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Full text of "Report of the United States Philippine Commission to the Secretary of War for the period from December 1, 1900, to October 15, 1901"

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HARVARD LAW LIBRARY. 



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REPORT 



OP THB 



ONITED STATES PHILIPPINE COMMISSION 



SECRETARY OF WAR 



FOB THB PBBIOD 



FROM DECEMBER 1, 1900, TO OCTOBER 15, 1901. 



PUBLISqpD BY THE DIVISION OF INSULAR AFFAIRS. 
WAR DEPARTMENT. 

DECEMBER, 1901. 



I>A.IIT 3. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVBRNMBNT PRINTING OFFICE, 

1901. 



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CONTENTS 



APPENDICES C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, 
P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Z, AA, BB, CC, DD, EE, 

FF, AND GG. 

Appendix C: Minutes of provincial meetings and interviews 7-280 

AppKin>ix D: Inaagural addresB of the Civil Governor July 4, 1901 281-285 

Appendix E: 

Report of the civil-service board to the Civil Governor August 23, 1901. 286-312 

Supplemental report of the civil-service board October 5, 1901 295-300 

Exhibit A, result of examinations from July 3, 1901, to September 

30,1901 '. 301 

Exhibit B, appointments made from April, 1901, to October 1, 1901. . . 302 
Tables giving list of employees in the Philippine civil service, show- 
ing distribution of same among the various departments, the num- 
ber of Americans and Filipinos, respectively, employed in each 

department, and the compensation paid 303-312 

Appendix F: A sketch of the difficulties encountered in the application of the 
American system of surveys to the public lands in New Mexico, Arizona, 
and Colorado, and in the adjudication of the rights acquired under Spanish 
and Mexican grants in these Territories. By the Chief of the Bureau of 

PubUc Lands 313-318 

Appendix G: Memorandum as to the Spanish land system in the Philippines, 
with observations as to certain advantages of the land system of the United 

States. By the Chief of the Bureau of Public Lands 319-324 

Appendix H : Report of the acting chief of the Forestry Bureau to the civil gov- 
ernor for the fiscal year ending June 30,' 1901 325-332 

Appendix I: Report of the acting chief of the Forestry Bureau to the Secretary 

of the Interior for the period from July 1 to October 2, 1901 333,334 

.4PPBNDIX J: Report of the special agent of the Forestry Bureau sent to investi- 
gate gutta-percha and rubber in the Straits Settlements, Java, and Sumatra. 335-353 
Appendix K: 

Report of the Chief of the Mining Bureau to the Civil Governor for the 

fiscal year ending June 30, 1901 354-376 

Report of the mining engineer to the Chief of the Mining Bureau 

Appendix L: Report of the director of the Philippine Weather Bureau to the 
Secretary of the Interior for the period from June 1, 1901, to September 30, 

1901 377-380 

Appendix M: Report of the Commissioner of Public Health to the Secretary of 

the Interior for the period from August 7, 1901, to October 10, 1901 381-385 

3 



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4 CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Appendix N: Report of the Chief of the Philippines Constabulary to the Secre- 
tary of Commerce and Police, for the period from July 18, 1901, to 
October 4, 1901 386-391 

Appendix 0: Report of the Director-General of Posts to the Civil Governor for 

the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901 392-429 

Appendix P: Report of the officer in charge of the Manila suboffice of the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey to the Secretary of Commerce 
and Police, for the period from January 1, 1901, to October 1, 1901... 430, 431 

Appendix Q: Agreement between the Subsistence Department of the United 
States Army and the Insular Government of the Philippine Islands with 
reference to the insular cold-storage and ice plant 432-434 

Appendix R: Report of the Treasurer of the Philippine Archipelago to the 
Secretary of the United States Philippine Commission upon the banks 
of the Philippine Archipelago, for the quarter ending June 30, 1901 . . 435-443 

Appendix S: Reports of the Treasurer of the Philippine Archipelago to the 
Executive Secretary on special examinations of the Hongkong and 
Shanghai Banking Corporation at Manila and of the subagency of the 
Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China at Cebu 444-448 

Appendix T: Report of the Treasurer of the Philippine Archipelago to the 
Civil Governor on special examinations by deputies of the Insular Treas- 
urer of the branch of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation 
at Iloilo fuid of the Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China at 
Manila 449-462 

Appendix U: Report of the Solicitor-Greneral to the Unite<l States Philippine 
Commission on existing laws covering the transaction of hanking busi- 
ness in the Philippine Islands by foreign corporations or by individuals. 463-471 

Appendix V: Statement of seized funds by the Treasurer of the Philippine 

Archipelago 472 

Appendix W: Report of the Auditor to the Secretary of Finance and Justice . 473-493 

Appendix X: Report of the Treasurer of the Philippine Archipelago to the 
Civil Governor on the operations of the Treasury for the fiscal year end- 
mg June30, 1901 494-602 

Appendix Y: Report of the Collector of Customs for the Philippine Archipel- 
ago. {See Report of the Lieutenant-General Commanding the Army, 
part 2, pages 282-641, ) 

Appendix Z: Receipts and disbursements of Collector of Internal Revenue, 

Manila, from July 1, 1900, to September 30, 1901 604,505 

Appendix AA: Spanish records in the provinces 506-510 

Appendix BB: Stations of teachers, by provinces and towns 514-515 

Appendix OC: Home addresses of American teachers in the Philippines . . . 616-^23 

Appendix DD: Unfilled quotas of institutions authorized to appoint teachers. 524-526 

Appendix EE: Personnel of the bureau of public instruction 627, 528 

Appendix FF: 

Report of the Greneral Superintendent of Public Instruction to the Sec- 
retary of Public Instruction for the period from May 27, 1901 , to Octo- 
ber 1, 1901 629-^76 

Conditions in the island of Negros 534 

In island of Leyte and adjoining islands 535 

In Mindanao and Jolo 539 

In Benguet Province 544 

In provinces of Ilocos Norte, Abra, and Bontoc 550 

Report as to agriculture in the island of Negros and as to the govern- 
ment farm near La Carlota 553-560 



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CONTENTS. 5 

Afpbkdix FF— Continued. Page. 

Report of the General Saperintendent, etc. — Continued. 

Supplies received since January 1, 1901 560 

Instructions to superintendents, teachers, applicants for positions, 

etc 562-574 

Appendix GrO: Report of the Chief of the Department of Receipts and Dis- 
bursements for the city of Manila for the fiscal year ending June 30, 

1901 576,577 

Appendix HH: Population by provinces 578 

Appjbndix II: The Spanish Census of 1896 583 



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ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PART 1. 

Page. 

An Igorrote headman of Bugias, Benguet 33 

Part of the Igorrote town of Kabdyan, Benguet 50 

Public session in the street at Cervantes, province of Lepanto 9 

A Negrito, Mariveles, Bataan, showing relative size 33 

An Igorrote warrior, Bontoc 33 

A member of the tribe known as Tingaianes, taken at Bangued, A bra 62 

A woman of the tribe known as Tingaianes, taken at Bangued, Abra 62 

Moro dates, Davao, Mindanao 36 

Ninety-foot bamboo flagstaff, at Lucena, Tayabas 11 

The great mineral region in Lepanto on which the Suyoc and Mancayan mines 

of copper and gold are located 48 

Igorrote rice terraces, Kabdyan, Benguet 48 

Locusts rising from a roof in the Sampaloc district, Manila 50 

Swarm of locusts settling on a rice field in the Sampaloc district, Manila 60 

Rock work in the Bued River Valley on the Benguet road 72 

Igorrote school boys, Kabdyan, Benguet 133 

Moro dancing girls at Ck>tabato 36 

Dato Taug, Cotabato 36 

Tiruray dancers, Cotabato 38 

Chief Attos, of the Bagobo tribe, Davao 38 

Chief of the Tagacaolos, taken at Davao 36 

Diansig, chief of the Kalaganes, Davao 64 

Member of the Guianga tribe, taken at Davao 69 

Wife of Chief Attos of the Bagobos, Davao 38 

AnAtd,Ddvao 38 

Member of the tribe known as Bilanes, Davao 60 

One of the head men of the Samales tribe. Gulf of Davao 64 

Presidencia, or municipal building, Capiz , 31 

Tinguian woman, taken at Bangued, Abra 62 

A Kalinga, taken at Tugu^arao, province of Cagayan, Lu7X)n 35 

A Kalinga woman, taken at Tuguegarao 35 

A chief of the Gaddanes, taken at I lagan, province of Isabela, Luzon 35 

A Gaddan girl, taken at Iligani, Isabela 35 

Sefior Jo66 Serapio, governor of Bulacan 12 

Native sailboat towing barge containing Commission to beach at Balanga, 

Bataan 66 

Wall of convento in which Commission met the people of Tayabas, Luzon 11 

Typical arch of welcome erected in honor of the Commission at Masbate 9 

Barge in which Commission was landed at Bacolod, Occidental Negros 66 

Fleet of Moro boats coming out to meet the Commission at Jolo 66 

Tulawe, the chief of Moro police at Jolo 31 

PART 2. 

Moro houses, Jolo.. 86 

Provincial government building at Dumaguete, island of Negros 124 

Arch of welcome at San Jose de Buena Vista, Panay 136 



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8 itLUSTftATlOl^d. 

Page. 
Provincial government building at San Jose de Buena Vista, showing statue of 

Liberty 138 

Mayon Volcano, from Legaapi 171 

Bamboo raft on which the Commission ascended the Abra River 240 

Tree house of the Gaddanes, near Ilagan, Isabela 268 

Provincial building, Tarlac 28 

Provincial government building, Balanga, Bataan 44 

Bamboo arch of welcome at Tayabas, Luzon 53 

Boac, capital of Marinduque 61 

Fortified church at Boac, Marinduque 63 

Romblon, capital of province of same name 65 

Provincial government building at Romblon 67 

Town of Masbate from the bay 69 

Arch of welcome made of cotton cloth, Masbate 73 

Plaza at Bacolod, Occidental Negros 76 

A gutta-percha tree 335 

Oldest and largest gutta-percha tree known 335 

Jungle beyond botanical gardens at Penang 335 

Malay boy climbing gutta-percha tree to gather fruit 335 

A gutta-percha tree felled and ringed by natives 336 

Foot of gutta-percha tree, showing absence of buttresses 336 

Foot of gutta-percha tree, showing buttresses 336 

Branch of true gutta-percha tree 336 

Front and back of leaves of gutta percha tree 338 

Fronts and backs of young leaves of gutta-percha trees 338 

Fruit of true gutta-percha tree 338 

Nursery of inferior gutta-percha trees T 338 

Leaves and fruit of inferior gutta-percha tree 340 

Young gutta-percha seedlings ready for transplanting 340 

Young seedling 340 

Method of marcottage on gutta-percha and rubber trees 340 

Freshly tapped gutta-percha tree of the best variety 342 

Trunk of 17-year-old gutta-percha tree, showing scars from tapping in process 

of healing *. 342 

Nursery of gutta-percha trees of all ages 342 

A plantation of young gutta-percha seedlings from Borneo M2 

A freshly tapped inferior gutta-percha tree 1^4 

Branch of inferior gutta-percha tree 344 

Seedlings of gutta-percha tree from Sumatra 344 

Twin seedlings of Para rubber tree 344 

Nursery of Para rubber trees 346 

Best method known for tapping Para rubber trees 346 

Trunk and aerial roots of a giant india-rubber tree 346 

Nursery of young india-rubber trees 348 

One of best South American rubber trees 348 

Best Borneo mbber vine 348 

Branch of best Borneo rubber vine 350 

Fronts and backs of leaves of Borneo rubber vine •. 350 

Back and front of leaf of best Borneo rubber vine 350 

Stem of inferior rubber vine, showing scars of tapping 352 

Inferior rubber vine 352 

Leaves and fruit of inferior rubber vine 352 

The illustrations in Appendix J are from photographs taken by Dr. P. L. Sher- 
man, jr. The remaining illustrations, both in the text and in the Appendices, are 
from photographs by Commissioner Worcester. 



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APPENDIX C. 
iLUMUXES OF PROVIHGIAL MEETDf 08 AHD IHTERVIEWS. 

CONTENTS OF APPENDIX C. 
Minutes of Provincial Meetings and Interviews. 

Frovince of— P»fire. 

Pampanga 11 

Pangasinan. 17 

Tarlac 28 

Bulacan... 84 

Bataan 44 

Tayabas : 49 

Marindaqne 61,188 

Romblon.. 65 

Masbate 69 

Iloilo 75,139 

Occidental Negros 76 

Zamboanga 91 

Sorigao 115 

Misamis _• 117 

Dapitan (Oomandancia) 122 

Onental Negros 124 

Antiqae. .. 136 

Capiz 142 

Oebn 151 

Bohol 158 

Leyte 162 

Samar 167 

Albay 171 

Camarines 178 

Sorsogon 185 

Batangas 193 

Manila-Morong (Rizal) 196 

Cavite 202 

NuevaEclja 212 

La Union 221 

BocosSnr 229 

Abra 240 

IlocoB Norte . 246 

Cagayan 265 

Isabels 265 

Zambales 278 

Interviews. 

Interview with Maj .O.J. Sweet, commanding officer, Jolo, P. 1 85 

Interview with marine officer in charge at Isabela, island of Basilan, and 

with certain residents of the town 86 

Interview with certain Filipino representatives of the town of Isabela, island 

of Basilan 88 

Interview with General Eobb6. Colonel Pettit and Major Morrison, Zam- 
boanga, Mindanao 88 

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10 REPORT Ot THE PHILIPPINE OOMMISSIOK. 

Page. 

Second interview with Major Morrison, Zamboanga 94 

Interview with Dato Mandi, Zamboanga 96 

Interview with certain Filipinos* Cotabato 102 

Interview with Dato Piang, Cotabato 105 

Interview with various Moro dataos, Cotabato .. _ 109 

Interview with the Gapitan Chino and other Chinos, Cotabato Ill 

Interview with Spanish residents of Cotabato 112 

Interview with certain Moro dataos, Davao, Mindanao . 118 

Interview with representatives of certain Indonesian tribes at Davao, Min- 
danao 114 

Minutes of Provincial Meetings (Alphabetically Arranged). 

Province— 

Abra 240 

Albay 171 

Antiqne - , 136 

"Batrfw^ 44 

Batangas 193 

Bohol 158 

Bolacan 84 

Cagayan 255 

Camarines 178 

Capiz 142 

Cavite 202 

Cebn 151 

Dapitan (ComandaDcia) . . : 122 

Hocos Norte 246 

Ilocos Snr 229 

lloilo 75,129 

Isabela 265 

La Union... 221 

Leyte 162 

Manila-Morong (Rizal) 196 

Marinduqne 61 

Masbate 69 

Misamis 117 

NegroB, Occidental 76 

NegroB, Oriental .. 124 

NnevaEcija 212 

Pampanga 11 

Pangasinan... 17 

Bomblon 65 

Samar 167 

Sorsogon 185 

Snrigao 115 

Tarlac - ^ 

Tayabas 49 

Zambales 278 

Zamboanga. ^i 



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United States Philippine Commission. 

minutes of proceedings. 

Public session. 

Bacolor, Province op Paicpanga, 

Febnuiry IS, 1901, 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Wright, Moses, and the presi- 
dent. 

Pursuant to its purpose to extend the provisions of the Provincial 
Government Act to those provinces of the Philippine Islands consid- 
ered sufficiently pacified for civil administration, and in compliance 
with notice previously given to the different municipalities of the 
province, the Commission met to-day with representatives of the 
province of Pampanga, for the purpose of oi^anizing a provincial 
government for that province. The convention was called to order 
by the president at 9.30 a. m., and the secretary directed to call the 
roll of the pueblos. The province was represented as follows : 

Pneblo de Angelee: 

Alcalde. _. D. Florentine Pamintaan. 

Pneblo de Arayat: 

Sindico - D. Jngtino Sevilla. 

Consejales D. Leon A. Santos. 

D. Casimiro Medina. 
D. Tomas Medina. 
D. Antonio Velasqnez. 
D. Engenio Amnrao. 

Pneblo de Bacolor: 

Alcalde D. Ceferino Joven. 

Teniente alcalde D. Estanislao Santos. 

ConoejaleB D. Pedro de Jesns. 

D. Jose L. Leon. 

D. Pedro Liongson. 

D. Cedlio Lacsamana. 

D. Emiliano Joven. 

D. Pedro Malix. 

D. Macario Sapmo. 

D. Amado Gntierrez. 
Pneblo de Betis: 

Alcalde D. Lorenzo Pecson. 

Pneblo de Floridablanca: 

Alcalde D. Gtoronimo Dino. 

Secretario D. Andres Ramirez. 

Jnezdepaz D, Leon Gutierrez. 

Pneblo de Gnagna: 

Alcalde : D. Martin Gtonzales. 

Concejales D. Exeqniel Valdez. 

D. Vicente Tnason. 
Pueblo de Lubao: 

Alcalde D. Segundo Velasco. 

Sindico... D. JoseSalgado. 

Concejales D. AntonioDnvao. 

D. Guillermo Turla. 
Pueblo de Mabalacat: 

Teniente alcalde D. Manuel de la Cruz. 

Concejales D. Leoncio Castro. 

D. Francisco Soto. 



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12 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Pneblo de Macabebe: 

Alcalde D. Mariano Enriqnez. 

Ck)noejales D. Mariano Sabada 

Pneblo de Magalang: 

Alcalde D. Daniel Lacson. 

Secretario D. Joan Gosio. 

Concejalee D. Julian Macaoinlac 

D. Joan de los Sfmtos. 
D. Cipriano Vega. 
D. Anacleto PmUa. 
Pneblo de Mexico: 

Alcalde.. D. Antonio Panlillo. 

Sindico _ _ D. Mariano Cnnanan^ 

Pneblo de Porac: 

Alcalde D. Vicente Toleda 

Sindico .D. Joee Leon. 

Concejal D. Mateo Alson. 

Pneblo de San Fernando: 

Concejal.. D. Mariano Torres. 

Pneblo de San Simon: 

Alcalde D. Macriode los Santos. 

Pneblo de Santa Ana: 

Alcalde D. Antonio Dizon. 

Teniente alcalde D. Antonio Qambao. 

Pneblo de Santa Rita: 

Alcalde D. Jnan Sazon. 

Tesorero D. Ariston Maclalac. 

Jnezdepaz. ..D. Norberto de Miranda. 

Pneblo de Saxmoan: 

Alcalde D. Segnndo Mercado. 

Sindico D. Monico Mercado. 

The pueblos Candaba, Santo Tomas, Apalit, San Luis, and San 
Miguel were not represented. 

The president then addressed the convention and, after congratu- 
lating the province upon having so many intelligent and educated 
men who were willing to take part in the government of the munici- 
palities, stated that the object of the Commission in coming to Bacolor 
was the establishment of provincial government for the province of 
Pampanga. To do this, two steps were necessary : First, to pass a law 
applying the general provincial law already passed to the province; 
and, second, the appointment of officers who were to conduct the pro- 
vincial government. The three steps in the establishment of popular 
civil government in the islands were pointed out, i. e., the establish- 
ment of the municipalities, the establishment of the provincial gov- 
ernments, and the establishment of the central civil government. 
Attention was called to the Municipal Code lately adopt^, which, by 
force of its own terms, becomes applicable on the 1st of April to 
every town organized under General Orders, No. 40. This code does 
not change the general principles of organization, but is more elabo- 
rate, and provides a different system of taxation. It requires no new 
election until next year. 

The president then stated the f unctiops which it was the intention 
of the Commission to apportion to the various governments. The 
municipalities were to be entirely self-governing, electing all their 
officers. As to the provincial government, it was to be employed for 
two puri)oses : First, the collection of taxes through a provincial treas- 
urer, and, second, for internal improvements. It would also have a 
function in the supervision of the police of the province, and of the 
conduct of the municipalities. The provincial treasurer is the tax 
collector for the municipality, for the province, and for the central 
government. The Municipal Code provides for an ad valorem land 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 13 

tax, based upon the value of the land. The maximum tax which can 
be levied is one-half of 1 per cent. The municipality, however, is 
required to apply an amount equal to one-half this maximum to educa- 
tion. Under the provincial government the maximum tax allowed is 
three-eighths of 1 per cent. At least one-third of the amount of such 
maximum tax must be applied to the construction of roads. Ui)on the 
application of the land tax it is expected to abolish nearly all the 
internal-revenue taxes. The land tax, however, does not become effect- 
ive until March, 1902, owing to the fact that landowners have been 
unable to cultivate their property because of the war. Until the land 
tax is applied, the internal-revenue tax will be continued, one-half of 
the collections to be applied to the pueblos where collected, one-fourth 
to the provincial government, and the other one-fourth to the central 
government, after defraying the cost of collection. 

The provincial government consists of five officers, governor, sec- 
retary, treasurer, supervisor, and fiscal. The governor is the chief 
executive and has control of the police of the province. . He may take 
the police of one town to use in another in an emergency. He is 
required to visit all the municipalities in the province every six months, 
and is charged with the duty of receiving complaints as to the conduct 
of the municipalities. He is the executive officer of the court of first 
instance. 

The provincial secretary is what his name implies. The provincial 
treasurer collects all the taxes and distributes them to the munici- 
palities, to the provincial treasury, and, if there be a central govern- 
ment, to the central treasury. He does not take the tax out of the 
pueblos, but when collected leaves in the town the portion to which it 
is entitled. He is required to give a bond equal to the largest amount 
of money which he is likely to have on hand at any one time. The 
provincial supervisor has charge of the roads, bridges, and the internal 
improvements of the province, and must be a civil engineer and sur- 
veyor. The provincial fiscal is charged with the duty of prosecuting 
all crimes in the province, and is also charged with giving legal advice 
to every municipality upon request. When the interest of the prov- 
ince and that of a municipality conflicts, the latter must secure its 
own lawyer. 

The governing bodj^ is composed of the provincial governor, the 
provincial treasurer, and the provincial supervisor. The provincial 
secretary is the secretary of this board. This board levies all taxes, 
orders improvements on the recommendation of the sui)ervisor, and 
exercises generally the limited government of the province. 

The governor is to be elected by the councilors of the province, but 
the election is not to take place until next February. The offices of 
the provincial secretary, provincial treasurer, and provincial super- 
visor are to be filled by appointment of the commission. After March 
1, 1902, however, these positions will be filled under the civil-service 
law. The provincial fiscal is to be appointed without reference to the 
civil-service act. 

The bill now to be considered, and upon which the comment of the 
public is invited, is one which makes the general provincial law just 
explained applicable to the province of Pampanga. 

No salaries are fixed by the general provincial law, as it was believed 
these should vary according to the size and resources of the province. 

As to section 4 of the proposed bill, it provides for the appointment 
of an engineer or engineers for the provinces of Pampanga and Tarlac 
to act in conjunction with the Manila and Dagupan Railway, looking 



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14 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

to preventing the disastrous floods which result from the overflow of 
the Rio Grande de Pampangaand the river Tarlac. The Commission 
has received petitions with reference to these floods, but such investi- 
gations as it has made lead to the belief that it will be necessary to 
make very expensive improvements in order to obviate the trouble. 

The president further stated that it was probable that, until the 
land tax was applied, the province would not produce sufficient reve- 
nue to pay the expense of the provincial government, and that the 
central treasury would have to make up the deficit. This would call 
upon the provincial government for great economy in expenditure, 
which it was hoped it would exercise. 

The bill was then read for a third time in Spanish by the secretary, 
and comment by the public, either upon the provincial bill or upon 
the bill applying such law to the province, was earnestly in\ited. 

Sefior Ceferino Joven, presidente of Bacolor, asked whether the 
general provincial law could be amended at this time. He was told 
that this could be done by amending the proposed bill, making inap- 
plicable to Pampanga objectionable features of the provincial law. 
He thought section 4 of the provincial law should provide for certify- 
ing to the Commission three candidates for governor instead of one as 
provided. This would give greater latitude of choice to the Commis- 
sion. It was pointed out to him that where the i)eople select one man 
that means an election by them, whereas should they select three the 
election would be left to the Commission. It was the idea of the 
speakerthat the Commission could of its own motion reject any person 
elected by the municipalities. It being explained to him that the 
Commission could not do this, that it could only decline to confirm 
the election where the party was legally disqualified or disloyal, the 
proposed amendment was withdrawn. 

Being asked as to what salaries should be paid, Sefior Joven thought 
the governor should get $3,300 Mexican per annum. Sefior Floren- 
tine Pamintuan, alcalde of Angeles, thought the governor should 
receive $5,000 Mexican per annum, basing this on the present 
increased cost of living and the expense incident to maintaining the 
office with proper dignity. He was asked if he did not consider the 
honor of the office some compensation, and was told that in the United 
States the governors frequently received less than their subordinates. 
It was explained also that at this time, when the revenues of the 
province were necessarily limited, the salaries should be kept as low 
as possible. When the land tax was put in operation and conditions 
bettered, salaries might be raised. Both speakers expressed them- 
selves as entirely willing to abide by the decision of the Commission. 

General Grant suggested an amendment to section 4, so as to include 
the Bamban River as one of the rivers, the question of whose over- 
flow should be examined by the engineers. The amendment was 
accepted. 

General Grant also complimented highly the intelligence and fidel- 
ity of the gentlemen present, stating that he had always found their 
recommendations sound. 

Sefior Monico Mercado, sindico of Saxmoan, suggested that section 
14 of the provincial law be changed so as to permit the provincial 
board of Pampanga to raise funds for necessary public improvements 
by the issue of bands. He pointed out that provincial buildings 
would be immediately necessary, while there were no funds to build 
them. He believed the bonds could be placed among the people of 
the province. It was pointed out that the islands were still under 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 15 

military government, and that the Commission hesitated at this time 
to enter upon a policy of borrowing money. It was suggested that 
the better plan would probably be to borrow money from the central 
government, with an agreement to pay when th^ taxes increased. 
The system of issuing local bonds in the States has not been a very 
successful one. The plan suggested satisfied the speaker. 

He inquired as to the right of the province to cut down government 
timber for schools, etc. He was told that this permission would be 
granted on application to the forestry bureau; if not, the Commission 
would grant it. 

Seilor Mariano Torres, concejal of San Fernando, inquired whether 
lands which were left fallow because the ownens did not have money 
to cultivate them, as well as lands geologically barren, would be sub- 
ject to the land tax. He was told they would. It was pointed out, 
however, that lands which,' by reason of the war had not harvested a 
crop by March, 1902, when the land tax became effective, would be 
given a year's extension, while lands which were geologically barren 
would be worth nothing, and consequently would pay little or no tax; 
that a land tax would to an incentive to cultivation, and if the owner 
did not have the money he could sell to those who had, or sell a por- 
tion and cultivate the remainder. The president stated that it was 
the intention of the government to recommend the inauguration of a 
system of land banks, which would enable the people to borrow suffi- 
cient money to cultivate their lands. The speaker thought this a 
good idea. 

He inquired concerning the appropriation made by the Commission 
for building roads, and asked whether it could be made available in 
Pampanga. He was told that this was entirely in the hands of the 
military governor, and that application should be made to him through 
General Grant, the military commander of the district. 

Seiior Pedro Liongson, concejal of Bacolor, suggested that section 
12 of the general provincial bill, providing that the provincial board 
should consist of the provincial governor, treasurer, and supervisor, 
be changed to include five more members to be selected by the coun- 
cilors of the municipalities. He did not believe the board as consti- 
tuted would have a sufficient local knowledge of the conditions in the 
province. It was pointed out to him that the governor was elected by 
the municipalities, and that they would be interested in keeping him 
advised of their needs; and, furthermore, that he was required to visit 
the pueblos of the province once every six months. 

The board, being an administrative one, was likely to meet every 
day, which would to impossible if increased as suggested, without incur- 
ring great expense. The speaker said it was not his intention that 
these five additional memtors should receive pay. He was told that 
in that event their services would be valueless. The president sug- 
gested that in lieu of the proposition of the speaker an amendment 
to made providing for a quarterly meeting of all the presidentes of the 
province at the capital, to pass such resolutions and make such peti- 
tions to the provincial board as they might desire. The speaker said 
he would to satisfied with this, if his suggestion could not be accepted. 

He thought the governor should receive $3,600, Mexican, per year. 

SefXor Pedro Layon, citizen of Bacolor, thought provision should to 
made in the provincial law for an officer charged with looking after 
tto sanitary conditions of the province. He was told that in the 
municipal code provision was made for the hygiene of the pueblo 
through the municipal council and its ordinances. He was told that 



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16 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

it was the intention of the Commission to pass a general law creating 
a department of public health nnder the general government. 
The Commission then adjourned until 2.30 p. m. 

Afternoon session. 

The meeting was called to order by the president at 2.30. There 
being no further public discussion, the Commission adjourned until 
3.30 to consider the amendments proposed and the question of appoint- 
ments to the provincial offices. Upon reassembling, the following 
amendments were proposed by the president to the bill: 

Insert after word "year," last word in second line of section 2, the 
words "mopey of the United States." 

Insert after words "provincial governor" the words and figures 
"one thousand six hundred dollars ($1,600)." 

After "provincial secretary," "one thousand dollars ($1,000)." 

After "provincial treasurer," the words and figures "two thousand 
four hundred dollars ($2,400)." 

After "provincial supervisor," the words and figures "one thou- 
sand eight hundred dollars ($1,800)." 

After "provincial fiscal," the words and figures "one thousand 
three hundred and fifty dollars ($1,350)." 

Insert as amount of bond in section 3 "ten thousand dollars 
($10,000)." 

Amend section 3 by adding at the end thereof the following: 

If npon the request of the commission the military governor shall detail any 
military officer to fill a provincial office, no bond sh^ll be required of him and no 
salary shall be paid him until after Jniy 1, 1901. 

Amend section 4 by adding in the eighth line, after the words 
"Tarlac River," the words "the Bamban River." 
Insert as section 5 of the bill the following: 

Sec. 5. The presidentes or alcaldes of the municipalities of the province shall 
meet on the third Monday in January, April, July, and October to consider 
improvements needed in the province and for the provincial government, and to 
make recommendations to the provincial board. The convention shall be called 
together by the provincial secretary and shall elect a chairman for each quarter's 
session. The provincial secretary shall act as secretary of the convention and 
shall certify its recommendations to the provincial board. 

Sections 5 and 6 are renumbered, being 6 and 7, respectively. 

In explanation of the salaries proposed, the president discussed at 
some length the duties of the respective provincial officers. It was 
pointed out that the position of provincial treasurer was the most 
important of the province, as it was his duty to collect the taxes for 
the municipalities, for the province, and for the central government, 
and have general sui)ervision over the matter of land assessment. A 
bond was also required of him, which would likely have to be increased, 
possibly to $30,000 or $40,000. The provincial supervisor was required 
to be a civil engineer and surveyor, and his salary should consequently 
be more than the others, but less than that of the treasurer. The 
amendment to section 3 was proposed, so that if a military officer was 
detailed to any position he would draw no salary from the provincial 
government during such detail, nor would any bond be required of 
him, military discipline in such cases having been found sufficient. 
As to the provincial secretary, he was allowed fees for copies of rec- 
ords in addition to his salary. 

The amendments proposed were adopted. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 17 

The question then being upon the passage of the bill as amended, 
the seci-etary was directed to call the roll. The bill was passed by 
the unanimous vote of the commissioners present. 

The president then announced the following-named persons as the 
appointees of the Commission for the various provincial offices: Cefe- 
rino Joven, provincial governor; Mariano Cunanan, provincial secre- 
tary; William M. Croodale, provincial treasurer; Lawrence P. Butler, 
provincial supervisor; Juan Garcia, provincial fiscal. 

The president stated that in order to complete the organization of 
the province it would be necessary for these oflScials to take the oath 
of office and receive their commissions in Manila, and they were 
requested to appear before the Commission on February 21, at 10 
a. m., for that purpose. 

Before the adjournment of the session, General Grant addressed 
the Commission and the assembly. He referred to his long residence 
in the province and the satisfaction it had afforded him to have Pam- 
panga selected as the first province to receive provincial government. 
He assured the i>eople of his continued interest in their welfare, and 
thanked them for the kindness they had invariably extended him 
and the cooperation which they had lent in the work of pacification. 

The president of the commission also expressed his gratitude to 
the people for the warmth of the reception accorded the Commission 
in the provice of Pampanga. He said that the Commission would 
regard this day and this visit as an event as important and historical 
in the lives of its members as he trusted it might be in the lives of 
the citizens of Pampanga. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fbrgusson, Secretary. 

United States Philippine Commission. 

minutes op proceedings. 

Province of Pangasinan, 
Dagupauy February 15, 1901, 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Wright, Moses, and the presi- 
dent. 

The session was called to order at 9.30 a. m., and the president and 
members of the commission introduced to the public by G^n. J. H. 
Smith, military officer in command of the district. Sefior Toribio 
Jovellanes, alcalde of Dagupan, responded, expressing his pleasure 
and appreciation at having the Commission with them, and that they 
hoped through the government to be established to secure what they 
had always desired, to wit, peace and progress. 

The president explained briefly the sources from which the Com- 
mission derived its authority, and its particular purposes with regard 
to the province of Pangasinan. The roll was then called of the pueblos 
of the province by the secretary. The province was represented as 
follows: 

Paeblo de Malasiqni: 

Preddente local D. Fabian Montemayor. 

Tesorero D. Federico Macarana. 

Concejales D. Vicente Camacho. 

D. Augnstin Montemayor. 
D. Baperto Velasco. 
P c 1901— PT 2 -2 



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18 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Pueblo de Malasiqni —Continued. 

Concsjales . D. JoeeSieon. 

D. Hilario Mamaril. 

D. Domingo Masifflac. 

D. Miguel Alyereda. 

D. Pedro Perez. 

D. Pedro Maraig. 
Pueblo de Villanueya: 

Presidente local D. Domingo Gelasio. 

OoncejaleB D. Toribio Maling. 

D. Leon Masino. 

D. Maximo Salamero. 

D. Cosme Valdes. 

D. Mariano Latorre. 

D. Domingo Sebastian. 

D. Roque Agdoma. 

Maestro de Eiscuela ...D. Mamerto Eamos. 

Pueblo de Lingayen: 

Preeidente local D. Catalino Palisoc. 

Conce jales D. Lope Silos. 

D. Ceasreo Magsano. 

D. Urbano de Gu man. 

D. Francisco Estrada. 

D. Sisenando Jimenez. 

D. AlvaroViray. 

D. Alejandro Reyes. 
Pueblo de San Isidro: 

Vice-presidente D. Gregorio Estrada. 

Tesorero D. J ose Paras . 

Sindico D. Benedict o Rico. 

D. Feliciano Avalos. 

D. Gregorio Velasco. 

D. Domingo Zacarias. 

D, Domingo Ferrer. 

D. Mariano Estrada. 

D. Gil Sevidal. 

Secretario D. Francisco Rosario. 

Pueblo de Sual: 

Preeidente local D. Mariano Tactaquin. 

Sindico D. JoeeRamoran. 

Secretario D. Venancio Padilla 

Concejales D. Sixto Alabayani 

D. Antonio Perez. 

D. Zacarias Verzosa 

D. Pedro Veloso. 

D. Pio Estrada. 

D. £}meterio Fernandez. 
Pueblo de Salasa: 

Preeidente local D. Adriano Abad. 

Veoinos prindpales D. Noberto Espino. 

D. Ciriio Espino. 

D. Antonio de Mesa. 

D. Benigno Munda. 

D. Cayetano Munoz. 

Secretario D. Vicente Guevara. 

Cabezas de barangay D. Bnenayentura de la Vega 

D Domingo Bngayon. 

D. Felisardo Cubangon. 

D. Juan Rosaiio. 

D. Vicente Rosario. 

D. Gregorio Frias. 

D. Pedro Ga.icia. 

D. Vicente Samson. 

D. Salvador Cayabyab. 

D. Florentine Ver/.oea. 

D. Melchor de Guzman. 

D. Pedro Gagampan. 

D. Aquilino Sanchez. 

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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 19 

Pneblo de Sal asa— Continued. 

Cabezas de barangay D. Joaqnin Padlan. 

D. PdtHgio Alano. 

D. Filomeno Tamondon. 

D. Domingo Sanchez. 

D. Vicente Boflales. 

D. Vicente Glaadio. 

D. Tomas Banlatao. 

D. Felisardo Prado. 

D. Bngenio Doria. 

D. Fnuiciaco Ferrer. 

D. Vicente Castro. 

D. Jose Posada. 

D. Domingo Ergnisa. 

D. Atanasio Austria. 

D. Vicente Bautista. 

D. JnanFrias. 

D. Juliano Ergnisa. 

D. Ghregorio Valdes. 

D. Tomas Sarmiento. 

D. Benito Benitez. 

D. Lauro Soriano. 

D. Aqnilino Banaag. 

D. Pastor Ferrer. 

D. Fansto Ballejos. 

D. Inocendo Valdes. 

D. Pedro Bandong. 

D. Domingo Posada. 

D. Ruperto Padlan. 

D. Tomas Ferrer. 
PuebJo de Bayambang: 

Presidente local D. Lanreano Roldan. 

Vice-presidente D. Dimas de Guzman. 

Concejales D. Bernardo Galson. 

D. CoemeJunio. 

D. Flaviano Bautista. 

D. Fabian Iglesias. 

D. Francisco Iglesias. 

D. Agapito Paffsulingan. 

D. Joaquin Valdes. 

D. Vivencio Gloria. 

D. Andres Gutierrez. 
Vecinos principales D. Fernando Sison. 

D. Juan Fajardo. 

D. Felipe Yamo. 

D. Mateo Manasag. 
Pueblo de Binmalav: 

Presidente local D. Leocadio de Guzman. 

Vice-presidente D. Florentinn Soriana 

Secretario D. Saturnine Zarate. 

Concejales D. Quirino Fernandas. 

D. Marcelo Manauis. 

D. Miguel Doria. 

D. Anselmo Ramos. 

D. Pastor Estrella 

D. Sabino Perez. 

D. Juan Garcia. 

D. Roberto Roeario. 

D. Reymundo Flores. 
Pueblo de Dagupan: 

Alcalde D. ToribioJovellanos. 

Teniente alcaide D. Fabian Villamil. 

Sindioo D. Juan Villamil. 

Tesorero D. Sinforoso Zarate. 

Secretario D. Macario Legaspi. 

Concejales , D. Mariano Nable. 

D. Macario Fabila. 

P, JuanGalvan. 



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20 



REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Poeblo de Dagai>an— Continued. 

Concejales D. Domingo Feman. 

D. Mariano LanreL 

D. Modesto Cotia. 

D. Teodoro VillamiL 

D. Antonio Fernandez. 

D. Enlalio Reyes. 
Pneblo de Calasiao: 

Alcalde D. Andres Domagas. 

Teni^ite alcalde D. Vicente Gntierre -. 

Sindico D. Florentino C emente. 

Tesorero D. Jnan Estrada. 

Secretario D. Angnstin Ruiz. 

Ck>nGejalee D. VictorianoOneyara. 

D. Anreliano Domages. 

D. Joan Aolencia. 

D. Ariston Qabriana. 

D. Isidro Ruiz. 

D. Vicente Corpns. 
Del Partido Federal D. Joaooin Forteza. 

D. Mariano Jovellanos. 

D. Attanasio Joyellanos. 

D. Hngo Estrada. 

D. Jose Domagas. 

D. Catalino Estrada. 
Pneblo de San Carlos: 

Presidente.. . D. Macario Posada. 

Vice-presideDte D. Domingo Magalit 

Pneblo de Ag^ilar 

Presidente local D. Antonio de Qozman. 

Vice-presiden te D. Satnmino Salatan. 

Concejalee D. Marcelino Samnco. 

D. Esteban Gutierrez. 

D. Catalino Fernandez. 

D. Domingo Ripalda. 

D. Anastacio Arrieta. 

D. Keymnndo Pantaleon. 
Pneblo de Mangatarem: 

Vice-presidente local D. Jose Balenznela. 

Concejales D. Lorenzo Venanilla. 

D. Jose Sorianc 

D. Cipriano Jazmin. 

D. Tranqnilino Gonzales. 

D. Pablo CnU5. 

D. Jnan Artatis. 

D. Alberto Soriano. 

D. Vincente Banaga. 

D. Jnan Bantista. 

D. Francisco Garcia. 

D. Cnstodio PiementaL 

D. Pabloe Prado. 

D. Tomas Aqnino. 

D. Jose Agtalao Cleto. 

D. Jose Mariveles. 

D. Joaonin Gntierre '.. 

D. Apolinario Acosta. 
Vecinos principales D. Antonio Ventanilla. 

D. Cecilio Sebastian. 

D. Marinao Sebastian. 

D. Melchor Sebastian. 

D. Antonio Velasquez Macam. 
Pneblo de Urbiztondo: 

Presidente local D. Fmctuoso Distro. 

Concejales D. Julian Mansa 

D. Domingo de Vera. 

D. Mariano Macarag. 

D. Eugenic Gutierrez. 

D. Antonio Ckunaoho. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 21 

Pneblo de Urbiztondo— Continned. 

Conoejales D. Ghispar Layaso. 

D. Enrico Velasquez. 

D. Melchor Calugay. 

D. Engenio Soriano. 

D. Martin Palisoc. 

D. HigidoFrias. 

D. Jnan Elscanio. 

D. Hermenegildo Baisic. 

D. Sebastian Estrada. 

D. Dionisio Ferrer. 

D. Tranqnilino Balnncatin. 

D. Domingo Salomon. 
Pneblo de Bantista: 

Presidente local D. Ramon Reynado. 

Secretario. D. Agnstin Velasqnez. 

Ck>ncejal . . D. SixtodePeralta. 

Presidente del P. Federal D. Honorio Acosta. 

Vocales D. Hon6ratoCarongay. 

D. Marciano Fajardo. 
Pneblo de Alcala: 

Presidente local D. Clemente Castaneda. 

Conoejal D. EmigdioEspiritn. 

Vecinos principalee D. Pedro Espiritn. 

D. Cocorro Keyes. 
Pneblo de Mangaldan: 

Presidente local D. Vincente Magno. 

Ck>ncejale6 D. Qabriel Saro&la. 

D. Qnirico Laluay. 

D. Geronimo Fernandez. 

D. Milano Costes. 

D. TomasSabala. 
Pneblo de San Jacinto: 

Presidente local D. SimonPasana. 

Concejales . D. Na ario Soriano. 

D. Conrado de Quzman. 

D. Mariano Mangono. 

D. Domingo Barroso. 

D. Rosendo Soriano. 

D. Jose Mangono. 

D. ^Lignel Castro. 

D. Edilberto Bantista. 

D. Pedro Bantista. 

D. Simon Caliatan. 

D. Mamerto Austria. 

D. Pablo Tiong. 

D. Vicente Carino. 

D. Agnstin Bersilio. 

D. Santiago Magno. 

D. Pedro V aides. 

D. Manuel Garcia. 

D. Ignado banta Maria. 

D. ^yerio Tambanan. 

D. Domingo Garcia. 

D. Vicente Reyes. 

D. Jacinto de Atiuino. 

D. Mariano Ordona. 
Pueblo de Binalonan: 

Presidente local D. Silvestre Malong. 

Cabezas de barangay D. Alejandro R. Mendoza. 

D. Ruperto Costes. 

D. Marcelino Nensca. 

D. Crispulo Esqneja. 

D. Higinio Verseles. 

D. Ramon Gnico. 

D. Angelo Ganzon. 

D. Jnan Gnico. 

D. Comelio Sarceda. 



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22 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Pueblo de Binalonan— Oontinned. 

Cabezas de baraagay D. Eosebio Vinloan. 

D. Jose Gomez. 

D. Joaquin Gaspellan. 

D. Julian Natividad. 

D. Leandro Sandoval. 

D. Pedro Sandoval. 

D. Domingo Fajardo. 

D. Gregono Macarag. 

D. Juan J. Moran. 

D. Anselmo Gomez 

D. Baldomero Alvear. 

D. Marcial Ventura. 

D. Pastor Sison 

D. Antonio Palisco. 

D. Epifanio Quintos. 
Pneblo de Asingan: 

Presidente D. Leandro Soloria. 

Concejales D. Sixto Abalain. 

D. Domingo Dizon. 

D. Jose Fernandez. 

D. Aureo Zaragosa. 

D. Gregorio Benito. 

D. Celestino de la Vega. 

D. Juan Divina. 

D. Felix do Orono. 

D. Pablo Parinaa. 

D. Leonardo Paulino. 

D. Jacinto Elegado. 

D. Florentino Licon. 

D. Esteban Aguilar. 

D. Basilio Ignacio. 

D. Paulo \ela8co. 

D. Tomas Apellido. 

D. Eulogio Mico. 

D. Elias Soberan. 
Pueblo de Tayug: 

Presidente D. Vistor R. Rivera. 

Secretario D. Antonio Flor Matn. 

Concejales D. Biarcelino Alvereda. 

0. Andres Rubio. 

D, Gregorio Malinit. 

D. Filomeno Deoferio. 
Vecinos principales D. Jose Cavestany. 

D. Domingo Patojo 

D. MariHuo Drapiza. 

D. Antonio J. Paroni. 

D. Simeon Cagadan. 

D. Ciriaco Malong. 

D. JoseAcosta. 
Pneblo de Santa Maria: 

Presidente D. Pedro Padilla. 

Secretario ..D. Patricio Lamagna. 

Cabezas de barangay D. Pantaleon Agpaoa. 

D. Pantaleon Ordonez. 

D. Leoncio Andrada. 

D. Mariano de Guzman. 

D. Pedro Ancheta. 

D. Uatalino Nachor. 

D. Engenio Monar. 

D. Pedro Pascua. 

D. Liberto Adriano. 

D. Juan Pascua. 

D. Inocencio Elarde. 
Pueblo de San Nicolas: 

Vice-presideute D. Lucas Mejia. 

Secretario... D. Lamberto Mejia. 

Concejales D. Bartolome Seriguina. 



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REPORT OF THK PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 23 

Pueblo de San Nicolas— Continued. 

Concejales D. Qnirino de Guzman. 

D. Calizto Serignina. 
Pueblo de San Manuel: 

Preeidente D. Francisco Cerezo. 

Teeorero D. Luciano Bern ludez. 

Concejal D. Roberto Paguyo. 

Vecinos principales — D. Potenciano Fernandez. 

D. Erlberto Villalon. 
Pueblo de Villasis: 

Preeidente D. Ramon Olandaya. 

Secretario D. Mariano Ordonez. 

Pueblo de San Fabian: 

Preeidente D. Inigo Dispo. 

Vioe-preeidente D. Juan Ulanday. 

Secretario D. MarcelinoErfe. 

Concejales. . .D. Juan Pinlac. 

D. Nicolas Roca. 

D. Miguel Roca. 

D. Elias Paterina. 

D. JoeeSevidad. 

D. Mateo Cacapit. 

D. Satumino Ungria. 

D. Juan Ringor. 

D. SixtoTerre. 

D. Mariano Gheneris. 
Pueblo de Pozorrubio: 

Concejales D. Lucio Valenzuela. 

D. Victorio Pagat 

D. Felipe Salcedo. 

D. Protasio Valenzuela. 

D. Reyuundo Magno. 

D. Eustaquio Magno. 

D. Domingo Narot. 

Vecino principal D. Felipe Salcedf>. 

Pueblo de Sto. Tomas: 

Ex-Secretario de la Presidencia D. Ignacio La More.a. 

Pueblo de Urdaneta: 

Presidente D. Santiago Guevara. 

Concejales D. Vlentin Ambrisio. 

D. Ciriaco Eetanugtog. 
Pueblo de Santa Barbara: 

Presidente D. Vicente Bautista. 

Vioe-Presidente D. Aniceto de Ocompo. 

Secretario D. Alejandro Garcia. 

Concejales D. Mauricio CamiK). 

D. Miguel Pamuceno. 
Pueblo de Alava: 

Presidente... D. Santiago Espedido. 

Vice- Presidente D. Vistor Rodriguez. 

Secretario ... D. Mariano Torres. 

Concejales D. Toribio Torres. 

D. Domingo Perado. 

D. Macario Lecayo. 

D. Lucas Lagmay. 

D. Liberto Garcia. 

D. Pablo Lumagui. 

D. Juan Marsina. 

It was also brought to the attention of the Commission that repre- 
sentatives from the pueblos of Umingan, Rosales, San Quintin, and 
Balungao, which are now a portion of the province of Nueva Ecija, 
were in attendance to present a petition to be incorporated with the 
province of Pangasinan. The president congratulated the people of 
Pangasinan on having representatives so much interested in their 
welfare as to attend the meeting in such numbers; that it was an 
earnest of success of popular government when the principal men of 



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24 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

each community took an active part and interest in the politics of that 
community. He thanked them in the name of the Commission for 
their time and labor in coming. 

The remainder of the morning session was occupied by the presi- 
dent in a general explanation of the provisions of the provincial law 
and of the bill making such law applicable to the province of Panga- 
sinan. These remarks were in line with those made at the meeting at 
Bacolor, a report of which has already been made. 

The president called attention to the fact that the proposed bill 
fixed the capital of the province at Lingayen instead of Dagupan, but 
that it was a matter concerning which the Commission wished to hear 
the opinion of the representatives. The Commission had selected 
Lingayen because it understood that town already contained provin- 
cial buildings which could be used by the new government. 

The Commission then adjourned until 3.16 p. m. 

Afternoon session. 

The session was called to order at 3.15 by the president. The bill 
was read 'for a third time hy the secretary and public discussion 
invited. Suggestions were particularly requested as to salaries, as to 
the location of the capital, and on the question of the incorporation 
of the four pueblos of Nueva Ecija as a part of Pangasinan. 

SeSor Toribio Jovellanos, alcalde of Dagupan, thought the governor 
should get $2,000 gold, the secretary $1,500, the treasurer $1,750, the 
supervisor $1,750, and the fiscal $1,500. 

Sefior Paulino Quesada, of Dagupan, did not think the governor 
could live honestly on $2,000 gold. 

Sefior Jovellanos thought the traveling allowance to officers should 
be $3 gold instead of $2. He favored the quarterly meeting of the 
presidentes of the province, and thought some understanding should 
be had by the provincial supervisor with the Manila and Dagupan 
Railroad in regard to inundation of lands caused by the railway 
embankments. He was told that was a question for the courts to 
investigate. 

He favored Dagupan as the capital, because it had a central loca- 
tion, was on the railroad, and saved the expense between Lingayen 
and Dagupan. He conceded that Lingayen had provincial buildings 
while Dagupan had not, but thought the buildings could be moved to 
Dagupan or sold. He could not say whether or not the citizens of 
Dagupan would erect buildings at their own expense. 

Sefior Macario Fabila, of Dagupan, thought the governor should have 
$5,000 Mexican, the secretary $3,000 to $4,000, the treasurer $2,500. 
He placed the salary of the secretary at $4,000 because he acted as 
governor during the latter's absence. He thought the supervisor 
should have $3,600 Mexican, and the fiscal $2,500. He favored the 
quarterly meeting of the presidentes. He thought that the capital 
should be in Dagupan for the reasons stated by Seilor Jovellanos. As 
to the damages caused by the railroad, he said no damage whatever 
had been done, but that immense good had resulted from the railroad ; 
it had increased the market for products and saved the people the 
long journey to Dagupan. 

Inferring to the land tax provided by the Municipal Code, he stated 
there were great tracts of land in Pangasinan which were idle for lack 
of laborers and by reason of disease which had recently destroyed the 
live stock. He thought this condition would continue for more than 
a year. 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 25 

Sefior Qaesada here took up the discussion by saying that he thought 
it would be several years before the lands could be properly worked ; 
that when land is allowed to lie fallow for a year it virtually grows 
into a forest and requires much time and great expense to clear it. 
He said this lack of labor existed even before the revolution. He did 
not favor the suggestion, however, of admitting Chinamen to assist 
in the work. It was suggested to him that by importing modern 
machinery they could make up in a measure for lack of hands. The 
scheme of agricultural banks was also explained to him. The speaker 
was assured that the purpose of the Commission was to do justice, and 
if at the expiration of the exemption alreadj'^ provided by law an 
equitiable showing could be made for a further extension of the land 
tax it would be considered. 

SeSor Lope Silos Sison, of Lingayen, concurred with the last speaker 
except as to the location of the capital. He thought this should be in 
Lingayen, for the reason that the provincial buildings were located 
there, affording ample space for the government offices. The province 
was too poor to build new buildings, while it would be impossible to 
move them. The item of expense on the part of those visiting Lin- 
gayen would be personal, and they could better afford it than the 
province. As to the salaries, he thought the governor should get 
between $5,000 and $6,000, the secretary one-third less, the treasurer 
nearly as much as the governor, and the supervisor and fiscal $5,000 
each, all in Mexican. He thought the province could afford these 
salaries. 

SeSor Paulino Quesada, who had already spoken, said that he 
wished to support the last speaker on the question of the location of 
the capital; that though he was a resident of Dagupan, he believed 
by reason of the fact that Lingayen had the provincial buildings the 
capital should be placed there, at least for the present. 

He also raised the question of a public system of irrigation, but was 
told this was treated in the municipal code. 

Seiior Nazaris del Castillo, of Lingayen, supported the remarks of 
Sefior Silos Sison as to the location of the capital. He thought the 
establishment of agricultural banks would enable the people to buy 
machinery and cultivate their lands. 

Mr. J. T. W. Ricards, of Dagupan, presented to the Commission the 
petitions of Umingan, Rosales, San Quintin, and Balungao, province of 
Nueva Ecija, to be incorporated in the province of Pangasinan. The 
reasons given were that the towns were nearer to Dagupan or Linga- 
yen than to San Isidro, the capital of Nueva Ecija, they being between 
40 and 60 miles from San Isidro and but 18 miles froiu Lingayen; 
that they were formerly a part of the province of Pangasinan; that 
the roads to San Isidro were dangerous, and at seasons of the year 
practically impassable; that they had communication with Dagupan 
by river and by railroad at all seasons; that all their business and 
social interests were identified with the province of Pangasinan ; that 
under the new criminal law all persons committing crimes, or the 
authorities who investigate such crimes, have to present themselves 
before the provincial fiscal, necessitating a number of journeys to the 
capital of the province throughout the year. 

Captain Bachelor, the commanding officer of the district including 
the towns, stated that they were all loyal to the United States and 
were thoroughly pacified. 

Sefior Basilic Suria, secretary of the town of San Quintin, spoke in 
support of the i)etitions, advancing the same reasons suggested by 
Mr. Ricard. He said all the people of the towns favored the i)etitions. 

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26 ' BEPOKT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

General Sinitli also stated that the people of those pueblos bore a 
good reputation for faithfulness, and he believed they should belong 
to Pangasinan. 

Sefiors Jovellanos, Fabila, and Quesada spoke on behalf of the 
province of Pangasinan ; that they would welcome these pueblos and 
should be glad to see them a part of Pangasinan. 

The Commission suggested it might be advisable to ascertain what 
the people of Nueva Ecija thought of the project. 

Seilor Ambrisio Rianjares Bautista, judge of first instance, Dagu- 
pan, thought the petition should not be granted. He said those 
pueblos were formerly a part of Pangasinan, but on their own petition 
had been joined to Nueva Ecija. He thought the capital should be 
retained at Dagupan and believed the buildings could be moved from 
Lingayen at a slight expense. 

The president stated that the Commission would take the matter of 
admitting the pueblos under advisement and would adjourn until 
9,30 to-morrow morning, when a discussion of the bill and the proposed 
amendments would be had by the Commission. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fergusson, Secretary, 

Moniimj session. 

Dagupan, Saturday, February 16, 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Moses, Wright, and the Presi- 
dent. 

The session was called to order by the president at 9.30 a. m. 

The president stated that, in view of the discussion of yesterday 
and the suggestions received from those who were kind enough to 
address the Commission, the following amendments were proposed to 
the bill: 

Insert in the first section, after the word "Pangasinan" in the fifth 
line, the following: 

together with the foar towns of Umingan, Rosales, San Qnintin, and Balnngao* 
which are now a part of what is known as the province of Nenva Eksija, which 
towns are now made a part of the province of Pagasinan, hereby established. 

And add to the end of section 1 : 

It shall be the duty of the provincial supervisor at once to ran the boundary 
lines of the fonr towns herein named for the purpose of establishing definitely 
and exactly the boundary lines of the province of Pangasinan, with the four 
towns included, and he shall make report of his survey to the Commission to ena- 
ble it to enact such further legislation with respect to the boundary line as may 
seem necessary. 

Amend section 2 by inserting after the woi'ds "per year" in the 
second line, the words *' money of the United States." 

Insert in section 2, afterwords "provincial governor," the words 
and figures "two thousand dollars ($2,000. 00 V," provincial secretary, 
" one thousand fvYQ hundred dollars ($1,500.00) ;" provincial treasurer, 
"two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500.00);" provincial super- 
visor, "two thousand dollars ($2,000.00);" provincial fiscal, "one 
thousand five hundred dollars ($1,500.00)." 

Amend second line in third paragraph of section 2 by striking out 
the words and figures " two dollars ($2.00^," and insert words and fig- 
ures " two dollars and fifty cents ($2.50).^' 



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BKPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 27 

Insert in section 3 as bond of provincial treasurer the words and 
figures "twenty thousand dollars ($20,000.00)." 
Amend section 3 by adding: 

If Qpon the request of the Commission the military governor shall detail any 
military officer to fill a provincial oflSce, no bond shall be required of him, and no 
salary shall be paid him until after July 1, 1901. 

Insert as section 4 of the blil the following: 

Sec. 4. The preeidentes or alcaldes of the municipalities of the province shall 
meet on the third Monday in January, April. July, and October, to consider 
improvements needed in the province and for the provincial government, and to 
ma^e recommendations to the provincial board. The convention shall be called 
together hry the provincial secretary, and shall elect a chairman for each (|uarter*s 
session. The provincial secretary shall act as secretarv of the convention, and 
shall certify its recommendations to tie proviucal boara. 

Commissioner Worcester spoke in favor of the amendments as pro- 
posed, taking them up in detail. As to the admission of the four 
towns of Nueva Ecija, he reviewed the testimony of the day before, 
from which it clearly appeared that the interests of those towns were 
identified in every way with the province of Pangasinan. While he 
did not favor precipitate action in a matter of this kind, it seemed to 
him that but one argument could be made against the admission of 
these towns, and that was that the revenue derived from them would 
accrue to Pangasinan instead of Nueva Ecija. He did not believe 
this a sufficient reason, however, to weigh against the evident well- 
being of the pueblos, and favored the amendment. 

Upon the question of salaries, the considerations advanced at the 
meeting in Bacolor as to the ratio between the salaries were amplified, 
and it was shown how the nature of the duties of the treasurer and of 
the supervisor required that they should receive higher salaries than 
the otiier officials. He wished that it was possible at this time to pay 
larger salanes in all the positions, but believed the men who accepted 
these offices should be willing to make some personal sacnfice in view 
of the small revenue derived from the province at this time. He 
favored an increase in the amount allowed for traveling expenses, 
though he felt the officers should keep them as low as possible. He 
explained why it was that a bond was not exacted from a military 
officer, the officer being subject to military discipline. It was pointed 
out that so long as these officers retained their connection with the 
Army the provincial government was at no expense for their salaries. 
The arrangement suggested would only continue, however, until July 
1, 1901, when a bond would be exacted and salaries be paid by the 
provincial government. It was pointed out that a military officer 
detailed for a provincial office became, to all intents and purposes, a 
civilian, and had no power which any civilian does not possess; that 
he exercised no military function whatever. 

He favored Lingayen as the capital of the province, at least for the 
present. If the revenues should increase and a time come when the 
people of the province desire a change, the matter would be in their 
hands. 

The other amendments were favorably commented upon and rea- 
sons given for their adoption. 

Commissioner Wright discussed the question of salaries, and ampli- 
fied the reasons given at Bacolor and those advanced by Commissioner 
Worcester. He cited the salaries paid to our Senator, Representa- 
tives, and governors as an indication that offices of the greatest honor 
did not always pay large salaries. People were, nevertheless, glad 



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28 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMI88IOK. 

to get them who would not accept, for instance, the position of tax 
collector, which sometimes paid a very high salary. Salaries, there- 
fore, were not necessarily proportioned to the dignity of the office. 

Commissioner Moses also spoke upon the question of salaries. He 
said the scheme on which the salaries were based was not an inven- 
tion of the Commission; that it was consistent with the practice of 
the United States and in contrast with that of European nations. lu 
monarchical countries it would be found that the high positions were 
paid relatively very much more than the lower ones. In the United 
States, however, the lower offices are paid very much more, relatively, 
than the high ones. It is an arrangement which results in advantage 
to the common people. In fixing the salaries in the present form the 
Commission is following that practice. 

As to the location of the capital, he thought no one would be seri- 
ously injured by leaving it where it is; moreover, at the present time 
no one could state what would be the center of the province as regards 
convenience of access within a very few years. It would certainly be 
best to make no radical change until such fact was determined. 

The amendments as proposed were unanimously adopted. 

The question then being upon the passage of the bill, the secretary 
was directed to call the roll. 

The bill was passed by the unanimous vote of the commissioners 
presents 

The president then announced the following-named persons as the 
appointees of the Commission for the various provincial officers: 
Perfecto Sison, provincial governor; Ramon Baclit, provincial secre- 
tary; Thomas H. Hardeman, provincial treasurer; Frank Maloney, 
provincial supervisor; Ignacio Villamor, provincial fiscal. 

The president stated that this concluded the official business of the 
Commission, but that the meeting had been so full of encouragement 
to the Commission in its work, so full of evidence of a determination 
on the part of the people of the province to carry forward the civil 
government now instituted, that he felt the meeting should not con- 
clude without hearing from Filipinos who have done their country 
honor. The president then called upon Don Cayetano S. Arellano, 
president of the supreme court of justice of the islands; Dr. T. H. 
Pardo de Tavera, president of the federal party, and Qen. Ambrisio 
Flores, who had accompanied the Commission upon its trip, who 
addressed the assembly upon the issues of the day. 

After a short talk by the governor-elect of the province, Perfecto 
Sison, the president, after thanking the people for their hospitable 
reception, declared the session finally adjourned. 

Attest : 

A. W. Fergusson, Secretary. 

United States Philippine Commission. 

MINUTES OF proceedings. 

Tarlac, Province op Tarlac, 

Monday y February 18^ 1901. 

Public session. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Wright, Moses, and the presi- 
dent. 

The session was called to order by the president at 2.30 p. m., and 
the purposes of the Commission in behalf of the province stated. 

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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 29 

The roll of the pueblos of the province was then called by tlie secre- 
tary. The province was represented as follows: 

Pneblo de Canoepdon: 

Pre0ideDte local D. Moises Castro. 

Vice-presidente D. Prndencio Uemandez. 

Cabezas de barangay D. Modesto Ynmal. 

D. Joan David. 

D. Alfonso Salas. 

D. Perfecto de los Reyes. 

D. Engenio Castro. 

D. Pedro Mercado. 

D. Gabino Caperas. 

D. Dionisio Aquino. 

D. Leon Qntierrez. 

D. Bernardino Angeles. 

D. Jnan GK)mez. 

D. Lndovico Ysaias. 
Vecinosprincipales... D. Damaso Timbol. 

D. Knfino Lnlo. 

D. Marciano Barrera. 

D. Fehciano Pabalan. 

D. Raymnndo Panlillo. 

D. Ricardo Pecson. 

D. Gnillermo Narciso. 

D. Tomas Timbol. 

D. Pedro Sanchez. 

D. Feliciano Mendoza. 
Paeblo de Bam ban: 

Vice-presidente D. Pantaleon Santa Ana. 

Cabeza de barangay D. Lncas Policarpio. 

Pneblo de Tarlac: 

Preeidente local D. Alfonao Remos. 

Vice-presidente D. Tomas Elspinosa. 

Teniente de policia . . . . D. Roman Santos. 

Cabezas do barangay ..D. Matias Espinosa. 

D. Jnan Cabrera. 

D. Francisco Te.eiro. 

D. Francisco Flores. 

D. Tomas Tagnmis. 

D. Hilario Racsalme. 

D. Emeterio Tabal. 

D. Mignel Tafiedo. 

D. Francisco Yandoc. 

D. Hermogenes Paras. 

D. Anselmo Andrefi. 

D. Carlos Constantino. 

D. Fermen Landingin. 

D. Gregorio Pallona. 

D. Vicente Alamo. 

D. Jnan Garcia Reyes. 

D. Jnan Nepomnceno. 

D. Juan Castafieda. 

D. Pedro Carreon. 
Pueblo de Santa Ignacia: 

Presidente local D. Isidore Alviar. 

Cabezas de barangay D. Alipio Pascasio. 

D. Antito Domingo. 

D. Agustin Pad ilia. 

D. Felix Santiago. 
Pueblo de Pura: 

Preeidente local D. Damaso Melegrito. 

Secretario D. Leoncio Fajardo. 

Cabezas de barangay D. Gabino Perez. 

D. Estanislao Perez. 

D. Francisco Gamit. 

D. Bernardo Tabaga 



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80 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Pneblo de la Pas: 

Presidente local D. Silrestre Talon. 

Secretario D. Tomas Ramos. 

Vocales.- D. Simon Emas. 

D. RoBendo Pascnal. 

D. Abraham Pascnal. 

D. Severino Rniz. 

D. Miffnel Pascnal. 

D. Lnis Snliman. 
Pneblo de Paniqni: 

Presidente focal D. Ramon Domantay. 

Secretario D. Jnan Colendrino. 

Cabezas de barangay D. Eliseo Margnes. 

D. Mariano Palanganas. 

D. JoseSalazar. 

D. Tranqnilino Ramis al. 

D. Ensebio Gleofas. 

D. Teodoro de los Reyes. 

D. Domingo Ramos. 

D. Nicolas None. 

D. Cipriano Pablo. 

D. Rnfino Obinario. 

D. Joaqnin Villaviste. 

D. Macario Andres. 

D. Evaristo Isldro. 

D. Leon Lacavanga. 
Vecinos principales D. Roberto Obsena. 

D. Gregorio Peralta. 
Pneblo de Anao: 

Presidente local- D. DomingoValeriano. 

Cabezas de barangay D. Cirilo Sandangsal. 

D. Lonis Pasacal. 

D. Felipe Dnqne. 

D. Cirilo Campos. 

D' Domingo Pagala. 

D. Alipio Basilio. 
Vecinos principales D. Jorge Aqnino. 

D. Francisco de los Sa* tos. 
Pneblo de Victoria: 

Presidente interino D. Ramon Rigor. 

Secretario D. Nazario Siunonte. 

Cabezas de barangay D. Mariano Rigor. 

D. Regino Rigor. 

D. Gandencio Bamatie. • 

D. Vicente Rigor. 

D. Gabriel Astrero. 

D. Mariano Fansto. 

D. Leon Cordoba. 

D. Vicente Lorenzo. 

D. Epifanio Tani^a. 

D. Ajigel Galindez. 

D. Esteban Febros. 

D. Antonio Tagninaldo. 

D. Simon Valdes. 

D. Dionisio Goiaon. 

D. Aleio Perez. 

D. Andres de Guzman. 

D. Gregorio Valdez. 

D. Lorenzo Valdez. 

D. Agaton Manzano. 

D. Esteban Dizon. 

D. Benigno Arabia. 
Partido Federal D. Nicolas Tamayo. 

D. Roman Cajnigan. 

D. Vicente Datn. 

D. Valentin Gamalinda. 

D. Mignel Torralba. 

D. Ceferino Rigor. 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 81 

Pueblo de O'Donnel: 

Preeidente D. Eustaquio Samaniega 

Gabezas de Barangay D. Callxtx) Celestino. 

D. Gnillermo Rivera. 
D. laaias Pamintnan. 
D. Meleeio Uban. 
Pueblo de Camiling: 

Miembro del directorio del partido Federal D. Jnan Carpio. 

Poeblo de Capas: 

Presidente local. D. Mariano Tanglao. 

Cabezas de Barangay D. Manual Balagtas. 

D. Segundo Quiflon. 
D. Romualdo Dominguez. 
Pueblo de Gterona: 

Presidente local. D. Juan Cordona. 

Cabezas de Barangay D. Andres Bamones. 

D. Alejandro Pascua. 
D. Jose Noul. 
D. Francisco Melegrilo. 
D. Basilic Yaquiten. 
D. Jose Bautista. 
D. Agustin Arciaoca. 
D. Hilario Dugay. 
D. Nicolas de Guzman. 
D. Catalino Ghranil. 
D. Domingo Meledes. 
D. Joan Tagarro Cordona. 
' D. Agustin Ramos. 

D. Macario Dupitas. 
D. Pedro Ermitano. 
D. Mateo Antonia 
Pueblo de San Clemente: 

Presidente lo( al D. Feliciano Gtonzales. 

Vice-presidente D. Francisco Espiritu. 

Cabezas deBurangay.. D. Manuel Beltran. 

D. Hilario Lucero. 
Pueblo de Moncada: 

Presidente D. Marcelino MaraviUa. 

Cabezas Consejeros D. Eulogio B. Carlos. 

D. Doroteo Merto. 

Delegados del partido Federal. D. Santiago Alumisin. 

D. Felix de Jesus. 
D. Cecilio Alumisin. 
D. Pedro At^nsio. 
D. Apolinario Enriquez. 

The pueblo de Moriones did not respond, though it was learned 
later that a delegation was in town, but did not attend the meeting 
owing to the fact that they were barefooted. 

The pueblo de Murcia was not represented. 

The president then explained in detail the provisions of the General 
Provincial Act and of the special bill applying such general law to the 
province of Tarlac. This explanation was in line with that made in 
the other provinces organized, a report of which has already been 
made. 

The bill was thfen read for the third time by the secretary and 
public discussion invited, suggestions being particularly requested 
upon the question of salaries and upon the amount of the treasurer's 
bond. The president also stated that the Commission had been 
informed that by reason of the change in the bed of the Tarlac River, 
a gi'eat deal of injury had been done to the agricultural lands of 
Pampanga and Tarlac by the overflow of the Rio Grande de la 
Pampanga; that it was the desire of Commission to make some pro- 
vision to prevent the recurrence of such floods. In the section of the 



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32 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

bill making provision for an investigation into the matter, the river 
Bamban had not been included. The Commission had learned that 
it was desirable to include this river and an amendment would be 
proposed to that effect. 

Sefior Don Juan Nepomuceno, a citizen of Tarlac, thought the gov- 
ernor should receive $1,500, the secretary $1,000, and treasurer $1,200 
gold, per annum. Being asked if he did not think the treasurer, who 
did a great deal more work than the governor, should receive a higher 
salary, he stated that the treasurer under the Spanish Government 
performed the same duties, and the ratio was as he proposed it. After 
some discussion as to the relative duties of the treasurer under the 
Spanish Government and under the present provincial law, the 
speaker persisted that he thought $1,200 sufficient, provided the treas- 
urer was furnished a house. If a house was not furnished, then more 
should be paid. He thought the supervisor should receive $1,000. 
Being told that the supervisor must be a civil engineer and surveyor, 
he raised the figure to $1,400. He believed the provincial fiscal should 
be paid $1,300. He was in accord with the idea that there should be 
a quarterly meeting of the presidentes. Question being raised as to 
whether the capital of the province should be Tarlac or some other 
town, he believed it should remain in Tarlac, which had always been 
the capital. He thought section 4, providing for a commission to 
examine the question of the overflow of the Pampanga River, a good 
one, as the lands of Tarlac had suffered severely from this cause. 

Seiior Juan Cordona, presidente of Gerona, stated that he agreed 
with the remarks of the last speaker. Being asked whether he 
believed the capital should be Tarlac rather than Gerona, he said it 
should. He thought that the salary of the treasurer, however, should 
be somewhat larger than estimated by the last speaker, owing to the 
fact that bond was required. 

Sefior Felipe de las Alas, of Gerona, thought the treasurer might be 
paid a percentage on his collections in addition to his salary. He was 
told that this plan was not favored, because it might lead to enlarg- 
ing the percentage. He thought the governor should have the high- 
est salary, because he is the official representative of the province and 
has many responsibilities. He was in favor of the quarterly meetings 
of the presidentes. He thought $2 per day sufficient for traveling 
expenses of provincial officers. 

Seiior Marcelino Maravilla, presidente of Moncada, thought the gov- 
ernor should get $1,500 and the treasurer the same. In view of the 
fact that the military authorities now occupied the government build- 
ing in Tarlac, he favored moving the capital to Gerona. It being 
pointed out to him that this building would be made available for the 
provincial government, he withdrew his proposition. 

The commission then took a recess of half, an hour to consider the 
question of amendments and appointments. Upon reassembling 
the president proposed the following amendments: 

Insert after the word **year," last word in second line of section 2, 
the words "money of the United States." 

Insert after words "provincial governor," the words and figures 
"one thousand five hundred dollars ($1,500.00);" after "provincial 
secretary," "one thousand dollars ($1,000.00);" after "provincial 
treasurer," the words and figures "one thousand eight hundred dol- 
lars ($1,800.00) ; " after "provincial 8Ui)ervisor," the words and figures 
"one thousand five hundred dollars ($1,500.00);" after "provincial 
fiscal," the words and figures "one thousand two hundred dollars 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 38 

($1,200.00);" insert as amount of bond in section 3 '^ seven thousand 
fire hundred dollars ($7,500.00)." 
Amend section 3 by adding at the end thereof the following: 

If upon request of the Gommission tiie military governor shall detail any mili- 
tary officer to fill a provincial office, no bond shall be required of him and nq salary 
shall be paid him until after July 1, 1901. 

Amend section 4 by adding in the eighth line, after the words ^' Tar- 
lac River," the words **Bamban River." 
Insert as section 5 of the bill the following: 

Sbc 5. The presidentes or alcaldes of the munioix»lities of the province shall 
meet on the third Monday in January, April, July, and October to consider 
improvements needed in the province and for the provincial government, and to 
make recommendations to the provincial board. The convention shall be called 
together by the provincial secretary, and shall elect a chairman for each quarterns 
session. The provincial secretary shall act as secretarv of the convention, and 
shall certify its recommendations to the provincial board. 

Sections 6 and 6 are renumbered, being 6 and 7, respectively. 

In presenting the amendments the president called attention to the 
fact that the provincial secretary, in addition to his salary, received 
fees for copies of provincial records. As to the treasurer, his duties 
were more important than those of any officer in the province. The 
complex nature of his duties were explained. It was pointed out that 
the difficulty in securing bond might delay the organization of the 
provincial government, unless the Commission availed itself of the 
temporary services of a military officer; in such case, the officer being 
subject to military discipline, no bond would be required. The 
amendment under section 3 was intended to cover such case. This 
would continue, however, only until July 1, 1901; after that time no 
military officer would be available for this service. 

As to the capital of the province, the sentiment of the people as 
well as that of the Commission seemed to favor its remaining at 
Tarlac. 

The amendments were unanimously adopted. 

Question then being upon the passage of the bill as amended, the 
secretary was directed to call the roll. 

The bill was passed by the unanimous vote of the commissioners 
present. 

The president then announced the following persons as appointees 
of the Commission to the various provincial offices: 

Wallis O. Clark,, provincial governor; Juan Cordona, provincial 
secretary; Henry M. Morrow, provincial treasurer; Robert S. Welsh, 
provincial supervisor; Victoriano Taiiedo, provincial fiscal. 

Referring to the appointments, the president stated that in the 
provinces of Pampanga and Pangasinan the Commission was able, as 
it would be glad to be able here, to appoint a native and a resident of 
the province to the position of governor. In coming into Tarlac, 
however, the Commission found two parties or factions which, while 
favoring the sovereignty of the United States and both in favor of 
peace, were not in harmony with each other. Such being the case, 
the Commission felt that it would be very much embarrassed in select- 
ing from one or the other of these parties an appointee for the highest 
office in the province. The Commission was not opposed to parties, as 
it believed them necessary to popular government, but as the office 
of governor was one which in a comparatively short time would be 
open to election, when it could be determined which, party was in the 
majority, tho Commission felt that in the interim it was its duty to 

p c 1901— PT 2 3 

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84 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

appoint a person whose poBition rendered him impartial as between 
the two factions. For this reason, Captain Clark, a gentleman famil- 
iar with Spanish and with the needs of the province, was appointed. 
It was pointed out that he would exercise no authority as a military 
officer while governor of the province, nor would he receive any sal- 
ary' from the province, payment being made out of the Treasury of 
the United States. It was stated to the people that in the provinces 
of Tayabas and Roinblon the citizens had requested the Commission 
to appoint an American as governor, as they desired, until election, 
to have a person in the office who was entirely impartial and familiar 
with American methods of administration. 

Captain Clark, the appointee for governor, made a short address, 
and stated that it gave him pleasure to accept the position to which 
he had been called and that he would use every effort to advance the 
interests of the province. 

The president then declared the session adjourned. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fercjuson, Secretary. 

United States Philippine Commission. 

minutes of the proceedings. 

BuLACAN, Province of Bulacan, 

Tuesday^ Febrvxiry %\ 1901. 

Public session. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 3 p. m. and the 
purpose of the meeting stated. 

The roll of the pueblos of the province was then called by the secre- 
tary. The pueblos of the province were represented as follows: 

Bulacan: 

President D. Carlos Morelos. 

Councilore D. Julian Lazo. 

D. Faustino Tansinsin. 

D. Manuel Castindig. 

D. Felipe de los Santos. 

D. Rafadl Serapio. 

D. Eugenio de Belen. 

D. Vicente Bonag. 

D. Fabian Sanson. 

D. Pablo Mateo. 
Maloloe: 

President .D. Graciano Reyes. 

CJouncilore D. Ramon Reyes. 

D. Vicente Gatinaitan. 

D. Felix Bautista. 

D. Jose Bautista. 

D. Edilberto Crisostomo. 

D. Juan Tantocn. 

D. Pedro Tanchangco. 

D. Jose Reyes. 
Paombong: 

President D. Victorio de Leon . 

Councilors . . . . , D. Florencio Pangan. 

D. Mariana Asuncion. 

D. Antonio Gonzales. 



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BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 35 

PBombong — Continned. 

Cooncilora D» Monico Valencia. 

D. PatK*ual Cionzales. 
D. Norberto Calayag. 
D. Juan Santiago. 

Hagonoy: 

President D. Marcello Eetrella. 

Councilors D. Joee R. Lopez. 

D. Maximo Angeles. 
D. Cipriano Santos. 
D. Pedro Zunera. 
D. Francinco Nabong. 
D. Gervacio Santos. 

Polo: 

President D. Nemecio Delfin Santiago. 

Councilors D. Pio Venezuela. 

D. Justo Miranda. 

D. Alejandro Anceimo. 

Obando: 

President D. Diego 8. Diego. 

Councilors D. Telaiforo Coperal. 

D. Teleeforo de Oaampo. 

D. Alejandro Pascual. 

D. Emiliano Navarrete. 

D. Elias Joaquin. 

D. Mariano Jacinto. 

D. Feliciano C. Cruz. 

Qningua: 

lS:e6ident D. Dionisio Fabian. 

Cooncilors D. Adriano Osorio. 

D. Anacleto Reyes. 

D. Marcelo Alejandrino. 

D. Ciaro de Castro. 

D. Gaspar Alba. 

D. Ignacio Gonzales. 

D. Tomas Marcelino. 

D. Roman Reyes. 

D. SeveroAlba. 

D. (Tregorio Fernandez. 

D. Simon Lucas. 

D. Vaieriano Ramos. 

D. Emiliano de la Cruz. 

D. Flaviano Romero. 

D. Eustaquio Avendano. 

D. Agustin Constantino. 

D. Domingo Acuna. 

Meycaayan: 

President D. Isaac Pilares. 

Cooncilors D. Aguedo Noriega. 

D. Manuel Tanghal. 
D. Cresencio Villacosta 
D. Pedro Francia. 
D. Telesforo Dias. 
D. Justo Carreon. 
D. Angel Gonzales. 
D. Florencio Lim Icoy. 
D. Serapio Alvariila. 
D. Crisanto Legaspi. 
D. Vicente Alavanlla. 
D. Exequiel Casas. 
D. Jacinto Erana. 
D. Jose Pena. 
D. Juan Munos. 
D. Anacleto Abad. 
D. Eulalio Oriel. 



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36 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Norzagaray: 
Preddent . . 
Cooncilors . 



Baliuag, BustoH and San Rafael : 

Pre8ident 

Councilors 



Santa Maria and San Joee: 

President 

CJouncilors 



. D. Feliciano Merced. 
.D. Santos Ramos. 

D. Damaso Pascual. 

D. Simeon Ramos. 

D. Dalmacio Cavistan. 

D. Basilio Ariego. 

D. Emeterio Correa. 

D. Mariano Palad. 

D. Ix>renzo Joaquin. 

D. Agustin Bartolome. 

D. Cirilo Celestino. 

-D. Jose Rustia. 
.D. Clemente Diaz. 
I), \jeon RuHtia. 
D. AgUHtin Tagle. 
I). Serafin L. Reyes. 
I). Justo Miranda. 
D. Vicente Ponce. 
D. Juan CarloH. 

Hermenegildo Hilario. 

Ambrosio V^alero. 

Luis Reyes. 

Jose Taluzan. 

Teodoro Infantado. 

CTal)riel Roblep. 

Vedasto Beldira. 



Bocaue: 

President . . 
Councilors . 



D. 
D. 
D. 

n. 

D. 
I). 
I). 

.D. Teo<loro Geronimo. 
.1). Ja«*e Juan Serapio. 
D. Pancual Mateo. 

Anastacio Pinzon. 

Mariano de Jesus. 

Ciriaco Leon. 

Francisco Perez. 

Angel Mataas. 

Francisco Barcial. 

Mariano Lucio. 

Maximo de Jesus. 

OedcD de Vera. 

Narciso del Rosario. 

Fausto Bijasa. 



D. 
D. 
D. 
I). 
D. 
D. 
D. 
I). 
D. 
D. 
D. 



Guiguinto: 

President . . 
Councilors . 



Pulilan: 

President . . 
Councilors . 



.1). Victor Pascual. 
.D. Francisco J. Cruz. 

1). Gregorio Lorenzo. 

D. Pedro Parulan. 

I). Zaciirias San Pedro. 

I). Francisco de (Tuzman. 

D. Doreto Felipe. 

D. Edmidio de la Cruz. 

D. Maximo de Jesun. 

D. PioGeraldez. 

D. Domingo de Ocampo. 

.D. Pedro de Fi^ueroa. 
.D. Eujzenio Catindig. 

D. Feliciano Gem/ales. 

D. Apolinario (larcia, 

D. Jose A. Jose. 

D. Cecilio Mendoza. 

.D. Lucas Dizon. 

. D. Adriano Salvador. 

D. Isaac Aguilar. 

D. Alejo Geronimo. 

D. Vicente Pineda. 

D. Fruto de la Cruz. 

D. Valentin Reyes. 



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BEPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE OOMHISSION. 37 

Angat: 

Preeident D. Mariano Santiago. 

Councilors D. Padro Aayco. 

D. Francisco V. Dioe. 

D. Tranquilino Dizon. 

D. Gregorio de la Cruz. 

D. Tomas Santos. 

D. Fulgencio Valerio. 

D. Anastacio de la Rosa. 
Calumpit: 

President D. Juan Galan^. 

Councilors D. Antonio Velasquez. 

I). Antonio Ramos. 

I). Florentino N. SEUitos. 

D. Marcos Lopez. 

D. Casimiro N. Santos. 

D. Catalino Reyes. 

D. Deogracias Macan. 

D. Cavetano Ma«apugay. 

D. Sabino Marco. 

D. Pedro Maino. 

D. Pedro Flores. 
Bigaa: 

Preeident D. Toribio Arrecenda Jose. 

Councilors D, Domingo Ocampo. 

D. Esteban Garcia. 

D. Gavino Castro. 

D. Tomas Garcia. 

D. Manuel Enriquez. 

D. Manuel Galvez. 

D. Gregorio Puato. 

I). Alipio Ochoa. 

D. Tomas A. Jose. 

D. Pantaleon A. Jose. 

D. Bernardo Mendoza. 
San Miguel de Mayumo: 

President D. Juan M. Lampio. 

Councilors D. Ciriat!o F. Sibumas. 

D. Miguel Siojo y Libonao. 
San Ildefonso: 

President D. Agustin Villacorte. 

Councilors D. Pedro Samaniego. 

D. Hilario Lizardo. 

D. Angel Violago. 
Marilao: 

President D. Leoncio del Carmen. 

Councilors D. Melecio Roxas. 

I). Eulalio Oliver. 

D. Anastacio Ferrer Aquino. 

D. Zacarias San Luis. 

D. Felipe Bernardino. 

D. Francisco Santiago. 

D. Francisco Meneses. 

D. Zacarias Roxas. 
Barasoain: 

President D. Bonifacio de Leon. 

Vice-president I). Pio Gachalian. 

Councilors 1). Rufino Valenzuela. 

1). Eugenio Alano. 

D. Jose Bernardo. 

D. Felipe Pascacio. 

D. Reymundo Bate. 

D. Pedro Manalad. 

D. Juan Bernardo. 

The pueblo of Santa Isabel was not represented. 
The president then explained to the people the provisions of the 
General Provincial Act and of the special bill applying such Act to 

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38 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE C0MMI8SI0K. 

the province of Bulacan. The various features of such bills were com- 
mented upon in detail. The bill was then read for the third time by 
the secretary and public discussion invited. 

The president stated that it had come to the attention of the Com- 
mission that a change in the location of the capital was perhaps 
desirable. He invited discussion upon this point and also upon the 
question of salaries, allowance for expenses, and bond of treasurer. 

General Grant stated that the approximate interna) revenue of the 
province would amount to between $20,000 and $30,000 per year, one- 
lourth of which would be available for the provincial government. 
General Grant also called attention to the fact that in the Pampanga 
and Tarlac bills^rovision was made to investigate the question of 
overflow of the Tarlac, Bamban, and Rio Grande rivers. He believed 
the same provision should be incorporated in the Bulacan bill, as the 
lands of this province were also subject to inundation by the Rio 
Grande de la rampanga. 

Senor Francisco Icaciano, of Bulacan, addressed the Commission, 
stating that he spoke in the name of the people present and at their 
request. As to salaries, he said they would be satisfied with those 
allowed in the province of Pampanga. He believed the resources of 
Bulacan to be as great as those of Pampanga, though the province had 
suffered more from the war. He thought the allowance of $2 a day 
for travel pay sufficient, except as applied to San Miguel de Mayumo. 
for which he thought a larger allowance should l)e made. It would 
seem the speaker did not understand the allowance was per day and 
not for the trip. He favored the quaiterly meeting of the presidentes. 
As to the capital of the province, he said the people were agreed it 
should remam in Bulacan. On inquiry it developed that there were 
no provincial buildings in Bulacan, wnile there were buildings that 
might be used as such in Malolos or Baliuag. The speaker favored 
General Grant's proposition to join Bulacan with Pampanga and Tarlac 
in the examination of the ciuestion of overflow. 

Senor Nozario Constantino, of Bigaa, thought Bulacan was as rich 
as Pampanga and ordinarily would be able to pay the same salaries, 
but owing to the ravages or the war, the death of live stock, and the 
scarcity of laborers, it might be impossible for the province at this 
time to pay the same salaries as Pampanga. The speaker then devoted 
considerable time to the gambling propensities or the inhabitants of 
Bulacan, which he pronounced the greatest evil aflHicting the province. 
Being asked to develop a plan which would better human nature in 
this regard, he said the appointment of a governor who would uphold 
the law would stop gambling. He also thought it could be stopped 
by imposing a heavy fine. He was told that the enforcement of a law 
a^inst gambling rested with the provincial fiscal and the court, but 
they could not accomplish much unless backed by public sentiment; 
that the Commission was in sympathy with him and would try to 
appoint good officers, and hoped the people would support their efforts 
to enforce the law. The speaker wished an amendment authorizing 
the governor to punish gambling as an executive function. He was 
told that the only way punishment could be had in any country where 
civil liberty prevailed was through the administration of the court, 
and the Commission was forbidden to depart from that principle. 

Sefior Felix Bautista, of Malolos, concurred with the last speaker 
in the statement that Bulacan was not in a position at this time to pay 



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RKPORT OK THK PHILIPPINE COMMIB8IOK. 39 

as large salaries as Pampanga, though he believed that under normal 
conditions it might. With respect to the capital, he thought as 
between Baliuag and Malolos the latter was preferable, being more 
accessible, while he understood there was at least one government 
building at Malolos^ He thought the allowance of ft2 a day sufficient 

Senor Ramon Icaciano, of Bulacan, believed the capital should 
remain where it was. Bulacan had been the capital from time imme- 
morial. He said there were six lawyers and three doi'.toi's, and other 
men of prominence, living in Bulacan. The town had easy access to 
Manila by water, and was but a short distance from the milroad. As 
to salaries, he did not believe any comparison could be made between 
Bulacan and Pampanga, the latter province being larger in ai'ea and 
having far greater resources. He tnought the salaries should be less 
than those in Pampanga, without prejudice to raising them as the 
revenue increased. 

Senor Jose Rostia, president of Baliuag, did not think the province 
of Bulacan had anything to envy in the province of Pampanga, unless 
it was that in Bulacan tne best land was m the hands of tne friars, and 
nobod3' knew how they got it. He was told that the Conmiission was 
not ready to investigate land titles, that being a question for the courts; 
that those lands that were valuable would pay a contribution accord- 
ing to their value. The speaker said they haa just organized in Bali- 
uag a force of fift\' policemen. He expected to pay them from the 
land tax, but as the tax was not to be applied until next year he wanted 
to know how he could pay his policemen. General Gmnt stated that 
if the speaker would comnmnicate with him he would help him out. 

The president stated that under the municipal code the land tax 
could not be applied for a year, but that half of the internal-revenue 
tax would be turned over for the use of the town. The speaker said 
that in his town the land had been very well cultivated, and as the 
people were peace-loving, they were ready to pay their land tax now 
The president said that if such was the case the Commission could, as a 
special favor, allow them to pay the land tax earlier for local purposes, 
xhe president also expi*essed his pleasure at the organization of the 
police force by the town, as he believed the most efficient method for 
disposing of the ladrones was by the people defending themselves. 

Senor Jose Lopez, of Agonoy, agreed with Senor Bautista on the 
salaiy question. He thought the appointment of an engineer to look 
into the question of inundation a good one. He thought Malolos the 
best place for the capital, because of its central location and its being 
on the railway. He thought the towns of Bai*asoain, Santa Isabel, and 
Malolos could be joined into one municipality as the provincial seat. 
He said Malolos would be much more convenient, especially in the 
rainy season, when the road from Guiguinto to Baliuag was almost 
impassable. 

Senor Morales, of Baliuag, said there would likely be an electric 
road between Bulacan and Guiguinto shortly. He pointed out also 
that Bulacan had communication with Manila by both mil and water 
and Bulacan also had a central location geogmphically. 

The president suggested that the matter be put to a vote. 

Senor Mariano CSisostomo, of Malolos, thought the only reason why 
the capital should remain at Bulacan was to make the province con- 
form to the human body — the head at one end and the feiRt at the other. 
He favored Malolos as being more centi'al and more convenient of 



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40 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

access. He did not think the fact of water communication with Manila 
had any olace in the discussion. 

Seiior \faximo Angeles, of Agonoy, spoke in favor of changing the 
capital to Malolos. The fact that Bulacan had always been the capital 
should not weigh in the argument. When Bulacan was made the 
capital there was no railroaa to Manila, while there was coimnunica- 
tion by water. He was of the impression that after the railroad was 
built there had been some talk of moving the capital, which was only 
hindered by the fa<;t that the public bufldings were in Bulacan. As 
these buildings were now destroyed, that reason no longer existed. 
He was willing to abide by a popular vote. 

Seiior Ciriaco F. Libonas, of San Miguel de Mayuma, said that the 
best place for the capital was at Baliuag. He thought it was nearer 
the center of the province than either Malolos or Bulacan, and it had 
a large number of houses which could be used as provincial buildings. 

Senor Miguel Siojo, of San Miguel de Mayuma, suggested that an 
engineer survey the province and find out which was the most central 
si)ot, and that the capital be located there, making sure only it was a 
healthful place. He thought Baliuag was a better place than the other 
towns mentioned. 

The president announced that the Commission would take under 
advisement the matter of submitting the question of the location of 
capital to a vote, and would adjourn until the following morning at 
9.30, when he hoped all the delegates would be present. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Feegusson, Secref^rt/, 

United States Philippine Commission. 

MINUTES OF proceedings. 

Bulacan, Province of Bulacan, 

Wednesday, February ^7, 1901. 

Ptchl/f'c session. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 10 o'clock. He 
announced that the Commission had concluded to submit the question 
of the location of the capital to the vote of the pueblos represented. 
The plan proposed was that each town should cast one vote. The 
presiaent of each town would canvass the wishes of the representatives 
of that town, and when the name of the pueblo was called would come 
forward and deposit his ballot. 

Senor Mariano Crisostomo, of Malolos, asked the floor, and stated 
that while he had agreed yesterday to the proposition of submitting 
the matter to a vote, he thought now that such a plan would cause 
dissension among the delegates, and that the whole question ought to 
be determined bv the Commission. 

Senor Ramon Icaciano, of Bulacan, believed that the plan of voting 
was the best wav to learn the opinion of the majority of the people, 
and asked that it be pursued. 

The prejsident stated that the first thing people who wished popular 
government would have to learn was to bow peacefulh' to the will of 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 41 

the majority, and the thing which marked the incapacity of a people 
for self-government was the inability to accept calmly a decision by 
the majority against their view. The plan of voting for the capital 
had seemed to the Commission a good object lesson for the people of 
Bulacan. Some would be disappointed, but they should bide their 
time until they could induce the majority to favor their view. Refer- 
ring to the statement of yesterday that the people of Bulacan were fond 
of gambling, he called their attention to tne first rule of gaming 
whether it mvolved money or not, that a man should abide by the 
result, according to the rules of the ^me. If they were going to 
have a revolution every time their political opinions were defeated, 
then they certainly were not fit for self-government. The president 
stated tliat the vote would proceed and that a majority would be nec- 
cessary for choice. If an election was not secured by any town upon 
first ballot, a second ballot would be taken. If no election then resulted, 
the lowest of the towns would be dropped and this would continue 
until one town received a majority, ifpon the first ballot Malolos 
received 12 votes, Bulacan 5, and Baliuag 4. The president announced 
that Malolos would be the capital of the province. 

The president then submitted the following amendments to the bill: 

Insert salaries, in section 2, as follows: Provincial governor, 
$1,500; provincial secretary, $1,150; provincial treasurer, $2,100; 
provincial supervisor, $1,700; provincial fiscal, $1,300. 

Insert as amount of bond in section 3, $8,000.00. 

Amend by inserting as section 6 the following: 

Sbc. 6. The provincial board of Bulacan shall have authority to unite with the 
provincial boards of the provinces of Pampanga and Tarlac, and with the manager 
of the Manila and Da)?upan Railroad Ck>mpany, in the employment of an efficient 
engineer or engineers to devise as economical a plan as possible for protecting the 
roSds and agricultural lands and towns of the three provinces and the roadway and 
bridges of the Manila and Dagupan Railroad from the destructive effect of floods in 
the Tarlac, Bamban, and Rio Grande del Pampanga rivers by levees or other recog- 
nized means of protection a^inst such floods, but the expenditure bv the provincial 
board of Bulacan in such jomt arrangement shall be limited to one thousand dollars 
($1,000) . The engineer or engineers selected shall consult with the provincial super- 
visors of the three provinces, and shall make a report to the provincial board of each 
province, which shall transmit the same, with its recommendations, through the mil- 
itary governor, to the Commission, for further enabling legislation. 

Amend section 5 by striking out the words "as formerly" and word 
*' Bulacan," and insert the word "Malolos." 

Speaking of the salaries, the president said that in view of the gen- 
eral sentiment of those who had addressed the Commission they nad 
been made slightly lower than those paid in Pampanga. The section 
proposed as section 6 had been incluaed upon the recommendation of 
General Grant and the desire of the people. 

Section 5 was amended, making Malolos the capital instead of Bula- 
can, in accordance with the vote of the towns. 

Commissioner Worcester spoke in favor of the amendments. He 
said that he was much gratified at seeing the good sense displayed by 
those who took Mrt in the discussion when considering the question 
of the salaries. He spoke of the tendency of those just beginning to 
exercise self-government to make magnificent plans without the means 
of carrying t£em out. He was glad to notice that the people of Bula- 
can figured where the money was to come from. He spoke of the land 
tax to be inaugurated, saving that while it may seem burdensome to 
some at first they would later find that it accrued to their benefit and 



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42 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

was like putting money at interest. Spet kic-^ of the manner of select- 
ing the capital, he said that he believed this the first time in the his- 
tory of the country that such a question had been submitted to the 
will of the people. He then referred to the *'game of politics" and 
appealed to the people to school themselves to abide by its results, 
and if disappointed wait until the next election to retrieve their for- 
tune. He said it was absolutely essential to successful popular gov- 
ernment that the minority shoula bow to the will of the majority. He 
asked the people to remember this when appointments for office were 
made by the Commission, which now represented the power of the 
majority. 

The amendments proposed were adopted and the secretary directed 
to call the roll upon the question of the passage of the bill as amended. 

The bill was passed by the unanimous vote of the commissioners 
present. 

The president then announced the following-named persons as the 
appointees of the Commission to the various provincial offices: Jos^ 
Serapio, provincial governor; Francisco Morales, provincial secretary; 
Capt. Ernest A. Greenough, Forty-first Infantry, provincial treasurer; 
Lieut. Edward C. Wells, Thirty-second Infantiy, provincial super- 
visor; Mariano. Crisostomo, provincial fiscal. 

In announcing the apointment of Josa Serapio as provincial gov- 
ernor, the president explained at some length tne motives of the (5)m- 
mission in making this appointment. He referred to the fact that the 
province of Bulacan had only recently been the scene of much conflict 
and that while the people now recognized the sovereignty of the United 
States, it could not but be expected that traces of the former bitter 
and hostile feeling should still exist among them. It was for this 
reason the Commission took to itself the power of provisionally 
appointing a governor of the province, turnmg over to the people 
after a year the power of selectmg their own governor. In the mean- 
time they had the right to come to the Commission and have its 
appointee removed if his conduct was such as to render it necessary. 
Keference was made to the fact that in one of the provinces organized 
the antagonisms among the people were such that the Commission felt 
obliged to appoint an American as governor, but it had faith that such 
a step was not necessary in Bulacan. He stated that in coming into 
the province the Commission was met by the advocates of different 
parties and was greatly embarrassed with respect to getting correct 
information. Its appointee for governor in tnis instance had been 
highly recommended by General Grant and General MacArthur. 
They say he is a loyal man, a man of administrative ability, and will 
make a good governor. Others did not agree with this view. The 
Commission had received a petition from worthy and honorable resi- 
dents of the province protesting against the appointment of Serapio. 
It was said in the petition that Serapio represented interests contrary 
to the interests of the province. It was stated that he represented the 
friars. The Commission did not believe this, because it would not 
name any man whom it believed represented interests opposed to the 
interests of the people, and if it was found that in the administration 
of his office there was any real ground for this objection, the Commis- 
sion would cut off his official head. ^The president referred to the 
appointees to the other offices, commending them highly. 

The president then introduced to the audience Dr. T. H. Pardo de 



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BEPOBT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSIOK. 43 

Tavera, president of the federal party. In presenting Dr. Tavera, 
the president spoke highly of the federal party and of its influence 
in bringing peace to me islands; that the Commission was glad to 
show in every way possible its sympathy with the objects of the party 
and its appreciation of its efforts. It was said that other parties were 
to be formed. If so, let them come and let them show that they 
deserve the sympathy and support of the Commission in the same way 
that the federal party has shown it, by their work. 

Dr. Tavera tnen addressed the audience, presenting clearly the 
attitude of the American people toward the Islands, and tne prosperity 
which would result to the pex>ple when peace was establisned. The 
speech was warmly received bv the audience. 

Senor Crisostomo thanked the Commission in the name of the prov- 
ince of Bulacan for what they had done. He said that while the prov- 
ince of Bulacan was the first to take up arms and the last to lay them 
down, yet when an idea gets into the head of a man of Bulacan it is 
hard to get rid of it, ana they were now for peace. He said that as a 
demonsteition of the good faith of the provmce he would undertake, 
on the part of the people, that they would apply the land tax at once^ 
and not wait until next year. 

The president expressed his thanks to the speaker for this very sub- 
stantial evidence of the good effect of the meeting of the Commission 
with the people and having an understanding of tne purposes of both. 

The presioent then called upon Senor Felipe Calderon, of the Fed- 
eral party, to address the audience in Tagalog. Senor Calderon spoke 
at some length in the native tongue, awakening much enthusiasm. 

Senor Calderon was followed by Senor Ambrosio Flores, also of the 
Federal party, who spoke at some length. 

The president then called upon Commissioner Ide, who addressed 
the meeting at some length, setting forth the beneficent purposes of 
the American Government toward the people of these Islands. 

General Grant then spoke a few words, referring to his pleasant 
relations with the people of Bulacan. In closing, he stated that some 
of the veterans of the civil war who had served under his father and 
were now membera of the Lafayette Post, G. A. R., New York, had 
sent him some flags to give to loyal Filipinos. As a representative of 
these veterans he desired to present one of the flags to Senor Serapio, 
the new governor of the province. The flag was handed to Senor 
Serapio in the presence of the Commission ana the dele^tes. 

The president then declared the session of the Commission held in 
Bulacan finally adjourned. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fergusson, 

Secretary, 



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44 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



United States Philippine Commission. 



minutes op proceedings. 

Balanga, Province of Bataan, 

Friday, Ma/rch 1, 1901. 

Public session. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Wright, Ide, Moses, and the 
president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 8.30 p. m. . Senor 
Hermogenes Marco, of Balanga, in a short speech, welcomed the Com- 
mission to the province of mtaan and to the town of Balanga. He 
said it had been their earnest d.esire to have the Commission visit them 
and to grant them civil government. He greeted and welcomed them 
as bringing to the people of Bataan those lioerties which they had long 
sought, and which they so much desired. 

The president responded and stated that of the five most encourag- 
ing visits which the Commission had made to the provinces to organize 
civil provincial governments, the reception accorded it by the people 
of Bataan had been the most cordial; that the scene on me beautiful 
waters of the bay as the Commission approached the hospitable shores 
of Bataan would remain vivid in the memories of the Commission 
party so long as life lasted. The Commission could not but feel that 
the welcome given it was an indubitable proof that the people here 
deesired its coming and welcomed its purposes. He thanked them for 
their welcome ana for the encouragement which that welcome had 
given the Commission in its effort to carry out the benevolent pur- 
poses of the President and the people of the United States toward 
these Islands. He referred briefly to the natural suspicions which had 
been entertained by the people as to our purposes, and the natural 
indisposition of many to come out boldly for American sovereignty so 
long as our purposes were doubtful; but now that our purposes were 
clear and the suspicions entertained as to our motives proven to be 
false, he was glad to find that the people not only desirea peace tinder 
the sovereignty of the United States but had organized to compel it 

The secretary was then directed to call the roll of the pueblos of 
the province. The province was represented as follows: 



Dinalupijan: 

Ramon Estanislao, presidente. 

Sixto R. Hipolito, conoejal. 

Manuel Penaflor, concejal. 

Ciriaco Penaflor, concejal. 

Raymundo Payumo, concejal. 
Hermosa: 

Augustin Arsinas, preeidente. 

Gregorio Yandoc, concejal. 

Silverio Gasa, concejal. 

Macario Nuquid, concejal. 
Mariveles: 

Juan Rodriguez, preeidente. 

Oisanto Rodriguez, concejal. 

Valentin Semilla, concejal. 

Hermo^nes Aguillar, concejal. 

Florentino Mendoza, concejal. 

Domingo Iraula, concejal. 

Cipriano Diaz, concejal. 

Julian Farreal, concejaL 



Samal: 

Joe6 Rodil, presidente. 

Vicente de los Reyes, concejal. 

Jos^ Jodon, concejal. 

Andres Higonia, concejal. 

Francisco Oconer, concejal. 

Juan Espino, concejal. 

Pedro Paguio, concejal. 

Roque Consunji, concejal. 

Marcelino Eepmo, concejal. 

Leon Roque, concejal. 

Esteban Oconer, concejal. 
Abucay: 

SaJntoe Delfin, presidente. 

Leonardo Ganzon, concejal. 

Dionisio Caragay, concejal. 

Pascual Perez, concejal. 
Pilar: 

Urbano de loe Reyes, preeidente. 

Desiderio de los Reyes, concejal. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



46 



Pilar — Ck>ntmued. 

Luis Banzon, concejal. 

Au^fustin Paffui, concejal. 

Julian Calinibas, concejal. 
Orani: 

Alejandro Vianzon, preeidente. 

Claro Pascual, concejul. 

Alejo Hernandez, concejal. 

Mariano Corelo, concejal. 
Mabatan: 

Pedro Bodrmiez, presidente. 

Maximo de Leon, concejal. 

Lucas de Silva, concejal. 

Esteban de Leon, concejal. 

Mariano de Silva, concejal. 



Orion: 

Luis Baltazar, preeidente. 

Simeon Tuason, concejal. 

Marcelo Quicho, concejal. 

Clodoaldo Pangilinan, concejal. 

Esteban Santos, concejal. 
Balanga: 

G^rvasio Valero, presidente. 

Hermogenes Marco, concejal. 

Teodoro Rosauro, concejal. 

Tomas Banzon, concejal. 

Miguel Ramirez, concejal. 

Platon Banzon, concejal. 

Donato Guico, concejal. 

Zacarias David, concejal. 



The president then stated that the province of Bataan being a Taga- 
log province, and it having come to his knowledge that some of uie 
presidentes and some of the concejales were not suflBciently familiar 
with Spanish to follow a rapid explanation of the legislation proposed, 
he would call upon Senor Felip^ Calderon, a distinguished Manila 
lawyer, who is familiar with the Tagalog language, and who had been 
good enough to say that he would explain the provisions of the general 
provincial law and of the Bataan bill to the audience^ to address them 
in their native tongue. The president then called upon Senor Calde- 
ron, who explained to the delegates and audience assembled in Tagalog 
the provisions of the general provincial law and of the special bin 
applying same to the province of Bataan. 

The biU was then read for a third time by the secretary and public 
discussion invited by the president, who s^ted that such discussion 
might be either in Ta^og or Spanish, at the option of the speakers. 
Special attention was invited to the matter of salaries and treasurer's 
bond. Suggestions were also invited upon the question of location of 
the capitaL All the remarks of the president were translated into 
Spanisn bjr the secretary and into Tagalog by Sefior Calderon. 

Sefior Jose Lerma, or Balanga, referring to the salaries allowed in 
Pampanga and Tarlac, thought there was too great a difference between 
the salaries of governor and secretary, that the salaries of both were 
lower than that of treasurer, whereas their duties were equal, and that 
the salary of secretary was lower than that of supervisor, whose duties 
are the same as those existing in Spanish times, when the place paid 
but $80 Mexican per month. The president pointed out that the 
treasurer, under the law, would have more work to do than any other 
oflfcer in the province and that his responsibilities were very great; 
he not only collected the taxes for the municipalities, the province, 
and the central government, but directed the assessment of taxes as 
well, which would involve considerable labor in the application of the 
new land tax; that while the position of secretary was an important 
one,-the duties were mostly clerical. As to supervisor, he was required 
to be a civil engineer and surveyor, and his duties were much broader 
than those performed by the like oflBcer under the Spanish regime. 
As to all salaries, they were tentative, as the Commission has very 
little data upon which to determine them. Later they would be changed 
to meet actual conditions. The suggestion that there was too great a 
disparity between the salaries of governor and secretary would be 
considered. 

Senor Santos Delfin, presidente of Abucay, stated that he believed 
he was expressing the views of all the delegates when he said that the 



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46 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMiQSSION. 

capital of the province should remain as at present — Balanga. He 
did not think Bataan could afford as high salaries as Parapanra. Sefior 
Lermastated that they should be intermediate to those paia in rampanga 
and Tarlac. Seiior Lerma also called attention to the fact that the 
provincial law has made no provision as to how the governor shall be 
addressed officiallv. He referred also to the fact that under the 
Municipal Code the president and vicepresidents were authorized to 
carry canes as badges of office, while no provision was made in the 
provincial law for any insignia for the provincial governor. He 
thought it would be well to provide some badge for the governor, to 

Elace him on a par with the municipal officers, and also to show who 
e was, so that ii any disrespect were shown him the person so offend- 
ing might know his guilt and be proceeded against. It was thought 
that a badge of some kind, to be worn on tl^ coat, would be better 
than a cane, as this would distinguish him from the presidentes. He 
was told that the matter would be considered by the Commission upon 
its return to Manila in connection with the other amendments pro- 
posed to the provincial law. Senor Lenna, further referring to the 
provincial law, said that it created no privileges or immunities in favor 
of the governor; that in Spanish times the governor could not be 
tried in the province, but the provincial fiscal filed a complaint with 
the audiencia — now supreme court — who designated a judge outside of 
the province to try him. He was told that it was contrary to the 
principles of American law to give any official, no matter how high 
in rank, any privilege of that kind; that the governor was triable for 
the same crimes, in the same way, as the humblest citizen. If the 
obiection to the American plan is that it might be embarrassing for a 
judge who had been associated with the governor to try him, attention 
was called to the fact that it was expected to make the judicial circuit 
larger than one province, so that a judge would have no provincial 
affiliations. The speaker expressed himself as satisfied with this 
arrangement. 

Sefior Luis Baltazar, presidente of Orion, thought the governor 
should receive $1,000, the secretary $800, the treasurer $1,200, the 
supervisor $900, and the fiscal $800, all in go\d. 

Senor Ramon Estanislao, presidente of Dinalupijan, thought, as the 
question of the location of the capital had been suggested, it ought to 
be at Orani. Being asked as to public buildings, he said there were 
none, though there were private houses which might be used. 

Sefior Hermogenes Marco, Balanga, referring to section 4 of the 
special bill, asked if the recommendations by the presidentes to the 
provincial board were such as would have to be enacted, or whether 
the board could reject them at its pleasure. The president stated that 
the board must act upon the recommendations, but it was not obliged 
to grant them unless it saw fit; it was simply a method of leammg 
the desires of the people. Inasmuch, however, as the governor 'was 
elected by the people he would likely suffer at the next election unless 
he complied with their wishes. 

Senor Oscar Soriano, fiscal, Balanga, agreed with Sefior Lerma, 
that the salaries ought to be intermediate to tnose paid in Pampanga and 
Tarlac. He called attention to section 7 of the provincial law, where 
it says that the governor may " direct " the fiscal to bring a criminal 
or civil suit against certain persons complained of, and inquired 
whether this meant that the fiscal must bring such suits even though 



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BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 47 

he felt there was no ground for action. The president stated that the 
Commission would consider this point upon its return to Manila. The 
speaker then referred to section 11 of the provincial law, which pro- 
vides that in certain cases the attorney -general may direct the provin- 
cial fiscal to appear before the supreme court on appeal; he wished to 
know whether appearance was necessary in person; if so, it might 
result that oflfenses would be committed in the absence of the fiscal 
which would go unpunished for that reason. He was told that it was 
the purpose to change the Spanish procedure as to denouncement of 
offenders, and that, in any event, the question of appearance would be 
within the discretion of the attorney-general, who would not demand 
it if the public interest would suffer in consecjuence. 

There being no further speakers, the president announced that the 
session woula adjourn until to-morrow morning at 9.30, when certain 
amendments would be offered and appointments made. As to these 
latter the Commission had received two or three petitions nominating 
persons for office, and that, while the Commission did not care to have 
the names of candidates brought up in open session and publicly dis- 
cussed, it would be glad to receive suggestions 'in writing from the 
people at any time before the session convened on the morrow. 

Adjournea. 

Attest: 

A. N. Febgusson, Secretary, 

United States Philippine Commission, 
minutes of proceedings. 

Balanga, Province of Bataan, 

Saturday^ Ma/rch ^, 1901, 

Public session. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Wright, Ide, Moses, and the 
president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 10 o'clock. 
Owing to a severe cold and sore throat the president asked Commis- 
sioner Worcester to preside in his stead. 

Commissioner Worcester announced that the public discussion hav- 
ing closed he moved the following amendments to the bill: 

Insert in section 2, after the words ''provincial governor," the 
words and figures "one thousand five hundred dollars ($1,500)." 

Insert after words "provincial secretary" the words and figures 
"one thousand one hundred dollars ($1,100)." 

Insert after the words "provincial treasurer" the words and figures 
"one thousand eight hundred dollars ($1,800)." 

Insert after the words "provincial supervisor" the words and figures 
"one thousand five hundred dollars ($1,500)." 

Insert after the words "provincial fiscal" the words and figures 
"one thousand one hundred aollars ($1,100)." 

Insert as amount of bond in section 3 the words and figures "seven 
thousand five hundred dollars ($7,500)." 

Commissioner Worcester explained in detail the theory upon which 
the ratio between th^ various salaries was determined, also stating 



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48 BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

that they were strictly provisional and could be raised or changed as 
was found desirable after trial, or as the revenues of the province 
increased. His remarks were interpreted into Tagalog by Seiior 
Calder6n. 

The amount fixed as bond ($7,500) was considered sufficient for the 
present, though it would be raised when the land tax became applicable. 

The amendments proposed were adopted. 

The question then being upon the passage of the bill applying the 
general provincial law to the province ot Bataan, the secretary was 
directed to call the roll. 

The bill was unanimously passed. 

The following-named persons were then announced as the appointees 
of the commission for the various provincial offices: John H. Goldman, 
provincial governor; Jose M. Lerma, provincial secretary; H. K. Ix)ve, 

grovincial treasurer; Charles F. Vance, provincial supervisor; Oscar 
oriano, provincial fiscal. 

In making the various appointments Commissioner Worcester 
explained in more or less detail the purposes of the Commission and 
of the people of the United States toward the Islands. Attention was 
called to the fact that under the provincial law the office of governor 
was one to which the humblest citizen of the province might aspire, it 
being pointed out that the President of the United btates, in his 
instructions to the Commission, had directed that preference should be 

?fiven to the inhabitants of the Islands whenever they showed fitness 
or the position to be filled. It was the wish of the Commission in 
every instance possible to appoint a native as governor. This had 
been done in the other provinces organized, with one exception. In 
Bataan the Commission found that there was no native upon whom the 
Filipinos of all factions could unite, while petitions had l^en presented 
to the Commission, signed by eight of the nine pueblos, asking the 
appointment of an American as governor, and suggesting the present 
nominee of the Commission, Captain Goldman. It was a good augury 
for peaceful relations between the Americans and Filipinos that a gen- 
tleman, while serving as an army officer during a time of war, nad 
been able to win the confidence of the people to such an extent that 
they desired him as their civil governor. 

Captain Goldman made a brief talk, thanking the members of the 
Commission for his appointment and expressing his appreciation of 
the honor conferred upjon him by the citizens of tne province in recom- 
mending, without solicitation, his appointment for their first governor. 
He spoke of his pleasant relations with the people of the province, 
both as an army officer and as a director of the Federal V^^y organ- 
ized in Balanga. He pledged his whole energies and efforts to the 
promotion of good government in Bataan. 

Commissioner Worcester then spoke in commendation of the other 
appointees, referring to their peculiar qualifications for the positions 
to which appointed. In conclusion he called to the attention of the 
delegates and the people, that while they were now receiving new 
privileges those privileges brought with them new responsibilities, 
and that the Commission looked to the people of the province to prove 
by their conduct that the Commission had made no mistake in con- 
ferring upon them civil government The newlj^ appointed officers 
were requested to be present at the office of the Commission on the 
afternoon of March 4, to take the oath of office and receive their 
commissions. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 49 

Commit^ioner Worcester then presented to the audience Don Caye- 
tano S. Arellano, president of the supreme court, and a native of the 
province of Bataan. The speaker was enthusiastically received by the 
audience. He spoke feelingly to them of his interest in their welfare 
and in the welfare of his province, urging them to stand true to their 
promises to the American Government, for in that way, and in that 
way only, would they secure that liberty and that prosperity for which 
they have striven and which they so earnestly desired. He referred 
to the fact that their province was the first to see a complete repre- 
sentatron of the Commission, and that they were also honored by hav- 
ing with them the American ladies who accompanied the Commission. 

Senor Ambrosio Flores, an ex-insurgent general, was then pre- 
sented to the audience. Though speaking Tagalog, Sefior Flores 
requested Senor Calderon to interpret for hun from the Spanish, with 
which he was more familiar. 

General Grant was then called upon to speak of his work in the 
provinces and of the difference in his reception upon this occasion and 
that accorded him on former trips. He spoke highly of the people of 
Bataan, and of the strong friends he haa among them. H^ wished 
them godspeed now that they were entering upon their own govern- 
ment, and placed himself at their disposal whenever they choose to 
come to him. 

Commissioner Worcester then announced that, as the business which 
brought the Commission to the province of Bataan was concluded, the 
public session at Balanga was declared adjourned. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fergusson, 

Secretcury. 

United States Philippine Commission. 

minutes of proceedings. 

LucENA, Province of Tayabas, 

Tuesday, March 12^ 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Wright, Ide, Moses, and the 
president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 10.45 a. m., who 
addressed the representatives of the province as follows: 

In opening the session of this public meeting of the Commission I 
desire, on behalf of the Commission, to extend our sincere thanks for 
the cordiality and sincerity of this magnificent reception. In no prov- 
ince which we have visited have the evidences of the desire to have us 
come been more convincing than those which we have received this 
morning, and we. believe that it is because vou feel that our purposes 
are to <£> that which is best for you, that which will bring peace, pros- 
perity, and happiness to all the people of the Philippine Islands. 

There will be many speeches made before this session comes to a 
close, but it is necessary for us first to disi)ose of the business which 
is before the Commission. 1 should not omit, however, a reference to 
the fact that we are encouraged and protected by the Filipino and 
American ladies who have done us the honor to attend this meeting, 
and we feel certain that with such protectors and such defenders we 



F c 1901— pt 2- 



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50 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

shall not appeal in vain to the hearts of the gallant gentlemen of the 
Province of Tayabas. I might also allude to the significant fact that 
we are also honored by the distinguished clergy, gentlemen whose learn- 
ing ai>d influence argue that their presence arises from a sympathy with 
our purposes. 

And, now, ladies and gentlemen, we come to the business of the 
meeting. We have already adopted a General Provincial Act — that is, 
an act providing generally the lorm of government for all the prov- 
inces of the Philippine Islands — but in omer to put that act in force in 
any province you will observe that by the first section thereof there 
must be a special act applying the general act to the pailicular province 
to be organized. In tne special act are special provisions adapted to 
the needs of the province affected, which ao not form par:> of the gen- 
eral act. Now, I am informed that most of the gentlemen who have 
honored us by coming here to-day have received copies of the General 
Provincial Act. I should like to know whether that be true. (Stated 
copies of Provincial Act have been received.^ I shall state in a sum- 
mary way what the purpose of that Provincial Act is. It provides a 
government for the province, composed of five officers. It provides, 
first, how those officers shall be selected; second, what their duties are; 
third, who shall cx)nstitute the provincial board or legislative body of 
the province; and fourth, what the sources of revenue of the province 
shall be. The provincial officers are limited to five. They are, pro- 
vincial governor, provincial secretarv, provincial treasurer, provincial 
supervisor, and provincial fiscal. The governor is elected in a conven- 
tion conciposed or the councillors of all tne towns of the province. The 
first election is to be held in,February of next year. The person elected 
is to take his seat in the following March. Until the election takes 
place and the person elected qualifies, the position of governor is to be 
filled by a person appointed by the Commission. The provincial sec- 
retary, provincial treasurer, and provincial supervisor are to be 
appointed first by the Commission, but after the nrst of March next 
vacancies occurring in those offices are to be filled under the provisions 
of the civil-service law by competitive examination, so it shall be open 
to anyone passing successfully such examinations to aspire to any of 
these offices. The provincial fiscal is to be appointed by the Commis- 
sion, but is not subject to competitive examination, he naving passed 
his examination upon receiving his license. 

The duties of the governor, who is the chief officer of the province, 
and who, in a titular sense, is expected to represent the province on 
all occasions, consist, first, that he is chief executive officer; second, 
that be has control of all the police of the province; and third, that he 
presides over that which I snail hereafter refer to as the provincial 
board. It is his duty as governoi to visit every municipality of the 
province at least once in six months. If he finds that any municipal 
officer is neglectful of his duties or is guilty of fraud or any other 
violation of law with respect to his office, it is his duty to suspend the 
officer and report the suspension to the Commission, who, after due 
notice to the officer, will pass upon the question whether he shall be 
removed or reinstated. 

The duty of the provincial secretary is that which you might expect 
from his title. He keeps all the records of the province and acts as 
secretary for the meetings of the provincial board. In the absence or 
illness of the governor be a.cta in the place of the governor. 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 51 

The provincial treasurer, on some accounts, is the most important 
officer in the province, although not the highest and although not 
occupying in rank the chief place. It is the duty of the provincial 
treasurer to collect all the taxes that are collected in the province. It 
is the expectation of the Commission ta frame taxation laws so that a 
man shall be able to pay all his taxes at the same time upon the same 
day to the same officer, to wit, the provincial treasurer or his deputy; 
these taxes to include all nmnicipal taxes, all provincial taxes, and if a 
central government tax is levied, that tax also. It is the duty of the 
treasurer to examine and prove the accounts of the municipal treas- 
urers. It is his duty after the land tax shall be introduced, which 
will become effective a year hence, to supervise the assessment of all 
the lands in the province for taxation. It is his duty, after collecting 
all the taxes, to distribute them to the municipalities, to the province, 
and to the central government. 

The duties of the provincial supervisor are also very important in 
view of the unimproved condition of the roads and bridges in these 
Islands. It is his duty to see to it that the roads and bridges are kept 
in repair;* to make plans for the building of new roads, and to report 
such plans to the provincial board. It is his duty to look after the 
construction of provincial buildings and to make all contracts for 
renting such buildings as may be necessary — all under the supervision 
of the provincial board. 

I ouMt to say, in passing, that it is the plan of the Commission to 
make tne educational branch of the government depend for its sup- 
port upon the municipal government and the central government, 
but the work of internal improvement and public works generally are 
to be intrusted to the provmcial government. Therefore it is that 
you will find no reference to education in the provincial government 
Act, because that is provided for in the general education bill and 
the municipal code. 

Another most important office is that of provincial fiscal, an office 
which, in view of the condition of the Islands, is more important, and 
will be for the next five years, than ever in the history of the country, 
for after four years of war it necessarily results that a great many 
persons have been so unsettled in their moral condition, have become 
so restless, have become so used to living on other people, that it is 
impossible to prevent their becoming criminal, and it is necessary that 
the provincial fiscal by an earnest, active, and rigid enforcement of the 
law shall drive out of the community those persons who are disposed 
to disturb the peace and prey on other people. The provincial fiscal 
is the legal adviser of every municipality in the province. He is legal 
adviser also of the provincial government or provincial board. 

The provincial board is made up of the provincial governor, the 

Provincial treasurer, and the provincial supervisor. The provincial 
oard is the body which determines what rate of taxation shall be lev- 
ied upon the property of the province. 

I can not stop to dwell at length upon the system of taxation which 
after one year we propose to put in force in the Philippine Islands, 
except to sav that it is the intention of the Commission to abolish prac- 
tically all of the internal-revenue taxas now in force and to introduce 
an ad valorem tax on land. 

The municipal code elaborates this system of taxation. I hope that 
that Act has been distributed among you. If not, it will reach you in 



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52 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION". 

a few days. The system which the municipal code adopts is this: If a 
man owns property worth $10,000, under the municipal code the munic- 
ipal council is entitled to levy upon that land an annual tax not exceed- 
ing $50; the provincial government is entitled to levy upon the same 
land a tax not exceeding $37.50. The money collected for the munici- 
pality is spent in the municipality by the people themselves. All the 
money collected for the province is spent in tne province by order of 
the provincial board. We have postponed this land tax for one year, 
because we did not think the conaition of the country, by reason of the 
war, would justify our putting such a tax in force at once. What is 
to be done in the meantime, however, to support the provincial and 
the municipal governmenta? There are some sources of income for 
the municipality — the collection from market rents, fines, and that kind 
of thing — but tnat is not enough, and the Commission has adopted this 
policy: They take all the internal-revenue taxes that have been col- 
lected in the province and in the municipalities of the province and that 
have heretofore gone into the central treasury. They give one-half of 
that collected in the province to the municipalities and one-fourth to 
the provincial government. They retain one-fourth, because that 
practically pays the expenses of collection. That will continue until 
the land tax comes into force, when, as 1 have said, most of the internal- 
revenue taxes are to be abolished. 

We have thus gone over the general plan of the provincial govern- 
ment, and I now come to the points which are to be discussed to-day 
in reference to the special bill applying the Provincial Government Act 
to this province of Tayabas. Tne first section applies the general Act 
with the modifications contained in the special Act to the province of 
Tayabas. The second section fixes the compensation to be paid to the 
provincial oflBcers. You will see if you will read the bill that the 
amounts are left blank. That was done because we come here for 
the purpose of consulting you as to what you think would be a fair 
compensation to be paid to the various officer's. The amounts now 
fixea are not permanent; they are only to be fixexl with reference to 
the limited sourc^es of revenue now enjoyed by the province. When 
such a province as this shall have recovered from the effects of the war, 
and shall have reached the state of wealth and prosperity belonging to 
it, the responsibility of these officers will be largely increased, their 
labor will be largely increased, and they should be oetter compensated. 
The same section fixes the limit of the amount which ougut to be paid 
to each officer for his traveling expenses, and we wish your advice 
upon that subject. The third section fixes the amount of the bond 
wnich the treasurer shall give, and that depends, of course, upon the 
amounts of money which he shall have in nis hands at any one time. 
The fourth section makes a provision, which is not in the general law, 
for the meeting four times a year of all the municipalities in conven- 
tion to advise tne provincial iJoard of the improvements that ought to 
be made in the province. We should like your advice as to whether 
you regard that feature of this law as a useful one and whether it 
should De retained. The fifth section provides where the capital of 
the province shall be, but the name of the town is left blank, and we 
are nere to find out what the general opinion of the province is as to 
the place which will best serve the purpose of the capital. In one 
province we took a vote by towns ana followed that vote. In other 
provinces we heard what was said and decided for ourselves. The 



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BAMBOO ARCH OF WELCOME AT TAYABAS, LUZON. 



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REPORT O^ Tfit) 1>HILIPPIN£ OOllMl&SION. 53 

question of whether it shall be determined by a vote or not depends 
largely upon whether this is a representative gathering of the prov- 
ince. " An. these questions we throw open to discussion, and we ask 
your assistance by intelligent discussion in reaching a proper result, 
and we hope that no undue modesty will prevent tne representatives 
of the different towns from coming forward and giving us the benefit of 
their advice. 

In your consideration of the question of salaries, of course you are 
men of business and men of affairs, and know that if your pocketbook 
only has $1 in it you can not pay out $2, and you must regulate your 
salaries to your resources; and in fixing the provincial capital, in 
advising where that ought to be, you should take into consideratipn 
the interests of the whole province, and find where the place is which 
will be most convenient for all the towns, and the place where gov- 
ernment buildings can either be furnished or can be easily procured. 
It may be of assistance to the delegates if I read salaries ' which 
have been given in other provinces. Knowing what the provinces 
are, and their resources, you can then possibly proportion the salaries 
of the present province. (The president then read salaries paid pro- 
vincial officers m the provinces of Pampanga, Pangasinan, Tarlac, 
Bulacan, and Bataan.) This comprises all the provinces thus far 
oi^nized, and the salaries paid, and they were fixed after consulting 
with the delegates and after we had learned what the resources of the 
province were and what was the general sentiment as to what the 
salaries should be. 

(The Commission then adjourned until 3 o'clock in the afternoon.) 

Afternoon aessio?^ 

The session was called to order at 3 o'clock and the secretary directed 
to call the roll of the pueblos. The province was represented as 
follows: 

Pueblo de Tayabas: 

Alcalde D. Irineo Cabanero. 

Sindico D. Sofio Alandy. 

Secretario D. Anastacio Meeoea. 

Ck>nsejale8 D. Procopio Nadera. 

D. Marcos Pabilonia. 

D. Vicente Ragulo. 

D. Enrique Valencia. 

D. Mariano Zarciadas. 

D. Pablo de Ocampo. 

D. Narciso Lopez. 

D. Santiago Jara. 

Cabezas actuales D. Ricardo Sumilang. 

D. Simeon Lagroso. 

D. Serafin Rallana. 

D. Tomas de Loya. 

D. Mariano Jazmin. , 

D. Benito Nanes. 

D. Pedro Trinidad. 

D. Eduvigio Lopez. 

D. Martin de Loyola. 

D. Juan Pacaigui. 

D. Balbino Ferrer. 

D. Graudencio Circulado. 

D. Andres Ecbevarria. 

D. Francisco Oabriga. 

D. Patricio Fabie. 



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54 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE OOMMISSlOtC. 

Pueblo de Tayabas — Continue*!. 

Cabezas actuales D. Pedro Trinidad. 

D. Monico Rea. 

D. Nazario Cabuyao. 

D. Catalino Valencia. 

D. Joxi^e Graario. 

D. Calixto Rago. 

D. Lucas Tablada. 

D. Hilarion Zareiatlas. 

D. Cenon Abordo. 

D. Macrio Paballa. 

D. Nazrio Saballa. 

D. Mariano Zayas. 

D. Mateo Amigo. 

Cabeza paaado D. Antonino Garcia. 

>f embers of the Federal party of Tayabas: 

Presidente D. Elpidio Alanoy. 

Tesorero D. Escolastico San Agustin 

Secretario .' D. Florentino Alanoy. 

Vocales D. Ligorio Capistran'o. 

D. Buenaventura Reyes. 

D. Juan Maderal. 
. Consejeros de gobiemo D. Pedro Orias. 

D. Jovito Baldobino. 

D. Perfecto Eclarin. 

D. Nazrio Zabella. 

D. Herafin Rallana. 

D. Isidoro Labares. 

D. Claudio Sales. 

D. Juan Aragon. 

D. Felipe Nose. 

D. Ramon San Agustin. 

D. Marciai Mitra. 
Pueblo de Sariaya: 

Alcalde D. Ramon de Luna. 

Sindico D. Filemon Buendia. 

Consejales D. Pedro Leon Quejada. 

D. Emiterio Rodriguez. 

D. Claudio Alcantara. 
Cabezau actuales I). Venacio Rodriguez. 

D. Julian de Gala. 

D. Francisco Rodriguez 

D. Nicanor Orendia. 

D. Higino Raceles. 

D. Ignacio Valderrama. 

D. Cleto Buendia. 

D. Bemabe Villocilo. 

D. Mariano Herrera. 

D. Bonifacio Palomera. 

D. Felix Espinosa. 

D. Ignacio Gala. 

D. Juan Arellano. 

D. Gregorio Cadiz. 

D. Mariano de Luna. 

D. Benito Cadiz. 

D. Antero de Gala. 

D. Andres de Quijada. 

D. Emetario Reynoso. 

D. Mariano Villafuerte. 

D. (labino Quijada. 

D. Teodoro Albos. 

D. Teodoro Rodriguez. 

D. Isidro Herrera. 

D. Candido de Castro. 

D. Lauil)erto de Castro. 

D. Juan Benmta. 

D. Benigno de Ramos. 



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BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 55 

Pueblo de Sariaya — Continued. 

Cabezas actuales D. Adriano Galera. 

D. Toman Valdes. 

D. Silverio Alvarez. 

D. Marcelo Obnal. 

D. Crispulo Villonep. 

D. Demetrio Roias. 

D. Inocencio Palomado 

D. Andres Balan. 

D. Emigdio Cadiz. 

D. Leoncio Rodriguez. 
Committee of the Federal party of Sariaya: 

Del Directorio !>. Venancio Rodriguez 

D. Ignacio de Gala. 

D. Isidro Herrera. 

D. Mariano Herrera. 

D. Julian Gala. 

Consejeroe de Gobierno D. I^eoncio Rodriguez. 

D. Teodoro Rodriguez. 

D. Candido de Castro. 

D. Lamberto de Castro. 

D. Gabino Quejacia. 

D. Benito Cadiz. 

D. Vicente Rodriguez. 

D. Francisco Rodriguez. 

D. Emigdio de Rama. 

D. Antero de Gala. 

D. Filemon Buendia. 

D. Santiago de Luna. 

Pueblo de Macalelong D. Ernesto Una«. 

D. Avelino de Guzman. 

D. Justiniano Pantoja. 

D. Apolonio Hutalla. 

D. Eulalio Glinoga. 

D. Vivencio Soresto. 

D. Eustaquio Montano. 

D. Petronilo Villaflor. 
Pueble de Lucena: 

Presidente D. Feliciano Enriquez. 

Representantes D. Fabian Diaz. 

D. Gabriel Coord. 

D. Gregorio Marquez. 

D. Julian Mercanag. 

D. Jose Barcelona. 

D. Francisco Suarez. 

D. Flaviano Ocarey. 

D. Elpidio Lopez. 

D. Demetrio Villafuerte 

D. (lervacio Unson. 

D. Remigio Valdejueza. 

D. Venancio Queblat. 

D. Juan Carmona. 

D. Benigno Diaz. 

D. Demetrio Salvacion. 

D. Simeon Perez. 

D. Anastacio Barcelona. 

D. Crisanto Manjuez. 

D. Fortunato I^baras. 

D. Daniel Marquez. 

D. Regino Lopez. 

D. Demetrio ae Luna. 

D. Esteban Lagos. 

D. Angel Lagos. 

D. Florencio Reyes. 

D. Cosme Reyes. 

D. Arsenio Villasenor. 

D. Anselmo Nadres. 



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56 



RBPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Puoble de Lucena — Continued. 
Repreeentantee 



D. Fidel Juarez. 

D. Catalino Zal)allero. 
D. Diosdado de Mesa. 
D. Nemeeio Allarey. 
D. Vicente Jarbina. 
D. Nestorio Noece. 
D. Canuto Bartoine. 
D. Justino Labrador. 
D. Bartolome Rivera. 

Pueblo de Pap^bilao: 

Alcalde • D. Lino de Castro. 

Teniente-alcalde D. Eduardo Martinez. . 

Concejalee D. Vicente Lupia. 

D. Bernardo (rlorioeo. 

Cabezas D. Pedro Lusi. 

D. Salvador Lusterio. 
I). Felipe Reyes. 

Representatives of the Federal party D. Miguel Mercader. 

D. Ludovico Tina. 
D. Gaudencio de Rama. 
D. Hermenegildo Modesta 
D. Oomelio Flores. 



Pueblo de Atimonan: 
Vecinos Principales . 



.D. Alfredo Castro. 
D. Laureano Mapaye. 
D. Juan Martinez. 
D. Alejandro Pilar. 
D. Juan Decena. 
D. Marcelo Manalo. 
D. Eladio Lopez. 
D. Ansel mo Ortiz. 
D. Francisco Monfero. 
D. Tomas Villamil. 
D. Eleuterio Marasigan. 
D. Ciriat'O Garcia. 
D. Fortunato Villamii. 
D. Hermogenes Escana. 
D. Jose Laureo. 
D. Bonifacio Leon. 



Pueblo de Pito^: 

Vecinos Prmcipales 



Pueblo de Mauban: 
Vecinos Principales 



D. Eulalio Glinoga. 

D. Vivencio Loresto. 

D. Petronilo Villafuerte. 

D. Eustaquio Montano. 

D. Domingo Arce. 

D. Juan Camposano. 

D. iSalvador Ferro. 

D. Hugo Mendieta. 

D. Teodoro Calleja. 

D. Juan Altamanno. 

D. Jose Taino. 

D. Melquiades de San Andres. 

D. Lorenzo de Sembrana. 

D. lldefonao Fugueta. 

D. Eliaa Abeede. 

D. Anastacio Escudero. 
Pueblo de Lucban: 

Alcalde D. Ariston Maderal. 

Concejales D. Ambrosio Elises. 

D. Esteban Devanadera. 

D. Marcelo Ongluico Rubio. 
Representatives of the Federal party: 

D. Juan Obmaees .* D. Jose Nanagas. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 57 

Pueblo de Candelaria: 

Vecinoe Principales D. Pedro de Gala. 

D. Benigno Nacires. 

D. Clemente Nadres. 

D. Gregorio Cabimiag. 

D. Generoeo de Gala. 

D. Gregorio de Grala. 

D. Felix Villadiano. 
Pneblo de Catananan: 

Representatives of the Federal party D. Cirilo de Funee. 

D. Faustino Cubnar. 
Pneblo de Gainayangan: 

Representatives of the Federal party D. Antonio Garcia. 

D. Juan Li^. 

D. Juan ViUareal. 

The special bill was then read for the third time by the secretary, 
and the discussion of its provisions, as also those of the general pro- 
vincial law, invited. 

Seiior Grabriel Coord, of Lucena, thought that for the present the 
salaries of the provincial officers in Tayabas should be the same as those 
in Tarlac, this because of the uncertain revenues of the province and for 
the reason that in Spanish times Tayabas and Tarlac were both second- 
class provinces. 

Upon inquiry, Colonel Grardener stated that the internal-revenue col- 
lections in that part of the province to the west of the mountains was 
about $15,000 a year. 

Senor Coord stated that with one exception the towns east of the 
mountains were of little importance and would add little to the collec- 
tion?. He thought between $4 and $5 would be a sufficient allowance 
for the traveling expenses of the provincial officers. He believed the 
provision for the quarterly meeting of the presidentes a good one. As 
to the capital of the province he thought it should be at Lucena, this 
because of its central location and ^cause it had larger material 
resources than any other town in the province. It had every qualifi- 
cation for the capital except provincial buildings. He stated, how- 
ever, that the provincial buildings in Tayabas were greatly in need of 
repair and would have to be almost entirely rebuilt. He stated that 
Lucena was the capital under the insurrecto government. He was 
willing that a vote should be taken as to the site of the capital. 

The president stated that it had been suggested to the Commission 
that the island of Marinduque be added to the province of Tayabas and 
asked the speaker for his opinion. Senor C<)ord thought tne people 
of Tayabas would favor incluaing Marinduque. He estimated the dis- 
tance between Tayabas and Marinduque as between 25 and 40 miles. 
He did not think Marinduque had sufficient population to support a 
semrate provincial government. 

Senor «iose Tanio, of Mauban, objected to the change of the capital 
from Tayabas to Lucena; this because Tayabas had always been the 
capital, because it was more central and more convenient to the eastern 
pueblos and had provincial buildings. He also thought it inadvisable 
to include Marinduque with Tayabas,^ because at certain seasons com- 
munication with the island was pmctically impossible. He thought it 
should be made a politico-military station. He had few suggestions to 
offer as to salaries, and that $2.50 gold per day more than a sufficient 
allowance for traveling expenses of officers. 

Senor Safio Alandy, of Tayabas, thought the province of Tayabas 



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58 KEPORr OF THK PHILIPPINE COMMIS8IOK. 

could pay the same salaries as Pangasinan. He believed, owing to 
the dimculty of traveling about the province, that an allowance of $8 
to $10 Mexican per day should be made for traveling expenses. Ho 
believed the capital should be retained in Tayabas; that while, the 
provincial buildings were slightly damaged it would be cheaper to 
repair them than to build or rent new ones in Lucena; that lumber 
was expensive, while labor cost $1.50 per day, being more expensive 
than in Manila. He also referred to tne dimculty of communicating 
with MarinduQue at certain seasons of the year, but did not think the 
people of Tayaoas would have any objections to including Marinduque, 
as the people of both places were practically the same. Senor Alandy 
thought there should be added to the provincial board two or three 
representatives chosen by the municipalities who would be more in 
touch with the needs of the municipalities than wa^ the provincial 
board. Being asked whether the quai*terly meeting of the presidentes 
would not accomplish the same pui'pose, he said that owing to the 
poor roads, bad weather, and the danger of water navigation at certain 
seasons, he doubted if tnere would be a large attendance of the presi- 
dentes at the quarterly meetings. It bemg pointed out that the 
conditions which would prevent an attendance of the presidentes would 
also prevent a knowledge of the needs of the municipalitias on the 
part of the two or three representatives, he waived the point. 

Senor Gervasio Unson, of Lucena, thought Tayabas could pay the 
same salaries as Pangasinan, and that the traveling expenses should be 
from $8 to $10 Mexican per day. He did not tnink the presidentes 
would have any difficulty m meeting four times a year, and thought 
that would be the best method of keeping the provincial board advised 
of the needs of the municipality. He did not think there was room 
for argument of the question of the location of the capital. He said 
that but three towns, Tavabas, Lucban, and Mauban, would be bene- 
fited by having the capital in Tayabas, while twenty-three towns would 
be benefited by having it at Lucena. He stated that suitable buildings 
could be rented in Lucena. Being asked whether those favoring Lucena 
would erect provincial buildings, he stated he could not answer the 
question. He was willing to leave the question of location to the vote 
of the towns. He saw no objection to including Marinduque with the 
province of Tayabas.' He estimated the population of Marinduque at 
35,000, and that of Tayabas at 135,000. 

Seiior Narciso Lopez, of Tayabas, also thought the same salaries 
should be paid as in Pangasinan. He thought that with the incorpora- 
tion of Marinduque and the return to normal times the resources of 
Tayabas would be as great as those of Pangasinan. He thought from 
$8 to $10 Mexican snould be allowed for traveling expenses. He 
favored keeping the capital in Tayabas, that town bemg more conven- 
ient for the other towns and it also being more economical. Being 
asked as to the health conditions in the town of Tayabas, he admitted 
they were not of the best and urged this as a reason why the provincial 
officers should be there, as this would be a stimulus to improving the 
sanitary conditions of tne place. He said Tayabas had a laiger popu- 
lation than Lucena, and urged as an objection to Lucena that it was on 
a river which for half the year was impassable. It was suggested to 
the speaker that this would be an argument, following his reasoning, 
for having the provincial seat in Lucena, so that bridges might be 
built. As to including Marinduque, he believed that if the people of 



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REPORT OF THK PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 59 

Marinduque were willine there could be no objection on the part of 
Tayabas. He was told uiat the Commission expected to consult with 
the people of Marinduque before passing upon the Question. He 
thought the presidentes should meet four times a year, out suggested 
that provision be made to allow the presidentes to name delegates in 
their stead should they be unable to come. He stated that under nor- 
mal conditions Lucena could be reached in one day from the most 
remote town in the province. 

Senor Eulalio Glinoga, of Pitogo, believed Lucena offered the gi*eat- 
est advantages for a capital. He suggested that the buildings in 
Tayabas be sold and the monev used to build new buildings in Lucena. 
He thought that Tayabas could pay the same salaries as Pangasinan. 
He believed the quarterly meetings of the presidentes possible, pro- 
vided they made an effort to be present. He thought, however, that 
their expenses should be paid out of provincial funds, thus insuring a 
larger attendance and lessening the possibility of the presidentes dip- 
ping their fingers into the municipal funds. He believed Marinduque 
would fare better with Tayabas than with Mindoro. 

The president stated that the question of the location of the capital 
would DC submitted to the vote of the towns represented, each town 
having one vote. Upon ballot being had, Lucena received eight votes 
and Tayabas five. Tne president announced that Lucena would be the 
capital of the province. 

The Commission then took a recess of half an hour to consider the 
question of amendments and appointments. 

Upon reassembling the presiaent proposed the following amendments : 

Add to title of act the word ''Tayabas." 

Insert in section 1, after the words ''island of," the word "Luzon;' 
and after the words ''province of," the word "Tayabas." 

The president statea here that no action would be taken looking to 
the incorporation of the island of Marinduque with Tayabas until after 
consulting with the people of Marinduque. In case they were agree- 
able to such union, provision therefor would be made later. 

Insert in section 2, after the words "province of," the word "Taya- 
bas;" and insert as salaries to provincial oflBcers the following: 

Governor, one thousand six nundred dollars (fl,600); secretary, one 
thousand one hundred dollars ($1,100); treasurer, two thousand two 
hundred dollars ($2,200); supervisor, one thousand eight hundred dol- 
lars ($1,800); fiscal, one thousand three hundred and fifty dollars 
($L360). 

The president stated that these were the salaries paid in Pampanga, 
except that the salary of the secretary was increased $100 and that of 
the treasurer reduced $200. 

Insert after "traveling expenses," "two dollars and fifty cents 
($2.60) per day." 

Insert in section 3, as bond of treasurer, "nine thousand dollars 
($9,000)."- 

Insert in section 5 as the capital of the province, "Lucena." 

As to the suggestion that the presidentes be allowed to appoint dele- 
gates to the quarterly meetings when unable to attend themselves, the 
president stated that under the municipal code the vice-president was 
authorized to represent the president in such a case. 

The question as to whether the province should pay the expenses of 
the presidentes in attending the quarterly meetings would be considered 



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60 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

by the Commission when preparing amendments to the general pro- 
vmcial law. 

The amendments proposed were adopted. 

The question then being upon the passage of the bill as amended, 
the secretary was directea to call the roll. The bill was unanimously 



The president announced the following named persons as the 
appointees of the commission to the various provincial oflBces: Gov- 
ernor, Cornelius Gardener, colonel Thirtieth Infantry. Secretary, 
Gervasio Unson. Treasurer, J. W. C. Abbott, lieutenant. Thirtieth 
Infantry. Supervisor, F. P. Austin, lieutenant, Forty-sixth Infantry. 
Fiscal, Safio ^andy. 

The president stated that it was the purpose of the Commission, 
whenever possible, to appoint a native of the islands to the position of 
governor, to the position of secretary, and to the position of orovincial 
fiscal. In the case of Tayabas, however, the Commission haa received 
petitions from practically all the towns in the province stating that 
the people desired to have Colonel Grardener appointed as governor, 
as he had endeared himself to the people by his just administration of 
affairs while military commander. 

The president then introduced to the audience Don Cayetano S. 
Arellano, president of the supreme court of justice of the Islands, who 
delivered an eloquent address to the people. 

Senor Arellano's address was followed by one from Dr. Pardo de 
Tavera, president of the Federal party, and by Colonel Grardener, the 
appointee for governor of the province. 

Colonel Grardener spoke as follows: 

Gentlemen of the province of Tayabas: I have been with you and 
my regiment has been in this province for thirteen months. We have 
made manv friends amon^ you. I know a great many of you person- 
ally, and dfuring all this time my opinion of the Filipino people, and 
especiallj' the people of this province, has continually grown. While 
we have been m this province, with the assistance of a large number 
of good men of the province, we have brought about the condition 
which to-day exists and which I consider equal or better than the con- 
ditions prevailing in any province in the Islands. 

While I desired very much to go back to the United States and see 
my family, when the Commission asked me to accept here the office of 
governor I felt it was a duty which I could not refuse to these people 
of Tayabas Province. I felt that I would like to finish the work tnat 
I had taken up, with your assistance, and I hope that in the task that 
is still before us the good people of this province will lend the same 
assistance and the same encouragement which they have in the past, 
and that we will go forward and accomplish the same things for which 
we have already striven. I want to take this occasion to thank the 
people of this province for the considemtion they have shown me and 
for the consideration they have shown my regiment. 

As the time is limited 1 will sav no more this evening, as I will have 
other opportunities to speak to the people. 

The public session was then declared adjourned by the president. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Ferousson, Secretary. 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 61 

United States Philippine Commission. 

MINUTEH OP proceedings. 

BoAC, Island of Marinduque, 

Friday, March 16. 1901. 
Present: CommissionerH Worcester, Wright, Ide, Moses, and the 
president. 

Tfu> 8C88ion wiis ealkd to order by the president at 9.30 a. m., and 
the secretary directed tt> call the roll of the pueblos. The following 
repJ**^isentative«s were present: 

Piieblo de Bo«M*: 

Locaf ppesidCTit and member of theFedenil party. Tomafi del Mondo. 
Mem oers of Federal party - , *. .Francisco Nieva. 

Ramon M. Leaterio. 

Pablo Araullo. 

Ambrosio Lecaroe. 

Tomas Montellano. 

Oreeenciano Ratonel. 

Rufino Laguio. 

Santiago Alino. 

Gregorio Neix)iiiuceno. 

Pedro Nepomuceno. 

Oalixto Nieva. 

Narciso Luarca. 

Nicolas Navarro. 

Maximo Nepomuceno. 

Dominffo Navarro. 

Alejandro Alino. 

Eduardo Nepomuceno. 

Marcelo Mirafuente. 

Pedro Nieva. 
Beddentfi * Narcieo Alino. 

Julio Mondonedo. 

Pedro Mascarenas. 

Simplicio Leyva. 

Cafiimiro Contreras. 

Feliciano Mercader. 

Pedro Gualtrati. 

Aniceto Maamo. 

Maximo Lucban. 

Bonifacio Uatricat 

Elias Leyva. 
Pueblo de Gasan: 

Local president Mariano Rodriguez. 

Residents Peiiro Sevilla. 

Marti niano Selva. 

LopeSosa. 

Felipe de Leon. 

£duardo Soto. 

Francisco de Jesus. 

Crispulo Sarmiento. 

Gosme Salvo. 

Apolonio Sagado. 

Elias Semilla. 

Jose de Leon. 
Pueblo de Torrijop! 

Tte id (^ n t « Evaristo Mani ja. 

Honorato Solmirano. 

Maximo Andina. 
Pueblo de Santa Cruz: 

Residents Mariano Roman. 

Mateo Puertollano. 

Lorenzo Rozas. 

Lorenzo V. Cruz. 

Simeon Ricamata. j 

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62 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Pueblo de Mogpog: 

Reeidento Vincente Nepomuceno. 

Daniel Los Banos. 
Ramon M. Coll. 
Felix Garcia. 
Bevero Mangaicang. 
Antonio Montellano. 
Agustin Laeran. 
Apolinario Laferna. 
Tobias Mariano. 
Teodorico Mariano. 
Tiburcio Hilario. 
Esteban Lau rente. 
, Doroteo Mali lay. 

Dominffo Monsanto. 
Benito Layag. 
Mariano Myot. 
Antonio Janin. 
Crispulo Lagran. 
Valentin Bunag. 
Tranquilino Santiago. 
CJornelio Mateo. 
Licerio Marban. 

At an informal gathering of the people on last evening the president 
had stated to them the object of the commission's visit, i. e., to consult 
with the people of Marinduque as to what form of government should 
be given the island. It was statM to them that wnile in Tayabas the 
question of annexing it to that province had been considered, as also 
of allowing it to remain, as formerly, a part of the province of Min 
doro. The president stated, however, that the Commission was also 
open to the suggestion of forming the island into a separate province, 
provided it could be assured that the will of the people, as well as the 
resources of the island, warranted such action. 

Following the roll call a petition was presented to the commission, 
signed by the representatives of the different pueblos, asking that the 
island of Marinduque be not annexed to Tayabas or Mindoro, but that 
it be erected into a separate government. The petition stated, first, 
that the island of Marinduque had 50,000 inhabitants, divided as fol- 
lows: Boac, 15,000; Mogpog, 7,000; Santa Cruz, 16,000; Gasan, 8,000, 
and Torrijos, 6,000; second, that the island had a circumference of 52 
leagues and could be circumnavigated by a steam launch in twelve hours; 
third, that the principal products of the island were hemp, which was 
produced in large quantities and was known in the markets as one of 
the best grades m the archipelago; rice, which was produced in larger 
quantities than sufficed for the needs of the people, and horned cattle, 
tnough this latter had suffered greatly by reason of the wai*; fourth, that 
when the island enjoyed the benefits of peace it could easily count on 
a revenue of 50,000 pesos a year, with which it could support a gov- 
ernment; fifth, that for the present the government established! might 
be of the very lowest class until its resources justified its advance, tnat 
in the beginning a certain sum might be advanced to it from the gen- 
eral treasury, to be returned later by the province. They also urged 
that no one so well as those who belonged to the soil could administer 
its affairs and foster its political and material well-being, counting as 
they always could upon the favorable and indispensable assistance of 
the great American nation, whose sovereignty they recognized and 
accepted with every conviction. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 63 

After the reading of the petition, the president addressed the con- 
vention in substance J as follows: 

That the Commission was now engaged in organizing municipal and 
provincial governments throughout the Islands, wherever conditions 
seem to justify such action; that in Pampanga, the first province 
organized, all the towns, some twenty-four in number, were organized 
under General Order No. 40, be ''ore the establishment of provincial 
government; that in Panga^inan Tarlac, Bulacan, and Bataan some 
of the towns were found organi^.^d under General Order No. 40, and 
others under No. 43. In Tayabas, which the Commission had just 
oi"gaiiixt*d, .^t>tiie towns wert^ still unorganized, though the majority 
were working under the two orders mentioned. It wss statea that 
while the readiriesiH! of a prov^ince was not shown by the number of 
towns organized, such fart was, nevertheless, some measure of the 
readine.ss of the provin<*e for- rivil government. It was thought that 
in oniLH' topn^pan^ IVhirindin[ue for civil government there ought to 
be a fompfete urgunization under the municipal code of the five 
important towns^ of tho island. 

The president t-alled attention to the fact that there were still dis- 
turbances in parts of tht^ isilarHl, disturbances in which the prosperity, 
the peace, the happiness, and the aspirations of 35,000 to 50,000 people 
were depend(?nt upon the til^stinacy of some 250 to 300 people. The 
C'Ommission was anxious that by the organization of their towns the 
people be gi\n*n lui opportunity to protect themselves against the injury 
of this small luinority. 

The president sUited thai no matter how beneficent and no matter 
how kindly a military fcjt'iu <^f government, or the good intentions of 
those who administer it, it was nevertheless militery, with all the 
abriiptnes,^ and severity whirh that form of government requires; that 
the people would ne^'er api>reciate the advantages of American 
sovereignty or the advantage of association with a free people like the 
Americans imtil they hsid an opportunity to enjoy the civil govern- 
ment w^hic^h the ConiiiiissicHi was as anxious to give them as they were 
to receive. 

Referring to the petition asking for separate provincial government, 
the president f^taterf that w hih' the Commission sympathized with the 
sentmient of the people, they must remember that a government was 
a practical business niattpr. They would have to ask themselves 
whether they were willinjj: to make the sacrifices necessary to support 
the expense of a separate crcn t*rnment; whether the money which they 
would spend for pruvimial officers could not be better expended in 

Sublic roads, bridges, harboi^, etc. ; that the Commission was here to 
o what was thought best for them, and that what was best for them 
would be what they decided was best after discussing the matter and 
reaching a calm and deliberate judgment. Th y were urged not to 
take the stij* wUlumtafull considemtlon of all the consequences. The 
following roursi s were suggested to them: Permanent annexation to 
Tavabas, or' a teuiporary annexation until its towns were organized. 
When this hud l>een done, if the Commission found that the conditions 
warranted it and the people were still of the mind to have a separate 
governiiient, then it might be organized. The Commission did not 
come with suiiirient local knowledge of the situation, however, to give 
them a separate government at tnis time. The other alternative of 
being annexed to Slindoro was also presented and an expression upon 
these points invited from the representatives present. 

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64 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Senor Eduardo Nepomuceno, of Boac, asked what would be the status 
of the island pending the organization of the municipalities, and was 
told that unless the island was annexed to Tayabas it would continue, 
as at present, subject to military rule. The process by which the 
pueblos would be organized under sections 93 and 95 of the Municipal 
Code was pointed out to him. The speaker stated that if the only 
object of temporarily annexing Marinouque to Tayabas was to secure 
supervision of the municipal organization, he thought this could be 
done more in harmony with the desire of the people by selecting some 
one in the island to do the work; in other words, that the people 
would prefer postponing the establishment of a civil government until 
they could have a separate government. Being asked as to the forms 
of taxation under the Spanish regime and the amounts collected, he 
stated that there were three taxes — the cedula, industrial, and urbana. 
From cedulas alone the town of Boac paid $13,000, and this from 
those who paid what was known as the "ninth class." The other 
classes paid to the treasurer in Mindoro. He stated that there were 
records of land titles in Spanish times, but didn't know whether they 
had been destroyed or not. They were kept in Mindoro. He stated 
that the lands in thfe island were owned bv many people, and thought 
the question of determining ownership for taxation purposes would 
not be difficult. He stated that the entire island was included within 
the boundaries of the five pueblos, the lines of which were well defined. 

Senor Marcelo Marafuente, of Boac, asked how the committees 
of organization for the pueblos were composed, and the matter was 
explained to him b}' the president. He thought it would be better to 
have an American as chairman of the committees. 

He stated in answer to an inquiry that it would cost about 300,000 
pesos to construct a good wharf at Boac. He thought there was trade 
enough in Marinducjue to justify building such a wharf. He said most 
of the hemp was shipped from Boac. 

Senor Mariano Rodriaues, presidente of Gasan, expressed it as the 
unanimous sentiment of his town that Marinduque be given a sepamte 
organization; that if annexed to another v province it would create a 
great embari-assment in their business and in the administration of 
tneir laws, as a person arrested for crime, or who had litigation, would 
be compelled to journey to Tayabas or Mindoro, which would be very 
expensive and inconvenient. As between Tavabas and Mindoro, he 
thought Tayabas preferable. He stated that there were no provincial 
buildings in Boac. He thought Boac, however, the best place for the 
capital. He stated that during three months there were occasions when 
steamei*s found anchorage difficult in Boac Harbor. 

Being asked whether his town, if organized, could maititain order 
and take care of any insurgents or ladrones, he thought it could, pro- 
vided the people were furnished arms; otherwise no. He thought a 
police force could be raised which could be trusted. 

Sr. Tomas del Mundo, presidente of Boac, stated that he could guar- 
antee for his town the preservation of order, provided the town was 
furnished with the proper arms. 

Sr. Calixto Nieva, of Boac, thought it would be necessary to retain 
the American troops until peace was perfectly restored. He was 
assured that there was no intention of withdrawing them. 

Sr. Mateo Puertollano, of Santa Cruz, did not want Marinduque 
annexed to Tayabas, certainly no longer than might be necessary to 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 65 

establish muDicipal governments. He thought the island could m,j 
the expenses of a separate government. He also stated that a police 
force m Santa Cruz could protect the town, provided there was a 
reserve of American troops. He did not think there was any danger 
of their deserting. He thought Santa Cruz was more of a commercial 
center than Boac, both by reason of its location and better harbor. 
He was willing, however, that Boac should be the capital. 

The question of public schools was then discussed, and the represent- 
atives were unanimous in their desire for English teachers and new 
school buildings. 

Sr. Vicente Nepomuceno, presidente of ' Mogi)og, stated that his 
town, if furnished with arms, could take care of itself. Being asked 
as to whether natives could he enlisted in the United States Army, he 
thought they could until peace was restored, but that they would then 
want to return to civil life. He did not want the island annexed to 
Tayabas. 

Sr. Evaristo Manila, presidente of Torrijos, thought the capital 
should be at Boac. He also agreed with the other speakers as to the 
competency of a police force to protect his town if properly armed. 

After a short conference with the members of the Commission, the 

S resident announced that the Commission had been much edified by the 
iscussion and by the information gained as to the wishes of the people. 
That complying with the desires of the people not to be annexea to 
Tayabas or Mindoro, the Commission would appoint Captain Bandholtz 
as chairman of the organization committees for the five pueblos under 
the municipal code, and that it hoped the organization of those towns 
would be enected by the time the Commission returned from the south 
on or about May 1; that if the Commission then found that the towns 
had been organized, and peaceful conditions had been restored through- 
out the island, and the people had in this way proven themselves 
worthy of a provincial government, such separate government would 
be organized^in the island of Marinduque. 

After an address by Sr. Arellano, president of the supreme courts 
and an expression of thanks to the people for their hospitality and 
attention, the session was declared adjourned. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fergusson, Secretary, 

United States Philippine Commission. 

MINUTES OF proceedings. 

RoMBLON, Province of Romblon, P. I., 

Saturday^ March 16, 1901. 
Present: Couunissioners Worcester, Wright, Ide, Moses, and the 
president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 10.16 a. m., and 
the secretary directed to call the roll of tne pueblos. The following 
representatives were present: 

Bomblon: 

Premdent Comelio Madrigal. 

Vice-president Bonifacio Marron. 

Secretary Ygnacio Molina. 

P C 1901— PT 2 5 ^ T 

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66 BBPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Romblon — Continued . 

Gonoejalee Victoriano Matron. 

Prefecto Malaya. 

Eduardo Montiel. 

Eu^enio Gutierrez. 

Felix Majaque. 

Bemabe Moyo. 

Silverio Maxba. 

Feliciano Mareno. 
Looc: 

Municipal president Hugo Gabonea. 

Secretary Lucas Kunanan. 

Conoejales Santiago Estudillo. 

Alejandro Soriano. 

Florencio Marcelo. 

Hilario Gadaoni. 

Cenon Cunanan. 

Juan Mareza. 
Corcuera: 

President Licerio Fallar. 

Secretary Aniceto Farminiano. 

Conoejales Antonio Fallar. 

Policarpio Faminiano. 

Agustin Fallaria. 

Lucio Fonebella. 

Sebastian Flacotela. 

Fernando Fajas. 

Eulogjio Famorcan. 

Liborio Fahiala. 
Odiongan: 

President Daniel Fortuna. 

Secretary Macario Fontanilla. 

Conoejales Luis Formillega. 

Mercelo Fontanillas. 

Enrique Quimel. 

Benito Abillo. 

Ponciano Fodra. 

Alejandro Gelendon. 

Bruno Fortis. 

Ciriaco Fabillo. 
Cajidiocan: 

President Emeterio Rida. 

Secretary and treasurer Leandro Dianco. 

Conoejales Vicente Robira. 

Geronimo Dianco. 

Pablo Martinez. 

Eugenio Reta. 

Antero Rabida. 

Domingo Rallo. 
San Fernando: 

President Francisco Recto. 

Secretary Adriano Rios. 

Concejafes Pelagio Romero. 

Lorenzo Rios. 

Juan Bantigui. 

Leon Perez. 

Esteban Romero. 

Pedro Mangarin. 

Eduardo Rodria. 

Felipe Royo. 
Badaioz: 

President Leonardo Madrilejob. 

Secretary Modesto Marques. 

Conoejales Maximo Manao. 

Isidoro Magracia. 

Feliciano Montel. 

Victor Manipo. 

Eduardo Moreno. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 67 

Bad^oz — Continued. 

Concejalee Eladio Margota. 

Pedro Vera. 

Mario Magrano. 
Despnjols: 

President Teodorico Fainsan. 

Secretary and treasurer Nazario Famadico. 

Concejafes Juan Laac. 

Damaj90 Moreno. 

Pedro Fabella. 

Hilario Gadad. 

Basilio Gadon. 

Mamerto Gara. 
Ban ton: 

Preeident Francisco Feetin. 

Vice-president Raymundo Ferrez. 

Secretary Fermin Fatalla. 

Goncejales Raymundo Faijao. 

Pedro Fabella. 

Satumino Forjao 

Miguel Fradiquila. 

Fenciano Fabella. 

Nicolas Fabu. 
Magallanee: • 

President Doroteo Rubio. 

Secretary . . .-. Lucio Mortel. 

Concejafes Pedro Banti^i. 

Doroteo Patino. 

Juan Perez. 

Andres Perez. 

Terezo Robea. 

Marcelo Tancioneo. 
Santa Fe: 

President Melecio Tean. 

Secretary and treasurer Fernando Gadaon. 

Concejafes Serapio Candes. 

Satumino Gaspar. 

Macario Gajisan. 

Salvador Inocencio. 

Ambrosio Filiarca. 

Juan 2^rrilla. 

After thanking the people for tlie reception accorded the Commis- 
sion, the president explained to them in detail the provisions of the 
General Irovincial Act and of the special bill applying such Act to par- 
ticular provinces. As all the representatives were not familiar with 
Spanish, the remarks of the president were interpreted first into 
Spanish and then into Visayan. The bill was then read for the third 
time by the secretary and suggestions were asked by the president 
from the representatives concerning the various points covered by the 
provincial law and the special bill, and they were asked particularly 
with reference to the advisability of incorporating in the province of 
Romblon Carabao Island. 

Senor Cornelio Madrigal, presidente of Romblon, believed the island 
of Carabao should be annexed to the province of Romblon; that it was 
now a refuge for evil doei*s from Taolas and also from Mindoro and 
Capiz. He did not know whether the people of that island could be 
organized into a pueblo or not, but thought it could be done. He 
thought it was possible also to make it a barrio of the pueblo of Santa 
Fe in Tablas, it bein^ only an hour's sail distant. The revenue of the 
district of Romblon in Spanish times was estimated at $J:0,000 Mexi- 
can per annum. He thought the governor should get $1,500 per year, 
secretary, $900; treasurer, $1,600; supervisor, $1,6<X); and fiscal $1,500. 

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68 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

He thought that an allowance of $5^old per day should be made for 
traveling expenses for provincial oflBcers. On being advised that it 
was proposed by the government to furnish a steam launch for the 
tmnspoilation of provincial oflScers, he thought $4 per day would be 
a sufficient allowance. Referring to the quarterly meetmg of the 
presidentes, he thought it would be very difficult to meet so often on 
account of lack of means of transportation, and suggested that they 
meet twice a year instead. He said the weather was good in April 
and October, and those months would not interfere with the harvest 
season. He had no doubt but that Romblon was the best place for 
the capital. He said there were provincial buildings in Roniblon. 

Senor Lucas Kunanan, of Looc, speaking in behalf of the island of 
Tablas, thought the capital should be in that island, as it had a greater 
number of pueblos and was easier of access to the different islands. 
He said that it had no provincial buildings, but that the harbor of 
Looc was a good one. He thought the governor, secretary, and treas- 
urer should receive $300 Mexican per month and the supemsor and 
fiscal $200 Mexican per month each. He fixed the allowance for trav- 
eling expenses at $2 Mexican. He agreed with the former speaker as 
to the meetings of the presidentes. 

Senor Francisco Sans, of Romblon, asked that the capital remain in 
Romblon. He said it would require four days for the people in 
Sibuyan to reach Tablas, whereas Romblon could be reacned from 
any pail in two days. He agreed with the presidente of Romblon as 
to salaries, at least until the resources of tne province were known, 
when they could be raised if found desirable. He thought $2 gold per 
day sufficient for ti-aveling expenses if a launch was provided by the 
government. He believed that it would be well to have quarterly 
meetings of the presidentes, if possible; but^if not, then every six 
months. He agreed that it would be well to annex the island of Carabao. 

Most of the representatives here stated that they agreed fully with 
the remarks of the first speaker, the presidente of Romblon. 

Senor Adriano Rios, secretary of ban Fernando, asked in the name 
of the presidente and councilors of Sibuyan that the Commission do 
not change the capital from Romblon to Tablas. He agreed with the 
presidente of Romblon as to salaries, as to quarterly meetings of presi- 
dentes, and as to the advisability of annexing the island of Carabao. 

The Commission then adjourned until 3 p. m. 

Afternoon session. 

The session was called to order by the president at 3 o'clock and the 
following amendments proposed to the special bill: 

Add to title of act the words " Romblon as therein defined." 

Strike out words in section 1 following the word ^'territory " in line 
3, and add the following: " embracing the islands of Romblon, Tablas, 
Sibuyan, Banton, Maestro de Campo, and Simare, heretofore known 
as the district of Romblon, together with the island of Carabao, with 
such exceptions, modifications, and supplementary provisions as are 
hereinafter contained." 

Insert as salaries in section 2 the following: 

Governor $1,200 

Secretary 900 

Treasurer 1 , 500 

Supervisor 1, 300 

Fiscal 1,000 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 69 

Insert as amount of traveling expenses, $2 in money of the United 
States. 

Insert in section 3 as amount of bond, $7,600. 

Insert in section 5 as capital of province, the town of Romblon. 

The amendments proposed were adopted. The question then being 
upon the passage of the bill as amendea, the secretary was directed to 
call the roll. The bill was unanimously passed. 

The president then announced the following-named persons as the 
appointees of the Commission to the various provincial offices: Gov- 
ernor, Evan M. Johnson, major. Twenty-ninth Infantry; secretary, 
Comelio Madrigal; treasurer, A. S. Williams, captain, Twenty -ninth 
Infantry; supemsor, S. H. Hopson, second lieutenant, Forty -sixth 
Infantry; fiscal, Simson Davidos y Dones. 

In making the appointment of governor the president explained here, 
as in Tayabas, that it was the policy of the Commission to name a native 
of the province for governor on the theory that the inhabitants would 
prefer a native. In tnis instance, however, the Commission had received 
a petition from the towns of Romblon, asking that Major Johnson be 
appointed provincial governor. It was the wish of the Commission to 
comply always with me desires of the people, so far as it was possible 
for it to do so. 

The oath of office was then administered by Chief Justice Arellano 
to Mfdor Johnson, governor; Comelio Madrigal, secretary, and Cap- 
tain Williams, treasurer, and a commission was delivered to Sr. Mad- 
ri^l. 

The president explained that until July 1, or until Major Johnson 
and Captain Williams resumed civil life, no commission would be 
issued to them, as they would act under military detail. It was also 
explained that until they became civilians their salaries would be paid 
by the United States Government and would form no charge against 
tiieprovince. 

Upon the request of the president, speeches were made by Chief 
Justice Arellano and by General Flores, director of the Federal party. 

The president, after again thanking the people for their kindness 
and for the intelligent manner in which they had assisted the Commis- 
sion, declared the session adjourned. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Ferousson, 

/Secretary. 

United States Philippine Commission. 

MINUTES OF proceedings. 

Masbate, Island of Masbate, 

Monday^ March 18, 1901. 
Present: Commissioners Worcester, Wright, Ide, Moses, and the 
president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 9.25 a. m., and 
the roll of the pueblos of the islands of Masbate, Ticao, and Burias 



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70 REI^OBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

was called by the secretary. The following representatives were 
present: 

Masbate: 

Municipal alcalde D. Graspar Znrbito. 

Secretary D. Bonifacio Serrano. 

Teniente alcalde D. Isidro P. de Lijota. 

Sindico D. NarsiBO Guerra. 

Treasurer D. Joaquin Maria Bayot 

Councilors D. Gregorio Medina. 

D. Joaquin M. B. y Dominguez. 

D. Sotero Medina. 

D. Narciso Medina. 

D. Remigio C. Espinosa. 

D. Ancelmo Danao. 

D. Higinio Fernandez. 

Mobo: 

Monicipal alcalde D. Andres Kamirez. 

Secretary D. Ambrosio Cervantes. 

Sindico D. Mateo Cervantes. 

Treasurer D. Gregorio del Castillo. 

Councilors D. Inocendo Ramos. 

D. Juan Vargas. 
D. Justo Cervantes. 
D. Justo Gigante. 
D. Atilano Kamirez. 
D. Santiagp Tugbo. 
D. Augustin Sanipaga. 
San Fernando: 

Teniente alcalde D. Bonifacio Dominguez. 

Secretary D. Gregorio Briones. 

Councilors D. Eugenio Alindingan. 

D. Pearo Catanduanes. 
D. Isidoro Cantuba. 
D. Jose Medina. 
San Jacinto: 

Municipal alcalde D. Juan Alatarejos. 

Teniente alcalde D. Bartolome Bolo. 

Councilors D. Diego Villamor. 

D. Maximo Llamas. 
D. Felipe Castillejos. 
D. Manano Villamor. 
Baleno: 

Vice-president D. Francisco Baldemoro. 

Magdalena: 

President D. Jose de la Rosa. 

San Agustin: 

President D. Valentin Caparina. 

Palanduta: 

President D. Jose Alvarez. 

Mandaon: 

President D. Perfecto Asuero. 

Milagros: 

President D. Pedro de Jesus. 

Treasurer D. Perfecto Amenc 

Palanas: 

President D. Juan Alvares. 

Uson: 

Treasurer D. Calixto Libol. 

Malbug: 

President D. Galicano Pelino. 

Cataingan: 

President D. Marcos Acuesta. 

Placer: 

President D. Edmigio Ceclera. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 71 

Binalbag^n: 

President D. Isaac Aorelio. 

Councilors D. Pedro J ulo. 

D. Manuel Palacio. 
Ptdanoc: ' 

D. Narciso Guevara. 

D. Remiffio Espinosa. 

Valladolid: 

President D. Juan de la Cruz. 

Representatives D. Fernando Alapa. 

D. Carlos Infante. 
D. Pedro Montilla, 
D. Atanasio Bustamante. 
Hoy: 

President D. Kaymundo Villalba. 

The president then explained to the representatives the provisions 
of the General Provincial Act, the provisions of the special bill apply- 
ing such act to the province, and those provisions of the municipal 
code affecting the question of taxation. It was stated that the object 
of the present trip of the Commission, which was possibly a longer 
trip than any puolic officer had taken through the Islands, was to 
acquaint the Commission with the local needs of the various peoples of 
Uie Islands. The bill was then fead for a third time and a full discus- 
sion invited as to the matters touched upon by the president, as also a 
presentation of the local needs of the various pueblos. 

Senor Bonifacio Serrano, of Masbate, stated tnat the lands of the prov- 
ince of Masbate were not sufficiently cultivated to support a land tax, 
and the imposition of such a tax would tend to retard the development 
of such lands. The people at present simply raised enough sweet 

Sotatoes for their use. There were some large rice paddies, out they 
id not produce much. The land did not produce much, not enougn 
for the needs of the people. Much of the land, both public and private, 
was used for cattle grazing. Good pasture land was worth three pesos 
per hectare. He stated tnat one-fourth or one-fifth of the lana was 

Erivate and the remainder public. There was little private timber 
tnd. Masbate produces very little copra. Some hemp is produced in 
Ticao. The principal industry of Masbate has been cattle I'aising, 
between 4,000 and 5,000 head being shipped annually before the war. 
A tax of 40 cents Mexican was levied on every head shipped to Manila. 
Cattle brought in 1896 and 1896 $20 per head. Over three-fourths of 
the cattle and carabao in the province have died of the pest. Did not 
think that ten years would suffice for the province to recover from its 
loss in this reeard. Other products shipped were abaca and timber, 
though in small quantities. A small tribute was collected from export- 
ers of abaca and from 1 to 2 cents per cubic foot from exporters of 
timber. First and second class timoer was worth 60 cents per cubic 
foot on shipboard and third-class 40 cents. The death of cattle and 
carabao affected the timber industry, making transportation difficult. 
He thought the disease among cattle was abating slowly, though some 
were still dying. He understood there were some coal deposits near 
the port of Catain^n. Said there were few cocoanut trees. There 
was some tobacco mised, but little exported. Said that prohibition to 
cut timber on public lands would afl'ect the people seriously, as 
perhaps three-fourths of them were dependent upon that business 
for their livelihood. The land cleared from timber was used for 
pasture land. He admitted that this privilege was sometimes abused, 



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72 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

the people not remaining on the cleared land after it had grown 
up m ^'cogon." Some firewood was exported. Had heard there 
were mineral deposits in the pro\dnce, but they had not been 
worked. Said the limits of private and public land were well marked, 
in many cases by monuments. The boundaries of the province were 
discussed, it being stated that it should include Buritts, Ticao and 
Masbate, as also certain small adjacent islands. Burias was not repre- 
sented at the meeting. Said that Burias was inhabited by Bicols and 
Visayans, who enjoyed a rather bad reputation. Said that Burias was 
as convenient to Masbate as to any other province. He proposed as 
salaries: Governor, $120 Mexican per month; secretary, $80 Mexican; 
treasurer, $80 Mexican; supervisor, $100; and fiscal, $120. Traveling 
expenses from $3 to $5 Mexican per day, exclusive of water transpor- 
tation. Thought they should have a launch; had one in Spanish times, 
cost of running being 300 pesos per month. He thought the presi- 
dentes could meet four times a year without diflBculty, and that 
the capital should remain at Masbate. Said there were other good 

?[)rts, but none so central. There were no provincial buildings, 
here was a foundation of a government building commenced by the 
Spaniards. The former government building had been burned by the 
insurrectos. They could rent a building until money was raised to 
build a new one; that a house similar to that in which the meeting was 
held would cost from $120 to $130 Mexican per month. 

SeiXor Andres Ramirez, presiderite of Mobo, favored including Burias 
in the province of Masbate. It would add to the revenues and this 
was essential. Said Burias produced some tobacco, but its inhabitants 
were mostly thieves. He agreed with the first speaker as to salaries, 
but said they would have to correspond to the revenues. Said that 
Mobo had a population of 2,300 and was the nearest pueblo to Masbate. 
Said the people of his town raised tubers and some cocoanut. Thought 
the provincial officers should pay their own traveling expenses. 
Favored the quarterly meeting of presidentes and agreed that Masbate 
should be the capital. 

Senor Calixto Libol, treasurer of Uson, agreed as to salaries and 
traveling expenses with the fii'st speaker, also that the capital should 
be Masbate. His people were engaged in raising sweet potatoes and 
other tubers. They also cut and sold firewood and some large timber. 

Sefior Bonifacio Domingues, presidente of San Fernando, agreed 
that Burias should be included in the province. It has considerable 
pasture land and some wood upon it, but did not know as to its mineral 
resources. Very little communication between the islands. Burias 
had but two pueblos. Agreed with first speaker as to salaries and 
thought there should be quarterly meetings of presidentes. 

Sefior Gaspar Zerbito, presidente of Masbate, thought the salaries 
should be proportioned to the revenues. Agreed that Burias should 
be included, -and thought the interests of the people would be as well 
consulted by being annexed to Masbate as to any other province. 
Said that the people about the town of Masbate raised some hemp and 
some cocoanut, also cut timber on public lands. To forbid their cut- 
ting such timber would work great hardship. Said that day laborers 
in the interior towns got 25 to 50 cents per day, including food, while 
in Masbate thev were paid 1 peso per day without food. Stated that 
this had been the wage in Masbate since American occupation. It was 



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REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 73 

formerly 25 to 50 cents with food. The food consisted of rice and fish, 
worth about 10 cents per day. Estimated the cost of completing pro- 
vincial building on plan of Spaniards at $20,000 Mexican. 

Senor Juan Alatarejos, presidente of San Jacinto, agreed with the 
other speakers as to the annexation of Bunas, salaries of provincial 
officera, quarterljr meetings of presidentes and location of caoital. 
The people of his town raised abaca, cocoanuts and " camotes," and 
cut timber. The women did some weaving. Ordinary da3^-wage 25 
cents, with food. The people were glad to work at that rate. Being 
asked whether his people would come to Masbate and work on the 
provincial buildings at that i-ate, he said he did not know whether the 
people would leave their pueblos to work for that wage or not. The 
clotn woven by the women is used locally. Stated ^at they had no 
American troops in San Jacinto, but there were troops in San Fer- 
nando, which was near there. Had a police force and tLat it could be 
depended upon. Had no arms but bofos. Werepaid — sergeants, $6; 
corporals, W:.50, and men, $4 per month each. Tney served all day. 
Some had. lands, most of the people owning small tracts. 

Senor Pedro ae Jesus, presidente of Milagros, stated that the people 
of his town gained a livelihood by agriculture and by fishing. The 
daily wage was 50 cents per day, with K)od. People cut wood on public 
lana for local use. Daily wage before Americans came was 30 cents. 
Agreed with the first speaker as to salaries. 

Senor Juan Alvares, presidente of Palanas, agreed as to salaries. 
His people raised cocoanuts, camotes and hemp. Also engaged in 
wooci cutting. He had not lived in Palanas since last August. 

Senor Jose de la Rosa, of Magdalena, agreed with other speakers as 
to salaries. Said his town was small. Had a police force which was 
able to protect them against evil doere. People lived mostly on tubers 
which they raised. Cut wood for their own use only. Had no cattle 
there since the plague. Daily wage 25 cents, Mexican, same as 
formerly. 

Senor Francisco Baldemoro, vice-presidente of Balino, said they had 
no cattle living now. Principal industry, agriculture. Raised corn 
and sweet potatoes and a little tobacco. Had force of 25 police, but 
not enough to protect against large force of ladrones, as they have no 
arms. 

Senor Valentin Caparina, presidente of San Agustin, town nearest 
Burias, said he had never been there, but had seen people from there, 
fishermen. Said there was little trade between Masbate and Burias. 
Said that ladrones frequently came over from Burias; that if police 
force had aims could protect his town. Daily wage, 50 cents, with 
food. Had been this since miners came. Said there was gold. Did 
not know how long miners had been there. Thought they were Eng- 
lishmen. Wages before miners came, 25 cents. 

Senor Perfecto Asuero, presidente of Mandaon, said Mandaon was 
small town. Cattle raising was principal industry, but most had died 
by disease. They raised corn, tobacco, "camotes" and cut firewood. 
Exported some firewood, also some tobacco. Did some fishing. 
Women wove cloth for local use. Daily wage, 50 cents with food. 
Has been that for five years. Before that was 25 cents. Increase 
caused by coming of vessels into that port. 

Senor Glalicano Pelino, presidente or Malbug, said his town had 700 



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74 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

inhabitants. All cattle had died. People raised corn and "camotes^ 
and cut wood, not for export. Favored Masbate as capital. 
The Commission then adjourned until 4 o'clock p. m. 

Afternoon session. 

The session was called to order by the president at 4 o'clock, who 
stated that the Commission had had great difficulty in adjusting the 
general provincial act to Masbate, owing to the scarcity of its resources, 
due to the war and cattle disease. In order to fit the provincial law to 
the peculiar conditions of the province the president offered the fol- 
lowing amendments to the special bill: 

Strike out all words in section 1, following word "government" in 
line 3, and insert following: '*In the territory of the islands of Mas- 
bate, Ticao and Burias, and all the small outlying adjacent islands, 
before known as the district of Masbate, with such exceptions, modi- 
fications and supplementary provisions as are hereinafter contained." 

Amend section 2 as follows: 

After words "provincial governor" insert as salary the sum of 
$750. 

Strike out the words "For the provincial secretary." 

After words "provincial treasurer" insert as amount of salary, 
$1,200. 

After "provincial supervisor," $720. 

Strike out words "for the provincial fiscal." 

Insert as amount allowed for traveling expenses "$2, money of the 
United States." 

Insert as bond of treasurer in section 3, "$4,000." 

Insert in section 5 as capital of province "the town of Masbate." 

Insert as section 6 to the bill the following: 

Sec. 6. In the province of Masbate the provincial governor shall discharge the 
duties of the provincial secretary, and the duties of provincial fiscal shall be dis- 
chai^ged by the provincial fiscal of the province of Romblon, for which he shall receive 
from the treasury of the province of Masbate the sum oi $200 in money of the United 
States per year and his traveling expenses between Komblon and Masbate. 

Make present section 6 I'ead "section 7." 

The president stated that under the special bill as proposed the 
expenses of the province for salaries would be $2,840 — less than half 
what was provided in any other province organized. 

The amendments were adopted. 

The question then being upon the passage of the bill, the secretary 
was directed to call the roll. The bill was unanimously passed. 

The president then announced the foUowing-namea persons as 
appointees of the Commission for the provincial oflSces: Governor, 
Bonifacio Serrano; secretary, Bonifacio Serrano; treasurer, Charles 
Snider, jr., lieutenant, Twentv-seventh Infantry; supervisor, George 
Landers, coi*poral. Second Infantiy; fiscal, same as Romblon. 

In naming the governor the president stated that the Commission had 
been embarrassed in making the appointment owing to the amount of 

food material in the province; that as between the two gentleman who 
ad been most prominently named for the position, ^nors Sermno 
and Zerbito, the Commission had named the rormer because the latter 
was already discharging impoi*tant duties (presidente of Masbate). 

It was explained to them that the appointee for treasurer would draw 
his pay from the United States Government until the 1st of July. 



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BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 75 

The oath of office was then administered to Sefior Serrano, governor, 
and to George Landers, supervisor, by Chief Justice AreUano, and 
commissions delivered to them by the president. 

Addresses were then delivered by Chief Justice Arellano, General 
Flores, Dr. Tavera, and Don Julio Llorente, justice of the supreme 
court, and by SeSor Serrano, the new governor of the province. 

The president announced that Sefior Caspar Zerbito would be 
appointed chairman of the committees of organization for the pueblos 
of the province, with the exception of the town of Masbate, in which 
town tne new governor will be appointed. 

The session was then declared aajoumed. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Febgusson, Secretary, 

United States Philippine CoionssiON. 

MINUTES OF PROCEEDINGS. 

Iloilo, Island of Panay, March W^ 1901. 

Present: Conunissioners Worcester, Wright, Ide, Moses, and the 
president. 

The Conunission held an informal meeting this afternoon with the 
people of Doilo. The session was called to order bv the president at 
4 p. m., who stated that the Commission was with the people of Iloilo 
at this time not so much to visit Iloilo as to visit Negros; that it 
expected to return to Iloilo on the 10th of April, when a provincial 
government would be organized for the province. The president com- 
plimented the people on the pacific condition of their province, brought 
about through the good sense and ability of General Hughes, assisted 
bv the people themselves. He stated that as the Commission had gone 
about tnrough the islands it had received evidences everywhere that 
peace is at hand, because the people wish peace. All that the Conunis- 
sion wanted was an opportunity to show to the people, by the govern- 
ment it proposed to establish, what its desires toward the people of 
these islands were; that the people could not understand what the Gov- 
ernment of the United States is until civil government is established 
under its sovereignty. The president then introduced to the audience 
in turn Chief Justice Arellano, Commissioner Worcester, Dr. Tavera, 
Don Julio Llorente, and General Flores, who made addresses to the 
people. An address in response, thanking the Commission for its com- 
ing and for the great work it was doing for the islands, was made by 
Sefior Villanueva, of Iloilo. The meeting then adjourned. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fergusson, Secretary. 



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76 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

United States Philippine Commission, 
minutes of proceedings. 

Bacolod, Island of Negros, March 2i, 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Wright, Ide, Moses, and tlie 
president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 9 a. m. and the 
roll of the pueblos called. Representatives as follows were present: 

Bacolod Represented by the city council 

and a lai^^e delegation of the 
leading citizens of the town. 
Granada Don Domingo Valleetero. 

Don Bibiano Gensoli. 

Don Felipe Toreno. 

Don Paulino Olimpo. 

Don Marcelo Dimafelis. 

Don Francisco Sichon. 

Don Inocentes Idemne. 

Don Feliciano Alintana. 

Don Felipe Ramirez. 
Sumag Don Pedro Clandad. 

Don Severino Maquilan. 

Don Felipe Gison. 

Don Nicanor Villarosa. 

Don Doroteo Gomez. 

Don Nicolas Claridad. 
Talisay Don Pelagio Ilemaez. 

Don Gregorio Treyes. 

Cadiz Don Francisco Al>elarde. 

Sagay Don Angel Puey. 

Valladolid Don Juan de la Cruz. 

Don Pablo Yanson. 

Don Eleno Corral. 

Don Francisco Infante. 

Don Fernando Mapa. 

Don Carlos Infante. 

Don Pedro Monti 11a. 
Saravia Don Carlos Magalona. 

Don Roman Ladesma. 

Don Sulpicio Gustilo. 

Don Vicente Ardosa. 

Don Agustin Miranda. 

Don Gonzalo Opilena. 

Don Marcos de la Rama. 

Don Jose Pendta. 
Bago Don Federlco Canet. 

Don Emiliano Trinidad. 

Don Eustracio Torros. 

Hog Don Raymundo Villalba. 

San Enrique Don Hermenegildo Belmonte. 

Don Marcos Lanzas. 

Don Apolonio Garcia. 

Don Pedro Garcia. 
La Carlota Don Montano Virto. 

Don Modesto Colmenares. 
Cabancalan Don Enric^ue Inventor. 

Don Fermin Rivas. 
Escalante Don Juan Infante. 

Don Vicente Jigalan. 
Silay Don Dominso Locsin. 

Don Alejandro Montelivano. 

Eight councilors. 



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:rbpoet of the Philippine commission. 77 

Pulupandan Don Eugenio Veragut. 

Don Jose Ortidiz. 

Don Jose Montilla. 

Don Carlos Borromeo. 

Don Antonio Jolola. 

Don Candido Montilla. 
Isabela Don Cenon Rosado. 

Don Rosauro Barroquina. 
Binalbagan Don Pedro Julo. 

Don Isaac Aurelio. 

Don Manuel Palacios. 
Suay Don Manuel Higin. 

Don Juan Montecino. 
Maao Don Cesareo Ortaliz. 

Don Francisco Geolingo. 
Eustaquio Lopez Don Isabelo Goles. 

Don Mariano Lopez. 

Don Albino Gison. 
Pontelbedra Don Severino Cuison. 

Don Fructuoeo Morin. 
Guimbalaon Don Demetrio Gramboa. 

Don Vicente Gam boa. 
Castellana Don Jose Rohles. 

Twenty -four tx)wns of Oriental Negros were represented by Lopez 
Vito, representative of the first district, and a representative of the 
second aistrict, who presented their credentials as such representa- 
tives. There were afeo large delegations from neighboring pueblos 
who did not appear as official representatives of the towns. 

The president thanked the people for the reception accorded the 
Qjmmission by the citizens of Negros, and stated that the Conunission 
had long looked forward to the pleasure of this meeting; that the poople 
of Negros were entitled to the gratitude of the people of the United 
States for having been the first to credit the sincerity of the motives of 
the United States in coming to these islands, a confidence which had been 
rewarded bv giving them a more autonomous government than had 
been extended to any other of the islands and securing to them a con- 
dition of P®8^® ft^d tranquillity enjoyed in no other part of the archi- 
pelago. The government given them, however, had oeen formed with 
a view to certain peculiar circumstances. Practically all the rest 
of the archipelago was in a state of insurrection. Negros was far 
removed from Manila, and so it was necessary to give it more or less 
the form of an independent state. For this reason it had to have 
more officials and its expenses were greater than they would have been 
had it formed simply a part of a large central government. There 
was one feature, however, which the condition of war surrounding the 
island made necessaiy, and that was a military governor of the island 
with veto powers. A second stage had now teen reached, however, 
in the formation of the general government of the islands. The insur- 
rection is in a state of collapse. (The president here enimierated the 
recent surrenders and captures throughout the archipelago.) It is 
expected that within a very few months a central civil government 
will be established. This being the case, the Commission nas entered 
upon the work of establishing civil governments in the various prov- 
inces of the islands so that the transfer may be eflFected without a jar. 
The Commission had come to Bacolod to inquire into the conditions 
here existing, and to see how the island might be made a part of the 
central civil government hereafter to be established. The (jommission 
recognized to the fuU the debt of gratitude owing to the loyal people 



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78 BBPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION". 

of Negros, aijd for this reason it did not care to take any step which 
would aflPect the people without giving a full opportunity for discus- 
sion. It was explained that the Commission ha^ adopted a General 
Provincial Act, but that such act did not apply to a province by virtue 
of its own provisions, but that it was necessary to pass a special act 
giving it effect. In this special law provisions could be inserted vary- 
ing the provisions of the general law, and the question now before 
the Commission was, whether by such special law the general provin- 
cial law could be made applicable to the island of Negros in such a 
way as to meet the views of the people and the requirements of the 
special conditions. In order that the people might have before them 
the necessary information and data, the president explained in detail 
the provisions of the general provincial law and those provisions of 
the Municipal Code relating to taxation. Also, the relation of the 
provincial governments to the central civil government which was 
shortlv to be established. In this connection it was pointed out 
that the relation of Negros to the central government could not be 
the same as that of the other provinces if it remained as a semi- 
independent state; for that reason it was the hope of the Commission 
that the government of Negros in its relation to the central govern- 
ment might be uniform with that of the other provinces, but thiat 
the Commission did not come with ideas of what should be done in 
Negros, but with a desire to follow as nearly as might be the wishes 
of the people of the island. The question was therefore submitted to 
them for consideration and discussion, as also the additional (][uestion 
whether the island should continue as one province or be divided, as 
formerly, into Negros Oriental and Negros Occidental. 

Senor Molesio Severino, governor of Negros, delivered a speech of 
welcome to the Commission and party, expressing in the highest terms, 
in the name of the people of the island of Negros, his appreciation of 
the grand work which the Commission was doing throughout the islands. 
He spoke of what Negros had done to show its appreciation and loyalty 
and promised more for the future, stating that her people confided in 
the great American nation as an infant confided in its mother. The 
president responded briefly to this address and invited discussion upon 
the questions before the convention. 

Senor Vicente Franco, of Bacolod, stated that he had been requested 
to represent before the Commission the following towns: Silay, Valla- 
dolid, Bago, Ginigaran, Guimbalaon, Bacolod, Pulupandan, Maao, 
Mureia, and Soledad, and other towns which had no legal representa- 
tive in the meeting had requested him to speak for them. He stated 
that these towns, without exception, urged upon the Commission the 
establishment in Negros of the civil provincial government which had 
been established in other provinces of the archipelago. The people 
had been loyal and as a reward for this they asked a good and economic 
government. The speaker then referred to the existing government as 
top-heavy and as paying exorbitant salaries. He said the people wished 
for twenty-four English schools implanted in the island at once, there 
being none at the present time. He then dwelt at length upon the 
necessity for schools and the benefits which would accrue from implant- 
ing them in the islands. He said the roads of the island were no good, 
and under the existing government they could not be constructed 
because all the money went to pay salaries. He stated that, according 
to the census of 1897, the population of Negros was 375,000; but, by 



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BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 79 

reason of the war, that many people had taken refuge there, and he 
thought the population was now about half a million. It was his opin- 
ion that it would be better to divide the island into two provinces, but 
did not know the views of those residing on the east coast. At this 
point the two representatives of Oriental Negros presented a petition, 
asking on behalf of eastern Negros that the islana be divided into two 
provinces; this, by reason of the inconvenience to eastern Negros, 
should it be organized as one province, with capital at Bacolod. The 
president of the Commission also read a telegram from Senor Larena, 
in charge of public instruction of the island, and residing at Duma- 
guete, stating that the people of the east coast desired a separate pro- 
vincial government. 

Senor Franco then continued his remarks, speaking further upon 
the school question and bewailing the lack of English teachers. He 
was interrupted by one of the secretaries of the school board of the 
island, who stated that English was now being taught by soldiers in 
eight towns of the island and that in Bacolod an English female teacher 
was employed. The president stated that the general superintendent 
of public instruction had been authorized to bring to the islands dur- 
ing the present year 1,000 American teachers and that they would be 
idistributed among the islands as far as possible; that the Commission 
regarded this eagerness of the i>eople for schools that have English 
teachers as one of the best signs for the success of the work with 
whjph the Americans are charged in forming a government in these 
Islands. The president then explained to the people the diflFerent pro- 
visions ol the educational bill and developed the purposes of the Com- 
mission with respect to education. 

Senor Franco proposed the following as salaries to be paid the 
provincial officers for Occidental Negros: Governor, $2,000; secre- 
tary, $1,500; treasurer, $1,500; supervisor, $1,500; fiscal, $1,000. 

Kef erring further to the school question, Senor Franco stated that 
he had reiui in the Manila papers that the parish priests of Negros 
mixed in school matters and that the provisions of the law separating 
the schools from the church was not given practical effect. He wished 
to take issue on this point and stated that the parish priests had noth- 
ing whatever to do with the schools of Negros at this time. He said 
that thev did not want the friars; that they were more dreaded than the 
pest of locusts. 

Senor Felix M. Roxas, of the Democi-acia, Manila, explained how 
the press of Manila came to make the statement quoted — that the 
papers had simply quoted the president of the Commission, who, in 
introducing section 15 of the educational bill, treating of religious 
instruction in the schools, had stated that the law divorcing the public 
schools and the church in Negros had proven futile. The president 
admitted having made the remark referred to, but stated that it was 
made on the strength of a statement of General Smith, formerly gov- 
emor-of Negros, who had reported that the law in question was vio- 
lated in many of the schools. 

Senor Franco thought the provision for a quarterly meeting of the 
presidentes a good one. 

The session then adjourned until to-morrow morning, March 22, at 
9 a. m. 

Attest: A. W. Fergusson, Secretary. 



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80 repobt of the philippine commission. 

United States Philippine Commission. 

MINUTES OF proceedings. 

Bacolod, Island of Negros, March ^^, 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Wright, Ide, Moses, and the 
president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 9 a. m., and fur- 
ther discussion invited as to the form oi government to be given to 
the island of Negros. 

Senor Ramon Orozoc, of Bacolod, while believing 'that the govern- 
ment of Negros as at present organized furnished a more autonomous 
system than would result if it were organized under the general pro- 
vincial law, was in favor, nevertheless, of bringing the island within 
the general law. This because it did not have the means to properly 
support its present government and because he did not think tne island 
should be isolated in its form of government when considered in con- 
nection with the remainder of the archipelago. He also favored 
dividing the island into two provinces. He was in accord with the 
proposed land tax. believing as he did that those who had more should 
pay more toward the support of the government. He called attention 
to the fact, however, that lands adjacent to the towns of Castellana, 
Isabela, Carlota, Gininbalaon, and Binalbagan had suffered severely, 
over one hundred haciendos having been burned during the wary and 
it would be diflScult for them to meet the land tax. The president 
explained that the assessment would not be made until next summer- 
that the collection would not take place until March of next year, ana 
that provision was made to postpone the collection for still another year 
where it could be shown that a crop was not harvested by reason oi 
the war. The speaker said that no crop could be harvested until 
December, 1902, if work was begun at once. It was also explained 
that under our system of taxation a tax upon the land included all the 
fixtures attached to the land as permanent improvements. He thought 
the tax proposed by the code an equitable one, but referred to the 
fact that most of the planters were without money and were compelled 
to borrow at rates oi interest mnging from 20 to 30 per cent per 
annum. He also thought some provision should be made for taxing 
the proletariat classes, otherwise the burden would all fall upon the 
land!ed proprietors, which would not be just. Referring to tne sub- 
ject of education, he did not think the present system in Negros left 
anything to be desired. He referred to the town of Bago, where 
there are over four hundred children attending school. The presi- 
dente of that town had paid money out of his own pocket for cloUiing, 
so that the children might appear decently attired; and all this upon 
the initiative of the present government of Negros. 

Senor Franco here stated that in his remarks of j^estcrday he did 
not want to attack the present school system, but siniply to point out 
that it was not organized according to American or English systems. 
He thought that as Negros was the hrst island to become Americanized 
and to accept the American flag, it ought, after two years of this rule, 
to have schools where English is spoken. The president here stated 
that the question of education ana its necessity was one upon which 
all were agreed. He would, therefore, with the permission of the 



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REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 81 

speaker, call upon Sefior Jos^ Luzuria^, auditor of Negros, for a 
report as to the financial standing of the island. 

Senor Luzuriaga read to the Commission the report of the treasurer 
of the island, submitted to the governor on the Slst of December of 
last year, showing the condition of the treasury at that time. The 
expenditures appropriated by the council and approved by the military 
governor for the year of 1900 amounted to 1294,758.75, Mexican. 
This was divided as follows: 

1 . Judicial system $25, 530. 50 

2. Civil governor and council 24, 717. 43 

3. Treasury department 6, 317. 35 

4. Interior department 58, 041. 80 

5. Departmentof agriculture 38,022.00 

6. Public instruction 143, 580. 00 

7. Attorney-general 4, 599. 77 

8. Auditor^s office 5,582.00 

9. Governor of .Oriental Negros 8,570.00 

The above represents an appropriation based upon the budget. The 
following were the total expenditures: 

Judicial department $24, 269. 65 

Governor and council 20, 572. 96 

Treasurer 6, 075. 67 

Interior department 49, 066. 81 

Agricultural department 10, 147. 21 

Public instruction 32,560.47 

Attorney-general 404. 39 

Auditor'^s office 5,142.46 

Oriental Negros 6,005.13 

Senor Luzuriaga stated that there is now in the treasury $70,781. 
Of the amount expended $10,000 was used in the repair of roads and 
bridges. No public buildings had been built. There were three 
supreme judges, the president receiving $8,600 and the remaining *wo 
$3,000 each. The actual receipts for the year were $201,549.46; of 
this amount $70,255.37 was received from cedulas. Oriental Negros 
contributed to the island revenues the sum of $57,014.37. The 
greater portion of the expenditures was for payment of government 
officers and their subordinates and for material. The above revenue 
is independent of that raised by the municipalities for their local use. 
Municipalities are entitled to one-third of the cedula tax and 22 per 
cent of the industrial tax. The sums stated above include the whole 
of the industrial tax and two-thirds of the cedula tax. The speaker 
stated there were 58 pueblos in the Island. Under the laws of the 
island these pueblos are divided into three classes, based upon the 
number of taxpavere. fiach pueblo has a president, vice-president, 
and treasurer, while those of the first class have 12 councilmen, ot 
the second class, 10, and of the third class, 6. The sources of munici- 
pal revenue are those which existed in Spanish times and those men- 
tioned in General Order No. 40, with some modifications. The 
president stated that this information was desired to enable the Com- 
mission to decide whether it was possible to adapt the present system 
of municipal government in Negros to that provided by the municipal * 
code without the necessity for new elections. It was the general 
opinion of the audience that if this could be done it would be better 
than to hold new elections. Senor Luzuriaga stated that the estimated 
receipts for the present year were $384,000, and the estimated expen- 
ditures $271,395, the principal item of increase in revenue being in 
cedulas, representing tne uncollected cedula tax of last year, amount- 

P C 1901— PT 2 6 °9'^'^^ by LaOOgle 



82 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

ing to $73,176. The actual estimated revenue for this year is less than 
for last year, as the government did not believe the people were in a 
condition to pay; while there was much sugar land under cultivation, 
this would not yield until December. If this crop of sugar was har- 
vested it would not amount to more than one-half the former maxi- 
mum yield. The greatest yield heretofore has been about 2,000,000 
piculs; this year, if everything remains good, it may be 1,000,000 
piculs. 

Senor Leandro Locsin, secretary of the interior, in answering an 
inquiry as to the condition of the roads and bridges throughout the 
island, said they were very defective. He said Qiere was no road 
around the island and no general system of road building had been 
entered upon because they had no expert to manage the work and no 
money. 

Senor Adriana Hernandez, representing the towns of Sarvia, Eusta- 
qui Lopez, Sumag, Cabancalan, Escalante, and Victoria, stated that the 
people of these towns were in favor of placing the island under the 
general provincial law, and that same should go into force as provided 
m section 4 thereof; that the present government be continued in the 
meantime under a special law, thus avoiding the necessity of a new 
election within so short a time after the organization of the new gov- 
ernment, and also as an expression of confidence in the old government, 
which he felt had conducted itself with justice. He thought that the 
present budget should be continued, that the estimated revenue might 
be collected. He asked, on behalf of the people whom he represented, 
that one-half of the cedula tax go to the municipalities. The town of 
Escalante also asked for one normal school-teacher. 

Senor Ramon Trias, of Carlota, stated that his people were all in 
favor of establishing a provincial government in Negros, and that he 
wi^ in entire accord with the i-emarks of Mr. Orozco, the first speaker. 
The duties of the assessment board in connection with the levying of 
the land tax were explained to him and copies of the municipal code 
promised. The speaker thought the assessment board woula not be 
posted on land values, and suggested the appointment of a board of 
planters. It was explained to him that the election of these oflScers 
was in the hands of the people and it was to be supposed they would 
elect persons who were acouainted with local conditions. He said his 

Sjople would like fewer officers, well paid and elected by the people, 
e thought that the salaries suggested yesterday were too small, and 
proposedthe following: Governor, $2,500; secretary, $1,500; treasurer, 
12,000; supervisor, $1,500; fiscal, $2,000. He thought $1 gold per day 
enough for traveling expenses, but finally agreed that $2.50 would be 
more equitable. There appeared no question but that Bacolod should 
be the capital. 

In answer to an inquirv, Senor Luzuriaga said that from January 1 
to March 20 $6,165.86 had been collected account cedula tax — only 
about 15 per cent of the tax. The industrial tax was the only internal- 
revenue tax collected. This went into the treasury of the island, and 
, not to Manila. It appeared that under their present system of taxa- 
tion the owners of large haciendos paid simply a $3 cedula tax. 

Senor Jose Crame, of Bacolod, favored the immediate estab- 
lishment in Negros of a provincial government such as had 
been implanted elsewhere, so that the people could secure civil 
liberties and enioy civil rights, which the present government 
did not afford tnem. He stated that he did not mean to criti- 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 88 

cize those composing the present government as they had perhaps done 
as well as they comd under existing conditions. He asked that the 
new government be formed at once, and that its officers, instead of 
being appointed, be elected by the people. His attention was called 
to the fact that the position oi supervisor had to be filled by a civil 
engineer. He conceded there was no one qualified for this position 
in the province, and stated that he meant only that the governor should 
be elected by the vote of thepeople rather than through the medium 
of the municipal councils. Tne greater expense of sucn a system was 
pointed out to him, but he was assured that if the island of Negros 
wanted to assume this burden the Commission would certainly take the 
matter under careful advisement. The speaker stated that he was 
simply expressing an opinion and not presenting a petition. He stated 
that he could suggest to the Commission the names of persons who 
would properly filTthe office, and asked that he might do so. The pres- 
ident, referring to the statement of the speaker tluit he wished the new 
government established at once, called attention to the fact that the 
existing government had been in operation for nearly two years; that it 
had many different branches, and tnat a great many acts had been passed 
pursuant to powers conferred upon it by the military governor. It was 
pointed out that the provincial law is much more limited in the appli-. 
cation, and the speaker was asked if he did not think its immediate pas- 
sage would be embarrassing in not giving time for the old government to 
close its accounts. The speaker stated that he left this to the wisdom 
of the Commission. The president stated that, in view of the fact that the 
laws would have to be carefully examined to see which apply and which 
have to be repealed, and as Oriental Negros was also interested and 
should be consulted, it would seem wise to wait for a while at least 
before effecting the change. Referring to the matter of the speaker 
naming certain officers for the new government, the president stated 
there could be no objection to this except that others would claim the 
same privilege, and it might embarrass the Commission in choosing 
between the different persons suggested. The speaker was told he 
might present the names in writing and effect the same purpose. The 
speaker withdrew his petition and stated he had intended to propose 
as governor Colonel Miner, now militarv governor of the island. The 
president stated that Colonel Miner had labDred hard for the best inter- 
ests of the island, but now the time had come when he might be excused 
from civil administration; not that he would not make a good gov- 
ernor, but he did not desire the place, and the Commission desired by 
its appointment to show the people of Negros the confidence it had in 
the natives of the island. 

Senor Vicente Gambao, of Silay, urged the immediate implanting of 
civil government. He criticised the present government as anti- 
economic because it expended money which shoiud be devoted to bet- 
terments in the payment of salaries of officers. As to salaries which 
should be paid new officers, he suggested that in case the island was 
divided the governor receive $2,000 and the other officers $1,500 each, 
and that the allowance for traveling be 60 cents Mexican per kilo- 
meter and $2 per day for subsistence. The president explained that 
in other provinces tne Commission had made the salary of the treas- 
urer greater than that of the governor on account of his having more 
work to do and greater responsibility. 

Sefior Antonio Taime, of Bacolod, spoke in behalf of the existing 
government, and while recognizing that the general opinion seemed to 



84 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

favor a change, thought that this should not be done at once, but that 
time should be ^ven to protect vested rights under existing laws, etc., 
giving illustrations of harm that might result should the change be 
made nastily. He referred to the complaint that the present govern- 
ment had too many oflScers, with which he agreed, but called attention 
to the fact that this government was organized on a somewhat independ- 
ent basis and had to have officers perSiining both to the province and 
to a central government. The president stated that the Commission 
appreciated fully the peculiar circumstances under which this govern- 
ment was organized and does not attribute its top-heavy nature or its 
large expenses to the fault of individuals but to the system. He stated 
that the Commission had been very much gratified by the attitude taken 
by the representatives of the people upon the issues which had been 
submitted to them for consideration. 

On behalf of the officials comprising the present government the 
president stated that in a popular government it was understood that 
those who assume the burdens should expect to be criticised by those 
who are not burdened. It appeared clearly, however, that, suitable as 
might have been the present government when organized, the time had 
come when a more economical system should be established. He felt, 
however, that the people of Negros were to be congratulated that in 
the collection of such large revenues as have been collected no scandal 
has attached to any public officer. The president also pointed out the 
difficulty presented to the Commission of eflfecting a change in the exist- 
ing order of affairs without disturbing vested rights or interests. 

The president then moved the adoption of the following resolution, 
embodying his views of the time and manner in which the change of 
government should be effected: 

Resolved, That it is the sense of the Commission that the generalprovincial govern- 
ment act should be made applicable to Occidental Negros and to Oriental N^os as 
separate provinces with certain necessary modifications; that the order of General 
Otis containing the organic laws of the present government of the island of Negros 
be repealed, together with all acts or parts of acts of the legislative councils of the 
existing government which are inconsistent with the provincial government act and 
the special act applying it to the two provinces of Negros; that such repeal shall 
incluae the cedula tax imposed by the l^slative council to take affect from and after 
January 1, 1901^ with a provision for return of such cedula tax already collected, but 
that the Commission reserves the right to impose a modified cedula tax if it may be 
needed to support the government until the land tax shall be available under the 
municipal and provincial codes; that an act shall be passed providing that the munic- 
ipalities as now organized in Negros shall become municipalities under the munic- 
ipal code; that the act making the general provincial government act applicable to 
the provinces of Negros and that extending the municipal code to the municipalities 
of Negros be not enacted until after the Commission snail have visitefl Dumaguete, 
and shall in no event take effect until May 1 ; that in the provincial act provision shall 
be made for an equitable division of funds now in the treasury between the two pro- 
vinces; that except in case of stringent necessities no contracts should be made by 
the oflicers of the present government execution of which will be continued beyond 
the 1st of May next. 

The resolution was adopted unanimously. The president then stated 
that the Commission would make an effort to return to Bacolod to pass 
the act contemplated by the resolution and to announce its appoint- 
menfis. He further stated that the Commission would be glad to receive 
the names of persons suggested for office, directed to it at Damaguete. 

The president then introduced Chief Justice Arellano to the audi- 
ence, wno addressed them. 

The Commission then adjourned. 

Attest: A. W. Fergusson, Secretary. 

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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 85 



8YNOP818 OF INTERVIEW HAD BY THE COMMISSION WITH MAJ. O. J. SWEET, COMMANDING 
OFFICER, JOLO, P. I., MARCH 28, 1901. 

In response to inquiries, Major Sweet stated as follows: 

Slavery among the Moros originates in three ways: by capture, by debt, and by 
heredity. Practically all the slaves favor emancipation. A{)plications for freedom 
are received almost (uuly, eight or ten having been received within the past few days. 
Did not think the slaves were treated with great cruelty; at times were whipped and 
at times killed outright if thev displeased the '^datto '' Being asked whether the 
slaves were used as concubines, ne stated that the term * * concubine * ' was a distinctive 
name applied to an attendant upon the women of the harem ; that the concubine 
was often a slave. All female slaves, however, were always subject to the desires of 
the master; that was reco^^nized by the Koran. Said that a slave followed the 
mother; copld sell father without the mother. Understood there could be marriages 
between slaves by consent of owner. Did not understand that such consent deprived 
owner of right to sell father without mother. There is little privacv in the life of 
the ordinary Moro master, his slave entering his house, being about his person, and 
listening to his conversation without the slightest reluctance or delicacy- In many 
respects slaves, and ^peciall]^ favorite slaves, are treated as members of the house- 
hold. Could not give any idea of the percentage of slaves in the Moro popu- 
lation. He had no means of knowing the Moro population. Did not thmk 
there would be any resistance to the proposition to purchase the slaves and 
abolish the system. He thought this would meet the desires of the people. Thought 
however, there would be great difficulty in determining who were slaves And 
who were not, as under a system of compensation the number would be likelv to 
grow. Some sort of a tribunal would have to be established. Thought it should be 
a board of officers who understood Moro methods and dealing. Thought there was 
no reason why this should not be b^un at once — the sooner the better. Said that 
slavery imposed upon the people social inequality and that the slaves were looked 
down upon. Manumitted slaves could rise to positions of trust and honor if they 
showed themselves competent Cited the case of the man Janarin, who was a slave 
and notorious liar, whose mouth had been slit from ear to ear, but was subsequently, 
though a slave, placed in charge of a village to represent the business interests of his 
master; that is, to collect the tax levied upon the industries of the people. 

Thought the government of the Jolo Archipelago would have to be military for a 
number of years, because there was no one to take charge of the civil affairs. Agreed 
that the beet use possible should be made of the natives. He thought that later on 
it might be possible to have a civil government, with a military force in reserve, as 
distinguished from a military government, but thought the people were too primitive 
for such a government at this time. Did not believe the conditions were the same 
as those prevailing in North Borneo, where they have a civil government. Stated 
that the Sultan regarded himself as in control of the entire archipelago .\nd held the 
dates to be his vassals. The dates for their part insist that he is only the religious 
head. They regard him as weak and doing nothing for the benefit of the country, 
acting solely for his own pleasure and profit This estimate, Major Sweet statecl, 
was correct. Religion is the fountain of tne Moro state. 

Q. Suppose negotiations were to be entered into between the United States Gov- 
ernment and the Moros, could they be satisfactorily concluded with the Sultan alone, 
or would certain datos also have to take part and a^ree to be bound by it? — A. The 
Sultan is too weak to admit of consideration. There is nothing to him. He is 
merely Sultan in name through heredity. He is wholly incapable of self-government 
Any of his subjects are as capable of exercising authority as he if they had his 
advantages. There are datos by heredity and by appointment of the Sultan. They 
have different sections of the country assigned to tnem, in which they live and in 
which they are not disturbed. For this privilege they pay the Sultan certain 
revenues. 

Q. Do you know how many datos there are who would have to be dealt with? — 
A. Take the Tawi Tawi group — there are two datos who would have to be recog- 
nized. In the Siassi group there are two datos who stand high among the Moros. 
In this island there are two prominent datos, Joakinin and Calvi, by heredity. 
There is one dato who is almost in direct line to the sultanate. There are some 
other datos; I don't recall them. Do not think any agreement entered into with 
the Sultan alone would be effective. Do not know how negotiations were carried on 
by which the Sultan of Jolo relinquished all claims to sovereignty over the natives 
of north Borneo. 

(Some discussion was then had concerning a launch needed by Major Sweet in his 
work, and for which requisition had been made. ) 



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86 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE OOMTCISSION. 

Q. Is it yonr idea, Major, that it is possible to hnj out the Sultan and buy out the 
datos by subsidies? — A. I believe so, but I may err in it, 

Q. Could you institute inquiries about it; would it be safe? — A. If I had faith in 
the "schucks" (interpreters^. They might advise against it in the belief that their 
influence would wane with tne fall oi the Sultan. Both myself and oflicerb have not 
complete confidence that they interpret correctly where the subject affects their own 
interests. 

On suggestion, Major Sweet thought it possible that the question of buying up the 
rights ofthe Sultan and the datos and the question ot bu}ring the slaves could be 
included in one proposition. Said the Sultan expected to visit Manila shortly, and 
that that would be a better time to treat with him. The Sultan would have a num- 
ber of petitions to make, and it would be the best time to take up the question of the 
necessities of the |)eople. Stated aeain that the Sultan was a weak man, given over 
to wotnen, and quite unworthy. Had no confidence in him. He had no real force 
which he could set against some of the powerful datos. His only hold was as the 
recognized head of the church. His removal, however, would simply permit some 
dato to put himself forward. 

Major Sweet understood that the Moros of Basilan did not admit any vassalage to 
the Sultan of Jolo; that the same was true of the Moros of Mindanao, who were 
formerly vassals, but they are now strong and powerful, and do not recognize in any 
manner the Sultan of Jolo. 

He stated that there were 1,100 soldiers in the Sulu eroup, about 750 being in 
Jolp. The health conditions of Jolo are better than ever before. To secure clean- 
liness there was house to house visitation. Some malaria. Used distilled water. 
Moros have considerable "calentura." They are comparatively cleanly; keep their 
persons more cleanly than their homes. The fact that they build their houses over 
the water helps to preserve cleanliness. Estimated that there was a superficial area 
of 20 acres within the walls of Jolo. Jolo was formerly a penal colony and most of 
the Filipinos now there are of that class, or their descenaants; were sent for both 
political and other offenses. They are a thieving class. There are few substantial 
men among them. Said he did not permit any Filipinos to live in the Moro village, 
which lies to the left of the town. Some 600 Chinamen in the town of Jolo: nearly 
1,500 inhabitants, including soldiers. Chinamen go all over the island. No hostility 
toward Chinamen and Filipinos; intermarry with Moro women. The Sultan and 
datos are more likely to plunder Chinese than their own people, because the 
Chinese have more money. There are no rich Moros except the Sultan and datos. 
All others are poor. The Sultan is supposed to have considerable wealth in pearls; 
this is also true of the Sultaness. 

Major Sweet thought, under the treaty, the lands of the island belonged to the 
Sultan, because such treaty provided that the United States should not convey land 
lying near the Sultan's village and that it could sell land "with the consent of the 
Sultan." This construction was not concurred in by the Commission. It appeared 
that the question of land titles in the island is now considerably involved. A person 
seeking to buy land would have to treat with the Government, with the Sultan, and 
with the datos. Major Sweet stated the government owned all the land within the 
walls of Jolo. 

Attest: 

A. W. Ferousson, Secretary, 

SYNOPSIS OP INTERVIEW HAD BY THE COMMISSION WITH MARINE OFFICER IN CHARGE 
OF "ISABELA DE BASILAN " AND WITH CERTAIN RESIDENTS OP THE TOWN, MARCH 
29, 1901. 

In response to inquiries, oflScer in charge stated as follows: 

Area of Basilan is about 30 by 20 miles, inhabited in the interior almost entirely 
by Moros, with scattered Filipinos along the coast. The population is estimated at 
about 20,000. 

There is one dato, Pedro Cuevas, with probably subchiefs under him. Cuevas is 
a Filipino, but has adopted Moro customs, dress, and religion. He has a plurality of 
wives. 

Every Moro in the island has a rifie, or at least every family has. Did not think 
they had much ammunition, but there is nothing to prevent their bringing it in on 
the southern coast. 

The Moros are entirely friendly and make no complaint. Pedro Cuevas and a 
Spaniard formerly in the Spanish navy, and who has lived in the island twenty-five 
vears, are partners in the lumber business. Lumber is shipped to Manila and Zam- 
boanga, mostly the cheaper kinds. The only record of lumber shipped is that fur- 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 87 

nished by the Zamboanga custom-house. They have been sending some of their 
timber to 8an Ramon. 

The Moroe are not |)articularly industrious, simply getting enough to live on from 
day to day. They raise some rice, but not sufficient for their needs. All dealings 
of the GovemmeLt with the Moros are had through the dato. He cited a case of 
four or five prisoners escaping from Zamboanga to Bi^lan, who were brought in upon 
request made on Pedro Cuevas. No complaints have been received either of oppress- 
ive charges or personal abuse on the part of the dato. 

Had not discussed with the dato the question of land titles. Did not know what 
rij^hts he claimed in the lands of the islands. He had, however, apparently recog- 
nized the right of the United States Government* to grant licenses, as he himself 
holds one. He seems willing to have the United States exercise chief supervision, 
though as far as the interior of the islands is concerned he exercises complete author- 
ity. He has a bodyguard, anned mostly with rifles. The officer thought that with 
half a dozen men one could safely go all over the island. The Moros, however, are 
all robbers, and it they saw a chance to attack a single man they would not hesitate to 
do so. Cuevas exercises little authority over the mountain Moros. They did not 
mix very much. 

The island of Basi^an \a well watered. 

Did not think slavery existed in the island. Had never heard of selling a man 
from one family to another or holding him for debt. Polygamy is practiced, but did 
not think it existed except where a man was able to support more than one wife. 

The dato of Basilan does not admit /assalage to the Sultan of Jolo, though the 
latter claims it Neither does he admit vassalage to the Sultan of Mindanao. The 
officer referred to the fact that the military authorities had limited the jurisdiction 
of the Navy to the immediate island of Basilan, excluding ♦he island just across the 
strait. As the two form really one island, with interchangeable relations, he thought 
the ruling unwise. There are no municipal governments. There is a treasurer and 
secretary in Basilan appointed by the district commander. Some of the people want 
municipal government while others ask that conditions remain as at present, believ- 
in]B^ that justice will be administered cheaper and better under the existing order of 
things. 

The population of Isabela is estimated: Filipinos, 402; Chinese, 18; Moros, 3; 
American, 1. The American is an ex-sailor; seems to be industrious, and wants a 
license to cut timber. 

The people of Isabela talk very poor Spanish. There are no public buildings 
except sucn as belong to the Navy. The matter of land titles is in very bad shape, 
as the naval court has no jurisdiction to try civil cases. Thought the people could go 
to Zamboanga in cases of imi)ortance. Boats go back and forth almost every day. 
About six cases per month in the provost court, mostly petty crime and theit 
Believes that some of the property about town now claimed by individuals formerly 
belonged to the Spanish Government. Thought large part of island was government 
land. The hom« formerly occupied by the Spanish governor is rented for $25 per 
month from Don Ramon. Some question arose as to whether this house did not in 
fact belong to the Government. Very little machinery or property of any kind in the 
naval station. Presumption that the Spaniards destroyea some of the plant before 
retiring. 

The health of Basilan very good, scarcely any sickness among the men. Water 
brought from spring by aqueduct since last November. Water is also boiled. About 
100 men at Isabela, none at other points. Considerable fever among the natives. 

A native who was called in stated that there was no record of land titles in Zam- 
boanga during the Spanish times, but they have since formed a register from the 
original deeds. The records of Basilan arenow in Zamboanga. Proprietors simply 
have certified copies. They have an industrial tax, and a license tax for stores. Last 
year had cedula tax, but this year none. No urbana tax. Collect about 200 pesos 
per month, not enough to run the town. Can not afford to pay more. Collected 
|50 to $60 from urbana tax in Spanish times, or about $3,000 per annum from all 
sources. 

Said that in Spanish times, as at present, the Moroe were pacific;; that trouble 
threatened once or twice but nothing came ot it. 

Have three municipal schools in municipality. Moros do not attend but have 
school of their own where Koran is taught. Most of them can read and write their 
own language. 

As a rule cultivated land belongs to private parties, uncultivated land to the public. 
Did not think the Moros claimed land outside of towns. 

Said Spaniards had a tribunal but no Government house. Rented this latter, 
which belonged to Don Julio del Rio. 



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88 BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Filipinos have church in town. A Jeeuit priest comes from Zamboanga, some- 
times once a month, sometimes once a quarter. No Filipinos in the interior and but 
about 500 in the island. 

Attest* 

A. W. Fergusson, Secretary, 

SYNOPSIS OF INTERVIEW HAD BY THE COMMISSION WITH CERTAIN FIUPINO REPRESE2*rr- 
ATIVE8 OF THE TOWN OF ISABBLA, MARCH 29, 1901. 

Said they had no trouble with Moros; could go freely through the country. 

Products of island: Copra, coffee, cocoa, and timber. Chief work: Cutting wood; 
fishing confined to the Moros. People of towns engaged mostly in agriculture. 
Present government military, with secretary and treasurer from the j)eople. 

Presented petition to the Commission through officer in charge, asking ^or munici- 
pal government, as follows: 

**The undersigned principales of the town of Isabela, desire to^have a local gov- 
ernment in the pueblo, subject entirelj^ to the general law for the organization of 
municipal governments in the Philippine Islands; and as in this town they do not 
under the present government enjoy the benefits which are accorded bv the said 
law to the other pueblos of the archipelago, they have the honor to send this i)eti- 
tion to the president of the civil commission, asking him, in view of the foregoing, 
that he be pleased to accord them the ri^ht to organize the said government m the 
said town pursuant to the provisions of said law." 

Isabela has three barrios, with population of about 700. Under the provisions of 
the municipal law perhaps 50 people could vote. Did not believe the land-tax pro- 
vision should be applied to Basilan, as agriculture was in its infancy. Thought the 
present tax would support a municipal government. Thought they could get officials 
to serve without salary if income insufficient to nay them. Was told that the peti- 
tion of the people would be considered. 

Attest: A. W. Fergusson, Secretary. 

SYNOPSIS OF INTERVIEW HAD BY THE COMMISSION WITH GENERAL KOBSfi, COLONEL 
PETTIT, AND MAJOR MORRISON AT ZAMBOANOA, AFTERNOON, MARCH 80, 1901. 

In reeponse to inguiries, General Eobb6 stated as follows: The Moros differ in 
character in the different islands and differ in the same island, those near the 
coast being different from those in the interior, owing to contact with Europeans. 
The Moros of Jolo differ from those of Mindanao, speaking a different language. 
Their meeting ground is Malay. The Moros of Mindanao acknowledge no vassal- 
age to the Saltan of Jolo. The hereditary rights of the Saltan of Mindanao have 
lapsed. The Dato Mandi is reputed to be nis heir or successor, but the claim 
amounts to nothing. He may regard it as important, but it gives him little or no 
practical rights or authority. The only datos with whom the United States has 
any political concern are Mandi, in Zamboanga; Piang, Ali, and Utto, in Cotabato. 
Ali IS married to PianK*8 daughter and seems better disposed toward the Ameri- 
cans than formerly. Utto is in Piang's country an<l is the great hereditary dato 
of Mindanao, but, being poor, does not now exercise much influence. 

Knew scarcely anything about the lake Moros. Thought if few shoals were 
taken out of the Rio Grande de Pulangui a steamer could go up into the lake. 

Difficult to segn*egate the territory occupied by Moros from that occupied by 
pagans and other tribes. The lake Moros nave but very few rifles, as the sale of 
arms and ammunition to them is prohibited. Little is known either of the geog- 
raphy of the lake or of the country and people surrounding it 

Captain Hagadom. who has visited the lake, described the country as being 
exceedingly rich, populous, and well cultivated. Some gunboats were taken np 
and sunk in the lake by the Spaniards. Dato Mandi claims to know where they 
were sunk. 

Said the soldiers had no trouble with the natives, bnt thought there would be 
trouble if the whites entered the country in any considerable number, especially 
with the lake Moros. Thought even Mandi has that national Moro feeling that 
the country belongs to them. The lake Moros, however, are especially suspicions 
of white men. The others understand, in a measure, our purposes toward them. 

Had no idea what proportion of the people were slaves; difficult to tell the dif- 
ference between slaves and others, there bemgno well-defined difference, all living 
together as a family. The system was patriarchiai : did not believe it cruel in any 
respect; did not know of slaves being sold from one family into another, except 
where the slave left one master to enter the service of another. Sometimes the 
master complained to the authorities, but the policy of the government was to 
refuse to send the slave back. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 89 

The Jesuit missioDaries have made no impTession on the Moros except to exas- 
perate them. One tribe was excepted, which appeared to have been converted en 



The dato appears to make the laws and execute them. They have a man, how- 
ever, who corresponds to a jtldge, who goes about and tries cases and appears to 
do so with consiuerable care. The accased is either convicted or acquitted on tbe 
spot. Punishment is usually by fine, part of which goes to the person injured. 
Thought most of the trials were fair. ( This was different from information received 
by the Commission in Jolo. ) Did not believe the Sultan had power of life or 
death, but thought if he exercised it nothing would happen. 

Said the Moros practiced polygamy. He did not doubt but that a dato had every 
power over his female slaves, or, for that matter, over most single women of tbe 
tribe whether slaves or not. Most men who could afford i t had more than one wife, 
and a number had concubines. The datos exercised authority in distant towns 
throt^h subchiefs or datos: might be called mandarins. Sometimes it created 
trouble when a Moro separated himself from one dato and joined another and 
sometimes not. Did not think any radical legislation relating to slavery would 
be wise. Would probably give rise to resistance and be ineffective. Did not 
think any scheme of compensation for slaves could be made effective, as everyone 
would get slaves and sell them to the United States, while the real situation would 
continue the same, as few of the slaves care to change their present condition. 
There were individual cases, however, of slaves wishing their freedom. Slavery 
had not been recognized in an official way by the government. When slaves came 
in they were not compelled to return, nor were slaves permitted to be bought. 

The matter of polygamv had not been interfered with or recognized. Thought 
the Moros had a law of inheritance, and that children of iirst wife had preference; 
was a rather complicated system. 

Theoretically the Koran is their religious and political constitution, but this had 
given way to what might be called a law of expediency, there being so many things 
unpoBsible to carry out under the Koran. The priest, or '' pandito,"* as well as the 
dato, had to be consulted on various subjects. The people lived up to their 
religion quite strictly. Dato Mandi lived up to it when with his own people, bat 
when with Americans has been known to lapse. He owns a saloon. He is said 
to have Spanish blood, but this is denied by Mandi. 

The datos from different parts of the island do not appear to hold conferences. 

Did not believe the Moro more industrious than the Filipino. The principal 
industry of the coast Moros is fishing and of interior Moros agriculture. Sold 
their products mostly to the Chinese. The government derives no revenue, 
exports being entirely free. The principal ex])ort8 are gutta-percha and copra. 
No Chinese in the interior; they live in the coast towns. Enscharged soldiers 
going into the interior to look for miner^ have not met with violence; have not 
gone very far, and thought if they were in numbers there would possibly be 
trouble. 

The pagan tribes are different from the Moros and speak a different language. 
They n&ve a good reputation for peacef ulness among both the Moros and Fili- 
pinos. They are not migratory, but live in one place and cultivate the soil to a 
certain extent. They live on or near the rivers when they can. The people in 
most of the coast communities speak some Spanish. There was an insurrecto ele- 
ment on the north coa^t led by Tagalogs. This element has been the most faith- 
ful one chat Againaldo has had. Now that Capistrano has surrendered, it is not 
thought there will be further trouble. 

Thought Utto was the greatest dato, but he is now poor and has lost most of his 
followers. Piang is comparatively young, is vigorous and enterprising, and has 
much money, cattle, land, and slaves, and is probably the most powerful of the 
datos. He is half Chinese. Did not believe that the cattle disease had pre- 
vailed in Piang's territory. Spoke of a certain insurrecto or ladrone still out 
in Misamis. Sisdd that Capistrano had influenced this man to come in. Said 
there were few, if any, public buildings in any of the pueblos of the old provinces. 
Did not believe the expense of building great. They use a soft coral rock, which 
makes good building material and is not as expensive as lumber. Thought if the 
island was divided into two provinces, the capital of the northern province should 
beCagayan, and Zamboanga of the southern. If but one province, mat Zamboanga 
should be the capital. Thought that Zamboanga had the best and most healthful 
climate in the island. Said that Cagayan had been burned down a few years 
before the arrival of the Americans and had not been rebuilt. Thought, however, 
on account of its harbor and situation on a beautiful river, it should be made the 
capita] of the northern province. The inhabitants are Visavans, and when Capis- 
trano surrendered the people wanted to buy him and ship him out of the island, 
as he wafl a Tagalog. 



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90 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Onr soldiers have only come in contact with the pagan tribes at DJavao and have 
had no trouble with them. 

General Eobbe spoke at some length concerning the need of the Department of 
Mindanao of a large laanch or ship; that when the ports were opened again the 
ships of the Cknnpania Maritima would touch at most of the coast towns. 

Attest: 

A. W. Feegusson, Secretary, 

Ck>]onel Pettit has been in the island since December 6, 1899, and has come in 
contact with most of the Moro leaders. Understands the government to be largely 
the will of the dato. Said they had judiciary officers, but did not know the 
extent of their power. Said that the dato did not issue or promulgate laws as 
we do. The dato is supposed to be governed by the Koran, which he interprets 
and translates. In this ne consults the pandito. 

Stated that he had not interfered with the Moro government. That when a 
Moro committed a crime in a territory outside of the domain of the dato he was 
arrested and tried like any other man, and the dato did not question the right of 
the government to do so. Questions between Moros were settled by the dato. 

Said no slaves had appliei to him in Zamboanga for their li berty. In his district 
there had been 6 released altogether. They were Filipinos up in the Cotabato 
territory. 

The Spaniards had a penal settlement up on the lake, and when they left the 
Moros sacked the place and took many of the people prisoners. An order was 
issued requiring that all these people be turned in. Two women, with 3 children 
each, and some men were turned in, and Major McMahon stated in his last report 
that all were now in. 

There were no slaves other than Moros of which he knew. Slavery had not been 
recognized or sanctioned by him at all. If any slaves came in and wished to be 
released they wer6 released. 

The religion of the Moro is Mohammedanism pure and simple. They have no 
churches, but they have priests who go through certain ceremonies. Did not know 
whether they observed the feasts and fasts of their religion. All of the priests 
were natives of the island. 

Said Dato Mandi could probably raise 200 serviceable rifles. Did not use their 
rifles for game. Thought they had very little ammunition; they could not shoot 
well. Some of the Moros had tried to buy rifles from soldiers, offering as high as 
|80. Piang is said to have a great many rifles. One said he would turn in 500 if 
we wanted them. Thought Piang could turn out a force of 3,000 flghting men. 

Spoke of a certain form of license reauired of the Moros in Zamboanga when 
they went outside the date's territory, this pass stating where they were going, 
number of persons aboard, and theur pur^se. There was no boat tax. Had 
never talked with Mandi about land tax. Did not know what he claimed. He 
had not taken out license to cut timber. 

Said the Moros would not be formidable in a fight, so far as numbers went, if the 
American troops could get at them. The only way to go through the country, 
however, is by water, ae it was impossible to safely penetrate the wilderness. 

Did not know of any real ** juramentado " cases, though some had been reported 
as such. Said that Mandi kept good order. Said there had been but 16 prisoners 
in the province of Zamb6anga during his stay, covering a period of a year and a 
half. That this condition was the same throughout the island. 

Thought the worst features of slavery could be eliminated gradually; that it 
would not be feasible to attempt to buy the slaves. The slaves, as a rule, do not 
appear to object to their situation. 

Attest: A. W. Febousson, Secretary. 

Major Morrison stated that he had been all around the islands, his object being 
to make inquiries concerning the people. Stated that he had made a report of 
his investigations to the department commander. (General Kobbe stated that 
he would Imve a copy of this report furnished the Commission. This report con- 
tained substantially his conclusions concerning the Moros.) 

He estimated there were about 500,000 Moros in the island and between 150,000 
and 200,000 pagans and some 300,000 Filipinos. 

Outside of nulitary buildings, there were no public buildings in the towns visited 
by him. 

Said the pagans were a better looking people than either the Filipinos or Moros. 
He considered them the best people in the island. They attended to their own 
business. They have few towns, each man living with his family in his own little 
hut. He thought their form of government corresponded to that of the Moros. 

Attest: 

A. W. Febqusson, Secretam. 



kepobt of the philippine commission. 91 

United States Philippine Commission, 
minutes op proceedings. 
Zamboanga, p. I., Saturday, March SO, 1901. 
Pvblic session. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Wright, Ide, Moses, and the 
president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 9.30 a. m. and 
the roll of pueblos of the province of Zamboanga called by the 
secretary. The province -was represented as follows: 

Paeblo of Tetoan: Don Jnan Daga Manuel, president; Don Manuel Saavedra, 
yiee president; Don Sixto Santiago, secretary; Don Macario Basilio, treasurer; 
Don Oecilio Alfaro. Don Gil San Juan, Don Aurapito Hernandez, Don Epifanio 
Natividad, Don Pedro Gonzales, Don Manuel Cobarmbias, Don Cedlio Ledesnia, 
Doa Enlalio Manalo. councilors. (Some of these councilors represented barrios 
of Mercedes, Curuan, Sutig. and others. ) 

Pueblo of Zamboanga: Don Antonio Carpio, Don Victor Diaz, Don Pedro 
Francisco, Don Pantaleon Garcia, Don Juan Cabalo. 

Pueblo of Santa Maria: Don Froilan Lamson, Don Justo Lacandola, Don Yalerio 
Jacinto. 

Pueblo of Ayala: Don Frustos Bnedy, Don Celedonio Ariston. 

The president, after expressing to the people the pleasure the Com- 
mission had in meeting with them, stated that it had come to Zambo- 
anga to investigate the existing conditions and learn by consulting 
wiSi the people and with the military ofl&cers the form of government 
best suited to the needs of their province. He explained that the con- 
ditions in Mindanao, and particularly in the interior of the island, 
were quite different from those prevailing in other parts of the archi- 
pelago, and some modification of the general scheme of government 
provided by the municipal code and the general provincial law 
would doubtless be necessary, certainly in portions of the island. 
The 400,000 or 500,000 Moros in Mindanao preferred, he understood, 
to be treated and dealt with through theif own natural and selected 
leaders, or dates, which would remove them from the operation of the 
general laws of the Commission. It had been the policy heretofore, 
and the Commission saw no reason for changing it, to permit the Moros 
to continue the form of government which they had among them- 
selves and with which they appear to be entirely satisfied. Of course 
where they come into relation with Filipinos and with Americans and 
with others not within the tribal relations their rights are to be deter- 
mined by the ordinary methods and in the ordinary proceedings. As 
to the Filipino population, however, the Commission understood that 
they had the same desires as their brothers in other parts of the archi- 
pelago and that they wished a government not dissimilar to that 
established under the general laws of the Commission. In complying 
with this desire, however, the Commission was met by the difficulty in 
Mindanao that the people are thinly scattered over a large area, and 
as the question of government is largely one of expense and resources, 
it would be unwise for the Commission to form a government which 
would be so expensive that the people would not consider it worth 
the cost to support it. 

The president then explained the general provincial law, specifying 
in detail the various expenses incident to a government thereunder 
and setting out the minimum amount with which it could likely be 



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92 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

supported. Stress was also laid upon the sources of income to the 
province from which revenue would be derived to run the govern- 
ment. The question to be considered by the province of Zamboanga, 
therefore, is whether such a system is applicable to their province 
and whether they can pay the amount of money necessary to support 
the provincial government, or whether there would have to be a 
departure from that system to suit the peculiar conditions existing. 
It was suggested that possibly the entire island of Mindanao would 
have to be organized as one provincial government, or possibly two, 
but that the Commission had reached no conclusion in the matter; 
that it was here to find out what the people desired, for they were 
the ones most interested in the government to be established. The 
discussion of the question by the public was invited. 

Senior Mariano Arquiza, alcalde of Zamboanga, stated that the 
pueblo of Zamboanga had a population of 8,300, while the entire 
province had a population of some 18,000, exclusive of Moros. Most 
of the people were poor; they were engaged in industrial pursuits, 
etc. I^<;tically all their cattle had died from the rinderpest. There 
used to be between 6,000 and 8,000 head of carabaos and cattle in the 
province, although not many were exported. Their principal export 
is copra; very little abaca or gums are exported. There is consider- 
able private land under cultivation. 

Some three or four months ago a land tax was levied in the munici- 
palities. The officers of the municipalities are elected by the people, 
everybody over 23 years of age being permitted to vote. The speaker 
stated subsequently that the election was under General Order, No. 40, 
which prescribes certain limitations. There are but two municipalities 
in the province, Zamboanga and Tetuan, although there are various 
barrios, previously called towns; but five or six of these towns have 
been united, and the people appeared satisfied with such union. 
Ayala, for instance, had just been made a part of Zamboanga. It is 
some 3 leagues distant. Being asked what he thought of a plan to 
unite all the towns in the province into one municipality, the speaker 
stated that he would have to consider the proposition. In reply to 
questions he stated that the people would like to have a pro\incial 
government, but that he did not believe, in view of the present impov- 
erished condition of the province, that they could support such a 
government. For himself, he thought the proposition of uniting the 
towns in the province into one municipality a good one; he did not 
think it would embarrass the outlying barrios. lie also thought the 
proposition to make the whole island one large province so that there 
would be one head, having supervision over all the municipalities, a 
good one. 

Juan Daga Manuel, president of Tetuan, thought the project of 
uniting the two municipalities of the province a good one. He had 
read the municipal code, and thought as one municipality it could pay 
the salaries specified in said code. 

Sefior Frustos Baedy, of Ayala, said that his town had already been 
united to Zamboanga, because they did not have money enough to 
support a separate pueblo. He thought it a good plan to unite aU the 
pueblos of the province into one. The councilors representing Mer- 
cedes and Curuan were also in favor of the plan of uniting all the 
towns of the province into one municipality. 

Sefior Juan Paliatao, of Zamboanga, called attention to the sad state 
of the province by reason of the death of cattle and the consequent 
inability of the people to cultivate the soil. He asked that the Corn- 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 93 

mission do something toward assisting the people in this regard. He 
had nothing in particular to suggest, but simply stated the facts to 
the Commission. He did not think the people could use horses. He 
said the Moros had some carabaos and that they could be bought in 
Davao; they were worth about $50 Mexican each. He thought that 
the disease had now run its course. He said that there were about 40 
or 50 cattle left in the province. He thought the government might 
buy carabaos, ship them in, and sell them to the people on credit. 
He said the people themselves had imported some, but that more than 
one-half of them had died, working a great hardship on the purchas- 
ers. He agreed to the proposition of making the province one munic- 
ipality, as it would reduce expenses. He also thought the plan of 
making the island into one province a good one, as it would be more 
economical. He thought that the capital of such province should be 
Zamboanga. 

Sefior Antonio Carpio, of Zamboanga, stated that by reason of the 
war and death of the carabaos the people had not cultivated their 
lands for two years. He thought the personnel of the government 
should be reduced somewhat to save expense; he thought the provin- 
cial governor should be an army ofl&cer until such time as the people 
were able to pay the expenses of the government; this with reference 
to the entire island. He stated that he was grateful to the Commis- 
sion for their interest, and asked that it take into account the 
impoverished condition of the people. 

Sefior Mariano Arquiza, alcalde of Zamboanga, being asked what 
he thought of uniting the town of Isabela, island of Basilan, to Zam- 
boanga, said that he was not familiar with the conditions in Isabela, 
but thought it was rather distant. He said there was considerable 
communication, however, between the two places, but the people were 
different. He did not appear to favor the plan. He said there were 
between 400 and 500 Chinese in Zamboanga. 

The president then expressed the satisfaction of the Commission in 
finding public opinion so well formed, and that the people appeared 
to know so well what they wanted and what they did not want. He 
said that no legislation would be adopted at this time, but that he 
would present a resolution declaring it to be the purpose of the Com- 
mission to enact legislation in the near future. 

The following resolution was presented : 

Resolved, That it is the sense of the Commission: 

First. That legislation should be enacted making provision for uniting all the 
towns of the present province of Zamboango in one municipality under the munic- 
ipal code, with such modifications as local conditions require: 

Second. That there should be no legislation creating for Zamboanga a separate 
provincial government under the general provincial act, but that it should consti- 
tute a part of a larger province to include either one-half or the whole of the island 
of Mindanao; but 

Third. That the form and territorial extent of such provincial government can 
not be determined until the Commission shall have visited the other important set- 
tlements in the island of Mindanao. 

On motion, the resolution was adopted by the Commission. 

After thanking the people for their presence and for their partici- 
pation in the labors of the Commission, the president declared the 
session adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fergusson, Secretary. 



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94 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPIirE COMMISSION. 

SYNOPSIS OF SKCOND UfTEBVIEW HAD BT THE COMMISSION WITH MAJOB MOB- 
BISON AT ZAMBOANOA, MABCH 31, 1901. 

Q. What do yon nndergtand the administration of justice and the basis of the 
laws of the Moros to be?— A. They claim the Koran to be the basis. Their relig- 
ions and political matters are dose, and i have fonnd few Moroe who attempt a 
distinction, bat there are two distinct lines of officials. After leaving the smtan 
yon come to the dato, to the panglima, to the mandarin, and ^en there is the 
selip, wbo is the hi^h ranking religions officer, and then the hadji. 

Q. Is the selip snbordinate to the dato?— A. No; their religions pec^le are mere 
teachers. They don't seem to have any power to pat anything into ezecntion; no 
political power at all unless he happens to be also a snbdato or a dato himself. 
Sometimes they are united in one title. Sometimes he acts as mandarin, bnt it 
seems that the religions office is a matter of teaching and advising others. The 
snltan here really has no power. 

Q. Is he the head of the religions body in the island?— A. Well, yes; he is tech- 
nically the head of both, bnt to explain Captain Mandi's apparent contradiction of 
that; at one time he seems to say that he had no power under law. It is a mere 
matter of his practical power and his power technically. Mandi told von truly, 
I think, that he acknowledged no superior himself. That is true, practically, and 
it is true of every dato in this island. The snltan knows nothing, practically, 
about what he is doing. 

Q. I thought possibly there might be a relation between the sultan as a religious 
person and the selip.— A. I have no doubt the selip hates the sultan more than the 
political people, for they know more about the theory of the government, and 
being the church people and the church being the government, they are more 
iikelv to adhere to their government. A great many of these datos don't know 
much about it, and I was surprised to see Mandi so well info med. He is not a 
dato of the royal blood; he is a Spanish-made dato. The Spanish made some 
datos. He was always entirely loyal to the Spanish Government. This town 
was in charge of the Spanish officers and troops at the time of the ratification of 
the peace treaty. At that time Otis made an arrangement with the Spanish offi- 
cers to hold it against the insurrectos, and when the arrangement was made with 
the Spaniards to turn the matter over to the Americans Mandi learned of it and 
applied to the naval officenand told him that he understood the sovereignty had 
been transferred to the United States, and as he had been loyal to Spain he wanted 
to be loyal to the United States, and he rendered some real assistance. He annoyed 
the insurrectionists quite a good deal about the coast, and he asked several times 
of the naval officers to be permitted to take the place and turn it over to the 
Americans, but the permission was not given. He came with 700 warriors once 
and asked permission to clean out the insurrectos, but it was not granted. 

Q. How were thev armed? — A. They had a few guns and creeses and bolos. 

Q. Is he a pure-blooded Moro?— A. No; he has Spanish blood in him. There 
are a good many who have Spanish blood in them. 

Q. Do you think he is a man of equitable tendencies?— A. Yes: I think he is. 
His people adhere to him and like him very much. He is a sabdato; he is the 
prindpal of panglima, but he is really the principal man with the people. What- 
ever comes to them comes through Mandi. He is the war man and looks aftcnr 
the internal affairs. 

In answer to certain questions Major Morrison stated the following facts: 

There is a panglima in every settlement. They have no territorial lines, though 
he claims a certain territory and his people are entitled lo go everywhere witmn 
that territory. The persons who try the cases have no territorial jurisdiction, 
but try between the Moros of these tribes; they travel about from village to vil- 
lage; they are a hospitable people among themselves. The Moros have no land 
tenure except where they build a town. For instance, a Moro will get permission 
from his mandarin to build a house, and as long as he maintains it it is his, and if 
he concludes to go awav he may sell it to another Moro, but it is simplv the value 
of the structure. He has no power to sell the land. They look at the right to 
land much as we do to the right to air and water, as simply the right to use. 
They raise few cocoanuts; some coffee in Davao, and a good deal in Cotabato. 
The crop is principally controlled by the dato. The dato controls the matter of 
the support of the x)eople. Sometimes they have a famine, and the dato sees to it 
that everybody has something to eat. No Moro is allowed to starve. No Moro 
would undertake to sell a piece of land to anybody. 

If a departmental government were established here, Idandi would himself see 
that he ought to help snpport that govemiuent. It would have to come through 
the dato. It would be dependent, undoubtedly, upon our establishing relations 
of some sort with these people. Any export taxes would be paid t&ongh the 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 95 

Ghinameu. I believe they would stand a capitation tax. They conld not stand 
much, for they do not handle mnch money. 1 think they wonld stand a peso for 
each man. I think were a tax imposed on them, Mandi would inform them that 
they should pay it. They fish more or less and get some money. Those who have 
no market to supply sell to the hill people. I think Piang would make his people 
pay out in the country.* He is a Chinese and would think protection worth some- 
thing. Political rc^tions with the Lake Moros would have to be brought about 
gitidually. 

The Moros obtained their steel from Borneo originally for their bolos. A large 
proportion that they make now are of steel. 

Piang controls all the Moros above Cotabato on the Rio Grande. There are 
four dates upthere who have a following, but Piang has the controlling interest 
over there. Me is the most powerful dato in the islands. 

The office of dato is hereditary. One of them asserted power, but he could not 
get enough following. Mandi was made b^ the Spaniards. Piang is not a heredi- 
tary dato; he is a strong man and runs things himself. The original family was 
a Jolo f ajnily. The sultan there had two sons. There was a question as to who 
should be sultan, and they divided the territory and left to that dato the Jolo 
Archipelago, including Baisilan, which was then held to be a part of the Sulu 
Archipelago, and that to the west of here to the Calamianes and Mindoro and a 
large portion of the north end of Borneo, and a North Borneo company bought 
from the sultan the hold over that. 

One brother took that, and those people down there are his descendants, and the 
other brother came up here and located just beyond the fort, and from that they 

got i)ossession of all this island, and those of the royal blood are descendants from 
im. This occurred probably three centuries ago; the exact year is not known. 
It is in writing as 1729, and that seems to be our basis. The next dato above 
Mandi is Principe and he is in a direct line. His brother is the sultan of Mindanao. 
He has the power to make datos in case there is a failure. He was entitled to 
appoint subdatos, but he waived it. He is a dato, but not a strong man. He 
lives in a little place just out from Cotabato. He has no private fortune, but levies 
tribute where he desires it. If Mandi wanted a thousand he could send out and 
levy tribute. 

As to taxes: It would have to be thoroughly understood that they were not pay- 
ing taxes to support Christian churches, for they are prohibited by the Koran 
from doing this. It requires them to kill the Christians. First, to convert the 
Christian, and,* if you can not convert him, kill him. All recognize Mandi as 
entitled to tribute. All understand the collection of taxes. Mandi claims the 
Cebanos, and he controls them. They are not included in the nine or ten thousand 
he spoke of. I think he has more than 9,000 or 10,000, probably 18,000, in Moros, 
and those converted to Mohammedanism. The principal test is whether they eat 
pork. When the i)eople from Spain came west they found the people of these 
idands were Pagans, but here they found some Mohammedans, and, as Columbus 
called the red men Indians, so they called these people Moors. The English came 
from the bther way, and they knew they were Malays. The Tagalogs, Visayans, 
and Moros are different waves of immigration, and after the Visavans came in here 
the Mohammedans overran the place and converted them to Mohammedanism. 
This makes a mixture of lanraages. The Moros have four distinct languages or 
dialects. The Cebanos in the mountains have a different language from the 
Moros; thev also have long hair. 

Most of the Moros obtain slaves by stealing children or by makingwar and cap- 
turing them. 1 do not think the Zaboangans deal in slaves much. They are a dif- 
ferent class from the others. The people of Iligan Bay made some trouble and 
captured some slaves, and one of tneir sultans was ciiming down here, and he 
brought a woman and two children to a little island up here and sold them to a 
Chinaman. An acquaintance of mine was in there one day and saw them. This 
man asked the Chinaman what he bought them for. ** I am going to feed them 
for a few months and then get a ^ood price for them," he replied. When I was 
down in Tawi Tawi they were selling girls 15 years old for from $5 to $15. I had 
a girl offered to me for $36, Mexican. If a man wants to marry a woman he gen- 
erallv gets her consent, and then he goes to the father and purchases her. The 
purchase money is supposed to be held by the father for her, and the husband may 
divorce her at will if he has any cause. She may then go to the father and claim 
this money. The power of divorce is seldom used. If she does not bear any chil- 
dren he will certainly divorce her. Thev will kill the man if he is found unfaith- 
ful, and if he finds her unfaithful he will kill her. It is a serious military crime 
for one of our soldiers to have anything to do with a Moro woman. There are 
some Moro women who have no husbands whose morals are not very rigid. 
The Moros are governed by a common law, of which the Koran is the basis. The 



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96 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Sana i» a written work compoeed of interpretations by able members o£ the 
Mohammedan reli^aon. It is a commentary on the Koran, and is something in the 
nature of a digest of opinions. That is what yoa might term their statutory law. 
When one of these panglimas, or whoever tries the case (and a mandarin often 
trieB itf though he is not considered a judicial man), they often have the old men of 
the community to sit with them, and they say the reason is that the old men have 
lived long enough to learn what the law is and know what should be done, and 
they come to a decision as to what the custom is under the facts; and then, after 
they come to that conclusion as to what the state of facts is, and what the law is, 
and what the punishment would be, they will leave it largely to the relatives of 
the party or the injured party. There is not much private revenge; they make 
their complaints. 

1 doubt if the island of Mindanao has eyer been in as peaceful a state as it is 
to-day. Of course, we know only from the Spanish accounts, but they would not 
go into the interior without a force. The Jesuits did. 

The hill tribes furnish the slaves, because the Moros rob them and steal the 
slaves. I found slaves at Cagayan. There are different rules as to the treatment 
of slaves, in some cases the ouspring belong to the father and in others to the 
man who owns the mother. I was raised in a slave State; I know about slave 
laws. I can not see any difference between these and those of the States. If t or a 
retinue, that is different. A retinue is one thing and slavebolding another. A 
retinue is a kind of voluntary service; they consider it an honor. They treat 
slaves in the families well, because they value them and they become more or less 
attached to them. They live together, and it is hard for a stranger and one who 
does not speak the language to distinguish them. Even if they were all freed at 
once, I do not know but that, as they had been raised in slavery, they would con- 
tinue it, and in practically the same condition. The only ones who wish to escape 
are those who have been taken for debt or who were captured as slaves after grow- 
ing up. 

Attest; A. W. Ferousson, Secretary, 

» 

INTERVIEW HAJ) BY THE COMMISSION WITH DATO MANDI AT ZAMBOANOA, 

MARCH 31, 1901. 

President. We are very much obliged to you for coming aboard. We are 
making the trip as extensive as we can, so as to learn the conditions which pre- 
vail in the different parts of the archipelago, and one of the most important ques- 
tions with which we have to deal is our relation to the Moros. We realize the 
fact that they have been here for hundreds of years, that this is their home, and 
we wish first to impress them with the idea that we are not here to disturb them 
at all, and, as we said yesterday, we are advised the Moro people generally are 
contented with their present form of government, according to their own laws 
and under their own leaders, and that all we wish to do is to come into relation 
with their leaders so as to exercise that sovereignty which we acquired from 
Spain in the way best suited to advance the interests of their people. With a 
view. to knowing the persons with whom we deal, their tastes, their views of 
government, and their views of law, we should like to interview their most promi- 
nent dato upon these general subjects, if he has no objection.— A. None. 

Q. We should first like to ask about the administration of law— possibly first 
substantive and then the adjective or administrative law. Do we understand that 
the system of Moro law is founded on the Koran?— A. Yes, sir. 

<j. 'Now, I suppose the Koran has received construction and emendation and 
comment?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Are the constructions of the Koran varied among the different Moros— do 
they have different constructions that have grown up and fastened themselves on 
the Koran?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Now, who authoritatively declares what these customs and traditions and 
emendations of the Koran are? — A. The board of mandarins and datos. 

Q. Do the mandarins and datos themselves administer justice, or do they have 
an officer through whom that is done? — A. They administer justice through public 
officials. 

Q. What is the name of the official who directly administers justice? — A. The 
panglima. 

O. Is the office hereditary?— A. He is elected by the datos. 
5. He is appointed, in other words?— A. Yes, sir. 
5. For instance, Dato Mandi appoints his panglima?— A. Yes, sir. 
How long does that man act?— A. For ail time. 

Who does the selecting?— A. There is a board called together of the datos 
to make the appointment. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 97 

Q. We will come back to that board, for we wonld like to ask m«re definitely 
about that. Is the panglima removable by the datoe?— A. Yes, sir; whenever be 
misbehaves. 

Q. Is he often removed, or does he hold office for a long time?— A. Whenever a 
panglima misbehaves in office, the board is called together and he is removed. 

O. Does that occur often?— A. Yes, sir; there have been many removals. 

Q. How many panglimas are there in your territory?— -A. From eight to ten. 

Q. Every settlement has its panglima— every town?— A. Every collection of 
houses. 

Q. Does the panglima have pay? — A. No, sir. 

Q. How does he get his living?— A. From working. 

Q. Does the panglima merely administer justice in the settlement in which he 
lives? — A. Yes, sir. 

O. Is there a superior panglima who travels from town to town?— A. No; the 
jnagea are the only ones that do that. 

Q. What duties does the panglima have in the village?— A. He just sees to the 
preservation of order and good morals in the community. 

Q. Does he decide cases both^vil and criminal? — A. If it is a criminal matter, 
it goes immediately to the dato. 

Q. You hear it pre iminarily and then send it to the judge?- A. I hear it in the 
first instance and report to the judge. 

Q. In civil cases is there an appeal from the dato to the judge?— A. No, sir; 
there is no appeal. 

S. Your decision in the civil cases is final?— A. Yes, sir. 
. Does the panglima call to his aid the old men of the village to assist him in 
deciding cases as advisers? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Usually?— A. Always done. 

Q. Is the number fixed?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. What is the number?— A, Five to six in each town. 

Q. What do these men do?— A. These old men in each village, when they assist 
the panglima in the trial of cases, determine the punishment by vote. 

Q. And determine whether the man is innocent or guilty?— A. Certainly they 
do; for if one would act by himself he might commit injustice. 

3. In civil cases? — A. Yes, sir. 
. In criminal cases the question is referred to the dato. Does the dato sum- 
mon men of the same character?— A. Yes. sir. 

Q. Does the vote of the advisers— the old men — control the decision, or can the 
judge or dato overrule it?— A. Yes, sir; a majority vote would carry a decision. 

Q. Are these old naen usually selected because they know the customs of the 
Koran?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Bv whom are they named? — A. In each town there are four, for instance, of 
these old men; they come together and the dato informs them they must get the 
number to six. 

Q. What do you call them? — A. Atamas. 

Q. What does that word mean? Does it mean old men?— A. It means old men. 

Q. Is there much litigation among the Moros? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Over property and that kind of thing?— A. They cultivate lands very little; 
mostly devoted to fishing. 

Q. In the hearings of crimes or civil actions, do the relatives of the accused 
have anything to do?— A. No, sir. 

O. Is there any system among them of having the relatives get together to see 
if tney can settle the controversy? If a man has been killed by another and there 
is a trial in regard to that matter, do the relatives have anything to do about 
that trial and alx)ut the disposition of the case?— A. Nothing at all. 

y . Now, as to the government of the Moros under you, for instance. You are 
the dato. Are you the vassal of any other Moro?— A. No, sir. 

Q. And there is no vassalage admitted to the Snltab of W in lanao, for instance?— 
A. No, sir. I have no superior at the present time except the American 
Government. 

Q. We are glad to be with you in that, and to acknowledge the same sover- 
eignty. Now, have you under you subdatos?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. How many are there? — A. Two. 

O. Do they act in appellate matters from the judge?— A. Yes, sir. 

O. What is the name of subordinate datos?— A. Sakaluran. 

Q. How are they selected?— A. They are both appointed by the Sultan of 
Mindanao. 

Q. How are the datos selected: is it hereditary?— A. They are hereditary 
There is a meeting of the sultans and the datos in case of a vacancy, and they 

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98 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

select a man who is the best fitted by his coDdact and knowledge of affairs to act 
as dato. 

Q. Practically, don't the followers have something to do, not with the selection, 
but with the increase of power of the dato? Don't they desert one and go to 
another if they don't like the government of one? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. So that tne power of one dato may increase and that of another decrease as 
the people like or dislike his government?— A, Yee, sir; that is tme. 

Q. And to that extent the Moro people have influence in magnifying or decreas- 
ing the power of the dato? — A. Yes, sir; that depends entirely upon the way the 
datos themselves act 

If a dato was cruel to his people would he lose them? — A. Yes. 
They are quite migratory, are they not? They can live without much difli- 
culty?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. In case the line of birth fails, is there any theory of adoption which makes 
the succeeding dato connected with the ].rec( ding?— A. They can adopt; yes. 

Q. Is it necessary;— A. It is necessary: not having an heir, he would have to 
adopt one; the same rule as in ancient Japan. 

Q. Ask the dato whether h:* is not in addition to a dato a rajah.— A. Yes, sir. 

^. And that was by the selection of the sultan?— A. Yes, sir; the sultan of 
Mindanao. 

Q. Does that entitle you to succeed to the sultanate?— A. No, sir. 

Q. What advantage do you gain by it? — A. There is one office yet before I could 
become a sultan. 

What is that?— A. A rajahmurah. 

Does the rajah get any power for that reason except being in the line of pro- 
motion?— A. No. 

Q. Then you are not rajahmurah?— A. I am rajahmurah 

Q. Will you succeed on the death of the sultan?— A. I can succeed to the sultan- 
ate, and I can succeed by the will of the government. 

Cj. What power has the sultan that the datos do not have; is it religious?— A. 
He has a great many powers that the datos do not have, 

Q. Not civil powers?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Has he control over the datos in any way?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. He appoints the subdatos, so you said?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Are there others holding the same position as you from whom the selection 
can be made?~A. If he had any brothers they would be his natural heirs and 
succeed him. 

Q. That is the sultan?— A. Yes. 

Q, What is the name of the sultan?— A. Mangigin. 

Q. Where does he live?— A. Sibugney. Four months ago he lived in Cottobato, 
but as he had a brother at Sibugney he went down there. 

Q. Do all the Moros acknowledge his sovereignty in Mindanao?— A. No, sir; some 
do not. 

Q, What proportion do?— A, If he has any followers he just runs his followers. 

Q, Just as the datos do?— A, If a town has its dato or its sultan and the dato 
does not care to recognize that sultan, be does not have to. In Joio Dato Car- 
nai does not recognize the sultan. 

Q. If the sultan of Mindanao should give the dato any orders about the dato*8 
people, would he be obliged to obey them?— A. No, sir. 

Q. Does the sultan have anything to do in framing the laws? Does he interpret 
the Koran in an authoritative way, so that the dato would follow his interpreta- 
tion of it?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Have they any hadjis in Mindanao who have gone to Mecca? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Has the sultan gone? — A. Yes. sir. 

Q. Who are the officers under the subdatos? Do you have any municipal 
officers? — A. No, sir. 

Q. What are the mandarins.' What do they do? — A. Mandarins are sort of 
gobemadorcillos. 

Q. They exercise police powers in the villages?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Have they officers under them?— A. They may have some militarv men. 

Q. But he carries out the orders of the datos*'— A. And also of the judge. 

Q. Who has the power of life and death throughout the region you govern?— A. 
The dato has the power of life and death. 

Q. Can he put a man to death without trial?— A. No, sir; he has to be tried. It 
has to be determined whether it is a crime or misdemeanor. 

Q. Are there manv capital offenses— murder, is that one?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q, What other crimes?— A. Rot»bery and arson. 

Q. Is rape?— A. Yes, sir. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 99 



Q. Any others?— A. Those are the four capital crimes. 



Are there any records of the sentences of the datos or judges? — A Yes, sir; 
records are kept. 

Q. Who makes that record?^ A Thepanglima. 

Q. In what language?— A. In the Moro. 

Q. Ton write Arabic?— A. Yes, sir; although the language is very different from 
the Arabic. 

Q. Can ail the panglimas read and write?— A. Some can not. 

Q. How are their records kept, then? — A. By his clerk or secretary. 

Q. What proportion of the Moro people in this island can read and write?— 
A. Very few. 

S. Some in every town?— A. No; not in all. 
. What is the difference between a mandarin and amanarajah?— A. The man- 
darin is the office one degree below the maharajah. 

O. Where do these clerks and judgto who can read and write learn their reading 
ana writing?— A. In schools. There are Moro schools, also. 
Q. Are were schools in every village?— A. In all Moro towns there are. 
Q. Are the teachers native Moros or do they come from away?— A. They are all 
nanves. 

Q. What nroportion of the children do you think attend school; one-quarter? — 
A. Nearly all of them in Zamboanga. 
Q. Do nearly all of them learn to read and write?— A. Yes, sir. 
Q. How are the teachers paid?— A. They earn about $30 a month. 
Q. Who pays them?— A. The American Government. 

Q. I mean before the American Government came here.— A. The Spanish Gk>v- 
emment. 

Paid the Moro schools?— A. No; not the Moros. 
Are there Moro schools?— A Yes, sir. 
And who pays them?— A They are not paid. 
How do they get their living?— A. The oato gives them something. 
Were there such schools as that, before the Americans came here, in every 
town?— A. Yes, sir; in all parts the Moros have schools. 
O. Do the Moro children go into the public schools?- A. Here, yes. 
Q. Not very extensively?— A. No, not many. 

Q. In the Moro schools do only a few of the select children go— the ones intended 
to write Arabic and become panglimas and other officials?— A. They are free 
schools for everybody. 

Q. What do they teach there?— A. First, the Koran. They have no other text- 
book except the Koran. 

Q. Do you teach that without teachin|^ them reading and writing?— A. Yes, 
sir; they afterwards learn to read and write. 

Q. Is there any objection on the part of the people to having their children 
attend the public schools where no religion is taught?— A. I don't know, but I 
ose there would be no objection. 
Do some of them attend?— A. Yes, sir. 
Many? — A. No, not many. 
But there is no difficulty about that? — A. None. 

They are bright, are they not— they learn (quickly? — A. Yes, sir; I have two 
children who go to school every day. 
Q. Do they teach mathematics in the Moro schools?— A. No, sir. 
Q. Would they like their children to learn the English language? — A. Yes, sir; 
that is the reason they send them to school. 

§. Who is the high priest— what is the name of his office?— A. Selip. 
. Is he a Moro from the islands or does he come from Arabia?— A. He is a Moro 
who has gone to Arabia. 

U. And studied there?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Has he subordinates?— A. Yes, sir; he has his aids. 

Q. Does any Moro who goes to Arabia and does the work by so doing become 
a selip? — A. lie becomes a hadji, and then returns to pursue his studies further, 
and then becomes a selip. 

Q. Have the dato and sultan religious authority? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. What is the relationship of these officers to the dato and sultan?- A. The 
sehp belongs to the religious mtemity and is always under the orders of the sultan 
ana the dato. 

Q. Is the selip subject to the orders of the dato?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Even where he is under the sultan?— A. Yes, sir. 

O. The sultan occupies a religious relation. He is the head ef the church, 
although he may not exercise actual religious authority?— A. Yes, sir. 



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100 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

O. In this island?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Do they all look to the Sultan of Tnrkey at Stain bonl, as the head of the 
chnrch?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Do the selips have any civil power?— A. No. sir. They have only religious 
authority. 

Q. Do they celebrate marriages?— A . Yes, sir. 

Q. And perform burial ceremonies? — A . Yes, sir. 

Q. How are marriages cont racted among the people, the Moros, by arrangement 
between the parents <>r hy choice of the people'— A. The parents of the pe >ple. 

Q. What are the religious subordinates of the selin called?— A. Hat p. imam, 
and pilal. These three degrees »re called panditas. They are all called panditas, 
but are distinguished by these other three names. 

Q. What is the meainng of these three degrees, so to speak, of panditas?— A. It 
is a generic term and covers all three. 

(^. Do the panditas celebrate marriages and perform burials?— A. In the absence 
of the selip they can. 

Q. Is there any intermediate authority between the selip and the sultan?— A. 
None. 

Cj. Does what you have said here prevail generally through all the Moros in 
Mindanao? — Yes, sir. 

Q. I suppose the customs vary somewhat between the different tribes of Moros?— 
A. Yes, sir. 

(j. Do you know how many different languages are spoken by the Moros of 
Mindanao?— A. I don't know; I can not tell, but there are very many. 

Q. Have you ever visited the Lake Lanao region?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. It is a very populous county: thickly setrjedV- A. Yes. sir. 

Q. Could you make the people there understand your language?— A. No, sir. 

Q. How do you get along with Spanish?— A. Through an interpreter. Among 
themselves they do not understand each other, because there are the Bolanos, 
Hilanos, Calibunas, and Cebanos. 

Q. Are the Cebanos Moros? — Yes, sir. 

Q. Would it be safe for you to go unattended among the Moros everywhere in 
these islands?— A. No, sir. 

Q. The Lake Moros are disi>osed to resent visitors, are they not?— A. I do not 
know. 

Q. Did you not go there?— A. 1 went up there as a volunteer with the Spaniards 
at the time of the military operations. I went to fight the Moros. 

Q. Are there any large towns in the lake region?— A. Yes, sir. There are a 
great manv sultans and a great many datos up there 

Q. A rich country and well cultivated?— A. Yes sir. 

Q. What principally do they cultivate?— A. Cacjio, copra, coffee, rubber, and 
some hemp and palay and maize. 

Q. Do they raise any potatoes?- A. No. 

Q. Is the climate cool?— A. It is much cooler there than here. 

Cj. It is higher?- A. Yes, sir. About 6 o'clock up at the lake you shiver with 
cold. 

Q. What time of the year were you there?— A. About August, 1896. 

Q. From which coast did the Spaniards make their expedition?— A. From 
Iligan. 

O. From the north? What is the distance?— A. From Iligan we went on foot, 
and it took fourteen hours. 

Q. What sort of a road?— A. Very good. 

Q. Coald you get wagons over it?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Have they carts or wagons?— A. A great many horses but no wagons? 

Q. How far was the railroad that tbe Spaniards started completed?— A. They 
carried the railroad iroui Iligan to the lake and had three small jfuii boats over it. 

(^. Did they have operations over it?— A. They had cars and engines there, and I 
believe they did operate it. 

Q. But It has disappeared, has it not?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Do yoa know the size of the lake?— A. It is as large as from here to Isabela. 

Q. Is it circular? — A. Circular. 

Q. Is it clear or dirty? — A. It is rather muddy. 

Q. Is it deep? — A. I presume that it is pretty deep, for it gets pretty rough. 

Q. Is it swampy around the lake? — A. There are a. good many swamps. 

Q. Is it unhealthy there? — A. Very healthy. 

Q. Can you go to the lake bv banci? — A. Yes, sir; they use vessels there. 

Q. From the sea to the lake? — A. No, sir; there is no communication between the 
lake and the sea. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 101 

Q. How are the lake Moros armed? — A. I donH know. 

Q. At the time you were there? — A. With side arms only. A few of them had 
gone. 

Q. Did they resist the Spaniards vigorously? — ^A. Yes, sir; with stones. 

Q. And the S])aniards killed many of them? — A. No; a few. 

Q. Did they kill some of the Spaniards? — A. Yes; they did not have many guns, 
80 they made cannon out of the ^ns and used stones as a projectile. 

Q. Did the Spaniards have their gunboats on the lake with armament on board? — 
A. Yes, sir. 

Q. What was the size of the gimboats? — A. About double the size of the steam 
launch. 

Q. Is it known where they were sunk? — ^A. I don*t know; the people up there 
may know. 

Q. Does slavery prevail among the Moros? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. What proportion of the Moro population are slaves? — A. About one-eighth of 
the Moro population. 

Q. Are there more men or women slaves? — A. They consist of men, women, and 
children. 

Q. Are they bom into slavery? — A. No. 

Q. How are they made slaves? — A. They go to work to buy, and if they can not 
pay the^ ^ve themselves out as slaves. 

Q. It is imprisonment for debt? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Is that true of all the slaves? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. If a slave who is a slave by reason of debt has a child, is he ever a slave? — A. 
Yes, sir. 

Q. If he is sold, can he redeem himself? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. How do they learn the amount of the debt? — A. Among the Moros the system 
is, if I owe a debt and have a son, my son would have to continue in slavery until 
the debt is paid. 

Q. Does the son know the amount of the debt? — A. He is informed. 

Q. Does the amount increase or remain the same? — A. It is increased by the 
interest. 

Q. Is no credit given him for his labor? — A. No, sir; but no interest is charged if 
he works. 

Q. What is the rate of interest? — A. It is conventional between the slave and the 
owner. 

Q. In the original debt? — A. Yes, sir; the original debtor. 

Q. How are uie slaves used and how are they treated? — A. Very much all kinds 
of work in the field and in the house. 

Q. How are they treated? — A. Very well. 

Q. Are they members of the family? How much is the debt most of the slaves 
are held for? — A. From forty to fifty dollars. 

Q. In your jurisdiction? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. So, if you could get forty or fifty dollars Mexic^m they would have a right to 
be free? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Do they eat at the same table with their masters? — A. No, sir. 

Q. Do the Moros eat at a table? — A. Some at a table and some on the floor. 

Q. Are the children permitted to go to school? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Do they have as good food as the best of the family? — A. Being slaves, no. 

Q. What kind of food?— A. Rice and fish. 

Q. In addition to slaves, do you have servants who are not slaves? — A. No; all the 
servants are slaves. 

Q. Do masters have any special power over their slaves? If a slave commits a 
crime, could a master kill him or would he have to be tried like anyone else? — 
A. Exactly the same. 

Q. Could a master put a slave to death himself if he chose? — A. The owner could 
increase the debt of the slave by lending him more money. 

Q. Could he kill him? — A. No; he could punish him but not kill him. 

Q. Could he cut his face open? — A. No; he would have to present the case to the 
courts. 

Q. Suppose that a slave was impudent to him and refused to obey him, what could 
he do? — A. He thrashes him with a rod. 

Q. But could not mutilate? — A. No. 

Q. Are the slaves generally content? — A. Yes. 

Q. When they get old so tnev can not work what do the masters do with them? — 
A. If he has conducted himself well and is liked by his master he can ^o free. 

Q. But if he is old and has no means of working? — A. Even if he ih not an old 



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102 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

man, if he has worked for four or five years, and the owner is a good-hearted man, 
he lets him go. 

Q. Suppose he becomes old and can not work, would the master support him? — 
A. When a slave has worked for a man a number of years and is old and the master 
does not care to keep him, he goes to the authorities, and the authorities tell the 
man he has to keep him; that he has worked for him and he must keep him in his 
old age. 

Q. And compel him to do it? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Do they live to a good age among the Morofl? — A. Some are over a hundred 
years old. Here in Zaniboanga a man recentlv died who was 109. 

Q. Does the master control the persons of his female slaveiff — ^A. No, sir. She 
may be a slave for domestic uses, but for no other. 

Q. Can the slaves marry among themselveef? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Without the consent of the master? — A. They may marry with the consent of 
the owner only. 

Q. Would the master support them afterwards? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. If a woman slave belonged to one man and the man to another, to whom would 
the children belong? — A. The children go to the woman. 

Q. Suppose the father of children had a debt which he had not paid and did not 
want to pay and the children wanted to get their liberty, how would they go about 
it? — A. They would have to find money enough to pay. 

Q. If they paid their father's debt would they all go free? — A. Yes. 

Q. Would the father have the right to their money, suppose they had money; 
could they use it, or would the father determine how it would be used? — ^A. They 
have a right to the money of their children. 

Q. Can a master hire his servants out to other people? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Are the slaves in this island all Moros now?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. No Filipinos? — A. No, sir. 

Q. Are there any of the Pagan races who are slaves to the Moro^— A. They are 
generally the slaves — they are the slaves of the Moros. 

Q. Do they change their religion when they l)ecome slaves? — A. No. 

Q. How do they make those people slaves; by capture or by debt? — A. Only by 
debt. 

Q. How long is it since you have given up the practice of capturing? — A. A short 
time ago. 

Q. I suppose the Lake Moros go on capturing as they used? — A. Yes. 

Q. Does the treatment of slaves differ largely between the tribes of the Moros? 
For instance, here they treat them mildly, but the Lake Moros are more severe, are 
they not? — A. Yes, sir. The treatment accorded slaves is according to the good 
heart of the master. 

Q. They don*t treat the slaves in Jolo as well as in Zamboanga? — A. No; very 
different. 

Q. How many souls have you under your jurisdiction in Zamboanga? — A. About 
nine or ten thousand. 

Q. How many of those are slaves? Are there a thousand? — A. No; there are leas 
than a thousand. 

Q. How much is a slave worth? What is he regarded as worth when they come 
to sell him? — A. The women are worth more than the men. 

Q. How much?— A. Because they say that in the matter of work a woman is worth 
more than a man. 

Q. What is the price; between what does it vary? — A. Eighty to 100 pesos for 
men; for women, l)etween 150 and 200 pesos. 

Q. And children?— A. From 70 to 80. 

Q. But they could my off the debt with $40 or $50 and be released?— A. Yes. If 
a slave were sold for $100, in order to get his liberty he would have to get $100. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fergusson, Secretary. 

INTBRVIEW OP commission WITH CERTAIN FILIPINOS AT COTABATO APRIL 2, 1901. 

President. You are Filipino gentlemen, are you not? 

Mr. Alejandro Doroteo. Yes, sir. 

Q. How many gentlemen are there here? — A. In round numbers, about 400. 

Q. Are you thegobemadorcilloof this pueblo? — A. After the eviction I was elected 
by the body to represent them, but not as gobemadorcillo. 

Q. And you have since been appointed gobematlorcillo by the American ofiicers? — 
A. Yes, sir. 



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BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 108 

Q. You were elected by the Filipinoe?--A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Did you say how many Filipinos there were here in Cotabato? — A. About 400 
souls. That means men, taxpayers. There may be about 600 in all. 

Q. Are there so few women as compared with the men? — ^A. There are more women 
and minors than there are men. 

Q. There are 400 men, are there? — ^A. Between Tamontaca and Cotabato; yes. 

Q. Where is Tamontaca?— A. The south branch of the river. 

Q. Are you the gobemadorcillo of both? — A. No, J am not; but as they are near 
here, we put them on the same lists. 

Q. In the Spanish times was one a barrio of the other? — A. No, sir. 

Q. They have always been separate? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Whatkind of Fihpinoshaveyou here? — A. Mostly Zamboangans; some deported, 
others natives, and others Mestizos. 

Q. Do you think they are a commimity fit to have a municipal government in which 
they all elect their own officers? — A. No, sir; because they have not the elements 
necessary for it. 

Q. Is there wealth among them? — A. No; because in the attacks of the Moros they 
carried off everything. 

Q. Are they generally educated? — A. Some are, but others are not. Most of them 
have been bom here and had no chances. 

Q. Have you any opportunities for education now? — A. I don*t believe it can be 
done. 

Q. Are there schools here? — A. Yes, two; one for the boys and one for the girls. 

Q. Are they learning English? — A. The greater proportion speak English. 

Q. Are there schools in the other towns? — ^A. In Tamontaca there are. 

Q. Do the Moros send any of their children to school?— A. No. 

Q. Do they have schools among the Moros? — A. Here there are none. They may 
have in other places. 

Q. I thought they had schools in which they teach the Koran? — A. Within the 
city, no. 

Q. What do the people do here — the Filipino people — to support themselves — 
A. They cultivate tne soil. 

Q. Do they own farms? — A. Some are ownere and others work on shares. 

Q. What ao you raise? — A. Some palay, others com, and others, who have larger 
holdings, cultivate sugar cane. 

Q. Do the Filipinos engage at all in trade with the Moros? — A. None of them. 

Q. Do the Filipinos keep little shopfl? — A. None. 

Q. Do they deal at all in ijutta-percha? — A. No; for the greater part of these lands 
are taken up by the Moros. That was the most powerful element, because they con- 
trolled those lands in which the gutta-percha grew. The Chinese are the ones that 
hold the bulk of that now, not because they hold the lands, but because they have 
more friendship with the Moros. 

Q. The Filipmos are less friendly with the Moros than the Chinese? — ^A. Yes, sir. 

Q. And less friendly with the Chinese than they are with the Moros? — A. Yes, 
also. Previously, under the Spanish Government, the Filipinos devoted themselves 
to agriculture, but they never had any contract with the Moros. 

Q. The Filipinos were in the Smnish army? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. So that the feeling of the Moros toward the Spaniards is transferred to the 
Filipinos? — ^A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Do the Filipinos marry the Moro women? — A. Among the deportados there 
were some who married, because they came here with the bad fame of being a con- 
vict and could not marry the daughters of the Filipinos, so they had to. 

Q. Do the Filipino women,' any of them, marry Moros? — A. None. 

Q. Do those who marry in the Moro families adopt the Moro religion? — A. No, sir; 
the Catholic religion. 

Q- Do you have Jesuit priests here? — A. Formerly; not in Cotabato. 

Q. Did the Jesuits, before the coming of the Americans, make any converts among 
the Moros, or attempt to? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Many? — ^A. No; none only those who desired to become Christians would they 
make. 

Q. Is it tme that the Jesuits would buy the children from the Moros in times of 
famine and then raise the children as Christians? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Was that a general method of converting? — A. That was always the method. 
That is the way that the College of Tamontaca was created. 

Q. Did they remain Christians after they grew up? — A. Yes, sir? 

Q. Where are they now? — ^A. There are a great many in Tamontaca. 

Q. And are they recognized as Moro Christians or are they Filipinos to a great 



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104 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

extent? — A. During the time of the Spanish r^ime they had a boys and girls* 
school there and they collected the chilaren they purchasea, and when marriageable 
they would marry them and set them up, and they thus became Christians, but after 
the eviction of the Spanianis they all took to the woods and became Moros again. 

Q. So there are none left? — A. Very few. 

Q. What did they have to pay for a child? — A. That depended upon the circum- 
stances. They paid $20, $30, or $40. Sometimes the servants would escape from 
their Moro owners and the Jesuit fathers would pay $70 or $80, for they were worth 
that much. 

Q. Is that the price of slaves now among the Moros, or do you know? — A. Usually 
the Moros sell their children; females from $20 to $30 Mexican, and the males from 
$30 to $40, to other Moros. Where a selA^ant escapes or is sold to another Moro, he 
has to pay whatever debt he owed the first master. 

Q. It you had the money to go among the Moros and ^uy 20 men and women 
slaves, ^hat would you have to pay for them? — A. There is a strain of savage in 
these people and they sell themselves at times, and sometimes they would sell as 
soon for $10 as for $30. 

Q. But what would be the general price for men and women? — A. You can not 
get any slaves if you go to try and buy them. It is only when they present them- 
selves and are willing to become slaves. 

Q. But I mean from a man who owns slaves. — A. Twenty to thirty dollars for the 
women and from $30 to $40 for the men. 

Q. Are the sales frequent between the Moros of slaves, or do you know? — ^A. Yes, 
sir; among themselves. 

Q. And those are the prices that prevail among them? — A. Yes. 

Q. Which brings the more, an able-bodied man or an able-bodied woman? — A. 
The most expensive of the two among the Moros is the woman between 15 and 
20 years; more expensive than the men between those years. 

Q. Do you have any skilled workmen that are sold? — A. If they have a good work- 
man they would never sell him. 

Q. Ask the other gentlemen whether they agree as to the unfitness of the present 
Filipinos to have a separate and distinct government. — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Ask the gentlemen why the Moros do not send their children to the public 
schools, if he knows. — A. Because they are not compelled to. They like the free 
life of the woods better than the living in towns, and, besides, they do not speak 
Sjmnish. 

Q. Ask these gentlemen if there are any Filipinos who ask for civil government. — 
A. No, sir. 

Q. Have they heard it discussed at all? — A. No, sir. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, say that we are advised that they think injustice has been done 
to the Jesuits in the statement made in respect to the purchase of children, and that 
any statement they desire to make on the subject we would be glad to hear. 

Don Tom AS Roales y Rbgnena: Sefior Dorotes has stated that the Jesuit Fathers 
purchased Moro children for money. It is not true. He said that whenever theri? 
was a famine in any of the Moro settlements the Jesuit Fathers would ^o among 
them distributing food, palay, money, and whatever other resources they mi^ht have 
at hand, and that afterwards the Moros would come to the convents and bring their 
children there for shelter and care for and take. 

Q. And that there was no purchase as such? — A. No, sir. 

Q. Could those children go at any time they saw fit? — A. At any time that they 
desired. That child who reacheil the age of 14 or 16 years who did not desire to be 
Christianized could go back home whenever he wanted to. 

Q. And most of them did go back, I suppose? — A. Very few went back. 

Q. Where are they now? — A. They constitute the town of Tamontaca. 

Q. They are Moro Christians? — A. The greater part of them are. 

Q. Is there any feeling on the part of the Moros a^inst them? — A. I do not 
believe there is, because it has always been their own will to become Christian ize<l. 

Q. Do the other Moros dislike them because they have become Christianized?— A. 
I do not believe it, because when the Spanish troops evacuated here, and even l)efort^ 
they left, a number of these Christianized Moros went back to see their families an«l 
freely circulated on many occasions among them, and nothing was ever done to them. 

Q. And returned to tneir homes after that? — A. He says they returned to their 
lomes to visit their people. 

Q. I mean return to their community. — A. Yes, sir; returned to their homes in 
Tamontaca. 

Q. When they become Christianized do they drop the Moro dress and associate 
with the Filipinos? — A. That is the (!U8toin. He says that they circulate freely 
among the Filipinos, marry with the Filipinos^ and assume the Filipino dress. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 105 

Q. How many are there in Tamontaca? — A. The greater part of the town are of 
that claae. 

Q. And there are about 300 people living there?— A. Perhaps they haven't 
reached as high a fignre as that^ but it is quite a good-sized town. 

Q. Well, 3(X) souls? — A. He says he does not believe it reaches that high figure. 

Q. Ask the gentleman whether he desires to add anything to what he 1ms stated? — 
A. Nothing at all. He just merely wanted to correct the mistaken statement on 
the part of the gobemadorcillo. 

Q. Does the gobemadorcillo want to be heard upon this subject? — A. He says he 
is thankful to the gentleman for the correction, for what he says he did not know 
before. 

Attest: A. W. Ferousson, Secretary, 

INTERVIEW OF COMMISSION WrrH DATO PIANO, COTABATO, APRIL 2, 1901. 

• President (questions addressed through interpreter). With the permission of Dato 
Piang, we will ask him some questions about the Moros here, and their trade and 
their customs. 

PiANG. All right, sir. 

Q. Will you first ask him how many people he has under him? — A. He says he 
can not tell; can not count them. 

Q. Does he think Ije has 20,000? — A. He said, through this man, that he had 
15,000. He says he can not tell, because all the up-river datos are friendly to him 
and all their followers are his followers. 

Q. I don't mean to separate the datos, but I mean how many Moros are there in 
the up-river district here that are friendly to each other and are friendly to the 
Amencans? — A. About 15,000 that have presented themselves with him. 

Q. Now, with reference to the dato government, are there subdatoe or chiefs 
under each dato? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. And who appoints the subdatoe? — A. He evidently does not understand the 
question. He says, in his answer to that question, after a good deal of careful ix)n- 
sideration, that the mandarins are under the datos, and that those mandarins or 
datos are named or appointed by the datos in connection with the old men, for each 
district or each town. 

Q. Well, do they have a junta of datos among the friendly tribes here? — A. Yes, 
sir. 

Q. And does that junta meet and appoint these mandarins or does each dato 
appoint his own mandarins? — A. The mandarins are appointed by the datos and 
all the old men in the town. 

Q. And the subdatos, where do they come in? — A. There is no d^ijree between 
the dato and the mandarin. In Moro they call the mandarin ** panj^'ima." 

Q.' Who administers justice among them? — A. This man behind him here and the 
dato are the only ones who administer justice. 

Q. Well, don't they have a panglima among them?— A. He says that all the datos 
of the friendlv tribes— friendly to the Americans — come and consult with him, and 
all matters which they refer to him he refers to the Government. 

Q. Suppose one Moro steals from another Moro — steals a carabao from another 
Moro — who decides that case? — A. This man here behind him. 

Q. What is that man called? — A. Ino. 

Q. Panglima? — A. He is only called a mandarin. He says that is a Malay term. 
Panglima is not a term known to them. They call them mandarins. 

Q. And the mandarins decide those cases in the villages? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. And then is there an appeal to the date? — A. The purport of his answer is 
that the datos under him know all the facts that are being presenteil l)efore this 
mandarin, because when he determines the case the datos always agree with him, 
one way or the other. 

Q. Dioes he mean that the dato consults with the judge — directs him how to 
decide? — A. From what I gather here, he seems to say that if this man stole a c^arabao 
from me that man would try it, unless the parties objected. If the parties obje<rted 
to a certain mandarin or a certain dato, they can go up to the highest authority to 
have the case tried and determined. 

Q. What is the highest authority? — A. The government. 

Q. Do you mean the United States Crovernment? — A. He means the military gov- 
ernment here. He says that in case of the robbery of a carabao both parties agree 
that they go before the dato. If that man was accused of robbery ana has no wit- 
nesses or can not produce any witnesses, then he is punished. 

Q. Now, who tries it? — A. He j)ointed to that man out there as the dato. He 
meant any dato. 



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106 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Q. Suppose that there was no American Government here, what would be the 
highest authority to try that case, as to whether the carabao had been stolen or not 
stolen, whether the man is guilty or not guilty? — A. He says that when the Spanish 
Government left here, and there was no other government here, that the supreme 
authority resided in Piang. 

Q. And the final decision of a question would lie in Piang and not in the dato? — 
A. He says that Piang would give this man the orders what to do in a case. 

Q. How to decide it?-^A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Now, will you ask Dato Piang what trade the Moros are engaged in? — A. He 
says now that peace is assured under the American Government, they are all work- 
ing peacefully in the fields. 

Q. What ao they raise? — A. Rice, bananas, com, cocoanuts, and hemp. 

Q. Do they not also sell gutta-percha? — A. All of his people collect rubber. 

Q. Are there very large forests of rubber trees here? — A. Yes. 

Q. Ask him if he does not think that the collection of gum ought to be so regu- 
lated that the trees may be saved, and that their income may be made certain from 
year to year. — A. He says that the gum trees can last for many years and good busi- 
ness be done with them. 

Q. That is what the people in Borneo thought a while ago. They were rich then, 
and now they have cut their trees all down, they are poor. — A. He says that pre- 
viouslv, when the gum or rubber had a very low or hardly any market value here, 
that they used to fell the trees, but now that they have discovered that there is good 
business in rubber they do not fell them. 

Q. Ask him whether, if we were to send an expert here who knows just how the 
rubber ought to be collected with a view to the least injury to the tree, so that they 
may collect it from year to year, whether they could enforce the regulations which 
the expert would recommend. — A. He says all right; he will see that his orders are 
carried out He states that many thousands of the trees have already been felled. 
He says that as the Moros here do not know how to take the gum from the tree they 
cut it down. 

Q. What we propose to do is to send a person here who can show them how to do 
it — A. He says he understands. 

Q. Ask him how many piculs they get here now in the course of a year. — A. His 
own people in five months took 800 piculs of rubber. 

Q. Does that include all these datos? — A. He says all of the datos up the river — 
he says he sends word to the up-river datos to collect the gum for him, and he buys 
it from them. 

Q. Ask him whether the gum is collected among the lake Moros, or whether he 
knows. — A. He says he buys rubber from the lake Moros. 

Q. Well, don't they bring it down to Malabon? — A. His isn't taken to Malabon. 

Q. Lake Lanao, I am talking about — A. No. 

Q. Do they sell any at Malabon? — A. He sells it at Malabon, yes. " 

Q. Do they have large forests of rubber trees up there? — A. Yes; the left bank. 

Q. How much do the Chinese pay for it? — A. He says that last year they paid him 
50 Mexican per picul, but he does not Ipiow what the price is this year; he has 80 
piculs on hand which he has not sold. 

(J. In what months do they get the goma? — A. At all times; not set times. 

Q. Ask him if there are any trees near the town. — A. No. 

Q. How far from here are the trees? — A. He says it takes three days from here to 
reach the place where the trees are. He says there are three kinds. 

Q. Ask him if he has samples of the threekinds of goma that he can let me have. — 
A. He says he thinks he has. 

Q. Telf him the I'nited States Government expects ultimately to lay a cable from San 
Francisco to the Philippines, and that it will need in that a great deal of gutta-percha, 
and ask him if he would just as leave sell the Government of the United States as he 
would the Chino. — A. He said that even if he ha*! to sell at a less rate than to the 
Ohinanum he would do it. He says that if the United States (Tovemment wanta 
anv rubl>er thev can have it without paying for it 

Q. You tell 'him we don't want to take it that way. — A. He says that be has 
alreadv on hand 8 piculs, and he would be verv glad for the gentleman to take it 

Q. IVll him that is not the wav the United States deals with anvbody that is loyal 
to it; it pa>*s money, and what the thins is worth. — A. He says that whenever you 
^*ant any of this ruDber all you have to do is to write to the major here and he will 
famish all the robber you want. He says that when he receives the leaves he will 
make packages of the Imf and the three classes of gum. He says that he will now 
is?ue i>niers to his men not to cut the gum trees down any more, but he says that 
the Chinamen hail informed him that the rublier was not worth an^^hing now. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. l07 

Q. Yon tell him he must not believe the Chinamen. Ask him what commodity 
they send out of the valley they get the most money from. — A. He says, previously, 
that in former times beeswax }aelded the best returns, but now that beeswax is gone 
the india rubber does. 

Q, What next?— A. He says there is no second in degree as to export or selling, 
because Moroe have very little money and want very little; that when a Moro geis 
50 or 100 pesos he is satisfied and wealthy. 

Q. No sending out of copra? — A. He says that is the smallest article. 

Q. Coffee; do they export coffee? — A. He says in Lanao they have coffee; they do 
not have any here. 

Q. DonH the)r sell anjrthing here for money except the gutta-percha and bees- 
wax? — ^A. He said there were very few cocoanut palms here to yield copra, because 
at the time of the Spaniards they cut down all the trees. 

Q. Isn't there anything they send out except gutta-percha? — A. That is all he 
sells. He says they sell a little hemp. He says they have some little hemp up the 
river. 

Q. Could thev raise much more hemp? — A. Yes; more could be raised. 

Q. And do they sell cattle? — ^A. He says that none of the Moros here have any 
cattle except Tupiang and the other dato. 

. Q. Do they sell them — send them away? — A. He says he doesn't sell live any 
stock or cattle, but if the American Government want any he will see that they get 
them. 

Q. Ask him who the highest religious priest is here. What they call him among 
these Moros; here, up the river? — A. Salipa dato. He was here yesterday. His 
name is Alia. 

Q. Is he an Arabian? — A. His grandfather was an Arab, but bom here. 

Q. They all recognize the ecclesiastical sovereignty of the Sultan at Stamboul, do 
they? — A. He says they do not recognize anybody but the salip, who came over here 
from Arabia and was married to the sister of one of the assistant datos here. 

Q. Now, do they have subordinate priests, panditas they call them? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Is there a pnest in every villa^, a pandita in every village? — A. He says that 
the dato has a great many churches in the different pueblos, and that in each settle- 
ment there is a pandita. 

Q. Ask him what the basis of their law is, the Moro law — the Koran? — A. Yes; 
the Koran. 

Q. And then there are comments on that by their old and wise men? — A. Yes; 
the old men. 

Q. Who interprets that; does the high i)riest, the dato salip? — A. He says that 
the high priest is called Tiia Ninan, and he interprets it. 

Q. We want to ask them about their slavery. Ask him whether they have any 
Filipino slaves now or not? — A. He says up river they have none. 

Q. Have they among the lake Moros? — A. During the time of the Spanish r^me 
a great many filipinos were on the island of Bangao, and the Lanao Moros would go 
down there and carry them off in slavery. 

Q. But there are no Filipino slaves among the up-river tribes here?^-A. He says 
only countrymen of their own. He said they had few Filipinos as slaves; only an 
old man, who was presented to the major here. 

Q. And they prefer to live with the Moros? — A. He says, yes; that the major 
knows. 

Q. Can Dato Piang give us any idea of the percentage of Moros among them that 
are slaves? — A. He could not state; he could only estimate. 

Q. Couldn't he tell whether half of them were slaves? — A. He says alnrnt a quar- 
ter of them are slaves. 

Q. Now, ask him how the slavery began — in how many different ways? — A. There 
are two kinds of slaves. Those who are purchased from other slaveholSers and those 
who sell themselves for debt. 

Q. Do those who were purchased originally become slaves through selling them- 
selves for debt? — A. He says that whenever slaves were sold or sold themselves that 
the children went with them — that is, with either the father or mother, as they 
pleased. 

Q. Ask him whether the slaves live in the household? — A. He says that depends 
upon circumstances. If they are persons in whom they have perfect trust the slaves 
live inside the house with the family, if not, they live outside. 

Q. Do they treat the slaves well? — A. That depends entirely upon the master. If 
he is a good-hearted man he will treat his slaves well. If he is not, he will not; 
and that is the reason why slaves who have hard taskmasters run away. 



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108 BEPOKT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Q, llaH the tttsugter the r^dit t/> kill hb* slaves if he wishes to? — A. If a slave is 
jruilty of a ver>' gr*i** offeune he niay Ije killed by his owner if he appeals first to the 
<Jato. 

il. But not without? — A. No; he says he can not kill him without reporting first 
the entire case U> the dato. 

Q- Ask him whether they have Moro schools among the Moroe? — A. Yee, sir. 

Q. In whii.-h they teach the Koran? — A. Yes. 

il. Do the penditas act as teacrhers in those schools? — A. Yee, sir. 

Q. iJo the children in thcjne schools learn to read and write or only to repeat the 
Koran?^A. He says they learn to recite the Koran, also to read and'^Tite. 

(^ Do they all learn to read and write or only a portion of them? — A. The major- 
ity of tliem do not want to learn either to read or write. 

Q. Do not? — A. No, sir. He savs that is the reason why; a majority not goinff to 
scIuxjI is the reason for so many oi them selling themselves as slaves, because^Sey 
learn to play cards and gamble and get in debt and then they have to sell themselves 
in orrlcr to jret out. He says the large majority of the slaves here are slaves from 
gambling; tney do not learn anytliing at school, but they learn to eamble with cutis, 
and not having any money they have to sell themselves' to live. If they can not get 
an vlxxly to purchase them for their gambling debts they go and steal. 

Q- And many of them Ix^^me slaves by reason of gambling debts? — A.- Yes; the 
majority. He says, that suppose he owed me $5 and he could not pay it at the end 
of th(^ maturity of the loan, and I say, you have got to come and become my slave, 
and I treat him liarlly and he runs away before he pavs me the $5, and I follow his 
trail and get him back and charge him $50 or $100 for having run away, and that 
a<Uls U) the debt, so it just makes his time of senutude longer. He says, for instance, 
another way that gets them into slavery, take thiscutf [illustrating], he comes to me 
and wants to lx>rrow this cuff and I lend it to him, and itisnot worth anything, and 
he g<H'H to another gentleman and puts it up for a few cents, and later I ask him for 
my cuff and he does not return it, and I find out he has pawned it, and I say, well, 
now that will just cost you $100, and he has to come and be my slave for tnat cuff 
which is not worth anything. 

Q. Ask him whether the datos present have any complaint to make a^nst the 
American (Jovernment or their representative? — A. He says that it is all right; that 
they are received and treated as brothers; there is no complaint. He says he don't 
know how it may l>e with other datos, but so far as they are concerned' they have 
bt^en treate<l as brothers by the representatives of the American Government. He 
says, for example, tliat if the representatives of the American Government, or the 
American (iovernment should move out from Cotabato now, that he thinks his fol- 
lowers would want to follow them to America. 

Q. Hay to him, we would be very glatl to have them come. — A. He says that after 
the American troops came here, that the colonel in the Spanish army arrived here 
and says: "Where is that cross and ribl)on and band that I gave you?" "Pooh !" 
he says, "I threw them in the river," and he says, "What did you do that for," and 
he says, "When the American troope came here, they gave me the American fla^, and 
that IS all I wanUnl, and everything the R|)aniards gave me I threw into the nver." 
He says that the Smnish colonel said to him that he oughtn't to have thrown the 
cn)SH and the banil into the river, l)ecause the American Government was just as bad 
as the Spanish Ctovemment, and he says, "No;" he says, "The American Govern- 
ment, wiien they came here, came in good faith, and tney have treated me like a 
brother;" an<l he said, " When the Spanish Government came it raised hell and fight 
us all the time." 

Q. Say to him that we are delighted to hear that they are so well satisfied with 
the American Government; that the American Government does not expect to leave 
hert\ but exj>ects to continue here and have its representatives live and continue to 
live in the same friendly relations as they have now. 

il. Y(»u say to them that we are very much obliged for the information which they 
have given; that this interview has been one that we have much enjoyed, and that we 
shall carry away the recollection of the conditions which existed here and only take 
ste^w to iH'tterthe condition of their people and themselves. — A. He says, very much 
4)bligtHl for that, but the stranger thing aoout it is In^fore the American Government 
itime hert» the Filipinos were all their friends, and since the Americans came here 
the Filipinos are all their enemies. 

il. They have sul)stituted, then, the Americans for the Filipinos? — A. He says 
he always trt^attnl them well, but if they ever tn^at them badly there will not be 
any mon* Filipinos left here. 

Atti»et: 

A. W. Fkrch'sson, Secretary. 



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KEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 109 

INTERVIEW OP COMMISSION WITH VARIOUS MORO DAT08. 

CoTABATO, Afternoon of April £, 1901. 

President (addressing Spanish interpreter). Say to him fMoro interpreter) that 
we would be glad if he would express to the datos who have honored us hy coming 
here our pleasure in seeing them. Say to him that we come here with the friendliest 
feeling to continue the policy which has been introduced bv the worthy military 
officers now in command; that we would not deprive a single Moro of a just right 
which he has heretofore enjoved; that we are not here to take their country from 
them or to make profit out of them; that anything the Government of the United 
States may do here, through its representatives, will be directed solely to the pros- 
perity and best interests of the Moro people; that we do not come here to interfere 
with their form of government, but only to see to it that justice is administered and 
that peace and equity are maintained; that nothing coukl be further from our pur- 
p^>se than an interference with* their worship of God as they choose, according to 
their own religious beliefs; that the foundation stone of the American Republic is 
tolerance in religion, and the entire separation of church and state, and that the 
Moros will be left to practice their religious rights as they choose. 

Now, w^e are here to receive any complaints or any petitions which these datos 
may desire us to consider. 

Masturi, decendant of the Sultan of Cbtabato (interpreter speaking). The dato 
states he is very much obliged, and has something to say. He states that prior to 
the advent of American troops here the people suffered a good many outrages, but 
that since that time they have always been well treated and they have no wish to 
change the quiet order oi things, and that they are very grateful for the opportimity 
to express their thanks for this to the Commission. 

President. Will you say that we are very much delighte<l to hear it. We knew 
that such was the policy of the American Government and its oflScers, and we are not 
surprised, but, nevertheless, it is pleasant to be assured of the fact from those most 
interested.— A. Now, that the Commission has come here, the dato states that it is a 
proper occasion, in order to keep peace between the different datos, to have them 
make good to each other the injuries they have done each other. 

President. These gentlemen, I imderstand, have no complaints to make on that 
score, or have they? / 

Dato Baqui. The dato wants to know if the General (Kobb^) said anything about 
the complaint they had to make. 

President, (general Kobb6 did not speak to us himself, but the Major here has 
spoken to us of the claim of the dato and has explained to the commission in full 
what this gentleman complains of. — A. Does the commission wish to hear his com- 
plaint as to things which occurred prior to the coming of the Americans? 

Q. That is what we imderstand his claim is based upon. Has he anything to 
complain of since the Americans came? — A. Everything that occurred prior to the 
coming of the Americans and afterwards is intimately connected. 

Q. Does he claim that the American officers did him injustice? — A. So far as the 
Americans are concerned he has no complaint to make, either against the soldiers or 
oflScers, but he does have a complaint to make against the I&tos Piang, Ali, and 
Tiambangan. 

Q. We do not ask him to distinguish between the time before and after the Amer- 
icans came, but ask him to state briefly what are his claims against these three da- 
tos. — A. He states that prior to the coming of the Americans here, and just prior to 
the leaving of the Spaniards, the colonel who was in command here gave him, who 
was living in Calanga, the command over Palanga, and that he went uf) there to 
assume charge, and they told him to be very careful as to the condition of the place, 
as it might be that another nation would come here and assert its authority. While 
he was there carrying out the instructions of the Spanish colonel, and prior to the 
coming of the Americana, these three datos went tnere and killed his brother and 
then came here and killed Ramon. After the Americans came here these datos 
killed his first cousin and devastated his fields and committed outrages. 

Q, Did they carry off his CAttle? — A. Some 73 head of carabaos. 

Q. Have any of these carabaos been returned? — A. None. 

Q. Has any of the property been restored to him? — A. None. 

Major McMahon, commanding oflicer. The General allowed me to settle cattle 
claims. No claim was ever made by Baqui to me, excei)t in a general way, stating 
that he had been robbed. If he had presented any claims they would have been 
paid. 

President. Ask the dato whether he has ever complained to the commander that 
he has lost any cattle. — ^A. He has. 



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110 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Q. Has he ever named a definite number of cattle lost? — A. He says they did not 
take ail of these cattle at once, but the total number taken was 73; that he did tell 
the authorities the exact number, and that in company with Lieutenant Ulis he 
informed them what had been taken from him. 

Q. How much palay did he lose? — A. Does not remember the exact number of 
cavanes of palay. He estimates that it was over 900. 

Major McMahon. After I came here an inspector was sent here by General Kobb^. 
Baqui represented to me that after the Americans came here part of this palay had 
\xten taken, and that Lieutenant Ulis was with him at the time. Of course that 
demanded investigation at once. The inspector advised me that Lieutenant Ulis 
told him it was not true. After the Americans came here he was not present when 
any palay was taken. Baqui has made this claim to me and to the general. In 
general terms he does not claim to have lost anything except carabao and palay. I 
passed him over to the general, as I was not authorized to return any cattle except 
where they were branded, and I have done that when the claim was made to me; 
but as to turning carabao back when there is no brand, that is beyond my power. 

Q. Was this palay lost before or after the Americans came here? 

Baqui. He says that he was in Paran-paran when this occurred. It occurred 
after the coming of the Americans, and that he came down from Paran-paran to 
Cotabato with Lieutenant Ulis, and that he went over to his own town with an 
interpreter, and that the interpreter told him there was no necessity for making any 
talk about it now; that the whole matter would be arranged. 

Q. How did he think it would all be arranged? 

Baqui. A man by the name of Cuto was interpreter and he went to his town and 
told him that the Colonel said not to do anything in the matter; that everything 
would be attended to. 

Q. That is all his claim? — A. He makes the claim for the carrying off of 136 per- 
sons — men, women, and children — that were carried off from his pueblo by these 
datos. 

Q. Where are they now? — A. Up the river. 

Q. Has he ever attempted, personally, to settle this matter with Piang and Ali? — 
A. He has not spoken to the other datos; he has only spoken to the Colonel and 
Major here. 

Q. Well, you say to the Dato Baqui that we have heard his complaint and that it 
has l)een taken down; that we know everything his claim comprises; that we can 
not possibly decide it now, as our stay is so short. We propose to have this matter 
investigated by the gentleman who has the time and opportunity to make the investi- 
gation, the commanding officer, Maior MacMahon; tnat he will report to the Com- 
mission; that the Commission will then make its decision and transmit the same, 
through the Major, to the interested parties, unless they can settle it among them- 
selves; that we should prefer, of course, if tney could settle it among themselves; if 
not, we will decide it. 

Dato Baqui. And with respect to those who were killed bv these datoei? 

Q. Tell him that the Commission will submit the entire claim to the Major. Tell 
him that the American Government, powerful though it is, can not bring the dead 
to life. We are sorry we can not stay longer to take part in these investigations our- 
selves, but these gentlemen will unaerstand that we have other claims calling us. 
We will leave to-night. 

Dato Taub. He states that they have placed themselves under American sover- 
eignty and under the protection of the American Government; that they would like 
to have it so arranged that the different tribes of Moros should not mingle with each 
other, but keep aloof, and each one stay in his own settlement, and thus avoid 
difficulties. 

Prksident. Tell him that we shall doubtless reach some arrangement of that sort, 
but that we can not accomplish everything at once; they must be patient 

Dato Taub. This old man [pointing to another dato] says that although he never 
does anv wrong to anybody and never interferes with anybody's business, that they 
have taken his palay and carried off his son, and if it had not been for the governor 
of Pollok he never would have recovered him. 

President. Tell him that the American troops came here at a time when every- 
thing was disturbed and that it has taken sometime to produce tranquillity , and that 
the American troops are doing everything they can to keep the peace, and that they 
will continue to do so, and if it is necessary to pursue the policy suggested by the 
elderly gentleman here we will certainly do so. You say that we have listened to 
what these gentlemen have said with the greatest consideration, because the Major 
has informed us that these datos are worthy of the best treatment in the world. 

Attest: 

A, W. Febgusson, Secretary, 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. Ill 

INTBRVIBW OF THE CX)MMI88ION WITH THE CAPITAN CHI NO AND OTHER CHINOS. 

CoTABATo, Mindanao, April js?, 1901. 
The secretary read the following petition, presented hy the Chinamen: 

**PeiiUon to the ProvosL-Marshcd-General in the Philippine Islands. 

**The subecribers, the capitan of Chinos, and other leading men of the said element 
in this place, full of profound consideration for your excellency, respectfully repre- 
sent: 

"That since the 20th of January last, when* the evacuation by the Spanish Gov- 
ernment in this district took place, down to date there has been perfect tranauillity 
here without any molestation by the Moros who inhabit the district, due to the tact 
and competence of the chief of this district, seconded effectually by the Dato Piang, 
the most powerful dato in these parte, and who enjoys the greatest prestige among 
the Moro element. To the end tnat the moral and material order of tnis community 
might be preserved, there was organized a body of volunteer soldiers, under the 
command of a single officer, who, under the orders of the former chief dato, has 
rendered valuable services, to the great satisfaction of the community, which efforts 
are supported by the Chinese commercial intereste through a monthly subscription, 
afi thev are the most interested in the subject by reason of their having established 
here their industries and commerce, owning proj)erty, etc., which represento a very 
large snm of money, and especially as they have in the district their families. 

"By reason of the foregoing, and the subscribers being desirous that their intereste, 
acquired through a long number of years at great labor, may continue in the same 
state without suffering any difference, it was agreed to unanimously address your 
excellency this petition, asking you to send to this point your troops sufficient to 
restrain any disturbance. This is a courtesy which they explect to receive from your 
excellency's justice, whose important life may God preserve many years. 

" Cotabato, May S8, 1899:' 

Presidbmt. How long have these Chinos been here? 

Capitan Chino. This one (pointing to one beside him) has been here forty years. 
I have been here fifteen years. 

Q. All enpiged in busmess? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. That IS, you buy from the Moros and export the producte? — A. Yes, sir; in 
Singapore and Manila. 

Q. Do you sell in Zamboanga? — A. We send the goods to Zamboanga and also to 
Jolo, because they are customs ports. 

Q. Do you import goods and sell them here? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. To whom ao you sell?— A. To captains of vessels that call here — anybody who 
wishes to purchase. 

Q. Do you sell goods to the Moros? — A. A few dry goods. 

Q. To the Fihpmofl?— A. Yes, sir. 

Q. What do they export? — A. Rubber, beeswax, rice, and coffee. 

Q- What is the aggregate of their exports here? — A. About $150,000 Mexican. 

Q. How much gutta-percha do they export? — A. That depends upon the crop. In 
the months of January and February they send out about 500 or 600 piculs. 

Q. How much do you pay for it? — A. From $45 to $50 per picul. 

Q. What is the selling price in Singapore? — A. In Jolo we have sold for $60, and 
in Singapore from $80 to $85. Our profite, considering the freight rates, are from 
$5 to $10 per picul. 

Q. Would you like to have a custom-house here? — A. Very much; because we 
would not have the expense of sending the goods to Jolo; would send them direct 
to Singapore. 

Q. You gentlemen are not discriminated against in the matter of taxes? — A. Before 
the Americans came we used to be discriminated against, but have no complaint 
now. 

Q. Do you think Cotabato would be the best place for a custom-house; would it 
not be better to have it on the sea? — A. It is better to have the custom-house in 
Cotabato, and it would be better than in either Zamboanga or Jolo, because there 
are more producte sent out from here than from either of the two other pointe. 

Q. Would it not be better to put it in Paran-paran — some place where they have 
a better port? — A. Those are all open porte, and a great deal of smuggling could be 
carried on. This is a better place. 

Q. What do you think of the wisdom of establishing civil government here among 
the Filipinos?— A. The Filipinos are very dumb here. During the Spanish times 
all the Filipinos here were convicte. 



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112 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Q. Are the present Filipinos descendants of those convicts? — A. Yes, sir. 

Q. You do not think they are fit for self-government? — A. No, sir. 

Q. How many Filipinos are there in this district?— A. A little over 600. 

Q. How many Chmamen? — A. Two hundred and four full-blooded Chinamen, 
while there are some Mestizos. 

Q. Do the Chinese intermarry with the Moro women? — A. Yes, sir; Piang, for 
instance — his father was a Chinaman and his mother a Moro. 

Q. Are there any Chinese women here? — A. No, sir. 

Q. Do the Chinese come here to i>a8s their whole lives, or to make money and 
return to China? — A. Most of them, like myself, marry here and raise large families, 
and it would be a bad man who would return to China leaving his family here. 

Q. If they die are their Indies taken back to China? — A. Some of the remains are 
carried home, but the majority remain here. 

Q. You send money to your relations in China? — A. Occasionally, but very little. 

Q. Some of you have families in China? — A. The lai^ majority have families here. 
Some have families there. 

Q. Do not some have families in both places? — A. Don't know much about that 

Q. Where do they come from in China? — A. From Amoy. 

President. We are much obliged to you for coming to see us and giving us this 
information. 

Attest: A. W. Ferousson, Secretary. 

INTKEVIEW OF THE COMMISSION WITH SPANISH RESIDENTS OF COTFABATO, ISLAND OF 
MINDANAO, APRIL 2, 1901. 

President. How long have you lived here in Cotabato? 

Sr. Acosta. From the creation of the town, because I was a soldier at that time, in 
1861. 

Q. And you have been here ever since? — A. I have been in Cottabato since 1861, 
and 43 years in the Philippine Islands. 

Q. You have presented a claim against the government? — A. No, sir. 

Q. Have your sons? — A. When they were informed one evenine that the Spanish 
officers were to evacuate they barely had time to collect their household effects. 
When I bade my family gooa-by, I put a few things in my trunk necessary for the 
trip to Zamboanga and went off. I suffered some losses by reason of the i)race hav- 
ing been left. The Moros and some who were there took occasion to steal and injure 
some. My sons have presented a claim for the haciendas which they have in the 
south branch of Tamontaca, but I have presented none. 

Q. What kind of a government did the Spaniards have here in Cottabato? — A. A 
militarj^ government. 

Q. Did they have any municipal organization by the Filipinos? — A. No, sir. 
There was one company of Filipino volunteers in the town and tnat was all. 

Q. But no alcalde and municipal officers? — A. There were, but far back. 

Q. How were they selected? — A. They were appointed by royal onler. 

Q. What do you think of the feasibility of organizing a municipality here now of 
Filipinos, the chief authority being American, of course? — A. If the chief authority 
is to l)e an American, it would be a very good idea; but if the chief authority is to be 
a Filipino, by no means. 

Q. How many Spaniards or Spanish mestizos are there in Cotabato? — A. Between 
the Europeans and the children of Europeans there are onl^ eight. 

Q. The rest are all Filipinos, or are there many Moros living in Cotabato? — A. A 
very great many are Moros. 

Q. More Moros than Filipinos? — A. A great many more. 

Q. Inside the city limit.«*? — A. Within the city limits there are ^ot so many, but 
they are all within pistol shdt of the city. 

Q. Within the city limits are there more Moros or Filipinos? — A. More Filipinos. 

Q. What do you mean by city limits; is it established by some Spanish law? — A. 
Yes, sir. 

CJ. How is it marked out? — A. The town of Tamontaca was declared a civil town- 
shii) by Spanish law. 

Q. What are the boundaries? — A. The four towns, Paran-paran, Tamontaca, Pol- 
l(x*, and Cotabato comprised the fifth district of the island of Mindanao. 

Q. And those four towns are (Comprised of Moros and Filipinos both? — A. Previ- 
ously there were nothing but Hiipinos in PoUoc and in Cotabato, but in Tamontaca 
they had the Jesuit Fathers, and those Christianized as well as the soldiers of the 
Spanish army. 

Q. What do you mean, down to the time of the exit of the Spanish army?— 
A. Yes, sir. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 113 

Q. So that at that tune the communities were purely Spanish and Filipinos? — A. 
Yes, sir, and rather well settled. 

Q. Outside of those pueblos are there Filipinos living? — A. The greater part of 
them left here when the Spanish authorities evacuated, but are coming back slowly. 

Q. Where did they go? — A. To Zamboanga. 

Q. Are there more Chinese than Filipinos here? — A. I believe not, but they will 
soon equal them in number. 

Q. What kind of Ulipinos are there here? — A. The greater part are ex-soldiers, 
discharged soldiers of the Spanish army. 

Q. Are there any deportados here? — A. Quite a number. 

Q. And children? — ^A. Yes, sir. 

Q. And you think it would not do to organize a self-government where the officers 
are elected out of the FiUpinos in the town of Cotabato? — A. It is advisable to have 
such a government, but with the understanding that there should be a superior 
supervismg American authority here, but by no means to have a government 
wherein they would have all the say. 

Q. Did you not once have a government here entirely Filipino? — A. There was, 
after the evacuation. 

Q. How did that get along? — A. That is the very reason why I desire to empha- 
size what I said. 

Q. Why? — A. Because they are no erood in governing themselves. 

Q. Were there any abuses under that government? — A. They were infinitive in 
number. 

Q. What was the character? — A. Speaking in Spanish "rapine," nothing elHe. 

Q. Did they have a regularly organized government? — A. At the beginning there 
was only a presidente, but afterwards certain elements came there from Zamboanga, 
and then tney had more officials, and they all bossed, one here and one there, and 
w^hen there was not one shot fired it was because there were two. 

Q. Did they claim to represent the government of the in8urrectos?^-A. They had 
their sails set to two winds. They usually stated that they were their own bosses, 
but there were not wanting those who said they were with Aguinaldo. 

Q. They had entire independence when they wanted? — A. When they wanted it. 
They stated, " I am here because I want to be." 

Q. Have the Spaniards any complaint to make against the present system of gov- 
ernment? — A. So far as the present government is concerned, and so far as I am per- 
sonally concerned, I have nothing but thanks to express for the courtesy and 
attentions which have been tendered to me and my sons. That includes my three 
sons. 

Q. And that includes the other Spanish gentlemen present? — A. We are thankful 
and grateful for Lieutenant-Colonel Brett when he was governor as well as the one 
who now discharges that office. 

Q. Do the rest of the Spanish gentlemen here have the same attitude? — A. As to 
the government, we have nothing to say except words of praise and admiration for 
the just and equal manner in which they treated not only the Spaniards, but all other 
gentlemen. 

Attest: . A. W. Fkrgusson, Secretary. 

INTERVIEW OP COMMISSION WITH CEBTAIN MORO DAT08. 

Davao, Mindanao, April 3^ 1901. 

President (addressing interpreter). Will you be good enough to say to the dato 
that we are glad to meet him? Ask Kim what the condition of tnings has been since 
the American troops have occupied the district. 

Dato. Good. He is content If any injustice has been done to them they have 
no reason for not applying for relief. As they have been treated fairly they have no 
complaint. 

Q. Do they engage in trade? Have they any gutta-percha trees here? — A. They 
do not engage in that industry. 

Q. What do they raise? — A. Cocoanuts, copra, and palay. 

Q. Where do they sell this? — A. To merchants in town here. 

Q. What are these merchants? — A. Chinese and Spaniards. 

Q. How much abaca do they produce here each year? — A. They did produce in 
some months from 6 to 10 piculs, but since the overflow of the river it has largely 
destroyed their crops of hemp. 

Q. Ask him how many slaves they have among them? — A. Very few. Each dato 
has one or two, but there are a great many slaves held by his subjects. 

P C lyOl— FT 2 8 

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114 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Q. How large a proportion of the Moros here are slaves? 

Priest (who was in attendance at the conference). About half and half. 

Dato. About one-fifth of the people. 

Q. How many datoe are there? — A. There are 5 present now. There are 11 in the 
gulf country. 

Q. Do they acknowledge any vassalage on their part to the sultan or the datos 
over in the nver country?— A. They acknowledge sovereignty to the Sultan of Min- 
danao and the Sultan of Stamboul. 

Q. That is only as a matter of religion? 

(Priest stated that these datos use the name of the Sultan of Mindanao for the 
purpose of collecting tribute, but they pay no tribute nor do they recognize his 
authority. They do not pay, but simply use his name to collect money from their 
own people. ) 

Dato. Every time that the Sultan of Mindanao sends a cheribi (?) here to get 
tribute from them they always send it to him. 

Q. Are there adjes among the Moros? — A. There are only panditos here. 

Q. Is there any dato here who has visited Mecca? 

Priest. None of them; sometimes a pandito comes here from the sultan and says 
he has been all over the world, but has not l)ei»n even in Singapore. 

Q. Who are the slaves they have? Are they Moros, or are they from the hill 
tribes? Are there any Filipino slaves in this district? 

Datto. There are no Moros or Filipinos. They are all from the interior. They 
come from the weak pagans from the interior. 

Q. How do they get them — the slavesff — A. They buy them from the datos of 
the interior. 

Q. Has the master of a slave a right to kill him? — A. They have no right to kill 
their slaves. They die, of course, very fast. 

Q. Have they any Panglimas among the Moros here? — A. No. 

Q. Who decides the disputes that arise among them? — A. The dato administers 
justice through an official Known as Nacudah. He is the administrator of iustice. 

Q. How many Moros are there here in this district? — A. He doesn't know the 
number — estimates it at about 10.000. His interpreter states they do not know how 
many there are. 

Q. Are they entirely satisfied under American authority? — A. Yes; we are satis- 
fied. There is now peace, and they are contented. 

Q. Say they will continue to be happy as long as they keep the peac«. We are 
very much ooliged to them for coming to see us, and have derived profit from our 
interview with mem. 

Attest: A. W. Fbr(iu88on, Secretary. 

INTERVIEW OF COMMISSION AT DAVAO, MINDANAO, APRIL 4, 1901, WITH REPRESENTATIVES 
OP FOUR OF THE INDONESIAN TRIBES, THE B-AGOBOS, TAGACA0L08, KALAOANES, AND OUI- 
ANGAS (related TO BAGOBOS), THE SPOKESMAN FOR THE TRIBES BEING PRINCIPALLY 
CAPITAN ATT08, HALF BAGOBO, HALF GUIANQA. 

The president to Captain Attos: Are you the chief of the Bagdbos? 

Attos. Chief of my settlement. Each settlement has a different chief. 

Q. Do not all the settlements recognize one head? — A. No, there is no chief over 
all these settlements. The only chief we recognize is the American military govern- 
ment. 

Q. And have your relations with the military authorities here been pleasant or 
otherwise? — A. Very pleasant. 

Q. Have you had peace since the Americans came here? — A. The peaceful condi- 
tions have been very good since the Americans arrived. If the Americans had not 
arrived here when they did, we might have taken to the woods. 

Q. What do your people live on?— A. By tilling the ground, raising a little rice, 
and planting bananas. Recently we have raised a little hemp. We also have 
cocoanuts. 

Q. To whom do you sell these things? — A. To the merchants in this town. 

Q. Why would you have taken to the woods if the Americans had not arrived 
when they did? — A. There was no government here, and through fear we would 
have taken to the woods to escape anyone who might arrive. 

Q. Whom did you fear? — A. We had heard of the revolution in Luzon and were 
afraid it would extend down here. 

Q. Did the Moros make trouble for you? — ^A. No, no. 

Q. Or the Filipinos? — ^A. We had no trouble with the Filipinos here, because we 
always followed the command of the Filipino government here. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 115 

Q. Are your people strong enough to take care of themselves? — A. We have krises 
and lances, but now the Moroe have ffuns. Our people are afraid of the Moros, but 
if armed in the same way we could tiie care of ourselves. 

Q. Have you cattle? — A. Only carabaos and horses. 

Q. Have you slaves? — A. Yes. 

Q. How many? What is the proportion between slaves and free people? — A. Each 
man has one, two, three, or four slaves in his work. 

Q. Each captain or chief, that is? — A. Yee. 

Q. Where did you get slaves? — A. We bought slaves for arms and working tools 
from the tribes to the north. 

Q. What tribes?— A. The Ataa. All the slaves are Atas. 

Q. Are any of those lowland people slaves? — A. There are some. I don't know 
how many there are, but I have three myself. 

Q. Have the Moros Bagobo slaves? — A. No. 

Q. Have you Moro slaved? — A. No. 

Q. Where do you live; in the hills or in the valleys? — A. In the mountains. 

The President. We are very much obliged to you for coming and are glad to hear 
that you are satisfied with the Americans. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fbrousson, Secretary. 

United States Philippine Commission. 

MINUTES OF proceedings. 

SuRiGAO, Province of Surigao, 
Island of Mindanao^ April 6^ 1901, 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Wright, Ide, Moses and the 
president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 11 o'clock a. m. 

Prior to the meeting it developed that notice of the coming of the 
Commission to Surigao had not been received by the commanding officer 
in time to notify the pueblos. For this reason only four pueblos out 
of some thirty in the province were represented. These pueblos, with 
their delegates, were as follows: 

Surigao Ramon Basquez. 

Hermangildo Narciso. 

Cantilan Simon Arieza. 

Anao-Aon lOduardo Silay. 

Dapa Paulino Buaya. 

Some of the councilors from these towns, as well as a number of 
citizens from Surigao, were also present at the meeting. 

The president expressed his regret that the Commission was not 
privileged to meet a larger representation of the province. He stated 
that the Commission was also sorry to learn that there were still some 
sixtv or seventy-five misguided individuals continuing a disturbance 
in the province. The capture of Aguinaldo and the many recent sur- 
renders had ended the lunction of these people as representing the 
insurrection. In so far as they represented ladronism, which appears 
to be their true vocation, they would certainly be driven out. The 
president stated that the commanding officer would be authorized to 
organize all the towns of the province under the municipal code, copies 
of which had been sent to the different pueblos. He tnen referred to 
the visit of the Commission to Zamboanga, Cotabato and Davao, and 
the fact that, by reason of the peculiar conditions there existing, no 
provincial governments had been organized. The object of the Com- 
mission in coming to Surigao was to ascertain whether in population 



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116 REPORT OB^ THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

and resources this province was able to support a provincial govern- 
ment under the general provincial act. 

The president then explained to them briefly the provisions of the 
general provincial act and the obligations the people would assume if 
organized thereunder. He requested an opinion from the representa- 
tives as to whether the province could raise suflicient revenue to pay 
the salaries of the provincial oflicers and to see to the improvement 
of the roads, bridges and public buildings in the province. He 
explained that the Commission did not wish to force a provincial gov- 
ernment upon the people unless thev felt able to support it. A 
simpler fonn of government could be devised for them, but the Com- 
mission has found the desire quite general among all the people to 
have a separate provincial government when they could support it. 

Senor Hermangildo Narciso, of Surigao, thought that through the 
imposition of a land tax the province could support a provincitu gov- 
ernment. He had no doubt as to the desires of the people in this 
regard, as they had always enjoyed a separate provincial government. 
In answer to an inquiry, Senor Narciso said he was governor of the prov- 
ince under the insurrecto government; his term of office lasted four 
months. He said in Spanish times the revenue of the province aggre- 
^ted 95,000 pesos. He said none of this money remained in the prov- 
ince except what was needed to pay the provincial officers and their 
subordinates. All the work in the municipalities was done under the 
law requiring everv person to contribute fifteen days' labor each year. 
The gobernadorcillo had a salary of only 24 pesos a year. Most of 
the public buildings were erected by forced labor. At one time forty 
days' labor was recjuired of the people each year. The estimate of 
$96,000 was exclusive of the cedula tax. The speaker said that this 
latter was $2 a year, bringing in from the 60,000 inhabitants of the 
province the sum of 120,000 pesos per year. Some of this money went 
to pay the curates and lay brothers of the church, each of whom 
received 100 pesos per month. There were 13 curates at that time in 
the province. The 95,000 pesos was collected from the industrial tax, 
the urbana tax, the tax on weights and measures, from opium licenses 
and from stamped paper. 

The president then specified the salaries paid the provincial officers 
in Pampanga and in Tarlac and inquired what the speaker thought 
would be proper for Surigao. The speaker thought the province 
might be considered as third or fourth class and that salaries corre- 
sponding to these classes might be paid here. He thought until bet- 
ter times it should be considered as a fourth-class province; it was a 
third class in Spanish times. He said that the boundaries of the prov- 
ince were definitely fixed; they had not been changed since Spanish 
times. He said there were 35 towns; the towns of San Juan and 
Nonoc, being small, might be united with other towns. 

The speaker stated that there was no road from Surigao to Bislig, 
the town farthest south in the province, and that it would take the 
steamer some eighteen hours to make the trip. He stated that Surigao 
had a central location and what the province needed were good roads 
to connect the towns. He said that during the months of November, 
December, January, February and March, navigation on the seacoast 
was impracticable for small boats. 

The general question being put to the audience as to whether they 
agreed with the speaker and desired a separate provincial government, 
they responded that they did. ^ j 

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REPOBl? OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 117 

Senor Narciso stated that they had no lawyer in the province and 
that a fiscal would have to be brought in from the outside. 

He stated that they had not as yet had the cattle ^disease among 
them. The principal source of wealth of the province is hemp. 1& 
said there was much land unused which might be used for growing 
hemp. He said that abaca was raised on the flat ground; had coal 
in the island said to be of good quality, situated near Loreto in the 
central part of the island; said that the ports of Surigao or Loreto 
were as near as any to the deposit; said that cocoa and tobacco were 
also produced, ana the people also dealt in timber. 

The president thanked the speaker for this information and promised 
the people that the Commission would proceed at once with its arrange- 
ments to establish civil government in the municipalities and in the 
province of Surigao. The Commission trusted that the disturbances 
at present existing in the province would soon cease and that the peo- 
ple would devote tnemselves to the material progress of their province. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: A. W. Fergusson, Secretary. 

United States Philippine Commission, 
minutes op proceedings. 

Cagayan de Misamis, 
Island of Mindanao^ April 7, 1901. 

Present: Conunissioners Worcester, Wright, Ide, Moses and the 
president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 10.30 a. m. 
Some ten pueblos of the province were represented at the meeting. 

The president expressed the pleasure of the Commission in seeing 
the people of Cagayan, and especially in meeting the distinguished gen- 
eral (Capistrano) who had recently surrenderea and who by his action 
recognized that the best course for the Philippine Islands is the accept- 
ance of civil government under the sovereignty of the United States. 

Inquiry was then made as to whether the people had received copies 
of the municipal code and the provincial law. It appeared that tney 
had. 

The president then pointed out the peculiar conditions prevailing in 
Mindanao by reason of a small Filipino population living next to a 
large Moro and Pagan population. The Filipino population in Zam- 
boanga, Davao and Cotabato had been found too small to support the 
expense of a separate provincial government, whereas at Surigao they 
had been found in suflScient number to warrant civil organization. 
The Commission had met with the people of Misamis to find out the 
resources of their province and their desires in this matter. The presi- 
dent then explained the provincial act and municipal code in detail and 
the system or taxation therein provided. He asked the views of the 
people upon the question of their ability to support a provincial gov- 
ernment; also what territory their province should include, what sala- 
ries should be paid, etc. Reference was made to the possibility of 
annexing Dapitan to the province of Misamis; this because Dapitan 
did not have suflBcient pueblos to support a separate government. The 
fact that Dapitan was quite distant naving been raised, it was pointed 
out that the relation between the towns of a province and the capital 



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118 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

was not so close as in Spanish times and there was not the same neces- 
sity for the people constantly visiting the capital. 

The president here explained the relation existing between the pro- 
vincial officers and the central government, of which the military 
? governor is now the chief executive. He said that within three or 
our months it was expected that a central civil government would be 
established, the governor of which would be the chief executive. 
The supervision exercised by the provincial government over the 
nmnicipalities and by the central government over the provinces was 
not, however, a supervision that took away the independence of action 
of such subordinate officers, but simplv saw that they did not violate 
their oaths of allegiance and acted within the provisions of the law. 

Senor Capistrano, in the name of the people of the province, wel- 
comed the Commission and the ladies who accompanied it to Cagayan. 
He said the people of the province congratulated themselves that laws 
so liberal as the provincial act and the municipa.1 code had been 
adopted in their behalf. These laws met, if they did not go beyond, 
the aspirations of the people. He said that the establishment in the 
province of the municipal code and provincial law was the wish and 
desire of every inhabitant of the province. In his opinion, however, 
many difficulties would be met in establishing provincial government. 
He pointed out the loss and destruction due to the war — fields laid 
waste, houses burned, lands uncultivated; while to further augment 
the misery of the people, disease had carried off nearly all of the car- 
abaos and horned cattle upon which they were dependent in tilling the 
soil. This would render it difficult for some time to collect a land tax. 
He stated that, counting Moros and Pagans together, there were prob- 
ably more of them in the province of Misamis than Filipinos. This 
estimate included Dapitan and Iligan. 

Senor Corrales estimated that there were 120,000 Filipinos in the 

grovince of Misamis, not including Dapitan. With the exception of 
anta Cruz all the Filipino towns are on the coast. He thought it 
would be possible to draw a line from the coast which. would separate 
the Moros from the Filipino population and yet include most of the 
latter. He said, however, that many of the mountain tribes were docile 
and susceptible of civilization, but he could not say as much for the 
Moros. 

Senor Corrales said he was in favor of provincial government at this 
time, and that that was the general sentiment of the people. 

He then stated that certain doubts had arisen among the people as 
to the operation of the provincial law, while they also had certain 
requests to make of the Commission. These had been prepared in the 
form of a statement, which the speaker handed to the secretary of the 
Commission. It was as follows: 1. The absolute prohibition of Chi- 
nese immigration. 

The president advised the speaker that this was a question for the 
General Government rather than the provincial government. Such a 
law would naturally affect all the provinces, and not merely one prov- 
ince. The law in force at the present time was the Chinese Exclusion 
Act of the United States, whicn applied here by military order. The 
speaker wished this law continued. 

2. A declaration making Cagayan a free port to foreign commerce 
for this district, or at least making it a port of entry, as it unites all 
the conditions for such a port. Being asked if Cebu did not furnish 



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KEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 119 

them adequate facilities, he replied that it did. As a benefit, however, 
to the provincial seat, and as a convenience to hemp producers, he 
thought Cagayan should be made an open port. This would enable 
hemp to be Drought down in small vessels, and would save the expense 
of shipping to Cebu. He said that from the island of Camiguin, which 
belongs to this province, 230,000 piculs are shipped annually. 

At this point the Commission adjourned until 3 o'clock in the 
afternoon. 

Afternoon Bemon, 

The meeting was called to order by the president at 3 o'clock and 
the secretary continued with the statement presented by Senor 
Corrales. 

3. Inquiry concerning the problem of the friars, as also the Jesuits, 
and their missions among the Pagan tribes. In other words are friars 
to return to their curacies and are the people to be subservient to them. 

The president stated that while this was not treated of in the pro- 
vincial law, the Commission did not hesitate to express its views or to 
say what its principles on the subject are; that the Commission had 
been instructed by the President of the United States to secure in the 
passage of laws and in the establishment of governments an absolute 
and entire separation between church and state. Every person is to 
be allowed to worship God as he chooses; the people here may attend 
the services of the padre who comes here under the Roman Catholic 
Church, or not, as tney desire, and in no way violate the law. Not a 
single cent of public funds is to be used for the support of any church, 
whether Roman Catholic or otherwise. No one is to be compelled by 
law to make contribution of any kind to the support of any church. 
So far as the return of the friars is concerned, the Commission has 
made a report to the President of the United States in which it has 
expressed the opinion that it would be unwise for the Catholic Church, 
as well as unfortunate for the country, to have a return of the friars 
to th^ parishes which they before occupied. The Commission had 
receivea information from the archbishop and the {mpal delegate that 
he did not intend to send back to any parish any friar whom the peo- 
ple of that parish did not desire to have come. 

As to the question whether the friar is subordinate to the law, every 

¥Brson who comes into the province will be subordinate to the law. 
he friar, if he violates the law, will be tried in exactly the same man- 
ner as the humblest citizen. In other words, the position which the 
friar will occupy amon^ the people will be determmed by the people 
themselves, and the civil law will have nothing to do with it. That is 
the rule which prevails in the United States and that is the rule which 
we expect to establish here, that a friar, by virtue of his position as a 
friar or as a priest, will have nothing whatever to do with the civil 
government, and will have no official relations with it. It is provided 
in the municipal code that no ecclesiastic shall hold civil office. 

4. An exemption for a definite time from the tax for cutting timber 
in order to enable the people to rebuild the towns which have suffered 
and been destroyed by reason of the present disturbances. 

It was pointed out that under the existing forestry law a poor man 
could cut timber without paying for it, while timber cut for govern- 
ment use costs nothing. If a man was rich and could afford to pay this 
tax he should pay it, as the revenue went toward the support of the 
government. 

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120 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

5. Inquiry as to the return to the province of what were known as 
public vaccinators. 

The president pointed out that under the municipal code the city 
council has authority to create municipal offices, and it is competent 
for it to create the office of vaccinator and fix the salary which he is to 
receive. The speaker raised the question as to their being able to find 
persons ox)mpetent for this work. He was advised that the Commis- 
sion had in preparation an act establishing a department of public 
health for the Islands, which would have charge of such matters ai^ 
this; that it had also appropriated certain sums to pay vaccinating 
officials in different parts of the Islands, and perhaps Mindanao was 
included in the territory covered. 

6. General legislation relative to immigration of laborers for the 
development of agriculture in Mindanao. 

It was the understanding of Mr. Corrales that certain restrictions 
existed concerning the immigration of laborers from Bohol to Min- 
danao. He was advb«ed that if any such restrictions existed in Spanish 
times they did not exist now; the Commission could not undertake, 
however, to force immigration. If laborers are desired, the only way 
to get them is to offer them good terms. Congress had restricted the 
power of the Commission in the matter of disposing of public lands, 
so it could not offer any inducements for people to immigrate to Min- 
danao, where there was a large acreage of such lands. However, 
Congress would doubtless act upon this at its session next December. 

7. The establishment of a college of secondary instruction in 
Caj^ayan. 

Senor Corrales explained that heretofore all those desiring a higher 
education had been compelled to go to Manila, which has placed it 
beyond the reach of many people. The president advised that the 
Commission had with it the general superintendent of public instruc- 
tion, who would consult witn them, wnile a division superintendent 
had already been appointed for Mindanao who had, he understood, 
visited Cagayan. It was explained that the educational department 
still had enormous work before it in the matter of organization of pri- 
mary schools, but that it was hoped to also extend secondary instruc- 
tion later, and under the municipal code it was provided that the people 
themselves might establish schools of seconoary instruction. How- 
ever, they should confer with the general superintendent on this subject. 

8. The imposition of import and export duties by the towns as a 
means of securing revenue. The president advised that this was abso- 
lutely prohibited by the municipal code. In order to secure prosperitv 
for this country there must be absolute free trade between the islands 
and between the towns. 

9. Disproportion in the resources of the provincial seat and other 
towns, in view of the public buildings, bridges, roads, etc., which 
must be constructed. 

It was explained to the speaker that the province would have to 
share the expense of constructing public buildings wherever erected. 

10. The question of the prohibition of the sale of opium. 

He was told that the municipal code gives the right to municipalities 
to regulate this traffic, or to prohibit it if the}'^ so wished. 

11. Request that the land tax be suspended for one year and that a 
personal tax of '^2 per year be impovsea instead. 

The president aa vised that it had already been explained that the 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 121 

land tax would not become effective before next year, and that a year's 

frace could be obtained if it was shown that the land was uncultivated 
y reason of the war. It had been suggested to the Commission in 
various places that a cedula tax be imposed until the land tax became 
applicable, but the Commission was not prepared at this time to decide 
whether it should be imposed or not. It was understood that this tax 
was very unpopular in Spanish times, as it called for the same contri- 
bution from the poor man as from the rich man. The matter would 
be taken under advisement, however. 

12. Request that a portion of the two-million-dollar appropriation 
by the Commission for the construction of roads be applied in the 
jH^ovince of Misamis. 

The president explained that this monev was to be spent under the 
direction of the militarv governor, and that application for it would 
have to be made through General Kobb^ or the officer commanding in 
Cagayan. 

13. Asked the immediate establishment of civil government in this 
district, and with it the establishment of a court oi first instance and 
the appointment of a justice of the peace. 

The president advised, with respect to the establishment of a court, 
that the Commission was now engaged in the preparation of a bill 
organizing the courts and providing a code of procedure; that a court 
of first instance would be established for the province and courts of 
justices of the peace in the pueblos. 

This ended the list presented by Senor Corrales. 

The president mentioned the salaries paid provincial officers in Pan- 

gisinan, and asked Senor Corrales what ne would suggest for Misamis. 
e thought the Commission might strike an average by taking into 
account the relative importance of the two provinces. 

Considerable discussion was then had by tne Commission with Senor 
Corrales and others as to how a line could be run in the province so 
as to separate the Moro and Pagan tribes from the Filipinos, reference 
being had in the discussion to a map of the island. 

Senor Capistrano, on being questioned as to the advisability of quar- 
terly meetings of the presidentes, thought they should meet at least 
every quarter for the first year or two in order to learn about the gov- 
ernment. His experience showed that in most of the interior towns 
the people had little real knowledge of governmental affairs, and as 
they haa no one to teach them thev should come to the capital. He 
thought, however, some sort of a launch should be provided to bring 
them in, as the trip in small vessels is uncertain and dangerous. The 
president advised that something would be done in the matter of trans- 
portation to help out the different provinces. 

The president then presented the following resolution: 

Resolved, That it is the senee of the Commission that that part of the province of 
Misamis which contains the Filipino 'population and which does not include the 
Moro people should be organized into a province under the general provincial act, 
with the modifications suggested by local conditions at this meeting; that the ques- 
tion whether the commandancia of Dapitan, or any part thereof, shall be included 
in this province shall be postponed until the town of Dapitan can be visited and the 
representatives of the towns in that territory can be consulted; that the special law 
applying the general provincial act to the province of Misamis, and the appointments 
to provincial offices under the general provincial law, shall be made on or before the 
date when the Commission arrives in Manila and conamunicated at once to the people 
of the province. 



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122 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

The resolution was adopted unanimously. 

The president then thanked the people for the courtesies extended 
to the Uommission and for the information it had received in confer- 
ence with them. He stated that the Commission, in undertaking this 
journey, had invited to accompany it some of the leading Filipinos of 
the Islands. Among these was Don Cayetano S. Arellano, president 
of the supreme court of the Islands. Business, however, had com- 

Eelled his return to Manila from Iloilo. The Commission had replaced 
im, however, by a lawyer entitled to be named with him a^^ among 
the leading lawyers of the islands, Sefior Mapa, of Panav, who would 
address them. An address was then delivered by Senor Mapa. 

The president then called upon Dr. Tavera, president of the Federal 
party, who also spoke to the people. A brief reply was made by 
Seiior Corrales, who thanked the Commission in the name of the people 
of Cagayan and of the province for what it had done in their oehalf 
this day. 
The Commission then adjourned. 
Attest: 

A. W. Fergusson, Secretary, 

United States Philippine Commission. 

minutes of proceedings. 

Dapitan, Island of Mindanao, April <9, 190 L 
Present: Commissioners Worcester, Wright, Ide, Moses, and the 
president. 

f he session was called to order by the president at 9.46 a. m. 
There were some ten representatives present, among them the gov- 
ernor of the commandancia and the presidente of Dapitan. It appeared 
that representatives of Ilaya and Dipolog had left yesterday, the notice 
of the coming of the Commission having oeen indehnite. The president 
expressed his regret at this fact, but steted that as a sufficient number 
of gentlemen were present to give the Commission a fairly definite idea 
concerning certain matters upon which it desired information, the Com- 
mission would be glad to hear from them. The remarks of the presi- 
dent were interpreted into Spanish and then into Visayan. The 
president referred to the meeting of yesterda}^ in Cagayan and the 
action of the Commission in promising the people there a provincial 

fovernment; this being their wish and it appearing that the province 
ad sufficient population and resources to waiTant such action. The 
question had been left open, however, as to whether the commandancia 
of Dapitan should be annexed to the province of Misamis. The Com- 
mission desired first to ascertain the wishes of the people of Dapitan. 
It was pointed out that Dapitan did not have either sufficient population 
or sufficient resources to support a separate government. This being 
so, the alternatives were presented: First, union with Misamis under a 
separate provincial government, in which case the people would unite 
with Misamis in the election of a governor; second, beinff made a part 
of the department of the island of Mindanao, in which there would be 
an appointed governor, with lieutenant-governors to be appointed for 
various parts of the island, one of which might be appointed for Dapitan 
and who would live here. The president explained that during the 
journey of the Commission to different towns in Mindanao it had round 
two provinces, Surigao and Misamis, with sufficient population and 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 123 

resources to warrant their organization under the general provincial 
law; that the rest of the island would have to be in a department under 
a departmental governor, with lieutenants. It was stated that the 
failure to have a separate government would not deprive Dapitan of 
the privilege of having municipal governments, practical!}' autono- 
mous, under which the people would elect all of their officers; that 
this would be exactly the same as in other provinces. An expression 
of opinion as to the form of governmeut they would prefer was invited 
from those present. 

Senor Eugenio Daymiel, governor of Dapitan, thought it best to 
have Dapitan form a part of the department of Mindanao, with a 
lieutenant-governor ana with munioipalities according to the code, as 
it did not have sufficient resources to support a separate government 
and did not wish to be joined to Misamis. 

In reply to the question whether the^ did not want to be annexed to 
Misamis, Sefior Catalino Dagpin, presidente of Ilaya, and Senor Bag- 
mundi, presidente of Dapitan, stated that they entertained the same 
opinions as Senor Daymiel. 

Senor Proceso Eguia, secretair of Dapitan, stated that under Span- 
ish rule Dapitan formed part of the government of Misamis, with a 
representative of that government living in Dapitan, and that the 
people suffered a great deal of injury by reason or such arrangement. 
The government of Misamis was of so little value to them, being so 
far away, that they petitioned to be separated from it. They did not 
want to be joined to it now. The representatives present seemed to 
be unanimously in favor of a lieutenant-governor and against union 
with Misamis. It was stated that this was also the view of those rep- 
resentatives who had left yesterday. The president promised them 
that the Commission would take the course which they desired; that it 
would try to give them a good government and a good lieutenant- 
governor. 

Further discussion developed that the towns of Dapitan were organ- 
ized under General Orders, No. 40, and that orders had already been 
issued bringing them under the municipal code. 

In answer to a question as to how much road would have to be built 
in order to connect the towns of Dapitan, Senor Eguia stated that 
from Dapitan to Dipolog, the farthest town, a road which could be 
traveled on horseback was already constructed. He said it could be 
changed into a carriage road without great difficulty, but there were 
several rivers to cross. He said there were comparatively few homed 
cattle in the province, and some carabao. He said there were very 
few Moros in Dapitan, but there were nearly 20,000 of hill tribes, 
but they have no trouble with them. There were a few Chinos, per- 
haps 40. Thev had no trouble with the Moros. The people of the 
Erovince raised abaca and cocoa, of which they exported some. They 
ad no minerals. They also raised rice, which tney consumed. lie 
said there was good timber in the province; considerable ebony. 

Some questions were asked concerning Rizal, who had lived in 
Dapitan for four years. 

The speaker stated they had a boys' and girls' school in Spanish in 
town and that English was now being taught by the military interpreter. 

After thanking the people for the information they had given and 
for their kind reception, tne president declared the session adjourned. 
Attest: 

A. W. Fergusson, S^epretarv, 

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124 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

United States Philippine Commission, 
minutes op proceedings. 

DUMAGUETE, PROVINCE OP ORIENTAL NeGROS, 

April 9, 1901, 
Present: Commissioners Worcester, Wright, Ide, 'Moses, and the 

president. 
The session was called to order by the president at 9.45 a. m., and 

the roll of the pueblos of the province called by the secretary. The 

following pueblos were represented, as follows: 

Pueblo of Dumaguete: 

Don Meliton Larena Municipal president. 

Don Benito Gallardo ^. Councilor. 

Pueblo of Nueva Valencia: 

Don Sebastian Remolador Municipal secretary. 

Don Victor J. Bingcoy ^ Resident. 

Pueblo of Bacong: 

Don Alitano Cenit Municipal secretary. 

Don Leon Tindoc Resident. 

Pueblo of Dauin: 

Don Jose G. de la Pena Public notary. 

Don Domingo Delfino School teacher. 

Pueblo of Zamoanguita: 

Don Filomeno Deloria Municipal president. 

Don Tiburcio Eluniir Municipal secretary. 

Pueblo of Siaton: 

Don Juan Gadiana. 

Don Rufino Ebrole. 
Pueblo of Tolong: 

Don Isaac Nuique Municipal president 

Don Eusebio Electona Councilor. 

Pueblo of Bayauan: 

Don Estanislao Dumatol Municipal president. 

Don Gregorio Porle Municipal secretary. 

Pueblo of Sibulan: 

Don Pedro Tevez Local inspector. 

Don Diego Divinagracia Local inspector. 

Pueblo of AyuQuitan: 

Don Miguel Patero Ex-president. 

Pueblo of Amblang: 

Don Lino Erum Resident. 

Pueblo of Taniay: 

Don Jose Munoz President. 

Pueblo of Bais: 

Don Santiago Gonzales •. School teacher. 

Don Luis Dotea Resident 

Don Jose Saavedra Resident 

Don Juan Saavedra Municipal treasurer. 

Pueblo of Maujuod: 

Don Isaac Bayluces Municipal president 

Pueblo of Ayungon: 

Don Isidro Ruiz Ex-president. 

Don Paulo Valencia Municipal secretary. 

Pueblo of Tayasan: 

Don Victorio Aragones. 

Don Prudencia Martinez. 
Pueblo of Jimallud: 

Don Roman Euraoba Local president 

Don Clemente Fabruada. 
Pueblo of Libertad: 

Don Isaac Dionaldo President 

Don Basilio Vito Resident 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 125 

Pueblo of Guijulugan: 

Don Eepiridion Vill^as Justice of the peace. 

Don Domingo Cortes Ck)unciior. 

Pueblo of Siquijor: 

Don Raimundo Enriquez School-teacher. 

Don Manuel Fagugais President. 

Pueblo of San Juan: 

Don Eduardo Samson Municipal president. 

Don Vicente Austero Councilor. 

Pueblo of Lacy: 

Don Juan Ogdol Inspector. 

Don Calixto Rodriques Municipal secretary. 

Pueblo of Maria: 

Don Prudencio Leomongo. 

Don Ignado Simunguet. 

The above list comprises the official representatives. There were 
many others in attendance from the different pueblos. 

Tne president thanked the people for their reception, which he said 
was rivaled only by the reception accorded the Commission at Bacolod, 
in Occidental Segros. The president then referred to the conference 
had by the Commission with the people of Occidental Negros at Baco- 
lod and the action taken at such meeting, reading the resolution there 
adopted. He stated, however, that it was expressly undei-stood that 
the said resolution, relating to the establishment of provincial govern- 
ment in Negros, should not become definitely effective until after the 
Commission had consulted with the people of Oriental Negrps at 
Dumaeuete. It was true the Commission might have fully acted on 
the telegram from Senor Lorena expressing his views of public 
opinion on the east coast. The Commission wished, however, to 
meet the people personally. Inquiry developed that the presidentes 
of all the towns of Oriental Negros had received copies of the general 
provincial law. 

The president then stated that the Commission had come to Negros 
and to Dumaguete to do just what the people of Negros desired it to 
do, for the Commission felt a sense of ooligation to the people of 
Negros for having been the first to credit the people of the United 
States with a desire to erect a good government in these Islands. Ref- 
erence was then made to the capture of Aguinaldo and to his having 
taken the oath of allegiance, to the surrender of General Trias, and to 
the other important surrenders and captures of men and arms that 
had occurred since January 1. It might safely be said that peace is at 
hand. The president stated that the question to be treated by them 
now was whether they desired a division of the island into two prov- 
inces; also whether they desired the general provincial act, with neces- 
sary modifications, and, if they desired to be established as a province, 
what salaries should be ipaid the provincial officers. He also asked 
their consideration of what would be an equitable division of the 
j$70,000 Mexican now in the treasury of the government of Negros. 
Reference was also made to the question of cedula tax and its possible 
abolition, and to the matter of quarterly meetings of the presidentes at 
the capital. The president then discussed certain features of the gen- 
eral provincial law, explaining in some detail the autonomous character 
of tne provincial government in its relations to the central govern- 
ment. He stated that it was expected to establish a centi-al civil gov- 
ernment within the next three months, when the general supervision 
of the provincial government would pass from the military to a civil 



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126 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

governor. The relation of the civil authorities to the military in 
organized provinces was also explained. A discussion of the various 
questions suggested was invited on the part of the public. 

Senor Melecton Lorena, presidente of Dumaguete, stated that the 
people of Oriental Negros had been apprised of the action taken by 
the Commission in Western Negros, and that the people of the east 
coast were practically unanimous in favor of a separate provincial 

fovemment. He stated that their views would be presented by Seiior 
uan Saavedra, who had been authorized to represent the various 
presidentes. 

Sefior Saavedra, after thanking the Commission for coming among 
them and expressing in the highest terms his appreciation of its worE 
and the faith of the people m the future of the country under its 
guidance, gave the following reasons why a separate provincial gov- 
ernment should be established in Oriental Negros: 

1. That the eastern coast of Negros, including the island of Siquijor, 
has more than 150,000 inhabitants distributed among 25 pueblos. 

2. That the province has approximately an area of 14,100 square 
kilometers, 4,800 belonging to Siquijor. 

3. That by reason of its topographical situation the east coast is 
entirely cut off from th^ west coast, making communication slow and 
dangerous. 

4. That the east coast, with Siquijor, can easily collect 80,000 pesos 
annually, which will be increased with the return of normal times. 

5. That the people desire that the money collected in their part of 
the island be spent there in the construction of roads, bridges, and 
public buildings, which was not the case at present. 

He referred to the fact that they had had in Dumaguete a delegate 
of the existing government, but that, with the exception of this, the 
eastern half of tne island occupied a subordinate place in the present 
scheme, and they had to conform to a plan or system which was 
made up in Bacolod, generally without anjr knowledge of the condi- 
tions existing. He stated that it was the wish of the people, includ- 
ing those of Siquijor, that Oriental Negros be organized into a separate 
province under the general provinciallaw. 

The president then called upon Senor Demetrio Lorena, govern- 
mental aelegate of Eastern Negros, for his ideas. Sefior Lorena stated 
that his views had already been expressed in the telegram sent to Baco- 
lod; it was written after a conference with many people. Being asked 
as to the division of the funds now in the treasury, he said the people 
would be satisfied with the return of 30,000 pesos recently contributed 
by them for taxes of last year. 

The president stated thiat the Commission had invited Senor Jos€ 
Luzuriaga, auditor for the island, to be present at this conference, and, 
with the pel-mission of the speaker, he would call upon him for a state- 
ment of his accounts, and also for any suggestions as to an equitable 
division of the funds in the treasury, Senor Luzuriaga thereupon 
submitted to the Commission a statement of his accounts, copy of which 
has been placed in the oflScial files of the Commission. With reference 
to a plan for the division of the funds, the speaker stated that he would 
suggest a project, but that no definite figures could be given until all 
payments nad been made to the end of April. Being asked if there 
would be $70,000 left for distribution, he replied there would not, as 
the balance which existed when the Commission was in Bacolod had 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 127 

suffered considerable diminution by reason of last month's payments. 
He thought there would be no more than $40,000 left on May 1, after 
pa^nng all obligations. In outlining his plan for a division of the 
funds the speaker submitted a statement showing the total revenues 
of the island and the amount contributed, respectively, by Eastern and 
Western Negros. He then showed the amount expended on account of 
the general government and the amounts expended, respectiv ely, on 
behalf of Eastern and Western Negros. He estimated the obligation of 
Eastern Negros at one-third and Western Negros at two-thirds. From 
this he deduced that Eastern Negros was still indebted to the general 
treasury in the sum of $7,697.02. A considerable discussion followed 
as to the propriety of certain charges made against Oriental Negros, 
such as ti-avelmg expenses of the supreme court in coming to Duma- 
guete, etc. The equity of the entire project was also called into ques- 
tion, in that, where there was a general partnership, as in this case, 
and funds were contributed, those funds were supposed to be expended 
where they would accomplish the most good to tne entire partnership, . 
and the local application of such moneys ought not to be considered. 

Considerable discussion was also had as to tne ratio of division which 
should be established between the two provinces. A comparison of 
population and contributions showed this ratio to be somewhere in the 
neighborhood of two to one in favor of Eastern Negros. It also showed 
there were considerable taxes due and uncollected in both provinces. 
Of these uncollected taxes the greater portion were cedula taxes, which 
taxes, under the resolution adopted in Bacolod, had been abolished. 
The president finally suggested to the speaker the following plan of 
division: To constitute a lund of the money actually on hand after all 
bills are paid on the Ist of May and add to that sum the amount due 
for taxes from Occidental Negros for 1900 and amount due for taxes 
from Oriental Negros for the same period; divide this into three parts, 
crediting Oriental Negros with one-third and Occidental Negros with 
two- thirds, turning over to Occidental Negros as paid the amount still 
due from it as taxes, and the same with Oriental Negros, leaving to 
each the collection of its own taxes* 

Senor Luzuria^ stated that this was the plan he had in mind, and 
that he thought it a very ecjuitable method. It was suggested that a 
committee should be appointed to determine the exact ratio to be 
adopted in the division. 

Tne Commission then adjourned to 8.30 p. m. 

Aftemixni sesHum. 

The session was called to order at 4 o'clock. 

The president stated that the Commission had received no suggestions 
concerning the salaries to be paid provincial oflicei*s or as to the wis- 
dom of holding quarterly meetings of the presidentes. Senor Demetrio 
Lorena, presidente of Dumaguete, stated that the people had discussed 
these points and had agreed that the special bill should be adopted here 
in the form passed in other places, and that one-fifth of the total reve- 
nues of the province should be set aside for the payment of salaries of 
officials. Estimating the revenues of Oriental Isegros at $80,000, this 
would give $8,000 gold for salaries. He also suggested that division 
of this might be m^e among the officials in the same ratio as in other 
provinces. 



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128 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

The president pointed out that, under the policy adopted by the 
CommiHsion, the salaries of the judges are to be paid out or the central 
treasury. 

There being no further remarks, the president submitted to the 
Conmiission a resolution, as follows: 

Resolvedy That after consultation with the representatives of Oriental Negros, the 
resolutions of the Commission adopted at Bacotod, declaring its purpose to oi^nize 
two separate provincial governments of Occidental and Oriental Negros, are now 
confirmed. 

Rewlved further, That the method of distributing between the two provinces the 
funds in tlie treasur>' of the present government shall be as follows: 

It shall firHt be determined how much cash will remain in the treasury after all the 
obligations of the government of the island of Negros shall have been paid. This 
sum, togethei with the amount of taxes due down t*) May 1, 1901, but not collected, 
from both Occidental and Oriental Negros, under the law, shall constitute the fund 
for distribution. The share to be distributed to Otxiidental Negros shall btar the 
same ratio to the share to be distributed to Oriental Negros as the total amount of 
taxes collected or due by law from Occidental Nt^ros for the year 1900 and the first 
four months of 1901 bears to the total amount collected or due by law from Oriental 
Negros for the same period; and in the distribution of such funci the right to collect 
the taxes due from Oriental Negros shall be assigned and transferred to the govern- 
ment of Oriental Negros to be established; the right to collect the taxes due from 
Occidental Negros shall be assigned and transferred to the government of Occidental 
Negros to be established, and the remainder of the shares of each shall be paid in 
cash. In the calculations to be made under the foregoing rule, the oedula taxes col- 
lected for the year 1901 shall not be considered as funds of the island of Negros, but 
shall be treated as obligations of the present government of the island of Negros to 
the persons from whom the same were collected; -nor shall such cedula taxes for the 
year 1901 uncollected be considered as taxes due by law. 

Remlved further^ That for the purpose of determining the data upon which the 
foregoing calculation and distribution shall be made, in accordance with the rule 
hereinbefore fixed, the matter is referred to a committee consisting of Seflor 
Luzuriaga, auditor of the island, as the representative of Occidental Negros, and 
Sen or Demetrio Lorena, secretary of public instruction, as the representative of 
Oriental Negros, and upon their certificate the treasurer of the present ^vemment 
of the island of Negros shall make the distribution. Should any difference of 
opinion arise between the two gentlemen constituting the committee, the difference 
shall be referred to Sefior Victorino Mapa, of the town of Iloilo, in Panay, who^e 
decision shall be final. 

The resolution was adopted. 

The president advised that the Commission hoped to l)e able to pass 
the laws applying provincial governments to the two provinces of 
Megros withm a week and send them back, together with an announce- 
ment of appointments. He also stated that the Commission had in 
preparation a law reorganizing the judiciary of the islands, which it 
expected to have ready within a month. In the meantime the courts 
at present established in Negros will continue their work. The body 
of the laws at present existing in the island would be examined and 
an effort made to effect the transformation of governments without 
causing serious friction or inconvenience. 

The president then presented to the audience Senor Mapa and Dr. 
Tavera, who addressed the convention. 

The session then adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fergusson, 

Secretary, 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



129 



United States Philippine Commission. 



MINUTES OF proceedings. 

Iloilo, April 10, 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Wright, He, Moses, and the 
president. 

The session was called to order at 5 p. m. and was devoted to an 
explanation by the president of the provisions of the general provin- 
cial law and of the municipal code. Inquiry showed that copies of 
both of these laws had been received by the various presidentes. In 
the discussion of these laws by the president special attention was 
given to the system of taxation provdded therein, particular reference 
being had to the operation of the land tax, which represents an innova- 
tion to these people. The delegates and representatives were requested 
to come prepared at to-morrow's session to express opinions upon the 
points discussed. Attention was also called to the matter of including 
m the province of Iloilo the comandancia of Concepcion. 

The Commission then adjourned until 9 o'clock to-morrow. 

Iloilo, April 11, 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Wright, Ide, Moses, and the 
president. 

The session was called to order by the president and the roll of 
pueblos called bv the secretary. The pueblos represented were as 
follows: 



Pueblo of Iloilo: 

Don Jose Maria Gay, alcalde. 

Don Matias Hibiemas, teniente al- 
calde. 

Don Cayetano Rafael, concejal. 

Don Enrique Aldequer, concejal. 

Don Maximino Silva, concejal. 

Don Francisco Ortis, concejal. 

Don Antonio Acuna, concejal. 

Don Leon Natividad, concejal. 

Don Faustino Nava, concejal. 

Don Fermin del Rosario, concejal. 

Don Comelio Mapa, concejal. 

Don Leoncio 25alaarriaga, concejal. 

Don Dimas Enriquez, secretary. 

Don Fabian Arias, treasurer. 
Pueblo of Alimodian: 

Don Sixto Tabiana, president. 

Don Gregorio Alvior, secretary. 

Don Maximo Angostura, concejal. 

Don Catalino Alisla, concejal. 
Pueblo of Miagao: 

Don Pedro A. Monteclaro, municipal 
alcalde. 

Don Juan N. Nobleza, local president. 

Don Miguel Garraton, resident. 

Don Anselmo Nacionales Orbe, sin- 
dico. 
Pueblo of Molo: 

Don Jobito Jusay, president. 

Don Emilio Villanueva, concejal. 

Don Vicente Avancena, concejal. 

P C 1901— PT 2 9 



Pueblo of Molo — Continued. 

Don Victoriano Siguenza, concejai. 

Don Baltazar Sian, concejal. 

Don Pedro Regalado, concejal. 

Don Emilio Esteban, concejal. 
Pueblo of Janiuay: 

Don Francisco Armada Intrepido, 
president. 

Don Luis Senador, concejal. 

Don Leon Asesor, concejal. 
Pueblo of Mina: 

Don Camilo Quimba, president. 

Don Eulalio Pelovello. 

Don Julian Quilanag. 

Don Julian Penafiorida. 

Don Camilo Menbra. 

Don Bemabe Patingo. 
Pueblo of Oton: 

Don Pablo Cartagena, president. 

Don Simon Carreon, concejal. 

Don Santiago Londres, concejal. 

Don Sinforoso Cadiz, concejal. 
Pueblo of Passi: 

Don Ramon Panes Perfecto, presi- 
dent. 

Don Rafael Aguilar, concejal. 

Don Fabian Palencia, concejal. 

Don Faustino Palencia, concejal. 

Don Peri>etuo Pampliona, concejal. 
Pueblo of Guimbal: 

Don Esteban Gasataya, president. 

Don G^bino G^asataya, concejal. 



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130 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Pueblo of Guimbal — Continued. 

Don Domingo Granada, concejal. 

Don Andres Torreblanca, concejal. 

Don Manuel Gimeno, concejal. 
Pueblo of Pototan: 

Don Mariano Penaflorida, president. 

Don Pedro Belasa, concejal. 

Don Telesforo Pulay, school teacher. 
Pueblo of San Joaquin: 

Don Ambrosio Sangrador, resident. 

Don Eulogio Sardin, resident. 

Don Antonio Santiagudo, resident. 

Don Francisco Emboltura, resident. 
Pueblo of Santa Barbara: 

Don Vicente Casten, president. 

Don Eugenio Simbron, concejal. 

Don Juan Somocierra, concejal. 

Don Sabas Solinag, concejal. 

Don Posidio Delgado, concejal. 

Don Baltazar Supe, concejal. 

Don Ramon Somosa, concejal. 

Don Comeiio Sillana, concejal. 

Don Juan Sarmiento, concejal. 

Don Francisco Somergido, concejal. 

Don Ignacio Montero, concejal. 

Don lUimon Sostiguer, concejal. 
Pueblo of San Miguel: 

Don Juan Sale, president. 

Don Gabino Ventosa, concejal. 

Don Simeon Salazar, concejal. 
Pueblo of Pa via: 

Don Manuel Gumban, president. 

Don Maximo Hismana, concejal. 

Don Petroniio Lumban, concejal. 

Don Timoteo Dagolino, concejal. 
Pueblo of Sara: 

Don Doroteo Villahermosa. 

Don Marcelo Espera. 

Don Dionisio Oten. 
Pueblo of Nagaba: 

Don Roman Gallegos. 

Don Juan Gallegos. 

Don Valeriano Villanueva. 

Don Crispulo Martinez. 
Pueblo of San Enrique: 

Don Comeiio Paz, president. 

Don Hugo Paez, concejal. 

Don Andres Palabrisa, concejal. 
Pueblo of Lambunao: 

Don Eduardo Loreda, president. 

Don Lucio Gal lego, concejal. 

Don Juan Castigador, concejal. 
Pueblo of Cordoba: 

Don Casimiro Mabaquiao, president. 

Don Brigido Tirante, treasurer. 

Don Hermenegildo Aguirre, secre- 
tary. 

Don Estefano Trabasas, councilor. 

Don Camilo Baltazar, councilor. 

Don Modesto Tina, councilor. 

Don Marcelino Camarianas, coun- 
cilor. 

Don Juan Torras, councilor. 

Don Pascual Cabading, councilor. 
Pueblo of Cabatuan: 

Don Rafael Castanos, president. 

Don Julian Amero. 



Pueblo of Cabatuan — Continued. 

Don Eugenio Bermejo. 

Don Tomas Fiioca. 

Don Arcadio Calero. 
Pueblo of Leganes: 

Don Tomas Gustillo, president. 

Don Prudencio Hagunap, concejal. 
Pueblo of Arevalo: 

Don Pablo Borromeo, president. 

Don Mariano (luanito. 

Don Baailio Gepana. 

Don Francisco Ciavel. 

Don Gregorio Caines. 
Pueblo of Tigbauan: 

Don Constantino Gonzales, president. 

Don Lazaro Torrecampo. 

Don Eusebio Tubilla. 

Don Mateo Tonogbanua. 
Pueblo of Banate: 

Don Eugenio Badilla, president 

Don Marcelo Madrid. 

Don Florencio Villaluz. 

Don Ciaraco Fuentes. 

Don Fortunato Perez. 

Don Nemesic Badilla. 
Pueblo of Jaro: 

Don Ruperto Montinola. 
Pueblo of Buena Vista: 

Don Mateo Samborsano, president. 

Don Geronimo Galanza, concejal 

Don Felix Cordero, concejal. 

Don Aguedo VMlches, concejal. 

Don Enrique Martir, concejal. 

Don Sergio Consing, concejal. 

Don Aurelio G. Garganera, concejal. 
Pueblo of Navaias: 

Don Cristeto Gamora, president. 

Don Eusebio Jaime, resident. 
Pueblo of Tubungan: 

Don Francisco Zacardon, president 

Don Matias Fabian, police delegate 

Don Jose Talento, justice delegate. 

Don Vicente Tacsajon, secretary. 

Don Norberto Tamonan, resident 

Don Tiburcio Tabobo, resident 
Pueblo of Duenas: 

Don Segundo Lagos, president. 

Don Alejo Laganapan, police dele- 
gate. . 

Don Aniceto Lamason, secretary. 
Pueblo of Mandueriao: 

Don Emigdio Mesa, local president 

Don Gregorio Magbanua, police dele- 
gate. 

Don Marcos Alfaras, secretary. 

Don Zoilo Maranon, concejal. 

Don Pedro Mejorada, concejal. 

Don Anastacio Villanueva, concejal. 

Don Apolinar Quilayco, concejal. 
. Don Rudecindo Cordoba, concejal. 

Don Eriberto Fecena, concejal. 
Pueblo of Maasin: 

Don Pedro Covez, president. 

Don Pedro Aguda. 

Don Francisco Maderista. 

Don Vicente Superticioso. 



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BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. . 131 



Pueblo of Maajsin — Continued. 
Don Manuel Solana. 
Don AJejo Cabrera. 
Don Teodoro Mondejar. 
Don Morcario Cartagena. 
Don Benito Villafraiica. 
Don Francisco Modejar. 
Don Julio Arguelles. 
Don Ciriaco Villena. 
Don Cavetano Mandaru. 



Pueblo of Lucena: 

Don Juan Oonnell, president. 

Don Epifanio Sonsa, resident. 

Don Marcelo Siinpao, resident. 

Don Vicente Niel, resident. 
Pueblo of Leon: 

Don Nicolas Cambronero, alcalde. 

Don Rufino Camina, teniente alcalde. 

Don Raymundo Camillas, sindico. 

Don Enrique Cabalfin, secretary. 



In addition to the above there was a large attendance of people from 
Soilo and the surrounding pueblos. 

The president invited discussion by the people of the points referred 
to in the meeting of yesterday. 

Senor Juan de Leon, judge of the court of first instance, Iloilo, after 
extending a welcome to the Commission, referred to the rivalry exist- 
ing between the towns of Iloilo, Molo, and Jaro, all adjacent to each 
other, and recommended their incorporation into one municipality. 
The only difficulty he had heard suggested to this was one of taxation. 
It was thought by some that it would be best to form some sort of 
federation, and when the revenues and expenses of the three places 
were more nearly equal the question of union could be submitted to a 
vote of the people. In answer to an inquiry he stated that Molo and 
Jaro are residence towns and Iloilo the business town for both. He 
said the three towns were within a half hour's distance of each other 
by carriage. He suggested, further, that the town .of Arevalo, con- 
tiguous to Molo, and the town of La Paz, contiguous to Jaro, be also 
joined. He estimated the aggregate population of these places at 
100,000. The president suggested that possibly the best way to reach 
a conclusion in this matter would be by a special election, with which 
the speaker agreed. 

As to salaries for provincial officers, Senor de Leon suggested the 
following: 

Governor $3,000 

Treasurer 3,000 

Secretary 1,800 

Super\'i8or 2,000 

Fiscal 2,000 

He said Iloilo was one of the richest provinces in the islands. In 
Spanish times the province of Iloilo, together with the comandancia 
01 Concepcion, yielded revenues as follows: 

Pesos. 

Cedulatax 600,000 

Industrial tax 50,000 

Urbanatax 10,000 

Fore8tr>'tax 12,000 

Opium tax 30,000 

Some discussion was then had as to the disposition made of this 
revenue between the central government, the province, and the munic- 
ipalities. The president then stated that he understood there was 
some criticism of the provision of the municipal code providing for 
the salary of municipal secretary, it being claimed such salary was not 
enough, especially in the larger towns. 

In answer the speaker said that in Spanish times it was the custom 
to leave the question of municipal salaries to the towns themselves, 
provided they came within their revenues. He was told that the Com- 



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132 BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

mission did not wish the municipalities to spend all their revenue for 
salaries, but it did want them to give what was fair. The speaker was 
asked what he thought the ratio should be between the salary of the 

Eresidente and the secretary, the secretary's salary as now fixed being 
alf that of the presidente. He said the ratio would depend upon the 
torwn. In Spanish times the secretarv did most of the wort. He 
thought in ifoilo, Jaro, and Molo the allowance under the code would 
have to be increased to secure a competent secretary. The presidente 
was usually well to do, while the secretary was a poor man. He was 
told it was not the purpose of the Commission to restrict the position 
of presidente to rich men, while under the code considerable work 
would be required of him. Possibly, however, some amendment 
would have to be made in this matter of municipal salaries. 

The speaker thought the comandancia of Concepcion should form a 
part of the province of Iloilo. Being asked if the presidentes could 
meet four times a year at the capital, he said they could, and sug- 

fested that a provision be made to permit the presidente to send a 
elegate in his stead in the event the presidente might not be able to 
go, and because a delegate, by reason of special training, might better 
present the needs of the town. He was told that one of the objects of 
this quarterly meeting was to enable those without training to learn 
from those more experienced. The president stated further that both 
the provincial act and the municipal code were new laws and have not 
as yet been put to the test of practical operation. For this reason the 
Commission would welcome any criticisms of these laws which actual 
operation might suggest. Until put to the test, however, all criticism 
would be more or less guesswork. 

The speaker then made some inquiry as to what land would be 
exempt from taxation for one year under section 43 of the municipal 
code. The section was explained to him. He then called attention to 
the fact that Iloilo was an agricultural province, and that the people 
lacked ready money with which to develop their land, even tnough 
they had the will and desire to work. He suggested the establishment 
of mortgage banks, either by private capital or by the Government. 
He was told that the Commission had haa the subject under considera- 
tion, but that the law recently enacted by Congress, conferring certain 
powers upon the President of the United States with respect to the 
Philippines, excepted from his power the right to confer corporate 
francnises. The Commission was in thorough accord with the speaker 
as to the necessity for banks where the people could secure ready 
money at low rates of interest, and would recommend appropriate 
legislation by Congress in its next report. It regretted that earlier 
action could not be taken in the matter, but its hands were tied. 

Senor Reymundo Melliza, the next speaker, introduced his remarks 
by referring to the elements which haa brought about the pacification 
of Iloilo Province, paying high tribute to General Hughes and to Major 
Noble. He said, however, tne result was the work of the whole peo- 
ple, and that ever}^ consideration was now due them by the Commission. 
He eulogized the general provisions of the municipal code and the pro- 
vincial act, but was not in sympathy with the land-tax system as therein 
provided. It was possible under these laws, he claimed, to make a man 
pay more on his land per year than it produced, should the land be 
unimproved. It was pointed out to him that in the meantime the 
owner Tvas being furnished a police force to protect his property, a 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 133 

registrv law securing his title, and other safeguards b}' which the prop- 
erty which he was possibly holding for sale was increased materially 
in value. The fact that the owner did not cultivate the land and it did 
not yield him an income was no reason why he should not pay a tax 
u|>on its real value. The speaker stated that from a lejjal standpoint 
this argument was not assailable, but that he was deahng with facts 
and not with theories; that before the land could be sold the party 
would have to pay his tax, and to do this he would have to get the 
money bv borrowing or mortgaging his property. He was asked if he 
thought it would embarrass a man who owned a tract worth $20,000 to 
pa}" §200 tax annuallv. He said his objection was not to the land tax 
itself, but to the method provided for the assessment and collection of 
the tax. 

He thought, however, that this objection could be remedied by a sim- 
ple addition to the law. He suggested, therefore, that when an owner 
of property was not satisfied witn the decision of *,he provincial board 
of appeals as to its value he might, on petition, have nis land sold at 
public auction, the price offered to be the basis of assessment. It was 
pointed out to him that this would be a sale which was not a sale, and 
that there would be nothing whatever to regu! ite the bidding. The 
procedure to be pursued against delinquent taxpayers was then 
explained to him, it being pointed out that when that portion of the 
price received from the sale necessary to pay the tax was taken by 
the government the remainder accruea to the owner of the property, 
with a full year thereafter in which to redeem his land from the pur- 
chaser. The speaker then stated that for the purpose of securing 
revenue assessments would be made at much more than the real value 
of lands. He was asked if it might not be presumed that officers who 
are charged by law and pledged by oath to assess lands at their true 
value would perform their duty. The speaker said this argument was 
metaphysical in that it assumed the infallibility of the assessor. He 
did not refer to bad faith, but to the possibility of mistakes arising out 
of zeal of the officers. He was told that it was he and not the Commis- 
sion who was striving to reach infallibilit}'. The svstem here proposed 
had stood the test for one hundred years in the United States. The 
officers did not always reach correct values. They undoubtedly made 
mistakes sometimes, but the best government is that which aims at 

i)ractical results, with as few defects as human nature will pennit. By 
eaving the question of the valuation of land to the men who live in 
the vicinity, supplemented by the judgment of those who live in the 
province who are not affected by local prejudices, it was expected that 
justice would be done. It was pointed out also that the injury arising 
from honest mistakes of public officers is small: that the mistakes 
which the government has to fear are of another kind. The speaker 
was assured, however, that if any of the calamities which he feared 
should become substantial there would always l^e a government in the 
islands ready to meet them. 

Being asked if the salaries for public officials had been considered by 
him, the speaker said he was inclined to agree with Sefior de Leon. 
He thought, however, that public office should not be held for private 
gain, but for patriotism, and that a man should seek to fulfill his duty 
rather than fill his pocket. He thought salaries should be moderate, 
at least until the resources of the province had been determined. As 
to the mun'cipal officers, he did not think the salary of the secretary 



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134 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

should be as much as that of the presidente; while the secretary might 
perform more manual labor, his duties were not so responsible. 

Senor Francisco Soriona, referring to article 22 of the municipal 
code, providing that the office of vice-presidente and of councilman 
shall be without salary, asked if these officers could resign or refuse 
to serve. He was told that the obligation to serve under the code was 
the same whether the office had a salary attached to it or not. He 
inquired whether the exemptions mentioned in the section could be 
exercised bv a person while in office. He was told that they must be 
asserted before election. 

The speaker then said that on behalf of the pueblo of Arevalo he 
desired to make claim for a strip of land which had always belonged 
to Arevalo, but which, through the machinations of a friar of the 
pueblo of Otom, had been annexed to the latter town. The president 
suggested that the matter was on^ for the provincial fiscal, who should 
test the matter in the courts. 

The president then called attention to the fact that the municipal 
code makes no provision as to what shall be done in case two candidates 
for office receive exactly the same number of votes. He said the code 
would be amended in this particular. 

Senor Jos^ M. Gay, presidente of Uoilo, took issue with Senor de 
Leon on the subject of merging into one municipality the towns of 
Iloilo, Jaro, and Molo. He said the people of Iloilo did not favor such 
a proposition; that the idea was a good one and might be carried out 
in time, but not now. He said Iloflo had suffered greatly by the war, 
but that she hoped to revive and in time become the second city in the 
archipelago. To do this she would need all her revenues and could not 
afford to aivide any of them with Jaro and Molo, towns that did not 
raise enough revenue to build a road or bridge. He did not believe 
the fact of rivalry between the towns was unfortunate, l)ut that it 
would stimulate all the towns to jgreater effort. He agreed with Senor 
de Leon on the subject of salaries. The Commission then adjourned 
until 3 o'clock in the afternoon. 

Afternoon session, 

Senor Ruperto Montinola thought the sources of revenue authorized 
under the municipal code and the provincial law would not prove suf- 
ficient to meet the needs of these governments. He went over in 
detail the taxes authorized by those laws. It was explained to him 
that with the return of peace the internal-revenue receipts would be 

freatly increased, while all revenue collected from this source since 
anuary 1, 1900, and forwarded to the central treasury would be 
returned and divided between the provincial government and the 
municipalities; that while it was the purpose of the Commission to 
abolish internal-revenue taxes, or at least modify them to a consider- 
able extent, when the land tax became effective, still, if the latter tax 
was found insufficient to meet the needs of the province, other means 
would have to be provided to supplement such tax. In answer to a 
Question, the speaker was told that when the land tax became effective 
tne urbana tax would be abolished. 

The speaker then called attention to the fact that the provincial law 
provided that the secretary should be substituted for the governor in 
case of the latter's illness; he wished to know who would substitute 
all other provincial officers in case of illness or absence. He was told 
that the treasurer would be substituted by one of his deputies, who 

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REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 185 

would be under bond. As to the other provincial officers, their illness, 
unless long continued, would not seriously embari-ass the business of 
tiie province. If so. then substitutes could be appointed temporarily 
by the court or by the governor. 

Senor Jos6 M. Gay, of Iloilo, then presented a petition on behalf of 
Nueva Valencia, island of Guivares, asking that it be separated from 
the pueblo of Nagaba, of which it is now a barrio, and, together with 
the barrios of Guinanon and the small islands of Cabalagnan, La Paz: 
and Salvarion, be organized into a municipality under the municipal 
code. This was asked because of the distance and rough country sep- 
arating these barrios from Nagaba. He was told that tne Commission 
would take the matter under Mvisement. 

Seiior Juan Andres thought the method provided in the municipal 
code for classifying the municipalities was illogical. The towns were 
classified according to population without taking into consideration the 
culture of the people. He referred to the towns of Molo and Jaro 
which, owing to their comparatively small population, are much fur- 
ther down in the classification than are towns of a larger population, but 
which have scarcely anv culture whatever. Being asked how he would 
measure the culture of a town, he said this would be apparent imme- 
diately to anyone entering the place. Being asked further if there 
might not be a difference of opinion between towns as to which was 
the most cultured, he said the question was not only one of culture. 
He said the act looked only to one thing, the number of inhabitants, 
not counting the number of houses or considering the wealth of the 
people. He said they might all be paupers. It was pointed out to 
him that whether a town happened to be in one classification or another 
worked no serious hardship, as the only difference was in the salaries 
of the presidente and secretary and the number of councilmen. The 
speaker thought, however, that whether a pueblo was first, second, or 
third class had considerable to do with its progress, inasmuch as the 

rple would consider this fact in their commercial dealings with it. 
vas remarked, however, that if the culture of a town was some- 
thing which would immediately impress the visitor, a place would not 
lose prestige because called second class instead of first. It was con- 
cedea that the resources of a town would form the most logical basis 
for its classification, but inasmuch as the land tax has never been in 
force and can not become effective for a year, it is not practical to 
classify a municipality according to resources. The speaker was 
requested to embody his views on the subject in writing and forward 
the same to the Commission, when it would consider the question 
carefully. 

Public discussion having closed, the president moved the adoption of 
the following amendments to the bill organizing the province of Iloilo: 

Add word ''Iloilo'' at end of title of act. 

Amend section 1 by inserting after words "island of," in third line, 
the word '•Panay," and after words "'province of," in same line, the 
words "Iloilo, including the comandancia of Concepcion." 

Amend section 2 by inserting after words "province of," in first line, 
the word "Iloilo," and as salaries of provincial officers the following 
sums: Provincial governor, $3,000; provincial secretary, $1,800; pro- 
vincial treasurer, $3,000; provincial supervisor, $2,200; provincial 
fiscal, $1,800. 

Insert, as allowance for traveling expenses of provincial officers, 
$2.50 per day. ^ , 

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136 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Insert in section 3, as bond of treasurer, $26,000. 

Add in section 5, as capital of province, the word "Hoilo." 

The amendments proposed were adopted and the secretary directed 
tot^all the roll upon the question of the passage of the bill as amended. 
The bill was unanimously passed. 

The president then announced the following-named persons as 
appointees of the Commission to provincial oflBces: For provincial gov- 
ernor, Martin Delgado; for provincial secretary, Jovito Jusay; for 
frovincial treasurer. First Lieut. Fred. A. Thompson, Thirty -eighth 
nfantry, U. S. V.; for provincial fiscal, Ruperto Montinola. 

The president stated that the appointment of General Delgado was 
made upon the recommendation of General Hughes and after full 
investigation by the Commission. The appointment is made because 
of the confidence the Commission has in General Deleado's sincerity 
in taking the oath of allegiance to the United States ana in his honesty 
as a man and probity as a citizen. It hopes also in this way to assure 
the people of the Philippine Islands that no wounds are to be left open 
by reason of the recent unfortunate war. It was stated that no 
appointment for supervisor could be made at this time, there being 
no available candidates. The oath of office was then administered by 
Senor de Leon, judge of the court of first instance, to Senor Jusay and 
Senor Montinola and General Delgado. A short address was made 
by General Delgado, thanking the 09mmi8sion for the honor conferred 
upon him and for its expression of confidence in his probitr and integ- 
rity. He also thanked General Hughes and Major Noble for their 
recommendations, and promised, on behalf of himself and fellow- 
officers, to use every endeavor to faithfully perform the duties of 
their offices and to promote the prosperity of the Islands. He also 
wished to thank the American people, through the worthy president of 
the Commission, for the benefits whicn they are bringing to the islands. 
A brief response was made by the president, expressing the satisfac- 
tion felt by the Commission from its meeting with the people of Uoilo 
and the or^nization of the province. 

The session then adjourned. 

Attest: A. W. Fergusson, Secretary, 

United States Philippine Commission. 



MINUTES OF proceedings. 

San Jose de Buena Vista, 
Province of Antique^ April 13^ 190 L 
Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 
The session was called to order bv the president at 10.15 a. m., and 
the roll of the pueblos of the province called by the secretary. The 
province was represented as follows: 



San Jose de Buena Vista: 

Anselmo Alicante y Zaldivar, presi- 
dent. 

Nicolas Chaves y Serevellon, vice- 
president. 

Ramon Rios, councilor. 

Martin Iglesias, councilor. 

Ciriaco Erena, councilor. 

Ramon Baustista, councilor. 

Tiburcio Lul^ng, councilor. 



San Jose de Buena Vista — Continued. 

Antonio Ricarse, councilor. 

Eugenio Fabila, councilor. 

Francisco de la EncamEicion, coun- 
cilor. 

Peiiro Villavert Rarairo, secretary. 

Eduardo Santarromana, treasurer. 
Egana: 

Pedro Sale, president. 

Vicente Serrano, vice-president. 



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KEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



137 



Egana — CJontinued. 

Simon Grasfaril, councilor. 

Paulo Empestan, councilor. 

Tomas Eetrella, councilor. 
Sibalom: 

Felipe Tordecillas, president. 

Joan VenegaSj councilor. 

Melchor Lebnlla, councilor. 

Hilarion Abaoan, councilor. 

Lorenzo Mostacho, councilor. 

Cayetano Aliste, councilor. 

Juan Villafuerte, councilor. 

Vicente Garcia, councilor. 

Manuel Vega, councilor. 

Juan Bacho, councilor. 

Vicente Garcelina, councilor. 

Dionisio Mision, secretary. 

Pedro Venegas, treasurer. 
San Remigio: 

Luis Occena, president. 

Marcus Loplop, vice-president 

Anastacio Masa, councilor. 

Francisco Loguiaa, councilor. 

Evaristo Villar, secretary. 
Antique: 

Egmidio Moscoso, representative. 

Ii&riano Autajay, vice-president. 

Feliciano Majillano, councilor. 

Tito Nava, councilor. 

Raymundo Combong, councilor. 

Domingo Checa, councilor. 

Grabriel Zabala, councilor. 

Exequiel Javier, secretary. 
Guintas: 

Nemesio Tingas, president. 

Manuel Boyco, vice-president. 

Esteban Amendares, police delegate. 

Apolonio Magbauna, justice delegate. 

Alejandro Calubiran, revenue dele- 
gate. 

Matias Sandajan, councilor. 

Cayetano Li boon, councilor. 

Simon Serdena, coimcilor. 

Procopio Mabaquiao, councilor. 

Gabriel Sobrino, councilor. 

Juan Felicio, councilor. 

Pablo Encamacion, councilor. 

Mariano Sision, councilor. 

Faustino Adrada, councilor. 
Dao: 

Victorino Abiera, president. 

Fortunato Abiera, vice-president. 

Domingo DoUete, councilor. 

Pablo Asejo, councilor. 

Sancho Eguia, councilor. 

Juan Bagona, councilor. 

Francisco Baldellon, councilor. 

Alejandro Plazuela, councilor. 

Runno Efispe, councilor. 

Mariano Indencia, councilor. 
Aniniy: 

Catalino Salcedo, president. 

Basilio Grande, vice-president 

Gregorio Nierves, councilor. 

Antonio Asensi, councilor. 

Teodoro Casena.**, councilor. 

Satumino Alonde, councilor. 



Aniniy: 

Eetanislao de los Reyes, councilor. 

Julian Erispe, councilor. 

Eusebio Somarejo, councilor. 

Manuel Casenas, councilor. 
San Pedro: 

Agapito Capistrano, president. 

Eduardo Calauor, vice-president. 

Pedro Sorrilla, councilor. 

Silverio Escaro, councilor. 

Vicente Montero, councilor. 

Simon Escartin, councilor. 

Francisco Tating, councilor. 

Aberto Pagusan, councilor. 

Modesto Gabalda, councilor. 

Demetrio Gadayan, councilor. 

Eusebio Ribero, secretary. 
Patnongon : 

Juan Manzanilla, president. 

Comelio Salvani, councilor. 

Tomas Escano, councilor. 

Enrique Saloani, ex-president 

Ramon Manzanilla, ex-police dele- 
gate. 

Mariano Saloani, ex-justice delegate. 

Mateo Fuliga, ex-revenue delegate. 
Oaritan: 

Eugenio Ayson, president. 

Dionisio de la Oruz, vice-president. 

Agaton Mision, councilor. 

Tomas Sumarraga, councilor. 

Alejandro Adeine, councilor. 

Luis Bangoy, councilor. 

Calixto Aurelio, councilor. 

Tomas Guiyoyo, councilor. 

Pantaleon Mondejar, councilor. 

Alejandro Varona, councilor. 
Valderrama: 

Vicente Hut, president. 

Anselmo Sangco, councilor. 

Vicente Janod, councilor. 

Guillermo Bandoy, councilor. 

Agustin Magnado, councilor. 

Esteban Magnado, councilor. 

Andres Vitudio, councilor. 
Bugason: 

Santiago Laureano, president. 

Simon Barcelo, vice-president. 

Pedro (iallego, councilor. 

Juan Santarromana, councilor. 

Nicolas Escote, councilor. 

Justo Pachecoy, councilor. 

Telesforo Nervato, councilor. 

Claduio Suncayanon, councilor. 
Guisijan: 

Clixto Bantolo, president. 

Matias Jordan, vit^e-president. 

Julian Valdes, councilor. 

Antonio Vista, councilor. 

Cleniente Luces, councilor. 

Nicolas Bandiola, councilor. 

Tomas Bantolo, councilor. 

Luis Bandiola, councilor. 

Juan Magbauna, councilor. 

Nicolas Rosario, councilor. , 

Miguel Minguez, treasurer. \ 



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138 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Tibiao: 

Vicente Gella, representative. 

Angel Salazar, representative. 

Aguedo Jefes, president 
Oulasi: 

Vicente Gella, representative. 

Angel Salazar, representative. 

Juan Javier, president. 

Gabriel Javier, councilor. 

Eulogio Abiera, councilor. 
Sebaste: 

Vicente Gella, representative. 

Angel Salazar, representative. 

Martin Esparaffosa, president. 

Mariano PerolEi, councilor. 

Doroteo Dioso, councilor. 



Sebaste — Continued. 

Arcadio Casidsid, councilor. 

Mariano Rioboca, councilor. 

Mamerto Ochua, councilor. 

Mariano Ricopuerto, councilor. 

Joaquin Merina, councilor. 
Pandan: 

Vicente Gella, representative. 

Angel Salazar, representative. 

Enrique Gilito, president. 

Macario Sardanas, vice-president. 

Clemente Grella, councilor. 

Catalino Ferranco, councilor. 

Roque Gilito, councilor. 

Antonio Retra, councilor. 



The president expressed the most grateful thanks of the Commission 
for the magnificent reception tendered by the people of San Jose and 
the Province of Antique. Referring to a statue erected by the peo- 
ple, modeled after that of Liberty Enlightening the World, he said such 
a statue was well timed in its application to this province and to these 
Islands. He stated that liberty, nowever, was a force much misunder: 
stood; that it did not mean a license to do everything, but it meant 
that condition which prevails under a government organized to secure 
such liberty to the individual as was consistent with law and order; 
that it was possible to have a government by the people which was 
not for the people; that there was no tyranny more dangerous than 
the tyrannjp- of the majority if not regulated by law. It was believed 
that America had been successful to a marked degree in achieving the 
enlightened rule of the majority, and it was this libertv which the Com- 
mission was striving to bring to these Islands. Reference was made 
to the municipal code, which provides pueblos complete autonomy, 
permitting them to work out their own salvation under the terms of 
law. The code was explained in detail, illustrations being given of 
the almost supreme authority of the people in matters affectmg their 
local interests. As to the provincial government, which the Com- 
mission was now here to establish, it had to do with the assessment 
and collection of taxes and the public improvement of the province — 
the constmction of roads, brioges, public Building, etc. Reference 
was then made to the project entertained by the Commission at one 
time of dividing the province of Antique into two parts, uniting one 
with the province of lloilo and the other with Capiz. The province 
appeared on the map as a long strip of land reaching from one end 
of the island to the other, and it was thought its division would 
make things more convenient for the people. The Commission had 
learned, however, from Sefior Mapa that, in the discussion which led 
to the surrender of Geneml Fullon, it had been represented to the 
people that the Commission was coming to San Jose to organize civil 

government for Antique Province; that this argument was one of 
le strongest which had been used to bring a£)ut the surrender. 
While it was not claimed that the Commission was bound by this prom- 
ise, the Commission felt that good faith required it to establish separate 
civil government for Antique. Aside from this, however, nature had 
arranged it so that it was almost impossible to do otherwise, for the 
mountains so divide Antique from the other provinces as to make any- 
thing but a separate government impracticable. Investigation had 
also shown that the province had a population of about 125,000, with 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 189 

resources sufficient to support a provincial government. The people 
were told that if they displayed the same zeal, energy, and gooa taste 
in the construction of roads, bridges, and public buildings that they 
had in the construction of triumphal arches, etc., to welcome the Com- 
mission, then the province woula be beautiful indeed. The president 
then explained the provisions of the provincial law and the burdens 
and benefits which would accrue to the people from its extension to 
the province of Antique. The special bill was also dwelt upon and an 
expression of opinion invited from those present as to provincial sal- 
aries, etc. 

Senor Luis Occena, president of San Remigio, expressed his pleas- 
ure at hearing the lucid explanation by the president of the provisions 
of the municipal code and the provincial act. He said that a careful 
examination by his people of the municipal code left them little to 
desire; that it provided as complete an autonomy as the people of the 
islands could have expected. There were a few provisions in the law, 
however, to which he wished to refer in view of tne conditions through 
which the country had been passing. Section 39 of the code provided 
that schools, police, etc., should be maintained at the expense of the 
municipalities; he did not think the local revenues of the towns, and 

ErticuJarly of his town, would be sufficient to meet these expenses, at 
Lst before the land tax became effective. In answer to an inquiry, 
he said that he had taken into consideration the fact that the towns 
would receive one-half of the internal-revenue collections since Janu- 
ary 1, as well as the other sources of revenue provided in the new 
code. The president stated that while the Commission was always 
glad to receive suggestions concerning the municipal code, the princi- 
pal object of the present meeting was the establishment of provincial 
government under the provincial act. The time being short, it was 
felt that the discussion should be limited to that act and the special 
bill applying it to the province. The gentleman was requested, how- 
ever, to prepare a statement showing the estimated revenues of his 
town and the probable expenditures, and in case there was a deficiency 
to forward the papers to the Commission at Manila, with a suggestion, 
if possible, as to how the deficiency could be remedied. His statement 
would be considered in connection with other data with a view to 
amending the act. Being asked to suggest salaries for provincial 
officers, he submitted the following: Governor, $1,800; secretary, $800; 
treasurer, $1,200; supervisor, $1,000; fiscal, $1,400. As traveling 
allowance he sug^gested $6 Mexican per day. As to quai'terly meet- 
ings of the presidentes, after some discussion as to roads, etc., the 
speaker thought two meetings a year, to be held in November and 
April, preferable to four meetings. He thought the capital should be 
left at San Jose. 

Senores Vicente Gella and Angel Salazar asked to be heard by the 
Commission in representation of the northern towns of the province. 
Senor Salazar sp(&e first, dwelling upon the desire of the people for 
provincial and municipal governments and for a public-school system. 
He said that one of the great needs of the province was primary public 
instruction; that they now had practically no schools; that the only 
education they have had was the sectarian education of the clergy, and 
they wished a change in order that their present needs might be better 
consulted. The president then explained to the speaker the general 
educational law passed by the Commission and the provisions made 
therein for bringing teachers to the Islands; also, that it was expected 



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140 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

during the coming year to speijd more than a million and a half dollars 
from the central treasury in this work. It was pointed out, however, that 
the field to be covered was a large one and tnat municipalities would 
have to help if the system was to be a success; that puolic education 
to do good must be something of a public burden. Tne people should 
long for education and should be willing to pay for it. The speaker 
was told that the general superintendent of public instruction was with 
the Commission, and the delegates were at libei*ty to consult with him. 
(It was announced that the general superintendent would speak to the 
audience during the recess of the Commission. ) The speaker suggested 
as salaries for provincial officers the following: Governor, ^2,000; 
secretary, $1,200; treasurer, $1,500; supervisor, $1,500; fiscal, $1,500. 
He suggested $2.50 Mexican per day as a traveling allowance. Refer- 
ring to the question of the capital, he said there was considerable dif- 
ference of opinion. He said the towns of Tibiao, Culasi, Sebaste, 
Pandan, and JBugason were in favor of locating the capital at Bugason, 
believing it more acceptable to the entire province than San Jose. Per- 
sonally, no we ver, he believed that if the province was supplied with a 
launch to take the presidentes from town to town, it woula be unwise 
to change the capital from San Jose. He said none of the towns on 
the western coast had good harbors; that Bugason had a better harbor 
than San Jose, and that it had a population of about 10,000. He 
believed it might be a good idea to submit the question to a vote of 
the presidentes. Senor Vicente Gella stated he had intended to speak 
on tne subject of public instruction, but was satisfied with the remarks 
made by the president, and as to the other points he agreed with the 
speaker. He thought the presidentes mignt meet twice a year — in 
January and June. 

Senor E^idio Moscoso, of Antique, after thanking the Commission 
for its visit to the province, said that, as to the municipal code, the 
people of his town had nothing to say, as it completely satisfied their 
aspirations. With regard to the provincial law ne wished to ask one 
or two questions. Referring to section 4, which provides that the 
councilmen of the municipalities shall meet every second year to vote 
for governor, he wished to know whether the vice-president, as ex-officio 
member of the council, was entitled to vote for governor. He was 
told that under the language of the municipal code the vice-president 
would have such right. The only reason why the presidentes were 
excluded was because the governor was charged with the supervision 
of the municipal president^ and it was deemed unwise that they should 
have a voice in nis election. The speaker suggested the following 
salaries for provincial officers: Governor, $2,400; secretary, $1,800; 
treasurer, $1,800; supervisor, $1,800; fiscal, $2,400; thought that 
$2.50 gold per day was a sufficient traveling allowance. He believed 
the capital should remain at San Jose, as it had public buildings which 
could DC used. As to putting the question to a vote, he said the effect 
of that would be to awaken ambitions and rivalries which otherwise 
would not have arisen, for up to the present there had been no ques- 
tion in the minds of anybody but that the capital would remain at San 
Jose, where it always had been. 

Senor Ciriaco Erena, of San Jose, presented what he termed a plat- 
form of the people of his town, as follows: 

1. They wished full legislative power with the right to declare war 
or make peace. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 141 

2. The franchise for everyone who has reached the age of 18 and is 
eligible to vote, and that elections should be held on feast days. 

3. Compulsory military service, and that the militia should be com- 
posed of citizens who should act in place of the army. 

4. The repeal of all laws which tend to limit or suppress liberty of 
thought, ana that the people have the right of meeting and associating 
without any restriction or limitation. 

5. The administration of justice by the people. 

6. Universal compulsory education and equal education for every- 
body at the expense of the state, religious teaching to be left to those 
who have attained their majority or to the guardians of the children. 
The speaker was advised by the president that discussion of his plat- 
form hj the Commission would involve more time than could be given 
the subject; that the Commission would take the petition to Manila and 
give it consideration. He was told, however, that some of his sugges- 
tions seemed premature; for instance, that regarding compulsory edu- 
cation. He was asked whether it would not be better first to establish 
an educational system for those who desire an education before passing 
a law requiring everybody to be educated. This was simply mentioned 
to illustrate that many or the subjects named by him were not ready 
for discussion, the country being in a transition stage. As a suggestion 
for salaries for provincial officers, the speaker gave the following: Gov- 
ernor, $2,000; secretary, $1,000; treasurer, $1,250; fiscal, $1,260; 
supervisor, $1,500. He thought that San Jose should remain the 
capital. 

A recess of half an hour was then taken by the Commission to con- 
sider the question of salaries, etc., and the appointment of provincial 
officers. 

Upon reassembling the president proposed the following amend- 
ments: 

Add word ''Antique" at end of title of act. 

Insert in section 1, after words "island of," in third line, the word 
"Panay,"-and after "province of," in same line, the word "Antique." 

Amend section 2 by inserting after words "province of," in first 
line, the word "Antique," and as salaries of provincial officers the fol- 
lowing sums: Provincial governor, $1,600; provincial secretary, $1,200; 
provincial treasurer, $1,800; provincial supervisor, $1,600; provincial 
fiscal, $1,200. 

Insert as allowance for traveling expenses of provincial officers, $2 
per day. 

Insert in section 3, as bond of treasurer, $10,000. 

Amend section 4 by striking out words "April, July, and October," 
in second line, and insert words "and June." Strike out word "quar- 
ter's," in fourth line, and insert words "six month's." 

Insert in section 5, as capital of province, "San Jose." 

Insert, as section 6, the following: 

8bc. 6. The oath of office of provincial officers may be administered by a member 
of the Commission, by any judicial officer, or by the governor of the province. 

The present section 6 of the bill to be numbered "section 7." 

The president stated that the Commission had experienced some diflB- 

culty in the matter of provincial salaries, it being almost impossible to 

estimate the resources of the province. The salaries proposed he 

thought to be fair; they could be increased, however, or reduced, as 



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142 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

circumstances justified. It had decided to leave the capital at San 
Jose. The people, however, could raise the question again after the 
province was fully organized. The amendments as proposed were 
adopted, and the secretary was instructed to call the roll on the ques- 
tion of the passage of the special bill as amended. The bill was 
unanimously passed. 

The president then announced the following-named persons as 
appointees of the Commission to the various provincial offices: For 
governor, Lieut. Col. W. S. Scott; for secretary, Angel Salazar; for 
treasurer, Fred. L. Wilson; for fiscal, Vicente Gella. 

Referring to its appointment of Colonel Scott, the president stated 
that the Commission believed it wise at this time to appoint as governor 
a person familiar with the American system of government and at the 
same time familiar with the interests of the province. The people had 
but just emerged from a state of war and the country was still some- 
what unsettled. Next Februaiy, however, the people could elect their 
own governor. It was explained that the governor and the treasurer, 
though serving as civil officers, would, by reason of being officers in the 
United States Army, be paid out of the Treasury of the United States. 
The oath of office was then administered by the president to the four 
officers appointed. 

The president stated that the attention of the Commission had been 
called to the urgent need of the province for courts and for a registry 
law. The people were advised that a law organizing the courts was 
now being considered, while it was hoped that a registry law would be 
passed soon after the return of the Commission to Manila. In conclu- 
sion the president stated that the Commission was honored b}- having 
with it Senors Mapa and Melice, gentlemen who had been so success- 
ful in bringing about the surrender of General Fullon, who had also 
accompanied the Commission from Iloilo. Reference was also made to 
Dr. Tavera and other gentlemen accompanying the Commission. The 
president expressed his regret that lack of time prevented his calling 
upon these gentlemen to address the audience. Thanking the people 
for their consideration and kindness to the Commission during its short 
stav, the president declared the session adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fergusson, Secretary. 

United States Philippine Commission, 
minutes of proceedings. 

Capiz, Province of Capiz, April H^ 1901. 
Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president 
The session was called to order by the president at 4 p. m. 
Sefior Simeon Dadivas, presidente of Panitan, delivered a speech of 
welcome to the commission on behalf of the assembled presidentes and 
delegates. He said that all the people were aware of the object of the 
Commission's visit and looked upon it as the beginning of a new era of 
prosperity and well-being. Apprised of the contemplated visit of the 
Commission, the people had exerted themselves to bring about a con- 
dition which would justify the establishment of civil government in the 
province. He was happy to say that there was no longer in the prov- 
ince a single one of those persons who through mistaken motives had 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 148 

taken up arms against the American sovereignty. Reference was 
made by the speaker to the work done by the C3ommi8sion in other 
provinces, and the ^eat skill and judgment they had shown in the 
selection of provincial officers. He expressed his admiration of the 
American laoies who had accompanied the Commission, and who had 
shown by their willingness to unaergo the hardships of such a journey 
their desire to help and benefit the people of this country. 

The president responded, expressing tne gratification the Commission 
felt at the kind words of the speaker, which reflected the welcome the 
Commission had read in the faces of all the people as they drove from 
the landing to the place of meeting. The Commission recognized, how- 
ever, that this welcome was not so much a tribute to it as an expres- 
sion of gratitude by the people that peace had come, and that now thev 
were to reap some of the benefits of that long-wished-for result. Ref- 
erence was made by the president to the aflSictions under which the 
Erovince had labored and was laboring; that to the ravages of war had 
een added the cattle pest, and to that the pla^e of locusts. The 
Commission sympathized deeply with the people in their troubles and 
stood ready to do what it could to' help tide things over until their 
losses could be replaced. The future of the province, however, rested 
with them. Having overcome the worst of their calamities, war, the 
CommLssion felt sure that with determination they would overcome 
the others. 

An explanation was then made by the president of the scheme of 
government contemplated for the province by the municipal code and 
the provincial act, dwelling at considerable length upon tne provision 
creating a land tax. It was explained that a special law was necessary 
to apply the provisions of the provincial act to the province, and that 
the reason such law was not passed in Manila was because the Commis- 
sion wished to meet with the people in the province and get their ideas 
as to local conditions. The people were told that it had been sug- 
gested to the Commission when in Antique that the northwest portion 
of Capiz Province should be cut off and annexed to Antique, it being 
believed that such an arrangement would make it more convenient for 
the people living there to reach the provincial capital. An expression 
of opinion was requested upon this point and upon the various points 
raised in the discussion. The presiaent explained that while the Com- 
mission had spent much time and investigation in the preparation of 
the provincial act and the municipal code, it was not wedded to any of 
their provisions, but would gladly change them to suit new conditions 
when presented. It should be borne in mind, however, that these 
laws had not yet received the test of actual practice, and it was possi- 
ble that some provisions which might appear doubtful to the people 
now would turn out well when put in operation. Furthermore, the 
Commission is always in Manila, with full power to amend the laws 
which it has passed. The people therefore should not regard any of 
the provisions of the laws referred to as irrevocable. 

Senor Antonio Habana, presidente of Capiz, thought the demand 
upon the local treasury to support the police force and other munici- 
pal expenses was greater than tne revenues would stand; that under the 
old regime they had a tax upon opium as well as a personal tax, both 
of which are prohibited under the municipal code; that possibly if the 
land tax was now available there would be sufficient revenue, but until 
it took effect the municipal revenues would be inadequate. The col- 



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144 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

lector of internal revenue, who was present, bein^ asked as to his 
collections, stated that since last June he had collected as follows: 
Industrial tax, $5,000; urbana tax, $1^000; registration tax, $1,000: 
that the collections were entirely from the town of Capiz, and could 
no doubt be increased. It was explained to the speaker that the town 
would receive one-half of this. He did not believe, however, that this 
would be enough, while the impoverished condition of the people gave 
little hope of an increase for a long time to come. The speaker said 
that war and locusts had devastated their fields while the cattle pest had 
carried off all their animals; that the export trnde of Capiz had dwindled 
to almost nothing, everything that was available having been exported. 
It appeared that the locust pest affected mostly the mterior pueblos, 
which were dependent almost altogether upon their crop of rice. 
Capiz had the additional industry of producing alcohol from the nipa 
palm. The speaker was told that immediately upon the return of the 
commission to Manila an appropriation would be made for Capiz 
Province of one-half the internal revenue collected in the province 
since January 1. The speaker suggested the following salaries for 
provincial officers, taking into consideration the prevailing conditions: 
Governor, $1,800; secretary, $1,200; treasurer, $2,400, fascal, $1,500, 
and suggested $2.50 per day for traveling allowance, all in gold. He 
thought the capital should remain in Capiz. He was in favor of the 
quaii;erly meeting of the presidentes, though it would be difficult for 
some of the towns to be represented. 

Senor Julian de Reyes, presidente of Jimeno, spoke in English. He 
said the people of his town were very poor, were crying, and that 
there was no money to pay the policemen or to buy rice; that all of the 
carabaos were dead; that the fields were bare and could not be planted, 
and the people had nothing to eat. He said that he was presidente ana 
they held him responsible for anything that happened; said there were 
between 3,000 and 4,000 people in his town. He said that all were 
peaceful. The president said that his remarks had been taken down 
and would be considered, He was requested, however, to state in 
writing the actual conditions prevailing in his town and submit the 
same to the Commission. 

Senor Hugo Vidal, of Capiz, then addressed the commission. The first 
portion of his speech was devoted to expressions of his high regard 
and appreciation for the Commission and its work, and in extending to 
the party the cordial welcome of the people of his province. He also 
referred in terms of praise to the men and officers of the Eighteenth 
Infantry, stationed in Capiz, through whose good judgment and tact 
peace had been brought to the province. Referring to the Federal 
party, he said its platform would not have possessed the virtue which 
it did nor would that party have been able to accomplish the results 
upon which it prided itself had it not been for the liberal laws enacted 
by the civil commission. At this point the president suggested that 
the Commission adjourn until 9.30 to-morrow morning, when the floor 
would be given to Sefior Vidal to continue his speech. 

Before adjournment Master Ludovico Hedrasallo, a 10-year-old Fili- 

Eino boy from the town of Dumarao, addressed the commission inEng- 
sh, speaking with an almost perfect accent. The president responded 
briefly, complimenting the boy on his address, and expressing the hope 
that before long there would be not only one boy in theprovince of 
Capiz who could speak English, but many, many more. The Commis- 
sion then adjourned until to-morrow. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



145 



Momvng sesmm. 



Capiz, April 15, 1901. 



Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 9.45 a. m., and 
the secretary directed to call the roll of pueblos. The province was 
represented as follows: 



Paeblo of Gapiz: 

Don Antonio Habana, president. 

Don Pedro Ortis, vice-president. 

Don Canuto Fuentes, councilor. 

Don Tomas Alba, councilor. 

Don Antonio Lasema, councilor. 

Don Sinforoeo Salgado, councilor. 

Don Pastor Vidal, councilor. 

Don Jose Lasema Barrios, councilor. 

Don Joee G. Arsenas, councilor. 

Don Miguel Albar, councilor. 

Don Domingo Alvarez, councilor. 

Don Antonio Andrada, councilor. 

Don Salvador Fuentes, councilor. 

Don Joee Hernandez, councilor. 

Don Esteban Alvares, councilor. 

Don Estanislao Lasema, councilor. 

Don Basilio Alovera, councilor. 

Don Luis Lasema, councilor. 

Don Ramon Albar, councilor. 

Don Kamon Andrada, councilor. 
Pueblo of Dumarao: 

Don Ancelo Hidroeollo, alcalde. 

Don Liberato Haguinan, tiniente 
alcalde. 

Don Simon Advinula, sindico. 

Don Juan Gto. Advimula, councilor. 

Don Abundio Advimula, councilor. 

Don Leon Cabaylo, councilor. 

Don Mariano Mioriella, councilor. 

Don Santiago. Rubrico, councilor. 

Don Miguel Oruzada, councilor. 

Don Abundamio Genova, councilor. 

Don Higinio Valensoy, councilor. 

Don Augustin Hinola, treasurer. 

Don Pedro Grinen, secretary. 
Pueblo of Unisan: 

Don Eugenio Villagracia, president. 

Don Manuel Villagracia, vice-presi- 
dent. 

Don Julian Valsote, councilor. 

Don Candido Valcaser, councilor. 

Don Valentin Ubas, councilor. 

Don Hilario Usison, councilor. 

Don Pedro Villagracia, councilor. 

Don Rufino Crisostomo, councilor. 

Don Aquilino Villagracia, councilor. 

Don Santiago Ubas, councilor. 
Pueblo of Cuartero: 

Don Vicencio Florino, president. 

Don Lorenzo Hunysagen, vice-presi- 
dent 

Don Mateo Flotilde, councilor. 

Don Eucebio Pimentel, councilor. 

Don Hilario Heiman, councilor. 

Don Gregorio Holipaz, councilor. 

Don Florentino Fajarillo, councilor. 

Don Louis Majo, councilor. 

P O 1901— PT 2 10 



Pueblo of Cuartero — Continued. 

Don Francisco Hamig, councilor. 

Don Satumino Fabregar, councilor. 

Don Antonio Abana, councilor. 
Pueblo of Pilar: 

Don Eustaguio Cunada, president. 

Don Hugo Buenavida, vice-president. 

Don Mateo Bordemonte, councilor. 

Don Eusta(juio Barameda, councilor. 

Don Iniceno Bacea, councilor. 

Don Maximino Abladonado, coun- 
cilor. 

Don Marcial Baltar, councilor. 

Don Francisco de Borja, councilor. 

Don Ciriaco Villaruel, councilor. 
Pueblo of Dumala: 

Don Juan Fagtanan, resident. 

Don Nicolas Fecundo, resident 

Don Cayetano Fujas, resident 

Don Santiago Florino, resident 

Don Gr^orio Manila, resident 

Don Tomas Frondoea, resident 

Don Clemente Castro, resident. 

Don Andres Fajardo, resident. 

Don Rosindo Fadriga, resident. 

Don Tomas Fuentes, resident. 

Don Maximo Fuentes, resident 

Don Crisanto Fajardo, resident. 

Don Sixto Fadiiga, resident. 

Don Eustaquio Fragais, resident 
Pueblo of Mambusao: 

Don Pedro Latalinda, president. 

Don Ruperto Kapunan, resident. 
Pueblo of Bataro: 

Don Clemente Bolivar, president. 

Don Fernando Jacinto, vice-presi- 
dent. 

Don Comelio Delfin, councilor. 

Don Pedro Cortes, councilor. 

Don Luciano del Rosario^ councilor. 

Don Simeon Dadivas, resident. 

Don Comelio Cortes, resident. 
Partido of Aclan: 

Don Marcos Gochingco, Pueblo of 
Lezo. 

Don Hugo Planas Tiburcio, Pueblo 
of libacao. 

Don Jose del Castillo, Pueblo of 
Macato. 

Don Nicolas Javellana, Pueblo of 
Magilag. 

Don Teodoro Pioquinto, Pueblo of 
Malinao. 

Don Leoncio Quinupo, Pueblo of Nu- 
mamia. 

Don Simeon Mobo, Pueblo of Balate. 

Don Simeon Mobo, Pueblo of Panga- 
lan. 



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146 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Pueblo of Panitan: 

Don Simeon Dadivae, president. 
Don Pablo Reynaldo, alcalde. 
Don Sinforoso Vargas, councilor. 
Don Thurcio Dadivas, councilor. 
Don Micael Didolo, councilor. 
Don Ildefonso Dettota, councilor. 
Don Miguel Desales. councilor. 
Don Bernardino Dulla, councilor. 
Don Simeon Dieetro, councilor. 
Don Eugenio Diestro, councilor. 

Pueblo de Dao: 

Don Simeon Dadivas, president. 
Don Leonardo Lumbao, alcalde. 
Don Fernando Paro, councilor. 
Don Galicano Ortis, councilor. 
Don Lamberto Ortis, councilor. 

Pueblo of May on: 

Don Joaquin Dumagpi, president. 
Don Ariston Declaro, councilor. 
Don Gonzales Dumagpi, councilor. 
Don Mariano Diaz, councilor. 
Don Manuel Delena, councilor. 

Pueblo of Sapian: 

Don Leocadio Pajarillo, alcalde. 
Don Petronilo Villanueva, vice- 
president. 
Don Eustaquio Obligacion, councilor. 
Don Aguedo Arboleda, councilor. 
Don Francisco Otro, councilor. 
Don Cruz Obligacion, councilor. 
Don Marcelo Abordo, councilor. 
Don Leon Tupas, councilor. 
Don Froilan Enriquez, councilor. 
Don Aguedo Obligacion, councilor. 
Don Simon Dadiras, resident 

Pueblo of Jamindang: 

Don Jacinto Yalguna, local president. 
Don Olaudio ViTlacis, vice-president 
Don Aguedo Advimenla, delegate of 

justice. 
Don Victor Gallano, delegate. 
Don Martin Vaay, delegate. 
Don Toribio Rinaporte, delegate. 
Don Roque Advincula, delegate. 
Don Tomas Visto, delegate. 
Don Severo Vigo, dele^te. 
Don Eulalio Valguna, delegate. 
Don Agustin Layzon, delegate. 
Don Rufino Vacnot, deleffate. 
Don Alejandro Villas, delegate. 
Don Alejandro Villeta, delegate. 
Don Domingo Victoriano, delegate. 



Pueblo of Sigma: 

Don Bernardino Protano, president 

Don Maximo Jaymalen, vice-presi- 
dent 

Don Roman Abaricio, councilor. 

Don Toribio Javel, councilor. 

Don Atanacio Santiago, councilor. 

Don Licerio David, councilor. 

Don Francisco Clamerin, councilor. 

Don Regino Jabillo, councilor. 

Don Marcelo Grallardo, councilor. 

Don Pedro Patricio, councilor. 
Pueblo of Pontevedra: 

Don Braulio Avelino, president 

Don Francisco Cortes, vice-president 

Don Juan N. D^la, treasurer. 

Don Guillermo Andana, secretary. 

Don Pantaleon Villareis, councilor. 

Don Silvestre Delfin, councilor. 

Don Simeon Catalan, councilor. 

Don Martin Catalan, councilor. 

Don Josd Cortes, councilor. 

Don Antonio Rodoso, councilor. 

Don Inocentes Distajo, councilor. 

Don Domingo de la Cruz, councilor. 
Pueblo of Panay: 

Don I^acio Rofil, president 

Don Si 1 vino Baneta, vice-president 

Don Felix Balgos, councilor. 

Don Cosme Barbasa, councilor. 

Don Perfect© Bolano, councilor. 

Don Rujjerto Bofil, councilor. 

Don Cecilio Borres, councilor. 

Don Ambrosio Blanco, councilor. 

Don Leon Balgos. councilor. 

Don Silvestre Bulas, councilor. 

Don Benito Villar, councilor. 

Don Benito V^;a, councilor. 

Don Pablo Belo, resident 

Don Gregorio Villamiz, resident 

Don Hilarion Villamiz, resident 
Pueblo of Loctu^^: 

Don Dalmacio Cadiz, president. 

Don Felix Galves, vice-president. 

Don Juan Acerva, councilor. 

Don Antonio Canteller, councilor. 

Don Anacleto Cabamas, councilor. 

Don Andres Dividina, councilor. 

Don Julian Doloso, councilor. 

Don Calixto Alajar, councilor. 

Don Ramon Villamiz, councilor. 

Don Claudio Capote, councilor. 

Don Simplicio Jugo Vila, resident. 
Pueblo de Jimeno: 

Don Julian de Reyes, president. 



Following roll call, Senor Vidal was recognized to continue his re- 
remarks of yesterday. His speech was written and was read by him. 
He reviewed the legislation thus far enacted by the Commission and 
spoke of the promise it contained for the people of the islands. He 
then referredf to the resources of the provmce of Capiz, stating that 
at the beginning of 1886, when trouble in the archipelago first l^gan, 
the province produced about 2,000,000 cabanes of palay; that this not 
only supplied the local consumption but furnished a large product for 
export. The sugar production was also very great, the town of Pon- 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPrNE COMMISSION. 147 

te vedra alone having twenty suear plantations. The nipa eroves which 
yield spontaneously produced over 125,000 arrobas of vino, while 
tobacco, abaca, and copra were all produced in the province. Of all 
these industries the only one now remaining is that of distilling alco- 
hol from the nipa palm, and which meets in a small way the needs of 
tfie municipalities. Over thirteen towns have been burned to the 
ground, while the rinderpest and the locusts have completed the 
destruction wrought by war. He stated that these conditions made it 
impossible for them to face the imposition o#a land tax now, which, 
though it might be equitable and ]ust and promised extremely well, 
could not at this time be borne. He thought the only way the present 
situation could be met would be for the central government to furnish 
live stock to the province to meet the requirements of agriculture, 
importing them from Singapore and Australia. Being ask^ whether 
the people had money to buy mules if imported, he doubted whether 
mules were suitable to the methods of cultivation pursued in the pro- 
vince. Some discussion was then had of the methods of plowing and 
sowing pursued by the people, and whether modern machinery, such 
as st^m plows, could De used. It developed that, were steam plows 
to be used, the present system of banking rice paddies would have 
to be changed. This bauKing is done to divide fields and also for 
irrigation purposes. The speaker said there was no public farm in 
Panay where proper methods of agriculture could be taught. He 
thought such a farm should be established. The speaker also urged 
the establishment of public primary schools througnout the province. 
He was told that Dr. Atkinson, the superintendent of public instruc- 
tion, was with the Commission and would speak to the people on 
this subject. The speaker said the daily wage in Capiz was now 
about 40 cents Mexican per day. In answer to inquiry he said the 
construction of public roads throughout the province furnishing 
employment to tne people would prevent famine in many places. 
He thought, in view of the hard times and if the work was continu- 
ous, laborers could be had for 25 cents Mexican per day. He also 
suggested that money be voted by the Commission for the extinction 
of flie locust plague. The plan suggested was to pay so much for 
each cabanne of dead locusts, say 20 cents Mexican. He said this 
method had been pursued with success formerly. He said the locust 
plague had been known to last for three years. He thought the north- 
west corner of Capiz province, owing to its distance from the capital, 
might well be annexea to Antique. This was particularly true of the 
town of Buinianga. As to provincial salaries, the speaker said they 
were so closely related to the question of resources that he could 
hardly give a aefinite estimate. He said the towns had no source of 
income at this time, while it would be a year before the land tax would 
vield anything. He stated that the land records had been sent to 
Manila on the outbreak of the war against Spain. Some discussion 
was then had as to revenue, and the speaEer was assured that the Commis- 
sion would not establish a provincial government and then let it starve. 
Being asked whether it would be practicable to levy a small cedula tax, 
the speaker thought it would be a good measure, and that it could be 
collected. He did not think 1 peso too much. As to quarterly meet- 
ings, he thought, in view of the fact that the governor is required to 
visit all the municipalities twice a year, that the number of meetings 
might be reduced to three. He said that be would eliminate the Octo- 



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148 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

ber meeting, as it was a stormy month and also the moiith when paW 
was harvested. He thought the capital should remain at Capiz. It 
would cost money to move it, and the people had no money. He esti- 
mated the population of the province at 140,000. He then referred to 
the religious question and the hostility of the people to the friars. He 
asked in the name of the people that the Commission take necessary 
action to prevent the return of the friars to the province. The presi- 
dent explained the position of the Commission in the matter, being in* 
line witn the remarks nmde at the public session in Cagayan. 

Senor Simeon Mobo spoke in behalf of the district of Aclan, which 
includes that portion oi the province to the north and northwest of 
Jimeno. Referring to the alleged desire of the people of Burnanga to 
be joined to Antique, he said this could hardly be, as the representative 
of that town had met with other towns at Calivo and had made no such 
request, but had signed a paper in conjunction with the other pueblos 
asking separation from Capiz and erection into a separate province. 
The speaKer said the fifteen towns represented by him wanted a sepa- 
rate government, and if anyone wished to combat that desire he was 
there to meet them. Being asked the population of the Aclan district, 
the speaker computed it by towns, asking each presidente the popula- 
tion of his particular municipality. The total aggregated some 88,000. 
Being asked why they wished to separate, he said it was for their own 
well-being. B^ having a separate existence they would have their 
governor m their midst, to whom they could appeal instantly and who 
would be able to act promptly. The speaker developed tnis idea at 
considerable length, dwelling upon the inconvenience which would 
result from being widely separated from the governor and the provin- 
cial seat; of the imposition which would be practiced upon the people 
by the local authorities, which the victims could not prevent or redress 
because of the time and expense necessary to reach the governor. He 
also urged that the people needed to be educated in matters of govern- 
ment, and to this end should have the governor among them. He was 
told that this school of government was to be found under the munici- 
pal code which gave the people almost complete autonomy. The only 
point to be considered was that of communication, which could be 
remedied either by division of the province or providing means of 
communication for the officials. The speaker said that even with a 
launch the journey was long and dangerous, as had been demonstrated 
on their present tnp, which was made by steamer. His party had arrived 
late, most of them in bad shape through seasickness. Some discussion 
was then had as to the situation of the towns of Aclan, it appearing 
that most of them were inland. He said it would take three or four 
days, even with a launch, for people from the most remote towns in 
his district to reach Capiz; said there was no regular line of steamers. 
He thought a launch would help out the officials, but he was referring 
more particularly to the poor people, who would also have cause to 
come to the capital. Being asked if they could not write, he said it 
would be a happy thing if tney knew how to write. 

Senor Alexanaro Pardo, of Capiz, stated that he had been chosen as 
the representative of certain towns in Aclan which did not desire to sepa- 
rate from Capiz. He believed that Senor Mobo, while he represented 
some of the people, did not represent all of them. He said that he had 
spoken with some of the people who had signed the petition for sepa- 
ration, who, after they learned what a separate government would cost, 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHUJFPINE COMMISSION. 149 

had changed their minds because they were too poor to support such 
a government. He said the question of distance, so far as the officers 
were concerned, would be relieved bv furnishing a launch. As to 
the poor people being oppressed by the local authorities, he did not 
see how this would be obviated by their having a separate government, 
for the personnel of both their municipal ana provincial governments 
would be mostly Filipinos whose selection would depend upon them- 
selves. Senor Mobo nere said they wanted an American for governor, 
to which Senor Pardo responded that they could not learn in this way 
to govern themselves. He said further that of the fifteen towns Senor 
MoDo claimed to represent, eight were in ashes, and some of them had 
come to the wise conclusion that it would be better to employ their 
small means in the reconstniction of their towns rather than devote 
their revenues to the payment of provincial officers; said that the 
people of Batan told him they were willing enough to separate if they 
did not have to pay for it. A representative oi Batan challenged at 
this point the statement that his town wished to withdraw from the 
movement toward a separate government, while Sefior Mobo dramat- 
ically called upon the councilors of that town present to rise and say 
whether or not they had authorized the statement that they wished to 
withdraw. 

Senor Simeon Dadivas, who had been chosen to represent some of 
the towns of Aclan, si)oke in favor of the division. He laid stress 
upon the inconvenience of those to wns^ both in governmental and judi- 
cial matters, in having to come to Capiz. He said a launch would not 
remedy matters unless everybody was privileged to ride. He thought 
the aspirations of the people of Aclan were just and that their wishes 
should be respected. 

Sefior Ruperto Kapunan, of Mambusao, referred to the matter of 
division of the province; said that he would favor the project ordi- 
narily, but did not think the present was the time for separation. He 
said that the province was too poor; that whichever way he looked he 
saw hungry people. He thought the people should solve the question 
of ^tting a living before they undertook the difficult matter of gov- 
erning themselves. He said tne province had to face the possibility of 
a large portion of its inhabitants emigrating to some other province 
where subsistence could be had. Referring to the statement that the 
people would be oppressed by the local authorities, he inquired who 
would be responsible in such a case unless the people themselves, as 
they now elected their own local officers. He saia one of the conditions 
of good government was that the government be self-supporting. 
Referring to the sources of revenue provided for the province and the 
municiptuities, he stated that he did not see how such governments 
would oe kept up. The president explained to him the sources of 
income provided for the municipalities and the province, to which 
would be added the internal revenue collected in the province since 
January 1. If this was insufficient, then some other means would have 
to be devised. The Commission felt, however, that the time was not 
yet ripe to say whether the revenue would be sufficient or not. The 
commission then adjourned until 3 p. m. 



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150 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Aftefrnjoon session. 

Cape, April 16^ 1901. 

The session was called to order at 4 p. m. Referring to the question 
of division of the province, the president stated that the Commission 
had been much interested in the reasons given for dividing the prov- 
ince. It realized the difficulties presented by the great distance of 
some of the towns from the capital. The Commission does not think, 
however, that the present is an opportune time for the division. It is 
necessary that all the resources possible be used to support one gov- 
ernment. The Commission recognized with pleasure the spirit of the 
people of Aclan in desiring self-government, out the principle of self- 
government must be kept within reason and within bound^; in other 
words, the question of the divisions of government is not to be deter- 
mined by the majority vote of the part of an^ territory. It will need 
all the people of the whole province of Capiz to carry on the provin- 
cial government at all. Later, when the province recovers its normal 
condition, a division may be possible, at which time the people can 
renew their request. It is believed that with the two visits per annum 
of the governor to the municipalities and with the quarterly meeting 
of the presidentes the people will all have an opportunity to make their 
wants known. 

The following amendments were then submitted by the president to 
the special bill: 

Add word *' Capiz" at end of title of act 

Insert in section 1, after words ''island of," in third line, the word 
"Panay," and after words "province of," in same line, the word 
"Capiz." 

Insert in section 2, after words "province of," in first line, the word 
"Capiz," and as salaries of provincial officers the following sums: 
Provincial governor, $1,700; provincial secretary, $1,200; provincial 
treasurer, 12,000; provincial supervisor, $1,800; provincial fiscal, 
$1,200. 

Insert as allowance for traveling expenses of provincial officers, $2.50 
per day. 

Insert in section 3, as bond of treasurer, $15,000. 

Amend section 4 by striking out words "and October" in second 
line and word "quarter's" in fourth line. 

Insert in section 5, as capital of province, "Capiz." 

Insert as section 6 the following: 

Sec. 6. The oath of office of provincial officers may be administered by a member 
of the Commission, by any judicial officer, or by the governor of the province. 

Number present section 6 "section 7." 

The amendments proposed were adopted and the secretary directed 
to call the roll upon the passage of the bill as amended. The bill was 
unanimously passed. 

The following-named persons were then announced as the appointees 
of the Commission for the various provincial offices: For provincial 
governor, Hugo Vidal; for provincial secretary, Simeon Mobo; for 

Provincial treasurer, Marion C. Rayson; for provincial fiscal, Alejandro 
ardo. 

The oath of office was then administered by the president to Sefior 
Vidal, Sefior Mobo, and Sefior Pardo. The presiaent stated that in 
the organization of the courts for the islands an effort would be made 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILrPPrCTE COMMISSION. 151 

to have a session at Calivo or Batan as well as the provincial seat, this 
in order to accommodate the people of that district. The president 
then introduced to the audience Dr. Pardo de Tavera, who jwidressed 
them. 

The session then adjourned. 

Attest: A. W. Ferousson, Secret^iry. 

United States Philippine Commission. 

MINUTES OF proceedings. 

Cebu, Island op Cebu, April 17^ 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 10 a. m. and the 
roll of pueblos of the province called by the secretary. The following 
towns were represented, the list showing the chairmen of the respective 
delegations: 

Cebu, SefXor Florentine Ralloe. Bantayan, Sefior Fortunato Villaceran 

San Nicolas, Sefior Feliciano Bacayo. Bogo, Sefior Victorino de la Vifia. 

Carcar, Sefior Florencio Noel y Adriano Pilar, Sefior Hugo Torres. 

Enriquez. Mandaue, Sefior Ellas Espina. 

Sibonga, Sefior Antonio Ruiz. N^, Sefior Pedro de Gracia y Filomeno 
Ai)eao, Sefior Alejandro Ruiz. Fadullon. 

DaWuete, Sefior Ruperto Buenconsejo. Talisay, Sefior Eugenio Fernandez y 
RonoA, Sefior Pacifico N. y N. Albarracin. Emilio Deiparine. 

Dumanjug, Sefior Juan lx)zada. Poro, Sefior Felipe Sotto. 

Barili, Sefior Hilarion Alquizola. Medellin, Sefior Julian Castro. 

Toledo, Sefior Nicolas Raiols. MoalboaL Sefior Juan Garcia. 

Balambang, Sefior Sixto Milan. Alegria, Sefior Crisanto Cuison. 

Tuburan, Sefior Fausto Tabotabo. Daan Bantayan, Sefior Vicente Palacio. 

There was a very large representation present from the city of Cebu 
and adjacent pueblos. Less than half tne towns of the island, how- 
ever, were represented. 

The president stated that the object of the Commission's visit to 
Cebu was threefold: First, to discover by conference with as many 
of the delegates of the various towns as could be gotten together 
whether this island was in such condition that the organization of civil 
government would assist in bringing about peace; second, if this be 
answered in the aflSrmative, to pass a special act making the general 
provincial act applicable to the province, and, third, having passed the 
act, to appoint officers to conduct the government. It was pointed 
out that tne province of Cebu was the largest in point of population 
and resources of any in the archipelago. The president then spoke as 
follows: 

The condition of the province with respect to peace and pacification, however^ is ' 
not what it should be. The Commission is advised that there are now rangmg 
through the mountains and interior parts of the island some 200 riflemen, whom 
the American troops have found difficult to suppress because they evade attack, and 
information comes but slowly. The question which the people of Cebu must face 
is whether they desire 200 men to contmue a hopeless stru^le, when the insurrection 
in other islanas has collapsed, and by such foolish straggle keep the people of Cebu, 
an overwhelming majority of whom desire peace, from achievmg that desire. For 
years the people of Cebu have enjoved the reputation of being the most peace-lo\dng, 
quiet, and prosperous people in the islands. It is not enough, however, that the 
majority desire peace; they must organize to obtain it. What tne Commission is here 
to learn is whether the people have reached the conclusion that the time has come 
for them to take definite steps to bring about a termination of this unfavorable con- 
dition. The CommisBion is presented with this difficulty: It is here to establish civil 



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152 BEPOBT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

government, the effect of which will be to take out of the hands of the military the 
government of this island and make them simply an auxiliarv force to help the civil 
authorities. Now, if the people can not, by information and by the pressure which 
the majority of the people can exercise, brmg these men out of the mountains and 
discourage their attacks, why should the Commission run the risk of intrusting the 
people, who can not do this, with complete control of the island? Without disparag- 
ing the efforts of the military and the work of the Commission in bringing about peace, 
the truth is that in the other provinces where the insurrection has collapsed it has 
ended because the people of those provinces have said it should end. Through the 
Federal party and other means the leaders of the insurrection have been given to 
understand that the people do not desire the war to continue. That example is before 
the people of Cebu. The first question the Commission desires to discuss, therefore, 
is wnether the province of Cebu is ready for provincial ^vemment Will the estab- 
lishment of civil government give an oi^ganization which will enable the people to 
express their will that {his lawless violence shall cease? This, gentlemen, is tne unfor- 
tunate truth. It is not, perhaps, as grateful to your ears as some other things that 
might be said but we believe in speaking plainly and showing you what our attitude 
is and what we believe your attitude should be. We want to ^ve you the benefits of 
civil government; to give you such individual rights as are enjoyed by every citizen 
of the United States; but within the sound of arms the law is silent and individual 
rights will not be observed. Now, assuming that the answers of the presidentes of the 
towns here represented will satisfactorily establish that civil provincial government 
will aid in bringing about peace, I propose in a short way to state what this provin- 
cial government is. * * * 

My colleagues suggest to me that it might possibly be better to stop the discussion 
at this point until the delegates can express themselves upon the question whether 
they desire a civil ^vemment They do not desire to have it understood that this 
question is settled m advance. It seems better on the the whole, however, that I 
state plainly that the question is not decided, and that whether there shall be a 
provincial government or not is left in abeyance, and that I give now a brief state- 
ment of what the provincial act is. While nothing could be a source of more regret 
to the Commission than to leave the island of Cebu without a civil organization, the 
Commission will not hesitate to do so, and to leave to it the unfortunate prominence 
of being the only province in the archipelago not organized because of its condition, 
should that conaition demand it 

The president then explained the provisions of the provincial act 
and the special bill applying it to the provinces. Reference was also 
made to tne question of the improvement of the port of Cebu. The 
president stated that provision nad been made for the improvement of 
the harbor of Manila out of the insular funds, and it seemed reasonable 
that the harbor of Cebu^ which is second in importance only to that of 
Manila, should be likewise improved, provided always that the people 
of Cebu show that they believe in prosperity and are willing to make 
sacrifices to bring about that condition without which prosperity is 
impossible. The oill was then read for a third time and discussion by 
the public invited. 

Senor Andriano Enriquez, of Carcar, said that while Cebu might 
not be as good a province as others, still he thought it was entitled to 
enjoy the benefits of civil government. Referring to his own town, 
which he said was as large as Cebu, having a population of 40,000, he 
desired to say that the means provided dv the municipal code for 
securing revenue were inadequate, particularly in view of the fact 
that the police force has to be increased in order to be prepared against 
possible attacks from people still in the mountains. He said his town 
now had 30 policemen on salary and 150 militiamen who served with- 
out pay. Their policemen received 6 pesos per month; did not know 
how many policemen they would need. He did not know that any of 
the ladrones were near Carcar, but said that they might pass there any 
time; said they were not levying any tax upon the people of his town, 
so far as he knew; that his people would assist the Americans in 



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BSPOBT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 158 

hunting down those men who are still out; said that one of their lead- 
ers was killed a short time since by a policeman of his town. The 
president then named the various sources of revenue provided by the 
municipal code, and it developed that very few of them existed in the 
town of Carcar. Being asked whether his people would be willing to 
pay a cedula tax of 1 peso until the land tax became effective, one- 
naif to go to the town and one-half to the province, the speaker 
thought they would as a temporary measure. He did not think such 
a tax, however, would be sumeient unless all of it went to the munici- 

Bilitv. He thought the women might pay a cedula tax of 50 cents, 
e also thought Siat there should 1^ a tax upon births, marriages, 
and deaths, all to be provisional until the land tax became effective. 

Senor Alejandro Ruiz, of Argao, said that after the splendid way in 
which the president had spoken of the benefits to be derived from civil 
government he felt that he was voicing the unanimous sentiment of 
tne people of Cebu in saying they wished for peace and civil govern- 
ment and the blessings whicn follow their establishment. Being asked 
if he believed the eii^blishment of civil government would assist the 
people in organizing against the men still m the mountains, he assured 
the Commission that the establishment of civil government would 
bring about peace, as it would better enable the municipalities to work 
toward that end. He stated that the establishment of such a govern- 
ment would be a great stride toward convincing the people still out 
that they are in error. He was told that there was no occasion for 
this; the people still out knew definitely what was offered to the islands. 
It had proven acceptable to other provinces and had proven acceptable 
to the leader of the insurrection, Aguinaldo. If tney were not con- 
tent with this, then other means for bringing about peace would have 
to be taken. It was possible to land a force in Cebu large enough to 
sweep it from end to end. It would seem, however, that, if the half 
million people on the island desired peace tney could convince the few 
still out of that fact. ThQ speaker said that all the people of the towns 
represented by him — Carcar, Sibonga, Dalaguete, and Argao — having 
a population of nearly 100,000, had taken the oath of allegiance and 
were in hearty accord with the Americans. He repeated that the 
establishment of civil government, being a step toward civil liberty, 
which they desired, would tend to bring about peace. Referring to 
the question of revenues, he said the same condition prevailed in Argao 
as in Carcar. He thought a cedula tax of 1 peso might be imposed 
until tie land tax became effective. He said the land in Cebu was very 
well distributed among the people, there being a great number of small 
holders. He said the title in most instances was simply by posses- 
sion, there being few registry titles. The people raised mostly corn 
and tobacco; some large proprietors raised sugar. Up to the present 
time Cebu had escaped the cattle disease. There were locusts in some 
of the pueblos. He said if the towns took the trouble they could prevent 
the spread of locusts by catching them when in the jumping state. As 
to the salaries of provincial officers, he preferred to leave that to the 
Commission, asking, however, that salaries and other expenses be as 
low as possible. He complained of charges made at different ports 
upon the owners of small water craft, asking that they be relieved 
from these charges. He was told that under flie provincial law traffic 
between towns^ and between islands was free. He also referred to a 
large building in his town, formerly used as a school, and asked that 



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154 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

the goyernment assist in repairing it. He was told that an appropria- 
tion of $400,000 had been made for the construction and repair of 
schoolhouses, and that he bring the matter to the attention of the 
general superintendent of public instruction. 
The commission then adjouiiied until to-morrow, 10 a. m. 

Morning session. 

Cebu, April 18, 1901. 
Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president 
The session was called to order by the president at 11 o'clock, and 
further public discussion was invited. 

Senor Florentino Kallos, presidente of Cebu, speaking on behalf of 
the people of his town, saia the entire population were anxious for 
the estaolishmentof civil government in the province. As to salaries, 
the city of Cebu was willing to leave that to the discretion of the Com- 
mission. Taking up the municipal code, he said that, while it made 
various reforms m the matter of taxation, it would not provide suffi- 
cient revenue to meet the increased expenses created by the terms of 
the code. Asked with reference to the wisdom of a cedula tax, he 
said he thought the people would accept it if ordered, but it was his 
opinion that the tax snould not be leviea, because all the poor paid the 
same as the rich. He was told that a tax of 1 peso per year was a small 
one and that the rich would receive their burden when the land tax 
was imposed. The speaker asked that the tax system established bv 
General Order No. 40 be continued until the land tax was applied. 
Some discussion was then had as to the sources of revenue under Gen- 
eral Order No. 40, not provided for under the municipal code, and it 
developed there was little difference in the amount of revenue which 
could be collected under the two acts. The speaker said that during 
Spanish times a great deal of money was collected from the opium 
tax. He thought the use of opium was spreading; while he believed 
it should be suppressed, he doubted if it could be done; if not, the 

?;overnment should receive revenue from it. It had been farmed out 
or 2,500 pesos a month for the entire island. Of this the city of Cebu 
received 1,500 pesos per month. He said the intention was to confine 
the use of opium to Chinamen, but the orders to enforce such pro- 
vision were unpopular. He asked that the opium tax be again applied, 
making it high. The president said that the Commission had been 
instructed by his statement of the situation and that it was convinced 
from it and from what it had heard elsewhere that some additional 
general legislation must be enacted to enable the towns in the province 
to secure revenue until the land tax became effective. 

The speaker then referred to the harbor of Cebu, calling attention 
that during Spanish times a large tax had been collected on imports to 
the island, to be devoted to haroor works. These funds had been cen- 
tered in Manila, and he asked now that they be employed for thepur- 
pose for which they were intended. He was told it would be diflacult 
for the Commission to apply such fund when it had not received it. 
The money so collected was not in the treasury at the time of the 
American occupation. The Commission, however, felt that it was 
the duty of the government to improve the harbors of the islands, 
not on the ground that it had gotten money from Spain, but on tiie 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 155 

ground that it was its duty, and it would take into consideration- the 
(]^uestion of improving the harbor of Cebu. The speaker called atten- 
tion to the fact that the capital city, Cebu, was small and could not 
Eut on the style which it should. Being asked if San Nicolas should 
e joined to it, he replied that he could not speak for the inhabitants of 
that town. He did not believe, however, they would favor the union. 
Being asked if the people of San Nicolas had conducted themselves so 
as to deserve great consideration, he said the military governor was 
tiie person to answer that question. 

Sefior Juan Lozada, of Dumanjug, speaking for himself and the 
people of his town, thought the liest method of pacifying the island 
was to establish civil government, because those still out, when they 
perceived the civil liberties guaranteed to and enjoyed by the people 
of the province, would naturally have such an object lesson as would 
turn them from their misguided course and bring them under the law. 
The speaker referred to the fact that many towns had been almost 
destroyed by the war, and asked if it were possible for the government 
to loan them monev to rebuild. He thought this also would have a 
good influence on those still in the field. Being asked if he thought 
me organization into municipalities, furnishing, as they would, a definite 
organization through which the p^ple could act, would help to bring 
about i>acification, he thought it would, but that other means should be 
employed as well. He thought the organization of a provincial gov- 
ernment extremely necessary, so the people could see that the promises 
on paper were bemg fulfilled. Being asked as to the imposition of a 
cedula tax, the speaker said it would be a burden upon the people of 
his town, as they had no resources. He presented a written statement 
in the matter, showing the entire expenses of his town. He then raised 
some question with regard to the right given the military governor to 
suspend provincial officers in certain cases, and thought this an infringe- 
ment on tlie rights of the people. It was pointed out to him that so 
long as the central government continued military the military gov- 
ernor would be the chief executive; that his power only extended to 
the suspension of officers, the question of removal and reinstatement 
being in the hands of the Commission. This power of suspension and 
removal must rest somewhere^ whatever the form of government, else 
there would be no remedyagamst those who were plotting against the 
life of the government itseliT Within two months it was expected that 
this power would pass to a civil governor. 

Sefior Sixto Milan, presidente of Balambang, thought that the only 
way to achieve the peace, prosperity, and contentment of the people of 
ifche archipelago, and enable them to secure the culture of Europeans 
and other peoples, was to ffive them civil government and the means 
of education, which woiud result from kw and order. He also 
referred to tne matter of municipal revenues, stating that the means 
provided by the municipal code were insufficient, and asking that the 
people continue under General Order No. 40. It would seem that 
under that order his town had been applying a cedula tax and a forced 
labor tax. He thought the provision of the municipal code that taxes 
should be collected by the provincial treasurer a good one, as this pre- 
vented the local officers from mixing in the matter. 

Senor Feliciano Bacayo, presidente of San Nicolas, said the people 
of his town did not want to be joined to the city of Ceou for the reason 



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156 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPIITB COMMISSION. 

that San Nicolas was the first town founded in the archipelago upon 
Spanish occupation. He said the people of his town lavored the 
organization of the province, and asked that the members of the pro- 
vincial government be elected bv the presidentes of the towns. Being 
asked as to public order in San Kicol^, he said that up to the present 
the police force, though small by reason of the scarcity of revenue, was 
performing its duty and maintaining order. He said there were no 
armed men living within the limits of San Nicolas. Being asked if 
his people- would inform the military authorities if armed forces were 
to come within the town, he said tne citizens of San Nicolas would 
defend themselves against insurrectos, and, if unable to cope with 
them, would apply to the military authorities. It app^red that the 
town of San >ricoIas had no regular or^nization, the insurrecto offi- 
cers having simply continued over by military authorization. 

The Commission then adjourned until 4.30 p. m., at which time, the 
president stated, the Commission would announce its conclusions on 
the matters in issue. 

Afternoon session. 

Cebu, AprU 18, 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 5 o'clock. He 
announced that after a careful consideration of the statements which 
had been made in the meetings by the representatives of some of the 
large towns of the province tne Commission had concluded to extend 
the provisions of the general provincial act to the island of Cebu. 

The following amendments were then offered by the president to the 
special bill: 

Add to the title of act following words: ''Cebu, and incorporating 
the pueblo of San Nicolas in the municipality of Oebu." 

Insert in section 1, after the words "island of," in third line, the 
words "Cebu and neighboring islands," and after words "province 
of," in same line, the word "CSbu." 

Amend section 2 by inserting after words "province of," in fii'st 
line, the word "Cebu," and as salaries of provincial officers the follow- 
ing sums: Provincial governor, $3,000; provincial secretary, $1,800; 
provincial treasurer, $3,000; provincial supervisor, $2,600; provincial 
fiscal, $1,800. 

Insert as allowance for traveling expenses of provincial officers, 
$2.50 per day. 

Insert in section 3 as bond for treasurer, $25,000. 

Add to section 5 the following: 

Cebu and the pueblo of San Nicolas is hereby incorporated in the municipality of 
Cebu and made subject to the government thereof. Should the provincial governor 
determine that the mcorporation of San Nicolas in Cebu shall chanse the class of the 
municipality under the municipal code and require the number of councilors to be 
increased, it shall be the duty of the present municipal council at Cebu, upon the 
certificate of the provincial governor, to elect the necessary additional councilors 
from among the residents of the added district of San Nicolas. At the next regular 
election in December, 1901, under the municipal code, the whole municipal council 
of Cebu shall be elected as if the town were bein^ newly organized under the munic- 
ipal code, and the councilors elected shall be divided by lot as provided in the code 
into those who shall hold their offices for one year and those who shall hold their 
offices for two years. The municipal government, which exists de &u:to in San 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 157 

Nicolas, is hereby abolished. The existing police force of the pueblo of San Nicolas 
shall be i^rt of the police force of Ceba and subject to the orders of the presidente of 
Cebn until the municipal council shall make other provision. 

Insert as section 6 the following: 

8bc. 6. The provincial building, or casa gobiemo, in the city of Oebu shall be 
occupied for the provincial offices and as the official residence of the governor. 

The present section 6 of the bill will be numbered section 7. 
Referring to the amendment annexing San Nicolas to Cebu, the 
president spoke as follows: 

Maintenance of two towns so dose together, with nothing but the thread of a 
stream sepArating them, especially when one of these towns is the capital of the 
province, is absurd. We understand there is a local pride in San Nicolas which 
resists this union. We do not think that under any circumstances, much as we desire 
to respect the feelings of civic pride, they should be allowed to interfere with the 
progress of such a city as Cebu, and just at this time we do not feel called upon to 
yield to the wishes of some of the citizens of the town of San Nicolas, who have 
not shown that desire for peace and order which we could wish. We are confident 
that not one year will pass before every citizen of the town of San Nicolas, who has 
the interest of this part of the country at heart, will rejoice that this step has been 
taken. You have here an opportunity for the construction of a magnificent capital. 
We propose to improve the port of Cebu, and there ought to be a city here worthy 
of being the capital of so great a province. 

In moving the adoption of the amendments and the passage of the 
special bill, the president stated that this action was taken, masmuch 
as tlie Commission believed, from the statements which had been made, 
that such a course would be of great assistance in pacifying the island. 
If it turned out that such is not the case and the people show that they 
do not deserve civil government, then recurrence must be had to mili- 
tary government, which recurrence can be had by the legislation of 
the same body which enacts the present law. 

The amendments were adopted and the secretary directed to call the 
roll on the passage of the bill as amended. The bill was unanimously 
passed. 

The president then announced the following-named persons as the 
appointees of the Commission for the various provincial offices: For 
governor, Don Julio Llorente; for secretary, Don Leonicio Alburo; 
for treasurer, Lieut. Fred S. Young; for supervisor, Maj. Jas. F. 
Case; for fiscal, Don Miguel Logarto. 

The oath of office was then administered to Seiiors Llorente, Alburo 
and Logarto, and Lieutenant Young. 

The president then introduced to the audience in turn Don Cayetano 
Arellano, chief justice of the supreme court; Dr. Pardo de Tavera, 
president of the Federal party, and Don Julio Llorente, the new gov- 
ernor of the province, wno addressed the people. 

The session then adjourned. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fergusson, Secretary, 



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158 



BEPORT OF THB PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



United States Philippine Commission. 



MINUTES OF PROCEEDINGS. 



Tagbilaran, Island of Bohol, April 19^ 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 2.30 p. m. and 
the roll of the pueblos called by the secretary. The province was rep- 
resented as follows: 



Tagbilaran: Macario Sarmiento, presi- 
dfente. 

Danis: Telesforo Loquillano, presidente. 

Panglao: Bemabe Arcaya, presidente. 

Bac&yon: Timoteo Oppus, presidente. 

Albuquerque: Pablo Doldolea, presi- 
dente. 

Loay: Isidore Apalisot, presidente. 

Lila: Antonio Balandra, presidente. 

Dimiao: Agustin Magaren, presidente. 

Valencia: Juan Tagaro, presidente. 

Garcia Hernandez: Benito Cadiz, presi- 
dente. 

Ja&:ua: Quintin Abrenilla, vice-presi- 
dente. 

Duero: Maximo Acierto, presidente. 

Guindulman: Alipio Libres, presidente. 

Anda: Matias Escubido, representante. 

Candi^y: Bernardino Avergonzado, 
presidente. 



Butuanan: Gregorio Igoy, rei)re8entante. 

Ubay: Ruperto Gabiola, presidente. 

Cortes: Isidore Agundid, presidente. 

Maribojao: Jose Flores, presidente. 

Antequera: Isaac Mascannas, presidente. 

Loon: Francisco Soria, presidente. 

Calape: Estefanio Salomon, presidente. 

Tubigas: Januario Corare, vice-presi- 
dente. 

Inabanga: Ariston Fortich^ presidente. 

Getafe: MarcelinoSuello, vice-presidente. 

Talibon: Rosendo Evangalista, presi- 
dente. 

Loboc: Mariano Vazques, presidente. 

Sevilla: Bernardo Sumangpong, presi- 
dente. 

Vilar: Francisco Dolotina, presidente. 

Corella: Leocadio Malunay, presidente. 

Balilijao: Antonio Racho, presidente. 

Catigbian: PelagioGumanmd, presidente. 



Followinf2^ the roll call, the president spoke as follows: 

The civil commission has come to theisland of Bohol tooi^ganizeadvilnrovincial gov- 
ernment It learns with considerable regret, however, that there are still people in the 
mountains engaged in warfare against the authority of the United States, and it appears 
that such persons, or most of them, in acting in the way they do are simply seeking per- 
. sonal gain, for the Commission can not understand why a comparatively small force 
should continue to make war on the basis of establishing a Filipino government when the 
chief of the insurrection, Aguinaldo, has published a proclamation advising all patri- 
otic Filipinos to lay down their arms and accept peace and prosperity under the lib- 
eral government offered by the United States. At tne city of^ Cebu yesterday the 
Commission met Chief Justice Arellano, president of the supreme court, who came 
direct from Manila, having conferred with Aguinaldo and oringing with him the 
text of the proclamation which Aguinaldo had signed, advising the people as stated. 

The president then referred in detail to the various insurgent gen- 
erals and oflScers who had lately surrendered and declared for peace. 

The insurrection is in collapse, and people who, like the insurrectos in this island, 
keep up the stru^le and depnve people of the opportunity to practice their peaceful 
vocations are guuty of a crime and deserve no consideration at the hands of the peo- 
ple or at the hands of the American forces. The question is whether the peopfe of 
Bohol are going to continue to submit to the impHDsition of a few men gathered in 
the mountains, who pursue their present policy solely for the purpose of stealing 
cattle and living on the contributions imposed on poor people, or whether they are 
going to assist the military in stamping out this remnant of ladronism under the 
mask of insurrection. If you will organize among yourselves and determine that this 
war shall cease, and will have courage enough to inform the military authorities of 
what you know concerning the insurrectos and their methods, it will not be long 
before you have complete peace in this island. I have the neatest sympathy wiu 
you, as you are between two fires— the desperate methods of the men in the moun- 
tains and the law of the United States, enforced by the military. The time has come, 
however, when by courage and organization you can put an end to what would seem 
to me an unbearable situation. 

The president then explained the provisions of the provincial law 
and the special bill, inviting suggestions on the part of the public^ 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 159 

Gravino Sepulvida, fiscal of the court of first instance, stated that 
he sjjoke in behalf of the federal party of the province of Bohol and 
also in behalf of all the presidents and principales of the province. 
He first thanked the Commission for coming to Bohol to organize a 
provincial government, as this met the urgent desires of the people. 
As to the men still in aims, he said the federal party had usea every 
effort to induce them to come in, and that a messenger recently sent 
by the party was still negotiating with them. He was convmced, 
however, that the organization of civil government would assist in 
bringing about pacification. He asked, however, that the Commission 
grant a general amnesty to all those still fighting against the govern- 
ment. He said the principal reason why the leader, Sanson, was still 
out was that when he first took up arms against the United States he 
was told that he would be held as a criminal and would never be par- 
doned. For this reason he preferred to die in the field to being shot 
as a traitor. 

SeSor Aniceto Clarin, of Loay, asked that the license tax on vessels 
and bancas levied in his town be reduced; said such tax was collected 
by United States officers and was not a municipal tax. He was told 
the Commission had not heard of this tax before, but would investigate 
the matter immediately upon its return to Manila. The speaker esti- 
mated the population of Bohol at 247,745. He said very few of the 
people owned land, it being mainly owned by the government or in 
the nands of large proprietors. Being asked as to the products of the 
island, he said they varied according to locality ; from Leon to Mabanga 
the country was rich in agricultural land, palay and corn being tne 
principal products; corn and palay was also produced in the south, but 
not in such larffe quantities. Copra was also exported from the district 
referred to, while hemp was grown in the interior. The island also 
had quite a number of cattle, the rinderpest not yet having reached 
there. The president referred to the conditions found prevailing in 
other provinces, where 90 per cent of the cattle had been lost, and 
warned the people to use every precaution against importing cattle for 
the present and to isolate all cattle that Became ill. Being asked 
wheuier the people would favor a cedula tax on male persons over 
23 years of a^e, tne proceeds to go to the municipalities and the prov- 
ince, half and half, he thought they might, but suggested a cedula tax 
of 60 cents until the land tax became effective. 

The president then read the salaries paid by the Commission in most 
of the provinces already organized and asked the opinion of the speaker 
concerning salaries to be paid in Bohol. The speaker suggested: 
Governor, $1,600; secretary, $1,160; treasurer, $2,100; supervisor, 
$1,700; fiscal, $1,300, all in gold. The speaker stated that lormerly 
the province raised coffee, but the plants had been attacked by an insect 
and nad all died; this in the year 1886. Quite a little tobacco was now 
exported. He said that cotton was raised quite successfully in small 
quantities, mostly in the interior. A number of the towns raised suffi- 
cient rice for local consumption, while others had to import. As a 
whole, the island did not produce sufficient rice for home consumption. 
The principal food of the people was camotes and fish. They exported 
some fish, but not in large quantities. Said considerable sugar was 
exported. Said that durmg Spanish rule there were large haciendas 
at Sevilla and Loboc. Referring to the location of the capital, he said 
Ti^bilaran did not have a good water supply. Said that Ix)boc offered 



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160 BJEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

the most central point for the cai>ital. He said that vessels drawing 
6 feet of water could pass up the river to Loboc. There were no pub- 
lic building there, however. Tagbilaran had the old government 
house and jail. Said the people were accustomed to Tagbilaran, but 
did not think they would be aisappointed if the capital was moved to 
lioboc. Thought government buildings in Loboc would cost 20,000 
pesos. Said that eight or nine thousand piculs of hemp were exported 
from the island annually and about 2,000 piculs of copra, more or Jess. 
He said most of the sugar planters borrowed monej on their proper- 
ties, paying from 20 to 25 per cent, and some as high as 30 per cent, 
interest on their monev. The locusts had been quite disastrous to the 
rice crop this year. Said that towns which took prompt measures to 
kill the locusts escaped the pest. It was a question of diligence on the 
part of the town council. Thought the establishment of civil govern- 
ment would assist in bringing about peace. Thought the people would 
be willing to stand considerable burden of taxation if the money was 
spent for the betterment of the pueblos and the province and not sent 
to Manila, as heretofore. Said there was good building stone in the 
interior of the island and that there was a road around the island, but 
only available for carriages in certain parts, the rest being simply a 
trail. Said the best port of the island was Calape. 

Clodio Ramirez, a school teacher of Tagbilaran, said the schools of 
the island were practically abandoned and asked that measures be taken 
to send them teachers. The speaker was referred to Superintendent 
Atkinson. The president outlined briefly the educational bill passed 
by the Commission and the steps already taken toward the establish- 
ment of a general system of public schools. The speaker was told, 
however, that municipalities were expected to do their part in the 
matter. A normal school had already been established in Manila and 
later others would be established elsewhere, the object being to instruct 
Filipinos in American methods of instruction. The speaker stated 
that some instruction in English had already been given in five or six 
towns. 

Senor Reyes, of Tagbilaran, said that there was in the treasury of 
the former provincial government of the island $25,000, which he 
asked mijght oe made available for the payment of the salaries of pro- 
vincial omcers and for school purposes. It appears that this money, 
or at least a portion of it, was lunds raised by the people for the 
insurrecto government of Bohol, but which, before American occupa- 
tion, had been voted by them for school purposes. Some discussion 
was had as to the status of the fund, the president finally stating that 
the Commission, without respect to its technical right to the money, 
would appropriate it to the province and, if it seemed best, woula 
appropnate part of it for schools. The speaker thought the imposi- 
tion of the land tax at this time would be rather hard upon the people. 
He was told that when the land tax became effective the urbana tax 
would be abolished. As to salaries, the speaker asked that the people 
might have time to deliberate, and was told they could submit a state- 
ment to-morrow morning. 

Senor Macario Sarmiento, presidente of Tagbilaran, stated that he 
was expressing the opinion of a number of the presidentes in opposing 
the proposed cnange of the capital from Tagbilaran to Loboc. He was 
told that the presence of puolic buildings in Tagbilaran would have 
great weight in inducing the Commission to leave the capital as it was 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 161 

until the people could express their views as to appropriatine money 
to move it. The speaker advanced a number of reasons why tne capi- 
tal should remain where it was. He thought that with a water system, 
institutions of learning, etc., Tagbilaran would become a great city. 
He also thought it was more central than Loboc. He was agreeable to 
submitting the question to a vote. He suggested as salaries: Governor, 
f 1,500; secretary, $2,000; treasurer, $2,000; supervisor, $1,500; fiscal, 
$1,200, and $4 Mexican per day as the limit for traveling allowance. 
He also referred to the money now in the treasury of Bohol, contributed 
by the insurrecto government. He was told that the Commission would 
endeavor to make this fund available to the province. He asked for 
the establishment of a school of secondary instruction. He said that 
if such a school was established the people would see to it that the land 
was furnished free. Now they have to send their children to Cebu or 
Manila, and many of them can not afford this expense. 

Senor Camito Cartheta. of Tagbilaran, thou^t that before the island 
could experience any prosperity, pacification must be achieved, and he 
thought this could be brought about if the Conmiission would grant 
amnesty to the men who are now under arms. Being asked if a proc- 
lamation by the President of the United States promising amnesty to 
all those who had not violated the laws of war, who surrendered with 
rifles before June 1 and took the oath of allegiance would bring in prac- 
tically all the people who are out, he said tmit it probably would. He 
could give no personal assurances in the matter, however. He was 
told the Commission had no power to gmnt amnesty; but it could rec- 
ommend that the President of the United States do so. The speaker 
said that the federal party of Bohol had telegraphed General Hughes 
asking if he would pardon Pedro Sanson, the insurrecto leader, should 
he come in. They were answered that anything which Sanson might 
do in favor of peace would be considered in the proceedings against 
him. He was told that the Conunission knew nothing of the circum- 
stances under which Sanson went out. What the Commission had in 
mind was a general amnesty to those who had not violated the laws of 
. war. The treatment accorded insurrecto leaders who had surrendered 
in other provinces was cited, and he was assured that the government 
would be lenient with those who showed a sincere desire to assist in 
bringing about peace. He was told that if it was the desire of the peo- 
ple of Bohol to end this condition of things it could be done by tneir 
cooperating with the efforts of the American authorities. The speaker 
did not favor changing the capital. 

The conmiission then adjourned until 10 a. m. to-morrow. 

TAGBILARAN, ISLAND OF BOHOL. 

Sessum ofAfyril 20, 190 L 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, [de, Moses, and the president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 10.15 a. m., who 
stated that the Commission, influenced by the desires of the people and 
their statement that such a step would pacify the islands, had cx)n- 
cluded to extend provincial government to the island of Bohol. The 
following amendments were tnen offered to the special bill: 

Add to title of act the word ''Bohol." 

Insert in section 1, after the words "island of," the words '* Bohol 

p c 1901— PT 2 11 ^ T 

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162 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

and adjoining islands," and, after the words '^province of,*' the word 
'^Bohol." 

Insert in section 2, after the words ''province of," the word " Bohoi," 
and insert as salaries the following sums: Provincial governor, $1,500; 
provincial secretary, $1,000; provincial treasurer, $1,800; provincial 
supervisor, $1,600; provincial fiscal, $1,100. 

Insert, as amount to be allowed as traveling expenses of provincial 
officers, $2 per day. 

Insert in section 3, as bond of treasurer, the sum of $12,000. 

Insert in section 6, as capital of the province, the town of ''Tag- 
bilaran." 

Referring to the salaries proposed, the president stated that sugges- 
tions had been received from the presidentes, but the amounts fixed by 
them had been considered rather small. Their figures were perhaps 
due to the fact that in former times officers were in the habit of 
receiving additional perquisites. Under the present system, however, 
no officer is entitlea, nor is he expected, to receive any perquisites. 
The duties to be performed by the various officers were explained as 
furnishing a basis for the salaries. It was stated that the question of 
the disposition of the $20,000 collected in Bohol under the insurrecto 

fovernment would receive early attention. The Commission had 
ecided for the present to leave the capital at Tagbilaran, because it 
possessed provincial buildings. 

The amendments proposed were adopted and the secretary directed 
to call the roll upon the passage of the bill as amended. The bill was 
unanimously passed. 

The president then announced the following-named persons as the 
appointees of the Commission for the various provincial offices: For 
governor, AnicetaClarin; for secretary, MacarioSarimen to; for treas- 
urer, Lieut. Fred. L. Dengler, Forty-fourth United States Volunteer 
Infantry; for fiscal, Grabino Sepulveda; for supervisor, . 

The oath of office was then administered by the president to the offi- 
cers appointed. After an address by Dr. Pardo ae Tavera, president 
of the fedeml party, and a few words by the president, expressing the 
thanks of the Commission for the reception accorded it by the people 
of Bohol, the session adjourned. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: A. W. Ferousson, Stiretary. 

Unitkd States Philippine Commission, 
minutes of proceedings. 

Tacloban, Leyte, p. I., April 21^ 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 4 p. m. 

Senor Emigdio Acebedo, presidente of the town of Palo, delivered 
an address of welcome to the Commission, speaking on behalf of the 
council of his town and of the committee of the federal party. He 
dwelt upon the great joy and gladness which the coming of the Com- 
mission brought to the people of this far-distant island, and spoke of 
the confidence the people had that through the Commission all of the 
promises made them as to the intentions of the great American nation 
would be realized. He referred to the new judiciary system to be 
established and of the extension of the system of public instruction to 

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RKPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



163 



all parts of the province. He apologized for his inability to express 
all the feelings and sentiments of the people upon this happy occasion, 
and to properly give voice to the high honor which was theirs by rea- 
son of this visit. The president responded to the address, thanking 
the speaker and the towns of the province of Leyte for their cordial 
welcome and for the beautiful arcnes which spanned the streets and 
the other visible evidences that the coming of the Commission was not 
unwelcome to them. He expressed the pleasure of the Commission at 
seeing representatives of the church among the audience, for this was 
a sign that the church was ready to lend ite influence in the cause of 
peace and prosperity. The Commission was also gratified to learn that 
Leyte was in a condition of progressive pacification, and that this had 
been brought about in great measure by the people themselves. Refer- 
ence was then made to the various changes and improvements which 
the Commission hoped to institute in the province. He stated that in 
the end, however, the people themselves were responsible for the suc- 
cess or failure of the government implanted among them; there was no 
royal road to good government, it came only by constant effort on the 
part of the people who were governed. 

The secretary was then directed to call the roll of the pueblos of 
Leyte. The following representatives were present: 



Tacloban: 

Severino Comando, representative. 

Gabriel Galza, representative. 

Au^ustin Banes, representative. 

Felix Vevra, representative. 

Daniel Bomiialao, representative. 

Dionisio Esperas, representative. 
Cauavan: 

Andres Bemadas, president. 

Felix Laj^myun, representative. 

Policarpio Fiel, representative. 
Toloea: 

Juan Cantindoy, president. 

Bemabe de Veyra, representative. 

Brigido Lanson, representative. 

Mauricio Zabala, representative. 
Tanauan: 

Dionisio Magno, president. 

Pedro Ville^, vice-president. 

Simeon Espina^ representative. 

Esteban Apam, representative. 

Mariano de Veyra, representative. 

Feliciano Perez, representative. 

Guillermo Yelion, representative. 

Roque de Veyra, representative. 

Patrisio Versosa, representative. 
Dogami: 

Fabian Perido, president. 

Marcos Bayona, representative. 

Santiago Singco, representative. 
Pastran: 

Gregorio Marques, president. 

Angel Moya, representative. 

Manuel Canete, representative. 
Almeria: 

Catalino Edicto, president. 

Luis Enriquez, representative. 
Alangalang: 

Eduardo Villanueva, representative. 

Boque Pulga, representative. 



Alanealan^^ — Continued. 

Valenano Pedrera, representative. 

Rufino Tante, representative. 

Juan Grariando, representative. 

Alipio Gatela, representative. 

Euudio Cabalona, representative. 
Baybay: 

Juan Galenzoga, president. 

Benito Blanco, representative. 
Palo: 

Emigdio Acebedo, president. 

Marcelo Mendiola, secretary. 

Cipriano Noble, councilor. 
Barugo: 

Vedusto Adrales, president. 

Vicente Araza, representative. 

Pablo Ballesteros, representative. 

Roman Atienza, representative. 

Comelio Canesal, representative. 

Fabian de Leon, representative. 

Faustino de Guia, representative. 

Telesforo Ponfernuia, secretary. 
Malitbog: 

Celedonio Gariolan, representative. 

Juan Canon, representative. 
Cabalian: 

Baldomero Veloso, president. 

Lorenzo Recuedo, representative. 
Anajanan: 

Tereso Veloso, president. 

Raymundo Veloso, representative. 

Marcelino Castilla, representative. 
Hinuda};an: 

Benito Veloso, president. 

Luis Borromeo, representative. 
Hinunangan: 

Eleuterio Bocton, representative. 

Julio Bacol, representative. 
Palompon: 

Jorge Manilao, president. 

Benancio Viacruces, representative. 



164 



REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Villaba: 

Luciano Damail, president. 

Hermogenes Tomamac, vice-presi- 
dent. 
Maria Cristina: 

Macario Hamopoi, vice-president. 

Felix Labbic, representative. 
San Isidro de Campo: 

Mariano Antonio, president. 

Benito de los Reyes, representative. 
Ormoc: 

Francisco Sunico, representative. 

Simplicio Fiel, representative. 
Naval: 

Melesio Caneja, president. 

Vicente Tram, representative. 
Leyte: 

Potenciano Delantar, president. 

Estanislao Granados, representative. 
Caibiran: 

Bibiano Maderaso, president. 

Pedro Paeana, representative. 

Segundo Garcia, representative. 
Barauen: 

Luis Cordero, representative. ^ 
Abuyog: 

Eugenio Billote, president 

Vicente Tianson, representative. 

Esperidion Berra, representative. 

Felipe Costin, representative. 

Agapito Larena, representative. 
Oarigara: 

Calixto Llames, president. 

Gerardo Train, representative. 

Diego Javines, representative. 



BabaClngon: 

Cecflio Serrano y Guia, president. 
Victoriana S. Gerrano, representa- 
tive. 
Vicente Tigzon, representative. 

Maripipi: 

Tareelo Grabiola, president 

Estanislao Cuevas, representative. 
Mauroton: 

Gervasio Evaristo, vice-president. 

Severino Saavedra, representative. 
Maasin: 

Teofilo Lecaros, vice-president. 

Eustaquio RapoUo, councilor. 
Matalom: 

Nicolas Pot, president 

Ruperto Pot, representative. 
Jaro: 

Lino Anver Rona, president 

Francisco Lastrilla, representative. 

Comelio Korea, representative. 
Biliran: 

Manuel Nierras, president. 

Tranquilino Abrugo, representative. 
Dulag: 

Kosendo Cornel, president. 

Gregorio Tupa, representative. 

Fermin Apolonio, representative. 

Santiago Morte, representative. 

Canuto Gomez, representative. 

Juan Hidalgo, representative. 

Paulino Raazas, representative. 

Ambrosio Cadayong, representative. 

Following the roll call the president explained the provisions of the 
Provincial Act, the municipal code, and the special bill, and invited 
the full discussion of these laws by the public. 

Senor Severino Comando, of Tacloban, said that he agreed with the 
remarks of Senor Acebedo, especially upon the question of the judi- 
ciary and of the schools He asked that a school of secondary instruc- 
tion be established. Bein^ asked if he did not think a thorough 
svstem of primary instruction should come first, he replied that he 
thought they should have both. He said some of the people of Taclo- 
ban had expressed their willingness to make a contribution for the 
erection of a school of secondary instruction; said there were probably 
40 or 50 scholars from Leyte now in the colleges of Iloilo, Cebu, and 
Manila, while there were many others who were unable to go on 
account of the war, but who could attend if the school was in Taclo- 
ban. He was told to go ahead with his subscription, for if they raised 
the money for such a school, it would place the burden upon the Com- 
mission to act. He was told the general superintendent of public 
instruction was with the Commission and that he might consult him 
in the matter. 

Senor Jose de la Pena, a school-teacher, proflfered a request in the 
name of the teachers of the island that there be established through- 
out the island a system of primary schools and that assistance be 
fiven in the erection of school buildings and that English teachers 
e provided. It appearing that copies of the educational bill had not 
been received in Leyte, the presiaent explained in detail its provi- 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 165 

sions and what the Commidsion had already done looking to the 
establishment of an educational system in the islands. 

Senor Emigdio Acebedo, of f^alo, asked, in the name of all the 
presidentes, that the tax for cutting timber be suspended for the pres- 
ent, as the different pueblos had suffered greatly by the war, and it 
was necessary to rebuild them. The provisions of the forestry law 
were explained to him, by which any person who can not afford to pa}^ 
the tax could be excused therefrom by applying to the IocaI presidente. 
Further, that no tax should be charged on timber cut and used for 
public buildings. It was pointed out that whatever tax was collected 
for cutting timber went to the support of the municipalities and the 
province where cut, thus adding to their revenues. It was stated that 
a copy of the forestry regulations would be sent to every presidente 
in the island, so that they might understand their powers in the matter. 
The speaker also thought that exemption from the land tax for one year 
was not sufficient, as tne people of Leyte had suffered greatly from the 
war; said that nearly all of the carabaos in the province had died. 
Being asked what rate of interest the people paid on money, he said 
about 2 per cent a month. His attention was called to the fact that 
the proposed land tax was less than 1 per cent for the year, while it 
was also probably true that the high rate of interest was charged 
because or the risk involved in loaning money in time of war and the 
difficulty of collecting. Being told that the means to support a gov- 
ernment must be raised by taxation, the speaker said he understood 
that, but would rather have the tax raised some other way than on land. 
As a substitute he proposed a cedula tax. The whole question of the 
land tax was then gone over by the president for the benefit of the 
speaker, and it was demonstrated that the burden would not only be 
less than supposed, but would be more equitable than any system which 
could be devised. He was told that the Commission had in contempla- 
tion the collection of a small cedula tax on those who did not own real 
estate, as it was believed that everyone should contribute something 
toward the support of the government whose protection he enjoyed. 
The speaker then stated tnat all he asked was that the tax be not 
applied for a term of years. He was told that the Commission hoped 
that within one year Leyte would be so prosperous that this tax would 
not be considered a burden. If the conditions demanded, however, a 
further extension, it could be given at that time. 

The session then adjourned until 9.30 a. m. to-morrow. 

Morning session, 

April 22, 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 10 a. m. 

Senor Juan Galenzoga, presidente of Baybay, answering an inquiry 
as to the revenue of the province in Spanish times, approximated it as 
follows: Industrial tax, 70,000 pesos; urbana tax, 2,000; cedula tax, 
180,000; money received in lieu of forced labor tax, 80,000; tax upon 
opium, 77,000. The speaker favored the proposed quarterly meetings 
or the presidentes, believing such meetings very necessary to dissemi- 
nate a knowledge of governmental methods among the municipalities. 
He said there was no regular system of steamers about the island; that 
the distance around the island was about 125 leagues. The necessity 
for a steam launch by which the provincial officers could get about was 



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166 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

discussed. He said there were roads in the island, but in a bad state 
of repair; said it would take a man seven days to go to Tadoban by land 
from the most remote parts of the island. He said the principal prod- 
uct of the island was abaca; that in times of peace they exported 
400,000 piculs. Said there was a great deal of land in the island suit- 
able for producing abaca not yet under cultivation. They also produced 
copra, the exporte in normal times amounting to about 20,000 piculs; 
thought it might be increased if the conditions were favorable; said 
they frequenfly had typhoons, however, which destroyed the trees. 
The people did not raise enough rice for their own consumption, con- 
siderable being imported from Manila, possibly 200,000 piculs per year. 
The principal food of the people was rice, corn, and sweet potatoes. 
Said corn was raised simply for local consumption; sugar was exported 
in small quantities; some lumber exported; very little tobacco. As to 
land titles, he said most of the land was held by occupation, though 
there were some Spanish grants. He said that in the great typhoon 
of 1897 the building at Tacloban containing the land reex)rds haa been 
destroyed and the records lost. Being asked whether, when the judi- 
cial system was established for Leyte, it would be convenient for the 
judge to hold court part of the time at Maasin, the speaker said that 
in Spanish times there were two judges, one at Maasin and one at 
Tacloban. He thought, however, a judge could hold court alternately 
at Tacloban and at IVmasin. The latter point was about 100 kilometers 
from Tacloban. Referring to the daily wage of laborers, he said it 
varied according to the class of work. In Tacloban ordinary laborers 
got 60 cents Mexican per day with food and 75 cents Mexican with- 
out. They had been receiving this wage since American occupation; 
before that it was 40 cents. He estimated it would cost $30,000 to 
construct a good provincial building at Tacloban. He was asked what 
it would cost the government to buy the narrow point of land where 
the oflSce of the captain of the port is now situated. He could not say, 
but thought between $6,000 and $6,000. He thought it would be 
advisable for the government to buy the land referred to. He believed 
the suggestion to make a public park out of it a good one. The 
speaker, in closing, thankea the president on behalf of the committee 
of peace for his kind words of yesterday when referring to the matter 
of pacification. He wished to say that the island of Leyte contained 
one of the most industrious people in the archipelago, a proof of which 
was the large number of products which they exported. He was 
assured the government appreciated what had already been done by 
the people of Leyte, and looked to them to continue the good work, 
for it was upon them after all that the prosperity of the island depended. 

After a short recess, taken to consider the matter of amendments 
and appointments, the president submitted the following amendments 
to the special bill: 

Add to title of act the word " Leyte." 

Insert in section 1, after the words "island of," the words ''Leyte 
and adjoining islands," and after the words "province of" the words 
"Leyte under Spanish sovereignty." 

Insert in first line of section 2, after the words ''province of," the 
word "Leyte," and insert as salaries the following sums: Governor, 
$2,000; secretary, $1,600; treasurer, $2,600; supervisor, $2,000; fiscal, 
$1,600. 

Insert as amount to be allowed for traveling expenses the sum of 
$2.60 per day. 

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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 167 

Insert in section 3, as bond of treasurer, $20,000. 

Insert is section 5, as capital of the province, the town of Tacloban. 

Insert as section 6 the following: 

Sec. 6. The oath of office may be administered to the provincial officers by a 
member of the Commission, by the jHrovemor of the province, or by any judicial 
officers having jurisdiction in the province. 

Change number of present section 6 to section 7. 

The amendments were adopted. The question then being upon the 
passage of the bill as amended, the secretary was directed to call the 
roll. The bill was unanimously adopted. 

The president then announced the following-named persons as the 
appointees of the Commission to the various provincial offices: For 

Erovincial governor, Maj. H. T. Allen; for provincial secrtary, Senor 
imeon Espina; for provincial treasurer, First Lieut. W. C. Conrow; 
for provincial fiscal, Gabriel Real Oppus. 

Referring to the appointment for governor, the president stated that 
the Commission has usually, though not without exception, appointed 
a native of the islands to tJie position of governor. In Leyte, how- 
ever, it has been embarrassed in following tnis course by the fact that 
there were several candidates who had quite a number of friends and 
supporters. The Commission, reserving a judicial attitude, prefers not 
to make a selection which would represent either faction. Next Feb- 
ruary the people will elect their own governor, and the Conmiission 
does not wish to give any candidate likely to be considered at that elec- 
tion such a preference as might be implied from his appointment at 
this time. In Major Allen the Commission feels that it secures a gov- 
ernor who is not only familiar with the interests of the province and 
devoted to its welfare, but a gentleman who has the good will and con- 
fidence of the entire province. As to the other officers, the Commis- 
sion has tried to make its appointments so as to give each part of the 
island representation. 

The oath of office was then administered by the president to Major 
Allen, Lieutenant Conrow, and Senor Espina. 

The president then introduced to the audience Dr. Pardo de Tavera, 
president of the Federal partv, referring in his introduction to the high 
character of Dr. Tavern and to the great work done by the Federal 

girty in bringing about the present state of pacification. Following 
r. Tavera's address a few remarks were made by Senor Acebedo, of 
Palo, expressing the gratification of the people at the visit of the Com- 
mission. 

The session then adjourned. 

Attest: A. W. Fergusson, Secret<mj. 

United States Philippine Commission. 

minutes op proceedings. 

Catbalogan, Island of Samar, April ^5, 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 

The session was called to order b}' the president at 9.20 a. m., and 
the roll of the pueblos of the province was called by the secretary. 
The following representatives were present: 

Pueblo of Catbalogan, Don Victor Cellis, municipal president; Don 
Andres Reyes, president Federal party. 



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168 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE 0OMMI88IOK. 

Pueblo of Zumarraga, Hermogenes 2ieta and principales of 8aid 
town. 

Pueblo of Santo Nino, the local president and principales of said 
town. 

Pueblo of Calbiga, Don Esteban Figueroa, municipal president; Don 
Pablo Benjamin, president Federal party. 

PueMo of Villareal, Don Ceferino Latorre, municipal president, and 
the principales of said town. 

Pueblo of Santa Rita, Senor Juares, municipal president. 

Pueblo of Calbayog, the pi-esidente of the municipality and of the 
Federal party and the principales. 

In addition to the above there was a large representation from the 
town of Catbalogan. The president then addressed the convention, 
as follows: 

I wish to extend the thanks of the Commission to the people of Catbalogan and 
the representative* of the other towns present for their cordial reception. We appre- 
ciate tne work which was involved in building the wharf and erecting the arch of 
welcome. NVe have been engaged for the last two months or more in establishing 
civil nrovincial governments in this archipelago, and we have reached, finally, the 
islana in which the people do not seem to be anxious for civil government The 
insurrection has collapsed. General Trias, the insuijgent general second in command, 
has surrendered and is now occupied in sending his subordinates to secure the sur- 
render of other officers in Luzon and other islands. General Geromimo, Gen. Pablo 
Tecson, and Gen. Simon Tecson, the commanders in Zambales and Bataah, have all 
surrendered. The leader of the insurrection, General Aguinaldo, has been captured 
and has taken the oath of allegiance and issued a proclamation advising the Filipinos 
that their only chance of happiness is peace under American sovereignty. The peo- 
ple of the archipelago have begun to enjoy the blessings of peace. General Fullon, 
in command of the forces in Antique, surrendered, together with 200 rifles, some 
three weeks ago. General Diocno, commanding in Capiz, was wounded and capturtnl 
and his forces dispersed. He is now urging his suboniinates to surrender. General 
Capistrano, commanding the forces in Mindanao, has surrendered, together with 180 
rifles and 80 shotguns. Nobody now remains out but a few ladrones. General 
Delgado has been appointed by the Commission civil governor of Iloilo, and now, 
instead of being an msurrecto i;eneral, he is a civil governor under the authority of 
the United States. General Fullon met the Commission at Iloilo and went with 
it to San Jose, Antique, where the government of Antique was organized. Other 
generals and colonels have surrendered in Luzon whose names are too numerous 
to mention. Two thousand five hundred rifles were captured or surrendered dur- 
ing the months of January and February of this year, more than half of which 
were surrendered. Between the 1st of March and the Ist of April 4,000 rifles 
have been surrendered or captured, the great majority of which were surren- 
dered. Having said this much it would seem entirely reasonable to repeat the 
remark with which I be^n — that the insurrection has collapsed. It is not too much 
to say that the great majority of the Filipino people are deeply rejoiced at the fact. 
Three years of war have taught them that peace is absolutely necessaTy to their pros- 
perity, and their experience with the efforts of the United States to bring about civil 
government and prosperity, short as it has been, has satisfied them that that is the 
best solution of the problem. The Commission has adopted a municipal code, form- 
ing a government wnich is practically autonomous. It has adopted a provincial Act 
under which the chief executive of the province is to be selected bv the people them- 
selves through the councilors of the towns. We think, therefore, that patriotic 
Filipinos, under the circumstances, can only take the course of bringmg about peace 
and realizing the aspirations of the people through the form of government which 
has been proposed to them by the civil commission. In this way only can prosperity 
and individual rights be secured to the people. As a further argimient, I would asfc 
the secretary to read the proclamation which General AguinSdo has signed and^ 
issued to the Filipino people. (The secretary read Aguinaldo's proclamation.) I 
have made this statement for the purpose of satisfying you that the insurrection as a 
movement is at an end, and the question is whether in this island only of those 
which ought to enjoy the prosperity due to peace and civil government you are to 
continue m this state of war which now prevails. Have you not the right to say, in 
view of the facts which I have related, that anyone who continues the war is doing 



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BEPOKT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 169 

so for his own benefit and not with any idea of patriotism? The American Govern- 
ment has been long patient, but such a fair island as this, with such magnificent 
opportunities for proeperitjr, can not be allowed to remain subject to the will of a 
narrow and limited mmonty. 

The president then explained the nature of the municipal govern- 
ment and of the provincial government provided by law, and which it 
was the purpose of the Commission to establish in the island of Samar 
when practicable. The question when this could be done was in the 
hands of the people. If they united for the purpose of bringing 
about an end of the insurrection they could do so. An expression 
of opinion was invited from the public as to the subject of civil 
government. 

Senor Victor Cellis, presidente of Catbalogan, thought, in view of 
the present conditions prevailing in the island — a condition illustrated 
by the fact that only seven out of forty towns of the island were rep- 
resented at the meeting — that the time was not ripe for the establish- 
ment of civil government. He believed all that could be done now 
was to organize under the municipal code those towns which had 
acknowledged American sovereignty. There were only six towns in 
the island garrisoned, and all were represented at the meeting. He 
thought when civil government was* established an American officer 
should be plat^ at its head. This because it would be a saving 
financially to the province, and because an American would better 
understand how to administer the office according to American ideas. 
He said the efforts made by those who desired peace to bring about 
an end of the struggle were without avail, and recommended that 
more soldiers be sent to the island and that every town be garrisoned. 
Being asked if the people were ready to help the Americans, he said 
that some of them were, and that others were only waiting the arrival 
of American troops to proclaim themselves in favor of law and order. 
Some discussion was then had as to whether the people were really 
willing to furnish the information necessary to enable our troops to 
accomplish results. 

Senor Andres Reyes, president of the Federal party, said the Federal 
party was organized in the island and had 140 members. He said a 
rumor had become current that the money which is collected by vol- 
untary subscription among the members of the Federal party is sent to 
Manila and is tJbere used to buy arms to fight the Americans; that there 
were many people who would like to join the party who were deterred 
bv this rumor. . The president explained that the Commission had 
brought with it three distinguished members of the Federal party, 
which would hardly have occurred had it been likely that they would 
use money for the purpose stated. The speaker said that the rumor 
was being circulated by people in Catbalogan whoso names had been 
brought to the attention of the military authorities, but nothing had 
been done. He said that while at first people wished to join the party, 
now they are drawing back. General Bates had directed them to 
advise with the Commission. The president then expressed the faith 
the Commission had in the Federal party, in its platform, its aims, and 
its work, so far as these had come within the knowledge of the Com- 
mission. Dr. Tavera, president of the Federal party, here stated that 
the people who circulated these rumors were fully aware of their 
falsity, and it was done because they feared the strength of the IJederal 
party, and because they desired that the war should continue for their 
own private benefit. 

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170 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Senor Reyes then presented a petition to the Commission, setting 
forth the obstacles which the Federal party had encountered, which he 
said could be proven by reference to the military commanders. He 
asked that reinforcements be sent to the island and divided into small 
parties among the diflferent pueblos to maintain order and prevent 
attacks from the outside. He also asked for the organization of the 
towns under the municipal code. 

Senor Benedicto Sabater said that every possible eflfort to secure the 
surrender of those in arms had been unavailing; said that he was a 
colonel in the insurgent army up to March last, when the Americans 
came to the island, jvhen he immediately presented himself. With 
respect to the establishment of civil government in the island, he wished 
this might be done, and also that municipal governments might be 
organized in all the towns; this with the proviso, however, that a suffi- 
cient military force be kept to maintain law and order. As to the cal- 
umnies against the Federal party, he felt sure these were circulated 
by people ignorant of its platform. The tendency of the speaker was 
to excuse such people. He further stated that if a provincial govern- 
ment was established there were plenty of people in the province capa- 
ble of assuming provincial office, who had received instruction in gov- 
ermental matters under the former regime. The speaker also asked 
for schools, saj'ing that the people were very uncultured. It was 
explained to him that a complete system of education for the islands 
was in project and that Samar would be given a part in it when the 
situation warranted. The speaker thought that trie establishment of 
civil government in the islands would be a great pacificator; that those 
still in the field would receive an object lesson and they would see that 
the great American nation was carrying out its promises to grant civil 
libertv and individual rights to the people. He believed the implant- 
ing or such a government at this time would wield such an influence 
that the great majority of those now in the mountains would c^ome in. 
He was told that the Commission had established a civil government in 
Leyte, which was quite near, and the people could get their lesson 
there. The speaker said that if the towns were garrisoned the people 
would at once declare in favor of peace; that thev were now restrained 
by fear, as they were unprotected. He was told that the Commission 
would bring the matter to the attention of the chief military authori- 
ties immediately upon its return to Manila. 

Senor Vicente Jazmines thought the character of the trouble in 
Samar different from that in other islands. He said those who were 
still out were men who had never done an honest day's work in their 
lives. They would not surrender, but would have to be pursued and 
exterminated. Nobody could safely deal with them. lie said the 
greater part of the insurgent forces still out were composed of natives 
of the Islands, while the officers were impoitations. He said Lucban 
was their commander and that he was the only man among them who 
had any sense. He thought the establishment of civil government at 
this time would have a great effect, provided an American officer was 

E laced at its head. Later, however, he said that the towns should 
ave garrisons first and then civil organizations. He said that Catba- 
lo^n was already organized under (feneral Ordei*s, No. 40. 

There being no further discussion, the president addressed the 
audience as follows: 

We have been convinced by what we learned before eominff to the meeting and by 
what we have been told this morning that the condition of this pmyince ipjiot such 

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BEPOJRT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. l7l 

as to justify the introduction of a provincial civil government. We do not desire to 
set up a eovemment which will only be a government in name, reserving to the mil- 
itary authorities the real power. The condition of things in this island is now such 
that it needs the strong hand of the military to bring alwut the proper condition of 
affairs. With such men in the mountains as have been descnbea by one of the 
speakers, with their spies and sympathizers in every town, the Commission fully 
realizes the risk attached to evei^r civil oflBcer in the municipal governments who 
shows any activity toward the Americans. The United States Government does not 
desire to invite anyone to risk life and limb for it without making every effort to 
offer him adequate protection. The Commission, therefore, is of the opinion that the 
first thing that must be done here is to send more troops, to the end that the voice 
of the majority of the people of Samar may be given free expression, and peace in 
accordance with the wish of that majority be brought about. For that reason the 
commission will not now form a civil government in the island of Samar. Should 
any town desire a government under the municipal code, arrangements will be made 
for its oraanization upon receipt by the Commission of a petition, signed by ten citi- 
zens of the town, asking incorporation. 

The president then introduced to the audience Dr. Pardo de Tavera, 
the president of the Federal party, who addressed them. 
The session then adjoumea. 
Attest: A. W. Fergusson, Secretary, 

United States Philippine Commission. 

minutes of proceedings. 

Legaspi, Province of Albay, April 25, 1901. 
Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 
The session was called to order by the president at 3.20 p. m. 
It developed that Albay is divided into two districts, known as the 
Tabaco and iraya districts. The representatives of Tabaco were reported 
as on the way to the meeting. (They arrived in time for the second 
session.) The president regretted that the meeting could not be 
delayed for the Tabaco representatives, but the Commission would 
have to proceed in order to finish the business before it. He stated 
the Commission understood that there were about 200,000 people in the 
province of Albay, all but four or five hundred being TBicoIs; that of 
&ie entire population all but a small minority were in favor of peace 
and anxious lor the establishment of civil government. The Commis- 
sion came without much previous information as to the condition of 
things in Albay. Reference was made to the natural beauties of the 
province, particularly to the great volcano, Mayon, which, if it at times 
caused embarrassment, satisfied the artistic sense. The president 
lamented the fact that the beautiful fertile fields of Albay snould lie 
fallow because a few people persisted in keeping up a ruinous and 
unnecessary guerrilla warfare. The Commission had been informed 
that the estaWishment of civil government in the province and in the 
municipalities would further the cause of peace. It was pointed out 
that the insurrection as an organized movement had collapsed, refer- 
ence being had to the various impoi*tant leaders who had surrendered 
or had been captured within the last few months. The question was 
whether Albay was to be one of the two or three provinces of the forty- 
five in the archipelago to continue in a state of war, destroying the 
means of livelihood of its people and subjecting them to the blackmail 
of a few men in the mountains, especially when these men were not of 
the Bicol race. It was the pui-pose of the Commission, if the condi- 
tions warranted, to establish civil government in Albay and to take 



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172 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

steps looking to the establishment of civil government in the towns. 
By the municipal code the towns were given practically autonomous 
governments; oy the provincial act provision is made for the election 
of the chief executive officer of the province by convention of the 
councilors of the different municipalities. An explanation was then 
made in detail of the various provisions of the provincial law and of 
the special bill applying the provincial act to the provinces. Refer- 
ence was also maae to the proposition, favored in some provinces, of 
adopting a provisional cedula tax until the land tax became effective. 
The billwas then read for a third time by its title, and public discus- 
sion invited upon the points suggested. 

Senor Anacleto Solano, presidente of Camalig, asked that the towns 
which had suffered most from the war be exempted from the cedula 
tax. He said some towns had been more unfortunate than others. 
The Tabaco district had suffered little from the war, though many of 
the people had been compelled to leave their homes at the mercy of 
the insurgents. 

He was told that the Commission had not yet determined to levy' a 
cedula tax; it was only trying to get the opinion of the people. The 
speaker thought that when normal times returned the people could 
well pay a c^ula tax of 1 peso. In answer to an inquiry, he said 
the principal products of the province were hemp, copra, and vino. 
He said that the rice raised only met the demands of the province for 
about eight months in^ the year; the rest of the time they had to 
import. He said that practically all of the caraliaos in the pro\dnce 
haa died of rinderpest, leaving none to cultivate the fields. He esti- 
mated that over 90 per cent had died; said the few left were used 
for transportation purposes. He thought that the disease was now 
over and that it would be safe to import carabaos. Disea^se had also 
killed many of the horned cattle, most of the remainder being taken 
by the insurgents. He thought salaries should be the same as those 
paid in other first-class provinces, Albay being so classed during the 
Spanish regime. He said that Catanduanes and Sorsogon had then 
formed a part of Albay; said the population of Catanduanes was about 
4:0,000 ana the population of Sorsogon about 100^000; that Sorsogon 
was separated irom Albay in 1896. He suggested ^2 gold per day 
as traveling allowance. He thought the town of Albav. was the best 
place for the capital; said the only public building was the prison, but 
it was veiy large and could furnish room for the provincial officers. 
He said there were but few private houses left in Albay, but it was 
sufficiently near Legarspi for clerks to live in the latter place; said 
there were no houses in Legaspi which could be rented for provincial 
purposes. 

Sefior Silverio Brinbuela, speaking in behalf of the Tabaco district, 
said it was one of the ambitions of the people of that district to secure 
the capital of the province. A written petition was in the hands of 
the presidente of Tabaco, who had not yet arrived. He wished, how- 
ever, to present the claims of that district for the capital. He said 
Tabaco was on the sea, with a good harbor; it had a population of 
about 20,000; they had some buildings, particularly a convent, which 
could be used for provincial purposes; they also hfiid quite a spacious 
tribunal; Tabaco was about nve or six hours by sea from Legaspi; 
said there were many rich men in the town; the place had sufferSi but 
little from the war, though the people who left their homes in the 



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KEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 173 

country found them destroyed when they returned; thought the peo- 
ple would subscribe to the erection of a provincial buil(Snff. Beinff 
asked if Tabaco was centrally located, he said it would be it the road 
connecting it with Ligao was reconstructed, this road connecting Tabaco 
with the other districts. He thought the people of his district could 
easily pay a cedula tax of 1 peso; said the Tabaco district comprised 
five towns of the sixteen of the province. The speaker further argued 
that the Lagonoy district, which has six towns and now forms a part 
of Camarines Sur, is much nearer Tabaco and should be annexea to 
Alhay; also the Catanduanes Island, now forming a separate political 
military district. He believed Albay could pay the same salaries as 
Ley te. He said that Albay was rich in hemp, though the great source 
of wealth of the province was rice; he did not think, however, that in 
ten yeai-s they could get back to the productiveness existing before the 
insurrection; this bewiuse of the condition of the fields and the death 
of the carabaos. He said the average price of a carabao formerly was 
30 pesos while now it was 150 pesos. He believed the disease was 
over; that carabaos had been brought in from other provinces and had 
not died. He thought two meetings of the presidentes per year better 
than four on account of the diflScuIty of reaching the capital at certain 
seasons. Discussion developed, however, that people could reach the 
capital on horseback at any season of the year. He suggested $2.50 
per day, gold, as traveling expenses. 

Senor Luis Tomas, of Legaspi, thought the capital should remain 
where it was; of the 200,000 inhabitants of the province the Tabaco 
district had only 65,000. He thought Catanduanes Island could be 
best administered separately from Albay. The annexation of the 
Lagonoy district had its advantages and disadvantages. At some sea- 
sons of the year communication with that district was practically 
impossible. He said they had plenty of stone in the province for road 
building, and that Albay was as rich as Tayabas. He was in favor of 
quarteriy meetings of the presidentes; thought a cedula tax of 1 peso 
could be levied at this time and collected; also believed, when the land 
tax became effective, those who did not pay such tax should pay the 
cedula tax. People were accustomed to a cedula tax. The lowest 
cedula tax formerly paid was $1.50, while some paid from $5 to $50. 
Women also paid the tax, while a special cedula tax was levied on 
Chinamen. He said the Chinamen were the great rivals of the natives, 
as they lived cheaper; said there were many Filipino women in busi- 
ness who excelled their husbands; said the majority of those who cul- 
tivated lands were renters. The usual wage of laborers in the interior 
was 50 cents Mexican per day; in Spanish times, 25 cents. 

Senor David Imperial, of Albay, for salaries suggested the follow- 
ing: Governor, $2,500; secretary, $1,500; treasurer, $2,500; super- 
visor, $1,800; fiscal, $2,000. In answer to an inquiry, he said that if 
the province was described in the bill, as the '* province known as 
Albay under Spanish sovereignty," it would include all the territory 
properly belon^ng to it. He did not think Catanduanes should be 
added, there being times when communication between that island and 
Albay is impossible. He thought the traveling allowance should be 
$3 gold per day, and that the presidentes should meet but twice a 
year. He said if thej^ met four times there would always be a new 
crop of recommendations presented before the provincial board had 
time to act on the old ones. He thought the meetings should be held 



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174 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



in January and June, though they could be held in April and Septem- 
ber. He thought the capital should remain at Albay, and if not in 
Albay, then in Legaspi. He said that, while Albay had no provincial 
building, that was nothing to the great and powerful American nation, 
which could construct such buildings in two months. He said Albay 
was central, while Legaspi had the best port in the province. He also 
said that the town or Albay was not menaced by the volcano May6n. 
He advanced other reasons in favor of Albay for the capital. 

Senor Dirai also argued in favor of Albay as the capital; said that 
the present jail building could be used for provincial offices. Moving 
the capital to Tabaco would necessitate the construction or reconstruc- 
tion of three roads — to Ligao, to Legaspi, and to Albay. He thought 
it best to use this money otherwise; said the roads when built were 
likely to be destroyed at any time bj an eruption of the volcano. 
Experience had shown that an eruption occurred every four to six 
years. He thought the oftener the presidentes met the better, and 
favored four meetings a year, as this would give them some idea of gov- 
ernmental methods. He said that, with the exception of Iloilo, Negros, 
and Cebu, Albay was as important as any of the provinces. He said 
wages for labor were double what they used to be, but that living 
expenses had increased in proportion. 

Senor Florencio Magdaraog, presidente of Albay, contributed his 
quota to the capital discussion, going over in effect the arguments of 
previous speakers. He said Albay now had the foundation of a pro- 
vincial bunding already constructed, but it would take $40,000 or 
J60,000 Mexican to complete the building. He did not think that 
Albay and Legaspi should be united into one municipality. He said 
that Albay was almost destroved by the insurgents, and asKed that his 
people be exempted from the forestry tax. The provisions of the 
present forestry law were explained to nim. 

Senor Generoso Leoderes, presidente of Manito, said that his town 
was occupied by insurgents, and his property has been assessed by 
them. He was told that the colonel in command expected to send a 
detachment shortly to occupy that town. He said that was all he asked. 

The commission then adjourned until 9 a. m. 

Sessi^on of April 26^ 1901^ Legaspi^ Alhay^ P, L 

Present; Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president 

The session was called to order by the president at 9 a. m. The 

delegates from the Tabaco district having arrived, the secretary was 

directed to call the roll of the pueblos. . The province was represented 

as follows: 



Legaspi: 

Balbino Belarinno, president. 
Joan Garcia, councilor. 
Pedro Morales, councilor. 
Matumio Baldo, councilor. 
Juan Tiansan, councilor. 
Bartolome Abalata, councilor. 
Antonio Amaldo, councilor. 
Antonio Morales, councilor. 
Catalino Anticerpia, councilor. 
Tomas Esteves, councilor. 
Doroteo Alajaban, councilor. 
Juan Carpio, councilor. 



legaspi — Continued . 

Santiago Arispe, councilor. 

Getulio Abina, councilor. 

Feliciano Albana, councilor. 

Aniceto Medel, councilor. 
Manito: 

Generoso Leoderes, president 

Eugenio Das, ex-councilor. 
Daraga: 

S)fio Loraves. 

Juan Jacob. 

Valentin Llanto. 

Mariano Aleata. 



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BEFOBT OF THE FHIUPFINE OOlOaSSIOK. 



175 



Daraga — Continued. 

Angel Nanaez. 

Macario Loberia. 

Claro Oirate. 

Zoilo Marbella. 

Benito Tijon. 

Maximino Romano. 

Juan Marvella. 

Gabinom Losantoe. 
Taboco: 

Manuel Medina, president 

Ramon Morales, representative. 

Silverio Brinbuela, representative. 

Jose Bruselas, representative. 

Mijzuel Bores, representative. 

EuJtalio Calla, representative. 
Qimalig: 

Anacleto Solano, president. 

Macario Sanson, representative. 

Martin Guerrero, representative. 

Pablo Nieves, representative. 

Feliciano Grageaa, representative. 

Petronilo Sanson, representative. 

Marcelo Sanson, representative. 

Sixto Napay, representative. 

Zacarias Sanson, representative. 

Eulogio Solano, representative. 

Pablo Moya, representative. 

Jose Ramos, representative. 

Braulio Navarro, representative. 
Malilipot: 

Tranquillno Buenconcejo, i)resident. 

Ramon Fonafe, representative. 

Bonifacio Belilies, representative. 

Juan Benites, representative. 
Malinao: 

Maximino Chaves, president. 



Guinobatan: 

Eugenio Pasdinas, president. 

Ponciano Obed, councilor. 

Martin Ofracio, councilor. 

Jose Duran, councilor. 

Ceferino Amarrador, councilor. 

Ambrosio Masangcay, councilor. 
Baiacay: 

Bartolome Torre, president. 
Tini: 

Juan Bliment, president. 
Libo^: 

Augustin Bnesa, president. 

Pedro Martinez, representative. 

Hilarion de la Cruz, representative. 

Claro Arrazala, representative. 

Jose de la Cruz, representative. 
Albay: 

Florencio Magdaraog, president. 

Ubaldo Oca, councilor. 

Felipe Aroma, councilor. 

Hugo de la Torre, councilor. 

Mefiton Austero, councilor. 

Carlos Planes, councilor. 

FelipNB Albarado, councilor. 

Feliciano Ante, councilor. 

Nicolas Araneta, councilor. 

Roman Baranda, resident, 

Eplfanio Amor, resident. 

Joee Lorena, resident. 

Jose Serrano, resident 

Florencia Balde, resident. 

Mariano Andes, resident. 

Emiliano Adalla, resident. 

Juan Orense, resident 

Pedro Avesilla, resident 



Further discussion by the public was invited. 

Senor Manuel Medina, presidente of Tabaco, said lie understood one 
of the subjects discussed yesterday was the question of the location of 
the capital. He wished to present the claims of the district he repre- 
sented, believing, as he did, that Tabaco was the best place for the 
capital. He presented a petition signed by all the piesidentes in the 
Tabaco district, setting forth the advantages offered by that district. 
He said the people of that district had subscribed to build a provincial 
building. His argument covered much the same ground as advanced 
by his predecessors in favor of Tabaco. 

Senor Dirai, who spoke yesterday, repeated his arguments in favor 
of Albay, laying stress on the fact that Tabaco could always reach 
Albay bv sea, whereas communication with Tabaco from other districts 
would always be uncertain by reason of the condition of the roads. 

The president stated that the Commission was asked to include in 
Albay the towns of Donsol and Pilar, now a part of Sorsogon, and 
askea the opinion of the speaker. He said that these towns formed a 
part of Albay judicially and he believed they should be annexed for 
other purposes as well. He stated Pilar was formerly a town of about 
10,000 inhabitants, Donsol having about 4r,000. It was stated the Com- 
mission would delay action in the matter until it met the people of 
Sorsogon, as it hesitated to move towns from one province to another 
without consulting them. He was asked to what province the islands 



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176 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

of San Miffuel, Cacraray, Batan, and Rapu-rapu belonged. The 
speaker saia they formerly belonged to Albay. When Sorsogon was 
separated from Albay, Rapu-rapu and Batan went with it, the other 
two remaining with Albay. He thought they should all belong to 
Albay. He said the only town of importance on the islands was on 
Rapu-rapu. He said also that the inhabitants of Batan were all natives 
of Albay ; said that Rapu-rapu was much nearer Albay than Sorsogon — 
only two and one-half nours from Albay and seven and one-half to the 
capital of Sorsogon. He said, to reach the nearest town in Sorsogon, 
the people had to cross a very rough strait. 

Senor Eugenio Pasdinas, presidente of Guinobatan, objected to the 
transfer of the capital from Albay to Tabaco. He said he would like 
to ask that it be transferred to his town, but as it had no public build- 
ing, while Albay had, he would waive the claim. He thought bv reason 
of the war and the poverty of the province, no change should be made 
at this time. 

Senor Tomas del Monte reviewed the claims of Tabaco and Legaspi 
for the capital; stated that Tabaco had a better port and a safer one, 
while Legaspi was more central and had a larger business. Its near- 
ness to the volcano was an objection. As regards roads having to be 
built if the capital was moved to Tabaco, he did not consider that an 
objection, as the more roads they had the better. In answer to an 
inquiry he agreed with the president of the Commission that for the 
present it would be better for the Commission to leave the capital as it 
was, leaving the people to decide the matter of a change when the 
revenues or the province justified. 

Senor Ramon Morales, of Tabaco, further urged the claims of his 
town for the capital, advancing as one reason that the people of that 
district, prior to the coming of the Americans, held a meeting to dis- 
cuss what their attitude should be, and they decided to accept the 
American sovereignty . This they had done consistently , though suffer- 
ing man}'^ pei*secutions and losses, because of the position taken so early 
by them. He thought they should be given the capital in recognition 
of this stand taken by them. The speaker also referred to the custurb- 
ing Tagalog element in the province, which was, he said, the cause of 
all their woes. The Commission then took a recess to consider the 
question of amendments and appointments. 

Upon reassembling, the president offered the following amendments 
to the special bill : 

Add to title of act the word ''Albay." 

Insert in section 1, after the words " island of," the word "Luzon," 
and after words ''province of" the words "Albay, including the 
islands of San Miguel, Cacraray, Batan, and Rapu-rapu." 

Insert in section 2, after words "province of," the word "Albay;" 
and as salaries of provincial officei's the following sums: Governor, 
12.000; secretary, |1,500; treasurer, J2,500; supervisor, $2,000; fiscal, 
$1,500. 

Insert, for traveling expenses, $2.60 per day. 

Insert as bond in section 3, $20,000. 

Insert as capital in section 3 the town of "Albay." 

Add as section 6 the following: 

Sec. 6. The oath of oflSce may be administered to provincial oflScers by a member 
of the commission, by a judicial officer having jurisdiction in the province, or by any 
officer of the United States Army stationed in the province. 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 177 

Renumber present section 6 to read ''section 7." 

Referring to the discussion concerning the capital, the president 
stated that the commission had been much interested, and that it admired 
and sympathized with the energy and enterprise of the representatives 
of the district of Tabaco. The conmiission nad not the slightest doubt 
that if they displayed the same degree of enterprise in carrying on 
their business Tabaco would become one of the leading towns of the 
islands. The proposition of adding a large part of southern Luzon 
to Albay , in order to make Tabaco the center of the province, was one 
which, while it did not appeal to the iudicial attitude of the commission, 
reminded it very much of home politics. Where the people were so 
divided, however, the commission hesitated to take part on either side. 
It was a question which must ultimately be decided by the people. The 
capital had always been at Albav. It was absolutely necessary that the 
provincial government should oegin operations when its officers were 
appointed, and to do this there ought to be a provincial building, and 
such a building could be had at Albay. For the present Albay can be 
much more easily reached than Tabaco. For these reasons the com- 
mission would take no part in the discussion, but would leave the cap- 
ital where it had been, in Albay. 

The amendments were adopted, and the roll called upon the passage 
of the bill as amended. The bill was unanimously passed. 

The president then stated that in most of the provinces the commis- 
sion had been able to appoint the officers immediately upon the passage 
of the law; in others, a short delay was taken in order to make a full 
investigation as to the proper officers to be appointed. It was felt that 
the success of the government depended in a large measure upon the 
personnel of its officers. The commission had h^en most anxious to 
appoint, where it could, a native resident of the province to the posi- 
tion of governor. It has yielded in some cases to what seemed the 
wish of the majority, and appointed an American. It had felt, how- 
ever, that there was a risk of not having received the real wish of the 
people, because when people come to exercise new rights they are 
sometimes modest about it. The commission came to Albay with very 
little information as to the political conditions, or as to the persons 
available for officers. In a province where insurrectos are still in the 
field there is considerable reason for having as temporary governor 
an American officer with some experience in military matters. 
After a full consultation, therefore, the commission did not feel certain 
enough of the persons it should appoint to announce the appointments. 
It hoped, however, to name the officers within a week, and communi- 
cate tne names to the commanding officer of the district. At the same 
time it would name some person as chairman of the committee of 
organization of the towns under the municipal code. The president 
expressed the pleasure the commission had experienced in meeting the 
eople and in listening to their arguments. Dr. Tavera was then intro- 
uced to address the gathering. 

The session then aojourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fergusson, Secretary. 
p o 1901— PT 2 12 



Se< 
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178 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMIdlSSION. 



United States Philippine Commission. 



MINUTES OF PROCEEDINGS. 

NuEVA Caceres, Province of Camarines Sur, 

April 27, 1901. 
Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 
The session was called to order by the president at 4.40 p. m. He 
thanked the people for the cordiality of their reception and congratu- 
lated them upon the peaceful conditions now prevailing in their prov- 
ince. The roll of the pueblos of the province was then called by the 
secretary. The province was represented as follows: 



Bato: 

Gaspar V. Calleja, president. 

Fermin Buena, councilor. 

Vicente Santayano, councilor. 

Gregorio Isaac, councilor. 

Elegio Calleja, councilor. 

Juan Jutia, councilor. 

leidoro Reloe, councilor. 

Felipe Talagtag, councilor. 

Marcos Tigue, councilor. 
Iriga: 

Santiago Guevara, president. 

Gil Nagrampa, vice-president. 

Felipe Barra, secretary. 

Cosme Albano, treasurer. 

Paulino Lozada, councilor. 

Ramon Martinez, councilor. 

Agapito Monpombaria, councilor. 

Paulino Federiz, councilor. 

Leopoldo Gamendi, councilor. 

Romualdo Oliva, councilor. 

Antonio Arroyo, councilor. 

Esteban Bagayaria, councilor. 

Enrique Itumos, councilor. 
Canaman: 

Bernardo Castro, president. 

Felix Montalvan, vice-president. 

Quintin de Castro, councilor. 

Geronimo Azaula, councilor. 

Laureano Mahayhay, councilor. 

Pablo Laudes, councilor. 

Andres Sacay an, councilor. 

Benito Sabayle, councilor. 

Andres Sacay an, councilor. 

Benito Sabayle, councilor. 

Francisco Aguilar, councilor. 

Diego Luna, councilor. 
Quipayo: 

Gregorio Castilla, president. 

Casimiro Sancho, councilor. 

Juan Celebante, councilor. 

Pedro Buenafe, councilor. 

Jose Caballes, councilor. 

Gregorio Calves, councilor. 

Eustaquio Portugal, councilor. 

Eladio Segundo, councilor. 

Juan Lanorte, councilor. 
Buhi: 

Maximo Noble, president. 

Feliciano Letuana, vice-president. 



Buhi — Continued . 

Bernardo Vallejo, secretary. 

Crispino Noble, treasurer. 

Macario Ibarbia, councilor. 

Gregorio Ricafranca, councilor. 

Maximo Panga, councilor.* 

Isidro Lluvera, councilor. 

Agustin Carafrancia, councilor. 

Antonio Obsuna, councilor. 

Esteban Sergio, councilor. 
Magaras: 

Juan de las Heras, president. 

Ino<*ente6 Aspe, vice-president. 

Zenon Horma, treasurer. 

Juan Parian, secretary. 

Eusebio Adulto, councilor. 

Bonifacio Aguilar, councilor. 

Gregorio Roja, councilor. 

Vicente Bello, councilor. 

Norverto Blasa, councilor. 

Eusebio Salazar, councilor. 

Felix Abenido, councilor. 
Bula: 

Gregorio Tico, president. 

Felix Rico, councilor. 

Noverto Belleno, councilor. 

Pedro Palencia, councilor. 

Raymundo Fader, councilor. 

Anj?elo Navo, councilor. 

Higino Aquilino, councilor. 

Bentura Barrio, councilor. 

Julian Almasan, councilor. 
Nabua: 

Eugenio OcAmpo, president. 

Sinforoso Duran, councilor. 

Elias Orian, councilor. 

Juan Follesco, councilor. 

Juan Godesano, councilor. 

Pedro Oida, councilor. 

Pedro Regalado, secretary. 

Gabriel Adviento, representative. 

Juan Zape, representative. 

Engracio Beltran, representative. 
Minalabag: 

Pedro Arce, president. 

Simplisio Jabier, vice-president 

Julian Granada, treasurer. 

Sotero Platon, secretary. 

Pedro Erlanda, councilor. 

Mariano Barcenas, councilor. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



179 



Biinalabag;— Ck)ntinued. 

Joee Basaues, councilor. 

Pedro Poiagne, councilor. 

Lorenzo Duena, councilor. 

Pedro Matoe, councilor. 

Fabiano Rubio, councilor. 
Polangui: 

Lorenzo Duran, {)reeident. 

Procopio Arbo, vice-preeident. 

Romualdo Salting, councilor. 

Rupertto Careon, councilor. 

Juan Florin, councilor. 

Angel Salinel, councilor. 

FTancii»co Sario, councilor. 

Bernardino Refama, councilor. 

Ludovico Salini, councilor. 

Balbino Samarista, councilor. 

Bernardino Salting, councilor. 

Anastacio Samonte, treasurer. 

Januario Duran, secretary. 
Oas: 

Bartolome Visa, president. 

Tomas Antero, vice-president. 

Bernardino Reniva, councilor. 

Francisco Roa, councilor. 

Antonio Casimiro, councilor. 

Bonifacio Rabelas, councilor. 

Pedro Rabelas, councilor. 

Manuel Quintana, councilor. 

Victoriano Ranches, councilor. 

Pedro Solano, councilor. 

Gerardo Ra^l, councilor. 

Mariano Pielago, councilor. 

Esteban Nicomedes, councilor. 

Norverto Rosaura, councilor. 

Eleuterio Reveta, councilor. 

Crispino Roa, treasurer. 

Joee Ribaya, secretary. 
Nueva Caceres: 

Jose Anson, president. 

Miguel Arcangel, vice-president. 

Francisco Alvares, councilor. 

Fulgendo Contreras, councilor. 

Antonio Carrascos, councilor. 

Faustino Santa Ana, councilor. 

Anselmo Oliva, councilor. 

Leonardo Tresplacios, councilor. 

Silvino Desa, councilor. 

Bemabe Aquino, councilor. 

Aniceto Mariano, councilor. 

Jose Ojeda, councilor. 
Camaligan: 

Jose Bustamante, vice-president. 

Bernardo Rivera, councilor. 

Eleuterio Cortes, councilor. 

Bemabe Oliva, councilor. 

Satumino Alalayan, councilor. 

Catalino Alalayan, councilor. 
Milaor: 

Gil Flordeliz, president. 

Mariano Reyes, vice-president. 

Salomon Bato, councilor. 

Pedro Lagasca, councilor. 

Juan Granada, councilor. 

Gabino Valenciano, councilor. 

Glaro Martines, councilor. 

Domingo Vida, councilor. 

Eosebio Villaranda, councilor. 



Gainza: 

Anacleto Togno, vice-president. 

Cipriano Reyes, councilor. 

Cu'loB Valencia, councilor. 

Dionisio Saballegas, councilor. 

Catalino San Jose, councilor. 

Geronimo San Miguel, councilor. 

Juan Anonuevo, councilor. 
Pamplona: 

Felix Ventura, president. 

Cesareo General, councilor. 

Ramon Lacandola, councilor. 

Tomas Villacruz, councilor. 

Nicolas Proferosa, councilor. 

Bernardino Parajes, councilor. 

Norverto Parajes, councilor. 

Mariano Benito, councilor. 

Teofilo Proferosa, councilor. 
San Joee: 

Francisco Torreynan, president. 

Quintin Barrame<la, councilor. 

Clemente Vena, councilor. 

Felipe Ramirez, councilor. 

Serafin Pascua, councilor. 

Augustin Paryso, councilor. 

Donato Camo, councilor. 
Libmanan: 

CayetanoL. Gonzales, representative. 

Vicente Ursua y Campos. 

iiOAl 

Petronilo Escella, president. 

Mariano Romero, councilor. 

Felipe Tria, councilor. 
Pasacao: 

Victoriano Morada, president. 

Wenceslao Espinas, vice-president. 

Apolinario Pastoriso, councilor. 

Donato Olivan, treasurer. 

Eduardo Trison, secretary. 
Pamplona: 

Cipriano Medina, vice-presiden 

Diego Benito, secretary. 

Inigo Ventura, treasurer. 

Atiuiacio Embuscado, police lieuten- 
ant. 
Li bog: 

Leon Rosauson, president. 

Juan Serrano, councilor. 

Andres Azanza, councilor. 

Telesforo Aguilar, councilor. 

Nicomedes Maronilla, councilor. 

Serafino Se, councilor. 

Inocencio Sedo, councilor. 

Felipe Aguilar, councilor. 

Mariano Segarra, councilor. 
Bombon: 

Telesforo Morena, president. 

Francisco Nollase, vice-president. 

Valeriano Paz, secretary. 

Felix Verra, treasurer. 

Valentin Garcillanoea, ooimeilor. 

Mariano Veola, councilor. 

Mariano Paz, councilor. 

Domingo Avejar, councilor. 

Domingo Borja, councilor. 

Cecilio Evalla, councilor. 

Bernardo Marcial. councilor. 

Pio Borja, councilor. 



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180 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Legonoy: 

Francisco Ledesma, councilor. 
Mariano Rivero, councilor. 
Fernando Dialogo, councilor. 
Vicente Romero, councilor. 
Felix Pena, councilor. 
Proepero Rivera, councilor. 
Patndo Pamor, councilor. 

Calabanga: 

Julio Cardena, president 
Dionisio Bordado, vice-president. 
Guillenno Tordilla, treasurer. 
Francisco Tordilla, secretary. 
Alejandro Baldomero, councilor. 
Andres Carrion, councilor. 
Victorio Collera, councilor. 
Esteban Frutos, councilor. 
Emilio Agapay, councilor. 
Felino Zardilla, councilor. 
Vicente Belenzo, councilor. 
Pedro Gonzales, councilor. 

Tigaon: 

Gregorio Natividad, president. 

Pili: 

Fortunato Tuason, president. 
Teodorico Imperial, vice-president. 
Alejandro Biloil, councilor. 
Ibo Alvares, councilor. 
Af^pito Orubao, councilor. 
Hilario Imperial, councilor. 
Francisco Brisuela, councilor. 
Mariano Anastacio, councilor. 
Bemabe Ponon, councilor. 
Juan Pato, councilor. 



Pili — Continued. 

Juan Leonen, treasurer. 

Luis Montefalcon, secretary. 
San Fernando: 

Adriano Maravilla, president 

Ludovico Deza, treasurer. 

Lorenzo Calincjg, secretary. 

Pedro Fabi, councilor. 

Rocendo Chaves, councilor. 

Esteban Calinog, councilor. 

Bibiano Jacobo, councilor. 

Flaviano Pinson, councilor. 

Juan Ceda, councilor. 
Baao: 

Fulgencio Sanches, president 

Lamberto Arroyo, councilor. 

Julian Barrameda, councilor. 

Giraldo Arroyo, councilor. 

Eleuterio Buena, councilor. 

Jose Beldua, councilor. 

Juan Botardo, councilor. 

Domingo Samudio, councilor. 

Nicomedes Bayot, councilor. 

Segundo Badilla, councilor. 
Libmanan: 

Celestino Reyes, president. 

Vicente Ursua, councilor. 

Casimiro Onatem, councilor. 

Cleto Atendido, councilor. 

Pablo Perepetua, councilor. 

Venancio Alba, councilor. 

Zacarias Jamian, councilor. 

Luis Miraflores, councilor. 

Francisco Adan, councilor. 

Juan Cantor, councilor. 

Mariano Sol, councilor. 



The president stated that the Commission had come to Nueva Caceres 
at the end of a long trip through the southern islands, prepared to ^ive 
the people civil government if they desired it. The usual explanations 
were then made of the provisions of the general provincial act and of 
the municipal code. It was explained that the Commission was also 
considering the advisability of levying a small cedula tax to help tide 
over the period until the land tax ^came effective. The matter of 
provincial boundaries was also discussed, the question being whether 
the province should include both the Camarines or but one, or whether 
the island of Catanduanes should be annexed. Public discussion was 
invited upon all these points. 

Senor Jose Anson, presidente of Nueva Caceres, said that North and 
South Camarines formerly constituted one province. He thought, 
however, owing to the difficulty of communication, they should be 
made into separate provinces. Being asked if he thought North 
Camarines could support a separate government, he said it could pro- 
vided, the salaries were low. 

Francisco Alverez, a councilor of Nueva Caceres, took issue with the 
presidente in the matter of a division of the provinces. He did not 
believe North Camarines able to support a separate government. As 
to the difficulty of communication, that could be overcome by the 
establishment of lines of steamers. The very fact that communication 
was difficult would be an incentive to capitalists to invest money in 
steaniship lines. He said North Camarines had but ten towns, and of 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 181 

these three only were important, Daet, Talisay, and Basod, and that 
the population of North Camarines was between 50,000 and 60,000. 
He said there could be no objection, of course, on the part of his 
province to the separation. He said, however, that the provinces 
were now united and interests had been created thereby, while the 
scarcit}^ of resources in both provinces was well known. It seemed to 
him a rather poor policy to render both parts less able to support a 
government by dividing the province. He estimated the total reve- 
nues of Ambos Camarines in Spanish times at $250,000 Mexican. He 
thought this amount could be realized now. He estimated the popu- 
lation of Camarines Sur at 125,000. He thought the province could 
jMiy the same salaries as paid in Negros Occioental. He said Cama- 
rines was a richer province than Tayaoas or Leyte. He said the cattle 
plague had carried off most of their live stock. Prior to this disease 
many cattle were exported. The speaker was told of the proposition 
made at Albay that certain towns in the Lagonoy district be taken 
from the Camarines and added to Albay. He vsaid that in Spanish 
times the district of Lagonoy belonged to Albay, while several towns 
of the Bayo district of Albay were loined to south Camarines; after- 
wards an exchange was made and the district was transferred; said if 
Albay wanted to trade back it might be done. Being asked if the 
island of Catanduanes should not be annexed to the Camarines, he said 
it would be better for the Camarines to retain the Lagonoy district 
and let Albay have Catanduanes, as the latter was quite near the Tabaco 
district. The speaker did not favor the proposition of a cedula tax; 
said the people looked upon it as a tribute and did not like it. Being 
asked as to the quarterly meetings of the presidentes, he thought the 
meetings could be held provided the government furnished a launch to 
make regular trips around the province. 

Senor Fulgencio Contreras, of Neuva Caceres, agreed with the last 
speaker upon the proposition of uniting North ana South Camarines. 
He thougnt, however, that Catanduanes should also be included, believ- 
ing it better to have one good province than three small ones with 
high taxes. He did not think the revenue at this time would amount 
to naif of the 250,000 pesos collected in Spanish times. He also thought 
that the island of Burias should be annexed to Camarines, but was told 
that it had been included in Masbate. He regretted this, believing 
that if the people of that island had been consulted they would have 
chosen the Camarines. He thought if the two Camarines were sepa- 
rated the presidentes could meet four times a year; otherwise it would 
not be so easy. He believed, owing to the war, etc., that the people 
could not stand a land tax at this time; he thought a cedula tax could 
be paid. To this statement Seiior Alverez, the previous speaker, took 
exception, saying that while the land tax might be hard on some it 
was a tax which the owners of land could well afford to pay. He said 
that during Spanish times day labor was paid 20 cents per day, while 
now it was 50 cents. He said that rice was now very scarce and very 
high; that poor people could not buy it, and were living on com, roots, 
and tubers. The question of a cedula tax was taken up again, and it 
was pointed out to the speaker that many men who enjoyed tne pro- 
tection of the government owned no land, and that unless they paid a 
cedula tax they would contribute nothing to the support of the gov- 
ernment. The speaker stated that his objection was not so much to 
the amount of the tax as to its name, the idea being that it was a "per- 



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182 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

sonal tribute," a sort of head tax. It was explained to him that a 
tribute was something that went to somebody else; this tax, however, 
remained with them, going to pay for schools for their children ana 
roads and bridges for their towns and province. Looking at it in this 
light, the speaker thought there could be no objection to it. 
The session then adjourned until to-morrow morning at 9 a. m. 

MORNING SESSION, APRIL 28, 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 9.30 and Senor 
Alverez recognized to continue his remarks. 

The matter of a personal tax was again referred to, the speaker 
expressing himself as satisfied with the term "cedula" and said that 
it would be acceptable. He then called attention to the discouraging 
condition confronting the agricultural interests of the province, owing 
to the inability to plant crops and the almost total loss of their carabaos. 
He asked that agricultuml or mortgage banks might be established, 
either through individual eflFort or with governmental aid. He was 
told this point had been raised in a number of provinces; the commis- 
sion wiis convinced that it would greatly relieve the agricultural inter- 
ests if mortgage-loan banks or agricultural banks could be established 
throughout the province; it would call the attention of Congress to 
the matter in its next report and reconunend strongly the incorpora- 
tion of such institutions. 

Senor Francisco Torreynan, presidente of San Jose, presented a 
petition asking that the liagonoy district be separated from Camarines 
our and erected into a separate government; said it had a population 
of about 60,000; the desire for separation was based upon the diffi- 
culty of communication with Nueva Caceres. The president expressed 
a doubt as to the ability of such a small district to support a separate 
government, but stated that his petition would be considered. 

Senor Andres Gorchitorena, also of the Lagonoy district, said the 
people had debated the advisabilitj'^ of asking for a sepamtion. He 
said the majority seemed to favor it. For himself, however, he took 
issue with the majority; he did not think the Lagonov district had 
a population of over 40,000 and did not think, for the present at 
least, that the number of inhabitants were able to bear the burdens of 
a separate goverament. He thought if the island of Catanduanes was 
added to the Lagonoy district, the two together could support a separate 
government. He steted that the island of Catanduanes was very near 
and had easy communication with the Lagonoy district. He agreed 
with the president that it might be better to allow the matter to stand 
over until normal conditions are restored. He was told the commis- 
sion recognized the present inconvenience of reaching the capital, but 
that this was a difficulty it hoped to reduce, if not to remove, by fur 
nishing the province a system of regular communication between the 
capital and the various parts of tne province. The speaker here 
referred to the road leading from the district of Riconado to Sangay, 
on the Bay of Lagaonoy , where there is a good port; without this road 
they were compelled to bring their products to Nueva Caceres for 
shipment to San Miguel Bay at great labor and expense. He asked 
that a part of the money appropriated by the commission for road 



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RKPORT OF THE PHILlPPiNK COMMISSION. 183 

building \ye used here. He was told that the expenditure of this money 
was in the hands of the military governor and that application should 
be made to him through the district commander. 

Senor Eugenio Ocampa, presidente of Nabua, said the construction 
of the road mentioned by the last speaker might help two or three 
Spaniards, owners of plantations of abaca, but would not help the Fil- 
ipinos in the district. He thought the money could be better expended. 
This brought upon him the wrath of the previous speaker, who accused 
him of meanness, because he would sacrifice his own people rather than 
benefit a few planters. The speaker was called to order. 

Senor Jose Anson said he thought the province should remain as now 
constituted; that the island of Catanduanes should not be joined to it 
as it properly belonged to Albay , being nearer Legaspi. He suggested 
the following salaries: Governor, $2,(j^; secretary,?!, 500; treasurer, 
$2,500; supeiTisor, $2,000; fiscal, $1,800, and $2 per day for traveling 
expenses. He thought the presidentes should meet four times a year. 
He favored levying a eedula tax of $1. He said that as most of the 
rice land of the province was now fallow, he thought the land tax 
should be further deferred. 

Another speaker referred to what was known in Spanish times as 
the '* communal league," being a parcel of land granted to each munic- 
ipality for pasture, wood, water, etc., to be used in common; said 
many of the municipalities had not availed themselves of this grant 
and wished to know what could now be done. He was told this was 
more properly a subject for general legislation and would be consid- 
ered in connection with the general land law; at the present time, how- 
ever, the Commission had no power over the public land, but it would 
be glad to have him file a memorial setting out his ideas in the matter. 
The present forestry law was then explained to him. The speaker 
also asked that there be added to the municipal officers a municipal 
physician. He was told that under the code each municipality could 
appoint a physician. The question of public instruction was also 
raised, the speaker asking that some general system be established 
under the control of the provincial board. He was told that it was 
thought best to limit the work of the provincial board to questions of 
taxation and internal improvements, leaving to the municipalities the 
matter of education, under the direction of the general superintendent 
of public instruction for the islands, assisted by division superin- 
tendents. The general educational bill was then explained by the 
president. 

The Commission then adjourned until 4 p. m., when it was hoped 
the special bill could be passed and the appointments announced. 

AFTERNOON SESSION, APRIL 28, 1901, NUEVA CACERE8, P. I. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 5.45 p. m. , and the 
following amendments offered to the special bill: 

Add to the title of bill the words '*Ambos Camarines." 

Insert in section 1, after words 'Msland of," the words "Luzon and 
adjacent islands," and after the words "province of" the words 
"Am bos Camarines." 

Insert in section 2, after words "province of," the words "Ambos 

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184 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Camarines," and insert as salaries of officers the following sums: 
Governor, $2,00(); secretary, $1,500; treasurer, $2,500; supervisor, 
$2,000; fiscal, $1,500. 

Insert for traveling expenses $3 per day. 

Insert as bond in section 3, $20,000. 

Insert as capital in section 5, ^'Nueva Caceres." 

Add as section 6, following: 

Sec. 6. The oath of office may be administered to provincial officers by a memljer 
of the Commission, by a judi(;ial officer having jurisdiction in the province, or by 
any officer of the United States Army stationed in the province. 

Renumber present section 6 to read "section 7." 

With reference to the island of Catanduanes the president stated it 
was thought best not to incorporate it either with the Camarines or 
Albajr until its people could be consulted as to their wishes. As to the 
division of the province into North and South Camarines the commis- 
sion was convinced that the present was not the time for such division; 
it was possible that the mineral resources of North Camarines would 
so develop as to justify a separate government; if so, the division 
could easily be made. The same considerations would apply with 
respect to the Lagonoy district. 

The amendments proposed were adopted, and the secretarv directed 
to call the roll upon the passage of the special bill as amended. The 
bill was unanimously passed. 

The president then announced the following-named persons as the 
appointees of the Commission for the various provincial offices: Gov- 
ernor, First Lieut. George Curry, Eleventh Cavalry, U. S. V.; sec- 
retary, Ramon Enrile; treasurer, Maj. Heniy B. McOoy, Forty-fourth 
Regiment, U. S. V.; supervisor, Capt. Elmer O. Worrick, Forty-fifth 
Regiment, U. S. V. ; fiscal, Fulgencio Contreras. 

The president stated that the delicate task of selecting the provincial 
officers had given the Commission much trouble. Tne Commission 
would have preferred to appoint a native as governor, as this was its 
policy wherever possible. Where it found, however, that the people 
were divided into two or three parties or factions, it felt great reluc- 
tance in taking side^ in the controversy. In such cases, where it could 
find a person who was not likely to be a candidate in the next election 
and who was familiar with the interests of the province, it appointed 
him. While the appointment of an American might be used by some 
as an argument that the Commission was not disposed to favor control 
by the Filipino people, it was felt by the Commission that this was 
refuted by the fact that there was to be a popular election for governor 
within a very short time. The oath of oflSce was then administered 
by the president to Captain Curry and Sefiores Enrile and Contreras. 

After an address bv Dr. Pardo de Tavera and a few words by the 
president, thanking the people for their hospitality and for the assist- 
ance rendered by fliem to the Commission in its work of organizing 
the province, the session was declared adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fkrgusson, Secretary. 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



185 



United States Philippine Commission. 



MINUTES OF PROCEEDINGS. 



SoRsoGON, Province of Sorsogon, 

April 30, 1901. 
Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 
The session was called to order by the president at 10.35 a. m. and 
the roll of pueblos called by the secretary. The following represent- 
atives were present: 



Bulan: 

Esteban Nicolas, president. 

Joe6 Figueroa, councilor. 

Adolfo Verches, councilor. 

Apolonio Grecia, councilor. 

Gregorio Grajo, councilor. 

Ricardo Gredona, councilor. 

Juan Gualves, councilor. 

Guillermo Grecia, councilor. 

Antonio Guarin, councilor. 

Lamberto Grajo, councilor. 

Eugenio Guardian, councilor. 

Erioerto Gomba, councilor. 

Justo Guardian, councilor. 

Faustino Gredona, councilor. 

Mario Guarina, councilor. 

Cecilio Griego, councilor. 

Juan Griego, councilor. 

Pedro Grefaldeo, councilor. 

Leonicio Grajo, councilor. 

Julio Groyon, councilor. 

Bemabe Gripola, councilor. 
Donsol: 

Rodrigo Abitria, president. 

Damaso Abrontes, ex-capitan. 

Dionisio Pacheco, ex-capitan. 

Eugenio Toledo, ex-capitan. 
Santa Magdalena: 

Isidro Gallanosa, president. 

Francisco Irwaldo, secretary. 

Marcel o Garados, delegate. 

Fermin Fungo, delegate. 



Santa Magdalena — Continued: 

Jos^ Gajo, ex-cabeza. 

Paulino Fordilon, ex-cabeza. 

Pedro Gajo, ex-cabeza. 

Nicolas Ftillas, resident. 
Barcelona: 

Domingo Espigol, president. 

Aniceto Don, vice-president. 

Tomas Gabrentina, councilor. 

Apolinio Equibal, councilor. 

Severino Estemon, councilor. 

Leoncio Estuye, councilor. 

Roman Espera, councilor. 

Teodoro Enteria, councilor. 

Pedro Galaroza, councilor. 

Jos6 Fortuno, councilor. 

Esteban Bontigao, councilor. 

Juan Formento, councilor. 

Ignacio Puedan, councilor. 

Cenon Galora, councilor. 

Dalmacio Espinar, councilor. 
Sorsogon: 

Leon Paras, acting president. 

Crisanto Bongan, teniente. 

Gas^mr Larenza, teniente. 

Cipriano Jasmin, teniente. 

Mariano Pa^e, teniente. 

Satumino Licup, teniente. 

Ciriaco Ocampo, teniente. 

Santiago Aguirre, teniente. 

Eduardo Jesus, teniente. 

Fermin Laguna, teniente. 



All of the towns, with the exception of Pilar, were represented. 
The representatives of a number of the towns, however, failed to hand 
in their names. The president stated that the Commission was in Sor- 
sogon for the purpose of establishing civil government, and it had 
great pleasure in meeting the representatives of a province which had 
shown its desire for such government by having in it complete pacifica- 
tion. The question of pacification in any district depended not only 
upon the military oflicers in command, but also upon the courage of 
the people in asserting their true desire concerning pacification. An 
explanation was then made of the provisions of the municipal code and 
of the Provincial Act and their application to the province of Sorsogon. 
The special bill applying the Provincial Act to the provinces was also 
explained. The Dill was then read for a third time by its title and 
suggestions invited upon the part of the public. 

Sefior Leon Paras, presidente of Sorsogon, after extending a wel- 
come to the Commission, asked that the same salaries be paid in Sor- 
sogon as were paid in Albay. His attention was called to the fact 



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186 REPORT OF THK PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

that the population of Sorsogon wa« but 100,000, while that of Albay 
was 200,000. By his request a list was furnished him showing the 
salaries paid by the Commission in other provinces organized. He 
then asked that the same salaries be paid in Sorsogon as were paid in 
Tayabas, viz: Governor, $1,600; secretary, $1,100; treasurer, $2,200; 
supervisor, $1,800; fiscal, $1,350. 

Senor Rufino Gerona, of Bulan, thought these salaries too high, 
owing to the ravages caused by the war and the fact that practically 
all oi the cattle in the province had died of rinderpest. The principal 
product of the province was said to be hemp. Cattle were not so nec- 
essary in the cultivation of hemp as of otner products, though they 
were required in its transportation. Rice is the second product of the 
province, though they dia not raise more than enough for local con- 
sumption. The province has a little lumber. The annual revenues of 
the province in Spanish times were estimated at from 125,000 to 150,000 
pesos. 

Senor Celestino Mercades, ex-insurrecto governor of the province, 
said that their collections had aggregated this amount. He said the 
province was supposed to export 4,000,000 pesos worth of hemp annu- 
ally. He favored the cedula tax, believing it would be a stimulus to 
the working people. The daily wage had increased from 25 to 50 
cents Mexican per day, and in some cases to 1 peso per day. 

Senor Gerona thought the increase in wages a very bad thing for 
the people. He said formerly' they could just get enough to support 
themselves by working every day. At the present wages they can 
work one day and lay off the next. He asked that the Commission, in 
its wisdom, pass a law compelling the laboring men to work. Two 
dollars per day was suggested as traveling allowance. 

Lieut. W. K. Harrison, internal-revenue collector, thought it would 
be possible to collect a revenue of between $50,000 and $70,000 gold 
from the province annuallv. Since he had begun collecting in July, 
1900, in a few towns near tlie capital, collections nad increased I'apidly. 
The population had also increased rapidly, as the people had returned 
home with the passing of the insurrection. Referring to the cedula 
tax, the speaker said that by exempting women and levying it on the 
males over 23 years of age, practically every household would be 
assessed, as the men usually marry at 18 and f i^eguently younger. 

Seffor Juan Maron, of Bulan, wanted the capital transferred from 
Sorsogon to Casiguran. It appeared that there were no provincial 
buildings in either place. He said Casiguran was more healthful and 
had a better port; population was about 9,000, that of Sorsogon being 
12,000. After some aiscussion the question of the location of the capi- 
tal was submitted to a vote of the presidentes. The ballot resulted in 
a tie vote in favor of Sorsogon and Casiguran. The people asked that 
the deciding vote be left to Colonel Howe. The Commission stated, 
however, that it would reserve the casting vote and would consult 
with Colonel Howe in the matter. 

The session then adjourned until 3 p. m. 

AFTERNOON SESSION, APRIL 30, 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president. 
The session was called to order by the president at 3.30 p. m. and 
the following amendments offered to the special bill. 



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REPOM OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 187 

Add to title of bill the word '^Sorsogon." 

Insert in section 1, after words "island of," the word "Luzon," 
and after the words "province of," the word "Sorsogon." 

Insert in section 2, after words "province of," the word "Sorso- 
. gon," and insert salaries as follows: Governor, $1,700; secretary, 
|l,200; treasurer, $2,200; supervisor, $1,700; fiscal, $1,250. 

Insert for traveling expenses $2.50 per day. 

Insert as bond of treasurer, $18,000. 

Insert as capital, in section 5, "town of Sorsogon." 

Insert as section 6 the following: 

Sec. 6. The oath of office may be administered to provincial officers by a member 
of the Commission, by the provincial governor, by a judicial officer havmg jurisdic- 
tion in the province, or by any officer of the United States Army stationed in the 
province. 

Number present section 6 "section 7." 

The president stated that the agffreffate of salaries suggested was 
the same as that in Tayabas, though they were differently arranged. 
As to the capital, having had a tie vote, the Commission, after consult- 
ing with Colonel Howe, had decided in favor of Sorsogon; this because 
it already had been the capital, and it seemed to have a better harbor 
than Casiguran. Furthermore, the Commission felt it should not inter- 
fere with the status quo, where the people seemed evenly divided. If 
the people desired a change after the government was established, it 
could be submitted to a popular vote. 

The amendments were adopted and the roll called upon the question 
of the passage of the special bill as amended. The bill was unani- 
mously passed. 

The president then announced the following-named persons as the 
appointees of the Commission to the various provincinal offices: Gov- 
ernor, Capt J. G. Livingston, Forty-seventh Infantry; secretary, 
Leon Paras; treasurer, Capt. E. W. Terry, Forty-seventh Infantry; 
fiscal, Patricio Bailon; supervisor, . 

The president stated that, with respect to the appointments, the 
Commission had consulted all the presidentes, as also tne colonel com- 
manding, and had met such other officers as the limited time at its dis- 
posal permitted. It was explained that the usual custom was to select 
a native for governor, but here the Commission had received a number 
of petitions asking for the appointment of an American. Not relying 
upon this alone, tne Commission has had interviews with each of the 
presidentes. Tne Conunission is convinced, from its investigations, 
that for the period between now and the election next February it 
would suit the people better to have an American governor. The oath 
of office was then administered to all of the appointees. 

Dr. Tavera was then introduced to the audience and delivered, as 
usual, a strong and interesting address. The president, after thanking 
the people for their hospitality and expressing the pleasure it had 
given the Commission to be among them,declared the session adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fergusson, Secreta/ry. 



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188 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



United States Philippine Commission, 
minutes of proceedings. 

BoAC, Island of Marinduque, May i, 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, He, Moses, and the president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 10.15 a. m. The 
delegates present were practically the same as those who met with the 
Commission on March 13. In addition, however, there were Colonel 
Abad and some of his followers, who had surrendered in the interim. 

The president expressed the pleasure experienced by the Commis- 
sion in coming again to Boac and in learning that the people of Marin- 
duque had compfied with their part of the contract entered into with 
the Commission on its former visit Peace having been restored, the 
Commission was with them now to meet its part of the agreement and 
establish civil provincial government. 

The discussion concerning the possible annexation of Marinduque 
to Tayabas,had on the previous visit of the Commission, was recalled, 
as also the fact that the people had unanimously voted down the propo- 
sition and the Commission nad yielded to their wishes. The president 
stated that while it was then decided that the province was perhaps 
able to support a government of its own, economically administered, 
the question of salaries had not been settled, and an expression of 
opinion was invited from the delegates upon the subject. 

Senor Ricardo Paras, of Boac, asked that he be permitted, before 
entering upon a general discussion, to state as expressive of the senti- 
ments of the people of Marinduque that if the Commission experienced 
pleasure in being with them again, in compliance with its promise, 
the people of the various pueblos experienced greater pleasure in 
having the Commission and its party with them a second time. He 
congmtulated the Commission upon its successful tour through the 
southern islands, and thanked it for its promise to implant civil gov- 
ernment in the island of Marinduque. 

Senor Eduardo Nepomuceno, presidente of Boac, thought the islands 
of Banton, Maestro de Campo, and Simara, annexed to Romblon, 
were more convenient to Marinduque, and might properly form a part 
of it. He also asked that the pueblos of the island of Mindoro, facing 
to the east, be annexed to Marinduque. He was told that Mindoro 
was not yet occupied by American troops and action upon his sugges- 
tion could not be taken at this time. It developed that there were 
various small islands adjacent to Marinduque which could be included 
in the province. As to salaries, the speaker suggested the following: 
Governor, $600; secretary, $60<); treasurer, $7W); supervisor, $6M; 
and fiscal, $600, all in gold. He thought these were in keeping with 
the limited resources of the province. He suggested %\ per aay as 
an allowance for traveling expenses, and thought Boac should remain 
the capital. Being asked whether he thought officials could travel 
about the island for %\ a day, he said they could. Referring to the 
Provincial Act, the speaker said that while the province was authorized 
to use a corporate seal, no form of seal was prescribed. He was told 
that in the absence of such provision the provincial board could decide 
on a seal. He called attention further to the fact that no insignia of 
office was provided for provincial officers while such an insignia was 



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REPORT OF THE PfllLIPPIKE COMMISSION. 189 

provided for municipal officers. Personally, he did not believe such 
insignia was necessary, but as they were authorized for municipal offi- 
cers he thought some provision should be made for provincial officers. 
He suggestea the governor might wear some sort of badge. He asked 
whether the salaries of provincial officers fixed by the Commission 
were permanent. He was told that the salaries now fixed were neces- 
saril}^ tentative, owing to the lack of information as to the resources 
of the province; that there was nothing to prevent their being changed 
subsequently. 

Some discussion was then had of the expense to be borne by the pro- 
vincial treasury. It was pointed out that as to roads and bridges in 
the province an understanding would have to be had between the 
supervisor and the towns to determine the territory to be covered 
by the province and the territory to be covered by the towns. The 
speaker asked as to the jurisdiction of the military authorities in 
Marinduque after the establishment of civil government. He was 
told that upon the establishment of civil government and civil courts 
martial law would cease. It was explained, however, that where a 
state of war has existed it could hardly be expected that conditions 
would immediately adjust themselves. For the purpose of assisting 
civil authorities in maintaining peace and order it would be the policy 
of the Government to maintain military forces at various places in the 
Islands. Arbitrary arrest, however, would cease with the or^nization 
of civil government. With civil government everyone who is arrested 
will have the right to be informed as to the cause of his arrest and to 
have an investigation at once as to the probability of his guilt or inno- 
cence. The provincial governor was charged with the duty of main- 
taining order in the province. If he found himself unable to do so 
with ^e ordinary peace police, then he was authorized to call upon the 
militaiy commander to assist him. When the military forces move, 
however, such forces are subject entirely to the military commander. 

A discussion was then had as to the sources of income of the province, 
pending the application of the land tax. The speaker was asked how the 
people would regard the application of a cedula tax, it being explained 
to him that the proceeds of such tax would go toward paying the expenses 
of the towns and province. The speaker tnought that if a cedula or per- 
sonal tax was levied as a temporary measure until the land tax became 
effective, then the people would not object to it. He suggested, how- 
ever, that it might be better for the insular treasury to meet from month 
to month any deficit that might exist in the province. This to be repaid 
later by the province. It was explained to him that it was not the 
purpose of the Commission to place any of the burdens of the central 
government upon the province or the municipalities; this being so, it 
was thought the central treasury should not be called upon to bear any 
of the burdens of the province or the towns. In urgent ca^es, how- 
ever, assistance would no doubt be rendered. Being asked the daily 
wage in Marinduque, the speaker said it was 50 cents. Being asked 
whether he did not think it would be fair for each laborer to contribute 
the wage of two or three days to the support of the government which 
protected him, he replied that he thought it would be fair. The 
speaker, referring to tne last clause of section 19 of the Provincial Act, 
asked how the judge of first instance was to be punished for a criminal 
act. It was pointed out that the judge was not a provincial officer; 
that he could be removed by the Commission and prosecuted i& the 



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190 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

courts for any criminal conduct. The section was inserted for the 
purpose of having it distinctly understood that every person, no mat- 
ter what his position or standing; in the community, was entitled to 
no privileges, but was to be tried in the same court and in the same 
manner as otner offenders. Being asked whether it would be possible 
for Marinduque to unite with some other province in the use of a fiscal, 
the speaker thought the fiscal of Tayabas might also act in Marinduque. 
Senior Ricardo Paras stated that he did not agree with the last speaker 
on the proposition of the fiscal. He believed one of the chief reasons 
why Marinduque desired separate government was that it did not want 
to go elsewhere seeking justice; they wanted their own officers at hand. 
He was told the only reason for the suggestion was to save expense. 
The speaker thought a fiscal could be had at the salary suggested, 
$600 gold, and they desired to avoid the delays and inconvenience 
incident to communication with another island. 

Senor Ruperto Mirafuente raised the question of establishing in 
Marinduque some sort of bank. He said tne people had land, but no 
money with which to cultivate it. The powers and limitations of the 
Commission in this regard were explained by the president, who said 
that the Commission would make strong recommendations in its next 
report concerning the necessity for the incorporation of banks to loan 
money at reasonar)le mtes, for it had been surprised at the outrageous 
rates of interest which now prevailed in the archipelago. To secure low 
rates of interest it was necessary to have settled conditions, security 
of land titles, and courts in which to enforce claims. It hoped to fur- 
nish these things to the Philippine Islands in the very near future. 
The speaker stated that the cattle disease or locust pest had not yet 
visited Marinduque, though a great many cattle had been taken by the 
insurrectos and by ladrones. 

Senor Mariano Kodriguez agreed with the previous speaker as to the 
desirability of Marinduque having an independent fiscal and not being 
made dependent upon Tayabas. He also favored the levying of a 
cedula tax, even if only temporarily. He agreed that it would be equi- 
table to continue the cedula tax as to those who did not pay a land tax. 
Referring to the damages caused by war, the speaker asked that the 
forestry tax be raised until the people could reconstruct their houses. 
The existing forestry regulations were explained to him, by which any 
person unable to buy timber can secure it free upon certificate by the 
presidente of the town. 

The session then adjourned until 2.30 p. m. 

Aftemoim session, 

BoAC, May i, 1901, 
The session was called to order by the president at 2.30 p. m., and 
. the following amendments offered to the special bill organizing the 
province of Marinduque: 
Add to title of act word " Marinduque." 

Insert in section 1, after the words *4sland of," the words ''Marin- 
duque and small islands immediately adjacent to be," and after the 
words "province of" the word "Marinduque." 

Insert m section 2, after the words "province of," the word "Marin- 
duque," and insert as salaries following: Governor, $1,000; secretary, 
$800; treasurer, $1,500; supervisor, $1,300; fiscal, $800. 



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KEPOBT or THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 191 

Insert for traveling expenses, $1 per day. 
Insert as bond of treasurer, $7,000. 
Insert as capital of province, town of Boac. 
Insert as section 6 following: 

Sec. 6. The oath of office may be administered to provincial officers by a mem- 
ber of the Commission, by the provincial governor, by a judicial officer having juris- 
diction in the province, or by any officer of the United States Army stationed in the 
province. 

Number present section 6 *' Sei*. 7.'' 

Referring to the salaries, the president stated that the commission 
felt those suggested by the speakers were too small. While it was not 
the policy^ of the Commission to pay excessive salaries, it wanted to 
pay salaries which would enable the persons receiving them to live, 
and not be dependent upon perquisites. It was pointed out that the 
salaries fixed bv the commission aggregated $400 less than those paid 
in Romblon, while it was believed that Marinduque was better able to 
support a provincial government than Romblon. 

Tne amendments proposed were adopted, and the roll called upon 
the passage of the bill as amended. The bill was unanimously passed. 

The president then announced the following-named persons as the 
appointees of the commission to the various provincial offices: Ricaixio 
Paras, governor; Eduardo Nepomuceno, secretary; Francisco Sumu- 
lung, fiscal. 

It was explained that the Commission was not able at this time to 
name the provincial treasurer and provincial supervisor. 

The president stated that a petition had been received, numerouslv 
signed, suggesting the appointment of an American as governor. It 
was found, nowever, on an examination of the presidentes, that their 
chief reason for wishing an American officer was that he would be 
familiar with the American form ot government and could better ini- 
tiate the new regime. It has been the policy of the Commission to 
appoint a native as governor wherever the circumstances justified such 
action. In the opinion of the Commission, it was much more important 
to have the treasurer an American than the governor, for with the 
treasurer rests the inauguration of a tax system entirely new to these 
I.slands. The presence of an American treasurer would enable the 
Filipino officers to receive suggestions as to doubtful points when 
desired. 

The oath of office was then administered to Senor Paras and Senor 
Nepomuceno. 

Senor Nepomuceno then delivered an address to the Commission, 
thanking it for having established civil government in Marinduque, 
and speaking in high terms of the work being accomplished looking 
to the political andmaterial regeneiution of the Islands. He spoke of 
the struggle of the Filipino people to achieve their political rights, 
and rejoiced that their destinies were now linked with the greatest ana 
freest nation the world had ever known. He thanked the commission 
and the American people for the benefits alreadv received by his peo- 
ple, which he realized were but the promise of those to be bestowed 
when his country should have realizea the true end and purpose and 
history of the American people. 

The president responded as follows: 

As we came into the harbor of Boac this morning it was remarked by the mem- 
bers of the Commiaeion and party that we felt we were coming home; that we wer« 



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192 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

coming among friends we had known before; and as we came into this spacious build- 
ine again and sat here in conference with the leading citizens of MarindiiQue we were 
delighted to find added to their number the gallant Colonel Abad ana his brave 
chief of staff, who, with their followers, have reached the conclusion that it is better 
to seek individual and political liberty under the Government of the United States. 
Allusion was made by the gentleman who has so eloquently addressed the Commis- 
sion to the great Filipino patriot, Rizal, and his love of liberty. We believe, and I 
hope believe justly, that under the sovereignty of the United States the Filipino 
people can acquire all those liberties which Kizal prized. I am reminded by one of 
my colleagues, and I desire to remind you, that to-day three years ago was fought 
the battle of Manila Bay. How pregnant with fate was that victory, both for the 
Filipino people and the United States. Civil liberty a government' can offer to a 
people, but whether such liberty results in bringing happiness and prosperity must 
depend upon the people themselves. The government can offer public schools and 
education to the people, but the people must turn that education to the betterment 
and improvement of their own condition. You must watch your officers, you must 
have in mind the public weal, you must insist that vour officials ser\^e only the pub- 
lic good and not their personal gain. Without maKing invidious comparisons, the 
truth of historv must be stated, that in the three hundred years of ci\alized rule in 
these Islands the standard of public honesty has not l)een maintained as it should 
have been. I do not claim for the Americans absolute honestv. That we have dis- 
honest men among us and dishonest public officials goes without saying, but I do 
say that the standard of official honesty which we hope to introduce here is high, 
and that being introduced here it means the beginning of a prosperous and happv 
government. When you find a public official, whether he be an American or a Fil- 
ipino, who is false to his trust and is lining his pockets with the money of the people, 
know that he is a worse criminal than the man who steals your cattle and enters 
your house and steals your goods. Pursue him as you would a criminal and put him 
behind the prison bars, where he belongs. Let no good nature growing out of the 
traditions of a former government prevent you from regarding this crime as it should 
be regarded. If you find dishonesty in an American official, know that the Ameri- 
cans who are responsible for this government would rather put a dishonest American 
in prison than a Filipino or a man of any other race. In conclusion, I wish to express 
again the great pleasure the Commission has experienced in making these two visits to 
Bbac— coming nrst when there was war in your island, coming now when there is 
peace; coming then when we had enemies in the mountains, coming now when we 
find those former enemies our friends. 

The president then introduced Dr. Tavera, president of the Federal 
party, who delivered a stirring address to the audience, urging them 
to remember the words of the president of the Commission and to 
prove themselves worthy of the confidence reposed in them. He 

Kinted out the great stumbling block to popular government in these 
ands, that of making politics a personal rather than a public matter, 
calling upon them to sink their personal ambitions and jealousies in 
that of the geneml good. 
The session then adjourned. 
Attest; 

A. W. Fergusson, Secretary. 



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BEPOBT OF TH;E PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



193 



United States Philippine Commission. 



MINUTES OF PBOGEEDINGS. 



Batangas, Pramnce of Batanyas^ May 2, 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and tlie president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 11 a. m. and the 
roll of pueblos called by the secretary. The province was represented 
as follows: 



Nasogbu: 

Florencio G. Oliva, resident 

Gadoe Castillos, reeident 

Pedro Rodrigaee, resident 
Calaca: 

Higinio Concepcion, president. 

Perpetuo de Joya, member, federal 
party. 

Engemo Marasigan, secretary, federal 
party. 

Petronilo Macatangay, treasurer, fed- 
eral party. 
Lemery: 

Ricardo Aguirre, president. 

Agapito Paganiban, secretary. 

Leonicio Noble, resident 

Jose Baldora, resident 
San Jose: 

Ambrosio Makalital, representative. 

Salvador Aguila, representative. 

Juan Mitra, representative. 

Basilio Aldae, representative. 

Daniel Luna, representative. 

Sixto de Leon, representative. 
Batangas: 

Jose Viilanueva, president, federal 
party. 

Florencio R. Caedo, member, federal 
part)r. 

Potenciano Hilario, member, federal 
party. 

Pedro Pastor, member, federal party. 
Balayan: 

Manuel Ramirez, president 

Vivencio Ramos, resident 

Felipe Ramos, resident 

Julian Afable, resident 

Matias Carides, resident. 

Lucas Alcaraz, resident 

Cornel io Alcaraz, resident. 

Tiburcio Asimundo, resident 

Pascual Ramos, resident 

Felix Nugaon, reeident 
Liang: 

Timoteo Zarsozo, president 

Lorenzo Hermita, municipal secre- 
tary. 

Gr^orio Linjoco, secretary, federal 
party. 



Liang — Continued. 

Sinforoso Lamano, treasurer, federal 
party. 
Tana wan: 

Florentino Laureano, president 

Ruperto Laurel, secretary, federal 
party. 

Pantaleon Gonzales, councilor. 

Florentino Collantes, councilor. 

Buenaventura Tapia, member, fed- 
eral party. 

Juan Gonzales, member, federal 
party. 

Valentin Dimayuga, member, federal 
party. 

Sixto Macaisa, resident 
Santo Tomas: 

Jacinto Meer, president. 

Pedro Castillo, vice-president. 

Eulalio Aro, councilor. 

Ambrosio Sanchez, councilor. 

Nicolas Navarro, councilor. 

Florentino Navarro, councilor. 

Mariano Malabuyo, councilor. 

Joaquin Arullas, councilor. 

Gregorio Torres, councilor. 

Jose Malolos, member, federal party. 

Tomas Meer, member, federal jmrty. 

Victoriano Villegas, member, federal 
party. 

Potenciano Medrana, member, fed- 
eralparty. 

Juan Torres, member, federal party. 

Marceliano Villegas, member, fed- 
eral party. 
Bauan: 

Sebastian Bonal, president. 

Cipriano Buenviaje, vice-president. 

Antonio Lonalhati, member, federal 
party. 

Felipe Contreras, member, federal 
party. 
Lipa: 

Valerio Calao, president 

Jose Templo, vice-president 

Primitivo Calao, police lieutenant. 

Jose Villapardo, member, federal 
party. 

Martin Quizon, municipal captain. 

Laureano Manalo, resident. 



Seven towns were not represented. The president expressed the 
pleasure of the Commission in meeting the representatives of the 
towns of Batangas and in being honored hy the presence of the clergy, 



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194 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

who exercise so much influence among the people, and whose presence 
evidenced that the coming of the Commission was deemed by them as 
indicative of future good to the province. The president then gave a 
full description of the municipal code, of the Provincial Act, and of the 
special bill. Explanation was made of the sphere to be covered by 
the town government, by the provincial, and by the central govern- 
ment, and the limit of interference which one might exercise over the 
other pointed out. The provision as to taxes was explained and illus- 
trated by examples, and a full exposition given of the provisions made 
by the Commission for public instruction. The question of applying 
a cedilla tax was presented, and the attitude taken toward it by the 
people of other provinces explained. 

Tne session then adjourned until 3 p. m., when a public discussion 
of the bill was invited. 

Afternoon session^ May ^, 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, Moses, and the president 

The session was called to order by the president at 3.30 *>. m. The 
special bill was read fpr a third time by its title and discussion by the 
public invited. 

A representative from Balayan asked that the town be organized 
under the municipal code and inquired the procedure. He was told it 
could be done on petition of ten of the citizens or upon the initiative 
of the Commission. It was probable that a person would be appointed 
to act as chairman of the committees of organization of all the munic- 
ipalities in the province ready to be organized. 

A petition was presented by another representative of Balayan, 
asking the or^nization of the town. The first speaker challenged 
some of the signatures, stating they were secured by threats. The 
president stated that the Commission did not have time to consider that 
question now, but would take it up later. The speaker stated his peo 
pie were satisfied with the terms of the provincial law. All the dele- 
gates appeared satisfied with the provisions of the law as explained by 
the president, and had no suggestions to volunteer. In answer to ques- 
tions addressed to the different presidentes and others, the following 
information was obtained: That Batangas was a first-class province in 
Spanish times; population estimated at 300,000. The annual revenues 
amounted under the former r%ime to 400,0(X) pesos, of which 300,000 
were derived from the cedula tax. This was exclusive of municipal 
revenues. Did not know what was collected in the municipalities, or 
what was collected subsequently while Batangas was under the insur- 
recto government. The cedula tax, however, was the principal source 
of revenue during the insurrection. The cattle disease had killed off 
about 90 per cent of their cattle and carabaos and interfered greatly 
with the agriculture of the province. Fields were now being cultivated 
partly by horses and partly by hand. The chief product of the prov- 
ince was sugar. Coffee was at one time the great source of wealth of 
the province, but some years ago an insect or disease had attacked and 
ruined all of the coffee plants in the province; no more had been 
planted. They produced a little hemp and some rice, though not enough 
for local use, large quantities being imported; very little copra rais^; 
did not have many hoi'ses. Said there were a number of well-constructed 
roads in the province, but they were in need of repair, some of them 



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BEFOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 195 

being almost impassable during the rainy season; at the present time, 
however, one could travel in a carriage from Batangas to Manila. 
Agreed that a cedula tax of 1 peso could probably be levied until the 
land tax went into force, and continued uiereafter on those who did 
not pay a land tax, provided the money was spent in the municipali- 
ties ana province where collected. This was promised them. Thought 
sudi tax should be assessed on all males over 18 years of age, instead of 
23 years, as a Filipino could earn his living at 18; suggested that the 
limit be placed at 55 years, as a man was entitled to rest at that age. 
The delegates were asked whether thev thought the organization of 
provinciw government at this time would aid the cause of peace in the 
province, and whether it met the views of the great majority of the 
people. They said it was what they all desired; that they had come 
for that purpose. There was no discussion as to the location of the 
capital. There was some question as to whether the presidentes should 
meet four times a year, owing to the difficulty of transportation. They 
thought if the government mrnished a launch, meetings could be had 
every three months. Said there were no regular steamers between 
coast |)oints. 

During a short recess taken by the Commission for the purpose of 
preparing amendments to the special bill, the president asked Senor 
Febpe Buenacamino, a director of the Federal partv who had come to 
Batangas to meet with the Commission, to address the audience. This 
he did, speaking in Tagalog and awakening considerable enthusiasm. 

The president then offered the following amendments to the special 
bOl: 

Add to title of bill the word ^'Batangas." 

Insert in section 1, after words 'island of," the words ''Luzon 
and adjoining islands," and after words "province of," the word 
"Batangas." 

Insert in section 2, after words "province of," the word "Batan- 
gas," and insert as salaries the following: Governor, $2,250; secre- 
ta^, $1,500; treasurer, $2,500; supervisor, $2,000; fiscal, $1,500. 

insert as traveling expenses, $2.50 per day. 

Insert as bond of treasurer, $20,000. 

Insert as capital of province, "Batangas." 

Insert as section 6 tne following: 

Sec. 6. The oath of oflSce may be administered to provincial officers by a member 
of the Commission, by the provmcial governor, by a judicial officer having jurisdic- 
tion in the province, or by any officer of the United States Army stationed in the 
province. 

Number present section 6 "section 7." 

The amendments were adopted and the question put on the passage 
of the bill as amended. The bill was unanimously passed. 

The president then announced the following-named persons as the 
appointees of the commission for the various provincial offices: Gov- 
ernor, Felix Roxas; secretary, Florentia Cardo; treasurer, R. D. 
Blanchard; fiscal, Diego Gloria. 

In naming Senor Roxas as governor, the president spoke as follows: 

I desire to state that the appointment of Mr. Roxas as governor has been made by 
the (Jommission with a profound feeling of respect for the appointee. The Commis- 
sion has had opportunity to know Sefior Roxaa well. He proved of great assistance to 
the Commishion in its public sessions in Manila in the consideration of the municipal 
code and provincial law. He has accompanied the Commission on its long trip 



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196 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COIOUSSION. 



through the archipelago and the Commission knows him to be a gentleman of the 
most sterling integrity and' a man of culture and learning, upon whom it is delighted 
to confer an honor. It congratulates the province of Batangas on having such a man 
as itfl first governor. 

After an address by Dr. Tavera and a few words of thanks by the 
president for the kinaness extended to the Commission and party, the 
session adjourned. 

Attest: A. W. Fergusson, Secretary. 

United States Philippine Commission. 



MINUTES OF proceedings. 

Pasig, Province of Manila, June 5, 1901, 
Present: Commissioners Wright, Ide, Moses, and the president. 
The Commission met to-dav at Pasig delegates from tne district of 
Morong and that portion of Manila Province which lies outside of the 
eity of Manila. The meeting, which was held in tlie village church, 
was called to order by the president at 10 a. m., who thanked the padre 
for giving the Commission the unusual privilege of occupying his 
church for a meeting of a political character. The roll was then called 
by the secretary, the two provinces being represented as follows: 

PilOVINCE OF MANILA. 



Santa Ana: 

Rafael Rivera, president. 

Hi^nio EstaniBiao, councilor. 

Epifanio Trinidad, secretary. 
Pineda: 

Pascual Villanueva, president. 

Clemente Isidro, vice-president. 

Isabelo Reves, councilor. 

Roman Cim, councilor. 

Andres Guara, councilor. 

Victorino Delicano, councilor. 
Mario uina: 

\ icente Gomez, president. 

Juan Molina, police lieutenant. 

Gregorio Jose, councilor. 

Jose Guevara, councilor. 

Silverio de Leon, councilor. 

Eulogio Santos, secretary. 
San Felipe Nery: 

Antonio Fernando, president. 

Lucio de la Cruz, police lieutenant. 

Lucio Alberto, secretary. 
Tambobonff: 

Eduardo Bernardo, president. 

Santiago Quinson, secretary. 

Andres Herrera, representative. 
San J one de Navotas: 

Flofencio Antonio, president. 

Emigdio Buenaventura, councilor. 

Angelo Angeles, councilor. 

Andres Espina, councilor. 

Calixto de I^on, councilor. 

Prudencio Suarez, councilor. 

Isabelo Araulio, councilor. 
Malibay: 

Santiago Garcia, representative. 

Rafael Cruz, representative. 



Malibay —Con tinuecl . 

Andres Vizcarra, representative. 

Anacleto Vizcarra, representative. 

Juan Mendoza, representative. 

Mariano Geronimo, representative. 

Severino Cniz, representative. 

Maximino de Leon, representative. 

Francisco Cruz, representative. 

Marcos Patino, representative. 

Teodoro Tolentino, representative. 

Peilro Francisco, representative. 

Tereso Cruz, representative. 

Brigido Cruz, representative. 

Francisco Francisco, representative. 

Marcario de Gusman, representative. 

Meltion Santos, representative. 

Angel de Guzman, representative. 
San Mateo: 

Ismael Amado, president. 

Sixto Angeles, representative. 
Pasig: 

Felipe Gomez, president. 

Camilio de la Cruz, vice-president. 

Baldomero Diaz Sarte, secretary. 

Balbino Omana, delate. 

Canuto Tolentino, delegate. 

Macario Bautista, delegate. 

Prudencio Taas, delegate. 

Pedro Reyes, delegate. 

Esteban Carrasco, delegate. 

Brigido Garcia, delegate. 

Natolio Baltazar, deflate. 

Gregorio Ramos, del^:ate. 

Luciano Ramos, delegate. 

Hipolito de los Reyes, del^:ate. 

Alejandro Alvares, delegate. 

Segundo Cruz, delegate. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



197 



Fasif? — Continned. 

Simeno Salazar, delegate. 

Leocadio MasUang, delegate. 

Dalmacio Cruz, delegate. 

Felipe Cruz, del^ate. 

Felipe Gromez, director federal party. 

Fernando Santiago, director federal 

party. 
Pastor Lozada, director federal party, 
liberato Damian, director federal 

party. 
Camilo C. Cruz, director federal 

party. 
Eugenio Santos, director federal 

jMuty. 
Victor Sanchez, director federal 

pajty. 
Patricio Dumandan, member federal 

party. 
Alipio de Silva, member federal 

party. 
Joee Gomez, member federal party. 
Jacinto Lucas, member federal party. 
Ambrosio Santiesteban, member fed- 
eral party. 
Francisco Nonato, member federal 

party. 
Francisco de la Paz, member federal 

party. 
Agapito Poeon, member federal party. 
Juan Bartolome, member federal 

party. 
Martin Reyes, member federal party. 
Julio Marcelo, member federal party. 
Eligio Robles, member federal party. 
Manuel Jobeon, member federal 

party. 
Simeon Angeles, member federal 

party. 
Faustino Javier, member federal 

jarty. 
Nicolas Asuncion, member federal 

party. 
Joaquin Tuason, member federal 

party. 
Maximo Tec, treasurer federal party. 
Fernando Camucho, secretary federal 

party, 
Tagnig: 

Feliciano Pagcalinanan, president. 
Pantaleon Franco, vice-president. 
Antonio Cruz, councilor. 
Damaso Dionisio, councilor. 
Juan Cuevas, councilor. 
Silvestre Buenaventura, councilor. 
Victoriano Estacio, councilor. 
Tomas Monsod, councilor. 
Nicolas Mozo, councilor. 
Bemabe Santa Teresa, councilor. 
Luis Santa Ana, secretary. 
Felipe Clemente, member federal 

Lucio Falitan^ member federal party. 
Pedro Natividad, member federal 

party. 
Laureano Natividad, member federal 

party. 



Tagnig — Continueii. 

iSsilio Guerrero, member federal 

party. 
Claudio Natividad, member federal 

party. 
Graciano Juta, member federal party. 
San Pedro Macati: 

Eusebio Arpilleda, president. 
Antonio Lumelay, vice-president. 
Ramon Reynaldo, secretary. 
Urbano Caraballo, councilor. 
Severino Jacinto, councilor. 
Paranaque: 

Maximo Rodriques, president. 
Valentino de Leon, vice-president. 
Timoteo Bemabe, president federal 

party. 
Saoas de Guzman, member federal 

party. 
Caiaareo L. de Leon, member federal 

party. 
Santiago Inquimboy, member federal 

party. 
Pedro Feliciano, member federal 

party. 
Perfecto Reyc«, representative. 
Caloocan: 

Pedro Sevilla, president. 
Montalban: 

Julian de Jesus, secretary. 
Ciriaco Domingo, representative. 
Adriano Manuel, representative. 
S. Juan del Monte: 

Andres Soriano, president. 
Maximo A. Reyes, vice-i^resident. 
Jose Boras Santos, councilor. 
Apolinio Gatdula, councilor. 
Severo Tenano, councilor. 
Urbano Soriano, member fe<ieral 

party. 
Bemabe Songa, member federal 

party. 
Placido Arteaga, member federal 

party. 
Luciano Carino Albert, secretary. 
Anacleto Cristobal, councilor. 
Las Pinas: 

Francisco Julio, president. 

Mariano Tolentino, councilor. 

Antonio Aldana, councilor. 

Jose Aguilar, councilor. 

Calixto Lara, member federal party. 

Andres Castaneda, member federal 

party. 
Mariano Santos, member federal 

party. 
Pedro de Lara, member federal party. 
Apolinario Julio, member federal 

party. 
Monico Julio, member federal party. 
Teodorico Rey^, member federal 

party. 
Eulogio Aranda, member federal 

party. 
Paolo Gutierrez, member federal 

party. 



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198 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Las Pinas — Continued. 

Bernardo de Lara, member federal 
party. 

Sisenando Fernandez, member fed- 
eral party. 
Pateros: 

Telesfor Manalo, president. 

Moyses Ocampo, councilor. 

Feliciano Concio, councilor. 

Julio Tangco, councilor. 

Castor Imson, councilor. 

Pedro Menffunto, councilor. 

Juan Castillo, councilor. 

Andres Costas, councilor. 

Leoncio Monsod, councilor. 

Estanislao Calingo, sindico. 

Gregorio Espiritu, secretary. 

Gregorio Mores, member federal 
party. 



Pateros — Continued. 

Antonio Calingo, member federal 

party. 
Lazaro Calingo, member federal 

party. 
Pedro Domingo, member federal 

party. 
Feliciano Crecio, member federal 



party. 
Julio Tango 
Andres C. Cruz, member federal 



Pangco, member federal party. 



part)^. 
Gregorio Salva, member federal 

party. 
Hipolito Francisco, member federal 

party. 
P^ro Castillo, secretary federal 

party. 



DISTRICT OF MORONO. 



Tanay: 

Estanislao Melendras, president. 

Bonifacio Matienzo, councilor. 

Bonifacio Catapusam, councilor. 

Ciriaco Castillo, councilor. 

Pedro Catapinican, councilor. 

Luis Catolos, representative. 

Domingo Capistrano, representative. 
Pililla: 

Regino Cuitiong, president. 

Antonio Vidanes, councilor. 

Julio Paz, councilor. 

Perfecto, councilor. 
Quisao: 

Marcelo Umpoc, president. 

Cipriano Siya, representative. 

Gabriel Casale, representative. 

Eusebio Tejada, representative. 

Eladio Lomabas, representative. 
Teresa: 

Rafael Mangoma, president. 

Brigido C. Cruz, representative. 

Maximo Garronllas, representative. 
Baras: 

Felix Hanco, representative. 

Jose Robles, representative. 

Bonifacio Geromo, representative, 
i^inangonan: 

Jose Zuares, president 

Protacio P. Reyes, councilor. 

Zacarias Bernardo, councilor. 

Isidoro Mejorada, councilor. 

Maximo C. Flores, councilor. 



Binangonan — Continued. 

Feliciano Villahermosa, councilor. 

Maximino Aramel, councilor. 

Marcelo Cenidosa, councilor. 

Maximo Reyes, councilor. 

Florentino cesante, representative. 

Narcisco G. Bautista, representative. 

Ptricio Contreras, representative. 

Felisisimo Finesa, representative. 
Cainta: 

Baldomero Perez, president. 

Exequiel Ampil, vice-president 

Hilario S. Buenaventura, representr 
ative. 

Numeriano Pagcatipunan, represent- 
ative. 

Esteban Alvano, representative. 

Greronimo 8. Diego, representative. 
Morong: 

Pascual de la Cruz, president. 

Hilarion Raymundo, rej)resentative. 

Jose Tupas. representative. 

Femanao Anceles, representative. 

Cecilio Salvador, representative. 

Aniceto Tupas, representative. 
Jalajala: 

Pablo Belleza, representative. 

Gregorio Gellidon, representative. 
Antipolo: 

Valentin Sumulung, president 

Sixto Coronado, secretary. 

Hipolito Amador, councilor. 

Juan Sumulong, councilor. 

Jose F. Oliveros, councilor. 



The president stated that the Commission had met with the peoj^le 
to organize a civil provincial government under the general Provincial 
Act as amended. The usual explanations were then made of the pro- 
visions of that Act, as also of tne municipal code and the special Tbill. 
The president then stated that it had been suggested to the Comniission 
that the district of Morong was not sufficiently extensive to justify 
separate organization, and that it would be better to unite Manila and 
Morong under any name that might seem best. The Commission, how- 
ever, did not desire to take any action until after giving the people an 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPrNE COMMISSION. 199 

opportunity to consider and discuss the subject. Public discussion 
was invited. 

Senor Hilario Reymundo, of Morong, championed in rather vehe- 
ment s^le the right of the district of Morong to a separate organiza- 
tion. He said that it had enjoved such separate existence since 1853, 
and, if the Commission now deprived them of it, the people would 
relapse into an inert mass. He said the district had a population of 
80,()00, divided into 14 towns, and throughout Spanish times it had 
supported the different branches of civil and ecclesiastical governments. 
He said the district now had due it a balance of 50,000 pesos from the 
central treasury. Some doubt was expressed by the Commission as to 
whether the 50,000 pesos had remained in the treasury. Some ques- 
tion was raised as to whether the population was 80,000. The Jesuit 
Atlas, published in conjunction with the report of the former Philip- 
pine Commission, showed the population at 42,800. The speaker said 
those figures were false, and, if the Commission wanted to prove it and 
have a census taken, he offered his services to see that it was done. 
Hie speaker then read from a petition, which had been forwarded to 
the Commission at Manila on the part of various towns of Morong, 
protesting against the union of that district with Manila. He said that 
all the towns of Morong, with the exception of Antipolo, were opposed 
to the union. The great burden of the speaker's argument seemed to 
be that if they ceased to be a separate district they would in some 
mysterious way lose touch with tne high governing authorities and 
b^me political outcasts, the prey of everybody. He said that when 
the ladrones descended upon them from Laguna they wanted their 
governor where thev might put their hands upon him. It was 
explained to him, and every effort made to convince him, that under 
the new system of things now being established the material and phys- 
ical presence of the governor was not so important as some other things. 
The system of town organization was explained to him, as also the 
scheme of government of the province, where the power rests, not 
with the governor, but with the provincial board. Tne speaker, how- 
ever, coma not rid himself of his central idea that it tne provinces 
were united their governor would be "far removed" from them, and 
he retired contending that the union was prejudicial to his district and 
that, while they would submit to any action taken by the Commission, 
thev would protest against it now and forever. 

I^Bnor Jos^ Oliveras, of Antipolo, district of Morong, favored the 
union of that district with Manila. He said that Morong* had never 
been a province, but simply a politico-militaiy district, and the reason 
why it was not made a full province was because of its insufficient reve- 
nues. The fact that it lacked resources to support a separate govern- 
ment was illustrated by the fact that the district exported nothing; 
said the province did not have a population of more than 46,000. He 
expressed his surprise at the attituae of the previous speaker and the 
other presidentes in Morong, in that they were not able to distinguish 
between the old military form of government, where the military com- 
mander had absolute control of me towns, and the government pro- 
posed to be organized by the Commission under the municipal and 
provincial laws. The speaker thought if the different presidentes 
could become convinced of the difference in the two svstems that their 
opposition to the union would cease. He said the only industry of the 
province was mat making; he said they had stone quarries at Binango- 



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200 REPOBT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

nan; said the people did not raise rice enough for local consumption; 
some sugar was raised. He said that the principal source of revenue 
to the people were the religious feasts held at Antipolo. It appears 
that during the month of May of each year Antipolo becomes the 
mecca for thousands of people who come from all parts of the archi- 
pelago to pray at the shrine of Our Holy Lady of Antipolo. He said 
the daily wage was now $1, it having been 50 cents before American 
occupation. 

Senor Jose Tupas, of Morong, spoke against the union. He said the 
reason why Spain had not made Morong a full province was not because 
it lacked resources, but because of its great forests, which furnished a 
hiding place for ladrones, and it was thought a military district could 
afford tne people more protection. He said the same conditions still 
existed, and that was wny they wanted to have a separate province, so 
that they could have their governor with them. He said that the for- 
ests had not been utilized as yet for lumber. Some talk was then had 
about navigation on Laguna de Bay and the necessity for dredging at 
the outlet of the lake into the Pasig River to furnish proper transpor- 
tation facilities. Being asked what the province exportea, the speaker 
entered into quite a prophecy of the possible resources of the province 
and what it might export in the luture under certain conditions. 
Being asked what they now exported, he said that they sent out some 
petates (mats) and bamboo. He had no statistics to show the revenues 
of the district nor the amount of its exports. He raised the question 
of population, and said the figures set out in their petition, something 
like 80,000, were secured from the presidentes of the towns. It seems 
the presidentes got their figures by calling together the "leading citi- 
zens" and putting the question to them as to what they thought the 
local population was. The speaker did not think the great American 
nation, which was the emblem of liberty, had come here to deprive the 
people of what even Spain accorded them— a separate political exist- 
ence. He was told there were certain kinds of liberty which brought 
ruin upon one's house, and if Morong attempted to run a separate gov- 
ernment without sufficient resources, and failed, the principle of literty 
would furnish them very little consolation. The principle of civil lib- 
erty would not jastify every town erecting itself into a separate gov- 
ernment simpl}' because the people asked it. The question of division 
into provinces was one simply of convenience and good government, 
and was to be determined not only by the desires of the people, but 
also by the resources of the territory to be divided. The speaker was 
told that if the district of Morong did not want, for sentimental rea- 
sons, to become a part of Manila i^rovince, then another name might 
be given the new province. This speaker, like the first one, however, 
labored under the impression that unless their particular territory was 
governed under the name of Morong they would suffer greatly in their 
lives, property, and personal rights. 

Senor Juan Sumulung, of Antipolo, argued in favor of the union, 
his arguments covering much the same ground as those of Senor 
Oliveros. He said that several of the signers of the petition against 
the union, when he had explained to them the benefits that would 
accrue to the people from forming a part of the large province, had 
expressed to nim a desire to witndraw from their protest. He said 
the district of Morong was small and its people were poor. He 
thought objections to the union, if they came irom anyone, should 



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BEPOBT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 201 

come from the people of Manila Province mther than those of Morong. 
He said the whole basis of the objection was local pride, without giv- 
ing any consideration whatever to the public good. Some discussion 
was had as to where the capital should oe located. It developed that 
no town had provincial buildings. 
The session then adjourned utitil 3 o'clock. 

Afternoon session. 

The session was called to order by the president at 3 p. m. He said 
the Commission would be glad to have the question of salaries, etc. , dis- 
cussed, as it was felt the Question of the union of the provinces had 
been quite fuljy considered. The speakers, however, did not appear 
to think so, for they immediately plunged into the Question again. 

A new representative from Morong went over tne arguments for 
his side of flie controversy. He said that $60,000 Mexican was col- 
lected from cedulas alone in the district of Morong in Spanish times. 
He felt that would be enough to meet the provincial expenses. His 
other reasons were not new. 

Senor Reymundo, the leader of the opposition, then demanded of 
Senor Sumulung his authority for the statement that some of the 
signers of the petition opposing the union of the provinces wished to 
withdraw. He called upon his followers, signers of that petition, to 
rise in their places and say whether or not such a statement could be 
true. They arose. It being pointed out to him that the petition had 
some 250 signers and that the party with him did not number more 
than 20, he explained that these were the signers in chief, it being evi- 
dently the idea that the other signers did not amount to much, one 
way or another. He was told, however, that the Commission was not 
there to try the question of veracity between two speakers. After 
talking for some time longer, Senor Keymundo thought it remarkable 
that there should be so much discussion on this point, especiallv in 
view of the reasons which were adduced against the union in tneir 
petition. He said ag^ain that, if the Commission felt that the popula- 
tion had been overestimated in that petition, he hoped it would appoint 
a special commissioner to go over the ground and verify the figures. 
The speaker said that he would guarantee the provincial salaries, offer- 
ing this as a reason why he woiSd not discuss their amount. 

A representative from San Mateo, province of Manila, then took 
the floor. He suggested a salary of $3,000 gold for the governor in 
case the provinces were united. He was told that this salary had 
been paid in only two provinces in the archipelago — Cebu and Iloilo. 
He did not know the population of the province of Manila. He had 
nothing to say as to the union of the provinces, though he could 
not understand why Morong, being the smaller of the two, should 
object to the union. He thought Pasig ought to be the capital of the 
united provinces. He said there was a municipal house there, which 
might be used for provincial purposes. It appeared that Pasig was 
the most accessible point to both Manila and Morong. It was thought 
that a traveling allowance of $2 per day would be ample. The dele- 
gates also favored quarterly meetings of the presidentes. 

Some question was raised by one of the speakers concerning the 
fact that the provincial treasurer was usually paid a higher salary 
than the governor, while in the municipalities the municipal treasurer 



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202 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE 0OMMI88IOK. 

received less than the presidente. He thought the rule should be the 
same in the provinces. It was explained to him that the municipal 
treasurer did not collect the taxes; that the provincial treasurer was 
also the tax collector for the municipalities and held the most respon- 
sible position in the province. 

At this point Dr. Tavera, of the Federal party, who accompanied the 
Conunission, asked that he might make a suggestion with reference to 
the proposed union of Manila and Morong provinces. It was his opin- 
ion that in case of union neither the name of Morong nor Manila ought 
to be retained. He then stated the custom which prevails in the United 
States and other countries of naming important localities or districts 
in memory of some illustrious citizen of the country. In line with this 
he suggested that the united provinces be named '"Rizal," in memory 
and in nonor of the most illustrious Filipino and the most illustrious 
Tagalog the Islands had ever known. The president stated that the 
Commission, not less than the Filipinos, felt proud to do honor to the 
name of Rizal, and if, after consideration, it decided to unite the prov- 
inces, it would have pleasure, if such action met the desires of the peo- 
ple, in giving the new province the name of Rizal. The president 
stated, however, that in view of the opposition developed to the union 
it would take the matter under consideration. It desired to examine 
more fully into the resources of the province of Morong from the sta- 
tististics which are available. It hoped to reach a conclusion within a 
few days, when it would pass the special bill and announce its appoint- 
ments. 

Dr. Tavera was then called upon to address the audience, after which 
the meeting adjourned. 

Attest: A. W. Fergusson, Secretary. 

United States Philippine Commission, 
minutes of proceedings. 

Cavite, p. I., June 6, 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Wright, Ide, and the president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 10.10 a. m. 

Sr. Lacarias Fortich, presidente of Cavite, expressed the gratitude 
of the citizens of Cavite for the visit of the Commissionj and the presi- 
dent in turn expressed the pleasure of the Commission m meeting the 
representatives of the province. He noted also that the Commission 
and the people of the province were honored by the presence of the 
acting commander in chief of the naval station. Admiral Rodgers, and 
mentioned the unexpected pleasure of the reception by the colonel of 
marines and his fine body of men. He also expressed the pleasure of 
the Commission in meeting General Trias, a citizen of the province 
who, within the last three or four months, has done so much to bring 
about peace and tranquility. The secretary was then directed to cafl 
the roll of the pueblos. The following towns were represented: 

Cavite: 

Presidente Sr. Zacarias Foi-tich. 

Vice-presidente Sr. Leon Borromeo. 

, Oouncilora Sr. Jose de Castro. 

Sr. Domingo Mogueis. 
Sr. Anacleto Bunales. 
Sr. Luciano Francisco. 
Sr. Marcos de Guzman. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 203 

Cavite — Ontinued . 

Councilore 8r. Florentino Sanagustin. 

Sr. Carlos de la Cruz. 

Sr. Hipolito Morente. 

Sr. Antonio Fernandez. 
San Roque: 

Presidente Sr. Francisco Baza. 

Vice-preeidente Sr. Serapion Nicolas. 

Secretary Sr. Mariano Mendoza. 

Goandlors Sr. Antonio de Ocampo. 

Sr. Mariano Manalo. 

Sr. Pedro de la Cruz. 

Sr. Guillermo Fulgencio. 

Sr. Irineo Dayao. 

Sr. Juan Martinez. 
LaCaridad: 

Presidente Sr. Jose Raqueno Bautista. 

Vice-presidente Sr. Felipe Custodio. 

Sindico Sr. Florendo Fernandez. 

Treasurer Sr. Eulogio Santiago. 

Secretary Sr. Pedro R. Bautista. 

Sr. Tito Crisostomo. 

Sr. Marcelino Reyes. 

Sr. Florentino Revita. 

Sr. Antonio Grarduno. 

Sr. Ignacio Mariano. 

Sr. Rafael R. Bautista. 

Sr. Celestino Fernandez. 

Sr. Isidro Benitez. 
Bacoor: 

Presidente Sr. Felix Cuenca. 

Vice-presidente -Sr. Pedro Malinis. 

Secretary Sr. Dionicio Mascardo. 

Treasurer Sr. Andres Siapuatco. 

Juez de Paz Sr. Simon Cuenca. 

Councilors Sr. Paulino Narvaez. 

Sr. Pedro Evaristo. 

Sr. Nicolas Rivera. 

Sr. Doroteo de Ocampo. 

Sr. Catalino Pagtacjan. 

Sr. Ruperto Angles. 

Sr. Arcadio Nano. 

Sr. Jacinto Garcia. 
Members of the local school board Sr. Epifanio Gomez. 

Sr. Bias Rivera. 

8r. Timoteo Evaristo. 
Principales del pueblo Sr. Justo Narvaez. 

Sr. Tomas Javier. 

Sr. Jose de los Reyes. 

Sr. Alipi Loczo. 
Imns: 

Presidente Sr. Licerio Topacio. 

Vice-presidente Sr. Pedro Buenaventura. 

Treasurer Sr. Guillermo Tirona. 

Secretary Sr. Celestino Aragon. 

Councilors Sr. Cayetano Topacio. 

Sr. Sixto Sapinoro. 

Sr. Estanislao Villanueva. 

Sr. Severino llano. 

Sr. Juan Faiardo. 

Sr. Bias Mallari. 

Sr. Fernando Matro. 

Sr. Cayetano Buenaventura, 

Justice of the peace Sr. Inocencio E. Santos. 

Committee of the Federal party Sr. Douato Virato. 

Sr. Esteban Quiogue. 

Sr. Domisiano Monson. 
Schoolmaster Sr. Jose Buenaventura. 



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204 EEPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Noveleta: 

Alcalde Sr. Mariano Alvarez. 

Teniente alcalde 8r. Nicolas Ricafrento. 

Treasurer Sr. Maximo Alvarez. ' 

Secretary Sr. Santiago Alvarez. 

Councilors Sr. Gravino Modiro. 

Sr. Calixto Chavez. 

Sr. Epifanio Agrava. 

Sr. Antonio Montano. 

Sr. Crispino Villaflor. 

Sr. Florentino Alvarez. 

Sr. Lorenzo Cafuir. 

Sr. Eleuterio Lamtoc. 
Tenientes del barrio Sr. Juan Mayba^. 

Sr. Benito Ignacio. 

Justice of the peace Sr. Andres A. Dias. 

Justice of the peace suplente Sr. Macario Olais. 

Naig: 

Presidente Sr. Juan Lopez. 

Vice-presidente Sr. Pedro Valensuela. 

Chief of the Federal party Sr. Ciriaco Nazareno. 

Ex-preddente Sr. Cristobal Bustamente. 

Principales Sr. Martin Astuar. 

Sr. Andres Gonzalez. 

Sr. Bias Arenas. 

Cavite Viejo: 

Sr. Beninio Santi. 

Sr. Claudio Tirona. 

Sr. Daniel Tirona. 

Sr. Andres Tirona. 

Sr. Pedro Villanueva. 

Sr. Felipe Igno. 
Maragondon: 

R^dente Sr. Primitivo Cuaginco. 

Secretary Sr. Exequiel Jimenez. 

Sr. Tomas Avancena. 

Sr. Pedro Riego. 

Sr. Justino Mendoza. 

Sr. Filomeno Martin. 
Temate: 

Committee of the Federal party Sr. Jose de Leon. 

Sr. Crispin Cachuela. 

Sr. Ciriaco Ramos. 

Sr. Valentin Ni^za. 

Sr. Ambrosio Nigoza. 

Sr. Anastacio R^os. 

Sr. Agaton Zapanta. 
Rosario: 

Presidente Sr. Andras Ner y Quijano. 

Cabeza del barrio Sr. Macario Morabe. 

Pharmacist Sr. V'ictoriano del Rosario. 

Indan: 

Presidente Sr. Fernando Diocno. 

Sr. Mariano Penaflorida. 

Sr. Agustin de las Alas. 

Sr. Eugeniano Salazar. 

Sr. Jose Mojica. 

Sr. Apolonio Cruzate. 
Mendez Nunez: 

Presidente Sr. Severino Llamada. 

Secretary Sr. Balbino Crucillo. 

Silang: 

ftesidente Sr. Nicolas Madlangsacay. 

Councilor Sr. Marcelo Benitez. 

Justice of the peace Sr. Gregorio Ermitano. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 205 

Amadeo: 

Preeidente Sr. Santia^ Bayot. 

Capitan pasado Sr. Honono Bayot. 

Capitan pasado Br. Feliciano Ramos. 

Teniente pasado Sr. Clemente Ramos. 

Secretary Sr. Melecio Crisostomo. 

Perez Dasmarinas: 

Preddente Sr. Francisco Barzaga. 

Vice-presidente Sr. Com^o Malijan. 

Justice of the peacre Sr. Fausto Bautista. 

Cabazas de barrio Sr. Dabnacio Ramirez. 

Sr. Juste Salabar. 

Sr. Pedro Same. 
San Francisco: 

Preddente Sr. Diego Mojica. 

Vice-presidente Sr. Wenceslao Mota. 

Secretary Sr. Nicolas Portilla. 

Justice of the peace Sr. Bonigno Saraiba. 

Justice of the peace suplente Sr. Jacinto Genoino. 

Councilors Sr. Pablo Sabali. 

Sr. Eulogio Santiago. 

Sr. Valeriano Nocon. 

Sr. Valeriano Olimpo. 

Sr. Estanislao Arnskldo. 

Sr. Isidro Oracion. 

Sr. Anastacio Poniente. 
Santa Cruz: 

Presidente Sr. Jose del Rosario. 

Abogado Sr. Jose Maria del Rosario. 

Sr. Eladio Bocalan. 

Sr. Eduardo Imzon. 

As some of the delegates were not familar with the Spanish language, 
the remarks of the president were also translated into Tagalog by Sr. 
Felipe Calderon, who accompanied the Commission. 

The president explained the provisions of the provincial government 
act ana the special bill applying such act to the particular provinces, 
and that portion of the municipal code relating to taxation. Keferring 
to the provision in the municipal code postponing the imposition of the 
land tax until the three months following the month of March, 1902, 
and exempting for one year more the land of anyone who had not 
raised a crop during the period between Januarj^ 1, 1901, and March 
1, 1902, because of the war, he explained that in order to meet expenses 
in the meantime the following provision had been made: First, that 
one-half of all the internal-revenue coUectionsof the province, including 
collections under the forestry regulations, be turned into the treasury 
of the municipality where collected and the other half into the treas- 
uryof the province; that this provision relates back to the 1st of Janu- 
ary of this year, so that one-naif of the collections of this tax in the 
province is due from the central government to the treasury of the 
province and one-half the internal collections in a municipality is due 
from the central government to the treasury of the municipality where 
collected from the 1st of January, 1901 . In addition to this ne explained 
that the provincial board and the municipal councils together have been 
authorized to levy annually a cedula tax of 1 peso Mexican upon all 
male persons between the ages of 18 and 56 years, with certain excep- 
tions, one-half of which is to be paid into the provincial treasury and 
the other half into the treasury of the municipality where collected; 
but that after the 1st of March next, when the land tax becomes pay- 
able, those who pay more than 1 peso as land tax are to be exempt 



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206 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

from the cedula tax. In addition to these resources of the province, 
an act had been passed by the Commission providing that any pro- 
vincial board which shall apply to the insular treasurer may obtain 
from the central treasury a loan of $2,500 gold, not required to be paid 
back until December 31, 1902. The president suggested that it would 
thus be seen that the policy which the Commission is trying to carry 
out is that all the money which is raised from the people of the province 
is devoted to the particular province or municipality m which the money 
is paid. It was noped that with these resources there will be no diffi- 
culty in the organizing and carrying on to a useful end the provincial 
fovernments. The blank form of the special bill was then distributed, 
n this form is left blank the name of the province, the territory to be 
included, the salaries to be paid the provincial officers, the per diem 
allowance for expenses while ti'aveling in performance of duties, the 
amount of bond of treasurer, and the location of the capital. The 
delegates were instructed to fill in these blanks according to their 
respective opinions, when they would be taken up. The following 
telegram was here received from Bacolor: 

COMMISSION, Care Commanding Officer ^ Cavite: 

I have the honor to inform you that the presidente and principals of Bacoor started 
to Cavite this morning, but owing to the state of the bay they all got very wet and 
had to come back. They are getting other and better bancas and will be there, 
although somewhat late, as soon as possible. 

T. R. Hayson, Captain^ Cdmrnanding. 

(The representatives of Bacoor arrived before the close of the morn- 
ing session.) 

At the expiration of a short recess, Sefior D. Andres Ner was recog- 
nized, and, referring to the question of the location of the capital, stated 
that he desired to voice the opinion of a great number of the inhabit- 
ants of the province that it should be at San Francisco do Malabon; 
that one argument in favor of the change is, that it hardly seemed 
proper to have the civil capital within the confines of a military and 
naval station such as Cavite, the present capital. He said that San 
Francisco de Malabon has a population of from 8,000 to 9,000; 
that there are buildings there suitable for provincial purposes. In 
answer to inquiry he stated there was no tribunal, but there was a 

Eublic school and convent there, the latter quite a large building, and 
e thought it could be rented, because it is now occupied by the Amer- 
ican troops. He thought it would be sufficiently large for the residence 
of the governor and of the provincial officers; there were rooms below 
and upstairs. He said the tribunal and some houses were destroyed 
during the war, but there were plenty of good houses left. There are 
good roads between San Francisco and other towns. The town lies 
between two rivers and its water supply is met from these rivers, and 
the water is good. Relative to healthf ulness, he said there were no 
malarial fevers there at all; that in proof thereof the American troops 
situated there are in a very healthy condition and a veiy contented 
state of mind. It was a great deal healthier than Cavite. In answer 
to inquiry, he said it was about 2 miles from Santa Cruz and about 6 
miles from Imus. He did not think it was 10 miles from San Francisco 
de Malabon to Cavite. He thought a person could travel the distance 
in a carromata in one hour and a half if the roads were good, but in 
the rainy season it would be difficult to make the distance in four hours. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 207 

He said the road was in very bad condition. He could not say if the 
people of Cavite province were unanimous in the selection of San 
Francisco de Malabon as the capital, and he could not say if the people 
would be willing to have it submitted to the vote of the towns repre- 
sented. As far as he was concerned, he would be so willing. 

Senor Antonio Fernandez, secretary of Cavite, was then recognized 
and presented a petition, signed by fourteen persons, representing the 
pueUos of Cavite, San Roque, and La Caridad, praying that the capi- 
tal remain at Cavite and setting forth the reasons therefor. This peti- 
tion will be found in the files of the Commission. 

Sefior Primitivo Cuaginco, of Maragondon, was recognized, and, voic- 
ing not only his own opinion, but he believed of every pueblo, with the 
exception of the three mentioned in the petition just read, thought the 
capito.1 should be transferred to a more central point for all the towns 
of the province. He said it was true that the port of Cavite has been 
the capital for a number of years and no point had been raised as to 
the convenience or inconvenience that it presented for a provincial 
seat; but it may be recalled in this connection that under tne former 
regime the people had to come to the capital whether thev wanted to 
or not; that any objections that they might make woula have been 
immediately oveiTuled. He thought the fact that the town of San 
Francisco may not have the buildings necessary for public offices is 
not such an obstacle that it might not be overcome, considering that 
it is a central point and better located with respect to all the other 
towns of the province; that the government of the province could see 
to it that a sufficient number of buildings and offices were provided. 
He did not care to express an opinion as to the suitability of Imus for 
the capital; that he was simply expressing the sentiment entertained 
bv the great mass of the people of the province in advocating San 
Irancisco de Malabon as the capital. He said the situation of Cavite 
only favors a few, whereas a more centrally located provincial seat 
would favor the great majority of the towns. 

Senor Daniel Trias Tirona was recognized, and said he desired to 
answer the Question of the president as to whether Imus or San Fran- 
cisco de Malabon was the most centrally located point. He thought 
that perhaps Imus was the best situated of the pueblos, because it has 
both sea and land communication, as he believed there was a river that 
leads up to it that is navigable for small steamers. 

Senor Victoriano del Rosario thought, in order to curtail the discus- 
sion as to the location of the capital, it should be submitted to vote. 
The president stated that ultimately that mijght be done, but that the 
Commission desired to learn the local conditions, and would be very 

glad to hear from anyone in the convention. Senor Rosario then said 
e favored San Francisco de Malabon as the capital, although he was 
not a resident of that town. 

Senor Leonardo Osorio said that in addition to the allegation that in 
Spanish times there was no objection raised to Cavite as the capital, 
and other arguments set forth m the petition presented by the secre- 
tary of the town, he desired to say that in his opinion every capital of 
a province should have, as far as possible, modern improvements; 
that there are plenty of suitable buildings in Cavite for the govern- 
ment offices, and the town possesses many elements which suit it for 
the provincial seat, whereas a change to San Francisco de Malabon 
would at once necessitate a call upon the provincial treasurer to pro- 



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208 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

vide proper buildings and offices, as it is probable that most of the 
buildings there which might be in some way suitable for offices are 
private property and at any rate would have to be remodeled, whereas 
in Cavite there are three or four buildings which belong to the munic- 
ipality or the province and which are in good condition to be used as 
offices. In answer to inquiry he said there was a very large provin- 
cial building in Cavite — the building in which the Spanish governor 
of Cavite formerly lived. He said it was a very good building, and 
newly constructed. 

Senor Julian Lopez, presidente of Naig, said that all this about the 
beautiful buildings possessed by Cavite may be true, and its proxim- 
ity to Manila may even be admitted, but he said these were oenefits 
only to the few people who lived, in the vicinity of Cavite, and he 
thought the righte and comfort of the rest of the province ought to 
be consulted, ne thought sound judgment, having m view the benefit 
of all, would select the most central point as the capital. He was in 
favor of San Francisco de Malabon. He said he thought that his town 
of Naig would make a very good capital; that it has better buildings 
and is a better fitted place than San Francisco, but it is not so central, 
and therefore he does not urge it for the capital. 

Senor Antonio Fernandez tnought that the statement that San Fran- 
cisco de Malabon would make the best capital because it was the most 
centrally located, or rather a little more centrally located, did not hold 
good, as Cavite could be reached by all the towns on the Bacoor coast 
by land. Others farther removed might be subjected to slight diffi- 
culty, but no more so than if the capital was at San Francisco de 
Malabon. In answer to inquirj^ he said there were very good i^oads 
between Bacoor or Cavite Viejo and San Francisco de Malabon, but in 
the rainy season they became a little bad. He did not know about the 
roads between those places and Imus, as he had not been to the latter 
place for some years. Formerly there were fairly good roads in the 
dry season. He did not know whether thev have been improved or 
not. In answer to Commissioner Ide he said the jail here is a vault in 
the wall, and another one of those holes was used as a presidio. Reply- 
ing to inquiry as to the cost of constructing the present provincial 
building, ne said that as the capital has been in Cavite from time imme- 
morial, the provincial house is a very old one, and in 1880 it could not 
resist the assault of the earthquake and succumbed, and in 1890 was 
rebuilt and remodeled at a cost of between $19,000 and $20,000. He 
thought with the present wages and cost of material, a house as solidly 
built and as capacious as the present one could not be reproduced for 
$50,000, and he thought if a building as good as this were to be con- 
structed in a centrally located town it woula cost a great deal more than 
that, because land transportation of material would huve to be taken 
iniu consideration. To construct a house equal to the one in Cavite 
in Imus or San Francisco he said would cost over 100,000 pesos. He 
said he doubted the assertion on the part of some of the previous 
speakers that all the pueblos of the province would be benefited by the 
removal of the capital to San Francisco de Malabon. He had traveled 
a great deal over this territory, and if anybody should tell him that 
the town of Magallanes and those towns which are near the Batangas 
boundary would be benefited by the removal of the capital to San 
Francisco, he would very much doubt the statement, and ir he was told 
that the people of Bacoor, who come to Cavite in a banca in half an 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPIKE COMMISSION. 209 

hour, would be benefited by such removal he would consider it a very 
unlikely statement. He admitted that water transportation has its 
inconveniences, the same as land transportation when there are bad 
roads. He said he never heard a complaint of the inconvenience when 
the people had to come to Cavite' in Spanish times. In answer to 
inqmry, he said that Imus, Bacoor, Naig, Indan, Silan, San Francisco, 
Santa Cruz, and Mara^ondon had the largest populations; that Cavite 
had a population of only about 4,000. He said that, besides the build- 
ing used as the residence of the governor and for government offices 
in Spanish times, Cavite has other buildings which belong to the Gov- 
ernment. He said all the towns outside of Cavite are country towns; 
that formerly Santa Cruz and San Francisco were fairly good towns, 
but, although he has not been to either one for a number of years, he 
is pretty well satisfied that with the ravages of war the^ have gone 
back to a condition of rurality. He believed, besides being centrally 
located, the capital city should have improvements which the country 
towns would not have, such as public charitable buildings, public gov- 
ernment buildings, and other improvements. 

Sefior Felix Ouenca, presidente of Bacoor , stated that notwithstanding 
the shortness of the trip by water from Bacoor to Cavite, a great 
many have been drowneJl, and it is only by very great luck that a 
great many more have not met the same fate. In regard to the con- 
dition of roads, he said the one between Cavite and Cavite Vieio can 
not be used at all in the rainy season; that the road between Bacoor 
and Imus is not a good one, because it is of a sandy nature, and the 
road between Bacoor and San Francisco in the rainy season is a diflfer- 
cult one to travel. Taking everything into consideration he thought 
Imus would make the best capital. He said there were no buildings 
that could be used at Imus, but he thought that by a small tax on all 
the people of the province, which he believed they could stand, enough 
funas could be secured to erect a public building. It was suggested 
to him that during the first year or year and a naif sufficient taxes 
might not be rai^ to pay tne necessary salaries, and to meet the 
expenses of immediately necessary public works, reiMiirs. improve- 
ments, etc., aside from erecting builaings. He then said tnere was a 
convent and some other suitaole builcfings in Imus which might be 
rented reasonably. Commissioner Wright asked him if he did not 
thmk, even admitting that Cavite is not the most centrally located 
nor the most desirable point, that considering that the provincial 
buildings are here, it would be best to allow the capital to remain here 
until the people have regained their lost fortunes to some extent and are 
able to bear the additional burden involved in naming a new provincial 
seat. The gentleman thought it should be taken into consideration 
as an objection to Cavite being even a temporary capital that a ffreat 
number of fatal accidents have happened to people who have enaeav- 
ored to come to Cavite, and another thing, wnen, for instance, parties 
and witnesses are summoned to court, there have been times when 
cases have been tried and judgments rendered when the parties could 
not possibly get here owing to the difficulty of passage. It was pointed 
out to him that under the American regime no such injustice would 
be done. He was then asked if he did not think, in view of the diffi- 
culty of raising taxes sufficient to meet the necessary expenses, it 
would be well to provide in the law that Cavite should be tne capital 
for two years, and at the expiration of that time the question of per- 
p c 1901— PT 2— 14 ^ , 

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210 BBPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

manent location be settled by a vote of the towns, to which he replied 
that the proi)osition was all right so far as he was concerned. 

Seiior Benigno Santi, presioente of Cavite Viejo, was of the opinion 
that within two years the towns could recover from the results of the 
war, and could raise sufficient money to construct a public building 
elsewhere if it was decided to change the capital. Leaving aside the 
question of buildings, he said the people of nis town would prefer to 
have the capital at £nu8, as it is a little more central and has a little 
larger population than San Francisco. 

A recess was then taken until 3 o'clock. 

Afternoon sesmm. 

The session was called to order by the president at 3 p. m., and 
Senor Diego Mojica, presidente of San Francisco de Malabon, was 
recognized. He thought the question of the location of the capital 
should be submitted to vote. The president told him that the Com- 
mission would like to hear some of the advantages of his town as a 
Elace for the capital. He said one of the advantages was that it was* 
is town; another that it had plentjr of good water; that it has good 
agricultural country around it; that it has several buildings suitable for 
provincial offices, and that it is centrally located. Departing from the 
question of the capital, the president asked if the province of Cavite had 
suffered much from cattle pest, to which he replied that it had, but 
that it is all over now: the last case he thought was less than six 
months ago. He thougnt about two-thirds of the cattle of the prov- 
ince had died from pest. He said, in answer to inquiry, that sugar 
and rice are the principal products of the province. He thought more 
rice was raised than was consumed in the province; that some was 
exported. He also thought that there was more sugar raised than was 
consumed. They do not raise many tubers. The principal food of the 
peojjle is rice. As a general rule, farm hands are not paid in money, 
out in produce; the owners and farm hands work on shares, as it were. 
He saia there was a general wage for hired labor, but it was not a 
permanent wage; that it ranged tetween one-half dollar and %\ Mexican 
per day, and with or without food, as the case may be. 

Senor Jose Ner was recognized and said that although he had not 
lived in the province for a number of years he was lx)m in Cavdte 
and had recently taken the trouble to investigate the condition of the 
province. After stating^ what he thought should be considered in the 
establishment of a provincial government, referring to the question 
of resources, he said it must be admitted that the agricultural product 
or wealth of Cavite is limited to rice, sugar, and coffee. However, 
there are other special sources of wealth, such as the salt deposits and 
the fishing industry. He said the rice alone which might be produced 
in the province would support a government, and yet with this agri- 
cultural wealth and labor or years the province was poor, because the 
towns, instead of enriching themselves, were adding to the wealth of 
the so-called religious societies of the Islands. If it were not for this 
fact, he asserted, that if Cavite would not at this time be the first prov- 
ince in the archipelago it would at least be the second. Referring 
to the question of location of the capital, he favored San Francisco de 
Malabon, but thought the question ought to be submitted to the vote 
of the towns represented. He could not understand how Cavite could 
be selected for the provincial seat, as there was no room in the town 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 211 

for civO government; that the whole ground is covered and ruled by 
the military and no civil government could find a footing if it were 
to have any jurisdiction whatever. He was asked if his argument 
would have no effect if the building that popularly belonged to the 
province were vacated by the military autnorities and were passed 
over to the civil authorities absolutely, and he replied that these build- 
ings might be sold and the proceeds of the sale utilized to erect build- 
ings in the town which the voice of the people should select as the 
provincial seat. He said San Francisco was the geographical center 
and had various means of communication with every town in the 
province, with the exception perhaps of Cavite. His attention was 
called to the limited resources of the province as provided by taxation, 
and it was suggested that perhaps it would be the part of wisdom to 
delay for a year or two a change which would involve a considerable 
expenditure. The president stated that it would be easy for the Com- 
mission to submit tne question to the majority and abide the vote if it 
could rid itself of the responsibility which in initiating a government 
it has to take. If, for instance, the Commission were to follow the vote 
of the majority in this case and it should turn out badly, it would be 
none the less responsible for the result; that while the Conunission 
would be glad to follow the wishes of the people, there sometimes 
arise cases in which the first wish of the people can not be followed, 
because, by the experience of the Commission in other provinces, it is 
possible that it knows a little more about the cost to begin a provin- 
cial government. He then said he was very willing to abide bv the 
decision of the Commission. In answer to inquiry, he did not Know 
the exact number of acres of land owned by the friars in Cavite prov- 
ince, but he said it was large and he knew that the greater part of the 
money of the people goes into the hands of the friars. It was pointed 
out to him that wnen the land tax goes into eflfect the owners of land, 
friars and all, will be called upon to pay it, and then the province will 
be in better condition to make a change m the provincial seat if desired. 
Seiior Ner said that if that was the decision of the Commission he was 
j>ositive that everj^ man in the province would receive it and would be 
satisfied. Referring to the lands of the friars, 'the president said that 
the only fact that is relevant in this respect, in discussing the provin- 
cial government, was that their lands are to be taxed as well as the 
land of an vbody else. Since the subject had been mentioned, he would 
say that the Commission has investigated this question with great care 
and has formulated a recommendation to Congress that the best method 
of remedying what is evidently an evil — the ownership of so much 
land, indeed it would seem the ownership of all the valuable land in the 
province of Cavite — would be for the State to purchase the rights of 
the friars and then sell out the lands to the tenants. However, Con- 
gress has not had tinae to act on this recommendation. (During the 
discussion of this subject considerable feeling was manifested by the 
delegates a^inst the friars.) 

The president then brought up the question of the territory to be 
included in the province of Cavite. He said there were some islands 
lying between Cavite and Mindoro provinces, and General Trias men- 
tioned the islands of Lubang and Corregidor. The president stated that 
he understood there were people living on the island of Lubang, and 
they desired to be made part of the province of Cavite. All the repre- 
sentatives agreed that they should be taken in. The president asKed 
if Corregidor belonged to Cavite or Bataan, and the delegates answered 



212 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

that it belonged to Cavite. Seiior Trias stated that there was another 
small island which was uninhabited, except by a friar. 

Senor Primitivo Cuaginco, presidente of Maragondon, was then recog- 
nized and offered a few more suggestions relative to the change of 
the location of the capital to San Francisco de Mfdabon. 

The president then explained that as the time was not sufficient to 
go on and pass the special bill to-day and decide upon the persons to 
be appointed, the session would be adjourned to Manila, where the bill 
would be passed in accordance with the suggestions received and 
appointments made, and the result of the same would be conununi- 
cated to the presidente of each town in the province, together witti a 
copy of the law. 

Tne president then introduced Attorney-General Torres, who deliv- 
ered an eloquent address in Spanish. He was followed by Dr. Pardo 
de Tavera. whose remarks in Spanish were likewise well received. 
The President then called upon Senor Felipe Calderon, who addressed 
the delegates in Tagalog. 

Sefior Juan Mateas then read an address of welcome to the representa- 
tives of the Federal party, after which the president of the Conmais- 
sion closed the session by thanking the people of Cavite for the cordial 
reception extended and for the words of appreciation for the work the 
Commission is doing. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: A. W. Fergusson, Secretary. 

United States Philippine Commission, 
minutes of proceedings. 

San Isidro, Province of Nueva EiciJA, 

Saturday^ Juns <9, 1901. 

Present: Commissioners Wright, Ide, and the president. 
The session was called to order bv the president at 9.50 a. m., and 
the secretary directed to call the roll of pueblos. 
The towns were represented as follows: 

Jaen: 

Presidente Sr. Apolinario Esquivel. 

Vice-preaidente Sr. Pedro Paymno. 

Treasurer Sr. Benito Frias. 

Secretary Sr. Fortunato Jimenez. 

Councilors Sr. Andres Velarde. 

Sr. Basilio Llado. 

Sr. Honofre Frias. 

Sr. Victor Payumo. 

Sr. Ciriaco Javate. 
Pefiaranda: 

Presidente Sr. Pedro Padilla. 

Vice-presidente : -Sr. Marcos Abes. 

Councilors Sr. Pedro Padilla, 1st 

Sr. Eleuterio Padilla. 

Sr. Alipio Ramos. 

Sr. Pascual Padilla. 
Sto. Domingo: 

Presidente Sr. Nicolas Andres. 

Vice-presidente Sr. Juan Sema. 

Councilors Sr. Remigio Aouino. 

Sr. Teodoro Salvatierra. 

Sr. Remigio Saluno. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 213 

Bongabon: 

Vice-preeidente 8r. Bibiano Aquino. 

Secretary Sr. Francisco Zotangoo. 

Treasurer Sr. Francisco Miranda. 

Councilors Sr. Marcelo Mantile. 

Sr. Bamon Quiamse. 
Sr. Eusebio Ck)ntrera8. 
San Antonio: 

Presidents Sr. Nazario Cando. 

Vice-presidente Sr. Cecilio Lamson. 

Treasurer Sr. Santiago Cruz. 



sidente Sr. Alejandro Corpus. 

CouncUors Sr. Bonifocio Dumayag. 

Sr. Ventura Palacio. 

Sr. Manuel Naceno. 

Sr. Venancio Alamon. 

Sr. Hermenejildo Gonzalez. 
San Isidro: 

Presidente Sr. Pedro Carmen Legaspi. 

Vice-presidente Sr. Florencio Miranda. 

Sindico Sr. Bufino Villanz. 

Treasurer Sr. Crispulo Sideco. 

Secretary Sr. Petronilo Bejes. 

Councilors Sr. Antonio Elvina. 

Sr. Lucas Comejo. 

Sr. Manuel Policarpio. 

Sr. Gabriel Bantus. 

Sr. Leopoldo Pardo. 
Licab: 

Presidente Sr. TitoLonoria. 

Councilors Sr. Mariano Calderon. 

Sr. Pedro Bivera. 

Sr. Juan Simpliciano. 

Sr. Feliciano Balincungan. 

Sr. Severino Aningat. 

Sr. Marcelino Victorio. 

Sr. Anacleto Beyes. 

Sr. Pablo Tagle. 
Santa Bosa: 

Presidente Sr. Norberto Matias. 

# Principal del pueblo Sr. Mariano del Barrio. 

Talavera: 

Presidente Sr. Mariano Talento. 

Vice-presidente Sr. Elias Ferrer. 

Councilors Sr. Pablo Villaflor. 

Sr. Francisco Alivio. 
Cabiao: 

Presidente Sr. Jose Crespo. 

Treasurer Sr. Bonifacio S. San Mateo. 

Sr. Salvador Belucio. 
Gapang: 

Presidente Sr. Simeon Linsansan. 

Vice-preeidente Sr. Satumino Arcadio. 

Councilors Sr. Jose de los Santos. 

Sr. Agustin Cinson. 

Sr. Ludovico Morales. 

Sr. Marciano Adorable. 

Sr. Calixto San Pedro. 
Zaragoza: 

Presidente Sr. Casimiro Escames de la Cruz. 

Secretary Sr. Daniel Pagaduan. 

Members of the directory of the Federal party .Sr. Mariano Veloso. 

Sr. Juan Belsa. 

Sr. Basilio Calderon. 



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214 RKPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Cabanataan: 

Vice-presidente Sr. Antonio Jiminez. 

Councilors Sr. Domingo Cuedas. 

Sr. Doroteo Soto. 

Sr. Bemabede Guzman. 

Sr. Ruperto Carlos. 

Sr. Agustin Garcia. 

Sr. !&£imerto Santarina. 
Carranclan: 

Vice-presidente Sr.Lorenzo Amante. 

Sr. Vicente Alindada. 

Sr. Ciriaco Esteban. 

Sr. Bias Sanz. 

Sr. Benedicto Castaneda. 

Sr. Mariano de Leon. 

Sr. Jose Mariano. 

Sr. Felipe Sans. 
San Jose: 

Vice-presidente Sr. Crisanto Sanches. 

Secretary , .Sr. Leopold© Reyes. 

Sr. Antonio Alzasua. 

Sr. Simplicio Villa. 

The president then explained to the representatives the provisions 
of the general Provincial Government Act and of the special bill apply- 
ing such Act to the particular provinces and those provisions or the 
municipal code affecting the question of taxation. He also explained 
the ced\ila tax, provided in an act amending the provincial government 
act, and the act providing for the loan of $2,600 from the central treas- 
ury to the treasury of each province organized under the general pro- 
vincial act. He stated that it was the intention of the Commission, if 
possible, to return to the province and to the municipality all the taxes 
collected in either for the local benefit of the people of that province 
and municipality; that the carrying out of that purpose, however, was 
dependent upon the further question whether the central government 
will be able irom the customs duties on importations to raise sufficient 
revenue to pay the expenses of the central government. In this con- 
nection the question of the validity of the present tariff law was brought 
up, and the president stated that the Commission was awaiting the deci- 
sion of the Supreme Court of the United States in the Porto Rican tariff 
case, which had the same bearing on the Philippine Islands. He 
explained in some detail the effect upon the revenue and trade of the 
Islands should the Supreme Court hold that there should be absolute 
free trade between the Islands and the United States, and also the effect 
upon the islands of a contrary decision. 

Referring to the special bill applying the general Provincial Gov- 
ernment Act to the particular provinces, he called attention to the fact 
that in the special laws establishing the provinces of Pampanga, Tar- 
lac, and Bulacan there was a section providing that the provincial 
boards of those provinces should have authority to unite in the 
employment of an engineer or engineers who should examine the 
Tarlac River and the Kio Grande de la Pampanga, to see what steps 
might be taken to provide against the great injury which the overflow 
of those rivers had caused, and if the inhabitants of this province 
desire a similar provision it may be incorporated in this special law. 
He stated that this suggestion was only offered to enable the citizens 
to know that here is an opportunity to be^in the first step of resisting 
the very destructive force of these two nvers, which seemed to have 
united in one and to have brought a good deal of injury to the prov- 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 215 

ince. A report would be expected so that a comprehensive plan of 
improvement might be adopted. 

As some of the delegates were not familiar with the Spanish lan- 
guage, the remarks of toe president were also translated into Tagalog. 

A recess of ten minutes was then taken, at the expiration of which 
Senor Antonio Jimenez, vice-presidente of Cabanatuan, was recog- 
nized, and stated that he headed the delegation from the town of 
Cabanatuan, and desired to express the pleasure which they all expe- 
rienced upon having the Commission in their presence. He said that 
in the name of the town he represented, and also of a great number, if 
not a majority, of the inhabitants of the province, he prayed the Com- 
mission to lift the state of siege prevailing in the province, as it is now 
entirelv pacified, in order that they might all exercise the rights of 
individual liberty, for which they have been wishing so long. He 
also asked, and he believed that he was interpreting the wishes of the 
people of the province, that the towns of Rosales, Umingan, Balungao, 
and San Quintin be returned to the province of Nueva Ecija from that 
of Pangasinan, to which they had been joined; that undoubtedly by 
the separation of those four towns from the province of Nueva Ecija 
it is bereft of a great many resources which would help support the 
provincial government; that these towns had requested to be trans- 
ferred into the province of Pangasinan because peace reigned within 
its borders, ana Nueva Ecija was at the time in a state of hostility 
against the constituted government. But as the province is now 
entirely pacified, he thought there was no longer any reason for their 
separation. In answer to inquiry, he said that there were no moun- 
tains between these towns and San Isidro. However, it is true that 
there is a great distance between them and the present provincial seat, 
but that this could be remedied by removing the provincial seat to the 
town of Cabanatuan, which is 5^ leagues from San Isidro. Commu- 
nication between these four towns and San Isidro was difficult on 
account of the distance (10 or 12 leagues) and the bad roads. It is 
about 7 or 8 leases between them and Cabanatuan, and there is a fair 
wagon road during the dry season, but rather bad in the wet weather. 

Senor Pedro Carmen, presidente of San Isidro, stated that he agreed 
with Senor Jimenez in that the state of siege in the province should be 
raised, as it is entirely pacified, but that the town of San Isidro by no 
means agrees with the gentleman that, should the four towns men- 
tioned as transferred to Pangasinan be returned to this province in 
the future, the provincial seat should be moved to Cabanatuan, because 
in the first place, at the present time at least, the town of Cabanatuan 
has not the necessary buildings for the use of the provincial govern- 
ment, and the town of San Isidro has all those elements which go to 
make up a provincial seat. It has a sufficient number of buildings, 
and besides it is connected with all the other towns of the province oy 
fairly good roads. He stated that the government house in San Isidro 
had been destroyed, but that it may be restored to the same condition 
in which it was prior to its destruction without very much trouble. 
He thought $10,000 to $16,000 Mexican would be sufficient for the 
purpose,l>ut that he was not informed in such a matter and could not 
give a close estimate. He stated that they had a jail which was a very 
good structure and could be used for provincial offices, and there was 
also a convent which might be utilized. He said that as one of the 
officials of the government was to be a civil engineer, it is inferred 



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216 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPHO: COMMISSION. 

that he will be a man capable of putting the roads and buildings into 
good condition. The president explained to him that the question was 
what thev have in San Isidro which can be adapted, by the expenditui*e 
of a small sum of money, for use as a provincial government building; 
that the amendment to the provincial law provides that after the offices 
of the provincial offii^rs are furnished then the rest of the building 
may be used as the residence of the governor, it being the hope of the 
Commission to dignify the office of governor, and of course it is impor- 
tant in determining where the capital shall be whether there is now 
available a building which may be used for the purpose without the 
expenditure of as much money as would really be involved in the erec- 
tion of a new building. Senor Carmen stated that during the Spanish 
rule the provincial building was not kept in proper repair and naturally 
it was destroyed. The walls are of stone and in fairly good condition, 
but the roof would have to be repaired 'but was not in exceedingly 
bad condition. He did not know whetner or not the building was 
ever used by General Lawton or for any other purpose than for a pro- 
vincial builaing. 

Sefior Epif anio de los Santos agreed with the other speakers that the 
towns mentioned as transferred to Pangasinan should be returned to 
Nueva Ecija. The president explained to him that the representatives 
of the towns who came before the Commission at Dagupan, province of 
Pangasinan, presented their claims chiefly on the ground of distance 
and difficulty of access to the capital, and that their business relations 
were with the people of Pangasinan and their language the same. 
They said that they had come from Pangasinan, and that they wanted 
to remain there. SeSor de los Santos stated that from time immemo- 
rial these four towns had belonged to the province of Nueva Ecija, and 
that only the town of San Nicolas y Bayug formerly belonged to that 
place, was afterwards incorporated into the province of Nueva Ecija, 
and then returned to Pangasinan; that as to the language and business 
relations that existed between them, he said that the official language 
for the last fifty or sixty years in this province, as well as in Panga- 
sinan, had always been Spanish; and that, as to the distance and com- 
mercial relations, there might be some shadow of truth in this if 
Dagupan were still the provincial seat, but the provincial seat was 
changed to Lingayen, and they are as far from that place as they are 
from San Isidro. In answer to inquiry he afterwards stated that 
Dagupan was the provincial seat during the revolutionary government, 
ana then, of course, three of those towns were nearer to the capital 
than they were to &in Isidro. 

The president stated that the Commission had received a petition 
from two or three towns to be united to the province of Tarlac, and 
the governor of Tarlac favored the change, but the Commission 
declined to consider the petition until it should consult the people of 
Nueva Ecija in such a convention as this. Seiior de los Santos thought 
the people of Nueva Ecija Province have a right to ask that these 
towns, which belonged to them for at least two hundred years, should 
be returned; that they ask for an investigation into the wishes of these 
four towns to be made now and ascertain whether they desire to 
remain in Pangasinan or want to return to Nueva Ecija. They 
request a full investigation as to the desire of the whole people and 
not of two or three leading citizens, so as to arrive at the opinion of 
the majority. The president suggested that they make this a subject 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 217 

for the next general election. Sefior Santos said so true is it that the 
majority of the people of these towns desire to return to Nueva Ecija, 
that the local committees of the Federal party consider themselves as 
members of the committees of Nueva Ecija rather than of Pangasinan. 
The president stated that at the time the commission last heard from 
these towns they preferred to remain where they were, but that the 
Commission may institute the investigation requested and find out if 
they now desire to return; that certainly the Commission had no desire 
to defeat the will of the towns and the people of Nueva Ecija, and if it 
is a fact that they desire to return there will be no difficulty about 
doing so. Sefior Santos did not think that the return of the towns 
should involve a change in the county seat. He said that the pueblo 
of Aliaga was the most centrally located geographically and that San 
Isidro was the commercial center, and from the standpoint of commu- 
nication with the different pueblos San Isidro is the most centrally 
located. 
Eecess was then taken until 3 o'clock. 

Afternoon session. 

The session was called to order by the President at half past 3 o'clock. 

Senor Pedro Carmen, presidente of San Isidro, in answer to inquiry, 
stated that by a state of siege was meant that the towns were under 
police charge of American soldiers, and he thought they should have 
their o^n police force; that the duties of the American soldiers^ as 
policemen should be confined to the military buildings, and that the 

Eatrol of the towns should be discontinued by the soldiers and be made 
y the Filipino police; in other words, that acting as local police by 
tfie soldiers be discontinued. 

In answer to inquiry, Senor Pablo Padilla stated that all the towns, 
so far as he knew, have been organized under General Order No. 40, 
and that a communication from the military commander had been 
received stating that they should continue under that organization 
until the provincial civil government is established. In answer to the 
president, he said that some of the towns were operating under Gen- 
eral Order No. 40, and not under the code. 

The presidente of San Antonio stated that his town had been operat- 
ing under the municipal code since the Ist of April. 

Senor Padilla stated that the presidentes have been informed in writ- 
ing by the militanr authorities to continue operating under General 
Order No. 40 until provincial civil government was established. The 
president explained that that was a mistake, and if he could furnish 
the Commission with a copy of the order the error would be corrected. 
He stated that there were police organized in the towns, but not in 
sufficient numbers, he thought, to keep the peace if the soldiers were 
withdrawn from police duty ; that the policemen have not even revolvers. 

Senor Pedro Carmen stated that the idea was that before the forces 
are withdrawn the local police forces ought to be armed. He stated 
that his police force had revolvers. 

The president explained that the change into different conditions 
would necessarily be gradual; that everything can not be done at once, 
but the Commission has no doubt that in the course of a month matters 
will be adjusted so as to meet the views of the gentlemen who have 
spoken, and that they may depend upon the Commission doing every- 
tning possible to bring that about. 

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218 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Sefior Antonio Jimenez, of Cabanatuan, thought that with the state- 
ment of the Commission thin morning on what the resources of the 
province would be one could well calculate what salaries should be 
paid to the provincial oflScers. He thought the governor should 
be paid $1,500 gold; treasurer, $2,000 gold; secretary, $900 gold; 
supervisor, $1,2W gold, and the provincial fiscal, $1,500 gold. He 
thought the fiscal should receive a larger salarv than two of the other 
oflScers in view of the fact that much money had been spent in learning 
his profession, and that in view of the amended provincial and munic- 
ipal codes considerable more work will be thrown on him. Referring 
to traveling expenses, he thought $3 gold per day should be allowed, 
being an increase of $1 over that allowed in Tarlac, where he said com- 
munication was much more easy and rapid. 

The president asked for an expression of opinion as to the wisdom 
of having a section in the special bill relative to the appointment of 
an engineer or engineers, as provided in the Tarlac and Pampanga 
bills, to investigate the rivers referred to this morning and the evus 
they cause. All the delegates agreed that such a section should be 
inserted. 

Sefior Jimenez thought that the meeting of the presidentes twice a 

Sear would be all that was necessary and tnat the months of May and 
November would avoid the high water and would be the best time. 
He then referred again to the location of the capital, commenting upon 
the statement of the presidente of San Isidro that the provincial seat 
should remain in that town because it possessed buildings suitable for 
the use of the provincial government, to wit, a jail and a ruined Span- 
ish government house, which it would cost from $12,000 to $15,000, 
Mexican, to rebuild and place in proper condition. He thought that 
for $12,000 or $15,000 a fine provincial building could be erected in 
Cabanatuan. Another objection to San Isidro waa that in the rainy 
season the town is entirely under water, which is not true of Cabana- 
tuan. He stated, in answer to incjuiry, that Cabanatuan was the capital 
of the province up to about thirty or forty years ago. It was the 
capital under the revolutionary government; that whenever the enemy 
came to San Isidro they walked to Cabanatuan. He said he did not 
know why the coital in Spanish times was moved from Cabanatuan 
to San Isidro. There are only ruins left of the buildings in Cabana- 
tuan that were used in those days. The town had 8,000 or 10,000 
inhabitants: He did not think San Isidro was so large. Here the 
presidente of San Isidro stated that his town had a population of 
11,000 to 12,000. Senor Jimenez thought it would be very good to 
have a provision in the law providing that the capital should be as for- 
merly until a certain time or until the next general election, when the 
people could decide for themselves where the capital should be. He 
said he did not know what towns Tarlac was reaching out for, but 
upon the suggestion of the president that he might infer from their 
proximity to Tarlac, he thought San Juan de Guimba was one of them. 
(This town was not represented at the meeting). CuyajK) was another 
town in the neighbornood that Tarlac mi^ht be reaching for. (The 
representative of this town was not in tne room). In answer to 
inquiry as to whether these towns were so situated that it is difficult 
for people to come from them to San Isidro, he said that in the wet 
season it was, but now the roads are fairly good. Cuyapo is about 7 
or 8 leagues and San Juan de Guimba is from 4 to 4i leagues from 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 219 

San Isidro. He said the towns were nearer to other towns in the prov- 
ince of Tarlac than to the town of Tarlac itself; that the idea was that 
they could so to those nearer towns and then take the train. He did 
not know wnether it was because of their desire to become a part of 
Tarlac that these towns were not represented at the meeting. 

Senor Toto Lanoria, presidente or Licab, was asked if his town was 
not one of those which presented a petition to the Conunission asking 
to be transferred to Tanac, and he said no, but that he had spoken fjo 
the presidente of Victoria, which is in Tarlac, and asked him if he 
thought he could not transfer to Tarlac, because the capital of Tarlac 
is nearer to his town, and the presidente of Victoria spoke to the gov- 
ernor. In answer to inquiry as to whether the people of Licab would 
not rather be in Nueva f^cija than Tarlac, he said that part of them 
wanted to go over to Tarlac, and he was one of them. He did not 
know whether a majority desired to be transferred or not. 

Senor Ludovico Morales, of Gapan, wanted to know if those towns 
which were organized under General Order No. 40, and which have 
now conae under the terms of the municipal code, might continue oper- 
ating under that law. He was told that the officers who were elected 
under General Order No. 40 would continue to be the officers under the 
municipal code, except that that code abolishes the office of sindico. 
There is another provision in the amendment of the municipal code, 
recently passed, which provides that when, under General Order No. 
40, taxes have been levied which could not under the municipal code 
be levied and collected from part of the people, that notwithstanding 
the municipal code the town may proceed and collect the remaining 
taxes, i. e., from the people who nave not paid, although there is no 

Srovison for the collection of such taxes in the municipal code. By 
irection of the president, the secretary then read the section relating 
to this subject, marked " n," in act No. 132. Senor Morales stated that 
his reason for asking light upon this matter was because his town of 
Gapan, as soon as the municipal code went into effect, suppressed the 
office of sindico, and is now and has been operating under the munici- 
pal code, while some of the other towns in the province, which were 
likewise organized under General Order No. 40, nave not been operat- 
ing as they should, under the municipal code, by military order. His 
town had received no communication on this subject whatever from the 
military authorities. 

The president explained again that the military order was certainly 
issued by mistake; that the matter of the organization of towns is con- 
trolled by the municipal code, which provides that every town organ- 
ized under General Order No. 40 shall, after April 1, continue as if 
organized under thfe municipal code and be subject to the teims of that 
code, and as soon as the province is organ izea and the governor has 
been appointed and taken the oath of office he can attend to the matter. 
Senor Morales said he believed he was interpreting the feelings of the 
majority of the people of his town in stating that if the capital is not 
transferred to Gapan it should remain in San Isidro. He thought that 
a provision in the act that the selection of the capital by the people 
through an election or some other way in the courae of a year would 
meet the views of his people. 

Sefior Gaudencio Medina, of Aliaga, was recognized and asked the 
Commission to look into the matter of compulsory service, without pay, 
in the building of public roads by the military authorities. He said 

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220 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPIKE 0OMMI88IOK. 

that men were compelled to leave the fields when it was about time to 

Elow and get ready for planting crops. The president suggested that 
e request the presidente and councilors of Aliaga to make a statement 
of the facts, mentioning the names of the men who were compelled to 
work and the time when such work was required, and also the men who 
made them work, and forward this statement to the Conunission. The 
president thought that such action might have been taken under some 
Spanish law which was supposed to continue in force. If so, the Com- 
mission would leani by applying to the person who purported to act 
under such law, and would take steps to oring an end to that sort of 
thing by suppressing the legislation. It was not the policy of the Com- 
mission to have compulsory service of that sort except in the case of 
criminals. The president further stated that this was probably a con- 
tinuation of the Spanish law as a means of collecting a road tax; that 
that method prevails in a good many States of the United States, and 
a man is allowed, if he is not able to pay the money, to meet the tax 
by working on the roads. There is no such provision, however, in the 
provincial or municipal code, and it was not the intention of the Com- 
mission to continue that system. In answer to inquiiy as to what town 
he thought should be the capital, he said as Aliaga was the center of the 
province he had no second choice. He was in favor of a committee to 
study the flooding of the country by the river. 

Senor Apolinario Esquival, of Jaen, asked if the municipal oflScers 
would be subject to the cedula tax. He was informed that everybody 
would be suDJect to it except the soldiers. He thought San Isidro 
should remain the capital. 

The president then stated that the time of the Conmiission in the 
towns recently visited, Pasig and Cavite, was so short that it was 
unable to enact the special law and make the appointments before 
leaving the towns, and the same is true of Nueva Ecija; there was not 
sufficient time to carefully draft the special bill for the province, and 
therefore the meeting would be adjourned to Manila, where, after 
preparing the law in accordance with the suggestions received from 
the delegates present, it will be passed and appointments made, and 
the form of the law and the names of the appointees would be for- 
warded to each presidente in the province. The officers may be sworn 
in before the judge of first instance, who is at San Isidro. 

Senor Felipe Calderon, in response to the call of the president, then 
spoke at some length in Tagalog, and his remarks were well received 
by the delegates. 

Thft president then expressed the profound gratitude of the Commis- 
sion for the cordiality of the reception tendered and its pleasure at 
having present Generals Lacuna and Sandico to assist at the meeting. 
He then announced the session adjourned. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: 

A. W. Fergusson, Secretary. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 221 

United States Philippine Commission, 
minutes of proceedings. 

San Fernando, La TJnion^ Aiigust 15^ 1901. 
Public session. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, and the president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 9.30 a. m., and 
the roll of pueblos of tlie province called by the secretary. 

The province was represented as follows, all the pueblos having 
delegates: 

Pueblo de Naguilian: 

Preeidente Juan Eetepa. 

Vice-presidente Macario Madayag. 

Secretario Alejandro Vercara. 

Tesorero IsidroH. Eetillare. 

Jaez de paz Tiburcio Florindo. 

Secretano del jru^^o Martin Rimando. 

C^bezas Concordio Pulmano. 

Juan Rimando. 

Anafltacio Guilon. 

FructuoBO Rimando. 

Ambrosio Baladad. 

Santiago Corpus. 

Menando Rimando. 

Fidel Villaneuva. 

Juan Esbepa. 

Fidel Ortiz. 

Miguel Rimando. 

Andres Cacdac. 

Alejandro Vergara. 

Luciano Garcia. 

Leon Diliyo. 

Eduardo Soriano. 

Juan Rimando. 

Enrique Florindo. 

Jacinto Florena. 

Liberato Tejano. 

Anselmo Patacsil. 

Cipriano Florena. 

Teodoro Lichian, 

Marcelo Lichian. 

Ambrosio Oastaneda. 

Luis Floresca. 

Ramon Lajorca. 

Narciso Rimando. 

Ricardo Perez. 

Benigno Quesada. 

Filomeno Madayag. 
Pueblo de Agoo: 

Preddente Andres Ayner. 

Cabezas Silverio Agustin. 

Trifon Ayner. 

Vicente Puzon. 

Placido Alban. 

Paulino Mendoza." 

Narciso Estonilo. 

Marcos Javier. 

Marcos Milanes. 

Nicolas Milana. 

Fulgencio Aspiras. 

Pedro Estonilo. 



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222 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Pueblo de Agob — Continued. 

Cabezas Carlos Nortee. 

Patricio Leroco. 

Gregorio Laroya. 

Paulino Boada. 

Gil Defuntorum. 

Guillermo Villanueva. 

Diego Nieva. 

Alfoaso Galban. 

Pablo Galban. 
Pueblo de Namacpacam: 

Presidente Manuel Reeureccion. 

Juez de paz Lucas Ancheta. 

Vice-presidente Eligio Serra. 

Tesorero Dionisio Bopez. 

Cabezas Mariano Velasco. 

Laureano Nerida. 

Simon Ablao. 

Teodpro Nisce. 

Juan Borromeo. 

Julio Nuval. 

Angel Bautista. 

Mariano Jarapan. 

Lucio Astel. 

Mariano Dias. 

Salvador Santaxromana. 

Elias Serrano. 

Emilio Resureccion. 
Pueblo de Cava: 

Presidente Timoteo Leiquisia. 

Juez de paz Comelio Camacho. 

Presidente partido Federal Lucas Rimes. 

Consejales Carlos Ma^Iaya. 

Agustin Baungam. 

Mariano Benites. 

Francisco Dulay. 

Mariano Ma^laya. 

Fabian Bautista. 
Pueblo de Banang: 

Presidente Vicente Dumpit 

Juez de paz Luis Jularbal. 

Secretano municipal Tomas de Guzman. 

Cabezas Geronimo Dumpit 

Juan Balagot 

Calixto Calua. 

Bemabe Mallare. 

Patricio Madayag. 

Cosme Abenoja. 

Sinforoeo Dumo. 

Antonio Rebollo. 

Jose Ortega. 
Pueblo de San Juan: 

Presidente Bartolome Alguer. 

Juez de paz Ignacio Abad. 

Swretano municipal Mariano Gaertan. 

Presidente partido Federal Matias Aquino. 

Consejales Daniel Padrien. 

Estanislao Macamag. 

Domingo Estrada. 
Pueblo de Rosario: 

Presidente Francisco de Guzman. 

Vice-ijresidente Diego Bejar. 

Consejales Juan Ponidas. 

Daniel Madriaga. 

Felipe Dacoco. 

Jose Lopez. 

Fernando Refuerzo. 



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REPOET OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 223 

Pueblo de Roeario — Continued. 

Consejales Hipolito Aepier. 

Anacleto Dacumus. 

Fruto XJlatan. 
Cabezas Mauricio Posadas. 

Januaiio Bison. 

Antero Estacion. 

Juez de paz Gavino Veduna. 

Pueblo de Anngay: 

Preeddente Marcos Madarang. 

Juez de paz Pedro Dacanay. 

Miembro partido Federal Florencio Baltazar. 

Qibezas Fabian Abelleza. 

Fulgacio Quesada. 

Tet^oro Mamaril. 

Candido Resureccion 

Ramon Quesada. 

Aniceto Carbonel. 

Mariano De Vara. 

Pedro Abellera. 

Jos^ Dulay. 
Pueblo de Santo Tomas: 

Preeidente Bruno Pacho. 

Presidente partido Federal Sixto Zandueta. 

Juez de paz Pedro Villanueva. 

Juez de paz auxiliar Angel Manzano. 

Secretano municipal Vicente Unson. 

Gabezas Jos^ Arboleda. 

Macario Aquino. 

Prudencio Nitura. 

Gaspar Fernandez. 

Dionisio Lachica. 

Pedro Calub. 

Sixto Estacio. 

Norberto Paculan. 

Eugenio Lisma. 

Antonio Manzana. 

Bonifacio Aquino. 

Antonio Laceste. 

Ladislao Doctolero. 

Mariano Eisma. 
Pueblo de Tubao: 

Presidente Teodorico Ayvier. 

Oabezas Adriano Buenaventura. 

Bernardo Viduya. 

Primo Fan^. 

Adriano Milanes. 

Esteban Suquitan. 

Vicente Estolar. 

Hilario Fontanilla. 

Gaspar Lopez. 

Lino Jaravata. 

Manuel Zarate. 

Timoteo Lopez. 

Juan Mapolo. 
Pneblo de Bangac: 

Presidente Anastacio de Castro. 

Vice-presidente Calixto Mangaibin. 

Juez de paz Apolinio Ramires. 

Cabezas Tmioteo Leoda. 

Cipriano Lopez. 

Bruno Man^bin. 

Mariano Coloma. 

Mariano La Pena. 

Silvino Coloma. 

Juan Monis. 

Delfin Coloma. 



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224 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Pueblo de Bangac — Continued. 

Oabezaa Claro de Castro. 

Coeme Ramirez. 

Timoteo Leorien. 

Gw^rio Dacio. 

Calixto Coloma. 

Anafitacio La Pena. 

Marcelino Morales. 

Francisco Barba. 

Mariano Boque. 

Martin La Pena. 

Ignado Dado. 

^ancisco Dacio. 

Mariano Mangibin. 

Antonio Lopez. 

Ram6nBarDa. 

Nicolas MaooBo. 

Secretario municipal Rufino Mangibin. 

Pueblo de Balaoan: 

Presidente Juan Rodriguez. 

Vice-presidente Valentin OSavian. 

Juez ae paz Dalmacio Vildria. 

Tesoreo Pedro Avillo. 

Secretario Daniel Zambran. 

Cabezas Juan Palgue. 

Norberto Rodriguez. 

Mateo Paguirigan. 

Macario Directo. 

Lucio Arbano. 

Estanislao Serra. 

Pedro Agturap. 

Santiago Compaon. 

Jos6 de Benito. 

Mateo Lupu. 

Bernardo Peralta. 

Juan Concepci6n. 

Leonadio Astrea. 

Apolonio Vildrea. 

Santiago Paguisigan. 

Bruno Ordono. 

Bartolome Astrea. 

Eustacio Astrea. 

Pedro Astrea. 

Camilo Lopez. 

Francisco Lopez. 

Siverio Concepci6n. 

Pio Lopez. 

Alejandro Abaldo. 

Eugenio Alinar. 

Macario Directo. 

Leon Viloria. 

Gelacio Lanrata. 

Comelio Leoda. 

Bamardino Peralta. 

Domingo Nesa. 
Pueblo de Bacnotan: 

Presidente Angel Lopez. 

Tesorero .• LiTOrato Buecab. 

Secretario Jos6 Carbonel. 

Vice-presidente Domingo Carganilla. 

Concejales Andres Dacanay. 

Potendano Lagazca. 

Juan Padilla. 

Praxedes Carbonel. 

Juan Dacanay. 

Joaquin Carbonel. 

Sabmo Dacanay. 

Faustino Oropilla. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 225 

Pueblo de Bacnotan— Continued. 

Joez de paz Justiniano Dacanay. 

Juez de paz auxiliar Paulino Nebes. 

Secretano del juzgado Pio Perlas. 

Cabezas Arcadio Cuaresma. 

AguBtin Binago. 

B^lio Delfinado. 

Candido Pagaduan. 

Dionisio Bucalbo. 

Juan Bucalbo. 

Pantaleon Dacanay. 

Tomds Cargamento. 

Pablo Padilla. 

Pedro Borja. 

Lorenzo Eepero. 

Simon Corpus. 

Simeon Cariuso. 

A^pito Dacanay. 

Pnmitivo Parong. 

Jacinto Bensit 

Vicente Obra. 

Domingo Pigael. 

Comelio Vaunoya. 

Ismael Higoy. 
Pueblo de San Fernando: 

Presidente Paulino Altiar. 

Vice-presidente Edilberto Aquino. 

Secretano Juan Lucero. 

Tesorero Vicente Carbonel. 

Consejalefi Guillermo Galves. 

Felipe Salanga. 

PioZafra. 

Jos^ Zafra. 

Jo86 Hidalgo. 

Eliseo Hidalgo. 

Faustino Alivar. 

Pedro de Guzman. 

Teodoro Alviar. 

Francisco Flores. 

The president then addressed the meeting and expressed his regret 
that the Commission had not been able to visit the province of La Union 
in June, when first contemplated, but circumstances had rendered it 
impossible. He expressed the gratification of the Commission, how- 
ever, at now being able to meet with them, and its appreciation of the 
cordial reception which had been accorded it. He then explained to 
the people that the government which is beinff established in these 
Islands is divided into three branches — the first tne municipal govern- 
ment, with which they were familiar; the next above that the provincial 
government, which the Commission was here to establish, and the 
uiird brancn the central or insular government, which is now exer- 
cised through a Commission as a legislative body and a civil governor 
as the chief executive; that the central government would not be fully 
organized until September 1, when three Filipinos would be added to 
the five American commissioners, and when four great executive de- 
partments would be organized. Within the sphere defined by law each 
branch of the government is independent of the other branches. The 
municipal officers were only subject to the provincial authorities when 
they passed beyond the limit of law, and the same relation existed 
between the provincial officers and the central authority. The provi- 
sions of the provincial law and the government proposed to be estab- 
lished thereunder were then explained in detail, special stress being 
PC1901— pt2 15 n J 

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226 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

laid upon the provisions relating to taxation. Reference was made to 
the cedula tax of 1 peso, levied by an amendment to the original pro- 
vincial law, upon all males between 18 and 66 years of age. It was 
stated that discussion with the representatives of various provinces 
had demonstrated that this cedula tax would be necessary in order to 
furnish revenue for the province until such time as the land tax became 
operative. Furthermore, it was believed that those who did not own 
land and did not pay a land tax should contribute something toward 
the support of a government whose protection they enjoyed. Refer- 
ence was also maae to the law passed by the Commission permitting the 
province to borrow from the central treasury $2,600 gold with which 
to meet its early necessities, the loan to be repaid on or before January 
1, 1901, without interest. 

The special bill applying the General Provincial Act to particular 
provinces was then explained, attention being invited to the blank 
spaces which had to be nlled before the law was passed. These related 
to the boundaries of the province, the salaries to be paid provincial 
officers, the allowance for traveling expenses, the bond of the treasurer, 
and the town to be chosen as the capital of the province. The object 
of the coming of the Commission to the province was to discuss these 
matters with the people and to receive their suggestions. 

The president also referred to the fact that there were quite a num- 
ber of Igorrote rancherias in the province of La Union, and some 
question had arisen as to the best metnod of dealing with these people — 
whether they should be brought under the municipal code and the 
provincial act, or whether they should be brought under the operation 
of the laws of Benguet, which had been framed for the government of 
an Igon'ote population. Suggestions were invited upon these points. 

The Commission then tooK a recess of ten minutes to enable the 
presidentes and delegates to discuss among themselves the points sug- 
gested. During the recess of the Commission various petitions were 
presented to it, some recommending candidates for provincial offices, 
and others, which formed the majority, asking the Commission to 
pardon political prisoners now in the local jail or in the prison of 
the district. Referring to the latter petitions, the president advised 
the people that neither the Commission nor the civil governor had the 
power to grant pardons to oflfendei*s committed oy the military 
authorities, its powers extending to civil oflfenses only and to persons 
convicted by the civil courts. The petitions would be referrea, how- 
ever, to the military governor with a recommendation for leniency in 
view of the present pacific condition of the province and the evident 
pui-pose of the people to respect the present constituted authorities. 

Following the recess Senor Angel Lopez, presidenle of Bacnotan, 
was recognized. He stated that he wished to discuss three points with 
the Commission: First, the question of public works; secona^ resources 
of the provincial government, and, third, resources of the municipalities. 
Referring to the matter of public works in the municipalities and the. 
province, he stated that under Spanish rule such work was done under 
the provision of law requiring fifteen days' labor from every person in 
the province. He feared that without such a provision, and in view 
of the present hi^h price of labor, the i-evenue provided for the pueblos 
under the municipal code would not be sufficient to undertake new 
improvements, being asked if he thought the people would be willing 
to nave such a law imposed upon them again, he said he thought they 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 227 

would. He said the people were not opposed to the other law, but 
what thejr objected to was that when they contributed money in lieu 
of labor it all went to the central treasury, no part of it being expended 
for the benefit of the contributors. Inquiiy developed that the prin- 
cipal products of the province were tobacco, sugar, and rice. The 
rinderpest had destroyed most of the horned cattle and carabaos in the 
province, interfering seriously with the cultivation of the soil. While 
there were some hoi^ses in the province, the people were not accustomed 
to using them in the fields, nor could they take the place of the carabaos 
in many classes of work. 

Referring to the revenues provided for the provincial government, 
the speaker was of the opinion that not enough money would be raised 
to support the government. Considerable aiscussion was then had as 
to the probable revenue which the province would collect from the 
land tax and cedula tax. The speaker estimated the population of the 
province at 127,000 and the probable value of the land at 4,000,000 
pesos. Inquiry developed that the value of sugar, tobacco, and rice 
lands in the province ranged from 60 to 160 pesos per hectare, such 
land having increased greatly in value during the past year. In view 
of these facts the Commission felt that the estimate of the speaker as to 
the value of the lands and buildings in the province was too low. He 
was told that this matter of a land tax was something new for the 
Filipinos, and until it had been given practical eflfect it would be impos- 
sible to tell just exactly what it would produce; that the Commission 
was loath to increase the tax until it had been tried as now fixed. As 
to the forced labor law recommended by the speaker, they felt that 
the sentiment of the people was opposed to it and thought it should 
not be imposed. It was suggested, finally, that the present system J^e 
tried for a time, and if the revenue was found insuflicient, means would 
have to be devised to increase it. 

The speaker suggested, as an amendment to the land tax, that prop- 
erty worth less than $200 be exempt. He was told that the end he 
sought was accomplished another way, to wit, by providing that when 
a person paid a land tax amounting to $1 he should be exempt from 
the cedula tax. 

Senor Joaguin Ortega, San Fernando, president of the Federal 
party, referring to the proposition of Senor Lopez to exempt from 
taxation property worth less than $200, said the effect of such an 
exemption would be to invalidate the land-tax law, as practically all 
the property of the province, with the exception of one or two large 
tracts, was owned in lots of less value than the figure named. He said 
that over 14,000 declarations of ownership had been made upon the 
lists recently distributed in the province. The two greatest crops in 
the province were stated to be tobacco and rice; little copra or hemp 
being grown. The speaker estimated there were 8,000 igorrotes in 
the province. He also suggested the advisability of annexing to La 
Union six towns in the southern part of Ilocos Sur; this because the 
capital of La Union was more convenient to the people of these towns 
than was the capital of Ilocos Sur. He was tola that the Commission 
could not decide this question until after consulting with the people 
of the towns interested. Seffor Ortega did not agree with the last 
speaker as to the advisability of a law reauiring forced labor, stating 
that the people were opposed to it. He thought the Igorrotes should 
have special laws suited to their needs and should not come under the 



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228 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

provisions of the municipal code. He said the Igorrote mncherias 
now formed barrios of the different pueblos of the province. Under 
Spanish rule they came under the jurisdiction of the pueblos. He said 
most of the Igorrotes in La Union were baptized and were known as 
New Christians. He thought Igorrotes over 18 years of age could 

Sy the cedula tax. As Filipinos lived in most, if not all, of the 
orrote rancherias, some question was i-aised as to the practicability 
o? applying such special laws to the Igorrotes. It was further statea 
that snould these rancherias be treated simply as barrios of pueblos 
they would be subject entirely to the inile of the more educated 
Ilocanos. The speaker stated that the revenues of the province from 
the last year of Spanish rule amounted to 189,115 pesos, of which 
126,000 pesos was cierived from the cedula tax. 
^ Referring to the comandancia of Amburayan, the speaker stated 
that during Spanish times this comandancia was administered from La 
Union. He said that a wagon road connected the two places which 
could be traveled in good weather. Senor Ortega, as president of the 
Federal party of the pro^'ince, then read an address welcoming the Com- 
mission to La Union and expressing the high appreciation in which its 
work was held by the people of his province and of the entire 
archipelago. 

The president responded to the address, thanking the speaker on 
behalf of the Commission not only for the expressions of good will and 
of loyalty contained in his address, but for the great aid which the 
Federal party of La Union and other provinces of the Islands had ren- 
dered to the cause of peace and pacification. The president also 
referred to the fact that the new judicial system implanted in the 
Islands by the Conmiission was to be inaugurated in the province of La 
Union to-day, dwelling at some length upon the significance of this fact 
to every inhabitant of the province. Kef erence was also made to the 
coming of American teachers to the province, 600 of whom were 
expected in Manila within the next few days. He said that it was not 
the intention of the Commission, however, that these teachers should 
supplant Filipino teachers, but that they should teach Filipino teach- 
ers how to teach. 

The Commission then adjourned until 3.30 p. m. 

Afternoon session. 

The session was called to order at 3.30 p. m. 

The president stated that the Commission, in deciding what salaries 
should be paid the provincial officers, had been somewhat influenced 
by the doubt expi*essed as to the revenues of the province. For this 
reason the salaries had been fixed at a lower figure than suggested in 
most of the lists handed in by the delegates. 

The following amendments were then proposed: 

Insert in the title after the words, "The Provincial Government 
Act," the words, ''and its amendments," and insert same words in sec- 
ond line of section 1 after words "February 6, 1901." 

Insert word " La Union" in title of act after words " province of," 
and the word "Luzon" after the words "Island of" in the third line 
of section 1, and the words "La Union" after the words "province 
of" in the same section. 

Insertas salaries of provincial officers, section 2, the following: Pro- 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 229 

vincial governor, $1,800; provincial secretary, $1,300; provincial treas- 
urer, $1,000; provincial supervisor, $1,700; provincial fiscal, $1,300. 

Insert $2.60 as traveling expenses of the provincial officers. 

Insert as amount of bond of provincial treasurer in section 3 the 
sum of $12,000. 

Strike out words " until after July 1, 1901" at the end of section 3. 

Insert as capital of the province, section 5, the town of San Fernando. 

The president stated that no change would be made in the boundaries 
of the province until an investigation and report could be made to the 
Commission by the provincial boards of the provinces interested. 

The amendments were adopted, and the question being then upon the 
passage of the law as amended, the secretary was directed to call the 
roll. The bill was unanimously passed. 

The president, as civil governor, then submitted to the Commission 
for its confirmation the following nominations of provincial officers for 
La Union: Governor, Joaquin Ortega; secretary, Andres Asprer; 
treasurer, Dean Tompkins; fiscal, Joaquin Baltazar. 

The nominations were confirmed by the Commission. 

In announcing the appointees the president stated that the Commis- 
sion had, as an expression of its appreciation of the attitude of the 
people of La Union toward the American Government and of the con- 
fidence which it had in their judgment, followed their suggestions in 
naming provincial officers except as to the position of supervisor. For 
this position a trained engineer and surveyor was required by law and 
the place could not be filled until the Commission returned to Manila. 

Oath of office was then administered to Sefiores Orte^ and Asprer 
and to Mr. Dean Tompkins by Hon. E. F. Johnson, judge of first 
instance of the third juaicial district. 

The president then presented to the audience Sefior Tomfis del Kosa- 
rio, a director of the Federal party and a prominent lawyer of Manila,^ 
who addressed the people. Senor Kosano is accompanying the com- 
mission on its trip. ^ 

The commission then adjourned. 

Adjourned. 

Attest: D. R. Williams, Secretary. 

• 
United States Philippine Commission. 

minutes of proceedings. 
ViGAN, Province of Ilocos Sur, August 16^ 1901. 
* Pvblic session. 

Present: Conunissioners Worcester, Ide, and the president. 

The session was called to order at 10 a. m., and the roll of pueblos 
was called by the secretary. The representation of the province was 
as follows: 

Pueblo de San Jose: 

Presidente municipal Panlaleon Biteng. 

Ck>noejal, cabeza de Barangay, and lieutenant 

of police Feliciano Qoilop. 

Concejales Tomas Tappiod. 

Guillenno Locsoc. 
• Rufino Lopdaff. 
P^udan. 



Bemigio rscm 
Mariano Bangasan. 
Pradendo Ti^ueban. 



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230 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Pueblo de San Vicente: 

Preeidente Inocente Re villa. 

Vice-preeiden te A lejandro Lazo. 

Gabezas Quintan Lazo. 

Domingo Rivera. 

Paulino A. Ciron. 

Elias Rosales. 

Agustin Ribnlanan. 

Urbano Lucero. 

Bernardino Mata. 

Agapito Rosal. 

Ellas Robinol. 

Esperidion Lazo. 

Domingo Revilla. 

Mariano Ranches. 

Filomeno Dancel. 

Domingo Lazo. 

Timot^ Rocero. 

Prudencio Lazo. 

Norverto Navarro. 

Comelio Rojas. 

Mariano Geronimo. 
Pueblo de Salcedo: 

Presidente municipal Simeon Sumaoi. 

Vice-presidente Dionisio Vilaoen. 

Representante Marcelo Sumaoi. 

Feliciano Amaguey. 

Felipe Sarmiento. 

Julian Pilayan. 

Gregorio Gumintono. 

Cesareo Bicasan. 

Pedro Camanga. 

Nicolas Aluyen. 

Jo86 Oanavan. 
Pueblo de Sevilla: 

Presidente TomasArtone. 

JuezdePaz Benito Estrella. 

• Cabezas Sinforoso Gavay. 

Feliciana Dava. 

Toribio Mazanda. 
E^ueblo de Vigan: 

Alcalde Jo86 Rivero. 

Teniente alcalde Valentin Ramirez. 

Tesorero Luis Encamacion. 

Secretdrio Fernando Ferrer. 

Ooncejales Pedro Formoso. 

Joaquin Singson. 

Ligorio Foz. 

Alejandro Morales. 

Isidro Mens. 

Jo86 Querol. 

Pastor Verzoza. 

Paulino Florendo. 

Filomefao de Leon. 

Franciwco de Leon. 

Paulino Alvares. 

Benedicto Centeno. 
Pueblo de Masingal: 

Presidente Francisco Vera Cruz. 

Representantes Egidio Oandasan. 

Juan Agate^. 

Sopio Rosario. 

Paolo Jurado. 
, Julian Vilamino. 

Cesareo Uria:^. 

Timoteo Lara. 

Bruno Viorge. 



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KEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



231 



Paeblo de Masingal — Continued. 

Preeidente Severo Tomanong. . 

Oatalino Soliven. 

Arcadio Gonzales. 

Mariano Tomaneng. 

Antonio Garcia. 

Pladdo Tabon. 

Norverto Sequi. 

Bruno Barbaido. 

Guillermo Roeario. 

Vicente Tolentino. 

Froilan Mercado. 

Cipriano Farinas. 

Isabelo Farinas.. 
Pneblo de CSabngao: 

Preeidente Maximiano Suero. 

Juezdepaz Gr^rioSison. 

Bepreeentantee Ambrosio Beraa. 

£duardo Oabangbang. ^ 

MacarioSuller. 

Santiago Sol. 

E^bfui Savellano. 

Pedro Santella. 



Paeblo de Santa Maria: 

Preddente 

Bepreeentantee. ... 



Pueblo de Oagayan: 

Preeidente 

Bepreeentantee. . 



.Gregorio Guibilan. 
.Gelanio Joronda. 

Juan Lazo. 

Ignacio Bamirego. 

Ignacio Bamirez. 

Buperto Quibilan. 

Julio Castillo. 

Pastor Mendoza. 

Baimundo Antonio. 

Nicolas Elecdon. 

Apolinario Escobar. 

Andres Da^el. 

Prudencio duEiblang. 

Simplisio Dacquel. 

Modesto DacqueL 

Agapito Dias. 

Juan Directo. 

Claro Quebral. 

Anastacio Diriffo. 

Tiburcio Macabaa 

Emeterio Escobar. ; 

Felix Arreola. 

Bomualdo Floresca. 

Ol^ario Beves. 

Sebirino Sebastian. 

Quiterio Florendo. 

Gre^rio Gaerlan. 

Brigido Damocles. 

Bernardo Dac9uel. 

Faustino Domingo. 

.Manuel Llanes. ' 
.Fulgencio Querubin. 

Tomas Querubin. 

Felix Querido. 

Juan Quintos. 

Candelario Cabildo. 

Bamon Querubin. 

Juanuario Llanes. 

Luis Querido. 

Victoriano Pichay. 

Isidoro Lopez. 

Zenon Querubin. 

Julio Querido. 



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232 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION, 

Pueblo de Candon: 

Presidente Pedro Legaspi. 

Delegado partido Federal Lino Abaya. 

Secretario municipal Cipriano Abaya. 

Tesorero Victoriano Abaya. 

Concejalea Mariano Crisolo. 

Guillermo Alviar. 

Gr^rio Mati. 

Basuio Madarang. 

Ellas Abaya. 

Isabelo Madaray. 

Victorino Valvin. 
Pueblo de Santa Maria: 

Preddente municipal Domingo P. y Lacandola. 

Directorio partido Federal Candido Arce. 

MiembroB partido Federal Emeterio Plana. 

Bonifacio Plana. 

Nicolas Reynante. 
* - Juan Ramiscal. 

Silvino Gorospe. 

Crispulo P. y Lacandola. 

JoseCenteno. 

Doroteo Cortes. 

Ricardo Racho. 

Pedro Enriquez. 

Maximo Gorospe. 

Santos Bacaza. 

Teodocio Arce. 

Eleuterio Rapanut. 

Sotero Ramiscal. 

S^undo Estela. 

Roman Ragaza. 
Pueblo de Santiago: 

Presidente Marcelino Liping. 

Cabezas Pragedio Ellasar. 

Antonio Mendoza. 

Juan Evalle. 

Bernardino Siping. 
Pueblo de Santa Cruz: 

Vice-presidente * Jos^ Pimentel. 

Concejales Lino Talavera. 

Pastor Apeles. 

Severo PimenteL 

Angel Talavera. 

Deffin Sanches. 

Mariano Josue. 

Juan Josue. 

Ambrosio Sanchez. 
Pueblo de Bantay: 

Presidente ^ Daniel Paz. 

Juezde paz Benito B. Pilar. 

Representantes Gre^orio Pe Benito. 

Mariano H. Pilar. 

Canuto Pilar. 

Baltasar Pilar. 

Dominco Perez. 

Alejandro Paz. 

Esteban Pe. 

Benigno de Castrc. 

Jos6 Maria Paz. 

Miguel Parrel 1. 

Jo(^ Purugganan. 

Macario PeBenito. 

Enrique Maria Paz. 

Pio Pilar Paz. 

Cipriano Paz. 



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REPOBT OF THE PHELIPPINE COMMISSION. 233 

Paeblo de San Ildefonso: 

Presidente municipal Romualdo Soriano. 

Bepresentantee Lorenzo Paday ao. 

Lorenzo Vega. 

Lois Pasis. 

Jnan Pali. 

Monico Castillo. 

Sinforoso Gonzales. 

Agaton Raquepu. 

Greeorio Vega. 

CatcQino Jaramillu. 
Paeblo de Santa Lncia: 

Presidente municipal ^ Mariano Fernandez. 

Vice-presidente Francisco Saldevar. 

Lieutenant police Tomas Joven. 

Juez de paz Matias Talavera. 

Presidente partido federal Joan Festejo. 

Prindpales Pedro Festejo. 

Pedro Aguilar. 

Hugo Salgado. 

Bernardo Pimentel. 

Bafel Sanches. 

Zacarias Joven. 

Modesto Joven. 

Isidoro Antolin. 

Claro Bivero. 

Joaquin Pimentel. 

Grervasio Soria. 

Evaristo Festejo. 

Marcelino Jines. 
Paeblo de Santo Domingo: 

Presidente municipal Juan Tesoro. 

Vice-presidente , Job Tesoro. 

Preeiaente partido federal Wenceslao Soliven. 

Directorio partido federal Aniceto Abila. 

Francisco Esposo. 
Oabezas de barrio Arcadio Guerrero. 

Vito Guerrero. 

Julian Benites. 

Bufino Tagorda. 
Paeblo de Lapo: 

Presidente municipal Alejandro Varilla. 

Vice-presidente Clemente Quilala. 

Cabezas and concejales Potenciano Ceracruz. 

Benito Aquino. 

Pedro CJorpufi. 

Hilario Pereyra. 
. Nicolas Aquino. 

Natalio Pereyra. 

Martino Corpus. 

Valente Guerrero. 

Liverato Mercado. 

Anacleto Venida. 

Juan Gorospe. 

Pascual Villa. 

Julian Gorospe. 

Mariano Valle. 

Tito Veracruz. 

Eduardo Padua. 

Nicolas Guzman. 

Nicolas Pereyra. 

Macario Veloria. 

Gaudencio Veracruz. 
Paeblo de Santa: 

Presidente municipal Satumino Bello. 

Vice presidente Marcelina Martinez. 

Maestro Mariano Bello. 



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234 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Pueblo de Santa — Continued. 

Teniento de polida Nemesio de Peralta. 

Coucejalee Ijcnacio Peralta. 

Tomas Advincula. 

Joe6 Bello. ^ 

Nazario Bello. 

Pedro Bueno. 

Florencio Ramirez. 

Pio Brillantez. 

Casimiro Leones. 

Pablo Leonee. 

Macario de Peralta. 
' . Vicente Berzabal. 

Eladio Villalba. 

Hilario Bello. 

Ciriaco Bello. 

Valentin Malana. 

Nicolas Bagoyo. 

Sixto Brillantez. 

Cipriano Brillantez. 

Mateo Buena vista. 

Mauricio Berzabal. 
Oura Parroco ; Bonifecio Brillantez. 

Pueblo de Nuevo Coveta: 

Preddente municipal Fabian Dagyo. 

Cabezas de Barangay Francisco Domava. 

Fabian Bang-^. 

Francisco Bull-Ion. 

Laureto Gat-eb. 

Felix C^istro. 

Vicente Foronda. 

Macario Dalit. 

Mariano Lestino. 

Geronimo Domingo. 

Maximo Dayos. 
Pueblo de Smait: 

Preddente Ciriaco Husca. 

Representantee Severo Agayan. 

Doroteo Bus. 

Teodorico Ipac. 

Nicolas Morales. 

Timoteo Inocelda. 

Julina Affdeppa. 

Diego CalevoBo. 

Hilarion Yadao. 
Pueblo de Narvacan: 

Preddente Rafino Banes Marcelo. 

Preddente partido Federal Victorino Damasco. 

Miembro partido Federal Ponciano Viloria y Martinee. 

Felipe Gaerlan. 
Pueblo de Tagudin: 

Presidente Apolonio Villanueva Acosta. 

Juez de paz Maurido Mtmglapus. 

Directono partido Federal Ambrodo Miim. 

Miembro partido Federal Candido Mausang. 

Marcelo Lonsameda. 

Bernardino Laminosa. 

Faustino Somera. 

Pedro Laffemilla. 

Esteban Acosta. 

Pascual Lorenzana. 

Basilio Lamadiid. 

Pedro Ringor. 

Higinio Villanueva, 

Pantaleon Bunoan. 

Buenaventura Villanueva. 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 286 

Paeblo de Tagadin — Continued. 

Miembro partido Federal Eulogio Jimeno. 

Juan Quines. 

liberato T^aflmariaa. 

Doroteo Parpana. 

JoanDacio. 
Pueblo de San Esteban: 

Presidente Antonio Taquian. 

Repreeentantee Comelio Vergara. 

Leandro Mendoza. 

Julian Vergara. 

Dimas Espejo. 

Pedro Europa. 

Vincente Esparanza. 

Francisco Esperanza. 

Juan Hemaee. 

Juan Im^nal. 

Jos6 Ebojo. 

lino Ordonee. 

Mala<]|uia8 Ordonee. 

Eulogio Mendoza. 

Immediately after the session was called to order, Senior Fernando 
Ferrer, secretary of the municipality of Vigan, took the floor, and 
thanked tbe Commission for coming to V igan and llocos Sur, and for the 
good work it was doing in the establishing of civil governments. He 
asked that the outward manifestations which the Commission saw be con- 
sidered evidence of the respect and affection which the people of llocos 
Sur had for the sovereignty of the United States. A short address of 
welcome of a similar character was also delivered by the president of 
the federal party. A third speaker asked that there be established in 
the province of llocos Sur, at the expense of the central government, 
institutions of learning, not only for elementary instruction, but also 
schools for the development of the arts and sciences; that there should 
also be established schools for the teaching of English to adults, inas- 
much as English was to be the official language m five years, and in 
which connection he also requested that this period be extended from 
five years to ten. In view of the bloody war which had taken place in 
the province, he asked that the collection of the land tax be postponed 
for ten years; and, lastly, that there should be absolute equality of 
salary between Americans and Filipinos in all cases. 

Sefior Satumino Bello, presidente of the town of Santa, welcomed 
the Commission, and asked to call its attention to the serious predica- 
ment in which his town found itself, by reason of the encroachments 
of the Abra River, which was cutting away the bank upon which the 
town was located. The people had been gradually forced back by the 
encroachments of the river, many of the houses having been carried 
away, and at the present rate, in a few years, the site of the present 
town of Santa would be wiped out. The commanding officer of the 
detachment of United States troops located at Santa, with the help of 
the citizens of the town, and under the direction of an American engi- 
neer, had attempted to turn the course of the river, so as to prevent 
the disaster which is threatening them, but the resources of the town 
of Santa were wholly inadequate to such a work, and they now asked 
the central government to come to their relief. 

Replying to the remarks which had been made by the different 
speakers, 9ie president, on behalf of the Commission, expressed high 
gratification at the welcome received at Vigan, and thanked the gentle- 
men who had spoken for their loyal sentiments. He said that the Com- 



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236 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE OOMMISSION. 

mission wished to apologize for its delay in coming to llocos Sur, but 
that it was at last here for the purpose of establishing civil provincial 
government. With the establishment of such civil government would 
come additional responsibilities to the citizens of the province, as the 
army would step aside and an opportunity be given the people to show 
whether thev could maintain law and order under the organization to 
be furnished them. If each officer administered his office so as to 
benefit the general public and not his individual interest there would 
be no difficulty in maintaining law and order and giving to the people 
contentment and prosperity, but if any official shall regard his office 
solely as a means of gratifying either his personal desire for revenge 
or to benefit particular friends, then the government would be a failure. 
The president stated that the cordial expressions and enthusiasm mani- 
fested was an evidence that the people desired to make their govern 
ment a success, but it would require, he begged them to remember, 
something besides enthusiasm. Success could only be obtained by 
hard work and by remaining true to correctprinciples at times when 
they were not carried away by enthusiasm. Tne Commission believed, 
however, that the people of llocos Sur would make their government 
a success, and it would expect them to vindicate that judgment. It 
was not to be expected that all the affairs of government would run 
smoothly at first, but that would come with experience. 

Referring to the requests which had been made by the speakers, the 
president ste.ted that the question of the local improvement tor the town 
of Santa was one which addressed iteslf ^ first, to the authorities of the 
town; second, to the provincial authorities, and, third, to the central 
government. But the central government could take no action until 
investigation had been made by competent pei-sons, who could state 
what the exact condition is and what the exact relief should be. The 
Commission was asked to postpone the levying of the land tax for ten 
years. The president asked the delegates how it would sound to ask a 
man to give up eating for ten years. The government must be sup- 
ported by taxation, and the only question was as to the best method of 
raising such taxes. The Commission had recognized that much loss 
had been occasioned by the war, and the collection of the land tax had 
therefore been postponed until the coming year, and in every case 
where it shall appear that no crop has been raised by reason of the 
war, that land is exempted from taxation for still another year. The 
president then showed by practical examples that the land tax 
was not at all the burden which the speakers seem to think, as 
the total possible maximum amount which could be levied under 
the law was only $8.76 Mexican per $1,000 of valuation. Further- 
more, any person who paid a lana tax of $1 or more was exempted 
from the payment of the cedula tax. Attention was also directed 
to the fact that none of this tax would be sent to Manila, but that 
it was all intended for the support of the municipal and provincial 
governments. It was also pointed out that the urbana tax would 
be abolished and the industrial taxes largely reduced, besides which 
the etamp and timber taxes would be collected hereafter by tiie pro- 
vincial treasurer and used for provincial and municipal purposes and 
not sent to Manila. Lastly, all of the internal revenue collected since 
the 1st of January last would be returned to the province, one-half 
for the support of the provincial government and one-half to the towns 
in which it had been collected. In other words, the central govern- 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 237 

ment expected to be supported by its duties on imports. The presi- 
dent then referred to tne many other benefits which the central 
^vemment should giv^ to the municipal and provincial governments 
m the way of the judicial system, the school system, etc., for which 
latter 600 teachers were now about to arrive in Manila, to be followed 
in the near future by 300 or 400 more. Regarding the remarks made 
concerning equality of salaries between Americans and Filipinos, the 
president pointed out that until the Filipinos became proficient in 
English many of the positions would have to be filled by Americans, 
especially those in the departments of a clerical nature, where, by 
reason of the large and continual correspondence in English, a thor- 
ough knowledge of that language was absolutely essential with the 
employees. But as far as equality was concerned, equality before the 
law, the Filipinos were exactly equal in their rights to the Americans. 

Tiie presiaent then briefly expuiined the plan of organization of the 
provincial government and described the duties of eacn of the five pro- 
vincial officers, calling attention also to the law by which the provmce 
may borrow $2,500 from the central government, to be returned with- 
out interest by January 1, 1903. Attention was then called to the spe- 
cial act which it was necessary that the Commission should pass in order 
to make the provincial act applicable to Ilocos Sur, and the points 
named upon which it was necessaiy to decide in regard to salaries of 
the provincial officers, bond of the 'treasurer, traveling expenses for 
provihcial officers, and the location of the capital of the province. 
iTie Commission invited discussion upon all of these subjects. In clos- 
ing the president stated that there was not a person in the province of 
Ilocos Sur who had more interest in the 8ucx?ess of the government 
which was about to be established than did the members of the Com- 
mission, and stated that he closed his remarks as he had begun them, 
with expressions of gratitude for the cordiality of the reception given 
the Commission and with confidence in the success of their government. 

There was then held a recess of ten minutes for the purpose of per- 
mitting the representatives to discuss the questions under considera- 
tion. 

After the recess the president of the Federal party was requested to 
rise, as the Commission wished to ask him some questions. Regarding 
the chief agricultural product of the province he stated it to be sugar, 
very little tobacco or rice being raised, most of the latter being 
imported from Ilocos Norte. When asked about the horned cattle in 
the province, the speaker replied that the}^ as well as the carabaos, 
had nearly all died; there had also been an epidemic of glanders among 
the horses, which had killed many of them. Planting nad been much 
neglected by reason of the lack of animals; but the sugar-crop pros- 
pects were fair. The glanders and epizootic were still prevalent to a 
slight degi'ee in the province, although it was the general opinion that 
the diseases had about run their course. There were schools in most 
of the towns of the province, and in Vigan there were three American 
teachers. There were also American teachers in a number of other 
towns in the province. The question of schoolhouses being brought up, 
Brigadier-General Bell, commanding general of the district, wno was 
present, stated he would like to know from the speaker why schoolhouses 
were not built in Vigan, there beingonlyoneanditwasincomplete. The 
speaker replied that it was on account of the want of lumber. The prov- 
ince formerly got its lumber from the province of A bra, because the lum- 



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238 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

ber which could be obtained near by was not suitable for building pur- 
poses; but as they could not get any lumber from Abra now, it had put 
a stop to building. Discussion as^ why lumber could not be obtained 
from the province of Abra disclosed the fact that thirty years ago the 
Spanish (jovernment enacted a law forbidding the cutting of tiniDer in 
Abra in order to allow the forests to grow up, as they haa been almost 
exhausted. The timber had grown up again now, however, and the 
repeal of the old Spanish law would be a great help, not only to Ilocos 
Sur, which was practically without building material, but also to Abra, 
which would benefit from the forestry tax collected. The president in 
reply stated that the Commission had never heard of this matter before 
and that it would investigate same upon its return to Manila, and if 
there was no good reason to the contrary Abra province would be as 
open to the cutting of lumber as any province in the Islands. 
The Commission then adjourned until 3.30 p. m. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The session was called to order at 4.15 p. m.. and the president 
announced that after a conference somewhat long arawn out the Com- 
mission had arrived at its conclusions regarding matters to be deter- 
mined at Vigan. 

The presiaent then submitted the following amendments to the spe- 
cial act organizing the province: 

Insert in the title, after the words 'Hhe provincial government act," 
the words ''and its amendments," and add to the title the words 
"Ilocos Sur." ' 

Amend the first section of the bill by inserting the word *' Luzon " 
after the words "island of," and the words "Ilocos Sur" after the 
words "province of." 

In the second section, that the salaries of the provinc^ial officers be 
fixed as follows: Provincial governor, $1,800; provincial secretary, 
$1,300; provincial treasurer, $2,100; provincial supervisor, $1,700; pro- 
vincial nscal, $1,400. 

In the second section, that the traveling expenses to which each pro- 
vincial official is limitea be fixed at $2.50 per day. 

In the third section, that the bond of the provincial treasurer be fixed 
at $15,000. 

In section 5, that the capital of the province be fixed at Vigan. 

Insert as new section section 6, as follows: 

Sec. 6. This Act shall take effect on its passiu;e and oflScers may be appointed and 
qualify at once, but the government shall not Be organized, nor shall tne provincial 
officers receive any salary, until September 1, 1901. The internal revenue of the 
province shall continue to be collected until September 1, 1901, by the collector of 
mtemal revenue, now incumbent. 

The amendments as proposed were adopted. 

The question being upon the passage of the bill as amended, the 
secretary was directed to call the roU. The bill was unanimously 



The president, as civil governor, then announced the following 
nominations for the confirmation of the Commission: For provincial 
governor, Mena Cris61ogo; for provincial treasurer, C. W. Ney; for 
provincial fiscal, Vicente Singson. 

For the position of provincial supervisor, the president announced 
that as this position required the services of a skilled engineer, no 
nomination could be maae until after the arrival of twenty civil engi- 

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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 239 

neers from the United States, who had been sent for by the Ciommis- 
sion and were expected at any time. 

Regarding the nomination for provincial secretary, the president 
stated there was some doubt. The Commission had read with much 
interest the recommendations of the Federal party, but found that 
there was some differences regarding this position. The Conmmiission 
had, therefore, decided to leave to a vote of the presidentes of the 
towns present the question as to who should be nominated as secretary 
of the province. 

The roll of pueblos was then called, each presidente casting his vote 
as the name oi his pueblo was announced. The result of the vote was 
as follows: 

Fernando Ferrer 14 

Rani6n Florendo 6 

Juan Arbolido 2 

Luis Encamaci6n 1 

Fernando Florendo 1 

Lino Abaya 1 

The president then stated that he would, as civil governor, in 
accordance to the wishes of the representatives as expressed by their 
vote, nominate as secretary of the province of Ilocos Sur Sefior Fer- 
nando Ferrer. 

On motion, the nominations were confirmed by the Commission. 

The oath of office was then administered to Sefiores Mena Cris61ogo 
and Fernando Ferrer, after which the president introduced Sefior 
Tom£s G. del Rosario, a prominent lawyer of Manila and a member of 
the directory of the Federal party, who is accompanying the Commis- 
sion on its trip. Senor Rosario delivered a stirring address in Span- 
ish to the delegates present, which brought forth great applause. 

It being called to the attention of the president bv General Bell that 
the town of Alilem, which was an Igorrote town, had delegates pres- 
ent at Vigan, but that the Ilocanos would not permit them to take part 
in the meeting, claiming that they were not a part of the province, the 
president stated that, m the opinion of the Commission, under the 

f present law the town of Alilem becomes a part of the province of 
locos Sur. The Commission was not at the time ready to decide the 
question of whether the people who live there, being pure Igorrotes, 
snoold have a different form of government, but they would at pres- 
ent be regarded as attached to this province. 

The president stated that he was informed by General Bell, to whom 
he wished to say the Commission was indebted a great deal for assist- 
ance in many parts of the archipelago, that but few towns in the prov- 
ince were organized under the municipal code. In order that all of 
the towns might be organized the president announced that he would, 
as civil governor, nominate, before the Commission left Vigan, the 
governor of the province, Senor Mena Cris61ogo, as chairman of the 
committees of organization of all the towns not now organized under 
the municipal code. 

Commissioner Worcester announced that he would like to meet all 
of the presidentes after the session who had Igorrotes or Tinguianes 
living m their Imrrios, for the purpose of discussing matters in regard 
to these people. 

The session then adjourned. 

Attest- 

D. R. Williams, Secretary. 

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240 bbpObt of the Philippine commission. 

United States Philippine Commission. 

MINUTES OF proceedings. 

Bangued, Abra, Monday^ Augvst 19^ 1901. 
Public session. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, and the president. 

The session was called to order by the president at 10 a. m. and the 
roll of pueblos called by the secretary. The province was represented 
as follows: 

Pueblo de Tayum: 

Preeidente Catalino Cariflo. 

Pueblo de Bucay: 

Preeidente Narcieo Torres. 

Vice-presidente Pedro Gonzalez. 

Concejales Urbano Tacbas. 

Pablo Bemales. 

Pablo Flores. 
Pueblo de San Jose: 

Preeidente Leon Lizardo. 

Vice-presidente Autero Balleeta. 

Pueblo de Dolores: 

Presidente Plicido Angco. 

Principal Rosalie Eduarte. 

Ooncejales Jacinto Eduarte. 

Florentine Buenaf^. 

Nicomedes Gusman. 
Pueblo de San Juan: 

Presidente Rafael Lucas. 

Vice-presidente Mariano Llaneza.' 

Cabeza Faustino Belisario. 

Principal Catalino Molina. 

Cabeza Hipolito Billedo. 

Principal Timoteo Crisologo. 

Juan Sagnsag. 

AgustinXlaneza. 
Pueblo de La Paz: 

Vice-presidente Severe Escala. 

Cabezas ^ Demetrio Doce. 

Ruperto Timbresa. 

Vicente Leona. 
Pueblo de San Gregorio: 

Presidente Perfecto Bulayong. 

Vice-presidente Eurebio Brioso. 

Principal Esteban Bay-on. 

Agustin Elpa. 
Cabezas Rafael Bun-ao. 

Diego Bulayon. 

Eustaquio Padasil. 

Ambrosio Elpa. 

Principal Alfonso Rafliero. 

Pueblo de Pidigan: 

Presidente Andr^ Pefia. 

Vice-presidente Francisco Bringas. 

Concejales Fermin Parifias. 

Felipe Paculan. 

Bonifacio Pilar. 

Buenaventura Bringas. 

Esteban Bringas. 

Agapito Perlas, 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 241 

Pueblo de Pidigan — Continued. 

Principalee Jueto Perez. 

Bernardino Palmones. 
Ygnacio Bringas. 
Mariano Bringas. 
Yldefonso Natalio. 
Graniano Bringas. 
Marcelo Pilar. 
Miguel Pariflas. 
Pueblo de San Quintin: 

Preeidente Joe^ Gordoncillo. 

Cabeza Pastor Aragon. 

Pueblo de Pilar: 

Preeidente Lorenzo Anioay . 

Cabezas Daniel Busque. 

Pedro Bumatay. 
Bartolome Batoan. 
Arcadio Valvia. 
Juan Pastores. 
Juan Benauro. 
Ydeloceto Pacquing. 
Juan Valeza de Paz. 
Enrique Valera. 
Victorino Astudillo. 
Matias Rule. 

Cabezas y principales Teodoro Bumatay. 

Cirilo Valera. 
Damaso Foz. 
Pueblo de Villavieja: 

Princi^ y ex-presidente Juan Cacho. 

Pueblo de JBangued: 

Presidente Lucas Paredes. 

Vioe-presidente : Juan Feraren. 

Concejales Tiinoteo Acoeta. 

Atateo Astudillo. 
Monico Florentin. 
Leocadio Serra. 
Ysidro Borgofia. 
Bartolome Sersamira. 
Doroteo Benzon. 
Felipe de la Vega. 
Alilarion Garcia. 
Gabriel Martinez. 
Pueblo de Alfonso XII: 

Presidente Bangibang. 

Bay-toe. 

Bang-gao Gonogon. 
Montero. 

The president then advised that the Comrais8ion had come to Bangued 
to discuss with the people the question whether provincial government 
should be organized or not in the province of Abi'a — to ask them if 
they wanted such a government and whether they were willing to pay 
for it. They answered yes to both questions. Some of the people not 
understanding Spanish, the remarks of the president, besides being 
interpreted into opanish, were also interpreted into llocano by Senor 
Lucas Paredes, presidente of Bangued. 

It was explained that the organization of provincial government in 
Abra presented certain questions which did not exist in other provinces; 
that ail of the inhabitants of Abra were not Uocanos, but that a large 
number of Tinguianes and Igorrotes lived in the province. These lat- 
ter had asked tor an independent government — i. e., that their pueb- 
los should be independent of the llocano pueblos and not joined to 
them as at present. It was pointed out that the province had suf- 
p c 1901— PT 2 16 ^ . 

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242 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

fered greatly from the war, and that were it not for the local pride of 
the people in their province, which it was the duty of the Commission 
to encourage, it would seem wiser to attach A bra to Ilocos Sur. 
Being asked if they wished to be united with Ilocos Sur, the people 
responded ''No." 

It was then explained that in order to properly discuss with them 
the various provisions of the provincial and municipal laws a brief 
statement would be made of such points m these laws as were of greatest 
interest in the province. Having a cold and sore throat, the president 
requested Commissioner Worcester to explain these laws in his stead. 

The various provisions of the municipal code and of the provincial 
law were then aiscussed by Commissioner Worcester. Reference was 
had again to the fact that there were in the province a large number 
of Tinguianes and Igorrotes, and that it was possible these people were 
not in a position to have applied to them the provisions of the municipal 
code, which was a somewhat elaborate law. Certain features of the 
law now being applied in the province of Benguet, where there is an 
Igorrote population, were explained, and it was suggested that some- 
thing similar might be provided for the non-Christian peoples of Abra 
Province — that tnis was one of the points upon which the Commission 
wished to hear from the people. Discussion was also invited upon the 
question as to what should oe the boundaries of the province, as also 
upon the matters of salaries, etc. The people were first asked, however, 
if, having heard what a civil government would cost them, they still 
desired it or whether they would prefer to continue as at present under 
military government. Those desiring a civil government were requested 
to arise. All arose. 

Senor Juan Villamor, late lieutenant-colonel in the insurgent army, 
was then recognized. Referring to the question of provincial bounda- 
ries, he thought all that portion of the province east of the crest of the 
cordillei'as should be cut off, this because of the distance and the diffi- 
culty of access, and also because the people living there were Igorrotes 
and were entirely uncivilized. He thought that portion of the 
province should be added to Bontoc. He estimated the number of 
people to the east of the mountains at from 5,000 to 8,000. The pop- 
ulation of Abiti by the last census was stated to be 49,000. The 
speaker thought this estimate did not include the wild people. He 
then submitted a statement showing the revenue derived by the 
province during the fiscal year 1898-99 under Spanish rule. The total 
revenue, provincial and municipal, was $37,445 Mexican. Of this over 
$18,000 Mexican was contributed by Bangued, as follows: 

Industrial tax $4, 500 

Urbanatax 100 

Chinese head tax 300 

Cedulatax 10,000 

Public markets 900 

Slaughterhouses 800 

Charge for sale of meat, 1 cent per pound 1, 000 

Tax for burial 180 

Registration of births 200 

R^stration of deaths 150 

Marriage tax 300 

Transfer of cattle 200 

It appeared that under the Spanish system the tax for Ilocanos was 
2 pesos and that for Tinguianes and Igorrotes 50 cents. The speaker 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 243 

thought the people could now pay a uniform cedula tax of 1 peso. 
He stated that the industries of tne province were cattle raising and 
agriculture, the latter consisting of tobacco, palay, and corn. Tobacco 
is the only article exported. They have not exported timber because 
of diflBculty of transportation ana lack of machinery to cut it with 
and get it out. Only a small crop of tobacco was yielded this year, 
because little was sown. Palay is now being planted; the corn crop 
is good. He said the province had much fine timber. Nearly all the 
cattle and carabaos in the province had been destroyed by the rinder- 
pest. He said that native ponies could not be used in the fields. 
Inquiry developed that the people living in the Pilar Valley were starv- 
ing, no food products having been raised there for a year. For two 
months rice Has been furnished them by the military authorities. This 
provision will be necessary, furthermore, until November, when the 
present rice crop will be harvested. Major Bowen, commanding at 
bangued, thought it would cost $600 gold a month to supply them. 
The speaker thought it would be well to make a gift of this money to 
the people, but agreed later that it would be better to furnish the peo- 
ple work in buiming roads. He thought the Tinguianes shoula be 
provided with a separate government, not only because of ethnological 
and religious differences, but because under existing conditions, if 
attached to Uocano pueblos, all the offices would be monopolized by 
the latter. 

The speaker was asked if he thought it possible for the fiscal of 
Ilocos Sur to serve also as fiscal of Abra; tnis to save expense. He 
thought it possible. It appeared that there are no lawyers in Abra. 

Don Ambrosio Villamor was of the opinion that if any provincial 
official was to be eliminated it should be the supeiTisor and not the 
fiscal. He looke<l upon the latter as the proper instructor of the peo- 
rie in all matters pertaining to municipal ana provincial government. 
He thought also that there would be little work for the supervisor for 
some time, while he would cost the province more money than the 
fiscal. It was explained to him that tne intention was not to give the 
province no fiscal, but to have one fiscal serve for the two provinces of 
Abra and Ilocos Sur. It was also pointed out that there would be need 
of a supervisor to settle the various boundary disputes between the 
pueblos, and also to survey and construct needed roads. Inquiry from 
some of the presidentes developed that numerous boundary disputes 
existed, particularly between the towns of Bucay , Dolores, and Tayug, 
and between La Paz and San Juan. 

The presidente of Bucay, Senor Narcisus, said that many Tinguianes 
lived in his pueblo. He thought these people incapable of governing 
themselves, and thought they should be made dependent upon Ilocano 
pueblos; this without prejudice to their having local representatives. 
His attention being called to Alfonso XH, a pueblo where the Tin- 
guianes conducted a municipal government. He said the people of that 
town had more education than the other Tinguianes of the province. 
A Tinguiane representative from Pilar asked that his people be taxed 
less than the ilocanos, this being the practice under Spanish law. 
Being asked if his people wanted schools and if they wanted an inde- 
pendent municimlity where they could elect their own officers, he said 
that they did. W hen asked if they were willing to pay for this, he said 
they were, provided the taxes paid were expended for the benefit of 
the town. 



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244 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

The presidente of Alfonso XII inquired how he could reimburse 
himself for some money paid to a school-teacher, there being only two 
pesos in the municipal treasury. He was told that he would either 
nave to get it back rrom the teacher or raise it by taxation. Being 
asked why his town did not have more money, and why taxes were not 
collected, he stated that they did not know anvthing about the law 
under which taxes could * be .collected. Senor raredes, presidente of 
Bangued, explained that Tinguianes were absolutely without any knowl- 
edge of the administration of affairs; that in Spanish times they had 
their own gobernadorcillo, but he governed in name only, the actual 
government being in the hands of a director, who was generall v a school- 
teacher. When the Spanish judicial system was extended, the justices 
of the peace were limited to Ilocano pueblos, thus making the Tinguiane 
settlements dependent in this regard upon some pueblo in their vicinity. 
Later they also became dependent for their administrative jurisdiction 
upon a neighboring pueblo. When this occurred the Tinguianes began 
to ask for their original privilege, and it is this which they are now- 
asking. 

The presidente of Alfonso XII was advised that the provincial board, 
or possibly the provincial fiscal, would be the proper person to con- 
sult as to what taxes could be levied and collected in his municipality. 

The session then adjourned until 3.30 p. m. 

Afternoon session. 

The meeting was called to order at 4 p. m. 

The president stated that the Commission had experienced some dif- 
ficulty in framing the special law for the province, particularly in the 
matter of salaries. The salaries which had been agreed upon were low, 
but there was nothing to prevent their being raised later should the 
prosperity of the province so justify. He further stated that the Com- 
mission had followed the suggestion of Colonel Villamor and had 
excluded that portion of the province lying east of the crest of the 
Cordilleras. He stated the (commission had also authorized Major 
Bowen to spend $1,000, gold, to relieve the necessities of the people in 
the Pilar Valley. 

The president then offered the following amendments to the special 

Insert in the title of the act, after the words *''the provincial gov- 
ernment act." the words "and its amendments," and add to the title 
the word "Abra." 

Insert after words "February 6, 1901," in second line of section 1, 
the words "and its amendments." 

Insert word "Luzon" after words "island of," in the third line, 
and the words "under the Spanish sovereignty" after the word 
"known," in the same line, and insert after the words " province of ," 
in the same line, the words "Abra, except the part thereof lying east 
of the crest of the Cordillera Central." 

Insert in section 2, after the words "province of" the word "Abra," 
and insert as salaries of provincial officers, in same section, the follow- 
ing: Provincial governor, $1,000; provincial secretary, $900; provincial 
^treasurer, $1,2(X); provincial supervisor, $900; provincial fiscal, $900. 

Insert, as allowance for traveling expenses, same section, the sum of 
$2 per day, and as bond of treasurer, m section 3, the sum of $5,000, 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 245 

Strike out the words "until after July 1, 1901," at the end of sec- 
tion d. 
Insert as section 5 (new section) the following: 

Sbc, 5. Owing to the fact that there is in the province of Abra no regularly admitted 
member of the bar of the supreme court of the islands, it shall not be a necessary 
qualification of the provincial fiscal that he be a member of such bar. 

Renumber sections 5 and 6 to read 6 and 7. 

Insert as capital of the province the town of Bangued, and change 
section 7 to read as follows: 

Sbc. 7. This act shall take effect on its passage, and oflScers may be appointed and 
qualify at once, but the government shall not be organized nor shall the provincial 
officers receive any salary until September 1, 1901. 

The amendments were adopted. 

The question then being upon the passage of the law, as amended, 
the secretary was directed to call the roll. The bill was unanimously 



The president stated that the Commission had not forgotten the ques- 
tion or providing a separate organization for the Tinguianes. The 
legislation necessary, however, to enable them to cariy on a simple 
form of government under the direction of the provincial officers was 
one requiring a great deal of care and the Commission did not feel able 
at this time to make the necessary provisions. The subject would be 
taken up at once, however, and emoodied in an amendment to the law 
organizing the province. 

The president, as civil governor, then submitted to the Commission 
for its confirmation the following nominations of provincial officers 
for the province of Abra: Governor, W. H. C. Bowen, major, Fifth 
Infantry; secretary, Juan Villamor; treasurer, W. J. Scott; fiscal, 
Lucas Paredes. 

On motion the nominations were confirmed by the Commission. 

It was explained that no nomination could be made for supervisor, 
but that a number of civil engineers had reached Manila since the 
departure of the Commission and arrangements would be made to send 
one of them to Abra. 

In nominating Major Bowen the civil governor stated that the prov- 
ince of Abra had but recently been pacified, and, as was natural, the 
traces of war could not be wiped out at once, especially when such 
traces were found in personal feelings. There were two parties in the 
province, representing factions which existed before peace was declared ; 
that while the Commission was profoundly grateful to those who had 
sided with the Americans before the final surrender it was now organ- 
izing a civil government in which all persons must be recognized as 
being entitled to equality before the law, and that, while the commis- 
sion intended by its appointments to recognize both parties in the 
province, it expected to put at the temporary head of the government 
Major Bowen, a gentleman who has haa much to do with the province, 
and who would, the Commission felt sure, do much toward composing 
the differences between the contending factions. 

The oath of office was then administered by the president to Major 
Bowen, Seiior Villamor, and Senor Paredes. 

The president then announced that the Commission had as one of its 
party oenor Benito Legarda, who had been appointed by the President 
of the United States as a member of the Commission, to take his seat 



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246 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

on September 1; that he had the pleasure of introducing Sefior Legarda 
to them to deliver an address. 

After Sefior Legarda's address, and after a few words of thanks by 
the president to 9ie people for their cordial reception and for tie 
interest they had taken in the formation of civil government, the meet- 
ing was declared adjourned. 

Attest: D. R. Williams, 

Secretary, 

United States Philippine Combossion. 

MINUTES OF proceedings. 

Laoag, Ilocos Norte, Tuesday^ August W^ 1901, 
Public session. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, and the president. 

The session was called to order at 10.45 a. m. The president expressed 
his pleasure at meeting with the people of Ilocos Norte, and stated that 
to be with them this morningthe members of the C!ommission and party 
had been compelled to take a bath in the surf, one of its members being 
now absent dry ing his clothes. After some further preliminary remark 
the secretary was directed to call the roll of pueblos of the province. The 
following representatives were present: 

Pueblo de San NicolAs: 

Presidente D. Baltaivir Valdez. 

Vice-presideate " D. Juan Madamba. 

Secretario D. Luciano Reyes. 

Tesorero D. Luci6 Madamba. 

Concejal municipal D. Eduardo Valdez. 

D. FelisBarba. 

D. Pedro N. Lardizabal. 

D. Juan Jjopez. 

D. Claro Valdez. 

D. Venancio Bonmaan. 

D. Isaac Sambrana. 

D. (Tregorio Guerrero. 

Juez de Paz y concejal D. Cayetano Madamba. 

Concejales municipales v D. Hernando Madamba. 

D. Manuel Palafox. 

D. Jo86 S. Palafox. 

D. Lacarias Bonnoan. 

D. Jos^ Bonnoan. 

D. Coraelio Bonnoan. 

D. Andres A. Barba. 

D. Paulo Barba. 

D. Alejandro Barba. 

D. Antonio Sambrano. 
Pueblo de Paoay: 

Presidente D. Teodoro Evangelista. 

Secretario D. Bias Espiritu. 

Tesorero *. 1>. Adriano Borja. 

Cabezas del barrio D. Eleuterio Esposo. 

D. Julio Llaguno. 

D. Pedro Pobre. 

D. Pedro Degollado. 

D. Feliz Pobre. 

D. Juan Llaguno. 

D. Felipe Claros. 

D. Gabino Umayam. 

D. Miguel Villanueva. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 247 

Paeblo de Paoay — Continued. 

Cabezas del barrio D. Joe6 Navarro. 

D. Ra^l Dumlao. 

D. Francisco Dumlao. 

D. Cirilo Ballestero. 

D. Leon Diaz. 

D. Gregorio Arantilada. 

D. Martin Dumlao. 

D. Pablo Boeete. 
Pueblo de Piddig: 

Presidente D. Mariano Estavillo. 

Vice-presidente D. Evenceelao Lamorena. 

Secretario D. Manuel Aquino. 

Tesorero D. Domingo Caluya. 

Cabezas del barrio D. Jo86 Silvano. 

D. Secundino Asia. 

D. Leon Garcia. 

D. Esteban Lagasia. 

D. Pedro Cortes. 

D. Satumino Valentin. 

D. Samuel Pandarasan. 

D. Lucio Aquino. 

D. Florencio Castro. 

D. Alejandro Arumfante. 

D. Segundo Samonte. 

D. Julio Suguitan. 

D. Aritero Duldulao. 

D. Bautio Piedad. 

D. Antonino Pandaraoan. 

D. Geronimo Asis. 
Pueblo de Vintar: 

Presidente : D. Daniel Agcaoite. 

Vice-presidente D. Frederico Nation. 

Secretario D. Comelio Pazis. 

Teeorero D. Mateo Leaflo. 

Delegadoes de barrios D. Silvino Flores. 

D. Nicomedes Agea. 

D. Adriano Grapusan. 

D. Benito Agbayani. 

D. Lorenzo Malasig. 

D. Francisco Agravili. 

D. Martin Edrozo. 

D. Francisco Vinoya. 

D. Rafael Leaflo. 

D. Francisco Drigue. 

D. Roman Foronda. 

D. Donato Zumiga. 

D. Gabriel Agravili. 

D. Benito Reyes. 

D. Francisco Rivera. 

D. Eladio Borci. 

D. Ramon Flores. 

D. Manuel Macadangdang. 
Principales D, Guillermo Agbayani. 

D. Rufino Edozzo. 

D. Venancio Drigue. 

D. Manuel Gapusan. 

D. Juan Leaflo. 
Pueblo de Bacarra: 

Presidente D. Andres Lazo. 

Juezdepaz D. Marcelo Damyeng. 

Vice-presidente D. Augustin Albano. 

Principales D. Isidoro Castro. 

D. Pedro Ramiro. 

D. Victoriano Ruiz. 

D. Antonio Albano. 

D. Juan Vizaya. 



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248 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Pueblo de Bacarra — Continued. 

Principales D. Jacobe Sales. 

D. Donato Jove. 

D. Tranquilino Reginaldo. 

D. Lorenzo Vea. 

D. Domingo Aserot 

D. Agapito Ma^^angdang. 

D. Easebio Baysa. 

D. Augustin Oardona. 

D. Leoncio Barut 

D. Toribio Albano. 

D. Rosendo Damycuy. 

D. Francisco Camimgao. 

D. Andres Cadiz. 

D. Bamardino Salos. 
Pueblo de Dingras: 

Presidente D. Joaquin G. Madamba. 

Vice-presidente D. Ramon Castro. 

Secretario D. Juan Borulla. 

Tesorero D. Benito Albano. 

Concejales D. Policarpio Garcia. 

D. Felipe Albano. 

D. Ramon Castro. 

D. Primitivo Peralta. 

D. Juan Peralta. 

D. Gabriel Guerrero. 

D. Estanislao Lazo. 

D. Aniceto Parado. 

D. Luis Verzoza. 

D. Jose Dancel. 

D. Cipriano Albano. 
* D. Ygnacio Parado. 

D. Francisco Antonio. 

D. Francisco del Prado. 

D. Mariano Alisangco. 

D. Juscenio Goze. 

D. Antonio Ceredon. 

D. Bernardino Aivano. 
Pueblo de Laoag: 

Presidente D. Pedro T. Acoeta. 

Vice-presidente D. Bias P. Aivano. 

Secretario D. Teodorico Guerrero. 

Tesorero D. Severino Placido Cid. 

Concejales D. Petronito de Castro. 

D. Severino Pal ting. 

D. Apolinario Guerrero. 

D. Candido Espiritu. 

D. Ifligo Bitanga. 

D. Lorenzo Bonnoan. 

D. Primo Domingo. 

D. Pablo Guintos. 

D. Nemesio Adiarte. 

D. Bernardo Fabia. 

D. Fernando Ruiz. 

D. Jorge Bueno. 

D. Ponciano Castro. 

D. Andres Castro. 

D. Esteban Castro. 

D. Gregorio Ruiz. 

D. Severo Hernando. 

D. Francisco Julian. 
Pueblo de San Miguel: 

Presidente D. Cipriano Ver. 

Vice-presidente D. Simplicio Agor. 

Secretario D. Anastacio de la Cuesta. 

Tesorero D. Lucio Jamfas. 

Concejales D. Miguel Ver. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 249 

Pueblo de San Miguel — Continued. 

Concejales D, Valentin Jamfas. 

D. Ramon Kasela. 

D. Juan Bello. 

D. Galicano Silvano. 

D. Ysma^l Edralin. 

D. Hilarion Guevedo. 

D. Ysabelo Agravili. 

D. Mamerto Ver. 

D. Feliciano de J^ra. 

D. Fernando Ver. 

D. Venancio Malamba. 

D. Feliciano Jamfae. 

D. Justino Peila. 

D. Juan E. Guerrero. 

D. Francisco B. Natividad. 

D. Pedro Jamfas. 

D. Exequi^l Pefia. 

D. Celestino Gueved. 

D. Fermin Molina. 
Pueblo de Badoc: 

Presidente D. Juan Rubio. 

Concejales municipales D. Femai^o Velasco. 

D. Buenaventura Arzadon. 

D. Casimiro Tolentino. 

D. Agustin Caji^l. 

D. Manuel Bautista. 

D. Victoriano Rafleses. 

D. Juan I^er^. 

D. Cenon Magallanes. 

D. Paulo Reyes. 

D. Juan Arzadon. 

D. Martin Garcfa. 

D. Damaso Rubio. 

D. Santiago Salvani. 

D. Joaqum Oasan. 

D. Bonifacio Rubio. 

D. Pedro A. de la Cuesta. 

D, Gregorio Rubio. 

D. Tomas Rafion. 

D. Julian Valbuena. 

D. Mariano Torralva. 

D. Hermo^enes Cajigal. 

D. Venancio Reyes. 

D. Martin Tolentino. 

D. Martin Arzadon. 

D. Silvestre Arzadon. 

D. Matias L. Baldueza. 

D. Silvino Bautista. 

D. Juan Tolentino. 

D. Dionisio Ladera. 

D. Andres Calaycay. 

D. Filomeno Ladera. 

D. Tomas Ladera. 
Pueblo de Pasoguin: 

Presidente D. Gr^rio Salmon. 

Juez de paz -. D. Calixto de Luna. 

Tesorero D. Tomas Cariaga. 

Cabezas del barrio D. Pascual Larzoso. 

D. Salvador Arguda. 

D. Juan Ranjo. 

D. Pedro de Ocampo. 

D. Anacleto Gonzales. 

D. Prisco de Peralsa. 

D. Gabriel Guerrero. 

D. Timoteo de Peralta. 

D. Esteban de Peralta. 



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250 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Pueblo de Pasuguin — Continued. 

Oabezas del barrio D. Antonio Rumbaoa. 

D. Teodoro Batuyong. 

D. Fulgenio Lagazo. 
Pueblo de Bangui: 

Presidente D. Rufo Flores. 

D. Maxino Sales. 

D. Juan Antolin. 

D. Agustin Espirita. 

D. Guardiano A^pas. 

D. Amado Garbida. 

D. Petronito Calina. 

D. SabaeGaren. 

D. Bigberto Aguete. 

D. Cipriano ^£l^^deg. 

D. Herminigildo Ubasa. 

D. Bernardino Saero. 

D. Severino Leafto. 
Pueblo de Nagpartian: 

Presidente D. Telesforo Graralde. 

Oabezas del barrio D. Sisto Calapini. 

D. Basilio Maeadaeg. 

D. Juan Ypiacio. 
* D. Bernardino Cacal. 

D. Juan Gumal-lao. 

D. Pancraoio Calilan. 
Pueblo de Banna: 

Presidente D. Gabriel Mantir. 

D. Manuel Damo. 

D. Nicolas Cacao. 

D. Maximino Ramo. 

D. Ambrosio Alegre. 

D. Ambrosio Guiroga. 

D. Francisco Regidor. 

D. Cirilo Mangoba. 

D. Enrique Carpio. 

D. Macario Domingo. 

D. Hilario Mariano. 

D. Cesilio Agpabatog. 

D. Bernardo Yaplag. 

D. Santiago Alvano. 
Pueblo de Solsona: 

Presidente D. Nicolas Foronda. 

Principales D. Nicolas Morales. 

D. Pastor Mata, 

D. Leandro Bueno. 

D. Diego Viloria. 

D. Severino Agustin. 

D. Felix Llanta<ia, 1st 

D. Paulino Vives. 

D. Juan Luis. 

D. Brigido Juan. 

D. Amorocio Guitorio. 

D. Felix Llantada, 2d. 

D. Ynocencio Manuel. 

D. Doroteo Vives. 
Pueblo de Batac: 

Cabezas del barrio D. Dominino Castro. 

D. Teodoro Tinguil. 

D. Leon Riponan. 

D. Yndaleno Arcangel. 

D. Brigido Pablo. 

D. Tiburcio Galano. 

D. Anacleto Lumang. 

D. Severo Franco. 

D. Almaguio Manlit. 

D. Bruno Ysagiarre. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMI8SIOK. 251 

Pueblo de Batao — Continued. 

Cabezas del barrio D. Vicente Tiafio. 

D. Eustado Paloyo. 
D. Felipe Arcangel. 
D. Ynosencio Nalupta. 
D. Pedro Cri86etomo. 
D. Patemo Rigonan. 
D. Leoncio Brauero. 
D. Nimencio Caatro. 
D. Bernardino Salagnm. 
D. Eulalio Ayson. 
D. Clauderio Castro. 
D. Ynosemo Dumbrique. 
D. Eu8tac]uio Capalapgan. 
D. Severino Salvio. 
D. Cristino Genala. 
D. Fructuoso Cabanatan. 
D. Policarpio Padria. 
D. Potenciano Tagatac. 
D. Eurebio Adigan. 
D. Tomds Lusod. 

There was also present a large delegation of the clergy of the prov- 
ince. The president expressed the pleasure experienced by the Com- 
mission at their attendance, recognizing the large influence they legiti- 
mately exercise over the peopft. He asked that that influence be 
exerted in behalf of the civil government which the Commission was 
here to-day to establish. He also expressed the pleasure of the Com- 
mission that all the towns of the province were represented, in spite of 
the drfficultjr of traveling at this season. 

The provisions of the general provincial act and its amendments, 
as well as the system of luxation provided under the municipal code, 
were then explained to the people by the president. Reference was 
then made to the special act applying the general law to the province, 
and attention invited to the matter of salaries, etc., upon wnich sug- 
gestions were desired. 

Senor Candido Espiritu, a member of the municipal council of Laoag, 
after welcoming the Commission and party and expressing his pleasure 
at their coming to Laoag, stated that he desired to ask certain ques- 
tions concerning the jurisdiction of municipalities under the municipal 
code. He wished to know, in the first place, whether the ordinances 
and resolutions of the municipal council were subject to revision and 
censure by any other authority. He was told that the municipal code 
specified the powei*s of the council and enumerated the subjects upon 
which it might pass ordinances. So long as the council passed ordi- 
nances relating to these subjects and within the limitations of the act 
such ordinances could not be repealed by a superior authority. Within 
these limits the municipalities were completely autonomous. The 
supervision exercised over the municipalities by the provincial gov- 
ernor was not one which enabled him to control their discretion. He 
could only act when a municipal oflScer was violating the law; for 
instance, taking public funds which he had in his possession, or 
attempting to exercise power which the law did not confer upon him. 
In such case the provincial governor could suspend the delinquent offi- 
cer and forward an account of the proceedings to the civil governor of 
the Islands. The officer charged would then be given a hearing and 
be restored to office or suspended permanently, as the facts warranted. 
As an instance of unauthorized action on the part of the municipal 



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252 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMlSSIOlir. 

council which would be absolutely null, the president stated the case 
of a council attempting by ordinance to imprison some person whom 
it considered objectionable to the community; also, if it should seek 
by ordinance to regulate the fees to be charged by a priest for perform- 
ing the marriage sacrament, acting on the theory that his charge was 
in excess of that authorized oy his ecclesiastical superior. As individ- 
uals they might protest against such charge to the superior, but as 
church and state are separate, the council as a civil official body has 
nothing whatever to do with church matters. Again, the city council 
has the right to build roads and streets. Suppose, nowever, a pro- 
posed street ran directly through a man's house; under certain circum- 
stances and after proper proceedings the city would have the right to 
take such property, but if, however, it should simply pass an ordi- 
nance directing the property to be taken, the owner might appeal to 
the courts to prevent sucn action, as it would be void. 

The speaker then asked if the police of the town were under the con- 
trol of the council. Being advised that the^ were, he asked whether 
the council could be interfered with in visitmg punishment according 
to law upon a police officer violating an ordmance passed by the 
council. It was explained that this depended upon the nature of the 
punishment. It was within the power of the council to remove a 
municipal officer for cause. If that be considered a. punishment, the 
council had the right to punish. The council, however, had no power 
to sit as a court to impose any punishment whatever. All they can 
do is to provide that if an ordinance be violated the offender may 
be punished after conviction by a court. The nature of the penalty 
which they can prescribe is also specified in the act, i. e., imprison- 
ment or fine. The council can not prescribe any other form of punish- 
ment. The speaker said all understood this, but that while attempting 
to carry out such ordinances and acting within the law they were mter- 
fered with by the military authority. He was told that the Commis- 
sion did not come to hear complaints as to particular instances; that 
the municipal code as administered under a military government and 
administered under a civil government are two entirely different mat- 
ters; that Ilocos Sur was under a military government and subject to 
certain limitations by military authority. When civil government was 
established, however, the municipal governments would nave the powers 
stated. The speaker stated that the people had been entirely submis- 
sive to the military authorities, although recognizing that their rights 
were being infringed. 

General Bell, who was present, here stated that while the military 
authority had been supreme, no rights had been taken from the people. 
He assured the speaker that he need have no fear that the military would 
interfere with his rights, but that instead the military authorities 
would be glad to tui*n over the responsibilities to other hands. It was 
pointed out to the speaker that in the beginning it might be difficult 
for all the cogs in the wheel of government to work in perfect unison, 
but that this would come with time and experience in administering 
laws. 

It appearing that Laoag was the only town organized under the 
municipal code, the presioent advised that provision would be made 
for the organization of the other pueblos. The population of Laoag 
wasstatea to be 38,000 and that of the province 176,000, census of 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE OOMBCISSION. 253 

1893. The chief products of the province are tobacco and rice. The 
Igorrote population was fixed at about 20 rancherias of from 20 to 50 
families eacn. More than one-half of the cattle of the province have 
died from rinderpest. It was thought the disease had run its course. 

Sefior Leon Cid, employee of the forestry bureau in Laoag, stated 
that there was a great deal of fine timber in the province. Three hun- 
dred and thirteen dollars was collected last month as forestry tax. 
Considerable timber was also taken to Manila, upon which the tax was 
not collected in the province. He said that there was still considerable 
timber of woods belon^ng to the superior group. 

Senor Severino Paltmg, of Laoag. asked whether the cedula tax of 
1 peso was levied generally througnout the archipelago or only in 
Ilocos Norte. He was told that it applied to all Filipinos, Americans, 
and Chinese in the Islands. Igorrotes and non-Christian tribes were 
exempt, although the Commission expected to apply it to the Tingui- 
anes of Abra. American soldiers and officers were also exempt, while 
persons too poor to pay the tax mi^ht also be exempted, upon proper 
showing before the board of municipal assessors. 

Senor Landres Lazo, presidente of Bacarra, called attention to the 
fact that the forced-labor law, enforced during the Spanish regime, was 
still being applied in the province. Seeing no reference to the law in 
the n^unicipal code, he asked whether it was to be continued with the 
organization of civil government. He was told that the absence ot 
such provision in the code excluded the authority of any person to 
compel people to work except as a punishment for crime. 

A speech was then delivered by Senor Teogenas Quiaoit, of the 
Federal party. A copy of the speech will be found in the official files 
of the Commission. 

Various other contemplated speeches were requested to be filed with 
the secretary in lieu of oeing delivered, the Commission promising to 
give them consideration at its leisure. Copies of such speeches are on 

A representative of the clergy present thanked the Commission for 
the kind reference which the president had made to their work and 
influence, and he stated that nimself and brothers had always been 
workers for the government and would continue to render every 
assistance possible. The president stated that the Commission was 
much honored by their presence.' He pointed out that the recent 
change in governmental svstems between that of Spain, where church 
and state were united, and that of America, where they were entirely 
separate, would necessarily create some embarrassment until the 
people understood the difference. It was the purpose of the Govern- 
ment, however, to see on the one hand that the rights of the church 
were preserved, and on the other that the civil rights of the people 
were preserved. He believed that it would be found here in the end, 
as it has been found in America, that the church flourishes better when 
separate from the state than when joined to it. He wishes them to 
understand that while the church was separate from the state under 
_ our Government it does not signify that the Government is opposed to 
' the church. It believes in encouraging the church, but it does not 
contribute to the support of the churcn funds collected by general 
taxation from the country. 
The session then adjourned until 3.30 p. m» 



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254 BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Afternoon session. 

The meeting was called to order by the president at 4.30, and the 
following amendments proposed to the special law applying the pro- 
vincial government act to tne province of Ilocos Norte: 

Insert in the title, after the words ''The provincial government 
act," the words ''and its amendments," and add to the title the words 
"Ilocos Norte." 

Add the words "and its* amendments" after the words "February 
6, 1901," in the third line of section 1. 

Insert the word " Luzon " after the words " island of," and the words 
"Ilocos Noii«" after the words "province of," in section 1. 

Insert the words "Ilocos Norte" after the words "province of," in 
section 2, and insert salaries of provincial officers as follows: Provin- 
cial governor, $1,800; provincial secretary, $1,300; provincial treas- 
urer, $2,100; provincial supervisor, $1,70<); provincial fiscal, $1,300. 

Insert as aUowance for traveling expenses $2.50 per day, and as 
amount of bond of treasurer, in section, 3 the sum of $15,000. 

Strike out the words "until after July 1, 1901," at end of section 3. 

Insert as capital of province, section 5, town of Laoag, and change 
section 6 to read as follows: 

Sec. 6. This act shall take effect on its passage, and officers may be anpoint;ed and 
qualify at once; but the government shall notT>e organized, nor shall the provincial 
officers receive any salary, until September 1, 1901. The internal revenue of the 
province shall continue to be collected until September 1, 1901, by the collector of 
internal revenue, now incumbent. 

The amendments were adopted. 

The question being on the passage of the law as amended, the secre- 
tary was directed to call the roll. The hill was unanimously passed. 

The president, as civil governor, then submitted to the Commission 
for its confirmation the following nominations of provincial officerafor 
the province of Ilocos Norte: Provincial governor, Aguedo Agbayani; 

f provincial secretary, Julio Agcauili; provincial treasurer, John M. 
/urrie; provincial fiscal, Policaipo Seriano. 
The nominations were confirmed by the Commission. 
Referring to the appointment for governor, the president stated that 
reports had been brought to the Commission that various charges could 
be made against Senor Agbayani. • The commission had investigated 
such charges as completely as possible in the time at its disposal. The 
gentleman was strongly recommended by every military officer who had 
served at Laoag, while the presidentes of the pueblos, when consulted, 
were not able to give any evidence against him. He wished it to be 
definitely understood that because a man had assisted the Americans 
was no reason why he should not be appointed to office, while on the 
other hand, the Commission did not exclude persons because they had 
been insurrectos. If the Commission was wrong in the conclusion that 
there was no foundation to the charges against its appointee for gov- 
ernor or against any other officer, they can be prosecuted in the courts 
the same as any other person. Under the law as it now exists in these 
islands there is no one privileged from arrest and trial. The Commis- * 
sion had attempted in its appointments to furnish representatives of 
every element in the province. If it had been mistaken in its appoint- 
ment of governor the mistake could be remedied in the popular elec- 
tion next February. The appointment was only temporary. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 255 

The president then stated that inasmuch as the Commission had to 
leave at once in order to reach its vessel before dark, the oath of oflBice 
would be administered to the provincinal officers by the justice of the 
peace or the commanding officer of the district. Again expressing on 
Dehalf of the Commission his gratification at the large attendance from 
the towns and the manifest interest they took in the welfare of their 
province, the president declared the session adjourned. 

Attest: 

D. R. Williams, Secretary. 

United States Philippine Commission. 

MINUTES OP proceedings. 

TUGUEGARAO, CaGAYAN, AtUJllst ^^, 1901. 

PiMw session. 

Pi-esent: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, and the president. 

The session was called to order at 9 a. m. by the president. The 
roll call of pueblos developed the fact that of the 24 pueblos in the 
province 17 were represented, the delegates from the remaining 7 
towns not having yet arrived. These 7 towns were all located in the 
northern part of the province, and the delegates were then en route 
from Aparri by way of the Cagayan River, and were expected to arrive 
at any moment. The delegates in question arrived later and took 
their seats in the session. Tne complete representation of the province 
was as follows: 

Pueblo de Plat: 

Vice-presidente D. Eugenio Genoveza. 

Secretario D. Fructuoso de Santa Toinas. 

D. Pablo Ilemaiides. 

D. Aquilino Caribang. 

D. Tomas Pacion. 

D. Gonsalo Scriano. 

D. Benjamin Taguba. 

D. Fabian Licas. 

D. Thcodorico Cabasag. 

D. Leon Ballab6. 

D. Juicico Paragua. 

D. Antonio Villacete. 

D. Sebastian Taguba. 

D. Vicente Taguba. 

D. Marios Mamba. 

D. R^ino Batum. 
Paeblo de Mauanan: 

Principales del pueblo D. Ysidro Cabbuag. 

D. Jos^ Narag. 

D. Albino Lecaye. 

D. Miguel Guinai^oran. 

D. Faustino Alasigan. 

D. Vicente Lecaban. 

D. Cesario Geres. 

D. Gabino de la Ruz. 

D. Ram6n de Dios. 
Pueblo de Nassiping: 

Presidente D. Ananacio Labrador. 

Vice-presidente D. Maraclimo Cadano. 

Cabezas,..., D. Florindo Pagulayan. 

D. Eleno Palattao. 

P. Enrico Guerrero. 



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256 BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Pueblo de Nassiping — Continued. 

Cabezae D. Eulalio. Aglanao. 

D. Canuto Rafael. 

D. Jacinto Baquiran. 

D. Silverio Guivab. 

D. Emigdio Pafattao. 

D. Nicolaa Pagulayan. 

J), Natalicio Gammad. 

D. Lorenzo Constancia. 

D. Agrapino Mabafla. 

D. Panfilo Caatillejo. 

D. Timoteo Limdaman. 

D. Luis Manuel. 
Pueblo de Malaueg: 

Cabezas D. Juan Macalingay. 

D. Eugenio Talba. 

D. Benito Gundan. 

D. Pedro Sibal. 

D. Bias Baldran. 

D. Gaspar Tulban. 

D. Marcelo Telan. 

D. Vicente Talay. 

D. Jabier Gundan. 

D. Eugenio Gamd. 

D. Francisco Gundan. • 

D. Martin Cauibdn. 
Pueblo de Solana: 

Vice-presidente D. Antonio Magdela. 

Del comite D. Vicente Carag, Ist 

Directorio idem D. Gabriel Lasani. 

Juez de paz D. Miguel Carag. 

Representantes D. Vicente C^rag, 2d. 

D. Domingo Lasam. 

D. Pedro Lasam. 

D. Nicolas Cepeda. 

D. Vicente Tallud. 

D. Agustin Batting. 
Pueblo de Camalaniugan: 

Presidente 1 D. Manuel Sittana. 

Pueblo de Baggao: 

Presidente D. Rafael Cat6Iico. 

Vice-presidente D. Juan Orpilla. 

Concejales D. Estevan Granuaban. 

D. Pedro Talang. 

D. Lorenzo Gainmuac 

D. Seberino Liggayo. 

D. Alberto Dicnoso. 

D. Angel Dichoso. 

D. Eleuterio Saflio. 

D. Zacarias Baltung. 

D. Dionisio Guiab. 

D. Paulino Borauillo. 

D. * Ray m undo Tumaueg. 
Pueblo de Tuao: 

Presidente D. Juan Guzman. 

Concejales D. Fernando Magalad. 

D. Santiago Baligad. 

D. Domingo Narag. 

D. Vicente P'errer. 

D. Ambrocio Tumaueng. 

D. Ramon Paccallagan. 

D. Fausto Binuluan. 

D. Santiago Aquino. 

D. Domingo Cabbuag. 

D. Aleio Magalad. 

D. Andres Anog. 

D. Doroteo Canayn. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 257 

Pueblo de Tiiao — Continued. 

Concejales D. Faunto Baligod. 

D. Juan Baligod, 2d. 

D. Enfermi Serrano. 
' D. Pio Talba. 

D. Marco Ma^lad. 

D. Filomeno Espinora. 
Pueblo de Alcala: 

Vice-presidente D. Santiago Bacuti. 

Del^adoe D. Enrique Bacuti. 

D. Eulogio Adrianto. 

D. Victorina de los Santos. 

D. Nicolas Rabelo. 

D. Agrafino Belleza. 

D. Macario Capili. 

D. Isidro Cudal. 

D. Ag[U8tin Gonzales. 

J). Brigido Dumalay. 

D. Andres Torrcido. 
Pueblo de Santo Nifio: 

Presidente D. Fablo Triunfante. 

Principales D. tJbaldo Pagulayan. 

D. Severino Lazo. 

D. Juan Pitel. 

D. Pedro Palantuy. 

D. Cayetano Palanguy. 
Pueblo de Cordoba: 

Presidente D. Joe6 Gannoban. 

Vice-presidente D. Juan Tabisaura. 

D. Cayetano Canapi. 

D. Vincente LiggayiS. 

D. Filomeno Catolos. 

D. Alejandro Gannaban. 

D. Leon Manaligod. 

D. Florentino Adriano. 

D. Ix)be Cardenas. 

Secretario D. Gaoriel Manaligod. 

Sargento de policia D. Domingo ManaTigo<l. 

Maestro de instruccion D. Florencio Alejandro. 

D. Juliana Manaligod. 

Vacunadorcillo D. Vincente Garrafa. 

Pueblo de Amulung: 

Presidente D. Valentin Canapi. 

Vice-presidente D. Andres Aquino. 

Juez de paz D. Martin Aquilo. 

Secretano D. Juan Morales, 1st. 

Del^ados D. Juan Gannaban. 

D. Valentin Gannaban. 

D. Juan Morales. 

D. Mariano Banares. 

D. Rafael Reyes. 

D. Salvador Catif. 

D. Deogracia Gannaban. 

D. Frenco Canajoi. 

D. Guvino Dichoso. 

D. Andres Brauili. 

D. Juan A bad. 

D. Rorendo Garcia. 

D. Juan Ybanes. 

D. Juan Saguiny. 

D. Gaspar Guzman. 

D. Jacinto Catolico. 

D. Jacinto Ybafies. 

D. Gabreil Manayam. 

D. Geronimo Catolico. 

P c 1901— FT 2 17 



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258 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Pueblo de Enrile: 

Presidente D. Tom^ Carag y Fortunato. 

Vice-presidente D. Jacinto Camacam Turingan. 

D. Mariano Liggayu. 

D. Dimas Barirana. 

D. Francisco Tungail. 

D. Mariano Euringan. 

D. Mariano Babaran. 

D. Venancio Pauig. 

D. Manuel Mabborang. 

D. Vicente Galvee. 

D. Jo86 Tuppal. 

D. Julian Soriano. 

D. Jacinto Camacam. 

D. Joe6 Babaran. 

D. (iregorio Baricana. 

D. Vicente Carag. 

D. Agapito Guzman. 

D. Agapito Bassig. 

D. Salvador Tappa. 
Pueblo de Aparri: 

Presidente ' D. Alfonso Doneza. 

Delegado D. Valentin Ruito. 

Pueblo de Tuguegarao: 

Presidente municipal D. Sebastian Tuynan y Guegue- 

gan. 

Vice-presidente D. Antonio Soriano y Ti6n. 

Secretario D. Ricanio Tuynan y Battung. 

Delegados D. Vicente Lingayan. 

D. Rufino Taguba. 

D. Esteban iSjyes. 

D. J 086 Baccay. 

D. Jacinto Guzman y Accad. 

D. Regino Bucayu. 

D. Domingo Bunagan. 

D. Fructuoso Calagui y Sibal. 

D. Domingo Bacud. 

D. Felipe de Asis. 

D. Patncio Escobar. 

D. Gregorio Baquiran. 

D. Potenciano Caberro. 

D. Felipe Tumanguil. 

D. Pedro Narag. 

D. Joaquin Balisi. 

D. Marcelo Cabalsa. 

D. Domingo Mallonga. 

D. Comelio Tumalinan. 

D. Isidro Magiiigad. 

D. Tomas de Yro. 

D. Timoteo Pamittan. 

D. Isidro Macarubb6. 

D. Mariano Battung. 

D. Carlos Maguigad. 

D. Domingo Marallag. 

D. Cipriano Perez. 

D. Rufino Gasfas. 

D. Sabas Bacud. 

D. Jacinto Gannaban. 

D. Jacinto Maguigad. 

D. Miguel Carag. 
Pueblo de Abulug: 

Presidente D. Juan Saggintig. 

Pueblo de Lal-lo: 

Presidente D. Luis Aguilar. 

Pueblo de Claveria: 

Presidente D. Mariano Nebab. 



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KEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 259 

Pneblo de Iguig: 

Preddente D. Bias Rey. 

Vice-presidente D. Santiago Bautista. 

Directorio D. Tedenco Comin. 

D. Francisco Bautista. 

D. Manael Magalad. 

D. Manuel Canapi. 

D. Vicente Pefiaflor. 

D. Luis Rey. 
Concejales D. Vicente Rosales. 

D. Tomds Penstrante. 

D. Andres Canapi. 

D. Apolonio Pamittau. 

D. Agustin Pefiaflor. 

D. Juan Pamittan. 

D. Estevan de los Ramos. 

D. Santiago Cordoba. 

J). Jacinto Mallillin. 

D. Modesto Alcalad. 

D. Jacinto Maramag. 

D. Anastacio Bailinan. 

D. Pedro Sedano. 

D. Jo66 Sedano. 

D. Salvador Pefiaflor. 

D. Juerico Reboredo. 
Pueblo de Buguey: 

Presidente D. Eusebio Limun. 

Pueblo de Sanchez Mira: 

Presidente D. Vicente Aquino. 

Vice-presidente D. Saluctiano Pulich. 

Pueblo de Gattaran: 

Presidente D. Agustin Tapiru. 

Pueblo de Pefiablanca: 

Presidente D. Tiburcio Soriano. 

D. Manuel Melad. 

D. Isidro Pagaiibanang. 

D. Vicente Bucaban. 
Pueblo de Pamplona: 

Presidente D. Esteban Meneses. 

The president addressed the meeting, expressing the pleasure it 
afforded the Commission to meet with the people of the ricn valley of 
the Cagayan. He then explained in detail to the delegates present the 
plan, not only of the provincial government which the Commission was 
about to establish in their province, but also of the nmnicipal and cen- 
tral or insular governments, pointing out the functions exercised by 
each. The inauguration of the new courts of justice was referred 
to, and the righte and liberties of the people under the new S3'stem 
explained. The good intentions of the American people, as repre- 
sented by the Commission, toward the Filipinos were referred to, par- 
ticularly in regard to education, for which purpose 600 American 
teachers were then landing at Manila. These teachers were not brought 
for the purpose of supplanting Filipino teachers, but for the purpose 
of teaching the Filipino teachers how to conduct their schools accord- 
ing to modern methods. It was stated to be the desire of the Commis- 
sion that there be not a father or mother in these islands, no matter 
how poor, who should not be able to give to his or her children the 
benefit of a sound elementary education. 

After describing in detail the duties of the different provincial oflS- 
cers under the government about to be established, and illustrating by 
practical examples the working of the now land tax, the president 
refen-ed to the fact that a great manv Filipinos seem to think that if 



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260 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

a presidente or other official wished to levy a tax or contribution he 
might do so and compel the people to pay it. In fact, the Commission 
had been informed that in some parts of the Cagayan Valley the people 
seem to think the local presidentes have the powers of kings or des- 

Eots. The president made clear to the delegates that things of this 
ind were entirely contrary to the American system of government 
and that no one had the right to levy any tax upon the people except 
the municipal and provincial governments, ana that if anyone else 
attempted to do so he was liable to prosecution. The president stated 
they snould not fear to make complaints should any interference be 
made with their rights, as under the new American system of laws 
they would be given ample protection. 

The meeting was then declared open for public discussion, and Senor 
Nepomucena, ex-judge of first instance at Tuguegarao, took the floor. 
He stated that he was not present as a presidente or delegate, but 
wished to thank the Commission for its presence in Tuguegarao and 
the civil governor for his clear explanation of the laws. The speaker 
stated that the people of the Cagayan Valley had no right to complain 
of the treatment accorded them by the military commander, Colonel 
Hood, and they therefore only looked with increased joy to the inau- 
guration of the civil regime. Senor Nepomucena stated that he was 
not one of those persons, however, who say foul things about the 
Spaniards in order to win favor with the Americans, as the Spaniards 
should have the credit for everything of civilization which now existed 
in the Philippine Islands. Taking up the land tax, the speaker pointed 
out the great distress caused by the death of the carabaos in the prov- 
ince, and requested that the collection of this tax in the province of 
Cagayan be postponed for two years, as he believed otherwise the 
small landowners, not being able to pay the tax, would be compelled 
to sell their land. In reply to question by Commissioner Worcester, 
the speaker stated that the value of the small holdings referred to 
would probably be from 100 to 500 pesos each. Commissioner Wor- 
cester then, taking the case of a man who owned land worth $100 
Mexican, pointed out that the tax could not, under the law, exceed 85 
cents Mexican, and if a man could earn a wage of 1 peso per day, 
it would only require one day's labor a year to pay his taxes. The 
speaker was told that if a man would object to doing this much in 
such a cause he ought to lose his land, which statement was received 
by a large majority of the delegates with approbation. 

Senor Nepomucena next brought up the case of unimproved city 
property, wnich he stated brought in no income and should not, there- 
lore, pay taxes. It was pointed out that such property benefited by 
the public improvements of the city or pueblo in which it was located, 
being increased in value thereby, and should therefore pay its share 
of the expenses of such improvements. The speaker replied that he 
simply spoke in behalf of the people, as he thought they had suffered 
much from the war and from the loss of their carabaos. and while he 
thought the land tax was a perfectly just one, he believed its collection 
should be postponed. He stated that the price of carabaos had 
advanced from $50 to $300, and that there were not enough in the 
province to cultivate the soil. The president pointed out that the law 
provides the tax is not to be collected until next year, and that in case 
of loss by the war the collection is postponed another \^ear. 
Inquiry by the president here developed the information that a piece 



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BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPIITE COMMISSION. 261 

of tobacco land worth 1,000 pesos would produce an income of about 
200 pesos net profit yearly. The president then pointed out to the 
speaker that a tax of $8.76, Mexican, which was the maximum author- 
ized under the law, upon property which produced a net yearly income 
of $200 could not be considered excessive. 

Commissioner Worcester then called attention to the many pro- 
visions of the laws passed by the Commission in favor of the poor man, 
calling particular attention to the laws regarding the cutting of tim- 
ber. If a man was able to do so he paid the timber tax, and the 
proceeds went to the province and municipality in which the timber 
was cut, and nothing whatever to the central government at Manila, 
while if the man cutting the timber was a poor man and wanted the 
timber for his own use in building a house, he was permitted to use 
same without cost to himself. Discussion upon this law developed the 
ftu5t that all the presidentes present seemed to be ignorant of such pro- 
visions, and the president promised to see that any of them who would 
write him requesting copies of the law were supplied with same. 

Senor Gonzaga then addressed the Commission, stating that although 
he was not the representative of any municimlity, he desired to thank 
the Commission for its good work in establishing civil government, 
and for the r>lear explanation of the rights and liberties of the Filipino 
people under American laws and jurisdiction. The speaker referred 
to the semireligious slaverv in which he said they were held by the 
Spanish Government and the friar orders under Spanish rule, affirm- 
ing that they had been especially subject to such oppression in the 
Cagayan Valley by reason of the richness of the country, which aroused 
the avarice of the Spaniards. He recognized that while the province 
had nothing to complain of under the military administration, never- 
theless the inauguration of the civil regime would be the first round of 
the ladder whicn will lead to great prosperity and happiness for the 
people df the province. 

Senor Donesa, presidente of Aparri, read a petition which contained 
the requests of the citizens of Aparri to the following effect: 

1. Tnat there was now great lack of houses in Aparri, it being the 
seat of the military government, which created a large demand for 
residences by the American officers, and in order that this condition 
may be relieved and more houses built, and also in order that the con- 
struction of small trading vessels be encouraged, it was requested that 
the people be peimitted to cut timber free of duty for a certain num- 
ber of years. 

2. That owing to the great scarcity of fuel and firewood they be 
allowed to cut same free of duty. 

3. That the central government provide the city of Aparri with a 
dredging machine, in order that the harbor may be improved. 

4. That there be established at Aparri a nautical training school. 

6. That in view of the fact that the judge of that district was called 
upon to make two trips a year to hold court in the capital of the prov- 
ince, and in view of the long distance between Aparri and the capital, 
that at least one of the sessions be held in the city of Aparri. 

6. That from time immemorial the islands of Babuyan, Calayan, 
Dalupiri, and Fuga, known as the ''Islas Babuyanes," and lying to the 
north of the province of Cagayan, have been attached to the munici- 
pality of Aparri. That the population of these islands is about 700, 
chiefly Ilocanos and Cagayanes, and the request was made that they 
remain attached to the municipality of Aparri. ^ , 

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262 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Commissioner Worcester asked the speaker if he thought the Batanes 
Islands should be attached to the town of Aparri also. The speaker 
did not appear to be very well informed regarding the Batanes Islands, 
but thougnt they might also be attached to Aparri. Being asked by 
Commissioner Worcester if he thought the people living in Santo 
Domingo de Basco, on the island of Satan, should be attached to his 
municipality, the speaker replied that the pueblo of Santo Domingo 
de Basco was a small one, having only three or four barrios at t£e 
most, and he thought the union with Aparri would be a good plan. 

Commissioner Worcester pointed out to the speaker that if the 
Babuyanes Islands were attached to Aparri under Spanish rule, they 
would continue to be so under the municipal code, which recognized 
the old boundaries. 

In closing his remarks Senor Donesa requested that the town of 
Aparri should be aided in the construction of roads, as the province 
had been. 

The president replied to the speaker that the Commission would con- 
sider all of the requests made; that some of them could probably be 
granted and some could not. 

The point being raised by the president of the location of the capi- 
tal of the province, several gentlemen expressed a desire to speak 
upon this subject, and the towns of Tuguegarao, Apam, and Lallo 
were mentioned as competitors for the position. A question by Com- 
missioner Ide as to what was the expense necessary to make a trip 
from Aparri to Tuguegarao, developed the fact that there were no 
regular means of communication or transportation, and that when a 

Eerson wished to make such trip he had to first rent a boat and then 
ire boatmen for the journey; that the cost would probably be from 
10 to 30 pesos. Discussion also developed the fact that there were 
few public buildings of importance in Aparri, and that in Lallo there 
was a very large tribunal, which had, however, together with the other 
public buildings, been rented to the Tabacalera (x)mpany. 
The session then adjourned until 3.30 p. m. 

Afternoon session. 

The session was called to order at 4 p. m., and Senor Pastor Salo 
took the floor to speak in behalf of Tuguegarao in the capital-site dis- 
cussion. He said that Tuguegarao had been the capital of the province 
from time immemorial, and stated that if the capital was changed to 
some other point, as Aparri, for instance, inasmuch as wages and 
eveiy thing else had increased since the American occupation, the erec- 
tion of the necessary public buildings at the new point would be a 
serious drain upon the province, and that, while Tuguegarao might not 
have sufficient public buildings for the use of the provincial govern- 
ment, it did have a public jail, which, besides all necessary accommo- 
dations for a jail, had rooms which could be used by the provincial 
officers for other puiposes. Furthermore, Tuguegarao was most 
favorably located geographically with respect to those towns which 
were the tobacco-raising centers and devoted to an industry which was 
the great resource of the province. The plan of the town of Tuguegarao 
was well adapted to its being the capital city, as there was plenty of 
room for expansion to almost anjr size required. Being questioned as 
to the probaole value of the jail in Tuguegarao, the speaker thought it 



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REPORT OF THE PHtLIPPlNE 0OMMI8SIOK. 263 

worth possibly $12,000 to $15,000 Mexican. As far as Lallo was 
concerned, the speaker pointed out that that town did not possess the 
necessary qualifications for a.capital city, it being located on a narrow 
strip of level land, right on the river bank, and tnere was no room for 
the growth which would naturally result from its being made the capital 
of the province of Cagayan. As to Aparri, it comprised the foreign 
element and traders, not being a wealth-creating center, as was Tugue- 
garao, but simply lived off of the rest of the province by reason of its 
being the shipping point. There were about 60,000 people living south 
of a line dividing the province in half, and not more than half that 
number in the north half, near Aparri. The south half also comprised 
the larger portion of the towns. 

Passmg to the question of salaries for the provincial office I's, Senor 
Salo thought the governor should receive $2,000, the secretary $1,500, 
treasurer $2,500, supervisor $1,800, and the fiscal $1,500. 

Senor Donesa spoke in behalf oiF Aparri in the capital discussion, 
stating that the only reason Tuguegarao had been made the capital was 
because the Spanish Government was trying to obtain a monopoly of 
the tobacco lands in that vicinity and wished the capital of the province 
near by. The town of Aparri was much better located as re^rds com- 
munication and was the natural marketing place of the entire region. 

The president announced that if all present were willing the Com- 
mission would leave the question of the location of the capital to a 
vote of the presidentes, and that, as all of the towns in the province 
were represented, it would certainly be a just way of arriving at the 
wishes of the people. As there were no objections, the roll was called 
and the ballots cast by the presidentes. The vote standing 15 votes 
for Tuguegarao to 9 for Aparri, the president stated that the Commis- 
sion would conform to the wishes of the majority of the towns as thus 
expressed. 

A petition was presented from the towns of Santa Maria, Cabagan 
Nuevo, and Cabagan Viejo, of the province of Isabela, which had dele- 
gates present at the meeting, requesting that they be attached to the 
province of Cagayan by reason of their proximity to Tuguegarao and 
the distance to the capital of the province of Isabela. Discussion 
developed the fact that there was no objection on the part of the peo- 
people of Cagayan Province to adding tnese towns to the province, but 
the president stated that it was not the policy of the Commission to 
make any changes of that kind without consulting both parties, and 
that it was quite probable that the people of Isabela Province would 
object to such an arrangement, as it would undoubtedly reduce the 
tax-paying power of their province. 

The vice-presidente of Tuguegarao presented to the Commission a 
memorial containing information and statistics regarding his city, for 
the information of the Commission. 

The president announced that, in order to make the proposed special 
law organizing the province of Cagavan complete, it would be neces- 
sary that the blanks in the forms wnich had been distributed to the 
delegates be filled. To this end he proposed the following amend- 
ments: 

Insert in the title, after the words "the provincial government act," 
the words "and its amendments," and add to the title the word 
"Cagayan." 

As an amendment to the first section of the bill, insert the word 



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264 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

*' Luzon" after the words "island of," and after the words ''province 
of" insert the words "Cagavan, including therein the Batanes and 
Babuyanes Islands, lying to the north of Luzon." 

In the second section, that the salaries of the provincial officers be 
fixed as follows: For the provincial governor, $1,800; for the provin- 
cial secretary, $1,300; for the provincial treasurer, $2,100; for tne pro- 
vincial supervisor, $1,700; for the provincial fiscal, $1,300. 

In the same section, that the limit of actual traveling expenses to be 
allowed be fixed at $3 per day. 

In the third section, that tne bond of the provincial treasurer shall 
be $16,000. 

In the fifth section, that the capital of the province shall be Tugue- 
garao. 

Amend section 6 so as to read as follows: 

This act shall take effect on its passage, and officers may be appointed and qualify 
at once; but the government shall not be organized, nor shall the provincial officers 
receive any salary, until September 1, 1901. The internal revenue of the jjrovince 
shall continue to be collected until September 1, 1901, by the collector of internal 
revenue now incumbent. 

The amendments were adopted. 

The question being upon the passage of the bill as amended, the sec- 
retary was directed 5) call the roll. The bill was unanimously passed. 

The president, as civil governor, then submitted to the Commission 
for its confirmation the following nominations of provincial officers for 
the province of Cagayan: Governor, Gracio Gonzaga; secretary, Pastor 
Salo; treasurer, C. W. Ney; fiscal, Modesto Naval. 

Also the following nommations: For treasurer of the province of 
Ilocos Sur, for which province C. W. Ney had formerly been appointed 
treasurer, George W. Grau; for clerk of the court of first mstance, 
province of Cagayan, Antonio Carag. 

The president announced that for the pjosition of supervisor he could 
make no nomination at present, as this position required a civil engineer, 
and the nomination would be made after the arrival from the United 
States of the 20 civil engineers who had been sent for by the Commission. 

The question being on the confirmation of the nominations of the civil 
governor, the same were confirmed by the Commission. 

The oath of office was then administered by the president to Senor 
Gracio Gonzaga, provincial governor, Sefior Pastor Salo, provincial 
secretary, and to Mr. George R. Grau, provincial treasurer or the prov- 
ince of Ilocos Sur, and by the Hon. James H. Blount, jr., judge of 
first instance, who was present, to Senor Modesto Naval, clerk of that 
court. 

The meeting was then addressed by Sefiore Benito Legarda and 
Tomds del Rosario and by Commissioner Ide, who, in closing the ses- 
sion, thanked the representatives of the province of Cagayan for the 
interest taken by them in the se>ssion and for the enthusiasm displayed. 
He compared the conditions eight months ago to what they are to-day 
and outlined briefly the hopes and aims of the American people in 
rerard to the Filipino people. 

The session was then adjourned at 6 p. m. 

Attest: 

D. R. Williams, Secretary. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 265 



UNiTt:D States Philippine Commission. 

MINUTES OF PROCEEDINGS. 

Ilagan, Province of Isabela, August ^3, 1901. 

Public 8emo7). 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, and the president. 
The session was called to order at 3.10 p. m. by the president, and 
the roll of pueblos called. The province was represented as follows: 

Pueblo de Reina Mercedes: 

Presidente muoicipal D. Domingo Ferrer. 

Concejales D. Jos^ Ferrer. 

D. Manuel Frogoso. 

D. Agustin Hidalgo. 

D. Agustin Cabanes. 

D. Francisco Camadela. 

D. Mamerto Sangley. 
Pueblo de Naguilian: 

Presidente D. Martin Molinar. 

Vice-presidente D. Romualdo Mina. 

Secretario D. Severo R. Fermin. 

Concejales D. Alejandro Aggaria. 

D. Patricio Acoeta. 

D. Bemabe Borromeo. 

D. Domingo Tomines. 

D. Pedro Vara. 

D. Andres Gruspe. 

D. Pedro Suguitan. 

D. Adriano Marfil. 

I). Carlos Elera. 
Pueblo de Tumaunini: 

President© D. Juan Amistad. 

Principales D. Antonio Paquirigan. 

D. Vicente Tauad. 

D. Perpetuo Paquirigan. 

D. Ramundo Vinarao. 

D. Vicente Cayaba. 

D. Mateo Banguel. 

D. Serapio Taicad. 

D. Roque Pagaddu. 

D. Ventura Maltillin. 

D. Vicente Salazar. 

D. Jos^ Reyes. 

D. Francisco Dumaua. 

D. Ram6n Paquirigan. 

D. Pablo Palattao. 

D. Francisco Taguba. 

D. Domingo Bacani. 

D. Pedro Malana. 

D. Francisco Taccad. 

D. Odon Carugan. 

D. Pablo Tumolba. 

D. Tom^s Domingo. 

D. Santiago Macatuggal. 

D. Domingo Mamauag. 

D. Domingo Sanuay. 

D. Mateo Pagaddu. 

D. Vicente Carbonell. 

D. Qiiirino Mangaba. 

D. Vicente Allapitan. 

D. Pablo Loman. 

D. Matias Barani. 



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266 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Piieblo de Tumaiinini — Continued. 

Principales * .D. Jos^ Mago. 

D. Roque Ma«utay. 

D. Martin Aribbay. 

D. Juan Taccad. 

D. Victorino Paquirigan. 

D. Arturo Paquirigan. 

D. Mateo Baquiran. 

D. Florencio Bacani. 
Pueblo de Ilagan: 

Presidente D. Rafael Maramag. 

Vice-presidente D. Pa^cual Paguirigan. 

Concejales D. Carmelo Gangan. 

D. Fernando Pagulayan. 

D. Francisco Manaligod. 

D. Felix Mamuri. 

D. Felix Pagabao. 

D. Joaquin Cabangan. 

D. Juan Maramag. 

D. Gregorio Ablan. 

D. Vicente Manalu. 

D. Paulino Angangan. 

D. Tomas Domingo. 

D. Domingo M. Francisco. 

D. Pedro Maramag. 

D. Cecilio Aggabao. 
Pueblo de Echague: 

Presidente municipal D. Eugenio Angoluan. 

Vice-presidente D. Vicente Gadingan. 

Concejal D. Federico Calimag. 

Pueblo de Cordon : 

Presidente D. Carlos Baton. 

Concejal D. Vicente Abalalim. 

Pueblo de Carig: 

Presidente municipal D. Vicente Carrion. 

Concejales D. Francisco Llanggang. 

D. Pedro Piaco. 
Pueblo de Cauayan : 

Presidente municipal D. Domingo Domatan. 

Vice-presidente D. PascualDulupang. 

Cabezas de barangay D. Bruno Dalanilao. 

D. Policarpio Ubud. 
Cyoncejales D. Francisco Bucag. 

D. Fernando Camaguin. 
Pueblo de Angadanan : 

Presidente municipal D. Rafael Guiab. 

Concejales, cabezas de barrios D. Filomeno Siguiam. 

D. Domingo Vigan. 

D. Dionisio Domingo. 

D. Eusebio Magalianes. 

D. Lorenso Pascual. 

D. Cesareo Domingo. 
Pueblo de Gramu: 

Presidente D. Comelio Mondunedo. 

Vice-presidente D. Francisco Mallavo. 

Secretario D. Santiago Dominguez. 

Concejales D. Antonio Lagutao. 

D. Silverio Maiana. 

D. Rafael Domingo. 
Principales D. Manuel Martinez. 

D. Antonio Molano. 

D. Igancio Monforte. 

D. Juan Monforte. 

D. Pedro Matouez. 

D. Mariano Cabal. 

D. Gregorio de Leon. 



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BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 267 

In addition to the representatives present from the province of 
Isabela there were also present at the session representatives from six 
towns of the province of Nueva Vizcaya, who had come to meet the 
Commission at Ilagan, as the itinerary of the Commission did not extend 
to their province. The representation from Nueva Vizc«,ya was as 
follows: 

Pueblo de Bambang: 

Vice-preeidente D. Proceso Sierra. 

Pueblo de Solano: 

Presidente D. Joaquin Velazquez. 

Concejal D. Teonlo Bangad. 

Pueblo de Bayombong: 

Presidente D. Jos^ Cabanatan. 

Concejal D. Gr^orio de Guzman. 

Concejal D. Vicente Cutaran. 

Pueblo de Bagabag: 

Presidente D. Laureano Gaduang. 

Principal D. Domingo Gaduang. 

Concejal D. Dionisio Pisaog. 

Concejal D. Jacobo Aduca. 

Pueblo de Dupax: 

Presidente D. Mariano Cutarang. 

Concejal D. Marcelo Doctor. 

Concejal D. Domingo Castafleda. 

Pueblo de Aritao: 

Presidente D. Federico Esguevedo. 

Concejal D. Melchor Avmgayan. 

The president stated that the Commission had come to the province 
of Isabela for the purpose of establishing civil provincial govern- 
ment therein. Civil central government nad now been established 
at Manila, and with the establishment of provincial and municipal 
governments they would be entirely under a civil regime. The 
president explained at some length to the delegates the construc- 
tion of the central government, the legislative powers of which are 
vested in the Commission, the executive powers m the civil governor, 
and the judicial powers in a judiciary system, which had ]ust been 
established. The expenses of these departments are all defrayed by 
the central government, besides which it assisted very materially in 
the support of the system of public instruction. The formation and 
powers of the provincial governments which the Commission were 
establishing was then defined, and the duties of the provincial officers 
explained. The manner of selection of the provincial officers was 
referred to, the governor being now appointed only provisionally, and 
his successor, who was to serve for two years, being elected by a con- 
vention of the municipal councilors of the province. The new system 
of land taxation was explained, and its operation shown by practical 
examples to be such that, under the law, $8.75 Mexican per $1,000 
valuation was the maximum rate of taxation j)ossible by both the pro- 
vincial and municipal governments combined. Referring again to the 
judiciary, the president announced that the Commission had brought 
with it as far as Tuguegarao the new judge of first instance for the 
district including Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte, and Nueva Vizcaya. 
The inhabitants of the province of Isabela thus would not only have a 
civil government giving them civil rights, but they would have an 
impartial tribunal to interpret their rights under the law, and the same 
civil liberty which was enjoyed by the citizens of the United States. 
The municipal code furnished a municipal government as completely 



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268 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

autonomous as any municipal government in the United States. Tak- 
ing up the question of the powers of municipal officers, the president 
referred to the fact that in this province, in that of Cagayan, and in some 
other provinces it is the general belief that the local presidentes have the 
power of life and death over the people under their control and can regu- 
late their every action. He dia not mean to say that every presidente 
exercised this power, but the people had gotten into such a submissive 
state that such oppression was possible. It was explained that under 
American laws the presidente was the same as any other citizen, that 
his powers were clearly defined, and that if he exceeded them the peo- 
ple nad the right to appeal to the courts for their rights. The n^ht 
of the writ of habeas corpus was also referred to in this connection 
and its character and use explained to the people. Passing to the 
question of the church, the president pointed out that under the pres- 
ent regime a man was absolutely free in such matters; no one could 
compel him to go to church unless he wished to do so; he cx)uld be 
married bv civil authorities if he wished, and the church was entirely 
separate from the state in every particular. The government was 
not opposed to the church but, on the contrary, encouraged its growth 
and to that end relieved it from the payment of taxes, but the church 
received no direct support from the government in the way of funds. 
Experience in the IJnited States hjS shown that the growth of the 
church was best encouraged and promoted by such a policy. The 
president wished also to refute the impression that the United States 
was a Protestant country, stating that the United States was neither a 
Protestant country nor a Catholic country, and as a matter of fact there 
were more Catholics in that country than there were of any one sect 
of Protestants; there were now in the United States about 15,000,000 
Catholics, or 6,000,000 more than the entire population of the Philip- 
pine Archipelago. The suspicion, therefore, that the Commission, 
representing as it does a country in which there are 15,000,000 or 
16,000,000 Catholics, could come here opposed to the Catholic Church, 
is entirely unfounded. The president did not remember the exact 
statistics, but there were in the United States 1 cardinal, 1 apostolic 
delegate, 10 or 12 archbishops and 50 or 60 bishops of the Catholic 
Church. 

Passing to the question of the proposed special act organizing the 
province of Isabela, the president explained the points which it was 
necessary to decide at the session, and stated in this connection that 
the Commission had thought it might be possible to unite the two 
provinces of Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya into one province, and that 
the members of the Commission were very glad, therefore, to see the 
representatives of the province of Nueva Vizcaj^a present at the 
meeting, and would invite discussion upon this subject, the principal 
incentive for the union being one of economy. 

In closing, the president informed the delegates that the three towns 
of Cabagan Nueva, Cabagan Viejo, and Santa Maria had delegates 
present at the session of the Commission in Tuguegarao, in the province 
of Ca^yan, and were asking to be united to that province. The 
Commission had declined to take any action in the matter, however, 
until after hearing the opinions of the dele^tes of Isabela. Discus- 
sion was therefore now also invited uj)on this question. 

The delegates exhibiting some hesitation in responding to the invi- 
tation of the Commission to speak upon the subjects under considera- 



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TREE HOUSE OF THE GADDANES, NEAR ILAQAN, ISABELA PROVINCE, LUZON. 



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BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 269 

tion, Don Rafael Maramaf?, presidente of Ilagan, was asked what he 
thought about the proposition of uniting the towns of Cabagan Nuevo, 
Cabagan Viejo, and ^nta Maria to the province of Cagayan. He 
thought the proposed separation of these towns from Isabela would not 
be a good plan, as it would materially i*educe the size of the province. 
The population of Isabela was about 54,000, and these three towns con- 
tained about 20,000. The proposed change would therefore take away 
over a third of the province. Regarding the annexation of Nueva 
Vizcaya to Isabela, the speaker said he haa no objections to such addi- 
tion pi*oviding the people of the former province wished it. Replying 
to questions he stated the principal products of Isabela to be tobacco, 
colli, and palay, the tobacco being the most important resource of the 

Erovince. The tobacco crop was very good this year. The land was 
eld mostly in small holdings of from 1 to li hectares. He thought a 
hectare of tobacco land would produce, in an ordinary season, about 60 
bales of tobacco, which, at the present price of $6.50 Mexican per bale, 
would bring in about $195 gold. Of this about $300 Mexican would 
be profit. Many of the carabaos had died, only about one-third 
being left. The " jornal," or day's wage, in Isabela was $1 Mexican. 
There was a little sugar raised in the province, but they had no mills. 
The avei'age life of good tobacco land was about twelve yeans, although 
good river-bottom land would sometimes last twenty years without 
fertilizing. There was coasiderable timber in the provmce, but veiy 
little ebony, most of the wood being ''ipil," a 10-ioot log of which 
was worth about $5 Mexican. The price of labor had ^one up from 50 
cents per dav to its present price of ^1, at which latter figure there was 
a good supply. Inpoi'ted rice was worth from $8 to $10 Mexican per 

Eicul of 137i pounds. The rice raised in the province was worth $5 or 
6 Mexican a picul. Corn sold at the rate of $5 Mexican to the 200 
pounds, which was about the same as in Spanish times. 

Senor Evarista Panganiban, of Solana, Nueva Vizcaya, ex-represent- 
ative from the province of Nueva Vizcaya to the Malolos congress, 
stated that he had heard of the proposed union of his province to the 
province of Isabela, and he thought it would be about the best thing 
to do. It would be a sacrifice on the part of Nueva Vizcaya, but inas- 
much as under the present legislation no great amount of communica- 
tion was required between the capital and the municipalities, the 
proposed union would be better for the people of Nueva Vizcaya than 
naving to bear the burden of a separate provincial government. He 
did not, however, know what the people of Bayombong, the former 
capital of Nueva Vizcaya, thought about the matter. In replv to 
questions the speaker stated that the principal product of Nueva Viz- 
caya was rice, with coffee and sugar on a small scale, and in some 
I>arts (those occupied by the Igorrotes) they raised beans, beets, and 
other vegetables. There was a very laree Igorrote population in the 
province, especially in the mountains. When asked if he thought it 
would be practicable to govern these Igorrotes in connection with the 
Igorrotes of Bontoc, Lepanto, or Benguet, the speaker could not say, 
as he had never explored that imrt of the country. The president 
stated that if the proposed union took place it would not deprive the 

Keople of Nueva Vizcaya from having a session of court at Bayom- 
ong, and they would not have to come to Ilagan for that purpose. 
In reply to question the speaker stated that the land in Nueva Viz- 
caya was all held in small lots, everyone owning his own land. He 



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270 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

said that tobacco was not mised there because the people were not used 
to that kind of product, although the land there was probably well 
suited to its culture. The people have suffered considerably from the 
cattle disease, which had taken away most of their cattle. Kegaixiing 
the relations of the people with the Igorrotes, the speaker said that 
there were f reauent murders of both Christians and Igorrotes. Regard- 
ing the difficulty of having quarterly meetings of the presidentes as 
provided by the law should a union of the two provinces be effected, he 
thought twice a year would be frequent enough to hold the meetings 
and admitted that quarterly meetings would be rather difficult and 
troublesome. 

Senor Joaquin Velazquez, presidente of Solano, province of Nueva 
Vizcaya, presented a petition from the towns of Bayombong, Solano, 
and Bagabag, protesting against the proj)osed union of Nueva Vizcaya 
with Isabela, stating that they wish^ a separate organization, some- 
thing on the order of the Benguet government. The people were very 
poor, and there was practicaUy no way of communicating with Isabela 
during portions of the year. The province of Nueva Vizcaya con- 
taine(ri5,000 Christians and 60,000 pagans, between whom there was 
continually bad feeling, six Christians' heads having been cut off in the 
past six months. Union with Isabela would be a great hardship upon 
the people of Nueva Vizcaya, and they respectfully prayed that it 
should not take place. In reply to question the speaker replied that he 
was eight days on the road from Solano to Ilagan, having been delayed 
by bad weather, the trip usually taking about four days in good 
weather. 

Senor Bernardo Villamil read an address to the Commission which 
presented the wishes of the people of the province of Isabela, request- 
mg, among other things, that tney be given schools and colleges; that 
the town of Aparri be made a port open to foreign tmde, and that the 
town of Angadanan be incorporated as a new town. The original copy 
of the petition will be found in the official files of the Commission. 

The president, in reply, pointed out that as far as the speaker's first 
point was concerned, the department of education was now establish- 
ing schools all over the archipelago, and for this purpose 600 teachers 
had just arrived in Manila, with 400 more to follow shortly. In regard 
to making the town of Aparri a port open for foreign ti'ade, the presi- 
dent stated that this matter had only ]ust been brought to the atten- 
tion of the Commission at the session at Tuguegamo, and that the 
matter would be brought to the attention of the full Commission upon 
the return of the party to Manila, the members of the Commission 
present being i-ather inclined to think that it would be a good thing to 
make the port of Aparri such an open port. Finally, in regard to the 
formation of the new town by separating one pueblo into two, the 
Commission would have to take that under consideration. 

A delegate present here arose to take exception to the remarks of 
the presidente of Ilagan about the price of tobacco. Tobacco had 
reached the price of ^.50 Mexican a Dale but once, and that was last 
year; that the price this year was lower, and the people were holding 
their tobacco for higher prices as a result. The crop was very good 
this year, although a little water would not hurt it. The corn crop 
was also good. The speaker stated that as tobacco was the principKal 
product of the province they would like to have the right of free entry 
or same into the markets of America (ind foreign countries. It waa 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 271 

pointed out by the president that the question of customs duties in 
America was controlled by the United States Congress and neither the 
Commission nor Congress could have anything to say about the rates of 
customs duties in foreign countries. 

The question of the union of the two provinces of Nueva Vizcaya 
and Isaoela being again brought up, the discussion became geneml and 
Commissioner Ide asked for opinions as to whether it would not be 
easier for the towns of Aritao and Dupax to reach San Isidro, in the 
province of Nueva Ecija, than Ilagan. It was thought that Ilagan was 
the most accessible. The discussion developed the fact that three 
towns favored annexation to Isabela, namely, Aritao, Dupax, and 
Bambang, while the three towns of Bayombong, Solano, and Bagabag 
opposed the union. 

Senor Juan de Juan, correspondent of El Progreso, of Manila, who 
is accompanying the Commission, asked to be permitted to say a few 
words upon the subject under discussion. Being told to proceed, he 
stated that he was very much surprised that anyone in Nueva Vizcaya 
should favor union with Isabela, and especially the towns around 
Aritao, which were in the extreme corner of the province, opposite 
Isabela, and if thej desired to be united to any other province it 
ought to be Pangasman, as the roads were much^ better in that direc- 
tion, and there already being projected a road from Aritao to San 
Nicolas, in the latter province. He said, however, that in view of the 
desire of the Commission to instruct and better the condition of the 
Igorrotes it would be better to establish local authority of some kind 
instead of governing them from such a distance as Ilagan. 

Senor Evariste Panganiban, of Solano, questioned the statements of 
Senor Juan de Juan regarding the accessibility of Pangasinan from 
the province of Nueva Vizcaya, saying that there was not a man in the 

{ province who would say it was easier to get to Lingayen than to 
lagan. 
The Commission then adjourned until 10 a. m. to-morrow, August 24. 

Session of August ^^, 1901, 

The session was called to order at 10.30 a. m., and the president 
announced that as the discussion of yesterday afternoon had been 
very full and complete, the Commission was now ready to render its 
decisions upon the points under consideration. 

The Commission had been anxious to unite the two provinces of 
Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya, as their geographical location seemed to 
indicate that to be a wise provision, but the discussion and further 
investigation had convinced the Commission that the conditions in the 
two provinces were so very different that it would be exceedingly 
unwise to extend the government of Isabela to Nueva Vizcaya. The 
distance was of course a serious objection, but not so serious as the 
difference in the inhabitants. In that province there are 15,500 Fili- 
pino Christians and 60,000 Igorrotes, and the Filipinos who live there 
are very divided in sentiment and in language, part being Ilocanos, 
part people from the Cagayan Valley, and part people descended from 
the hill tribes who are now Christians. The province therefore 
required a special government, not exactly like the Benguet govern- 
ment, but yet different from the ordinary provincial government; a 
government under which municipal organizations could be established 



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272 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

by the civilized people, and yet under which the provincial governor 
would be empowered to exercise a more direct control over the non- 
Christian tribes. It was desired to give the people the benefits of the 
municipal code so far as the provisions of same were applicable to the 
people. The Commission would at present take no action in respect to 
Nueva Vizcaya, but would, on its return to Manila, prepare a law 
adapted to the conditions, concerning which the Commission now had 
reasonably accurate information. 

Regarding the three towns of Cabagan Nuevo, Cabagan Viejo, and 
Santa Maria, which sought to be annexed to the province of Cagayan. 
the Commission did not think the change should be made, as it woula 
too greatly reduce the j)opulation and tax-paying power of the prov- 
ince of Isabela. 

In order to make complete the proposed special act organizing the 
province of Isabela, tne president then submitted the following 
amendments: 

Insert in the title after the words "the provincial government act" 
the words ''and its amendments," and add to the title the word 
"Isabela." 

As an amendment to the first section of the bill insert the word 
"Luzon" after the \yords " island of," and after the words "province 
of" insert the word "Isabela." 

In the second section insert the word "Isabela" after the words 
"province of," and in the same section fix the salaries of the provincial 
officers as follows: Provincial governor, $1,500; provincial secretary, 
$900; provincial treasurer, $1,800; provincial supervisor, $1,500; pro- 
vincial fiscal, $1,200. 

In the same section, that the limit of traveling expenses per day for 
the provincial oflScers shall be $3 gold. 

In the third section, that the bond of the provincial treasurer shall 
be $12,000. 

In the fifth section, that the capital of the province shall be Ilagan. 

Amend section 6 so as to read as follows: 

This act shall taKe effect on its passage, and officers may be abpointed and qualify 
at once, but the government shall not be organized, nor shall thv provincial officers 
receive any salary until September 10, 1901. The internal revenue of the province 
shall continue to be collected until September 10, 1901, by the collector of internal 
revenue, now incumbent. 

The amendments were adopted. 

The question then being upon the passage of the bill, as amended, 
the secretary was directed to call the roll. The bill was unanimously 
passed. 

The president, as civil governor, then submitted for the confirma- 
tion of the Commission the following nominations for provincial oflScers 
for the province of Isabela: Provincial governor, Capt. W. H. John- 
son, Sixteenth Infantry, U. S. A.; provincial secretary, Francisco 
Dichoso; provincial treasurer, Capt. George W. Povey; provincial 
fiscal, Bartolome Revilla. 

The president stated that he could make no nomination for the posi- 
tion of supervisor until after the return of the Commission to Manila 
and the arrival of the 20 civil engineers from America who had been 
sent for by the Commission. 

The nominations were confirmed by the Commission. 

The president announce that as the Commission wished to have all of 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 273 

the municipalities in the province organized under the municipal code, 
SO that the people would have the benefit of the rights and liberties 
therein provided, a resolution would be passed before the Commission 
left Ilagan appointing Capt. W. H. Johnson as chairman of the com- 
mittee of organization of the municipalities. 

The oath of oflice was then administered to Seiior Dichoso and Cap- 
tain Povey. 

After briefly thanking the people of Ilagan for the welcome accorded 
the Commission, the president introduced Sefior Tom^ del Rosario, 
one of the directors of the Federal i)arty who is accompanying the Com- 
mission, and who addressed the session in Spanish. 

The session then adjourned. 

Attest: D. R. Williams, Secretary, 

United States Philippine Commission. 

minutes of proceedings. 

Iba, Province of Zambales, Aiigtuit 28^ 1901. 

Public sessi'o?}. 

Present: Commissioners Worcester, Ide, and the president. 
The session was called to order at 9 a. m., and the secretary was 
directed to call the roll of pueblos. Of the twenty -six towns in the 

Srovince, twenty were represented, the six towns which did not have 
elegates present being Alos, Anda, Aliminos, Balincaguin, Bolinao, 
and Dolores. Considerable diflSculty was experienced by the secretary 
in obtaining the lists of the delegates present, and only a partial list 
of the complete representation was obtained, which is as follows: 

Pueblo de Dasol: 

Representante D. Lorenzo Gimenes. 

Pueblo de Santa Cruz: 

Representantes D. Segundo MisoJa. 

D. Benito Albano. 
Pueblo de San NarciHo: 

Repreeentantee D. Vicente Poaados. 

D. Angel D. Farrale?. 

D. Simeon Villanueva. 

D. Leoncio Adamos. 

D. Donato Amon. 

D. Victor Am68 Altardino. 
Pueblo de Maainloc: 

Presidente B. Juliano Estella. 

Pueblo de Iba: 

Presidente D. Alejandro Gonzales. 

Representantes D. Basilio de la Rona. 

D. Juan Manday. 
Principales D. Nicolas Arayan. 

D. Sebastian Mercado. 

D. Roque Trinidad. 

D. Rafael Trinidad. 

D. Antonio Trinidad. 

D. Antonio Venzon. 

D. Pablo Mercado. 

D. Linas Trinidad. 

D. Vicente Mora. 

D. Jos^ Venzon. 

D. Nicolas Marzal. 



p c 1901— PT 2 18 



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274 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Pueblo de Iba — Continued. 

Principales D. Fermfn Arayan. 

D. Vicente Trinidad. 

D. Gabriel Trinidad. 

D. Juan Gonzales. 

D. Egidio Llanos. 

D. Pedro Ruio. 

D. Leon Abadam. 

D. Toribio Amante. 

D. Simeon Tolentino. 

D. Zacarias de Leon. 

D. Francisco de la Rosa. 

I>. Arcadio Lopez. 

D. Macario Apostol. 

D. Jos^ Acera. 

D. Pio Arayan. 
Pueblo de Botolan: 

Presidente D. Andres Dumaplira. 

Representante D. Jos6 Cris6stomo. 

Principales D. Jos^Orozco. 

D. Pio Encamacion. 

D. Domingo Villanueva. 

D. Benito Guido. 

D. Francisco Aguilar. 

D. Mariano Achacoso. 

D. Norberto Dave. 
Pueblo de San Marcelino: 

Presidente '. D. Juan Rodriguez. 

Vice-presidente D. Alipio Corpus. 

Concejales D. Alfonso Manuel. 

D. Felipe Gonzales. 

D. Felipe Fabunan. 

D. Pantaleon Labrador. 

D. Aniceto Beltran. 

D. Gregorio Beltran. 
Principales D. Jose Ferriols. 

D. Graciano Ladioray. 

D. Martin Fogata. 

D. A^apito Fabunan. 

D. Miguel Felarca. 

D. Crisanto Familan. 

D. Clemente Battad. 
Pueblo de San Antonio: 

Vice-presidente D. Eulopo Rodolfo. 

Representantes D. Dommgo Garcia. 

D. Felix Magsaysay. 
Pueblo de Cabangan: 

Representantes D. Antonio Barretto. 

D. Cenon Donor. 
Pueblo de Castillejos: 

Representante D. Gabriel Alba. 

Secretario D. Jos6 de Castro. 

Representantes ^ D. Juan C. del Fierro. 

D. Jos6 del Fierro. 

D. Francisco Santiago. 
Pueblo de Palauig: 

Bepreeentaiitee D. Jacinto L. Concei>ci6n. 

D. Mercelino Gregorio Rosal. 

D. Vicente Mendoza. 

D. Vicente Tuazon. 

D. Felipe Mendoza. 

D. Pedro Asis. 

D. Bonifacio Mendoza. 

D. Pascual Tante. 

There were also present at the session representatives from the 
pueblos of Candaiaria, Bani, Agno, San Isidro, Rivera de San Fer- 
nando, San Felipe, Subic, Olongapo, Zargoza. 



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BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 275 

The president stated that after one or two efforts to reach the prov- 
ince of Zambales the Commission had at last succeeded in mafang a 
landing from its steamer, and was very glad to have the oleasure of 
meeting with the representatives of the province. The Conmiission 
was present for the purpose of establishing civil provincial govern- 
ment and making complete the establishing of civil government in 
all its branches. When this was done the military would be with- 
drawn from the outlying posts and centered in two or three towns in 
the province, and even in these towns the military will not interfere 
in tne administration of civil affairs, but will respond only in cases 
where it is necessary to preserve law and order. Under ordinary 
conditions the government would depend upon the municipal police 
forces and the insular constabulary for the enforcement of the laws. 
These would, of course, have the assistance and sympathy of the mili- 
tary oflBcers when needed. The members of the insular constabulary 
are drawn from the province in which they are located, and the 
members of the municipal police from their municipalities. The 
change would undoubtedly be welcomed by the military authorities, 
as the concentration of the forces would lessen the cost of maintaining 
the army and greatly improve its discipline. Passing to the question 
of the provincial government, the establishment of which in Zambales 
the Commission was now in Iba to consider, the president explained 
briefly the construction of same and the relation between the central, 
provincial, and municipal governments. The duties of the different 
provincial officers were made clear, as well as those of the provincial 
Doard. Attention was called to the law enabling the province to bor- 
row ^2,500 in gold from the insular treasury to meet its early expenses, 
which sum should be repaid before Januarjr 1, 1903, without interest, 
and also to the provision by which all the internal revenue collected 
from the province since the 1st of January of the present year would 
be returned to the province by the insular treasurer. The resources 
of the province in the way of the cedula and land tax were then 
explained and the workings of the latter made clear by practical 
examiples. Attention was called to the good intentions of the Ameri- 
can Grovemment in regard to public instruction, and to the fact that 
600 teachers had just arrived in the islands, to be shortly followed by 
400 more. 

The president stated that the holding of the session at Iba in the 
venerable church building prompted him to say something regarding 
the relations between the church and state. It was pointed out how 
these two institutions were entirely separate under the American system 
of government and the relationship explained at some length. Pass- 
ing to the question of the organization of municipalities, the president 
explained the provisions of tne municipal code and the powers of the 
municipal council and municipal officers under the code, especial atten- 
tion being directed to the limitations of the power of the presidente, 
which officer in so many towns in the archipelago was accustomed to 
exceed his authority. The rights of the people in this regard were 
dwelt upon briefly, and their attention called to the fact that under the 
new system of laws enacted by the Commission the writ of habeas 
corpus would protect them from unlawful imprisonment or persecution. 

Taking up the question which brought the Commission to Iba, the 
president stated that there had been some doubt as to whether Zam- 
bales should be organized as a separate province. It had been pro- 



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276 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE OOMMI8SXON. 

posed to divide up the territory of the province of Zambales into three 
parts one of each to be assigned to the provinces of Pangasinan, Tar- 
lac, and Pampanga. It also had been proposed to divide it into two 
parts and assign same to the provinces of Pangasinan and Tarlac, both 
of these propositions being made in the interest of economy in admin- 
istration. On the other hand, the province of Zambales had l)een a 
separate province for a long time ana there was no doubt a local pride 
in the province which would object to any such separation. This 
sentiment the Commission was not disposed to discourage. The Com- 
mission would be glad to hear the opinions of the representatives upon 
these points. 

Senor Juan Manday, of Iba, after briefly thanking the Commission 
for coming to Zambales, stated that he thought it would be very inju- 
dicious to divide the province into two or three parts and annex same 
to neighboring provinces. Laying aside entirely the question of local 
pride to whicn the president of the Commission had referred, the 
speaker thought that the towns would be, under the proposed subdi- 
vision, at too great a distance from the provincial capitals. Reply- 
ing to question by Commissioner Ide, the speaker admitted that tne 
absence of representatives from the six northern towns of the prov- 
ince was probably due to the great distance they had to come. He 
also admitted that these towns were probably nearer to Lingayen, 
^he capital of Pangasinan, and could reach that point easier. The 
speaker stated, however, that while in individual instances towns 
might be brought nearer to other capitals by the proposed change, 
the majority or towns in the province of Zambales would be injured 
by the change. While admitting that the province of Zambales was a 
long strip of territory along the coast, with the towns much strung 
out, the speaker stated that on the other hand these towns were sepa- 
rated from the provinces east of them by a high and almost inacces- 
sible range of mountains. Two of the towns in the north to which 
reference had been made, namely, Bolinao and Alaminos, were among 
the most important of the province, Bolinao having a population of 
about 8,000. Passing to the question of a lack of resources to sup- 
port a provincial government, the speaker did not think any such lack 
existed. He believed that under American government they would 
be more prosperous than under the Spanish r%ime, and yet under 
the Spanish regime they had more money than was needed to support 
the government, there was a surplus. The speaker thought the total 
population of the province to be about 100,000. Under Spanish regime 
the total receipts rrom official sources amounted to $167,200 Mexican, 
divided as follows: Cedulas, $112,000; stamped paper, $25,000; for- 
estry tax, $5,000; industrial tax, $10,000; urbana tax, $200; munici- 
pal and provincial fees and charges, $15,000. 

The president here asked the collector of internal revenue. Mr. Sher- 
wood, who was present, if he could make a statement of tne receipts 
since he began nis duties. Mr. Sherwood replied that the receipts 
from January 1 of this year until August 28 were $3,629.87, exclusive 
of the towns of Subic and Olongapo, which were under the control of 
the marines. The taxes at Subic it was thought averaged about $250 
gold per month. 

Continuinj^ his remarks, Senor Manday stated that he was not pre- 
pared to affirm or deny that the six northern towns wished to be 
incorporated with Pangasinan, although he had heard that the presi- 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 277 

dente of Alaminos proposed to ask for such incorporation for his town. 
However, the greatest good to the greatest number should be con- 
sidered, and it was unfair to the large marjority of the other towns in 
the province to cut off that part of the province simply because it 
would benefit a few towns, and thus leave nineteen others to support 
all the expenses of government. The president introduced the ques- 
tion of tne quarterly meeting of presidentes and some discussion 
followed regarding the advisabilitv of having four meetings a year, 
considering the distance the presidentes would have to travel in some 
eases. The speaker thought that quarterly meetings could be held and 
that they would be very beneficial. Tne distance to Bolinao was 
thought to be about 75 miles, and the time required to make the trip 
about three days. 

The question of removing the capital to a better port than Iba being 
brought up by the president, in reply to question, the speaker stated 
he thought the harbor of Palauig was safer and more easy of access, 
and that if the entrance at Masinloc was not so marked by shoals it 
would also be a much better port. The town of Palauig was about 
the same size as Iba. The speaker would himself be in favor of mov- 
ing the capital to that point if it were not for the question of having 
to erect there a public jail. There was a jail in Iba which belongea 
to the province and which cost them over $100,000. It would prob- 
ably be necessary to erect a building for the use of the provincial 
officers, which the speaker thought could be built for about $12,000 
Mexican or possibly less, with economy. Being questioned upon the 
point the speaker admitted that the jail building could likely be built 
for less than half the sum he had named, and that there had likely been 
some irregularities in connection with its construction. The jail was 
now used oy the military authorities as a military prison. The presi- 
dent stated that the capital might be moved to ralauig and the jail 
retained at Iba, the important point being to get a port that could be 
entered in all weathers. 

The speaker then submitted a written communication to the Com- 
mission m which, among other things, he asked for an explanation of 
that part of the provincial act by which the provincial board can 
instruct the fiscal to prosecute or defend any suit m which the province 
is interested, with the permission of the judge of the court of first 
instance. He wished to know the result if the judge of first 
instance did not give his consent. It was explained by the president 
that the meaning of paragraph {f) of section 13 of the provincial gov- 
ernment act, to which the gentleman evidently referrea, was that the 
provincial board had authority to prosecute or defend suits for or 
against the provincial government, but that after they were brought, 
however, they could not be closed or compromised except by permis- 
sion of the provincial fiscal and the judge. Replying to query regard- 
ing paragraph (A) of the same section, the president stated that there 
was an error in the printing, and the word ''Tesorero" should be 
''Tesorerfa." Another point covered by the communication was the 
tax on wagon or cart tires of less than 2i inches in width. The 
president explained that this provision was not intended as a source 
of revenue, but simply as a protection to the roads of the province, 
and to prevent their being cut to pieces by the extremely narrow tires 
which were used in some places. There were a number of other 
points which the president stoted the Commission could not take time 

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278 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

to discuss at the meeting, but would answer later by mail. Inquiry 
by Commissioner Ide developed the fact that all of the towns in the 

Erovince of Zambales had been organized under the provisions of 
reneral Orders No. 43. 

Senor Jos6 Cris6stomo, of the Pueblo of Botolan, called attention to 
the great losses the people of the province had suffered by the war 
and by the cattle plague, stating tnat owing to the latter not one- 
tenth of the tillable land was now being cultivated, and asked, in view 
of this fact, if the Commission thought the land tax should be imposed 
upon property which was not bringing in any income. It was pointed 
out to him that if the land was not productive its value would not be 
assessed at as much as if it was so, that in any event the tax was small 
and very easily met, and finally, that it was absolutely necessary for 
the support of the provincial government. The speaker thought that 
money might be derived from internal revenue to run the government. 
The president replied that this did not furnish enough, and that the 
Commission did not wish to increase it and thus make the people who 
would pay the internal-revenue taxes bear an unjust share of uie bur- 
den of supporting the government. The taxation had been distributed 
as equitably as possible. The provision in regard to the postponing 
of the collection of the tax in cases of loss occasioned by the war was 
referred to, and the president asked that the people make a trial of 
the land tax as it stood and see how it would work. 

Col. Grabriel Alba, ex-commander of the insurgent forces in the 
province of Zambales, addressed the Commission m reference to the 
municipal code. He did not think the sources of income provided 
thereby would be ample to run the municipal governments. Even 
including the cedula tax, he did not believe the revenue provided would 
be one-half of the absolutely necessary amount required to pay the 
expenses of the municipalities. After considerable discussion in 
regard to municipal expenses, in the course of which it was suggested 
that it was not necessary that the municipalities pay the maximum 
salaries permitted by the law for municipal officers, and that the 
municipal expenses might be otherwise considerably reduced by eco- 
nomical management, me president stated that he believed the law 
would work all right with good management, and asked that it be 
given a trial as it stands. In reply to a proposition of the speaker to 
have the central government maKe temporary loans to the municipali- 
ties, the president pointed out that if, sav, a thousand dollars were 
loaned to municipalities in Zambales it would establish a precedent for 
towns all over the archipelago, which might call for the disbursement 
of a million dollars from the insular treasury. 

When asked what the opinion was of the towns in the southern part 
of the province in regard to the proposed division of the province, the 
speaker stated that they were against it. He thought it would be 
more beneficial to have the capital at Palauig on account of its greater 
accessibility, although it was very difficult to get in that port, even 
during a southwest monsoon. It was more accessible than Iba, how- 
ever. 

Senor Basilio de la Rosa, of Iba, brought up the question of the 
Spanish land grants to the municipalities. It was required bv law that 
these '^ communal leagues" of land should be record^, but the war of 
1896 breaking out prevented a large number of the towns from comply- 



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BEPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 279 

ing with that provision of the law. The second section of the new muni- 
cipal code provides that the towns should have the benefit of the com- 
munal league. What the speaker wanted to know was if the municipali- 
ties which had not perfected their records, and therefore did not really 
hold title to any land, could proceed now at once to survey and mark out 
a communal lea^e in accordance with the provisions of the old Spanish 
law. The president replied that the question brought up was a dis- 
puted one, out in any event the land was public property, belonging 
by the treaty of Paris to the United States, and as such was subject to 
the disposition of Congress. The question would probably be made 
the basis of a report to Congress by tne Commission in the niture. It 
was a little difficult to see, however, if a town had not recorded or 
made any selection of land, how title could be considered to have 
passed to it of property which had never been described or outlined 
in any way. That Question was, however, one of law, and not one for 
the (Commission to decide. 

The president then announced that the Commission would hold a 
recess of half an hour for the purpose of discussing in executive ses- 
sion the points to be determined; but as the weather was threatening 
and it was necessary that the Commission return to the ship as soon as 
possible, the session would be concluded before taking lunch. 

After the recess the president addressed the delegates, stating that 
the Commission had decided not to disturb the provincial boundaries 
of ^mbales and not to divide the province into parts, although as 
long as the Commission occupied its present position it would have the 
power to make changes in that respect should experience require them. 
For the present, however, no change would be made. 

The president then proposed the following amendments to the pro- 
jected special act organizing the province of Zambales: 

Insert in the title, after the words *' The provincial government act," 
the words ''and its amendments" and add to the title the word 
"Zambales." 

As amendment to the first section of the bill insert the word " Luzon " 
after the words "Island of;" and after the words ''province of" insert 
the word "Zambales." 

In section 2 insert, after the words "Province of," the word " Zam- 
bales;" and for the salaries of the provincial officers insert the follow- 
ing: "Provincial governor, $1,500; provincial secretary, $1,000; pro- 
vincial treasurer, $1,800; provincial supervisor, $1,500; provincial 
fiscal, $1,100." 

In same section insert as amount of traveling expenses per day for 
provincial officers, $2'.50. 

In section 3 make the bond of the provincial treasurer $12,000. 

Regarding the capital of the province, the president stated that the 
Commission had intended making Palauig the capital of Zambales, as 
it was evidently more accessible than Iba, but the vote of the repre- 
sentatives upon the blank forms seemed to be unanimously in favor of 
Iba, and if the people desired to endure the difficulties of making a 
landing at their capital which were present at Iba, the Commission 
would not interfere. 

The president therefore further proposed: 

To amend section 5 by making tne capital of the province, as for- 
merly, the town of Iba. 



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280 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Amend section 6 so as to read as follows: 

This Act shall take effect on its passage, and officers may be appointed and qualify 
at once, but the government shall not be organized, nor ^all tne provincial officers 
receive any salary, imtil September 10, 1901. The internal revenue of the i)rovince 
shall continue to be collected until September 10, 1901, by the collector of internal 
revenue now incumbent. 

On motion, the amendments were adopted. 

The question being upon the passage of the bill as amended, the sec- 
retary was directed to call the roll. 

The bill was unanimously passed. 

The president, as civil governor, then submitted for the confirmation 
of the Commission the following nominations for provincial officers of 
the province of Zambales: Provincial governor, Potenciano Lasaca; 
provincial secretary, Gabriel Alba; provincial treasurer, A. C. Mor- 
rison; provincial fiscal, Juan Manday. 

The nomination of Jos^ Cris6stortio as clerk of the court of first 
instance of Zambales was also submitted to the Commission. 

Re^rding the position of provincial supervisor, the president 
explained that no nomination could be made until after the return of 
the Commission to Manila and the arrival of the twenty civil engineers 
who had been sent for from the United States, as this position requii'ed 
the services of a skilled engineer. 

The nominations were confirmed by the Commission. 

The oath of office was then administered to Sefiores Lasaca, Alba, 
Manday, and Crisostomo. 

The president announced that before the Conwnission left Iba a reso- 
lution would be adopted appointing the provincial governor and the 
provincial fiscal as chairman and assistant chairman of the committees 
of organization of the pueblos of the province, under the provisions 
of the municipal code, and that they would be allowed the sum of $6^ 
^old per day, together with their expenses, during the time occupied 
m this work. 

After again thanking the representatives for their expressions of 
good will and wishing much {prosperity to the province or Zambales, 
the president declared the session adjourned. 

Attest: 

D. K. Williams, Secretary. 



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APPENDIX D. 

IHATJGITEAL ADDEE88 OF THE CIVIL GOVEENOE. 

My Fellow-Countrymen: This ceremony marks a new step toward 
civil pfovernment in the Philippine Islands. The ultimate and most 
important step, of course, will be taken by the Congress of the United 
States, but with the consent of the Congress the President is seeking 
to make the Islands ready for its action. However provisional the 
change made to-day, the President by fixing the natal day of the 
Republic as its date has manifested his view of its importance and his 
hope that the day so dear to Americans may perhaps be also associated 
in the minds of the Filipino people with good fortune. The transfer 
to the Conmiission of the legislative power and certain executive func- 
tions in civil affairs under the militaiy government on September first of 
last year, and now the transfer of civil executive power in the pacified 
provinces to a civil governor, are successive stages in a clearly for- 
mulated plan for making the territory of these Islands ripe for perma- 
nent civil government on a more or less popular basis. As a further 
step in the same direction, on September nrst next, at the beginning of 
the Commission's second legislative year, there will be added as mem- 
bers to that body by appointment of the President, Dr. Trinidad H. 
Pardo de Tavera, ^nor Don Benito Legarda and Senor Don Jose 
Luzuriaga. The introduction into the le^lature of representative 
Filipinos, educated and able, will materially assist the Commission in 
its work by their intimate knowledge of the people and of local prej- 
udices and conditions. On September first, also, the executive branch 
of the insular government will be rendered more efficient by the estab- 
lishment of four executive departments. There will be a department 
of the interior, of which Commissioner Dean C. Worcester will be 
head; a department of commerce and police, of which Commissioner 
Luke E. Wright will be the head; a department of justice and finance, 
of which Commissioner Henry C. Ide will be the head* and a depart- 
ment of public instruction, of which Commissioner Bernard Moses 
will be the head. The foregoing announcements are made by direc- 
tion of the Secretary of War. . 

Since the above was written, in confirmation of the statement of the 
President's purposes with respect to the people of these Islands, 1 have 
this morning received the following telegram from the President of 
the United States: 

Washington, jxdy 3 — 3.4^ p. m. 
Taft, Manila: 

Upon the assumption of jrour new duties as civil governor of the Philippine 
Islands I have great pleasure in sending congratulations to you and your associate 
commissioners and my thanks for the good work already accomplished. I extend 
to you my full confidence and best wishes for still greater success in the larger 
responsibilities now devolved upon you, and the assurance not only for myself but 
for my countrjrmen of good will for the people of the Islands, and the hope that their 
participation in the government which it is our purpose to develop among them, 
may Ic^d to their highest advancement, happiness, and prosperity. 

William McKinlky. 

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282 BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

The extent of the work which the Commission has done in or^nizing 
civil governments in towns and provinces is considerable, but its scope 
and effect may easily be exaggerated by those not fully acquainted 
with the situation. Twenty-seven provinces have been organized 
under the general provincial act; but it has not been possible to fill 
the important office of supervisor in eight or nine of them because a 
supervisor must be a civil engineer. We have sent to America for com- 
petent persons, whose arrival we look for this month. As the super- 
visor is one of the three members of the governing provincial board, 
his absence necessarily cripples the administration. Of the 27 prov- 
inces organized, four, possioly five and small parts of two others in 
which armed insurrection continues, will remain under the executive 
jurisdiction of the military governor and commanding general. There 
are 16 provinces or disti'icts in which there is entire freedom from 
insurrection which the Commission has not had time to organize. Of 
the unorganized provinces and districts, including Mindoro and Para- 
gua, the latter just occupied by the army, there are four that are not 
ready for civil government. In the organized provinces nearly all 
the towns have oeen organized under the municipal code; and some 
towns have been similarly organized in unorganized provinces. It 
was not supposed that either the municipal code or the provincial 
government act would form perfect governments, though it was pos- 
sible to make the former much more complete than tne latter, for 
there had been two experiments in municipal government under the 
administration of General Otis and General MacArthur before the 
Commission began its legislative work. The provincial government 
act was tentative. The result of the southern trip of the Commission 
was a substantial amendment and there will doubtless be others. 
Government is a practical, not a theoretical, problem; and the success- 
ful application of a new system to a people like this must be brought 
about oy observing closely the operation of simple laws and making 
changes or additions as experience shows their necessity. The enact- 
ment of the law in its first form and appointments under it are but 
one of several steps in a successful organization. 

The conditions under which the municipal and provincial govern- 
ments of the Islands are to have their first real test are trying. The 
four years' war has pauperized many, and its indirect effect in destroy- 
ing the habits of industry of those who have been prevented from 
working in the fields, or who have been leading the irresponsible life 
of guerrillas is even more disastrous. Not only war, but also the death 
from disease of a large percentage of the carabaos which are indispen- 
sable to the cultivation of rice and are greatly needed in all agriculture, 
has largely reduced the acreage of rice and other staple products. 
Then the pest of locusts has been very severe. In one province, and 
perhaps more, gaunt famine may have to be reckoned with. Poverty 
and suffering in a country where ladronism has always existed are sure 
to make ladrones. 

With the change made to-day, the civil governments must prepare 
to stand alone and not depend on the army to police the provinces and 
towns. The concentration of the army in larger garrisons where, in 
(leases of emergency only, they can be cidled on to assist the local police 
may be expected; but the people must be enabled by organization of 
native police under proper and reliable commanders to defend them- 
selves against the turbulent and vicious of their own communities. 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 283 

The withdrawal of the army from the discharge of quasi civil duties 
of police will be accompanied also by the ceasing of the jurisdiction 
of military commissions to try ordinary criminal cases. They have 
been most useful in punishing and repressing crime. We have enacted 
a judiciary law and ap^inteS judges under it who will succeed to this 
work. But the adoption of a new civil code of procedure, a new 
criminal code and code of procedure, all of which are ready, may be 
delayed somewhat by the needed public discussion of them. Until 
they are all adopted, we shall pot reel that the chief step has been 
taken toward securing the blessings of civil liberty to the people of 
the pacified provinces, the protection of life, liberty and property. 

The difficulties of official communication between provinces on the 
sea and between towns of the same province similarly situated must 
be met by a properly organized fleet of small steamers or launches 
which shall, at the same time, assist in the revenue or postal service. 
Provincial governments, in many cases without such means of com- 
municating with their numerous towns, are greatly impeded in their 
functions. 

Congress, in its wisdom, has delayed until its next session provision 
for the sale of public lands, of mining rights and the granting of fran- 
chises. All are necessary to give the country the benefit of American 
and foreign enterprise and the opportunity of lucrative labor to the 
people. Commercial railroads, street railroads, mortgage-loan com- 
panies or land banks and steamship companies only await Govern- 
ment sanction to spring into being. These may remedy the poverty 
and suffering that a patient people nave now to bear. 

The school system is hardly begun as an organized machine. One 
thousand American teachers will arrive in the next three months. 
They must not only teach English in the schools, but they must teach 
the Filipino teachers. Schoomouses are yet to be built; schoolrooms 
are yet to be equipped. Our most satisfactorv ground for hope of 
success in our whole work is in the eagerness with which the Philippine 
people, even the humblest, seek for education. 

Tnen there is another kind of education of adults to which we look 
with confidence. It is that which comes from observation of the meth- 
ods by which Americans in office discharge their duties. Upon Amer- 
icans who accept office under the civil government is imposed the 
responsibility of reaching the highest American standard of official 
duty. Whenever an American fails; whenever he allows himself to 
use his official position for private ends, even though it does not involve 
actual defalcation or the stealing of public property or money, he is 
recreant to his trust in a far higher degree than he would be were he 
to commit the same offense in a similar office at home. Here he is the 
representative of the great Republic among a people untutored in the 
methods of free and honest government, and in so far as he fails in his 
duty, he vindicates the objection of those who have forcibly resisted 
our taking control of these Islands and weakens the claim we make that 
we are here to secure good government for the Philippines. 

The operation of the civil-service Act and the rules adopted for its 
enforcement have been the subject of some criticism; but 1 think that 
when they are fully understood, and when the Filipino, in seeking a 
position in executive offices where English is the only language spoken, 
fits hhnself, as he will with his aptness for learning languages, in Eng- 
lish, he will have nothing to complain of either in the justice of the 



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284 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPIITE COMMISSION. 

examination and its marking or in the equality of salaries between him 
and Americans doing the same work. The civil-service Act is the bul- 
wark of honesty and efficiency in the government. It avoids the most 
marked evil of American politics, the spoils system. Without it suc- 
cess in solving our problem would be entirelj^ impossible. Complaints 
of its severity audits unfortunate operation m individual instances may 
give plausibility to attack upon it, but those who are responsible for 
appointments can not be blinded to the fact that its preservation is 
absolutely essential to the welfare of these Islands. 

If I have understood the decision of the Supreme Court in the recent 
so-called Porto Rico cases, the question of what duties shall be levied on 
imports into these Islands from the United States and on exports from 
these Islands into the United States is committed to the discretion of 
Congress. Without assuming to express an opinion on the much- 
mooted issue of constitutional law involved, I venture to say that the 
result is most beneficial to the people of these Islands. It seems to me 
that a decision that the same tariff was in force in these Islands as in 
the United States, and must always be so, would have been detrimental 
to the interests of the Islands. They are 7,000 miles from the coast of 
the United States. The conditions prevailing in them are as different 
as possible from those in the United States. The application to them 
of a high protective tariff carefully prepared to meet trade and the 
manufacturing conditions in the United States would have been a great 
hardship. It is true that to sugar and tobacco planters would liave 
been opened a fine market, but it would have greatly reduced all trade 
between the Phili|)pines and China and other oriental countries and all 
European countries, and it would have necessitated a heavv internal 
tax to pay the expenses of the central government. Now the people 
may reasonably entertain the hope that Congress will give them a tariff 
here suited to the best development of business in the Islands, and may 
infer from the liberal treatment accorded iil its legislation to Porto 
Kican products imported into the United States that Philippine pro- 
ducts will have equally favorable consideration. 

The finances of the insular government are at present in a satisfac- 
tory condition, though changes in laws made or about to be made may 
affect them considerably. There is now in the insular treasury a sum 
of money exceeding $3,700,000 in gold unappropriated. The engi- 
neers in the Manila harbor work have been authorized to make con- 
tracts involving a liability of $2,000,000 beyond the $1,000,000 alreadjr 
ai)propriated, but this is the only liability of the government and it 
will not accrue for two years at least. The insular income, which is 
now about $10,000,000, gold, a year, is likely to be reduced more than 
$1,000,000 by the provision of the provincial act which applies the 
proceeds of the internal-revenue taxes to the support of the provincial 
governments. Moreover, a new customs tariff is soon to oe put in 
force, the immediate result of which may be to reduce the total amount 
of duties collected. It reduces the import tax on necessities and 
increases it on luxuries and roughly approximates, as nearly as a tariff 
of specific duties can, to a purely revenue tariff of 25 per cent ad 
valorem. In addition to this, the cost of the insular government is 
bound to increase as the establishment of peace and civil government 
is extended through the Archipelago and the skeleton bureaus and 
departments now recognized in the law are enlarged and given a 
normal usefulness. StiU the increase of business due to returning 



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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 285 

peace and prosperity will doubtless keep pace with the needs of the 
government. 

The conduct of the civil and military branches of a military govern- 
ment under independent hands is necessarily a delicate matter. It 
depends, as the President in his instructions says, upon the fullest 
cooperation between the military and the civil arms, and I am glad to 
be able to say that I believe that there will be the same cooperation in 
the future as there has been in the past; that the possible friction 
which may arise between the subordinates of the respective arms will 
have no encouragement from those in whom is the ultimate responsi- 
bility. There is work enough and to spare for all who are concerned 
in the regeneration of these Islands. 

The burden of the responsibility which, by taking the oath this day 
administered to me, I assume, I shall not dwell upon, except to say that 
no one, I think, realizes it more keenly than I do. While I am pro- 
foundly grateful to the President of the United States for the personal 
trust he has expressed in appointing me to this high office, it is with 
no exultant spirit of confidence that I take up the new duties and new 
task assigned to me. I must rely, as I do, upon the cooperation, 
energy, ability and fidelity to their trust of those with whom I am to 
share the responsibility now to be presented, upon the sympathetic 
and patriotic patience of those educated Filipino people who have 
already rendered us such tremendous aid, and upon the consciousness 
that earnest effort and honest purpose, with a saving of common sense, 
have in the past solved problems as new, as threatening and as diffi- 
cult as the one before us. 

The high and sacred obligation to give protection for property and 
life, civil and religious freedom, and wise and unselfish guidance in 
the paths of peace and prosperity to all the people of the Philippine 
Islands is charged upon us, his representatives, by the President of 
the United States. May we not be recreant to this charge which, he 
truly says, concerns the honor and conscience of our country. He 
expresses the firm hope that through our ''labors all the inhabitants 
of the Philippine Islands may come to look back with gratitude to the 
day when Grod gave victory to American arms at Manna and set their 
land under the sovereignty and protection of the people of the United 
States." God grant that in spite of all the trials and perplexities, the 
disappointmente and difficulties, with which we are sure to be con- 
fronted, we may live to see this fervent hope made a living fact in the 
hearts of a patriotic people linked within the indissoluble ties of affec- 
tion to our common and beloved country. 



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APPENDIX E. 

REP0ET8 OF THE CIVIL-SEEVICE BOAEB TO THE CIVIL 

OOVEEHOE. 



Philippine Civil-Service Board, 

Manila, August 23^ 1901, 
Hon. W. H. Tapt, 

Cwil Governor of the Philippine Islands, Manila, 

Sir: In compliance with your instructions of the 30th ultimo, 
received through the executive secretary, the board has the honor to 
submit the following supplementary report, together with its report of 
February 7, 1901, showing the operations of the board from its organi- 
zation on September 26, 1900, to the close of the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1901. In the preparation of this report the board has availed 
itself of the information submitted to the military governor in its 
report of May 31, 1901. 

In its report submitted on February 7, last, the board referred, 
among other things, to the work of preparing civil-sei*vice rules and 
the manual of information relative to the Philippine civil service, and 
stated that the time of the board would be taTken up during the suc- 
ceeding few months in the preparation of suitable examinations, the 
answering of correspondence and personal inquiries, interpretations 
of the act and rules and numerous aetails incident to their application 
to the service. The board took occasion to state that all of this work 
would require careful study and adjustment to carry into effect the 
practical methods authorized by the civil-service act. 

Since the submission of its report in February the board has had 
printed for distribution to applicants and others 10,000 copies of the 
manual of information relative to the service, 2,000 copies of its 
report, and a supply of application blanks, all of which were printed 
in both English and Spanisn. Suitable forms have also been prepared 
for the use of the board in the transaction of business. 

The demand for information relative td the Philippine civil service 
has been very great on the part of the Filipinos and Americans in these 
Islands, while a lai^e supply of manuals and application blanks was 
forwarded to the Unitea States Civil Service Commission for the 
information of applicants and others in the United States. 

The first examinations of the board were announced for March 28, 
29, and 30, but it was found necessary, on account of the large num- 
ber of applicants, to continue the examinations several days in April. 
When tnese examinations were announced the board informed the 
heads of different departments and offices that in accordance with the 
requirements of section 25 of the civil-service act positions held by tem- 

286 

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REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



287 



porary employees appointed since the passage of the act on Septem- 
ber 19, 1900, would oe open to competition, except in the cases of 
Employees who were exempted from examination under the provisions 
of the act of November 12, 1900, or by reason of their transfer from 
the Federal classified service, or on account of their occupying posi- 
tions of a professional, technical, or scientific character, which may be 
filled as provided by section 6, paragraph (J), of the civil-service act, 
by competitive or noncompetitive examination, or otherwise, as the 
board may determine. Stilled and unskilled laborers were also 
exempted from examination. The temporary employees were duly 
notified by the heads of the several offices in which they were employed, 
and appeared for examination with other applicants. 

The following table shows the results of all the examinations held 
by the board up to and including July 2, 1901: 



Examination. 



Department asBiBtant 

(1) Clerk 

I) Oflcial terceio , 

(2) Junior clerk 

Oficialcoarto 

Under clerk 

EBcribiente 

Bookkeeper 

Tenedor de libros 

Poet-office 

Servicio de correoe 

Translator 

Traductor 

7) Interpreter 

7) Interprete 

8i Junior interpreter 

8) Traductor auxiliar 

9) Junior interpreter 

9) Interprete auxiliar 

|10) Stenography 

10) Escrituia a maquina 

lU) Typewriting 

1 11) Tiujuigrafia 

Stenography and typewriting combined. 

Property clerk 

Storekeeper .' 

Building inspector 

Market inspector 

Street and sanitary inspector 

Odorless excavator 

Montero 

Guardia de la aduana 

Observador: 

First class 

Second class 

Avundantes tempores 

Ondal tercero, auditor's office 



Total English . 
Total Spanish . 

Total 



Passed. 



Number. Percent 



5 

76 

11 
109 
133 

13 

149 

2 

1 

36 
2 
1 

4 
7 
2 

2 
2 
9 


25 


13 
8 
1 
3 
1 
6 

7 

51 

6 
5 
1 



314 



697 



41.66 
60.98 
16.66 
71.71 
51.35 
92.86 
61.92 
88.33 
3.57 
55.38 
11.11 
60 



66.67 

70 

50 



50 

28.56 

30.67 



49.02 



76.47 
100 
100 
100 
100 

21.43 



86.84 
53.68 

55.55 
83.34 
50 
30.77 



68.79 
46.65 



51.59 



Failed. 



Nimiber. Percent. 



7 

48 

55 

43 

126 

1 

90 

4 

27 

29 

16 

1 

9 

2 

3 

2 

7 

2 

5 

20 

5 

26 

14 

4 









22 

2 

12 

44 

5 

1 
1 
18 



216 
438 



654 



Total ex- 
amined. 



58.34 
39.02 
83.34 
28.29 
48.65 
7.14 
38.08 
66.67 
96.43 
44.62 
88.89 
50 

100 
23.33 
30 
50 

100 
50 

71.44 
69.33 

100 
50.98 

100 
25.53 



78.57 
100 
63.16 
46.82 

44.45 
16.66 
50 
69.23 



31.21 
53.35 



12 

123 

66 

152 

259 

14 

239 

6 

28 

65 

18 

2 

9 

6 

10 

4 

7 

4 

7 

29 

5 

51 

14 

17 

8 

1 

3 

1 

28 

2 

19 

95 

11 
6 
2 

26 



530 
821 



1,351 



Note.— The same figure opposite the titles of the examinations indicate that they are identical, 
one being in English and the other In Spanish. 



Of the total number of competitors 1,296 were examined in Manila, 
24 in Hoilo, and 31 in Cebu. It is understood that examinations in 
the Philippine civil service were also held in the United States in 
March and April, while the examination for department assistant for 
this service was postponed until June. 

Through the courtesy of the department of education the examina- 
tions of Slarch 28, 29, and 30 were neld at the Girls' Municipal School, 



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288 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

and on April 11, 12, and 13 at the Tondo Grammar School. The sub- 
sequent examinations have, as a rule, been held in the rooms of the 
board. The aceouunodations for these examinations were ample and, 
although they were conducted in both English and Spanish, there was 
througnout an absence of confusion, ana the results show that the 
examinations can be conducted with as much ease here as in the United 
States. The board desires to call attention to the fact that with very 
few exceptions the rules goveniing the examinations were strictly 
observed by the competitors, both Americans and Filipinos. Some 
cases of eopving from each other were attempted in the examinations 
and detected. The papers of such competitors have been canceled. 

While none of the Filipinos took the examinations in English, the 
board has been informed that civil-service classes are being organized 
in the various schools in Manila with the view of preparing those in 
the classes for English examinations. It is understood that when the 
next regular examinations are held a number of those who have been 
prepared will take the examinations in English. At this time, with the 
rapid change from Spanish to American methods of transacting busi- 
ness, a knowledge of English is practically essential to an efficient dis- 
charge of the duties of almost all positions in the civil service in 
Manua, and for this reason Filipinos are at this time laboring under a 
great disadvantage in the work. They are, however, rapidly acquiring 
a knowledge of the English language, and the board is satisfied that as 
they become more proficient in English and more familiar with the 
requirements of the service they wul be able to fill satisfactorily the 
great bulk of positions now occupied by Americans. It is a signihcant 
tact that the regular clerk examination, which was intended mainly for 
Americans, wa^ passed by twelve of the Filipinos who took the exami- 
nation in Spanish. More than half the Filipinos who took the examina - 
tion for junior clerk passed, and it is evident from their general 
education that if these eligibles had a knowledge of English they could 
fill a large number of positions in the service which are as yet open to 
them. The board regards it as a part of its duty to look into the con- 
ditions of the service with a view or finding out from time to time where 
Filipinos are qualified to discharge the duties of positions held by 
Americans and to recommend that they be appointed to such positions 
as rapidly as the conditions of good administration will permit. It is 
believed to be but fair to the FiBpinos and in the interest of the public 
service to appoint them to all positions the duties of which they can 
discharge in a satisfactory manner. 

A large number of temporary employees in the seiTice either failed 
to pass the examination or failed to attain a rating sufficiently high to 
entitle them to certification. The places occupied by these temporary 
employees have been filled by certification of others standing higher 
on the eligible register. Pending the transfer of the municipal service 
of Manila from military to civil rule, and its necessary reorganization, 
it was thought inadvisable by the board to certify eligibles to fill the 
p)ositions or temporary employees in that service who had failed in the 
examinations. Now that the new city charter has been enacted and 
the reorganization of the city government is in progress, the board 
will take steps to fill the positions of all employees in that service who 
were found incompetent m the examinations. 

On April 26 the board notified the military governor and the United 
States Philippine Commission that, in accordance with the requirements 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 289 

of the civil-service act, it waa ready to certify eligibles to fill vacancies 
in the various classes of positions in the Philippine civil service. Since 
the date mentioned all vacancies in the service have been filled through 
certification by the board, except that in a few instances where tne 
board has had no eligibles for the kind of work to be done temporary 
appointments, pending the securing of eligibles, were secured. 

APPOINTMENTS TO THE SERVICE. 

The first appointments were made upon certifications by the board 
in May, and up to June 30 the following appointments were made: 

From the register of English-speaking eligibles: 

Clerks 17 

Junior clerks 68 

Under clerk 1 

Poet-ofl&ce clerks 15 

Typewriters 10 

Stenographers and typewriters 9 

Bookkeepers 2 

Translator 1 

Interpreters 2 

Property clerk 1 

Total 126 

From the register of Spanish-speaking eligibles: 

Clerks 10 

Junior clerks 10 

Bookkeepers 1 

Interpreters 2 

Escribientes 86 

First-class observers 6 

Becond-class observers 5 

Post-oflS ce clerks 2 

Rangers 7 

Custom-house guards 28 

Total 157 

READJUSTMENT OF SALARIES. 

Under the act of December 12, 1900, the board was directed by the 
United States Philippine Commission to investigate the fairness of the 
salaries paid in the civil service, and to report a plan for the readjust- 
ment of such salaries under which the salaries paid would be propor- 
tionate to the amount of labor and skill reauired and the responsibility 
imposed in the discharge of the dirties of the respective positions, and 
which would afford an opportunity for the proper classification of the 
positions under the civil-service act. At tne time of the submission 
of its first annual report, on February 7, the board was engaged upon 
this work, which required careful study and frequent consultations 
with the heads of the several departments and offices in order to secure, 
as far as practicable, uniformity in the salaries of employees engaged 
upon similar work. In its investigation the board considered the 
nature of the duties required to be performed without reference 
to the fitness of employees in the service, and the salaries as recom- 
mended were, in its opinion, such as to secure persons competent to 
discharge the duties of the positions, and were considered a fair and 
just compensation for the ^services to be rendered. The board, as 
required by the act of December 12, 1900, treated the offices whose 
p c 1901— PT 2 19 

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290 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

duties were discharged by officers of the Armj'^ and Navy under detail 
as though such offices were filled by civilians, and reported the proper 
salaries which, in its judgmept, should be fixed upon the relief of the 
army and naval officers from duty. 

The board did not submit any recommendations as to an approDriate 
salary for the heads of departments in the municipal service of Manila, 
because it was of opinion that in the reorganization of that service 
the number of departments would be reduced, and until such a consol- 
idation was effected the board did not feel competent to recommend 
appropriate salaries. The reor^nization of the nmnicipal service has 
since been effected and' the municipal charter enacted into a law, con- 
solidating manv of the different departments, as anticipated by the 
board. The salaries of officers and employees in the municipal service 
have also been readjusted in accordance with the provisions of the new 
charter. 

It was the object of the board in its plan for the readjustment of sal- 
aries to reduce as far as possible the large number of different salaries 
provided in the various offices for similar classes of work, and to fix 
the salaries of employees to conform with the salary classification 
adopted by the board in Rule XII of the Civil Service Rules. This 
necessarily resulted in reductions in some cases and increases in others, 
but careful consideration was given by the board to the work of the 
different employees, and it is believed that very few of them have suf- 
fered any injustice, while in a large number of cases the board felt 
justified in recommending increases in salaries. As a result of its 
investigation the readjustment proposed by the board provided for 
average increases ranging from 3i per cent in some offices to 20 per 
cent in others. 

The board submitted its report on March 4, and on March 9 the 
United States Philippine Commission approved, with certain amend- 
ments, the report of the board by the passage of an act entitled ''An 
act regulating the salaries of officers and employees in the Philippine 
civil service." Since the passage of this act all requests for additional 
employees in the Philippine civil service have been submitted to the 
board for consideration and recommendation in order to secure uni- 
f onnity in the service and consistency with the grades of pay estab- 
lished in that act. 

EXAMINATIONS AND SALARIES OF AMERICANS AND FILIPINOS. 

In view of the critici&ms in the Spanish and Filipino press to the 
effect that Americans and Filipinos who have passed the same 
examinations for clerk are not p^ id similar salaries, the latter receiv- 
ing much less than the former, tne board deems it proper to submit a 
statement of the facts in the case. 

The articles in the press were evidently written under the impres- 
sion that ability to pass the examinations in Spanish demonstrated the 
fitness of the persons examined as well as the passing of the examina- 
tions in English. It is true that the questions in the examinations in 
English and Spanish were identical, out it can readily be seen that a 

Eerson whose genemi intelligence has been tested in Spanish, but who 
as no knowledge of English, would be of little service in an office 
where the business is necessarily transacted in that language. Although 
the Filipinos appointed from the clerk register were not qualified in 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 291 

English, the board urged their selection to subordinate clerkships. It 
is satisfied that the Filipinos who have aptitude and a desire for Knowl- 
edge will gradually become more useful in the work as they become 
more famuiar with the requirements of the service, and that a much 
larger proportion of them can then be profitably employed at advanced 
salaries in the places of Americans. 

The matter of salaries for Americans in civil positions in the Philip- 
pines has been a serious problem for some time. It is well known 
that it costs Americans very much more than Filipinos to live in the 
Philippines, evpn in instances where members of both races require 
practically the same necessaries of life. On account of the increased 
cost of living it has been found very diflScult to retain many of the 
Americans in the service where, by reason of their experience, ability 
and their knowledge of the English language, they are absolutely 
needed- These are considerations which nave governed, and will no 
doubt continue to govern, the heads of departments and offices in 
asking for appropriations for salaries for persons (qualified to perf oim 
work reauired in, the service. The salaries received by Americans 
in suborainate positions must not be regarded as the salaries that will 
ultimately be paid in those positions. The service at this time must 
pay what is necessary to secure men qualified to perform the work, 
whether the men employed are Americans or Filipinos, and where the 
latter compare favorably with the Americans they are paid accordingly. 
In re^rd to the matter of salaries, the government is following the 
practice in the United States and paying no more than is absolutely 
necessary to secure the best qualified men for the work. In the United 
States salaries paid by the Government are very little more than those 
paid the employees in the first-class business houses engaged on the 
same class of work. The argument advanced by some of the writers 
in the Spanish and Filipino press that persons employed as clerks 
should receive the same salaries is not in accordance with true business 
principles. The salaries of clerks in the United States are not fixed 
according to their designation or the class of work upon which they 
may be engaged, but according to their ability to do the work, they 
being classified accordingly. The salaries paid by the government in 
these Islands will also be regulated largely by the ability of the 
employees to perform the work required, with due respect to salaries 
that prevail in outside employment, as it would be unreasonable to 
expect the g^overnment to pay much more for the same service than is 
paid by business houses. 

EXTENSIONS OF THE CLASSIFIED SERVICE. 

On January 9 the board, with a view of recommending further 
extensions of the classified service, if practicable, made inquiry of the 
military governor in regard to the status of employees in the division 
of military information, the office of the superintendent of the gov- 
ernment cold storage and ice plant, the board of officers on claims, 
and the office of the disbursing quartermaster of civil bureaus. The 
board was informed that the division of military information and the 
office of the superintendent of the ice plant were strictly military 
bureaus and had no connection with the civil government; that the 
board of officers on claims and the office of the disbursing quarter- 
master of civil bureaus were merely military expedients in the aid of 



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292 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

civil administration and would be dissolved by an executive order 
when the purpose for which they were called into existence had been 
accomplished. 

The status of some of these offices, however, was settled by recent 
legislation of the Commission. In Act No. 167 it was provided that 
the clerks and employees of the office of the disbursing quartermaster 
for civil bureaus, which office was discontinued by order of the military 
governor on June 30, 1901, should be transferred to the office of the 
insular purchasing agent, which was created on June 21, and the 
positions therein made subject to the provisions of the civil-service 
act. At the same time the act was made to applv to the clerks and 
employees in the office of the superintendent of the government cold 
storage and ice plant, and also those employed unaer the officer in 
charge of the improvement of the poiii of Manila. The board is now 
arranging the details of the classification of all of these employees. 

The board stated in its report of February 7 that it was of opinion 
that the conditions would be such in the near future that teachers 
could, with advantage to the service, be included within the provisions 
of the civil-service act. It is believed that it will be a difficult matter 
to retain teachers from the United States in this service for an indefinite 
time unless they are brought within the Philippine classified service 
and a satisfactory arrangement is made under which they may be 
transferred to the service in the United States after a certain period 
if they so desire. The matter of returning to the United States after 
a certain lapse of time will always be considered by persons seeking 
enaployment in the Philippine civil service. 

Under a recent enactment of the United States Philippine Commis- 
sion the classification of the provincial service was fixed for March, 
1902, when vacancies in that service will be filled in accordance with 
the provisions of the civ^l-servicc act and rules. 

Tne law enacted by the Commission on May 22, establishing the 
Philippine weather bureau, provided for the classification of that 
bureau. The classification has since been completed, and the board 
has held examinations and made certifications to fill vacancies in the 
positions of observers of the first and second classes in the weather 
Dureau. 

Act No. 136, enacted June 11, 1901, providing for the organization 
of courts in the Philippine Islands, requires that the selection of 
clerks, deputies, and assistants to the supreme court and the courts of 
first instance shall be subject to the provisions of the civil-service act. 

Act No. 157, providing for the establishment of an insular board of 
health, also rejjuires that the selection of all employees of the board 
shall be made in accordance with the provisions of the civil-service act. 

It will thus be seen that the provisions of the civil-service act requir- 
ing that appointments and promotions be made upon merit are applied 
to new civil departments and offices as they are created. Practically^ 
all of the officers and employees in the Philippine civil service at this 
time, with the exception of the higher officers, and the positions of 
teachers, policemen, firemen and guards, are classified under the 
civil-ser\4ce act. The Act provides that after eighteen months from 
the date when the board shall certify that it has a list of eligibles from 
which to fill vacancies in the various positions in the service, vacancies 
occurring in the higher offices shall be filled by promotion from a class 
to be composed ox the first, second, and third assistants in all the 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 293 

diflferent offices. On April 26 last the board certified that it was pre- 
pared to fill vacancies in the service from its registers of eligibles. In 
eighteen months, thei-efore, from that date, or on October 26, 1902, 
all vacancies in positions in the Philippine civil service, from the 
highest to the lowest, will be required to be filled by promotion within 
the service, or by cei-tification from the eligible registers of the board. 

OATH OP OFFICE. 

On May 16 the board recommended an oath of office for the Philip- 
pine civil service, which was adopted by the United States Philippine 
Commission as follows: 

PHILIPPINE CIVIL SERVICE. 

Oath of office. 



Province of , City of : 

I, , of the state or province of , having been appointed to the 

position of , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I recognize and accept the 

supreme authority of the United States of America in these Islands, and will main- 
tain true faith and alle^ance thereto; that I will obey the laws, legal orders, and 
decrees promulgated by its duly constituted authorities; that I impose upon myself 
this obligation voluntarily, without mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and 
that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office upon which I am 
about to enter. So help me God.^ 

(Signature) . 

Subscribed and sworn to (or affirmed) before me this day of , 190 — . 

ADDITIONAL WORK IMPOSED UPON THE BOARD. 

In addition to its regular work, the board has been called upon from 
time to time by the office of the militaiy governor and the United 
States Philippine Commission for an expression of its views in regard 
to various matters relating to the civil service, among which may be 
mentioned the question of suitable salaries for existing positions or 
positions to be created, the need of increases or decreases in the force 
of employees in the different offices, the advisability of the employment 
of substitutes, the construction of different provisions of tiie law reg- 
ulating houi's of labor, leaves of absence, etc. During this formative 
period in the establishment of civil government in the islands the need 
of a central bureau to consider questions relating to the personnel of 
the service and which do not affect the internal administration of the 
different departments and offices is self-evident. It is believed that 
the reference of such questions to a central bureau like the board, 
which has relations with all the departments and offices, will secure 
uniformity of action and will result far more satisfactorily than if the 
head of each department or office should act independently in such 
cases without having the information at hand in regard to action in 
similar cases in other departments or offices. 

PROMOTION REGULATIONS AND EXAMINATIONS OF EMPLOYEES. 

On June 15 the board addressed a letter to each of the heads of 
offices requesting a report on the efficiency of the employees who 
were in the service before the passage of the civil-service act. Reports 

* The last four words should be stricken out in case of affirmation. 

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294 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

have since been received from all of the different oflSces in regard to 
the efflSciency of the employees, and the heads of offices have been 
requested to have those who were rated as the least efficient report for 
examination on September 16. The board has also informed the dif- 
ferent heads of offices that it is engaged in the preparation of promo- 
tion regulations for the service, and it has requested that in cases of 
proposed promotions of employees who haye not entered the service 
through the examinations prescribed for the positions to which pro- 
motions are proposed they be directed to report to the board for 
examination to test their fitness for promotion. With the examination 
of the least efficient employees to determine whether they can be of 
service in any other capacity than that in which they are employed, 
and the examination for promotion of all other employees, the entire 
service will be placed on a uniform basis, and vexatious questions as 
to the status of efficiency of employees wno have not been examined, 
as compared with those who have been examined, will not then arise 
in the service. 

CHANGE IN MEMBERSHIP OF BOARD. 

On June 29, 1901, the Commission adopted a resolution accepting 
the resignation of Seflor Arellano, chairman of the board, to take effect 
on July 1. Seiior Arellano, as the board stated in its first report, 
accepted the position of chairman temporarily, pending the preliminary 
work of preparing rules and regulations. While his duties as chief 
justice of the islands prevented him from devoting much of his time 
to the work of the board, it nevertheless had the benefit of his counsel 
and advice on all matters of importance affecting the preliminary organ- 
ization. Mr. Kiggins was at the same time designated as cliairman 
of the board to succeed Mr. Arellano, and Don Felipe Buencamino was 
appointed a member of the board to fill the existing vdcancy. 

CABLE CIPHER CODE. 

In October, 1900, the board prepared a preliminary cable cipher 
code for use in official communications with the War Department and 
the United States Civil Service Commission on matters relating to 
examinations, appointments, transfers, etc., under the civil-service 
act. A revision of this code was completed in June, which will greatly 
facilitate the transaction of business by cable with the War Depart- 
ment and the Civil Service Commission at a minimum cost for cable 
messages. 

ASSISTANCE FROM THE UNITED STATES CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION. 

The board desires to acknowledge the material assistance which it 
has received since its organization from the United States Civil Serv- 
ice Commission. The President of the United States authorized that 
commission to render such assistance as practicable to the board, and 
it is proper to state that from the beginning the commission has mani- 
fested the greatest interest in the work of building up a merit system 
in the Philippines. It has unusual facilities through its local boards 
for holding examinations in all parts of the United States for thepur- 
pose of securing competent persons for the work in the islands. W hile 
awaiting the registers of persons examined especially for this service 



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RBPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COBOaSSION. 295 

in the United States the board has in a number of instances availed 
itself of the eligible registers of the Civil Service Commission in mak- 
ing selections of persons for appointment. It has also secured other 
persons by transfer from the Federal cliassified service of the United 
States through the agency of the Civil Service Commission. The per- 
sons thus secured by appointment or transfer have proved efficient and 
are rendering valuable service in the islands. 

We have the honor to be, your obedient servants, 

Frank M. Kiggins, 
W. Leon Pepperman, 
Felipe Buencamino, 

Members of the Board, 



Philippine Ctvil Service Board, 

Manila^ October 5, 1901, 
Hon. William H. Taft, 

Civil Governor of the Philippine Islands^ Manila, 
Sib: In compliance with your instructions of the 1st instant, the 
board has the honor to submit herewith a supplemental report cover- 
ing the work of the board during the last quarter, from July 1 to 
October 1. 

It is proper to state in addition to the examinations held and papers 
marked during this quarter, and the performing of the routine work 
of the office, a portion of the time and attention of the board has been 
occupied in the preparation for an unusually large number of examina- 
tions to be held m the inmiediate future. 

TEMPORARY APPOINTMENTS. 

The operation of the law is now being tested. It is no longer theory, 
but practical application of its provisions. The needs of the service 
during the period of its reorganization and development demand imme- 
diate appomtment of well-qualified persons. The board has been 
unable to maintain eligible registers irom which certification could at 
all times be made to positions requiring special clerical ability, such 
as bookkeepers, typewriters, stenograpners, interpreters, translators 
and other high-grade positions, but it is making strenuous efforts to 
secure registers of elipbles for the higher gi'ades, as well as the lower 
ones, and thereby avoid, as far as possible, the necessity for the authori- 
zation of temporary appointments. At present, however, many tem- 
porary appointments are unavoidable, owing to the lack of properly 
qualified applicants in the Islands. 

Enlisted men of the United States Army are required to obtain per- 
mission from the proper military authorities before filing an applica- 
tion for examination. Fonnerly it was the practice of the military 
authorities to grant such permission to enlisted men without reference 
to the length of time they had to serve before the expiration of their 
term of enlistment. At present, however, this pel-mission is only 
granted to enlisted men who have served at least one year in the 
Islands, and who have less than three months to serve to complete 
their term of enlistment. In accordance with this policv the military 
authorities called upon the board for a list of names of soldiers who 



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296 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE 0OMMIS8ION. 

have been given permission to appear for examination, but who have 
not as yet been examined. This list, which was furnished to the mili- 
tary authorities as requested, was returned to the board with the per- 
missions revoked of those soldiers who had more than three months to 
serve. It will be seen that this policy operates to restrict the number 
of enlisted men who will be permitted to compete in the future for 
positions in the civil service, and will raateriallv reduce the number of 
persons applying for examination in the Islanas. The source of sup- 
ply of men, from which the civil service was largely recruited prior 
to July, was greatly reduced by the return to the United States of 
soldiers in the volunteer establishment of the Army for discharge from 
the service at expiration of term of enlistment. 

DELAY IN SECURING APPOINTEES FROM THE UNITED STATES, AND 
SUGGESTED REMEDIES. 

Examinations were held in the United States last spring for the 
Philippine civil service. This service has not yet had the benefit of 
these registers of eligibles. It was thought that the very large depjart- 
ment assistant and other registers obtained in the United States might 
be available before this time; however, these registers and papers are 
expected by the 1st of November. When they arrive the ooard will 
have ample registers from which it will be able to certify eligibles for 
appointment to high-grade clerical places, and to special, technical, and 
scientific positions. 

Eligibles in stenography and typewriting were requested by cable to 
be selected for appointment, but they have not yet reached the Islands. 
The long time thus far required to secure eligibles from the United 
States is somewhat embarrassing. Several factors have probably con- 
tributed to this delay. The work of the United States Civil Service 
Conmiission proper is in arrears, and there lias been inability on its 
part to rate examination papers immediately after examination. It is 
believed that arrangements can be made in the future with the United 
States Civil Service Commission to secure the prompt rating of papers. 

Some applicants, after being examined and selected for appointment 
in this service, decline, which necessitates further corresj)ondence in 
selecting other persons to fill the requisitions. These eligibles being 
widely scattered over the United States such declinations of appoint- 
ments operate to delay the final selection. And further, after appli- 
cants agree to accept appointment it usually happens that weeks 
elapse before they are able to obtain transportation. The matter of 
transportation has been and is a serious cause of delay in securing per- 
sons who are ready to come immediately upon notification of tneir 
appointment. 

In this connection attention is invited to the suggestion of the United 
States Civil Service Commission contained in the following communi- 
cation of that office to this board: 

The commission begs to suggest for your consideration that probably more good 
eligibles might be obtained for the Philippine service if it were possible to offer the 
inducement that appointees would be reimbursed, after six months satisfactory serv- 
ice, for the expense of going to San Francisco from their homes in the United States. 

The board believes that it would be a matter of economy to adopt 
this suggestion, with the modification, perhaps, of requiring two years 
seiTice, to be consistent with the provisions of Act No. 224, before 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSIOK. 297 

reimbursement of appointees. In other words, it is believed that 
many persons, if guaranteed their expenses to San Francisco after two 
years satisfactory service, would be likely to accept appointment. 
I^ast experience and practice has demonstrated the necessity for pay- 
ing such expense in many cases, and attention is invited to the fact 
that this practice has obtained in the appointment of all teachers in the 
department of public instruction. 

EXTENSIONS, MODIFICATIONS, AND REORGANIZATION OP THE CLASSIFIED 
SERVICE SINCE JULY 1. 

Acts Nos. 156 and 157, enacted July 1, provide for the establishment 
of a board of health and of Government laboratories for the Philip- 
pine Islands. All persons applying for scientific, clerical, and other 
positions connected therewith, except members of the board of health 
and directors of the laboratories, are subject to the requirements of 
examination and certification by the board. 

Civil bureaus were classified by amendment to the civil-service act 
in section 3 of act 167, which reads as follows: 

Sec. 3. Section 5 of Act No. 5, entitled "The civil-service act,' shall be amended 
by stiAdng out in paragraph (a) the words "military governor" and inserting in 
lieu thereof the words "the executive secretary," and by adding the following para- 
graphs: "(o) The insular purchasing agent; (p) the superintendent of the govern- 
ment cold-storage and ice plant; (q) the officer in charge of the improvement of the 
port of Manila; (r) the chief of the weather bureau, subject to the provisions of the 
act creatine the weather bureau; (s) the board of health of the Philippine Islands, 
subject to the provisions of the act creating the board; ^t) the superintendent of the 
government laooratories, subject to the provisions and limitations of Act No. 156." 

By this Act the cognate duties and responsibilities of the secretarjr 
to the military governor and the disbursing quartermaster for civil 
bureaus under the military governor were assumed by the executive 
secretaiy and the insular purchasing agent, respectively. This amend- 
ment brought in a very large numl^r of positions requiring examina- 
tion and provided for their appointment, subject to tne requirements 
of the civil-service Act. 

Section 20 of the civil-ser\"ice Act was on July 16, and ^ain on July 
25, amended bv adding to the list of positions which shall be filled by 
promotion without examination, after October 26, 1902, from a class 
to be composed, of the first, second, and third assistants, the positions 
of executive secretary, the secretary of the United States Philippine 
Commission, tJie insular purchasing agent, the superintendent of the 
insular cold-storage and ice plant, the assistant director-general of 
posts, the postmaster and the assistant postmaster of Manila, and by 
adding to the list of positions excepted from the requirements of the 
civil-service act, one private secretary to the civil governor, the oflScer 
in charge of the improvement of the port of Manila, the chief of the 
weather bureau and the three assistants and secretary of such bureau, 
the members of the board of health of the Philippine Islands, and the 
superintendent and directors of government laboi-atories. 

Act No. 168, enacted July 16, provides that persons who have taken 
the oath of allegiance to the United States and served as a member of 
the Army or Navy of the United States, and have been honorably dis- 
charged therefrom, shall be eligible to civil oflSce in the Philippine 
Islands, as if they were legally naturalized citizens of the United 
States. 



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298 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Section 3 of act 181, enacted July 25, provides for the appointment 
by the director-general of posts, without regard to the restrictions of 
the civil-service act, of postmasters at a salary based on a percentage 
of the gross postal receipts, exclusive of the money-order business, 
provided that such salaries do not exceed $70 per month. The appoint- 
ment of postmasters of Class A and below, tnerein provided, without 
examination and certification by the board, is undoubtedly justified by 
the existing conditions governing the postal service in the islands. 

Act No. 220, enacted Septemter 5, is an act amending section 24 of 
the civil-service act by requiring that amendments to the rules adopted 
by the board shall be approved by the civil governor. Executive 
sanction of the rules to be prepared and certified by the board, as pro- 
vided in this act, will, it is believed, lend the force and ^effect of law 
to such rules. 

Under the practice of the civil governor in forwarding to this office 
all applications for money allowance in lieu of salary for accrued leave 
of absence under the provisions of act 80, the board, in order to pre- 
vent any abuse of the intent of said Act, adopted on September 13 the 
following expression of its opinion as to the practice to be followed in 
the interpretation of said Act: 

In the opinion of the board no person should be entitled to any money allowance 
m lieu of salary for accrued leave of absence under the provisions of Act 80 who has 
had less than one year's continuous service, provided that the accrued leave may be 
counted as a part of the year's continuous service; and further, in the opinion of the 
board, in determining the length of service of an applicant for leave or for money 
allowance in lieu of salary for accrued leave, only continuous service running back 
from the time of such application should be considered. 

This interpretation of tne Act has received the approval of the civil 
governor. 

In order that all requirements for leave of absence should receive 
uniform consideration, the board, on September 27, recommended an 
executive order relating thereto, which was promulgated on October 
4 in the following language: 

Executive Ordeb \ 
No. 21. / 

The heads of departments and offices are hereby directed to forward all appoint- 
ments and removals of officers and employees to the executive secretary, through 
the Philippine civil service board, on the form prescribed by the board. The board 
shall keep a record of all changes in the service and shall have the care and custody 
of all papers relating thereto. 

The heads of departments and offices are also directed to forward" to the board at 
the beginning of each month a statement of the absences of all officers and employees, 
from any cause whatever during the preceding month, which board shall keep a 
record of all such absences of officers and employees. 

The board shall cause to be printed annually an official roster of civil officers and 
employees in the civil government of the Philippine Islands (which roster shall 
show the names, places of birth, dates of appointment, where employed, and salary 
of such officers and employees as fixed by the United States Philippine Commission). 

The heads of departments and offices are directed to furnish the board such other 
information as it may require to carry out the provisions of this order. 

Wm. H. Taft, 
Civil Oavemor. 

The provisions of this order will enable the board to establish and 
maintain a record of all employees in the Philippine Island's govern- 
ment, and will enable it to answer intelligently and promptly the many 
inquiries which are now presented, both from officials of the govem- 



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BEPOET OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 299 

ment and others, of the status or whereabouts of employees in the 
Philippine iHlanas government. 

The board will in a few days submit a draft of a law classifying 
teachers, the form of which dmf t is at present being" discussed with 
the general superintendent of public instruction. There will be a 
necessity for the modification of Act No. 80, owing to the conditions 
and requirements of this service. 

The reorganization of the municipal service of Manila and the organ- 
ization of several insular bureaus have made heavy demands upon this 
board during the last quarter in preparing and holding examinations 
for these services. The wide range of duties performed requires a 
wide scope of examination, and necessitates great care in the prepara- 
tion of practical and suitable tests of fitness. The department of engi- 
neering and public works requires some appointees skilled in mechanical 
trades and occupations, in drafting, engineering, etc., and others 
skilled as superintendents, inspectors, and foremen. The law depart- 
ment requires clerks having a knowledge of law. The board of health 
requires persons with medical training, such as medical inspectors, 
biologists, chemists, veterinarians, bacteriologists, pharmacists, hos- 

Eital physicians, municipal physicians, etc. Besides the examinations 
eld auring the last quarter, as shown by the tabular statement. Appen- 
dix A herewith, there are announced to be held within the next tnree 
weeks upward of thirty different kinds of examinations (nearly all in 
two languages) for all grades, including special, technical, and scientific 
positions of the character referred to above. 

The board is now examining, noncompetitively, persons nominated 
for appointment in skilled occupations by the heads of oflSces, in accord- 
ance with the provisions of section 6, paragraph (d), of the civil-serv- 
ice Act, and rule 10. The character of the examinations will be for 
the most part noneducational; practical questions may be given when- 
ever it is deemed necessary. This procedure will prevent applicants 
who are not eligible or otherwise well qualified from entering the 
service. 

The provisions of the provincial code require that all vacancies in 
the provincial service, except for the positions of governor, fiscal, and 
deputy fiscal, after March 1, 1902, shall be filled from the eligible lists 
established as a result of civil-service examination. The board is also 
advised that a number of positions of a medical character, under the 
supervision of the board of health for the Islands, will soon be created 
in the different provinces. The board has therefore announced exam- 
inations to be held between November 15 and January 1, 1902, at tibe 
following-named capitals, to fill vacancies in the above-named services: 
Tuguegarao, Vigan, Dagupan, San Fernando (Pampanga), Manila, 
Lucena, Albay, Tacloban, Romblon, Hoilo, Cebu, Bacolod, Dumaguete, 
Zamboanga, Surigao, Cagayan de Misamis. 

Owing to the present means of transportation the board felt that it 
would be inexpedient to conduct these examinations at each of the 
provincial capitals, and the above-named points for examination have 
been selected with the belief that their location is such that residents 
of all organized provinces can report for examination without too great 
expenses or inconvenience. 

Copies of the announcement of this examination have been printed 
in both the Spanish and English languages and forwarded to the pro- 
vincial secretaries, with instructions to have the same pd^ted at the 



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300 RErORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

main entrance of each municipal building, in order that all residents 
of the islands may receive full information of the holding of such 
examinations. 

REC50RDS OF THE BOARD AND CARD-INDEX SYSTEM. 

The additional work required of the board by the executive order of 
October 4, as well as the records of examination, certification, and 
appointment, heretofore required to be kept, necessitates a complete 
and carefully kept card-index svstem. All records thus kept from the 
beginning save auplication, and constitute a most important econom- 
ical feature of permanent records. 

CHANGES IN MEMBERSHIP OF BOARD. 

On August 11 William S. Washburn was appointed chairman of the 
board vice F. M. Kiggins, resigned. Mr. Kiggins rendered excellent 
service as a member of the board. He was appointed chief examiner 
of the board on September 20, 1900, the date of its organization, and 
succeeded to the chairmanship on the retirement of Chief Justice' 
Arellano on July 1, 1901. 

OFFICE HOURS. 

The board takes this occasion to express its appreciation of the 
faithfulness,* energy, and zeal displayed by the clerks and examiners 
under its direction. A wide range of duties are required to be per- 
formed. The examination feature of the work often requires duplica- 
tion into two languages and great care and accuracy. The pressure 
of work demands and receives constant application and untiring efforts 
without reference to the usual limitations of oflSce hours. 

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND THE CIVIL SERVICE. 

American progressive business methods, the genius and spirit of 
American civil government, and the ruggedness and strength of the 
American (English) language are inseparable. The better knowledge 
of this language the Filipinos have the greater will be their opi)or- 
tunity for ana possibility of usefulness in the Government service. 
The true idea of the merit system is the testing or determining of the 
chanr-cter and the relative capacity and usefulness of those who would 
serve the Government. Advancement in education and American 
methods are insured by the splendid progress being made in English. 
It is taught in the public schools, botn day and night sessions of which 
are attended by the younger generation of Filipinos hungering and 
thirsting for knowleage. As evidence of such progress, it is worthy 
to note that in a recent examination for junior typewriter, of whicn 
knowledge of the English language was a subject, over 50 per cent 
of the Filipinos who entered tne examination passed in that subject. 
The better they are prepared to perform various civil duties the 
better will they be fitted to participate with high aims and purposes 
in governmental affairs. An increase in the knowledge of the English 
language among Filipinos desiring to enter the civil service will facili- 
tate the performance of Government work, and fewer interpreters will 
be needed, thus accomplishing a saving of both time and money. 

W. S. Washburn, 
W. Leon PEPPEBifAN, 
Felipe Buencamino. 

Mernhers of Board. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



REPOET OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



301 



Exhibit A. 

The following table shows the results of all the examinations held 
by the board from July 3 to September 30, 1901 : 



Examination. 



1. ORIGINAL APPOINTlfKNT. 

(1) Clerk 

(1) Ofidal tercero 

J2) Junior clerk 

(2) Oficial cuarto 

(3) Bookkeepers 

(8) Tenedor de libroe 

(4) Post-office clerks 

(4) Serviclo de correos 

1 6) Translator 

(5) Traductor 

(6) Interpreter 

(6) Interprete 

(7) Junior translator 

(7 ) Traductor auxiliar 

(8) Junior interpreter 

(8) Interprete auxiliar 

(9) Typewriter 

(9) Escribiente Am&quina^ 

Clerk, noncompetetive: 

Junior clerk custom-house inspectors 

Stenogrrapher 

Medical inspector 

Montero 

Obseryador meterorologico (1) 

Observador meterorologico (2) 

Cartero 

Escribiente 

Guarda dQ la aduana 

Interprete espafiol-ingles-tagalo 

M6dico rrr: 

Farmaceutlco 

Auxiliar de departmento 

2. COMPETITIVE PBOMOTION. 

Clerk 

Oticlal tercero 

3. NONCOMPETITIVE PBOMOTION. 

Clerk 

Junior clerk 

Oflclal -^uarto 

4. NONCOMPETITIVE UNDER SECTION 22. 

Typewriter and clerk 

Typewriter 

Junior clerk 

Oflclal cuarto 

Poet-office clerk 

Cartero 

Escribiente 

Total English 

Total Spanish 

Grand total 



Number Percent Number Percent Total ex- 
passed, passed, failed. failed, amined. 



^ 



88 ; 

100 I 



42.12 
13.82 
100 
52.96 
64.55 








3 


25 


3 


100 


5 


62.50 







7 


70 


3 


42.84 


1 


88.34 







2 


66.66 


3 


20 



40 
84.62 



33.34 
33.34 
27.84 
100 
50 

11.76 
70.88 



88.33 
100 



36.72 
100 
100 



100 



66.67 

80 
100 

57.14 
100 



47.06 
34.39 



39.45 



37 
26 


8 
5 
1 

9 

1. 

3 I 

4 I 

2 : 

4 

1 

12 
12 
2 

1 
10 

2 
31 



3 
60 

7 

2 

7 

4 

2 

3 



57.88 
86.68 



47.04 
45.45 
100 
75 



37.50 
100 

30 

67.16 

66.66 
100 

83.34 

80 

60 

15.88 

33.34 
66.66 
66.66 
72.16 



50 

88.24 

29.12 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 



64.28 



100 
33.88 
20 



52.94 
65.61 



60.55 



64 
30 
3 
17 
11 
1 

12 
3 
8 
5 
10 
7 
3 
4 
3 
15 
20 
18 



15 
3 

43 
1 
6 

71 

24 
2 
7 
4 
2 
3 



7 
10 



14 
1 
1 



187 
284 



1 Escribiente a maquina is a much simpler examination than the typewriting examination in English. 

Note.— The aame figure opposite the titles of the examinations indicates that they are identical, 
one being in English and the other in Spanish. 



Digitized by 



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302 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



CbruioUdaied statement sliomng resuUs of aU examinations up to September 30, 1901. 





Number 
passed. 


Per cent 
passed. 


Number 
failed. 


Per cent 
failed. 


Total ex- 
amined. 


Previously reported English 


814 

88 


68.79 
47.06 


216 
99 


31.21 
52.94 


580 


Reported above English 


lb7 






Total English 


402 


56.07 


815 


43.93 


717 






Previously reported Spanish 


383 
97 


46.65 
34.89 


438 
185 


53.35 
65.61 


821 


Reported above Rpanfsh 


282 






Total Spanish 


480 


43.52 


623 


56.48 


1,108 




Grand total 


882 


48.46 


938 


51.54 


1,820 





Exhibit B. 

Appointments mnde in the Philippine dvU service upon certificaiion by the civil-service board 
from the d<Ue of establishment of eligible registers in April, 1901, to October i, 1901. 



Name of register. 



English- 
speaking 
eligibles. 



Spanish- 
speaking 
eligibles. 



Appointments made from July 1 to October 1: 

Clerk 

Junior clerk 

Post-office clerk 

Typewriting 

Stenography and typewriting (combined) , 

Under clerk 

Bookkeeper 

Market inspector 

Interpreter 

Property clerk 

Translator 

Junior interpreter 

Medical Inspector 

Montero 

Observer, first class 

Observer, second class 

Custom-house guard 



Total 

Appointments made before July 1 (see last report of board) . 



Total appointments made . 



126 



215 



12 



14 
1 
2 

85 



75 
157 



Grand total of English and Spanish, 447. 



Digitized by 



Google 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 303 



TABLES GIVING LIST OF EMPLOYEES IN THE PHILIPPINE CIVIL SERVICE, 
SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF SAME AMONG THE VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS, 
THE NUMBER OF AMERICANS AND FILIPINOS, RESPECTIVELY, EMPLOYED 
IN EACH DEPARTMENT, AND THE COMPENSATION PAID. 

Note. — The tables do not include the salaries paid to the following: 
Enlisted strength of the Philippines constabulary, which is just in process of 
organization; funds allotted from the insular treasury to the municipal police in 
addition to the amount allotted them by the municipalities; pay to scouts in the 
employ of the Army from the insular treasury, amounting to about $1,000,000 a year. 
Recent advices from the War Department are to the effect that this expense will 
soon be taken up by the War Department appropriation. 

In the salaries oi oflScers in the provincial service are included 8 oflBcers of the 
Regular Army who do not receive salaries from the provincial treasuries. 



Digitized by 



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304 



REPOET OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



General recapitulation of 
[Officers and employees arranged in classes 



Class 






1 


- 






2. 


8 


4. 


6. 


6. 


7. 


8. 




" 


i 


1 


Insular depart- 
ment. 


U' 


S»' 


i 


t 


1 1 1 

1 


U 


d 


§ 
5S 


Executive secre- 
tary: 
Americans 


1 














1 


1 
1 




1 


6 


« 


Filipinos 














United States Phil- 
ippine Ck)mmis- 

Americans 










2 




1 






1 


1 
U 




4 
2 


Filipinos 
















Treasurer: 

Americans 






1 












1 


1 


1 


Filipinos 
















Auditor: 

Americans 






1 






1 






1 


1 


9 


' 


7 


Filipinos 














Customs service: 
Americans 






1 


1 


1 


1 




1 


n 


7 


2 


1 




18 

1 


Filipinos 






Internal revenue: 
Americans ..... 




















72 


«1 




Filipinos 
























Department of 
posts: 
Arnericans , ^ ^ - . 






1 




•2 








1 


3 


6 


2 


4n 


Filipinos........ 












...... l..::j 


Civil-service board: 
Americans 










2 

1 






1 




1 






2 

1 


Filipinos 


















Forestry bureau: 
Americans 










1 




112 






1 




Filipinos. . . 


















Bureau of mines: 
Americans 












1 










1 






Filipinos 
























Department of pub- 
lic instruction: 
Americans 






1 






1 




134 


3 


9 




1422 


18 


Filipinos 










Captain of the port: 
Americans 




















1 




1 




Filipinos 


















Insular board of 
health: 
Americans 






1 




1 












2 


"1 




Filipinos 1 














Weather bureau: 

Americans ' 


























Filipinos 














1 
»2 






3 
"8 





1 
»3 


Improvement of 
the port of Ma- 
nila: 
Americans 












1 




112 


1 


Filipinos 












Insular purcharing 
agent: 
Americans .... 










1 












1 1 1 




Filipinos 
























Department pat- 
ents, copyrights, 
and trade-marks: 
Filipinos 








• 




















Billbld prison. 
Americans 
















»1 






.i 




FlUplnos 





1 



















1 At fl.500. 
> At 9450. 
< At $760. 
« At 92.200. 



^2 at 9460. 
«1 at 91 14. 
Mat $1,938. 
•At 91.828. 



• 1 at 93,260. 
101 at 960. 
11 1 at 92,400. 
» At 980. 



»1 at 92.400. 
"20 at 91.600. 
M45 at 91,100. 
i«l at 975. 



Digitized by 



Google 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



305 



the Philippine civil sertice. 

on basis uf the rate of annual compenRatiou.] 



y. 

5 
2 


10. 


A. 

1 


1 


a 


0. 


S. 


F. 


gJ hJ 


I- 


j.| 




TotaL 


1 


1 


1 


1 


11 


i 


ill 


' 


^ 1 


1 

1 
i 


i 


Em 
1» 

10 
fi 

IS 

14S 
2^ 

a 

13 

B5 


t^»di». 








3 


















340,610 






1 






2 




2 


1 


n 






4 






10,960 




















tJLWb 


1 
4 








I 






M 


-•- 


1 










4 








4,m 






























■1 

1 
1 


1 


'" 








1 


1 


— 


1 












2,iW0 


7 


1 


*'' 




















19/290 


1 


1 
1 




a 






1 








S 








6,150 


16 

1 


23 
2 




















170 320 


"" 


*]§ 


1 


7 


41 


119 


' 


m 


12 


"135 


10 


•"- 


80,^4 






[^,701 




















1 


-*-■ 


2 


'-" 


2 


3 


2 


1 1 


1 


2,062 


6 


3 
1 


1 






















7 


*... 


7 


3| 


1 


1 


2 


17 


13 


*"* 


104 


57 13» 7110 








6 14,1300 












I 






1 












a 








6 i 6,230 


5 

1 

1 






























9 i\ ma 


1 


2 






' 






i« 


■ — 


SI 












1 


f^ 2^,310 




















4 7,000 






1 
11 


1 




1 






2 










1 


1 


7 'i, B<JO 


"278 
5 


235 

1 


160 
















742 1 819,070 






















2 


2 i«8 


13 1 2,020 




























7 9,600 








U2 


2 




4 


2 , ft 


15 


16 





8 


17 


26 


7|.... 


108 23,670 
6 15,800 


1 














■■41:::;:::: 

1 


1 


1 


1 




Q 


48 


2 


.... 


9 


10 




l.|.... 

1 .... 
1. .. 


104 1 28,170 
1 
1 90 


1 


1 - 




1 


''zC'J'k' 


14 






1 1 


7 






1 


4 


i»6 


45 1 27,800 
88 1 49,910 


6 


«1 


12 

1 


2 
















••••]•■•• 








1 


7 


1 








1 






1 1 


12 A Qfd\ 


3 


»l 






















7 
3 

1 
4 


11,580 






1 








2 


















1,320 
-900 






1 


1 
























1 




1 








1 " 


















7 onn 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


"S 


»3 


4 





1 


5 




1 




20 1 5.820 



17 1 at 9680. 
"At 31,500. 
"1 at 3100. 



» 1 at 32,400. 
n 1 at 32,100. 
«lattl,500. 



"At 31,080. 
M At 3990. 
« At 31,080. 



« At 32, 400. 
s71at33S0. 
«1 at 3270. 



p c 1901— PT 2- 



-20 



Digitized by 



Google 



306 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



General recapitul/iiimi of the 



Class . 



Insular depart- 
ment. 



& 



& 



Government cold- 
8toragc and ice 
plant: 

Americana 

Filipinos 



Total: 

Ameri- 
cans 

Filipinoe. 

Grand total . . 



r 



u 



102 
3 



This report includes Americans in skilled-labor positions but not Filipinos. The insular constab- 
ulary is not included. 

1 army officer on duty at Iloilo in customs service: 1 naval officer on duty as captain of the port; 
I'army officer on duty with improvement of port of Manila; 1 army officer on duty as superintendent 
insular cold storage and ice plant. 

Several thousand native teachers serving in the islands are not included in department of public 
instruction— necessary information not obtainable at the present time. 

MUNICIPAL SERVICE OF MANILA. 



Class 




1 






a 


4 


6. 


6. 


7. 


f 


I 1 




' 1 


1 


Department. 


s 


i 


8 


$3,000. 
$2,500. 


u 


u 


^ 


d 




1 


Municipal board: 

Americans 


2 




1 








1 






1 


Filipinos 


1 
















Disbursing officer: 

Americans 








1 










1 




1 


Filipinos 


















City assessor and collector: 
Americans 




1 




2 ( 1 




2 


2 




4 


Filipinoe 




City engineer: 

Americans 






1 


1 

1 

1 






1 
1 






1 


Filipinos 














Buildings and illumination: 
Americans 










1 










1 


Filipinos 




















Water supply and sewers: 

Amcncans ..... ...... 










1 








1 






Filipinoe 


[ 








. 






, 2 

1 


Streets, parks, docks, and 
wharves: 
Americans 








1 






2 


1 




Filipinoe 












:::::::! 


Fires and building inspection: 
Americans 






1 






2 




1 




Filipinos 














Police: 

Americans 




1 1 


1 






11 


2 




S 


PHlipinoe 










Law: 

Americans 




2 














1 


Filipinoe 






2. 

1 




1 


2 






Sheriff of Manila: 

Americans 












Filipinoe 


















Courts: 

Americans 






2 














Filipinos 


















City schools: 

Americans 








1 




1 




1 




FiliDlnoe 


















::*••• 






















Total: 

Americans 


2 ' 1 


4 8 


7 
2 


1 


.. 


19 
3 


8 


1 


16 
2 


Filipinos 


1 




Grand total 








1 














1 











1 At $2,400. 



«1 at $1,600. 



<2at$90O. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 
Philippine civil service — Continued. 



307 



10. 



1 



B. C. 



£. 



I 



P. G. 



11.... 



H. 



I. ! J. 



-!- 



iS 



Total. 



Em 
ployees 



Salaries. 



152,200 
6,410 



342 
6 



276 
5 



40 29 



154 



146 3 



67 



81 



84 



1,172 
798 



1,228,774 
247,106 



1,965 



1,470,880 



MUNICIPAL SERVICE OF MANILA. 



9. 

T 


10. 


A. 


C. 1 D. 


E. 


p. 


G. 


H. 


I. 


J. 


K. 


Total. 


i 


1 


ill 


1 


1 


i 


1 1 


i 




SB 

Si 






i 




i 


Em- 
ployees. 


Salaries. 


4 


2 


1 

1 








....|.... 


















11 
4 

6 

1 

26 
79 

8 
27 

4 
50 

3 
106 

47 
97 

8 
60 

489 
678 

8 
8 

2 
IS 

2 
2 

4 

2 


921,800 




























3 




4,860 


1 


1 




i 
























7,700 








.... 




















1 




120 


10 




8 

1 


1 
























39,350 


8 








4 


.... 


10 


19 












3 




18,610 
14,000 


4 
2 

2 




















4 






1 






14 














1 




12,240 
6,300 



























. 




1 








6 3 


2 




11 








27 




9,360 


1 


1 
















5,300 




1 
4 
1 


....| 8 

i 
1 30 


1 


5 


1 




8 


10 


6 


18 






46 


1 




27,744 


4 
3 


""2 


1 
1 






40,420 


3 5 




1 


9 


1 ' 1 


27 




40 


....1 6 




8 




26,870 
12,600 


1 1 7 










V 8 




49 










14,060 


38 
1 

6 


»32 


400 
14 

1 
1 








1 


i 








474,440 


....1 ii 








63 1 38 




568 






8 




100,440 


! 










18,900 


••■•j I'"' 














2 




11,940 
8,700 


1 
1 




' 




1 














2 










1 










9 




8,960 
6,000 























2 


2 


























2,000 










1 














7,000 










«i 












1 










610 
































76 
4 


38 
4 


411 
17 


1 30 
13 82 










i 














616 
1,127 


652,510 


1 


8 




7 


89 100 




676 


1 44 




63 




232,714 




















1 














1,748 


885,224 







































<7 at 1780. 



* At $1,020. 



Digitized by 



•At^450. T 

3y Google 



308 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Qeneral recapittUation of the 
JUDICIAL SERVICE. 



Class . 



Department. 



Supreme court: I 

Americans ' 

Filipinos ! 1 

Attorney-general: 

Americans 

Filipinos L. 

Courts of first instance: 

Americans 

Filipinos j... 



Total: 

Americans . 
FUiplnos... 

Grand total 



§i§!|t§ 



1 I 2 

I 



2 I..., 
1 ! 1 



3 4 

2 I 1 



5S s; 



8. ' 9. 



I i;§ 



3 1 

4 2 



3 ;.... 

5 13 



3 .... 

5 I 13 



Digitized by 



Google 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



30i> 



Philippine cinl serincc — Continue*!. 

JUDICIAL SERVICE. 



B. C. 


D. 


E. 


F. 


G. 1 H. 1 I. 


J. 


K. 


Total. 


1 


i 


i 


1 




i 1 1 


i 


d 


i 


5^ 




8 


i 


II 


i 


i 


Em- 
ployees. 


Salaries. 


\ 


1' 














9 
22 

6 

8 

19 
118 


$38,200 












7 .... 


ft 








6 














27,810 
12,100 


1 






































i 1 2 






2 




















10,440 
51,500 










1 






















...-l 5 


2 


4 




2 1 i ' 6 6 


11 


.... 


3 


7 


6 


16 


1 


6 


2 


i 1 4 


72,672 














1 




1 
















33 106,300 


.... 


5 


2 


4 




3 3 


12 


5 


17 


2 3 


7 


11 


15 


1 


6 


2 




' 


143 1 110,832 


176 217. 1.<W 











































Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



310 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMmSSIOir. 



General recapitulation of the Philippme ciinl service — Continued. 

PROVINCIAL SERVICE. 



Class. 


Compen- 
sation. 


Ameri- 
cans. 


Fill- 
pinoB. 


1 


13,000 

2,600 

f 2,400 

1 2.800 

2.200 

2,100 

2,000 

1,800 

f 1,700 

1 1,600 

1,500 

1,400 

1,350 

1,300 

1,260 

1,200 

1,150 

1,100 

1,000 

900 

mi 

( 800 

I 750 

I 720 

600 

600 

480 

450 

/ 400 

\ 360 

/ 830 

t 300 

J 270 

240 

216 

210 

200 

180 

150 

138 

120 

108 

96 

90 

78 

75 

72 

60 

48 

86 


2 
7 
1 
2 
6 
4 
10 
14 
8 
6 
10 


2 


8 ; 


1 


4 




6 




6 


8 
10 


7 


2 


8 


8 
13 






1 

s 


9 


2 


9 








12 


17 
1 


10 




7 


A 


4 

18 

I 


9 
6 


B 






2 


c 


2 

1 
2 




D 


2 

24 


E 


2 


F 




4 


Q 




1 


H u 




1 






15 


I 




2 






35 


J , 




3 






34 






1 


' 




6 






1 






48 






40 






1 






68 


K 




2 






8 






29 






1 






1 






25 






38 






2 






1 








Total 




107 


476 









Total employees, 588. Salaries: Americans, 8172,360: Filipinos, £201,613; total, $373,973. 
PHILIPPINES CONSTABULARY. 



Class. 


Compen- 
sation. 


Ameri- 
cans. 


Flll- 
pinoB. 


2 


«2,750 

1,800 

1,400 

1,200 

1,060 

f 950 

1 900 

800 

600 

f 150 

\ 120 


3 

1 
26 

3 
30 
36 

1 
13 




6 




8 




9 




10 




A 




C 


16 


D 


2 


K . . 




2 






2 








Total 




112 


22 









Total employees, 184. Salaries: Americans, $125,100; Filipinos. $14,640; total, $139,640. 



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BEPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE nOMMISSION. 



811 



Qeneral recapitfiUUion of tlie Philippine civil service — Continued. 
SUMMARY. 



Clan . 



Division. 



Insular service: 

Americans 

Filipinos 

Mnnicipal service of Manila: 

Americans 

Filipinos 

Judicial service: 

Americans 

Filipinos 

Provincml service: 

Americans 

FiliplnoB 

Philippines constabulary: 

Americans 



Filipinos. 

Total: 

Americans . 
Filipinos ... 



Grand total. 



1. 



2. 



1 . 



16 



u u U 



23 



8. 



U 



24 



a 



Glass . 



10. 



Division. 



u 



Insular service: 

Americans 

Filipinos 

Municipal service of Manila: 

Americans 

Filipinos 

Judicial service: 

Americans 

Filipinos 

Provinoal service: 

Americans 

FiUplnos 

Philippines constabulary: 

Americans 

Filipinos 



26 



19 



45 



272 
5 



30 



Total: 

Americans . 
Filipinos... 

Qrand total 



30 



46 



SO 



312 
28 



8 6 44 79 



10 42 69 148 3 



11 2 420 1 66 6 



80 335 



Class. 



A. 



B. 



Division. 



Insular service: 

Americans 

Filipinos 

Municipal service of Manila: 

Americans 

Filipinoe 

Judicial service: 

Americans...... 

Filipinos 

Provincial service: 

Americans 

FiUpinos 

Philippines constabulary: 

Americans 

FiUpinoB 



Total: 

Americans. 
Filipinos . . 

Qrand total 



269 
21 



411 
17 



684 
67 



741 ' 13 



C. 



D. 



66 



E. F. 



2 .... 
24 ,.... 



83 
94 



127 I 



G. 



29 
*i4 



52 



52 



46 
46 



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312 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Gowral re.capUvdalion of the Philippine civil service — Continued. 
SUMMARY. 



Class 


H. 


I 




J 














V 




















Division. 


^ 




^ 


1 


1 


i 


i 


i 


^ 


' 


'' 


1 




^ 


2 


i 


Insular service: 

Americans 




Filipinos 


45 


1 


153 




146 


.... 


3 


.... 


67 


.... 


81 






78 


1 




Municipal service of Manila: 
Americans 








Filipinos 


7 


.... 


89 


.... 


100 




6 




676 


1 


44 


46 


.... 


58 






Judicial service: 

Americans 






Filipinos 


12 


.... 


5 




17 




2 


3 


t::;: 


11 






15 






Provincial service: 

Americans 






Filipinos 


16 


2 1 35 

1 




34 




6 


1 


48 


40 




1 


58 




f 


Philippines constabulary: 

Americans 








Filipinos 




....|.... 
















2 






2 










i 






.... 








.... 


,.., 




.... 


Total: 

Americans 




1 




























Filipinos 


79 


3 282 




297 




16 


4 


788 


1 


178 


47 


1 


•206 


1 


2 






Grand total 


79 


3 282 


4 


297 


1 


16 


4 


788 


1 


178 


47 


1 


206 


1 


7 











Class . ..*.. 












K" 










H. 


A. 


Total 
















Division. 




t 


i 


i 


i 


i 


i 


i 


i 


i 


1 


i 


Em- 
ployees. 


Salaries. 


Insular service: 

AmAricans 






1 

43 




















1,176 
794 

616 
1,127 

33 
143 

107 
476 

112 
22 


SI. 223, 774 
247, 106 

652,510 
232,854 

106,300 


Filipinos 


6 


.... 




.... 


8 


1 


4 










Municipal service of Manila: 
Americans 










Filipinos 






4 




















Judicial service: 

Americans 
























Filipinos 




6 


2 










1 


4 








110,832 
172,860 


Provincial service: 

Americans 


















Filipinos 




8 


29 




1 


1 


25 


38 


2 


1 


1 


35 


201,618 

125,100 
14,640 


Philippines constabulary: 

Americans 




Filipinos 1 


































.. . 




.... 


.... 


.... 


Total: 




1 
78 


















85 


2.044 
2,562 


2,280,044 
806,945 


Filipinos 


5 14 




1 


9 


26 


48 


6 


1 


1 




Grand total 


5 


14 


79 


1 


1 


9 


26 


43 


6 


1 


1 


85 


4,606 


8,066,969 





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APPENDIX F. 

A SKETCH OF THE DIPFICXTLTIES ENCOTTHTEBED IH THE APPLI- 
CATION OF THE AMEBICAN STSTEM OF STTBVETS TO THE PUB- 
LIC LANDS IN NEW MEXICO, ABIZONA, AND COLOBADO, AND 
IN THE ADJinDICATION OF THE BIGHTS ACQITIBED TJNDEB 
SPANISH AND MEXICAN OBANTS IN THOSE TEBBITOBIES. 

[By the Chief of the Bureau of Public Lands.] 

The territory acquired by tlie United States from the Republic of 
Mexico under the treaties or 1848 and 1853 included an immense area, 
in certain portions of which the condition of land titles, although based 
on a different system, presented diflSculties of settlement similar to 
those that are to be met in the Philippines. 

Six years after the treaty of 1848 a surveyor-general for the Terri- 
tory of New Mexico was appointed, and this officer was authorized to 
apply to the district under his control, which then embraced what is 
to-day New Mexico, Arizona, and a part of southern Colorado, the rec- 
tangular system of surveys which at an early date in the last century 
hadbeen successfully used in the States of the Mississippi Valley. In 
addition to this duty he was also authorized to examine into and report 
upon those claims for land that might be presented to him which were 
alleged to have their origin in titles emanating from the former gov- 
ernments of Spain and Mexico. The presentation of these claims to 
the surveyor-general was not, however, made obligatory. 

In complying with this last duty the surveyor-general received from 
such claimants as saw fit to present them the original muniments of a 
large number of Spanish and Mexican grants, many of which were 
accompanied by deeds through which the claimants sought to connect 
themselves with the original grantees of the former governments. He 
also received from the governor of the territory many grants, deeds, 
wills, and other instruments of legal import that were supposed to 
contain information of value in the proposed investigation ox the titles 
to land. Armed with this material and aided by a force of surveyors 
he set about the performance of his duties. 

He established a meridian and a base line, from which at intervals 
of 6 miles the necessary township and range lines were extended, 
dividing the country into townships of 36 square miles. These subse- 

Iuently were subdivided into sections of 1 square mile, or 640 acres, 
'his work of course extended over a long period of years, the theory 
of the Government being that the public surveys should be extended 
only over those regions and at such periods as were made necessary by 
the demands of actual settlers. 

In the meantime the surveyor-general had taken up the examination 
of the private land claims that had been filed in his office. This was 
not done in the order in which the claims were filed, but as claimants 
urged action and were prepared to present proofs. Documentary 

313 

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814 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

evidence showing the origin of title, or oral proof of the destruction 
thereof, was presented; witnesses were presented to testify to the 
extent of the land embraced within the boundaries, which were usually 
natural objects; and also as to the facts of occupancy and cultivation. 

Claimants were represented by counsel having more or less knowl- 
edge of the laws under which the claims originated, while no provision 
of law furnished the Government with a representative charged with 
the duty of opposing* the approval of the claims. The surveyor-general 
was practically a ]uag:e before whom claimants, aided by counsel, had 
unlimited opportunities for the production of any kind of evidence 
favorable to tneir purpose, while no attorney appeared for the United 
States and no protection was given its interests except such as could 
be given by the surveyor-general himself. The fitness of that officer 
for the management or the details of the survey ingwork manifestly 
did not quality him to exercise judicial functions. This fact led some 
of the surveyors-general to request that some officer be appointed to 
represent the Government's interests in the investigations, out, except 
in a few instances when the United States district attorney was ordered 
to appear, nothing was done. 

When the surveyor-general had satisfied himself as to the character 
of the claim presented to him he wrote an opinion on the case and 
transmitted it through the Commissioner of the General Land Office 
to Congress, recommending that the claim be confirmed or rejected. 
With few exceptions the opinion was favorable to the claimants. 
Congress for many years was apparently guided by the fact that the 
surveyor-general was in a position where nis knowledge of the merits 
of the claims was better than its own, and consequently confirmed a 
large number of claims, some of which were of vast extent. But from 
time to time rumors began to reach the committees on private land 
claims in both the House and Senate to the effect that under the exist- 
ing system many abuses had arisen, and that in confirming the claims 
as recommended by the surveyor-general Congress had conferred on 
unmeritorious claimants the gift of vast areas of land which under a 
different system of adjudication would have been declared to be oublic 
domain of the United States. 

This resulted in stopping further confirmations; and, while this action 
checked the abuses that had arisen in the settlement of these claims, it 
also worked a great hardship on those persons whose claims were just, 
and retarded for years the development of a region which had been 
under the American fla^ for nearly a quarter of a century. 

Congress, while refusing to confirm further claims because of the 
defects discovered in the old system, failed to provide any other means 
for their settlement until the year 1891. The conseauent uncertainty 
as to the validity of land titles based on Spanish and Mexican grants 
in New Mexico and Arizona prevented immigration and the invest- 
ment of capital in mining and agricultural enterprises, greatly to the 
prejudice of those territories. In Colorado the results of this condi- 
were not nearly so bad, for, the reason that the grants were few in 
number, the most of them had been confirmed by Congress, and most 
of the immense mineral-producing regions of that State were not cov- 
ered by them. 

Now let us revert to the difficulties encountered in applying the 
system of public surveys to a country where existed large numbers of 
private land claims which had either never been survey^ or were sur- 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPIKE COMMISSION. 815 

veyed so imperfectly that their boundaries were not accurately marked 
on the earth's surface, and the existence of many of wluch were 
unknown to the officer charged with the extension of the surveys. 
The Territory of New Mexico presents a typic«d example of these 
conditions. 

Until a private land claim had been surveyed by the surveyor- 
general's office and accurately platted there was no means of knowing 
the location of its boundaries, and consequently no way to avoid extend- 
ing over it the lines of public survevs. For many years after the 
establishment of the surveyor-general's office private land claims were 
not surveyed until after tneir confirmation oy Congress, and then it 
was frequently discovered that lands belonging to mem had already 
been surveyed as publicj lands. In such cases where no rights had 
been initiated under the public land laws the only injury sustamed was 
by the Government, in that it had borne the expense of surveying 
lands that were finally decided to be of private ownership and from 
which it could never derive any benefit. In those instances where 
rights had been acquired under mose laws conflicts arose between the 
settlers claiming their lands to be Government lands and the claimants 
under the confiimed Spanish and Mexican titles. This led to expensive 
and vexatious litigation, and in some instances to personal violence. 

At a later period the surveyor-general was autnorized to make sur- 
veys of private land claims that had not yet been confirmed by Con- 
gress. These were called preliminary surveys and were intended to 
furnish Congress with accurate information as to the extent of the 
land embraced in claims of which confirmation was sought. Surveys 
of this kind being greater in number than the surveys of the confirmed 
grants, gave rise to a proportionately greater number of disputes 
between grant claimants and persons who had either begun or per- 
fected their titles under the public land laws to lands afterwards 
included in the so-called preliminary surveys. 

In addition to those persons who had documentary evidence of the 
origin of their titles under the Spanish and Mexican governments, 
there was a much greater number who were occupying comparatively 
small tracts of land, and who were absolutely unable to trace their 
chains of title to either of the former governments, although in many 
instances, by means of deeds, wills, etc., they were able to show that 
they and their grantors or ancestors had been in the possession of the 
premises in question for long periods and had commonly been con- 
sidered to be the owners thereor. The number of claims of this char- 
acter was veiT much greater than that of the claims in which original 
muniments oi title were known to exist, but few, if any, of them were 
ever filed with the surveyor-general as claims against the United 
States, until Congress in 1891 (forty-three years jrfter the treaty of 
Guadalupe Hidalgo) provided a method for their settlement. 

By act of March 3, 1891, the Court of Private Land Claims was 
created by Congress. This court consisted of five judges who were 
authorized to pass not only on all matters of law arising in the trial 
of private land claims based on Spanish and Mexican grants, but also 
to decide all matters of fact. 

Claimants under such grants were authorized to bring suit in this 
court against the United States for the lands to which they claimed 
they were entitled; and a decree of confirmation by the court operated 
as a quitclaim on the part of the United States to any interest in the 
land in question, but did not affect the rights of third paities. i 

o 



816 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

From the decisions of the court an appe^al la}' to the Su})reme C\>urt 
of the United States. 

After the confirmation of a grant it was surveyed by the surveyor- 
general of the district in which it was situate, in strict accordance with 
the terms of the confirmatory decree. The field notes and plat of the 
suiTey were then returned tc) the court for its approval or such amend- 
ment as it saw fit to order. 

The expense of the surveying operations was borne in the first 
instance by the United States, but claimants were required to reim- 
burse the Government for one-half the amount of such expense before 
patent could issue. 

An attorney was provided, whose duty^it was to represent the inter- 
ests of the United States in all suits brought in the court. One of the 
defects of the act was in not providing this oflScer with the necessaiy 
assistants that he needed, but this was overcome by the Department of 
Justice authorizing him to employ expert translators, examiners of 
titles, experts in Spanish paleography familiar with the old archives 
of the country and with the signatures of the oflScials appearing thereon. 
These assistants were paid out of the contingent f u nd of that department. 

That class of claims, heretofore referred to, in which title could not 
be tmced back to a grant made by the former governments of the 
country, but which, with some color of title and equities of possession 
and use constituted the majority of holdings, was not submitted for 
decision to this court. By a provision in the act creating it such cases 
were submitted to the registers of the local land officers, where evi- 
dence was taken in regard to the occupancy, cultivation, etc. ; and these 
claims were surveved under the direction of the surveyor-general. 

The act establishing this court and providing for the settlement of 
the small holdings was not perhaps perfect m all resi>ects, but its 
results taken as a whole were good. It resulted in practically settling 
in nine years the question of what land belonged to the Government 
and what was private property, while practically nothing had been 
accomplished toward that end for a period of forty-three years except 
to confirm immense tracts to a few individuals. 

The settlement of these grants by means of a court instead of by 
other plans had the advant^e of bringing to bear on the questions 
involved the sei*vices of men of high character, learned in the law. 

The Goverament's interests were by this method most thoroughly 
protected through the office of the United States attorney for the 
court, and the wisdom of providing that officer with the expert assist- 
ants was fully justified by the results. These assistants examined the 
archives of the former Spanish Government as they exist in New 
Mexico, Arizona, and Texas, and the archives of the Mexican Gov- 
ernment in many of the towns and cities of that Republic, and in their 
investigations accumulated a gre^t amount of information bearing on 
the methods formerlv in use in New Spain in the alienation of public 
lands. Laws were discovered that were in existence at the time oif 
the settlement of private land claims in California, but which were 
unknown at that time to American lawyers. Some of these had im- 
portant bearings on the Arizona grants, which were of a distinctly 
different character from the grants in New Mexico and Colorado. 

Another direct and beneficial result of these investigations was that 
by means of them every attempt to secure laihds by means of forged 
documents was frustrated. The most notable of such cases was the 



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REPORT OF THE PHlLimNE COMMISSION. 317 

Peralta grant of 12,500,000 acres. In this case forgeries were com- 
mitted and introduced into the archives at Madrid and Sevilla in Spain, 
at Guadalajara, Mexico, in the church records of San Bernardino, 
Cal., and in notarial records at San Francisco in the same State. 

In one case only did claimants secure the confirmation of a forged 
grant in the Court of Private Land Claims. However, an appeal was 
taken by the Government, and the Supreme Court of the United States, 
without a dissenting vote, reversed the case on the matters of fact ana 
ordered the trial court to enter a judgment of rejection. 

For lack of legal merit grants were rejected tnat were precisely of 
the same character as others that had years before been confirmed by 
Congress while that body was largely dependent for guidance on the 
reconmiendations of the surveyor-general. 

So far as the cases in which possession for a term of years, accom- 
panied by cultivation and other use, are concerned, I have little per- 
sonal knowledge, and am not familiar with the details of their settlement 
through the medium of the oflSces of the surveyor-general and regis- 
ters. Because of the small area of each they attracted little public 
attention, but were nevertheless important in that they were the hold- 
ings of the small farmers of the country — the most numerous class in 
New Mexico directly attached to the soil. The number of these claims 
is so great that they are not yet all settled, but I have never heard that 
the system adopted was unsatisfactory. 

iSo far as the adoption of a system of public surveys for the Philip- 
pene Islands is concerned, I know of no system so satisfactory in its 
gne ral features as that of the United States. 

It has the advantages of simplicity and of being understood by a 
large number of that class of persons who, when the opportunity 
offers, will furnish immigrants to these Islands. 

Modifications in it may perhaps be made necessary b}^ local condi- 
tions that will be discovered upon attempting te carry it inte effect. 

The proper method for the adjudication of existing property rights 
is a matter which, to my mind, presents much gi-eater difficulties. 

The extension of the lines of public surveys over regions assumed 
to be Government land may result here, as it did in the southwestern 
part of the United States, in invading private property, and causing 
geplorable friction between the Government and those who believe 
themselves to be the owners of such property, as well as conflicts 
between the latter and persons initiating titles under the public-land 
laws. There is no way to avoid this and kindred difficulties, to my 
knowledge, except to first decide what lands are of private owner- 
ship. To do this is to postpone indefinitely the surveying and open- 
ing to settlement of the public domain. The choice to be made 
appears to be between two evils. 

If it be believed that the rights to private property will ultimately 
adjust themselves by litigation between parties in courts of ordinary 
jurisdiction, and should it be decided in view thereof not to establish 
any tribunal or other method of deciding the character of property 
rights as they existed at the date of the acquisition of these islands by 
the United States, it should be borne in mind that such action will not 
be free from certain practical difficulties, among which are these: 

First. Courts will decide simply that one litigant has a better right 
than the other, while neither may have any right that the United 
States is bound to recognize. 



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318 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION, 

Second. The land department has no connection with the courts, 
and no means of knowing what property they may have decided to be 
private property, consequently no means of connecting the public 
surveys with the boundaries thereof. 

Third. Lands may be held by individuals to whose occupancy there 
may be no opposition from private parties, and the Government is in 
the possession of no knowledge of the extent of such lands, even grant- 
ing that the holder is legally or equitably entitled to them. 

Knowledge of the extent of private propertv is necessary in order 
to accuratelv delineate on maps the lands belonging te the Govern- 
ment and subject to entry. 

So far as I have been able to learn from persons supposed to be 
familiar with the condition of land titles in these Islands, it appears 
that there are few titles, if any, that can be directly traced to an origi- 
nal concession by the Spanish Government, and that a very large 
number of landholders have absolutely no documentary evidence pf 
title, while others can show instruments of sale from some former 
owner or occupant. But it appears to be almost certain that in a vast 
majority of casiBs no other evidence of title can be produced than the 
mere facts of occupancy and cultivation. 

My own knowledge of the existing conditions is so slight that I do 
not feel justified in attempting to make suggestions as to the proper 
manner of settling the status of these claims. 

I do think, however, that it might be desirable to carefully investi- 

fate the methods in use under the Spanish Government, particularly 
urinp the last twenty years of its control of the Philippines. But 
such investigation has not been possible up to the present time and 
can not be nmde until we have facilities for handling the large number 
of documents in the department of archives ana forestry bureau. 
Of course we can examine the Spanish laws in regard to the alienation 
of the public domain, but until a study can be made of the titles per- 
fected or attempted to be perfected under those laws, we can not know 
what were the merits and defects of the former system and what diffi- 
culties arose in actually putting it into practice. Such knowledge 
might be useful in determining a method for their final settlement. 

My observation of some of the Spanish laws enacted in regard to 
lands in what is now the republic of Mexico leads me to believe that 
they were not entirely bad, but on the contrary contained many good 
features, and should it be determined that the government of these 
islands shall take a hand in the settlement of the titles emanating from 
the former sovereignty, it might be well to consider the policy of adopt- 
ing a system for the settlement of these titles that would be in its 
modes of procedure so far as practicable familiar to the people of the 
country. 

If it should be determined that these titles shall not be submitted to 
a court or other body specially authorized to settle them, but shall be 
left to adjust themselves by future litigation in courts of ordinary 
jurisdiction, then these suggestions are out of place. 

Respectfully submitted to the civil governor of the Philippine 
Islands. 

Will M, Tepton. 

October 3. 1901. 



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APPENDIX G. 

MEMOSAHSITM AS TO THE SFAHISH LAHV STSTEM DT THE PHUIP- 
FIHS8, WITH 0BSEB7ATI0NS AS TO CEBTAIH AOTAHTAOES OF 
THE LAHS SYSTEK OF THE UNITES STATES. 

[By the Chief of the Bureau of Public Lands.] 

Immediately after the acquisition by Spain of her extensive ultra- 
marine possessions her monarchs set about the task of peopling those 
distant regions with their subjects, and in order to accomplish the 
objects they had in view one of the first steps taken was to make gra- 
tuitous concessions of lands not only to ^those who had assisted in their 
discoveries and conquest, but also to such persons as were willing to quit 
their native land and become colonists in the newly discovered world. 

Consequently the earliest legislation on the subject shows that in 
order to settle the country it was the policy of the Government to dis- 
tribute lands among the settlers, requiring only that thej should estab- 
lish their residences thereon and utilize the land by cultivation and the 
raising of stock. A four-years' compliance with these conditions gave 
to them the riffht of ownership in the property, and thereafter it was 
absolutely at meir disposal to do with as they saw fit. This provision 
of the law dates from the year 1513. 

But it appears that at a very early period lands were occupied with- 
out what is termed in the laws of the Indies " just and true titles," and 
the viceroys and presidents of the audencias were authorized as early 
as 1578 to fix a period, whenever they saw fit, within which landholders 
should present their titles for examination. Those who held under 
good titles and instruments or by virtue of what is called '' just pre- 
scription" (justa prescripcion) were to be protected in their possessions, 
but lands not held under those conditions were to be restored to the 
CroMTi in order that they might be disposed of according to the sover- 
eign's will. 

But that the abuses which the law just referred to intended to cor- 
rect had originated long prior to its aate. and that in some instances 
land had been disposed of bv sale instead of as gi'atuities is evidenced 
by a reference to sales in a law of 1531; while a century later, during 
the reiffn of Philip IV, reference is made to lands that had been 
acquired during the reigns of bis predecessors by means of compo- 
sition. 

The word '^composition" as here used is a literal translation of the 
Spanish word "composici6n," which had a technical meaning as 
applied to lands, and may be defined as a method by which the State 
enabled an individual who held her lands without legal title thereto to 
convert his mere possession to a perfect right of property by virtue 
of compliance witn the requirements of law. 

Composition was made in the nature of a compact or compromise 
between the State and an individual who was illegally holding lands in 

319 



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320 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

excess of those to which he was legally entitled, and by virtue of his 
compliance with the law (with respect to the amount that he was 
under obligation to pay for the land) the State conferred on him a 
good title to the lands that he had formerly held under a mere claim 
of title. 

Many instances arose in the Spanish possessions in America where 
with a legal title to perhaps 6 square leagues an individual held pos- 
session of immense tracts of land amounting to hundreds of leagues 
for many years without opposition from anyone. It was to this 
excess over the legal title that composition applied, the claimant being 
permitted to buy, at a price agreed upon between him and the State, 
the land that he had been illegally holding. This feature of the old 
Spanish land laws was deeply rooted in new Spain, and with changes 
of an unimportant character as to methods of procedure it still forms 
a part of the land system of the Mexican Republic. 

In 1735 a royal cedula was promulgated requiring that grants of land 
should be submitted to the King for confirmation, but as a similar pro- 
vision appears in the Laws of the Indies and at a date long prior to the 
cedula in question, it would appear that there must have been a time 
when either confirmation by the Crown was not required or else the 
requirement had been disregarded at a period subsequent to the earlier 
legislation and prior to the year 1735. 

By the royal cedula of October 15, 1754, the provision requiring 
that titles should be sent to the King for confirmation was abrogated, 
and the power of confirming titles was conferred on the audiencias. 
Titles prior to 1700 were to be respected even if they lacked the royal 
confirmation, but those originating after that date were required to be 
confirmed by the King up to 1754 and by the audiencias after that 
date. The instructions as to the methods of procedure under this 
cedula are lengthy and show the intention of the monarch to dispose of 
the unoccupied lands of those regions by means of sale, and of those 
unjustly held under claim of title by means of composition. 

The number of decrees, royal orders, etc., issued between 1754 and 
the date of the acquisition of the Philippines by the United States is so 

{freat that a review of them at this time is impossible, but so far as 
ack of time for a critical study of the subject and facilities for carry- 
ing it on have permitted, an attempt has been made to ascertain what 
means were at the command of the people of these islands immediately 
prior to the change of sovereignty by which they might have acquired 
title to their lands. 

The expression, ^' might have acquired title," is not used unadvisedly, 
for it seems to be commonly recognized as a fact that comparatively 
few holders of real estate in the Philippines can trace their titles to 
their origin in the Spanish Government, and this remarkable fact 
exists in the face of the evident and persistent eflfort made by that 
Government to induce landholders to avail themselves of the oppor- 
tunities afforded bv law for converting their mere rights of possession 
into legal titles. What may have been the reason for the great indif- 
ference manifested for so long by the holders of lands as to the 
unstable character of their tenure is a matter of which I am ignorant, 
but as to the fact of such indifference there can be no doubt; and it 
was noticed and commented on in the public press and in official com- 
munications during the last half centur3\ 
Regulations for the composition of State lands, approved by the 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 321 

royal decree of June 25. 1880, seem to have produced for a time a 
beneficial result and to nave awakened a considerable interest in the 
subject of acquiring formal titles to land. This decree was modified 
in 1894, but as under it more was accomplished so far as awakening an 
interest in the people is concerned, it may be taken as the best speci- 
men of the late legislation of the Spanish Government in regard to 
the matter of composition of titles. 

By definition of this law compositions were of two kinds, "gratui- 
tous" and "onerous." In the former the ap[)licant for title nad to 
pay only the expenses of the survey and fees in connection with the 
issuance of title, while in the case of onerous composition, in addition 
to the expenses just mentioned, he had to pay for the land covered by 
the title. 

Gratuitous composition applied to lands that had been held without 
interruption for ten years, in virtue of "just title" and in good faith;- 
to cultivated lands held without title and without interruption for 
twenty years, it being understood that it was necessary to show that 
land haa been cultivated for three years prior to the presentation of 
the application in order to be considered cultivated; to uncultivated 
lands held without title, but uninterruptedly for thirty years; to lands 
put under cultivation whose owners might desire to legalize their pos- 
session, although they might not be Indians, in which case they nad 
to show that they had acquired the lands by purchase or donation from 
the former holders. 

The word Indians, appearing in this decree, is of frequent occur- 
rence in the Spanish legislation in regard to these islands, and is evi- 
dently used to distinguish the native tribes from Spaniards and other 
foreigners. 

The term of one year was fixed for the presentation of petitions for 
compositions, and this period began on September 8, 1880, and before 
it expired it was extended for another year with regard to cultivated 
lands, and subsequently again extendea as to the same character of 
lands until April 17, 1894, out there was no extension of the time as to 
lands not cultivated. 

Such was the impetus given to the application for titles under this 
law that the number of petitions presented by the end of the year 1881 
exceeded 100,000. while under an old law relative to the sale of 
vacant public lanas petitions for their purchase were more than 2,000. 

In the year 1894 tne number of uncompleted titles that were delayed 
by proceedings in the diflferent oflBces having cognizance of land mat- 
ters was more than 200,000. 

The number of titles issued can not now be ascertained, because of 
the destruction by fire of the records of the Forestry Office in the 
year 1897. 

Under the system outlined in the regulations governing composi- 
tions of land, the petitioner presented an application to the director- 
general of civil administration, setting forth the name of the town, 
barrio, and place where the land was situated, stating its boundaries 
and approximate area. This application could be presented to the pro- 
vincial governors, to the director- general, or to the forestry office, 
which latter office performed the functions of a secretary's office to 
the director -general. 

The forestry office up to March 20, 1885, sent this application to 
the engineer in charge of the forestry district in which the land applied 
p V 1901— IT 2 21 

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322 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

for was situated; but after that date, when certain classes of land were 
removed from its jurisdiction, it was compelled to first examine the 
applications in order* to decide whether the lands in question were 
within its jurisdiction or that of the provincial boards created by the 
decree of December 26, 1884. 

The engineer in charge of the respective forestry district had super- 
vision over the matters of survey in his district, and ordered the assist- 
ant forester of the particular subdivision or section of the district in 
which the land was situated to execute the survey. Before doing so 
that official had to notify the pettv governor or municipal captain of 
the town to whose jurisdiction tne land belonged of his intention to 
make the survey, naming the place where the land was and giving other 
data necessary to its identification. The petty governor (now called 
the presidente) ordered the publication of proclamations in Spanish 
and in the native dialect, giving notice of the proposed survey, giving 
details in regard to the land, designating the date and hour at which 
the survey was to be be^un, and what persons of the municipality 
should witness the operations, and ordering that the owner of adjoin- 
ing property should DC summoned. 

The survey having been completed, an instrument was drawn up 
descriptive of the same, stating the place where the land was situated, 
its boundaries, the distance in kilometers from the church in the town, 
whether or not it was cultivated, and whether it was within or with- 
out the area considered by the town authorities as belonging to the 
league or commons of the town. It was also stated whether or not 
any objection had been made to the execution of the survey, if so, by 
whom, and the reasons given therefor. 

The petition or application for the land, the document or act of sur- 
vey, and any instrument presented by the applicant tending to show 
by what right he had held possession, were transmitted by the offici- 
ating surveyor to the chief of the district with a rough sketch of the 
propeil^^, and a formal statement of the place, barrio, and town where 
it was situated, its boundaries, whether cultivated or not either in 
whole or in part, the extent of the cultivation, if any, the total area, 
the class of cultivation to which it was devoted, the character of the 
soil, the appraisement of its value, the opposing claims made, if any, 
whether tne survey conflicted with that of another owner, and any 
other infoimation calculated to aid the superior authorities in their 
final action on the matter. This statement was concluded with the 
expression of the opinion of the surveyor himself as to the advisability 
of accepting the proposed composition. 

The chief of the forestry district transmitted these proceedings to 
the office of the inspector-general of forests. This officer examined 
the case and recommended to the director-general of civil administra- 
tion the action that should be taken in the matter. The decision of 
that officer was communicated to the claimant by an official letter sent 
through the provincial governor. 

If tne action was favorable this communication stated whether the 
composition was to be considered as gratuitous or onerous, and what 
amount was to be paid by the applicant in satisfaction for the land, 
and the kind of stamped paper to be presented in lieu of that on which 
the proceedings and title appeared. 

The inspector-general sent a similar communication to the intendant- 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 823 

general, who, in turn, notified the proper subordinate in the province 
of which the applicant was a resident, in order that the former should 
receive from tne latter the stipulated payment. 

The payment having been made, tne receipt for the same was for- 
warded to the inspector-general of forests, who tlien advised the director- 
general of civil administration that the title should be issued. The 
title, signed by both of these officials, was recorded in a book kept for 
the purpose in the office of the inspector-general. It was then deliv- 
ered personally, or transferred through the governor of the province, 
to the applicant, who was under obligation to have it recorded in the 
governors office and in the property records of the province. 

In addition to the laws in regard to the composition of lands, there 
were others in relation to the sale of the public lands, which in the 
modern legislation are commonly called "State lands" (terrenos del 
Estado), but it is impossible to go into the details of any of them now. 
The general idea appears to have been to reserve from sales the forest 
lands and to encourage the inhabitants of the islands to purchase the 
unoccupied public domain. The lands sold were put up at public auc- 
tion and the details of the method of procedure are set forth in the 
numerous provisions of law that can not be here stated for lack of 
time, but which were in many respects analogous to those adopted in 
the matter of compositions. 

Foreigners were permitted to acquire lands by purchase, provided 
that they resided m the country, but if they left it to remove to 
another country they were compelled to dispose of their lands; and 
this provision even extended to their heirs. 

Foreign corporations were absolutely prohibited from the purchase 
of lands. ' 

Under the system in use in the United States there are various 
methods of acquiring the public lands, such as cash purchases, warrant 
locations, homesteads, and timber culture. The regulations in regard 
to the methods of procedure are perhaps not less complicated than 
those under the recent Spanish system prevalent in these islands, 
but, not to mention now other advantages^ there is one respect in which 
the American system is far superior to the Spanish, that is in the 
matter of surveys. 

Under the Spanish system an individual who desired