. 

For bes^t Bull, 3 years old and upwards.. 10 

Second best. .do. . . . .- do 8 

Third best. ,;•... ..do. ,.;..do • ..%.;... -. 6 

Best Bull, between 2 and 3 years. .'. ^ 0^ 

Second best ..do .do •..'... -^ 4 

Third best. do do ; 2 

Best Bdll, between 1 and 2 years.... «.... 4 

Secohd best do. .... .do. •.......• .-^ .«.'... • 3 

Third best do. .... .do 1 

Best Bull Calf, under 10 months .^ 2 

Second best. do. .... .do. ... .^t 1 

Jfativt tr Grade Cows. 

For best Cow, 3 y^ears old and upwtrds.. .....; ...., 4. 10 

Second best do do.. 5 

Third bfst do .do 3 

Best Heifer, between 2 and 3 years... .«...«k r... 8 

Second best do. .... .do. •• ... ...•-• 6 

Third best do ...... do 3 

Best fleifer, between 1 and 2 years. .•..^. .... ..•••• 5 

Second best. • . .. » ..do.... ..do. •• •• • B 

Third best do. .... . .do , ..• • • 1 

Best Heifer Calf, under 10 months ^.... ^.. ^ 

Second best do. .,.^.,do .......•...».•. ....»•• 1 

No. 8.— Working Oxkn. 

For best team of lO^yolce,. frees any eou«ty*--(Preil(iium to be paid tathe 

County Agnottkuial .JocietjrinMdHioaiUy).*^ k ; • *-• , . #^-4 « # « « . •« « • • BO 



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138 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Second beat team of 10 yoke, from any comity — (Premium to be paid to 

the County Agricultural society in said county). . • /. • • . $30 

Best team of Oxen, not less than 2 yoke. ...••«., ^ 15 

Second best. •>. .do-. •'•'•-••••«%•. .do. .« » *••• •»• •••'•«. ••«<•«•«.. .^ ••»•« 12 

Best yoke of Oxen ^ ..•.•••.»•%««• • • 10 

Second best. .. .do« » .••« w ..« »..%>. . • «««««.«••«•••...«..« « • B 

Third best. . ..*.do. ..v^. .•.»•• * •. *,...* a 5 

A cart will be provided to test the- working qualities of the oxen. 

. . No.. 9,— Fat Cattle. 

For best pair fat Steers or Oxen. 10 

Second best. . ..do do 5 

Third best do do •< -< 3 

Best fat Cow. 8 

Second best do. -• • 4 

Third best. .do. •••;.••;• ^ 

Best fat Heifer. - 8 

Second best do .....•• i • • •- 4 

Third best. .do............. 3 

Best fat Steer. ..-;•• - • • ^^ 

Second best do 8 

Third best. .do^......... ^ 3 

Applicants for premiums for fat cattle must furnish statements of the man- 
ner of feeding. 

IT* Judges on Fat Cattle will give particular attention to the animals sub- 
mitted to them for examination. It is. believed that all other things being 
equal, those are the best cattle that have the greatest weight in the smallest 
superfices. The cattle to be judged as fa't cattle will all be weighed, and the 
Judges will take measures to get the superfices of each. * 

No* 10.-r^MiLCH Cows. 

For best Milch Cow '. "....... . $10 

Second best. .do. .^ 8 

Third best. . .do. ...;............. 1 ; 5 

(nT*" The cows to be kept only on grass during the trial, and for ten days 
previous to each period of trial. The tiine of trial from first of May till the 
fair. Exhibitors will furnish a statement containing 

First* The age and breed of the cow, and time of calving. 

Second. The quantity of milk, in. weight, and also of butter made from such 
cow, during each period of ten days. 

Tkird, A statement to be made to the Judgpos of the facts, verified by the 
Affidavit of. competitor.and one other person conversant therewith. 



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AGRICULTOKAL SOCIETY. 139 

No. 11. — ^FoKEiGN Impokted Cattlb. 

• 

Best Short Horn Bull, 2 years old and upwards. ... — Diploma and $15 

Best* Heif<^ or Cowy 2- years and upwards, diploma and «••.... 15 

Best Devon Bull, 2 years and upwards, diploma and ..«•••...•.«%, 15 

Heat Heifer or Cow, 2 years-and upwards, diploma and • • 10 

'Best Hereford Bull, 2 years and upwards, diploma and 1^ 

Best Heifer or CSow, 2 years and upwards, diploma and. 10 

Best Ayrshire Bull, 2 years and upwards, diploma and 15 

Best Heifer or Cow, 2 years and upwards, diploma and 10 

The importation, to entitle it to compete, must have been made within two 
years. 

No 12. — ^Best Herd of Cattle. 

For the best display of Cattle owned and held as farm stock by the exhibi- 
tor, combining the best properties in regard "to profitable Breeding^, 

Feeding and 'Milking .^ $50 

Second best do t t 30 

CLASS No. n.— HORSES AND MULES. 
No. 13. — Stallions and Maees for all Work. 

'Best Stallion, 4 years and upwards • 20 

•Second best. ...do do ••• 10 

-Third best do • .do. . . .- 5 

Best Brood Mare, (with foal at her foot>) 4 years and upwards. 15 

Second best. . ..do do .do 10 

Third best do do do .• 6 

Heavy Draught, 

Best Stallion, 4 years and upwards .^ 20 

Second best. . ..do do ..«. .. — •... 10 

Third best do. ...r. . ..do. •.... ^ 5 

Best Brood Mare, (with foal at her foot,) 4 years and upwards 15 

Second best. . . .do do do .•......, 10 

Third best do do. do 5 

Quick Draught'. 

Best Stallion, 4 years and upwards. ...•« SO 

.Second best. • ...do. • . .. . . .do. « .-. •.-•....* ..•••...•• 10 

xnirci Dest. • . . .uo. ••* .-. .>. .uo. •..•..* ••••«•.•.'. «•.••>. ■«•««•*. .-.^^j^*....*. o 

Best Mare do. ... .. . . .do. ...•■ t*^ ......•• i . . .« 15 

Second best. . ..do .do .^.j^*.. # 10 

•Thir4best.. :..dn. ....... ..do. * % ••,•*.., 5 



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14(0 PENNSYIiVANIA bTATE 

Draught, 

B^t Stallion, 4 years and upwards. * ...«...• ^t fM 

Second best, . ...do ,do • .•••«» • . • It 

Third best. , , . .do. ...... .do .-...• , S 

Best Mare.. • ..do. .•••«. .do .f . .r* •« •- 99 

Second best. • . .do .do. •.«••«•..... • 10 

Third best. . . . .do do i. • • 5 

Three Years Old. 

Best Stallion, 3 years and under 4 .....! 15 

Second best. .. .do. ... .^ .....•...• • . . . 10 

Third best do 5 

Best Mare... .. .do. .•»»^. ..« • •• 10 

Second best. ,. .do. ..••... «••...• 8 

Third best do 5 

Tux) Years Old. 

Best Stallion, 2 years and under 3 15 

Second best. • ..do do • 10 

Third best do do. 5 

Best Mare.. . . .do. .do. 10 

Second best* . . .do. . . .. . . .do. • 8 

Third best ^. do 5 

One Year Old CoUa. 

Best Stallion one year old. . . . • 10 

Second best do • • •* • •..«.• 5 

Third best. . .....dsx • * . , . ..•• 3 

Best Mare...<... .do ...•...•. .•^«. •« 10 

Second best. ,«•• .do .« •* »^» ' 5 

Third best do 3 

Matched Horses for Carriages. 

Best pair of Matched Horses ■. « 15 

Second best.. .....do. «..«• .. ...m, k 10 

Third best do ........ . . 5 

Best pair of Matched Mares . ..^. .....•.....;... ...w.. .• 10 

Second best. ...* ..do. . .«. •• 

Third best. .,.,.. ,do , 8 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETT. 141 

Far Draught or Farm. 

Best pair of Horses • $15 

Seeond best. ..do.. .• — «. •-«. 10 

Tiiirdbest. . . .do. ••••••• .••.••.••-#• .^ 5 

Best pair of Mares • 10 

Second best. ..do .» ^. 8 

Third best. . . .do 5 

Best Gelding 10 

Second best \ 6 

Third best 5 

Geldings and Sir^h Marts* 

Best Gelding for Saddle, gaited.. . . . •• • . . • 10 

Second best. do ,..........,...,.,.. ..,.....••.••. • .. "7 

Third best .do .,.,., .,. ^- . . . . 5 

Best Gelding for Harness • , 10 

Second best. ... • .do «^ 7 

Third, best do 5 

Best Family Horse 10 

|}est Family Mare 6 

Second best, .do • ■«....*.? 5 

Sir^le Mares, 

Best Mare for Saddle, gaited • • . • 10 

Second best. , . ... .do i 1 

Third best da. 5 

Best Mare for Harness 10 

Second best. ..•••do • 4 7 

Third best do . . . .- 5 

Jacks and M'ntks. 

Best Jack 20 

Second best « 10 

Best Jennet. .«... • . 10 

Second best • • 5 

Best pair of Moles • • • 10 

•Second best. .,..•.... ...^ 5 

Third best •• — 3 

Best pair of Mules raised in Pennsylvania 10 

Best draught Mule 5 

Second best. .do. . ..•,••»»•»,.•••....» 3 



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H2 FENNSYLVANIA 8TAT» 

Best team of Mules, not less than 4 . , $15 

Second best., .do do 10 

No. 14. — Foreign Iriported Horses. 

Having been imported within three years* 

Best Blood Stallion, 4 years and upwards Diploma and 15 

Best Brood Mare ; .do « «do 10 

Best Stallion of all work. . . .do do 15 

Best Brood Mare do do 10 

Best Draught Stallion do do 15 

Best Brood Mare ^do do 10 

Thorough Bred, 

Best Stallion, 4 years old and upwards ^ « 20 

Second best. .... ,6o .....do .«• 12 

Third best....... .do do. ....••• 8 

Best Brood Mare (with foal at her foot). . . • • .^ 15 

Second best 6o do 10 

Third hesU do ..*6o •• « .• 5 

In order to compete in this class of Thorough Breeds, pedigrees must be pro- 
duced showing the purity of blood of aU animals exhibited. The pedigree 
must ber complete on the part of both dam and sire, and a certificate of the 
time of importation. 

No. 15. — Trotting Horses and A) ares. 

Best Trotting Horse or Mare. $25 

Second best, .do do •• 15 

Best pair Matched Trotting Horses or Mares, in haxness • 25 

Second best. ..do do do. do 15 

Best p^ijr, Fancy Trotting Horses or Mares , , 25 

Second best. ..do. .... .. .do do 15 

Best Trotting Horse or Mare, in single harness ^ 20 

Second best., .do do. do ••«..... t 15 

Best Pacing or Racking Horse or Mare, either saddle Or harness 25 

Second best. ..do do do do 15 

CLASS No. ni.— SHEEP, SWINE AND POULTRY. 

No. 16. — Sheep AND Wool. 

Saxony, 

Best Buck, over 4 years , , 8 

Second best. . ..do , 5 



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AGKICULTUHAL SOOIETT. US 

Best Buck, between 2 and 4 years. • $g 

Second best .do ^^. 5 

Best yearling Buck. • 5 

Second best. ..do .....••. •...•....•.. • 3 

Best 3 Buck Lambs « 5 

Second best., .do • ^ 3 

Best 5 Ewe Lambs ....•• 5 

Second best. . . do ; •..••.. 3 

Best pen of Ewes, not less than 5 . • 8 

Second best. . .do. do... 5 

French, 

Best Buck • 5 

Second best • 3 

Best pen of Buck Lambs, not' less than 3 .^ 5 

Second best. . . .do ^do .• . • 3 

Best pen of Ewe Lambs, not less than 5 .•••«... 5 

Second best. . . .do do.. 3 

Best 5 Ewes i 5 

Second best — ...^ 3 

SpanUh Merino. 

Best Buck, over 4 years • . . • • 8 

Second best. • . .do • 5 

Best Buck, between 2 and 4 years 8 

Second best. ..,..■.. .do •. .- .• 5 

Best yearling Buck... ,•, .. . .-. ,. .....•....•..,..•. 5 

Second best. . .do 3 

Best 3 Buck Lambs ...*..... • 5 

Second best. . .do. « 3 

Best 5 Ewe Lambs , , , 5 

Second best. . . do 3 

Best pen of Ewes, not less than 5. •'. 8 

Second best. ..do. . . .'. .do. ,*. .,.'.*,.. 5 

... . South-Dovm. , . . 

Best Buck, over 4 years ^ 8 

Second best. . . .do • 5 

Best Buck, between 2 and 4 years. • • ...j. . ., t 8 

Second best do. 5 

Best yearling Buck ^ 5. 

Second best. ..do «• .*f •#.»••, 3 



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1^ PENNSYLVANIA STATB 

Best 3 Buck Lambs . . .^ »,,,.......•.-! • $5 

Second best. ..do. . .• , ..•••• •. 3 

Best 5 Ewe Lambs • 5 

Second best. . .do • ^ # • 3 

Best pen of Ewes, not less than 5 ...••.... 8 

Second best. ..do. .... .do • 5 

Leicester or L(mg Woolkd. 

Best Buck, over 4 years... 8 

Second best. . • .do • f 5 

Best Buck, between 2 and 4 years ...'...• 8 

Second best do... 5 

Best yearling Buck 5 

Second best. . .do • ••..... 3 

Best 3 Buck Lambs 5 

Second best. ..do. 3 

Best 5 Ewe Lambs .« 5 

Second best., .do • • ••• •....• • 3 

Best pen of Ewes, not less than 5 8 

Second best. ..do. .••# ..do • , 5 

No. 17. — Foreign Ibiportbd Sheep. 
Long fVoolled. 

Ikst Buck ^ 8 

Second best 5 

Best pen of 3 Ewes •• 8 

Second best. ..do 5 

MiddU Woolkd. 

Best Buck , 8 

Second best ••.... • 5 

Best pen of 3 Ewes .., ^ 8 

Second best. ..do •..•••-. ••• 5 

Aferinos* 

Best Buck ... .^ .... • • , 8 

Second best. ..•^•. ..-•f ,,. ... •• 5 

Best pen of 3 Ewee , 8 

Second best., .do ,..• , ,, 6 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 145 

Spanish. • 

Best Buck , $8 

Second best '. 5 

Best pen of 3 Ewes ......»• .^ ...... . S 

Second best., .do » 5 

SaxoM. 

Best fiuck^ • 8 

Second best • 5 

Best pen of 3 Ewes. . « • 8 

Second best. . .do ' .«....*. 5 

• No, 18.— Fat Sheep and Wool. 

Grown and Fed by Exhibitwr. 

Best Fat Sheep, 2 years old and upwards 5 

Second best. .... . .do .do ti . . 3 

Third best do do 2 

Best Fat Sheep, nnder 2 years 3 

Second best. ..... ...do •• . » 2 

Third best do , 2 

Best 5 Fat Sheep, any age 8 

Second best do , • 5 

Wool. 

Best 3 fleeces Saxony Wool 3 

Second best do ,^ 2 

Best 3 fleeces Merino Wool 3 

Second best Ao 2 

Best 3 fleeces Long Wool ^ 3 

Second best do 2 

Best 3 fleeces Middle Wool 3 

Second best. .,. .^ .do.. 2 

Best 3 fleeces Lambs Wool 3 

Second best - .do , ., , 2 

Best Shepherd Dog , 3 

Second best. , . .do ,..., -...;.. ..... 2 

No. 19. — Swine. 

Large Breed. 

Best Boar, over 2 years old 8 

Second best. • ,,do. .,, , 4 

to 



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146 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Best Boar, 1 year old^ . . « , f& 

Second best. . . .do .....*. 3 

Best Boar, 6 months and under 1 year . . , , r 5 

Second best. . . .do. ... * do 3 

Best Breeding Sow, 1 year and over , 8 

. Second best. . . .do. do r r 4 

Best Sow, 6 months and under 1 year r 5 

Second best. . . .do do v 3 

Best lot Pigs, (not less than 5,) under 6 months , , S 

Second best do do 4 

Including Chester, Berkshire, Hampshire, Leicester and their grades. 

Small Breed. 

Best Boar, 1 year and upwards • 8 

Second best do ". r . 4 

Best Boar, 6 months old and not 1 year * 5 

Second best do ..do. 4 

Best Breeding Sow, 1 year and upwards 5 

Second best do do *........ 3 

Best Sow, 6 months and under 1 year # 5 

Second best. ..... .do ..do 3 

Best lot Pigs, (not less than 5,) under 6 months 8 

Second best do do 5 

Including Neapolitan, Suffolk, improved China, Chinese^ Mocha and their 
grades. 

For best Fattened Hog $5 

Second best 3 

No. 20. — Poultry. 

Best trio of Buff or Ked Shanghais — 1 cock and 2 hens, over I year old, 3 

Second best . . .do , 2 

Best trio under 1 year "^ 3 

Second best. . .do , , 2 

Best trio of Grey Shanghais over 1 year 3 

Second best ... do 2 

Best trio under 1 year 3 

Second best. . .do 2 

Best trio of White Shanghais over 1 year 3 

Second best. . .do 2 

Best trio under 1 year ^-. 3 

Second best. . .do , 2 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 147 

Best trio of BuckaCounty Fowls $3 

Second best. . .do 2 

Best trio of Jersey Blues. .' 3 

Second best ... do • » 2 

Best trio of Malays , 3 

Second best., .do 2 

Best trio of Grey Dorkings - 3 

Second best. . .do 2 

Best trio of White Dorkings 3 

Second best ... do ..•.,... 2 

Best trio of Games over 1 year • « 3 

Second best. . .do , 2 

Best trio under ] year • .^ 3 

Second best. . .do • 2 

Best trio of Black Spanish over 1 year • 3 

Second best! . .do \- 2 

Best trio under 1 year *. , 3 

Second best. . .do 2 

Best trio of Polands or Top Knot Fowls over one year 3 

Second best. . .do 2 

Bes^trio under 1 year ■ 3 

Second best. ; .do • ^., ••..... 2 

Best trio of Golden Spangled Hamburgs ^. •.• 3 

Second best. . .do ^. 2 

Best Silver Spangled Hamburgs , • 3 

Second best., .do * 2 

Best trio of Golden Pencilled Hamburgs or Bolton Bays. 3 

> Second best . . .do , 2 

Best trio of Silver Pencilled Hamburgs Bolton Greys or Creoles 3 

Second best ... do 2 

Best trio of Creeping or Short Legged Fowls over 1 year /. . . 3 

Second best. . .do • 2 

Best trio under 1 year , 3 

Second best. . .do , 2 

Best trio of Bunty or Tailless Fowls 3 

Second best. . .do , 2 

Best trio of Silky Fowls 3 

Second best., .do , 2 

Best trio of Seabright Bantams 3 

Second best. . .do -? 2 

Best trio of other Bantams 3 

Second best. . .do , 2 



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148 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Best pair of Wild Turkeye #. $3 

Best pair of Domestic Turkeys , 3 

Second best. . .do 2 

Best pair of Wild Geese .........,.> 1 1 3 

Second best . . .do , 2 

Best pair of Bremen Geese^ ' 3 

Second best . . .do • 2 

Best pair of Hong Kong Geese • 3 

Second best. . .do 2 

Best pair of Common Geese * , . . « 2 

Second best. . .do 1 

Best pair of Musk Ducks , ...,.«....,.... 3 

Second best do 2 

Best pair of Eouen Ducks , 3 

Second best. . .do ., , , 2 

Best pair of Aylesbury Ducks : 3 

Second best. . .do .*. 2 

Best pair of Common Ducks. . . . ^ 2 

Second best. . .do. 1 

Best pair of Pea Fowls 3 

Second best. . .do .^ 2 

Best trio of Guinea Fowls • 3 

Second best. . .do , 2 

Best lot of Poultry owned by exhibitor * 10 

Largest collection owned by exhibitor 10 

Best exhibition of Pigeons 5 

Best trio of Capons 5 

Best Caponed Turkey 5« 

Best pair imported Fowls .Diploma and 5 

Best collection of prepared or Stuffed Birds or Fowls 5 

Second best. . .do 3 

CLASS No. IV. 

No. 21. — Ploughs and Ploughing Match. 

The Ploughing Match will take place on Friday mornhig at 9 o'clock. Per- 
sons competing in the Ploughing Match, will have their teams hitched and in 
readiness at the appointed hour. 

First premium to be awarded for the best plough Diploma and $5 

Second best plough , 3 

Third best. ..do 2 

Fourth best, .do, , 1 



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AGRICDLTURAL SOCIETY. 149 

Best single horse Plough ,*,........ t. ..... . .-Diploma and $5 

Second hest. .do ^ 3 

Best Subsoil . .do Diploma and 5 

Second best Subsoil Plough # 3 

Best Corn Plough. ..». Diploma and 5 

Second best Plough • r. » »•* 3 

Best Side-hill Plough .Diploma and S 

Second best. ..do. ..A**. ....•»•- 3 

Best Harrow %...»• Diploma and 5 

Second best , 3 

First .premium to be awarded to the best Ploughman 10 

Second best. . ..« do. .do 8 

Third best do do 5 

Fourth best do do 3 

First premium to be awarded to the best Ploughboy under 18 years. .... 10 

Second best do do ..« 8 

Third best \.do do. 5 

.Fourth best. do do 3 

03^ The name of Ploughman mu^ be\given, as well as the kind of plow to 
be used, at the time of entry. 

No. 22. — ^RoLLESs, CuLxrvATORs, Grain Drills, Planters and Sowbrs. 

Best Cultivator for general purposes .Diploma and $3 

Second best do: . ....... .do. ....-* - * - 5 

Best Com Cultivator. Diploma and 3 

Second best, .do , 2 

Best Grain Drill.. . . » , , Diploma and 3 

Second best, do , .•. % 

Best Seed Planter, for horse*or hand power, for hills or drills, Diploma and 5 

Second best do do do '. 3 

Best horse Corn Hanter.. Diploma and 5 

Second best. ..do , 3 

Best hand Corn Planter Diploma and 3 

Second best, .do « ..-. 2 

Best Roller for general use , . • • • , .Diploma and 4 

Second best do. , . . . .., » . • 3 

Best Proad Cast Sower ...*.. .Diploma and 5 

Second best. . . do . . , .'. . • 3 

No. 23. — Wagons, Carts, Riggings, Hand Cars and Barrows. 

Best Farm Wagon v ....*%;;...... i Diploma and 5 

Second best do... ..^. ............ • h.. ..r.^. .^».. 3 



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150 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Best Horse Cart i^. Diploiaaaiid $5 

Second best do., 2 

Best Ox Cart. Diploma aikl 5 

Second best « 2 

Best Dray • • Diploma and 4 

Second best • 2 

Best hay rigging on wagon .Diploma and 10 

iSecond best do •• 5 

Best hand Gar 3 

Second best 2 

Best W heel Barrow 2 

Second best, .do • 1 

jNo. 24. — ^Fanning Mills, Separators, Threshing Machines, Hay» Straw, 
Stalk and Vegetable Cutters. 

Best Treshing Machine .Diploma and $10 

Second best, .do 5 

Best Separator and Winnower • Diploma and 5 

Second best. . . «do '. 3 

Best Fanning Mill Diploma and 5 

Second best do • 3 

Best Hay, Straw and Stalk Cutter Diploma and 5 

Second best do do • 3 

Best Hay and Straw Cutter. • Diploma and 5 

Second best, .do 3 

Best Com Stalk Cutter Diploma and 5 

Second best., .do 3 

Best Vegetable Cutter ;. 5 

Second best do 3 

No. 25. — Corn Shellers and Crushers. 

Best Corn Sheller^ horse power.. ; Diploma and 5 

Second best, .do do , , 3 

Best Corn Sheller, hand power.. Diploma and 5 

Second best, .do do ^ 3 

Best Corn and Cob Crusher, horse power .Diploma and 5 

Second best. .do. .do w 3 

No. 26. — Reaping and Mowing Machines, Horse Powers and Implements. 

Best Reaping Machine Diploma and $10 

Second best do », 5 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 151 

Best Mowing Mttchine Diploma and $10 

Second best do • , 5 

Best Reaping and Mowing Machine. , . .Diploma and 10 

Second best do do 3 

Best Sweep, horse pawer Diplomaand 5 

Second best do 3 

Best Railway/horse power « Diploma and 5 

Second best do • • • 3 

Best Clover Holler. Diploma and 5 

Second best do. • , 3 

Best Horse Rake. Diploma and ^ 5 

Second best do ' 3 

Best Farm or Road Scraper .Diploma and 5 

Second best do • 3 

Best Portable Hay Press* • . .Diploma and 5 

Second best do 3 

Best Portable Cider MilL • Diploma and 5 

Second best do 3 

Best Washing Machine , . .Diploma and 5 

Second best do « 3 

Best Lime Spreadev . . . • • , Diploma and 5 

Second best do ..«««. , 3 

Best Pnmp for Wells 5 

Second best do 3 

Best Hydraulic Ram « ^ ••..*••• 5 

Second best. . . .do. • . .••«••..««• 3 

Best Hay and Cattle Scales. . « • .Diploma and 10 

Second best do 5 

Best Weighing Machine for general farm purposes .Diplom|i and 5 

Second best do do • • 3 

*Best lot of Small and Large Scales 5 

Second best do do « 3 

Best collection of Farmer^s Tools^ arranged in a deposit 5 

Best invention for securing the run of water in drains 5 

Second best do do. ...... .do i< 3 

Best and most numerous collection of Agricultural Implements, Dip. and 20 

Second best.. do do do do 15 

No. 27. — Machineet. 

Best Portable Saw Mill and Engine ■ .Diploma and 20 

Best Portable Steam Engine , Diploma and 15 

Best Portable Grist Mill ..« . .Diplomaand 5 



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159 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Best OhunuDg Power. . .« Diploma a«i |5 

Second best, .do • . . • » » • 3 

Best machmery for Churoing, adapted to dog power Diploma and 9 

Second best. * ■. ido do. . r«««do do. • • • .. •«• 3 

Best Shingle aad Stave Cutter. ^ Difdoma aad 5 

No; S8.— Fabu and Domestic Tools. 

For best Churn. • .Diploma and S 

Second best. ; 2 

Best Cheese Press ..;..;. .Diploma and 3 

Second best Cheese Press; 1 

Best twelve Milk Pans 2 

Second best. . . .do 1 

Best Milk Strainer ; 2 

Second best, .do 1 

Best Graiti Cradle. ..,..« Diploma and 2 

Secon4 best, .do • 1 

Best Scythe — Snathe and Scythe * . « < i Diploma 

Second best do do $1 

Best six Hand Hakes «...«•.•<• « ^ 2 

Second best, .do 1 

Best six Hay Forks ..,- Diploma 

Second best, .do • « • $2 

Best Fork and fixture, rigged to unload wagon 5 

Best six Grass Scythes. . . > Diploma 

Second best. .do. ..;..., $2 

Best six Grain Scythes... ^ Diploma 

Second best, .do $2 

Best six Axes Diploma 

Second best ^ ; $2* 

Best six Manure Forks Diploma 

Second best. . . .do $2 

Best six Devonshire Shovels , ..•..,... .Diploma 

Second best do *. $2 

Best six Canal Shovels Diploma 

Second best, .do $2 

Best six Spades Diploma 

Second best $2 

Best six Corn Hoes.. .^ • 3 

Secottdbeat. .do ...«...« , 2 

Best set of Horse Shoes. ......#•..•« « • 3 



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AOiHCULTUSAL SOCIETY. 153 

B^st lot of Ghrain Measures, not less than six ......... ..4 •...«••... • $9 

Second best. . . rdo do .... . ..do. • • • 2 

Best doz&k Wire Brooms., .,..« ..... . .« . ....«.• «t 2 

Second best. . . .do. .• 1 

Best dozen Shaker or twine-tied Brooms ...^ «. 2 

Second best. .do. ... • ..^do. ..»...* .do. .....•...%•....*. .... • ..••••..•••• 1 

Best half di^en Corn Baskets^ »...•••• 2 

Second best... do..... ••«.. •^.... ,. ,^ ^ ^.. .,....•*.. 1 

Best half dozen Wooden. Buckets.... ^ .... ^ ^ « , — » Diploma and 2 

Second best... ..do-. ...do.. • . .^ .,...,...*. ^. ..♦...,..., , 1 

Best half dozen Wooden Tubs. ••«... «•. .Dipbma and 2 

Secondbest...... »^^ . .do. . * .. .....^ .............. 1 

Best display of Kitchen Utensils, Tin.war.e, &c « • 9 

Second best do. ..... ... ....do. «. Diploma 

Best Or Yoke $5 

Second best .n^.,^.,. . ,,..^... ,c *..•,......••-...*.•.• • 3 

Best half dozen Flour Barrels ...<%.. Diploma and 2 

Second best do. « « 1 

Best display of Cooper Work, adapted. to household use. . ..Diploma and 3 

Second best...... . ..do.. ... . .^.do .do 2 

Should there be any new or meritorious implements and inventions exhibited, 
that are not provided for in the foregoing class, the committees in Class IV may 
report the jnerits of the same for premiums to the Executive Committee. 

No. 29. — ^American Manufactubes. 

A diploma of the Society will be awarded* to each muiufacturer exhibiting 
for the best display in his line of business; Articles manufactured in Philadel- 
phia and immediate vicinity, will be considered as Philadelphia manufactures. 

The Society will give attention to all articles for exhibition in this class, 
upon notice at ^eir office to that effect, and have them conveyed from the 
railroad depots or wharves, ta -the exhibition ground^ free of expense to the 
exhibitor. 

^ No. 30. — Leather and its MANiTFACTiraEs. 

Best Plough Gears • ...«••. $5 

Second best. .do. .......•».». ., .^ , 3 

Best Wagon Harness for farm ^ ....••....«•,. • • ..• « • • 5 

Second best. . . ,do. .*,.... r , 3 

Best Cart Gears ..^t 5 

Second best ,-, , *...... 3 

Best set of Double Harness... . . ^ .....c. »•• 5 

Second best. . . . . do. « « «...«%•.... ....*..#•.... 3 



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154 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Best Carriage Harness • . . . .Diploma and %5 

Second best, .do .'. • 3 

Best Baggy Harness • Diploma and 3 

Second best, .do •• 2 

Best Farm Saddje - 3 

Second best, .do 2 

Best lot of Men and Women's Saddles and Bridles Diploma and 5 

Second best do . .«.•■«. . . .do. . . ». • .do. 3 

Best Traveling Trunk... Diploma and 5 

Second best, .do •••..«• • « 3 

Best lot of Men, Women and Children's Boots and Shoes.. .Diploma and 5 

Second best. . . .do do do do. 3 

Best half dozen Wagon Whips 3 

Second best do 2 

Best Carriage Whips .\ Diploma 

Second best, .do .•«..<•.«..••....«•* $2 

Best Sole, Harness and Upper Lteather .Diploma 

Second best. . . .do do , $2 

Best dressed Calf Skins Diploma 

Second best. . . .do x • $2 

Other articles, manufactured of leather, and not enumerated above, cash 
premiums and diplomas may be awarded to by the Committee. 

CLASS No. V. 

No. 3L — ^Daihy, Sugar and Honey. 
Butter, • 

Best lot of batter— quality as well as quantity considered — ^made from hve 
cows, in thirty consecutive days, ten pounds of the butter to be ex- 
hibited ^ $5 

Second best 3 

A certificate, signed by the owner of the cows, and at least one other person, 
who assisted in milking and making the butter, certifying to tike facts of the 
case, to accompany each lot of butter. 

Best lot of twenty pounds, made in 1857 $5 

Second best lot made in 1857 ••,..... 3 

Best lot of ten pounds, made at any time ; 5 

Second best lot of ten pounds, made at any time 3 

Best Firkin or Tub of Butter, not less than three months old 5 

Second best do do do do. 3 

Premiums to be awarded to girls under twenty-one years of age. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 155 

Best lot of ten pounds of Butter, made at any time '. . • ^ |3 

Second best lot • 2 

Best lot of five pounds of Butter, made at any time 3 

Second best lot 2 

Best barrel of Salt, for Dairy purposes 3 

Second best, .do do. do. , 2 

Best barrel Coarse Salt, for packing 3 

Second best do ...... do ....••...• • 2 

Cheese — One Year and Older. 

Best fifty pounds of Cheese • • . . . ^-i • • . . . • 5 

Second best. . ., . .do 3 

Third best do , 2 

Less than One Year, 

Best fifty pounds of Cheese • 3 

Second best do .•••.. 2 

Third best. do 1 

Best half dozen Cheese Boxes 2 

Best Dairies from any county, not less than three Cheese from each. ... 10 

' Those who present Cheese for the premiums offered, must state in writing 
the time it was made ; the number of cows kept ; whether the cheese was 
made from one, two, or more milkings ; whether any addition* is made of 
cream ; the quantity of rennet used, and the mode of preparing it ; the mode 
of pressure, and the treatment of cheese afterwards, and the kind of salt used. 

Sugar and Honey. 

Best twenty pounds Maple Sugar $5 

Second best. .. .do ...... do ... • 3 

Best ten pounds of Honey 5 

Second best do , 3 

Third best do.. , 2 

Best five pounds, do , 5 

Second best do , 3 

Third best do 2 

The honey to be taken without destroying the bees ; and the kind of hives 
used, and the management of the same to be added. 



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166 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

CLASS No. VL— I-LOUK, CORN MEAL, GRAIN, SEEDS AND VEGE- 
TABLES. 

No. 32. — Flour and Cobn Meal. 

Best barrel of Flour.. Diploma and $5 

Second best do 3 

Third best, .do 1 

Best barrel of Corn Meal, prepared from kiln-dried corn. . .Diploma and 3 

Second best do do 2 

Best sample of Corn Farina 2 

Best Wheat Farina 2 

Best sample five loaves Baker's Bread Diploma and % 

Second best do do Diploma 

Best sample, one barrel each. Water and Butter Crackers.. .Diploma and $5 

Second best do do 3 

Best Smut Machine , .,.,.., .Diploma and 5 

Second best do , ^ 

Best late invention in manufacturing flour. ^ Diplonaa 

No. 33. — Grain and Seeds. 

Best bushel White Wheat $2 ^ 

Second best do 1 

Best bushel Red Wheat : 2 

Second best. . . .do 1 

Best bushel Mediterranean Wheat 2 

Second best do. 1 

Best bushel of Rye 2 

Second best, .do 1 

Best bushel yellow gourd Seed Corn t # 2 

Second best do do ^t 1 

Best bushel White Flint Corn 2 

Second best do ....',... 1 

Best bushel mixed Corn • ...••■ 2 

Second best. . . .do , 1 

Best bushel Oats 2 

Second best '.- • 1 

Best bushel Barley -. 2 

Second best, .do 1 

Best bushel Irish Potatoes 2 

Second best do • 1 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 157 

Best bushel.Sweet Potatoes., .......... ..^ . ., > , $2 

Second be^t do. « 1 

Best bushel field Turnips , 2 

Second best do. ..*.... 1 

Best bushel Kutf^ Baga. f , 2 

Second best do ." 1 

Best bushel Sugar Beets , • , 2 

Second best ..... do ». 1 

Best bushel Carrots ....,.« 2 

Second best, .do ; 1 

Best bushel Parsnips. 2 

Second best . . do. • • 1 

Best bushel Flaxseed • • 2 

Second best, .do t 1 

Best sample Hops, not less that 10 pounds •.....,..., 2 

Second b^< do do , . l 

Best sample Timothy seed, 1 bushel] , , 2 

Second best.-. .. , .do do 1 

Best Clover Seed, 1 bushel 3 

Second best do 2 

Best sample of newly introduced Grain, valuable to Farmers, not less 

than 1 bushel 5 

DI/^ Samples of Grain and Seeds, in all cases to he deposited with the Sec- 
retary. 

No. 34. — Vegetables. 

For 12 best stocks of Celery |2 

Second best do I 

6 best heads of Cauliflower 2 

Second best do 1 

12 best white table Turnips 2 

Second best... ...do ♦#.... 1 

12 best Carrots , o 

Second best , 1 

12 best Beets i . ... , 2 

Second best ^-.. 1 

12 best Parsnips , 2 

Second best ^ 1 

12 best Onions , , t , • , , ^ • - 2 

Second best , , . , » 1 

6 best heads of Cabbage. •..».#. 2 

Second best. . , , , ,do , 1 



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158 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

6 best heads of Brocoli $2 

Second best do 1 

12 best Tomatoes 2 

Second best ! 1 

2 best purple Egg Plants 2 

Second best do • • 1 

12'best Sweet Potatoes 2 

Second best do • 1 

Best I peck Lima Beans «... • 2 

Second best do 1 

Best buncb double Parsley , 2 

Second best do 1 

3 best garden Squashes • • 2 

Second best. . . .do #. 1 

3 best large Squashes 2 

Second T)est do 1 

3 largest Sweet Pumpkins 2 

Second largest, .do *. 1 

3 largest field Pumpkins i 2 

Second largest. . . .do 1 

12 best ears yellow Seed Corn 2 

Second best .do 1 

Best 12 ears white Seed Corn 2 

Second best do 1 

Best 12 Seedling Potatoes. 2 

Second best do 1 

Best display of Table Vegetables 5 

Second best do do ^ 

CLASS No. Vn. 

No. 85. — ^Domestic and Household Manupactuees. 

Best 10 pounds Sugar made in 1857, from the Chinese Sugar Cane 10 

Second best do. ,.,,,, .do do do 5 

Best gallon of Molasses made in 1857, from the Chinese Sugar Cane. ... 5 

Second best do do do do • 3 

Best pair of Woollen Blankets 5 

Second best do 2 

Third best do •. 1 

Best ten yards of Woollen Cloth 5 

Second best do 3 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCffiTT. 159 

« 

Best fifteen yards of Wx)ollen Carpet 5 

Second best do 3 

Third best. do 2 

Best Hearth Rug 4 

Second best do 3 

Third best, .do 2 

Fourth best do, 1 

Best Rag Carpet, fifteen yards 5 

Second best do do 3 

Third best, .do do 2 

Best double Coverlet 3 

Second best do 2 

Third best . . do ^ 1 

Best pair Woollen Knit Stockings.. 3 

Second best do , , 2 

Third best: do 1 

Best pair Woollen Knit Half Hose 3 

Second best. '.^ do ,.,.,.. 2 

Third best do. 1 

Best pair Woollen Mittens 2 

Second best do 1 

Best home made Shirt. • 5 

Secon^ best do ^ 3 

Best barred Flannel, twelve yards 5 

Second best do do 2 

Best plain Flannel, twelve yards 5 

Second best do do 2 

Best ten yards barred Linen 5 

Second best do. . . .do 2 

Best ten yards plain Linen , 5 

Second best do. . . .do 2 

Third best, .do do * 1 

Best ten yards Linen Diaper ' 5 

Second best do 2 

Third best do 1 

Best Ornamental Needle Work 5 

Second best .do. 3 

Third best do , ,. . . , 2 

Best Ottoman Cover. , 3 

Second best do 2 

Best Table Cover 3 

Second best do 2 



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160 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Best Artificial Flowers • $3 

Second best do. r * * 2 

Best variety. Worsted Work 5 

Second best, , . , , .do 3 

Best Fancy Work with needle for Chair. 3 

Second best do do • 2 

Best Worked Cushion and Back 3 

Second best. . , . . . do 2 

Best Silk Quilt 5 

Second best do 3 

Third best, .do 2 

Best Fancy Quilt ,,. 5 

Second best do -.•..,..,,...,*....#......*.. 3 

Third best, .do ,, 2 

Best plain white Quilt.. .* ....*.., 3 

Second best do * « . « , 2 

Third best, .do 1 

Best Counterpane « 3 

Second best do.« « « , , 2 

Best Lamp Stand Mat. ......... 2 

Second best do. . . ^ ^ 1 

Best Ornamental Shell Work 3 

Second best. . , .do r ^ ^ . 2 

Best specim:en Wax Flowers 3 

Second best. . . .do^ ^ » • 2 

Premiums of $2 each, to the number of ten, may be awarded on articles 
coming within this class and not enumerated above. 

Articles of domestic manufacture to be made in the family ; and, in all 
eases the exhibitor must furnish evidences that the articles are so manufac- 
tured. And no article manufactured in factories, or out of the family, will be 
received in this class. 

Best home made Bread $3 

Second best do 2 

Best Pound Cake 2 

Second best do 1 

Best Sponge Cake , 2 

Second best do 1 

Best Ginger Bread 2 

Second best do ^, 1 

Best Preserves 3 

Second best do 2 



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AGUttOCJLTUKAL SOCIETY. 161 

Befit JfVuit Jelly |3 

Second best do • • -•••*• 2 

Best Tomatd Preserves 3 

Second best do 2 

Best Tomato Figs 3 

Second best do 2 

Best Apple Preserves 3 

Sec<md best do 2 

Best specimen of Pickels 2 

Second best do 1 

Best sample of Apffle Butter 2 

Second best do 1 

Best scalded Peaches 3 

Second best do 2 

Best Quince and Peach Butter, each 2 

Second best do do 1 

Best home made Soap 2 

Second best do 1 

017^ Persons whose trade is baking, cannot enter this list in eompetition, as 
it is intended alone for the encouragement of hoosekeepeis. 

No. 36. — Manufactuees other than Domestic. 

Best piece black Broad Cloth, American manufacture, twenty yards. .Diploma 

Best piece blue Broad Cloth do '.do Diploma 

Best piece Woollen Carpet, manufactured in factories, twenty yards. Diploma 

Best piece of Sattinett, twenty yards .Diploma 

Best piece bleached Cotton Shirting, thirty yards Diploma 

Best piece unbleached Cotton Shirting, thirty yards JDiploma 

Best piece bleached Cotton Sheeting, thirty yards Diploma 

Best piece unbleached Cotton Sheeting, thirty yards.. Diploma 

Best piece Linen Sheeting, twenty yards Diploma 

Best pair Woollen Blankets Diplonut 

Best variety of Flannel .Diploma 

Best variety of American Shawls, from American wool Diploma 

CLASS No. VIIL 

No. 37. — Caeeiages, Cabinet Waee, &c. 

Best two horse Carriage. Diploma 

Second best do ^ |2 

Best two horse Buggy Diploma 

Second best two horse Buggy |2 

11 



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162 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Best one horse Buggy ' Diploma 

Second best do $2 

Best Spring Wagon Diploma 

Second best. ..do • ^•. • $2 

Best Omnibus ..Diploma 

Second best • $2 

Best one horse Market Wagon 5 

Second best . . .do .Diploma 

Best display of Cariages, Buggies, Spring Wagons, &c Diploma and $5 

Second besrt Diploma 

Best display of Cabinet Ware. Diploma and $5 

Second best do. . # Diploma 

Best Iiiiproved Bedstead .Diploma 

Second best. . . .do $2 

Best Improved School Desks and Chairs Diploma and 10 

Second best t • • ^ « 5 

No. 38.— Musical Instruments. 

Best Piano • • • ^Diploma and 10 

Best Melodeon. . . * Diploma and 10 

Best display of Pianos, Melodeons, &c Diploma and 10 

CLASS No. IX.— AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIONS OF FIELD CROPS. 

No. 39. — Winter Premiums. 

Best five acres of Com $20 

Second best. . .do •. , , 10 

Best Acre of Corn, not less than 80 bushels , 10 

Second best. .... .do do. .70. ...do , 5 

Best 5 Acres of Wheat 20 

Second best ... do , , 10 

Best Acre of Wheat, not less than 40 bushels 10 

Second best do do. . ..35. . .do , 5 

Best 5 Acres of Rye 15 

Second best, .do , , , 8 

Best Acre of Rye, not less than 40 bushels 5 

Second best do 35 , 2 

Best 5 Acres of Barley 15 

Second best. . . .do , , 8 

Best. Acre of Barley, not less than 50 bushels 5 

Second best do do. . . ,40.. .do <•. i 

Best 5 Acres of Oats , , 15 

Second best. ., .do, ,,., #«.....•...,, , 8 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 163 

Best Acre of Oats, not less than 60 buBbels it..., $5 

Second best. . . .do do. . ..50.. .do 2 

Best Acre of Timothy Seed 5 

Second best do , 2 

Best Acre of Clover Seed 10 

Second best do 5 

Best Acre of Irish Potatoes, not less than 200 bushels 10 

Second best do. . .• do 8 

Best Acre of Table Potatoes , 15 

Second best 8 

Best Half Acre Table Potatoes 5 

Second best 2 

Best Acre of Carrots, 60 lbs. per bushel 10 

Second best. . . .do do • • 5 

Best Half Acre of Carrots, 60 lbs. per bushel 5 

Second best do. • do 2 

Best Acre of Ruta Baga, 60 pounds per bushel • . . . . 10 

Second best do do 8 

Best Ralf Acre of Ruta Baga, 60 pounds per bushel .,., 5 

Second best do ,do 2 

Best Half Acre of Sugar Beets 5 

Second best do 2 

Best Quarter Acre of Mangel "Wurtzel 5 

Second best do do « 2 

Best Quarter Acre of Turnips . , , 5 

Second best do. . . • ^ . . •• •• • • . 2 

Best Quarter Acre of Sweet Potatoes 5 

Second best. .... .do do « 2 

Best Half Acre of Tobacco 5 

Second best do .....* 2 

Competitors for premiums for the above agricultutral productions mttst pro- 
duce a full statement of the mode of cultivation and the kind of seednised. 
The ground to be in one contiguous piece, to be measured by a surveyor, with 
chain and compass, who shall make affidavit to the correctness of the mea- 
surement of the land cultivated. 

• All of the corn competing for the five acre crop, and all of the corn compet- 
ing for the one acre crop, must be shelled and measured between the 1st of 
December and the 10th of January, and number of bushels certified to by the 
afiidavit of some other person who helped to shell and measure the same. 

The grain to be measured in a sealed half bushel, or measured by weight 
according to the standard. 



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16* . PENNSFLVANIA STATE 

The exhibitot must also exhibit a ^amphe of ettch drop not less than half u 
bushel, at the annual meeting in Hanrbburg, on the third Tuesday ef Jaawiiy 
next. 

(CT* See forms of affidavit on page 4. 

CLASS No. X.— FEUIT AND FLOWERS. 

No. 40.— Fruit. 

For the best 6 Fall varieties, 5 each $4 

Second best. . . .do do , « • 3 

Third best .do do \'. 2 

For the best 3 Winter varieties, 5 each.. . . , • 3 

Second best do do ^.. 2 

Third best do do 1 

For the best and largest collection . Diploma 

Second best do do $6 

Third best do .do 4 

Blackherriee, 

For the best pint Lawton or New JRochelle. 2 

Second best do do. 1 

For the best quart of any other variety 2 

Second best • •..>.••• 1 

Cranberries, 

For the best peck 3 

Second best, .do ... 2 

Figs. 

For the best 12 ripe fruit, under glass. , . . • 2 

Second best do. .... .do. ....... * • 1 

For the best 12 ripe fruit, grown out doors 2 

Second best .do< do 1 

Grapes. 

For the best half peck Isabella , 3 

Second best do •.. ... 2 

Third best do -• • 1 

For the best 4 bunches 3 

Second best. . ..do 2 

•Third best do • 1 



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AGWOBLTUHAL SOCffiW. 1«8 

For the bttflt'half p«ok CatpfwiMi ».h^ $S 

SecoBd beet. .«.«.. ido. .*•••..... r.r»«r. 2 

Third beet de •. I 

For the beet 4 bunches-. .**,.. «•• 3 

Second beet. • . .do. .<...«..«. • 2 

Third best do .*.......,.. I 

For the best bunch of New Hardy variety, superior to the above 5 

Best collection of Native Grapes. . . ••.. . ... .,^ ... . .^^ . • • • •■• ... • ••.•« • •.• 5 

Best collection of Foreign Grapes.. •.•••*•••••«. •^.•.* •..r*^^ $ 

Best sample of Grape Training ....•••«• .^^^ . . • •#-« • . • t •• • • « • • 5 

Best collection of Foreign Grape Vine grown in pots, in fruit. . ........ 5 

Second best • , ...^do . . .,..«^ .•.«.•.•••• .do. • • < 



I ••4-« ••«•.•••*•«• 



Foretgnj Grown in a Hothouse. 

For the best bunch Black Hamburgh. ...•••«• .^^.^ •■•-. ••••.••• 2 

Second best do , 1 

For thie best bunch, any variety •...•••• ;;...•. •.••••••.• «.^.«^ 2 

Second best . ...^^^ do •.••••••• «...*^« ••••••• , •••.••.•■« 1 

Grown in Cold Vinertf, 

For lihe best buBeh Bladfi Hamburgh.. *.«^».»^t « ..4% »«».••• ..^ 3 

Second best, «•»«#.>• ««do.r««.-r<««. •••-!. •••»»••*«••••%*%•«««••*•« 1 

For the best bunek,- any variety «•••••...« ••.%••••.• .^c 2 

T 



Second beet »t.«.tf.4.4 do* • < #.«•• « « < # < « «««.«Hr-« • ••••••t •«•«••••••» »-«•. • • • ••«t 1 



For the best bunch Black Hamburgh.. • •.«.• .••«...••'. ^ 

Second best i •••do ...... •••••■••• ••••^ ••• •••^•^ ...•••^ 1 

For the best bunch, any variety • .^ •• • ••..••••••• % 

Second best •••••• do. .••.•.•••.•.•••••.•• ••••.••• i .*•• • X 

.Ltmaus, 

For the best Lemon plant, in friii't. • ••l...^ «•••••« • •^^ .•••••••«• •.«^^ S| 

Second best, ••• ..do. ••«• ..do .•..«•• ••t**. ••••.•• t^t .^ •••«t« i 

Melons. 

For the best three largest water. « • »^^ • .• • «...».4.«^ 2 

Second best^ « .de • •<.r « • « » #.r-. •••^y *• «• «r *•••••••••.••••••'•• • 1 

For the best tbree varieties^ one eaoh. r.r. .r.,.r, »•#•••••» -^•-•^ S 

Second bestk»,«.,H do «.#««^r-0«..«.«..^..»««»..*.»»*.»..*r«^.*.. 2 

Third l)est...«»»^»do. «<*... .^..^........^.^^^ ••^•••.^»«.*»«4 i 



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W6 PENNSYLVANU STATB 

For th^.best six green fleshed Citrous, musk, varieiy •••*«• ^ ,.«•» • $2 

Second best.,.,.*. ...do *...•. .do. *^„,«».^ •••,•..«..«•••••• 1 

For the best six green fleshed Nutmeg., .. .dp. , * ^ ,-^ t .•••.-...,,..*• •-♦ 2 

Second best. • • • • . ..»>» do « •.•.•^^ . • • «.do.. .«•••••#•«••••••••.•• 1 

For the best new variety superior to the abpye^ • , * t-... •*••••••«••,..••« 2 

Second best. «,..,do. • ••••••«,...tdQ.^ « •« ••• 1 

J^ectarints, 



For the best twelve grown under glass , • , ....••... 2 

Second best do. ••.•'•••do.. •-* •..•.,.••. 1 

For the best twelve grown out doors •..-••. ..-•^ 2 

Second best... • . .do, • ••• . . .do .....•• t. ...•..•••••.•••••• ; 1 

Oranges, 

For the best Orange Plant, in fruit ..•••• , ^ ••..•••• 3 

Second best^ do , , ..^•., ••,••,..•••• .#••..•••••.*• 2 

Pears, 

For the best six summer or fall varieties, three each ••.•••••• 4 

Second best. •;, . » .do, , ^» ,^ . #-»-tdo • • « •••...• .^ 3 

Third best, ••.... do .. * t^. ..•• do. ••,•••. • •. ^ — ...•.••• ,^^ ^2 

For the.be^t. three summer or biH varieties, three each « 3 

Second. best.*,*^.^^ do.. • ••. •••••do...^^ ,•.•,,.,.,• ..,• »••••••»••••« 2 

Third best. . . ..... .do. •••*.•• . . .do .^ 1 

For the best six winter or fall varieties, three each ••••••••. ..... 4 

Second best « ...^.^^ do • . do .••••.••.•••••• « 3 

Third best....,;.do ...do..,.. .^^ 2 

For tke best three winter or fall varieties, three each. ••...•,.. ^. ..••. , 3 

Second best ^ ..-•'.do do." ••^ ^..-.. . 2 

Third best .. ....^ .do. • • • «^....^.« do... •••.••• .••••;.. •« 1 

For the best and largest collection ......^^ .,•••..•• ^Diploma and 5 

Second best do... • • ••••>.•••••••.•••..•• •• 4 

Third "best. ..,...• .do.. ...'.•• , 3 

Fourtli Ibest.i..., ^do.. • ••• ..••• •«. • 2 

Peaches. f 

For the. best tea varieties.. . «.. . ^v«.«.* ». %••••< •••••f««, •• 5 

Second best*. • .do* •%*•%#.. • »••....■•,«««.• • •••«<• •••••••••* ^t.^.*.*^ ••••••.. 4 

Third best... «• .do... .•-•>•. »• • ..»..»< •••.•••• «.«•••«••• ••-«««'••« 3 

Fourth best, , ...do ^^^^^ •.-^•^•^ «••««•••••.•. « •.•-•^ ^ ..,«.« • % 



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AOKIOULTURAL SOCIETY. 167 

For the best six varieties *^.«^ • •••• •*«.*^ $4 

Second best. • . .do • • •.♦^^ ••••••• ••••••••• ••••••#•• *.»m^^ 3 

Third best do. . . - ^...^. • ^* 2 

Fourth best. . . .do • .-.^- ^^ -• 1 

For the best three yarieties.. • • • w ••••..•••.••••»• • « • « 8 

Second best. . ..do • ••...•^t. •..•••••••• 3 

Third best do ^ •.. 1 

For the best and largest collection ..••.•• .Diploma aiid 5 

Second best. • . .do . . . -• ••• ..••••«•..•■«#.•. •-•'• 4 

Third best do * « ,-^^ •••••.. • •-• .•..•.•♦.•.......••*..••••.••• S 

Fourth best. . , .do ..-• • . . • t^ 2 

Prunes. 

For the best twelve ripe fruit. .•••••• ...^ •••••.••••• ••••••.. 2 

Second best « . ...^.t do. • • * ..•.« • « • ^-—-^ «.*-««^. •.•..••.•••... .••••.•.• 1 

Plums, 

For the best six, one variety, ••«••• •••• , • • • ••••».•••• ^.^.^^ » • • • 3 

Secondbest. .••^., do.. «.»»,4. ••••••«• ^•••^.•. •• »••••• ••••t. *»m— 2 

Third best. • . •.•• .do. • • . «.....^^ • • ••^t. ...•••• •«••• 1 

For tiie best collection. •., , «.• • • • ^.« 4 

Second best. • . .do. • .,« ••.^.m* • • •• • • •.•••••.••«••••• •«.».«»-«^ 3 

Third best do , , .....•• 2 

Fourth best. . . .do, .•••••«••«• .^^ • . • .•-. ^ . ...... • . • •-.- • 1 



• 



Quinces, 

For the best three varieties, 5 each 3 

Second best. .......do .^ 2 

Third best do .^ 1 

For the best 12, one variety 2 

Second best 12 1 

Raspberries. 

For the best pint fresh ripe fruit ... ...^ ..-• 3 

Second best do .^-« . . . ...^ 2 

Third best pint fresh ripe fruit. ...... .... ,•.•••• v ••• • •• ^ 

For the best general assortment of fruit of all kinds, a silver cup, worth 20 

Second best do. do 15 

Third best do do 10 

Fourth best. ....... ,do .do 6 



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168 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Wine. 

Best home made Spaddin^ Wine • .Diploma and & 

Second best.. ^^do • 3 

Sest home made Wine 3 

Second beat. . . .do ■• • •<..*•• 2 

Best home made Cordial • • • # 3 

Secobd best. «. . .do •.- ».. • . • •■• 2 

Best Cider in bottles with mode of curing, so as to keep sweet one year, 3 

Best .barrel cider Vinegar.. , .,. .*•■, • 2 

Second best. . ..do — '•- « 1 

The fruit not to be removed until the close of the exhibition, and particular 
care is to be observed by all persons that the same be not injured. 

No. 41.— ^FtowEBs, Flawts awd Demons. 

Plants in Flower — Jlchimenes, 

For the best three varieties , ; . , $3 

Second best three; -, . do^ «.««.«^»««k».., 2 

Third best da. ....•....,, • . . . ♦^^ • . , 1 

Asters. 

For lite best coHeetion. ... . .•• , ^.. ...... 2 

^cond' best. . . .do*. . , ............ ^ . i ,.« .^ •..«» «^ 1 

Dahlias. 

For the best three varieties, 1 each ».,,,., 3 

Second best three. . .do ...... do 2 

Third best. . .! do. . . . . .do 1 

Fuchsias, 

For the best six varieties, 1 each -. 4 

Second best six. ..do -do. . .. • 3 

Third best. . . .-.. .do do. ...*•.. ^. ^ 



Dianthus. 

..... .. . H 

I 



For the best collection-.. ., ....-,.. ....,.., 3 

Second' best, ....'• .......•.....*.•.•.....€...•..,.., 2 



Heliotrope. 



For the best three, '4 varieties ,\.^\ , . , ,,, , /, ........... 3 

Second best three do. ,,, , , 2 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETV. 169 
GeranitlM Md Pelargoniums. 

For the best colleotion .^ ,...* |3 

Secoftd best. » « •do* .,.../ • t • » « • • 3 

Specimen Plants. 

For the b^sft tW6lvie tatieties, 1 each 4 

Secotidbest do. do , 3 

Third best do do 2 

For the best six varieties, 1 each • 3 

Second best. . . .do. ..... ..dp. w. .. 2 

Third best dp. ...... .do *.- 1 

For the best one new, not shown before .-•-# 3 

Second best. . .do do. ..••..»••• 2 

Best collection variegated leaf Plants •'. • .... 10 

Second best, .do ;do S 

Roses. 

For the best collection ^ 10 

Second best. . . ,do -. •• ..••*. ... 8 

Lilium LancifoUum, 

For the best collection « • ^ ..•..,,.,.#.» 4 

Second best. .. .do. .. .• - ,• 3 

Verbenas. 

For the best twelve varieties • > 3 

Second best. ...^..do «.. ■ 2 

Third best do .^ 1 

For the best six varieties. .......••.•.. .« . . 2 

Second best . . . .do ••.....«... .«.. . . . • — «... 1 

For the best six new seedlings, superior to old 3 

Second best. ...do. . .... .do do^. • ..«.•. 1 

Third best. . . .do .do do. •••••.. 1 

Tuberose. , 

Ffr the best variety, not less than 3... •«..••. ■. 2 

Second best. ..do do , 1 . 



Collections. 



For (he best bedding and out d66r defeoratibn for the garden ........... 6 

Second best .,do. .'...,86. ..•...•d6 .*.d6 S 



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170 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

For the best nurseryman's collection .••.,..,• xo., •• • • $12 

Second best do. . • do 10 

Third best do do. , , . ♦ 8 

Fourth best. , • .. .do do •• • ....•• 6 

For the best amateur's, superior to any of the nurserymen's, a diploma and 10 

Second best. . . .do do do 10 

Third best do do do 5 

Fourth best. . . .do do. ..^ • ,. .do 3 

Cut Flowers — Asters. 

For the best collection. , • • • • • i • • •»»#•••..«•••••• 2 

Second best. • . .do *.. ...^ • « • • • • I 

Biantkus, 

For the best collection. •• • «. ••••••• «.».«.».*^ '•^.« • • • • 3 

Second best. • • .do. . « • .^..t ••••••• ••«-• ••»••• • • • • • . 2 

Dahlias* 

For the best twelve varieties. . • • ...^ •.•».• • # • • • • • i • • • 3 

Second best. • • .^..do • « • ....• • • 2 

For the best six varieties. • • « • .^^^ • . • .^^ ..^ 2 

Second best. . ••do........ • •« %••-•.•« t • 1 

For the best collection. .^ • .^. ,., . ,» • ^-^ ..«••«•..•••••••• 3 

Second best. • . .do. . . • • • .•.•••••• ..•..••• 2 

Phloxes. 

For the best six varieties. • • • ...••••.••«•«•..•.• ■•-• 2 

Second best. • • .do. « . ...^ • • « '• .^^^ • • . • ••« ••...•...... 1 

For the best collection, not less than ten varieties. • 3 

Second best. ...do...**. do • • ••. 2 

Pansies. 

For the best collection. .....^^.. ... • ••«^ • t^ .../«. .^ • • t 3 

Second best. •. .do «.«w^^ ^•^•^^^ «....^« 2 

Roses. « 

For the best six perpetuals. . . • ... • ».« » •.».• « « ^^^ ,,,, ••.«••...• 2 

Second best. . ..do t..^. ..•••••^^ • 1 

For the best six bourbon. «,.,.,.»- «••.••.••••••• .• 2 

Second best. ...do... t»^ •#-«'«• ..#..•# ..,,», ••.••• 1 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 171 

fbr the best collection t • • . , • • • • » • • • $5 

Second best. • • .do ••««•«.«••«•••• ^.,...,.,.4 ••••«• ^^^ ....»••••• 2 

Third best do..., •.••••• ...^. . • .• .^ 1 

Verbenas, 

For the best collection. ••••...«.•••••«• • t • • • • 5 

Second best. • ..do ««».•«• ,\ \[ .••••..,, ••.•^. . ..V. . ...,•• 3 

Hollyhocks. 

For the best collection. •••••# • • • • • • 2 

Second best. • • .do • • • • # • • • •••^^ •••«••. •^-t ••••....•••••••••• 1 

DESIGNS AND BOQUETS. 

Designs. 

For the best decorative, original. •••..•% •...«•••••••••• ••^ • 8 

Second best, •••-•..do ......^ ..t*^** 5 

Third best « . ,^^ .do • « • . . • 3 

Fourth best.. ... -do ,. -•....... —^ 2 

For the best floral designs « . .,,, 8 

Second best. . . •• .do .^.,.^ « . • « 4 



Basket, 

For the best Basket, with flowers • . •. , 5 

{Second best. .do. .••««.do». .•«»• ««».«^v« ...# 4 

Third best. . .do. « ... ».,^ do.. • . • « . ...^.c • . • • ..•>•*.• t • 3 

For the best fancy Basket, with flowers* ««•#.. ,^,^^ « . ...^^ .« 3 

Second best.. ••••do. •» •^••.•.do.. ••««•<•.•••••••...•• 2 

Third be8t...,*»«do. «, do.. ,« ,...^* ••••• 1 

. Vase, 

For the best Vase, with flowers. . . . . •« • . • ^..^^. •.«•■•« 3 

Second best. .do. ....«.• do .•••••.••.. • .t-**...^^ .... 2 

Third best . . . do • • < . • • do. . « . .....^ • • . •■•-« ••.•••••.••.••«.«» .^^.t •. • . « 1 

For the best fancy Vase, witli flowers .••.••• ..•••.• 2 

Second best do. • .do. •..,..•,..•..•••«••••.•.....•.••• 1 

Boquets, 

For the best pair round hand. ••••..•• •...^-*^ 3 

Second best ,.„., ,^< do...> • .^^ *«..«.»•« .^ ••••• « • • 2 



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17t l^NNSTLVANIA bTATR' 

For the best flat, round haikl^ .•.••»« •«••«• 4 « • |S 

SecoBd best» « . « • «de« « 4 « • « . «.« . . » « « • . < # . « . < • • • 2 

For the best round brid»li« <»»•..• < « <«•••• ^ , •^•^ . • • • 3 

Second best « •...•^.. do • 2 

For the best round table ..« ^>.,..,, • • • < • •^^^ •••••• ..^^^ . • • • 3 

Second best , ••..^^ do « • • » *.•.. •» • ••■• • • • 2 

Third best « ....•^^ .do • • ••■• , . • •«. .^^.t •••••••• 1 

Articles in the foregoing class will be under the control of the Committee 
of Arrangement from the first to the ctoae of the Fair, but exhibitors in this 
class have the right to arrange their display according to their own taste, after 
their respective positions' have been' assigned them by the Superintendent. 

CLASS No. XI.— STOVES, SILVER WARE, GLASS AND GLASS 
WARE, CUTLERY AND BRITTANIA. 

No. 42. — Stoves. 

For th6 best Cooking Stove for coal. -•-..* . .^.^ . • -•-•^-« Diploma and $3 

Secotid best. • do a.*.*.^^ • .•••«••••••• •#-• 3 

For the best Cooking Stove for wood fire Diploma and 3 

Second best. • do •■••• •• ••••••«•- «••• • • # *• •-—-• 3 

For the best Cooking Rhtige for families ..^-, Diploma and 3 

Second best; do « ^^^^.^ • • • • — • »» »^^^ • • • «.• 3 

For the best Furnace or other apparatus for warming houses, economy of 
construction and consumption of fuel, and security of premises to be 

taken into consideration. • •••••• ^p.* »»»•*•• ^ « « •«.• Diploma and 3 

Second best do .,«^. •«•• ,«..^,,, ^ ,,..«• v***^.*..^.*. « ,.* .^^ 3 

For the best Ornamental Pj^rlor Stpy^< ••*••« ^ •• 4.4. .^...... .Diploma cind 3 

Second best. ,,do..*..»,,*^ .••• ••.•«•••••••»• 9 

For the best Hall Stove, ^ t^ ««.«,«»• .^^ #•• .^^ Diploma and 3 

For the best sample HoUpw. Ware « •.•.•.^^ .» ....*•. 0-»^ * . Diploma and 3 

Second best... .•...do ^,^,,,, -•- rf.. 3 

For the best sample Iron Railing. .• ... ^ ••#••. , .Diploma and 3 

Second best. ..^^. do 3 

For the best Arbor Seats * ..„^t -^ * .....-•-• # .-.t 3 

Second best do ....•..•-...., •..^-^ --• 2 

For the best sample Sculptured Marble •-•^ . . . .Diploma and 3 

Second best ..do ..^^ 3 

No. 43. — Silver Ware, Glass and Glass ware. Cutlery and Britannia. 

For the best exhibition of Silver- Ware ^^ Diploma 

Second best. ...do do , .....••.•^ .fi $5 

For the best exhibition of Table Cutlery, Amerlom tnannfaetnre; . ^.Diploma 



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AQOiGQLTVRAL SOCIETY, in 

Second best exhibition of Table Cutlery, American manufacture. ..,.,t $5 

For the best Pocket Cutlery, American manufacture .• .Diploma 

Second best. .•-• •do,..».^^ . • ., do,, ..•• • •••.«^^ «»,^. $5 

For the best specimen of Silver- Ware, with agricultural designs, suitable 

for premiums • «.• • •••••••# • . •• • . • • .Diploma 

Second best do. • • ..^.^ • • • • • • • • • «.tt •^t •••••#«• •-..*.• • « • $5 

For the best variety of Britannia- Ware.. ••••.,•••• «-*^ ...•••••• • .Diploma 

For the best sample of Window Glass .^ ..... • Diploma 

Second best. • ..do. do • . ••.••«••«••.•••.....«• $5 

For the best sample of Glass- Ware.. ••••••••..••.••-• .Diploma 

Second best. . ..do. ..»• • .. .do • • »,■<■,.»■, . . |6 

CLASS No. XII.— BACON, HAMS, INVENTIONS, MISCELLANEOUS 
ARTICLES AND FARM BUILDINGS. 

No. 44. — Bacon and Habis. 

For best 2 Hams cured by exhibitor , $10 

Second. . . .do .do ...,..•. 5 

Third /do do 3 

Fourth. . ..do do ., 2 

All competitors for these premiums are required to have their Hams cooked 
and brought to the exhibition with the skins on, and ako to give a statement 
of the manner of ceding. 

No. 45. — Inventions. 

For the best improvement for roofing houses with wood, iron or other 

meterial Diploma 

Best lot of Pressed Brick $3 

Best lot of water or sand moulded Brick 3 

For improvements in machinery useful to the farmer, having valuable pro- 
perties, and not included under any heed of any regular premiums, discre- 
tionary premiums will be awarded ; but no premium will be awarded upon 
articles which properly belong to any of the previous classes. 

Under this general head, premiums will be awarded upon articles of inge- 
nuity, usefulness and merit which may be exhibited, which are not provided 
for in the foregoing list of premiums. Any articles deemed worthy, manu- 
factured of iron, metal, brass, leather. India-rubber, and articles composed of 
cloth, fur hats, caps, umbrellas, &c., cash premiums and diplomas may be 
awarded to. 



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17* PENNSYLVANIA AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

No. 46. — ^Miscellaneous Articles and Fine Arts. 

For best specimens of Daguerreotypes - Diploma 

Second best. . . do do $3 

Best specimeii of Cattle Drawing Diploma and 5 

Second best. . .do do ' 3 

Best specimen of Animal Painting in Oil. . . . ,. Diploma and 5 

Second best. . .do do • 3 

Best specimen of Dentistry. . . . • Diploma and 5 

Best specimen of Animal Lithographing -^Diploma and 5 

Second best ... do do 3 

No. 47. — Farm Buildings. 

Best plan of Farm Buildings, with description thereof, to be approved by 

the Committee 20 

Second best 10 

On motion of Thomas P. Knox, it was 
Resolvedy That a silver medal may be awarded by the judges, to any ex- 
hibitor desiring it, in place of a moneyed premium of not less thap ten dollars 
in amount. 

On motion of Thomas P. Knox, it was 
Resolved^ That the best of any article on exhibition, deemed worthy, though 
not specified in the premium list, shall be entitled to a premium at the discre- 
tion of the judges. 

On motion of Joseph Yeager, it was 
f Resolved, That the Secretary be directed to have two thousand copies of the 
premium list printed for the use of the society. 

•David Taggart, President of the society, who had been appointed to procure 
a suitable person to deliver the annual address, reported that he had extended 
the invitation to Edwin C. Wilson, Esq., of Venango county. Pa., and that it 
had been accepted. 

On motion. 
The committee adjourned. 

ROBT. C. WALKER, Secretary. 



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REPORTS 



OF THE 



TRANSACTIONS OF COUNTY SOCIETIES, 



AS FAR AS RECEIVED. 



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REPORTS OF COUNTY SOCIETIES. 



ADAMS COUNTY. 

To the President of the Pennsytvanta State Jlgricultural Society: 

Deab Sir: — The operations of the Adams County Agricultural Society have 
been so limited, during the past year, as to leave little or nothing of interest 
to report. 

The want of railroad communication between this place and ''the rest of 
the world," has been the ruling cause to prevent the holding of an Agricul- 
tural Fair in this county thus far. The fairs had in the adjoining counties, 
have been largely indebted to distant places for much of their display of ma- 
chinery, a most important feature to an exhibition, so much so, that those more 
immediately concerned in our society have thought it best to defer the holding 
of a fair here, until the railroad now in course of construction between Gettys- 
burg and Hanover shall have been completed, that the facilities to be expected 
from it may conduce to a high degree of success whenever one shall be at- 
tempted here. To use a term common, ^* we want a good fair or none at all.'' 

The funds of this society have been placed at interest. The present offi- 
cers are: 

PjiEsiDENT — Hon. John M'Ginley. 

Vice Presidents — Maxwell Shields, Frederick Diehl, William B. Brandon, 
Amos »Lefever, Philip Donohue, William B. Wilson, Joseph Fink, Peter Diehl, 
Joseph Kepner, Jacob Shank, Solomon Powers. 

Managers — Thomas A. Marsha] I, John Gilbert, Abraham Krise, of P., 
Samuel Durboraw, David M. Myers, Joseph Wierman, James J. Wilis. 

Recording Secretary — H. J. Stable. 

Corresponding Secretary: — D. M'Conaughy. 

Treasurer — George Arnold. 

From such descriptions as I have seen of the habit and growth of the Chinese 
sugar caney I am disposed- to think that it is destined to become a prominent 
article of culture in many of the counties of the Commonwealth. Would not 
the State society be serving a useful, at least a desired purpose, by securing 
as far as possible the distribution of the seed of that plant 1 

Yours, 

H. J. STAHLE, Secretary. 



12 



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178 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

• ALLEGHENY COUNTY. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

Dear Sih : — ^In accordance with the act of Assembly of March 29, 1851, 1 
have the honor to trsnemit to you the following report of the finances of the 
Allegheny County Society, for the year ending January 1, 1857. Our society 
held no fair last season. As the State society held their annual exhibition on 
the grounds held by us for such use, and baring united with the State society 
in the exhibition, it would have been superfluous holding an additional fair ; 
however in June last our society offered the following premiums ; 
For the best Heaping machine^ a silver medaL 
** Mowing machiiiei silver medal. 

^* Reaper and mower combined, a silver cup. 

The trial of the machines was made in July last, on the farm of Jamea Kelly, 
Esq., in Wilkins township, and was witnessed by thousands of wxt citizens 
eager to witness the performance of those labor saving machines. There were 
a number of machines with difierent patents entered ibr competition, and all 
were tested for draught as well as the manner of doing work^ 

The committee, after careful examination and deliberation, awarded tbe fol« 
lowing : 

Atkin's reaping machine. ^ ...••«... ^ ....«« . /Silver ibedal. 

Ball's mowing machine r ..... • r . . , .Silver medaL 

Manny's reaper and mower combined .Silver cup, 

There were some others on exhibition to which the committee was desirous 
if giving second premiums, but \>eing limited, they made favorable mention of 
all. 

According to the report of the auditing committee for our society, the re* 
ceipts and expenditures are as follows : 

Amount of funds over at last settlement, and receipts during the 

year \ ... ., $3^006 75 

Amount of expenditures , * r 6.^9 22 

Balance on hand < 2,347 53 



Together with the buildings and fixtures upon the ground^ of which two 
years of the lease are unexpired « 

Respectfully yours, . 

J. M^K. SNODGKASS, 



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AGRICULTUBAL SOCIETY. 17» 

BEDFORD COUNTY. 

To the Presiiknt of the Pennsylvania State Agricvltural Society : 

Dbar Sih : — The communication addressed to the President of the Bedford 
County Agricultural Society, was handed to me a short time ago for reply. 

1 can only say in answer, that our society appears to be extinct. We had 
no exhibition last year, and whether it will ever be resuscitated again is doubt- 
ful. Those who were most to be benefitted by the enterprise, showed so little 
interest in it, that the few who commenced and carried it on, became dis- 
couraged and gave it up. Turly yours, 

JNO. MOWER, late Secretary. 



t 

BERKS COUNTY. 

To the President of the Peniuylvama State Agricultural Society : 

Deas Sie : — ^In answer to the circular addressed to Mr. Jones, Presideat of 
the Berks County Agricultural and Horticultural Society, I mibmit the follow- 
ing report : 

The society was instituted in 1852, and has been sustained up to the present 
time with a steady and increasing energy and spirit. The following state- 
ment of last year's operations, will best exhibit the preseqt condition of the 
society: 

The officers elected at the annual meeting of the society in January, 1856, 
were — 

President — Nicholas Jones, # 

Vice Presidents — Daniel Housam and Daniel Snyder. 

Treasurer — ^Mathias Mengel. 

Recording Secretary — E. L. Smfth. 

Corresponding Seceetart-^. K. M'Curdy. 

Two exhibitions were held during the year — one in June, and the other in 
October. The various departments of the exhibition were well filled. This 
was more particularly the case at the October exhibition. Many of the mem- 
bers of the society now think, from several years' experience, that a single ex- 
hibition during the year, is all that ought to be attempted. 

The membership during the year was as follows, viz : 

Life members. 162 

Yearly members , 2,481 

Whole number of members 2,643 



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180 PENNSYLVANIA STATE ' 

fleceipts of society for the year, from membership fees and admissioQ to 
exhibitions, five thousand two hundred and eighty-one dollars and eighty-three 
cents. Of this there was paid out in premiums, one thousand one hundred 
and fifty-two dollars. 

From the foregoing statement it will be seen with what spirit our society is 
sustained. Few county societies in the State can exhibit a larger membership, 
or larger yearly receipts. The Berks County Society stands at least among 
the first in numbers, and also in the character and success of its exhibitions. 

A society sustained as this has been, could not well fail to have some good 
effects. Such effects have, without any question, followed. The very bringing 
together of men of intelligence and worth from all parts of the county, inde- 
pendent of any new ideas obtained from the exhibition, has a good effect in a 
social point of view. On this account our well conducted agricultural exhibi- 
tions would appear deserving of encouragement. But we are not mistaken 
when we assert, that there is an increased attention to improvement in all 
kinds of stock, to the production of dairy articles, to the raising of fruits and 
vegetables, and the cultivation of flowers. 

The following oflEicers were elected at the annual meeting in January, for 
the present year : 

President — ^Nicholas Jones. 

Vice Presidents — ^Daniel Housam and Daniel Snyder. 

Treasurer — ^Jas. Henry. 

Recording Secretary — J. K. M'Curdy. 

Corresponding Secretary — A. Jordan Swartz. 

J. K. M'CURDY, Recording Secretary. 



BUCKS COUNTY. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society: 

The thirteenth annual meeting of the society was held at Pineville, on 
TJiursday the 17th April, 1856. — Wm. Stavely, President, in the chair, and 
John S. Brown, Secretary, present and acting. The minutes of the last an* 
nual meeting were read and approved. 

W. T. Rogers, from the Committee on Fruit, reported that they had visited 
the Horticultural Societies of Philadelphia and Chester counties, and were 
highly gratified with their reception as well as with the excellent display of 
fruits they witnessed. He also made an interesting statement of his inquiries 
in relation to fruits in our own county — having conveised and corresponded 
with a number of our most successful fruit growers, and thus ascertained that 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 181 

we have among us many valuable native seedlings that are but little known 
to our community in general. 

The committees to visit the Agricultural Societies of Burlington and Mont- 
gomery county, made no report, except that some members, not now present, 
had visited them. 

Messrs. Stavely and Rogers, from the committee to visit the Philadelphia 
Society, reported that they attended the exhibition, and found it the best ever 
held by that society, and quite equal the exhibitions of the State Society. 

The committee to report our transactions to the State Society reported no 
action. 

The committee having charge of the society's grounds, reported attention 
to their duties; and on motion, they were continued for another year. Samuel 
Buckman, Robert Longshore, Jno. Barnsley, Edward D. Worstall and Adrian 
Cornell, composed the committee. They were instructed to plant trees upon 
the grounds, as they may deem expedient. 

Communications from the Agricultural Society of Kent county, Del., re- 
commending the non-purchase of Peruvian Guano, until the Peruvian govern- 
ment reduce its price ; and from the Patent Office, in relation to the collection 
of statistics of agriculture, mining, manufactures, &;c., were read, and the Cor- 
responding Secretary directed to reply to the latter. 

On motion of Samuel Buckman, it was 

Resolved^ That an application be made to our next Legislature for an act of 
incorporation, and that the President appoint a committee of five to prepare a 
petition for signatures, and a bill, and forward the same to the Senator and 
Representatives for Bucks county. 

The President appointed Samuel Buckman, Adrian Cornell, W. T. Rogers, 
Robert Longshore and E. G. Harrison, the committee. 

Timothy Atkinson, Jonathan Knight and E. G. Harrison were appointed to 
audit the Treasurer's accounts.* They reported that they had compared the 
accounts with |^e vouchers, and found them correct; and that a balance of 
$172 164 was due the Treasurer by the society. On motion, it was resolved 
that interest be allowed the Treasurer oif the balance due him. 

On motion, a committee of three was appointed to procure certificates of 
awards for the society, viz : Wm. T. Rogers, James C. Cornell and John S. 
Brown. 

The proposition to amend the Constitution was taken up, and, after brief 
discussion, was laid upon the table. 

J. S. Brown gave notice of an amendment to the Constitution, Art. V, to 
increase the price of the admission to membership to one dollar. 

Timothy Atkinson gave notice of an amendment of the Constitution, author- 
izing a transfer of the right of membership. 

These propositions lie over to the next annual meeting. 



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182 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

The Committee to grade Premium« and nominate committees to award the 
same, made the following report, which was adopted. 

The President appointed the following committees: 

To visit Burlington Ck>unty Society — Samuel Buckman, John Blackfan and 
Edward Williams. 

To visit Montgomery Society — ^Robert Longshore, Hector C. Ivins and James 
M. Wilkinson. 

To visit U. S. Agricultural Society — James C. Cornell, Wm. Stavely, Jolly 
LongdiOTe, Adrian Cornell, Jonathan Knight, John S. Brown, John S. Wil- 
lirms — (the President being substituted for another member who declined.) 

On motion, it was 

Resolved, That the Committee of Arrangements have authority to fix the 
day for the next annual exhibition. 

An election of officers was then held, which resulted in the choice <^ the 
following : 

President — ^Wm. Stavely, Solebury. 

Vice Presidents — Jolly Longshore, David Cornell, Jaeob H. Sogers, Hec^ 
tor C. Ivins. 

Treasurer — Jacob Eastbum. 

Corresponding Secretiry — Thomas Warner. 

Recording Secretary — John S. Brown. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. 
No. 1. — ^Farms an^ Farm Bhudijigs. 

The Committee on Farms and Farm Buildings respectfully represent that 
they have been called upon by but two gentlemen to view, viz : Hector C. Ivins, 
of Falls, and Captain Joseph Eyre, of Newtown township, ^our committee 
report that they have viewed said farms and farm buildings, and find them 
both in a flourishing and thriving condition, and the buildings well adapted to 
the use of the farm, but neither gentleman could inform us as to the amount 
of produce raised ; Mr. Ivins having kept no account, and Mr. Eyre having . 
only occupied his farm since last spring, has had no opportunity of knowing 
what his farm produces, but the growing crops on both farms indicated a high 
state of cultivation. 

Mr. Ivins's farm is situate in Falls township, and contains about ninety 
acres. His mansion or farm house is frame, built in the modem style and 
well planned for a farm house ; his bam is new and also frame, stone stable 
high. The main building is forty-eight feet square, and* twenty-four feet high 
from the bam floor to the square. The roof is very flat, and a large dome ten 



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AGBICULTtTRAL S0<3ETT, 183 

CwBt sqtiaTe tnd twelve feet higd, is raised in tke centre for the ptnrpose of 
ventilation. There is also a straw house attached, forty-eight by twenty-font 
feet. The whole stmcture is covered with Warren's fire-proof composition 
roofing, which is said to be more durable than either shingles or tin, and your 
committee reeonanend k to the (arorable notice of the pabUc. 

His stabHag is planned and finished for conirenience, and he , has a large 
mamnre honse nttder his bam, forty-eight by twenty*six fe^, and so .arranged 
that his manure will pass immediately from the stables to the manure hoiise* 
His other out-bui{ding8 are of an ordinary character and well adapted to finrm 
purposes, and we award him the first premium of five dollars. 

Capt. Joseph Eyre's farm is situated in Newtown township, and contains 
about sixty-five acres of first qnatity land. His mansion or farm house is of 
Atone, bulk somewhat on the modem style, ^nd has been very much improved 
dsring the past summer, both in appearance and convenience, and it is now as 
eonvenient as any farm house we are acquinted with. His bam and out-build* 
ingii have been built for convenience more than show. They are built rather 
in the ancient order, and are as coniceniently planned as can be without re- 
building the whole structure. He can pass (torn his carriage house to his bam 
under cover ; also to his pump. He has two pumps at his bam, one for cattle , 
and the other for horses, both under cover, and all his stock can be watered 
ivithout being exposed to the storm. 

We therefore award him the second premium of three dollars. 

^ CHARLES W. BILBSj ChairmMn. 



No. 3. — ^FiELD Crops. 

The Committee appointed to view Field Crops, respectfully report : — That 
they have viewed three fields of com, ail in Lower Makefield township. One 
of ten acres belonging to William PafiT, on the river road, about one mile from 
Yardky ville ; one of five acres belonging to Stacy Pickering, on the plank 
road, about two miles above Yardleyville, and one of six acres belonging to 
John Kelsey, on the Doliagton road, about one mile above YardleyviUe. 

To William FaflT we award the first premium, believing his 3rield will be 
about seventy-five bushels of corn peracre. The soil wasanalluviai bottom; the 
cultivation as follows : A light coat of bam-3rard manure, early in the spring, 
ploughed down four inches in depth ; three hundred bushels of lime and lime 
ashes^ and two hundred bushels of stone lime, slacked and spread over it after 
ploughing, and planted immediately (about the 5th day of May) four feet by 
four feet three inches,«mnning the large harrow twice on each row as soon as 
the corn would admit* Then plough from it, and then the cultivator twice on 



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184 / PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

each row both ways. Then plough to it, then the cultivator, and lastly by 
ploughing to it, and working out the middles with the shovel {^ough. 

Your committee found themselves much at a loss to know to whom to award 
the second premium, but after due consideration concluded that Stacy Picker- 
ing was entitled to it. They judged his yield would be about sixty bushels of 
corn to the acre. The mode of cultivation was as follows : Manured all over 
with barn-yard manure, part in the fall and balance in the spring, ploughed 
about four inches deep, and planted about the 5th of May, four feet square. 
A small handful of manure and ashes mixed together was applied to each hill ; 
worked altogether with the cultivator, till about the 6th of July ; the soil a 
sandy loam. 

Your committee would also mention in cr)nnection with this piece of corn, 
that they were informed by the owner that at the time he purchased the pro- 
perty, the Canada thistle had so far got possession of about two acres of this 
field, that the young corn was entirely hid by it for some time, and that he had 
exterminated it by the use of the hoe, by never allowing it to seed in the six 
years of his farming the ground. 

Your committee consider the cleanliness and . thorough cultivation of this 
piece of corn as worthy of especial notice. 

To John Kelsey they award the third premium. The ground a sandy k>am i 
cultivation as follows: Ploughed late in April, about four inches deep; a part 
limed before and part after planting. Planted from the 10th to the 20th of 
May) dry, and covered with compost, tilled with the plough, cultivator and 
shovel plough. 

But one field of buckwheat has been offered for examination, and although 
there was no competition in this crop, we think it merits the first premium. 
We therefore award it to John Kelsey, of Lower Makefiel4> for a field of three 
acres. 

JOLLY LONGSHORE, Chairman. 



No. 4. — Grain and Grass Seeds. 

The Committee on Grain and Grass Seeds having examined all the articles 
belonging to their class, report: 

For the best bushel of white wheat, to John Blackfan, of Solebury, the first 
premium of two dollars; second best, to J. £. Staekhouse, of Bristol township, 
Farm Journal. For the best Mediterranean wheat, to Jonathan Knight, of 
Southampton, the first premium of two dollars; second best, to Ira Hoagland, 
of Newtown, Farm Journal. For the best rye, to J. G. Larue, of Upper Make- 
field, the first premium of two dollars; second best, to J%cob Everett, of L6wer 
Makefield, Farm JournaL For the best common oats, to Jacob Everett, of 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. J85 

Lower Makefield, the first premium of two dollars; second best, to Benjamin 
FentOD, of Newtown, Farm Journal. For the best timothy seed, to Adrian Cor- 
nell, the first premium of two dollars; second best, to Nathan Preston, of Plum- 
stead, Farm Journal. For the best clover seed, to Edward Artman, the first 
premium of two dollars. For the best gourd seed com, to Charles Harding, 
of Northampton, the first premium of two dollars; second best, to Smith Buck- 
man, of Newtown, Farm Journal. For the best yellow corn, to Benjamin 
Fenton, the first premium of two dollars. For the best white com, to John 
D. Harper, of Plumstead, the first premium of two dollars. 

BENJAMIN LLOYD, Chairman. 



No. 5. — ^RooT Ceops. 

The Committee on Root Crops award to Benjamin Fenton, of Middletown 
township, first premium for the best half acre of potatoes, three dollars; to 
Isaac B. Brown, of Lower Makefield, for the second best, Farmer's Barn Book. 

M. B. LINTON, Chairman. 



No. 6. — Vegetables. 
First Division. 

The committee report as follows: ^ 

The potatoes exhibited were very fine. Joshua C. Blaker, first premium, 
one dollar, for best bushel of Mercer potatoes; Charles Harding, second best, 
Pennsylvania Farm, Journal. To J. S. Keith, first premium, one dollar, for 
best bushel of white Mercer potatoes; to Ira Johnson, for second best. To 
John S. Keith, first premium, one dollar, for Jbest Foxite potatoes. To Benja- 
min Fenton, first premium, one dollar, for best Pink-eyes; to Samuel Harding, 
Pennsylvania Farm Journal, for second best. A lot of large Bermuda pota- 
toes was exhibited by Edward Williams. To James Woodrufl!', first premium 
of one dollar, for best sweet potatoes. 

JOSHUA C. BLAKER, Chairman. 



No. 7.— Vegetables. 
' Second Division. 

The committee beg leave to report as follows: 

To Isaac K.RobbinSy first premium for three egg plants. Cornelius Mahan, 
first premium for Lima beans. William H. Murray, New Hope, Fa,, first pre* 



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18< PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

minm for pumpkins — first premium for cabbage. Leonard Janney, first pre- 
mium for parsnips — second premium on display. J. T. CJomly, first premium 
for watermelon. Patrick McDowell, first premium for squashes. G-eorge M. 
Koh), third premium on general display. James Hibbs, first premium for best 
beets. E. S. Boutcher, first premium on general display — first premium for 
best cellery, six stalks. Isaac Randall, first premium for carrots. Joseph S. 
Hill, discretionary premium for vegetable eggs, one dollar. Gardener of Geo. 
Holmes, of Philadelphia, special premium of three dollars. The committee 
would notice Kohl Rabbi, by Jacob Eastbum; Tom Thumb peas, by W". H. 
Murray; white egg plants, by E. S. Boutcher; magnum bonum rhubarb, by'E. 
S. Boutcher ; egg plants, by Patrick M'Dowell^ and difierent kinds of water- 
melons, being very -fine. 

CORNELIUS SLACK, Chairman. 



No. 8. — ^Farming Utbnsils. 

The Committee on Farming Utensils make the following report : 
For the best finished plough, to Alfred Blaker & Co., a premium of t ivo dol- 
lars, and to Thomas Earl, the workman, a special premium of one dollar j 
second best, to George Buckman, Farm Journal ; third best, to David Landreth, 
diploma. Best farm harrow, to John Kelsey, a premium of two dollars. Best 
implement for dressing com, to George Buckman, a premium of two dollars; 
second best, to David Landreth, Farm Journal; third best, to A. Blaker & Co., 
diploma. Best gTf,m cradle, to D. Landreth, a pvemium of two dollars. Best 
corn sheller, for hand power, to D. Landreth, a premium of two dollars; second 
best, to A. Blaker Sc Co., Farm Journal. Best mower and reaper, combined, 
to S, Rockafellow, a premium oflfive dollars; second best, to Crook & Throp, 
three dollars. Best mower, to A. Blaker & Co., five dollars. Best horse 
power, to A. Blaker k Co., a premium of five dollars. Best grain fan, to 
Jesse Roberts, a premium of two dollars; second best, to A. Blaker, Farm 
Journal* Best grain drill, to D. Landreth, a premium of two dollars, StacyVc 
patent; second best, to A. Blaker, Pennock's patent; third best, diploma, to 
J. Everson & Son. Best straw and stalk cutter, to D. Landreth, a premium 
of two dollars. Best horse power mill, to Adrian Cornell, a premium of three 
dollars. Best clover huller, to A. Blaker & Co., a premium of two dollars; 
second best, to D. Landreth, Farm Journal. Best display of agricultural im- 
plements, to A. Blaker & Co., a premium of ten dollars ; second best, to David 
Landreth, a premium of five dollars; third best, to 6. Buckman, diploma. A 
model of a mower was exhibited by B. T. Roney ; also a model of a hay rake, 
both exhibiting eoBsrderable skill and mechanical genius. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 187 

The coimnhtec r^ret that so short a time was allowed for the examination 
of such implements as were exhibited, many of which deserved a notice that 
your committee found it impossible to give. 

R. S. TREGO, Chairman. 



No. 9. — Farm and Dairy Utensils. 

The Committee on Farm and Dairy Utensils have agreed on the following 
report : 

For the best spring market wagon, they award the first premium of three 
dollars, to Ridge and Strickler ; for second best, to Isaac Randall, they award 
the Penn'a Farm Journal. For best ox yoke, they^ award the first premium of 
one dollar, to Paschall Morris 6c Co., and for their general display, a special 
premium of three dollars. For best portable cider mill, they award the first 
premium of two dollars to Alfred Blaker, for Krauser's patent cider mill ; for 
second best to Jackson Beaumont, a diploma, for Home's patent cider mill and 
vegetable cutter. For best butter worker, they award the first premium of one 
dollar to Blaker & Feaster. For best washing machines, they award the first 
premium of one dollar to A. W. White, 

M. W. ALLEN, Chairman. 



No. 10. — MAm;FACTUHED Articles. 

First Division. 

The Committee on Manufactured Articles, first division, award to Rice 6c 
Bleiler, of Doylestown, for the best display of carriages, first premium of five 
dollars ; to J. £. Vfoolsey, Newtown, second best, a premium of three dollars; 
to Jaa. Fulton, of Newtown, third premium, Penn'a Farm Journal. In .con- 
seqvience of no competition to Isaac Randall, of Dolington, for a sleigh, first 
premium of three dollars. William Cox, of Doylestown, exhibited a patent 
shaft coapling, (to fasten the shafts to the carriage,) well worthy of notice^ 
and we award a special premium of two dollars. To George Kaighn, of Lum- 
berton, N. J., for patent improved harness, first premium of three dollars, and 
wluch the committee deem in every way worthy of recommendation. To 
Richard M. Cooch, of New Hope, for water ram, first premium of two dollars, 
believing the machine to be the most complete that has yet been exhibited. 
To Van Camp, Cogill & Bodine, of Trenton, for display of Edge Tools, (no 
competition,) first premium, two dollars. To Silas Roads, of Southampton, 



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188 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

for six hay rakes, (such as your committee would like to have the opportunity 
of buying,) first premium of two dollars. 

JONATHAN ELY, Chairman. 



No. 10. — ^Manufactured Articles. 
Second Division. 

The committee award the first premium to Trego & Willard, of Newtown, 
^ve dollars, for the best display of cabinet ware. We award the first premium 
of two dollars to Charles B. Cogill, of Trenton, for fancy chairs 5 we award 
the second premium of one dollar to Mrs. Mary Ann Cornell, of Northamp- 
ton, for fancy cbairs. We noticed some fancy window shades, exhibited by 
Charles B. Cogill, of Trenton, which we award a premium of one dollar. We 
award a premium of two dollars, for two fancy fiy brushes, to Elizabeth Wat- 
son, of Buckingham. We award the first premium of two dollars to George 
W. Martindell, of Newtown township, for the best display of drawings ; 
second best, a diploma, to Mrs. William Levis. We award to Charles B. 
.Harding, of Southampton, one dollar, for six broom corn brooms, twined. We 
award to William H. Stockton, of Lower Makefield, the premium of one dol- 
lar for twelve broom corn brooms, wired ; the second best to Thomas G. Chap- 
pell, of Bristol, a diploma. We award to Elias Wismer, of Plumstead, a 
premium of one dollar, for Phillips's patent bee hive. 

GEORGE WHITE, Chairman. 



No. 12. — Stallions. 

The Committee on Stallions make the following report : 
First premium of five dollars, for road stallion, to Samuel M'Crackin, for 
his four year old stallion ; second premium of three dollars to J. L. Lashley, 
for his stallion <^St. Lambert ;" third premium, Barn Book, to Mahlon Buckman, 
for his Perry's Victory stock " Louis Napoleon." First premium of five dol- 
lars to T. B. Scott, of Centre Bridge, for his Morgan horse nine years old, for 
farm ; second premium of three dollars to Levi N. Shelly, of Milford, for his 
Native American horse ^^Eockingham;" third premium, Barn Book, to Cornelius 
Slack, of Lower Makefield, for his French Canadian horse << Lord Nelson," five 
years old. First premium of five dollars to Adolphus Smith, of Mercer county, 
N. J., for his two year old stud oolt, " Cassius M. Clay ;" second premium of 
three dollars to George W. Brown, of Middletown, for his three year old colt 
^' Tom Morgan 3" third premium, Bam Book, to Henry Bowman, of Bybetry, 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. . 18S 

for his three year old Tom Morgan colt. Samuel HoJcorab, of Upper Make- 
field, exhibited his gray stud " John C. Fremont," five years old ; also Elias 
Stradling, of Lower Makefield, exhibited his French Canadian, seven years 
old, which the committee think worthy of notice. Stradling's having taken 
the premium last year, debarred him this. The above stock is all that came 
under the notice of the committee. 

EDWARD NICKLESON, Chairman. 



No. 1-3. — ^Matched HiksES. 

The Committee on Matched Horses respectfully report, that they award the 
first premium of fivQ dollars td Dr. Aaron Winder, for his grey Saladins, six 
years old, for road j to D. H. Stradling, the second premium of three dollars, 
for his Canadian browns, six years old, for road ; to Jones & Dyer, the third 
premium. Barn Book, for their dark bays, Taylor and Saladin, for road. To 
J. S. Scudder, the first premium of five dollars, for his grey ipiares, five and 
six years old, for road j to Benjamin Worthington, the second premium of 
three dollars, for his matched mares, for road. To U. B.- Titus, the first pre- 
mium of ^ve dollars for his bays, .five years old, for farm and road ; to Aaron 
Lawshe, the second premium of three dollars, for his black Morgans, five years 
old, for farm or road ; to J. H. Rogers, the third premium. Barn Book, for his 
dark brown Perrys, four and five years old, for farm or road. To Henry 
Cooper, the first premium of ^ve dollars, for his bay mares, five and six years 
old; to James Force, the second premium of three dollars, for his grey mares 
for farm. 

Your committee found the task of determining to whom the premiums should ' 
be awarded a very arduous one, particularly on matched horses for farm and road 
purposes, as there were several pairs of superior ones, which did much credit 
to their owners and the society, some of which were not awarded premiums, 
although richly meriting them — in consequence of the committee's limits being 
exhausted. Amongst them we desire favorably to notice several pairs, belong- 
ing to J. M. Wilkinson, J. M. Carr, Henjy Cooper, J. M. Price and others 
whose names we were unable to ascertain. We were, however, greatly grati- 
fied to observe a decided improvement in the stock of horses. 

J. T. SCHOFIELD, Ckairman. 



No. 14*. — Road Horses. 

The committee beg leave to report as follows : 

To Rush Plumley, Philadelphia, the first premium, for his grey Norman 
horse, six years old 5 to Samuel M'Crackin, Morrisville, the second premium^ 



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190 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

for ^^Kaymond;^' to J. 9f. Golden, Hopewell, N. J., the third premium, for 
<' Knickerbocker," with certificate. To Eseck Howell, Fallsington, the first 
premium, for the best road mare ; to Abel S. Small, Bristol township, for the 
second best, the second premium ; to Jas. Palmer, Lower Makefield,'for the 
third best, the third premium. Your committee notice a dapple grey mare, 
exhibited by Anthony Rue ; a French Canadian horse, five years old, exhibited 
by Harvey Slack; a Saladin colt, four years* old, by Isaac Eastburn, of Falls- 
ington, which we consider worthy of notice. 

WILSON D. LARGE, Chairman. 



No. 15.— DaiviNG AND Riding Horses. 

The Committee on Driving Horses over four years old, award the^ first pi^e* 
mium of three dollars to B. Rush Plumley ; second premium, to Isaac B. Brown, 
Farmer's Barn Book ; third premium, to John ^ne, diploma. The committee 
are unable to decide which of the riding horses are entitled to premiums. 

RICHARD HULME, CkairTnan. 



No. 16.— Bhdod Mares and Colts under One Year old. . 

The Committee on Brood Mares and Colts award to Morris Terry the first 
premium of three dollars, for his Morgan Rattler colt, four months old ; to 
Michael E. Junks, the second premium. Bam Book ; to James B. Palmer, the 
third premium. Pa. Farm Journal. To Michael E. Jenks, the first premium 
• of three dollars, for the best brood mare ; to Eastburn Reeder, the second pre 
mium. Farm. Barn Book ; to Ira Johnson, the third premium, Farm Journal. 
There were a number of good colts on exhibition that the committee regret 
they could not give premiums. They were particularly pleased with the 
sucking colt "Bashaw," belonging to Joseph Carver, of Hopewell, N. J. ; and 
also the Colt "Mayflower," belonging to Jacob Search, of Davisville, Bucks 
county. 

CHAliKLEY WORITHNGTON, Chairman. 



No. 17.— Colts over one and under Foim Years old. 

The Committee on Colts over one and under four years old, report that they 
have examined said colts, and agree to award the first premium to Joshua K. 
Palmer^ for his three years old mare; the second premium to Amos Buckman; 
the third premium to James B. Palmer. To Jonathan Knight, the first pre- 
mium, for his two years old mare; to David Feaster, the second premium ; to 



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AGSICULTCRAL SOCIETY. 191 

Samuel Gill> (hcnrse) the third premium* To Jonathan Stackhoose, the firsl 
premium, for his one year old mare ; to William Thornton, the second pre* 
inium 5 to John V. Croasdale, t&e third premium. There were several others 
worthy of mention, which came under the notice of the committee. 

WILLIAM B. WAKNEB, Ckairmm. 



No. 18. — MtfLEs AND WobkAo Cattle. 

The Committee on Mules and Working Cattle report, that they award the 
itrst premium of three dollare to James M. Wilkinson, for his five years old 
mules ] to Reading Beatty, of Montgomery county, the second premium, Bam 
Book. To McNrris Terry, of Lower Makefield, the first premium of three dol- 
lars, for his four years old mules. To Stacy Brown, the first premium of Uiree 
dollars, for his four years old oxen. To John Kelsey, the first 4|>remiwn of 
three dollars, for his three years old oxen ; to James tiarue, the second pre- 
mium,. Barn Book ; to Staey Brown, the third best. Farm Journal. We also 
noticed a single ox, in harness, belonging to David Wilson, which we award 

a premium of one dollar. 

JAMES M. WILKINSON, Chairman. 



4 

No. 19. — ^FtTLL Blooded Devonshire Cattle. 

The Committee on Full Blooded Devon Cattle, report as follows : 
We award the first premium of three dollars, to R. Longshore, for the best 
bull over three years old, "Red Jacket." For the best bull between one and 
two years old, first premium to Levi Buckman, for his Bull "Otsego." For 
the best bull under one year, first premium of three dollars, to I. B. Brown, of 
Lower Makefield, for his bull "Romeo;" second premium. Herd Book, to 
Jonathan Knight, of Southampton, for his bull "Fremont." For the best full 
blooded Devon cow, first premium of three dollars, to Robert Longshore, for 
his cow "Favorite ;" second premium, Devon Herd Book, to Levi Buckman, 
for his cow "Rosy ;" third premium. Farm Journal, to R. Longshore, for his 
cow "Pet." For the best Devon cow, three years old, first premium of three 
dollars, to Samuel Stradling, for his cow "Rose." 

A. S. CADWALLADERy Chairman. 



No. 20.— Mixed Devonshire. 

The committee report, that they award to Robert Longshore the first pre 
mium of three dollars, for the best cow, "Pink," three years old. To Samuel 

1 

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192 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Buckman, the first premium of three dollars, for "Kate," four years old. To 
William Torbert, the first premium of three dollars, for a red heifer, between 
two and three years old, not named. To Robert Longshore, the first premium 
of three dollars, for the best bull, between one and two years old. To Sunuei 
Buckman, the first premium of three dollars, for the best bull under three years 
old. To Robert Longshore, the first premium of three dollars, for "Fancy' 
and "Friendship," under one year old 5 to Isaac B. Brown, for "Juliet," the 
second premium, Devon Her^ Book. To John Barnsley, for "Sebastopol," 
the second premium, Devon Herd Book. To Samuel Stradling, the second pre- 
mium, Devon Herd Book, for "Lady," seven years old. To Robert Long- 
shore, for "Beauty," six years old, of fine form and strength, the second pre- 
mium Devon Herd Book. To Jonathan Knight, for- mixed Devon, the third 
premium, Pa. Farm Journal. To Amos K. Clayton, for "Beauty," three- 
fourths blood, the second premium, Devon Herd Book. And, among others, 
"Cherry" and "Cream Pot," which looked like the cream pot itself. On be- 
half of the committee. 

PENQUITE LINTON, Chairmm. 



No. 21. — Full Blooded Durhams. 

The Cdmmittee on Full Blooded Durham Cattle, respectfully report, that the 
display of stock of this breed was rather limited. A few specimens, however, 
exhibited by James C. Cornell, were remarkably fine and evinced much care 
in their breeding and rearing. A bull calf, about six monthd old, attracted 
much attention and was remarkable for its size, the age being considered. 
Two beautiful heifers, also owned by the same gentleman, were much admired 
for their symmetry and general good points. The following award of pre- 
miums is respectfully submitted, viz : 

For the best Durham bull, between two and three years old, first premium, 
American Herd Book, to John Kelsey. For best Durham bull, between one 
and two years, third premium of Farm Journal, to Capt. Joseph Ayre. For 
best Durham bull ca^lf, under one year, to James C. Cornell, first premium, 
American Herd Book, for his bull "Young Dennis." The committee would 
remark that this calf was a very superior animal. For the best cow over four 
years, to James C. Cornell, first premium, American Herd Book, for his cow 
"Leopard." Best cow between two and three years old, to James C. Cornell, 
first premium, American Herd Book, for his cow "Blossom." Best heifer 
between one and two years, to James C. Cornell, first premium, American 
Herd Book, for his heifer "Flora." 

CHARLES K. ENGLE, Chairman. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. • 193 

No. 22. — Mixed Duehams and Devons. 

The Committee on Mixed Durham and Devon Cattle respectfully report, 
that but little competition was presented to their inspection. Notwithstand- 
ing this, however, the number that was exhibited, though small, was remark- 
ably fine. The principal exhibitor was David Cornell, of Northampton town- 
ship, who showed some very superior animals of this breed. We therefore 
have concluded to award the following premiums, viz : 

For the best cow, four years, to David Cornell, first premium, three dollars. 
For the best cow between three and four years old, to David Cornell, first 
premium, three dollars. For the best cow between two and three years old, 
to Jonathan Knight, first premium, three dollars. ^ 

GUSTAVUS ENGLE, Chairman. 



No. 23. — ^MixED DnRHAMs AND Natives. 

The Committee on Mixed Durhams and Natives, award to Eastburn Reedcr, 
of Solebury, the first premium for his bull calf "Fremont," under one year 
old, a premium of three dollars. To James C. Cornell, the second premium, 
for a fine Jialf blood Durham heifer, Complete Farmer and Gardner. To David 
Cornell, for his cow "Pink," ten years old, the third premium, Farm Journal. 

Samuel Buckman also exhibited two Mixed Durhams of fine appearance, one 
five and the other eight years old. 

JOHN BLACKFAN, Chairman. 



No, 24. — Alderney Cattle, Full Blooded. 

The committee award to Jonathan Knight, for one bull, five years old, the 
first premium of three dollars ; one cow, four years old, the first premium, 
three dollars; one heifer, sixteen months old, the first premium, three dollars. 

WILLIAM RYAN, Jr., Chairman. 



No. 25. — Mixed Alderneys. 

The committee have agreed on the following premiums: 

To Jacob Eastburn, for his yearling bull, first premium, three dollars. To 

David Cornell, for his yearling heifer, first premium, three dollars. To Chap. 

W". Biles, for his heifer, second premium, Farmer's Emigrant Book. To Amos 
13 



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194 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

R. Clayton, for his yearling heifer^ third premiam^ Farm JoornaL To Joihk 
than Knight, for his heifer two years old, l^rst premium, three dollars. 

JOHN K. TOBBERT, Chairman. 



No. 26.— Native Cattle. 

The committee find a very fine display of Native cattle, and award the ibl' 
lowing premiums : 

Gerardus Wynkoop, best native bull, *^Ked Jadcet,'^ between three and four 
years old, first premium, three dollars* William W« Carr, best native bull, 
^*May Boy," between one and two years old, first premium, three dollars. 
Samuel fiuckman, first premium on cow **Bertha," over four year* oldj three 
dollars. William W. Kerr, second premium on eow '^Beauty,^ over four years 
old, Farmer's Emigrant Book. Abdon B. Longshore, third premium on cow 
^^Cherry," over four years old, Farm Journal. Jacob Eastburn, first premium 
on native heifer, between one and two years old, three dollars. William W. 
Carr, second premium on native heifer, between one and two years old, Far- 
mer's Emigrant Book. William W. Carr, best native cow ** Polly,'' between 
three and four years old, three dollars. William W. Carr, best native cow 
"Lady," between two and three years old, first premium, three dollars. William 
W. Carr, native cow "Victory," between two and three years old, second pre- 
mium, Farmer's Emigrant Book. C. W. Biles, special premium for two fine 
native cattle, three dollars. 

JOHN KELSEY, Chairman. 



No. 27. — Dairy Cows, crx TfiiAL. 

The committee award to Samuel Stradling, for his mixed Devon cow **Vic- 
toria," eight years old, the first premium of three dollars, having made in the 
month of April fourteen and a half pounds of butter in seven days, on hay and 
twelve quarts of feed per dayj also, in September, nine pounds six ounces in 
seven days, On grass and four quarts of feed. To James C. Cornell, for his 
Durham cow "Leopard," the first premium of three dollars, having made on 
grass ten and half pounds of butter in seven days. To Jonathan Knight, the 
first premium of three dollars, for his mixed Alderney cow **Isabel," two years 
old, having made eight pounds, seven ounces of butter in seven days on grass. 

JAMES S. M'NAIR, Chairman. 



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AGBICULTURAL SOCIETY. 195 

No. j^. — Produce of thb Dairy. 

The committee have carefully examined the difierent samples of hutter 
offered for competition, and award as follows : 

To Canby Smith, the first premium of five dollars ; to Ann E. Horn, the 
second premium of four dollars; to Ann E. Johnson, the third premium of 
three dollars; to Letitia Simpson, the fourth premium of two dollars; to 
Elizabeth Eastbum, the fifth premium of one dollar ; to Market Carr, the 
sixth premium, a diploma. These were selected from thirty-four different 
samples, nearly all of which were thooght by the committee to be of superior 
quality, reflecting credit on the competitors for skill in the manufacture of 
butter. 

There were no samples of cheese ofifered for competition. 

J. PAUL KNIGHT, Chairman. 



No. 29. — Fat Cattle and General Display. 

The committee report, that they have examined all the cattle that came 
under their notice, and award the first premium of five dollars to Alexander 
Chambers, for the best pair of fat cattle. 

General Display, 

Best ten head of cattle, to Robert Longshore, first premium, three dollars ; 
second best, to William Carr, two dollars; third best, to Samuel Buckman, 
one dollar. Best Ave dairy cows, to David Cornell, a premium of three dol- 
lars; second best, to Abdon B. Longshore, two dollars. 

AMOS S. WORTHINGTON, Chairman. 



No. 30.— Sheep. * 

The committee award to C. S. Vanhorn, of Lower Makefield, for the best 
Bakewell buck, first premium, two dollars. To C. Vanhorn, for the best ewe 
over one year old, first premium, two dollars ; to E. Reeder, second best, 
American Shepherd. To Eastbum Reeder, for the best ewe lamb under one 
year old, first premium, one dollar. To Wilson D. Large, of Lower Make- 
field, for the best Southdown buck, first premium, two dollars. To Eastbum 
Reeder, Solebury, second best, American Shepherd. (Jonathan Knight and 
R. Longshore exhibited one buck each, also very fine.) Best buck lamb under 
one year old, of Southdown breed, to R. Longshore, one dollar $ second best, 



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196 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

to Levi Buckman, diploma. To Levi Buckman, for best ewe lamb under one 
year old, first premium, one dollar; to R. Longshore, second premium, diplo- 
nja. To Francis Praul, for the best buck on the ground, weighing 235 pounds, 
first premium, two dollars; to Samuel T. Hillborn, of Newtown, second best, 
American Shepherd. To Jonathan Comly, of Ewing, N. J ., for the best ewe, 
Bakewell and common, first premium, two dollars; second best, to S. T. Hill- 
born, common stock, American Shepherd. To J. T. Comly, for the best ewe 
lamb under one year old, Bakewell and broad tails, two dollars; second best, 
for common stock, to S..T. Hillborn, diploma. To J. T. Comly, for the best 
six sheep, first premium, two dollars; second best, to R. Longshore, American 
Shepherd. Levi Buckman exhibited six very fine Southdown ewes, which 
have taken the premium at a former exhibition. Robert Eastburn exhibited 
one ewe and buck lamb, of the Southdown and Bakewell breed, for which we 
give the premium of one dollar. 

SAM'L C. CADWALLADER, auiirman. 



No. 3 L— Swine. 

The Committee on Hogs and Figs, after much labor, (as the display was of 
such a character as to exercise great discrimination,) report as follows : 

First premium to Samuel Buckman, for boar • $3 00 

First premium to William Stapler, for sow 3 00 

First premium to Joseph W. Cornell, for five pigs 3 00 

tirst premium to Joseph W. Cornell, for Berkshire pigs 2 00 

First premium to Adrian Cornell, for boar and sow, (Suffolk,) 4 00 

First premium to Adrian Cornell, for boar and sow, (six months,). 2 00 

Second premium to David Cornell for boar and sow 2 00 

Third premium to Dr. Joseph W. Cornell, for boar and sow 1 00 

First premium to Samuel Stradling, eight pigs 3 00 

William Stout Diploma. 

The committee also award a diploma to Adrian Cornell, for his Suffolk and 
Berkshire pigs, three and four weeks old. 

GEORGE W. HUNT, Chairman. 



No. 32. — Poultry. 

The Committee on Poultry would award the following premiums: 

Best pair of Shanghais, to S. S. Harding $2. 00 

Do Cochin Chinas, to John D. Harper 2 00 

Second best do.. , .do . .Minor's Book. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 197 

Best pair Chittagangs, to John D. Harper $2 00 

Do . . . Bucks county, to Stacy Brown 3 00 

Do. . .Black Chinese, to Adrian Cornell 2 00 

Do. , .Jersey Blues, to J. A. Cadwallader 2 00 

Do . , . Mixed breeds, to John D. Harper 2 00 

Do . . . Geese, to John D. Harper , 2 00 

Second best, to John D. Harper Minor's Book. 

Best pair turkeys^ to William W. Carr $2 00 

Second best, to James M. Wilkinson. Minor's Book. 

Third best, to J. Longshore $1 00 

Best pair ducks, to J. Longshore 2 00 

Second best, to J. Knight ^ Minor's Book. 

Best display of fowls, oyer twenty-five head, to J. D. Harper $2 00 

The committee would award a special premium of one dollar to Edward 
Dekmey, for a coop or bantams. 

FURMAN D. HOLMES, Chairman. 



No. .33.— Fruit. 

A good display of apples, pears, quinces and grapes, but few varieties of 
peaches. 

Pear 9 — Varieties — Bartlett, Sickle, Batter, Queen, White, Sugar, Louise 
Bonne d'Jersey, Dutchess d'Angouleme, Glout Morceau, Bonne d'Tess, 
Doyenne d'Rivers, Buerre d'Amillies, Lawrence, and several varieties of win- 
ter pears, eochibited by 

George M- Kohl, Abitigton, seven varieties, first premium $2 00 

Patrick M'Dowden, Bristol, seven varieties, second premium.. . . .Fruit Book. 

Dr. Charles R. King, Bensalem, Sickle, half peck, premium Fruit Book. 

Robert Longshore, Lower Makefield, Sickle, half peck Diploma. 

Edward Williams, Buckingham, Sickle, half peck Diploma. 

Samuel Buckman, Upper Makefield, Sickle, half peck ^ } Diploma. 

Adrian Cornell, Northampton, Sickle, half peck • Diploma. 

Mary Lukens, Clarksville, N. J., Sickle, half peck Diploma. • 

All the pears, except the Sickel, Butter and Winter, were grown on dwarf 
stodts. The Sickle is undoubtedly a prolific bearer, and a choice and profit- 
able fruit for market or home consumption. Most of the various kinds of 
dwarf stocks are an entire failure, and others not to be relied on as abundant 
bearers. 

Apples,— Over one hundred varieties were exhibited, and among the choicest 
may be mentioned the Maiden's Blush, Fall Blu^, Smith's Cider, Cornell's 



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198 PENNSYLVANIA state! 

fancy, foUawater, Hays, Smoke House, Barton, Kratz, Jackson, PuffJ Fafl, 

Green, Grey, Newtown and Ridge pippins, exhibited by 

Benjamin Fetiton, Middletown, best and niost numerous variety, first 

premiirai $2 00 

Isaac Randal], Dolington, second premium Fruit Book. 

Edwin Johnson, Upper MakefieM, five kinds, half a bushel each, first 

premium * $3 00 

Robert Longshore, Lower Makefield, second premium 2 00 

Joshua C. Blaker, Northampton .Diploma. 

William C. Blackfan, Solebury, three kinds, half a bushel each, first 

premiUto $2 00 

Jonas Fell, Buckingham, second premium 1 00 

Jesse B. Twining, Northampton, half a bushel, first premium 1 00 

George VV. Boileau, Montgomery, half a bushel, second premium. . . .Diploma. 
Wilson Dennis, Haycock, best variety of seedling apple, first premium, $2 00 
Adrian Cornell, Northampton, second premium 1 00 

Peaches. 

Richard Burroughs, Hopewell, N. J., first premium $2 00 

Charles L. Walton, second premium Fruit Book. 

Ann Buckman, Newtown, seedling, third premium .Diploma. 

Quinces. 

Half a peck, Joseph D. Armitage, Solebury Fruit Book. 

Samuel Buckman, Upper Makefield. Diploma. 

Fine specimens of well grown quinces were also exhibited by John C. Blaker, 
Northampton ; Edward Johnson, Upper Makefield ; Mahlon B. Linton, New- 
town; Benjamin Fenton, Middletown ,• Hector C. I vins, Fenn's Manor ^ Charles 
Willard and John C. WhetheriH. 

Grapes 

There was a large and beautiful display of grapes, mostly Catawba aiid Isa- 
bella, exhibited by 

Elias B. Fell, Solebury, Catawba, first premium $1 00 

Thomas Stradling, Plumstead, Catawba, second premium Fruit Book. 

Lydia W. Buckman, Newtown, Catawba, third premium Diploma. 

William Lloyd, Newtown, Isabella, first premium $1 00 

Jacob Eastburn, Solebury, Isabella, second premium Fruit Book. 

Catharine Tomlinson, Northampton, Isabella, third premium s .Diploma. 

Adrian Cornell, Northampton 5 Jolly Longshore, Yardley ville ; Edward Wil- 
liams, Buckingham ; William Morris, Buckingham 5 Stacy Pickering, Lower 
Makefield 5 William R. Gqentner, Warminster j Cyrus M. Shck, Wrights- 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. W9 

t<rwti ; William H. Carr, Upper Makefield 5 John Gresfiton, Newtown ; Samuel 
Stradling, Newtown; Ckarlea L. Walton, Nottfcampton; Cornelius Slack, 
Lower Makefield. 

A diploma was awarded to Patrick ATDowden, Bristol, for five large and 
beantifnl rarieties of grapes raised under cover. Greorge B» Fell exhibited 
mammoth grapes, called the Charter Oak, of a copp» color, larger than the 
Fox grapes, pulpy and of the sam^ foxy flavor. It is represented fis a fine 
bearer and the vines grow rapidly. 

The committee earnestly recommend an increased attention to the cultiva- 
tion of the several kinds of fruit, for which the producers will be largely re- 
munetated 10 having a bountiful supply for home consumption or the market. 
The Sickle and Bartlett are among the best variety of pears. Apples, Smith's 
eider,* Red Astragan, Cornell's Fancy,* Maiden's Blush, Summer Blush, Sum- 
mer Greening,* Kratz,* Smoke House, Sweet Winesap, Puff,* Jackson,* Bar- 
ton,* Faliawater, Hays, are among the best and most profitable varieties. 

Those marked with a star (*) are Bucks county seedlings. The Isabella 
and Catawba grapes are the only kinds that can be profitably cultivated, as 
they are adapted to our soil and climate, grow rapidly, produce largely, and 
the fruit always commands a ready and profitable price. Farmers or others, 
desirous of being supplied with any of the specified kinds o£ pears, apples or 
grapes, ean procure them by applying or Mnriting to the committee. 

W. T. ROGERS, CkairmM. 



No. 34. — Ladies' Wokk. 
FirH Divinon* 

Best silk bed quilt, Susanna K. Blaker, three dollars ; second best, Eliza- 
beth K. Roberts, two dollars ; best cotton bed quilt, Elizabeth K. Roberts, two 
dollars ; second best, R. B. Warner, one dollar ', third best, Joseph Rice, Flo- 
rist's Guide ; best coverlets, Rachel Hibbs, two dollars ; second best coverlets, 
one dollar; third best, Judith Cornell, Florist's Guide ; best blankets, Judith 
Cornell, two dollars ; second best, Elizabeth Cornell, one dollar ; third best, 
Mary Knight, Florist's Guide 5 best linen sheets and pillow caijes, Mary Knight, 
two dollars ; second best, Mary Ann Cornell, one dollar ; third best, Julia M. 
Rice, Florist's Guide; best display, Elizabeth Cornell, ^ve dollars; second 
best, Judith Cornell, three dollars ; Mrs. Grace Crozin, Penn's Manor, special 
premium of one dollar, for counterpane. 

The committee would state that a great variety of articles were exhibited, 
and deserving of notice, upon which premiums have not been awarded. Among 
them Robert Vanhom, o( Middletown township, exhibited a beautiful cotton 



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^m . PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

bed quilt, consisting of nine thousand seven hundred and twenty blocks; 
others were exhibited by Lena Cornell, of Northampton 5 Mary Ann ComelJ, 
Northampton ; Rebecca H. Olive, Buckingham ; Anna V. Marshall, Northamp- 
ton ; Eliza Fenton, Middletown ; E. P. Bollins, Wrightstown ; Anna £. 
Worthington, Southampton. Blankets were also exhibited by Mary Ann Cor- 
nell, Northampton; Sarah Ann Tomlinson, Northampton; Julia M. Rice, 
Solebury. Table cloths were exhibited by Mary Knight, of Southampton. 
These do not properly come under the notice of the committeee, but are arti- 
cles worthy of notice. 

E. G. HARRISON, Chairman, 



No. 35. — Ladies' Work. 
Second Division. 

of AMERICAN MANUFACTURE. 

The Committee on Ladies' Work, second division, award the following pre- 
miums : 

To Miss Mary West, for the best fancy table cover, two dollars ; to Miss E. 
Spencer, for the best diair cover, two dollars ; to Misses Andrews, for secoi^d 
best, one dollar ; to Letitia Buckman, for the best Ottoman, two dollars ; to 
Mrs. William L. Levis, second best, one dollar ; to Misses Andrews, for the 
best stool covers, two dollars ; to Maria L. Biles, for the best pair of lamp or 
vase nets, two dollars ; to Louisa Pidcock, for second best, one dollar ; to 
Rachel Thornton, for best shirt collars and bosoms, two dollars; to E. W. At- 
kinson, for best worked collar, two dollars; to Miss Lizzie Vanhorn, for second 
best, one dollar; to Misses Andrews, for the best display of needle work, 
three dollars ; to Miss Johanna Pidcock, second best, two dollars ; to Lizzie 
Vanhorn, third best, one dollar ; to Miss Jane Addis, a little girl thirteen years 
old, for embroidery, one dollar ; Jane L. Buckman, for one pair of embroidered 
slippers and two beautiful embroideries for frames, two dollars; Emily L. 
Bishop and Mrs. Erwin, each exhibited beautiful chair covers; Mrs. Barnsley, 
piano stool ; Miss Margaret Vanhorn, Mrs. Erwin and Sarah Longshore, each 
beutiful lamp or vase nets. 

The committee feel highly gratified with the interest manifested by the la- 
dies, and highly commend them for the very great taste and skill exhibited in 
every article that came under their notice. 

BENJAMIN S. RICH, Chairman. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 201 

No. 36. — ^Ladies' Work. 

Tkird Division. 

Best display of hair knitting, we award the first premium of one dollar to 
Miss M. A. Reeder, of Wrightstown j best display of bead work, we award the 
first premium of one dollar to Miss Lizzie Spencer, for a smoking cap; best dis- 
play of crotchet work, we award the first premium of one dollar to LetitiaBuck; 
man ; second premium, a diploma, to Miss Kate Mann, of Doylestown. There 
were several specimens of crotchet work, exhibited by Mrs Sallie Longshore, 
Amanda A. Vanhorn, Miss Reeder, Miss Cornell, Miss Warner, Mrs. Hillborn^ 
and Mrs. Rice, which deserve a great deal of credit. Best display of netting 
work, we award a premium of one dollar to Hannah Warner, of Yardley ville ; 
second best to Miss Potts, of Mount Holly, cT diploma ; best display of fancy 
knitting work, we award a premium of one dollar to Miss D. B. Middleton, of 
Crosswicks, N. J. ; secoqd best, a diploma, to Mrs. G. Crosier, of Penn's Manor; 
best pair of home-made stockings, we award a premium of one dollar to Julia 
Rice ; best display of bonnets, a premium of two dollars, to Mrs. Willis, of 
Trenton ; second best, a premium of one dollar, to Miss Lizzie Cornell ; third 
best, a diploma, to Jane L. Buckman ; best display of domestic carpeting, a 
premium of one dollar to A. Randall ; best display of window shades, to C. B. 
Cogile, of Trenton, a diploma, and a special premium of two dollars ; best dis- 
play of zephyr crotchet work, we award a premium of one dollar to Miss E. 
Spencer ; second best, a diploma, to Beulah Paxson. 

SAMUEL T. BUCKMAN, Chairman. 



No. 37. — Natural and Artificial Flowers. 

The committee have awarded a premium of two dollars for the best display 

of wax fruit, by Mrs. Levis, of Newtown ; a premium of one dollar for the 

second best display of wax fruit by Jane Buckman. Premium of two dollars 

for the best display of shells and shell work, by Mrs. Levis, of Newtown ; 

premium of one dollar to Margaret Vanhorn, of Southampton, for the second 

display of two boxes and pyramid of shell work, two dollars. Miss C. Bilesj 

of Southampton, for handsome display of flowers, two dollars. Premium of 

two dollars for the best arranged and greatest variety of* indigenous flowers, 

to Adelaide Biles, of Southampton ; second premium of one dollar, to Harriet 

Longshore. Premium of one dollar to Siisanna K. Blaker, for a well arranged 

collection of grains and grapes. 

HECTOR C. IVINS, Chairman. 



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202 PENNSTLVAJTIA STATE 

No- 38. — Manufactured Flour, 

The eommittee report — First premmm to Isaac Woodruff, Newtown town- 
ship, for best wheat flour, two dollars; second premium to Charles Smith, 
Plomstead, Farm Journal ; third premium to Jos. Wright, Southampton, di- 
ploma. First premium for com meal to Edward Artm^n, of Southampton, 
one dollar. First premium to Chas. Smith, of Plumstead, for best rye flour, 
one dollar. 

Your committee notice flour exhibited by Jonathan Willet, Jonathan Hun- 
te/, J. S. Stackhouse and Joseph Wright, so nearly alike, that they found difli- 
eulty to distinguish, but finally award to Joseph Wright, as above. 

JACOB T. SUFFER, Chairman. 



No. 39. — Home DEPAHTMftNT. 

Your committee report, that in the article first named in their department, 
viz : Wheat bread, they have had much difficulty in coming to a decision, 
there having been nearly forty samples offered, comprising as choice a collec- 
tion of sweet, brown loves as they have ever seen exhibited. Thej have 
awarded the first premium to Eliza Fenton, two dollars; second premium to 
Mary Atkinson, one dollar ; third premium, to Jane W. Stackhouse^ diploma. 
For the best* rye bread, the first premium to Mary C. Reeder, two dollars. 
For the be«t plain cake, the first premium to Amanda Large, one dollar; se- 
cond best to Mary Cornell, diploma. For the best preserves, first premium 
to Sarah H. Vanhorn, of Yardley ville, one dollar ; second best to Alice T. 
Rich, diploma. For the best fruit jelly, first premium to Mary H. KoH, one 
dollar; second best to E> B. Walton, diploma. For the best display of pick- 
les, first premium to Alice T. Rich, one dollar; second best to E. B. WaUon, 
diploma. For the best apple butter, first premium to Mary H. KoU, one doK 
kr. Best quince butter, to Mary H. Koll, one dollar. Best display of pre- 
serves, piekles and jellies, first premium to Mary H. Koll, two dollars; 
second best to E. B. Walton, one dolhir. For the best neatly cured ham, 
first premium to Jacob Eastburn, two dollars; second best to Samuel Buck- 
man, one dollar; third best to Moses Eastburn, diploma. For the best cured 
bam, boiled, first premium to leaac B. Brown, three dollars. For the best 
soft soap, first preniium to Catharine Tomlinson, one dollar. 

CHARLES YARDLEY, Chaitman. 



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AGRICDLTURAL SOCIETY. 203 

No. 40. — ^To AwABD Discretionary Premiums. 

The committee appointed to award discretionary premiums respectful fy re- 
port, that they auard to Samuel Buckman, of Upper Makefield, for the 
best honey, premium, two dollars; to Martha Corson, of Middletowii, for 
second best honey, one dollar. To Dr. Nightingale, for corn-husk cushions 
and beds, diploma. To David Landreth, of Bristol, for anti-friction blocke, 
diploma. To 6. Lukens, M. D., of Philadelphia, for artificial teeth, diploma. 
To David Ewer, of Wrightstown, for saw-setting and filing machine, one doi- 
kr. To K. M. Coochj of New Hape, for double and single action force and 
suction pumps, shower bath for hot and cold water, stationary washbowl and 
cist iron sink, four dollars. To Joseph Bearsley, of Trenton, for display of 
stores, a premium of five dollars. To Blaker Ik Feaster, of Newtown, for dis- 
play of stoves, a premium of five dollars. They also examined the following 
articles which they consider worthy of favorable notice. A kind of vegetable 
called Kohl Rabbi, deposited by Jacob Eastburn, of Solebury, and Mrs. Blaker, 
of Newtown; two very long ears of corn, one of twenty and a half inches, de- 
posited by Charles Ridge, of Attleboro. Benner's patent smut machine, de- 
posited by J. Eavenson & Sons, Paoli,. Chester county. Fire engine, Wash- 
ington. Very hanchome lime, deposited by A. J. Beaumont, of Solebury. 
Machine for boring fence posts, by John Kelsey, of Lower Makefield. Shell- 
work, by Miss Margaret Vanhorn, of Southampton, and Mrs. Levis, of New- 
town. A safety money drawer, by Vancamp, Cogill & Bodine, and some fine 
broom corn by Joshua C. Blaker, of Northampton. 

WILLUM ELMSLIE, Chairman. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE. 

The committee to superintend the Boys' ploughing match, under^^the au- 
spices of the Bucks County Agricultural Societyy make the following report : 

The ploughing match took place on Thursday, the 20th of November, 1856, 
in a field belonging to Mr. Frederick Morrill, near Bridgetown. Eleven boys 
entered their names as c<>mpetitors for the prices ofiTered by the society. The 
plouglring commenced about two o'clock, and in about an hour each boy had 
finished the task assigned him, in the presence of a large crowd of spectators. 
After a careful scrutiny of each competitor's work, the committee award the 
following premiums : 
To John F. W. Hibbs, fifteen years of age, as the best plough boy, 

the first premium of .' $8 00 

To James S. Cornell, seventeen years of age, the second premium of 7 00 
To Wm. H. tt. Starkey, sixteen years of age, the third premium of . . 6 00 



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204 TENNSYLVANLA. bTATB 

To Gilbert Gilkyson, sixteen years of age, the fourth premium of.. . . $5 00 

To George Buckman, sixteen years of agfe, the fifth premium of 4 00 

To Franklin Buckman, sixteen years of age, the sixth premium of . . . 3 00 
To Amos Vanartsdalen, fifteen years of age, the seventh premium of 2 00 
To John B. Wilkinson, sixteen years of age, a complimentary pre- 
mium of 2 00 

To Richard H. Wilkinson, fourteen years of age, a complimentary 

premium of , 2 00 

To fiichard R. Hart, seventeen years of age, a complimentary pre- 
mium of 2 00 

To Jonathan Gill, seventeen years of age, a complimentary premium 

of 2 00 

The ploughing was all done in a highly creditable manner, and all seemed 
much gratified with the day's performance. The committee invite inspection 
of the work referred to, and challenge a comparison with that of more mature 

and experienced ploughmen. 

JONATHAN KNIGHT, Chairman. 



BUTLER COUNTY. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State •Agricultural Society: 

Dear Sib : — In compliance with the request of the Secretary of the Penn- 
sylvania State Agricultural Society of the 30th of January, I beg leave to sub- 
mit the following : \ 

The Butler County Agricultural Society was organized on the 25th of 
March, 1856, and the following officers were elected for one year : 

President — John Anderson. 

Vice Presidents — Hon. J. Marshall, H. Kolmire, S. Covert, S. Pearce, W. 
Barker, W, Gilchrist, J. Story, J. Hall, C. Graham, R. K. Hunter, W, C. 
Martin, Jno. Gallagher, Alexander Gillespie, Robert Love, M. Gillispie, U* 
Shaffer, H. Bughl, D. Logan, J. Burrey, F. M. Scott, J. R. Harris^ J. Cum? 
mings, J. Moore, William Cunningham, A. Hoon, A. Bartley, D, Kelly, J. 
M'Junkin, R. B. Maxwell, S. Layson, Peter Shira, A. Bright, G. M'Geary, 
William Campbell, J. T. Bard, J. Keer, George Beam, W. H. Patterson, J. 
White, E. Manhoff and Sidney Passavant. 

Corresponding Secretary — E. Ferrero. 

Recording Secretary — A. Blakely. 

Treasurer — J. Bredin. 

Librarian — J. Campbell. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOGIETT. . 205 

• 

Although this society is young, and although it commenced struggling with 
the obstacles usual to a new society, yet by the increased and continued spirit 
of enterprize and liberality of our citizens, it has grown rapidly, overcome 
many difliculties, and now has within itself all the elements to secure perma* 
nency and success. 

' In order to have a good display at the first annual fair, the Executive Com- 
mittee made the premium list reach the very highest sum : this together with 
their leasing a valuable five acre lot and enclosing the same with an expen- 
sive fence, caused the liabilities of the society to be so great that the most 
zealous* doubted of our success ; but the farmers, the back bone of the <iounty, 
were with us, and we prevailed ; the receipts far exceeding the disbursements, 
thereby leaving in the treasury a handsome surplus. 

The ground leased is adjacent to the village of Butler, beautifully situated 
on a dry and level bottom, accessible from all points, and quite convenient to 
the pure waters of the Connoquenessing. 

The interest manifested by our citizens, on the days of our annual fair, ex- 
ceeded the expectations of the most ardent. An assemblage of people so large 
was never seen here before. Nor was it strange, for our object was not the 
advancement of local interest alone, nor the interests of a faction 5 but being 
co-extensive with the townships, it sought to give a stimulus that would de- 
velop their respective resources, and give to Butler county a place among the 
counties of the State. 

To this county nature has been bountiful. We are favored with superior 
agricultural and mineral resources 5 but they are far from being developed. 
Our farmers are intelligent enough, and have sufficient pluck to keep up with 
the times, but the right impetus has not been given them — such a thing as a 
lecture on agriculture being unheard of here, and agricultural journals are but 
poorly patronized. Both of these our society can supply — the former by its 
regular meetings, and the latter by giving a good journal for a year in part 
payment of premiums. These ends, there is no doubt, the society will try to 
accomplish. 

Notwithstanding a large premium was offered for the best cultivated farm, 
yet there were no entries made. This may have been the consequence of 
some misunderstanding, for there are farms around us that could stand the 
severest inspection and merit the highest commendation. 

The display of grain was creditable, especially the wheat and corn. 'Our 
farmers succeed with all kinds of grain. Barley, however, receives but little 
attention. The vegetable department looked well, but so much could not be 
said of the fruit. This is owing perhaps to the severity of the previous win- 
ter, which destroyed the larger portion of the apple and peach trees. 

A more general and better exhibition of horses we can hardly expect to 
hav^. Seventeen blood istallions were on the ground j also gay carriage teams, 



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206 raiNNSYLVANIA STATE 

• 

huge draught horses, saddle ponies of every gait, and pacing and trotting nags 
that went like "JcAte.*' 

The only blood cattle that came were the Durham, and some of these would 
have vied favorably with the best at the IState fair. There was not much 
show of working oxen. 

The display of sheep wa^ only middling. There were, however, some 
v^thdowD, some French Merino and some Leicester. The swine department 
was a failure. There were some tall chickens in the poujtry collection. The 
butter display was good, so was the honey, aijid also the preserved fruit. Among 
the agricultural implements were mowing machines, corn shellers and grain 
drills, while elegantly mounted harness, fancy needle work, ornamental de- 
signs, works of art, and an endless variety of miscellaneous articles added 
much to the beauty and attractiveness of the fair. 

Our society feels confident it has done some good. It knows at least that 
our farmers are convinced of the practicability of annual fairs, and of their 
manifold and salutary advantages. 

I am, dear ^ir, respectfully yours, 

£. FEKRERO. 



CAMBRIA COUNTY. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society: 

Sia : — As you have not heretofore been furnished with any official informa 
tion relative to the "Cambria Cojunty Agricultural Society," I take pleasure 
in submitting to your consideration the following report : 

The Cambria County Agricultural Society was organized on the twelfth of 
November, 1853. The offices recognized by its constitution were filled as 
follows: , 

President — Edward Shoemaker. 

Vice PaEsiDENTS-^Kichard J, Proudfoot and John M^Coy. 

Managers — Edwin A. Vickroy, Michael M'Guire, Jacob R. Shell, Peter 
H. Lemke and John H. Douglass. 

Treasitrbr — 'John Williams. 

Secretary— Andrew J. Rhey» 

These gentlemen discharged the duties of their respective offices until the 
J 2th of November, 1854?, when they were unanimously re-elected by the 
society. 

Owing to the dry season of 1854, and the consequent failure of the crops, 
the society did not deem it advisable to hold a fair the first year. Early ia 



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AQfilCaLTUBAL SOdETT. 207 

tlie Mtmmer of 1855, however, it determined to try the experimeot, and ac 
eordingly, K. L* Johnson, John Thompeon, Jr., Bees Jr Lloyd, Ezekiel Hughes 
and James Myers, were appointed a committee to make the necessary arrange- 
ments. 

. The duties of this committee p^ormed, the first annual exhibition was held 
on the farm of Edward Shoemaker, Esq., near Ebensburg^ on Wednesday, 
Thursday and Friday, the dd, 4*th and 5th days of October, )855« The attend- 
ance of spectators, as well as exhibitors, was large, and the stock and articles 
on exhibition were numeroas and highly commendable. Indeed, taking into 
consideration the fact, that it was the first attempt of the kind ever made in 
the county, the society had reason to congratulate itself upon the successful 
result. 

In the afternoon of the last day of the exhibition, an able and eloquent agri- 
cultural address was delivered by Cyrus L. Pershing, Esq., of Johnstown ', 
after which the awards of the various committees were announced from the 
standi and the society adjourned. 

An election of ofiicers took place on the 12th of November, 1855, which re- 
sulted as follows : 

President — Edward Shoemaker. 

Vice Presidents — Edwin A. Vickroy and Augustin Durbin. 

Managers — John H. Douglass, William D. Pryce, Joseph Cole, Michael 
.M'Guire and Alexander Cover. 

Teeasitbbh — John Williams. 

Secretary — Andrew J. Khey. 

At a meeting of the society, on the 28th of June, 1856, it appearing that the 
Secretary had removed from the county, Alexander C. Mullin was elected to 
supply the vacancy. At this meeting, also, the society resolved to hold a 
second exhibition^ and a committee of arrangements was thereupon appointed, 
consisting of Thomas B. Moore, Joseph M'Donald, John Thompson, Jr., Rees 
J. Lloyd and James C. Noon. 

The second annual exhibition was held on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thurs- 
day, the 7th, 8th and 9th days of October, 1856. The arrangements were 
much more perfect, and necessarily more expensive than those of the year 
previous. A number of new stalls and sheds were erected, the dimensions of 
the ring, as well as of the enclosure, were materially enlarged 5 and such other 
improvements were made on the former arrangements, as better secured the 
comfort of the animals, the safety of the articles and the convenience of the ex- 
hibitors. And, although the time conflicted with that of several neighboring 
county exhibitions, and also with the United States Agricultural Fair at Phila* 
delphia, yet the attendance of visitors and exhibitors was large, even exceed- 
ing that of the previous year. 



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208 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

The horses on exhibition, though perhaps not so fine in some respects as 
those at the first fair, were yet larger m number and in greater variety. The 
various classes were all well represented ; and from them selections might 
have been made well adapted to any of the purposes for which the horse — 
"the noblest of animals" — is given to man. The other live-stock on exhibi- 
tion was in general highly creditable. 

The specimens from the vegetable kingdom were numerous and varied, though 
generally speaking, they cx)uld scarcely compete with those on exhibition at 
the prececfing fair. This, howeVfer, was neither the result of improper culture, 
nor the want of a spirit of rivalry, but was wholly in consequence of an un- 
favorable season. 

Owing to the excessive severity of the past winter, which seriously injured, 
and^in some cases wholly destroyed the trees, the varieties of fruit on exhibi- 
tion were but meagre. There were no specimens of either peaches, pears or 
grapes^ and had it not been for a fine display of apples on the ground, this 
class would scarcely have had a representation. 

The implem^ts of husbandry, the household manufactures, and the milli- 
nery and needle-work, were all of such rare excellence as to excite the admi- 
ration and elicit the encomiums as well of the visitors as of the committees 
appointed to decide on their relative merits. 

The specimens of grain and grass seeds on exhibition, respectively merited 
and received a favorable notice from the committee. 

In the afternoon of the last day of the exhibition, at two o'clock, the agri- 
cultural address was delivered by William A. Murray, Esq., of Ebensburg ; 
at the close of which the society passed a resolution thanking the orator, and 
requesting a copy of his address for publication. The reports of the various 
committees were thereupon announced from the stand, and the society ad- 
journed to meet at the call of the President. 

It may be well to remark here, that, in view of the infant state of the so- 
ciety, and its consequent scarcity of funds, no premiums were paid at the first 
fair, the different contestants meanwhile contenting themselves with the satis- 
faction and pleasure resulting from the exhibition. At the second fair, how- 
ever, premiums were awarded, amounting in the aggregate to about three 
hundred dollars j an amount which, it is believed, the society will be enabled 
to discharge. 

The third annual election of officers for the society resulted as follows : 

President — Robert L. Johnston. 

Vice Presidents — Kees John Lloyd and Dr. Henry Teagley. 
Managers — George M. Eeed, Edward Shoemaker, George J. Rodgers, 
Robert Davis and P. F. Gibbons. 
Treasurer — George C. K. Zahm. 
Secretary. ^-Alexander C. Mullin. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 20^ 

Ib concluding this hastily written and imperfect report, it may not be amiss 
to observe that the Cambria County Agricultural Society has thus far exceeded 
in usefulness, the most sanguine expectations of its founders and patrons. It 
now boasts of a list numbering over five hundred members. Viewed as a mere 
adjunct to the "abominable system of book-farming," its inauguration, it is 
i^oet needless to state, was regarded by many with a feeling of jealousy and 
suspicion. This feeling has now subsided, and our farmers are universally 
awake to ike importance of an agricultural society. A spirit of emuktioi; has 
been aroused ; and, if cherished, who shall estimate the benefits which it 
will confer upon the "Mountain county T** 

Respectfully submitted on behalf of R. L. Johnston, Esq., President. 

Ebbnsbueg, F^. 3, 1857. A. C. MULLIN, Secretary. 



CENTRE COUNTY. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

The Centre County Agricultural Society pvesents the following abatract re- 
port of their proceedings for the year ending the Ist of Jaanary, A. D. 1857: 

The society held its sixth annual me^ng on the — day of January, 18£>6, 
and elected their officers, viz : 

Prssibbnt — George Boal. 

Tbbasurxr*— David J. Pranoe. 

CoBRisFONDiKG AND Rbcoroin'q Sbcbbtaby — Goorge Buchanan^ 

Together with fourteen Vice Presidents, being one from each borough and 
township. 

The society has held quarterly meetings at Bellefonte, for the transaction 
of their usual business. At these meetings discussions are entered upon, and 
addresses delivered upon various agricultural subjects. New theories in agri- 
culture are advanced, advocated and opposed. These discussions are generally 
well attended to by our farmers, evidencing a desire, on their part, to promote 
the onward cause of agriculture throughout the county. 

The society has held an annual exhibition and fair since their organization. 
* The sixth annual exhibition was held in October last, which was very credit- 
able to the society in the display of horses and cattle, and stock generally— « 
agricultural implements, domestic manuiactures, agricultural productions, 
mechanical implements, fruit, products of the dairy, &c., and awarded pre- 
miums to the amount of three hundred dollars. The receipts of the society 
are about six hundred dollars, and the expenditures about five hundred dollars 
annually. 

All which is respectfully submitted for and in behalf of Qeorge Boal, 
President. ^ 

GEO. BUCHANAN, Secretary. 



U 



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210 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 



CHESTER COUNTY. 



To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

Dear Sir : — ^In obedience to the requirements of statute, I herewith transmit 
an abstract of the proceedings of the Cheater County Agricultural Society, 
during the past year. 

At the annual meeting of our society, in September, 1855, the following re- 
solution was adopted : 

Whereas, This society has labored under great disadvantages, and its use- 
fulness been much impaired, for the want of permanent fixtures and better 
accommodations at our annual exhibitions ; therefore. 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee be authorized to purchase ground 
and erect such buildings and fixtures as they shall deem necessary^ for the 
future exhibitions of the society; and for which purpose they shall have 
authority to contract a loan and issue certificates thereof, to such amount as 
they shall consider necessary to carry out the design of this resolution. 

In pursuance of this resolution, the Executive Committee, in the month of 
July last, purchased ten acres of ground in the borough of West Chester, at 
the rate of four hundred dollars per acre. This ground has been enclosed with 
a substantial board fence seven feet in height, and cattle sheds and pens built 
around three sides of it. Temporary buildings have also been erected for the 
use of committees, and the display of horticultural, household, and such like 
productions as require to be under cover. It is the intention of the society, 
during the coming summer, to replace these temporary buildings by the erec- 
tion of others more in keeping with the means, as well as the requirements of 
the society. The cost of the ground was four thousand dollars; fencing, build, 
ings, grading trotting course, digging wells, &c., amounted to two thousand 
one hundred and fifty dollars. The trotting course is in the form of an ellipse, 
one-fourth of a mile in circumference, and enclosed with a stout post and one- 
rail fence, thus preventing danger to spectators outside, whatever mishaps 
may occur inside the ring. The grounds, which have been partially planted 
with trees, to be completed during the coming spring, are situated on an emi- 
nence south of the town of West Chester, afibrding a beautiful view of the sur- 
rounding country, and are admirably adapted to the purposes of the society. 

The means to meet these liberal expenditures, were created by a loan, taken 
by members of the society, mostly in sums of twenty dollars each. A certificate 
of loan has been issued to each subscriber, the interest on which will about 
pay his annual fee of membership. This financial arrangement has about the 
same efiect upon the future revenues of the society as though the capital had 
been raised by the sale of life-memberships, with this farther inducement for 
members to take the loan, that in case of the dissolution of the society, its real 
estate, if judiciously selected, with an eye to its further enhancement, wiH 



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A(?aactJLTURAL SOCIETY. 211 

very nearly pay off its certificates of indebtedness. The importance of every 
agricultural society owning its grounds and erecting permanent fixtures for its 
annual exhibitions, has been so apparent in the experience of the Chester 
county society, that 1 have thus alluded to the matter as a proper subject of 
consideration, if not imitation, by such county societies in the Commonwealth 
as are yet without the9e indispensableSy in my opinion, to their permanent 
prospei^ity. 

Our annual exhibition was held on the 3d and 4th of October, and was emi- 
nently successful. The following abstract of the entries in the several depart- 
ments, will indicate the extent and variety of the exhibition. 

Cattle. 

The number of entries, one hundred and twenty-four, embracing full-bred ' 
and grades of various sorts and sizes. Anthony Bolmar, Esq., was the largest 
exhibitor of full-bred cattle, having some twenty or more of his fine short 
horns on the ground; 

The display of working oxen wai| good ; some fcHrty yoke exhibited, which 
would average two thousand five hniHlred pounds to each pair of cattle when 
dressed and ready for the shambles of the bateher. Ten pair of. these cattle 
were sent to the United States Exhibition, which was held a day or two itfter 
the Chester County Fair, and carried off two hundred dollars of the prizes, 
having been awarded the first premium for best ten yoke of oxen, and also the 
second and fourth premiums for single yokes. 

Horses, 

The number of entries, sixty, including colts. Several fine stallions for 
heavy draught were exhibited, but nothing remarkable in the way of "blood" 
or "speed" was on the ground. 

Sheep. 

The display fine 5 number of entries, forty-four, principally of Southdowns 
and Cotswolds. The largest exhibitor was Joseph Cope, whose fine flock of 
Southdowns was represented by some fifteen to twenty specimens, comprising 
bucks, ewes and lambs of various ages. 

Stoine. 

Number of entries, thirty-seven, and the display good, mostly of the "Ches- 
ter" breed, and a few grade Berkshires. 

Poultry. 

Pretty good display ; forty-two entries, including all varieties of domestic 
poultry. 



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m PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

AgricvUvTcd Implements. 

. Tbe ji9play in this department was the largest eve7'witDies9ed in the county, 
thp principal exhibitors being the manufacturers and ¥eti4ef8 of the nupious 
improved i^i^iplementa in use. Nttmbei; of ontriesi ninety-five. 

Fruits. 

The fisplay medium j ^y-six entries, principally apples, quinces and 
grapes, with a few pears and plums. 

VegetMes. 

A lar^ display, both by farmers and market gardeners ^ number of entries, 
seventy-two. 

Flour and Grain. 

In this department there were two samples of flour by wilten, and a good 
display oi gnain by fjarmers. fiichard Pirn exhibited two new varieties of 
wlMat, (new in this neighborhood^ at leasts) the <<eariy Georgia," and ^'white 
bald Meditertanean," which wtm very handsome, and appeared to be worth 
the attention of farmers. 

Butter. 
Display good, of both fresh and salted ; sixteen entries. 
Domestic Productions and Manufactures. 

These departments were well attended to by the ladies, and bread, cakes, 
pies, preserves^ jellies, pickles, &c., filled the tables to profusion. Some sil- 
ver-ware premiums were offered in these departments, and created a lively 
competition. 

There was also a good display of plain and fancy needle work ; number of 
entries, sixty-five. 

In addition to the entries thus enumerated, there were numerous others of 
miscellaneous character, unnecessary to mention. 

The following premiums were awarded : 

Money premiums amount to three, hundred and seventy-five dollars. 

Half dozen of silver tea spoons. 
" One pair of silver salt spoons. 

One silver mustard spoon. 

One pair silver butter knives. 

Fifty-seven volumes of books. 
' Fifty copies of "Pennsylvania Fiarm Journal," for 1857* 

Twenty copies of "Country Gentleman," for 1857. 



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AGKICULTUBAL SOCIETY. 213 

Ten copies of, " Cultivator," for 1857. 

Twenty-o»e copies " Horticultuiist," for 1857., 

Sixteen copies of " Godey's Lady's Book," for 1&57. 

T^i diplomas. 

The number of members, for 1856^ was six hundred and twenty-five. 

Qflicers of the society for 1857 : 

,Ba£siD&NT-^~Isaac W. Va^i Leer^ 

VicB Pbssidbnts — JRichard Fiio, Lewis Brint<»i, Dr. £. V. Dickey, Joseph 
Dowdal. 

Reoobding Sbckctaues — JatB;6s H. Bttl}, Wm. Torbert Ingram^ 

CoHRESPONDiNa Secrbtart AifD Trbasubee — J. Lacey Darlingtbii. 

BxsGDTivE CoMMiTTBS — Dr. GeQTge Thomas, Josepb Cope, Lewis Sharplfess, 
Marshal) B. flkkmas, Albert Hoopes^ Tkemas S; Wtx>dwtrd^ Benj. F. Barter- 
lett, Caleh BrintOQ) Jr.» Edward Gheen; 

J. LACEY DABLINGTOM; Cor. Setfy. 

WtST Csssivsiy FtbfUagry^ 1857. 

ADDRESS 

Of JoBN B. BiD&Lft, M. D., delivtfed b^ore the Chtettr Cotmip ^grituUtand 
SiKiety^ ut Wt$t Ch^ttfj Pa*, on /Ae4tfA of October, ld&6. 

I cannot but feel, ladies and gentlemen, that the invitatidn with which t 
have been honored to address you on this occadon, is in some sense Expressive 
of the position which the art of apiculture now occupies among us. The 
effective husbandry, of which your beautiftil county presents s6 pe'rfect a pic- 
ture, forms indeed a striking contrast with the rude applkatioii of manujJ 
processes, derived from a traditional and empirical experience, to which th4 
cultivation of the soil was so long consigned. Almost within the recollection 
of man, the practice of agriculture had advanced little beyond the imperfect 
and backward condition which distinguished it lii the infancy of our race. 
The theme of poets and the praise of tndtalisls, it remained stationary, alon* 
among the arts conducive to our comfort and existence — ah anomalous excep- 
tion to the hrws cf )i«rinan pW^ss. With the rapid gtotrth, hoW^ver, of the 
natuxml sciences, which kaa miLri^ed our own and imme£aite)y preceding gene^ 
ictions, agricultare has em^ged fVom the atmosphere of rotrtine and empiric 
6ism, and, sobsldieing almost et«ry bvanoh of physical knowledge in sttccessio^ 
to its parpeste) may be now looked upon as typical of the intellectiml co»di-( 
tion of mankind. The developments in modem chemistry have formed, 'nn* 
doubtedly, the epoch from which iaproved sigiieultnre must be considered to 
take its date. From 1^ comparatively recent time in which the structure of 
the material substances of nature, and the laws which regulate their relations^ 
and mutual action, were first accurately unfolded, the true history of agricul-; 



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214 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

ture may be said to have commenced. But, with the development of the 
kindred sciences, which have advanced with the advancement of chemistry, 
agriculture has made each in turn tributary. Botany, vegetable and animal 
physiology, geology, meteorology, have all contributed their quotas to the 
stores of scientific agriculture. No department of natural science can now be 
deemed unnecessary to the complete exhaustion of the resources of the soil. 
And, thus, intimately united with every pursuit which relates to the natural 
history of the earth, agriculture now receives within its ranks the investigators 
of nature in all her ramifications, and, proclaiming a universality of kindred 
with every branch of the great tree of knowledge, invites and welcomes sym- 
pathy and interest from every cultivator of the soil around it. 

I feel, then, ladies and gentlemen, that your invitation points so obviously 
to the connection of some of the physical sciences with the advancement of 
agriculture, that 1 may naturally and appropriately select this topic as the 
theme of my distourse. Observation and experience must always form the 
basis of successful husbandry. But every eflTort to direct the practical agri- 
culturist to the theoretical principles upon which his art depends, may, I trust, 
be considered useful. In no pursuit is to be found so constantly changing a 
variety of circumstances and conditions. Enlarged and comprehensive views 
enable the farmer, by comparison and analogy, to adapt i^ew modes of opera- 
tion to every conjuncture that may arise. They place him above the restraints 
of custom and opinion. They teach him alike to avoid unprofitable conten- 
tion with physical impossibilities, and, by a combination of reflection aiid 
experience, to overcome obstacles which prejudice may have considered insor- 
mountable. They enrich him with expedients. They give concentration to 
his energies, and precision to his efforts. They elevate his art to « profession^ 
and, with increase of intellectual aotiop^ the dignity of his labor and its pro- 
per relations to the respect of men are proportionably enhanced. 

The cultivated and enlightened agriculturist enjoys, indeed, an enviable lot. 
His is that favored union of mental and bodily exertion, which alone Bceaam to 
ensure mental happiness and bodily comfort. Alive to all the delights of 
intercourse with nature, 

<< Th« boundltss store of ehamfl^ 'which td her votaries she yields/' 
is spread before him in every walk of his daily occupation. He pursues tt, 
not intetit only upon its material ob^cts, but realizing its importance as the 
basis of wealth, commerce, and human intercourse. Illumined by the light of 
science, its commonest operations have for him a meaning and an interest. 
And, 

<< Hearing DBtore speak in every sonnd,'^ 
he rises almost instinctively to the most precious knowledge within the reach 
of man — the attributes of Nature^s God, as manifested in the works of His 
hand. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIBTT. 815 

*^The lines ave faUen auto you," eapocially, «in pleannt pkces." In fer- 
tility of soil, geHiaiity of climate, and salubrity of air, your noble county is 
onequalled, eyen in our magnificent Pennsyl^nia. Wbere. too, may we ask, 
can the eye rest upon scenery more picturesque Ind smiling than these << softly- 
swelling hiils" around usi And in the history of Chester county^ how mudi 
is th^re to which you can refer with honorable pride ! A soil acquired by 
Just purchase from its aboriginal inhabitants, and again bravely defended in 
the days of trial — a population ever conspicuously foremost in the cause of 
order, education and morality! 

I propose briefly to consider the relations of agriculture to the three leading 
acienees, geology, chemistry and botany. It is upon them that we depend 
for information as to the nature of the soil which furnishes the materials out 
of which vegetable substances are developed — the habits of the plants we cul- 
tivate, and the processes which transpire in their germination, growth and 
decay. ^^ 

The soil is the great magazine which provides the mineral food of plants. 
The different varieties of vegetable life require all different varieties or dif- 
ferent proportions of it ; and it is essential to the agriculturist to kiww which 
of the constituents of his crops his land contains, and in what amounts — and 
which are wanting. Experience alone will never give him accurate ideas in 
these particulars. He must obtain them from geology. This will point out 
to him not only the proper adaptation of growth to soil, but will show him of 
what materials it is deprived by culture and enable him with the best judg- 
ment and economy to repay the debt. From geology he learns that the crast 
of our earth was originally composed of hardened mineral masses, known 
commonly as rocks, which had existed previously either in a state of fusion dr 
solution. To the results of their gradual disintegration and of the decay of 
super-imposed organized material, all the formations of which our globe con- 
sists are to be traced^ Its upper stratum, the soil we till, is made up ctf many 
combinations and admixtures, incorporated t<^ther in varying proportions fay 
the slowly acting agencies of nature. This great effect has been impercq[^bly 
accomplished in her tranquil workshop, through successive period^ of the 
earth's existence. In these natural operations, so grand and, wonderful, and 
.yet so simple and harmonious, we behold the type of artificial cultivation. 
The materials, upon whkh vegetation depends, were contained in the original 
rocks overlying our earth, but held together in a solid and insoluble condition. 
Water was the disruptive agent which Inroke and tore them into pieces. By 
the expansive force of its congelation, the rocks were shattered and triturated 
upon the mountain tops, and carried down by those grand moving masses of 
ice, termed glaciers, were distributed over the pkins by the streams and 
rivers, or carried to the sea and again washed up upon its shores. The seeds 
cf vegetation, sca^ered through the air, found a resting place and sustenance 



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2ft FBMKfflrLVA!NU STATE 

in tlie soU tha* fonned. It supplied tkem mith the flttiaeral inftlt»ir «»ieiitial 
to their germiiiatiQa, wlkiley as chemistry shows i>8, irom the atmosphere the 
elements ueceaaary to organizitfioii were deriTed. From suoh begimungs has 
the soil, which we now eojoy,^ been parodaced, altered, modified and enriched 
Tilth tlie decayed remains of original vegetable products and of animais that 
fed upon them. 

And the agencies which nature first employed are constantly repeated. 
Water still percolates and powders and dissolves the rocks and renders them 
fit for the nourishment of plants. While the earthy matters of the soil are 
thus re-^eapplied, the decomposed debris of animals and regetaMes, which have 
fed aad died upon it, return the organic material whence they hare been in 
part ekbcffated. 

Our artificial cultivation of the soil is but an imitation of these natural pro- 
cesses, most successful when most closely imitated. We plough to pulverize 
it, and wh0n we have consumed the products formed on it from the decay of 
previous vegetation and from the ruins of disintegrated rocks, if we would 
Teeeive a fredi fiupply, we must return the ediausted aliment. Water and 
manure an the two great means which restore to the earth the material 
removed ^om it by vegetation. In our favored region natural sources pro- 
ride the moisture we require, where it i« insufficient, irrigation is employed. 
Bat, wherever the earth is taxed for an increase of her spontaneous yield, 
need I say to the practical fanner that the maintenance of her fertility requires 
tiie artificial assistance termed manunng? Manuring! How mnch of the 
furmtt's work, and care, and interest, and success is connected with this 
word! And how much, too, of its profitable application must result from a 
oonreet acquaintance with the fundamental laws of geology and chemistry! 
The mineral matters ejttracted from the soil by plants are very various. Some 
-deprive it, fiir example^ of its phosplrates, some of its potash, its silica, its 
lime, and so on. To restore theee exhausted elements of fertility to the best 
|id vantage, calls obviously for theoretical knowledge, whiclv neither experience 
nor observation can entirely supply. The preservation and development of 
the BHtteiials designed to furnish organic noutishment to plants, demand, also, 
the -i^lioation of scientific principlee. How many valuable ingredients in 
jmimal manures might they be the means of saving! How many compara- 
tively useless substances might thus be rendered availaMe as fertilizing 
agents! 

One of the most ancient, popular and efficient of artificial manures is lime, 
abundantly supplied and universally employed in the agricultural district 
around me. Upon its practical advantage to the soil I need not descant, for 
you well know its invigorating influence upon your gniss and grain crops. 
Yalaabte, however, as are the general results which it accomplishes, its indis- 
erwftinate exhibition is often useless, sometimes even hurtful. The impOTtance 



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AGBICPI/TOKAL SIX2ETY. 2tt 

of correct ihecftiiing 4ii'agricuhttiie c^nbt be ^nvt llhttrtrtted tfutn by ad- 
verting to the adtbn and irses of Btne as a manttre. 

I belive that it may be considered as a settled point ia the chemii^try of 
agrkufftire, that lime play^ a double part in its fertHizingf aetion. tt provides 
an element essential to the nourishment of plants, and it promotes the me- 
dianical division of the constituents of the soil, ao favorable to vegetation. 
This knowledge leads us to deductions of great pmctkal moment, ft ^lowa 
us the propriety of determining (by an appeal to analjrtical chemistry) the 
presence or absence of lime in our soil. It teaches us that excessive liming 
will exhaust the earth of its oi^fanfc materials by the rapid asaimiktion «f 
these resources, which it enaMes vegetation to effbot, «nd that unless we fe- 
store them by animal manures the land is finally impoverished. Chidmitfti^ 
reminds us, too, of die ready solubility of lime in water, thus pointing out 
that its mechanical effects will be greatly weakened if an excess of water per- 
mit its rapid penetration of the soil — that it is, in fact, ittapplloable to utt- 
drained, marshy lands. 

Important as is a correct appreciation of the principles of chemistry to die 
practical operations of the farmer, he is yet still more dependent upon aknow* 
ledge of vegetable physiology. Botany, as a systematic study, may seem 
repulsive, from its forbidding array of semi-barbarous technicalities, but there 
is scarcely a proceeding in the daily routine of agriculture that can be under* 
stood without an acquaintance with its fundamental laws. Unless we hav6 
learned the conditions of vegetable growth and germination, how c^n we 
attempt successfully to influence them 1 If we do not know that carbonic 
acid, and water, and ammonia are the food out of which the organic materials 
of plants are formed, how many blunders may we unwittingly commit in our 
management of artificial moisture and manuring! 

Experience has long since shown that difiTerent forms of vegetation are 
adapted to difierent varieties of land; 

" Not every soQ each grateful gift supplies ; 
Here waving corn, there happier vineyards rise." 

The vegetable physiologist has the key which unlocks these mysteries. He 
knows that wheat, for instance, contains a mineral substance, silex, essential 
to its composition, and thai it will not grow in the richest mould whbre this 
element is wanting. So, t#G, he is awaar^ ibaJL in the ashea of clover and to- 
bacco, more than twenty per cent, of salts of lime and magnesia are discov- 
ered, and that to attempt their cultivation in pure sandy soils would be absurd. 

Most of the improvements in the races of plants have been suggested by 
botanical science. It has converted wild and uneatable herbage into delicious 
fruits and vegetables. Our mealy indispensable potato was, originally, a 
small greenish bitter-flavored tuber. Our apples, pears and cherries, have as 
little in common with their ancestral stock, as the noble dog of St. Bernard 



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218 PENNSYLVANIA STATR. 

with the sarage wolf, his progenitor. The high-flavored caol^ower and 
savory cabbage have been produced fcom the disagreeable colewort. The 
sweet, delicate and rounded garden carrot is the legitimate offspring of the 
coarse, spindled-shaped root, whose flowers meet your eye on every roadside. 
All these ameliorations in the vegetable world are due to the skill developed 
by science, and it is only by the continued application of sound theoretical 
{Hrinciples that we can hope for further advance in the art of culture. 

The study of botany has a happy influence in fostering an appreciation of 
the beauties of the vegetable world; and agriculture is indeed incomplete 
until the landscape and the lawn obtain a place in the care and interest of the 
fanner. Might I be permitted to allude to what I conceive to be a neglect in 
American farming, I should venture to ask your attention to the almost total 
absence of arboriculture among us. As our fine forests have been swept off 
to make way for tillage, how sadly have we failed to preserve or replace even 
isolated shelter for our streams and cattle ! And if we ignore the plea for 
trees as ornamental objects, their usefulness in our fields and roadsides can 
surely not be gainsaid. But who can fail to be alive to the grandeur of these 
grandest of the adornings of the earth % What strength, what massiveness, 
what majesty, what grace do they not combine! And even in the most 
favored regions of the world, nature has nowhere been more prodigal of her 
sylvan trophies than here. We might challenge the earth to produce objects 
more worthy of man's admiration, than our own American Tulip-trees, as 
they stand in stateliness and glory on the banks of the beautiful Brandywine, 
almost within the echo of my voice. 

In the investigation of scientific botany, Chester county has long maintained 
a well merited pre-eminence. The exploration of our native Flora and Sylva 
is under no greater obligations in any quarter than to Marshall, and Darling- 
ton, and Hoopes — ^names known and respected abroad, as well as at home, 
among the cultivators of nature. 

In thus recognizing our varied indebtedness to the different branches of 
natural science, have we not, ladies and gentlemen, been offering the highest 
tribute to the nobility of agriculture as a pursuit 1 For, of all men, it seems 
to me, the farmer, in his dealings with the material world, must best feel 
that 

" All are bat parts of one stupendous whole, 
Whose body Nature island God the soul.*' 



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AGMCULTURAL SOCBETY. £» 



CLARION COUNTY. 

lb the Prestcknt of' the Pennsylvania Staie Agricultural Society : 

Dear Sir : — ^We held our third annual fair on the 8th, 9th and 10th daysoi 
(ictober, on our fair ground at the west end of the borough of Clarion. The 
weather was pleasant and the attendance fully as large as the anticipations of 
the most sanguine friends of the society. \ The people appeared to take a deep 
interest in the fair, and the grounds were crowded until a late hour on the 
third day. 

Before the premiums were announced we had a short, pointed and well de- 
livered address by James Campbell, Esq., of Clarion borough, and a few very 
appropriate remarks by Judge Myers, in reference to the conducting of our 
society in the future. 

The society has a lot of four acres, with a good substantial board fence eight 
feet high, a large number of stalls for cattle and horses, and a building for the 
display of such articles as would be injured by rain, or be carried away by 
night ; together with an office and ticket house. 

The display of horses was large and of as fine a quality, it is believed, as 
can be produced in any county west of the mountains. W-e cannot say as 
much for our cattle, yet we had some very fine blooded cattle that would have 
been a credit to any county, and the native breeds were very good. There 
was but few hogs or sheep on exhibition, aad we think those that were fell 
below the average of our county, and we hope to see a vast improvement next 
year. The hen fever has somewhat abated here, yet we had a number of 
coops from the Shanghai down to the con^mon dung-hill fowl. The display 
of vegetables and grain was not large, except wheat, of which the quantity 
was large and the quality the best I ever saw. But the great attraction of the 
fair was the domestic manufactures, which composed a large quantity, and a 
^reat variety of articles | especially that portion of it which was under the 
control of the ladies. Our farmers and mechanics take a deep interest in the 
matter, and we hope to be able to furnish you a more detailed and satisfactory 
report next year. 

. At our annual meeting, held in the court house in Clarion, on Wednesday 
evening, February 4, 1857, the following resolution was adopted : 

Resolvedy That the President, Secretary and Treasurer become members of 
the Executive Committee by virtue of their office, and be entitled to vote and 
take part in the proceedings of said committee. 

The following officers were elected fpr th« year 1857 : 

PRESIDENT — Hon, Peter Clover. 

Vice Presidents — J. H. Mehrten and Culbertson Orr. 

Secretary — George W. Arnold. 



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J 



2» PENKSYLVANIA STATE 

Treasttrer — C. E. Beman. 

Corresponding Secretary — ^B. i, B^ed, Esq. 

Librarian — ^Robert Sutton, Esq. 

ExEccTTivE CoMMiTTEB — ^Hogh Cwtig, Miller B^tjr, J- P* Ghrier, Sattmel 
WellsoQ and Daniel B. Hamm. 

The amount of money received in 1856 • •■« -* $890 48 

Paid balance on fair ground, premiums, expenses of fair, printing, &c«, 9 10 16 
Present indebtedness ... j 19 68 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J. B. LAWSON, President for 1856. 



CRAWFORD COUNTY. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State jfgrictdtaral Society : 

Dear Sir : — Inclosed you will please find the Itst of premiums awarded by 
the Crawford County Agricultural Society, at its annual &ir, which amounts 
to six hundred and seventy dollars, and ten dollars to the township taking the 
greatest number of premiums, which amount was paid into the school fund of 
said township. 

Officers for the yedr 1857. 

President — Jesse Smith. 

Secretary — A. P. Foster. 

Treasurer — ^William Power. ' 

The exhibition of horses was very large, there being one hundred and fifty 
entries, and the competition was very great ; also the entries of cattle were 
large, being over two hundred entered for premiums. The cattle would com- 
pare with any exhibition west of the mountains, and it was said by good 
judges that it was fully equal with many of the exhibitions in the eastern part 
of the State. There was not as good an exhibition of vegetables as was de^ 
sired, on account of the dry season, but what vtas exhibited lopked exceedingly 
well. The ftuit exhibition was nothing. The heavy frost in May destroyed 
all the fruit in this county. 

StiXtmmt qf Reteipes and E(rpmdiiufes, 

Balance from 1855 i $217 77 

Received from the county for 1855 100 00 

Receipts for the year for memberships, tickets^ Sto. • ^ * • 684 43 



1>Q02 20 



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AOinCVLTUKAL SOCIETT. 281 

Amount iMPoagbt fovwaard • • . . .$1^00^ 20 

©qe (torn the oounty, 1856 100 00 

1,102 20 
Pfemituns paid and other expense3i * 1^035 5S 

Balance in Trewwy,. January J, 18&7 66 62 

Respectfully yours, 

A. P. FOSTER, Secretary. 
CoNNEAtJTViLLE, February 4-, 1857. 



LIST OF PREMIUMS AWARDED. 

John Beatty, best fann and farm buildings $6 00 

John Craven, second best 4> 00 

William Lawson, third best 2 00 

C. Degroat, best acre Indian corn - 4" 00 

James Borden, second best * 2 00 

A. Cobum, third best ; . .^ . , . • • 1 00 

James M'Dowell, Jr., best acre oats 2 00 

A. Cobum, second best • • 1 00 

Amos Spencer, third best • 50 

Jackson Hbward, best quarter acre potatoes • 2 00 

James M'Dowell, Jr., second best ^^ 1 00 

Elijah Mason, third best 50 

O. P. Bush, best acre grass • 2 00 

George McDowell, best bushel timothy seed , 2 00 

James M'Dowell, Jr., second best 1 00 

Timothy Lord, Jr., best bUfehel Russia turnips. 1 00 

timothey Lord, Jr., best bushel parsnips , 1 00 

Timothy Sturtevant, best bushel mangle wurtzel, 1 00 

A. Coburn, second best .' # 50 

Timothy Sturtevant, best bushel beans 1 00 

P. Lord, Jr., besft specimen broom com 2 00 

W. J. Crofoot, second best. 1 00 

Washington Lefever, best collection seed wheat 1 00 

G. Head, Esq., best collection seed com - 1 00 

D. W. Hopkins, best collection seed potatoes; 1 00 

A. Whiting, best draft stallion Diploma and 6 00 

John Sloan, second best , 4 00 

James Brown, third best • • 2 00 



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S2ft PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Crawford County Joint Stock Horse company, beat atalfiouy four years 

old and over ^ '. . . .Diploma and $6 M 

Hiram Kichardson, second best. 6 00 

James Sterling, third best « • 4 00 

Robert Foster, best stallion, three years old « . .Diploma and 6 00 

DaTid Bolard, second best • « 4 00 

John Shontz, Jr., best stallion, two years old * 4 00 

James Wingard, second best 2 00 

J. F. Meyler, best pair matched carriage geldings , 6 00 

O. H. Colton, second best 4 00 

John M'Clure, third best 2 00 

John Spellicy • , Diploma. 

John Orcott, best pair matched carriage mares $6 00 

James M'Namara, best single carriage gelding. 3 00 

George W. Slayton, second best ^. • 2 00 

William Power, third best 1 00 

Dr. Gamble, best single carriage mare '. • • • . . 3 00 

J. H. Garner, second best - 2 00 

H. H. M'Dowell, third best 1 00 

£. D. Cole, best pair matched farm geldings 4 00 

S. S. M'Dowell, second best 3 00 

D. O. Pulling, third best 2 00 

John Brackinridge, best pair matched farm mares 4 00 

iiUis Terrill, second best 3 00 

J. A. Thayer, third best 2 00 

George Hall, best pair matched three years old geldings 6 00 

O. B. Slayton, second best 4 00 

Warren Stanley, best pair matched three years old mares 6 00 

John Stebbius, second best *..... 4 00 

James Borden, third best • 2 00 

Henry Best, best single three years old gelding 3 00 

Newton Truesdale, second best 2 00 

W. H. Frazier, third best 1 00 

John M'Dowell, best single three years old mare ^ • 3 00 

Aaron Chapman, second best • 2 00 

James M'Clure, third best 1 00 

John Gilliland, best single two years old gelding 3 00 

J. A. Thayer, second best 2 00 

James B. M'Coy, third best , 1 00 

W. G. Skemerhorn, best single two years old mare 3 00 

O. P. Greenwood, second best , 2 00 

Ambro Whipple, third best 1 00 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 903 

S. P. Warriner, best brood mare Diploma and |^ 00 

J. C. Stockton, second best 6 00 

Orrin Nye, third best 4 00 

William Ferine, best one year old horse 3 00 

J. C« Stockton, second best 2 00 

James Wingard, third best 1 00 

M. C. Dorchester, best one year old mare 3 00 

M. C. Dorchester, second best • 2 00 

C. S- Booth, third best 1 00 

O. P. Greenwood, best sucking colt.. < 8 00 

Orin Nye, second best 2 00 

Levi Potter, third best -* 1 00 

P. Robinson, best Devon bull^ three years old and over, Diploma and 6 00 

Greorge Hall, second best. ; 4 00 

W. D. Wetmore, best Devon cow, three years old and over, Dip. and 4 00 

G. Head, Esq., best two years old Devon heifer ^ 2 00 

G. Head, Esq., second best 1 00 

Philip Kobinaon, best one year old Devon heifer 2 00 

Lewis Colby, best Durham bull, three years old and over, Diploma and 6 00 

Ambro Whipple, second best 4 00 

Samuel Hohnes^ third best , , 2 00 

David Kcymour, best Durham bu)l, two years old 4 00 

Smith Wiard, second best , 3 00 

C. B. Power, third best 2 00 

Ambro Whipple, best Durham bull, one year old 3 00 

G. Head, Esq., second best • -t 2 00 

A. J. Whipple, best Durham bull calf , 2 00 

Lewis Colby, second best 1 00 

Ambro Whipple, best Durham cow, four years old and over, Dip. and 4 00 

A. J. Whipple, second best 3 00 

O.P. Greenwood, third best- 2 00 

John Thompson, best three year old Durham heifer 4 00 

A. J. Whipple, second best • 3 00 

John Thompson, third best. 2 00 

A. J. Whipple, best two years old Durham heifer 3 00 

David Bolard, second best • 2 00 

Ambro Whipple, best one year old Durham heifer 3 00 

John Thompson, second best.. ............••« 2 00 

H. W. Simons, best Durham heifer calf. t 3 00 

Ambro Whipple, second best. .*. r 2 00 

E. A. Fish, best grade bull, three years old and over -»-. 4 00 

E. A. Fish, second best 3 00 



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2Mi MINNSYLVANIA STATE 

David B(dft»i, best gmdq bull, two ye«,rs old $3 00 

J. F. Woodard, best. grade bull, one ypar old, ♦ r. . . . 2 00 

Edmiond Morehouse, best grade.bull calf • • . . 2 00 

Jokn W. Simons, second best. • 1 0(^ 

Jokn Thompson, best grade cow, four years old and ovier 4 00 

Joknr Thompson, second be3t 3 00 

Ebenezer Whipple, third best 2 00 

John Thompson,, best grade three years old hei£er ....••..•..• 3 00 

Edmond Greenlee, second best.^ , 2 00 

Otrin Baldwin, third best • ... I 00 

A. J. Whipple, best grade two year old heifer. ....«...* • 3 00 

S. P. Warrin«r, second best , • .. 2 00 

W. Lawrence, third best 1 00 

EMnezer Whipple, best grade heifer, one year old.. . . « » • 2 00 

lohn Thompson, second best 1 00 

John Thompson, best grade heifer calf 2 00 

John Thompson, second best . , 1 00 

B. G« Greenlee, best pair oxen w Diploma and 6 00 

Thomas A. Stanley, second best , 4 00 

Isaac Sperry, third best 2 00 

Ambro Whipple, best pair three years old steers. • • 4r 00 

Qeovge Hall, seccmd best ..^ • 3 00 

George Hall, third best 2 00 

Thomas A. Stai^ey, best pair two years old steers , 3 00 

Seymour Stanley, second best • 2 00 

J. W. Pond, Jr., third best 1 00 

Amlko Whipple, best pair one year old steers • 4 00 

GkK>rge Hail, second best 3 00 

George Hall, third beet 2 00 

J<^n' M'Dowell, (2d) best pair broke calves « • 2 00 

John M'Dowell, (2d) best pair broke steers.. 3 OO 

John M'Dowell, (2d) best pair broke steers 2 00 

S. P. Warriner^ Conneaut township, best trained ten pair oxen from a 

township • ....••... 6 00 

J. B* Bradley^ Spring township, second best. « 4 00 

S. P. Wanriner, Conneaut township, best trained ten pair two years old 

steers from one township. 00 

Almond Whiting, best fat bullock 3 00 

Jftmes Power, second best ^ 2 00 

James Power, third best »••..«•• 1 00 

Samuel Fish^ best fat cow 2 00 

Ambro Whipple, second best ••••••• 1 00 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 225 

SamuBl Lefever, best four Suffolk pigs $2 00 

L W. Pond, Jr., best boar , ., 3 00 

Harrison Cornell, second best i 2 00 

Samuel Lefever, best sow 3 00 

Stephen Hacket, second best. , ^ 00 

Stephen Hacket, best four pigs* • , ., 2 00 

Thomas Hays, best Leicester buck .Dfploma and 2 00 

John W. Simon«, best pen five Leicester lambs 2 00 

Edmond Morehouse, best Spanish buck .Diploma and 2 00 

Ebenezer Whipple, second bes*. . . ^ 1 00 

Edmond Morehouse, best pen five Spanish ewes 2 00 

Edmond Morehouse, second best 1 00 

Benj. Bonney, best French buck. Diploma and 2 00 

Edmond Morehouse, second best « 1 00 

W. H. Darby, best coop red Shanghais. . . . • , 1 00 

Isaac J. Lawrence, second best.. • • 50 

Philip Robinson, best coop white Shanghais 1 00 

Isaac J. Lawrence, best coop Brama Pootras .. 1 00 

Isaac J. Lawrence, second best ' 50 

Philip Robinson, best coop Dorkings .,., 1 00 

John Thompson, best pair turkeys. .... 1 00 

James Power, second best 50 

Deryman Lawrence, best pair French fowls 1 00 

Mrs. Timothy Lord, Jr., best firkin butter, made in June* 3 00 

Mrs. Stephen Hacket, second best 2 00 

Mrs. Philip Robinson, third best 1 00 

Mrs. R. M. Carter, best ten pounds fresh butter 2 00 

Mrs. M. T. Carr, second best -« . 1 00 

Mrs. Stephen Hacket, third best 50 

Miss Greenlee, best ten pounds fresh butter, made by young lady. ... 2 00 

Miss Carr, second best 1 00 

John W. Simons, best three cheese .• 3 00 

C. B. Power, second best 2 00 

Timothy Lord, Jr., third best 1 00 

James M'Dowell^ Jr., best milch cow 3 00 

Philip Robinson, best twelve blood beets.. ...*.., 50 

C VV. Slayton, second best 25 

O. W. Slayton, best twelve scarlet beets 50 

O. F. Bush, second best 25 

O. F. Bush, best twelve white beets. 50 

Timothy Lord, Jr., second best 25 

Charles Landon, best twelve vegetable oysters. • 50 

15 



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226 , PENNSYLVANIA STATE ^ 

O. F. Bush, best peck onions » $ 50 

G. Head, Esq., second best , 2& 

Samuel Fish, best three quarts onion seed 50 

M. C. Dorchester, second best » , 2& 

G. W. Slayton, best six heads cabbage ,., , ., 50 

Mrs. H. N. Young, best six heads lettuce k 50 

Edmond Greenlee, best peck peas , , , 50 

Timothy Lord, Jr., second best ^ 25 

S. P. Warriner, best peck beans , , . . . 50 

Edmond Greenlee, second best 2& 

G. W. Slayton, best peck tomatoes 50 

James M'Dowell, Jr., second best 25 

John Sprague, Jr., best two pumpkins 50 

S. P. Warriner, second best c 25 

W. H. Darby, best two squashes . 50 

Jackson Howard, second best 1 25 

Jackson Howard, largest variety of garden vegetables by one person . . 2 00 

G. W. Slayton, second best : 1 00 

Dayton Sigler, largest variety and best apples 2 00 

D. O. Pulling, second best 1 00 

Dayton Sigler, largest and best variety of standard fruits. 5 00 

Dayton Sigler, best cooking stove .Diploma and 3 00 

Dayton Sigler, second best 2 00 

Dayton Sigler, best parlor stove .Diploma and 3 00 

R. M. Carter, best plough . . . . - « Diploma and 3 00 

E. Biddleman, second best 2 00 

F. M. Robinson, best machine for sawing wood 2 00 

Edmond Greenlee, best straw cutter .Diploma and 1 00 

George Hall, best ox yoke and bows. 50 

W. J. Crofoot, best horse rake # 50 

J. &. E. H. Smith, best single carriage 4 00 

N. B. Smith, second best 2 00 

J. & E. H. Smith, best single open buggy , 4 00 

W. H. Darby, best exhibition furniture froip one shop 4-00 

W. H. Darby, best table 2 00 

W. H. Darby, best stand *. 1 00 

W. H. Darby, best bureau 2 00 

M. Z. Slayton, best single carriage harness , 3 00 

O. B. Slayton, second best , , , 2 00 

Mtfrris Leech, best two sides harness leather • 2 00 

Morris Leech, best two sides upper leather. 2 00 

Morris Leech, best six calf skins t 2 00 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 227 

Jackson Howard, best two pair Stoga boots $1 00 

Jackson Howard, second best .,,. 50 

H. Z. Howe, best two pair fine boots 1 00 

H. Z, Howe, best two pair ladies' shoes ; 1 00 

N. B. Smith, best horse shoeing , 1 00 

N. B. Smith, best horse shoes 1 00 

Daniel Hammon, best sample brick 2 00 

F. Lord, Jr., best six brooms '. , 2 00 

Wormald, Crider & Co., best exhibition of cloths from one fac- 
tory , Diploma and 4> 00 

Mrs. Jas. Bowman, best ten yards white flannel ^ , 2 00 

Mrs. W. Miller, best ten yards colored flannel 2 00 

Mrs. P. H. Bates, second best 1 00 

Mrs. Isaac Sperry, best two pomids stocking yarn ., 50 

Mrs. D. O. Pulling, second best 25 

Mrs. Green, best wool carpet 2 00 

Miss Maryette Wingard, second best 1 00 

Mrs. Linn, of South Shenango, exhibited two superior articles of wool car- 
pet, but was on the ground too late to compete for premiums. 

Mrs. M. T. Carr, best cotton and wool carpet $2 00 

Mrs. Isaac J. Lawrence, best rag carpet , 2 00 

Mrs. Thomas StaflTord, second best .« • 1 00 

Mrs. John Sprague, Jr., best woollen blankets 2 00 

Mrs. John Sprague, Jr., second best *. 1 00 

Mrs. L. W, Munson, best patch work quilt 2 QO 

Mrs. D. W. Hopkins, second best , 1 00 

Miss Elizabeth Denney, best woollen shawl »., . 2 00 

Mrs. Joseph Fish, best pair woollen hose 50 

Mrs. Amon Fish, second best 25 

Mrs. D. O. Pulling, best pair woollen mittens 50 

Miss Nancy Kingsley, second best 25 

Mrs, Theron Beard, best ten yards linen cloth ; 2 00 

Mrs. A. Coburn, best linen handkerchief 50 

Mrs. Lyman Hall, best pair linen hose , 50 

Miss Lawrence, second best 25 

Mrs, O. B. Slayton, best lady's collar 50 

Miss M'Dowell, second best 25^ 

Mrs. Jas. Brown, Jr%, best lady's skirt 50 

Miss Lawrence, second best 25 

Miss E. J. Gilbert, best lamp mat 50 

Mrs, A. J. Hammon, second best 2a 

Mrs, A. J. Hammon, best lady's cape. ...•••....* t ».. 1 1 1 50 



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228 l^ENNSYLVANIA 6TATE 

Miss Julia A. Foster, best chair tidy $ 20 

Mrs. F. M. Courtright, second best . . » 25 

Mrs. F. M. Courtright, best embroidered cushion • 50 

Miss E. J. Gilbert, best embroidery of other articles 50 

Miss £. J. Gilbert, second best 25 

Mrs. Almond Whiting, best chair cushion 50 

Mrs. Mackey and Miss Rupert exhibited two very nice worsted lamp mats, 
and Miss M'Dale a lady's skirt, which were too late to enter for premiums. 
Mrs. A. J. Hammon was awarded a diploma on best book rack. 

Mrs. J. E. Rice, best sample window shades, oil paintmg.» $3 00 

Mrs. Ira B. Conkey, best toilet spread ^ . . . . • . 50 

Mrs. G. W. Slayton, best platform of large variety of flowers. 1 00 

Mrs. H. N. Young, most splendid floral exhibition at fair 1 00 

Mrs. G. W. Slayton, second best 50 

Jacob Weaver, best design for farm buildings 4 00 

Jacob Weaver, second best 2 00 

S. A. Nichols, best landscape or portrait paintings 50 

Miss L. L. Chamberlain, second best ^ 50 

F. A. Temple, best specimen of penmanship ^ 2 00 

Miss M'Clure, second best 1 00 

Mrs. Joseph Fish, best jar preserves . . . . , 2 00 

Mrs. James Brown, Jr., second best. , . . 1 00 

Mrs. Isaac Sperry, best specimen wheat bread- .....'. 2 00 

Mrs. Albert Fish, second best 1 00 

Jtfrs. Samuel Fish, best specimen of corn bread 2 00 

Mrs. M. T. Carr, second best 1 00 

Mrs. Isaac J. Lawrence, best specimen of cake 1 00 

Mrs. Charles Landon, second best 50 

Mrs. Samuel Fish, best specimen of pickled fruit. ^ 100 

Mrs. Thomas Stafford, second best 50 

Miss D. Potter, best ten pounds maple sugar ^ 200 

A. Coburn, second best 1 00 

Mrs. Isaac Sperry, best specimen of soft soap 1 00 

Mrs. H. N. Young, second best .'^O 

Mrs. Samuel Fish, best specimen hard soap 1 00 

Mrs. M. T. Carr, second best 50 

Martin & Hemstreet, best specimen dentistry 3 00 

Whitney & Kuhn, best melodeon 4 00 

Whitney & Kuhn, second best * 3 00 

S. A. Nichols, best Daguerreotypes 3 00 

S. A. Nichols, best Ambrotypes , 3 00 

Samuel Rushmore, best ploughman, horse team '.,.... 5 00 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 229 

James Jolley, second best * $3 00 

Abner M'Dowell, best ploughboy under 18 years of age, horse team, 5 00 

George Myres, Jr., best ploughman, ox team . 5 00 

John Vandique, second best 3 00 

Abner M'Dowell, best ploughboy, ox team 5 00 

C. B. Power,*^)est specimen sub-soil ploughing 5 00 

A. J. Mason, best specimen of printing Diploma and 3 00 

•Albert Erwin, best time trotting in harness, single hoi^^e. .......... 5 00 

Shepard Ellis, second best • # 3 00 



DELAWARE COUNTY. 

[Note. — The followiYig failed to reach the State society in season for its 
insertion in the third volume of their Transactions.] 

The directors of the Delaware County Society, for the promotion of agri- 
culture, horticulture, manufactures, and the mechanic and household arts, to 
whom was entrusted the duty of making the necessary arrangements for .the 
second annual exhibition of the society, in presenting their report, take occa- 
sion to express their entire satisfaction at the result which has attended the 
•labors of all engaged therein. The large number of articles deposited under 
the different classes, the fine display of stock, agricultural and mechanical im- 
plements, and the varied productions of the loom, prove the interest which is 
felt by a' large majority of those engaged in these most important branches of 
industry. The horticultural department, and the department embracing the 
household arts, was well and creditably sustained. In making out the list of 
articles exhibited, it has been deemed proper to include all that was presented 
for competition and display, as the best means of giving general satisfaction 
to depositors, specifying those to whom premiums were awarded. 

The directors desire in this connection to express their thanks to the ladies 
of the county, for the able assistance they rendered in furthering one of the 
objects for which the society was instituted* Much labor in several of the 
departments devolved upon them, and the manner in which it was performed, 
fully demonstrated their ability for the task. 

Class 1. — ;Farms, Field Crops and Ploughing. 

Townsend Speakman, of Newtown, field of wheat, third premium, Farm 
Journal. 

Field of oats by the same. 



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230 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

George Palmer, Concord, ' field of wheat, twelve acres, second premium, 
four dollars. 

Field of oats by the same, first premium, four dollars. 

Charles O'Donnell, farmer to Charles Kelly, field of wheat. 

Five acres of potatoes by the same, second premium, two dollars. 

Five acres of corn by the same, second premium. Farm Journal. 

J. Preston Thomas, Newtown, sixteen acres of w|;^eat, first premium, six- 
doUars. 

Sixteen acres of oats by the same, second premium, two dollars* 

William Ward, Tinicum, twelve acres of corn. 

John Sharpless, Jr., Nether Providence, one acre of potatoes, first premium, 
fiv^ dollars. 

Jhomas P. Powell, Concord, ten pcres of corn, first premium, six dollars. 

George Drayton, of Upper Darby, one-quarter of an acre of carrots, first 
premium, five dollars. 

Joseph Oat, Haverfordj five acres of corn, first premium, four dollars. 

Sarah Worrall, Springfield, six acres of corn. 

H. P. and William Eves, Jr., Nether Providence, ten acres of corn, second 
premium, two dollars. 

Abraham Pennell, Middletown, deposited one dozen ears of corn, first pre- 
mium, one dollar. 

One bushel of oats by the same. 

William P. Wilson, Upper Darby, one bushel of Mediterranean wheat, weigh- 
ing sixty-three and a half pounds. 

Seth Pancoast, Springfield, half a bushel Mercer potatoes, and com on the 
stalk. 

Robert Johnson, Middletown, Irish and common oats. 

Pearson Pike, Upper Providence, Guinea and common corn. 

George W. Rigby, Nether Providence, one bushel of oats, and one of Medi- 
terranean wheat. 

Thomas Y. Hutton, Waterville Mills, Nether Providence, one barrel of 
extra flour, first pcmium, four dollars. 

One-eighth barrel of extra flour by the same. 

John JeflTeries, Chester township, one barrel extra flour. 

Isaac Weaver, Franklin Mills, Nether Providence, one barrel <sctra flour, 
second premium, two dollars! 

Mordecai Worrall, rye straw threshed by George Worrall's machine, Spring- 
field. 

William Watkin, Upper Darby, one barrel of flour. 

Townsend P. Sharpless, Nether Providence, one bushel of Mercer potatoes. 

Isaac C. Deriick, Aston, one-half bushel Mercer potatoes. 

Charles P. Tyson, Middletown, one bushel common oats. 



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AGHICULTURAL SOCIETY. 231 

Washington Bishop, Upper Providence, two barrels of flour. 

O. D. Miller, Upper Providence, com in the ear. 

Levis Pancoast, Springfield, one bushel of Mediterranean wheat. 

George Sharpless, Nether Providence, one peck of timothy seed, second 
premium, Farm Journal. 

John Sharpless, Jr., Nether Providence, Etrurian wheat, first premium, two 
dollars. 

Nathan Garret, Upper Darby, New England sweet corn, and sweet com 
raised from seed from the Patent Office. 

Onions raised from Patent Office seed by the same* 

George M* Smedley, Middletown, one bushel of oats, and one half bushel 
of timothy seed. 

John Garret, A^ton, one bushel of Irish potatoe oats, weighing thir^-six 
pounds, first premium, one dollar. 

Twenty ears of Indian com by the same. 

Davis Sill, Haverford, one bushel of Mediterranean wheat, first premium, 
two dollars. * 

Richard Ottey, Springfield, one half bushel of Mercer potatoes, ^and one 
half bushel of red potatoes. 

George Palmer, Concord, one bushel of wheat* 

Richard Ottey, Springfield, twelve ears of corn. 

John Garnet, Edgmont, white Mercer potatoes, second premium, Farm 
Journal* 

One peck of sweet potatoes from the same, first premiiun, one dollar. 

John S. Palmer, Upper Providence, one barrel of flour. 

John Miller, Upper Providence, one. bushel of barley, first premium, one 
dollar. 

One bushel of rye by the same, first premium one dollar. 

Mrs. Fields, Nether Providence, one peck of Mercer potatoes. 

J. W. Pyle, Nether Providence, one peck of Mercer potatoes. 

Anthony M'Coy, Aston, one peck of potatoes. 

John Jefilries, Chester, one bushel of wheat, second premium. Farm Journal. 

Anthony M'Coy, Aston, sweet com. 

David P. Caley, Newtown, two baskets of white Mercer potatoes, first pre- 
mium, two dollars. 

Samuel Caley, Newtown, two baskets of white Mercer potatoes. 

George Drayton, farmer to Christopher Fallon, of Upper Darby, one bushel 
of Mercer potatoes. 

Jacob Slawter, Upper Chichester, a lot of buckwheat. 

Hugh Tyler, Upper Providence, one half bushel black Mercer potatoes. 

Martin Naval, Middletown, sugar corn, two kinds, first premium, one dollar. 

Mercer and Tuscarora potatoes by the same. 



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232 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Jacob Hewes, Kidley, wheat imported from Cape of Good Hope. 

William C. Hawkins, Upper Darby, one half bushel Mercer potatoes, one 
peck of Illinois Neshannocks, and stalks of early white com. 

Kobert M'Call, Bethel, corn on the ear, first premium, Farm Journal. 

Timothy seed by the same. 

John Gunning, Middletown, one bushel Mercer potatoes. 

Jacob Hewes, Ridley, four citron melons, and four ears of calico com. 

John H. Smedley, Middletown, Egyptian com. 

J. Franklin Thomas, Springfield, sample of Mediterranean wheat, second 
premium. Farm Journal. 

Neal Duffie, Hidley, Mediterranean wheat, and corn on the stalk. 

William D. Davis, Upper Providence, corn on the ear. 

\1klliam Webster, Middletown, corn on the stalky red cob^ gourde 

Philip T. Mullin, Middletown, one bushel of Medit^raiiean wheat. 

Philip T. Mullin, Jr., Middletown, corn in the ear, and kidney potatoes. 

Martin Norval, Middletown, Egyptian corn. 

A. &; B. England, Thornbury, one bushel of white Oats, first premium, one 
dollar. 

Jacob Hewes, Ridley, ten cucumbers. 

John M. Hunter, Upper Providence, one bushel of Mediterranean irheat- 

David Paxson, Marple, one half bushel of Mercer potatoes. 

Nathan Garrett, Upper Dar*by, kidney potatoes. 

George Afflick, Middletown, com on the stalk. 

George B. Lownes, Springfield, black Mercer potatoes, raised from one po- 
tato, and com on the ear. 

Corn on the stalk by the same, premium, Farm JournaL 

Reuben Johnson, Edgmont, oats. 

Phebe Waddell, Middletown, sheaf of wheat, and six stalks of com. 

Thomas Taney, Nether Providence, one half bushel Califomia Mercer pota- 
toes. 

George Curwin, Lower Meripn, Montgomery county^ one bushel of white 
Grenessee wheat. 

William James, Edgmont, one half bushel Mediterranean wheat. 

James Dicks, Nether Providence, Mediterranean wheat. 

B. & C. Evans, Upper Providence, potatoes and rye. 

Adam C. Eckfeldt, Haverford, six ears o( King Philip's corn, said by the 
Patent Office report, to have been raised in the valley of Lake Winnipisiogee,. 
in the quantity of one hundred bushels to the acre, diploma. 

Henry Gorman, Aston, Egyptian com. 

George Smith, Upper Darby, seedling potatoes, first premium, two dollars. 

Thomas Madgin, ploughman of Chichester, with Foust's plough, made by 
John Haws, Middletown, first premiiun, five dollars. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 233 

The committee appointed to examine farms, field crops, ploughing, &c., 
enumerated imder class No. 1, having attended to their duties, respectfully re- 
port: 

That they viewed a field of thirteen acres of wheat, belonging to J. Preston 
Thomas & Bro., of Newtown. This field had received a coat of barn-yard 
manure, after the removal of the previous oats crop, and the wheat was drilled 
in about the twenty-fifth of ninth month. 

They also viewed a field of twelve acres of wheat, belonging to George 
Palmer, of Concord. This field was cultivated in the following manner : 

A light coat of barn-yard manure was applied to the oats stabble, and guano 
distributed at the rate of two hundred and fifty pounds to the acife, by a drill 
attached. to the plough. This wheat was also put in by a drill, and the uni- 
form appearance of both crops is an evidence of the superiority of drilling 
over broad-casting. 

Two other fields of wheat were entered — one by Charles Kelly, of Upper 
Darby, which had been prostrated and injured by a storm, and the other by 
Townsend Speakman, of Newtown. 

The committee viewed a field of corn, containing five acres, the property 
of Joseph Oat, of Haverford. This corn was remarkable for the size of the 
ears, one of which measured sixteen and a half inches in length. Your com- 
mittee were informed that the seed from which this crop was raised, was a 
mixture of gourd seed and a Chester county variety. 

They also viewed a field of corn belonging to Charles Kelly, of Upper Dar- 
by. This field had been very carefully cultivated, each grain having been 
planted separately in the hills. Your committee considered the crop an excel- 
lent one. 

A field of twelve acres, entered by William Ward, of Tinicum, and another 
by Sarah Worrall, of Springfield, were alike creditable to their owners. 

Your committee would recommend a special premium for a very heavy crop 
of clover and timothy, grown on the farm of Charles Kelly, of Upper Darby. 
[The directors awarded a diploma to Mr. K. for his clover and timothy.] 

A remarkable crop of potatoes, raised by Jacob Rice, of Darby township, 
was also viewed by the committee. They were kindly furnished by Mr. R., 
with the following statement of his mode of cultivation : 

The ground which had been occupied by com last year, was ploughed 
deeply, harrowed, and a part of the field sowed with guano, at the rate of two 
hundred pounds to the acre. It was then marked out, and manured in the 
row. The remainder of the field was manured broadcast, with barn-yard ma- 
nure, and guano applied in the rows, and the potatoes covered very shallow. 
A part of the field was measured, which produced at the rate of four hundred 
bushels to the acre. The committee regret having neglected to inquire whether 
large or small potatoes had been planted. The crop not being regularly en- 



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^U PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

tered, the committee recommend a discretionary premium. ["The directors 
awarded Mr. K. a complimentary jpremium of five dollars.] 

The wheat exhibited was generally very good, and your committee found 
much difficulty in determining which was best entitled to the premium. 

The white oats exhibited by A. & B. England, of Thornbury, was highly 
creditable to those gentlemen. The committee are informed that a part of 
the field on which this oats was raised was seeded with a drill, at the rate of 
one and a quarter bushels to the acre, and produced better than a similar por- 
tion of the same field which was sown broadcast, at the rate of two and a half 
bushels to the acre. 

A quantity of flour, of a superior quality, was deposited by Thomas Y. 
Button, Isaac Weaver, Washington Bishop, John S. Palmer and Wm. Wat 
kin. A portion of your committee feeling. themselves incompetent to judge, 
solicited the assistance of some dealers in the article, who pronounced it all 
very good^ and were slow in deciding between the competitors. 

The white Mercer potatoes, exhibited by David P. Caley, of Newtown, and 
John Garnett, of Edgmont, to whom the premiums were awarded, were ex- 
cellent samples of that esculent. 

There were several other very fine samples on exhibition, but little inferior 
to those which obtained the premium. 

JOSEPH ENTWIZLE, 
LEVIS MILLER,. 
ISAAC HIBBERD, 
ELLIS P. AURSHALL, 
WM. RHOADS, Jr., 
JOHN SHARPLESS, Jr., 
Committee. 



Class 2. — Horses, Mules a^d Equestrianship. 

Horse colt "Prince," two years and three months old, bay, entered by Wm. 
Smedley, of Middletown. 

" Lady Brown," four years old, owned by D. W. Eyre, of Aston, not sur- 
passed by any of her age for road or any other purpose, complimentary pre- 
mium of five dollars. 

" Louis NapoleoYi Bonaparte," one year and nine months old, entered by 
James W. Worrall, of Upper Providence, 

Grey mare "Fashion," entered by Jackson Baker, Edgmont; a mare of good 
style and a fast traveler. 

Mare colt " Fanny Grey," three months old, sired by Black Hawk, entered 
by R. C. Fairlarab, of Upper Providence. ^ 



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AGEICULTURAL SOCIETY. 235 

" Callender Irvine," horse colt six years old, entered by Thomas Lei per, 
Nether Providence. ^ 

"Fanny," filly four years old, entered by Thomas Leiper, first premium for 
filly, three dollars. 

"Jackson" colt, from Fanny Kemble, entered by Joseph Dicks, of Nether 
Providence, first premium, two dollars. 

Horse colt " Penn," five years old, entered by James Bailey as a roadster. 

Eclipse sorrel filly " Fanny Forrester," entered by Martin Quinn, York, Pa. 

Bay horse ^ve years old, " Tom Bug," roadster, entered by Martin Quinn, 
York, Pa. 

Filly, eight years old, " Katy Darling," entered by John Quinn, of Middle- 
town. 

Grey mare " Sally," eight years old, for draft, entered by Jos. M. Worrall. 

Entered by John W. Clark, Leiperville, Delaware county : " Utica Jack," 
eight years old, roadster; "Bay Pet," six years old, do.; "Gray Eddy," five 
years old, do., second premium, two dollars; "Yankee Jim," eight years old, 
first premium, four dollars; brood mare, and colt sired by "Allegheny Chief," 
second premium, for mare, four dollars. 

"Allegheny Chief," eight years old, chesnut stallion, roadster, entered by 
K. P. Stetson, Philadelphia, complimentary premium, diploma. 

"Media Mink," stallion, five years old, roadster, entered by Wessel C. Broad- 
'head, Media. An animal of very great endurance and fast traveler, diploma. 

Pair of black coach horses, entered by W. C. Broadhead, Media. 

"John Plowman," stallion, six years old, entered by Washington Bishop, 
as a farm and draught horse, first premium, silver cup or ten dollars. 

" Harry," farm and draught horse, entered by Washington Bishop, Upper 
Providence. 

"Toronto," stallion, six years old, entered by Thomas L. Calvert, of New- 
town, as a farm and road horse, second premium, six dollars. 

" Black Bess," brood mare, for farm and road purposes, entered by J. Howard 
Lewis, first premium, eight dollars. 

"Tommy Hawk," sucking colt, three months old, sired by "Black Hawk," 
dam "Black Bess," entered by J. Howard Lewis, second premium. Farm 
Journal. 

Mare colt, Messenger and Hunter stock, twenty- seven months old, named 
"Nancy DawSon," entered by Edgar T. Miller, of Upper Providence; a colt 
of good style. 

Brood mare, "Fanny Kemble," and coh five, months old, General Irvin stock, 
entered by Walter C. Lytle, of Chester, second premium for mare, four dollars. 

One two years old colt, pedigree, Busiris, mare, and Evan Lewis, horse, 
"Jackson, Jr.," entered by Davis Sill, of Haverford, second premium, tv^o 
dollars. 



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236 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Stallion, «* General Taylor," entered by Peter Stout^ of Philadelphia, a horse 
of good style and action. , 

Koad horse, "Lady Worrall," by William Jones, Jr., Darby. 

Koad horse, "Archer," by T. H. Gesner, Ridley. 

Imported jackass, six years old, by G. Bolton L. Newton, Springfield. A 
very fine animal. The owner is entitled to much credit for the introduction of 
this description of stock. 

Pair of horses, seven years old, road and farm purposes, by Jefferson Jeffrey, 
of Chester. A good pair of draught horses. 

Farm horse, four years old, Jackson stock, by William Rhoads, Jr., of New- 
town, first premium, four dollars. 

Thorough bred stallion, "Grouse Eagle," five years old, entered by Robert 
Boyd, Nether Providence. This was one of the best animals exhibited, but 
having taken a premium last year, was not entitled under the rules. 

Mare and colt, entered by Peter Worrall, Media,* "Black Hawk," colt three 
months and nineteen days old ; mare thorough-bred Eclipse. 

"John the Ploughman," entered by Peter Worrall, of Upper Providence. 

Road horse, "Jerry," entered by Jacob Slawter, Upper Chichester. 

"Lady Sontag," by William M. Cooper, West Chester. The judges con- 
sidered this mare the best exhibited by any one out of the county j complimen- 
tary premium, diploma. 

One brood mare seven years old; colt ten weeks old, sired by "Black* 
Hawk ;" first premiiun for mare, eight dollars ; Farm Journal for colt, entered 
by G. Bolton L. Newton, Springfield. 

One road mare, by George W. Hill, Jr., Middletown, complimentary pre- 
mium, diploma. 

Grey mare, three years old, by Elisha P. Swayne, Aston. 

Pair of road mares, by John B. Pierce, Concord, four and six years old. 
• Horse colt, two years and three months old, by William Eres, Jr., Nether 
Providence, first premium, two dollars. 

"Bay Billy," 'road horse, by William Beeby, Media. A very fine animal, 
and the judges take pleasure in awarding a diploma. 

"Ben Franklin," thorough-bred stallion, by Austin Mellor, formerly o( 
Philadelphia, now of Upper Darby, first premium, silver cup or ten dollars. 

"Post Boy," road horse, by R. B. Carey, Springfield. 

Road horse, by David Paxson, Marple, third premium, diploma or Farm 
Journal. 

Colt, three years old, by Thomas H. Gesner, Ridley, second premium, Farm 
Journal. 

Bay horse "Tom," by James D. Rhoads, Springfield; a horse of fine size 
a^d action. 

Horse "Ned Forrest," five years old, by Oborn Levis, Jr., Upper Darby. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 237 

Mare and colt, four months old, "Morgan Messenger," entered by Charles 
Williamson, Nether Providence. 

Horse colt *^' Sanco," stallion, Jackson stock, by Robert Plumstead, Upper 
Darby, first premium, five dollars. 

Road horse "Harry," four years old, by the same, second premium for farm, 
two dollars. 

Mare and colt, sired by "Black Hawk," by James Pennell, Middletown, 
fine colt. 

Mare and colt, sired by a Canadian and Aracoker horse, dam of colt by 
"Wallace," entered by Isaac Morgan, of Aston. Colt was foaled the 22d of 
April, and was four months and seventeen days old. 

Canadian colt, three years old, entered by Thomas Reece, Upper Providence, 
first premium, three dollars. 

Mare " Kate," three years old, entered by J. S. Tyson, Upper Chichester. 

Mare and colt, colt four months old, entered by William Smedley, Jr., of 
Middletown. 

Mare " Lady Jackson" and filly, by T. Erskine, Ridley. 

Two draught horses, by Samuel Riddle, Middletown — roan horse, Tirst pre- 
mium, four dollars. 

Morgan Black Hawk mare, " Black Julia," thorough bred, six years old, 
Joseph Engle, Jr., of Chester township, first premium, eight dollars. 

Brood mare and colt, by Ellis P. Marshall, Concord, " Plough Boy," mare — 
" Black Hawk," colt. 

Matched horses, Morgan stock, " Harry and Frank," by M. W. Leedom, 
Haverford, second premium, diploma. 

Sorrel brood mare " Juliet," and " Eclipse" colt, three months old, by Jo- 
seph Lewis, of Newtown. 

Bay filly " Fanny," three years old, Jackson stock, by the same. 

J3ay horse, eight years old, roadster racker, by M. Worrall, Springfield. 

Horse colt "Charley," bay, three years old, by J. B. Pierce, Concord. 

Mare " Black," &ve years old, by Joseph B. Leedom, Haverford. 

Sorrel mare "Fashion," eight years old, roadster, by J. P. Thomas, New- 
town. 

Farm and broodmare " Lady Bell," pedigree, "Expedition and Pilot Lion," 
by Robert M'Call, Bethel, fine large draught mare. 

Farm and brood mare " Fanny," by Eli T. Young, farmer to John W. Con- 
nard, with colt two months old, Duroc stock, by the same, of Middletown. 

Farm and brood mare " Polly," by Isaac T. Evans, Middletown. 

Stallion "Canadian Aricoker," five years old, by John Morgan, Edgmont. 

Mare colt, fifteen months old, by Edward Barton, Middletown. 

"Lady Webster," four years and two months old, sired by " Bashaw" and 
John Richards's mare, entered by Joseph S. Hallowed, Philadelp^iiq. 



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238 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Pair of brown coach horses, five and six years old, by C. Harvey, Birming- 
ham, first premium, five dollars. 

Hoan horse "Jerry," by Joseph B. Leedom, Haverford. 

Pony and wagon, by Matthew Connard, Middletown. 

Bay horse "Joker," by Daniel Kice, of Philadelphia. 

"Young Hickory," by William Crossley, Newtown, a smart trotter. 

"Spunk," road horse, by the same. 

"Black Hawk" colt, three months old, by George Palmer, Concord. 

Pair of matched horses, for farm and road purposes, by Peter Worrall, 
Media. 

Road mare " Betsey," seven years old, by Samuel M'Call, Chester, a good 
traveler. 

Road mare " Flora," seven years old, by H. C. Hemphill, West Chester, 
too late for competition. 

Road pony "Curiosity," eight years old, by Evans E. Russell, Darby, very 
fast, diploma. 

Mr. Marks, of West Philadelphia, exhibited a very fine road horse, " West 
Philadelphia," very fast. The committee deemed it but just to award Mr. M. 
a diploma. 

The committee on class second, feel their inability to do justice to the num- 
ber of fine horses, brood mares and colts presented for their inspection, owing 
to the manner in which many of the entries were made. To obviate this 
difficulty in future, they would respectfully suggest to persons entering stock, 
to be more careful with regard to age, and the peculiar qualities for whic^i 
their animals are noted. 

JAMES DICKS, 
EDWARD LEWIS, 
A. B. LEEDOM, 
\ ^ Judges, 



Class 3. — Full Bred Cattle —I^irouiED or Native. 
First Division. 

Joseph Hirst, farmer to William T. Crook, of Nether Providence, entered 
short horned bull "Jack," four years and ten months old. Short horned 
cow " Gentle," four years old, and two heifers, each one year and nine months 
old. 

John C. Beatty, Upper Providence, Devon heifer, one year and six months 
old. 

Dr. Joseph Rowland, of Upper Providence, Devon heifer "Cherry," two 
years and three months old. This heifer has made six pounds of butter per 



f 

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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 239 

week, two months after having a calf, first premium, five dollars. Also, one 
three quarter blood Durham two years old, and calf, and a Teasewatcr heifer 
*' Betty," two years and two months old. 

Peter Worrall, Media, a full-blooded Chinese cow, makes nine pounds of 
butter per week. 

George Drayton, farmer to Christopher Fallon, of Upper Darby, entered 
imported cow " Rose," a short horned Durham. This cow took the premium 
last year and was not entitled to a premium under the rules. " Nelly," im- 
ported short horned Durham, first premium, eight dollars. " Lily," imported 
short-horned Durham, two years old. "Rose, Jr.," eight months old, first 
premium. Farm Journal. **Maid of Runnymede," Devon cow. 

George Curwen, Montgomery county, Devon bull " Massasoit," first pre- 
mium, ten dollars. Devon cow " Cherry," first premium, eight dollars. Also 
Devon cow; Devon heifer twoyears old, diploma. 

Charles Kelly, Upper Darby, entered imported short-horned bull "Liberator," 
three years old, first premium, silver cup, or ten dollars. Short-horned bull 
*' Harry Lorroquer," eleven months old, first 'premium, three dollars. "Kate 
Kearney," third premium, diploma; "Kate," twenty months old. "Lily," 
twenty months old, first premium, three dollars. " Miss Louisa," eleven 
months old — the last five named, all blooded stock, were raisfed by Mr. Kelly. 
Samuel Bancroft, Upper Providence, short-horned Durham cow " Isabella," 
five years old, diploma. Short-horned bull "Prince," fourteen months old, 
first premium, six dollars. Two calves, one eight and one four weeks old. 
William L. Green, Nether Providence, two short-horned Durham cows. 
Abel Green, Nether Providence, one cow, mixed with Durham and Devon. 
Sarah L. Green, Nether Providence, full-bred Devon calf nine weeks old. 
Chalkley Harvey, Birmingham, Ayrshire heifer " Rose of Ayr 2d," calved 
July 9, 1854, first premium, three dollars. Devon heifer f* Butter Maid," 
calved February 19, 1854, first premium, three dollars. Devon bull calf 
" Godwin 2d," five months old. 

George B. L. Newton, Springfield, Devon bull two years old; two Devon 
heifers three years old, and one Devon heifer two years old. 

It gives the judges pleasure to remark, that there were a number of thorough 
bred cattle exhibited, which they deemed worthy of notice, but under the rules 
of the society they were not at liberty to award a premium for them. 

. « JOHN H. ANDREWS, 

SAMUEL PAINTER, 
EDWARD GARRETT, 

Judges* 



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2W PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Class "3.— Native or Grade, Working Oxen and Fat Cattle. 

Second and Third DimstonsJ' 

Edward Garrett, of Upper Darby, entered a pair of working oxen, second- 
premium, five dollars. 

Sarah L. Miller, Upper Providence, a pair of working oxen. 

Joseph Hirst, farmer to William T. Crook, of Upper Providence, a pair of 
working oxen one year and five months old. 

John Leedom, of Haverford, a grade cow six years old. 

Joseph B. Leedom, Haverford, a heifer and bull, (yearlings,) first premium, 
for bull, six dollars. 

John C, Beatty, of Media, one heifer, eighteen months old, first premium, 
four^dollars. 

G. Bolton L. Newton, Springfield, two yearling heifers, Devon and Dur- 
ham; one heifer calf, Devon and Durham, eight months old. 

Joseph Rowland, M. D., Media, a Western Reserve heifer, three years old, 
fresh in March. 

Enos P. Sharpless^ Concord, two pairs of working oxen. 

John H. Andrews, of Darby, a heifer, "Debby," between three and four years 
old, a cross betweeti Durham and Devon. She had her second calf last spring, 
and gave in the sixth month one hundred and thirty-one quarts of strained 
milk in seven successive days, the cream of which made twelve and a half 
pounds of butter. She had no other food but grass, first premium for cow in 
milk, &ye dollars. 

Charles T. M'Call, Chester township, a yearling heifer. 

Robert M'Call, Chester township, a cow three years old, second premium 
for cow in milk, three dollars. 

John B. Barney, Birmingham, three pair of working oxen, first premium for 
a team of three pair, ten dollars, or silver cup. 

Chalkley Harvey, Birmingham, two pair of working oxen, for one yoke, first 
premium, ten dollars, or silver cup. 

Joseph P. Harvey, Birmingham, two pair of working oxen. 

Samuel Painter, Birmingham, a pair of fat oxen, also a pair of working oxen, 
first premium for fat oxen, ten dollars, or silver cup. 
Lewis P. Harvey, Birmingham, pair of working oxen. 
Ellwood Michenor, Birmingham, pair of working oxen. 
Isaac C. Evans, Middletown, a cow, Hereford stock, and an Alderney bull, 
fourteen and a half months old. 

Eli D. Pierce, Nether Providence, entered " Beauty," a cow seven years 
old, Durham stock. 

Joseph ,Lownes, Springfield, a two years old grade bull, and an Alderney 
heifer one year c]*'. 



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AGRICtJLTCRAL SOCIETY. 241 

Gotlieb Gogle, Springfield, a grade cow and calf, first premium, for calf, 
three dollars. ' 

Isaac Tussey, Media, bull, grade stock, fifteen months old. 
. Elmer Edwards, Middletown, yoke of working oxen. 

H. Jones Brooke, Media, cow and calf, four years old, half Aldemey, quarter 
Ayrshire, and quarter Durham, first premium, for bull calf, three dollars. 

Ziba Darlington, Birmingham, pair of working oxen. 

Joseph Walter, Concord, pair of working oxen. 

Isaac and Abram P. Morgan, Aston, Devon bull, "Bigler, Jr.," grade, first 
premium, ten dollars, or silver cup. 

William Stinson, Marple,* heifer, Yorkshire stock. 

Chalkley Harvey, Birmingham, **Rose," a grade heifer, calved March 13, 
1854; also, four home-raised steers, two years old, first premium, ten dollars. 

Joseph P. Harvey, Birmingham, grade cow, *'Molly," six years old, first pre- 
mium for grade cow, eight dollars. 

Edward B, Green, Edgmont, "Jenny Lind," a Devon cow, four years old ; 
bull, ^Billy," Teasewater, two years old^ heifer, "Amanda," Devon, one year 
old, and Devon calf, <*Northener," six months old ; "Beauty," cross of Dur- 
ham and Devon, two years old ; "Dolly," common stock, two years old ; red 
heifer calf, nine months old, cross ; first premium to "Amanda," for best fat 
heifer, four dollars. 

Richard Poole, " Lilly," a grade heifer, eighteen months old. 

J. P. Crozer, Upland, a cow and calf, native stock; cow eighteen months 
old, calf five. 

In addition to the foregoing premiums, the directors have awarded a special 
* premium of fifty dollars to the contributors from the town^ip of Birmingham, 
for their large and excellent display of working oxen and other fine stock. 

The committee take pleasure in noticing the fine display of oxen from the 

township of Birmingham, and also a fine pair of cattle entered by Enos P. 

^harplcss, of Concord; also a heifer and calf, by John P. Crozer, of Upland, 

the mother eighteen months old, and the calf five months ; also a beautiful 

heifer, by Charles T. M'Call, of Chester township. In fact, the display was 

creditable to all concerned, nothing being entered that was not worthy of 

notice. « 

JAMES COCHRAN, 

LEWIS P. HARVEY, 

DAVID S. BUNTING, 

Committee. 



16 



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242 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Class 4. — Sheep and Swine. 

William H. Huddleson, Thombury, entered one Cotswold buck, second 
premium, three dollars; Cotswold lamb, a very fine buck lamb, highly creditable 
to depositor. Three Cotswold lambs, first premium, three dollars. 

George B. Lowndes, Springfield, entered a boar pig, one year old, Chester 
county stock ; first premium, five dollars. 

Gotleib Gogle, Springfield, entered five grade lambs, five months old ; very 
good lambs for their age. Also, eight grade ewes, third premium, two dollars. 

John Leedom, Haverford, entered a buck of mixed breed ; second premium, 
three dollars. ' • 

John M Hall, Media, entered a sow, twelve months old, Delaware county 
stock ; first premium, five dollars. 

James Dunwoody, Newtown, entered two Cotswold bucks, one three years 
and one six months old ; first premium, five dollars. 

William Rhoads, Jr., Newtown, entered four ewes, two three years old, and 
two two years old , first premium, five dollars. 

George B. L. Newton, Springfield, entered one Shanghai or Tartary buck, 
and also ewe and lamb, the only ones exhibited ; first premium, five dollars. 

George Drayton, farmer to C. Fallon, Upper Darby, entered one Leicester 
buck ; diploma. Also four Leicester ewes and lambs. These sheep took the 
premium last year, and were not entitled to compete. 

Evans E. Green, Thombury, entered eight shoats, three months. These 
shoats were beautiful animals and were well worth exhibiting ; first premium, 
five dollars. 

Smith P. Sharpless, Concord, exhibited three bucks of Cotswold stock; third 
premium, two dollars. 

Minshall P. Sharpless, Concord, entered eight ewes, Cotswold stock; second 
premium, three dollars. Also ^ve lambs, same stock. These were most ex- 
cellent lambs of their age. 

Keuben Johnson, Edgmont, entered ^ve lamb's of mixed breed ; one buck, 
same ; first premium, five dollars. Six ewes, mixed breed ; first premium, four 
dollars. 

Walter \^. Green, Marple, exhibited seven pigs, half SuflTolk, eight weeks 
old ; second premium, three dollars. 

Gotlieb Gogle, Springfield, entered, one full-blooded Southdown buck ; first 
premium, five dollars. 

George B. Lownes, Springfield, entered one grade yearling Southdown 
buck ; second premium, two dollars. 

George Curwen, Lower Merion, entered two pigs, boar and sow of Essex 
breed; diploma. Two Essex shoats, four months old; first premium, ^ve 
dollars. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 243 

Alexander Scott, Haverford, entered one Southdown buck, five months old, 
two* Southdown ewes, cross broad-tail, five months old ; second premium, 
three dollars. 

Reuben Johnson, £dgmont, entered one yearling wether of mixed breed, 
extra fine. 

James Hickman, Thorn bury, entered six grade sheep; second premium, two 
dollars. 

Mr. H. also exhibited eleven pigs ; third premium, two dollars. 

Peter Wprrall, Upper Providence, two pigs, five weeks old. These pigs 
were good and exhibited care in their breeding. 

We, the undersigned, having examined the stock under this class, have 
awarded the premiums according to the best of our judgment. 

JOSEPH LEWIS, 
JOSEPH B. LEEDOxM, 

JAMES RHOADS, 

Judfres. 



Class 5. — Poultry. 

Pair of white Cochin China fowls, three months old, deposited by Eber Starr, 
Middletown ; very fine. 

Musk duck, John M. Affiick ; first premium, one dollar. 

<jrame fowls, Daniel Sharpless, Nether Providence ; no competition and not 
sonsidered worthy of premium. , 

Dorking chickens, two months old, Maggie C. Fell, Upper Darby; very 
^ne, but of not sufficient number. 

Creole chickens, five months old, by the same^ 

Pair of capon chickens, John S. Palmer, Upper Providence ; first premium, 
one dollar. 

Two pairs of English pheasants. Dr. William Young, Chester; very pretty. 

Gobler and two hen turkeys, white, Hannah M'Nutt, Chester ; first premi- 
um, two dollars. 

Two coops of Dorking and Bolton grey crosses, Capt. John H. Cheyney, 
of Bethel ; first premium, one dollar ; second premium. Poultry Book. 

Pair of pheasants, bantams, John M' Combs, Media ; not exhibited. 

Pair of American owls, Edward Evans. 

Pair of chickens, frizzlings, Edward Borden, Media. 

Three geese, Henry Davis, Birmingham ; first premium, two dolhrs. 

Pair of domestic swan, Robert Dunlap, gardener to C. Fallon, Esq., Upper 
Darby ; very fine and much admired by the judges. 



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244 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

We, the judges on class fifth, certify, that We have awarded the foregoing: 
premiums. 

REECE PYOTT, 
WILLIAM T. PIERCE, 
DANIEL JAMES, 

Jndges, 



Class 6. — Butter, Cheese, Ice Cream, Dairy Utensils a^d Honey. 

Five pounds of butter, from Sarah A. Miller, Nether Providence ; first pre^ 
mium, five dollars. 

Five boxes of honey, John S. Palmer, Upper Providence j second premium^ 
one dollar. 

Twenty-five pounds of honey, A. & B. England, Thombury ; first premium^ 
two dollars. 

Ice cream, Townsend Speakman, Newtown ; vanilla, lemon and pine apple. 

Four pounds of butter. Hill and Huddleson, Aston ; second premium, three 
dollars. 

Four pounds of butter, Eveline H. Mattson, Concord. 

Ice cream, Thomas Pratt, Middletown j vanilla 5 second premium, one dol' 
lar or Farm Journal. Lemon, third premium, Farm Journal. Strawberry f 
pine apple, first premium, one dollar. 

One pound of butter, by Ann Cochran, Media* 

Four poundfl of butter, George M. Smedley, Middletown 5 third premium^ 
Farm Journal. 

* Butter-worker, Dickey's patent, Paschall Morris dc Co., Philadelphia ; first 
premium, diploma. 

Butter- worker, E. M. Heston, Abington, Montgomery county j honorable 
mention. 

Spain's atmospheric chum, Paschall Morris & Co. ; first premium, diploma. 

We, the undersigned, judges under class sixth, having examined the articles 
entered as above, have awarded the premiums annexed, according to the best 
of our judgment. 

WM. M. LONGSTRETH, 
WALTER W. GREEN, 
HANNAH C. GREEN, 
MARY C. PALMER, 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 245 



Class 7. — Flowers. 



Mary H. WolfensdBn, of Chester, deposited two large sunflowers. 

Rebecca Hansell, Middletown, boquet. 

Ann Henderson, boquet. 

Juliann Garrett, boquet. 

Two boquets, Elizabeth D. Hill, Alarple. These flowers were very prettily 
;arranged. 

Boquet, Eliza N. Forsylhe, Media. 

Richard Blagg, basket boquet ; second premium, two dollars. Centre table 
boquet, good flowers, and six varieties of roses. 

Sarah Ann Blagg, basket of wild flowers ; first premium, three dollars. 

Mary M. Palmer, Concord, boquet. 

Margaret W. Heacock, Middletown, one basket of wild flowers, well ar- 
ranged; premium, Florists' Guide. Also, a basket of cultivated flowers; first 
premium, Manual on Roses. 

Patrick Gallagher, Edgmont, design of flowers representing a harp ; second 
premium, three dollars. Design of flowers ; basket of cut flowers on pedestal ; 
first premium, three dollars. Design of flower garden 5 first premium, five dol- 
lars. Centre table boquet ; first premium, three dollars. Display of roses, con- 
sisting of thirty-three varieties ; second premium, three dollars. 

Robert Dunlap, Upper Darby, floral design ; first premium, &ve dollars. 
Rustic design ; first premium, five dollars. Nineteen varieties of roses ; first 
{iremiiuii, five dollars. A generaj display of twenty-seven VQfieties of green 
house plants ; first premium, &ve dollars. 

Patrick Gallagher, Edgmont, a collection of thirty-seven green house plants, 
forming a beautiful display; second premium, three dollars. Hand boquet, 
containing a great variety of flowers, beautiful and compact; first premium, two 
dollars. 

Anna M'Call, Bethel, vase of roses containing twelve varieties ; a vase of 
dried grasses ; first premiiun, three dollars, the only specimen exhibited. 

Jacob Hewes, Ridley, four cuttings of Osier willow, and a collection of 
twenty-six varieties of choice and rare evergreens ; first premium, five dollars. 

Rachel Evans, of Upper Providence, Turk's head cactus and castor bean. 

Samuel Greasley, Nether Providence, display of green house plants; twelve 
China asters ; centre table boquet ; third premium, Florists' Guide. 

Annie S. Broomall, Thornbury, boquet of flowers. 

P. H. Cassiday, Upper Providence, castor oil plant. 

Catharine Kirk, Upper Providence, boquet. 

Hannah Kirk, Upper Providence, boquet. 

Elizabeth Litzenberg, boquet. 

Mary Ann Smith, Upper Darby, basket of flowers, got up in good taste, 



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246 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

premium, Buist on Rose. Boquet of wild flowers, very neat and beautifully 
arranged, first premium, two dollars. 

Mary M. Taylor, Edgmont, design of flowers, very neatly arranged. 

J. L. Darlington & Co., West Chester, display of thirty-four varieties of 
roses ; display of twenty-one varieties of dahlias. 

Hannah W. Passmore, Middletown, vase of flowers. 

Susan Moore, basket of flowers, a beautiful design • 

Hebecca Smith, Upper Darby, basket of flowers, third premium. Florists* 
Guide. 

John Hinkson, Chester, boquet. 

Alfred A. Laws, rustic design of a settee, second premium, two dollars. 

Hannah Pratt, hand boquet, premium, Florists' Guide. 

Mrs. H. Jones Brooke, Media, lemon tree, first premium, one dollar. 

The judges appointed under Class 7th, on Flowers, respectfully report : 

That the display in this department of the exhibition, is by no means as ex- 
tensive as the cultivators of plants in the county could readily have made it^ 
In all other respects it is highly creditable to the county and to the contribu- 
tors. 

The decisions of the judges are marked opposite the entries of the several 
articles. The displays of roses are very good. That by Robert Dunlap, gar- 
dener to Christopher Fallon, Esq., though not embracing so many varieties, 
was regarded as the best from this county. The display of Patrick Gallagher, 
gardener to Dr. Pennock, embraced thirty-three varieties, and the judges had 
some diflicultypn deciding between it and that of R. Dunlap. There was alsa 
a very beautiful display of superb roses by J. Lacey Darlington, of Chester 
county. 

There are three displays of green house plants — two by the above named 
gardeners, and one by Samuel Greasley, gardener to William T. Crook, Esq. 
In determining in favor of the display from the garden of C. Fallon, Esq., the 
judges were influc^nced by the very flourishing and healthy condition of the 
plants, rather than by their number or greater rarity. 

The designs of flowers are not very numerous. That by Robert Dunlap em- 
braced a larger number of flowers than the others, and the judges thought ex* 
hibited an equal degree of taste and ingenuity in its construction. They con- 
sidered it the best. 

That by P. Gallagher, embracing a beautiful floral harp in its construction, 
was very tastefully got up. The flower garden design by the same gardener, 
the judges regard as one of the neatest and most beautiful specimens in the 
exhibition, and consider it fully entitled to the first premium awarded by the 
society. 

The centre table boquets are all beautiful, -and the undersigned had some 
difliculty in making their decisions. A cone of flowers marked a "basket,'* 



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AGKICOLTURAL SOCIETY. 247 

by Margaret W. Heacock, of Middletown, we consider as being very neatly 
got up, and entitled to a special premium* They also regard the very credita- . 
ble display of evergreens by Jacob Hewes, entitled to a special premium. A 
very neat hand boquet of wild flowers, by Miss Mary Ann Smith, of Upper 
Darby J they regard as worthy of notice. 

In addition to the display of roses above mentioned, by J. Lacey Darling- 
ton, Esq., of Chester county, that gentleman contributed to the exhibition a 
superb display of dahlias. 

The committee regret that time and circumstances prevent them from making 
special mention of several very beautiful boquets *and other designs of flowers# 

GEORGE SMITH, 
JOHN EVANS, 
HANNAH P. LEWIS, 
SARAH L. MILLER, 

Judges. 



Class 8. — Fruits. 

Isaac Garrett, Upper Darby, twelve Blush apples, Ked Doctor and White 
Doctor apples, and Bartlett pears. 

David Hardcastle, Media, Hayes apples. 

Hannah Garrett, Upper Darby, a lot of apples, and a lot Fox grapes. 

Abraham Pennell, Middletown, Summer Spice apples, • Hayes, Golden Pip- 
pin and Holland Pippin apples, very fine. 

Edward Garrett, Upper Darby, Maiden's Blush and Winter Russet apples, 
and two varieties not named 5 also a lot of Holland Pippin, very fine, diploma. 

William P. Wilson, Upper Providence, White Doctor, Bellefleur, English 
Crolden and Washington apples, fine, Farm Journal. 

L. J. Wilson, Upper Providence, English Redstreak apples, good but wrong 
named. 

Edward G. Smedley, Middletown, Maiden Blush apples. Sickle pears, 
premium, two dollars^ Malacaton pears, fine. Progressive Farmer 5 Bartlett 
pears. 

Jane M'Gee, Nether Providence, Isabella grapes, first premium, Allen on 
the Grape. 

Jesse Hibbert, Middletown, Isabella and Catawba grapes, diploma. 

James Howard, Edgmont, Orange melon, Asiatic watermelon, and Ground 
cherries, special premium, two dollars. * 

Edward P. Howard, Edgmont, Howard Seedling apples. Farm Journal ; lot 
of apples. Seedling, recommended for general cultivation, diploma; Sellers and 
Alexander apples, and Windsor pears, fine. 



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us PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Hugh Tyler, Upper Providence, Golden Chassaless grapes, first premium^ 
three dollars ; Elsinborough grapes, very fine. 

George Sharpless, Nether Providence, Penn apples, very fine for marketing* 

Washington James, Nether Providence, Queen apples, special premium, one 
dollar. 

Henry James, Nether Providence, Hayes apples, best specimen, diploma. 

James Andrews, Darby, a lot of pears, consisting of Bure de Capmont, Bure 
de Amalis, and Bure Polling Seedling. 

Henry Mendenhall, Edgmont, Washington pears, premium, one dollar^ also 
Seckle pears. 

John M. Hall, Media, large and fine Seedling apples from his farm in Aston. 

William E. AVilliamson, Media, Isabella grapes, best specimen, a copy of 
Allen on the Grape. 

Ell wood Michener, Birmingham, Early Juneating apples, good and very 
showy. 

Townsend Speakman, Newtown, Isabella grapes. 

Priscilla Speakman, Newton, Triumphant Crab apples, splendid specimen. 

Aaron James, Media, a lot of apples, special premium, one dollar. 

Joseph Hardcastle, Middletown, a lot of apples, consisting of the following 
i-arieties ; Maiden's Blush, Wine Sap, large white, (no name,) Caleb, red, (no 
name,) Hed Doctor and Bee House, premium. Farm Journal i also, Washing- 
ton pears by the same, special' premium, one dollar. 

Mary Armstrong, Middletown, a lot of peaches. 

Levis Miller, Jr., ^^ether Providence, Noble Nelson apples and Seckle pears» 

Susanna Patterson, Middletown, Cat Head and Hayes apples. 

W. A. Henvis, Radnor, a lot of apples of the following varieties : Wash- 
ington, very fine, Maiden's Blush, best specimen, and Doctor ; Blue grapes by 
the same, very fine, first premium, one dollar. 

Richard Blagg, Chester, one half peck of quinces, second premium, copy of 
Downing on Fruit and Fruit Trees. 

Ambrose Smedley, Middletown, Seedling apples, two kinds, and Catawba 
and Fox grapes. 

Henry Philips, Middletown, Seedling peaches, special premium, one dollar. 

Mrs. Fildes, Nether Providence, a lot of apples of the following varieties : 
Jefferson, Pippin, Golden Russet, one with no name, very good. Progressive 
Farmer. 

Dr. George Smith, Upper Darby, Holland Pippin and Doctor apples, Seckle 
pears, diploma ; and cider apples. 

Stephen M. Trimble, Chesty township, thirty-four varieties of apples, the 
best display of apples, premium, three dollars. 

Samuel Caley, Newtown Blush apples. 

Eliza Grim, Nether Providence, apples. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 249 

Bartram Booth, Upper Chichester, red rare ripe peaches, second premium, 
one dollar. ' 

Robert M'Call, Bethel, plates of Ladies' Blush and Pound apples, diploma. 

Levi W. Jobson, Middletown, two plates of Hayes and Fall Pippin apples, 
very fine and good. 

David S. Bunting, Chester 'township, one plate of Bartlett pears, and two 
plates containing five varieties of pears, a good display, diploma. 

Robert Dunlop, Upper Darby, Black Hamburg grapes, special premium, 
three dollars. 

Patrick Gallagher, Edgmont, one plate of apples, Yellow Siberian Crab. 

Edward Andrews, Darby, six varieties of pears, Bure de Amalis, Bartlett, 
Washington, Louis bon Jersey, Napoleon and Seckle, very handsome display, 
second premium, two dollars. 

Eliza Dufiee, Ridley, Seedling grape. Native American. 

James Barton, Middletown, Hayes, Bellefleur, Smoke House and Codlin 
apples, very good display, diploma. 

Ambrose Smedley, Middletown, White Doyene apples, second premium, 
one dollar. 

Townsend E. Green, Thornbury, Summer Pennock, very showy, and a 
good market apple. 

Isaac Yamall, Upper Providence, Spitzenberg and* Seedling apples, unripe, 
large. 

Martha R. Pratt, Carver apples. 

Celina T. Pratt, Blush apples, a fine, showy^pple. 

John Pratt, Birmingham, apples. 

Jonathan P. Worrall, a basket of Cat Head apples. 

C. Sneer, L. Chichester, Sugar pears. 

Jacob Painter, Middletown, Bartlett pears, fine ; and Gloria Mundi apples, 
very fine. 

Sarah Willetts, Upper Providence, Isabella and Catawba grapes. 

Anna M. Brooke, lemon tree. 

A. and B. England, Birmingham, French Pippin, Maiden's Blush, Summer 
Pearmain, Caleb, Juneating, Red or Strawberry apples, a good display, second 
premium, two dollars. 

William D. Dunn, Upper Providence, Cat Head apples, Farm Journal. 

Sarah Evans, Upper Providence, cultivated Fox grapes, first premium, Allen 
on the Grape. 

William Larkin, Bethel, a lot of apples, consisting of Doctor, Muncey Pip- 
pin, Maiden's Blush, Sweet Wine Sap, Vandever, and two kinds unknown, 
fine display, diploma. 

John Free, Upper Darby, peaches, first premium, one dollar. 

Hannah B. Bonsail, Middletown, Isabella and Catawba grapes. 



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250 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

A lot of quinces by the same, Progressive Farmer. 

Thomas Waddell, MMdletown, a lot of apples consisting of Hayes, Doctor, 
Smoke House, Cider, Newtown Pippin, Maiden Blush and Tallow Water ap- 
ple, a fine early winter apple. 

Job T. Bonsall, Middletown, Seckle and Butter pears. Farm Journal. 

James Broomall, Thornbury, Qumce and Queen apples. 

A. C. Hemphill, Thornbury, monthly raspberry, a novelty. 

A. and B. England, Thornbury, French Pippin apples. 

Isaac Evans, Middletown, Maiden^s blush, fine specimen. 

Samuel Greaseley, gardener to William T. Crook, Nether Providence, Isa- 
bella grapes, Seckel pears, special premium, one dollar ; also. Butter and Poland 
pears, diploma. 

Jacob Hewes, Ridley, a large and handsome display of pears, consisting of 
Flemish Beauty, Burre Goubalt, Epine Dumass, Epine d'Hiver, Burre d'Arein- 
berg, Gloux Morceaux, Vicar of Wakefield, Passe Colman, White Doyene, 
Henrie Quartre, Bartlett, Foudant d'Automn, Althorp Crassane, Bezc de La* 
mott, de Bonnieres Van Mons, Triomph de lodoigne. Monstrous Wooded, or 
Dwarf, Seckle, Easter Burre, and Bonne Louise de Jersey, first premium, for 
the greatest variety and best display of pears, three dollars. 

Black Hamburg, two bunches of Catawbas, two of Isabella, three of Con- 
stantia, and Black Fox (cultivated) grapes, and White grapes; also. Golden 
Russet, or Sheep Nose, and News apples, by the same. 

A. and B. England, two baskets of Maiden's Blush apples. 

Pierce King, Middletown, sidling free stone peach. 

John Barney, Birmingham, Smoke House apples, best, unusually fine, di- 
ploma. 

Thomas Pratt, Middletown, a variety of pears, consisting of Louise de Bonne 
Jersey, Burre de Ranc, wrong named, and a species name unknown. 

Samuel Hill, Concord, Golden Pippin apples. 

Hiram Pyle, Nether Providence, Hayes apples. 

Phebe Waddell, Middletown, two varieties of peaches. Farm Journal ; and 
one plate of grapes. 

Mary James, Edgmont, Bellefleur apples. Progressive Farmer. 

W. P. Wilson, Upper Providence, a lot of quinces, special premium, one 
dollar, and a lot of Isabella grapes, diploma. 

D. Carr, Middletown, large Golden Drop plum, very fine, special premium, 
two dollars. 

Joseph Yarnall, Middletown, Wine Sap apples. 

Charles Yarnall, Middletown, Pippin apples. 

William Yarnall, Middletown, Bell pears. 

Neal Duffee, Ridley, quinces. 

Mary E. Hoopes, Jiima, monthly raspberries, quite a novelty, and very good. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 251 

Reece G. Calvert, Newtown, a lot of Lady apples. 

J. Engle Hinkson, Chester township, quinces, first premium, two dollars. 

Robert M'Call, Washington pears. 

George H. Derrick, Aston, bunch of apples. 

W. W. Green, Marple, Butter pears. 

Mary Passmore, Middletown, peaches. 

Richard Passmore, Middletown,. a lot of apples. 

Margaret Worrall, Ridley, rare ripe peaches. 

Samuel Eachus, Edgmont, three apples, natural fruit, special notice. 

Minshall Painter, deposited Scuppeinons, hardy in some situations ; fine spe- 
cimens, unripe; also Alexander Russian apples, a beautiful production and 
^'orthy of general cultivation. 

Cedonia Sinensis, by the same, a new and rare species of the quince; also, 
Cornus Muscula, or Cornelian Cherry, recommended for cultivation as a sub- 
stitute for the cranberry. 

John Evans, Radnor, Prunes Candicans, uncultivated, a profuse bearer. 

After having examined the different specimens exhibited under class eighth, 
we have agreed as above — the specimens being so nearly equal the judges 
found it difficult to determine. 

JACOB PAINTER, 
J. ENGLE HINKSON, 
JACOB HEWES, 

Judges. 



Class 9. — Vegetables. 

Thomas E. MaFm, Upper Providence, onion setts, premium, Farm Journal. 

Large onion deposited by same. 

Large red tomatoes by same, premium, Farm Journal. 

Sweet potatoes, by same. 

Bull-nose peppers, by same. 

Esther P. Malin, Lima beans. 

Dr. J. W. Griffiths, Ridley, four cucumbers, premium, Farm Journal. 

T. C, Malin, Jr., yellow tomatoes. 

Sarah Pennell, Middletown, half peck white onions, first premium, one 
dollar. 

Ann Hart, Upper Darby, white onions. 

Jacob Pennell, Upper Providence, red onions. 

W*. C. B. Wilson, of Upper Providence, French beans. 

Joseph D. Henderson, of Middletown, large tomatoes, premium, Farm 
Journal. 



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S52 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Onions, by same. 

Joseph Magee, Nether Providence, Lima beans. 

John Magee, Nether Providence, English beans. 

William Stewart, Ridley, basket of potatoes. 

Joshua Whitaker, Upper Providence, half peck red tomatoes, premium. Farm 
Journal. 

George Harvey, of Chichester, half peck of red onions, and half peck of 
white onions. 

Richard Poole, Marple, basket of tomatoes, cherry tomatoes, and lot of pear- 
shaped tomatoes, five bunches rhubarb, six cabbages, twelve beets, white and 
yellow onions, two bunches leeks, one bunch 6yster plant and two bunches of 
carrots. 

Richard Poole, Marple, six mangel wurtzel, two bushels of celery, one of 
parsnips, twelve peppers, "bull nosed," and kidney potatoes, third premium, 
Buist's Kitchen Gardener. 

Ruthanna Jones, Edgmont, one half peck red tomatoes. 

Robert M. Parker, Nether Providence, one half dozen beets, and seed cu- 
cumbers. 

George Sharpless, Nether Providence, one bushel of Mercer potatoes, and 
six mangel wurtzel beets. 

Beulah Sharpless, Lima beans. 

William Tyler, Upper Providence, kidney potatoes, premium. Farm Journal. 

George Tyler, Upper Providence, one dozen parsnips. 

David Hardcastle, Media, turnip be^ts. 

Lydia Litzenberg, Media, one pumpkin. 

Thomas Griffith, Media, three beets. 

Caleb Webster, Middletown, one bushel Mercer potatoes. 

Robert C. Fairlqmb, Middletown, black Mercer potatoes. . 

William G. Vanleer, Middletown, two quarts of Lima beans. 

William Henry Beatty, Upper Providence, two egg plants. 

Tomatoes, by the same. 

Henry Mendenhall, Edgmont, one peck of Mercer potatoes, half peck of 
white onions, half peck red onions. 

James M. Willis, Lima, one peck of red onions. 

J. C. Andrews, Darby, three egg plants. 

J. C. Andrews, Darby, six radish beets, and three London blood beets. For 
the best lot of beets, first premium, one dollar. 

Washington James, Jr., Nether Providence, four seed cucumbers. 

Isaac Johnson, Upper Providence, red tomatoes, premium, Farm Journal. 

Isaac Johnson, half peck red onions. 

Eliza Bradford, Middletown, tomatoes; also beets. 

Isaac Johnson, Springfield, mammoth tomatoes, premium, Farm Journal. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 253 

George Duffee, Ridley, three winter squashes, first premium, one dollar. 

John H. Duffee, Ridley, three cucumbers. 

EUwood Michener, Birmingham, three sweet pumpkins; one dozen turnip 
beets, second premium. Farm Journal, half peck onions. 

List of vegetables by Samuel Greasiey, from the garden of William T. Crook, 
Nether Providence — six egg plants, twelve stalks rhubarb, dozen long bepts, 
dozen carrots, dozen parsnips, three drum-head cabbages, three red Dutch 
cabbages, Valparaiso squashes, summer squashes, long green squashes, long 
white squashes, Lima beans, string beans, asparagus beans, ocra, nmrtynia, 
bull-nose peppers, Cayenne peppers, half peck onions, onion setts, four kinds 
of tomatoes, viz: medium red, large yellow, cherry and pear-shaped; sweet 
corn, cucumbers, salsafy, parsley, Brussel sprouts, Scotch kale, sea kale, let- 
tuce, leeks, globe artichokes, nasturtions. Savoy cabbage, pumpkins, brocali, 
celery, sage, thyme and citron melons. Display of plants: — Three orange 
trees, oleanders, four cuphea plants, three lillia plants, hemorocalis, camelia 
japonica, aster plant, boquet of flowers. — For second best assortment of vege- 
tables, second premium, three dollars. Best lot of Savoy cabbage, first pre- 
mium, one dollar. Best brocoli, first premium, one dollar. Best egg plants, 
first premium, one dollar. Rhubarb, second premium. Farm Journal. 

Thomas Nuttell, Crookville, three pumpkins, premium. Farm Journal. 

Abram P. Morgan, Aston, six long blood beets, and six early turnip beets. 

William H. Lane, Nether Providence, three canteloupes. 

Simeon Lord, of Nether Providence, eight drum-head cabbage, first pre- 
mium, one dollar. 

Six pumpkins, by same. 

James Hardcastle, Middletown, cusha pumpkin, beets, onions, and onion 
setts. Premium for pumpkin. Farm- Journal. 

James Ousey, Middletown, two egg plants, third premium. Farm Journal. 

Mordecai W. Steel, Marple, pickling cucumbers, yellow pumpkin, string of 
red onions, string of white onions, and two citrons. Premium for onions. 
Farm Journal. 

Susanna Patterson, Middletown, Lima beans. 

Reece P. Tomlinson, of Thornbury, Long Island greening cucumbers, pre- 
mium, Farm Journal. 

Hannah E. Worrell, Nether Providence, one plate of martina. 

Joseph Kennedy, Chester township, lot of red celery, first premium, one 
dollar. ' 

James H. Rhoads, Media, one pumpkin and one cucumber. 

Napoleon B. Cooper, Media, one pumpkin. 

John Yamall, Middletown, half peck of red onions, four cucumbers. 

Richard Ottey, Springfield, pickling tomatoes, quart of Lima beans, three 
heads of cabbage, quarter peck Bartavian pickles, two sweet potato pumpkins. 



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264 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

John Seal, Upper Darby, pumpkins, premium. 

Alary R. Yarnall, Concord, large cucumbers. 

Charles Francis, of Middletown, large cucumbers. 

Anthony M'Coy, Aston, peck Lima beans ; two quarts, same ; premium for 
best peck of thi^ variety of beans. Farm Journal. 

Patrick Gallagher, of Edgmont, general display of vegetables, best assort- 
ment ; first premium, four dollars. 

Amy Nawberry, Newtown, cucumbers. 

Michael Dougherty, gardener to Dr. Yoimg, Chester, egg plants, turnip- 
rooted cabbage, parsnips, carrots, rhubarb; for fourth best display, Farm 
Journal. Very fine display of carrots, but number not sufficient for premium ; 
Farm Journal for turniprooted cabbage. 

K. Dunlop, gardener to C. Fallon, Esq., Upper Darby, twelve parsnips, 
twelve beets, three egg plants, six heads celery ; first premium for parsnips, 
one dollar ; second premium for egg plants. Farm Journal. 

Joshua Clayton, MiddletowTi, one egg plant. 

Martin Oval, gardener for G. W . Conard, Middletown, oyster plants, toma- 
toes and Lima beans. 

Patrick Gallagher, Edgmont, drumhead cabbage and magnum bonum rhu- 
barb ; first premium for rhubarb, one dollar. 

Richard Blagg, Chester borough, three cabbage ; second premium, Buist's 
Kitchen Gardener. 

John Cay, Chester borough, celery. 

Robert M'Call, Bethel, half peck silver white onions. 

Levis W. Jobson, Middletown, watermelon. 

Michael Dougherty, Chester, lot of blood*red beets. 

Patrick Gallagher, Edgmont, mangel wurtzel beets, and sugar beets. 

William C. Hawkins, half peck tomatoes, lot of okra. 

Jacob Hewes, Ridley, five stalks seedling pie plants. 

John Gunning, Middletown, three Valparaiso pumpkins; premium. 

Michael Dougherty, gardener to Dr. Young, Chester, broccoli. 

Peter Worrall, Media, long green squash 5 first premium, one dollar. 

Peter Worrall, Jr., Media, long green cucumber, large Lima beans, yellow 
tomato, silver white onions, red onions, yellow onions, Mercer potatoes, Dutch 
potatoes. 

Ell wood Andrews, pumpkin, citrons, cantaloupe, half peck onions. 

James Barton, Middletown, turnip beets. ' 

Isaac Yarnall, foot potatoes. 

Nathan Pratt, Newtown, turnip beets. 

John Pratt) Newtown, egg plants. 

Nathan Pratt, Newtown, tomatoes ; first premium, one dollar. 

Davis R. Pratt, 'egg plants. 



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AGKICULTURAL SOCIETY. 253 

C. Sheer, gardener to D. Trainer, Lower Chichester, egg plant. 

Keziah Davis, U. Providence, beets. 

Edith Davis, U. Providence, nasturtium. 

C. Ogden, Springfield, egg squash, the seeds from Mobile. 

Martin Naval, Middletown, onions. 

Sarah Evans, Upper Providence, one plate of tomatoes. 

A. & B. England, Thombury, lot of mangel wurtzel, sugar beets, turnip 
beets, white Belgium carrots, cantaloupes, two bunches red onions, lot of cu- 
cumbers, tomatoes ; premium for fifth best display, Farm Journal. 

Annie Griffiths, Ridley, vegetable egg plant. 

John Hibberd, Middletown, sweet potatoes ; first premium, one dollar. 

Jacob Hibberd, Middletown, citron and peppers; premium for peppers, Farm 
Journal. 

David Paxson, Marple, half bushel blu^ Mercer potatoes ;f premium. Farm 
Journal. 

Lydia A. Miller, Media, twin squashes. 

Channing E. Eowland, Media, half bushel red onions ; second premium, 
Farm Journal. 

Mary J. Condy, half peck tomatoes. 

Channing E. Rowland, one quart of Lima beans. 

Ell wood James, Edgmont, two watermelons. 

Alfred James, Edgmont, two cantaloupes. 

Margaret James, Edgmont, yellow tomatoes. 

Sarah Elizabeth James, Edgmont, red tomatoes. 

W. T. Dutton, Middletown, citrons. 

Mary M. Taylor, Edgmont, quart of Lima beans. 

Reece G. Calvert, Newtown, peck of tomatoes. 

Charles VV. Watkin, Nether Providence, two cucumbers. 

Walker. Y. Hoopes, Lima, two Kershaw pumpkins ; premium. 

William Shields, Aston, Turk's caput squash. 

W. Y. Hoopes, Lima, potatoes and Kershaw pumpkins. 

Jacob Hewes, Ridley, four varieties of pumpkins. 

George B. Lownes, Springfield, six varieties of pumpkins; premium for best 
pumpkins. 

W. W. Green, Marple, cucumbers. 

Lydia Hardcastle, Media, seed onions. 

Richard Passmore, Middletown, lot of beets. 

Thomas Grubb, Nether Providence, half bushel Bermuda potatoes, three egg 
plants from one stalk, half a bushel of onions. 

John M'Cartney, Aston, beets. 

The committee, in submitting their report, take pleasure in stating that the 
article? exhibited were generally of very fine qnalLy, and evince much atten- 



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ft56 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

tion on the part of the producers, in the selection of the best varieties, and 
great care in their cultivation. We may further add, that many of the vege- 
tables of various kinds exhibited, so nearly approximated to each other as to 
render the awarding of premiums no easy task. - 

hAYDOCK GARRJGUES, 
JOHN D. WHITE, 
E. DARLINGTON, 
ALEXANDER SCOTT, 

ComTnittee. 



Class 10. — Agricultural Implements. 

* First Division. 

William Eyre, Jr., Chester, ox yoke ; first premium, diploma. 

Thomas Gould, Phillipsburg, New Jersey, grain drill. 

E. M. Heston, Abington townshij), Montgomery county, hay elevator. 

Butter-worker by the same. 

Jacob Jones & Co., Frankford, Philadelphia, Plumb's portable morticing 
machine ; first premium, two dollars. 

Thomas Marlin, Upper Providence, flour barrel ; first premium, one dollar. 

Ross, Scott & Co., Philadelphia, Scott's Little Giant corn and cob mill. A 
machine that would answer a good purpose for those not convenient to water 
power 5 first premium, three dollars. 

Corn mill Nimble Giant, by the same. This machine grinds corn sufficiently 
fine for feed. We have no doubt it will answer a good purpose, if made suffi- 
ciently strong ; first premium, three dollars. * 

Ellwood Michener, Birmingham, unloading hay fork. This was considered 
an excellent article for the purposes intended, and not likelj'' to 'get out of 
order ; first premium, two dollars. 

Ephraim Stirk, Middletown, grain cradle ; first premium. Farm Journal. 

William Pilkington, Thornbury, boot laster. 

E. K., Edwards, Chester township, one horse grain drill ; first premium, five 
dollars. 

John & Andrew Haws, Middletown, Foust plough, No 1 ; first premium, 
three dollars. 

Lyman Scott, Philadelphia, corn sheller and cleaner ; diploma. 

Franklin Richardson, West Chester, Chester county, five self- sharpening 
Yankee feed cutters 5 diploma. 

Paschal! Morris & Co., Philadelphia, Manny's combined mower and reaper 5 
first premium, five dollars. Ketchum's mower ; first premium, five dollars, 
two Michigan ploughs ; two Prouty centre drafts 5 three Blaker's bar shear 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. ^7 

ploughs ; two Eagle self-sharpening ploughs ; square expanding harrow ; first 
premium, three dollars. Patent spring- tooth horse rake ; Pennock^s hand and 
horse power corn sheller; first premium, three doUars. Single and double 
wheel corn sheller ; first premium, two dollars. Eagle grain fan ; Keeler's 
grain fan ; first premium, three dollars. Wheeler's horse-power ; first premi- 
um, three dollars. Cooper's lime and guano spreader ; first premium, three 
dollars. Dauiel's horse-power fodder cutter^ first premium, three dollars. 
Daniel's hand-power cutter; first premium, two dollars. Sinclair's horse* 
power fodder cutter ; agricultural boiler and steamer ; first premium, two dol- 
lars, Krauser's cider mill and press ; first premium, two dollars. 

EL R. Johnson, Chester township, grain cradle ; diploma. 

Faschall Morris, apple pearer j diploma. Wheel barrow ; Woolman's self- 
acting gate; diploma. Knox's hoxse hoe cultivator; first premium, two 
dollars. 

Paschall Morris & Co., for the best display of agricultural and horticultural 
implements, a silver cup or ten dollars. 

The display in this department was not so extensive as might have been 
expected. Although the articles exhibited were of a useful character, we were 
sorry to find that there was not a larger number of the manufactures of our 
own county. Too much cannot be said in praise of Paschall Morris & Co., of 
Philadelphia, who spared no pains in exhibiting so many highly improved 
agricultural and horticultural implements. 

In conclusion the committee beg leave to say, that the premiums have been 
awarded according to the best of their judgment. 

SCETCHLY MORTON, 
ELLWOOD MICHENER, 

JOSEPH HIBBERD, 

Judges. 



Class 10. — Edge Tools and MACHiNERr. 
Second Division. 

Case of edge tools, deposited by John Beatty & Co., Nether Providence ; 
first premium, five dollars. 

Case of miniature edge tools, manufactured and deposited by James Spear, 
"Franklin mills," Nether Providence ; diploma. 

Specimens of painting of oak, marble, &c., deposited by Benjamin F. Baker^ 
of Media ; first premium, diploma. 

One large hydraulic ram, with which the town and exhibition grounds were 

furnished with water, entered by Joseph C. Strode, of W^est Chester. This 

ram is probably the largest now in operation in the State, and appears to work 

admirably. We highly recommend it to public favor. 
17 



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258 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Dressing bureau, deposited by Nathan Larkin, Chester 5 first, premium, 
diploma. 

One family carriage, deposited by Samuel P. Derrick, Media, good strong 
carriage; diploma. 

One panel door, two pair panel shutters, and one pair blinds, made and de- 
posited by William H. Flavill, of Chester ; first premium, three dollars. 

Two pairs horse shoes, made and deposited by George Dunn, Media; 
diploma. 

Spindles for spinning cotton and wool, deposited by Samuel Walker, Ches- 
ter ; well made spindles 5 diploma. • 

Samples of horse shoes, by S. Weaver, Chester j diploma. 

Work box, by Joseph M'Ginley, of Media ; handsome afiair, diploma. 

Hydraulic ram with glass air chamber, JRalph Buckley, Media; a beautiful 
little affair, and works admirably, second premium, diploma. 

Fountain, for garden, &c., Ralph Buckley, Media, second premium, diploma. 

These articles formed a feature in the Exhibition, and fully displayed the 
mechanical genius and handicraft of their maker. Throngs of visitors con- 
stantly surrounded the fountain, which was filled with gold and silver fish* 
Mr. Buckley deserves much credit for his taste and ingenuity, as exhibited in 
his contributions. Complimentary premium, five dollars. 

Twenty-five scythe stones, Norris Worrell, Marple, diploma. 

Hydraulic rams single and double-acting. The single rams are too weU 
known to require any description. One with a glass air chamber and feed 
pipe, was on exhibition, showing its mode of operating. The double acting 
ones are so constructed as to admit of their being driven by running or impure 
water, while pure spring water is forced up without a possibility of their coming 
together or mixing in any degree. One of these was in operation on the 
ground. 

A self-regulating valve for driving-pipes, calculated to secure the largest per 
centage of water possible. It is operated by means of a float, and is particu- 
larly adapted to springs, furnishing only a small supply of water. By its use, 
the care necessary in many situations, to start and stop the ram, as the spring 
runs down and fills up, is entirely dispensed with. This valve is exhibited in 
operation. 

The above machines were exhibited by Ellwood Michener, Birmingham, 
Delaware county, who is prepared to put them in practical operation when 
called on. Address, Concordville post office, Delaware county, Pa., first 
premium, diploma. 

Samuel P. Derrick, Media, Jenny Lind carriage, first premium, eight dollars. 

Balph Buc^ey, Media, hydrant. This hydrant has an air chamber con- 
nected with it, obviating the danger of bursting the pipe on the stopping of 
the flow of water, suddenly, first premium. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 259 

Edge tools, manufactured by Robert Beatty, Nether Providence, deposited 
by Pascha]] Morris & Co. Very handsome variety of tools, diploma. 
William H. Gledhill, Chester, specimens of Daguerreotypes, diploma. 
The undersigned have examined the articles entered under the above class, 
and awarded premiums, &;c., without partiality, to the best of our ability. 

MORDECAI LEWIS, 
SAMUEL STARR, 
JOS. ROWLAND, 

Judges. 



Class 10. 

Third Division. 

, Hinkson & Bell, Chester, one dozen calf skins, and four sides of harness 
leather, diploma for each. 

S. P. Rush, Media, one ladies' saddle, diploma. 

We, the undersigned, the committee appointed to view the above articles 
under class tenth, third division, have awarded the above premiums. 

WILLIAM H. SERRILL, 
PHILIP SIPLER, 
SAMUEL DUTTON, 

Judgts. 



Class 11. — Manufactueino Departmei^t. 

William Crosley & Son, Newtown, four pieces of cassimere, first premium, 
fiv*^ dollars. 

H. A. Brensinger, Nether Providence, one piece of list carpet, first premium. 

Piece of rag carpet by the same, diploma. 

Mrs. M'CuUough, Chester, silk carpet, diploma. 

John P. Crozer & Sons, Upland, four pieces of Canton flannels, first premium, 
five dollars; three pieces of checks, first premium, five dollars j three pieces of 
shirting stripe, first premium, three dollars ; two pieces of ticking, diploma. 

Samuel Riddle, Middletown, three pieces of Canton flannels taken from a 
pile without selection, diploma. 

George Baker, Chester, one case of fall style of dress goods, a handsome 
display, which the committee recommend a complimentary notice, diploma. 

Entwisle & Hall, Chester, three pieces of bleached diaper, diploma. 

John Fields, Nether Providence, six pieces of Berlin cottonade. 

Abram Turner, Nether Providence, cotton lap. 



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260 TENNSYLVANIA bTATE 

James Campbell, Chester, five pieces of cotton diaper, first premium, five 
dollars. 

Two pieces of damask by the same, diploma. 
Daniel Holt, Springfield, two pieces of ingrain carpet. 
One roll of quilting cotton by the same, diploma. 

We, the committee appointed to view class eleventh, report that we have 
performed said duty, and awarded the above premiums impartially. 

O^ORN LEVIS, Jr., 
BENJAMIN GARTSIDE, 
HENRY HALDEMAN, 

Judges. 



Class 12. — ^Household Department. 
First and Second Divisions. 

Hannah Hart, Upper Darby, knit bed spread. 

Hannah Garrett, Upper Darby, window curtain, bureau cover and stand 
cover. 

A lady of Upper Darby, worked ottoman cover, diploma 5 also, worked foot- 
stool cover, first premium, one dollar. 

Elizabeth Ash, Upper Darby, cotton bed quilt, first premium, two dollars. 

Josephine A. Griffiths, Ridley, worked slippers, diploma. 

Mrs. Jane Buchanan, Chester, patch-work bed quilt. 

Eliza Buchanan, Chester, crotchet worked bureau cover, and crotchet 
worked tidy. 

Sally Garrett, Upper Darby, crotchet worked tidy. 

Phoebe Flounders, Upper Providence, bed quilt composed of three thousand 
three hundred and twenty-five pieces, and one of three thousand six hundred 
and four pieces. 

Martha A. Kahou, Darby, raised work fancy chair seats, second premium, 
diploma. 

Naomi Horn, Ridley, two tidies. 

E. M. Heston, Abington, Montgomery county, washing machine. 

Elizabeth Haddock, Media, two worked chair seats. 

Violet Cochran, Media, two crotchet collars. 

Adele Weber, Media academy, leather worked card basket, first premium, 
one dollar 5 seven glass stands, one pair of crotchet under sleeves, twelve 
crotchet lamp stands, comb bag, crotchet table, waiter and cushion covers. 

Mary Whipple, Media academy, one crotchet stool cover. 

E. M. D. Vernon, Media, one bed quilt. 

Eliza Hardcastle, Media, two tidies. 



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AGKICULTUJRAL SOCIETY. 261 

Mrs. E. M. D. Vernon, Media, bed quilt^ second premium, one dollar. 

Susan S. Griffith, Media, patchwork bed quilt, first premium, two dollars. 

Mary W. Yamall, Media, two patchwork bed quilts, second premium, one 
dollar. 

Anna M. Walter, Media, crotchet tidy. 

Mary A. Smith, Aston, lamp mat, pin cushion and box. 

Mary Ann Parker, Nether Providence, needlework. 

Mary A. Slawter, Aston, fancy basket. 

Nathan Larkin, Chester, one case of fancy articles. 

Mary A. Litzenberg, Upper Providence, gentleman's shirt. 

Anna Jane Forsythe, Media, lamp mat. 

Knit tablet, made and deposited by a lady sixty-nine years of a^, pf Chest- 
nut Grove House, Media, diploma, 

Mary M. Derrick, Aston, sampler and album ^uilt. 

Julia L. Derrick, Aston, crotchet tidy. 

Jemima Esbin, Nether Providence, two pairs of suspenders, diploma; two 
pairs of mits. 

Beulah Kelly, Chester, twilled muslin shirt with linen bosom, first premium, 
one dollar. 

S. L. Strickland, Media, fancy straw plaited bonnet, black lace bonnet, tWQ 
straw bonnets, one riding hat, two fancy caps, (me leather card basket, secpnd 
premium, diploma; one quilt; for the best display of millinery, firs^ preipruunii 
four dollars. 

John B. Pierce, Concord, washing machine. ^ 

Hannah Hoops, Lima, crotchet collar, needle book. 

George Baker, Chester, case of embroidery. 

Elizabeth Anderson, Upper Providence, pair of lamp mats. 

Joseph Ilifif, Media, natural fiower basket. 

Mary Jane Iliff, Media, infant's apron, and crotchet work. 

PhcBbe Ann Springer, Middletown, card basket. 

Anne Springer, Middletown, flower basket. 

Anne H. Smedley, Upper Providence, bed quilt. 

Mary Rhoads, knit bed spread, diploma. 

Beulah Davis, Marple, silk bed quilt, first premium, three dollars; silk 
cushion. 

Alice W. Quimby, Middletown, knit bed spread, second prfamium^ opf 
dollar. 

Mrs. Ann M. Gitt, Media, on^ cradle i^uilt, veil and collar. 

Sarah Weaver, Lower Providence, card basket. 

Rebecca Darlington, Middletown, one crotchet tidy. 

Jessie M. Worrell, Middletawn, «ofa chair tidy. 

Anne Morris, Tinicum, bed quilt, diploma. 



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262 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Sarah Morris, Media, quilt; door mat, second premium, diploma. 

Deborah Middleton, Media, bed quilt. 

Mary L. Williams, Middletown, shirt. 

Anthony M'Coy, Aston, two bed quilts. 

Mary E. Stern, Middletown, one horn basket. 

Eleanor Stern, MiddIeto\\ri), needle case. 

Mary D. Manley, Media, zephyr work, first premium, one dollar. 

Mary H. Coe, Chester, bonnet, child's sack and dress. 

Esther Hibberd, Media, one bed quilt, certificate for pdtchwork. 

Mrs. M. Taylor, Chester, tidy. 

Alice S. Gitt, Media, thirteen years old, one pair of child's shoes. 

Beulah Cassin, Chester, one sampler. 

Ann Grim, Nether Providence, quilt. 

Hannah M'Nutt, Concord, one suit of boys* clothes, first premium, two 
dollars. 

Margaret Gowan, Chester, infant's embroidered cloak, diploma; a shirt, and 
a pair of gentlemen's worked slippers, first premium, one dollar. 

Martha S. Baker, Chester, child's apron. 

Susan Hood, Newtown, aged seventy-six years, knit bed spread, containing 
one thousand and seven pieces, first premium, one dollar. 

Catharine Barlow, Bethel, bed quilt consisting of three thousand nine hun- 
dred and fifty-seven pieces. 

M. E. Entwisle, Chester, two bonnets and one dress cap ; for display of 
millinery, second premium, two dollars. 

Elizabeth W. Pratt, Middletown, bureau and stand covers | second premiom, 
for crochet work, diploma. 

Hannah W. Pratt, Middletown, crochet collar. 

Susan E. Trainer, Lower Chichester, crotchet collar, diploma ; one tufted 
ottoman cover, discretionary premium, one dollar. 

Eliza Dufify, Ridley, pin cushion. 

Ann Fildes, Nether Providence, zephry work. 

Mary L. Haddock, Media, album bed quilt. 

Mrs. Anna Caroline Larkin, Bethel, a card basket ornamented with leather, 
made by Emily S. Nutt, Philadelphia. 

Mary H. Painter, Birmingham, centre table crotchet cover, first premiom, 
two dollars. 

Elizabeth Pennock, Philadelphia, cake cover and flax thread tidy, diploma. 

A. S. Garret, Upper Darby, ottoman covef . 

Mary Ann Worrell, Nether Providence, mat, first premium, two dollars. 

Mary E. Lane, Media, crotchet work. 

Mrs. A. D. Morris, Media, three fancy mats, one fency bag, aeom frame 
and picture, and a specimen of marble from Iowa. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 263 

Mary Flickwir, Chester township, fancy shade, first premium, diploma. 

Mary M. Perkins, Concord, a pair of mufiatee made of turkey feathers.^ 

Elizabeth Haddock, Media, crotchet collar. 

Jane Hoskins, Aston, knit tidy. 

Martha L. Pennell, Lower Providence, one cake cover and three worked 
collars, for each a premium, diplomas. 

Elizabeth Lane, Media, two infants' shirts, first premium, diploma. 

Margaret A. Russel, Media, fancy work box. 

Harriet B. Beatty, Chester township, one crotchet collar, first premium, 
diploma. 

Mary Beatty, Lower Providence, one stitched bureau cover, and one toilet 
cover, first premium, one dollar. 

Mary Ann Smith, Upper Darby, aged twelve years, linen work and needle 
worked collar. 

Sarah Kirk, Upper Providence, shirt. 

Sallie P. Worrell, Haverford, raised worked ottoman cover. 

Hannah Pennell, Middletown, two cone watch cases. 

Deborah Calvert, Newtown, jar of preserved cherries, and one of spiced ap- 
ples, diploma. 

P. Hinkson, Chester township, fancy pin cushion, certificate ; two tapestry 
tidies ; first premium, for wool crotchet work, two dollars. 

Anna M. M'Call, Bethel, feather cape, premium, diploma. 

Zilpha Strickland, Media, fan. 

Lydia Ann Hinkson, Chester, Indian work. 

Elizabeth Hardcastle, fine shirt, diploma j pair of knit woollen stockings, 
first premium, one doJJar. 

Mary Thomas, crotchet collar and fancy chair seat, zephjrr work. 

Abbe Ann Thatcher, Spring Hill, one fancy chair seat, diploma. 

The undersigned, committeee of judges, appointed for the inspection and 
awarding of premiums on articles entered and deposited under class twelve, first 
and second divisions, respectfully report, that they have attended to the duties 
of their appointment, as well as circumstances would permit, but the irregular 
arrangement of articles, and the number necessary to be examined, rendered 
the proper performance of their duties very tedious and difiicult. They may 
have erred in some cases, and many articles woirthy of premiums have doubt- 
less been left unnoticed. 

The above award of premiums is the result of their examinations. 

WILLIAM OGDEN, 
JAMES J. RHOADS, 
LYDIA ANN HINKSON, 
SARAH ANN SMITH, 

HANNAH LEWIS, 

Judges^ 



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264 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Class 12 — Bread, Preserves, Pickles, et cetera. 
Third Dimston, 

Hannah Garrett, of Upper Darby, deposited a loaf of bread ^ highly credita- 
ble to the depositor. 

Huldah Wilson, of Upper Providence, elderberry vinegar, diploma ; also, 
blackberry vinegar, very good. 

Mary E, Patterson, Middletown, loaf of bread, diploma. 

Violetta Cochran, Media, preserved peaches, diploma. 

Beulah Sharpless, Nether Providence, loaf of bread, second premium, one 
dollar. 

Eliza Hickman Richardson, of Media, preserved Hayes apples, diploma. 

E. Lane, Nether Providence, loaf of bread and rusk ; second premium for 
rusk, one dollar. 

Jemima E. Miller, of Nether Providence, tomato figs, very good ; no com- 
petition. 

Jemima E. Miller, Nether Providence, preserved watermelon rind, diploma. 

Hannah E. Worrall, Nether Providence, jar of pickles, very fine, diploma. 

Joseph P. Home, Tinicum, two bottles of tomato catsup, a good article, 
diploma. 

Abigail Velotte, Marple, loaf of bread, diploma. ^ 

Abby Ann Worrall, of Marple, one plate of ginger bread, diploma. 

Ruth Ann Wilson, Upper Providence, loaf of bread ; highly creditable to 
.depositor. 

Ahinoam Smedley, Middletown, preserved peaches, and pickled pears ; good 
and very handsome. 

Elizabeth A. Smedley, Middletown, bread and rusk. 

Margaret Morris, Middletown, loaf of home-made bread. 

Elizabeth Johnson, of Chester township, loaf of home-made bread, very 
vgood ; third premium, diploma. 

Margaret Laird, Edgmont, two loaves of bread. 

Abby Beaumont, Newtown, jar of preserved peaches, and jar of preserved 
cherries, diploma. 

John S. Palmer, Upper Providence, two loaves home-made bread. 

Thirteen jars pickles, nine jars of jellies, and a great variety of fruits, vege- 
tables, &c., put up for winter use. First premium for display of, two dollars 
each, to Mrs. George W. Conard, of Middletown, who deserves much credit 
for her very excellent contribution. 

Eliza Hardcastle, Media, bread. 

Thomas Entwisle, Chester, case of fancy cakes, first premium for best dis- 
play, two dollars. 

Case of candies from same, first premium, one dollar. 



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AGBICULTOJIAL SOCIETY. 265 

Martha Jobson, Hiddletown, preseryed apj^es, diplonuu 

Martha Baker, Chester, jar of preserved pears, diplonia ; also, jar of pre- 
served apples in self-sealing can — looked quite pretty, clear and well done, 
diploma. 

Margaret Laird, Edgmont, preserved blackberries, strawberries, raspberries, 
currant jelly and craB apple jelly — very handsome, diploma. 

Jane Ann Yamall, Upper Providence, spiced gages^ diploma* 

M. J. Green, Thombury, preserved tomatoes, crab apple jelly, and preserved 
crab apples, diploma. 

Annie J. Green, Thombury, pear jelly 5 very nice looking. 

Caroline M. Yamall, Upper Providence, elder jelly 5 good, but no competi- 
tion. 

Anna L. Pratt, Newtown, apple jelley, diploma. 

Mary H. Painter, Birmingham, pine apple preserves, preserved crab apple 
-and crab apple jelly ; also, spiced peaches ^ second best display, diplotoa. 

Sarah King, Middletown, jar of quince jelly, and jar of preserved peaches, 
diploma. 

D. A. Middleton, Media, six loaves of baker's bread; first premium, two 
dollars. 

Two large pound cakes, and two sponge cakes from the same. 

Lydia Pennell, Middletown, preserved Damson plums, diploma. 

Jemima Esbin, Nether Providence, loaf of bread and rusk. 

D. A. Middleton, Media, ^ve jars of candy. 

Deborah Calvert, two jars of preserves, diploma. 

Elizabeth Cochran, Media, loaf of home-made bread. 

Hannah Baker, Upper Providence, two loaves of bread from white wheats 

Lydia Webster, Middletown, loaf of bread ; also, lot of rusk. 

Rachel Johnson, loaf of bread, diploma. 

Susanna Webster, rusk, diploma. 

We, the undersigned, have examined the articles deposited under class 
twelve, third division, and have awarded the premiums without partiality, to 
the best of our judgment. 

MARY S. TYLER, 
THEODOSIA B. MORGAN, 
JEMLMA W. BEATTY, 

Judges, 



Class 13 — Miscellaneous Department. 

Josephine A. Griffith, Ridley, two oil paintings, for the second, dipkmia; 
two India ink paintings, for each, a diploma. 
James Simpson, Chester, black frock coat 5 first premium, two dollars. 

% 



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266 PENNOTLVANIA STATE 

John Lord, Nether Providence, patent white wash brush, manufactured by 
Mathew Steward of Philadelphia. 

J. 0. Bunting, Darby, India ink drawing -, worthy of special notice, diploma* 

Washington Lyman, Tinicum, sea plants and star fish. 

H. L. Kockey, Media, case of books and porte-monaies ; first premium, di 
ploma. * 

Alfred L. Laws, Upper Providence, pair of squirrels, diploma. 

Thomas Forsythe, Jr., Media, oil painting 5 worthy of notice, diploma. 

Lloyd & Russell, Darby, pressed brick, fine ; diploma. 

H. L. Rockey, Media, two steel plate engravings. 

George Dougherty, Upper Darby, one frock coat, vest, pair of pants, boy's 
, suit, and pair of gaiters ; first premium for best suit of men's clothing, three 
^dollars. 

Joseph Fairlamb, Concord, pair of pants, diploma. 

Henrietta Malin, Upper Providence, one boquet of fiowers in water colors; 
bunch of white and bleeding heart cherries, and landscape peunting,also in 
water colors, diploma. , 

W. W. James, Media, frame of selected poetry. 

Melvina Cavna, Media, one satin vest ; first premium, one dollar. 

Margaret B. Pancoast, Springfield, a crayon ^drawing of Dilston Castle, 
North of England, diploma. 

John Ford, Chester, two cases of segars, manufactured by depositor, an ex- 
cellent display, diploma. 

Benjamin Hardcastle, Middletown, one white mouse and mouse trap. 

Edward Lane, West Philadelphia, one shifting top buggy wagon, very hand- 
some, diploma. 

George Andrew Smith, Nether Providence, three mortar bricks, diploma. 

Edward Clarkson, Philadelphia, a painting in oil of horse Grey Sherman, 
and a painting in oil of a bay horse, diploma ; also, a painting in oil of a group 
of cattle and sheep, diploma. 

Mrs. Caroline Pennock, Forest Hill, Edgmont, exhibited a glass case of curi- 
osities. 

Francis M. Brooke, Media, entomological collection, diploma. 

Edward J. Wilcox, Concord, oil painting, diploma — ^bow and arrows from 
the East Indies. 

Ann Rocky, Media, one silk purse. 

A. P. Brown, Philadelphia, hydraulic ram, rotary pump, and lightning rod, 
diploma. 

Joseph S. Gitt, Media, lead ore, coal, minerals and a telescope. 

Greorge M. Middleton, Media, a double egg. 

A. Thompson, Media, one cabinet panel painting by Hogarth ; also, a large 
case of Daguerreotypes. Second premium for Daguerreotypes, diploma. 



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AGRICULTUHAL SOCIETY, WI 

John B. Barney, Bimmghain, two oil paintii^ of oxen, one of & bdfer and 
two of ewes, diploma. 

Lewis P. Harvey, Birmingham, an oil painting of an ox, diploma. 
A. Thompson, Media, portrait in oil, first premium, diploma. 
John B. Barney, Birmingham, a bottle of wine found in the North river in 
1777. TJiis bottle was encrusted with oyster shells, and was really a cori- 
oeity. 

The committee on miscellaneous articles, beg leave to report that they have 
performed the duties assigned them, and have marked the articles entitled to 
premiums. 

C. J. MORTON, 
JOHN F. FORREST, 
O. E. STRICKLAND, 

Judges* 



ADDRESS 
Delivered by Hon. A. R. M'Ilvain, at the close of the exhibition. 

We are here, my friends, to discuss the subject of agriculture and its kindred 
interests — a subject which has naturally and properly engaged the best attention 
of civilized man throughout the world, and in all ages of which we have any 
knowledge, as being most intimately and inseparably connected with his wel- 
fare, his happiness, his very existence. Bat at no time has this important and 
interesting pursuit attracted more attention than at the present time. 

The great and unmistakeable characterisiic of the age is progress. It mani* 
fests itself in every department of science and labor. The "march of mind" 
is rapidly and fearfully onward. Whether it marks an approach to ultimate 
perfection, or but a cycle in the moral world, to be followed by an age of dark;^ 
ness and obHvion, none, of course, can say. But the conclusion forces itself 
upon the mind, that there are wide and vast fields yet unexplored. The relics 
of long past ages, which have survived the desolation of time, incontestably 
prove that in some departments of science and art, we have not yet arrived at 
the perfection of former days. But we may confidently anticipate that in the 
busy searchings of the human mind, the mysteries of the past will be discovered 
and made known, and new and important lights added to the stock of general 
knowledge. 

The use of steam, of gas, the cotton gin, the spinning jenny, the power-loom, 
the railroad, the magnetic telegraph, the hydraulic ram, the Daguerreotype, 
and various others scarcely less int^esting or important, are but the discoveries 
and inventions of to-day, and present a greater amount of inventive g^us and 



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ess PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

«cientific research than was ever crowded into any other age^ as fieur as we 
know. 

It is no wonder, then, that in the general progress of science, agriculture 
should reap a full, a large share of its benefits. The wealth, the time and the 
talents of the best men of the day, are dev^oted to the developement and im- 
proTement of the science. Nor have the labors in this field been left alone to 
individual or associated means, but governments have made it an object of their 
especial care and attention. In our own, far less has been done than could have 
been desired and the importance of the interest demands, fiut it has not en- 
tirely escaped public attention here, and it is only necessary for the agricul- 
turists of the country to demand^ that they may receive of the government that 
consideration to which they are so justly entitled. 

In the absence of a proper department — an agricultural bureau — ^the Patent 
Ofiice has given valuable aid to this interest, in the collection and distribution 
of seeds. In the former object it is aided by our representatives abroad, and* 
by the officers of the navy, who are instructed to procure such seeds and plants 
as come within their reach, which promise advantage to the agriculture of the 
country. It is unfortimate, however, that many of the seeds thus collected and 
distributed, either from the want of necessary practipal knowledge in the agents 
employed in their selection, or a proper adaptation to our soil and climate, have 
proved of little value. The Smithsonian Institute, too, though not strictly an 
Agent of the govehiment, is taking an active interest in the cause of agriculture, 
and making valuable contributions to the science. 

* In our own State an agricultural society has been incorporated and endowed 
by the L^slature, by which a foundatimi has been laid for a system of agri- 
cultural improvement, which promises to place us in advance of the most en- 
-terprizing . of our sister States. Its operations have been attended with the 
most flattering results. Its exhibitions, as many of you kno w,ihave been highly 
creditable to the society and the State, and have done much for the advance- 
ment of agriculture. The lai^e crops, which the contest for premiums has in 
part been the means of producing, authenticated as they are, by the most india* 
fmtable testimony, show what can be done by careful and intelligent husbandry, 
and prove that the ordinary productk)n of our fields is far below what it might 
imd ought to be. 

The Farmers' High School, whi<^ has been projected by the society, but 
which has, as yet, failed to receive firom the State that aid to which its im- 
|)ortance entitles it, will, if properly conducted, (and there is no doubt but that 
it will be so conducted,) prove a valuable aid to the science of agriculture. 
(Connected with the school will be a farm of suitable extent, wpom which, under 
(the eye of the pupils and by their aid, experiments, which are beyond the 
means or inclination of individual enterprize, will be tested, and th^ merits 
«aafinned or exploded as they may deserve, and thus made safe and useful for 



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AGKfCULTURAL SOCIETY. 26» 

general adoption, or discarded as delusive and worthless. Farmers' sons, and 
others, wishing to become farmers, may there become educated in the theory 
and practice of improved agriculture, and its attendants, who will, when scat- 
tered over the State, practising upon the knowledge there obtained, exert an 
influence in their profession which will be of great and lasting beneiit. But 
an enterprize of this importance demands the aid of the State, and every farmer 
in the country should unite in demanding its aid. 

This school is yet to be located. A number of public- spirited gentlemen in 
the interior and remote parts of the State, where land is comparatively cheap, 
have offered to contribute the necessary amount of land for the purpose. But 
much of the value of such an institution must depend upon its facility of access 
and its location in a well-improved country, and an intelligent community. 
Such a situation, we flatter ourselves, (without any disrespect to other portions 
of the St/ite,) may be found in your county, or its neighbor, Chester. And 
many of you have, no doubt, been pleased to hear a proposition to raise by 
contribution, a fund sufficient to attract the attention of those who have the 
matter in hand, to this quarter. Could the recipients of your premium list 
make a more profitable and laudable disposition of their money than by throwing 
it into this fundi 1 don't know whether your society has a surplus fund, but 
if it have, I would say to you, give it too. 

I have said that the agricultural interest has shared largely in the general 
improvement of the day. Agricultural implements and machinery have been 
brought to a degree of perfection, which, but that they are constantly under- 
going further improvement, might be thought perfect. Let the old men, aye, 
the middle-aged men, who are here present, contrast the implements upon exhi- 
bition here, with those of their youth, which they have ^pplanted, and what 
will be their reflections'? That their sun rose in darkness, and will go down 
in a blaze of light. The revolving horse-rake, the improved plough, the culti- 
vator, the drill, the horse-power fodder cutter, thresher, mower and reaper, and 
a variety of other equally useful, though, perhaps, less prominent improvements^ 
are not only positive contributions to the wealth of the farmer, but they coTtfer 
a still greater benefit in the economy of time. Instead of toiling incessantly 
from dawn to dark, and throughout the year, he dispatches his work in a bettef 
Inanner, in a fraction of the time, and has the surplus to devote to his intellectual 
improvement, and what is the result 1 Does the farmer occupy the place in 
society now that he did half a century agol Is his occupation regarded as one 
of stupid drudgery 1 

Such, I do not mean to say, was ever the proper character of his profession,* 
but such was too generally the estimation in which it was held by those who 
esteemed themselves of higher professions. Such opinions now, if they exist 
at all, exist only in prejudice and ignorance, though it is not many years since 
a distinguished member of Congress from the Old Dominion, rcinar!:ed that ff 



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270 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

he had a son as stupid as John Tyler, he tsrould put him to the tail of the 
plough. But the tables are turned. The pursuit of agriculture, instead of be- 
ing looked down tiporij is looked up to. Men of all professions and pursuits 
are flocking into it. Not that its profits are greater than in times past, bat 
because it presents greater moral and social attractions. Whether these addi- 
tions to our craft will impart or receive the greater advantages, we will not 
stop to inquire. Doubtless, in many instances, the benefits will be reciprocaL 

It is a fact worthy of notice and of pride, that most of the inventions and 
improvements of the day, and the^roost valuable of them, belong to our own 
countrymen^ We are in advance, very far in advance, of every other people 
ia*the world in inventive genius, as well as in general enterprize. Nor is it 
any marvel that it should be so. It is a natural consequence of our free in- 
stitutions — a system which gives the freest and fullest scope to the exercise of 
the human mind, which promotes general knowledge, and fosters enterprize of 
whatever description ; which opens the door of distinction and fame to bcerit, 
be its origin of high or low degree. As despotism has its safety in the igno- 
rance of the subject, so republicanism rests on the intelligence of her citizens. 

In the general progress of science and art to which I have adverted, you, 
my friends, have not been laggards by the way. Your exhibition overflowing 
with the choicest productions in agriculture, horticulture, manufactures, the 
mechanic and household arts, is a living proof of your enterprize, your indus- 
try, and your skill. The fertility and neatness of your farms — ^the rapid in- 
crease of your various manufactories, and the beauty and value of their pro- 
ductions, the springing up of new, and the extraordinary growth of your old 
towns and villages, and the general improvement of the whole face of your 
county must strike every observer; but they are particularly striking to me. 
It is now thirty years since I ceased to be one of you, and although, through- 
out that time, I have been an occasional visitor here, this improvement has, of 
course, manifested itself more strongly to me than it would have done, had I 
been a constant witness of its progress. 

When 1 was a boy amongst you, leading a sort of pastoral life, as 1 did, we 
used to lead our flocks up north to summer, and well do 1 remember how they 
would stray over your commons and deserted fields, to pick a scanty mouthful 
of almost nothing. And why were they thus barren and forsaken 1 Because 
the improvident husbandman had extracted from them every life giving prin- 
ciple with which the God of nature had furnished them, and given them noth- 
ing in return. They were thoroughly depleted— dead. And where, and what 
are they nowl I can recognize them still; (for I was familiar with abtoat 
every stump and stone by the way side ;) not sightless and loathsome wastes, 
with here and there a lean grass-hopper, or, at most a starving kildeer, doling 
a requiem over the expiring nature, but beautiful and fertile fields, teeming 
with the Jich^t abundance— full of thaiJcfulnees and praise* 



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AGfilCtTLTURAL SOCIETr. ' 2f71 

And this suggests another inquiry. How was this change accomplished 1 
Simply by restoring to the soil that which had ruthlessly been extracted from 
it, and adding such constituents as may have been naturally wanting. And this 
is the whole secret of maintaining and improving soils — treating them with 
simple honesty and common charity; giving value for value, and, when neces- 
sary, administering to their natural wants. The soil will no more work for 
nothing than the man who tills it, and there is no good reason why it should. 
The Creator of the universe has placed within our reach a bountiful supply of 
all that is necessary for our subsistence, our comfort and our happiness, but he 
never intended that we should have it for nothing. That fertility, too, which 
will send forth the good things of the earth, will also produce briars and thorns; 
and the utmost care is necessary, or the latter will encroach upon the former. 
It said that "the price of liberty is eternal vigilance." It is also the price of a 
good and clean farm. 

The supply of fertilizing agents has multiplied with the increased necessity 
for them. In addition to lime, (which, until recently, was the only merchant- 
able fertilizer, to any considerable extent, within the farmer's reach,) we have 
poudrette, guano, superphosphate of lime, and several other concentrated ma- 
nures, which are not only working wonders in the renovation of worn out ktids, 
but contributing largely to the fertility of those already improved. Their cost 
in the market seems to be excessively high— of guano, unreasonaUy and un- 
necessarily so ; and there is no good reason why the government should not 
negotiate better terms for a supply of the article from Peru for the benefit of 
the agricultural interests^ of the country, as well as to squeeze a coal depot out 
of Japan foi; the benefit of the navy. The cost, however, is to some extent 
counteracted by the cheapness of their application, compared with that of bam 
yard manure; and this, where farm labor is scarce and high, is a matter of no 
small importance to the farmer. 

The relative value of these fertilizers seems to depend much upon the cir- 
cumstances under which they are applied, and can, therefore, be best tested by 
experience. Much of their value depends upon their adaptation to the soil 
upon which they are used ; and from this fact most of the conflicting accounts 
which we have of their positive or relative value, and disappointments growing 
out of their use, arise. The prudent farmer will test their value by careful ex- 
periments, and choose that which pays him best. There can be no danger, 
however, of injury or loss from either or any of them, if they be of good quality 
and properly applied ; for they all contain, though in different proportions and 
combinations, the principal constituents of vegetable food — ammonia, the pho»* 
phates, nitrogen, &c. 

In the use of lime, an article of such almost universal use and value as a fer- 
tilizer, great loss has frequently resulted to the agriculturist by a blind and im- 
provident uso of it, without testing, by experiment or analysis of the soil, the 



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OTO PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

amoant of the deficiency existing there; the aim being, too often to ascertain 
how much may be used without injury, instead of how little will suffice to pro- 
duce the maximum good. It is true that when an over-dose is administered, 
a second will not so soon be required, and under the old mode of lime-spread- 
ing, this was an object of some moment; but now, when the operation can be 
so speedily and so well performed by the patent spreader, there is certainly no 
excuse for such an unnecessary burying of capital. If, then, in the application 
of a manure of such long and general use, true economy requires such con- 
stant and careful attention, how much more necessary is it that those compara- 
tively new and untried should receive equal or closer scrutiny. A single 
ftdlure of an experiment, though occasioned by the want of care or judgment 
in the use of an implement or manure, may greatly retard the improvement of 
an entire neighborhood, so habitually sceptical are the less intelligent upon all 
innovations upon their established practices and usages. But who can esti- 
mate the amount of increase in the agricultural productions of the country by 
the general and intelligent use of these active, concentrated fertilizers 'S 

Second only in importance to the production of the farm, is the economical 
use of its produce. Hence, the wintering of stock, an item of such vast mag- 
nitude in the expenses of the farm, in a climate like ours, where the foddering 
season extends over full five months of the year, has become an object of pro- 
per and more careful attention. And here, too, has the genius of invention 
readered important service. The hay, straw and fodder cutters, and the horse- 
power chopping mills, contribute largely to the economy of winter provender. 
Experience has proven, beyond the shadow of a doubt, that from thirty to fifty 
per cent, more cattle may be wintered in stalls, upon cut and ground food, 
than the same amount of provender would sustain imder the old system of 
feeding it whole in open yards. 

The animal system requires a certain amount of nourishment and heat to 
keep it in a healthy and thriving condition, and true economy requires that it 
should be furnished in the largest amount at the least expense. The amount 
of nourishment required will be in proportion to the amount of labor required 
of the animal to appropriate it, whether this labor consists in mastication, di- 
gestion, or generation of animal heat. The animal fire must be kept up; and 
the more you expose the subject to external cold, the more fuel (in the shape of 
food) must you cram into the animal laboratory. 

Horticulture, too, and fioriculture have profitted largely by the progress of 
the day. The cultivation of choice fruit has been greatly extended, and new 
and valuable varieties are constantly beii^g added to the general list. Local 
societies have compared and tested the relative value of the varieties in the 
dififerent kinds of fruit, and recommended, for cultivation, such as are most 
worthy of attention, and discarded such as are comparatively inferior or worth- 
less — ^whilst, by a National Pomological Congress, a more general comparison 



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AGfaCULTURAL SOCIETY. 273 

is made, and the proper latitude for each determined and made known. Thus, 
by the reports of these societies, all the necessary information is given for a 
safe and profitable selection of fruit for any latitude in our broad and varied 
country. And, apart from its intransic vdlue in the household economy, what 
greater luxury is there in the heat of the summer's 4ay, or the social winter's 
eve, than an abundant supply of delicious fruit 1 

The cultivation of flowers, which marked but the abode of wealth and ease, 
has become almost as general as our system of education, and the intellectual 
improvement of society. The humble tenement presents no longer in its bare 
and dusky sides, and narrow neglected grounds, evidence of rudeness, want 
or grinding care; but the cheerful cottage, white as the lilly of the valley, 
peering through forests of flowers, marks the progress of taste and comfort. 

Much of this results from the progress of education, and the general diffu- 
sion of knowledge into all the walks of life — much, too, results from these ex- 
liifoitioas, cultivating and improving the taste, and showing to the many how 
large an amount of gratification and pleasure may be derived from a very 
small outlay of money, of time and of labor; and something has been done, 
and, in many places not a little by the temperance reform. The shilling which 
would buy a maddening cup, will buy a book or a rose, and the wayfaring 
man may read where it has been; cast upon good ground, and where among 
thorns. 

In all the departments of industry and of art embraced within the scope of 
your attention, none is more important or interesting than that of the house- 
hold arts. It is here, by the hand and skill of woman, that manufactures 
were first introduced into the world; and though her first essay, in the Garden 
of Eden, was necessarily imperfect and rude, it evinced, nevertheless, her 
quickness to perceive the wants of man, and her readiness to administer to 
them. From the entwining of ^g leaves, she progressed through robes of skin, 
to the distaflT and the loom, to rich embroidery of purple and of gold — to all 
that was useful and beautiful, through age upon age, until we find her here, 
<5rowning your varied and rich display with the beauties of her handiwork. 

Nor is it here alone that she excels. In all the finer attributes of our nature, 
benevolence, charity, piety, in all that ennobles and beautifies the human 
heart, she has always been pre-eminent; and they are not her true friends, 
in my opinion, who, by demanding for her and of her the rougher and ruder 
duties of life, would rob her of her high distinction, and drag her down to the 
level of a man. 

To these young men, I would say, if you expecj: to make thrifty farmers-^ 
if you design your homes to be the abode of comfort and rational enjoymentT— 
if you desire to be respected here, and remembered when you are gone, choose 
yourselves wives. And to you, young ladies, allow me to say, be not deceived 
by a dazzling surface — see that the sub-soil is of the right stripe-^trust your 
18 



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274 PENNSYLVAMA STATE 

happiness with no man who has not cultivated well his head and his heart. 
Whilst a good husband is a blessing to his wifb, a worthless one is a scourge 
and a curse. 



FAYETTE COUNTY. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society: 

Dear Sir: — In compliance with the requirements of the charter of the 
Fayette County Agricultural Society, we beg leave to report our proceedings 
for the last year, viz : 

1st. A statement of receipts and expenditures. 

2d. A list of premiums awarded at the late fair, held near Brownsville an 
the 14th, 15th and 16th days of October last. 

3d. A list of the managers and officers elected for the current year. 

4th. A copy of the judicious and eloquent address of the Hon. George V. 
Lawrence, on the last day of the fair. 

In conclusion we may remark, that the attendance at the fair was very large, 
and our experience in such assemblages inclines us to believe, that the best re- 
sults are being produced by our county fair, in awakening the public mind to 
the importance of an improved husbandry. 

GEO. E. HOGG, President. 
WM. C. JOHNSTON, Secretary. 

Statement of Receipts and Expenditures of Fayette County Agricultural Society y 

for the last year^ 1856. 

Amount received for admissions - $260 00 

fialance on hand, from year 1855 -. 20 00 

Uncurrent money on hand -. 39 00 

Amount received from Fayette county , 100 00 

419 00 

Amount of premiums paid $116 25 

Expenses during the fair , ,. 47 00 

Expenses of printing ^ , . , ,.,., . . , , 52 00 

Amount paid for lumber contracted for 1855 ^ 142 00 

357 28 

Balance in the treasury, January 1, 1857.. ...•..,.,, $61 75 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 375 

Report of Premiums axbarded ut the Fayette County Fair. 

Class No. 1. 

Horses. 

James Terrence, best bred stallion, first premium ... $8 00 

Simon Mordock, second best, second premium 5 00 

J. Downs, best native stallion, first premium. . . t^. .' • •• • 6 00 

Second' best, No, 139, which is wrong in the entry. 

I. Bailey, best draft horse, first premium • • . . . •••• 4 00 

J. Pringle, second best, second premium • 2 00 

Britewell & M'Crory, single harness horse, first premium ......••■.. 4 00 

S. Mordock, second best, second premium » ...• 2 00 

Britewell & M'Crory, best pair match horses, first premium 4 . 6 00 

J. L. Bowman, second best, second premium • . •■• h • 4 00 

Eli Cope, best saddle horse, first premium ..«.• . • • t.*^ 4 .00 

C. J . Springer, mare, second best, second premium •«.«..•••>». .. »•»•« 2 00 

Eli Cope, ^<Mal Tree Jack," no competition, first premium • • 4 00 

B. C. HOWARD, 
WM. T. GOE, 
LEWIS ^lOBLEY, 
ALEX. GIBSON, 

Committee, 



Class No. 2. 
Brood Mares and Colts. 

John Jordan, best brood mare, first premium $4 00 

Geor W. Baird, second best, second premium ^ 3 00 

Samuel M. Baird, best three years old horse colt, first premium,. ..... 4 00 

G. W. Baird, second best, second premium -• 2 00 

John M. Gallaher, best two years old horse colt, first premium* .« 3 00 

Jer. Baird, second best, second premium • 2 00 

Wm. Peppers, best one year horse colt, first premium 2 00 

Samuel Short, second .best, second premium 1 00 

John Jordan, best spring colt, first premium ....<•«. ...^ 2 00 

David Kittenhouse, second best, second premium 1 00 

Nels. Porter, lAsst three years old mare colt, first premium ••« 4 00 

Lewis Mobley, second best, second premium, , • . . , 2 00 



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PENNSYLVANIA STATE 



Joel Veraon, best two years old mare colt, first premium $3 00 

Wm. Ball, best one year old mare colt, first premimn 2 00 

ISAAC KENDALL, 
WM. SHAW, 
JACOB MARKS, 
ABRAM VERNON, 
LEVI COLVIN, 

Committu, 



Class No. 3. 

Durham and Devon Cattle. 

Creorge E. Hogg, best Durham, first premium $4 00 

J. S. Groe, second best, second premiiim 3 00 

J. S. Goe, best two years old Durham bull, first premium, no compe- 
tition 4 00 

J. H. Crawford, best one year old Durham bail, first premium 3 00 

J. S. Groe, second best, second premium ^ • • 2 00 

George E. Hogg, best Devon bull, first premium, no competition 3 00 

J. S. (Jeo, bestfl)urham cow over three years old, first premium, no 

competition ••••••••.... •- « 4 00 

John S. Goe, second best Durham cow over three years old, first pre- 
mium • 3 00 

G. E. Hogg, best Durham heifer, two years old, first premium - 3 00 

G. E. Hogg, second best, second premium 200 

J. S. Groe, best Durham heifer, one year old, first premium 2 00 

J. S. Goe, second best, second premium 1 00 

J. S. Goe, heifer under ten months old, first premium . . , •»., 2 00 

Moses Baird, heifer under four months old, weight 56 1 lbs., second pre- 
mium , -, 1 00 

JOSEPH CRAWFORD, 
JAMES DUNAWAY, 
WM. H. GALLAHEK, 
. Committee, 



Clals No. 4. 
Grade and Jfative Cattle. 



None ofifered. 



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AGfilCULTURAL SOCIETY. 277 

Class No. 5. 

Fat Cattkj Fat Sheepy Work Cattle^ Open Wool and Grade Sheep. 

£11 Cope, best fat steer, five years old, first premium, no competition, $3 00 
A. C. Downs, best Southdown buck, first premium, no competition. . . 1 50 
A. C. Downs, best Cotswold buck, first premium, no competition . • . • 1 50 
J. Crawford, best pulling yoke of oxen, special, first premium. • . • ••.« 4 00 

Thos. Murphy, second best, special, second premium • ..• • 2 00 

ENOCH H. ABRAMS, 
HENRY COOK, 
THOMAS MILLER, 

Committee, 



Class No. 6. 
Fine Wool Sheep, 

J« M. Gallaher, best Spanish buck lamb, first premium, no competition, $3 00 
J. M. Gallaher, best French buck lamb, first premimn, no competition, 1 00 
J. M. Gallaher, best five half-blood French ewes, first premium, no 

competition 2 00 

J. M. Gallaher, second best. .do. .second premium, no competition.. • 1 00 
J. S. Goe, best pen of Spanish Merino ewes, six in number, first pre- 

um, no competition • •.- -« 3 00 

SAMUEL CRAWFORD, 
JESSE COLDRON, 
JAMES EWING, 

Committee. 



Class No. 7. 

Swine. 

A. C. Downs, best Chester sow, first premium ••.,••« « $2 00 

Wm. T. Goe, best Sufiblk sow, first premium •-.^ .... 2 00 

Best half-blood Sufiblk boar, recommended specially. 

Iho competition in the above class. 

JOSIAH WAGONER, 

MAXWELL DEARTH, 

JOHN KELLEY, 

Committee. 



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Class No. 8. 
Poultry. 

J. G. Patterson, best Shanghais, first premium • , $ 50 

Greoige Ganet, second best, second premium 25 

J. Kelly, best collection of fowls, first premium 1 00 

J. Kelly, second best, special premium. 

JOHN GALLAHER, 
DAVID PHILLIPS, 
RICHARD BROWN, 

Commiitee, 



Class No. 9. 

Butter^ Cheese and Honey. 

Mrs. S. Brown, best butter, six lbs., first premium • $1 OO 

James Craft, best cheese, no competition 1 00 

WM. SLOANE, 

URIAH HICKENBOTEN, 

H. F. BLYTHE, 

Committee^ 



Class No. 10. 

Produce and Vegeiahles. 

Joseph Gadd, best white wheat, first premium $2 OO 

T. Murphy, Mediterranean wheat, first premium , • . • 1 00 

T. Murphy, best rye, first premium » . . ....• .....^..,. 100 

D. B. Craft, timothy seed, first premium, no competition 1 00 

Thomas Murphy, best variety of corn, first premium 1 00 

D. B. Craft, best sugar beets, first premium •.«..•«. 25 

James Craft, best bushel of potatoes, first premium >. 1 00 

Creorge Garret, second best, second premium... . . • • 75 

James Craft, best sweet potatoes, first premium • 50 

James Craft, best onions, special premium ^ . . . • • • 

HENRY B. GOE, 
JOHN KELLEY, 
R. G. HOPWOOD, 

Committer.. 



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AUKICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 279 

Class No. 11. 

Horticultural Products. 

William Ball, best three varieties apples, first premium $ 50 

John Hewit, best three winter varieties, first premium .••• 50 

James Craft, best gallon cider, first premium • •-« 25 

J. Hewit, greatest variety apples, twenty-five kinds ^ 1 00 

J. L. BOWMAN, 
GEORGE CRAFT, 
JOHN WILSON, 

Committee, 



Class No, 12. 

Food and Condiments, 

J. Craft, best quince jelly, one year old, first premium $ 50 

J. Craft, second best, this year, second premium, discretionary premium, 

Jas. Craft, best quince preserves, first premium. . . . . .... . . . .... . . . ..,.• 50 

Mrs. J. Craft, best two loaves of bread, first premium . . . « • • . . 1 00 

Mrs. Jas. Craft, best currant jelly. 

There was no competition on any of the articles in this class. 

C. BREADING, 
T. S. SHUMAN, 
J. P. BLYTHE, 

Committee. 



Class No. 13. 

•Agricultural Implements. 

G. E. Hogg, best straw cutter, first premium ,.• $1 00 

K. M. Murphy, second best, discretionary premium. 

Fall & Son, best corn sheller, first premium, no competition 50 

George E. Hogg, grain drill, first premium, no competition • • • • 3 00 

George E. Hogg, harrow drill, first premium, no competition. »..•••• 1 00 

Greorge E. Hogg, hay rake, first premium, no competition .....-,. ••^ 50 

€reo. Shellenberger, washing machine, first premium ..« 50 

Fall & Son, cast iron fence, special premium. 

JOHN CRAFT, 

WILLIAM HATHELD, 

GRIFFITH ROBERTS, 

Committee. 



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280 PENNSYLVANIA BTATB 

Glass No. 14*. 

Mechanic Arts, 

Brightwell & M'Crory, best top buggy $3 00 

Daniel Gibson, best man's saddle, no competition • 1 00 

Daniel Gibson, best bridle, no competition • • • 50 

J. L. Bowman, best two horse carriage, no competition 3 00 

There was no competition in any of the above articles in this class. 

D. GILMGRE, 
J. HASTINGS, 
W. P. CRAWFORD, 

Commt/fee. 



Class 15. 

Manufactured Articles. 

Best twenty-five yards twilled linsey, no competition, special premium. 
Best twenty yards linsey, no competition, special premium. 

Wm. T. Goe, best pair coverlets, no competition $1 00 

Eliza Cook, best quilts 2 00 

Phebe J. Crawford, second best, white 1 50 

Miss Sarah J. Thornton, third best 1 00 

Miss R. H. Dixon, best ornamental needle work • • 75 

Wm. Torrey, best worsted embroidery 50 

Phebe J . Crawford, best table cover, no competition 75 

James Craft, best woollen hose, no competition 25 

I. Bailey, (daughter,) tidy nets, discretionary premium. 

JOSEPH ALLISON, 
JAMES- H. FOARD, 
^ WM. RITTENHOUSE, 

Committee. 



Class 16. 

Field Crops. 

P. Bortner, quarter of an acre of orange potatoes, thirty-five bushels. 

P. Bortner, quarter of an acre of pink eye potatoes, thirty-seven bushels. 

No premium awarded on the above, the quantity of ground not being suffix 
cient. 



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AGBICULTURAL SOCIETY. 281 

James Crop, best quarter of an acre of onions • • , $1 00 

Best one acre of com, to be husked and the number of bushels to be 

reported to the committee on or before the first of January, 1857, 5 00 

ABEL COLLEY, 
WM. B. DOWNS, 
JAMES CKAFT, 

Committu. 



Class No. 17. 

Fainting8, 

Mrs. Torry, best display of oil paintings • • • • • $2 00 

Mrs. Torry, painting of the fair ground 2 00 

Dr. O. T. TODD, 
W. H. GADDIS, 
WM. SEARIGHT. 

Committte. 

Class No. 18. 

Miscellaneous Articles. 

Edmund Leonard, two very fine bacon hams ; a premium recommended. 
Mr. Fleming, one box of very fine hats and caps, worthy of a premiimi. 
Ella Slocum & Co., ornamental log cabin, we recommend to the board's con- 
sideration, and ask for the ladies a premium. 

JAMES EWING, 
SAMUEL BAIRD, 
JAMES CUNNINGHAM, 
Committee. 

Officers and Managers of Fayette County Agricultural Society, for 1857. 

Presidbnt — Geo. E. Hogg, Brownsville P. O. 

Vice Presidents — Wm. Dunaway, Walter B. Chalfant, Brownsville P. O. 

Rbcobdino Seceetaby — Wm. C. Johnson, Brownsville P. O. 

CoBBBSPONDiNG Secbetaby — Jas. Cuuniugham, Mcrrittstown, Fayctte co.P.O. 

Tbeasubeb — Qeo. Craft, Brownsville P. O. 

Manaoebs — ^Clark Breading, Samuel Baird, Nelson Porter, R. Howard, 
Mark R. Moore, Brownsville P. O. ; Jacob Longanaker, Measontown P. O. ; 
Wm. Elliott; David Deyarmond, Tippecanoe P. 0. 5 Ewing Searight, Sca- 
vightstown, Menallen township. 



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282 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

ADDRESS 

Of Gbohge V. Laweence, Esq., delivered at the Fayette County Fair^ on tht 

16/A of October, 1856. 

Gentlemen : — The excitement incident to a campaign for the supremacy in 
the State and National Government, and the cstahlishment of important na- 
tional principles has so entirely absorbed the attention and elicited the feeling 
of the masses of our people, that I shall find it a difficult and embarrassing 
task to engage your attention while I present to you very briefly, the claims 
on your attention, your labor and your reflection ; a subject of universal im- 
portance, and of deep and abiding interest to men of all classes. For whether 
we consider the science of agriculture and its concomitant interests in an in« 
dividual or national point of view, we must all admit and feel that that is the 
first great interest, the legitimate, useful and healthful employment of the 
greatest, by far the greatest, number of our fellow-men ; indeed, when we re- 
flect that it is the basis on which almost all other pursuits and employments 
depend, is it not strange, and a source of regret, that we all know so little of it 
as a real science 1 Surely many, and perhaps most of us, have turned our 
attention to subjects of minor importance when compared with this interest^ 
ever increasing and deserving our highest efforts. 

While it is the fiat of infinite wisdom that man must live by active labor ; 
*<eam his bread by the sweat of his brow," it is also wisely determined that 
to it there is attached no disgrace, no humiliation ; but the reward is increased 
by physical strength, vigorous constitutions, increase of muscle and bone | 
the free circulation of the vital tide of life \ the free and ever abundant pro- 
ducts of our fields, our gardens, our herds and our flocks; the self-gratulation 
felt from the independent nature of our employment j the dependence of those 
engaged in other pursuits on our industry 5 the pride of self-government and 
ability to live in a greater degree within ourselves, than any other class of our 
fellows 5 the fact that we are proprietors in fee simple to a portion of the brond 
green earth on which we proudly tread 5 that ours is regarded as the first 
great calling of man 5 that in it we ate brought more directly in association 
with nature and her infinite laws ; that the rain and sunshine of Heaven are 
our auxiliaries, and indispensible to our pursuit. All these considerations 
lead us to a first application of the high character of the science in which 
most of us are engaged. Indeed we should feel a just and honorable pride 
that in the diversified interests and varied pursuits of man, there is none more 
honorable, none so healthful, none so extensive, none promising so full and 
certain a reward. The labor we perform is an << antidote for the gout, the 
eraeible in which time is converted into money." 

In this as in all other departments of labor, science and some knowledge of 
the proper application of the powers of nature is most useful and important. 



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AGKICOLTURAL SOCIETY. 283 

The history of the world, and especially of our own widely extended country, 
will satisfy even a casual observer that God did not intend that the human 
arm should he the instrument to perform all the labor of this world, or he 
would have increased its strength an hundred fold$ nor did he intend we 
rfiould be beasts of burden, or he would have given Us shoulders on which we 
oouM bears tons ; or that we could annihilate distance, or he would have 
added the wings of the eagle that we might fly from one to another continent; 
but he has filled the earth and the elements with power, and by the knowledge 
we have of scieBce we are enabled to apply this power to our own benefit in 
the common pursuits of life. 

The power of steam generated from water, scientifically applied to the pro- 
pulsion of machinery, has added one hundred fold to the productive energies 
of the country. A single mill turned by steam or water will manufacture 
more of the products of your farm, your wheat, rye, or wool in a single day 
than could have been done in a month, by unassisted physical strength. It is 
by the superior thought of the mind, and not of the arm, that man accom- 
plishes so much in this country ; by this power he subdues the untamed and 
powerful beasts of the forest ; the horse and ox are made subject to his will 
atnd subservient to his interests. 

While it may be said the discoveries of the present age for the performance 
of labor are of less importance to the farmer than other classes of men, 1 ap- 
prehend an examination of the subject will show he has directly, or indirectly, 
received as much benefit from them as any other class. All that tends to di- 
minish labor in the tilling of the soil, in preparing the products thereof for 
market, is to him of the first importance 5 hence in the various improvements 
in ploughs, harrows, cultivators, threshers and cleaners, clover mills, in the 
manufacture of flour, cloth and leather, and all articles, the raw material of 
which is grown on his farm, he has received untold advantages. It is the truth 
then that labor is not only assisted and lessened, but it is dignified by an intel- 
ligent application of it ; the knowledge we acquire of so applying it as to make 
it more useful to ourselves and our fellow-men; but while many of the most 
onerous duties incident to the labor of the farmer are materially assisted by 
labor-saving machines, it is equally true that active bodily labor must be per- 
formed if we would attain any good degree of advancement, 

« H6 that bj tba plough woald thrive 
Himself must eitfier hold or drive.'' 

This personal labor on the farm does not by any means disqualify us for 
other callings in life. Opportunities are afibrded in the duties indispensable 
to agricultural life for the rest of the body and the highest improvement of the 
mental faculties, and the acquisition of knowledge. Cincinnattus returned 
from his conquests to his farm, fiegulus delighted more in handling the 



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284 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

ploogh than the sword. ' Julius Agricola was most successful in inculcating 
the art of culture in Great Britain. 

This disposition to lahor and improve the country is peculiarly characteristic 
of our own people, and it is this which has produced such uniyersal progress 
and caused such rapid strides in all that tends to develop the resources and 
advance the prosperity of our people. Look at these vast and unnumbered 
improvements; the thousands of miles of railroads; the bridges that sj^soi our 
beautiful rivers ; the villages, towns and cities, from the Atlantic to the west- 
em line of Iowa, and from the Gulf to the Canadas ; the public edifices that 
point their spires to Heaven, some in which to worship the living Qody others 
to improve, adorn and dignify the minds of our youth. The neat cottage, the 
costly domicil, extensive bams filled with the products of well cultivated fields, 
and in short, all that causes this country to differ from what it was when the 
savage Indian roamed over these hills and along these valleys, and tell me, 
was it not active, energetic, intelligent labor, which accomplished it all. In 
this unexampled progress in all the departments of life, science, the applica- 
tion of natural power, has been an important auxiliary to labor ; without its 
aid man would be the most helpless of all animated beings. Man is complete 
monarch of the earth ; he has entire dominion over it ; his mission was to 
subdue and conquer the empire of nations. At first it was at war with him. 
It produced briars, thistles and thorns ; the poison that would destroy life and 
the food that would sustain it grew in the same soil ; the minerals so inex- 
haustible and so indispensable were locjced up beneath the soil, well concealed 
and protected by the massive rock. The hills, mountains and rivers obstmct- 
ed his pathway ; the deep and impenetrable forests seemed to defy his power ; 
the hot sun of summer, and the piercing blasts of winter fell alternately on 
his unsheltered head ; the fury of the storm and the angry roaring of the wa- 
ters terrified him. As a dumb animal, he crouched at the sound of thunder 
and the flash of lightning. When he ventured in the forest the wild beasts 
of prey followed in his pathway and howled for his blood. The vast and 
boundless ocean lay before him a deep, unexplored and fearful abyss. In this 
helpless condition, an exile, without an instructor, except the vast book of 
nature spread out before him, he commences the subjugation of the world, and 
by labor, persevering labor, and the gradual acquirement of knowledge, he 
merges from the gloom and darkness that enveloped him from one century to 
another ; he advances forward ; nature in her rebellion yields to his power ; 
he is cheered onward in the conquest by new discoveries ; the lulls surrender 
their hidden and exhaustless treasures; the forests are swept away as if by some 
mighty tornado ; the whole earth is touched with his wand and throws out her 
richest stores at his feet. The hidden powers of the elements are made his 
willing slaves ; the winds of Heaven bear his treasures from one continent to 
another, and by the power of steam, he careers boldly, fearlessly around the 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 389 

globe. The ligfatoinft of Hearen are brought hannlees to earth, and sent 
thousands of miles on errands of business and affection, and yet he is daily 
progpessing in the arts and sciences, and who can set limits to the ultimate 
triumphs of his geaius 1 

Labor, then, fellow-citizens, intelligent, persevering labor, is the means by 
which these great ends are attained $ and in no depax tment or calling in life, 
is it so pleasant and healthful as ours. While we may learn much from the 
Tarious productions of the press on this important subject, 1 am convinced by 
observation and my limited experience, that we must apply ourselves per- 
eonally to the cultivation and improvement of our own soil, if we would at- 
tain any good d^pree of perfection. 

In this vast country, so extended, and the soil so very different in its in- 
herent formation qualities, no general principles can be universally applicable, 
either to its cultivation or improvement ; hence the absolute necessity of every 
agriculturist understanding something of the nature of the soil he himself 
works annually, and the means most appropriate to improve its capacity for 
productions, and the kind of crops, for the growth of which it is best adapted. 
Our soil is capable of the highest improvement, and it is perhaps, a perfectly 
reliable assertion to say, that on an average, it will produce, with proper, care 
and improvement, at least four times as much as it now does under our limit- 
ed and careless mode of culture. At one time it was thought that the popu- 
lation of England would so increase that at the end of a given period, the 
soil would not yield enough to support one half the population, and wise 
men looked anxiously for some pestilence or famine to reduce the number ; 
but greater care in the improvement and cultivation of the soil, and the in- 
creased products by proper farming, proved that the country was able to sus- 
tain four times the number they then had, and the land kept in much better 
condition. This is also shown most conclusively, by the astonishing quanti- 
ties of vegetables, &c., raised by gardeners and others, contiguous to our own 
cities, where the land is spaded and brought to the highest state of perfection 
by liberal supplies of manure. A few acres well tilled produce them greater 
profits than farmers usually have from ten times the same quantity of land. 

With proper culture, the soil of our own State, it is believed, would sustain 
fifteen millions of persons. It has been done in other countries on a less num- 
ber of square miles, and a less favorable climate or soil. Surely then it is our 
interest to concentrate our labor on smaller quantities of land, and attempt to 
make one acre as profitable as four now are. We all attempt to cultivate too 
much land, and are prone to desire extensive landed possessions until we own 
miles of surface. One hundred acres, well attended^ is enough; better than 
' two hundred comparatively unimproved and unproductive. The expense of 
labor and materials for fencing and the taxes are less, while the profits will be 
found greater. 



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«6 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

We have the fee simple, not only to the surface, bat down to the centre of 
the earth, and there lies hidden beneath, a soil which only wants to be brought 
up by subsoiling, and exposed to the rain and sun of summer and the tests of 
winter, and proper mixing with the surface or upper strata, to render it equal 
to that never before worked. This process brings up mineral aubstances ne> 
oessary to the growth of plants and lets the water pass freely even below tiie 
roots, is a protection to the drought of summer and the frosts of winter, and 
has been abundantly tested, and proves to be an easy, yet certain mode of add- 
ing to the productive capacities of the soil. The prosperity of any country 
is enhanced when the land is apportioned in small quantities, such divisions 
as will ensure a better appreciation of every acre ; it will add to the number 
of proprietors, and make every acre thoroughly productive ; it will increase 
the permanent citizenship, and afford a reliable defence to the country in time 
of war, and divide the burden of taxes among a greater number. Small farms^ 
then, I assume, afford (if properly managed) greater pro£is, and increase the 
value of productive wealth. 

We need model farming on a more permanent and systematic basis, and this 
can be best accomplished on small farms managed on scientific ppnciples. This, 
however, will ultimately become the work of necessity; at present we have too 
much land, and compared with other countries, a sparsely settled population; 
but the intelligent farmer looks beyond the wants of the present, and prepares 
for the future and uses his land so as to add to its powers of production, and 
carefully avoids the early exhaustion of the soil. 

It is not more necessary to feed our stock than to feed the soil; a succession 
of crops without a return of the aliment necessary to sustain and invigorate it, 
will ultimately leave it barren and useless. It has been truly remarked that 
the "well kept manure heap was the farmer's bank." The value of manure 
in England is said to be greater than all the exports of that country, and their 
success in husbandry is attributable to the high feeding of the field, and the 
care bestowed in the preparation and judicious application of manure. Proper 
care on the subject is of the utmost importance, as there can be no success 
without it. As well might you expect a crop withont sunshine or rain, as to ex- 
pect it in a soil where the inherent strength was gone and there was nothing 
to cause it to germinate and grow. We are all culpable in this respect. Our 
barn-yards are exposed to rain and sunshine; the former washes away and the 
latter dries up by evaporation, the liquid, the most essential part of the com- 
post. We should remember that everything around us, of a vegetable or 
animal nature, is good for the land, and that a little care at the proper season, 
will enable us to add large quantities of both to our deposits in the yard. Of 
all the manures common among us, doubtless that from the horse stable is best; 
but a just discrimination should be made in the application of all fertilizing 
mibstances, and this will require some knowledge of the component parts of 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 187 

the soils, to wbiA it is proposed to apply it, which will be best known by 
some practical experiments and a knowledge of chemical affinities. The 
man who ploughs the field and has tried on it yarious crops, ought to be aUe 
to tell what it produces best, and what portion of the original formation is 
wanting to cause a crop of different grain equally good, what kind of manure 
is best for com and wheat, for which and why lime will do on one field and 
not on another. If the substances necessary to the growth of any kind of grain 
are exhausted, they must be supplied, and I apprehend nothing but a practical 
knowledge will enable us to apply the proper remedy. 

Every farmer should take at least one good agricultural paper, of which 
there are many, and in it he will find much to instruct and interest, and the 
combined efforts by practice and reading, will enable him to add largely to his 
stock of knowledge and to the annual productions of his land. Here, then, are 
some hidden mysteries which nature has not yet divulged, which, thus far, 
have baffled science and the closest observations of men; but she will ulti- 
mately unlock the secrets of her own bosom, and unfold her mjrsterious work- 
ings until the '^ hidden things shall be made plain," and the common under- 
standing of all comprehend them. 

The model farmer not only has respect to the soil, but is always exceedingly 
careful of the seed he deposits therein. He always has it of the best quality, 
entirely free from adulteration ; then he sows or drills it on a soil previously 
prepared; the rain and sunshine then become his auxiliaries; it germinates by 
a mysterious process, and continues to grow and expand until the perfect ear 
or grain is formed, then genius, scientific discoveries, are passed into his 
service ; he cuts, threshes, cleans, and finally grinds, and c<|pies to market by 
the aid of horses, steam or water. The same farmer always has respect to his 
stock. He has learned that there is as much difference in the blood of horses 
and cattle as in the human species; that it costs more to keep a poor ill- 
shaped, dwarf-like horse or steer than a fat one of approved appearance and 
established lineage. Of this you have practical evidence. Some of your citi- 
zens are justly celebrated for the public spirit manifested in importing to your 
county, at great expense, stock of well established breeds, and, for some of 
them, they have, at the State Fairs of 1855 and 1856, received the highest 
encomiums and most liberal premiums. Such men are public benefactors, 
and while they add to their own, they, also, give character to your county 
until, in respect to her stock and her agriculture, she stands among the first 
in the western portion of the State. 

Your citizens have, by the public spirit thus manifested by a few of your 
farmers, the opportunity, at small expense, of growing the finest horses, cattle 
and sheep ; of filling your stables with horses, combining size, power, symme- 
try and action; your pastures with Durhams, Devons and Ayershires, and 
your folds with the Merino, French Merino and Saxon. You are yet in in- 



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M8 PENNSYLVANIA STATB 

fancy in this respect. The mania for this advancement » not yet universal, 
and in order to create universal interest and to bring these subjects practically 
before your people, you have established this society. You meet annually to 
interchange opinions socially, to compare the products of your farms, your 
orchards, your gardens and your stock. Here we find, not only the produc- 
tions of the husbandman in various forms, but we find implements of various 
kinds, the products of the skill and labor of the mechanic and artizan, the 
handiwork of our fair countrywomen in multiplied forms, furnished to add to 
our comfort and enjoyment. They kindly lend their aid, their influence in all 
that is useful, and cheer us onward by their presence and their smiles. We 
cannot too highly praise their influence in any laudable enterprize. Because 
these societies are becoming common and numerous, and the time of the peo- 
ple taxed to attend them, our interest in them should not cease. They have 
proven one of the best, perhaps the best^ means of giving life, energy and 
the greatest activity to the science of agriculture ; they create a public spirit 
of improvement and difliise it abroad, excite emulation, a just and laudaUe 
ambition for success, and as auxiliaries to the State society for the same ob- 
ject, promise to meet the expectations of their most sanguine founders and 
friends. Although the drought of the summer has detracted from the growth 
and quantity of vegetables, and the appearance and condition of the stock, 
these annual meetings have been well attended, and the exhibition in all de- 
partments highly creditable, proving the degree of importance attached to the 
object, and promising still greater inducements for our exertions to render 
them more interesting and useful. The exercises in the ring tests the power 
and speed of t\|p animal, the grace, dignity and ease of the rider, and aflbrd 
interest and amusement for the spectators. 

Fellow citizens, we have the highest incentive to press forward,* the field 
is but half explored, and the future, in our department, promises a rich reward. 
Our sojourn here is at best but brief, but in the few years allotted to us, let us 
be usefully employed; let us on our farms teach our children true habits of 
economy, and instil in their minds the idea that labor is honorable, and if they 
would succeed they must practice industry, persevering industry. The neces- 
sity of carrying to a successful issue what we have just commenced will de- 
volve on them. Let us have the high gratification when we approach the 
goal of our existence, when the shadows of the future appear before us, to re- 
flect that instead of bartering away the birth-right of our children, we have 
left them a free government, free schools, a free church, free farms, and a w«ll- 
digested and systematic system of agriculture — the highest incentive to free 
labor. 



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AtSRICULTtJRAL SOCIETY. 989 

HUNTINGDON COUNTY. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

Sir: — In compliance with the requirements of an act passed on the 29th 

day of March, A. D. 1851, on hehalf of the Huntingdon County Agricultual 

Society, I herewith transmit to you a brief report for the present year. 

The officers named in our first report were re-elected at our last annual 

meeting, and are as follows, viz: 

President — Jonathan M' Williams, Stover's Place. 

Recording Secretaries — John S, Isett, Spruce Creek, and James S. Barr, 
Huntingdon. 
CoR&£SP0NDiNO SECRETARY — ^Dr. John Gcmmel, Alexandria. 
Treasurer — Hon. James Gwin, Huntingdon. 
Librarian — Theo. H. Cremer, Esq., Huntingdon. 

Our second annual fair was held at Huntingdon on the 8tk, 9th and 10th 
days of October last. 

The expediency of having a fair the present year was doubted by many 
ardent friends of the good cause, on account of the unfavorable character of 
the early part of the season. But the result so far exceeded our most san- 
guine expectations, that it is now deemed expedient to invite in future an 
annual exhibition of the result of the industry apd ingenuity of the inhabitants 
of the county. 

In many less favored parts of the world the utmost ingenuity of philan- 
thropy is severely taxed to devise material upon which to employ the industry 
of suffering humanity, and still more, to procure such a scant remuneration as 
will keep soul and body together until their destiny on earth is accomplished. 

But we are a more highly favored people — a benevolent Providence has 
spread out before us almost a boundless, rich and diversified region, with a 
soil and climate capable, under the hand of industry, of raising all the pro- 
ducts originally planted by the hand of the Creator upon the earth, which are 
essen*lial to healthy and comfortable life. 

But with us the oldest and best cultivated parts of our country are suscep- 
tible of such improvements, under the hand of industry, as to sustain more 
than quadruple its present inhabitants ; and in order to realize such results, 
we have only to render labor respectable by connecting it with science and 
intelligence, to which our State and county agricultural societies and fairs are 
so largely contributing. 

It is deemed unnecessary to give a detailed report of the judges on pre- 
miums; but some special notice should be taken of domestic manufactures^- 
the amount of which was so great that it was not possible for the judges in 
that department to do justice to their own feelings. And we would respect- 
19 



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S» PENNSYLVANIA STATE^. 

fully recommend, that in future that department be so divided that at least 
three sets of judges may be employed 5 and also, that power to award discre- 
tionary premiums be enlarged. 

Abstract from the Treasurer's account. 

JON'A M'WILLIAMS, Present. 



REPORT 

On lunar influences upon agriculture, before the .Agricultural Society of Hunt" 

ingdon cokinty. 

The undersigned committee, to whom was referred the subject of lunar influ- 
ences on agriculture, respectfully report : 

That deeming the subject one of great importance to the farming community^ 
your committee have endeavored to give it that degree of attention which its 
importance merits. "When it is remembered that at least two-thirds of all the 
persons engaged in agriculture and horticulture, as well as many of those who 
pursue mechanical avocations, regulate all their operations by the '^signs'' or 
positions of the moon in the zodiacal constellations, or its place in regard to 
its own and the earth's orbit, it will at once be apparent that it is a matter of 
great importance whether there is any philosophy or science in this system of 
moonology, or whether it is but superstition and folly. 

When you ask the believers in lunar influences upon vegetation, in the sense 
above indicated, for the reason for the faith that is in them, they refer you to 
the almanac, and there you may contemplate the figure of a man with out- 
stretched limbs, surrounded by the ram, the bull, the twins, the crab and other 
animals of various degrees of ferocity, but the rationale they cannot give, for 
the almanac gives it not^ but their ancestors, from time immemorial, looked 
to the "signs" and regulated their operations by them, and therefore, they, 
their sons and daughters, go on in the same beaten track, in "blissful igno- 
rance," whither it leads or why they go therein. * 

Your committee believe, that aside from the efiects produced by the solar 
light which is reflected upon the earth by the moon, she has no influ^ice what- 
ever upon vegetation. That light, as well as heat and moisture, are indis- 
pensable to healthful vegetable growth, is a fact too plain to be denied or suc- 
cessfully controverted; and that the increased and perhaps the quality of the 
light reflected from the moon, when her whole disc, or a coni^derable part of 
it, which is turned towards the earth is enlightened by the sun, has the efiect 
of accelerating vegetable growth and the ripening of crops, are well attested 
by experience and in perfect accordance with natural philosophy. But this 
has nothing to do with the signs. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 291 

The moon being nearer to the earth than any other celestial body, and sur- 
passed in splendor only by the great orb of day, she has excited the attention 
of astronomers in all ages. While her magnitude, motions and distance from 
the earth have been nicely calculated and made known to us by astronomers 
and mathematicians, they have told us nothing concerning her influence upon 
vegetation^ and nice calculations have never discovered, any such influence. 
The moon, like other satellites and the planets, is an opaque body, and shines 
entirely by the light received from the sun- She revolves roimd her axis from 
the sun to the sun again in twenty-nine days, twelve hours, forty-four minutes 
and three seconds, and she takes exactly the same time to go round her orbit 
from new moon to new moon, and therefore constantly has the same sid^ 
turned towards the earth, with a small variation called the liberation of the 
moon. 

Tke mocn^s phases. — The sun illuminates one half of the moon at all times, 
and the amount of light which is reflected depends upon the relative position 
of the observer and the enlightened part of the moon. Thus, at the time of 
conjunction for new moon, the moon is between the earth and the sun, and 
that part of her face which is never seen from the earth, is fully enlightened 
by the sun, and that part which is turned towards the earth is in darkness. 
Now, as the motion of the moon in her orbit exceeds the apparent motion of 
the sun by a little over twelve degrees in twenty-four hours, it follows, that 
about four days after the new moon she wiJl be seen a little east of the sun. 
after he has sunk below the horizon. The convex part of the moon will be 
towards the place of the sun, and the horns towards the left hand. As she 
continues her course eastward, a greater portion of her face towards the earth 
will become enlightened, and when she has removed ninety degrees eastward 
of the sun she will present the appearance of a semi-circle or half moon ; and 
passing still towards the east, at the end of fourteen and three-quarter days 
she will be diametrically opposite to the sun and will rise above the eastern 
horizon as the sun sinks behind the western, a complete circle or full moon. 
The earth is now between the sun and the moon, and that half of her surface 
which is constantly turned towards the earth is wholly enlightened by the 
direct rays of the sun, and that half which is never seen from the earth is in 
darkness. Then progressing still to the eastward, the moon becomes deficient 
on her western edge, and when again ninety degrees from the sun, she ap- 
pears a semi-circle with the convex side turned towards the sun, still continues 
her course eastward, the deficiency on her western edge becomes greater, and 
she appears a crescent with the convex side towards the east, and in about 
fourteen and a half days more she has made a complete lunation and again 
overtaken the sun. This shows all the phases of the moon, and the r^nn^ 
ner in which they are produced; and to our mind it is very apparent that 
thi^se changes or appealrances, which are constantly and gradually taking 



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292 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

place, can have no other effects than those produced by increased or diminished 
light. 

JSTodes of the moon, or the ^^up*^ and ^^dowh*^ signs. The nodes are the tw© 
opposite points where the orbit of the moon seems to intersect the ecliptie or 
the apparent path of the earth. But this intercourse is merely imaginary, the 
earth moving around the sun at a distance of 95,000,000 of miles, and the moon 
around the earth at a distance of 240,000 miles, or less than a quarter of a 
million of miles. The orbit of the moon is inclined to that of the earth at a 
variable angle, the medium of which is five degrees nine minutes. The nodes 
make a complete retrograde revolution from any point of the ecliptic to the 
same again in nineteen years. This is called the cycle of the moon, after 
which the new and the full moons, &c., fall upon the same days of the month 
that they did at the beginning of the period. If the weather depended upon 
the changes of the moon, every nineteenth year would have the same sort of 
weather at all corresponding seasons. An almanac nineteen years old would 
suit for this year, and inform us of all the changes of the moon and the conse- 
quent changes of the weather. But this is a slight digression. 

The pode where the moon seems to ascend from the south to the north side 
of the ecliptic, is called the ascending node, and the opposite point where the 
moon appears to descend from the north to the south, is called the descending 
node — the down sign. In astronomy these nodes are sometimes called the 
north node and the south node, and sometimes the dragon's head and the 
dragon's tail. 

If we take two large rings of nearly equal size, and place the one within the 
other, so that the one half of the one will be above, and the other half below 
the other ring, at an angle of about ^yq degrees, the one ring will represent 
the orbit of the earth, and the other that of the moon. The two points of in- 
tersection are the nodes. The earth revolves around one of these rings or or- 
bits annually, and the moon around the other monthly. When the moon, 
passing around her orbit, crosses the point of intersection, (or an imaginary 
line drawn from the one point of intersection to the other,) from the south lo 
the north side of the ecliptic, she is in the ascending node — in the "up sign j" 
and when she reaches the opposite point, she is in the descending node — ^the 
"down sign." The moon is therefore continually alternating from the one 
node to the other, being about one half the time above, and the other half be- 
low the orbit of the earth ; but in reality all the time millions of miles from 
the one side or the other of the earth's orbit. 

Now, if any one can suppose that the attraction of the moon can draw up 
or press down objects upon the earth, such as roofs and buildings, fences, fiax 
or f^nure spread, &;c., that effect must be apparent in about two weeks, for 
that is the length of time that the moon continues in each of these signs. Af- 
ter that time, the attraction still existing, there would be an alternative draw- 



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AGRICULTUBAL SOCIETT. 293 

mg np and pressing down, as long as the moon shall \ittx and wane. The be* 
lieyers in the signs have never yet discovered how soon the effects of the mooa 
iqK>n the objects affected, become visible ; but they do not generally look for 
those effects as soon as the moon has passed from the one sign into the other. 

The Zodiacal signs. The zodiac is a broad circle in the heavens, extending 
in breadth from the Tropic of Capricorn to the Tropic of Cancer. It is about 
sixteen degrees in width. The ecliptic is situated in the middle of the zodiac. 
The zodiac contains the twelve constellations or signs through which the sun 
passes in his apparant annual course. This circle is supposed to be divided 
into three hundred and sixty equal parts, called degrees, and these again into 
minutes and seconds. 

The prevalent opinion among learned men is, that the figures in the signs 
or constellations of the zodiac, are descriptive of the seasons of the year, and 
that they are hier(>glyphics to represent some remarkable event or occurrence 
in each month. Thus, no productions being more useful to the Chaldeans than 
lambs, calves and kids, and they generally being brought forth in the spring of 
the year, these distinguished that season. Their flocks were increased, and 
the ram was considered. a fit representation of the month in which this oc- 
curred. Their herds were increased and the bull became emblematical of this; 
And the goats being the most prolific, they were represented by the figure of 
the twins. Thus we have Aries, the ram, Taurus, the bull, and Gemini, the 
twins, as the representatives of the spring of the year — ^the figures of the spring 
signs. When the sun enters the constellation of Cancer, he discontinues his 
progress towards the north pole, and begins to move back towards the south 
pole, and this retrograde motion is represented by the Crab, which travels 
backwards. The heat which usually follows in the next month, (July,) is re- 
presented by the Lion, an animal remarkable for its fierceness, and which, at 
this season of the year, was frequently impelled by thirst, to leave the sandy 
desert, and make its appearance on the banks of the ^iile. In the next month 
harvest commences in that country, and as damsels are generally set to glean 
in the fields, like Euth in the field of Boaz, this season is represented by a 
Virgin holding a sheaf of wheat in her hand. The sun next enters Libra, at 
which time the days and nights are equal, and observe and equilibrium like 
a Balance. So we have the Lion, the Virgin, and the Balance for the summer 
signs. Autumn, in ancient times, produced an abundance of fruit, (perhaps of 
inferior quality,) and brought with it a variety of diseases. This season is 
therefore represented by the Scorpion, which wounds with a sting in his tail 
as he recedes. 

The sun enters the next constellation at the fall of the leaf, when the fields 
are cleared of the crops, and the season for hunting commences. The stars 
which mark the sun's track in this month, are represented by the huntsman 
or Archer, with his bow and arrows and other weapons of destruction. The 



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194 . PENTJSYLTANIA STATE 

strn, passing into the iMsxt constellation, reaches the winter solstice, and coot* 
Mences ascending towards the north. This season is, therefore, represented 
by the wild Goat, which delights in climbing and ascending the mountain ia 
search of his food, which was considered emblematical of the ascent of the 
sun. The next sign, Aquarius, the water-bearer, pouring water oat of an lum, 
is emblematical of the wet, dreary and uncomfortable season of winter* The 
kst of the zodiacal signs is a couple of Fishes, representing the filling season. 
' In the time of the oldest astronomers, the equinoctial points were in Aries 
and Libra ; but the signs which were then in conjunction with the sun, whea 
he was in the equinox, are now thirty degrees, or a whole sign eastward of it; 
so that Aries is now in Taurus, Taurus in Gemini, &;c. 

The si^s are the invention of the ancients, and like that system of fables 
styled mythology, they had their origin in superstitious and idolatrous notions. 
The Chaldeans probably are entitled to the credit, such as it is, of imagining 
that certain groups of stars resembled certain animals, such as the bear, the 
dog, the serpent, &c., and the Egyptians worshipped the host of Heaven under 
the most of these imaginary figures, particularly the signs of the zodiac. — 
They also worshipped the sun, under the name of Osiris, imagining it a pro- 
per representative of the Deity, shedding light and heat over the universe. 
And as the moon received her light from the sun, she was esteemed a female 
divinity, and honors were paid her as such, under the name of Isis. The over- 
flowing of the Nile, which occurred periodically, was particularly beneficial 
fo the land of Egypt j and as that river always began to swell at the rising of 
Sirius, the most brilliant of the fixed stars, they had a special veneration for 
the dpg star, as if its influence had brought about the overflow of the Nile, 
and the consequent fertility of the soil. 

The Greeks displaced some of the figures of the Chaldean constellations, 
and placed in their stead such images as had reference to their own history. 
The same thing was done by the Romans ; and hence some of the accounts 
given of the signs of the zodiac, and of the constellations, are contradictory 
and involved in fable. 

Such is the history of the signs of the zodiac in a condensed form. These 
constellations and signs were clusters of stars which marked the position of 
the sun in the heavens, and were called the " station houses^^of the son. They 
are twelve in number, containing each thirty degrees, and the sun was about 
a month in passing through each of them. When we consider that in the 
days of their origin, chronometers and almanacs had no existence, and as- 
tronomy was in its infancy, we cannot but admire the beauty of the system, 
lis well as appreciate its utility. It made a magnificent tirne piece of the star 
lipangled canopy, and the hosts of Heaven pointed out the length of days, months 
a(nd years. What a perversion it is, then, to make these signs or constella- 
tions the " station houses" of the moon^ as she pasdes around the earth. It 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. ^m 

Converts them into food for superstition and ignoranoe, and they carry with 
them a train of inconveniences. The moon's transit through the signs is 
rapid, occupying hut a little over two days in each, and the almanac makers 
place her in one sign two days or three days, as best suits their O0hvenience, 
without regard to- fractions of days. 

For example : — The sign is in the Crab for two or three days, according to 
the almanac, and although the weather may be fine, and the field in excellent 
^rder, the farmer who consults the moony will not sow or plant in that inaus- 
pfcious sign. Or the sign is in Virgo, sometimes called the " Posey Girl," 
and everything then sown or planted will expend all its energy in blossoms, 
i)TL account of that girl's propensity for flowers. And equally good logic is 
employed in behalf of all the other signs. What folly ! 

The believer in moonology will no doubt be gratified to learn that when the 
moon's position is between the earth and any of the zodiacal signs, the stars 
composing that sign are so immensely far from both the earth and the moon, 
that they cannot possibly have any influence whatever upon the earth or any of 
the operations of the inhabitants of the earth ! The fixed stars nearest the earth 
are at an inconceivable distance. It may be stated to be more than twenty 
billions of miles \ but the common mind can form no adequate conception of 
such distance. We may acquire some faint idea of the immense distance of 
the nearest of the ^ed stars from the earth, by considering that the smi is 
95,000,000 of miles from the earth, and that the nearest of the fixed stars is 
212,000 times farther distant. . A cannon ball flying with a uniform velocity 
of 500 miles every hour, would require four millions and ^vq hundred and 
ninety-five thousand years before it could move from one of those stars to the 
earth \ and the difierent stars of the same constellations may be at still greater 
distances from each other. Such immensity of space is bewildering to the 
ordinary mind ] but these considerations show plainly that the moon's posi- 
tion in regard to any of the constellations, can have no influence upon the 
earth, which is but as an atom in the universe. 

In conclusion, your committee would state that the facts embodied in this 
report, are such as are agreed upon by astronomers and mathematicians — such 
as are found in the lessons intended for the schools \ but your committee do 
not expect this report to meet with much favor from a large portion of the 
community. Indeed, truth is never more unpalatable, than when she brushes 
away from the mind, a long cherished fallacy, and exposes error in all its 
naked deformity. Many will not believe that they have all their lives been 
in error. They cannot make up their minds to surrender their whole stock 
of ^^knowledge.^^ They will hold on to their blind faith, and continue to 
jpegulate their labors and their lives by the signs. But we trust there are 
others in whom the presentation of well establish^ truth — matters of facf, 
and of calculation and observation, will atoaken reflections that they will see 



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296 PENNSYLVANIA bTATE 

the folly and superstition of the signs, and be ready to follow the teachings 
of reason. 

The scriptures speak of husbandry— of ploughing, digging, manuring-— o€ 
planting aifd sowing, and* of the early and the latter rain, but not a word of 
any sign to regulate the husbandman in any of his labors. And Solonum, 
who was esteemed a wise man in his day, was entirely ignorant of the signs 
which some of our modern Solomons understand so well, for he is profoundly 
silent on the subject, although he says, *<In the morning sow thy seed, and 
in the evening withhold not thine hand, for thou knowest not which will pros- 
per, either this or that, &c." Is it not time that the agriculturist should 
emerge from the superstition which has so long enveloped him, and follow the 
advice of Solomon, instead of the devices of the Egyptians and Chaldeans % 

Facts and arguments might be adduced to show that ail the effects attributed 
to the influence of the moon could be accounted for on truly philosophical and 
scientific principles, but they would swell this report, which is already suffi- 
ciently extended, beyond endurable bounds, and we therefore forbear. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

THEO. H. CREMER, 



THOS. F. STEWART, 
R. M'DIVITT. 



Huntingdon, J^ovember 13, 1857* 



INDIANA COUNTY. 

To the President of t/ie Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society: 

The annual meeting of the Indiana County Agricultural Society was held at 
the court house, in the borough of Indiana, on the 24th day of December, 1856, 
when the following persons were duly elected officers for the ensuing year, viz: 

President — Thomas White. 

Vice Presidents — James Clark, Samuel C. Hazlett, WiUiam MPPhelemy, 
Alexander M'Cray and John Kelly. 

Secretary — Edward Nixon. , 

Corresponding Secretary — John H. Lichterberger. 

Librarian — G. P. Reed. 

Managers — James Hood, John G. Coleman, Mose? T. Work, Hugh M. 
Speddy, Charles C. M'Lain, John B. Allison and Samuel H. Johnston. 

The annual exhibition of the society took place on the 7th, 8th and 9th days 
of October, 1856, and was very numerously attended, evincing an increased 
interest in the objects of the society. The exhibition was a very good one. 



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AQKICOLTUJRAL SOCIETY. 297 

taking into consideration that the past year has not been a good season for 
grain, and that there was ahnost a total failure of fruit. Some apples of a 
raperior quality, as to size and flavor, were on exhibition, and there was an 
«zoellent iiMplsLj of farming implements, and the ^tock of horses and cattle 
was yery good, especially the former. 

The society has purchased about five acres of land for the purpose of holding 
their exhibitions ; and should our next fair equal the last, in the amount of 
receipts, the society will be out of debt, and the ground will be well improved, 
9m regards the necessary buildings and sheds. Within the two years which 
the society has been in existence, we have received for life and annual mem« 
bership, within a fraction of sixteen hundred dollars, besides the receipts for 
tickets to the exhibition. 

The premiums, awarded to competitors at the last exhibition, amounted to 
three hundred and eighty-three dollars and fifty cents, much of which was re- 
linquished to the society. 

The annual address was delivered by A. Wilson Taylor, Esq., a copy of 

which is herewith transmitted. 

THOMAS WHITE, President. 
February 24, 1857. 



ADDRESS 

By A. W. Taylor, Esq., delivered before the Indiana County Agricultural 
Society^ October 9, 1856, at its second exhibition. ^ 

One year ago the Indiana County Agricultural Society held in this place its 
first exhibition, and the products of art and agriculture, then exhibited, were 
truly gratifying and greatly exceeded the most sanguine expectations of the 
friends and originators of this truly laudable enterprize. The present exhi- 
bition, notwithstanding the fact t|iat the frost and the drought have been de- 
structive to the fruits, and have greatly impaired the yield of most of the pro- 
ducts of the soil, is an improvement upon that of last year; and although it 
may not be such an exhibition as Indiana county might display, did every 
citizen realize the importance of the object of this society, it is by no means 
unworthy the infancy of the association. Such associations as this have been 
established in many of the counties of our State, and in a few instances, it is 
to be regretted, they are languishing. This should not be so. Let us deter- 
mine that ours shall continue to prosper, from year to year, until it becomes 
not only a means of delightful recreation, intercourse and friendship, to those 
who gather here from the hills and valleys of the county, but also the means 
of the substantial improvement of our great industrial pursuits. 

It has occurred to me, that if, on such occasions as this, the farmers, far* 
mers' wives and daughters, and all others interested, were to meet a few hours 



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398 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

each day or erening, in some suitable building, for the purpose of a free dw- 
eussion and interchange of ideas, it would be not only highly interesting but 
Tery instructive. Each one could relate his mode of culture, his experkaeata 
and their success or failure. It would be a delightful school of mutual im- 
provement. Thus would be developed a fund of information > and an amoimt 
of instruction would be imparted which could not well be developed or im- 
parted in any other way. 

It is the destiny of man to labor. Long before Noah ^* began to be a hi»- 
bandman and planted a vineyard," the decree had gone forth, that ^*in the 

sweat of his face should man eat bread." In every vocation of life, wh^her 

« 
agricultural, mechanical, professional or mercantile^ success and labor are 

Siamese twins. Every path of progress and advancement is uphill, and upon 

every finger-board is inscribed the word labor. So sensible were the Egyptians 

of the value of labor, that they were so senseless as to worship the ox. It is 

only the silly gilded butterflies of society who aflTect to despise honest toiL 

But our people lack not industry — ^for energy and industry the world has never 

excelled the people of the free States of this Union. The proper direction of 

labor is what is required, and is the grand object of this association. 

Husbandry is not only the most ancient but the most indispensable of 
worldly pursuits. * It not only employs the mass of the population of all civil- 
ized States, but is the foundation of all national as well as individual pros- 
perity. Upon her strong arm all other pursuits lean for support. No other 
pursuit is so favorable to health of body and energy of mind. Although na 
man in society is independent, in the full meaning of the term, all being more 
or less dependent u{)on their fellows, yet, above and beyond all others, the 
^MFQier is independent. He depends not upon the success or failure of his 
tieighbor, nor yet upon the uncertain breath of popular favor. He engages 
not in the sharp conflicts of rivalry. He is unassailed by scoundrel combi- 
iwtions of selfish interests. He feels not the poisonous fangs of '^envy, that 
feeds and fattens on ruined reputations." All these things, and more, to 
which men in other pursuits are more or less subjected, the farmer almost ea- 
tirely escapes. 

Agriculture is the handmaid of civilization, and without it mankind would, 
igk man respects, differ little from the wild beasts that prowl the forests. In 
every age of the world, this art has engaged the attention of the wisest and 
best of men. In the purest days of the Roman republic her most illustrious 
statesmen and poets were familiar with agricultural pursuits and not only 
wrote upon the subject, but esteemed it the highest praise to be called indu8<» 
trious husbandmen. Even at this remote period, the leading principles of ag- 
riculture were understood; such as the importance of thorough tillage, ma- 
nures, irrigation, &c. It is true their implements of husbandry were few and 
^nerally rude and defective. The seed was covered with a rake; the grain 



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AGRICULTURAL SOClETr. 299 

was reaped with a sickle, winnowed by the wind, or by throwing it from one 
part of the floor to the other, and when wanted for use, pounded in mortars 
into meal. During the middle ages agriculture greatly declined. But it is not 
my design to trace the history of husbandry. In modern times this subject 
has most emphatically arrested the attention of legislators and votaries of 
science in every enlightened nation. Improved and newly invented agricul- 
tural implements are innumerable. The discoveries of science are daily con- 
Iributing to fill the farmer's gamers. Agricultural schools, colleges and asso- 
•iations are being everywhere established. Even World's Fairs are not un- 
common. In Great Britain the principles of agriculture are taught in the 
elementary schools. The study has also been introduced into their Normal 
schools, for the purpose of qualifying the school-master to teach this branch 
of education. Books have been prepared, presenting these principles in brief 
and plain terms, which are readily impressed on the young mind. It is said 
much good is resulting from this plan. Why should it not be immediately 
adopted in our Normal and in our common schools 1 If the mind of the far- 
mer boy is enriched with the principles of agriculture, he will in after life 
apply these principles, and will likely continue to prosecute these important 
studies and perfect himself in them. 

The world moves, and the farmer who can give no better reason for the 
faith that is in him, than that he is following in the footsteps of his father, 
will soon find himself behind the times, and the world moving on despite his 
opposition. 

Beware lest the very shop-keepers who never so much as soiled their soft 
hands with the plough-tail, outstrip you in "model farming." A notorious 
instance of this has actually occurred in England. A certain Mr. Mechi was 
some years ago engaged in London in making and vending, first "Mechi's 
Paste," then "Mechi's Paste and Magic Strop," and afterwards "Mechi's 
Magic Razor Strop and Paste." This was in the days of "smooth chins" and 
before the great modern hirsute reform had encouraged the hair to grow all 
over every body's face. However, before the demahd for ^^edge tools" had 
abated, Mr. Mechi had succeeded in amassing a princely fortune. Anglo 
Saxon like, his great desire was for land. He selected a bleak and barren 
heath for the field of his operations and experiments. It was, he says, "like 
bird-lime in winter, and like cast-iron in summer," and vainly did he "try by 
solid manures to render this vile plastic clay a useful pasture." He had be- 
come the butt of the townsfolk and the laughing stock of the farmers. How- 
ever, having sense, some learning, plenty of money and great determination, 
he persevered, and although he may not, like a certain Roman emperor, have 
fed his horses on gilded oats, he did not spare his money. At length Mechi 
had his triumph. Upon a certain occasion the benches in the House of Com- 
mons of England were thronged with members, the galleries were crowded 



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300 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

with spectators. That great statesman, Sir Robert Peel, arose amid the most 
profound silence, and after a few introductory remarks, he said : " He wanted 
to address himself to the agriculturists of England. He would take the hall 
(even John Bull) by the horns. He desired to tell the landlords to their faces, 
that the science of agriculture in that country, was most imperfectly under- 
stood. England was at least a quarter of a century behind the age in agricul- 
ture, and would be outstripped even by Russia, if new methods were not speedily 
adopted. It was his opinion that, in many respects, the English farmer had 
the very A B C of cultivation yet to learn. He said he had visited at no great 
distance from the metropolis, a model farm. It was the farm of a well known 
citizen of London — of a tradesman of great enterprize and of considerable pro- 
perty, but of one, be it observed, who had not been used or accustomed to 
farming, and who was yet able to teach English agriculturists a lesson in agri- 
culture. Upon a barren heath, in Essex, Mr. Mechi had planted a model farm, 
and such were his improved methods of cultivation, of draining, of manuring 
and of subsoil ploughing, that upon that barren heath, there stood at that mo- 
ment the very finest crops throughout the length and breadth of Britain." 

This was fi proud day for the London tradesman. He had brought the light 
of science and the improvements of art to his aid in his new vocation. By 
deep drainage he drew off the stagnant water. The plough had penetrated 
that hard clay to a far greater depth than ever before, and thus the air and 
light, and heat and moisture were admitted. Then solid manures were ap- 
plied; but after all, the plastic clay refused to reward the husbandman. 
By means of steam and pipes manure in a liquid form was freely applied. It 
succeeded. The stubborn soil yielded, greatly to the astonishment of Mr. 
Mechi's farmer neighbors, who had been in the habit of joking him as a ^'fancy 
farmer," not forgetting to inquire for his "balance sheet." It is not, therefore, 
always the least expensive farming that is the mort profitable. To what ex- 
tent the power of steam may yet be profitably applied in aid of the operations 
of the farmer, is uncertain ; but when the day arrives that the ground can be 
ploughed, the grain cut, gathered and threshed by steam, it p quite certain 
there will be a general rush into the ranks of the farmer. 

"Knowledge is power," equally in the industrial as in other pursuits o^ life. 
in this country the great mass of the people are and ever will be engaged in 
agriculture. This is emphatically an agricultural country. Too much atten- 
tion, therefore, cannot be devoted to the enlightenment of him who cultivates 
the soil as well as to the improvement of the soil itself. Not only do individual 
prosperity and happiness depend upon the general diffusion of knowledge, but 
the stability of our free institutions of government rests upon the virtue and 
intelligence of the people. Be assured a corrupt and ignorant people are in- 
capable of self-government, for they are ever the dupes and tools of designing, 
unprincipled demagogues, who, to attain their selfish ends, would trample un- 



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AGRICCLTURAL SOCIETY. 301 

der foot, "the ark of the covenant" itself. In countries where the government 
is committed to the hands of the few, no means are spared to instruct and 
qualify those who direct governmental affairs, for the discharge of their duties, 
although the masses may he left in the thick darkness of ignorance and vice. 
Where, as with us, the sovereignty is diffused over the whole people, and each 
citizen is as much a sovereign as any other, how vitally important that all 
should he qualified for the discharge of their high duties. It appears to me 
we fail to realize our high responsibilities as a sovereign people — that we are 
forgetful of the vast interests involved in the success of this "great experi- 
ment in favor of human rights," not alone to ourselves, but it may be, to fu- 
ture generations of men far, far down the stream of time. Let no one who 
possesses even "the rudiments of an English education," say he lacks prepara- 
tion to study the sciences. You hold the key which will open to you every 
department of useful knowledge. Use it, remembering the maxim of the an- 
cient Romans, ^^perseverantia vincit omnia, "^^ Above all, let no farmer say he 
has no time to store his mind with useful knowledge. He has more time, if 
rightly applied, than the laborous mechanic or the busy merchant. He has 
more time to pursue favorite studies than even the successful professional 
man ] for the studies immediately pertaining to the calling of the professional 
man, are apt to absorb his thoughts, even to weariness. Yet we see that not 
a few of these find time to pursue paths of knowledge remotely, if at all, con- 
nected with their business pursuits ; some of them snatching sufficient time to 
establish "model farms," and by the improvement of stock and the application 
of science, conferring benefits on the community in which they live ; some- 
times, perhaps, at no small cost to themselves. Pioneers are necessary, but 
pioneers are not generally a money making race. It is those who follow who 
are apt to reap the rich harvest. 

For mere "book farming" I entertain no great reverence, especially when, 
as is often the case, the book fanner does not, by any means, understand or 
comprehend his books. Without experience it is not to be expected that he 
should. It is the practical farmer whom it is most desirable to see resorting 
to the lamp of science to light his path ; and it is no mean breadth of existing 
knowledge which bears upon the farmer's vocation. Every branch of natural 
science bears more or less directly upon the art of agriculture. It is not to be 
expected that the farmer, or indeed any one, can be profoundly learned in all 
the various branches of natural science ; but it is desirable that he should pos- 
sess all knowledge directly bearing upon his daily pursuits. Such knowledge? 
it appears to me, would invest the farmer's labors with a delightful interest, 
and divest his daily toil of half its drudgery. He more than others could dis- 
cover, 

'< Music in tbe trees, sermoDS in stones, 
Boo!:s \n the rnnTjing brooks, snd good in everything,** 



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30* PENNSYLVANLA. STATE 

The ruling possicm of the Anglo Saxon race every body ktfows is, and ever 
has bei^n, a desire for, land. The Anglo Saxon does not feel his importance 
till he is able to own land. He regards land as the only sure "foundation of 
a family." If he cannot own a farm he will own a lot, and if a lot is denied 
him, he will at least have a flower pot in his parlor window, if he should steal 
the soil to fill it. If he is so fortunate as to get a farm, he goes on enlarging 
his boundaries, adding field to field, as rapidly as possible. In a national 
capacity he will go on adding territory to territory, so long as there may be 
any to add, and he is allowed, by hook or by crook, or even by hard knocks, 
to do so. But with all our greed for land, some of us appear to be laboring 
under a gi'eat delusion in regard to the extent of our right to the lands we 
own. We at least act as though we owned only to the depth of an inch and 
a half of the surface of the soil : whereas, I declare to you that it is the law of 
the land, (and so long as there is a drop of Anglo Saxon blood in our veins, 
their is no danger of its repeal,) that the owner of the land owns, in the laA- 
guage of the law, " upward to Heaven," and down, down at least half way to 
the territory of our neighbors, the Chinese, on the other side of the globe. 
Fear not, therefore, that in delving into the earth you are in danger of being 
dragged into court, in action of trespass quart clausum fregitj for violating 
your neighbors' rights. 

Now it is not my design to discourse to you learnedly of rocks and soils, 
and gasses and all that ; nor yet to attempt to teach you the niceties of farming 
and of rearing stock. I do not pretend to possess the qualifications for such 
a task; and I know just enough about "book farming" to hav^ discovered 
that doctors differ, and that he who sets himself up as a teacher of farming, 
without a practical knowledge of the farmer's art, will very likely perpetrate 
egregious blunders. But I will venture to say a word upon one or two topics 
which I deem not unimportant, being fully aware, at the same time, that I shaU 
say nothing which is not known to intelligent farmers. 

You know when soil has but little depth, a succession of crops, even when 
the most approved rotation is adopted, will very soon exhaust it, so that it 
will not produce until the necessary ingredients be added. If one kind of 
crop is raised, year after year, as for instance, the potato, the soil will ere long 
become partially exhausted. The potato draws largely upon the potash in the 
Mil, and although it might produce other kinds of crops requiring different 
ingredients and in different proportions, when the potash fails the potato will 
cease to grow until the potash is restored in the shape of ashes or in some 
other form. When we are eating potatoes and butter, we are not apt to 
imagine we are eating soap, and when we add salt, that it is hard soap. 
Chemists however insinuate something of that sort. It certainly therefore 
needs no argument to prove that it is of the highest importance to the farmer 
to understand the aom{M>8ilioii of his soil, as well as the constituents of the 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 308 

plants he may desire to grow. Thus be would know precisely what crops 
his farm would best produce ; what culture and manure to apply. Recent 
discoveries, researches and progress in the science of chemistry, give the 
farmer of the present day great and decided advantages over his predecessors. 
Let the farmer not hesitate to avail himself of these advantages. 

There are, you know, two methods of improving the soil — the mechanical 
and the chemical. The first named method should always precede the latter; 
and among the mechanical methods is thorough drainage. Although highly 
beneficial to lands liable to be barnt up by the sun, it is usually adopted in 
wet lands. It draws off the stagnant or surface water which is ^ poisonous to 
plants ; it opens up and deepens the soil $ allows the rain and air, and light 
and heat to penetrate the earth to a greats depth, and prepares it to receive 
and retain any manures that may be necessary, it is but recently this method 
of improvement has been adopted to any great extent. Those who have tried 
it, unhesitatingly declare that it will pay ; and that is the point. The lavish 
expenditure of money will compel the poorest soil to yield an abundant crop; 
but the method of farming that takes niore out of the pocket than it returns 
to it, is rather too scientific for general practice. Where lands are cheap, 
thorough drainage may not pay ; but in some portions of this county, land has 
attained a price wJiich would perhaps amply reward such expenditure. 

Subsoil ploughing is the usual remedy when the surface soil is shallow, and 
the subsoil is a noxious barren clay which, if brought up, would only injure 
thje upper soil. After this subsoil has received an underground ploughing, and 
l)as been penetrated by the rain and the fresh air for some time, chemical 
changes usually so far improve this impervious subsoil, that it may be mixed 
with the surface soil w ithout detriment, and a sufficient depth of soil obtained. 
This method of the mechanical improvement of the soil is likewise expensive, 
and is not resorted to where land is cheap. 

Every one is familiar with the old maxim <* Plough deep whilst sluggards 
sleep," and it is passing strange that with us it is so little regarded. There 
can be no doubt that our lands generally can be ploughed deep, much deeper 
than is common, and would be greatly benefitted thereby. Many of you, even 
in this comparatively new country, have known lands exhausted by shallow 
ploughing, whose fertility has been restored without other means than deep 
ploughing. It has been frequently found, too, that the manures applied by 
former occupants have penetrated and enriched the subsoil. The benefits of 
deep ploughing are obvious. Among other things, it enables the roots of 
plants to penetrate to a greater depth for food and moisture. It enables the 
soil to retain manures, to absorb the rains, and to retain moisture. These are 
highly important considerations in relation to lands so seriously affected, as 
ours frequently are, by the want of rain. 

When depth of soil is attained, chemical means for its improvement ean be 



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304 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

most advantageously employed. Lime has been extensively used as a fertil* 
izer from a very remote period ; and however chemists may difier as to the 
mode of its action upon the soil, whether as a stimulent, a manure, a decom- 
poser, a combiner, &c., all agree in placing it in the front rank of mineral fer- 
tilizers. It imparts firmness to sandy soils; renders clay soils less tenacious; 
enters into the composition of plants, and is the cause of many chemical 
changes highly beneficial to vegetation. There can be no doubt that when 
applied in proper quantities, it is very grateful to our soil, and at a cost not 
exceeding twelve or sixteen cents per bushel, will pay well. 

Ploughing down green crops, such as clover, the roots of which penetrate 
a great distance, and carry up ingredients necessary to the growth of plants, is 
a c^eap and important method of restoring the fertility of soils. But whilst we 
are stimulating and concentrating the ingredients of fertility by the use of lime, 
gypsum and green crops, we should not forget that this, proper as it is, will 
eventually exhaust the soil, unless by the application of vegetable, animal and 
other manures, we return the ingredients necessary to vegetation year ^ter 
year, carried away in the crops. Ve^tation requires its food as well as the ox. 

If We would compete with the richer portions of the country, north and 
south, east and west, we must improve our methods of agriculture. This is 
becoming apparent. The rich and fertile lands of the west, with the increas- 
ing facilities for transportation will, ere long, compel us, willing or unwilling, 
to resort to scientific farming. In Scotland, where agriculture has, perhaps, 
attained a higher state of perfection than in any other country, the average 
crop of wheat, on the best lands, is thirty bushels per acre. In England as 
high as eighty-eight bushels of wheat have been produced on an acre. In the 
State of New York the average of wheat is said to be fifteen bushels per acre, 
and the average of our own State is likely about the same amount. In the 
wheat growing portions of the western States, the average per acre is twenty 
to twenty •five bushels. In this county intelligent farmers estimate the average 
of wheat at five bushels per acre. If this estimate is near the mark, we are 
in wheat culture, at least, greatly behind. Indeed, five bushels per acre about 
pays the cost of cultivation, and scarcely at the present prices of labor and 
seed. We must do better than this. We can and will ere long, it is hoped, 
at least double our present average. 

It is gratifying that the culture of Indian colrn, that most useful as well as 
beautiful plant, is of late more and move arresting the attention of our far- 
mers. Perhaps it is my partiality for 

<< The plamed maize, with sbi^ly blade. 
That stands like martial host arraye4>'' 

which induces me to regard it, even with such care as we now bestow upon 
it, as the most profitable of our grain crops ; and no plant better repays care 
and attention in its culture. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 305 

The soil of Indiana county has, undoubtedly, greater capabilities of yielding 
remunerative crops than tnany of us sometimes suppose. It is much more 
fertile than in some parts of the country where farming is made to pay well. 
A few years ago, in passing through some of the New England States, although 
I had heard and rea^ of the poverty of their soil, I found it much poorer than 
I had ever imagined it to be, and in comparison, our county rose up in my 
mind as a paradise* Yet there, in that colder climate, on that poorer soil, I 
beheld farmers not only living well and contentedly, but accumulating wealth. 
Yes, in cultivating farms upon which, I verily believe, the best farmers among 
you could scarce starve decently. 

It is not tho^ who inhabit the wanner and more fertile countries, who are 
most successful and contented.. No fact is better established than that it is in 
the temperate and colder climates that man is most prosperous and happy; 
and there rural economy attains the highest state of improvement. One rea- 
son of this is the healthy character of the climate ; for health has an impor- 
tant bearing on agricultural prosperity. Besides, " necessity being the mother 
of invention," energy, ingenuity, skill and intelligence are stimulated 5 and 
the benefits of intelligent labor, as welt to the country as to the laborer him- 
self, are manifest. If any one doubts this, let him compare the advancement 
and prosperity of our Northern States, where intelligence prevails, with the 
exhausted soii €uid general decay of our Southern States, where the labor is 
performed by a ** servile race" kept in gross ignorance. 

Although the soil of Pennsylvania is not so fertile as the rich prairies of the 
west, her agricultural advantages, all things considered, are not excelled any 
where. Her climate is healthy — her soil generally productive — her moun- 
tains are covered with timber and filled with coal, iron and other minerals — 
springs and streams of water abound. Her navigable rivers, canals and rail- 
roads render transportation easy and cheap. Her commerce as well as her 
manufactures must continue to flourish. The farmer will ever have a market 
for his produce at his door, and nearness to market is an important considera- 
tion with the farmer. The high price of land ma^ compel many of her sons 
to seek homes in the far westj but Pennsylvania will continue to advance in 
wealth, in population and in greatness. 

A brief word in relation to a subject upon which much might, perhaps, be 
profitably said, and 1 have done. Whilst we neglect not the more pressing 
duties of agriculture, let us not forget, so far as possible, to adorn and beautify 
our homes. However inexpensive, it may be desirable, in some instances, 
that our dwellings and their adjuncts should be, let us construct them with 
reference as well to taste and beauty as to comfort and convenience. Let us 
also attend to the fruit tree and the vine, and may we not neglect even the 
flower garden — ^the rose and the lily, for " Solomon in all his glory was not 
arrayed like one of these." Smiling lawns and tasteful cottages are sure in- 
20 



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306 PENNSTLVANIA STATE 

dications of the thrift and progress of the people* These things ever go hand 
in hand with civilization, refinement and religion. Spare no reasonable amount 
of pains to embellish, adorn and render attractive your homes. It has been 
well said that, ^^where the family hearth is made a central point of the beauti- 
ful and the good, a moral influence is exerted which is more powerful than 
any mere oral teachings of virtue and morality." Then let our homes be such 
that we can ever say, even if we cannot sing: 

«Home, Bweet, sweet, home, 
There is no place like home.'' 

My friends, I am fully sensible to the fact that my address is unworthy thi» 
great occasion. My apology is, that called from other and diverse pursuits 
to address you, on very short notice, I have done my best under the circum* 
stances. 



JUNIATA COUNTY. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society: 

The annual meeting of the Juniata County Agricultural Society was hdd 
in pursuance of the requirements of the constitution, on the first Tuesday of 
February, 1856, at the court house in Mifflintown, where an election of ofliccrs 
for said society, for the ensuing year, was held, which resulted as follows, viz: 

President — Joseph Pumroy. 

Vice Presidents — Everard Oles, Hugh Hart, David Hartzler, George IFCon- 
nell, Lewis Burchfield, John Matzer, Daniel Sieber, James F. Cox, William 
G. Thompson and Daniel Westfall. 

Treasurer and Recording Secretary— Jacob A. Christy. 

Corresponding Secretary — Hugh Hamilton. 

The annual fair of said society was held in Perrysville, in said county, on 
Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, the 15th, 16th and 17th days of October, 
1856. The turn-out at said fair was larger than at any previous yearj and 
considering the excited state of the public mind, in relation to political mat' 
ters, at that particular period, all things passed off very satisfactorily, and it 
is believed much to the advantage of the agricultural and mechanical interests 
of our county. The exhibition of stock, agricultural and mechanical imple* 
ments, was not surpassed by that of any previous year ; and the display of 
needle-work, &c., bore ample testimony of the enterprize, the taste and in- 
dustry of the female part of our community — whilst the samples of grain, fruit 
and vegetables produced in competition for premiums, were numerous, and of 
the very best qualitjf grown in this section of our State. 



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AGRICDLTUBAL SOCIETY. J07 

The premiuttis awarded to competitors, by the several committees, amounted 
in the aggregate to the sam of two hundred and seventy-six dollars, and the 
amount received at the same time, for family and single tickets, was two hun- 
dred and fifty*six dollars. 

The constitution of our county society makes it the duty of the Vice Presi- 
dents of our society, one of whom is selected from each township in our county, 
to report at each annual meeting the state of agriculture in the several town- 
ships, the quality of the crops, together with the quantity of the difiernt kinds 
of grain, &c. raised ; but this duty not being attended to for the last year or 
two, curtails, in a great measure, all the material necessary to form a useful 
and satisfactory report to the State society ; and it must suffice, at this time, 
for me to say, that the year 1856, with us, was an abundant one — our crops of 
all kinds were such as were calculated to gladden the heart of the husbandman, 
and health, peace and plenty did mercifully abound within our borders. 

J. A. CHRISTY, Secretary. 
MiFFLiNTowN, Fehrtiary 9, 1857. 



LANCASTER COUNTY. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State •Agricultural Society : 

Dear Sir: — The officers elected by the Lancaster County Agricultural 
Society, at its last meeting, are as follows, viz : 

President — John Strohm. * 

Vice Presidents — Jacob B, Garber and John Miller. 
Recording Secretary— *David G. Eshleman. 

CoRRESPONDINa SECRETARY CaspCT Hillcr. 

Treasurer — Christian H. Le Fevre. 

Librarian — J. Yeates Conyngham. 

Manaqsrs — Benjamin Herr, Benjamin Eshleman, Jacob H. Hershey^ Abra 
ham Peters, Jacob Frantz, Levi S. Reist and J. Hartman Hershey. 

We had no (air last year, consequently there is nothing in our proceedings 
upon which a report can made. 

Oor society appoints at its first meeting, of each year, a standing committee, 
called its Fruit Committee. This committee is large and is composed of the 
most active members of the society. During the fruit season it meets fre- 
quently, and as it possesses authority subsidiary to the society, to distribute 
premiums, it is beginning to attract considerable attention. 

The farmers of our county, in their devotion to their cereal crops, have for 
many years almost entirely overlooked the equally important department of 



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308% PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

fruit eultare. The natural result of this negligence was, that the good fVait 
planted hy their fathers, many of whom took considerable interest in that de« 
partment, was gradually disappearing, and we were rapidly approaching ihe 
condition of a county, adapted in a remarkable degree for producing the finest 
fruits, without the ability of furnishing any thing but the most inferior quali- 
ties. 

This tendency to exhaustion having been observed by many of our farmers, 
efibrts are being very generally made to revive the taste for fruit culture, and 
those efforts are beginning to promise entire success. Not only have the pro- 
ceedings of the Fruit Committee, during the last year, indicated a growing dis- 
position to cultivate extensively the finer qualities of fruits ; bul even in our 
markets a perceptible change is visible both as to quality and quantity. If 
our society should, by means of this committee, succeed in establishing per- 
manently, in our county, a taste for the culture of fine fruits, it will have ac^ 
complished more than its most ardent friends anticipated ; and although the 
primary object of its foundation will not have been attained, the founders will 
enjoy the consolation of having efiected some good in their day and genera- 
tion. 

. Very truly yours, dec, 

D. G. ESHLEMAN, Secretary, 

Lancaster, January 31, 1857. 



LAWRENCE COUNTY. 

To the President of tht Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

Dear Sir : — Our fair this year was held on the second and third days of 
October. The weather was fine and the attendance large. About three thou- 
sand persons, besides the members and their families, being present. The 
competition in horses was much greater than in any previous year ; owing, no 
doubt, to the stimulus given to that department by the "horse shows'* in 
different parts of the country. 

We had enlarged and varied our list of premiums ofiered beyond that of 
any previous year, especially in the matter of crops ; but owing to the exces- 
sive drought which prevailed, many of our farmers, who otherwise would 
have become competitors in the "crops'* department, kept aloof, declining to 
make entries. 

The total premiums ofiTered amounted to eight hundred and thirty-four 
dollars, and sixty-three copies of the Farm Journal. Of these, one hundred 
and nineteen dollars, and twenty-four copies of the Farm Journal, were offered 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 809 

on crops alone. Premiums to the amount of five hundred and ten dollars, 
and forty-two copies of the Farm Journal, were awarded, of which crops 
drew fifty-four dollars, and nine copies of the Faftn Journal. 

The competition in this deparment (crops) was warmest in regard to clover 
seed. 

Thomas Ji JVTKee cleaned 212i pounds on one acre. 

E. S. Thompson had 384 pounds on one acre. 

This was the premium crop. His statement was as follows : . " The ground 
was sowed six years ago. It was mowed one year ; pastured one year ; then 
planted with corn, and the next spring in oats. Part of it was then ashed and 
all manured with stable manure. It was put in wheat the same fall the oats 
were taken ofiT, and the clover came up without any further sowing. About 
two tons of hay were mowed off it, toward the last of June, this season. The 
«eed was taken from the second crop." 

Thomas Falls raised 219 pounds on one acre. 

G. W. Crawford, on seven and a half acres, raised 1,966 pounds. 

Wheat. 

Joseph 8. White, on five acres, raised 1 14 bushels and 2 pecks of blue stem 
wheat. It was raised mostly on oat stubble, preceded by two successive corn 
crops. It was ploughed once from eight to ten inches deep — after a thin 
coating of stable manure, and harrowed once before sowing. Amount of seed 
sown about one and three-fourths bushels per acre. It was sowed broad cast 
about the 20th of September, and then harrowed twice. Soil loamy. . 

Joseph S. White exhibited another specimen of which he sowed two acres ; 
cultivated as above, and from which he harvested fifty-four and a half bushels ; 
being twenty-seven and a quarter bushels per acre. This was a rather deeper 
loam soil. 

The above were both premium crops. 

William Y. Greer, on five acres, raised 91 bushels. 

Oats. 
William Y. Greer, on ^ye acres, raised 245 bushels. 

Corn. 

William Blanchard, on five acres, raised 731 bushels of ears. Two bushels 
of ears shelled yielding one bushel, three quarts and nearly a pint. His first 
planting did not germinate, owing to some defect in the seed. He replanted 
about the last day of May and first of June. The soil was loam or river bot- 
tom. The ground was ploughed once ; harrowed oncej struck odt in rows 
one way, and the seed drilled in. 



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310 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Broom Com, 

William Mayberry, on two acres, (lacking four perches) raised 2,263 pounds. 
About one peck of seed per acre was planted. The ground was a clover sod ; 
second bottom and loamy ; ploughed down and well harrowed, and marked 
out three feet wide. The hills were twelve to fifteen inches apart in the rows. 
It was worked first with the cultivator, and then twice ploughed and well 
hoed at each ploughing. This crop is worth ^\q and a half cents per pound 
at the barn ; %nd the seed is worth as much per bushel as oats. 

Potatoes. 

P. Meishimer, one-fourth acre, planted six bushels of Neshannocks, and one 
bushel of red potatoes, and raised therefrom 120 bushels of Neshannocks and 
20 bushels of red potatoes. 

The finances of the society are as follows, viz : 

Balance on hand from last year $539 05 

Cash from county... -•• 100 00 

Do. . .members 342 00 

Do. . .tickets 407 95 

Grass and licenses 36 00 

$1,425 00 

Premiums awarded $510 00 

Contingent expenses 251 00 

— 761 00 

Balance in the treasury • 664 00 



The officers elect for the ensuing year are as follows, viz : 
President — J. P. Cowden. 

Vice Presidents — Col. A. Buchanan and Maj. John Davison. 
Secretary — ^David Craig. 
Treasurer — Webster Justice. 

Managers — R, W. Cunningham, William Marguis, Henry C. Falls, H. M. 
Kirk, William Williams and John Randolph. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J. P. COWDEN, President. 
D. CRAIG, Secretary. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 311 



LEHIGH COUNTY. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultarai Society : 

Schedule of premiums awarded at the fifth annual fair of the Lehigh County 
Agricultural Exhibition, held September 30, and October 1, 2, 3, A. D. 1853. 

No. 1. — Field Crops. 

John Gross, best &ve acres Mediterranean wheat, yielding thirty-seven 

bushels and twenty-fiVe quarts per acre $5 00 

Geo. Roth, Jr., best five acres com, yielding one hundred and twenty- 
seven bushels and five-eighths of a bushel per acre 5 00 

George Beisel, second best, five acres, ninety bushels per acre 3 00 

No. 2. — Horses a:sd Mitles. 

Charles Seider, best stallion, heavy draught 6 00 

Jacob Soger, second best do # ' 3 00 

Paul Balliet, best brood mare 4 00 

Henry Fatzinger, second best brood mare 2 00 

Dr. Wilson, best stallion, quick 6 00 

Paul Balliet, second best. . .do 3 00 

Paul Balliet, best brood mare, quick 4 00 

Paul Balliet, second best do. 2 00 

Adam Garis, best horse colt, between two and four years 4 00 

Paul Balliet, second best do do 2 00 

Owen Faust, best mare colt do do 3 00 

Robert Oberly, second best do do • 1 00 

Owen Schreber, best pair farm horses 4 00 

H. J. Shantz, best single farm horse 4 00 

Mr. Bankhart, best pair mules. v 4 00 

Thomas Rgth, second best, .do 2 00 

John Bortz, best pair carriage horses. 4 00 

Joseph Fretz, second best, .do 2 00 

James S. Keese, best saddle horse ^ 3 00 

George Jones, second best, .do 1 00 

Charles Fatzinger, best sucking colt ' 2 00 

Dr. F. B. Martin, best trotting horse > € 00 

Edward Eckert, second bept. .do 3 00 

John Sheetz, best pacing horse 6 00 

Mr. Grardner, second best, .do 3 00 



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312 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

George C. Davis, best road horse • $4 00 

Moses Heninger, second best, .do • 2 00 

THOS. B. COOPER, 
JOHN ERDMAN, 
JOSIAH KERN, 
JOSEPH KRAMER, 
JONAS WIEAND, 

Committee, 



No. 3. — Blooded Cattle, Ditkham Stock. 

Edward Schreiber, best bull, three years $6 00 

Abraham Smith, second best. . . .do 3 00 

Charles Beers, best bull under three years 4 OO 

Charles Seagraves, second best, .do 2 00 

Owen Heller, best bull calf 1 00 

Paul Brown, best cow, three years and upwards 6 00 

Aaron N. Loros, second best do 3 00 

Charles Beers, third best do 2 00 

Charles Seagreaves, best heifer under three years 3 00 

Greorge Beisel, second best .do 2 00 

Owen Heller, third best do 2 00 

Charles Beers, best heifer under two years 2 00 

Edward Schreiber, second best. . . .do 2 00 

Edward Schreiber, best heifer, four months old 1 00 

For milch cows diplomas were awarded to William Weaver, Lewis Klomp, 

Edward Schreiber, and Charles Seagreaves. Also to Charles Seagreaves, 

for Durham bull, eighteen months old. 

Devonshire Stock. 

Charles Seagreaves, best bull, five years old $6 00 

Beuben Glick, best bull under three years 4 00 

Paul Balliet, second best -do 3 00 

Charles Seagreaves, third best, do 2 00 

John Bortz, fourth best do 1 00 

Charles Seagreaves, best Devon cow I,, 6 00 

JReuben Glick, second best. . . .do 3 00 

William Fry, best Devon cow under three years ., 3 00 

Paul Balliet, second best. ...do do 2 00 

EDWARD KERN, 
JOSEPH WEAVER, 
PHARON ALBRIGHT, 
JOHN STAHLER, 
EDWARD KOHLER, 

Committee. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 313 

No. 4. — Cattle, Native Stock. 

One cow, four years old, the only one exhibited of native stock belong- 
ing to Aaron Landis • $4 00 

A. L. RDHE, 
JOHN SHEETZ, 
J. HOTTENSTINE, 
ANDREW MOHRY, 

Committee. 



No. 5. — Sheep. 

John Bortz, best long wool buck $4 00 

Ed. Harlacher, second best ■ 1 00 

Owen Schreiber, best middle-, .do 4 00 

John Kemerer, second best ... do • 1 00 

Robert Ob^rly, best native buck 4 00 

Thomas Knecht, second best, .do • 1 00 

Tilghm. Biery, best pen of three ewes : 4 00 

Charles Kramer, second best, .do .4-t 1 00 

John Bortz, best lamb 1 50 

John D. Long, second best, do 1 00 

GEORGE BLANK, 
SOLOMON KLEIN, 
JOHN GROSS, 
JESSE KECK, 
DAVID BEITLER, 

Committee. 



No. 6. — Swine. 

Charles Beers, best boar over two years $4 00 

Charles Seagreaves, second best. . do 1 00 

Charles Beers, best boar, six months 2 00 

William P. Weidner, second best, .do 1 00 

John Kemerer, best boar over two months .• . , 2 00 

Charles Beers, best breeding sow over two years 4 00 

Charles Seagreaves, second best. ... do , 1 00 

William P. Weidner, best breeding sow, one year 2 00 

William Bachman do under one year 1 00 



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314 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

C. Nicholas, best lot of pigs over two months $2 00 

Charles Beers, second best. . . .do do 1 00 

Henry Fatzinger, best lot of pigs under six weeks 2 00 

William Bachman, second best do 1 00 

William Bachman, two hogs, ten months old • Diploma. 

Peter Troxell, three do. . eleven. . .do Diploma. 

JOSEPH WITTMAN, 
AARON LAROS, 
CHARLES GLICK, 
THOMAS YOUNDT, 
JACOB KECK, 

Committet, 



No. 7. — Grain, Seed jout) Flour. 

Edward Kern, best barrel wheat flour. $3 00 

Henry Gerhard, best hundred, .do 2 00 

Solomon Kleia, second best. . ..do • Diploma. 

Solomon Klein, best hundred rye flour ; $2 00 

Charles Glick, best white wheat .« 4 00 

Jesse Keck, second best, .do Diploma. 

N. Dresher, best Mediterranean wheat $3 00 

Andrew Mohry, second best, .do # Diploma. 

John Bortz, best California . . .do.. .^ $4* 00 

Wm. Griesemer, second best . . do .Diploma. 

Robert Oberly, best red wheat $3 00 

William P. Weidner, best rye 2 00 

Andrew Mohry, second best. .do. . . • • Diploma. 

Joseph Gackenbach, best bushel flint com $2 00 

Joseph Wint, second best do ••••..... Diploma. 

John Bortz, best gourd seed corn • t-^ $2 00 

A. H. Wint, second best, .do • Diploma. 

William P. Weidner, best oats $2 00 

Joseph Wint, second best. .do. ... • Diploma. 

William P. Weidner, best barley. Diploma. 

Joseph Wint, best peck timothy seed , $2 00 

Joseph Wint. , . .do. . . .clover seed 2 00 

E. R. NEWHARD, 
DANIEL BERGER, 
JOHN F. FOGEL, 
PETER MICKLEY, 

Committti. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 315 

No. 8. — Agkicultural Implements. 

Charles Rrader, best mowing and reaping machine. $3 00 

Benjamin Yeakel, second best. . . .do 2 00 

Van Epps, Atkins' self-raker. ^ Diploma. 

Reese, Thomas &; Gould, Manny's improved reaper Diploma. 

Benjamin Yeakel, best horse rake. • • • . • $1 00 

John Stahl, second best. . .do. Diploma. 

George Jones, best grass mowing machine, K. F • $2 00 

Jonas Weaver, best corn planter 1 00 

Jonas Weaver. . . .do. . . . plough • • 1 00 

D. Weitknecht, best threshing machine 3 00 

Schweitzer 6c Saeger, second best do . 2 00 

D. Weitknecht, best sweep horse power 2 00 

R. Hottenstein, best endless chain 2 00 

Schweitzer & Saeger, best grain drill, Morris's patent 3 00 

Reese, Thomas 6c Gould, second best do 2 00 

Reese, Thomas 6c Gould, lime spreader 2 00 

Schweitzer 6c Saeger, best collection of ploughs • 3 00 

Joseph Wint, second best do Diploma. 

Reese, Thomas & Gould, best com-sheller for horse power $2 00 

Schweitzer 6c Saeger, second best, .do do 1 00 

Jacob Sterner, best hand do. 1 00 

Schweitzer 6c Saeger, second best, .do Diploma. 

Schweitzer 6c Saeger, portable mill « • Diploma. 

Schweitzer 6c Saeger, best corn-stalk cutter $1 00 

Schweitzer 6c Saeger, best meat cutter 1 00 

O. 6c J. Saeger, second best. . . do Diploma. 

Reese, Thomas 6c Gould, clover huller • Diploma. 

Reese, Thomas 6c Gould, best cider mill and press $2 00 

Jethro Shuler, second best do do 1 00 

Reese, Thomas 6c Gould, hay elevator , Diploma. 

W. A. Gorenflo, best fanning mill ^ $1 00 

Becker 6c Booth, second best do Diploma. 

Schweitzer 6c Saeger, third best do Diploma. 

John Q. Cole, "best wash machine $1 00 

J. Fogel, second best . . . do Diploma. 

Reese, Thomas 6c Gould, dog-power Diploma. 

CHARLES WITTMAN, 
O. L. SCHREIBER, 
D. HARLACHER, 
M. ENGELMAN, 
JACOB BOYER, 

Commtttet, 



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316 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

No. 9. — ^MANTJFACTXmED ARTICLES. — No. 1. 

Robert Kramer, best two horse carriage $4« 00 

L. B. Balliet, second best. . . .do worthy of notice Diploma. 

Lehr & Fried, apprentice boys' carriage $1 00 

Engelman 6c Co., second best, .do Diploma. 

R. Kramer, £EJling top hic]cory buggy $1 00 

Lehr & Fried, second best. . . .do Diploma. 

Lehr 6c Fried, best trotting wagon Diploma. 

Mr. Albright, and Miller 6c Frankenfield, two falling top buggies each, Diploma. 

T. Statler, fancy sleigh Diploma. 

Henry Statler, best single harness $2 00 

A. K. Mosser & Co., best display of leather 3 00 

William Grim, second best do 2 00 

James Hess, beet display of hats and caps 2 00 

Wieder 6c Berger, second best. . . .do 1 00 

C. Lichtenwalner, best display of clothing 2 00 

Keck & Newhard, second best, .do 1 00 

Young 6c Leh, best display of boots pnd shoes 2 00 

Dr. WILLIAM WILSON, 
Dr. T. H. MARTIN, 
CHARLES BRADER, 
DANIEL DUBS, 
SIMON SCHWEITZER, 

Committee, 



No. 10, — Manufactuked Articles — No. 2. 

Gabriel & Weil, best display of carpeting $3 00 

Francis Xander, best display of cabinet- ware 3 00 

S. H. Price, largest display do ; Diploma. 

James H. Bush, best display of stoves » • , , $3 00 

3. Q. Cole, best display of cedar-ware [ 2 00 

J. Q. Cole, best churn 1 00 

O. & J. Saeger, best display of edge tools 2 00 

S. H. Price, best display of chairs 2 00 

Reiss 6c Sieger, second best do Diploma. 

Sarah Egge, one splendid reception chair Diploma. 

J. H. Bush, best display of tin-ware $2 00 

E. W. Eckert, best manufactured tobacco 2 00 

C. A. Ruhe 6c Son, second best. . , .do • Diploma. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 317 

Henry Schruman, best rag carpet $2 00 

Paul Balliet, second best., .do Diploma* 

ELLIS MERTZ, 
W. B. POWELL, 
CHARLES FOSTER, 
EDWARD SEIDER, 

Committee, 



No. IL — 'Vegstables# 

John Zin2eT,best pink-eye potatoes. , . . $2 00 

T. B. Weidner, second best do Diploma* 

Jer. Smith, best blue Halifax do , $2 00 

Jacob Hagenbuch, second best do Diploma. 

Joseph Mohrey, best Christie do $2 00 

Peter Troxei, Jr., second best do.. •........«« Diploma. 

William P. Weidner, best Mercer potatoes $2 00 

J, Hagenbuch, second best .do Diploma. 

P. Troxell, Jr., best Peach Blossom do $1 00 

P. Troxell, Jr., Ohio blue do Diploma* 

Sol. Dorney, Ohio white do * .Diploma. 

Joseph Wint, best turnip^. $1 00 

Thomas Faust, second best do .Diploma. 

Mrs. Walker, best tomatoes |1 00 

Joseph Wint, second best do .Diploma. 

Jno. G. Spiess, best cabbage $1 00 

Thomas Faust, second best do Diploma. 

Joseph Wint, best red beets $1 00 

Thomas Faust, second best do Diploma. 

Rebecca Klein, best citrons $1 00 

Solomon Blank, second best do Diploma. 

W. P. Weidner, mangoes, only on exhibition Diploma 

Jno. G. Spiess, best sugar beet $1 00 

Til. Osman, second best do Diploma. 

Jno. G. Spiess, best carrots ,. $1 00 

George Stein, best pumpkins .* 1 00 

John Kemerer, second best do Diploma. 

Joseph Wint, best cucumbers $1 00 

A. C. Pretz, best oyster plants 1 00 

Lewis Klump, best pole beans 1 00 

Lewis Klump, best winter co?c ; Diploma. 



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318 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Charles Sholl, best Japan peas , $1 00 

C. A. Ruhe, second best do Diploma. 

Mrs. A. H. Wint, best Antiffe $1 00 

Mrs. W. P. Weidner, second best do Diploma. 

Sol. Blank, best lettuce .Diploma. 

Lewis Klump, best variety of vegetables $2 00 

Lewis Klump, best variety of cabbage Diploma. 

Joseph Wint, best beans $1 00 

Joseph Wint, best field pumpkins •! 00 

E. D. LEISENRING, 
J. SHINDEL, 
W. P. WEIDNER, 
J. F. RUHE, 
ISAAC HARTMAN, 

Committee. 



No. 12. — ^Poultry. 

Peter Lane, best variety of poultry $2 00 

Horatio Troxell, best pair turkeys 1 00 

Milton Eckert, best pair of ducks 1 00 

Peter Troxell, Jr., best pair of geese 1 00 

Tilghman Good, best lot of fowls, (eight) . . . . » 1 00 

James S. Reese, best lot of fowls, (mixed breed) 1 00 

Edward Seip, best pair game fowls / 1 00 

E. W. Eckert, second best.'. do 1 00 

Peter Laux, best pair Shanghais 1 00 

John Hagenbuch, best pair pheasants 1 00 

W. Swartz, second best variety of poultry 1 00 

L. Haines, second best variety of bantams 1 00 

H. C. Roth, third best variety of fowls Diploma. 

T. B. Weidner, best pair Brahma Pootras |100 

John Kramer, best pair Chickenocks 1 00 

George Reiss, game fowls Diploma. 

L. P. linger, best pair of pigeons $1 00 

H. G. Reichard^ second best do Diploma. 

JAMES S. RICE, 
LEVI LINE, 
JOHN SHITZ, 
MARTIN B. RITTER, 
OWEN HELLER, 

Committee, 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 319 

No. 13. — Daihy and Honey. 

Mrs. Wm. P. Weidner, best five pounds of butter $3 00 

Mrs. A. H. Wint, second best do do 2 00 

Mrs. Joseph Wint, third best do do Diploma. 

Mrs. John Wint, best jar of cheese $1 00 

John Moll, best specimen of honey 2 00 

F. H. Weidner, second best do 1 00 

Charles Colver, third best. ..do , Diploma. 

A. G. J. DUBS, 
J. H. WEIDNER, 
SOL. SEIDER, 
C. H. MARTIN, 
^ W. M. KAUL, 

Committee. 



No. 14. — ^Fbuit. 

J. Ruhe, best and largest variety of apples • |2 00 

Abner Wint, second best. . . .do. do Diploma. 

Joseph K. Heist, best specimen of apples $1 00 

W. J. Mohrey, second best. . . do Diploma. 

T. J. Learning, best and largest variety of pears. Diploma. 

J. W. Wilson do do $2 00 

£. R. Newhard, second best .do Diploma. 

Charles A. Ruhe, best specimen of peaches $1 00 

C. B. M. Sell, second best do Diploma. 

Daniel Dresher, best display of plums $1 00 

A. J. Martin, second best. . . .do ..i Diploma. 

£. D. Leisenring, best display of foreign grapes $1 00 

E. R. Newhard, second best. . . .do do Diploma. 

Jacob Ruhe, best display of native grapes - $1 00 

J. W. Wilson, best peck quinces* 1 00 

B. H. Shoch, second best, .do Diploma. 

John Moll, white Reasbury grape . . . ; Diploma. 

Charles Brader, Diana do • .Diploma. 

C. W. COOPER, 
JAMES RONEY, 
SAMUEL SAILOR, 
REUBEN HARLACHER, 
DAVID WASHBURN, 

Committee. 



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320 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

No. 15. — Ladies' Work, Class No,'!. 

Mrs. A. M. Horn, best silk bed quilt $1 00 

Mrs. Nathaniel Shafer, best cotton, .do 1 00 

Mrs. Isabella Dorney, second best. . .do Diploma. 

Miss Mary Ruhe, third best \do .Diploma. 

Mrs. Charles Wiand, best woollen coverlet $1 00 

Mrs. Wm. Y. Christman, second best. . .do Diploma. 

Gabriel &c Weil * .... do ..... do Diploma. 

Thomas Knecht do do Diploma. 

John Hamman do ...... do. Diploma. 

Mrs. C. Wittman, best home made wool blanket. . $100 

Miss Mary Banes, second best. . . .do. . . .do Diploma. 

Samuel Sell, best five yards home made linen $1 00 

Herman Yeager, second best. . . .do. . . .do Diploma. 

Mrs. P. Weikel, best home made bed clothing $1 00 

Joseph Mohrey, five pounds hatchelled flax 1 00 

Joseph Wiht, best specimen of wool Diploma. 

L. LINE, 

MKS. J. NEWHARD, 
MRS. W. B. POWELL, 
MRS. J. W. WEILER, 

Committee* 



No. 16.— Ladiks' Work, Class No. 2. 

Mrs. 0. Schreiber, best embroidery $1 00 

Mrs. G. C. Hand, second best, .do > Diploma. 

Miss Lucretia German, specimen of embroidery - Diploma. 

Media Work. 

Mrs. J. S. Reese, best needle work $100 

Mrs. Sarah Boyer, second best, .do • Diploma. 

Worsted Work. 

Mrs. E. A. B. Wambold, best worsted work $1 00 

Mrs. Rebecca Fogel, second best. . , .do. , Diploma. 

Crotchet Work. 

Mrs. E. A. B. Wambold, best crotchet work $1 00 

Miss Mary Hombeck, second best, .do , » , .Diploma. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 321 

Knitted Work. 

Miss Maria Cole, best knitted work • $1 00 

Miss Lucy Blumer, ^second* best, .do Diploma* 

Hair Work. 

Miss L. A. Martin, best hair work — $1 00 

Fancy Work. 

Miss £, Harlacher, best display of fancy work • • %l 00 

Miss Sarah Keiper do . . , ^ . . millinery work , 1 00 

Mrs, C. Whitman, worsted work, (not noticed above) Diploma. 

Miss Gibons, braided work. • Diploma. 

Miss Maria Cole, worked chair ^^eat Diploma. 

J. P, BARNES, 

MRS. D. O. MOSSER, 

MRS. STEPHEN GRAFF, 

MRS, ISAAC HARTMAN, 

MRS. J. D. STILES, 

J. B. MOSER, 

MISS MARIA EVERHARD, 

Citmmittet. 



No. 17.— Natttual and Artificial Flowers. 

Mrs* Thomas Steckel, best display of natural flowers $1 00 

Mrs^ Peter Newhard, second l^st do .do. ...... ^ > Diploma. 

Mts« E. Harlacher, best display of artificial flowers $1 00 

Mrs* A. A* Wagner^ best arranged boquet *..... • 1 00 

Miss C. Kuhns, second best* > . .do. • , , Diploma. 

Miss Mary Ballio^ best ooUection o( dahlias , * , $1 00 

Miss Anna Wagner, second best. . . ^do • Diploma. 

Mrs* Charles Kline, best collection of roses.. . , $1 00 

Mrs. Thomas Steckel, second best collection of roses, Diploma. 

Mr* Peter Storch, German laurel* .....,...*.* Diploma. 

Mr, Henry Storch *do« Diploma. 

Mr, E* D. Leisenring, Burgmansia, Diploma. 

NELSON WEISER, 

Mrs, V. BLUMER, 

Mrs, JOHN GROSS, 

Mrs. J. J. UEBERROTH, 

Mrs, B, GERMAN, 

Mrs, S. WEAVER, 

Miss. ELIZA SCHWEITZER, 

Miss. LUCRETIA GERMAN, 

Committu 
21 



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322 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

No. 18. — Home Department. 

Mrs. J. F. Ruhe, best loaf of wheat bread f 1 00 

Mrs. Deborah Newhard, second best do Diploma. 

Mrs. Joseph Wint, best loaf rye bread $100 

Mrs. Joshua Morton, secondbest do , Diploma. 

Mrs. Henry Huth, best pound cakes . . . , $1 00 

Mrs. Deborah Newhard, best sponge cakes 1 00 

Miss Sarah E. Krause, second best do • Diploma. 

Miss Lydia Moll, railroad cake Diploma. 

Mrs. J. F. Ruhe, swenkfelder cakes. . . Diploma. 

Mrs, D. Newhard. . . .do .Diploma. 

Mrs. Peter Weida, Moravian cake , : , .Diploma. 

Mrs. J. P. Barnes, best light cake Diploma. 

Mrs. Solomon Blank, second best do Diploma. 

Mrs. Paul Balliet, best apple butter $1 00 

Mrs. Robert Oberly, second best do Diploma. 

Mrs. W. L. Haupt, best preserves $1 00 

Mrs. Troxell, Jr., best jellies (fruit) 1 00 

Mrs. J. N. Gregory, largest display of preserves and jellies Diploma. 

Mrs. A. H. Wint, best currant wine Diploma, 

Mrs. J. Q. Cole, second best do Diploma. 

Mrs. Robert Oberly, best preserved quinces .Diploma. 

Mrs. Joshua Morton, best pickels ^. $1 00 

Mr. W. Wieman, tree cake 3 00 

Mr. W. Wieman, largest display of cakes. .Diploma and 3 00 

Mrs. C. PRETZ, 
Miss MARIA REICHARD, 
Mrs. ED. S£>tDER, 
Mrs. JOS. WEAVER, 
• Mrs. OWEN HELLER, 
Mr. D. J. MARTIN, 

Committee, 



No. 19. — Miscellaneous Articles, • 

Mr. L. P. linger, best display of paintings $1 00 

Mr. Moyer Rothchild, second best do Diploma. 

Mr. L. P. Unger, best display of miniatures Diploma. 

Mr. G. J. Anglade, best display of drawings $1 00 

R. K. Warner, best display of pastal paintings 1 ^ 

Miss Wright, second best do Diploma. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 323 

Mr. G. A. Ashbach, topographical drawing $1 00 

S. Sweitzer, piano forte 3 00 

D. O. MOSER, • 
C. M. RUNK, 
P. S. PRETZ, 
JOHN ROMIG, Jr., 
Committee, 



No. 20. — Ladies Riding and Driving. 

Miss Elizabeth Mohr, best driving Diploma. 

Miss Shaadt, second best do .Diploma. 

'Miss Yost, riding ....•,.. Diploma. 

Miss Eckert, riding Diploma. 

ENOS WEIsS, 
CHARLES SEIDER, 
W. POWELL, 
B. H. SHAADT, 

Committee. 



No. 21. — Ploughing. 



• 



J. Wint, best ploughing « t $5 00 

James Keck, second best do 3 00 

Peter Troxell, Jr., third best do , 2 00 

James Keck, best pair of plough horses 1 3 00 

J. Wint, second best do 2 00 

Peter Troxell, Jr., third best do 1 00 

No. 22. — Non-enumerated Articles. 

Keese, Thomas & Gould, lot of wooden pipes Diploma. 

fiink & Black, Terra Cotta heating pipes and water drains Diploma. 

Link & Black, chimney tops and cornices Diploma. 

Henry Steinbcrger, horse shoes and nails. $1 00 

Samuel Wetherill, four plates American zinc Diploma. 

Adams & Co., Salmon's grain and grass separater Diploma. 

Samuel Lewis, one case seal shells Diploma. 

C. G. Himer, cattle powder. $1 00 

American Porcelain Co., fire brick and porcelain Diploma. 

Samuel M'Hose & Co., best fire brick.. • • f , . . . .Diploma. 



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324 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

William Wieman, best display of candies $1 00 

Joseph Motrey, best display of com brooms 1 00 

Young & Leh, best display of furs , .Diploma. 

Joseph Zensmeyer, best display of mathematical instruments.. .... .Diploma. 

G. A. Ashbach, best display of architectural drawings Diploma. 

Lewis Doster, best display of woollen goods Diploma. 

Meyer Hothchild, best display of graining.. Diploma. 

George R. Labar, best specimen of slate roofing , Diploma. 

S. H. Price, best assortment of safes Diploma or $1 00 

Blumer, Bush & Co., one printing card press Diploma. 

^enry Hamman, book bindery Diploma. 

Charles Brader, pruning knife and apple picker «•• $100 

Charles Rose, venitian blinds, (patented) Diploma. 

Keuben Ruhe, church model $1 00 

Charles Knause, best nest of rabbits 1 00 

A. Weikel, second best do Diploma. 

T. Newhard, third best do Diploma- 

W. H. BLUMER, 
H. B. PERSON, 
A. H. WINT, 
OWEN SAEGER, 
EDWARD tECK, 

Committee, 

The above is a copy of the proceedings of the society in 1856. 
Addresses were delivered by his Excellency Gov. Pollock, and Rev. Mr- 
Leimbach, but no copies of the same were furnished for publication. 

JOSHUA STABLER, 

Secretary, 
February 28, 1857. 



M'KEAN COUNTY. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State .Agricultural Society : ^ 

Sir : — The circular of the Secretary, dated January 30, 1857, requesting a 
statement of the proceedings of M'Kean County Agriculturkl Society for 1856, 
has been duly received, and in reply, I have the pleasure of informing you that 
the following are the names of officers elected at the fifth annual meeting of 
the society, held at Smethport on the 17th ond 18th of September hut, for the 
ensuing year, viz : 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETF. 325 

President — ^J. H. Rose. 

Vice President — ^W. J. Colegrore. 

Secretary — S. D. Freeman. 

Treasurer — J. C. Hamlin. 

Executive Committee — ^W. H. King, F. A. Allen, L. T. Moore, C. K. 
Sartwell and H. Hamlin. 

The annual address was delivered before the society by G. B. Backus, Esq., 
in the afternoon of the last day, on the fair ground. 

During the past year the society have held two regular meetings. As there 
were no proceedings had, or any business transacted that would be of interest 
to the State society, we will omit the same. 

The past season has been a very unfavorable one for the agricultural society 
in this county. The society have been obliged to undergo two serious disad- 
vantages. The first of which was the dryness of the season, producing, with 
a few exceptions, smaller crops than usual. The second, aad greater of the 
two, was that the fire broke out in nearly all parts of the county on the two 
days of exhibition, detaining, we may accurately say, one half of the farmers 
at home. The society of M'Eean county may with pride look back upon the 
past year, and feel that we conquered the storms of that year while in our 
youth, therefore, may bid defiance to the clouds that may darken the prospects 
hereafter. Notwithstanding all these embarrassments, we had a very fair 
exhibition. A premium list was offered amounting to about two hundred dol- 
lars. At the fair in September, premiums to the amount of one hundred dol- 
lars were awarded. The society numbers about one hundred members. With 
the money remaining in the treasury of the society from last year, member- 
ships and the proceeds of exhibition of the current year, with the additional 
amount drawn from the county, the society has been able to pay all premiums 
awarded and all expenses incident to said society, still leaving a fund in the 
treasury. In conclusion, the undersigned feel assured that as this little wave 
continues to increase upon the '^Agricultural sea" each succeeding year, it will 
soon vie with those of riper years. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

WILLIAM K. KING, Prendtm. 
J. C. HAMLIN, Secretary. 



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326 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 



MERCER COUNTY. 



To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

Sir : — In the absence of the President of the Mercer County Agricultural 
Society, I submit the following report : 

At the last annual election the following officers were elected : 

President — William Miller, Coolspring. 

Vice Presidents — William Maxwell, Mercer; James Denniston^ East Lacka- 
wannock; E. W. Woods, Clarksville; James M'Ewen, Coolspring; Thomas 
M'Cleary, Jr., Delaware; Samuel M'Farland, Fairviewj Mark Graham, Find- 
ley; Levi F. Jackson, French Creek; William Campbell, Green j William 
Achre, West Greenville; J. W. Ormsby, Hickory; A.J. Zahniser, Jackson; 
T. G. Moats, Jamestown; Robert Kile, Jefferson; Alexander Thompson, West 
Lackawannock ; James M. M'Gormick, Lake; Edward Denniston, Liberty; 
James A. Leach, Mill Creek; Benjamin Robison, Perry ; Daniel Uber, Pine; 
John Lightner, Pymatuning; Thomas Leach^ Salem; Albert G. Brown, Sandy 
Lake; Elliott Byers, Sandy Creek; Dr. John M. Irvin, Sharon; A. F. Ever- 
hart, Shenango ; James A. Nelson, Springfield; Miles Joy, West Salem ; Charles 
Cox, Wilmington; Robert Patterson, Wolf Creek, and Calvin Mathews, Worth. 

Recording Secretarv — J. H. Robison, Mercer. 
• Corresponding Secretary — R. W, Watson. 

Treasurer — William L. Fleming, Mercer. 

Librarian — James M. Breden, Mercer. 

Auditors — ^James A. Nelson, Springfield; Lewis Weaver, Mercer, and 
Samuel Henderson, Mercer. 

We have four acres immediately north of the borough of Mercer, enclosed 
with a high board fence, and sheds and stalls erected for the accommodation 
of exhibitors, and well supplied with water. At a meeting of the Executive 
Committee, which is composed of the Vice Presidents, the Secretaries and 
Treasurer, the* 23d and 24th of September was fixed for the fifth annual ex- 
hibition. 

The days were very unfavorable. It rained during the night of the first 
day, and morning and afternoon of the second, and final day. Nevertheless, 
the exhibition was very good, and attendance of the citizen^ very large. It 
proved that our stock of all kinds is improving. The display of cmttle was 
not so large as formerly, but the quality was excellent. Of horses there was 
over two hundred exhibited. The specimens in grain, vegetables, &g., was 
very good. The display, in short, Avas equal to any of our former fairs. The 
following is a list of premiums awarded by the different committees : 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 327 

Short Homed Durhams, 

Daniel Nelson, best bull, three years old.. $5 00 

Lqwis Egbert, second best bull, three years old 3 00 

R. Patterson, best bull, between two and three years old 3 00 

John W.Clark, second best bull, between two and three years old. ... 2 bO 

O. C. Lockart, best bull, between one and two years old 3 00 

James A. Nelson, second best bull, between one and two years old.. . 2 00 

Lewis Egbert, best bull calf | 2 00 

R. Patterson, best cow, three years old • 4 00 

A. G. Brown, second best cow, three- years old 2 50 

Simon Uber, best heifer, between two and three years old 3 00 

Geo. Williamson j second best heifer, between two and three years old 2 00 

L. Egbert, best heifer, between one and two years old 2 50 

E. W. Ormsby, second best heifer, between one and two years old. . 1 50 

' Devons, 

Charles Koonce, best bull, three years old 5 00 

E. W. Orrasby, second best bull, three years old 3 00 

A. F. Brown, best bull, between two and three years old 3 00 

James Pierce, best bull calf 2 00 

James Pierce, best cow, three years old 4 00 

Charles Koonce, second best cow, three years old 2 50 

R. Patterson, best heifer, between two and three years old 3 00 

James Pierce, second best heifer, between two, and three years old.. . 2 00 

E. W. Ormsby, best heifer, between one and two years old '. . 2 50 

A. G. Brown, second best heifer, between one and two years old. . . , 1 50 

James Pierce, best heifer calf 2 00 

Bakewells. 

A. F. Brown, best cow, three years old *. . . • 3 00 

A. F. Brown, best calf under one year. 1 00 

Grades. 

S. Ligo, best bull, three years old and over - 4 00 

W. North, best bull, between two and three years old , 3 00 

Francis Mears, second best bull, between two and three years old. . . . 2 00 

Nich. Nelson, best bull, between one and two years o\i 2 50 

Seth Hogeland, second best bull, between one and two years old 150 

D. W. Findley, best bull calf. 2 00 

James A. Nelson, second best bull calf 1 00 

R- Patterson, best cow, three years old 3 00 



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328 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Charles Koonce, second best cow, three years old. , • . . $"2 50 

E. Patterson, best heifer, between two and three years old 2 50 

R. Patterson, second best heifer, between two and three years old. . . . 1 50 

R, Patterson, best heifer, between one and two years old 2 00 

George Eats, second best heifer, between one and two years old 1 00 

W. D. Bell, best heifer calf 1 50 

Oxen, 

J. Pierce, best yoke oxen, five years olcf. £> 00 

J. Zahniser, second best do do. . ^ 3 00 

A. Thompson, best oxen, four years old 3 00 

R. Patterson, second best., .do 2 00 

J. Pierce, best pair of steers, three years old . . . .^ ...... 2 50 

J."Pierce, second best, .do do 1 50 

J. A. Nelson, best pair of steers, two years old 2 00 

J. Pierce, second best, .do do 1 50 

Levi F. Jackson, best pair of steers, one year old 2 00 

W. M. Gibson, second best, .do do 1 00 

L. F. Jackson, best yoke of work oxen 5 00 

Farms and Gardens, 

R. Patterson, best farm 8 00 

J. A. Shout, second best do 5 00 

J. A. Shout, best kitchen garden 5 00 

R. W. Watson, second best do 3 00 

R. Patterson, third best do 1 00 

Horses. 

J. Davis, best draught stallion, four years old 5 00 

John J. Moore, second best do. . . .do. . . . .^ 3 00 

J. P. M'Coy, best draught stallion, three years old 4 00 

Eli Heasly, second best do do • 3 00 

J. Hedglin, best draught stallion, two years old 3 00 

David Webster, second best do do 2 00 

N. Wilson, best draught stallion, one year old 2 00 

W. Signer, second best do do • 1 00 

J. Hume, best brood mare for draught 4 00 

Samuel Ligo, second be'bt . . . do 3 00 

G. B. Maxwell, best draught mare, four years old 3 00 

William Emery, second best, .do do 2 00 

A. G. Brown, best draught mare, three years old 3 00 

William M'Cune, second best do do 2 00 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 329 

J • Young, best draught filly, twp years old $2 OQ 

A* Livermore, second best do. ... do 1 00 

A. U. Christly, best draught gelding, four years old 3 00 

J. Porter, second best., ,-. .do do 2 00 

W. R. Power, best draught gelding, three years old 2 00 

K, Denniston, second best do do , 1 00 

P. Hause, best draught gelding, two years old 2 00 

Anthony Struble, second best do. . . .do 1 00 

A. Struble, best draught gelding, one year old 2 00 

Kobert M'Coy, second best dp do 1 00 

E. W. Ormsby, best pair of match horses for draught, four years old. . 4 00 

Samuel Ligo, second best do do do 3 00 

R. Wilson, best pair of match horses for draught, two years old 2 00 

Thomas Carnahan, best pair of match mares for draught, four years 

and over 4 00 

Samuel North, second best pair of match mares for draught, four years 

and over -^ 3 00 

W. Bell, best stallion for saddle and carriage, four years old 5 00 

William M'Bride, second best do do 3 00 

J. Albin, second best stalHon for saddle and carriage, three years old, 2 00 

E. Achre, best stallion for saddle and carriage, two yearaold 2 00 

F. Loutzenhiser, best gelding for saddle and carriage, four years old. . 3 00 

Charfes Bush, second be«t do do do 2 00 

J. Clyde, best gelding for saddle and carriage, three years old 2 00 

William N. Epsey, second best., .do do 1 00 

E. Gundy, best gelding for saddle and carriage, two years old, , . . ; . 2 00 

Arch. Burgess, second best do do do 1 00 

James Montgomery, best brood mare for saddle and carriage 4 00 

John Gruber, best brood mare for saddle and carriage, four years 

and over , 3 00 

R. Patterson, second best brood malfc for saddle and carriage, four 

years and over ..,....,. 2 00 

T. J. Nicknm, best mare for saddle and carriage, three years old. ... 3 00 

John J. Moore, second best do do. . . . c .do 2 00 

Mark Graham, best filly for saddle and carriage, two years old 2 00 

J. N. Means, second best do. ..... .do do 1 00 

James Hume, best filly for saddle and harness, one year old.. ....... 2 00 

G. W. Williams, second best do do .- . 1 00 

Thomas Carnahan, best pair of match horses for saddle and carriage, 

four years old , • 4 00- 

John G. M'Dowell, second best pair of match horses for saddle and 

carriage, four years old 3 00 



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330 PENNSYLVANIA bTATE 

D. Muse, best pair of match mares for saddle ^nd carriage, four years 

and over $4? 00 

W. Turner, second best pair of match mares for saddle and carriage, 

four years and over 3 00 

Thomas Miles, best colt under one year 2 00 

JohnPaxton, second best. . . .do • • 1 00 

Mules, Jacks mid Jennets, 

William M'Dowell, best jack 2 00 

James Denniston, best jennet ,. . 2 ^0 

James Denniston, second best do * « 1 00 

Henry M. Kirk, best mule .\ 2 (JO 

Henry M. Kirk, best mule colt 1 00 

Sheep. 

S. L. Pabneter, best Merino buck 2 00 

S. L. Palmeter, second best. .do. .. » 1 00 

Charles Cox, Southdown buck 2 00 

William Emry, second best do 1 00 

W. North, best long woolled buck * 2 00 

Charles Cox, second best do 1 00 

Charles Cox, best lot of wethers 2 00 

Charles Cox. . . .do. . . . ewes • .2 00 

Swine. 

William Kirk, best boar, large breed, Bedford .•- 2 50 

J. A. Nelson, best Berkshire breeding sow. . , , 2 50 

J. A. Nelson do boar 2 50 

G. W. Williams, best litter of pigs 2 00 

Charles Cox, best boar, small breed 2 50 

D. Clark, best brood sow. . . do ; . . . • .- . , 2 50 

Charles Cox, second best do • • 1 50 

C. Cox, best brood sow, small breed, from six to twelve months old, 2 00 

Poultry. 

S. M'Farland, best pair of geese 1 00 

J. Zahniser, second best, .do 50 

S. M'Farland, best pair of ducks 1 00 

John Madden, second best, .do 50 

Hugh Martin, best pair of turkeys .» 1 00 

L. Weaver, best lot of Shanghai fowls ' 1 00 

H. Martin do. . .Poland fowls 1 00 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 331 



H. M. Kirk best lot of Cochin China fowls. ... 

S. M'Farland, second best. . . .do , 

Dr. R. E. Briener, best lot of Chittigong fowls. 

Dr. R. E. Briener, second best do , 

J. P. Watson, best lot of dunghill fowls 

Jacob Zahniser, second best. . . .do. . . , 

L. Weaver, best lot of bantam fowls •. . . 



Farm Implements, 



Jacob Eberly, best plough ^ • . 

Gregory & Maxwell. . do . # 

Gregory & Maxwell, second best do •, 

Gregory & Maxwell, best subsoil plough 

Gregory & Maxwell, second best, .do • . 

Gregory & Maxwell, best shovel plough 

Lewis Weaver, second best. . . .do 

Gregory & Maxwell, best corn plough. . : 

L. Weaver, best hay rigging 

Gregory & Maxwell, best com cultivator 

L. Weaver, best roller for general use 

Gregory & Maxwell, best corn stalk and straw cutter. . . 

Gregory & Maxwell, best hay and straw cutter 

Gregory & Maxwell, best horse rake 

Gregory & Maxwell, second best do 

Levi F. Jackson, best ox yoke 

G. B. Maxwell, best threshing and cleaning machine.. . . 

ML Henderson, second best. . . do b < 

D. Clark, best mowing machine 

L. Struble, best com crusher and grinding mill 

J, M. Braden, best corn sheller 

J. M. Braden, second best, .do 



$1 00 


50 


1 00 


50 


1 00 


50 


1 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 


2 50 


75 


1 00 


50 


1 50 


1 00 


1 50 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


50 


1 00 


4 00 


3 00 


4 00 


2 50 


1 00 


50 



Fat Cattle and Hogs, ' 

John Moore, best fat cow 2 50 

John Moore, second best do 1 50 

J. P. Hurst, best fat hog 2 00 

G. W. Williams, second best do 1 00 

Dairy Products^ Prepared Fruits^ S^c,^ ^c. 

Newton Wilson, best three cheese 2 50 

Mrs. Alvah Scott, best five pounds of butter 2 00 

Francis Mears, second best do 1 00 



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332 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

John Warton, best ten pounds of maple sugar $1 00 

A. Thompson, second best do ; 50 

Seth Hogeland, best ten pounds of honey 2 00 

Seth Hogeland, second best. . . .do 1 00 

Mrs. A. C. Amberson, best jar peach preserves 50 

Mrs. James Hathom, second best, .do 1 00 

Mrs. R. Watson, best jar tomato preserves 1 00 

Mrs. T. B. Rogers, second best, .do 50 

Mrs. R. M'Coy, best half a gallon of peach butter 50 

Mrs. R. W. Watson, beat gallon of apple butter 50 

Mrs, J. T. Hurst, best jar apple jelly 50 

Mrs. A. C. Amberson, best one-fourth bushel of dried peaches 50 

Mrs. N. Wilson, best two loaves of bread • 1 00 

Mrs. J. T. Hurst, second best. . , .do 50 

Mrs. A. C. Amberson, best half a dozen light cakes 50 

Miss Ann Maria Howard, best one sponge cake. 50 

Crops, Grains and Vegetables, 

Justice Egbert, best bushel white wheat 1 00 

Jacob Eberly, second best do 50 

Seth Hogeland, best bushel red wheat 1 00 

Richard J. Rezenor, second best, .do 50 

Samuel North, best bushel white corn 1 00 

William M'Fall, second best. . .do 50 

Samuel M'Farland, best bushel yellow corn 1 00 

Simon Uber, second best, .do do 50 

Elias Acher, best bushel rye. 1 00 

Moses Hughs, second best do 50 

John Rust, best bushel oats 1 00 

Elias Acher, second best do 50 

S. M'Farland, best bushel barley , 1 00 

D. M. Wallace, best bushel flax seed. 1 00 

D. Nelson, best half a bushel clover seed '. 1 00 

John B. P. Mason, best half a bushel timothy seed 1 00 

J. A. Nelson, second best bushel do 50 

John F. M'Gee, best bushel potatoes 1 00 

James Denniston, second best, .do 50 

George Barns, best sample of hops, v 50 

M. Hughs, best half a bushel beans 50 

Arch. Burgess, best three field turnips 50 

C. Cox, best one doz. beets 50 

C. Cox, best one doz. carrots. 50 



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AGRICDLTtJRAL SOCIETY. 333 

JR. W. Watson, best half a dozen cabba^ * $ 50 

R. W. Watson, best lot garden truck ...... 1 00 

R. W4 Watson, best sample double parsley.. 50 

James D. Moore, best one dozen tomatoes 50 

R. Watson, best lot newly introduced vegetables .....# ,.....* 50 

Domestic Manufactures* 

Mrs. D. Nelson, best fifteen yards woollen carpet. ................ 2 00 

Mrs. J. T. Hurst do. rag carpet. . . . , * 2 00 

Mrs. T. A. Man, second best do ............ 1 00 

Mrs. W. B. Tait, best ten yards barred flannel * 2 00 

Mrs. Wm. Donaldson, second best do , . 1 00 

Miss E. H. Dunn, best patch work quilt 2 00 

Mrs. Wm. M. Stephenson, second best do , 1 00 

Mrs. Robert M'Coy, best ten yards linen diaper 2 00 

Mrs. Robert M'Coy, second best do. . 1 00 

Mrs. Miles Joy, best specimen of needle work 2 00 

Miss M. A. Hoge, second best do ? ... 1 00 

Wm. M. Gibson, best Grecian painting « < 

Mrs. Newton Wilson, best pair woollen hose 1 00 

Mrs. Lewis Weaver, second best do. 50 

Wm. M. Gibson, best oil painting /....•«.. 1 00 

Simon Tiber, best straw hat » 60 

Mrs. A. Scott, best specimen of woollen yarn 1 00 

Mrs. J. A. Nelson, second best do 50 

Mrs. A. Scott, best specimen of linen thread # 1 00 

Mrs. R. M'Coy, second best do 50 

Mrs. James Miller, best half hose 50 

Mrs. David Clark, second best do. ••..«...... • 25 

Mechanic tArts* 

Wm. M. Smith, best side sole leather 2 00 

Wm. M. Smith, best side upper leather • 2 00 

R. £. Johnson, second best do 1 00 

W. M. Smith, best calf skin 2 00 

W. M. Smith, best tanners' work 1 00 

J. C. Shaw, best barrel of flour ' 2 00 

S. Bell, best coopers' work 1 00 

Alexander Thompson, best dozen of corn brooms 2 00 

Nathan Clark, best set of horse shoes 1 00 

Wm. Carey, best set of wc^cn harness 2 00 



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334 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Frvits and J^urseries. 

Seth Hogeland, best specimen of grapes $1 00 

John Young, second best do ^ 50 

James K. Fleming, best nursery of fruit trees 4 00 

James K. Fleming, second biest do 2 00 

J. A. Nelson, best display of apples ii 00 

John Young, second best do 1 00 

K. W. Watson, best ten varieties of apples 2 00 

Flowers, 

Mrs. L. Weaver, best display of natural flowers 2 00 

Mrs. Wm. Gregory, second best do 1 00 

Mrs. J. D. Moore, best display of artificial flowers 2 00 

Mrs. A. Patterson, second best do 1 00 

Wagons and Carriages, 
Wm. xM'Fall, best^wo horse wagon • 3 00 

Sweepstakes, 

James W. Rodgers, horse • 10 00 

Robert Johnson, mare.v 7 00 

Albert G. Brown, cow .^ 7 00 

Miscellaneous, 

Seth Hogeland, Swiss bam Diploma and 2 00 

Seth Hogeland, sample of fluke potatoes Diploma. 

Seth Hogeland, half bushel improved King Phillip corn Diploma. 

Dr. S. G. Martin, set of artificial teeth. Diploma. 

Daniel Nelson, jar of honey 50 

N. Wilson, apple paring machine - Diploma. 

Mrs. Lewis Weaver, jar of pickles /. . . .Diploma. 

J. D. Moore, specimen of Russian turnips Diploma. 

S. F. Smith, copper flour brand .* Diploma. 

Mrs. R. M'Coy, linen table cover Diploma. 

James A. Nelson, four pigs » • $1 00 

James A. Nelson, sample of Poland oata. 50 

James A. Nelson, sample of Perennial Ray grass 50 

James A. Nelson, pair of woollen mittens Diploma. 

Dayton Sigler, No. 9, King of stoves Diploma. 

Dayton Sigler, No. 8 do - Diploma. 

Dajnon Sigler, No. 2, Parlor Gem stoves Diploma. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 335 

Miss T. B. Forker, specimen of fancy lettering Diploma. 

Alvah Scott, one set of planes , $1 00 

Alvah Scott, lot of Guinea fowls 50 

Alvah Scott, chicken coop , . . . . ^ Diploma. 

Mrs. S. Douglass, one knit quilt $1 00 

R. W. Watson, native cow 1 50 

R. W. Watson, sample of white Mexican corn Diploma. 

R. W. Watson, sample of Spanish Spring wheat. $1 00 

Mrs. R. W. Watson, nutmeg melon preserves .Diploma. 

David Clark, one pair of mittens $ 50 

Seth Hogeland, ten pounds of honey 1 00 

Mrs. A. S. Burwell, one rug 50 

Dr. R. E. Briner, one radish * . . , . .Diploma. 

H. M. Kirk, brood mare $1 00 

Mrs. T. B. Rogers, Golden cake , . 25 

Mrs. T. B. Rogers, Silver cake.. ; 25 

Mrs. T. B. Rogers, four radishes 50 

David Clark, two pigs , 1 00 

Wm. M. Gibson, three pigs , , . . 1 00 

Mrs. W. M. Stephenson, jar of preserved apples • Diploma 

Mrs. W. M. Stephenson, jar of preserved tomatoes .Diploma. 

Mrs. W. M. Stephenson, can of preserved peaches Diploma. 

Miss Mary Cook, two fancy baskets. .. ..^ ... .^ Diploma. 

W. MAXWELL, 
Chairman of Executive Committee. 



MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

Dear Sir : — The Montgomery County Agricultural Society ranks among 
the oldest and most prosperous in the State. Great interest is manifested by 
the farmers and citizens of the coimty generally, as well as by the ladies, for 
its welfare and prosperity. Our annual fairs are largely attended, as many as 
ten thousand persons being present at one time. The fair ground (ten acres) 
is beautifully located one mile north of Norristown. Suitable buildings have 
been erected for the accommodation of the society 5 intended for its quarterly 
and annual meetings, as well as designed for its exhibitions. We number 
three hundred and 'fifty active members. 

Dr. Holstein's address, delivered before the association in October last, con- 
tains a condensed history of our society from its formation to the present time, 



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336 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

and will not be out of place as forming part of this report. I therefore enclose 
a copy of it. 

Financial Statement, 

Whole amount of receipts for the 'last year $1 f 506 96 

Paid in premiums. $763 50 

Expenses of the fair 54?8 00 

fialcmce in treasury. • 195 46 

1,506 96 



Ojficefs of the Soc%eti/% 

Presidisnt— Edwin Moore, Port Kennedy. 

Vice Piehesidknt — Samuel Roberts, Norristown. 

Treasurer — Daniel C. Getty, Norristown. 

CorrEspondino Sbcrbtary— Wm. H% Holstein, Bridgeport. 

Recording Secretart^-^G©o. F. Roberts, Norristown. 

Executive CoMMiTTEB-^Charlcs L. Wampole, Wm. Michener, Geo. Geat- 
rell, Wm. P. EHrs, Edw. F. Roberts, H. C. Hoover, Charles Hunt and Charlea 
Johnson. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Very truly yours, &c., 

WM. H. HOLSTEIN, Secretary 

Buidoeport; FebrHtsry 5, 1867. # 



ADDRESS 

Delivered by Dr. George W. Holstein, before the Montgomery County ^igri* 
cultural Society^ at Springtoton^ October 2, 1856. 

Atr. President and gentlemen of the Montgomery County Agricultural So* 
ciety, in looking around upon this vast assemblage of people, and beholding so 
much evidence of thrift, of substantial (Hrosperity, ao much intel%ence, and 
above all, so many faces expressive of that perfect peace and contentment so 
much sought for, but «o rarely attained, the thought involuntarily comes up, 
What is the secret of this state of things'! Where is the spring whence all 
these blessings flow 1 And when reflection brings the answer that 'tis all the 
natural result of the pursuit of that glorious occupation, that God*given science, 
the science of agriculture, we can but marvel that man could ever turn bis 
thoughts into any other channel for a livelihood, that he should ever take upos 
himself the cares, the trouble and perplexities incident to a mercantile life, or 
the toils and struggles that must accompany the mechanic in his course, or the 
wearing, the worrying, the eternal anxieties that belong to a professional 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 337 

career, and especially that he should seek a living in that most trying, most 
annoying, most unenviable of all occupations, the practice of medicine ; which, 
when successfully followed, requires the practitioner to be ever upon the watch 
tower of duty 5 it steals away his time so that he has no time to call his own ; 
robs his sleep of that calm repose so refreshing to exhausted nature; in fact, 
makes the man a very slave. Oh ! yes, my friends, though many among you 
may never have realized the fact, yet it is nevertheless a truth, that you farmers, 
you who toil with your hands that you may earn a living <*by the sweat of 
your brow," are among the most favored in this glorious land of liberty ; you 
may toil, you may labor and grow weary, but when the curtain of night casts 
its broad shadow over this beautiful earth, you can seek your repose with the 
sweet consciousness resting on your spirit that you are your own masters, and 
the very thought that your sleep will be undisturbed, throws a gentle calm 
upon the senses so essential to prepare the system for the journey of another 
day. You have ypur cares, you have your vexations, you have your trials, 
and you have your disappointments, yet, nevertheless, yours is a glorious life 5 
your employment is divinely calculated to impart health and strength to the 
vigorous man, power and vigor to the intellectual, and a sense of earnest, 
heartfelt religion to the spiritual. In your every day's pursuit you are sur- 
rounded by the evidence of God's greatness and glory ; and from early boy- 
hood the heart is impressed with those sacred teachings that in after life tend 
80 much to bless the years with peace. Not a seed you sow, not a plant that 
blossoms and bears its fruits, not a blade of grass that springs up beneath your 
feet, not an effort in the whole of animated nature but that imparts its lesson 
of instruction to the soul, at the same time that it refines and elevates the 
feelings* Whilst you labor at your daily task, you also have the finest oppor- 
tunity of investigating the operations of natural laws, thus delightfully blend- 
ing the mental with the physical culture, making you masters of the science 
of agriculture in its highest sense, as well of its operations as of its effects. 

There is no emplo^Tnent that seems so thoroughly adapted to call into har- 
monious action all the various elements of man's mental, moral and physical 
nature, so that neither exercise an undue preponderance over the other, but all 
alike partake of that healthy development so necessary to a peaceful and pro- 
longed life ; hence it is more in accordance with the designs of our creation 
than any other occupation we could fellow. When the Almighty Father gave 
to man the rich inheritance of this beautiful earth, his command to him was 
that he should "till the soil." He knew full well the requirements of his na- 
ture, and placed him in a position best calculated to develop his faculties 
thoroughly, and make him in its truest sense a man. 

For centuries the mere acquisition of treasure was a matter of miner con- 
sideration with the cultivators of the soil ; they were satisfied with the natu- 
ral benefits flowing from landed possession 5 they reflected with Guizot, "that 
22 



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338 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

though movable property, or capital, may procure a man all the advantages of 
wealth, yet property in land gives him much more than this. It gives him a 
place in the domain of the world ; it unites his life with the life that animates all 
creation ; it establishes him as the sovereign in the midst of nature ; it satisfies 
not only his wants and his desires, but tastes that are deeply implanted in his 
soul. For his family it creates that domestic country called home, with all 
the loving sympathies, and all the future hopes and projects which people it. 
And whilst property in land is more consonant than any other to the nature of 
man, it affords a field of activity the most favorable to his moral developments, 
the most suited to inspire a just sentiment of his nature and his powers." 

In almost all the other trades or professions, whether commercial or scien- 
tific, success appears to depend solely upon vigilance. 

In agricultural life, man is constantly in the presence of God and of his 
powder. Activity, talent, prudence and vigilance are as necessary here as else- 
where to the success of his labors, but they are not less insufficient than they 
are necessary. 

It is God who rules the seasons and the temperature, the sun and the rain, 
and all those phenomena of nature which determine the success or the failure 
of the labors of man on the soil which he cultivates; there is no pride which 
can resist this dependence, no address which can escape it. 

Nor is it only a sentiment of humanity as to his power over his destiny 
which is thus inculcated upon man ; he learns, also, tranquility and patience ; 
he cannot flatter himself that the most ingenious invention, or the most rest- 
less activity, will insure his success. When he has done all that depends 
upon him for the cultivation and fertilization of the soil, he must wait, wait 
with patience and resignation. He should pause and apply the beautiful les- 
sons of the poet, where he says : 

« Be patient ! oh be patient ! put jour ear against the earth, 

Listen there how noiselessly the gerna of the seed has birth ; 

How noiselessly and how gently it upheaves its httle way, 

Till it parts the scarcely broken ground, and the blades stand up in day." 

The more profoundly we examine the situation in which man is placed by 
the possession and cultivation of the soil, the more do we discover how rich 
it is in salutary lessons to his reason and benign influence on his character. 

From the time the great Architect of the universe gave its sovereignty into 
the hands of humanity down to the present, your occupation seems to have 
been accompanied with the blessing of Heaven, and to have been the beraM of 
civilization and religion in every land. No nation known to history ever yet 
has prospered without a great portion of its people being devoted to agricul- 
tural pursuits. Even in the palmiest days of ancient Kome, when that ma- 
jestic city was the acknowledged mistress of the world, and had even i:iipi- 
ously presumed to style herself «* Eternal," she felt that her mighty influence 



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AGKICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 339 

was based upon the agricultural interests she controlled, and th6 noblest men 
in all the land were those who nurtured and sustained her in her pride. And 
when that glorious city was overtaken by distress, and confusion reigned 
throughout the land, when war was threatening to destroy its peace, and 
famine lent its horrors to the scene, she turned aside from more distinguished 
men, those who had earned renown from valorous deeds and glorious battles 
won, and called the noble Cincrnnatus from his plough, and made him her 
dictator. His wisdom calmed the troubled waters, and peace and plenty soon 
returned to bless the land once more. His mission ended, not all the bland- 
ishments of royalty, not all the rich allurements of title and emolument could 
detain him longer from his plough. He laid aside the robes of office, and 
sought again his rural fields as more congenial to his taste, and regarding his 
pursuit as the true basis upon which his country's glory rested. Nor was he 
singular in this respect, for in those days the people set a higher estimate upon 
the art of husbandry than has ever been granted to it since. Claudius Caesar, 
one of the most learned and honored sons of Imperial Rome, esteemed it of 
such importance that he oflTered an enormous price for the best work that could 
be written on the subject within a certain time j and some of the most valuable 
tributes ever given to the science were the result of the labors then brought to 
bear upon it. 

But these glorious days for the cause of agricultural knowledge were doomed 
to have an end. As time roUefd b}^, and these brighter lights passed off the 
stage of action, a spirit of envy arose among the tillers of the soil, originating 
in a desire for political power; civil war broke out among them, and as a 
natural consequence their farms were neglected, briars and thistles took the 
place of com and wheat, and from that day the downfall of the empire was a 
fixed fact. This fate of the Roman empire has its parallel in other cases of 
historical record, and forces us to the conclusion that your time-honored and 
noble calling is the foundation upon which rests the greatness and glory of a 
nation. 

Tliat it has ever been the pioneer of civilization is a truth that cannot be 
denied. Wherever its bright light has appeared, thence the dark spirit of bar- 
barism and idolatry has taken its flight. Even in our own distant territory, 
in the land of the Indian, away off towards the setting sun, in the wild and 
beautiful western prairie, or in the dense and almost impenetrable forest, where 
no foot has ever trod, save that of some wild beast of prey, or of some wilder 
or more unconquerable Indian, even here has the hardy husbandman oft'times 
found his way in advance of all else of civilized creation, and wherever he 
rears his humble cot it becomes the nucleus around which dustier settlement 
after settlement, until the yell of the savage and the growl of the wild beast 
yield to the sounds of melody that accompany the march of civilization, and 
**the wilderness is made to blossom as the rose." 



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340 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Yes, gentlemen, the mission of your science is one of distinguished and un* 
told glory; and strange it is that you seem to hare only just awakened to 
something like a consciousness of the fact. Whilst our trades and occupations 
have had their societies and associations, and have for many years been holding 
their annual conventions, and exerting their best efibrts to promote the interests 
of their different callings, you have been contented to pass along in a quiet, 
unpretending way, perhaps each one imagining that in himself his art had 
reached perfection, as 'tis only a little while ago that every farmer thought his 
plan of operation was the best, in fact the only proper one, and if his neighbor 
differed from him in his views, he listened to his suggestions, but resolved to 
continue in his own course. But recently "a change has come over the spirit 
of his dream ;" a brighter light has dawned upon his mind, and he begins to 
see that "in union there is strength," that in interchange of views and com- 
parison of plans, lies the secret of a far greater success thanjie had ever yet im- 
agined, and that to bring about this state of things organization was necessary 5 
hence have spnmg your different societies for the promotion of agricultural 
knowledge, and from that era you can date the dawn of a more glorious light 
in the cause of husbandry, that must continue to grow more effective as plan 
comes in contact with plan, as mind clashes with mind, until your noble sci- 
ence shall have reached that point originally designed by the all-wise Creator. 
Your societies aie tending very materially towards effecting this happy con- 
summation. If you seek for proof ojf this fact and can be satisfied with analogy, 
look at the gigantic strides the science of medicine has recently made, and is 
still making in the march of improvement, under the fostering care of its na- 
tional, State and local institutions. Why, gentlemen, the time was, and no 
doubt many of you can well remember it, when it was thought the medical art 
had reached perfection, that it was susceptible of no further improvement. 
Those were the days when it was considered almost certain death for a patient 
burning up with a fever to moisten his parched lips with a sup of pure, spark- 
ling cold water; he might ask for it, he might even beg for it, but it was of no 
use, the doctor had forbidden it; yes, forbidden the very remedy that nature 
pointed out, that would have given comfort and oft'times even health itself to 
the suffering invalid. Instead of nature's beverage, that would have sent a 
thrill of health bounding through the veins, he must drink hot teas, and thus 
keep adding fuel to the flames; but this and many similar prejudices are fast 
giving way before the onward march of medical improvement, stimulated as it 
is by its societies and other institutions, though there are still some old doctors 
to be found who regard these^things as innovations upon ;their privileges, look 
upon them with suspicious eyes, and cling to their old practice with unyielding 
pertinacity. And there are some old farmers, too, who look upon your societies, 
and especially upon your exhibitions, with anything but an eye of favor. They 
thjnfc you are wandering away from t!ie good oIJ track, and lo^Ir^g sight of 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 841 

those good old times when they used to thresh oat their grain with a flail, and 
shell their corn on a shovel, resting over the edge of a tub. Those were good 
old times 'tis true, but 'twas not these things that made them so; and they, 
like the physician's hot teas, are yielding to the fiat of time, and will soon hold 
a place only in the memory of the past. 

'Tis true, the idea of association for this purpose is not a novel one, as even 
so early as the year 1785, a society was organized in Philadelphia, called the 
"Philadelphia Society for promoting Agricuhure," but which was for many 
years the only one of the kind in the United States. It was sustained by the 
principal farmers of this country and of Europe, and althou^ now more than 
seventy years have rolled into eternity since it was established, and its off* 
spring are scattered all over the country, it still exists in a healthy and flourishing 
condition, niimbering some two hundred members, among whom are some of 
the most distinguished gentlemen of our State. 

'Tis strange how long, how many, many years rolled by before the farmers 
in other sections of the State caught up the spirit of their Philadelphia brethren 
and established their own local institutions, that since the year 1850 have been 
springing up like magic in the land. 

There was even no State organization of the kind until the spring of 1851, 
five years ago last March. But young as it is, it has already attained a posi* 
tion alike worthy of our noble Keystone State, of the enterprizing gentlemen 
connected with it, and of the c^use it was intended to promote, and has reached 
a point of enviable distinction among similar institutions of our sister States; 
and, gentlemen, prominent among the important auxilliaries to this State cor« 
poration stands your own "Montgomery County Agricultural society," whose 
history we shall now briefly trace. 

In the winter of 1845 and '46, a few femners in the neighborhood of Jefier^ 
son vi lie, in this county, animated by that spirit of philanthropy that character* 
ized their brothers of the Philadelphia society, met together and discussed the 
propriety of forming a local association for the promotion of the interests they 
had at heart, believing such a course best calculated to aid them in scientifie 
investigations, and to elevate their profession to the standard it should occupy. 
Their deliberations resulted in the adoption of a Constitution on the 23d of 
February, 1846, by which they agree to style themselves "The JeflersohviUe 
Agricultural Association of Montgomery County." This may be considered 
the starting point of your society, and all honor is due to that little Spartan 
band of six that then and there bound themselves together, and resolved to 
battle against the diflicnlties and trials that such an enterprize must always en* 
counter in its infancy. 

Its officers were, President, William Bean; Vice Presidents, John Miller 
and Robert Stinson; Treasurer, Samuel Shannon; Recording Secretary, Michael 
S. Ramsey; Corresponding Secretary, Col. A. W. Shearer. Thus you see. 



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34^ PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

tliat when first organized, the offices were filled by she gentlemen of that com- 
manity, and although but ten years have rolled by since that period, yet more 
than one half of that little party have already passed oflf the stage of action 
ahd gone to find their reward in a higher sphere ; and if no other memorial of 
their earthly labors is left behind, they have a lasting monument to their worth 
in this honorable and prosperous institution. 

They held their meetings about once in two months alternately at Jefferson- 
ville and Penn Square, which were pleasant from the fact of their social char- 
acter, and profitable, inasmuch%s there was a free interchange of individual 
views, with an occasional address upon some agricultural tropic* These latter 
were delivered by such men as the late Hon. Jonathan Roberts, the late Hon. 
Judge Longstreth, the Rev. Henry S. Rodenbough, and other gentlemen equally 
4istinguished for their scientific and practical agricultural knowledge. 

On the sixth of December, 1847, a resolution came before the meeting that 
the association should hold an exliibition during the following season. At that 
time such a thing was a novelty outside of Philadelphia, and the difficulties 
that arose in prospective were of such a nature as seemed to render it utterly 
impracticable ; but with that indomitable will that distinguished them from the 
first, they resolved to make the eflfort; and a committee, consisting of William 
Bean, William Hamill, Daniel Smith, Arnold Baker and David Getty, was. 
appointed to submit a plan of procedure^ The want of funds precluded the 
association from awarding pecuniary premiums, and the committee su^ested 
the substitution of printed emblematical certificates for the best specimens of 
the various agricultural products. The report of the committee with an ar- 
ranged classification of articles for premiums, was submitted at the next meet* 
ing, and being approved, the following gentlemen were appointed a committee 
to carry the plan into effect and to make all necessary arrangements for the 
exhibition, viz : Col. A. W. Shearer, Arnold Baker, James H. Owen, Daniel 
C. Gretty, Jonathan Ellis, John Beard and Augustus W. Styer. 

The want of proper acconmiodations presented a serious obstacle in the way 
of a successful issue of the enterprize, but finally, all difficulties were sur- 
mounted, the arrangements made, and on the 19th and 20th of October, 1848, 
the first annyal exhibition of the association was held at JefiTersonville; on 
wkicK occasion, Mr. John Wilkinson, of Chestnut Hill, delivered the addr^s, 
standing on a work-bench on the bam floor of the tavern property. From the 
same rustic stand. Col. A. W. Shearer read off the list of premiums as awarded 
by the committee. 

The exhibition was not only creditable, but it surpassed the most sanguine 
anticipations of its designers, and had the effect of inspiring the society with a 
new life, a kind of vitality it had not before possessed, and eighteen new tnem- 
Bers were added to the list, which had gradually been increasing since its 
Qtigin* 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 343 

During the fallowing year the numbers steadily increased, the meetings were 
well attended, a deep interest was manifested in the success of the undertaking, 
and at the second annual exhibition, held at Fenn Square, on the 17th and 18th 
of October, 184^9, thirty-six farmers came forward and signed the Constitution. 

The association had now become a fixed fact, an institution of the county ; 
it had gained the confidence of the community, and being no longer considered 
problematical, gentlemen who had heretofore stood aloof now stepped forward, 
and lent it their aid and influence, and as they were scattered around at dif- 
ferent points in the county, it was considered advisable to hold the meetings in 
difierent localities, so that during the succeeding year, meetings were held at 
Bridgeport, at the Montgomery House, Norristown, at Springtown, at Port 
Kennedy, and at the regular places, but experience demonstrated that this 
nomadic kind of life was not at all adapted to the interests of the association, 
but that, what it required was rather *^a loocd habitation and a name." Accord- 
ingly on the ^th of February, 1850, agreeably to the suggestion of a commit- 
tee appointed for the purpose, consisting of Jonathan Ellis, W. A. Styer and 
W. Yerkes, the association agreed to change its name to ''Montgomery County 
Agricultural Society," and appointed William Bean, Jonathan Ellis, John 
Harding, John H. White, Samuel Roberts, John Walker, Arnold Baker and 
Joseph H. Shannon, a committee to view localities favorable for the erection 
of buildings suitable for the annual exhibitions. At its next meeting, held at. 
Springtown, May 27th, 1850, after a warmly contested struggle, the society 
selected the piece of ground we now occupy as the permanent place for hold- 
ing its exhibitions. 

Samuel Roberts, David Getty, Samuel Shannon, John Styer, John Harding, 
John Rex, George Geatrell, Rees Conard and William Hamill, were appointed 
Q committee to superintend the construction of buildings, the improvement of 
the grounds, &c., and a further committee, consisting of John Styer, Col. T. 
P. Knox, William W^entz, Daniel C. Getty, Henry Novioch, Edwin Moore and 
Rees Conard, was appointed to make arrangements for the next annual exhi- 
bition, wbich was held here for the first time on the 9th and 10th days of. 
October, 1850. It passed off satisfactorily to all, and gave such an impetus 
to the cause, that during the succeeding year it w^as deemed advisbletoaddto 
the grounds, and enlarge the buildings, so that the accommodations were all, 
that could be desired for the next grand display held here on the 1st and 2d o( 
October, 1851; since which period the society has been holding its yearly ex- 
hibitions at this place, and the display upon each succeeding occ9iSipn has be.en 
improving in quantity and quality until now, at the ninth annual exhibitioUj 
it has reached a point that will compare favorably with that of any similar 
institution in this or any of our sister States. 

Of the early o&ers Mr. William Bean occupied the Presidential chair but 
one year, up to the 1st of February, 1847, when he was succeeded by Dr. Jones 



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344. PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Davis, whose valuable services were given to the society in that capacity for 
the space of five years, up to the 2d of February, 1852, at which time G. 
Blight Browne, Esq., was elected his successor, who very ably discharged 
the duties of the post fo^ two years, and on the 6th of February, 1854, was 
succeeded by Dr. James A. M'Crea. This efficient officer retained the post but 
one year, up to the 12th of February, 1855, when your present worthy chairman, 
Mr. Edwin Moore, was elected his successor. Mr. Moore is now in his second 
year of Presidential service. 

The first Kecording Secretary, Michael Ramsey, Esq., filled the office but 
one year, when he was succeeded by Mr. Christian Miller. Like his predeces- 
sor, Mr. Miller retired after serving one year, and on the 7th of February, 
1848, Mr. W. Bean was appointed his successor. He, too, following- the exam- 
ple already set, served but one year, and on the 5th of February, 1849, was 
succeeded by James Henry Owen. The services of this gentleman were retain- 
ed by the society for five years, up to the 6th of February, 1854, when he was 
succeeded by your present very efficient Recording Secretary, Mr. George F, 
Roberts, who is now in his third year of duty. 

The other officers of your association underwent frequent changes ; but 
from the first, able and competent gentlemen were found al^'uys ready to step 
forward and give it their aid, either as officers or private members, and know- 
ing no reverse, its progress has ever been *' onward and upward.'* 

The list of members has been gradually but steadily increasing, until it now 
numbers three hundred and fourteen, a force that should bid defiance to any 
thing suggestive of failure. 

With all these facts before you to encourage you ; with a full conviction of 
the beneficial eflfects flowing from association ; with the consciousness that 
your society occupies the proud pre-eminence of being among the oldest and 
most prosperous in the State, you should extend to it, and to your annual ex- 
hibitions particularly, such encouragement as must ensure success. It may 
cost a struggle, it may involve an expenditure of time and means to sustain 
the enterprize as you could wish, but the end attained will amply compensate 
for all such outlay. 

You have seen its humble unpretending origin ; you have marked how the 
earnest, hopeful spirits that watched around the hour of its birth, guided and 
controlled its early progress by wise counsels, and trained it up to maturer 
years with a steady aim at the public good ; you see it to-day stand up before 
the world, a pride and honor to your profession ; and will you suflfer it to 
perish 1 A glance into the future shows a bright, clear sky above you, and a 
hopeful, glorious destiny before you ; so that upon yourselves, under God, de- 
pends the issue. 

In the language of another — " This spacious and admirably arranged enclo- 
sure, these imposing and attractive structures that have risen up within it, their 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 345 

numerous, varied and valuable contents, and the vast crowd of admiring spec- 
tators that annually grace it with their presence, all unite in attesting the en- 
ergy which has guided, and the success which has attended the movements of 
this association," and if faithful to yourselves, to the lessons thus far learned, 
and to the memory of the co-laborers who have pissed from among you, there 
is no reason why your energies should ever become paralysed, your progress 
impeded, or your usefulness impaired. 

Each member should feel an individual interest in these exhibitions, and al- 
though 'tis true a spirit of rivalry may spring up among you here, a desire to 
excel in the character of the article raised or manufactured, yet it will be a 
glorious species of emulation, productive of untold good to the human race ; 
the slumbering energies of your nature will be aroused, and results attained 
heretofore unheard of in agricultural philosophy. 

And then, too, you are developing the genius of other arts beside your own. 
Already has the inventive talents of the mechanic been brought to bear upon 
the improvement of implements of husbandry, until they have reached a point 
of perfection that renders the farmer's task an easy one, and his toil a work of 
pleasure. 

The patronage you hereby extend to this branch of industry has given a uni* 
rersal impetus to the trade, as is evinced throughout the land by the springing 
up of manufacturing shops, and agricultural warehouses, fo^rming a striking 
feature of this progressive age. Your exhibitions are the inspiring media of 
all these, for here their results are brought into actual contact, and an oppor- 
tunity is afforded for contrasting the merits of the various improvements, each 
depositor anxiously seeking the award of your first premium, which has oft' 
times proven not only a source of fame, but of wealth to the successful com- 
petitor. 

Nor are these the most important benefits resulting from your association. 
The social ties that spring up here between men , pursuing the same vocation, 
within the limits of the same county, who never would have met but for your 
annual exhibition's, and the pleasing opportunity afforded for their sons and 
daughters to become acquainted, are sources of infinite advantage to them** 
selves, and to the community generally. The genjjil qualities of our nature are 
awakened, and our mental, moral and social condition benefitted and improved 
by this meeting and mingling together. 

Men meet here upon a common level ; men of all religious faith, though dif- 
fering warmly and widely on doctrinal points at home, meet here together, and 
in their mutual secular interests, reflect at least, if they do not for the first time 
learn, that they are children of a common parent, and all looking forward with 
the eye of faith to a common destiny 5 and then, too, while the great national 
heart is throbbing wildly with political excitement, and the public pulse beat- 
ing up to fever heat, men of all political castes and complexions, though vio- 



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346 . PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

lently antagonistical to each other, meet here together, and rising superior to 
the thraldom of party, for a while at least, they stand upon a common plat- 
form, the planks of which are bound together by bands of mutual interest 5 
and they learn the salutary lesson of tempering their political enthusiasm with 
that sweet spirit of forbearance, that teaches man to reflect that in this glori- 
ous land of liberty, his neighbor is as much entitled to an opinion as himself. 
They forget the claims of party, and all alike entertain the universal sentiment, 
that as the great basis of our national prosperity, the interests of agriculture 
must be sustained. 

Men go away from here better than when they came 5 old prejudices have 
been shaken loose, false opinions have given way before the light of reason and 
experience 5 dogmas that have clogged up the pathway of progress, have been 
rooted out 5 and even " the glittering generalities" of speculative theorists pale 
and fade before the rays of truth and reason. 

Here, too, the gentle influence of woman is brought to bear upon his grosser 
nature, and when he feels the power of her aid and sympathy in the great 
cause he had at heart, he is encouraged, in fact urged on to extra oflbrt in its 
behalf. When he feels the consciousness that her hand not only beautifies and 
adorns whatever is gross around us, but that without that liand we would be 
denied the enjoyments of the most blessed and perfect uses of agricultural 
products, he goes hence impressed with a holier regard for the most precious 
gift of Heaven ; and he learns the truthful lesson, that as well might man as- 
pire to a prospeit>us smd happy life unblessed by the smiles and sympathies of 
woman, as for vegetation to attempt to grow and prosper without the genial 
influence of sunshine and of showers. 

Give then to your exhibitions your countenance and aid. Let not the whole 
labor, as well as responsibility, devolve upon a few. Do not unite yourselves 
with such an association, and participate in it as spectators only. Above all let 
no petty jealousies arise to cast their blighting, cankering shadow over tho 
cheering light that is looming up in the future, but with one accord come up 
to the work with the determination to succeed, and success is certain. Come 
forward and aid in maintaining the high and illustrious position already at- 
tained by " the Montgomery County Agricultural Society." Yea, and even 
let your watchword be " Excelsior." 



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AGKICULTUHAL SOCIETT. 347 



MOXTOUR COUNTY. 

Reports of Committees and Premiums awarded at the third Exhibition of the 
Montour County ^Agricultural Society^ held in Danville, an the l$t, U and 
3d of October, 1856. 

Horses. 

John Cherry, three years old colt Diploma. 

Edward Grady, two and a half years do Diploma. 

Hiram Bright, one mare atid colt First premium. 

Henrj' Wintersteen, three years old colt Diploma. 

Caleb Appleman, farm team Diploma. 

Joseph Weaver, heavy draught mare Second premium. 

Jacob Sechler, one breeding mare Diploma. 

William Madden, one stallion, two years old First premium". 

Lafayette Sechler, one stallion, six years old First premium. 

Levi Lose, one pair two years old draught horses .Diploma. 

Abner M'Bride, one two years old colt Diploma. 

S. W. Lowrey, one two years old colt ^ * Diploma. 

John Welliver, two mares Diploma. 

Daniel Cromley, one draught horse First premium. 

Adam Smith, one trotting horse Diploma. 

Joseph Ranck, one heavy draught mare Diploma. 

Joseph Ranck, one harness and saddle do .Diploma. 

William Sloan, one pair bay carriage horses First preiinium. 

Jacob Sheep, one three years old colt Diploma. 

James M'Cormick, one saddle and harness mare Second premium. 

Charles N. Savage, one trotting horse and buggy Divided premium. 

Franklin Sidler, two colts, two years old Diploma. 

Joseph Reader, one pair team mares Diploma. 

William Sweitzer, one mare and colt • .Second premium. 

Eli Wilson, one single harness horse First premium. 

S. P. Kase, one dun horse, raeker Divided premium. 

S. P. Kase, one pair gray horses ...-...* Second premium. 

Robert Blee, one pair four years old brown meres Diploma. 

Robert Campbell, one six years old stallion Second premium. 

Wilson Forseman, one mare and colt Diploma. 

Clinton Yorks, one horse, five years old Diploma. 

Henry Yorks, one mare and colt Diploma. 

Jacob Shelhaxt, one colt, two years old. ^ . 1 Diploma. 

Simpson Smith, one pair farm horses •.».••#..••# t •• . .First premium. 



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348 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Joseph Ranck, two years old stallion Second preminm. 

Daniel Frazier, pair farm horses First premium. 

Cattle, 

Jacoh Sechler, one fat steer, three years old Premium,. 

Jacob Sechler, one heifer, thirteen months old First premium. 

Jacob Sechler, one cow First premium. 

J. W". Lowrey, one three years old bull Second premium. 

Dr. C. H. Frick, one heifer, gpod. 

G. Lichtenthaler, one bull, three years old, good. 

G. Lichtenthaler, one heifer, eighteen months old, worthy of notice. 

Stephen Koberts, one heifer, five months old Second premium. 

John Voris, one bull, six months old First premium. 

Joseph Maus, one bull and two years old heifer, good. 
Wilson Forseman, two cows, good. 
John Welliver, two cows, second best, entered too late. 
John Welliver, one bull, two years old, entered too late. 

J. W. Bailey, one cow, one heifer sixteen months old Diploma, 

Peter Hinebach, two calves, two months old, second best, entered too late. 
Joseph Maus, (tne heifer. ..•..,• Second premium. 

Swine. 

J. Comqlison, three shoats, six months old Second premiiun. 

Lambert Pitner, two shoats, five months old First premium. 

Dr. Thos. R. Hull, one boar, eighteen months old First premmm. 

Joseph Ranck, litter of pigs First premium. 

Thos. Jameson, fat hog t First premium. 

Henry Yorks, one sow, nine pigs, entered too late. 

Sheep, 

Edward Grady, nine sheep, ram and ewe. . . » Premium. 

Henry Wintersteen, six sheep and two lamb Premium for lambs. 

Jacob Sechler, seven sheep Premium. 

Joseph Ranck, one ram, ewe and lamb DiploouL 

Andrew B. Cummings, one ram Diploma. 

Poultry, 

Redding Herring, two pair ducks, two geese Premium on geese. 

William L. Garret, one lot white Shanghais First premium. 

Redding Herring, one pair turkeys^. .Premium. 

Henry H, Leisenring, one cock and one hen .,..,.., Premium. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 349 

John Ross^ seven ducks. First premium, 

Mrs. H. Best, one lot Shanghais, enteced too late. 

John W. Girton, one lot Musk ducks, entered too late. 

Thos. Jameson, one lot Shangliais Premium. 

Grain and Potatoes, 

Edward Grady, one bushel corn Premium. 

Henry Wintersteen, two bushels wheat, two bushels rye. . . Premium on each, 

Lambeh Pitner, tWo bushels wheat Premium. 

Lambert Pitner, dried corn Diploma, 

John Leighow, one bushel rye .Diploma. 

John Leighow, one bushel buckwheat, good. 

Abner Pitner, two bushels potatoes Premium. 

Elias Haas, one bushel oats. Diploma. 

James S. Gearhart, two bushels oats « First premium. 

James S. Gearhart, one bushel potatoes, good. 

John Cromley, two bushels wheat Second premium. 

John Best, one lot of ever-green corn Premium. 

Dr. T. R. Hull, one bushel potatoes, good. 

C. T. Styer, two bushels wheat •• Premium. 

Joseph Render, one bushel potatoes, good quality, 

S. P, Kase, two bushels wheat ' Diploma. 

Robert Mack, two bushels wheat Second premium. 

Wilson Forseman, two bushels oats, forty pounds Premium, 

Abner Pitner, sweet potatoes Premium. 

S. W. Lowrey, one bushel corn Second premium. 

Joseph Vankirk, one bushel potatoes First premium. 

Robert Campbell, one bushel' potatoes Diploma. 

Vegetables, 

Lambert Pitner, turnips Premium,, 

John Leighow, soup beans . . * Premium. 

Robert C. Russell, three pumpkins First premium. 

Abner Pitner, six citrons First premium. 

Abner Pitner, squashes First premium. 

Henry H. Leisenring, cellery First premium. 

Samuel Alexander, a lot tomatoes First premium. 

H. H. Leisenring, basket tomatoes Second premium. 

Dr. T. R. Hull, beets First premium. 

C, N. Savage, two pumpkins, good. 

B. W. Pratt, cabbages, squashes and quinces Premium for cabbage. 

Stephen Roberts, onions .First premium. 



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350 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Wilson Forseman, pumpkins and cabbage , Premium. 

Joseph Mowrey, one Mexican pickle Premium. 

\Vm. G. Gaskins, six cabbages First premium. 

Wm. G. Gaskins, one stalk of corn Diploma. 

Horace Young, one pumpkin, not enough for premium. 

Mrs. George A. Frick, nasturtium Diploma. 

Fruits, 

Robert C. Russell, a lot of apples Premium. 

Caleb Appleman, a lot of quinces, good. 
Caleb Appleman, a lot of mangoes, good. 

Joseph Weaver, one bottle currant wine First premium. 

Samuel Alexander, one bottle currant wine Second premium. 

Samuel Alexander, blackberry wine, good. 
Samuel Alexander, one jar of peaches, ^ood. 

Samuel Alexander, four pears Premium. 

Samuel Alexander, Isabella grapes Premium. 

Samuel Alexander, frost grapes, good. 
Albert Bondman, quinces, good. 

Albert Bondman, peaches (only lot) Premium. 

Albert Bondman, mangoe peppers, good. 

.T. T. Hcaddons, currant wine, good, 

Mrs. J. T. Head dens, quince jelley, good. 

C. T. Slyer, half bushel apples, good. 

Mrs. H. Best, one bunch of grapes ; Diploma. 

B. W, Pratt, quinces First premium. 

Implements. 

John H. Gotshall, one horse and hand power cutting box Premium. 

Jacob JSecliler, one roller, worthy of notice. 

C. C. Baldy, one cider mill, one corn sheller, one apple cutter, one sausage 
stutter, one sausage cutter, one plough. These articles worthy of notice. 

Griffith Lichtenthaler, one corn plough Premium. 

J. S. Gearhart, one horse rake Premium. 

J. S. Gearhart, one seed drill Premium. 

Stone Sz Husliizer, one threshing machine Premium. 

Stone & Hushizcr, one horse power feed cutter, worthy of notice. 

J. S. Gearhart, plough, worthy of notice. 

J. S. Gearhart, ^ub-soil plough, worthy of notice. 

Daniel E. Arnwine, shoeing and large pincers .Premium. 

S. P. Kase, lime spreader, worthy of notice. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. g51 

Dairy, 

Lambert Pitner, honey < Premium. 

Abner Pitner, one roll of butter Diploma, 

Jacob Sechler, one roll of butter. . . . , Second premium. 

Redding Herring, honey. Diploma. 

Samuel Alexander, honey Diploma. 

Mary Alexander, butter Diploma. 

Albert Bondman, butter Diploma. 

Joseph Ranck, butter ^ Diploma. 

Joseph Ranck, preserve tomatoes Diploma. 

J. T. Headdens, honey , Diploma. 

J. T. Headdens, peach preserves Premium. 

J. T. Headdens, tomatoes, good. 
J. T. Headdens, butter, good. 

C. T. Styer, apple butter , Premium. 

David Roberts, butter ^ , Diploma. 

Robert C. Johnston, butter First premium. 

Stephen Roberts, apple jelly, good. 
Horace Young, butter, worthy of notice. 
John Wellner, honey, good. 

Mrs. Hannah Pitner, preserve tomatoes , Diploma. 

Mrs. Hannah Pitner, pears Diploma. 

Joseph Vankirk, honey .Diploma. 

Domestic Manufactures, 

Mrs. R. C. Russell, quilt Premium. 

Miss M. Pitner, (blind) bead work .Premium. 

Jacob Sechler, hard soap, good. 
Mrs. C. Appleman, quilt, good. 

Henry Buckheister, rocking-chair cushion Premium. 

Henry Buckheister, Dutch doll Premium. 

Elias Haas, eight pounds of hard soap > Premium. 

Elias Hass, tidy , Diploma. 

John Best, harness Diploma. 

Perry Deen, kipp and calf skins Premium. 

Miss Alexander, rag carpet Premium. 

Clara B. Overpeck, stool cover Diploma. 

Mrs. Overpeck, two pair of blankets Diploma. 

Miss Augusta Pratt, two tidies Diploma. 

Miss Augusta Pratt, two lamp mats. 

Miss Augusta Pratt, two leather work picture frames .Premium. 

Miss Augusta Pratt, three lamp mats. 



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352 PENNSYLV'ANIA STATE 

Miss Augusta Pratt, one crotchet basket. 

James Miller, horse sandal , Premium. 

James Miller, horse shoes Premium. 

Mrs. B. F, Everhart, quilt * Diploma. 

Catharine Welliver, four quilts and coverlets Diploma. 

Mary Jane Hays, quilt Premium. 

Mrs. Headdens, toilet rug ! Premium. 

Mrs. Headdens, quilt Diploma. 

Mrs. Headdens, cotton goose Diploma. 

Miss Elizabeth Lewis, lot of hair work, boquet of flowers, tidy and 

stand cover Premium. 

M. C. Fiester, fruit basket, fan, one Iamb, one cat (worsted work) . . Premium. 

Miss Mary Hughes, blue silk apron (needle worked) Diploma.' 

J. M. Best, double set of harness « Diploma. 

David Roberts, one pair of blankets, good. 

G. W. Bennet, iced cakfe Premium. 

Eli Wilson, set of harness Premium. 

Maggie Deen, one fchair, x^'orsted, rocking Diploma. 

Maggie Deen, small chair Diploma. 

Susannah Cornelison, quilt Diploma. 

Mrs. Eliza Taylor, counterpanes Diploma. 

Eleanor Bailey, comb case Diploma. 

Eleanor Bailey, band-box Diploma. 

Eliza Bailey, cake cover Diploma. 

John W. Bailey, keg of German beer Diploma. 

Stone & Hulshizer, farm wagon, worthy of notice. 

Henry Jacobd, iced cake ! Second premium. 

Horticulture and Floriculttrre. 

Miss Ellen A. Best, boquet Second premium. 

Mrs. Ellen Best, boquet First premium. 

Miscellaneous. 

J. B. Cox, Daguerreotypes and Ambrotypes First premium. 

Lambert Pitner, bee-hive First premium. 

Lambert Pitner, loaf of bread, good. 

Lambert Pitner, pears and tomatoe preserves, good. 

John Leighow, ham First premium. 

Jacob Sechler, fly brush Diploma. 

J. B. Moore, Daguerreotypes and Ambrotypes Second premium. 

John M. Best, harness moui^ting, handsome. 
John M. Best, buffalo robes, good. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 353 

John M. Best, whips, good. 

Samuel Alexander, ham ^ Diploma* 

Miss Russell, case of millinery ^ ( Premium. 

Mrs. Marr, artificial flowers Premium. 

Mary Jane Hays, loaf of bread. Premium. 

Mrs. Headdens, loaf of bread, good. 

Harriet Best, loaf of bread « , « . .Diploma. 

Ploughing MeUch. 

Edward Grady.. Second premium. 

Caleb Appleman. * 

James S. Gearhart First Premium. 

Officers for 1856. 

N. 

Prestdext — Thomas R. Hull, M. D., Washingtonville. 
Secretaby — ^Jacob Cornelison, Danville. 
CoBRESPOKDTNG SECRETARY — Dr. C. H. Frick, Dauville. 
Librarian — Benjamin K« Rhodes, Danville. 
TBEASimER — ^Daniel M. Boyd. 

Which is repectfuUy submitted. 

JACOB CORNELISON, Secretary. 



NORTHAMPTON COUNTY. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State ^Agricultural Society: 

The fourth annual exhibition of the Northampton County Agricultural Society 
was held at Nazareth in October, and continued four days, and was very en- 
couraging. A large number of horses, cattle, sheep and hogs, were placed on 
the ground, and were favorable specimens of stock raised in this county. 
The display of vegetables was very good. We do not remember to have seen 
better and larger potatoes than those exhibited. Beets, pumpkins, turnips, et 
cetera were in large quantities. Fine assortments of apples, pears, peaches, 
grapes, honey, butter, preserves and many other articles of the kind were ex- 
hibited. Also, wheat and rye flour, corn, oats, et cetera. The upper part of 
the house was handsomely decorated with evergreen and a large variety of 
Howers. Quilts of various patterns were suspened, with chair tidies, needle- 
work, carpets, et cetera. 

Altogether the exhibition far exceeded the expectation of its most sanguine 

members, and gave encouraging promise of the future prosperity of the society. 
23 



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«5i PENNSTLVAJHA STATE 

On the third day. of the exhibition, English addresses were defivered bjr 
Judge Findley, of Philadelphia, £. Fox, Esq., of Easton, and on the fourth day 
an address in German ^as delivered by Dr. Hark, of Nazareth. 

P. B. STEINMETZ, President. 
CHS. K. HOEBER, Secretary. 
Nazaketh, December^ 27, 1856*. 

Award of premiums of the fourth annual exhibition of the Northampton 
County Agricultural Society, held at Nazareth in October, 1S&6, as reported 
by the several committees appointed for that purpose. 

» Field Crops, 

Thomas Oberly, best two acres of wheat • . . . . $4 00 

John P. Beisel, best two acres of rye. 4 00 

John Heckman, second best do., .do 2 00 

Peter B. Steinmetz, best two acres corn , 4 00 

Samuel Hoffman, second best do. . .do.. 2 00 

George Bower, best one acre com 2 00 

Thomas Oberly, best two acres oats 3 00 

Josiah Jones, best one do 2 00 

Josiah Jones, best half acre potatoes • • 4 00 

Charles Ochs, second best do 2 00 

John P. Beisel, best two acres clover 3 00 

John P. Beisel, best two acres clover and timothy.. ; 3 00 

Amandus Heinly, best one acre broom com 1 00 

Horses and Mules. 

George Snyder, best stallion for heavy draught. 6 00 

John Best, second best. .do. do 4 00 

F. E. Smith, best stallion for light draught and speed 6 00 

John Seiple, best stallion, three years old 2 00 

Peter Kern, best stallion, two years old 4 3 00 

Josiah Jones, second best do do 2 00 

George Haupt, third best do do ; 1 00 

Daniel Nolf, best brood mare, heavy draught 5 00 

Charles Warner, second best do , do 3 00 

William Davidson, thirdbest do do 2 00 

Charles Hess, best brood mare, light draught 5 00 

Charles Steckel, second best do do 3 00 

Keub. D. Rohn, third best., .do do. 2 00 

Hugh Horner, best one year old horse colt 4 00 

Daniel Nolf, second best do do 4 00 

William Snyder, third best do ,...•• do. . ., ;........«•.... 1 09 



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AGBICULTURAL SOCIETY, 855 

Jolm Agnew, best niare colt, one year alcL. ..,......,..•,.......• $4 00 

Solomon Heil« second best do ^do. « • 2 00 

Andrew Uhler, third best do. . . ... «d.o ..«>....,« , . 1 00 

Peter Kemmerer, best horse colt, two years old , 4 00 

George W. Ueiny, second best do. . ... .>do«. «••......•. 2 00 

William Dech, third best do do «... 1 00 

John Agnew, best mare, two years old « > , 4 00 

Ed. Bridinger, second best do. . . ^do « ., • • 2 00 

Wra. Davidson, third best do. . . ,do, ...««,..« • , • 1 00 

Christian Bleam, best horse colt three years old. .,...,«,..•,...• , 4 00 

Thomas Hess, second best do ....«.« do. .«.«. , .«,.,. 2 00 

Peter Rohn, best mare colt, three years old. . . « . • 4 00 

James Blair, second best do« ....«, .dp .....••...••.•....« ,^ 2 00 

Josiah Jones, third best do. ...... .do. .....«,....«•• « • • 1 00 

Charles JRauch, best pair of farm horses, heavy draught 5 00 

D. Hornecker, second best, • • . .do .do. 2 09 

D. Bitter, third best do do 1 00 

D. Kleckner, best pair of carriage horses. . . . « • 5 00 

Benj. T. Lerch, second best do 2 00 

John S. Dech, third best do 1 00 

Abraham Bleam, best single carriage horse • 3 00 

George Jones, second best , .do • 2 00 

Peter Rohn, third best. do .1 00 

David Barraul, best saddle horse. , 3 00 

Joseph Ehret, second best do 2 00 

Robert Demster, best trotting horse for speed. .....•..••.,• 8 00 

James Vliet, second best. .. .do ...... do 4 00 

Charles Hess, best sucking horse colt 3 00 

Thomas Spengler, second best do 2 00 

August Stuben, third best. . . .do 1 00 

Levi Worman, best sucking mare colt 3 00 

Charles Warner, second best. . . .do 2 00 

Leidy Shimer, best speed pacing. 8 00 

Andrew Judge, second best do 4 00 

Mrs. Pefer, for best driving ; 2 00 

Miss Maria Riegel, second best do. ,.....••• 1 00 

Miss Maria Riegel, best riding 2 00 

Joseph Heller, breeding mare with two colts 2 00 

Cattle. 

Daniel Desh, for best Durham cow.. .«••• |4 00 

IhjtM Biery, second best, .do ,^» 2 00. 



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356 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Henry Miller, third best Durham cow $! GO 

Thos. Clendeoen, best Devon cow 4 00 

Daniel Desh, second best, .do 2 00 

William Riegel) third best .do. ...••• • 1 00 

William Firmstone, best Ayrshire cow 4 00 

Thomas Michler, best mixed breed cow 4 00 

Thomas Oberly, second best., .do 2 00 

Josiah Lerch, third best do 1 00 

Thomas Clendenen, best Devon»heifer 3 00 

Daniel Desh, second best. . . .do 2 00 

Thomas Clendenen, third best do 1 00 

William Firmstone, best Durham bull 3 00 

Samuel Riegel, second best, .do 2 00 

John Wagner, third best. ... do 1 00 

Samuel Shortz, best Devon bull over three years 5 00 

^eter Rohn, second best. . . .do do 3 00 

Daniel Biery, third best. . . .do do 1 00 

Samuel Rinker, best Devon bull between two and three years 3 00 

Amandus Heinly, second best, .do do 2 00 

William Firmstone, best heifer, mixed breed 3 00 

Solomon Heil, second best, .do do 2 00 

William Rodrock, third best do do 1 00 

Joseph Seifried, best heifer, native breed 3 00 

Amandus Heinly, second best . . . .do 2 00 

Peter Rohn, third best do 1 00 

John Hess, best cow, native breed 4 00 

Daniel Desh, second best, .do 2 00 

Chs. Whitbsel, third best, .do 1 00 

William Firmstone, best Durham bull, between one and two years. . . 2 00 

William Desh, second best. . . .do do do 1 00 

Hugh R. Horner, best Devon bull, between one and two years 2 00 

Isaac Insly, second best. . . .do do do I 00 

William Riegel, third best, .do do do 1 00 

Anthony George, best Durham bull calf 2 00 

Thomas Clendenen, best Devon bull calf. . : 2 00 

John Agnew, second best do 1 00 

John Agnew, best heifer, four months old 2 00 

Hugh R. Homer, second best. . . .do I 00 

G. L. Beitel, third best do 1 00 

Samuel Reigel, best Devon heifer, between one and two years old ... 2 00 

William Reigel, second best. . .do. ..» do do 1 00 

Joseph Ehret, third best do do do...*** 1 ^ 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. S57 

Willmm Firmstone, best Ayrshire heifer » • $9 00 

James R. Blair, best Ayrshire heifer, mixed , 2 00 

Charles Bleam, second best. . . do 1 00 

John Agnew, third best do. . . .^ « « 1 00 

Daniel Desh, twin bull calf, three-fourths Durham 2 00 

Sheep, 

John M. Lerch, one ewe, Oxfordshire ;..... 3 00 

John M. Lerch, one buck. . . ..do 3 00 

Daniel Biery, three ewes, Bakewell • • » • 3 00 

Samuel Shortz, four ewes, English 3 00 

Josiah Jones, second best do. 2 00 

WiUliam Firmstone, best Southdown ewes 3 00 

Daniel' Desh, best Southdown buck 3 00 

Daniel Biery, second best, .do 1 00 

William Snyder, best mixed buck 3 00 

George P. Sandt, sheep, English breed 2 00 

William Firmstone, best Southdown lambs 2 00 

Daniel Kemmerer, second best. . . .do « 1 00 

Samuel Shortz, one lamb, Bakewell * 1 00 

Josiah Jones do mixed 1 00 

Swine. 

Henry J. Beck, hest boar, one year old. ,4 3 00 

Joskih Jones, second best, .da 4 2 00 

Richard Whitesel, best boar, six months old 3 00 

Jacob F. Beck, second best do 2 00 

G. W. Heiny, best boar under six months 2 00 

Joseph Engler, second best do. . . .' , • 1 00 

Adam Kuntz, best sow over one year old • 3 00 

Jacob F. Beck, second best do • 2 00 

G. W. Heiny, best sow under six months ' 2 00 

Isaac B. Insly, second best do • • • 1 00 

John Agnew, best five pigs « . • 2 00 

Anthony George, second best five do . . • ••...,*• 1 00 

Thomas Michler, best display of fat hogs « 4 00 

Jacob Heller, second best. . . .do 4 . « ..,•••... . 2 00 

Jacob Beck, sow and pigs 3 00 

Dairy, 

Mrs. Daniel Rohn, first premium for butter « Silver butter knife. 

Mr&r« Martin Young, secpnd. .do. ....,....««... « • ^ . % . • • • $2 00 



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358 I'EJWNSTLVAMA bTATB 

Mrs. Jacob Heller, third premium for butter f^l 00 

Mrs» Samuel Brown^ very good . J)]ploma» 

Mrs. Aaron Gold do Diploma. 

Mrs. G. B. Dattiel, first premium for pot cheese $1 00 

Poultry. 

Mrs. Thomas Michler, best display of poultry ....»»...• 3 0O 

Samuel Hoffman, second best. . • .do 2 00 

G. D . CaJbot, third best do 1 00 

Daniel Wilhelm, beet variety of poultry 2 00 

Josiah Jones, best China silk ^^, , I 00 

Samuel Hoffman, best Shanghais 1 00 

Samuel Hofiman, best Cochin China » 1 00 

Samuel Hoffman, best Malays 1 00 

Samuel Hoffman, best grey Shanghais 1 00 

Charles Whitesel, best turkeys 1 00 

Peter Hay, best Bantams. .r» 100 

George Seitz, best China geese %.. 1 00 

William Lynn, best common do 1 00 

William Lynn, best Cochin China, mixed • 100 

Nicholas Dewalt^ best ducks « 1 00 

Hugh Horner, best Dorking 1 00 

John Heinly, best Brahma Pootras 1 00 

George Seitz, best Poknders ..«• ••........ 1 00 

George Seitz, best black Spanish • 1 00 

Mrs. Thomas Michler, second best ducks Diploma. 

Agricultural implements. 

Bichard Miksch, for a plough. Young's patent $3 00 

Kichard Miksch, second best, Fairchild's 2 00 

Levi Shultz, for a cultivator. 1 00 

Daniel Kiegel, for a grain drill 3 00 

C. P. Beckel, for a reapitig machine. 3 00 

George Jones, for a mowing machine 3 00 

Daniel Riegel, for a corn sheller 1 00 

Peter Beachy, for a threshing machine 2 00 

Peter Beachy, for a railroad horse power ; 2 00 

James Schweitzer, for a straw cutter. . . . ; • 1 00 

John Agnew, for a corn plough 1 00 

John Heckman, best corn planter 2 00 

John Agnew, second best do 1 00 

Benjamin Teakel, best hay rake • , 2 OO 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 859 

Levi Miller & Co., second best hay rake $1 00 

Altemus Marsh, best grain separater and straw carrier 1 00 

Josiah Jones, best grain rake. 1 00 

Ulrich Sands, best windmill 1 00 

Isaac Stocker, best grain criEulle • 1 00 

Best & Kichiine, honorable mention for exhibiting a portable stemn engine* 

Manufacture!^, 

Thomas Michler, best cwt, wheat flour Diploma and $2 00 

Thomas Michler, best barrel. . . .do • . • , Diploma and 3 00 

Thomas Michler, best cwt. com meal Diploma and 2 00 

Jacob Walter, best rye flour Diploma and 2 00 

Jacob Walter, second best barrel wheat flonr 1 00 

Jacob Walter, second Jbest cwt .do. • 1 00 

Nathan Grim, second best cwt. com meal 1 OO 

Thomas Michler, second best cwt. rye flour 1 00 

Henry Bender, best display of single harness. .Diploma and 1 00 

Henry Bender, best display of double silver plated harness 2 00 

Joseph Gassier, knives and forks made of bone.. Diploma and I 00 

Edw. Seip, best display of parlor stoves Diploma and 2 00 

David Trein, best display of leather. «... • 2 OO 

Henry Freeman, best display of cooking stoves Diploma and 2 00 

Chr. Nagle, best display of homemade linen • 2 00 

Mrs. David Wamer, best homemade quilt . . .-> Diploma bnd 1 00 

Lewis Doster, best display of sattinet, cassimere, linsey and woollen 

jrarn Diploma and 1 00 

Jacob Steer, best display of earthenware Diploma and 1 00 

Henry C. Clewell, best display of chairs, (cane seats) 2 00 

David Grarris, best display of cabinet-ware 3 00 

David (rarris, second best chairs 1 00 

Jacob Clewell, second best cabinet-ware 2 00 

Peter Kern, best display o( boots and shoes. • .^^ 2 00 

Ferd« Herbst, best display of clothing .Diploma and 2 00 

Fred. Lorenz, second best display of calf skin leather. . « 1 00 

Michael Weaver, best sole leather. « ■ 1 00 

Fred. Lorenz, second best, .do * Diploma. 

Henry Bender, display of harness |2 00 

James Wllhelm, display of ready made clothing. ..... .Diploma and I 00 

Reuben Knecht, display of Daguerreotypes. .Diploma and 1 00 

James Hess, display of hats and caps. Diploma and 2 00 

Committee would^make honorable mention of , 
Messrs. Bader & Abel, for their fine display of imported carpets. 



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360 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Mrs Aaron Gold, for home-made flannel. 

Emanuel Flammer, a set of scales, lamps, &c. 

C. B. Daniel, (niniature house covered with slate. 

Henry Brunner, for sleigh hendings. 

Mrs. Daniel Siegfried, for home-made carpet* . 

Jacob Hay, for display of dry goods. 

Henry Schweitzer, for a rifle. 

James Wilhelm, for telegraph instrument. 

Mr. Malthaner, for a piano. 

G. W. Stein, for display of Britannia-ware. 

Miss. Maria Kiegel, for home-made carpet. 

Mrs. C. B. Daniel, for do. 

Miss Catharine Boyer, for do. 

Also display of paintings by the pupils of Nazareth Ra^h 
Also for very fine flour made by Jacob Rath, of Bushkill township, of Hr. 
Grim, of Lower Saucon, and J. Ackerman, of Forks township. 

J. R. Thompson, for Ambrotype Diploma. 

Mrs. Aaron Gold, for home-made woollen quilt. Diploma. 

Richard Miksch, for display of casting Diploma. 

Josiah Bower, for two dulcimers Diploma* 

Henry Malthaner, for writing desk Diploma. 

Sylvester Belling, for cbrk shoes • • Diploma. 

C. F. Martin, for display of guitars Diploma. 

A. D. & ^l. D. Cortright, for miniature canal boat. Diploma. 

G. B. Daniel, for school slates • » Diploma. 

Levi Shultz, for horse shoes Diploma. 

W. F. Rauch, for confectionary Diploma. 

John Fritchman, for tow lines .Diploma. 

J. T. Borheck, for violin Diplcwna. 

Mrs. Catharine Heinly, for fly brush Diploma. 

Mrs. Catharine Heinly, for woollen goods Diploma. 

Household Manufactures. 

Mrs. M. A. Fenstermacher, best silk quilt f2 00 

Mrs. Jacob Walter, best bed quilt 2 00 

Miss Elizabeth Kuntz, second best do 1 00 

Miss W. Riegel, (four years old) best bed quilt 1 00 

Mrs^ R. Snyder, best do 1 00 

Miss Catharine Boyer do 1 00 

Mrs. Maria Martin, for a quilt » 1 00 

Mrs. Michael Fehr do .-; 1 00 

Mrs. Thomas Michler, do 1 00 



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AGKIOIPLTUBAL SOCIETy. 861 

# 

Mrs. Solomon Hummel, for a quilt ....»• $1 00 

Miss Angelica Michael. «... do . . „,^ 1 00. 

Miss Sarah Hahn do ^ ... 1 00 

Miss Sabina Yeager, best bed cloth Diploma and 1 00 

Miss Sabina Kuntz, best flower ba^cet • 1 00 

Miss Louisa Flammer, best worsted work 1 00. 

Miss Lucinda Liebfried, second best do Diploma. 

Mrs. Dr. Barnes, for cotton shirt $1 00 

Mrs. J. A. Innis, for worsted work .Diploma* 

Mrs. G. H. Bute, for best display of millinery « $1 00 

Mrs. £. H. Harmony, second best do .Diploma. 

Miss Elizabeth Smi^h, for stockings and linen gloves. .« $1 00 

Miss Louisa Beck, for best crotchet work » 2 00 

Louisa Winhold, second best do 1 00 

Mrs. C. B. Daniel, for best fine shirt Diploma. 

Miss S. A. Kunsman, for best tidy $1 00 

Miss Emma Cramm, second best do Diploma. 

Miss Josephine Seifried, for best crotchet colar Book. 

Miss Harriet Miksch, for crotchet work Diploma. 

Miss Ellen Miksch, for embroidery , Diploma. 

Miss Caroline Albright, for a tidy Diploma. 

Miss L. Bicksecker do Diploma. 

Miss Ann Bicksecker . . . . . ,do Diploma. 

Miss Augusta Shireman. . . .do Diploma, 

Miss Sarah Ginginger, for crotchet work f .Diploma. 

Miss Maria Heckman do Diploma. 

Mrs. G. Bower and daughter, for needle work Diploma* 

Miss S. A. Kunsman, for best edging Diploma. 

Miss Matilda Frankenfield, for wax fruit Book. 

Miss Mary Sample, for hair flowers $1 00 

Honorable mention of the Nazareth Home Mission society, for display of 
needle work. 

Household Articles, 

Mrs. Samuel Hoffman, best sponge cake (1 00. 

Mrs. John Lubert, best rye bread • 1 00 

Mrs. Conrad Kichline, best ham, (eured) 1 00 

Mrs. Solomon Hummel, best jellies. 1 00 

Mrs. Daniel Siegfried, best wheat Ivead 1 00 

Mrs. C. B. Daniel, best preserved crab apples 1 00 

Mrs. Samuel Weth^ill, best preserved peaches 1 00 

Mrs. Samuel Kiegel, best hard soap • 1 00 



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t62 PENMSYLVANIA STATE 

Mirs. Charles Kleckner, best cucumbers eleven years old. .»•• t .... • .Diplomt. 
Mrs. Charles Kleckner, one bottle cherry brandy three years old, and 

a bottle ci4er brandy thirty-one years old Diplomt, 

Mrs. P. Young, best apple jelly Diplomt. 

Mrs. Samuel Wetherill, best preserved tomatoes .Diploma. 

Mrs. Samuel Wetherill, best pickels^ .Diploma. 

Mrs. Peter Kern, peach jelly. .Diploma. 

Mrs. Peter Kern, preserved peaches Diplpma. 

Mr. Josiah Jones, one quart elder wine • • .Diploma. 

Miss Rebecca Buss, pear jelly .Diploma, 

Mrs. Wm. Blakel3r, light cakes Diplqma. 

Miss £1. Barnes, cam «tarch cake Diploma. 

Mrs. J. S. Haman, bologna sausage f . . . • Diploma. 

^grtcidiural Products, 

Charles Hess, best ^bushel of white wheat. $1 00 

Wm. Firmstone. . . .do. . . ..red do 1 00 

Joseph Engler do Med. . . do 1 00 

Samuel Riegel do California wheat ^ . . • 1 00 

Richard Snyder do blue stem, .do • 1 00 

Tunis Beisel .do early small beard wheat 1 00 

^imon Buss do late Laubach do 1 00 

Simon Buss do Gamer do 1 00 

Chr. Yeager • .do red top do 1 00 

John Agnew do. , . . .rye 1 00 

Solomon Heil ...... do oats • v 1 00 

Daniel Witfaelra. . . .do silver buckwheat 1 00 

J. P. Beisel .do com. buckwheat 100 

James Blair, best bushel of com 1 00 

Reuben Nolf, second best do .Diploma. 

William Firmstone, best King Philip corn • $100 

William Firmstone, best yellow flint corn , 1 00 

P. B. Steinmetz, best white do , 1 00 

Daniel Wilhelm, best smoke corn 1 00 

Daniel Wilhelm, best Ohio., .do 1 00 

Isaac Stocker, best white. . . .do.. . . ♦ 1 00 

John Ehret, best yellow do, 1 00 

Samuel Reigel, best goard seed do 1 00 

John Best, three stalks Kentucky do « . • .Diploma. 

Jacdi) Frushman, smoke and yellow corn in husks. • $100 

Feter Rohn, best one peck of timothy seed 1 00 

Syl. Belling, best orchard grass « «•« 1 00 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 363 

« 

Isaac Stocker, best bushel Mercer potatoes $1 00 

William Davidson, second best, .do Diploma. 

Isaac Stocked, best pink-eye potatoes * Diploma. 

Isaac Stocker, best sugar do Diploma. 

R. T. Rohn, best Halifax do Diploma. 

Joseph Keller, best Canadian . . . do Diploma. 

P. B. Steinmetz, best Merceir . . . do Diploma. 

P. B. Steinmetz, best Irish. . . . .do $1 00 

William Firmstone, second best do Diploma. 

Quintus Messinger, third best pink-eye do .Diploma. 

William Christ, best Christy. ..;... .do Diplomck 

John Heller, pink-ejre. .do Diploma. 

James Blair, red-eye do Diploma. 

Jacob S. Heller, Kichline do Diploma. 

Jos. R. Roth, best bushel turnips $1 00 

Charles Ochs, best tobacco plant Diploma. 

Garden and Orchard, 

William Firmstone, best white beets • $1 00 

Lewis Plattenberger, best display of peaches 1 00 

Mrs. Solomon Shafer, best Andiv. 1 00 

Dr. Charles Sellers, best and most numerous variety of pears 2 00 

Dr. Charles Sellers, best variety o( apples •.....•• 2 00 

Dr. Charles Sellers, best display of Isabella and Catawba grapes. ... 2 00 

John Heller, best half bushel of quinces « • . ^ . • . . 1 00 

Simon Johnson, second best do Diploma. 

P. B. Steinmetz, second best display of Isabella grapes.. • $1 00 

Daniel Kemmerer, best field pumpkhi 1 00 

Henry Q. Cleivell, s^nd best^ for collection of apples 1 00 

Grabriel Romig, best half bushel bottom beets 1 00 

Joseph Keller, best peck -carrots « ] 00 

William Herbst, best pie pumpkins - 1 00 

Joseph Cassler, best tomatoes 1 00 

Mrs. C. Bellisfield, best six egg plants 1 00 

Mrs. Th. Miehler, best red beets 1 00 

Miss Achsah Miehler, best basket of grapes 1 00 

John Neumeyer, most numerous variety of apples 2 00 

George Stuber, best radishes ♦ '. 1 00 

Mm Kern, Jr., best Fallewalle apples 1 00 

Paul Siegfried second best... do 1 00 

/ Henry Brnnner, best muskmelon • . . . • I 09 

Mrs. Sol. Heil, best onions. ^ ...,.., • 1 00 



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364 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Samuel VVetherill, best displby of vegetables $2 00 

Nazareth Hall, second best.. . . .do 1 00 

J . C. Brickenstein, best dozen of cabbage 1 00 

Josiah Jones, best bushel Maiden Blush apples 2 00 

Dr. G. H. Bute, best collection of foreign grapes 2 00 

Chr. Yeager, best half bushel of beets 1 00 

Solomon Heil, best black radishes 1 00 

P. B. Steinmetz, best and most numerous variety of peaches 2 00 

C. F. Hartman, best twelve bunches of Catawba grapes 1 00 

Dr. G. H. Bute, second best pears 1 00 

Mrs. C. Musselman, best citrons 1 00 

Mrs. Sol. Heil, best Lima beans 4 00 

Mrs. David Warner, best peppers Diploma. 

Horticultural, 

Dr. G. H. Bute, best display of flowers $2 00 

£d. Kicksecker, second best. . . .do 1 00 

Dr. G. H. Bute, best display of exotic plants 1 00 

Ed. Ricksecker, best display of ever-green trees 3 00 

Miss Adelaide Miksch, best arranged boquet 2 00 

Miss Rebecca Logue, second best, with a collection of fine and rare 

roses 1 00 

Mrs. Sop. Ettwine, best design of cut flowers 2 00 

Mrs. Th. Micbler, second best. . . .do 1 00 

Mrs. Th. Michler, best design for a very beautiful wax plant 1 00 

Mrs. Daniel llitter, a cactus 1 00 

Miss. Clarissa Kichline, collection of flowers 1 00 

P. S. ]VIichler, Jr., a large and handsome lemon tree with fruit 2 00 

Mrs. Dr. P. H. Walter, a beautiful plant in flower (mesembrianthemum) 2 00 

Dr. G. H. Bute, a large Smyrna fig tree, with fruit ^ Diploma. 

Henry G. Clewell, a fine lot of apple trees, grafted on root Diploma. 

John Beitel, a handsome specimen of arbour vitce.. . • . .Diploma. 

Miscdlimeous, 

Robert S. Brown, best five boxes of honey $2 00 

William Christ, second best ten boxes of do 1 00 

J. P. Beisel, third best do Diploma. 

William Christ, best display of beeswax $1 00 

Miss Catharine Boyer, best picture imitation 1 00 

Messrs. Borhuh & Enaus, best display of coal Diploma^ 

Reuben Knecht, best display of Daguerreotype pictures. . Diploma and $1 00 

Benjamin Keromerer, best chocolate cane Diploma.' 

Richard Beitel, silk-worm cocoon Dipioma. 



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AGKICULTTTRAL SOClEtY. , 365 

The several committees with great pleasure state, that the competition this 
year far exceeds those of last or any year hefore, and that iindistributing th^ 
premiums they found it exceedingly difficult, in some instances, to give their 
decision. The ladies' display of needle-work was exceedingly pleasing and 
fine. 



PHILADELPHIA COUNTY, 1855. 

The following minutes and proceedings, for the year 1855, of the "Philadel- 
phia Society for Promoting Agriculture," were not sent to the Secretary of 
the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society until May, 1857, and consequent- 
ly couM not be printed in •the third volume of Transactions. They are insert- 
ed in the present volume as well to preserve the history of the Philadelphia 
society, as to complete our work of compiling the transactions of the respec- 
tive agricultural societies in the State. 

ROBT. C. WALKER, Secretary. 



Mstract of the Minutes of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting ^gri* 

culture, 1855. 

Stated meeting, at rooms, Masonic Hall, South Third street, on Wednes- 
day morning, January 3, 1855. 

President, Dr. A. L. Elwyn, in the chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected resident members, viz : Messrs. Edgar 
Black, Wm. G. Warder, Thos. Drake and Henry Grambo, of Philadelphia, 
and Mr. James Sloan, of Port Kennedy, Montgomery county, Pa. 

After the reading of the Treasurer's report, Mr. David S. Brown, of Phila- 
delphia, presented to the society, for distribution, a number of copies, in 
pamphlet form, of the letter of Mr. David M. Stone, of the New York Jour- 
nal of Commerce, to the wool growers ; also, copies of the New York Evening 
Post, containing an article on wool. 

Mr. Brown acconipanied his donation with some highly interesting remarks 
on the manufacture of woollens in the United States, in the course of which 
he stated that the discriminating duty on wool, which had been designed to 
benefit the manufacturer, had been found so injurious that the mills for the finer 
fabrics are nearly all closed. He referred especially to the manufacture of 
broad-cloths. In such goods the warp was formed of American wool, for 
which purpose such wool was eminently adopted ; but for the woof or filling 



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S66 PBKNJSYLVANU STATE 

and face foreign wool was found indispensable. This wool the present tariff 
almost excluded^om our market, and, as a consequence, the broad-cloth mills 
had stored one after another, 41 n til the last, that of Mr. Slater, of Rhode Island, 
whose father was among the first to introduce the making of brood-cloths into 
this country, had ceased its operations. He (Mr. Brown) did not vouch for 
the correctness of the view entertained hy workmen 5 but he knew that they 
ascribed the superiority of Saxon wool, for the above purpose, to the fact that 
in Germany they sheared their sheep twice a year. Certainly, German cloths, 
at the present rates of duty, were fast driving all others out of the market. 
A removal of duty altogether would probably open the way for an unprece- 
dented increase of manufacture. No better state of the trade was possible 
than that of freedom from all duty. This was true as wfll of dyestufis as of 
wool. If we admitted them free the price in all other markets would at once 
he raised. For certain fabrics our wool was in demand. It was more flexible, 
longer, and a large portion of -it was finer than the, European and Australian 
wool. Great Britain had wisely opened the raw materials of the world to her 
manufacturers. Here, where money, rates and labor are higher, we cannot 
expect success unless we imitate her. Our wool was unequalled for flannels 
and fancy cassimeres. That of South America was well adapted to the manu- 
facture of blankets, but, for other fabrics, it required to be mixed with the wool 
of the United States. French manufacturers find our fibre more flexible, and 
admirably adapted to making merinoes and worsted goods. 

Mr. Spangler reminded the society that the wool which had taken the first 
premium at the World's Fair, London, was from Tennessee. 

Mr. C. W. Harrison contended that much of the alleged inferiority of 
American wool for certain purposes arose from our merchants failing to dis- 
criminate qualities in the purchase. They pay so much for the whole fleece, 
without sorting. 

Mr. Aaron Clement presented the following communication on the Tartar 
sheep: 

"The Tartar or Shanghai sheep lately introduced into this country, exhibit 
some very peculiar characteristics. They are of fine size, with broad tails, 
prominent noses, and very agreeable countenances. The fleece is light, an4 
suited only for blanketings and other coarse woollen fabrics. The mutton is 
highly esteemed, being free from all rank or woolly flavor. Perhaps the most 
distinguishing characteristic of the Tartar sheep is their numerous oflTspring, 
the ewes having lambs every spring and fall, and from two to four at a time. 
Dr. Emerson, of Philadelphia, who obtained a pair of the original stock, states 
that one of bis ewes had three lambs last February, all of which have been 
raised. About the middle of November she had two more, whilst, at the same 
time, two of the February lambs had each a lamb, making her a grandmother 
in nine months, and her progeny within that time no less than seven. The 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETr. 86T 

Doctor has crossed the Tartar sheep with an excellent breed of the oountr}% 
by which the carcase has been increased, and the fleece much improved. 
What will be the result in regard to the prolific characteristic remains to be 
proved. Probably this will be moderated to a point which may render them 
more acceptable to many than the full bloods. 1 have a buck and ewe of these 
half bloods which are certainly very fine stock, and well worth the attention 
of all persons who take an interest in sheep, especially to those who look to 
profit more from the lambs and mutton than from the fieece." 

Dr. Emerson requested Mr. Newbold to relate his experience with the Tartar 
sheep. 

Mr. A. T. Newbold had two ewes, seven months old, one of which had two 
and the other had three lambs. The old ewe had had seven lambs within twelve 
months. The usual number at a birth was three, but Dr. Emerson had had a 
ewe die from an injury, a few days before her <^term," in which four foetuses 
were found. The wool was not fine. It would neither full nor felt, and was 
unshrinkable. 

Mr. O. Sheridan doubted if any ewe could furnish milk enough to support 
two or three lambs. His Southdowns certainly could not. 

Dr. Emerson replied that the capacity to furnish sufiicient milk, had been 
proved by his ewes, two of which had raised their lambs without any as- 
sistance. 

Mr. O. Sheridan moved that the Executive Committee be requested to re- 
port at next meeting, on the expediency of the society's holding an exhibi- 
tion next autumn ; but he subsequently gave way, in order to afibrd time for 
the annual election, which being held, resulted as follows : 

President, David Landreth ; Vice Presidents, A. T. Newbold, Aaron Cle- 
ment ; Corresponding Secretfiry, Sidney G. Fisher 5 Recording Secretary, 
Alfred L. ^Kennedy ; Assistant Secretory, P. R. Freas ; Treasurer, George 
Blight ; Executive Committee, Dennis Kelly, Algernon S. Roberts, Samuel 
Williams, John Lardner, A. T. Newbold and John M'Gowan. 

Dr. A. L. Kennedy submitted the following resolution, which was unani- 
mously adopted : 

Resolved^ That the thanks of the society be and they are hereby tendered to 
Dr. A. L. Elwyn for the courteous and impartial manner in which he has per* 
formed the duties of President during the last two years. 

Dr. Elwyn reminded the society that they had frequently, during the past 
ten years, entertained a proposition to establish an Agricultural Reading 
Room, to be open on Tuesday and«Friday evenings, and during the day. He 
deemed the present the most eligible time to carry out the plan, inasmuch as 
the society would, ere long, be compelled to find other accommodations. He 
also announced that the next session of the State society would be held in 
Harrisburg on the 16th inst. 



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SeS * PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

The chair deemed the occasion of that meeting a proper one on whieh 10 
represent to the Legislature the great wrong done the soeiety and the cause of 
agriculture in this section of the State hy the withdrawal of our annual ap- 
propriation, which had beep^ up to the last session, continued uninterruptedly 
for many years* Adjourned. 



Stated meeting at the Masonic Hall, South Third street, on Wednesday, 
February 7, 1855. 

Mr. D. Landreth, President, in the chain 

Messrs. Paschall Morris and A. M. Spangler were elected life members. The 
Secretary reported that copies of the published minutes of the society from 1785 
to 18 10 had been sent to seventeen kindred societies. Letters were read from Mr. 
H. Meigs, Secretary of the New York Farmers' Club, and from J. W. Degrean, 
Secretary of the Brooklyn Horticultural society, acknowledging the receipt of 
copies. A pamphlet copy of the address of the last named gentleman before his 
society was received. Dr. Kennedy, in behalf of the committee on theAgricnlta* 
Tal Statistics of Pennsylvania, reported that the committee haid learned since 
their appointment that the State society were engaged in a similar object, and 
had already sent printed questions to nearly all the county societies in the State* 
Some of the replies to these questions had appeared in the volume of the pro- 
ceedings of the State Society, published by authority of the last Legislature. 
It was true that no such questions had ever reached this society, nor was any re» 
port from Philadelphia county contained in the volume aforesaid; nevertheless, 
the general subject of State statistics was more especially the province of the 
State Society. That body had already commenced the good work of collect 
ing definite agricultural information, and since any action on our ^art might 
be regarded as interfering with them, he (Dr. K.) moved that the committee 
be discharged, which was so ordered. 

Dr. Elwyn feared that the present Legislature would not authorize the pub- 
lication of the proceedings of the State society. 

H. IngersoU ofiered an amendment to the nineteenth article of by-laws, 
Tendering the President eligible for more than two consecutive terms. Laid 
over for one month. 

Voted, on motion of Dr. Kennedy, that delegates be now appointed to at- 
tend the next session of the U. S. Agricultural Society at Washington, on 
28th inst. 

Voted, on motion of A. S. Roberts, that the delegates be appointed by the 
"chair, and that they have power to fill vacancies. Whereupon^ the^oUowing 
gentlemen were appointed: A. L. Kennedy, A. T. Newbold, A. S. Roberts, 
H. IngersoU, J. M'Gowan, C. W. Sharpless, A. Clement, G. Blight, S. WU- 



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AtJRICULTtTHAL SOCIETY. SM 

liaitis, J. S. Haines, S. C. Willitts, Gen. K. Pattersen, J. Lardner, J. Pearson 
S. C. Ford and C. W. Harrison. 

Dr. Elwyn laid before the society samples of dust from the flues at the foun- 
<dry of Mr. Charles S. Smith. This d«rst colle<^l6l in large quantities, both 
/rom the anthraeite and bituminous coal fires. It has been spread on land, 
and was believed to possess one-half the fertilizing power of guano. Further 
experiments were necessary before its exact val ue could be determined. These, 
it was hoped, members of the society would make^ and for this purpose they 
would be eheerfully furnished with a supply on applying at Mr. Smith's iron 
works. Dr. £% remarked that the researches of chemists and the introduction 
of guano had done much to direct the attention of farmers and others to the 
subject of concentrated manures and the employment of waste products. The 
samples before the society were interesting in this connection. Further inves- 
tigation would reveal many substances now deemed refuse, which either alone 
or IB mixture, would prove valuable lessons to the agriculturist. Ue had 
learned that during last season guano had failed to improve some of the lands 
in Chester county, on which it had been used. When mixed with lime, im« 
provement has been manifested. 

Mr. Spangler had had occasion to observe the comparative yield of land 
manured with guano and with superphosphate of lime, and, in nearly all cases 
had the latter proved more advantageous. This was true not only of wheat 
but of grass land. Moreover, grass and hay from land thus manured were 
m\ich better relished by cattle. This fact was beginning to be well understood 
by farmers* He had recently been offered a lot of hay from Delaware county, 
and one of the recommendations urged by the vendor was, that it liad been 
cut from '< limed" land. Such hay had been said to support cattle better. He 
would ask for Mr. Clement's experience on this last point. 

Mr. A. Clement had observed no proof that such hay was more nutritious. 
He knew that cattle were fond of it, and would select it in preference to all other. 

Mr, S. C. Willitts preferred guano, but having been unable, a few years 
since, to obtain any in the market, he had purchased some superphosphate of 
lime, and, at the same time, an equal quantity of a material called '^fertilizer." 
He had spread forty-seven and a half bushels of each on equal parts of the 
same field, leaving a portion unmanured, and, from that time to this he had 
been able to discover no difference in the crops. He knew nothing of the 
purity of the articles he purchased, nor could any farmer, until there was a 
State chemist appointed, whose duty it should be not only to inform us of the 
nature of our soil, but to guard us against fraud in the purchase of concen- 
trated manures. Guano had been placed on a field adjoining the above, and 
its effects, even three years after wheat, were markedly favorable, yielding one 
and a quarter tons of timothy to the acre. A portion of his farm of one hun- 
dred and thirty-five acres, had at one time belonged to a Mr. Walker^ once a 
34 



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m PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

He confined hiiiiself to the maduroy or Omge onmge, a plant which he 4eemiF 
especially adapted to the purpose in this country. The subject was one of 
immense* importance, especially in the prairie country, where timber wa9 
«carce and land cheap, and where thousands of miles of these hedges were 
being set. For land worth more than one hundred dollars per acre, and for 
fields of less than twenty acres, these hedges were not to be recommended. 
Hedge planting in America has been a series of failures j not, he contended, 
on account of the climate, for the maclura was indigenous to the western part 
,ef the Union, but from injudicious planting and treatment — planting too close, 
.too near to a dead fence, want of cultivation and of sufiiciently severe prunvag. 
These were the causes of failure, and his method was designed to avoid them. 
fHe subsoiled and planted one foot apart. The following spring he cut off the 
vertical branches three inches from the ground, merely trimming the latend 
ones at the ends. The next spring he repeated the cutting at the same height. 
The following spring he cut again, but at the height of six inches from the 
ground, fiy this means he obtained a perfect mat of branches near the ground, 
where they were needed, five feet across and twenty inches high, which formed 
a perfect protection in itself. Less trimming would be required during the 
cnicceeding years, but bold cutting must be resorted to^ and an impenetrable 
thicket close to the ground would be secured. Frequently hedges were found, 
as it were, upside down, bushy and thick above, and wide gaps below, through 
which a hog might creep, the branches having disappeared. The maclura was 
■of easy propagation and rapid growth ; did not sucker, and could be ploughed 
as closely as the horses could be coaxed. The vertical shoots of the first year 
would run up four to ten feet high. The plan of wattling or interweaving the 
branches, had been tried, in order to produce an impenetrable wail and save 
ground. This had been attempted four years ago, at the Cincinnati cemetery, 
and hadoiot succeeded. He, (Dr. W.) could now get his leg through, and the 
hedge was growing worse. The maclura^ treated as he proposed, was a grand 
thing for railroads, and could be set and trimmed for three years for about 
seventy-five cents a rod, the railroad company paying for the ploughing. The 
jchair stated that a maclura tree nqar the city, planted by his father thirty 
years ago, was still growing luxuriantly. He doubted, however, that the plant, 
if trimmed as proposed, would last that long. 

Dr. Kennedy called attention to some beautiful and exact engravings of in- 
sects injurious to vegetation, made by Mr. R. D. Glover, now of Washington 
.city. 

Dr. Elwyn requested members to examine some faithfully executed oil paint' 
ings of horses and homed cattle, from life, by Mr. Glarkson, an excellent artist 
in that line, in this city. These paintings had been politely placed in the 
room for inspection. Adjourned. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 37J 

Stated meeting on Wednesday morning, April 4, at the room, Masonic Hall, 
south Third street. 

Mr. Landreth, President, in the chair. 

After the reading of the minutes, Messrs. G. Dougherty and E. K. Concklin, 
bf this city, and Daniel H. Muivany, of Norristown, were elected resident 
members. 

A notification that the next annual meeting of the Montgomery County 
Agricultural Society would be held at Springtown, on the 3d and 4th days of 
October next, was received from that society. 

Letters from the Massachnsetts State Board of Agriculture, and the Michigan, 
and the New York State Agricultural Societies, were read, acknowledging the 
receipt of printed copies of this society's minutes. 

The report on the last exhiltition of the Onondago Agricultural Society, New 
York, was received. 

A communication from J. S. Silver, Esq., in behalf of the Butchers' and 
Drovers' association, urging the fitness of their grounds, in the Twenty-fourth 
ward, for the purposes of the annual exhibitions of this society, was read and 
referred to the Executive Committee. 

Mr. George Blight, in behalf of the committee to examine the tract of land 
above Germantown, proposed as a site for this society's exhibitions, reported 
the terms on which the grounds could be used, which report was accepted^ 
the committee discharged, and the subject referred to the Executive Commit- 
tee. 

Mr. Landreth, on behalf of the committee to confer with the President of 
the United States Agricultural Society, on the subject of that society's holding 
its next annual exhibition in Hiiladelphia, presented the correspond^iee had 
hi relation thereto, and asked for an expression of opinion on the course pur- 
inaed by the committee. 

On motion, that the action of the committee meets the approval of the 
society, whidi was adopts 

Mr. Isaac W« Roberts, long an active member of this society, remgned hift 
membership, and was immediately nominated as an honorary member, by Dr< 
Siwyn. Nonination lies over, und«r the rules. 

On motion of Mr. H. Ingersoil, that the President, Recording Secretary^ 
and Treasurer, be a committee to ascertain whether a suitable xoom ^n be 
procured for the meetings of this society, and to x»eport at next meetings whiob 
was so ordered. 

The chair called attention to the subject of the wheat crop. Its prospect* 
were a matter of national as well as local interest. There were members present 
from widely different localities, and he ^^uld be pleased to hear the result of. 
their observations. In his own neighborhood, ia Backs county, appearances 
were decidedly unfavorable. 



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IT4 PENNSTLITANIA STATE 

Mr. Dennis Kelley repcnrted the same of his oi^ se^tjon, in Monftgomffy 
county. , The wheat looked very poor. 

Mr. S..G. Ford had recently returned from a trip up the Susquebanfia. Ib 
the parts of Dapphin and Lanc^^ter countie3, through which he ptasedy h# 
had never, at this season, seen the prospects for wheat so vnp^mising. Th^ 
grain, generally, appeared to be winter-killed. Some portions of fields ex" 
hil»4ed life, but' the greater part seemed to be as efiectnaUy destroyed as if fire 
had passed over the ground. 

Mr. S. C. Willetts had observed tt^e wheat in the northern part of Fbiladel* 
phia county, where he resided, to be killed at the top, hut still strong at the 
roots. Fields which had been drilled, appeared far better thi^ thoee sown 
broadcast, and those drilled early, looked the best. 

Mr. S. 6. Fisher reported the appearance of the wheat in that part of Mary- 
land in which his estate lays, to be very unfavorable. This he, in gr^t part^ 
attributed to the severe drought which lasted from June to November of last 
year, and the effects of which were still visible, as very little rain had fallen 
{his season, and the spring? and streams were unusually low. The wheat 
sown early was the least unpromising. Fields sown in the latter part of Oc- 
tober, were almost entirely bare. The drill was generally used in his vicinity. 

Mr. Aaron Clement bad recently visited I«ancaster county. There, too, the 
wheat fields were bare. He ascribed this mainly to the fact that the drought 
had caused late ploughing and sowing. It wfis no uncommon thing to find 
wheat fields without signs of a crop early in the season, and after a warm 
xaiuy such as might daily be expected, the ground covered with verdure. 

Dr. Emerson acknowledged the advantage of early planting. In Kent county, 
Delaware, where his farm was situated, the wheat looked badly, but the im- 
portance of the drill was never more manifest. All fields where it had beeii 
used bid fair to be many fold more productive. In others the aoii appeared 
to have been blown away from the young roots. A dry winter was not un- 
favorable to the wheat crop, as the absence of ezeess of moisture freventad 
the efifects of many tha wings and freesings, bj lyhich th« young pfamta were 
thrown out. 

Mr. Gustavus Engle stated that his eight acres in wheat, near Bustleton, 
looked quite promising; he had ploughed five inches deep, and sown early. — 
The field was upland. In Bucks county, where he had recently been, properly 
eultivated wheat lands looked well. On some, wbere four hundred pounds of 
guano had been used to the acre, he had never seen a better promise at thi» 
season of the year. 

Mr. Clement Contended that howerer well finrmed the land might be^ Bothing 
could compensate for late sowing. Wheat sown early was always better. 

Dr. Emerson insisted that early ploughing was more important than early 
sowing. On his farm a portion of the field had, as a matter of eenYenienoe^ 



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AOKKJOLTURAL SOCIETir. Zli 

been pSou^ed two mouths earlier than the r^Bainder. The whole was d^eaoed 
with superphosphate of lime, and driUed at the same time. Yet the early 
floaghed portion now exhibited a perfect mat of vegetation, as if it alone had 
iMen manured, while the show on the other was comparatively indifferent. 
The whole fidd had, up to the time of the ploughing, been subjected to the 
eame tillage. It had been in wheat last year, but so light was the crop that 
he decided to manure aaew and sow again. This was not the first instance 
in which he had contrasted the effects of early and late ploughing before 
wheat. 

The chair added his testimony in favor of early cultivation and sowing. 

Dr. Elwyn regretted that we were so prone to censure nature for our losses, 
when our own hands were often at fault. He had recently returned from his 
farm in Chester county, and wherever he had observed good farming, he laA 
found the wheat looking very well. The farmers in that county cultivated 
thoroughly and manured freely. 

Mr. A. S. Roberts had found the wheat looking fair in Chester and Lan- 
caster countiee, through which he had recently passed. The drilled fields 
looked the best. It was customary for farmers to indulge in gloomy fore- 
bodings in early spring. In the great wheat growing re^on of the west, a iar 
larger space had been planted in wheat than during any former year. 

Mr. S. G. Fisher proposed " the winter feeding of stock'' as the subject for 
discussion at the next meeting. Adjourned. 



Stated meeting at room, Masonic Hall, South Third street, Wednesday, May 
% 1855. 

Mr. Landreth, President, in the chair. 

Messrs. John EL Wilmer and Wilmer Connell, of Philadelphia, atid Richard 
A. Oilpin, of West Chester, Pa., were elected resident members. 

Mr. Isaac W. Roberts, of Chester county, one of the oldest active raembera, 
and for many years an office bearer of this society, was 4inanimously elected 
an honorary member. 

Mr. Landreth, in behalf of the committee to confer with the President of 
the United States Agricultural Society, on the subject of that society holding 
its next annual exhibition near Philadelphia, reported that no such exhibition 
could be held here without the consent of the Pennsylvania State A^icultural 
Society being previously obtained. He had addressed a oonraiunioation to th^ 
officers of that society, adding to be informed of the action of that body, but 
had received no answer. 

Dr. A. L. Ehryn stated that he had been present at the meeting of the Ex^ 
ectrtive Committee of that society, held in Harrisburg, a fortnight ago, ktit 



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176 FENNSYLVANU STATE 

that the consent of the committer to the proposed ezUhitioD of the Unilei 
States Agricultural Society had been refused. 

Mr. A. T. Newbold, (Executive Ck)mmitteey) reported that the eomtnittee had 
visited the grounds of the Butchers' and Drovers' association, in the Twenty** 
fourth ward, proposed as a site for this society's exhibition, but had not fo«Ad 
the committee of that association there, as was expected. 

Mr. George Blight, (same committee,) reported against the selection of tW 
grounds above Germantown for the exhibitions of this society. 

Dr. A. L. Kennedy,, (same committee,) reported in favor of the society'* 
holding an exhibition this year, and submitted the following resolution : 

Resolvedy That this society hold an exhibition next autumn — the time and 
place to be fixed by the Executive Committee, and announced at the earliest 
day. 

The resolution was discussed by Messrs, IngersoU, Newbold, Mulvany, Kair 
nedy and Landreth, and finally agreed to. 

On motion, the Executive Committee were instructed to prepare a schedule 
of premiums, and report the same at the next meeting of this society. 

Mr. Landreth, in behalf of the committee to ascertain whether a suitable 
room could be procured for the meetings of the society, stated that after due 
search, no room more eligible than that now occupied by the society could be 
obtained at a reasonable price. On motion the committee were continued. 

A communication was received from the Bucks County Agricultural Society, 
stating that their next annual exhibition would be held on October 2d next. 

Mr. Samuel Williams presented his resignation from the Executive Com- 
mittee, which, on motion, was accepted, and Mr. C. W. Harrison w^as nomi- 
nated to supply the vacancy. 

Mr. A. T. Newbold moved that a committee of arrangements for the next 
exhibition, consisting of fifteen members, be appointed, which motion was 
agreed to, with the understanding that the committee be appointed prior to 
next meeting. 

The chair announced the winter feeding of stock as the subject for consid- 
f cation at the preseut meeting, and invited from the members generally an ex- 
pression of their views. 

Mr. C. W. Harrison had not performed a series of experiments calculated to 
throw light on the important questions involved in the economy of feeding* 
The object in view ought to be well considered beforehand, whether it was to 
feitten, to improve the secretion of milk, or to keep our animals in condition 
to produce the most perfect progeny, and the kind of food adapted accordingly. 
Not only was the kind, but the state of the food, important. Persons difiered 
as to the proper size of food. Many preferred cut hay, others recommended 
hay uncut. He inclined to the latter opinion. Uncut hay was longer retain- 
ed by the animal and its nutritious portions more fully extracted. He knew 



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AORKTULTURAL SOCIETY. 377 

Ihw was <^poMd to tlM general prectiee when hay was fed with ground food j 
it, of course, must be cut, or it would be wasted. 

Mr. A. M. Spangler stated that all good practice, especially in England, 
WHS opposed to the views just expressed. The great complaint among stable 
ke^>ersaBd omnibus men was that they could not obtain machines to cut hay 
short enough. The finer it was cut the better, and less was trampled under 
fmt. 

Mr. Isaac Pearson had not used much cut bay. He fed with wheat chaff 
mixed with cut ruta bega turnips, and was well satisfied with the result. 

Mr. Owen Sheridan carefully saved all his wheat chafi^, and used it mixed 
with ground corn and cob. Horses sometimes disliked it at first, but soon be- 
canoe accustomed to it, and thrived on it. 

Mr. John S. Haines had used ground cob and corn for twelve years. His 
mill grinds the cob finer than the grain. He moistened the mixture before 
feeding with it. 

Dr. Elwyn approved of cut food for both horaes and cattle; the cob and corn 
ground up together. The plump condition of cattle thus treated, attested their 
perfect health. 

Dr. C. K. King objected to the opinion that cut hay was less perfectly di- 
gested because it was retained by the animal sufficiently long. With rumi- 
nating animals this, of course, was impossible, and even with horses he thought 
the statement inadmissible. It was true economy to moisten cut food. 

The chair used Indian com and cob ground together, soaking before grind- 
ing. His practice was to feed homed cattle with a large proportion of roots. 
He sowed down all his cultivated ground as soon after the removal of the 
summer crop as po&sible with turnips, the flat topped variety, which produced 
but little leaf. He gathered the turnips, leaves and all, threw the loads in 
rows on the barn floor, and covered them with corn fodder, which in ordinary 
seasons kept out the frost without earth covering. He began to use from one 
end of a row, closing up carefully. In course of time the small amount of 
tops may become a little slimy, but not to an extent suflicient to cause them 
to be refused by cattle. The advantage of a mixture of roots with the fodder 
had always been evident in the fine condition of the stock in the spring. 

Mr. S. G. Wiilets had always found turnips stored with the tops on to heat 
and putrify. He did not regard turnips as a desirable food for stock, but ruta 
bagas were much better than white tumips. The bulk of food was enormous; 
much of it was water. 

Dr. King stated the turnip contained principles which were not to be found 
in corn fodder and dry food. It was sometimes an advantage to enlarge the 
bulk of food, even if the increase in bulk was not digested. 

Mr. Isaac Newton agreed with the last statement. The cob was not so nu- 
tritious as the corn, yet it was true economy to grind them and feed them 



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378 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

together. The groin alone wieis too heating. The ground eob kept down 
fever. In sowing his turnip seed he used a machine, which -was carried by a 
man in front and supported by a stvap passed over his shotdders. 

The chair thought that machines for sowing turnip seed ought to be earned 
or drawn cJose to the ground, especially in windy weather. 

Dr. £lwyn reported the death of Chauncey P. Holcomfo, of Delaware, asd 
after paying a just tribute of respect to the memory of the deceased, otfend 
the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted : 

Resolved^ That this society has heard with deep regret of the death of 
Chauncey P. Holcomb, Esq., of Delaware. His long, earnest and faithful 
services in the cause of agricnknre, hare entitled him to the respect of the 
farmers of the country, and made for him a reputation which will long endure 
among all who esteem the noble art oa which it rests. His liberal and dis- 
interested feelings, his efforts, controlled as they were by a high purpose, his 
intentions directed ever for the public good, give him a claim to be enrolled 
among the patriots of his country,. 

Resolved^ That this body deeply sympathise with the State in which he lived^ 
with the friends to whom he was endeared, and those relatives who are left to 
mourn die loss they will find irreparable. 

Mr. Coats, of this city, exhibited a working model of his oblique hemp and 
comment ter, and explained its mode of action. The machine is intended to 
run either between the com rows or around the field. It cuts the stalks and 
lays them longitudinally behind it. There is one knife, which strikes ob- 
liquely dbwn\i'ard, and is sufficiently powerful to cut several augar-canes or 
corn-stalks at one blow. Adjourned. 



A stated meeting of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture was 
was held at their room. Masonic Hall, Third street, on Wednesday morning, 
June 6, 1855. 

Mr. Landreth, President, in the chair. 

Messrs. Charles Dutilh, Samuel N. Phillips, William N. Lacy and Robert 
Bethell, were elected resident members. 

Mr. C. W. Harrison was elected a member of the Executive Committee, 
rice S. Williams, resigned. 

The committee to confer with the officers of the United States Agricultural 
Society was discharged. 

The Executive Committee, to which body had been referred the communi- 
cations of parties near Germantovvn, oflfering grounds for exhibition purposes, 
were discharged from the consideration of the subject. 

The committee on procuring a more suitable room for the society was con- 
tinued. 



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AGRICULTURAL JJOCIETr. 87» 

The premium list, as prepared by the committee, wma reported, and taken 
up for consideration. 

Mr. Spangler inquired if any alteration had been made in the jreguktions 
obeerred at former exhibitions. 

Mr. lagersoll replied that duere had. The whole smbjeet, however, had 
been folly considered in commtteeyanci no adranta^ife could arise ^m its dis* 
oiission in open meeting. 

On motion of Dr. Kennedy, that the ]^emium list be read, which was lost. 

Dr. Emerson called for the reading of the alterations in the regulations re* 
ferred to by Mr. Spangler. The clause is as follows: 

In all cases of equality of merit, in articles exhibited by two or more parties, 
the inyentor and the manuftiotmner shadl be preferred to the vendor. 

Mr. Spangler opposed the regulation on the ground that, under certain cir* 
eumstances, the vendor would be ruled out of competition. 

Messrs. Clement, H. IngersoU and A. T. Newbold replied to the objection* 

Mr. Ingersoil moved to re-consider the vote by which the reading of the 
premium list was refused. 

Which motion was agreed to, and the motion to read being renewed, pre- 
vailed. 

The premium list and regulations were then read. 

On motion that they be adopted as read, Mr. C. K. Engle offered the following 
amendment to the regulations, in lieu of the clause objected to by Mr. Spangler: 

^^ The vendor shall be on an equal footing with the manufacturer, provided 
the manufacturer be not the inventor or patentee." 

The amendment was advocated by Mr. Spangler, and opposed by Messrs. 
Rice and Kennedy, whenjhe question being taken, it was lost. 

The motion to adopt the list then prevailed by a large majority. 

A communication was received from a committee of the Montgomery 
County Agricultural Society, on the subject of the establishment jointly, by 
the societies in Philadelphia and the adjoining counties, of an agricultural 
reading room in this city. 

Dr. Elwyn and Mr. Eckfeldt advocated the proposition, and the latter stated 
that the DelaAvare County Society had also appointed a committee of conference 
on the subject. 

On motion of Dr. Kennedy, that the communication of the Montgomery 
County Society be referred to a committee, said committee to confer with 
similar committees from neighboring societies, and repoft at next meeting. 

Which motion was agreed to, and Messrs. Elwyn, Kennedy and Harrison 
were appointed the committee. Adjourned. 

Sated meeting July 4, 18f>5, no quorum present, it* being the anniversary of 
American Independence. Adjourned. 



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S86 FBNNSYLVANIA STATH 

Stated meetiDg August 1, 1855. 

President in the chair. 

Messrs. £iisha M'Gmrthy, Frederiek Fntley, Charles F.Muirlwad and A. M. 
Harkness, were elected resident members. 

The committee, to which had been referred the commiuiicatioa fxomnhe 
Montgomery County Agricultural Society, on the subject of a reading ro^m, 
reported that they had corresponded with societies in the adjaceat eountieai 
but that, with the exception of the one which had initiated the morement, 
t^re seemed no prospect of secuHng the requisite co-operatioa. 

On motion that the committee be discharged, which was agreed to. 

The Committee of Arrangement of the exhibitioa reported, that Fowehoa 
had been secured for the purpose ; that five hundred circulars had been sent 
to the principal agricultnral and mechanical producers in this and the adjoin- 
ing States, and that the premium list and regulations had been published in 
the Farm Journal, and seven hundred and fifty extra copies circulated. 

A general conversation on the subject of the exhibition ensued, and the so- 
ciety, on motion, adjourned. 



Stated meeting at the room. Masonic Hall, South Third street, on Wednes- 
day morning, September 5, 1855. 

President in the chair. 

Messrs. D. B. Stetson, A. G. Dunn, J. M'Clure and J. C. Vogdes, were elected 
resident members. 

Mr. Clement, chairman of Committee of Arrangement of Exhj^ition, reported 
the state of the grounds and the measures taken to insure a full representation 
of mechanical and agricultural produce. These measures, he felt sure, would 
prove successful. 

Dr. £lwyn presented the following resolution, which after much discussion 
was referred to the Executive Committee. 

ReMolvedj That this society cordially approves of the plan proposed by Lieut. 
Maury, in the August number of the American Farmer^ for extending to the 
<land, for the benefit of agpri culture, the system of meteorological observations, 
which has done so much for the improvement of navigation and commerce ; 
that we commend the plan to the favorable consideration of our brother farmers 
in other States, and request the members of Congress from our own State to 
procure that degree of encouragement for agricultural and sanitary meteorology, 
which has been so wisely and beneficially extended to the meteorology of the 
seas ; and that the President of the society be and is hereby requested to for- 
ward a copy of this resolution to each member of the Congressional del^fation 
from this State. 

Adjourned. 



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AGKICULTDBAL 5SOCIETY. 881 

Stated meeting, October 3, 1855. 

President Landreth in the chair. 

Messrs. Isaac B. Baxter and Oarid A. Wells were elected resident members. 

The Committee of Arrangement of the late exhibition, made a partial report 
and were continned. 

Voted, on motion of Mr. Algernon S. Roberta, that five hundred copies of 
the reports of the judges, the Grovemor's address, and the minutes of the aoeiety, 
be printed in pamphlet form. 

Mr. William S. Torr, in behalf of the committee to solicit subscriptioas eimL 
collect funds on account of exhibition, reported having collected six hundred 
and twenty-seven dollars and ten cents. 

On motion, the thanks of the society were tendered to the committee, and 
the Committee of Arrangements of the exhibitton were anthorized to receive 
the amount. 

Mr. Algernon S. Roberts moved that a committee of twmity be appointed to 
represent this society on the occasion of the pending exhibition of the United 
States Agricultural Society, at Boston ; which motion was agreed to, and the 
following gentlemen were appointed by the chair : 

Algernon S. Roberts, Owen Jones, Charles H. Rodgers, Charles W. Harri- 
son, John Rice, Morton M'Michael, Charles R. King, M. D., John M'Gowan, 
Alfred L. Kennedy, M. D., Dennis Kelly, W. G. Warder, James A. M'Crea, 
M. D., Charles Kelly, Samuel V. Merrick, David S. Brown, L. Henry Twad- 
dell. Gen. Robert Patterson, Craig Biddle, Aaron Clement and David Landreth. 
I Adjourned. 

November meeting, held at the room, Masonic Hall, South Third street, 
Wednesday, November 7, 1855. 

President, Mr. Landreth, in the chair. 

Eight gentlemen, proposed for membership at preceding meeting, were duly 
elected resident members, viz : Mr. Jos^>h M'Carthy, Dr. Gavin Watson, and 
Messrs. Charles Penrose^ Alexander Scott, H. C. Hanson, George Draylon, R. 
Kimball and £. Lincoln. 

The committee to provide a more suitable room for the meetings of the so- 
ciety, reported having seen one every way desirable on the second floor of 160 
Chestnut street, below Seventh, (Fisher's building.) As prompt action had 
seemed to be necessary, the members of the conamittee had in their individual 
capacity brought the subject before the Gxecutive Committee, whidb body ioA 
authorized the renting of the premises by the President and Secretary. 

On motion, that the committee be discharged, which was agreed to. 

The Committee of Arrangements of the annual exhibition reported their ina- 
bility to make a final statement, in consequence of the non-presehtatioa of aU 
, bilb due, and the.non*receipt of moneys accruing* 



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88& PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

On motion, the committee was continued an4 instrtieled to -report at next 
meeting. 

The Executive Committee reported having engaged the roorti above referred 
to, on Gheatnnt street, and ordered it to be prepared for the next meeting of 
the society. They also reported back for adoption the resoitrtioli referred to 
them by the society at the last meeting. 

On motion, that the resolution be adopted, which was agreed to. 

The delegation appointed to represent this society at the late exhibition of 
the United States Agricultura] Society, presented the following report : 

To the President and Members of the Philadeljphia Society for Promoting j^gri* 

culture : 

Gbwtlbmen : — The delegation appomted by yourselves to attend the third 
annual exhibition of the United States Agricultural Society, held in Boston, 
on the 23d, 24th, 25th and 26th ultimo, respectfully Report: 

That they repaired to the place of exhibition', arriving thither in season to 
participate in the exercises of Wednesday morning, 24th ultimo, and found 
the arrangements in all the departments to be on the grnndest and most liberal 
iscale, one every way worthy of the national character of the society, and o( 
the well known public spirit of the Bostonians, who had secured for their city 
the honor of being the seat of an agricultural competition designed to be co- 
extensive with the continent, by a generous subscription of $30,000 5 $20,000 
towards the expenses and $10,000 in premiums. The authorities of the city, 
in the same liberal spirit, had set apart a large tract of land contiguous to the 
thickly built section, and near the great thoroughfare leadi^ over Boston 
neck. This tract had been substantially enclosed by the society, provided 
with ornamental gates of entrance, and arranged within with shedding, tents, 
seated stagging for six thousand spectators, and a wide and level trotting 
course full half a mile in circuit. 

Unfortunately Wednesday was marked by a storm of unusual severity, 
which flooded the streets and fair grounds, and rendered attendance virtually 
impossible. For all the purposes of the show the day was lost, and its effect 
•upon many of the animals offered for competition was decidedly unfavorable. 

But the efforts of the several local committees rose with the difficulties of 
the occasion, and the arrangements made for Thursday were even more complete 
and more comprehensive than before. These, favored by a change of weather, 
* ware earned out in the best style. The proper authorities responded to the desire 
of the committee and closed the public schools, many of the stores were shut, and 
the whole population turned out in honor of the great National Agricultural 
Jubilee. Not only in the city, but in the surroirading towns and villages, was 
the impulse felt* Carefully conducted inquiries show that eighty '^seven thou* 
eand seven hundred and sixteen persons came t<^ the city on Thursday morniag, 



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AGKICULXURAL SOCIETY, 888 

more than five thouflaod six hundred of whom remained until the following 
day. The exercises, commenced with a cavalcade of over eight hundred truck- 
men and carters who, mounted and in the uniform of calling, passed through 
the entire length of the city and entered the grounds. An immense throng 
followed, and by one o'clock, when the writer temporarily left the grounds, 
the gate^keq^ reported that fifty thousand people had passed in. Before 
evening the number must have doubled. 

By the regulations of the trotting course, trials of speed on the first two day« 
were confined to horses which had never run for monef , and times which 
were made, especially on Tuesday, are believed, under the circumstances, to 
be unsurpassed at any {previous agricnltural exhibition in the country. 

The display of neat cattle, sheep and swine, despite the inclemency of the 
preceding day, was remarkably fine, and difiered from that of the preceding 
exhibition of the society, and the number and comparative superiority of the 
animals ^red in this country. In many instances a comparison of the best 
imported cattle, with animals of the same breed raised in the United States, 
the judges were compelled to award the prize to the latter. This gratifying 
evidence of increased care and attention on the part of American stock-raisevs, 
and of a growing and determined ambition to compete with foreign cattle 
breeders in animals of the same grade, must be hailed h^e with the highest 
satisfaction. In no other than a national exhibition could the fact be so con- 
vincingly proved, and its demonstration there is so full of significance as of 
itself fully to repay the labor and expenditure incident on the occasion. 

The duties of the judges continued until Friday, at 2 o'clock P. M., at which 
time the greaHagricultural banquet, held under an enormous tent on the fair 
grounds, came off according to announcement. Upwards of three thousand 
persons participated in the scene of festivity, and when we regard the number 
in attendance, the superiority of the viands, the dignity and decorum observed, 
and the spirit and eloquence of the addresses, this feature of the* exhibition 
may be fairly described as unequalled in any previous American agricultural 
fairs. 

It will be gratifying to Pennsylvanians, aud especially to Philadclphians, to 
learn, that our ancient and honorable society, the prolific mother of American 
agricultural organizations, was duly venerated on the occasion. The delegates 
were treated with the most marked distinction, and her influence on the ten- 
dencies of American agriculture, were subject matter of special commendation. 

The first sentiment, complimentary to a society out of Massachusetts, was 
ofi^ered in her honor. The duty of replying to this sentiment was devolved 
))y the delegation on their fellow member, Morton M'Michael, Esq. A copy 
of his response, as it appeared in the Boston papers of the following morning, 
is herewith presented, and your delegation have great pleasure in stating that 
among tlie eloquent addresses delivered at the entertainment, none was re- 



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S84 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

ceivcd with more marked attention and stronger evidences of approval than 
that which fell from the spokesman of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting 
Agriculture. 

Your delegation have to regret, that no stock from Pennsylvania was on 
exhibition, . The distance and the season may in part account for this absence; 
but it may doubtless, in some measure, be attributed to the fact that sufficient 
publicity was not given to the exhibition and its objects by the press of this 
State and city. Few objects are more worthy of notice, at the hands of our 
able journalists, than great industrial competitions, especially those of a na- 
tional character, in which State competes with State, and section with section, 
in the honorable rivalry of the arts of peace. An equal apathy on the part of 
most of our city papers, as to the pro^rress and results of the Boston exhibition, 
has prevented yourselves and our citizens generally from learning little more 
than the fact that the exhibition had been held, and has called for this detail 
at the hands of your delegation. In all the prominent papers of New Yoric 
city, full telegraphic reports of the daily progress of the fair appeared every 
morning during its continuance. Yet Philadelphia, although the most honored 
guest, was, save through the columns of one of her journals, not advised of 
her own position. 

The palpable advantages accruing to the agriculture of Massachusetts, and 
to the interests of Boston, from their being the seat of this great national 
exhibition, have forcibly impressed themselves upon your delegation, and in- 
duced the earnest hope that Philadelphia be selected as the site of the exhibi* 
tion of 1856. They did not, however, feel authorized to present a formal in- 
vitation to that effect to the officers of the United States society), They desire 
that the subject be brought not only before yourselves, but before the citizens 
and authorities of Philadelphia, and of the State generally, in order that such 
an invitation be extended to the National society at its annual session in the 
city of Washington, in January next. 

In conclusion, your delegation present the following resolutions: 

Resolved^ That the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture has 
heard, with the highest satisfaction, of the successful holding of the third ex- 
hibition of the United States Agricultural Society, in the city of Boston, and 
hails with gratification the beneficial results to the cause of American agri- 
culture which flow from the sessions and labors of the national organization. 

Resolved, That this society entertains a grateful sense of the distinction ac- 
corded to it, and of the hospitality extended to its delegation on the occasion 
aforesaid, and that it will cordially co-operate in all measures calculated to 
secure the selection of Philadelphia as the site of the next national agricul- 
tural exhibition. 

Mr. C. W. Harrison had unfortunately been unable to accompany the dele- 
gation. He regretted that he, as well as other citizens and members, had been 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY- 885 

«tMib)e to kam anything conoeraiBg the exhibition, through the newspaper 
prefls of our city. A visit of a fire oompeny to a sister city was chronicled by 
telegraph, and the ceremonies of reception and entertainment minutely de- 
«eribed ^ bat coneeming an exhibition in which the whole nation was interested, 
and in which Philadelphia was especially distinguished, our citizens had been 
kept in Almost entire ignorance. 

Dr. O. Emerson moired that the report of the delegation be received and the 
appended resohtions adc^ttd, which was unanimously agreed to« 

Mr. A^ Clement exhibited a large and well executed plan of the fair grounds 
of our last exhibitioB at Powelton, drawn by S. H. Peabody, A. M., professor 
of eivil engineering in the Polytechnic college of this city, from his own sur- 
veys, and by him presented to the society. 

Mr* Clement moved that the thanks of the society be tendered to professor 
Peabody for his higly acceptable aurvey and donation, which motion prevailed 
unanimously. 
Dr. Av L. Kennedy offered the following resolution : 

Resolvedy That the new room of the society, on Chestnut street, be prepared 
as a reading room for farmers, and be opened to them on Friday evenings 
throughout the wniter% • 

Dr. Kennedy urged the passage of the resolution on the score of duty to the 
agricultural public which had so liberally patronitzed the late exhibition, and 
of expediency, as the objects of the society would be more fully carried out 
and its list of members increased. The farmers who attend our market had 
been too much neglected. Mechanics had their reading rooms, so had mer- 
chants and sailors, but the farmers had been left to the temptations of the bar- 
room and the licentious attractions of a large city. 

The discussion was continued by Messrs. Torr, J. M. Williams, S. Williams, 
Freas, Dr. King, Messrs. Biddle, Sheridan, C. W. Harriapn, Spangler, Clement 
and others ; and on motion of Mr. Clement the resolution was referred to the 
Executive Committee, with instructions to report the probable cost of the pro- 
posed measure to the society at next meeting. 

Mr. A. T. Newbold exhibited the peculiar growth of a variety of millet, 
oaltivated dwii^g last season, in Burlington county, New Jersey. Adjourned. 



December meeting of this society, held in their new room, Fisher's Biiild 
ing, 106 Chestnut street below Seventh, on Wednesday morning, December 5, 
1855. 

Mr. Landreth, President, in the chair. 

Mr. J. H. Pratt, of Philadelphia, was elected a resident member. 

The Executive Committee reported back with a favorable recommendation 
25 



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386 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

the following resolution, offered at preceding meeting of the society, by Df. 
Alfred L. Kennedy, and referred to the committee: 

Resolved., That the new room of the society on Chestnut street, be prepared 
as a reading room for farmers, and be opened to them on Friday erenii^ 
th^ughout the winter. 

The resolution being before the meeting, it was adopted unaniinously. 

The Executive Committee also reported a aeries of regulations for the read- 
ing room, and recommended their enactment. The regulations garerise tea 
prolonged discussion, in which Messrs. Engle, Freas, S» V. Merrick, Ford, 
Sheridan, Landreth, Kennedy, Elwyn^ Spangkr and others participated, and 
were finally adopted in the following form :' 

Regulations of the Reading Room of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting 

Agriculture, 

I. The reading room shall be opened on every Friday evening from the 15th 
of Octobet to the 15th of March, inclusive, from 7 to 10 o'clock. 

II. The Eoom shall be free to members of this society, to the officers of all 
agriculturaj societies, and to the members of all. the county agricultural 
societies in Pennsylvania, and in the adjacent counties of New Jersey. 

III. On such persons presenting evidence of their membership to the super- 
intendent of the room, he shall furnish to each of them, without charge, a ticket 
of admission for the season. 

IV. The names of all persons using the reading room shall be registered 
in a book provided for the purpose, and no person i^all be admitted without a 
ticket, except when introduced by a member of this society. 

The Committee of Arrangements of the late exhibition presented the annual 
report, which was on motion, received and ordered to be printed. . 

Mr. Landreth exhibited fifty-two specimens of turnips raised from seed im- 
ported by him for trial from England and the Continent; including two or 
three varieties distributed by the Patent Ofiice. The greater portion proved to 
be decidedly inferior to the old kinds raised in this country'', while not a few 
were, according to our American ideas, unworthy of culture. Of the entire 
number there were but two varieties which Mr. L. designed to perpetuate. It 
is worthy of remark that those from England were superior to the [continental 
varieties. 

Mens. A. Sauvan, acting French Consul at this port, having been introduced 
by Mr. President, presented to the society in behalf of his Government, copies 
of the regulations and premium lists of the two Universal Agricultural Exhibi- 
tions, open for stock, produce, implements and machinery from all nations. 
The exhibitions to be held in Paris, from May 23d to June 7, 1856, and from 
May 22 to June 6, 1857. The French Consul invited contributions from the 



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AGRICULTUBAL SOCIETY. ' 887 

tnembers of this society and others, and would be happy to afford any infor«> 
mation to American contributors. 

Dr. A. L* Klwyn called attention to the importance of devoting more time 
«nd care to the examination of implements than is possible daring the hurry 
and confusion attending our agricultural exhibitions; and offered the following 
resolution: 

Resolved, That it is expedient to form a Standing Committee on Agricul- 
tural Implements and Processes, and that a committee of three be appointedi to 
report a plan for the organization of such a standing committee. 

The resolution was dissnssed by Messrs. Aierrick, Willets, Sharpless and 
Harrison, and was finally adopted. Messrs. Elwyii, Merrick and Willets con* 
stitute the committee under the resolution. 

On motion of Mr, Merrick, that the society nominate officers for the ensuing 
year, which was agreed to, when the requisite nominations having been made, 
the society adjourned. 



THE EXHIBITION. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENT. 

. Tlie fair of the " Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture," held the 
present year at Powelton, Twenty-fouth ward, was the most successful exhi- 
bition which has taken place under the au^cesof the society since its organi- 
zation. 

The grounds were those occupied by the fair of the State Society last year, 
and guided by the experience then acquired, many improvements were made 
in the general disposition of the buildings, and in their accommodations. The 
entire space of seventeen acres, with the exception df the strip of land used 
as a hitching ground, was sucurcly enclosed. The stalls, as seen in the plan, 
almost encircled the enclosure. Those for neat cattle were so arranged that 
the flanks of the animals were exposed, thereby securing to the observer a 
better view, and a clean, continuous covered walk within the projecting eaves 
of the stalls. The Schuylkill water was laid on, in wrought iron pipes, from 
Market street to the centre of the grounds, a distance of about a quarter of a 
tnile, affording, by means of hydrants and other openings, an abundant supply 
for visitors, cattle, fountains and steam power. The horse- track was length* 
ened, improved in its curves, and its surface put in fine condition. 

The Committee of Arrangement early decided to add to the attractions of 
the society's former exhibitions, a department of manufactures, and of fruits 
and flowers. That of manufactures, it was anticipated, would increase the in- 
trinsic value of the fair, and be gratifying to our artisans, deprived as they 
were, by the .want tf a4tdttU« bwitdiag) ct theanuiutl and deservedly popu-. 



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388 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

lar display of our esteemed contemporary, the PrankKn Institute. Both of 
these anticipations were realized. The circulars issued by the committee to 
prominent manufacturers were promptly responded to, and at the opening of 
the fair, the frame structure devoted to machinery, and the enonnoaa tent con* 
nected therewith, were filled to repletion. 

Our sister organization, the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, having beM 
its annual exhibition on the same days with our own, and on Penn Square, a 
central position, convenient to thronged city thoroughHares, a number of cob* 
tributions and visitors which would have found their way to our grounds, weirt 
to theirs. Nevertheless, the de|>artn»ent of fruits and flowers^ from the beauty 
of the arrangement, and the number and exoellence of artiolea oo exhibitioa, 
was among the chief attractions of Poweiton. 

The display of implements was piobaUy greater than any heietofore held 
in this country, filling not only the tent devoted to them, bot a Inrge portiM 
of the adjoining grounds. 

In order to multiply and improve the grade of premiums, the committee 
authorized the distribution of silver and bronze medals, honors for a long time 
discontinued by the society, and also the preparation of a new diploma, which 
for beauty of design and elegance of execution, is universally admired. 

Punctually, according to announcement, on Tuesday, at 12 o^cloclc, M., the 
gates of the enclosure were thrown open, and visitors began to throng io. 
Despite the unremitted exertions of the committee, the late arrival of some <X 
the large tents delayed the final qjmngement of the manufactured goods until 
the evening of that day, at which time, also, ail the horse and the cattle stalls, 
with one or two exceptions, were filled, and the catalogue of the exhibition, 
which precedes this report, was handed to the printer. It went to press the 
same evening, and one thousand copies, stitched and conaplete, were for sab 
on the grounds on the following morning of Wednesday. On this, the second 
day of the fair, the judges commenced their examinations, and continued them 
throughout the day and Thursday, interrupted only in the afternoon by a vio- 
lent storm, which severely tested the security of the temporary structures. 
On Friday, however, a clear sky and refreshing breeze brightened the land- 
scape and dried the grounds. The awards of premiums hereunto appended, 
were read from the stand at 12 o'clock, and the appropriate address of Ex' 
Governor Bigler, also annexed,* was delivered in the presence of a large con- 
course of visitors. These increased as the day advanced. The trials of speed 
were multipled in interest and excitement, by the number of competitors, and 
the cheers of the spectators, who surrounded the track a quarter of a mile in 
circuit, in an uninterrupted rank three to four deep ; these again being backed 
by a cordon of horsemen and vehicles. All portions of the grounds were 
thronged. Music lent its charms to the scene, and the animated spectacle 

* For address of Sz-Qov. BigBor, see page 814, of ToL Iir. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 899 

which at that time greeted the eyee and gladdened the hearts of the farmer, 
was one not soon to be forgotten. Citizen and statesman shared with him 
his emotions of honest exultation at the thought, that this grand fete was in 
honor of his art — ^the foundation-art of all natipnal prosperity. 

The committee congratulate the society that the exhibition, enlarged beyond 
all precedent, and conceived and conducted in the most liberal public spirit, 
was so eminently successful in all its departments. The receij^ts and disburse- 
ments, to be made agreeably to instructions, at the Pecember meeting, will 
appear under that head in the published minutes. 

The committee return their acknowledgments to the judges, who performed 
with so much alacrity and discretion the important parts assigned them ; to 
the efficient police, for the preservation of order and decorum Within and 
arottnd the enclosure ; and to the members and citizens who by their personal 
exertions, contributions and deposits of the beautiful and the useful in nature 
and in art, rendered the exhibition so eminently worthy of Philadelphia as a 
great manufacturing and agricultural centre. 

AARON CLEMENT, 
A. T. NEWBOLD, 
HARRY INGERSOLL, 
DENNIS KELLY, 
JOHN S. HAINES, 
A. L. ELWYN, 
. JOHN M'GOWAN, 
S. C. WILLITS, 
CHAS. W. HARRISON, ^* 
GEORGE BLIGHT, 
JOHN RICE, 
DAVID LANDRETH, 
0. B. ROGERS, 
ISAAC NEWTON, 
PASCHALL MORRIS, 
A. L. KENNEDY, 

Committee of Arrangement. 
Philadelphia, J^ovember 10, 1855. 



REGULATIONS OF THE EXHIBITION OF 1855. 

I. The grounds will be provided with convenient and secure buildings and 
enclosures for the reception and display of stock, of agricultural and horticul- 
tural products and implements, and of manufactured goods. Competition is 
invited from all parts of Pennsylvania and the adjoining States. Hay and 



y 



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Sm PEPTNgYLVAKIA STATE 

straw will be fumi^ed in [proper quantities, without diarge. Steam power 
will be supplied for machinery in motion. 

II. The exhibition will open on Tuesday, September 1 1, at 12 o'clock M.,. 
before which time all animals ^and articles intended for competition, must be 
on the grounds and duly recorded at the business office. The society will not 
be responsible for the omission of the judges to examine objects which are not 
recorded as afc^resaid. To aroid delay and confusion, contributors are re> 
quested to send dieir olgectB on the day previous to the openisg of the exhi- 
bition. , 

III. Upon entering thdr animals, exhibitors, who are net members of the 
society, will be subjected to a charge of one dollar (classes Vil and IX ex- 
cepted.) tfpon entering articles, intended for competition^ a similar charge 
will be made; but articles not intended for competition, may be entered gratui- 
tously. Ail objects m^ust be described and entered before taking them within 
the enclosure, and must have cards attached either to them or near their place 
on the show-ground ; which cards will be furnished by the entering clerk, and 
will contain the number corresponding to that in his book, the name of the 
object exhibited, and the name of the exhibitor. 

IV. Every exhibitor, upon his contribution being duly entered, will receive 
a season ticket, admitting himself to the grounds during the whole time of the 
exhibition ; and four single-admission lady's or minor's tickets, to be given 
up at the gate. . 

V. All animals most be entered for competition m the name of their owner 
only. Evidence of age, pedigree, and character will be required j and if the 
judges suspect an animal to be improperly classed, they shall apply for infor- 
mation to the chairman of the Committee of Arrangement, and if doubts as to 
the classification still exist, the ease shall be referred to the Committee of Ar- 
rangement, whose decision shall be final. 

VI. In all cases of equality of merit in articles exhibited by two or more 
parties, the inventor and the manufacturer shall be preferred to the vendor. 

VII. The judges will report meritorious objects exhibited and not mentioned 
in the premium list, to the Committee of Arrangement, who may award such 
premiums as they think proper. 

VIII. The judges are authorized to withhold premiums when objects are not 
entitled to distinction ; and when but one of a class, for which a premium is- 
offered, is exhibited, they may make such award as they think it merits. 

IX. Objects competing for the same premiumyjnust be changed in position 
and brought together as the judges may require. 

X. No object entered can be removed from the ground before the close of 
the exhibition, and no premium will be paid on objects removed in violation 
of this rule. 

XI. No animal or article can take more than one premium* U an exhibitor 



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AOHIC^JLTURAL SOOBTY. 391 

im awarded more th^B one m^dal, be may commute the excess in money at 
the following rates, viz : — Silver medal, ten dollars ; bronzcj medal, five dollarp. 

XII. Members of the society who are not in arrears for the current year, 
will enjoy all the privileges of admission accorded to exhibitors, and will not 
be subjected to any payment on entering their objects for exliibition. 

XIII. The reports of the judges and the awards of premiums will be read 
from the stand on the third day of the exhibition, at 12 o'clock, M. The an- 
nual address will be delivered on the last day of the exhibition. Immediately 
after the address, the premiums will be distributed. Those in money will be 
paid by Mr. George Blight, Treasurer. Medals and diplomas not called for 
on the ground, may be obtained between 1 1 and 2 o'clock, on Wednesday fol- 
lowing the close of the exhibition, at the* society's room, Masonic Hall, Third 
street,* below Walnut. All premiums uncalled for within six months, will be 
considered as donated to the society. 

. XIV. Price of single admission to the exhibition, on foot or vehicle, twenty- 
five cents. Single vehicle of whatever kind, including driver, fifty cents. 



REPORTS OF JUDGES AND AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 
CLASS 1.— HORSES. 

^0 the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting .Agriculture : 

The undersigned. Committee on Horses, having performed the duties as- 
signed them, respectfully report the following awards, viz : 

Austin Meller, Philadelphia, the ^rst premium of twenty dollars, for his 
thorough bred stallion, ** Ben Franklin," twelve years old. 

George W« Gray, Philadelphia, the first premium of ten dollars, for his 
thorough-bred brood mare, "Alice," fourteen years old. 

M. A. Kellogg, Philadelphia, the second premium of six dollars, for his 
thoroogh-bced brood mare. 

John Stout, West Philadelphia, the first premium of fifteen dollars, for his, 
stallion, "Young Geal. Taylor," six years old, adapted to field and road^ 

John Mowrer, West Philadelphia, the second premium of ten dollars, for 
his stallion, "SheUbark," six years oli 

Owen Sheridan, Chestnut Hill, the first premium of ten dollars, for his mare, 
"Fairy," adapted to field and road. 

Edgar N. Black, Philadelphia, the second premium of six dollars, for his 
bay mare, nine years old. 

Ezra K. Concklin, Philadelphia, the first premium of ten dollars, for his pair 
matched chestnut horses. 

* Now located ia Fisher's buildiog, 160 Chestnut street, below Seventh. 



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3»2 fW^KSTLVANlA STATE 

M. A. Kellogg, Riihuieli^a, the secdnd prernHm of aix dollars, far \m pair 
matched bay horses. 

James N. Marks, West Phitadelphk, first premiam o( tmk dollars^ for Us 
single harness sorrel gelding, five years oM. 

W. F. Pitfield, Philadelphia, second premiam of six dollars, for his Uaok 
colt, four years old. 

Matthew Kiley, Belmont, first premiam of ten doDars, for h» iron gray coh, 
two years old. 

John T. Smith, Blockley, second premium of six dollars, for his Maek colt, 
"Consolidation," two years old. 

H. G. Litzenburg, Athensrille, Montgomery county, first premium of ten 
dollars, for his chestnut sorrel saddle horse, ten years oM. 

Morgan H. Jones, Philadelphia, second premium of six dollars, for his gray 
Arab saddle horse, ten years old. 

James Loughery, Cobb^s Creek, Delaware county, first jHremium of eight 
dollars, for his sorrel fitly, three years old. 

Wm. D. Thomas, , second premium of fire dollars, for his filly. 

Franklin S. Wells, Philadelphia, first premium of six dollars, fox his sorrel 
roan colt, ^^ May Day," sixteen OKinths old. 

D.'B. Taylor, Philadelphia, second premium of four, dollars, for his brown 
colt. 

Wm. Dermott, Kingsessing, first premium of four dollars, for his filly, 
"Sally Ann Taylor," sixteen months old. 

Charles Gamble, Haverford, second premium of three dollars, for his filly, 
sixteen months old. 

Isaac Newton, Pennsville, Delaware county, first premium of ten dolkrs, for 
best jack. 

Frederick Showers, West Philadelf^ia, first premium of ten dollars, for his 
pair of mules. 

Frederick Showers, complimentary diploma, for best team of seyen males. 

David E. Haner, Kensington, complimentary bronze medal, for remarkably 
fine cart horse. 

Z. Campbell, West Philad^phia, complimentary bronae medal, (or Shethuid 
poney. 

W. Henderson, Hestonville, complimentary premium of ten dollars, for skill 
in driving his three gray geldings tandem. 

E. K. Concklin, Philadelphia, complimentary premium of five dollars, for 
his fine bay gelding. 

C. M. Matthews, Philadelphia, complimentary premium of five dollars, for 
his Black Hawk colt, "Othello," four years old. 

John Gorman, West Philadelphia, special premium of five dollars, for his 
bay gelding. The fastest horse shown — had been entered as a saddle horse. 



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AGRICULTUBAL SOCIETT. 3»a 

Oeoige Martin, Rose Hill, special pvemiiini of &te dollars, for his sortel 
mare "Topsy." 

W. Vanoandt, oomplimentary {Nremium for hia fine gray gelding, exhiUted 
for all work. 

John Jeffries, Delaware county, premium of ten dollars, for his pair of brown 
farm horses. 

Complimentary Inronze medals aire also awarded to J. L. Gormen, for hest 
horse to saddle. To John Clark, for hest horse to harness, and to J. G. JShowa* 
ker, for the best horse to wagon. 

The committee regret that there was not a better display of stallions of all 
work}. there are many better horses which might have been brought forward. 
The committee recommend to exhibitors greater care in entering their stock. 
The labors of ttie judges would tber^y, be materially shortened, and much 
more satisfactorily performed. 

■ W. J. LEIPEB, 
A. T. NEWBOLD, 
T. C. JAMES, 
J. M. ODENHEIMER, 
F. DUFFY, 

JudgtB of trimU of speed. 
CHARLES LLOYD, Jr., 
EZRA K. CONCKLIN, 
JOHN P. JENKINS, 
OWEN JONES, 

A. G. DAVIS, 

B. D. STETSON, 

Judges of horses. 



CLASS 2.— NEAT CATTLE. 

Section 1. — Short Horns, over Two Years Old. 

To the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting .Agriculture: ' 

The undersigned, with a high sense of the arduous task imposed on them, 
have endeavored, to the best of their judgment and ability, to award premiians 
where merited. 

A large number of cattle, worthy of special notice, were on the ground, and 
the judges respectfully report the following awards, viz: 

Dennis Kelly, Lower Merion, Montgomery county, first premium, ten dollars, 
for his bull, " Lord Barrington," between three and four years old. 

George Martin, Rose Hill, first premium, eight dollars, for his bull, <<Belvi« 
dere," between two and three years old. 



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394 TEKWSYLJANIA STATE 

Jobfi Divine, Cheltenham, Montgomery oonnly:, seccmd premium, four dol- 
lars, for his bull, *' General Scott," two years and eleven months old. 

Charles Kelly, Kelly viUe, Delaware county > first premium^ eight dollars, for 
his cow, " Kate Kearney the fifth," between four and five years old. 

Henry Palmer, Kingses&ing, seooad premium, four doUara, for his roan cow, 
"Jenny Lind," between four and ^ve years old. 

Dennis Kelly, Lower Merion, Montgomery county, first premium, eight dol- 
kirs, for his roan cow, ^«Lily," between three and four years old. 

Joseph Palmer, Kingsessing, second premium, four dollars, for his cow, 
"White Red Kose," between three and four years oM. 

Dennis KeUy, Lower Merion, Montgomery county, first premium, si^ dol- 
lars, for his heifer, "May Flower," between two and three years old. 

Marks Martin, West Philadelphia, ^ond premium, three dollars, for his 
heifer, between two and three years old. 

Owen Sheridan, Chestnut Hill, spcfcial premium, five dollars, for his cow, 
"Young Nell," aged two years and six months, with twins.. 

Commendations. 

Samuel Cooper, Philadelphia, for his seven years old red cow, "Dutchess." 
Benjamin Chew, Germantown, for his red and white cow. 

ALEXANDER SCOTT, 
GEORGE MARTIN, 
HAYDOCK GARRIGUES, 
GEORGE ESREY, 

Judges. 



Section 2. — Short Hobi^, under Two Years Old. 

To the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture : 

The committee of judges respectfully state, that the animals which they 
were called on to examine were excellent in quality, giving evidence of judi- 
oious and skilful breeding. They were in high condition, and very creditable 
to tlieir owners. Your committee, after a prolonged and careful examination, 
report the following awards, viz: 

Dennis Kelly, Lower Merion, Montgomery county, the first premium of six 
dollars, for his bull, " Hector," between one and two years old. 

P. K. Lambert, West Philadelphia, the second premiam of three dollars, for 
bis bull, " Bachelor," between one and two years old. 

' Aaron Clement, Philadelphia, special premium of three dollars, for his year 
old bull. 



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AOKlCtJLTURAL SOOETT. mHi 

Richard T. Cartwright, North Penn, a spedal premium of throe dollars^ for 
his sixteen months old bull, " Bill." 

Charles Kelly, Kelly ville, Delaware cotmty, first premimn of three dollars, 
for his eleven months old bull, " Harry Lorrequer," bred by himself. 

Dennis Kelly, the first premium of five dollars, for his eighteen months old 
heifer, (not named,) bred by himself. 

Charles Kelly, the second premium of three dollars, for his eighteen months 
old heifer, " Kit," bred by himself. 

Owen Sherkian, Chestnut Hill, special premium of two dollars, far his 
eighteen months old heifer, "Miss Kerby." 

Jno. J. Hoopes, Kinprsessing, a special premium of two dollars, for his six- 
teen months old white heifer, " Snowball." 

William D. Rickardt, Berkley, a special premium of two dolkrs, f<»r his 
eighteen months old dun heifer, " Susannah." 

Owen Sheridan, of Chestnut Hill, the first premium of two dollars, for his 
year old heifer, "Beauty." 

Jolm M^Gowan^ of Bridesburg, a social premium of ooe dollar, for his ten 
and a half months old red heifer, " Emma." 

CliarJes Kelly, a special premium of one dollar, for his eleven months old 
heifer, " Miss Louisa." 

Commendation. 

Owen Sheridan, for his twin heifn^s out of "Nell." 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

L. HENRY TWADDELL, M. D., 
JESSE GEORGE, 
BENJ. SERRILL, 
ADAM ECKFELDT, 

Judges. 
PowELTON, September 13, 1855. 



Section 3. — Devons — All Ages. 

To the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture : 

The Committee on Devon Cattle beg leave to make the following awards, viz i 

Joseph Longstreth, White Marsh, Montgomery county, the first premium' of 
ten dollars, for his four years and six months old bull, "Buck." 

George F. Cur win. Lower Merion, Montgomery county, the second premium 
ci six dollars, for his two years old bull, " Massasoit." 

George Blight, Germantown, the fi^st premium of eight dollars, for his four 
and a half years old cow. * 



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8M PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Josei^h Lon^trethy the «eooiid premium of four dollars, for his seren yetrs 
old cow, " Lily." 

George T. Gurwin, the first premium of eight dollars, for his cow between 
three and four years old. 

W. Vanzandt, of Montgomery Square, Montgomery county, the second pre* 
mium of four dollars, for hie cow between three and four years old. 

George Blight, the first premium of six dollars, for his heifer between two 
and three years old. 

Aaron Clement, Philadelphia, the second premium of three dollars, for his 
heifer between two and three years old. 

Aaron Clement, the first premium of six dollars, for his bmll between one 
and two years old. , 

Isaac Pearson, Holme^mrg, the second premium of threes dollars, for his 
bull between one and two years old. 

Aaron Clement, the first premium of fire dollars, for his six months old 
heifer. 

Aaron Clement, the second premium of three dollars, for his six months old 
heifer. 

Aaron Clement, the first premium of three dollars, for his four months old 
calf. 

W. Vanzandt, the second premium of two dollars, for his seven weeks old 
calf. 

* Joseph Longstreth, the first premium of three dollars, for his ten months 
old bull calf. 

The undersigned regret that they were not able to award premiums to other 
fine cattle, which were on the ground, but which did not come under the rules 
of the society. 

RICHARD PIM, 

JOSEPH PALMER, 

OWEN SHERIDAN, 

Judges. 
PowELTON, September 12, 1855. 



Section 4«. — Alderneys — All Ages. 
To the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture: 

The Committee of judges on Aldemey neat cattle — all ages, respectively 
report: 

That the number of cattle of a pure stock ofi^red for their inspection was 
limited, in some classes furnishing no competition. Among those ofiered 
there were, however, very fine specimens, well deserving the meed of praise, 
to the owners of which the following premiums have been awarded, viz : 



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AOKICULTURAL SOCXETT. WT 

Dr. L* Henry Twaddell, Maylandyille, the first premium of ten dollars, for 
his five years old red and white bull *<St. Nicholas," bred by heirs of Nicholas 
Biddle, Esq. 

Aaron Clement, Philadelphia, the second premium of six dollars, for his two 
years old bull. 

William S. Torr, West Philadelphia, the first piamium of eight dollars, for 
his three years old red and white cow ** Beauty." 

Dr. L. Henry Twaddell, the first premium of six dollars, for his two and a 
half years old red and white heifer ^^Bmpress," bred by Professor William 
Gibson. 

The committee were much pleased with a bull exhibited by Thomas Bealer, 
Lower Merion^ and believing that, though not entitled to the second premium, 
it was worthy of particular notice, would recommend the award to the owner 
of a special premium of four dollars. 

There were ofiSered for the inspection of the committee, as Alderneys, eight 
head of cattle, four by William Suppiee, three by Peter Kose and one by Wil« 
liam D. fiickards, all of Blockley — which, as was unanimously decided, should 
have been entered under the name of Brittanys. The committee is confident 
that the owners believed their cattle to be as represented; and the more so, 
because in former years the same kind of stock was exhibited, and received by 
this society, as Alderaeys* The committee feels itself placed in a novel and 
unpleasant position — not being able to allow the cattle above mentioned to 
compete with the pure Alderneys, and at the same time being unwilling to 
throw them out altogether. If there were premiums offered for Brittanys, or 
any other way designated by the society in which these cattle could receive 
proper notice, its duty would be plain — to pass them over to the appropriate 
committee. In view of existing circumstances, and of the fact that these cat* 
tie are excellent of their kind, it is recommended that complimentary pre* 
miuums be awarded to their respective owners, as follows: * 

To William Suppiee, eight dollars; to Peter Kose, six dollars; and to Wil* 
liam D. Rickards, two dollars. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

JAMES ANDREWS, 
EDGAR N. BLACK, 
ISAAC NEWTON, 
RICHARD CARTWRIOHT, 
J. BRINTON SMITH, 

Judga, 

PowELTON, Sept. 13, 1855* 



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^98 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Section 5. — Ayrshires. 
To the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Jlgriadture: 

The Judges on Ayrshire cattle award preraium« as follows, viz: 
William Struthers, Blockley, the first premium of eight dollar*, for his tea 
years old cow "Lassie." • 

Charles W. Harrison, Torrisdale, first premium, six dollars, for his three 
years old heifer " Whiteface." 

Respectfully submitted. 

CHARLES KELLY, 
R. PATTERSON, 
S. C. VVILLITS, 

Judgt9, 

POWELTON, Stpt, 14", 1855. 



Section 6. — Natives and Grades. 
7b the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture: 

Your judges, after carefully examining the stock submitted to their inspec- 
tion, respectfully report the following aAvards, viz : 

George Martin, the first premium of eight dollars, for his cow over fonf 
years old. 

John Turner, Twenty-third ward, the second premium of four dollars, for 
his eleven years old cow. , 

- Charles W. Harrison, of Torrisdale, the first premium of eight dollars, for 
•his Devon and Alderney cow, between three and four years old. 
' William Struthers, Blockley, the first premium of six dollars, for his two 
years old Durham and Ayrshire heifer "Nellie." 

Robert Little, West Philadelphia, the second premium of three dollars, for 
his two years old heifer "Queen." 

L. H. Twaddell, M. D., Maykndville, the first premium of five dollars, for 
his sixteen months old dun and white Alderney and Brittany heifer "Marion." 

George Martin, Rose Hill, the second premium of three dollars, for hi« 
heifer between one and two years old. 

Robert Little, West Philadelphia, the first premium of two dollars, for his 
eight months old heifer "Dairy Maid." 

Richard T. Cartwright, North Penn, a special premium of four dollars, for 
his fourteen months old red heifer. 



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AGBICULT17RAL POCIETY. ^399 

Commendations. 
Isaac Newton, Edward Gorman, William S. Torr, Thomas Humphreys, 
Henry Palmer, William Vanzandt and George Smith. 

GUSTAVUS ENGLE, 
JONAS BOWMAN, 
HERBERT REYNOLDS, 
Judged, 
PowELTON, Sept. 13, 1855. 



Section 7. — Working Oxen and Fat Cattle. 

To the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture: 

Your Judges on Working Oxen, rbference being had to their peforn»fi«e, re- 
port that they award to 

John J. Hoopes, of Kingsessing, the first premium of ten dollars, for hi» four 
years old dark red oxen, mixed breed. 

Owen Sheridan, of Chestnut Hill, the second premium of six dollars, for his 
six years old oxen "Buck*' and "Berry." 

Frederick Riter, of Kingsessing, the third premium for his six years old red 
oxen. 

George Blight, of Germantown, a special premium of ten dollars, for his 
pair of Devon oxen. 

Nelson Wentz, of Twenty-fourth ward, the first premium of six dollars, 
for his five years old fat steer "General Taylor." 

Commendation. 

John G. Frame, of Kingsessing, for his nine years old red working oxen. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

PASCHAL WORTH, 
ROBERT T. POTTS, 

Judges. 
Powelton, Sept. 13, 1855. 



CLASS 3.— SHEEP. 

To the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture: 

The Committee on Sheep having examined them with much care, awmrd to 
Aaron Clement, of Philadelphia, the first premium of five dollars, for the 
best long-wooUed buck over one year old. 



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♦W PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Murphy & Flynn, of West Philadelphia, the second premium of three dol* 
lars, for the second best long^wooUed buck. 

No bucks under one year old offered. 

Murphy 6c Flynn, the first premium of fire dollars, for the best two long« 
woolled'ewes over one year old. 

Murphy 6c Flynn, the second premium of three dollars, for the next best 
two long-woolled ewes over one year old* 

Aaron Clement, the first premiiun of five dollars, for the best Southdown 
buck, over one year old. 

James Thornton, Jr., of Byberry, the second premium of three dollars, for 
the next best Southdown buck over one year old. 

No Southdown bucks under one year old ofiered. 

Aaron Clement, the first premium of five dollars, for the best two South* 
down ewes over one year old. 

James Thornton, Jr., the second preminm of three dollars, for die next best 
two Southdown ewes over one year old. 

Charles Comly, of Byberry, the first premium of three dollars, for the best 
two ewe lambs between four and eight months old. 

The next best none offered. 

1. 6c G. B.Newton, of Pennsville, Delaware county, a special premium of five 
dollars, for a Tartary buck, ewe and lamb. 

I. 6c G. B. Newton, a special premium of two dollars, for two half-blood 
Tartary ewe lambs. 

Dr. G. £merson, of Philadelphia, a special premium of five dollars, for four 
half-blood Tartary bucks and four half-blood Tartary ewes. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

BRVAN JACKSON, 
DAVID B. PAUL, 
JOSHUA NEWBOLD, 
ISAAC SHOEMAKER, 

Judges, 
PowBLTON, Sept. 13, 1855. 



CLASS 4.— SWINE. 

To the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture : 

The Judges on Swine have closed their examination, and award premiums 
as follows, viz: 

Robert Purvis, of Byberry, the first premium of four dollars, for his seven- 
teen months old Suffolk boar. 

Robert Purvis, the first premium of four dolhurs, for his seventeen months 
old Suffolk sow. 



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AGBICIJLTURAL SOCIETY. 401 

Jo^Tia Newbold, of fiyberry, the fhrst premium of four dollars, for his Berk- 
shire sow and six pigs, each four months old. 

R. T. Cartwright, North Penn, the first premium of four dollars, for his 
white Bericshire boar, over one year old. 

R. T. Cartwright, of North Penn, the first premium of four dollars, for his 
two years old Chester county sow^ 

James Thornton, Jr., the second premium of two dollars, for a Suffolk sow 
aver one year «ld. 

R. T. Cartwright, the first premium of four dollars, for his twenty-four weeks 
•Id white Berkshire so^. 

R. T. Cartwright, the first premium of four dollars, for his twenty-sevea 
weeks old white Berkshire boar. 

R. T. Cartwright, the second premium of two dollars, for his twenty-four 
weeks old white Berkshire boar. 

Aaron Clement, of Philadelphia, a special premium of four dollars, for his 
year old Sufiblk and Berkshire grade boar. 

CHARLES GARRETT, 
PRANCIS PUTT, 
, REESE PYATT, 

Judges. 

Pow ELTON, Sept, 13, 1855, 



CLASS 5.— POULTRY. 

To the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting .Agriculture : 

The Judges on Poultry having examined the many varieties on exhibition, 
find the collection not so large as was anticipated. It is a matter of regret 
that so little attention has been paid to this department of farming, valuable 
alike to the cultivator and the citizen. 

Your judges make the following awards, viz : 

Robert Purvis, Byberry, the premium of four dollars for best pair of fowls 
of any breed. 

John M'Gowan, Bridesburg, the premium of three dollars for the best pair 
of Cochin China fowls 

James T. Crabb, M. D., West Philadelphia, the premium of two dollars for 
the next best pair of Cochin Chma fowls. 

James T. Crabb, M. D., W. P., the premium of three dollars for the best 
pair of Dorking fowls. 

James T. Crabb, M. D., W. P., the premium of three dollars for the b«^ 
pair of Grame fowls. 
26 



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40t PENNSYL\rANlA STATE 

James T. Grabb, M. D., W. P., the premium of three dollars for the best 
pair of black Spanish fowls, 

A. Holden, the premium of three dollars for the best Poland fowls. 

James Gillespie, Philadelphia, the premiiHn of three dollars for the best pair 
of fowls under one year old, improved breed. 

S. C. Kadford, West Philadelphia, the premium of three dollars for the best 
pair of Bantam fowls. 

Joseph Longstreth, White Marsh, the premium of three dollars for the best 
pair of geese. 

William T. Bunker, Blockley, the premium of two dollars for the next best 
pair of geese. 

S. C. Radford, the premium of three dollars for the best pair of ducks. 

Samuel Cope, the premium of two dollars for the next best pair of ducks. 

J. T. Crabb, M. D., the premium of four dollars for the best display of 
fowls. 

Robert Purvis, a special premium of three dollars for a fine collection of 
fowls. 

S. C. Radford, a special premium of three dollars for a fine collection of 
fowls. 

A. Holden, a special premium of three dollars for the best pair of Silver 



James Ridings, Philadelphia, a special premium of three dollars for the best 
pair of Golden pheasants. 

John M'Gowan, a special premium of two dollars for his superior white 
Shanghai cock. 

S. C. Radford, a special premium of three dollars for his superior Poland 
ducks. 

James Taylor, Callowhill St., Philadelphia, a special premiuni of a silver 
medal for his fine display of stufied poultry and other birds. 

Hugh M'llvaine, West Philadelphia, a complimentary diploma for his well 
preserved and beautifully arranged collection of stuffed birds. 
Very respectfully submitted. 

HENRY HAGUE, 
FURMAN D. HOLMES, 
CHARLES K. ENGLE, 
J. M. WILLIAMS, 

Judges, 
PoWELTON, September 13, 1855. * 



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AQRiCDLTUEAL SOCIETY. 403 

CLASS 6.— IMPLEMENTS AND MACHINERY. 

Section 1. — Tilla<?e. 

To the PrestdcTit of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture : 
Your judges award silver medals to 

Bradfield & Jenks, Philadelphia, for the best clod crusher. 

Lewis Cooper, for the best lirae and manure spreader, exhibited by Paschall 
Morris & Co. 

C. B. Rogers, Philadelphia, for the best power corn planter. 

P. Morris & Co., Philadelphia, for the best grain and seed drill, (Pennocks.) 

The judge's award bronze medals to 

D. Landreth & Son, for the best single sub-soil plough. 

C. B. Rogers, for the best sub-soil plough. 

P. Morris & Co., for the best assortment of hoes, (Tuttles.) 
Sheble & Lawson, for the best assortment of manure forks. 

D. Landreth & Son, for the best large harrow. 
D. Landreth & Son, for the best cultivator. 

D. Landreth & Son, for the assortment of best shovels and spades. 
George Buckman, Anchorville, Bucks county, for the best two horse cuhi- 
▼atoT. 
D. Landreth & Son, for the best hand drill foV seed. 

The judges award diplomas to 
D. Landreth & Son, for the best draining pipes or tiles. 
Bradfield & Jenks, for the best potato dropper. 
D. Landreth & Son, for skeleton plough. 
P. Morris & Co., for the best hill-side plough. 
D. Landreth & Son, for the second best large harrow. 
D. Landreth & Son, for the second best culti viator, (reversible.) 
David Snider, Twenty-fourth ward, for lot of shorels and spades made and 
deposited by him, a good article. 

D. Landreth & Son, for Stacey^s grain drill. This machine, combining 
many valuable properties, is simple and accurate in its performance, will sow 
oats and grass seed as well as grain, and is admirably manufactured. 
Respectfully submitted. 

WILLIAM STAVELY, 
WATSON COMLY, 
CHARLES COMLY, 

Judges, 
PowELTON, September 13, 1855. 



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4^4 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Section 2. — ^For Gathering Crops. 

To the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture: 

The judges, to whom were referred agricultural implements and machinery 
for gathering crops, make the following report, viz : 

C. B. Rogers, Philadelphia, for his mowing and reaping machine combined, 
*< Allen's," a silver medal and ten dollars. 

P. Morris & Co., for the second best mower and reaper combined, " Man- 
ny's," a bronze medal and five dollars. 

The judges also award silver medals to 
P. Morris &; Co., for the best mowing machine, " Ketchum'sr" 
P. Morris &; Co., for the best reaping machine, ^^Atkin's" 

The undersigiied award bronze medals to 

D. Landreth & Son, for the best self-adjusting hay elevator and blocks. 
P. Morris '&; Co., for the best grain scythes. 

Stevens, Peck & Co., Vermont, for the best assortment of hay forks, ex- 
hibited by P. Morris & Co. 
D. Landreth & Son, for the best grass scythes. 
P. Morris &; Co., for the best assortment of grain cradles, ** Grant's." 
D. Landreth &; Son, for the best horse rake, " Delano's," independent tooth. 

C. B. Rogers, for the best clover gatherer. 

D. Landreth & Son, for the best six grain cradles, various patterns. 

The undersigned award diplomas to 
Bradfield & Jenks, for the best man-power hay rake. 

C. B. Rogers, for the best mowing machine for salt grass. 

D. Landreth & Son, for the best assortment of wood and iron scythe snathes. 
P. Morris & Co., for the best assortment of wood scythe snathes. 
Bradfield &; Jenks, for an ingenious machine for grass cutting, in which the 

knives are driven by belting. 

Joseph Manning, Philadelphia, for his valuable improvement in knives for 
cutting grain and grass. 

WilUam B. Coates, Philadelphia, for his corn and cane cutter. 

J. R. Drake, Burlington, N. J., for his improved grain cradle. 

P. Morris & Co., for the best assortment of hand-rakes. 

P. B. SAVERY, 

JOHN S. HAINES, 

HENRY K. BOYER, 

A. L. ELWYN, 

Judges^ 
PowELTON, September 13, 1855. 



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AaKlCULTDRAL SOCIETY. 405 

Section 3. — Prepaeing Products fob Makket ob Consumption. 

To the Prendent of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting •Agriculture : 

The judges to whom were referred articles under class six, section third, 
would report, that on account of the great number and mixed character of the 
articles refered to them, and the limited time allowed for the examination, they 
fear that many articles deserving of favorable notice have been overlooked. 
The undersigned cannot refrain from expressing the pleasure whic)i they feel 
in noticing the rapid advances which the manufacturers of agricultural imple- 
ments are making, in constructing and adapting their articles to the various 
purposes designed, and the ingenuity displayed in the varied patterns and im- 
provements. 

To the following exhibititors the judges recommend the award of a silver 
medal: 

A. L. Archambanlt, Philadelphia, for his double cylinder portable steam 
engine. 

S. M. M'Cutchen, Philadelphia, for his improved portable mill. 

F. S. Boas, Heading, Pa., for Krauser's portable cider and wine mill. 

Keuben Daniels, for his horse-power hay, straw and fodder cutter, exhibited 
by P. Morris & Co. 

Ross, Scott Sc Co., for the Little Giant corn and cob crusher. 

D. Landreth & Son, for Reading's power corn sheller and fan. 

C. B. Roger's, for Woodbury's patent lever-mounted horse-power thresher 
and cleaner. ^ 

Alfred Blaker, for his endless-floor horse-power single thresher and sepa- 
rator, exhibited by P. Morris & Co. 

To the following exhibitors the undersigned recommend the award of a 
bronze medal : 

P. Morris Sc Co., for self-acting cheese press. 

D. Landreth & Son, for Seely's hand straw and corn-stalk cutter. 
Ross, Scott 6c Co., for Smith's Great Western sheller and cleaner. 
Abbott 6c Co., Philadelphia, for hay and cattle scales. 

P. Morris & Co., for Spain's power churn. 

William O'Neal, Philadelphia, for Dickinson's thermometer churn.] 

Alfred Blaker, for his clover huUer. 

Jesse Roberts, for his grain fan, exhibited by P. Morris & Co. 

To the following we would recommend the award of a diploma: 
William & Reinert, for his machine for weighing and printinn^ butter. 
D. Landreth & Son, for their root cutter. 
C. Bradfield, for his sausage-stufier and lard press. 
Arthur, Burnham & Co., for their self-sealing preserving cans. 



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m PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Morris, Jones & Co., for their boiler-heads, sixty-six inches in diameter^ 
large size and excellent workmanship. 
Lettie A. Smith, (br her butter-worker. 
Sergent & Foster, for their apple-parer. 

HENKY B. M. BIRKENBINE, 
S. V. MERRICK, 
' SAMUEL C. WILUTS, 

Judges^ 
PowELTON, September 13, 1855. 



Section 4. — For Transportation. 

To the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture : 

Your Committee of Judges on Implements and Machinery, for transportation^ 
(section four,) having completed their examination, desire to say, that the 
workmanship and ingenuity manifest a perfection of art which cannot be too 
highly commended. Your judges therefore submit the following awards of 
merit, viz : 

Laqey & Phillips, of Philadelphia, a silver medal, for their beautiful display 
of light harness. The superior materials used in the manufacture of these 
articles, and the elegance of the workmanship, are worthy of all praise. 

Charles Bradfield, a bronze medal, for his self-loading and unloading cart 
for grading purposes. , 

John H. Allen & Co., a bronze medal, for the best display of cedar-ware. 

New Jersey Angular Hame company, a bronze medal, for a superior display 
of hames, which are every way worthy of the merit claimed for them. 

D. Landreth & Son, a bronze medal, for assortment of best swingle-trees, 
trace-chains, cow-chains, log-chains and ox-shovels. 

P. Morris & Co., a diploma, for the best display of garden- wheelbarrows. 

Charles Baum, of Philadelphia, a diploma, for his superior spring-seats for 
carriages. 

Martin Ulrich, ^ diploma, for the best display of cedar-ware. 

P. Morris & Co., a diploma, for the best yoke for working oxen. 

AUegood & Keahl, a diploma, for a fine display of horse-collars. 

H. Coulter, a diploma, for excellent display of willow-ware, baskets, hampers 
and sleighs. 

Commendations. 



Andrew Teamer, for a set of modal cart-harness. 

R. Swift, for willow-ware, baskets, &:c. 

Bradfield &r JenkS) for their improved carriage jack» 



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AGKiCOLTUBAL SOCiETT- AOI 

Freneh Sc Symmes, iot their carriftge axles^ 

Wm. Thornley, for his improved tiDoh-pin washeni. 

E. ic P. ColeinftB, for their carriage bolts. 

C B. Rogers, for ox scoops. 

Kespectfully* submitted. 

GEO. K. EN6LE, 

C. F. HENSEL, 

Ju4ges. 
PowELTDN, September 13, 1855. 



Section 5. — Tools, Utensils and PtmNiTURE. 

To the Prendent of the Philaddpfda Society for Promoting Agriculture : 

The judges report as follows, viz : 

P. Morris & Co., a silver medal and ten dollars, for the best display of agrhi 
cultural implements. 

D. Landreth & Son, a bronze medal and ten dollars, for the second best dis- 
play of agricultural implements. 

Jacob Jones 6c Co., Frankford, Pa., a silver medal, for "Pkimb's Morticing 
Machine," on account of its originality, ingenious construction, and practical 
usefulness. 

S. A. Harrison, Philadelphia, a silver medal, for enamelled slate mantels, in 
imitation of marble, manufactured by the "Brooklyn Marble Co." These are 
a very beautiffll article, and of much less cost than marble. 

M. Alden, Philadelphia, a silver medal, for his patent fan blower, the best 
on exhibition. 

Thomas Butler, Philadelphia, a bronze medal, for the best display of tin and 
copper ware and bath tubs. 

Hartman & Saxe, a bronze medal, for theif surveying instruments, of good 
workmanship. 

Courtney & Willets, Philadelphia, a bronze medal, for their three sets cot- 
tage furniture, a very good display and of fine workmanship. 

Thomas Walter, Jr., a bronze medal for his model of Piersoa's hbop aud 
moulding machine, a very ingenious and well constructed machine, and ap<> 
pears to perlbrm well. 

Thomas J. Williams, a bronze medal, for his lot of cooking stjoves. aacl 
ranges, a very creditable dis[day, style good, castings smooth, and fully sas- 
taining the reputation of the maker. 

Gartley 6c Matlack, a diploma^ for one direct acting steam puitip, and two 
fan blowers, well made and elective machines. 



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408 EENNSnrLVANU STATE 

J. B. Drawbaugh, Cumberland county, Pa., a diploaia, for his shingle and 
head cutter, a novel, ingenious and well constructed machine.. Experience 
alone can determine whether it is superior to other machines used for the same 
purpose. 

J. B. Drawbaugh, a diploma, for his stare jointer. 

T. J. Knapp, a diploma, for his spoke-turning machine, appears to operate 
well. / 

J. P. Knapp, a diploma, for Carter's dumping wagon, a handy contriraiLce. 

Commendations, 

Samuel MTarren, for his grate bars, a serviceable article. 

Thomas Walter, Jr., for hoops and mouldings^ made by Pierson's machine. 

Henry Auge, for his portable heater. 

S. A. Harrison, for Chilson's furnace, a good article. 

S. A. Harrison, for enamelled parlor grates for burning coal, manufactured 
by the "Mirror Marble Co.," a beautiful article, and does much credit to the 
manufacturers. 

J. W. Queen, for optical, mathematical and philosophical instruments. 

M'Allister & Co., for optical instruments. The above named instruments 

afford a very fine display, but before making any award, it would be desiraUe 

to test the various instruments, and we therefore refer them to the Committee 

of Arrangement. 

ALAN WOOD, 

GEO. H. BURGIN, 

Jfidges. 

•Addendum. * 

James Wood & Co., a diploma, for their imitation Kussia sheet iron. 
Philadelphia, September 12, 1855. 



Section 6. — ^Miscellaneous. 

To the President of the Philadelpkia Society for Promoting Agriculture : 

The judges on miscellaneous articles beg leave to report that they found on 
exhibition a much larger variety of articles than they anticipated, and they 
beg leave to express their thanks to the many contributors for so fine a dis- 
play. They have endeavored to do justice to all, but fear that in so large a 
collection some articles may have been overlooked. 

The judges report the following awards, viz : 

Bdward Lane, West Philadelphia, a silver medal, for the best display of 
carriages. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCiBTY. M>» 

D. Landreth & Son, a bronze medal, for best pumps for wrils. 

A. G. Brown, a bronze medal, for the best hydraulic ram. 

Greorge J. Link, Philadelphia, a bronze medal, for the best display of terra 
ootta ware. 

Paschall Morris & Co., a bronze medal, for the best wire fence, (Lowell.) 

Isaac P. Brannen, Fraakford^a bronze medal, for Jenny Lind carriages. 

Thomas Coleman, Philadelphia, a bronze medal, for very fine Calcutta kipa. 

Jacob Hummel, St. John street, a bronze medal, for his very fine display 
of morocco. 

J. L. Young, a diploma, for a fine display of hats. 

James P. Wood, a diploma, for his hitching post and wash-pan. 

H. M. Crawford, a diploma, for his superior calf-skin, in roogh. 

L. Langstroth, a diploma, for his movable bee-hive. 

Van Beel & Vanderbeck, a diploma, for their wire window shades. 

S. C. Funston, a diploma, for his self-supporting scaffold. 

ANDREW R. CHAMBERS, 



PowELTON, September 13, 1855. 



JESSE M. WILLIAMS, 
C. B. ROGERS, 

Jttdges, 



Class 7. — Articles op Household Pboduction. 

To the President, of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture: 

Your committee appointed to award premiums for articles of household pro^ 
duction, report that they award to 

Mrs. Kate S. Courtney, Camden, N. J., a diploma, for her tufted medallion 
chair. 

Mrs. Hannah M'Nult, Chester, Delaware county, a premium of two dollars, 
for baby's cloak and slippers. 

Mrs. Schneider, Doylestown, Bucks county, one dollar, for her embroidered 
cloak. 

Mrs. Susannah Wood, West Philadelphia, a premium of two dollars, for her 
zephp- worked ottoman cover. 

Mrs. George W. Hollaway, Philadelphia, a premium of one dollar, for her 
zephyr-worked ottoman cover. 

Mrs. Alice Solomon, West Philadelphia, a premium of two dollars, for her 
crotchet-worked anti-macassar. 

Mrs. Hanline, Philadelphia, a premium of one dollar, for her variety 

and display of crotchet-work. 



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410 PEWNSTLVANtA STATE 

Robert T. Schriner, West Philadelphia, a diploma and a preimirai of two 
dollars, for his cone- work frame of insects, etc. 

Mrs. Hannah M'Nult, a premvoai of one dollar, for pkin needle*work — a 
beautifully made shirt. 

Mrs. J. Gainer, West Philadelphia, a premium o^onedoltar, fdr a bed-quilt. 

Frederick Hassold, Philadelphia, a prenuum of otte dollar, for a cake and 
engar artificial lowers. 

Mrs. C. H. Winsbw, Philadelphia, a diploma, for two varieties of rery 
beautiful hair-work. 

Mrs. £. Jacobs, a diploma^ for her taste and ddll in millinery. 

Commendations. 

Miss Kate Newell, West Philadelphia, for her well-wrought embroidered 
cloak. 
Mr. B. Kester, for his fine display of millinery. 
Mr. H. U. King, for his fine display of millinery. 
AH of which is respectfully submitted. 

' Signed by the Committee of Ladies. 
PowELTON, Sept. 13, 1855. 



CLASS 8. 
Section 1. — ^Agricultural Products. 

To the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting ^gricvlture: 

The Committee on Agricultural Produce, section one, respectfully report, 
that the diaplay of butter, lard, cheese and ham, was unusually meagre. The 
excessive heat of the weather obliged the exhibitor of the only lot of butter, to 
withdraw it, before examination by your committee. There were several very 
fine displays of horticultural products. The committee noticed as particularly 
fine, those of Albinus Felton, George Blight, James Jones, gardener of Girard 
College, D. Landreth, E. Paramore, and John KiUey, gardener to Insane Hob- 
pital, and John Kinnier, gardener of T. Dunlap. After a careful examination, 
the committee have concluded to award to 

Albinus Fetton, the first premium of &ve dollars, for the best and most varied 
display of vegtables. 

John JRilley, gardener to Insane Hospital, the second premium of three 
dollars. 

Patrick M'Stay, gardener to George Blight, first premium of five dollars, 
for the best display by an amateur. 

James Jones, of Girard College, premium of three doUars, for the seoond 
best. 



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AGEICULTDHAL society. 411 

Albinus FeUon, p^emram of one dollai*, for the best six heads of Drum Head 
or Flat Dutch cabbage. 

Louts Hafan, premium of one dollar, for the best six pumpkins. 

David Landreth, premium of one dollar, for the best marrow squash. 

Francis Parkinson, tlie first premium of three dollars, for the best box of 
honey. 

The display of honey by Francis Parkinscm was very fine, and the arrange- 
ment of his hive very ingenious. 

A loaf of rye bread was exhibited by Mrs. C. S. Wampole, ef Montgomery 
county. The grain was raised and ground and the bread baked on the farm; 
The committee recommend it as particularly worthy of notice. The fioiH is 
unusually fine and the bread very well made. The committee recommend it 
as worthy of a premium. 

The committee had some difficulty in deciding between the various displays 
of vegetables; they were all extremely creditable and well worthy of notice. 

E. E. BOUDINOT, 
CRAIG BIDDLE, 

PoWELTON, Sept, 12, 1855. Committee, 



Section 2. 

To the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture: 

The Committee to examine Agricultural Products, section two, report, that 
an extensive and unusually fine display of specimens of the various crops came 
under their notice, which, in many instances, rendered it difficult to decide to 
■ whom the premiums should be awarded. The following is a list of those re- 
garded as offering the highest claims : 

William Stavely, Bucks county, first premium of three dollars, for best 
white wheat, variety golden flint. 

Richard Pim, of Chester county, second premium of one dollar, for second 
best white wheat, variety early Georgia. 

Richard Pim, of Chester county, special premium of two dollars, for white 
Mediterranean wheat. 

J. F* Lukens, of Twenty-third ward, first premium of three dollars, for best 
red, variety Mediterranean. 

S. C. & J. Willetts, second premium of one dollar, for second best, same 
variety. 

S. C. & J. Willetts, of Twenty-thJrd ward, first premium of two dollars, for 
com, white flint variety. 

John Rilley, first premium of two dollars, for gourd seed variety. 

William S. Toy, of Twenty-fourth ward, first premium of two doUars, for 
gourd seed mixed. 



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412 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

C. L. Wampole, of Montgomery county, first premium of two dollars, for 
rye, white variety. 

J. F. Lukens, second premium of one dollar, for rye, common variety. 

C. L. Wampole, of Montgomery county, first premium of two dollars, for 
potato oats. 

S. C. & J. Willetts, second premium of one dollar, for oats, black variety. 
' John Killey, of Philadelphia insane asylum, first premium of two dollars, 
for potatoes, Mercers. 

J). Landreth, of Bristol, first premium of two dollars, for potatoes. Fox's 
seedling. < 

George Urian, of Kingsessing, special premium of one dollar, for potatoes, 
Mercers. 

C. Heft, of Germantown, first premium of two dollars, for potatoes from 
English seed. 

George Blight, of Germantown, first premium of one dollar for sugar beets. 

James Jones, of Girard college, first premium of one dollar, for long red 
beet. 

J. F. Lukens, of Twenty-third ward, first premium of one dollar, for mangel 
wurtzel. 

Edward Paramore, of Germantown, first premium of one dollar, for orange 
carrots. 

J. F. Lukens, first premium of one dollar, for white carrots. 

W. & £. H. Hawkins, Ninth above Poplar, first premium of three dollars, 
for the best barrel of flour. 

John Rilley, of Philadelphia insane asylum, first premium of ten dollars, for 
the best display of agricultural products generally. 

James Jones, of Girard college, premium of four dollars, for second best dis- 
play of agricultural products generally. 

D. Landreth, of Bristol, premium of three dollars, for the best collection of 
cultivated grasses. 

Paschall Morris & Co., special premium of three dollars, for the best display 

of cultivated grass seeds. 

G. EMERSON, 

ISAAC PEARSON, 

GEO. W. HOLME, 

Commit tu. 



CLASS 9.— FRUITS AND FLOWERS. 

To the President of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture: 

The judges in class IX., Fruits and Flowers, respectfully report, that they 
have awarded the following premiums in compliance with the schedule : 



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AGRICULTORAL SOClETt. 413 

J. Lacy Darlington & Co., West Chester, Pa„ the premium of five dollars, 
for the best collection of evergreens (coniferee,) in pots. 

Patrick M'Stay, gardener to George Blight,' the premium of three dollars, 
for the best designs for baskets and bouquets* 

Henry Smith, gardener to S. Morris Wain, the premium of two dollars, for 
the best collection of grapes, (Isabella,) twelve bunches. 

Henry Smith, the premium of two dollars, for the best varieties of foreign 
grapes raised in cold house. 

Henry Smith, a premium of two dollars, for the best specimen of black Ham- 
burg. 

T. Garth, of Roxborough, premium of two dollars, for his new American 
seedling pear "Philadelphia." 

S. Keyser, premium of two dollars, for his new American seedKng apple, 
"CornelPs Favorite." 

Henry Stout, of Moreland, Montgomery county, premium of two dollars, for 
best twelve specimens of apples, (Maiden's Blush.) 

S. Keyser, of Germantown, premium of two dollars, for twelve best speci- 
mens of pears. , 

John Perkins, of Moorestpwn, N. J., premium of one dollar, for the best col- 
lection of apples, three specimens each. 

R. Buist, of Kingsessing, premium pf one dollar, for best collection of pears, 
three specimens each. 

Daniel M. Jones, of Kingsessing, premium of one dollar, for best half peck 
of peaches. 

Charles Morris, of Camden, N. J., premium of one dollar, for best six water- 
melons. « 

John Rilley, gardener at insane asylum, premium of one dollar, for the best 
six egg-plants. 

The judges also recommend a special premium of two dollars to each of tht 
following contributors : 

Daniel M. Jones, for a dish of fine lodge pears. 

Charles Comly, of Byberry, for a dish of very fine Seckel pears. 

Charles Comly, of Byberry, for a dish of white Doyenne pears. 

P. R. Freas, of Germantown, for a fine collection of fruit. 

D. Landreth, for a fine collection of new melons, embracing the following 
varieties : Stillman and Nameless melons, and the Ice Rind, Georgia, Robin 
des Bois, and Orange watermelons. 

W. D. BRINCKLE, 
L. E. BERCKMANS, 
HUGH COOPER HANSON, 

Judges, 



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iU PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

UNCLASSIFIED. 

7b the President of the PhUadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture : 

The judges of unclassified articles beg leare to report the award of a bronze 
medal to 

R. Bates, of Philadelphia, for his instruments for the cure of stammering. 

Of diplomas to 

C. Brentzinghoffer, for a very elegant display of carriage and house brushes. 

JR. N. Stewart, for his patent white- wash brushes. 

C. Marsh & Co., for their surgical apparatus. 

Simon Gartland, for his beautiful and costly hearse. 

J. E. M'Clees, for the best Ambrotypes. 

M. A. Root, for the best paper Photographs. 

Wm. F. Scheible, for his embossed cards and presses. 

Isaiah Lukens, M. D., for his new plan of fitting mineral teeth. 

Jones, White & M'Curdy, for their display of mineral teeth. 

Wm. Conway, for his fancy, staple and chemical Olive soaps. 

Henry Neff, for his machine-made paper hangings. 

Dingee & Bro., for Hecker's Farina and Maccaroni. 

Chas. D. Thum, for his superior brushes. 

Lewis Fishblatt, for his carriage robes. 

Mills B. Espy, for his superior pickles, ketchups and preserves. 

Jos. B. Garret, for his elegant plated ware. 

R. VV. Kensil, for his Venetian blinds. 

Eastlack & Burroughs, for artificial teeth, block and plate work. 

Jamc^ Wilcox, for rotary smoothing irons. 

Wells & Provost, for their self-sealing cans. 

B. C. Everett, for his trusses and surgeons' bandages. 

James Gibbons, for his " American coffee." 

Wm. -Mann, for his lithographic checks. 

PAUL B. GODDARD, 
JOHN M'CLURE, 
H. K. BOYER, 
A. L. ELWYN, 

Judges* 



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AGRICULTURAt SOCIETY. 415 



PHILADELPHIA COUNTY, 1856. 

To the President of the Pennsylvania State ^Agricultural Society : 
Dear Sir : — The following are the minutes of the society for 1856 : 

Stated meeWng held Wednesday January 5, at room 160 Chestnut street. 

President in the chair. 

Messrs. Charles Bradford, Wm. S. Peirce, Isaac Hazlehurst, John Brock, 
P. Rushworth, G. Pepper Norris, Samuel C. Morton and James Williams were 
elected resident members. 

The annual report of the Treasurer and Secretary's account, with the late 
exhibition, were read and referred to the Auditing Committee. 

The committee, on a plan for the formation of a standing committee on im- 
plements and inventions, presented a report and a series of regulations for the 
government of said standing committee, which, after discussion and amend- 
ment, were adopted. 

The election of officers, for the ensuing year, was tUen held and resulted as 
follows : 

President — David Landreth. 
- Vice Presidents — A. T. Newbold, Aaron Clement. 

Corresponding Secretary — Sidney G. Fisher. 

JRecording Secretary — Alfred L. Kennedy. 

Assistant Secretary — F. R. Freas. 

Treasurer — George Blight. 

Librarian— John M'Gowan. 

Executive Committee — ^Dennis Kelly, C. W. Harrison, George Blight, John 
Lardner, A. T. Newbold and John M'Gowan. 

Voted, on motion of Dr. Elwyn, that a committee of five be appointed to 
confer with a similar committee from the Board of Trade, and other public 
bodies, on the subject of holding the next fair of the United States Agricultural 
Society, in or near Philadelphia. 

Messrs. Elwyn, Roberts, Newbold, Merrick and Harrison were constituted 
the committee. 

Dr. Kennedy urged, on the ground both of duty and expediency, that tbe 
society revive the former custom of publicly observing the return of its anni- 
irertaries; whereupon, 

On motion of Dr. Elwyn, a committee, consisting of Messrs. Elwyn, Ken* 
nedy, A. T. Newbold, Clement, M'Gowan, C. Biddle, M«rrick and Landreth^ 
were appointed to report a plan for the celebration of the ensuing annivennury 
of the society and to make the necessary arrangements. 

On motion of Dr. Kennedy, that a delegafdcm of sixteen be appointod io 



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416 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

represent this society at the next meeting of the United States Agricultural 
Society in Washington, which was agreed to. 

And on motion of A. S. Roberts, the President was requested to report 
the names of the members of the committe at the next meeting of the society. 
Adjourned. 



Stated meeting at room, Wednesday, February 6. 

Mr. Landreth, President, in the chair. 

Messrs. Christopher Simons, of Olney, and Job Bartlet, of Holmesburg, were 
elected resident members. 

The committee to confer with the Board of Trade, on the subject of the 
holding of the next exhibition of the United States Agricultural Society in this 
city, reported having met a committee of the Board of Trade. Preparatory to 
taking further steps, it had been decided to obtain a subscription towards the 
object, and the committee were happy to say, that twenty of our citizens had 
subscribed five hundred dollars each, making the sum required to be raised, 
viz: ten thousand dollars. 

The Executive Committee of the United States Agricultural Society meet 
in New York city, in the course of a few weeks, to select the place of exhi- 
bition. 

Dr. Elwyn, in behalf of the Committee on the Anniversary Dinner, reported 
that the dinner would be given in Sansom Street Hall, on Monday, the 11th inst. 
Invitations had been extended to prominent agriculturists and other citizens 
in this and other States, and also to the nearest lineal descendants of the twenty • 
three original founders of the society. To each of these descendants the Sec- 
retary was authorized to send a copy of the printed minutes of the society. 

S. 6. Fisher, Esq., called attention to the profits of the vineyard. The vine 
properly cultivated, yielded eight Aundred gallons of wine to the acre, which, 
wine readily sold at one dollar and a quarter a gallon. The failure of the vint- 
age in Europe had doubled the price of wine, and increased the importance 
o( the American product. This, Mr. F. believed, could be made fully equal 
in quality to the best foreign. He had had evidence of that in wine made in 
Delaware, near his own farm. He hoped to see America a great wine-producing 
country, not only on agricultural but on moral grounds. Cheap wines 
would drive out spirits, and produce greater temperance among the masses. 
The experience of every wine growing country in Europe proved it. In 
Sngiand, since wines became so high priced as to debar the poor and the 
moderate circumstanced from using them, intemperance had shockingly in- 
creased. Mr. F. hoped that at the next exhibition a large premium would be 
aflefed for the best domestic wine. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 417 

Mr. Glenat had attempted wine-making, for two successive years, on his 
farm in Jersey. The first year with indifferent success, because his farmer 
had thrown green and mature grapes indiscriminately under the press, , Last 
year more care had been observed — his wine was now racking off, and when 
bottled a committee of the society should have an opportunity to decide upon 
Its merits. 

The chair stated that thus far vine-growing, for the purpose of making wine, 
had not proved generally remunerative. The best success had attended the 
Obio vineyards, but many of them were conducted by patriotic and public- 
spirited men, who disregarded profit, and desired to test the thing thoroughly. 

Mr. Isaac Newton claimed that the soil must be closely examined before 
planting a vineyard. He recommended that those spots should be selected 
upon which the native grapes were found growing in the greatest profusion. 

Dr. William Shippen thought that the first cost of a vineyard need be but 
slight. In Prince Edward county, Virginia, on a comparatively barren soil, 
he had seen a vineyard planted by a German, at an expense of less than three 
hundred dollars per acre, the yield from which was enormous. The vine was 
there cultivated after the German fashion, requiring no arbours or other sup- 
ports. The Scuppernong grape was much prized in Virginia for its wine. 

l)r. A. L. Kennedy had seen a vineyard in Adams county. Miss., m which, 
after experimenting with fifteen different kinds of grapes, the Scuppernong 
had been selected. The wine made from this grape had been decided by Col. 
Claiborne, of New Orleans, to be equal to the best imported. Dr. K. had not 
seen this grape cultivated in the vicinity of Philadelphia, and felt by no means 
sure that equal advantages would be derived from its extension here. He 
would inquire of Dr. Shippen on this point. 

Dr. Shippen believed that the Scuppernong would prove highly valuable in 
this latitude. The wood was more solid and the pulp firmer than that of any 
other native grape which he had seen. 

Mr. Newton exhibited a remarkably fine wild turkey which had been re- 
cently shot on his farm in Virginia. 

Mr. A. T. Newbold exhibited and contributed samples of a peculiar variety 
of Indian corn, sometimes called "rice corn." tach grain was in shape like 
a blunt curved horn, and of a pearly lustre. Each stalk bore from six to ten 
small ears. 

Mr. Newbold, at the instance of a non-member, inquired the best process of 
removing the rancidity of butter. 

Mr. Newton approved of thoroughly mixing it and working it in sweet fresh 
buttermilk. 

Dr. Kennedy suggested that as the rancidity was owing to a volatile oil, 
the buttermilk would be assisted in its action if used warm, and this tempe- 
rature maintained for some time. Adjourned. 
27 



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418 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

From the Philadelphia Inquirer of Fobmaiy 12, IS5(, 

CELEBRATION OF THE SEVENTY-FIKST ANNIVERSARY OF THE 

SOCIETY. 

A very large assemblage of farmers and gentlemen of the city and county 
of Philadelphia participated in the festival of the Philadelphia Agricultural 
Society, held on yesterday afternoon in Samsom Street hall. Sereral dis- 
tinguished strangers from other States were among the invited guests. 

The chair was filled with dignity and urbanity by David Landreth, Esq., 
President of the Society, supported by Anthony T. Newbold and Aaron Cle- 
ment, Esqs., Vice Presidents. Dr. A. L. Kennedy, Secretary. The saloon 
was decorated with flags and banners, and the board was adorned with emble» 
matical and appropriate devices. After the viands had been duly discussed, 
the . more intellectual proceedings of the occasion were conmienced by the 
chairman, in a neat, eloquent and very appropriate speech. 

Mr. Landreth spoke as follows, and was frequently inteirupted with ap- 
plause : 

Gentlemen : — We have assembled together to commemorate an interesting 
event in our country's history — to celebrate the anniversary of the first agri- 
cultural society established in America — almost coeval with our national inde- 
pendence, and anterior to the adoption of the Constitution of the United States; 
and while these States, which had just emerged from colonial dependence, 
were as yet only a confederation, combined together for common protection 
against a common foe. That having been triumphantly accomplished, the 
noble men who had battled for their coimtry's sovereignty, with that practical 
good sense which distinguishes the American character, promptly turned their 
attention to the arts of peace, and the means most likely to develop the latent 
treasures of the land which their valor and wisdom had placed on the plat- 
form of the nations of the world. 

On this day seventy-one years ago, the 11th of February, 1785, twenty- 
three eminent citizens of Philadelphia met together, not in such a hall as that 
in which we are now assembled, but in what, at the present day, would be 
termed an humble inn — " at the sign of the Cock, in Front street, kept by- 
Patrick Burns," (host and hostelry have long since passed away,) — to form 
themselves and such other persons as, in their somewhat quaint language, had 
" a propensity to agriculture," into a society for mutual instruction in rural 
afiTairs. The result was the creation of this association, under the title of 
" The Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture." 

When we view the fact, that the country had not then subsided from the 
turmoil of war, and the unsettled condition of mind and matter which such a 
state engenders, is it not really surprising that they should thus have asso- 
ciated, rather than, with instinctive impulse, each one for himself, to regaia 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 419 

ttat which had been lost by a warfare of seren protracted years ; but they 
were eminently patriotic, clear-sighted men, who could espy the great future 
of their country, and its influence on the world for good or evil, and that no 
time was to be lost in pointing the attention of their countrymen in the right 
direction. Among those twenty-three gentlemen, we find the names of several 
who had actively participated in the struggles of the Revolution. The emi- 
nent civilians, Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Thomas Willing, Geo. Logan, 
Samuel Powell, and others of equal worth, and Gen. Cadwalader and others, 
distinguished among military men, who, having wielded their swords for their 
country's good, now ,beat them into ploughshares. At these boards this even- 
ing sit the descendants of some of those patriots. Proud may they be, honored 
in their ancestry, honored in themselves. 

Among the " honorary members" we find recorded the names of many dis- 
tinguished Americans and foreigners. General Washington was elected in 
1785, so was Charles Carroll, of CarroUton, and the Baron de Steuben ; at a 
later day the Marquis La Fayette, and many others, without a recital of whose 
acts, the brightest pages of our country's history would be tame and lustreless* 

In 1806, the venerable George Washington P. Custis, now, it is believed, 
our oldest living member, was elected ; for fifty years he has been associated 
with us, and his presence was hoped for on this occasion. 

We have spoken of the society as created for improvement in agriculture ; 
but other useful objects have, from time to time, engaged its attention. How 
many of the present generation are aware that to this association Philadelphia 
is indebted for the erection of the Schuylkill bridge at Market street. In 1786, 
Mr. iSamuel Powell, its then President, submitted a plan and estimate for a 
bridge at the " middle ferry," as it was at that time termed, which was re- 
ferred to a committee, who reported favorably, and a charter by the Legisla- 
ture was the result. In the same year, an appeal was made through the 
"Pennsylvania Mercury," in favor of constructing roads, and pointing out the 
best methods — here is the paper itself, an imposing eight by ten, printed once 
a week, and claiming nearly five hundred subscribers — a comparison with the 
papers of to-day, some of which issue daily sixty thousand, will excite a smile. 

The promotion of temperance was another pbject of its regard, and home 
brewed beer was recommended as a substitute for spirituous liquors. 

Gentlemen^ what mighty changes have taken place in this country since 
the days to which I have referred. The acorn planted by our fathers has be- 
come a stately tree, under whose uml»rageous foliage millions of their descend- 
ants, and others, whom its grateful shade has invited from less favored lands, 
find shelter, protection and repose. On the one hand, its branches dip into the 
Atlantic, and on the other, its roots are laved by the waters of the Pacific j 
and whose arm but that of the Almighty shall stay its further increase 1 Is 
Hot the hand-writing oiLthe wall*-:de8liay!— -ao plai&ly iwritten that he wio 



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420 PENNSYLVANIA bTATE 

runs may read 1 From a condition of colonial vassalage, with its attendant 
evils, we have become powerful and respected among the proudest nations of 
' the Old World. Macaulay told us only seven years ago, that '* the gigantic 
commerce of England had given birth to a maritime pov^ter, compared with 
which, all other sinks into insignificance." Gigantic as it is, were he to write 
the chapter to-day, he would be compelled to say the mercantile tonnage of 
this country exceeds that of Great Britain by two hundred thousand tons. 
Our manufactures of many kinds rival those of Europe, and our inventive 
genius is acknowledged throughout the world. But of agriculture what shall 
be saidl Volumes might be written on its progress. A few plain words 
may, for the present suffice — words of grateful praise, rather than exultation. 
From a single inland city, Chicago, which has sprung into existence since ike 
youngest man now present was born, more grain will be shipped this season 
than from any port of Christendom. The last crop of Illinois, with only one 
acre in a hundred cultivated, ia estimated at two hundred and fifty millions of 
bushels of cereals. Two hundred and fifty millions of bushels! Why, sirs, 
one has to catch his breath after the mere effort to speak it 5 and yet that is 
but an infant State in the Confederacy! 

This may be a proper occasion to refer to the present condition of our time- 
honored society, and I could wish the chair occupied by my illustrious prede- 
cessors was now more ably filled. At no period in its history has it been 
more prosperous than at present. New members join our ranks at every 
meeting, and interest in rural affairs is more generally expressed than in for- 
mer days. The annual exhibition of the society, which took place at Powel- 
ton last October, was the most successful ever held by us^ a large sum was 
distributed in premiimis, and tens of thousands of delighted visitors were in 
attendance. The monthly meetings increased in interest, and on Friday even- 
ing of each week our room is open to members of other agricultural associa- 
tions, who are invited to be present and use the library. It is true our vested 
funds are scanty, but the wealth we value is information received and im- 
parted. 

I have said that Washington was an early member of our society. His ar- 
dent attachment to agriculture, and the manly pursuits of rural life, are well 
known; and here let me relate an anecdote which I have never seen in print: 
Whilst the seat of government was held in this city, a gentleman, followed by 
his groom, was seen riding out one of the lanes leading to the Neck. Ap- 
proaching a field where a plough was being run, he dismounted ; and, handing 
the bridle to his attendant, after a few words of conversation with the farmer, 
took his place at the stilts and ploughed several furrows; then remounting his 
horse pursued his ride. The amateur ploughman was President Washington, 
impelled by the tastes of youth and perhaps a desire to "keep his hand in,'* 
until his xetorn to his own fields on the banks of the Potomac. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 4?1 

How little could the worthy gentlemen who met together seventy-one years 
ago have imagined we would this evening he convened to celebrate that event, 
and do honor to their memory. And how would it excite their surprise were 
it permitted them to behold the region of the country around the city with 
which they were familiar — then sparsely populated and poorly cultivated, now 
adorned by the hand of man — art adding to the attractions of nature; highly 
tilled fields, ornamental villas and stately mansions, making the environs of 
Philadelphia the admiration of strangers and a just source of pride to our 
citizens ! 

The increased love of landscape gardening is particularly observable; orna- 
mental trees and shrubs are now indispensable to every rural home, however" 
humble, and a more just appreciation of the beautiful is being acquired by all. 
A taste for planting is rapidly extending, and (if present progress is con- 
tinued, and why should it not increase) future generations will inherit a rich 
patrimony of the beautiful and useful. 

It was a saying of Girard, that were he conscious he should to-morrow die 
he would plant to-day. There is a moral grandeur in the sentiment, and as 
clearly indicates his desire to do good as does the Grecian temple which bears 
his name. 

We are all familiar with the imaginative incident told by Homer; that when 
Ulysses, after his warlike deeds, returned to his paternal grounds, he found his 
aged father Laertes planting a tree. Unknown to him he inquired why one so 
feeble should plant when he could not expect to reap. The old man answered, 
I plant against Ulysses return. Three thousand years have rolled their course 
since these words were written, and the language of Homer has become nearly 
extinct, but the sentiment it teaches remains immortal. It speaks to every, 
heart; and, whenever quoted, sends a thrill of pleasure coursing through the 
veins. Planting, like charity, blesses the giver and receiver. Who would 
not prefer a living monument planted by his own hand, under whose shade 
his descendants might recline, than a cold though classic structure of Parian, 
marble. The one may please the eye, perchance minister to pride; the other 
may touch the heart ajad preserve the morals. As a matter of interest, too, it 
is well to follow the injunction of the old Scottish laird to his son, who with 
an eye bent on the siller, says, "Be aft sticking out a tree, Jock." 

Gentlemen, I have gotten on «l favorite topic. Excuse me for so long keep- 
ing you from the intellectual banquet which awaits us. 

From among the. regular toasts and sentiments, we select the subjoined: , 

1. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, — In herself an Empire. With agri- 
cultural and mineral wealth yet to be developed — almost boundless. May her 
State pride grow with her prosperity, and the intelligence and integrity of hef 
people keep pace with her power. 

2. The City of Philadeljihia, — ^The city of Brotherly Love. Founded by 



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4J2 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

him whose motto was peace among men. Though modest, she has ever prored 
herself strong. Without parade or display, the quiet but intense energies of 
her people have raised her to a city of the first class. Hor institutions show 
that the spirit of her founder still lives. May her history be uncorrupted by 
faction, and the remotest future ^raise no blu^ to her name. 

3. Our Founders, — To the memory of those who fbuned the first Agricul- 
tural Society on the Continent of North America, Their patriotism and their 
public spirit this day receives our homage. Those who follow tliem will 
cherish their virtues, their descendants look back on their reputation with 
pride. 

4. Kindred Societies. — Linked from end to end of the Republic in usefulness, 
their peaceful operations develop surely and rapidly the wealth of the Nation. 
May their exertions be continued as the highest form of patriotism, the most 
essential and the noblest effort for the public service. 

5. The Press, — Untrammelled by faction, uncorrupted by the spirit of party, 
its power should be exercised with forbearance, and its sway over minds be 
mainly exerted to increase love of country. May it ever be controlled by a 
sense of justice and of honor. 

6. The Judiciary, — Distinguished for its purity and its learning. May it 
ever be uninfluenced by the excitements of party, and uncontrolled by popular 
clamor. 

Judge Lewis responded to the first toast with great ability. Judge L. said 
that every man who had heard the toast, rejoiced. The patriotic sentiment of 
the toast had ever been honored by the farmers, who had ever been among the 
first and foremost in defending the rights and interests of their country. Gen- 
eral Washington, both as a farmer and patriot leader, was happily referred to > 
and a gentleman present, who had taken an active part, as a commander, in 
the Mexican war, was also mentioned, as a combination of the farmer, the pa- 
triot, and the soldier. Judge L. contended, and justly, that there was hardly 
ab interest in society that was not intertwined with agriculture. 

In reply to the second toast. Judge Conrad, as mayor, responded with his 
UBual eloquence and power, and he delivered an address warmly favoring the 
Ibre of his native city and State, the early history of which he happily con- 
trasted with the acts which accompanied the colonization of both Virginia and 
ffew England. Judge C. described the proceedings of William Penn and his 
associates* with graphic force. The mayor in conclusion, gave: 

*< The National Agricultural Society and its meeting in this city.** 

The third toast having been given, Mr. Meredith replied, and commented with 
emphasis and honor upon the memory of the founders of the Philadelphia Agri- 
cultural Society, the first that was ever established in the United States. 
Those gentlemen who have now passed away, were actuated by the noblest 
prmciples. The inferior condition of the press and the arts, at the time this 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 4iS 

society was formed, was felicitkmsly contrasted whh their prosperous state at 
the present day. 

General Patterson responded to the fourth toast, and warmly urged sym- 
pathy and mutual aid and good will on the part of all the societies, in aid of 
each other. The subscription in favor of the exhibition of the National Agri- 
cultural Society in this city next fall, so far as this city and county were cou; 
cemed, was already full, and in this particular we had done honor to the State 
and city of our birth or adoption. General P« spoke highly in favor of peace, 
as the only true policy for this country ; but should it be required, which Grod 
forbid, we should be prepared even for war. 

Judge Todd replied to the fifth toast very happily, and spoke highly and 
justly of several of his predecessors and contemporaries, and very nobly and 
eloquently advocated the pure spirit of impartiality as the chief ornament of 
the judicial bench. 

The sixth toast was warmly replied to by a gentleman of the craft who was 
present. 

" The Philadelphia bar" was responded to by Mr. Benjamin C. Brewster, 
who excited not only the interest but the merriment of the assemblage, by the 
animated and very witty allusions with which his speech scintillated. Mr. B. 
referred to the history of the Philadelphia bur, from the earliest colonizing of 
the State of Pennsylvania down to the present hour, and successfully showed 
that the bar and lawyers of the country had ever been among its foremost and 
most daring patriots. 

Mr. B. also dwelt on the dignity of labor, and especially that of the ag;ri- 
cultural population of this country, as compared with that of Europe, especi- 
ally of Germany and France, where even women were employed in the drud- 
gery of the field. Here, as we love women, and as we love them as our sis- 
ters and our wives, so in proportion we loved God, and reverenced sacred 
things. 

Several other gentlemen spoke and the evening passed off in the happiest 
manner. 

In addition to th^ regular speeches and toasts at the dinner, letters were re- 
ceived from Governor Pollock, Senator Bigler, Hon. Philemon Dickerson, of 
Trenton, Hon. M. P. Wilder, President of U. S. Agricultural Society, B. P. 
Johnson, Secretary N. Y. State Agricultural Society, Albany, Hartman Kuhn, 
Esq., Gen. G. Cadwalader, Rev. Dr. Vaughan, Hon. Richard Rush, Col. John 
Hare Powell, Richard Willing, Esq., of the city, and Hon. William Robeson, 
of Belvidere, President of N. J. State Agricultural Society. 

The letter of Colonel Wilder is interesting, not only because it recognizes 
the claims of the Philadelphia society and its founders to the regard of Ameri- 
can agriculturists, but also because of its reference to the spirited course taken 



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424 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

by out citizens and public authorities in securing to Philadelphia the next ex- 
hibition of the United States Agricultural Society. 

Boston, Fthrvary 9, 1856. 

To Mfred L. Kennedy^ M, D., Sec'y PhiVa Soc*y for Promoting AgricuUurt: 

Dear Sir : — I feel much gratified and honored by the invitation of the Phik- 
delphia Society for Promoting Agriculture, to attend the serenty-first anniver- 
sary. I regret exceedingly that a previous engagement will deprive me of the 
pleasure of being present on that occasion. 

The Philadelphia society has been the pioneer of American agriculturalists, 
and has performed long and valuable service for the elevation of the profes- 
sion of the farmer, and for the diffusion of practical and scientific knowledge 
among that most honorable class of our citizens. Its founders were men of 
keen perception, and foresaw the vital importance of agriculture to individual 
happiness and national prosperity; hence they associated with themselves 
gentlemen of science and distinction, whose names and characters gave confi- 
dence to a discerning community^ and success to their own labors. Time will 
not permit me to enlarge upon this topic \ but when the light of science shall 
be brought to co-operate steadily and perseveringly with art and industry ; 
when experience, guided by science, shall have accompli^ed all that can be 
done in this great work, then will your institution realize the glorious benefits 
which have resulted from the early efforts of its noble projectors \ and from 
the labors of the worthy men who have succeeded them in this best of all hu- 
man pursuits. 

I embrace the present opportunity to tender to the Philadelphia society my 
grateful acknowledgments for its generous support of the United States Agri- 
cultural Society, and especially for its distinguished delegation which honored 
the late exhibition in Boston by their presence and co-operation. 

It affords me unfeigned pleasure to learn that the public spirit of your citi- 
zens, encouraged by the municipal authority of your city, and by the members 
of your time-honored association, has made laudable progress in securing a 
guarantee fund of ten thousand dollars, to insure the success of the exhibition 
of the National Society, to be held in the city of Philadelphia next autumn. 

The liberality and harmony with which these preliminaries have been ar- 
ranged, are favorable omens, and 1 shall be most happy to unite my endeavors 
with those of your society and citizens, to render the occasion worthy of all 
concerned, and the cause we seek to promote. 

With great personal regard, yours, &c., * 

MARSHALL P. WILDER, 
President U, S. Agricultural Society^ 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 4» 

Stated meeting at the room, Wednesday, March 7. 

Mr. A. T. Newbold, Vice President, in the chair. 

Messrs. H. Evans, Oliver Landreth, S. F. Whitman and Charles Norris, of 
Philadelphia, and Mr. E. M. Hopkins, of Bucks, county, were elected resident 
members. 

A package of shallotts was received from the Patent Office, through Mr. 
Algernon S. Roberts. 

Also a communication from the same office, requesting the co-operation of 
the society in obtaining correct agricultural statistics throughout the State. 
Communication referred to the Executive Committee. 

To the same committee was referred a letter from the agricultural society 
of Kent county, Delaware, calling a convention to meet in the city of Wil- 
mington, on Tuesday, 18th instant, to take action on the present exorbitant 
price of guano. 

S. G. Fisher, Esq., Corresponding Secretary, reported having received, since 
last meeting, a number of interesting letters on the subject of the grape cul- 
ture. As the communications were still coming in, he would prefer postponing 
a statement of the contents until next meeting. 

On motion of Dr. Elwyn, that the Reading Room of the society be con- 
tinued open on Friday evenings, throughout the year 5 which, after a brief dis- 
cussion, was agreed to. 

Mr. P. R. Freas called the attention of the society to the injuries which 
farmers sustain in consequence of cattle going at large on the highways. A 
bill was now before the Legislature, which, if passed, would remedy the evil. 
The Montgomery County Society had adopted resolutions approving of the 
bill, and urging it upon the attention of the Senator and Representatives from 
that county. Mr. F. thought similar action by our society was demanded. 
He offered a resolution on the subject, which elicited a long discussion, in 
which Messrs. Clement, A. S. Roberts, Willetts, Mulvany, Ford, Harrison, 
Kennedy, Pearson and others participated. 

On motion of D. H. Mulvany, Esq., of Norristown, the resolution was 
amended to read as follows, and finally adopted : 

Resolved^ That this society approve of the passage of an act of assembly to 
prohibit the running of cattle at large on the highways, and that the Senators 
and Representatives from this city and the adjoining counties, be requested to 
favor the passage of a judicious and stringent bill for that purpose. 

Dr. M'Crea stated that a vessel, now in the Delaware, had on board some 
of the choicest agricultural implements of English manufacture, which had 
been seen in this country. He hoped that the society, through its proper com- 
mittee, would examine the implements, and report. upon their comparative 
merits. 



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4S& PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

On motion, the Committee on Implements and Inventions were instructed to 
make the proper examination. 

Three complete sets of the ^^ Progresetve Fwrmer^^ were received from the 
proprietors of the Farm Joumul^ and the donation suitably acknowledged. 

Mr. Aaron Clement presented to the society two handsome colored plates of 
Short Homed Cattle, owned by Mr. Samuel Thome, of Duchess county, ^^^ 
York. Thanks were voted the donor. 

Several members submitted fine samples of Indian com. Adjourned. 



Stated meeting on Wednesday, April 2, at the Society's room. 

President in the chair. 

Mr. James Williams was elected a resident member. 

The Executive Committee reported, that the circular of the* Kent County 
Agricultural Society, on the subject of a convention on the state of the guano 
trade, had been received too late for action. 

In relation to the communication from the Patent Office respecting agricul- 
tural statistics, the committee recommended the passage of the following reso- 
lution : 

Resolved^ That a memorial be prepared, signed by the officers of the society, 
and transmitted to the Legislature, in accordance with the request of the Com- 
n^issioner of Patents. 

On motion the report was accepted, and the resolution adopted. 

S. G. Fisher, Esq., presented and read the appended report on the cultiva- 
tion of native grapes for fruit and for wine. 

On motion, the thanks of the society were tendered to Mr. Fisher for his 
report, and five hundred copies were ordered to be printed in pamphlet form. 

The committee, appointed in February last, to confer with the Board of 
Trade and other public bodies, on the subject of securing the selection of Phila- 
delphia as the site of the next annual exhibition of the United States Agricul- 
tural Society, reported having met the Board aforesaid, and brought the pro- 
position before the attention of the public authorities in a manner that insured 
the exhibition to Philadelphia. A general conversation on the subject ensued, 
ind the society, on motion, adjourned. 



REPORT 

ON THE CULTIVATION OP NATIVE GRAPES FOR FRUIT AND FOR WINE. 

Philadelphia, Jiprii 2, 1856. 

At a regular meeting of this society, held on 6th day of February last, the 
attention of the members was called to the increasing importance of the culti- 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 4S7 

ration of the grape, as well foi fruit as for wine. It .was thought proper that 
this society should do something to encourage an interest so valuable to the 
agricultural wealth of the country, and that the best way to do this would be 
to bring the subject to the notice of the farmers of this region, and to diffuse 
some knowledge of it among them. 

For this purpose the Corresponding Secretary was requested to obtain infor- 
mation, from reliable sources, in regard to the business of growing grapes and 
making wine, and the induceltients offered to engage in it. 

In performing this duty, I have consulted such authorities as were accessible 
to me, and written to a number of gentlemen in whose knowledge and ex- 
perience I had confidence. I owe acknowledgments and thanks to Dr. R. T. 
Dnderhill, of Croton Point, New York, Dr. John A. Warder, of Cincinnati, 
General George M. Kehn, of Reading, Mr. Mulvany, of Norristown, and Mr. 
James Peirce, of Montgomery county, for their prompt replies 'to my inqui- 
ries. 

After many trials it has been found that wine can be made only from the 
native grapes of the country. These exist in great variety in all parts of the 
Union. The best wine, or that which has so far obtained more than a local 
reputation, is made from the Catawba, the Scuppernong and the Isabella. The 
Isabella is not very generally cultivated for the purpose, though in some situa- 
tions it produces a good wine, and is no doubt capable of improvement. The 
Scuppemong is a native of North Carolina, and cannot be grown north of lati- 
tude thirty-seven and a half degrees. Its culture for wine is confined, I be- 
lieve, almost exclusively 16 North Carolina. The wine is very rich and sweet, 
somewhat resembling Frontignac, with a peculiar and agreeable flavor. It re* 
quires, however, so much alcohol and sugar in its manufacture, that it can 
scarcely be called a wine. The Catawba is, as yet, the best wine grape we 
have. Its reputation is now established, not only in the west, where it is uni-' 
versally used, but it has been brought regularly into the commerce of oui At- 
lantic cities. It is of two kinds, the still and the sparkling Catawba. The 
first resembles Hock, or Moselle, tl^ latter, Champagne, or rather St. Peray. 
The Catawba is really a wine, and we are indebted to the intelligent and per- 
severing labors of Mr. Longworth, of Cincinnati, for its introduction. This 
grape flourishes through a vast extent of our country, and is extensively culti- 
vated, with more or less success, both for wine and fruit. It is capable of 
much improvement by a proper selection of soil, by skilful pruning and other 
treatment which experience suggests. Under judicious management it has 
already lost some of its objectionable qualities, it has less of the fox-grape 
flavor and less pulp, and it seems probable that continued attention will, in 
time, produce from it, and from other native grapes, a fruit as superior to the 
wild original, as the Pippin and Belle-fleur apple, or the Hartlet and Duchesse 
D'Angouleme pear, are to their parent seedlings. 



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428 PENNSYLVANtA STATE 

The Catawba has been grown for wine, in this State, to a considerable ex 
tent in the neighborhood of Reading, where there are abont two hundred and 
fifty acres devoted to its culture. The principal manufacturer is Mr. John 
Fehr. Jle makes wine not only from the Catawba but the Isabella grape. — 
Some of each was sent to me by General Keim, and persons in whose judg- 
ment I have confidence, have declared it to be a good wine, likely to be much 
improved by age and proper management. The chief obstacle to the culture 
of the grape in the neighborhood of Reading, fe the severity of the winter. 
Notwithstanding this, and the consequent frequent failure of the crop, the 
business is gradually increasing, which is proof that it is found profitable. A 
seedling grape from Boston, of a new kind, has been lately introduced, and 
promises well. There are no doubt others who have tried the experiment of 
making wine in Pennsylvania. One only, however, has been brought to my 
notice. Mr. James Peirce, of Montgomery county, about thirteen miles from 
this city, has been successful in making a good wine from the Isabella grape, 
and the profits of its culture, both for the wine and the fruit, have been such 
that he is encouraged to enlarge his vineyard. I shall refer again to his ex- 
perience, as I consider it of much interest. 

1 have also, through the kindness of Dr. J. Rhea Barton of this city, seen 
some wine made from a native grape of Massachusetts. It is of very superiiw 
quality, nearly the color of claret, and of a rich, fruity flavdr, somewhat like 
that of Tinta Madeira. It is called by Dr. Barton the Ashburnham wine from 
the county in which it is made. It is a pure wine, deriving its flavor from the 
grape alone, and contains only about thirteen per cent, of alcohol, being ex- 
actly the strength of Hock wine, and seven per cent, less than Madeira. 1 
have not been able, as yet, to obtain any accurate information as to the extent 
to which it has been cultivated, but its excellence will no doubt bring it into 
general favor and make it worthy the attention of vine growers. 

It appears also that wine equal to any of these has been made in California. 
That which I have seen has very decidedly the flavor of Madeira. In that 
bountiful region the vegetable seems to vie with the mineral world in richness 
and variety, and will probably prove in the end a greater and more permanent 
source of wealth. The grape from which this wine is produced is said to be 
of large size and very prolific. 

It would be giving a very erroneous impression to compare any wines as 
yet made in this country to those of Europe, which have been celebrated for 
ages — which have contributed so much to the social and festive enjoyments of 
the civilized world, and whose names have become really household words 
every where, so widely have they been distributed by commerce. We have 
nothing, so far, at all equal to the finer kinds of Madeira, Sherry, Port, Claret, 
Champagne, Burgundy, Sauterne and Hock. But it must be remembered that 
here the careful culture of the grape for wine has just commenced. In Europe 



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AGKICULTUKAL SOCIETY. i%9 

it is an immense interest, and has had the hene/it for centuries of careful atten^ 
tion, vast capital, intelligent management and the skill that is stimulated by 
the hope of gain and constantly improved by experience and thought. It has 
been proved thus far beyond doubt, that here the grape is indigenous, that from 
it wine of good quality can be tnade in great abundance, and that the fruit is 
susceptible of indefinite improvement. When we remember the extent of our 
country and the variety of soil and climate it embraces, there is ground for 
reasonable hope that grapes may be discovered of quality superior to those 
already known — that the old may be still more improved — ^that peculiarities of 
soil may be found producing other and finer flavors, and that continued search 
may discover, or increasing knowledge succeed in creating wines equal or sur- 
passing in excellence those of the old world. We may feel certain that this 
will be done, if in the nature of things it can be done, because enterprize and 
effort will be stimulated by the prospect of gain, that spur which raises the 
spirit of industry, which prompts and sustains the business of the world, and 
which has already enlarged the manufacture of wine in this country until it 
has become an important item of national wealth. 

Whatever may be thought of American wine by those who have highly 
educated palates, and who are learned in flavors, one fact, important to those 
engaged in making it, is beyond dispute ; it pleases the general taste and sells 
readily at high prices. It sells even for higher prices than European wines 
which most persons would think of better quality. The price o[ sparkling 
Catawba, of Cincinnati, is twelve dollars per dozen ; of still Catawba seven dol- 
lars and fifty cents. The demand is far greater than the supply. Native wine 
is not only rapidly displacing the foreign, throughout the great and growing 
west, but is making its appearance in yearly increased quantities in our east- 
ern cities. It is stated in the Patent Office report for 1853, that our wine crop 
for that year was valued at two millions of dollars. As this was a large in- 
crease over former years, the crop is probably now much greater. 

Heretofore this branch of industry has been obliged to contend in our market 
with the foreign wines already established in public favor, and imported in 
large quantities at low prices. Notwithstanding this competition, it has 
reached its present prosperous condition. A new and powerful impluse has, 
however, lately been given to the business in consequence of the failure for 
some years past, of some of the principal wines of Europe. Some of the finest 
wine grapes of the old world have been, since 1850, iqjured by a mysterious 
disease to such an extent, that the product has eitherwholly ceased or been 
very largely diminished. The vineyards of the island of Madeira have been 
entirely destroyed — not a bottle of wine is now made there. The quantity of 
Sherry has been considerably lessened, of Port very largely. Claret has de- 
clined to one-fifth and Champagne to one-fourth of the quantity formerly pro- 
duced. 



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430 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

The diminished production of foreign wine has already so much affected 
the price that it has become an expensive luxury. A large portion of the de- 
mand must be supplied by wines of native growth, and should the ravages of 
the disease continue, as the stocks on hand are consumed, the market for the 
domestic article must be continually enlarged. The field of enterprize there- 
fore for the American vine grower, seems really 'boundless. With a soil pro- 
ducing bountifully an article generally prized, which is eagerly bought at re- 
munerative prices, and with a market which cannot be overstocked, the genius 
of commerce itself could scarcely ask for circumstances more favorable to 
stimulate enterprize, to quicken invention, and to nerve the will of industry. 
That the dominant passion of our age and country, too eager indeed to pat 
forth irresistible energy in the pursuit of gain, will promptly respond to the 
call, all that we have done, and all that is going on around us sufficiently 
prove. The same commanding spirit, at once cautious and bold, prudent and 
impetuous, that sends ice to Calcutta, hunts the whale in every sea and changes 
the western wilderness into farms and cities ; which clothes the world with 
its cotton, and feeds the world with its corn ; which covers half a continent 
with telegraphs and railroads, and improvises a nation on the Pacific, will no 
doubt undertake with avidity and pursue with success the manufacture of wine, 
if it be found that it will pay. Let this be proved by experience and become 
generally known, and soon the grape will be planted wherever it will grow, 
the wine crop rival in value the great staples of the country, Bacchus be. joined 
with Ceres in peaceful sway over our hills and valleys, and the vintage be 
added to the harvest as a period of rural rejoicing. 

The two facts being established, that various kinds of wine, of good and 
constantly improving quality, can be produced with ease, and also that the de- 
mand for it, so great now as to be beyond the means of supply, is likely to be 
indefinitely extended, the next thing to be considered is the profit that may 
reasonably be expected from the cultivation of the grape. On this point state- 
ments vary materially, as much depends on locality, the season, the skill and 
capital employed, and other causes, aflTecting the crop and the price for which 
it sells. It is stated in the Patent Office report for 1854, that in the neigh- 
borhood of Cincinnati, "the average yield in a series of years, from vineyards 
favorable situated and well cultivated, is estimated at three hundred galloni 
per acre." The average price is one dollar to one dollar and twenty-five cents 
per gallon, and the cost of labor in making a crop sixty to eighty dollars. 
"Some of the best vineyards produced last year eight to nine hundred gallons; 
but that is unusual." Another authority says that four hundred gallons is the 
average crop, and one thousand to twelve hundred gallons sometimes obtained. 
In a report recently made to the "American Wine Growers Association of 
Cincinnati" by "The Committee on Vineyards," is an account current of ex- 
penses and receipts, with a vineyard of half an acre, during the first eight 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 481 

years of cultivation, from which it appears, that, including interest, and fifty 
dollars, the price of land, the whole expense W£is two hundred and eleven dol- 
lars and ten cents, and the receipts one thousand one hundred and four dol- 
lars and four cents, showing a net profit in eight successive years of eight 
hundred and ninety-two dollars and ninety-four cents from half an acre, which 
is two hundred and twenty-three dollars per acre a year. This was during 
the first eight years, the value of the fruit being only thirty-seven dollars until 
the fourth year. As the grape vine continues to increase in productiveness 
for ten or twenty years, the subsequent profits may be expected to be much 
larger. 1 have received a letter from Gen. Keim, containing an estimate of 
the probable cost and profit of an acre of vineyard near Heading, in this State. 
The whole expense, including cost of land, outside enclosure, vines, trelUs 

work, and all labor is , , , f642 00 

Cost of wine press, shedding, casks, &c • 200 00 

The whole capital invested • 842 00 

The average yield is about six hundred and forty gallons of wine, 

worth at the press 80 cents, or • $512 00 

The yearly expense. # • • « 80 00 

Leaving a clear profit of : 432 00 



A large portion of this original cost would however be saved by the former 
who made the vineyard a part only of his business^ a portion of it^lso would 
not be proportionably increased by having more land ; it is likely too that the 
rot and other causes would somewhat reduce the amount of profits, though 
Gen. Keim states this as a fair average. 

In a letter from Mr. James Peirce of Montgomery county, referred to above, 
he says, that in the year 1850 he planted sixty-five Isabella grape vines oti a 
piece of ground sixty by two hundred feet. In the year 1853 he raised thir- 
teen hundred pounds of grapes, from which he made three hundred and twenty 
gallons of wine; in 1854 he made two hundred gallons; in 1855 he met with 
so ready a sale for the grapes, that he made no wine. His wine sold for 
one dollar to one dollar and twenty-five cents per gallon . He prefers the Isabella 
to the Catawba for his soil, and intends planting two acres of it this year. 

Throtigh the kindness of a friend, I have received a bottle of Catawba wine 
made by German vine growers in the western part of Missouri. In the opinion 
of persons much better judges than myself, this wine is Hock of excellent 
quality. The vineyard on which it grew contained two acres. The merchant 
who sold it, bought the crop for two thousand dollars from the vine grower. 
The wine was retailed at ten dollars and fifty cents perdozen. 



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482 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

I give these statements that every one may form his own judgment on the 
subject. Over-estimates that may lead to extravagant expectations, are of 
course to be avoided. I have, however, the authority of a gentleman of much 
experience and knowledge on the subject, for saying, that with an investment 
of from four hundred to five hundred dollars per acre, and the requisite care 
and skill, a clear average profit of two hundred dollars per acre may with 
confidence be expected from the culture of our native grapes, either for fruit 
or for wine, after the vines come into bearing, and that this profit is likely to 
increase with the age of the vineyard, and to be greatly enhanced by the su- 
perior quality of the wine made. 

Now this certainly is a profitable mode of employing land, capital and intel- 
ligent industry. Of late years the peach has been probably the most valuable 
product of the soil, except in the immediate neighborhood of great cities. 
Larg^ orchards have been planted, and new ones are planted every year in 
Delaware and Maryland. The average yearly profit is about one hundred 
dollars per acre. It is true, they require but little capital, about one hundred 
and fifty dollars, the land being worth fifty dollars 5 and but little knowledge 
and skill, though a good deal of hard work. On the other hand, the peach 
orchard continues. in bearing only six or seven years, and the trees must then 
be pulled up, a laborious process, leaving the land unfit to bear peaches again, 
and injured for any other crop. Besides this, the peach is subject to many 
diseases, the crop is liable to be destroyed by frost, and a productive year 
over-stocks the market, whilst the fruit is so perishable that it must be sold 
when ripe, be the price what it may. A vineyard requires to establish it, a 
much lai^ger capital than a peach orchard ; it requires also more skill and 
knowledge in its cultivation, more mental and less physical labor, but then its 
profits are twice as great. When established, moreover, it is a permanent 
thing, it increases in productiveness for ten or twenty years, and remains pro- 
ductive for a hundred years. The market for wine can not be glutted, or if a 
fall in prices should take place, the stock can be retained and will improve in 
quality and value. It seems, therefore, that the culture of the grape promises 
to the farmer, rewards much larger and more durable than any other mode of 
employing land, and that a vineyard, once established, may be considered as 
permanently worth from two thousand dollars to three thousand dollars per 
acre. But for these results, uneducated toil and attention are not enough. 
Acquaintance with the nature of the plant, and the best modes of cultivation 
and treatment of the wine, is necessary. Progressive improvement in grape 
and wine will alone insure the highest success, and for this, skill and thought 
are required. A vineyard must be the creation, not of coarse labor only, but 
of mental efifort, well instructed, for in this, as in other departments of human 
exertion, it holds good, that it is knowledge which hath power, and the hand 
of the diligent that maketh rich. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 433 

The foregoing remarks apply also to the coltivation of the native grape for 
its fruit. The demand for this luxury in our cities and large towns, far ex- 
ceeds the supply. Catawba and Isabella grapes, improved by skilful cultiva- 
tion, sell readily at high prices, and ten times as many could be sold, as all 
the vineyards in the country can furnish. I am told by Dr. Underbill, who 
is extensively and successfully engaged in this business at Croton Point, on 
the North river, that he and other vine growers cannot supply the demand in 
New York, and that he was obliged to refuse large orders last summer, from 
Philadelphia and Baltimore. There is, in fact, no supply of this delightful 
fruit at all adequate to the wants of the people, and, as in the case of wine, 
there is no danger of over-stocking the market by too great a production. The 
Isabella and Catawba are the grapes most successful, so far, for fruit, and the 
mode of cultivation is the same as when intended for wine. Dr. Underbill 
informs me that the cost of establishing a vineyard is about four hundred dol- 
lars per acre. One man can do all the subsequent labor, cutting the grapes 
for market included, on six acres. The vines begin to bear the third or fourth 
year after planting, and until they bear, the ground between the rows can be 
cultivated in root or other crops, that will pay the expense of management. 
Dr. Underbill say^ that he considers a vineyard, properly made, worth as a 
permanent investment from twelve hundred dollars to fifteen hundred dollars 
per acre, and that when it attains the age of eight to ten years, it will pay a 
good interest on two thousand ^ve hundred dollars to four thousand dollars per 
acre, and that for some vineyards this estimate would be too low. It may be 
observed, moreover, that there is no difficulty in combining the two purposes 
of fruit and wine; indeed it is advantageous to do so, as the unsaleable grapes, 
tliat is the bunches that are not full and well formed, make the best wine. 

The profits of grape culture for fruit are said not to be so great as for wine, 
but it has the advantage of making immediate returns. The grapes can be sold 
as soon as picked, whereas wine requires time to attain those qualities which 
bring the highest price. No doubt, as the business increases, the principle of 
division of labor will be advantageously applied to it, the growing the grape 
becoming one department, the making wine another. At present there seems 
to be every possible inducement for the farmer to plant vineyards, not only 
for wine but for fruit. Any suitable land, convenient to railroad or steamboat, 
within one hundred miles of a city, is not too distant. It is probable that the 
soils of many parts of Delaware and the Eastern Shore of Maryland, where the 
wild grape grows with such luxuriance, are peculiarly adapted for this purpose. 
It is in the power of every farmer to try the experiment, at slight cost, and 
add grape growing to his other business. He can begin on a small scale, as 
Mr. Peirce has done with so much success. 

It is also in the power of every farmer, to provide, by planting a few grape 
vines, not only a wholesome and delightful fruit, but also an abundant supply 
28 



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434, PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

of domestic wine for himself and his family. A good and agreeable wine iff 
more easily and cheaply made from a small vineyard than cider is, from an 
apple orchard, and wine is the better beverage. In this point of view, the 
subject has a moral aspect, more important than its industrial and commercial 
relations. Intemperance is a great and too probably a growing evil among 
our people. It is spreading poverty, ignorance and crime with all their at- 
tendant miseries, through the land. Its effects are more obvious though not 
more real in the country than in town. Tl^e haunts of vice in a great city 
are remote from the walks of respectability and must be sought to be seen* 
Men live in masses which are separated by place, like seeking like, and they 
do not mingle in their daily walks, so as to be observed by others not of their 
own class. In the country it is different. Where the people are few, each is 
known to all and noticed by all, and the working of the machinery of society 
can be seen in all its parts. Vice there, if it exists, has no secret hiding places 
or rendezvous, but shows itself to all beholders. There are not many un- 
pleasant sights in the country. The beauties of nature are there, a farm is 
always interesting and agreeable, and all the scenes of rural life, its simplicity, 
its heartiness, its freedom and independence, its healthful and manly labors 
are objects of delightful contemplation. One thing, however, is too often 
seen, in the country, marring the charms of the landscape, contrasting strongly 
with ail our ideas of the farm and the farmer's life, a blot and blemish upon 
many a fair scene of rural beauty, and that is the road-side grogshop, with its 
group of half starved horses tied to the fence and its company of red-faced, 
swearing, stammering, reeling, degraded men about the door. It is not an 
agreeable spectable, and it possesses a fatal power, felt very sensibly in a coun- 
try neighborhood of which it is the pest and nuisance. It has the power to 
change an industrious laborer into a debauched and worthless idler; to unnerve 
the arm and take away the cunning from the hard hand of the mechanic; often 
to allure the substantial farmer himself within its limed web of foul fascina* 
tion and strip him of house and land, of ox and plough; to sweep the bread 
from his table and put out the cheerful fire on his hearth. This power of the 
grogshop and the tavern over the best interests of society, is very well under- 
stood and generally lamented both in town and country, and many efforts have 
been made to restrain and destroy it, without success. It seems to have a 
principle of life that will not be subdued, but evades or disregards the laws, 
outwits lawyers and judges, gathers strength from its contests with temper- 
ance societies, political clubs and party tactics, nay, even conquers and triumphs 
over them, outvotes them at the polls, gets itself represented in every Legisla- 
ture, and seats itself with brazen front in the high places of influence and 
authority. 

Now the cause of all this is very obvious. The efforts of the advocates of 
temperance and Maine liquor laws, have failed because they were not founded 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 435 

on tratb, on the facts of human nature, but, on the contrary, have ignored and 
denied the truth. This truth may be stated in a few words. The desire for 
stimulants is a natural want, deeply rooted in the human constitution, which 
will seek gratification. Nature has provided in all countries, substances which 
supply this want, and the instinct of man has found them out. The universal 
use of narcotics and intoxicating drinksj of spirituous and vinous liquors, of 
tea, Gofiee, tobacco, Indian hemp, opium, cocoa, and other things producing 
similar effects, in all ages and all nations, sufficiently proves that the appe* 
tite for them is an inherent and unconquerable part of humanity. When we 
consider their wondrous influence over the mind and feelings, how in their 
various effects they soothe and tranquilize, exhilarate and animate; how they 
banish care, rouse intellectual activity, increase the pleasures of sense, call 
up images of mirth and Joy, excite and elevate the imagination, and open to 
the dreamer new worlds of delight, it is not surprising that poor, toiling, care- 
worn man should be irresistably tempted to seize upon such a solace however 
transcient, of the hardships of his lot, that he should often be glad' to rush 
recklessly into momentary forgetfulness of the troubles that are *his portion, 
and that the fortunate and prosperous also should sometimes seek in these 
sources, quicker emotion, keener sensibility, and a more vivid sense of exist- 
ence than the quiet realities of even a happy life aflbrd. We cannot suppose 
that the powers of these substances over mind, over thought, over passion were 
given for no purpose. Like all other bounties of Nature, they were given to 
be used and not abused, to be wisely enjoyed in moderation, not foolishly in 
excess, and when temperately enjoyed, they are not curses, but blessings. 
This is one truth denied by the advocates of coercive temperance. 

Experience also shows that this desire for stimulants implanted in our na- 
ture, may be satisfied in two ways : by things innocent, because not generally 
leading to excess, and by things hurtful, because they do very often lead to 
dangerous and injurious excess. If the innocent things are made easily accefl>- 
sible, men prefer them, acquire a taste for ihem, and are satisfied. If the 
hurtful things are made cheap and easy to be got, a taste for these will, in 
like manner, be acquired, leading, when indulged too far, to the most deplorable 
evils. Among the things harmless, when used in moderation, and seldom 
leading to abuse, is wine. The dangerous stimulants quickly producing in- 
toxication of the worst kind, and easily tempting to excess — ^that excess causing 
mental and moral degradation, disease, madness and death, are spirituous 
liquors, which may be called our national drink. The temperance societies 
originally recognized this distinction, and pointed their efforts against the use 
of ardent spirits alone, thus wisely founding their benevolent exertions on 
truth, on the known principles of our nature. The modern advocates of Maine 
liquor laws deny these principles, they refuse to admit this universal desire 
for stimulants as a fact of humanity — ^they refuse to recognize any difference 



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436 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

between the natare and efiects of different kinds of stimulants. They say to 
humanity, "you shall have no stimulants at all," and attempt to carry out 
their views, not by argument and persuasion, but by arbitrary measures, at 
which humanity, having control of the ballot-box, rebels, with victory, because 
with truth and justice on its side. * 

This is not the place to discuss the temperance question further than it is 
related to the subject before us, or to decide how far government may legally 
and properly go in restraining the use of intoxicating drinks. It is however 
pertinent to the matter in hand, to ^ow that one way to promote temperance, 
is to encourage the use of those stimulants that are harmless, among which 
is wioe,4nd by making it plentiful, create a taste for it, instead of whiskey, 
which ha« such dreadful power to degrade and destroy. Wine satisfies that 
desire for a stimulant, which is a part of our nature. It rarely produces in-, 
toxication, because a very large quantity must be drunk to have that effect, at 
least in those accustomed to its use, and because the alcohol it contains is so 
modified as to be less exciting than in distilled liquors. Hence wine drinkers 
very seldom become drunkards; and in countries where wine is so cheap as 
to be easily obtained by all, as in the southern parts of Europe, intemperance 
is very rare, yet every one habitually drinks light wine at every meal, and 
the laws favor its cheapness, in order that the poor may enjoy it. In France, 
so unusual are the evils of excessive drinking, that the dreadful mania-a-potu, 
so common here, is almost unknown. I am informed by a medical friend, that 
when he attended the hospitals of Paris some years ago, a case of this disease 
was brought to one of the wards, and the distinguished physician of the insti- 
tution did not know what it was, as he had never seen one before. An article 
in one of the late English Reviews, shows verj^ clearly from statistics, that drunk- 
enness has increased enormously in Great Britain since high duties imposed on 
wines, particularly on light wines, have made them expensive, and thus induced 
the use of ardent spirits. Thence the gin-palace has arisen, with all its fatal 
allurements, more degrading and destructive than opium in the East. Our 
government has put heavy duties on foreign wines, regarding them as luxuries 
of the rich, and therefore fit subjects of taxation. To remove the duty alto- 
gether, at least from the cheaper kinds, and thus make them the luxuries of 
the poor, would do more than Maine liquor laws to promote temperance and 
good morals. The extensive manufacture of native wines will have the same 
tendency. As the production increases, the best qualities will command a 
higher price and the inferior qualities will become cheaper, and thus be intro- 
duced into general use. If the farmers would plant vineyards and make their 
own wine, to be put on their tables, to be offered to their guests, to be taken 
out to the harvest field instead of whiskey, as is now the custom, a taste for 
the more agreeable as well as more healthful liquor would thus be created and 
difiused, which would gradually but surely banish the grogshop fVom the 



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AGKICULTOBAL SOCIETY. 437 

country,* whilst the growers of the grape for profit, by increasing the supply of 
wine and diminishing its price, will assist the influence of wise and ju9t laws 
to produce the «ame effects in the towns. ' 

It is said that the spirituous liquors annually consumed in this country cost 
forty millions of dollars. This immense sum is, therefore, a province, an El- 
dorado or New California, for the wine growers to conquer for their own 
benefit and that of society. It represents a want, which they should convert 
into a demand, for their own production, and offers to iheir enterprize a wide 
field of profit and usefulness. 

I have not thought it necessary to say anything in this report in relation to 
the mode of cultivating the grape. The object of the society is to promote 
the extension of this branch of industry, and the best way to do this, is to 
show the advantages it affords to those who may engage in it, and alao the 
happy influences which it may exert on the community. To give instruetions 
as to the management of a vineyard, would require a volume, which 1 have not 
the knowledge to write. One has been written, however, by Mr. Bobert Bu- 
chanan, of Cincinnati, which those interested can consult with advantage, aad 
I am informed that the subject is soon to receive further illustration from the 
hands of Dr. Underbill, of New York, and Dr. Warder, of Cincinnati, botk 
competent to treat it, so that the results of the last experience either now are 
or soon will be recorded, and no one who desires information need remaitt 
ignorant. 

SIDNEY G. FISHER, 
Corresponding Secretary, 



Stated meeting on the 7th of May, at the Society's room. 

President in the chair. 

Messrs. Charles F. Lex, George J. M'Gowan, Thomas M. Smith, D. B. Ker- 
shaw, Samuel Allen, Richard R. Levick, Lawrence Pepper, Howard Spencer, 
W. A. Newbold, S. N. Fox, Charles Harlan, James G. Smith and Thomas 
Irwin, were elected resident members. 

William B. Clymer, Esq., of Wellsboro', Pa., was unanimously elected an 
honorary member of the society. 

The Committee on Implements and Inventions, reported having been unable 
to examine the imported implements referred to them at last meeting. 

Dr. M'Crea stated, that the importer of the implements, Mr. Wickersham, 
politely held them in readiness for examination by this society, through a com- 
mittee, and moved that the Committee on Implements and Inventions be dis- 
charged from the consideration of the oubject, and that a committee of five 
be appointed to make the examination j wbich motion prevailed, and 



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439 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Dr. M'Cria, S. Williams, S. G. Fisher, Esq., J. S. Haines and A. T. Neir- 
bold, were appointed the committee. 

On motion that the chair be added to the committee ; which was agreed to. 

Mr. Freas notified the members that a trial of Glare's mowing machine 
would take place at 4 P. M., on the Friday succeeding, at Oesantyille. 

On motion, the committee on Mr. Wickersham's implements, were requested 
to attend the trial announced by Mr. Freas. 

On motion of Mr. Willets, that the reading room of the society be dosed 
on Friday evenings until the 15th of October next ; which was agreed to. 

On motion of Dr. Kennedy, the Executive Committee were instructed to 
insore the property of the society, contained in the room, against loss by fire. 

Dr. Elwyn stated, that a friend of his in North Garoliaa claimed to have 
discovered in Mississippi, a new species of Okra, which was white, and be* 
lieved to be indigenous. 

The chair suggested that the specimen found had probably escaped from 
cultivation. The plant belonged to a family which spread rapidly. The com* 
mon Okra was not indigenous. 

Dr. Emerson invited the members to examine a fine specimen of Rocky 
mountain sheep, which had been recently added to the Museum of the Acad^ 
my of Natural Sciences. He believed that this spedes of ske^ was well 
worthy the attention of stock raisers. Its importance had been fully recog* 
nized by the United States Agricultural Society at the last session^ Ad* 
joumed. 



Stated meeting on Wednesday, June 4, 1856, at Society's room* 

President in the chair. 

Communications were received from the Patent Office, Washington j from 
the New Jersey State Agricultural Society, and from the United States Agri- 
cultural Society. 

Donations of seeds, grafts and published reports, were presented from the 
Commissioner of Patents, and of the journal of the U. S. Agricultural So- 
ciety from Hon. M. P. Wilder. 

The following gentlemen were elected honorary members of the society : — 
Col. P. B. Johnson, of Albany, N. Y., Corresponding Secretary of the New 
York State Agricultural Society 5 Hon. W. Robeson, of Belvidere, N. Jersey, 
President of the New Jersey State Agricultural Society 5 Dr. Jas. W. Thomp** 
son, of Wilmington, Del., and Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, of Boston, President 
of the U. S. Agricultural Society. 

Messrs. G. Blight Browne, of Gwynedd, Montgomery county. Pa.; E. Bur- 
ton, of Newcastle county, Del., and E. P. Kershaw, W. K. Bray, F. Dick, T. 



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AGRICULTORAL SOCIETY. 439 

R. Jacobs and John C. Mitchell, of Philadelphia, were elected resident mem- 
bers. 

Dr. James A. M'Crea, of Chestnut Hill, in behalf of the committee to ex- 
amine the implements recently imported into this city by Dr. Morris S. Wick- 
ersham, submitted a report, which closed with the assurance that the owner 
designed depositing the implements in the coming exhibition of the U. States 
Agricultural Society, at Powelton, where they would be compared with the 
best implements of American manufacture in the same class. The committee 
further reported, that the promised trial of Clark's mowing machine had not 
taken place at the time appointed, in consequence of unfavorable weather. 

Mr. S. C. Willits, of Holmesburg, inquired as to tl\e success which had at- 
tended the planting of ^ corn this season. His corn had come up very irregu- 
larly, a large portion of his fields had been re-planted, and with but a aiightly 
improved result. He attributed the failure to bad seed com. 

Dr. C. K. King, of Andalusia, Bucks county, had experienced the same diffi- 
culty, and with him the second field had turned out worse than the first. On 
light sandy soil, as well as on stiff clay, had the failure been experienced. He 
felt sure that the cause did not lie in the nature or improper preparatio;i of 
the soil, nor in the season, which thus Deur had been severe. 

Mr. Landreth's experience during this spring had not agreed with that of 
the last speaker. On some portions of his farm com had come up irregularly, 
while on other portions the same kind of seed, similarly planted, had done 
well. Corn intended for seed ought to be preserved on the cob, and not kept 
in bulk. This was especially true of the White Flint variety, the cob of which 
was very succulent. 

Mr. Willits remarked that the millers had observed the inferior quality of 
much of the corn of last year, the meal from which was far below the stand- 
ard grade. He maintained that to plant such corn on any soil must result in 
disappointment. 

Mr. A. T. Newbold believed that the varying aspect of the surface, or the 
exposure^ might in part account for the difference in the germination. Some 
fields were much more exposed to the chilly influences of the cold clear nights 
which we had during the last month or six weeks. 

Mr. John S. Haines, of Germantown, had noticed that in many parts of the 
western country complaints of the coming corn crop, similar to those heard 
here, were being published in the agricultural papers. He had tested, with 
the Stowell corn, the superior advantage of planting the grain which had been 
permitted to remain on the cob. 

Dr. A. L. Kennedy inquired if the so called Chinese sugar cane, Sorgkum 
Saccharatutiij a variety of broom com, the seeds of which were now being dis- 
tribnted by the Patent Office, and which was cultivated for fodder — ^had been 
tried by any of the members. 



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UO PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

The chair replied, that no account of such trial had been hrought to his 
notice, although many of the seeds distributed by that office were almost as 
well known in this country, as in that from which they had been imported, 
and others again were far inferior to the kind? grown here. Adjourned. 



Stated meeting on Wednesday, July 2, at the Society's room. 

President in the chair. 

Mr. Edwin Moore, President Montgomery County Agricultural Society, yms 
elected an honorary member, Mr. Atlee G. Davis a life member, and the 
foUowing gentlemen resident members : D. C. Levy, P. P. Morris, T. S. R. 
Fassitt, Hartman Kuhn, Jr., W. A. M'Crea, John P. Brock, John Airey and 
JRichard Smithurst, of Philadelphia, and Charles W. Lloyd, of Paschalrille. 

Mr. P.'R. Freas, in introducing the subject of the cultivation of the smaller 
fruits, lamented the scarcity of these fruits in our market. He ascribed their 
scarcity. to the neglect of proper and well known methods of cultivation. 
Raspberries were notoriously scarce and dear, owing, it was said, to the se- 
verity of the past winter ; but why expose the bushes to the killing frosts, 
when they could be so easily protected % One of the most justly prized varie- 
ties of raspberry was "Brinckle's Orange," nor was it one of the hardiest, yet 
he (Mr. F.,) by laying the bushes down last autumn, and covering them with 
earth, had found them in the spring to be entirely untouched by frost, even to 
the minutest extremities, and now they were laden with the finest and most 
luscious fruit, many of the berries being an inch in length. He had also adopt- 
ed the plan of protecting his strawberry beds by a layer of manure in the fall, 
similar to asparagus beds. Upon raking this off in the spring, the plants were 
found uninjured by the severity of the winter ; they grew vigorously, and the 
ground remained free from weeds. From seven beds, three feet by fourteen 
ta dimensions, forty-six measured quarts were gathered, many of the berries 
being over three inches in circumference. The variety vras Hovey*s seedling. 
Mr. F. recommended the early mulching of strawberry beds, and during the 
formation of the fruit they should be frequently saturated with water, not 
sprinkled merely. 

Mr. A. Clement had recently visited a strawberry patch, pn which bricks 
were laid between the plants. The bricks kept down weed?, prevented evapo- 
ration in dry weather, and the washing of the earth upon the berries during 
rains. 

The chair stated that boards and blocks of wood were frequently used for 
the same purpose and with equal advantage. 

' Mr. S. G. Fisher believed the porosity of the bricks to be ftivorable to their 
employment. They absorbed a large quantity of water. The great difficulty 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. ^1 

in raising succulent berries in this oountry wrose from the dryness of our at- 
mosphere. Keep the ground moist in the way which had been recommended, 
and you partially overcome the difficulty. 

Dr. G. Emerson remarked, that even oyster shells were used for that pur- 
pose with advantage. 

The subject of the profits of small farms was opened by the statement that 
the net proceeds on twelve a^res of land near Burlington, N. J., had amounted 
in one year to three thousand dollars. Strawberries, rhubarb and early pota- 
toes being the crops. Short stable manure had been employed, but no guano 
or other concentrated fertilizer. 

Mr. E. E. Boudinot said that three acres of land in the same neighborhood 
had been bought at two hundred dollars per acre, and the profit on a crop of 
ruta bagas the first year had repaid the purchase money. The owner had 
worked early and late, had got his crop out iu good season, and had himself 
personally sold it by retail in Philadelphia. Mr. B. believed this tp be an ex- 
ceptional case, as his own experience in that vicinity and with the same root 
had resulted very differently. His land had produced well, but half the crop 
had decayed on the wharves here, before a purchaser was found at less than 
half the market price. 

Mr. G. S. Fisher felt assured that statements of the enormous profits of farm- 
ing were calculated to mislead the public. He had himself been misled, ai^d 
he had paid dearly for the light of his experierice. That the cultivation of a 
small piece of land might be made remunerative, be did not deny, but then the 
farmer must not only till with his own hands, but come to the city and aarrangf 
for and conduct the sales by retail. The main reliance of the tr^e farmer were 
hay, grain and cattle for market, not high-bred fancy stock. 

Mr. C. W. Harrison thought that many farmers lost by attempting to com- 
bine agricultural and horticultural operations. The cultivation of a large 
vegetable garden caused a heavy drain on the barn yard, and necessitated the 
purchase of manure for the farm. This entailed a heavy and frequently a dis- 
astrous tax ; moreover, trucking required so much attention to details, that 
the farmcl* had np time to mature and direct the grander operations of the 
farm. 

Mr. S. C. Willits approved of farn^ers raising a great variety of produce. 
He did not confine himself to grain and hay; he had also cultivated root crops. 
He had fed to his stock one-half of last year's yield of one and a half acres of 
ruta bagas, and the balance he had sold for one hundred and eighty dollars. 

Dr. W. Shippen suggested that the difficulty in realising profit lay in the 
selling rather than in the producing. A good salesman was as necessary in 
the disposing of farm produce as in any other branch of trade. If farmers 
would apply to our larg-e public institutions, they might frequently efTect ad- 
vantageous sales. These institutions, such as the house of refuge, consumed 



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442 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

\ 
vast quantities of vegetables, and would be greatly accommodated by purchas- 
ing directly from the farmer. Adjourned. 



Stated meeting on Wednesday, August 6, at Society's room. 

Mr. Landreth, President, in the c^air. 

Mr. William Stavely, President of the Bucks County Agricultural Society, 
was elected to honorary membership, and Messrs. Albert Worrell, of Darby, 
and John Bassmore, of Paschalville, were elected resident members. 

Donations: — ^From Harry Ingersoll, Esq., Liste Generate des Recompenses de- 
scemes paries Jurys a Concours Jlgricoh Universely Paris^ 1856; and Catalogue 
des Animaux machines^ xTistraments et. products exposes. From Mr. R. Buist, 
a copy of his work, entitled '* Family Fruit Gardener." 

The amendment to the by-laws, proposed by Mr. Harrison at preceding 
meeting, was adopted. 

Mr. S. G. Fisher exhibited samples of Turkish Flint, and Noe wheat, raised 
by him from seed obtained through the society from the Patent Office. The 
Turkish Flint especially had stood the winter remarkably well, and promises 
to be valuable. 

Mr. Isaac Newton exhibited fine samples of wheat grown from seed sown in 
November, but which had not come up until spring. Also, various specimens 
of oats from one hundred and twenty acres cultivated by deep ploughing and 
forty bushels of slacked lime to the acre. Mr. N.'s wheat and oats were from 
his estate, known as Deep Hole Farm, in Prince William coimty, Virginia. 

Mr. G. W. Holmes, of Holmesburg, stated that he had a good field of com. 
It was a question whether he should sucker it or not. He hoped the members 
would enlighten him on the subject. 

Mr. A. Clement objected to suckering corn. He preferred thinning out; 
suckering injured the stalk by causing it to weep. 

Mr. C. W. Harrison concurred with the last speaker; suckering caused loss 
of fodder as well as injured it. 

Mr. S. C. Willitts had derived benefit from suckering and had confidence in 
it; too many stalks produced less grains and smaller ears; suckering by pull- 
ing or twisting oflT was to be preferred to that by cutting, because the latter 
caused the stalks to weep. 

Mr. Joseph Palmer o bjected to suckering. He thought it reduced the strength 
of the plant. There was great difference in the disposition of corn to sucker. 
Sugar corn suckered most ; the larger varieties least. 

Mr. Freas said that many farmers opposed suckering from the belief that 
the pollen from the suckers are useful in fertilizing the female flowers. He 
preferred cutting to pulling off* suckers, the plants' received less shock and 
were not so much weakened; but as a general rule thought they should remain. 



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AGHlCUL'rURAL SOCIETY. 443 

Mr. Holmes had ati acquaintance in Byberry, who, after a field had been 
partly sackered, stopped the operation, and found that the portion left un- 
touched yielded more in proportion than the former. 

Mr. A. T. Newbold had made a similar experiment on a five acre field of 
corn, but without any difference being perceptible in the yield. The practice 
of topping and blading was practiced in Maryland. In his hands the plan ap- 
peared to be attended with loss. 

Mr. S. G. Fisher assured the members that the topping and blading, once 
the almost uaiversal practice in Maryland, was now generally discarded — from 
the belief that it diminished the yield of grain. 

The chair afiirmed that this diminution was on good authority, reckoned 
at not less than Gve per cent. 

Mr. J. S. Haines was confident that it had dccasioneda loss of five bushels 
per acre. 

Dr. William Shippen reminded the society that topping and blading was a 
Southern practice, and that in that section of the country hay was not abun- 
dant — with horses especially the blades of corn were the substitute. You 
could not persuade a Southern farmer to abandon the custom of blading his 
long tali corn. 

The question of the comparative advantages of ploughing and drilling wheat 
was proposed by Mr. Harrison for discussion at next meeting. Adjourned. 



« Stated meeting on Wednesday, September 3, at the Society's room. 

President in the chair. 

Donation — ^From R. B. Johnson, Esq., Secretary of the New Yoric State Agri- 
cultural Society, a copy of the report made by him to that society on the Ag- 
ricultural Department of the exhibition of the Industry of all Nations at Lon- 
don, 1851. 

Hon. W. Jessup, of Susquehanna county, Pa., and David S. Newbold, Esq., 
of Burlington county, N. J., were ejected honorary members. 

Mr. M. Trainer was elected a resident member. 

Mr. George B. Deacon, of Burlington, N. J., exhibited samples of seedling 
apples which were much admired for their beauty and excellence. The ap- 
ples bore a near resemblance to the Pearmain. 

Mr. Freas stated that he had recently seen an apple very similar to one ex- 
hibited, near St. George's, Delaware, and that it was very highly prized there. 

On motion that Committees of Visitation to the New Jersey State, Penn- 
sylvania State, Burlington County, N. J., Camden and Gloucester County, N» 
J., and the Berks, Chester, Bucks and Montgomery county. Pa., Agricultural 
Fairs be now appointed, which motion was agreed to. 



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444 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

The following gentlemen compose the committees, viz : 

New Jersey State Agricultural Society — Fair at Newark, from the 9th to 
12th September, inclusive — Morton M'Michael, E. E. Boudinot, J. M'Gowan, 
S. C. VVillits, Geo. Blight, David Landreth, John S. Haines, W. G. Wardeij 
and D. B. Paul. 

Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society — Fair at Pittsburg, September 30th 
to October 3d, inclusive — Paschal Morris, Dr. James A. M'Crea and Gustavu9 
Engle. 

Camden and Gloucester Agricultural Society — Fair at Haddonfield, N. J., 
commencing September 16th — Aaron Clement, Dr. A. L. Kennedy, A. T. New- 
bold and Morton M'Michael. 

Burlington County Agricultural Society — Fair at Mt. Holly, N. J. — Watson 
Comly, A. M. Spangler, Morton M'ilichael, J. P. Jenkins, A. T. Newbold, 
and Dr. A. L. Kennedy. 

Chester County Agricultural Society — Fair at West Chester, October 3d and 
4th — Casper W. Sharpless, John S. Haines and Isaac Newton. 

Bucks County Agricultural Society — Fair at Newtown, commencing Septem- 
ber 21th — Samuel C. Willits, James Thornton, Jr., and C. W. Harrison. 

Berks County Agricultural Society — Fair at Reading, from October 1st t9 
4th, inclusive — Isaac Pearson, Dr. J. A. M'Crea wid P. R. Freas. 

Montgomery County Agricultural Society — Fair at Springtown, October let 
and 2d — George Blight, David Landreth and Dr. A. L. Kennedy. 

The question for discussion proposed at preceding meeting, by Mr. Harri- 
son, was announced by the chair. 

On motion of Dr. Elwyn that the discussion be postponed in consequeoj^e 
of the absence of the proposer, which, after discussion by Messrs. G. W. 
Jlolme, C. R. King, J. S. Haines, Elwyn and others, was agreed to. Ad- 
journed. 



Stated meeting on Wednesday, October 1, at Society's room. 

President in the chair. 

Messrs. Norwood Hallowell, of Jeokentown, and Jeremiah Clayton, of Olney, 
Philadelphia county j Mr. W. H. Eagle, of Lower Merion, Montgomery coun- 
ty j and Messrs. Abraham Barker, H. F. Hoover, Josiah J. Allen, Edmund S. 
Yard, James Hoone, S. R. Simmons, John Neff, F. A. Showers and John Cook, 
a^d Dr. Edwin Schofield, of Philadelphia, were elected resident members. 

On motion that a committee be appointed to visit the pending National 
Agricultural exhibition at Povvelton, which was agreed to, and the following 
gentlemen were appointed, viz: Dr. James A. M'Crea and Dr. Chas. R. King. 

The chair stated that an election of trustees of the Farmers' High School 
would be held near the institution in Centre county, on the following Tuesday, 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 445 

and su^2:ested that a committee be appointed to cast the vote of the society on 
the occasion, which was agreed to, and Messrs. Newton, Kennedy and Ham- 
mill were constituted the committee. 

The presence, as committee men, of a large number of the prominent mem- 
bers of the society, being required on the grounds at Powelton, where the 
preparations for the National Agricultural Fair were being pressed to comple- 
tion, the consideration of the question for the day was postponed, and the so- 
ciety adjourned. 



Stated meeting on Wednesday, the 5th of November, at the room. 

President in the chair. 

Donations — Five packages containing sundry parcels of "Cat Mountain 
Wheat," from the Patent Office, Washington, and the Monthly Bulletins for 
February, March, April and May, 1856, of the Societe Impereale et Center ale 
d*j^gricuiture, Paris* 

Verbal reports were made by the committee appointed at the previous meet- 
ing to visit the National Fair ; and also by the committee to represent this 
society at the election of trustees of the Farmers' High School. 

The question of the relative advantages of drilling in wheat and sowing it 
broad-cast, which had been postponed for two months, was called up. 

Mr. Samuel Williams regretted that the subject had not been discussed when 
first introduced, as then the farmers were about putting in their winter wheat, 
and the enlightened expression of opinion and results of experience given here, 
would have been immediately valuable. He was a staunch friend to the intro- 
duction of improved implements and machinery, yet he did not regard the drill 
indispensable in wheat culture. Indeed, when ground was skilfully ploughed, 
carefully sown and harrowed once^ the crop came up evenly and the yield was 
traiformily good in ordinary seasons. 

Mr. A. Clement remarked that a discussion had taken place on the subject 
at Baltimore, in which the superiority of the drill was fully established. 

Mr. C. W. Harrison had satisfied himself of the value of the drill as far as 
the wheat crop was concerned, and timothy, also, did better when drilled in 
with the wheat. 

Mr. Isaac Newton was decidedly in favor of drill husbandry. Last year he 
had fairly tested the two methods, on adjoining pieces of land, and the ad- 
vantage from the drilling was clearly double. The grain appeared to have been, 
by the equal action of the machine, placed just deeply enough in the soil to 
shelter it from the intense severity of last winter, and yet near enough to the 
surface to permit it readily to sprout. 

Mr. John Lardner had used the drill for the last two years, and was so well 
satisfied with it that he intended never to abandon its use. 



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446 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Mr. Dennis Kelly still relied on the plough and the harrow for his wheat, and 
sowed his timothy after harrowing. 

Several members expressed their disapproval of the method of sowing gnm 
seed after the wheat had been harrowed in. 

Mr. S. C. Willets had tried the drill for three years, and every year liked it 
better. He had begun by sowing the grass seed after the drill, but it fell into 
the small furrows made by the drill, and its own growth, as well as that of 
the grain, was injured. The spaces between the drills were almost bare, and 
in these spaces many weeds and very little clover afterwards sprang up. He 
now sows his grass seed in front of his wheat drill, not by hand, as formerly, 
but by an attached grass'seed drill. Although the cold of last winter had killed 
out some of the drilled wheat, yet the sown had fared far worse. He believed 
that the saving of seed alone repaid the cost of the drill. 

The chair suggested that the further discussion be postponed until August 
next, which was, on motion, agreed to. 

Mr. Harrison called attention to the condition of the corn crop, now being 
got in. Husking was at hand, and he hoped members would carefully observe 
the quality of the yield and its fitness for seed. The failure in the early 
planting last spring w€ls generally attributed to the seed. The corn had 
ripened very unevenly, and unless farmers were careful immature seed might 
be selected. 

Mr. Newton approved of keeping seed-corn out of the cold, so that it could 
not freeze. A cob might appear dry and yet contain too much succulent mat- 
ter to admit of husking. The freezing of this moisture injured the germe, and 
this injury manifests itself in a minute speck of blue mould, no larger than the 
head of a small pin, and distinctly visible by the naked eye. However, en 
breaking the cob across, if unsound, it would have a yellow color; if sound, 
a white. 

Mr. Williams agreed with the last speaker as to the cause of the failure of 
seed-corn. He thought that farmers cut too green and husked too soon. 

Mr. Harrison had seen corn husked, and, as it were, corded up in the field 
and covered to protect it from the weather. Thus it was dried, but not so 
well as in warm rooms. 

Mr. Landreth had recently seen the " cording up" plan adopted in Bucks 
county. 

Dr. L. H. Twaddell proposed that the best methods of feeding and wintering 
cattle, should be the subject of discussion at next meeting. Which proposition 
Avas agreed to. 

Dr. Keni(iedy inquired if any implements, not previously exhibited in tlus 
section of the country, had appeared at the National Fair. 

Mr. Williams had observed one or two rotary ploughs, and a new corn- 
sheller — the latter, especially, promised well. 



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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 447 

The ehair announced that the Reading Room would be opened to farmers on 
Friday evening next, and be continued open on every Friday evening, until 
further notice. 

Mr. Clement had recently returned from the agricultural fair at Baltimore. 
He represented the objects and arrangements to have been in the highest degree 
creditable to the farmers of Maryland. 

Dr. Kennedy reminded the members of the near approach of the seventy-first 
anniversary of the society, and moved that a committee be appointed to report 
a plan for its observance; which motion was agreed to. 

And Messrs. Kennedy, Rice and Fries were appointed a committee. Ad- 
journed. 



Stated meeting, on Wednesday December 3, at Society's room. 

President in the chair. 

Mr. Joseph S. Kein was elected a life member, and Mr. John Horton and Dr. 
J. H. B. M'Clelland, of Philadelphia, and Mr. Jefferson Stoever, of Tacony, 
were elected resident members. 

The committee on the anniversary celebration presented a partial report, and 
were continued. 

The Recording Secretary reminded the members that the reading room was 
open on Friday evenings, and suggested that conversational meetings of the 
society be held on these evenings from time to time throughcyut the winter, at 
which meetings the reading of essays and subsequent discussions would prove 
attractive and instructive. 

On the motion of Mr. Clement that the subject be referred to the Executive 
Committee, an animated discussion ensued, in which Messrs. S. G. Fisher, 
C. W. Harrison, Sheridan and others participated, when the motion was agreed 
to. 

On motion that the society nominate officers for the ensuing year, which 
was agreed to. 

When the requisite number of nominations were made, the discussion of the 
best method of foddering and wintering stock was postponed until next meeting. 
Adjourned. 



SCHUYLKILL COUNTY. 

To the Preiident of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society : 

Sir : — In compliance with the act incorporating the Pennsylvania State Agri- 
cultural Society, I beg leave to offer the followiilg brief extract as the first an* 
nual report of this association : 



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448 V PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

The Schuylkill County Agricultural, Horticultural and Mechanical Associa- 
tion, located at the thriving borough of Schuylkill Haven, was organized on 
the 26th day of July, 1S56, under the fourth section of the act incorporating 
the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society, held its first annual exhibition 
commencing on the 24th, and ending on the 27th of September, 1856. The 
proceeds of this exhibition amounted to one thousand three hundred and forty 
dollars j the premiums awarded amounted to three hundred and thirty-six 
dollars, while the indebtedness of the association amounts to less than one 
thousand dollars, which it is confidentially believed can be discharged with the 
proceeds of the June exhibition of 1857, which is intended exclusively for the 
ladies to display their skill in their different arts. 

The association, in the short space of time since its organization, held thir- 
teen stated, adjourned and special meetings ; is in the hands of the first agri- 
culturists of the county, and cannot fail of becoming one of the most pros- 
perous societies in the State. 

The officers elected on the 3d instant ar6 as follows, viz : 

President — John J. Paxson. 

Vice Presidents — Joshua Back, S. H. Shannon, J. D. Deibert, S. Lymaster, 
H. Guiterman, Rubens Peale, S. K. M. Kepner, E. Chichester, J. W. Shoe- 
maker, Lewis Koyer, B. D. Long and Chas. Mullen. 

Recording Secretary — J. S. Keller. 

Assistant Recording Secretary — M. F. Medlar. 

CoRRESPONDINfc SECRETARY — J. S. Pulsifcr. 

Treasurer — Lewis Royer. 
Librarian — E. Chichester. 
Counsellor — R. M. Palmer. 
Okwigsburg, January 5, 1857. 



REPORT OF JUDGES, 
Horses and Mules* 

7b tht President of the Schuylkill County ^Agricultural Society: 

We the undersigned committee appointed to judge the horses and mules on 
exhibition, respectfully report, that we have attended to the duty assigned us, 
and make the following awards, viz : 

George Rickert, best stallion $3 00 

William M. Bickcl, best family horse. , 2 00 

William Bittle, second best. . .do 1 00 

Edward Kerns, best family mare 2 00 

George Deibert, best pacing mare 2 00 

William Bittle, best trotting horse •..,... 2 00 



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AGRICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 449 

Danrel Reed, best team horses $3 00 

Amos Hoffman, second best do> ,...,., , . . . . 2 00 

Henry Gerhard, best work horse 2 00 

Thomas Hoy, second best do 1 00 

Jacob Hoy, best brood mare * . # 3 00 

Samuel Moyer, second best do ^ 2 00 

Isaac Orwig, Jr., best single horse for all purposes 2 00 

Henry Shoener, second best do .do .*. 1 00 

Wm. B. Kershner, third best do do 1 00 

Wm. S. Albright, best colt, two and a half years old for all purposes. . 2 00 

Jacob Hoy, best mare colt, three years old • 2 00 

Henry Gerhard, second best ^ ... do. 1 00 

Daniel Shoener, best colt, two and a half years old 2 00 

Henry Shoener, second best do do 1 00 

Edward Kerns^ best colt, two years old 2 00 

Henry Hoy, best mare for all purposes. 2 00 

Henry Hoy, second best do. . •. . . .do 1 00 

Martin Edmonds, best pony 2 00 

William S. Albright, best pair mules • 3 00 

William Bittle, second best. .do. , 2 00 

William S. Albright, best driving mule • • 2 00 

William Bittle, second best. . . .do. 1 00 

AU of vthich is respectfully submitted. 

HENRY KREBS, 
GEORGE RICKERT, 
DANIEL SHOENER, 

Committee. 



Cattle. 
To the President and Officers of the Schuylkili County Jlgricultural Society: 

We the committee appointed to judge the cattle on exhibition, most rerpect- 
fully report, that we have attended to that duty, and make the following 
awards: 

> John Raush, best Durham bull, between one and two years $2 00 

Do,. . . .best Durham bull calf, under one year 2 00 

Joseph Hoy, best Durham cow, three years old 3 00 

George Bodey, second best do do 2 00 

Schuylkill county alms-house, best Aldemey bull, three years old ... . 3 00 

Henry Hoy, best Devon bull, three years old 3 00 

Reuben Hoy, best Devon bull, one year old 2 00 

Henry Hoy, second best do do 1 00 



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450 PENNSYLVANIA STATE 

Mrs. Susannah Mayer, best Devon cow, three years old • • $3 00 

Henry Hoy, second best «do. . • « tdo.. * 2 00 

Samuel Kimmel, Jr., best Devon cow, two years old 2 00 

Edward Kerns, second best. . . ,do do , « 1 00 

Daniel Miller, best under one year old • • 2 00 

Joseph Deibert, best common bull, three years old • • • 2 00 

Joseph Hoy, best common bull, between one and two years. . , 2 00 

Henry Orwig, second best do. do 1 00 

Abraham Fegley, best common eow, three years old , 2 00 

John Botts, second best do do 1 00 

Reuben Hoy, best common cow, between one and two years old. ... . 2 00 

Amos Hoffman, second best do do '. 1 00 

John Botts, best heifer calf 2 00 

William Fegley, best yoke oxen 1 00 

Daniel Moyer, best Kerry cow, three years old 2 00 

Wm. H. Schall, Samuel Kimmel, Jr., Wm. B. Kershner, Adam Frederick, 

Edward Kerns, John Botts, B. W. Hughes, Henry Hoy and Joseph Hoy, have 

cows on exhibition, in which your committee is uimble to say which might be 

the best. All of which is submitted. 

M. F. LUDWIG, 

JOSEPH ALBRIGHT, 

GEORGE DEIBERT, 

^ Committee, 



Sheep and Swine. 

John Botts, four best sheep , $2 00 

Wm. S. Albright, two best brood sows , 2 00 

Ludwig & Ebur, two best hogs, Chester county, fourteen months old, 2 00 

Wm. S. Albright, second best three hogs, Chester county 1 OO 

George Rickert, best two hogs, one year old. 2 00 

George Folmer, second best two hogs, one year old 1 00 

Philip Wernert, best two shoats, six months old 1 00 

Bickel & Schall, best four shoats, Chester county » 1 00 

Henry Orwig, best two pigs, eight weeks old • 1 00 

Henry Gerhard, best seven pigs 1 OO 

In addition to the above, there were also exhibited some very excellent pigs 
by Isaac Orwig, Wm. S. Albright, Daniel Alspach, Wm. H. Schall, Joseph 
Deibert and Daniel Miller. Respectfully submitted. 

ELI HAMMER, 
WILLIAM FEHR, 
HENRY SHOENER, 

Cimmities. 



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AGRICULTUJRAL SOCIETY. 45J 

Poultry. 

To the President and Members of ike Schuylkill CeuTUy Jfgrteulturai Society s 

The undersigned committee, appointed to judge the display of poultry en- 
tered for competition, would report that they have carefully attended to their 
duty, and would take this method of expressing their gratification with the 
large display and excellent collection of fowls, &c%, and would award the fol- 
Jowmg premiums : 

John A. Ege, best lot of Shanghai chickens. ,.•••..•......• $1 00 

Henry Ege, second best do Poultry Book« 

Archibald Douglas,|third best. . . .do .Poultry Book. 

Wm. Hoy, best geese • ..•••• $1 00 

Amos Hofiman, second best do , , Poultry Book. 

^ Wm. S. Albright, best turkeys , $1 00 

Daniel Miller, second best do • Poultry Book. 

David Boyer, best Jersey Blue chiakens $1 00 

Wm. M. Bickel, second best do .Poultry Book* 

Henry Hoy, Jr., best common ducks • . . . • $1 00 

Daniel Gessly, second best do • .Poultry Book. 

John Lebengood, best game chickens $1 00 

Jacob Hotfman, second best do Poultry Book. 

Wm. Minich, best Canvass Back ducks Poultry Book* 

Amos Hofiman, best fancy taped do •Poultry Book.. 

• Irwin Boyer, best common chickens $1 00 

Bernard Yeager, second best do .Poultry Book.. 

John A. Ege, best Cochin China .,. $1 00 

Henry Bausum, second best do , .Poultry Book. 

Amos Hofiman, best bantams $1 00^ 

John H. Schall, second best do , Poultry Book. 

Nicholas Walleissa, best Spanish fowls %\ 00 

Wm. M. Bickel, best Poland fowls I 00 

■ Martin Edmonds, best white turkeys 1 00 

Henry Hoy, Jr., second best do • Poultry Book. 

Charles B. Bossard, best Brama Pootra $1 00 

Wm. Reifsnyder, best common roosters • , 50 

Jacob Hoy, best Guinea fowls Poultry Book. 

Jacob Hoy, best Peacock and hen , $1 00 

E. Kleinert, best display of pigeons 1 00 

Albert Hammer, second best, .do .^. Poultry Book. 

Philip Wernert, best and largest dis